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Full text of "June Meeting. Gifts to the Society; Rosenstein to John Hancock; The Longevity of Historians; The Bowdoin Library; Journal of Jonathan Russell, 1818-1819; Lamon's "Life of Lincoln""

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I 9 l8.] GIFTS TO THE SOCIETY. 353 



JUNE MEETING. 

THE stated meeting was held on Thursday, the 13th instant, 
at three o'clock, p. m. In the absence of the President 
and both Vice-Presidents, Mr. Arthur Lord was chosen to 
preside. 

The record of the last meeting was read and approved; and 
in the absence of the Librarian, the Editor reported the list of 
donors to the Library since the last meeting. 

The Cabinet-Keeper reported the following accessions: 

From the estate of Mrs. Charles C. Smith, a bust in plaster of 
Alexander Hamilton, after Houdon, which long stood in the Library 
of our late associate, Charles Card Smith. 

From Charles P. Greenough, 165 engraved portraits, English and 
American. 

From Mrs. Robert C. Winthrop, Jr., a bust in marble of Robert C. 
Winthrop, by Hiram Powers. 

From Miss Antoinette P. Granger, of Canandaigua, New York, 
a bust in marble of her grandfather, Francis Granger, of New York, 
postmaster-general under President Harrison in 1841. 

From Mrs. Kingsmill Marrs, a purse bearing a miniature of Jenny 
Lind, which was bought as a souvenir when she was in Boston in 
1850 by Otis Norcross for his wife. 

From Dr. Warren, a photograph of a silhouette of Dr. John Dexter 
Treadwell, of Salem, which hangs in the Ropes Mansion there, whose 
son was the founder of the Treadwell Library of the Massachusetts 
General Hospital; also a medal honoring the Allies and commemorat- 
ing the entrance of America into the War, issued to the contributors 
to the American Fund for the French wounded. 

By deposit, from Dr. Warren, a silk banner, made by a Roxbury 
Society, commemorative of General Joseph Warren, and used in 
connection with the laying of the corner stone of Bunker Hill Monu- 
ment by Lafayette in 1825. After the exercises it was hung in the 
hall of the Norfolk House, Roxbury, but after some years it disap- 
peared and has remained unknown for a half a century. 

From Charles Stearns, engravings of Rufus Choate, Daniel Web- 
ster, and of President and Mrs. Garfield. 



354 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

From Robert Bruce, of Clinton, New York, a photograph of Abra- 
ham Lincoln; taken in the early spring of 1865. 

From Mr. Norcross, thirty United States coins. 

From Francis Henry Appleton, a collection of ninety-eight coins. 

By purchase, a collection of fifty-four encased postage stamps, 
which combined with those already in our cabinet forms one of the 
most complete collections of such stamps extant. During the time 
of great scarcity of small change in 1862 these stamps were issued in 
denominations from one to ninety cents by thirty-one firms; and 
are now of great rarity. 

By purchase and exchange, a collection of seventy-one specimens 
of the work of J. A. Bolen, a die cutter who flourished in Springfield, 
Mass., from 1862 to 1869, which lacks four pieces of being complete, 
and is probably the most complete collection of Bolen's work 
extant. 

The Corresponding Secretary reported the receipt of a letter 
from Arthur Prentice Rugg accepting his election as a Resident 
Member of the Society. 

The Corresponding Secretary also reported the receipt of an 
invitation from the Historical Society of Nova Scotia to be pres- 
ent at the unveiling of a memorial to George Vaughan at Annap- 
olis Royal on July 1. The Corresponding Secretary was desig- 
nated as the representative of the Society with such other mem- 
bers as may be able to attend. 

The Corresponding Secretary read notes of condolence on 
the death of Henry Adams from Sir Sidney Lee and Mr. Hur- 
bert Hall. 

The Editor reported: 

As gifts: From George Peabody Wetmore, a letter from James 
Russell Lowell and two from Count Witte, to George W. Smalley. 
The Lowell letter, referring to his address at the 250th anniversary 
of Harvard College, is as follows: 

Southborough, Mass., i 2th Nov: 1886. 
Dear Smalley, — I have written to MacVeigh explaining why I couldn't 
possibly come as I gladly would. I am driven to the wall with things to do. 
I am very sorry not to see you again and very glad you liked my speech. 
To me they are always awful when they are cold — as a dead body used to 
be to the murderer. I fear to touch 'em lest they should bleed and convict 
me. I enclose a letter. Good bye and God bless you. Faithfully yours, 

J. R. Lowell. 



1918.] GIFTS TO THE SOCIETY. 355 

From Charles P. Greenough, a number of manuscripts of Thomas 
and John Hancock, 1728-1815, being mercantile correspondence 
with merchants in London, Canada and Amsterdam, charter parties, 
legal papers and bills — amounting in all to about two hundred 
pieces. This material complements similar correspondence in the 
Society's collections. 

From Mrs. Arthur W. Thayer, of Dedham, a number of mss., 
commercial letters and foreign price lists, passports and local notices, 
which supplement effectively similar material in the collections of 
the Society. 

By purchase, a series of letters from Leonard Bliss, Jr., the his- 
torian of Rehoboth, to Elias Nason, 183 2-1 840, treating of their 
literary and historical productions, and travels in search for 
material. 

Letters of John S. Place, written from France in 181 1 and 181 2, 
to Thomas Browne, a merchant of Portsmouth. 

Nathan Matthews, of Boston, was elected a Resident Mem- 
ber of the Society. 

Dr. Emerson presented to the Society the original MS. of his 
father's poem on "Boston," begun several years before the war, 
but not finished until the occasion of its delivery at Faneuil 
Hall, December 16, 1873, on the centennial anniversary of the 
destruction of the tea in Boston harbor. Dr. Emerson read the 
poem and called attention to the omissions and changes in the 
printed text. 1 

Mr. Bowditch, in presenting to the Society the MS. records 
of "The Game Club" and a set of the rive printed volumes 
taken from those records, gave an outline of the club and its 
activities. Formed in January, 1882, for twenty years it met 
at the houses of its members once in two weeks from November 
to May. Each person present wrote a short verse on a given 
subject, and at the supper these verses were read. Other games 
were played, but verse-making left the most permanent record. 
The contribution of each member was signed by initials, and a 
full list of members and guests accompanies the gift, "in the 
hope that some few in later generations may find it interesting 
to examine these records of the games which amused their an- 
cestors." With the gift is a poem of presentation, written by 
Mrs. Charles P. Ware, closing with the lines: 

1 Emerson, Poems (1884), 182. 



356 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

So tho' at first it may seem queer 

To find us in this grave Society, 
Not without reason are we here, 

To add a little gay variety. 

Of the printed volumes the edition ranged from twenty-one to 
twenty-four copies. 

Mr. Storey and Dr. Emerson, members of "The Game 
Club" gave some interesting and amusing reminiscences of its 
meetings. 

Dr. Warren presented, on behalf of the Trustees of the 
Humane Society of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, a 
portfolio containing a series of thirty-nine photogravures made 
by A. W. Elson and Company of Belmont. These engravings 
form the illustrations of the History of the society, written by 
Mark A. de Wolf Howe, about to be published, and comprise 
portraits of the leading officers, beginning with James Bowdoin, 
two groups of trustees of 1858 and 1906, certificate of member- 
ship, silver pieces and medals, early instruments of restoration 
from drowning, and life boats. This series is an interesting 
record of the oldest of Societies organized for the saving of life 
and relief of suffering. While its earlier activities were con- 
cerned chiefly with the saving of life on the sea-coast, a work 
now taken over by the National Life-Saving Service, it still 
continues to be active in many useful fields, and it still lives up 
to its purpose of promoting the cause of humanity by "pur- 
suing such means, from time to time, as shall have for their 
object the preservation of human life and the alleviation of its 
miseries." It is highly suggestive to contrast its purposes with 
the ruthless methods of the U-boat! 

Mr. Minot deposited the original records of the Bunker Hill 
Monument Association, beginning with its origin and incor- 
poration in 1823, and continuing to 1846. 

Mr. Charles P. Greenough read an extract from Sargent's 
Dealings with the Dead (1. 166) : 

The prohibition of the [slave] traffic, in 1788, grew out of public 
indignation, produced by the Act of one Avery, from Connecticut, 
who decoyed three black men on board his vessel, under pretence of 
employing them; and while they were at work below, proceeded to 
sea, having previously cleared for Martinico. The knowledge of this 
outrage produced a great sensation. Governor Hancock and M. 



1918.] ROSENSTEIN TO JOHN HANCOCK. 357 

L'Etombe, the French Consul, wrote in favor of the Kidnapped 
Negroes, to all the West India Islands. ... 

The poor negroes, carried off by that arch villain Avery, were 
offered for sale, in the Island of St. Bartholomew. They told their 
story publicly — magna est Veritas — the Governor heard and be- 
lieved it — the sale was forbidden. An inhabitant of the Island — 
a Mr. Atherton of blessed memory — became their protector, 
and gave bonds for their good behaviour, for six months. Letters, 
confirming their story, arrived. They were sent on their way home 
rejoicing, and arrived in Boston on the following 29th day of 
July. 1 

and then read the following letter from the Governor of the 
island of St. Bartholomew, relating to the incident: 

ROSENSTEIN TO JOHN HANCOCK. 

Gustavia Island of St. Bartholomews, 
the 6th July, 1788. 

Sir, — I have been favoured with the honor of your Excellencys 
Letter of the 21st April last, relative to the three unfortunate Ne- 
groes, Luke Russel, Wenham Cary and Cato Newell that where 
(altho' free) villanously Carried of from Your Excellencys Govern- 
ment to be disposed of as Slaves in the West Indies. I am exceed- 
ingly happy that I by the means of this accident not only have had 
the opportunity of satisfying my Sentiments of Humanity, but 
which is Still more agreable (if there is any feelings Superior to those 
that a person Conceives when it is in his power of being of any Serv- 
ice to members of human kind) that of having by the Justice ren- 
dered to those three Blacks made myself deserving of Your Excel- 
lencys approbation. My satisfaction should however have been 
greater if the Barbarous Laws of the West Indies had permitted me 
to render them all the Justice they had by the Nature of their Cause 
the Right to claim, and of which I was in my private Opinion con- 
vinced they were entitled to; but our Laws are greatly to their dis- 
advantage in all kind of Disputes between them and White Persons. 
This is the reason, why I have been obliged to detain them here, 
untill they could have procured sufficient and authentic proofs of 
the Right of their Cause, which is plainly obtain'd by Your Excel- 
lencys human intercession in their behalf; And in Consequence of 
which have not hesitated an instant to grant them permission to 

1 Sargent appears to have drawn his facts from the replies of Jeremy Belknap 
to the questions of St. George Tucker on slavery, 1795, printed in 1 Collections, rv. 
204. See also Moore, Notes on the History of Slavery in Massachusetts, 225. 



358 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

return to their Native Country with Capt. Benjamin Ives, Com- 
manding the Brigantine Diligence, with whom I have agreed for 
their Passage for the Sum of Twenty-four Dollars; having taken the 
Liberty of giving said Benj'n Ives my draft on Your Excellency for 
the amount, not doubting but Your Excellency will be pleased to 
cause same to be paid. 

Permit me Sir to rejoice at this Event as a mean of procuring me 
the advantage of paying my hommages to your Excellency as one 
of those eminent Characters that has so much Illustrated this Period, 
and whose exertions for the cause of Liberty, has already been too 
great for to admit any Augmen[ta]tion by your intercession in be- 
half of those unfortunate men. I am overjoyed that fortune has put 
it in my hands to shew my partiality in a cause that has costed Your 
Excellency so many cares and so much trouble, and whereby Your 
Excellencys illustrious Character will undoubtedly be transferred 
to a gratefull posterity, and furnish me with an Occasion of testify- 
ing how sensible I am of Your Excellency's merits, and assure Your 
Excellency of the great regard and esteem with which I have the 
honor to remain, Your Excellency's Most Ob't H'ble Servant, 

Rosenstein. 

Mr. Thayer read a paper on 

The Longevity of Historians. 

Not long ago I heard an interesting but somewhat distressing 
lecture by one of our medical experts, on occupational diseases. 
He described phossy jaw — the hideous ailment which attacks 
match makers and other workers in phosphorous. He told 
about the lung and throat troubles which afflict those whose 
work creates a metallic dust. He enlarged upon the ills which 
beset munitions makers, but he did not include the instantane- 
ous bodily annihilation which results from an unexpected explo- 
sion of trinitrotoluol. I listened in vain to hear him tell of 
housemaid's knee; he either overlooked that or deemed it 
too mild to be included in his list of occupational diseases. 

As our Vice-President, Mr. James Ford Rhodes, had just 
celebrated his seventieth birthday, I fell to thinking on the 
longevity of historians — an old hobby of mine — and on what 
sort of occupational disease, if any, they are liable to. I knew 
roughly that they are a long-lived tribe, but I could not recall 
any special malady to which they are heir. In order to be pre- 



1918.] THE LONGEVITY OF HISTORIANS. 359 

cise I made a little list of the ages of some of the chief historians, 
ancient and modern, which runs as follows: 

Ancient. Herodotus, 60?: Thucydides, 70: Livy, 76: Tacitus, 62: 
Caesar, 56: Xenophon, 73?: Sallust, 52?: Josephus, 63. Average 64. 

English. Clarendon, 66: Gibbon, 56: Hume, 65: Robertson, 72: 
Roscoe, 78: Hallam, 82: Macaulay, 59: Kinglake, 82: Carlyle, 86: 
Freeman, 69: Stubbs, 75: Gardiner, 73: J. R. Green, 46: Lecky, 65: 
Froude, 76": Mackintosh, 67: Goldwin Smith, 87: Grote, 77. Aver- 
age 70. The two chief living British historians, James Bryce and 
John Morley, were both born in 1838, and are accordingly 80 this 
year. 

French. Voltaire, 83 : Guizot, 87 : Thiers, 80: Martin, 73 : Michelet, 
76: Mignet, 88: Michaud, 72: Amedee Thierry, 76: Augustin Thierry, 
61: Taine, 65: Sismondi, 69. Average, 75. 

German. Giesebrecht, 75: Droysen, 76: Ranke, 90: Sybel, 78: 
Ewald, 36: Treitschke, 62: Mommsen, 86: Gregorovius, 70. Aver- 
age, 71. 

Italian. Sarpi, 71: Machiavelli, 58: Botta, 71: Villari, 90. Aver- 
age, 73. 

American. Irving, 76: Bancroft, 90: Hildreth, 58: Sparks, 77: 
Palfrey, 85: Prescott, 63: Motley, 63: Parkman, 70: Fiske, 59: Henry 
Adams, 80: H. C. Lea, 84: Mahan, 74. Average, 73. 

Not including Morley and Bryce here are the names of sixty- 
one persons whose average age is well over seventy-one. A 
historian, therefore, can count on outliving by at least a year the 
proverbial three score years and ten. In fact, however, the aver- 
age age of men in the community is nearer forty than seventy. 
A good while ago I was interested to investigate the common 
assumption that, owing to the speed of modern life the average 
longevity in the nineteenth century of more or less distinguished 
persons was decreasing. I took about 550 names of men and 
women who had achieved distinction in art, literature, public 
life, warfare, and other categories, and I found that they lived 
on an average more than sixty-eight years — a result which 
disproves the allegation that the modern pace is the pace which 
kills. 

Our present list shows that the historian lives four years 
longer than the average celebrity in other fields. Examining 
our groups, we find that the French average leads with seventy- 
five; then the Italian and American with seventy-three; the 



360 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

English and Germans with seventy-one; the Ancients with 
sixty-four. Note, however, that the dates assigned for the 
Ancients are very uncertain — so uncertain that I could not 
include Suetonius, Diodorus, or Plutarch at all. 

Analyzing these figures from a different standpoint we find 
that three men, Ranke, Villari and Bancroft, reached the great 
age of ninety and, I may add, they all were writing up to the 
time of their death. The octogenarians are: Mignet, Guizot, 
Goldwin Smith, Kinglake, Carlyle, Mommsen, Hallam, Thiers, 
Henry Adams, and H. C. Lea. Except Ewald, thirty-six, Sal- 
lust, fifty-two, and Green, forty-six, Caesar and Gibbon, par 
nobile fratrum, are the youngest, dying at fifty-six. But 
Caesar's death cannot be regarded as an occupational disease, 
to which historians are subject. 

In fact if we examine the causes of the taking off of these 
sixty-one men we shall discover no special disease which killed 
the larger part of them. The historian has the privilege enjoyed 
by his fellow men of being able to die of any ill which happens 
to strike him. 

The considerable number of these historians who were also 
politicians, or in the larger sense, statesmen, suggests the in- 
teresting query, whether writing history is a good preparation 
for making it, or making history fits one to write. Caesar among 
the ancients, and Machiavelli and Sarpi among the earlier 
moderns, are the most striking examples. Guizot was for eight 
years prime minister of France under Louis Philippe, and Thiers, 
having served for many years in the cabinet of that monarch, 
was the first president of the French Republic. In Germany, 
Mommsen sat in the Reichstag, but Treitschke, the most vehe- 
ment and influential of German publicists, never held public 
office, perhaps on account of his deafness. In England, on the 
contrary, the ties between the historian and the statesman have 
always been recognized. On our list we. find that, besides Clar- 
endon, Mackintosh, and Macaulay, Lecky, Bryce and Morley 
were members of Parliament, while Stubbs was Bishop of Ox- 
ford, and an English Bishop is a very official as well as an eccle- 
siastical personage. Among our Americans, only Bancroft had 
a cabinet position. The prejudice which for a long while existed 
in this country against literary "fellers," included historians 
also, but recently two writers of history, Theodore Roosevelt 



1918.] THE LONGEVITY OF HISTORIANS. 361 

and Woodrow Wilson, have been elected presidents of the 
United States, so that our horizon has been much widened. 
Now that the American historian need no longer be depressed 
by the thought that his occupation renders him ineligible to 
the highest office in the people's gift, we breathe more freely. 

Although historians are a long-lived tribe, often blessed with 
the power to carry on their work far into old age, many of them 
have achieved a reputation when they were very young. The 
most precocious, I think, is James Bryce, who wrote his Holy 
Roman Empire when he was twenty-four; and the book, after 
nearly sixty years, holds its own in judgment, poise, maturity, 
and thoroughness. Almost equally remarkable was Lecky who 
published his Rationalism in Europe when he was only twenty- 
seven. Freeman's first book on Church Restoration came out 
when he was twenty-six. Thiers was also twenty-six when the 
first volume of his History of the French Revolution appeared, and 
Michelet made his debut at twenty-seven. Parkman seems to 
have been the youngest American to produce history of per- 
manent worth, he being twenty-eight at the publication of his 
Conspiracy of Pontiac. 

But most of the lasting works were published after their 
authors were well on in the thirties. Gibbon was thirty-nine 
when he issued his first two volumes; Bancroft thirty-four when 
he published the first volume of his History of the United States. 
Prescott's Ferdinand and Isabella came when he was forty, and 
Motley's Dutch Republic when he was forty-two. Mr. Rhodes 
was forty-four at the publication of his first volume. 

In general it is easy to understand why historians are usually 
middle-aged before they produce valuable work. A novel or a 
poem can be spun like a spider's web, from the inside; but a 
history is the assembling and interpreting of masses of material 
from the outside. This requires time — time and long and patient 
study. Interpretation also, demands qualities which rarely 
develop in the young, qualities which do not reside in the emo- 
tions but in the reason. So we concede fiction to the juvenile 
and are glad to have history the province of the mature. 

Money, or the lack of it, has a further influence on the pro- 
duction of history. The historian, though he be a very rare and 
privileged creature, must live. Accordingly, unless a kindly 
fate, or a rich father, has provided him with a living, he must 



362 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

make one. This takes time. Modern historians have usually 
earned their living, either as professors or as editors. This 
means that necessarily they must be mature before they have 
accumulated leisure enough to produce a magnum opus. A few 
men, like William Roscoe, George Grote and Mr. Rhodes, after 
prospering in business, have devoted themselves to writing 
history. 

To the youth who wishes to join the guild of historians we 
can give therefore not only a friendly welcome, but the prospect 
of a long and, we hope, useful life. Our craft does not threaten 
him with any occupational disease, although it does not render 
him immune to either dyspepsia or mutinous eyes. The work 
has many delights and many compensations. He will probably 
not amass riches, but he will thank his stars for this, because 
it will prevent him from wasting on palaces and private yachts 
the talents which he should dedicate to Clio. And he will have 
mistaken his calling if he fails to discover in history the magic 
chapters which, by recording how men have lived, furnish a 
clue to the mystery of Life itself. 

The Bowdoin Library. 

Mr. Tuttle showed a manuscript list of books and said: 

There is in the Society's collection of Bowdoin and Temple 
papers a manuscript of bibliographical interest associated with 
the Siege of Boston. It is a list of nearly four hundred volumes, 
a part of the library of James Bowdoin, later Governor of the 
Commonwealth. 

On September 13, 1774, Mr. Bowdoin's name was among 
those listed and published as leaders in the patriot cause. Two 
days later he requested Samuel Phillips Savage to make an in- 
ventory of the goods in his house. Mr. Savage found the Li- 
brary to contain more than twelve hundred volumes. 

In the early spring of 1775, Mr. Bowdoin left Boston and 
lived for several weeks in Braintree. Abigail Adams, two days 
before the Battle of Bunker Hill, wrote from Braintree that 
"Mr. Bowdoin and his lady are at present in the house of Mr. 
Borland, and are going to Middleboro to the house of Judge 
Oliver." During this period Mr. Bowdoin's illness prevented 
him from taking an active part in public affairs. The family 



igiS.] THE BOWDOIN LIBRARY. 363 

remained for many months in Middleboro, and probably had 
with them there the larger part of Mr. Bowdoin's Library. 

When General Burgoyne reached Boston on May 25, 1775, 
he took up his abode in the Bowdoin Mansion on Beacon Hill; 
and it is likely that Bowdoin's brother-in-law, George Erving, 
one of the loyalist refugees who sailed for Halifax early in 1776, 
may have had the care of his property here. The list of Bow- 
doin's books in Burgoyne's possession during his stay in Boston 
is given below, bearing the statement over Erving's signature 
at the end. 

The two parts of Bowdoin's library later came together, and 
passed at his death in 1790 by bequest to the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences of which he was the founder and 
first President. An asterisk prefixed to the title indicates that 
the volume was in the library of the Academy at the time its 
catalogue was issued in 1802. 

i 8 * Alt. 

Harris's Collection of Voyages. 2 Vol 
Churchills Collection of Voy. & Travels. 6 Vol. fol. 
Burnets history of his own time [1724]. 2 Vol. 
Glauber's Works 

Bales's [Bayle's] Works [5 Vols?] 
La Sainte Bible per martin. 2 Vol. 
The Holy Bible 

Pooles Annotations on the Bible. 2 Vol. 
, Prideaux's Connection. 2 Vol. 
Historia Sum[m]orum Pontificum 
Boston Chronicle 
Julii Clari Opera omnia 
Johnston's [Johnson's] Works 
Brady's History of England 
Agricola de re metallica 
Massachusetts Laws 
Connecticut Laws 

The new Testament with notes — Rhemes 1582 
Juneval & Persius in usum Delph. 
Calvini Comentarii 2 V. 

Institutio Christianae Rel. 
Robertson's Phraselogia generalis 
Q. Curtius 

De linqua latina Observationes 
Justiniani Institutions 
Erasmi Colloquia 



1.2 


*3-8 


* 9.IO 


II 


* .12 


13-14 


15 


16.I7 


♦18.19 


* .20 


* .21 


* 22 


* .23 


* .24 


* .25 


* .26 


* .27 


* 28 


* 29 


3031 


32 


33 


* 34 


35 


* 36 


37 



364 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

38.41 Rabelais's Works. 4 Vol. 

42 La Sainte Bible 

43 La Pratique de pieta 

44 Boyers french & Eng. Dict y . 

* 45 Whistons astron. Prin. of Rel. 

46 History of Address 

47 Two Sermons for 30^ Jan y 

48 Cott. Mather's life 

2? Alt. 

* 1.2 Franklins Sophocles 2 Vol. 4^° 

? 3.4 Starks [Harte] history of Gustavus Adolphus 2 Vol. 

? 5.6 Whitbys Parap on New Testament. 2 Vol. 

* 7.8 Droit de la Guerre & de le paix par Grot's. 2 Vol. 

* 9 Virgils Opera in usum delph 
10.15 Magna Britania. 6 Vol. 

* 16 Daneby [Danet's] Dicto y of Greek & Rom. Antiquities 
♦17.18 History of Popery 

* 19 Stones conic Sections 
20 Household Furniture 

21.22 Calamy's life of Baxter &c 

23 Baxters Saints rest 

* 24 [Cleirae] Costumes de la mer. 

25 Dalton's Justice 

26 Leigh's critica sacra 

* 27 TulPs Husbandry 

28 Manley's Interpreter of Law Terms 

* 29 Bradys Introduction to Old Eng. History 

* 30 Hederici Lexicon graecum. 
♦31.32 Ainsworths Latin Dictionary 
♦33.40 Hume's History of England. 8 Vol. 
♦41.42 Essays 2 Vol: 

43 Mounteney's Demosthenes 3 Vol. 

♦44.46 Lelands, Demesthenes 3 Vol. 

♦47.48 Stanyans Grecian History 2 Vol. 

♦49.50 Kaim's Elements of Criticism 2 Vol. 

* 51 M^Laurin's Algebra 

* 52 Cunn's Euclid 

* 53 Smiths Student Vade mecum 

54 Vigerius de idiotismis graeca Dict y 

* 55 Ferguson's Astronomy 

* 56 Wards Mathematicks 

57 Poems 

58 Letters on Religion &c miscell: 
59.69W Sermons miscel. 

* 61 Coleman's [Colman] life &c miscel. 
62 Political Tracts miscel. 



1918.] THE BOWDOIN LIBRARY. 365 

63 Divinity Tracts mis. 

64 Sermons &c. mis. 

3 d Alt. 

* 1 London & Country Brewer 

* 2 Bolinbroke to Sir Will m Windham & Pope 
3 Letters on History 

* 4 [Burke] Enquirie into the sublime & beautiful 

* 5.10 Echards Roman History 5 Vol. 

*n.i2 Vertot's history of the Roman Revolution. 2 V. 

13 Revolutions of Portugal 

*i4.i5 Millers Gardiner's Dictionary 3 Vol. 

* 16 Bradley on planting & Gardning 

* 1 7.20 Fosters Sermons. 4 Vol. 

21.26 Quesnels new Testament 6 Vol. 

27 Bennetts Sermons 

28 [blank] 

* 29 Reads [Reid's] enquiry into the human mind 

* 30 Mallets life of Bacon 

* 31 Martins Optics 

* 32 Cramer on Metals 

33 The Geography of England 
♦34.38 La[o]ndon's Magazine 5 Vol. 

4 th Altr. 

1.2 The old Whig 

* 3.8 Clare[n]dons History of the Rebellion 6 Vol. 

* 9 Ashley on American Trade 

* 10 Barrier Treaty vindicated 

* n De Foes plan of Eng. Commerce 
12 Freethinking & Groans of Europe 

* 13 Trowell on Husbandry & Gardening 
*i4.i9 Ellis on Husbandry. 6 Vol. 
*2o.23 Modern Husbandman. 4 Vol. 
♦24.25 Turner's Art of Surgery. 2 Vol. 

26 Diseases of the Skin 

27 Strothers Essay on Sickness & Health 

* 28 Boyle's Experiments on Cold 

* 29 Deserta's [Descartes] Opera Philosophica 
30.31 Boileau's Works in Eng. 2 Vol. 

32 Pascals Thoughts on Religion 

* 33 Mayhews Sermons 

34 The true sentiments of America 

* 35 Wilds practical Surveyor 

* 36 a Letter on Trade 

3 7 Clarkes collection Papers which past between Leibnitz & him 

* 38 Clarkes Demonstration of Newtons principles 

* 39 Rays philosophical letters 



366 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

* 40 Vertots history of the Bretons 

* 41 Description of Stowe 

* 42 Westons shorthand — a manuscript 

* 43 [Andrew] Eliots Sermons 

5 th . Alt. 

1.9 Collection of Old Plays 9 Vol. 

10.14 Jewish Spy by Sargent 5 v 

15.22 Turkish Spy 8 v 

23.26 TheTatler 4 V 

27.28 Plutarchs Morals 2 v. 

♦29.30 Ventures [Voltaire's] Works 2 v 

♦31.32 Rowes Lucan 2 v 

33.34 North Britain [Briton] 2 v. 

35.38 Lady Montagues Letters 4 Vol 

♦39.48 Oeuvres d'Orace [Horace] par Dacier 10 v. 

6* Altr. 

♦ 1 Williams's British Angler 

♦ 2 Bradleys Country Housewife 
3 Hills Arithmetic 

♦ 4 Livii 5 libri priores 

5 Arrols nepos 

6 Horatri formata cuningh [Cuningamius.] 

7 Bath Guide 

8 Present State of polite Learning in Europe. 

9 Polite Lady 

10 Prince of Abisinia 

11 Woodwards Fair Warning 

* 12 Lord Bacons Essays 

13 Historia des Colonies Angloisses 

♦14.15 Voltaires Age of Lewis XV. 2 Vol 

16 Du Pouvoir des Souverains D r Barbeyrac 

♦17.19 Discours sur la Gouvernement de Sidney 3 v 

20 Defence de la nation Britannique 

• 21 Les Advantures de Telemaque 

22 Phaedri-Fabula 

23 Pomfrets Poems 

24 Cases of Divorce 

♦ 25 Dean's Essay on the future life of Brutes 

26 Lensden compendium graecum novi Testam. 

27 Novum Testament graecum 

28 Wallebii Compend. Theologia Christiana 

♦ 29 Rose's sallust with Cicero's 4 Orat: ag.* Cataline 
30.31 Smarts Orace 

32 Ovids Art of Love 

33 Maps of all the Counties in Eng d & Wales 



IQI8.] THE BOWDOIN LIBRARY. 367 

* 34 Bellamy's Sermons 

35 Hales Tracts 

36 Beveridges Thots on Religion 

37 Mori Enchiridion Ethicum 

* 38 Muratoris Relation of the Mission of Paraguay 
39.41 Miscellaneous Tracts 3 v. 

42 Dodwell on the Soul 

43 Salmons Family Dictionary 

* 44 Inquiry into K. Cha? 1 send 8 for Irish Rebells 
45 West & Littleton on the Res. & conv. of Sf. Pau 

* 46 Clarkes Justin 

* 47 Sallust 

* 48 Nepos 

* 49 Suetonius 

7* Alt. 

* 1 Hamilton's Observations on M* Vesuvius & Etna 

* 2 Bayleys Eng Dict y 

3 Ovidii de tristibus in usum Delph 

4 St. Augustines meditations 

* 5 Tacquet Elementa Geometriae 

* 6 Letter to two [great men] 

7 Tolands Defence of Milton's Life 

* 8 Colmans Sermons 

9 Life &c 

10 Poems 

11 Political Tracts 

12 Religious Controversy Mis. 

13 Petronius Arbiter 

14 Hammonds Review of N. Test 

15 Gardiners Life & other Tracts 

16 Poems 

17 Reepins Comparison of Thucydides & Livy 

* 18 Princes Chronology 

19, 20 Judicature of the House of Peers 2 v. 

21 Derhams Artificial Clockmaker 

22 Common Prayer Book 

23 Echards Terence 

24 Compleat Justice 

* 25 Lex Parliamentaria 

26 Hammond of Schism 

27 Le Sainte Bible 

28 Steels Christian Hero 

29 Blackmores Creation 

30.35 Shakespears Plays 6 V. not compleat 

36 Christian Oeconomy 

37 Burnets life of Earl of Rochester 

38 Pasquins comical Oration 



368 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

39 Grosvenor on Health 

40 L'Historia Romaine 

41 Moliere's Plays, fr. & Eng. 2? Vol. 

42 Memoirs de Pompadour i re Tom 

43 Croysincede lt . Eglise 

44 Fieldings Amelia 

* 45 Addisons Works 1 V. 

46 Swifts D? 5 th V. 

47 Dodsley's Collect, of Poems 4 th V. 

48 Harrisons Remarks relating to the Deluge 

* 49 Le Clares [Le Clerc's] Compend of Universal History 

50 Reflections of the Death of Freethinkers 

51 Fables of the Bees. 2 d Vol. 

by M r Southack 
Eliots Sermons 
Paradise Lost 2 Vol. 
Clarks Homer 
Yorricks Sermons 2 Vol. 

Sentimental Journal 2 Vol. 
Adventures Telemaque 
Herveys Meditations 
Shakespear illustrated 
Royal Callender 
Institutio Greecae Gramaticae 
Decin Quum Gevenalis 
Tristram Shandi 2 v. 
Crispii Sullustii 
Hoyleys Accurate Gamester 
Collection Plays 
Mogul Tales 
Drydens Satires 
Young Mans Companion 
Paraclete sive Enurpta 
Novum Jesu Christi Testamentum 
Dods reflections on Death 
Locks Essay on Human Understanding 
New Roman History ' 
Fordyce's Sermons to Young Women 
Mair's Art of Bookeeping 
Laws Devout Life 
Youngs Political Life 
Behns Plays 
The above is a Catalogue of Books left in the Library of James Bowdoin 
Esqre in the possession of Major Genl Burgoyne 

Boston Sept 9th 1775. 

Geo. Erving. 
Endorsed for filing "Catalogue of Part of my Books Sept. 9, I775-" 




JONATHAN RUSSELL 
FROM A MINIATURE BY DUMONT 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 369 

Mr. Ford communicated the following journal, from the 
original Ms. in the possession of Miss Mary Rivers, a grand- 
daughter of the writer. She very courteously gave permission 
to print, and aided in preparing the notes. Mr. Russell's 
writing is at times not clear, and it is only too evident that 
some of the names are incorrectly printed; but it has been 
found impossible to confirm every reference. 

Journal of Jonathan Russell, 1818-1819. 

OCTOBER 22, 1 8 18. Having made all our arrangements and 
despatched our forbud at seven o'clock last evening, we, this morn- 
ing, left Stockholm between seven and eight o'clock. As I was get- 
ting into the carriage a servant delivered me a package containing 
a note from His Excellency Count D'Engestrom, the Swedish 
Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1 and several letters from him recom- 
mending us to the attention of the Swedish agents and ministers at 
Stralsund, Berlin, Dresden, Vienna and Italy. 

We reached Fittja, the first stage, one and one-half miles from 
Stockholm without discovering any accident; but we had not pro- 
ceeded far from that place before we found the principal iron of 
the left forespring to be broken. This injury I believed to have 
taken place between Stockholm and Fittja and to have been occa- 
sioned by our driver, an Englishman named William Williams 
Phipps, having taken with him on the dicky a heavy peasant. We 
were detained in the middle of the road about an hour in woolding 
the spring, with a piece of tarred rope, with which we were for- 
tunately provided, and supporting it with a stanchion of wood. In 
this manner we proceeded to the second stage Sodertelje, 2 a dis- 
tance of two Swedish miles from Fittja. This Sodertelje is a paltry 
village although considered as a town from which extra-post money 
is exacted. Notwithstanding our detention on the road which oc- 
casioned our arrival at Sodertelje later than the time at which the 
horses had been ordered by the forbud, we were obliged to wait for 
them there nearly an hour, which made our arrival at Pilkrog, the 
next stage of a mile and half, more than an hour later than the time 
we had assigned. It is the regulation in Sweden that the traveller, 
if he causes the horses which he has ordered by his forbud to wait 
more than an hour, shall pay an extra sum. I was in consequence 

1 Laurent, Comte d'Engestrom (1751-1826) practically passed his life in the. 
service of his country, entering the Royal Chancelry in 1770. He became presi- 
dent of the Chancelry May 16, 1809, and retired in 1824. 

2 On Lake Malar, now a summer resort. 



370 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

obliged to pay about half a dollar banco at Pilkrog as well as 
Aby and Suardsbro the two next stages at which we also arrived too 
late. From Pilkrog to Aby and from Aby to Suardsbro is, each, 
two miles. We arrived at Nykoping about seven o'clock in the 
evening which, at this season of the year, is more than an hour into 
the night. The last stage from Suardsbro to Nykoping is two and 
one-half miles. We did not go to the post-house or tavern but to a 
private house where we were comfortable, but had to pay for the 
rooms and the eating separately. 

On the 23d we breakfasted and left Nykoping at eight a. m. 
We had not proceeded more than one Swedish mile before both the 
irons which support the dicky on the springs broke short. We were 
detained an hour in arranging the dicky with lashings and by a 
stake passed under it and resting on its steps. In this way we passed 
the several stages, Jader, Wreta, Krokek, Aby to Norrkoping. 
From Nykoping to Jader is one and three-fourths miles, from Jader 
to Wreta one and one-eighth, from Wreta to Krokek one and one- 
fourth, from Krokek to Aby one and one-half and from Aby to 
Norrkoping three-fourths. We found that we had all taken severe 
colds since leaving Stockholm and the child was quite ill. We de- 
cided to repair the iron work which had given way and immediately 
on arriving at Norrkoping we sent for a smith who immediately 
proceeded in the business. We found good quarters at Norrkoping 
in a private house and passed the night comfortably. 

24. We were detained at Norrkoping until half past two o'clock 
p. m. by the smith who could not complete his work until that time. 
We then resumed our journey and passing Brink to Kumla reached 
Linkoping at six o'clock without accident. We had taken our two 
portmanteau trunks from the carriage and sent them on with an 
extra horse by the forbud. From Norrkoping to Brink is one and 
one-fourth miles, and from Kumla to Linkoping is one and five- 
eights. At Linkoping we found at a private house very good quar- 
ters for the night. 

25. Left Linkoping at eight o'clock a. m., proceeded to Banke- 
berg one mile, thence to Mjolby one and seven-eights miles, thence 
to Dala three-fourths of a mile, and thence to Hested one and one- 
fourth miles without accident. On arriving at this last place we 
were surprised to find there our forbud who had been detained by 
the postmaster for three hours. The postmaster was gone to church, 
but William flogged the Holcar and denounced in the post-book, 
called the dag-bog, the misconduct of the master. We then pro- 
ceeded to Sathalla two miles and after waiting there one and one- 
half hours for horses, we proceeded to Berga one and three-fourths 
miles, where we suffered a like detention when we went to Eksjo 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 371 

one and three-fourths miles where we did not arrive until nine 
o'clock. We passed this night very indifferently at the post-house. 
Marcus, our forbud, did not get there until midnight. 

26. We left Eksjo at eight o'clock and went on without acci- 
dent one and one-half miles to Bransmala, thence one and three- 
eights to Hvetlanda, thence two miles to Stockatorp, and thence 
one and one-half miles to Nybbeled. Soon after leaving this last 
place the horses in going down a hill left the road towards a house 
situated at the right below, and in spite of the driver and perhaps, 
at last, of themselves, ran against a fence which stretched from the 
house to the road, beat down a length of it, over which three of the 
horses passed, but the fourth having fallen, the driver exerting all 
his strength, the fore wheels of the carriage fortunately brought us 
up against the prostrated fence and saved us from being turned 
over which would have been inevitable had we gone ten feet far- 
ther. Luckily no other injury was done than the destruction of a 
length of fence, and by taking off the horses and running the car- 
riage back by hand we were enabled to put it again in the right 
track and proceeded to Ashult which is one mile from Nybbeled. 
Here we found the forbud, who from the late hour at which he had 
arrived the night before at Eksjo, from the darkness and the hills, 
had been able to get no further. We waited at Ashult two hours 
for horses and thence proceeded one and one-half miles to Areda, 
where we were again detained more than two hours before we could 
obtain horses to go on to Wexio which is one and one-half miles 
from Areda. It was eleven o'clock before we arrived at Wexio and 
had to remain in the street nearly an hour before we could find 
lodgings and then had to put up with very dirty apartments at the 
post-house. It was one o'clock in the morning before we could get 
anything to eat and retire to bed. The gatekeeper of the town had 
besides stopt (stopped) our baggage on entering the town and we 
were obliged to send the driver after it who, from his own account, 
rescued it by force. 

27. As we had suffered so much the day before, and as the 
child appeared fatigued and ill, we resolved to pass this day at 
Wexio and restore our forces. After breakfast, therefore, we sought 
more comfortable apartments and removed to the house of the 
Landhamered — the Herr Lang, where we found ourselves much at 
our ease. We despatched the forbud at three o'clock. 

28. We breakfasted and left Wexio at seven a. m. and pro- 
ceeded to Nybled one and one-fourth miles, thence to Gotasa one 
and one-half, thence to Dio two and one-fourth, thence to Elmhult 
one, thence to Marklunda, two, thence to Broby one and three- 
fourths, thence to Bjarlof one and one-half and thence to Christian- 



372 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

stad one and one-eighth. We had left the province of Smoland and 
travelled this day in Scania. Christianstad is still a fortified town, 
although by no means so strong as formerly, as its strength has 
been materially impaired by the river Helge which formerly filled its 
trenches, having about twenty years since found another channel 
and left the trenches of Christianstad dry. At Christianstad we 
lived pretty comfortably at the house of a glove-maker. 

29. Left Christianstad at nine o'clock. Went to Lyngsjo one 
and one-fourth miles, thence to Degeberga one, thence to Brosarp 
one and one-half, thence to Tranas one and one-half, thence to 
Herrestad one and three-fourths, and thence to Ystad five-eighths. 
We arrived at this last town about sunset, and there, much to our 
satisfaction, terminated our travelling in Sweden. 1 We had found 
the roads generally very good from Stockholm and in better order 
than could have been expected from the lateness of the season. In 
passing through Sweden there are many fine natural landscapes, 
but very little cultivation to delight the traveller. Evergreens, 
rocks, hills and lakes are the only charms. From Linkoping to 
Wexio the country is very dreary. Besides the accidents already 
enumerated we left at Wexio the footman's straps of our carriage, 
and at Christianstad a night-shirt, and Marcus our forbud had been 
pitched over once and twice turned over, and the last time nearly 
demolished his wagon. In short we had a most fatiguing and un- 
pleasant journey. On arriving at Ystad the commandant imme- 
diately waited on us and informed us that in consequence of the 
orders which he had received there was a packet to take us to Stral- 
sund whenever we might be disposed to proceed thither. He also 
gave directions at the inn where we stopt for our accommodation. 
He also delivered to me a letter from Count D'Engestrom. 

30. We sent our carriage and trunks on board the packet this 
morning and the commandant sent a person to pass them at the 
post-house and to attend to the weighing of the trunks which were 
found to weigh twenty-five stone and eleven stone, and for weigh- 
ing which I paid thirty-two shillings banco. In the afternoon paid 
and discharged William, wrote Count D'Engestrom, Professor 
Afzelius and D. Erskine & Co. The wind being ahead for Stralsund 
we would not embark. 

