Early Journal Content on JSTOR, Free to Anyone in the World
This article is one of nearly 500,000 scholarly works digitized and made freely available to everyone in
the world by JSTOR.
Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other
writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the
mid-seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries.
We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this
resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non-commercial
Read more about Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate-jstor/individuals/early-
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people
discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching
platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit
organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please
I 9 l8.] GIFTS TO THE SOCIETY. 353
THE stated meeting was held on Thursday, the 13th instant,
at three o'clock, p. m. In the absence of the President
and both Vice-Presidents, Mr. Arthur Lord was chosen to
The record of the last meeting was read and approved; and
in the absence of the Librarian, the Editor reported the list of
donors to the Library since the last meeting.
The Cabinet-Keeper reported the following accessions:
From the estate of Mrs. Charles C. Smith, a bust in plaster of
Alexander Hamilton, after Houdon, which long stood in the Library
of our late associate, Charles Card Smith.
From Charles P. Greenough, 165 engraved portraits, English and
From Mrs. Robert C. Winthrop, Jr., a bust in marble of Robert C.
Winthrop, by Hiram Powers.
From Miss Antoinette P. Granger, of Canandaigua, New York,
a bust in marble of her grandfather, Francis Granger, of New York,
postmaster-general under President Harrison in 1841.
From Mrs. Kingsmill Marrs, a purse bearing a miniature of Jenny
Lind, which was bought as a souvenir when she was in Boston in
1850 by Otis Norcross for his wife.
From Dr. Warren, a photograph of a silhouette of Dr. John Dexter
Treadwell, of Salem, which hangs in the Ropes Mansion there, whose
son was the founder of the Treadwell Library of the Massachusetts
General Hospital; also a medal honoring the Allies and commemorat-
ing the entrance of America into the War, issued to the contributors
to the American Fund for the French wounded.
By deposit, from Dr. Warren, a silk banner, made by a Roxbury
Society, commemorative of General Joseph Warren, and used in
connection with the laying of the corner stone of Bunker Hill Monu-
ment by Lafayette in 1825. After the exercises it was hung in the
hall of the Norfolk House, Roxbury, but after some years it disap-
peared and has remained unknown for a half a century.
From Charles Stearns, engravings of Rufus Choate, Daniel Web-
ster, and of President and Mrs. Garfield.
354 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
From Robert Bruce, of Clinton, New York, a photograph of Abra-
ham Lincoln; taken in the early spring of 1865.
From Mr. Norcross, thirty United States coins.
From Francis Henry Appleton, a collection of ninety-eight coins.
By purchase, a collection of fifty-four encased postage stamps,
which combined with those already in our cabinet forms one of the
most complete collections of such stamps extant. During the time
of great scarcity of small change in 1862 these stamps were issued in
denominations from one to ninety cents by thirty-one firms; and
are now of great rarity.
By purchase and exchange, a collection of seventy-one specimens
of the work of J. A. Bolen, a die cutter who flourished in Springfield,
Mass., from 1862 to 1869, which lacks four pieces of being complete,
and is probably the most complete collection of Bolen's work
The Corresponding Secretary reported the receipt of a letter
from Arthur Prentice Rugg accepting his election as a Resident
Member of the Society.
The Corresponding Secretary also reported the receipt of an
invitation from the Historical Society of Nova Scotia to be pres-
ent at the unveiling of a memorial to George Vaughan at Annap-
olis Royal on July 1. The Corresponding Secretary was desig-
nated as the representative of the Society with such other mem-
bers as may be able to attend.
The Corresponding Secretary read notes of condolence on
the death of Henry Adams from Sir Sidney Lee and Mr. Hur-
The Editor reported:
As gifts: From George Peabody Wetmore, a letter from James
Russell Lowell and two from Count Witte, to George W. Smalley.
The Lowell letter, referring to his address at the 250th anniversary
of Harvard College, is as follows:
Southborough, Mass., i 2th Nov: 1886.
Dear Smalley, — I have written to MacVeigh explaining why I couldn't
possibly come as I gladly would. I am driven to the wall with things to do.
I am very sorry not to see you again and very glad you liked my speech.
To me they are always awful when they are cold — as a dead body used to
be to the murderer. I fear to touch 'em lest they should bleed and convict
me. I enclose a letter. Good bye and God bless you. Faithfully yours,
J. R. Lowell.
1918.] GIFTS TO THE SOCIETY. 355
From Charles P. Greenough, a number of manuscripts of Thomas
and John Hancock, 1728-1815, being mercantile correspondence
with merchants in London, Canada and Amsterdam, charter parties,
legal papers and bills — amounting in all to about two hundred
pieces. This material complements similar correspondence in the
From Mrs. Arthur W. Thayer, of Dedham, a number of mss.,
commercial letters and foreign price lists, passports and local notices,
which supplement effectively similar material in the collections of
By purchase, a series of letters from Leonard Bliss, Jr., the his-
torian of Rehoboth, to Elias Nason, 183 2-1 840, treating of their
literary and historical productions, and travels in search for
Letters of John S. Place, written from France in 181 1 and 181 2,
to Thomas Browne, a merchant of Portsmouth.
Nathan Matthews, of Boston, was elected a Resident Mem-
ber of the Society.
Dr. Emerson presented to the Society the original MS. of his
father's poem on "Boston," begun several years before the war,
but not finished until the occasion of its delivery at Faneuil
Hall, December 16, 1873, on the centennial anniversary of the
destruction of the tea in Boston harbor. Dr. Emerson read the
poem and called attention to the omissions and changes in the
printed text. 1
Mr. Bowditch, in presenting to the Society the MS. records
of "The Game Club" and a set of the rive printed volumes
taken from those records, gave an outline of the club and its
activities. Formed in January, 1882, for twenty years it met
at the houses of its members once in two weeks from November
to May. Each person present wrote a short verse on a given
subject, and at the supper these verses were read. Other games
were played, but verse-making left the most permanent record.
The contribution of each member was signed by initials, and a
full list of members and guests accompanies the gift, "in the
hope that some few in later generations may find it interesting
to examine these records of the games which amused their an-
cestors." With the gift is a poem of presentation, written by
Mrs. Charles P. Ware, closing with the lines:
1 Emerson, Poems (1884), 182.
356 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
So tho' at first it may seem queer
To find us in this grave Society,
Not without reason are we here,
To add a little gay variety.
Of the printed volumes the edition ranged from twenty-one to
Mr. Storey and Dr. Emerson, members of "The Game
Club" gave some interesting and amusing reminiscences of its
Dr. Warren presented, on behalf of the Trustees of the
Humane Society of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, a
portfolio containing a series of thirty-nine photogravures made
by A. W. Elson and Company of Belmont. These engravings
form the illustrations of the History of the society, written by
Mark A. de Wolf Howe, about to be published, and comprise
portraits of the leading officers, beginning with James Bowdoin,
two groups of trustees of 1858 and 1906, certificate of member-
ship, silver pieces and medals, early instruments of restoration
from drowning, and life boats. This series is an interesting
record of the oldest of Societies organized for the saving of life
and relief of suffering. While its earlier activities were con-
cerned chiefly with the saving of life on the sea-coast, a work
now taken over by the National Life-Saving Service, it still
continues to be active in many useful fields, and it still lives up
to its purpose of promoting the cause of humanity by "pur-
suing such means, from time to time, as shall have for their
object the preservation of human life and the alleviation of its
miseries." It is highly suggestive to contrast its purposes with
the ruthless methods of the U-boat!
Mr. Minot deposited the original records of the Bunker Hill
Monument Association, beginning with its origin and incor-
poration in 1823, and continuing to 1846.
Mr. Charles P. Greenough read an extract from Sargent's
Dealings with the Dead (1. 166) :
The prohibition of the [slave] traffic, in 1788, grew out of public
indignation, produced by the Act of one Avery, from Connecticut,
who decoyed three black men on board his vessel, under pretence of
employing them; and while they were at work below, proceeded to
sea, having previously cleared for Martinico. The knowledge of this
outrage produced a great sensation. Governor Hancock and M.
1918.] ROSENSTEIN TO JOHN HANCOCK. 357
L'Etombe, the French Consul, wrote in favor of the Kidnapped
Negroes, to all the West India Islands. ...
The poor negroes, carried off by that arch villain Avery, were
offered for sale, in the Island of St. Bartholomew. They told their
story publicly — magna est Veritas — the Governor heard and be-
lieved it — the sale was forbidden. An inhabitant of the Island —
a Mr. Atherton of blessed memory — became their protector,
and gave bonds for their good behaviour, for six months. Letters,
confirming their story, arrived. They were sent on their way home
rejoicing, and arrived in Boston on the following 29th day of
and then read the following letter from the Governor of the
island of St. Bartholomew, relating to the incident:
ROSENSTEIN TO JOHN HANCOCK.
Gustavia Island of St. Bartholomews,
the 6th July, 1788.
Sir, — I have been favoured with the honor of your Excellencys
Letter of the 21st April last, relative to the three unfortunate Ne-
groes, Luke Russel, Wenham Cary and Cato Newell that where
(altho' free) villanously Carried of from Your Excellencys Govern-
ment to be disposed of as Slaves in the West Indies. I am exceed-
ingly happy that I by the means of this accident not only have had
the opportunity of satisfying my Sentiments of Humanity, but
which is Still more agreable (if there is any feelings Superior to those
that a person Conceives when it is in his power of being of any Serv-
ice to members of human kind) that of having by the Justice ren-
dered to those three Blacks made myself deserving of Your Excel-
lencys approbation. My satisfaction should however have been
greater if the Barbarous Laws of the West Indies had permitted me
to render them all the Justice they had by the Nature of their Cause
the Right to claim, and of which I was in my private Opinion con-
vinced they were entitled to; but our Laws are greatly to their dis-
advantage in all kind of Disputes between them and White Persons.
This is the reason, why I have been obliged to detain them here,
untill they could have procured sufficient and authentic proofs of
the Right of their Cause, which is plainly obtain'd by Your Excel-
lencys human intercession in their behalf; And in Consequence of
which have not hesitated an instant to grant them permission to
1 Sargent appears to have drawn his facts from the replies of Jeremy Belknap
to the questions of St. George Tucker on slavery, 1795, printed in 1 Collections, rv.
204. See also Moore, Notes on the History of Slavery in Massachusetts, 225.
358 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
return to their Native Country with Capt. Benjamin Ives, Com-
manding the Brigantine Diligence, with whom I have agreed for
their Passage for the Sum of Twenty-four Dollars; having taken the
Liberty of giving said Benj'n Ives my draft on Your Excellency for
the amount, not doubting but Your Excellency will be pleased to
cause same to be paid.
Permit me Sir to rejoice at this Event as a mean of procuring me
the advantage of paying my hommages to your Excellency as one
of those eminent Characters that has so much Illustrated this Period,
and whose exertions for the cause of Liberty, has already been too
great for to admit any Augmen[ta]tion by your intercession in be-
half of those unfortunate men. I am overjoyed that fortune has put
it in my hands to shew my partiality in a cause that has costed Your
Excellency so many cares and so much trouble, and whereby Your
Excellencys illustrious Character will undoubtedly be transferred
to a gratefull posterity, and furnish me with an Occasion of testify-
ing how sensible I am of Your Excellency's merits, and assure Your
Excellency of the great regard and esteem with which I have the
honor to remain, Your Excellency's Most Ob't H'ble Servant,
Mr. Thayer read a paper on
The Longevity of Historians.
Not long ago I heard an interesting but somewhat distressing
lecture by one of our medical experts, on occupational diseases.
He described phossy jaw — the hideous ailment which attacks
match makers and other workers in phosphorous. He told
about the lung and throat troubles which afflict those whose
work creates a metallic dust. He enlarged upon the ills which
beset munitions makers, but he did not include the instantane-
ous bodily annihilation which results from an unexpected explo-
sion of trinitrotoluol. I listened in vain to hear him tell of
housemaid's knee; he either overlooked that or deemed it
too mild to be included in his list of occupational diseases.
As our Vice-President, Mr. James Ford Rhodes, had just
celebrated his seventieth birthday, I fell to thinking on the
longevity of historians — an old hobby of mine — and on what
sort of occupational disease, if any, they are liable to. I knew
roughly that they are a long-lived tribe, but I could not recall
any special malady to which they are heir. In order to be pre-
1918.] THE LONGEVITY OF HISTORIANS. 359
cise I made a little list of the ages of some of the chief historians,
ancient and modern, which runs as follows:
Ancient. Herodotus, 60?: Thucydides, 70: Livy, 76: Tacitus, 62:
Caesar, 56: Xenophon, 73?: Sallust, 52?: Josephus, 63. Average 64.
English. Clarendon, 66: Gibbon, 56: Hume, 65: Robertson, 72:
Roscoe, 78: Hallam, 82: Macaulay, 59: Kinglake, 82: Carlyle, 86:
Freeman, 69: Stubbs, 75: Gardiner, 73: J. R. Green, 46: Lecky, 65:
Froude, 76": Mackintosh, 67: Goldwin Smith, 87: Grote, 77. Aver-
age 70. The two chief living British historians, James Bryce and
John Morley, were both born in 1838, and are accordingly 80 this
French. Voltaire, 83 : Guizot, 87 : Thiers, 80: Martin, 73 : Michelet,
76: Mignet, 88: Michaud, 72: Amedee Thierry, 76: Augustin Thierry,
61: Taine, 65: Sismondi, 69. Average, 75.
German. Giesebrecht, 75: Droysen, 76: Ranke, 90: Sybel, 78:
Ewald, 36: Treitschke, 62: Mommsen, 86: Gregorovius, 70. Aver-
Italian. Sarpi, 71: Machiavelli, 58: Botta, 71: Villari, 90. Aver-
American. Irving, 76: Bancroft, 90: Hildreth, 58: Sparks, 77:
Palfrey, 85: Prescott, 63: Motley, 63: Parkman, 70: Fiske, 59: Henry
Adams, 80: H. C. Lea, 84: Mahan, 74. Average, 73.
Not including Morley and Bryce here are the names of sixty-
one persons whose average age is well over seventy-one. A
historian, therefore, can count on outliving by at least a year the
proverbial three score years and ten. In fact, however, the aver-
age age of men in the community is nearer forty than seventy.
A good while ago I was interested to investigate the common
assumption that, owing to the speed of modern life the average
longevity in the nineteenth century of more or less distinguished
persons was decreasing. I took about 550 names of men and
women who had achieved distinction in art, literature, public
life, warfare, and other categories, and I found that they lived
on an average more than sixty-eight years — a result which
disproves the allegation that the modern pace is the pace which
Our present list shows that the historian lives four years
longer than the average celebrity in other fields. Examining
our groups, we find that the French average leads with seventy-
five; then the Italian and American with seventy-three; the
360 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
English and Germans with seventy-one; the Ancients with
sixty-four. Note, however, that the dates assigned for the
Ancients are very uncertain — so uncertain that I could not
include Suetonius, Diodorus, or Plutarch at all.
Analyzing these figures from a different standpoint we find
that three men, Ranke, Villari and Bancroft, reached the great
age of ninety and, I may add, they all were writing up to the
time of their death. The octogenarians are: Mignet, Guizot,
Goldwin Smith, Kinglake, Carlyle, Mommsen, Hallam, Thiers,
Henry Adams, and H. C. Lea. Except Ewald, thirty-six, Sal-
lust, fifty-two, and Green, forty-six, Caesar and Gibbon, par
nobile fratrum, are the youngest, dying at fifty-six. But
Caesar's death cannot be regarded as an occupational disease,
to which historians are subject.
In fact if we examine the causes of the taking off of these
sixty-one men we shall discover no special disease which killed
the larger part of them. The historian has the privilege enjoyed
by his fellow men of being able to die of any ill which happens
to strike him.
The considerable number of these historians who were also
politicians, or in the larger sense, statesmen, suggests the in-
teresting query, whether writing history is a good preparation
for making it, or making history fits one to write. Caesar among
the ancients, and Machiavelli and Sarpi among the earlier
moderns, are the most striking examples. Guizot was for eight
years prime minister of France under Louis Philippe, and Thiers,
having served for many years in the cabinet of that monarch,
was the first president of the French Republic. In Germany,
Mommsen sat in the Reichstag, but Treitschke, the most vehe-
ment and influential of German publicists, never held public
office, perhaps on account of his deafness. In England, on the
contrary, the ties between the historian and the statesman have
always been recognized. On our list we. find that, besides Clar-
endon, Mackintosh, and Macaulay, Lecky, Bryce and Morley
were members of Parliament, while Stubbs was Bishop of Ox-
ford, and an English Bishop is a very official as well as an eccle-
siastical personage. Among our Americans, only Bancroft had
a cabinet position. The prejudice which for a long while existed
in this country against literary "fellers," included historians
also, but recently two writers of history, Theodore Roosevelt
1918.] THE LONGEVITY OF HISTORIANS. 361
and Woodrow Wilson, have been elected presidents of the
United States, so that our horizon has been much widened.
Now that the American historian need no longer be depressed
by the thought that his occupation renders him ineligible to
the highest office in the people's gift, we breathe more freely.
Although historians are a long-lived tribe, often blessed with
the power to carry on their work far into old age, many of them
have achieved a reputation when they were very young. The
most precocious, I think, is James Bryce, who wrote his Holy
Roman Empire when he was twenty-four; and the book, after
nearly sixty years, holds its own in judgment, poise, maturity,
and thoroughness. Almost equally remarkable was Lecky who
published his Rationalism in Europe when he was only twenty-
seven. Freeman's first book on Church Restoration came out
when he was twenty-six. Thiers was also twenty-six when the
first volume of his History of the French Revolution appeared, and
Michelet made his debut at twenty-seven. Parkman seems to
have been the youngest American to produce history of per-
manent worth, he being twenty-eight at the publication of his
Conspiracy of Pontiac.
But most of the lasting works were published after their
authors were well on in the thirties. Gibbon was thirty-nine
when he issued his first two volumes; Bancroft thirty-four when
he published the first volume of his History of the United States.
Prescott's Ferdinand and Isabella came when he was forty, and
Motley's Dutch Republic when he was forty-two. Mr. Rhodes
was forty-four at the publication of his first volume.
In general it is easy to understand why historians are usually
middle-aged before they produce valuable work. A novel or a
poem can be spun like a spider's web, from the inside; but a
history is the assembling and interpreting of masses of material
from the outside. This requires time — time and long and patient
study. Interpretation also, demands qualities which rarely
develop in the young, qualities which do not reside in the emo-
tions but in the reason. So we concede fiction to the juvenile
and are glad to have history the province of the mature.
Money, or the lack of it, has a further influence on the pro-
duction of history. The historian, though he be a very rare and
privileged creature, must live. Accordingly, unless a kindly
fate, or a rich father, has provided him with a living, he must
362 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
make one. This takes time. Modern historians have usually
earned their living, either as professors or as editors. This
means that necessarily they must be mature before they have
accumulated leisure enough to produce a magnum opus. A few
men, like William Roscoe, George Grote and Mr. Rhodes, after
prospering in business, have devoted themselves to writing
To the youth who wishes to join the guild of historians we
can give therefore not only a friendly welcome, but the prospect
of a long and, we hope, useful life. Our craft does not threaten
him with any occupational disease, although it does not render
him immune to either dyspepsia or mutinous eyes. The work
has many delights and many compensations. He will probably
not amass riches, but he will thank his stars for this, because
it will prevent him from wasting on palaces and private yachts
the talents which he should dedicate to Clio. And he will have
mistaken his calling if he fails to discover in history the magic
chapters which, by recording how men have lived, furnish a
clue to the mystery of Life itself.
The Bowdoin Library.
Mr. Tuttle showed a manuscript list of books and said:
There is in the Society's collection of Bowdoin and Temple
papers a manuscript of bibliographical interest associated with
the Siege of Boston. It is a list of nearly four hundred volumes,
a part of the library of James Bowdoin, later Governor of the
On September 13, 1774, Mr. Bowdoin's name was among
those listed and published as leaders in the patriot cause. Two
days later he requested Samuel Phillips Savage to make an in-
ventory of the goods in his house. Mr. Savage found the Li-
brary to contain more than twelve hundred volumes.
In the early spring of 1775, Mr. Bowdoin left Boston and
lived for several weeks in Braintree. Abigail Adams, two days
before the Battle of Bunker Hill, wrote from Braintree that
"Mr. Bowdoin and his lady are at present in the house of Mr.
Borland, and are going to Middleboro to the house of Judge
Oliver." During this period Mr. Bowdoin's illness prevented
him from taking an active part in public affairs. The family
igiS.] THE BOWDOIN LIBRARY. 363
remained for many months in Middleboro, and probably had
with them there the larger part of Mr. Bowdoin's Library.
When General Burgoyne reached Boston on May 25, 1775,
he took up his abode in the Bowdoin Mansion on Beacon Hill;
and it is likely that Bowdoin's brother-in-law, George Erving,
one of the loyalist refugees who sailed for Halifax early in 1776,
may have had the care of his property here. The list of Bow-
doin's books in Burgoyne's possession during his stay in Boston
is given below, bearing the statement over Erving's signature
at the end.
The two parts of Bowdoin's library later came together, and
passed at his death in 1790 by bequest to the American
Academy of Arts and Sciences of which he was the founder and
first President. An asterisk prefixed to the title indicates that
the volume was in the library of the Academy at the time its
catalogue was issued in 1802.
i 8 * Alt.
Harris's Collection of Voyages. 2 Vol
Churchills Collection of Voy. & Travels. 6 Vol. fol.
Burnets history of his own time . 2 Vol.
Bales's [Bayle's] Works [5 Vols?]
La Sainte Bible per martin. 2 Vol.
The Holy Bible
Pooles Annotations on the Bible. 2 Vol.
, Prideaux's Connection. 2 Vol.
Historia Sum[m]orum Pontificum
Julii Clari Opera omnia
Johnston's [Johnson's] Works
Brady's History of England
Agricola de re metallica
The new Testament with notes — Rhemes 1582
Juneval & Persius in usum Delph.
Calvini Comentarii 2 V.
Institutio Christianae Rel.
Robertson's Phraselogia generalis
De linqua latina Observationes
364 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
38.41 Rabelais's Works. 4 Vol.
42 La Sainte Bible
43 La Pratique de pieta
44 Boyers french & Eng. Dict y .
* 45 Whistons astron. Prin. of Rel.
46 History of Address
47 Two Sermons for 30^ Jan y
48 Cott. Mather's life
* 1.2 Franklins Sophocles 2 Vol. 4^°
? 3.4 Starks [Harte] history of Gustavus Adolphus 2 Vol.
? 5.6 Whitbys Parap on New Testament. 2 Vol.
* 7.8 Droit de la Guerre & de le paix par Grot's. 2 Vol.
* 9 Virgils Opera in usum delph
10.15 Magna Britania. 6 Vol.
* 16 Daneby [Danet's] Dicto y of Greek & Rom. Antiquities
♦17.18 History of Popery
* 19 Stones conic Sections
20 Household Furniture
21.22 Calamy's life of Baxter &c
23 Baxters Saints rest
* 24 [Cleirae] Costumes de la mer.
25 Dalton's Justice
26 Leigh's critica sacra
* 27 TulPs Husbandry
28 Manley's Interpreter of Law Terms
* 29 Bradys Introduction to Old Eng. History
* 30 Hederici Lexicon graecum.
♦31.32 Ainsworths Latin Dictionary
♦33.40 Hume's History of England. 8 Vol.
♦41.42 Essays 2 Vol:
43 Mounteney's Demosthenes 3 Vol.
♦44.46 Lelands, Demesthenes 3 Vol.
♦47.48 Stanyans Grecian History 2 Vol.
♦49.50 Kaim's Elements of Criticism 2 Vol.
* 51 M^Laurin's Algebra
* 52 Cunn's Euclid
* 53 Smiths Student Vade mecum
54 Vigerius de idiotismis graeca Dict y
* 55 Ferguson's Astronomy
* 56 Wards Mathematicks
58 Letters on Religion &c miscell:
59.69W Sermons miscel.
* 61 Coleman's [Colman] life &c miscel.
62 Political Tracts miscel.
1918.] THE BOWDOIN LIBRARY. 365
63 Divinity Tracts mis.
64 Sermons &c. mis.
3 d Alt.
* 1 London & Country Brewer
* 2 Bolinbroke to Sir Will m Windham & Pope
3 Letters on History
* 4 [Burke] Enquirie into the sublime & beautiful
* 5.10 Echards Roman History 5 Vol.
*n.i2 Vertot's history of the Roman Revolution. 2 V.
13 Revolutions of Portugal
*i4.i5 Millers Gardiner's Dictionary 3 Vol.
* 16 Bradley on planting & Gardning
* 1 7.20 Fosters Sermons. 4 Vol.
21.26 Quesnels new Testament 6 Vol.
27 Bennetts Sermons
* 29 Reads [Reid's] enquiry into the human mind
* 30 Mallets life of Bacon
* 31 Martins Optics
* 32 Cramer on Metals
33 The Geography of England
♦34.38 La[o]ndon's Magazine 5 Vol.
4 th Altr.
1.2 The old Whig
* 3.8 Clare[n]dons History of the Rebellion 6 Vol.
* 9 Ashley on American Trade
* 10 Barrier Treaty vindicated
* n De Foes plan of Eng. Commerce
12 Freethinking & Groans of Europe
* 13 Trowell on Husbandry & Gardening
*i4.i9 Ellis on Husbandry. 6 Vol.
*2o.23 Modern Husbandman. 4 Vol.
♦24.25 Turner's Art of Surgery. 2 Vol.
26 Diseases of the Skin
27 Strothers Essay on Sickness & Health
* 28 Boyle's Experiments on Cold
* 29 Deserta's [Descartes] Opera Philosophica
30.31 Boileau's Works in Eng. 2 Vol.
32 Pascals Thoughts on Religion
* 33 Mayhews Sermons
34 The true sentiments of America
* 35 Wilds practical Surveyor
* 36 a Letter on Trade
3 7 Clarkes collection Papers which past between Leibnitz & him
* 38 Clarkes Demonstration of Newtons principles
* 39 Rays philosophical letters
366 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
* 40 Vertots history of the Bretons
* 41 Description of Stowe
* 42 Westons shorthand — a manuscript
* 43 [Andrew] Eliots Sermons
5 th . Alt.
1.9 Collection of Old Plays 9 Vol.
10.14 Jewish Spy by Sargent 5 v
15.22 Turkish Spy 8 v
23.26 TheTatler 4 V
27.28 Plutarchs Morals 2 v.
♦29.30 Ventures [Voltaire's] Works 2 v
♦31.32 Rowes Lucan 2 v
33.34 North Britain [Briton] 2 v.
35.38 Lady Montagues Letters 4 Vol
♦39.48 Oeuvres d'Orace [Horace] par Dacier 10 v.
♦ 1 Williams's British Angler
♦ 2 Bradleys Country Housewife
3 Hills Arithmetic
♦ 4 Livii 5 libri priores
5 Arrols nepos
6 Horatri formata cuningh [Cuningamius.]
7 Bath Guide
8 Present State of polite Learning in Europe.
9 Polite Lady
10 Prince of Abisinia
11 Woodwards Fair Warning
* 12 Lord Bacons Essays
13 Historia des Colonies Angloisses
♦14.15 Voltaires Age of Lewis XV. 2 Vol
16 Du Pouvoir des Souverains D r Barbeyrac
♦17.19 Discours sur la Gouvernement de Sidney 3 v
20 Defence de la nation Britannique
• 21 Les Advantures de Telemaque
23 Pomfrets Poems
24 Cases of Divorce
♦ 25 Dean's Essay on the future life of Brutes
26 Lensden compendium graecum novi Testam.
27 Novum Testament graecum
28 Wallebii Compend. Theologia Christiana
♦ 29 Rose's sallust with Cicero's 4 Orat: ag.* Cataline
30.31 Smarts Orace
32 Ovids Art of Love
33 Maps of all the Counties in Eng d & Wales
IQI8.] THE BOWDOIN LIBRARY. 367
* 34 Bellamy's Sermons
35 Hales Tracts
36 Beveridges Thots on Religion
37 Mori Enchiridion Ethicum
* 38 Muratoris Relation of the Mission of Paraguay
39.41 Miscellaneous Tracts 3 v.
42 Dodwell on the Soul
43 Salmons Family Dictionary
* 44 Inquiry into K. Cha? 1 send 8 for Irish Rebells
45 West & Littleton on the Res. & conv. of Sf. Pau
* 46 Clarkes Justin
* 47 Sallust
* 48 Nepos
* 49 Suetonius
* 1 Hamilton's Observations on M* Vesuvius & Etna
* 2 Bayleys Eng Dict y
3 Ovidii de tristibus in usum Delph
4 St. Augustines meditations
* 5 Tacquet Elementa Geometriae
* 6 Letter to two [great men]
7 Tolands Defence of Milton's Life
* 8 Colmans Sermons
9 Life &c
11 Political Tracts
12 Religious Controversy Mis.
13 Petronius Arbiter
14 Hammonds Review of N. Test
15 Gardiners Life & other Tracts
17 Reepins Comparison of Thucydides & Livy
* 18 Princes Chronology
19, 20 Judicature of the House of Peers 2 v.
21 Derhams Artificial Clockmaker
22 Common Prayer Book
23 Echards Terence
24 Compleat Justice
* 25 Lex Parliamentaria
26 Hammond of Schism
27 Le Sainte Bible
28 Steels Christian Hero
29 Blackmores Creation
30.35 Shakespears Plays 6 V. not compleat
36 Christian Oeconomy
37 Burnets life of Earl of Rochester
38 Pasquins comical Oration
368 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
39 Grosvenor on Health
40 L'Historia Romaine
41 Moliere's Plays, fr. & Eng. 2? Vol.
42 Memoirs de Pompadour i re Tom
43 Croysincede lt . Eglise
44 Fieldings Amelia
* 45 Addisons Works 1 V.
46 Swifts D? 5 th V.
47 Dodsley's Collect, of Poems 4 th V.
48 Harrisons Remarks relating to the Deluge
* 49 Le Clares [Le Clerc's] Compend of Universal History
50 Reflections of the Death of Freethinkers
51 Fables of the Bees. 2 d Vol.
by M r Southack
Paradise Lost 2 Vol.
Yorricks Sermons 2 Vol.
Sentimental Journal 2 Vol.
Institutio Greecae Gramaticae
Decin Quum Gevenalis
Tristram Shandi 2 v.
Hoyleys Accurate Gamester
Young Mans Companion
Paraclete sive Enurpta
Novum Jesu Christi Testamentum
Dods reflections on Death
Locks Essay on Human Understanding
New Roman History '
Fordyce's Sermons to Young Women
Mair's Art of Bookeeping
Laws Devout Life
Youngs Political Life
The above is a Catalogue of Books left in the Library of James Bowdoin
Esqre in the possession of Major Genl Burgoyne
Boston Sept 9th 1775.
Endorsed for filing "Catalogue of Part of my Books Sept. 9, I775-"
FROM A MINIATURE BY DUMONT
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 369
Mr. Ford communicated the following journal, from the
original Ms. in the possession of Miss Mary Rivers, a grand-
daughter of the writer. She very courteously gave permission
to print, and aided in preparing the notes. Mr. Russell's
writing is at times not clear, and it is only too evident that
some of the names are incorrectly printed; but it has been
found impossible to confirm every reference.
Journal of Jonathan Russell, 1818-1819.
OCTOBER 22, 1 8 18. Having made all our arrangements and
despatched our forbud at seven o'clock last evening, we, this morn-
ing, left Stockholm between seven and eight o'clock. As I was get-
ting into the carriage a servant delivered me a package containing
a note from His Excellency Count D'Engestrom, the Swedish
Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1 and several letters from him recom-
mending us to the attention of the Swedish agents and ministers at
Stralsund, Berlin, Dresden, Vienna and Italy.
We reached Fittja, the first stage, one and one-half miles from
Stockholm without discovering any accident; but we had not pro-
ceeded far from that place before we found the principal iron of
the left forespring to be broken. This injury I believed to have
taken place between Stockholm and Fittja and to have been occa-
sioned by our driver, an Englishman named William Williams
Phipps, having taken with him on the dicky a heavy peasant. We
were detained in the middle of the road about an hour in woolding
the spring, with a piece of tarred rope, with which we were for-
tunately provided, and supporting it with a stanchion of wood. In
this manner we proceeded to the second stage Sodertelje, 2 a dis-
tance of two Swedish miles from Fittja. This Sodertelje is a paltry
village although considered as a town from which extra-post money
is exacted. Notwithstanding our detention on the road which oc-
casioned our arrival at Sodertelje later than the time at which the
horses had been ordered by the forbud, we were obliged to wait for
them there nearly an hour, which made our arrival at Pilkrog, the
next stage of a mile and half, more than an hour later than the time
we had assigned. It is the regulation in Sweden that the traveller,
if he causes the horses which he has ordered by his forbud to wait
more than an hour, shall pay an extra sum. I was in consequence
1 Laurent, Comte d'Engestrom (1751-1826) practically passed his life in the.
service of his country, entering the Royal Chancelry in 1770. He became presi-
dent of the Chancelry May 16, 1809, and retired in 1824.
2 On Lake Malar, now a summer resort.
370 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
obliged to pay about half a dollar banco at Pilkrog as well as
Aby and Suardsbro the two next stages at which we also arrived too
late. From Pilkrog to Aby and from Aby to Suardsbro is, each,
two miles. We arrived at Nykoping about seven o'clock in the
evening which, at this season of the year, is more than an hour into
the night. The last stage from Suardsbro to Nykoping is two and
one-half miles. We did not go to the post-house or tavern but to a
private house where we were comfortable, but had to pay for the
rooms and the eating separately.
On the 23d we breakfasted and left Nykoping at eight a. m.
We had not proceeded more than one Swedish mile before both the
irons which support the dicky on the springs broke short. We were
detained an hour in arranging the dicky with lashings and by a
stake passed under it and resting on its steps. In this way we passed
the several stages, Jader, Wreta, Krokek, Aby to Norrkoping.
From Nykoping to Jader is one and three-fourths miles, from Jader
to Wreta one and one-eighth, from Wreta to Krokek one and one-
fourth, from Krokek to Aby one and one-half and from Aby to
Norrkoping three-fourths. We found that we had all taken severe
colds since leaving Stockholm and the child was quite ill. We de-
cided to repair the iron work which had given way and immediately
on arriving at Norrkoping we sent for a smith who immediately
proceeded in the business. We found good quarters at Norrkoping
in a private house and passed the night comfortably.
24. We were detained at Norrkoping until half past two o'clock
p. m. by the smith who could not complete his work until that time.
We then resumed our journey and passing Brink to Kumla reached
Linkoping at six o'clock without accident. We had taken our two
portmanteau trunks from the carriage and sent them on with an
extra horse by the forbud. From Norrkoping to Brink is one and
one-fourth miles, and from Kumla to Linkoping is one and five-
eights. At Linkoping we found at a private house very good quar-
ters for the night.
25. Left Linkoping at eight o'clock a. m., proceeded to Banke-
berg one mile, thence to Mjolby one and seven-eights miles, thence
to Dala three-fourths of a mile, and thence to Hested one and one-
fourth miles without accident. On arriving at this last place we
were surprised to find there our forbud who had been detained by
the postmaster for three hours. The postmaster was gone to church,
but William flogged the Holcar and denounced in the post-book,
called the dag-bog, the misconduct of the master. We then pro-
ceeded to Sathalla two miles and after waiting there one and one-
half hours for horses, we proceeded to Berga one and three-fourths
miles, where we suffered a like detention when we went to Eksjo
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 371
one and three-fourths miles where we did not arrive until nine
o'clock. We passed this night very indifferently at the post-house.
Marcus, our forbud, did not get there until midnight.
26. We left Eksjo at eight o'clock and went on without acci-
dent one and one-half miles to Bransmala, thence one and three-
eights to Hvetlanda, thence two miles to Stockatorp, and thence
one and one-half miles to Nybbeled. Soon after leaving this last
place the horses in going down a hill left the road towards a house
situated at the right below, and in spite of the driver and perhaps,
at last, of themselves, ran against a fence which stretched from the
house to the road, beat down a length of it, over which three of the
horses passed, but the fourth having fallen, the driver exerting all
his strength, the fore wheels of the carriage fortunately brought us
up against the prostrated fence and saved us from being turned
over which would have been inevitable had we gone ten feet far-
ther. Luckily no other injury was done than the destruction of a
length of fence, and by taking off the horses and running the car-
riage back by hand we were enabled to put it again in the right
track and proceeded to Ashult which is one mile from Nybbeled.
Here we found the forbud, who from the late hour at which he had
arrived the night before at Eksjo, from the darkness and the hills,
had been able to get no further. We waited at Ashult two hours
for horses and thence proceeded one and one-half miles to Areda,
where we were again detained more than two hours before we could
obtain horses to go on to Wexio which is one and one-half miles
from Areda. It was eleven o'clock before we arrived at Wexio and
had to remain in the street nearly an hour before we could find
lodgings and then had to put up with very dirty apartments at the
post-house. It was one o'clock in the morning before we could get
anything to eat and retire to bed. The gatekeeper of the town had
besides stopt (stopped) our baggage on entering the town and we
were obliged to send the driver after it who, from his own account,
rescued it by force.
27. As we had suffered so much the day before, and as the
child appeared fatigued and ill, we resolved to pass this day at
Wexio and restore our forces. After breakfast, therefore, we sought
more comfortable apartments and removed to the house of the
Landhamered — the Herr Lang, where we found ourselves much at
our ease. We despatched the forbud at three o'clock.
28. We breakfasted and left Wexio at seven a. m. and pro-
ceeded to Nybled one and one-fourth miles, thence to Gotasa one
and one-half, thence to Dio two and one-fourth, thence to Elmhult
one, thence to Marklunda, two, thence to Broby one and three-
fourths, thence to Bjarlof one and one-half and thence to Christian-
372 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
stad one and one-eighth. We had left the province of Smoland and
travelled this day in Scania. Christianstad is still a fortified town,
although by no means so strong as formerly, as its strength has
been materially impaired by the river Helge which formerly filled its
trenches, having about twenty years since found another channel
and left the trenches of Christianstad dry. At Christianstad we
lived pretty comfortably at the house of a glove-maker.
29. Left Christianstad at nine o'clock. Went to Lyngsjo one
and one-fourth miles, thence to Degeberga one, thence to Brosarp
one and one-half, thence to Tranas one and one-half, thence to
Herrestad one and three-fourths, and thence to Ystad five-eighths.
We arrived at this last town about sunset, and there, much to our
satisfaction, terminated our travelling in Sweden. 1 We had found
the roads generally very good from Stockholm and in better order
than could have been expected from the lateness of the season. In
passing through Sweden there are many fine natural landscapes,
but very little cultivation to delight the traveller. Evergreens,
rocks, hills and lakes are the only charms. From Linkoping to
Wexio the country is very dreary. Besides the accidents already
enumerated we left at Wexio the footman's straps of our carriage,
and at Christianstad a night-shirt, and Marcus our forbud had been
pitched over once and twice turned over, and the last time nearly
demolished his wagon. In short we had a most fatiguing and un-
pleasant journey. On arriving at Ystad the commandant imme-
diately waited on us and informed us that in consequence of the
orders which he had received there was a packet to take us to Stral-
sund whenever we might be disposed to proceed thither. He also
gave directions at the inn where we stopt for our accommodation.
He also delivered to me a letter from Count D'Engestrom.
30. We sent our carriage and trunks on board the packet this
morning and the commandant sent a person to pass them at the
post-house and to attend to the weighing of the trunks which were
found to weigh twenty-five stone and eleven stone, and for weigh-
ing which I paid thirty-two shillings banco. In the afternoon paid
and discharged William, wrote Count D'Engestrom, Professor
Afzelius and D. Erskine & Co. The wind being ahead for Stralsund
we would not embark.
31. The wind still ahead we remained at Ystad. The child
hoarse with a cold and Mrs., R[ussell] much alarmed lest it might
prove to be the croup, had two physicians, &c.
November 1. A gale during the night from W. S. W. which still
1 It is possible to follow the route taken by Mr. Russell station by station on
the Generalstabens Karta bfver Svenge, the road being plainly marked.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 373
continues and will prevent our embarking to-day. The two physi-
cians again called but the child is much better. A Mr. Strom, a
trader here who speaks English, has been very attentive to us at
the request of the commandant and rendered us many little services.
2. The wind still unfavorable but the weather more moderate.
It is necessary for every traveller in Sweden to furnish himself
with a set of travelling harness fitted to the little horses of the
country and as such harness is useless elsewhere it is well to dispose
of it on leaving the country. In no country, however, is there so
little hospitality, I will not say generosity or kindness, for strangers,
as in Sweden. 1 Every foreigner is there considered a lawful object
of plunder and he may more safely rely on the liberality of a deal or
down wrecker in a storm on a lee shore than on the compassion or
justice of a Swede. That piratical spirit which distinguished the
Scandinavians in former times, appears still to animate their de-
scendants. Hence even in relation to the most trifling transaction
the stranger is sure to be robbed. These observations have been
suggested by the treatment I experienced in attempting to dispose
of my Swedish travelling harness for four horses. On arriving ten
months since at Helsingborg I purchased it for fifty banco dollars.
It has been only to Stockholm and thence to this place and is very
little injured by use, yet I have not been able to get anything what-
ever for it here. I had another striking instance of this spirit at
Stockholm. I had travelled thither in a French dormeuse com-
pletely furnished with two backs on the top, a trunk behind, a cave
at the bottom, a net over head, &c, and which had been valued at
five hundred dollars banco, yet when I offered it for sale the highest
offer made for it was sixty-six dollars of this money. When I had to
pay for a trunk only for my barouche sixty dollars.
