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Full text of "October Meeting, 1890. Journal of Ebenezer Wild; Letter of Louis De Maresquelle; Letter of Bernard Maussac Lamarquisie"

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66 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 



OCTOBER MEETING, 1890. 

The first meeting after the summer vacation was held on 
Thursday, the 9th instant, at three o'clock, p. M., the President, 
Dr. George E. Ellis, in the chair. 

After the reading of the record of the June meeting and of 
the names of the donors to the Library, the Cabinet-keeper 
exhibited a bearer's mourning-ring given at the funeral of 
Gov. William Burnet, in September, 1729, which had been 
presented to the Cabinet by Miss Chandler, of Lexington, a 
lineal descendant of Samuel Chandler, the representative of 
Concord in the General Court in that year. 

The President then said : — 

Our long vacation has closed, and wc resume our meetings. 
It may be that the word vacation, with what it covers and sug- 
gests, may at some time furnish the subject of an interesting 
historical paper. For the word and the thing have a history, 
and like so many other things in our days, ah evolution, 
a development. Our venerated associate, the late Dr. J. E. 
Worcester, was satisfied to define the word in his Standard 
Dictionary as meaning an intermission in the task-work of 
schools, colleges, and academies. The oldest of us here, when 
we were young, knew no other meaning for the word. The 
new edition of Webster, the so-called International Dictionary, 
just issued, recognizes the modern extension of the term, and 
puts that definition before its academic usage. The word now 
covers so broad a compass as to include a relief from work 
and duty of whole classes of grown persons whose offices and 
responsibilities were long regarded as not admitting of any in- 
termission. But even as now used, the word marks a sharp 
distinction between those who may enjoy a free vacation 
and those who must provide substitutes when they are re- 
lieved. For more than three quarters of the century of 
existence of our Society, the members, constant and regardless 
of summer heats and diversions, maintained their monthly 
meetings. It was in the summer of 1874 that, except during 



1890.] REMARKS BY THE PRESIDENT. 67 

the reconstruction of our building, we first skipped July and 
August, and ten years after that, in 1884, we obliterated 
September also. 

We have occasionally been favored at our meetings with 
the presence of Dr. George H. Moore, of the Lenox Library, 
New York, for half a century the most laborious and efficient 
of the officers of the New York Historical Society, and one of 
our Corresponding Members. We know what to expect when 
he rises here to read one of his vigorous papers. We know 
only through the press of some other of his productions which 
have brought our State and some incidents and actors in our 
history under his keen criticisms. We are familiar with the 
penetrating research with which he unearths buried secrets, 
and with the strength of championship which he gives to the 
rectification of accepted historic narrations. A recently pub- 
lished pamphlet of his, substantially founded on a lecture 
delivered by him before the New York Historical Society, 
shows the strongest and best characteristics of his method of 
elucidating and correcting some confused and mistaken state- 
ments in personal and general narratives. The matter to 
which I am to refer is one, not of local, but of national in- 
terest. It is in its whole import a vindication of the full and 
wise and ardent patriotism, in the period of our Revolution, of 
John Dickinson, of Pennsylvania. We all know how the esti- 
mate of his character and course of action was clouded and 
qualified by some of his patriot contemporaries and peers, like 
John Adams, and that the same shade and qualification have 
accompanied his repute in some of our digested histories. Dr. 
Moore's special aim is to assert for Dickinson — what has been 
boldly challenged — that he was the sole author of that $ble 
and noble State paper prepared at the request of, and ac- 
cepted by, the Congress of 1775, being " A Declaration of the 
Causes and Necessity of their Taking up Arms." Inciden- 
tally, in his pamphlet Dr. Moore gives us a summary sketch of 
the career and service of Dickinson in our annals ; but this is 
illustrative of, and subsidiary to, his main purpose of reclaim- 
ing for the wise and discreet patriot the unshared authorship 
of that cogent manifesto. The facts to be recognized are, 
that Dickinson did not approve or vote for the Declaration 
of Independence by the Congress, in July, 1776 ; that he was 
dropped by his constituency as a delegate to the next Con- 



68 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

gress ; that his name does not appear among the signatures to 
the Declaration of August 2 ; and that he did not recover his 
place in Congress till 1779. These facts are alleged as quali- 
fying his full and earnest patriotism. Let us take note of 
them. 

John Dickinson came of an honored lineage, family, and par- 
entage. He was highly educated, and after graduating at the 
College of New Jersey, he studied for three years in the Temple, 
London. His name is borne by the college which he founded. 
He entered upon successful and lucrative law practice on his 
return home. By birth, marriage, and burial, he was of the 
Society of Friends. He wore their garb, and used their gram- 
mar and dialect. He was in the full vigor of manhood when 
he became a delegate from Pennsylvania to the first Congress, 
in 1774. Studying his whole character and career, we readily 
discern that, like many other conspicuous, able, and eminent 
men in crises of enthusiastic and popular commotion, the very 
qualities of distinction and superiority above some of his asso- 
ciates which led him sagaciously to deliberation and forecast, 
were judged by them to be hesitancy and half-heartedness. 
John Adams charged Dickinson with " timidity." In the full 
light of truth his patriotism was courageous and wise, entire 
in self-devotion, discreet, inciting and helpful to others, and 
most valuable to his struggling country. His calm and deep 
solidity of mind, his wise deliberation, his prudential regard 
for opportunity and circumstance, gave him an advantage over 
some of his fervid and enthusiastic associates. These, his 
finest characteristics, found from some so inadequate an ap- 
preciation as to lead to misjudgment and even distrust of him. 
But his course and influence were steady and consistent. 
More than ten years before the Congress he had written an 
able and earnest protest on the aggressive action of Govern- 
ment toward the Colonies, besides his famous " Farmer's Let- 
ters," in which he denied the right of Parliament to tax 
unrepresented Colonies. Friend though he was, he wrote in 
1768 a rollicking " Song for American Freedom/' popular and 
inspiriting. He wrote for Congress the twp Petitions to the 
King, respectful, but sinewy and muscular in their tenor. 

He did not approve or vote for the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence. And why ? Simply and solely, as he afterwards ex- 
plained in most frank and manly argument, because, as he 



1890.] REMARKS BY THE PRESIDENT. 69 

said, it was, with reference to time and circumstance, inoppor- 
tune, and therefore, for the time, impolitic. Purity and sa- 
gacity, as well as patriotism, appear in the reasons that had 
weight with him for constraint and pause. But the Declara- 
tion having passed, be gave it his entire, earnest, and still de- 
liberate approval, steadfast and unwavering. Yet the formal 
document of August 2 does not bear his signature. And 
why ? The reason was, — and it was more consistent with 
his patriotic zeal than with his profession and principles as 
a Friend, — instead of being in his place in Congress, he was 
actually in command of his regiment at Elizabeth, New Jersey, 
to resist an expected attack from the enemy in New York. 
After being restored to Congress, he was elected successively 
as President of the States of Delaware and Pennsylvania. As 
a candidate for the latter high office in 1782, when he had 
bitter opponents, he wrote to the printers of Philadelphia ask- 
ing them to publish everything that was offered against him, 
but not a word in his favor. After his triumphant election, 
he published in a paper, almost unique in the manliness and 
cogency of its argument, the reasons of his sole objection to 
the Declaration of Independence as at the time inopportune. 
Yet he frankly admitted the right and authority of Congress 
to issue the Declaration, and the justice of it. 

To return now to the special matter of Dickinson's sole 
authorship of the " Declaration of the Reasons for Taking up 
Arms." His immediate contemporaries had recognized him as 
its writer. In a collection of his works which he published 
in 1801, this paper was included. But there are contingent 
risks in such matters. In 1804 appeared the first two volumes 
of Judge Marshall's Life of Washington. Dickinson's name 
is on the printed list of subscribers to the work. Having in- 
cluded in his own collection, published three years previously, 
both the petitions to the King, he read, to his amazement and 
mortification, the words of Marshall, that " the first petition to 
the King was generally attributed to Mr. Lee." Dickinson 
wrote to the Judge, sharply complaining of this reflection on 
him as having in print claimed what was not his. The Judge, 
in promptly correcting his error in his fourth volume, added 
that Dickinson's paper was in fact substituted by Congress 
for one written by Lee, which was not satisfactor}^. Of course, 
Dickinson's plea to the Judge covered also his authorship of 



70 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

the "Declaration," etc. Dickinson had been in his grave 
nearly a quarter of a century, when, in 1829, the works of Jef- 
ferson were published from his manuscripts by his nephew 
Randolph. Among these manuscripts were certain memo- 
randa which, under the date of Jan. 6, 1821, Jefferson sets 
down when, as he writes, he was seventy-seven years of age. 
It is well known how many of his statements have been 
challenged as incorrect, his errors being explained or palliated 
as of an old man's memory. Jefferson writes that on June 24, 
a Committee of Congress brought in a report drawn, he be- 
lieved, by J. Rutledge, of a Declaration of the Causes of 
Taking up Arms. The report being unsatisfactory, it was re- 
committed by the House, himself and Dickinson being added 
to the Committee. He proceeds: "I prepared a draft of 
the Declaration committed to us. It was too strong for Mr. 
Dickinson. He still retained the hope of reconciliation with 
the mother-country, and was unwilling it should be lessened 
by offensive statements. He was so honest a man and so able 
a one, that he was greatly indulged even by those who could 
not feel his scruples. We therefore requested him to take the 
paper and put it into a form he could approve. He did so, 
preparing an entire new statement, and preserving of the 
former only the last four paragraphs and half of the preceding 
one. We approved and reported it to Congress, who accepted 
it." Thus far Mr. Jefferson claims as his a certain portion 
of the " Declaration " which Dickinson published as from 
his own pen. It was but natural, therefore, that Jefferson's 
admiring biographer in 1837, Mr. Tucker, should quote that 
part of the Declaration which Jefferson had claimed, with the 
added compliment that it was the most effective part of it. 
The next biographer of Jefferson, Mr. Randall, extolling the 
power and popularity of the Declaration, and noting the rap- 
ture with which it was read in pulpits, market-places, and 
camps, adds : " It will not probably be denied that this cele- 
brated production owed most of its popularity to the last four 
paragraphs and half of the preceding one. It would have been 
a very ordinary affair without these. This was the only part 
the admiring historians quoted." Randall extols the humility 
with which Jefferson quietly " suffered all the reputation of it 
to rest with Mr. Dickinson." Mr. Parton's enthusiasm carries 
him even farther. Even Mr. Bancroft accepts, without crit- 



1890.] REMARKS BY THE PRESIDENT, 71 

icism, the reiterated statements founded on Jefferson's old 
man's memoranda. 

And now Dr. Moore, with the boldness of full assurance, 
writes: " I will defend, against all comers, the absolute, sole, 
and undivided right of John Dickinson, to that 6 imperishable 
trophy of his pen,' the original draft of which in his own hand- 
writing I hold in my hand." Dickinson had published the 
whole paper as his own composition. Jefferson claimed to 
have written a portion of it, and his biographers have pro- 
nounced that the most effective part of it. Following Dr. 
Moore, we read that when, some fifty years ago, he began his 
diligent and faithful labors as an officer of the New York His- 
torical Society, his attention had been only cursorily drawn to 
a mass of miscellaneous papers slumbering in the crowded 
cabinet of the Society. On his later examination of them, a 
manuscript drew his notice, which proved to be that of the 
famous "Declaration." Furnished with many of the most 
important autograph papers of Dickinson, by his grandson, the 
late Dr. John Dickinson Logan of Baltimore, Dr. Moore fully 
identified the patriotic document, and triumphantly affirms: 
"The original manuscript draft proves that the author of any 
part was the author of every part, — that there was but one 
hand in the work, and that the hand of John Dickinson." 
That his readers may share the grounds of his confidence, he 
has had a full and faithful fac-simile of the manuscript, which 
is in two folio sheets, reproduced by Bierstadt. The only plea 
that might be advanced, to the effect that Dickinson might 
have had in his hands the manuscript of the report which Jef- 
ferson says he wrote, and might have simply copied on his own 
paper that portion which Jefferson claimed was retained as his 
own, — is precluded by the visible fact, that that portion, like 
all the rest of the document, shows the process of original com- 
position and construction by the writer, with many corrections, 
additions, interlineations, and revisions. The last four para- 
graphs and a half are not a copy from anything, but faithfully 
wrought, as calmly studied, and frequently varied and amended. 
The whole of the manuscript — the portion of it under ques- 
tion not the least so — bears all the marks of a process of care- 
ful selection of words and construction of sentences, and the 
substitution of preferred terms which show an original as distinct 
from a copied document. Suum Ouique is Dr. Moore's motto. 



72 MASSACHUSETTS HISTOBICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

The Hon. Mellen Chamberlain expressed his concur- 
rence with all that had been said in praise of Mr. Dickinson, 
and spoke briefly of his services as a member of the Congress 
of 1765, remarking that the Resolutions of that Congress writ- 
ten by him contained the best exposition of the Constitutional 
Rights of the Colonies ever drawn up. 

The Hon. Robert C. Winthrop then spoke as follows : — 

I present to our Library this afternoon a volume recently 
published in Cincinnati, entitled " Life and Times of Ephraim 
Cutler, prepared from his Journals and Correspondence by his 
daughter, Julia Perkins Cutler, with Biographical Sketches of 
Jervis Cutler and William Parker Cutler." 

Ephraim Cutler, the principal subject of the volume, was a 
son of Manasseh Cutler, whose career and character have 
been recently portrayed in two most interesting and valuable 
volumes which are in our library, and with which we all are, 
or ought to be, familiar. The present volume can hardly be 
named in comparison with those ; but it contains much supple- 
mentary information, both about the family of which Manasseh 
was the head, and about the State of Ohio, which he was so 
instrumental in founding. 

In turning over the pages of this new volume cursorily, — 
for I do not pretend to have read it carefully, — I have been 
attracted by its references to two men, long since dead, with 
whom I was intimately associated in Congress, and for whom 
I formed a high regard and respect. 

One of them was Jeremiah Morrow, who represented the 
" Highland, Clinton, and Warren " Congressional District of 
Ohio in 1841. He was born at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, — 
then a little village, more recently a celebrated battle-field, — 
in 1771, and was, of course, nearly forty years older than 
myself. He had been a member of the Northwestern Terri- 
torial Legislature in 1801, and of the Ohio Constitutional 
Convention in 1802. He was the first member of Congress 
from Ohio, and continued a member from 1803 to 1813. He 
was a Senator of the United States from Ohio from 1813 to 
1819, and Governor of Ohio from 1822 to 1826. He had now, 
at seventy years of age, consented to be returned as a Rep- 
resentative in the twenty-seventh Congress, — the Congress 
which was called together for a special session by his friend, 



1890.] REMABKS BY HON. R. C. WINTHEOP. 73 

President William Henry Harrison, but which, alas ! his friend 
William Henry Harrison did not live to see assembled. It 
was a midsummer session, beginning in the last week of May, 
and not ending, if I rightly remember, until about the 13th of 
September. There was intense heat ; but that was the least of 
our troubles. It was the session of bank acts, and bankrupt 
acts, and bills for the distribution of the proceeds of the 
public lands, when Congress was almost daily brought into 
controversy and collision with President Tyler, when veto fol- 
lowed veto in quick succession, and when cabinets and even 
parties were broken up. 

In those days members of Congress had no salaries, — a 
pitiful per diem of eight dollars during the continuance of the 
session was their allowance ; and of course they could not af- 
ford to build or hire fine houses to dwell in. They lived in 
what were called " messes," — small parties clubbing together 
in boarding-houses. It was in such a mess that I formed the 
acquaintance and friendship of Jeremiah Morrow. We were 
seven : two Senators, — John Leeds Kerr, of Maryland, and 
Oliver H. Smith, of Indiana, — and five Representatives, — Da- 
vid Wallace, of Indiana ; Isaac D. Jones, of Maryland ; Jeremiah 
Morrow, of Ohio ; Leverett Saltonstall, of Massachusetts ; and 
myself. I recall them all with warm regard ; Oliver H. Smith 
with something higher than regard ; Leverett Saltonstall with 
respect and affection ; Jeremiah Morrow almost with venera- 
tion. He was older even than his years ; but he bore the bur- 
den and heat of that trying session with more patience than 
any of us. He was an example to us all, and had wisdom and 
experience enough in public affairs to instruct a whole Con- 
gress. Amid all the excitements and provocations of that 
memorable session he remained calm and collected, discharging 
his duties as Chairman of the Committee on Public Lands 
with untiring diligence, while in the private associations of 
our little mess he was a genial and most instructive compan- 
ion. I was most glad to be reminded, in some of the pages of 
this Cutler volume, of kind old Jeremiah Morrow, whom I 
never saw again after the twenty-seventh Congress ended, and 
who died early in 1852. 

The other old associate in Congress to whom I have found 
repeated references in this new Cutler volume, is one whom I 
knew much longer and more intimately. He was a native of 

10 



74 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

Massachusetts, and I am glad of an opportunity to speak of 
him to a Massachusetts Historical Society. I refer to Samuel 
Finley Vinton, who was so distinguished a member of Con- 
gress for a great many years from the State of Ohio. He was 
born in South Hadley, in our old county of Hampshire, on the 
25th of September, 1792, and was graduated at Williams Col- 
lege in 1814. Having pursued the study of law, he was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1816, and soon afterwards removed to 
Gallipolis in Ohio, where he practised his profession with great 
success and distinction. 

It was to him that Ohio owed the passage of a law author- 
izing and empowering her Legislature to sell the school lands 
which had been granted her by Congress in 1803, and which 
covered a full thirty-sixth part of her whole territory, and to 
invest the proceeds in a permanent fund of which the income 
should be forever applied to the support of schools. The 
benefits of this law have since been extended to all the new 
States. Mr. Vinton is thus most honorably associated with 
the first great measure of that national aid for education 
which has recently been the subject of discussion in other 
relations. 

He was a Representative in Congress from 1823 to 1837, 
and again from 1843 to 1851, — twenty-two years in all. On 
his retirement from Congress, and after his defeat as a candi- 
date for Governor of Ohio, at the same election and under the 
same circumstances with a similar defeat here in Massachu- 
setts, which I have special reason to remember, he continued 
to reside at Washington in the practice of the law ; and he 
died there in May, 1862, in the seventieth year of his age. 
His last public service of importance was as a member of the 
celebrated Peace Convention in 1861. 

He was a man of eminent ability, of great political experi- 
ence and wisdom, and of the highest integrity and personal 
excellence.. He might at one time have been Secretary of the 
Treasury, had he been willing to accept that office. He might 
have been Speaker of the House of Representatives of the 
United States in 1847, had he not positively declined the nom- 
ination. As Chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means 
of the Thirtieth Congress, he rendered distinguished and in- 
valuable service. It was my privilege to enjoy his friendship 
and confidence during all my congressional career. We were 



1890.] REMARKS BY HON. R. C. WINTHROP. 75 

in sympathy and accord, as members of the old Whig party, 
during that whole period of eleven or twelve years, without 
the slightest disagreement on any important question of pub- 
lic interest. Our friendship and confidential correspondence 
ended only with his death, when I contributed a brief notice 
of his character and services to I forget which one of our 
Boston newspapers, and of which I have no copy. 

I look back with pleasure and with pride to an intimate 
association in Washington with not a few of the most eminent 
men of Ohio : with old Jeremiah Morrow, — of whom I 
have already spoken, — the very first Representative from 
that now imperial State of the West, afterwards her Gov- 
ernor and one of her Senators ; with John McLean, so long 
an ornament, and more than an ornament, decus et tutamen, 
of our Supreme Bench ; with Thomas Ewing, repeatedly one 
of her Senators, and successively Secretary of the Treasury 
and Secretary of the Interior, one of the most acute lawyers 
and ablest financiers of our country ; and with others of hardly 
less distinction, dead or living, whom I need not name. But 
there are none of them whom I recall with greater respect, or 
with a warmer or more affectionate regard, than Samuel 
Finley Vinton. 

It may be imagined under these circumstances that it was 
with something stronger than astonishment that in running 
my eye over the pages of the first volume of Mr. Blaine's 
" Twenty Years of Congress," I found myself represented as 
having been chosen Speaker " over " Mr. Vinton, though he 
was my senior in age and in service, and as having thus occa- 
sioned " no little feeling in the West," where Mr. Vinton 
" was widely known and highly esteemed." And this as u a 
reward for my vote for the Wilmot Proviso," — as if Mr. Vin- 
ton and I had ever disagreed about that Proviso ! Now, the 
truth is, that we never disagreed about anything, and that I 
was nominated and elected Speaker after he had declined the 
nomination on account of his age and health, and with his 
earnest advocacy and support. 

I do not refer to this matter with any view to cast reproach 
on Mr. Blaine's History. On the mistake being brought to his 
attention, he took pains to insert a brief correction in the ap- 
pendix to his second volume, where it will be found at page 
678. The only wonder is that there are not more mistakes 



76 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

to be found in a work so hastily prepared, and covering the 
proceedings of Congress during many years previous to his be- 
coming a member. His account of my election as Speaker in 
1847, and of my failure to be re-elected, after sixty-three bal- 
lotings, in 1849, are both extremely inaccurate, though I have 
not the slightest belief that they were intentionally so. Both 
events were long anterior to his own entrance into Congress. 
Of course he had no personal knowledge of the facts, and was 
obliged to borrow his accounts from newspapers or letter- 
writers' reports. His History is an able and interesting one, 
and I have no doubt of the general accuracy of the portion of 
it in which he describes the doings of Congress after he him- 
self became a Representative from Maine, in 1863. I am 
glad, however, of an opportunity to place this brief correc- 
tion where it will more easily be found than in the small 
type of an appendix to a different volume of his History 
from that in which the errors occurred. 

I may add that a daughter of my friend Mr. Vinton, now 
residing at Washington, is the widow of the late Admiral 
Dahlgren, whose distinguished services in the War for the 
Union are matters of history. I have sometimes hoped that 
from her ready and practised pen we might have a more 
adequate memoir of her honored father than is now to be 
found. 

Dr. William Everett said that although he had been in 
England many times he had not visited Chester until the last 
summer, and gave an account of some recent excavations in 
that city. Among other objects of interest discovered was a 
Roman column, of which he presented a photograph, showing 
the exact appearance of the column when the earth was first 
removed. 

Dr. Samuel A. Green called the attention of the Society 
to a photographic group of the members, which was originally 
taken at a stated meeting held at Mr. Tudor's house, Nahant, 
on August 11, 1858. A full account of the meeting is given 
in the printed Proceedings (vol. iv. pp. 112-122), but there 
is no reference whatever to the fact that a picture was then 
taken. The manuscript records, however, mention the circum- 
stance, as follows : — 



8 



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S 



I 



3 



00 
00 



I $?*■■ ,^^ ; ^nH 








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v 1 * 


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£. 








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. 







1890.J REMARKS BY DR. S. A. GREEK. 77 

" In the course of the day several stereoscopic views were taken of 
Mr. Tu dor's cottage, with the members of the Society grouped on the 
lawn in the foreground." 

At the meeting on Feb. 11, 1864, the Hon. Robert C. 
Winthrop, at that time the President of the Society, in 
announcing Mr. Tudor' s death and in referring to this meeting 
at his house, used the following language : — 

" A beautiful stereoscopic picture of the mansion and grounds, with 
the Society assembled on the lawn, was taken before we parted. That 
picture has a melancholy interest for us all at this moment, reminding 
us how many of those whom we loved and honored most have been 
stricken from the roll of our living members during the few years 
which have intervened. Prescott, Chief-Justice Shaw, Nathan Apple- 
ton, Dr. Luther V Bell, and Nathaniel Ingersoll Bowditch were among 
those who were most prominently clustered around our departed friend 
on that occasion, and whom he has now followed to the grave. Their 
forms and features, with his own, are already beginning to fade in the 
pictured group ; but it will be long before the memories of any of them 
will be effaced from our hearts." (Proceedings, vol. vii. pp. 305, 
806.) 

The Society owns four different stereoscopic views of the 
group on glass, which were doubtless given soon after they were 
taken; but unfortunately the records do not show either 
when or by whom they were presented. Two of the views were 
taken with the camera at such a distance from the group that 
the figures are too small to be reproduced distinctly. Of the 
other two, with the camera nearer to the group, one is better 
than the other ; and of this a photographic copy, considerably 
enlarged, has been made, which is, in the main, satisfactory. 
It represents twenty-eight persons, besides one or two very in- 
distinct figures which cannot be identified ; and of these twenty- 
eight, only three are now living, — namely, Mr. Winthrop, 
Dr. Ellis, and Dr. Wheatland. The following are the names 
of the members in the front line of the picture, beginning 
with the President and those seated nearest to him on each 
side : Mr. Winthrop appears, holding his white hat over the 
right knee ; and on his right are seated in regular order 
Jared Sparks, Nathan Appleton, Charles Brooks, Joseph E. 
Worcester, and William Minot; and on his left are seated 
Frederick Tudor, Lemuel Shaw, William H. Prescott, Na- 
thaniel B. Shurtleff, and John H. Clifford. In the rear line, 



78 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

beginning at the extreme left of the picture, stand in regular 
order William Newell, Richard Frothingham, George E. Ellis, 
Henry W. Longfellow, Ellis Ames, Thomas Aspinwall, Na- 
thaniel I. Bowditch, Thomas H. Webb, Samuel K. Lothrop, 
George W. Blagden, Chandler Robbins, George Livermore, 
Luther V Bell, Solomon Lincoln, Henry Wheatland, Emory 
Washburn, and Edmund H. Sears. 

Two similar groups, one earlier and the other later, have 
been taken of the members present at meetings, and both are 
given in the Proceedings of the Society. The first one was 
originally taken on May 17, 1855, and appears as the frontis- 
piece in the second volume ; and the second, on June 10, 1869, 
as the frontispiece in the third volume (second series). 

In the absence of Mr. James M. Bugbee, Mr. Charles 
C. Smith presented, in the name of that gentleman, some 
extracts from the Journal of Ebenezer Wild, to which refer- 
ence was made at the June Meeting. 

The Journal of Ebenezer Wild 1 (1776-1781), who served as Corpo- 
ral, Sergeant, Ensign, and Lieutenant in the American Army of the 
Revolution. 

[Ebenezer Wild was born (probably in Braintree, Massachusetts) in 
1758, and died in Boston, Dec. 4, 1794. He enlisted as a corporal, May 
12, 1775, in Capt. Lemuel Trescott's company, of Col. Jonathan Brewer's 
regiment, and was probably in the battle of Bunker Hill. He began 
to keep a daily journal on the 7th of August, 1776, the date at which 
Captain Trescott's company began its march to Ticonderoga. In the 
following year he was made a Sergeant in Captain Hancock's company 
of Col. Joseph Vose's (First) regiment, and served in that capacity 
in the campaign against Burgoyne, 1777, and the campaign in New 
Jersey and Rhode Island, 1778. He was commissioned Ensign Jan. 1, 
1780, and Lieutenant May 11, 1781, and was on active duty in New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, including the arduous campaign 
which ended with the surrender of the British army at Yorktown. 

1 See ante, p. 39, for a statement in relation to the Journal of Arnold's Expe- 
dition to Quebec in 1775, published under the name of Ebenezer Wild, in the 
Proceedings, 2d ser. vol. ii. pp. 265-275. In the Journal here published the 
author wrote his name so that it appears to be " Wilds." The signature to the 
" Institution " of the Society of the Cincinnati, of which he was an original 
member, also appears to be " Wilds," and it is so printed in Saffell's list of 
" Officers Entitled to Half-Pay." But the family name was " Wild " ; and Mr. 
C. T. Wild, the grandson now living, says that what appears to be the letter 
"s" was merely a flourish of the pen. 



1890.] JOURNAL OP EBENEZER WILD. 79 

The original journal, contained in seven small books of unequal size, 
is in the possession of Mr. Charles Tidd Wild, of Chelsea, the grand- 
son of the author. There is no doubt as to its genuineness. Whatever 
value it has is due to the fact that the writer jotted down from day to 
day the things that seemed to him the most important in connection 
with his own doings and the doings of the military bodies to which he 
happened to be attached. He indulges in no flourishes. His state- 
ments are generally concise and clear. He was only eighteen years of 
age at the time he began his journal, and having little facility in the 
use of a pen, he was not tempted to enlarge upon his daily experiences. 
There is a certain modest reticence in the daily entries which impresses 
one favorably as to the integrity and simplicity of the writer's character. 
He appears to have been a good representative of the best element in 
the army of the Revolution, — patriotic, courageous, truthful, — doing 
the thing he was set to do honestly and with singleness of purpose. 

The journal gives a good idea of the routine of camp life, the punish- 
ments inflicted, and the endurance of the men in their long marches ; 
and here and there among the entries will be found a statement of some 
historical value. 

Many of the entries in the original journal consist merely of a state- 
ment concerning the weather, and that " nothing remarkable " occurred 
in camp that day. In the copy here given those entries (except where 
they have some relation to what precedes or follows) are omitted. In 
the first six books of the original most of the words are misspelled, and 
there is no punctuation. In this copy the spelling of ordinary words 
is corrected, and the matter is punctuated so as to make it easily in- 
telligible. Wherever there is the slightest doubt as to the meaning 
of words or sentences, and in every instance in which the spelling is 
peculiar, a literal transcript has been made ; and what is supposed to 
be the correct rendering is inclosed in brackets. No addition has been 
made to the original text without being so designated.] 

[Book No. 1.] 

Wednesday, the 7 th day of August, 1776. This morning all our men 
were cleansed of the small pox and got ready for our march. In the 
afternoon we marched to Roxbury, and took up our lodging in the 
barracks there. 

8 Aug, This morning at daylight we began our march for Ticonde- 
roga. Marched 5 miles, and stopped in a field at Little Cambridge, to 
rest ourselves and to eat some victuals. After some stop there we set out 
and marched as far as Waltham Plains, where we stopped till 3 o'clk. 
Then we set out again, and we reached Concord about sundown. Our 
men all slept in the Metten Hose [meeting-house]. I lodged with 
Mr. Brown. 



80 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [OCT. 

9 Aug. This morning at 6 o'clk we marched from Concord. 
Marched 5 miles, and stopped in Shirley [Acton] and got some break- 
fast. After some stop there we set out again, and reached Littleton 
about 3 o'clk. Our men put up in the meeting house, and cooked pro- 
visions there for the next day. The officers dined at Mr. Prentiss', and 
lodged there at night. 

