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JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact email@example.com. 1878.] OCTOBER MEETING. 307 OCTOBER MEETING, 1878. The stated monthly meeting was held on Thursday, the 10th inst., at 11 o'clock A.M. ; the President, Mr. Winthbop, in the chair. The record of the previous meeting was read and approved. The Librarian read his monthly list of donors to the Library, making special mention of Miss Elizabeth E. Dana, who had presented a copy of her " Diary of a British Officer in Bos- ton, in 1775," with additional MS. notes, and had deposited the original MS. of the diary and other papers. The Corresponding Secretary reported that the Hon. John Lowell had accepted his election as a Resident Member. The President then announced the death of Judge Thomas, and said: — The tidings of the serious illness of our Associate Member, the Honorable Benjamin Franklin Thomas, took us all by surprise not many weeks ago. It terminated fatally on the 27th ult., at Beverly Farms, in this State, where he had his summer residence ; and his funeral took place at the First Church, in this city, on Tuesday, the 1st inst. I regretted sincerely to be compelled to go to New York at the very hour for which it was appointed. But our Society was amply represented by Mr. Adams, Dr. Ellis, and others, in the throng of mourners on that occasion. The numerous and just tributes which have already been paid to his character and services, by the Press and by the Pulpit, by the American Antiquarian Society, of which he was the senior Vice-President, and by the Bars both of Worcester and of Suffolk, of which he was so' distinguished a member, have left little, if any thing, to be added here to-day. Noth- ing more, certainly, is needed to his own commemoration. But we owe it to ourselves, if not to him, that one of such eminent ability and excellence, who has been associated with us for eighteen years, and whose genial tributes to his friends Governor Clifford and Governor Washburn have so recently found a response in all our hearts, should not go down to his grave himself without some immediate expression of our respect and of our sorrow. A Boston boy by birth, yet hav- ing been removed at six years of age to the old home of his grandfather, — the patriot printer and historian of printing, and the founder of the American Antiquarian Society, at Worcester, — and having been graduated, eleven years later, 308 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. at Brown University, of which he was Chancellor at the time of his death, — he owed no part of his education to Boston schools or Massachusetts colleges. The public services, too, and the professional practice of his earlier life, were in the heart of the Commonwealth. He represented the town of Worcester in the State Legislature in 1842, and was for sev- eral years afterward the Judge of Probate for Worcester County. But, at forty years of age, he took his seat on the bench of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, and his labors and reputation thenceforth ceased to be local. After six years' service in this high office, he established himself in the neighborhood of Boston, now a part of it, for the practice of the law, and was soon afterward sent to Congress to rep- resent the West Roxbury District, within which he then resided, as the successor of our Vice-President, Mr. Adams, on his appointment as Minister to England. A nomination to the Chief Justiceship, which met the approval of the com- munity though not of the Executive Council, completes the record of his relations to public office. But a good and great man is, in some sense, never without office. " Nulla vitse pars vacare officio potest." Judge Thomas was of a peculiarly independent spirit, and, having ample occupation in his own profession, had little concern for the favors or the frowns of those by whom public station is be- stowed. With a strong sense of duty to himself and to his fellow-men, to his country and to his God, he never swerved from his own conscientious convictions, in order to conciliate popular support. He was a zealous member of the old Whig party of Massachusetts, as long as that party had any exist- ence ; and I should hardly be excused for not remembering that it was from his hand, as President of the Whig Conven- tion, in 1851, that I received the nomination for Governor. He said to me playfully, not many months ago, that the only time he was ever angry with me, was when I refused to run a second time. His service in Congress was during the earlier years of the Civil War ; and after the close of that service, and his failure to be re-elected, he published a volume of more than two hundred pages, containing all his speeches, in Congress or out of Congress, during the period of his holding that position. He had not yielded to the idea, that the sup- port of the war, and the support of the country, necessarily involved the support of all the measures of the actual Admin- istration ; and he had been bold in criticising and opposing some parts of its policy. In speaking of his principles, in the Preface to this volume, he says : " That they are unpopular 1878.] REMARKS BY THE PRESIDENT. 309 at this moment, does not disturb me : the more imperative is the duty of standing by and upholding them. The citizen owes to the country, in the hour of her peril, honest counsel, calmly given, but with the 'love that caste th out fear.' Never were freedom of thought and of the lips and pen so necessary as now. They have become not only the most pre- cious of rights, but the most religious of duties." He had an earnest and deep conviction that under the exi- gencies and strains of Civil War we were drifting away from the Constitution, — not for the moment only, not exception- ally, but permanently and irrecoverably. That conviction was by no means wholly changed in later years ; and he told me, not long ago, that he was meditating, and, as I understood him, preparing, a history of parties in their relation to the Constitution, to vindicate this view. It will be the subject of deep regret if such a work is to be entirely lost. A polit- ical history of this sort, written by an eminent lawyer and a sincere patriot, would be hailed with interest and eager- ness, even by those who might differ from its conclusions. The last formal discourse of Judge Thomas was his Centen- nial Oration at Worcester, on the 4th of July, 1876, which abounds in expressions of patriotic and fervent hopefulness for the future of our land, and maintains that we have no right and no cause to despair of the Republic. I will not prolong this announcement. Of his efforts and successes in the Courts of Law, to which his life was mainly devoted, others have spoken most felicitously elsewhere. I have said enough to show the appreciation which we all have of the excellent qualities of our departed friend, and to mani- fest our sense of the great loss, not only to the institutions and associations with which he was connected, but to the whole community, which such a death involves. Younger than many of us, he seemed to have a physical as well as men- tal vigor and vivacity which promised to outlast us all. There was an energy, too, in his nature, which would never have allowed him to be idle or unprofitable while his life and health were spared. There is no adequate measurement for such a loss, coming, as it has come, when our Commonwealth and our Country can least afford to bear it. He would have been less missed at other periods of our history. It only remains for me, as the organ of the Council, to sub- mit the customary Resolution : — Resolved, That we have heard with sincere sorrow of the death of our able and accomplished associate, Benjamin 310 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [OCT. Franklin Thomas, and that the President be requested to appoint one of our number to prepare a Memoir for our Pro- ceedings. The Rev. E. E. Hale, in seconding the Resolution, spoke as follows : — I will ask your leave, Sir, to say a single word, were it only to express my own personal obligations to our friend. There is no person to whom I owe more than to him, and for the whole course of my active life I have had no kinder friend. I am tempted to say, therefore, that very deep down in the series of remarkable qualities which have given to him that leading position which you have so well described are the tenderness and affection which have characterized his inti- macy with all around him, and are especially to be noticed in his dealings with those younger than himself. An admirable notice of his life in the "Advertiser" called attention to his eager habit of bringing young men forward, and the encour- agement which he gave to them. If the record of his life could be fully made up, I think it would prove that, in that sympathetic welcome to those younger than himself, he has rendered even larger service to this community than in any single effort among his wider public duties. Certainly this sympathy accounts for the enthusiasm, I am willing to say the fanaticism, with which we, who are younger than he, find ourselves speaking of him now that he cannot silence our eulogies. The truth is, Sir, that, as in every life of a really first-rate man, all these triumphs of his, — his wonderful eloquence, all his persistent industry, all this absolute elevation, truly judi- cial, above the passions of the hour, all this sweet command of his own temper, to which you have referred, — these and all the rest belong to his all-controlling moral purpose, and to that steady habit of his soul to maintain at the closest his communion with God. Without a particle of cant, ridicul- ing, in all the joyous heartiness of his exuberant life, each and all of those pretences which are well enough characterized by the word " religiosity," he was none the less, in the very heart of his life, an eager child of God, always rejoicing in his communion with his Father. Were this the place, I could illustrate what I say, by I know not how many stories of the simple way in which his mind ran back of course to that great reality of a man's being, that he is a child of God. I remem- ber going into his private office, not many years ago, at the most crowded hour of the day, about some matter where I 1878.] BEMABKS BY HON. E. E. HOAE. 311 needed his help. I apologized for interrupting him, and said I would take but a minute of his time. " Stay as long as you will," he said cheerfully, and he handed me the book which he was reading. It was the rare old English translation of Saint Augustine's Meditations. " I knew the Confessions," he said, " but this book, till last week, was new to me." And we sat and talked, I dare not say how long, about the great books of Christian devotion and the Christian mystics. That little incident has been a great comfort to me. When men tell me that society is going to destruction, when they tell me that its leaders are governed by avarice or petty ambition only, I like to think of the moment when, by mere accident, I found this leader among leaders, this favorite in all society, this successful lawyer, this Judge called on for counsel by every one, this busiest man in Boston, reading quietly in his private office, at the very noon of his active day, from the prayers of Saint Augustine. What you have said so well, Sir, and what this distinguished assembly and this community know, are testimony that from such habits of life and thought there grew nothing sickly or fantastic. They belonged sim- ply, as I tried to say, to the fearless intimacy of a child with his Father. You will find, his life through, public or private, that he was an idealist, governed by his own convictions of duty, and absolutely — as men said, curiously — indifferent to the con- victions formed at the moment by other men. He was, for instance, an anti-slavery man at a time when that was not pop- ular. Yet, when the time came, he, who had in fact drawn up, I think, the first statute which ever emancipated a slave, threw away his popularity, almost with indifference, rather than drift with a popular sentiment. Such qualities, as you have justly said, made up a charac- ter on which every one had learned to rely ; and it is the unexpected loss of such a man which makes everybody grieve. The Hon. E. R. Hoae said : — I would add a word to what has been so well said by you, Mr. President, more for the indulgence of my own feelings than for the benefit of the Society. There has hardly oc- curred within my knowledge the death of an eminent man in this community that has brought with it so strong and so wide-spread a sense of personal loss as this death of Judge Thomas. My acquaintance with him began nearly forty years ago, when I was a law student in Worcester, and he was "a young lawyer, with very little business, and apparently 312 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. without much prospect of any. He was studious, but his studies were in philosophy, literature, and poetry, with a considerable taste for historical and antiquarian researches. It was with some surprise that I learned soon afterward that he was beginning to take high rank as a lawyer. But limited means and the needs of an increasing family had supplied the required stimulus, and he rapidly assumed the position of a leader of the bar, which he retained to the end of life. He was learned and laborious in the preparation of cases, but capable also of a persuasive and lofty eloquence. As a judge, he was perhaps open to the criticism of too strong a tendency to philosophizing, and to questioning many things which had been regarded as settled ; a quality which suggested the only doubt of his eminent fitness to be at the head of the judiciary of the Commonwealth. But it was certainly true of him, as was said of John Hooker Ashmun in his epitaph, that " he went behind precedents to principles, and that books were his helpers, never his masters." He loved and honored his profession, which he regarded as the natural ally of honesty and honor, and gave to all its interests a brave and loyal sup- port. His manly, generous, and affectionate nature endeared him to all his brethren, and he has left no animosities to be forgotten or forgiven. Something has been said of his kindness to young men, and readiness to afford them encouragement and help. But he had a temperament upon which time made no impression, and which did not permit you to think whether he was old or young. In early youth, he was the peer of men of established fame ; and he carried the spirit of youth into advanced years. He was the cheeriest of men, whom it was an exhilaration to meet, and his merry laugh was irresistible. He loved his country, his State, his friends and neighbors, and was always ready to serve and help them. Pew men have had greater capacity of service, none have given it from a larger heart. Mr. Charles W. Ttjttle had prepared the following re- marks, but refrained from delivering them, in order to allow the Society to pass on to the usual business of the meet- ing : * — Mb. President, — It was my fortune to be among the latest guests in the family of the late Judge Thomas prior to his fatal illness. For a whole week, I was with him every after- * Mr. Tuttle has kindly yielded to our request to place his remarks in the printed record of the meeting. — Eds. 1878.] REMARKS BY MR. TTTTTLE. 313 noon and evening at his very charming summer residence at Beverly Farms. He then appeared to be in his usual health, such as I had known it in former years. Little more than a week elapsed after my departure, before he was stricken down with the disorder of which he soon died. I never had seen him on any occasion when his intellect was clearer, his conversation more brilliant, or his social qualities more engaging. Looking at the sad event which so quickly followed my visit, it seems to me that this may have been a temporary culmination of his powers, that mental ful- ness which sometimes precedes a final dissolution. The weather was fine, and we sat late in the evening — long after the family left — on his broad piazza, facing the ocean and a clear star-lit sky, conversing on a wide range of sub- jects. His quick perception of the humorous, and the exquis- ite enjoyment it gave him, were manifested by those unique and sudden peals of laughter which no one can ever forget who had any acquaintance with him. With feelings of min- gled sadness and pleasure, I remember how often the peaceful stillness of the night was interrupted by his merry laughter, and by the voice of the waves playfully breaking and running along the beach not far away, producing a kind of rhythmical effect. His vivacity and cheerfulness, his wit and pleasantry, made him the delight of every social and domestic circle. These traits were so marked in him as to make one forget his Puritan origin, or that he was other than a young man. I never was more impressed than during these free conver- sations that he was a man who knew every thing of something aud something of every thing. He had a truly enlightened mind, capable of taking the broadest and most comprehensive views of any subject presented to it. An early bias for his- torical studies led him to store his memory with events and characters of past times. He was thoroughly alive to all that was passing in the world, and found real enjoyment in the present, fie had a favorite maxim, often on his lips, that there never was a better time than the present ; that people were never wiser, better, or happier than now. Acting on this theory, he always had the best periodical literature of England and America on his table, and was constantly making accessions to his large and well-selected library. His professional employments prevented his taking any active part in the work of this Society. I have often heard him declare that he hoped to find time to become a useful member, as he expressed it. His interest in the Antiquarian Society was fixed by inheritance as well as by choice. He 40 314 MASSACHUSETTS HISTOKICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. regarded that society with parental fondness, and spoke en- thusiastically of its aims and purposes. I desire here to add my humble suffrage to that large num- ber of enlightened suffrages which have united in placing him among the greatest lawyers of Massachusetts. That he represented the highest standard of professional eminence and character, is known wherever his name has gone. Of his great capacity, learning, and eloquence, there is abundant proof in the literary annals of Massachusetts. His juridical and his professional career shine with equal lustre. He regarded with no blind veneration the opinions and judgments of former ages. He believed in human progress ; and he believed that the light of the present age afforded better means of arriving at just and accurate judgments in human affairs than at any previous time. He did not hesitate to examine for himself any question, no matter how many nor how able the judgments pronounced on it. He tested every thing by his own enlightened understanding, and he fearlessly maintained his conclusions. His manly independ- ence in this, as well as in other acts of his life, deserves the applause of his fellow-men. For this trait he paid the pen- alty exacted by republics of high-minded public men; but his name and memory will live evermore in honor among the worthiest and best of his race. Judge Thomas was more than a great lawyer and a great jurist. He rose above that sphere. His capacity, his learn- ing, his firmness, his independence, his lofty integrity, his eloquence, his large heart and generous impulses, stamp him with pre-eminence among men. The Resolution was unanimously adopted. The President stated that he had just noticed in the news- papers the death of Erastus Smith, Esq., of Hartford, Con- necticut, whose name stood first on the Society's Roll of Honorary and Corresponding Members elected under the original act of incorporation. He was elected in December, 1835, and had been for some time the senior member of the Connecticut bar. M. Henri Martin, of France, was elected an Honorary Member, and Messrs. Joseph F. Loubat, LL.D., of New York, and Charles Henry Hart, LL.B., of Philadelphia, Correspond- ing Members. The President then spoke of Dean Stanley's visit to Bos- ton, and to the Rooms of the Society, of which he has been an Honorary Member for some years. He presented for the 1878.] BEMAEKS BY EEV. BABNAS SEAES. 