3. We had entertained yesterday some hopes of a change of
wind as the weather had considerably moderated but the wind rose
again in the night and we found a strong gale this morning from the
westward and a thick atmosphere. There is therefore no prospect
of embarking to-day. About midnight we were awakened by a
tremendous uproar in our inn which at first caused some alarm but
we soon perceived that it was nothing more than the obstreperous
conviviality of a supper party in the house. We learned this morn-
ing that we were indebted for this disturbance to a Mr. Kansled, a
corn trader from Stockholm, who was repaying in this way, and at
once, all the hospitality he had received successively from the good
1 Compare the opinion of John Quincy Adams in 1783: "Sweden is the coun-
try in Europe which pleases me the most, that is, of those I have seen; because
their manners resemble more those of my own country than any I have seen.''
Writings of John Quincy Adams (Ford), 1. 8.
374 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
people with whom he had transacted his affairs at Ystad. If noise
and intemperance had a value in the estimation of these people,
they must have not only acknowledged payment in full from Mr.
Kansled but carried a balance to his credit in a new account.
The mode of travelling in Sweden is peculiar. There are post-
houses indeed established throughout the country at certain dis-
tances from each other, varying from half a Swedish mile to two
miles and a half, but there are no horses regularly at these houses,
either on account of individuals, as in England, or on account of
government, as in France and elsewhere. The peasants of the sur-
rounding country are obliged to bring to the post-house every
evening at six o'clock a certain number of horses proportioned to
the ordinary demand for horses by travellers at each station. If
these horses are more than are called for during the next twenty-
four hours, for those unused the peasant receives nothing, and as he
remains at the station with his horse the time of both is conse-
quently lost. If all the horses regularly ordered for the station be
insufficient for the travellers of the day, the post-master will gen-
erally order others for the special use of those who require them. I
say generally, but the post-master at Farlun refused in August last
to order any extra horses for my service and I was, on that account,
obliged to prolong my residence at that place another day. So little
dependence is placed by travellers on the horses ordinarily ordered
by the post-master that they always, if they wish to get on without
detention, send off a forbud or an avant-courier whose business it is
to order horses at each station at the time assigned by his principal.
For this purpose he is furnished with a forbud seddel, or avant-
courier's bill, which answers for his pass and for an authority to the
postmaster to furnish the number of horses at the time required.
The Swedish mile is about six and two-thirds English and the
traveller in making up his forbudseddel, generally allows an hour
and a quarter for each mile, including the time necessary for chang-
ing the horses. Sometimes the traveller sends on his own servant
as forbud with his baggage, but frequently he trusts entirely to the
peasant who always accompanies his own horse. I have tried both
ways and I have found that the luggage is generally taken better
care of by a servant and more diligence and speed secured than by
a peasant. At every station the trunks are shifted from one cart
to another and sometimes with violence by the peasants. To pre-
vent this evil I now, in coming from Stockholm to Ystad, procured
a wagon for the whole way and sent my servant, Marcus, as forbud.
But although he travelled night and day and we in the daytime
only, we overtook him several days before he had arrived at the
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 375
Without a forbud the traveller may calculate on being detained
at each station, on an average, two hours for horses.
The horses though very small and very quick are remarkably
surefooted, and I do not remember having seen one of them stumble,
much less fall, by a misstep. The rate of posting in Sweden is low,
and of course the establishment oppressive to the peasantry. From
ordinary stations in the country the price for each horse per mile is
twelve shillings banco which, at the present exchange, is equal to
twelve cents American currency. From Stockholm for each horse
per mile is, say, thirty-two shillings banco, from one or two other
towns twenty-four shillings banco, and from all other towns, called
cities, sixteen shillings banco. The average for a horse per mile is
therefore a little more than fourteen shillings banco or rather more
than two and one-fourth cents for an English mile. In England,
the dearest country in Europe for posting, the usual price is one
shilling six pence sterling for two horses, and in 181 2 I frequently
paid two shillings to two shillings three pence, which is from seven-
teen to twenty-five cents a horse nearly; or from seven to eleven
fold more than in Sweden. In Sweden, however, the traveller must
find his own carriage and harness unless he would ride in a little
cart of about two feet wide and five long. He must also have six
horses, in Sweden, including his forbud with his luggage, where
four in England, and perhaps two, would be sufficient, and he must
pay about two cents per mile for the care of the forbud. Besides,
two peasants, generally, mount behind the carriage to conduct
back their horses, which is a great nuisance. Add to all this a driver
who must be hired for the whole way at an extra expense. I paid
for the one who drove me from Stockholm to this place twenty
dollars banco exclusive of his living on the road.
The account then will stand thus — for
6 horses 62^ miles no
extra waggon 5
harness for four horses 35^
driver and feeding 80
Two hundred and thirty-three dollars banco for sixty-two and one-
half Swedish miles for six horses is about thirty-one cents a horse
for such a mile, or less than five cents per horse for an English mile,
which, on an average, is only about a fourth of what a horse costs
in England for the same distance, and would not be one-half, if
every allowance be made for the difference of the number of horses
37^ MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
required in these countries respectively. It will be observed that
the greatest part of the expense in travelling in Sweden is not for
the benefit of the peasant who furnishes the horses. From a coun-
try station he goes, on an average, one and a half Swedish miles,
with a horse, for eighteen cents and, whether in the night or not,
it may be considered as a day lost for both. This establishment
so injurious to agriculture, is persevered in for the accommoda-
tion of the aristocracy who generally spend the winter at the capital
and the summer at their country seats, and have no other mode
than the posting in question for the transportation of themselves
Our detention at Ystad is the more unpleasant as it is a little
dirty place, containing about two thousand inhabitants and not a
single object, ancient or modern, worth the attention of the traveller.
Besides, the inn, like most Swedish inns, is dirty and uncomfortable.
4. This morning is quite calm which inspires a hope that we
may be able to embark this evening, for it is in the evening that the
packets leave Ystad for Stralsund. The reason of this arrangement
is the conveniency, after passing the open sea during the night, to
be able to make the Island of Riigen, which is about twelve Swedish
miles distant, early in the morning, and to have the whole day to
run through the narrow and shoal waters which lie between that
island and the main up to Stralsund. Paid this morning the two
physicians of Ystad 5 dollars banco each. I passed last evening and
this morning in reading a treatise of Abbe Raynal on the revolution
of America and published while the war continued between the
colonies and the mother country. I was equally surprised by his
correct knowledge of the facts and principles on which that revolu-
tion was founded, and by his ignorance of its consequences. While
he appeared fully to understand and to approve the conduct of the
Americans, he had adopted so unfavorable an opinion of their soil,
climate and resources as boldly to predict that their population
could never exceed ten millions, and even to arrive at this number
they would be obliged to consume all their produce, leaving nothing
for exportation and limiting themselves to a frugal subsistence.
How astonished would that good man now be could he now behold
us in less than forty years from the time [he] wrote, individually
and personally richer than most of the nations of Europe, and with
a population already pressing hard on the limit which [he] assigned
to us, and still augmenting in a ratio unparalleled in ancient and
modern times, without exhausting or even keeping pace with our
means of subsistence, as the surplus of our produce continually
increases the amount of our exportation.
The boldness of the beggars at Ystad is beyond what I have
I9i8>] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 377
ever witnessed elsewhere. They are not contented with accosting
a stranger in the street, besieging the door and waiting in the pas-
sage, but unceremoniously enter his apartments.
The captain of the packet came at five o'clock p. m. to announce
his intention of sailing at six in the evening and we made our ar-
rangements accordingly. At half past five he called again to tell
us that the wind had drawn ahead and that he should not go.
5. We were again summoned on board at half past three p. m.
and went accordingly, but the wind continuing unfair and blowing
very fresh, the captain declined sailing. Wishing however, to avoid
the trouble of moving back and forth from the inn to the vessel and
from the vessel to the inn, we determined to remain on board.
6. We still continued on board this day and about four p. m.
the captain having warped his vessel out, got under sail. The wind
was still fresh and so unfair that we could not keep within two
points of our course. The beginning of the night was very rough
and we were all, including the infant, very seasick. A little after
midnight, having got under the lea of Riigen and Pomerania, it
became smoother and we slept more quietly.
7. Went on deck early and saw Riigen and the coast of Pome-
rania and Riigen, but these at a considerable distance, and the
wind being still unfavorable we beat all day and was not fairly up
with the north end of Riigen until sunset. The wind moderated
very much and we quietly plied up the bay during the night, with-
out making much progress.
8. Found ourselves in the morning passed the island of Riigen
and in the shoal and narrow waters. It is only small vessels bound
to or from Stralsund that navigate inside of the Island of Riigen in
these waters. There was on board our packet a graduated pole for
sounding, and in one place we passed, we found only six and one-
fourth [feet] of water, while our vessel drew 6 feet, so there was
only one-fourth of a foot to spare. Although there is no tide in the
Baltic, the depth of water in firths and bays varies much and there
are often considerable currents, all of which depend on the char-
acter and strength of the winds. In the passage of which I am now
speaking there are sometimes ten and sometimes not four feet of
water, and the current sometimes out and sometimes in. We found
it against us. The captain landed at [a] point about seven English
miles from Stralsund with the mail about nine o'clock, and we were
all day plying with light airs of wind or warping in a calm towards
Stralsund. We found the channel very crooked and sometimes very
narrow, but marked with stakes in its whole course. At length we
anchored close off the pier at Stralsund at nine o'clock in the evening.
9. To avoid the disagrement of going ashore in the night and
378 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
looking for an inn we had remained on board. We found the vessel
fast to the pier this morning and we went on shore about eight
o'clock. We stopt at the Hotel of the Golden Eagle. Mr. Lun-
blad, the Swedish agent for the port at Stralsund, to whom Count
D'Engestrom had given me a letter, we found to be absent; but
his locum-tenens was very civil and rendered us all the services of
which we stood in need. We spent the day in making our arrange-
ments for getting on. We discharged our waiting-maid, Christiana,
as we found her not only to be useless, being lazy and impertinent,
but extravagant, forward with male society, and of equivocal in-
tegrity. We paid her in full up to the end of this month, and for
her passport I gave her fifty dollars banco extra to take her back to
Stockholm. There is much history belonging to Stralsund but little
there now worth seeing. The town-house is a fine old Gothic
10. We breakfasted and left Stralsund at ten o'clock. We
passed a poor country and very bad road to Loitz, a distance of
five German miles. At Loitz we passed the night in rather an in-
different inn and very small rooms. Ida's birthday.
ii. We breakfasted and left Loitz at seven thirty A. m., changed
at Treptow at three thirty, a distance of [ ] and reached
Neubrandenburg, Mecklenburg, at six o'clock, where we found a
very good inn and passed the night. The roads were better this
day than yesterday and the country better cultivated. We had
travelled in all this day [ ] miles of German.
12. Left Neubrandenburg at seven thirty, after breakfast,
changed at Strelitz at one thirty p. m., at Furstenberg at four and
reached Gransee at seven. It was a clear moonshine and very cold.
We found a spacious inn at Gransee and everything in abundance
but in a worse style. We had travelled this day [ ] German
miles. The last stage they gave us six horses making us pay for
five. We have been obliged to take five at Stralsund and to pay
for that number the whole way. With the six horses we had two
postilions and both required drink-money but I paid only one.
13. We breakfasted and left Gransee at seven thirty — changed
at Oranienburg at one — four miles — saw here a large chateau
turned into a manufactory — sandy road — changed at Sandberg
at four o'clock, [ ] miles, reached Berlin at six o'clock
and stopped at the Hotel de Russie under the Lindens. About the
last mile of the road was turn-piked, but the country barren.
14. Called on my Bankers Freres Bonche; on the French Min-
ister, Marquis de Bonnay; * on the Swedish Minister, Baron de
1 Francois, Marquis de Bonnay (1750-1825).
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 379
Taube; on the Portuguese Minister, Baron Lobo; * on [the] Russian
charge d'affairs, Mons. Craftz. 2 The Marquis de Bonnay called in
the evening with his lady. The remainder of the evening spent in
15. Baron Taube sent his cards with ours to various persons.
Called on Count Lobo, the Portuguese Minister, and was very
cordially received. Calls from Baron Taube, [ ]. Spent
the evening with Mrs. and Miss Russell at the Marquis of Bon-
nay's. Saw there the old Countess Gallitzin, who at the age of
eighty-six retained her gaiety and made her party at Boston regu-
larly every evening. She inquired particularly after J. Q. A. and
said she had been well acquainted with him. Saw there also the
ladies of the Austrian and Russian Ministers and Mr. Rose, 3 the
English Minister, who was particularly polite.
16. (Monday). Went in the morning to Charlottenburg and
saw there the superb mausoleum of the late queen 4 executed by
Rauch, 5 who had formerly been her page. Dined at Count Lobo's
and passed the evening at a ball at the English Minister's.
17. Went in the morning to visit the great palace built by the
great Duke of Brandenburg 6 — the apartments quite magnificent,
but the furniture rather decayed. Some fine pictures in the great
gallery, in the centre of which in the most conspicuous exposition,
is an equestrian picture of Bonaparte passing the Mount St. Gothard.
Had to pay a Frederick d'or. We also saw a very curious clock
which had been plundered at Paris.
18. Baron de Taube called on us this morning to accompany
us to the manufactory of porcelain. The overseer attended us
through all the different apartments and caused the various work-
men to exhibit their skill, from the kneading the paste to the last
polish of the gilding. Showed us also a superb service intended for
the Duke of Wellington, descriptive of the various battles in which
he had been distinguished. Dined with Mr. Rose, the English
Minister, and then, as the Baron de Taube had presented us with
tickets, we went to the opera. The music very good, the dancing
very indifferent, the overture very fine. Music by Gluck — piece
19. At nine o'clock received a note fro N m Sir William Ingilby
saying that the Prince Marshall Blucher 7 would receive. We did
1 Comte Lobo de Sylveira. 2 M. d'Alopeus was the Ambassador.
3 Sir George Henry Rose (1771-1855). Diet. Nat. Biography, xlix. 231.
4 Louisa of Prussia (1776-1810).
8 Christian Daniel Rauch (1777-1857).
6 Frederick William (1620-1688).
7 Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher (1742-1819).
380 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
not fail to go at the hour appointed. The old Marshall received us
with great courtesy and took me by the hand, ordered the servant
to bring a portrait of Washington which had been presented to him
by Sheridan. 1 Presented to us his daughter-in-law, a very pretty
woman, who took us into a large saloon, round which were hung
the portraits of all the sisters of Napoleon, 2 painted by David and
which the old Marshall had plundered at Paris. In learning that
I came from Stockholm, he very frankly declared that he had not
been satisfied with the conduct of Bernadotte, either at Leipsic or
afterwards. Said the battle of Leipsic had been fought by his ad-
vice in opposition to that of Bernadotte, who was not for fighting.
Dined with the Baron de Taube, with several foreign ministers, and
the Prussian Ministers of Interior and Finance, and several dis-
tinguished Prussian Generals, among whom was Gneisenau, 3 the
real hero of Prussia. Spent the evening at Lobo's with a very large
party. Had a great deal of conversation with Rose, who spoke
very unfavorably of the situation of Prussia. The spirit and the
number of the advocates of revolution are increasing and becoming
formidable to the existing order of things. These revolutionists
distinguished themselves by wearing their hair straight, in imita-
tion of the ancient Germans. They generally parade the streets
with canes, sometimes with swords, and duels are frequent. The
British government are urging claims on that of Prussia for seizures
of English merchandise at Konigsberg and elsewhere, under the
continental system, but contrary, as it is said, to an understanding
between the two governments. Mr. Rose mentioned the instance
of a Jew who was agent of some of the British merchants, and pre-
tended that the goods entrusted to him had been burned under that
system, when it had been proved that this person had sent to the
bonfire packages made up to resemble the real ones, but containing
nothing of value, and had kept the true merchandise and converted
it to his own use. Mr. Rose also mentioned a disgraceful specula-
tion of the Swedish government. Prussia refused to pay for Pom-
erania except Sweden would pay that part of the Saxon debt which
belonged to the Saxon territory ceded in 1814. Much negotiation
took place and General Capps, the aid-de-camp of Bernadotte and
a Jew named Dehn, finally agreed to pay fifty-five per cent of that
debt instead of one-third. The publication of this agreement was
1 Thomas Sheridan (1775-1817), son of Richard Brinsley Sheridan.
2 Marie- Anne-Elisa Bonaparte (1 777-1820), married Captain Felix Bao
ciochi; Marie-Pauline Bonaparte (1780-1825), married (1) General Leclerc and
(2) Camillo Borghese; Caroline-Marie-Annonciade Bonaparte (1782-1839), mar-
ried Joachim Murat.
3 August Neidhardt, Comte de Gneisenau (1 760-1831).
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 381
not to be made public for seven or eight days, in which period the
Jew went into the market and purchased the whole debt at thirty
per cent, and it is supposed on joint account of Bernadotte & Co.
It seems also that this Jew and Bernadotte have been interested in
another common concern and that the Countess of Pappenheim,
the daughter of Prince Hardenberg, * has been the mistress of them
both. Rose says that the population of all the Prussian domains
does not exceed ten millions, the whole at present military.
20. Engaged in the morning in packing. Received a visit from
Taube and Rose. The latter brought me a letter of introduction
to the first Equerry of the King at Potsdam. At two o'clock p. m.
we left Berlin. We were allowed to take four horses only. The dis-
tance from Berlin to Potsdam is four miles, the postage for the whole
of which is paid at Berlin before the traveller departs, although he
changes horses half way at Zehlendorf. We reached Potsdam at
five thirty and stopt at the Hotel de Prussie, a very indifferent inn.
We were followed from the gate of the city by a soldier who was
joined at the inn by a custom-house officer. The latter objected to
our taking our luggage into the house before he had examined it.
To this I did not submit, and as he could speak neither French or
English, nor I German, a very amusing scene took place between us,
which was only terminated by the arrival of a valet de place, who,
having explained who I was, the man of the customs appeared
satisfied that I was not a smuggler and tranquilly retired.
21. I delivered this morning my letter from Mr. Rose to the
first Equerry, or rather I left it with his servant as he was not at
home. About ten o'clock we went in a voiture de remise to Sans
Souci and visited first the gallery of paintings which, although not
very large, contains a very choice collection. The head of Christ
painted on gold, by Raphael, is unequalled. We next visited the
old palace of Sans Souci. In passing to which, from the gallery, we
saw the tombs where thirteen of the dogs of the great Frederick
were interred by him. The old palace of Sans Souci is not large, but
as it was the favorite residence of the great Frederick during the
summer, it is very interesting, particularly as the same furniture
remains unchanged and they show the tables on which he wrote,
still stained with his ink. The room which Voltaire occupied also
remains as he left it. The view from the front of the palace is very
delightful. We next went to the new palace of Sans Souci. It is a
very spacious building and has very handsome out-houses for the
domestics, on the opposite side of the court. The chief material of
all is brick. We contented ourselves with an outside view of this
1 Karl August von Hardenberg (1750-182 2).
382 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
palace; as the least sight of the interior would have cost us three
or four Prussian dollars or two or three Spanish dollars. The ex-
actions from strangers in this country for the exhibitions of its
works of art are exorbitant and inhospitable. We returned to
Potsdam and went to the church to see the tomb of the great Fred-
erick. It is very simple and the coffin which contains his remains is
plain and of bronze. It is placed by the side of a marble coffin
which encloses the mortal part of his father. From the palace we
went to the palace of Potsdam. There has been no change of the
furniture of the apartments which the great Frederick occupied.
The table on which he signed his orders after dinner is still covered
with the dripping of the wax candles, and the satin covering of a
sofa still retains the impression of the greasy plates in which he fed
his dogs. It was evident from all we saw that he must have been a
great sloven as well as a great man. There was a small room in
which he dined with his confidants, and in order to exclude the ser-
vants he had a table contrived so as to dispense with their attend-
ance. This table was round and an interior circle of it lowered to
the apartment below by machinery, on which was sent away the
dirty dishes and on which was raised whatever might be wanting
to replace them. The outward periphery of the table of about a
foot wide, on the top, remained stationary. In the evening the first
Equerry, for whom I had left the letter in the morning, made us a
visit. We found him very affable and entertaining. He remem-
bered well the great Frederick, said that he had often seen him re-
view his troops and that there was something so commanding in
his regard that whenever he turned his eye the populace shrunk
back with awe and left the space clear. He appeared to regret the
change which had taken place during the last twenty years in the
manners of the inhabitants of Berlin. He said that the wealth of
the capital had, during that period passed from the nobility to Jews
and merchants, and that, excepting among the foreign ministers,
there was little society and no hospitality at Berlin. The ladies had
become more severe in their manners, but infinitely less amiable.
Indeed Rose has told me that twenty years since, in a society of
thirty ladies, it would have been difficult to have found one that had
not some intrigue to boast of, and that now it was as difficult among
the same number to find a gallant woman.
22. Left Potsdam, after breakfast, at half past seven. Changed
horses at Beelitz, two and three-fourths miles, at ten fifteen, at
Treuenbrietzen, two and one-fourth miles at one thirty. Here the
chaussee ended. And reached Juterbog at four o'clock, being two
miles bad road. The inn we stopt at was clean and cheap but very
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 383
23. Left Juterbog at seven thirty. Changed horses at Anna-
burg, three and one-half miles, at one o'clock, and reached Coss-
dorf at seven thirty, likewise three and one-half miles. The last
two hours were very dark and the road most infamous. Indeed, a
German traveller has observed that the roads, which we had passed
this day, had not been repaired since the creation of the world.
They are certainly the mere trails which the carriages have ploughed
through the sands, one trail being left where the sand had become
too deep, for another, and we often turned, at some hazard, from
them all to seek through the adjacent fields a firmer soil. The inn
at Cossdorf was the post-house and a wretched inn it was. There
was no covering to the beds but beds, and no meat of any kind. We
supped as well as we could on coffee, bread, butter and an
24. Left Cossdorf at seven fifteen after having breakfasted on
bread, butter and coffee, for we could not this morning procure even
an omelette. The road continued very bad until we reached Gros-
senhain, a distance of three German miles. After being detained
an hour for horses, we left Grossenhain at one o'clock and reached
Dresden, four miles turnpiked, at five o'clock [p. m.] At Dresden
we stopt at the Hotel de Vienna, where we found comfortable apart-
ments and a good supper. After we had left Cossdorf, this morning
about three hours, Amelia found that her three rings were not on
her finger. She had taken them off to wash her hands and had left
them at the inn! Found at the Hotel de Vienna Mr. Prandell, a
Russian Colonel whom I had known at Paris, and who was so de-
lighted to hear I was under the same roof with him that he made me
leave my bed to give him an interview.
25. Procured a voiture de remise and went about eleven o'clock
to deliver my letters to the Baron de Bildt, the Swedish envoy;
Latour-Maubourg 1 and the Marquis de Pombal, 2 the French and
Austrian Ministers, and to my bankers Messrs. Bessenge & Co.
Was very politely received by them all. Found, however, the
Swedish envoy in his bed with the gout in his stomach and quite
unable to render me any service; he insisted, however, in making
me known to a celebrated Savan, Mr. Bottiger. 3 In the evening I
went with the ladies to the opera to see L'engano felice, in Italian.
1 Just-Pons-Florimond de Fay, Marquis de Latour-Maubourg (1 781-183 7),
grandson of the Marquis de Lafayette.
2 The Almanack de Gotha, 1818, gives Comte de Dillon as the French am-
bassador and Comte de Bombelles as the Austrian minister at the court of
Saxony. It was Louis-Philippe, Comte de Bombelles (1 780-1843).
3 Karl August Bottiger (1 760-1835), inspector of the Museum of An-
384 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
The whole royal family of Saxony were present. 1 We found the
music good, the acting and singing very indifferent. A boy, ap-
parently not more than thirteen years old, performed remarkably
well on the French horn.
26. This morning we went to see the Royal Gallery of pictures,
said to contain twelve thousand. It is very rich in works of great
masters, particularly early Italian. The "Night" of Correggio,
the "Ascension" of Raphael, and a "Venus" by Titian, held con-
spicuous places. There were many by Raphael Mengs, the great
Saxon painter. After our return we had a call from the French
and Austrian Ministers. We spent the evening at the house of the
former. We met there the Prussian Minister 2 and the English
Minister Morier, 3 his wife and brother, 4 * who is an officer in the
navy; also the celebrated Frederick North, now Lord Guilford. 5
27. Went this morning to see the Royal treasure, or Das Grime
Gewolbe. We met at the door Lord Guilford, who had just seen it.
We found in the treasure, which had been collected by the old
electors, chiefly by Augustus the First and Second, 6 many rich and
rare curiosities in ivory, marble, mosaic, silver, brass, bronze, gold,
precious stones and pearls. In some of the last of uncommon size
there were many whimsical figures. There was an immense onyx,
said to be the largest ever found, a brilliant of the weight of one
hundred and twenty-three grains and a diamond of great lustre but
of a bluish colour, of one hundred and sixty grains and which is
unique of its kind. There was also a present of very curious work-
manship from the Grand Mogul.
Mr. Bottiger had called on us this morning and made an ar-
rangement to receive us at noon at the Japanese palace, but leav-
ing the Royal treasure we found our coachman so drunk that we
were obliged to proceed on foot and arrived too late. We then
spent the rest of the morning in shopping. We passed the evening
at Latour-Maubourg's and found his lady handsome and agreeable.
Latour is a true constitutionalist. Saw also an interesting French-
man, the Count de S[olano]. 7
28. We visited this morning the Japanese palace. We first saw
1 Frederick Augustus III (1 750-1827) was the king of Saxony.
2 Baron d'Oelsen.
3 John Philip Morier (1 776-1853). He married Horatia Maria Frances, eldest
daughter of Lord Hugh Seymour.
4 William Morier (1700-1864).
1 Frederick North, fifth Earl of Guilford (1766-1827).
8 (1670-1733) and (1696-1763), known as Augustus II and III, kings of the
7 This may have been the Portuguese physician and diplomat, Francisco-
Constancio Solano (17 7 7-1 846).
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 385
the rooms, eighteen in number, containing the collection of porce-
lain, the greatest from China and Japan, fanciful specimens of the
Saxon porcelain from the manufacture of Meissen, 1 about five
English miles from Dresden, vases, dinner and breakfast services,
statues, birds, beasts, etc., all the known antiques in biscuit. The
next room we saw was the Salon de Plumes, the hangings and the
covering of the State bed of Augustus the Second, being beautifully
wrought with feathers. We next went into the halls containing the
Statues, which are very spacious. The statues generally had been
very much mutilated and clumsily repaired by modern artists.
There were, however, three choice statues, nearly entire. They were
the first that were found on sinking a well at Herculaneum, after-
wards purchased by the famous Prince Eugene, and for some time
decorated the halls of his palace at Vienna and thence found their
way to Dresden. The Royal Library is in the Japanese palace,
and contains more than 300,000 volumes and 3,000 manuscripts.
After leaving the Japanese palace I took a walk on the Prater and
enjoyed the fine view of the environs of Dresden. At four o'clock
we all went to dine with the Austrian Minister; met there Count
Moliere, etc. At half past six we returned to our inn and soon after
had a visit from the celebrated Savan Bottiger. He stayed with us
about an hour and a half and was very amusing. He told us of the
publication at Leipsic, called "America painted by herself," 2 and
which is made up of impartial extracts from the newspapers, pam-
phlets, etc., of the United States, and has an extensive influence on
the opinion of Germany. It is evident that the Saxons regret the
downfall of Bonaparte not only on account of their consequent loss
of territory, but even for the termination of the continental system
which was very favorable to their manufactures, which now are
very much injured by those of Great Britain. There is an increas-
ing and already a very general dislike of the English in Germany,
particularly in Saxony. Mr. B[6ttiger] said the eyes of all were
turned to the United States as the only power which could one day
counteract the commercial policy of that monopolizing people.
He expressed an unqualified wish for the emancipation of South
America, and assured me that this sentiment was very general in
Germany. He hoped that the United States might aid in the ac-
complishment of that great work. When I intimated that our
wishes had the same direction but that we fear a direct interference
on our part might not only draw on us the hostilities of Spain, but
1 The manufacture of porcelain at Meissen was due to the discovery by
Johann Friedrich Bottger.
2 Amerika dargestellt dutch sich selbst, eine Zeitschrift herausgegeben von Georg
Joachim Gbschen. Leipzig, 1818-1820.
386 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
what we more dreaded, the enmity of the great continental powers
of Europe, particularly Russia, he scouted the idea. He declared
that Russia was now friendly to the Spanish colonies and would
willingly see them liberated. That the late change of ministry in
Spain was effected by the influence of England and against the in-
tents of Russia, which Pizarro was known particularly to favor.
That it was the Emperor Alexander, who, at the late Congress of
Vienna, prevented the interference of the other monarchs in favor
of Spain, and that Spain was in consequence very angry. Russia
he said was taking the place of Napoleon, and her great object to
set limits to the power of England. In fact he confirmed us in the
opinion that the English are not in favor here. The Saxons lost,
by the Congress of Vienna, three-fifths of their territory, and what
renders the loss more sensible the part which remains has not salt
and wood sufficient for the consumption of its inhabitants, and there
is even a scarcity of bread-stuffs. The King submits with patience
to his disgrace, but the old Queen * is very indignant and will not
even speak to the Prussian Minister accredited to the Court.
29. We went this morning to the Roman Catholic Church and
saw the Royal family during the service. To have a better view of
them we waited their return to the palace, in the corridor. The
King and the Queen had the curiosity after passing us to turn twice
to look at us. We returned to our inn and warmed ourselves. We
then took a ride to the seat of the late Lord Findlater. It is a beau-
tiful place on the north side of the Elbe, and the bank that slopes
from the house to the river is covered with vineyards. From the
top of the bank we had a fine view of the whole valley in which
Dresden is situated, and the surrounding hills. Higher up the
river we saw the palace of Pillnitz, at which the famous treaty of
that name is said to have been negotiated. 2 Across the river the
spot was pointed out where Moreau 3 fell. There can be nothing
more delightful than the environs of Dresden. We spent the even-
ing until eleven o'clock at a ball given by the Prussian Minister at
30. We rose early and prepared for our departure. At about
half past seven the Russian Prince Constantine 4 alighted at our
hotel. His appearance did justice to all we had heard of him. After
1 Maria Amelia, daughter of Duke Frederick of Zweibriicken.
2 1 79 1, between the Emperor Leopold II and Frederick William II, King of
Prussia, being the first coalition against France.
3 Jean Victor Marie Moreau (1763-1813).
4 Pavlowitch Constantin (17 79-1 831), m. Anne Feodorowne, daughter of the
Duke of Saxe-Saalfeld-Cobourg, but divorced her and took for a second wife
Jeanne Grudzinska, a Pole.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 387
having breakfast we took leave of Dresden at ten o'clock. The
road to Tetschen, the first station, runs along the left bank of the
Elbe and in summer must be very pleasant. We found it now very
muddy and much cut up, and although chaussee we were three
hours in making two miles. From Tetschen to Peterswald, 1 the
next station, is also two miles and the road very bad and had no
appearance of being turnpiked. About half a mile before we ar-
rived at the post-house we passed the frontier of Bohemia, but were
stopt only a few minutes at the barrier and our baggage was not
searched. The officer contented himself with endorsing our pass-
port. On arriving at the post-house we went in and sought for
apartments, but the first door we opened communicated with a
stable where the cattle were enjoying their supper. We then turned
and mounted a staircase on the top of which we encountered a
maid servant who conducted us to a small cold room without fire
or any stove or chimney to make one. The servant said it was the
only room that remained unoccupied. I remonstrated and re-
quested to see the master of the house and was shown into a com-
fortable apartment where the postmaster was enjoying his game of
cards. He appeared to be annoyed by the interruption and de-
manded roughly what I wanted. I replied I wished him to have the
goodness, as he understood French, to explain for me. He then
demanded what there was to explain. I remarked that the night
was very cold and they had shown us into a room which could not
be warmed. He answered that it was the only room we could have
and we must take it or none. I then addressed his compassion by
stating that we were Americans and of course from a great distance,
that I had with me women and an infant and that it was impossi-
ble to pass the night in the room which had been shown to us. At
this moment Mrs. Russell with the child in her arms made her ap-
pearance. At this speech and this spectacle the mighty man ap-
peared to lose some of his rigidity and exclaimed in softer tones:
"There are women and children and something must be done. ,,
He immediately went out and after a few minutes returned and
informed us that another room, where there was a fire, was at our
disposition. We repaired to it and finding there only two beds
stated the necessity of a third for Amelia. He then very politely
offered his own office where there was a bed and a fire, and we
passed the night very comfortably. It was five o'clock and already
dark before we reached this place and had made only four miles
during the day.
December 1. We found ourselves this morning to be on very
1 The present Konigswalde.
388 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
high ground. The air was very keen and the fog froze as it came in
contact with any object and covered it with hoar-frost. We break-
fasted and left Peterswald at seven thirty. We still ascended for
more than half an hour, when, having attained the height of land,
we began to descend and at length reached the valley at Unter-
abesau where we changed horses at half past ten o'clock. Close by
the post-house is a monument erected to commemorate a victory
gained by the Prussians over the French in 1813. The fog as we
descended had become less dense and the weather less cold. We
reached Teplitz at half past twelve. This place is very celebrated
for its baths and is crowded during the proper season with those
who have faith in the virtues of its waters. We changed horses at
Teplitz and reached Mireschowitz at half past three where we also
changed horses and proceeded to Laun which we reached at five
and stopt for the night. We found there tolerable quarters and rea-
sonable charges. We had made this day eight German miles and
found the road better than yesterday, although the frost had made
the chaussee rough.
2. We breakfasted and left Laun at half past seven. We changed
at Tainitzl * at ten, at Schlan at twelve thirty, at Strzedokluk at
two thirty and reached Prague at four. Prague, so celebrated, we
found to be still a strongly fortified city and is divided into the
upper and lower towns and the postilion locked our wheels in de-
scending from the former to the latter. The inn where we stopt,
though spacious, was dirty and it was with difficulty that we could
obtain two bed-chambers or two sheets to a bed. We had to pay,
however, about fifty per cent more than the two preceding nights.
We had performed this day eight German miles.
3. Haying first breakfasted as usual, we left Prague at half past
seven; changed horses at Bechowitz at nine thirty; at Bohmisch-
Brod, where the Baron de Grimm located his prophet, at eleven
thirty; at Planian at two; at Kolin at four, and reached Czaslau at
six. Between Planian and Kolin is the ground where a famous
battle was fought during the Seven Years' War and where Frederick
commanded in person.
4. As usual breakfasted and left Czaslau at half past seven;
had not proceeded more than fifty rods before we found our trunks
behind to be loose and on examination discovered that one of the
straps that bound them had been stolen at Czaslau. We secured
the trunks as well as we could with a rope and changed horses at
Jenikau at nine thirty, at Steinsdorf at eleven thirty, at Deutsch-
brpd at one thirty, at Stocken at three thirty and reached Iglau at
1 Jungfrau Teinitz?
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 389
five thirty. Found here a tolerable inn. Was sorry to learn that
Marcus, who had lost one of his listed boots, between Peterswald
and Unterabesau, had this day frozen his feet.
5. We had risen at six o'clock this morning, had breakfasted
and were as usual ready to depart at half past seven, when Marcus
came to inform us that the spring which had been mended in Sweden
and at Berlin had again broken. We sent for a smith and were de-
tained until half past ten. We then set off; changed at Stannern
at twelve thirty, at Schelletau at three thirty, at Budwitz at five
fourteen. Here I lent Marcus my listed boots. Changed at Frey-
nersdorf at seven and reached Znaim at eight forty-five. We found
a spacious, but miserably cold inn and it was with great difficulty
that we obtained two sleeping rooms and two sheets for our beds
and we were obliged to take up with checked sheets, in part, in-
stead of white ones, and after all we were by no means satisfied that
they were clean. Since leaving Stralsund we had no where found
blankets and coverlids but generally a feather bed for covering,
but often obtain in lieu of it a deckan, which is a quilt with down
or feathers. At Znaim, however, and a few other places, we were
obliged to lie between two feather beds and the upper one was so
narrow that in drawing up the legs, the knees, or the back, found
the way out. Since leaving Dresden we had found all the stages to
be regularly two miles. We had, of course, made this day ten
6. We found our bill this morning, notwithstanding our wretched
fare and accommodations, to be more than double of what we had
before paid, even after obtaining, on strong remonstrance, a diminu-
tion of six florins. W,e set off at seven thirty, changed at Jetzelsdorf
at ten and reached Hollabrunn at twelve thirty. We here discov-
ered that one of our springs behind had cracked and we were de-
tained an hour to have an iron band put over it. The roads on ac-
count of the frost were very rough, particularly where we were
obliged to turn out of the worn trail which was often for waggons
and carriages. We left Hollabrunn at one thirty and reached
Mallebern at three-thirty, where we were obliged again to employ
a smith to replace a screw which had broken in one of the fore-
springs. We reached Stockerau however at five o'clock, where
having given a bill of ten florins to be changed, the postmaster who
changed it declared that it was only five and gave us no more,
although Amelia and myself had clearly seen before I sent it in
that it was ten. The postmaster was therefore necessarily a rogue.
We passed the Danube at about half past six and reached the bar-
rier of Vienna at about seven. We had this day travelled twelve
German miles and one-fourth, as the stage between Znaim and
39° MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
Jetzelsdorf was two and one-fourth miles, all the other stages two
miles each. At the barrier we were stopt by the officers of police
and customs, and after we had explained who we were and had been
treated with " Excellency' ' most prodigally and had been told that
out of respect our trunks would not be searched; yet after a deten-
tion of half an hour and paying everything which had been de-
manded of us, we found a soldier placed on the carriage behind. I
still thought we were proceeding under his escort to the inn we had
mentioned and was only undeceived on entering through a guarded
gate a large court-yard and being told, when I demanded if it was
the inn, that we were at the custom-house to be searched. An
under-officer soon made his appearance with four ill-looking assist-
ants furnished with all the implements necessary to pierce packages,
loosen knots, &c, and they immediately began their barbarous
work in a most rude and inhospitable manner. We took off the
trunks behind and a small band-box swung under the dicky. We
opened the carriage and took out a little trunk containing my
papers and money. They commanded the ladies to get out that
they might examine the box under the back seat. This the ladies
refused to do and the chief of the gang clinched his fist and shook it
at them and obliged them to remove to the front seat when he took
out the box in question which he placed on the ground in the open
air with the trunks and bandbox already mentioned and then
caused the whole to be opened. As it was severely cold and began
to snow I requested at least that out of courtesy to an American
Minister he would permit the search to be made in the custom-
house. This was roughly refused and I was told that ministers or
princes made no difference and that he was greater than them all
as he represented the Kaiser. After being detained in this uncom-
fortable situation nearly two hours and treated with a rudeness and
insensibility that I had never experienced elsewhere, we were
finally dismissed and proceeded to our inn, the Crown of Hungary,
where we arrived a little before eleven o'clock, nearly four hours
after we had arrived at the barrier. We found the apartments
wretched and drear, but it was too late to look for others.
7. After breakfast I went to deliver my letters to Guymuller &
Co., the Chevalier Capellini and the Swedish Minister, 1 all of whom
I found at home. I then called on Count Voyna 2 whom I also saw.
At Guymullers I met with John Parish, now Baron Parish, who rec-
ognized me. He sent his card in the evening, and Voyna, and my
old acquaintance Weiss, and the Swedish Minister called on us.
8. Went this morning in search of lodgings without success.
1 Comte de Lowenhielm. 2 Edward Voyna.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 391
Called at Guymullers and found that they had done nothing
for me in this respect and from the coldness of their manner it was
easy to perceive that they would do nothing. On my return home
I found Voyna and Weiss. I found this day lost having made no
9. Spent the morning in writing. At eleven o'clock went again
in search of lodgings but had to return home without finding any.
Amelia accompanied Madam Guymuller in the evening to the
theatre to see the children perform, and Mr. Guymuller and Weiss
called to us.
10. Went to look at several apartments but found none that
would suit us which could be obtained for a less term than six
months. Took however, this day a carriage, with four places, for a
month and agreed to pay for it three hundred sixty paper florins,
coachman and two horses included. The person who furnished the
carriage has a very extensive establishment which consists of nine
hundred to a thousand horses, and carriages in proportion. Count
Voyna and Weiss called again this day.
11. Had a call this morning from the Chevalier Capellini. This
day came very near to obtaining apartments but the proprietor had
that morning received earnest money from another and could not
get rid of his contract, although he professed himself willing so to
do for an additional hundred florins. Dined with Mrs. Russell and
Amelia with John Parish, whom I had known at his father's in Bath
in 181 2. * Since that time he appears to have married against the
wishes of his family, and to save himself and his wife from morti-
fication he has purchased an estate in Bohemia where he resides
during the summer. This estate is called Senftenberg with the
title of baron annexed, so that my old acquaintance John Parish is
now Baron Parish de Senftenberg, and lest there should be any
ignorance or mistake concerning his real dignity, he writes on all
his visiting cards, at full length, "Baron Parish de Senftenberg."
The party at dinner was small but the dinner very good, and the
apartments richly furnished. I handed Madam la Baroness in to
dinner and of course seated myself by her. I found her, during the
dinner, in the conversation which I intentionally introduced, to be
full of her title and property. She told me that the estate of the
Baron in Bohemia was a little world of itself, and that there were
fifteen thousand peasants attached to it who considered the Baron
as their lord and master. When I suggested my former acquaint-
ance with the father of Mr. Parish at Bath and that I had met at
1 An interesting outline of the life of John Parish, Sr. (1742-1829) is in All-
gemeine Deutsche Biographie, xxv. 172.