10 Aug. This morning at 6 o'clk we marched from Littleton. 
Marched 6 miles, and stopped to rest and eat some victuals [at Groton]. 
After stopping there till 3 o'clk, we marched again, and reached Lunen- 
burg about sunset, and encamped there on a piece of low ground some 
distance from the road. Lodged in camp this night. 

11 Aug. This morning something wet and lowering. We rested all 
here in camp. We were forbid going to Meetten [meeting], because 
the people here were afraid of the small pox ; but after meeting in the 
afternoon the parson preached a sarmond [sermon] to the regt. One 
of our com'y begun to break out with the small pox here. 

12 Aug. Last night it was very rainy all night. Something lower- 
ing this morning. We set out on our march about 7 o'clk. Left an 
officer and party of men to bring up the tents of the regt. We marched 
5 miles, and stopped in Fitchburg to breakfast. We stopped there 
sometime ; then set out again, and reached Ashburnham about 4 o'clk. 
The road began very bad here, and the weather was rainy all day ; 
so that we were very uncomfortable, and we could not get any* 
thing for our refreshment here. We lodged in the meeting house 
this night. 

13 Aug. We set out this morning at 6 o'clk. Marched as far as 
Winchendon, where we stopped to rest and refresh ourselves to go 
further ; but the roads were so bad that our wagons did not come till 
night, so we tarried there and slept in the meeting house. 

14 Aug. We marched this morning at 6 o'clk. Went 7 miles, and 
stopped to breakfast. After stopping there some time, then we marched 
again, and reached Fitzwilliam [N. H.], at 3 o'clk. Here the regt. 
put up [in] a very scattered manner for a mile and a half. Our com- 
pany was in rear of the whole ; and we got very good entertainment 
here, and got all our clothes washed. This part of the country very 
mountainous and not much settled. Our wagons came up here in good 
season. We lodged in a barn this night. 

15 Aug. This morning early on our march. Travelled about six 
miles, and stopped to rest and refresh ourselves. After some stop 
there we marched again through a very thick pine woods, and we got 
into Swanzey [N. H.], about 3 or 4 o'clk. We were very wet, having 
had a very hard shower through the woods. Our company stopped 
here for the wagons to come up, & to cook some provisions which it 
ate about 9 o'clk at night We set out to go to Keene to the rest of 
the regt. We had not gone far before we lost our way. Travelled 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBEI*EZER WILD. 81 

one mile into the woods and up a large hill. It was very dark, and 
bad going. We came to a house, & the man that lived there went 
back and put us in the right road ; and we marched on for Keene, and 
reached there about 12 o'clk at night. Our company lodged in the 
school house this night. 

This place is very pleasant and thick settled. The roads here are 
very level. 

1 6 Aug. This morning the regt. marched about half after 5 o'clk, 
and we travelled as far as Surrey and stopped here to breakfast. 
We stopped here till 3 o'clk, then set out again on our march and 
reached Wallpool [Walpole, N. H.] meeting house about sunset. 
4 companies put up in the meeting house, and the other 4 went to 
Coll° Belouss [Col. Benjamin Bellows'] tavern, about a mile further. 
I got milk for supper, and lodged in the meeting house this night. 
The roads this way are pretty good, and this place is much settled ; 
but there ar,e very high mountains here. 

17 Aug. This morning, lowering. We set out very early, and 
marched as far as Coll° Bellowss to the rest of the regt. Here we 
stopped some time, and got some milk for breakfast. This Coll Bel- 
lows is a very old warar [warrior], and his house stands on a small 
eminence? and there is an old Fort there with one 4 pounder mounted 
in it. After making some stop here we marched and reached Number 4 
[Charlestown, N. H.] about 12 o'clk, and encamped there on a piece 
of low ground some distance from the sreet [street] and a little above 
the meeting-house. This town lieth by the side of Connecticut river, 
and is very thick settled. The people here are of a very disobliging 
make. We drew provisions here to carry us to Ticonderoga. 

18 Aug. Very warm and pleasant all day. We rested here in 
camp. In the afternoon I went to meeting. After meeting Coll 
Phinnes [Phinney's] regt, came into town. They had no tents, but 
got covering in houses and barns. 

19 Aug. This morning we had orders to get ready to march at 
12 o'clk, but could not so soon, because we could not get all our pro- 
visions at that time. We left one of our Company in this town sick. 
We set out about 3 o'clk on our march. Travelled 3 miles, and crossed 
Connecticut river. This river is not very deep, but very rapid ; and 
we found it very difficult crossing on account of our baggage and 
wagons, for we were forced to bring them over in small scows. It was 
near sunset when [we] got over. Here was a very large new house 
and some old buildings. There was a block-house that was kept last 
war as a garrison. We could not get entertainment here, so we set 
out to go further, it being after sunset when we set out. It was very 
bad road, up mountains and down valleys, through very thick woods, 
very dark and miry. Thus we travelled about 6 miles before we could 

11 



82 MASSACHUSETTS* HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

[find] any place for our lodgings. Then we stopped at a place called 
a tavern, and lodged in a barn, being very tired and fatigued. 

20 Aug. This morning something lowering. We rested here all 
day, waiting for the rest of oar regt. and wagons to come up, — which 
did not till late, and we took up our quarters here again. This place 
is called Springfield [Vt.]. This is New York government. This 
place is not much settled and very mountainous. 

21 Aug. This morning we set out about 7 o'clk, travelled about 
7 miles, and stopped at a hut in Weathersfield [Vt.] ; and there we 
cooked one days provision. The roads so bad that our wagons did not 
come up till late ; so we pitched our tents here in the woods. 

22 Aug. This morning we struck our tents and put them up in the 
wagons, and took all our own baggage out of the wagons, because the 
roads were so bad ; and set out on our march about 7 o'clk, and 
marched 6 miles through very thick woods, and stopped there some 
time and cooked some provisions. Then marched a little further and 
took up our lodgings in the woods. This place is called Cavendish ; 
it is very wild and unsettled. 

23 Aug* This morning we set out on our march pretty early. 
Marched as far as Black river Pond in Saltash County, 1 where we 
stopped the rest of the day waiting for the wagons to come up, which 
did not till late. We took up our lodgings here in the woods. This 
place looked in the most gloomy manner. It is by the side [of a] 
very high mountain and very thick woods, and we could not sleep for 
the howling of wild beasts around us. Thus we spent this night. 

24 Aug. This morning we did not set out till 9 o'clk. Here our 
provisions began to grow scant, and we were obliged to leave the most 
of our pots and kilds [kettles], and throw away our tentpoles to 
lighten our wagons, the way was so bad. We travelled as far as Lud- 
lows camp, where we cooked some provisions and prepared our lodg- 
ings in the woods. Here was one small hut. 

25 Aug. We marched this morning at 7 o'clk. Travelled 7 miles, 
and stopped there till 3 o'clk ; then set out and went 4 miles further, and 
stopped at a place called Derum [Durham]. This place is settled, but 
is very pleasant, and we got good entertainment here. We slept in a 
barn this night. 

26 Aug. This morning we removed to main road, where there were 
2 or 3 huts close together. Here we cooked the last of our pro- 
visions, and stayed here all day waiting for our wagons to come up, 
which did not till night. Then the Maj r gave orders for every Capt. to 

1 There was no county of that name. A settlement in the western part of 
Windsor County was first known by the name of " Saltash " ; in 1797 it was 
named "Plymouth." 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 83 

go to his respective quarters and be ready to march at 4 o'ck in the 
morning. 

27 Aug. This morning being rainy, we did not march till 8 o'ck ; 
then set out for the creek, where we reached about 1 1 o'ck. It being 
rainy and the freshet raised, we found it very bad getting over ; but we 
did by falling some trees and much trouble, and stopped the other side 
till 3 o'clk. Then set out and travelled 3 miles further, crossing several 
other bad places, till we came to a pretty deep river, where we crossed 
in a connew [canoe] and lodged in a barn the other side. 

28 Aug. This morning wet and lowering. The regt. on the other 
side made a raft to bring over baggage. We got it all over, and the 
regt. ready to march at 2 o'ck. Then marched to the saw mills in 
Castletown, and built some huts with boards, where we lodged thi9 
night. 

29 Aug, This morning early we set out from the saw [mills], 
marched half a mile, and came to a river 5 foot deep and 3 rods across. 
We met with much trouble in getting over. After we got over we 
marched about 4 miles further, where we had to cross another river, but 
it was not so deep ; but the stream ran very swift. We got over by 
falling some trees over the river. We were now in great want of some 
provision, for we had none for 2 days. We travelled about 4 miles, 
where we came to a small hut in the wood. We could [get] nothing 
to eat here except some green corn. We stopped here till the regt. got 
together ; then we marched to Skeansbro [Skenesborough, now White- 
hall, N. Y.], where we reached about sunset. This place lieth on a 
kind of swamp by the side of the lake. It hath a large stone build- 
ing in it. We were obliged to take up our lodging on the ground 
without anything to cover us. 

30 Aug. Last night it rained very hard the biggest part of the 
night. This morning we removed over the lake and dried our baggage, 
and got ready to go to Ticonderoga. We prepared our battows [bat- 
teaux] , and got the most of our baggage on board this night. 

31 Aug. This morning early we embarked for Ticonderoga. We 
arrived there about 5 o'clk in the afternoon, and encamped there on the 
side of the lake. I mounted the quarter of the regt. It rained all night. 

1 Sept. 1776. This morning the weather wet and very foggy. We 
drew a half a pound of pork per man — and the first provision we drew 
in Ticonderoga. 

3 Sept. This morning Lt. Allen, with a party of men, set out to go 
to Skeens? with the batteaux that we came here in. Capt. Cramp- 
ton, with another party, went to clearing a spot of ground for our 
encampment. 

4 Sept. About 3 o'clk this afternoon we removed our encampment 
to the hill near the French lines. Nothing remarkable to-day. 



84 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

6 Sept. This afternoon Coll Phinney's regt. arrived here, and went 
to Mount Independence. 

7 Sept. This morning the Major gave orders for all the cappenders 
[carpenters] to go to work getting lumber for the regt. 

8 Sept. Coll° Phinney's regt. received orders to be in readiness to 
march to Fort George. 

9 Sept. This day I went on fatigue at the French lines. About 12 
o'clk Coll Phinney's regt. marched for Fort George. 

10 Sept. This morning I mounted the quarter guard. 

11 Sept. This morning I was relieved from the quarter guard. 
Left one prisoner there confined for neglect of duty. 

12 Sept. One of our regt. was flogged 39 lashes for desertion and 
39 [for] intyting [enticing ?] into another company. 

13 Sept. This day Sergt. Major Orr was appointed Ensign of Capt. 
Danforth's Comp'y; Sergt. Daniel M c Lane was appointed Sergt 
Major. 

16 Sept. This afternoon our inverleads [invalids] arrived here from 
Boston. They brought no news. 

17 Sept. This morning I mounted the batteaux guards. 

18 Sept. About 9 o'clk I was relieved from guard, and nothing 
remarkable happened all day. 

20 Sept This forenoon Capt. Stevens Comp'y of artillery removed 
their encampment from Mount Independence to the heights of Ticon- 
deroga, near the French lines. 

21 Sept. About 10 o'clk I relieved a Sergt. at Gen! St. Clair's, and 
went with the Gen. to visit all the new guards, it being the first day of 
their being posted. 

22 Sept. This morning about 10 o'clk I was relieved from the 
Gen 18 . After breakfast all our brigade turned out to go to prayers. 

23 Sept. This morning before daylight I set out on the scout. We 
went about 7 miles in the woods towards Crown Point. We saw noth- 
ing remarkable, and returned to the camp again about 10 o'clk. 

24 Sept. A number of sick men of our regt. went to the hospital 
to-day. 

26 Sept. About 10 o'ck this evening our camp was alarmed. The 
occasion was by some drunken Indians firing guns. 

28 Sept. This afternoon one of Capt Haynes's men died, being the 
first of the regt. since we have been here. 

30 Sept. This morning I mounted the main guard. I went the 
grand rounds at night. Found the guards in general very dilatory of 
their duty. 

2 Oct. 1776. About 11 o'clk I went to attend a general Court Mar- 
tial. After the Court was adjourned I went over to Mt. Independence. 
2 Galleys sailed from here this afternoon to join Gen 1 Arnold's fleet. 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 85 

3 Oct About 10 o'clk this night a party of our invalids got here 
from Boston. 

6 Oct. About 11 o'clk the sick men of our regt. went to Fort 
George, under the care of Capt. Allen. 

13 Oct. This morning I went on fatigue at the French lines. 
About 10 o'clk we heard a very heavy firing of cannon down the lake, 
which continued till about 12 o'clk. Soon after that we heard that the 
biggest part of our fleet was destroyed by the enemy, and that they had 
Crown Point in their possession ; which alarmed our camps very much. 

14 Oct. This morning very foggy. We turned out before daylight 
and manned the lines, expecting that the enemy would pay us a visit ; 
but they did not. We returned from the lines about 8 o'clk. About 
9 I mounted the quarter guard. About 10 o'ck all our men that were 
not to bear arms went to Fort George. About sunset Lt. Cushing 
with 2 more of our comp'y arrived here. They belonged to the Con- 
gress galley, which they run ashore and blew up, and made their escape 
through the woods. About 1 1 o'clk at night our picket turned out and 
was ordered down the lake to see if they could make any discovery of 
the enemy ; and my guard was doubled. 

17 Oct. This morning I went to the Gen 19 and attended there for 
orders all day. At night I returned to our camp again. 

18 Oct. This morning one of our regt. was flogged 39 lashes for 
desertion. 

19 Oct. This morning I went over to Mount Pleasant with a party 
of men to cut fasheans [fascines], and worked there all day. At night 
I mounted picket. 

20 Oct. This morning all our brigade turned out and went to pray- 
ers. After prayers I mounted the Jarseys redoubt guard. 

22 Oct. This day I was on fatigue at the old French fort. About 
1 o'clk our sick men went to Fort George Hospital. 

23 Oct. This morning before daylight I set out with a party of 
men on the scout. We went as far as 3 Mile Point ; stayed there a 
little while ; then returned to a place near our camp and stayed there, 
as a covering party for some that were cutting down trees, till about 
5 o'clk, then returned to our camp again. Last night as our men were 
going to the landing one of our Comp'y was so bad that he could not 
walk. As 2 men were carrying him along by a thick wood a number 
of savages rushed out and killed the sick man and took the other 2 
prisoners. 

26 Oct. This morning about 11 o'clk returned the 2 men that were 
taken by the savages. 

28 Oct. This morning before daylight I set out on the scout. Went 
as [far as] 3 Mile Point. We had not been gone long before we made 
some discovery of the enemy coming up the lake in batteaux. We 



86 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [OCT. 

returned to our camp with all speed, according to our orders. Before 
we had got into camp, there was a large party of the enemy landed on 
3 Mile Point, and 2 or 3 of their batteaux came up within cannon shot 
of our redoubts, to which our people fired several well aimed shots and 
drove them back again. We were under arms all day in camp, expect- 
ing every moment when to see the enemy advancing upon our lines. 
But they were not so neighborly as to pay us a visit at all. We kept 
a very strong picket all night. 

29 Oct, This morning we all turned out and manned the lines at 
daylight, and stayed there till about 8 o'clk. In the afternoon I 
went up to Mt. Hope with a recruiting party, and bed [beat] up for 
volunteers. 

2 Nov, Nothing remarkable to-day in camp. This evening about 9 
o'clk there was a large party of men sent to Putnam's Point upon some 
expedition — I know not what. Very pleasant weather, but cold. I 
mounted picket this night. 

3 Nov. Last night there was some snow fell in the forepart of the 
night. This morning clear and very cold. Nothing strange to-day in 
camp. This evening I mounted picket. 

6 Nov, This forenoon I went up to Mount Hope to see an acquaint- 
ance of mine. At night I mounted picket. 

12 Nov, After roll call Sergt. Bowles and I went down to the 
Gen la and helped Sergt. Cary home. He was taken sick there 2 days 
before. 

15 Nov. This day I was orderly for the officer of the day. Went 
the rounds by day and night. Found the guards in general pretty alert 
on their posts. 

16 Nov, To-day Sergt. Meacham was taken sick with the camp 
distemper. Now we have 2 sick messmates. 

18 Nov, This morning I went on fatigue. Went up the lake about 
3 mile in a scow and got a load of wood. 

19 Nov, This afternoon Maj' Frazer set out to go to Albany. Sergt. 
Sanford went with him. 

20 Nov. This morning early Capt. Trescott set out to go to York. 
I went to headquarters, and attended there for orders all day and night. 

23 Nov. This forenoon Col. Wigglesworth's rgt. embarked for 
Skens [Skenesboro']. 3 Companies of Col. Read's set out to go to 
the Landing. 

26 Nov, This day I went on fatigue at the French lines. Col. 
Welocks [Col. Marinus Willett ?] and Woodbridge regts set out to go 
to Skeans [Skenesboro'] by land. 

30 Nov, This day I went on fatigue. Took a party of men and 
went all over the encampment, and picked up all the intrenching tools, 
and carried them into the fort. 



1890] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 87 

4 Dec, 1776. Last night died Daniel Badger of our Company. 

5 Dec. This morning about 9 o'clk there were 6 men fog d 
[flogged] at the whipping-post. I went on fatigue. Took 15 men 
and went up to the mills in a scow and got a load of flower [flour] and 
slabs. I got back again about sunset. 

7 Dec. This evening Capt. Trescott arrived here from Albany. 

8 Dec. At 9 o'clk all our troops turned out to be reviewed by Col. 
Wane [Wayne], our Commander-in-Chief. 

11 Dec. This forenoon I went up to the Landing to carry some 
letters to send to Boston and Albany. 

15 Dec. Last night the lake froze all over. 

17 Dec. This morning about 10 o'clk all our troops turned out 
and fired a fudejoy \_feu de joie\ on account of some good news from 
our army at New York. 

21 Dec. In the evening we went up to the Mills, and to supper 
there, and boud a cheas [bought a cheese]. 

22 Dec. This morning I went to headquarters and got a furlough to 
leave camp ; then returned to our hut again, and got ready to proceed 
on my journey. 

23 Dec. About 10 o'clk I set out on my journey for Boston. I 
travelled 18 miles before I came [to] any sort [of a] habitation. 
Then I came to a hut, where I stopped and got a glass of spirits. 
Then I travelled on 4 miles further and came to [a] hut, where I 
stopped and got some supper, and lodged on the floor this night before 
the fire. This place is called Hubbardton [?]. 

24 Dec. I set out this morning before daylight and travelled 7 
miles, and stopped at one Bennets in Castletown and got some break- 
fast. After stopping there some time I set out and travelled about 6 
miles, to one Col. Meads. Stopped there some time, and got some 
refreshment. Then set out and travelled 7 miles further, and stopped 
at one Mr. Fosters in Fearfield [Fairfield, ?], on Otter Creek. 1 got 
supper and lodging here this night. 

25 Dec. I set out this morning at daylight and travelled 6 miles, 
and stopped at one Whites and got some breakfast. Then set out and 
travelled to Ludlows Camp, about 7 miles further, where I stopped and 
got some refreshment. Then set out again and travelled about 15 
miles further, and stopped at one Coffins in Cavendish. This is called 
a tavern, but I could get nothing to eat nor drink here. It was about 
8 o'clk when I got here. Very bright moonshine this evening ; and I 
lodged on the floor before the fire this night. 

26 Dec. I set out about 7 o'ck from my lodgings, and travelled 
about 1 1 miles, and stopped at one Major Grants and got some break- 
fast. Then set out for Number 4, where I [arrived] about sundown. 



88 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [ Oct. 

I went to Mr. Walkers tavern, where I put up for the night. I got a 
very good supper and lodging this night. 

27 Dec. I went out and bought me a pair of shoes, and returned to 
my lodging and went to breakfast. About 11 o'ck I set out from 
Number 4, and travelled about 14 miles, and stopped at one Mr. Bun- 
days in Wallpool, and got supper and lodging there. 

28 Dec. I set out from lodgings a little after daylight and travelled 
5 miles, then stopped and went to breakfast at a private house, then 
set out and travelled about 19 miles further, and stopped at one Deacon 
Appletons in Swanzey, and got supper and lodging there. 

29 Dec. I set out a little after daylight and travelled 7 miles, and 
stopped at Col. Reads tavern to breakfast. After stopping there some 
time I set out and travelled about 13 miles further, and stopped at Mr. 
Nickelzs tavern in Winchinton [Winchendon], where I got supper and 
lodging this night. 

30 Dec. I set out about sunrise and travelled 7 miles, and stopped 
in Ashburnham and breakfasted there. Then I set out again and 
travelled as far as Luinburge [Lunenburg], and put up here this night. 

31 Dec. Set out from Lunenburge a little after sunrise, travelled 5 
miles, and stopped in Shurley to breakfast. After stopping there seme 
time I set out again, and reached Littletown about 3 o'ck in the after- 
noon. I went to Mr. Prentises, where I stayed all night. 

1 Jany. [1777]. I breakfasted at Mr. Prentiss. About 10 o'clk I 
set out from Littletown and travelled as far as Concord, and dined there 
about 2 o'clk. Then set out again and travelled as far as Waltham, 
where [I] stopped and put up this night. 

2 Jany. I set out before sunrise from my lodgings, travelled 7 
miles, and stopped in Little Cambridge. After stopping here some time 
I set out again and travelled for Brantre [Braintree], where I reached 
about 2 o'clk in the afternoon. 

4 Jany. To-day about 11 o'clk I set out to go to Boston. I 
stayed in Boston till Tuesday, the 7 th day of the month. Then I came 
to Brantree, and stayed here till Saturday, the 11 th ; then I went to 
Boston, and stayed there till Thursday, the 16 th ; then I came to Bran- 
tree, and stayed here till Saturday, the 18 th ; then I went to Middle- 
borough, and stayed there till Monday, the 20 th . Monday, in the 
afternoon, to Capt. Gannets, and stayed that night. Tuesday morning 
I set out to come to Braintree. I reached here about 3 o'clk. Wed- 
nesday I went to Boston, and stayed there till Saturday, the 1 st day of 
February. Then I came to Braintree, and stayed till Friday, the 7 th ; 
then I went to Boston again, and stayed till Friday, the 21 st ; then I 
came to Braintree, and stayed till Friday, the 7 th day of March ; then I 
went to Boston again, and stayed till Apr. 9, 1777, [when] I marched 
for my second champain [campaign]. 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 89 



[Book No. 2.] 

Wednesday, the 9 th April, 1777. This day about 1 o'clk we 
marched from Boston, and stopped at the Punch Bowl tavern till 4 
o'clk. Then marched to Watertown and put [up] for the night. Our 
men lodged in barns. 

10 April, This morning at 7 o'clk we marched from Watertown. 
Marched about 7 miles, and stopped in West- town [Weston] for break- 
fast at 9 o'clk. After stopping there till 12 o'clk we set out and 
marched 10 miles to Col. Hows tavern in Mallbrough [Marlborough], 
and put up our men. All had supper cooked here this night. 

11 Apr. This morning at 7 o'clk we marched from Mallbrough. 
Marched about 9 miles, and stopped at Man Rows tavern in North- 
brough and went to dinner. After stopping there till 4 o'clk we 
marched to Woster [Worcester], where we reached about 9 o'ck and 
put up. 

12 April. This day we tarried all day in Woster, and drew pro- 
visions to carry us to Springfield. 

13 April. This morning at 7 o'clk we marched from Wooster. 
Travelled 8 miles, and stopped in Spencer to cook provisions. At 3 
o'clk we set out again and marched 12 miles, and stopped in Brookfield 
this night. Very rainy all this afternoon, and great part of our men 
fell in the rear on account of the storm. I got supper and Lodging in 
a private house. 

14 April. This morning very windy, and something late before all 
our men and baggage got up. We stopped and cooked provision. 
About 2 o'clk we set out and marched 10 miles, and put up in Kingston 
[Kingstown, now Palmer] at Mr. Bliss tavern. I got supper and 
lodgings at a private house. 

15 April. This morning at 7 o'clk we marched from Kingston. 
Travelled 5 miles, and stopped at Scotts tavern to breakfast. Then set 
out again and marched 9 miles further, and stopped to rest ourselves. 
After stopping some time we set out again, and got into Springfield a 
little after 3 o'clk. I got supper and lodging at a private house. 

16 April. I breakfasted at my lodgings at Mr. Ferys. We drew 
8 days provision here for our march. About 12 o'clk we crossed the 
river, and stopped the other side to cook one days provision. About 3 
o'clk we set out and marched 10 miles, and put up at Mr. Cants tavern, 
Surffeald [Suffield]. I got supper and lodgings in a private house. 

17 April. This morning something lowering. We did not set out 
till 10 o'clk on account of the weather. Then we set out and marched 
about 7 miles. Stopped in a place called Turkey Hills. After stop- 
ping there till 1 o'clk we marched to Simsbrough [Simsbury], and put 

12 



90 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [OCT. 

up at Mr. Eamreys tavern. I got supper at the tavern, and lodged in 
the barn. 

1 8 April. This morning I breakfasted at my lodging. The weather 
something lowering. We stopped to cook here. About 12 o'clk we 
set out and marched 8 miles, and stopped at a tavern in Simsbrough 
to eat our dinner. About 5 o'clk we set out again, and marched 4 
miles and put up in Newharford [New Hartford], and cooked pro- 
vision for the next day. I ate supper of my allowance, and lodged 
in the barn. 

19 April. We set out about 8 o'clk and marched about 4 miles, and 
stopped for the wagons to come up, and ate some victuals. After stop- 
ping till 11 o'clk we set out again and marched about 10 miles further 
to Linchfield [Litchfield]. Our men put up in the Sate Hose [State 
House], and cooked provision for the next day. I got supper and 
lodging at Mr. Stantons tavern. 

20 April. This morning I breakfasted at my lodgings. The weather 
was so bad it did not allow to march. Our men stayed in the State 
House all day. In the afternoon our men cooked provisions for the 
day. After roll call I went to Mr. Stantons tavern and got supper and 
lodging. 

21 April We set out at 7 o'clk and marched 6 miles, and stopped 
in Cant [Kent] to breakfast. Then we set out and marched as far as 
New Millford, where we stopped and cooked provision for the next 
day. I got supper and lodging at a private house. 

22 April. This morning at 8 o'clk we marched. Went about 4 
miles and stopped to breakfast. After stopping some time we set out 
again, and marched about 9 miles and stopped to dinner. Then we set 
out and reached Danbery about 6 o'clk. Our men put up and" qooked 
provision for the next day. 

23 April. We met with much trouble to get wagons to carry our 
baggage, which detained us all day. At night a party of our men 
mounted guard. A little after sundown Major Vouse [Elijah Vose] 
arrived here. 

24 April. About 9 o'clk we set out on our march, and marched 9 
miles and stopped in Sallom [Salem, Ct.] to dinner. After stopping 
there sometime we set out again and marched about 6 miles further, 
and stopped in a place called Coltners Manner. Our men put up in 
barns. I lodged in house on the floor. We mounted a picket of 
24 men. 

25 April. This morning we stopped to cook our days provision be- 
fore we marched. At 11 o'clk we set out and marched 7 miles, and 
stopped to dinner. After stopping there till about 4 o'clk we set out 
again, and reached Picks Kill [Peekskill] about sundown. We 
marched 4 miles below the town, and encamped on a hill. 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 91 

26 April. We went to draw provision, but could get nothing but 
some hard bread. 

27 April. About 9 o'clk there came an express to the Gen 1 , the 
British troops had landed at Danbury and destroyed the most of our 
stores and burnt part of the town. We had our arms reviewed and 
ammunition delivered out, and had orders to be ready to march at 
a moments warning. 

28 April. Last night about 8 o'clk we had orders to march to Bed- 
ford. We set out immediately, and marched as far as Crum pond and 
got some refreshment. Then marched on again, and made no halt till 
we came to Bedford, where we reached about 11 o'clk in the morning. 
After we got there the Gen 1 received an express that the enemy had all 
embarked and gone off. The Gen 1 and officers dined in Bedford. At 
3 o'clk we set out again to come home. We had not advanced far 
before I felt so sick that I was obliged to stop, and lodged in a barn 
about 3 miles in the rear of the party. 

29 April. This morning I got some breakfast and set out on my 
journey, but I felt very poorly. I travelled on as fast [as] I could, but 
was obliged to stop every little wayes. I got as far as Crum pond and 
could get no further, and lodged there on a straw bed on the floor. 

30 Apr. This morning I got breakfast at my lodgings and set out 
to come to camp again, but I felt so poorly that I could hardly get 
there. 

o May, 1777. This afternoon I set out; came from camp and came 
to Mr. Tomkings, where I took up my quarters while I was sick. 

7 July [1777]. This day I returned to camp, after being sick nine 
weeks. 

24 July. This afternoon I set out from the camp and went to Rob- 
bosons Landing, aud lodged on board a sloop. 

25 July. About 1 o'clk the regt. embarked on board the sloop and 
hauled off in the river. About 6 o'clk we came to and went about a 
mile up the river and came to and lay till sun down ; then we came 
to sail again. I lodged on deck with my messmates. 

26 July. This morning clear and very calm. Very pleasant sailing 
up the river. About 8 o'clk the wind breezed up. About 1 o'clk it 
began to rain and lighten till night. About 2 o'clk we came to anchor 
about a half a mile below Albeny. I rolled myself up in my blanket 
and went to sleep on the quarter deck. 

27 July. We wad [weighed] anchor and came up to the city, but 
none of the men were allowed to go ashore. About 10 o'clk we landed 
and encamped on the hill above the barracks. 

28 July. This morning about 9 o'clk the sloop got in with the rest 
of the regt. About 4 o'clk in the afternoon we struck our tents and 
marched down to the wharf, in order to embark on board some batteaux 



92 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL* SOCIETY. [Oct. 

to go up the river to encamp with the rest of the brigade, but were pre- 
vented by a very hard shower of rain ; so we went on board the sloop 
for shelter. I lodged in a private house ashore. 

29 July. This morning at 10 o'clk landed, and marched for the 
place of our destination. We marched 2 miles, and stopped to dinner. 
After stopping there we marched about 7 miles and crossed a ferry ; 
then marched about three miles and crossed Half Moon ferry, and 
pitched our tents there. 

