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Full text of "Annual Meeting, April, 1903. Tribute to Mr. James Elliot Cabot; The Pilgrim Company in Leyden; The Merchants' Notes of 1733; Report of the Council; Report of the Treasurer; Report of the Auditing Committee; Report of the Cabinet-Keeper; Report of Cabinet and Library Committee; Election of Officers"

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The Annual Meeting was held on Thursday, the 9th instant, 
at three o'clock p. m. In the absence of the President, who 
had not returned from his trip abroad, the senior Vice-Presi- 
dent, Hon. Samuel A. Green, LL.D., was in the chair. 

After the reading of the records and the customary reports 
from the Corresponding Secretary, the Cabinet-Keeper, and 
the Librarian, the Vice-Pkesident said : — 

It is my sad duty, at this Annual Meeting, to announce the 
death of John Davis Washburn, which took place at his home 
in Worcester, on Saturday last (April 4). He had been a mem- 
ber of the Society for more than twenty years, having been 
chosen at the December meeting in 1882. At two periods he 
served as a member of the Council ; and he was also the 
writer of an interesting memoir of the Hon. Stephen Salisbury, 
which appears in the Proceedings for May, 1885. A native 
of Boston, where he was born on March 27, 1833, he passed 
his boyhood at Lancaster, from which town he entered Har- 
vard College in the autumn of 1849, and graduated with honor 
in the Class of 1853. It may be worthy of note to record the 
fact that eight graduates of that class have become members 
of this Society. He studied the profession of law in the office 
of Mr. Hoar, now the senior United States Senator from this 
Commonwealth; and later he entered the Harvard Law School, 
where he took the degree of LL.B. in 1856. 

At an early period in his professional life he turned his 
attention to the subject of fire insurance, and in that branch 
of practice won distinction as an authority among his breth- 
ren. He was a member of the State Legislature for some 
years, having served in the House during the sessions of 1876 
to 1879 inclusive, and in the Senate during the session of 
1884. At a later time he represented the government of 
the United States as Minister Resident to the Republic 
of Switzerland ; and during his diplomatic term the dignity 


of the office was raised to that of Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary. His public career at Berne was as 
honorable to the nation as it was creditable to himself. 

Until ten or twelve years ago, when his health broke down, 
Mr. Washburn's life was one of many activities ; and in the 
neighborhood of Worcester and Boston he held various posi- 
tions of trust and responsibility, which were faithfully filled. 
In recent times, however, owing to ill-health, he had been com- 
pelled to a large degree to retire from these several duties. 
But apart from his public services and his prominent position 
in the community, he will be remembered longest by those 
who knew him best for that kindness of heart and geniality of 
disposition which never failed him, and for that inborn trait 
of character which makes friends of all with whom one comes 
in contact. Of the various friendships and intimacies made 
among students at college, now more than fifty years ago, — 
always excepting my own class, — there was no one with whom 
my personal relations were so pleasant or so lasting as with 
John Washburn. 

The Hon. Henry S. Nourse, of Lancaster, was appointed to 
write the Memoir of Mr. Washburn, for publication in the 

Ephraim Emerton, Ph.D., of Cambridge, was elected a 
Resident Member ; and Hon. Horace Davis, of San Francisco, 
California, was elected a Corresponding Member. 

Mr. Chakles Eliot Norton, having been called on, said : 

When our President asked me to say a few words concerning 
our late associate, Mr. Elliot Cabot, I hesitated about doing 
so, for I was never on terms of intimacy with him, and could 
not speak of him as one might do who had been in continuous 
close relation with him. But, on reflection, it seemed to me 
that a friendly acquaintance of fifty j^ears or more might 
justify me in endeavoring to set forth the main conditions of 
his life and to indicate in part at least the qualities which gave 
distinction to his character. 

In his veins two currents of blood were united which, singly 
or in conjunction, have given vigor to the lives of a large 
number of eminent citizens of Boston during the last century. 
If the name of Perkins and of Cabot were erased from the 


story of the city, there would be a notable gap in its annals. 
They have stood for enterprise, integrity, and public-minded 
liberality, while underlying these great qualities there has 
been apparent in both houses a high regard for those intellect- 
ual interests without which material success in life is of little 

In Mr. Elliot Cabot these latter interests were predominant 
and ruled the course of his years. After his graduation in 
1840, when he was nineteen years of age, he went abroad, and 
spent two years mainly in study in Paris and in Germany. 
Returning home in 1843, he entered the Harvard Law School, 
and after two years took his degree, in 1845. It was the 
moment of the Transcendental ferment in our narrow local 
world, which the grandfather of our President, and my own 
father and other good men, firm in the faith as it had been 
delivered to the fathers, viewed with suspicion and abhorrence. 
They did not recognize in its new and surprising form the 
spirit of truth which had been their own inspiration. But it 
was not strange that a youth of liberal temper and of intel- 
lectual aspirations should partake in the emotion of the time, 
welcome the novel doctrine, and enroll himself among the dis- 
ciples of the two foremost leaders of thought in our little 
parish, — Emerson and Parker. The publication of the " Dial " 
was begun the year he left college. This now famous journal 
had a struggling existence for four years. Its last number, 
that for April, 1844, opened with an essay by Cabot on 
Immanuel Kant, setting forth the main doctrine of the phi- 
losopher, and showing the bent of mind of its writer by which 
the whole course of his later life was to be determined. 

In 1846 Theodore Parker began the publication of the 
" Massachusetts Quarterly Review," and Mr. Cabot, who found 
the practice of the law as little suited to his genius as to his 
taste, was associated with him as assistant editor. It was in 
this same year that Agassiz arrived in Boston, and Cabot was 
among those who greeted his arrival with enthusiasm, for he 
was not only a lover of nature, but a student of it as well, and 
was already known as having an acquaintance with the birds of 
Massachusetts such as few professional naturalists possessed. 
The quality of his love and study of nature, and the high 
character of the man were immortalized by Emerson in his 
well-known verses entitled " Forbearance." Beginning with 


" Hast thou named all the birds without a gun ? 
Loved the wood-rose and left it on its stalk ? " 
they end, — 

" O, be iny friend, and teach me to be thine." 

Mr. Cabot's well-trained powers of observation and descrip- 
tion of nature were shown in his Narrative published in 1850 
of the tour made by Mr. Agassiz and several companions to 
Lake Superior. Mr. Cabot was a skilful draughtsman, and 
his Narrative is illustrated by lithographs taken from his 
drawings, and is supplemented by an account of the birds of 
the region. 

In 1849 he put his taste and skill in art to the proof by 
engaging professionally in the practice of architecture, in con- 
nection with his brother the eminent architect, Mr. Edward C. 
Cabot ; but the practice of the art was not attractive to him, 
and after a few years he withdrew altogether from it. 

After his marriage, which took place in 1857, Mr. Cabot 
established himself in Brookline, and there lived, with brief 
occasional absences, for the remainder of his life. His days 
were thenceforth mainly those of a retired student, largely 
withdrawn from active pursuits. His judgment, his culture, 
his taste were such, however, that they were sought, and 
given, in the service of many of the most important public 
institutions of Brookline and of Boston. For many years, for 
instance, he was a trustee of the Athenaeum and of the 
Museum of Fine Arts, and from 1875 to 1883 he was an Over- 
seer of Harvard College. He discharged the duties of these 
various positions with entire fidelity, and with such capacity 
and judgment as made him a trusted member of every board 
upon which he sat. 

He had no large circle of friends, but his friendships were 
dear to him, — none dearer and none more close and continu- 
ous than that with Mr. Emerson. The two men were bound 
together by s} r mpathies more intimate than those of opinion, 
sympathies of temperament and of mood. Each respected the 
genius of the other. The reticences and reserves of each only 
bound them the closer. " I cannot afford," said Emerson, " to 
speak much with my friend." But the two essential elements 
of friendship existed in their relation, — truth and tenderness ; 
and in Mr. Emerson's later days, when the noble faculties 
of his mind had begun to decline, Mr. Cabot afforded him 


assistance which no other person could have rendered, aiding 
him in the preparation of some of his writings for publica- 
tion, or, more exactly speaking, in selecting and arranging 
them and in carrying them through the press. How great 
this aid was may be inferred from Mr. Cabot's prefatory note 
in the edition of 1883 to the volume of Essays which was 
first published in 1875 under the title of " Letters and Social 

Mr. Emerson had chosen him as his literary executor, and 
after Emerson's death it fell to Mr. Cabot not only to edit 
his works, but also to perform the difficult task of writing 
his biography. In the accomplishment of this task, Mr. Cabot 
displayed his own intellectual powers and literary abilities 
as in no other work, and his Life of his friend is, in my 
judgment, an admirable performance. It is a sincere and ade- 
quate record of a life led on a higher plane than most men 
reach, — the life of one to whom spiritual and ideal things 
were the real concerns of this existence, and who exhibited 
in the simplicity, dignity, and graciousness of his daily walk 
the virtues of his soul. The biography, while it contains all 
that is requisite for a picture of the man in his every-day 
aspect and outward garb, contains no record of trifles for the 
satisfaction of gossip-mongers : it gives a true impression of 
Emerson as he was and as he seemed to his contemporaries, 
— a pure and poetic figure in his home and in the street, con- 
formed to the character indicated, and indeed more than indi- 
cated, by his poems and his essays. It is a high service which 
Mr. Cabot thus accomplished to the memory of his friend and 
for the benefit of posterity. 

But beside its excellence as a delineation of Mr. Emerson's 
life, this biography is not less excellent in its analysis of his 
thought; and there are passages in it of remarkable critical 
discrimination and ability of statement. I know not where 
else to find so good an account in brief of the conditions of 
thought and belief in our community at the time when Emer- 
son's genius began to make itself felt, and of the nature of 
the influence which that genius exerted, as in Mr. Cabot's 
chapters entitled, respectively, " Transcendentalism " and 
" Religion." 

This book will be Mr. Cabot's monument, and a sufficient 
one. Whether it were want of ambition, or self-distrust com- 


bined with his natural reserve, or conscious lack of power to 
do justice to his ideals, Mr. Cabot's own studies, pursued 
year after year, bore little fruit for the public. These studies 
were mainly in metaphysics, from Aristotle to Hegel. A 
quarter of a century after his brief article on Kant in the 
"Dial," he gave to me for the "North American Review" 
a paper on Hegel. It showed the fidelity of his attempt to 
understand and to expound the least intelligible of modern 
metaphysicians, but it left to the layman the "Secret of 
Hegel" as great a secret as ever. 

Tranquil, content, philosophic, useful, his life flowed in a 
quiet current. Beloved by the small circle of his intimates, 
respected by the community, he had little to ask for. He was 
perhaps too modest to recognize the greatest of the services 
which he was rendering, the example of a man who held at 
low worth the objects for which most other men waste their 
days in striving. His reticence was a rebuke to the general 
loquacity ; his reserve to the popular love of display and to 
the low arts of the newspaper reporter. In maintaining his 
own inviolable dignity, he maintained that of his fellows. 
Would that there were more like him, devoted to the things 
of the mind, who while the great world bustles on heed it not, 
but seek in silence, in independence, and in cheerful confi- 
dence, the wisdom of the gods ! 

Rev. Morton Dexter read parts of the following paper : 

The Members of the Pilgrim Company in Ley den. 

In connection with the history of the settlers of the Ply- 
mouth Colony it is of interest to know who were members of 
their company in Leyden, during some part, or the whole, of 
their residence there from 1609 to 1620. So far as I am 
aware, no list of their names ever has been compiled. The 
late Dr. H. M. Dexter, my father, a member of this Society, 
made investigations on this subject and caused others to be 
made for him. He left a collection of notes about it. But 
they were incomplete and occasionally inaccurate, as he did 
not live to carry out his in tention of revising them thoroughly 
on the spot. This, in connection with other studies, I have 
attempted to do, principally during two visits to Leyden in 
1901 and 1902, and I have spent nearly six months in careful 


examination of the various civil or ecclesiastical records of 
that city. In respect to this subject the results have been 
a considerable increase of the amount of material and the 
correction of some misunderstandings. With the aid of infor- 
mation gained elsewhere about some of the individuals con- 
cerned, it seems possible to identify with reasonable accuracy 
more than two hundred of those who in Leyden formed the 
Pilgrim body. 

The Dutch archives are at once the admiration and the 
despair of the investigator of the period of the Pilgrim resi- 
dence. Probably no other nation kept such full public records 
during the first quarter of the seventeenth century as the 
Dutch. Leyden, Amsterdam, and the other important cities 
or towns possess large collections of volumes, recording be- 
trothals — which had to be made formally and publicly ; 
marriages — recorded in one set of books if the parties be- 
longed to the State Church, and in a different set if they did 
not ; burials — these being set down rather than deaths ; ad- 
missions to citizenship ; powers of attorney given ; agreements 
to buy, sell, or transfer real estate ; the actual sales, or trans- 
fers; affidavits upon all sorts of subjects; the daily official 
doings of the successive burgomasters ; the membership of 
the night-watch, or city guard, etc. In the case of Leyden, 
these, with the university records, the census taken in Octo- 
ber, 1622, and several maps, or plans, of the town, which show 
every house and lot and state the owner's name, enable the 
student to learn a great deal about the inhabitants between 
1609 and 1620. 

But he also finds much to embarrass him. For example, in 
respect to names, an item of the first importance, he is in 
difficulties from the outset. Not only are they written in the 
old Dutch characters, often hard to be deciphered, but also the 
Dutch recorders wrote them down from the sound, apparently 
taking little or no pains to learn their spelling. An example 
is the name Dorothy Ament, which there can be little doubt 
ought to be Dorothy Hammond. Different clerks also under- 
stood and recorded the same name differently. Sometimes 
the same clerk recorded the same name differently on succes- 
sive occasions. Indeed, at that time the English themselves 
were none too self-consistent in their spelling. The result is 
that so simple a name as Bradford occurs in the records in 


several different forms, and Southworth is found in not less 
than nine. To determine the names of some of the less con- 
spicuous persons is exceedingly difficult, and now and then 

Confusion also results from the Dutch equivalents of Eng- 
lish names, which occur sometimes, and from the Dutch cus- 
tom of designating a man merely as his father's son, omitting 
the last name in each case. For instance, John Ellis had a 
son, Christopher, who became a considerable dealer in real 
estate, and whose transactions brought his name upon the 
records oftener than that of any other man of them all, 
although he was not more than a youth when the Plymouth 
colonists knew him. But he is set down almost uniformly as 
Stoffel Janson, Stoffel being the Dutch for Christopher, and 
Janson signifying the son of John. There is unmistakable 
evidence that Stoffel Janson was Christopher Ellis, but until 
one lights upon it he has but little reason to suspect their 

Furthermore, some sets of records overlap. There are more 
than one series covering transactions of the same kind and 
the same period ; for instance, dealings in real estate. This 
fact easily might go undiscovered. I learned it only by failing 
to find in one series entries which I had reason to believe 
must exist somewhere. Some items are in one set of these 
records, some in another, some in a third, and some in more 
than one of them. Again, after one has made sure that he 
has before him all the volumes possibly containing the infor- 
mation which he seeks, he is baffled afresh by the odd old 
custom of indexing by Christian names. For any entry con- 
cerning William Brewster, for example, he must look, not 
under the letter B but under W, among the Willems or 
Williams. And, in addition, if he should exhaust the list of 
Williams vainly, let him not abandon his search without 
making certain that there is not, somewhere else in the volume, 
a supplementary index of other Williams, and possibly even 
a third in another place. But by persistence one may over- 
come all these hindrances sufficiently to feel sure in the end 
that he has allowed little, if anything, to elude his scrutiny. 

The names of many members of the Pilgrim company 
appear in the various records repeatedly. But most of them 
are mentioned only occasionally, and chiefly when a marriage 



or a burial occurred among them. In determining who be- 
longed to their number, the first step is to inquire who can be 
identified beyond any possible question. We know positively 
that Bradford, Brewster, Carver, Winslow, and others were in 
Leyden then, and came over here in the " Mayflower." We 
know also that John Robinson, William Jepson, Randall 
Thickins, Henry Wood, and others were associated with them 
in Leyden. These definitely known members of the company 
form a nucleus, around which others may be gathered and to 
which they can be connected. This first class, which includes 
those of whom we may be absolutely certain, has proved 
unexpectedly large. It includes a hundred and seventeen 

The next step is to inquire who were associated with them 
in ways, and with i degree of closeness, which warrant the 
inference that in all reasonable probability these associates 
also belonged to the company. Here the evidence is drawn 
from the records of those matters in respect to which men 
naturally seek the presence and help of their kindred or 
nearest friends. Undoubtedly the Pilgrims held, and were 
glad to hold, considerable friendly intercourse with other 
English or Scotch residents of Leyden ; with the Walloons, 
who were chiefly French ; and with the native Dutch popula- 
tion. Yet, in a real sense, they were a colony by themselves. 
They cultivated mutual fellowship. At important hours in 
their respective individual or family histories, they would 
have been most unlikely to turn for sympathy and service to 
comparative strangers rather than to the fellow members of 
their own church or congregation. It seems fair, therefore, 
to assume that when one of them needed witnesses to his 
betrothal or marriage, for example, or wished to be guaranteed 
as a suitable candidate for citizenship, the witnesses, guaran- 
tors, or other assistants or supporters, must have been chosen, 
in most cases, from his fellow-members of the company. That 
the evidence of this is entirely conclusive in every instance 
cannot be asserted. But that the rule thus laid down is safe 
to be followed no student of the records is likely to deny. 
Indeed, in many cases there is ample corroborative evidence. 
Of this second class, including those of whose membership in 
the Pilgrim company we may feel practically assured, at least 
ninety-one persons can be named. 