392 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
his house some of the English nobility, she exclaimed: "No wonder,
we see none but the first nobility here." Upon the whole, though
sufficiently good-natured, she appeared to be rather a vulgar woman
without beauty to redeem her. After dinner they very civilly gave
us the key to a box at the Hof- theatre, where we saw "Jean de
Paris' ' very indifferently performed. This day Charles entered my
12. This day we at length succeeded in finding apartments.
They were situated in the Rothe Thurm Gasse No. 516, consisting
of a suite of seven or eight rooms. We were obliged to pay for them
for one month, nine hundred paper florins which we considered
very dear. We removed to our new apartments in the evening.
13. Called with Weiss, at noon, on my old friend Navarro, 1 who
received me very cordially. At two o'clock Mr. Parish called to
accompany me by appointment to see Count Stadion. 2 We found
the Count very amiable and he spoke English very intelligibly.
He is Minister of Finance. I dined this day at three o'clock with
Mrs. Russell and Amelia at our banker Guymuller. There was a
large party at the table and the dinner was rather distinguished by
its cost than by its elegance. I handed in Mrs. Guymuller, and
there was much hesitation and confusion among the rest of the
company in finding their places. After dinner played one game of
billiards and went with Weiss, who was waiting for us, to make a
visit to Baron Arnstein, another rich banker. His daughter, the
Baroness Penara, received us very politely and appeared to be a
very accomplished woman.
14. Navarro and Weiss called on us this morning, after which I
called on the Swedish Minister and then spent the rest of the day
15. I went this morning to call on the Prussian Minister the
General Krusemarck 3 whom I had known at Paris in 181 1. He
appeared pleased to see me, and while there the Chevalier Floret,
who had been at the same epoch, Chancellier of the Austrian Em-
bassy, came in and recognized me immediately. A Mr. Barry, an
Irish gentleman whom I had met at Arnstein's, called on me this
morning and tendered his services in any way in which he could be
16. This morning two Americans called on us, a Mr. Watts of
New York and a Mr. Frick of Baltimore. The former is engaged
in collecting the best edition of the classics for publication in Amer-
1 Chevalier Navarro d'Andrada, charge" d'affaires of Portugal.
* Jean Philippe Charles Joseph, Comte de Stadion (1 763-1824).
8 Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig von Krusemarck (1767-1822).
igiS.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 393
ica. He says he keeps a journal of all he does and sees which he
intends one day to give to the public. Mr. Frick is pursuing his
studies in medicine, and visits Vienna chiefly to acquire a knowl-
edge of the diseases of the eye which are said to be better under-
stood here than elsewhere. At twelve we took a ride in the Prater,
or park, which is much frequented in the fine season and must then
be delightful. The Swedish Minister accompanied me in the even-
ing at half past nine o'clock to the house of Prince Metternich * and
introduced me to the Prince and Princess. I had met the Prince,
in 1 8 10, at the Duke of Cadore's 2 at Paris, and I now found that
eight years had made him somewhat older. He is still, however, a
handsome man, and extremely engaging in his manner. The Prin-
cess is not handsome and is cold and repulsive in her deportment.
17. This day there was a great military parade at the Prater for
the amusement of the Emperor Alexander. 3 We repaired to the
ground at eleven o'clock. About twelve the two Emperors made
their appearance and passed quite close to us in proceeding to the
field. They spent about two hours in reviewing the different corps.
They then returned by the way they had before passed, and stopt at
a little distance from us to see the troops defile. All the troops were
in their best uniform, and the princes headed their own regiments
in person, such as the Prince Charles, Duke of Saxony, Colorada-
Liechtenstein, 4 etc. The regiment of the Emperor Alexander, con-
sisting of Hungarians, marched in front, and as soon as the front
ranks reached the spot where we were placed, the Emperor Alex-
ander came and placed himself at their head and drew his sword,
and so passed the Emperor of Austria. 5 We were very fortunate in
being well placed, which was very much owing to the Countess of
Esterhazy 6 who, perceiving we were strangers, told us to remain
where we were, as the Prince Schwartzenberg 7 had told her it was
the best place for seeing the review. There were about thirty thou-
sand troops of all arms and the spectacle was magnificent. Weiss
went home and dined with us, and then we went to a small theatre
in the faubourg in our vicinity.
18. We this morning repaired early to a place about three Eng-
1 Clemens Wenzel Lothar Metternich-Winneburg (1 773-1859). He married,
in 1795, the Countess Eleonore von Kaunitz, grand-daughter of the Austrian
chancellor of the name.
2 Jean-Baptiste Champagny, Due de Cadore (1756-1834).
8 Alexander I (1777-1825), Tsar of Russia. It was in 1818 that he became
reactionary in politics.
4 Colloredo? 6 Francis II (1 768-1835), the last Roman Emperor.
8 Wife of Prince Nicholas Esterhazy.
7 Karl Philipp Schwarzenberg (1 771-1820).
394 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
lish miles from Vienna which had been destined for military manoeu-
vres for the amusement likewise of Alexander. There was a bridge
of boats thrown across the small branch of the Danube at the end
of the Prater and we placed ourselves on the opposite side. The
Emperors, who had breakfasted together in the Prater, passed the
bridge at twelve o'clock in their carriages from which they de-
scended and mounted on horseback close to where we were. We
could not have desired to have a better view of them. We imme-
diately followed the carriages of the Queen to another part of the
field where, on an artificial elevation, seats had been prepared for
her and her suite. There were no troops on the ground to-day ex-
cepting cavalry and artillery and in all about ten thousand men.
They all manoeuvred with an imaginary enemy and there were
several fine charges by the horse. It ended about two o'clock and
without accident, which was the more fortunate as the ground was
frozen and slippery. After this parade I dressed and went to dine
with Prince Metternich. I found it to be a great ministerial dinner
at which all the gtfeat officers of State and the members of the diplo-
matic corps assisted. I was presented to most of them. Among
others to the Nuncio of the Pope, 1 who was very affable, and to
Lord Stuart, 2 who was very puppyish. At the table I was seated
next Count Stadion, the Minister of Finance, with whom I had
much interesting conversation. Saw also Sir Thos. Lawrence. 3
19. Spent the morning in shopping and in receiving several calls,
among [them] General Krusemarck, the Prussian Minister.
20. We spent the morning in taking a ride to the Danube and
viewing the seat of the war in 1809, the fields of Essling and Wag-
ram and the Island of Lobau. We then dined with Arnstein the
banker. After dinner called on Madam Eschelas and then assisted
at an Imperial Banquet given by the Emperor of Austria to the
Emperor Alexander. This spectacle continued until eleven o'clock.
21. Our countryman, Mr. Watts, called on us this morning by
agreement, and conducted us to the great Imperial Library and to
the private library of the Emperor. We found the librarians of
both very obliging. The librarian of the public library showed us
many curious books and manuscripts, and gave us a fac-simile of
a Roman Senatus Consultum found at Pompeii and of a Chinese
manuscript. After viewing the libraries we went to the Church of
the Capuchins and saw the celebrated monument, by Canova, of
1 M. Leardi, bishop of Ephesus.
2 Charles William, Baron Stewart, and later third Marquis of Londonderry
(17 78-1854). It is said his insolent manners led to the coachmen of Vienna
assaulting him. Rumbold, The Austrian Court in the Nineteenth Century, 93.
8 Sir Thomas Lawrence ( 1 769-1 830).
I9i8.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 395
the Princess of Saxony. We then went to the Convent of the
Capuchins and saw the Imperial Tombs. Mrs. Russell asked the
monk who attended us to show us the cells of the brotherhqod, but
the good man declined this indulgence stating that the cells were
forbidden to women. I then called on Lord Guilford and Navarro.
Our friend Major Weiss dined with us and we went together to the
Hof-theatre in the evening.
22. Visited this morning the gallery of pictures of the Prince
Liechtenstein, saw many admirable pieces of the various schools by
the first masters. I afterwards made several calls.
2$. Spent this morning in visiting the palace of Schoenbrunn,
the summer residence of the son of Napoleon Bonaparte.
24. Went this morning to the Belvedere, the ancient palace of
Prince Eugene. The gallery of painting being shut we saw a fine
mosaic by Raffaelli, 1 of the "Last Supper" painted, in fresco, by Leo-
nardo da Vinci. We also saw the halls containing ancient armour
and many other curious objects.
25. Not very well this day and remained at home. Received a
call from the Chevalier Capellini — very busily engaged in copying
my dispatch for Count D'Engestrom.
26. Went by appointment this morning with Major Weiss to see
the paintings of Count Lamberg. 2 The collection was a very choice
one and what added to the pleasure of examining was, that the Count
had caused the rooms to be warmed, attended in person, and made
his servants bring the pictures in succession and exhibit them in a
good light. There were several of Murillo which we saw. There
were also of Raphael, Titian, Guido, Leonardo da Vinci, Rubens,
Rembrandt, &c. We spent the evening at home and had a call from
the Baroness Parish de Senftenberg and her niece.
27. Weiss dined with us, and in the evening we went to the
theatre and saw the children's ballet. This exhibition is peculiar to
Vienna. One or two hundred children are taken at a very early
age and taught to dance, sing, act, and all the accomplishments of
the theatre, and it is to be feared also all its vices. Excellent per-
formers of different kinds are no doubt produced in this way, but
all morals must be early depraved. The virtues are merely acted;
the vices are to the life. We were surprised to see boys and girls
from ten to fourteen years of age dance and play with grace, energy,
and taste, and catch with great precision the characters which they
28. This day at twelve o'clock the Swedish Minister called on
1 Giacomo Raffaelli (1770- ).
2 Franz Philipp, Comte de Lamberg (1 791-1848).
396 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
me and accompanied me to the palace where agreeably to a previous
arrangement he presented me to Francis the First, Emperor of
Austria. He received me very graciously; inquired whence I came
and being answered "from Stockholm/' he asked how the King
was. He inquired if I intended to stay long at Vienna and when I
replied "not long," he very civilly expressed a wish that I would
stay out the carnival. He is a man below the average stature,
slightly built and although not yet old bears the marks of time and
care. Upon the whole I found him to be in appearance a very in-
different person, and I believe his character corresponds with his
appearance. His will, however, is the law for about thirty millions
29. Again unwell and spent the day at home in writing. Re-
ceived a call from Navarro, Weiss and Palmstjerne.
30. Put my dispatch for Sweden in the post for Hamburg this
morning. In the evening went again to see the children's ballet.
31. Called at noon with Baron Palmstjerne on the Baron
Munchausen l the Minister of Hesse Cassel, and in the evening went
with Mrs. R[ussell] and A[melia] to a ball which he gave. Passed a
pleasant evening. All the corps diplomatic were there and Prince
Metternich, Prince Rosomoskey and many other Austrian and
foreign nobility. Returned home about midnight. Prince Metter-
nich procured a presentation to Mrs. Russell and held a long con-
versation with her.
1 January, 1819. Received several calls this morning. Dined
with Mrs. R[ussell] and Amelia at Baron Parish de Senftenberg's.
Met there Lord Guilford, Mr. Ponsonby with his wife, Lady
Barbary, etc. After dinner went habille to Prince Metternich's
where there was a vast crowd of fashionable people in full dress.
We then went to the Hof-theatre and saw the celebrated opera of
the "Charmed Flute" — by Mozart.
2. Went this morning and took a bath, found the baths to be
clean, well arranged and well served. At three went to the Portu-
guese Minister's, who exhibited to us his small but choice collection
of pictures. At four we sat down to an excellent dinner and re-
mained until seven.
3. Rode this morning to the Prater. In the evening called with
the Swedish Minister on the Prince Trautmannsdorff . 2
4. Settled this morning with my banker. Called at the police
for my passport, but they were not able to find it. The Baroness
Munchhausen took Mrs. R[ussell] shopping and Mrs. R[ussell] and
1 Baron de Munchhausen.
2 Ferdinand Trautmannsdorf (1749-1827).
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 397
Amelia spent the evening with her. There were some pleasant
anecdotes told of the sycophancy of the courtiers of Alexander of
Russia. Last evening there was a rumor of changes in France and
this morning I learned that all the French Ministers, excepting
Richelieu, 1 had been dismissed, but Richelieu was not only retained
but authorized to form a new administration. The Emperor Alex-
ander is supposed to be the cause of all this. Richelieu, since his
return from Aix-la-Chapelle to Paris, is said to have discovered
strong ultra notions, in conformity, it is believed, to his instructions
from Alexander. He therefore differed harshly with his colleagues
who are liberals and who are said to have, in consequence, required
the dismission of Richelieu or their own, and it seems the King pre-
ferred the latter. Upon these events the stocks at Paris fell from
sixty-seven to sixty. Prince Metternich is said to disapprove this
change and the Emperor of Austria says if the French only stay at
home they may do as they please.
5. At ten o'clock this morning went to the palace of Belvedere
and saw the magnificent collection of pictures arranged in a magnifi-
cent suite of rooms. There were specimens of all the great Italian
and Flemish masters, one or two Murillos, etc., etc. The "Assump-
tion" by Rubens is the best production of this master which I have
seen, excepting the "Descent from the Cross" in the cathedral in
Antwerp. Sent this day to the police and got my passport. In the
evening Weiss and Palmstjerne called.
6. Rode to the palace of Schoenbrunn and walked over the
grounds. They must be very delightful in summer. Major Weiss
dined with us. Left cards of P. P. C. at Guymuller's and Eshelas\
Called on Madam Purrara and spent the remainder of the evening
at Baron Parish von Senftenberg's. Many Englishmen there. It
was a sort of plum-cake festival for Twelfth-night.
7. Engaged this morning in settling sundry accounts. Called
on Navarro to take leave. At half past eleven o'clock Mrs. Russell
was, by appointment, presented to the Emperor by the Baroness of
Munchhausen and at half past five, to the Empress in the same
manner. She found them both very gracious and amiable. I had
received a note yesterday from the grand-master of ceremonies,
announcing that he would announce me, this day, at six o'clock to
the Empress. I was accordingly presented immediately after Mrs.
Russell had left her Majesty. While in waiting and in conversa-
tion with the G[rand] M[aster], had one of my turns badly. In my
1 Armand Emmanuel du Plessis, Due de Richelieu (1766-182 2). He resigned
the Presidency of the Council. See Annual Register, 1818, 157, where the new
ministry is given.
398 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
conversation with the grand-master, the Count Wurmbrand, we
touched on the affairs of South America and was surprised and
pleased to hear him express a disposition favorable to their inde-
pendence. From his rank and situation I was willing to believe
this opinion to be that of the Court.
8. Settled this morning with the saddler for repairs of the car-
riage, etc. Sent several cards of P. P. C. At two o'clock went by
appointment to the old Chancery to see the paintings of Sir Thomas
Lawrence. Found among them several fine portraits. The heads
of Prince Metternich and Count Chernicheff l were very happily
executed. The Prince Schwarzenberg 2 told me that the head of
the Ionian Capo D'Istria, 3 now the confidant and prime minister
of Alexander, was the best. After leaving the rooms of Sir Thomas
I went with Major Weiss to make a purchase of cumweiss for Mrs.
Russell. Spent the morning until half past eleven at a ball given
by Count Caraman the French Ambassador. 4 Among other dis-
tinguished personages met there the Archduke Charles and Lady. 5
The Archduke, whose military talents are highly estimated, at
least by his own country, is a man below the ordinary statue and
of very diminutive appearance in every respect. His entrance was
not distinguished by any particular attention or ceremony and he
mixed in the throng like a common guest.
9. Spent the morning in making my preparations for departure.
The Swedish Minister called to take leave and Weiss staid with us
to the last. At half past one we got into our carriage and left
Vienna without regret. Vienna is situated at about the 48th degree
of latitude, and although we had two or three days during our resi-
dence there of pretty cold weather, yet no colder than is felt at
Boston and generally the weather was much milder. The govern-
ment of Austria and all its dominions, excepting Hungary, is [an]
absolute monarchy, but mildly administered from the personal
character of the reigning monarch. There appears to be no party
spirit in this country, at least none is there expressed. I have seen
in no other nation the different ranks in society so distinctly marked.
The high nobility not only refuse to associate with the richest and
most respectable and well informed citizens and bankers, but even
with the new made and inferior nobility; and the high-born dames
are even more tenacious of rank than the men, although they are
1 Alexandre Ivanovitch, Prince Tchernicheff (1779-1857).
2 Karl Philipp, Prince Schwarzenberg (1 771-1820).
3 Jean-Antoine, Comte Capo d'Istria (1 776-1831).
4 Victor-Marie- Joseph-Louis de Riquet, Marquis de Caraman (1786-1837).
6 Karl Ludwig (1771-1847), third son of the Emperor Leopold II. He mar-
ried, in 1815, Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 399
generally but indifferently educated and accomplished. Travellers
have formerly spoken of the people as singularly moral; but when
I mentioned several instances of depravity and dishonesty that had
come under my observation, I was told that the manners of the
people had deteriorated since the visits of the French and the
present state of corruption imputed to French principles and French
influence. This may be so, but from the short time the French were
among the people the operation of these causes must, it should
seem, have been powerfully aided by the vitiated tone that already
existed and a predisposition to take the contagion. 1
Austria still keeps on foot a military force of three or four hun-
dred thousand men, and her finances are in a most wretched situa-
tion. It is pretended, however, that a few years of peace will re-
store order to her finances and place them in a flourishing condi-
tion. At present the new issue of paper is at a depreciation of two
and one-half for one. There is evidently a jealousy of Russian
power among the people, although I was told, in great confidence,
that an understanding existed between the two Emperors; that
Alexander might proceed as he thought proper in respect to Turkey,
if Francis might act with the same liberty in respect to Italy. It is
undoubtedly the ambition of both to aggrandize themselves re-
spectively in these directions, but I doubt if there is any under-
standing on the subject. I saw several of the mission who had
accompanied the Archduchess to Rio Janeiro, and they were all
completely disgusted with the Brazils.
Immediately on leaving Vienna we saw the mountains of Styria
before us, and the mountains of Austria on either hand. We pro-
ceeded this day only three German miles and stopt at the little
village of [ ] 2 for the night.
10. We left our inn this day at three quarters past seven and
travelled very diligently and without stopping until six o'clock in
the evening when we arrived at the village of Schottwien, a dis-
tance of eight German miles, where we passed the night. The
mountains, which in the morning were at a considerable distance on
both sides, had been gradually approaching during the day, and we
now found ourselves in the midst of them, but had not hitherto
been obliged to ascend them. The inn where we stopt, although
the best in this neighborhood, was very miserable.
11. We left our lodgings at the same hour as the preceding
morning. Our driver had made his arrangements for passing the
mountains and in order to save his own horses had procured four
1 See Austria and the Austrians (1837), I. 120.
2 Neudorf would answer to a position eight miles from Schottwien.
400 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
fresh ones, at the post, for this purpose. Immediately on leaving
our inn we began to ascend the mountain, in our way, which is
called the "Semmering" and at nine o'clock reached the summit
which is stated to be 2944 French feet above the sea. 1 Here we
found a monument which announced that the line between the
provinces of Austria and Styria passed there. On leaving our inn
we found the weather moderate and the snow was melting and we
rode with the glasses of our carriage down to enjoy the view. At
the top of the mountain, however, the air became excessively keen
and cold, and not only obliged us to raise our glasses but soon cov-
ered them with a coat of ice formed by the congealing of our breath,
and which was totally impervious to the sight. The weather again
moderated as we descended the mountain on the other side, and we
soon entered the fine and well cultivated valley of the Miirz. We
followed the course of this river, the mountains receding a little as we
reached the village of Miirzhofen at half past five. The bath
of Staintz [Stanz] is in the vicinity of this place; celebrated for its
incrustations, but we were too fatigued to examine it. We found
our inn tolerable.
12. We recommenced our journey this morning at quarter past
seven, and having left the banks of the Miirz, we found ourselves
on those of another river called the Mur which joins the Drave and
empties at Constantinople. It is bordered, like the Miirz, by a fine
valley through which our road ran nearly level, while the moun-
tains continued near us on both hands. We passed this day the
town of Brugg-sur-le-Mur [Bruck an der Mur] where there is a
chateau, etc. In the neighborhood [are] rich mines of iron, the
steel made from which, is said to be the best in Europe. We also
passed the small town of Leoben, celebrated by the peace which
bears its name. We stopt for the night at the village of Kraubat.
We had met during the day, many people with swellings on the
throat which are known by the name of goitres, said to be occa-
sioned by the quality of the water. At the inn where we stopt there
was an idiot whose want of mind was imputed to the same cause.
The inn was poor but the people obliging.
13. We left Kraubat at half past seven and continued to travel
during the day along the valley watered by the Mur. We passed a
considerable town called Judenburg, and reached the village of
Unzmarkt where we stopt for the night at six o'clock; we found a
good inn. While our chambers were warming we went into the
1 The figures in modern guide books are 3215 feet. There were at this time
only three roads in the Eastern Alps; at the Brenner, the Radstatter Tauern and
FROM A CONTEMPORARY ENGRAVING PRINTED BY CH. BANCE, PARIS
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 401
public room and found a party of old men, some of them in ap-
pearance at least three score and ten, engaged at a party of cards.
14. We set off this morning at quarter past seven and about
half past ten arrived at the village of Neumarkt, where we left the
province of Styria and entered that of Carinthia. We reached our
lodgings at St. Veit at six o'clock. We this day parted with the
Mur but joined the Drav or Drave, which kindly aided our rout
with a valley and kept the road nearly on a level. At our inn in-
stead of card players we were amused by the long prayers of the
peasants before and after their supper.
15. We left St. Veit at half past seven, crossed the Drave at
Klagenfurt, and arrived at Villach at six o'clock. We had still con-
tinued to see many people with goitres and this evening found two
idiots at our inn.
16. We did not leave our inn this morning until eight o'clock.
We had observed yesterday Indian corn hung up on several houses
to dry, and at Villach we obtained an ear in order to carry with us
to America to try as seed. We reached Arnoldstein about eleven
o'clock, and having obtained two horses we began to ascend the
Alps. The scenery was magnificent, but the road along the side of
the mountain often so narrow as barely to allow the passage of our
carriage, while a frightful precipice yawned beneath us. We reached
Tarvis, however, at about half past two without accident, when
having passed the height of the mountains we dismissed our addi-
tional horses. We then continued our rout to Pontebba, where we
stopt at seven o'clock for the night. Pontebba is the frontier town
and divides Germany from Italy; one-half belonging to the former
and one-half to the latter. 1 The river of Tagliamento 2 runs through
this town and divides it, and divides indeed the people in every re-
spect; in language, taste, character and habits. We stopt on the
Italian side and no longer heard German, nor were tucked between
two feather beds so narrow as scarcely to cover the sleeper while he
lay straight and still and was sure to leave him when he turned,
but we found ourselves in the midst of immense beds at least eight
feet broad with clean sheets and fine blankets and quilts. Germany,
adieu. We indeed leave you without regret.
17. Left Pontebba at a quarter past seven. We left the road
marked in the post-book this day. We kept on the banks of the
Tagliamento, sometimes on one side, sometimes on the other, for
we crossed it at least half a dozen times, until one o'clock, when we
left it and the mountains on our right and reached Udine at half
1 The Austrian town on the frontier is now known as Pontafel.
2 It is the Pontebbana River.
402 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
past seven. Since we left Tarvis yesterday the road had descended
very constantly and generally until past noon this day.
1 8. We did not leave our inn this morning until half past nine
o'clock. We then proceeded to Campo Formio, celebrated for the
treaty which Bonaparte signed there with the Austrians. 1 We were
shown the house where this treaty was signed and the commence-
ment of a monument which was intended to commemorate that
event. We afterwards came again on the banks of the Tagliamento
and saw the spot where the famous battle of that name was fought.
There was likewise shown us the foundation of a monument in
honour of the victory obtained by the French, and an abundance
of hewn stone to complete it, but there is no disposition in the
present possessors of the soil to accomplish this work. We found
the Tagliamento to be now a very small stream, but the extent of
the bed which it covers in the time when it is full, is the fourth of an
English mile, and shows that it must then be a very considerable
river. The intrenchments which were raised by the Austrians be-
fore the battle still remain. From Udine the roads are those made
by the French and they are excellent as well as the bridges. We
reached Valapano at five o'clock and passed the night there.
19. We left Valapano at eight o'clock and a little after noon
passed the River Ioxa 2 and saw the field of battle on its bank where
Bonaparte had likewise gained a great victory over the Austrians,
and where it is said more than thirty thousand men were slain. The
Austrian works are also still to be seen here. We reached Treviso
at five o'clock and stopt for the night.
20. We left Treviso at nine o'clock and reached Mestre at noon.
Here we left our carriage and having taken off our baggage pro-
ceeded to Venice by water. We entered the Great Canal about
four o'clock and stopt at the inn of Great Britain. We felt too
fatigued to begin our examination of the city at this late hour. We
therefore kept comfortably in our quarters.
21. Having taken a valet de place and a gondola in our service,
we went at eleven o'clock to the place of St. Mark and visited the
church of this Saint, and the Palace of the ancient Doges. The
church is a very gloomy building of Gothic appearance, although
its ornaments consist of columns, etc., of all the Roman and Grecian
orders. Some of these were brought from Africa, some from Con-
stantinople, Greece and various parts of Italy. There are said to be
five hundred columns in all. There are twelve doors and seven
cupolas. The floor is mosaic of various fine stones and in walking
over it you tread on agate, cornelian, etc. Many of the arches are
covered within with small pieces of gilt glass about three-quarters of
1 October 16, 1797, ending the Republic of Venice. 2 Piave River.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 403
an inch square. Indeed the whole church is immensely rich but
not elegant. The Palace of St. Mark has undergone several changes.
The large council chamber where the senators of Venice once sat
in state is now converted into a kind of museum and ornamented
with various statues, among which are a very fine "Leda and her
swan" of Grecian workmanship, and a "Ganymede" from the
chisel of Phydias. The walls and ceiling of the council chamber are
still covered with the paintings of the Venetian school, among
which the "Paradise" of Tintoretto is perhaps the largest picture
in the world. It covers the whole of one end of the chamber and
even a part of the sides. The rest of the palace is still occupied by
courts of justice, and the prisoner still passes over the Bridge of
Sighs to receive his doom. The celebrated lion's mouths through
which accusations were secretly conveyed, were torn off by the
French, but the holes through the wall with which they communi-
cated still remain. The Bridge of Sighs mentioned above is a small
bridge with a covered way over it, extending from the back of the
palace of St. Mark to the prison. We went from the church round
the place of St. Mark, which is called sometimes, the Place Royal
of Venice because surrounded with shops, coffee-houses, etc., but
is much inferior to the Palais Royal at Paris. From the Place of
St. Mark we proceeded along the quay or mole to the gardens made
by the French upon the ground formerly covered by two convents.
At the garden we embarked in our gondola and passed over to the
island of Lido, which is of considerable extent. We passed on foot
over the end of this island and had a full view of the Adriatic. We
then returned to our lodgings and on our way met the celebrated
Lord Byron, 1 who passes every day regularly between three and
four o'clock in his gondola to the island of Lido to take a ride on
horseback. After returning to the inn I went to visit my bankers,
Messrs. Siri and Wilham, and delivered my letters of credit. In the
evening we went to the theatre of [ ] and saw an opera
buffa well performed almost to naked walls, for the house was very
22. This morning we again left our inn at eleven o'clock and
first visited the Academy of Arts. There is a fine collection of
statues and models both ancient and modern, and we particularly
remarked among the latter the "Hebe" of Canova, copied in plaster,
of exquisite beauty. In one of the halls of the Academy were several
fine pictures of the Venetian masters, but the one which we beheld
1 He was in the Palazzo Mocenigo on the Grand Canal, "abandoned to de-
grading excesses which injured his constitution, and afterwards produced bitter
self-reproach." Dictionary of National Biography, viii. 145.
404 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
with real wonder and rapture was the " Assumption' ' of Titian.
This picture had been placed over an altar-piece in the church of
Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, and had become so dirty and smoked that
the French did not think it worth carrying to Paris. About two
years since it was taken down and cleaned and placed in its present
situation as perfectly fresh as when it came from the hand of the
painter and is certainly as beautiful a picture as was ever painted
not excepting the "Transfiguration" of Raphael. From the Acad-
emy of Arts we returned home, when I called on my bankers and
went to deliver a letter from Ambrosio, the Neapolitan Minister at
Stockholm to the Countess of Tafetta. I then returned to the
inn and accompanied the ladies on foot to the Place of St. Mark,
where we embarked in our gondola which had been sent there, and
crossed the water to the church of St. Giorgio Maggiore. This
church is a very beautiful building and contains several fine pic-
tures. After having seen it we went to the custom-house and porto
Franco, erected by the French on the same island. We thence
went to visit the church of Madonna della Salute, where also are
several fine pictures. The priest who conducted us about the
church very pleasantly told us an anecdote of Paul Veronese whom
he represented to have been a little deranged. This painter had
been employed to paint an altar-piece for this church, in which the
Holy Trinity were to be portrayed. He finished the work and the
Sanctus Spiritus being represented as usual by the form of a dove,
it came into the painter's head that a bag would be a good thing to
put the dove in, and he painted one accordingly. The Church of
Madonna della Salute was commenced in 1630, to avert the plague
which raged at that time at Venice. Spent the evening at home.
23. We went this morning to visit the church of de Minori
Conventuali called dei Frari. 1 The first object which caught our
attention was a plain stone on which was inscribed
Qui giace il gran Tiziano de Vercelli
Emulator de Zeusi e degli Appelli.
thus denoting that the great Titian was there buried. This church
contains some very fine paintings. We next went to the church of
St. Roque, 2 and after having seen the pictures which it contains we
were shown the place in which is kept some of the true blood of
Jesus Christ. We were not allowed to see the blood itself which can
be shown once a year only, but the door of a little cabinet formed in
one of the recesses of the church was opened and another little door
1 Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, already mentioned, supra.
2 San Rocco.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 405
on the back side of this cabinet was shown us, beyond which was
another little cabinet, and in this last was said to be the blood in
question. The cabinet opened contained several relics, but by no
means so precious as that contained in the cabinet which continued
shut. From the church we went into the copairie of St. Roque, 1
where we saw several fine pictures, particularly the "Crucifixion"
by Tintoretto, which is considered as his masterpiece. We next
went to visit a collection of pictures in the palace of Barberio. They
were contained in the very room in which the great Titian some-
times painted. It was a small but choice collection, and a Made-
lene and a " Venus " by Titian were particularly fine. The owner,
having found too much nudity in the latter, caused it to be partially
defaced by a dauber. In this room was an imperfect St. Sebastian,
which Titian did not live to finish. We next went to the manufac-
tory of the small glass beads and witnessed the process of making
them. At eight o'clock in the evening we went to the great opera
and were very much charmed with the music and dancing. The
best singer was Signora Fiodore, and she certainly had great skill
and a fine voice. The dancers appeared to be less vigorous but
more graceful than those of the grand opera at Paris. The opera
did not finish until after midnight, when we went for a short time
to the Ridotto to witness a public masked ball. We found, however,
nothing there of sufficient interest to detain us and soon retired.
Tumblers, cat and ass on the moro.
24. This day being Sunday we confined our excursions chiefly
to church St. John and Paul. 2 We visited that of the Jesuits,
among the others, but being chiefly for the edification of young
females I was not allowed to go to the bottom of the church and
Mrs. Russell and Amelia went without me. We now proceeded to
the Palazzo Grimani and visited its several apartments, in which
were some good pictures and fine ancient statues. Among these
the heads of Cicero, Marius, Sylla, Augustus and his wife were the
best. We next passed the water to the church of the Armenians,
which we found to be a very interesting establishment. The monk
who conducted us had been in England and spoke pretty good
English. He had likewise been the instructor of Lord Byron and
told us his Lordship spoke Armenian tolerably well. This monk in-
formed us that there were thirty-eight letters in the Armenian
alphabet, to which he ascribed the facility with which the Arme-
nians acquired foreign languages. The founders of this church
came about a century ago from the vicinity of Mount Ararat.
1 Scuola di San Rocco.
2 Santi Giovanni e Paolo, containing the tombs of the Doges.
406 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
Bonaparte spared this establishment on account of its utility.
They have a printing-press on which they print all languages. 1 A
prayer-book was shown us printed in sixteen languages. This press
is now employed in printing Eusebius in Latin, as the manuscripts
of this author, which were wanting, have lately been found. 2 Lord
Guilford has engaged to subscribe for this work for me. The monk
boasted the Armenian language to be the oldest in the world.
25. Went this morning to visit the Arsenal. Saw there the
manufactory of muskets. A considerable collection of arms and
armour of former times and other nations. Among other things
the armour of Henry the Fourth of France; the monument of Gen-
eral Emo 3 by Canova — a fine work. Fame kneels to him having
laid down her trumpet, and Genius stands over him crowning him
with laurel. We then went to see the navy. There are three ships
of seventy-four guns afloat, and two others of the same force build-
ing, and one of eighty guns. There are five or six frigates afloat
and one on the stocks, besides several corvettes. The ships afloat are
entirely dismantled and the copper taken off to high-water mark.
The Austrian government have done nothing to finish the ships
which had been begun by the French, but they continue as they
were in the beginning of 18 14. They appear to be of excellent
materials and well constructed. From the Arsenal we went to see
a very fine collection of paintings in the palace of Seiior Manfrin.
There were many fine pictures of Titian, Paul Veronese, etc. ; one of
Rembrandt, one of Rubens, of Correggio, etc. That of Correggio, a
small "Magdalen," and a small "Descent from the Cross," by
Raphael, were very fine. There was also one of the cartoons of
Raphael. After leaving these apartments, we went to see the
church of the Carmelites Dechauses, 4 which is very rich in marble.
In the evening we went to take a farewell look of the palace, etc.,
of St. Mark, -and we walked over the Rial to. In ascending the
bridge I counted sixty steps and the same in descending. Venice
appears to be rapidly on the decline. Our inn was formerly the
palace of Falciti, and is called the inn of Great Britain. We found
our landlord to be a great scoundrel. Our engagement with our
vetturino expressly obliged him to warm and light two apartments
1 An Armenian press was established in Venice in 1565, and "the press which
has done most in printing Armenian authors is that of the Mechitharists of Venice.' '
These Armenian monks, followers of Mechithar, were established by him in 171 7
in the island of San Lazzaro, south of Venice, and form one of the noblest con-
gregations of the Roman Catholic Church.
2 A Chronicle, in two books, c. 303-325 a. d.
3 Angelo Emo (1 731-1792). He was an admiral.
4 Chiesa degli Scalzi.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 407
which were all we had warmed and lighted at Venice. When, how-
ever, I demanded the bill for what I had had extra, the landlord
said the vetturino had refused to pay for any wax candles or for
warming more than one room, as wood at Venice was very dear.
The landlord therefore demanded of me fifteen francs for wax
candles and thirty-seven francs for fuel. As the vetturino had al-
ready gone to Mestre and I could have no explanation with him, I
paid these sums in order to save a dispute, taking his receipt to his
bill and his positive assertion that the vetturino had not paid him
for the same thing. When I expostulated afterwards with the vet-
turino he produced the bill which he had paid and which even in-
cluded the candles and the wood for which this rascally landlord
had made me pay a second time. This landlord, however, on taking
leave of me had the impudence to give me his cards and to request
me to recommend his house! ! ! !
26. At nine o'clock this morning we embarked for Mestre, where
we had left our carriage. Just as we were getting into the boat the
same Armenian monk, who had shown us the convent, made his
appearance and informed me that Lord Guilford had already men-
tioned my wish to subscribe for Eusebius, and that he should act
accordingly. I confirmed the proceeding and gave him the names of
my bankers at Rome and Naples. We reached Mestre at eleven
o'clock, and having spent half an hour in making our arrangements
we recommenced our journey and reached Padua at five o'clock.
27. We went this morning first to see the ancient hall of justice, 1
which is much more spacious than that of Venice, but greatly in-
ferior in the richness and beauty of its decorations. It contains,
however, a small monument to Titus Livius, who was born in this
town. The monument consists of an ancient bust brought from
Rome by two of the magistrates of Padua and a large marble slab
placed in the wall beneath it. On the bust is inscribed "T. Liv."
and on the marble slab
T. Livivs Liviae Qvartall Halys Concordalis Patavi sibi et suis
We next visited the Cathedral of which Petrarch, also a native
of Padua, was a canon. About a year since a bust of this poet,
sculptured by a scholar of Canova, was placed in this Cathedral.
It is finely executed, the head bound with a wreath of laurel. Be-
neath the bust on a marble slab is inscribed as follows:
1 II Salone.
2 Russell omits the last line — "Hoc totus stares aureus ipse loco."
408 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
Antonio Barbr Soncino
L. M. D. C. D.
On entering the Cathedral we had seen a poor woman lying in
convulsions near the door on the outside, surrounded by a few
women and girls of the most miserable appearance. On going out
Mrs. R[ussell] caused [her, by] our valet de place aided by another
person, to be taken from the cold stone on which she was lying, and
to be borne into the church and placed in a chair. We then sent for
a priest. Two came. One looked at her a moment and left her.
The other felt her pulse with great indifference and immediately
left her also without affording or recommending any assistance.
We looked after these good Catholics with much indignation, and
saw them both as they passed the altar, in proceeding to the other
end of the church, make their genuflexion and cross themselves
very devoutly. Such is a religion of form and ostentation, but
destitute of benevolence and good works. These priests dressed
pontifically, adored the marble, and left a fellow creature to perish.
We next went to the palace of Count G., where was a curious piece
of sculpture said to have been praised by Canova. It was about
four feet high in the form of a pyramid of one entire piece of marble
representing the " Fall of the Angels." The Angel Gabriel or Michael
was at the top with his drawn sword bending down with a menac-
ing attitude over the fallen devils. The devils were sixty-six in
number, with horns and tails in various postures, but so placed as
to form the rest of the pyramid. Satan was cut at the bottom point-
ing upwards with an heroic air. This piece was made about a hun-
dred years since by an artist in the house where it now stands. He
is said to have worked at it twelve years for two or three hours per
day. Each figure, if erect, would measure a little more than a foot
and is very perfectly formed. We next visited the fine church of
St. Justin x designed by Palladio. Padua is strongly fortified by
the moderns. It also contains a Roman wall. We left Padua at
noon and had not proceeded far when our vetturino, by placing
himself on the dicky, broke one of the foresprings. We reached
Vicenza at five.
28. Went this morning to visit the Amphitheatre Olimpique
by Palladio; a beautiful interior of the Corinthian order of two
ranges, one placed over the other. It will contain two thousand
1 Andrea Briosco was the architect of Santa Giustina, not Palladio.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 409
five hundred spectators in the semicircle, which in appearance has
not a fourth of the capacity requisite for such a number. The
avenues upon the stage, by another artist, are a fine specimen of
architectural perspective. The columns of the amphitheatre were
of brick covered with stucco which was still perfect after a period
of two hundred and thirty-five years. We then visited several
other buildings constructed by Palladio, and saw the house in which
he lived, for he was a native of Vicenza. We visited also the
church of Madonna del Monte which is beautifully situated on an
eminence * just without the town, and from which there is a mag-
nificent view of the Alps on one side, and Padua and the country
on the other. In ascending to this church we walked under an arcade
which I found to be nine hundred and ninety paces in length. We
saw at the church a very fine picture of Paul Veronese which is
generally called the " Supper of St. Gregory." In returning to our
inn we saw the celebrated bridge of Bacchia. 2 We left Vicenza at
half past eleven and reached Verona at six. Stopt at the inn called
the Tower, which we found a good one.
29. The first thing which drew our attention this morning was
the celebrated Roman Amphitheatre. We found the main body of
the building in the interior very entire. It was said to contain
thirty thousand spectators. The seats still remain of solid stone,
now called the stone of St. Ambrosio. These seats run entirely round
the amphitheatre and are forty-three as we counted them, one above
the other, although our guide insisted that there were forty-five.
The cells were shown us in which the wild beasts were confined.