30 July. This morning between 10 and 11 o'clk we marched. Went 
about 8 miles, and stopped to dinner. After stopping there some time 
we marched as far as Still Warter [Stillwater], and pitched our tents 
there. 

31 July. This morning about 10 o'clk we marched from Still Warter^ 
and making several stops to refresh ourselves, we got into Saratoga 
about 5 o'clk, and pitched our tents there in a field above the Gen 1 . 8 

1 Aug., 1777. This morning clear and pleasant, but soon became 
overcast, and was very lowery all day & night. Our camps were in 
great confusion. 

2 Aug. This afternoon our sick men were carried away from the 
hospital. 

3 Aug. This morning about 8 o'clk we had orders to strike our 
tents and get ready for a march. Two regts. of our brigade were sent 
on scout, — we hearing the enemy was very nigh. It began to rain 
about 10 o'clk, and rained very hard till about 4 in the afternoon. 
About 6 o'clk we set out from Saratoga and marched 8 miles, and 
stopped there for the night. We had nothing to lodge on but some 
boards. Some of us tore off fences, which did not serve but for few of 
us. The rest lay on the ground. 

4 Aug. This morning at daylight we mustered up and got ready to 
march as soon as we could ; and making several short stops, we got 
into Sill Warter [Stillwater] about 9 o'clk, and pitched our tents there 
on some rising ground above where the fort was and in very thick 
bushes. This afternoon a large Scout went out. Col° Vorse [Joseph 
Vose] commanded them. This evening our men discharged their arms 
that were loaded. This day I returned to my duty. 

10 Aug. This morning came out orders for all that were not able 
to march to go to Half Moon. Our boats [?] great part of them were 
carried away last night. This afternoon our brigade turned out to be 
reviewed by the Gen 1 . 

12 Aug. We had orders to get ready to march, but did not march. 
The reason I dont know. 

13 Aug. This afternoon the regt. was turned out, and had orders 
read to us for marching. The tents were to be struck and rolled up at 
2 o'clk [a. m., the 14th], & we to march off at 4 o'clk. 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 93 

14 Aug. The orders we had for marching this morning so soon were 
countermanded ; but we had orders to have all our provision cooked 
and our baggage all rolled up ready to march at a moment's warning. 
About 11 o'clk we struck our tents. About 12 o'clk marched off. 
Went about 6 miles, and stopped and encamped in the woods. 

15 Aug. We drew one days provision. No orders to march, yet 
Patterson's Brigade marched by us. A very wet and uncomfortable 
day. I had a very [bad] fit of fever and ague. 

18 Aug. About 11 o'clk this forenoon we struck our tents and got 
ready for a march. We marched to Half Moon, and encamped on an 
island [?] there amongst the woods. 

19 Aug. This forenoon we cleared away the woods round our en- 
campment. , Dark and unsettled weather. This forenoon Sergt. King 
to the hospital. 

23 Aug. This forenoon I went over to New City to bring over a 
prisoner, but he was not there. This afternoon 5 men of Capt. Tuck- 
ermans Comp'y were discovered going to desert. They were caught, 
and are now under the quarter guard in irons. 

27 Aug. In the afternoon three of our regt. were flogged; — 
2 of them received one hundred lashes apiece for attempting to desert ; 
the other received 80 for enlisting twice and taking two bounties. 
This evening Sergt. King returned from the hospital. 

30 Aug. I had a hard fit of the fever and ague. I received a 
letter from my brother this evening. 

3 Sept., 1777. This afternoon our regt. turned out to be reviewed 
by the commt. of clothing. 

7 Sept. This day we had orders to get everything ready to march, 
and the wagons ordered to be delivered to each regt. This evening 
we drew one days provision and cooked it. We also had orders 
to strike our tents at 4 o'clk and march off at gun firing in the 
morning. 

8 Sept. This morning we turned out at 4 o'clk and struck our 
tents and loaded our baggage. At 8 o'clk we marched and crossed 

the and waited there for [the] rest of the continental troops to 

come over. About 11 o'clk we marched, and making several short 
stops we arrived at a place 9 miles this side Still Warter, where we 
pitched our tents for this night. Drew one days provisions late this 
evening, and cooked it ready to start early in the morning. 

9 Sept. We turned out, struck our tents and loaded our baggage, 
and got ready to march at 7 o'clk ; but waited some time after that 
before we marched. About 9 o'clk we marched. Went as far as 
Still warter, and pitched our tents there about 12 o'clk in the forenoon. 

11 Sept. We received orders to strike our tents in the morning 
at gun-firing and march in a half an hour after. We marched about 



94 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

5 miles, and pitched our tents in a field. A large party went out 
this evening under the command of Gen 1 Arnold. 

13 Sept. This morning a part of our scout brought in 3 prisoners 
which they took in a field below Gen 1 Skileyrs [Schuyler's] house in 
Saratoga. This afternoon 2 more prisoners were brought in from the 
enemy. 

15 Sept. This evening we had orders to lay upon arms and not 
pull off any of our clothes. 

1 6 Sept. This morning we turned out at 2 o'clk, and stayed under 
arms expecting the enemy would pay us a morning visit. A very large 
party of our men have been to work to day cutting down trees 
and building a breastwork in the front of our encampment. This 
evening our scout came in, and brought an officer and 2 tories pris- 
oners from the enemy. 

18 Sept. This morning we turned out at half after 3 o'clk, and 
struck our tents and loaded our baggage. After that we drew bread 
and half a gill of rum a man. The regt. grounded their arms, and went 
and got tools, and went to work building a breastwork in the front 
of our encampment, expecting the enemy upon us. About 8 o'clk 
our scout returned that went out in the night. About 10 o'clk we left 
work and got in preparation to receive the enemy. Soon after 
we heard a number of guns fired, supposed to be our advanced party. 
About 11 o'clk we marched from the place of our encampment to the 
top of an eminence about half a mile from the camp. Between 12 and 
one o'clk part of our scout brought in a prisoner from the enemy. 
About sundown the rifle men returned from nigh the enemy, and 
brought news they had taken 36 prisoners & killed 4 of the enemy. 
We returned to our camp again. After sundown had orders to lay 
on our arms and be ready to turn out at the shortest notice. 

19 Sept. This morning we turned out before daylight and stayed 
on the parade till after sunrise. Just after daylight a very thick fog 
rose, and continued till after sunrise. About one o'clk we were alarmed 
by the enemy. We marched from our encampment and manned the 
works above us. About 2 o'clk an engagement ensued between their 
advanced party and ours which lasted 15 minutes without cessation. 
Our people drove them and took some prisoners. Then there was 
a cessation of firing till 4 o'ck when Genl. Arnold on our left wing 
began an engagement with the enemys right wing which lasted 3 hours 
without any cessation at all. Great numbers fell on both sides. I 
mounted picket at night in the front of our encampment. 

20 Sept. Very dark and foggy this morning. The regt. struck 
their tents and loaded their baggage, and at 8 o'clk marched off to the 
works on our right wing. Between 10 & 11 o'clk the fog cleared 
away, and the sun shone very warm. Between 11 & 12 o'clk our 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 95 

picket moved further into the woods. At sundown the regt. returned 
and pitched our tents on the same ground they were on before. About 
8 o'clk I was relieved from picket. The enemy have lain very still 
to day. 

21 Sep. This morning we turned out at 4 o'clk, and ground our 
arms on the regt. parade. About 12 o'clk we turned out under 
arms and manned our larum posts, expecting to see the enemy ; but 
it turned out to be for a rejoicing for the success Gen 1 Venkonne 
[Lincoln?] met with at the Norard [Northward]. 1 This afternoon 
our Indian scout brought in two tories that had painted themselves 
and passed for savages. After our Indians had brought them to the 
Gen 1 he examined them and gave them up to the mercy of the 
Indians. It has been very rainy all day. 

22 Sept. This morning we turned out at daylight. After we had 
grounded our arms on the parade, we struck our tents and loaded 
our baggage and marched off and manned the works on Prospect 
hill. Between 8 and 9 o'clk we marched from the larum post and 

pitched our tents on the of a hill further to the right 

of our army than we were before. Just as we got our tents pitched, 
it began to rain very steady. This forenoon our Indian scout brought 
in two regular prisoners and one scalp. Between 11 & 12 o'clk we 
were alarmed, and all turned out. 

23 Sept. This morning we turned out and manned the alarm post 
about 8 o'clk. We heard a number of guns fired in the enemys camp 
this afternoon. We were armed, and manned the lines. Our Indian 
scout brought in five prisoners this afternoon from the enemy. Very 
pleasant weather today. 

24 Sept. This morning after we came from the alarm post, we 
struck our tents and loaded our baggage. At 9 o'clk we marched 
off and grounded our arms on the ground where we were encamped 
before. Our Indian scout brought in some prisoners this morning. 
After laying on our arms till 4 o'clk, we returned and pitched our 
tents near our alarm post on Prospect hill. 

25 Sept. This morning at 1 o'clk I went out with a scouting party 
commanded by Capt. McKinster [ ? ] . His intent was to take an ad- 
vance guard of the enemy. We marched within a quarter of a mile 
of them. The fog and darkness of the morning prevented our going 
any further till after daylight, when we rushed on the guard and 
a very hot fire ensued for the space of two or three minutes. The 
guard ran into their lines as fast as they could. We killed and wounded 
8 of them and took one prisoner, and returned to our camp again 
about sunrise. Four men of this party that went out with us are 

1 Probably the success of the detachment sent by General Lincoln from 
Manchester, Vermont, to Ticonderoga. 



96 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

missing. It's supposed they tarried with the enemy, as they were 
all Old Cuntreemen. It has rained very steady the biggest part 
of this day and night. 

26 Sept. Our Indian scouts have brought in 15 prisoners to-day. 

28 Sept. About 8 o'clk there was a cannon fired in the enemy's 
camps. Between 10 & 11 o' elk we were alarmed. We struck our 
tents and marched out as far as our advance picket. Lay on our arms 
there till 2 o'clk ; then we returned and pitched our tents again, and 
cooked all the provision we had, and drew one day's allowance more of 
pork and hard bread. About 9 o'clk we were alarmed & turned out 

and manned the lines. 

C L S C P 1 

29 Sept. Last night between 12 & one o'clk a scout of . . i l 30 

went out of this regt. The occasion of our being alarmed last night 
was a scurmige [skirmish] between a sergt. & 12 men of ours and the 
enemy s relief. 3 of our men got wounded. The scout that went out 
of our regt. returned this morning about 8 o'clk. This evening 
between 10 & 11 o'clk I set out on scout. There went from our 

ri t o p -p 

regt. i o o 2 39' an( * we were J oine< * ^v other regts. to 100 men 
properly officered. We carried 3 days provision with us. We went as 
far as our advanced picket on our left wing, and stopped there for the 
night. We made large fires and lay by. The fore part of the night 
till 11 o'clk was very foggy, but after that it cleared away starlight. 

30 Sept. Last night, coming through the swamp, Capt. McKinster, 
one of our Captains that commanded our scout, was so unfortunate 
as to sprain his ankle so as to disenable him to go the scout with 
us, which detained us in the morning longer [than] we should other- 
wise [have] stayed. He was relieved by Capt. Nap [Moses Knap] 
of Col Shepards Regt. At 8 o'clk we set out on our scout. We 
went about 8 miles through the woods, towards Saratoga lake, which 
brought us near the west end of it. We stopped there & ate some 
victuals and refreshed ourselves. After stopping some time we set out 
again on our way through the woods. Just before night we took 3 
tories, and sent them with a sergt. and party of men to headquarters. 
We proceeded on our way through the woods round the end of the lake. 
We went through woods till we got nearly opposite Saratoga, where we 
stopped and took up our habitation for this night, it being about 8 o'clk 
and very dark, and very heavy dew falling. 

1 Oct., 1777. This morning we started at daylight and went round 
through the woods, stopping to eat our victuals at proper times. We 
went through woods till we came within about a mile of the main road, — 
about 2 miles above the barracks in Saratoga. The party halted there. 

i 1 captain, 1 lieutenant, 1 sergeant, 1 corporal, and 30 privates. 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 97 

About one o'clk Capt. Cushing, with myself and two more, went to see 
if he could make discovery of the enemy. We went within a stone's 
throw of the barracks, and Capt. Cushing got up on top of a large high 
tree, — looked all round, — could see nobody, nor hear no noise of any 
thing. We returned to the party again about 3 o'clk, after being much 
troubled to find them. While we were gone the party took two boys 
and cows going up the road. From there we marched down to the 
main road and so down by the barracks as far as Skylers [Schuyler's] 
Mills. We marched up on a rising ground above the mills and ground 
our arms, and a party of us, with axes, went cutting away Skylers 
bridge. After, we had destroyed it with axes as much as time would 
admit of, we set fire to it. We stopped till it got well afire, and then 
marched off in a different road from which we came in. We marched 
about 2 miles up the road, and stopped there this night, it being a 
very pleasant starlight evening, and about 8 o'clk when we stopped. 

2 Oct We started at daylight and went about a mile, and came to a 
mill called Jones [Jonesville] up Skylers Creek, where there [are] a 
number of houses pretty close round it. We set fire to the mill and 
several other buildings and a large quantity of grain, and took 7 prisoners 
here. We were discovered by a party of the enemy on the other side 
of the river, which caused us to leave the place quicker than we should 
otherwise have done. Notwithstanding, we took a considerable booty, 
and proceeded on our way home as fast as we could conveniently. We 
arrived at headquarters between 8 & nine o'clk in the evening with 10 
prisoners, 3 of which were commissioned officers, and 12 horses and 18 
horned cattle. After we delivered our [prisoners] to the guard, and 
our cattle were [taken] care of, we marched to the commissary's store, 
where there was a gill of rum and one hard biscuit delivered to each 
man. After we had refreshed ourselves we marched very silent to our 
camps & were dismissed. What was very remarkable we never 
exchanged a shot the whole scout. 

6 Oct. Very warm but something rainy. Last night about 2 o'clk 
went out a scout of 500 men with one days provision, commanded by 
Col? Vose. The scout Col Vose commanded returned this evening 
just at dark. 16 deserters from [the] enemy came in to us to-day. 

7 Oct. A very pleasant morning. This afternoon about 3 o'clk 
we were alarmed. We marched out as far as our advance picket ; 
stayed there till about sunset. About 5 o'clk an engagement began on 
our left wing which lasted till after sunset, — very brisk on both sides. 
About sunset our B d Major brought us news that we had gained the 
ground on the enemys right wing and made a great sloter [slaughter] 
of them, — taken a great number of prisoners with a considerable 
booty. Our brigade marched off from our lines in order to attack 
their lines upon their left ; but it being pretty dark, and not to our 

13 



98 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [OCT. 

advantage to attack them at that time of night, we returned to our 
camps again. 

8 Oct. This morning something foggy, but very warm. About 8 
o'clk we marched from our camp in pursuit of the enemy. We 
marched as far as their lines, and made a halt there a little while. The 
enemy had retreated to some works they had in their rear, where they 
fired from and did us some damage. As we were marching along 
inside their lines, they fired a number of cannon at us. Col° Voses had 
his horse shot from under him. We marched through their lines to the 
left, and so up through the woods, up opposite Saratoga, and halted 
there some time. The Gen 1 discovered that [it] would not be for our 
advantage to proceed on our expedition ; so we returned to our camps 
again without any loss. We heard when we returned to our camp that 
Gen 1 Vinkearne [Benjamin Lincoln] was wounded. 

9 Oct. This morning very cloudy and cold. 10 or 12 deserters 
came to us from the enemy's army this morning. About 9 o'clk Gen 1 
Gates sent in a flag of truce to see where the enemy were, which, 
when he returned, brought news that the enemy had retreated from 
their encampment, leaving great part of their provision and stores. 
About 10 o'clk this morning it began to rain, and held on very steady 
all day and till about 9 o'clk, and then cleared away — cold and very 
windy. 

10 Oct. This morning clear and very cold. We had orders to pack 
all our things up and be ready to march at the shortest notice. About 
10 o'clk we started in pursuit of the enemy. After we had passed 
their encampment we found great destruction of [the] enemy's emnishon 
[ammunition] and stores, particularly one amnshon [ammunition] wagon 
with 300 weight of gunpowder in it and many other valuable articles. 
And we likewise saw a number of dead horses which appeared to be 
hured [hurried] to death. We marched within a half mile of the 
enemy, and encamped in the woods. There was a considerable firing 
on both sides. 

1 1 Oct. This morning very foggy. We drew a gill of rum a man, 
& about 8 o'clk we marched from our encampment in the woods to 
a small eminence above the meeting houses. After staying there 
awhile we marched into the woods nearly where [we] lodged last 
night. After making a small halt there we marched back again into 
woods near the mills up Skylers creek, where [we] lay all day and at 
night encamped here in the woods. This morning our people took the 
enemy's advance picket, consisting of an officer and 36 men, all British 
troops. The enemy have been fortifying and defending themselves as 
well as they could ; but our people almost elbowed [?] them, and fired 
on them and did them much harm. 

12 Oct. This morning clear and pleasant We remained here in 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 99 

the woods all day. A considerable smart cannonading the biggest part 
of the day on both sides, and we fortified against the enemy consider- 
able on the hills all round us. There was some rain in the first of the 
evening. 

13 Oct. This morning dark and cloudy. There was no firing on 
nare a side [either side] till about 8 o'clk, when we fired some cannon 
from our side. After that there was considerable firing on both sides 
all day. We continue still here in the woods. 

14 Oct. This morning very foggy. The enemy lay very still yet. 
There has been a cessation of arms all day. Very pleasant weather. 

1 5 Oct. Very pleasant weather all day. Gen 1 Burgine [Burgoyne] 
and Gen 1 Gates have this day agreed on terms of capitulation. 

1 6 Oct. Very dark and foggy this morning, but cleared away very 
pleasant about 8 o'clk. All things have lain very still to-day. 

17 Oct. This morning very dark and foggy. About 10 o'clk we 
marched from our encampment in the woods in order to receive Gen 1 
Burgoyne and his army. We marched round the meeting house and 
came to a halt. Gen 1 Burgoyne and his Chief Officers rode by us 
there, and then we marched further down the road and grounded our 
arms and rested there. At half after 3 o'clk Gen 1 Burgoyne's army 
began to pass us, and they continued passing till sunset, when we 
marched down the road a little and into the woods, where we encamped 
for that night. 

18 Oct. This morning at 9 o'clk we marched from our encamp- 
ment in the woods, and between 11 & 12 o'clk we passed the pris- 
oners in Still Warter, and marched as fast as we could for Green Bush. 
We marched the biggest part of the night, in order to prevent the 
enemys coming up to Albany. It has been very warm all day, and 
we marched between 40 & 50 miles this day. 

19 Oct. Last night, I being very tired and fatigued with the march, 
Sergt. King & M r Moger [?] with myself stopped in the woods some 
ways in the rear of the B d . About sunrise we waked and set out for 
the regt. We missed the road, and went some ways out of the way. 
We came up to the regt., and marched into Greenbush about 11 o'clk, 
and grounded our arms in a field aside of the river and opposite 
Albney. About 1 o'clk we crossed the river and marched about a 
mile above the town. After much trouble we got our baggage, and 
pitched our tents in a very scattered manner about sunset. 

23 Oct. This day Gen 1 Poors Brigade marched for Rodeiseland 
[Rhode Island]. The rifle men also marched for Phylladefa [Phila- 
delphia] with two small pieces of cannon with them. Our regt. drew 
part of their clothing this day. 

26 Oct. {Sunday). This afternoon our B d went to the meeting 
house and had sermon preached to us. 



100 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

23 Oct. It remains very stormy and cold. We drew a gill of rum 
p r man this morning. The water run through our tent, which made it 
very uncomfortable. 

29 Oct. Between 1 & 2 o'clk it began to rain, & we were obliged 
to leave our tent & seek out quarters in Albney. After much trouble 
we got shelter in a house at the south end of the town, where we lodged 
very comfortably on the floor by the fire. 

30 Oct. About 11 o'ck we struck our tents and got ready to march. 
About 3 o'clk we marched down to the wharf and embarked on board 
of the sloops to go down the river. In getting on board the batteaux 
Capt. Hill's Comp'y overset a batteau, but the water not being deep 
there was no loss sustained. After we had got on board the sloop, 
Sergt. Williams was getting down the foc'sle, when he unluckily fell 
and hurt himself very much. I lodged on the quarter deck this 
night. 

31 Oct. About 10 o'clk we set sail and sailed about 12 miles down 
the river, and landed and marched about a quarter of a mile up in the 
woods and pitched our tents. This place is called Quemans overslaw. 1 

2 Nov., 1777. Last night M r Moger was taken very sick. About 
11 o'clk I went with Sergt. Williams to get a house to stay in while 
he was sick. 

3 Nov. Our mess has been to work raising our tent to day. 

5 Nov. We cleaned ourselves ready to be mustered, but was not 
mustered. We built a chimney to our tent this day. 

7 Nov. This morning at roll call there were orders read to the 
regt. to hold ourselves in readiness to march. Col. Sheperds to join 
Gen 1 Patterson's brigade, and that B d to embark this evening, and a 
militia regt. to join our brigade. About 10 o'clk we received orders 
to march tomorrow morning. At roll call this eveg we had orders to 
strike our tents at 6 o'clk and be ready to march at sunrise. 

8 Nov. About sunrise our regt. paraded and grounded our arms, 
and then struck our tents and carried them with the rest of our bag- 
gage down to the side of the river and loaded them on board of bat- 
teaux. About 10 o'clk we marched from our encampment, went about 
6 miles and crossed the river. It was after sunset before we all got 
over and ready to march. Then we marched about 6 miles, which 
brought us to Center hoock [Kinderhook]. There we lodged in barns. 
This town is thick settled, and has one small wooden meeting house 
in it. 

9 Nov. We marched from Centerhook to Cloverrick [Claverock], 
and were billeted in barns here this night. This town is thick settled, 

i Probably the place now known as Coeyman's Landing. " Overslaugh " is 
from the Dutch "Overslag," and means a bar in the river, making the passage 
of vessels difficult at low water. 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 101 

and has one large bick [brick] meeting house and one small wooden 
Curch [church] in it. 

10 Nov. This morning I received one months pay of Capt. Cushing. 
About 10 o'clk we set out on our march. We travelled 6 miles, and 
stopped to rest ourselves and eat some victuals. After stopping some 
time we marched again, but had not gone far before it began to rain ; 
but we marched in the rain till [we] came to a place called Read 
hoock [Red Hook] and stopped there. Put up in a barn. We have 
marched 20 miles this day. 

1 1 Nov. It being dark and rainy last night, we missed our road & 
travelled about a mile out of our way. About 10 o'clk we marched 
from our lodgings and joined the regt. Then we set out and marched 
all day without stopping to rest. We marched through a fine town 
called the Flatts [?], with one large meeting house with a steeple to it. 
Our B d was billetted to houses. Our billet was at one Mr. Strates, 
about two miles below the meeting house, where we got very good 
entertainment. We drew one days provision here of fresh beef and 
flour. 

12 Nov. This morning a considerable of a snow storm. About 
8 o'clk we set out from our quarters and travelled about 4 miles. The 
storm increased so that we were obliged to stop. After stopping till 
the storm abated, then we set out again and travelled about 7 miles 
further and took quarters for the night. The man of the house was 
very kind. We got our flour baked here, and I lodged in a bed. 

13 Nov. We marched from our quarters at sun rise, and joined the 
regt. which [was] all in the front of our company. After the regt. got 
together, we were counted off in divisions and marched on for Purcipse 
[Poughkeepsie], where we arrived about 12 o'clk. Before noon Capt. 
Tuckerman's Comp'y & our own took quarters at Mr. Levenstons about 
mile out of town and near the river. 

14 Nov. We marched at sun rise and joined our regt. After we 
had joined we marched on for fish Kills [Fishkill], and arrived about 
3 o'clk. We marched to the barracks and took our quarters this night. 
We drew one days salt provision here. 

15 Nov. Just after sun rise we marched for Peekskill, and arrived 
about 4 o'clk in the afternoon. We found the barracks and all pub- 
lic buildings burned. We took quarters in the housing that was left 
there, and drew provision for two days, and had orders to cook our 
provision and be ready to march at sunrise. 

16 Nov. A little after sunrise we marched the regt. together and 
marched to Kings Ferry, where we crossed and marched about a mile 
below and encamped for the night. 

17 Nov. About 8 o'clk we struck our tents in order to march, but 
was detained sometime delivering out some clothing that was brought 



102 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

to the Brigade after we struck our tents. About 11 o'clk we marched 
and went about 6 miles and made short halt there, and then marched 
till after sunset and encamped in the woods. Sergt= King & Corporal 
Barnerd and Gibbs with myself went about a mile further out of the 
road, where we got supper and lodging this night. 

18 Nov. Just after daylight we started from our quarters and joined 
the regt. in the woods. The regt. marched about 4 miles, and halted 
and drew provision and cooked it. About 10 we marched as far as a 
place called the Ponds, and took quarters in housens. 

19 Nov. A little after sunrise we marched from our quarters and 
arrived in Pumton [Pompton] about 11 o'clk, and were quartered there 
in housen there. We drew two days beef and three days bread here. 

20 Nov. This morning a little after sunrise I got my breakfast and 
went to the company, The regt. marched together, & about 8 o'clk we 
marched, and about sunset we arrived in Moristown [Morristown, N. J.J 
and took quarters and drew provisions there. 

21 Nov. About 10 o'clk we marched from Moris Town. Marched 
about ten miles, and encamped in Boston Ridge in the woods. 

22 Nov. This morning at daylight we struck our tents. About 8 
o'clk, we marched off the ground, and arrived in Sumersett [Somerset] 
about half after 4 o'clk and pitched our tents in a field there. 

23 Nov. We struck our tents before sunrise this morning and loaded 
our baggage, and about 8 o'clk marched off and arrived in Princetown. 
We marched about 2 miles out of town, and encamped in a field which 
was very full of briers and by the side of a very thick woods. 

24 Nov. We struck our tents about sunrise and loaded our baggage, 
and about 8 o'clk our regt. paraded and we had our arms examined 
and ammunition delivered to us. After that we formed a surkell [cir- 
cle], and the prisoners of the regt. were brought in and sentence passed 
on them. The first were two privates which were confined for leaving 
their company without leave ; the other were two sergts. belonging to 
the same company and confined for the same crime. The privates were 
sentenced to be whipped, but were forgiven on their promising better 
behavior for the future. One of the sergts. was reduced to the ranks, 
and the other was reprimanded by the Col on the parade. About 
10 o'clk we marched and arrived in Burningtown [Burlington] about 3 
o'clk, where we were to have halted for the night, but the Gen 1 received 
an express to march on as fast as the troops could march. We marched 
about 7 miles farther, and encamped in the woods. 

25 Nov. About 9 o'clk we set out on our march and arrived in 
Mont holley [Mount Holly] about 1 o'clk. We marched about a half 
a mile below the town and encamped in the woods. 

2G Nov. This morning about 3 o'clk we marched from our encamp- 
ment in order to attack the enemy. We left all our baggage in the 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 103 

camp. We marched within about 7 miles of Philadelphia, and halted in 
a woods and built fires and lay there for a reinforcement. We arrived 
here about sunrise and lay here till about 10 o'clk, and then we ad- 
vanced about 3 miles further. We passed through a small town, called 
Mores Town [?], and lay in the woods till about 4 o'clk. Then we 
marched back to our camps again at Mont halley. The reason of our 
not engaging the enemy was because they crossed the river and went 
back again to their man body. 

27 Nov. About 10 o'clk we struck our tents and loaded our baggage, 
and between 12 & 1 o'clk we marched from Mont nolle and arrived in 
Burlingtown about 4 o'clk. We took up our quarters in housen, and 
drew one days provision. The wagons were crossing the ferry the 
most of [the day]. 

28 Nov, This morning we were mustered before day light in order 
to cross the river, but did not cross the ferry till about 9 o'clk, & then 
we marched about 20 miles and stopped in a place called the Croked 
Billit. I stopped about 4 miles before we came there and got supper 
and lodging. 

29 Nov. This morning about 8 o'clk I set out to the regt. I found 
them at Croked Billit, but the weather was so stormy that we could not 
go any further till the storm abated. The weather held so bad we tar- 
ried here all day. 

30 Nov. The weather still remains wet & stormy. We have no 
orders to march yet. About 3 o'clk our baggage came up to us & we 
had orders to get ready to march to head quarters ; about half after 

4 o'clk we marched, but it was very bad marching. We marched 
about 3 miles, and encamped in the woods in the front of Gen 1 Greens 
Division, about a mile from headquarters. We encamped here about 10 
o'clk. and had orders to cook all our provision and be ready to march at 

5 o'clk in the morning. 

1 December [1777]. We turned out before day this morning and 
dressed ourselves ; then we had orders to turn in again, but not pull off 
our clothes. We rested all day in our tents. 

3 December. This morning we turned out and paraded at day light, 

6 were counted off in platoons, and marched about a mile to a place 
near headquarters, and were reviewed there about 9 o'clk. We re- 
turned to our camps again. 

5 Dec. This morning just before 4 o'ck we were alarmed by the 
firing of three cannon. We turned out and were counted off in platoons, 
and marched to our alarm post and lay there for a reinforcement. About 
day light our tents were struck and loaded with the rest of the baggage, 
and set out to go to Newtown. In the forepart of the day there 
was considerable of an action between the enemy and our troops. We 
lay on our alarm post till after dark. Then we marched to the place 



104 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

where our tents were [had been ?] pitched, and lay there in the woods 
without any covering. We drew some fresh beef and flour, but had 
nothing to cook in, but were obliged to broil our meat on the fire and 
bake our bread in the ashes. 

6 Dec. This morning at daylight our regt. paraded our arms, and 
then we drew a gill of whiskey a man ; and a little after sunrise we 
marched to our alarm posts & grounded our arms. In the afternoon it 
clouded up. We moved back a little in the woods and built huts with 
the dry bushes, for we had no axes to cut any. We drew beef & flour, 
and we had two camp kettles to our comp'y to cook our provision in. 