A third class, much more difficult to be determined, re- 
mains, — that of those who may have been members, but as 
to whom the evidence is less conclusive. Bradford has testi- 
fied 1 that at one time the English church in Amsterdam 
numbered about" three hundred communicants," adding, " As 
for the church in Leyden, they were sometimes not much fewer 
in number." At a low estimate, their congregation must have 
included at least a hundred more. Some died, and others — 
Bradford says " many " 2 — returned to England. But they also 
continued to receive occasional accessions up to the time of 
the departure to America. That those who came to this 
country were a minority is known, but exactly what propor- 
tion this number bore to the majority which remained is un- 
known. There is a statement, 3 however, that there was not 
much difference between them, but it is not indicated 
whether the majority and minority were those of the whole 
company or merely of the church. At least thirty-seven of 
the voyagers by the " Mayflower " seem to have come from 
Leyden. If all of the eighteen others who left them at 
Plymouth, England, also were from Leyden, which is improb- 
able, the emigration must have withdrawn only fifty-five from 
that city. If this minority were of the company, they cannot 
have numbered at that time more than from one hundred to 
one hundred and fifty. If it were of the church only, the 
whole body then may have numbered two hundred, or even 
more. The latter seems more probable, judging from the 
subsequent records about those who remained and remember- 
ing that most of those who went must have belonged to the 

Whatever the total number may have been at that date, it 
is plain that the first two of the three classes cannot have 
included all who were recognized as belonging to the com- 
pany, for all three classes have to do not merely with the date 
of the departure, but with the whole period between 1609 and 
July, 1620. From one-third to one-half of the possible mem- 
bers therefore remain to be identified, but there is no proba- 
bility that the names of many of them ever will be ascertained 
beyond question, unless through the discovery of documents 

1 Dial, in Young's Chronicles, 455, 456. 

2 Hist. 22. 

8 Ed. Winslow, Brief Narration. In Young's Chrons., 384. 


at present unknown. Yet more than sixty others may be 
mentioned, in regard to each of whom there exists either 
some probability, or, at the least, some more or less definite 
indication, of a connection with the company. 

The three following lists contain the names of the members 
of the three classes which have been defined. Each name, 
excepting those as to which no proof is necessary, such as 
Bradford's and Brewster's, is accompanied by some brief sug- 
gestion of the evidence in its own case, but in many in- 
stances a small part only of the evidence is supplied. To do 
more would expand this paper beyond reasonable limits. The 
names of a considerable number of other English residents of 
Leyden during the period under consideration are in my pos- 
session. Probably some, and possibly many, of them are 
those of actual members of the Pilgrim company. But they 
are omitted here because at present there is not enough evi- 
dence that they belong in any one of the three lists. 


The Known Members of the CosiPANt. 

[m. against a name = came in " Mayflower," 1620. f. = came in "Fortune," 
1621. L. J. A. = came in " Little James " or " Anne," 1623. The chief uncer- 
tainty is in regard to the children ; but when both parents — like Isaac and 
Mary Allerton — were in Leyden until July, 1620, it seems safe to include 
their children in the company.] 

1. Allerton, Isaac, m. 

2. " Mary (TSTorris). m. Wife of Is. Married Nov. 4, 1611. 

3. " Bartholomew, m. Their son. 

4. " Eemember. m. Their dau. 

5. " Mary. m. Their dau. 

6. Bassett, William, f. Rog. Wilson and Ed. Southworth wit- 

nessed his betrothal July 29, 1611. 

7. " Margaret (Oldham). 2d wife of Wm. Mar. Aug. 13, 

1611. Died before autumn of 1621. 

8. Blossom, Thomas. Gave power of att'y to wife, Mar. 12, 1610. 

Wrote, Dec. 15, 1625, to Bradford, who later 
called him (Hist. 314) one of "their anciente 
friends which had lived in Holand." Came to 
Plym. in 1629. 

9. " Ann. Wife of Thos. Mar. before Mar. 12. 1610. 

Came to Plym. with him. 
10. " Their child. Buried Apr. 12, 1617. 


11. Bradford, William, m. 

12. " Dorothy (May), m. "Wife of Wm. Mar., at Amst, 

Dec. 10, 1613. 

13. " John. Their son. Came to Plym. in, or soon after, 


14. Brewer, Thomas. Assoc, in printing with Brewster. 

15. " 1st wife of Thos. Bur. Oct. 20, 1618. 

16. " Their child. Bur. Aug. 30, 1618. 

17. " Their child. Bur. Oct. 3, 1618. 

18. " Stephen. Their son. 

19. " Trintye. Their dau. 

20. " Margaret. 2d wife of Thos. Must have mar. him soon 

after 1st wife's death, as she had four children by 
him in Oct., 1622, by census. 

21. " Daniel. Son of Thos. and Marg. Must have been born 

before July, 1620. 

22. Brewster, William, m. 

23. " Mary. m. Wife of Wm. 

24. " Jonathan, f. Their son. 

25. " Patience, l. j. a. Their dau. 

26. " Fear. l. j. a. Their dau. 

27. " Wrestling, m. Their son. 

28. " Love. m. Their son. 

29. Carpenter, Alexander. Fath.-in-law of Geo. Morton and Sam, 

Fuller. Wit. their bets. July 6, 1612, and Mar. 
15, 1613. 

30. " Priscilla. Dau. of Alex. Wit. bet. of Is. Allerton Oct. 

7, 1611. Came to Plym. in, or soon after, 1627. 

31. Carver, John. m. 

32. " Catharine, m. Wife of John. 

33. Crackstone, John. m. Wit. bet. of Zech. Barrow June 16, 1616. 

34. Cushman, Robert. Bought house Nov. 4, 1611. Came with 

Pilgrims as far as Plym., Eng., but returned. 
Visited Plym. Col. in 1621. 

35. " Sarah. 1st wife of Rob. Bur. Oct. 11, 1616. 

36. " Their child. Bur. Mar. 11, 1616. 

37. " Their child. Bur. Oct. 24, 161 6. 

38. " Thomas, f. Their son. Born about 1607. 

39. " Mary (Singleton). 2d wife of Rob. Mar. June 5, 


40. Cuthbertson, Cuthbert. L.J. A. Eliz. Keble, Eliz. Kendall, Sr., 

and Ed. Kendall wit. his bet. May 12, 1617. 

41. « Elizabeth (Kendall). Wife of Cuth. Mar. May 

27, 1617. 


42. Fletcher, Moses, m. Wm, Bradford, Wm. Lisle and Sarah 

Priest wit. his bet. Nov. 30, 1613. 

43. " Sarah (Denby). 2dwifeofMos. Mar. Dec. 21, 1613. 

44. Fuller, Samuel, m. 

45. " Agnes (Carpenter). Dau. of Alex. 2d wife of Sam. 

Mar. Apr. 24, 1613. Bur. July 3, 1615. 

46. " Child of Sam. Bur. June 29, 1615. 

47. " Bridget (Lee), l.j. a. 3d wife of Sam. Mar. May 27, 


48. Goodman, John. m. 

49. " Sarah (Hooper). 2d wife of John. Mar. Oct. 10, 


50. Hazel, Jane. Niece of Eliz. (Barker) Winslow. Wit. her bet. 

Apr. 27, 1618. 

51. Jenny, John. l.j. a. Rog. Wilson wit. his bet. Sept. 5, 1614. 

52. " Sarah (Carey), l.j. a. Wife of John. Mar. Nov. 1, 1614. 

53. " Their child. Bur. June 16, 1618. 

54. Jepson, Henry. Bro. of Wm. Hen. Wood wit. his bet. Dec. 8, 


55. " Jane (Powell). Wife of Hen. Mar. Dec. 23, 1617, or 

soon after. 

56. " William. Assoc, with Robinson and oths. in purchase of 

Robinson's house, Jan. 27, 1611. 

57. " Rosamond (Horsfield). Wife of Wm. Mar., at Amst., 

Apr. 28, 1609. 

58. Kendall, Elizabeth, Sr. Moth.-in-law of Cuth. Cuthbertson. 

Wit. his bet. May 12, 1617. 

59. " Edward. Bro.-in-law of Cuth. Cuthbertson. Wit. his 

bet. May 12, 1617. 

60. Lee, Josephine. Moth.-in-law of Sam. Fuller. Wit. his bet. 

May 12, 1617. 

61. " Samuel. Bro.-in-law of Sam. Fuller. Guaranteed for citi- 

zenship by Wm. Bradford and Rog. Wilson Oct. 
19, 1615. 

62. « Maria (Nash). 1st wife of Sam. Mar. June 30, 1618. 

63. " Their child. Bur. Feb. 18, 1619. 

64. Masterson. Richard. Wit. bet. of Is. Allerton Oct. 7, 1611. 

Wrote, with oths, to Bradford and Brewster, Nov. 
30, 1625. Came to Plym. in 1628-9. 

65. " Mary (Goodale). Wife of Rich. Mar. Nov. 23, 

1619. Came to Plym. with him. 

66. Morton, George, l. j. a. Thos. Morton, Rog. Wilson, Alice 

Carpenter, and Anna Robinson wit his bet. July 
6, 1612. 


67. Morton, Juliana (Carpenter), l.j. a. Dau. of Alex. Wife of 


68. " Nathaniel, l.j. a. Their son. Born 1613. 

69. " Patience, l. j. a. Their dau. Born 1615. 

70. " John. l.j. A. Their son. Born 1616. 

71. " Sarah, l. J. A. Their dau. Born 1618. 

72. " Thomas, f. Bro. of Geo. Wit. his bet. July 6, 


73. Nash, Thomas. Mentioned in letter of Sam. Fuller and oths., 

June 10, 1620, as recently arrived in Leyd. Ap- 
parently had gone from there to London on busi- 
ness for the Pilgrims. Brought their pilot back 
with him. 

74. Peck, Robert. Bro. of Ann (Peck) Spooner. John Jenny wit. 

his bet. Oct. 1, 1609. 

75. " Jane (Merritt). Wife of Rob. Mar. Nov. 21, 1609. 

76. " Their child. Bur. Sept. 12, 1619. 

77. Pickering, Edward. Geo. Morton and Rand. Thickins wit. his 

bet. Nov. 24, 1612. 

78. " Mary (Stubbs). Wife of Ed. Mar. Dec. 15, 1612. 

79. Priest, Degory. m. Sam. Fuller wit. his bet. Oct. 7, 1611. 

80. " Sarah ( Allerton, Vincent), l. j. a. Wife of Deg. Mar. 

Nov. 4, 1611. 

81. " Mary. l.j. a. Their dau. Born before July, 1 620. 

82. " Sarah, l.j. a. Their dau. Born before July, 1620. 

83. Reynolds, John. Worked as printer for Brewster. 

84. " Prudence (Grindon). Wife of John. Mar. Aug. 18, 


85. Robinson, John. 

86. " Bridget (White). Wife of John. Sister of Jane 


87. " John, Jr. Their son. 

88. " Bridget. Their dau. Old enough to marry John 

Greenwood May 26, 1629. 

89. " Child of John and Bridget, Sr. Bur. May 15, 


90. Rogers, Thomas, m. Guar, for cit. June 25, 1618, by Wm. Jep- 

son and Rog. Wilson. 

91. Smith, Thomas. John Crackstone and Patience Brewster wit. 

his bet. Dec. 12, 1618. 

92. " Anna (Crackstone). Dau. of John. Wife of Thos. Mar. 

Dec. 22, 1618. 

93. Southworth, Edward. Bro.-in-law of Geo. Morton and Sam. 



94. Southworth, Alice (Carpenter), l. j. a. Dau. of Alex. Wife 

of Ed. Mar. May 28, 1613. 

95. " Constant. Their sou. Born 1614. Came to Plym. 

in 1628. 

96. " Thomas. Their son. Born 1616. Came to Plym. 

in 1628 or soon after. 

97. Spooner, John. Sam. Lee wit. his bet. Nov. 9, 1616. 

98. " Susanna (Bennett). 1 st wife of John. Bur. Mar. 28, 


99. " Ann (Peck). Sist. of Rob. Ward of Wm. Brewster. 

2d wife of John. Mar. Dec. 24, 1616. 

100. Terry, Samuel. Sam. Fuller wit. his bet. May 16, 1614. 

Stated by Winslow {Brief Nar. in Young's Ohrons. 
393) to have been admitted to the Pilg. Church 
from the French (Walloon) Church. 

101. " Mildred (Charles). Wife of Sam. Mar. May 31, 


102. Thickins, Randall. Bro. -in-law of Robinson. One of pur- 

chasers of Robinson's house Jan. 27, 1611. 

103. " Jane (White). Sister of Bridget Robinson. Wife of 


104. Tilley, John. m. 

105. " Bridget (van der Welde). M. Wife of John. Mar. 

Mar. 3, 1615. 

106. " Paul. Fath. of John. Wit. his bet. Feb. 13, 1615. 

107. Tinker, Thomas, m. Guar, for cit. Jan. 16, 1617, by John 

Keble and Abr. Gray. 

108. Turner, John. m. Guar, for cit. Sept. 27, 1610, by Wm. Lisle. 

109. White, William, m. Bro.-in-law of Sam. Fuller. 

110. " Susanna (Fuller), m. Sister of Sam. Wife of Wm. 

Mar. Feb. 11, 1612. 

111. " Resolved, m. Their son. 

112. Williams, Thomas, si. Wit. bet. of Rog. Wilson Mar. 11, 


113. Wilson, Roger. Bro.-in-law of Thos. Williams. Wit. bet. of 

Wm. Pontus Nov. 13, 1610. Guar. Wm. Brad- 
ford for cit. Mar. 30, 1612. 

114. « Elizabeth (Williams). Sister of Thos. Wife of Rog. 

Mar. Mar. 26, 1616. 

115. Winslow, Edward, m. 

116. " Elizabeth (Barker), m. Wife of Ed. Mar. May 6, 

1618, or soon after. 

117. Wood, Henry. One of purchasers of Robinson's house Jan. 27, 



Others, Undoubtedly of the Company. 

1. Barrow, Zechariah. John Crackstone wit. his bet. June 16, 

1616. Fath.-in-law of Rog. Wilkins. 

2. " Joan (Barrow). 2d wife of Zech. Mar. July 2, 1616. 

3. Buckram, William. Bridget Robinsou and Jane Thickins wit. 

his bet. Nov. 30, 1611. 

4. " Elizabeth (Neal). 2d wife of Wm. Mar. Dec. 17, 


5. Butler, Mary. Bet. to Wm. Bassett Mar. 19, 1611, but died 

before the wedding day. 

6. " Samuel. Sam. Fuller and Wm. Jepson wit. his bet. 

Aug. 7, 1615. 

7. " Sarah (Porter). Wife of Sam. Mar. Aug. 25, 1615. 

8. " William. Wit. bet of Wm. Buckram Nov. 30, 1611. 

9. Butterfield, Stephen. Abr. Gray and Sarah Minter wit. his 

bet. Oct. 13, 1617. 

10. " Rose (Singer). WifeofSteph. Mar. Oct. 30, 1617. 

11. " Hester. Sister of Steph. Old enough to marry 

Sylvanus Arnold July 31, 1632. 

12. Chandler, Edmond. Guar, for cit. Nov. 11, 1613, by Rog. 

Wilson and Hen. Wood. 

13. " Child of Edm. Bur. Mar. 26, 1619. 

14. " Roger. Rog. Wilson and Cath. Carver wit. his bet. 

May 22, 1615. 

15. « Isabella (Chilton). Wife of Rog. Mar. July 21, 


16. Collet, Henry. Guar, for cit. Mar. 30, 1612, by Abr. Gray and 

Rich. Masterson. 

17. " Alice (Thomas, Howarth). 2d wife of Hen. Mar. June 

3, 1617. 

18. Ellis, John. Bro.-in-law of Rich. Masterson. Wit. his bet. Nov. 

8, 1619. 

19. " Christopher. Son of John. Guar, for cit. Dec. 2, 1619, 

by Fred. Jones. 

20. Fairfield, Daniel. Rog. Simmons and Mary Allerton wit. his 

bet. July 14, 1618. 

21. " Rebecca (Willet). Dau. of Thos. Wife of Dan. 

Mar. Aug. 4, 1618. 

22. Finch, Mary. Wit. bet. of Rich. Masterson Nov. 8, 1619. 

23. Gray, Abraham. Guar, for cit. June 25, 1610, by Wm. Lisle 

and Rog. Wilson. 


24. Hallet, Anna. Moth. -in-law of Rog. Wilkins. Wit. his bet. 

Mar. 28, 1614. 

25. Hammond, Dorothy. Wit. bet. of Rob. Peck Oct. 1, 1609. 

26. Harris, Thomas. Wit. bet. of Hen. Collet May 19, 1617. 

27. " Jane. Wife of Thos. Survived him and mar. Jas. 

Milbrook Dec. 4, 1 622. 

28. Hawley, Nicholas. Guar. Wm. Lisle for cit. June 21, 1610. 

29. Hurst, Jacob. Wit. bet. of Rob. Peck Oct. 1, 1609. 

SO. " Margaret. Wife of Jacob. As they had three children 
in Oct., 1622, by the census, they must have been 
mar. before July, 1620. 

31. Jackson, William. Made affidavit Feb. 26, 1619. Guar, for 

cit. May 26, 1631, by John Keble and Rog. White. 

32. Jennings, John. Ed. Southworth and Rog. Wilson wit. his bet. 

Dec. 17, 1610. 

33. " Elizabeth (Pettinger). 1st wife of John. Mar. Dec. 

31, 1610. 

34. " Rose (Lisle). Dau. of Wm. 2d wife of John. Mar. 

Mar. 23, 1617. 

35. Jessop, Edmond. Wm. Jepson and Sam. Fuller wit. his bet. 

Sept. 16, 1615. 

36. " Ellen (Underwood). 1st wife of Edm. Bur. June 15, 


37. " Abigail (Hunt). 2d wife of Edm. Mar. Oct. 3, 1615. 

38. " Child of Edm. Bur. July 24, 1618. 

39. Jones, Elizabeth. Wit. bet. of Sam. Lee June 15, 1618. 

40. " Frederick. Guar. Chris. Ellis for cit. Dec. 2, 1619. 

41. " Mary. Wit. bet. of John Tilley Feb. 13, 1615. 

42. " Thomas. Rob. Robertson and Marg. Savory wit. his bet. 

Nov. 8, 1619. 

43. " Anna (Swift). Wife of Thos. Mar. Nov. 23, 1619. 

44. Keble, John. Guar, for cit. Apr. 27, 1615, by Edm. Chandler 

and Hen. Wood. 

45. " Elizabeth (Acres?). Wife of John. 

46. " " Their dau. Old enough to marry John Ains- 

worth, Dec. 24, 1 636. 

47. Kingsland, James. Bart. Smith, Dorcas Smith and Anna Ross 

wit. his bet. Nov. 27, 1615. 

48. " Ellen (Carlisle). Sister of Anna (Carlisle) Ross and 

sisler-in-law of Eliz. Carlisle (wid. of Jas., and mar. 
Bart. Smith after death of his 1st wife, Dorcas). 
Wife of Jas. Mar. Dec. 12, 1615. 

49. Lisle, William. Guar, for cit. June 21, 1610, by Rog. Wilson 

and Nich. Hawley. Fath.-in-law of John Jennings. 