The wall which surrounded the arena was about five feet high only,
which I suggested was too low to afford security against the wild
beasts. To obviate this objection our guide endeavored to per-
suade us that these animals were never let out entirely free but
were confined by a chain fastened in the centre of the arena. The
seats were about ten inches high and of about the same width at the
top. They are interrupted by two lodges opposite to each, designed,
no doubt, for the great dignitaries, and by the steps for ascending
and descending which were of half the size of the seats. There is
only a small part of the exterior wall which surrounded the amphi-
theatre now standing. The French replaced several of the stones
of the interior and filled up the interstices with stucco to prevent
the water from descending and undermining the work. Several
excavations have lately been made under the arena, and the aque-
ducts have been discovered which let in and let out the water. The
1 Monte Berico.
2 Over the Bacchiglione, and erected by Palladio.
4IO MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
former, it is ascertained, communicated with the Adige, and the
excavation is still continued, by order of the Emperor of Austria,
to clear this aqueduct in its whole length. There is a little theatre
for summer built in the middle of the arena which looks truly
diminutive and contemptible. From the amphitheatre we went to
the museum of Marquis Scipio Maff ei * where we saw a fine collec-
tion of ancient marbles but much mutilated. We then passed by
the ancient Roman wall and went to see the sarcophage in which the
famous Juliette of the Capuletti was interred. They show the
holes which were left open for respiration. This sarcophage was also
of stone of St. Ambrosio. We afterwards visited a small but choice
collection of pictures belonging to Alberini. We then viewed the
Arch of Triumph of Gallienus and returned to our inn. After
dinner we went with our valet de place to see a bridge over the
Adige built by the Romans. It consisted of five arches, three of
brick and two of stone, of unequal dimensions. The three of brick
were on one side and the two of stone on the other. The former
together were fifty-eight paces and the latter forty-eight and the
height of the bridge was between them. The river Adige was the
barrier during a truce between the French and Austrians, and
the sentinels of the two nations were placed at the different ends
of this bridge. From the Roman bridge I went to see the gate of
St. George, which was attacked by the French, and through which
they entered the city. The wall before the church had been bat-
tered in breach, and the front of the church and a house adjoining
it were pitted with the marks of musket balls. The town was
formerly strongly fortified but the walls were blown up by the
French. In returning to the inn I saw the monument of Capidori
Scaliger who is said to have played the tyrant after the time of the
Romans. It was in the same inclosure with a monument of his
father and uncle, the former of whom was stabbed on the public
30. Left Verona at eight o'clock and reached Mantua at one.
Immediately procured a carriage at the post, for there were no
hacks, and drove to the palace. It is spacious and most of it in
good repair and many of the rooms ornamented from the pencil of
Jules Romain. 2 Some of the rooms, however, are in a ruinous state
and destitute of furniture. From one of these rooms we had a fine
view of the bridge. We next drove to the museum which consists
of a collection of ancient busts, bas-reliefs and statues and ancient
inscriptions on stone. We had not time to attend to copying the
1 Museo Lapidario or Museo Maffeiano.
2 Giulio Romano, or Giulio Pippi (c. 149 2-1 546).
I918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 4II
latter, but among the busts there were five of the Emperor Marcus
Aurelius, one of which was remarkably fine. There was also a fine
bust of Sylla and one of Marius, as well as of Severus and his son
Geta, but of all the busts, that which interested us most, was one of
Virgil, the celebrated poet. Of this bust the face only was ancient,
and had been found buried under the ruins of the ancient city. It
is the only monument that rests at Mantua of Virgil. The face is
open, benignant and intelligent. In the basso-rilievos was the
story of Medea, the story of Venus and Adonis, and the Sack of
Troy — all very fine. From the museum we went to the Palace of
T said to be named so from its shape resembling this letter. 1 This
resemblance, however, I could not find, as the building appeared to
me quite square enclosing a square court. The walls of many of the
apartments were painted by Jules Romain in fresco. Among other
things the "Fall of the Giants" was represented. The figures were
indeed gigantic, but the coloring of many of them appeared much
injured from time and defaced by rude and vulgar hands. We next
visited the cathedral which is a fine church but overcharged with
ornaments. It was built from a design of Jules Romain, but it is of
a mixt architecture. We visited another church in which was said
to be the "Madonna del Orto" by Raphael, but the ignorant people
who conducted us appeared to know nothing concerning it, and
indeed all the paintings in the churches at Mantua were in so bad a
light that we had little satisfaction in looking at them. Mantua,
as is well known, is situated in a sort of lake formed by the over-
flowing of the river Mincio. It is separated from the main land on
the side of Cremona by a width of water of two hundred toises or
fathoms, and on the side of Verona eighty fathoms. It is the strong-
est fortified city in Europe. Old Wurmser, 2 however, defended it in
vain. We saw the house of Jules Romain, with a fine ancient
statue of Mercury in front which the common people suppose to be
St. John the Baptist. The bones of Tasso repose in the church of
S. Egidio. Virgil is supposed to be a native of Mantua, but the
better opinion appears to be that he was born in a little village a
short distance from the city, called Pietoli or Andes.
31. We left Mantua at 7 o'clock and reached Cremona at six
p. m. We had more rain this day than we had before encountered
in all our way from Stockholm.
February 1. Left Cremona at nine a. m., passed Crema at half
past two and reached Lodi at half past five. On entering this last
1 The designation is apparently derived from the form of the roads which led
towards the palace.
2 Dagobert Sigismund, Comte de Wurmser (1 724-1 797).
412 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
place we passed the bridge over the Adda, rendered famous by the
heroism of Bonaparte in 1796. At Crema we passed over the Oglio. 1
We had also much rain this day.
2. We went out immediately after breakfast this day to two of
the principal churches and hospital. In the churches were some
good pictures. The church of St. Maurice had, for a time, been
called St. Napoleon, but it has now resumed its ancient name. The
hospital is small but well arranged and apparently well administered.
The professor of chemistry was particularly polite and gave us a
treatise of his on the mode of making sugar from honey. We left
Lodi at nine o'clock and reached Milan at half past three. The
weather was this day fair. We stopt at the Hotel of Great Britain.
3. The first thing we did this morning was to take a carriage
and a valet de place and to visit the cathedral. It deserves all the
eulogy that has been lavished on it. It is entirely of white marble.
We saw the celebrated statue of St. Bartholomew and we visited
the tomb of St. Charles. 2 The shrine of this saint is infinitely rich,
being of rock crystal and covered with precious stones. His saint-
ship is laid at full length in his pontifical robes but his skull is
bare, the cadavorous appearance of which contrast strikingly with
the treasures which surround it. We ascended to the top of the
church, but as the atmosphere was foggy, we ascended no further.
From the top of the church, however, we had a pretty good view of
the city, but the Alps and Apennines were not visible. The front of
this church had been begun but not completed before the invasion
of the French. Bonaparte caused it to be completed and cor-
rected, as far as was possible, without demolishing the part already
accomplished, the bad style in which it had been begun. The upper
part of the front is made to correspond with the rest of the build-
ing. Bonaparte never allowed any part of the treasures or orna-
ments of this church to be touched. We next visited the amphi-
theatre or circus built by Bonaparte. The entrance is already of
stone and the whole was intended to be of this material, but the
seats are now of earth. The form is oblong. The greatest diameter
is four hundred brasses or fathoms and the smallest two hundred.
There are ten ranges of seats which were calculated to accommodate
thirty thousand people. Around the great hall in entering were
several paintings on the top of the wall and among them on oppo-
site sides, the heads of Napoleon and Josephine. The Austrian
government had caused the former to be deformed by a beard and
the latter by a casque intending thus, perhaps, that they should
represent Jupiter and Minerva. No, that government could from
1 It was the Serio. 2 Cappella San Carlo Borromeo.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 413
its meanness have intended nothing but to deface the monuments
of its own humiliation. From the amphitheatre we went to view
the Arch of Triumph, which had been begun and for finishing
which all the materials were prepared in a most magnificent style.
This arch was meant to form the gate of the Simplon, and its basso-
rilievos commemorated chiefly the field of Marengo. It is said that
the Emperor of Austria has been twice in person to view the arch
and materials without having mind enough to come to a decision
concerning them, and the work is suspended. 1 We next went to
see the palace of Brera, which contains many specimens of the fine
arts. Our attention was chiefly bestowed on the pictures which
are from the pencils of most of the Italian masters. From the
palace of Brera, which was formerly an establishment of the Jesuits,
we went to see the convent of Sta. Maria, 2 formerly belonging to
the Dominicans and where, in the refectory, is the celebrated "Last
Supper" by Leonardo da Vinci. This picture is indeed much in-
jured by time; the colors faded and the surface in many places
pealed from the wall, but I could perceive no evidence of violence
having been used towards it. Certainly there was no mark of pistol,
musket, or cannon-ball on it, as there certainly would have been
had it served for a target to atheistical French soldiers as Mr.
Eustace 3 asserts. I was indeed astonished to see that the face of
our Saviour, after the assertion of the said renowned divine that the
head was made a mark in preference, was without the least fracture
We afterwards visited the sixteen ancient pillars said to have
been erected by Nero, and which are all that remain of antiquity
at Milan. In returning to our hotel we stopt at the church of
Celsius which had formerly been immensely rich, as the Virgin, who
has an altar there, is said to have worked many miracles. The
French are said to have taken away cart-loads of silver. The statues
of Adam and Eve on the front of the church are very fine, particu-
larly Eve. In the evening we went to the theatre of Scala and saw
an opera and ballet. The former was called the Illisa.
4. We again visited the cathedral and admired its beauty. We
then went to the richest shop or magasin in the place, which was
full of curious and fashionable merchandise. We next went to the
Ambrosian library where we first saw a fine collection of statues
and paintings. Among the latter was a fine "Holy Family" by
Luini, and a copy of the "Last Supper" by Leonardo da Vinci,
1 It was not completed until 1838.
2 Santa Maria delle Grazie.
3 John Chetwode Eustace, author of Classical Tour in Italy.
414 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
which we saw yesterday at the Dominicans. This copy was by
Cesar Fiori, a scholar and contemporary of Leonardo and admir-
ably executed and must have been equal to the original in all its
beauty. The head of Christ was the finest I remember to have seen.
This copy had itself been copied a few years since by the celebrated
Joseph Bossi, 1 who was occupied, as the librarian informed us, nine
months at the work. From this copy of Bossi another was made in
mosaic by RafFaelli, which is the same we saw at the Palace of
the Belvedere at Vienna. So the Reverend Mr. Eustace is as false
in his predictions of the future fate of the admirable "Last Supper' '
of Leonardo da Vinci, as he is in his assertions relative to its past
treatment. We next saw the most curious manuscripts contained
in the library, particularly Virgil, with notes in the handwriting
of Petrarch; a copy of Josephus in the handwriting of his scholars.
We then went to see the hospital which is indeed a vast establish-
ment worthy of all praise. In the evening we went to a little theatre
to see curious puppets. I ought to have mentioned yesterday our
visit to the Gate of Marengo, which was erected by Bonaparte, of
granite, and is a fine arch of triumph. This arch had an appro-
priate inscription, but all is now changed and the gate is called the
Gate of Ticino and the inscription is "Pari Populorum Sospitae."
Near this gate begins the canal which Bonaparte caused to be
opened between Milan and Pavia, a distance of more than twenty
English miles. A passage on this canal between the two cities costs
only ten sous. Besides this canal is of immense utility to agricul-
ture and commerce.
5. We left Milan this morning at nine o'clock and stopt at one
to see the famous chartreuse, which was suppressed by Joseph the
Second. 2 It is about three-fourths of an English mile from the
road. It is a most magnificent building, the entire front being of
marble. The interior also is richly decorated by the chisel and the
pencil, there being many fine paintings and much rich sculpture.
There is a picture by Pietro Perugino, the master of Raphael. We
were shown a very rich basso-rilievo and several small statues all
made from tusk of the hippopotamus, which material preserves its
whiteness much more perfectly than ivory. There is a fine monu-
ment in the church of John Galeas Visconti, 3 but it is not well
placed to show all its beauty. The original design was Gothic, but
many pillars of Grecian and Roman orders have since been added.
The fresco painting in this church is two hundred and sixteen years
1 Giuseppe Bossi (1777-1815).
2 Certosa di Pavia.
8 Gian Galeazzo Visconti (1347-1402).
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 415
old and very fresh. Four centuries are said to have been spent in dec-
orating this church and the ornaments of the lower part of the front
only had been finished when the order was suppressed. We arrived
at Pavia at half past three and immediately went to see the College
of Anatomy which contains some exquisitely fine preparations of
the human form and its component parts. We also visited the
college founded by St. Charles Borromeo. We next went to the
old church 1 where the Lombard Kings were crowned and the
round flat stone in the floor on which this ceremony was performed,
was shown to us by a priest. We also visited the cathedral which is
said to contain the club of Roland. St. Augustine is said to be buried
in Pavia. 2 We walked to the bridge over the Ticino and were shown
the scale for the inundations. It has frequently risen above its
banks below the bridge and forced the inhabitants to seek refuge on
more elevated ground. Before we arrived at Pavia we passed the
battle ground where Francis the First was defeated and taken
prisoner in 1525.
6. We left Pavia this morning at nine o'clock. We found the
roads which we now travelled, from the late rains, to be rather
heavy. Just before we reached Plaisance, 3 we passed the river Po
on a bridge-of-boats. Most of these boats were now high and dry,
owing to the lowness of the river, but in the spring, when the river
is high and full, they are all afloat. On the left bank of the Po is
still seen some of the intrenchments on the field of battle, where the
French, under the command of Macdonald, 4 were beaten by the
Austrians and Russians under Suwarrow. 5 We reached Plaisance
at six o'clock and found ourselves on the territory of Marie Louise,
the Po dividing the Milanese from the Parmesan.
7. This morning we took a walk in Plaisance and saw the two
celebrated equestrian statues in bronze of Alexander Farnese and
his son, 6 the former dukes of this place. We next went to the cathe-
dral which contained nothing remarkable. We also viewed the
front of the church belonging to the convent of Augustine. It is a
fine front in granite of the Ionic order. We also saw the course
which is said to be equal to any in Italy, and thence we went to see
the ancient palace of the Dukes of Farnese, which appears never
to have been finished and which now is going to ruin. 7 The place
1 Church of San Michele Maggiore, now the Basilica Reale.
2 In San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro is his monument. 3 Piacenza.
4 Jacques-Etienne- Joseph- Alexandre Macdonald, Due de Tarente (1765-
1840). The battle, named from the Trebbia river, occurred June 17-19, 1799.
5 Alexander Vasilievich, Count Suvarov (1 729-1800).
6 Alessandro (1546-159 2) and Ranuccio Farnese (1569-162 2).
7 Since 1800 they had been used as barracks.
416 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
of the ancient balcona was pointed out to us whence the conspirators
precipitated Louis Farnese * after having killed him. The famous
Alberoni, 2 Prime Minister to the King of Spain, was born in a hovel
in this place and again lived in it after his disgrace. Pope Gregory
the ioth, 3 and the painter Jean Baptiste Porta were also born here.
The place is reputed to be very healthy, and Pliny reports that in
his time there were six persons of no years of age, one of 120 and
one of 140. About nine miles from this place in the Apennines is a
place called Campo Morto where Hannibal so signally defeated
the Romans. At half past nine we left Plaisance. The ancient
Via ^Emilia began at this city and passing by Parma, Modena
and Bologna, ended at Rimini. The modern road which we now
travelled has been made on the foundations of this ancient way.
After passing the village of Fiorenzuola we saw on our right the
Abbey of the Citeaux which is believed to be situated near the
spot where Sylla defeated the army of Carbo. We stopt an
hour at the village of San Donnino upon the river Stirone. The
ancient Julia Aisopoli 4 is supposed to have been situated a few miles
from this place, from the ruins which have been discovered there.
About an English mile before we passed the Taro we saw in a small
village an old square castle partly in ruins, which is called the castle
of Guelfo, and is said to have given its name to the faction of the
Guelphs. 5 We passed the Taro on a platform supported between
two boats. There were two branches occasioned by the middle of
the channel being dry on account of the lowness of the waters.
Both platforms were sufficiently wide to receive our carriage with
four horses and another carriage with two horses, without unhar-
nessing. Besides the Stirone and the Taro already mentioned, we
passed this day several other small rivers, some of which were
nearly dry. Among them were the Nura, the Chiavenna and the
Arda. About six miles from the Taro we entered Parma. We
passed also between Plaisance and Parma, the field of battle of the
Spaniards some two or three hundred years since. At Parma we
stopt at the inn called the Peacock which we found to be good.
8. This morning we began our excursions about half past nine
o'clock. We first visited the Ancient Baptistery, a Gothic building
of an octagonal form, containing an immense fount from a single
piece of marble in which baptism was formerly conferred by im-
mersion. We next entered the Church of St. John the Evangelist,
1 Pierluigi Farnese (1490-1547).
2 Giulio Alberoni (1664-175 2).
3 Tebaldo Visconti (1208-12 76).
4 Veleia? I do not find the name given in the text.
6 It is hardly necessary to say that this is not true.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 417
which contains a "Descent from the Cross," and the "Martyrdom
of St. Placide" by Correggio, a little faded but still excellent. We
then visited the Cathedral, a very solemn temple of Gothic con-
struction, but without elegance. The cupola was painted by Cor-
reggio and is considered as his masterpiece, but the light in which
we saw it was so bad that its excellence was lost for us. We found a
monument on the wall of this church inscribed to Petrarch, who was,
it appears, an archdeacon here. From the Cathedral we proceeded
to the palace where, while the ladies were viewing the toilette of
Marie Louise, I waited on Count Neipperg 1 and delivered to him a
letter of introduction of which I was the bearer. He received me
very politely and voluntarily offered to present her Majesty, the
Archduchess. 2 I then joined the ladies and found the toilette to
consist of a large table with a grand mirror, two vases, velvet
drapery, a large standing mirror with the marriage of Napoleon
and Marie Louise in the frame, two elegant vases, and a pair of
golden boxes on the table. The cradle of the King of Rome of
silver-gilt with a balustrade of the mother of pearl, and a large
chain of silver-gilt of such weight that I could with difficulty move
it. From the toilette we proceeded to the museum. It consisted
of articles discovered in the ancient city, Veleia, in the neighboring
Apennines which was supposed to have been buried by an earth-
quake after Constantine. 3 There was a large plate of copper in-
scribed with a contract between Trajan and some of the principal
inhabitants, also a small plate of the Cisalpine Gauls, some statues,
many fragments of household utensils and an assortment of ancient
keys. From the museum we went to the Academy of Pictures,
which is composed of those which had made the voyage to Paris.
It was indeed a choice collection, containing among others a fine
work of Raphael. After having spent an hour in examining this
collection, we returned a little after twelve to our lodgings and
found a note from Count Neipperg informing us that her Majesty
would receive us at half past one. We had, therefore, scarcely
time to prepare for this ceremony. At half past one we were punc-
tual in our attendance and were most graciously received by her
Majesty, and having passed about twenty minutes in her presence,
[we] were informed by Count Neipperg, who attended us out, that
we were expected to dinner at seven o'clock, and that we should
receive a note accordingly. We had not been long at home before
we received the promised invitation in due form. At dinner was
1 Adam Albert, count of Neipperg (1 775-1829).
2 Marie Louise (1 791-1847), now titular ruler of Parma, Piacenza and Guas-
talla. Her marriage with Neipperg was morganatic.
8 It was overwhelmed by a landslip, A. D. 278.
418 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
the Archduchess, two maids of honour, Count Neipperg, another
gentleman and ourselves. Mrs. Russell was placed on one side of
the Archduchess and myself on the other. We found her Majesty-
very affable and well informed. She made many inquiries concern-
ing the United States. She said that when she was at Leghorn she
had wished to visit one of our line of battle-ships but that Commo-
dore Chauncey, 1 whose name she well remembered, had sailed.
She regretted very much the disappointment, as she had been in-
formed that our vessels of war were kept in most excellent order.
She asked me if we had theatres in America, and if English plays
were performed there. Being answered in the affirmative, she de-
sired to know if Shakespeare was liked there, and particularly men-
tioned his plays of Macbeth and Hamlet. She appeared indeed to
be perfectly well acquainted with the works of this poet and with
their character, and observed that she believed some parts must be
omitted in the performance, as not fitted to the taste and manners
of the present day. When I observed that in passing Verona I had
seen the sarcophage of Juliet, she told me she had also been there
and that she had procured some fragments of the stone which she
had caused a jeweller to cut in hearts and to set in gold. In short
we had a very pleasant dinner, which consisted of the choice luxu-
ries served on plate and porcelain in the most sumptuous way. We
took our leave at half past eight but were first informed that we
should be invited to a ball the next evening. Just before I went to
dinner the governor of the place had done me the honour to call
9. At ten o'clock this morning we went to see the famous print-
ing office and foundry of the late Jean Baptiste Bodoni. 2 This es-
tablishment had successfully rivalled that of Didot at Paris, and
had once obtained the prize there for the best types. The people
of Parma are very proud of this distinction and they have almost
apotheosized Mr. Bodoni. A painter has drawn him receiving the
homage of the authors whose works he had published. Among
them are the most distinguished writers of Rome and Greece. A
plate of this picture was shown to us. Among other performances
he had produced the Russian character in type of thirty different
sizes very perfectly and for which the Emperor Alexander made a
present to the widow of an elegant breast pin, an amethyst set with
diamonds, which the good woman showed us. It is the type only
of Bodoni which is excellent, his editions have been frequently
found incorrect and the paper much inferior to that used by Didot.
1 Isaac Chauncey (1 772-1840).
2 Giambattista Bodoni (1740-1813).
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 419
From the establishment of Bodoni we went to visit the library. It
contains some valuable manuscripts which have been procured by
Marie Louise. The librarian informed us that the translation of
the classical tour of Eustace in Italy was translated and would
soon be published. We next visited the church of St. Paul. 1 It is
the church of the Court, but we found its paintings injured. We
finished our morning excursion by a walk to the ramparts which, as
the weather was remarkably fine, was delightful. On returning
to our inn we found the invitations of the Countess Scampini, dame
d'honneur, for the ball of H. M. this evening. I again went out this
morning and called on the Governor. He treated me very affably,
and upon my asking as delicately as I could if Marie Louise cher-
ished any feeling for her husband and felt any interest in his fate,
the Governor, premising his confidence in my candour and discre-
tion, meaning, I suppose, that I would not make him responsible for
what he should communicate, told me that there was not the least
doubt that she took the warmest interest in the fortunes of her
husband and felt for him a sincere regard. That these sentiments
she frequently discovered when the mention of her child lead to the
subject. That passionate as Bonaparte might have been, he had
uniformly treated her with tenderness which she not only avowed
but which had been confirmed by La Harpe with whom he had
conversed on this point. The only displeasure ever displayed by
Napoleon towards her was on her discovering a repugnance to hold-
ing frequently grand levees, and that this displeasure was very
transitory and was not construed by her into unkindness.
After my return to my lodgings, I received a message from the
Governor with a medal of Marie Louise struck on her arrival at
Parma by Bodoni in silver* 2 About half past nine o'clock we re-
paired to the palace and found the company assembled, but that
H. M. had not yet made her appearance. Mrs. Russell was con-
ducted by a gentleman in waiting to her place, which was next on
the right to the vacant seat of H. M. The seat of Amelia was next,
to the right of Mrs. Russell. H. M. took the circuit of the hall, and
having addressed individually every lady, took her seat. The ball
immediately opened by H. M. and Count MacGavelin leading in a
polonaise followed by the Grand Master, Count Neipperg and Mrs.
R[ussell]. The rest of the company joined in succession. Imme-
diately after her Majesty had resumed her seat, she sent Count
Neipperg to request me to dance another polonaise with her. I of
course assented, although my dancing days were long since past.
1 Convent© di San Paolo.
2 Miss Rivers has just given this medal to the Society.
420 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
In the course of the evening she again sent Count Neipperg to me
with the same message and I again danced the polanaise with her.
She was both times wonderfully amiable and affable as we walked
round the room and appeared to take great pains to amuse and to
please me. The first time she told me that Count MacGavelin was
an Irishman and counselled me to press him into a conversation. I
took the hint and acted accordingly. I found MacGavelin to have
come to this country about sixteen years since when he was at the
age of sixteen years. He had risen to distinction in the service of
Austria, and had been the first governor of the Parmesan for Marie
Louise. He gave me much information concerning the country.
According to him the Parmesan contains a population of about two
hundred thousand. The country is fertile and produces amply
sufficient for the consumption of the inhabitants. There are no
manufactures but everything of this kind is brought from Austria,
the duties on the goods of other countries amounting to a prohibi-
tion. There are few fortunes in the country which amount to a
thousand pounds per annum and only five or six which amount to
four thousand pounds. The peasantry are wretchedly poor and
live almost entirely on polenta or hasty-pudding, not allowing
themselves even the addition of milk, as all their milk is appro-
priated to the dairy. He considered this food to be unhealthy and
the cause of a disease x very prevalent, which first makes its ap-
pearance by inflammation in the hands, etc. This gradually in-
creases during the first year. The second year the patient becomes
insane, and the third year he dies. He considers the sovereignty of
Marie Louise to be only nominal, and that her dominion depends
entirely on her father, although he does not ostensibly and directly
interfere; but the Austrian Ministers at Rome and Naples are also
the diplomatic agents of Marie Louise. He appeared to be hostile
to Bonaparte but said I should be astonished if I knew how many
partisans he still had in Italy. The Italians hated the Austrian
Government and would even prefer that of Sardinia. That Sar-
dinia was indeed formidable to the Austrian power in Italy. That
Sardinia had eighty thousand men well armed, and might overrun
Lombardy when she pleased, there being nothing like a barrier on
that side of the Adige, etc. At one o'clock we returned home.
The painters Lanfranco 2 and the Parmesan, 3 were born at
Parma. It was also the country of the famous conspirator Cassius.
N. B. Gave the Governor some American coins.
1 Giovanni Lanfranco (1581-1647).
8 Francesco Parmigiano (1504-1540).
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 421
10. Left Parma at half past nine o'clock, passed Reggio at half
past one. Saw there the Cathedral and the statues of Adam and
Eve by Clementi. 1 The famous poet Louis Ariosto 2 was born at
this place. Passed the fine bridge of the Secchia about four. Its
banks witnessed much hard fighting between the French and the
Austrians. We also passed the little fortified place of Rubiera and
arrived at Modena about six o'clock.
11. Sallied forth this morning at 9 o'clock and first visited the
Cathedral. We saw in the tower the celebrated bucket which is
preserved as trophy over the Bolognese. There is much history
connected with this bucket and a poem has been written about it. 3
We went down into the vault under the tower which is supported
on arches, below which are sprung other arches which support none
of the weight but which are merely intended to ascertain if the
mass sinks. The Cathedral contained nothing remarkable. We
next visited the church of St. Dominique, which we found to be
handsome, built in the shape of a Greek cross and containing some
fine pictures. From the church of St. Dominique we went to the
palace which had been built up by Napoleon. At the doorway were
two statues by the famous Clementi, one of which was a Hercules.
The suite of apartments which we saw were richly ornamented and
furnished, and several rooms were adorned with excellent pictures,
some of which had made a journey to Paris. There was a fine copy
of the Night of Correggio, the original of which we had seen at
Dresden. There were also many originals of the first masters:
Guido, Titian, Caracci, 4 Lanfranco, etc. We also visited the church
of St. George which contained nothing remarkable and was very
small. We left Modena at half past eleven and at half past twelve
passed the river Panaro and got out of the carriage to view the arches
of the bridge over it. They were two in number and remarkably
fine. About a league further we left the territory of Modena and
at Urbino entered the papal dominions. The Modenese contains
about half a million of inhabitants and is governed by the Duke
Francis the Fourth, of the old house of Este. We also passed the
rivers Lavino and the Ghironda which join each other about nine
English miles to the eastward and form a peninsula 5 on which the
1 Prospero Clementi (c 15 10-1584).
2 Lodovico Ariosto (1474-1533).
8 Tassoni's "Secchia Rapita," which is said to have given Boileau and Pope
the hint and the model of the "Lutrin" and the "Rape of the Lock."
4 Three of the name are known in Bologna, Lodovico (1555-1619), Agostino
(1557-1602), and Annibale (1560-1609).
6 It was an island, three miles long and two miles broad, with the two villages
of S. Viola and S. Giovanni.
422 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
triumvirate of Octavius, Anthony and Lepidus was formed. We
reached Bologna at five o'clock.
12. The first place which we went to see this morning at half
past nine o'clock was the church of St. Petronio. On the floor of
this church is the famous meridian of Cassini. 1 It is graduated for
all the days of the year, and through a hole in the roof the sun at
noon each day, in clear weather, shines on the corresponding day
in the meridian. It has inscribed on it "Linia Meridiana mdclvi.
Ampliori formi renovata mdcclxxvi." We next visited the two
famous inclined columns. These columns were erected several
centuries since by two noblemen of Bologna. The first erected his
column, which from his name is now called Asinelli, three hundred
and seven feet with an inclination of three feet and a half. His
rival Garisenda began the other the year following intending to
carry it much higher and to give it an inclination of eighteen feet.
When, however, he had raised it one hundred and forty-four feet and
given it an inclination of eight feet and two inches, the good peo-
ple of Bologna became alarmed, particularly those in the neighbor-
hood, and so strongly opposed the continuance of the work that it
was abandoned. 2 From the columns we proceeded to the church
of St. Bartolommeo fuori di Porta where we saw a beautiful
Madonna by Guido. We next went to the church of St. Etienne in
which is a marble column with an inscription that it represents that
at which our Saviour was scourged. On a wooden cross over one of
the altars another inscription declares [it] to contain a piece of the
true cross. It was a busy day with the Catholics; at one of the con-
fessionals a woman was confessing on one side, a man was waiting
at the communication on the other, and a third was waiting with
evident impatience in front. The church was anciently a temple of
Isis; an inscription is still seen on the outside which was over the
portal of that temple. From St. Etienne we went to the palace of
Prince Ercolano. It has a fine entrance ornamented with statues
of Hercules and four of the labours of Hercules, whence it may be
supposed that the prince claims kindred with the demigod. We
were ushered into a fine suite of rooms above stairs embellished
with many fine pictures. Among others, Fortune, The Flagellation
of our Saviour, The Adoration of St. Francis, and Psyche and Cupid,
by Guido; a fine portrait of a lady by the Spanish painter Velas-
quez; Love carrying a swan to Leda, by Titian; Charity, by Fran-
1 Gian Domenico Cassini ( ). He drew the meridian line in 1656,
and it was renewed by Eustachio Zanotti in 1776.
2 Modern guidebooks say that the Torre Asinelli is 320 feet in height and
four feet out of the perpendicular, and the Torre Garisenda is 163 feet in height,
but has an inclination of ten feet.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 423
ceschini, etc. The young Prince Ercolani has married the daughter-
in-law of Lucien Bonaparte. We then walked to the Academy of
Fine Arts. Below we were shown a fine statue of the death of Vir-
ginia, by Professor Iacoma di Maria, a living artist. 1 The statue
is said to have been much admired by Canova. We also saw below
the modern prize pictures of the Academy, some of which were very
good. On going upstairs we were shown in two rooms the finest,
tho' not the largest collection which I had seen in Italy. By Guido
there was Sampson, after slaying the Philistines, allaying his thirst
from water streaming from the jaw bone of the ass, a St. Sebastian,
fine tho' unfinished; a crucifixion; a portrait of a Pope, St. Andrea
Cocini; Death of Christ, etc. by Louis Caracci; St. Matthew by
Raphael; St. Cecilia and St. John. The latter, however, the Bo-
lognese pronounced to be by Giulio Romano; The Martyrdom of St.
Peter, by Domenichino, etc. We next went to see a little amphi-
theatre erected by Bonaparte for comedy in the daytime. It was,
like all his works, tasteful and magnificent. It was left open at the
top and capable of containing three thousand spectators. We saw
in returning to dinner the palace of Enzio, King of Sardinia, who
was taken prisoner by the Bolognese while he was conducting
succour to the Modenese, their enemies. He was kept in captivity
all his life, but was treated it seems with much attention. His
tomb is in the church of St. Dominique. Here also saw the famous
[fountain of the] Giant, so-called from a colossal figure of Neptune
which presides over it. After dinner we went to the Cathedral and
saw the Annunciation in fresco by Louis Caracci, a fine painting.
The baths of Marius are about one and one-half miles from Bologna,
but are a mere mutilated heap of ruins and we did not see them.
We also contented ourselves with a distant view of the church of
St. Mary of Luke on the mountain, 2 so called because the Virgin
is said to be painted by St. Luke. We also saw the arcade which
conducts from the city to this church and which consists of six
hundred and ninety arches.
13. Went again this morning to the church of Petronio to
examine the meridian of Cassini. In addition to the remarks of
yesterday I found the following inscription on the wall at which
the meridian ends below the winter solstice, viz:
Meridianae hujus liniae
1 Giacomo di Maria (1762-1833).
2 Madonna di San Luca, on Monte della Guardia.
424 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
et centralem solis radium
' in hyberno solstitio
est sex centimillisima pars
I made the whole length of the meridian one hundred and eight paces.
The meridian is marked first "Punctum verticale" which is directly
under the gnomon or hole in the roof; then on the left side of the
line looking towards the winter solstice is marked "Signa Zodiaci
ascendentia;" on the other side "Signa Zodiaci descendentia." In
Horae Italicae Meridia
Perpendiculi partes centissimae.
Then on the line first —
Junii die 22.
This solstice is placed on the line at 36 and at fifteen hours and
forty-nine minutes time. The whole line contains, in time, nineteen
hours and eleven minutes. The whole graduation of the centissimae
parts is one hundred and forty-eight from one extremity of the line
to the other.
At ten o'clock we took leave of Bologna, and after travelling
about seven miles we began to ascend the mountains and were
obliged to strengthen our team with a pair of oxen. We proceeded
with these oxen a few miles when we exchanged them for a pair of
horses, which we kept until sunset. We then continued travelling
with our four horses until seven o'clock when we stopt at a miser-
able inn at a place called Scaricalasino. There was not even rriilk
there and we were obliged to wait an hour and a half until it could
be brought from a distance which required this time. We found
ourselves now among the highest of the Apennines, which are far
inferior in sublimity and magnificence to the Alps. The wind was
very high during the first part of the night, and we were informed
that it blew sometimes with so much violence as to overset car-
riages on the road and to render it dangerous to travel.
14. We left Scaricalasino at eight o'clock this morning and had
not proceeded a mile before we left the papal territories and en-
tered those of Tuscany. About half past nine we stopt at a sorry
inn and taking a guide we went more than a mile on foot through a
rough and dirty path to view Pietra Mala where there is con-
tinually a flame issuing from the earth. We found the surface of
the ground which this flame occasionally occupied, for it is not
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 425
constantly of the same extent, is about fifteen or eighteen feet
square. It seems, according to what was told us, that the flame is
sometimes suspended by high winds but never by the rains. Our
guide was uncertain if it was burning this morning and stopt at a
house on the way to take with him a small pot of coals, for it ap-
pears that when the flame is suspended the application of fire to
the earth will immediately revive it. We found most of the spot,
however, in full flame mostly of a red colour. 1 The stones were
burnt black and the earth smoked, but we could not observe any
other effect of the fire on them. The smell of the flame was some-
thing like ether, but more like electrical sparks. The flame burnt
through the stones with a crackling sound, and would sometimes
burst forth with this sound through places where it was not before
visible. I produced the flame in several new spots by moving the
surface with a stick. On returning to the inn we found that our
coachman had sent for a couple of bottles of gas to a boiling spring
which lay in another direction. 2 The mode of procuring this gas is
by lowering the bottles empty and stopt with tow into the spring.
We pulled out the tow and simultaneously applied a candle to the
mouth of the bottle and the gas instantly took fire and continued
burning until the bottle was full of water, which is continually
poured into it from the time of drawing out the tow. The water
falling to the bottom naturally forces out the gas which is specifi-
cally lighter above, and as the gas passes through the burning mouth
of the bottle takes fire. After noon this day we found ourselves
almost constantly descending and arrived at four o'clock at an inn
called Le Mascere. This inn commands the view of a fine valley
surrounded by the Apennines and was covered with olive trees, the
first we had seen, and cultivated fields. We took a walk to the
chateaux of a nobleman in the neighborhood which, though not
magnificent, was very pleasant.
15. Left Mascara at nine o'clock this morning and about noon
stopt for an hour to see the palace of Pratolino which formerly be-
longed to the Medici. The building was a venerable old pile but
had no claim to beauty. The garden was laid out in winding walks
and the small artificial lakes and cataract were very pretty. This
cataract was set in motion for our amusement and our guide ex-
pected to see us astonished at the spectacle as if there had been no
Niagara in the world. There was also near the palace a colossal
statue of Neptune by John da Bologna which has been much cele-
1 This place is known as Monte di Fo, and the flame Fuoco di legno. La-
rousse says the flame is blue and in certain places red.
* The water is cold and is inflammable as alcohol. The fountain is called the
426 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
brated. It was in a posture between sitting and squatting, with
one hand pressed upon a monster, which, when the fountain was in
order, belched water. The whole, however, is now out of repair and
apparently in decay. The statue if erect would measure, we were
told, forty feet. After seeing this palace we resumed our journey
and soon saw the spires of Florence where we arrived at half past
two o'clock. We stopt at a hotel facing the Arno and called the
Four Nations. It was the time of the carnival and the street in
front of our hotel was covered with maskers. I immediately dressed
and called on the Swedish Minister.
1 6. As my ready cash was low and as my letters of credit were
addressed to no one at Florence, I had decided on going early this
morning to Leghorn where I should find a banker. I had ordered
horses accordingly and they had already made their appearance
when a letter was handed to me by the servant from the Swedish
Minister, who was not at home when I called yesterday, pressing
me in so earnest a manner to defer my journey to Leghorn until
after the carnival, that I dismissed the post-horses. At ten o'clock
I called on the Chevalier Lagersward, the Swedish Minister, and
having frankly stated to him the reason of my intention of so sud-
denly visiting Leghorn, he very politely assured me that he should
most cheerfully remove that reason. I showed him my letters of
credit on Leghorn when he informed me that one of the banking
houses to which I was addressed there had a partner established in
this city who would undoubtedly make the advances I needed. To
this partner he immediately addressed a letter in my behalf and on
delivering it I instantly had all my wants supplied. The Swedish
Minister afterwards returned my visit and Mr. James Ambrosi 1
called on me with a letter of introduction from Mr. Appleton, the
American Consul at Leghorn. The maskers again paraded before
our house this afternoon. At half past seven o'clock the Swedish
Minister again called and accompanied us to the ducal palace
where his Highness gave a great ball this evening. Before the ball
began we were presented to the Grand Duke 2 who received us with
great affability and made several inquiries concerning our journey
and arrival. His form and face are in the same style of those of the
rest of the family whom we have seen. The hall had just been fitted
up and lighted with much taste by wax candles placed on half-
round columns which diminished towards the top. When we first
1 Agent for the United States at Florence, by appointment of the consul at
Leghorn, and without public recognition.
2 Ferdinand III, of Habsburg-Lorraine (i 769-1824). He married Louise
Amelie Ther&se, daughter of Ferdinand IV, king of Sicily.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 427
entered this arrangement had a magnificent effect, but in a little
time the different rows of candles, which were near three feet long,
having heated those immediately above them, thus incapable of
supporting longer their own weight, bent over and reversed their
attitude, pouring the melted wax on everything beneath them.
Many a fine gown and new coat bore the marks of this extraordinary
shower. Several servants were employed in extinguishing the
offending candles which were ultimately reduced to less than half
their original number and the whole symmetry of the original arrange-
ment entirely destroyed. The room was, however, still sufficiently
lighted. We were presented this evening to the chief officers of the
court and to most of the corps diplomatique. There was an abun-
dance of ices, lemonades, etc., but no supper. The Duke Palatine, 1
a brother of the Grand Duke and his sister from Saxony, had ar-
rived this afternoon and were present at this ball. Fifty or sixty
English were presented en masse this evening.
17. The morning was very rainy and we remained at home, ex-
cepting a shopping excursion. At half past seven the Swedish
Minister called on us and accompanied us to Louise de Stolberg,
Countess of Albany. 2 This lady is from Mecklenberg-Strelitz and
was married to the last pretender of the house of Stewart. She is
said not to have conducted well towards her husband or to have
lived happily with him. She is even said to have refused to see
him as he requested on his death-bed. Her friends attempt to
apologize for her conduct by accusing the husband of intemperance,
but the more impartial find her in the wrong, and not only charge
her with an improper connexion with the Poet Alfieri 3 but even
with the Cardinal York, the brother of her husband. 4 She appears
now to be about sixty and is much distinguished for her esprit and
accomplishments. From the house of the Countess we went to a
ball given by the nobles at their Casino. We found here as every-
where else at Florence shoals of English. The Grand Duke, his
1 Archduke Joseph (1776-0000), who married Alexandrine Paulowna, daughter
of the Emperor Paul of Russia.
2 Louisa, Countess of Albany (1 753-1824), daughter of Gustavus Adolphus,
prince of Stolberg-Gedern, and wife of Prince Charles Edward Louis Philip
Casimir (1 720-1 788), son of the Chevalier de St. George. Lord Broughton, who
saw her in 1816, described her as " a fat old woman with blunt features and a
coarse voice " and " vastly good-natured, at least for a Princess, which she
affects not a little to be." Recollections of a Long Life, 11. 69.
3 She eloped with Vittorio Alfieri, and openly lived with him as his mistress.
She had separated from the Prince in 1777.
4 Henry Benedict Maria Clement, Cardinal York (1 725-1807). He gave
shelter to the Countess of Albany, when she had left her husband, and allowed
Alfieri to have access to her.
428 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
son, 1 and the rest of their family 2 made their appearance about
nine o'clock. There was a plenty of dancing and a scarcity of re-
freshments. Some of the gentlemen played pool at the billiard
table in an adjoining room. We were informed that contrary to
former custom some of the lower order of nobility had been this
night admitted to the Casino.
1 8. I received a letter from Mr. Appleton at Leghorn in which
he informed me that he had in charge four letters for me which he
considered too bulky for the post but did not urge me to make an
excursion to Leghorn to receive them. A little after noon we went
to what is called the Uffizi, where according to custom the maskers
were to throng this day, but the weather being rainy their number
was very small and we saw nothing wonderful. At six o'clock we
went to dine with the Swedish Minister, and found there Lord
Burghersh, 3 General Mackenzie, etc. After dinner they gave us
the singing of Madam Copali, whom we had heard in Sweden and
who is a Swede by birth. She sings remarkably well. A little after
nine o'clock we returned home and at half past ten went to the
theatre to see the masked ball. We first went into the box of
Madame Frulani, the wife of the Minister of Finance, and the sister
of Mr. Ambrosi who had been so attentive to us. We afterwards, at
the urgent instance of the Swedish Minister, went into his box for
the remainder of the evening. We took a walk among the maskers
but saw very few in character. The Swedish Minister's box was in
the lowest range and while we were in front of it the ladies were
accosted by an Englishman who was in the character of a poet and
which he performed with sufficient eccentricity. We learnt after-
wards that it was a person by the name of Scroop. At half past
twelve we returned home.