7 Dec. We paraded and grounded our arms where we were yester- 
day ; but it soon began to rain, and we took up our arms and went into 
the woods again. About 2 o'clk we were alarmed. We turned out and 
formed a line of battle, and primed and loaded, as the enemy seemed to 
be very ligh [nigh ?], and a very hot fire on both sides. The enemy 
seemed to gain ground and be getting round on our left. We marched 
about a mile towards our left, and formed another line and stayed there 
till after dusk. Then we ceased on both sides, and we returned to the 
woods where we were before ; but had no axes to cut wood for fires nor 
covering. We drew some fresh beef, but no bread nor flour. 

8 Dec. This morning we turned out and marched to where we came 
from last night, and our brigade formed a solid column on the ground 
where we were encamped when we first came [from] the norerd 
[northward]. We lay there all day, and at night we returned to 
our encampment in the woods. Just at dark it begun to rain and 
storm ; but luckily for us it did not storm long. We drew one day's 
allowance of beef and flour. 

9 Dec. Last night the enemy left their ground and returned to their 
main army. Part of our brigade marched into the enemy's encamp- 
ment last night. We cooked all our provision this morning and got 
ready to march, but had no orders to march this day. 

10 Dec. About 1 o'clk we marched to our old encampment and 
pitched our tents there. After our tents were pitched I took a walk 
with Sergt. Denston after some clothes, but did not get them. 

1 1 Dec. We struck our tents at 5 o'ck this morning and loaded our 
baggage. About daylight we marched. We went within about a mile 
of Scallkill [Schuylkill]. We found the enemy had possession of a 
hill that commanded the bridge, so we went no further that road, but 
countermarched back into the woods and lay there till about 4 o'clk 
in the afternoon ; and then we marched about 4 or 5 miles up Lancster 
[Lancaster] road and lay in the woods this night without our tents. 

12 Dec. About 2 o'clk this morning we drew two days allowance of 
fresh beef. We were turned out about daylight, and packed our clothes 
and provision ready to march off. After that we had orders to stay 



1890.] JOUBNAL OF EBEN^ZER WILD. 105 

and cook all our provision. We built ourselves huts with brush and 
leaves, and got ourselves cleverly settled for the night. We drew one 
day's more allowance of fresh beef and flour. But after sunset we had 
orders to pack up our clothes and provision and march directly. We 
marched about 5 miles and crossed ScollkilL This river is not very 
deep but very rapid. We marched about 3 miles, and stopped on a very 
high hill and thick woods. We had no tents, nor axes to cut wood to 
make fires. It was a very bad suow storm when we stopped. 

13 Dec. We lay here in the woods this forenoon. We drew one 
day's provision, and had orders to cook it and be ready to march ; but 
did not march then, but drew one day's more of provision, and had 
orders to cook it & make ourselves as comfortable as we could for the 
ensuing night, and be ready to march at 4 o'clk in the morning. 

14 Dec. We did not march this morning agreeable to the orders we 
received last night. Drew two days provision this day. 

15 Dec. Last night there were two huts were burnt in our regt. 
This forenoon our regt. was mustered. Afterwards we were ordered to 
turn out at 4 o'clk. 

16 Dec. We had orders to march at 10 o'clk. We did not march 
this day, but stayed in our huts all day. It rained very steady all day. 

17 Dec. We had orders to march at 10 o'clk, but the weather pre- 
vented it. We turned out at 11 o'clk to roll call, and at 4 o'clk in the 
afternoon. 

18 Dec. We had orders to turn out to roll call at 9 o'clk. but it 
began to rain so fast we did not turn out then. About 12 o'clk we 
turned out to roll call with arms. We had orders read to us that the 
Gen 1 determined to take up winter quarters in this place. The troops 
are to make huts for themselves, and make ourselves as comfortable as 
we can, in order to keep the army together. We should have moved 
to day, but this being the day set apart by the Congress for a day 
of public thanksgiving, the troops are ordered to lay still ; and the Cap- 
lens [chaplains] of the different Brigades to perform divine services, 
and officers and soldiers are desired to attend. We had no Chaplin in 
our brigade, and we had but a poor thanksgiving, — nothing but fresh 
beef & flour to eat, without any salt, & but very scant of that. 

19 Dec. About 12 o'clk we marched off for the place where we 
were to take our winter quarters. We marched about 6 miles up Lan- 
kester road and encamped in the woods. 

20 Dec. We remain here in camp, & shall till we build our huts. 

21 Dec. We drew a small quantity of salt pork. We still remain 
here in camp. 

22 Dec. We drew three days allowance of fresh beef and two of 
flour. The tools were given out and ground laid out to build our huts 
upon. This evening we had orders to cook our provision and be ready 

14 



106 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

to march at the shortest notice. There were two parties of men out of 
the regt. this eveg. 

23 Dec. This morning we turned out just after sunrise to roll call. 
After the rolls were called the whole brigade formed a line and was 
counted off. After that we marched on our own parade and locked our 
arms. On the afternoon we went to work on our huts. At sundown 
we parade to roll call and took in our arms later. 

24 Dec. This morning we went to work on our huts, but there was 
some misunderstanding about the ground, and we left off work & went 
to camp again. We worked no more today. 

[The entries for several days following are illegible.] 
2 Jan., 1778. We had orders to lay on our arms. It was very 
rainy the most of the night. 

9 Jan. I went to the grand parade at 10 o'clk in order to see the 
man executed, but he was reprieved till tomorrow morning at 10 o'clk. 

10 Jan. At 10 o'clk I went on the grand parade in order to see 
the man executed. After the troops had formed a surcel [circle], the 
prisoner was brought under the gallows in a wagon. The rope was 
made fast to gallows. Then the prisoner had time to make a speech or 
to say what he had a mind to. At 1 1 o'clk the wagon was drawn from 
under the gallows and the man swung off; but the rope broke and he 
fell to the ground ; but he [was] taken up again, and the wagon 
backed under the gallows again & the man put up in it. The rope 
was doubled and made fast again, and wagon drawn from under the 
gallows. The man swung off the second time, and 4 hung till he was 
dead. Then there was a hole dug in the ground just under him, and 
the rope was cut and he dropped in the ground and [was] covered over. 
In the afternoon there were two men flogged in our regt. belonging to 
Capt. Tuckerman's Comp'y. 

20 Jan. This morning about daylight a party of the enemy came 
out to our lines and had a curmige [skirmish] with our guards. Major 
Durban [Dearborn ?] was wounded in the wrist ; but there were two 
of the enemy, light horsemen, killed and one more wounded. 

22 Jan. This afternoon there was one of Col° Wigelsworths [Wig- 
glesworth's] regt. flogged. 

2 Feb. [1778]. Capt. Cushing, in company with Capt. Hunt and 
Ensign Webb, set out for Boston. 

13 Feb. This morning there was a large party detached from the 
whole army went off on some expedition. They carried a week's pro- 
vision with them. 

1 6 Feby. Lieut. Ulmore set out to go to Boston this day. 

15 March [1778]. After roll call I went on the grand parade, 
where there was a very large concourse of people assembled. After 
the guards were paraded, Lieut. Enslin was brought on the parade 



1890.] JOURNAL OP EBENEZER WILD. 107 

under a strong guard and his crime was read, which was for attempting 
to commit sodomy and swearing to false returns. He was sentenced 
to be drummed out of camp, never to return any more. His coat was 
turned wrong side outwards, and then he was drummed off the parade 
and through the camps down to the side of the Skool Kill, where a 
guard took him and carried him over the bridge and dismissed him. 

18 March. This evening after roll call the regt. turned out and 
attended the funeral of Sergt. Hopper. 

21 March. This evening there was a detachment of men sent to re- 
inforce the picket at the lines. 

1 April [1778]. This evening Col? Jackson's regt. arrived here. 

4 April. This forenoon our regt. passed muster. About 12 o'clk 
Col Jackson's regt. marched from here to the gulf, where they were to 
be stationed. 

5 April. About 1 o'clk the One 1 ? [Honorable ?] Gen 1 Lee was ex- 
canged [exchanged], and dined at H. Quarters this day. This evening 
John Strong of our Comp'y was buried. 

22 April. In the afternoon I went to meeting, and heard a fine ser- 
mon preached from Judges the 5 th & 23 d verses. 

23 April. Last night Capt. Cushing arrived here from Boston. 

26 April. This evening Col° Varskorts [Van Shaick ?] regt. arrived 
here from the Norward. 

6 May [1778]. This day has been spent in great rejoicings for the 
happy news we received from France and Spain. 

7 May. In the afternoon I went over Scoolkill to see Mr. Adams. 
12 May. This afternoon Sergt. Dinston arrived here from Boston. 
14 May. This afternoon at 4 o'clk we turned out to exercise. 

Gen 1 Glover's, Poor's, and Larnerd's Brigades formed a Division, and 
went through a number of manoeuvres before his Excellency Gen 1 Wash- 
ington and members of the grand Congress. 

18 May. This morning about 10 o'clk there was a detachment of 
4,000 men marched off the grand parade, and five pieces of cannon, 
under the command of the Markes [Marquis de Lafayette?]. This 
evening at roll call we had orders to hold ourselves in readiness to 
march at the shortest notice. 

20 May. About 11 o'clk we were alarmed. The enemy came out as 
far as Swead's ford [Swedesbo rough, N. J. ?]. We turned out and had 
forty rounds delivered to each man ; then grounded our arms, and were 
to turn out again at the firing of cannon from the park. We not being 
alarmed any more, our arms remained grounded on the parade all day. 
At sun down we took up our arms, and were dismissed and returned to 
our quarters as usual. 

25 May. This morning we turned out to exercise at 4 o'clk. The 
whole of the front line of the army exercised together, and the same 
manner in the afternoon at 4 o'clk. 



108 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

2 June, 1778. In the afternoon our Bd passed muster. This after- 
noon the left wing of the front line turned out & formed a line of 
march. 

3 June. This morning at roll call there were 3 men flogged in 
our regt. 

4 June. This morning at guard mounting Thom 8 Shank [ ? ] was 
hanged on the grand parade for being a spy for the enemy from 
Philadelphia. 

9 June. This afternoon we had orders to move our camp tomorrow 
morning at 8 o'clk. 

10 June. About 8 o'clk the General 1 was beat before the B d . 
We struck our tents & loaded our baggage, and about 10 o'clk we 
marched away from our huts about a half a mile in the front of 
our works, & encamped there in a very pleasant place near wood & 
water. 

16 June. This morning there was one of our regt. flogged 50 lashes, 
and another forgave [?] 30 lashes. 

18 June. This day noon we learned the enemy had left Philadel- 
phia. About 12 o'clk Gen 1 Poor's, Varnon's [Varnum's] , & Hunting- 
ton's Brigades marched off. At three o'clk the 2 d Pennsylvania & 
another Sethern [Southern] Brigade marched off; and we had orders 
with the rest of the whole army, to march tomorrow morning at 

5 o'clk. 

19 June. At 5 o'clk the General was beat before the Brigade, 

6 we struck our tents & loaded our baggage. Between 9 & 10 o'clk 
we marched off, and making several short stops on the road to rest our- 
selves ; we pitched our tents in a field. We had orders to cook 
all our provision, & be ready to march at 4 o'clk tomorrow morning. 
We have marched 9 miles this day. This place is called Noringtown 
[Norristown, Penn.]. 

20 June. This morning at half after 3 o'clk the General beat. 
We struck our tents and loaded our baggage. At 4 o'clk the Troop 2 
was beat. We fell in & were counted off, & about 5 o'clk we marched. 
Went about 8 miles, and stopped to rest & eat some victuals between 
9 & 10 o'clk. After stopping there till about 1 o'clk we marched 
about 6 miles further, & pitched our tents in a field, and had orders 
to march tomorrow morning at 4 o'clk. 

21 June. About 9 o'clk it ceased raining. We struck our tents 
& fell in & were counted off in order to march. About 11 o'clk we 
marched off, and made no halt till we got within about a quarter 
of a mile of the Dilewear [Delaware], where we pitched our tents 

1 A particular beat of drum or march, being that which, in the morning, gives 
notice to infantry to be in readiness to march. — Century Dictionary . 

2 A particular beat of the drum. — Scott's Military Dictionary. 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 109 

on an eminence ; and we had orders to be ready to cross the ferry 
tomorrow morning at 4 o'clk. 

22 June, At 5 o'clk the General was beat. We struck our tents 
and loaded our baggage. Between 6 & 7 o'clk we fell in & were 
counted off in order to march. About 8 o'clk we marched down 
to the ferry & crossed. We marched about a mile and a half in the 
Jerseys, and made a halt there till about 1 o'clk. Then we marched 
about 2 miles further, where we came up with Gen 1 Lee's Division and 
encamped in a field. 

23 June. This morning at 5 o'clk the General was beat, & we 
turned out & got ready to march. About 7 o'clk we marched off, but 
left all our tents standing & our heavy baggage behind us. We marched 
about 10 miles, & halted on the road about 4 hours, & turned into 
a field to cook provision, & had orders to march at 1 1 o'clk at night. 
Our tents did not come up this night, but what little time we had 
to sleep we slept in the open field, which was only from 11 o'clk 
at night till 4 in the morning. The reason we did not march at 
11 o'clk was because we could not get provision till late. 

24 June. This morning at 4 o'clk the General was beat. We got 
up, fell in & were counted off in order to march, but we did not. Our 
tents came up to us, & we pitched them on the field, where we lay 
all night. We had no orders to march this day, but slept very quietly 
in our tents all day. 

25 June. This morning at 5 o'clk the General was beat throughout 
the whole army; at 6 o'clk the Troop beat. We fell in & were 
counted off in order to march. We left all our tents standing & our 
heavy baggage behind us. We marched off, and making several short 
stops on the road to rest we arrived at Kingstown between 12 & 1 o'clk. 
We marched into a large field there and made a halt, it being very 
hot weather. Just after we halted we sent out a large detachment, 
to see if they could make any discovery of the enemy, under the com- 
mand of the Markis Delefiat [Marquis de Lafayette]. About sundown 
we moved ahead about a quarter of a mile further, into a field where 
we expected to take up our lodgings for the night. But we had not 
been here above a quarter of an hour before the long roll beat. We 
fell in to our arms and marched about 5 miles, and halted in the road 
all night. 

26 June. At 5 o'clk we fell in to our arms & were, counted off 
in order to march. About half after — o'clk we began our march 
& marched about 5 miles, and halted in the road & drew two days 
allowance of pork & flour. We cooked our provision. Between 4 
& 5 o'clk we began our march again, but we had not got but a very 
short way before it began to rain, which caused us to stop. It held 
raining above an hour successively, and was attended with very heavy 



110 MASSACHUSETTS HISTOKICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

thunder and sharp lightning. It being late when it stopped raining, 
we took our lodgings in the road without anything to cover us, or any- 
thing to lodge on but the wet ground, & we in a very wet condition. 

27 June. This morning at 5 o'clk the General beat. We got up & 
fell in to our arms and were counted off in order to march. We drew 
a gill of whiskey a man, and about 7 o'clk we began our march, and 
marched about 4 miles & stopped in the road to rest and get water. 
After stopping about a half an hour we marched again about a mile 
further, and it being excessive hot, we halted again. I expected we 
should go further, but we stopped here all day. We had no orders for 
marching at sundown. I had the flank guard while we marched this 
day. We lay in the open field. Hard thunder, &c, &c. 

28 June. This morning about 6 o'clk the General beat ; in about an 
hour afterwards the Troop beat. We fell in & marched off. Went 
a"bout 4 miles, & made a little halt to sarch [search] our arms and 
ammunition. Every man was compcated [accommodated?] with 40 
rounds apiece. We left all our packs and blankets, and marched on 
in pursuit of the enemy as far as we could. About 2 o'clk came up 
with them. Our Division formed a line on an eminence about a half a 
mile in the front of the enemy, and our artillery in our front. A very 
smart cannonading ensued from both sides. We stayed here till several 
of our officers & men were killed and wounded. Seeing that it was 
of no service to stand here, we went back a little ways into the woods ; 
but the cannonading still continued very smart on both sides about 
two hours, when the enemy retreated and we marched up & took pos- 
session of their ground. This place is called Monmouth. It has been 
very hot all day. Numbers of our men had fainted and given out with 
the heat before we came up to the enemy. We lay here all night in 
the field. 

29 June. Very warm this morning. We lay still here till 5 o'clk, 
at which time the General beat, and we marched to the ground where 
we left our baggage yesterday, and lay there all night without any tents. 

30 June. Excessive hot this morning. We lay still here all day. 

1 July [1778]. This morning between 1 & 2 o'clk the General was 
beat. We got up & fell in, & were counted off in order to march ; 
but we were delayed till almost daylight, and then we marched off & 
went 9 miles without making of any halt, which brought us to a place 
called Spots Wood. We arrived here about 8 o'clk in the morning, and 
made a general halt here. We had orders to march at 1 o'clk to- 
morrow morning. 

2 July. The General was beat at 12 o'clk; the Troop just after- 
wards. We began our march at 1 o'clk in the morning. We went as 
far as Brunswick, where [we] came up with our baggage. We went 
about 2 miles from the town and pitched our tents in a field. 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. Ill 

3 July. We remain still in camp. Very rainy weather all day. No 
orders for marching yet. 

4 July. Dark & cloudy weather this morning. This afternoon at 5 
o'clk the army turned out & fired a fudey joy [feu de joie] to celebrate 
the Glorious Independence of Americay. This evening we had orders 
to march at 3 o'clk tomorrow morning. 

5 July. This morning at half after 2 o'clk the General beat. We 
turned out & struck our tents and loaded our baggage. We fell in 
& were counted off in order to march ; but we grounded our arms 
and stopped here till almost sunrise, & then began our march. We 
went about 5 miles & stopped to rest & eat some victuals. After 
stopping here about an hour we marched on again, about 3 miles 
further, and stopped in a field, where we pitched our tents. 

6 July. This morning at 5 o'clk we set out on our march. We 
went as far as Springfield, which was 10 miles from where we set out 
from. We pitched our tents in a field near the meeting house. 

7 July. This morning at 5 o'clk we set out on our march. Marched 
10 miles, which brought us to New Arck [Newark]. We went about a 
mile above the town and encamped on an eminence. 

9 July. At 12 o'clk the General beat, and at 1 o'clk in the morning 
we began our march, and making several short stops on the road to 
rest, we arrived at a place called Sloter Dam. We forded the river, 
which was 3 feet deep, & pitched our tents on an eminence the east side 
of the river. We have marched 12 miles this day. 

10 July. Between 1 & 2 o'clk this morning we began our march. 
Went about 7 miles and made a short halt to rest, and then marched on 
again about 3 miles further, which brought us to a place called Peram- 
hart, where we pitched our tents in a field near the meeting house. It 
was about 8 o'clk this morning when we got here. 

11 July. This morning about daylight we struck our tents and 
loaded our baggage. About sunrise we began our march, went 3 miles 
and encamped in a place called Saddel river. 

12 July. At 12 o'clk the General beat. We struck our tents & 
loaded our baggage. At 1 o'clk this morning we began our march. 
Marched about 11 miles & encamped in a field about 9 miles below 
Kings Ferry. It was 7 o'clk this morning when we got here. It being 
very bad road, our wagons did not get up till 11 o'clk. 

13 July. This morning at 5 o'clk the General beat. We struck our 
tents & loaded our baggage. About 6 o'clk we began our march. 
Went about 8 miles, and encamped on an eminence about a mile below 
the ferry. 

14 July. This morning at roll call there were four men flogged 
belonging to Capt. Miller's Comp'y, — 100 lashes each. About 5 o'clk 
this afternoon we struck our tents and loaded our baggage. We fell 



112 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

in and marched down to the ferry, where we crossed & marched onto 
our ground where we were to encamp. Our tents did not get over till 
the morning. 

15 July. This morning we pitched our tents on the ground we came 
onto last night. I got liberty to go [to] Peaks Kill this day. 

16 July. I spent this day in Peaks Kill. About 8 o'clk in the 
evening I set out to go to the regt., but I met M T . Floyd, which per- 
suaded me to go back to my lodgings, where we spent the night. 

17 July. About sun rise this morning we set out to go to the regt. 
We went within a half a mile of Crum Pond meeting house, where we 
heard our B d had orders to go back again to the place they marched 
from last night. We went back again to our lodgings, where we stopped 
to rest ourselves ; after which we set out to go to the regt. again, which 
we found encamped at Peaks Kill Landing. We lay waiting for 
orders. 

19 July. This afternoon we struck our tents and marched off. We 
marched as far [as] Crum Pond meeting house, and went into a field, 
where we lay down to sleep, but pitched no tents. 

20 July. This morning the General beat at 2 o'clk. We marched 
off, went about 18 miles, stopped in a field just within Connecticut 
government, where we pitched our tents. 

21 July. This morning we had orders [to] get ready to pass muster 
this afternoon at 5 o'clk. Between 4 & 5 o'clk this afternoon I set 
out to go back to Peaks Kill, where I arrived between 11 & 12 o'clk 
at night. 

22 July. This morning at daylight I set out from Peaks Kill to join 
the regt. again. I found them encamped at Stamford [Conn.]. I have 
travelled 56 miles this day. I got to the regt. just before sundown. 

23 July. This morning at 3 o'clk the General beat. About half 
after 5 o'clk we marched off. We marched as far as Norwick [Norwalk], 
where we halted 2 hours. Then we marched about 8 miles further, 
where we pitched our tents. We have marched 18 miles this day. 
This place is called Green's farms. 

24 July. This morning at daylight we began our march from Green's 
farms. We went as far as Farefield [Fairfield], and halted there about 
2 hours. Then we marched as far as Statford [Stratford], and en- 
camped at the side of the river, ready to cross the ferry in the morning. 
We have marched 15 miles this day. 

25 July. Between 4 & 5 o'clk we struck our tents and loaded our 
baggage. We marched down & crossed the ferry, & then marched as 
far as New Millford, & encamped in a field near the meeting house. 

26 July. This morning about 3 o'clk we struck our tents and loaded 
our baggage. Soon after we marched off. We marched as far as New 
haven, where we halted to draw our clothing. About 4 o'clk we 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 113 

marched again & went about 7 miles further, to a place called East 
haven, where we pitched our tents. 

27 July. This morning about 3 o'clk the General beat. We struck 
our tents & marched. We went as far as Old Gilford [Guilford], 
& made a halt till 4 o'clk. Then we marched on to a place called 
East Gillford, where we pitched our tents on a lane near the meeting 
house. 

28 July, This morning about 3 o'clk we began our march. We 
went about 5 miles, to a place called JOllingsford [Killingworth], where 
we halted till 6 o'clk. Then we marched on again about 9 miles further, 
to a place called Seabrock [Say brook], where we made another halt 
till between 11 & 12 o'clk. Then we marched on again as far as the 
ferry and crossed immediately, & marched about a mile, and pitched 
our tents in an orchard about 5 o'clk in the afternoon. We have 
marched 18 miles this day. 

29 July. This morning about 3 o'clk we began our march, and 
making several short stops to rest on the road, we arrived at New Lon- 
don between 11 & 12 o'clk in the forenoon. After marching through 
the town & making a short halt there, we marched onto the Island, 
where we pitched our tents. We have marched 20 miles this day. 

30 July, This morning about 3 o'clk we began our march, and be- 
tween 11 & 12 o'clk we arrived at Norege [Norwich], and pitched our 
tents in a field. We have marched about 14 miles this day. This 
evening at 6 o'clk our Brigade turned and marched up into the town 
and heard preaers [prayers]. 

31 July. We lay still today for the men to wash their clothes. At 

6 o'clk this [evening] we turned out and went to the town to prayers. 

1 August, 1778. This morning about 4 o'clk we began our march 
from Norwich, and making several short stops, we arrived at Plane 
fields [Plainfield], where we pitched our tents. We have marched 
15 miles this day. 

2 Aug. This morning about daylight we began our march. We 
went as far as Greens Tavern and stopped till 4 o'clk. Then we 
marched on again as far as Angels Tavern, about 12 miles from Provi- 
dence, where we halted & pitched our tents. We have marched 
18 miles this day. 

3 Aug. This morning about 3 o'clk we began our march. We went 
within about 3 miles of the town, and stopped in an orchard till 4 o'clk ; 
then we set out and marched within a mile of the town, and stopped 
where we were to pitch our tents ; but it being bad ground, we marched 
into town, and marched onto an eminence and pitched our tents. 

6 Aug. This morning at 5 o'clk we struck our tents, and about 

7 o'clk we marched off. Went about 12 miles; halted & pitched our 
tents in a place called Rehoboth. 

15 



114 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

7 Aug. This morning about 3 o'clk we struck our tents and marched 
off, & about 10 o'clk we crossed Taunton river. We marched about 
2 miles and stopped in a field, where we lay all night ; but it was so 
late when our tents got up we did not pitch them this night. 

8 Aug. This morning about daylight we began our march. We 
went about 7 miles, which brought us near Howlands Ferry, where we 
pitched our tents. 

9 Aug. This morning between 6 & 7 o'clk we paraded in order to 
go over the river. About 8 o'clk we marched down & crossed How- 
lands Ferry onto Rhode Island. We marched onto the hills above the 
forts and stopped there for our baggage to come up. Then we pitched 
our tents and stayed here all night. 

10 Aug. A very smart cannonading began from the French fleet 
about 8 o'clk this morning, which lasted two hours. We lay still in 
camp yet. 

11 Aug. We drew three days provision, and had orders to hold 
ourselves in readiness to march towards New Port tomorrow morning 
at 6 o'clk. 

12 Aug. It is very stormy weather this morning, which hinders our 
marching agreeable to yesterdays orders. It continued very stormy all 
day. 1 In the evening the storm increased very much ; it blew to such 
degree that there were but very few tents standing in the brigade by 1 
o'clk. Our tent stood very well till about 1 o'clk ; then it blew up, & 
we found it impossible to pitch it again. We took our blankets and 
set out to look for shelter. We got inside a barn among some horses 
& hogs, where we stayed till day light. 

13 Aug. We set out from our lodgings & went up to the regt., but 
found [it] in a deplorable condition, scarcely a tent standing in it. 
We went to the sutler's & got a dram of brandy, & then went to black- 
smiths shop, where [we] stayed till the afternoon, [when] the storm 
abated. We came up & pitched our tents, & got some dry hay & made 
ourselves considerable comfortable. 



[Book No. 3.] 

Rhode Island ', Friday, 14 th of Aug., 1778. This morning about day- 
light our camps were alarmed, but I don't know the occasion of it yet. 
There was a large detachment from our brigade went out. Between 9 
& 1 o'clk we turned out & bad our arms & ammunition searched ; then 
we were dismissed, but had orders to turn out at the shortest notice. 

15 Aug. This morning about 6 o'clk we struck our tents & loaded 
our baggage. About 7 o'clk we marched off our ground. Marched 

1 This storm wrecked and scattered both the French and British fleets at New- 
port, and did a great deal of damage throughout the State. 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBEKEZER WILD. 115 

about 5 miles and stopped in the road till about 12 o'clk. Then we 
marched about a mile further, & halted in a field where we had a plain 
view of the enemy's works. Our tents did not come up to us this 
night. 

16 Aug. This morning our tents came up, and we pitched them in the 
field where we lay last night. The duty very hard on the men. This 
afternoon about 5 o'clk the weather came up very foggy. 

17 Aug. Very thick & lowering weather. About 11 o'clk this fore- 
noon it cleared away. As the fog cleared off, the enemy discovered our 
troops intrenching near their lines, at which they fired several shots. 
Just before sundown the weather came up very thick & misty. 

18 Aug. Dark & misty weather. The enemy seem to be very 
angry. They fire at our men that are intrenching very brisk. The 
enemy have kept up a cannonading at our works all day. 

19 Aug. Last evening one of our sentries was taken off his post by 
the enemys rounds. About 9 o'clk the fog cleared, and the cannonading 
began from both sides, which was continued all day. 

20 Aug. The enemy is very peaceable as yet. The weather remains 
unsettled. In the afternoon there were several shots fired from both sides. 

21 Aug. This morning our people threw several shells at the 
enemys works, & the cannonading was kept up as usual on both sides. 

22 Aug. Dark & windy weather. Nothing remarkable today, only 
there is no firing. 

23 Aug. Nothing remarkable today. Several shells thrown from 
both parties in the night. 

25 Aug. Our people keep up a very smart cannonading and buin- 
bading [bombarding] against the enemy this morning till about 11 
o'clk. Orders to parade all the men unfit for action at 6 o'clk this 
morning. Everything seems to be very still on both sides at present. 
A return of all the sick called for in the regt. This evening Lieut. 
Grace arrived here with his party from Philadelphia. 

26 Aug. No firing this morning from either side, & everything 
seems to be very still. 

27 Aug. Warm & muggy weather. Things remain very still. 

28 Aug. Last evening there was a cannon shot fired from the ene- 
my's lines which entered a house of one of the inhabitants and struck 
an infant as it was sucking at its mother's breast. It tore the infant in 
pieces but did not hurt the mother, but wounded an aged woman in the 
same house. This afternoon one of our men was hanged on the grand 
parade for attempting to desert to the enemy. This evening just after 
roll call we had orders to pack up all our clothes and be ready to start 
at the shortest notice, but did not know whether we were to advance 
or retreat. At 8 o'clk we struck our tents & loaded our baggage in 
the most silent manner. About 9 o'clk we began our retreat. We 



116 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

marched with great silence and moderation to the north end of the 
island, and halted on the same ground we encamped on when we first 
landed on the island. We stopped here all night. 

29 Aug. This morning about 4 o'clk our pickets and advance left 
the lines. About daylight the enemy advanced upon them. About 7 
o'clk in the morning they attacked our rear, and drove them some ways 
very fast. Our party was reinforced, & then we held our ground by a 
very smart engagement both with cannon & muskets. For some time 
our main body kept their ground ; but the enemy drove our detached 
party several times, until they came within shot of our heavy cannon, 
which were placed on an eminence on our right. We played on the 
enemy from there very warm for some time, which obliged them to re- 
treat. We followed them very close till they possessed themselves of 
some hills in their rear, where they made a stand. A very warm en- 
gagement ensued between our right and the enemys left for several 
hours. Sometimes our party gave way, & at others the enemy ; but at 
the last our party got much the advantage of the enemy. The enemy 
seeing they could gain no advantage on our right, they advanced on 
our left, where we repulsed them and drove them back to their hills. 
One of the enemy's sloops of war and two tenders ran up the river and 
came to anchor round the north end of the island, in order to cut off our 
retreat from the island if we should find it needful ; but our people run 
down two 18 pounders, which we played from and soon obliged them 
to slip their cables and make off themselves. We kept up a constant 
fire on the enemy all the afternoon till sundown, when the firing on 
both sides ceased. We lay down under a stone wall about a quarter of 
a mile from the enemys hills. We were alarmed several times in the 
night by the firing of small arms. We took one prisoner in the action, 
which deserted from our side when Fort Mungunney [Montgomery] 
was besieged by the enemy. We shot him in about an hour after we 
took him prisoner. 