50. Lisle, Mary. Dau. of ¥m. Old enough to marry Martin West 

Jan. 24, 1626. 

51. " Catharine. Dau. of Wm. Old enough to marry John 

Masters Sept. 16, 1633. 

52. Lyons, Joanna. Wit. bet. of Johu Jenny Sept. 5, 1614. 

53. Marshall, Henry. Wit. bet. of Ed. Pickering Nov. 24, 1612. 

54. Minter, William. Guar, for cit. May 3, 1613, by Abr. Gray and 

Rog. Wilson. 

55. " Sarah (Willet). Dau. of Thos. Wife of Wm. 

56. Nash, Israel. Wit. bet. of Sam. Lee June 15, 1618. 

57. Pettinger, Dorothy. Sister of Eliz. (Pettinger) Jennings. Mar. 

Hen. Collins, of Amst., Nov. 20, 1613. 

58. Pontus, William. Wm. Brewster and Rog. Wilson wit. his bet. 

Nov. 13, 1610. 

59. " Wybra (Hanson). Wife of Wm. Mar. Dec. 4, 1610. 

60. Price, Alexander. Guar, for cit. May 18, 1615, by Hen. Wood 

and Rog. Wilson. 

61. " Jane. Wife of Alex. 

62. Ring, William. Guar, for cit. June 7, 1619, by Wm. Bradford 

and Alex. Price. 

63. " Mary. Wit. bet. of Sam. Terry May 16, 1614. Probably 

wife of Wm., and the widow Mary Ring who came 
to Plym. with children about 1629. 

64. Robertson, Robert. Wit. bet. of Thos. Jones Nov. 8, 1619. 

Guar, for cit. by Hubert Dennis and Sam. Lee May 
20, 1622. 

65. " William. Guar, for cit. Dec. 3, 1610, by Bern. 

Ross and Rog. Wilson. Owned house next to Wm. 
Jepson's in 1614 and 1619. 

66. Robinson, Anna. Wit. bet. of Geo. Morton, July 6, 1612. 

Whether related to John Robinson or not is 

67. Rogers, George. Lived with Thos. Blossom Oct. 27, 1609. 

Student in university. 

68. Ross, Bernard. Guar, for cit. Apr. 2, 1610, by Rog. Wilson. 

69. " Anna. Apparently sister of Ellen (Carlisle) Kingsland, 

sister-in-law of Eliz. Carlisle, and 2d wife of Bern. 
Wit. bets, of Ed. South worth May 7, 1613; Jas. 
Kingsland Nov. 27, 1615; and Bart. Smith July 
4, 1618. 

70. Savory, Margaret. Wit. bet. of Mos. Fletcher Nov. 30, 1613, 

and Thos. Jones Nov. 8, 1619. 

71. Sharp, Andrew. Guar, for cit. Aug. 24, 1618, by Alex. Price 

and Rog. Wilson. 


72. Simmons, Eoger. John Carver, Dan. Fairfield and Thos. Willet 

wit. his bet. July 14, 1618, to Sarah (Willet) Min- 
ter, Wm. Minter, her 1st husb., having died. 

73. Smith, Bartholomew. Wit. bet. of Jas. Kingsland Nov. 27, 


74. " Dorcas. 1st wife of Bart. Wit. bet. of Jas. Kingsland 

Nov. 27, 1615. 

75. " Elizabeth (Carlisle). Wid. of Jas. Sister-in-law of 

Ellen Kingsland and Anna Ross. 2d wife of Bart. 
Bet. to him July 4, 1618. 

76. Spalding, Elizabeth. Wit. bets, of Eog. Wilson Mar. 11, 1616, 

and John Spooner Nov. 9, 1616. 

77. Stafford, Henry. Guar, for cit. Nov. 26, 1618, by Sam. Lee. 

78. Talbot, William. Wit. bet. of Rich. Masterson Nov. 8, 1619. 

79. " Sarah (Thomas). Wife of Wm. After his death mar. 

Sam. Lee Apr. 10, 1621. 

80. White, William (another). Wit. bet. of Cuth. Cuthbertson Oct. 

25, 1621. 

81. " Wife of Wm. Bur. Jan. 27, 1618. 

82. Wilkins, Roger. John Keble, Rog. Wilson and Anna Hallet wit. 

his bet. Mar. 28, 1614. 

83. " Anna (Hardy). Dau. of Anna Hallet. 1st wife of Rog. 

Mar. Apr. 12, 1614. Died before Sept. 16, 1619. 

84. " Margaret (Barrow). Dau. of Zech. 2d wife of Rog. 

Mar. Oct. 5, 1619. 

85. Willet, Thomas. Fath.-in-law of Dan. Fairfield, Wm. Minter 

and Rog. Simmons. 

86. " Alice. Wife of Thos. Wit. bet. of Rog. Simmons July 

14,1618. Died before Oct., 1622. 

87. " Their child. Bur. July 10, 1615. 

88. " Hester. Their dau. Old enough to marry Peter Wood 

Nov. 4, 1623. 

89. Wilson, Henry. John Carver, Wm. Jepson and Dor. Bradford 

wit. his bet. May 13, 1616. 

90. " Elizabeth (Nicholas). Wife of Hen. Mar. May 28, 1616. 

91. Wood, Mary. Wit. bet. of Edm. Jessop Sept. 16, 1615. Per- 

haps wife of Hen. 


Still Others, Possibly of the Company. 

1. Barrow, Ellen. 1st wife of Zech. He did not remarry until 
July 2, 1616, and she may have accompanied him to 

4. Blossom, Thomas. 

5. " Peter. 


2. Bassett, Cicely (Light). 1st wife of Wm. Died before Mar. 19, 

1611, but may have accompanied him to Leyden. 

3. " Elizabeth, r. 3d wife of Wm. May have mar. him 

before July, 1620. 

('Sons of Thos. and Ann, who were mar. 
before Mar. 12, 1610. Both probably 
born before July, 1620. Both came to 
Plym. with their parents. 

6. Brewer, Rebecca. Dau. of Thos. and Marg. May have been 

born before July, 1620. Her two younger bros., 
John and (a second) Daniel hardly can have been. 

7. Buckram, Judith. 1st wife of Wm., who remarried Dec. 17, 

1611. She may have accompanied him to Leyden. 

8. Butterfield, Stephen (another). Bur. Sept. 23, 1635. Very 

likely son of Steph. (who married Oct. 30, 1617) 
and born before 1620. 

9. Carlisle, James. 1st husb. of Eliz., and bro. of Anna Ross and 

Ellen Kingsland. Eliz. did not remarry until July 
or Aug., 1618, and he may have accompanied her 
to Leyden. 

10. Carver, Probably child of John. Bur. July 10, 1609. 

11. " Probably child of John. Bur. Nov. 11, 1617. 

12. Chandler, Samuel. Son of Rog. Prob. born before July, 1620, 

as his parents were married July 21, 1615. 

13. " Sarah. Dau. of Rog. Prob. born before July, 1620. 

Both children reported in census Oct., 1 622. 

14. Collet, Anna (Harris). 1st wife of Hen., who did not remarry 

until June 3, 1617. May have accompanied him to 

15. Crackstone, John, Jr. m. Son of John, and presumably in 

Leyden with his father. But not mentioned in 

16. Cuthbertson, Samuel. L. j. a. Son of Cuth., who was mar. 

May 27, 1617. Very likely born before July, 

17. Denby, William. 1st husb. of Sarah (Fletcher), who did not 

remarry until Nov. 30, 1613. May have accom- 
panied her to Leyden. 

18. England, Thomas, m. Cannot be proved to be, but almost 

certainly, the Thos. English of the " Mayflower." 
Wit. bet. of Jacob Mekaneke (?), May 31, 1613. 

19. Fairfield, Daniel, Jr. Son of Dan., who was mar. Aug. 4, 1618. 

Very likely born before July, 1620, and had a bro., 
John, also born before Oct., 1622. 


20. Fletcher, Maria (Evans). 1st wife of Mos., who remarried Nov. 

30, 1613. May have accompanied him to Leyden. 

21. Freeman, Joseph. Prob. one of company if, as is most likely, 

Thos. Smith — who, with Anth. Fretwell, guar, 
him for cit. June 13, 1613 — was one. Smith was 
an ex-deacon of the Eng. Church at Amst. who had 
removed to Leyden. 

22. Fretwell, Anthony. With Thos. Smith, guar. Jos. Freeman, 

June 13, 1613. Prob. a member if Smith was. 

23. Fuller, Alice (Glascock). 1st wife of Sam. He did not remarry 

until Apr. 24, 1613. May have accompanied him 
to Leyden. 

24. Goodman, Mary (Backus). 1st wife of John, who did not 

remarry until Oct. 10, 1619. 

25. Hardy, Mary. Servant in John Robinson's family in Oct., 1622. 

Very likely there before 1 620. 

26. Horsfield, Edward. Lived with Wm. and Ros. (Horsfield) Jep- 

son in Oct., 1622. Prob. her fath. or bro. 

(Children of Is., Sr., reported in Oct., 1622. 
As their parents appear to have been mar. 
before Oct. 1, 1609, all three prob. were 
well grown. 

Children of John and Sarah, who 
were mar. Nov. 1, 1614. Both 
prob. born before July, 1620. Abi- 
gail, the oth. child, prob. was not. 

32. Jepson, Abigail. Dau. of Wm. and Ros. Living in Oct., 1622, 

and prob. born before 1 620. Her parents mar. 
Apr. 28, 1609. She died before 1636. 

33. " Martha. Dau. of Wm. and Ros. Living in Oct., 1622; ' 

and, by her guardian, sold two houses Jan. 11, 
1636. May have been born before July, 1620. 

34. Jessop, Francis. Prominent among them in 1625. Wrote to 

Bradford and Brewster Nov. 30, 1625, as if he 
had known them well before their departure. 

35. " Frances (White). Wife of Francis. Mar., at Work- 

sop, Eng., Jan. 24, 1605. Believed to have been 
sister of Bridget Robinson and Jane Thickins. 

36. Joy, Robert. Wit. bet. of Jas. Kingsland Nov. 27, 1615. 

37. Keble, Mercy. Dau. of John. Mar. Wm. Back Apr. 30, 1640. 

Very likely born before 1620. 

38. Kendall, Aaron. Husb. of Eliz., Sr. Apparently dead before 

May 12, 1617, but may have accompanied her to 

27. Hurst, Tsaac. 

28. " Mary. 

29. " Silvester 

30. Jenny, Sarah, l. j. a. 

31. " Samuel, l. j. a. 


39. Mitchell, Experience. r. Aged 24 in 1623. Very likely 

there before 1620. 

40. " Thomas. Thought to have been fath. of Experience. 

Made affid. in Leyd. Aug. 15, 1622. Possibly 
there before the departure. 

41. Morton, Thomas, Jr. l. j. a. Son of Thomas. Not known 

to have been in Leyden with his father, but prob- 
ably was. 

42. Moses, Simon. Mary Jones wit. his bet. Nov. 4, 1616. 

43. " Anna (van Vredenberg). "Wife of Sim. 

44. Nash, Margaret (Porter). 1st wife of Thos., who did not re- 

marry until Nov. 11, 1628. Probably accompanied 
him to Leyden. 

45. Pontus, Mary. Dau. of Wm. and Wybra. Doubtless born 

before 1620, as they married Dec. 4, 1610. 

^ fSons of Alex., who seems to have been mar- 

' ,' I ried before May, 1615, and very likely long 

47. " John. W , , „, •" ',. . . ; Al icao 

a before. They were living in Oct., 1622, 

J V. apparently well grown. 

49. Rogers, Joseph, m. Son of Thos. Not mentioned, but prob. 

with his father in Leyden. 

50. Smith, Thomas. Made deposition about Jos. Freeman June 13, 

1613. An ex-deacon of Eng. Church at Amst. 

'Children of John, who remarried Dec. 24, 
1616. All three were living in Oct. 1622 ; 
prob. were born before July, 1620; and 
may have been children of his first wife. 

54. Stevens, Jacob. Guar. Bart. Smith for cit. Apr. 5, 1611. 

55. Tilly, Elizabeth, m. Dau., or sister, of John. Not mentioned, 

but prob. with him in Leyden. 

56. Tinker, m. Wife of Thos. Not mentioned, but prob. 

with him in Leyden. 

57. m. Their son. Not mentioned, but prob. there. 

58. Tracy, Stephen, l. j. a. Rose Jennings wit. his bet. Dec. 18, 

1620. Not known to have been there before the 
preceding July, but likely to have been. 

59. " Tryphosa (Lee), l. j. a. Wife of Steph. Mar. Jan. 

2, 1621. Possibly there before July, 1620. 

60. Turner, m. Son of John. Not mentioned, but prob. 


61. " m. Another son of John. Not mentioned, but 

prob. there. 

62. White, Roger. Bro. of Bridget Robinson and Jane Thickins. 

Mar. Eliz. Wales, of Amst., in Leyden, Mar. 13, 

51. Spooner, John, Jr. 

52. " Rebecca. 

53. " Sarah. 


1621. Thenceforth prominent among them. May 
have been there before the departure. 

63. Wilkins, Sarah. Dau. of Rog. Living in Oct., 1622. Prob. 

born before 1620, as her parents married Apr. 12, 

64. Wood, Henry. Probably son of Hen. and possibly born before 

July, 1620. Came to Plym. by 1643. 

Mr. Andrew McFarland Davis read a paper as follows : 

The Merchants' Notes of 1733. 

I have already published descriptions, more or less detailed, 
of the New London Society for Trade and Commerce and of 
the Land and Silver Banks of 1740. 1 These experiments 
were the most conspicuous among the various attempts 
made in the eighteenth century to furnish New England 
with a paper currency which might serve for a medium 
of trade, based for security upon land or private credit. 
They were, however, mere episodes in a prolonged struggle 
with the currency question, which began in Massachusetts 
with the organization of " The Fund " in 1681, and was 
followed by an attempt in 1686 to organize a company to 
provide a paper substitute for the degraded coin then in cir- 
culation ; which was renewed in 1714, in a project the purpose 
of which was to supplant, in a similar way, the bills of the 
Province by the emissions of what was termed a private bank; 
which was continued in Connecticut in 1732, by the organiza- 
tion of a society upon the plan of the Massachusetts pro- 
jectors of 1714 ; which was participated in by a number of 
Boston merchants in 1733, who, to head off the Rhode Island 
bills then being put forth, issued their own notes redeemable 
at future dates in silver coin at fixed rates ; which was taken 
up in 1734, by certain merchants in Portsmouth, New Hamp- 
shire, who attempted to furnish an interest-bearing currency, 
redeemable in twelve years in silver at the then current 
rates or in passable government bills ; and which culminated 
in 1740 in Massachusetts in the battle between the Land 
Bank and the Silver Bank. 

1 These were incorporated in the text of "Currency and Banking in the 
Province of the Massachusetts Bay," together with brief sketches of the 
Merchants' Notes of 1733 and the New Hampshire Merchants' Notes. 

1903.] THE MERCHANTS' NOTES OF 1733. 185 

Among all these efforts by citizens to furnish a paper 
currency, whether on the part of mere inflationists or of 
those who sought to improve the circulating medium, none is 
better entitled to a careful consideration than that which is 
generally known as " the Merchants' Notes of 1733," the 
name given to the notes or bills which were at that time 
furnished to the public for circulation. Some of the capitalists 
who entered into this combination were in 1738 and 1739 to 
be found among those who made a gallant effort to bring the 
Province bills to a specie basis, and many of them in 1740 
registered under the banner of the Silver Bank in opposition 
to the Land Bank, and declared war to the knife against the 
heresies of their adversary. There are indeed two striking 
points of similarity between the scheme of the merchants in 
1733 and that of the Silver Bank; both demanded of their 
subscribers that they should not receive certain bills, — in the 
one case the recent emissions of the Colony of Rhode Island, 
in the other the bills of the Land Bank, — and both emitted 
notes redeemable at a future day in silver at stated rates. 

It is, perhaps, necessary for an intelligent understanding of 
the situation to explain at this point why the merchants of 
Boston were thus hostile to the circulation of the recent 
emissions of Rhode Island. The cause was, briefly, as follows : 
Orders had been issued by the Privy Council restraining the 
Provinces of Massachusetts and New Hampshire from emit- 
ting more bills until those outstanding should be called in 
and requiring these retirements to be effected by 1741. No 
such restraints had been imposed upon Rhode Island, and 
that Colony, availing itself of the opportunity, proceeded to 
fill the gap in the currency which would be caused by the 
withdrawal of the outstanding bills of Massachusetts and New 
Hampshire. The Rhode Island emissions were made in the 
form of loans to citizens. These loans which ran, some of 
them for twenty-three years and some for twenty years, were 
termed " Banks," and were secured by mortgages of real 
estate. The rate of interest upon the loans was low, and it 
was apparently an object for every owner of real estate in the 
Colony to become a borrower from the government. The 
progressive depreciation of the currency had made it possible 
for borrowers in the banks to pay off their debts in Colony 
bills bearing the same denominational values with those which 



had been borrowed, but whose purchasing power had, during 
the period of the loan, been much curtailed. It was this 
which led Dr. Douglass sneeringly to assert that if the process 
were kept up long enough participants in these Colony loans 
might ultimately pay their debts in bills which were worth 
nothing. The Boston merchants who in 1733 organized for 
the purpose of emitting notes redeemable at future dates in 
silver at a fixed rate, and who sought to prevent these Rhode 
Island bills from circulating in Massachusetts, were in full 
sympathy with this argument. Their distrust comprehended, 
indeed, all new bills whose value was defined merely by the 
phrase " equal to money " and for whose redemption or 
prompt retirement no provision had been made. 

So far we are dealing with such facts as may be obtained 
from the ordinary sources to which we should turn for in- 
formation upon these subjects ; the pages of Hutchinson and 
Douglass ; the few contemporary pamphlets which refer to 
the matter ; a the speeches of the Governor, and the reports of 
Committees in the Assembly to whom were referred applica- 
tions for legislation bearing upon questions in which the com- 
pany was interested. The files in our local libraries of the 
"News Letter" and the "Boston Gazette," the papers to 
which we should naturally look for information, are almost 
absolutely destitute of copies published during the years 1733 
and 1734. There is, however, in the Library of the American 
Antiquarian Society a set of the " Weekly Rehearsal " cover- 
ing these years, and the Massachusetts Historical Society has 
the " New England Weekly Journal " for the same period. 
An examination of these papers reveals the fact that they 
contain many communications from people who were im- 
pelled to discuss the monetary questions then at issue, and 
many allusions to the company in the columns devoted to 
news items and advertisements, such as notices of meetings ; 
lists of subscribers to agreements; the scheme with the 
names of the merchants who joined it; the names of the 
directors who managed the affairs ; in short, all the informa- 

i "Some Observations on the Scheme projected for emitting 60,000£ in 
Bills," etc., and " The Melancholy State of the Province considered in a Letter," 
etc. Some reference might also be permitted in this paragraph to the Notes of 
the Company in possession of this Society and the Obligations running to the 
Company in possession of the Bostonian Society. 

