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Full text of "October Meeting, 1878. Letter of Christopher Columbus; Letter of Amerrigo Vespucci; Orderly Book"

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1878.] OCTOBER MEETING. 307 



OCTOBER MEETING, 1878. 

The stated monthly meeting was held on Thursday, the 
10th inst., at 11 o'clock A.M. ; the President, Mr. Winthbop, 
in the chair. 

The record of the previous meeting was read and approved. 

The Librarian read his monthly list of donors to the Library, 
making special mention of Miss Elizabeth E. Dana, who had 
presented a copy of her " Diary of a British Officer in Bos- 
ton, in 1775," with additional MS. notes, and had deposited 
the original MS. of the diary and other papers. 

The Corresponding Secretary reported that the Hon. John 
Lowell had accepted his election as a Resident Member. 

The President then announced the death of Judge Thomas, 
and said: — 

The tidings of the serious illness of our Associate Member, 
the Honorable Benjamin Franklin Thomas, took us all 
by surprise not many weeks ago. It terminated fatally on 
the 27th ult., at Beverly Farms, in this State, where he had 
his summer residence ; and his funeral took place at the First 
Church, in this city, on Tuesday, the 1st inst. I regretted 
sincerely to be compelled to go to New York at the very hour 
for which it was appointed. But our Society was amply 
represented by Mr. Adams, Dr. Ellis, and others, in the 
throng of mourners on that occasion. 

The numerous and just tributes which have already been 
paid to his character and services, by the Press and by the 
Pulpit, by the American Antiquarian Society, of which he was 
the senior Vice-President, and by the Bars both of Worcester 
and of Suffolk, of which he was so' distinguished a member, 
have left little, if any thing, to be added here to-day. Noth- 
ing more, certainly, is needed to his own commemoration. 
But we owe it to ourselves, if not to him, that one of such 
eminent ability and excellence, who has been associated with 
us for eighteen years, and whose genial tributes to his friends 
Governor Clifford and Governor Washburn have so recently 
found a response in all our hearts, should not go down to his 
grave himself without some immediate expression of our 
respect and of our sorrow. A Boston boy by birth, yet hav- 
ing been removed at six years of age to the old home of his 
grandfather, — the patriot printer and historian of printing, 
and the founder of the American Antiquarian Society, at 
Worcester, — and having been graduated, eleven years later, 



308 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

at Brown University, of which he was Chancellor at the time 
of his death, — he owed no part of his education to Boston 
schools or Massachusetts colleges. The public services, too, 
and the professional practice of his earlier life, were in the 
heart of the Commonwealth. He represented the town of 
Worcester in the State Legislature in 1842, and was for sev- 
eral years afterward the Judge of Probate for Worcester 
County. But, at forty years of age, he took his seat on the 
bench of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, and his labors 
and reputation thenceforth ceased to be local. After six 
years' service in this high office, he established himself in the 
neighborhood of Boston, now a part of it, for the practice of 
the law, and was soon afterward sent to Congress to rep- 
resent the West Roxbury District, within which he then 
resided, as the successor of our Vice-President, Mr. Adams, 
on his appointment as Minister to England. A nomination 
to the Chief Justiceship, which met the approval of the com- 
munity though not of the Executive Council, completes the 
record of his relations to public office. 

But a good and great man is, in some sense, never without 
office. " Nulla vitse pars vacare officio potest." Judge Thomas 
was of a peculiarly independent spirit, and, having ample 
occupation in his own profession, had little concern for the 
favors or the frowns of those by whom public station is be- 
stowed. With a strong sense of duty to himself and to his 
fellow-men, to his country and to his God, he never swerved 
from his own conscientious convictions, in order to conciliate 
popular support. He was a zealous member of the old Whig 
party of Massachusetts, as long as that party had any exist- 
ence ; and I should hardly be excused for not remembering 
that it was from his hand, as President of the Whig Conven- 
tion, in 1851, that I received the nomination for Governor. 
He said to me playfully, not many months ago, that the only 
time he was ever angry with me, was when I refused to run 
a second time. His service in Congress was during the earlier 
years of the Civil War ; and after the close of that service, 
and his failure to be re-elected, he published a volume of 
more than two hundred pages, containing all his speeches, in 
Congress or out of Congress, during the period of his holding 
that position. He had not yielded to the idea, that the sup- 
port of the war, and the support of the country, necessarily 
involved the support of all the measures of the actual Admin- 
istration ; and he had been bold in criticising and opposing 
some parts of its policy. In speaking of his principles, in the 
Preface to this volume, he says : " That they are unpopular 



1878.] REMARKS BY THE PRESIDENT. 309 

at this moment, does not disturb me : the more imperative is 
the duty of standing by and upholding them. The citizen 
owes to the country, in the hour of her peril, honest counsel, 
calmly given, but with the 'love that caste th out fear.' 
Never were freedom of thought and of the lips and pen so 
necessary as now. They have become not only the most pre- 
cious of rights, but the most religious of duties." 

He had an earnest and deep conviction that under the exi- 
gencies and strains of Civil War we were drifting away from 
the Constitution, — not for the moment only, not exception- 
ally, but permanently and irrecoverably. That conviction was 
by no means wholly changed in later years ; and he told me, 
not long ago, that he was meditating, and, as I understood 
him, preparing, a history of parties in their relation to the 
Constitution, to vindicate this view. It will be the subject 
of deep regret if such a work is to be entirely lost. A polit- 
ical history of this sort, written by an eminent lawyer and 
a sincere patriot, would be hailed with interest and eager- 
ness, even by those who might differ from its conclusions. 

The last formal discourse of Judge Thomas was his Centen- 
nial Oration at Worcester, on the 4th of July, 1876, which 
abounds in expressions of patriotic and fervent hopefulness 
for the future of our land, and maintains that we have no 
right and no cause to despair of the Republic. 

I will not prolong this announcement. Of his efforts and 
successes in the Courts of Law, to which his life was mainly 
devoted, others have spoken most felicitously elsewhere. I 
have said enough to show the appreciation which we all have 
of the excellent qualities of our departed friend, and to mani- 
fest our sense of the great loss, not only to the institutions 
and associations with which he was connected, but to the 
whole community, which such a death involves. Younger 
than many of us, he seemed to have a physical as well as men- 
tal vigor and vivacity which promised to outlast us all. There 
was an energy, too, in his nature, which would never have 
allowed him to be idle or unprofitable while his life and health 
were spared. There is no adequate measurement for such a 
loss, coming, as it has come, when our Commonwealth and 
our Country can least afford to bear it. He would have been 
less missed at other periods of our history. 

It only remains for me, as the organ of the Council, to sub- 
mit the customary Resolution : — 

Resolved, That we have heard with sincere sorrow of the 
death of our able and accomplished associate, Benjamin 



310 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [OCT. 

Franklin Thomas, and that the President be requested to 
appoint one of our number to prepare a Memoir for our Pro- 
ceedings. 

The Rev. E. E. Hale, in seconding the Resolution, spoke 
as follows : — 

I will ask your leave, Sir, to say a single word, were it 
only to express my own personal obligations to our friend. 
There is no person to whom I owe more than to him, and for 
the whole course of my active life I have had no kinder 
friend. I am tempted to say, therefore, that very deep down 
in the series of remarkable qualities which have given to him 
that leading position which you have so well described are the 
tenderness and affection which have characterized his inti- 
macy with all around him, and are especially to be noticed in 
his dealings with those younger than himself. An admirable 
notice of his life in the "Advertiser" called attention to his 
eager habit of bringing young men forward, and the encour- 
agement which he gave to them. If the record of his life 
could be fully made up, I think it would prove that, in that 
sympathetic welcome to those younger than himself, he has 
rendered even larger service to this community than in any 
single effort among his wider public duties. Certainly this 
sympathy accounts for the enthusiasm, I am willing to say 
the fanaticism, with which we, who are younger than he, find 
ourselves speaking of him now that he cannot silence our 
eulogies. 

The truth is, Sir, that, as in every life of a really first-rate 
man, all these triumphs of his, — his wonderful eloquence, all 
his persistent industry, all this absolute elevation, truly judi- 
cial, above the passions of the hour, all this sweet command 
of his own temper, to which you have referred, — these and all 
the rest belong to his all-controlling moral purpose, and to 
that steady habit of his soul to maintain at the closest his 
communion with God. Without a particle of cant, ridicul- 
ing, in all the joyous heartiness of his exuberant life, each and 
all of those pretences which are well enough characterized by 
the word " religiosity," he was none the less, in the very 
heart of his life, an eager child of God, always rejoicing in 
his communion with his Father. Were this the place, I could 
illustrate what I say, by I know not how many stories of the 
simple way in which his mind ran back of course to that great 
reality of a man's being, that he is a child of God. I remem- 
ber going into his private office, not many years ago, at the 
most crowded hour of the day, about some matter where I 



1878.] BEMABKS BY HON. E. E. HOAE. 311 

needed his help. I apologized for interrupting him, and said 
I would take but a minute of his time. " Stay as long as you 
will," he said cheerfully, and he handed me the book which 
he was reading. It was the rare old English translation of 
Saint Augustine's Meditations. " I knew the Confessions," 
he said, " but this book, till last week, was new to me." And 
we sat and talked, I dare not say how long, about the great 
books of Christian devotion and the Christian mystics. That 
little incident has been a great comfort to me. When men 
tell me that society is going to destruction, when they tell me 
that its leaders are governed by avarice or petty ambition 
only, I like to think of the moment when, by mere accident, 
I found this leader among leaders, this favorite in all society, 
this successful lawyer, this Judge called on for counsel by 
every one, this busiest man in Boston, reading quietly in his 
private office, at the very noon of his active day, from the 
prayers of Saint Augustine. What you have said so well, Sir, 
and what this distinguished assembly and this community 
know, are testimony that from such habits of life and thought 
there grew nothing sickly or fantastic. They belonged sim- 
ply, as I tried to say, to the fearless intimacy of a child 
with his Father. 

You will find, his life through, public or private, that he 
was an idealist, governed by his own convictions of duty, and 
absolutely — as men said, curiously — indifferent to the con- 
victions formed at the moment by other men. He was, for 
instance, an anti-slavery man at a time when that was not pop- 
ular. Yet, when the time came, he, who had in fact drawn 
up, I think, the first statute which ever emancipated a slave, 
threw away his popularity, almost with indifference, rather 
than drift with a popular sentiment. 

Such qualities, as you have justly said, made up a charac- 
ter on which every one had learned to rely ; and it is the 
unexpected loss of such a man which makes everybody grieve. 

The Hon. E. R. Hoae said : — 

I would add a word to what has been so well said by you, 
Mr. President, more for the indulgence of my own feelings 
than for the benefit of the Society. There has hardly oc- 
curred within my knowledge the death of an eminent man in 
this community that has brought with it so strong and so 
wide-spread a sense of personal loss as this death of Judge 
Thomas. My acquaintance with him began nearly forty 
years ago, when I was a law student in Worcester, and he 
was "a young lawyer, with very little business, and apparently 



312 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

without much prospect of any. He was studious, but his 
studies were in philosophy, literature, and poetry, with a 
considerable taste for historical and antiquarian researches. 
It was with some surprise that I learned soon afterward that 
he was beginning to take high rank as a lawyer. But limited 
means and the needs of an increasing family had supplied the 
required stimulus, and he rapidly assumed the position of a 
leader of the bar, which he retained to the end of life. He 
was learned and laborious in the preparation of cases, but 
capable also of a persuasive and lofty eloquence. As a judge, 
he was perhaps open to the criticism of too strong a tendency 
to philosophizing, and to questioning many things which had 
been regarded as settled ; a quality which suggested the only 
doubt of his eminent fitness to be at the head of the judiciary 
of the Commonwealth. But it was certainly true of him, as 
was said of John Hooker Ashmun in his epitaph, that " he 
went behind precedents to principles, and that books were 
his helpers, never his masters." He loved and honored his 
profession, which he regarded as the natural ally of honesty 
and honor, and gave to all its interests a brave and loyal sup- 
port. His manly, generous, and affectionate nature endeared 
him to all his brethren, and he has left no animosities to be 
forgotten or forgiven. 

Something has been said of his kindness to young men, and 
readiness to afford them encouragement and help. But he 
had a temperament upon which time made no impression, and 
which did not permit you to think whether he was old or 
young. In early youth, he was the peer of men of established 
fame ; and he carried the spirit of youth into advanced years. 
He was the cheeriest of men, whom it was an exhilaration 
to meet, and his merry laugh was irresistible. He loved his 
country, his State, his friends and neighbors, and was always 
ready to serve and help them. Pew men have had greater 
capacity of service, none have given it from a larger heart. 

Mr. Charles W. Ttjttle had prepared the following re- 
marks, but refrained from delivering them, in order to allow 
the Society to pass on to the usual business of the meet- 
ing : * — 

Mb. President, — It was my fortune to be among the latest 
guests in the family of the late Judge Thomas prior to his 
fatal illness. For a whole week, I was with him every after- 

* Mr. Tuttle has kindly yielded to our request to place his remarks in the 
printed record of the meeting. — Eds. 



1878.] REMARKS BY MR. TTTTTLE. 313 

noon and evening at his very charming summer residence at 
Beverly Farms. He then appeared to be in his usual health, 
such as I had known it in former years. Little more than 
a week elapsed after my departure, before he was stricken 
down with the disorder of which he soon died. 

I never had seen him on any occasion when his intellect 
was clearer, his conversation more brilliant, or his social 
qualities more engaging. Looking at the sad event which so 
quickly followed my visit, it seems to me that this may have 
been a temporary culmination of his powers, that mental ful- 
ness which sometimes precedes a final dissolution. 

The weather was fine, and we sat late in the evening — long 
after the family left — on his broad piazza, facing the ocean 
and a clear star-lit sky, conversing on a wide range of sub- 
jects. His quick perception of the humorous, and the exquis- 
ite enjoyment it gave him, were manifested by those unique 
and sudden peals of laughter which no one can ever forget 
who had any acquaintance with him. With feelings of min- 
gled sadness and pleasure, I remember how often the peaceful 
stillness of the night was interrupted by his merry laughter, 
and by the voice of the waves playfully breaking and running 
along the beach not far away, producing a kind of rhythmical 
effect. His vivacity and cheerfulness, his wit and pleasantry, 
made him the delight of every social and domestic circle. 
These traits were so marked in him as to make one forget his 
Puritan origin, or that he was other than a young man. 

I never was more impressed than during these free conver- 
sations that he was a man who knew every thing of something 
aud something of every thing. He had a truly enlightened 
mind, capable of taking the broadest and most comprehensive 
views of any subject presented to it. An early bias for his- 
torical studies led him to store his memory with events and 
characters of past times. He was thoroughly alive to all that 
was passing in the world, and found real enjoyment in the 
present, fie had a favorite maxim, often on his lips, that 
there never was a better time than the present ; that people 
were never wiser, better, or happier than now. Acting on 
this theory, he always had the best periodical literature of 
England and America on his table, and was constantly making 
accessions to his large and well-selected library. 

His professional employments prevented his taking any 
active part in the work of this Society. I have often heard 
him declare that he hoped to find time to become a useful 
member, as he expressed it. His interest in the Antiquarian 
Society was fixed by inheritance as well as by choice. He 

40 



314 MASSACHUSETTS HISTOKICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

regarded that society with parental fondness, and spoke en- 
thusiastically of its aims and purposes. 

I desire here to add my humble suffrage to that large num- 
ber of enlightened suffrages which have united in placing 
him among the greatest lawyers of Massachusetts. That he 
represented the highest standard of professional eminence and 
character, is known wherever his name has gone. Of his 
great capacity, learning, and eloquence, there is abundant 
proof in the literary annals of Massachusetts. His juridical 
and his professional career shine with equal lustre. 

He regarded with no blind veneration the opinions and 
judgments of former ages. He believed in human progress ; 
and he believed that the light of the present age afforded 
better means of arriving at just and accurate judgments in 
human affairs than at any previous time. He did not hesitate 
to examine for himself any question, no matter how many 
nor how able the judgments pronounced on it. He tested 
every thing by his own enlightened understanding, and he 
fearlessly maintained his conclusions. His manly independ- 
ence in this, as well as in other acts of his life, deserves the 
applause of his fellow-men. For this trait he paid the pen- 
alty exacted by republics of high-minded public men; but 
his name and memory will live evermore in honor among the 
worthiest and best of his race. 

Judge Thomas was more than a great lawyer and a great 
jurist. He rose above that sphere. His capacity, his learn- 
ing, his firmness, his independence, his lofty integrity, his 
eloquence, his large heart and generous impulses, stamp him 
with pre-eminence among men. 

The Resolution was unanimously adopted. 

The President stated that he had just noticed in the news- 
papers the death of Erastus Smith, Esq., of Hartford, Con- 
necticut, whose name stood first on the Society's Roll of 
Honorary and Corresponding Members elected under the 
original act of incorporation. He was elected in December, 
1835, and had been for some time the senior member of the 
Connecticut bar. 

M. Henri Martin, of France, was elected an Honorary 
Member, and Messrs. Joseph F. Loubat, LL.D., of New York, 
and Charles Henry Hart, LL.B., of Philadelphia, Correspond- 
ing Members. 

The President then spoke of Dean Stanley's visit to Bos- 
ton, and to the Rooms of the Society, of which he has been 
an Honorary Member for some years. He presented for the 



1878.] BEMAEKS BY EEV. BABNAS SEAES. 315 

Library a copy of the sermon preached by the Dean in Trin- 
ity Church, Boston, on the morning of the 22d of September, 
and remarked that its title, " The East and the West," was 
justly given, for the first part of the sermon was understood 
to have been written in Cairo, the second on board a man-of- 
war in the Bosporus, and the conclusion in his (Mr. Win- 
throp's) house in Brookline. 