19. This morning the Swedish Minister and his lady called on
us by appointment and accompanied us to make calls on some of
the other members of the diplomatic corps, among others the
French, 4 Austrian 6 and English Ministers. We also called on the
Grand Master of Ceremonies. Mrs. Russell had her teeth arranged
this morning by the famous dentist Buzzei. The Swedish Minister
called in the evening to attend us to the theatre but we declined
going as we felt a disposition to repose.
1 Leopold II (1 797-1870).
2 Marie-Louise (b. 1798) and ThSrese (b. 1801).
3 John Fane (1784-1859), Lord Burghersh until 1841, when he succeeded his
father as Earl of Westmorland.
4 Chevalier de Vernegues is given in the Almanack de Gotha, but Comte Dillon
is mentioned by Russell more than once as the minister of France.
6 Comte Antoine-Rodolphe Apponyi (1782-?).
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 429
20. I took a walk this morning with Mr. Ambrosi and made
several trifling investments. At half past eight o'clock in the
evening we visited the Countess of Albany and assisted, agreeably
to an invitation which she had given us, at a tea-party. We met
there a very select party, among whom was the Prince Borghese l
and his mistress the Duchess of Lante. We had been presented to
them at the Grand Duke's and had afterwards seen them at the
Casino of the nobles. They appeared to be disposed to treat us
with marked attention. The Prince, however, has treated his
wife very ill. She was Bonaparte's sister, Paulina, 2 and now lives
separately at Rome, and he lives at Florence in a most public manner
with the Duchess above mentioned. He is called her cavaliere ser-
vente and here there appears to be no scandal annexed to this kind
of connexion. When indeed I spoke of her to others she was uni-
formly called a most charming and respectable woman. Indeed
this species of gallantry, notwithstanding all that Eustace says on
the subject, is as common as ever, and a lady sinks in her own esti-
mation and loses a portion of her consideration in society who can-
not appear with her cavaliere servente. The want of this appendage
is ascribed to some defect concealed or apparent in the mind or
person. At ten o'clock we left the Countess of Albany and pro-
ceeded to the hotel of Count Dillon, 3 the Minister of France, who
had invited us to a ball this evening. We found there the same
company which we had seen at the tea-party with a few in addi-
tion. Count Dillon emigrated soon after the commencement of the
French Revolution and entered the service of England in which he
continued for about twenty years. He told me he was one of four
brothers who had crossed the Atlantic in favour of American In-
dependence. He did not indeed reach himself the United States,
having been wounded on the way at Grenada. One of his 1 brothers
was guillotined 4 and another was drowned. The General 5 that was
massacred at Lille was a cousin. I also met here an Irish Lord
Dillon of the same family. 6 I had known this Lord in England
who was then, however, only the Honorable Colonel Dillon. He is
now violent in favour of the opposition, and is upon the whole a
1 Camillo Filippo Ludovico (1775-1832).
2 She was the widow of General Leclerc when the Prince married her.
8 Edouard Dillon (1751-1839), son of Robert Dillon, of Bordeaux. He was
the Minister of France at Dresden.
4 Arthur, Comte Dillon (1 750-1 794), guillotined at Paris, was the son of
Henry, Count Dillon and Charlotte Lee.
6 Theobald Dillon (1 745-1 792), brother of Arthur, Comte Dillon.
8 Henry Augustus Dillon-Lee, Viscount Dillon (177 7-183 2), was eldest son
of Charles, Viscount Dillon and Henrietta Maria Phipps, daughter of Constan-
tine, Lord Mulgrave.
430 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
most eccentric man. I also met this evening with a very interest-
ing Italian, the Marquis of [ ] who had long been in the
diplomatic service of Prussia. About midnight we returned home.
2 1 . This morning received very unexpectedly a call from Thomas
Bartlett of Boston who had just arrived from Rome. We spent
the remainder of the morning at home. Called at nine o'clock on
the Swedish Minister and lady, and went at ten to the masked ball
at the theatre which we found to be very crowded, all the rooms
being open and filled. This evening Amelia masked and we became
acquainted with the Count Solaro della Margarita, secretary of
the Sardinian legation at Naples, who appeared to be a well in-
formed young man.
22. Called this morning on a gentleman from Demerara l and
inquired after my old friend Madame Dusart; also called on Mr.
Bartlett and walked with him to the Sotto d'Uffizi, but were too
late to see the maskers. At half past five went to dine with Lord
Burghersh. The party was small consisting of Lady Salter, Sir
William Paine and five others, — all English. I handed in Lady
Burghersh and enjoyed her conversation until the dessert when she
was suddenly taken ill with fainting and was obliged to leave the
table and the room. This was owing to her situation. From Lord
Burghersh's we returned home in a short time and then went to a
ball at the Grand Duke's. We found less company there than on
the former night and this diminution was almost entirely at the
expense of the English which did not render the party the less
agreeable. I was, this evening, presented to the young Duke and
had considerable conversation with him. He is in truth rather a
dull young man. We returned home at twelve o'clock.
23. Went this morning to see the maskers Sotto l'Ufiizi and
found the crowd very great. They dispersed, however, about half
past two. At half past three they thronged on the quay before our
inn. At half past four went in our carriage to the Corso, and found
a great number of carriages, some of which were very elegant, par-
ticularly those of the Grand Duke and the Prince Borghese. The
latter was accompanied as usual by the Duchess of Lante. Mrs.
Russell and myself had now seen enough of the carnival and de-
cided not to go to the ball this evening, but Amelia was actuated
by a different spirit and placed herself under the protection of the
lady of the Minister of Sweden and again went to the theatre.
24. Mrs. Russell was confined this morning with her teeth. I
attempted, however, to take a walk with Mr. Ambrosi to the Cas-
cine, but was arrested on my way by the rain and was obliged to
1 Faber. Page 431, infra.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 431
take refuge in the church of a Franciscan Convent. I then re-
turned home and having dressed went to dine with a gentleman from
Demerara by the name of Faber. He is a very considerable planter
in that Island and from him I learned several interesting particulars
concerning the colony. Our dinner lasted until near nine o'clock.
After it was over I called, with the Swedish Minister and the ladies,
on the Countess of Albany and thence we went to pass the evening
at [ ] where I was engaged in a game of whist.
25. I called this morning to see Thomas H. Perkins, the son of
Thomas H. Perkins of Boston, but I was told that he was not at
home. I afterwards went with Mrs. Russell and Mr. Ambrosi to
the gallery, but some of the ducal family being there the doors were
shut against strangers. We then went to the palace of the Prince
of Mozzi * and saw many fine pictures. That, however, which pleased
us most was one painted at Florence by [ ] portraying
Napoleon Bonaparte, receiving after the battle of Austerlitz the
oath of the Saxons. The scene is represented by moonlight and
torchlight, and exquisitely painted. The likeness of Bonaparte
is very good and there is also the likeness of Murat, five or six mar-
shals, four pages, etc., all taken from the life. We next went to the
church of St. Lorenzo. This church is very rich, but like many of
the Italian churches has never been finished. It contains the tombs
of the Medici and marble monuments of some of them by Michael
Angelo. These monuments are also unfinished. From the church
of St. Lorenzo we went to the church of Santa Croce. This is a
very ancient building of bad Gothique but very interesting for the
monuments which it contains. Among others are the monuments
of Galileo, the famous astronomer; Aretino, the poet; Machiavelli,
the historian and civilian. His epitaph begins with "Tanto nomini
nullum par elogium. ,, There is also a monument to the late poet,
Alfieri, raised to him by his particular friend, the Countess of
28. Our attempt to visit the gallery this morning was more
successful. We entered it at eleven o'clock and remained till half
past one. We did not, however, see one. half of the wonders which
it contained, not even the Venus of Medici. The corridors contain
many fine ancient busts and statues, which we passed very rapidly.
Among the rooms which we afterwards entered, that which con-
tains the group of Niobe and her children is particularly interest-
ing. The story is the vengeance of Apollo, and the passions of
anger and dismay are admirably depicted in the several statues.
One only is yet dead and one wounded. The dead figure is perfect,
432 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
but the wounded one had suffered mutilation, and the head and an
arm are modern, which undoubtedly alters the whole character of
the man and renders his appearance very tame. He hangs his head
now like a narcissus. The figure of the mother and the youngest
daughter, in one piece, and the eldest daughter, at the other end
of the room, are supposed to be by one artist who is supposed to
have been Scopas. In another room we saw an admirable Magdalen
by Carlo Dolci. In still another room was a fine Assumption in
claro obscuro, by Fra Bartholomew. 1 There was a room of portraits
of all the celebrated painters by their own hands. We had time
this morning to visit a part of the rooms only.
27. We repaired to the gallery again this morning but found
the doors again shut against strangers on account of the presence of
the Grand Duke and family. To indemnify ourselves for this dis-
appointment we went to the Physical cabinet, where we saw not
only a very valuable collection of specimens from the different
reigns of nature, but a most wonderful collection of anatomical
preparations in wax. This collection indeed is said to be the finest
in the world. Besides these anatomical preparations in wax there
were numerous representations of vegetables, fossils, etc., in the
same material. We next visited the Academy of Arts where we
saw some very good productions of modern artists and a very great
number of casts of the productions of the ancients. Among these
were casts of the Elgin marbles which had been made a present to
the Grand Duke by the Prince of Wales. From the Academy we
proceeded to the rooms of Morghen, the celebrated engraver. 2 We
saw specimens of most of his performances. He is considered the
first engraver in the world, but he sometimes multiplies his impres-
sions to such a degree as to give very imperfect copies and thus to
run the hazard of injuring his own fame. We found a young gen-
tleman from New York named Main 3 studying the art with Mor-
ghen. At three o'clock we obtained admission into the palace of
Pitti and saw the several apartments containing a most precious col-
lection of pictures by the first masters, particularly of Raphael and
Titian. I had felt a bad cold all day and in the evening I was so sick
as to be obliged to stay at home. Mrs. Russell and Amelia, however,
visited the Countess of Albany and the Countess of Santini.
28. I continued very ill with my cold this day and kept house
and even my bed almost without intercession. My headache was
March 1. I was somewhat better this day but still continued
1 Baccio della Porta, called Fra Bartolomeo de S. Marco.
2 Raffaelo Sanzio Morghen (1758-1833).
8 William Main. See Stauffer, American Engravers, 1. 169.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 433
too sick to go abroad. Amelia, however, visited some of the churches
with Madame Lagersward and Mrs. Russell visited in the evening
Mrs. Graham and went a little while to the theatre.
2. I found myself this morning weft enough to accompany Mrs.
Russell and Amelia with Mr. Ambrosi to the gallery of paintings
and saw the apartments containing the Venetian school and that
containing the celebrated Venus of Medici. In this last room are
several pictures of Raphael exhibiting in a striking way his three
different manners. We received a call this day from Mons. and
3. At half past eight o'clock this morning we set off by an
extra diligence for Leghorn. At eleven we passed Casciano * and
Mr. Ambrosi, who was with us, told us a remarkable instance of
fraternal animosity. The father had left his estate equally to two
sons, who proceeded to the division, and whenever an article was
found which had no exact match or counterpart they literally cut
it in twain without any regard to the injury or even total destruc-
tion of the article. At last one of the brothers was found mur-
dered, and the survivor, who had often been heard to declare his
intention to get rid of the deceased, was naturally suspected of
being the murderer. He has, however, for want of proof hitherto
escaped punishment. At half past twelve passed San Miniato. 2
The church in this place contains the tombs of the ancestors of
Napoleon Bonaparte who were patricians. At half past four
o'clock we passed Pisa and arrived at Leghorn at half past seven.
Stopt at the Aquilla nera — black eagle — a very tolerable inn.
4. This morning had an early call from Mr. Appleton, the con-
sul, and received our letters from America. After breakfast we
took a walk with him to see the harbour. We found there an Al-
gerine cruiser turned bottom upwards to be caulked. We after-
wards left the quay and mounted an eminence in its vicinity which
commanded a view of the sea whence, although the weather was
not very clear, we distinctly saw the Islands of Corsica, Elba and
Capraja; the two former so celebrated as the cradle and prison of
Napoleon. On this eminence we saw the subterraneous vaults
contrived for the preservation of corn and pulse from the insects.
They consist of caverns completely walled and floored with brick
through which neither air nor moisture can penetrate. These
vaults have a small circular opening at the top of about two feet or
two feet and a half diameter, which are closed by a cover on which
the earth is thrown to the depth of two or three feet which brings
it on a level with the surface of the earth. This as Mr. Appleton
1 Cascina, on the Arno. 2 San Miniato al Tedesco.
434 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
expressed it is hermetically sealing them. The philosophy of the
contrivance is the complete exclusion of the air which prevents the
insect from generating there and kills him if already in the com-
modity. For want of air he crawls to the top of the mass and there
perishes. We took a ramble about the streets of Leghorn which we
found to be well built and thickly populated city, having an air of
activity and business. We stopt at a large magazine of alabaster
and made some small purchases of vases and lamps. Mr. Appleton
dined with us, and in the evening I accompanied him and Mr.
Ambrosi for a short time in the box of a Mr. Coat a Scotch banker
and heard Mallenotta and Bernanotta sing.
5. A call this morning from Mr. Appleton and having break-
fasted we took leave of Leghorn at half past eight, Mr. Appleton
having very politely handed me a letter for Canova and Trentanove.
We reached Pisa at noon and remained there two hours during
which time we visited the Cathedral, the inclined tower, the ceme-
tery, etc. The Cathedral contains some fine statues and paintings.
The inclined tower or campanile torto is one hundred and eighty-
eight feet high and is ascended by one hundred and ninety- three steps.
We had no desire to mount it as it has a frightful appearance varying
from a perpendicular fifteen feet. There is a difference of opinion
respecting the cause of this inclination, some ascribing it to design
and some to the sinking of the earth. Whatever may have been
the cause it is evident that it is occasioned by the foundation being
no longer on a level. On one side there are three steps of about a
foot high each, on which rest a pedestal of about two feet and a half.
These steps not only diminish and disappear under the earth as
they circle round the tower, but on the opposite side the whole base
of the column and a part of the shaft are buried in the ground. The
cemetery or Campo Santo is a magnificent Gothique marble arcade
forming a square and containing many tombs of the inhabitants of
Pisa. There are also many antiquities of Grecian, Roman and
Egyptian origin. The walls are painted in stucco and among other
subjects "The Last Judgment of Dante" is painted. The blessed
look sufficiently contented and the damned sufficiently miserable.
The devils and the angels appear to perform parts equally important,
and there is a contest between two individuals of these different
orders for the embodied spirit of a priest. In returning to our inn
we passed the famous tower in which the celebrated Count Ugo-
lino was confined whose fate has been strangely avenged by the
imagination of Dante. We only saw the top of the tower which
appears to be an isosceles triangle, the bottom being covered by a
dwelling house of which it seems to form a part. We left Pisa at
about half past two and arrived at Lucca at five where we found a
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 435
good inn. Lucca contains twenty thousand inhabitants, and the
territory seventy thousand.
6. Left Lucca at half past eight o'clock and reached Pistoja at
two. We remained there two hours in which time I called with Mr.
Ambrosi on the Governor who treated us with a cup of coffee and a
glass of Rosolio. He is Count Fanlom. He told me that Pistoja is
very ancient; that its inhabitants took part with Catiline in his
conspiracy and that he was defeated by Antony in this neighbour-
hood. He likewise informed me that Pistoja has very [much] de-
creased in population, that it has still sufficient habitations for the
comfortable accommodation of twelve thousand persons, but that
the actual number of inhabitants does not exceed ten thousand.
The neighbouring country, however, he stated to be very populous.
We left Pistoja at four o'clock and arrived at Florence at nine.
7. Called this morning on Baron Lagersward. Soon after re-
ceived a call from him and his lady. Dismissed this morning our
waiting woman Francesca for impertinence, intemperance, indolence,
and dishonesty. Had a call about three from Robert Goodloe
Harper, 1 who announced himself as General Harper of the United
States — much disappointed in his manners and appearance.
The Emperor of Austria and his suite arrived at five o'clock this
afternoon and the town was illuminated in consequence of that
event this evening. At half past seven we ordered our carriage and
rode round the city to see the sights. It was on the whole rather a
shabby illumination. The palace of the Prince of Borghese had the
most splendid appearance. Mr. Ambrosi accompanied us on this
excursion. My cold although much better is still troublesome.
8. Went this morning to the gallery of pictures and again saw
the apartment of the Venus of Medici. The first manner of Raphael
is exhibited in a portrait; his second manner in two pictures of the
Virgin, Jesus and St. John; and his third manner in a Pope, his
mistress, and St. John in the wilderness. We also visited the Dutch
school this morning and the cabinet of precious stones. In this last
an onyx vase was shown worth at least $100,000. From the gallery
we went to the Church of Annunciation and saw in the corridor a
picture of the Virgin and Son in fresco, which is very much admired
and which it is said Titian specially visited Florence to see and that
it exceeded his expectation. From the church I went to call on
Count Neipperg but did not find him at home. I then went with
Mrs. Russell and called on Madame Lagersward. After setting
Mrs. Russell down at our inn I went ashopping and bought a trunk
1 (1 765-1 825). He was a member of the United States Senate at this time,
and owed his military rank to service in the war of 181 2.
436 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
for three dollars. I then called on Mr. and Mrs. Harper. Dined at
home. Called with Mrs. Russell and Amelia on Mrs. Harper and
then went to the theatre and saw poor acting.
9. Went this morning after breakfast to the gallery and saw
again the Venetian school; the room containing antiquities; the
fine Mercury in bronze; the group of Niobe; the Dutch and French
schools; the room containing the Venus of Medici, etc. In going
to the gallery this morning I stopt at a manufactory of swords and
asked the price of one which I wanted and was told it was seven
franceschonis. 1 Upon demanding the very lowest it was six and
one-half. I offered six which was refused, and I walked on intend-
ing to return after seeing the gallery and to take the sword at six
and a half. I accordingly went again to the manufactory at three;
pointed out the very sword which I had seen in the morning and
requested the manufacturer to do the little that was still wanting
to finish it. This he did and when I was directing the servant to
take it, and had taken out my money to pay for it, I observed the
price asked was six and one-half franceschoni but was most aston-
ished to hear the manufacturer assert that it was seven and one-
half franceschonis. My valet de place affected to be as much sur-
prised as myself as he perfectly remembered that in the morning the
highest price asked was seven franceschoni and that the sword was
actually offered afterwards for six and one-half. For my own part,
revolting at such bare faced fraud and falsehood, I left the sword
where I had found it. This singular effrontery is not, however,
peculiar to this sword manufacturer. Some days since I ordered
some shoes to be made for Mrs. Russell and had very distinctly
agreed to pay for them six francs the pair. When he had made the
shoes and brought them home he insisted that I had agreed to pay
At five o'clock we accompanied the Baron Lagersward to the
palace of Marie Louise. We found Count Neipperg in waiting.
The ladies were first introduced. After they had come out the gen-
tlemen were introduced. These consisted of the Minister of Foreign
Affairs, the Minister of Interior, the Minister of Finance, and the
diplomatic corps. Her Majesty received us en circle, that is, we
stood in form of a crescent. The order was as follows: The Minister
of Foreign Affairs, Mons. Fossombrone; the Minister of England,
Lord Burghersh; the Minister of France, beaux Dillon; the Minister
of Interior, Prince Corsini; 2 the Minister of Finance, Mr. Frulani; 3
1 The francescone was a coin of Tuscany, worth about 45 centimes, but
there is no mention of the coin of the text.
2 Thomas Corsini, Prince of Simismeno (1767-1856).
3 Leonard Frulani (1 756-1824).
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 437
myself; the Minister of Sweden, Baron Lagersw&rd; the Charge
d'affaires of Portugal, Mr. Quinn; the Charge d'affaires of Russia,
Mons. Svertchhoff; the French, English, and Austrian secretaries.
Her Majesty addressed each individual. With the Minister of
England, whom she had seen before, she conversed very gaily, but
when she addressed the Minister of France she was evidently em-
barrassed, cast down her eyes and appeared sad. She merely in-
quired of him after the Duchess of Berry, 1 whom she said was her
cousin but had never seen her. Of me she made inquiries concern-
ing our journey; whether we had yet found a vessel for the United
States; where our vessels of war were, if we arrived during the car-
nival; if we had been to the ball of the Grand Duke; if we were
going to Rome for the Holy Week; said it was said it would not be
so gay as usual as the Pope would not pontificate but one or two
days, etc. I spent the evening at home with Mrs. Russell but
Amelia went with Madame Lagersward to a ball at Madame Le
10. We began this morning to make our arrangements for
packing up. I went at twelve o'clock to see the Baptistery which
is a very ancient building and by some said to have been a temple
of Mars. The doors of this building are very celebrated and were
said by Michael Angelo to be worthy of being the gates of Paradise.
They were made by Ghiberti, father and son. At five o'clock
Baron Lagersward called and took me with him to the Palace Pitti
to be presented to the Emperor and Empress of Austria. No ladies
were this day presented. Count D'Apponyi, the Minister of Aus-
tria did the honours of the day. The Grand Chamberlain of the v
Emperor and the Grand Master of the Empress were in the ante-
chamber and the members of the diplomatic corps were presented
to them with one unaccountable exception. The Emperor received
the members of the diplomatic corps in succession. The English
Minister and his secretary, first entered; then the French Minister
and his secretary; then the Danish Minister, 2 who has no secretary;
then Baron Lagersward and myself. After us the Portuguese
Charge d'affairs and the others in the same order as yesterday.
The Emperor remembered me and asked many questions concern-
ing my journey hither and the voyage to the United States. He
inquired after Mrs. Russell and expressed an expectation of meeting
us at Rome. After leaving the Emperor we proceeded to the apart-
ments of the Empress and were presented to her in the same order.
1 Marie-Caroline-Ferdinande-Louise de Bourbon, Duchesse de Berry (1798-
1870), daughter of Ferdinand I. She married in 1816 the Due de Berry, nephew
of Louis XVIII.
2 Baron de Schubart.
438 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
She was very courteous, inquired after Mrs. Russell and the child,
etc. In the evening we went to the theatre until half past ten.
ii. We went this morning to the gallery and spent an hour in
the apartment of the Venus of Medici. We met there Mr. Harper
and his wife with young Mr. Taylor. We afterwards took a ride
with our little one to the Cascine. At five we went to dine with the
Baron Lagersward. At seven we went with him to the theatre.
About eight the Emperor, Empress, Marie Louise, Grand Duke,
etc., made their appearance. There had been every arrangement
made to secure them a distinguished reception. All the fauteurs of
Austria among the rabble had been allowed to enter gratis and a
host of police officers were placed in the pit for the purpose of ap-
plauding. Still, however, the applause was so feeble that the voice
of the police officers in the pit, directing the covered to take off
their hats was very distinctly heard. The Emperor and Empress
first appeared and after they were seated Marie Louise slid silently
to her place near them. This mode of proceeding was believed to
be entirely at the direction of the Emperor. While at Venice the
daughter had so notoriously engrossed every expression of public
regard that the father could not conceal his chagrin. He therefore
resolved here to keep her as much out of sight as possible. Not-
withstanding all this a murmur was distinctly heard in the pit,
after Marie Louise was discovered, "Ecco la Napoleonide."
12. At ten this morning we went in company with Mrs. Hall
and Madame Lagersward to visit the reclusio, which is an estab-
lishment for the support of the indigent. It is very spacious com-
prising two ci-devant convents. Begging publicly is forbidden in
Florence and the beggars have been taken up and those who were
able to work were placed in the reclusio. Many of the mechanic
arts are here taught and carried to great perfection. The first
room which we entered contained very small female children em-
ployed in knitting woolen hosiery. We successively on the female
side passed through rooms containing winders, and weavers of silk
and linen. On the male side were manufacturers of carpets, cutlery,
etc. There were at first about two thousand people confined here
but the number is now reduced to about nine hundred of which three
hundred are females and the rest males, — chiefly boys and girls.
The reason of this diminution is that those who are discharged as
capable of managing their own affairs and providing for their own
subsistence, greatly exceeds the number of recruits that the actual
state of mendicity at Florence supplies. For whenever any of the
workmen have given sufficient evidence of good conduct and declare
a wish to leave the place they are permitted so to do, but if after-
wards they should be detected in begging they are imprisoned and
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 439
punished. To encourage them while they are in the reclusio one-
third of the net proceeds of their labour is appropriated to their
use, that is, one-half of this third is placed to their absolute disposal
at once, and the other half is placed in trust to constitute a fund for
their support in old age. This institution would exclusively de-
serve praise were it not sometimes abused for unjust purposes. As
the government of Tuscany is entirely arbitrary there are instances
of persons, who were not mendicants or poor, being confined here
on the denunciation of their enemies or what is still more horrid at
the instance of their relations and even of their fathers. After leav-
ing the reclusio we returned to our inn and then took a walk to the
gallery but could not get in as the Emperor was there. We then
took a walk to the Cathedral and afterwards called on Mrs. Harper 1
but she being sick we were not received. We then dressed and took
a ride to the Cascine and at five o'clock went to dine with Mr.
Graham and lady. The Swedish, Danish and Portuguese Ministers
were of the party. In the evening we went to the Pergola and were
invited into the box of the Marquis of Corsi where we took ices and
other refreshments. The Marquis was charged this evening with
the police of theatre.
13. We went this morning to the gallery and were again refused
admittance as the Imperial Family were there. We afterwards rode
to the Gascine and in the evening went to the Pergola and saw the
opera of Othello. The singing and music were very fine but the
acting was very bad.
14. We were very busy this day making arrangements to leave
Florence. In the morning at eight o'clock, however, we visited the
Cathedral and saw in it some of the fine works of Michael Angelo*
Generally, however, we were not pleased with the interior of this
church. We next went to the house of Signor Buzzei who had a
few choice pictures by the first masters; among others the Visit of
Alexander to Diogenes, by Salvator Rosa, and the Virgin, Jesus,
St. Joseph and another saint by Titian, — small but excellent. I
next went to leave my cards P. P. C. with the persons from whom we
received attention at Florence. I called with Mrs. Russell on the
Countess of Albany, the Marchioness of Santini and the Duchess
of Lante. The two former only we found at home. We received a
visit from Madame Lagersward and Madame Graham. In the
evening we went to the theatre to take leave of the Baron Lagers-
ward and his lady who had been particularly attentive to us. The
Baron gave us several letters of introduction to Rome and Naples
1 She was a daughter of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, and married Harper
in May, 1801.
440 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
and the Duchess of Lante sent us a very flattering letter to the
Princess Chigi at Rome. It is well to remember that whenever we
visited the theatre we had seats in the box of the Baron Lagersward.
15. At eight o'clock this morning we left Florence with a vet-
turino for Rome. We stopt at noon at a small town where we found
a family in their carriages also travelling towards Rome. We
reached Levane at five o'clock where we found a very bad inn and
very ungracious hosts. It was not until after the arrival of the
family which we overtook at noon that we were allowed to take pos-
session of the rooms which suited us. The chief of this family
proved to be a Russian Admiral * who, together with his lady, was
very polite and insisted on our having the apartments which we
wished, but which had been before refused us having been ordered
by an ayant courier for him.
16. We left our inn this morning without regret, at seven o'clock,
having first eaten a bad breakfast. We arrived at Arezzo at twelve
and stopt to dine just beyond the town. While dinner was prepar-
ing I took a walk into the town and saw the remains of an amphi-
theatre built in the time of the Romans. A part of the circuit is
covered by the church of Olivetains but the rest is very conspicuous
but in a very ruinous state being a few feet only above the surface
of the earth. In a vault beneath the ruins the figure of a man
painted in fresco was shown me, but I could not learn from my
guide when, by whom, or for whom it was painted. Arezzo was the
birth place of the celebrated Maecenas the patron of genius. After
dinner we proceeded on our journey and arrived at Cammucia at
five o'clock where we stopt for the night. I immediately took a
walk to Cortona, the ancient Corytum, one of the twelve principal
Etruscan cities. It is situated on a hill of pretty steep ascent in the
immediate neighbourhood of Cammucia. I regretted that it was
too late to see the ruins of an ancient temple of Bacchus and of some
baths ornamented with mosaic, as well as the tomb which is still
shown as that which covers the remains of the imprudent, unfortu-
nate consul Flaminius. As the Russian Admiral had again com-
manded rooms for his family at this inn which was small, it was not
until his arrival that we could obtain lodgings.
17. Left our inn at seven and passed the boundary line which
divides the dominions of the Grand Duke of Tuscany from those of
the Pope. At the papal custom-house they contented themselves
with leading 2 our baggage, to which I consented in order to avoid
a dispute and to save time. At eleven we* passed the lake called by
1 The name is given in a later entry — Morzwindoff .
2 Sealing with lead.
1918] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 441
the Romans Trasimenus, by the modern Italians Perugia, and by
the French Perouse. It is a delightful sheet of water, surrounded
by hills and a well cultivated country, and celebrated by the defeat
of the Romans under their consul by the Carthaginian General
Hannibal. We also passed the little stream called Sanguinetto,
said to have received this name from the blood of the Romans with
which it was swelled and discoloured on that occasion, altho' others
suppose the battle to have taken place where the little village of
Ossoja now stands, as many human bones have been there found.
The Sanguinetto is a small brook, even at this season, and must be
nearly or quite dry in summer. After passing the lake we ascended
a very elevated hill which gave us a fine view of the country which
we had passed. We dined at one o'clock and then proceeded to
Perugia where we stopt for the night. Perugia is placed on a moun-
tain of considerable height and from the castle on the top we had a
most extensive view of the adjacent country. We also visited the
church of St. Pedro, 1 but it was too dark to see the paintings to ad-
vantage. We this night found a comfortable inn and the Russian
Admiral with his family lodged at another inn.
18. Breakfasted this morning as usual at six thirty and began
our journey at seven. We soon passed the Tiber on the bridge of
St. John, and at ten a little town called Spello where we saw the
ruins of an ancient amphitheatre. At half past eleven we stopt at
Foligno to dine, where we met again the Admiral and family. I
went immediately with Mrs. Rfussell] to see the famous picture
of the Virgin in her glory by Raphael. We left Foligno at one and
soon after 2 passed the little temple dedicated by the Romans to
the river Clitumnus on whose banks it stands. This edifice ap-
peared to be nearly entire and beautiful for its simplicity, but the
lower part was about ruined in something like a mill-dam. We
reached Spoleto at half past four where we stopt for the night.
We immediately went to view the famous acqueduct which crosses
a deep valley between the town and the mountain Maroggia.
Along this aqueduct is a narrow bridge for foot passengers. It is
six hundred feet in length and three hundred feet high supported by
several ranges of small arches one above the other. This work with
the valley and the Maroggia which is covered with houses almost
to the top, presents one of the most enchanting views we had ever
witnessed. We next visited the Cathedral where there is a fine
picture of Correggio. We then passed to the other extremity of
the city to see the gate which is called the Porta di Fuga and at
which we arrived by the Via de Annibali. The origin of these names
1 San Pietro de' Cassinensi. 2 Near Campello.
442 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
is said to have been the precipitate retreat of Annibal from before
this place which he had besieged after his victory over Flaminius
and which he expected would have surrendered without much re-
sistance. But the citizens made a resolute defence and by a vigor-
ous sortie compelled him suddenly to abandon his enterprise. Near
the Porta di Fuga is the remains of an ancient bridge consisting
of three arches, one of which only is entire, and which is now called
the Bloody Bridge, as it is said to have been the place of execution
of no less than seven thousand Christian martyrs. The Admiral
stopt this night within the walls of Spoleto and we lodged in the
suburbs just without the walls towards Rome and we fared extremely
19. Left our quarters at seven and reached Terni at eleven.
We immediately took a calash and went to visit the famous cata-
ract of Marmore. We proceeded two or three miles along the road
in the carriage when we left it, and turned through the field along
the river on foot for about two miles further. The descent at first
was very considerable and in places very rough. Just before we
arrived at the falls we met the Admiral and his family on their re-
turn, arid as they had taken jackasses for their accommodation they
very kindly offered us a couple for our accommodation. We would
consent, however, to take but one. A few minutes afterwards we
arrived at the falls and our expectations were much disappointed.
We viewed them from below. The water, which forms a mere
brook of about twenty feet wide, appears to fall over the brow of
the opposite hill, or, as it is called, mountain, and its first perpen-
dicular descent is said to be two hundred feet, tho' to the eye it
seemed less. The stream is called the Velino and is said in all to
descend one thousand and sixty-three [feet], but to us the rapids
below the first fall had nothing interesting. There was certainly mist
enough to have formed rainbows had the sun been in a proper
position, but we saw none. To us who had seen the great' falls of
Niagara the cascade of Marmore appeared a wretched dwarf. We
returned to Terni, which was formerly called Interamna, being
between the two branches of the Nera, to dine. Mrs. Russell and
Amelia took turns in riding the jackass the Admiral had furnished.
The Admiral had, from a fear of highwaymen, with which this
country abounds, provided himself with a military escort of four
dragoons, and he politely invited us to keep him company and
share in the protection. We accordingly set off together after dinner.
Terni, or Interamna, was the birthplace of the Emperor and of the
historian Tacitus. In passing Narni the ancient Nequinum, the
streets being rather narrow our driver very carelessly drove us
against the iron grating of a window and broke one of our lanterns
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 443
and injured one of the arms of our carriage — chastisement little
satisfaction. We reached Otricoli, anciently Oriculum, at half past
five. Oriculum is thirteen leagues from Rome but the Emperor
Constantine is said to have believed on leaving to be entering that
city, as the whole distance was at that time crowded with magnifi-
cent buildings and splendid monuments. We this night slept at
the same inn as the Admiral, and fared rather poorly but as well as
20. We left Otricoli about six o'clock and about half after nine
passed Civita Castellana, where Alexander the sixth built a palace
which looks like a castle, and which has been used as a prison of
state. This town is situated on a steep hill or mountain on which
formerly stood, but not precisely in the same place, the ancient city
of Fescennium, the capital of Falerii. It was before this town that
Furius Camillus had been for nearly two years besieging it in vain,
when a schoolmaster who had been entrusted with the children of
the principal inhabitants betrayed his trust and delivered his
pupils to the Roman general who, disgusted with this meanness and
treachery, caused the betrayed scholars to scourge their pedagogue
back into the town, which so pleased the beseiged that they imme-
diately surrendered the place. We reached the small town of Nepi
about half past eleven where at the recommendation of the Ad-
miral we consented to pass the remainder of the day, as Baccano,
the place where we had been destined by the vetturino to lodge,
was reputed to be unhealthy. There is a considerable aqueduct of
modern date at Nepi but nothing else worth seeing.
21. We left Nepi at six o'clock with an escort of four dragoons,
who ranged themselves successively by the side of the four car-
riages. These dragoons were relieved regularly by the same num-
ber of others at the distance of five or six miles. The country from
Nepi to Rome we found to be poorly cultivated and sparsely in-
habited and without one vestige of antiquity to attract our at-
tention. We discovered Rome at a distance of five or six miles by
its towers and domes but we did not see the dome of St. Peter's
until we had got a mile or two nearer, as it was concealed by high
ground on our right. We arrived at the Eternal City by the Gate
of the People about three o'clock and passed the custom-house
without trouble, as we were considered as part of the train of the
Russian Admiral who had provided himself with a free pass. We
first stopt at the Hotel of La Grande Europe, but not being able to
obtain apartments there we drove to that of La Grande Bretagne
where we were tolerably accommodated tho' much to the dis-
satisfaction of Amelia. Being fatigued we did not go out this
444 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
22. This morning about eleven o'clock I called by mistake on
the Prussian Minister supposing that the letter addressed to Mr.
Bartholdy the Charge d'affairs of Prussia. 1 The minister, however,
received me very politely. I next called on the Dutch Minister 2
for whom I had a letter from Baron Lagersward which I delivered
to him and received in return the usual tender of service. He en-
gaged to present on Thursday next to the Cardinal Minister Gon-
zalvo. After making these calls I went, with my valet de place, in
search of other apartments till dinner time but without success.
I renewed this search after dinner with the same bad fortune. I
saw many things this day en passant, viz.: The Palace of Louis
Bonaparte, Madame Letitia, Doria, etc., the Mount Quirinal and
the statues there of Castor and Pollux with their horses and the
obelisque, the column of Trajan, etc. In the evening I found my-
self very unwell with a cold and went to bed at eight o'clock.
23. Although very sick this morning I again went out after
lodgings and at length succeeded in finding some which suited but
for which thirty Louis d'or per month was demanded. It was
necessary to take them or run the risk of having none, as those I
occupied at the Grande Bretagne were engaged to others after the
first week. I therefore took them and agreed to sign the contract
on the morrow. I called on Mr. J. G. Joy at half past three at the
Grande Europe and found him at home, with three other young
Americans among whom were a Mr. Gibbs and a Mr. Smith. Find-
ing myself very ill after dinner I went to bed at half past seven.
24. I felt myself somewhat better of my cold this morning, and
I received the agent of the woman whose apartments I had en-
gaged in order to execute the contract. In any other country I
should have been surprised to discover that the instructions he
had received varied essentially from the terms of the contract
which I had made. He was authorized to lease only a part of the
rooms for twenty-five Louis and not the whole for thirty. After a
long discussion in which I peremptorily refused to take less than the
whole he went for new instructions and returned saying I might
have the whole provided I took them for two months instead of one.
This I categorically refused to do and expressed my indignation at
such equivocation and declared that I considered the negotiation
at an end. He then requested me to wait half an hour until he should
again consult his principal. I told him he might act as he pleased
but that I should consider myself entirely free. He returned, how-
ever, within the half hour and the proprietor, having agreed to the
1 The sentence is incomplete. The Prussian minister was the historian, Bar-
thold Georg Niebuhr (1 776-1 831).
2 Baron de Reinhold.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 445
terms which were first contracted between us the contract was
executed accordingly. While this business was proceeding the wife
of the Russian Admiral with her two daughters called on us and I
proposed an excursion to Tivoli on Friday. At half past twelve I
went with Mrs. Russell to make several calls on persons for whom
we had letters, the Princess of Chigi, letter from the Duchess of
Lante; the Princess of Barberini, letter from Ambrosi; the Mar-
chioness of Greca, letter from Baron Lagersward; Col. Bonar and
lady, letter from Major Weiss. We afterwards rode to the church
of St. Pierre where we remained two hours. The most curious thing
which we saw on the inside was a statue of Jupiter Capitolinus
turned into St. Peter. The hands and head were new but the toes
of the right foot of the old Jove, which projects a little beyond the
pedestal, have been worn quite smooth by the labial taste of the
worshippers of St. Peter. After dinner we took a ride on Mt. Pincio
and through the course to Mount Quirinal and viewed the obelisk
and statues of Castor and Pollux which stand before the Pope's
palace. On the base of one of these statues is an inscription denot-
ing it to be the work of Phidias and. on the other the work of Prax-
iteles. We spent our evening at home.
25. As I had an engagement this morning with the Dutch
Minister to accompany him at noon to wait on the Cardinal Gon-
zalvo * I did not go out before that time, but Mrs. Russell went to
the church of St. Maria de Minerva to see there a ceremony at
which the Pope 2 was present. The Dutch Minister came at the time
appointed and I went with him to the palace of the Quirinal, but
before we arrived there we fell in with the cortege of the Pope and
actually appeared to make a part of it as we passed all the guards
with their arms presented. There is considerable pomp in the
movements of his Holiness. He is too infirm to ride the white
mule as usage requires but this animal is led before. The Pope is
placed with four of his officers in a splendid state coach in the
Spanish form. His two postilions ride without their hats with
their hair powdered. A troop of cavalry, all young noblemen,
make a part of the escort. Two or three carriages follow. To a
considerable distance from the palace the street was lined with in-
fantry on each hand with a very full band of music. The troops
are all dressed in the French military fashion and make a very
different appearance from the papal forces thirty years since. On
arriving at the palace we found unfortunately that the Cardinal
Gonzalvo had not returned with the Pope from the ceremony of
St. Maria. I left my card and returned to my hotel with the Dutch
1 Ercole Consalvi (1 777-1824). 2 See page 450, infra.
446 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
Minister who spent some time with us. Before he had come in the
morning a Mr. Cobb of Boston called and left cards for his wife
and the Miss Inches. 1 About one we had a visit from the Princess
of Barberini (Chiara) and her husband who staid half an hour and
made us repeated offers of the most obliging services. Soon after
they were gone Major Sommerville came in and remained some
time. After his departure we all called on Lucien Bonaparte but
found nobody at home. We left our names but not our cards and
then drove to the church of St. Maria Maggiore on the Mount Es-
quiline where we remained until dinner time. The colonnade in
this church is really magnificent. It consists of thirty-six Ionic
Grecian pillars and four granite pillars of the same order. On our
return home we found cards from Col. Bonar and his lady with a
note from the latter. While at dinner we received a card from
Lucien Bonaparte. I spent the evening at home.