30 Aug. The enemy keep possession of their hills yet, and we still 
remain on the ground we stayed on last night. Our scouting party and 
theirs keep a constant firing at each other. At sundown this evening 
we fell in to roll call. After the rolls were called we were counted off 
in platoons, after which we stacked our arms and lay down, but had 
orders not to go to sleep. About 8 o'clk we fell in and began our 
march towards the ferry in the most silent manner. We marched 
about a mile and stopped in the road. Our brigade stopped here till all 
our stores were carried off our hills & all our army had marched by us 
except our rear-guard, which consisted of Col° Wiggles worth's regt. and 
our light corps. About 10 o'clk we marched on again, and made no more 
halt till we got to the ferry, where the boats were waiting for us. We 
embarked and crossed the ferry. After we all got over the ferry we 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 117 

marched up onto the ground that we pitched our tents on before we 
landed on the island, and halted ; but it being dark we did not pitch 
our tents this night. 

31 Aug. This morning before daylight our retreat off the island 
was completed without the loss of any men, artillery, or baggage. 
After daylight we got our tents and pitched them on our old ground. 
This afternoon all our spare cartridges were returned to the Q r . M r .. 

Howland's Ferry, Sept. I 8 *, 1778. This morning just after daylight 
we struck our tents and loaded our baggage. About 7 o'clk we began 
our march for Providence. We marched 8 miles, which brought us to 
Tantun [Taunton] river. We crossed the river in flat bottomed boats. 
We marched about 8 miles after we crossed the river, and halted in a 
place called Rehbouth [Rehoboth], 

2 Sept. This morning we drew one gill of rum a man. About 
7 o'clk we begun our march. We made no stop till we arrived 
at Providence. We marched onto hills above the town and halted. 
Our tents did not come up till about 9 o'clk at night. We did not 
pitch them this night. 

3 Sept. We pitched our tents this morning on the hills. Nothing 
remarkable today. 

5 Sept. This evening we had orders to move our encampment as 
soon as it was convenient. 

6 Sept. This morning our brigade paraded and was counted off 
in divisions and marched to meeting. After the service was over 
we marched to camp again in the same order. In the afternoon 
we attended divine service in the same order. 

7 Sept. This morning Col° Jacksons regt. struck their tents & 
loaded their baggage in order to march to Bedford ; but their orders 
were countermanded, & they pitched their tents again on the same 
ground. 

10 Sept. There was one of Coll Eliots [Robert Elliot] regt. flogged 
100 lashes for desertion. 

13 Sept. This morning about 10 o'clk I left our camp and set out 
on my journey for Boston. I travelled as far as a tavern in Attel- 
borough, where I stopped and dined. After stopping here some time 
I set out again and travelled about 11 miles further, and stopped and 
got my supper and lodging at a private house. This place is called 
Rentam [Wrentham]. 

14 Sept. This morning about 7 o'clk I set out from my lodging. 
I travelled about 9 miles, which brought me into Deadam [Dedham]. 
I stopped here and got breakfast. Then I set out again, & making 
several stops by the way, I arrived in Boston about sundown. 

15 Sept. I breakfasted this morning at Mrs. Haynes's; dined at my 
brother's & spent the evening at Mr. Porter's. 



118 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

24 Sept. About 3 o'clk I set out on my journey to Providence 
to join my regt. again. I travelled as far as my fathers at Braintree, 
and tarried there all night. 

25 Sept. About 10 o'clk I set out on my journey towards camp. 
I travelled as far as my brother's in Middleborough, and stopped here 
for the night. 

27 Sept. About 8 o'clk I set out on my journey to camp, and 
arrived there about 8 o'clk in the evening. 

28 Sept. This morning our brigade turned out & marched onto 
a plain some distance from our camp. We performed several ma- 
noeuvres ; then marched back to our camp and was dismissed till 
3 o'clk, at which time we turned out & marched onto the plain again, 
where we were reviewed by the Gen ls & performed several manoeuvres ; 
after which we marched into the town. The brigade was divided, 
in order to perform a sham fight. The right wing went down 
the front street ; the left down the back street. There were two 
field pieces with each party. The left marched down the back street, 
turned and came up the front street as far as Gen 1 Glover's quarters, 
where they met the right. They began the engagement with field 
pieces which were discharged several times on both parties ; after 
which they fell in the rear, & then the musketry began, which was fired 
by platoons in great order. The left wing retreated over the bridge. 
The right pursued them very close till they got to the bridge, where 
the artillery of both parties was brought in the front. They disputed 
the bridge some time with the field pieces, but the left wing gained 
the bridge and the right wing retreated as far as where the engagement 
began. By this time it had grown quite dark ; the general officers 
came to a parley, and the firing ceased on both sides. Both parties 
passed to the right-about, & marched to the camp again in the same 
order as before mentioned. All this was performed with the greatest 
order and activity possible. 

5 Oct , 1778. About 10 o'clk the B d turned out & went into the 
field for exercise. We went through several manoeuvres & were 
reviewed by the Gen 1 . Between 1 & 2 o'clk we returned to our 
camp & were dismissed. — This evening were brought to town, under 
a strong guard, ten tories that were taken as they were going from 
the Main out [to] the island in a boat, — they had been plundering the 
inhabitants on the Main, — amongst which was the infamous Will m 
Crosden, 1 an inhabitant of Rhode Island. He and two more were put 
in irons, and the whole of them were committed to the main guard. 

1 William Crosson, of whom some account is given in Peterson's History of 
Rhode Island, pp. 222, 223. He subsequently escaped from his place of confine- 
ment in Providence, and accompanied the British troops when they withdrew 
from Newport. 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 119 

7 Oct. This forenoon Sergt. Williams arrived here from Princetown 
hospital. 

17 Oct. This afternoon at 2 o'clk the brigade was turned out, in 
order to attend the execution of John & James Battel, soldiers in 
Col° Shepard's regt. The criminals were brought from the Provost 
under a strong guard. Their coffins were borne just before them. 
The Dead March was played behind them. In this manner they were 
brought to the place where they were to be executed. Where 
the brigade was paraded, the Criminals were brought in front for 
every one to see them ; after which their sentence was read, which 
was to be shot. Their coffins were set down by the edge of their 
graves. The men that were to be their executioners had their guns 
loaded for that purpose, and marched up within about a rod of the 
coffins. The criminals were made to kneel down by the side of their 
coffins in order to receive the fatal blow; but at the moment they 
were to be shot their reprieves were read. The brigade marched back 
to our camp & was dismissed. 

18 Oct. The brigade went to meeting all day at the Babtis [Bap- 
tist] meeting house. I dined with Mr. Welds. 

25 Oct. I went to meeting at Mr. Snow's meeting in the forenoon. 
In the afternoon I went with the brigade to the Babtis meeting 
house. 

26 Oct. This afternoon we turned out and were joined by Col 
Jackson's detachment & the Gen 1 ' 8 Life Guards, & performed a sham 
fight in the field. 

4 Nov. [1778]. This afternoon at 3 o'clk we struck our tents and 
marched to our winter quarters at the upper part of the town. 

22 Nov. This afternoon the regt. paraded & went to meeting at 
Mr. Mailing's meeting [house], where we had a sermon delivered to 
us by our Chaplain on the occasion of the death of the consort of our 
worthy and much esteemed Gen 1 Glover ; likewise to John Bushby, 
who is under the sentence of death and is to be executed on Monday. 

23 Nov, This afternoon between 3 & 4 o'clk John Bushby of Col 
Vose's regt. was shot to death for desertion — on the common near 
Gen 1 Glover's old encampment. 

5 December [1778]. This afternoon Eben r Williams was to be shot, 
but the weather would not admit of turning out. 

6 Dec. This morning at roll call there were three prisoners brought 
onto the parade, and were to be flogged ; but the Col° forgave them 
that part of their punishment. We have orders to parade at 1 o'clk 
to attend Divine service. — This afternoon the regt. attended Divine 
service at Mr. Manning's meeting house. 

7 Dec. This morning at 10 o'clk the regt. paraded in [order] 
to attend the execution of Eben r Williams ; but for reasons unknown 



120 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

to me he is reprieved till next Saturday afternoon. Dan! Wilkings was 
flogged one hundred lashes on the grand parade, for mutiny. 

9 Dec. This evening at roll call there were four men flogged — 
belonging to our regt. — for embezzling public stores. 

10. At 12 o'clk the regt. turned out to roll call, and there were 
7 men flogged ; three of them 2 hundred lashes each ; three of them 
one hundred each, and one sixty lashes, — all for embezzling public 
stores. 

[Book No. 4.] 

19 December [1778]. This morning at roll call we had orders to 
parade at — o'clk to attend the execution of Eben r Williams, who has 
been reprieved from time to time. — Upon repeated examination the 
Gen! finds that said Williams was not the promoter of the mutiny for 
which he was to suffer death. The Gen 1 has therefore been pleased to 
pardon said Williams, and he has this evening returned to his duty. 

27 Dec. This afternoon the regt. was turned out without their 
arms, and marched, or rather run, about three miles out of town. I can't 
give any reason for so doing, except it was to beat a path for the teams 
to bring in wood. 

28 Dec. This day being St. Johns, the free masons walked in seshon 
[procession] from the Court house to the Church, where one of the 
brothers delivered a short oration. After the sollemnety [solemnity] 
was over, the masons walked in the same elegant manner from the 
church to the place where they held the Lodge. 

29 Dec. This forenoon the B- was turned out and went to shovelling 
snow. 

3 January, 1779. This evening just after sundown my friend Ulmer 
& I walked down in town as far as Mr. Walker's, where we met a 
number of respectable gentlemen and ladies. As soon as we were 
seated we were presented with a glass of wine in very genteel manner. 
Between 6 & 7 o'clk we had the pleasure of seeing M r Sam 1 Welds and 
Mrs. Susanah Walker enter into the blissful state of marriage. After 
the nuptual seremoneys were over, we were again seated & very genteelly 
entertained with cake and wine, & spent the evening very agreeably 
till near 10 o'clk, at which time the company began to retire. Mr. 
Ulmer and I came home to our quarters. 

6 Jan. About 2 o'clk this afternoon the regt. turned out to attend 
the execution of John B. Molten, Petter [Peter] Peney, & John Ratford, 
which were to be hanged for embezzling public stores. We marched 
onto the grand parade, where the B- was formed, & marched onto the 
Common, near our old encampment, where the gallows were erected. 
The unhappy criminals were brought under a strong guard, and the 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZEK WILD. 121 

cart and one coffin in it brought under the gallows ; the said B. 
Molten cas d [caused] to get up onto the cart, & there sentence was 
read. Just at the time he was to be swung off, the minister came with 
their reprieves from the Gen 1 . We marched to our respective quarters 
& were dismissed. 

15 Jan. About 12 o'clk there was a large command called out of the 
Brigade. They were paraded & had their arms searched & served with 
ammunition, and then dismissed for a while ; but was to be ready to 
turn out again at the shortest notice. 

3 Feb. [1779]. About 1 o'clk our regt. was mustered. This even- 
ing at roll call two of our regt. were flogged for theft. 

8 Feb. This morning the B d turned out, & was joined by the Gen ls - 
guard and Col Jacksons Detachment, — all the artillery in town. 
After we were reviewed by the Gen 1 , we marched onto the hill above 
the town and performed a sham fight, after which we marched to our 
barracks and were dismissed. 

16 Feb. About 12 o'clk there was a detachment went from our 
Brigade. — It is thought the enemy have a mind to land down the river. 
About 9 o'ck in the evening there was another detachment went off 
that took the biggest part of the men in the B d that were fit for duty. 

23 Feb. About 10 o'clk this morning I set out to go to Warick 
[Warwick] to take Sergt. Dennison's place on the detachment there, 
and arrived there about 1 o'clk. — At sundown I carried my men to 
roll call. After the rolls were called I mounted guard with sixteen 
men under my command. I marched with my men about 2 miles 
towards the Point, where I left my guard. I sent a corporal and four 
men down to the Point. At 11 o'clk I sent a corporal and four men 
out as a patrolling party, which went down to the Point and all round 
the shore. They discovered nothing remarkable. Came in again about 
1 o'clk, at which time I sent out another party, which went the rounds 
as before and came in about three o'clk ; at which time I sent another 
party, which went the rounds as usual and came in between 4 & 5 o'clk, 
and then I sent another party, which patrolled till daylight and then 
came in with the other corporal and four men from the Point. I went 
to the commissary's, and got a gill of rum p r man. After I gave it to 
them, I dismissed them. 

24 Feb. About 7 o'clk this morning we set out to go to Grinege 
[Greenwich]. We marched about half a mile to the water side, and 
embarked on board two batteaux. We arrived at Grinege about ten 
o'clk. We landed and marched above the town, where we stacked our 
arms. About 11 o'clk Maj r Coggell's [Thos. Cogswell's] detachment 
came into town from Boston Neck. We marched and joined them. 
Col? Green's detachment, with Gen 1 Sollavens [Sullivan's] Life Guard 
and a detachment from the Artillery, joined us ; and we were all sup- 

16 



122 MASSACHUSETTS HISTOBICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

plied with a sufficient number of sporting cartridges to perform a sham 
fight, after which we were reviewed by Gen 1 Sollovann [Sullivan]. 
Then we marched into a field above the town and performed a sham 
field fight ; after which we marched back into the town and performed 
a street fight till about four o'clk, at which time we ceased from our 
sporting. Gen 1 Sollov a ordered the troops a gill of rum p r man. After 
we had drawn our rum we were billeted amongst the inhabitants for 
the night ; but our quarters were so poor that Capt. Barnes thought it 
best to go back to Warick again. We went to our boats and set off, 
and about nine o'clk in the evening we got to our quarters at Warick 
again. 

25 Feb. This morning I went to the commissarys, and drew four 
days allowance of provision for the detachment. 

28 Feb. About 12 o'clk Sergt Williams came to relieve me. About 
1 o'clk I set out to come to Providence, where arrived between 4 & 5 
o'clk. 

26 March, 1779 Orderly Sergt. Green arrived here from Boston. 

29 March. About 12 o'clk this day Gen ] Sollivan left this town 
[Providence] and began his journey for Head Quarters. 

3 April [1779]. Between 10 & 11 o'clk the regt. paraded and 
marched onto the grand parade and joined the rest of the Brigade; 
and the whole was counted off [in] Divisions and marched out of town 
to meet Gen; Gates, and escorted him into town in the grandest order. 

6 April. This day the Hon- b Gen! Gates dined at Hackor's Hall 
with the chief of the officers of this department. 

18 April. This afternoon 1 Sergt., 1 Corp', and 12 men from our 
Brigade set out to Boston with Crosens 1 prisoners from the main 
guard. 

25 April. It is said there is an express arrived in town this day for 
our Brigade to march to the Nor d [northward]. 

27 April. About 1 o'clk Sergt. Copinger and his party arrived here 
from Boston. He brought 3 prisoners from there. 

2 May, 1779. This evening our D Master [Drillmaster ?] arrived 
here from Boston. 

4 May. This afternoon at 5 o'clk the Brigade paraded, and Wm. 
Luckey received his punishment, — which was to go from the guard 
house to the gallows with a halter round his neck, — there to be stripped 
naked and run the ganlote [gantlet, or gantelope] through the Brigade. 

5 May. This evening at roll call there were three men of our regt. 
flogged 50 lashes each. 

6 May. This morning about 7 o'clk our regt. was mustered for the 
months of March and April. In the afternoon the Brigade paraded 
together and went to meeting. 

1 See note relating to William Crosson, ante, p. 118.' 



1890.] JOUKNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 123 

8 May. This morning about 5 o'clk we were alarmed by a report 
[that] the enemy in a number of boats had gone up Tan ton [Taunton] 
river in order to land there. The regt. was turned out and kept under 
arms till about 9 o'clk, and dismissed with orders to turn out again at 
the shortest notice. 

21 May. This forenoon we were alarmed. We turned out and 
marched down to fore Pint |~Fore Point?], and from there back again 
over the bridge. After some time we marched back again to our 
quarters, and were dismissed. 

25 May. This morning just after day light the General beat, and we 
turned out and marched off the regt} parade in order to encamp ; but 
the tent poles not being all ready for us, the B- formed together and 
performed several manoeuvres. After that we marched to our respec- 
tive quarters again, and were dismissed. 

26 May. This morning before 5 o'clk the General beat, and we 
turned out again in order to take the field ; but before we marched off 
the regt) parade it began to rain, which prevented our encamping. 

29 May. This morning after roll call we turned out a fatigue party 
to pitch our tents. 

31 May. This morning just after daylight the General beat, and we 
turned out, and about 6 o'clk we marched off the regt* parade over to 
our camp, it being already pitched. 

12 June [1779]. This morning the B^ turned out before sunrise, 
and marched into town and then back again to camp. This forenoon I 
was orderly at a Gen 1 Court Martial. 

16 June. This morning I mounted the West Redoubt Guard with 
Lieut. Phelan, of Col° Wigglesworth's regt. 

18 June. This day was printed, at the printing office in this town, 
the grand success of Gen! Linkorn's [Lincoln's] army at the Sutherd 
[Southward]. 

21 June. This morning I went to Head quarters to relieve the 
orderly Sergt. there, but he refused to be relieved. 

24 June. This morning I mounted the West Redoubt guard. About 
an hour after guard mounting I got Sergt. Williams to relieve me. 
This evening I had the pleasure of seeing married by the Rev d Mr. 
Snow, M? George Ulmer & M" Polley Tanner, Their company con- 
sisted of about 15 couple. We were entertained genteelly with cake 
and cheese and wine. About 11 o'clk the company broke up. 

4 July , 1779. This morning there is a very strong report that our 
B^ is going to march to Peaks Kill. This evening at roll call we had 
orders to march tomorrow morning at 4 o'ck, but our destiny is not 
known. 

5 July (Monday). We did not march this morning agreeable to last 
night's orders, by reason of not being able to provide wagons sufficient 



124 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

to carry our baggage so soon. The destination of our march remains 
a secret yet. This day being four years since the independence of 
Amarick [America], it was celebrated by firing 13 cannon from the 
park of artillery and the several posts round this shore. Our orders 
are to march tomorrow morning at 4 o'clk. 

6 July. We have not marched agreeable to last night's orders ; but 
we remain in all the preparation possible for troops to be in. This 
evening at roll call we had orders to march at daylight, as before. 

7 July. Just after daylight the General beat, and we struck our 
tents and loaded our baggage. About 7 o'clk the B- marched off ; but 
I tarried behind with one Corp 1 and 12 men for a guard to bring up 
some clothing to the T$- as soon as wagons could be provided for the 
same. 

8 July. About 12 o'clk there was an express arrived here from the 
B- for the Gen 1 , all the officers and soldiers to move on to the B d - as fast 
as possible. 

9 July. This morning about 5 o'clk the Gen 1 ? baggage set out to go 
to the B^. The Gen 1 not thinking it proper to send on the clothing to 
the B d , I was ordered on with the Gen 1 ? Guard and baggage. The 
weather prevented our going but about two miles before we stopped, 
for it rained very fast. We stopped here about two hours, and the 
shower abating some, we moved on again. About 12 o'clk it ceased 
raining, but still continued dark and cloudy. After we had marched on 
about 12 miles, one of our wagons broke, which obliged us to stop again 
at Angel's tavern. We set the carpenters to mending our wagon, and 
pressed a cart to carry on the rest of our baggage. About 5 o'clk we 
moved on again, and marched as far [as] Brown's tavern in Sittuate 
[Scituate, Conn.], where we halted for the night. Here we dismissed 
our pressed cart, and took another to carry our baggage till our wagon 
came up. We have marched 18 miles this day. 

10 July. This morning about 5 o'clk we began our march; trav- 
elled 8 miles, and stopped at tavern in V[olun] town till 

12 o'clk, at which — [conclusion missing]. 



[Book No. 5.] 

11 July, 1779. This morning at 2 o'clk the General beat. We 
turned out, struck our tents and loaded our baggage, and about three o'clk 
marched off, and made no halt till we arrived at New London, it being 
about 9 o'clk in the morning. About 12 o'clk our baggage came up to 
as. We pitched our tents. 

12 July. About 8 o'clk we struck our tents and loaded our baggage 
and marched off. Went about 6 miles, and halted for the men to rest. 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 125 

In about half an hour marched on again, and made no halt till we got 
to Sebrock [Saybrook] ferry. We crossed the ferry and marched two 
miles, and halted for the night. Our baggage not coming up, the men 
were quartered in houses and barns. 

13 July. This morning we turned out just after sunrise and drew 
provision and rum, and had to cook our provision and be ready to 
march at 8 o'clk. A regtl Court Martial sat in our regt. this morning 
before we moved. About 8 o'clk the General beat. We fell in and 
were counted off in order to march ; but we stacked our arms and 
stopped till 10 o'clk, and marched about 6 miles, and stopped to rest 
and refresh ourselves. After a short stop here we marched on again, 
and making several short stops, we marched into a fine town called 
Kilingsworth. Here we halted about an hour, and marched on to East 
Gilford, where we pitched our tents for this night. 

14 July. This morning at 2 o'clk the General beat. We struck 
our tents, loaded our baggage, and marched off. Made no halt till we 
marched through [a] fine large town called West Gilford. Here we 
halted to draw provisions and cook. Between 10 & 11 o'clk we set 
out again and marched as far as Branford, where we pitched our tents. 
This evening I mounted guard with Lieut. Hunt. He marched the 
guard about quarter of the encampment, and set three sentinels for the 
purpose of stopping soldiers from passing and repassing. 

15 July. About 5 o'clk the Brigade marched by us. Our guard 
brought up the rear of the Brigade. We marched as far as East Haven, 
and encamped there, it being about 8 o'clk. Our guard was dismissed 
as soon as the Brigade halted. We have no orders to march to-morrow 
morning. 

1 6 July. The men have orders to clean their arms and keep in 
camp after roll call. I with several other sergts. of the regt. took a 
walk into the pastures to pick whortleberrys, where we found them 
very plenty. After we had satisfied ourselves with them, we returned 
to camp again. 

17 July. This afternoon the Brigade was turned out in order to 
exercise ; but some dispute arising between Col 08 Vose & Biglow 
concerning their rank, the B^ was dismissed without marching off the 
parade. 

18 July. At 2 o'clk the General beat. We struck our tents & 
loaded our baggage, and in short time marched off. Went as far as 
New Haven. Marched through the town and pitched our tents in two 
fields, — one not being large enough for the Brigade to encamp in. We 
found the town very desolate, much destroyed & plundered by the 
enemy, who had been here just before us. 

19 July. This morning about 2 o'clk the General beat. We struck 
our tents, loaded our baggage, and about daylight we marched off. 



126 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

Went 7 miles and halted for the men to rest. After making a short 
stop we marched on again, and made no halt till we came to Statford 
ferry, which we crossed in scows and boats. Marched up into the 
town, and halted for our baggage to get over the ferry. This town is 
not thick-settled, but very extensive and beautified, with a grand meeting 
house and many other stately buildings. Our baggage being all come up 
& the men well rested, about 4 o'clk in the afternoon we marched on 
again 4 miles further, and encamped on a field. We drew one days 
provision & rum here. We have marched 18 miles this day, & it has 
been very warm all day. This is a part of fare feild [Fairfield], but 
not the town. 

20 July, 1779. This morning about 3 o'clk the General beat. We 
struck our tents, loaded our baggage, and about 4 o'clk marched off. 
But we had not marched but about a mile before the rain obliged us to 
halt. We got shelter in houses and barns. About 7 o'clk the shower 
ceased, & we marched on between 8 & 9 o'clk. We marched through 
the ruins of fare feild town, which the enemy had burned and destroyed, 
all except a few scattering houses and barns. We marched on about 5 
miles further, and halted till about 1 o'clk, at which time we marched 
on again as far as Norwerk [Norwalk], which place we found in great 
desolation, entirely burnt & destroyed, except a few small buildings. 
We marched through the town, and encampt in a field. We drew one 
day's allowance of rum this night. 

21 July. We have this day allowed us to wash our clothes in and 
to rest. This evening the men's arms were searched and put in prep- 
aration for action. We have orders to march at half after 2 o'clk in 
the morning. 

22 July. At 2 o'clk this morning the General beat, and at half after 
2 we began our march. Travelled about 6 miles, and halted in a place 
called Wilton. Between 7 & 8 o'clk we marched on again as far as 
Ridgefield, where we halted about an hour, and then marched on again 
four miles further and encamped on the top of a high hill. We sent a 
large picket from the Brigade this evening. 

23 July. We have no orders for marching this morning. At 8 o'clk 
I mounted the main & front guard with Capt. Smith, of Col° Wiggles- 
worth's regt. We had 2 Su b - 8 , 4 Sergts., 4 Corpls, and 50 men on 
guard. He marched about half mile in front of our camp, and relieved 
Capt. Webb & his guard. Afterwards he sent one Sergt., Corpl., & 12 
men about a mile & a half in his front to guard the smiths of the 
Brigade. Just before sunset the officers of the day visited our guard ; 
at 9 o'clk the Capt. detached a Sergt., Corpl., & 9 men, & sent them 
about a quarter of a mile in the front of our guard to continue there all 
night; and another Sergt. and four men to patrol from our guard to 
the Sergt's guard in the front of the whole. 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 127 

24 July. This morning at daylight our guard was paraded and con- 
tinued under arms till about sunrise. Just afterwards the Sergt., Corpl., 
& 9 men that were in our front came in to the guard. Between 8 & 9 
o'clk Capt. Mills, with a guard of 50 men, marched by us and took 
post about 2 miles in our front. He relieved our advance guard, and 
they returned to us again, after which we fell in and marched to camp 
in the same order that we came from there in, and were dismissed. I 
have had a pleasant and agreeable guard. 

27 July, This evening at roll call there was one of our regt. flogged 
one hundred lashes for absenting himself from the regt. without leave. 

28 July. This morning about sunrise a command consisting of two 
hundred men out of Col os Shepard's & Biglow's regts., under the com- 
mand of Col Shepard, marched to Col° Moiling's [Moylan of Penn- 
sylvania ?] quarters, there to be distributed as Col Moiling and Shepard 
should think proper. At 8 o'clk I mounted the main guard with Capt. 
Smith of Col° Sprout's regt. Between 1 & 2 o'clk the officer of the 
day visited our guard. 

29 July. About ten o'clk I was relieved from guard. About 1 o'clk 
it ceased raining. About 2 o'clk we had orders to pack up and be 
ready to march immediately. About three o'clk our Regt. marched 
off. We left our tents standing, & some of our other baggage behind 
us. We marched and halted in a place called Lower Sallem. We 
put up in the meeting house and barns. We sent out large pickets. 
Sergts. Ulmer & Green joined the regt. this evening. 

30 July. About 6 o'clk this afternoon I mounted the quarter guard 
of the regt., with one Corp 1 and nine men. Our regt. is to stay here 
till further orders. 

31 July. This morning about 10 o'clk were brought three tories and 
put under my custody. Between 5 & 6 o'clk I was relieved from the 
guard. 

Sunday, 1 Aug., 1779. At daylight this morning we turned out of 
the meeting house with our packs, in order to clean the meeting house ; 
but the rain soon obliged us to go into the meeting house again for 
shelter. About 8 o'clk we turned out again and marched about 2 miles 
to Upper Sallem Church, where we halted and put up in a barn. The 
church being very small, the officers took it up for their quarters. Be- 
tween 6 & 7 o'clk I mounted guard with one Corp 1 and 12 men. 

4 Aug. This afternoon our Brigade marched clown and encamped on 
the hill just above the Church ; but our regt. still keeps their station at 
the Church. 

5 Aug. At 8 o'clk I mounted the Rockell picket, which was posted 
about a half a mile in the front of our encampment. Lieut. Cushing 
Com? the picket. Between 2 & 3 o'clk the Officer of the day visited 
our picket, and ordered Lieut. Cushing to remove about half a mile 



128 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

further in the front, where we were posted in a much pleasanter place 
than we moved from. Between 12 & 1 o'clk at night the Officer of 
the day visited our guard again. 

6 Aug. We have no relief from the guard this morning on account 
of the camp's being alarmed yesterday. Between 11 & 12 o'clk the 
Officer of the day visited our guard. 

7 Aug. It has been very rainy all day, which has prevented our 
being relieved. In the evening the storm increased, & grew very 
dark, and was attended with very heavy thunder and sharp lightning. 

8 Aug. About nine o'clk our guard was relieved. We marched to 
the regt., but found it encamped with the rest of the B^, on the side of 
a hill, and very muddy ground. This afternoon the regt. attended 
Divine Service. — This day arrived here from Headquarters, Capt. 
Smith of Col 9 Sprout's regt. with 1 60 recruits for our B d , which were 
divided into each regt. according to the strength of the same. 

9 Aug. This forenoon the regt. was turned out, and cleared a piece 
of ground to encamp on. In the afternoon we moved our encampment. 

10 Aug. Just before sundown Col° Sprout arrived here from 
Headquarters. 

14 Aug. This afternoon we had a number of recruits join our 
regt. 

18 Aug. This forenoon we were reviewed by the Inspector General 
of the army of the United States. 

6 Sept. [1779]. About 1 o'clk our camp was alarmed. 

7 Sept This evening our men returned that went to the lines. 

10 Sept. This afternoon the Brigade was inspected by the Inspector 
General. 

14 Sept. This morning 7 recruits joined our regt. The enemy have 
been out this day, which has occasioned an alarm in our camp. 

1 6 Sept. This morning about sunrise the General beat. We struck 
our tents and loaded our baggage, and about 7 o'clk marched off and 
marched through Bedford, and within about half a mile of Croton 
bridge, and halted there about an hour ; then marched back as far as 
N Castel [Newcastle, N. Y.] Church, and halted there. The B^ scat- 
tered and got lodging as we could, but no baggage came up this night. 