It was voted to place twenty copies of the forthcoming 
volume of Judge Sewall's Diary at the disposal of the Com- 
mittee on the Sewall Papers. 

A bust of the late Hon. Edward Everett, made by Thomas 
Ball in 1865, was presented to the Cabinet by Mr. William 
Everett, for which the thanks of the Society were ordered. 

The Rev. Barnas Sears, D.D., the General Agent of the 
Peabody Education Fund, an Honorary Member, was then 
introduced to the meeting by the President, who spoke of 
him as for seven years the Secretary of the Massachusetts 
Board of Education, and for twelve years the President of 
Brown University. Dr. Sears responded as follows : — 

Me. President, — I meet with you to-day for the first time 
since my appointment as an Honorary Member of your Soci- 
ety. As you have kindly called upon me to say a few words 
impromptu, I must beg you to allow me some latitude in my 
remarks. And, first, I know you will permit me to yield for 
a moment to an impulse which I cannot well resist on behold- 
ing before me the portrait of a familiar face, which I recog- 
nized the moment I entered the room as that of Humboldt. 
While attending the lectures of Bock on Plato in the Univer- 
sity of Berlin, in the winter of 1834-35, 1 sat in the same room 
with him during the whole semester. It was to me a novel 
sight, accustomed as I was to observe the dignity of an Amer- 
ican professor, to see the first scientist of Europe taking his 
seat among a throng of students, with portfolio and pen in 
hand, to take notes just like the rest of us. To his insatiable 
thirst for all kinds of knowledge were added a simplicity 
and modesty of demeanor which men of less celebrity might 
well imitate. Nor was he alone among the most distinguished 
scholars of Germany in exhibiting this trait of character. 
Before going to Berlin, I had spent a year in the Universities 
of Halle and Leipsic, and observed the same peculiarity in 
the great Hebraist, Gesenius, and in the master of Greek Metre, 
Hermann. In his Seminar, or class of twelve select students 
who received a special stipend from the government, whose 
exercises I was invited to attend, Gesenius, who quoted He- 



316 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

brew as glibly as a Frenchman speaks, was the liveliest and 
gayest of the company. Intellectually, the instruction was 
like the conversation of Mackintosh, with a stroke of wit when- 
ever he thought more vivacity was desirable. I will give but 
one instance of his familiarity with his students. After my 
removal to Leipsic, where I was a perfect stranger, and when 
I was on my way to attend one of Hermann's lectures, I heard 
a voice far behind me, calling out, " Sears ! Sears ! " In turn- 
ing back, I saw to my astonishment that it was Gesenius who 
was calling me. He chatted familiarly a few moments, and 
then bid me good-by. Had he been a fellow-student, I should 
have felt no surprise. But to see the first Hebrew scholar in 
the world thus free and companionable would be a wonder to 
any one who did not know that this was his way. 

I attended all Hermann's lectures, and sometimes saw him 
at his Museum, as he called his study. At one time, he pro- 
posed to present me copies of his occasional Latin addresses 
and poems, but would not permit me to take them with me. 
A few days after, as the young Professor Spongberg of Upsala 
and myself were leaving my lodgings for a walk, we saw 
Hermann approaching us with a large bundle of books under 
his arm, which he handed me, saying, " Here are the books I 
promised you." After he left us, my Swedish friend clasped 
his hands, looked upward, and exclaimed, " Mein Gott ! 1st 
das Hermann ? " Pardon these reminiscences which rush 
upon me as I look upon the picture before me. 

If I am expected to represent Virginia here to-day, I can 
say little that is pertinent to the occasion. Nearly all that the 
Virginians are now doing by way of historical research re- 
lates to the events of the late Civil War. A Southern Histor- 
ical Society has been formed in Richmond for the purpose 
of collecting and publishing, under the care of my friend, 
Dr. Jones, authentic documents and personal narratives relat- 
ing to that unfortunate struggle. It will do no harm to the 
North to read what can be said on the other side ; and the 
future historian will welcome light from any quarter. 

As to the various classes of schools and institutions in 
which the Virginians have been educated, and with which I 
may be expected from my position to be somewhat familiar, 
I must speak very briefly, as I have already taken up so much 
of your time. Of public schools, the people of Virginia have 
known nothing till quite recently. The wealthier families 
employed governesses and private tutors. Then there were 
the "Old Field Schools," which the children of the poor 
might attend for so many cents a day, paid by the State. A 



1878.] BEMABKS BY REV. BARNAS SEARS. 317 

description of these schools would afford amusement, but lit- 
tle instruction except that of teaching us what to avoid. The 
primitive log school-houses, with slab benches and big fire- 
places ; classes with one book, passed from reader to reader ; 
teachers who had all the "sums" ciphered out by others 
and copied in a large manuscript book, enabling them to say 
promptly " yes " or " no," when the pupils showed their 
slates, — indicate sufficiently the character of these schools. 

Notwithstanding the radical defects of the few elementary 
English schools that were maintained, there has been no want 
of higher education in Virginia. The proportion of liberally 
educated men in the State is said to be larger than in Massa- 
chusetts. For half a century, the University of Virginia, 
towering above all the other literary institutions of the South, 
has given a higher tone to education. If any thing pertaining 
to it is to be regretted, it is the obstacles that are in the way 
of fully carrying out Jefferson's plan, which was to place it 
above all the colleges, and to make these its tributaries. The 
trustees and the faculty have steadily kept this end in view. 
But the colleges, Presbyterian, Baptist, Methodist, and Luth- 
eran, instead of being subsidiary to the University, have aimed 
to be its rivals. It has therefore been necessary for the latter 
to depend largely for its entering classes on private schools 
established for the purpose by its own graduates. The popu- 
larity of the Washington and Lee University at Lexington, of 
which the late General Lee was made President, and the en- 
dowment of professorships in it by most of the Southern States, 
have drawn to it many students who would otherwise have 
gone to the State University. When the new Johns Hopkins 
University of Baltimore offered a certain number of scholar- 
ships for Maryland and Virginia, the Legislature, partly per- 
haps by way of reprisal, appropriated $30,000 annually to 
make the tuition of its own University free to all Virginians. 
Against this measure, the supporters of the various colleges 
remonstrate, as being unfair to them and prejudicial to their 
interests. As the University and the Military Institute at 
Lexington (which is but little more than a college) are the 
only literary institutions endowed by the State, and as the 
University gives to a large number of its students nothing 
but a collegiate education, and as the Military Institute is 
said not to be needed in so far as it is a college, there is a 
prospect of a contest on this subject of pecuniary support 
and assistance in a future legislature. It is to be hoped that 
a solution of this question will be found in placing the Uni- 
versity in its true position. 



318 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

Mr. George Dexter called attention to the volume enti- 
tled " Cartas de Indias publicadas por primera vez," pre- 
sented at the last meeting, and said : — 

This sumptuous volume, a large quarto, prepared by a 
royal commission presided over by the Director-general of pub- 
lic Instruction, and published under the auspices of the Min- 
istry of Fomento of the Spanish government, contains a large 
number of hitherto unpublished letters and reports relating 
to the discovery and early history of America. These docu- 
ments, drawn from the National Historical Archives of Spain, 
the commissioners have separated into six classes. The first 
class consists of two letters of Columbus, one of Vespuccius, 
two of Bishop Las Casas, and two of Bernal Diaz del Castillo. 
The second class or division contains sixty-five documents re- 
lating to New Spain, which are classified again under the heads 
of Friars, Prelates, Clergy, Viceroys, Governors, Caciques, 
Officers of justice and administration, and Individuals. Here 
we find letters or communications from various missionaries, 
bishops, governors, and others connected with the colony. 
The third class, under the title of Central America, contains 
letters from the Bishops of Guatemala and Chiapa ; the fourth, 
Peru, papers of the Licenciados Crist6bal Vaca de Castro and 
Pedro de la Gasca. The fifth division contains documents 
relating to the province of Rio de la Plata during the admin- 
istration of Martinez de Irala (1555-56). The sixth class 
consists of a petition of the Bishop of Manilla to the President 
of the Council of the Indies, giving an account of the state of 
the Philippine Islands in 1585, and their religious needs. 
There are in all one hundred and eight documents in the 
volume. 

The work is enriched with critical notes, a geographical 
vocabulary, short biographical sketches, a glossary of foreign 
and little used words ; and, as a fit crown of its merits, 
photo-lithographic facsimiles of some of the more important 
documents printed in it. There are also twenty-two sheets of 
reproductions of signatures and seals, and three maps, printed 
in colors, which, although having no immediate relation to 
the text of the work, are curious and of great interest. The 
volume is beautifully printed, upon paper made especially for 
the purpose, and with new t} r pes cast for the work. The pre- 
face states that the greatest care and labor have been used to 
secure accuracy. His Excellency the Count de Toreno, the 
Minister of " Fomento," has presented this eopy to the Library 
of the Society through our own State Department at Wash- 
ington. 



1878.] EEMAKKS BY MB. DEXTEB. 319 

I have caused translations to be made of the letters or 
Columbus and Vespuccius, which I beg leave to submit to the 
Society. They may, perhaps, be thought worthy of a place 
in our printed Proceedings. The first letter of Columbus is 
without date. The editors of the volume, having in mind 
the instructions giveU to Columbus, April 23d, 1497, "for the 
peopling of the islands and terra firma discovered and to 
be discovered in the Indies," * are of opinion that this letter 
must have been written toward the end of the year 1496, or 
the beginning of 1497. I felt confident on first reading the 
letter that it must be of earlier date, and subsequent exami- 
nation has confirmed me in this opinion. The matters of 
which it treats are those that would naturally be attended 
to and defined quite early in the history of the coloniza- 
tion of a new-found country. Columbus returned from his 
first voyage in the spring of 1493, reaching Palos on the 
15th of March, and was received by Ferdinand and Isabella 
at Barcelona about the middle of April. But the plans for 
a second voyage and the establishment of a colony did not 
wait even his formal reception. Navarrete prints a letter 
from their Majesties, dated March 30th, congratulating him 
on his discovery, and charging him to hasten to the Court 
to give orders for the preparation for his return to the New 

World.f 

The papal bulls of concession had been sought at once from 
Alexander VI., and bear date of May 3d and 4th. Royal 
grants to Columbus, and royal selection of proper officers for 
revenue and colonization, followed rapidly. The nineteenth 
document in Navarrete's second volume, dated May 7th, ap- 
points Gomez Tello to go to the Indies with Columbus, to 
receive and send to Castile what belongs to their Highnesses. J 
On the 23d of May, many requisitions for things needed for 
the new voyage were signed ; all persons were forbidden to 
go to the Indies or to send goods there, without the royal 
sanction or that of Columbus and Juan de Fonseca, by a 
decree of the same date ;§ and Alvaro de Acosta was appointed 
alguacil to administer justice on the voyage and in the islands, 

* Printed by Navarrete, in his Coleccion de los Viages y Deseubrimientos, 
vol. ii. pp. 182-185. Spotorno had, in 1823, published an Italian translation from 
a copy found among the " Charters and Grants" sent by Columbus to his friend 
Nicolo Oderrigo for safe keeping, then lately obtained by the Genoese govern- 
ment. These instructions are Spotorno's Document, No. VI. An English trans- 
lation of this work was published in London the same year. 

t Navarrete, Coleccion, vol. ii. p. 21. 

X Gomez Tello did not go out with Columbus. See Navarrete, vol. ii. p. 86. 

§ Navarrete, Coleccion, &c., voL ii. p. 51. 



320 MASSACHUSETTS HISTOBICAX SOCIETY. [Oct. 

the next day.* Columbus was confirmed in his title of " Ad- 
miral, Viceroy, and Governor of the islands and terra firma, 
both what he had discovered and what he might discover," on 
May 28th ; and his instructions, " as well for the voyage which 
he is to make as for the good government of the new colony," f 
were signed on the 29th. These instructions seem to me to 
cover all the ground, and to settle the question of the date of 
this letter. After impressing upon Columbus the necessity of 
treating the natives well, and of striving to convert them to 
the true faith, for which purpose Father Buil and other clergy 
are sent with him, and giving particular directions for the 
choice of vessels, enrolment of crews, and registration of arma- 
ment and goods, the instructions proceed in the eighth section 
to lay down the regulations and order of landing and dis- 
charging at the end of the voyage. Each ship is to declare 
and show all that it carries, — men, arms, ammunition, pro- 
visions, &c. ; " and because no person is allowed to carry mer- 
chandise to open trade for gold or other things in all the said 
islands and terra firma without the order of their Highnesses, 
as has been said, if it happens that they arrive with more than 
was manifested at the time of departure from Cadiz, as was 
set down in the book which the lieutenant of the aforesaid 
accountant-general who is to reside in the said islands has 
brought with him, let it be condemned, and let the said Admi- 
ral and Viceroy, or whoever holds the power from him, cause 
it to be taken and give it to the person who is appointed to 
keep goods, which their Highnesses send there, in presence of 
the said lieutenant of the accountant, that he may take charge 
of it." $ 

The ninth section lays down regulations for trade in the 
islands ; the tenth appoints courts of justice. The fourteenth 
provides that, immediately upon arrival, a custom-house shall 
be established where merchandise shall be entered before the 
proper officials and registered in two books. The seventeenth 
article recounts the formalities required at the port of Cadiz, 
whence all articles are to go to the islands, and where all re- 

* Navarrete, vol. ii. p. 54. f Ibid., vol. ii. pp. 57-62, 66-72. 

X " E porque ninguna ni algunas personas non han de llevar mercadurias 
algunas para facer rescate alguno de oro ni de otras cosas en todas las dichas 
islas e tierra-firme, sin mandamiento de sus Altezas, como dicho es, si acaesciere 
llevaren mas de lo que manifestaron al tiempo que de Castilla partieron, segun 
fuere asentado en el libro que ha de llevar el que fuere por Teniente de los 
dichos Contadores mayores, que ha de residir en las dichas islas, que lo pierdan, 
4 ge lo faga tomar el dicho Alrairante e Visorey, d quien su poder hobiere, e lo en- 
tregue & la persona que por sus Altezas ha de tener alia la mercadoria que sus 
Altezas envian, en presencia del dicho Teniente de los Contadores, porque el le 
faga cargo dello." — Navarrete, vol. ii. p. 69. 



1878.] REMARKS BY MR. DEXTER. 321 

turning vessels are to discharge. These instructions, apart 
from their bearing on the question under discussion, are in- 
teresting, and, so far as I have been able to inform myself, 
have never been printed except by Senor Navarrete. 

If further testimony be needed, we have in the forty- 
seventh, forty-eighth, and forty-ninth documents of Navar- 
rete's second volume, under date of June 7th, 1493, the 
appointment of Bernal Diaz de Pisa as Deputy Accountant- 
General, a grant of salary to him, and his instructions. These 
last exhibit many minute details of the regulations for trade 
and manner of keeping accounts. Again, the fifty-ninth doc- 
ument, dated August 4th, informs Columbus that Sebastian 
de Olano is to go out as their Majesties' receiver (Receptor). 

Columbus sailed from Palos, on his second voyage, Septem- 
ber 25th, 1493. He had a large fleet, seventeen vessels in 
all ; a company of about fifteen hundred souls, having been 
obliged to refuse many who offered ; a supply of provisions, 
seeds for harvest, some animals and other necessaries of 
colonization.* At the Island of Gomera, he took in many live 
animals with which to stock Hispaniola, and seeds of various 
fruits.f It was on this voyage, too, that he did what would 
be expected from this letter, — built a city or town which he 
called Isabella, and laid the foundations for a regular colony, 
with trade to the mother country and the neighborhood. So 
much is stated by nearly all his biographers. 

There would seem to be little room for doubt, then, that 
this letter was written some time during the interval between 
the return of Columbus from his first voyage and his depart- 
ure on the second ; that is, between March 15th and Septem- 
ber 25th, 1493. 

The National Historical Archives possess two copies of this 
letter, which, with the exception of the signature, is not in 
the handwriting of Columbus. The variations between these 
copies — so slight as scarcely to be worth noticing — are care- 
fully enumerated by the editor of the " Cartas de Indias " in 
a note. In another note on the signature of Columbus, he 
calls attention to the variation between the signatures of 
these letters and Columbus's signature, as given by Navar- 
rete and Washington Irving. The signatures given by these 
authors, however, do not pretend to be facsimiles, but are 
printed in ordinary type. There are many facsimile repro- 
ductions of Columbus's signature ; but they are all, or nearly 

* Historie del S. D. Fernando Colombo, chap. xliv. 
t Irving's Columbus (London, 1828), vol. ii. pp. 3, 4. 
41 



822 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

all, derived from the letters now preserved in the receptacle 
prepared for them by the Genoese authorities in 1821. Litho- 
graphs of two of these letters were published by Spotorno in 
his " Codice Diplomatico," in 1823. Bossi's " Vita di Cristo- 
foro Colombo," Milan, 1818, has as a frontispiece the De Bry 
portrait with the signatures of these letters, then in Turin, 
annexed. Marmocchi's " Viaggi al Nuovo Continente," Prato, 
1840, contains the portrait that appeared with the French 
translation of Navarrete, to which is added one of the Spo- 
torno signatures. Mr. Goodrich, in his " Life of Columbus," 
New York, 1874, gives several facsimiles, all of which can, I 
think, be traced back to Spotorno. Columbus himself, in his 
will, describes how his signature is to be written, and orders 
his heirs to sign with it.* One peculiarity, new to me, is stated 
by the Spanish editor, and is perhaps worth noticing. He says 
that he has examined various autographs of Columbus, includ- 
ing some of the letters to his son Diego, published by Navar- 
rete, and finds that Columbus made a distinction between 
letters written by another hand and only signed by himself, 
and holograph letters. To the signature of the last he was 
accustomed to add a rubric or flourish. This distinction will 
be easily noticed in comparing the signatures to the first and 
second of the letters here printed. I do not remember to 
have seen elsewhere any allusion to a rubric connected with 
Columbus's signature.! 