26. The Russian Admiral and his lady called on us this morning
and definitely arranged a party for Tivoli to-morrow. Soon after,
as Mrs. Russell was busy, I went alone to see the Coliseum and the
ruins of temples and triumphal arches in its vicinity. While I was
absent Doctor Heap 2 and Messrs. Barnard and Robinson of Vir-
ginia called, on me. I wrote this morning to Consul Hammet 3 of
Naples to inquire the probability of obtaining a passage from that
port for the United States. Called on the Cobbs and the Inches
this morning and found them at home. At eight o'clock we went to
take tea with the Minister of Holland, and at half past nine went
from thence to the house of the Princess Barberini where we re-
mained until eleven. Here we found a specimen of Italian conversa-
zioni. There were about twenty persons assembled* and all ex-
cepting half a dozen, in which was included the mistress of the house
and ourselves, play at cards. One table was of faro and one of
27. Agreeably to the arrangement which we had made yester-
day with Admiral Morzwindoff we this morning a little before nine
o'clock set off for Tivoli. Our party consisted of the Admiral and
his family, a Russian Count and his companion, and a Russian
colonel and his lady who, with us, amounted to ten persons, be-
sides five or six servants and two dragoons who escorted us. The
country between Rome and Tivoli is very thinly inhabited, very
1 Probably daughters of Henderson Inches of Boston, and sisters of Hen-
derson Inches, Jr., who married Susan Brimmer, sister of Martin Brimmer,
Mayor of Boston.
2 Samuel D. Heap, a surgeon in the United States Navy, and director of the
American hospital at Pisa.
1 Alexander Hammett of Maryland, appointed 1809.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 447
flat, and until we approach the Villa of Adrian without any inter-
esting remains of antiquity. About four miles from Rome we
passed the Teverone, anciently the Anio, flowing towards the
Tiber into which it falls about three miles above Rome. About
ten miles from Rome we passed a small stream called Solfatara
from the qualities of the waters which compose it, its color and its
smell being derived from the presence of sulphur. The former is of
a light bright greenish blue and the latter is so strong as to assail
the traveller at a considerable distance. We did not visit the small
lake from which this stream flows and which is also called Solfa-
tara. We left it about three-fourths of a mile on our left. A little
farther on we passed the tomb of the ancient family of Plautia, a
family much distinguished both in republican and imperial Rome.
The tomb is quite round and formed of the stone of Tivoli. Of
the four Ionic columns which formerly ornamented this tomb
towards the road there remain only some fragments. It unfor-
tunately proved to be a rainy morning and in ascending the hill of
Tivoli we were obliged to walk as one of our horses was very restive.
Tivoli is said to have been built four hundred and sixty-two years
before Rome or three thousand, one hundred and thirty-three years
ago. Its founders are said to have been three Argians: Tiburtus,
Coras, and Catillus [II] who drove away its more ancient inhabi-
tants, the Siculi. From the name of the first of these the town was
called afterwards Tibur, and the Roman road which led from it to
the capital was called the via Tiburtina. Tibur has, however, by
the modern Italians been changed into Tivoli. We stopt at a very
good inn in the middle of the town, and before dinner went to see
the cascade. This is a perpendicular fall of about fifty feet and
had nothing particular to distinguish it. The river is here, I should
judge from the view, about thirty feet broad. It is only at the bot-
tom of the fall that the romantic commences. After the downright
fall the water still descends very rapidly and has forced its way
through the mountains forming sometimes a frightful chasm and
sometimes caves at once gloomy and sublime. The first cavern is
called the Grotto of Neptune and the second that of the Sirens, the
latter being the most interesting. We went round the town and
descended the hill below the Grotto of Neptune to a little zigzag
path made by the French engineer Miollis. 1 This path was made in
consequence of the fall and death of a Frenchman in endeavoring
to descend. As it began again to rain we hurried back to our inn,
just seeing the little temples of Vesta and of the Tiburtine Sibylla
near the bridge. The former is a very beautiful small, round build-
1 Sextus-Alexandre-Fransois, Comte Miollis (1759-18 28).
448 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
ing formerly surrounded with eighteen Corinthian columns of which
ten still remain. We did not go out after dinner and much to our
annoyance our chambermaid, whom we had taken at Florence,
was discovered to be extremely intoxicated.
28. Rose this morning at six. Breakfasted and began our ram-
bles at half past six. As the way was wet and rough and the dis-
tance we were going considerable we had provided ourselves with
jackasses. We first passed over the bridge below the falls, then
turning to the left above the river we had a fine view of the caves
and grotto of Neptune and the Sirens and of the rapids below the
falls. We had also a fine view of the cascatelles as they are called
or little cascades on the opposite side of the river. They are little
streams diverted from the main flood near the falls, and after having
been used for mills, forges, etc., fall over the top of the mountain to
a depth of more than a hundred feet. These little streams are very
beautiful and three of them fall from the ancient country house of
Maecenas. We passed on our way the ruins of the Villa of Catullus
and the ruins of the Villa of Quintilius Varus. Some remains also
of the country house of Horace were pointed out to us. We next
passed a little clear stream called Aquoria, gold water, on an ancient
bridge still entire. Inclining to the left we next passed the Teve-
rone (Anio) and soon after arrived at the ruins of the Villa of
Maecenas. These ruins are still very spacious and give an idea of
the original magnificence of the place. We walked under the arch
of more than a hundred feet in length through which the ancient
way Tirburtina passed. The way itself in this place is still per-
fect. We then ascended a flight of steps which conducted us over
this arch on which we found an immense terrace and which was
more than one hundred and thirty of my paces in length. From this
terrace, which stands on the very brow of the mountain, there is
a most extensive prospect commanding a view of Mount Soratte,
the city of Rome and all the champaign country on that side, etc.
From the Villa of Maecenas we returned to our inn but found that
our breakfast which we had ordered a la fourchette at eleven o'clock
was not yet ready. We went to view the Villa of Este which is
kept in tolerable repair. It was here that Ariosto composed at
least a part of his Orlando Furioso. After breakfast we set off at
about half past eleven for Rome but stopt nearly three hours at the
Villa of Adrian which we visited in all its details. It was said to
have had formerly a circumference of seven miles, and among the
heaps of ruins can now be distinguished the remains of a Grecian
theatre; of a square building supposed by some to be a menage
and by others a portico to the theatre; of the Poecile in imitation
of that at Athens, of what is now erroneously called the temple of
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 449
the Stoics; of the circular building erroneously denominated the
Maritime theatre but probably a bathing house; of the Library
and the Temple of Diana and Venus so-called; of a large elevated
building called the Imperial Palace; of the barracks of the guards
or the Hundred Chambers, cento camerelle; of the Thermes and of
the Canopus in imitation of the Canopus at Alexandria in Egypt.
Many of the fine marbles found here have been sent to Rome and
many in the dark ages were converted into lime. There still remain,
enough however, to give an idea of the ancient immensity and
magnificence of this villa. About three o'clock we mounted our
carriages very much fatigued and arrived at Rome a little after
29. Agreeably to appointment the Dutch Minister called on
me at ten o'clock this morning in order to accompany me to the
Cardinal Gonzalvo to whom I was to be presented. We found
however, on our arrival at the Quirinal Palace that the Cardinal
was already engaged with a consistory of his order for the con-
firmation of Bishops. He sent word, however, that he would re-
ceive us to-morrow. I now employed myself in removing from the
Grande Bretagne to lodgings which I had taken in the Via de Pre-
fetti No. 17, and I accomplished this undertaking in about an hour.
I then went to take an external view of the Capitol and Tarpeian
Rock. The modern Capitol stands on the same site as the ancient
and rests in part on the old foundations. It is, however, in every
respect infinitely inferior. In front of the Capitol are two marble
statues of Castor and Pollux with their horses, and although an-
cient, very indifferently executed. In the middle of the place,
however, is an equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, of exquisite
workmanship, and is the more interesting, as it is said to be the
only equestrian statue which remains of ancient Rome. The Tar-
peian Rock is very different from what it was of old. There is only
part of one side of it which now remains visible, the rest being cov-
ered above by buildings and below by earth. The part now visi-
ble is now about twenty feet high. It is probable, however, that
the whole perpendicular height of the rock was anciently at least
sixty feet, as a floor of a church in the neighbourhood is said to be
on a level with the ancient base, and a part of the top of the rock
is said to have been broken off.
30. At ten o'clock this morning I was, at last, presented to the
Cardinal and found him remarkably polite. He speaks French
very fluently. I went again this day to visit the Capitol and the
Tarpeian Rock with Mrs. Russell. We also saw behind the Capitol
the ruins of the Temple of Jupiter Tonans, the Temple of Fortune,
the Temple of Concord, the Arch of Septimius Severus, the column
450 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
erected to the Emperor Phocas, etc. In the evening I went to a
conversazione at the French Ambassador's, the famous Count
Blacas. 1 I found his lady very pretty and very amiable.
31. The Dutch Minister called on me this morning and con-
ducted me to the Quirinal Palace in order to present me to the
Pope. 2 After passing a numerous suite of apartments richly fur-
nished and lined with guards, we were immediately admitted to the
Pope in his cabinet. He received us standing and in the most
gracious manner. On my being presented the Pope very kindly
took my hand which he held constantly in his while I remained
with him which was nearly a quarter of an hour. He was dressed
in a white gown or surtout which sat close to his body and which
reached from his chin to his feet and which buttoned the whole
length with small buttons of the same white broadcloth. On his
head he had a callot [calotte] and on his feet crimson red cloth or
velvet slippers embroidered with gold. The surtout was con-
siderably soiled. No other part of his dress was visible. He does
not speak French but understands it when addressed to him and
answers in Italian. He observed that I belonged to another world
and that the last director general of the Austin Friars was an Amer-
ican. His Holiness is now seventy-six and even infirm and much
bent for that advanced age. His mind is however, perfectly clear;
his conversation animated and his smile the most benignant I ever
beheld. I went afterwards with Mrs. Russell and Amelia to see
the paintings a fresque and the statues in the palace of Frescali
and Frescatelli. The paintings in the former fell short of our ex-
pectations, but those in the latter, being the history of the marriage
of Psyche were very fine, being partly painted by Raphael and all
under his direction. There was a fine head in black chalk or coal
on one of the walls concerning which our guide told us the follow-
ing story: — That one day, while Raphael was still employed in
painting the Frescatelli but while he was absent Michael Angelo
came there and taking a piece of coal drew on the wall the head
in question. Raphael had never seen him but knew him well from
his fame and his works, and immediately on seeing this head pro-
nounced it to be the work of Michael Angelo. We next went to
the work-shop of Canova 3 and Thorwaldsen. 4 They were neither
at home but we left a card for the former and a letter. We admired
much the works of both these artists. Canova has and deserves
the highest reputation for statues, but Thorwaldsen, although not
1 Pierre- Jean-Louis-Casimir, Due de Blacas d'Aulps (17 70-1 839).
2 Luigi Barnaba Chiaramonti (1 740-1 823), Pope Pius VII (1 800-1 823).
3 Antonio Canova (1757-1822).
4 Bertel Thorwaldsen (17 70-1844).
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 451
much known until lately, is supposed even to excel in bas-reliefs.
In the evening we had a visit from Canova who staid with us until
eight o'clock and was very entertaining. He talked much of his
familiarity with Napoleon and left us at no loss to discover his
sentiments on all that happened. After Canova had gone we
called on Prince Lucien and his Princess, 1 and staid with them an
hour and were very politely treated.
April 1. We went this morning to the Vatican and first viewed
the pictures kept there. These are not numerous but they are of
unequalled excellence. The Transfiguration by Raphael, and the
Deposition from the Cross by Michael Angelo, are of themselves
worth a gallery. We next passed into the Museum where are col-
lected the finest statues, capitals and vases of antiquity. There is
also an immense number of ancient inscriptions fixed on the wall.
Among the statues are the celebrated Apollo and the Laocoon.
Canova has made a present to the Pope of three of his master-
pieces, viz., the two Pugitetosi, and Perseus with the Head of
Medusa. They are indeed admirably executed. After spending
more than two hours in these apartments we ascended to view the
School of Athens, painted in fresco by Raphael, and which is con-
sidered as his most finished composition. The colouring was some-
what injured by time and humidity, but the performance was still
sufficiently perfect to command our most unqualified admiration.
Plato and Aristotle occupy the front ground, and Socrates, Dio-
genes, etc., have conspicuous places. Mrs. Russell, who had been
indisposed all the morning, was here taken quite ill and we were
obliged to return, when she immediately went to bed and called
in the assistance of Doctor Heap, a physician in the American
Navy, and whom we found to be well educated and skillful. A call
from the sculptor Trentanove. 2
2. Mrs. Russell still continues very ill this morning. Trenta-
nove called again this morning and I accompanied him to his work-
shop. He appears to be a young man of much promise in his pro-
fession. He has already executed in a very handsome style the
busts of most of the Bonapartes. He has also made the bust of
Thomas Appleton, the American Consul at Leghorn, and of Robert
Goodloe Harper, another American, both of which are finely done.
Trentanove is now engaged in making a pedestal in basso-rilievo
for the monument of Washington which we saw in the workshop
of Canova. After leaving Trentanove I called on a Mr. Knutson
and the Prussian Consul Bartholdy, for whom I had letters, but
1 She was a Madame Jouberthon, who had been his mistress.
2 Raymond Trentanove (1 792-1832).
452 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
not finding either of them at home I left the letters with cards. I
then went to the Palatine Mount and saw the ruins of the Palace of
Nero which had been cleared out by the French and into which I
descended two stories under ground. At five o'clock I went to
call on the Cobbs and being in the Corso with Amelia we saw the
Emperor of Austria pass. The Corso was crowded with people to
witness this spectacle, but they did not salute His Majesty or Her
Majesty, who accompanied him, with a single shout or cheer. A
few, a very few, lifted their hats. Everyone was sad and silent.
The Emperor with his suite were in seven state coaches of the
Pope. His travelling carriage followed.
3. Mrs. Russell somewhat better this morning but still in bed.
I rode this morning to see the arch, called Janus Quadrifrons.
From the meanness of the architecture it is supposed to have been
erected at least as late as the time of Caracalla, formerly in every
part of Rome, particularly in the Forums, and they are said to have
severed for shelter for the people in rainy weather. The Janus
Quadrifrons was near the Forum Boarium. Close by it I saw a
little gate-way or arch erected by the Emperor Septimius Severus.
On one side in bas-relief, were the figures of this Emperor and his
wife, on the other the figures of his two sons, Caracalla and Geta.
That of Caracalla only now remains, and he is said to have had
that of his brother, after he had murdered him, torn off, and a hole
is still shown in the marble which was said to have been made by
the act of violence. We had a call this afternoon at five o'clock from
Lucien Bonaparte and his lady, and they staid with us half an hour,
and the Princess went and sat beside the bed of Mrs. Russell. At
half past six I went with Amelia to dine with Col. Bonar, where we
remained until ten.
4. Mrs. Russell better this morning but still in bed. At twelve
o'clock I went to see the baths of Titus, which, it being Sunday,
I found shut. I then rode round the Mount Palatine and saw the
remains of imperial palaces and the caserns of praetorian guards.
I passed between the Mount Palatine and the Aventine, and went
to see the Temple of Vesta, near the banks of the Tiber, which is
said to have been built by Numa Pompilius. The columns must, how-
ever, [have] been added at a much later time. It is a small round
building. I also saw near it the square temple erected by Ancus
Martius to Fortuna Virilis. This building is now made a church
and is partly covered with dwelling houses. I next saw the small
ruin which remains of the bridge of Horatio Codes. From this place
I went to the Vatican and again saw the pictures, inscriptions and
statues. Just as I was leaving the Vatican, a little before four
o'clock, the sound of cannon announced the movements of the
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 453
Emperor of Austria, and I found that he was on a visit to the
Church of St. Peter. A call from the Grand Master of the Pope.
5. Mrs. Russell was better this morning but still too ill to ven-
ture abroad. I therefore took Amelia with me in the calash and
first drove to the circulating library, then to the workshop of Tren-
tanove and engaged him to procure some prints for Mrs. Russell;
then purchased a bonnet for Amelia; then called on the Dutch
Minister, who was not at home, but his wife received us. She told
us that the reason why a woman she had sent to us was not willing
to remain with us was because she saw that we had a fire and that
our windows were shut and she hence was afraid of falling sick.
From the Dutch Ministers we took a ride round the Mount Pala-
tine, going between it and the Mount Aventine. We passed the
Coliseum and stopt at the Baths of Titus. These baths with palace
to which they joined were of immense extent, but a great part of
the ruins are now covered with earth. It appears that Raphael
who had the superintendence of antiquities, caused a great part of
these ruins to be cleared and that it was from the arches painted
en fresque, some of which remained very entire, that he conceived
the idea of his third manner. It is even said that fearing others
should profit by these paintings as he had done, or at least discover
from them that his third manner was not entirely original, he caused
the rooms he had cleared to be again filled with earth. In later
times it was the French who made the excavations which now leave
some of the apartments free of earth. On the vaults of the lower
story we saw several paintings en fresque most wonderfully pre-
served for about eighteen hundred and ten years, and from their
grace and colouring we were not surprised that Raphael should have
known how to profit from them. There were also some paintings
on the wall very perfect. In a long narrow vaulted portico was an
inscription in black paint still visible threatening anyone who should
do a dirty thing there with the anger of Diana, Minerva, and Jupiter
Maximus Optimus. The room of the common bath and that called
the lake, and the rooms of single baths were readily recognized.
The niche was shown us from which was taken the famous statue
of Laocoon. Part of the Bath was built over the house of Maecenas,
some of the rooms of which are still visible. From the Baths of
Titus we went to the Quirinal to take a look at the obelisk and the
fine statues of Castor and Pollux. While there I left my cards with
the Grand Master of the Emperor and the Grand Master and
Mistress of the Empress. We then rode to St. Maria Maggiore
and saw the fine colonnade in this church, consisting of forty columns,
viz.: thirty-six of marble and four of oriental granite, twenty on
each side. Received this evening tickets to the Pontifical Chapel.
454 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
6. We were kept in this morning by calls from Mr. Bartholdy,
Consul General of Prussia, Mr. Rathbone of New York, the Miss
Inches, and the wife of the Minister of Holland. At two o'clock
we got into the carriage with Mrs. Russell and first drove to the
Baths of Diocletian and Maximian. Of all the thermes of ancient
Rome these are said to have been the largest and to have covered a
square of ten hundred and sixty-nine feet on every side. Besides
Baths it contained edifices for gymnastic exercises, the Pinacotheca
which was embellished with the finest works of painting and sculp-
ture, and with the library of the wise Ulpian which was transported
thither from the Forum of Trajan. On a part of the place formerly
occupied by the principal hall of the Baths of Diocletian, now stands
the church of St. Maria degli Angeli. It is in form of the Grecian
cross and built by Buonarotti. To avoid the humidity, the floor
has been raised six feet higher than' that of the ancient church by
which the bases of the columns of oriental granite are covered.
Notwithstanding this, however, we found the floor so wet and the
whole place so damp that we took only a glance at these fine columns
and the tombs of the celebrated painters, Carlo Maratta and Sal-
vator Rosa, when we hastened out into the open air on account of
the delicate state of health of Mrs. Russell. We next rode to the
bridges which join the Island of the Tiber to the mainland. The
origin of this island is very remarkable. After the expulsion of
Tarquin the Proud, the senate is said to have made a present to
the people of the goods and estates of this king, against whom the
people were so much enraged that they threw into the river all his
effects, among which was such a quantity of wheat which he had
harvested on one of his fields, afterwards the Campus Mar-
tius, as to obstruct the course of the river and form a little island
which was afterwards preserved by a stone wall. From these
bridges we distinctly saw the Temple of Vesta of which I have
already spoken, and the outlet of the Cloaca Maxima. This last
is entirely concealed by the Tiber excepting a very small space
below the top of the arch. We also saw the bridge which is now
called Ponte Rotto, or broken bridge. It was the first stone bridge
erected over the Tiber and said to have been begun by the Censor
M. Fulvius and certainly finished by the Censors Scipio Africanus
and L. Mummius. It was called the Palatine on account of its
proximity to the mount of this name. It has been broken three
times by the inundations of the Tiber. It was first repaired by
Julius the Third, and afterwards by Gregory the Thirteenth, but
since it was last broken in 1598, it has not been repaired, and only
about the half on the right side of the river now remains. We saw
also a few small heaps of ruins in the river which were formerly a part
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 455
of the foundations of the Bridge Sublicius. This was the very first
bridge built over the Tiber by the Romans and originally consisted
entirely of wood. It was erected in the time of Ancus Martius
and it soon became very memorable by the heroism of Horatio
Codes who withstood alone the whole army of Porsenna the King
of the Etrurians or Tuscans, until the part of the bridge behind
him was destroyed and then leaped with his horse into the river
and swam to the city. The bridge was afterwards repaired without
nails that it might be the more rapidly demolished, should another
occasion require it. This bridge was afterwards called iEmilius,
because it was rebuilt in stone by M. ^Emilius Lepidus, the last
Censor under Augustus, after the wooden bridge had been de-
stroyed by an inundation of the Tiber. It was repaired by Anto-
ninus Pius and afterwards carried away by the overflowing of the
Tiber in the year 780. Under Pope Nicholas the Fifth the ruins
which remained were almost entirely destroyed in 1484 when cannon
balls were made of the travertine. 1 The bodies of Heliogabalus and
Commodus were thrown from this bridge into the Tiber.
7. Spent the morning in writing and at half past one went with
Mrs. Russell to the Quirinal to dine with Cardinal Gonzalvo.
There were about fifty persons at this fish dinner, among whom
were Lord Guilford and Sir Humphrey Davy. After dinner we re-
turned home for a short time and then went to the Sistine Chapel to
hear the Miserfere. The first part was a little tedious, but the close
was really affecting and sublime. The Pope was not present.
8. We went this morning at half past ten o'clock to the Sistine
Chapel and Mrs. Russell and myself found seats among the diplo-
matic corps. The ceremony began by chanting the Miserere.
About eleven o'clock we left the Sistine Chapel and proceeded to the
Pauline Chapel, which being very small there were no persons ad-
mitted into it excepting the Emperor and Empress with their
suites, the diplomatic corps, and some of the higher clergy. The
Pope soon appeared [ ] which he deposited in the
tomb of the saint. From the Pauline Chapel we next went to the
scaffolding erected to see the benediction of the Pope conferred on
the people collected in the court of the Church of St. Peters. This
scaffolding was erected over colonnade at the left of the court of
St. Peter's, while the balcony from which the Pope gave the bene-
diction was in the centre of the front of St. Peter's on the same level.
The Pope with his attendants in the balcony; the Emperor and Em-
press with their suites; the number of ladies and gentlemen on the
1 Nicholas V died in 1455. Sixtus IV was pope until August 12, 1484, and
he was succeeded by Innocent VIII.
456 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
scaffolding with us; the immense concourse of people and carriages
in the courts below; the temple; palace; all illuminated by a fine
Italian sun, exhibited a most magnificent spectacle. From this
spectacle we went into the hall of transept where the feet of twelve
men were to be washed by the Pope. On our passage thither we
were very much squeezed and jostled by the tumultuous crowd
which thronged our way and which the guards were unable to con-
trol. A German lady was struck by one of these guards with his
halberd and wounded. 1 When we arrived in the hall we were well
situated to view the scene which was there presented. The Pope
first took his seat in his pontifical robes which he soon after laid
aside, and binding himself with a cord he descended to perform
his humble office. The twelve beggars whose feet he was to wash
were arranged on a seat at the right. He walked to the first fol-
lowed by priests with a basin, ewer and towel. The shoe of each of
the beggars, who by the way were dressed in white and very clean
linen, was taken, in succession, from the right foot which was then
slightly wet with water by the Pope and wiped with [the] towel
above mentioned. When this ceremony was finished we proceeded,
without molestation, from the [ ] to the hall of Borgia.
The same twelve poor men also repaired thither as also the Pope.
These first ranged in a row and the Pope passed them in succession
with a basin and ewer and a towel with which he served them to
wash and wipe their hands. They afterwards placed themselves
on one side of the table with their backs to the wall and the digni-
ties of the church, among whom I observed the Grand Master of
his Holiness, brought the food and wine from the kitchen and the
Pope served it with his own hand across the table to the beggars.
He began at one end and went to the other five or six times, the
wine and the different courses of food requiring this repetition.
All these ceremonies finally closed at about half past one o'clock,
and we proceeded immediately on foot to the apartments of
Raphaello, where we had been invited to dine with his eminence
Cardinal Gonzalvo. These apartments are also in the palace of
the Vatican. A young Austrian officer [ ] handed Mrs.
Russell in to dinner and I handed in the Neapolitan Princess Pan-
tchelli, who is accompanying the Prince, her husband, on a dip-
lomatic mission to Berlin. After dinner we walked through the
rooms of the Museum. We then returned home, and changing our
dress went to St. Peter's to see the illumination of the cross. 2 We
found it very brilliant but it lost some of its effect from the light.
1 Metternich mentions the same incident and the indecent crush and con-
fusion. Memoirs of Prince Metternich^ III. 221.
2 See Metternich, III. 222.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 457
which was kept up in several of the chapels. The latter is said,
however, to be necessary to prevent the scandalous scenes which
formerly took place in their obscure recesses. There were priests
at one of the shrines situated opposite to the corners of the great
altar where they exhibited to the people below the precious relics
which are there deposited. Trentanove sung in evening at our
9. As our curiosity was glutted yesterday with papal exhibi-
tions we did not again visit that place, but I accompanied Mrs.
Russell to see the Coliseum, leaving to Amelia, who went to the
Sistine Chapel with the Cobbs and Inches, to report what she saw.
The Coliseum is certainly the most magnificent ruin which remains
of ancient Rome. A considerable portion of the wall still retains
its original altitude and although stript of its ornaments is still
sublime. The four orders which ornamented it are still there and
some of them entire. The lowest is Doric, the next Ionic, the third
Corinthian and the fourth composite. The three lowest are pilasters
or half round columns and the uppermost flat pilasters. The
French excavated this edifice to the ancient Arena but the water
rushing in they were obliged to fill in the earth again for seVeral
feet. The French also built a flight of steps to ascend the ruin.
Indeed the French with two exceptions of small account, made all
the excavations amidst the remains of antiquity which have been
made at Rome in modern times. I went again this day to partake
of a fish dinner at Cardinal Gonzalvo's. In the evening we called
on the Princess Paulina l who received us most kindly and reposed
in us much confidence. We afterwards went to the Dutch Min-
ister's and spent the remainder of the evening.
10. We this morning visited the Pantheon. We found it too
entire to be called a ruin, although, stript of many of its ornaments,
it has lost much of its ancient magnificence. It is said to have been
built by Marcus Agrippa, the son-in-law of Augustus, in his third
consulate and twenty-six years before the Christian era. From
the architecture, however, of the main building, I should incline
to the opinion of those who suppose it to have been built before that
epoch. The portico is of better architecture and evidently of a
later period; the capitals of four of the columns of the portico are
much superior to the other twelve. These were added by Pope
Alexander the Seventh. All of the columns are of oriental granite
of a single block fourteen feet in circumference and thirty-eight
and one-half feet high without including the base and the capital.
The whole quantity of bronze torn from this magnificent temple is
1 Marie Pauline Bonaparte (1780-1825) wife of Prince Camillo Borghese.
458 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
said to have weighed more than forty-five millions of pounds, and
that the bronze nails alone weighed nine thousand three hundred
and seventy-four pounds. It was the Popes and Christian Emperors
who tore off this metal, some of which was employed in the Church
of St. Peter and much in the cannon of the fort St. Angelo. The
diameter of the dome is one hundred and thirty-two feet and the
height of the building the same. The walls of its circumference are
nineteen feet thick. The opening at the top of the vault is twenty-six
feet in diameter and the whole building is lighted by this sole aper-
ture. A flight of stairs, without, conducts to the top and consists
of one hundred and ninety steps. This temple was denominated
Pantheon because it was dedicated to all the Gods. The Emperor
Phocas presented it to Pope Boniface the Fourth who turned it into
a Christian church and dedicated it to the Virgin and the Saint
Martyrs. It was thus preserved from destruction. Gregory the
Fourth, in 830 dedicated it to all the saints, but the saints have
now but a very small portion of the church. A confraternity of
artists, which belong to the church, have filled almost the whole
circumference with busts of distinguished persons in letters and the
arts. Canova has much increased the number of these busts either
by his own hand or by paying others. There is a fine bust of Chris-
topher Columbus by Trentanove at the expense of Canova. The
bust of Raphael, by Paolo Naldini, is also here with the following
inscription by Cardinal Bembo:
ILLE HIC EST RAPHAEL, TIMVIT QVO SOSPITE VINCI
RERVM MAGNA PARENS ET MORIENTE MORI
Bellori has translated it in Italian:
Questi e quel Raffael, cui vivo vinta,
Esser temea Natura, e morto es tinta.
From the Rotonda, as it is now called, we went to view the remainder
of the Baths of Agrippa, in its immediate vicinity, but which are
covered with modern houses and are but very partially visible.
From the Baths of Agrippa we went to the church of St. Mary of
Minerva, so called because erected on the ruins of the Temple of
Minerva built by Pompey the Great in gratitude for his victories.
This church now contains many interesting tombs and paintings.
We next visited the Baths of Titus and again went through the
apartments which had been cleared out by the French. The in-
scription to which I before alluded in the corridor is as follows:
Duodecim Deosiit Deanam et Jovem optimum maximum habeat
iratos quisquis hie minxerit aut cacarit.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 459
We next visited the church of St. Peter in vincoli, where we saw
the famous statue of Moses by Michael Angelo. We next visited
the church of St. Martin which is supposed to be one of the oldest
churches at Rome but rebuilt in 1640, and is now one of the most
magnificent churches at Rome. The walls are decorated with
landscapes by Gaspard Poussin and with figures by his brother
Nicolas. There is beneath the church a subterranean vault where
are the bodies of St. Sylvester and St. Martin, and this vault leads
to a subterranean church in which St. Sylvester then Pope, is sup-
posed to have held a council as long ago as the year 324. It is
supposed to have a communication with the catacombs. From St.
Martin's we entered a vineyard where we saw the Seven Halls,
so-called, but which were formerly denominated Piscina and formed
a reservoir for waters for the Thermes of Titus.
n. At ten o'clock this morning Mrs. Russell and myself went
to the Villa Borghese with Ida. We then dressed and went to dine
with the Cardinal Gonzalvo, and Lent being over we had a most
excellent dinner. After dinner we returned home and called and
took Amelia, who was at Mrs. Cobb's and then proceeded to the
Place of St. Pierre, but finding it too early for the fireworks we took
a walk in the church and then took a turn in the Corso. About
half after seven we returned to the Place of St. Peter and went
into the lodge which had been prepared for the Emperor to see the
illumination of the dome of St. Peter's. The first illumination was
very rich and classical, marking the domes and columns and pilasters
of the front of this magnificent church. The second illumination,
which took place about an hour afterwards, was instantaneously
lighted and was most splendid and dazzling. 1 About nine o'clock
we proceeded to the place prepared for the fireworks from the
girandole of St. Adrian. We were, however, very inhospitably
stopped by the guards and not allowed to pass the Bridge of St.
Angelo in our carriage. We then went over it on foot, and safely
reached our place in the Emperor's box to which we had been in-
vited by the Cardinal Gonzalvo. We had here ices and other re-
freshments. We waited near an hour before the fireworks began.
They were very brilliant and very short, — could not have con-
tinued for more than fifteen minutes. It was quite calm and the
smoke enveloped the place from which the fireworks were set off
1 Metternich was also much impressed, III. 224. His general opinion was
thus expressed: "I acknowledge that I cannot understand how a Protestant
can turn catholic at Rome. Rome is like a most magnificent theatre with very
had actors. ... In all this it is evident that Italian taste has much influence
in the ceremonies; what pleases and excites laughter on this side of the Alps
causes weeping on the other, and vice versa."
460 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
which is said to have prevented the exhibition of a part of them.
We got home safely at about a quarter past ten o'clock.
12. At ten o'clock we visited the French Museum and then
went again to the Villa Borghese with Ida and walked in the gardens.
We afterwards called on the Danish Consul at Algiers and stopped
at Torlonia's and received two hundred scudi. We afterwards
visited the Baths of Caracalla. These baths were built by Anto-
ninus Caracalla and of great extent and magnificence. The hall
called Cella Solearis is one hundred and eighty-eight feet in length
and one hundred and thirty-four in breadth. Many precious monu-
ments of antiquity have been found in these baths. The Torso of
Belvedere, the two urns of basalt now in the Vatican; the celebrated
Hercules of Glycon the Athenian, the Flora, the famous group of
the Farnese Bull, etc. There were formerly sixteen hundred rooms
for bathing. There were three stories, the first contained the
baths. The second was for mental amusements, and the third
for workmen and domestics. From these baths we went to visit
the grotto generally, although erroneously called the Grotto of
Egeria. It is a large, half-ruined arch with a little stream falling
into it and running through which is one of the sources of the little
river Almo. The reclined decapitated statue placed at the bottom
is supposed to be the young river Almo. We saw on our left a little
temple of fine architecture, supposed to be of the time of Nero. It
is now called the Temple of Rediculo and said, incorrectly, to have
been erected on the abrupt retreat of Hannibal — a redeundo. On
the hill just above the Grotto of Egeria we visited a little oblong
temple which is by some supposed to be a temple of Bacchus, by
some a temple of Camenae, and by some neither. In returning we
stopt a few minutes to view the Arch of Drusus under which we
passed. It was erected in honour of Drusus the father of the Em-
peror Claudius after his death. There still remain two columns of
African marble of the composite order and it is supposed to have
been made use of by Caracalla to support the aqueduct by which
the water was conducted to his Baths. Spent evening at home and
had a visit from our young countryman Robinson, and from Tren-
tanove who sung to his guitar.
13. This morning we visited the Church of St. Sebastian and
from it descended into the catacombs for a short time. These cata-
combs are said to have been inhabited by the esirly Christians
during the times of persecution. We were shown the horizontal cavi-
ties in which they are said to have deposited their dead. The sub-
terraneous passages are very narrow and sometimes low, but of great
extent and we were shown the opening of one of them which is said
to extend to Ostium. After leaving the catacombs we visited the
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 461
stables of Caracalla, some of the arches of which are still entire and
support a terrace on which we ascended. From these stables we
went to the tomb of Cecilia Metella, the daughter of Quintus Cre-
ticus and the wife of Crassus the Triumvir. The lower part is
square and the upper circular which has eighty-nine and a half feet
diameter and the walls of which are thirty feet in thickness, of brick
covered with large blocks of travertine. The sarcophagus of
Grecian marble which was found here is in the court of the Farnese
Palace. On the outside is seen still a great part of the marble on
which was the inscription. From this tomb we went to the Circus of
Caracalla. It is fifteen hundred and twenty-four feet long and three
hundred and ninety-five broad. Sufficient of the goals and the spira
still remain to give a very accurate idea of the races which were
there performed in the biga or quadriga, carriages of two and four
horses. In the upper part of the walls are the remains of many
earthen pots which are supposed to have been placed there either
to render the work more light or to expedite the labour. We next
visited the Tomb of the Scipios. This tomb was originally two
stories of which the lower story only remains into which we de-
scended with lighted torches. It was discovered in 1780. There
has been found there a sarcophagus of Lucius Scipio Barbatus,
vanquisher of the Samnites, as the inscription on it imports, a bust
of [the] poet Ennius or another of the Scipios; another bust unknown,
and many inscriptions. We next visited the palaces of the Caesars
on the Palatine hill. The vast masses of ruins indicate the grandeur,
but have nothing left to show the splendor of the buildings when in
their glory. We then visited the Temple of Vesta; the Cloaca
Maxima; the Temple of For tuna Virilis; the place of the Jews
which is shut every night, and the Portico of Octavius or rather
of Octavia. Called in the evening on the Cobbs and Inches where
we remained until eleven o'clock.
14. After Mrs. Russell had returned from a ride with Ida, we
went to see the paintings in the Palace of Doria in the Corso. These
paintings are arranged in numerous apartments and are from the
hands of the first masters. The most remarkable are the Bridge of
Lucano and the Road of Tivoli by Gaspard Poussin; 1 a Turkish
woman on horseback, by Benoit Castiglione; Endymion by Guer-
cino; Cain and Abel, by Salvator Rosa; the celebrated portrait of
a woman, by Rubens; two very fine landscapes, by Claude Lor-
raine; a Belisarius, by Salvator Rosa; a Judith, by Guido; Queen
Jeanne, by Leonardo da Vinci, and several fine portraits by Titian
and Vandyke. From the Palace Doria we went to the fine Palace
1 Gaspar Dughet Poussin (1613-1675).
462 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
Borghese and saw there the superb collection of pictures on the
lower floor or rez-de-chauss£e. Among many masterpieces the fol-
lowing may be distinguished: Our Saviour absolving the woman
taken in adultery; a fine head by Raphael, said to represent one of
the family of Borgia; Leda, by Leonardo da Vinci; Prodigal Son,
by Titian; a head of Jesus Christ, commonly called the Divinity in
anger, by Caracci; The Three Graces, by Titian; The chase of
Diana, by Domenichino; The Deposition from the Cross, by Ra-
phael, etc. We next proceeded to the Sacred Mount and on our
way thither we stopped to view the churches of St. Agnes and St.
Constance. The former was built by Constantine the Great. We
entered it by descending forty-five steps. The three naves are sup-
ported by sixteen ancient columns of different materials, two of
which are of fine marble fluted in a very particular manner. The
chief altar, which is not beautiful in itself, is supported by four
small columns of the most beautiful porphyry. On the altar of the
Virgin is a very fine head, in marble, by Michael Angelo. There is
also in this church a very magnificent candelabra of ancient work-
manship in white marble. This church is supposed to approach
in appearance the ancient basilica more than any other now re-
maining. The church of St. Constance is supposed by many to
have been an ancient temple of Bacchus and I am inclined to be
of the same opinon. Its form is spherical and it has a diameter
within of sixty-nine feet. It is said to have been used first by Con-
stantine as a Baptistery for the baptism of his sister and daughter
and afterwards as a tomb for these two Constances. A sarcophage
of unusual size and of finje porphyry found in this church and once
containing at least one of these persons was by the order of Pius
the Sixth transported to the Museum of the Vatican where it is
now seen. In 1256 Alexander the Fourth turned this edifice into
a church and took the body of St. Constance from the sarcophage
above mentioned and interred it under the altar. Much of the
ancient mosaic on the vault above is perfectly preserved and rep-
resents clusters of grapes; carts loaded with grapes drawn by four
oxen and the attendant workmen. The oxen are yoked with bows
around the neck, in our manner, and not with strings round the
foreheads as in many parts of Europe. In the immediate neighbor-
hood of these two churches are the ruins of a Hippodrome erected by
Constantine. It was a large court surrounded by porticos and used,
as its name imports, for equestrian exercises. We next proceeded
to the Sacred Mount which is nearly three miles from Rome. It
was to this mount that the Plebians of Rome retired several times
when weary of the injustice and tyranny of the nobles. We found
it to be rather a rising ground than a mountain or even a hill as its
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 463
elevation was small and gradual. It rises immediately on the right
bank of the Anio and extends a considerable distance back but not
without being intercepted by a small valley. The ancient bridge
over this river was called Nomentanus because it was passed in
going from Rome to the Sabine city of Nomentum. This bridge
was destroyed by the Goths; rebuilt by Narses and repaired by
Martin the Fifth. 1 It is now called Lamentana. Immediately after
passing it are the ruins of two tombs without any inscription or
other indication of the persons they contained.
15. At half past ten o'clock this morning we went, agreeably to
invitation, to breakfast with Mr. Sartori, Acting Consul of the
United States at Rome. 2 We were ushered by a servant into a long
suite of apartments indifferently furnished, in the third or fourth of
which we found Mr. Sartori alone. He did not indeed appear quite
prepared to receive us, but in order to gain time he invited us to
look at some paintings on the walls of an adjoining room. While
thus occupied Mr. Cobb and his family arrived. We all now went
into the room where we had just joined Mr. Sartori and where we
soon had the plea5ure of seeing Mrs. Sartori, who is a very beautiful
woman; an English officer who spoke very good Italian; an Italian
gentleman; the niece and the sister of Mr. Sartori, the last of which
was extremely ugly. Shortly after we were there assembled break-
fast was announced, and we were conducted into another suite of
apartments better furnished. The breakfast table was square,
beautifully decorated with flowers and amply furnished with ham,
anchovies, bread, butter, oranges, and a variety of other fruits.
The coffee and the tea were very good, and it being much later
than my usual hour for breakfasting I ate most heartily. After
breakfast we were conducted to various parts of the house to see
the several views from the windows, none of which were extensive
or fine. We were next shown into an apartment where the mother
of Mr. Sartori was in bed but had been dressed to see us. She is
an old lady of eighty-three years of age and apparently very in-
firm. Mr. Sartori now made me a present of a small print of Mur-
weld, the painter, engraved by Morghen; to Mrs. Russell a little
mosaic of the Temple of Vesta; to Mrs. Cobb a little mosaic of
birds, and to each of the rest of our party a bouquet of flowers; and
we were given to understand that it was the custom thus to accom-
pany a breakfast given at Rome.
From Mr. Sartori's we went to the Palace of Simonetti now occu-
1 OttoColonna, Pope Martin V (141 7-143 1).
2 John Baptiste Sartori was nominated to be United States Consul at Rome,
June 24, 1797, and confirmed by the Senate June 26.
464 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
pied by Cardinal Fesch, 1 the uncle of Bonaparte. We had a billet
permitting us to see the pictures of the Cardinal. We found the
collection to be very extensive and consisting of many fine paint-
ings, particularly of the French School, but very much divided by
being distributed in a great number of small rooms. In one of these
rooms we found the Cardinal himself to whom we were presented
and who received us very politely. There was in another apart-
ment a bust of Bonaparte with its head bound with a gilt laurel
wreath. From the Palace Simonetti we went to the Capitol with
the intention of seeing the pictures and the musee there, but owing
to the preparations making for the fete for the Emperor we were not
admitted. We then drove to the Vatican and having again seen
the pictures there and a part of the inscriptions, we went home to
dinner. After dinner I took a walk round the Pincian mount.