1903.] THE MERCHANTS' NOTES OP 1733. 187 

tion which we might expect or even hope to find in any such 

The collecting of local news, or the discussion of local 
affairs, was not a prominent feature in the Boston newspaper 
of that date, and the extent to which the columns of the 
"Rehearsal" and the "Journal" were surrendered to the 
disputants bears evidence to the interest taken in the dis- 
cussion. References in these papers to communications in 
the " News Letter " and in the " Gazette " show that they 
also surrendered space to the disputants. If, from the polem- 
ical articles that have been preserved, from the news-items, 
and from the advertisements, we extract such facts as they 
contain bearing upon this experiment, and to these we add 
what was known before, we shall find that we have at our 
command a fairly complete account of the affair. 

Our first information concerning the movements of the 
capitalists who organized this company is derived from a 
notice in the " Weekly Rehearsal " of August 13, 1733, to the 
effect that on Friday the 10th of that month, the principal 
merchants and traders of Boston met at the Town-House, and 
after much discussion concerning a further supply of a paper 
currency resolved 

That, inasmuch as they were informed that the government of Rhode 
Island are about to make another large emission of Bills, there should 
be some scheme projected for the supply of a further Paper Currency 
among themselves, upon such terms as may best establish its value, and 
prevent the currency of the Rhode Island Bills aforesaid. 1 

A committee was appointed for that purpose, and the meet- 
ing was adjourned to assemble again on Monday the 13th, at 
three o'clock in the afternoon. 

This interval was long enough to shape a scheme, but in 
whatever form the report of the committee might be sub- 
mitted it would, of course, be subject to approval ; would be 
likely to meet with amendment, and consequently, although 
a completed scheme might meet with adoption at the ad- 
journed meeting, it would not be possible to present at that 
time an engrossed copy embodying the final conclusions of 
those present. We have no record of the proceedings of the 

1 An account of this meeting appeared as an advertisement in the "New 
England Weekly Journal" of the same date. 


meeting on the 13th, but we have evidence that there was 
at that time an agreement as to what was to be done, and 
that, pending the engrossment of the scheme then adopted, 
subscriptions were solicited to a document embodying the 
decision of the meeting. 

The intensity of the excitement and the bitterness of 
the opposition to the Rhode Island bills are betrayed by the 
alacrity with which the capitalists of Boston hastened to 
identify themselves with this movement. Three daj's after 
the adjourned meeting, the " News Letter " 1 was able to 
announce that the enthusiasm of those who were uniting to 
oppose the circulation of the Rhode Island bills was on the 
increase, and to add that — 

The Bank which had its rise from this strange emission of Bills, in- 
tended there, makes unexpected Progress ; there is already a subscrip- 
tion of Ninety seven Thousand Five Hundred Pounds, altho' there has 
been hardly time to digest and draw the Scheme fair. Men of 
every Order seem very much determined to unite in encouraging this 
Bank, and to put a stop to the Bills intended by the Rhode Island 

A week later the same paper announced the close of the sub- 
scription list in the following words: — 

The Scheme for erecting a private Bank, and raising a supply of 
Bills among us, redeemable by Silver and Gold is finished ; and we 
hear Instruments of Security are now drawing and Preparations making 
for the speedy Emission of the said Bills. 

While it is true that one of the principal motives which 
prompted the founders of this company was, as the " News 
Letter" phrased it, " to put a stop to the Bills intended by 
the Rhode Island Government," there can be but little doubt 
that as the movement progressed and the subscription list 
filled up, some were attracted by those features in the trans- 
action which led the "News Letter" to call it a "private 
bank," and it is not unlikely that the " considerable debates " 
at the meeting of August 13, were occasioned by opposition 
to the proposal to make the notes redeemable in coin. Hos- 
tility to the Rhode Island bills had brought together men of 
widely divergent views as to the proper remedy to be applied. 

1 Boston Weekly News Letter, August 16, 1733. 

1903.] THE merchants' NOTES OP 1733. 189 

Doubtless some of the pure inflationists who were thus in- 
duced to join a movement directed by leaders who sought 
stability for the currency through a provision for redemption 
in coin at a stated rate, were led to this action through a 
belief that success must follow such a prompt and enthusias- 
tic endorsement, and profits must ensue to those who should 
furnish a paper currency to the public. 

The committee having in charge the preparation of the 
scheme were about a month in bringing their work to an end, 
but having reached a conclusion to their labors they sum- 
moned the subscribers to meet for the purpose of definite 
organization on the 14th of September. The action then 
taken was made public in the " Boston Press " in the follow- 
ing words: 1 — 

Last Friday there was a very full meeting of the Company that have 
subscribed to the Bank of One Hundred and Ten Thousand Pounds at 
the Town-House here, when they made choice of the following Gentle- 
men for their Committee of Directors, viz : 

Edward Hutchinson, Esq ; Samuel Welles, Esq ; 

John Osborne, Esq ; Samuel Sewall, Esq ; 

Jacob Wendell, Esq ; Mr. Thomas Cushing, jun ; 

James Bowdoin, Esq ; Mr. Joshua Winslow, 

William Foye, Esq ; Mr. Edw. Bromfield, jun. 

This Sum of One Hundred and Ten Thousand Pounds in Bills or 
Notes of Hand, is to be redeem'd by Silver at Nineteen Shillings per 
Ounce, or Gold at Thirteen Pounds thirteen Shillings and one Penny- 
half Penny per Ounce; to be paid to the Possessors of the Bills, three 
Tenths at the end of the first three Years, three Sevenths at the end of 
the first Six Years, and the rest at the end of ten Years. The Plate is 
in good forwardness for striking off these Bills and they will be 
delivered to the Subscribers in a few weeks. 

There is a clerical error in the copy used as above by the 
newspapers which requires correction. The notes were 
redeemable three-tenths in three years, three-tenths in six 
years, and four-tenths in ten years. In some of the con- 
temporary accounts they are described as redeemable three- 
tenths at the end of three years, three-sevenths of the 
remainder at the end of six years, and the rest at the end of ten 
years. The words " of the remainder " which should follow 
"three sevenths" were dropped by the clerk who prepared 

i Weekly Journal, September 17, 1733 ; News Letter, September 20, 1733. 


the copy for the press and the notice of the meeting published 
in the "Weekly Rehearsal" and the "News Letter" was, 
therefore, misleading in its description of the notes. 

On the 12th of November the company published simulta- 
neously, in the " Weekly Rehearsal " and the " New England 
Weekly Journal," the following agreement to which signatures 
had been obtained : — 

Boston Not. 3, 1733. 

Whereas the Government of Rhode Island are emitting the Sum of 
One Hundred and four Thousand Pounds in Bills of Credit, bearing 
Date 1733, without taking the proper and necessary care to support 
their Value, as we apprehend, whereby the Bills of Publick Credit on 
tills Province will be in danger of being greatly depreciated, as well as 
the Province otherwise very much prejudiced, should the said Rhode- 
Island Bills obtain a Currency ; and inasmuch as it is projected by a 
considerable Number of Merchants, to give out sundry Notes of Hand 
to the amount of One Hundred and Ten Thousand Pounds, to be paid 
at several Periods in Silver at Nineteen Shillings per Ounce or Gold 
proportionately, whereby there will be a considerable supply of a more 
stable Medium of Trade and Commerce ; Therefore we whose Names 
are hereunto subscribed publickly declare and promise that we will not 
receive or take any of the said Rhode-Island New Bills in Payment of 
any Debt already due, or by way of Barter or Exchange for any Goods, 
Merchandise, or other Thing whatsoever. In witness whereof we have 
hereunto set our Hands. 

One hundred names are appended to this agreement in the 
" Weekly Rehearsal," one hundred and one in the " Weekly 
Journal." Assuming that the John Armitage in the " Rehear- 
sal " was meant for Jonathan Armitage, a well-known Boston 
man whose name is correctly given in the " Journal," we 
have ninety-nine names common in the two lists, and one 
hundred and two in all. It is evident that the company 
desired on this agreement the signatures of others than sub- 
scribers to their scheme, and an examination of the names 
will show that about thirty per cent cannot be identified in 
any way with the scheme itself. Six of the directors named 
at the organization of the company afterward became directors 
of the Silver Bank, and the names of four others who were 
associated in the management of the Silver Bank are to be 
found among the subscribers to this agreement. The Hutch- 
insons are represented by Edward alone. John Colman and 
Samuel Adams, both to become in a few years directors of 

1903.] THE MERCHANTS' NOTES OP 1733. 191 

the Land Bank, by placing their names to the agreement, 
deprived the hard-money men of the right to claim a monopoly 
for this movement to exclude Rhode Island bills. On the 
other hand, of the twenty-two Boston names to be found on 
the one or the other of the subscription lists to the proposed 
loans by the Province of bills redeemable in coin, in the years 
1738 and 1739, nine can be seen on this agreement. The 
names of thirty-two of the signers in 1740 to the agreement 
not to receive the Land Bank bills are to be found on the 
agreement not to receive the Rhode Island bills. 

The public discussion of the Rhode Island emission and the 
excitement naturally aroused by the proceedings of the Boston 
merchants, would in itself have been cause enough for the 
Assembly to inquire whether legislation could cure the evils 
of which complaint was made. It is not surprising to learn, 
therefore, that on the 17th of October a committee of both 
houses was appointed 

to make enquiry into the state of the late emissions of Bills of Credit 
made by the Colony of Rhode- Island, as also into the nature of the Bills 
or Notes of Credit projected to be made and emitted by a number of 
Merchants and Traders of the Town of Boston. 

This committee reported on the 5th of November 

That the Notes projected by a number of Merchants &c will not have 
a sufficient security in them, to the Possessors, unless the signers of 
them be jointly and severally bound, and that Mr. Richard Clarice be 
better described, and that better provision be made for him that may 
be necessitated to bring an action in case of failure or defect at any of 
the Period of payments. 

The committee further recommended the Governor to issue a 
proclamation warning the inhabitants of the Province of the 
mischiefs and losses they would suffer if they permitted the 
Rhode Island bills to obtain a currency among them. This 
report was accepted and a committee was appointed on the 
seventh to prepare a bill to prevent the Rhode Island bills 
(of the new emission) passing within this province. 

On the same day, the 7th of November, the Governor 
replied saying that it could not reasonably be expected that 
he should issue such a proclamation, which would have a 
tendency to encourage the emission of the private bills of 
credit before the nature of the scheme had been laid before 


the court. Any such emission he contended would be a 
breach of His Majesty's Royal Orders, forbidding him to 
consent to an emission of over thirty thousand pounds. 
Further, it would be an extraordinary thing for any number of 
persons to issue such notes before they had obtained leave 
from the government. 

While we have the Governor's word for it that the scheme 
had not been submitted to the court, still it is plain from the 
criticisms that the form of the proposed note was in the hands 
of the committee, and that it lacked the words which would 
make the signers jointly and severally liable, as well as the 
descriptive words showing that Richard Clarke, the payee 
and endorser of the notes, was a merchant residing in 

The facts relating to the action of the legislative committees 
and a copy of the Governor's proclamation were printed in 
the "Weekly Rehearsal" of November 19, and to these the 
editor added : — 

We are assured that the Merchants and others that have undertook 
these Notes of Hand have conformed them to the Report of the Com- 
mittee of the General Court accepted by both Houses, and they will 
begin to be delivered to the subscribers on the first of December next. 

It is asserted in one of the newspaper attacks upon the 
company that the scheme was at first held back from the 
public. This seems entirely probable. The company had nb 
capital. The subscribers were merely borrowers of the notes, 
and these derived no part of tiieir security from the scheme 
itself. They rested upon the solvency and standing of the 
signers, and made no claim for public confidence beyond what 
was to be derived from the names attached to them. There 
was, therefore, no pressing need of furnishing the public with 
the particulars of an agreement which concerned only those 
who had signed it. Nevertheless, the demand for knowledge 
concerning the nature of this document brought about its 
publication in the " Weekly Journal " on the 24th of January, 

The preamble to the scheme is brief, and merely asserts 
three things : 1st, That there is need for a stable and suf- 
ficient medium of exchange ; 2nd, that there is neither silver 
nor gold in circulation, and that the Province bills of credit 

1903.] THE MERCHANTS' NOTES OF 1733. 193 

are being drawn in and reduced in amount; 3rd, that Rhode 
Island is about to emit a large amount in bills of credit having 
no adequate protection which would cause the circulation in 
New England of the bills of that Colony to be greatly in 
excess of its proper proportion. 

As a remedy for this state of affairs, the subscribers entered 
into an agreement which was set forth in fourteen sections, 
the first of which provided for the emission of £110,000 in 
bills or notes of hand. £105,000 were to be in £10, £6, £3, 
and 20s. bills, and £5000 in small currency of the denomina- 
tions of 10s., 6s., 2s. 6d., and 18c?. These were to be redeemed 
by certain subscribers or borrowers, with coined silver of ster- 
ling alloy, at nineteen shillings per ounce ; or coined gold, at 
thirteen pounds, thirteen shillings, one penny, half-penny per 
ounce, both Troy weight. 

The second clause recited the names of the gentlemen who 
were appointed to take charge of the company. As these 
have been already given, it is unnecessary to repeat them 
here. They were to manage the affairs of the subscribers to 
the scheme, were to sign the bills, and were to " be obliged to 
the possessors of them." On the other hand, on account of 
the obligation thus assumed, they were to " receive security 
from the subscribers or borrowers." 

In the third section, the plan was developed through which 
the committee was to be put in position to redeem the bills 
with gold and silver. Borrowers were to be obliged to pay 
their loans in ten equal, annual instalments in gold or silver. 1 
Interest was to be charged at the rate of six per cent per 
annum, but if the borrower should prefer to make his annual 
remittance one month in advance of the date when the instal- 
ment would become due and should accompany it with ten 
per cent of the instalment additional, this would be accepted 
in lieu of the six per cent on the loan. This was, of course, a 
great inducement, since it would reduce the total interest to 
be paid upon the loans more than two-thirds. The silver and 
gold thus paid to the committee was to remain in their hands 
for the redemption of the bills, at the periods and in the 
proportions which have already been indicated. 

1 Hutchinson, writing from memory, states in his History that the notes were 
redeemable one-tenth part annually. Here we have a suggestion of what caused 
this error of memory. 



The proportionate redemption of the bills required that 
they should all be called in at the end of three years, and 
again at the end of six years, and new bills issued on each of 
these occasions, for the unredeemed fraction. This was pro- 
vided for in the fourth section. 

In the fifth, rules were laid down as to the character of the 
security to be required from borrowers, while by the terms of 
the sixth, ever}'- subscriber agreed to do his part towards in- 
demnifying the committee for such losses as they might incur 
through managing the affairs of the company. 

In the seventh and eighth sections certain rules were laid 
down governing the organization and internal affairs of the 
company. No person could be a director who subscribed less 
than £1000. No subscription could be received for less than 
£500, nor for more than £10,000. For every £500 sub- 
scribed there was one vote, but in no case could one person 
acquire the right to cast more than twenty votes. 

The ninth section contains the agreement not to receive the 
new Rhode Island bills, the stoppage of which from circula- 
tion in Massachusetts was the fundamental purpose of the 
company. This section closed in the following words : — 

Therefore we Agree and Promise, that "We will not Accept of the 
said Bills, in Payment for any Debt now Due, or hereafter to be Con- 
tracted, nor in Exchange for any Goods, Merchandize or other 

It was provided in the tenth section that additional security 
from borrowers might be called for at any time, if necessary, 
while in the eleventh an attempt was made for the protection 
of borrowers from harm in case there should be difficulty in 
obtaining the silver or gold with which to meet their instal- 
ments by providing for the use of silver plate of sterling alloy, 
either as a temporary pledge or an actual payment. This 
section brings clearly before us the fact that some of the 
subscribers realized that in order to make their contracts 
good they might be compelled to sacrifice their family plate. 
Doubtless, they expected to be able to secure coin or bullion, 
but the possibility that the market might not favor this was 
contemplated by those who caused the insertion of this clause. 
Surely, some of them were very much in earnest. 

By the terms of the twelfth section, the company, if it was 

1903.] THE MERCHANTS' NOTES OF 1733. 195 

for their interest, could choose a new committee at the close 
of the third, and again at the close of the sixth years. This 
section was subjected to criticism by the opponents of the 
scheme, who claimed that this possibility of change affected 
the value of the notes. It will be seen that this objection is 
well founded, if we turn to the fourth section of the scheme, 
where provision is made for the proportionate redemption of 
the notes. The possessor of each note could not escape an 
interest in its future. Whoever held it at the time of the 
redemption would be obliged to take the note for the unre- 
deemed fraction which the company should tender him. If 
at the time of the payment of the three-tenths instalment, a 
note covering the unredeemed seven-tenths, of inferior quality 
to the original obligation, could be substituted, to that extent 
injury would be worked upon the possessor. This objection 
on the part of the opponents of the scheme was all the more 
forcible because they were careful to avoid throwing discredit 
upon the character of the men who composed the company. 

" I hope nothing I have said," wrote one of them, " will be construed 
as an imputation on the personal character or credit of the undertakers, 
which I allow in the general to be unspotted and clear." 

The amount of notes to be issued was stated in the first 
section to be £110,000. No suggestion has appeared in the 
scheme, up to this point, that any of them were to be reserved 
for the company's use, but in the thirteenth section it is pro- 
vided that such portion of " the £10,000 not taken out by 
subscribers " as is not required for company charges, may be 
let out at interest for the benefit of the company. The 
committee had, therefore, at their command for organization 
expenses, a sum not to exceed £10,000. 

By the fourteenth and last section it was provided that 
there should be an annual meeting on the first Monday in. 
January of each year, at the Town House in Boston. Pro- 
vision was also made for calling special meetings. 