Toward the close of the second letter, Columbus alludes to 
the bad weather when the Spanish Court was at Burgos. This 
must have been early in the year, for the Court was then await- 
ing the return of the fleet from Flanders. This fleet had carried 
out the Infanta Joanna, who was to be married to the Arch- 
duke Philip, and was bringing back the Princess Margaret, 
the Emperor Maximilian's daughter, the destined bride of the 
heir of the Spanish monarchies. The fleet arrived early in 
March, and the wedding was solemnized April 3d.$ 

The letter of Vespuccius offers nothing that demands re- 
mark. The signature shows plainly the name spelled Amer- 
rigo. It may be compared with the facsimile of a signature 
given by F. A. de Varnhagen, in his " Amerfgo Vespucci," 
Lima, 1865, p. 68, n., as the genuine signature of Vespuccius. 

* Navarrete, vol. ii. p. 229. Irving's Columbus (Lond. 1828), vol. iv. p. 421. 

t The Cabinet of our Society contains photographs of three letters preserved 
in Genoa, two of them being those published by Spotorno. The third is the 
letter, of which an Italian translation was read to the Maryland Historical 
Society as the original, by Mr. Robert Dodge, in 1851. The colon before 
the Xpo appears in neither signature, nor is there any sign of a rubric. 

t See Prescott's Ferdinand and Isabella, Part II. chap. iv. 



lAf* F£KEtfj./ 



i 



p 



■5- 

.5. /■? -j • 

x -** / 



<?jS££A 







1878.] LETTER OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. 323 



A Letter of Christopher Columbus to their Catholic Majesties concern- 
ing the colonization and commerce of ffispaniola, and of the 
other Islands, discovered and to be discovered. Without date. 

Most High and Mighty Sovereigns, — In obedience to your 
Highnesses' commands, and with submission to superior judgment, I will 
say whatever occurs to me in reference to the colonization and com- 
merce of the Island of Espafiola, and of the other islands, both those 
already discovered and those that may be discovered hereafter. 

In the first place, as regards the Island of Espanola : Inasmuch as 
the number of colonists who desire to go thither amounts to two 
thousand, owing to the land being safer and better for farming and 
trading, and because it will serve as a place to which they can return 
and from which they can carry on trade with the neighboring islands : 

Item. That in the said island there shall be founded three or four 
towns, situated in the most convenient places, and that the settlers who 
are there be assigned to the aforesaid places and towns. 

Item. That for the better and more speedy colonization of the said 
island, no one shall have liberty to collect gold in it except those who 
have taken out colonists' papers [tomaren vegindad*], and have built 
houses for their abode, in the town in which they are, that they may 
live united and in greater safety. 

Item. That each town shall have its alcalde or alcaldes, and its 
notary public, as is the use and custom in Castile. 



Charta de Cristobal Colon d los Reyes Catdlicos, acerca de la poblacion 
y negotiation de la Espanola y de las otras islas descubiertas y por descu- 
brir. Sinfecha. 

Mut altos y PODEKOSOS Sknokes, — Obedesciendo lo que vuestras 
alte9as me mandaron, dire" lo que me ocurre para la poblacion y negocia- 
qion, asy de la Ysla Espafiola como de las otras, asy halladas como por 
hallar, sometiendome i, mejor pares9er. 

Primeramente, para en lo de la Ysla Espanola, que vayan hasta en 
niimero de dos mill ve<jinos, los que quisieren yr, porque la tierra este 
mas segura y se pueda mejor grangear e tratar, y servira para que se pue- 
dan rebolver y traten las yslas comarcanas. 

Yten, que en la dicha ysla se hagan ties o cuatro pueblos 6 repartidos 
en los lugares mas convenibles, e los ve9inos que alia fueren, sean reparti- 
dos por los dichos lugares y pueblos. 

Yten, que porque mejor y mas presto se pueble la dicha ysla, que 
ninguno tenga facultad para cojer oro en ella, salvo los que tomaren ve- 
9indad e hi9ieren casas para su morada en la poblacion que estovieren, 
porque vivan juntamente y mas seguros. 

Yten, que en cada lugar e poblacion haya su alcalde o alcaldes con su 
escribano del pueblo, segun uso 6 costumbre de Castilla. 



324 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

Item. That there shall be a church, and parish priests or friars to 
administer the sacraments, to perform divine worship, and for the con- 
version of the Indians. 

Item. That none of the colonists shall go to seek gold without a 
license from the governor or alcalde of the town where he lives ; and 
that he must first take oath to return to the place whence he sets out, 
for the purpose of registering faithfully all the gold he may have found, 
and to return once a month, or once a week, as the time may have been 
set for him, to render account and show the quantity of said gold ; and 
that this shall be written down by the notary before the alcalde, or, 
if it seems better, that a friar or priest, deputed for the purpose, shall 
be also present. 

Hem. That all the gold thus brought in shall be smelted immediately, 
and stamped with some mark that shall distinguish each town ; and 
that the portion which belongs to your Highnesses shall be weighed, 
and given and consigned to each alcalde in his own town, and regis- 
tered by the above-mentioned priest or friar, so that it shall not pass 
through the hands of only one person, and there shall be no oppor- 
tunity to conceal the truth. 

Item. That all gold that may be found without the mark of one of 
the said towns in the possession of any one who has once registered in 
accordance with the above order shall be taken as forfeited, and that 
the accuser shall have one portion of it and your Highnesses the 
other. 

Item. That one per centum of all the gold that may be found shall 
be set aside for building churches and adorning the same, and for the 
support of the priests or friars belonging to them ; and, if it should be 
thought proper to pay any thing to the alcaldes or notaries for their 



Yten, que haya iglesia y abades o frayles para adminystracion de los 
sacramentos y cultos divinos y para conversion de los yndios. 

Yten, que ninguno de los vezinos pueda yr & cojer oro. salvo con licencia 
del gobernador o alcalde del lugar donde biviere, y que primero haga jura- 
mento de volver al mysmo lugar de do saliere, & registrar fielmente todo 
el oro que oviere cogydo y avido, y de volver una vez en el mes o en la 
semana, segun el tiempo le f uere asygnado, & dar quenta 6 manifestar la 
cantidad del dicho oro, e que se escriva por el escrivano del pueblo por 
ante el alcalde, y sy paresciere, que haya asy mesmo un frayle o abad de- 
putado para ello. 

Yten, que todo el oro que asy se traxere, se aya luego de fundir y mar- 
car de alguna marca que cada pueblo senalare, y que se pese y se de y se 
entregue, a cada alcalde en su lugar, la parte que pertenesciere i, vuestras 
altecas, y se escriva por el dicho abad o frayle de manera quie no pase por 
una sola mano, y asy no se pueda 9elar la verdad. 

Yten, que todo el oro que se hallare syn la marca de los dichos pueblos 
en poder de los que ovieren una vez registrado por la orden susodicha, le 
sea tornado por perdido, 4 haya una parte el acusador y lo al para vuestras 
altecas. 

Yten, que de todo el oro que oviere, se saque uno por ciento para la fa- 
brica de las yglesias y ornamentos dellas e" para sustentacion de los abades o 
frayles dellas ; y sy paresciere que i. los alcaldes y escrivanos se de" algo por 



1878.] LETTER OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. 325 

services, or for ensuring the faithful performance of their duties, that 
this amount shall be sent to the governor or treasurer who may be 
appointed there by your Highnesses. 

Item. As regards the division of the gold, and the share that ought 
to be reserved for your Highnesses, this, in my opinion, must be left 
to the aforesaid governor and treasurer, because it will have to be 
greater or less according to the quantity of gold that may be found. 
Or, should it seem preferable, your Highnesses might, for the space of 
one year, take one half, and the collector the other, and a better 
arrangement for the division be made afterward.* 

Item. That if the said alcaldes or notaries shall commit or be privy 
to any fraud, punishment shall be provided, and the same for the 
colonists who shall not have declared all the gold they have. 

Item. That in the said island there shall be a treasurer, with a 
clerk to assist him, who shall receive all the gold belonging to your 
Highnesses, and the alcaldes and notaries of the towns shall each keep 
a record of what they deliver to the said treasurer. 

Item. As, in the eagerness to get gold, every one will wish, natur- 
ally, to engage in its search in preference to any other employment, it 
seems to me that the privilege of going to look for gold ought to be 
withheld during some portion of each year, that there may be oppor- 
tunity to have the other business necessary for the island performed. 

Item. In regard to the discovery of new countries, I think permis- 
sion should be granted to all that wish to go, and more liberality used 



su trabajo y porque agan fielmente sus oficios, que se remita al goberna- 
dor y thesorero que alia f ueren por vuestras altecas. 

Yten, quanto toca a la division del oro 4 de la parte que ovieren de 
aver vuestras altecas, esto, a my ver, deve ser remitido a los dichos gober- 
nador y thesorero, porque avera ser mas o menos segun la cantidad del 
oro que se hallare; o sy paresciere, que por tiempo de un afio ay an vues- 
tras altecas la mitad y los cojedores la otra mitad, ca despues podra mejor 
determinarse cerca del dicho repartimiento. 

Yten, que sy los dichos alcaldes y escrivanos hicieren o consintieren 
algun fraude, se le ponga pena e asymesmo a los vecinos que por entero 
non manifestaren todo el oro que ovieren. 

Yten, que en la dicha ysla haya thesorero que reciva todo el oro perte- 
nesciente a vuestras altecas y tenga su escrivano que lo assiente, e los 
alcaldes y escrivanos de los otros pueblos, cada uno tome conoscimiento de 
lo que entregaren al dicho thesorero. 

Yten, porque segun la codicia del oro, cada uno querra mas ocuparse 
en ello, que en hacer otras grangerias, paresceme que alguna temporada 
del aiio se le deva defender la licencia de yr a buscar oro, para que haya 
lugar que se hagan en la dicha ysla otras grangerias a ellas pertenesci- 
entes. 

Yten, para en lo de descobrir de nuevas tierras, paresceme se deva dar 
licencia i. todos los que quisieren yr, y alargar la mano en lo del quinto, 



* The sovereigns demanded two-thirds of all the gold found as early as 1495. 
See Navarrete, vol. ii. p. 166. — Eds. 



326 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

in the matter of the fifth, making the tax easier, in some fair way, in 
order that many may be disposed to go on voyages.* 

I will now give my opinion about ships going to the said Island of 
Espanola, and the order that should be maintained ; and that is, that 
the said ships should only be allowed to discharge in one or two ports 
designated for the purpose, and should register there whatever cargo 
they bring or unload ; and when the time for their departure comes, 
that they should sail from these same ports, and register all the cargo 
they take in, that nothing may be concealed. 

Item. In reference to the transportation of gold from the island to 
Castile, that all of it should be taken on board the ship, both that be- 
longing to your Highnesses and the property of every one else ; that 
it should all be placed in one chest with two locks, with their keys, 
and that the master of the vessel keep one key and some person 
selected by the governor and treasurer the other; that there should 
come with the gold, for a testimony, a list of all that has been put into 
the said chest, properly marked, so that each owner may receive his 
own; and that, for the faithful performance of this duty, if any gold 
whatsoever is found outside of the said chest in any way, be it little or 
much, it shall be forfeited to your Highnesses. 

Item. That all the ships that come from the said island shall be 
obliged to make their proper discharge in the port of Cadiz, and that 
no person shall disembark or other person be permitted to go on board 
until the ship has been visited by the person or persons deputed for 
that purpose, in the said city, by your Highnesses, to whom the master 



moderandolo en alguna buena manera, a fin de que muchos se dispongan 
ayr. 

Ahora dire mi parescer para la yda de los navios a la dicha Ysla Espa- 
nola, e la orden que se deva guardar, ques la siguiente : Que no puedan 
yr los dichos navios a descargar, salvo en uno o dos puertos para ello sefia- 
lados, y ende registren todo lo que llevaren e descargaren ; y cuando ovi- 
eren de partir, sea de los mismos puertos, e registren todo lo que cargaren, 
porque no se encubra cosa alguna. 

Yten, que cerca del oro que se oviere de traer de las yslas para Castilla, 
que todo lo que se oviere de cargar, asy lo que fuere de vuestras altecas, 
como de cualesquier presonas, todo ello se ponga en una area que tenga 
dos cerraduras con sus llaves, y quel maestro tenga la una, y otro presona 
quel gobernador y tesorero escogeren la otra; e venga por testimonyo la 
relacion de todo lo que se pusiere en la dicha area, e senalado, para que 
cada uno aya lo suyo : y sy otro oro alguno se hallare f uera de la dicha 
area en cualquier manera, poco o mucho, sea perdido, a fin que se haga 
fielmente y sea para vuestras altecas. 

Yten, que todos los navios que vinieren de la dicha ysla, vengan a ha9er 
su derecha descarga al puerto de Cadiz, y no saiga presona dellos ny 
entren otros, hasta que vayan a los dichos navios la presona o presonas 
que para ello por vuestras altezas fueren deputadas en la dicha cibdad, a 
quien los maestros manifiesten todo lo que traen y muestren la fe de lo 

» Perhaps some light is thrown upon this tax of one-fifth by the documents 
Numbers V. and VI. of the Appendix to Navarrete's second volume. — Eds. 



1878.] LETTER OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. 327 

shall show all that he carries, and exhibit the manifest of all the cargo, 
that it may be seen and examined if the said ship brings any thing 
hidden and not known at the time of lading. 

Item. That the chest in which the said gold has been carried shall 
be opened in the presence of the magistrates of the said city of Cadiz, 
and of the person deputed for that purpose by your Highnesses, and 
his own property be given to each owner. — I beg your Highnesses to 
hold me in your protection ; and I remain, praying our Lord God for 
your Highnesses' lives and the increase of much greater States, 

•S- 

•S- A-S- 

X M Y 



\Xqo FERENS/ / 



que ovieren cargado, para que se pueda ver 6 requerir sy los dichos navios 
traen cosa alguna encubierta 6 non manifestada al tiempo del cargar. 

Yten, que en presencia de la justicia de la dicha cibdad de Cadiz 6 de 
quien f uere para ello deputado por vuestras altezas, se aya de abrir el area 
en que se traxere el dicho oro, y dar a cada uno lo suyo. — Vuestras alte- 
cas me ay an por encomendado, y quedo rogando & Nuestro Sefior Dios por 
las vidas de vuestras altezas y acrescentamiento de muy mayores estados. 

• S • 

• S • A- S • 

X M Y 

: Xpo FERENS./ 



328 MASSACHUSETTS HISTOBICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 



A Letter of Christopher Columbus to their Catholic Majesties, laying 
before thim certain observations on the art of navigation. From 
Granada, February 6, 1502. 

Most Hig:* and Mighty Sovereigns and Lords, — I should 
wish to be the cause of pleasure and gratification to your Highnesses 
rather than of pain and displeasure ; and, knowing the attraction and 
charm that new and interesting things possess for you, I will write, in 
obedience to your commands, whatever occurs to my memory of such 
things ; and surely let them not be judged by my carelessness, but by 
my intention and good will, for in all things relating to the service of 
your Highnesses I have to learn of no man what I know how to do of 
my own self; nnd though my strength were to fail, and my labors ex- 
haust me, in my soul the will would never be wanting, for I am so deeply 
your debtor. 

Navigators and other people who trade upon the sea have always a 
better knowledge of those particular parts of the world where they are 
accustomed to make their voyages with least interruption, and for this 
reason each one of them knows better what he sees every day than 
what he sees only from year to year; and thus we receive with pleas- 
ure the accounts they themselves give us of what they have seen and 
collected, as certainly we derive greater knowledge from a thing which 
we learn by our own experience. 

If we admit that the world is spherical according to the opinion of 
many writers who affirm this, or that science makes us lay down any 
other principle by its authority, it must not be understood that the 



Carta de Cristdbal Colon a los Reyes Catdlicos, exponiendo algunas observa- 
ciones sobre el arte de navegar. Granada, 6 de febrero de 1502. 

Muy altos y muy poderosos Reyes y Senores, — Yo querria ser 
cabsa de plaszer y holgura i Vuestras Altecas, que no de pesadumbre 
y hastio; mas coino se la afizion y deleyte que tienen a las cosas nuevas y 
dalgun ynterese, dire de unas y otras, compliendo con su mandamiento, 
aquello que agora me venga i la memoria ; y cierto non judguen dellas 
por el desalino, mas por la intinzion y buen deseo, ya que en todo lo que 
fuere del servizio de Vuestras Altecas, non he de deprender de ningun 
otro lo que yo se fazer por my mesmo ; que sy me faltaren las fuerzas y 
las fatigas me ryndieren, non desfallezeri en my inyma la voluntad como 
el mas obligado y debdor que soy. 

Los navigantes y otras gentes que tractan por la mar, tienen syempre 
mayor conoszimiento de las partidas particulares del mundo donde vsan y 
fazen sus contraciaciones mis continuo, y por esto cada vno destos sabe 
mejor de lo que vee cada dia, que no lo otro que viene de anos hi afios : 
y asy reszebimos con delectazion la relazion quellos mesmos nos fazen de lo 
que viei-on y collejieron, como cierto allegamos mis grande ensenanza de 
aquello que deprendemos por nuestra propia espirenzia. 

Si resconozemos el mundo ser esperico, segun el sentir de muchos escrip- 
tores que ansy lo iJirman, o que la scienzia nos faga asentar otra cosa con 



1878.] LETTEB OE CHEISTOPHEB COLUMBUS. 329 

temperature of a zone is always even, for the diversity is great both at 
sea and on land. 