315 Library a copy of the sermon preached by the Dean in Trin- ity Church, Boston, on the morning of the 22d of September, and remarked that its title, " The East and the West," was justly given, for the first part of the sermon was understood to have been written in Cairo, the second on board a man-of- war in the Bosporus, and the conclusion in his (Mr. Win- throp's) house in Brookline. It was voted to place twenty copies of the forthcoming volume of Judge Sewall's Diary at the disposal of the Com- mittee on the Sewall Papers. A bust of the late Hon. Edward Everett, made by Thomas Ball in 1865, was presented to the Cabinet by Mr. William Everett, for which the thanks of the Society were ordered. The Rev. Barnas Sears, D.D., the General Agent of the Peabody Education Fund, an Honorary Member, was then introduced to the meeting by the President, who spoke of him as for seven years the Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, and for twelve years the President of Brown University. Dr. Sears responded as follows : — Me. President, — I meet with you to-day for the first time since my appointment as an Honorary Member of your Soci- ety. As you have kindly called upon me to say a few words impromptu, I must beg you to allow me some latitude in my remarks. And, first, I know you will permit me to yield for a moment to an impulse which I cannot well resist on behold- ing before me the portrait of a familiar face, which I recog- nized the moment I entered the room as that of Humboldt. While attending the lectures of Bock on Plato in the Univer- sity of Berlin, in the winter of 1834-35, 1 sat in the same room with him during the whole semester. It was to me a novel sight, accustomed as I was to observe the dignity of an Amer- ican professor, to see the first scientist of Europe taking his seat among a throng of students, with portfolio and pen in hand, to take notes just like the rest of us. To his insatiable thirst for all kinds of knowledge were added a simplicity and modesty of demeanor which men of less celebrity might well imitate. Nor was he alone among the most distinguished scholars of Germany in exhibiting this trait of character. Before going to Berlin, I had spent a year in the Universities of Halle and Leipsic, and observed the same peculiarity in the great Hebraist, Gesenius, and in the master of Greek Metre, Hermann. In his Seminar, or class of twelve select students who received a special stipend from the government, whose exercises I was invited to attend, Gesenius, who quoted He- 316 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. brew as glibly as a Frenchman speaks, was the liveliest and gayest of the company. Intellectually, the instruction was like the conversation of Mackintosh, with a stroke of wit when- ever he thought more vivacity was desirable. I will give but one instance of his familiarity with his students. After my removal to Leipsic, where I was a perfect stranger, and when I was on my way to attend one of Hermann's lectures, I heard a voice far behind me, calling out, " Sears ! Sears ! " In turn- ing back, I saw to my astonishment that it was Gesenius who was calling me. He chatted familiarly a few moments, and then bid me good-by. Had he been a fellow-student, I should have felt no surprise. But to see the first Hebrew scholar in the world thus free and companionable would be a wonder to any one who did not know that this was his way. I attended all Hermann's lectures, and sometimes saw him at his Museum, as he called his study. At one time, he pro- posed to present me copies of his occasional Latin addresses and poems, but would not permit me to take them with me. A few days after, as the young Professor Spongberg of Upsala and myself were leaving my lodgings for a walk, we saw Hermann approaching us with a large bundle of books under his arm, which he handed me, saying, " Here are the books I promised you." After he left us, my Swedish friend clasped his hands, looked upward, and exclaimed, " Mein Gott ! 1st das Hermann ? " Pardon these reminiscences which rush upon me as I look upon the picture before me. If I am expected to represent Virginia here to-day, I can say little that is pertinent to the occasion. Nearly all that the Virginians are now doing by way of historical research re- lates to the events of the late Civil War. A Southern Histor- ical Society has been formed in Richmond for the purpose of collecting and publishing, under the care of my friend, Dr. Jones, authentic documents and personal narratives relat- ing to that unfortunate struggle. It will do no harm to the North to read what can be said on the other side ; and the future historian will welcome light from any quarter. As to the various classes of schools and institutions in which the Virginians have been educated, and with which I may be expected from my position to be somewhat familiar, I must speak very briefly, as I have already taken up so much of your time. Of public schools, the people of Virginia have known nothing till quite recently. The wealthier families employed governesses and private tutors. Then there were the "Old Field Schools," which the children of the poor might attend for so many cents a day, paid by the State. A 1878.] BEMABKS BY REV. BARNAS SEARS. 317 description of these schools would afford amusement, but lit- tle instruction except that of teaching us what to avoid. The primitive log school-houses, with slab benches and big fire- places ; classes with one book, passed from reader to reader ; teachers who had all the "sums" ciphered out by others and copied in a large manuscript book, enabling them to say promptly " yes " or " no," when the pupils showed their slates, — indicate sufficiently the character of these schools. Notwithstanding the radical defects of the few elementary English schools that were maintained, there has been no want of higher education in Virginia. The proportion of liberally educated men in the State is said to be larger than in Massa- chusetts. For half a century, the University of Virginia, towering above all the other literary institutions of the South, has given a higher tone to education. If any thing pertaining to it is to be regretted, it is the obstacles that are in the way of fully carrying out Jefferson's plan, which was to place it above all the colleges, and to make these its tributaries. The trustees and the faculty have steadily kept this end in view. But the colleges, Presbyterian, Baptist, Methodist, and Luth- eran, instead of being subsidiary to the University, have aimed to be its rivals. It has therefore been necessary for the latter to depend largely for its entering classes on private schools established for the purpose by its own graduates. The popu- larity of the Washington and Lee University at Lexington, of which the late General Lee was made President, and the en- dowment of professorships in it by most of the Southern States, have drawn to it many students who would otherwise have gone to the State University. When the new Johns Hopkins University of Baltimore offered a certain number of scholar- ships for Maryland and Virginia, the Legislature, partly per- haps by way of reprisal, appropriated $30,000 annually to make the tuition of its own University free to all Virginians. Against this measure, the supporters of the various colleges remonstrate, as being unfair to them and prejudicial to their interests. As the University and the Military Institute at Lexington (which is but little more than a college) are the only literary institutions endowed by the State, and as the University gives to a large number of its students nothing but a collegiate education, and as the Military Institute is said not to be needed in so far as it is a college, there is a prospect of a contest on this subject of pecuniary support and assistance in a future legislature. It is to be hoped that a solution of this question will be found in placing the Uni- versity in its true position. 318 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. Mr. George Dexter called attention to the volume enti- tled " Cartas de Indias publicadas por primera vez," pre- sented at the last meeting, and said : — This sumptuous volume, a large quarto, prepared by a royal commission presided over by the Director-general of pub- lic Instruction, and published under the auspices of the Min- istry of Fomento of the Spanish government, contains a large number of hitherto unpublished letters and reports relating to the discovery and early history of America. These docu- ments, drawn from the National Historical Archives of Spain, the commissioners have separated into six classes. The first class consists of two letters of Columbus, one of Vespuccius, two of Bishop Las Casas, and two of Bernal Diaz del Castillo. The second class or division contains sixty-five documents re- lating to New Spain, which are classified again under the heads of Friars, Prelates, Clergy, Viceroys, Governors, Caciques, Officers of justice and administration, and Individuals. Here we find letters or communications from various missionaries, bishops, governors, and others connected with the colony. The third class, under the title of Central America, contains letters from the Bishops of Guatemala and Chiapa ; the fourth, Peru, papers of the Licenciados Crist6bal Vaca de Castro and Pedro de la Gasca. The fifth division contains documents relating to the province of Rio de la Plata during the admin- istration of Martinez de Irala (1555-56). The sixth class consists of a petition of the Bishop of Manilla to the President of the Council of the Indies, giving an account of the state of the Philippine Islands in 1585, and their religious needs. There are in all one hundred and eight documents in the volume. The work is enriched with critical notes, a geographical vocabulary, short biographical sketches, a glossary of foreign and little used words ; and, as a fit crown of its merits, photo-lithographic facsimiles of some of the more important documents printed in it. There are also twenty-two sheets of reproductions of signatures and seals, and three maps, printed in colors, which, although having no immediate relation to the text of the work, are curious and of great interest. The volume is beautifully printed, upon paper made especially for the purpose, and with new t} r pes cast for the work. The pre- face states that the greatest care and labor have been used to secure accuracy. His Excellency the Count de Toreno, the Minister of " Fomento," has presented this eopy to the Library of the Society through our own State Department at Wash- ington. 1878.] EEMAKKS BY MB. DEXTEB. 319 I have caused translations to be made of the letters or Columbus and Vespuccius, which I beg leave to submit to the Society. They may, perhaps, be thought worthy of a place in our printed Proceedings. The first letter of Columbus is without date. The editors of the volume, having in mind the instructions giveU to Columbus, April 23d, 1497, "for the peopling of the islands and terra firma discovered and to be discovered in the Indies," * are of opinion that this letter must have been written toward the end of the year 1496, or the beginning of 1497. I felt confident on first reading the letter that it must be of earlier date, and subsequent exami- nation has confirmed me in this opinion. The matters of which it treats are those that would naturally be attended to and defined quite early in the history of the coloniza- tion of a new-found country. Columbus returned from his first voyage in the spring of 1493, reaching Palos on the 15th of March, and was received by Ferdinand and Isabella at Barcelona about the middle of April. But the plans for a second voyage and the establishment of a colony did not wait even his formal reception. Navarrete prints a letter from their Majesties, dated March 30th, congratulating him on his discovery, and charging him to hasten to the Court to give orders for the preparation for his return to the New World.f The papal bulls of concession had been sought at once from Alexander VI., and bear date of May 3d and 4th. Royal grants to Columbus, and royal selection of proper officers for revenue and colonization, followed rapidly. The nineteenth document in Navarrete's second volume, dated May 7th, ap- points Gomez Tello to go to the Indies with Columbus, to receive and send to Castile what belongs to their Highnesses. J On the 23d of May, many requisitions for things needed for the new voyage were signed ; all persons were forbidden to go to the Indies or to send goods there, without the royal sanction or that of Columbus and Juan de Fonseca, by a decree of the same date ;§ and Alvaro de Acosta was appointed alguacil to administer justice on the voyage and in the islands, * Printed by Navarrete, in his Coleccion de los Viages y Deseubrimientos, vol. ii. pp. 182-185. Spotorno had, in 1823, published an Italian translation from a copy found among the " Charters and Grants" sent by Columbus to his friend Nicolo Oderrigo for safe keeping, then lately obtained by the Genoese govern- ment. These instructions are Spotorno's Document, No. VI. An English trans- lation of this work was published in London the same year. t Navarrete, Coleccion, vol. ii. p. 21. X Gomez Tello did not go out with Columbus. See Navarrete, vol. ii. p. 86. § Navarrete, Coleccion, &c., voL ii. p. 51. 320 MASSACHUSETTS HISTOBICAX SOCIETY. [Oct. the next day.* Columbus was confirmed in his title of " Ad- miral, Viceroy, and Governor of the islands and terra firma, both what he had discovered and what he might discover," on May 28th ; and his instructions, " as well for the voyage which he is to make as for the good government of the new colony," f were signed on the 29th. These instructions seem to me to cover all the ground, and to settle the question of the date of this letter. After impressing upon Columbus the necessity of treating the natives well, and of striving to convert them to the true faith, for which purpose Father Buil and other clergy are sent with him, and giving particular directions for the choice of vessels, enrolment of crews, and registration of arma- ment and goods, the instructions proceed in the eighth section to lay down the regulations and order of landing and dis- charging at the end of the voyage. Each ship is to declare and show all that it carries, — men, arms, ammunition, pro- visions, &c. ; " and because no person is allowed to carry mer- chandise to open trade for gold or other things in all the said islands and terra firma without the order of their Highnesses, as has been said, if it happens that they arrive with more than was manifested at the time of departure from Cadiz, as was set down in the book which the lieutenant of the aforesaid accountant-general who is to reside in the said islands has brought with him, let it be condemned, and let the said Admi- ral and Viceroy, or whoever holds the power from him, cause it to be taken and give it to the person who is appointed to keep goods, which their Highnesses send there, in presence of the said lieutenant of the accountant, that he may take charge of it." $ The ninth section lays down regulations for trade in the islands ; the tenth appoints courts of justice. The fourteenth provides that, immediately upon arrival, a custom-house shall be established where merchandise shall be entered before the proper officials and registered in two books. The seventeenth article recounts the formalities required at the port of Cadiz, whence all articles are to go to the islands, and where all re- * Navarrete, vol. ii. p. 54. f Ibid., vol. ii. pp. 57-62, 66-72. X " E porque ninguna ni algunas personas non han de llevar mercadurias algunas para facer rescate alguno de oro ni de otras cosas en todas las dichas islas e tierra-firme, sin mandamiento de sus Altezas, como dicho es, si acaesciere llevaren mas de lo que manifestaron al tiempo que de Castilla partieron, segun fuere asentado en el libro que ha de llevar el que fuere por Teniente de los dichos Contadores mayores, que ha de residir en las dichas islas, que lo pierdan, 4 ge lo faga tomar el dicho Alrairante e Visorey, d quien su poder hobiere, e lo en- tregue & la persona que por sus Altezas ha de tener alia la mercadoria que sus Altezas envian, en presencia del dicho Teniente de los Contadores, porque el le faga cargo dello." — Navarrete, vol. ii. p. 69. 1878.] REMARKS BY MR. DEXTER. 321 turning vessels are to discharge. These instructions, apart from their bearing on the question under discussion, are in- teresting, and, so far as I have been able to inform myself, have never been printed except by Senor Navarrete. If further testimony be needed, we have in the forty- seventh, forty-eighth, and forty-ninth documents of Navar- rete's second volume, under date of June 7th, 1493, the appointment of Bernal Diaz de Pisa as Deputy Accountant- General, a grant of salary to him, and his instructions. These last exhibit many minute details of the regulations for trade and manner of keeping accounts. Again, the fifty-ninth doc- ument, dated August 4th, informs Columbus that Sebastian de Olano is to go out as their Majesties' receiver (Receptor). Columbus sailed from Palos, on his second voyage, Septem- ber 25th, 1493. He had a large fleet, seventeen vessels in all ; a company of about fifteen hundred souls, having been obliged to refuse many who offered ; a supply of provisions, seeds for harvest, some animals and other necessaries of colonization.* At the Island of Gomera, he took in many live animals with which to stock Hispaniola, and seeds of various fruits.f It was on this voyage, too, that he did what would be expected from this letter, — built a city or town which he called Isabella, and laid the foundations for a regular colony, with trade to the mother country and the neighborhood. So much is stated by nearly all his biographers. There would seem to be little room for doubt, then, that this letter was written some time during the interval between the return of Columbus from his first voyage and his depart- ure on the second ; that is, between March 15th and Septem- ber 25th, 1493. The National Historical Archives possess two copies of this letter, which, with the exception of the signature, is not in the handwriting of Columbus. The variations between these copies — so slight as scarcely to be worth noticing — are care- fully enumerated by the editor of the " Cartas de Indias " in a note. In another note on the signature of Columbus, he calls attention to the variation between the signatures of these letters and Columbus's signature, as given by Navar- rete and Washington Irving. The signatures given by these authors, however, do not pretend to be facsimiles, but are printed in ordinary type. There are many facsimile repro- ductions of Columbus's signature ; but they are all, or nearly * Historie del S. D. Fernando Colombo, chap. xliv. t Irving's Columbus (London, 1828), vol. ii. pp. 3, 4. 