Then followed the clause in which the character of the 
obligation taken by the subscribers was specially denned. It 
was in the following words : — 

And as a Testimony of our Consent, and Promise to observe the 
aforewritten Agreement, We hereunto Subscribe our Names, and 


promise to take out and borrow the Sums we have set against them 
respectively, on the aforesaid Terms and Conditions. 

Thus it will be seen that all the subscribers were borrowers, 
and recurring to the eighth section of the scheme, that the 
voice of each subscriber was entitled to be heard in the man- 
agement of the affairs of the company in pi'oportion to the 
extent of his borrowing, under the conditions there laid 

Ninety-one names, were appended to this agreement, as 
published in the " Weekly Journal," but the amounts indi- 
vidually subscribed were withheld from publication. The 
names of seventy-four of these subscribers are also to be 
found in the list, already referred to, of those who agreed not 
to receive the Rhode Island bills. No significance can be 
attached to the absence of the remaining seventeen names 
from that agreement, since the scheme itself incorporated one 
of a similar nature. The same could not be said if the test 
were applied to the other agreement. The twenty-eight who 
signed that and did not join in the plan to emit notes, might 
well have said that while they fully sympathized with the 
proposition to check the circulation of the Rhode Island bills, 
they doubted the utility and feared the consequences of the 
proposed action of the merchants. 

Attention has been called to the fact that in the scheme 
itself there was no form given for the note proposed to be 
issued. There are two of these notes in the collection of this 
Society. They are both dated November 30, 1733. Both are 
drawn payable to the order of Richard Clarke, of Boston, 
Merchant, and both are endorsed by him. They are alike in 
phraseology except for the changes incident to their different 
denominational values, and each consists in the joint and sev- 
eral promise of five signers to pay the amount of the note 
(according to the terms of the scheme) in three future pay- 
ments. An examination of the signatures to these notes will 
show that we have upon the two the names of the ten directors, 
one bearing the signatures of Edward Hutchinson, James 
Bowdoin, William Foye, Hugh Hall, and Edward Brom- 
field, Junr., and the other the names of John Osborne, Jacob 
Wendell, Samuel Welles, Samuel Sewall, and Joshua Winslow. 
Bearing in mind that it must have been a fundamental 

1903.] THE MERCHANTS' NOTES OP 1733. 197 

proposition with the directors that each and every note was 
entitled to an equal share of the elements which would tend 
to promote its circulation, it is plain that we have here a 
grouping of the directors in two sections, made in such a way 
as to secure equality of public confidence both on the score of 
capital and of character. 

Recurring to the suggestions of the committee of the 
General Court as to the needs of the notes, it will be seen 
that the statement of the " Weekly Rehearsal" that the 
merchants had " conformed them to the report of the Com- 
mittee" was correct. Clarke's residence is given and he is 
described as a merchant, while the signers not only promise to 
pay but they also do it jointly and severally, thus permitting 
the possessor to sue them individually or collectively, as he 
might please, in case of a right of action accruing to him. 

The main purpose of the company was to check the cir- 
culation of the Rhode Island notes. The means by which 
they sought to accomplish this were twofold : 1st, the agree- 
ment not to receive them ; and 2nd, by furnishing a substitute 
to circulate in their place. This attempt to cure the evils of 
a circulation that was obviously redundant by supplanting 
the Rhode Island bills with a larger amount of a private 
emission seems somewhat paradoxical, even if we grant that 
the substitute was of a superior quality; but if we revert to 
the cause for the Rhode Island emission, we shall see why 
this method suggested itself. 

Belcher had received positive and repeated orders not to 
emit more bills of public credit than were necessary to meet 
ordinary current expenses, and to see that by 1741 all the out- 
standing bills should be called in. After that date it was 
thought that £30,000 would be enough to meet the annual 
expenses of government. These could be annually emitted, 
and it was apparently expected that provision should be 
simultaneously made for their being called in by taxation the 
next yeai\ Thus by emitting this sum each year and im- 
mediately calling back the same amount through taxes to be 
paid the next year, it was expected that the province would 
be furnished with an adequate circulating medium. With 
silver at 19s. this sum represented only a little over £8000 
sterling. The Boston merchants realized that even with 
Province bills at par the amount was inadequate for the 


purpose. The disposition of the public to accept the Rhode 
Island bills was based upon an obvious need. If the com- 
bination could actually exclude these bills from circulation in 
Boston, and the ordered retirements should be effected, there 
would be a great scarcity of the circulating medium. It 
might be argued that silver and gold would ultimately fill this 
gap, but such a result could be achieved only through great 
hardships, and the scheme contemplated as a substitute for 
the disappearing Province bills, a currency which should be 
replaced by coin at stated intervals in the near future, far 
enough along, however, to relieve those responsible for the 
notes, from fear as to their power to carry out their contract. 
Doubtless, also, there were many who were inwardly satisfied 
that if the notes became well established there would be no 
necessity for their redemption at the designated periods, but 
like the Province bills they could from time to time be re- 
newed. Those who opposed the bills argued that even if the 
redemptions of the Merchants' Notes should be effected 
according to their terms, the silver would not stay in the 
Province. We receive coin from time to time, they said, but 
it does not stay here. The strength of this argument will be 
re-enforced if we convert the Merchants' Notes into sterling. 
The silver required for the first redemption was less than 
,£8000 sterling, a sum so insignificant that it could have been 
handled in trade by some of the individual subscribers for the 

This element of weakness in the scheme was not, however, 
the one which most threatened its success. The number of 
signers to the agreements not to receive the notes was limited, 
and however influential the subscribers might be in trade, 
there was the great mass of the people among whom the Rhode 
Island bills were sure to find a currency. The extreme prob- 
ability that the necessities of trade would lead to defection 
on the part of subscribers was so apparent that rumors to 
the effect that such defections were taking place became 
current at once. Moreover, since the agreement covered only 
the Rhode Island bills of the recent issue, it was easy to get 
rid of such bills by merely rendering the date of the year 
indistinct. Unless these rumors could be stopped and unless 
such simple means of securing the circulation of bills of the 
recent emission could be prevented, the plans of the merchants 

1903.] THE MERCHANTS' NOTES OF 1733. 199 

would be checkmated even before their notes had secured a 
currency. To offset, therefore, the rumors and to prevent 
the alteration or defacement of the dates on the bills, the 
following advertisement was published in the " Weekly- 
Rehearsal" of Monday, December 31, 1733: — 

It is by many tho't very needful that Publick Notice should be given 
of sundry indirect Practices used to put off and procure a Currency for 
the New Rhode-Island Bills, Dated 1733. One method has been, to 
declare that Mr. Bowdoin, and other Subscribers to the scheme for 
bringing in Silver and Gold, take these Bills, and that there are few that 
refuse them in Boston, whereas upon careful Enquiries, not so much as 
one of the Subscribers can be found, but what refuse them, and have 
ordered their Families to take none of them, nor can we find any other 
Person that will take them, only as they have a prospect of crowding 
them off, and getting rid of them immediately : This is certain, one of 
the most considerable Advocates for them, when he was moved to Sell 
some of his Goods, to be paid in these New Rhode-Island Bills five or 
six Months hence, refused it, when he would readily have given Credit 
to have been paid in other Bills ; alledging, that he could not tell how 
it would be with these Bills at that time : People should therefore be 
cautious lest these Bills should become a dead loss in their hands. 
Others have eras'd the Date 1733. and dirted and pasted the Bills, that 
it may seem to be of some former Emission, and in some Bills the last 
3 in 1733 is cut off and so it appears but as 173. It is very needful 
therefore that Persons should be careful that they be not imposed upon 
with them. 

The ease with which the merchants of Boston floated 
£110,000 of their own notes appears to have suggested to 
merchants elsewhere the possibility of operations upon similar 
lines. The " News Letter" of January 10, 1734, contains the 
following : — 

We hear from Rhode Island that the Merchants there are entring 
into a Society to Issue out their Notes on Land Security Redeemable 
in Silver at 18s. per Ounce. 

While it is extremely probable that there was foundation for 
this rumor, we have no evidence that the promoters were 
successful. The chances for success were not great in a 
population, small in numbers, fully committed to the policy 
of unlimited governmental emissions over which there was no 
restraint possible to the Privy Council. 


To the North, the example of the Boston merchants pro- 
duced its imitators. The "News Letter" of September 12 
announced this fact in the following words: — 

We are certainly inform'd from New Hampshire, that a number of 
Gentlemen of that Province have agreed and concluded to emit Bills 
or Notes of Hand, to the sum of 25,0()0£ redeemable by Bills of Credit 
according to the common currancy, as also by Flax and Hemp. 

In this case we know, that the company was organized and 
actually emitted notes, although upon a slightly different 
foundation from that suggested l)y the above paragraph. 

There were so many elements inside and outside of the 
scheme of the merchants in 1733, opposed to its success, that 
we cannot waste much regret that the experiment was brought 
to an untimely end. Governor Hutchinson was then twenty- 
two years old, and as subsequent events showed, both he and 
his father stood ready to join in any movement towards a 
resumption of specie payments which should command their 
confidence. The absence of their names from the subscription 
lists and agreements in connection with this attempt is 
significant and betrays their estimate of its value. 

The relations of the different branches of the government to 
the Merchants' Notes were peculiar. We have seen that in 
November, 1733, the Assembly favored the notes, but the 
Governor refused to comply with their request to issue the 
proclamation proposed by them or in any other way to recog- 
nize the emissions of a private company. The Governor's 
opposition was not palliated nor in any way diminished with 
the progress of events. 

In his speech, November 22, 1734, he charged the mer- 
chants who had issued these notes with being contributory to 
the depreciation of the Province bills coincident with their 
emission, and urged upon the Assembly the necessity of in- 
quiring into " the nature and circumstances of this extraordi- 
nary affair." May 30, 1735, he said, " I hope this Assembly 
will not rise before they have passed a law in the most 
effectual manner to save this people from the oppression daily 
springing from what are called the Merchants' Notes." 

The Council, on the other hand, would appear to have 
favored the notes from the start, and so far as we can trace 
the opinions of that body, to have done what was possible to 

1903.] THE MERCHANTS' NOTES OF 1733. 201 

protect the Boston merchants from the eccentricities to which 
remedial and sympathetic legislation was prone in those days. 
The subject was taken up in the Council, October 17, 1733, 
and it was through the acceptance of the report of the com- 
mittee of both houses then appointed, that the changes in the 
form of the notes were secured, the adoption of which by the 
company placed the enterprise practically under the approval 
of the Board and the House. By July, 1734, the House had 
begun to waver in its support of the notes. Silver had risen, 
and borrowers who had subscribed with a view to reap a 
profit, began to realize what the fixed rate of silver meant. 
The House attributed the rise of silver to the Merchants' 
Notes, and asserted that they had greatly affected the bills of 
public credit. For these reasons it was proposed to have the 
matter investigated by a committee of both houses. The 
Council refused to co-operate in this investigation. 

So much of Belcher's speech of November 22 as related 
to the Merchants' Notes was referred to a special committee 
in the House on the 21st of December, and the matter was 
under debate in that body January 1, 1735. It was con- 
sidered by the Representatives several times in the month of 
April, and was finally disposed of at that time by reference to 
the next session. 

The attack on the notes in the Governor's speech of May 
30, 1735, was the subject of reference to a committee ap- 
pointed the next day by the House. On the 3d of June 
this committee was instructed to put bills of neighboring 
governments on the same plane with bills of this Province, in 
a bill then under consideration, which apparently provided 
that contracts conditioned for payment in Merchants' Notes 
could be discharged with Province bills. June 4, another 
committee was appointed, and on the 5th the Representa- 
tives embodied their opinion in a formal vote. The notes 
emitted by the merchants without permission from the gov- 
ernment were declared to be without justification. They had 
raised the price of silver, and the future practice of the scheme 
would be injurious to the government as well as to the people. 
It was the duty, therefore, of the Court to 

seasonably take all necessary and reasonable precautions that those 
who have contracted debts to be discharged by those Notes, or in Silver 
or Gold Coin, be not injured, that upon their tendering Bills of Credit, 



on this Province or on any of the neighboring governments, in satisfac- 
tion and payment of their full debt, that is to say, a twenty shilling bill 
of credit on this province, or on any of the neighboring governments, 
for a Note of hand of twenty shillings, and so pro-rata, Execution shall 
not be extended on their Estates or persons, and that there ought to be 
a stop put to further proceedings of the subscribers on their Articles or 
Proposals in said Scheme. Also that the Society be obliged to exchange 
their Notes of Hand, and give the Possessors thereof a twenty shilling 
Bill of Credit on this Province, for every twenty shilling Note of theirs, 
and so for every a great or lesser Note of theirs ; that they begin to ex- 
change on the first of November, next, and continue so to do, till the 
first of December thence next following, that they give timely notice 
where in Boston, and by whom of their members the exchange is to be 
made ; that no Note of Hand so exchanged shall pass out again, but the 
whole consumed to ashes in the presence of a Committee of this Court 
to be appointed for that purpose. 

It was " Voted therefore that a Bill be prepared accordingly 
and likewise to prevent any future attempts of issuing out 
Notes in lieu of Money on such foundations," and in this 
form the whole matter was sent up to the Council. 

This proposition met with amendments in the Board and 
was under discussion on the 13th of June when a conference 
was held, and again on the 17th of June, when there was a 
final rupture, which resulted in the appointment of a new 
committee by the House, which committee reported on the 
2d of July asking for more time. 

The point on which the Board and House could not agree 
was apparently this : The proposition sent up by the House re- 
quired the merchants to receive in payment of contracts paya- 
ble in their notes, the bills of the Province, or of any of the 
neighboring governments, while the clause which referred to 
the redemption of their notes required them to redeem in 
Massachusetts bills alone. The effect of that would have 
been to compel the merchants to receive the Rhode Island 
bills, to prevent the circulation of which they had organized, 
while they would not have been permitted to use them in 
their redemptions. The Council were not prepared to exer- 
cise such cruelty as that, and sought by their amendments to 
avoid so unjust a proceeding. 

It appears from the following advertisement which was 
published in the " News Letter " March 6, 1735, that at this 

1903.] THE MERCHANTS' NOTES OP 1733. 203 

time there must have been a discrimination against the Rhode 
Island bills in Boston : — 

A Person of this Town is willing to Change Merchants' Notes or 
Province Bills, for Rhode-Island Bills, even of the last Amission, for a 
reasonable Allowance. If any one is willing to make such an Exchange 
they may inquire of the Printer hereof, and know further. 

In January, 1736, the Council matured a bill which was 
sent down to the House, but was cavalierly referred to the 
next Court. The subject would appear to have been finally 
shelved in March, 1736, by the refusal of the House to give the 
" Act to prevent Oppression by the Notes called Merchants' 
Notes" a third reading. 

In his History, Hutchinson, after describing the Merchants' 
Notes, writes their epitaph in the following words : — 

About the same time the Massachusetts treasury, which had been 
long shut, was opened, and the debts of two or three years were all paid 
at one time in bills of credit ; to this was added the ordinary emission 
of bills from New Hampshire and Connecticut ; and some of the Boston 
Merchants, tempted by an opportunity of selling their English goods, 
having broke through their engagements and received the Rhode Island 
bills, all the rest soon followed their example. 

All these emissions made a flood of money. Silver rose from 19/ to 
27/ the oz. and exchange with all other countries consequently rose 
also, and every creditor was defrauded of about one third of his just 
dues. As soon as silver rose to 27/, the notes issued by the Merchants 
at 19/ were hoarded up and no longer answered the purposes of money. 

"We can, undoubtedly, accept Hutchinson's theory as to the 
cause of the disappearance of the Merchants' Notes, and 
through his fixing the silver rate which determined their fate, 
we can approximately ascertain the date of the limit of their 
circulation. Silver, according to some of the tables of depre- 
ciation, did not reach 27s. until 1738, but according to others, 
that point was reached in the fall or early winter of 1737. 

The perusal of the story of this company leaves upon the 
mind an impression that the fixed rate of silver in the notes, 
to which was due their sudden withdrawal from circulation, 
was an element of hazard, and it is difficult to conceive how 
the collapse of the project should have failed to work a hard- 
ship on the subscribers. We have one test that we can apply 
to aid us in determining if this was so. In 1740 the Silver 


Bank was organized, and an appeal for subscriptions was made 
to the same class of citizens that had subscribed for the Mer- 
chants' Notes. While there were certain points of resem- 
blance between the two schemes, there were also radical 
differences, suggested probably to the promoters of the Silver 
Bank by the experiences connected with the first company. 
The hazard of a stated rate in the note remained, however, 
in the second experiment, and if the merchants had suffered 
severely from it in 1733, they would not have lent their names 
to an agreement weighed down with the same danger. If we 
examine the lists of subscribers to the two schemes, we shall 
find that nearly thirty per cent of the merchants who formed 
the company which emitted the Merchants' Notes in 1733, 
were subscribers to the Silver Bank in 1740. It is a fair 
inference that they did not suffer much in 1733 by the 
unexpected closure of their company. 


The Scheme. 

(The New England Weekly Journal, January 21, 1734.) 

Several Gentlemen having express'd their desire to see the 
SCHEME or Articles upon which the Merchants and Others have 
Acted, who are now giving out their Notes of Hand; the Publisher of 
this Paper having obtained a Copy thereof, now presents them with it. 

WHEREAS by daily Experience, the Trade and Business of this 
Province is found to Labour under great Inconveniencies, thro' the want 
of a Stable, and Sufficient Medium of Exchange, The Silver and Gold 
which formerly pass'd in common Payments, having been exported to 
Great Britain, in Return for the Manufactures we need, and receive from 
that our Mother Country ; And the Bills of Credit on this Province being 
grown already Scarce, and daily growing fewer, by being drawn in at the 
arrival of the Periods of the several Funds, upon which they were re- 
spectively Emitted; and more especially by Reason that the Government 
of Rhode- Island have lately Agreed, to Emit One Hun[dred] and Four 
Thousand Pounds, in Bills of Credit, without taking (as we humbly ap- 
prehend) the necessary care to establish their Value, and which added to 
what that Colony hath heretofore Emitted, will be exceedingly beyond 
their Proportion of the Bills passing in New England, 

THEREFORE, We whose Names are hereunto Subscribed, have 
Agreed upon the following Proposals, viz. 