The sun spreads its influence and the earth receives it in conformity 
with the formation of its valleys and mountains ; and although the 
ancients have written enough concerning this, as Pliny, for instance, 
who says that under the north pole the climate is so mild that the peo- 
ple who live there never die except through vexation and disgust with 
life, when they hurl themselves from precipices and voluntarily kill 
themselves. * 

We see here in Spain such diversity of temperature, that there is no 
need of testimony upon this point from any antiquity whatsoever. We 
see here in Granada the sierra covered with snow all through the year, 
which is a sign of great cold, and at the foot of this sierra are the Alpu- 
jarras, where the temperature is always very pleasant, without exces- 
sive cold or heat; and as it is in this province, so is it in enough others 
in Spain, which I refrain from mentioning by reason of their great 
number. I say that the same thing happens at sea, and particularly in 
those parts of the sea bordering on the land ; and those who continually 
traffic there have better knowledge of this than those who trade in 
other parts. 

In Andalusia in summer, after the sun has attained some height, the 
virazon, which is a wind that rises from the west, is regarded as certain 
for every day. This wind is very gentle, and lasts until evening. And 
as this virazon continues in that season in that region, so there are 
other winds in other parts and in other regions different in summer and 
in winter. Those who make a practice of sailing from Cadiz to Naples 



su auctoridad, no se deve entender que la tenplanza sea ygual en un clyma, 
porque la diversidad es grande asy en la mar como en la tierra. 

El sol syembra sn ynfluenzia y la tierra la reszibe segun las concavi- 
dades o montanas que son formadas en ella, y bien que harto hayan scripto 
los antiguos sobra esto, asy como Plinio, que dize que debaxo del norte 
ay tan suave tenplanza, que la gente que ally esta jamas se muere, salvo 
por enfadamiento o aborrimiento de vida, que se despenan y voluntaria- 
mente se matan. 

Nos vemos aquy en Espana tanta diversydad de tenplanza, que non es 
menester el testimonio sobie esto de ninguna antiguedad del mundo: 
vemos aquy en Granada la syerra cubierta de nyeve todo el ano, ques 
senal de gran frio, y al pie desta syerra son las Alpujarras donde es 
siempre suavisima tenplanza syn demasiado calor ny frio, y asy como es 
en esta provinzia, es en otras hartas en Espana, que se deja de dezir por la 
prolixidad dellas. Digo que en la mar acaesze otro tanto y en espezial en 
las comarcas de las tierras, y desto es en mayor conoszimiento los que con- 
tinuo ally tractar, que no los otros que tractan en otras partes. 

En el verano, en l'Andaluzia por muy cierto se tiene cada dia, despues 
de ser el sol altillo, la virazon, ques viento que sale del poniente, esta vien 
muy suave y dura hasta la tarde ; asy como esta virazon continua en aquel 
tiempo en esta region, ansy continua otros vientos en otras partes y en 
ostra regiones diferentes el verano y el ynvierno. Los que andan con- 

* Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. iv. c. xxvi. — Note in Cartas de Indias. 
42 



330 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

know when they pass the coast of Catalonia, according to the season, 
what wind to expect there ; and the same when they pass through the 
Gulf of Narbonne. Those who go from Cadiz to Naples, if it is winter 
time, pass within sight of Cape Creo in Catalonia, through the Gulf of 
Narbonne : there the wind is very strong, and sometimes the ships are 
compelled to yield to it, and through its force are blown away to Bar- 
bary, and on this account they hug Cape Creo in order to keep further 
on the tack, and to reach the Pomegas of Marseilles or the Islands of 
Hyeres, and after that they never leave the coast until they reach their 
destination. If they are going from Cadiz to Naples in summer time, 
they sail along the coast of Barbary as far as Sardinia, in the same 
manner as has been said of the northern coast.* For these voyages, 
there are marked men who have made the passage so often, that they 
know all the ways- and what weather to expect according to the season 
of the year. We commonly call such men pilots, which name is 
equivalent to guide on land ; for, although one may know the road from 
here to Fuentarabia well enough to lead an army over it, he may not 
know that from here to Lisbon. It is the same at sea : some are pilots 
for Flanders, others for the Levant, every man for the country to which 
he is most accustomed. 

The voyage and passage from Spain to Flanders is much frequented : 
there are great sailors who go on this service. In Flanders, in the 
month of January all the ships are ready to return home, and in this 
month it rarely happens that there are not some gusts of brysa, which 
is an east-north-east and north-north-east wind. These winds at this sea- 



tinuo de Cadiz & Napoles, ya saben cuando pasan por la costa de Catalunia, 
segund la sazon, el viento que han de hallar en ella, y asymismo cuando 
pasan por el golfo de Narbona. Estos que han de yr de Cadiz i, Napoles, 
si es tiempo de ynvierno, van i. vista de cabo de Creo en Catalunia, por 
el golfo de Narbona: entonzes vienta muy rezio, y las vezes las naos con- 
viene le obedezcan y corran por fuerza hasta Berueria, y por esto van mas 
al cabo Creo, por sostener mis la bolina y cobrar las Pomegas de Marsella 
o las yslas de Eres, y despues jamas se desabarcan de la costa hasta Uegar 
donde quier. Si de Cadiz ovieren de yr a Napoles en tiempo de verano, 
navegan por la costa de Berueria hasta Cerdena, ansy como esta dicho de 
la otra costa de la tramotana. Para estas navegaziones ay hombres sefia- 
lados, que sean dado tanto i. ello, que conoszen todos estos caminos y que 
temporales pueden esperar, segund la sazon del ano en que f ueren. Vul- 
garmente, a estos tales llamamos pylotos, que es tanto como en la tierra 
adalid ; que bien que uno sepa muy bien el camino daqui a Fuentrrabia 
para Uevar una hueste, ni lo sabe daqui £ Lisbona. Esto mismo acaesze 
en la mar, que unos son pylotos de Flandes y otros de Levante, cada uno 
de la tierra donde mas usa. 

El tracto y transito d'Espafia £ Flandes mucho se contimia ; grandes 
marineros ay que andan a este vso. En Flandes, en el mes de enero, estan 
todas las naos despachadas para volver a sus tierras, y en este mes, de raro 
sale que no haya algunos estirones de brysa, ques lesnordeste y nornor- 
deste. Estos vientos, & este tiempo, no vienen amorosos, salvo salvajes y 

* He means that the coast is hugged, as in the winter voyage. — Eds. 



1878.] LETTER OP CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. 831 

son are not gentle, but fierce and cold, and almost dangerous : the distance 
of the sun and the condition of the earth are the causes that produce 
this. These brysas are not steady, although they do not fail to occur 
at the right season : those who sail with them are persons who are 
willing to run a risk, and they almost always get home with their hands 
in their hair. These persons, if the brysa fails them and some other 
wind blows against them, take refuge in the ports of France or England 
until another tide comes, and they can leave these harbors. 

Sailors are greedy for money and eager to get home, and will risk 
every thing without waiting to see that the weather is settled. On 
another such occasion as this, when I was confined to my bed, I told 
your Highnesses what I could of the time of greatest safety for this 
voyage, which is after the sun has entered Taurus, and that the start- 
ing in the height and most dangerous time of winter should be aban- 
doned. If the winds are favorable, the voyage is very short, and one 
ought not to start without some good certainty of the passage ; and an 
opinion about that can be made here when the sky is seen to be very 
clear, and the wind rising from the north star and lasting several days, 
always with the same pleasant weather. Your Highnesses know well 
what occurred in the year ninety-seven, when you were at Burgos, in 
such anxiety because the weather continued bad and one storm followed 
another that you were going in disgust to Soria ; and after the whole 
court had gone one Saturday, your Highnesses remained to start on 
Monday morning ; and for a certain purpose on that night I said in a 
letter that I sent to your Highnesses ; on such a day the wind began to 
blow, on the next day the fleet will not sail, waiting to see if the wind 
is steady ; it will sail on Wednesday, and on Thursday or Friday it 



f rios y f asta peligrosos : la distan<;ia del sol y la calidad de la tierra son 
cabsa que se enjendre esto. Estas brysas no son estabiles, bien que asy 
no yerren el tiempo ; los que navegan con ellas son presonas que se ponen 
a ventura y lo mas de las veces llegan con la mano en los cabellos. A 
estos, sy la brisa les falta y les haze fuerza otro viento, ponense en los 
puertos de Franzia o Yngalterra, hasta que venga otra marea que puedan 
salyr de los puertos. 

La gente de la mar es cobdiziosa de dyneros y de volver a su casa, y todo 
lo aventuran syn esperar a ver quel tiempo sea firme. Cativo como estaba 
en cama, en otra tal ocasion dixe a Vuestras Alte9as lo que pude de mayor 
seguridad desta navegazion, que era despues de ser el sol en Tauru, y 
renegar de fazer esta partida en la fuerza y mas peligroso de ynvierno. 
Sy los vientos ayudan, muy corto es el transito, y non se debe de partir 
hasta tener buena certeza del viaje; y de aca se puede judgar dello, ques 
cuando se viere estar el cielo muy claro y salir el viento de la estrella de 
la tramotana y durar algunos dias, syempre en aquella alegria. Saben 
bien Vuestras Altecas lo que aconteszid el afio de nouenta y syete, cuando 
estaban en Burgos en tal congoxa por quel tiempo perseveraba crudo y se 
sucedian los estirones, que de enfadados se yban a Soria; y partida toda 
la corte un sabado, quedaron Vuestras Altecas para partir lunes de 
mafiana; y a un cierto proposito, en aquella noche, en un escripto mio 
que envie a Vuestras Altecas, dezia: taldia comenzd a ven tar el viento: 
el otro dia no partira la flota, aguardando sy el viento se afirma; partiri 



832 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

will be abreast the Island of Huict,* and if it does not put in will reach 
Laredo next Monday, or the science of seamanship is entirely lost. 
This writing of mine, and your desire for the coming of the Princess, 
moved your Highnesses to change your minds and not go to Soria, but 
to try the opinion of the sailor; and on Monday a ship appeared 
off Laredo, which had refused to enter Huit, because it had few 
provisions. 

The opinions in similar cases, both on sea and on land, are and have 
always been various, and now there will be many who will desire to 
sail to the discovered islands ; and, if the road is known, those who have 
to trade and traffic, by the perfection of instruments, and the improved 
rigging of ships, will have greater knowledge of things and countries, 
winds, and seasons most convenient for their services, and more expe- 
rience for the security of their persons. 

May the Holy Trinity guard your Highnesses, as I pray and we have 
need, with all your great estates and lordships. From Granada, the 
6th of February, 1502. 

• S- 
•S-A-S- 
X M Y 



:Xqo FERENS/ 



el miercoles, y el jueves o viernes sera tant avant como la isla de Huict, y 
seno se meten en ella, seran en Laredo el lunes que viene, o la razon de la 
marineria es toda perdida. Este escripto mio, con el deseo de la venida 
de la Prinzesa, movid" a Vuestras Alte9as a mudar de proposito de no yr a 
Soria y espirmentar la opinion del marinero ; y el lunes remaneszid sobre 
Laredo una nao que refusd de entrar en Huit, porque tenia pocos basti- 
mentos. 

Muchos son los juizios y fueron syempre en la mar y en la tierra en seme- 
jantes casos, y agora han de ser muchos los que hayan de navegar a las 
yslas descobiertas ; y sy el camino es ya conoszido, los que hayan de tractar 
y contractar, con ia peifizion de los ystrumentos y el aparejar de las naos, 
habran mayor conoszimiento de las cosas y de las tierras y de los vientos 
y de las epocas mas convenybles para sus usos, y mas espirenzia para la 
seguridad de sus presonas. 

La Sancta Trenydad guarde a Vuestras Alte9as como deseo y menester 
habemos, con todos sus grandes estados y sefiorios. De Granada, a seys 
de hebrero de mill y quinientos y dos anos. 

•S-A-S • 
X M Y 

: Xpo FERENS./ 



* The Isle of Wight is the only island that answers the requirements of 
the text. The Spanish language has no W, and perhaps Huict or Huit repre- 
sents Wight in phonetic spelling. I hazard this conjecture with some diffi- 
dence. — G. D. 



1878.] LETTER OE AMEKRIGO VESPUCCI. 333 



A Letter of Amerrigo Vespucci to the Cardinal Archbishop of Toledo 
(Ximenes de Cisneros), giving his opinion about the goods that 
ought to be carried to the Antilles. From Seville, December 9, 1508. 

Very Reverend and Magnificent Sir, — I feel obliged to show 
my gratitude for the confidence which your most reverend lordship has 
shown me, and I will not fail to declare my opinion, without allowing 
any interest to influence me, although I could have no desire to speak of 
that ; and now I am to answer in regard to what is to be carried to the 
islands, whether it is better that it should pass through one person's 
hands, and that your Highness should derive a profit, as the King of 
Portugal does from the trade with the Mina del Oro, or, as I think I 
have heard is your Highness's opinion, whether every one should have 
liberty to go and carry what he wishes. 

I find a great difference between the traffic of the King of Portugal 
and that which we are considering ; inasmuch as the first consists of 
sending to the country of the Moors, and to one single place, a few 
kinds of goods appraised at a fixed price ; and for these the factors 
whom he has there are responsible for the amount of the valuation, or 
for the goods themselves. The exact contrary is our case, as what has 
to be taken out to the islands consists of a diversity of all sorts of things 
that persons there may be in need of, as, for instance, clothes to clothe 
themselves with, and many things necessary for their buildings and 
farms, of which no account can be kept. So that I should think it 
very difficult and almost impossible for your Highness to order the busi- 
ness to be done in that manner, especially as many things that are 
needed in the islands can be procured more conveniently from other 



Carta de Amerrigo Vespucci al Cardinal Arzobispo de Toledo (Jimenes de 
Cisneros) , ddndole su parecer sobre las mercancias que hubieran de llevarse 
a las islas Antillas. — Sevilla, 9 de diciembre de 1508. 

Muy reverendo E magnifico Senor, — Tengo pues de agradeszer 
la confianza que debo a vuestra reverendisima senoria, que non dexare de 
dezirle my pareszer, syn que me mueva ynterese alguno, avnque non 
oviera gana de hablar dello; ya que agora he de responder sobre lo que 
hase de Uevar a las yslas, sy es bien que vaya por vna mano y que Su 
Alteza lleve el provecho, segun que lo haze el rey de Portogal en lo de la 
Mina del Oro, o sea, como creo aver entendido ser la manera de pensar de 
Su Alteza, que cada vno tenga lybertad de yr i Uevar lo que quisyere. 

Yo hallo grande diferenzia del tracto del rey de Portogal £ este dacd, 
por quel vno es enviar a tierra de moros i 4 vn solo lugar vna o dos merca- 
derias apreziadas a zierto prezio, y de aquellas le responde los fatores que 
alia tiene, con el valor del mismo prezio o con la ropa; y aca es al contra- 
rio, porque lo que se ha de Uevar a las yslas es diversidad de todas cosas 
que las presonas puedan aver menester, asy de vestyr como vestidos i 
muchas cosas nezesarias para edifyzios i grangerias, que no tienen quenta 
ny razon : de manera, que yo averia por muy dificoltoso i easy imposyble 
que Su Alteza lo pueda mandar hazer desta manera, en espezial que 
muchas de las cosas que son menester para las yslas, cumple mas llevarlas 



334 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

countries than this. For instance, from the Canaries and the Portu- 
guese Islands, from which they get live stock and provisions, and other 
necessary articles. And there would have to be an agent for each 
thing, and of many things no account could be given, for some are con- 
sumed, others damaged, and still others spoiled. For this reason, in 
my opinion, the business cannot be transacted in that way ; and, if the 
attempt shall be made, I think time will show that I am right. 

By either of two ways it seems to me possible that your Highness 
may always derive a profit from the importation of goods that are car- 
ried to the islands, without trouble or expense on your part. The first 
is to lay a fixed tax on all that is taken to the islands, as it may seem 
right to your Highness, and to allow everybody to go freely and carry 
whatever he chooses : the other is to commit the traffic to merchants 
who shall share the profit with your Highness, they furnishing all that is 
needed without your Highness giving any care to the matter. In such 
a partnership, this arrangement would have to be made : that in the 
said islands the treasurer of your Highness and the agent of the mer- 
chants should be charged jointly with the business of receiving and 
selling all goods sent thither, each of them keeping his book in which, 
by the hands of two persons, every thing that was sold would be set 
down. 

And there should be a statement of the cost of all the goods that are 
sent in each ship, signed by the merchant and the treasurer, or some 
other agent for your Highness appointed to be in Seville or Cadiz, in 
order that, by means of this account, those in the islands can correct 
their accounts of all that each ship brings, and that each person may 
take his share of the profit, the merchant receiving back the cost of the 



de otras partes que destas, asy como de las yslas de Canaria y las de Porto- 
gal, de las quales sacan ganados y vituallas y otras cosas nezesarias; i para 
cada cosa seria menester vn f ator, i ay muchas dellas de que non se podria 
dar quenta, porque dellas se comen, dellas se dafian y otras se pierden; y 
desta causa, a my ver, non se podria llevar este negozio por la dicha ma- 
nera, i sy en espirienzia lo pusyere, el tiempo doy por testygo. 

Syempre que Su Alteza tenga algun provecho en la entrada de las ropas 
que a las yslas se llevaren syn cuidado ny costa, ocurreme vno de dos 
camynos : el uno, poner vn zierto derecho en todo lo que a las yslas se 
llevase, qual a Su Alteza paresziere, i que cada vno pudiese libremente yr 
i llevar lo que quisyere; el otro, es encargar esta negoziacion a mercaderes 
que respartiesen el provecho con Su Alteza i forneziesen todo lo que fuese 
menester, sin que Su Alteza toviese dello cuidado. I en esta tal compafiya 
seria de tener estaorden: que toviese en las dichas yslas cargo de en tender 
en el reszibir i vender de las ropas que alia se enviaren el thesorero de Su 
Alteza, en compafiya del fator de los mercaderes, tenyendo cada vno dellos 
su libro en que, por dos manos, se asentase todo lo que se vendiese. 