31. The wind still ahead we remained at Ystad. The child 
hoarse with a cold and Mrs., R[ussell] much alarmed lest it might 
prove to be the croup, had two physicians, &c. 

November 1. A gale during the night from W. S. W. which still 

1 It is possible to follow the route taken by Mr. Russell station by station on 
the Generalstabens Karta bfver Svenge, the road being plainly marked. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 373 

continues and will prevent our embarking to-day. The two physi- 
cians again called but the child is much better. A Mr. Strom, a 
trader here who speaks English, has been very attentive to us at 
the request of the commandant and rendered us many little services. 

2. The wind still unfavorable but the weather more moderate. 
It is necessary for every traveller in Sweden to furnish himself 

with a set of travelling harness fitted to the little horses of the 
country and as such harness is useless elsewhere it is well to dispose 
of it on leaving the country. In no country, however, is there so 
little hospitality, I will not say generosity or kindness, for strangers, 
as in Sweden. 1 Every foreigner is there considered a lawful object 
of plunder and he may more safely rely on the liberality of a deal or 
down wrecker in a storm on a lee shore than on the compassion or 
justice of a Swede. That piratical spirit which distinguished the 
Scandinavians in former times, appears still to animate their de- 
scendants. Hence even in relation to the most trifling transaction 
the stranger is sure to be robbed. These observations have been 
suggested by the treatment I experienced in attempting to dispose 
of my Swedish travelling harness for four horses. On arriving ten 
months since at Helsingborg I purchased it for fifty banco dollars. 
It has been only to Stockholm and thence to this place and is very 
little injured by use, yet I have not been able to get anything what- 
ever for it here. I had another striking instance of this spirit at 
Stockholm. I had travelled thither in a French dormeuse com- 
pletely furnished with two backs on the top, a trunk behind, a cave 
at the bottom, a net over head, &c, and which had been valued at 
five hundred dollars banco, yet when I offered it for sale the highest 
offer made for it was sixty-six dollars of this money. When I had to 
pay for a trunk only for my barouche sixty dollars. 

3. We had entertained yesterday some hopes of a change of 
wind as the weather had considerably moderated but the wind rose 
again in the night and we found a strong gale this morning from the 
westward and a thick atmosphere. There is therefore no prospect 
of embarking to-day. About midnight we were awakened by a 
tremendous uproar in our inn which at first caused some alarm but 
we soon perceived that it was nothing more than the obstreperous 
conviviality of a supper party in the house. We learned this morn- 
ing that we were indebted for this disturbance to a Mr. Kansled, a 
corn trader from Stockholm, who was repaying in this way, and at 
once, all the hospitality he had received successively from the good 

1 Compare the opinion of John Quincy Adams in 1783: "Sweden is the coun- 
try in Europe which pleases me the most, that is, of those I have seen; because 
their manners resemble more those of my own country than any I have seen.'' 
Writings of John Quincy Adams (Ford), 1. 8. 



374 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

people with whom he had transacted his affairs at Ystad. If noise 
and intemperance had a value in the estimation of these people, 
they must have not only acknowledged payment in full from Mr. 
Kansled but carried a balance to his credit in a new account. 

The mode of travelling in Sweden is peculiar. There are post- 
houses indeed established throughout the country at certain dis- 
tances from each other, varying from half a Swedish mile to two 
miles and a half, but there are no horses regularly at these houses, 
either on account of individuals, as in England, or on account of 
government, as in France and elsewhere. The peasants of the sur- 
rounding country are obliged to bring to the post-house every 
evening at six o'clock a certain number of horses proportioned to 
the ordinary demand for horses by travellers at each station. If 
these horses are more than are called for during the next twenty- 
four hours, for those unused the peasant receives nothing, and as he 
remains at the station with his horse the time of both is conse- 
quently lost. If all the horses regularly ordered for the station be 
insufficient for the travellers of the day, the post-master will gen- 
erally order others for the special use of those who require them. I 
say generally, but the post-master at Farlun refused in August last 
to order any extra horses for my service and I was, on that account, 
obliged to prolong my residence at that place another day. So little 
dependence is placed by travellers on the horses ordinarily ordered 
by the post-master that they always, if they wish to get on without 
detention, send off a forbud or an avant-courier whose business it is 
to order horses at each station at the time assigned by his principal. 
For this purpose he is furnished with a forbud seddel, or avant- 
courier's bill, which answers for his pass and for an authority to the 
postmaster to furnish the number of horses at the time required. 

The Swedish mile is about six and two-thirds English and the 
traveller in making up his forbudseddel, generally allows an hour 
and a quarter for each mile, including the time necessary for chang- 
ing the horses. Sometimes the traveller sends on his own servant 
as forbud with his baggage, but frequently he trusts entirely to the 
peasant who always accompanies his own horse. I have tried both 
ways and I have found that the luggage is generally taken better 
care of by a servant and more diligence and speed secured than by 
a peasant. At every station the trunks are shifted from one cart 
to another and sometimes with violence by the peasants. To pre- 
vent this evil I now, in coming from Stockholm to Ystad, procured 
a wagon for the whole way and sent my servant, Marcus, as forbud. 
But although he travelled night and day and we in the daytime 
only, we overtook him several days before he had arrived at the 
last station. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 375 

Without a forbud the traveller may calculate on being detained 
at each station, on an average, two hours for horses. 

The horses though very small and very quick are remarkably 
surefooted, and I do not remember having seen one of them stumble, 
much less fall, by a misstep. The rate of posting in Sweden is low, 
and of course the establishment oppressive to the peasantry. From 
ordinary stations in the country the price for each horse per mile is 
twelve shillings banco which, at the present exchange, is equal to 
twelve cents American currency. From Stockholm for each horse 
per mile is, say, thirty-two shillings banco, from one or two other 
towns twenty-four shillings banco, and from all other towns, called 
cities, sixteen shillings banco. The average for a horse per mile is 
therefore a little more than fourteen shillings banco or rather more 
than two and one-fourth cents for an English mile. In England, 
the dearest country in Europe for posting, the usual price is one 
shilling six pence sterling for two horses, and in 181 2 I frequently 
paid two shillings to two shillings three pence, which is from seven- 
teen to twenty-five cents a horse nearly; or from seven to eleven 
fold more than in Sweden. In Sweden, however, the traveller must 
find his own carriage and harness unless he would ride in a little 
cart of about two feet wide and five long. He must also have six 
horses, in Sweden, including his forbud with his luggage, where 
four in England, and perhaps two, would be sufficient, and he must 
pay about two cents per mile for the care of the forbud. Besides, 
two peasants, generally, mount behind the carriage to conduct 
back their horses, which is a great nuisance. Add to all this a driver 
who must be hired for the whole way at an extra expense. I paid 
for the one who drove me from Stockholm to this place twenty 
dollars banco exclusive of his living on the road. 

The account then will stand thus — for 

6 horses 62^ miles no 

cart 2}/l 

extra waggon 5 

harness for four horses 35^ 

driver and feeding 80 



233 
Two hundred and thirty-three dollars banco for sixty-two and one- 
half Swedish miles for six horses is about thirty-one cents a horse 
for such a mile, or less than five cents per horse for an English mile, 
which, on an average, is only about a fourth of what a horse costs 
in England for the same distance, and would not be one-half, if 
every allowance be made for the difference of the number of horses 



37^ MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

required in these countries respectively. It will be observed that 
the greatest part of the expense in travelling in Sweden is not for 
the benefit of the peasant who furnishes the horses. From a coun- 
try station he goes, on an average, one and a half Swedish miles, 
with a horse, for eighteen cents and, whether in the night or not, 
it may be considered as a day lost for both. This establishment 
so injurious to agriculture, is persevered in for the accommoda- 
tion of the aristocracy who generally spend the winter at the capital 
and the summer at their country seats, and have no other mode 
than the posting in question for the transportation of themselves 
and families. 

Our detention at Ystad is the more unpleasant as it is a little 
dirty place, containing about two thousand inhabitants and not a 
single object, ancient or modern, worth the attention of the traveller. 
Besides, the inn, like most Swedish inns, is dirty and uncomfortable. 

4. This morning is quite calm which inspires a hope that we 
may be able to embark this evening, for it is in the evening that the 
packets leave Ystad for Stralsund. The reason of this arrangement 
is the conveniency, after passing the open sea during the night, to 
be able to make the Island of Riigen, which is about twelve Swedish 
miles distant, early in the morning, and to have the whole day to 
run through the narrow and shoal waters which lie between that 
island and the main up to Stralsund. Paid this morning the two 
physicians of Ystad 5 dollars banco each. I passed last evening and 
this morning in reading a treatise of Abbe Raynal on the revolution 
of America and published while the war continued between the 
colonies and the mother country. I was equally surprised by his 
correct knowledge of the facts and principles on which that revolu- 
tion was founded, and by his ignorance of its consequences. While 
he appeared fully to understand and to approve the conduct of the 
Americans, he had adopted so unfavorable an opinion of their soil, 
climate and resources as boldly to predict that their population 
could never exceed ten millions, and even to arrive at this number 
they would be obliged to consume all their produce, leaving nothing 
for exportation and limiting themselves to a frugal subsistence. 
How astonished would that good man now be could he now behold 
us in less than forty years from the time [he] wrote, individually 
and personally richer than most of the nations of Europe, and with 
a population already pressing hard on the limit which [he] assigned 
to us, and still augmenting in a ratio unparalleled in ancient and 
modern times, without exhausting or even keeping pace with our 
means of subsistence, as the surplus of our produce continually 
increases the amount of our exportation. 

The boldness of the beggars at Ystad is beyond what I have 



I9i8>] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 377 

ever witnessed elsewhere. They are not contented with accosting 
a stranger in the street, besieging the door and waiting in the pas- 
sage, but unceremoniously enter his apartments. 

The captain of the packet came at five o'clock p. m. to announce 
his intention of sailing at six in the evening and we made our ar- 
rangements accordingly. At half past five he called again to tell 
us that the wind had drawn ahead and that he should not go. 

5. We were again summoned on board at half past three p. m. 
and went accordingly, but the wind continuing unfair and blowing 
very fresh, the captain declined sailing. Wishing however, to avoid 
the trouble of moving back and forth from the inn to the vessel and 
from the vessel to the inn, we determined to remain on board. 

6. We still continued on board this day and about four p. m. 
the captain having warped his vessel out, got under sail. The wind 
was still fresh and so unfair that we could not keep within two 
points of our course. The beginning of the night was very rough 
and we were all, including the infant, very seasick. A little after 
midnight, having got under the lea of Riigen and Pomerania, it 
became smoother and we slept more quietly. 

7. Went on deck early and saw Riigen and the coast of Pome- 
rania and Riigen, but these at a considerable distance, and the 
wind being still unfavorable we beat all day and was not fairly up 
with the north end of Riigen until sunset. The wind moderated 
very much and we quietly plied up the bay during the night, with- 
out making much progress. 

8. Found ourselves in the morning passed the island of Riigen 
and in the shoal and narrow waters. It is only small vessels bound 
to or from Stralsund that navigate inside of the Island of Riigen in 
these waters. There was on board our packet a graduated pole for 
sounding, and in one place we passed, we found only six and one- 
fourth [feet] of water, while our vessel drew 6 feet, so there was 
only one-fourth of a foot to spare. Although there is no tide in the 
Baltic, the depth of water in firths and bays varies much and there 
are often considerable currents, all of which depend on the char- 
acter and strength of the winds. In the passage of which I am now 
speaking there are sometimes ten and sometimes not four feet of 
water, and the current sometimes out and sometimes in. We found 
it against us. The captain landed at [a] point about seven English 
miles from Stralsund with the mail about nine o'clock, and we were 
all day plying with light airs of wind or warping in a calm towards 
Stralsund. We found the channel very crooked and sometimes very 
narrow, but marked with stakes in its whole course. At length we 
anchored close off the pier at Stralsund at nine o'clock in the evening. 

9. To avoid the disagrement of going ashore in the night and 



378 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

looking for an inn we had remained on board. We found the vessel 
fast to the pier this morning and we went on shore about eight 
o'clock. We stopt at the Hotel of the Golden Eagle. Mr. Lun- 
blad, the Swedish agent for the port at Stralsund, to whom Count 
D'Engestrom had given me a letter, we found to be absent; but 
his locum-tenens was very civil and rendered us all the services of 
which we stood in need. We spent the day in making our arrange- 
ments for getting on. We discharged our waiting-maid, Christiana, 
as we found her not only to be useless, being lazy and impertinent, 
but extravagant, forward with male society, and of equivocal in- 
tegrity. We paid her in full up to the end of this month, and for 
her passport I gave her fifty dollars banco extra to take her back to 
Stockholm. There is much history belonging to Stralsund but little 
there now worth seeing. The town-house is a fine old Gothic 
building. 

10. We breakfasted and left Stralsund at ten o'clock. We 
passed a poor country and very bad road to Loitz, a distance of 
five German miles. At Loitz we passed the night in rather an in- 
different inn and very small rooms. Ida's birthday. 

ii. We breakfasted and left Loitz at seven thirty A. m., changed 
at Treptow at three thirty, a distance of [ ] and reached 

Neubrandenburg, Mecklenburg, at six o'clock, where we found a 
very good inn and passed the night. The roads were better this 
day than yesterday and the country better cultivated. We had 
travelled in all this day [ ] miles of German. 

12. Left Neubrandenburg at seven thirty, after breakfast, 
changed at Strelitz at one thirty p. m., at Furstenberg at four and 
reached Gransee at seven. It was a clear moonshine and very cold. 
We found a spacious inn at Gransee and everything in abundance 
but in a worse style. We had travelled this day [ ] German 
miles. The last stage they gave us six horses making us pay for 
five. We have been obliged to take five at Stralsund and to pay 
for that number the whole way. With the six horses we had two 
postilions and both required drink-money but I paid only one. 

13. We breakfasted and left Gransee at seven thirty — changed 
at Oranienburg at one — four miles — saw here a large chateau 
turned into a manufactory — sandy road — changed at Sandberg 
at four o'clock, [ ] miles, reached Berlin at six o'clock 
and stopped at the Hotel de Russie under the Lindens. About the 
last mile of the road was turn-piked, but the country barren. 

14. Called on my Bankers Freres Bonche; on the French Min- 
ister, Marquis de Bonnay; * on the Swedish Minister, Baron de 

1 Francois, Marquis de Bonnay (1750-1825). 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 379 

Taube; on the Portuguese Minister, Baron Lobo; * on [the] Russian 
charge d'affairs, Mons. Craftz. 2 The Marquis de Bonnay called in 
the evening with his lady. The remainder of the evening spent in 
reading. 

15. Baron Taube sent his cards with ours to various persons. 
Called on Count Lobo, the Portuguese Minister, and was very 
cordially received. Calls from Baron Taube, [ ]. Spent 
the evening with Mrs. and Miss Russell at the Marquis of Bon- 
nay's. Saw there the old Countess Gallitzin, who at the age of 
eighty-six retained her gaiety and made her party at Boston regu- 
larly every evening. She inquired particularly after J. Q. A. and 
said she had been well acquainted with him. Saw there also the 
ladies of the Austrian and Russian Ministers and Mr. Rose, 3 the 
English Minister, who was particularly polite. 

16. (Monday). Went in the morning to Charlottenburg and 
saw there the superb mausoleum of the late queen 4 executed by 
Rauch, 5 who had formerly been her page. Dined at Count Lobo's 
and passed the evening at a ball at the English Minister's. 

17. Went in the morning to visit the great palace built by the 
great Duke of Brandenburg 6 — the apartments quite magnificent, 
but the furniture rather decayed. Some fine pictures in the great 
gallery, in the centre of which in the most conspicuous exposition, 
is an equestrian picture of Bonaparte passing the Mount St. Gothard. 
Had to pay a Frederick d'or. We also saw a very curious clock 
which had been plundered at Paris. 

18. Baron de Taube called on us this morning to accompany 
us to the manufactory of porcelain. The overseer attended us 
through all the different apartments and caused the various work- 
men to exhibit their skill, from the kneading the paste to the last 
polish of the gilding. Showed us also a superb service intended for 
the Duke of Wellington, descriptive of the various battles in which 
he had been distinguished. Dined with Mr. Rose, the English 
Minister, and then, as the Baron de Taube had presented us with 
tickets, we went to the opera. The music very good, the dancing 
very indifferent, the overture very fine. Music by Gluck — piece 
"Alceste." 

19. At nine o'clock received a note fro N m Sir William Ingilby 
saying that the Prince Marshall Blucher 7 would receive. We did 

1 Comte Lobo de Sylveira. 2 M. d'Alopeus was the Ambassador. 

3 Sir George Henry Rose (1771-1855). Diet. Nat. Biography, xlix. 231. 

4 Louisa of Prussia (1776-1810). 

8 Christian Daniel Rauch (1777-1857). 

6 Frederick William (1620-1688). 

7 Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher (1742-1819). 



380 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

not fail to go at the hour appointed. The old Marshall received us 
with great courtesy and took me by the hand, ordered the servant 
to bring a portrait of Washington which had been presented to him 
by Sheridan. 1 Presented to us his daughter-in-law, a very pretty 
woman, who took us into a large saloon, round which were hung 
the portraits of all the sisters of Napoleon, 2 painted by David and 
which the old Marshall had plundered at Paris. In learning that 
I came from Stockholm, he very frankly declared that he had not 
been satisfied with the conduct of Bernadotte, either at Leipsic or 
afterwards. Said the battle of Leipsic had been fought by his ad- 
vice in opposition to that of Bernadotte, who was not for fighting. 
Dined with the Baron de Taube, with several foreign ministers, and 
the Prussian Ministers of Interior and Finance, and several dis- 
tinguished Prussian Generals, among whom was Gneisenau, 3 the 
real hero of Prussia. Spent the evening at Lobo's with a very large 
party. Had a great deal of conversation with Rose, who spoke 
very unfavorably of the situation of Prussia. The spirit and the 
number of the advocates of revolution are increasing and becoming 
formidable to the existing order of things. These revolutionists 
distinguished themselves by wearing their hair straight, in imita- 
tion of the ancient Germans. They generally parade the streets 
with canes, sometimes with swords, and duels are frequent. The 
British government are urging claims on that of Prussia for seizures 
of English merchandise at Konigsberg and elsewhere, under the 
continental system, but contrary, as it is said, to an understanding 
between the two governments. Mr. Rose mentioned the instance 
of a Jew who was agent of some of the British merchants, and pre- 
tended that the goods entrusted to him had been burned under that 
system, when it had been proved that this person had sent to the 
bonfire packages made up to resemble the real ones, but containing 
nothing of value, and had kept the true merchandise and converted 
it to his own use. Mr. Rose also mentioned a disgraceful specula- 
tion of the Swedish government. Prussia refused to pay for Pom- 
erania except Sweden would pay that part of the Saxon debt which 
belonged to the Saxon territory ceded in 1814. Much negotiation 
took place and General Capps, the aid-de-camp of Bernadotte and 
a Jew named Dehn, finally agreed to pay fifty-five per cent of that 
debt instead of one-third. The publication of this agreement was 

1 Thomas Sheridan (1775-1817), son of Richard Brinsley Sheridan. 

2 Marie- Anne-Elisa Bonaparte (1 777-1820), married Captain Felix Bao 
ciochi; Marie-Pauline Bonaparte (1780-1825), married (1) General Leclerc and 
(2) Camillo Borghese; Caroline-Marie-Annonciade Bonaparte (1782-1839), mar- 
ried Joachim Murat. 

3 August Neidhardt, Comte de Gneisenau (1 760-1831). 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 381 

not to be made public for seven or eight days, in which period the 
Jew went into the market and purchased the whole debt at thirty 
per cent, and it is supposed on joint account of Bernadotte & Co. 
It seems also that this Jew and Bernadotte have been interested in 
another common concern and that the Countess of Pappenheim, 
the daughter of Prince Hardenberg, * has been the mistress of them 
both. Rose says that the population of all the Prussian domains 
does not exceed ten millions, the whole at present military. 

20. Engaged in the morning in packing. Received a visit from 
Taube and Rose. The latter brought me a letter of introduction 
to the first Equerry of the King at Potsdam. At two o'clock p. m. 
we left Berlin. We were allowed to take four horses only. The dis- 
tance from Berlin to Potsdam is four miles, the postage for the whole 
of which is paid at Berlin before the traveller departs, although he 
changes horses half way at Zehlendorf. We reached Potsdam at 
five thirty and stopt at the Hotel de Prussie, a very indifferent inn. 
We were followed from the gate of the city by a soldier who was 
joined at the inn by a custom-house officer. The latter objected to 
our taking our luggage into the house before he had examined it. 
To this I did not submit, and as he could speak neither French or 
English, nor I German, a very amusing scene took place between us, 
which was only terminated by the arrival of a valet de place, who, 
having explained who I was, the man of the customs appeared 
satisfied that I was not a smuggler and tranquilly retired. 

21. I delivered this morning my letter from Mr. Rose to the 
first Equerry, or rather I left it with his servant as he was not at 
home. About ten o'clock we went in a voiture de remise to Sans 
Souci and visited first the gallery of paintings which, although not 
very large, contains a very choice collection. The head of Christ 
painted on gold, by Raphael, is unequalled. We next visited the 
old palace of Sans Souci. In passing to which, from the gallery, we 
saw the tombs where thirteen of the dogs of the great Frederick 
were interred by him. The old palace of Sans Souci is not large, but 
as it was the favorite residence of the great Frederick during the 
summer, it is very interesting, particularly as the same furniture 
remains unchanged and they show the tables on which he wrote, 
still stained with his ink. The room which Voltaire occupied also 
remains as he left it. The view from the front of the palace is very 
delightful. We next went to the new palace of Sans Souci. It is a 
very spacious building and has very handsome out-houses for the 
domestics, on the opposite side of the court. The chief material of 
all is brick. We contented ourselves with an outside view of this 

1 Karl August von Hardenberg (1750-182 2). 



382 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

palace; as the least sight of the interior would have cost us three 
or four Prussian dollars or two or three Spanish dollars. The ex- 
actions from strangers in this country for the exhibitions of its 
works of art are exorbitant and inhospitable. We returned to 
Potsdam and went to the church to see the tomb of the great Fred- 
erick. It is very simple and the coffin which contains his remains is 
plain and of bronze. It is placed by the side of a marble coffin 
which encloses the mortal part of his father. From the palace we 
went to the palace of Potsdam. There has been no change of the 
furniture of the apartments which the great Frederick occupied. 
The table on which he signed his orders after dinner is still covered 
with the dripping of the wax candles, and the satin covering of a 
sofa still retains the impression of the greasy plates in which he fed 
his dogs. It was evident from all we saw that he must have been a 
great sloven as well as a great man. There was a small room in 
which he dined with his confidants, and in order to exclude the ser- 
vants he had a table contrived so as to dispense with their attend- 
ance. This table was round and an interior circle of it lowered to 
the apartment below by machinery, on which was sent away the 
dirty dishes and on which was raised whatever might be wanting 
to replace them. The outward periphery of the table of about a 
foot wide, on the top, remained stationary. In the evening the first 
Equerry, for whom I had left the letter in the morning, made us a 
visit. We found him very affable and entertaining. He remem- 
bered well the great Frederick, said that he had often seen him re- 
view his troops and that there was something so commanding in 
his regard that whenever he turned his eye the populace shrunk 
back with awe and left the space clear. He appeared to regret the 
change which had taken place during the last twenty years in the 
manners of the inhabitants of Berlin. He said that the wealth of 
the capital had, during that period passed from the nobility to Jews 
and merchants, and that, excepting among the foreign ministers, 
there was little society and no hospitality at Berlin. The ladies had 
become more severe in their manners, but infinitely less amiable. 
Indeed Rose has told me that twenty years since, in a society of 
thirty ladies, it would have been difficult to have found one that had 
not some intrigue to boast of, and that now it was as difficult among 
the same number to find a gallant woman. 

22. Left Potsdam, after breakfast, at half past seven. Changed 
horses at Beelitz, two and three-fourths miles, at ten fifteen, at 
Treuenbrietzen, two and one-fourth miles at one thirty. Here the 
chaussee ended. And reached Juterbog at four o'clock, being two 
miles bad road. The inn we stopt at was clean and cheap but very 
indifferent. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 383 

23. Left Juterbog at seven thirty. Changed horses at Anna- 
burg, three and one-half miles, at one o'clock, and reached Coss- 
dorf at seven thirty, likewise three and one-half miles. The last 
two hours were very dark and the road most infamous. Indeed, a 
German traveller has observed that the roads, which we had passed 
this day, had not been repaired since the creation of the world. 
They are certainly the mere trails which the carriages have ploughed 
through the sands, one trail being left where the sand had become 
too deep, for another, and we often turned, at some hazard, from 
them all to seek through the adjacent fields a firmer soil. The inn 
at Cossdorf was the post-house and a wretched inn it was. There 
was no covering to the beds but beds, and no meat of any kind. We 
supped as well as we could on coffee, bread, butter and an 
omelette. 

24. Left Cossdorf at seven fifteen after having breakfasted on 
bread, butter and coffee, for we could not this morning procure even 
an omelette. The road continued very bad until we reached Gros- 
senhain, a distance of three German miles. After being detained 
an hour for horses, we left Grossenhain at one o'clock and reached 
Dresden, four miles turnpiked, at five o'clock [p. m.] At Dresden 
we stopt at the Hotel de Vienna, where we found comfortable apart- 
ments and a good supper. After we had left Cossdorf, this morning 
about three hours, Amelia found that her three rings were not on 
her finger. She had taken them off to wash her hands and had left 
them at the inn! Found at the Hotel de Vienna Mr. Prandell, a 
Russian Colonel whom I had known at Paris, and who was so de- 
lighted to hear I was under the same roof with him that he made me 
leave my bed to give him an interview. 

25. Procured a voiture de remise and went about eleven o'clock 
to deliver my letters to the Baron de Bildt, the Swedish envoy; 
Latour-Maubourg 1 and the Marquis de Pombal, 2 the French and 
Austrian Ministers, and to my bankers Messrs. Bessenge & Co. 
Was very politely received by them all. Found, however, the 
Swedish envoy in his bed with the gout in his stomach and quite 
unable to render me any service; he insisted, however, in making 
me known to a celebrated Savan, Mr. Bottiger. 3 In the evening I 
went with the ladies to the opera to see L'engano felice, in Italian. 

1 Just-Pons-Florimond de Fay, Marquis de Latour-Maubourg (1 781-183 7), 
grandson of the Marquis de Lafayette. 

2 The Almanack de Gotha, 1818, gives Comte de Dillon as the French am- 
bassador and Comte de Bombelles as the Austrian minister at the court of 
Saxony. It was Louis-Philippe, Comte de Bombelles (1 780-1843). 

3 Karl August Bottiger (1 760-1835), inspector of the Museum of An- 
tiquities. 



384 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

The whole royal family of Saxony were present. 1 We found the 
music good, the acting and singing very indifferent. A boy, ap- 
parently not more than thirteen years old, performed remarkably 
well on the French horn. 

26. This morning we went to see the Royal Gallery of pictures, 
said to contain twelve thousand. It is very rich in works of great 
masters, particularly early Italian. The "Night" of Correggio, 
the "Ascension" of Raphael, and a "Venus" by Titian, held con- 
spicuous places. There were many by Raphael Mengs, the great 
Saxon painter. After our return we had a call from the French 
and Austrian Ministers. We spent the evening at the house of the 
former. We met there the Prussian Minister 2 and the English 
Minister Morier, 3 his wife and brother, 4 * who is an officer in the 
navy; also the celebrated Frederick North, now Lord Guilford. 5 

27. Went this morning to see the Royal treasure, or Das Grime 
Gewolbe. We met at the door Lord Guilford, who had just seen it. 
We found in the treasure, which had been collected by the old 
electors, chiefly by Augustus the First and Second, 6 many rich and 
rare curiosities in ivory, marble, mosaic, silver, brass, bronze, gold, 
precious stones and pearls. In some of the last of uncommon size 
there were many whimsical figures. There was an immense onyx, 
said to be the largest ever found, a brilliant of the weight of one 
hundred and twenty-three grains and a diamond of great lustre but 
of a bluish colour, of one hundred and sixty grains and which is 
unique of its kind. There was also a present of very curious work- 
manship from the Grand Mogul. 

Mr. Bottiger had called on us this morning and made an ar- 
rangement to receive us at noon at the Japanese palace, but leav- 
ing the Royal treasure we found our coachman so drunk that we 
were obliged to proceed on foot and arrived too late. We then 
spent the rest of the morning in shopping. We passed the evening 
at Latour-Maubourg's and found his lady handsome and agreeable. 
Latour is a true constitutionalist. Saw also an interesting French- 
man, the Count de S[olano]. 7 

28. We visited this morning the Japanese palace. We first saw 

1 Frederick Augustus III (1 750-1827) was the king of Saxony. 

2 Baron d'Oelsen. 

3 John Philip Morier (1 776-1853). He married Horatia Maria Frances, eldest 
daughter of Lord Hugh Seymour. 

4 William Morier (1700-1864). 

1 Frederick North, fifth Earl of Guilford (1766-1827). 

8 (1670-1733) and (1696-1763), known as Augustus II and III, kings of the 
Poles. 

7 This may have been the Portuguese physician and diplomat, Francisco- 
Constancio Solano (17 7 7-1 846). 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 385 

the rooms, eighteen in number, containing the collection of porce- 
lain, the greatest from China and Japan, fanciful specimens of the 
Saxon porcelain from the manufacture of Meissen, 1 about five 
English miles from Dresden, vases, dinner and breakfast services, 
statues, birds, beasts, etc., all the known antiques in biscuit. The 
next room we saw was the Salon de Plumes, the hangings and the 
covering of the State bed of Augustus the Second, being beautifully 
wrought with feathers. We next went into the halls containing the 
Statues, which are very spacious. The statues generally had been 
very much mutilated and clumsily repaired by modern artists. 
There were, however, three choice statues, nearly entire. They were 
the first that were found on sinking a well at Herculaneum, after- 
wards purchased by the famous Prince Eugene, and for some time 
decorated the halls of his palace at Vienna and thence found their 
way to Dresden. The Royal Library is in the Japanese palace, 
and contains more than 300,000 volumes and 3,000 manuscripts. 
After leaving the Japanese palace I took a walk on the Prater and 
enjoyed the fine view of the environs of Dresden. At four o'clock 
we all went to dine with the Austrian Minister; met there Count 
Moliere, etc. At half past six we returned to our inn and soon after 
had a visit from the celebrated Savan Bottiger. He stayed with us 
about an hour and a half and was very amusing. He told us of the 
publication at Leipsic, called "America painted by herself," 2 and 
which is made up of impartial extracts from the newspapers, pam- 
phlets, etc., of the United States, and has an extensive influence on 
the opinion of Germany. It is evident that the Saxons regret the 
downfall of Bonaparte not only on account of their consequent loss 
of territory, but even for the termination of the continental system 
which was very favorable to their manufactures, which now are 
very much injured by those of Great Britain. There is an increas- 
ing and already a very general dislike of the English in Germany, 
particularly in Saxony. Mr. B[6ttiger] said the eyes of all were 
turned to the United States as the only power which could one day 
counteract the commercial policy of that monopolizing people. 
He expressed an unqualified wish for the emancipation of South 
America, and assured me that this sentiment was very general in 
Germany. He hoped that the United States might aid in the ac- 
complishment of that great work. When I intimated that our 
wishes had the same direction but that we fear a direct interference 
on our part might not only draw on us the hostilities of Spain, but 

1 The manufacture of porcelain at Meissen was due to the discovery by 
Johann Friedrich Bottger. 

2 Amerika dargestellt dutch sich selbst, eine Zeitschrift herausgegeben von Georg 
Joachim Gbschen. Leipzig, 1818-1820. 



386 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

what we more dreaded, the enmity of the great continental powers 
of Europe, particularly Russia, he scouted the idea. He declared 
that Russia was now friendly to the Spanish colonies and would 
willingly see them liberated. That the late change of ministry in 
Spain was effected by the influence of England and against the in- 
tents of Russia, which Pizarro was known particularly to favor. 
That it was the Emperor Alexander, who, at the late Congress of 
Vienna, prevented the interference of the other monarchs in favor 
of Spain, and that Spain was in consequence very angry. Russia 
he said was taking the place of Napoleon, and her great object to 
set limits to the power of England. In fact he confirmed us in the 
opinion that the English are not in favor here. The Saxons lost, 
by the Congress of Vienna, three-fifths of their territory, and what 
renders the loss more sensible the part which remains has not salt 
and wood sufficient for the consumption of its inhabitants, and there 
is even a scarcity of bread-stuffs. The King submits with patience 
to his disgrace, but the old Queen * is very indignant and will not 
even speak to the Prussian Minister accredited to the Court. 

29. We went this morning to the Roman Catholic Church and 
saw the Royal family during the service. To have a better view of 
them we waited their return to the palace, in the corridor. The 
King and the Queen had the curiosity after passing us to turn twice 
to look at us. We returned to our inn and warmed ourselves. We 
then took a ride to the seat of the late Lord Findlater. It is a beau- 
tiful place on the north side of the Elbe, and the bank that slopes 
from the house to the river is covered with vineyards. From the 
top of the bank we had a fine view of the whole valley in which 
Dresden is situated, and the surrounding hills. Higher up the 
river we saw the palace of Pillnitz, at which the famous treaty of 
that name is said to have been negotiated. 2 Across the river the 
spot was pointed out where Moreau 3 fell. There can be nothing 
more delightful than the environs of Dresden. We spent the even- 
ing until eleven o'clock at a ball given by the Prussian Minister at 
his hotel. 

30. We rose early and prepared for our departure. At about 
half past seven the Russian Prince Constantine 4 alighted at our 
hotel. His appearance did justice to all we had heard of him. After 

1 Maria Amelia, daughter of Duke Frederick of Zweibriicken. 

2 1 79 1, between the Emperor Leopold II and Frederick William II, King of 
Prussia, being the first coalition against France. 

3 Jean Victor Marie Moreau (1763-1813). 

4 Pavlowitch Constantin (17 79-1 831), m. Anne Feodorowne, daughter of the 
Duke of Saxe-Saalfeld-Cobourg, but divorced her and took for a second wife 
Jeanne Grudzinska, a Pole. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 387 

having breakfast we took leave of Dresden at ten o'clock. The 
road to Tetschen, the first station, runs along the left bank of the 
Elbe and in summer must be very pleasant. We found it now very 
muddy and much cut up, and although chaussee we were three 
hours in making two miles. From Tetschen to Peterswald, 1 the 
next station, is also two miles and the road very bad and had no 
appearance of being turnpiked. About half a mile before we ar- 
rived at the post-house we passed the frontier of Bohemia, but were 
stopt only a few minutes at the barrier and our baggage was not 
searched. The officer contented himself with endorsing our pass- 
port. On arriving at the post-house we went in and sought for 
apartments, but the first door we opened communicated with a 
stable where the cattle were enjoying their supper. We then turned 
and mounted a staircase on the top of which we encountered a 
maid servant who conducted us to a small cold room without fire 
or any stove or chimney to make one. The servant said it was the 
only room that remained unoccupied. I remonstrated and re- 
quested to see the master of the house and was shown into a com- 
fortable apartment where the postmaster was enjoying his game of 
cards. He appeared to be annoyed by the interruption and de- 
manded roughly what I wanted. I replied I wished him to have the 
goodness, as he understood French, to explain for me. He then 
demanded what there was to explain. I remarked that the night 
was very cold and they had shown us into a room which could not 
be warmed. He answered that it was the only room we could have 
and we must take it or none. I then addressed his compassion by 
stating that we were Americans and of course from a great distance, 
that I had with me women and an infant and that it was impossi- 
ble to pass the night in the room which had been shown to us. At 
this moment Mrs. Russell with the child in her arms made her ap- 
pearance. At this speech and this spectacle the mighty man ap- 
peared to lose some of his rigidity and exclaimed in softer tones: 
"There are women and children and something must be done. ,, 
He immediately went out and after a few minutes returned and 
informed us that another room, where there was a fire, was at our 
disposition. We repaired to it and finding there only two beds 
stated the necessity of a third for Amelia. He then very politely 
offered his own office where there was a bed and a fire, and we 
passed the night very comfortably. It was five o'clock and already 
dark before we reached this place and had made only four miles 
during the day. 

December 1. We found ourselves this morning to be on very 

1 The present Konigswalde. 



388 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

high ground. The air was very keen and the fog froze as it came in 
contact with any object and covered it with hoar-frost. We break- 
fasted and left Peterswald at seven thirty. We still ascended for 
more than half an hour, when, having attained the height of land, 
we began to descend and at length reached the valley at Unter- 
abesau where we changed horses at half past ten o'clock. Close by 
the post-house is a monument erected to commemorate a victory 
gained by the Prussians over the French in 1813. The fog as we 
descended had become less dense and the weather less cold. We 
reached Teplitz at half past twelve. This place is very celebrated 
for its baths and is crowded during the proper season with those 
who have faith in the virtues of its waters. We changed horses at 
Teplitz and reached Mireschowitz at half past three where we also 
changed horses and proceeded to Laun which we reached at five 
and stopt for the night. We found there tolerable quarters and rea- 
sonable charges. We had made this day eight German miles and 
found the road better than yesterday, although the frost had made 
the chaussee rough. 

2. We breakfasted and left Laun at half past seven. We changed 
at Tainitzl * at ten, at Schlan at twelve thirty, at Strzedokluk at 
two thirty and reached Prague at four. Prague, so celebrated, we 
found to be still a strongly fortified city and is divided into the 
upper and lower towns and the postilion locked our wheels in de- 
scending from the former to the latter. The inn where we stopt, 
though spacious, was dirty and it was with difficulty that we could 
obtain two bed-chambers or two sheets to a bed. We had to pay, 
however, about fifty per cent more than the two preceding nights. 
We had performed this day eight German miles. 

3. Haying first breakfasted as usual, we left Prague at half past 
seven; changed horses at Bechowitz at nine thirty; at Bohmisch- 
Brod, where the Baron de Grimm located his prophet, at eleven 
thirty; at Planian at two; at Kolin at four, and reached Czaslau at 
six. Between Planian and Kolin is the ground where a famous 
battle was fought during the Seven Years' War and where Frederick 
commanded in person. 

4. As usual breakfasted and left Czaslau at half past seven; 
had not proceeded more than fifty rods before we found our trunks 
behind to be loose and on examination discovered that one of the 
straps that bound them had been stolen at Czaslau. We secured 
the trunks as well as we could with a rope and changed horses at 
Jenikau at nine thirty, at Steinsdorf at eleven thirty, at Deutsch- 
brpd at one thirty, at Stocken at three thirty and reached Iglau at 

1 Jungfrau Teinitz? 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 389 

five thirty. Found here a tolerable inn. Was sorry to learn that 
Marcus, who had lost one of his listed boots, between Peterswald 
and Unterabesau, had this day frozen his feet. 

5. We had risen at six o'clock this morning, had breakfasted 
and were as usual ready to depart at half past seven, when Marcus 
came to inform us that the spring which had been mended in Sweden 
and at Berlin had again broken. We sent for a smith and were de- 
tained until half past ten. We then set off; changed at Stannern 
at twelve thirty, at Schelletau at three thirty, at Budwitz at five 
fourteen. Here I lent Marcus my listed boots. Changed at Frey- 
nersdorf at seven and reached Znaim at eight forty-five. We found 
a spacious, but miserably cold inn and it was with great difficulty 
that we obtained two sleeping rooms and two sheets for our beds 
and we were obliged to take up with checked sheets, in part, in- 
stead of white ones, and after all we were by no means satisfied that 
they were clean. Since leaving Stralsund we had no where found 
blankets and coverlids but generally a feather bed for covering, 
but often obtain in lieu of it a deckan, which is a quilt with down 
or feathers. At Znaim, however, and a few other places, we were 
obliged to lie between two feather beds and the upper one was so 
narrow that in drawing up the legs, the knees, or the back, found 
the way out. Since leaving Dresden we had found all the stages to 
be regularly two miles. We had, of course, made this day ten 
miles. 

6. We found our bill this morning, notwithstanding our wretched 
fare and accommodations, to be more than double of what we had 
before paid, even after obtaining, on strong remonstrance, a diminu- 
tion of six florins. W,e set off at seven thirty, changed at Jetzelsdorf 
at ten and reached Hollabrunn at twelve thirty. We here discov- 
ered that one of our springs behind had cracked and we were de- 
tained an hour to have an iron band put over it. The roads on ac- 
count of the frost were very rough, particularly where we were 
obliged to turn out of the worn trail which was often for waggons 
and carriages. We left Hollabrunn at one thirty and reached 
Mallebern at three-thirty, where we were obliged again to employ 
a smith to replace a screw which had broken in one of the fore- 
springs. We reached Stockerau however at five o'clock, where 
having given a bill of ten florins to be changed, the postmaster who 
changed it declared that it was only five and gave us no more, 
although Amelia and myself had clearly seen before I sent it in 
that it was ten. The postmaster was therefore necessarily a rogue. 
We passed the Danube at about half past six and reached the bar- 
rier of Vienna at about seven. We had this day travelled twelve 
German miles and one-fourth, as the stage between Znaim and 



39° MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

Jetzelsdorf was two and one-fourth miles, all the other stages two 
miles each. At the barrier we were stopt by the officers of police 
and customs, and after we had explained who we were and had been 
treated with " Excellency' ' most prodigally and had been told that 
out of respect our trunks would not be searched; yet after a deten- 
tion of half an hour and paying everything which had been de- 
manded of us, we found a soldier placed on the carriage behind. I 
still thought we were proceeding under his escort to the inn we had 
mentioned and was only undeceived on entering through a guarded 
gate a large court-yard and being told, when I demanded if it was 
the inn, that we were at the custom-house to be searched. An 
under-officer soon made his appearance with four ill-looking assist- 
ants furnished with all the implements necessary to pierce packages, 
loosen knots, &c, and they immediately began their barbarous 
work in a most rude and inhospitable manner. We took off the 
trunks behind and a small band-box swung under the dicky. We 
opened the carriage and took out a little trunk containing my 
papers and money. They commanded the ladies to get out that 
they might examine the box under the back seat. This the ladies 
refused to do and the chief of the gang clinched his fist and shook it 
at them and obliged them to remove to the front seat when he took 
out the box in question which he placed on the ground in the open 
air with the trunks and bandbox already mentioned and then 
caused the whole to be opened. As it was severely cold and began 
to snow I requested at least that out of courtesy to an American 
Minister he would permit the search to be made in the custom- 
house. This was roughly refused and I was told that ministers or 
princes made no difference and that he was greater than them all 
as he represented the Kaiser. After being detained in this uncom- 
fortable situation nearly two hours and treated with a rudeness and 
insensibility that I had never experienced elsewhere, we were 
finally dismissed and proceeded to our inn, the Crown of Hungary, 
where we arrived a little before eleven o'clock, nearly four hours 
after we had arrived at the barrier. We found the apartments 
wretched and drear, but it was too late to look for others. 