1903.] THE MERCHANTS' NOTES OP 1733. 205 

First. There shall forthwith be Emitted, One Hundred and Ten 
Thousand Pounds, in Bills, or Notes of Hand, of the following Denom- 
inations, viz. One Hundred and Five Thousand Pounds, in Ten Pounds, 
Six Pounds, Three Pounds, and Twenty Shilling Bills, and the Re- 
maining Five Thousand, in Ten Shillings, Six Shillings, Two Shillings 
and Six Penny, and Eighteen Penny Bills, to be Redeemed by Certain 
Subscribers, or Borrowers, with Coined Silver of Sterling Alloy, at 
Nineteen Shillings per Ounce ; or Coined Standard Gold, at Thirteen 
Pounds Thirteen Shillings One Penny Half Penny per Ounce, both 
Troy Weight. 

Secondly. The following Gentlemen, viz. Edward Hutchinson, John 
Osborne, Jacob Wendell, James Bowdoin, William Foye, Samuel Welles, 
Samuel Sewall, Hugh Hall, Esqrs. Joshua Winslow and Edward Brom- 
field junr. Merchants, shall be the Committee, to manage the Affairs of 
the Subscribers to this SCHEME, which Committee shall Sign the 
Bills, and be Obliged to the Possessors of them, and shall receive 
Security from the Subscribers or Borrowers. 

Thirdly. To Enable the said Committee to Redeem said Bills, with 
Silver or Gold as aforesaid, Every Subscriber, who Borrows and Re- 
ceives of the said Committee, One Thousand Pounds, shall be Obliged 
to Pay them in Silver and Gold as aforesaid : The Principal in Ten 
Equal Annual Payments, and Interest for the whole, at the rate of Six 
per Cent per Annum. The Interest to be paid at such times as may 
best serve the Company, and to be particularly express'd in each Bond 
from the Subscribers or Borrowers to the Committee ; Nevertheless, it 
is to be understood, That every Subscriber, who Borrows One Thou- 
sand Pounds as aforesaid, shall have the Favour and Privilege of being 
releas'd and free from paying that part of the aforesaid Interest of Six 
per Gent, per Annum, which shall be payable in any of the aforesaid 
Ten Years, if he shall pay to the Committee in Silver and Gold as 
aforesaid, a Tenth part of the Principal of the aforesaid Thousand 
Pounds, and Ten Pounds only as Interest, One Month before the said 
Interest at Six per Gent per Annum, becomes due by said Bond ; 
Which Silver and Gold shall be, and remain in the hands of the said 
Committee, to Exchange the said Bills at the following Periods, and in 
the following proportion, viz. Three Tenth Parts at the End of the 
first Three Years,Three Seventh Parts of the Remainder, at the End of 
the first Six Years; and the whole of the Residue, at the End of the 
aforesaid Ten Years : And whosoever shall Subscribe'and Borrow, either 
more or less than One Thousand Pounds, shall Pay in the same Specie 
and Proportion, and at the same Periods. 

Fourthly. Upon bringing in the Bills at the several Periods, they 
shall All be Consumed to Ashes, and at the two first Periods of Paying 
the Silver or Gold to the Possessors, New Bills shall be given to the 


Possessor, for that Part of the Old Bills, that was not paid in Silver and 

Fifthly. Every Subscriber shall give Security for the Sum he Bor- 
rows, either Real or Personal, at the Discretion of the Committee 
aforesaid. If it be Personal, there shall be Two Sufficient Sureties, 
with him the Subscriber, all to be bound Joyntly and Severally ; But if 
the Subscriber shall give Real Security, it shall be Land at half the 
Value, without any allowance for Buildings, and shall be Mortgaged as 
a Collateral Security for the Payment and Discharge of Ten Several 
Bonds, to be given by the Subscriber or Borrower for Paying the 
Committee in the Specie and Proportion, and at the Periods aforesaid. 

Sixthly. Each Subscriber or Borrower, shall be also Obliged, in 
Proportion to his Subscription, to Indemnify the Committee, as to any 
Damage they may any way Sustain, in Redeeming or Paying the 
said Notes of Hand, or by any Deficiency, or other Neglect of the 
Company, or either of them. The Security given by the Subscribers, 
to be made to all the Committee, except the Security of any of the Ten 
of the Committee, which shall be to the Remainder. 

Seventhly. No Person shall be Chosen One of the Committee, who 
Subscribes less than One Thousand Pounds. 

Uightly. No Person shall Subscribe, or be allow'd to Borrow, less 
than Five Hundred Pounds, nor more than Ten Thousand Pounds ; 
and every Subscriber of Five Hundred Pounds, shall have One Vote, 
and he that Subscribes more, shall Vote in Proportion, to the Number 
of Five Hundred Pounds contained in his Subscription : but if it so 
happen at any time, that any One Person, by Inheritance, or Purchase, 
shall be Interested more than Ten Thousand Pounds, He shall be al- 
low'd no more than Twenty Votes, any thing herein contained to the 
contrary, notwithstanding. 

Ninthly. Whereas we are of Opinion, the aforesaid One Hundred 
and Four Thousand Pounds, in Bills of Credit, agreed upon to be 
speedily Emitted, by the General Assembly of the Colony of Rhode- 
Island, have no proper Security for their Value ; Therefore we Agree 
and Promise, that We will not Accept of the said Bills, in Payment for 
any Debt now Due, or hereafter to be Contracted, nor in Exchange for 
any Goods, Merchandize or other Things. 

Tenthly. Every Subscriber or Borrower, shall at the Desire of 
the Company, give such further and better Security, as shall at any 
Time hereafter be thought needful, by the said Company. 

Eleventhly. Every Subscriber shall have Liberty at any time, except 
the Third, Sixth and Tenth Year of said Scheme, in Lieu of coined 
Silver and Gold, as directed to in said Scheme, to put or pay in, 
wrought Silver Plate, of Sterling alloy, at Seventeen Shillings per 
Ounce, and may redeem it at any time after, till the arrival of one of the 

1903.] THE MERCHANTS' NOTES OP 1733. 207 

said Third, Sixth or Tenth Years, that shall come next after his putting 
the Plate in, by paying the Silver or Gold it was pat in as a pledge for, 
and Interest at the Bate of Three per Gent per Annum in Silver and 
Gold, as set in this Scheme ; But if said Subscriber, shall not redeem 
his Plate, before the Arrival of One of the aforesaid Periods, which 
shall first come, after he hath put his Plate in ; The Committee may 
dispose thereof, as may best serve the Interest of the Company. 

Twelfthly. The Company may if they find it for their Interest, chuse 
a New Committee, upon the arrival of the first and second Periods, 
That is, at the close of the Third and Sixth Years. 

Thirteenthly. That the Ten Thousand Pounds, not taken out by the 
Subscribers, shall be Let to Interest by the Committee, for the benefit 
of the Company, except so much as the Charge of the Company shall 

Lastly. The Committee shall warn the whole Company, to meet 
Annually, on the first Monday in January, at the Town-House in Bos- 
ton, and at any other time, when said Committee shall think it needful, 
or the Borrowers or Subscribers of Twenty jive Thousand Pounds, shall 
desire it of them in Writing under their Hands : When said Committee 
shall lay a just and true Account of their Proceedings before the Com- 
pany, and divide any Profits that may arise to such as shall have done 
and performed their respective Obligations, proportionable to their Sub- 
scriptions : At which General Meeting, the Company shall have Power 
also to make such Rules and By-Orders, as may be found needful : 
Provided, They are no way inconsistent with the aforewritten Articles. 
AND as a Testimony of our Consent, and Promise to observe the 
aforewritten Agreement, We hereunto Subscribe our Names, and prom- 
ise to take out and borrow the Sums we have set against them respect- 
ively, on the aforesaid Terms and Conditions. 

Thomas Fitch 
Thomas Lee John Turner 

Jefferey Bedgood Edward Hutchinson 

Thomas Ruck William Clark 

Isaac Dupee John Alford 

Francis Gatcombe John Osborne 

Joshua Cheever John Ruck 

Ezekiel Cheever Jacob Wendell 

Richard Clarke James Bowdoin 

Jeremiah Belknap William Fote 

Joseph Scott Samuel Welles 

Henrt Gibbs Samuel Sewall 

Samuel Hendlt Huoh Hall 

Thomas Cushing jun. Thomas Jenner 

Thomas Hancock Habijah Savage 




Job Lewis 
Thomas Palmer jun. 
William Bant 
John Ellert 
William Wyer 
Benjamin Bird 
Benjamin Browne 
Stephen Boutineau 
James Pitts 
Jonathan Jackson 
Charles Apthorp 
John and 

Richard Billings 
Thomas Hdbbard 
John Henderson 
Peter Luce 
Thomas Downe 
John Hill 
Thomas Hilt. 
Edward Ddrant 
James Gooch jun. 
John Gooch 
John Gerrish 
Robert Harris 
Philip Domaresq 
John Richardson 
Zechariah Johonnot 
s hub a el gorham 
John Davis 
William Greenleap 
Benja. Hallowell jun. 

Nath. Cunningham 
Stephen Minot 
Richard Bill 
Joshua Winslow 
Tristram Little 
Francis Wells 
John Erving 
Edward Tyng 
Daniel Henchman 
Edward Bromeield jun. 
William Downe 
Samuel Rand 
Oxenbridge Thacher 
James Allen 
John Ttler 
John Knight 
Arthur Sovage 
William Tyler 
John Hunt 
Sylvanus Hussey 
John Foye 
Andrew Tyler 
Andrew and 
Peter Oliver 
Samuel Adams 
William Rand 
John Burt 
Jacob Royal 
John Fayerweather 
John Wallet 
John Cookson 

N. B. The Undertakers Names are Printed (excepting the Gentle- 
men who are or have been of the Council) in the Order they happen' d 
to Subscribe them. 

Rev. Dr. Edward E. Hale said that he had meant to 
ask leave to read a paper at the next meeting of the Society 
on a subject which excited much interest a generation ago — 
the display of lanterns on April 18, 1775, as a notification to 
Paul Revere. Only that morning he had learned that Mr. 
E. W. McGlenen, the City Registrar, had prepared a valuable 
pamphlet bearing on the subject, with a curious map. The 
publication of this report will decide the question and estab- 


lish the fact that the lanterns were shown from the steeple of 
Christ Church. Dr. Hale laid on the table a copy of the map 
and a proofsheet of the essay. 

The regular business of the Annual Meeting was then taken 
up, and the annual report from the Council was read by Mr. 
James Ford Rhodes, Senior Member at Large : — 

Report of the Council. 

As I have refreshed my memory by reading the history of 
previous years of this Society, I have had borne in upon me 
the remark of Montesquieu, " Happy the people whose annals 
are tiresome." The thought did not arise because the monthly 
meetings do not possess great interest — that is a matter on 
which I shall have something to say later — and not because 
the reports of the senior members of the Council are uu- 
interesting, but for the reason that the tale has now become 
one of comparative financial prosperity and of steady and 
useful progress in historical learning. The necrology is the 
sad feature. We have lost five Resident Members : George 
Bigelow Chase, who died June 2, 1902 ; Charles Greely Lor- 
ing, August 18, 1902 ; Horace Gray, September 15, 1902 ; 
James Elliot Cabot, January 16, 1903 ; and John D. Wash- 
burn, April 4, 1903. Three Corresponding Members have 
also passed away: Joseph Jackson Howard, April 18, 1902 ; 
Joseph Williamson, December 4, 1902 ; Jabez Lamar Monroe 
Curry, February 12, 1903. The Society has elected seven 
Resident Members : Brooks Adams, April 10, 1902 ; Grenville 
Howland Norcross, October 9, 1902 ; Edward Hooker Gilbert, 
October 9, 1902 ; John Carver Palfrey, December 11, 1902 ; 
Franklin Benjamin Sanborn, January 8, 1903 ; Charles 
Knowles Bolton, February 12, 1903 ; Samuel Savage Shaw, 
March 12, 1903. Seven Corresponding Members have been 
chosen : Albert Venn Dicey, April 10, 1902 ; Edward Mc- 
Crady, May 8, 1902; Reuben Gold Thwaites, October 9, 
1902 ; John Christopher Schwab, October 9, 1902 ; Worth- 
ington Chauncey Ford, December 11, 1902 ; Arthur Blake 
Ellis, January 8, 1903 ; Auguste Moireau, February 12, 1903. 
Two of these Corresponding Members, Mr. Ford and Mr. Ellis, 
had been Resident Members, and this membership had termi- 
nated on account of their removal from the Commonwealth. 
In Mr. Ford the Society lost a valuable Resident Member. He 



was constant in attendance upon the meetings, and contributed 
to the Proceedings historical matter of much interest. He 
had just begun a useful service on the Council. Henry 
Charles Lea was transferred, October 9, 1902, from the Corre- 
sponding to the Honorary Membership. This was a fitting 
tribute to a patient historical scholar who, using scientific 
methods, had by his long industrious labors achieved a great 
reputation in Europe as well as in America. Three ..vacancies 
now remain in the Resident Membership, one in the Corre- 
sponding and two in the Honorary. 

The Society was represented at the Historical Congress 
which met at Rome in March of this year. 

The publications of the Society for the year were : Collec- 
tions, 7th series, Vols. II. and III. containing Parts III. and 
IV. of the Trumbull papers ; Proceedings, 2d series, Vol. XV. 
(March, 1901-February, 1902), and three serial numbers, 
March to December, 1902. The literary fecundity of members 
of the Society has been great. We enumerate forty titles of 
publications against twenty-five in 1901 and twenty-seven in 
1902. Among them are a number of conspicuous books and 
addresses. A list of them is appended to this report. 

Notable papers have been read at the monthly meetings of 
the Society : in May, 1902, " The Historical Conception of the 
United States Constitution and Union," by Daniel H. Cham- 
berlain ; " Some Early Religious Matters at the Piscataqua," 
by James De Normandie. In June Gamaliel Bradford spoke 
extemporaneously on one phase of Historic Evolution in 
Massachusetts, and Melville M. Bigelow read a paper on 
constitutional questions between 1761 and 1776. In October 
Worthington C. Ford spoke on Cotton's " Moses his Judi- 
cials." At the November meeting the President read some 
interesting extracts from an unpublished diary of John Quincy 
Adams, and Thomas Jefferson Coolidge gave the Society a 
taste of vivid autobiography. In December we returned to 
Colonial history, Simeon E. Baldwin discoursing on " Reverend 
John Higginson, of Salem," and John Noble on the gruesome 
topic " A Glance at Suicide as dealt with in the Massachu- 
setts Bay Colony." The present year began with the " Sui- 
cide of a Political Infant," as interpreted by William R. 
Thayer, in an account of the National Party of 1900, and a 
remarkable paper by G. Stanley Hall on " Civilization and 


Savagery." During the meetings already held this year the 
President discussed the " Constitutional Ethics of Secession," 
and the senior Vice-President, Dr. Samuel A. Green, read of 
" Early American Imprints " and " The Tradition connected 
with the Washington Elm." James F. Hunnewell spoke of 
"Prehistoric Bunker Hill"; James De Normandie discoursed 
on " Sir William Pepperrell," and also read a stimulating 
paper on " Hymns in Ecclesiastical History." William B. 
Weeden read a carefully prepared paper on the "Controversy 
between Governor Andrew and General Butler relating to 
recruiting for the volunteer army in 1861." In presenting 
some historical documents Franklin B. Sanborn made some 
introductory remarks. At the last meeting Frederic Ban- 
croft spoke of " Some Features of the Internal Trade in 
Slaves," and this interesting talk suggested so many personal 
reccollections on the part of members that the meeting may 
be described as a very animated one. 

I have recalled the papers read at these meetings to exhibit 
their infiuite variety and to emphasize a feature of this 
Society which is, I think, so far as this country goes, peculiar 
to itself. Thirty to forty members gather here one afternoon 
a month, without even the prospect of what Emerson called 
" the gentle excitation of a cup of tea," to obtain historical 
refreshment. Our meetings may be compared fitly to those 
of the five classes of the Institute of France, which have given 
that body an undefined celebrity all over the civilized world. 
" What does the French Academy do ? " was asked of one of 
the forty. " What does it do ? " was the reply. " It exists ! " 
Therefore, no matter how highly we may prize our learned 
publications, and no matter how we may look forward to the 
development of future activities, let us remember that a 
robust existence is equally important with performance, and 
that no mark of a vigorous life of a learned society is more 
salient than the coming together of its members at stated 
periods. To arrange the programme for these meetings is no 
small work, which falls mainly upon the President of the 
Society. Fortunately, the other officers and members give 
him their hearty co-operation : they are not like those of 
another Society I wot of, the members of which take their 
seats with an air that seems to imply "I have come here to be 
entertained and I am pretty critical too about my entertain- 


ment." I am sure that in his absence I may speak for the 
President in thanking those who have helped him in this 
part of his arduous work and urging them to continue their 
useful exertions. New members may feel assured that inter- 
esting contributions on some historical or cognate topic will 
be welcomed heartily. I may add for their information 
that a notice beforehand by letter to the President, or 
in his absence to the senior Vice-President, of what they 
purpose reading is helpful in the arrangement of the 

The broadening of subjects considered germane for treat- 
ment seems to me an admirable feature of our President's 
administration. I remember that when I had the honor to 
become a member of this Society I supposed that contribu- 
tions should be confined to colonial and revolutionary history ; 
and when Mr. Winsor suggested that I should read a paper I 
told him that I had not sufficient ground-work to dilate on 
either subject. "What are you studying now?" he asked. 
" McClellan's Peninsular Campaign," was my reply. " Give 
us a paper on that," he said; and after receiving the approval 
of the President I did as I was advised. I think that I 
express the feeling of the President and Council when I say 
that some portion of a member's book he is about to publish 
or a part of a magazine article will be listened to gratefully 
by the Society ; and while the Society likes to print in the 
Proceedings these contributions, that is not a necessary condi- 
tion : that members may be willing to read something here 
which they purpose printing elsewhere is a circumstance 
recognized fully. The purpose of my little homily is to 
urge members to do all in their power to preserve and even 
increase the interest of the meetings. The life of a society is 
a great thing, and if that life be maintained we may feel sure 
that the distinction of belonging to this Society will steadily 
grow. Its past is secure; its learned and valuable publica- 
tions attract the attention of European as well as American 
scholars ; the eulogies spoken here and the memoirs written of 
deceased members are vivid contributions to contemporary 
history; — these and the life of which I have spoken consti- 
tute a Society which is well worthy of the devotion of its 


Publications by Members. 

The New Empire. By Brooks Adams. 

Investigation and Publicity as opposed to " Compulsory Arbitration." 
By Charles Francis Adams. A Paper read before the American Civic 
Federation, December 8, 1902. 