Y de todas las ropas que se enviasen en cada navio, fuese la quenta de lo 
oviesen costado, firmada del mercader y del thezorero, o bien de otro fator 
por Su Alteza deputado a estar en Sevilla o en Cadiz, para que, segun 
aquella, pudiesen en las yslas soldar quenta de todo lo que llevare cada 
navio sobre sy, i tomar cada vna su parte de la gananzia, entregandose el 
mercader del costo de la ropa con costa y fletes, porque desta manera 



1878.] LETTER OF AMERRIGO VESPUCCI. 335 

goods with the charges and freight. And in this way there would he 
order and agreement, and no opportunity for fraud or deceit. In refer- 
ence to the things that would be carried from other countries than our 
own, or from the islands above mentioned, and to their cost, the mer- 
chant and the agent of your Highness, who resided in Seville or Cadiz, 
could intrust this to some person who seemed to them suitable. 

This is my opinion with due submission to those who know more. 
From Seville, the 9th day of the month of December, 1508. 

I humbly kiss the hands of your most reverend lordship. 

Amerrigo Vespucci, 

Chief Pilot. 

[Addressed] To the most reverend and magnificent Lord, Cardinal of Spain 

Archbishop of Toledo. 
[Indorsed on the back] From Amerrigo Vespucci, about carrying goods to 
the islands. 
Replies with his opinion, December 9th, that my 
lord the Cardinal may see it. (Rubric.) 



averia orden y conzierto, ny podria aver f raude ny engano alguno ; i para 
las cosas que se oviesen de llevar de fuera daca y de las yslas de suso 
nombradas y saber el costo dellas, el mercader y fator de Su Alteza que 
estoviese en Sevilla o Cadiz, podria dar el cargo k alguna presona que 4 
ellos paresziere. 

Este es my pareszer, remityendome a los que mas saben. 

De Sevilla, a ix dias del mes de diziembre de mill e" quinientos e ocho 
anos. 

De vuestra reverendisima sefioria humylmente beso las manos. 

Amerrigo Vespucci, 
Piloto Mayor. 

[Sobre] Reverendisymo 6 magnifyco Sefior [el Sefior] Cardenal d' Espafia, Arzobispo 

de Toledo. 
[Anotacion al dorso] De Amerrigo Vespucci, sobre llevar cosas & las islas. 

Responde con su parescer de ix diciembre, para que lo vea m 
sefior el sefior Cardenal. (Rubrica.) 

The Rev. Dr. Lucius R. Paige, presented, as a gift to 
the Society from Edward Burnham, Esq., of Cambridgeport, 
the Orderly Book of Colonel Israel Hutchinson, from August 
13th, 1775, to July 8th, 1776, remarking that it contained, in 
addition to the General Orders, a descriptive list of five hundred 
and twenty-two soldiers engaged for the service. He called 
attention to the interesting fact that on the 3d of July, 1776, 
the parole was " Independence," and the countersign " Pros- 
perity," and on the 4th itself the parole was " Colonies," and 
the countersign " Free." He stated that the Book, which 
has been remarkably well preserved, was now presented by 



336 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

Mr. Burnhara, the executor of the will of Mrs. Eunice H. 
Kenny, widow of John Kenny, and grand-daughter of Colonel 
Hutchinson. Her maiden name was Eunice Hutchinson ; she 
was born in Danvers, and died in Gloucester, at the house of 
Mr. Burnham, who was then residing in that place, and who 
married Susan P. Davenport, daughter of Melietabel, another 
grand-daughter of Colonel Hutchinson. He also gave a brief 
notice of Colonel Hutchinson, condensed from a biographical 
sketch in the " History of Danvers," pp. 185-187. Israel 
Hutchinson was born in Danvers in 1727. During the French 
War, he was one of a scouting party in Maine, under Captain 
Israel Herrick, in 1757 ; lieutenant at Lake George and 
Ticonderoga, in 1758; and captain, under Wolfe, at the 
Plains of Abraham, in 1759. At the outbreak of the Revolu- 
tionary War, he was captain of a company of sixty minute- 
men, with whom, on the memorable 19th of April, 1775, he 
met the British troops on their retreat from Lexington, and 
pursued them to Charlestown. He was soon commissioned 
lieutenant-colonel and colonel, and was stationed on Winter 
Hill. After the evacuation of Boston by the British, he was 
at Fort Hill and Dorchester Heights until October, when he 
went to New York, commanded at Fort Lee and at Fort 
Washington, and was with Washington at the famous cross- 
ing of the Delaware. After the war ended, he was elected 
by his townsmen as their Representative in the General 
Court, in which office, and as councillor, he served them 
twenty-one years. He died in Danvers, March 16th, 1811, 
leaving thirteen children. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to Mr. Burnham for 
his acceptable and valuable gift, and the volume was referred 
to the Committee on the Proceedings.* 

* Colonel Hutchinson's Orderly Book comprises three sets of orders : first, 
Washington's orders as Commander-in-chief, from Aug. 13, 1775, until his 
departure for New York, April 4, 177b; second, the brigade orders issued by 
General Sullivan from Winter Hill during nearly the whole of the same period ; 
and, third, the orders of General Greene, and afterward of General Ward, while 
in command in Boston, from the evacuation down to July 8, 1776. Washing- 
ton's orders down to Sept. 26, 1775, were printed in Colonel Henshaw's Orderly 
Book in the Proceedings for October, 1876 ; and the later orders may be found 
in 4 Force's American Archives, vols, iii.-v. The orders of General Sullivan 
relate mainly to matters of discipline or to movements subordinate to the gen- 
eral operations of the army ; and it has not, therefore, been thought desirable 
to print them. But the third set of orders throws considerable light on the 
condition of the town of Boston after it was evacuated by the British troops, 
and also on the condition of our own army while garrisoning the town ; and 
these orders are printed here at length, with such notes as seemed desirable for 
their proper elucidation. The descriptive list of men belonging to Colonel 
Hutchinson's regiment shows that they were mostly young men ; and a very 
large number are classed as laborers. — Eds. 



1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 337 



Boston, 20«A March, 1776. 

General Greene's Orders. — A subaltern and twenty men to 
parade immediately and assist Major Frazer, Deputy Quartermaster- 
General, in storing the provisions. All the officers of the different 
guards to be at head-quarters at the British Coffee House, at six o'clock 
this evening, with the number of guards and where stationed, and also 
whose orders they have received upon an alarm. At the beating the 
tattoo, all officers, non-commissioned officers, and soldiers to retire to 
their quarters, and not stir out again till the beating the reveille. All 
officers of whatever rank are desired to exert themselves in preventing 
the troops from plundering or abusing any of the inhabitants. Any 
officer or soldier detected in those kind of offences will be punished to 
the extent of the law. A fatigue party of twenty-five men that have 
had the small-pox, from each Colonels Whitcomb, Phinney, and Hutch- 
inson's regiments, to cleanse the barracks, under the inspection of the 
selectmen, or the person they appoint for that purpose. The guards 
to be relieved at eight o'clock in the morning. Upon an alarm, Colonel 
Phinney and Colonel Hutchinson's regiment to man Fort Hill, four 
companies of Colonel Whitcomb's on Beacon Hill and Mount Whore- 
dom, two companies upon Copp's Hill, and two companies to be a 
reserve to form in King Street below the town house, there to wait 
for orders. Colonel Whitcomb to appoint the captains to their several 
posts. A fatigue to work upon Fort Hill to-morrow, of one hundred 
and thirty men from Phinney's, Hutchinson's, and Whitcomb's regi- 
ments. Colonel Phinney field-officer of the day. Colonel Hutchinson 
officer of the day to-morrow. The captains to examine daily the arms 
and ammunition of the troops, that are brought upon the grand parade 
to mount guard. King Street is the grand parade. The adjutant to 
apply to-morrow morning, seven o'clock, to the brigade-major. 

DetaU for Colonel Whitcomb, 1. 3. 6. 6. 3. 3.-113. 
Phinney, 1. 4. 5. 5. 3. 3.-113. 
Hutchinson, 4. 5. 5. 3. 3.-113* 

General Greene's Orders. — Colonel Learned is directed to 
man six whale-boats every night while the enemy remain in the har- 
bor, whose duty it is to row about, and make discoveries of any move- 
ment of the enemy that the garrison may be apprised thereof. The 
garrison already stationed in this town is to remain here, as there is 
not men sufficient in the army that have had the small-pox to relieve 
them. The commanding officers of the different corps are directed to 
send such a number of men for so much baggage as they may necessa- 
rily want while here. It is the General's express orders that no officer 
or soldier attempt to take up or be aiding or assisting in taking up any 
persons which may be suspected of being inimical to the country, and 
that no insult or abuse be offered to them. The captains and subaltern 

* These figures represent the assignment of officers and men to each detail, 
namely, captains, lieutenants or subalterns, sergeants, corporals, drummers, 
fifers, and privates. — Ens. 

43 



338 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

officers to examine the men to mount guard, and see that their arms 
and ammunition are in good order, and that their men are dressed as 
decent as their apparel will admit, their face and hands washed clean, 
and their hair combed. Any adjutant that brings any men upon the 
grand parade, that are not prepared as above, may expect the censure 
due to their negligence. The captain of the main guard to keep two 
patrolling parties, commanded by subaltern officers, every night patrol- 
ling the streets in every part of Boston, and take up all stragglers after 
tattoo beating, that can't give a good account of themselves, or have 
not the countersign. Any persons discovered in plundering to be sent 
prisoners to the main guard. The officers of the different guards to 
report all occurrences happening while they are on guard : 'tis expected 
that the officers keep good orders on guard, and prevent any of the 
soldiers from insulting or abusing any of the inhabitants or passengers 
that come into town upon business. The officers will be answerable 
for all the misconduct of their guards. All General Orders to be read 
once at least to the men, and all standing orders three times. All 
guards under fifty men, not more than one man to be absent at a time, 
and not more than two from any guard under a hundred ; and none 
without leave from the commanding officer of the guard. The pro- 
visions to be carried to the guards by their messmates. 

21st March, 1776. 

General Greene's Orders. — A larger fatigue party will be 
wanted than can be furnished, if the guards are relieved. The guards 
are to stand till to-morrow morning, and the whole of the three regi- 
ments, besides enough to cook, to go on fatigue. Machin of the artil- 
lery to oversee the fatigue and mark out the ditch, &c. 

23rf March, 1776. 

General Greene's Orders. — All the boats except the ferry- 
boats at Charlestown ferry to be collected under the care of the officei 
of the boat-guard now in Boston, and that no boat be permitted to be 
taken away unless by an order from the town major, and that four boats 
be constantly kept out every night while the enemy lies below to ply 
across from Dorchester to Noddle's Island, and take up all boats going 
out or coming into Boston after dark. Lieut.-Colonel Holden officer 
of the day to-morrow. 

Detail for guards to-morrow, c. 4 s. 7 s. 7 c. 3 d. 3 r.-l 13 P. 

Detail for boat-guards, one sergeant and seven privates. 

23rf March, 1776. 

General Greene's After Orders. — The guards to be left 
standing another day, and all that are off duty in Colonel Phinney's, 
Colonel Whitcomb's, and Colonel Hutchinson's regiments, except 
enough for cooking, to go upon fatigue to-morrow upon Fort Hill. 
The General flatters himself that both officers and soldiers will cheer- 
fully submit to the necessary duty required for guarding and fortifying 



1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 339 

the town. The situation of the enemy below, and the defenceless 
state of the town, renders it absolutely necessary for the troops to 
do double duty for a time, until the town is put in a better situation. 
The General has great reason to suspect the enemy may be medi- 
tating an attack by surprise. He therefore wishes the guards may 
be vigilant on their posts, with their arms and ammunition in good 
order. The captains are enjoined to examine the arms and ammu- 
nitions of their companies daily. Every soldier to fasten his accou- 
trements to his gun every night, that they may be prepared at a 
moment's warning upon an alarm. 

Boston, 25th March, 1776. 

All officers and soldiers in this garrison are hereby strictly enjoined 
to afford any assistance and protection John Thomas may demand, at 
any time, and at all times, whenever he demands it, for the apprehend- 
ing and securing such person or persons as he shall point out, and for 
protecting the said Thomas against any personal insult or abuse that 
the said Thomas may subject himself to by pointing out and appre- 
hending persons suspected of acting as spies upon the army. 

Given under my hand the day and year above. N. G. 

27th March, 1776. 

General Greene's Orders. — The quartermasters, to-morrow 
morning, to make return of the victualling list of each of the regi- 
ments to which they belong to the Deputy Quartermaster- General, that 
they may receive an order to draw beer for the troops. The General 
once more warns the soldiers against plundering ; and, at the same 
time, acknowledges he feels a singular pleasure in reflecting that there 
never has been more than one or two complaints, and those only sus- 
pected. If any should be base enough to commit any acts of plunder 
and attempt to conceal the effects, their messmates, not discovering the 
same to the commanding officer of the regiment, will be considered as 
accessory to the crime ; and, should it be afterwards discovered, they 
will be punished accordingly. If there should be a fire in town, not a 
man is to stir from his guard or quarters unless ordered by the Gen- 
eral, at the request of the selectmen or the inhabitants. The General 
strictly prohibits any of the soldiery from insulting any of the inhabi- 
tants with the odious epithets of" Tory," or any other indecent language, 
it being ungenerous, unmanly, and unsoldierlike, and cannot fail (if 
indulged) of disgracing both officers and soldiers. 

29th March, 1776. 

General Greene's Orders. — A general court-martial to sit 
to-morrow morning, at nine o'clock, to try the prisoners now in con- 
finement. The court to consist of one field officer as president, eight 
captains, and five subalterns. All evidences and persons concerned 
to attend the court. Colonel Sargeant is appointed president of the 
above court-martial, who will appoint the place where the court will 



340 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

set. Colonel Hutchinson to furnish two captains and one subaltern. 
The fatigue-party on Fort Hill to begin to work at eight o'clock in the 
morning and work till twelve, then to have a recess of two hours, and 
then work till five in the afternoon. The captain of the main guard 
to plant, as the committee appointed by this province court may de- 
mand, for security of Tory property, the sentries, by order of the captain 
of the main guard, is to permit any persons to enter those houses having 
Mr. John Brown's warrant for so doing.* 

Boston, 31st March, 1776. 

Major-General Ward having, by order of his Excellency General 
Washington, taken the command of the troops in Boston, he directs 
that the guards and fatigue parties be continued as they now are until 
further orders. The General earnestly wishes that good discipline 
and sobriety may prevail in all the regiments and corps, and commands 
all officers to exert themselves to promote the interest and happiness 
of the troops, and other inhabitants. Adjutant Tuckerman is to do the 
duty of brigade-major until further orders, and is to be obeyed as such. 

Boston, 31st March, 1776. 

General Ward's Orders. — Hutchinson's regiment to furnish 
the guards to-morrow. 

The adjutant of the day, Colonel Phinney's. 
Officer of the day, Major Putnam. 

Boston, 1st April, 1776. 

General Ward's Orders. — That a guard, consisting of one sub- 
altern, one sergeant, one corporal, and fifteen privates, parade immedi- 
ately to relieve the magazine guard at W. Hill,t and continue until 
further orders. 

Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Major Austin. 

Adjutant for the day, from Colonel Whitcomb's regiment. 

Colonel Phinney's regiment to furnish the guards to-morrow. 

Men off duty to go upon fatigue as usual. 

Boston, 2d April, 1776. 

It is General Ward's orders that Colonel Hutchinson sends from his 
regiment one subaltern, one sergeant, one corporal, and twenty privates, 
to Castle Point early to-morrow morning, likewise one sergeant, one 
corporal, and twelve privates, as a quarter guard, at the store in the 
barn, who are to place sentries in the forts, on the hill, and at the 
store. Colonel Sargeant's regiment is to march this day to Charlestown, 



* By Washington's General Orders of this date (4 Force's American Ar- 
chives, vol. v. p. 766), Greene was assigned to the command of one of the brig- 
ades ordered to march for New York at sunrise on the following Monday, — 
April 1st. — Eds. 

t The reference in this order is undoubtedly to Winter Hill. — Eds. 



1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 341 

and garrison Breed's and Bunker's Hill. Colonel Hutchinson's regi- 
ment to march to-morrow morning, at sunrise, to Dorchester Point, 
and relieve Colonel Learned's regiment now there. A subaltern, one 
sergeant, one corporal, and fifteen privates are to march this day to 
Medfield, and relieve the guard there belonging to Colonel Parsons's 
regiment (which is under marching orders), and are to guard the pro- 
vision store. 

Boston, 2d April, 1776. 

Sir, — You are directed by Major-General Ward to march, to-mor- 
row morning, to relieve Colonel Learned's regiment, at Dorchester 
Point, where you will keep such guards as shall appear necessary to 
preserve the forts, abatis, barracks, houses, trees, and fences entire, and 
to watch the motion of the enemy's fleet, &c, and to transmit a return 
of such occurrences as may happen daily. 

I am, sir, your most humble servant, 

P. Wadsworth, Aide-de-camp.* 

Boston, 5th April, 1776. 

Parole, " America " ; countersign, " Liberty." 

Colonels Whitcomb, Hutchinson, Phinney, Sargeant, and Glover 
are to give in their pay abstracts for their respective regiments, as soon 
as possible for the month of February. 

Colonel Gridley is directed to construct and superintend all works that 
are begun, or shall be resolved on, for the defence of the harbor. He will 
apply to the quartermaster for all the materials, whether old or new, 
that may be used in those works. The quartermaster is directed to 
keep an exact account and particular valuation of all the materials, 
whether old or new, which he shall deliver to Colonel Gridley for 
those works, to be ready whenever it may be called for. This is by 
no means to be neglected. The commissary or conductor of artillery 
stores for this department is directed to collect and deposit them in 
the magazine at Boston, and to make a return of them as soon as may 
be, and to deliver nothing without an order from the commanding 
officer. 