41 822 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. all, derived from the letters now preserved in the receptacle prepared for them by the Genoese authorities in 1821. Litho- graphs of two of these letters were published by Spotorno in his " Codice Diplomatico," in 1823. Bossi's " Vita di Cristo- foro Colombo," Milan, 1818, has as a frontispiece the De Bry portrait with the signatures of these letters, then in Turin, annexed. Marmocchi's " Viaggi al Nuovo Continente," Prato, 1840, contains the portrait that appeared with the French translation of Navarrete, to which is added one of the Spo- torno signatures. Mr. Goodrich, in his " Life of Columbus," New York, 1874, gives several facsimiles, all of which can, I think, be traced back to Spotorno. Columbus himself, in his will, describes how his signature is to be written, and orders his heirs to sign with it.* One peculiarity, new to me, is stated by the Spanish editor, and is perhaps worth noticing. He says that he has examined various autographs of Columbus, includ- ing some of the letters to his son Diego, published by Navar- rete, and finds that Columbus made a distinction between letters written by another hand and only signed by himself, and holograph letters. To the signature of the last he was accustomed to add a rubric or flourish. This distinction will be easily noticed in comparing the signatures to the first and second of the letters here printed. I do not remember to have seen elsewhere any allusion to a rubric connected with Columbus's signature.! Toward the close of the second letter, Columbus alludes to the bad weather when the Spanish Court was at Burgos. This must have been early in the year, for the Court was then await- ing the return of the fleet from Flanders. This fleet had carried out the Infanta Joanna, who was to be married to the Arch- duke Philip, and was bringing back the Princess Margaret, the Emperor Maximilian's daughter, the destined bride of the heir of the Spanish monarchies. The fleet arrived early in March, and the wedding was solemnized April 3d.$ The letter of Vespuccius offers nothing that demands re- mark. The signature shows plainly the name spelled Amer- rigo. It may be compared with the facsimile of a signature given by F. A. de Varnhagen, in his " Amerfgo Vespucci," Lima, 1865, p. 68, n., as the genuine signature of Vespuccius. * Navarrete, vol. ii. p. 229. Irving's Columbus (Lond. 1828), vol. iv. p. 421. t The Cabinet of our Society contains photographs of three letters preserved in Genoa, two of them being those published by Spotorno. The third is the letter, of which an Italian translation was read to the Maryland Historical Society as the original, by Mr. Robert Dodge, in 1851. The colon before the Xpo appears in neither signature, nor is there any sign of a rubric. t See Prescott's Ferdinand and Isabella, Part II. chap. iv. lAf* F£KEtfj./ i p ■5- .5. /■? -j • x -** / <?jS££A 1878.] LETTER OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. 323 A Letter of Christopher Columbus to their Catholic Majesties concern- ing the colonization and commerce of ffispaniola, and of the other Islands, discovered and to be discovered. Without date. Most High and Mighty Sovereigns, — In obedience to your Highnesses' commands, and with submission to superior judgment, I will say whatever occurs to me in reference to the colonization and com- merce of the Island of Espafiola, and of the other islands, both those already discovered and those that may be discovered hereafter. In the first place, as regards the Island of Espanola : Inasmuch as the number of colonists who desire to go thither amounts to two thousand, owing to the land being safer and better for farming and trading, and because it will serve as a place to which they can return and from which they can carry on trade with the neighboring islands : Item. That in the said island there shall be founded three or four towns, situated in the most convenient places, and that the settlers who are there be assigned to the aforesaid places and towns. Item. That for the better and more speedy colonization of the said island, no one shall have liberty to collect gold in it except those who have taken out colonists' papers [tomaren vegindad*], and have built houses for their abode, in the town in which they are, that they may live united and in greater safety. Item. That each town shall have its alcalde or alcaldes, and its notary public, as is the use and custom in Castile. Charta de Cristobal Colon d los Reyes Catdlicos, acerca de la poblacion y negotiation de la Espanola y de las otras islas descubiertas y por descu- brir. Sinfecha. Mut altos y PODEKOSOS Sknokes, — Obedesciendo lo que vuestras alte9as me mandaron, dire" lo que me ocurre para la poblacion y negocia- qion, asy de la Ysla Espafiola como de las otras, asy halladas como por hallar, sometiendome i, mejor pares9er. Primeramente, para en lo de la Ysla Espanola, que vayan hasta en niimero de dos mill ve<jinos, los que quisieren yr, porque la tierra este mas segura y se pueda mejor grangear e tratar, y servira para que se pue- dan rebolver y traten las yslas comarcanas. Yten, que en la dicha ysla se hagan ties o cuatro pueblos 6 repartidos en los lugares mas convenibles, e los ve9inos que alia fueren, sean reparti- dos por los dichos lugares y pueblos. Yten, que porque mejor y mas presto se pueble la dicha ysla, que ninguno tenga facultad para cojer oro en ella, salvo los que tomaren ve- 9indad e hi9ieren casas para su morada en la poblacion que estovieren, porque vivan juntamente y mas seguros. Yten, que en cada lugar e poblacion haya su alcalde o alcaldes con su escribano del pueblo, segun uso 6 costumbre de Castilla. 324 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. Item. That there shall be a church, and parish priests or friars to administer the sacraments, to perform divine worship, and for the con- version of the Indians. Item. That none of the colonists shall go to seek gold without a license from the governor or alcalde of the town where he lives ; and that he must first take oath to return to the place whence he sets out, for the purpose of registering faithfully all the gold he may have found, and to return once a month, or once a week, as the time may have been set for him, to render account and show the quantity of said gold ; and that this shall be written down by the notary before the alcalde, or, if it seems better, that a friar or priest, deputed for the purpose, shall be also present. Hem. That all the gold thus brought in shall be smelted immediately, and stamped with some mark that shall distinguish each town ; and that the portion which belongs to your Highnesses shall be weighed, and given and consigned to each alcalde in his own town, and regis- tered by the above-mentioned priest or friar, so that it shall not pass through the hands of only one person, and there shall be no oppor- tunity to conceal the truth. Item. That all gold that may be found without the mark of one of the said towns in the possession of any one who has once registered in accordance with the above order shall be taken as forfeited, and that the accuser shall have one portion of it and your Highnesses the other. Item. That one per centum of all the gold that may be found shall be set aside for building churches and adorning the same, and for the support of the priests or friars belonging to them ; and, if it should be thought proper to pay any thing to the alcaldes or notaries for their Yten, que haya iglesia y abades o frayles para adminystracion de los sacramentos y cultos divinos y para conversion de los yndios. Yten, que ninguno de los vezinos pueda yr & cojer oro. salvo con licencia del gobernador o alcalde del lugar donde biviere, y que primero haga jura- mento de volver al mysmo lugar de do saliere, & registrar fielmente todo el oro que oviere cogydo y avido, y de volver una vez en el mes o en la semana, segun el tiempo le f uere asygnado, & dar quenta 6 manifestar la cantidad del dicho oro, e que se escriva por el escrivano del pueblo por ante el alcalde, y sy paresciere, que haya asy mesmo un frayle o abad de- putado para ello. Yten, que todo el oro que asy se traxere, se aya luego de fundir y mar- car de alguna marca que cada pueblo senalare, y que se pese y se de y se entregue, a cada alcalde en su lugar, la parte que pertenesciere i, vuestras altecas, y se escriva por el dicho abad o frayle de manera quie no pase por una sola mano, y asy no se pueda 9elar la verdad. Yten, que todo el oro que se hallare syn la marca de los dichos pueblos en poder de los que ovieren una vez registrado por la orden susodicha, le sea tornado por perdido, 4 haya una parte el acusador y lo al para vuestras altecas. Yten, que de todo el oro que oviere, se saque uno por ciento para la fa- brica de las yglesias y ornamentos dellas e" para sustentacion de los abades o frayles dellas ; y sy paresciere que i. los alcaldes y escrivanos se de" algo por 1878.] LETTER OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. 325 services, or for ensuring the faithful performance of their duties, that this amount shall be sent to the governor or treasurer who may be appointed there by your Highnesses. Item. As regards the division of the gold, and the share that ought to be reserved for your Highnesses, this, in my opinion, must be left to the aforesaid governor and treasurer, because it will have to be greater or less according to the quantity of gold that may be found. Or, should it seem preferable, your Highnesses might, for the space of one year, take one half, and the collector the other, and a better arrangement for the division be made afterward.* Item. That if the said alcaldes or notaries shall commit or be privy to any fraud, punishment shall be provided, and the same for the colonists who shall not have declared all the gold they have. Item. That in the said island there shall be a treasurer, with a clerk to assist him, who shall receive all the gold belonging to your Highnesses, and the alcaldes and notaries of the towns shall each keep a record of what they deliver to the said treasurer. Item. As, in the eagerness to get gold, every one will wish, natur- ally, to engage in its search in preference to any other employment, it seems to me that the privilege of going to look for gold ought to be withheld during some portion of each year, that there may be oppor- tunity to have the other business necessary for the island performed. Item. In regard to the discovery of new countries, I think permis- sion should be granted to all that wish to go, and more liberality used su trabajo y porque agan fielmente sus oficios, que se remita al goberna- dor y thesorero que alia f ueren por vuestras altecas. Yten, quanto toca a la division del oro 4 de la parte que ovieren de aver vuestras altecas, esto, a my ver, deve ser remitido a los dichos gober- nador y thesorero, porque avera ser mas o menos segun la cantidad del oro que se hallare; o sy paresciere, que por tiempo de un afio ay an vues- tras altecas la mitad y los cojedores la otra mitad, ca despues podra mejor determinarse cerca del dicho repartimiento. Yten, que sy los dichos alcaldes y escrivanos hicieren o consintieren algun fraude, se le ponga pena e asymesmo a los vecinos que por entero non manifestaren todo el oro que ovieren. Yten, que en la dicha ysla haya thesorero que reciva todo el oro perte- nesciente a vuestras altecas y tenga su escrivano que lo assiente, e los alcaldes y escrivanos de los otros pueblos, cada uno tome conoscimiento de lo que entregaren al dicho thesorero. Yten, porque segun la codicia del oro, cada uno querra mas ocuparse en ello, que en hacer otras grangerias, paresceme que alguna temporada del aiio se le deva defender la licencia de yr a buscar oro, para que haya lugar que se hagan en la dicha ysla otras grangerias a ellas pertenesci- entes. Yten, para en lo de descobrir de nuevas tierras, paresceme se deva dar licencia i. todos los que quisieren yr, y alargar la mano en lo del quinto, * The sovereigns demanded two-thirds of all the gold found as early as 1495. See Navarrete, vol. ii. p. 166. — Eds. 326 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. in the matter of the fifth, making the tax easier, in some fair way, in order that many may be disposed to go on voyages.* I will now give my opinion about ships going to the said Island of Espanola, and the order that should be maintained ; and that is, that the said ships should only be allowed to discharge in one or two ports designated for the purpose, and should register there whatever cargo they bring or unload ; and when the time for their departure comes, that they should sail from these same ports, and register all the cargo they take in, that nothing may be concealed. Item. In reference to the transportation of gold from the island to Castile, that all of it should be taken on board the ship, both that be- longing to your Highnesses and the property of every one else ; that it should all be placed in one chest with two locks, with their keys, and that the master of the vessel keep one key and some person selected by the governor and treasurer the other; that there should come with the gold, for a testimony, a list of all that has been put into the said chest, properly marked, so that each owner may receive his own; and that, for the faithful performance of this duty, if any gold whatsoever is found outside of the said chest in any way, be it little or much, it shall be forfeited to your Highnesses. Item. That all the ships that come from the said island shall be obliged to make their proper discharge in the port of Cadiz, and that no person shall disembark or other person be permitted to go on board until the ship has been visited by the person or persons deputed for that purpose, in the said city, by your Highnesses, to whom the master moderandolo en alguna buena manera, a fin de que muchos se dispongan ayr. Ahora dire mi parescer para la yda de los navios a la dicha Ysla Espa- nola, e la orden que se deva guardar, ques la siguiente : Que no puedan yr los dichos navios a descargar, salvo en uno o dos puertos para ello sefia- lados, y ende registren todo lo que llevaren e descargaren ; y cuando ovi- eren de partir, sea de los mismos puertos, e registren todo lo que cargaren, porque no se encubra cosa alguna. Yten, que cerca del oro que se oviere de traer de las yslas para Castilla, que todo lo que se oviere de cargar, asy lo que fuere de vuestras altecas, como de cualesquier presonas, todo ello se ponga en una area que tenga dos cerraduras con sus llaves, y quel maestro tenga la una, y otro presona quel gobernador y tesorero escogeren la otra; e venga por testimonyo la relacion de todo lo que se pusiere en la dicha area, e senalado, para que cada uno aya lo suyo : y sy otro oro alguno se hallare f uera de la dicha area en cualquier manera, poco o mucho, sea perdido, a fin que se haga fielmente y sea para vuestras altecas. Yten, que todos los navios que vinieren de la dicha ysla, vengan a ha9er su derecha descarga al puerto de Cadiz, y no saiga presona dellos ny entren otros, hasta que vayan a los dichos navios la presona o presonas que para ello por vuestras altezas fueren deputadas en la dicha cibdad, a quien los maestros manifiesten todo lo que traen y muestren la fe de lo » Perhaps some light is thrown upon this tax of one-fifth by the documents Numbers V. and VI. of the Appendix to Navarrete's second volume. — Eds. 1878.] LETTER OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. 327 shall show all that he carries, and exhibit the manifest of all the cargo, that it may be seen and examined if the said ship brings any thing hidden and not known at the time of lading. Item. That the chest in which the said gold has been carried shall be opened in the presence of the magistrates of the said city of Cadiz, and of the person deputed for that purpose by your Highnesses, and his own property be given to each owner. — I beg your Highnesses to hold me in your protection ; and I remain, praying our Lord God for your Highnesses' lives and the increase of much greater States, •S- •S- A-S- X M Y \Xqo FERENS/ / que ovieren cargado, para que se pueda ver 6 requerir sy los dichos navios traen cosa alguna encubierta 6 non manifestada al tiempo del cargar. Yten, que en presencia de la justicia de la dicha cibdad de Cadiz 6 de quien f uere para ello deputado por vuestras altezas, se aya de abrir el area en que se traxere el dicho oro, y dar a cada uno lo suyo. — Vuestras alte- cas me ay an por encomendado, y quedo rogando & Nuestro Sefior Dios por las vidas de vuestras altezas y acrescentamiento de muy mayores estados. • S • • S • A- S • X M Y : Xpo FERENS./ 328 MASSACHUSETTS HISTOBICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. A Letter of Christopher Columbus to their Catholic Majesties, laying before thim certain observations on the art of navigation. From Granada, February 6, 1502. Most Hig:* and Mighty Sovereigns and Lords, — I should wish to be the cause of pleasure and gratification to your Highnesses rather than of pain and displeasure ; and, knowing the attraction and charm that new and interesting things possess for you, I will write, in obedience to your commands, whatever occurs to my memory of such things ; and surely let them not be judged by my carelessness, but by my intention and good will, for in all things relating to the service of your Highnesses I have to learn of no man what I know how to do of my own self; nnd though my strength were to fail, and my labors ex- haust me, in my soul the will would never be wanting, for I am so deeply your debtor. Navigators and other people who trade upon the sea have always a better knowledge of those particular parts of the world where they are accustomed to make their voyages with least interruption, and for this reason each one of them knows better what he sees every day than what he sees only from year to year; and thus we receive with pleas- ure the accounts they themselves give us of what they have seen and collected, as certainly we derive greater knowledge from a thing which we learn by our own experience. If we admit that the world is spherical according to the opinion of many writers who affirm this, or that science makes us lay down any other principle by its authority, it must not be understood that the Carta de Cristdbal Colon a los Reyes Catdlicos, exponiendo algunas observa- ciones sobre el arte de navegar. Granada, 6 de febrero de 1502. Muy altos y muy poderosos Reyes y Senores, — Yo querria ser cabsa de plaszer y holgura i Vuestras Altecas, que no de pesadumbre y hastio; mas coino se la afizion y deleyte que tienen a las cosas nuevas y dalgun ynterese, dire de unas y otras, compliendo con su mandamiento, aquello que agora me venga i la memoria ; y cierto non judguen dellas por el desalino, mas por la intinzion y buen deseo, ya que en todo lo que fuere del servizio de Vuestras Altecas, non he de deprender de ningun otro lo que yo se fazer por my mesmo ; que sy me faltaren las fuerzas y las fatigas me ryndieren, non desfallezeri en my inyma la voluntad como el mas obligado y debdor que soy. Los navigantes y otras gentes que tractan por la mar, tienen syempre mayor conoszimiento de las partidas particulares del mundo donde vsan y fazen sus contraciaciones mis continuo, y por esto cada vno destos sabe mejor de lo que vee cada dia, que no lo otro que viene de anos hi afios : y asy reszebimos con delectazion la relazion quellos mesmos nos fazen de lo que viei-on y collejieron, como cierto allegamos mis grande ensenanza de aquello que deprendemos por nuestra propia espirenzia. Si resconozemos el mundo ser esperico, segun el sentir de muchos escrip- tores que ansy lo iJirman, o que la scienzia nos faga asentar otra cosa con 1878.] LETTEB OE CHEISTOPHEB COLUMBUS. 