7. After breakfast I went to deliver my letters to Guymuller & 
Co., the Chevalier Capellini and the Swedish Minister, 1 all of whom 
I found at home. I then called on Count Voyna 2 whom I also saw. 
At Guymullers I met with John Parish, now Baron Parish, who rec- 
ognized me. He sent his card in the evening, and Voyna, and my 
old acquaintance Weiss, and the Swedish Minister called on us. 

8. Went this morning in search of lodgings without success. 

1 Comte de Lowenhielm. 2 Edward Voyna. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 391 

Called at Guymullers and found that they had done nothing 
for me in this respect and from the coldness of their manner it was 
easy to perceive that they would do nothing. On my return home 
I found Voyna and Weiss. I found this day lost having made no 
arrangement whatever. 

9. Spent the morning in writing. At eleven o'clock went again 
in search of lodgings but had to return home without finding any. 
Amelia accompanied Madam Guymuller in the evening to the 
theatre to see the children perform, and Mr. Guymuller and Weiss 
called to us. 

10. Went to look at several apartments but found none that 
would suit us which could be obtained for a less term than six 
months. Took however, this day a carriage, with four places, for a 
month and agreed to pay for it three hundred sixty paper florins, 
coachman and two horses included. The person who furnished the 
carriage has a very extensive establishment which consists of nine 
hundred to a thousand horses, and carriages in proportion. Count 
Voyna and Weiss called again this day. 

11. Had a call this morning from the Chevalier Capellini. This 
day came very near to obtaining apartments but the proprietor had 
that morning received earnest money from another and could not 
get rid of his contract, although he professed himself willing so to 
do for an additional hundred florins. Dined with Mrs. Russell and 
Amelia with John Parish, whom I had known at his father's in Bath 
in 181 2. * Since that time he appears to have married against the 
wishes of his family, and to save himself and his wife from morti- 
fication he has purchased an estate in Bohemia where he resides 
during the summer. This estate is called Senftenberg with the 
title of baron annexed, so that my old acquaintance John Parish is 
now Baron Parish de Senftenberg, and lest there should be any 
ignorance or mistake concerning his real dignity, he writes on all 
his visiting cards, at full length, "Baron Parish de Senftenberg." 
The party at dinner was small but the dinner very good, and the 
apartments richly furnished. I handed Madam la Baroness in to 
dinner and of course seated myself by her. I found her, during the 
dinner, in the conversation which I intentionally introduced, to be 
full of her title and property. She told me that the estate of the 
Baron in Bohemia was a little world of itself, and that there were 
fifteen thousand peasants attached to it who considered the Baron 
as their lord and master. When I suggested my former acquaint- 
ance with the father of Mr. Parish at Bath and that I had met at 

1 An interesting outline of the life of John Parish, Sr. (1742-1829) is in All- 
gemeine Deutsche Biographie, xxv. 172. 



392 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

his house some of the English nobility, she exclaimed: "No wonder, 
we see none but the first nobility here." Upon the whole, though 
sufficiently good-natured, she appeared to be rather a vulgar woman 
without beauty to redeem her. After dinner they very civilly gave 
us the key to a box at the Hof- theatre, where we saw "Jean de 
Paris' ' very indifferently performed. This day Charles entered my 
service. 

12. This day we at length succeeded in finding apartments. 
They were situated in the Rothe Thurm Gasse No. 516, consisting 
of a suite of seven or eight rooms. We were obliged to pay for them 
for one month, nine hundred paper florins which we considered 
very dear. We removed to our new apartments in the evening. 

13. Called with Weiss, at noon, on my old friend Navarro, 1 who 
received me very cordially. At two o'clock Mr. Parish called to 
accompany me by appointment to see Count Stadion. 2 We found 
the Count very amiable and he spoke English very intelligibly. 
He is Minister of Finance. I dined this day at three o'clock with 
Mrs. Russell and Amelia at our banker Guymuller. There was a 
large party at the table and the dinner was rather distinguished by 
its cost than by its elegance. I handed in Mrs. Guymuller, and 
there was much hesitation and confusion among the rest of the 
company in finding their places. After dinner played one game of 
billiards and went with Weiss, who was waiting for us, to make a 
visit to Baron Arnstein, another rich banker. His daughter, the 
Baroness Penara, received us very politely and appeared to be a 
very accomplished woman. 

14. Navarro and Weiss called on us this morning, after which I 
called on the Swedish Minister and then spent the rest of the day 
in writing. 

15. I went this morning to call on the Prussian Minister the 
General Krusemarck 3 whom I had known at Paris in 181 1. He 
appeared pleased to see me, and while there the Chevalier Floret, 
who had been at the same epoch, Chancellier of the Austrian Em- 
bassy, came in and recognized me immediately. A Mr. Barry, an 
Irish gentleman whom I had met at Arnstein's, called on me this 
morning and tendered his services in any way in which he could be 
useful. 

16. This morning two Americans called on us, a Mr. Watts of 
New York and a Mr. Frick of Baltimore. The former is engaged 
in collecting the best edition of the classics for publication in Amer- 

1 Chevalier Navarro d'Andrada, charge" d'affaires of Portugal. 
* Jean Philippe Charles Joseph, Comte de Stadion (1 763-1824). 
8 Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig von Krusemarck (1767-1822). 



igiS.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 393 

ica. He says he keeps a journal of all he does and sees which he 
intends one day to give to the public. Mr. Frick is pursuing his 
studies in medicine, and visits Vienna chiefly to acquire a knowl- 
edge of the diseases of the eye which are said to be better under- 
stood here than elsewhere. At twelve we took a ride in the Prater, 
or park, which is much frequented in the fine season and must then 
be delightful. The Swedish Minister accompanied me in the even- 
ing at half past nine o'clock to the house of Prince Metternich * and 
introduced me to the Prince and Princess. I had met the Prince, 
in 1 8 10, at the Duke of Cadore's 2 at Paris, and I now found that 
eight years had made him somewhat older. He is still, however, a 
handsome man, and extremely engaging in his manner. The Prin- 
cess is not handsome and is cold and repulsive in her deportment. 

17. This day there was a great military parade at the Prater for 
the amusement of the Emperor Alexander. 3 We repaired to the 
ground at eleven o'clock. About twelve the two Emperors made 
their appearance and passed quite close to us in proceeding to the 
field. They spent about two hours in reviewing the different corps. 
They then returned by the way they had before passed, and stopt at 
a little distance from us to see the troops defile. All the troops were 
in their best uniform, and the princes headed their own regiments 
in person, such as the Prince Charles, Duke of Saxony, Colorada- 
Liechtenstein, 4 etc. The regiment of the Emperor Alexander, con- 
sisting of Hungarians, marched in front, and as soon as the front 
ranks reached the spot where we were placed, the Emperor Alex- 
ander came and placed himself at their head and drew his sword, 
and so passed the Emperor of Austria. 5 We were very fortunate in 
being well placed, which was very much owing to the Countess of 
Esterhazy 6 who, perceiving we were strangers, told us to remain 
where we were, as the Prince Schwartzenberg 7 had told her it was 
the best place for seeing the review. There were about thirty thou- 
sand troops of all arms and the spectacle was magnificent. Weiss 
went home and dined with us, and then we went to a small theatre 
in the faubourg in our vicinity. 

18. We this morning repaired early to a place about three Eng- 

1 Clemens Wenzel Lothar Metternich-Winneburg (1 773-1859). He married, 
in 1795, the Countess Eleonore von Kaunitz, grand-daughter of the Austrian 
chancellor of the name. 

2 Jean-Baptiste Champagny, Due de Cadore (1756-1834). 

8 Alexander I (1777-1825), Tsar of Russia. It was in 1818 that he became 
reactionary in politics. 

4 Colloredo? 6 Francis II (1 768-1835), the last Roman Emperor. 

8 Wife of Prince Nicholas Esterhazy. 

7 Karl Philipp Schwarzenberg (1 771-1820). 



394 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

lish miles from Vienna which had been destined for military manoeu- 
vres for the amusement likewise of Alexander. There was a bridge 
of boats thrown across the small branch of the Danube at the end 
of the Prater and we placed ourselves on the opposite side. The 
Emperors, who had breakfasted together in the Prater, passed the 
bridge at twelve o'clock in their carriages from which they de- 
scended and mounted on horseback close to where we were. We 
could not have desired to have a better view of them. We imme- 
diately followed the carriages of the Queen to another part of the 
field where, on an artificial elevation, seats had been prepared for 
her and her suite. There were no troops on the ground to-day ex- 
cepting cavalry and artillery and in all about ten thousand men. 
They all manoeuvred with an imaginary enemy and there were 
several fine charges by the horse. It ended about two o'clock and 
without accident, which was the more fortunate as the ground was 
frozen and slippery. After this parade I dressed and went to dine 
with Prince Metternich. I found it to be a great ministerial dinner 
at which all the gtfeat officers of State and the members of the diplo- 
matic corps assisted. I was presented to most of them. Among 
others to the Nuncio of the Pope, 1 who was very affable, and to 
Lord Stuart, 2 who was very puppyish. At the table I was seated 
next Count Stadion, the Minister of Finance, with whom I had 
much interesting conversation. Saw also Sir Thos. Lawrence. 3 

19. Spent the morning in shopping and in receiving several calls, 
among [them] General Krusemarck, the Prussian Minister. 

20. We spent the morning in taking a ride to the Danube and 
viewing the seat of the war in 1809, the fields of Essling and Wag- 
ram and the Island of Lobau. We then dined with Arnstein the 
banker. After dinner called on Madam Eschelas and then assisted 
at an Imperial Banquet given by the Emperor of Austria to the 
Emperor Alexander. This spectacle continued until eleven o'clock. 

21. Our countryman, Mr. Watts, called on us this morning by 
agreement, and conducted us to the great Imperial Library and to 
the private library of the Emperor. We found the librarians of 
both very obliging. The librarian of the public library showed us 
many curious books and manuscripts, and gave us a fac-simile of 
a Roman Senatus Consultum found at Pompeii and of a Chinese 
manuscript. After viewing the libraries we went to the Church of 
the Capuchins and saw the celebrated monument, by Canova, of 

1 M. Leardi, bishop of Ephesus. 

2 Charles William, Baron Stewart, and later third Marquis of Londonderry 
(17 78-1854). It is said his insolent manners led to the coachmen of Vienna 
assaulting him. Rumbold, The Austrian Court in the Nineteenth Century, 93. 

8 Sir Thomas Lawrence ( 1 769-1 830). 



I9i8.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 395 

the Princess of Saxony. We then went to the Convent of the 
Capuchins and saw the Imperial Tombs. Mrs. Russell asked the 
monk who attended us to show us the cells of the brotherhqod, but 
the good man declined this indulgence stating that the cells were 
forbidden to women. I then called on Lord Guilford and Navarro. 
Our friend Major Weiss dined with us and we went together to the 
Hof-theatre in the evening. 

22. Visited this morning the gallery of pictures of the Prince 
Liechtenstein, saw many admirable pieces of the various schools by 
the first masters. I afterwards made several calls. 

2$. Spent this morning in visiting the palace of Schoenbrunn, 
the summer residence of the son of Napoleon Bonaparte. 

24. Went this morning to the Belvedere, the ancient palace of 
Prince Eugene. The gallery of painting being shut we saw a fine 
mosaic by Raffaelli, 1 of the "Last Supper" painted, in fresco, by Leo- 
nardo da Vinci. We also saw the halls containing ancient armour 
and many other curious objects. 

25. Not very well this day and remained at home. Received a 
call from the Chevalier Capellini — very busily engaged in copying 
my dispatch for Count D'Engestrom. 

26. Went by appointment this morning with Major Weiss to see 
the paintings of Count Lamberg. 2 The collection was a very choice 
one and what added to the pleasure of examining was, that the Count 
had caused the rooms to be warmed, attended in person, and made 
his servants bring the pictures in succession and exhibit them in a 
good light. There were several of Murillo which we saw. There 
were also of Raphael, Titian, Guido, Leonardo da Vinci, Rubens, 
Rembrandt, &c. We spent the evening at home and had a call from 
the Baroness Parish de Senftenberg and her niece. 

27. Weiss dined with us, and in the evening we went to the 
theatre and saw the children's ballet. This exhibition is peculiar to 
Vienna. One or two hundred children are taken at a very early 
age and taught to dance, sing, act, and all the accomplishments of 
the theatre, and it is to be feared also all its vices. Excellent per- 
formers of different kinds are no doubt produced in this way, but 
all morals must be early depraved. The virtues are merely acted; 
the vices are to the life. We were surprised to see boys and girls 
from ten to fourteen years of age dance and play with grace, energy, 
and taste, and catch with great precision the characters which they 
respectively represented. 

28. This day at twelve o'clock the Swedish Minister called on 

1 Giacomo Raffaelli (1770- ). 

2 Franz Philipp, Comte de Lamberg (1 791-1848). 



396 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

me and accompanied me to the palace where agreeably to a previous 
arrangement he presented me to Francis the First, Emperor of 
Austria. He received me very graciously; inquired whence I came 
and being answered "from Stockholm/' he asked how the King 
was. He inquired if I intended to stay long at Vienna and when I 
replied "not long," he very civilly expressed a wish that I would 
stay out the carnival. He is a man below the average stature, 
slightly built and although not yet old bears the marks of time and 
care. Upon the whole I found him to be in appearance a very in- 
different person, and I believe his character corresponds with his 
appearance. His will, however, is the law for about thirty millions 
of people. 

29. Again unwell and spent the day at home in writing. Re- 
ceived a call from Navarro, Weiss and Palmstjerne. 

30. Put my dispatch for Sweden in the post for Hamburg this 
morning. In the evening went again to see the children's ballet. 

31. Called at noon with Baron Palmstjerne on the Baron 
Munchausen l the Minister of Hesse Cassel, and in the evening went 
with Mrs. R[ussell] and A[melia] to a ball which he gave. Passed a 
pleasant evening. All the corps diplomatic were there and Prince 
Metternich, Prince Rosomoskey and many other Austrian and 
foreign nobility. Returned home about midnight. Prince Metter- 
nich procured a presentation to Mrs. Russell and held a long con- 
versation with her. 

1 January, 1819. Received several calls this morning. Dined 
with Mrs. R[ussell] and Amelia at Baron Parish de Senftenberg's. 
Met there Lord Guilford, Mr. Ponsonby with his wife, Lady 
Barbary, etc. After dinner went habille to Prince Metternich's 
where there was a vast crowd of fashionable people in full dress. 
We then went to the Hof-theatre and saw the celebrated opera of 
the "Charmed Flute" — by Mozart. 

2. Went this morning and took a bath, found the baths to be 
clean, well arranged and well served. At three went to the Portu- 
guese Minister's, who exhibited to us his small but choice collection 
of pictures. At four we sat down to an excellent dinner and re- 
mained until seven. 

3. Rode this morning to the Prater. In the evening called with 
the Swedish Minister on the Prince Trautmannsdorff . 2 

4. Settled this morning with my banker. Called at the police 
for my passport, but they were not able to find it. The Baroness 
Munchhausen took Mrs. R[ussell] shopping and Mrs. R[ussell] and 

1 Baron de Munchhausen. 

2 Ferdinand Trautmannsdorf (1749-1827). 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 397 

Amelia spent the evening with her. There were some pleasant 
anecdotes told of the sycophancy of the courtiers of Alexander of 
Russia. Last evening there was a rumor of changes in France and 
this morning I learned that all the French Ministers, excepting 
Richelieu, 1 had been dismissed, but Richelieu was not only retained 
but authorized to form a new administration. The Emperor Alex- 
ander is supposed to be the cause of all this. Richelieu, since his 
return from Aix-la-Chapelle to Paris, is said to have discovered 
strong ultra notions, in conformity, it is believed, to his instructions 
from Alexander. He therefore differed harshly with his colleagues 
who are liberals and who are said to have, in consequence, required 
the dismission of Richelieu or their own, and it seems the King pre- 
ferred the latter. Upon these events the stocks at Paris fell from 
sixty-seven to sixty. Prince Metternich is said to disapprove this 
change and the Emperor of Austria says if the French only stay at 
home they may do as they please. 

5. At ten o'clock this morning went to the palace of Belvedere 
and saw the magnificent collection of pictures arranged in a magnifi- 
cent suite of rooms. There were specimens of all the great Italian 
and Flemish masters, one or two Murillos, etc., etc. The "Assump- 
tion" by Rubens is the best production of this master which I have 
seen, excepting the "Descent from the Cross" in the cathedral in 
Antwerp. Sent this day to the police and got my passport. In the 
evening Weiss and Palmstjerne called. 

6. Rode to the palace of Schoenbrunn and walked over the 
grounds. They must be very delightful in summer. Major Weiss 
dined with us. Left cards of P. P. C. at Guymuller's and Eshelas\ 
Called on Madam Purrara and spent the remainder of the evening 
at Baron Parish von Senftenberg's. Many Englishmen there. It 
was a sort of plum-cake festival for Twelfth-night. 

7. Engaged this morning in settling sundry accounts. Called 
on Navarro to take leave. At half past eleven o'clock Mrs. Russell 
was, by appointment, presented to the Emperor by the Baroness of 
Munchhausen and at half past five, to the Empress in the same 
manner. She found them both very gracious and amiable. I had 
received a note yesterday from the grand-master of ceremonies, 
announcing that he would announce me, this day, at six o'clock to 
the Empress. I was accordingly presented immediately after Mrs. 
Russell had left her Majesty. While in waiting and in conversa- 
tion with the G[rand] M[aster], had one of my turns badly. In my 

1 Armand Emmanuel du Plessis, Due de Richelieu (1766-182 2). He resigned 
the Presidency of the Council. See Annual Register, 1818, 157, where the new 
ministry is given. 



398 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

conversation with the grand-master, the Count Wurmbrand, we 
touched on the affairs of South America and was surprised and 
pleased to hear him express a disposition favorable to their inde- 
pendence. From his rank and situation I was willing to believe 
this opinion to be that of the Court. 

8. Settled this morning with the saddler for repairs of the car- 
riage, etc. Sent several cards of P. P. C. At two o'clock went by 
appointment to the old Chancery to see the paintings of Sir Thomas 
Lawrence. Found among them several fine portraits. The heads 
of Prince Metternich and Count Chernicheff l were very happily 
executed. The Prince Schwarzenberg 2 told me that the head of 
the Ionian Capo D'Istria, 3 now the confidant and prime minister 
of Alexander, was the best. After leaving the rooms of Sir Thomas 
I went with Major Weiss to make a purchase of cumweiss for Mrs. 
Russell. Spent the morning until half past eleven at a ball given 
by Count Caraman the French Ambassador. 4 Among other dis- 
tinguished personages met there the Archduke Charles and Lady. 5 
The Archduke, whose military talents are highly estimated, at 
least by his own country, is a man below the ordinary statue and 
of very diminutive appearance in every respect. His entrance was 
not distinguished by any particular attention or ceremony and he 
mixed in the throng like a common guest. 

9. Spent the morning in making my preparations for departure. 
The Swedish Minister called to take leave and Weiss staid with us 
to the last. At half past one we got into our carriage and left 
Vienna without regret. Vienna is situated at about the 48th degree 
of latitude, and although we had two or three days during our resi- 
dence there of pretty cold weather, yet no colder than is felt at 
Boston and generally the weather was much milder. The govern- 
ment of Austria and all its dominions, excepting Hungary, is [an] 
absolute monarchy, but mildly administered from the personal 
character of the reigning monarch. There appears to be no party 
spirit in this country, at least none is there expressed. I have seen 
in no other nation the different ranks in society so distinctly marked. 
The high nobility not only refuse to associate with the richest and 
most respectable and well informed citizens and bankers, but even 
with the new made and inferior nobility; and the high-born dames 
are even more tenacious of rank than the men, although they are 

1 Alexandre Ivanovitch, Prince Tchernicheff (1779-1857). 

2 Karl Philipp, Prince Schwarzenberg (1 771-1820). 

3 Jean-Antoine, Comte Capo d'Istria (1 776-1831). 

4 Victor-Marie- Joseph-Louis de Riquet, Marquis de Caraman (1786-1837). 

6 Karl Ludwig (1771-1847), third son of the Emperor Leopold II. He mar- 
ried, in 1815, Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 399 

generally but indifferently educated and accomplished. Travellers 
have formerly spoken of the people as singularly moral; but when 
I mentioned several instances of depravity and dishonesty that had 
come under my observation, I was told that the manners of the 
people had deteriorated since the visits of the French and the 
present state of corruption imputed to French principles and French 
influence. This may be so, but from the short time the French were 
among the people the operation of these causes must, it should 
seem, have been powerfully aided by the vitiated tone that already 
existed and a predisposition to take the contagion. 1 

Austria still keeps on foot a military force of three or four hun- 
dred thousand men, and her finances are in a most wretched situa- 
tion. It is pretended, however, that a few years of peace will re- 
store order to her finances and place them in a flourishing condi- 
tion. At present the new issue of paper is at a depreciation of two 
and one-half for one. There is evidently a jealousy of Russian 
power among the people, although I was told, in great confidence, 
that an understanding existed between the two Emperors; that 
Alexander might proceed as he thought proper in respect to Turkey, 
if Francis might act with the same liberty in respect to Italy. It is 
undoubtedly the ambition of both to aggrandize themselves re- 
spectively in these directions, but I doubt if there is any under- 
standing on the subject. I saw several of the mission who had 
accompanied the Archduchess to Rio Janeiro, and they were all 
completely disgusted with the Brazils. 

Immediately on leaving Vienna we saw the mountains of Styria 
before us, and the mountains of Austria on either hand. We pro- 
ceeded this day only three German miles and stopt at the little 
village of [ ] 2 for the night. 

10. We left our inn this day at three quarters past seven and 
travelled very diligently and without stopping until six o'clock in 
the evening when we arrived at the village of Schottwien, a dis- 
tance of eight German miles, where we passed the night. The 
mountains, which in the morning were at a considerable distance on 
both sides, had been gradually approaching during the day, and we 
now found ourselves in the midst of them, but had not hitherto 
been obliged to ascend them. The inn where we stopt, although 
the best in this neighborhood, was very miserable. 

11. We left our lodgings at the same hour as the preceding 
morning. Our driver had made his arrangements for passing the 
mountains and in order to save his own horses had procured four 

1 See Austria and the Austrians (1837), I. 120. 

2 Neudorf would answer to a position eight miles from Schottwien. 



400 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

fresh ones, at the post, for this purpose. Immediately on leaving 
our inn we began to ascend the mountain, in our way, which is 
called the "Semmering" and at nine o'clock reached the summit 
which is stated to be 2944 French feet above the sea. 1 Here we 
found a monument which announced that the line between the 
provinces of Austria and Styria passed there. On leaving our inn 
we found the weather moderate and the snow was melting and we 
rode with the glasses of our carriage down to enjoy the view. At 
the top of the mountain, however, the air became excessively keen 
and cold, and not only obliged us to raise our glasses but soon cov- 
ered them with a coat of ice formed by the congealing of our breath, 
and which was totally impervious to the sight. The weather again 
moderated as we descended the mountain on the other side, and we 
soon entered the fine and well cultivated valley of the Miirz. We 
followed the course of this river, the mountains receding a little as we 
reached the village of Miirzhofen at half past five. The bath 
of Staintz [Stanz] is in the vicinity of this place; celebrated for its 
incrustations, but we were too fatigued to examine it. We found 
our inn tolerable. 

12. We recommenced our journey this morning at quarter past 
seven, and having left the banks of the Miirz, we found ourselves 
on those of another river called the Mur which joins the Drave and 
empties at Constantinople. It is bordered, like the Miirz, by a fine 
valley through which our road ran nearly level, while the moun- 
tains continued near us on both hands. We passed this day the 
town of Brugg-sur-le-Mur [Bruck an der Mur] where there is a 
chateau, etc. In the neighborhood [are] rich mines of iron, the 
steel made from which, is said to be the best in Europe. We also 
passed the small town of Leoben, celebrated by the peace which 
bears its name. We stopt for the night at the village of Kraubat. 
We had met during the day, many people with swellings on the 
throat which are known by the name of goitres, said to be occa- 
sioned by the quality of the water. At the inn where we stopt there 
was an idiot whose want of mind was imputed to the same cause. 
The inn was poor but the people obliging. 

13. We left Kraubat at half past seven and continued to travel 
during the day along the valley watered by the Mur. We passed a 
considerable town called Judenburg, and reached the village of 
Unzmarkt where we stopt for the night at six o'clock; we found a 
good inn. While our chambers were warming we went into the 

1 The figures in modern guide books are 3215 feet. There were at this time 
only three roads in the Eastern Alps; at the Brenner, the Radstatter Tauern and 
the Semmering. 




FROM A CONTEMPORARY ENGRAVING PRINTED BY CH. BANCE, PARIS 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 401 

public room and found a party of old men, some of them in ap- 
pearance at least three score and ten, engaged at a party of cards. 

14. We set off this morning at quarter past seven and about 
half past ten arrived at the village of Neumarkt, where we left the 
province of Styria and entered that of Carinthia. We reached our 
lodgings at St. Veit at six o'clock. We this day parted with the 
Mur but joined the Drav or Drave, which kindly aided our rout 
with a valley and kept the road nearly on a level. At our inn in- 
stead of card players we were amused by the long prayers of the 
peasants before and after their supper. 

15. We left St. Veit at half past seven, crossed the Drave at 
Klagenfurt, and arrived at Villach at six o'clock. We had still con- 
tinued to see many people with goitres and this evening found two 
idiots at our inn. 

16. We did not leave our inn this morning until eight o'clock. 
We had observed yesterday Indian corn hung up on several houses 
to dry, and at Villach we obtained an ear in order to carry with us 
to America to try as seed. We reached Arnoldstein about eleven 
o'clock, and having obtained two horses we began to ascend the 
Alps. The scenery was magnificent, but the road along the side of 
the mountain often so narrow as barely to allow the passage of our 
carriage, while a frightful precipice yawned beneath us. We reached 
Tarvis, however, at about half past two without accident, when 
having passed the height of the mountains we dismissed our addi- 
tional horses. We then continued our rout to Pontebba, where we 
stopt at seven o'clock for the night. Pontebba is the frontier town 
and divides Germany from Italy; one-half belonging to the former 
and one-half to the latter. 1 The river of Tagliamento 2 runs through 
this town and divides it, and divides indeed the people in every re- 
spect; in language, taste, character and habits. We stopt on the 
Italian side and no longer heard German, nor were tucked between 
two feather beds so narrow as scarcely to cover the sleeper while he 
lay straight and still and was sure to leave him when he turned, 
but we found ourselves in the midst of immense beds at least eight 
feet broad with clean sheets and fine blankets and quilts. Germany, 
adieu. We indeed leave you without regret. 

17. Left Pontebba at a quarter past seven. We left the road 
marked in the post-book this day. We kept on the banks of the 
Tagliamento, sometimes on one side, sometimes on the other, for 
we crossed it at least half a dozen times, until one o'clock, when we 
left it and the mountains on our right and reached Udine at half 

1 The Austrian town on the frontier is now known as Pontafel. 

2 It is the Pontebbana River. 



402 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

past seven. Since we left Tarvis yesterday the road had descended 
very constantly and generally until past noon this day. 

1 8. We did not leave our inn this morning until half past nine 
o'clock. We then proceeded to Campo Formio, celebrated for the 
treaty which Bonaparte signed there with the Austrians. 1 We were 
shown the house where this treaty was signed and the commence- 
ment of a monument which was intended to commemorate that 
event. We afterwards came again on the banks of the Tagliamento 
and saw the spot where the famous battle of that name was fought. 
There was likewise shown us the foundation of a monument in 
honour of the victory obtained by the French, and an abundance 
of hewn stone to complete it, but there is no disposition in the 
present possessors of the soil to accomplish this work. We found 
the Tagliamento to be now a very small stream, but the extent of 
the bed which it covers in the time when it is full, is the fourth of an 
English mile, and shows that it must then be a very considerable 
river. The intrenchments which were raised by the Austrians be- 
fore the battle still remain. From Udine the roads are those made 
by the French and they are excellent as well as the bridges. We 
reached Valapano at five o'clock and passed the night there. 

19. We left Valapano at eight o'clock and a little after noon 
passed the River Ioxa 2 and saw the field of battle on its bank where 
Bonaparte had likewise gained a great victory over the Austrians, 
and where it is said more than thirty thousand men were slain. The 
Austrian works are also still to be seen here. We reached Treviso 
at five o'clock and stopt for the night. 

20. We left Treviso at nine o'clock and reached Mestre at noon. 
Here we left our carriage and having taken off our baggage pro- 
ceeded to Venice by water. We entered the Great Canal about 
four o'clock and stopt at the inn of Great Britain. We felt too 
fatigued to begin our examination of the city at this late hour. We 
therefore kept comfortably in our quarters. 

21. Having taken a valet de place and a gondola in our service, 
we went at eleven o'clock to the place of St. Mark and visited the 
church of this Saint, and the Palace of the ancient Doges. The 
church is a very gloomy building of Gothic appearance, although 
its ornaments consist of columns, etc., of all the Roman and Grecian 
orders. Some of these were brought from Africa, some from Con- 
stantinople, Greece and various parts of Italy. There are said to be 
five hundred columns in all. There are twelve doors and seven 
cupolas. The floor is mosaic of various fine stones and in walking 
over it you tread on agate, cornelian, etc. Many of the arches are 
covered within with small pieces of gilt glass about three-quarters of 

1 October 16, 1797, ending the Republic of Venice. 2 Piave River. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 403 

an inch square. Indeed the whole church is immensely rich but 
not elegant. The Palace of St. Mark has undergone several changes. 
The large council chamber where the senators of Venice once sat 
in state is now converted into a kind of museum and ornamented 
with various statues, among which are a very fine "Leda and her 
swan" of Grecian workmanship, and a "Ganymede" from the 
chisel of Phydias. The walls and ceiling of the council chamber are 
still covered with the paintings of the Venetian school, among 
which the "Paradise" of Tintoretto is perhaps the largest picture 
in the world. It covers the whole of one end of the chamber and 
even a part of the sides. The rest of the palace is still occupied by 
courts of justice, and the prisoner still passes over the Bridge of 
Sighs to receive his doom. The celebrated lion's mouths through 
which accusations were secretly conveyed, were torn off by the 
French, but the holes through the wall with which they communi- 
cated still remain. The Bridge of Sighs mentioned above is a small 
bridge with a covered way over it, extending from the back of the 
palace of St. Mark to the prison. We went from the church round 
the place of St. Mark, which is called sometimes, the Place Royal 
of Venice because surrounded with shops, coffee-houses, etc., but 
is much inferior to the Palais Royal at Paris. From the Place of 
St. Mark we proceeded along the quay or mole to the gardens made 
by the French upon the ground formerly covered by two convents. 
At the garden we embarked in our gondola and passed over to the 
island of Lido, which is of considerable extent. We passed on foot 
over the end of this island and had a full view of the Adriatic. We 
then returned to our lodgings and on our way met the celebrated 
Lord Byron, 1 who passes every day regularly between three and 
four o'clock in his gondola to the island of Lido to take a ride on 
horseback. After returning to the inn I went to visit my bankers, 
Messrs. Siri and Wilham, and delivered my letters of credit. In the 
evening we went to the theatre of [ ] and saw an opera 

buffa well performed almost to naked walls, for the house was very 
thinly attended. 

22. This morning we again left our inn at eleven o'clock and 
first visited the Academy of Arts. There is a fine collection of 
statues and models both ancient and modern, and we particularly 
remarked among the latter the "Hebe" of Canova, copied in plaster, 
of exquisite beauty. In one of the halls of the Academy were several 
fine pictures of the Venetian masters, but the one which we beheld 

1 He was in the Palazzo Mocenigo on the Grand Canal, "abandoned to de- 
grading excesses which injured his constitution, and afterwards produced bitter 
self-reproach." Dictionary of National Biography, viii. 145. 



404 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

with real wonder and rapture was the " Assumption' ' of Titian. 
This picture had been placed over an altar-piece in the church of 
Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, and had become so dirty and smoked that 
the French did not think it worth carrying to Paris. About two 
years since it was taken down and cleaned and placed in its present 
situation as perfectly fresh as when it came from the hand of the 
painter and is certainly as beautiful a picture as was ever painted 
not excepting the "Transfiguration" of Raphael. From the Acad- 
emy of Arts we returned home, when I called on my bankers and 
went to deliver a letter from Ambrosio, the Neapolitan Minister at 
Stockholm to the Countess of Tafetta. I then returned to the 
inn and accompanied the ladies on foot to the Place of St. Mark, 
where we embarked in our gondola which had been sent there, and 
crossed the water to the church of St. Giorgio Maggiore. This 
church is a very beautiful building and contains several fine pic- 
tures. After having seen it we went to the custom-house and porto 
Franco, erected by the French on the same island. We thence 
went to visit the church of Madonna della Salute, where also are 
several fine pictures. The priest who conducted us about the 
church very pleasantly told us an anecdote of Paul Veronese whom 
he represented to have been a little deranged. This painter had 
been employed to paint an altar-piece for this church, in which the 
Holy Trinity were to be portrayed. He finished the work and the 
Sanctus Spiritus being represented as usual by the form of a dove, 
it came into the painter's head that a bag would be a good thing to 
put the dove in, and he painted one accordingly. The Church of 
Madonna della Salute was commenced in 1630, to avert the plague 
which raged at that time at Venice. Spent the evening at home. 

23. We went this morning to visit the church of de Minori 
Conventuali called dei Frari. 1 The first object which caught our 
attention was a plain stone on which was inscribed 

Qui giace il gran Tiziano de Vercelli 
Emulator de Zeusi e degli Appelli. 

thus denoting that the great Titian was there buried. This church 
contains some very fine paintings. We next went to the church of 
St. Roque, 2 and after having seen the pictures which it contains we 
were shown the place in which is kept some of the true blood of 
Jesus Christ. We were not allowed to see the blood itself which can 
be shown once a year only, but the door of a little cabinet formed in 
one of the recesses of the church was opened and another little door 

1 Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, already mentioned, supra. 

2 San Rocco. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 405 

on the back side of this cabinet was shown us, beyond which was 
another little cabinet, and in this last was said to be the blood in 
question. The cabinet opened contained several relics, but by no 
means so precious as that contained in the cabinet which continued 
shut. From the church we went into the copairie of St. Roque, 1 
where we saw several fine pictures, particularly the "Crucifixion" 
by Tintoretto, which is considered as his masterpiece. We next 
went to visit a collection of pictures in the palace of Barberio. They 
were contained in the very room in which the great Titian some- 
times painted. It was a small but choice collection, and a Made- 
lene and a " Venus " by Titian were particularly fine. The owner, 
having found too much nudity in the latter, caused it to be partially 
defaced by a dauber. In this room was an imperfect St. Sebastian, 
which Titian did not live to finish. We next went to the manufac- 
tory of the small glass beads and witnessed the process of making 
them. At eight o'clock in the evening we went to the great opera 
and were very much charmed with the music and dancing. The 
best singer was Signora Fiodore, and she certainly had great skill 
and a fine voice. The dancers appeared to be less vigorous but 
more graceful than those of the grand opera at Paris. The opera 
did not finish until after midnight, when we went for a short time 
to the Ridotto to witness a public masked ball. We found, however, 
nothing there of sufficient interest to detain us and soon retired. 
Tumblers, cat and ass on the moro. 

24. This day being Sunday we confined our excursions chiefly 
to church St. John and Paul. 2 We visited that of the Jesuits, 
among the others, but being chiefly for the edification of young 
females I was not allowed to go to the bottom of the church and 
Mrs. Russell and Amelia went without me. We now proceeded to 
the Palazzo Grimani and visited its several apartments, in which 
were some good pictures and fine ancient statues. Among these 
the heads of Cicero, Marius, Sylla, Augustus and his wife were the 
best. We next passed the water to the church of the Armenians, 
which we found to be a very interesting establishment. The monk 
who conducted us had been in England and spoke pretty good 
English. He had likewise been the instructor of Lord Byron and 
told us his Lordship spoke Armenian tolerably well. This monk in- 
formed us that there were thirty-eight letters in the Armenian 
alphabet, to which he ascribed the facility with which the Arme- 
nians acquired foreign languages. The founders of this church 
came about a century ago from the vicinity of Mount Ararat. 

1 Scuola di San Rocco. 

2 Santi Giovanni e Paolo, containing the tombs of the Doges. 



406 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

Bonaparte spared this establishment on account of its utility. 
They have a printing-press on which they print all languages. 1 A 
prayer-book was shown us printed in sixteen languages. This press 
is now employed in printing Eusebius in Latin, as the manuscripts 
of this author, which were wanting, have lately been found. 2 Lord 
Guilford has engaged to subscribe for this work for me. The monk 
boasted the Armenian language to be the oldest in the world. 

25. Went this morning to visit the Arsenal. Saw there the 
manufactory of muskets. A considerable collection of arms and 
armour of former times and other nations. Among other things 
the armour of Henry the Fourth of France; the monument of Gen- 
eral Emo 3 by Canova — a fine work. Fame kneels to him having 
laid down her trumpet, and Genius stands over him crowning him 
with laurel. We then went to see the navy. There are three ships 
of seventy-four guns afloat, and two others of the same force build- 
ing, and one of eighty guns. There are five or six frigates afloat 
and one on the stocks, besides several corvettes. The ships afloat are 
entirely dismantled and the copper taken off to high-water mark. 
The Austrian government have done nothing to finish the ships 
which had been begun by the French, but they continue as they 
were in the beginning of 18 14. They appear to be of excellent 
materials and well constructed. From the Arsenal we went to see 
a very fine collection of paintings in the palace of Seiior Manfrin. 
There were many fine pictures of Titian, Paul Veronese, etc. ; one of 
Rembrandt, one of Rubens, of Correggio, etc. That of Correggio, a 
small "Magdalen," and a small "Descent from the Cross," by 
Raphael, were very fine. There was also one of the cartoons of 
Raphael. After leaving these apartments, we went to see the 
church of the Carmelites Dechauses, 4 which is very rich in marble. 
In the evening we went to take a farewell look of the palace, etc., 
of St. Mark, -and we walked over the Rial to. In ascending the 
bridge I counted sixty steps and the same in descending. Venice 
appears to be rapidly on the decline. Our inn was formerly the 
palace of Falciti, and is called the inn of Great Britain. We found 
our landlord to be a great scoundrel. Our engagement with our 
vetturino expressly obliged him to warm and light two apartments 

1 An Armenian press was established in Venice in 1565, and "the press which 
has done most in printing Armenian authors is that of the Mechitharists of Venice.' ' 
These Armenian monks, followers of Mechithar, were established by him in 171 7 
in the island of San Lazzaro, south of Venice, and form one of the noblest con- 
gregations of the Roman Catholic Church. 

2 A Chronicle, in two books, c. 303-325 a. d. 

3 Angelo Emo (1 731-1792). He was an admiral. 

4 Chiesa degli Scalzi. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 407 

which were all we had warmed and lighted at Venice. When, how- 
ever, I demanded the bill for what I had had extra, the landlord 
said the vetturino had refused to pay for any wax candles or for 
warming more than one room, as wood at Venice was very dear. 
The landlord therefore demanded of me fifteen francs for wax 
candles and thirty-seven francs for fuel. As the vetturino had al- 
ready gone to Mestre and I could have no explanation with him, I 
paid these sums in order to save a dispute, taking his receipt to his 
bill and his positive assertion that the vetturino had not paid him 
for the same thing. When I expostulated afterwards with the vet- 
turino he produced the bill which he had paid and which even in- 
cluded the candles and the wood for which this rascally landlord 
had made me pay a second time. This landlord, however, on taking 
leave of me had the impudence to give me his cards and to request 
me to recommend his house! ! ! ! 

26. At nine o'clock this morning we embarked for Mestre, where 
we had left our carriage. Just as we were getting into the boat the 
same Armenian monk, who had shown us the convent, made his 
appearance and informed me that Lord Guilford had already men- 
tioned my wish to subscribe for Eusebius, and that he should act 
accordingly. I confirmed the proceeding and gave him the names of 
my bankers at Rome and Naples. We reached Mestre at eleven 
o'clock, and having spent half an hour in making our arrangements 
we recommenced our journey and reached Padua at five o'clock. 

27. We went this morning first to see the ancient hall of justice, 1 
which is much more spacious than that of Venice, but greatly in- 
ferior in the richness and beauty of its decorations. It contains, 
however, a small monument to Titus Livius, who was born in this 
town. The monument consists of an ancient bust brought from 
Rome by two of the magistrates of Padua and a large marble slab 
placed in the wall beneath it. On the bust is inscribed "T. Liv." 
and on the marble slab 

T. Livivs Liviae Qvartall Halys Concordalis Patavi sibi et suis 
omnibus. 2 

We next visited the Cathedral of which Petrarch, also a native 
of Padua, was a canon. About a year since a bust of this poet, 
sculptured by a scholar of Canova, was placed in this Cathedral. 
It is finely executed, the head bound with a wreath of laurel. Be- 
neath the bust on a marble slab is inscribed as follows: 

1 II Salone. 

2 Russell omits the last line — "Hoc totus stares aureus ipse loco." 



408 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

Francisco Petrachae 

Antonio Barbr Soncino 

Canonicus Canonico 

Ann. MDCCCXVIIL 

P. 

L. M. D. C. D. 

On entering the Cathedral we had seen a poor woman lying in 
convulsions near the door on the outside, surrounded by a few 
women and girls of the most miserable appearance. On going out 
Mrs. R[ussell] caused [her, by] our valet de place aided by another 
person, to be taken from the cold stone on which she was lying, and 
to be borne into the church and placed in a chair. We then sent for 
a priest. Two came. One looked at her a moment and left her. 
The other felt her pulse with great indifference and immediately 
left her also without affording or recommending any assistance. 
We looked after these good Catholics with much indignation, and 
saw them both as they passed the altar, in proceeding to the other 
end of the church, make their genuflexion and cross themselves 
very devoutly. Such is a religion of form and ostentation, but 
destitute of benevolence and good works. These priests dressed 
pontifically, adored the marble, and left a fellow creature to perish. 
We next went to the palace of Count G., where was a curious piece 
of sculpture said to have been praised by Canova. It was about 
four feet high in the form of a pyramid of one entire piece of marble 
representing the " Fall of the Angels." The Angel Gabriel or Michael 
was at the top with his drawn sword bending down with a menac- 
ing attitude over the fallen devils. The devils were sixty-six in 
number, with horns and tails in various postures, but so placed as 
to form the rest of the pyramid. Satan was cut at the bottom point- 
ing upwards with an heroic air. This piece was made about a hun- 
dred years since by an artist in the house where it now stands. He 
is said to have worked at it twelve years for two or three hours per 
day. Each figure, if erect, would measure a little more than a foot 
and is very perfectly formed. We next visited the fine church of 
St. Justin x designed by Palladio. Padua is strongly fortified by 
the moderns. It also contains a Roman wall. We left Padua at 
noon and had not proceeded far when our vetturino, by placing 
himself on the dicky, broke one of the foresprings. We reached 
Vicenza at five. 