17 Sept. This morning we turned out and marched to the alarm 
post, and stopped there awhile, and then marched back to the barn, 
where we lodged. Afr 12 o'clk went to roll call, and at 4 in the after- 
noon, and continued in the regt 1 - parade till sunset, at which time the 
pickets were turned out of the regt., and the rest of us [went] to our 
respective lodgings, with orders to lie on our arms and be ready to turn 
out at the shortest notice. 

18 Sept. At sunrise we turned out for roll call at the Comp y quar- 
ters. Nothing remarkable today. 



1890.] JOURNAL OP EBENEZER WILD. 129 

19 Sept. At 8 o'clk marched up to the regt 1 parade and stacked our 
arms. About 11 o'clk we fell in and marched up to the church, and 
stacked our arms in the road, and had orders to cook our provision. — 
About 5 o'clk marched again back as far as Bedford, and pitched our 
tents on a high hill the east side of the ruins of the town. This day- 
Gen 1 Nicksons [Nixon's] B- joined us and are encamped with us. It 
being late when we got here, we did not pitch our tents in order. 

20 Sept. This forenoon we struck our tents and pitched them in a 
line in order, and cleared a parade. 

21 Sept It being the first time of our two Brigades mounting guards 
together, I went to the grand parade to see them march off. 

29 Sept. This afternoon we had two recruits join our Company. 

30 Sept This morning all the Light Infantry of the Brigade marched 
for the lines, with a Capts. com? from the Battalions. This evening 
Sergt. Webb joined the company. 



[Book No. 6.] 

1 Oct, 1779. This morning about 7 o'clk I set out with Corp 1 
Beal to go to Upper Salem to see John Mosher. We paid him a visit, 
and returned to camp again. 

3 Oct. This forenoon about 1 1 o'clk I left camp and proceeded on 
my journey for Boston. I travelled as far as Salem, where I stopped 
and put up, and meeting with good entertainment, I tarried all night. 

4 Oct. This morning about sunrise I set out from my lodgings at 
Salem, and travelled as far as Danbrey [Danbury], where I stopped 
and breakfasted. After making a considerable stop there, I set out 
again, and making several stops for entertainment, I put up at Peackock's 
tavern in Woodbruy. 

5 Oct. This morning about 6 o'clk I set out from my lodgings and 
travelled about 4 miles ; but the rain coming on very fast obliged me 
to stop. I happened to stop at the minister's house, where I break- 
fasted. The storm abated, and between 10 and 11 o'clk I set out again 
and travelled 17 miles, and put up in the parish of Suthington at one 
Jenking's tavern. 

6 Oct About 6 o'clk I set out on my journey. Travelled 6 miles 
and breakfasted. Then I set out and [travelled] about 1 1 miles further, 
which brought me to . Here I dined and drew three days pro- 
vision, and set out again ; but the storm interfering so that [I] came 
but about two miles this side the river before I put up for the night. 

7 Oct This morning about 7 o'clk I set out from my lodgings ; 
travelled about 5 miles, and unluckily took a wrong road and was 
obliged to travel about 4 miles before I could reellify [rectify] my mis- 

17 



130 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

take. After I got into my road again I stopped to breakfast, and then 
travelled on again, and reached Windum [Windham] about sunset. 
I met with Mr. Stow, one of my old acquaintance, which entertained 
me very kindly. 

8 Oct. This morning I breakfasted with Mr. Stow. Between 

8 & 9 o'clk I set out on my journey, and, making several stops I 
put up at Love's tavern in Covendrey [Coventry], in Rhode Island 
government. 

9 Oct. About sunrise this morning I set out on my journey, and 
travelled about 7 miles and stopped to breakfast. After making some 
stop, after breakfast I set out again, and reached Providence between 
1 and 2 o'clk. I stopped at Mrs. Parkers. 

10 Oct., Sunday. I spent the biggest part of the day with my friend's, 
but went to meeting in the afternoon at the Baptis meeting. 

11 Oct. This morning I breakfasted with Mr. Reynolds. About 

9 o'clk I set out for Brantre [Braintree]. I travelled about 12 miles, 
and stopped and dined at a private house in Atelbrough [Attlebor- 
ough]. After making a short stop here I set out again and travelled 
about 14 miles further, and stopped and put up at Kith's tavern. 

12 Oct. This morning about 6 o'clk I set out on my journey, and 
making several stops, I arrived at my fathers house in Brantree about 
one o'clk. 

13 Oct. This morning about 10 o'clk I set out from Brantree to go 
to Boston. I stopped at Col° Vose's at Milton. After I performed my 
business there I set out for Boston, where I reached about 4 o'clk. 



[Book No. 7. 1 ] 

West Point, 19 th February, 1781. The Light Infantry of the Mas- 
sachusetts line crossed the N. [North] river and marched to Peeks 
Kill, that being the place appointed for the rendezvous, where we were 
quartered in houses. 

20 th . We were joined by five companies from the Connecticutt 
and two from the N. Hampshire lines, one from the Rhode Island 
and one from Hazen's Regiments. The whole were inspected by Lt. 
Col. Smith at a place near the landing ; after which we marched 
to King's ferry, and crossed as soon as possible & marched to Hevy- 
straw [Haverstraw, N. Y.], where the troops were quartered in houses. 
Sup? on my rations, and lodged on the floor. 

1 The matter contained in this book was probably copied by Lieutenant 
Wild from the rough journal kept in camp. There is a marked improvement 
in the penmanship and orthography, and it would appear at first sight to have 
been written by a different hand ; but a critical examination shows that it was 
written by Wild. 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZEK WILD. 131 

21 st . Walked with Capt. Hitchcock about half a mile, and break- 
fasted at a M' Burns. At 9 o'clk a. m. the troops marched, and 
arrived at Ramebough [Ramapo, N. Y.] about 4 o'clk p. m., and were 
quartered as usual. Mounted picket with Capt. Burnham. We kept 
our guard at Dock House, about half a mile adv d of the troops. 

22 d . Our guard was relieved at 9 o'clk a. m., at which time our 
men were dismissed & sent to their respective quarters, where they re- 
mained all day, it being v^ery stormy. Quartered at a very indifferent 
house. 

23 d . The troops marched a little after daylight. Being exceeding 
muddy, could march but slow. Arrived at Fumton [Pompton] at one 

o'clk p. m. Quartered at M? N Golders. The Marquis arrived 

& took command of the detachment, in consequence of which each 
regt. rec d a standard. We sent an .officer back to Westpoint for our 
baggage. 

24 th . The troops marched about sunrise, and arrived at Hanover 
(3 miles from Moris town) at 3 o'clk A. M., and were quartered as 
usual. 

25 th , Sunday. At sunrise the troops paraded & marched to Moris- 
town, where we remained all day, and drew clothing for our men. 
Quartered at a young gentleman's at the N. end of the Town. 

26 th . Being detained by the delivery of our clothing, we marched 
at 11 o'clk A. M. After making about five miles were joined by 
five companies from the N. Jersey line, which completes us 3 Regi- 
ments. The first is composed of the eight first companies of the 
Mass tt8 line, and commanded by Col Vose ; the two remaining compa- 
nies from the Mass" 3 line, with five from Connecticutt and one from 
Rhode Island, formed another commanded by Lieut. Col. Gimatt 
[Gimat] ; the 3 d is formed of the Jersey companies, with two from 
N. Hampshire and one from Gen 1 Hazen's Regiment, and is com- 
manded by Lieut. Col. Barber. At 7 o'clk p. m. we arrived at Sum- 
ersett, being 22 miles from Moristown. Quartered at a rich 
gentleman's, a Magistrate of the Town. — He used us with great 
hospitality. 

27 th . We began our march at sunrise ; and after marching about 
three miles halted to draw rum for the men. After a short halt we 
continued our march to Princeton, where the troops were quartered 
in the college and other houses in town. Our company was quartered 
at a Doctor's house at the entrance to the town. A riot happened 
in the evening between the Massachusetts and Jersey troops. 

28* = Our troops were paraded at daylight. About sunrise we 
began our march, at which time I mounted the police guard, which 
marched in the rear of the Regiment to prevent stragglers. At 1 o'clk 
p. m. we arrived in Trenton, where the troops were quartered as usual. 



132 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

Took quarters with my guard at a Mr. Barnes's, about a quarter 
of a mile N. of the market house. 

Trenton, March the 1 st , '81. The troops were paraded at daylight, 
at which time T was relieved from guard by Ensign White. About 
sunrise we marched to the landing, where were vessels to transport 
us down the river. The right wing of Col. Vose's Regiment, with 
the Field, Staff officers and music, embarked on board a large schooner 
commanded by Capt. Montgomery. The tide being on the ebb, and 
wind in our favor, at 9 o'clk A. M. came to sail; at half past ten 
we passed by Burdenton [Bordentown], and proceeded down the river. 
At one p. m. we passed Burlington, and at half past two came to anchor 
against the city of Philadelphia, where we remained about half an hour. 
Then came to sail again, and passing by Read Banck [Red Bank] and 
Mud Island Foorts, we sailed till midnight, at which time we came 
to anchor. 

2 d . Finding ourselves at daylight opposite Willminton [Wilming- 
ton], hauled to a wharf, and landed our men. At sunrise began our 
march ; passing through Willminton and a small town called Newport, 
we arrived at Custeen [Christiana?] at 11 o'clk A. M. Being rainy, 
we were quartered in houses. Our company was quartered in a public 
house near the centre of the town. About 4 o'clk the remainder of 
the troops came up and were quartered as usual. 

3 d . Marched this morning at eight o'clk, and making the usual 
halts on the road, arrived at the head of Elk about three p. m., where 
the troops were (with being much crowded) quartered in houses. Our 
company was billeted on a M r Huggens, he being a gentleman of gen- 
erosity. Mr. Phelen and Richard quartered with us. 

4 th , Sunday. Remained in quarters all day. Dined with Mr. Hug- 
gens very elegantly. Our detachment received one month's pay in 
Pennsylvania new emission money. 

5 th . Breakfasted with Mr. Huggins. Had an invitation to dine 
with Major Galvan, but did not go, in consequence of which I dined 
with Mr. Huggins. 

7 th . Spent the forepart of the day as usual. In the afternoon 
walked with M r Huggins, Erving, Phelen, and Richard to the landing, 
where the craft was preparing to transport the troops down the bay. 
After spending the afternoon we walked to Mr. Barneby's, where 
we spent the evening very agreeably. At 11 o'clk we returned to 
Mr. Huggins 's. 

8. At 7 o'clk a. m. the troops were paraded and marched to Plum 
Point (being 7 miles from the head of Elk), where Colonel Barber 
& Gimatts Regiments embarked. Col. Vose's Regt. marched five miles 
further, & took quarters in houses near Cissel [Cecil] ferry. 

9 th . Our regiment was paraded at sunrise, & marched to the ferry, 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 133 

where we embarked our company. Went on board a schooner of 
about 23 tons burthen, called the Three Sisters. The troops being 
all embarked, at 11 o'clk A. m. the fleet sailed. Having but a small 
wind (& that not fair), we came to anchor near Turkey Point about 
4 o'clk p. m., having sailed only about 7 miles. 

10 th . At sunrise our fleet came to sail, but the wind being un- 
fair, were obliged to come to anchor under Pools island at 12 o'clk, 
having sailed about four or five leagues. Went on board the Speedwell 
sloop, on board of which is Col. Vose, Major Galvan, and the staff offi- 
cers of the regiment. About 4 o'clk p. m. the wind breezed up very 
fresh, obliged most of our fleet to run into Wostan Creek for safety ; 
but the Speedwell, being large, rode it out. Lodged on board the 
Speedwell. 

11 th , Sunday, Lieut. Reab arrived with the officers baggage from 
West Point. The vessels having returned and anchored in their 
places, I went on board the Three Sisters again after breakfasting with 
Col. Vose. The wind being still against us, we remained at anchor 
all day. 

12 th . At sunrise our fleet came to sail ; the wind being fair and our 
6chooner a good sailor, we arrived in Annapolis Harbor about sundown. 

13 th . All our fleet arrived safe in harbor. Two British ships have 
been seen cruising in the bay this morning. 

14 th . The British ships seen in the bay yesterday have come to an- 
chor at the mouth of the harbor. One is a sloop of eighteen guns, the 
other of fourteen ; in consequence of which all our fleet except the 
armed vessels have moved up the creek. 

15 th . Remain on board our vessels. A detachment of the Regiment 
went on shore & was manoeuvred by Major Galvan. 

16 th . The British vessels keep their station. A ball was given 
(this evening) by the gentlemen of the town of Annapolis to the officers 
of our detachment. Went on shore with M r Morton and Brown. 

17 th . Still remain on board. This being St. Patrick's day, our men 
are very noisy. 

18 th , Sunday. The troops landed and encamped on Sandy Point, 
opposite the town. Heard the enemy were a landing below us. 

19 th . Walked with Lieut. Nason round the Point. British ships 
ride triumphant in the bay. 

20 th . At 9 o'clk a. m. relieved Ensign Brown at the police guard. 

21 st . I was relieved at 9 o'clk by Lieut. Reab. The regiment 
exercised in the afternoon. 

22 d . Went to Annapolis with a number of gentlemen to attend a 
C. Martial sitting at Man's Tavern. 

23 d . Went a gunning with Capt. Bradford in the afternoon. 

24 th . Set out at sunrise with Capt. Bradford & walked to the 



134 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

point. Our business was to kill some ducks, but being unlucky, we 
returned to camp again by 10 o'clk. a. m. 

25 th , Sunday. Mounted picket with Capt Furman (of the Jersey 
line). Our picket is left at Mrs. Hessehurs, about one mile from 
camp. 

26 th . Our picket was relieved this morning by Capt. Burnham. 
Had a very agreeable guard. The regt. was turned out and manoeuvred 
by Maj r Gal van this afternoon. 

27 th . Breakfasted with Col. Vose on board the Speedwell sloop, 
after which I went with a party of men to Tailors point (which is 3 
miles below Annapolis). Caught three hundred fish of different kinds, 
and returned to the Speedwell again by 5 o'clk. After taking a drink 
of grog with Col. Vose, returned to camp again. 

28 th . Dined with Col. Vose on board the Speedwell sloop. An 
officer of the Brigade was sent to Baltimore on Command. 

29 th . At 9 o'clk a. m. relieved Ensign Town at the police guard. 

30 th . Relieved from guard by Lieut. Holden. Dined with Major 
Galvan. 

31 st . The regiment was turned out & manoeuvred by Maj r Galvan. 

Annapolis, 1 st April, '81, Sunday. Dined with Lieut. Nason on 
board his schooner. 

2 d . Our men had orders to draw and cook three days provision. 
The Marquis arrived in Annapolis from York Town, in Virginia. 

3 d . The troops had orders to draw three days more provision, & 
keep that quantity always ready cooked. A detachment consisting of 
150 men, properly officered, are to embark this afternoon under the 
command of Major Galvan. 

4 th . The General beat at sunrise, at which time the tents were 
struck & the troops all embarked. Our company went on board a 
small sloop called the Victory. Major Galvan's detachment are dis- 
tributed on board the armed vessels, which are to be our convoys up 
the bay. 

5 th . Preparations were made to attack the enemy in the bay by our 
armed vessels & others prepared for that purpose ; but they moved 
down without giving us the opportunity. Our fleet was put in readi- 
ness to sail. In the afternoon Capt. Hitchcock went on board the 
Nesbut brig to relieve Capt. Burnham, he being taken sick. About 
sundown I received orders to make the best of my way with the Com- 
pany to the H. of Elk., in consequence of which we sailed as soon as 
possible. The wind and tide being in our favor, sailed the most of the 
night. 

6 th . At daylight we found ourselves near the mouth of Sisqu- 
hannah [Susquehanna] river. Our fleet was all in sight, except our 
armed vessels, which remained below. Being almost calm, we made 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZEE, WILD. 135 

but little progress on our voyage this day. Came to anchor at 7 o'clk 
p. m., near the place we embarked from the 9 th ult-. 

7 th . Came to sail at 8 o'clk a. m., and arrived at the H. of Elk 
about 11a. m., where the Speedwell & several others of our fleet had 
arrived before us. Capt. Webb's company was sent to Cristeen [Chris- 
tiana] as a guard to some stores. 

8 th , Sunday. All our fleet arrived safe. Remained on board all 
day. Sat on a Regimental C. Martial, of which Capt. Clays was Pres- 
ident, Walked to Mr. Huggins's and spent the evening. 

9 th . The troops disembarked at 6 o'clk a. m.. and marched two 
miles W. of the town, where we were to encamp. Here Major Gal- 
van's detachment joined the Brigade. The ground assigned for our 
encampment being very bad, we marched back through the town, and 
encamped one mile east of it, on a large plain. 

10 th . Seven men deserted from the regiment last night. Walked in 
the afternoon to town. Drank grog at Mr. Huggins's. Returned to 
camp ; spent the evening and supt with Mr. Nason. 

11 th . Eight men deserted from the regiment last night. Walked to 
town & wrote a letter to Boston. Orders to march in the morning. 

12 th . Lieuts. Bowles, Holden, and a number of other gentlemen set 
out for West point. At 9 o'clk the troops began their march, and 
passing through town, came to Charleston, where we made a short 
halt. Then marched 6 miles further, and encamped in a wood one mile 
N. of Susquhannah river. 

1 3 th . Mounted a guard which took post half a mile below the ferry 
at Mr. Thomas's. Had three prisoners, two of which were tories de- 
tected in supplying the enemy with provision. At 10 o' elk A. M. 
a C. Martial sat at Mr. Thomas's for the trial of prisoners under my 
guard. 

14 th . The troops having finished crossing the Sisquehaner river, at 
1 o'clk I crossed with my guard, and took post in the centre of the Bri- 
gade, which was encamped half a mile below the ferry. At five o'clk 
one of my prisoners was hanged, having received his sentence from the 
C. Martial. I was relieved from guard by Lieut. Thomson, of Col. 
Barber's battalion. 

15 th , Sunday. Relieved Ensign Town at the camp guard. The 
baggage having all got over the river, the troops marched at 10 o'clk 
A. m., and proceeded as far as Bush Town, and encamped in a wood 
west of the Town. 

1 6 th . Relieved from guard by Lieut. Spring. Marched from Bush 
town at 8 o'clk a. m. ; halted at five p. m., and encamped in the woods, 
five miles 1ST. of Baltimore. 

17 th . Marched at sunrise this morning, passing through Baltimore. 
Arrived at Elk ridge landing at 2 o'clk p. m. Crossed the ferry, and 



136 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

encamped one mile west of the landing. In crossing this ferry we 
unfortunately had nine men drowned. 

18 th . Remained encamped all day. At evening roll call Colman, 
a soldier in Capt. Burnham's Company, was shot for desertion. 

19 th . The weather being unfair, the troops remain in camp. Dined 
with Lieut. Nason at his quarters. After dinner walked with him to 
the landing. 

20 th . At eight o'clock A. m. we began our march, leaving our tents 
and heavy baggage on the ground. Colonel Barber's and half Col. 
Gimatts Battalions rode in wagons prepared for that purpose. In this 
order we proceeded 16 miles, and halted for the troops to refresh them- 
selves. After halting about an hour, the other half of Col Gimatts 
and one half of Col. Voses Battalions were mounted in the said 
wagons. In this order we proceeded 12 miles, which brought us to 
Bladensburg, where we arrived about 7 o'clk p. M. The troops were 
quartered in houses at this place. Our company was billeted at a Mr. 
Streets, a Lt. in the Pennsylvania line on half pay. 

21 st . At 7 o'clk A. m. we took up our line of march, and proceeded 
to Georgetown, where we made a short halt, after which we crossed 
the river Potowmack [Potomac] & marched to Alexandria, where we 
arrived at sunset. The troops were quartered in houses. The river 
Potowmack runs between Maryland & Virginia. 

22 d , Sunday. The troops remained in quarters all day, for the pur- 
pose of washing & [of] cleaning their arms. 

23 d . The army marched at six o'ck a. m., and proceeded 12 miles 
to a small town called Colchester [Va.], where we arrived at 1 o'clk 
p. m., and put up, it being very rainy. Our quarters being much 
crowded, I lodged in a house with Lt. Nason and Doctor Finley. 

24 th . Marched at 6 o'clk a. m. ; the roads being exceeding muddy, 
we went but 12 miles, and halted at a small town called Dumfrize 
[Dumfries, Va.], where the troops were billeted in houses. 

25 th . Marched from Dumfrize at daylight, and proceeded 26 miles, 
which brought us to Rapahanock river, which we crossed as soon as 
possible, and were quartered in the town of Frederexburg [Fredericks- 
burg] by 4 o'clk p. m. I was quartered at a tavern. 

26 th . The troops remained in quarters for the purpose of washing 
their clothes and cleaning their arms. Dined with Lieut. Nason. 

27 th . We took up our line of march at daylight, and proceeded 23 
miles (through very muddy roads), and halted at a place called the 
Bowling Green, where our Regiment was quartered in a brick church. 
The officers of the Regt. eat ham & drank grog with Colonel Yose. 
Had a small fit of the ague and fever. 

28 th . Marched at sunrise. Proceeded about 24 miles, and halted 
near Hanover C. House at 4 p. m., where the troops lay in the woods. 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 137 

Being now within a day's march of the enemy, we examined our men's 
arms and accoutrements & delivered them new cartridges. 

29 th , Sunday. Marched at daylight, and arrived at Richmond about 
5 o'clk p. m., where the troops were quartered in the rope walks, which 
are at the east end of the town. 

30*! 1 , Remained in quarters. About 3,000 of the enemy, under the 
command of General Phillips, came up the river to a small town called 
Manchester (opposite to this), where they burnt a large quantity of 
Tobacco and some public buildings, plundered the inhabitants of their 
furniture, killed a large number of cattle, hogs, &c, and retired about 
5 miles down the river to a small town called Warwick, where they 
burnt several dwelling houses together with one public rope walk. A 
small party of the enemy, which crossed the river for the purpose of 
taking an inhabitant, but were made prisoners by a patrol of our horse. 

Tuesday, l 8 .' May, 1781. We hear the enemy have retired from 
Warwick to Petersburg, which is between 30 & 40 miles from this 
place. Between 5 & 6 o'clk the army was paraded on a large plain 
N. W. of the Town, where we were reviewed by the Marquis [La 
Fayette] and Baron [Steuben], after which we marched to our respec- 
tive quarters. 

2 d . The weather being exceeding warm, our men were ordered to 
cut their coats short for their greater ease in marches. This being 
Major Reeds birth day, he gave the officers of the B- an invitation to 
take a cold cut & drink of grog with him at an elegant spring about 
half a mile N. from the town. 

3 d . At daylight the army took up their line of march, & proceeded 
about 1 6 miles from Richmond, and halted about a mile N. of Bottom 
bridge, in a thick pine woods. 

4 th . Exceeding warm weather. We are much troubled in this place 
with insects, particular those known by the name of ticks. 

5 th . A large quantity of linen cloth for overalls & shoes arrived 
from Baltimore for the non-commissioned officers & soldiers of the Light 
Infantry. 

6 th , Sunday. Major Galvan with the detachment under his command 
arrived with the tents & baggage left at Elk ridge. We pitched our 
tents in the woods. 

7 th . Our tents were struck at daylight ; soon after the troops begun 
their march, and proceeded (without halting) to Richmond, where we 
arrived about 10 o'clk A. M., & took quarters in the rope walks. Re- 
port that the enemy are coming up the river. 

8*. Our tents with a part of our baggage were sent back into the 
country. About 8 o'clk a. m. we marched from our quarters and crossed 
the river to Manchester ; from thence proceeded about 10 miles to- 
wards Petersberg, and halted. The troops were quartered in a small 

18 



138 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [OCT. 

village called Osburn [Osborn], this being the name of the gentleman 
who owns it. 

9 th . Remained in quarters all day. Lieut. Silly [Cilley] arrived 
from W. Point. 

10 th . Remained in quarters till 1 o'clk p. m. ; then marched about 
4 miles towards Manchester, & crossed the river at a place called 
Kingsland ferry. From thence we marched 4 miles towards Rich- 
mond, and halted at a place called Willton [Wilton], where we re- 
mained all night in the woods, being entirely destitute of tents. 

11 th . Our tents arrived, & we pitched them in the woods. 

12 th . Mounted the boat guard, which is posted at a landing about a 
mile from our encampment. About 4 o'clk p. m. Col. Barber's Bat- 
talion crossed the river. In the evening moved with my guard & the 
boats under my care down the river to Kingsland ferry, where I arrived 
about 10 o'clk. After mooring the boats at a considerable distance 
from the shore, I landed with my guard, & found Col. Gimatt's Bat- 
talion and a large body of militia at this place. 

13^, Sunday. About 4 o'clk A. m. the troops at this place began to 
cross the river in the following order : About 60 Cavalry, two Reg- 
iments of Militia, Col. Gimatt's Battalion of Light Infantry, and a de- 
tachment of artillery with two field pieces, which finished about daylight. 
At 8 o'clk the Marquis with his family crossed the river. About 9 o'clk 
Col. Vose's Battalion with a Company of artillery & 2 field pieces ar- 
rived at the ferry, having marched from Willton to cover the retreat of 
the troops which have crossed the river should there be any occasion. 
Relieved from guard by Ensign Williugton. 

14 th . Remained at the ferry all day. In the night the troops which 
crossed the river yesterday morning returned. 

15 th . At 8 o'clk A. m. we moved about half a mile back from the 
ferry into a thick woods, where we continued till 3 o'clk p. m. ; then 
marched to our encampment at Willton. 

16 th . Mounted the provost guard, which is kept on the right 
of the Brigade. Had charge of 10 prisoners; eight of them are 
prisoners of war, which were taken in a gunboat (yesterday) about 
10 miles down the river. In consequence of Gen 1 Phillips's death 
(which we have heard of this day), the command of the British army 
devolves on the infamous Arnold. 

17 th . At nine o'clk A. M. I was relieved from guard by an officer 
of Col. Barber's Battalion. We moved our tents about half a mile 
into an open field. 

18 th . The Brigade was turned out at sunrise, and was manoeuvred 
by regiments. 

19 th . The Regiment was manoeuvred this morning by Major Gal van. 

20 th , Sunday. I attended a general court martial set at Col. Vose's 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZEK, WILD. 139 

quarters, of which Major Gal van is President. At 2 o'clk p. m. the 
Regiment was turned out, Col. Vose taking the right wing and Major 
Gal van the left. We performed a sham fight, in which the left wing 
got much the advantage of the right. About 5 o'clk our tents were 
struck, and we marched with great expedition to Richmond, where 
we arrived in the evening, and took quarters again in the rope 
walks. 

21 st . Remained in quarters all day. Lord Cornwallice (with 
between 3 & 4,000 men) arrived and took command of the British 
army. 

22 d . Took a walk into town with Lieut. Reab. 

23 d . Dined at Mr. Golt's tavern with a number of gentlemen 
of the town, who made an entertainment for the officers of the Light 
Infantry. Col. Talton [Tarleton], of the British army, surprised 
a body of militia near Petersburg, and took about 30 of them pris- 
oners. Lodged at Mr. Golts, being a rainy night. 

25 th . Mounted the boats guard at the landing. Received orders 
to sink the boats if called from my post. Visited by a very remarkable 
(militia) officer of the day. Kept patrols down the river all night. 

26 th . At 10 o'clk A. m. I was relieved from guard by Lieut. 
Thayer of Col. Gimatt's Battalion. Marched to camp and dismissed 
my guard. Found the Brigade had been under arms the biggest part 
of the (last) night. At 5 o'clk p. m. we marched from Richmond, 
and going the upper road towards Fredricksberg, proceeded 10 miles 
& halted in the woods, near Cooper's Creek. Our tents were again 
sent back into the country. 

27 th , Sunday. Remained in the woods all day. Exceeding hot 
weather. 

28 th . Marched at 2 o'clk a. m., and at eight halted near Ground 
Squrell meeting house, where we continued till 4 p. M., at which 
time we marched again & arrived near Ground Squrell bridge at 
sundown. 

29 th . Exceeding hot weather. At 4 o'clk p. m. we took up our 
line of march & proceeded a N. W. coast [course] . Soon after 
sundown began to rain & increased to a very severe storm. About 
nine o'clk had some very hard claps of thunder, one of which struck 
near the troops & started some of our horses. The militia (who 
were in our front, as we were marching by the left), supposing the 
enemy was near, threw down their arms and took to the woods (which 
were very thick on both sides of the road), which put the column 
in such disorder it was near an hour and a half before we could 
proceed on our march, — which we did, notwithstanding the rain 
stiil increased. 

30 th . At 3 o'clk A. m. we arrived at a place called Seach Town 



140 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

where we halted till 7 o'clk, at which time we marched again and 
arrived at Anderson's bridge at 1 o'clk p. M., where we halted in a 
large field. 

31 8t . Marched at 2 o'clk A. m., and proceeding about six miles 
a S. E. coast, halted in an old field by the side of a thick wood, where 
we continued till 3 o'clk P. m., at which time we marched again about 
3 mile a N. W. coast & halted about sundown near Permonky [Pa- 
munky] river. Very severe rain all night. 

1 st June, 1781. At 7 o'clk A. m. we forded the river at Deven- 
port's ferry & proceeded on our march to a place called Mattapnoy, 
[Mattapony], where we arrived about 4 o'clk p. m. It being rainy, the 
troops were sheltered in some old houses & barns. 

2 d . Marched at 11 o'clk A. M. ; being exceeding muddy, could 
march but very slow. At 5 p. m. came up to our tents, which we 
pitched in a field a little west of Corbin's bridge. 

3 d . Col. Tupper arrived in camp from Westpoint. A gentleman 
came with him from the State of Massachusetts who brought (hard) 
money for the non-commissioned officers and soldiers of the line. 
At 4 o'clk p. m. we marched. Arrived and halted near Wilderness 
bridge about sundown. 

4 th . Mounted a guard with which I took post a mile at the left 
of the L. Infantry. At 1 o'clk p. m. the army took up their line of 
march, at which time I marched with my guard to the grand parade, 
and with some other guards formed the rear-guard of the army. After 
marching about five miles we forded a branch of Rapahanac [Rappa- 
hannock] river, and proceeded 12 miles, and halted near a church 
in Culpepper county about 8 o'clk in the evening; at which time 
my guard was augmented, and took post about one mile on the right 
of the army. 