329 temperature of a zone is always even, for the diversity is great both at sea and on land. The sun spreads its influence and the earth receives it in conformity with the formation of its valleys and mountains ; and although the ancients have written enough concerning this, as Pliny, for instance, who says that under the north pole the climate is so mild that the peo- ple who live there never die except through vexation and disgust with life, when they hurl themselves from precipices and voluntarily kill themselves. * We see here in Spain such diversity of temperature, that there is no need of testimony upon this point from any antiquity whatsoever. We see here in Granada the sierra covered with snow all through the year, which is a sign of great cold, and at the foot of this sierra are the Alpu- jarras, where the temperature is always very pleasant, without exces- sive cold or heat; and as it is in this province, so is it in enough others in Spain, which I refrain from mentioning by reason of their great number. I say that the same thing happens at sea, and particularly in those parts of the sea bordering on the land ; and those who continually traffic there have better knowledge of this than those who trade in other parts. In Andalusia in summer, after the sun has attained some height, the virazon, which is a wind that rises from the west, is regarded as certain for every day. This wind is very gentle, and lasts until evening. And as this virazon continues in that season in that region, so there are other winds in other parts and in other regions different in summer and in winter. Those who make a practice of sailing from Cadiz to Naples su auctoridad, no se deve entender que la tenplanza sea ygual en un clyma, porque la diversidad es grande asy en la mar como en la tierra. El sol syembra sn ynfluenzia y la tierra la reszibe segun las concavi- dades o montanas que son formadas en ella, y bien que harto hayan scripto los antiguos sobra esto, asy como Plinio, que dize que debaxo del norte ay tan suave tenplanza, que la gente que ally esta jamas se muere, salvo por enfadamiento o aborrimiento de vida, que se despenan y voluntaria- mente se matan. Nos vemos aquy en Espana tanta diversydad de tenplanza, que non es menester el testimonio sobie esto de ninguna antiguedad del mundo: vemos aquy en Granada la syerra cubierta de nyeve todo el ano, ques senal de gran frio, y al pie desta syerra son las Alpujarras donde es siempre suavisima tenplanza syn demasiado calor ny frio, y asy como es en esta provinzia, es en otras hartas en Espana, que se deja de dezir por la prolixidad dellas. Digo que en la mar acaesze otro tanto y en espezial en las comarcas de las tierras, y desto es en mayor conoszimiento los que con- tinuo ally tractar, que no los otros que tractan en otras partes. En el verano, en l'Andaluzia por muy cierto se tiene cada dia, despues de ser el sol altillo, la virazon, ques viento que sale del poniente, esta vien muy suave y dura hasta la tarde ; asy como esta virazon continua en aquel tiempo en esta region, ansy continua otros vientos en otras partes y en ostra regiones diferentes el verano y el ynvierno. Los que andan con- * Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. iv. c. xxvi. — Note in Cartas de Indias. 42 330 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. know when they pass the coast of Catalonia, according to the season, what wind to expect there ; and the same when they pass through the Gulf of Narbonne. Those who go from Cadiz to Naples, if it is winter time, pass within sight of Cape Creo in Catalonia, through the Gulf of Narbonne : there the wind is very strong, and sometimes the ships are compelled to yield to it, and through its force are blown away to Bar- bary, and on this account they hug Cape Creo in order to keep further on the tack, and to reach the Pomegas of Marseilles or the Islands of Hyeres, and after that they never leave the coast until they reach their destination. If they are going from Cadiz to Naples in summer time, they sail along the coast of Barbary as far as Sardinia, in the same manner as has been said of the northern coast.* For these voyages, there are marked men who have made the passage so often, that they know all the ways- and what weather to expect according to the season of the year. We commonly call such men pilots, which name is equivalent to guide on land ; for, although one may know the road from here to Fuentarabia well enough to lead an army over it, he may not know that from here to Lisbon. It is the same at sea : some are pilots for Flanders, others for the Levant, every man for the country to which he is most accustomed. The voyage and passage from Spain to Flanders is much frequented : there are great sailors who go on this service. In Flanders, in the month of January all the ships are ready to return home, and in this month it rarely happens that there are not some gusts of brysa, which is an east-north-east and north-north-east wind. These winds at this sea- tinuo de Cadiz & Napoles, ya saben cuando pasan por la costa de Catalunia, segund la sazon, el viento que han de hallar en ella, y asymismo cuando pasan por el golfo de Narbona. Estos que han de yr de Cadiz i, Napoles, si es tiempo de ynvierno, van i. vista de cabo de Creo en Catalunia, por el golfo de Narbona: entonzes vienta muy rezio, y las vezes las naos con- viene le obedezcan y corran por fuerza hasta Berueria, y por esto van mas al cabo Creo, por sostener mis la bolina y cobrar las Pomegas de Marsella o las yslas de Eres, y despues jamas se desabarcan de la costa hasta Uegar donde quier. Si de Cadiz ovieren de yr a Napoles en tiempo de verano, navegan por la costa de Berueria hasta Cerdena, ansy como esta dicho de la otra costa de la tramotana. Para estas navegaziones ay hombres sefia- lados, que sean dado tanto i. ello, que conoszen todos estos caminos y que temporales pueden esperar, segund la sazon del ano en que f ueren. Vul- garmente, a estos tales llamamos pylotos, que es tanto como en la tierra adalid ; que bien que uno sepa muy bien el camino daqui a Fuentrrabia para Uevar una hueste, ni lo sabe daqui £ Lisbona. Esto mismo acaesze en la mar, que unos son pylotos de Flandes y otros de Levante, cada uno de la tierra donde mas usa. El tracto y transito d'Espafia £ Flandes mucho se contimia ; grandes marineros ay que andan a este vso. En Flandes, en el mes de enero, estan todas las naos despachadas para volver a sus tierras, y en este mes, de raro sale que no haya algunos estirones de brysa, ques lesnordeste y nornor- deste. Estos vientos, & este tiempo, no vienen amorosos, salvo salvajes y * He means that the coast is hugged, as in the winter voyage. — Eds. 1878.] LETTER OP CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. 831 son are not gentle, but fierce and cold, and almost dangerous : the distance of the sun and the condition of the earth are the causes that produce this. These brysas are not steady, although they do not fail to occur at the right season : those who sail with them are persons who are willing to run a risk, and they almost always get home with their hands in their hair. These persons, if the brysa fails them and some other wind blows against them, take refuge in the ports of France or England until another tide comes, and they can leave these harbors. Sailors are greedy for money and eager to get home, and will risk every thing without waiting to see that the weather is settled. On another such occasion as this, when I was confined to my bed, I told your Highnesses what I could of the time of greatest safety for this voyage, which is after the sun has entered Taurus, and that the start- ing in the height and most dangerous time of winter should be aban- doned. If the winds are favorable, the voyage is very short, and one ought not to start without some good certainty of the passage ; and an opinion about that can be made here when the sky is seen to be very clear, and the wind rising from the north star and lasting several days, always with the same pleasant weather. Your Highnesses know well what occurred in the year ninety-seven, when you were at Burgos, in such anxiety because the weather continued bad and one storm followed another that you were going in disgust to Soria ; and after the whole court had gone one Saturday, your Highnesses remained to start on Monday morning ; and for a certain purpose on that night I said in a letter that I sent to your Highnesses ; on such a day the wind began to blow, on the next day the fleet will not sail, waiting to see if the wind is steady ; it will sail on Wednesday, and on Thursday or Friday it f rios y f asta peligrosos : la distan<;ia del sol y la calidad de la tierra son cabsa que se enjendre esto. Estas brysas no son estabiles, bien que asy no yerren el tiempo ; los que navegan con ellas son presonas que se ponen a ventura y lo mas de las veces llegan con la mano en los cabellos. A estos, sy la brisa les falta y les haze fuerza otro viento, ponense en los puertos de Franzia o Yngalterra, hasta que venga otra marea que puedan salyr de los puertos. La gente de la mar es cobdiziosa de dyneros y de volver a su casa, y todo lo aventuran syn esperar a ver quel tiempo sea firme. Cativo como estaba en cama, en otra tal ocasion dixe a Vuestras Alte9as lo que pude de mayor seguridad desta navegazion, que era despues de ser el sol en Tauru, y renegar de fazer esta partida en la fuerza y mas peligroso de ynvierno. Sy los vientos ayudan, muy corto es el transito, y non se debe de partir hasta tener buena certeza del viaje; y de aca se puede judgar dello, ques cuando se viere estar el cielo muy claro y salir el viento de la estrella de la tramotana y durar algunos dias, syempre en aquella alegria. Saben bien Vuestras Altecas lo que aconteszid el afio de nouenta y syete, cuando estaban en Burgos en tal congoxa por quel tiempo perseveraba crudo y se sucedian los estirones, que de enfadados se yban a Soria; y partida toda la corte un sabado, quedaron Vuestras Altecas para partir lunes de mafiana; y a un cierto proposito, en aquella noche, en un escripto mio que envie a Vuestras Altecas, dezia: taldia comenzd a ven tar el viento: el otro dia no partira la flota, aguardando sy el viento se afirma; partiri 832 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. will be abreast the Island of Huict,* and if it does not put in will reach Laredo next Monday, or the science of seamanship is entirely lost. This writing of mine, and your desire for the coming of the Princess, moved your Highnesses to change your minds and not go to Soria, but to try the opinion of the sailor; and on Monday a ship appeared off Laredo, which had refused to enter Huit, because it had few provisions. The opinions in similar cases, both on sea and on land, are and have always been various, and now there will be many who will desire to sail to the discovered islands ; and, if the road is known, those who have to trade and traffic, by the perfection of instruments, and the improved rigging of ships, will have greater knowledge of things and countries, winds, and seasons most convenient for their services, and more expe- rience for the security of their persons. May the Holy Trinity guard your Highnesses, as I pray and we have need, with all your great estates and lordships. From Granada, the 6th of February, 1502. • S- •S-A-S- X M Y :Xqo FERENS/ el miercoles, y el jueves o viernes sera tant avant como la isla de Huict, y seno se meten en ella, seran en Laredo el lunes que viene, o la razon de la marineria es toda perdida. Este escripto mio, con el deseo de la venida de la Prinzesa, movid" a Vuestras Alte9as a mudar de proposito de no yr a Soria y espirmentar la opinion del marinero ; y el lunes remaneszid sobre Laredo una nao que refusd de entrar en Huit, porque tenia pocos basti- mentos. Muchos son los juizios y fueron syempre en la mar y en la tierra en seme- jantes casos, y agora han de ser muchos los que hayan de navegar a las yslas descobiertas ; y sy el camino es ya conoszido, los que hayan de tractar y contractar, con ia peifizion de los ystrumentos y el aparejar de las naos, habran mayor conoszimiento de las cosas y de las tierras y de los vientos y de las epocas mas convenybles para sus usos, y mas espirenzia para la seguridad de sus presonas. La Sancta Trenydad guarde a Vuestras Alte9as como deseo y menester habemos, con todos sus grandes estados y sefiorios. De Granada, a seys de hebrero de mill y quinientos y dos anos. •S-A-S • X M Y : Xpo FERENS./ * The Isle of Wight is the only island that answers the requirements of the text. The Spanish language has no W, and perhaps Huict or Huit repre- sents Wight in phonetic spelling. I hazard this conjecture with some diffi- dence. — G. D. 1878.] LETTER OE AMEKRIGO VESPUCCI. 333 A Letter of Amerrigo Vespucci to the Cardinal Archbishop of Toledo (Ximenes de Cisneros), giving his opinion about the goods that ought to be carried to the Antilles. From Seville, December 9, 1508. Very Reverend and Magnificent Sir, — I feel obliged to show my gratitude for the confidence which your most reverend lordship has shown me, and I will not fail to declare my opinion, without allowing any interest to influence me, although I could have no desire to speak of that ; and now I am to answer in regard to what is to be carried to the islands, whether it is better that it should pass through one person's hands, and that your Highness should derive a profit, as the King of Portugal does from the trade with the Mina del Oro, or, as I think I have heard is your Highness's opinion, whether every one should have liberty to go and carry what he wishes. I find a great difference between the traffic of the King of Portugal and that which we are considering ; inasmuch as the first consists of sending to the country of the Moors, and to one single place, a few kinds of goods appraised at a fixed price ; and for these the factors whom he has there are responsible for the amount of the valuation, or for the goods themselves. The exact contrary is our case, as what has to be taken out to the islands consists of a diversity of all sorts of things that persons there may be in need of, as, for instance, clothes to clothe themselves with, and many things necessary for their buildings and farms, of which no account can be kept. So that I should think it very difficult and almost impossible for your Highness to order the busi- ness to be done in that manner, especially as many things that are needed in the islands can be procured more conveniently from other Carta de Amerrigo Vespucci al Cardinal Arzobispo de Toledo (Jimenes de Cisneros) , ddndole su parecer sobre las mercancias que hubieran de llevarse a las islas Antillas. — Sevilla, 9 de diciembre de 1508. Muy reverendo E magnifico Senor, — Tengo pues de agradeszer la confianza que debo a vuestra reverendisima senoria, que non dexare de dezirle my pareszer, syn que me mueva ynterese alguno, avnque non oviera gana de hablar dello; ya que agora he de responder sobre lo que hase de Uevar a las yslas, sy es bien que vaya por vna mano y que Su Alteza lleve el provecho, segun que lo haze el rey de Portogal en lo de la Mina del Oro, o sea, como creo aver entendido ser la manera de pensar de Su Alteza, que cada vno tenga lybertad de yr i Uevar lo que quisyere. Yo hallo grande diferenzia del tracto del rey de Portogal £ este dacd, por quel vno es enviar a tierra de moros i 4 vn solo lugar vna o dos merca- derias apreziadas a zierto prezio, y de aquellas le responde los fatores que alia tiene, con el valor del mismo prezio o con la ropa; y aca es al contra- rio, porque lo que se ha de Uevar a las yslas es diversidad de todas cosas que las presonas puedan aver menester, asy de vestyr como vestidos i muchas cosas nezesarias para edifyzios i grangerias, que no tienen quenta ny razon : de manera, que yo averia por muy dificoltoso i easy imposyble que Su Alteza lo pueda mandar hazer desta manera, en espezial que muchas de las cosas que son menester para las yslas, cumple mas llevarlas 334 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. countries than this. For instance, from the Canaries and the Portu- guese Islands, from which they get live stock and provisions, and other necessary articles. And there would have to be an agent for each thing, and of many things no account could be given, for some are con- sumed, others damaged, and still others spoiled. For this reason, in my opinion, the business cannot be transacted in that way ; and, if the attempt shall be made, I think time will show that I am right. By either of two ways it seems to me possible that your Highness may always derive a profit from the importation of goods that are car- ried to the islands, without trouble or expense on your part. The first is to lay a fixed tax on all that is taken to the islands, as it may seem right to your Highness, and to allow everybody to go freely and carry whatever he chooses : the other is to commit the traffic to merchants who shall share the profit with your Highness, they furnishing all that is needed without your Highness giving any care to the matter. In such a partnership, this arrangement would have to be made : that in the said islands the treasurer of your Highness and the agent of the mer- chants should be charged jointly with the business of receiving and selling all goods sent thither, each of them keeping his book in which, by the hands of two persons, every thing that was sold would be set down. And there should be a statement of the cost of all the goods that are sent in each ship, signed by the merchant and the treasurer, or some other agent for your Highness appointed to be in Seville or Cadiz, in order that, by means of this account, those in the islands can correct their accounts of all that each ship brings, and that each person may take his share of the profit, the merchant receiving back the cost of the de otras partes que destas, asy como de las yslas de Canaria y las de Porto- gal, de las quales sacan ganados y vituallas y otras cosas nezesarias; i para cada cosa seria menester vn f ator, i ay muchas dellas de que non se podria dar quenta, porque dellas se comen, dellas se dafian y otras se pierden; y desta causa, a my ver, non se podria llevar este negozio por la dicha ma- nera, i sy en espirienzia lo pusyere, el tiempo doy por testygo. Syempre que Su Alteza tenga algun provecho en la entrada de las ropas que a las yslas se llevaren syn cuidado ny costa, ocurreme vno de dos camynos : el uno, poner vn zierto derecho en todo lo que a las yslas se llevase, qual a Su Alteza paresziere, i que cada vno pudiese libremente yr i llevar lo que quisyere; el otro, es encargar esta negoziacion a mercaderes que respartiesen el provecho con Su Alteza i forneziesen todo lo que fuese menester, sin que Su Alteza toviese dello cuidado. I en esta tal compafiya seria de tener estaorden: que toviese en las dichas yslas cargo de en tender en el reszibir i vender de las ropas que alia se enviaren el thesorero de Su Alteza, en compafiya del fator de los mercaderes, tenyendo cada vno dellos su libro en que, por dos manos, se asentase todo lo que se vendiese. Y de todas las ropas que se enviasen en cada navio, fuese la quenta de lo oviesen costado, firmada del mercader y del thezorero, o bien de otro fator por Su Alteza deputado a estar en Sevilla o en Cadiz, para que, segun aquella, pudiesen en las yslas soldar quenta de todo lo que llevare cada navio sobre sy, i tomar cada vna su parte de la gananzia, entregandose el mercader del costo de la ropa con costa y fletes, porque desta manera 1878.] LETTER OF AMERRIGO VESPUCCI. 