16. We began our rambles this morning by a visit to the Palace
of Rospigliosi on the Quirinal mount. This palace was built on the
ruins of the Thermae of Constantine. We here saw the celebrated
Aurora of Guido and it is one of those paintings which deserve
their reputation. Aurora with inverted face leads the way; Hesper
flees behind her with his torch; then follows Apollo in his car drawn
by four horses while the hours, represented by seven female figures,
attend his course. There is infinite grace, splendor and character
in the whole. In the adjoining rooms we saw the Adam and Eve
of Domenichino, and the Sampson of Louis Hannibal Caracci, 2
with many other fine pictures. We next went to Mount Caelian
where we saw the church of St. Gregory the Great, and the three
chapels annexed to it. In one of these chapels are the Flagellation
of St. Andrew, by Domenichino, and the Adoration of the Cross by
the same, said from the hand of Guido 3 — both in fresco, and said
to have been painted in competition for excellence. In another
chapel is a fine statue of St. Gregory begun by Michael Angelo and
finished by Nicolas Cordier. We also visited the church of St.
Mary della Scala, and saw its fine tabernacle of precious stones.
We next went to the Villa Mattei, now belonging to the Prince of
Peace. 4 We saw in his apartments some fine pictures and statues
and a double [headed] Hermes in marble, of the heads of Socrates
1 Joseph Fesch (1 763-1839). Charles Bonaparte, father of Napoleon, married
Letizia Ramolino, whose mother, Angela-Maria-Pietra-Santa, widow of the
patriot Ramolino, took for her second husband Francois Fesch of Basle.
2 Ludovico Caracci (15 55-1619). Hannibal (1 560-1 609), also a great painter,
was his nephew.
3 The entry is confused. The second painting is of St. Andrew kissing the cross
on his way to martyrdom, by Guido.
4 Alvarez de Faria, Rios Sanchez y Zarzosa, Manuel de Godoy (1 767-1851),
who had followed Charles IV of Spain and his queen to Rome.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 465
and Seneca, which has lately been found in these grounds. Both
these heads are marked by an ancient inscription and Socrates is
the same as has universally passed for him, but Seneca is quite
different. The Prince has by his excavations also discovered a small
obelisk in two pieces which he has erected in his garden. These
two pieces might have belonged to the same obelisk originally, but
I doubt it, as they differ in colour and the upper piece is covered
with hieroglyphics and the lower piece without any. We next
visited the church of St. Etienne, called round on account of its
spherical form. It is supposed by some to have been an ancient
temple, market or arsenal, but by others, on account of the different
orders and sizes of the columns, to have been built in the fifth cen-
tury, with the spoils of more ancient edifices. The walls are painted
by Pomarancio 1 and Tempesta 2 with murder and martyrdom in all
its varieties. We thence proceeded to the place of St. John de
Lateran and visited the Basilica of that name. This is a noble
church and considered the first in the Catholic world. It was
formerly so rich as to be denominated "The Golden Basilica."
This church is celebrated for the twelve councils, general or pro-
vincial which have been holden in it. It was founded by Constan-
tine the Great. In the immediate vicinity of this church is that of
St. John in Fonte or the Baptistery of Constantine, the latter name
being given to him, Constantine the Great having been there bap-
tised. The baptismal fount is an ancient urn of basalt. We next
visited the Chapel of the Saviour which is also called Sancta Sanc-
torum on account of the great number of sacred relics there de-
posed. There are three flights of steps to ascend to this chapel,
and that in the middle consists of twenty-eight steps of white
marble and is believed to be the same which belonged to the palace
of Pontius Pilate at Jerusalem, and which Jesus Christ ascended
and descended many times. From this circumstance it is regarded
as sacred and no person is allowed to ascend it except on the knees.
We saw several ascending in this way and on some f&te days the
stairway is thronged, and to prevent the entire destruction of the
marble steps by almost continual friction they are cased in hard
wood in which openings are left through which the stone is visible
and through which no doubt the holy influence passes. The marble
at the top, which is not covered, is very deeply worn. We next
visited the Basilica of the St. Cross of Jerusalem because it is said
to contain a third part of the holy cross. We saw the place where
this relic is kept but not the relic itself, nor anything else very
1 Niccolo Circignani, called il Pomarancio (1516-1588).
2 Peter Molyn, called Tempesta (1637-1701).
466 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
curious. We thence proceeded to the Sessorium, commonly called
the Temple of Venus and Cupid, because the statues of these two
divinities now at the Museum of the Vatican were found here.
From the Sessorium we went to see the remains of the Amphi-
theatre Castrense. Belisarius filled up the arches and made use of
this edifice to form a part of the walls of the city. We next passed
the modern Porta Maggiore and went to see the Temple of Minerva
Medica. This edifice, by whatever name it might have been an-
ciently called or to whatever use applied, is now a decagonal tower
of two hundred and twenty-five feet circumference, vaulted over, but
a part of the circumference and vault have fallen and the whole is
in a very ruinous state. Near it we saw what is called the Colum-
baria, because the little chambers resemble the apartments of a
pigeon-house. This Columbaria is said to have been used by Au-
gustus * for the sepulchre of his freedmen. This Temple of Minerva
and the Columbaria are in the fields. We afterwards passed the
little Church of St. Bibiana and went to see the Arch of Gallienus,
which will probably fall in a few years. Adjoining is the Church of
St. Vito, built upon the ancient Macellum Livianum. We had also
this morning visited the aqueducts and the castle of the Aqua Julia
called the Trophies of Marius. In returning home we saw the ruins
of the Temple of Nerva, consisting of three magnificent Corinthian
fluted columns of Parian marble supporting a fine architrave.
There is also one pilaster remaining. The columns are sixteen and
one-half feet in diameter and fifty-one feet high. Received in the
evening a call from Count Antonelli and delivered our letters from
Madame Perera for him.
17. We spent this morning until one o'clock in purchasing
prints. In the meantime, however, we went to see the drawing of
the lottery, but arrived a little too late at the place. We called next
on the Marquis of Canova who sent one of his men with us to see
his model of the equestrian statue of Ferdinand the Third, King of
Spain. We also called at Trentanove's. We next went to visit the
Pyramid of Caius Cestius without the gate of St. Paul. This pyra-
mid is the tomb of Caius Cestius who was one of the septemviri of
the Epulones who were charged with preparing the banquets of the
Gods, particularly of Jupiter. The paintings of the vault, now
much injured, were in relation to the sacred dignity of this employ-
ment. The pyramid is one hundred and thirteen feet high and the
sides at the bottom are sixty-nine feet, which makes the pyramid
appear rather flat. The outside is very nearly perfect having only
a few fractures occasioned by shrubs pushing between the interstices.
1 It was built by Lucius Aruntius, consul under Augustus.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 467
Caius lived in the time of Augustus. They are digging now about
the base of the pyramid which has been covered by the accumula-
tion of earth. Immediately behind the pyramid is the cemetery of
the Protestants and many English are buried there. We saw from
this place Mount Testaccio which is said to have been formed by
pieces of broken earthen-ware which were cast here by the potters
who had their manufactories in that place. This artificial mountain
is one hundred and sixty-three feet high and five hundred and three
feet in circumference. In modern times many cellars have been ex-
cavated in it which are peculiarly excellent for the preservation of
wine. We next proceeded to the Basilica of St. Paul without the
walls. It is said to have been built by Constantine the Great on
the spot where St. Paul was buried. This church has a very rude
and shabby appearance on the outside notwithstanding its magni-
tude. It is in the form of a Roman cross, and the interior is divided
into five naves by eighty columns of marble, twenty-four of which
are very beautiful, being each formed of a single piece of violet
marble. They are of the Corinthian order fluted to two-thirds
which is said to be rare in antiquity. The two immense columns
which support the great arch of the tribune are of Saline marble
forty-two feet high and fifteen in circumference. Around the
principal nave are painted the portraits of all the Popes from St.
Peter to Pius the Seventh, the reigning Pope, inclusive. This
church is now very seldom visited and its situation in summer is
considered very unhealthy. The roof is out of repair and the whole
building is kept very slovenly. The beams that pass from eave to
eave are of wood and said to be of the cedar of Lebanon. The body
of St. Paul is said to repose under the main altar. 1 From this church
we returned to town and on our way met Madame Letitia, 2 the
mother of Bonaparte. She was walking with some of her attend-
ants, and her carriage was following. We took some pains to have
a good view of her and succeeded. She is a remarkably fine looking
old lady with sharp black eyes. In the evening we went to a ball
at Torlonia's alias Duke of Bracciano. 3 This ball was given in his
Palace of Venezia which we found to be in every respect most mag-
nificent. The spacious colonnaded court-yard; the marble stair-
case; the numerous apartments with painted ceilings, thronged
with busts and statues formed an ensemble of splendor, perfectly
complete and corresponding in all its parts, and may be considered
as a fair representation of ancient Roman magnificence in all its
perfection. Among the marbles was a colossal statue of Hercules
1 This church was burnt July 15, 1823.
2 Letizia Ramolino (1750-1836).
8 Giovanni Torlonia (d 1829).
468 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
in the act of killing Cacus whom he holds by one ankle and the hair.
The workmanship of this group is very excellent, but the manner
and attitude is a little too artificial. I had a very bad toothache
18. We called this morning at the Villa Pauline, but the Princess
being indisposed we were not admitted. We then drove to the
Villa Albani where we spent two hours in seeing the mosaics, mar-
bles, etc. This villa was built about the middle of the last century
by the Cardinal Albani after his own plan. 1 He afterwards placed
there an extensive collection of the finest statuary of antiquity.
It was said that the Cardinal was so great a connoisseur that after
he became blind he could pronounce on the merit of a statue by
the touch. In the collection is a celebrated Mercury and a bust of
Caligula which are very rare. From the Villa Albani we returned
home and Mrs. Russell went to dine with the Cardinal Gonzalvo.
A very severe toothache prevented my accompanying her. I went,
however, to see the German exposior 2 at the Palace Caffarelli but
found nothing in it extraordinary. I afterwards with Amelia, who
accompanied me, ascended one hundred and twenty-four steps to
the Church of St. Mary d'Ara coeli. This church has been erected
on the very spot where once stood the famous Temple of Jupiter
Capitolinus. We found very little to admire in the church except-
ing twenty-two large columns of Egyptian granite of different
diameter and different workmanship. The picture of the Virgin
over the great altar is said to have been painted by St. Luke. After
dinner Mrs. Russell took a turn with me in the Corso and we then
called together on the Prince and Princess of Canino. 3 I returned
home and Mrs. Russell went to the theatre where she had been in-
vited by the Princess Pantano and to a place in her lodge. She was
much pleased with the performance as she had an opportunity of
hearing Paganini who is a prodigy on the violin. He had been con-
victed of the murder of his wife and condemned to perpetual im-
prisonment. In his confinement he procured a fiddle with one
string and he learned to play tunes through all their varieties on
this single cord and to play them in a superior manner. He after-
wards was indulged with a complete instrument and he arrived to
such a degree of excellence in performing on it that he astonished
all who heard him and finally obtained his release from prison. 4
1 Alessandro Albani. 2 Exposition (?).
8 Charles-Lucien- Jules-Laurent Bonaparte (i 775-1840), brother of Napo-
leon. He married for his second wife, Marie-Alexandrine-Charlotte-Louise-
Laurence de Bleschamp (1 778-1855).
4 Nicolo Paganini (1 784-1840). The story of the murder and his imprison-
ment was false.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 469
19. Mrs. Russell went this morning to the Palace of Colonna in
company with the Princess Pantano, and I went with Amelia to the
Antonine column which we ascended to the top by one hundred and
ninety steps and enjoyed the fine view of Rome which the elevation
commands. We afterwards joined Mrs. Russell and went to view
the remains of the aqueduct of Agrippa. All these remains which
are visible are in a cellar into which we descended, and in doing so
I caught a severe fall as the steps from the humidity of the place
were very slippery. We then went to the gardens of Colonna where
we saw some wonderfully large pieces of white marble, the frag-
ments of a frontispiece of exquisite workmanship, which are said
to have formed part of the Temple of the Sun. In this garden we
also saw some of the ruins of the Baths of Constantine. In the
evening we had a visit from the Marquis Canova who made me a
present of two prints of his statue of Washington. The Cobbs and
Inches afterwards called, with Joy, and passed the remainder of
the evening. I ought to have mentioned that Trentanove called
this morning and commenced the model for my bust.
20. I again sat this morning to Trentanove for the model of my
bust, which he completed. We then went to visit the Villa Doria-
Pamfili. This villa was built in the time of Leo 1 the. Tenth by the
Prince Pamfili, and has since become the property of the house of
Doria, and now belongs to the little Cardinal of that name. 2 The
gardens are most spacious, ornamented with many magnificent
pines which are left to grow according to nature, but most of the
alleys are bordered with trees trimmed stiffly in the old French
style. There are many beautiful fountains in this garden; in one
of which there is a grotto with a marble faun at the bottom in the
act of playing on his flute. Immediately behind this statue is
concealed an organ, resembling a hand organ, but much larger,
which is turned, at pleasure by the water, and which produces very
fine music, which seems to persons placed in the grotto to come
from the instrument of the faun. In the midst of a tune a hundred
little fountains appear to pierce the stones before the grotto and to
play at the sound of the music, and they cease when the music
ceases. The chateau is much less elegant than most we had seen
and contains very few fine specimens of the arts. In going to the
Villa Pamfili-Doria we passed the aqueduct of [Acqua Paola]. In
the evening we were at a great f£te at the Capitol, given in honour
of the Emperor and Empress of Austria. The fire-works and illumi-
nation were brilliant, but the crowd was insufferably great.
2 Giovanni-Pamphili Doria (1751- ).
470 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
21. We went this morning to Mount Marius. This mountain
in the time of the Romans was called Clivus Cinnae, and after-
wards by the name by which it now passes, on account of the noble-
man Marius Millini, who built a country house there. We ascended
to this house which stands on the summit and thence enjoyed a
most extensive view of the valley of the Tiber, Mount Soracte, the
Apennines, the Sabine Hills, and the city of Rome. Over this hill
formerly passed the Flaminian road, a considerable portion of the
pavement of which still remains. It was by this road that Porsenna
entered Rome. We called at the Villa Pauline between five and six
o'clock and spent half an hour with the Princess. We then went to
a fete at the ancient Mausoleum of Augustus. It is now used as a
place for bull-baiting in summer. The fete this evening was for
the Emperor and Empress which consisted of a great crowd and a
little dancing, but nothing brilliant.
22. Went this morning with Trentanove to the rooms of Krusi-
man, 1 a celebrated landscape painter a la guache, 2 or with water-
colors on paper. His papers are indeed admirable and exceed I
think everything of the kind which I had before seen. From Kusi-
man's rooms we went to the French Academy and saw there the
exposition for the present year. There was nothing, however, very
remarkable. We now proceeded, without Trentanove, to the Cap-
itol and took a glance at the Capitol and then drove to the Vatican.
We now went into the library which we had not visited before, and
were filled with admiration at its extent and value and at the beauty
and number of the apartments which contained it. Besides books
and manuscripts there is a vast collection of ancient coins and
medals and Etruscan vases. There is a very fine statue of Aristides
of Smyrna — sitting. From the library we went once more into
the museum of Chiaramonti and again enjoyed the fine statuary of
antiquity which is found there. It is remarkable that the most
beautiful and most celebrated statue in the world, the Apollo of
Belvedere, has two imperfections, which escape, amidst its grace,
general observation. Its head is not placed precisely in the middle
of its body and one of its legs is longer than the other. The Princess
Canino called and invited us to breakfast for Saturday, and after-
wards our countrymen Main and Terril came and spent the evening.
1 Cornelis-Kruseman (i 797-1857) (?).
2 Mr. John Briggs Potter, of the Museum of Fine Arts, writes me: "Gouache
differs from straight water-color painting, which is the transparent use of water
color on white or a very light toned paper, in that the water colors are mixed
with Chinese white to build up reliefs of light and the paper used is almost
always of a medium or grey tone. Gouache really means the use of water color
rendered opaque instead of transparent.' '
1918.] JOURNAL OP JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 471
2$. I was much pestered this morning in obtaining a carriage
as the month for which I had engaged one had expired. I at last
succeeded at the rate of four dollars per diem. I called on Torlonia
this morning and took up six hundred and eighteen dollars, making
in all eleven hundred for Rome. We spent the remainder of the
morning in again visiting the ruins in the ancient Roman Forum
and in seeing the museum at the Capitol. The evening we spent at
the Dutch Minister's and at the Princess of Sciara's. 1
24. Called this morning on Trentanove and went with him to
visit the Graces of Thorwaldsen which we found to be admirable.
We went at one to dine with the Prince of Canino, or rather as he
expressed it, to dine with him. After dinner we examined his pic-
tures which were very fine. We also saw three statues, a vase,
and other marbles which he had found at his villa. The statues
were a lady in a Greek dress; Tiberius in marble; and a young
Apollo in bronze. The arms of this Apollo were broken off and
Lucien supposes they were so even before it was placed in Roman
times in his villa, as after every search no arms could be found
near the place where the statue was discovered. After dinner we
went with the Reverend Mr. Grassi to visit the Nunnery of St.
Francis. This nunnery contains some of the children of the noblest
families in Rome who are not, however, bound by any vow to per-
petual exclusion. There has not been any instance, however, of a
single one having left the convent when once she had entered it.
The nuns are not idle, but employed in spinning and other occupa-
tions. From the capacious refectory and the numerous cells the
convent was calculated for and once contained several hundreds,
although there are now only fifteen there. We went to a ball in
the evening at the French Minister's but did not stay long.
25. We went this morning to the Church of the Convent d'Umi-
lita to see a nun take the white veil, but as the ceremony was not
to- begin until half past ten we availed ourselves of the interim to
visit several churches, among others those of St. Ignatius, St.
Maria in Vallicella and Jesus, the latter of which was very rich.
At half past we returned to the convent and as we had a note from
the Princess Sciarra to the Superiora good seats had been reserved
for us in the church. As soon as the Cardinal arrived the nun came
forward to the grate. She was richly dressed and her head covered
with a blaze of diamonds. The Cardinal had put on his pontifical
robes and the ceremony began by a sermon from another prelate.
As far as I could understand this sermon, it appeared to me a most
curious production. The bishop then read the usual ritual; the nun
1 In the Palazzo Sciarra-Colonna.
472 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
took off her ornaments and covered herself with a white veil; she
then smiled most theatrically in order to express her satisfaction
at her change of situation. Upon the whole the ceremony was much
less impressive than I had imagined. After this ceremony was over
we returned home, dressed, and went to dine with the Cardinal
Gonzalvo. There was to have been this afternoon a horse race in
honour of the Emperor and Empress, but as it rained excessively
the Cardinal had gone to obtain the imperial consent for the
postponement of the fete until the return of their Majesties from
Naples. This circumstance made us wait for our dinner an hour
beyond the usual time. In the evening, in consequence of an in-
vitation from the Princess Canino, we called on Madame Mere. 1
The Princess was there by agreement to introduce us. Cardinal
Fesch was also present. The old lady was very amiable while we
stayed which was about half an hour. We then went and spent
the remainder of the evening with Lucien and family. He and
Madame expressed a wish that I would permit their eldest son 2 to
accompany me to America provided they could obtain for him
the passport for which they had applied. They requested me
also to mention the subject to Cardinal Gonzalvo when I should
see him, as I proposed on the morrow to take leave.
26. Called this morning and took leave of Torlonia and the
Ministers of France and Austria. 3 I then called on Cardinal Gon-
zalvo who received me very graciously, and although the ante-
chamber was crowded with people in waiting, he gave me imme-
diate audience. I began by thanking him for all his attentions and
politeness. I then said a few words in respect to Mr. Sartori, our
Acting Consul, all which was well received by the Cardinal. I next
proceeded to a more delicate subject — the wish of Lucien Bona-
parte to send his eldest son with me to the United States. The
Cardinal immediately entered fully and frankly into the subject.
He recounted all the circumstances relating to the conduct of the
allied powers towards Lucien. He said that after the last defeat of
Napoleon, Lucien, on his way from Paris to Rome, was arrested at
Turin by the King of Sardinia and imprisoned at that place, that
on representation of this circumstance to the ministers of the great
allied powers then at Paris, it was resolved by those ministers that
Lucien should be liberated and allowed to proceed to Rome pro-
vided the Pope consented thereto, and provided that neither Lucien
nor his family should leave the papal territories. The Pope ac-
quiesced without hesitation, and Lucien embraced the proposition
1 Letizia Bonaparte.
2 Charles-Lucien- Jules-Laurent Bonaparte ( 1 803-1 857).
3 Prince de Kaunitz.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 473
with eagerness and even volunteered his word of honour to observe
the conditions that were imposed; that Naples and France were
dissatisfied with the arrangement, and the former had required that
Lucien should be driven out of the papal dominions which the
Pope peremptorily refused. The Cardinal showed me the protocols
of all these transactions, and a letter from Tallyrand on the subject
in which he contends that a distinction ought to be made between
Lucien and the other members of the Bonaparte family on account
of the part which he had acted some months before. He also
showed me a letter from Lucien asking a passport for his son to
accompany me to America, the Cardinal's answer to this letter
stating the necessity of consulting the allied powers before he could
accede to this request; a second letter from Lucien in which he re-
monstrates against the injustice of delaying to grant the passport
which he had requested, stating that his parole could not affect
his children who, when of age, would be masters of their own con-
duct, and even intimating that he would sooner return to the castle
of Turin than submit to the oppression of a different construction.
The Cardinal appeared to be a little hurt at the tone of this letter
but observed "il est malheureux et je lui pardonne." After this
conversation I asked the Cardinal for his orders for post-horses
and for an escort which he immediately accorded filling the blanks
up himself. He followed me to the outward door and took his
leave in the most gracious manner, sending his compliments and
good wishes to Mrs. Russell. I next returned home and then ac-
companied Mrs. Russell to the Capitol, the tower of which we
ascended to the top. Thence we had a very fine view of the site
and ruins of ancient Rome and could distinguish the famous Seven
Hills. The prospect commanded also modern Rome and the vicin-
ity as far as Mount Soracte on one side, and the Sea and the Pon-
tine Marshes on the other. After dinner I called on Lucien and gave
him an account of my interview with the Cardinal Gonzalvo at
which he appeared very little pleased. I afterwards accompanied
Mrs. Russell and Amelia to the Princess Pauline's and took leave
of her. In the evening Terril and Trentanove called on us and the
former remained until half past twelve the next morning.
27. We had at last obtained permission, through the influence
of Monseigneur [ ], to visit the statues and the celebrated
paintings at the Villa Ludovisi. We according called on him at half
past twelve and took him with us in our carriage. At the gate we
met our countrymen, Terril and Main, to whom we had given a
hint of our success and desired them to profit by it. This villa oc-
cupies part of the gardens of Sallust close by the Aurelian wall.
We first entered the casino which contains the statues. We saw
474 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
there the finest collection, for its extent, which we had ever seen.
Among other chefs-d'oeuvre, a superb statue of Mars reposing, a
sitting gladiator, an Esculapius, a group of Pluto and Prosepina,
one of Orestes, and Electra, and another most excellent of Paetus
holding his wife Arria after she had killed herself and in the act of
plunging the dagger in his own bosom. We next proceeded to the
casino which contains the justly celebrated Aurora painted in fresco
by Guerchino di Cento. It deserves all its reputation and excelled
in our opinion the Aurora of Guido. In the story above we also
saw the Fame of the same painter in fresco which was likewise very
fine. We mounted on the top of the building and took a glance at
the surrounding prospect which was very commanding but which,
as it began to rain, we could not enjoy long. For the same reason
we could not examine very leisurely the statues in the gardens. We
carried Monseigneur to his apartments and then went to the Palace
of Spada, and among many interesting objects saw there the famous
statue of Pompey at the foot of which Julius Caesar is said to have
expired. The head of this statue was found at a considerable dis-
tance from the body which occasioned some doubt if it rightfully
belonged to it. Canova has, however, after a thorough investiga-
tion, pronounced it to be the true original head. We entered the
apartment where the statue is kept with some English men and
women, one of the latter of whom exclaimed on entering: "There
is the statue which the barbarous French mutilated by sawing off
the arm in order to get it through the door to remove it." She
walked up to it with an air of triumph, in order to point out the
truth of this violence, but she looked extremely foolish when she
could find no trace of such an outrage, the statue being, in fact, as
entire as the first moment it was discovered. The poor woman had
been misled by the falsehood of Eustace who never paid the least
respect to truth when there was a question of the French. In the
afternoon the Prince and Princess of Canino called on us. Trenta-
nove had joined us to a party to see the statues of the Vatican by
torch-light, but some of the party came so late that we had merely
time to arrive at the door of the Museum before our appointments
called us elsewhere. We first called on the Prince and Princess of
Canino and then returned home to receive Mr. Sartori and his wife,
who came to pass the evening with us as well as Trentanove who
had returned with us.
28. We were very busily engaged this morning in packing up.
About noon Charles Bonaparte, the eldest son of Lucien, called on
us with Monsieur Franci, the physician of the Prince. We ordered
dinner at two o'clock and set off at three-quarters past three.
Trentanove stayed with us till we were off. After leaving Rome we
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 475
found some part of the road broken up to repair and we did not reach
Tor di Mezzavia until a quarter past five. The postmaster or his man
attempted to impose on us by making us pay for a royal post and
insisted on detaining us for this object, until I gave orders to return
to Rome which appeared to alarm him and he permitted us to go
on. We arrived at Albano at seven and stopped at the Hotel Ville
de Londres to which we had been recommended by Mr. Kruseman.
29. We spent this morning in seeing the curiosities at Albano.
This city is built on the spot of the ancient city of Alba Longa
which was founded four hundred years before the city of Rome and
flourished until the time of Tullius Hostilius. Ascanius son of Aeneas
is said to have been the founder. A tomb is still seen which is said
to have been the sepulchre of this Prince, but of which the origin is
really unknown. It is a tower still of considerable elevation although
all its ornaments are gone. From this tower we proceeded to the
lake which is a long mile distant. We passed by the Castel Gan-
dolfo, belonging to the Pope, and built upon the spot where Milo
killed the Tribune Clodius. The lake was formerly called Albano,
now Castillo on account of its proximity to this castle. We were
mounted on jackasses, and on descending to the lake we found the
road or path in some places very rough, and on account of the late
rains, very muddy. The lake is supposed to be the crater of an
ancient volcano and its depth, which is four hundred and eighty feet,
appears to warrant this supposition. It is said to be five miles in
circumference, but by reason of the high land on every side its
extent appears to be much less. We visited the outlet which was
made to this lake about three hundred and ninety-three years before
the Christian era. It was worked through the solid mountain of
rock for nearly two miles, its width being three and one-half feet
and its height six feet. It has never received any repairs and is
now as perfect as the day it was finished, more than two thousand,
two hundred years ago. The entrance near the lake is protected
by a kind of gate, and the man who opened it lighted a taper which
he placed on a little piece of wood which he set afloat on the current,
and which as it proceeded, threw a light on the subterraneous pas-
sage and made it visible for a considerable distance. On our return
we stopped at a grotto which is supposed to have been a Nymphe
or a hall ornamented with the statues of nymphs where they went
to refresh themselves in old times. The statues are gone, but the
niches in which they stood still remain, and places for baths and
the conduit for water which supplied them. We next went to the
Villa Barberini and saw there the ruins of a palace of Nero and of
his amphitheatre. It is said that there was not only a covered
way from the one to the other, but that there was such a way from
476 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
the palace to the city of Rome, a distance of about fourteen miles.
In the gardens of Barberini there was a fine ancient bust of Scipio
Africanus. We saw also parts of a fine marble frieze and a Corin-
thian capital worked into the modern walls of the garden. We next
went to view the remains of an ancient conservatory of water.
We now returned to our inn and having dined we set off at half past
three in prosecution of our journey. Just as we left Albano we saw
the remains of an ancient tomb vulgarly called the tomb of the
Horatii and Curiatii, but supposed by others more reasonably to
have been the tomb of Pompey the Great. 1 We stopped a short
time to examine it. It has a square foundation which was formerly
crowned with five pyramids of which two only are now standing.
We arrived at Genzano, three-quarters of a post, at four o'clock,
having been obliged to take six horses. We set off now with four
horses only, and arrived at Velletri, one post at six o'clock. Here
we met Mr. Robinson and Bernard returning from Naples. We
went to visit the Palace Lancellotti, formerly Gennette. It is now
converted into an inn and very much abused. We saw the fine
staircase, said to be the most magnificent in Italy. The statues
still remain on the ground, some of them much defaced and one of
them placed under a stable window of modern times was literally
covered with a dung heap. From the portico on the back of this
palace is a fine view of the valley which we enjoyed for a few minutes
and then returned to our inn, where Mr. Robinson took tea and
spent the evening with us.
30. We took an escort this morning of two dragoons and re-
sumed our journey at half past five. At half past seven we changed
horses and dragoons at Cisterna at seven and again changed horses
at Torre tre Ponti at eight thirty. Here the Pontine Marshes com-
mence and here we discharged our escort. We changed horses at
Bocca de fiume at half past nine; at Mesa at ten thirty — at Ponti
Maggiore at eleven and reached Terracina at eleven thirty. A
short distance before we arrived at this place we had left the Pon-
tine Marshes. We found considerable cultivation on these marshes
and the road everywhere excellent and the postillions, particularly
the last two, drove with great rapidity. We stopped to breakfast
at Terracina and again set off at twelve thirty. We reached the
frontier of the Pope in about a mile and found there a military
station and were persuaded to take an escort for the rest of the
stage, but we had not proceeded far before we arrived at the Nea-
politan barrier when our escort informed us they could go no fur-
ther and demanded pay for the whole distance. This I refused and
1 There are two tombs, not one, as Russell has it.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 477
a warm altercation took place, which I ended by giving four pauls
to the rogues. The usual rate of paying the dragoons is five pauls
each for a post with a small bon a mano. We reached Fondi, a post
and a half, at two; Itri, one post, at three fifteen; and Mola de
Gaeta, 1 one post, at four thirty. At this place our passport was
again required and a report of our baggage, but we passed without
difficulty. We reached Garigliano at three-quarters past six and
St. Agatha at a quarter past eight. We stopped here for the night
and found most wretched lodgings in a most wretched inn.
May 1. We left our vile inn at St. Agatha this morning at half
past six o'clock. We passed Sparanisi at eight, and reached Capua
at a quarter past ten. As the old town of Capua is about a mile
and a half from the new we did not visit it, as the few shapeless ruins
which remain there would have afforded very little indemnity for
the loss of time. We breakfasted at Capua and resumed our journey
at half past eleven. We found the roads thence to Aversa very
rough and heavy and we did not reach the latter place until one
o'clock, although it is but one post. We likewise found the road
bad from Aversa to Naples and were until three o'clock in reaching
the latter. About half way we were indeed detained a short time by
one of the fore wheels running off. John and Marcus who had
greased the wheels the day before had not secured this in the proper
manner and we found ourselves, all at once pitched diagonally on
the end of the axle. At the Barrier of Naples I found a servant with
a letter from Mr. Hammett informing me that he had taken apart-
ments for our accommodation at the Crocelle. We therefore pro-
ceeded thither and found the apartments very comfortable and
pleasant, commanding a fine view of the bay and surrounding coun-
try. We found them, however, too elevated having to mount no
less than one hundred and two steps to arrive at them. After dinner
I took a walk and called on our consul, Alexander Hammett.
2. Received a visit this morning from Mr. Hammett after
which I made several calls and delivered letters of introduction,
one to Count Mocenigo, the Russian Minister; the Princess Geraci;
the Princess Bellmonte, and Madame Bird. All these letters were
from Baron Lagersward. After dinner I took a long ride with Mrs.
Russell and Amelia along the bay to the westward and encountered
a crowd of carriages.
3. Mr. Hammett called this morning and introduced Mr.
Davis from New Jersey. I afterwards went out and delivered the
remainder of my letters of introduction which were to the follow-
ing persons: Falconette & Co. ; Rogers & Co.; Torrebello, the Por-
478 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
tuguese Minister; Boreel, the Dutch Minister; Circello, the Minister
of Foreign Affairs; General Ambrosio; Major Salviggi; Mr. Joseph
Ferro; and Jablonowski, the Austrian Minister. I found at home
Mr. Rogers, the partner of Falconette (Falconette himself having
gone with his family to Switzerland), the Ministers of Holland and
Portugal and the Major Salviggi. The Minister of Foreign Affairs
was at home, but so much occupied that he requested that I would
call again to-morrow. At four o'clock we received a visit from
Madam Bird and her daughters; at six the Princess Bellmonte.
The latter told us that she received every Sunday and Wednesday
evening. At nine o'clock the Princess of Geraci called by agree-
ment and took Mrs. Russell with her to the Austrian Minister's.
About eight o'clock the Minister of Russia called on me to make
excuses for not intending to present me to the King, 1 etc. His
reasons and his conduct were at least ridiculous if not impertinent.
4. Called this day on the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Circello,
and he engaged to ask leave of presentation from the King. He
said that the Count Mocenigo had called on him and consulted him
concerning my presentation and that they had both considered it
best, on account of the alliance between the United States and Great
Britain, for me to be presented by the British Minister and Mrs.
Russell by his lady. I remonstrated against this course, having no
acquaintance with the said minister, and not being inclined to ask
favours in that quarter. Circello then engaged to present me him-
self, but as the King would be absent for three days it would be
necessary to wait a short time. I next went to the Custom-house
and found that my trunks from Rome had not arrived. As my uni-
form coat was in one of them I felt it necessary to refuse an invita-
tion to the Academy, given by the Austrian Minister to the Em-
peror and Empress and imperial family this evening. Received a
note from Mocenigo saying that the English Minister would present
me. The English Minister left his card and his lady called and
made us a visit in person. Mr. Middleton also called. In the even-
ing I took a walk to the gardens and Mrs. Russell and Amelia went
to the Academy above mentioned, at six o'clock, and remained
until ten. They came home very much pleased with the music and
with the attentions which they had received.
5. We ordered our carriage this morning at nine o'clock, but
having waited for it till half past ten, I took a walk to the Consul's.
He accompanied me to the coachmakers who first tried to persuade
us that the carriage had been sent at the time ordered, and then
that it had not been ordered until noon. He promised, however,
1 Ferdinand IV (1751-1825).
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 479
to be punctual in future. We walked home and there found the
carriage. After sitting for some time we went to see the Chapel of
St. Serverino or the Church of St. Marie di la Pieta. We saw some very
fine and curious statues in this chapel as well as other excellent
sculpture. Among the statues is one of the mother 1 of the Prince
Dom Raimond under the figure of chastity [ ], covered
with a veil. This veil tho' a part of the marble, is so well executed
as to appear transparent and to discover the lineaments beneath it.
The Greeks and Romans never sculptured veils and the latter
painted them only. This statue was executed by Corradini. 2 An-
other statue, executed by Queirolo, 3 represents the said Dom Ray-
mond of Vice Undeceived. The Prince after the death of his wife
turned religious. He caused himself to be sculptured as a man
covered by a net from which he was disentangling himself by the
aid of a little winged spirit. The net is of the same piece of marble
as the statue and admirably executed. There is also a bust [of]
Christ begun by Corradini and finished by Joseph San Martino, 4 a
Neapolitan, of wonderful workmanship. After we had seen the
curiosities of this church we spent the remainder of the time, until
dinner, in shopping. After dinner we took a ride and walked in
the garden. We were obliged to stay at home in the evening, al-
though invited to the Princess Bellmonte's, as Mrs. Russell had
broken the key to the trunk which contained her clothes. We had
a visit from Mr. Main whom I had met in the morning at the Con-
sul's. Mrs. Middleton and Mr. Boreel called this morning while
we were out. General Ambrosio also called and left a note invit-
ing us to his box on Sunday evening.
6. We called on the Consul this morning at a little past nine
o'clock and went with him to the Academy of Studies. We began
by examining the pictures of later times, of which there is a consider-
able selection in several apartments. There are but few productions,
however, of the great masters. The painting which interested us
most was a portrait of Christopher Columbus, by Parmigiano.
There was a little picture by Correggio not more than a foot square
representing the Virgin Mary and her Son, for which the Academy
is said to have paid twenty thousand ducats. We could see nothing
in the work, however, to justify the price. We next went into the
apartments containing the paintings found in Pompeii and Hercu-
laneum, as well as rings, spoons, etc. We next went into the rooms
where are the papyri in a carbonated state and were shown the
1 Cecilia Gaetani, wife of Antonio di Sangro.
2 Antonio Corradini ( -1752).
3 Francisco Queirolo.
4 Giuseppe San Martino (17 28-1 800).
480 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
process by which they are developed. We then went into the library
which is said to contain forty thousand volumes and one thousand
manuscripts. We next went to the chambers containing the vases
found in the ancient sepulchres which are very numerous and some
of them finely executed. The paintings on them were often his-
torical many depicting events well known, such as the Death of
Patroclus, the Death of Hector, etc. We lastly descended to the
ground floor and saw there the statues, busts and bas-reliefs.
There are some very fine statues, as the Farnesian Hercules eques-
trian statues of the Consul Albius and his son, found in Hercula-
neum, a fine bust of Julius Caesar, etc. There is a bust of Aristides
admired for its drapery and attitude. The latter, however, to me
expressed very little, either of grace or force. In the court-yard
we saw some of the ancient mills which were probably turned by
hand. I have omitted to say that in some of the rooms above
stairs we saw a great collection of cooking utensils and other house-
hold implements, implements of surgery, steelyards and scales with
their weights, lamps, etc., found at Pompeii. At two o'clock we
returned home and found cards from the Portuguese Minister,
Torrebello, Mr. Rogers. We afterwards had visits from Mr. Rogers
and his lady, and from General Ambrosio.
7. I stayed at home this morning, but Mrs. Russell and Amelia
called on Mrs. Middleton. After dinner we went to see the tomb
of Virgil, which we found on the side of a mountain or hill called
Posilipo. To arrive at it we passed through a garden. The body
of the work still remains consisting of four walls and an arch built
of bricks. There are three openings or windows; on the inside are
several niches, — all the ornaments have been taken away. In as-
cending and descending the hill we were thronged by a number of
ragged, half-naked girls, from ten to thirteen years of age, who
danced up and down the [roadway] in a very amusing manner,
and fought for the money which we gave them, with the spirit of
furies. In the evening we had a call from our countryman Davis
and from our old acquaintance, the Count Voyna, who proposed a
game of whist with the ladies, to which we assented, in order to
remind us of Sweden.
8. We breakfasted this morning at half past seven and got into
our carriage at half past eight. We called and took the Consul
with us, and then proceeded to the city of Pompeii. This town is
about twelve miles from Rome, and we arrived there at about
eleven o'clock. We immediately took a cicerone and began our
rambles. We first saw the Temple of Hercules with the triangular
forum in which it is placed, the tragic and comic theatres and the
Temple of Isis. We then passed over a considerable extent of
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 481
Pompeii still buried in volcanic matter, when we arrived at the
amphitheatre. This amphitheatre is nearly entire, although de-
faced of nearly all its marbles. It gives even a more distinct idea
of what it was than that of Verona. It is evidently divided for two
classes of people, there being no communication between several
rows of lower seats and those above. All the seats are divided into
two parts by a little longitudinal rising of about an inch and a half,
on the fore part of a little more than a foot, which was really the
seat and the part behind, on which were placed the feet of those on
the next seat was of course lower and somewhat wider. Thus the
place for the seats and for the feet of the spectators was distinctly
marked and prevented all interference and confusion. The seats
which we had just seen at the tragic and comic theatres had not
this advantage. Tacitus gives an account of a terrible quarrel
which took place in this theatre between the inhabitants of Pom-
peii and some of the people of Nuceria, who were present, when sev-
eral of the latter were killed and wounded. Livineius Regulus who
gave this f£te was in consequence executed by the Roman Senate, 1
and exhibitions of gladiators in this amphitheatre were forbidden
for the term of ten years. Near the amphitheatre, a considerable
part of the ancient walls of the city has been uncovered. I not
only took a view of this part of the wall from the top of the amphi-
theatre but I took a ramble along it for a considerable distance
and could thence form a pretty accurate conjecture of the real
extent of the town. It was indeed of very respectable dimensions.
We now walked through vineyards over the city which still remains
covered, to nearly the opposite part which had first been explored.
This part we found entirely uncovered and presenting an exact
view of the temples and habitations, etc., of the ancients. All the
buildings in Pompeii are of brick covered with stucco. They re-
main generally very perfect excepting being unroofed. The walls
are painted either red or yellow with few exceptions, and on many
are drawn figures of men, beast or birds, or architectural designs.