Lee at Appomattox and other Papers. By Charles Francis 

Same, second edition, enlarged. 

Shall Cromwell have a Statue ? Oration by Charles Francis Adams 
before the Phi Beta Kappa Society of the University of Chicago, Tues- 
day, June 17, 1902. 

Speech of Charles Francis Adams, of Massachusetts, December 22, 

1902, at the Banquet of the New England Society of Charleston, 
South Carolina. 

The Acts and Resolves, Public and Private, of the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay : to which are prefixed the Charters of the Prov- 
ince. With Historical and Explanatory Notes, and an Appendix. 
Volumes IX. and X., 1708-1726. Edited by Melville M. Bigelow. 

Charles Sumner and the Treaty of Washington. By Daniel He.nry 
Chamberlain. A Review of Parts of an Address by Mr. Charles 
Francis Adams before the New York Historical Society, November 
19, 1901. 

John Fiske. By Andrew McFarland Davis. 

Lawful Money, 1778 and 1779. By Andrew McFarland Davis. 

Memoir of Robert Noxon Toppan. By Andrew McFarland Davis. 

Tracts relating to the Currency of the Massachusetts Bay, 1682- 
1720. Edited by Andrew McFarland Davis. 

Charles Eliot, Landscape Architect. By Charles W. Eliot. 

Peabody Education Fund. Proceedings of the Trustees at their 
Forty-first Meeting, New York, 1 October, 1902, with the Annual 
Report of the General Agent, Hon. J. L. M. Curry. Edited by the 
Secretary, Samuel A. Green. 

Peabody Education Fund. Proceedings of the Trustees at their 
Forty-second Meeting (a special meeting), Washington, 29 January, 

1903. Edited by the Secretary, Samuel A. Green. 

Ten Fac-simile Reproductions relating to New England. By Sam- 
uel Abbott Green. 

Memories of a Hundred Years. By Edward Everett Hale. Two 

The Real Philip Nolan. By Edward Everett Hale. 

Ancient Long Island Epitaphs, from the Towns of Southold, Shel- 
ter Island, and Easthampton, New York. By Edward Doubleday 


Source Readers in American History. By Albert B. Hart and 
others. No. 1, Colonial Children ; No. 2, Camps and Firesides of the 
Revolution; No. 3, How our Grandfathers Lived. 

Ezekiel Cheever. The Cheever MSS. and Letters. By John T. 

The Hassam Family. By John T. Hassam. 

No. 47 Court Street, Boston. By John T. Hassam. 

Four Addresses by Henry Lee Higginson. The Soldiers' Field; 
The Harvard Union, I. ; The Harvard Union, II. ; Robert Gould Shaw. 

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. By Thomas Wentworth Higginson. 
[American Men of Letters.] 

John Greenleaf Whittier. By Thomas "Wentworth Higginson. 
[English Men of Letters, edited by John Morley.] 

Triumphs of Early Printing. A Paper read at the Annual Meeting 
of The Club of Odd Volumes, at the University Club, December 26, 
1901, by the President, James Frothingham Hunnewell. 

Diocese of Massachusetts. Ninth Annual Address of the Rt. Rev. 
William Lawrence, to the Convention of the Diocese, delivered in 
Trinity Church, Boston, April 30, a. d. 1902, at the One Hundred 
and Seventeenth Annual Meeting. 

Phillips Brooks. A Study. By "William Lawrence. 

Roger Wolcott. By William Lawrence. 

The Fighting Frigate, and other Essays and Addresses. By Henry 
Cabot Lodge. 

The Influence of Party upon Legislation in England and America. 
By A. Lawrence Lowell. Reprinted from the Annual Report of the 
American Historical Association for 1901. 

The Case of Maria in the Court of Assistants in 1681. By John 

Notes on the Law of Charity Trusts under the Massachusetts Deci- 
sions. By John Noble. 

Notes on Strangers' Courts in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. By 
John Noble. 

An Old Harvard Commencement Programme [1730]. By John 

Our International Obligations in the Philippines. By James 

The Diocesan Library, being the Nineteenth Annual Report made to 
the Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of 
Massachusetts, held in Boston, April 30, 1902. By the Rev. Edmund 
F. Slafter. 

The Report of Proceedings of a British Committee of Investigation 
into the Condition of Affairs in America, 1782. A Satire. By Wins- 
low Warren. 


Governor Taft in the Philippines. A Review of his Evidence 
given before the Senate Committee on the Philippines. By Winslow 

Ralegh in Guiana, Rosamund, and A Christmas Masque. By Bar- 
rett Wendell. 

James F. Rhodes, 

Senior Member at Large of the Council. 

The Annual Report of the Treasurer and the Report of the 
Auditing Committee were presented in print, as follows: — 

Report of the Treasurer. 

In compliance with the requirements of the By-Laws, Chap- 
ter VII., Article 1, the Treasurer respectfully submits his 
Annual Report, made up to March 31, 1903. 

The special funds held by him are eighteen in number, and 
are as follows : — 

I. The Appleton Fund, which was created Nov. 18, 1854, 
by a gift to the Society, from Nathan Appleton, William Ap- 
pleton, and Nathaniel I. Bowditch, trustees under the will of 
Samuel Appleton, of stocks of the appraised value of ten thou- 
sand dollars. These stocks were subsequently sold for $ 12,203, 
at which sum the fund now stands. The income is applicable 
to " the procuring, preserving, preparation, and publication of 
historical papers." 

II. The Massachusetts Historical Trust-Fund, which 
now stands, with the accumulated income, at $10,000. This 
fund originated in a gift of two thousand dollars from the 
Hon. David Sears, presented Oct. 15, 1855, and accepted by 
the Society Nov. 8, 1855. On Dec. 26, 1866, it was increased 
by a gift of five hundred dollars from Mr. Sears, and another 
of the same amount from another associate, Nathaniel Thayer. 
The annual income must be added to the principal between 
July and January, or by " a recorded vote " of " the Society " 
it may " be expended in such objects as to them may be desir- 
able." The directions in Mr. Sears's declaration of trust may 
be found in the printed Proceedings for November, 1855. 

II I. The Dowse Fund, given to the Society by George 
Livermore and Eben. Dale, executors of the will of Thomas 
Dowse, April 9, 1857, for the "safe keeping" of the Dowse 
Library, which was formally given by Mr. Dowse to the So- 


ciety in July, 1856. It amounts to $ 10,000. The balance of 
income for the year has been placed to the credit of the Gen- 
eral Account, in accordance with what was understood to be 
the wish of the executors. 

IV. The Peabody Fund, which was presented by the 
eminent banker and philanthropist George Peabody, in a letter 
dated Jan. 1, 1867, and now stands at $22,123. The income 
is available only for the publication and illustration of the 
Society's Proceedings and Memoirs, and for the preservation 
of the Society's Historical Portraits. 

V. The Savage Fund, which was a bequest from the Hon. 
James Savage, President from 1841 to 1855, received in June, 
1873, and now stands on the books at the sum of $6,000. The 
income is to be used for the increase of the Society's Library. 

VI. The Erastus B. Bigelow Fund, which was given in 
February, 1881, by Mrs. Helen Bigelow Merriman, in recog- 
nition of her father's interest in the work of the Society. 
The original sum was one thousand dollars ; but the inter- 
est was added to the principal to bring the amount up to 
$2,000, at which it now stands. There is no restriction as to 
the use to be made of this fund ; but up to the present time 
the income has been used only for the purchase of important 
books of reference needed in the Library. 

VII. The Wjlltam Winthrop Fund, which amounts to 
the sum of $3,000, and was received Oct. 13, 1882, under the 
will of William Winthrop, for many 3'ears a Corresponding 
Member of the Societ\'. The income is to be applied " to the 
binding for better preservation of the valuable manuscripts 
and books appertaining to the Society." 

VIII. The Richard Frothingham Fund, which repre- 
sents a gift to the Society, on the 23d of March, 1883, from 
the widow of Richard Frothingham, Treasurer from 1847 to 
1877, of a certificate of twenty shares in the Union Stock Yard 
and Transit Co., of Chicago, of the par value of $100 each, 
and of the stereotype plates of Mr. Frothingham's " Siege of 
Boston," " Life of Joseph Warren," and " Rise of the Repub- 
lic." The fund stands on the Treasurer's books at $3,000, 
exclusive of the copyright. There are no restrictions on the 
uses to which the income may be applied. 

IX. The General Fund, which now amounts to $43,324.43. 
It represents the following gifts and payments to the 
Society, and withdrawals from the Building Account: — 


1. A gift of two thousand dollars from the residuary estate 
of Mary Prince Townsend, by the executors of her will, 
William Minot and William Minot, Jr., in recognition of 
which, by a vote of the Society, passed June 13, 1861, the 
Treasurer was " directed to make and keep a special entry in 
his account books of this contribution as the donation of Miss 
Mary P. Townsend." 

2. A legacy of two thousand dollars from Henry Harris, 
received in July, 1867. 

3. A legacy of one thousand dollars from our associate 
George Bemis, received in March, 1879. 

4. A gift of one hundred dollars from our associate Ralph 
Waldo Emerson, received in April, 1881. 

5. A legacy of one thousand dollars from our associate 
Williams Latham, received in May, 1884. 

6. A bequest of five shares in the Cincinnati Gas-Light 
and Coke Co. from George Dexter, Recording Secretary 
from 1878 to 1883, received in June, 1884. This bequest for 
several years stood on the Treasurer's books at $900, at which 
sum the shares were valued when the incomes arising from 
separate investments were all merged in one consolidated 
account. Besides the regular quarterly dividends there has 
been received up to the present time from the sale of sub- 
scription rights, etc., the sum of $337.56, which has been 
added to the nominal amount of Mr. Dexter's bequest. 

7. A legacy of one thousand dollars from our associate the 
Hon. Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar, received in February, 1895. 

8. Twenty-eight commutation fees of one hundred and 
fifty dollars each. 

9. The sum of $29,955.17 was withdrawn from the proceeds 
of the sale of the Tremont Street estate, and added to this 
fund ; and the sum of $731.70 received from the Medical 
Library for cost of party-wall was deducted from the cost of 
the real estate and added to this fund. 

X. The Anonymous Fund, which originated in a gift 
of $1,000 to the Society in April, 1887, communicated in a 
letter to the Treasurer, from a valued associate, printed in the 
Proceedings (2d series, vol. iii. pp. 277, 278). A further gift 
of $250 was received from the same generous friend in April, 
1888. The income has been added to the principal; and in 
accordance with the instructions of the giver this policy is to 



be continued (see Proceedings, 2d series, vol. xiii. pp. 66, 67). 
The fund now stands at $2,782.37. 

XI. The William Amoby Fund, which was a bequest of 
$3,000, from our associate William Amoiy, received Jan. 7, 
1889. There are no restrictions on the uses to which the 
income may be applied. 

XII. The Lawrence Fund, which was a bequest of 
$3,000, from our associate the younger Abbott Lawrence 
(H. U., Class of 1819), received in June, 1894. The income 
is " to be expended in publishing the Collections and Pro- 
ceedings " of the Society. 

XIII. The Robert C. Winthrop Fund, which was a be- 
quest of $5,000, from the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, Presi- 
dent from 1855 to 1885, received in December, 1891. No 
restrictions were attached to this bequest; but by a vote of 
the Society passed Dec. 13, 1891, it was directed that the 
income " shall be expended for such purposes as the Council 
may from time to time direct." 

XIV. The Waterston Publishing Fund, which was a 
bequest of $10,000, from our associate the Rev. Robert C. 
Waterston, received in December, 1894. The income is to be 
used as a publishing fund, in accordance with the provisions 
of Mr. Waterston's will printed in the Proceedings (2d series, 
vol. viii. pp. 172, 173). 

XV. The Ellis Fund, which originated in a bequest to 
the Society of $30,000, by Dr. George E. Ellis, President from 
1885 to 1894. This sum was paid into the Treasury Dec. 20, 
1895 ; and to it has been added the sum of $1,663.66 received 
from the sale of various articles of personal property, also given 
to the Society by Dr. Ellis, which it was not thought desirable 
to keep, making the whole amount of the fund $31,663.66. No 
part of the original sum can be used for the purchase of other 
real estate in exchange for the real estate specifically devised 
by Dr. Ellis's will. 

Besides the bequest in money, Dr. Ellis by his will gave to 
the Society his dwelling-house No. 110 Marlborough Street, 
with substantially all its contents. In the exercise of the dis- 
cretion which the Society was authorized to use, this house 
was sold for the sum of $25,000, and the proceeds invested in 
the more eligible estate on the corner of the Fenway and 
Boylston Street. The full sum received from the sale was 


entered on the Treasurer's books, to the credit of Ellis 
House, in perpetual memory of Dr. Ellis's gift. 

XVI. The Lowell Fund, which was a bequest of the 
Hon. John Lowell (H. U., Class of 1843), amounting to $3,000, 
received September 13, 1897. There are no restrictions on the 
uses to which the income may be applied. 

XVII. The Waterston Fund, which was received April 
21, 1900, in full satisfaction of a bequest from our associate 
the Rev. Robert 0. Waterston. Some legal questions hav- 
ing arisen in connection with this bequest, the matter was 
compromised, and the sum of $5,000 was received, as stated 
in the Proceedings (2d series, vol. xiv. pp. 163, 164). The 
income is to be used for printing a catalogue of the Waterston 
Library, for printing documents from it, and for making addi- 
tions to the Library from time to time. 

XVIII. The Waterston Fund No. 2, which was a fur- 
ther bequest of $10,000 from Mr. Waterston, in regard to 
which there were no legal questions, and which was also re- 
ceived April 21, 1900. The income is to be used for " print- 
ing and publishing any important or interesting autograph, 
original manuscripts, letters or documents which may be in 
possession of" the Society. 

Besides the three Funds, for the creation of which provision 
was made by Mr. Waterston's will, the Treasurer received, 
under the will, the sum of $10,000, to be applied to the fitting 
up of a room or portion of a fire-proof building for the com- 
modious and safe keeping of the Waterston Collection. A 
room was accordingly set apart for that purpose, and the 
larger part of this sum was expended in making it con- 
venient and attractive. Some further expenditures must be 
made on this account, and any balance of cash remaining 
in the hands of the Treasurer will be used, in accordance with 
the terms of the will, in adding books to the collection, under 
the direction of the Council. 

The Treasurer also holds a deposit book in the Five Cent 
Savings Bank for $100 and interest, which is applicable to the 
care and preservation of the beautiful model of the Brattle 
Street Church, deposited with us in April, 1877. 

It should not be forgotten that besides the gifts and bequests 
represented by these funds, which the Treasurer is required to 
take notice of in his Annual Report, numerous gifts have been 


made to the Society from time to time, and expended for the 
purchase of the real estate, or in promoting the objects for 
which the Society was organized. A detailed account of these 
gifts was included in the Annual Report of the Treasurer, 
dated March 31, 1887, printed in the Proceedings (2d series, 
vol. hi. pp. 291-296) ; and in the list of the givers there enu- 
merated will be found the names of many honored associates, 
now living or departed, and of other gentlemen, not members 
of the Society, who were interested in the promotion of histori- 
cal studies. They gave liberally in the day of small things ; 
and to them the Society is largely indebted for its present 
prosperity and usefulness. 

To the benefactors there mentioned must be added Charles 
Francis Adams, President of the Society, who, in the sum- 
mer of 1895, bought a lot of land on the Fenway (3,000 
square feet), with a view of adding it to the lot bought by 
the Society, in case the latter should prove too small. When 
the plans for the new building were drawn, it was found to 
be desirable to make some change in the lines of the Society's 
estate, and the lot bought by the President was convej r ed to 
the Society, with a verbal understanding that he should re- 
ceive for it an equal quantity of land on Boylston Street. In 
February, 1901, a portion of unoccupied land on Boylston 
Street (2,622^ square feet) was sold to indemnify the Presi- 
dent for the land conveyed by him to the Society. The dif- 
ference ($3,000) between the sum paid by the President 
($15,000) and the amount received for the land sold ($12,000) 
was an absolute gift to the Society, and to this difference must 
be added the interest on $15,000 from the date of the original 
purchase up to the date of sale of the Boylston Street land, a 
period of nearly six years. 

The stock and bonds held by the Treasurer as investments 
on account of the above-mentioned funds are as follows : — 

$10,000 in the five per cent mortgage bonds of the Chicago and 
West Michigan Railroad Co. ; 

$5,000 in the four per cent bonds of the Rio Grande Western Rail- 
road Co. ; 

$8,000 in the four per cent bonds of the Chicago, Burlington, and 
Quincy Railroad Co.; 

$5,000 in the five per cent gold bonds of the Cincinnati, Dayton, 
and Ironton Railroad Co. ; 


$1,500 in the new four per cent mortgage bonds of the Atchison, 
Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad Co. ; 

$2,000 in the adjustment four per cent bonds, and thirty-three shares 
of the preferred stock of the same corporation, received in exchange 
for bonds of said corporation held by the Treasurer at the time of its 
reorganization ; 

$11,000 in the five per cent collateral trust bonds of the Chicago 
Junction Railways and Union Stock Yards Co. ; 

$10,000 in the new five per cent bonds of the Oregon Short Line 
Railroad Co. ; 

$10,000 in the five per cent mortgage bonds of the Metropolitan 
Street Railway Co. of Kansas City ; 

$ 1 2,000 in the five per cent bonds of the Lewiston-Concord Bridge Co. ; 

$6,000 in the four and one half per cent bonds of the Boston and 
Maiue Railroad Co. ; 

$ 1 0,000 in the four per cent bonds of the American Telephone and 
Telegraph Co. ; 

$2,000 in the four per cent joint bonds of the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road Co. and the Great Northern Railroad Co. ; 

$15,000 in the six per cent mortgage notes of G. St. L. Abbott, 
Trustee ; 

Fifty shares in the Merchants' National Bank of Boston ; 

Fifty shares in the State National Bank of Boston ; 

Fifty shares in the National Bank of Commerce of Boston ; 

Fifty shares in the National Union Bank of Boston ; 

Fifty shares in the Second National Bank of Boston ; 

Twenty-five shares in the National Shawmut Bank of Boston ; 

Thirty-five shares in the Boston and Albany Railroad Co.; 

Twenty-five shares in the Old Colony Railroad Co. ; 

Twenty-rive shares in the preferred stock of the Fitchburg Rail- 
road Co. ; 

One hundred shares in the preferred stock of the Chicago Junction 
Railways and Union Stock Yards Co. ; 

Two hundred shares in the preferred stock of the American Smelt- 
ing and Refining Co. ; 

Ten shares in the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Co., received in ex- 
change for five shares in the Cincinnati Gas-Light and Coke Co. 