The commanding officer of artillery will forthwith give in a return 
of all the ordnance and ordnance stores in this department, and where 
lodged. A guard consisting of a sergeant, corporal, and twelve pri- 
vates, to be kept over each powder magazine till they shall be collected 
into one. 

Captain Scott, of Colonel Sargeant's regiment, is appointed to officiate 
as judge-advocate to the general court-martial, of which Colonel Sar- 
geant is president. The quartermaster is to take an account of the 
vessels which were left in Boston by the enemy, some with and some 
without cargoes, which are not to be delivered to any claimant until 
he has given proper security to abide the determination of Congress 
respecting them, and in that case take an exact inventory in order to 

* A considerable space was left blank here, apparently for the orders of the 
8d and 4th April. — Eds. 



342 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

ascertain the value, which security is to be kept by the quartermaster 
until called for. The quartermaster will take an account of all the 
stores which the enemy left in Boston, and secure them, together with 
the barracks and materials which are found in their works. 

Head-quarters, 6th April, 1776. 

Parole, " Massachusetts " ; countersign, " Boston." 

Lieut.-Colonel March is desired to officiate as muster-master for the 
division of the Continental Army remaining iu this colony till further 
orders. Colonel March will keep a muster-roll of the names, time of 
enlistment, company, regiment, towns, and counties to which they be- 
long, and age of all he shall muster. The regimental surgeon is to 
send the soldiers taken with the small-pox to a hospital at Lechmere's 
Point, instead of New Boston, any orders to the contrary notwith- 
standing. P. W., A. D. C. 

Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Major Frazer. 

Colonel Whitcomb's regiment furnishes the guards tomorrow. 

The company in town belonging to Colonel Sargeant's regiment to 
parade immediately, with proper officers sufficient for every division, 
and repair to Fort Hill and take directions from the superintendent of 
the works there. The officers will be answerable for the men of their 
respective divisions. The officers will govern themselves by the Gen- 
eral Orders of the 2d instant. 

Amos Brown tried at a general court-martial for profane swearing, 
getting drunk, and insulting language. The court adjudge him to 
receive fifteen lashes. The General approves the sentence, and orders 
it to be put into execution at five o'clock this afternoon. 



Head-quarters, 8th April, 1776. 
Parole, " Warren " ; countersign, " Hero." 

Head-quarters, 9th April, 1776. 



Parole, " Duty " ; countersign, " Honor." 

As the number of troops is small for the important posts we have 
to defend, and for erecting necessary works, the General expects the 
utmost vigilance and exertion in all the officers to promote discipline, 
and to carry into execution every general order which has been or may 
be issued : without the constant attention of the officer to every part 
of duty, it is vain to expect order in an army ; and, therefore, any 
officer who shall neglect this duty may expect to be arrested and tried 
for disobedience of orders. 

Each officer commanding a regiment is to appoint a drum-major and 
fife-major in his regiment, and they are carefully to instruct the drums 
and fifes their duty, and to see that their part of regimental duty be 
regularly performed. This is by no means to be neglected, as martial 
music is always pleasing to a soldier, and gives lustre and dignity to 
every corps. 



1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 343 



Head-quarters, \Qth April, 1776. 

Parole, " Arts " ; countersign, " Arms." 

The regimental surgeons are to give in to the major of brigade a 
weekly return, every Friday, of all the sick unfit for duty. The adju- 
tants are, personally, to bring their men detailed for guard on the 
grand parade precisely at nine o'clock in the morning, at which time 
the guards are to be relieved till further orders : the adjutants first to 
see their men drawn on the regimental parade ; to examine their arms 
and ammunition ; and to see that they are shaved, clean, and neat as 
their clothes will admit ; and they are to desire their orderly sergeants 
not to bring a soldier on the regimental parade in a slovenly habit. 
Any soldier refusing to comply with this order shall be confined by the 
orderly sergeant. The field-officer to attend on the grand parade to 
see the guard march off to their post. The commanding officers of 
regiments are to exert themselves to see their men provided with 
suitable clothing as soon as may be. 

Head-quarters, llth April, 1776. 
Parole, " Wadsworth " ; countersign, "Massachusetts." 

Head-quarters, 12th April, 1776. 

Parole, " Honor " ; countersign, " Virtue." 

Colonel Hutchinson is directed to complete the abatis round the 
works on Dorchester Heights with the trees already fallen on the 
westerly side of the hill. No new ones are to be cut on any pretence. 
When the abatis are there completed, the greatest care is to be 
taken that not a single twig be taken from it. The spears are to be 
greased and rubbed up, and placed round the works in the neatest 
manner, and to be preserved in the same good order. The chevaux- 
de-frise are to be conveniently placed before the avenues, so as to be 
hauled in at a moment's notice. The colonel is directed to take such 
fatigue-parties from his regiment as shall effect this work with the 
greatest despatch. The quartermaster will furnish axes and ropes for 
the business, which must be returned when the work is done.* 

Head-quarters, l&h April, 1776. 

Parole, " Warren " ; countersign, " Prescott." 

The following prisoners, belonging to Colonel Hutchinson's regi- 
ment, tried by a general court-martial whereof Colonel Sargeant was 
president, for mutinying and disobedience of orders, assaulting and 
entering the main guard, were sentenced as follows : John Digner, to 
suffer death, agreeably to the fifth article ; James Peirce, thirty-nine 
lashes for mutiny, thirty-nine for disobedience of orders, and thirty- 

* A space of more than two foolscap pages was left blank here, probably for 
the orders of the 13th, 14th, and 15th April which were not copied. — Eds. 



344 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

nine for snapping his gun at an officer, and one week's imprisonment 
in the dungeon of the provost ; John Conner, Thomas Rudford, John 
Frost, John Deacons, George Milborne, Solomon Day, Richard Gayer, 
thirty-nine lashes each, and one week's imprisonment in the dungeon 
of the provost ; John Partee, thirty-nine lashes ; Scipio Freeman, fif- 
teen lashes ; Thomas Davis, acquitted ; Joseph Allen, thirty-nine 
lashes ; John Gilbert, to suffer death ; Nathaniel Ramsdell, thirty-nine 
lashes ; Windsor Thorpe, thirty-nine lashes ; Joseph Peirce, thirty- 
nine lashes, and one week's imprisonment in the dungeon of the pro- 
vost; Michael Smothers, thirty-nine lashes; Joseph Procter, fifteen 
lashes ; William Chandler and Samuel Moore, both acquitted ; Alex- 
ander Grant, thirty -nine lashes for mutiny, and thirty-nine for abusing 
his officer, and one week's imprisonment in the dungeon of the provost; 
John Copp, thirty-nine lashes for mutiny, thirty-nine for disobedience 
of orders, and thirty-nine for insulting an officer, and fourteen days' 
imprisonment in the dungeon of the provost. The General approves 
the above sentences, and orders it to take place immediately, in the 
following manner : John Partee, Scipio Freeman, Joseph Allen, Na- 
thaniel Ramsdell, Windsor Thorpe, Michael Smothers, and Joseph 
Procter, in the front of their regiment, at Dorchester Point, — Colonel 
Hutchinson is directed to send a guard for them for this purpose. 
James Peirce, John Conner, Thomas Rudford, John Frost, John Dea- 
cons, Solomon Day, Richard Gayer, Joseph Peirce, Alexander Grant, 
and John Copp are to be whipped on Wednesday morning, at six 
o'clock, on the Common, before the regiments in town, which are to be 
drawn up for that purpose. The Other two are to suffer in such time 
and manner as the General shall order. Mr. Joseph Otis is appointed 
provost-master until further orders, and he is to be obeyed as such. 
Colonel Hutchinson's regiment is to erect the new works which are 
laid out at Dorchester Point, next to Castle Island, and the colonel is 
to appoint a proper officer to superintend the work, under the direction 
of Colonel Gridley, and exempt him from other duty while thus em- 
ployed. The prisoners under sentence to be whipped to-morrow 
morning are not to receive their punishment then if the weather is 
stormy, but on the first fair day. 

Head-quarters, 11 th April, 1776. 

Parole, " Activity " ; countersign, " Vigilance." 
Henry Reemer, a soldier of Captain Spears's company, Colonel 
Hitchcock's regiment, tried by a general court-martial, whereof Colonel 
Sargeant is president, for taking a bed belonging to the province from 
General Lee's quarters, and keeping the same, was found guilty of the 
charge, and sentenced to pay four pounds within one week from the 
date hereof, or receive thirty-nine lashes on his naked back ; the above 
sum to be paid to Major Frazer for the use of the province, and to 
discharge Ensign Gould from the same. The General approves the 
sentence, and orders it to take place. 



1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 345 



Head-quarters, l%th April, 1776. 

Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." 

It is the General's express orders, the adjutants are very punctual 
in bringing in their full detail of men, both for guard and fatigue, upon 
the parade, every morning, as any neglect of this sort will not pass 
unnoticed. The weekly returns to be given to-morrow before noon. 

Head-quarters, I'dth April, 1776. 

Parole, " Common Sense " ; countersign, " Independence." 

Mr. Isaac Tuckerman is to act as wagon-master for this department 

till further orders. The general court-martial whereof Colonel Sar- 

geant was president is dissolved. 

Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Major Brown. 

Head-quarters, 20<A April, 1776. 

Parole, " Industry " ; countersign, " Wealth." 

Mr. John Butterfield is appointed wagon-master for this department 
instead of Mr. Isaac Tuckerman, appointed in yesterday's orders through 
misunderstanding. As the number of men is small in proportion to 
the works that are to be accomplished by this part of the army, the 
General desires and expects that every man off guard should cheer- 
fully turn out every day for work, and earnestly recommends it to the 
officers that they detain no more than one man of a company waiters 
(field-officers excepted) for their own waiters, and that only one man 
to a room be left to cook for the soldiers till the present hurry of work 
be over. Officers and soldiers will do well to consider the importance 
of, as well as what the public expects from, our despatch ; and how 
ridiculous our situation would be, should an enemy arrive whilst we are 
defenceless through our own neglect. It is in the power of officers 
greatly to promote and accelerate this matter. 

Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Major Frazer. 

Head-quarters, 21st April, 1776. 

Parole, "Attention"; countersign, "Order." 

The colonels or commanding officers of regiments and corps are to 
see that their men are constantly provided with ammunition, and their 
arms and accoutrements always in good order, fit for action, as we know 
not how soon we may be attacked. The General positively commands 
all officers and men to pay the strictest attention to these orders, as he 
will not excuse the least neglect in matters of such importance to the 
safety to our country. Complaints having been made to the General 
that many of the soldiers frequent grog-shops and tippling-houses, 
whereby they waste their time and money, and destroy their health 
and reputation, the General, therefore, positively forbids all such 
practices, and commands all officers to exert themselves to prevent such 
evil among the men. 

Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Cranston. 

41 



346 MASSACHUSETTS HISTOBICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 



Head-quarters, 22d April, 1776. 

Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." 

Peleg Wadsworth is appointed major of brigade for this division of 
the Continental Army, and is to be obeyed as such. 

Head-quarters, 23d April, 1776. 

Parole, " Frugality " ; countersign, " Industry." 
Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Colonel Sargeant. 

Head-quarters, 2ith April, 1776. 

Parole, " Justice " ; countersign, " Humanity." 
Lieutenant Haffield White, of Colonel Hutchinson's regiment, ia 
appointed adjutant to said regiment, and is to be obeyed as such 
Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Colonel Whitcomb. 

Head-quarters, 25th April, 1776. 

Parole, "Bravery"; countersign, "Soldier." 

A general court-martial to sit to-morrow morning, at ten o'clock, to 
try such prisoners as shall be brought before them. Major Brown, 
president. Members from Colonel Hutchinson's regiment, two cap- 
tains, two subalterns. The adjutant will bring no men on the parade 
for guard without being first accoutred, washed, shaved, and dressed as 
well as Ms clothes will admit ; they will bring in their weekly returns 
on Friday, by twelve o'clock. 

Head-quarters, 26th April, 1776. 

Parole, "Connecticut" ; countersign, "New York." 
Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Cranston. 

Head-quarters, 27th April, 1776. 

Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." 

William Willey, John Kely, Francis Bennett, Jacob Smallwood, 
James Jeffers, John Andrews, of Colonel Sargeant's regiment, tried by 
a general court-martial whereof Major Frazer is president, for desert- 
ing, were found guilty of the charge and sentenced to be whipped, 
twenty stripes each on their naked backs, except Francis Bennett, who 
is to be reprimanded in the front of the regiment when the others are 
whipped. The General approves the sentence, and orders it to be 
put in execution on Monday morning next, at six o'clock, on the regi- 
mental parade. Complaints having been made to the General that 
many invalids, who were left behind by the marching regiments, con- 
tinue here after they are able to march, therefore the commissary is 
ordered not to supply any more invalids for the future without his 
express orders. 

Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Colonel March. 



1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 347 

The adjutants will give into the major of brigade to-morrow a re- 
turn of the men on command of their respective regiments, expressing 
the particular command on which they are employed. Likewise a 
return of those on furlough, signifying by whom they were furloughed. 

Head-quarters, 28<A April, 1776. 

Parole, " United " ; countersign, " Colonies." 

The colonels and commanding officers of regiments are to make 
returns immediately of the number of cartridges necessary to complete 
twenty-four rounds to each man, that they may be supplied. The 
commissary is not to supply any of the guards with rum without par- 
ticular orders. Complaints having been made that the fatigue men 
drink the rum they draw as soon as they get it in the morning, where- 
by their health is impaired and other bad consequences follow, the 
General therefore directs the officers commanding the fatigue to see 
the rum drawn for the men be properly mixed with water, and served 
to them at such time as will do them most good ; they may draw pails 
for that use of the commissary, and return them at night. 

Officer of the day, to-morrow, Colonel Whitney. 

The brigade-major will remove his office to General Ward's quar- 
ters, the room in the northerly corner of the house, where those who 
have business are directed to apply. The drums-and-fifes majors of 
the whole brigade are desired to meet at his office to-morrow at 
twelve o'clock precisely. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 29<A April, 1776. 

Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." 

By the returns, it appears that a number of men are on furlough, 
contrary to general orders. For the future, no officer is to presume to 
give any furlough to any man without leave from the General, and 
such as are now on furlough and all new recruits are to join their regi- 
ments immediately. The General expects the future returns of regi- 
ments and corps will be made out with the greatest care and exactness, 
that he may know the exact state of the troops, and where employed, 
to prevent idleness, fraud, and neglect of duty. The General observes 
with pleasure the improvement the drums and fifes have made in 
martial music, and their attention to duty. He hopes that the drum- 
and-fife majors will contiuue to exert themselves in instructing those 
under their care in every branch of their duty. 

James McMann, of Colonel Fhinney's regiment, tried by a general 
court-martial, whereof Major Frazer is president, for lodging out of 
camp, lying, playing cards, and other bad conduct, was found guilty 
and sentenced to receive thirty-nine lashes on his naked back, at such 
time and place as his commanding officer shall appoint. The General 
approves the sentence, and orders it to be put into execution. 

Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Colonel Phinney. 



348 MASSACHUSETTS HISTOEICAL SOCIETY. [OCT. 



Head-quarters, Boston, 30th April, 1776. 

Parole, " Wisdom " ; countersign, " Temperance." 

Hugh Rayner, of Colonel Sargeant's regiment, is appointed chief 
drum-major of this division of the army until further orders, and is to 
be obeyed as such. John Whiting of the same regiment is appointed 
chief fife-major till further orders, and is to be obeyed as such. 

Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Colonel Sargeant. 

Guards and fatigue, as usual. 

All the drums and fifes in town are to attend the stated exercises at 
the time and place appointed. All the drums-and-fifes majors of this 
division of the army are to meet twice a week, on Tuesday and Friday, 
on the bottom of the Common, for practice. The drums and fifes of 
each regiment off duty are to practise separately, under the direction 
of their respective majors, till the chief drum-and-fife majors shall think 
them sufficiently instructed to join in one body. It is recommended 
the musicianers of each regiment that they emulate each other in striv- 
ing to excel in this pleasant part of military discipline. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 1st May, 1776. 

Parole, " Martial " ; countersign, " Music." 

James Haven, of Colonel Whitcomb's regiment, tried by a general 
court-martial for desertion, was found guilty of the charge, eighth 
article, and sentenced to be mulct two months' wages, to be appro- 
priated agreeably to the fifty-fifth article. The General approves the 
sentence, and orders it to take place. 

Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Major Brown. 

Guards and fatigue, as usual. 

The adjutant will bring no man for guard to-morrow that is not 
neat and powdered. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 2d May, 1776. 

Parole, " Georgia " ; countersign, " York." 

Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Major Frazer. 

With the weekly returns, the adjutant will give in a separate one, 
showing on what command those they shall so return are employed : 
this will be continued weekly. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 3d May, 1776. 

Parole, " Neatness " ; " countersign, " Gentility." 
The General has this day received intelligence that sixty sail of 
British ships, with 12,000 troops on board, are on their way to Boston, 
and may soon be expected. He therefore expects that all officers 
and men will be willing to do extraordinary duty at this critical time. 
The salvation of this town, this colony, and the continent is now emi- 
nently depending: therefore, duty, honor, the love of God and our 
country call upon every man for his utmost exertion. 
Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Cranston. 



1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 349 



Head-quarters, Boston, 4th May, 1776. 

Parole, " War " ; countersign, " Victory." 

John McCoy, of Colonel Sargeant's regiment, tried at a general 
court-martial for striking the corporal of the guard while in the execu- 
tion of his office. The court are of opinion that the prisoner is guilty 
of a breach of the seventh article of the Rules and Regulations of the 
Army, and adjudge him to receive fifteen lashes on his naked back, 
when and where his commanding officer shall think fit. 