28. Went this morning to visit the Amphitheatre Olimpique 
by Palladio; a beautiful interior of the Corinthian order of two 
ranges, one placed over the other. It will contain two thousand 

1 Andrea Briosco was the architect of Santa Giustina, not Palladio. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 409 

five hundred spectators in the semicircle, which in appearance has 
not a fourth of the capacity requisite for such a number. The 
avenues upon the stage, by another artist, are a fine specimen of 
architectural perspective. The columns of the amphitheatre were 
of brick covered with stucco which was still perfect after a period 
of two hundred and thirty-five years. We then visited several 
other buildings constructed by Palladio, and saw the house in which 
he lived, for he was a native of Vicenza. We visited also the 
church of Madonna del Monte which is beautifully situated on an 
eminence * just without the town, and from which there is a mag- 
nificent view of the Alps on one side, and Padua and the country 
on the other. In ascending to this church we walked under an arcade 
which I found to be nine hundred and ninety paces in length. We 
saw at the church a very fine picture of Paul Veronese which is 
generally called the " Supper of St. Gregory." In returning to our 
inn we saw the celebrated bridge of Bacchia. 2 We left Vicenza at 
half past eleven and reached Verona at six. Stopt at the inn called 
the Tower, which we found a good one. 

29. The first thing which drew our attention this morning was 
the celebrated Roman Amphitheatre. We found the main body of 
the building in the interior very entire. It was said to contain 
thirty thousand spectators. The seats still remain of solid stone, 
now called the stone of St. Ambrosio. These seats run entirely round 
the amphitheatre and are forty-three as we counted them, one above 
the other, although our guide insisted that there were forty-five. 
The cells were shown us in which the wild beasts were confined. 
The wall which surrounded the arena was about five feet high only, 
which I suggested was too low to afford security against the wild 
beasts. To obviate this objection our guide endeavored to per- 
suade us that these animals were never let out entirely free but 
were confined by a chain fastened in the centre of the arena. The 
seats were about ten inches high and of about the same width at the 
top. They are interrupted by two lodges opposite to each, designed, 
no doubt, for the great dignitaries, and by the steps for ascending 
and descending which were of half the size of the seats. There is 
only a small part of the exterior wall which surrounded the amphi- 
theatre now standing. The French replaced several of the stones 
of the interior and filled up the interstices with stucco to prevent 
the water from descending and undermining the work. Several 
excavations have lately been made under the arena, and the aque- 
ducts have been discovered which let in and let out the water. The 

1 Monte Berico. 

2 Over the Bacchiglione, and erected by Palladio. 



4IO MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

former, it is ascertained, communicated with the Adige, and the 
excavation is still continued, by order of the Emperor of Austria, 
to clear this aqueduct in its whole length. There is a little theatre 
for summer built in the middle of the arena which looks truly 
diminutive and contemptible. From the amphitheatre we went to 
the museum of Marquis Scipio Maff ei * where we saw a fine collec- 
tion of ancient marbles but much mutilated. We then passed by 
the ancient Roman wall and went to see the sarcophage in which the 
famous Juliette of the Capuletti was interred. They show the 
holes which were left open for respiration. This sarcophage was also 
of stone of St. Ambrosio. We afterwards visited a small but choice 
collection of pictures belonging to Alberini. We then viewed the 
Arch of Triumph of Gallienus and returned to our inn. After 
dinner we went with our valet de place to see a bridge over the 
Adige built by the Romans. It consisted of five arches, three of 
brick and two of stone, of unequal dimensions. The three of brick 
were on one side and the two of stone on the other. The former 
together were fifty-eight paces and the latter forty-eight and the 
height of the bridge was between them. The river Adige was the 
barrier during a truce between the French and Austrians, and 
the sentinels of the two nations were placed at the different ends 
of this bridge. From the Roman bridge I went to see the gate of 
St. George, which was attacked by the French, and through which 
they entered the city. The wall before the church had been bat- 
tered in breach, and the front of the church and a house adjoining 
it were pitted with the marks of musket balls. The town was 
formerly strongly fortified but the walls were blown up by the 
French. In returning to the inn I saw the monument of Capidori 
Scaliger who is said to have played the tyrant after the time of the 
Romans. It was in the same inclosure with a monument of his 
father and uncle, the former of whom was stabbed on the public 
place. 

30. Left Verona at eight o'clock and reached Mantua at one. 
Immediately procured a carriage at the post, for there were no 
hacks, and drove to the palace. It is spacious and most of it in 
good repair and many of the rooms ornamented from the pencil of 
Jules Romain. 2 Some of the rooms, however, are in a ruinous state 
and destitute of furniture. From one of these rooms we had a fine 
view of the bridge. We next drove to the museum which consists 
of a collection of ancient busts, bas-reliefs and statues and ancient 
inscriptions on stone. We had not time to attend to copying the 

1 Museo Lapidario or Museo Maffeiano. 

2 Giulio Romano, or Giulio Pippi (c. 149 2-1 546). 



I918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 4II 

latter, but among the busts there were five of the Emperor Marcus 
Aurelius, one of which was remarkably fine. There was also a fine 
bust of Sylla and one of Marius, as well as of Severus and his son 
Geta, but of all the busts, that which interested us most, was one of 
Virgil, the celebrated poet. Of this bust the face only was ancient, 
and had been found buried under the ruins of the ancient city. It 
is the only monument that rests at Mantua of Virgil. The face is 
open, benignant and intelligent. In the basso-rilievos was the 
story of Medea, the story of Venus and Adonis, and the Sack of 
Troy — all very fine. From the museum we went to the Palace of 
T said to be named so from its shape resembling this letter. 1 This 
resemblance, however, I could not find, as the building appeared to 
me quite square enclosing a square court. The walls of many of the 
apartments were painted by Jules Romain in fresco. Among other 
things the "Fall of the Giants" was represented. The figures were 
indeed gigantic, but the coloring of many of them appeared much 
injured from time and defaced by rude and vulgar hands. We next 
visited the cathedral which is a fine church but overcharged with 
ornaments. It was built from a design of Jules Romain, but it is of 
a mixt architecture. We visited another church in which was said 
to be the "Madonna del Orto" by Raphael, but the ignorant people 
who conducted us appeared to know nothing concerning it, and 
indeed all the paintings in the churches at Mantua were in so bad a 
light that we had little satisfaction in looking at them. Mantua, 
as is well known, is situated in a sort of lake formed by the over- 
flowing of the river Mincio. It is separated from the main land on 
the side of Cremona by a width of water of two hundred toises or 
fathoms, and on the side of Verona eighty fathoms. It is the strong- 
est fortified city in Europe. Old Wurmser, 2 however, defended it in 
vain. We saw the house of Jules Romain, with a fine ancient 
statue of Mercury in front which the common people suppose to be 
St. John the Baptist. The bones of Tasso repose in the church of 
S. Egidio. Virgil is supposed to be a native of Mantua, but the 
better opinion appears to be that he was born in a little village a 
short distance from the city, called Pietoli or Andes. 

31. We left Mantua at 7 o'clock and reached Cremona at six 
p. m. We had more rain this day than we had before encountered 
in all our way from Stockholm. 

February 1. Left Cremona at nine a. m., passed Crema at half 
past two and reached Lodi at half past five. On entering this last 

1 The designation is apparently derived from the form of the roads which led 
towards the palace. 

2 Dagobert Sigismund, Comte de Wurmser (1 724-1 797). 



412 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

place we passed the bridge over the Adda, rendered famous by the 
heroism of Bonaparte in 1796. At Crema we passed over the Oglio. 1 
We had also much rain this day. 

2. We went out immediately after breakfast this day to two of 
the principal churches and hospital. In the churches were some 
good pictures. The church of St. Maurice had, for a time, been 
called St. Napoleon, but it has now resumed its ancient name. The 
hospital is small but well arranged and apparently well administered. 
The professor of chemistry was particularly polite and gave us a 
treatise of his on the mode of making sugar from honey. We left 
Lodi at nine o'clock and reached Milan at half past three. The 
weather was this day fair. We stopt at the Hotel of Great Britain. 

3. The first thing we did this morning was to take a carriage 
and a valet de place and to visit the cathedral. It deserves all the 
eulogy that has been lavished on it. It is entirely of white marble. 
We saw the celebrated statue of St. Bartholomew and we visited 
the tomb of St. Charles. 2 The shrine of this saint is infinitely rich, 
being of rock crystal and covered with precious stones. His saint- 
ship is laid at full length in his pontifical robes but his skull is 
bare, the cadavorous appearance of which contrast strikingly with 
the treasures which surround it. We ascended to the top of the 
church, but as the atmosphere was foggy, we ascended no further. 
From the top of the church, however, we had a pretty good view of 
the city, but the Alps and Apennines were not visible. The front of 
this church had been begun but not completed before the invasion 
of the French. Bonaparte caused it to be completed and cor- 
rected, as far as was possible, without demolishing the part already 
accomplished, the bad style in which it had been begun. The upper 
part of the front is made to correspond with the rest of the build- 
ing. Bonaparte never allowed any part of the treasures or orna- 
ments of this church to be touched. We next visited the amphi- 
theatre or circus built by Bonaparte. The entrance is already of 
stone and the whole was intended to be of this material, but the 
seats are now of earth. The form is oblong. The greatest diameter 
is four hundred brasses or fathoms and the smallest two hundred. 
There are ten ranges of seats which were calculated to accommodate 
thirty thousand people. Around the great hall in entering were 
several paintings on the top of the wall and among them on oppo- 
site sides, the heads of Napoleon and Josephine. The Austrian 
government had caused the former to be deformed by a beard and 
the latter by a casque intending thus, perhaps, that they should 
represent Jupiter and Minerva. No, that government could from 

1 It was the Serio. 2 Cappella San Carlo Borromeo. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 413 

its meanness have intended nothing but to deface the monuments 
of its own humiliation. From the amphitheatre we went to view 
the Arch of Triumph, which had been begun and for finishing 
which all the materials were prepared in a most magnificent style. 
This arch was meant to form the gate of the Simplon, and its basso- 
rilievos commemorated chiefly the field of Marengo. It is said that 
the Emperor of Austria has been twice in person to view the arch 
and materials without having mind enough to come to a decision 
concerning them, and the work is suspended. 1 We next went to 
see the palace of Brera, which contains many specimens of the fine 
arts. Our attention was chiefly bestowed on the pictures which 
are from the pencils of most of the Italian masters. From the 
palace of Brera, which was formerly an establishment of the Jesuits, 
we went to see the convent of Sta. Maria, 2 formerly belonging to 
the Dominicans and where, in the refectory, is the celebrated "Last 
Supper" by Leonardo da Vinci. This picture is indeed much in- 
jured by time; the colors faded and the surface in many places 
pealed from the wall, but I could perceive no evidence of violence 
having been used towards it. Certainly there was no mark of pistol, 
musket, or cannon-ball on it, as there certainly would have been 
had it served for a target to atheistical French soldiers as Mr. 
Eustace 3 asserts. I was indeed astonished to see that the face of 
our Saviour, after the assertion of the said renowned divine that the 
head was made a mark in preference, was without the least fracture 
or scale. 

We afterwards visited the sixteen ancient pillars said to have 
been erected by Nero, and which are all that remain of antiquity 
at Milan. In returning to our hotel we stopt at the church of 
Celsius which had formerly been immensely rich, as the Virgin, who 
has an altar there, is said to have worked many miracles. The 
French are said to have taken away cart-loads of silver. The statues 
of Adam and Eve on the front of the church are very fine, particu- 
larly Eve. In the evening we went to the theatre of Scala and saw 
an opera and ballet. The former was called the Illisa. 

4. We again visited the cathedral and admired its beauty. We 
then went to the richest shop or magasin in the place, which was 
full of curious and fashionable merchandise. We next went to the 
Ambrosian library where we first saw a fine collection of statues 
and paintings. Among the latter was a fine "Holy Family" by 
Luini, and a copy of the "Last Supper" by Leonardo da Vinci, 

1 It was not completed until 1838. 

2 Santa Maria delle Grazie. 

3 John Chetwode Eustace, author of Classical Tour in Italy. 



414 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

which we saw yesterday at the Dominicans. This copy was by 
Cesar Fiori, a scholar and contemporary of Leonardo and admir- 
ably executed and must have been equal to the original in all its 
beauty. The head of Christ was the finest I remember to have seen. 
This copy had itself been copied a few years since by the celebrated 
Joseph Bossi, 1 who was occupied, as the librarian informed us, nine 
months at the work. From this copy of Bossi another was made in 
mosaic by RafFaelli, which is the same we saw at the Palace of 
the Belvedere at Vienna. So the Reverend Mr. Eustace is as false 
in his predictions of the future fate of the admirable "Last Supper' ' 
of Leonardo da Vinci, as he is in his assertions relative to its past 
treatment. We next saw the most curious manuscripts contained 
in the library, particularly Virgil, with notes in the handwriting 
of Petrarch; a copy of Josephus in the handwriting of his scholars. 
We then went to see the hospital which is indeed a vast establish- 
ment worthy of all praise. In the evening we went to a little theatre 
to see curious puppets. I ought to have mentioned yesterday our 
visit to the Gate of Marengo, which was erected by Bonaparte, of 
granite, and is a fine arch of triumph. This arch had an appro- 
priate inscription, but all is now changed and the gate is called the 
Gate of Ticino and the inscription is "Pari Populorum Sospitae." 
Near this gate begins the canal which Bonaparte caused to be 
opened between Milan and Pavia, a distance of more than twenty 
English miles. A passage on this canal between the two cities costs 
only ten sous. Besides this canal is of immense utility to agricul- 
ture and commerce. 

5. We left Milan this morning at nine o'clock and stopt at one 
to see the famous chartreuse, which was suppressed by Joseph the 
Second. 2 It is about three-fourths of an English mile from the 
road. It is a most magnificent building, the entire front being of 
marble. The interior also is richly decorated by the chisel and the 
pencil, there being many fine paintings and much rich sculpture. 
There is a picture by Pietro Perugino, the master of Raphael. We 
were shown a very rich basso-rilievo and several small statues all 
made from tusk of the hippopotamus, which material preserves its 
whiteness much more perfectly than ivory. There is a fine monu- 
ment in the church of John Galeas Visconti, 3 but it is not well 
placed to show all its beauty. The original design was Gothic, but 
many pillars of Grecian and Roman orders have since been added. 
The fresco painting in this church is two hundred and sixteen years 

1 Giuseppe Bossi (1777-1815). 

2 Certosa di Pavia. 

8 Gian Galeazzo Visconti (1347-1402). 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 415 

old and very fresh. Four centuries are said to have been spent in dec- 
orating this church and the ornaments of the lower part of the front 
only had been finished when the order was suppressed. We arrived 
at Pavia at half past three and immediately went to see the College 
of Anatomy which contains some exquisitely fine preparations of 
the human form and its component parts. We also visited the 
college founded by St. Charles Borromeo. We next went to the 
old church 1 where the Lombard Kings were crowned and the 
round flat stone in the floor on which this ceremony was performed, 
was shown to us by a priest. We also visited the cathedral which is 
said to contain the club of Roland. St. Augustine is said to be buried 
in Pavia. 2 We walked to the bridge over the Ticino and were shown 
the scale for the inundations. It has frequently risen above its 
banks below the bridge and forced the inhabitants to seek refuge on 
more elevated ground. Before we arrived at Pavia we passed the 
battle ground where Francis the First was defeated and taken 
prisoner in 1525. 

6. We left Pavia this morning at nine o'clock. We found the 
roads which we now travelled, from the late rains, to be rather 
heavy. Just before we reached Plaisance, 3 we passed the river Po 
on a bridge-of-boats. Most of these boats were now high and dry, 
owing to the lowness of the river, but in the spring, when the river 
is high and full, they are all afloat. On the left bank of the Po is 
still seen some of the intrenchments on the field of battle, where the 
French, under the command of Macdonald, 4 were beaten by the 
Austrians and Russians under Suwarrow. 5 We reached Plaisance 
at six o'clock and found ourselves on the territory of Marie Louise, 
the Po dividing the Milanese from the Parmesan. 

7. This morning we took a walk in Plaisance and saw the two 
celebrated equestrian statues in bronze of Alexander Farnese and 
his son, 6 the former dukes of this place. We next went to the cathe- 
dral which contained nothing remarkable. We also viewed the 
front of the church belonging to the convent of Augustine. It is a 
fine front in granite of the Ionic order. We also saw the course 
which is said to be equal to any in Italy, and thence we went to see 
the ancient palace of the Dukes of Farnese, which appears never 
to have been finished and which now is going to ruin. 7 The place 

1 Church of San Michele Maggiore, now the Basilica Reale. 

2 In San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro is his monument. 3 Piacenza. 

4 Jacques-Etienne- Joseph- Alexandre Macdonald, Due de Tarente (1765- 
1840). The battle, named from the Trebbia river, occurred June 17-19, 1799. 

5 Alexander Vasilievich, Count Suvarov (1 729-1800). 

6 Alessandro (1546-159 2) and Ranuccio Farnese (1569-162 2). 

7 Since 1800 they had been used as barracks. 



416 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

of the ancient balcona was pointed out to us whence the conspirators 
precipitated Louis Farnese * after having killed him. The famous 
Alberoni, 2 Prime Minister to the King of Spain, was born in a hovel 
in this place and again lived in it after his disgrace. Pope Gregory 
the ioth, 3 and the painter Jean Baptiste Porta were also born here. 
The place is reputed to be very healthy, and Pliny reports that in 
his time there were six persons of no years of age, one of 120 and 
one of 140. About nine miles from this place in the Apennines is a 
place called Campo Morto where Hannibal so signally defeated 
the Romans. At half past nine we left Plaisance. The ancient 
Via ^Emilia began at this city and passing by Parma, Modena 
and Bologna, ended at Rimini. The modern road which we now 
travelled has been made on the foundations of this ancient way. 
After passing the village of Fiorenzuola we saw on our right the 
Abbey of the Citeaux which is believed to be situated near the 
spot where Sylla defeated the army of Carbo. We stopt an 
hour at the village of San Donnino upon the river Stirone. The 
ancient Julia Aisopoli 4 is supposed to have been situated a few miles 
from this place, from the ruins which have been discovered there. 
About an English mile before we passed the Taro we saw in a small 
village an old square castle partly in ruins, which is called the castle 
of Guelfo, and is said to have given its name to the faction of the 
Guelphs. 5 We passed the Taro on a platform supported between 
two boats. There were two branches occasioned by the middle of 
the channel being dry on account of the lowness of the waters. 
Both platforms were sufficiently wide to receive our carriage with 
four horses and another carriage with two horses, without unhar- 
nessing. Besides the Stirone and the Taro already mentioned, we 
passed this day several other small rivers, some of which were 
nearly dry. Among them were the Nura, the Chiavenna and the 
Arda. About six miles from the Taro we entered Parma. We 
passed also between Plaisance and Parma, the field of battle of the 
Spaniards some two or three hundred years since. At Parma we 
stopt at the inn called the Peacock which we found to be good. 

8. This morning we began our excursions about half past nine 
o'clock. We first visited the Ancient Baptistery, a Gothic building 
of an octagonal form, containing an immense fount from a single 
piece of marble in which baptism was formerly conferred by im- 
mersion. We next entered the Church of St. John the Evangelist, 

1 Pierluigi Farnese (1490-1547). 

2 Giulio Alberoni (1664-175 2). 

3 Tebaldo Visconti (1208-12 76). 

4 Veleia? I do not find the name given in the text. 
6 It is hardly necessary to say that this is not true. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 417 

which contains a "Descent from the Cross," and the "Martyrdom 
of St. Placide" by Correggio, a little faded but still excellent. We 
then visited the Cathedral, a very solemn temple of Gothic con- 
struction, but without elegance. The cupola was painted by Cor- 
reggio and is considered as his masterpiece, but the light in which 
we saw it was so bad that its excellence was lost for us. We found a 
monument on the wall of this church inscribed to Petrarch, who was, 
it appears, an archdeacon here. From the Cathedral we proceeded 
to the palace where, while the ladies were viewing the toilette of 
Marie Louise, I waited on Count Neipperg 1 and delivered to him a 
letter of introduction of which I was the bearer. He received me 
very politely and voluntarily offered to present her Majesty, the 
Archduchess. 2 I then joined the ladies and found the toilette to 
consist of a large table with a grand mirror, two vases, velvet 
drapery, a large standing mirror with the marriage of Napoleon 
and Marie Louise in the frame, two elegant vases, and a pair of 
golden boxes on the table. The cradle of the King of Rome of 
silver-gilt with a balustrade of the mother of pearl, and a large 
chain of silver-gilt of such weight that I could with difficulty move 
it. From the toilette we proceeded to the museum. It consisted 
of articles discovered in the ancient city, Veleia, in the neighboring 
Apennines which was supposed to have been buried by an earth- 
quake after Constantine. 3 There was a large plate of copper in- 
scribed with a contract between Trajan and some of the principal 
inhabitants, also a small plate of the Cisalpine Gauls, some statues, 
many fragments of household utensils and an assortment of ancient 
keys. From the museum we went to the Academy of Pictures, 
which is composed of those which had made the voyage to Paris. 
It was indeed a choice collection, containing among others a fine 
work of Raphael. After having spent an hour in examining this 
collection, we returned a little after twelve to our lodgings and 
found a note from Count Neipperg informing us that her Majesty 
would receive us at half past one. We had, therefore, scarcely 
time to prepare for this ceremony. At half past one we were punc- 
tual in our attendance and were most graciously received by her 
Majesty, and having passed about twenty minutes in her presence, 
[we] were informed by Count Neipperg, who attended us out, that 
we were expected to dinner at seven o'clock, and that we should 
receive a note accordingly. We had not been long at home before 
we received the promised invitation in due form. At dinner was 

1 Adam Albert, count of Neipperg (1 775-1829). 

2 Marie Louise (1 791-1847), now titular ruler of Parma, Piacenza and Guas- 
talla. Her marriage with Neipperg was morganatic. 

8 It was overwhelmed by a landslip, A. D. 278. 



418 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

the Archduchess, two maids of honour, Count Neipperg, another 
gentleman and ourselves. Mrs. Russell was placed on one side of 
the Archduchess and myself on the other. We found her Majesty- 
very affable and well informed. She made many inquiries concern- 
ing the United States. She said that when she was at Leghorn she 
had wished to visit one of our line of battle-ships but that Commo- 
dore Chauncey, 1 whose name she well remembered, had sailed. 
She regretted very much the disappointment, as she had been in- 
formed that our vessels of war were kept in most excellent order. 
She asked me if we had theatres in America, and if English plays 
were performed there. Being answered in the affirmative, she de- 
sired to know if Shakespeare was liked there, and particularly men- 
tioned his plays of Macbeth and Hamlet. She appeared indeed to 
be perfectly well acquainted with the works of this poet and with 
their character, and observed that she believed some parts must be 
omitted in the performance, as not fitted to the taste and manners 
of the present day. When I observed that in passing Verona I had 
seen the sarcophage of Juliet, she told me she had also been there 
and that she had procured some fragments of the stone which she 
had caused a jeweller to cut in hearts and to set in gold. In short 
we had a very pleasant dinner, which consisted of the choice luxu- 
ries served on plate and porcelain in the most sumptuous way. We 
took our leave at half past eight but were first informed that we 
should be invited to a ball the next evening. Just before I went to 
dinner the governor of the place had done me the honour to call 
on me. 

9. At ten o'clock this morning we went to see the famous print- 
ing office and foundry of the late Jean Baptiste Bodoni. 2 This es- 
tablishment had successfully rivalled that of Didot at Paris, and 
had once obtained the prize there for the best types. The people 
of Parma are very proud of this distinction and they have almost 
apotheosized Mr. Bodoni. A painter has drawn him receiving the 
homage of the authors whose works he had published. Among 
them are the most distinguished writers of Rome and Greece. A 
plate of this picture was shown to us. Among other performances 
he had produced the Russian character in type of thirty different 
sizes very perfectly and for which the Emperor Alexander made a 
present to the widow of an elegant breast pin, an amethyst set with 
diamonds, which the good woman showed us. It is the type only 
of Bodoni which is excellent, his editions have been frequently 
found incorrect and the paper much inferior to that used by Didot. 

1 Isaac Chauncey (1 772-1840). 

2 Giambattista Bodoni (1740-1813). 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 419 

From the establishment of Bodoni we went to visit the library. It 
contains some valuable manuscripts which have been procured by 
Marie Louise. The librarian informed us that the translation of 
the classical tour of Eustace in Italy was translated and would 
soon be published. We next visited the church of St. Paul. 1 It is 
the church of the Court, but we found its paintings injured. We 
finished our morning excursion by a walk to the ramparts which, as 
the weather was remarkably fine, was delightful. On returning 
to our inn we found the invitations of the Countess Scampini, dame 
d'honneur, for the ball of H. M. this evening. I again went out this 
morning and called on the Governor. He treated me very affably, 
and upon my asking as delicately as I could if Marie Louise cher- 
ished any feeling for her husband and felt any interest in his fate, 
the Governor, premising his confidence in my candour and discre- 
tion, meaning, I suppose, that I would not make him responsible for 
what he should communicate, told me that there was not the least 
doubt that she took the warmest interest in the fortunes of her 
husband and felt for him a sincere regard. That these sentiments 
she frequently discovered when the mention of her child lead to the 
subject. That passionate as Bonaparte might have been, he had 
uniformly treated her with tenderness which she not only avowed 
but which had been confirmed by La Harpe with whom he had 
conversed on this point. The only displeasure ever displayed by 
Napoleon towards her was on her discovering a repugnance to hold- 
ing frequently grand levees, and that this displeasure was very 
transitory and was not construed by her into unkindness. 

After my return to my lodgings, I received a message from the 
Governor with a medal of Marie Louise struck on her arrival at 
Parma by Bodoni in silver* 2 About half past nine o'clock we re- 
paired to the palace and found the company assembled, but that 
H. M. had not yet made her appearance. Mrs. Russell was con- 
ducted by a gentleman in waiting to her place, which was next on 
the right to the vacant seat of H. M. The seat of Amelia was next, 
to the right of Mrs. Russell. H. M. took the circuit of the hall, and 
having addressed individually every lady, took her seat. The ball 
immediately opened by H. M. and Count MacGavelin leading in a 
polonaise followed by the Grand Master, Count Neipperg and Mrs. 
R[ussell]. The rest of the company joined in succession. Imme- 
diately after her Majesty had resumed her seat, she sent Count 
Neipperg to request me to dance another polonaise with her. I of 
course assented, although my dancing days were long since past. 

1 Convent© di San Paolo. 

2 Miss Rivers has just given this medal to the Society. 



420 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

In the course of the evening she again sent Count Neipperg to me 
with the same message and I again danced the polanaise with her. 
She was both times wonderfully amiable and affable as we walked 
round the room and appeared to take great pains to amuse and to 
please me. The first time she told me that Count MacGavelin was 
an Irishman and counselled me to press him into a conversation. I 
took the hint and acted accordingly. I found MacGavelin to have 
come to this country about sixteen years since when he was at the 
age of sixteen years. He had risen to distinction in the service of 
Austria, and had been the first governor of the Parmesan for Marie 
Louise. He gave me much information concerning the country. 
According to him the Parmesan contains a population of about two 
hundred thousand. The country is fertile and produces amply 
sufficient for the consumption of the inhabitants. There are no 
manufactures but everything of this kind is brought from Austria, 
the duties on the goods of other countries amounting to a prohibi- 
tion. There are few fortunes in the country which amount to a 
thousand pounds per annum and only five or six which amount to 
four thousand pounds. The peasantry are wretchedly poor and 
live almost entirely on polenta or hasty-pudding, not allowing 
themselves even the addition of milk, as all their milk is appro- 
priated to the dairy. He considered this food to be unhealthy and 
the cause of a disease x very prevalent, which first makes its ap- 
pearance by inflammation in the hands, etc. This gradually in- 
creases during the first year. The second year the patient becomes 
insane, and the third year he dies. He considers the sovereignty of 
Marie Louise to be only nominal, and that her dominion depends 
entirely on her father, although he does not ostensibly and directly 
interfere; but the Austrian Ministers at Rome and Naples are also 
the diplomatic agents of Marie Louise. He appeared to be hostile 
to Bonaparte but said I should be astonished if I knew how many 
partisans he still had in Italy. The Italians hated the Austrian 
Government and would even prefer that of Sardinia. That Sar- 
dinia was indeed formidable to the Austrian power in Italy. That 
Sardinia had eighty thousand men well armed, and might overrun 
Lombardy when she pleased, there being nothing like a barrier on 
that side of the Adige, etc. At one o'clock we returned home. 

The painters Lanfranco 2 and the Parmesan, 3 were born at 
Parma. It was also the country of the famous conspirator Cassius. 

N. B. Gave the Governor some American coins. 

1 Pellagra. 

1 Giovanni Lanfranco (1581-1647). 

8 Francesco Parmigiano (1504-1540). 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 421 

10. Left Parma at half past nine o'clock, passed Reggio at half 
past one. Saw there the Cathedral and the statues of Adam and 
Eve by Clementi. 1 The famous poet Louis Ariosto 2 was born at 
this place. Passed the fine bridge of the Secchia about four. Its 
banks witnessed much hard fighting between the French and the 
Austrians. We also passed the little fortified place of Rubiera and 
arrived at Modena about six o'clock. 

11. Sallied forth this morning at 9 o'clock and first visited the 
Cathedral. We saw in the tower the celebrated bucket which is 
preserved as trophy over the Bolognese. There is much history 
connected with this bucket and a poem has been written about it. 3 
We went down into the vault under the tower which is supported 
on arches, below which are sprung other arches which support none 
of the weight but which are merely intended to ascertain if the 
mass sinks. The Cathedral contained nothing remarkable. We 
next visited the church of St. Dominique, which we found to be 
handsome, built in the shape of a Greek cross and containing some 
fine pictures. From the church of St. Dominique we went to the 
palace which had been built up by Napoleon. At the doorway were 
two statues by the famous Clementi, one of which was a Hercules. 
The suite of apartments which we saw were richly ornamented and 
furnished, and several rooms were adorned with excellent pictures, 
some of which had made a journey to Paris. There was a fine copy 
of the Night of Correggio, the original of which we had seen at 
Dresden. There were also many originals of the first masters: 
Guido, Titian, Caracci, 4 Lanfranco, etc. We also visited the church 
of St. George which contained nothing remarkable and was very 
small. We left Modena at half past eleven and at half past twelve 
passed the river Panaro and got out of the carriage to view the arches 
of the bridge over it. They were two in number and remarkably 
fine. About a league further we left the territory of Modena and 
at Urbino entered the papal dominions. The Modenese contains 
about half a million of inhabitants and is governed by the Duke 
Francis the Fourth, of the old house of Este. We also passed the 
rivers Lavino and the Ghironda which join each other about nine 
English miles to the eastward and form a peninsula 5 on which the 

1 Prospero Clementi (c 15 10-1584). 

2 Lodovico Ariosto (1474-1533). 

8 Tassoni's "Secchia Rapita," which is said to have given Boileau and Pope 
the hint and the model of the "Lutrin" and the "Rape of the Lock." 

4 Three of the name are known in Bologna, Lodovico (1555-1619), Agostino 
(1557-1602), and Annibale (1560-1609). 

6 It was an island, three miles long and two miles broad, with the two villages 
of S. Viola and S. Giovanni. 



422 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

triumvirate of Octavius, Anthony and Lepidus was formed. We 
reached Bologna at five o'clock. 

12. The first place which we went to see this morning at half 
past nine o'clock was the church of St. Petronio. On the floor of 
this church is the famous meridian of Cassini. 1 It is graduated for 
all the days of the year, and through a hole in the roof the sun at 
noon each day, in clear weather, shines on the corresponding day 
in the meridian. It has inscribed on it "Linia Meridiana mdclvi. 
Ampliori formi renovata mdcclxxvi." We next visited the two 
famous inclined columns. These columns were erected several 
centuries since by two noblemen of Bologna. The first erected his 
column, which from his name is now called Asinelli, three hundred 
and seven feet with an inclination of three feet and a half. His 
rival Garisenda began the other the year following intending to 
carry it much higher and to give it an inclination of eighteen feet. 
When, however, he had raised it one hundred and forty-four feet and 
given it an inclination of eight feet and two inches, the good peo- 
ple of Bologna became alarmed, particularly those in the neighbor- 
hood, and so strongly opposed the continuance of the work that it 
was abandoned. 2 From the columns we proceeded to the church 
of St. Bartolommeo fuori di Porta where we saw a beautiful 
Madonna by Guido. We next went to the church of St. Etienne in 
which is a marble column with an inscription that it represents that 
at which our Saviour was scourged. On a wooden cross over one of 
the altars another inscription declares [it] to contain a piece of the 
true cross. It was a busy day with the Catholics; at one of the con- 
fessionals a woman was confessing on one side, a man was waiting 
at the communication on the other, and a third was waiting with 
evident impatience in front. The church was anciently a temple of 
Isis; an inscription is still seen on the outside which was over the 
portal of that temple. From St. Etienne we went to the palace of 
Prince Ercolano. It has a fine entrance ornamented with statues 
of Hercules and four of the labours of Hercules, whence it may be 
supposed that the prince claims kindred with the demigod. We 
were ushered into a fine suite of rooms above stairs embellished 
with many fine pictures. Among others, Fortune, The Flagellation 
of our Saviour, The Adoration of St. Francis, and Psyche and Cupid, 
by Guido; a fine portrait of a lady by the Spanish painter Velas- 
quez; Love carrying a swan to Leda, by Titian; Charity, by Fran- 

1 Gian Domenico Cassini ( ). He drew the meridian line in 1656, 
and it was renewed by Eustachio Zanotti in 1776. 

2 Modern guidebooks say that the Torre Asinelli is 320 feet in height and 
four feet out of the perpendicular, and the Torre Garisenda is 163 feet in height, 
but has an inclination of ten feet. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 423 

ceschini, etc. The young Prince Ercolani has married the daughter- 
in-law of Lucien Bonaparte. We then walked to the Academy of 
Fine Arts. Below we were shown a fine statue of the death of Vir- 
ginia, by Professor Iacoma di Maria, a living artist. 1 The statue 
is said to have been much admired by Canova. We also saw below 
the modern prize pictures of the Academy, some of which were very 
good. On going upstairs we were shown in two rooms the finest, 
tho' not the largest collection which I had seen in Italy. By Guido 
there was Sampson, after slaying the Philistines, allaying his thirst 
from water streaming from the jaw bone of the ass, a St. Sebastian, 
fine tho' unfinished; a crucifixion; a portrait of a Pope, St. Andrea 
Cocini; Death of Christ, etc. by Louis Caracci; St. Matthew by 
Raphael; St. Cecilia and St. John. The latter, however, the Bo- 
lognese pronounced to be by Giulio Romano; The Martyrdom of St. 
Peter, by Domenichino, etc. We next went to see a little amphi- 
theatre erected by Bonaparte for comedy in the daytime. It was, 
like all his works, tasteful and magnificent. It was left open at the 
top and capable of containing three thousand spectators. We saw 
in returning to dinner the palace of Enzio, King of Sardinia, who 
was taken prisoner by the Bolognese while he was conducting 
succour to the Modenese, their enemies. He was kept in captivity 
all his life, but was treated it seems with much attention. His 
tomb is in the church of St. Dominique. Here also saw the famous 
[fountain of the] Giant, so-called from a colossal figure of Neptune 
which presides over it. After dinner we went to the Cathedral and 
saw the Annunciation in fresco by Louis Caracci, a fine painting. 
The baths of Marius are about one and one-half miles from Bologna, 
but are a mere mutilated heap of ruins and we did not see them. 
We also contented ourselves with a distant view of the church of 
St. Mary of Luke on the mountain, 2 so called because the Virgin 
is said to be painted by St. Luke. We also saw the arcade which 
conducts from the city to this church and which consists of six 
hundred and ninety arches. 

13. Went again this morning to the church of Petronio to 
examine the meridian of Cassini. In addition to the remarks of 
yesterday I found the following inscription on the wall at which 
the meridian ends below the winter solstice, viz: 

Meridianae hujus liniae 
tota longitudo 
intra verticalem 

1 Giacomo di Maria (1762-1833). 

2 Madonna di San Luca, on Monte della Guardia. 



424 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

et centralem solis radium 
' in hyberno solstitio 
est sex centimillisima pars 
circuitus 
universae terrae 

I made the whole length of the meridian one hundred and eight paces. 
The meridian is marked first "Punctum verticale" which is directly 
under the gnomon or hole in the roof; then on the left side of the 
line looking towards the winter solstice is marked "Signa Zodiaci 
ascendentia;" on the other side "Signa Zodiaci descendentia." In 
the middle 

Horae Italicae Meridia 

Perpendiculi partes centissimae. 

Then on the line first — 

Solstitium Aestium 
Junii die 22. 

This solstice is placed on the line at 36 and at fifteen hours and 
forty-nine minutes time. The whole line contains, in time, nineteen 
hours and eleven minutes. The whole graduation of the centissimae 
parts is one hundred and forty-eight from one extremity of the line 
to the other. 

At ten o'clock we took leave of Bologna, and after travelling 
about seven miles we began to ascend the mountains and were 
obliged to strengthen our team with a pair of oxen. We proceeded 
with these oxen a few miles when we exchanged them for a pair of 
horses, which we kept until sunset. We then continued travelling 
with our four horses until seven o'clock when we stopt at a miser- 
able inn at a place called Scaricalasino. There was not even rriilk 
there and we were obliged to wait an hour and a half until it could 
be brought from a distance which required this time. We found 
ourselves now among the highest of the Apennines, which are far 
inferior in sublimity and magnificence to the Alps. The wind was 
very high during the first part of the night, and we were informed 
that it blew sometimes with so much violence as to overset car- 
riages on the road and to render it dangerous to travel. 

14. We left Scaricalasino at eight o'clock this morning and had 
not proceeded a mile before we left the papal territories and en- 
tered those of Tuscany. About half past nine we stopt at a sorry 
inn and taking a guide we went more than a mile on foot through a 
rough and dirty path to view Pietra Mala where there is con- 
tinually a flame issuing from the earth. We found the surface of 
the ground which this flame occasionally occupied, for it is not 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 425 

constantly of the same extent, is about fifteen or eighteen feet 
square. It seems, according to what was told us, that the flame is 
sometimes suspended by high winds but never by the rains. Our 
guide was uncertain if it was burning this morning and stopt at a 
house on the way to take with him a small pot of coals, for it ap- 
pears that when the flame is suspended the application of fire to 
the earth will immediately revive it. We found most of the spot, 
however, in full flame mostly of a red colour. 1 The stones were 
burnt black and the earth smoked, but we could not observe any 
other effect of the fire on them. The smell of the flame was some- 
thing like ether, but more like electrical sparks. The flame burnt 
through the stones with a crackling sound, and would sometimes 
burst forth with this sound through places where it was not before 
visible. I produced the flame in several new spots by moving the 
surface with a stick. On returning to the inn we found that our 
coachman had sent for a couple of bottles of gas to a boiling spring 
which lay in another direction. 2 The mode of procuring this gas is 
by lowering the bottles empty and stopt with tow into the spring. 
We pulled out the tow and simultaneously applied a candle to the 
mouth of the bottle and the gas instantly took fire and continued 
burning until the bottle was full of water, which is continually 
poured into it from the time of drawing out the tow. The water 
falling to the bottom naturally forces out the gas which is specifi- 
cally lighter above, and as the gas passes through the burning mouth 
of the bottle takes fire. After noon this day we found ourselves 
almost constantly descending and arrived at four o'clock at an inn 
called Le Mascere. This inn commands the view of a fine valley 
surrounded by the Apennines and was covered with olive trees, the 
first we had seen, and cultivated fields. We took a walk to the 
chateaux of a nobleman in the neighborhood which, though not 
magnificent, was very pleasant. 

15. Left Mascara at nine o'clock this morning and about noon 
stopt for an hour to see the palace of Pratolino which formerly be- 
longed to the Medici. The building was a venerable old pile but 
had no claim to beauty. The garden was laid out in winding walks 
and the small artificial lakes and cataract were very pretty. This 
cataract was set in motion for our amusement and our guide ex- 
pected to see us astonished at the spectacle as if there had been no 
Niagara in the world. There was also near the palace a colossal 
statue of Neptune by John da Bologna which has been much cele- 

1 This place is known as Monte di Fo, and the flame Fuoco di legno. La- 
rousse says the flame is blue and in certain places red. 

* The water is cold and is inflammable as alcohol. The fountain is called the 
Buia. 



426 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

brated. It was in a posture between sitting and squatting, with 
one hand pressed upon a monster, which, when the fountain was in 
order, belched water. The whole, however, is now out of repair and 
apparently in decay. The statue if erect would measure, we were 
told, forty feet. After seeing this palace we resumed our journey 
and soon saw the spires of Florence where we arrived at half past 
two o'clock. We stopt at a hotel facing the Arno and called the 
Four Nations. It was the time of the carnival and the street in 
front of our hotel was covered with maskers. I immediately dressed 
and called on the Swedish Minister. 

1 6. As my ready cash was low and as my letters of credit were 
addressed to no one at Florence, I had decided on going early this 
morning to Leghorn where I should find a banker. I had ordered 
horses accordingly and they had already made their appearance 
when a letter was handed to me by the servant from the Swedish 
Minister, who was not at home when I called yesterday, pressing 
me in so earnest a manner to defer my journey to Leghorn until 
after the carnival, that I dismissed the post-horses. At ten o'clock 
I called on the Chevalier Lagersward, the Swedish Minister, and 
having frankly stated to him the reason of my intention of so sud- 
denly visiting Leghorn, he very politely assured me that he should 
most cheerfully remove that reason. I showed him my letters of 
credit on Leghorn when he informed me that one of the banking 
houses to which I was addressed there had a partner established in 
this city who would undoubtedly make the advances I needed. To 
this partner he immediately addressed a letter in my behalf and on 
delivering it I instantly had all my wants supplied. The Swedish 
Minister afterwards returned my visit and Mr. James Ambrosi 1 
called on me with a letter of introduction from Mr. Appleton, the 
American Consul at Leghorn. The maskers again paraded before 
our house this afternoon. At half past seven o'clock the Swedish 
Minister again called and accompanied us to the ducal palace 
where his Highness gave a great ball this evening. Before the ball 
began we were presented to the Grand Duke 2 who received us with 
great affability and made several inquiries concerning our journey 
and arrival. His form and face are in the same style of those of the 
rest of the family whom we have seen. The hall had just been fitted 
up and lighted with much taste by wax candles placed on half- 
round columns which diminished towards the top. When we first 

1 Agent for the United States at Florence, by appointment of the consul at 
Leghorn, and without public recognition. 

2 Ferdinand III, of Habsburg-Lorraine (i 769-1824). He married Louise 
Amelie Ther&se, daughter of Ferdinand IV, king of Sicily. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 427 

entered this arrangement had a magnificent effect, but in a little 
time the different rows of candles, which were near three feet long, 
having heated those immediately above them, thus incapable of 
supporting longer their own weight, bent over and reversed their 
attitude, pouring the melted wax on everything beneath them. 
Many a fine gown and new coat bore the marks of this extraordinary 
shower. Several servants were employed in extinguishing the 
offending candles which were ultimately reduced to less than half 
their original number and the whole symmetry of the original arrange- 
ment entirely destroyed. The room was, however, still sufficiently 
lighted. We were presented this evening to the chief officers of the 
court and to most of the corps diplomatique. There was an abun- 
dance of ices, lemonades, etc., but no supper. The Duke Palatine, 1 
a brother of the Grand Duke and his sister from Saxony, had ar- 
rived this afternoon and were present at this ball. Fifty or sixty 
English were presented en masse this evening. 