Almost every house has a square court-yard in the centre, paved
with mosaic and in the midst a cistern for the rain-water. The
rooms are distributed round this court-yard and opening into it
without any direct communication with each other. We were sur-
prised to find most of these rooms very small not being from more
than five to nine feet broad and about ten or twelve deep. They
were generally, however, ten or twelve feet high. We could not
find any traces of interior doors. All the utensils, furniture, etc.,
found in Pompeii have been removed to the Royal Academy. The
1 Banished, according to Tacitus, Ann. iii, ii; xiv. 17.
482 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
name of the inhabitant is written on the outside of the house next
the street in red paint. In the shops where wine and oil was re-
tailed, large jars still remain supported by masonry. We also saw
a bakehouse with a large oven still remaining and precisely of the
form of ovens of the present day. In this bakehouse were also
several mills of different shapes and sizes, all apparently worked
by hand. The streets which have been cleared of the volcanic
matter are precisely as they were seventeen or eighteen centuries
ago. They are very narrow; say about eight feet wide besides the
sideways which are about a yard wide on each side and raised about
two feet, so as to be above the reach of rain-water. At the corners
of the streets in order to pass to the other side are three large stones
from a foot to a foot and a half high, so placed that the wheels of
carriages passed between the centre stone and those on each side.
The pavement was much worn by the wheels in these places, as
here the carriages went in precisely the same track. In this part of
the town was also a tragic theatre; a Temple of Esculapius; a Temple
of Venus; a Basilica; a Forum, etc., all still magnificent. We also
saw the house of Caius Sallust, which was one of the most con-
siderable of Pompeii. The bath and the marble on which the table
was placed still remain, with the surrounding floor on which they
dined in cubito. After seeing these things we passed out through
the gateway on the consular road which still remains entire. In the
suburbs we went over the house of M. Arrius Diomedes which was
spacious and delightfully situated on a hill commanding a prospect
of the bay. A cellar runs all round underneath this house which
has also been cleared and we went through it, and still saw some of
the amphora which contained the wine resting against the wall.
We also saw the tomb built by this person which according to the
inscription was for sibi et suis, but even he did not find sepulture
there as he perished in the eruption of 79 and was for centuries
covered by the volcanic matter. His bones were found in his garden
towards the gate which led out behind, and as in one hand he held
keys and in the other money, it is supposed that he was in the act
of escaping when he perished. Behind him were the bones of an-
other person supposed to be a servant with vessels of bronze and
silver. We saw also the other tombs on the consular way, and in
one of them was still the vases containing the ashes of the deceased.
Upon the whole the town of Pompeii impressed us with an idea of
the taste and public magnificence of the ancient inhabitants, but
their dwelling houses appeared to contain too little room accord-
ing to our ideas of domestic comfort. The streets too, although most
solidly made, were very narrow and rather rough. Indeed we can
hardly suppose that carriages were much used in those times for
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 483
pleasure or personal transportation. The axle of those which
marked the pavement of Pompeii could have been only about four
feet long. In returning to town we stopt at the ancient site of Her-
culaheum and descended to the theatre which was once entirely
uncovered, ft has now again been filled up in such a manner as to
have only narrow subterraneous passes through which we passed
by candle-light, excepting under the well which was the first means
of discovering the place where Herculaneum was. The orchestra
was still cleared and by placing a candle at one side and passing to
the other we could judge of the width of the theatre in this place.
The equestrian statue of the Proconsul Albinus was found on one
side of this orchestra and that of his son on the other. Upon the
whole we were poorly paid for anything we saw here for the trouble
of descending and ascending about seventy-five steps, and for the
gloom and dampness of the place. We now returned to Naples
where we arrived about half past five and kept the Consul to dine
with us, and had a bottle of wine called Lacrimae Christi, which he
found to be good, having a dryness and roughness like port. We
were so fatigued with our excursion this day that we spent the
evening at home, although we had an invitation at the Duchess of
Nalboum, and another at the Princess Bellmonte.
9. I took a ride this morning with Mrs. Russell along the sea,
in the fine road made by Murat. Had a call from General Am-
brosio. In the evening accompanied him to the theatre of St.
Charles, and sat in the box of the Princess Caramanico, which had
been procured for us by the General. The theatre is one of the most
magnificent in Europe, and this evening, on account of the presence
of the Emperor and Empress of Austria, it was brilliantly illumi-
nated. The entertainment was first a cantata which had no great
import; then a series of dances in imitation of the national dances
of other countries, and the tarantella, which is the national dance of
Naples. On a signal being given, a garland was thrown over every
box, which had a fine effect. The whole continued until about half
past eleven, when we returned home.
10. I staid at home this morning while Mrs. Russell and Amelia
paid several visits and went shopping. In the afternoon we, with
the Consul, went up to the Castle of St. Elmo, from whence we had
a fine view of Naples, its environs, bay, the sea, etc. In descending
Mr. Hammett slipt and fell and hurt himself considerably. In the
evening we went to the theatre and sat by previous invitation, in
the box of the Princess Geraci. The opera was "Elizabeth" which
we heard and retired before the ballet, which was "Orlando
11. We intended this morning to have gone, with the Consul,
484 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
to Pozzuoli and Baiae, but received a note from him that his knee,
from the fall yesterday, was too lame for the expedition. We then
determined to change our destination for Portici. On our way
thither we stop at the Consul's and I went up and found him in
bed. The museum at Portici was very interesting. It contained
many of the inscriptions and paintings which had been saved from
the walls of Herculaneum, Pompeii and Stabiae. Some of these
paintings were very fine, particularly four which had been found at
Herculaneum — Theseus after slaying the Minotaur, the Centaur
Chiron teaching the young Achilles, the son of Hercules, [to] suck
a doe, the river Nile and its attributes. There was also a skull of a
young woman shown which had belonged to a skeleton found in
Pompeii. This skeleton was dressed in cloth of solid gold with
pearl ear-rings and rings on her fingers and bracelets. There were
several other skeletons found about her which were supposed to be
those of her servants. There was also shown us a family altar at
which were worshipped the Dii Penates. We next went to
the rooms containing the portraits of Murat and his children,
Napoleon and his mother, Massena, etc. We were then intro-
duced into the palace which we found to be furnished precisely
as it was when inhabited by Murat and his consort. 1 Even the
little library of the latter remained untouched. There was nothing
indeed wanting but the mattresses of Murat to put on the elegant
bedstead, and these were to be brought in order to show the Em-
peror of Austria how the unfortunate man had slept in whose
murder Emperors and Kings had been accomplices. The mean
triumph would, it seems, be more perfect by viewing the previous
magnificence of the illustrious victim. This palace commands a
beautiful view of the Bay of Naples and the city and surrounding
hills. We returned to town about two o'clock and soon after I re-
ceived a visit from the British Minister. In the course of the con-
versation he appeared surprised to learn that I had not been pre-
sented to the King. I explained to him my situation and rendered
him an account of the strange conduct of the Greek Mocenigo.
He then said he would see Circello immediately, and left me for
that purpose. About three hours afterwards I received an invita-
tion from the Prince of Migliano to a ball given by the King
this evening at his palace of Capodimonte. But as it was a very
late invitation; as I had not been presented to the King, and
as Mrs. Russell had not been invited, I decided not to go, but
spent the evening at home in reading "Olympic," a tragedy of
1 Maria Annunciata Carolina Bonaparte, youngest sister of Napoleon.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 485
12. I went this morning again with Mrs. Russell to the Royal
Studium. We began by the rez-de-chaussee and saw there very
leisurely all the marble statues. There are some very fine ones as
well those from the Farnesian collection at Rome, such as the
Hercules, Flora, etc., as several found in Herculaneum and Pom-
peii. We next went into the rooms containing the pictures of which
we took a leisurely survey, and we purchased there a small copy of
the portrait by Parmigiano for which I paid fifteen dollars. We
next went into the room which contains the jewels found at Pom-
peii and Herculaneum, also some from the Farnesian collection;
several frescos from Herculaneum and Pompeii, with a great variety
of other interesting articles from these places. The rings found at
Pompeii and Herculaneum are generally like those of modern times,
that is joined, but there are some which are not joined but like the
bracelets merely bent in a circle without being soldered. These
bracelets are indeed made precisely like those worn at the present
day in Calcutta and the East. I observed one pair, however, of
gold which consisted of a serpent, each bent twice round. The en-
gravings on some of the stones of the rings are remarkably fine.
In this room is the finest cameo in the world. It is from the Farne-
sian collection. It is an agate of seven or eight inches in diameter,
very transparent. One side is engraved with the apotheosis of
Alexander and the other with the head of Medusa. Some of the
frescos in this room are well delineated. There are here also hen's
eggs found in Pompeii more than seventeen hundred years old and
which externally appear quite fresh. There is also a vessel con-
taining oil which has become nearly of the consistence of butter.
The vessel itself is of glass. We were also shown wine in a jar which
had been converted into a solid mass by the action of the heat of
the volcanic matter or by time. We next went shopping for a short
time and purchased a couple of tambourines. As it rained in the
afternoon we kept [the] house until the evening, and then Mrs.
Russell went without me to visit the Princess of Jablonowski, the
Princess of Bellmonte, Madam Middleton and Madam Bird, and
to pass a few hours at the theatre of St. Charles.
13. The Consul called and breakfasted with us this morning
and we all set off together at about half past eight o'clock for Poz-
zuoli. We passed the Grot of Posilipo, which is a road through the
mountain of that name of about a quarter of a mile in length lighted
with lamps. We arrived at Pozzuoli at ten o'clock. We first went
to the square to view an ancient pedestal, the four sides of which
are ornamented with bas-reliefs a little obliterated. This is sup-
posed to have been the pedestal of a statue erected to Tiberius by
fourteen cities of Asia Minor, which are represented by the four-
486 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
teen figures in bas-relief. There is also in this place, a very fine
statue standing on a pedestal on which is the following inscription:
Q. Flavio Mario Egnatio
Lolliano . . . D
Patrono Dignissimo —
We next went to visit the Temple of Serapis which although dis-
covered entire, no longer ago than the year 1750, is now quite in ruins,
having three pillars only standing, and the circumference in shapeless
heaps. The outside building was square of one hundred and thirty-
four feet long and one hundred and fifteen wide. The inner building
or temple was round having a diameter of sixty-five feet. We now
hired a boat for eighteen carlinos and crossed the bay towards
Bajae. In passing we saw on our left the butments of the ancient
mole which is now generally called the Bridge of Caligula because
he continued this mole by a bridge to the opposite side. Of the
bridge, however, there are no remains above water. On our right
we saw the mountain of Gaurono now called Monte Barbaro, on
account of its rude and barren appearance. It was this mountain,
however, which formerly produced the wines so much boasted by
the ancients. We also saw on our right the Monte Nuovo, because
it was formed by a volcanic eruption so lately as 1538. It is very
elevated and has three miles' circumference. We landed on the
beach in the immediate vicinity of Lake Lucrino, anciently so re-
nowned for its fish. It still abounds with excellent fish and oysters,
but its dimensions were very much curtailed by the earthquake
just mentioned, which filled up the greatest part of it. From Lake
Lucrino we walked about a mile to Lake Averno. Near this lake
we saw ruins which are supposed to be those of a temple of Apollo,
but as some have conjectured they are probably of baths. In re-
turning to the bay we took another path and passed through the
subterraneous passage called the Grot of the Sybil of Cumae but
more reasonably supposed to have been the grand canal formed by
Nero, to conduct the warm waters to the promontory of Miseno.
I counted about two hundred paces in passing it. On arriving at
the shore we walked some distance along it to the south and came
to the Baths of Nero, so-called, which are now quite in ruins ex-
cepting the subterraneous passage which conducted to the hot
springs. I proceeded a short distance in this passage, but finding
myself getting into an inconvenient perspiration and the difficulty
of breathing increasing, I returned. There was a lad there, how-
ever, who satisfied, for trifling compensation, the curiosity of
strangers in going quite to the spring and bringing thence some of
J0l8.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 487
the water. He performed this enterprise for us and prepared him-
self for it by stripping off all his clothes excepting his pantaloons, he
took with him a bucket and two eggs, and after being absent a
short time he returned, making as he approached a great noise in
breathing, which perhaps was theatrical and when he appeared he
was literally dripping with sweat. The water in the bucket was too
hot for the hand and the two eggs which he had put into it were
slightly boiled, but the water we were told is not sufficiently hot
to boil them quite hard. We now got into our boat and proceeded
a short distance along the coast and landed in the vicinity of the
temples of Venus Genetrix, Mercury and Diana Lucifera. Such,
however, is the uncertainty attending most of the ancient ruins,
that many suppose that these ruins belong to ancient baths, as
they are situated near mineral sources and have a variety of ap-
pendages which seem not to appertain to temples. The circle of the
Temple of Mercury is still entire and so perfect that a low whisper
near the wall on one side is distinctly heard by a listener on the
other. We again got into our boat and rowed towards the prom-
ontory. We passed many of the ruins of the ancient city of
Baiae, some on the shore, but the greatest part submerged in the
ocean. Julius Caesar had a country house in this city where Livia
is said to have poisoned Marcellus. We landed at the ruins of the
ancient village of Bauti formerly very celebrated. We saw there a
subterraneous vault which is vulgarly called the Tomb of Agrippina
although Tacitus says that the tomb of this woman was very hum-
ble. This vault is therefore supposed to have belonged to a theatre.
A little farther on we visited what is denominated Piscina Admir-
abile, which was a grand reservoir of water built by Lucullus. It is
still very entire and to arrive at the bottom we descended two
flights of stairs of forty steps each. It is supported on forty-eight
pilasters of square columns which are still, with the arches, sup-
ported by them in perfect order, and the stucco with which they
are covered has become so hard that we were told snuff boxes had
been made of it. We next descended into what is called Cento
Camerelle, a favorite appellation for any great number of apart-
ments. These apartments here are by some supposed to have been
prisons for criminals, and were they really so, they must have been
most dreary habitations. We went into several of them. We
afterwards saw the shapeless ruins of the Mercato di Sabito which
was a circus for equestrian exhibitions. We now took a long walk
towards the promontory of Miseno, and having attained a consider-
able elevation in that direction we had a near and distinct view of
the river Styx and the Elysian Fields beyond them. The former was
a short communication between a pitiful little salt lake or pond
488 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
and the sea, and the latter a sidehill rather precipitous and covered
now with trees. Over the Styx is now a bridge so of course the
ferry-boat is no longer necessary. From Miseno we also had a
very fine view of the islands Ischia and Procida. We now returned
to our boat and recrossed the bay to Pozzuoli where we dined toler-
ably well. After dinner we went to the Solfatara. This is a plain
of about eight hundred feet square. It was probably once a moun-
tain and levelled by a volcano. There is undoubtedly a hollow
space beneath from the sound which is occasioned by the stamp of
the foot. From several places in this plain there issues a smoke
and the ground thereabouts is encrusted with sulphur. The earth
is also hot in many places. This plain is still surrounded with the
hills which were anciently called Monte Leucogio. From the verge
of these mountains in one place issued a small volume of smoke.
We afterwards visited the ruins of an amphitheatre in this vicinity;
some sarcophagi that had been found about two years since, and
an ancient reservoir of water now used for the same purpose. We
then returned to town quite fatigued.
14. We received a visit this morning from Commodore Stewart, 1
Captains Mac Donough 2 and Ballard, 3 and my old friend Shaler. 4
They spent some time with us and I accompanied Shaler to the
British Minister's. I afterwards rode with Mrs. Russell to call on
Mrs. Rogers. In the evening I was presented with Mrs. Russell to
the King by the Marquis Circello. There were many of the officers
of the government present, and after waiting some time the King
entered and was announced by the person who preceded him,
clapping the hands. He immediately came up to the Marquis
Circello who stood next the door at which he entered, and received
us. He conversed ten or twelve minutes with us, asking as many
questions and making as many observations as he could find appro-
priate to the parties. There were, however, several long pauses.
He then went on and received the Neapolitan officers in waiting who
pressed round him and kissed his hand. He then returned again to us
and having talked several minutes more, he retired and we returned
15. Mrs. Russell was quite unwell this morning and was obliged
to let me go to the Studium without her. I met there the Commo-
dore and the other commanders of the American ships at Naples
as well as many of the officers. We stayed there until half past one.
Mrs. Russell had sufficiently recovered in the afternoon to accom-
1 Charles Stewart (1 778-1869).
2 Thomas Macdonough (1 783-1825).
3 Henry E. Ballard (1785-1855), a master commandant at this time.
4 William Shaler (1778-1833).
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 489
pany me and Amelia to [a] dinner given by the British Minister. We
found there the Duke of Leeds; l Lord Gordon, Minister at Vienna; 2
Lord Ponsonby; 3 Admiral Fremantle, 4 and several of their ladies.
We sat down at the table at about half past six and the British Min-
ister gave his hand to Mrs. Russell and his lady accepted mine.
Immediately after dinner, which was about nine o'clock, Mrs.
Russell was again taken ill and we were obliged to go home.
16. We this morning at about half past ten o'clock set off with
Commodore Stewart in our travelling carriage and four horses for
Cardeletto, as we had been invited by the Marquis Circello to a
f£te there this day and to dine at the table of the King. We reached
our destination a little before noon just as the King had mounted
on horseback and the Emperor, etc., had got into their carriages to
ride around the ground. We met Circello at the door, who gave
his arm to Mrs. Russell and told her that we should see the scene
better by walking. He accordingly led the way with Mrs. Russell
and Commodore Stewart and I followed. We found the ground
finely shaded with oak and the peasantry from the neighbouring
country grouped in little parties, enjoying their little feasts and
dressed in their costume. As the Marquis was an old man deco-
rated with many orders of nobility, many of these people mistook
him for the King and cried out with great apparent joy "Viva il
Re." They frequently pressed him to drink, etc. Mrs. Russell
who was with him was of course taken for the Queen and partici-
pated in these attentions. One woman in particular came some
distance from the party in which she was engaged, to give Mrs.
Russell a full look in the face and then returned saying " Sono con-
tenta; io ho visto la Regina." We afterwards returned to the
palace and I presented the Commodore to many of the Emperor's
suite and foreign Ministers. About one we sat down to dinner.
After dinner the Austrian Minister told me that the Emperor
would then receive the Commodore, and that he would go on board
his ship on the morrow. The Commodore was accordingly pre-
sented and received this assurance from the Emperor in person.
The horse-races began soon afterwards on a signal given by the
King. They began by a number of mean looking horses starting
with riders dressed in different colours and mounted bareback.
They ran round an elliptical enclosure in front of the palace with-
out any equality in their speed, some absolutely breaking down
1 George William Frederick Osborne, sixth Duke of Leeds (1775-1838).
2 Lord Stewart was at Vienna as Ambassador.
3 John Ponsonby, Viscount Ponsonby (i77o?-i855).
4 Sir Thomas Fremantle (1 765-1819).
490 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
after the first and second round, and the winner coming out several
lengths before all the rest and more than half the course before
some. About seven o'clock we set out on our return to town where
we arrived about nine without accident.
17. At the request of Commodore Stewart we went this morn-
ing on board the Franklin a little before noon in order to dine with
him and to receive the Emperor and the King. We had not been
on board long, however, before the Commodore received a note
from the British Admiral saying their Majesties would not be on
board that day. As Admiral Fremantle had long given his invita-
tion to this effect it was conceived proper that he should receive the
first visit, which we found to be correct, and consented accordingly.
Of the intention of their Majesties to defer their visit the Admiral
had received a message. We staid on board, however, and dined
and did not return on shore until towards evening. At my lodgings
I found a note from the Grand Chamberlain of the Emperor, stat-
ing that on the opinion of the King the visit of the Emperor had
been deferred till another day.
18. At nine o'clock this morning Captain Pasqualigo of the suite
of the Emperor called on me to say that the Emperor and the King
would go on board the Rochfort y an English ship of eighty guns,
at four o'clock this afternoon, commanded by Admiral Fremantle,
and that immediately after visiting that ship they would go on
board the Franklin and wished me to give notice accordingly. I
immediately dressed and to make all sure went on board the Frank-
lin myself. I returned ashore and accompanied Mrs. Russell
and Amelia on board the Guerriere and the Erie, where
we had been invited by their respective commanders. After visit-
ing every part of these ships we went on board the Franklin and
there remained in order to aid in receiving the Emperor and King.
We took a light dinner on board as we were engaged to dine this
day with the Consul and had decided in putting off his dinner to
a late hour in order to receive us. About four o'clock we saw the
boats of the King put off from shore and direct their course towards
the British ship. It was half past four when they arrived on board
that ship, which had the yards manned, and a man on each truck.
Immediately on their Majesties being on board two salutes of twenty-
one guns were fired, without any intermission, which made it appear
like a salute of forty-two guns. The Emperor and King remained
on board that ship about an hour, when they put off and came on
board of us. The yards and the trucks of the Franklin, the Guer-
riere, and the Erie, were manned, as those of the Rochfort. That
ship again fired the salutes as she had done before. The Emperor
and Empress of Austria, a daughter of the Emperor, his Grand-
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 491
Chamberlain, two Chamberlains, the Grand Master and Grand
Mistress of the Empress, several maids of honour, the Prince of
Saxony and his wife, a sister of the Emperor, an aid, and several
maids of honour, the King of Naples, and his son Leopold, etc., etc.,
constituted the party which came on board. I accompanied the
Commodore to the gangway to receive them as they came on board
and Mrs. Russell received the Empress and the ladies. After the
boats had hauled from along the side, the Franklin fired two salutes
with sufficient pause between them to mark them severally. She
differed also from the Rochfort in the manner of displaying the Aus-
trian and Neapolitan flags. On board the Rochfort these flags were
hoisted together on the same mast while we hoisted them distinctly
on different masts. After the salutes were over we all went below
into the cabin and I presented Captains Mac Donough and Ballard,
Mr. Shaler, Mr. Hammett, and Lieutenant Gallegar *■ both to the
Emperor and King. We then proceeded to show the ship in all parts
with which all expressed themselves pleased and astonished. We
then went again on the upper deck and from three boats at a little
distance we exhibited a specimen of firing at a target from three of
our newly invented swivels. After the imperial and royal party
had been on board more than an hour and just as the Commodore
was about ordering a manoeuvre of the guns for the amusement of
the Emperor, a most unhappy accident occurred which put an end
to the exhibition and filled all with sadness. The Grand-Master of
the Empress, as he was following her, in order to shorten his dis-
tance, attempted to step across the corner of the main-hatch and
being near-sighted mistook the wind sail for a mast and in stretch-
ing his hand to support himself by it, lost his balance and fell through
four decks into the cockpit. In this fall he broke both bones of the
left leg. As all hands had just been called to quarters the surgeon
and his mates were at their post and immediately performed the
operation of reducing the bone in which they succeeded perfectly.
When the Emperor & Co left the Franklin, is was half past seven
o'clock and to prevent all noise that might be disagreeable to the
Grand-Master, no salute was fired. About eight o'clock we went
with the Commodore and dined with the Consul Hammett, whom
we did not leave until eleven.
19. The Commodore came on shore this morning with Captain
Mac Donough and Mr. Shaler and I accompanied them to the
lodgings of the Grand-Master to enquire after his health. He re-
ceived us into his bedchamber and assured us that he was entirely
without pain or fever. When I expressed a wish that the accident
1 John Gallagher.
492 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
might not make an impression unfavorable to our navy and coun-
try, he exclaimed, certainly not and that it was his fault. His gold
snuff-box had fallen from his pocket while he was falling from the
upper deck and somebody had picked it up and brought it to me.
I availed myself of this opportunity to return it to him and he ap-
peared to be pleased in seeing it again. He spoke in the highest
terms of approbation of the tenderness and skill with which he had
been treated. After leaving him I returned home and took Mrs.
R[ussell] in the carriage with me. We called on Mr. Hammett and
his landlady who accompanied us to make some purchases for the sea
voyage which we contemplate. At half past five o'clock the Com-
modore came on shore and accompanied Mrs. R[ussell] Amelia and
myself to Capodimonte to dine with an American by the name of
Middleton who has a pretty wife. He was not, however, American
enough to prefer his own countrymen to all others and he con-
ducted to the table the wife of the British Consul and not the wife
of the American Minister. In the evening we had a small party at
whist and we returned to town about midnight.
20. I called this morning on my bankers Messrs. Falconette & Co.
and took up seven hundred and twenty ducats equal to six hundred
dollars which added to ninety-three ducats before drawn, makes in
all six hundred and seventy-seven dollars and sixty cents. I after-
wards called on the British Minister and on the Danish Consul
General at Algiers, and as neither of them was at home, I left cards
for them and their ladies. I then called on the Baron Stainlein, the
Bavarian Minister 1 at the Court of Vienna and invited him to
accompany me on board the Franklin. He assented and one o'clock
called on me with the Prince [ ], who is of the suite of the
Emperor and we went on board all three together. These gentle-
men after seeing the ship returned on shore but I remained on board
and dined. After dinner I went with the Commodore and the Cap-
tains of the other ships on board the brig Spark and she got under
way, after making a stretch towards the town and running under
the stern of the King's yacht and bowing to him as he stood on
the quarter-deck. We tacked and run along the coast towards
Pompeii and a little before sunset came to an anchor about two
miles from the land. We all remained on board that night.
We sent the pilot on shore to procure carriages for the next
21. We turned out this morning, as the sailors express it, and
after taking an early breakfast got into the boats and rowed on
shore. We found the carriages ready and we immediately drove to
1 He was charg6 d'affaires.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 493
Pompeii. We went over the place in the same direction as I had
done with Mrs. Russell and Amelia on the eighth instant and I dis-
covered nothing new to attract my attention. We dined at a modern
house on provisions which we had taken with us, after we had
finished our rambles. Just as we were leaving the place, Baron
Schubart and Count Voyna arrived with a party of Polish ladies.
We returned on board the Spark about eleven o'clock and imme-
diately got under way. We dined there about four o'clock and
came to an anchor off Naples about five and reached my lodgings
in town at six.
22. We had a visit this morning from the Commodore and
while he was with us Mr. Howard and Mr. Mac Donald from Balti-
more and Mr. Van Rensselaer from New York called and invited
us to dinner for to-morrow. I next called on the Grand Master of
the Empress and found that the surgeons had taken off the bandages
this morning, and found everything in excellent order. I then went
to the Consul's and thence shopping with Mrs. Russell. I after-
wards called on Baron Schubart and found him asleep. I then
went and took a warm bath and returned home at four o'clock to
dinner. After dinner I took a walk with Amelia in the Villa Reale
or King's garden, where we met with Captains Ballard and Nich-
olson x and Doctor Heap. I staid at home in the evening and Mr.
Davis came and spent half an hour with me. Mrs. Russell went
out and made several visits. I have omitted to say above that
about three o'clock I called on Prince Metternich but found that
he was out. I saw, however, the Chevalier Floret and stated to
him my object. This was to comply with the wishes of the Com-
modore in inviting the Prince on board the Franklin. The Cheva-
lier informed me that the Prince was engaged to go to Castel del
Mare to-morrow and to Caserta on Monday, whence he would not
return till Wednesday and that he would set off for Rome on Fri-
day so that Thursday was the* only day which he would be at Naples
and would inform me if his engagements were such as to permit
him to go on board at that time.
23. I remained at home this morning occupied in writing. Mrs.
Russell went to see the pension house of young women but was not
admitted by the directress. Received several calls. Dined with
Messrs. Howard, Mac Donald and Van Rensselaer, three American
gentlemen, and in the evening played at billiards with my old
24. Called this morning on the Grand-Master of the Empress
and found him getting on well. I then went and made a little in-
1 Joseph J. Nicholson.
494 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
vestment in stores. When this was completed I called on the Con-
sul and accompanied him and Mr. Shaler to the prison to see Mr.
Bullett of Maryland who had been confined there by the police.
I found him to be a very well educated and intelligent young man
with considerable eccentricity and very meanly clad. I was fully
convinced that there was no sufficient cause for his confinement. I
gave a dinner this day to Commodore Stewart, Capt. Mac Donough,
Capt. Ballard, Capt. Nicholson, Capt. Thompson, 1 Mr. Shaler,
Mr. Hammett, Mr. Galliger, Mr. Weaver, 2 Mr. Howard, Doctor
Heap, Mr. Myers, Mr. Ellery, and Mr. Harris. Dr. Satin, Mr.
Bourne, and Count Voyna were invited but did not come. I am
sorry to say that the dinner was very indifferent and badly served.
At eight o'clock I accompanied Capt. Mac Donough and Mr.
Shaler to the billiard room and played till ten. On my return home
I found there several of the gentlemen who had dined with us and
the addition of Mr. Davis and Count Voyna.
25. At eleven o'clock this morning Count Voyna called on me
by engagement and I accompanied him on board the Franklin, and
after he had examined that vessel I went with him on board the
Guerritre. We then returned on shore, and as it rained I remained
at home until four o'clock, when Voyna came and dined with us.
Mrs. Russell left us soon after dinner, and rode to Capo di Monte,
in order to procure a stock of fresh milk for our voyage. The horses
behaved very bad and she was obliged to jump out of the carriage
and leave them on the road. After walking a considerable distance
through the rain and mud, she took a hack and returned home
about nine o'clock, fatigued, wet, and dirty.
26. I spent most of this morning in making preparations for
the voyage. About two o'clock Commodore Stewart and Mr.
Shaler called on me and informed me that in consequence of a
council of war holden on board this morning, the voyage to Greece,
Egypt, etc., had been abandoned, and that the squadron would
proceed immediately to Gibraltar. The idea of sooner reaching our
own country amply indemnified us all for all disappointment. It
still continued to rain and we spent the remainder of the day at
27. I called on the Consul this morning and engaged him to
send my accounts to-morrow morning. I then called on the Mar-
quis of Torrebello, the Portuguese Minister, and reminded him of
his offer of a letter to his agent at Madeira for a pipe of the best
wine from the estate of Torrebello, and he gave me the letter ac-
1 Charles C. B. Thompson, a master commandant.
2 William A. Weaver, a lieutenant.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 495
cordingly. This letter secures to me only a pipe of the best wine
on my paying the value of it. After my return Consul Guerdin
called with his wife and made us a visit of about an hour. After
dinner I went with Mrs. Russell shopping and made several pur-
chases, among others a lyre-formed guitar. In the evening Com-
modore Stewart, Mr. Shaler and Mr. Weaver called on us to tea
and staid until half past ten o'clock. The Prince Metternich had
engaged to visit the ship this morning but sent an apology, as he
was obliged to take leave of the King to set out on his return to
Rome to-morrow. Several gentlemen, however, were on board and
the Commodore, for their amusement, presented them with the
exercise of the great guns, boarding, etc.
28. I called after eleven o'clock this morning on the American
Consul, but found that he was gone on board the squadron. I
then accompanied Mrs. Russell to the Studium, where we spent
two hours. We saw particularly the apartments which contain
the ancient utensils and arms, in which, however, are several articles
of a different description, such as musical instruments, chirurgical
instruments, etc. The neatness of the copper sauce-pans, etc. was,
very admirable, and they were generally lined with silver to render
them wholesome. The steelyards I again examined and found them
as before, exactly to resemble those of modern times, weighing on
both sides with different powers, etc., but the pound appeared to
be divided into sixths instead of fourths. There was the remains
of a lady's toilet, in which were little mirrors, round and square,
which were made of a composition of silver and bronze and bur-
nished to reflect with great power, but they were now dimmed with
rust. There was even a little pot containing rouge which had pre-
served its colour for more than seventeen hundred years. Among
the medical remains were huge pills and boluses, of half an inch
diameter, which could with difficulty have been swallowed through
a throat of modern dimension. In these apartments we also ad-
mired the elegance and variety of the lamps. From these apart-
ments we passed through those containing the pictures into those
containing the sepulchral vases. Although there are above two
thousand of these vases, there are no two of them of precisely the
same form and size. These vases have been very exactly imitated
at the present day in everything excepting the lightness of the mate-
rial, and the permanency of the colours, which have hitherto been
found to be inimitable, the modern vases being uniformly much
more heavy and the colours easily obliterated by time or friction.
These vases were all used for the tomb. There are two kinds, large,
to contain the ashes of the dead; and very small, to contain the
tears of the living. The paintings on them were adapted to the
496 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
character of the deceased, for the soldier, heroic, for the statesman,
civique, for beauty, amatory, etc. Besides the paintings there
were also placed in the tomb articles likewise characteristic of the
deceased; arms for the first, a scroll for the second, and even rouge
for the third, etc. The manner of the interring was as follows: a
tomb of an oblong square, with the skeleton stretched longitudinally
on its back, the vase containing the ashes of the combustible parts
at the head, or elsewhere, and the small lacrimal vases on the
breast, etc. The Studium shuts at two o'clock, and we were obliged
to leave it at that hour. We spent the rest of the time until dinner.
Before we rose from [the] table Commodore Stewart and Doctor
Heap called to invite us to a walk, but as we had made our arrange-
ments to visit the Grotta del Cane, we declined their invitation.
They left us and we set out for the grotto at five o'clock. We passed
through the Grotta of Posilipo, and in less then three-quarters of
an hour we arrived at the lake of Agnano. Although this sheet of
water is called a lake it does not much exceed the ordinary dimen-
sions of a mill pond. Immediately on the margin of this lake, and
but a few rods from the road, is the Grotta del Cane. A woman
attended us to the spot and with a key opened a door by which the
mouth of the grotto is shut. We found it to be a hole in the side
of the hill ten or twelve feet in length, about four feet wide, and at
the entrance about eight or nine feet, but rapidly lowering as you
proceed, and at the farthest end almost forming an angle. The
woman had a little white dog with her which she laid on its back
inside the cave, and at the end of two or three minutes it gasped,
foamed at the mouth, and became to all appearances lifeless. The
woman then threw it on the ground on the outside of the cave and it
almost instantaneously recovered and ran about as if it had suf-
fered nothing. The woman then held a lighted torch within eight
or ten inches of the ground and it became immediately extinct.
This experiment was repeated several times and always with the
same result. Notwithstanding the common opinion, I believed that
I smelt a slight odor in the cave. We afterwards visited by the
side of the road and close to the cave, several rooms which have
been built in modern times, and which are filled with warm sul-
phuric vapour which proceeds from holes in the sides and which
produces copious perspiration. These rooms are used by rheumatic
and asthmatic people, and there are seats round the room on which
the sick may lie or sit. The vapour which comes from the wall is,
close to it, very hot, and leaves about the overture an incrustation
of sulphur and saltpetre. We arrived back to town at seven o'clock
and spent the evening at home having a visit which lasted until ten
o'clock from Madam.
1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 497
29. I went shopping again this morning with Mrs. R[ussell]
and among other things purchased some of the new fashioned silk for
gowns at six carlinos forty grains x the canna-ell. I afterwards went
and settled with my bankers, Falconette & Co., and drew for their
advances to me on Messrs. Hottinguer & Co. at Paris. I now left
Mrs. Russell at our lodgings and proceeded along to the Studium,
that I might visit there a particular room which I had not hitherto
seen. Although it was past two o'clock, the keepers, admitted me
into the room I desired to see. It was filled with some of the most
curious remains of antiquity in bronze, marble and fresco. There
was a painter present copying some of the latter which had been
injured. The contents of this room presents the strongest proof of
the peculiar manners of the ancients and of their most remarkable
superstition. After leaving the Studium I called and left cards to
take leave of Counsellor Guerdin, Sir William a Court, 2 and the
Prince Jablonowski. About four o'clock I rode with Mrs. R[ussell]
to the other end of the city, in order to witness the drawing of the
lottery. We arrived in time and were very civilly provided with
convenient seats to see the ceremony behind the presiding judges.
These judges were five in number, dressed in grand costumes of
black. Their seats were raised three or four steps above the floor
which was crowded with spectators anxiously awaiting their fate.
Immediately behind the judges were two rows of seats which ap-
peared to be filled by lazzaroni and the lowest order of the people.
There was an urn before the judges which contained the numbers.
When the ceremony began a person standing before the judges re-
ceived the urn and turned and shook it violently in full view of all
present. He then returned it to the judge who sat on the left, who
opened the top of the urn with a key or instrument adapted to that
purpose. A lad of fourteen or fifteen years of age standing erect
on that side crossed himself, and then holding up his hand open to
show the spectators that there was nothing in it, put it into the urn
and thence drew a little ball between his thumb and finger, which
he also held up in full view, and then passed it to the principal
judge who sat in the middle. The judge then opened the ball and
drew out a slip of paper on which a number was written. This
number he immediately passed to a person behind him who ap-
peared to be a lazzarone, and who proclaimed the number with a
very loud voice. The ceremony was continued five times which is
the whole amount of numbers drawn. On the proclamation of
every number there was great agitation among the attending multi-
1 A carline was, Neapolitan coin, a tenth of a ducat, or ten grains.
2 William A'Court, Baron Heytesbury (1 770-1860).
498 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE,
tude, and pleasure or disappointment was strongly depicted on
their countenances, principally the latter. We now returned home
and Mrs. Russell and Amelia went to visit Mrs. Bird and the
Princess of Bellmonte, and did not return until half past eleven
Lamon's "Life of Lincoln."
Boston, December 5, 1910.
My dear Sir:
I give you below my recollections of the incidents connected with
the preparation and publication of the first volume of Lamon's
"Life of Abraham Lincoln," the only volume of the work published.
This volume was published in 1872 by James R. Osgood & Co., of
which firm I was then a member, and I had full charge of the publi-
cation. You are at liberty to make such use of the following state-
ment as may serve the purpose of historic truth. Very truly yours,
John Spencer Clark.
Horace White, Esq.,
18 West 69th Street,
7". About 1868 I learned that W. H. Herndon was preparing a
life of Mr. Lincoln, and that he had a quantity of fresh material
that would throw new light on some phases of Mr. Lincoln's life and
character. I opened correspondence in the name of my firm with
Mr. Herndon with reference to the publication of his work. This
correspondence was continued for some time, Mr. Herndon not
being ready to submit his copy.
77. Some time in 1870 Col. Ward H. Lamon appeared on the
scene as the owner of all the Herndon material, which he had pur-
chased, 1 and also as the possessor of much other valuable material
which he had procured through his acquaintance and semi-official
connection with Mr. Lincoln, and he came prepared " to talk busi-
ness" in the matter of publication. I was convinced that Colonel
Lamon had the material, and he stated that this material was to be
used and put in literary form by Chauncey Black, a clever writer,
and a son of Jeremiah Black, a tough, hard-headed old democrat
of the pro-slavery school, and a leading, if not the dominating spirit
on constitutional questions in the Buchanan Cabinet.
777. I raised objection to a life of Mr. Lincoln being prepared
under such apparently hostile influences, and Colonel Lamon as-
1 See Newton, Lincoln and Herndon, 306.
ipi8.] LAMON'S u LIFE OF LINCOLN." 499
sured me that nothing politically hostile to Mr. Lincoln should
go into the work; that Mr. Black was a great admirer of Mr. Lincoln,
and that the work should be in full sympathy with the fundamental
points in Mr. Lincoln's life and character. Colonel Lamon later
brought Mr. Black to see me, and he also assured me of his loyalty
to Mr. Lincoln, and his good faith in presenting the political aspects
of his career. On the strength of these assurances we entered into a
contract for publication.
IV. While the proofs of the early chapters as they came in to me
showed a lack of appreciation of the finer qualities of Mr. Lincoln's
nature, and a disposition to keep the rougher, coarser, aspects of his
pioneer life prominent, I saw nothing I could positively object to
until I received the proofs of Chapter xv, purporting to give a brief
history of the Kansas struggle. Here I saw well known historic
facts perverted to shield the pro-slavery democratic party from
"high crimes and misdemeanors" in their attempt to bring in Kansas
as a slave state. I protested to Colonel Lamon that the account
was not only untrue, but was also wholly inconsistent with Mr.
Lincoln's position on the Kansas question. After considerable
discussion and the exhibition of much feeling on the part of Mr.
Black, Colonel Lamon fully sustained me and authorized me to
substitute the text as it now stands in place of what had been
prepared by Mr. Black.
V. This experience with the Kansas matter made me suspicious
of Mr. Black's good faith, and when the proofs came of the chapter
pretending to give an historic record of the very memorable period
between Mr. Lincoln's election and his inauguration, it was only
too evident that justice to Mr. Lincoln during this critical period
was sacrificed to an effort to extenuate if not excuse the shambling
policy of the Buchanan administration — a policy which weakly
supported the Constitution with one hand, while attacking it vigor-
ously with the other hand. I put the matter squarely before Colonel
Lamon and he saw the unwisdom, if not the absurdity, of com-
promising Mr. Lincoln in the slightest degree at this great period
when in the tremendous swirl of political complications his was the
sanest mind of all — sanest not only because he stood for the Union,
but also for the inherent power of the Union under the Constitution
to protect itself.
Mr. Black's effort to condone the interpretation of the Con-
stitution by the Buchanan Administration during its last days —
an interpretation which Mr. Lincoln had to fight during his whole
term — in a life of Lincoln, was therefore unceremoniously cut
out, as appears at the bottom of page 527; and although I have not
500 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 1918
a distinct recollection of the details that followed, I do know that
Mr. Black was greatly angered, that there was a split, and that we
got no more copy for the work.
VI. Colonel Lamon impressed me as a man of fair intelligence
and good sense, gained by a sort of rough and tumble experience,
and while in no way a man of literary culture or of positive con-
victions in regard to the higher phases of Mr. Lincoln's character,
he was an admirer of Mr. Lincoln as an honest political statesman,
and in the matter of having Mr. Lincoln's life truly set forth he
only needed to have the truth shown to him to stand by it. I think
he at first put full confidence in Black, that there was a sort of good-
fellowship understanding between them that was "busted" when
Lamon saw clearly that Black's adherence to the flesh-pots of his
democratic faith was stronger than his desire to see full justice done
to Mr. Lincoln's memory.
VII. The publication of the work, which was entered upon with
a belief in its historic importance, and high anticipation of its com-
mercial success, came, with the publication of the first volume, to
an untimely end. No more work was done upon it and the under-
taking proved a losing venture all around; and I came to class the
outcome as among those publishing experiences which show the
futility of endeavoring to combine essentially antagonistic elements
in the production of an important literary work.