335 goods with the charges and freight. And in this way there would he order and agreement, and no opportunity for fraud or deceit. In refer- ence to the things that would be carried from other countries than our own, or from the islands above mentioned, and to their cost, the mer- chant and the agent of your Highness, who resided in Seville or Cadiz, could intrust this to some person who seemed to them suitable. This is my opinion with due submission to those who know more. From Seville, the 9th day of the month of December, 1508. I humbly kiss the hands of your most reverend lordship. Amerrigo Vespucci, Chief Pilot. [Addressed] To the most reverend and magnificent Lord, Cardinal of Spain Archbishop of Toledo. [Indorsed on the back] From Amerrigo Vespucci, about carrying goods to the islands. Replies with his opinion, December 9th, that my lord the Cardinal may see it. (Rubric.) averia orden y conzierto, ny podria aver f raude ny engano alguno ; i para las cosas que se oviesen de llevar de fuera daca y de las yslas de suso nombradas y saber el costo dellas, el mercader y fator de Su Alteza que estoviese en Sevilla o Cadiz, podria dar el cargo k alguna presona que 4 ellos paresziere. Este es my pareszer, remityendome a los que mas saben. De Sevilla, a ix dias del mes de diziembre de mill e" quinientos e ocho anos. De vuestra reverendisima sefioria humylmente beso las manos. Amerrigo Vespucci, Piloto Mayor. [Sobre] Reverendisymo 6 magnifyco Sefior [el Sefior] Cardenal d' Espafia, Arzobispo de Toledo. [Anotacion al dorso] De Amerrigo Vespucci, sobre llevar cosas & las islas. Responde con su parescer de ix diciembre, para que lo vea m sefior el sefior Cardenal. (Rubrica.) The Rev. Dr. Lucius R. Paige, presented, as a gift to the Society from Edward Burnham, Esq., of Cambridgeport, the Orderly Book of Colonel Israel Hutchinson, from August 13th, 1775, to July 8th, 1776, remarking that it contained, in addition to the General Orders, a descriptive list of five hundred and twenty-two soldiers engaged for the service. He called attention to the interesting fact that on the 3d of July, 1776, the parole was " Independence," and the countersign " Pros- perity," and on the 4th itself the parole was " Colonies," and the countersign " Free." He stated that the Book, which has been remarkably well preserved, was now presented by 336 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. Mr. Burnhara, the executor of the will of Mrs. Eunice H. Kenny, widow of John Kenny, and grand-daughter of Colonel Hutchinson. Her maiden name was Eunice Hutchinson ; she was born in Danvers, and died in Gloucester, at the house of Mr. Burnham, who was then residing in that place, and who married Susan P. Davenport, daughter of Melietabel, another grand-daughter of Colonel Hutchinson. He also gave a brief notice of Colonel Hutchinson, condensed from a biographical sketch in the " History of Danvers," pp. 185-187. Israel Hutchinson was born in Danvers in 1727. During the French War, he was one of a scouting party in Maine, under Captain Israel Herrick, in 1757 ; lieutenant at Lake George and Ticonderoga, in 1758; and captain, under Wolfe, at the Plains of Abraham, in 1759. At the outbreak of the Revolu- tionary War, he was captain of a company of sixty minute- men, with whom, on the memorable 19th of April, 1775, he met the British troops on their retreat from Lexington, and pursued them to Charlestown. He was soon commissioned lieutenant-colonel and colonel, and was stationed on Winter Hill. After the evacuation of Boston by the British, he was at Fort Hill and Dorchester Heights until October, when he went to New York, commanded at Fort Lee and at Fort Washington, and was with Washington at the famous cross- ing of the Delaware. After the war ended, he was elected by his townsmen as their Representative in the General Court, in which office, and as councillor, he served them twenty-one years. He died in Danvers, March 16th, 1811, leaving thirteen children. The thanks of the Society were voted to Mr. Burnham for his acceptable and valuable gift, and the volume was referred to the Committee on the Proceedings.* * Colonel Hutchinson's Orderly Book comprises three sets of orders : first, Washington's orders as Commander-in-chief, from Aug. 13, 1775, until his departure for New York, April 4, 177b; second, the brigade orders issued by General Sullivan from Winter Hill during nearly the whole of the same period ; and, third, the orders of General Greene, and afterward of General Ward, while in command in Boston, from the evacuation down to July 8, 1776. Washing- ton's orders down to Sept. 26, 1775, were printed in Colonel Henshaw's Orderly Book in the Proceedings for October, 1876 ; and the later orders may be found in 4 Force's American Archives, vols, iii.-v. The orders of General Sullivan relate mainly to matters of discipline or to movements subordinate to the gen- eral operations of the army ; and it has not, therefore, been thought desirable to print them. But the third set of orders throws considerable light on the condition of the town of Boston after it was evacuated by the British troops, and also on the condition of our own army while garrisoning the town ; and these orders are printed here at length, with such notes as seemed desirable for their proper elucidation. The descriptive list of men belonging to Colonel Hutchinson's regiment shows that they were mostly young men ; and a very large number are classed as laborers. — Eds. 1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 337 Boston, 20«A March, 1776. General Greene's Orders. — A subaltern and twenty men to parade immediately and assist Major Frazer, Deputy Quartermaster- General, in storing the provisions. All the officers of the different guards to be at head-quarters at the British Coffee House, at six o'clock this evening, with the number of guards and where stationed, and also whose orders they have received upon an alarm. At the beating the tattoo, all officers, non-commissioned officers, and soldiers to retire to their quarters, and not stir out again till the beating the reveille. All officers of whatever rank are desired to exert themselves in preventing the troops from plundering or abusing any of the inhabitants. Any officer or soldier detected in those kind of offences will be punished to the extent of the law. A fatigue party of twenty-five men that have had the small-pox, from each Colonels Whitcomb, Phinney, and Hutch- inson's regiments, to cleanse the barracks, under the inspection of the selectmen, or the person they appoint for that purpose. The guards to be relieved at eight o'clock in the morning. Upon an alarm, Colonel Phinney and Colonel Hutchinson's regiment to man Fort Hill, four companies of Colonel Whitcomb's on Beacon Hill and Mount Whore- dom, two companies upon Copp's Hill, and two companies to be a reserve to form in King Street below the town house, there to wait for orders. Colonel Whitcomb to appoint the captains to their several posts. A fatigue to work upon Fort Hill to-morrow, of one hundred and thirty men from Phinney's, Hutchinson's, and Whitcomb's regi- ments. Colonel Phinney field-officer of the day. Colonel Hutchinson officer of the day to-morrow. The captains to examine daily the arms and ammunition of the troops, that are brought upon the grand parade to mount guard. King Street is the grand parade. The adjutant to apply to-morrow morning, seven o'clock, to the brigade-major. DetaU for Colonel Whitcomb, 1. 3. 6. 6. 3. 3.-113. Phinney, 1. 4. 5. 5. 3. 3.-113. Hutchinson, 4. 5. 5. 3. 3.-113* General Greene's Orders. — Colonel Learned is directed to man six whale-boats every night while the enemy remain in the har- bor, whose duty it is to row about, and make discoveries of any move- ment of the enemy that the garrison may be apprised thereof. The garrison already stationed in this town is to remain here, as there is not men sufficient in the army that have had the small-pox to relieve them. The commanding officers of the different corps are directed to send such a number of men for so much baggage as they may necessa- rily want while here. It is the General's express orders that no officer or soldier attempt to take up or be aiding or assisting in taking up any persons which may be suspected of being inimical to the country, and that no insult or abuse be offered to them. The captains and subaltern * These figures represent the assignment of officers and men to each detail, namely, captains, lieutenants or subalterns, sergeants, corporals, drummers, fifers, and privates. — Ens. 43 338 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. officers to examine the men to mount guard, and see that their arms and ammunition are in good order, and that their men are dressed as decent as their apparel will admit, their face and hands washed clean, and their hair combed. Any adjutant that brings any men upon the grand parade, that are not prepared as above, may expect the censure due to their negligence. The captain of the main guard to keep two patrolling parties, commanded by subaltern officers, every night patrol- ling the streets in every part of Boston, and take up all stragglers after tattoo beating, that can't give a good account of themselves, or have not the countersign. Any persons discovered in plundering to be sent prisoners to the main guard. The officers of the different guards to report all occurrences happening while they are on guard : 'tis expected that the officers keep good orders on guard, and prevent any of the soldiers from insulting or abusing any of the inhabitants or passengers that come into town upon business. The officers will be answerable for all the misconduct of their guards. All General Orders to be read once at least to the men, and all standing orders three times. All guards under fifty men, not more than one man to be absent at a time, and not more than two from any guard under a hundred ; and none without leave from the commanding officer of the guard. The pro- visions to be carried to the guards by their messmates. 21st March, 1776. General Greene's Orders. — A larger fatigue party will be wanted than can be furnished, if the guards are relieved. The guards are to stand till to-morrow morning, and the whole of the three regi- ments, besides enough to cook, to go on fatigue. Machin of the artil- lery to oversee the fatigue and mark out the ditch, &c. 23rf March, 1776. General Greene's Orders. — All the boats except the ferry- boats at Charlestown ferry to be collected under the care of the officei of the boat-guard now in Boston, and that no boat be permitted to be taken away unless by an order from the town major, and that four boats be constantly kept out every night while the enemy lies below to ply across from Dorchester to Noddle's Island, and take up all boats going out or coming into Boston after dark. Lieut.-Colonel Holden officer of the day to-morrow. Detail for guards to-morrow, c. 4 s. 7 s. 7 c. 3 d. 3 r.-l 13 P. Detail for boat-guards, one sergeant and seven privates. 23rf March, 1776. General Greene's After Orders. — The guards to be left standing another day, and all that are off duty in Colonel Phinney's, Colonel Whitcomb's, and Colonel Hutchinson's regiments, except enough for cooking, to go upon fatigue to-morrow upon Fort Hill. The General flatters himself that both officers and soldiers will cheer- fully submit to the necessary duty required for guarding and fortifying 1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 339 the town. The situation of the enemy below, and the defenceless state of the town, renders it absolutely necessary for the troops to do double duty for a time, until the town is put in a better situation. The General has great reason to suspect the enemy may be medi- tating an attack by surprise. He therefore wishes the guards may be vigilant on their posts, with their arms and ammunition in good order. The captains are enjoined to examine the arms and ammu- nitions of their companies daily. Every soldier to fasten his accou- trements to his gun every night, that they may be prepared at a moment's warning upon an alarm. Boston, 25th March, 1776. All officers and soldiers in this garrison are hereby strictly enjoined to afford any assistance and protection John Thomas may demand, at any time, and at all times, whenever he demands it, for the apprehend- ing and securing such person or persons as he shall point out, and for protecting the said Thomas against any personal insult or abuse that the said Thomas may subject himself to by pointing out and appre- hending persons suspected of acting as spies upon the army. Given under my hand the day and year above. N. G. 27th March, 1776. General Greene's Orders. — The quartermasters, to-morrow morning, to make return of the victualling list of each of the regi- ments to which they belong to the Deputy Quartermaster- General, that they may receive an order to draw beer for the troops. The General once more warns the soldiers against plundering ; and, at the same time, acknowledges he feels a singular pleasure in reflecting that there never has been more than one or two complaints, and those only sus- pected. If any should be base enough to commit any acts of plunder and attempt to conceal the effects, their messmates, not discovering the same to the commanding officer of the regiment, will be considered as accessory to the crime ; and, should it be afterwards discovered, they will be punished accordingly. If there should be a fire in town, not a man is to stir from his guard or quarters unless ordered by the Gen- eral, at the request of the selectmen or the inhabitants. The General strictly prohibits any of the soldiery from insulting any of the inhabi- tants with the odious epithets of" Tory," or any other indecent language, it being ungenerous, unmanly, and unsoldierlike, and cannot fail (if indulged) of disgracing both officers and soldiers. 29th March, 1776. General Greene's Orders. — A general court-martial to sit to-morrow morning, at nine o'clock, to try the prisoners now in con- finement. The court to consist of one field officer as president, eight captains, and five subalterns. All evidences and persons concerned to attend the court. Colonel Sargeant is appointed president of the above court-martial, who will appoint the place where the court will 340 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. set. Colonel Hutchinson to furnish two captains and one subaltern. The fatigue-party on Fort Hill to begin to work at eight o'clock in the morning and work till twelve, then to have a recess of two hours, and then work till five in the afternoon. The captain of the main guard to plant, as the committee appointed by this province court may de- mand, for security of Tory property, the sentries, by order of the captain of the main guard, is to permit any persons to enter those houses having Mr. John Brown's warrant for so doing.* Boston, 31st March, 1776. Major-General Ward having, by order of his Excellency General Washington, taken the command of the troops in Boston, he directs that the guards and fatigue parties be continued as they now are until further orders. The General earnestly wishes that good discipline and sobriety may prevail in all the regiments and corps, and commands all officers to exert themselves to promote the interest and happiness of the troops, and other inhabitants. Adjutant Tuckerman is to do the duty of brigade-major until further orders, and is to be obeyed as such. Boston, 31st March, 1776. General Ward's Orders. — Hutchinson's regiment to furnish the guards to-morrow. The adjutant of the day, Colonel Phinney's. Officer of the day, Major Putnam. Boston, 1st April, 1776. General Ward's Orders. — That a guard, consisting of one sub- altern, one sergeant, one corporal, and fifteen privates, parade immedi- ately to relieve the magazine guard at W. Hill,t and continue until further orders. Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Major Austin. Adjutant for the day, from Colonel Whitcomb's regiment. Colonel Phinney's regiment to furnish the guards to-morrow. Men off duty to go upon fatigue as usual. Boston, 2d April, 1776. It is General Ward's orders that Colonel Hutchinson sends from his regiment one subaltern, one sergeant, one corporal, and twenty privates, to Castle Point early to-morrow morning, likewise one sergeant, one corporal, and twelve privates, as a quarter guard, at the store in the barn, who are to place sentries in the forts, on the hill, and at the store. Colonel Sargeant's regiment is to march this day to Charlestown, * By Washington's General Orders of this date (4 Force's American Ar- chives, vol. v. p. 766), Greene was assigned to the command of one of the brig- ades ordered to march for New York at sunrise on the following Monday, — April 1st. — Eds. t The reference in this order is undoubtedly to Winter Hill. — Eds. 1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 341 and garrison Breed's and Bunker's Hill. Colonel Hutchinson's regi- ment to march to-morrow morning, at sunrise, to Dorchester Point, and relieve Colonel Learned's regiment now there. A subaltern, one sergeant, one corporal, and fifteen privates are to march this day to Medfield, and relieve the guard there belonging to Colonel Parsons's regiment (which is under marching orders), and are to guard the pro- vision store. Boston, 2d April, 1776. Sir, — You are directed by Major-General Ward to march, to-mor- row morning, to relieve Colonel Learned's regiment, at Dorchester Point, where you will keep such guards as shall appear necessary to preserve the forts, abatis, barracks, houses, trees, and fences entire, and to watch the motion of the enemy's fleet, &c, and to transmit a return of such occurrences as may happen daily. I am, sir, your most humble servant, P. Wadsworth, Aide-de-camp.* Boston, 5th April, 1776. Parole, " America " ; countersign, " Liberty." Colonels Whitcomb, Hutchinson, Phinney, Sargeant, and Glover are to give in their pay abstracts for their respective regiments, as soon as possible for the month of February. Colonel Gridley is directed to construct and superintend all works that are begun, or shall be resolved on, for the defence of the harbor. He will apply to the quartermaster for all the materials, whether old or new, that may be used in those works. The quartermaster is directed to keep an exact account and particular valuation of all the materials, whether old or new, which he shall deliver to Colonel Gridley for those works, to be ready whenever it may be called for. This is by no means to be neglected. The commissary or conductor of artillery stores for this department is directed to collect and deposit them in the magazine at Boston, and to make a return of them as soon as may be, and to deliver nothing without an order from the commanding officer. The commanding officer of artillery will forthwith give in a return of all the ordnance and ordnance stores in this department, and where lodged. A guard consisting of a sergeant, corporal, and twelve pri- vates, to be kept over each powder magazine till they shall be collected into one. Captain Scott, of Colonel Sargeant's regiment, is appointed to officiate as judge-advocate to the general court-martial, of which Colonel Sar- geant is president. The quartermaster is to take an account of the vessels which were left in Boston by the enemy, some with and some without cargoes, which are not to be delivered to any claimant until he has given proper security to abide the determination of Congress respecting them, and in that case take an exact inventory in order to * A considerable space was left blank here, apparently for the orders of the 8d and 4th April. — Eds. 342 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. ascertain the value, which security is to be kept by the quartermaster until called for. The quartermaster will take an account of all the stores which the enemy left in Boston, and secure them, together with the barracks and materials which are found in their works. Head-quarters, 6th April, 1776. Parole, " Massachusetts " ; countersign, " Boston." Lieut.