Five shares in the Boston Real Estate Trust (of the par value of 
$1,000) ; 

Five shares in the State Street Exchange ; and 

Three shares in the Pacific Mills (of the par value of $1,000). 

The following abstracts and the trial balance show the pres- 
ent condition of the several accounts : — 





March 81. To balance on hand $1,277.45 


March 31. „ receipts as follows : — 

General Account 8,973.93 

Consolidated Income 10,727.19 

Income of Richard Frothingham Fund 83.30 

Income of Peabody Fund 2.24 

General Fund 150.00 

Investments 50.00 

Ellis Fund • • • 37.51 


March 31. To balance brought down $630.45 

1903 credits. 

March 31. By payments as follows: — 

Investments $1,965.00 

Waterston Library 20.00 

Income of Dowse Fund 5.00 

Income of Savage Fund . 448.67 

Income of William Winthrop Fund 140.90 

Income of Mass. Hist. Trust Fund 2,505.84 

Income of Peabody Fund 1,903.59 

Income of Appleton Fund 41.25 

Consolidated Income 12.22 

General Account 8,628.70 

„ balance on hand 630.45 





March 81. To balance brought forward $9,826.05 


March 31. „ sundry charges and payments : — 

Salaries of Librarian's Assistants 8,890.00 

Services of Janitor 900.00 

Printing and binding 217.27 

Stationery and postage 76.20 

Light 52.33 

Water 73 00 

Coal and wood 445.23 

Miscellaneous expenses 492.76 

Editing publications of the Society 2,000.00 

Outside shutters and repairs 481.91 


March 31. By balance brought down $9,567.77 


1903. CREDITS. 

March 31. By sundry receipts : — 

Interest $54.54 

Income of General Fund 2,503.92 

Income of Ellis Fund 1,834.18 

Income of Dowse Fund 574.95 

Admission Fees 175.00 

Assessments 730.00 

Sales of publications 1,294.87 

On account of expenses for maintenance, etc. . . . 1,719.52 

„ balance carried forward 9,567.77 


Income of General Fund. 

1903. DEBITS. 

March 31. To amount placed to credit of General Account .... $2,503.92 

1903. CREDITS. 

March 31. By proportion of consolidated income ........ $2,503.92 

Income of Richard Frolhingham Fund. 



March 31. By balance brought forward $1,005.49 


March 31. „ copyright received 83.30 

„ proportion of consolidated income 173.98 

March 31. By amount brought down $1,262.77 

Income of Savage Fund. 

1902. DEBIT8 - 

March 31. To balance brought forward $5.36 

March 31. „ amount paid for books $448.67 

8454 03 

March 31. To balance brought forward $106.06 



March 31. By proportion of consolidated income $347.97 

„ balance carried forward 106.06 



Income of Ellis Fund. 

March 31. To amount carried to General Account $1,834.18 


March 31. By proportion of consolidated Income $1,834.18 

Income of E. B. Bigelow Fund. 

1902. CREDITS. 

March 31. By balance brought forward $587.99 

March 31. „ proportion of consolidated income 115.99 

March 31. By balance brought forward $703.98 

Income of Massachusetts Historical Trust Fund. 

1903. " EBITS - 

March 31. To amount paid for marble pedestals $532.00 

„ amount paid for printing and binding 1,973.84 

„ balance carried forward 1,684 29 


1902. CREDITS. 
March 31. By balance brought forward $3,610.18 

March 31. „ proportion of consolidated income 579.95 

March 31. By balance brought forward $1,684.29 

Income of Dowse Fund. 



March 31. To amount paid for binding $5.00 

„ balance transferred to General Account 574.95 



March 31. By proportion of consolidated income $579.95 


Income of Peabody Fund. 

March 31. To amount paid for printing and binding $1,903.59 

March 31. To balance brought down $336.53 

1902. CREDITS. 

March 31. By balance brought forward $281.80 


March 31. ,, amount received for engravings 2.24 

„ proportion of consolidated income 1,283.02 

„ balance carried forward $336.53 


Income of William Winthrop Fund. 



March 31. To amount paid for binding $140.90 

„ balance carried forward 409.11 



March 31. By balance brought forward $376.03 

March 31. „ proportion of consolidated income 173.98 

March 31. By balance brought forward $409.11 

Income of Appleton Fund. 

1903. DEBITS - 

Marcli 31. To amount paid for binding $41.25 

„ balance carried forward . 4,415.27 


1902. CREDIT8> 

March 31. By balance brought forward ... $3,747.81 

March 31. „ proportion of consolidated income 707.71 


March 31. By balance brought forward $4,415.27 





Cash $630.45 

Investments 198,569.72 

Heal Estate 97,593.32 

General Account 9,567.77 

Income of Savage Fund 106.06 

Income of Peabody Fund 336.63 



Building Account $72,593.32 

Ellis House 25,000.00 

Appleton Fund 12,203.00 

Dowse Fund 10,000.00 

Massachusetts Historical Trust-Fund 10,000.00 

Peabody Fund 22,123.00 

Savage Fund 6,000.00 

Erastus B. Bigelow Fund 2,000.00 

William Winthrop Fund 3,000.00 

Richard Frothingham Fund 3,000.00 

General Fund 43,324.43 

Anonymous Fund 2,782.37 

William Amory Fund 3,000.00 

Lawrence Fund 3,000.00 

Robert C. Winthrop Fund 5,000.00 

Waterston Publishing Fund 10,000.00 

Ellis Fund 31,663.66 

Lowell Fund 3,000.00 

Waterston Fund 5,000.00 

Waterston Fund No. 2 10,000.00 

Waterston Library 3,996.89 

Income of Lowell Fund 883.71 

Income of Appleton Fund 4,414.27 

Income of William Winthrop Fund 409.11 

Income of Massachusetts Historical Trust-Fund 1,684.29 

Income of Richard Frothingham Fund 1,262.77 

Income of William Amory Fund 613.54 

Income of E. B. Bigelow Fund 703.98 

Income of Lawrence Fund 1,347.17 

Income of Robert C. Winthrop Fund 2,096.69 

Income of Waterston Publishing Fund 4,193.36 

Income of Waterston Fund 836.10 

Income of Waterston Fund No. 2 1,672.19 


The aggregate amount of the invested funds is $185,096.46. 
The securities which represent these funds stand on the Treas- 
urer's books at their net cost $198,569.72; but their market 
value is considerably higher. 


The income for the year derived from these investments and 
credited to the several funds, in proportion to the amount at 
which they stand on the Treasurer's books, was a little more 
than five and three-quarters per cent. 

The Treasurer has been notified that the executors under 
the will of the late Robert C. Billings will pay over at an 
early date the sum — $10,000 — which has been awarded to 
this Society from the residuary estate of that very modest and 
valuable citizen. This sum will be set apart as a permanent 
fund, the income to be used for publishing historical papers 
and documents. Some questions having arisen under the will 
of the late Hon. Mellen Chamberlain, the instructions of the 
Supreme Judicial Court have been asked for, and it is expected 
that a decision will be soon handed down. It is not known 
what sum will be then available for the purposes intended 
by Judge Chamberlain in making his bequest to the Society ; 
but it will be much less than was anticipated by him at the 
time of his first interview with the Treasurer on the subject. 
It is also expected that the income from the bequests of Mr. 
John L. Sibley and Mrs. Charlotte A. L. Sibley will become 
available during the next financial year. 

A considerable part of the income of the Peabody Fund for 
the next year having been anticipated in defraying the cost of 
the volume of Proceedings just completed, the cost of the new 
volume — volume xvii. of the 2d series — must be charged to 
the income of one of the other funds, — presumably the in- 
come of the Lawrence Fund, from which nothing has 3'et been 
drawn. A sufficient sum for publishing a volume of Collec- 
tions will be available from the income of the other publishing 
funds. The cost of the two volumes of Collections issued 
during the current year was charged to the income of the 
Massachusetts Historical Trust Fund. 

Charles C. Smith, Treasurer, 
Boston, March 31. 1903. 

Report of the Auditing Committee. 

The undersigned, a Committee appointed to examine the 
accounts of the Treasurer of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, as made up to March 31, 1903, have attended to that 
duty, and report that they find them correctly kept and prop- 


erly vouched ; that the securities held by the Treasurer for 

the several funds correspond with the statement in his Annual 

Report ; that the balance of cash on hand is satisfactorily 

accounted for ; and that the Trial Balance is accurately taken 

from the Ledger. 

Arthur Lord, ) n 

T „ rT \ Committee. 

James F. Hunnewell, ) 

Boston, April 6, 1903. 

[Mr. Winslow Warren having gone abroad after his appointment on the 
Committee, Mr. Lord was appointed to fill the vacancy.] 

The Librarian read his Annual Report : — ■ 

Report of the Librarian. 
During the year there have been added to the Library : — 

Books 483 

Pamphlets 839 

Unbound volumes of newspapers 19 

Bound volumes of newspapers 25 

Broadsides 14 

Maps 6 

Manuscripts 3,476 

Bound volumes of manuscripts 109 

In all . . . 4,971 

Of the volumes added, 448 have been given, 125 bought, 
and 44 by binding. Of the pamphlets added, 674 have been 
given, 159 bought, and 6 procured by exchange. 

From the income of the Savage Fund there have been 
bought 125 volumes, 159 pamphlets, 2 unbound volumes of 
newspapers, 2 maps, and 2 broadsides; and 2 volumes have 
been repaired. 

Prom the income of the William Winthrop Fund there have 
been bound 44 volumes, including 16 volumes of newspapers 
and 3 volumes of manuscripts. 

Of the books added to the Rebellion Department, 17 have 
been given, and 44 bought ; and of the pamphlets added, 45 
have been given, and 105 bought. There are now in the col- 
lection 2,763 volumes, 5,281 pamphlets, 818 broadsides, and 
110 maps. 


In the collection of manuscripts there are 1,126 volumes, 
192 unbound volumes, 97 pamphlets with manuscript notes, 
and 11,169 manuscripts. 

The Library contains at the present time about 43,600 vol- 
umes ; and this enumeration includes the files of bound news- 
papers, bound manuscripts, and the Dowse Collection, but 
does not yet include the Waterston Collection. The number 
of Waterston books will soon be added to the aggregate, when 
the catalogue is finished, of which 2,850 volumes have been 
duly entered on the cards. The Ellis books are now in process 
of cataloguing, and when the work is finished these too will be 
added to the aggregate. 

On April 5, 1902, Mrs. William B. Rogers, in addition to 
what she had previously given, presented a collection of manu- 
scripts and papers which had belonged to her father, James 
Savage. On December 2, Judge Holmes gave a number of 
papers relating to the Boston Society for the Diffusion of 
Useful Knowledge (1829-1843) which had come to him from 
his father, Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes. On December 11, our 
associate Mr. Schouler gave a large collection of manuscripts 
which belonged to his father, William Schouler, late Adjutant- 
General of the Commonwealth, many of which relate to the 
War of the Rebellion. On the same day a large collection of 
papers formerly belonging to the late Thomas C. Amory, a 
Resident Member, was received from the descendants of Hugh 
Amory in Boston. 

The number of pamphlets now in the Library, including 
duplicates, is 105,398 ; and the number of broadsides, includ- 
ing duplicates, is 4,080. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Samuel A. Green, 

April 9, 1903. 

The Cabinet-Keeper read his Annual Report : — 

Report of the Cabinet- Keeper. 

The Cabinet-Keeper would report that the most interesting 
gifts to the Cabinet during the year have been the portraits in 
oil by William Morris Hunt of our former associates Chief- 
Justice Lemuel Shaw and Governor John Albion Andrew, 


bequeathed to the Society by our late associate Mr. Justice 
Horace Gray, and the marble bust of our former associate the 
Hon. Edward Everett, by Thomas Ball, from the executor 
of the late George W. Wales, Esq., of Boston. 
The other gifts have been : — 

A button, with a monogram USA, and a broken buckle found on 
taking down a fireplace in an old house in Watertown many years ago, 
which were exhibited by Hon. Robert C. Winthrop at a meeting of the 
Society on January 13, 1876. From Mrs. Anne Outram Bangs. 

A framed engraving of Henry Wheaton (Brown Univ., 1802) by 
T. Johnson. From William V. Kellen. 

A set of postage currency (50, 25, 10, and 5 cents), 1862. From 
Robert C. Winthrop, Jr. 

A photograph of a portrait of Rev. Caleb Cushing, Minister of 
Salisbury, 1697-1752, in the possession of Mr. John N. Cushing, of 

A half-tone copy of a perspective view of Boston Harbor, showing 
the Men-of-War landing the Twenty-ninth and Fourteenth Regiments 
on October 1, 1768, taken from the original water-color sketch by Chris- 
tian Remick painted for John Hancock. From Frederick J. Libbie. 

A photograph, by Pach Brothers, Cambridge, of a portrait of John 
G. Palfrey by Rembrandt Peale. From Rev. Edward Everett 
Hale, D.D. 

A half-tone group of " One Hundred Massachusetts Notabilities." 
From Mr. A. Shumau. 

A photogravure view of the " Harvard Gate, Cambridge." From 
Hon. Samuel A. Green. 

A half-tone view of the " Suffolk Savings Bank Building, Tremont 
Street, in 1868," taken on May 15 or 16 of that year, has been pro- 
cured by purchase. 

Marble pedestals of uniform style have been procured for 
the busts in the Dowse Library and in the Hall ; and the pic- 
tures in the Hall and anterooms, as well as the busts, have 
been suitably labelled for the convenience of visitors. During 
the coming year all the pictures and portraits in the building 
will probably be labelled in similar manner. 

The Cabinet has continued to be open on Wednesday after- 
noons, though the attendance has not been large. The Cabinet- 
Keeper has once or twice met scholars from the schools in the 
neighborhood who have visited the room and examined the 
collections with interest, and hopes that by giving the assur- 


ance of a cordial welcome their example may be followed by 
others, who will thus have their interest in historical matters 
stimulated. The room is now opened for the use of members 
during the hour preceding each monthly meeting of the 

The use of the room during the dark afternoons of the past 
winter has shown the necessity of making provision for light- 
ing it, and within a short time fixtures corresponding to those 
in other parts of the building will be put in position. 

The request made last year for photographs of members 
who have been elected during the year, as well as of such of 
longer standing as have not already furnished them for the 
Cabinet, is again repeated. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Henry F. Jenks, 

April 9, 1903. Cabinet-Keeper. 

Mr. Nathaniel Paine read the report of the Committee 
appointed to examine the Cabinet and the Library : — 

Mr. President, — The Committee appointed to examine the 
Library and Cabinet of the Society have attended to the duty 
assigned them, and have only to report these departments to 
be in a most satisfactory condition. The management of the 
Library and Cabinet is conducted upon such lines as renders 
changes in their care and administration seldom necessary. 
This Committee have so recently become members of the So- 
ciety that they are comparatively unacquainted with their 
duties ; they have, however, visited the rooms in use for 
library purposes, and were much impressed with the impor- 
tance and value of the Society's collections, and they con- 
gratulate the members upon the good condition of the historical 
treasures under the care of the Librarian and his assistants. 

The large collection of printed matter relating to the Civil 
"War, probably the most complete in the United States, has 
steadily increased in size and value. It was begun immedi- 
ately after the close of the war by Dr. Green, and it would 
hardly be possible at this time to make another collection of 
such importance and completeness. The Committee regret 
that its present location in the building does not make it as 
convenient for the student of history as would seem desirable. 


The collection of newspapers, while not large, is of much 
value to the local historian, but this, too, is not conveniently 
located for easy reference, and, we understand, is not very 
largely consulted. The Committee were pleased, however, 
with this department, especially with the strength of the 
bindings of the larger volumes, and with the device for taking 
them from the shelves without danger of damage to the 

The cheerful appearance of the Waterston library, with its 
lining of two thousand handsome volumes, made it seem to 
your Committee an ideal place for study, and they were 
tempted to linger and enjoy its delightful and restful 

Your Committee were glad to find that the valuable collec- 
tion of manuscript matter is well arranged and made easy of 
access and study by reason of the carefully prepared card cata- 
logue now well advanced toward completion. The rarity and 
historical value of the manuscripts render it necessary to take 
especial care for their safety and preservation, but to be of 
real use they should be made available to the student of his- 
tory, under such restrictions as are consistent with the objects 
of the Society. 

The Library now numbers some 45,000 volumes, exclusive of 
the bound volumes of newspapers, which would add about one 
thousand more. 

Your Committee visited the Cabinet under the guidance of 
Henry F. Jenks, the enthusiastic custodian, and were inter- 
ested in the collection of portraits, engravings, relics, and 
curiosities brought to their attention. Much has been ac- 
complished in spite of the disadvantage of the lack of room, 
and merits our most hearty approval. It would seem, how- 
ever, that if all articles offered, of even local interest, were to 
be received, it would be necessary to provide more room, and 
it has been suggested, and your Committee consider the sug- 
gestion a good one, that drawers or closets with show cases on 
the top might be placed against the wall on the east side of the 
room. This would give a chance to arrange the present collec- 
tion more conveniently, and also provide for a limited increase 
in the future. If more than this should be needed, there is 
sufficient room to erect an addition to the building at the 
rear to be lighted from the top, but your Committee only 


mention this as a suggestion that may be considered in the 

The Committee cannot close their report without expressing 
their high appreciation of the services of Dr. Samuel A. Green, 
our Librarian, and his efficient assistants. 

Nath. Paine. 

John Osborne Sumner. 

Grenville H. Norcross. 

Boston, April 9, 1903. 

Mr. James F. Rhodes, from the Committee to nominate 
officers for the ensuing year, reported the following list, and 
the several candidates were duly elected : — 

For President. 

For Vice-Presidents. 


For Recording Secretary. 

For Corresponding Secretary. 

For Treasurer. 

For Librarian. 

For Cabinet-Keeper. 

For Members at Large of the Council. 



Dr. Green having been elected to two offices, Rev. Dr. 
James De Normandie, on motion of Mr. Rhodes in behalf 
of the Nominating Committee, was elected an additional mem- 
ber of the Council, to serve until the next Annual Meeting, in 
order that that body should not be reduced below the number 
of thirteen persons. 

A new serial of the proceedings, containing the record of 
the January, February, and March meetings, was ready for 
distribution at this meeting.