17. The morning was very rainy and we remained at home, ex- 
cepting a shopping excursion. At half past seven the Swedish 
Minister called on us and accompanied us to Louise de Stolberg, 
Countess of Albany. 2 This lady is from Mecklenberg-Strelitz and 
was married to the last pretender of the house of Stewart. She is 
said not to have conducted well towards her husband or to have 
lived happily with him. She is even said to have refused to see 
him as he requested on his death-bed. Her friends attempt to 
apologize for her conduct by accusing the husband of intemperance, 
but the more impartial find her in the wrong, and not only charge 
her with an improper connexion with the Poet Alfieri 3 but even 
with the Cardinal York, the brother of her husband. 4 She appears 
now to be about sixty and is much distinguished for her esprit and 
accomplishments. From the house of the Countess we went to a 
ball given by the nobles at their Casino. We found here as every- 
where else at Florence shoals of English. The Grand Duke, his 

1 Archduke Joseph (1776-0000), who married Alexandrine Paulowna, daughter 
of the Emperor Paul of Russia. 

2 Louisa, Countess of Albany (1 753-1824), daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, 
prince of Stolberg-Gedern, and wife of Prince Charles Edward Louis Philip 
Casimir (1 720-1 788), son of the Chevalier de St. George. Lord Broughton, who 
saw her in 1816, described her as " a fat old woman with blunt features and a 
coarse voice " and " vastly good-natured, at least for a Princess, which she 
affects not a little to be." Recollections of a Long Life, 11. 69. 

3 She eloped with Vittorio Alfieri, and openly lived with him as his mistress. 
She had separated from the Prince in 1777. 

4 Henry Benedict Maria Clement, Cardinal York (1 725-1807). He gave 
shelter to the Countess of Albany, when she had left her husband, and allowed 
Alfieri to have access to her. 



428 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

son, 1 and the rest of their family 2 made their appearance about 
nine o'clock. There was a plenty of dancing and a scarcity of re- 
freshments. Some of the gentlemen played pool at the billiard 
table in an adjoining room. We were informed that contrary to 
former custom some of the lower order of nobility had been this 
night admitted to the Casino. 

1 8. I received a letter from Mr. Appleton at Leghorn in which 
he informed me that he had in charge four letters for me which he 
considered too bulky for the post but did not urge me to make an 
excursion to Leghorn to receive them. A little after noon we went 
to what is called the Uffizi, where according to custom the maskers 
were to throng this day, but the weather being rainy their number 
was very small and we saw nothing wonderful. At six o'clock we 
went to dine with the Swedish Minister, and found there Lord 
Burghersh, 3 General Mackenzie, etc. After dinner they gave us 
the singing of Madam Copali, whom we had heard in Sweden and 
who is a Swede by birth. She sings remarkably well. A little after 
nine o'clock we returned home and at half past ten went to the 
theatre to see the masked ball. We first went into the box of 
Madame Frulani, the wife of the Minister of Finance, and the sister 
of Mr. Ambrosi who had been so attentive to us. We afterwards, at 
the urgent instance of the Swedish Minister, went into his box for 
the remainder of the evening. We took a walk among the maskers 
but saw very few in character. The Swedish Minister's box was in 
the lowest range and while we were in front of it the ladies were 
accosted by an Englishman who was in the character of a poet and 
which he performed with sufficient eccentricity. We learnt after- 
wards that it was a person by the name of Scroop. At half past 
twelve we returned home. 

19. This morning the Swedish Minister and his lady called on 
us by appointment and accompanied us to make calls on some of 
the other members of the diplomatic corps, among others the 
French, 4 Austrian 6 and English Ministers. We also called on the 
Grand Master of Ceremonies. Mrs. Russell had her teeth arranged 
this morning by the famous dentist Buzzei. The Swedish Minister 
called in the evening to attend us to the theatre but we declined 
going as we felt a disposition to repose. 

1 Leopold II (1 797-1870). 

2 Marie-Louise (b. 1798) and ThSrese (b. 1801). 

3 John Fane (1784-1859), Lord Burghersh until 1841, when he succeeded his 
father as Earl of Westmorland. 

4 Chevalier de Vernegues is given in the Almanack de Gotha, but Comte Dillon 
is mentioned by Russell more than once as the minister of France. 

6 Comte Antoine-Rodolphe Apponyi (1782-?). 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 429 

20. I took a walk this morning with Mr. Ambrosi and made 
several trifling investments. At half past eight o'clock in the 
evening we visited the Countess of Albany and assisted, agreeably 
to an invitation which she had given us, at a tea-party. We met 
there a very select party, among whom was the Prince Borghese l 
and his mistress the Duchess of Lante. We had been presented to 
them at the Grand Duke's and had afterwards seen them at the 
Casino of the nobles. They appeared to be disposed to treat us 
with marked attention. The Prince, however, has treated his 
wife very ill. She was Bonaparte's sister, Paulina, 2 and now lives 
separately at Rome, and he lives at Florence in a most public manner 
with the Duchess above mentioned. He is called her cavaliere ser- 
vente and here there appears to be no scandal annexed to this kind 
of connexion. When indeed I spoke of her to others she was uni- 
formly called a most charming and respectable woman. Indeed 
this species of gallantry, notwithstanding all that Eustace says on 
the subject, is as common as ever, and a lady sinks in her own esti- 
mation and loses a portion of her consideration in society who can- 
not appear with her cavaliere servente. The want of this appendage 
is ascribed to some defect concealed or apparent in the mind or 
person. At ten o'clock we left the Countess of Albany and pro- 
ceeded to the hotel of Count Dillon, 3 the Minister of France, who 
had invited us to a ball this evening. We found there the same 
company which we had seen at the tea-party with a few in addi- 
tion. Count Dillon emigrated soon after the commencement of the 
French Revolution and entered the service of England in which he 
continued for about twenty years. He told me he was one of four 
brothers who had crossed the Atlantic in favour of American In- 
dependence. He did not indeed reach himself the United States, 
having been wounded on the way at Grenada. One of his 1 brothers 
was guillotined 4 and another was drowned. The General 5 that was 
massacred at Lille was a cousin. I also met here an Irish Lord 
Dillon of the same family. 6 I had known this Lord in England 
who was then, however, only the Honorable Colonel Dillon. He is 
now violent in favour of the opposition, and is upon the whole a 

1 Camillo Filippo Ludovico (1775-1832). 

2 She was the widow of General Leclerc when the Prince married her. 

8 Edouard Dillon (1751-1839), son of Robert Dillon, of Bordeaux. He was 
the Minister of France at Dresden. 

4 Arthur, Comte Dillon (1 750-1 794), guillotined at Paris, was the son of 
Henry, Count Dillon and Charlotte Lee. 

6 Theobald Dillon (1 745-1 792), brother of Arthur, Comte Dillon. 

8 Henry Augustus Dillon-Lee, Viscount Dillon (177 7-183 2), was eldest son 
of Charles, Viscount Dillon and Henrietta Maria Phipps, daughter of Constan- 
tine, Lord Mulgrave. 



430 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

most eccentric man. I also met this evening with a very interest- 
ing Italian, the Marquis of [ ] who had long been in the 
diplomatic service of Prussia. About midnight we returned home. 

2 1 . This morning received very unexpectedly a call from Thomas 
Bartlett of Boston who had just arrived from Rome. We spent 
the remainder of the morning at home. Called at nine o'clock on 
the Swedish Minister and lady, and went at ten to the masked ball 
at the theatre which we found to be very crowded, all the rooms 
being open and filled. This evening Amelia masked and we became 
acquainted with the Count Solaro della Margarita, secretary of 
the Sardinian legation at Naples, who appeared to be a well in- 
formed young man. 

22. Called this morning on a gentleman from Demerara l and 
inquired after my old friend Madame Dusart; also called on Mr. 
Bartlett and walked with him to the Sotto d'Uffizi, but were too 
late to see the maskers. At half past five went to dine with Lord 
Burghersh. The party was small consisting of Lady Salter, Sir 
William Paine and five others, — all English. I handed in Lady 
Burghersh and enjoyed her conversation until the dessert when she 
was suddenly taken ill with fainting and was obliged to leave the 
table and the room. This was owing to her situation. From Lord 
Burghersh's we returned home in a short time and then went to a 
ball at the Grand Duke's. We found less company there than on 
the former night and this diminution was almost entirely at the 
expense of the English which did not render the party the less 
agreeable. I was, this evening, presented to the young Duke and 
had considerable conversation with him. He is in truth rather a 
dull young man. We returned home at twelve o'clock. 

23. Went this morning to see the maskers Sotto l'Ufiizi and 
found the crowd very great. They dispersed, however, about half 
past two. At half past three they thronged on the quay before our 
inn. At half past four went in our carriage to the Corso, and found 
a great number of carriages, some of which were very elegant, par- 
ticularly those of the Grand Duke and the Prince Borghese. The 
latter was accompanied as usual by the Duchess of Lante. Mrs. 
Russell and myself had now seen enough of the carnival and de- 
cided not to go to the ball this evening, but Amelia was actuated 
by a different spirit and placed herself under the protection of the 
lady of the Minister of Sweden and again went to the theatre. 

24. Mrs. Russell was confined this morning with her teeth. I 
attempted, however, to take a walk with Mr. Ambrosi to the Cas- 
cine, but was arrested on my way by the rain and was obliged to 

1 Faber. Page 431, infra. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 431 

take refuge in the church of a Franciscan Convent. I then re- 
turned home and having dressed went to dine with a gentleman from 
Demerara by the name of Faber. He is a very considerable planter 
in that Island and from him I learned several interesting particulars 
concerning the colony. Our dinner lasted until near nine o'clock. 
After it was over I called, with the Swedish Minister and the ladies, 
on the Countess of Albany and thence we went to pass the evening 
at [ ] where I was engaged in a game of whist. 

25. I called this morning to see Thomas H. Perkins, the son of 
Thomas H. Perkins of Boston, but I was told that he was not at 
home. I afterwards went with Mrs. Russell and Mr. Ambrosi to 
the gallery, but some of the ducal family being there the doors were 
shut against strangers. We then went to the palace of the Prince 
of Mozzi * and saw many fine pictures. That, however, which pleased 
us most was one painted at Florence by [ ] portraying 

Napoleon Bonaparte, receiving after the battle of Austerlitz the 
oath of the Saxons. The scene is represented by moonlight and 
torchlight, and exquisitely painted. The likeness of Bonaparte 
is very good and there is also the likeness of Murat, five or six mar- 
shals, four pages, etc., all taken from the life. We next went to the 
church of St. Lorenzo. This church is very rich, but like many of 
the Italian churches has never been finished. It contains the tombs 
of the Medici and marble monuments of some of them by Michael 
Angelo. These monuments are also unfinished. From the church 
of St. Lorenzo we went to the church of Santa Croce. This is a 
very ancient building of bad Gothique but very interesting for the 
monuments which it contains. Among others are the monuments 
of Galileo, the famous astronomer; Aretino, the poet; Machiavelli, 
the historian and civilian. His epitaph begins with "Tanto nomini 
nullum par elogium. ,, There is also a monument to the late poet, 
Alfieri, raised to him by his particular friend, the Countess of 
Albany. 

28. Our attempt to visit the gallery this morning was more 
successful. We entered it at eleven o'clock and remained till half 
past one. We did not, however, see one. half of the wonders which 
it contained, not even the Venus of Medici. The corridors contain 
many fine ancient busts and statues, which we passed very rapidly. 
Among the rooms which we afterwards entered, that which con- 
tains the group of Niobe and her children is particularly interest- 
ing. The story is the vengeance of Apollo, and the passions of 
anger and dismay are admirably depicted in the several statues. 
One only is yet dead and one wounded. The dead figure is perfect, 

1 Mozzi-Carolath. 



432 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

but the wounded one had suffered mutilation, and the head and an 
arm are modern, which undoubtedly alters the whole character of 
the man and renders his appearance very tame. He hangs his head 
now like a narcissus. The figure of the mother and the youngest 
daughter, in one piece, and the eldest daughter, at the other end 
of the room, are supposed to be by one artist who is supposed to 
have been Scopas. In another room we saw an admirable Magdalen 
by Carlo Dolci. In still another room was a fine Assumption in 
claro obscuro, by Fra Bartholomew. 1 There was a room of portraits 
of all the celebrated painters by their own hands. We had time 
this morning to visit a part of the rooms only. 

27. We repaired to the gallery again this morning but found 
the doors again shut against strangers on account of the presence of 
the Grand Duke and family. To indemnify ourselves for this dis- 
appointment we went to the Physical cabinet, where we saw not 
only a very valuable collection of specimens from the different 
reigns of nature, but a most wonderful collection of anatomical 
preparations in wax. This collection indeed is said to be the finest 
in the world. Besides these anatomical preparations in wax there 
were numerous representations of vegetables, fossils, etc., in the 
same material. We next visited the Academy of Arts where we 
saw some very good productions of modern artists and a very great 
number of casts of the productions of the ancients. Among these 
were casts of the Elgin marbles which had been made a present to 
the Grand Duke by the Prince of Wales. From the Academy we 
proceeded to the rooms of Morghen, the celebrated engraver. 2 We 
saw specimens of most of his performances. He is considered the 
first engraver in the world, but he sometimes multiplies his impres- 
sions to such a degree as to give very imperfect copies and thus to 
run the hazard of injuring his own fame. We found a young gen- 
tleman from New York named Main 3 studying the art with Mor- 
ghen. At three o'clock we obtained admission into the palace of 
Pitti and saw the several apartments containing a most precious col- 
lection of pictures by the first masters, particularly of Raphael and 
Titian. I had felt a bad cold all day and in the evening I was so sick 
as to be obliged to stay at home. Mrs. Russell and Amelia, however, 
visited the Countess of Albany and the Countess of Santini. 

28. I continued very ill with my cold this day and kept house 
and even my bed almost without intercession. My headache was 
unutterably painful. 

March 1. I was somewhat better this day but still continued 

1 Baccio della Porta, called Fra Bartolomeo de S. Marco. 

2 Raffaelo Sanzio Morghen (1758-1833). 

8 William Main. See Stauffer, American Engravers, 1. 169. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 433 

too sick to go abroad. Amelia, however, visited some of the churches 
with Madame Lagersward and Mrs. Russell visited in the evening 
Mrs. Graham and went a little while to the theatre. 

2. I found myself this morning weft enough to accompany Mrs. 
Russell and Amelia with Mr. Ambrosi to the gallery of paintings 
and saw the apartments containing the Venetian school and that 
containing the celebrated Venus of Medici. In this last room are 
several pictures of Raphael exhibiting in a striking way his three 
different manners. We received a call this day from Mons. and 
Madame Lagersward. 

3. At half past eight o'clock this morning we set off by an 
extra diligence for Leghorn. At eleven we passed Casciano * and 
Mr. Ambrosi, who was with us, told us a remarkable instance of 
fraternal animosity. The father had left his estate equally to two 
sons, who proceeded to the division, and whenever an article was 
found which had no exact match or counterpart they literally cut 
it in twain without any regard to the injury or even total destruc- 
tion of the article. At last one of the brothers was found mur- 
dered, and the survivor, who had often been heard to declare his 
intention to get rid of the deceased, was naturally suspected of 
being the murderer. He has, however, for want of proof hitherto 
escaped punishment. At half past twelve passed San Miniato. 2 
The church in this place contains the tombs of the ancestors of 
Napoleon Bonaparte who were patricians. At half past four 
o'clock we passed Pisa and arrived at Leghorn at half past seven. 
Stopt at the Aquilla nera — black eagle — a very tolerable inn. 

4. This morning had an early call from Mr. Appleton, the con- 
sul, and received our letters from America. After breakfast we 
took a walk with him to see the harbour. We found there an Al- 
gerine cruiser turned bottom upwards to be caulked. We after- 
wards left the quay and mounted an eminence in its vicinity which 
commanded a view of the sea whence, although the weather was 
not very clear, we distinctly saw the Islands of Corsica, Elba and 
Capraja; the two former so celebrated as the cradle and prison of 
Napoleon. On this eminence we saw the subterraneous vaults 
contrived for the preservation of corn and pulse from the insects. 
They consist of caverns completely walled and floored with brick 
through which neither air nor moisture can penetrate. These 
vaults have a small circular opening at the top of about two feet or 
two feet and a half diameter, which are closed by a cover on which 
the earth is thrown to the depth of two or three feet which brings 
it on a level with the surface of the earth. This as Mr. Appleton 

1 Cascina, on the Arno. 2 San Miniato al Tedesco. 



434 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

expressed it is hermetically sealing them. The philosophy of the 
contrivance is the complete exclusion of the air which prevents the 
insect from generating there and kills him if already in the com- 
modity. For want of air he crawls to the top of the mass and there 
perishes. We took a ramble about the streets of Leghorn which we 
found to be well built and thickly populated city, having an air of 
activity and business. We stopt at a large magazine of alabaster 
and made some small purchases of vases and lamps. Mr. Appleton 
dined with us, and in the evening I accompanied him and Mr. 
Ambrosi for a short time in the box of a Mr. Coat a Scotch banker 
and heard Mallenotta and Bernanotta sing. 

5. A call this morning from Mr. Appleton and having break- 
fasted we took leave of Leghorn at half past eight, Mr. Appleton 
having very politely handed me a letter for Canova and Trentanove. 
We reached Pisa at noon and remained there two hours during 
which time we visited the Cathedral, the inclined tower, the ceme- 
tery, etc. The Cathedral contains some fine statues and paintings. 
The inclined tower or campanile torto is one hundred and eighty- 
eight feet high and is ascended by one hundred and ninety- three steps. 
We had no desire to mount it as it has a frightful appearance varying 
from a perpendicular fifteen feet. There is a difference of opinion 
respecting the cause of this inclination, some ascribing it to design 
and some to the sinking of the earth. Whatever may have been 
the cause it is evident that it is occasioned by the foundation being 
no longer on a level. On one side there are three steps of about a 
foot high each, on which rest a pedestal of about two feet and a half. 
These steps not only diminish and disappear under the earth as 
they circle round the tower, but on the opposite side the whole base 
of the column and a part of the shaft are buried in the ground. The 
cemetery or Campo Santo is a magnificent Gothique marble arcade 
forming a square and containing many tombs of the inhabitants of 
Pisa. There are also many antiquities of Grecian, Roman and 
Egyptian origin. The walls are painted in stucco and among other 
subjects "The Last Judgment of Dante" is painted. The blessed 
look sufficiently contented and the damned sufficiently miserable. 
The devils and the angels appear to perform parts equally important, 
and there is a contest between two individuals of these different 
orders for the embodied spirit of a priest. In returning to our inn 
we passed the famous tower in which the celebrated Count Ugo- 
lino was confined whose fate has been strangely avenged by the 
imagination of Dante. We only saw the top of the tower which 
appears to be an isosceles triangle, the bottom being covered by a 
dwelling house of which it seems to form a part. We left Pisa at 
about half past two and arrived at Lucca at five where we found a 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 435 

good inn. Lucca contains twenty thousand inhabitants, and the 
territory seventy thousand. 

6. Left Lucca at half past eight o'clock and reached Pistoja at 
two. We remained there two hours in which time I called with Mr. 
Ambrosi on the Governor who treated us with a cup of coffee and a 
glass of Rosolio. He is Count Fanlom. He told me that Pistoja is 
very ancient; that its inhabitants took part with Catiline in his 
conspiracy and that he was defeated by Antony in this neighbour- 
hood. He likewise informed me that Pistoja has very [much] de- 
creased in population, that it has still sufficient habitations for the 
comfortable accommodation of twelve thousand persons, but that 
the actual number of inhabitants does not exceed ten thousand. 
The neighbouring country, however, he stated to be very populous. 
We left Pistoja at four o'clock and arrived at Florence at nine. 

7. Called this morning on Baron Lagersward. Soon after re- 
ceived a call from him and his lady. Dismissed this morning our 
waiting woman Francesca for impertinence, intemperance, indolence, 
and dishonesty. Had a call about three from Robert Goodloe 
Harper, 1 who announced himself as General Harper of the United 
States — much disappointed in his manners and appearance. 
The Emperor of Austria and his suite arrived at five o'clock this 
afternoon and the town was illuminated in consequence of that 
event this evening. At half past seven we ordered our carriage and 
rode round the city to see the sights. It was on the whole rather a 
shabby illumination. The palace of the Prince of Borghese had the 
most splendid appearance. Mr. Ambrosi accompanied us on this 
excursion. My cold although much better is still troublesome. 

8. Went this morning to the gallery of pictures and again saw 
the apartment of the Venus of Medici. The first manner of Raphael 
is exhibited in a portrait; his second manner in two pictures of the 
Virgin, Jesus and St. John; and his third manner in a Pope, his 
mistress, and St. John in the wilderness. We also visited the Dutch 
school this morning and the cabinet of precious stones. In this last 
an onyx vase was shown worth at least $100,000. From the gallery 
we went to the Church of Annunciation and saw in the corridor a 
picture of the Virgin and Son in fresco, which is very much admired 
and which it is said Titian specially visited Florence to see and that 
it exceeded his expectation. From the church I went to call on 
Count Neipperg but did not find him at home. I then went with 
Mrs. Russell and called on Madame Lagersward. After setting 
Mrs. Russell down at our inn I went ashopping and bought a trunk 

1 (1 765-1 825). He was a member of the United States Senate at this time, 
and owed his military rank to service in the war of 181 2. 



436 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

for three dollars. I then called on Mr. and Mrs. Harper. Dined at 
home. Called with Mrs. Russell and Amelia on Mrs. Harper and 
then went to the theatre and saw poor acting. 

9. Went this morning after breakfast to the gallery and saw 
again the Venetian school; the room containing antiquities; the 
fine Mercury in bronze; the group of Niobe; the Dutch and French 
schools; the room containing the Venus of Medici, etc. In going 
to the gallery this morning I stopt at a manufactory of swords and 
asked the price of one which I wanted and was told it was seven 
franceschonis. 1 Upon demanding the very lowest it was six and 
one-half. I offered six which was refused, and I walked on intend- 
ing to return after seeing the gallery and to take the sword at six 
and a half. I accordingly went again to the manufactory at three; 
pointed out the very sword which I had seen in the morning and 
requested the manufacturer to do the little that was still wanting 
to finish it. This he did and when I was directing the servant to 
take it, and had taken out my money to pay for it, I observed the 
price asked was six and one-half franceschoni but was most aston- 
ished to hear the manufacturer assert that it was seven and one- 
half franceschonis. My valet de place affected to be as much sur- 
prised as myself as he perfectly remembered that in the morning the 
highest price asked was seven franceschoni and that the sword was 
actually offered afterwards for six and one-half. For my own part, 
revolting at such bare faced fraud and falsehood, I left the sword 
where I had found it. This singular effrontery is not, however, 
peculiar to this sword manufacturer. Some days since I ordered 
some shoes to be made for Mrs. Russell and had very distinctly 
agreed to pay for them six francs the pair. When he had made the 
shoes and brought them home he insisted that I had agreed to pay 
ten francs. 

At five o'clock we accompanied the Baron Lagersward to the 
palace of Marie Louise. We found Count Neipperg in waiting. 
The ladies were first introduced. After they had come out the gen- 
tlemen were introduced. These consisted of the Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, the Minister of Interior, the Minister of Finance, and the 
diplomatic corps. Her Majesty received us en circle, that is, we 
stood in form of a crescent. The order was as follows: The Minister 
of Foreign Affairs, Mons. Fossombrone; the Minister of England, 
Lord Burghersh; the Minister of France, beaux Dillon; the Minister 
of Interior, Prince Corsini; 2 the Minister of Finance, Mr. Frulani; 3 

1 The francescone was a coin of Tuscany, worth about 45 centimes, but 
there is no mention of the coin of the text. 

2 Thomas Corsini, Prince of Simismeno (1767-1856). 

3 Leonard Frulani (1 756-1824). 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 437 

myself; the Minister of Sweden, Baron Lagersw&rd; the Charge 
d'affaires of Portugal, Mr. Quinn; the Charge d'affaires of Russia, 
Mons. Svertchhoff; the French, English, and Austrian secretaries. 
Her Majesty addressed each individual. With the Minister of 
England, whom she had seen before, she conversed very gaily, but 
when she addressed the Minister of France she was evidently em- 
barrassed, cast down her eyes and appeared sad. She merely in- 
quired of him after the Duchess of Berry, 1 whom she said was her 
cousin but had never seen her. Of me she made inquiries concern- 
ing our journey; whether we had yet found a vessel for the United 
States; where our vessels of war were, if we arrived during the car- 
nival; if we had been to the ball of the Grand Duke; if we were 
going to Rome for the Holy Week; said it was said it would not be 
so gay as usual as the Pope would not pontificate but one or two 
days, etc. I spent the evening at home with Mrs. Russell but 
Amelia went with Madame Lagersward to a ball at Madame Le 
Blanc's. 

10. We began this morning to make our arrangements for 
packing up. I went at twelve o'clock to see the Baptistery which 
is a very ancient building and by some said to have been a temple 
of Mars. The doors of this building are very celebrated and were 
said by Michael Angelo to be worthy of being the gates of Paradise. 
They were made by Ghiberti, father and son. At five o'clock 
Baron Lagersward called and took me with him to the Palace Pitti 
to be presented to the Emperor and Empress of Austria. No ladies 
were this day presented. Count D'Apponyi, the Minister of Aus- 
tria did the honours of the day. The Grand Chamberlain of the v 
Emperor and the Grand Master of the Empress were in the ante- 
chamber and the members of the diplomatic corps were presented 
to them with one unaccountable exception. The Emperor received 
the members of the diplomatic corps in succession. The English 
Minister and his secretary, first entered; then the French Minister 
and his secretary; then the Danish Minister, 2 who has no secretary; 
then Baron Lagersward and myself. After us the Portuguese 
Charge d'affairs and the others in the same order as yesterday. 
The Emperor remembered me and asked many questions concern- 
ing my journey hither and the voyage to the United States. He 
inquired after Mrs. Russell and expressed an expectation of meeting 
us at Rome. After leaving the Emperor we proceeded to the apart- 
ments of the Empress and were presented to her in the same order. 

1 Marie-Caroline-Ferdinande-Louise de Bourbon, Duchesse de Berry (1798- 
1870), daughter of Ferdinand I. She married in 1816 the Due de Berry, nephew 
of Louis XVIII. 

2 Baron de Schubart. 



438 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

She was very courteous, inquired after Mrs. Russell and the child, 
etc. In the evening we went to the theatre until half past ten. 

ii. We went this morning to the gallery and spent an hour in 
the apartment of the Venus of Medici. We met there Mr. Harper 
and his wife with young Mr. Taylor. We afterwards took a ride 
with our little one to the Cascine. At five we went to dine with the 
Baron Lagersward. At seven we went with him to the theatre. 
About eight the Emperor, Empress, Marie Louise, Grand Duke, 
etc., made their appearance. There had been every arrangement 
made to secure them a distinguished reception. All the fauteurs of 
Austria among the rabble had been allowed to enter gratis and a 
host of police officers were placed in the pit for the purpose of ap- 
plauding. Still, however, the applause was so feeble that the voice 
of the police officers in the pit, directing the covered to take off 
their hats was very distinctly heard. The Emperor and Empress 
first appeared and after they were seated Marie Louise slid silently 
to her place near them. This mode of proceeding was believed to 
be entirely at the direction of the Emperor. While at Venice the 
daughter had so notoriously engrossed every expression of public 
regard that the father could not conceal his chagrin. He therefore 
resolved here to keep her as much out of sight as possible. Not- 
withstanding all this a murmur was distinctly heard in the pit, 
after Marie Louise was discovered, "Ecco la Napoleonide." 

12. At ten this morning we went in company with Mrs. Hall 
and Madame Lagersward to visit the reclusio, which is an estab- 
lishment for the support of the indigent. It is very spacious com- 
prising two ci-devant convents. Begging publicly is forbidden in 
Florence and the beggars have been taken up and those who were 
able to work were placed in the reclusio. Many of the mechanic 
arts are here taught and carried to great perfection. The first 
room which we entered contained very small female children em- 
ployed in knitting woolen hosiery. We successively on the female 
side passed through rooms containing winders, and weavers of silk 
and linen. On the male side were manufacturers of carpets, cutlery, 
etc. There were at first about two thousand people confined here 
but the number is now reduced to about nine hundred of which three 
hundred are females and the rest males, — chiefly boys and girls. 
The reason of this diminution is that those who are discharged as 
capable of managing their own affairs and providing for their own 
subsistence, greatly exceeds the number of recruits that the actual 
state of mendicity at Florence supplies. For whenever any of the 
workmen have given sufficient evidence of good conduct and declare 
a wish to leave the place they are permitted so to do, but if after- 
wards they should be detected in begging they are imprisoned and 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 439 

punished. To encourage them while they are in the reclusio one- 
third of the net proceeds of their labour is appropriated to their 
use, that is, one-half of this third is placed to their absolute disposal 
at once, and the other half is placed in trust to constitute a fund for 
their support in old age. This institution would exclusively de- 
serve praise were it not sometimes abused for unjust purposes. As 
the government of Tuscany is entirely arbitrary there are instances 
of persons, who were not mendicants or poor, being confined here 
on the denunciation of their enemies or what is still more horrid at 
the instance of their relations and even of their fathers. After leav- 
ing the reclusio we returned to our inn and then took a walk to the 
gallery but could not get in as the Emperor was there. We then 
took a walk to the Cathedral and afterwards called on Mrs. Harper 1 
but she being sick we were not received. We then dressed and took 
a ride to the Cascine and at five o'clock went to dine with Mr. 
Graham and lady. The Swedish, Danish and Portuguese Ministers 
were of the party. In the evening we went to the Pergola and were 
invited into the box of the Marquis of Corsi where we took ices and 
other refreshments. The Marquis was charged this evening with 
the police of theatre. 

13. We went this morning to the gallery and were again refused 
admittance as the Imperial Family were there. We afterwards rode 
to the Gascine and in the evening went to the Pergola and saw the 
opera of Othello. The singing and music were very fine but the 
acting was very bad. 

14. We were very busy this day making arrangements to leave 
Florence. In the morning at eight o'clock, however, we visited the 
Cathedral and saw in it some of the fine works of Michael Angelo* 
Generally, however, we were not pleased with the interior of this 
church. We next went to the house of Signor Buzzei who had a 
few choice pictures by the first masters; among others the Visit of 
Alexander to Diogenes, by Salvator Rosa, and the Virgin, Jesus, 
St. Joseph and another saint by Titian, — small but excellent. I 
next went to leave my cards P. P. C. with the persons from whom we 
received attention at Florence. I called with Mrs. Russell on the 
Countess of Albany, the Marchioness of Santini and the Duchess 
of Lante. The two former only we found at home. We received a 
visit from Madame Lagersward and Madame Graham. In the 
evening we went to the theatre to take leave of the Baron Lagers- 
ward and his lady who had been particularly attentive to us. The 
Baron gave us several letters of introduction to Rome and Naples 

1 She was a daughter of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, and married Harper 
in May, 1801. 



440 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

and the Duchess of Lante sent us a very flattering letter to the 
Princess Chigi at Rome. It is well to remember that whenever we 
visited the theatre we had seats in the box of the Baron Lagersward. 

15. At eight o'clock this morning we left Florence with a vet- 
turino for Rome. We stopt at noon at a small town where we found 
a family in their carriages also travelling towards Rome. We 
reached Levane at five o'clock where we found a very bad inn and 
very ungracious hosts. It was not until after the arrival of the 
family which we overtook at noon that we were allowed to take pos- 
session of the rooms which suited us. The chief of this family 
proved to be a Russian Admiral * who, together with his lady, was 
very polite and insisted on our having the apartments which we 
wished, but which had been before refused us having been ordered 
by an ayant courier for him. 

16. We left our inn this morning without regret, at seven o'clock, 
having first eaten a bad breakfast. We arrived at Arezzo at twelve 
and stopt to dine just beyond the town. While dinner was prepar- 
ing I took a walk into the town and saw the remains of an amphi- 
theatre built in the time of the Romans. A part of the circuit is 
covered by the church of Olivetains but the rest is very conspicuous 
but in a very ruinous state being a few feet only above the surface 
of the earth. In a vault beneath the ruins the figure of a man 
painted in fresco was shown me, but I could not learn from my 
guide when, by whom, or for whom it was painted. Arezzo was the 
birth place of the celebrated Maecenas the patron of genius. After 
dinner we proceeded on our journey and arrived at Cammucia at 
five o'clock where we stopt for the night. I immediately took a 
walk to Cortona, the ancient Corytum, one of the twelve principal 
Etruscan cities. It is situated on a hill of pretty steep ascent in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Cammucia. I regretted that it was 
too late to see the ruins of an ancient temple of Bacchus and of some 
baths ornamented with mosaic, as well as the tomb which is still 
shown as that which covers the remains of the imprudent, unfortu- 
nate consul Flaminius. As the Russian Admiral had again com- 
manded rooms for his family at this inn which was small, it was not 
until his arrival that we could obtain lodgings. 

17. Left our inn at seven and passed the boundary line which 
divides the dominions of the Grand Duke of Tuscany from those of 
the Pope. At the papal custom-house they contented themselves 
with leading 2 our baggage, to which I consented in order to avoid 
a dispute and to save time. At eleven we* passed the lake called by 

1 The name is given in a later entry — Morzwindoff . 

2 Sealing with lead. 



1918] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 441 

the Romans Trasimenus, by the modern Italians Perugia, and by 
the French Perouse. It is a delightful sheet of water, surrounded 
by hills and a well cultivated country, and celebrated by the defeat 
of the Romans under their consul by the Carthaginian General 
Hannibal. We also passed the little stream called Sanguinetto, 
said to have received this name from the blood of the Romans with 
which it was swelled and discoloured on that occasion, altho' others 
suppose the battle to have taken place where the little village of 
Ossoja now stands, as many human bones have been there found. 
The Sanguinetto is a small brook, even at this season, and must be 
nearly or quite dry in summer. After passing the lake we ascended 
a very elevated hill which gave us a fine view of the country which 
we had passed. We dined at one o'clock and then proceeded to 
Perugia where we stopt for the night. Perugia is placed on a moun- 
tain of considerable height and from the castle on the top we had a 
most extensive view of the adjacent country. We also visited the 
church of St. Pedro, 1 but it was too dark to see the paintings to ad- 
vantage. We this night found a comfortable inn and the Russian 
Admiral with his family lodged at another inn. 

18. Breakfasted this morning as usual at six thirty and began 
our journey at seven. We soon passed the Tiber on the bridge of 
St. John, and at ten a little town called Spello where we saw the 
ruins of an ancient amphitheatre. At half past eleven we stopt at 
Foligno to dine, where we met again the Admiral and family. I 
went immediately with Mrs. Rfussell] to see the famous picture 
of the Virgin in her glory by Raphael. We left Foligno at one and 
soon after 2 passed the little temple dedicated by the Romans to 
the river Clitumnus on whose banks it stands. This edifice ap- 
peared to be nearly entire and beautiful for its simplicity, but the 
lower part was about ruined in something like a mill-dam. We 
reached Spoleto at half past four where we stopt for the night. 
We immediately went to view the famous acqueduct which crosses 
a deep valley between the town and the mountain Maroggia. 
Along this aqueduct is a narrow bridge for foot passengers. It is 
six hundred feet in length and three hundred feet high supported by 
several ranges of small arches one above the other. This work with 
the valley and the Maroggia which is covered with houses almost 
to the top, presents one of the most enchanting views we had ever 
witnessed. We next visited the Cathedral where there is a fine 
picture of Correggio. We then passed to the other extremity of 
the city to see the gate which is called the Porta di Fuga and at 
which we arrived by the Via de Annibali. The origin of these names 

1 San Pietro de' Cassinensi. 2 Near Campello. 



442 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

is said to have been the precipitate retreat of Annibal from before 
this place which he had besieged after his victory over Flaminius 
and which he expected would have surrendered without much re- 
sistance. But the citizens made a resolute defence and by a vigor- 
ous sortie compelled him suddenly to abandon his enterprise. Near 
the Porta di Fuga is the remains of an ancient bridge consisting 
of three arches, one of which only is entire, and which is now called 
the Bloody Bridge, as it is said to have been the place of execution 
of no less than seven thousand Christian martyrs. The Admiral 
stopt this night within the walls of Spoleto and we lodged in the 
suburbs just without the walls towards Rome and we fared extremely 
well. 

19. Left our quarters at seven and reached Terni at eleven. 
We immediately took a calash and went to visit the famous cata- 
ract of Marmore. We proceeded two or three miles along the road 
in the carriage when we left it, and turned through the field along 
the river on foot for about two miles further. The descent at first 
was very considerable and in places very rough. Just before we 
arrived at the falls we met the Admiral and his family on their re- 
turn, arid as they had taken jackasses for their accommodation they 
very kindly offered us a couple for our accommodation. We would 
consent, however, to take but one. A few minutes afterwards we 
arrived at the falls and our expectations were much disappointed. 
We viewed them from below. The water, which forms a mere 
brook of about twenty feet wide, appears to fall over the brow of 
the opposite hill, or, as it is called, mountain, and its first perpen- 
dicular descent is said to be two hundred feet, tho' to the eye it 
seemed less. The stream is called the Velino and is said in all to 
descend one thousand and sixty-three [feet], but to us the rapids 
below the first fall had nothing interesting. There was certainly mist 
enough to have formed rainbows had the sun been in a proper 
position, but we saw none. To us who had seen the great' falls of 
Niagara the cascade of Marmore appeared a wretched dwarf. We 
returned to Terni, which was formerly called Interamna, being 
between the two branches of the Nera, to dine. Mrs. Russell and 
Amelia took turns in riding the jackass the Admiral had furnished. 
The Admiral had, from a fear of highwaymen, with which this 
country abounds, provided himself with a military escort of four 
dragoons, and he politely invited us to keep him company and 
share in the protection. We accordingly set off together after dinner. 
Terni, or Interamna, was the birthplace of the Emperor and of the 
historian Tacitus. In passing Narni the ancient Nequinum, the 
streets being rather narrow our driver very carelessly drove us 
against the iron grating of a window and broke one of our lanterns 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 443 

and injured one of the arms of our carriage — chastisement little 
satisfaction. We reached Otricoli, anciently Oriculum, at half past 
five. Oriculum is thirteen leagues from Rome but the Emperor 
Constantine is said to have believed on leaving to be entering that 
city, as the whole distance was at that time crowded with magnifi- 
cent buildings and splendid monuments. We this night slept at 
the same inn as the Admiral, and fared rather poorly but as well as 
our companions. 

20. We left Otricoli about six o'clock and about half after nine 
passed Civita Castellana, where Alexander the sixth built a palace 
which looks like a castle, and which has been used as a prison of 
state. This town is situated on a steep hill or mountain on which 
formerly stood, but not precisely in the same place, the ancient city 
of Fescennium, the capital of Falerii. It was before this town that 
Furius Camillus had been for nearly two years besieging it in vain, 
when a schoolmaster who had been entrusted with the children of 
the principal inhabitants betrayed his trust and delivered his 
pupils to the Roman general who, disgusted with this meanness and 
treachery, caused the betrayed scholars to scourge their pedagogue 
back into the town, which so pleased the beseiged that they imme- 
diately surrendered the place. We reached the small town of Nepi 
about half past eleven where at the recommendation of the Ad- 
miral we consented to pass the remainder of the day, as Baccano, 
the place where we had been destined by the vetturino to lodge, 
was reputed to be unhealthy. There is a considerable aqueduct of 
modern date at Nepi but nothing else worth seeing. 

21. We left Nepi at six o'clock with an escort of four dragoons, 
who ranged themselves successively by the side of the four car- 
riages. These dragoons were relieved regularly by the same num- 
ber of others at the distance of five or six miles. The country from 
Nepi to Rome we found to be poorly cultivated and sparsely in- 
habited and without one vestige of antiquity to attract our at- 
tention. We discovered Rome at a distance of five or six miles by 
its towers and domes but we did not see the dome of St. Peter's 
until we had got a mile or two nearer, as it was concealed by high 
ground on our right. We arrived at the Eternal City by the Gate 
of the People about three o'clock and passed the custom-house 
without trouble, as we were considered as part of the train of the 
Russian Admiral who had provided himself with a free pass. We 
first stopt at the Hotel of La Grande Europe, but not being able to 
obtain apartments there we drove to that of La Grande Bretagne 
where we were tolerably accommodated tho' much to the dis- 
satisfaction of Amelia. Being fatigued we did not go out this 
evening. 



444 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

22. This morning about eleven o'clock I called by mistake on 
the Prussian Minister supposing that the letter addressed to Mr. 
Bartholdy the Charge d'affairs of Prussia. 1 The minister, however, 
received me very politely. I next called on the Dutch Minister 2 
for whom I had a letter from Baron Lagersward which I delivered 
to him and received in return the usual tender of service. He en- 
gaged to present on Thursday next to the Cardinal Minister Gon- 
zalvo. After making these calls I went, with my valet de place, in 
search of other apartments till dinner time but without success. 
I renewed this search after dinner with the same bad fortune. I 
saw many things this day en passant, viz.: The Palace of Louis 
Bonaparte, Madame Letitia, Doria, etc., the Mount Quirinal and 
the statues there of Castor and Pollux with their horses and the 
obelisque, the column of Trajan, etc. In the evening I found my- 
self very unwell with a cold and went to bed at eight o'clock. 

23. Although very sick this morning I again went out after 
lodgings and at length succeeded in finding some which suited but 
for which thirty Louis d'or per month was demanded. It was 
necessary to take them or run the risk of having none, as those I 
occupied at the Grande Bretagne were engaged to others after the 
first week. I therefore took them and agreed to sign the contract 
on the morrow. I called on Mr. J. G. Joy at half past three at the 
Grande Europe and found him at home, with three other young 
Americans among whom were a Mr. Gibbs and a Mr. Smith. Find- 
ing myself very ill after dinner I went to bed at half past seven. 