-Colonel March is desired to officiate as muster-master for the division of the Continental Army remaining iu this colony till further orders. Colonel March will keep a muster-roll of the names, time of enlistment, company, regiment, towns, and counties to which they be- long, and age of all he shall muster. The regimental surgeon is to send the soldiers taken with the small-pox to a hospital at Lechmere's Point, instead of New Boston, any orders to the contrary notwith- standing. P. W., A. D. C. Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Major Frazer. Colonel Whitcomb's regiment furnishes the guards tomorrow. The company in town belonging to Colonel Sargeant's regiment to parade immediately, with proper officers sufficient for every division, and repair to Fort Hill and take directions from the superintendent of the works there. The officers will be answerable for the men of their respective divisions. The officers will govern themselves by the Gen- eral Orders of the 2d instant. Amos Brown tried at a general court-martial for profane swearing, getting drunk, and insulting language. The court adjudge him to receive fifteen lashes. The General approves the sentence, and orders it to be put into execution at five o'clock this afternoon. Head-quarters, 8th April, 1776. Parole, " Warren " ; countersign, " Hero." Head-quarters, 9th April, 1776. Parole, " Duty " ; countersign, " Honor." As the number of troops is small for the important posts we have to defend, and for erecting necessary works, the General expects the utmost vigilance and exertion in all the officers to promote discipline, and to carry into execution every general order which has been or may be issued : without the constant attention of the officer to every part of duty, it is vain to expect order in an army ; and, therefore, any officer who shall neglect this duty may expect to be arrested and tried for disobedience of orders. Each officer commanding a regiment is to appoint a drum-major and fife-major in his regiment, and they are carefully to instruct the drums and fifes their duty, and to see that their part of regimental duty be regularly performed. This is by no means to be neglected, as martial music is always pleasing to a soldier, and gives lustre and dignity to every corps. 1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 343 Head-quarters, \Qth April, 1776. Parole, " Arts " ; countersign, " Arms." The regimental surgeons are to give in to the major of brigade a weekly return, every Friday, of all the sick unfit for duty. The adju- tants are, personally, to bring their men detailed for guard on the grand parade precisely at nine o'clock in the morning, at which time the guards are to be relieved till further orders : the adjutants first to see their men drawn on the regimental parade ; to examine their arms and ammunition ; and to see that they are shaved, clean, and neat as their clothes will admit ; and they are to desire their orderly sergeants not to bring a soldier on the regimental parade in a slovenly habit. Any soldier refusing to comply with this order shall be confined by the orderly sergeant. The field-officer to attend on the grand parade to see the guard march off to their post. The commanding officers of regiments are to exert themselves to see their men provided with suitable clothing as soon as may be. Head-quarters, llth April, 1776. Parole, " Wadsworth " ; countersign, "Massachusetts." Head-quarters, 12th April, 1776. Parole, " Honor " ; countersign, " Virtue." Colonel Hutchinson is directed to complete the abatis round the works on Dorchester Heights with the trees already fallen on the westerly side of the hill. No new ones are to be cut on any pretence. When the abatis are there completed, the greatest care is to be taken that not a single twig be taken from it. The spears are to be greased and rubbed up, and placed round the works in the neatest manner, and to be preserved in the same good order. The chevaux- de-frise are to be conveniently placed before the avenues, so as to be hauled in at a moment's notice. The colonel is directed to take such fatigue-parties from his regiment as shall effect this work with the greatest despatch. The quartermaster will furnish axes and ropes for the business, which must be returned when the work is done.* Head-quarters, l&h April, 1776. Parole, " Warren " ; countersign, " Prescott." The following prisoners, belonging to Colonel Hutchinson's regi- ment, tried by a general court-martial whereof Colonel Sargeant was president, for mutinying and disobedience of orders, assaulting and entering the main guard, were sentenced as follows : John Digner, to suffer death, agreeably to the fifth article ; James Peirce, thirty-nine lashes for mutiny, thirty-nine for disobedience of orders, and thirty- * A space of more than two foolscap pages was left blank here, probably for the orders of the 13th, 14th, and 15th April which were not copied. — Eds. 344 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. nine for snapping his gun at an officer, and one week's imprisonment in the dungeon of the provost ; John Conner, Thomas Rudford, John Frost, John Deacons, George Milborne, Solomon Day, Richard Gayer, thirty-nine lashes each, and one week's imprisonment in the dungeon of the provost ; John Partee, thirty-nine lashes ; Scipio Freeman, fif- teen lashes ; Thomas Davis, acquitted ; Joseph Allen, thirty-nine lashes ; John Gilbert, to suffer death ; Nathaniel Ramsdell, thirty-nine lashes ; Windsor Thorpe, thirty-nine lashes ; Joseph Peirce, thirty- nine lashes, and one week's imprisonment in the dungeon of the pro- vost; Michael Smothers, thirty-nine lashes; Joseph Procter, fifteen lashes ; William Chandler and Samuel Moore, both acquitted ; Alex- ander Grant, thirty -nine lashes for mutiny, and thirty-nine for abusing his officer, and one week's imprisonment in the dungeon of the provost; John Copp, thirty-nine lashes for mutiny, thirty-nine for disobedience of orders, and thirty-nine for insulting an officer, and fourteen days' imprisonment in the dungeon of the provost. The General approves the above sentences, and orders it to take place immediately, in the following manner : John Partee, Scipio Freeman, Joseph Allen, Na- thaniel Ramsdell, Windsor Thorpe, Michael Smothers, and Joseph Procter, in the front of their regiment, at Dorchester Point, — Colonel Hutchinson is directed to send a guard for them for this purpose. James Peirce, John Conner, Thomas Rudford, John Frost, John Dea- cons, Solomon Day, Richard Gayer, Joseph Peirce, Alexander Grant, and John Copp are to be whipped on Wednesday morning, at six o'clock, on the Common, before the regiments in town, which are to be drawn up for that purpose. The Other two are to suffer in such time and manner as the General shall order. Mr. Joseph Otis is appointed provost-master until further orders, and he is to be obeyed as such. Colonel Hutchinson's regiment is to erect the new works which are laid out at Dorchester Point, next to Castle Island, and the colonel is to appoint a proper officer to superintend the work, under the direction of Colonel Gridley, and exempt him from other duty while thus em- ployed. The prisoners under sentence to be whipped to-morrow morning are not to receive their punishment then if the weather is stormy, but on the first fair day. Head-quarters, 11 th April, 1776. Parole, " Activity " ; countersign, " Vigilance." Henry Reemer, a soldier of Captain Spears's company, Colonel Hitchcock's regiment, tried by a general court-martial, whereof Colonel Sargeant is president, for taking a bed belonging to the province from General Lee's quarters, and keeping the same, was found guilty of the charge, and sentenced to pay four pounds within one week from the date hereof, or receive thirty-nine lashes on his naked back ; the above sum to be paid to Major Frazer for the use of the province, and to discharge Ensign Gould from the same. The General approves the sentence, and orders it to take place. 1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 345 Head-quarters, l%th April, 1776. Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." It is the General's express orders, the adjutants are very punctual in bringing in their full detail of men, both for guard and fatigue, upon the parade, every morning, as any neglect of this sort will not pass unnoticed. The weekly returns to be given to-morrow before noon. Head-quarters, I'dth April, 1776. Parole, " Common Sense " ; countersign, " Independence." Mr. Isaac Tuckerman is to act as wagon-master for this department till further orders. The general court-martial whereof Colonel Sar- geant was president is dissolved. Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Major Brown. Head-quarters, 20<A April, 1776. Parole, " Industry " ; countersign, " Wealth." Mr. John Butterfield is appointed wagon-master for this department instead of Mr. Isaac Tuckerman, appointed in yesterday's orders through misunderstanding. As the number of men is small in proportion to the works that are to be accomplished by this part of the army, the General desires and expects that every man off guard should cheer- fully turn out every day for work, and earnestly recommends it to the officers that they detain no more than one man of a company waiters (field-officers excepted) for their own waiters, and that only one man to a room be left to cook for the soldiers till the present hurry of work be over. Officers and soldiers will do well to consider the importance of, as well as what the public expects from, our despatch ; and how ridiculous our situation would be, should an enemy arrive whilst we are defenceless through our own neglect. It is in the power of officers greatly to promote and accelerate this matter. Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Major Frazer. Head-quarters, 21st April, 1776. Parole, "Attention"; countersign, "Order." The colonels or commanding officers of regiments and corps are to see that their men are constantly provided with ammunition, and their arms and accoutrements always in good order, fit for action, as we know not how soon we may be attacked. The General positively commands all officers and men to pay the strictest attention to these orders, as he will not excuse the least neglect in matters of such importance to the safety to our country. Complaints having been made to the General that many of the soldiers frequent grog-shops and tippling-houses, whereby they waste their time and money, and destroy their health and reputation, the General, therefore, positively forbids all such practices, and commands all officers to exert themselves to prevent such evil among the men. Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Cranston. 41 346 MASSACHUSETTS HISTOBICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. Head-quarters, 22d April, 1776. Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." Peleg Wadsworth is appointed major of brigade for this division of the Continental Army, and is to be obeyed as such. Head-quarters, 23d April, 1776. Parole, " Frugality " ; countersign, " Industry." Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Colonel Sargeant. Head-quarters, 2ith April, 1776. Parole, " Justice " ; countersign, " Humanity." Lieutenant Haffield White, of Colonel Hutchinson's regiment, ia appointed adjutant to said regiment, and is to be obeyed as such Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Colonel Whitcomb. Head-quarters, 25th April, 1776. Parole, "Bravery"; countersign, "Soldier." A general court-martial to sit to-morrow morning, at ten o'clock, to try such prisoners as shall be brought before them. Major Brown, president. Members from Colonel Hutchinson's regiment, two cap- tains, two subalterns. The adjutant will bring no men on the parade for guard without being first accoutred, washed, shaved, and dressed as well as Ms clothes will admit ; they will bring in their weekly returns on Friday, by twelve o'clock. Head-quarters, 26th April, 1776. Parole, "Connecticut" ; countersign, "New York." Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Cranston. Head-quarters, 27th April, 1776. Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." William Willey, John Kely, Francis Bennett, Jacob Smallwood, James Jeffers, John Andrews, of Colonel Sargeant's regiment, tried by a general court-martial whereof Major Frazer is president, for desert- ing, were found guilty of the charge and sentenced to be whipped, twenty stripes each on their naked backs, except Francis Bennett, who is to be reprimanded in the front of the regiment when the others are whipped. The General approves the sentence, and orders it to be put in execution on Monday morning next, at six o'clock, on the regi- mental parade. Complaints having been made to the General that many invalids, who were left behind by the marching regiments, con- tinue here after they are able to march, therefore the commissary is ordered not to supply any more invalids for the future without his express orders. Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Colonel March. 1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 347 The adjutants will give into the major of brigade to-morrow a re- turn of the men on command of their respective regiments, expressing the particular command on which they are employed. Likewise a return of those on furlough, signifying by whom they were furloughed. Head-quarters, 28<A April, 1776. Parole, " United " ; countersign, " Colonies." The colonels and commanding officers of regiments are to make returns immediately of the number of cartridges necessary to complete twenty-four rounds to each man, that they may be supplied. The commissary is not to supply any of the guards with rum without par- ticular orders. Complaints having been made that the fatigue men drink the rum they draw as soon as they get it in the morning, where- by their health is impaired and other bad consequences follow, the General therefore directs the officers commanding the fatigue to see the rum drawn for the men be properly mixed with water, and served to them at such time as will do them most good ; they may draw pails for that use of the commissary, and return them at night. Officer of the day, to-morrow, Colonel Whitney. The brigade-major will remove his office to General Ward's quar- ters, the room in the northerly corner of the house, where those who have business are directed to apply. The drums-and-fifes majors of the whole brigade are desired to meet at his office to-morrow at twelve o'clock precisely. Head-quarters, Boston, 29<A April, 1776. Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." By the returns, it appears that a number of men are on furlough, contrary to general orders. For the future, no officer is to presume to give any furlough to any man without leave from the General, and such as are now on furlough and all new recruits are to join their regi- ments immediately. The General expects the future returns of regi- ments and corps will be made out with the greatest care and exactness, that he may know the exact state of the troops, and where employed, to prevent idleness, fraud, and neglect of duty. The General observes with pleasure the improvement the drums and fifes have made in martial music, and their attention to duty. He hopes that the drum- and-fife majors will contiuue to exert themselves in instructing those under their care in every branch of their duty. James McMann, of Colonel Fhinney's regiment, tried by a general court-martial, whereof Major Frazer is president, for lodging out of camp, lying, playing cards, and other bad conduct, was found guilty and sentenced to receive thirty-nine lashes on his naked back, at such time and place as his commanding officer shall appoint. The General approves the sentence, and orders it to be put into execution. Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Colonel Phinney. 348 MASSACHUSETTS HISTOEICAL SOCIETY. [OCT. Head-quarters, Boston, 30th April, 1776. Parole, " Wisdom " ; countersign, " Temperance." Hugh Rayner, of Colonel Sargeant's regiment, is appointed chief drum-major of this division of the army until further orders, and is to be obeyed as such. John Whiting of the same regiment is appointed chief fife-major till further orders, and is to be obeyed as such. Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Colonel Sargeant. Guards and fatigue, as usual. All the drums and fifes in town are to attend the stated exercises at the time and place appointed. All the drums-and-fifes majors of this division of the army are to meet twice a week, on Tuesday and Friday, on the bottom of the Common, for practice. The drums and fifes of each regiment off duty are to practise separately, under the direction of their respective majors, till the chief drum-and-fife majors shall think them sufficiently instructed to join in one body. It is recommended the musicianers of each regiment that they emulate each other in striv- ing to excel in this pleasant part of military discipline. Head-quarters, Boston, 1st May, 1776. Parole, " Martial " ; countersign, " Music." James Haven, of Colonel Whitcomb's regiment, tried by a general court-martial for desertion, was found guilty of the charge, eighth article, and sentenced to be mulct two months' wages, to be appro- priated agreeably to the fifty-fifth article. The General approves the sentence, and orders it to take place. Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Major Brown. Guards and fatigue, as usual. The adjutant will bring no man for guard to-morrow that is not neat and powdered. Head-quarters, Boston, 2d May, 1776. Parole, " Georgia " ; countersign, " York." Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Major Frazer. With the weekly returns, the adjutant will give in a separate one, showing on what command those they shall so return are employed : this will be continued weekly. Head-quarters, Boston, 3d May, 1776. Parole, " Neatness " ; " countersign, " Gentility." The General has this day received intelligence that sixty sail of British ships, with 12,000 troops on board, are on their way to Boston, and may soon be expected. He therefore expects that all officers and men will be willing to do extraordinary duty at this critical time. The salvation of this town, this colony, and the continent is now emi- nently depending: therefore, duty, honor, the love of God and our country call upon every man for his utmost exertion. Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Cranston. 1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 349 Head-quarters, Boston, 4th May, 1776. Parole, " War " ; countersign, " Victory." John McCoy, of Colonel Sargeant's regiment, tried at a general court-martial for striking the corporal of the guard while in the execu- tion of his office. The court are of opinion that the prisoner is guilty of a breach of the seventh article of the Rules and Regulations of the Army, and adjudge him to receive fifteen lashes on his naked back, when and where his commanding officer shall think fit. William Seres, of Colonel Whitcomb's regiment, tried by the same court-martial for desertion. The court are of opinion that he is guilty of a breach of the eighth article, and adjudge him to receive thirty- nine lashes on his naked back, at such time and place as his command- ing officer shall order. The General approves the sentences, and orders them to be put in execution. Upon application being made in favor of John McCoy by his colonel and other officers of the regiment, the General has pardoned the pris- oner. None may presume upon a pardon, who are guilty of a breach of orders, in future. Head-quarters, Boston, 5th May, 1776. Parole, " Sobriety " ; countersign, " Virtue." The General hears with great concern that profane swearing is shamefully practised by many in the army, and even by some officers : he therefore solemnly warns all officers and men against this and every other impiety, and hopes the officers will set an example before the men worthy their imitation. Unless we pay a sacred regard to the duty of sobriety and virtue, we cannot expect the blessing of. Heaven, nor the approbation of the wise and good among men. Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Haynes. Head-quarters, Boston, 6<A May, 1776. Parole, "Fortification"; countersign, "Defence." The court-martial whereof Major Frazer was president is dis- solved. Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Colonel Sargeant. Guards and fatigue, as usual. A pocket-book was lost near Tileston's Wharf lately, with twenty- two dollars and other papers, valuable to the owner: whoever will bring the same with the full contents to the major of brigade shall have five dollars reward and no questions asked. Head-quarters, Boston, 1th May, 1776. Parole, " Honesty " ; countersign, " Fame." Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Ballard. Guards, as usual. Fatigue : all officers and men off duty. 350 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [OCT. Head-quarters, Boston, 8th May, 1776. Parole, " Privateer " ; countersign, " Tucker." Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Prescott. Head-quarters, Boston, 9th May, 1776. Parole, " Hancock " ; countersign, "Adams." Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Soul. Head-quarters, 10th May, 1776. Parole, " Castle " ; countersign, " Cannon." Officer of the day, Captain Ballard. Guards and fatigue, as yesterday. After Orders. — Major Austin, with three companies of Colonel Sargeant's regiment, is directed to take Boston Castle Island to defend, and forward the work there. Head-quarters, Boston, 11th May, 1776. Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Watkins. Guards and fatigue, as usual. Head-quarters, Boston, 12th May, 1776. Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." Lieut.-Colonel Jackson is to employ the troops in Charlestown in completing the fortress on the Point with all expedition. Major Austin, stationed on Castle Island, is to keep a proper guard for the security of that post, and assist the committee of the General Court with the men off duty in completing the works there. Colonel Hutchinson's regiment is to furnish one hundred men for fatigue, properly officered, to assist in carrying on the works at Castle Island, in lieu of the one hundred men which were heretofore ordered there as a guard. The commissary is to supply every one hundred men with three pounds of candles per week for guards. The men are to be sup- plied with milk and other provisions in the same proportion and manner they were last summer. Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Wilder. Guards, as usual. Fatigue : all officers and men off duty. Head-quarters, Boston, 13th May, 1776. Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Tyler. Fatigue and guards, as usual. Head-quarters, Boston, lith May, 1776. Parole, " Courage " ; countersign, " Conduct." Captain Pope, officer of the day, to-morrow. Guards and fatigue, as usual. 1878.] OEDEBLY BOOK. 351 The adjutants are desired to have their men paraded for fatigue by eight o'clock, and the guards brought on precisely at nine, that there may be no delay on the parade. A general court-martial to sit to-morrow morning, at ten o'clock, at the president's chamber. Colonel Whitcomb, president. Members from Colonel Whitcomb's, two captains, four subalterns. Members from Colonel Sargeant's, two subalterns. Members from Colonel Phinney's, one captain, three subalterns. Captain Scott, judge-advocate. The adjutants will give in the names and ranks of their respective officers before ten o'clock to-morrow morning. Head-quarters, Boston, 15th May, 1776. Parole, " Freedom " ; countersign, " Happiness." Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Scott. Fatigue, as usual. Fatigue to parade at six o'clock in the morning, and work till twelve ; again at two o'clock, and work till six. Guards to parade at eight o'clock. Head-quarters, Boston, 16th May, 1776. Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." To-morrow being the day appointed by the Honorable Continental Congress for a general fast throughout the United American Colonies, the General, being desirous of a strict observance of the day for fast- ing, humiliation, and prayer, exempts the army from all fatigue, and enjoins a suitable deportment on all ranks, remembering that success alone depends on the God of armies. Nutt, of Colonel Sargeant's regiment, tried at a general court- martial, whereof Colonel Whitcomb was president, for desertion, was found guilty and sentenced to be whipped, thirty-nine lashes on his naked back, at the pleasure of the commanding officer of the regiment. Philip Bass, of Colonel Knox's regiment, tried by the same court- martial, for abusing his officer and some women, was found guilty, and sentenced to be whipped, fifteen lashes for abusing his officer, and thirty for the women, at such time and place as his commanding officer thinks best. The General approves the sentence, and orders it to be put into execution. Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Haynes. Guards, as this day ; no fatigue. The reveille is to beat at four o'clock in the morning, at Charles- town, Fort Hill, Dorchester Heights, and Castle Island. The troop is to beat off from the grand parade so as to return just at eight o'clock. Retreat at eight. Troop as usual. The drummers are reminded not to practise in town. The troop and retreat is to be omitted on San- days. Head-quarters, Boston, 17th May, 1776. Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." Captain Ballard, officer of the day, to-morrow. Guards and fatigue, as usual. 352 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. Head-quarters, Boston, \&th May, 1776. Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." Captain Prescott, officer of the day, to-morrow. Orderly sergeants, and corporals, quartermaster-sergeants, officers, waiters, and cooks, for the barracks, barbers, bakers, tailors, or any other soldier not imputed by the General Orders, are not to be re- turned on command. Detail as usual. Head-quarters, Boston, Wth May, 1776. Parole, " Independence " ; countersign, " War." Caleb Barrett, of Colonel Phinney's regiment, tried at a general court-martial, whereof Colonel Whitcomb was president, for sleeping on his post. The court sentence the prisoner to receive twenty lashes on his naked back, at such time as his commanding officer shall think fit. The General approves the sentence, and orders it to take place accord- ingly. Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Soul. Head-quarters, Boston, 20th May, 1776. Parole, " Hero " ; countersign, " Mugford." Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Hill. Head-quarters, Boston, 21st May, 1776. Parole, " Honesty " ; countersign, " Prosperity." Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Watkins. Head-quarters, Boston, 22d May, 1776. Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." It has been intimated to the General that some persons in the army have been inoculated for the small-pox, and then have gone into the hospital under pretence that they have taken the distemper the natural way. All officers and men are to remember such conduct is against General Orders, and contrary to the law of this colony : therefore every one who may be found guilty of being inoculated for the small-pox may depend on being punished with severity. The General is sur- prised to hear that some officers have presumed to go out of camp, and also to give furloughs to their men contrary to repeated General Orders. Such officers will be duly noticed. "When aay man is tried by a regi- mental court-martial, his sentence is to be read to him as soon as his trial is finished, that he may have opportunity to appeal, if he thinks proper, to a general court-martial. A court of inquiry to sit to-morrow morning, at eight o'clock, to examine into a complaint exhibited against Lieutenant Daniel Morril, by Colonel Varnum, for enlisting a number of men into Colonel Phinney's regiment who, Colonel Varnum asserted, were previously enlisted into his regiment. The court is also to exam- ine into the complaint of William Sears, of Colonel Whitcomb's regi- ment, against said colonel and against Adjutant Tuckerman, of said 1878.] OEDEELY BOOK. 353 regiment, and make report as soon as may be respecting both the above complaints. Head-quarters, Boston, 23d May, 1776. Parole, " Washington " ; countersign, " Franklin." Fatigue, as usual. The retreat is to beat at six o'clock ; tattoo at eight o'clock in the evening. Head-quarters, Boston, 2ith May, 1776. Parole, " Lookout"; countersign, "Sharp." No officer is to go out of camp on the recruiting service without the general's express orders, and those already out are to return immedi- ately and join their regiments. Lieutenant Jonathan Sawyer, of the late Captain Hart's company, of Colonel Phinney's regiment, is to do duty as captain ; Lieutenant Jonah Jenkins, as first lieutenant ; Ensign Archelaus Lewis, as second lieutenant ; Sergeant Joseph Harts, as ensign of said company ; and are to be obeyed as such. The fatigue-party are to turn out at seven o'clock in the morning and two o'clock in the afternoon, and work four hours each half-day. Men for guard are to be warned the preceding day at noon, and are to be exempted from fatigue the afternoon that they may have opportu- nity of brightening their guns and bayonets, preparing their accoutre- ments, cleaning and mending their clothes, shaving, &c. The adjutant will examine their arms over night, to see if they will answer the orders, as no other will be accepted on the parade. There must be no borrowing and lending arms. Captain Haynes, for the day, to-morrow. Guards and fatigue, as usual. Head-quarters, Boston, 25th May, 1776. Parole, " Harmony " ; countersign, " Love." Fatigue, as usual. Those of Colonel Whitcomb's fatigue who are for guard will work on Fort Hill, under proper officers, the forenoon preceding their mounting guard, to save the trouble of coming from the castle at noon. Head-quarters, Boston, 26th May, 1776. Parole, "Magnanimity"; countersign, "Valiant." The commanding officers of regiments are to recruit their respective regiments to the establishment. Each officer is allowed one dollar and a third for every man he recruits aud musters. Michael Berry, of Colonel Sargeant's regiment, tried at a general court-martial, whereof Colonel Whitcomb was president, for being absent without leave and neglect of duty, was found guilty, and sen- tenced to receive thirty-nine stripes on his naked back, at such time and place as his commanding officer shall think proper. The General approves the sentence. Captain Ballard, officer of the day, to-morrow. Fatigue, as usual. 45 354 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. Head-quarters, Boston, 27th May, 1776. Parole, " Union " ; countersign, " Strength." The court of inquiry, whereof Colonel Sargeant was president, for inquiring into the complaint of Willard Sears against his colonel and adjutant, also into the complaint of Colonel Varnum against Lieutenant Morril, are of opinion that Colonel Whitcomb is not culpable, and that Adjutant Tuckerman did no more than his duty ; and that "Willard Sears is guilty of contempt of authority and disobedience of orders. The court are also of opinion that the charge of Colonel Varnum against Ensign Morril is not supported. The General approves the above proceedings of the court of inquiry. Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Danforth. Fatigue, as usual. Head-quarters, Boston, V&th May, 1776. Parole, " Truth " ; countersign, " Virtue." Ensign Peter Brown, of Captain Watkins's company, in Colonel Phinney's regiment, is to do duty as second lieutenant in said company, in the room of Lieutenant Lyon, deceased. Sergeant Robert Wat- kins is to do duty as ensign in said company. In the company com- manded by the late Captain Rice, Lieutenant Bartholomew York is to do duty as captain ; Lieutenant Crispin Graves, as first lieutenant ; Ensign Austins Holden, as second lieutenant ; Sergeant Ebenezer Ho- gans, as ensign ; and are to be obeyed as such. Captain Farrald for the day, to-morrow. Head-quarters, Boston, 29<A May, 1776. Parole, " Election " ; countersign, " Council." The court-martial of which Colonel Whitcomb was president is dis- solved, the complaint against Captain Putnam being withdrawn, and all parties desire leave of the court-martial to settle all difference in peace. The court consented. Captain Putnam is therefore released from his confinement. Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Wilde. Guard and fatigue, as usual. Head-quarters, Boston, 30lh May, 1776. Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." The commanding officer at Dorchester Neck is to see that no injury be done to the inhabitants, by any belonging to the army, by feeding horses or cattle. The men must be very careful not to tread down the grass, nor travel through the fields. If owners of houses in which officers live want them, the officers must apply to the barrack-master for quarters. The fort on the Point must be completed with the ut- most expedition, and every thing ready for defence as soon as possible. The abatis round the fort on the Heights must be kept in good order, and the barrels all kept in good order for defence. Those that are rolled round the hill must be brought up in order. If the enemy should 1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 355 come this way, it is possible they will make their first attack on Dor- chester Heights, therefore the commanding officer there is to be very attentive to have every thing in readiness, and in the best posture of defence. Head-quarters, Boston, 3\st May, 1776. Parole, " Cannonade " ; countersign, " Quebec." Captain Pope, officer of the day, to-morrow. Head-quarters, Boston, 1st June, 1776. Parole, " Republic " ; countersign, " America." All officers and men belonging to the Continental Army are, in future, to pay their ferriage, unless they have a pass from the General, except the commanding officer at Charlestown, and such of his men as may come to Boston on command, and they may have a pass from him. The commanding officer of regiment will order the state of their ammunition to be examined strictly, and such cartridges as are much worn or damaged to be collected and returned to the commissary, and replaced immediately. Captain York, for the day, to-morrow. Each regiment will exempt one company a day from all regimental duty, beginning, on Monday next, with the oldest company, and con- tinue in rotation till further orders. These companies are exempted from duty for the sake of discipline. The officers of said companies will exert themselves to this purpose. Head-quarters, Boston, 2d June, 1776.* Head-quarters, Boston, 3d June, 1776. Parole, " Gates " ; countersign, " Mifflin." A general court-martial to sit to-morrow morning, at nine o'clock, to try all such prisoners as may be brought before them. Colonel Phinney, president ; Captain Scott, judge-advocate. The adjutant will give in the names of the members in season to the president, and notify the prisoners and evidences of their respective regiments. Captain Whiting, officer of the day, to-morrow. From Colonel Hutchinson's regiment, for members, one captain, two subalterns. Three men that understand building whale-boats, belonging to the army, may find employ by applying to the brigade-major. Head-quarters, Boston, 4th June, 1776. Parole, " Fruitful " ; countersign, " Season." Colonels or commanding officers of regiments are to make pay ab- stracts for their respective regiments, for the months March and April. Captain Haynes, for the day, to-morrow. Guards as this day, except drum and fife. * Colonel Hutchinson left a blank space for the orders of this day, appar- ently for the purpose of copying them at some other time. But this was not done. No blank was left in most of the cases where no orders are recorded. — Eds. 856 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [OCT. Head-quarters, Boston, 5th June, 1776. Parole, "West"; countersign, "Independence." John Love, of Colonel Sargeant's regiment, tried at a general court- martial for desertion. The court find the prisoner guilty of the charge, and adjudge him to receive twenty lashes. Miles Bailey, of Colonel Whitcomb's regiment, tried by a late regimental court-martial for leav- ing his post and getting the worse for liquor, was found guilty, and sentenced to receive thirty lashes ; from which judgment he appealed to a general court-martial, which, after hearing the evidence, confirm the above sentence. The General approves the sentences, and orders them to be put in execution. Captain Ballard, for the day, to-morrow. Head-quarters, 6th June, 1776. Parole, " Bravery " ; countersign, " Hero." Andrew Gardner, drum-major of Colonel Whitcomb's regiment, tried by a general court-martial for neglect of duty. The court is of opin- ion he is guilty of neglect of duty, and adjudge that he shall be severely reprimanded by his colonel and return to his duty. John Tucker, of the same regiment, tried at the same court-martial for theft. The court are of opinion the prisoner is guilty, and adjudge him to receive thirty lashes, at such time and place as his commanding officer shall think proper. The General approves the sentences, and orders them to take place. For the day, to-morrow, Prescott. Head-quarters, Boston, 7th June, 1776. Parole, " Independence " ; countersign, " America." Captain Williams, of Colonel Phinney's regiment, is exempted from regimental duty while he superintends the works carried on by said regiment, as an assistant engineer, in order to forward the works with all possible despatch. The general court-martial, of which Colonel Phinney was president, is dissolved. Captain Soul, for the day, to-morrow. Sergeant Watts, of Captain Williams's company, in Colonel Phinney's regiment, is to do duty as ensign in said company. Head-quarters, Boston, 8th June, 1776. Parole, " Otis " ; countersign, " Patriot." The men being obliged, from necessity, to work on Sundays, for some time past, the General directs that they be exempted from fatigue to- morrow, and that the officers lead their men to the place of public worship without arms or music. Head-quarters, Boston, dth June, 1776. Parole, "Righteousness" ; countersign, " Success." As Colonel Whitcomb's and Colonel Phinney's regiments are em- 1878.] OBDEBLY BOOK. 357 ployed upon works out of town, they cannot get their milk in the morning before they march off to fatigue, therefore the commissary will supply those regiments with provision in the same manner as he did last winter, so long as they shall be employed out of town, or until further orders. Captain Danforth, for the day, to-morrow. The adjutant of the sixth and eighteenth regiments will deliver their fatigue to M. B., at Wheelwright's wharf, at 7, and the guards will shave and powder, and be on the parade at 8. The quartermaster of said regiments will see fatigue rum and provisions seasonably shipped off to them. The cooks of the barracks are to send their messmates on guard their provisions, as no officer in future will allow a single man to leave his guard, but in case of absolute necessity. Head-quarters, Boston, 10th June, 1776. Parole, " Highlanders " ; countersign, " Taken." Captain Farnald, for the day, to-morrow. The tattoo will beat off half after eight o'clock.