William Seres, of Colonel Whitcomb's regiment, tried by the same 
court-martial for desertion. The court are of opinion that he is guilty 
of a breach of the eighth article, and adjudge him to receive thirty- 
nine lashes on his naked back, at such time and place as his command- 
ing officer shall order. The General approves the sentences, and 
orders them to be put in execution. 

Upon application being made in favor of John McCoy by his colonel 
and other officers of the regiment, the General has pardoned the pris- 
oner. None may presume upon a pardon, who are guilty of a breach 
of orders, in future. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 5th May, 1776. 

Parole, " Sobriety " ; countersign, " Virtue." 

The General hears with great concern that profane swearing is 
shamefully practised by many in the army, and even by some officers : 
he therefore solemnly warns all officers and men against this and every 
other impiety, and hopes the officers will set an example before the 
men worthy their imitation. Unless we pay a sacred regard to the 
duty of sobriety and virtue, we cannot expect the blessing of. Heaven, 
nor the approbation of the wise and good among men. 

Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Haynes. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 6<A May, 1776. 

Parole, "Fortification"; countersign, "Defence." 

The court-martial whereof Major Frazer was president is dis- 
solved. 

Field-officer of the day, to-morrow, Colonel Sargeant. 

Guards and fatigue, as usual. 

A pocket-book was lost near Tileston's Wharf lately, with twenty- 
two dollars and other papers, valuable to the owner: whoever will 
bring the same with the full contents to the major of brigade shall 
have five dollars reward and no questions asked. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 1th May, 1776. 

Parole, " Honesty " ; countersign, " Fame." 

Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Ballard. 

Guards, as usual. Fatigue : all officers and men off duty. 



350 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [OCT. 



Head-quarters, Boston, 8th May, 1776. 

Parole, " Privateer " ; countersign, " Tucker." 
Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Prescott. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 9th May, 1776. 

Parole, " Hancock " ; countersign, "Adams." 
Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Soul. 

Head-quarters, 10th May, 1776. 

Parole, " Castle " ; countersign, " Cannon." 

Officer of the day, Captain Ballard. 

Guards and fatigue, as yesterday. 

After Orders. — Major Austin, with three companies of Colonel 
Sargeant's regiment, is directed to take Boston Castle Island to defend, 
and forward the work there. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 11th May, 1776. 

Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." 
Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Watkins. 
Guards and fatigue, as usual. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 12th May, 1776. 

Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." 

Lieut.-Colonel Jackson is to employ the troops in Charlestown in 
completing the fortress on the Point with all expedition. 

Major Austin, stationed on Castle Island, is to keep a proper guard 
for the security of that post, and assist the committee of the General 
Court with the men off duty in completing the works there. Colonel 
Hutchinson's regiment is to furnish one hundred men for fatigue, 
properly officered, to assist in carrying on the works at Castle Island, 
in lieu of the one hundred men which were heretofore ordered there 
as a guard. The commissary is to supply every one hundred men with 
three pounds of candles per week for guards. The men are to be sup- 
plied with milk and other provisions in the same proportion and manner 
they were last summer. 

Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Wilder. 

Guards, as usual. Fatigue : all officers and men off duty. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 13th May, 1776. 

Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." 
Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Tyler. 
Fatigue and guards, as usual. 

Head-quarters, Boston, lith May, 1776. 

Parole, " Courage " ; countersign, " Conduct." 
Captain Pope, officer of the day, to-morrow. 
Guards and fatigue, as usual. 



1878.] OEDEBLY BOOK. 351 

The adjutants are desired to have their men paraded for fatigue by 
eight o'clock, and the guards brought on precisely at nine, that there 
may be no delay on the parade. 

A general court-martial to sit to-morrow morning, at ten o'clock, 
at the president's chamber. Colonel Whitcomb, president. 

Members from Colonel Whitcomb's, two captains, four subalterns. 

Members from Colonel Sargeant's, two subalterns. 

Members from Colonel Phinney's, one captain, three subalterns. 

Captain Scott, judge-advocate. 

The adjutants will give in the names and ranks of their respective 
officers before ten o'clock to-morrow morning. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 15th May, 1776. 

Parole, " Freedom " ; countersign, " Happiness." 

Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Scott. 

Fatigue, as usual. Fatigue to parade at six o'clock in the morning, 
and work till twelve ; again at two o'clock, and work till six. Guards 
to parade at eight o'clock. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 16th May, 1776. 

Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." 

To-morrow being the day appointed by the Honorable Continental 
Congress for a general fast throughout the United American Colonies, 
the General, being desirous of a strict observance of the day for fast- 
ing, humiliation, and prayer, exempts the army from all fatigue, and 
enjoins a suitable deportment on all ranks, remembering that success 
alone depends on the God of armies. 

Nutt, of Colonel Sargeant's regiment, tried at a general court- 
martial, whereof Colonel Whitcomb was president, for desertion, was 
found guilty and sentenced to be whipped, thirty-nine lashes on his 
naked back, at the pleasure of the commanding officer of the regiment. 

Philip Bass, of Colonel Knox's regiment, tried by the same court- 
martial, for abusing his officer and some women, was found guilty, 
and sentenced to be whipped, fifteen lashes for abusing his officer, and 
thirty for the women, at such time and place as his commanding officer 
thinks best. The General approves the sentence, and orders it to be 
put into execution. 

Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Haynes. 

Guards, as this day ; no fatigue. 

The reveille is to beat at four o'clock in the morning, at Charles- 
town, Fort Hill, Dorchester Heights, and Castle Island. The troop 
is to beat off from the grand parade so as to return just at eight o'clock. 
Retreat at eight. Troop as usual. The drummers are reminded not 
to practise in town. The troop and retreat is to be omitted on San- 
days. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 17th May, 1776. 

Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." 
Captain Ballard, officer of the day, to-morrow. 
Guards and fatigue, as usual. 



352 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 



Head-quarters, Boston, \&th May, 1776. 

Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." 

Captain Prescott, officer of the day, to-morrow. 

Orderly sergeants, and corporals, quartermaster-sergeants, officers, 
waiters, and cooks, for the barracks, barbers, bakers, tailors, or any 
other soldier not imputed by the General Orders, are not to be re- 
turned on command. Detail as usual. 

Head-quarters, Boston, Wth May, 1776. 

Parole, " Independence " ; countersign, " War." 

Caleb Barrett, of Colonel Phinney's regiment, tried at a general 
court-martial, whereof Colonel Whitcomb was president, for sleeping 
on his post. The court sentence the prisoner to receive twenty lashes on 
his naked back, at such time as his commanding officer shall think fit. 
The General approves the sentence, and orders it to take place accord- 
ingly. 

Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Soul. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 20th May, 1776. 

Parole, " Hero " ; countersign, " Mugford." 
Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Hill. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 21st May, 1776. 

Parole, " Honesty " ; countersign, " Prosperity." 
Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Watkins. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 22d May, 1776. 

Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." 

It has been intimated to the General that some persons in the army 
have been inoculated for the small-pox, and then have gone into the 
hospital under pretence that they have taken the distemper the natural 
way. All officers and men are to remember such conduct is against 
General Orders, and contrary to the law of this colony : therefore every 
one who may be found guilty of being inoculated for the small-pox 
may depend on being punished with severity. The General is sur- 
prised to hear that some officers have presumed to go out of camp, and 
also to give furloughs to their men contrary to repeated General Orders. 
Such officers will be duly noticed. "When aay man is tried by a regi- 
mental court-martial, his sentence is to be read to him as soon as his 
trial is finished, that he may have opportunity to appeal, if he thinks 
proper, to a general court-martial. A court of inquiry to sit to-morrow 
morning, at eight o'clock, to examine into a complaint exhibited against 
Lieutenant Daniel Morril, by Colonel Varnum, for enlisting a number 
of men into Colonel Phinney's regiment who, Colonel Varnum asserted, 
were previously enlisted into his regiment. The court is also to exam- 
ine into the complaint of William Sears, of Colonel Whitcomb's regi- 
ment, against said colonel and against Adjutant Tuckerman, of said 



1878.] OEDEELY BOOK. 353 

regiment, and make report as soon as may be respecting both the above 
complaints. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 23d May, 1776. 

Parole, " Washington " ; countersign, " Franklin." 
Fatigue, as usual. 

The retreat is to beat at six o'clock ; tattoo at eight o'clock in the 
evening. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 2ith May, 1776. 

Parole, " Lookout"; countersign, "Sharp." 

No officer is to go out of camp on the recruiting service without the 
general's express orders, and those already out are to return immedi- 
ately and join their regiments. Lieutenant Jonathan Sawyer, of the 
late Captain Hart's company, of Colonel Phinney's regiment, is to do 
duty as captain ; Lieutenant Jonah Jenkins, as first lieutenant ; Ensign 
Archelaus Lewis, as second lieutenant ; Sergeant Joseph Harts, as 
ensign of said company ; and are to be obeyed as such. 

The fatigue-party are to turn out at seven o'clock in the morning 
and two o'clock in the afternoon, and work four hours each half-day. 
Men for guard are to be warned the preceding day at noon, and are to 
be exempted from fatigue the afternoon that they may have opportu- 
nity of brightening their guns and bayonets, preparing their accoutre- 
ments, cleaning and mending their clothes, shaving, &c. The adjutant 
will examine their arms over night, to see if they will answer the 
orders, as no other will be accepted on the parade. There must be 
no borrowing and lending arms. 

Captain Haynes, for the day, to-morrow. 

Guards and fatigue, as usual. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 25th May, 1776. 

Parole, " Harmony " ; countersign, " Love." 

Fatigue, as usual. Those of Colonel Whitcomb's fatigue who are 
for guard will work on Fort Hill, under proper officers, the forenoon 
preceding their mounting guard, to save the trouble of coming from 
the castle at noon. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 26th May, 1776. 

Parole, "Magnanimity"; countersign, "Valiant." 

The commanding officers of regiments are to recruit their respective 
regiments to the establishment. Each officer is allowed one dollar and 
a third for every man he recruits aud musters. 

Michael Berry, of Colonel Sargeant's regiment, tried at a general 
court-martial, whereof Colonel Whitcomb was president, for being 
absent without leave and neglect of duty, was found guilty, and sen- 
tenced to receive thirty-nine stripes on his naked back, at such time 
and place as his commanding officer shall think proper. The General 
approves the sentence. 

Captain Ballard, officer of the day, to-morrow. 

Fatigue, as usual. 

45 



354 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 27th May, 1776. 

Parole, " Union " ; countersign, " Strength." 

The court of inquiry, whereof Colonel Sargeant was president, for 
inquiring into the complaint of Willard Sears against his colonel and 
adjutant, also into the complaint of Colonel Varnum against Lieutenant 
Morril, are of opinion that Colonel Whitcomb is not culpable, and that 
Adjutant Tuckerman did no more than his duty ; and that "Willard 
Sears is guilty of contempt of authority and disobedience of orders. 
The court are also of opinion that the charge of Colonel Varnum 
against Ensign Morril is not supported. The General approves the 
above proceedings of the court of inquiry. 

Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Danforth. 

Fatigue, as usual. 

Head-quarters, Boston, V&th May, 1776. 

Parole, " Truth " ; countersign, " Virtue." 

Ensign Peter Brown, of Captain Watkins's company, in Colonel 
Phinney's regiment, is to do duty as second lieutenant in said company, 
in the room of Lieutenant Lyon, deceased. Sergeant Robert Wat- 
kins is to do duty as ensign in said company. In the company com- 
manded by the late Captain Rice, Lieutenant Bartholomew York is to 
do duty as captain ; Lieutenant Crispin Graves, as first lieutenant ; 
Ensign Austins Holden, as second lieutenant ; Sergeant Ebenezer Ho- 
gans, as ensign ; and are to be obeyed as such. 

Captain Farrald for the day, to-morrow. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 29<A May, 1776. 

Parole, " Election " ; countersign, " Council." 

The court-martial of which Colonel Whitcomb was president is dis- 
solved, the complaint against Captain Putnam being withdrawn, and 
all parties desire leave of the court-martial to settle all difference in 
peace. The court consented. Captain Putnam is therefore released 
from his confinement. 

Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Wilde. 

Guard and fatigue, as usual. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 30lh May, 1776. 

Parole, " [blank] " ; countersign, " [blank]." 

The commanding officer at Dorchester Neck is to see that no injury 
be done to the inhabitants, by any belonging to the army, by feeding 
horses or cattle. The men must be very careful not to tread down the 
grass, nor travel through the fields. If owners of houses in which 
officers live want them, the officers must apply to the barrack-master 
for quarters. The fort on the Point must be completed with the ut- 
most expedition, and every thing ready for defence as soon as possible. 
The abatis round the fort on the Heights must be kept in good order, 
and the barrels all kept in good order for defence. Those that are 
rolled round the hill must be brought up in order. If the enemy should 



1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 355 

come this way, it is possible they will make their first attack on Dor- 
chester Heights, therefore the commanding officer there is to be very 
attentive to have every thing in readiness, and in the best posture of 
defence. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 3\st May, 1776. 

Parole, " Cannonade " ; countersign, " Quebec." 

Captain Pope, officer of the day, to-morrow. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 1st June, 1776. 

Parole, " Republic " ; countersign, " America." 

All officers and men belonging to the Continental Army are, in future, 
to pay their ferriage, unless they have a pass from the General, except 
the commanding officer at Charlestown, and such of his men as may 
come to Boston on command, and they may have a pass from him. 

The commanding officer of regiment will order the state of their 
ammunition to be examined strictly, and such cartridges as are much 
worn or damaged to be collected and returned to the commissary, and 
replaced immediately. 

Captain York, for the day, to-morrow. 

Each regiment will exempt one company a day from all regimental 
duty, beginning, on Monday next, with the oldest company, and con- 
tinue in rotation till further orders. These companies are exempted 
from duty for the sake of discipline. The officers of said companies 
will exert themselves to this purpose. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 2d June, 1776.* 

Head-quarters, Boston, 3d June, 1776. 

Parole, " Gates " ; countersign, " Mifflin." 

A general court-martial to sit to-morrow morning, at nine o'clock, 
to try all such prisoners as may be brought before them. Colonel 
Phinney, president ; Captain Scott, judge-advocate. The adjutant will 
give in the names of the members in season to the president, and notify 
the prisoners and evidences of their respective regiments. 

Captain Whiting, officer of the day, to-morrow. 

From Colonel Hutchinson's regiment, for members, one captain, two 
subalterns. 

Three men that understand building whale-boats, belonging to the 
army, may find employ by applying to the brigade-major. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 4th June, 1776. 
Parole, " Fruitful " ; countersign, " Season." 
Colonels or commanding officers of regiments are to make pay ab- 
stracts for their respective regiments, for the months March and April. 
Captain Haynes, for the day, to-morrow. 
Guards as this day, except drum and fife. 

* Colonel Hutchinson left a blank space for the orders of this day, appar- 
ently for the purpose of copying them at some other time. But this was not 
done. No blank was left in most of the cases where no orders are recorded. — 
Eds. 



856 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [OCT. 



Head-quarters, Boston, 5th June, 1776. 

Parole, "West"; countersign, "Independence." 
John Love, of Colonel Sargeant's regiment, tried at a general court- 
martial for desertion. The court find the prisoner guilty of the charge, 
and adjudge him to receive twenty lashes. Miles Bailey, of Colonel 
Whitcomb's regiment, tried by a late regimental court-martial for leav- 
ing his post and getting the worse for liquor, was found guilty, and 
sentenced to receive thirty lashes ; from which judgment he appealed 
to a general court-martial, which, after hearing the evidence, confirm 
the above sentence. The General approves the sentences, and orders 
them to be put in execution. 

Captain Ballard, for the day, to-morrow. 

Head-quarters, 6th June, 1776. 

Parole, " Bravery " ; countersign, " Hero." 

Andrew Gardner, drum-major of Colonel Whitcomb's regiment, tried 
by a general court-martial for neglect of duty. The court is of opin- 
ion he is guilty of neglect of duty, and adjudge that he shall be severely 
reprimanded by his colonel and return to his duty. John Tucker, of 
the same regiment, tried at the same court-martial for theft. The court 
are of opinion the prisoner is guilty, and adjudge him to receive thirty 
lashes, at such time and place as his commanding officer shall think 
proper. The General approves the sentences, and orders them to take 
place. 

For the day, to-morrow, Prescott. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 7th June, 1776. 

Parole, " Independence " ; countersign, " America." 

Captain Williams, of Colonel Phinney's regiment, is exempted from 
regimental duty while he superintends the works carried on by said 
regiment, as an assistant engineer, in order to forward the works with 
all possible despatch. The general court-martial, of which Colonel 
Phinney was president, is dissolved. 

Captain Soul, for the day, to-morrow. 

Sergeant Watts, of Captain Williams's company, in Colonel Phinney's 
regiment, is to do duty as ensign in said company. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 8th June, 1776. 

Parole, " Otis " ; countersign, " Patriot." 

The men being obliged, from necessity, to work on Sundays, for some 
time past, the General directs that they be exempted from fatigue to- 
morrow, and that the officers lead their men to the place of public 
worship without arms or music. 

Head-quarters, Boston, dth June, 1776. 

Parole, "Righteousness" ; countersign, " Success." 

As Colonel Whitcomb's and Colonel Phinney's regiments are em- 



1878.] OBDEBLY BOOK. 357 

ployed upon works out of town, they cannot get their milk in the 
morning before they march off to fatigue, therefore the commissary 
will supply those regiments with provision in the same manner as he 
did last winter, so long as they shall be employed out of town, or until 
further orders. 

Captain Danforth, for the day, to-morrow. 