24. I felt myself somewhat better of my cold this morning, and 
I received the agent of the woman whose apartments I had en- 
gaged in order to execute the contract. In any other country I 
should have been surprised to discover that the instructions he 
had received varied essentially from the terms of the contract 
which I had made. He was authorized to lease only a part of the 
rooms for twenty-five Louis and not the whole for thirty. After a 
long discussion in which I peremptorily refused to take less than the 
whole he went for new instructions and returned saying I might 
have the whole provided I took them for two months instead of one. 
This I categorically refused to do and expressed my indignation at 
such equivocation and declared that I considered the negotiation 
at an end. He then requested me to wait half an hour until he should 
again consult his principal. I told him he might act as he pleased 
but that I should consider myself entirely free. He returned, how- 
ever, within the half hour and the proprietor, having agreed to the 

1 The sentence is incomplete. The Prussian minister was the historian, Bar- 
thold Georg Niebuhr (1 776-1 831). 

2 Baron de Reinhold. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 445 

terms which were first contracted between us the contract was 
executed accordingly. While this business was proceeding the wife 
of the Russian Admiral with her two daughters called on us and I 
proposed an excursion to Tivoli on Friday. At half past twelve I 
went with Mrs. Russell to make several calls on persons for whom 
we had letters, the Princess of Chigi, letter from the Duchess of 
Lante; the Princess of Barberini, letter from Ambrosi; the Mar- 
chioness of Greca, letter from Baron Lagersward; Col. Bonar and 
lady, letter from Major Weiss. We afterwards rode to the church 
of St. Pierre where we remained two hours. The most curious thing 
which we saw on the inside was a statue of Jupiter Capitolinus 
turned into St. Peter. The hands and head were new but the toes 
of the right foot of the old Jove, which projects a little beyond the 
pedestal, have been worn quite smooth by the labial taste of the 
worshippers of St. Peter. After dinner we took a ride on Mt. Pincio 
and through the course to Mount Quirinal and viewed the obelisk 
and statues of Castor and Pollux which stand before the Pope's 
palace. On the base of one of these statues is an inscription denot- 
ing it to be the work of Phidias and. on the other the work of Prax- 
iteles. We spent our evening at home. 

25. As I had an engagement this morning with the Dutch 
Minister to accompany him at noon to wait on the Cardinal Gon- 
zalvo * I did not go out before that time, but Mrs. Russell went to 
the church of St. Maria de Minerva to see there a ceremony at 
which the Pope 2 was present. The Dutch Minister came at the time 
appointed and I went with him to the palace of the Quirinal, but 
before we arrived there we fell in with the cortege of the Pope and 
actually appeared to make a part of it as we passed all the guards 
with their arms presented. There is considerable pomp in the 
movements of his Holiness. He is too infirm to ride the white 
mule as usage requires but this animal is led before. The Pope is 
placed with four of his officers in a splendid state coach in the 
Spanish form. His two postilions ride without their hats with 
their hair powdered. A troop of cavalry, all young noblemen, 
make a part of the escort. Two or three carriages follow. To a 
considerable distance from the palace the street was lined with in- 
fantry on each hand with a very full band of music. The troops 
are all dressed in the French military fashion and make a very 
different appearance from the papal forces thirty years since. On 
arriving at the palace we found unfortunately that the Cardinal 
Gonzalvo had not returned with the Pope from the ceremony of 
St. Maria. I left my card and returned to my hotel with the Dutch 

1 Ercole Consalvi (1 777-1824). 2 See page 450, infra. 



446 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

Minister who spent some time with us. Before he had come in the 
morning a Mr. Cobb of Boston called and left cards for his wife 
and the Miss Inches. 1 About one we had a visit from the Princess 
of Barberini (Chiara) and her husband who staid half an hour and 
made us repeated offers of the most obliging services. Soon after 
they were gone Major Sommerville came in and remained some 
time. After his departure we all called on Lucien Bonaparte but 
found nobody at home. We left our names but not our cards and 
then drove to the church of St. Maria Maggiore on the Mount Es- 
quiline where we remained until dinner time. The colonnade in 
this church is really magnificent. It consists of thirty-six Ionic 
Grecian pillars and four granite pillars of the same order. On our 
return home we found cards from Col. Bonar and his lady with a 
note from the latter. While at dinner we received a card from 
Lucien Bonaparte. I spent the evening at home. 

26. The Russian Admiral and his lady called on us this morning 
and definitely arranged a party for Tivoli to-morrow. Soon after, 
as Mrs. Russell was busy, I went alone to see the Coliseum and the 
ruins of temples and triumphal arches in its vicinity. While I was 
absent Doctor Heap 2 and Messrs. Barnard and Robinson of Vir- 
ginia called, on me. I wrote this morning to Consul Hammet 3 of 
Naples to inquire the probability of obtaining a passage from that 
port for the United States. Called on the Cobbs and the Inches 
this morning and found them at home. At eight o'clock we went to 
take tea with the Minister of Holland, and at half past nine went 
from thence to the house of the Princess Barberini where we re- 
mained until eleven. Here we found a specimen of Italian conversa- 
zioni. There were about twenty persons assembled* and all ex- 
cepting half a dozen, in which was included the mistress of the house 
and ourselves, play at cards. One table was of faro and one of 
Boston. 

27. Agreeably to the arrangement which we had made yester- 
day with Admiral Morzwindoff we this morning a little before nine 
o'clock set off for Tivoli. Our party consisted of the Admiral and 
his family, a Russian Count and his companion, and a Russian 
colonel and his lady who, with us, amounted to ten persons, be- 
sides five or six servants and two dragoons who escorted us. The 
country between Rome and Tivoli is very thinly inhabited, very 

1 Probably daughters of Henderson Inches of Boston, and sisters of Hen- 
derson Inches, Jr., who married Susan Brimmer, sister of Martin Brimmer, 
Mayor of Boston. 

2 Samuel D. Heap, a surgeon in the United States Navy, and director of the 
American hospital at Pisa. 

1 Alexander Hammett of Maryland, appointed 1809. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 447 

flat, and until we approach the Villa of Adrian without any inter- 
esting remains of antiquity. About four miles from Rome we 
passed the Teverone, anciently the Anio, flowing towards the 
Tiber into which it falls about three miles above Rome. About 
ten miles from Rome we passed a small stream called Solfatara 
from the qualities of the waters which compose it, its color and its 
smell being derived from the presence of sulphur. The former is of 
a light bright greenish blue and the latter is so strong as to assail 
the traveller at a considerable distance. We did not visit the small 
lake from which this stream flows and which is also called Solfa- 
tara. We left it about three-fourths of a mile on our left. A little 
farther on we passed the tomb of the ancient family of Plautia, a 
family much distinguished both in republican and imperial Rome. 
The tomb is quite round and formed of the stone of Tivoli. Of 
the four Ionic columns which formerly ornamented this tomb 
towards the road there remain only some fragments. It unfor- 
tunately proved to be a rainy morning and in ascending the hill of 
Tivoli we were obliged to walk as one of our horses was very restive. 
Tivoli is said to have been built four hundred and sixty-two years 
before Rome or three thousand, one hundred and thirty-three years 
ago. Its founders are said to have been three Argians: Tiburtus, 
Coras, and Catillus [II] who drove away its more ancient inhabi- 
tants, the Siculi. From the name of the first of these the town was 
called afterwards Tibur, and the Roman road which led from it to 
the capital was called the via Tiburtina. Tibur has, however, by 
the modern Italians been changed into Tivoli. We stopt at a very 
good inn in the middle of the town, and before dinner went to see 
the cascade. This is a perpendicular fall of about fifty feet and 
had nothing particular to distinguish it. The river is here, I should 
judge from the view, about thirty feet broad. It is only at the bot- 
tom of the fall that the romantic commences. After the downright 
fall the water still descends very rapidly and has forced its way 
through the mountains forming sometimes a frightful chasm and 
sometimes caves at once gloomy and sublime. The first cavern is 
called the Grotto of Neptune and the second that of the Sirens, the 
latter being the most interesting. We went round the town and 
descended the hill below the Grotto of Neptune to a little zigzag 
path made by the French engineer Miollis. 1 This path was made in 
consequence of the fall and death of a Frenchman in endeavoring 
to descend. As it began again to rain we hurried back to our inn, 
just seeing the little temples of Vesta and of the Tiburtine Sibylla 
near the bridge. The former is a very beautiful small, round build- 

1 Sextus-Alexandre-Fransois, Comte Miollis (1759-18 28). 



448 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

ing formerly surrounded with eighteen Corinthian columns of which 
ten still remain. We did not go out after dinner and much to our 
annoyance our chambermaid, whom we had taken at Florence, 
was discovered to be extremely intoxicated. 

28. Rose this morning at six. Breakfasted and began our ram- 
bles at half past six. As the way was wet and rough and the dis- 
tance we were going considerable we had provided ourselves with 
jackasses. We first passed over the bridge below the falls, then 
turning to the left above the river we had a fine view of the caves 
and grotto of Neptune and the Sirens and of the rapids below the 
falls. We had also a fine view of the cascatelles as they are called 
or little cascades on the opposite side of the river. They are little 
streams diverted from the main flood near the falls, and after having 
been used for mills, forges, etc., fall over the top of the mountain to 
a depth of more than a hundred feet. These little streams are very 
beautiful and three of them fall from the ancient country house of 
Maecenas. We passed on our way the ruins of the Villa of Catullus 
and the ruins of the Villa of Quintilius Varus. Some remains also 
of the country house of Horace were pointed out to us. We next 
passed a little clear stream called Aquoria, gold water, on an ancient 
bridge still entire. Inclining to the left we next passed the Teve- 
rone (Anio) and soon after arrived at the ruins of the Villa of 
Maecenas. These ruins are still very spacious and give an idea of 
the original magnificence of the place. We walked under the arch 
of more than a hundred feet in length through which the ancient 
way Tirburtina passed. The way itself in this place is still per- 
fect. We then ascended a flight of steps which conducted us over 
this arch on which we found an immense terrace and which was 
more than one hundred and thirty of my paces in length. From this 
terrace, which stands on the very brow of the mountain, there is 
a most extensive prospect commanding a view of Mount Soratte, 
the city of Rome and all the champaign country on that side, etc. 
From the Villa of Maecenas we returned to our inn but found that 
our breakfast which we had ordered a la fourchette at eleven o'clock 
was not yet ready. We went to view the Villa of Este which is 
kept in tolerable repair. It was here that Ariosto composed at 
least a part of his Orlando Furioso. After breakfast we set off at 
about half past eleven for Rome but stopt nearly three hours at the 
Villa of Adrian which we visited in all its details. It was said to 
have had formerly a circumference of seven miles, and among the 
heaps of ruins can now be distinguished the remains of a Grecian 
theatre; of a square building supposed by some to be a menage 
and by others a portico to the theatre; of the Poecile in imitation 
of that at Athens, of what is now erroneously called the temple of 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 449 

the Stoics; of the circular building erroneously denominated the 
Maritime theatre but probably a bathing house; of the Library 
and the Temple of Diana and Venus so-called; of a large elevated 
building called the Imperial Palace; of the barracks of the guards 
or the Hundred Chambers, cento camerelle; of the Thermes and of 
the Canopus in imitation of the Canopus at Alexandria in Egypt. 
Many of the fine marbles found here have been sent to Rome and 
many in the dark ages were converted into lime. There still remain, 
enough however, to give an idea of the ancient immensity and 
magnificence of this villa. About three o'clock we mounted our 
carriages very much fatigued and arrived at Rome a little after 
six. 

29. Agreeably to appointment the Dutch Minister called on 
me at ten o'clock this morning in order to accompany me to the 
Cardinal Gonzalvo to whom I was to be presented. We found 
however, on our arrival at the Quirinal Palace that the Cardinal 
was already engaged with a consistory of his order for the con- 
firmation of Bishops. He sent word, however, that he would re- 
ceive us to-morrow. I now employed myself in removing from the 
Grande Bretagne to lodgings which I had taken in the Via de Pre- 
fetti No. 17, and I accomplished this undertaking in about an hour. 
I then went to take an external view of the Capitol and Tarpeian 
Rock. The modern Capitol stands on the same site as the ancient 
and rests in part on the old foundations. It is, however, in every 
respect infinitely inferior. In front of the Capitol are two marble 
statues of Castor and Pollux with their horses, and although an- 
cient, very indifferently executed. In the middle of the place, 
however, is an equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, of exquisite 
workmanship, and is the more interesting, as it is said to be the 
only equestrian statue which remains of ancient Rome. The Tar- 
peian Rock is very different from what it was of old. There is only 
part of one side of it which now remains visible, the rest being cov- 
ered above by buildings and below by earth. The part now visi- 
ble is now about twenty feet high. It is probable, however, that 
the whole perpendicular height of the rock was anciently at least 
sixty feet, as a floor of a church in the neighbourhood is said to be 
on a level with the ancient base, and a part of the top of the rock 
is said to have been broken off. 

30. At ten o'clock this morning I was, at last, presented to the 
Cardinal and found him remarkably polite. He speaks French 
very fluently. I went again this day to visit the Capitol and the 
Tarpeian Rock with Mrs. Russell. We also saw behind the Capitol 
the ruins of the Temple of Jupiter Tonans, the Temple of Fortune, 
the Temple of Concord, the Arch of Septimius Severus, the column 



450 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

erected to the Emperor Phocas, etc. In the evening I went to a 
conversazione at the French Ambassador's, the famous Count 
Blacas. 1 I found his lady very pretty and very amiable. 

31. The Dutch Minister called on me this morning and con- 
ducted me to the Quirinal Palace in order to present me to the 
Pope. 2 After passing a numerous suite of apartments richly fur- 
nished and lined with guards, we were immediately admitted to the 
Pope in his cabinet. He received us standing and in the most 
gracious manner. On my being presented the Pope very kindly 
took my hand which he held constantly in his while I remained 
with him which was nearly a quarter of an hour. He was dressed 
in a white gown or surtout which sat close to his body and which 
reached from his chin to his feet and which buttoned the whole 
length with small buttons of the same white broadcloth. On his 
head he had a callot [calotte] and on his feet crimson red cloth or 
velvet slippers embroidered with gold. The surtout was con- 
siderably soiled. No other part of his dress was visible. He does 
not speak French but understands it when addressed to him and 
answers in Italian. He observed that I belonged to another world 
and that the last director general of the Austin Friars was an Amer- 
ican. His Holiness is now seventy-six and even infirm and much 
bent for that advanced age. His mind is however, perfectly clear; 
his conversation animated and his smile the most benignant I ever 
beheld. I went afterwards with Mrs. Russell and Amelia to see 
the paintings a fresque and the statues in the palace of Frescali 
and Frescatelli. The paintings in the former fell short of our ex- 
pectations, but those in the latter, being the history of the marriage 
of Psyche were very fine, being partly painted by Raphael and all 
under his direction. There was a fine head in black chalk or coal 
on one of the walls concerning which our guide told us the follow- 
ing story: — That one day, while Raphael was still employed in 
painting the Frescatelli but while he was absent Michael Angelo 
came there and taking a piece of coal drew on the wall the head 
in question. Raphael had never seen him but knew him well from 
his fame and his works, and immediately on seeing this head pro- 
nounced it to be the work of Michael Angelo. We next went to 
the work-shop of Canova 3 and Thorwaldsen. 4 They were neither 
at home but we left a card for the former and a letter. We admired 
much the works of both these artists. Canova has and deserves 
the highest reputation for statues, but Thorwaldsen, although not 

1 Pierre- Jean-Louis-Casimir, Due de Blacas d'Aulps (17 70-1 839). 

2 Luigi Barnaba Chiaramonti (1 740-1 823), Pope Pius VII (1 800-1 823). 

3 Antonio Canova (1757-1822). 

4 Bertel Thorwaldsen (17 70-1844). 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 451 

much known until lately, is supposed even to excel in bas-reliefs. 
In the evening we had a visit from Canova who staid with us until 
eight o'clock and was very entertaining. He talked much of his 
familiarity with Napoleon and left us at no loss to discover his 
sentiments on all that happened. After Canova had gone we 
called on Prince Lucien and his Princess, 1 and staid with them an 
hour and were very politely treated. 

April 1. We went this morning to the Vatican and first viewed 
the pictures kept there. These are not numerous but they are of 
unequalled excellence. The Transfiguration by Raphael, and the 
Deposition from the Cross by Michael Angelo, are of themselves 
worth a gallery. We next passed into the Museum where are col- 
lected the finest statues, capitals and vases of antiquity. There is 
also an immense number of ancient inscriptions fixed on the wall. 
Among the statues are the celebrated Apollo and the Laocoon. 
Canova has made a present to the Pope of three of his master- 
pieces, viz., the two Pugitetosi, and Perseus with the Head of 
Medusa. They are indeed admirably executed. After spending 
more than two hours in these apartments we ascended to view the 
School of Athens, painted in fresco by Raphael, and which is con- 
sidered as his most finished composition. The colouring was some- 
what injured by time and humidity, but the performance was still 
sufficiently perfect to command our most unqualified admiration. 
Plato and Aristotle occupy the front ground, and Socrates, Dio- 
genes, etc., have conspicuous places. Mrs. Russell, who had been 
indisposed all the morning, was here taken quite ill and we were 
obliged to return, when she immediately went to bed and called 
in the assistance of Doctor Heap, a physician in the American 
Navy, and whom we found to be well educated and skillful. A call 
from the sculptor Trentanove. 2 

2. Mrs. Russell still continues very ill this morning. Trenta- 
nove called again this morning and I accompanied him to his work- 
shop. He appears to be a young man of much promise in his pro- 
fession. He has already executed in a very handsome style the 
busts of most of the Bonapartes. He has also made the bust of 
Thomas Appleton, the American Consul at Leghorn, and of Robert 
Goodloe Harper, another American, both of which are finely done. 
Trentanove is now engaged in making a pedestal in basso-rilievo 
for the monument of Washington which we saw in the workshop 
of Canova. After leaving Trentanove I called on a Mr. Knutson 
and the Prussian Consul Bartholdy, for whom I had letters, but 

1 She was a Madame Jouberthon, who had been his mistress. 

2 Raymond Trentanove (1 792-1832). 



452 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

not finding either of them at home I left the letters with cards. I 
then went to the Palatine Mount and saw the ruins of the Palace of 
Nero which had been cleared out by the French and into which I 
descended two stories under ground. At five o'clock I went to 
call on the Cobbs and being in the Corso with Amelia we saw the 
Emperor of Austria pass. The Corso was crowded with people to 
witness this spectacle, but they did not salute His Majesty or Her 
Majesty, who accompanied him, with a single shout or cheer. A 
few, a very few, lifted their hats. Everyone was sad and silent. 
The Emperor with his suite were in seven state coaches of the 
Pope. His travelling carriage followed. 

3. Mrs. Russell somewhat better this morning but still in bed. 
I rode this morning to see the arch, called Janus Quadrifrons. 
From the meanness of the architecture it is supposed to have been 
erected at least as late as the time of Caracalla, formerly in every 
part of Rome, particularly in the Forums, and they are said to have 
severed for shelter for the people in rainy weather. The Janus 
Quadrifrons was near the Forum Boarium. Close by it I saw a 
little gate-way or arch erected by the Emperor Septimius Severus. 
On one side in bas-relief, were the figures of this Emperor and his 
wife, on the other the figures of his two sons, Caracalla and Geta. 
That of Caracalla only now remains, and he is said to have had 
that of his brother, after he had murdered him, torn off, and a hole 
is still shown in the marble which was said to have been made by 
the act of violence. We had a call this afternoon at five o'clock from 
Lucien Bonaparte and his lady, and they staid with us half an hour, 
and the Princess went and sat beside the bed of Mrs. Russell. At 
half past six I went with Amelia to dine with Col. Bonar, where we 
remained until ten. 

4. Mrs. Russell better this morning but still in bed. At twelve 
o'clock I went to see the baths of Titus, which, it being Sunday, 
I found shut. I then rode round the Mount Palatine and saw the 
remains of imperial palaces and the caserns of praetorian guards. 
I passed between the Mount Palatine and the Aventine, and went 
to see the Temple of Vesta, near the banks of the Tiber, which is 
said to have been built by Numa Pompilius. The columns must, how- 
ever, [have] been added at a much later time. It is a small round 
building. I also saw near it the square temple erected by Ancus 
Martius to Fortuna Virilis. This building is now made a church 
and is partly covered with dwelling houses. I next saw the small 
ruin which remains of the bridge of Horatio Codes. From this place 
I went to the Vatican and again saw the pictures, inscriptions and 
statues. Just as I was leaving the Vatican, a little before four 
o'clock, the sound of cannon announced the movements of the 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 453 

Emperor of Austria, and I found that he was on a visit to the 
Church of St. Peter. A call from the Grand Master of the Pope. 

5. Mrs. Russell was better this morning but still too ill to ven- 
ture abroad. I therefore took Amelia with me in the calash and 
first drove to the circulating library, then to the workshop of Tren- 
tanove and engaged him to procure some prints for Mrs. Russell; 
then purchased a bonnet for Amelia; then called on the Dutch 
Minister, who was not at home, but his wife received us. She told 
us that the reason why a woman she had sent to us was not willing 
to remain with us was because she saw that we had a fire and that 
our windows were shut and she hence was afraid of falling sick. 
From the Dutch Ministers we took a ride round the Mount Pala- 
tine, going between it and the Mount Aventine. We passed the 
Coliseum and stopt at the Baths of Titus. These baths with palace 
to which they joined were of immense extent, but a great part of 
the ruins are now covered with earth. It appears that Raphael 
who had the superintendence of antiquities, caused a great part of 
these ruins to be cleared and that it was from the arches painted 
en fresque, some of which remained very entire, that he conceived 
the idea of his third manner. It is even said that fearing others 
should profit by these paintings as he had done, or at least discover 
from them that his third manner was not entirely original, he caused 
the rooms he had cleared to be again filled with earth. In later 
times it was the French who made the excavations which now leave 
some of the apartments free of earth. On the vaults of the lower 
story we saw several paintings en fresque most wonderfully pre- 
served for about eighteen hundred and ten years, and from their 
grace and colouring we were not surprised that Raphael should have 
known how to profit from them. There were also some paintings 
on the wall very perfect. In a long narrow vaulted portico was an 
inscription in black paint still visible threatening anyone who should 
do a dirty thing there with the anger of Diana, Minerva, and Jupiter 
Maximus Optimus. The room of the common bath and that called 
the lake, and the rooms of single baths were readily recognized. 
The niche was shown us from which was taken the famous statue 
of Laocoon. Part of the Bath was built over the house of Maecenas, 
some of the rooms of which are still visible. From the Baths of 
Titus we went to the Quirinal to take a look at the obelisk and the 
fine statues of Castor and Pollux. While there I left my cards with 
the Grand Master of the Emperor and the Grand Master and 
Mistress of the Empress. We then rode to St. Maria Maggiore 
and saw the fine colonnade in this church, consisting of forty columns, 
viz.: thirty-six of marble and four of oriental granite, twenty on 
each side. Received this evening tickets to the Pontifical Chapel. 



454 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

6. We were kept in this morning by calls from Mr. Bartholdy, 
Consul General of Prussia, Mr. Rathbone of New York, the Miss 
Inches, and the wife of the Minister of Holland. At two o'clock 
we got into the carriage with Mrs. Russell and first drove to the 
Baths of Diocletian and Maximian. Of all the thermes of ancient 
Rome these are said to have been the largest and to have covered a 
square of ten hundred and sixty-nine feet on every side. Besides 
Baths it contained edifices for gymnastic exercises, the Pinacotheca 
which was embellished with the finest works of painting and sculp- 
ture, and with the library of the wise Ulpian which was transported 
thither from the Forum of Trajan. On a part of the place formerly 
occupied by the principal hall of the Baths of Diocletian, now stands 
the church of St. Maria degli Angeli. It is in form of the Grecian 
cross and built by Buonarotti. To avoid the humidity, the floor 
has been raised six feet higher than' that of the ancient church by 
which the bases of the columns of oriental granite are covered. 
Notwithstanding this, however, we found the floor so wet and the 
whole place so damp that we took only a glance at these fine columns 
and the tombs of the celebrated painters, Carlo Maratta and Sal- 
vator Rosa, when we hastened out into the open air on account of 
the delicate state of health of Mrs. Russell. We next rode to the 
bridges which join the Island of the Tiber to the mainland. The 
origin of this island is very remarkable. After the expulsion of 
Tarquin the Proud, the senate is said to have made a present to 
the people of the goods and estates of this king, against whom the 
people were so much enraged that they threw into the river all his 
effects, among which was such a quantity of wheat which he had 
harvested on one of his fields, afterwards the Campus Mar- 
tius, as to obstruct the course of the river and form a little island 
which was afterwards preserved by a stone wall. From these 
bridges we distinctly saw the Temple of Vesta of which I have 
already spoken, and the outlet of the Cloaca Maxima. This last 
is entirely concealed by the Tiber excepting a very small space 
below the top of the arch. We also saw the bridge which is now 
called Ponte Rotto, or broken bridge. It was the first stone bridge 
erected over the Tiber and said to have been begun by the Censor 
M. Fulvius and certainly finished by the Censors Scipio Africanus 
and L. Mummius. It was called the Palatine on account of its 
proximity to the mount of this name. It has been broken three 
times by the inundations of the Tiber. It was first repaired by 
Julius the Third, and afterwards by Gregory the Thirteenth, but 
since it was last broken in 1598, it has not been repaired, and only 
about the half on the right side of the river now remains. We saw 
also a few small heaps of ruins in the river which were formerly a part 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 455 

of the foundations of the Bridge Sublicius. This was the very first 
bridge built over the Tiber by the Romans and originally consisted 
entirely of wood. It was erected in the time of Ancus Martius 
and it soon became very memorable by the heroism of Horatio 
Codes who withstood alone the whole army of Porsenna the King 
of the Etrurians or Tuscans, until the part of the bridge behind 
him was destroyed and then leaped with his horse into the river 
and swam to the city. The bridge was afterwards repaired without 
nails that it might be the more rapidly demolished, should another 
occasion require it. This bridge was afterwards called iEmilius, 
because it was rebuilt in stone by M. ^Emilius Lepidus, the last 
Censor under Augustus, after the wooden bridge had been de- 
stroyed by an inundation of the Tiber. It was repaired by Anto- 
ninus Pius and afterwards carried away by the overflowing of the 
Tiber in the year 780. Under Pope Nicholas the Fifth the ruins 
which remained were almost entirely destroyed in 1484 when cannon 
balls were made of the travertine. 1 The bodies of Heliogabalus and 
Commodus were thrown from this bridge into the Tiber. 

7. Spent the morning in writing and at half past one went with 
Mrs. Russell to the Quirinal to dine with Cardinal Gonzalvo. 
There were about fifty persons at this fish dinner, among whom 
were Lord Guilford and Sir Humphrey Davy. After dinner we re- 
turned home for a short time and then went to the Sistine Chapel to 
hear the Miserfere. The first part was a little tedious, but the close 
was really affecting and sublime. The Pope was not present. 

8. We went this morning at half past ten o'clock to the Sistine 
Chapel and Mrs. Russell and myself found seats among the diplo- 
matic corps. The ceremony began by chanting the Miserere. 
About eleven o'clock we left the Sistine Chapel and proceeded to the 
Pauline Chapel, which being very small there were no persons ad- 
mitted into it excepting the Emperor and Empress with their 
suites, the diplomatic corps, and some of the higher clergy. The 
Pope soon appeared [ ] which he deposited in the 
tomb of the saint. From the Pauline Chapel we next went to the 
scaffolding erected to see the benediction of the Pope conferred on 
the people collected in the court of the Church of St. Peters. This 
scaffolding was erected over colonnade at the left of the court of 
St. Peter's, while the balcony from which the Pope gave the bene- 
diction was in the centre of the front of St. Peter's on the same level. 
The Pope with his attendants in the balcony; the Emperor and Em- 
press with their suites; the number of ladies and gentlemen on the 

1 Nicholas V died in 1455. Sixtus IV was pope until August 12, 1484, and 
he was succeeded by Innocent VIII. 



456 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

scaffolding with us; the immense concourse of people and carriages 
in the courts below; the temple; palace; all illuminated by a fine 
Italian sun, exhibited a most magnificent spectacle. From this 
spectacle we went into the hall of transept where the feet of twelve 
men were to be washed by the Pope. On our passage thither we 
were very much squeezed and jostled by the tumultuous crowd 
which thronged our way and which the guards were unable to con- 
trol. A German lady was struck by one of these guards with his 
halberd and wounded. 1 When we arrived in the hall we were well 
situated to view the scene which was there presented. The Pope 
first took his seat in his pontifical robes which he soon after laid 
aside, and binding himself with a cord he descended to perform 
his humble office. The twelve beggars whose feet he was to wash 
were arranged on a seat at the right. He walked to the first fol- 
lowed by priests with a basin, ewer and towel. The shoe of each of 
the beggars, who by the way were dressed in white and very clean 
linen, was taken, in succession, from the right foot which was then 
slightly wet with water by the Pope and wiped with [the] towel 
above mentioned. When this ceremony was finished we proceeded, 
without molestation, from the [ ] to the hall of Borgia. 

The same twelve poor men also repaired thither as also the Pope. 
These first ranged in a row and the Pope passed them in succession 
with a basin and ewer and a towel with which he served them to 
wash and wipe their hands. They afterwards placed themselves 
on one side of the table with their backs to the wall and the digni- 
ties of the church, among whom I observed the Grand Master of 
his Holiness, brought the food and wine from the kitchen and the 
Pope served it with his own hand across the table to the beggars. 
He began at one end and went to the other five or six times, the 
wine and the different courses of food requiring this repetition. 
All these ceremonies finally closed at about half past one o'clock, 
and we proceeded immediately on foot to the apartments of 
Raphaello, where we had been invited to dine with his eminence 
Cardinal Gonzalvo. These apartments are also in the palace of 
the Vatican. A young Austrian officer [ ] handed Mrs. 

Russell in to dinner and I handed in the Neapolitan Princess Pan- 
tchelli, who is accompanying the Prince, her husband, on a dip- 
lomatic mission to Berlin. After dinner we walked through the 
rooms of the Museum. We then returned home, and changing our 
dress went to St. Peter's to see the illumination of the cross. 2 We 
found it very brilliant but it lost some of its effect from the light. 

1 Metternich mentions the same incident and the indecent crush and con- 
fusion. Memoirs of Prince Metternich^ III. 221. 

2 See Metternich, III. 222. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 457 

which was kept up in several of the chapels. The latter is said, 
however, to be necessary to prevent the scandalous scenes which 
formerly took place in their obscure recesses. There were priests 
at one of the shrines situated opposite to the corners of the great 
altar where they exhibited to the people below the precious relics 
which are there deposited. Trentanove sung in evening at our 
lodgings. 

9. As our curiosity was glutted yesterday with papal exhibi- 
tions we did not again visit that place, but I accompanied Mrs. 
Russell to see the Coliseum, leaving to Amelia, who went to the 
Sistine Chapel with the Cobbs and Inches, to report what she saw. 
The Coliseum is certainly the most magnificent ruin which remains 
of ancient Rome. A considerable portion of the wall still retains 
its original altitude and although stript of its ornaments is still 
sublime. The four orders which ornamented it are still there and 
some of them entire. The lowest is Doric, the next Ionic, the third 
Corinthian and the fourth composite. The three lowest are pilasters 
or half round columns and the uppermost flat pilasters. The 
French excavated this edifice to the ancient Arena but the water 
rushing in they were obliged to fill in the earth again for seVeral 
feet. The French also built a flight of steps to ascend the ruin. 
Indeed the French with two exceptions of small account, made all 
the excavations amidst the remains of antiquity which have been 
made at Rome in modern times. I went again this day to partake 
of a fish dinner at Cardinal Gonzalvo's. In the evening we called 
on the Princess Paulina l who received us most kindly and reposed 
in us much confidence. We afterwards went to the Dutch Min- 
ister's and spent the remainder of the evening. 

10. We this morning visited the Pantheon. We found it too 
entire to be called a ruin, although, stript of many of its ornaments, 
it has lost much of its ancient magnificence. It is said to have been 
built by Marcus Agrippa, the son-in-law of Augustus, in his third 
consulate and twenty-six years before the Christian era. From 
the architecture, however, of the main building, I should incline 
to the opinion of those who suppose it to have been built before that 
epoch. The portico is of better architecture and evidently of a 
later period; the capitals of four of the columns of the portico are 
much superior to the other twelve. These were added by Pope 
Alexander the Seventh. All of the columns are of oriental granite 
of a single block fourteen feet in circumference and thirty-eight 
and one-half feet high without including the base and the capital. 
The whole quantity of bronze torn from this magnificent temple is 

1 Marie Pauline Bonaparte (1780-1825) wife of Prince Camillo Borghese. 



458 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

said to have weighed more than forty-five millions of pounds, and 
that the bronze nails alone weighed nine thousand three hundred 
and seventy-four pounds. It was the Popes and Christian Emperors 
who tore off this metal, some of which was employed in the Church 
of St. Peter and much in the cannon of the fort St. Angelo. The 
diameter of the dome is one hundred and thirty-two feet and the 
height of the building the same. The walls of its circumference are 
nineteen feet thick. The opening at the top of the vault is twenty-six 
feet in diameter and the whole building is lighted by this sole aper- 
ture. A flight of stairs, without, conducts to the top and consists 
of one hundred and ninety steps. This temple was denominated 
Pantheon because it was dedicated to all the Gods. The Emperor 
Phocas presented it to Pope Boniface the Fourth who turned it into 
a Christian church and dedicated it to the Virgin and the Saint 
Martyrs. It was thus preserved from destruction. Gregory the 
Fourth, in 830 dedicated it to all the saints, but the saints have 
now but a very small portion of the church. A confraternity of 
artists, which belong to the church, have filled almost the whole 
circumference with busts of distinguished persons in letters and the 
arts. Canova has much increased the number of these busts either 
by his own hand or by paying others. There is a fine bust of Chris- 
topher Columbus by Trentanove at the expense of Canova. The 
bust of Raphael, by Paolo Naldini, is also here with the following 
inscription by Cardinal Bembo: 

ILLE HIC EST RAPHAEL, TIMVIT QVO SOSPITE VINCI 
RERVM MAGNA PARENS ET MORIENTE MORI 

Bellori has translated it in Italian: 

Questi e quel Raffael, cui vivo vinta, 
Esser temea Natura, e morto es tinta. 

From the Rotonda, as it is now called, we went to view the remainder 
of the Baths of Agrippa, in its immediate vicinity, but which are 
covered with modern houses and are but very partially visible. 
From the Baths of Agrippa we went to the church of St. Mary of 
Minerva, so called because erected on the ruins of the Temple of 
Minerva built by Pompey the Great in gratitude for his victories. 
This church now contains many interesting tombs and paintings. 
We next visited the Baths of Titus and again went through the 
apartments which had been cleared out by the French. The in- 
scription to which I before alluded in the corridor is as follows: 

Duodecim Deosiit Deanam et Jovem optimum maximum habeat 
iratos quisquis hie minxerit aut cacarit. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 459 

We next visited the church of St. Peter in vincoli, where we saw 
the famous statue of Moses by Michael Angelo. We next visited 
the church of St. Martin which is supposed to be one of the oldest 
churches at Rome but rebuilt in 1640, and is now one of the most 
magnificent churches at Rome. The walls are decorated with 
landscapes by Gaspard Poussin and with figures by his brother 
Nicolas. There is beneath the church a subterranean vault where 
are the bodies of St. Sylvester and St. Martin, and this vault leads 
to a subterranean church in which St. Sylvester then Pope, is sup- 
posed to have held a council as long ago as the year 324. It is 
supposed to have a communication with the catacombs. From St. 
Martin's we entered a vineyard where we saw the Seven Halls, 
so-called, but which were formerly denominated Piscina and formed 
a reservoir for waters for the Thermes of Titus. 

n. At ten o'clock this morning Mrs. Russell and myself went 
to the Villa Borghese with Ida. We then dressed and went to dine 
with the Cardinal Gonzalvo, and Lent being over we had a most 
excellent dinner. After dinner we returned home and called and 
took Amelia, who was at Mrs. Cobb's and then proceeded to the 
Place of St. Pierre, but finding it too early for the fireworks we took 
a walk in the church and then took a turn in the Corso. About 
half after seven we returned to the Place of St. Peter and went 
into the lodge which had been prepared for the Emperor to see the 
illumination of the dome of St. Peter's. The first illumination was 
very rich and classical, marking the domes and columns and pilasters 
of the front of this magnificent church. The second illumination, 
which took place about an hour afterwards, was instantaneously 
lighted and was most splendid and dazzling. 1 About nine o'clock 
we proceeded to the place prepared for the fireworks from the 
girandole of St. Adrian. We were, however, very inhospitably 
stopped by the guards and not allowed to pass the Bridge of St. 
Angelo in our carriage. We then went over it on foot, and safely 
reached our place in the Emperor's box to which we had been in- 
vited by the Cardinal Gonzalvo. We had here ices and other re- 
freshments. We waited near an hour before the fireworks began. 
They were very brilliant and very short, — could not have con- 
tinued for more than fifteen minutes. It was quite calm and the 
smoke enveloped the place from which the fireworks were set off 

1 Metternich was also much impressed, III. 224. His general opinion was 
thus expressed: "I acknowledge that I cannot understand how a Protestant 
can turn catholic at Rome. Rome is like a most magnificent theatre with very 
had actors. ... In all this it is evident that Italian taste has much influence 
in the ceremonies; what pleases and excites laughter on this side of the Alps 
causes weeping on the other, and vice versa." 



460 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

which is said to have prevented the exhibition of a part of them. 
We got home safely at about a quarter past ten o'clock. 

12. At ten o'clock we visited the French Museum and then 
went again to the Villa Borghese with Ida and walked in the gardens. 
We afterwards called on the Danish Consul at Algiers and stopped 
at Torlonia's and received two hundred scudi. We afterwards 
visited the Baths of Caracalla. These baths were built by Anto- 
ninus Caracalla and of great extent and magnificence. The hall 
called Cella Solearis is one hundred and eighty-eight feet in length 
and one hundred and thirty-four in breadth. Many precious monu- 
ments of antiquity have been found in these baths. The Torso of 
Belvedere, the two urns of basalt now in the Vatican; the celebrated 
Hercules of Glycon the Athenian, the Flora, the famous group of 
the Farnese Bull, etc. There were formerly sixteen hundred rooms 
for bathing. There were three stories, the first contained the 
baths. The second was for mental amusements, and the third 
for workmen and domestics. From these baths we went to visit 
the grotto generally, although erroneously called the Grotto of 
Egeria. It is a large, half-ruined arch with a little stream falling 
into it and running through which is one of the sources of the little 
river Almo. The reclined decapitated statue placed at the bottom 
is supposed to be the young river Almo. We saw on our left a little 
temple of fine architecture, supposed to be of the time of Nero. It 
is now called the Temple of Rediculo and said, incorrectly, to have 
been erected on the abrupt retreat of Hannibal — a redeundo. On 
the hill just above the Grotto of Egeria we visited a little oblong 
temple which is by some supposed to be a temple of Bacchus, by 
some a temple of Camenae, and by some neither. In returning we 
stopt a few minutes to view the Arch of Drusus under which we 
passed. It was erected in honour of Drusus the father of the Em- 
peror Claudius after his death. There still remain two columns of 
African marble of the composite order and it is supposed to have 
been made use of by Caracalla to support the aqueduct by which 
the water was conducted to his Baths. Spent evening at home and 
had a visit from our young countryman Robinson, and from Tren- 
tanove who sung to his guitar. 

13. This morning we visited the Church of St. Sebastian and 
from it descended into the catacombs for a short time. These cata- 
combs are said to have been inhabited by the esirly Christians 
during the times of persecution. We were shown the horizontal cavi- 
ties in which they are said to have deposited their dead. The sub- 
terraneous passages are very narrow and sometimes low, but of great 
extent and we were shown the opening of one of them which is said 
to extend to Ostium. After leaving the catacombs we visited the 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 461 

stables of Caracalla, some of the arches of which are still entire and 
support a terrace on which we ascended. From these stables we 
went to the tomb of Cecilia Metella, the daughter of Quintus Cre- 
ticus and the wife of Crassus the Triumvir. The lower part is 
square and the upper circular which has eighty-nine and a half feet 
diameter and the walls of which are thirty feet in thickness, of brick 
covered with large blocks of travertine. The sarcophagus of 
Grecian marble which was found here is in the court of the Farnese 
Palace. On the outside is seen still a great part of the marble on 
which was the inscription. From this tomb we went to the Circus of 
Caracalla. It is fifteen hundred and twenty-four feet long and three 
hundred and ninety-five broad. Sufficient of the goals and the spira 
still remain to give a very accurate idea of the races which were 
there performed in the biga or quadriga, carriages of two and four 
horses. In the upper part of the walls are the remains of many 
earthen pots which are supposed to have been placed there either 
to render the work more light or to expedite the labour. We next 
visited the Tomb of the Scipios. This tomb was originally two 
stories of which the lower story only remains into which we de- 
scended with lighted torches. It was discovered in 1780. There 
has been found there a sarcophagus of Lucius Scipio Barbatus, 
vanquisher of the Samnites, as the inscription on it imports, a bust 
of [the] poet Ennius or another of the Scipios; another bust unknown, 
and many inscriptions. We next visited the palaces of the Caesars 
on the Palatine hill. The vast masses of ruins indicate the grandeur, 
but have nothing left to show the splendor of the buildings when in 
their glory. We then visited the Temple of Vesta; the Cloaca 
Maxima; the Temple of For tuna Virilis; the place of the Jews 
which is shut every night, and the Portico of Octavius or rather 
of Octavia. Called in the evening on the Cobbs and Inches where 
we remained until eleven o'clock. 