5 th . At nine o'clk A. M. I was relieved by Lieut. Peachum of Col. 
Gimatt's Battalion. Marched my guard to camp, and dismissed them. 
Remained in camp all day, it being very rainy. 

6 th . Marched about 10 o'clk a. m., proceeded 4 miles, and forded 
the river at Raccoon ferry. From thence we marched one mile, and 
encamped on a very pleasant height. 

7 th . Remained in camp all day for the purpose of the mens washing 
their clothes and cleansing their arms. 

8 th . Remained in camp till 10 o'clk A. M., at which time we began 
our march and continued till five p. m.; then halted and encamped 
in the woods near Box bridge. 

9 th . The officers of Col. Vose's Battalion dined with him at his 
quarters. After dinner Col. Tupper (who dined with us) set out for 
W. point. At 4 o'clk p. M. we began our march ; leaving our tents 
on the ground, we proceeded about five miles & halted in the woods. 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER, WILD. 141 

10 th , Sunday. Began our march at sunrise. After marching about 
12 miles, halted in the woods in Louisa County, where 1,200 shirts (from 
Baltimore) arrived and were delivered to the non-commissioned officers 
and soldiers of the Light Infantry. At sundown we marched back one 
mile and continued in the woods all night. 

11 th . General Wayne, with about 800 troops from the Pennsyl- 
vania line, arrived and encamped on our left. Lieut. Holden arrived 
from W. Point. 

12 th . At daylight the troops took up their line of march and pro- 
ceeded about 13 miles, and halted (in the county of Albemarle) about 
2 o'clk p. m., in a very disagreeable piece of woods, being almost des- 
titute of water. 

13 th . Exceeding hot weather. We find the enemy are pursuing 
us very closely 

14 th . We marched at sunrise. After marching about 9 miles 
an East coast, halted [at] a public house, from which we took a N. 
coast & marched 3 miles & halted in the woods. 

15 th . Began our march at sunrise, and continuing it till 2 o'clk 
p. m., at which time we arrived and halted at a place called Deep 
Run, in a very pleasant grove of woods. 

16 th . Marched at sunrise, & proceeded 5 miles. Halted in the 
woods near Permonky [Pamunky] river. 

17 th , Sunday. The General beat at half past 2 o'clk A. m., at which 
time I mounted the front guard (with a Capt. from the Pennsylvania line) . 
At daylight the troops began their march, which was continued till 
about 2 o'clk p. m., when we halted near Ground Squrell Creek. Being 
detached with a Sergt., Corp!, & 24 men (from the front guard), I took 
post about one mile on the left of the troops, on a road leading to Rich- 
mond. About sundown Lieut. Wheaton (of Col. Gimatt's Battalion) 
was wounded in a duel with Lieut. Lightfoot of the Virginia Artillery. 
About 10 o'clk Col. Vose's Battalion marched by my guard, being 
on their way to join General Muhlenberg, who lays about half a mile 
below me, and commands the advance troops of the army. About 
12 o'clk General Muhlenberg's detachment marched, at which time 
I moved with my guard, took post on the ground he left. 

18 th . At sunrise I moved back with my guard to the ground I had 
left last night. At 9 o'clk A. m. I was relieved by an officer from 
the Pennsylvania line. Marched to camp & dismissed my guard, where 
I found Capt. Webb, Mr. Town, and a number of men who were 
on guard when the Regiment marched. 

19 th . At sunrise we set out and found the Regiment about 1 
o'clk p. m., halted in the woods near Deep Run. At 6 o'clk we pa- 
raded, and marched back to Ground Squrell Creek, where we remained 
all night. 



142 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

20 th . At 2 o'clk p. M. the troops were paraded and marched to the 
place we moved from last evening, where we halted and sent all the 
baggage we could divest ourselves of back to our tents ; after which we 
marched three miles back to the fork of the roads, where we halted 
half an hour ; then march one mile further back, where we remained 
all night. Major Langbern (Q. M. to the army) was made prisoner 
by the enemy at Glosester [Gloucester], Lieut. Stone set out for 
W. point. 

21 st . At sunrise we moved back to Deep Run, where we halted till 
one o'clk p. m., at which time we had intelligence of the enemy leaving 
Richmond. We immediately began our march for that place, and ar- 
rived on a plain N. of the Town about 7 o'clk p. m., where we made a 
short halt. Then, taking a back road (as the enemy had left the small 
pox in town), we marched five miles, & halted in Bottom bridge road, 
two miles below Richmond, where we remained all night. 

22 d . At sunrise we began our march, and crossing Bottom bridge 
we proceeded about 12 miles to Homes's Ornary [Ordinary], where we 
halted till 5 o'clk p. m., at which time we moved back near the bridge, 
where we remained all night. 

23 d . Marched at sunrise, and proceeded about eight miles towards 
N. Kent C. House, where we halted near Bacon's Ornary. After 
making a short halt, we marched back to a field near Homes's Ornary, 
where the troops were formed for action (the enemy being near), and 
waited till sun down, when, seeing no appearance of an enemy, we 
marched & joined the army near Bottom bridge. 

24 th , Sunday. The troops halted all day for the purpose of washing 
and cleansing their arms. 

25 th . Marched at daylight, and after making several halts on the 
road, arrived and halted in a field near N. Kent C. House. 

26 th . Marched at half past 5 o'clk a. m., and proceeded about 10 
miles, & halted near Bird's ornary. Our advance parties had a skir- 
mish with the enemy's rear at a place called hot warter [Hockady 
Spring ?], about six miles below this place. 

27 th . Marched at one o'clk a. m., and proceeded about four miles 
(about a N. coast), & halted in the road till sunrise, at which time we 
moved about half a mile, and halted (near a large brook) till sundown ; 
then moved again about one mile, & halted in an old field, where we 
[were] reviewed by the Marquis, and remained all night, it being very 
rainy. 

28 th . Lay still all day, it being exceeding hot weather and our men 
much fatigued. 

29 th . Marched at 3 o'clk a. m., & proceeded as far as Bird's, where 
we arrived at 8 o'clk. After making a short halt we proceeded 4 miles, 
and halted at Chickehomni Meeting House. Here I was detached 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 143 

with a party of men to join Major M c Persons Legion, which lay about 
a mile below the M. House. At 12 o'clk Col. Barber's Regiment with 
the Legion marched about 5 miles (a S. E. coast) to [a] mill, where we 
expected to find a party of the enemy ; but being disappointed, we re- 
turned and joined the Brigade, the Legion taking post on its right. At 
sundown we moved back two miles above Bird's, and halted in the 
woods. 

30 th . Built bowries and remained on this ground all day. Took a 
walk with Lieut. Reab. Our tents and baggage arrived at this place. 
At 5 o'clk p. m. the Regiment was turned out and manoeuvred by Major 
Galvan. 

Sunday, 1 st July, 1781. Marched at daylight, and halted at 9 o'clk 
on a large plain near York river, where we built bush huts (the 
weather being exceeding warm). In the afternoon our men had orders 
to bathe in the river, where a Surgeon and two soldiers were unfortu- 
nately drowned. At 8 o'clk p. m. we marched again, and halted at 
midnight near the ground we moved from this morning. 

2 d . Marched at daylight, and passing by Bird's, turned out of the 
road (at Chickohomni meeting-house) into the woods to form an am- 
buscade for a party of the enemy's horse which were grazing in a field 
near by. But unfortunately (for us) they discovered our manoeuvre 
and made their escape ; after which we marched out of the woods and 
built some bowries, which we lay in till 3 o'clk, when we marched again 
back to the place we left at daylight this morning. 

3 d . Marched at 6 o'clk a. m. and proceeded 4 miles, and halted in a 
field (in N. Kent County), where we pitched what tents we had left 
(the greater part of them being lost) . The Marquis quartered in [a] 
large house which is on the left of the L. Infantry. 

4 th . This being the anniversary of American Independence, the day 
was celebrated by a fu de joy \_feu dejoie'] fired by the whole army (ex- 
cept those on duty), after which the Light Infantry was manoeuvred by 
Major Read on a plain before the Marquis's quarters. 

5 th . Marched at eight o'clk a. m., and proceeded half a mile below 
Bird's, where we halted & built bowries. Eight officers from each 
Regiment of L. Infantry dined with General Mahlenberg at Bird's. I 
mounted the camp at this place. At five o'clk we marched one mile fur- 
ther, halted, and built huts. At nine in the evening the troops marched 
again (at which time I dismissed my guard), and passing by the meeting 
house, halted at Chickohomni Church, where we remained all night. 

6 th . Marched at 7 o'clk, and passing through hot warter, halted in 
a field about three miles from the British encampment at James Town. 
Our men being much tired and fatigued, and having had nothing to eat 
for more than 24 hours, the L. Infantry moved back 3 miles for the 
purpose of cooking. By this manoeuvre we left the Pennsylvania troops 



144 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

in our front to watch the motions of the enemy. General Wayne being 
anxious to perform wonders ! (about o o'clk) with his 3 Regiments 
& some small detachments, the whole consisting of about 1,000 men, at- 
tacked the whole British army in their own encampment. We immedi- 
ately marched to reinforce him ; but before we could reach the field of 
action, met the Pennsylvania line retreating in the greatest disorder 
(having been overpowered by numbers, and left their artillery). We 
marched past the disordered troops, and formed a line of battle in a 
field near the Green Springs. The day being spent, the enemy stopped 
their pursuit. About 9 o'clk we began our march again, & retired to 
the Church we left in the morning, where we arrived about midnight, 
much tired and fatigued. 

7 th . We find our loss in yesterday's action is considerable, but to be 
equal, except two field pieces taken from the Pennsylvania line. About 
nine in the evening Col. Vose's Battalion marched and proceeded as 
far as hot warter, where we halted in the road. 

8 th , Sunday. At 1 o'clk a. m. General Muhlenberg, with a party of 
Volunteer Horse, joined us, and we marched 3 miles further, and halted 
till daylight ; then proceeded to James Town, where we found an offi- 
cer & 22 men which were wounded in the action and fell into the hands 
of the enemy, but not being able to carry them off, left them on parole. 
Col. Yose provided an elegant dinner at this place, to which he invited 
the officers of his Regiment and others that were in the detachment. 
At 5 o'clk we paraded. Marched for the meeting house we left last 
evening, where we arrived about 10 o'clk at night. 

9 th . Marched at sunrise. Proceeded about 3 miles a West course 
from the meeting house, where we found the army encamped. 

10 th . We marched at half past 2 o'clk A. m., and, making several 
short halts on the road (the weather being excessive hot), we arrived 
at Holt's Forge about 12 o'clk. 

11 th . The troops lay still (all day) for the purpose of washing 
their clothes and cleansing their arms. 

12 th . The number of the Pennsylvania troops being greatly reduced 
(by the action of the sixth inst.), they were put into two regiments, and 
the supernumerary officers sent" on recruiting. Capt. Burnam is ap- 
pointed to do the duty of Major to Col. Vose's Battalion, in room of 
Major Galvan, who is gone to Philadelphia. 

13 th . About sunrise the two Pennsylvania and Virginia Regiments 
marched for Bottom bridge. At eight o'clk the L. Infantry and Militia 
marched. After proceeding 7 miles, halted and encamped in a field 
near Longe bridge [Chickahominy River]. 

14 th . Rainy morning. At 5 o'clk p. M. we took up our line of 
march and proceeded 6 miles, and halted near Bottom bridge at 9 in 
the evening. 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 145 

15 th . The troops lay still all day, it being exceeding hot weather. 

1 6 th . At nine o'clk A. m. we took up our line of march and pro- 
ceeded 10 miles (a S. W. course), and halted on Malborns Hills [Mal- 
bon or Malvern Hills] at one o'clk p. m., where we encamped. 

17 th . Walked with Capt. Hitchcock to a place called Shearly hun- 
dred [Shirley Hundreds], where we dined and returned to camp again. 

18 th . At nine o'clk a. m., I mounted a guard at the Deer park, 
about a mile west of our encampment, where I was very much troubled 
with ticks and other insects all day. Visited by the officer of the day 
about 12 o'clk at night. 

1 9 th . At nine o'clk I was relieved by Lieut. Rueastte [Rossiter ?] , 
of Colonel Barber's Battalion. Marched to camp and dismissed my 
guard. About 11 o'clk Capt. Webb set out on his journey to Head 
Quarters. 

20 th . Capt. Park of Col. Gimatt's Battalion arrived in Camp (from 
H. Quarters) last evening, by whom I received a letter from Boston, 
dated 28 th May. Struck our tents for the purpose of airing the ground 
and regulating our encampment. 

21 st . About daylight we were alarmed by a report of the enemy's 
coming up the river ; on which our patrol guard was sent to see if they 
could make any discoveries of them, but returned without making any. 
About 12 o'clk Col Barber & Gimatt Battalions, with one field piece, 
marched from our encampment about nine in the evening. They re- 
turned, having been about six miles down the river. 

22 d , Sunday. At ten o'clk I sat on a General Court Martial, of 
which Major Read is President. Tried two soldiers, & adjourned to 
the 24 th inst. 

23 d . Exceeding pleasant weather. At 3 o'clk I dined with Genl. 
Muhlenberg, about one mile from his quarters, under a large bowrey, 
built for that purpose on the bank of the river. 

24 th . The Brigade turned out at sunrise, and each Regiment was 
manoeuvred by its commanding officer. At nine o'clk A. m. our 
court met according to adjournment, and proceeded to the trial of two 
soldiers who were brought before us for plundering inhabitants. At 
2 o'clk p. m. we adjourned without day. Colonel Moyling [Moylan] 
with part of his Regiment arrived in camp this afternoon. 

25 th . The Brigade turned out at sunrise, and was manoeuvred as 
usual. At six o'clk p. m. a soldier of Col. Gimatt's Battalion was 
hanged. After roll call the officers of the Regiment drank grog with 
Col. Vose in the evening. 

26 th . The Court Martial of which Major Read is President, dined 
at my tent (on roast pigs, &c, &c), said dinner being the fine of M r 
Dagot & myself for being late at the Court. 

27 th . At 9 o'clk I relieved Lieut Smith at the Marquis's guard. 
4 officers of Colonel Barber's Battalion dined with the General. 

19 



146 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

28 th . At nine o'clk I was relieved by Lieut. Thomson of Col. Bar- 
ber's Battalion. The Brigade was turned out in the afternoon, and 
manoeuvred as usual. Captain Oney [Olney?] arrived from Head 
Quarters in the evening. 

29 th , Sunday. Struck our tents and bowries for the purpose of air- 
ing the ground. 

30 th . At 5 o'clk p. m. the tents of Col. Vose's Battalion were 
struck, which we left with our baggage under the care of a guard (de- 
tailed for that purpose). About sundown we marched with one field 
piece, and arrived at Westover at 11 o'clk. After a short halt we pro- 
ceeded to crossing the river, which we effected, but with much trouble, 
having but two boats, and them very poor. 

31 8t . At daylight we found ourselves in a very pleasant plantation 
(on the South side of James river) called by the name of Makceacks 
[Maycox], The troops and artillery having got all over the river, 
at 1 1 o'clk a. m. we began our march and proceeded about 4 miles, a 
S. W. course, and halted on Petersberg road, near a very pleasant run 
of water. 

Wednesday, 1 st August, 1781. About six o'clk we paraded & marched 
back to the river, which we crossed with all possible expedition, & 
halted at W — over [Westover] till three o'clk, at which time we 
paraded and marched to Malverns hills, where we arrived a little after 
sundown. Found the army marched from this place at daylight this 
morning. 

2 d . The General was beat at half past 2 o'clk A. m. At daylight 
we began our march. After marching 14 miles we halted about two 
miles S. of Richmond, being exceeding warm. 

3 d . Being exceeding hot, we lay still till 6 o'clk p. m., at which time 
we began our march, and, passing through Richmond, we proceeded 
about ten miles and halted (at 10 o'clk in the evening) the N. side of 
brook bridge [Brook creek], where we remained all night. 

4 th . The Regiment marched at daylight. (I marched in the rear to 
bring up the invalids and baggage.) About 11 o'clk we halted at Han- 
over meeting house (where the officers of the Regiment dined together). 

5 th , Sunday. Marched at daylight, and after making several short 
halts (on the road, the weather being very warm), we arrived at New 
Castle, at 10 o'clk A. m., where we joined the Brigade, which were 
encamped in an old field. 

6 th . Being exceeding hot weather, the troops remained in camp all 
day. In the afternoon I walked with Capt? White & Hitchcock to a 
Mr. Chapman's, which is about 3 miles from our encampment. 

7 th . The General beat at half past 3 o'clk a. m. About sunrise we 
began our march and proceeded ten miles, halted and encamped in a 
field near Permonky river, where we were favored with plenty of 
very fine water. 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 147 

8 th . The troops remain in camp for the purpose of washing and 
cleaning their arms. 

9 th . I breakfasted with Mr. Nason, after which we rode as far as 
Hanover Meeting house, where we dined at a Mr. Whitelocks. About 
3 o'clk we set out on our return to camp, where we. arrived about nine 
in the evening, having rode about 40 miles, & had a very agreeable 
tour. 

10 th . Marched at sunrise, and proceeded about 4 miles, a S. course, 
and encamped on a very pleasant height of ground, called Meakeings's 
hill. 

11 th . At 3 o'clk a.m. our tents were struck & our baggage loaded. 
About sunrise we began our march & proceeded 10 miles, and halted 
near New Kent Court -house, where we arrived about nine o'clk, and 
encamped in [a] field on the left of the road, where the British army 
were encamped three or four days ago. 

12 th , Sunday. The General beat at one o'ck this morning, at which 
time our tents were struck & baggage loaded ; after which we marched 
as soon as possible to Ruffin's ferry (which is 7 miles) and continued 
there till sunrise, at which time we crossed the river (Permonky) and 
encamped on a plain the eastern side. 

13 th . Marched at sunrise and proceeded 4 miles down the river, and 
encamped on a very pleasant plantation, on which was a great plenty 
of peaches and other agreeable fruit. 

14 th . The officers of the Regiment dined together under an elegant 
bowry built (in the rear of the Regiment) for that purpose. 

15 th . At 9 o'clk A. m. I relieved Lieut. Smith at a picket which is 
kept at the house of M™ Moor's on the bank of the Mattapnoy [Matta- 
pony] river. 

16. Breakfasted with M? Moor. At nine o'clk I was relieved by 
Lieut. Phelan of Col. Gimatt's Battalion. After breakfasting with 
Mrs. Moor, I returned to camp. 

17 th . At 11 o'clk a.m. I set out with Lieut. Holden and M* Brown, 
& walked about 4 miles to a place called W — Point, where we dined 
with the gentlemen who are in command at this place. After dinner 
we crossed the river (Mattapnoy), and walked to a Col. Corbin's, where 
we spent the evening and returned to West Point. After making a 
short stop, we returned to camp. 

18 th . A quantity of clothing arrived in Camp for the non-commis- 
sioned officers and privates of the Light Infantry. 

20 rh . At 8 o'clk Colonel Barber's Battalion marched to West Point. 
From there they crossed the river (Mattapnoy), and proceeded to- 
wards the enemy. About 11 o'clk I walked with Lieut. Given & Mr. 
Town to Mrs. Moor's. After a short stop we crossed the river & 
walked to a Mr. Meridith's, where we dined & spent the afternoon. In 



148 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct, 

the evening we visited several houses in the neighborhood. About 
nine o'clk we returned to Mr. Meridith's, where we lodged. 

21 st . At sunrise we set out and walked four miles up the river to a 
landing (being disappointed in getting a boat). We stopped at Col. 
Griffin's, and after breakfasting with him, we crossed the river and re- 
turned to camp. At 4 o'clk p. m. our tents were struck and baggage 
loaded. At 5 o'clk we began our march, and proceeded about seven 
miles (up the river), and halted near Fraizer's ferry ; but being dark 
when we arrived, did not pitch our tents. 

22 d . Our ground was laid out & we encamped in regular order. 
Took a walk in the evening with a number of gentlemen of the 
Regiment. 

23 d . In the afternoon Colonel Barber's Battalion joined the Bri- 
gade. Immediately after roll call the tents of Colonels Vose & Gimatt's 
Battalions were struck, and we began our march, and after continuing 
about three hours, halted on the ground we left the 13 fI > inst. 

24 th . Our grounds were laid out & we pitched our tents on the 
plain. 

25 th . About 11 o'clk a. m. Col. Barber's Battalion joined the Bri- 
gade. At 4 o'clk p. m. our tents were struck, & we marched about two 
miles from the river, and encamped in a field which is very sandy. 

26 th , Sunday, At 9 o'clk A. m. I sat on a Regimental C. Martial, of 
which Capt. Fowles is President. 

27 th . In the afternoon there was a famous horse race on a plain 
near our encampment. 

28 th . At 2 o'clk a. m. the militia began their march, & proceeded to 
Ruffin's ferry and are crossing the river with all possible expedition. 
At 2 o'clk p. m. I dined at Colonel Vose's tent with Mrs. [Messrs.] 
Brown & White, Colonel Vose being absent. In the evening part of 
our artillery moved to the ferry. 

29 th . Our artillery and stores have been crossing the ferry all day. 
In the evening I rode with Mr. Brown to Mr. Newman's (a gentleman 
living on the plantation we were encamped on the 21 st inst.), where we 
spent the evening and supped, after which we returned to camp. 

30 th . The General beat at daylight, at which time our tents were 
struck and baggage loaded. At sunrise we began our march and pro- 
ceeded to Ruffin's ferry, which we crossed as soon as possible, and 
marched 7 miles, halted and encamped on the same ground we left the 
12 th inst. 

31 8t . At half past 4 o'clk a. m. we began our march and proceeded 
10 miles, halted and encamped (at Holt's Forge) on the same ground 
we left the 13 th July. Took a walk in the afternoon into the country. 

Saturday, 1 st September, 1781. Remained in camp all day. We 
have intelligence that his Excellency Gen! Washington, with a large 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 149 

body of troops, is on his march to join our little army. We are 
likewise assured of the arrival of a French fleet (at the mouth of York 
river), consisting of 28 sail of the line, commanded by his Excellency 
the Count De Grass. This fleet has 4,000 land troops on board, com- 
manded by Major General the Marquis St. Simons. 

2 d 7 Sunday. The General beat half an hour before day. At day- 
light we began our march and proceeded about 8 miles, halted and 
pitched our tents in a field near Dyerscon [Diascund] creek, where we 
halted till 3 o'clk p. m., at which time we began our march again, leaving 
our tents & baggage, and proceeded about 7 or 8 miles, & halted near 
Chichohomny Church. General Wayne was wounded by one of our 
sentinels in the evening. 

3 d . Began our march at daylight. Proceeded about 8 miles, and 
halted near Green Springs, where our men had orders to wash & put 
on clean clothes, expecting to march to James Town & join the French 
troops, which were landed there. But after halting about three hours 
we took up our line of march again, and proceeded six miles towards 
Williamsburg. After halting a few moments, marched back the same 
road three miles, where we remained the remaining part of the day. 
About nine in the evening I took post with a small picket about half a 
mile on the right of the Brigade. 

4 th . About 7 o'clk Gen! Wayne's Brigade marched past my guard, 
being on their way to Williamsberg. About 8 o'clk the Light Infantry 
marched, at which time I was ordered to join with my guard. Having 
called in my sentinels, I proceeded to Williamsberg, and passing 
through the town, came up with the Brigade. Halted in a field about 
3 miles below it, where we continued till sundown ; then marched back 
towards Williamsberg again. 

5 th . Built booths and lay still all day. The enemy have retired 
into York, which they are fortifying with all possible expedition, the 
river being completely blocked up by the French fleet. In the evening 
was taken by a small party of our militia an officer, sergeant, and six 
men, they being a reconnoitering party from York. 

6 th . At 3 o'clk a. m. we paraded & marched about 4 miles, and 
halted in a field (near what is called the half way house from Williams- 
berg to York), where we continued about two hours ; then paraded and 
marched back to our booths. After halting about three hours (in which 
time Major Read's detachment joined the Brigade), we marched to 
Williamsberg, and passing through the town, halted on a plain west of 
the College, where we arrived at 3 o'clk p. m. 

7 th . Exceeding warm weather. Lay still all day for the purpose of 
our mens washing their clothes and cleansing their arms. Took a 
walk in the evening with Mr. Gilbert. 

8 th . At six o'clk A. m. the General beat, at which time we were pa- 



150 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

raded. At seven the French army (under the command of Major General 
the Marquis De St. Simon) arrived and encamped on a plain about half 
a mile N. from Williamsberg ; after which we moved and encamped on 
their right. In the evening the army was alarmed by the firing of 
several muskets in the French camp. 

9 th , Sunday. At 5 o'clk p. m. the Light Infantry and the Pennsyl- 
vania Regiments were reviewed by the Marquises Lafeatte & St. Simon; 
after which the officers of those corps walked to the quarters of the 
latter, and were introduced to him. 

10 th . About 11 o'clk a.m. our tents and baggage arrived which we 
left at Dyerscon Creek. Walked in the evening with Mr. Gilbert. 

11 th . About daylight a small skirmige [skirmish] happened on the 
lines between some of our horse and the enemy's. This afternoon 
Colonel Gaveon [Gouvion ?] arrived in camp. He informs us he left 
his Excellency Gen 1 Washington (with a large army) near Philadelphia, 
being on his march for this place. 

12 th . Walked into town with Lieut. Reab in the forenoon. Dined 
with Col. Vose. 

13 th . Took a walk through the French camp this morning before 
roll call. About 1 1 o'clk a. m. the Marquis De St. Simon, attended by 
his A. D. C 8 & several other gentlemen, walked through our camp. 

14 th . His Excellency Gen! Washington arrived in camp this after- 
noon, in consequence of which 21 cannon were discharged from the 
American park. The whole army paraded, and paid him the honors 
due to his rank. 

15 th . At 9 o'clk I relieved Lieut. Thomson at the camp guard. An 
express arrived at H. Q. who brought an account of the return of 22 
sail of the French fleet (which sailed several days ago in consequence 
of a report of an English fleet being seen on the coast). Since they 
have been out have been joined by 9 sail of the line from Rhode Island ; 
so the French fleet now consists of 37 sail of the line, besides frigates 
and other armed vessels. 

16 th , Sunday. At 9 o'clk I was relieved from guard by Lieut. Stout 
of Col. Barber's Battalion. At 2 o'clk p. m. the officers of the L. In- 
fantry and the Pennsylvania Regiments walked to H. Q., where we 
were introduced to his Excellency Gen! Washington, after which I 
walked through town with Lieut. Given and returned to camp. 

17 th . Exceeding hot weather. Major Gibbs joined our Battalion in 
room of Major Gal van. His Excellency went on board the French 
fleet. Two Regiments from the State of Maryland arrived in camp 
this evening. 

18 th . Exceeding pleasant weather. The French Legion arrived in 
camp this afternoon. 

19 th . At 4 o'clk p. m. the Brigade was turned out and manoeuvred by 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 151 

the commanding officer of each Battalion. Major Galvan arrived in 
camp from Philadelphia in the evening. 

20 th . The grand parade was removed from the front of the L. In- 
fantry to the plain N. of the college. Gen! Lincoln arrived in camp 
in the evening. 

21 st . The Regiment was paraded and manoeuvred as usual in the 
afternoon. I had a very severe fit of the ague and fever in the 
evening. 

22 d . His Excellency returned from on board the fleet. 

23 d , Sunday. Capt. Webb returned to the Regiment from furlough. 
I have been visited by another fit of the ague and fever. 

24 th . Took a puke this morning, which operated very severely. At 
one o'clk p. M. an express set out for H. Quarters in the State of N. 
York. Took a walk in the evening as far as college landing to bathe 
myself in salt water. 

25 th . After roll call I walked into town with Capt. Webb and 
several other gentlemen of the Regiment, but was soon obliged to re- 
turn to Camp again, being visited by my usual disorder in a very severe 
manner, which held me all day. 

26 th . I feel myself greatly recovered from illness. Turned out to 
exercise in the afternoon. Orders for the army to march tomorrow 
morning. 

27 th . The General beat at eight o'clk a. m. At 9 the army took 
up their line of march, and passing through Williamsberg, encamped 
on a plain about a mile below the town (the light infantry on the R.). 
The army being now all together, consists of about 14,000 regular troops 
and three or four of militia. At nine o'clk in the evening the rolls were 
called. & every thing put in perfect readiness for a move. 

28 th . The General beat at daylight. About sunrise the army 
began their march (in one column) towards York. The Light Infantry, 
with some cavalry and one Regt. of riflemen, formed the van guard. 
In this order we proceeded about 7 miles, where the roads parted ; the 
American army taking the right, and the French the left, proceeded 
within about two miles of Fork, where the French army encamped on 
a plain with a large morass in their front. The American army pro- 
ceeded further towards the river; and the Light Infantry, crossing 
the above mentioned morass, marched onto a plain about a mile from 
the enemy's works, where we continued all night. 

29 th . At sunrise we paraded, and, having marched over another 
morass (not so large as the one before mentioned), we formed on a 
plain about half a mile from the enemy's advanced works. We lay in 
this position till 3 o'clk, at which time we moved a little back onto a 
more convenient piece of ground, where we encamped with our right 
extending almost to the river. The allied armies being thus encamped, 



152 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

we almost encircled the town. Our riflemen have been skirmishing in 
our front all day ; but have not been able to do much execution, as the 
enemy have kept close in their works. 

30 th , Sunday, The enemy have abandoned all their outworks except 
two redoubts, which are about 150 yards advanced of their main works ; 
in consequence of which [a] detachment of our troops have moved, and 
taken possession of them (the abandoned works). A large part of the 
army are ordered to making fascines and other material for carrying on 
a siege. At 9 o'clk a. m. the Light Infantry marched to the lines, 
where we continued as a covering party all day. Colonel Schemell 
[Scammell] was unfortunately wounded and taken prisoner as he was 
reconnoitring near the enemy's lines. The enemy have kept a moderate 
fire on us all day. Several of our men were killed & wounded during 
the night. 