The adjutant of the sixth and eighteenth regiments will deliver their 
fatigue to M. B., at Wheelwright's wharf, at 7, and the guards will 
shave and powder, and be on the parade at 8. The quartermaster 
of said regiments will see fatigue rum and provisions seasonably shipped 
off to them. The cooks of the barracks are to send their messmates 
on guard their provisions, as no officer in future will allow a single man 
to leave his guard, but in case of absolute necessity. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 10th June, 1776. 

Parole, " Highlanders " ; countersign, " Taken." 

Captain Farnald, for the day, to-morrow. 

The tattoo will beat off half after eight o'clock.* 

Head-quarters, Boston, 11th June, 1776. 

Parole, " Soldier " ; countersign, " War." 

The three companies off duty to-morrow in town will meet at nine 
o'clock precisely, in the Common, to be exercised by the brigade-major, 
in order to get a uniformity of discipline through the brigade. This 
is not meant to hinder the companies from being exercised separately 
by their own adjutants and officers at any other time in the day. 

The reveille will beat at the dawning of the day. 

Captain Hill, for the day, to-morrow. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 12th June, 1776. 
Parole, " Tracy " ; countersign, " Valiant." 

Head-quarters, Boston, 13th June, 1776. 

Parole, " Expedition " ; countersign, " Success." 

Five hundred men, properly officered, are to parade this day at 
four o'clock, on Wheelwright's wharf, with arms and ammunition com- 
plete, with two days' provisions ready dressed, and are to be under 
the command of Colonel Whitcomb. Two hundred men with proper 
officers are to parade at Dorchester Point, at five o'clock this day, with 
arms and ammunitions complete, and two days' provisions ready dressed, 
and are to be under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Holden. 

Captain Tyler, for the day, to-morrow. 

All the men in camp will have one meal of provisions ready cooked 

* The parole and countersign for this day were no doubt selected with refer- 
ence to the capture, on the 8th ot June, of a British transport, from Scotland, 
having on board a company of Highlanders. See General Ward's letter to 
General Washington in 4 Force's American Archives, vol. vi. p. 771. — Eds. 



358 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

by this evening. Colonel Hutchinson's adjutant will have paraded at 
four o'clock this afternoon ; one lieut.-colonel, two captains, six sub- 
alterns, eight sergeants, one drummer, one fif'er, and one hundred and 
eighty rank and file, one quartermaster, one surgeon, with two days' 
provision ready dressed, with blankets slung, and canteens filled with 
water. The quartermaster will have in readiness at the same time and 
place seventy-five spades and shovels, seventy-five picks, six hand-bar- 
rows, six axes, six pails, one barrel of rum, two barrels of beer or cider, 
loaded in a good flat-boat, of which he will have the care of, coming, 
delivering, and returning ; also, five flat-boats with oars. The rest of 
the regiment will fatigue as usual. Colonel Hutchinson will turn out 
all the men on Dorchester Point to-morrow morning, half an hour 
before daybreak, all complete in arms, with ammunition, and be ready 
for any movement that may be necessary, and draw his men up in 
sight of the en'emy's ships. The commanding officer at Dorchester 
will keep such a picket guard as he may judge necessary for the safety 
of the post until further orders. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 14th June, 1776. 
Parole, "Expedition"; countersign, "Success." 

Head-quarters, Boston, \6th June, 1776. 

Parole, " Boston " ; countersign, " Port." 

The Commander-in-chief thanks Colonel Whitcomb, Lieut.-Colonel 
Holden, and Colonel Jackson, and the officers and soldiers under their 
command, for their spirited and soldier-like conduct yesterday in carry- 
ing on the expedition against the enemy, and in conjunction with the 
colony troops, and driving them out of the harbor. Such noble exer- 
tions give proof of the spirit and magnanimity of freemen in the 
cause of liberty, and afford the pleasing prospect that by the smiles of 
Heaven America will rise superior to all the tyrants of the earth. 
The General thanks the citizens and volunteers who gave their assist- 
ance on this occasion. 

Captain York, for the day, to-morrow. 

No fatigue to-morrow. 

Colonel Hutchinson's quartermaster will return the boat and oars, 
and utensils for the expedition. All officers and others who received 
boats in the late expedition are desired to return them immediately to 
the boat guard. No persons are to go on to Long Island without 
orders from the General, for fear of spreading the small-pox which is 
there. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 16<A June, 1776. 

Parole, " Success " ; countersign, "America." 

Sergeant Joseph Killam, of Colonel Hutchinson's regiment, is to do 
duty as second lieutenant in Captain Kimball's company, in said regi- 
ment. As it has been repeatedly suggested to the General that some 
officers and men have been privately inoculated for the small-pox, 
whereby the lives of others are endangered, and the public service 



1878.] ORDEBLY BOOK. 359 

injured, the General once more therefore positively forbids all inocu- 
lation, and is determined to punish with the utmost rigor every one 
who shall dare to a violation of law and orders ; and, if an officer, his 
name shall be published with the infamy due to so ruinous a crime. 
Captain Pope, for the day, to-morrow. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 11th June, 1776. 

Parole, " Bunker Hill " ; countersign, " Warren." 
For the day, to-morrow, Captain Scott. 

Head-quarters, Boston, l%th June, 1776. 

Parole, " Privateers " ; countersign, " Victory." 

The General has full information that some men and some officers 
have been inoculated for the small-pox in violation of the law of this 
government, and against the most positive orders. Such high hand 
transgressors must expect to be punished equal to the enormities of 
their crime. All others are to take warning, and all those against 
whom these complaints are lodged will be tried by a general court- 
martial. 

The Highland Major, who was slain in the last engagement on board 
the ship, is to be buried this afternoon from the State House. The 
Scotch officers will walk as mourners, and all the officers in town off 
duty are desired to walk in procession.* 

Captain Cranston, for the day, to-morrow. 

Fatigue, as usual. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 19th June, 1776. 

Parole, " Artillery " ; countersign, " Burbeck." 
For the day, to-morrow, Captain Haynes. 
Guards and fatigue, as usual. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 20/A June, 1776. 



Parole, " Congress " ; countersign, " Adams." 
Captain Ballard, for the day, to-morrow. | 



Head-quarters, Boston, 21st June, 1776. 

Parole, " Prize " ; countersign, " Privateer." 

It is observed that many of the soldiers appear with dirty linen, 
which is very unhealthy and hurtful. The General therefore directs 
all officers to see that their men keep clean, and that their barracks 
are clean and wholesome. No officer is ever to neglect an attention 
to this important part of duty. 

Captain Prescott, for the day, to-morrow. 

The two companies at Bunker Hill will relieve the magazine guard 
at Winter Hill, with a corporal and six privates. Colonel Phinney 

* The officer referred to was Major Menzies. See Frothingham's History of 
the Siege of Boston, p. 314, note. — Eds. 

t Colonel Hutchinson left a blank space for the additional orders of this day. 
— Eds. 



360 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

will relieve the magazine guard at Jamaica Plain, with a sergeant, 
corporal, and ten privates. Colonel Whitcomb will relieve the guard 
at Watertown, with a sergeant, corporal, and ten men. The two latter 
guards will march to-morrow morning, from the grand parade, at eight 
o'clock. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 22d June, 1776. 

Parole, " Humanity " ; countersign, " Justice." 

Last evening the General received information from the Congress 
that Ebenezer Hancock, Esq., is appointed paymaster-general for the 
troops stationed here, and that the money is on the way for this place, 
to pay off the troops. 

No fatigue to-morrow. 

For the day, to-morrow, Captain Soul. 

Head-quarters, 23d June, 1776. 

Parole, " Boston " ; countersign, " Success." 

A general court-martial to sit to-morrow morning, at eight o'clock. 

Fatigue : all off duty properly officered. 

The commanding officers of regiments will turn out their regiments 
to a man this evening, at seven o'clock, to review the state of their 
arms and ammunition, and to hold themselves in readiness to turn out 
at the shortest notice. 

Captain Ballard, for the day, to-morrow. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 24th June, 1776. 

Parole, " Arms " ; countersign, " America." 

The late court of inquiry, of which Colonel Sargeant was president, 
Captains Pope, Hill, Haynes, Vinton, Barry, Terrington, Lowe, 
Lieutenants Holmes, Massers, Hirrick, Munro, and Ensign Mills, 
members, is to sit again to-morrow morning, at eight o'clock, for a 
rehearing of the complaint of Colonel Varnum against Lieutenant 
Morrill, for re-enlisting Sargeant Thompson and fifteen privates who 
belonged to Captain Lane's company in Colonel Varnum's regiment, 
as he saith ; and the court is to make a very pertinent return of the 
evidences, with the judgment of the court, to the General as soon as 
possible, to be transmitted to General Washington. 

Guards, as usual. * 

Captain Danforth, for the day, to-morrow. 

Head-quarters, 25th June, 1776. 

Parole, " Monet " ; countersign, " Duty." 

The money has at length arrived for the payment of the troops ; 
commanding officers of regiments, that have not received their wages 
for the months of March and April, may apply for it to-morrow. 

The men who have their guns at the armorer's are to call for them 
as soon as mended, and not neglect to take them from week to week, 
as the General is informed is the case with some. A new armorer is 
appointed to the northward of the first market, by Mr. William 



1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 361 

Thomas, for the use of the Continental service ; this, with the other 
before established, it is expected will soon put the arms of this brigade 
in good repair. 

As the base practice of stealing ammunition from the soldier's cart- 
ridge-boxes has prevailed of late, any soldier who shall discover a 
theft of this sort, or give information of firing in camp, contrary to 
General Orders, so that the offender be convicted of the crime, shall 
have one dollar reward for each information. 

Fatigue, as usual. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 26<A June, 1776. 

Parole, " Otis " ; countersign, " Freedom." 
Captain Hill, for the day, to-morrow. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 27th June, 1776. 

Parole, " Langdon " ; countersign, " Wentworth." 
Guards, as usual. Fatigue : all off duty. 
Captain Williams, for the day, to-morrow. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 28th June, 1776. 

Parole, " Order " ; countersign, " Obedience." 

Commanding officers of regiments are to make out pay abstracts for 
month of May. 

Thomas Summer, of Colonel Sargeant's regiment, tried at a general 
court martial for disobedience, and insulting his captain, upon his 
appeal from a regimental court martial. The court are of opinion that 
he is guilty, and sentence him to receive thirty-nine lashes. Thomas 
Cashman tried by the same court-martial for getting drunk, profane 
swearing, and abusing the inhabitants. The court are of opinion he 
is guilty, and sentence him to be kept twenty-four hours under confine- 
ment, and then discharged from the army. William Dow and Martha 
Doyle tried at the same court upon suspicion of setting the barrack on 
fire. The court acquit them, there being no evidence to support the 
charge. Caleb Cummings tried for theft. No evidence appearing, the 
court acquit him. Moses Baker, of Colonel Whitcomb's regiment, 
tried for stealing a spade and selling it for rum. The court sentence 
him to receive thirty-nine lashes. William Jackson, of Captain Bur- 
beck's company, tried for stealing and abusing James Wade. The court 
sentence him to receive fifteen lashes. The General approves the 
judgment, and orders them to be put into execution. 

Captain Watkins, for the day, to-morrow. 

Head-quarters, 29th June, 1776. 

Parole, " New York " ; countersign, " Washington." 
The colonel or commanding officers of regiments and corps are to 
make a report next Monday morning, to the brigade-major, the num- 
ber of men in the respective corps who have had the small-pox, also 
the number of men that now have that distemper. Notwithstanding 

46 



362 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

the repeated General Orders against wasting ammunition, the General 
is informed that, in a party of men lately returning from Long Island, 
an officer was so lost to a sense of duty as to discharge his gun, and 
set an infamous example before the men. Whoever shall produce 
evidence against this or other like offenders, so that he be convicted, 
shall have two dollars reward, and one dollar for every soldier so con- 
victed, that we may either reform such wretches or drum them out of 
the army with the infamy they deserve. 

Captain Wilde, for the day, to-morrow. 

No fatigue to-morrow. There will be no companies exempted the 
following week for the sake of discipline, as it is of the utmost im- 
portance to complete the works on Dorchester Heights. 

Head-quarters, 30th June, 1776. 

Parole, " Montgomery " ; countersign, " Thomas." 
For the day, to-morrow, Captain Sawyer. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 1st July, 1776. 

Parole, " Sullivan " ; countersign, " Porter." 

The Congress have been pleased to appoint that the Assistant Quar- 
termaster-General should have captain's pay ; that the pay of regimen- 
tal surgeons be augmented to thirty-three and one-third dollars per 
month. An exact alphabetical return of the names of the officers, with 
their rank and the date of their commissions in each regiment and 
corps, is to be made immediately. The commissary of the artillery is 
to make return of the arms, ammunition, and warlike stores belonging 
to the United Colonies, and the place where lodged. The command- 
ing officer of the train is to make return of the cannon and ordnance 
belonging to the United Colonies, and where lodged. The Assistant 
Quartermaster-General is to make out a return of the intrenching tools, 
boats, and every thing in his department belonging to. the United 
Colonies. All the returns are to be made next Thursday morning, 
with great accuracy, and duplicates of the same, in order to be sent to 
Congress. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 2d July, 1776. 

Parole, " Heath " ; countersign, " Spirits." 

All the returns mentioned in yesterday's orders are to be made out 
the first day of every month : this is by no means to be neglected. 
Colonel Sargeant's regiment is to be stationed on Castle Island, and 
proceed to that place with all expedition. 

Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Pope. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 3d July, 1776. 

Parole, " Independence " ; countersign, " Prosperity." 

Captain Soul tried by a general court-martial, of which Colonel 

Whitcomb was president, for defrauding the public, and breach of 

General Orders. The court are of opinion that he is guilty of a breach 

of General Orders; but, as he has heretofore borne the character of a good 



1878.] ORDERLY BOOK. 363 

officer, the court only order him to be severely reprimanded by his 
colonel in presence of the commanding officers of the regiment to 
which he belongs, as a punishment for his crime, and warning to other 
officers. Sergeant Hill, Sergeant Parker, Corporal Marvell, and Sam- 
uel Wood, of Captain Danforth's company, tried by the same court- 
martial for fraud. The court are of opinion the prisoners are guilty, 
and order them severally to return what they have taken by unjust 
methods to the right owner, and pay each one month's pay for the 
use of the sick in the regiment to which they belong, and be reduced 
to the ranks. The General approves the above sentences, and orders 
them to take place accordingly. 

Colonel Whitcomb, for the day, to-morrow. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 4th July, 1776. 

Parole, " Colonies " ; countersign, " Free." 

No officer is to bear a man on his return till he is regularly mus- 
tered. The commanding officer of each regiment is to appoint an 
officer to receive the fines that may be inflicted on said regiment for 
the use of the sick and other purposes, and make a return of their 
names on Saturday morning. 

Colonel Phinney, for the day, to-morrow. 

After Orders. — As the small-pox now prevails in Boston, the 
commanding officers at Dorchester and Castle Island are not to suffer 
any of their men to come to this town, except those who have had the 
small-pox ; and the utmost care must be taken to prevent any of the 
men from taking the distemper, as it will be a very dangerous conse- 
quence to have those posts infected, for, in case of an attack by the 
enemy, the country people would not come to their assistance. If any 
man should be taken with that distemper, he is immediately to be sent 
to the hospital ; and, if any should be so vile as to inoculate without 
order therefor, his commanding officer is to collect all possible evidence 
against him, that he may in due time be punished for his heinous crime. 
The General gives permission for the two regiments stationed in Bos- 
ton to receive the distemper by inoculation. The utmost care must be 
taken to prevent the distemper from beiug communicated to any person 
out of town, and the regiments and corps stationed out of Boston are 
by no means to take the small-pox until they have been therefor 
ordered by General Orders. 

Head-quarters, 5th July, 1776. 

Parole, " Inoculation " ; countersign, " Health." 
The commanding officers of regiments in town are to send those 
men in their respective regiments who do not incline to be inoculated 
(if there should be any) to Dorchester, under proper officers, there to 
be employed in completing the works on the Heights. No man is to 
inoculate in Boston after to-morrow ; therefore, all those that intend 
to take the distemper are to be inoculated immediately, that the town 
may be cleansed as soon as possible. The commissary is to supply the 



364 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

men who have the small-pox with Indian meal, rice, and other neces- 
saries, in the room of their common allowance. 
Officer of the day, to-morrow, Captain Cranston. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 6th July, 1776. 

Parole, " New York " ; countersign, " Troops." 

Colonel Phinney's quartermaster will inform the commissary to- 
morrow morning early what part of the regiment will draw rice, &c, 
instead of meat. Colonel Whitcomb's quartermaster will do the same 
on Monday morning. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 1th July, 1776. 

Parole, " Arms " ; countersign, " War." 

Captain Ballard, for the day, to-morrow. 

Guards, as this day. 

Those surgeons of regiments in town who have not sufficient medi- 
cine for the troops under the operation of small-pox are to apply to 
Dr. Rand, surgeon of the small-pox hospital. The surgeons of regi- 
ments and their mates must exert themselves to take the best care of 
the men under the operation of the small-pox. The General expects 
and orders that the utmost attention be paid to this important concern. 

Head-quarters, Boston, 8th July, 1776. 

Parole, " Magnanimity " ; countersign, " Honor." 
The commissary is to supply the hospital with necessary provisions. 
The commissary will pay the back rations due to the officers for the 
last quarter. The commanding officers of regiments and corps in town 
are to turn out their men every morning before sunrise for exercise : 
this must not be neglected, as their health greatly depends upon their 
taking the morning air and moderate exercise. All the officers are 
to take the best care of their men, and see that they do not go into 
any practice injurious to their health whilst under the operation of the 
small-pox. They must not sleep in their barracks in the daytime, 
expose themselves in the hot sun, nor to the fire, or any hot place, 
heat being very injurious, but keep themselves clean and cool, and 
attend carefully to the directions given them by their surgeon. 
Captain Prescott, for the day, to-morrow.