14. After Mrs. Russell had returned from a ride with Ida, we 
went to see the paintings in the Palace of Doria in the Corso. These 
paintings are arranged in numerous apartments and are from the 
hands of the first masters. The most remarkable are the Bridge of 
Lucano and the Road of Tivoli by Gaspard Poussin; 1 a Turkish 
woman on horseback, by Benoit Castiglione; Endymion by Guer- 
cino; Cain and Abel, by Salvator Rosa; the celebrated portrait of 
a woman, by Rubens; two very fine landscapes, by Claude Lor- 
raine; a Belisarius, by Salvator Rosa; a Judith, by Guido; Queen 
Jeanne, by Leonardo da Vinci, and several fine portraits by Titian 
and Vandyke. From the Palace Doria we went to the fine Palace 

1 Gaspar Dughet Poussin (1613-1675). 



462 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

Borghese and saw there the superb collection of pictures on the 
lower floor or rez-de-chauss£e. Among many masterpieces the fol- 
lowing may be distinguished: Our Saviour absolving the woman 
taken in adultery; a fine head by Raphael, said to represent one of 
the family of Borgia; Leda, by Leonardo da Vinci; Prodigal Son, 
by Titian; a head of Jesus Christ, commonly called the Divinity in 
anger, by Caracci; The Three Graces, by Titian; The chase of 
Diana, by Domenichino; The Deposition from the Cross, by Ra- 
phael, etc. We next proceeded to the Sacred Mount and on our 
way thither we stopped to view the churches of St. Agnes and St. 
Constance. The former was built by Constantine the Great. We 
entered it by descending forty-five steps. The three naves are sup- 
ported by sixteen ancient columns of different materials, two of 
which are of fine marble fluted in a very particular manner. The 
chief altar, which is not beautiful in itself, is supported by four 
small columns of the most beautiful porphyry. On the altar of the 
Virgin is a very fine head, in marble, by Michael Angelo. There is 
also in this church a very magnificent candelabra of ancient work- 
manship in white marble. This church is supposed to approach 
in appearance the ancient basilica more than any other now re- 
maining. The church of St. Constance is supposed by many to 
have been an ancient temple of Bacchus and I am inclined to be 
of the same opinon. Its form is spherical and it has a diameter 
within of sixty-nine feet. It is said to have been used first by Con- 
stantine as a Baptistery for the baptism of his sister and daughter 
and afterwards as a tomb for these two Constances. A sarcophage 
of unusual size and of finje porphyry found in this church and once 
containing at least one of these persons was by the order of Pius 
the Sixth transported to the Museum of the Vatican where it is 
now seen. In 1256 Alexander the Fourth turned this edifice into 
a church and took the body of St. Constance from the sarcophage 
above mentioned and interred it under the altar. Much of the 
ancient mosaic on the vault above is perfectly preserved and rep- 
resents clusters of grapes; carts loaded with grapes drawn by four 
oxen and the attendant workmen. The oxen are yoked with bows 
around the neck, in our manner, and not with strings round the 
foreheads as in many parts of Europe. In the immediate neighbor- 
hood of these two churches are the ruins of a Hippodrome erected by 
Constantine. It was a large court surrounded by porticos and used, 
as its name imports, for equestrian exercises. We next proceeded 
to the Sacred Mount which is nearly three miles from Rome. It 
was to this mount that the Plebians of Rome retired several times 
when weary of the injustice and tyranny of the nobles. We found 
it to be rather a rising ground than a mountain or even a hill as its 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 463 

elevation was small and gradual. It rises immediately on the right 
bank of the Anio and extends a considerable distance back but not 
without being intercepted by a small valley. The ancient bridge 
over this river was called Nomentanus because it was passed in 
going from Rome to the Sabine city of Nomentum. This bridge 
was destroyed by the Goths; rebuilt by Narses and repaired by 
Martin the Fifth. 1 It is now called Lamentana. Immediately after 
passing it are the ruins of two tombs without any inscription or 
other indication of the persons they contained. 

15. At half past ten o'clock this morning we went, agreeably to 
invitation, to breakfast with Mr. Sartori, Acting Consul of the 
United States at Rome. 2 We were ushered by a servant into a long 
suite of apartments indifferently furnished, in the third or fourth of 
which we found Mr. Sartori alone. He did not indeed appear quite 
prepared to receive us, but in order to gain time he invited us to 
look at some paintings on the walls of an adjoining room. While 
thus occupied Mr. Cobb and his family arrived. We all now went 
into the room where we had just joined Mr. Sartori and where we 
soon had the plea5ure of seeing Mrs. Sartori, who is a very beautiful 
woman; an English officer who spoke very good Italian; an Italian 
gentleman; the niece and the sister of Mr. Sartori, the last of which 
was extremely ugly. Shortly after we were there assembled break- 
fast was announced, and we were conducted into another suite of 
apartments better furnished. The breakfast table was square, 
beautifully decorated with flowers and amply furnished with ham, 
anchovies, bread, butter, oranges, and a variety of other fruits. 
The coffee and the tea were very good, and it being much later 
than my usual hour for breakfasting I ate most heartily. After 
breakfast we were conducted to various parts of the house to see 
the several views from the windows, none of which were extensive 
or fine. We were next shown into an apartment where the mother 
of Mr. Sartori was in bed but had been dressed to see us. She is 
an old lady of eighty-three years of age and apparently very in- 
firm. Mr. Sartori now made me a present of a small print of Mur- 
weld, the painter, engraved by Morghen; to Mrs. Russell a little 
mosaic of the Temple of Vesta; to Mrs. Cobb a little mosaic of 
birds, and to each of the rest of our party a bouquet of flowers; and 
we were given to understand that it was the custom thus to accom- 
pany a breakfast given at Rome. 

From Mr. Sartori's we went to the Palace of Simonetti now occu- 

1 OttoColonna, Pope Martin V (141 7-143 1). 

2 John Baptiste Sartori was nominated to be United States Consul at Rome, 
June 24, 1797, and confirmed by the Senate June 26. 



464 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

pied by Cardinal Fesch, 1 the uncle of Bonaparte. We had a billet 
permitting us to see the pictures of the Cardinal. We found the 
collection to be very extensive and consisting of many fine paint- 
ings, particularly of the French School, but very much divided by 
being distributed in a great number of small rooms. In one of these 
rooms we found the Cardinal himself to whom we were presented 
and who received us very politely. There was in another apart- 
ment a bust of Bonaparte with its head bound with a gilt laurel 
wreath. From the Palace Simonetti we went to the Capitol with 
the intention of seeing the pictures and the musee there, but owing 
to the preparations making for the fete for the Emperor we were not 
admitted. We then drove to the Vatican and having again seen 
the pictures there and a part of the inscriptions, we went home to 
dinner. After dinner I took a walk round the Pincian mount. 

16. We began our rambles this morning by a visit to the Palace 
of Rospigliosi on the Quirinal mount. This palace was built on the 
ruins of the Thermae of Constantine. We here saw the celebrated 
Aurora of Guido and it is one of those paintings which deserve 
their reputation. Aurora with inverted face leads the way; Hesper 
flees behind her with his torch; then follows Apollo in his car drawn 
by four horses while the hours, represented by seven female figures, 
attend his course. There is infinite grace, splendor and character 
in the whole. In the adjoining rooms we saw the Adam and Eve 
of Domenichino, and the Sampson of Louis Hannibal Caracci, 2 
with many other fine pictures. We next went to Mount Caelian 
where we saw the church of St. Gregory the Great, and the three 
chapels annexed to it. In one of these chapels are the Flagellation 
of St. Andrew, by Domenichino, and the Adoration of the Cross by 
the same, said from the hand of Guido 3 — both in fresco, and said 
to have been painted in competition for excellence. In another 
chapel is a fine statue of St. Gregory begun by Michael Angelo and 
finished by Nicolas Cordier. We also visited the church of St. 
Mary della Scala, and saw its fine tabernacle of precious stones. 
We next went to the Villa Mattei, now belonging to the Prince of 
Peace. 4 We saw in his apartments some fine pictures and statues 
and a double [headed] Hermes in marble, of the heads of Socrates 

1 Joseph Fesch (1 763-1839). Charles Bonaparte, father of Napoleon, married 
Letizia Ramolino, whose mother, Angela-Maria-Pietra-Santa, widow of the 
patriot Ramolino, took for her second husband Francois Fesch of Basle. 

2 Ludovico Caracci (15 55-1619). Hannibal (1 560-1 609), also a great painter, 
was his nephew. 

3 The entry is confused. The second painting is of St. Andrew kissing the cross 
on his way to martyrdom, by Guido. 

4 Alvarez de Faria, Rios Sanchez y Zarzosa, Manuel de Godoy (1 767-1851), 
who had followed Charles IV of Spain and his queen to Rome. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 465 

and Seneca, which has lately been found in these grounds. Both 
these heads are marked by an ancient inscription and Socrates is 
the same as has universally passed for him, but Seneca is quite 
different. The Prince has by his excavations also discovered a small 
obelisk in two pieces which he has erected in his garden. These 
two pieces might have belonged to the same obelisk originally, but 
I doubt it, as they differ in colour and the upper piece is covered 
with hieroglyphics and the lower piece without any. We next 
visited the church of St. Etienne, called round on account of its 
spherical form. It is supposed by some to have been an ancient 
temple, market or arsenal, but by others, on account of the different 
orders and sizes of the columns, to have been built in the fifth cen- 
tury, with the spoils of more ancient edifices. The walls are painted 
by Pomarancio 1 and Tempesta 2 with murder and martyrdom in all 
its varieties. We thence proceeded to the place of St. John de 
Lateran and visited the Basilica of that name. This is a noble 
church and considered the first in the Catholic world. It was 
formerly so rich as to be denominated "The Golden Basilica." 
This church is celebrated for the twelve councils, general or pro- 
vincial which have been holden in it. It was founded by Constan- 
tine the Great. In the immediate vicinity of this church is that of 
St. John in Fonte or the Baptistery of Constantine, the latter name 
being given to him, Constantine the Great having been there bap- 
tised. The baptismal fount is an ancient urn of basalt. We next 
visited the Chapel of the Saviour which is also called Sancta Sanc- 
torum on account of the great number of sacred relics there de- 
posed. There are three flights of steps to ascend to this chapel, 
and that in the middle consists of twenty-eight steps of white 
marble and is believed to be the same which belonged to the palace 
of Pontius Pilate at Jerusalem, and which Jesus Christ ascended 
and descended many times. From this circumstance it is regarded 
as sacred and no person is allowed to ascend it except on the knees. 
We saw several ascending in this way and on some f&te days the 
stairway is thronged, and to prevent the entire destruction of the 
marble steps by almost continual friction they are cased in hard 
wood in which openings are left through which the stone is visible 
and through which no doubt the holy influence passes. The marble 
at the top, which is not covered, is very deeply worn. We next 
visited the Basilica of the St. Cross of Jerusalem because it is said 
to contain a third part of the holy cross. We saw the place where 
this relic is kept but not the relic itself, nor anything else very 

1 Niccolo Circignani, called il Pomarancio (1516-1588). 

2 Peter Molyn, called Tempesta (1637-1701). 



466 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

curious. We thence proceeded to the Sessorium, commonly called 
the Temple of Venus and Cupid, because the statues of these two 
divinities now at the Museum of the Vatican were found here. 
From the Sessorium we went to see the remains of the Amphi- 
theatre Castrense. Belisarius filled up the arches and made use of 
this edifice to form a part of the walls of the city. We next passed 
the modern Porta Maggiore and went to see the Temple of Minerva 
Medica. This edifice, by whatever name it might have been an- 
ciently called or to whatever use applied, is now a decagonal tower 
of two hundred and twenty-five feet circumference, vaulted over, but 
a part of the circumference and vault have fallen and the whole is 
in a very ruinous state. Near it we saw what is called the Colum- 
baria, because the little chambers resemble the apartments of a 
pigeon-house. This Columbaria is said to have been used by Au- 
gustus * for the sepulchre of his freedmen. This Temple of Minerva 
and the Columbaria are in the fields. We afterwards passed the 
little Church of St. Bibiana and went to see the Arch of Gallienus, 
which will probably fall in a few years. Adjoining is the Church of 
St. Vito, built upon the ancient Macellum Livianum. We had also 
this morning visited the aqueducts and the castle of the Aqua Julia 
called the Trophies of Marius. In returning home we saw the ruins 
of the Temple of Nerva, consisting of three magnificent Corinthian 
fluted columns of Parian marble supporting a fine architrave. 
There is also one pilaster remaining. The columns are sixteen and 
one-half feet in diameter and fifty-one feet high. Received in the 
evening a call from Count Antonelli and delivered our letters from 
Madame Perera for him. 

17. We spent this morning until one o'clock in purchasing 
prints. In the meantime, however, we went to see the drawing of 
the lottery, but arrived a little too late at the place. We called next 
on the Marquis of Canova who sent one of his men with us to see 
his model of the equestrian statue of Ferdinand the Third, King of 
Spain. We also called at Trentanove's. We next went to visit the 
Pyramid of Caius Cestius without the gate of St. Paul. This pyra- 
mid is the tomb of Caius Cestius who was one of the septemviri of 
the Epulones who were charged with preparing the banquets of the 
Gods, particularly of Jupiter. The paintings of the vault, now 
much injured, were in relation to the sacred dignity of this employ- 
ment. The pyramid is one hundred and thirteen feet high and the 
sides at the bottom are sixty-nine feet, which makes the pyramid 
appear rather flat. The outside is very nearly perfect having only 
a few fractures occasioned by shrubs pushing between the interstices. 

1 It was built by Lucius Aruntius, consul under Augustus. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 467 

Caius lived in the time of Augustus. They are digging now about 
the base of the pyramid which has been covered by the accumula- 
tion of earth. Immediately behind the pyramid is the cemetery of 
the Protestants and many English are buried there. We saw from 
this place Mount Testaccio which is said to have been formed by 
pieces of broken earthen-ware which were cast here by the potters 
who had their manufactories in that place. This artificial mountain 
is one hundred and sixty-three feet high and five hundred and three 
feet in circumference. In modern times many cellars have been ex- 
cavated in it which are peculiarly excellent for the preservation of 
wine. We next proceeded to the Basilica of St. Paul without the 
walls. It is said to have been built by Constantine the Great on 
the spot where St. Paul was buried. This church has a very rude 
and shabby appearance on the outside notwithstanding its magni- 
tude. It is in the form of a Roman cross, and the interior is divided 
into five naves by eighty columns of marble, twenty-four of which 
are very beautiful, being each formed of a single piece of violet 
marble. They are of the Corinthian order fluted to two-thirds 
which is said to be rare in antiquity. The two immense columns 
which support the great arch of the tribune are of Saline marble 
forty-two feet high and fifteen in circumference. Around the 
principal nave are painted the portraits of all the Popes from St. 
Peter to Pius the Seventh, the reigning Pope, inclusive. This 
church is now very seldom visited and its situation in summer is 
considered very unhealthy. The roof is out of repair and the whole 
building is kept very slovenly. The beams that pass from eave to 
eave are of wood and said to be of the cedar of Lebanon. The body 
of St. Paul is said to repose under the main altar. 1 From this church 
we returned to town and on our way met Madame Letitia, 2 the 
mother of Bonaparte. She was walking with some of her attend- 
ants, and her carriage was following. We took some pains to have 
a good view of her and succeeded. She is a remarkably fine looking 
old lady with sharp black eyes. In the evening we went to a ball 
at Torlonia's alias Duke of Bracciano. 3 This ball was given in his 
Palace of Venezia which we found to be in every respect most mag- 
nificent. The spacious colonnaded court-yard; the marble stair- 
case; the numerous apartments with painted ceilings, thronged 
with busts and statues formed an ensemble of splendor, perfectly 
complete and corresponding in all its parts, and may be considered 
as a fair representation of ancient Roman magnificence in all its 
perfection. Among the marbles was a colossal statue of Hercules 

1 This church was burnt July 15, 1823. 

2 Letizia Ramolino (1750-1836). 
8 Giovanni Torlonia (d 1829). 



468 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

in the act of killing Cacus whom he holds by one ankle and the hair. 
The workmanship of this group is very excellent, but the manner 
and attitude is a little too artificial. I had a very bad toothache 
this evening. 

18. We called this morning at the Villa Pauline, but the Princess 
being indisposed we were not admitted. We then drove to the 
Villa Albani where we spent two hours in seeing the mosaics, mar- 
bles, etc. This villa was built about the middle of the last century 
by the Cardinal Albani after his own plan. 1 He afterwards placed 
there an extensive collection of the finest statuary of antiquity. 
It was said that the Cardinal was so great a connoisseur that after 
he became blind he could pronounce on the merit of a statue by 
the touch. In the collection is a celebrated Mercury and a bust of 
Caligula which are very rare. From the Villa Albani we returned 
home and Mrs. Russell went to dine with the Cardinal Gonzalvo. 
A very severe toothache prevented my accompanying her. I went, 
however, to see the German exposior 2 at the Palace Caffarelli but 
found nothing in it extraordinary. I afterwards with Amelia, who 
accompanied me, ascended one hundred and twenty-four steps to 
the Church of St. Mary d'Ara coeli. This church has been erected 
on the very spot where once stood the famous Temple of Jupiter 
Capitolinus. We found very little to admire in the church except- 
ing twenty-two large columns of Egyptian granite of different 
diameter and different workmanship. The picture of the Virgin 
over the great altar is said to have been painted by St. Luke. After 
dinner Mrs. Russell took a turn with me in the Corso and we then 
called together on the Prince and Princess of Canino. 3 I returned 
home and Mrs. Russell went to the theatre where she had been in- 
vited by the Princess Pantano and to a place in her lodge. She was 
much pleased with the performance as she had an opportunity of 
hearing Paganini who is a prodigy on the violin. He had been con- 
victed of the murder of his wife and condemned to perpetual im- 
prisonment. In his confinement he procured a fiddle with one 
string and he learned to play tunes through all their varieties on 
this single cord and to play them in a superior manner. He after- 
wards was indulged with a complete instrument and he arrived to 
such a degree of excellence in performing on it that he astonished 
all who heard him and finally obtained his release from prison. 4 

1 Alessandro Albani. 2 Exposition (?). 

8 Charles-Lucien- Jules-Laurent Bonaparte (i 775-1840), brother of Napo- 
leon. He married for his second wife, Marie-Alexandrine-Charlotte-Louise- 
Laurence de Bleschamp (1 778-1855). 

4 Nicolo Paganini (1 784-1840). The story of the murder and his imprison- 
ment was false. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 469 

19. Mrs. Russell went this morning to the Palace of Colonna in 
company with the Princess Pantano, and I went with Amelia to the 
Antonine column which we ascended to the top by one hundred and 
ninety steps and enjoyed the fine view of Rome which the elevation 
commands. We afterwards joined Mrs. Russell and went to view 
the remains of the aqueduct of Agrippa. All these remains which 
are visible are in a cellar into which we descended, and in doing so 
I caught a severe fall as the steps from the humidity of the place 
were very slippery. We then went to the gardens of Colonna where 
we saw some wonderfully large pieces of white marble, the frag- 
ments of a frontispiece of exquisite workmanship, which are said 
to have formed part of the Temple of the Sun. In this garden we 
also saw some of the ruins of the Baths of Constantine. In the 
evening we had a visit from the Marquis Canova who made me a 
present of two prints of his statue of Washington. The Cobbs and 
Inches afterwards called, with Joy, and passed the remainder of 
the evening. I ought to have mentioned that Trentanove called 
this morning and commenced the model for my bust. 

20. I again sat this morning to Trentanove for the model of my 
bust, which he completed. We then went to visit the Villa Doria- 
Pamfili. This villa was built in the time of Leo 1 the. Tenth by the 
Prince Pamfili, and has since become the property of the house of 
Doria, and now belongs to the little Cardinal of that name. 2 The 
gardens are most spacious, ornamented with many magnificent 
pines which are left to grow according to nature, but most of the 
alleys are bordered with trees trimmed stiffly in the old French 
style. There are many beautiful fountains in this garden; in one 
of which there is a grotto with a marble faun at the bottom in the 
act of playing on his flute. Immediately behind this statue is 
concealed an organ, resembling a hand organ, but much larger, 
which is turned, at pleasure by the water, and which produces very 
fine music, which seems to persons placed in the grotto to come 
from the instrument of the faun. In the midst of a tune a hundred 
little fountains appear to pierce the stones before the grotto and to 
play at the sound of the music, and they cease when the music 
ceases. The chateau is much less elegant than most we had seen 
and contains very few fine specimens of the arts. In going to the 
Villa Pamfili-Doria we passed the aqueduct of [Acqua Paola]. In 
the evening we were at a great f£te at the Capitol, given in honour 
of the Emperor and Empress of Austria. The fire-works and illumi- 
nation were brilliant, but the crowd was insufferably great. 

1 Innocent. 

2 Giovanni-Pamphili Doria (1751- ). 



470 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

21. We went this morning to Mount Marius. This mountain 
in the time of the Romans was called Clivus Cinnae, and after- 
wards by the name by which it now passes, on account of the noble- 
man Marius Millini, who built a country house there. We ascended 
to this house which stands on the summit and thence enjoyed a 
most extensive view of the valley of the Tiber, Mount Soracte, the 
Apennines, the Sabine Hills, and the city of Rome. Over this hill 
formerly passed the Flaminian road, a considerable portion of the 
pavement of which still remains. It was by this road that Porsenna 
entered Rome. We called at the Villa Pauline between five and six 
o'clock and spent half an hour with the Princess. We then went to 
a fete at the ancient Mausoleum of Augustus. It is now used as a 
place for bull-baiting in summer. The fete this evening was for 
the Emperor and Empress which consisted of a great crowd and a 
little dancing, but nothing brilliant. 

22. Went this morning with Trentanove to the rooms of Krusi- 
man, 1 a celebrated landscape painter a la guache, 2 or with water- 
colors on paper. His papers are indeed admirable and exceed I 
think everything of the kind which I had before seen. From Kusi- 
man's rooms we went to the French Academy and saw there the 
exposition for the present year. There was nothing, however, very 
remarkable. We now proceeded, without Trentanove, to the Cap- 
itol and took a glance at the Capitol and then drove to the Vatican. 
We now went into the library which we had not visited before, and 
were filled with admiration at its extent and value and at the beauty 
and number of the apartments which contained it. Besides books 
and manuscripts there is a vast collection of ancient coins and 
medals and Etruscan vases. There is a very fine statue of Aristides 
of Smyrna — sitting. From the library we went once more into 
the museum of Chiaramonti and again enjoyed the fine statuary of 
antiquity which is found there. It is remarkable that the most 
beautiful and most celebrated statue in the world, the Apollo of 
Belvedere, has two imperfections, which escape, amidst its grace, 
general observation. Its head is not placed precisely in the middle 
of its body and one of its legs is longer than the other. The Princess 
Canino called and invited us to breakfast for Saturday, and after- 
wards our countrymen Main and Terril came and spent the evening. 

1 Cornelis-Kruseman (i 797-1857) (?). 

2 Mr. John Briggs Potter, of the Museum of Fine Arts, writes me: "Gouache 
differs from straight water-color painting, which is the transparent use of water 
color on white or a very light toned paper, in that the water colors are mixed 
with Chinese white to build up reliefs of light and the paper used is almost 
always of a medium or grey tone. Gouache really means the use of water color 
rendered opaque instead of transparent.' ' 



1918.] JOURNAL OP JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 471 

2$. I was much pestered this morning in obtaining a carriage 
as the month for which I had engaged one had expired. I at last 
succeeded at the rate of four dollars per diem. I called on Torlonia 
this morning and took up six hundred and eighteen dollars, making 
in all eleven hundred for Rome. We spent the remainder of the 
morning in again visiting the ruins in the ancient Roman Forum 
and in seeing the museum at the Capitol. The evening we spent at 
the Dutch Minister's and at the Princess of Sciara's. 1 

24. Called this morning on Trentanove and went with him to 
visit the Graces of Thorwaldsen which we found to be admirable. 
We went at one to dine with the Prince of Canino, or rather as he 
expressed it, to dine with him. After dinner we examined his pic- 
tures which were very fine. We also saw three statues, a vase, 
and other marbles which he had found at his villa. The statues 
were a lady in a Greek dress; Tiberius in marble; and a young 
Apollo in bronze. The arms of this Apollo were broken off and 
Lucien supposes they were so even before it was placed in Roman 
times in his villa, as after every search no arms could be found 
near the place where the statue was discovered. After dinner we 
went with the Reverend Mr. Grassi to visit the Nunnery of St. 
Francis. This nunnery contains some of the children of the noblest 
families in Rome who are not, however, bound by any vow to per- 
petual exclusion. There has not been any instance, however, of a 
single one having left the convent when once she had entered it. 
The nuns are not idle, but employed in spinning and other occupa- 
tions. From the capacious refectory and the numerous cells the 
convent was calculated for and once contained several hundreds, 
although there are now only fifteen there. We went to a ball in 
the evening at the French Minister's but did not stay long. 

25. We went this morning to the Church of the Convent d'Umi- 
lita to see a nun take the white veil, but as the ceremony was not 
to- begin until half past ten we availed ourselves of the interim to 
visit several churches, among others those of St. Ignatius, St. 
Maria in Vallicella and Jesus, the latter of which was very rich. 
At half past we returned to the convent and as we had a note from 
the Princess Sciarra to the Superiora good seats had been reserved 
for us in the church. As soon as the Cardinal arrived the nun came 
forward to the grate. She was richly dressed and her head covered 
with a blaze of diamonds. The Cardinal had put on his pontifical 
robes and the ceremony began by a sermon from another prelate. 
As far as I could understand this sermon, it appeared to me a most 
curious production. The bishop then read the usual ritual; the nun 

1 In the Palazzo Sciarra-Colonna. 



472 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

took off her ornaments and covered herself with a white veil; she 
then smiled most theatrically in order to express her satisfaction 
at her change of situation. Upon the whole the ceremony was much 
less impressive than I had imagined. After this ceremony was over 
we returned home, dressed, and went to dine with the Cardinal 
Gonzalvo. There was to have been this afternoon a horse race in 
honour of the Emperor and Empress, but as it rained excessively 
the Cardinal had gone to obtain the imperial consent for the 
postponement of the fete until the return of their Majesties from 
Naples. This circumstance made us wait for our dinner an hour 
beyond the usual time. In the evening, in consequence of an in- 
vitation from the Princess Canino, we called on Madame Mere. 1 
The Princess was there by agreement to introduce us. Cardinal 
Fesch was also present. The old lady was very amiable while we 
stayed which was about half an hour. We then went and spent 
the remainder of the evening with Lucien and family. He and 
Madame expressed a wish that I would permit their eldest son 2 to 
accompany me to America provided they could obtain for him 
the passport for which they had applied. They requested me 
also to mention the subject to Cardinal Gonzalvo when I should 
see him, as I proposed on the morrow to take leave. 

26. Called this morning and took leave of Torlonia and the 
Ministers of France and Austria. 3 I then called on Cardinal Gon- 
zalvo who received me very graciously, and although the ante- 
chamber was crowded with people in waiting, he gave me imme- 
diate audience. I began by thanking him for all his attentions and 
politeness. I then said a few words in respect to Mr. Sartori, our 
Acting Consul, all which was well received by the Cardinal. I next 
proceeded to a more delicate subject — the wish of Lucien Bona- 
parte to send his eldest son with me to the United States. The 
Cardinal immediately entered fully and frankly into the subject. 
He recounted all the circumstances relating to the conduct of the 
allied powers towards Lucien. He said that after the last defeat of 
Napoleon, Lucien, on his way from Paris to Rome, was arrested at 
Turin by the King of Sardinia and imprisoned at that place, that 
on representation of this circumstance to the ministers of the great 
allied powers then at Paris, it was resolved by those ministers that 
Lucien should be liberated and allowed to proceed to Rome pro- 
vided the Pope consented thereto, and provided that neither Lucien 
nor his family should leave the papal territories. The Pope ac- 
quiesced without hesitation, and Lucien embraced the proposition 

1 Letizia Bonaparte. 

2 Charles-Lucien- Jules-Laurent Bonaparte ( 1 803-1 857). 

3 Prince de Kaunitz. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 473 

with eagerness and even volunteered his word of honour to observe 
the conditions that were imposed; that Naples and France were 
dissatisfied with the arrangement, and the former had required that 
Lucien should be driven out of the papal dominions which the 
Pope peremptorily refused. The Cardinal showed me the protocols 
of all these transactions, and a letter from Tallyrand on the subject 
in which he contends that a distinction ought to be made between 
Lucien and the other members of the Bonaparte family on account 
of the part which he had acted some months before. He also 
showed me a letter from Lucien asking a passport for his son to 
accompany me to America, the Cardinal's answer to this letter 
stating the necessity of consulting the allied powers before he could 
accede to this request; a second letter from Lucien in which he re- 
monstrates against the injustice of delaying to grant the passport 
which he had requested, stating that his parole could not affect 
his children who, when of age, would be masters of their own con- 
duct, and even intimating that he would sooner return to the castle 
of Turin than submit to the oppression of a different construction. 
The Cardinal appeared to be a little hurt at the tone of this letter 
but observed "il est malheureux et je lui pardonne." After this 
conversation I asked the Cardinal for his orders for post-horses 
and for an escort which he immediately accorded filling the blanks 
up himself. He followed me to the outward door and took his 
leave in the most gracious manner, sending his compliments and 
good wishes to Mrs. Russell. I next returned home and then ac- 
companied Mrs. Russell to the Capitol, the tower of which we 
ascended to the top. Thence we had a very fine view of the site 
and ruins of ancient Rome and could distinguish the famous Seven 
Hills. The prospect commanded also modern Rome and the vicin- 
ity as far as Mount Soracte on one side, and the Sea and the Pon- 
tine Marshes on the other. After dinner I called on Lucien and gave 
him an account of my interview with the Cardinal Gonzalvo at 
which he appeared very little pleased. I afterwards accompanied 
Mrs. Russell and Amelia to the Princess Pauline's and took leave 
of her. In the evening Terril and Trentanove called on us and the 
former remained until half past twelve the next morning. 

27. We had at last obtained permission, through the influence 
of Monseigneur [ ], to visit the statues and the celebrated 

paintings at the Villa Ludovisi. We according called on him at half 
past twelve and took him with us in our carriage. At the gate we 
met our countrymen, Terril and Main, to whom we had given a 
hint of our success and desired them to profit by it. This villa oc- 
cupies part of the gardens of Sallust close by the Aurelian wall. 
We first entered the casino which contains the statues. We saw 



474 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

there the finest collection, for its extent, which we had ever seen. 
Among other chefs-d'oeuvre, a superb statue of Mars reposing, a 
sitting gladiator, an Esculapius, a group of Pluto and Prosepina, 
one of Orestes, and Electra, and another most excellent of Paetus 
holding his wife Arria after she had killed herself and in the act of 
plunging the dagger in his own bosom. We next proceeded to the 
casino which contains the justly celebrated Aurora painted in fresco 
by Guerchino di Cento. It deserves all its reputation and excelled 
in our opinion the Aurora of Guido. In the story above we also 
saw the Fame of the same painter in fresco which was likewise very 
fine. We mounted on the top of the building and took a glance at 
the surrounding prospect which was very commanding but which, 
as it began to rain, we could not enjoy long. For the same reason 
we could not examine very leisurely the statues in the gardens. We 
carried Monseigneur to his apartments and then went to the Palace 
of Spada, and among many interesting objects saw there the famous 
statue of Pompey at the foot of which Julius Caesar is said to have 
expired. The head of this statue was found at a considerable dis- 
tance from the body which occasioned some doubt if it rightfully 
belonged to it. Canova has, however, after a thorough investiga- 
tion, pronounced it to be the true original head. We entered the 
apartment where the statue is kept with some English men and 
women, one of the latter of whom exclaimed on entering: "There 
is the statue which the barbarous French mutilated by sawing off 
the arm in order to get it through the door to remove it." She 
walked up to it with an air of triumph, in order to point out the 
truth of this violence, but she looked extremely foolish when she 
could find no trace of such an outrage, the statue being, in fact, as 
entire as the first moment it was discovered. The poor woman had 
been misled by the falsehood of Eustace who never paid the least 
respect to truth when there was a question of the French. In the 
afternoon the Prince and Princess of Canino called on us. Trenta- 
nove had joined us to a party to see the statues of the Vatican by 
torch-light, but some of the party came so late that we had merely 
time to arrive at the door of the Museum before our appointments 
called us elsewhere. We first called on the Prince and Princess of 
Canino and then returned home to receive Mr. Sartori and his wife, 
who came to pass the evening with us as well as Trentanove who 
had returned with us. 

28. We were very busily engaged this morning in packing up. 
About noon Charles Bonaparte, the eldest son of Lucien, called on 
us with Monsieur Franci, the physician of the Prince. We ordered 
dinner at two o'clock and set off at three-quarters past three. 
Trentanove stayed with us till we were off. After leaving Rome we 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 475 

found some part of the road broken up to repair and we did not reach 
Tor di Mezzavia until a quarter past five. The postmaster or his man 
attempted to impose on us by making us pay for a royal post and 
insisted on detaining us for this object, until I gave orders to return 
to Rome which appeared to alarm him and he permitted us to go 
on. We arrived at Albano at seven and stopped at the Hotel Ville 
de Londres to which we had been recommended by Mr. Kruseman. 
29. We spent this morning in seeing the curiosities at Albano. 
This city is built on the spot of the ancient city of Alba Longa 
which was founded four hundred years before the city of Rome and 
flourished until the time of Tullius Hostilius. Ascanius son of Aeneas 
is said to have been the founder. A tomb is still seen which is said 
to have been the sepulchre of this Prince, but of which the origin is 
really unknown. It is a tower still of considerable elevation although 
all its ornaments are gone. From this tower we proceeded to the 
lake which is a long mile distant. We passed by the Castel Gan- 
dolfo, belonging to the Pope, and built upon the spot where Milo 
killed the Tribune Clodius. The lake was formerly called Albano, 
now Castillo on account of its proximity to this castle. We were 
mounted on jackasses, and on descending to the lake we found the 
road or path in some places very rough, and on account of the late 
rains, very muddy. The lake is supposed to be the crater of an 
ancient volcano and its depth, which is four hundred and eighty feet, 
appears to warrant this supposition. It is said to be five miles in 
circumference, but by reason of the high land on every side its 
extent appears to be much less. We visited the outlet which was 
made to this lake about three hundred and ninety-three years before 
the Christian era. It was worked through the solid mountain of 
rock for nearly two miles, its width being three and one-half feet 
and its height six feet. It has never received any repairs and is 
now as perfect as the day it was finished, more than two thousand, 
two hundred years ago. The entrance near the lake is protected 
by a kind of gate, and the man who opened it lighted a taper which 
he placed on a little piece of wood which he set afloat on the current, 
and which as it proceeded, threw a light on the subterraneous pas- 
sage and made it visible for a considerable distance. On our return 
we stopped at a grotto which is supposed to have been a Nymphe 
or a hall ornamented with the statues of nymphs where they went 
to refresh themselves in old times. The statues are gone, but the 
niches in which they stood still remain, and places for baths and 
the conduit for water which supplied them. We next went to the 
Villa Barberini and saw there the ruins of a palace of Nero and of 
his amphitheatre. It is said that there was not only a covered 
way from the one to the other, but that there was such a way from 



476 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

the palace to the city of Rome, a distance of about fourteen miles. 
In the gardens of Barberini there was a fine ancient bust of Scipio 
Africanus. We saw also parts of a fine marble frieze and a Corin- 
thian capital worked into the modern walls of the garden. We next 
went to view the remains of an ancient conservatory of water. 
We now returned to our inn and having dined we set off at half past 
three in prosecution of our journey. Just as we left Albano we saw 
the remains of an ancient tomb vulgarly called the tomb of the 
Horatii and Curiatii, but supposed by others more reasonably to 
have been the tomb of Pompey the Great. 1 We stopped a short 
time to examine it. It has a square foundation which was formerly 
crowned with five pyramids of which two only are now standing. 
We arrived at Genzano, three-quarters of a post, at four o'clock, 
having been obliged to take six horses. We set off now with four 
horses only, and arrived at Velletri, one post at six o'clock. Here 
we met Mr. Robinson and Bernard returning from Naples. We 
went to visit the Palace Lancellotti, formerly Gennette. It is now 
converted into an inn and very much abused. We saw the fine 
staircase, said to be the most magnificent in Italy. The statues 
still remain on the ground, some of them much defaced and one of 
them placed under a stable window of modern times was literally 
covered with a dung heap. From the portico on the back of this 
palace is a fine view of the valley which we enjoyed for a few minutes 
and then returned to our inn, where Mr. Robinson took tea and 
spent the evening with us. 

30. We took an escort this morning of two dragoons and re- 
sumed our journey at half past five. At half past seven we changed 
horses and dragoons at Cisterna at seven and again changed horses 
at Torre tre Ponti at eight thirty. Here the Pontine Marshes com- 
mence and here we discharged our escort. We changed horses at 
Bocca de fiume at half past nine; at Mesa at ten thirty — at Ponti 
Maggiore at eleven and reached Terracina at eleven thirty. A 
short distance before we arrived at this place we had left the Pon- 
tine Marshes. We found considerable cultivation on these marshes 
and the road everywhere excellent and the postillions, particularly 
the last two, drove with great rapidity. We stopped to breakfast 
at Terracina and again set off at twelve thirty. We reached the 
frontier of the Pope in about a mile and found there a military 
station and were persuaded to take an escort for the rest of the 
stage, but we had not proceeded far before we arrived at the Nea- 
politan barrier when our escort informed us they could go no fur- 
ther and demanded pay for the whole distance. This I refused and 

1 There are two tombs, not one, as Russell has it. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 477 

a warm altercation took place, which I ended by giving four pauls 
to the rogues. The usual rate of paying the dragoons is five pauls 
each for a post with a small bon a mano. We reached Fondi, a post 
and a half, at two; Itri, one post, at three fifteen; and Mola de 
Gaeta, 1 one post, at four thirty. At this place our passport was 
again required and a report of our baggage, but we passed without 
difficulty. We reached Garigliano at three-quarters past six and 
St. Agatha at a quarter past eight. We stopped here for the night 
and found most wretched lodgings in a most wretched inn. 

May 1. We left our vile inn at St. Agatha this morning at half 
past six o'clock. We passed Sparanisi at eight, and reached Capua 
at a quarter past ten. As the old town of Capua is about a mile 
and a half from the new we did not visit it, as the few shapeless ruins 
which remain there would have afforded very little indemnity for 
the loss of time. We breakfasted at Capua and resumed our journey 
at half past eleven. We found the roads thence to Aversa very 
rough and heavy and we did not reach the latter place until one 
o'clock, although it is but one post. We likewise found the road 
bad from Aversa to Naples and were until three o'clock in reaching 
the latter. About half way we were indeed detained a short time by 
one of the fore wheels running off. John and Marcus who had 
greased the wheels the day before had not secured this in the proper 
manner and we found ourselves, all at once pitched diagonally on 
the end of the axle. At the Barrier of Naples I found a servant with 
a letter from Mr. Hammett informing me that he had taken apart- 
ments for our accommodation at the Crocelle. We therefore pro- 
ceeded thither and found the apartments very comfortable and 
pleasant, commanding a fine view of the bay and surrounding coun- 
try. We found them, however, too elevated having to mount no 
less than one hundred and two steps to arrive at them. After dinner 
I took a walk and called on our consul, Alexander Hammett. 

2. Received a visit this morning from Mr. Hammett after 
which I made several calls and delivered letters of introduction, 
one to Count Mocenigo, the Russian Minister; the Princess Geraci; 
the Princess Bellmonte, and Madame Bird. All these letters were 
from Baron Lagersward. After dinner I took a long ride with Mrs. 
Russell and Amelia along the bay to the westward and encountered 
a crowd of carriages. 

3. Mr. Hammett called this morning and introduced Mr. 
Davis from New Jersey. I afterwards went out and delivered the 
remainder of my letters of introduction which were to the follow- 
ing persons: Falconette & Co. ; Rogers & Co.; Torrebello, the Por- 

1 Formia. 



478 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

tuguese Minister; Boreel, the Dutch Minister; Circello, the Minister 
of Foreign Affairs; General Ambrosio; Major Salviggi; Mr. Joseph 
Ferro; and Jablonowski, the Austrian Minister. I found at home 
Mr. Rogers, the partner of Falconette (Falconette himself having 
gone with his family to Switzerland), the Ministers of Holland and 
Portugal and the Major Salviggi. The Minister of Foreign Affairs 
was at home, but so much occupied that he requested that I would 
call again to-morrow. At four o'clock we received a visit from 
Madam Bird and her daughters; at six the Princess Bellmonte. 
The latter told us that she received every Sunday and Wednesday 
evening. At nine o'clock the Princess of Geraci called by agree- 
ment and took Mrs. Russell with her to the Austrian Minister's. 
About eight o'clock the Minister of Russia called on me to make 
excuses for not intending to present me to the King, 1 etc. His 
reasons and his conduct were at least ridiculous if not impertinent. 

4. Called this day on the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Circello, 
and he engaged to ask leave of presentation from the King. He 
said that the Count Mocenigo had called on him and consulted him 
concerning my presentation and that they had both considered it 
best, on account of the alliance between the United States and Great 
Britain, for me to be presented by the British Minister and Mrs. 
Russell by his lady. I remonstrated against this course, having no 
acquaintance with the said minister, and not being inclined to ask 
favours in that quarter. Circello then engaged to present me him- 
self, but as the King would be absent for three days it would be 
necessary to wait a short time. I next went to the Custom-house 
and found that my trunks from Rome had not arrived. As my uni- 
form coat was in one of them I felt it necessary to refuse an invita- 
tion to the Academy, given by the Austrian Minister to the Em- 
peror and Empress and imperial family this evening. Received a 
note from Mocenigo saying that the English Minister would present 
me. The English Minister left his card and his lady called and 
made us a visit in person. Mr. Middleton also called. In the even- 
ing I took a walk to the gardens and Mrs. Russell and Amelia went 
to the Academy above mentioned, at six o'clock, and remained 
until ten. They came home very much pleased with the music and 
with the attentions which they had received. 

5. We ordered our carriage this morning at nine o'clock, but 
having waited for it till half past ten, I took a walk to the Consul's. 
He accompanied me to the coachmakers who first tried to persuade 
us that the carriage had been sent at the time ordered, and then 
that it had not been ordered until noon. He promised, however, 

1 Ferdinand IV (1751-1825). 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 479 

to be punctual in future. We walked home and there found the 
carriage. After sitting for some time we went to see the Chapel of 
St. Serverino or the Church of St. Marie di la Pieta. We saw some very 
fine and curious statues in this chapel as well as other excellent 
sculpture. Among the statues is one of the mother 1 of the Prince 
Dom Raimond under the figure of chastity [ ], covered 

with a veil. This veil tho' a part of the marble, is so well executed 
as to appear transparent and to discover the lineaments beneath it. 
The Greeks and Romans never sculptured veils and the latter 
painted them only. This statue was executed by Corradini. 2 An- 
other statue, executed by Queirolo, 3 represents the said Dom Ray- 
mond of Vice Undeceived. The Prince after the death of his wife 
turned religious. He caused himself to be sculptured as a man 
covered by a net from which he was disentangling himself by the 
aid of a little winged spirit. The net is of the same piece of marble 
as the statue and admirably executed. There is also a bust [of] 
Christ begun by Corradini and finished by Joseph San Martino, 4 a 
Neapolitan, of wonderful workmanship. After we had seen the 
curiosities of this church we spent the remainder of the time, until 
dinner, in shopping. After dinner we took a ride and walked in 
the garden. We were obliged to stay at home in the evening, al- 
though invited to the Princess Bellmonte's, as Mrs. Russell had 
broken the key to the trunk which contained her clothes. We had 
a visit from Mr. Main whom I had met in the morning at the Con- 
sul's. Mrs. Middleton and Mr. Boreel called this morning while 
we were out. General Ambrosio also called and left a note invit- 
ing us to his box on Sunday evening. 