Monday, October 1 st , 1781. Part of the Army detached for that pur- 
pose broke ground last night by erecting a chain of redoubts about 9 
hundred yards from the enemy's works. At 9 o'clk we were relieved 
by the 2 d division. Marched to camp and were dismissed. At nine 
o'clk in the evening I mounted the camp guard. The enemy have kept 
a constant fire on our working parties all day. 

2 d . The wagons of the army were collected and sent to the landing 
to bring up ordnance and ammunition for the siege. About sunset, at 
which time I dismissed my guard, the 1 st L. Infantry Brigade marched 
to the lines as a covering party to the men who are at work. Several 
of our men were killed and wounded in the night by shot and shells 
which the enemy fired very briskly. 

3 d . The enemy's fire is very moderate this morning, our men being 
chiefly under cover of the works which have been erected. At 11 
o'clk A. m. we marched from the lines to our tents, but remained as 
a picket all day. 

4 th . At sunrise the Brigade was turned out and marched into the 
woods (for the purpose of making sausesons, 1 gabions, &c, &c.) where 
we continued till 5 o'clk p.m. at which time we marched to our tents 
and were dismissed. The enemy have kept up their fire as usual all 
day. In this evenings General Orders we have the particulars of a 
Skirmish which happened yesterday (at Glosester) between the French 
and British Legions, — the latter having been out for the purpose of 
procuring forage. 

5 th . I breakfasted with Lieut. Nason ; after which I walked with 
him and Mr Morton (about a mile and a half) to a point on the river- 
side, where we had a plain view of the enemy's works at York & 
Glosester, with their shipping, which lies in the river (between these 

1 Saucissons, — bags of sand shaped like sausages. 



1890.] JOUBKAL OF EBENEZEB, WILD. 153 

posts), the number of which we suppose is about 100 sail, including 
transports and small craft. 

6 th . After roll call I walked (with Capt. Bradford and Lieut. 
Spring) to the American park of artillery. At 5 o'clk p. m. one 
Regiment from each Brigade of the American Army was paraded on 
a plain near Tarleton's old camp. Those troops, with an equal (or 
greater) number from the French army, broke ground immediately 
after dusk, by opening a parallel about 350 yards advanced of our chain 
of redoubts. About 11 o'clk the enemy discovered our approaches, at 
which time their fire became more brisk and general. 

7 th , Sunday. But very little damage was sustained last night by 
the enemy's fire. At 11 o'clk the light infantry mounted the trenches. 
About nine in the evening we broke ground (in several places) about 
40 yards advanced of the parallel line where we are erecting batteries 
with all possible expedition. 

8 th . At daylight the enemy appeared with a small field piece a little 
advanced of their works, from which they fired and wounded several 
of our men ; but were drove into their works again by a small party of 
men detached from our advanced picket for that purpose. At 11 o'clk 
we were relieved by the Barron's [Baron Steuben's] division, when we 
marched to camp and were dismissed. Fire from the enemy's works 
all day as usual. 

9 th . At nine o'clk the Light Infantry moved their tents about half 
a mile further to the right and a little advanced of the line of the army. 
At 2 o'clk p. m. turned out and marched into the woods, where we were 
employed in making sausesons, fasciens, &c, till sundown, when we 
marched to our tents again. Several batteries from the right and left 
of our line were opened on the enemy this evening. 

10 th . Our batteries being all completed, a very brisk fire, both of 
shot and shells, are kept from them on the enemy, who returns theirs 
with equal spirit. At 11 o'clk the light infantry mounted the trenches. 

11 th . The Charon man-of-war & two sail more of the enemy's 
shipping were set on fire and burnt last night (by hot shot or shells 
thrown from the French batteries on our left). At 11 o'clk we were 
relieved by the Barron's division. In the afternoon we were turned 
out and employed in making fasciens, gabions, &c, till sundown, at 
which time the militia mounted the trenches for the- purpose of fatigue. 
Firing on both sides as usual. 

12 th . That part of the army in the trenches broke ground last night 
by beginning a second parallel (on the left) about 350 yards advanced 
of the first. This parallel could not be brought further to the right 
than the left of the American line, by reason of two redoubts which the 
enemy have still possession of. At 10 o'clk our Battalion was paraded 
& marched into the woods, where we were employed in making sause- 

20 



154 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

sons, fasciens, &c, till 5 o'clk p. m. when we left work and marched 
to our tents. Firing on both sides as usual. Drank grog with Maj r 
Gibbs at his tent in the evening. 

13 th . At sunrise the Regt. turned out and carried our day propor- 
tion of gabions & other materials to the top of the trenches, which we 
mounted at the usual hour. About 7 o'clk in the evening our Regt. 
moved from the first to the right of the second parallel, where Capt. 
White (a brave and deserving officer) and one private were killed. 
Two privates [were] wounded by a shell which dropped and burst in 
the centre of the Regt. as we were halted and taking tools to go to 
work. About nine o'clk we broke ground about twenty yards ad- 
vanced of the second parallel by beginning to erect a battery, on 
which we worked all night. 

14 lh . At 3 o'clk a. m. we were relieved from work by a Regiment 
of militia commanded by Col. Tucker ; when we took our former posi- 
tion in the first parallel. We were relieved from the trenches as 
usual. At 5* o'clk p. m. the light Infantry mounted the trenches again. 
Immediately after dusk we advanced from the battery on our right 
(in one column) to the redoubt on the enemys left, which we attacked 
and carried by storm. A detachment of French Grenadiers carrying 
the one on our left about the same time (& in the same manner). We 
had nothing but the enemy's fire from their main works to hinder our 
completing our second parallel, which we proceeded to do with all 
possible expedition. In storming the before mentioned redoubt we lost 
one sergeant, eight R. & file killed ; four officers and between 30 & 40 
Rank & file wounded, most of them slightly. 

15 th . The woiks were carried on last night with such spirit that at 
daylight we found the parallel extended quite to the river on our right 
and nearly completed. Batteries are erecting with great expedition. 
Being now but 200 yards distant from the enemy's line of works, we 
are much troubled with their small shells, which they throw into our 
trenches exceeding fast. At 11 o'clk we left work and marched to our 
tents. Capt. White was interred last evening after we mounted the 
trenches. The fire, both of shot & shells, on both sides, has been ex- 
ceeding hot all day. 

16 th . A little before daylight this morning, about six hundred of 
the enemy made a sally on our works. They entered a battery on our 
left & another on the right of the French line, and spiked several 
pieces of cannon in each of them. (This was done so slightly that the 
spikes were easily extracted.) The enemy [were] made to retire to 
their works with precipitation & considerable loss, both of killed and 
wounded. At 11 o'clk the light Infantry mounted the trenches as usual. 
About sundown our batteries from the second parallel were opened, and 
the fire of shot & shells became excessive hot on both sides. 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 155 

17 th . At daylight we found the enemy had stopped up the em- 
brasures of the most of their batteries, and the tire from their cannon 
became almost silenced ; but they continued to throw small shells very 
brisk. By this time the fire from our works became almost incessant, 
as new batteries are opening from almost every part of the line. 
About nine o'clk a drummer appeared and beat a parley on the ram- 
part of the enemy's horn work ; in consequence of which hostilities 
ceased till a flag came from their works to ours and returned again, 
when the firing commenced on both sides as usual. About 11 o'clk 
an answer to the enemy's flag was returned, and a cessation of arms 
granted them. At 12 o'clk we were relieved by the Barron's division, 
as usual. (This being the anniversary of the convention at Saratoga), 
at 2 o'clk p. m. the officers of Col. Vose's Battalion dined with him at 
his tent. 

18 th . Cessation of arms still continues. At 9 o'clk I mounted the 
camp guard. About 1 1 two Commissioners from the allied armies met 
two more from the British at Moors House (which is on the right of 
the American lines), where the articles [of J Capitulation were agreed 
on & signed. At 4 o'clk p. m. detachments of the allied armies took 
possession of the enemy's works in York and Glosester. 

19 lb . At nine o'clk a. m. I was relieved from guard by Ensign 
Luce of Col. Barber's Battalion. At 12 o'clk the allied armies were 
paraded, our right being at the entrance of York on the main road and 
our left extending to the American encampment (which is one mile 
and a half). Being thus paraded for the reception of the British 
Army, at 2 o'clk p. m. they began to march out with shouldered arms 
and drums beating, but were [not] allowed to beat any French or 
American march ; neither were they allowed to display their colors. 
In this order they were conducted (by General Lincoln) to a large 
plain in front of the American encampment, where they grounded their 
arms; after which they marched back to York. Col. Tarleton & 
Simkoe's [Simcoe's?] horse, with about 1,700 foot, being on Glosester 
side, they marched out & grounded their arms there. The prisoners 
are to remain in York and Glosester till conveniency will permit of 
their marching to the places of their destination (while they remain 
prisoners of war), which is in the back parts of Virginia and Maryland. 

20 th . At 9 o'clk the light Infantry were paraded ; and after sending 
a detachment to relieve the guards and fatigue parties in York, the 
remaining part of the Brigade marched and took our usual post at the 
second parallel. 

21 st , Sunday. About 11 o'clk the British troops in York and 
Glosester began their march to the places of their destination. At 
2 o'clk p. m. we were relieved by Gen 1 Hazen's Brigade. At 4 o'clk 
we paraded again to attend divine service, which was performed (on 



156 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

a plain before the York Brigade) by the Kev d Doct r Evens, Chaplain 
to the Hamshire line. Orders for the army to be in readiness to 
march. 

22 d . After roll call I walked with Lieut. Smith to the landing in 
York, from whence we took a boat and crossed to Glosester. After 
viewing the works on that side of the river, we returned to York & 
from thence to camp. 

23. The light Infantry have this day been furnished with common 
tents (which were taken from the enemy). Took a walk into York 
with several gentlemen of the Regt. in the afternoon. 

24. The French army are leaving their works and preparing for an 
embarkation. 

25. At 7 o'clk A. m. a fatigue party of 500 men were turned out of 
the L. Infantry for the purpose of leveling the works before York. 

26. The Virginia troops have this day marched to their rendezvous; 
from thence they are to march and join the Southern Army. 

27 th . The French army under the command [of] Maj r Gen! the Mar- 
quis De S. Simon are embarking on board the fleet from which they 
landed. In the afternoon I took a walk with Capt. Hitchcock. 

28 th , Sunday. At 10 o'clk the L. Inf'y relieved the guards and 
fatigue parties in York. I was on the revine guard with Capt. Chap- 
man of Colonel Gimatt's Battalion. Had a very agreeable guard. 

29 th . At 11 o'clk a. m. we were relieved (by troops from Genf 
Hazen's Brigade), after which we marched to camp and were dis- 
missed. Found the Brigade (except what went on guard yesterday) 
were gone on fatigue. 

30 th . A small draft was made from the line of the army to complete 
Col. Armong's [Armand's] Legionary Corps, which are to join Gen! 
Green's Army. 

31 st . At sunrise Col. Vose's Battalion was turned out and marched 
into York, where we were employed till sundown in getting stores on 
board the craft which is to transport them to the head of Elk. Drew 
a number of overalls and vestcoats for our men. 

Thursday. November 1 st , 1781. The invalids of the L. Infantry 
embarked on board some small craft at York, which are to transport 
them to the h. of Elk. 

2 d . At sunrise I marched with a party of men to the landing in 
York, and after distributing them to the several vessels on board of 
which were the invalids of the Battalion, I embarked myself on board 
a small schooner (called the Liberty). On board this schooner is 
Capt. Bradford and 32 sick men, so that with them the well soldiers 
and boats crew amounted to upwards of fifty men. After procuring a 
sufficient quantity of wood and water, I went on shore and received 
my orders for sailing. About 8 o'clk in the evening we sailed for the 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 157 

head of Elk. At 11 we passed the French fleet (laying the mouth of 
the river). The wind being about west, we sailed all night. 

3 d . At 11 o'clk a.m. we came to anchor in Cockland's Creek 
(the wind being against us & blowing very hard), where we landed 
part of our men, our schooner being crowded. 

4 th , Sunday. The wind being N. W., we are obliged to lay still. 
About 11 o'clk I went on shore, the east side of the creek, and walked 
(about half a mile) to Mrs. Edwards, where I dined and spent the 
afternoon. At sundown I returned to the schooner again. 

5 th . The wind is still at N. W., which obliges us to remain in harbor. 
Breakfasted on board the schooner. Dined on shore at a Mr. Token's. 
After dinner I walked to several houses on the west side of the Creek, 
one of which was Mrs. Williams's, where I spent the evening and re- 
turned to the schooner again about 10 o'clk. 

6 th . Wind still against us. Breakfasted [and] dined as usual. 
Capt. Bradford had a very severe fit of the ague and fever. About 
sundown (the wind being low) we got our men on board, got up our 
anchor, rowed out of the creek, and, with the flood tide, beat up the 
bay about one league, and came to anchor under the Western shore, 
where we lay all night. 

7 th . About 10 o'clk a.m. (being flood tide), we came to sail, and 
after beating all day came to anchor (under Point Look Out) about 
sundown ; having got across the mouth of the Potowmock river. 

8 th . Wind still at N. W. At sunrise we made sail, and beat up 
the bay about one league ; then, running under the Western shore, 
came to anchor (the wind blowing exceeding hard), where we lay 
all night. 

9 th . At 9 o'clk a. m. got up our anchor, and running as near under 
the land as possible, landed part of our men (they being very sick). 
Capt. Bradford was again visited with a very severe fit of the ague & 
fever. At sundown, being almost calm, we got our men on board 
again, intending to make another trial to get up the bay ; but the wind 
blowing again very hard from its usual corner, we were obliged to keep 
our station. 

1 th . Lay still till 4 o'clk p. m. at which time (it being flood tide) 
we came to sail and stood up the bay, the wind being about W. N. W., 
and blowing a moderate breeze. We sailed all night. 

11 th , Sunday. At 2 o'clk A. m. it began to rain. At daylight we 
found ourselves nearly opposite the mouth of Patuxion [Patuxent] 
river. At 8 o'clk we passed Anneplias [Annapolis], with a S. E. wind 
and severe storm of hail & snow. Soon after passing Annaplias, the 
wind hauling to the Eastward and storm increasing, we were obliged 
to bear away for a harbor, which we made in Worton Creek at 1 
o'clk P. M. 



158 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

1 2 th . Stormy morning. Our provision being almost spent, I went 
on shore for the purpose of getting more. I was furnished with a 
horse by Col. Graves, who lives at the head of the creek, and rode to 
Chester Town, where (with much trouble) I drew three days provision 
for my men and returned to Col. Graves's, about sundown, where I 
spent the evening and lodged, not being able to get on board the 
schooner with the provision. 

13 th . Pleasant morning. Sent the provision on board the schooner, 
and after breakfasting with Col. Graves went on board myself; but 
finding it impossible to get out of the creek with the schooner, I sent 
the men on shore to cook their provision. About 11 o'clk I went on 
shore and walked to Col. Graves' again, where I dined and spent the 
day. In the evening I returned to the schooner again. About 9 o'clk 
(being almost calm) we got up our anchor & rowed out of the creek; 
after which we proceeded up the bay with a small wind. 

14 th . Pleasant morning. At daylight we found ourselves nearly 
opposite Cissel [Cecil] Court house in Elk river (this being the place 
we embarked from the 9 th March). It being quite calm, found our- 
selves obliged to use our oars. About 9 o'clk we landed at a little 
village called French Town (about 3 miles below the H. of Elk & on 
the eastern side of the river). Capt. Bradford, having recovered his 
health, took command of the party at this place. About 11 o'clk we 
marched for Cristean [Christiana], where we arrived about sundown. 
After getting our men into quarters, I walked with Capt. Bradford to 
Capt. Dun's tavern, where we supped and lodged. 

15 th . Drew two days allowance of provision for our men. About 
sunrise we marched for New Castle [Del.], where we arrived at 9 o'clk 
A. M. After a short halt we embarked on board of a sloop. The tide 
being in our favor, we immediately sailed & proceeded up the river 
about one league, and came to anchor, where we lay till sundown, at 
which time we came to sail again. Proceeded about seven miles up 
the river, and came to anchor again about one mile below the lower 
chevaux-de-frise, it being very dark and about 12 o'clk at night. 

16 lh . Came to sail about daylight; but it being almost calm we were 
obliged to use our oars to get up the river. About one o'clk we came 
to anchor (near a wharf) at the North end of the City of Philadelphia. 
Went on shore with Capt. Bradford, and walked to the Coffee House. 
Returned to the sloop again at seven o'clk in the evening. At 10 o'clk 
(it being flood tide) came to sail, and beat up the river about one league 
and came to anchor. 

17 th . Stormy morning. About 9 o'clk A. m. we came to sail ; but 
the storm increasing & the wind being against us, wa-.< obliged to run as 
near the Jersey shore as could get and came to anchor. I went on 
shore with Capt. Bradford, and walked about a mile to Mrs. Steakles's 



1890.] JOURNAL OF EBENEZER WILD. 159 

(a quaker widow), where we dined. After dinner we walked to a Capt. 
Andrewsons, where we spent the evening & lodged. 

18 th , Sunday. Clear morning. Went on board the sloop at day- 
light. About sunrise we came to sail. Our sloop being very [un- 
manageable] to beat, with much trouble we arrived at Burthentown 
[Bordentown] at 4 o'clk p. m., and not being able to get any further 
up the river, we landed our men & marched to Trenton, where we 
arrived a little after dusk. After getting our men into quarters, I 
walked with Capt. Bradford to Mr. Copes tavern, where we spent 
the evening and supped ; but the lodgings being all taken up before 
we arrived, walked to a private house and lodged with several other 
officers of the army. 

19 th . Drew six days allowance of provisions. About 10 o'clk a. m. 
we began our march for Prince Town [Princeton], where we arrived 
about sundown. After getting our men into quarters (which were the 
public house of the town), I walked with Capt. Bradford to a tavern 
known by the sign of Hudebrass [Hudibras], where we put up for the 
night. Spent the evening very agreeably with several gentlemen of 
the town. 

20 th . Clear and pleasant morning. Walked to the barbers and was 
dressed. About 9 o'clk a. m. began our march from Princetown. 
After marching about 8 miles halted, and dined at a house near Mill- 
stone bridge. After halting an hour and an half proceeded on our 
march as far as Sumersett, where we arrived a little before sundown, 
and had our men quartered as usual. I quartered with Capt. Bradford, 
at a rich old gentleman's, a magistrate of the town. 

21 st . Breakfasted at our quarters. At 9 o'clk we began our march, 
and after proceeding several miles, stopped and dined at a duck house, 
after which we proceeded as far as Basking Ridge, where we arrived 
about sundown and took quarters as usual. 

22 d . Begun our march at 8 o'clk a. m. After proceeding 3 miles 
we halted to take breakfast ; after which we continued our march as 
far as Moristown, where we arrived about 10 o'clk p. m., and took 
billets for our men about one mile & an half North of the town. Capt. 
Bradford & myself took quarters at a Captain Beaches. 

23 d . Remained in quarters for the purpose of our men clean- 
ing their arms & washing their clothes. Drew provision for our 
men. 

24 th . Capt. Bradford is visited again by his usual disorder in a very 
severe manner. The troops began their march at 10 o'clk a. m!, but 
Capt. Bradford not being able to march with them, he tarried in the 
rear with the wagon, which came up about 7 o'clk in the evening, at 
which time we halted (being about 10 miles from Moristown), and took 
quarters as usual. 



160 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

25 tk . Dark and cloudy morning. About 9 o'clk a. m. we began 
our march, and arrived at Pumton [Pompton] about 12, where we 
halted for the day, it being very stormy. I took quarters with Capt. 
Bradford at Mr, Van Gilders, where we dined on fresh fish. 

26 th . Unsettled weather. Remained in quarters all day, Capt. Brad- 
ford not being able to march. Spent the day very agreeably. 
. 27 th . Began our march at 9 o'clk A. m., & after making several halts 
on the road, arrived and put up at houses 12 miles from King's ferry. 
Capt. Bradford and myself took quarters at a small duck house, where 
we lodged on the floor. 

28 th . About nine o'clk a. m. we set out, and marched 9 miles to- 
wards the ferry and put up, it being very stormy. I took quarters 
with Capt. Bradford at M r Burnes's. 

29 th . At nine o'clk a. m. we left our quarters and marched to the 
ferry, where we drew one day's allowance of provision and rum for 
our men. After a short halt at the ferry we embarked on board a flat 
bottomed boat which was to transport us to West Point, for which we 
immediately set out ; and after rowing about 3 or 4 miles up the river, 
found it impossible to proceed any further, the wind being against us & 
blowing very hard ; in consequence of which we run ashore near Peaks 
Kill landing, where we landed our men ; and Capt. Bradford with those 
of them which were able immediately marched for W. Point ; after 
which I interceded with Capt. Daney to take the remaining part of the 
men and our baggage on board his sloop, which was laying near the 
landing, and bound up the river as soon as the wind would permit. I 
lodged with Capt. Daney on board the sloop. 

30 th . The wind being at N. W., which makes it impossible to get up 
the river with the sloop, in consequence of which I landed (leaving a 
sergt. and two well men with the sick & baggage), and walked to Nel- 
son's ferry, which I crossed ; and after making a short stop in W. 
Point, I walked to York Huts and joined the Regiment, after a very 
fatiguing but successful campaign of nine months & eleven days. 
The Light Infantry have not yet arrived in camp, except the detach- 
ment with which I came. 

York JIids y Dec. 8 th , '81. The Light Infantry arrived in camp, and 
joined their respective Brigades and Regiments. 

Mr. Bugbee also communicated, through Mr. Smith, copies 
of the following letters written by two French officers who 
served in the War of the Revolution, — the first by Louis de 
Maresquelle, who sought admission to the Society of the Cin- 
cinnati ; the second and third by Bernard Maussac Lamar- 
quisie, who sought temporary aid from the Cincinnati Society 



1890.] LETTER OF LOUIS DE MARESQUELLE. 161 

until his claims could be presented to the United States 
Government. 

Louis de Maresquelle, Col. d'artillerie, inspecteur general des fon- 
deries de cet etat desirant depuis l'institution de l'honorable Societe 
des Cincinnati, d'etre admis parmi tant de respectables guerriers, prend 
la liberte de s'adresser a l'honorable Comite, pour obtenir la faveur 
d'etre re$u ; esperant que si ses titres ne sont pas suffisant il obtiendra 
cette faveur de la generosite de l'honorable Societe. 

Maresquelle depuis ses plus jeunes ans a tou jours suivi le parti des 
armes dans l'armee Franchise ayant obtenu Comission de Capitaine 
n'ayant pas 18 ans en 1776 le suppliant a ete envoye (par le Comte 
de S' Germain, ministre des affaires etrangeres) dans l'esperance que 
ses faibles talens pouraient etre de quelque utilite aux Americains ; 
il recu a son arrivee dans cet etat le brevet de Col. d'artillerie dans 
l'esperance que cette Republique allait lever un second Regiment 
d'artillerie pour Farme Continental, ce qui n'eut pas lieu. L'assem- 
blee general de cet etat jugea convenant d'employer les talens du 
suppliant a fondre des canons, bombes obus, mortiers, pour le service du 
Continent. Le suppliant a ete aide de camp du general Sullivan, avec 
lequel il aurait continuer le reste de la guerre. Si cette Republique 
ne Feut rappelle pour l'employer comme ingenieur en chef du Comte 
D'Estaing le suppliant espere (Com e un francais qui a sacrifie les plus 
Beaux jours de sa vie a Tinterest de la cause republique depuis 1776 
jusqu'a ce jour), qu'il obtiendra, Messieurs, la faveur indigne d'etre recu 
dans votre honorable Societe. 

Consideres, Messieurs, qu'elle disgrace ce serait pour le suppliant s'il 
retourne dans sa Patrie sans avoir l'honneur d'etre admis au nombre des 
Cincinnati. Ses compatriotes croiroient que sa mauvais conduite l'aurait 
privee de cette distinction honorable. Daignes considerer, Messieurs, que 
le suppliant a ete plus utiles a la cause du Continent en fournissant des 
canons, obus bombes, mortiers pour l'armee continental et des canons 
pour les fregattes que s'il avait eu l'honneur de partager les lauriers 
dont vous vous etes, Messieurs, si dignement couvert sous l'immortal 
Washington. 

Messieurs, en recevant le suppliant dans votre honorable Societe, 
vous mettrer le comble a ses voeux ; il employera le reste de sa vie a 
chanter vos vertus et votre generosite : en attendant l'honneur de votre 
reponse, le suppliant est et sera pour tou jours avec respect, 
Messieurs, 

Votre tres humble Serviteur, 

Louis de Maresquelle. 

The foregoing communication was addressed to the Standing 
Committee of the Massachusetts Society in 1789 ; and at the 

21 



162 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

meeting of that committee, July 4, 1789, it was voted that 
the applicant was not eligible for membership. 

To the honorable Society of the Military order of St. Sinatis at Boston : 

Honorable President & Members, — The undersigned, Bernard 
Maussac Lamarquisie, ancient officer in the American army, has the 
honor to represent to you that in the year 1776 he was sent from the 
Island of Martinico to Philadelphia, recommended by his general to 
doctor Francklin, who did him the honor to introduce him to president 
Hancock, whom after examining my papers honored me with a commis- 
sion of captain in the body of Engineers, and destined for the armies in 
Canada, for which place I sat out with doctor Francklin, Mr. Chesse 
[Samuel Chase], Mr. Carol [Charles Carroll], a member of Congress, 
& Mr. Carol [John Carroll], a priest. At my arrival at Montreal in 
Canada, I received order to join the army at Sorrel [Sorel] on the 
river Richelieu, where general Arnold commanded, after the defeat of 
general Montgomerie [Montgomery]. After arrived general Thomp- 
son, who commanded us till the arrival of general Thomas, who died of 
the small pox at Chambly Then arrived general Sulivan [Sullivan], 
who took the command of the army. Few days after general Thompson 
was sent by the commander in chief, to attack the English at Three 
Rivers, where I was also ordered to go, as a chief engineer and first aid- 
de-camp to general Thompson, with about 1,200 men from several reg- 
iments, with Colonel Winne [Wayne], Colonel St. Clair, Colonel 
Maxwell, & Colonel Rose. We were beaten by a superior force, 
though all the divisions fought with a courage undaunted, and we re- 
treated honorably. A little time after the whole army retreated by the 
side of the river Chambly under general Sulivan, whom was relieved at 
Ticonderoga by general Schyler [Schuyler] ; & a little while after arrived 
general Gates, who commanded till the attack from the British, which 
obliged us to retreat to S* Jean [St. John's], where I spent my winter 
quarters. In the Spring I was sent to West point, where I staid a little 
while, and thence was sent as a chief engineer to repair and put in order 
fort Stanicks [Stanwix] up the river Moack [Mohawk]. This being 
done with success, I was ordered to repair to the army of the North, 
which commanded general Schyler, who had been relieved by general 
Gates ; the army was then at Steel Water [Stillwater] till the taken 
of general Bourgoine [Burgoyne] ; and I was always in the North till 
the arrival of the french army at Rhode Island. Then I went there to 
receive my commission of lieutenant colonel in the army of france, & I 
always served till the conclusion of peace. Then being at Philadelphia 
and disposed to go to france, I was proposed to your honorable Society 
[the New York branch ?] by colonel [Joseph] Wood, of the regiment 



1890.] LETTER OF BERNARD MAUSSAC LAMARQUISIE. 163 

of St. Clair, to whom I deposited in specie and in the hands of major 
Veger [Peter Vosburough ?], of New York, who was a major in my 
time in the regiment of Hary Livingston [Col. Henry Beekman Liv- 
ingston], a month and a half pay of lieutenant colonel : & having 
found a passage for London, I sailed without being received a member 
of your respectable Society ; and after being accepted and making the 
above gift, I dare to hope all success in the favor I beg of you in the 
inclosed sheet, & I dare to hope you will be so kind to take in con- 
sideration my demand, & I shall be very thankful to you. 
I am, 

Your most humble & most affectionate Servant, 

Lamarquisie. 

The following is a copy of the petition referred to near the 
end of the foregoing letter. It is not written by the same 
hand. Major Lamarquisie was promptly aided by the Massa- 
chusetts Society (although he had no special claim upon it), 
and commended to the favor of the Societies in Rhode Island 
and New York. 

To the Honorable Society of the Military Order of Cincinnatus in 

Massachusetts : 

President & Members, — The undersigned, Maussa Lamarquisie, 
formerly Major in the American Army untill the end of the War, has 
now the honor of addressing the respectable Society of the Order of 
Cincinnatus, to represent his situation to their consideration. 

Having been persecuted in France during the Revolution, and by 
force deprived of all my papers, certificates, &c, I presume that by 
identifying my person & pretentions I shall meet that just reward for 
my past services which hath in all other instances so peculiarly charac- 
terized the government of the United States. 

The necessities of the moment compell me to ask for friendly aid & 
to enable me to travel to the seat of Government, where I shall prefer 
my claims. Having quitted france in the greatest distress, where for a 
long time the liberality of Americans supported me, I was obligated 
finally to a worthy citizen of Boston for supplies of Money and pro- 
visions & passage to this Country for myself & Wife ; arrived upon 
these hospitable shores, I must throw myself upon the bounty of 
Charitable Societies for imediate relief. 

The benignity of your institution invites me to apply as a Brother 
Officer, presuming no other title necessary to excite your sympathetic 
attention. My Wife sick & in want of cloathing proper for the season, 
myself without other cloaths than those lent me by a charitable Brother, 



164 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

a Lodging to pay for at twelve Dollars per Week, besides fire and 
Wood, medicines, &c, it is impossible for me to acquit myself of these 
expenses & to leave this Town on my way to Philadelphia without 
sufficient pecuniary assistance. 

Animated with the hopes of your philanthropic exertions in my be- 
half, for which my gratitude will ever thank you, I offer up my prayers 
to the Supreme Being for your prosperity & happiness. 
Salut et respect, 

Lamarquisie. 

Boston, 6 December, 1797. 

Mr. William S. Appleton, the Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, and other gentlemen referred briefly to the recent 
death of a Corresponding Member, Mr. Henry Tuke Parker, a 
native of Boston, who had lived for many years in England. 

The President announced that the fifth volume of the 
second series of the Proceedings, and a new serial containing 
the record of the meetings for May and June of this year, 
were ready for delivery.