* Head-quarters, Boston, 11th June, 1776. Parole, " Soldier " ; countersign, " War." The three companies off duty to-morrow in town will meet at nine o'clock precisely, in the Common, to be exercised by the brigade-major, in order to get a uniformity of discipline through the brigade. This is not meant to hinder the companies from being exercised separately by their own adjutants and officers at any other time in the day. The reveille will beat at the dawning of the day. Captain Hill, for the day, to-morrow. Head-quarters, Boston, 12th June, 1776. Parole, " Tracy " ; countersign, " Valiant." Head-quarters, Boston, 13th June, 1776. Parole, " Expedition " ; countersign, " Success." Five hundred men, properly officered, are to parade this day at four o'clock, on Wheelwright's wharf, with arms and ammunition com- plete, with two days' provisions ready dressed, and are to be under the command of Colonel Whitcomb. Two hundred men with proper officers are to parade at Dorchester Point, at five o'clock this day, with arms and ammunitions complete, and two days' provisions ready dressed, and are to be under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Holden. Captain Tyler, for the day, to-morrow. All the men in camp will have one meal of provisions ready cooked * The parole and countersign for this day were no doubt selected with refer- ence to the capture, on the 8th ot June, of a British transport, from Scotland, having on board a company of Highlanders. See General Ward's letter to General Washington in 4 Force's American Archives, vol. vi. p. 771. — Eds. 358 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. by this evening. Colonel Hutchinson's adjutant will have paraded at four o'clock this afternoon ; one lieut.-colonel, two captains, six sub- alterns, eight sergeants, one drummer, one fif'er, and one hundred and eighty rank and file, one quartermaster, one surgeon, with two days' provision ready dressed, with blankets slung, and canteens filled with water. The quartermaster will have in readiness at the same time and place seventy-five spades and shovels, seventy-five picks, six hand-bar- rows, six axes, six pails, one barrel of rum, two barrels of beer or cider, loaded in a good flat-boat, of which he will have the care of, coming, delivering, and returning ; also, five flat-boats with oars. The rest of the regiment will fatigue as usual. Colonel Hutchinson will turn out all the men on Dorchester Point to-morrow morning, half an hour before daybreak, all complete in arms, with ammunition, and be ready for any movement that may be necessary, and draw his men up in sight of the en'emy's ships. The commanding officer at Dorchester will keep such a picket guard as he may judge necessary for the safety of the post until further orders. Head-quarters, Boston, 14th June, 1776. Parole, "Expedition"; countersign, "Success." Head-quarters, Boston, \6th June, 1776. Parole, " Boston " ; countersign, " Port." The Commander-in-chief thanks Colonel Whitcomb, Lieut.-Colonel Holden, and Colonel Jackson, and the officers and soldiers under their command, for their spirited and soldier-like conduct yesterday in carry- ing on the expedition against the enemy, and in conjunction with the colony troops, and driving them out of the harbor. Such noble exer- tions give proof of the spirit and magnanimity of freemen in the cause of liberty, and afford the pleasing prospect that by the smiles of Heaven America will rise superior to all the tyrants of the earth. The General thanks the citizens and volunteers who gave their assist- ance on this occasion. Captain York, for the day, to-morrow. No fatigue to-morrow. Colonel Hutchinson's quartermaster will return the boat and oars, and utensils for the expedition. All officers and others who received boats in the late expedition are desired to return them immediately to the boat guard. No persons are to go on to Long Island without orders from the General, for fear of spreading the small-pox which is there. Head-quarters, Boston, 16<A June, 1776. Parole, " Success " ; countersign, "America." Sergeant Joseph Killam, of Colonel Hutchinson's regiment, is to do duty as second lieutenant in Captain Kimball's company, in said regi- ment. As it has been repeatedly suggested to the General that some officers and men have been privately inoculated for the small-pox, whereby the lives of others are endangered, and the public service 1878.] ORDEBLY BOOK. 359 injured, the General once more therefore positively forbids all inocu- lation, and is determined to punish with the utmost rigor every one who shall dare to a violation of law and orders ; and, if an officer, his name shall be published with the infamy due to so ruinous a crime. Captain Pope, for the day, to-morrow. Head-quarters, Boston, 11th June, 1776. Parole, " Bunker Hill " ; countersign, " Warren." For the day, to-morrow, Captain Scott. Head-quarters, Boston, l%th June, 1776. Parole, " Privateers " ; countersign, " Victory." The General has full information that some men and some officers have been inoculated for the small-pox in violation of the law of this government, and against the most positive orders. Such high hand transgressors must expect to be punished equal to the enormities of their crime. All others are to take warning, and all those against whom these complaints are lodged will be tried by a general court- martial. The Highland Major, who was slain in the last engagement on board the ship, is to be buried this afternoon from the State House. The Scotch officers will walk as mourners, and all the officers in town off duty are desired to walk in procession.* Captain Cranston, for the day, to-morrow. Fatigue, as usual. Head-quarters, Boston, 19th June, 1776. Parole, " Artillery " ; countersign, " Burbeck." For the day, to-morrow, Captain Haynes. Guards and fatigue, as usual. Head-quarters, Boston, 20/A June, 1776. Parole, " Congress " ; countersign, " Adams." Captain Ballard, for the day, to-morrow. | Head-quarters, Boston, 21st June, 1776. Parole, " Prize " ; countersign, " Privateer." It is observed that many of the soldiers appear with dirty linen, which is very unhealthy and hurtful. The General therefore directs all officers to see that their men keep clean, and that their barracks are clean and wholesome. No officer is ever to neglect an attention to this important part of duty. Captain Prescott, for the day, to-morrow. The two companies at Bunker Hill will relieve the magazine guard at Winter Hill, with a corporal and six privates. Colonel Phinney * The officer referred to was Major Menzies. See Frothingham's History of the Siege of Boston, p. 314, note. — Eds. t Colonel Hutchinson left a blank space for the additional orders of this day. — Eds. 360 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. will relieve the magazine guard at Jamaica Plain, with a sergeant, corporal, and ten privates. Colonel Whitcomb will relieve the guard at Watertown, with a sergeant, corporal, and ten men. The two latter guards will march to-morrow morning, from the grand parade, at eight o'clock. Head-quarters, Boston, 22d June, 1776. Parole, " Humanity " ; countersign, " Justice." Last evening the General received information from the Congress that Ebenezer Hancock, Esq., is appointed paymaster-general for the troops stationed here, and that the money is on the way for this place, to pay off the troops. No fatigue to-morrow. For the day, to-morrow, Captain Soul. Head-quarters, 23d June, 1776. Parole, " Boston " ; countersign, " Success." A general court-martial to sit to-morrow morning, at eight o'clock. Fatigue : all off duty properly officered. The commanding officers of regiments will turn out their regiments to a man this evening, at seven o'clock, to review the state of their arms and ammunition, and to hold themselves in readiness to turn out at the shortest notice. Captain Ballard, for the day, to-morrow. Head-quarters, Boston, 24th June, 1776. Parole, " Arms " ; countersign, " America." The late court of inquiry, of which Colonel Sargeant was president, Captains Pope, Hill, Haynes, Vinton, Barry, Terrington, Lowe, Lieutenants Holmes, Massers, Hirrick, Munro, and Ensign Mills, members, is to sit again to-morrow morning, at eight o'clock, for a rehearing of the complaint of Colonel Varnum against Lieutenant Morrill, for re-enlisting Sargeant Thompson and fifteen privates who belonged to Captain Lane's company in Colonel Varnum's regiment, as he saith ; and the court is to make a very pertinent return of the evidences, with the judgment of the court, to the General as soon as possible, to be transmitted to General Washington. Guards, as usual. * Captain Danforth, for the day, to-morrow. Head-quarters, 25th June, 1776. Parole, " Monet " ; countersign, " Duty." The money has at length arrived for the payment of the troops ; commanding officers of regiments, that have not received their wages for the months of March and April, may apply for it to-morrow. The men who have their guns at the armorer's are to call for them as soon as mended, and not neglect to take them from week to week, as the General is informed is the case with some. A new armorer is appointed to the northward of the first market, by Mr. William 1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 361 Thomas, for the use of the Continental service ; this, with the other before established, it is expected will soon put the arms of this brigade in good repair. As the base practice of stealing ammunition from the soldier's cart- ridge-boxes has prevailed of late, any soldier who shall discover a theft of this sort, or give information of firing in camp, contrary to General Orders, so that the offender be convicted of the crime, shall have one dollar reward for each information. Fatigue, as usual. Head-quarters, Boston, 26<A June, 1776. Parole, " Otis " ; countersign, " Freedom." Captain Hill, for the day, to-morrow. Head-quarters, Boston, 27th June, 1776. Parole, " Langdon " ; countersign, " Wentworth." Guards, as usual. Fatigue : all off duty. Captain Williams, for the day, to-morrow. Head-quarters, Boston, 28th June, 1776. Parole, " Order " ; countersign, " Obedience." Commanding officers of regiments are to make out pay abstracts for month of May. Thomas Summer, of Colonel Sargeant's regiment, tried at a general court martial for disobedience, and insulting his captain, upon his appeal from a regimental court martial. The court are of opinion that he is guilty, and sentence him to receive thirty-nine lashes. Thomas Cashman tried by the same court-martial for getting drunk, profane swearing, and abusing the inhabitants. The court are of opinion he is guilty, and sentence him to be kept twenty-four hours under confine- ment, and then discharged from the army. William Dow and Martha Doyle tried at the same court upon suspicion of setting the barrack on fire. The court acquit them, there being no evidence to support the charge. Caleb Cummings tried for theft. No evidence appearing, the court acquit him. Moses Baker, of Colonel Whitcomb's regiment, tried for stealing a spade and selling it for rum. The court sentence him to receive thirty-nine lashes. William Jackson, of Captain Bur- beck's company, tried for stealing and abusing James Wade. The court sentence him to receive fifteen lashes. The General approves the judgment, and orders them to be put into execution. Captain Watkins, for the day, to-morrow. Head-quarters, 29th June, 1776. Parole, " New York " ; countersign, " Washington." The colonel or commanding officers of regiments and corps are to make a report next Monday morning, to the brigade-major, the num- ber of men in the respective corps who have had the small-pox, also the number of men that now have that distemper. Notwithstanding 46 362 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. the repeated General Orders against wasting ammunition, the General is informed that, in a party of men lately returning from Long Island, an officer was so lost to a sense of duty as to discharge his gun, and set an infamous example before the men. Whoever shall produce evidence against this or other like offenders, so that he be convicted, shall have two dollars reward, and one dollar for every soldier so con- victed, that we may either reform such wretches or drum them out of the army with the infamy they deserve. Captain Wilde, for the day, to-morrow. No fatigue to-morrow. There will be no companies exempted the following week for the sake of discipline, as it is of the utmost im- portance to complete the works on Dorchester Heights. Head-quarters, 30th June, 1776. Parole, " Montgomery " ; countersign, " Thomas." For the day, to-morrow, Captain Sawyer. Head-quarters, Boston, 1st July, 1776. Parole, " Sullivan " ; countersign, " Porter." The Congress have been pleased to appoint that the Assistant Quar- termaster-General should have captain's pay ; that the pay of regimen- tal surgeons be augmented to thirty-three and one-third dollars per month. An exact alphabetical return of the names of the officers, with their rank and the date of their commissions in each regiment and corps, is to be made immediately. The commissary of the artillery is to make return of the arms, ammunition, and warlike stores belonging to the United Colonies, and the place where lodged. The command- ing officer of the train is to make return of the cannon and ordnance belonging to the United Colonies, and where lodged. The Assistant Quartermaster-General is to make out a return of the intrenching tools, boats, and every thing in his department belonging to. the United Colonies. All the returns are to be made next Thursday morning, with great accuracy, and duplicates of the same, in order to be sent to Congress. Head-quarters, Boston, 2d July, 1776. Parole, " Heath " ; countersign, " Spirits." All the returns mentioned in yesterday's orders are to be made out the first day of every month : this is by no means to be neglected. Colonel Sargeant's regiment is to be stationed on Castle Island, and proceed to that place with all expedition. Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Pope. Head-quarters, Boston, 3d July, 1776. Parole, " Independence " ; countersign, " Prosperity." Captain Soul tried by a general court-martial, of which Colonel Whitcomb was president, for defrauding the public, and breach of General Orders. The court are of opinion that he is guilty of a breach of General Orders; but, as he has heretofore borne the character of a good 1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 363 officer, the court only order him to be severely reprimanded by his colonel in presence of the commanding officers of the regiment to which he belongs, as a punishment for his crime, and warning to other officers. Sergeant Hill, Sergeant Parker, Corporal Marvell, and Sam- uel Wood, of Captain Danforth's company, tried by the same court- martial for fraud. The court are of opinion the prisoners are guilty, and order them severally to return what they have taken by unjust methods to the right owner, and pay each one month's pay for the use of the sick in the regiment to which they belong, and be reduced to the ranks. The General approves the above sentences, and orders them to take place accordingly. Colonel Whitcomb, for the day, to-morrow. Head-quarters, Boston, 4th July, 1776. Parole, " Colonies " ; countersign, " Free." No officer is to bear a man on his return till he is regularly mus- tered. The commanding officer of each regiment is to appoint an officer to receive the fines that may be inflicted on said regiment for the use of the sick and other purposes, and make a return of their names on Saturday morning. Colonel Phinney, for the day, to-morrow. After Orders. — As the small-pox now prevails in Boston, the commanding officers at Dorchester and Castle Island are not to suffer any of their men to come to this town, except those who have had the small-pox ; and the utmost care must be taken to prevent any of the men from taking the distemper, as it will be a very dangerous conse- quence to have those posts infected, for, in case of an attack by the enemy, the country people would not come to their assistance. If any man should be taken with that distemper, he is immediately to be sent to the hospital ; and, if any should be so vile as to inoculate without order therefor, his commanding officer is to collect all possible evidence against him, that he may in due time be punished for his heinous crime. The General gives permission for the two regiments stationed in Bos- ton to receive the distemper by inoculation. The utmost care must be taken to prevent the distemper from beiug communicated to any person out of town, and the regiments and corps stationed out of Boston are by no means to take the small-pox until they have been therefor ordered by General Orders. Head-quarters, 5th July, 1776. Parole, " Inoculation " ; countersign, " Health." The commanding officers of regiments in town are to send those men in their respective regiments who do not incline to be inoculated (if there should be any) to Dorchester, under proper officers, there to be employed in completing the works on the Heights. No man is to inoculate in Boston after to-morrow ; therefore, all those that intend to take the distemper are to be inoculated immediately, that the town may be cleansed as soon as possible. The commissary is to supply the 364 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. men who have the small-pox with Indian meal, rice, and other neces- saries, in the room of their common allowance. Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Cranston. Head-quarters, Boston, 6th July, 1776. Parole, " New York " ; countersign, " Troops." Colonel Phinney's quartermaster will inform the commissary to- morrow morning early what part of the regiment will draw rice, &c, instead of meat. Colonel Whitcomb's quartermaster will do the same on Monday morning. Head-quarters, Boston, 1th July, 1776. Parole, " Arms " ; countersign, " War." Captain Ballard, for the day, to-morrow. Guards, as this day. Those surgeons of regiments in town who have not sufficient medi- cine for the troops under the operation of small-pox are to apply to Dr. Rand, surgeon of the small-pox hospital. The surgeons of regi- ments and their mates must exert themselves to take the best care of the men under the operation of the small-pox. The General expects and orders that the utmost attention be paid to this important concern. Head-quarters, Boston, 8th July, 1776. Parole, " Magnanimity " ; countersign, " Honor." The commissary is to supply the hospital with necessary provisions. The commissary will pay the back rations due to the officers for the last quarter. The commanding officers of regiments and corps in town are to turn out their men every morning before sunrise for exercise : this must not be neglected, as their health greatly depends upon their taking the morning air and moderate exercise. All the officers are to take the best care of their men, and see that they do not go into any practice injurious to their health whilst under the operation of the small-pox. They must not sleep in their barracks in the daytime, expose themselves in the hot sun, nor to the fire, or any hot place, heat being very injurious, but keep themselves clean and cool, and attend carefully to the directions given them by their surgeon. Captain Prescott, for the day, to-morrow.