6. We called on the Consul this morning at a little past nine 
o'clock and went with him to the Academy of Studies. We began 
by examining the pictures of later times, of which there is a consider- 
able selection in several apartments. There are but few productions, 
however, of the great masters. The painting which interested us 
most was a portrait of Christopher Columbus, by Parmigiano. 
There was a little picture by Correggio not more than a foot square 
representing the Virgin Mary and her Son, for which the Academy 
is said to have paid twenty thousand ducats. We could see nothing 
in the work, however, to justify the price. We next went into the 
apartments containing the paintings found in Pompeii and Hercu- 
laneum, as well as rings, spoons, etc. We next went into the rooms 
where are the papyri in a carbonated state and were shown the 

1 Cecilia Gaetani, wife of Antonio di Sangro. 

2 Antonio Corradini ( -1752). 

3 Francisco Queirolo. 

4 Giuseppe San Martino (17 28-1 800). 



480 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

process by which they are developed. We then went into the library 
which is said to contain forty thousand volumes and one thousand 
manuscripts. We next went to the chambers containing the vases 
found in the ancient sepulchres which are very numerous and some 
of them finely executed. The paintings on them were often his- 
torical many depicting events well known, such as the Death of 
Patroclus, the Death of Hector, etc. We lastly descended to the 
ground floor and saw there the statues, busts and bas-reliefs. 
There are some very fine statues, as the Farnesian Hercules eques- 
trian statues of the Consul Albius and his son, found in Hercula- 
neum, a fine bust of Julius Caesar, etc. There is a bust of Aristides 
admired for its drapery and attitude. The latter, however, to me 
expressed very little, either of grace or force. In the court-yard 
we saw some of the ancient mills which were probably turned by 
hand. I have omitted to say that in some of the rooms above 
stairs we saw a great collection of cooking utensils and other house- 
hold implements, implements of surgery, steelyards and scales with 
their weights, lamps, etc., found at Pompeii. At two o'clock we 
returned home and found cards from the Portuguese Minister, 
Torrebello, Mr. Rogers. We afterwards had visits from Mr. Rogers 
and his lady, and from General Ambrosio. 

7. I stayed at home this morning, but Mrs. Russell and Amelia 
called on Mrs. Middleton. After dinner we went to see the tomb 
of Virgil, which we found on the side of a mountain or hill called 
Posilipo. To arrive at it we passed through a garden. The body 
of the work still remains consisting of four walls and an arch built 
of bricks. There are three openings or windows; on the inside are 
several niches, — all the ornaments have been taken away. In as- 
cending and descending the hill we were thronged by a number of 
ragged, half-naked girls, from ten to thirteen years of age, who 
danced up and down the [roadway] in a very amusing manner, 
and fought for the money which we gave them, with the spirit of 
furies. In the evening we had a call from our countryman Davis 
and from our old acquaintance, the Count Voyna, who proposed a 
game of whist with the ladies, to which we assented, in order to 
remind us of Sweden. 

8. We breakfasted this morning at half past seven and got into 
our carriage at half past eight. We called and took the Consul 
with us, and then proceeded to the city of Pompeii. This town is 
about twelve miles from Rome, and we arrived there at about 
eleven o'clock. We immediately took a cicerone and began our 
rambles. We first saw the Temple of Hercules with the triangular 
forum in which it is placed, the tragic and comic theatres and the 
Temple of Isis. We then passed over a considerable extent of 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 481 

Pompeii still buried in volcanic matter, when we arrived at the 
amphitheatre. This amphitheatre is nearly entire, although de- 
faced of nearly all its marbles. It gives even a more distinct idea 
of what it was than that of Verona. It is evidently divided for two 
classes of people, there being no communication between several 
rows of lower seats and those above. All the seats are divided into 
two parts by a little longitudinal rising of about an inch and a half, 
on the fore part of a little more than a foot, which was really the 
seat and the part behind, on which were placed the feet of those on 
the next seat was of course lower and somewhat wider. Thus the 
place for the seats and for the feet of the spectators was distinctly 
marked and prevented all interference and confusion. The seats 
which we had just seen at the tragic and comic theatres had not 
this advantage. Tacitus gives an account of a terrible quarrel 
which took place in this theatre between the inhabitants of Pom- 
peii and some of the people of Nuceria, who were present, when sev- 
eral of the latter were killed and wounded. Livineius Regulus who 
gave this f£te was in consequence executed by the Roman Senate, 1 
and exhibitions of gladiators in this amphitheatre were forbidden 
for the term of ten years. Near the amphitheatre, a considerable 
part of the ancient walls of the city has been uncovered. I not 
only took a view of this part of the wall from the top of the amphi- 
theatre but I took a ramble along it for a considerable distance 
and could thence form a pretty accurate conjecture of the real 
extent of the town. It was indeed of very respectable dimensions. 
We now walked through vineyards over the city which still remains 
covered, to nearly the opposite part which had first been explored. 
This part we found entirely uncovered and presenting an exact 
view of the temples and habitations, etc., of the ancients. All the 
buildings in Pompeii are of brick covered with stucco. They re- 
main generally very perfect excepting being unroofed. The walls 
are painted either red or yellow with few exceptions, and on many 
are drawn figures of men, beast or birds, or architectural designs. 
Almost every house has a square court-yard in the centre, paved 
with mosaic and in the midst a cistern for the rain-water. The 
rooms are distributed round this court-yard and opening into it 
without any direct communication with each other. We were sur- 
prised to find most of these rooms very small not being from more 
than five to nine feet broad and about ten or twelve deep. They 
were generally, however, ten or twelve feet high. We could not 
find any traces of interior doors. All the utensils, furniture, etc., 
found in Pompeii have been removed to the Royal Academy. The 

1 Banished, according to Tacitus, Ann. iii, ii; xiv. 17. 



482 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

name of the inhabitant is written on the outside of the house next 
the street in red paint. In the shops where wine and oil was re- 
tailed, large jars still remain supported by masonry. We also saw 
a bakehouse with a large oven still remaining and precisely of the 
form of ovens of the present day. In this bakehouse were also 
several mills of different shapes and sizes, all apparently worked 
by hand. The streets which have been cleared of the volcanic 
matter are precisely as they were seventeen or eighteen centuries 
ago. They are very narrow; say about eight feet wide besides the 
sideways which are about a yard wide on each side and raised about 
two feet, so as to be above the reach of rain-water. At the corners 
of the streets in order to pass to the other side are three large stones 
from a foot to a foot and a half high, so placed that the wheels of 
carriages passed between the centre stone and those on each side. 
The pavement was much worn by the wheels in these places, as 
here the carriages went in precisely the same track. In this part of 
the town was also a tragic theatre; a Temple of Esculapius; a Temple 
of Venus; a Basilica; a Forum, etc., all still magnificent. We also 
saw the house of Caius Sallust, which was one of the most con- 
siderable of Pompeii. The bath and the marble on which the table 
was placed still remain, with the surrounding floor on which they 
dined in cubito. After seeing these things we passed out through 
the gateway on the consular road which still remains entire. In the 
suburbs we went over the house of M. Arrius Diomedes which was 
spacious and delightfully situated on a hill commanding a prospect 
of the bay. A cellar runs all round underneath this house which 
has also been cleared and we went through it, and still saw some of 
the amphora which contained the wine resting against the wall. 
We also saw the tomb built by this person which according to the 
inscription was for sibi et suis, but even he did not find sepulture 
there as he perished in the eruption of 79 and was for centuries 
covered by the volcanic matter. His bones were found in his garden 
towards the gate which led out behind, and as in one hand he held 
keys and in the other money, it is supposed that he was in the act 
of escaping when he perished. Behind him were the bones of an- 
other person supposed to be a servant with vessels of bronze and 
silver. We saw also the other tombs on the consular way, and in 
one of them was still the vases containing the ashes of the deceased. 
Upon the whole the town of Pompeii impressed us with an idea of 
the taste and public magnificence of the ancient inhabitants, but 
their dwelling houses appeared to contain too little room accord- 
ing to our ideas of domestic comfort. The streets too, although most 
solidly made, were very narrow and rather rough. Indeed we can 
hardly suppose that carriages were much used in those times for 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 483 

pleasure or personal transportation. The axle of those which 
marked the pavement of Pompeii could have been only about four 
feet long. In returning to town we stopt at the ancient site of Her- 
culaheum and descended to the theatre which was once entirely 
uncovered, ft has now again been filled up in such a manner as to 
have only narrow subterraneous passes through which we passed 
by candle-light, excepting under the well which was the first means 
of discovering the place where Herculaneum was. The orchestra 
was still cleared and by placing a candle at one side and passing to 
the other we could judge of the width of the theatre in this place. 
The equestrian statue of the Proconsul Albinus was found on one 
side of this orchestra and that of his son on the other. Upon the 
whole we were poorly paid for anything we saw here for the trouble 
of descending and ascending about seventy-five steps, and for the 
gloom and dampness of the place. We now returned to Naples 
where we arrived about half past five and kept the Consul to dine 
with us, and had a bottle of wine called Lacrimae Christi, which he 
found to be good, having a dryness and roughness like port. We 
were so fatigued with our excursion this day that we spent the 
evening at home, although we had an invitation at the Duchess of 
Nalboum, and another at the Princess Bellmonte. 

9. I took a ride this morning with Mrs. Russell along the sea, 
in the fine road made by Murat. Had a call from General Am- 
brosio. In the evening accompanied him to the theatre of St. 
Charles, and sat in the box of the Princess Caramanico, which had 
been procured for us by the General. The theatre is one of the most 
magnificent in Europe, and this evening, on account of the presence 
of the Emperor and Empress of Austria, it was brilliantly illumi- 
nated. The entertainment was first a cantata which had no great 
import; then a series of dances in imitation of the national dances 
of other countries, and the tarantella, which is the national dance of 
Naples. On a signal being given, a garland was thrown over every 
box, which had a fine effect. The whole continued until about half 
past eleven, when we returned home. 

10. I staid at home this morning while Mrs. Russell and Amelia 
paid several visits and went shopping. In the afternoon we, with 
the Consul, went up to the Castle of St. Elmo, from whence we had 
a fine view of Naples, its environs, bay, the sea, etc. In descending 
Mr. Hammett slipt and fell and hurt himself considerably. In the 
evening we went to the theatre and sat by previous invitation, in 
the box of the Princess Geraci. The opera was "Elizabeth" which 
we heard and retired before the ballet, which was "Orlando 
Furioso." 

11. We intended this morning to have gone, with the Consul, 



484 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

to Pozzuoli and Baiae, but received a note from him that his knee, 
from the fall yesterday, was too lame for the expedition. We then 
determined to change our destination for Portici. On our way 
thither we stop at the Consul's and I went up and found him in 
bed. The museum at Portici was very interesting. It contained 
many of the inscriptions and paintings which had been saved from 
the walls of Herculaneum, Pompeii and Stabiae. Some of these 
paintings were very fine, particularly four which had been found at 
Herculaneum — Theseus after slaying the Minotaur, the Centaur 
Chiron teaching the young Achilles, the son of Hercules, [to] suck 
a doe, the river Nile and its attributes. There was also a skull of a 
young woman shown which had belonged to a skeleton found in 
Pompeii. This skeleton was dressed in cloth of solid gold with 
pearl ear-rings and rings on her fingers and bracelets. There were 
several other skeletons found about her which were supposed to be 
those of her servants. There was also shown us a family altar at 
which were worshipped the Dii Penates. We next went to 
the rooms containing the portraits of Murat and his children, 
Napoleon and his mother, Massena, etc. We were then intro- 
duced into the palace which we found to be furnished precisely 
as it was when inhabited by Murat and his consort. 1 Even the 
little library of the latter remained untouched. There was nothing 
indeed wanting but the mattresses of Murat to put on the elegant 
bedstead, and these were to be brought in order to show the Em- 
peror of Austria how the unfortunate man had slept in whose 
murder Emperors and Kings had been accomplices. The mean 
triumph would, it seems, be more perfect by viewing the previous 
magnificence of the illustrious victim. This palace commands a 
beautiful view of the Bay of Naples and the city and surrounding 
hills. We returned to town about two o'clock and soon after I re- 
ceived a visit from the British Minister. In the course of the con- 
versation he appeared surprised to learn that I had not been pre- 
sented to the King. I explained to him my situation and rendered 
him an account of the strange conduct of the Greek Mocenigo. 
He then said he would see Circello immediately, and left me for 
that purpose. About three hours afterwards I received an invita- 
tion from the Prince of Migliano to a ball given by the King 
this evening at his palace of Capodimonte. But as it was a very 
late invitation; as I had not been presented to the King, and 
as Mrs. Russell had not been invited, I decided not to go, but 
spent the evening at home in reading "Olympic," a tragedy of 
Voltaire. 

1 Maria Annunciata Carolina Bonaparte, youngest sister of Napoleon. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 485 

12. I went this morning again with Mrs. Russell to the Royal 
Studium. We began by the rez-de-chaussee and saw there very 
leisurely all the marble statues. There are some very fine ones as 
well those from the Farnesian collection at Rome, such as the 
Hercules, Flora, etc., as several found in Herculaneum and Pom- 
peii. We next went into the rooms containing the pictures of which 
we took a leisurely survey, and we purchased there a small copy of 
the portrait by Parmigiano for which I paid fifteen dollars. We 
next went into the room which contains the jewels found at Pom- 
peii and Herculaneum, also some from the Farnesian collection; 
several frescos from Herculaneum and Pompeii, with a great variety 
of other interesting articles from these places. The rings found at 
Pompeii and Herculaneum are generally like those of modern times, 
that is joined, but there are some which are not joined but like the 
bracelets merely bent in a circle without being soldered. These 
bracelets are indeed made precisely like those worn at the present 
day in Calcutta and the East. I observed one pair, however, of 
gold which consisted of a serpent, each bent twice round. The en- 
gravings on some of the stones of the rings are remarkably fine. 
In this room is the finest cameo in the world. It is from the Farne- 
sian collection. It is an agate of seven or eight inches in diameter, 
very transparent. One side is engraved with the apotheosis of 
Alexander and the other with the head of Medusa. Some of the 
frescos in this room are well delineated. There are here also hen's 
eggs found in Pompeii more than seventeen hundred years old and 
which externally appear quite fresh. There is also a vessel con- 
taining oil which has become nearly of the consistence of butter. 
The vessel itself is of glass. We were also shown wine in a jar which 
had been converted into a solid mass by the action of the heat of 
the volcanic matter or by time. We next went shopping for a short 
time and purchased a couple of tambourines. As it rained in the 
afternoon we kept [the] house until the evening, and then Mrs. 
Russell went without me to visit the Princess of Jablonowski, the 
Princess of Bellmonte, Madam Middleton and Madam Bird, and 
to pass a few hours at the theatre of St. Charles. 

13. The Consul called and breakfasted with us this morning 
and we all set off together at about half past eight o'clock for Poz- 
zuoli. We passed the Grot of Posilipo, which is a road through the 
mountain of that name of about a quarter of a mile in length lighted 
with lamps. We arrived at Pozzuoli at ten o'clock. We first went 
to the square to view an ancient pedestal, the four sides of which 
are ornamented with bas-reliefs a little obliterated. This is sup- 
posed to have been the pedestal of a statue erected to Tiberius by 
fourteen cities of Asia Minor, which are represented by the four- 



486 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

teen figures in bas-relief. There is also in this place, a very fine 
statue standing on a pedestal on which is the following inscription: 

Q. Flavio Mario Egnatio 
Lolliano . . . D 

Patrono Dignissimo — 

We next went to visit the Temple of Serapis which although dis- 
covered entire, no longer ago than the year 1750, is now quite in ruins, 
having three pillars only standing, and the circumference in shapeless 
heaps. The outside building was square of one hundred and thirty- 
four feet long and one hundred and fifteen wide. The inner building 
or temple was round having a diameter of sixty-five feet. We now 
hired a boat for eighteen carlinos and crossed the bay towards 
Bajae. In passing we saw on our left the butments of the ancient 
mole which is now generally called the Bridge of Caligula because 
he continued this mole by a bridge to the opposite side. Of the 
bridge, however, there are no remains above water. On our right 
we saw the mountain of Gaurono now called Monte Barbaro, on 
account of its rude and barren appearance. It was this mountain, 
however, which formerly produced the wines so much boasted by 
the ancients. We also saw on our right the Monte Nuovo, because 
it was formed by a volcanic eruption so lately as 1538. It is very 
elevated and has three miles' circumference. We landed on the 
beach in the immediate vicinity of Lake Lucrino, anciently so re- 
nowned for its fish. It still abounds with excellent fish and oysters, 
but its dimensions were very much curtailed by the earthquake 
just mentioned, which filled up the greatest part of it. From Lake 
Lucrino we walked about a mile to Lake Averno. Near this lake 
we saw ruins which are supposed to be those of a temple of Apollo, 
but as some have conjectured they are probably of baths. In re- 
turning to the bay we took another path and passed through the 
subterraneous passage called the Grot of the Sybil of Cumae but 
more reasonably supposed to have been the grand canal formed by 
Nero, to conduct the warm waters to the promontory of Miseno. 
I counted about two hundred paces in passing it. On arriving at 
the shore we walked some distance along it to the south and came 
to the Baths of Nero, so-called, which are now quite in ruins ex- 
cepting the subterraneous passage which conducted to the hot 
springs. I proceeded a short distance in this passage, but finding 
myself getting into an inconvenient perspiration and the difficulty 
of breathing increasing, I returned. There was a lad there, how- 
ever, who satisfied, for trifling compensation, the curiosity of 
strangers in going quite to the spring and bringing thence some of 



J0l8.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 487 

the water. He performed this enterprise for us and prepared him- 
self for it by stripping off all his clothes excepting his pantaloons, he 
took with him a bucket and two eggs, and after being absent a 
short time he returned, making as he approached a great noise in 
breathing, which perhaps was theatrical and when he appeared he 
was literally dripping with sweat. The water in the bucket was too 
hot for the hand and the two eggs which he had put into it were 
slightly boiled, but the water we were told is not sufficiently hot 
to boil them quite hard. We now got into our boat and proceeded 
a short distance along the coast and landed in the vicinity of the 
temples of Venus Genetrix, Mercury and Diana Lucifera. Such, 
however, is the uncertainty attending most of the ancient ruins, 
that many suppose that these ruins belong to ancient baths, as 
they are situated near mineral sources and have a variety of ap- 
pendages which seem not to appertain to temples. The circle of the 
Temple of Mercury is still entire and so perfect that a low whisper 
near the wall on one side is distinctly heard by a listener on the 
other. We again got into our boat and rowed towards the prom- 
ontory. We passed many of the ruins of the ancient city of 
Baiae, some on the shore, but the greatest part submerged in the 
ocean. Julius Caesar had a country house in this city where Livia 
is said to have poisoned Marcellus. We landed at the ruins of the 
ancient village of Bauti formerly very celebrated. We saw there a 
subterraneous vault which is vulgarly called the Tomb of Agrippina 
although Tacitus says that the tomb of this woman was very hum- 
ble. This vault is therefore supposed to have belonged to a theatre. 
A little farther on we visited what is denominated Piscina Admir- 
abile, which was a grand reservoir of water built by Lucullus. It is 
still very entire and to arrive at the bottom we descended two 
flights of stairs of forty steps each. It is supported on forty-eight 
pilasters of square columns which are still, with the arches, sup- 
ported by them in perfect order, and the stucco with which they 
are covered has become so hard that we were told snuff boxes had 
been made of it. We next descended into what is called Cento 
Camerelle, a favorite appellation for any great number of apart- 
ments. These apartments here are by some supposed to have been 
prisons for criminals, and were they really so, they must have been 
most dreary habitations. We went into several of them. We 
afterwards saw the shapeless ruins of the Mercato di Sabito which 
was a circus for equestrian exhibitions. We now took a long walk 
towards the promontory of Miseno, and having attained a consider- 
able elevation in that direction we had a near and distinct view of 
the river Styx and the Elysian Fields beyond them. The former was 
a short communication between a pitiful little salt lake or pond 



488 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

and the sea, and the latter a sidehill rather precipitous and covered 
now with trees. Over the Styx is now a bridge so of course the 
ferry-boat is no longer necessary. From Miseno we also had a 
very fine view of the islands Ischia and Procida. We now returned 
to our boat and recrossed the bay to Pozzuoli where we dined toler- 
ably well. After dinner we went to the Solfatara. This is a plain 
of about eight hundred feet square. It was probably once a moun- 
tain and levelled by a volcano. There is undoubtedly a hollow 
space beneath from the sound which is occasioned by the stamp of 
the foot. From several places in this plain there issues a smoke 
and the ground thereabouts is encrusted with sulphur. The earth 
is also hot in many places. This plain is still surrounded with the 
hills which were anciently called Monte Leucogio. From the verge 
of these mountains in one place issued a small volume of smoke. 
We afterwards visited the ruins of an amphitheatre in this vicinity; 
some sarcophagi that had been found about two years since, and 
an ancient reservoir of water now used for the same purpose. We 
then returned to town quite fatigued. 

14. We received a visit this morning from Commodore Stewart, 1 
Captains Mac Donough 2 and Ballard, 3 and my old friend Shaler. 4 
They spent some time with us and I accompanied Shaler to the 
British Minister's. I afterwards rode with Mrs. Russell to call on 
Mrs. Rogers. In the evening I was presented with Mrs. Russell to 
the King by the Marquis Circello. There were many of the officers 
of the government present, and after waiting some time the King 
entered and was announced by the person who preceded him, 
clapping the hands. He immediately came up to the Marquis 
Circello who stood next the door at which he entered, and received 
us. He conversed ten or twelve minutes with us, asking as many 
questions and making as many observations as he could find appro- 
priate to the parties. There were, however, several long pauses. 
He then went on and received the Neapolitan officers in waiting who 
pressed round him and kissed his hand. He then returned again to us 
and having talked several minutes more, he retired and we returned 
home. 

15. Mrs. Russell was quite unwell this morning and was obliged 
to let me go to the Studium without her. I met there the Commo- 
dore and the other commanders of the American ships at Naples 
as well as many of the officers. We stayed there until half past one. 
Mrs. Russell had sufficiently recovered in the afternoon to accom- 

1 Charles Stewart (1 778-1869). 

2 Thomas Macdonough (1 783-1825). 

3 Henry E. Ballard (1785-1855), a master commandant at this time. 

4 William Shaler (1778-1833). 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 489 

pany me and Amelia to [a] dinner given by the British Minister. We 
found there the Duke of Leeds; l Lord Gordon, Minister at Vienna; 2 
Lord Ponsonby; 3 Admiral Fremantle, 4 and several of their ladies. 
We sat down at the table at about half past six and the British Min- 
ister gave his hand to Mrs. Russell and his lady accepted mine. 
Immediately after dinner, which was about nine o'clock, Mrs. 
Russell was again taken ill and we were obliged to go home. 

16. We this morning at about half past ten o'clock set off with 
Commodore Stewart in our travelling carriage and four horses for 
Cardeletto, as we had been invited by the Marquis Circello to a 
f£te there this day and to dine at the table of the King. We reached 
our destination a little before noon just as the King had mounted 
on horseback and the Emperor, etc., had got into their carriages to 
ride around the ground. We met Circello at the door, who gave 
his arm to Mrs. Russell and told her that we should see the scene 
better by walking. He accordingly led the way with Mrs. Russell 
and Commodore Stewart and I followed. We found the ground 
finely shaded with oak and the peasantry from the neighbouring 
country grouped in little parties, enjoying their little feasts and 
dressed in their costume. As the Marquis was an old man deco- 
rated with many orders of nobility, many of these people mistook 
him for the King and cried out with great apparent joy "Viva il 
Re." They frequently pressed him to drink, etc. Mrs. Russell 
who was with him was of course taken for the Queen and partici- 
pated in these attentions. One woman in particular came some 
distance from the party in which she was engaged, to give Mrs. 
Russell a full look in the face and then returned saying " Sono con- 
tenta; io ho visto la Regina." We afterwards returned to the 
palace and I presented the Commodore to many of the Emperor's 
suite and foreign Ministers. About one we sat down to dinner. 
After dinner the Austrian Minister told me that the Emperor 
would then receive the Commodore, and that he would go on board 
his ship on the morrow. The Commodore was accordingly pre- 
sented and received this assurance from the Emperor in person. 
The horse-races began soon afterwards on a signal given by the 
King. They began by a number of mean looking horses starting 
with riders dressed in different colours and mounted bareback. 
They ran round an elliptical enclosure in front of the palace with- 
out any equality in their speed, some absolutely breaking down 



1 George William Frederick Osborne, sixth Duke of Leeds (1775-1838). 

2 Lord Stewart was at Vienna as Ambassador. 

3 John Ponsonby, Viscount Ponsonby (i77o?-i855). 

4 Sir Thomas Fremantle (1 765-1819). 



490 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

after the first and second round, and the winner coming out several 
lengths before all the rest and more than half the course before 
some. About seven o'clock we set out on our return to town where 
we arrived about nine without accident. 

17. At the request of Commodore Stewart we went this morn- 
ing on board the Franklin a little before noon in order to dine with 
him and to receive the Emperor and the King. We had not been 
on board long, however, before the Commodore received a note 
from the British Admiral saying their Majesties would not be on 
board that day. As Admiral Fremantle had long given his invita- 
tion to this effect it was conceived proper that he should receive the 
first visit, which we found to be correct, and consented accordingly. 
Of the intention of their Majesties to defer their visit the Admiral 
had received a message. We staid on board, however, and dined 
and did not return on shore until towards evening. At my lodgings 
I found a note from the Grand Chamberlain of the Emperor, stat- 
ing that on the opinion of the King the visit of the Emperor had 
been deferred till another day. 

18. At nine o'clock this morning Captain Pasqualigo of the suite 
of the Emperor called on me to say that the Emperor and the King 
would go on board the Rochfort y an English ship of eighty guns, 
at four o'clock this afternoon, commanded by Admiral Fremantle, 
and that immediately after visiting that ship they would go on 
board the Franklin and wished me to give notice accordingly. I 
immediately dressed and to make all sure went on board the Frank- 
lin myself. I returned ashore and accompanied Mrs. Russell 
and Amelia on board the Guerriere and the Erie, where 
we had been invited by their respective commanders. After visit- 
ing every part of these ships we went on board the Franklin and 
there remained in order to aid in receiving the Emperor and King. 
We took a light dinner on board as we were engaged to dine this 
day with the Consul and had decided in putting off his dinner to 
a late hour in order to receive us. About four o'clock we saw the 
boats of the King put off from shore and direct their course towards 
the British ship. It was half past four when they arrived on board 
that ship, which had the yards manned, and a man on each truck. 
Immediately on their Majesties being on board two salutes of twenty- 
one guns were fired, without any intermission, which made it appear 
like a salute of forty-two guns. The Emperor and King remained 
on board that ship about an hour, when they put off and came on 
board of us. The yards and the trucks of the Franklin, the Guer- 
riere, and the Erie, were manned, as those of the Rochfort. That 
ship again fired the salutes as she had done before. The Emperor 
and Empress of Austria, a daughter of the Emperor, his Grand- 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 491 

Chamberlain, two Chamberlains, the Grand Master and Grand 
Mistress of the Empress, several maids of honour, the Prince of 
Saxony and his wife, a sister of the Emperor, an aid, and several 
maids of honour, the King of Naples, and his son Leopold, etc., etc., 
constituted the party which came on board. I accompanied the 
Commodore to the gangway to receive them as they came on board 
and Mrs. Russell received the Empress and the ladies. After the 
boats had hauled from along the side, the Franklin fired two salutes 
with sufficient pause between them to mark them severally. She 
differed also from the Rochfort in the manner of displaying the Aus- 
trian and Neapolitan flags. On board the Rochfort these flags were 
hoisted together on the same mast while we hoisted them distinctly 
on different masts. After the salutes were over we all went below 
into the cabin and I presented Captains Mac Donough and Ballard, 
Mr. Shaler, Mr. Hammett, and Lieutenant Gallegar *■ both to the 
Emperor and King. We then proceeded to show the ship in all parts 
with which all expressed themselves pleased and astonished. We 
then went again on the upper deck and from three boats at a little 
distance we exhibited a specimen of firing at a target from three of 
our newly invented swivels. After the imperial and royal party 
had been on board more than an hour and just as the Commodore 
was about ordering a manoeuvre of the guns for the amusement of 
the Emperor, a most unhappy accident occurred which put an end 
to the exhibition and filled all with sadness. The Grand-Master of 
the Empress, as he was following her, in order to shorten his dis- 
tance, attempted to step across the corner of the main-hatch and 
being near-sighted mistook the wind sail for a mast and in stretch- 
ing his hand to support himself by it, lost his balance and fell through 
four decks into the cockpit. In this fall he broke both bones of the 
left leg. As all hands had just been called to quarters the surgeon 
and his mates were at their post and immediately performed the 
operation of reducing the bone in which they succeeded perfectly. 
When the Emperor & Co left the Franklin, is was half past seven 
o'clock and to prevent all noise that might be disagreeable to the 
Grand-Master, no salute was fired. About eight o'clock we went 
with the Commodore and dined with the Consul Hammett, whom 
we did not leave until eleven. 

19. The Commodore came on shore this morning with Captain 
Mac Donough and Mr. Shaler and I accompanied them to the 
lodgings of the Grand-Master to enquire after his health. He re- 
ceived us into his bedchamber and assured us that he was entirely 
without pain or fever. When I expressed a wish that the accident 

1 John Gallagher. 



492 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

might not make an impression unfavorable to our navy and coun- 
try, he exclaimed, certainly not and that it was his fault. His gold 
snuff-box had fallen from his pocket while he was falling from the 
upper deck and somebody had picked it up and brought it to me. 
I availed myself of this opportunity to return it to him and he ap- 
peared to be pleased in seeing it again. He spoke in the highest 
terms of approbation of the tenderness and skill with which he had 
been treated. After leaving him I returned home and took Mrs. 
R[ussell] in the carriage with me. We called on Mr. Hammett and 
his landlady who accompanied us to make some purchases for the sea 
voyage which we contemplate. At half past five o'clock the Com- 
modore came on shore and accompanied Mrs. R[ussell] Amelia and 
myself to Capodimonte to dine with an American by the name of 
Middleton who has a pretty wife. He was not, however, American 
enough to prefer his own countrymen to all others and he con- 
ducted to the table the wife of the British Consul and not the wife 
of the American Minister. In the evening we had a small party at 
whist and we returned to town about midnight. 

20. I called this morning on my bankers Messrs. Falconette & Co. 
and took up seven hundred and twenty ducats equal to six hundred 
dollars which added to ninety-three ducats before drawn, makes in 
all six hundred and seventy-seven dollars and sixty cents. I after- 
wards called on the British Minister and on the Danish Consul 
General at Algiers, and as neither of them was at home, I left cards 
for them and their ladies. I then called on the Baron Stainlein, the 
Bavarian Minister 1 at the Court of Vienna and invited him to 
accompany me on board the Franklin. He assented and one o'clock 
called on me with the Prince [ ], who is of the suite of the 
Emperor and we went on board all three together. These gentle- 
men after seeing the ship returned on shore but I remained on board 
and dined. After dinner I went with the Commodore and the Cap- 
tains of the other ships on board the brig Spark and she got under 
way, after making a stretch towards the town and running under 
the stern of the King's yacht and bowing to him as he stood on 
the quarter-deck. We tacked and run along the coast towards 
Pompeii and a little before sunset came to an anchor about two 
miles from the land. We all remained on board that night. 
We sent the pilot on shore to procure carriages for the next 
morning. 

21. We turned out this morning, as the sailors express it, and 
after taking an early breakfast got into the boats and rowed on 
shore. We found the carriages ready and we immediately drove to 

1 He was charg6 d'affaires. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 493 

Pompeii. We went over the place in the same direction as I had 
done with Mrs. Russell and Amelia on the eighth instant and I dis- 
covered nothing new to attract my attention. We dined at a modern 
house on provisions which we had taken with us, after we had 
finished our rambles. Just as we were leaving the place, Baron 
Schubart and Count Voyna arrived with a party of Polish ladies. 
We returned on board the Spark about eleven o'clock and imme- 
diately got under way. We dined there about four o'clock and 
came to an anchor off Naples about five and reached my lodgings 
in town at six. 

22. We had a visit this morning from the Commodore and 
while he was with us Mr. Howard and Mr. Mac Donald from Balti- 
more and Mr. Van Rensselaer from New York called and invited 
us to dinner for to-morrow. I next called on the Grand Master of 
the Empress and found that the surgeons had taken off the bandages 
this morning, and found everything in excellent order. I then went 
to the Consul's and thence shopping with Mrs. Russell. I after- 
wards called on Baron Schubart and found him asleep. I then 
went and took a warm bath and returned home at four o'clock to 
dinner. After dinner I took a walk with Amelia in the Villa Reale 
or King's garden, where we met with Captains Ballard and Nich- 
olson x and Doctor Heap. I staid at home in the evening and Mr. 
Davis came and spent half an hour with me. Mrs. Russell went 
out and made several visits. I have omitted to say above that 
about three o'clock I called on Prince Metternich but found that 
he was out. I saw, however, the Chevalier Floret and stated to 
him my object. This was to comply with the wishes of the Com- 
modore in inviting the Prince on board the Franklin. The Cheva- 
lier informed me that the Prince was engaged to go to Castel del 
Mare to-morrow and to Caserta on Monday, whence he would not 
return till Wednesday and that he would set off for Rome on Fri- 
day so that Thursday was the* only day which he would be at Naples 
and would inform me if his engagements were such as to permit 
him to go on board at that time. 

23. I remained at home this morning occupied in writing. Mrs. 
Russell went to see the pension house of young women but was not 
admitted by the directress. Received several calls. Dined with 
Messrs. Howard, Mac Donald and Van Rensselaer, three American 
gentlemen, and in the evening played at billiards with my old 
friend Shaler. 

24. Called this morning on the Grand-Master of the Empress 
and found him getting on well. I then went and made a little in- 

1 Joseph J. Nicholson. 



494 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

vestment in stores. When this was completed I called on the Con- 
sul and accompanied him and Mr. Shaler to the prison to see Mr. 
Bullett of Maryland who had been confined there by the police. 
I found him to be a very well educated and intelligent young man 
with considerable eccentricity and very meanly clad. I was fully 
convinced that there was no sufficient cause for his confinement. I 
gave a dinner this day to Commodore Stewart, Capt. Mac Donough, 
Capt. Ballard, Capt. Nicholson, Capt. Thompson, 1 Mr. Shaler, 
Mr. Hammett, Mr. Galliger, Mr. Weaver, 2 Mr. Howard, Doctor 
Heap, Mr. Myers, Mr. Ellery, and Mr. Harris. Dr. Satin, Mr. 
Bourne, and Count Voyna were invited but did not come. I am 
sorry to say that the dinner was very indifferent and badly served. 
At eight o'clock I accompanied Capt. Mac Donough and Mr. 
Shaler to the billiard room and played till ten. On my return home 
I found there several of the gentlemen who had dined with us and 
the addition of Mr. Davis and Count Voyna. 

25. At eleven o'clock this morning Count Voyna called on me 
by engagement and I accompanied him on board the Franklin, and 
after he had examined that vessel I went with him on board the 
Guerritre. We then returned on shore, and as it rained I remained 
at home until four o'clock, when Voyna came and dined with us. 
Mrs. Russell left us soon after dinner, and rode to Capo di Monte, 
in order to procure a stock of fresh milk for our voyage. The horses 
behaved very bad and she was obliged to jump out of the carriage 
and leave them on the road. After walking a considerable distance 
through the rain and mud, she took a hack and returned home 
about nine o'clock, fatigued, wet, and dirty. 

26. I spent most of this morning in making preparations for 
the voyage. About two o'clock Commodore Stewart and Mr. 
Shaler called on me and informed me that in consequence of a 
council of war holden on board this morning, the voyage to Greece, 
Egypt, etc., had been abandoned, and that the squadron would 
proceed immediately to Gibraltar. The idea of sooner reaching our 
own country amply indemnified us all for all disappointment. It 
still continued to rain and we spent the remainder of the day at 
home. 

27. I called on the Consul this morning and engaged him to 
send my accounts to-morrow morning. I then called on the Mar- 
quis of Torrebello, the Portuguese Minister, and reminded him of 
his offer of a letter to his agent at Madeira for a pipe of the best 
wine from the estate of Torrebello, and he gave me the letter ac- 

1 Charles C. B. Thompson, a master commandant. 

2 William A. Weaver, a lieutenant. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 495 

cordingly. This letter secures to me only a pipe of the best wine 
on my paying the value of it. After my return Consul Guerdin 
called with his wife and made us a visit of about an hour. After 
dinner I went with Mrs. Russell shopping and made several pur- 
chases, among others a lyre-formed guitar. In the evening Com- 
modore Stewart, Mr. Shaler and Mr. Weaver called on us to tea 
and staid until half past ten o'clock. The Prince Metternich had 
engaged to visit the ship this morning but sent an apology, as he 
was obliged to take leave of the King to set out on his return to 
Rome to-morrow. Several gentlemen, however, were on board and 
the Commodore, for their amusement, presented them with the 
exercise of the great guns, boarding, etc. 

28. I called after eleven o'clock this morning on the American 
Consul, but found that he was gone on board the squadron. I 
then accompanied Mrs. Russell to the Studium, where we spent 
two hours. We saw particularly the apartments which contain 
the ancient utensils and arms, in which, however, are several articles 
of a different description, such as musical instruments, chirurgical 
instruments, etc. The neatness of the copper sauce-pans, etc. was, 
very admirable, and they were generally lined with silver to render 
them wholesome. The steelyards I again examined and found them 
as before, exactly to resemble those of modern times, weighing on 
both sides with different powers, etc., but the pound appeared to 
be divided into sixths instead of fourths. There was the remains 
of a lady's toilet, in which were little mirrors, round and square, 
which were made of a composition of silver and bronze and bur- 
nished to reflect with great power, but they were now dimmed with 
rust. There was even a little pot containing rouge which had pre- 
served its colour for more than seventeen hundred years. Among 
the medical remains were huge pills and boluses, of half an inch 
diameter, which could with difficulty have been swallowed through 
a throat of modern dimension. In these apartments we also ad- 
mired the elegance and variety of the lamps. From these apart- 
ments we passed through those containing the pictures into those 
containing the sepulchral vases. Although there are above two 
thousand of these vases, there are no two of them of precisely the 
same form and size. These vases have been very exactly imitated 
at the present day in everything excepting the lightness of the mate- 
rial, and the permanency of the colours, which have hitherto been 
found to be inimitable, the modern vases being uniformly much 
more heavy and the colours easily obliterated by time or friction. 
These vases were all used for the tomb. There are two kinds, large, 
to contain the ashes of the dead; and very small, to contain the 
tears of the living. The paintings on them were adapted to the 



496 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

character of the deceased, for the soldier, heroic, for the statesman, 
civique, for beauty, amatory, etc. Besides the paintings there 
were also placed in the tomb articles likewise characteristic of the 
deceased; arms for the first, a scroll for the second, and even rouge 
for the third, etc. The manner of the interring was as follows: a 
tomb of an oblong square, with the skeleton stretched longitudinally 
on its back, the vase containing the ashes of the combustible parts 
at the head, or elsewhere, and the small lacrimal vases on the 
breast, etc. The Studium shuts at two o'clock, and we were obliged 
to leave it at that hour. We spent the rest of the time until dinner. 
Before we rose from [the] table Commodore Stewart and Doctor 
Heap called to invite us to a walk, but as we had made our arrange- 
ments to visit the Grotta del Cane, we declined their invitation. 
They left us and we set out for the grotto at five o'clock. We passed 
through the Grotta of Posilipo, and in less then three-quarters of 
an hour we arrived at the lake of Agnano. Although this sheet of 
water is called a lake it does not much exceed the ordinary dimen- 
sions of a mill pond. Immediately on the margin of this lake, and 
but a few rods from the road, is the Grotta del Cane. A woman 
attended us to the spot and with a key opened a door by which the 
mouth of the grotto is shut. We found it to be a hole in the side 
of the hill ten or twelve feet in length, about four feet wide, and at 
the entrance about eight or nine feet, but rapidly lowering as you 
proceed, and at the farthest end almost forming an angle. The 
woman had a little white dog with her which she laid on its back 
inside the cave, and at the end of two or three minutes it gasped, 
foamed at the mouth, and became to all appearances lifeless. The 
woman then threw it on the ground on the outside of the cave and it 
almost instantaneously recovered and ran about as if it had suf- 
fered nothing. The woman then held a lighted torch within eight 
or ten inches of the ground and it became immediately extinct. 
This experiment was repeated several times and always with the 
same result. Notwithstanding the common opinion, I believed that 
I smelt a slight odor in the cave. We afterwards visited by the 
side of the road and close to the cave, several rooms which have 
been built in modern times, and which are filled with warm sul- 
phuric vapour which proceeds from holes in the sides and which 
produces copious perspiration. These rooms are used by rheumatic 
and asthmatic people, and there are seats round the room on which 
the sick may lie or sit. The vapour which comes from the wall is, 
close to it, very hot, and leaves about the overture an incrustation 
of sulphur and saltpetre. We arrived back to town at seven o'clock 
and spent the evening at home having a visit which lasted until ten 
o'clock from Madam. 



1918.] JOURNAL OF JONATHAN RUSSELL, 1818-1819. 497 

29. I went shopping again this morning with Mrs. R[ussell] 
and among other things purchased some of the new fashioned silk for 
gowns at six carlinos forty grains x the canna-ell. I afterwards went 
and settled with my bankers, Falconette & Co., and drew for their 
advances to me on Messrs. Hottinguer & Co. at Paris. I now left 
Mrs. Russell at our lodgings and proceeded along to the Studium, 
that I might visit there a particular room which I had not hitherto 
seen. Although it was past two o'clock, the keepers, admitted me 
into the room I desired to see. It was filled with some of the most 
curious remains of antiquity in bronze, marble and fresco. There 
was a painter present copying some of the latter which had been 
injured. The contents of this room presents the strongest proof of 
the peculiar manners of the ancients and of their most remarkable 
superstition. After leaving the Studium I called and left cards to 
take leave of Counsellor Guerdin, Sir William a Court, 2 and the 
Prince Jablonowski. About four o'clock I rode with Mrs. R[ussell] 
to the other end of the city, in order to witness the drawing of the 
lottery. We arrived in time and were very civilly provided with 
convenient seats to see the ceremony behind the presiding judges. 
These judges were five in number, dressed in grand costumes of 
black. Their seats were raised three or four steps above the floor 
which was crowded with spectators anxiously awaiting their fate. 
Immediately behind the judges were two rows of seats which ap- 
peared to be filled by lazzaroni and the lowest order of the people. 
There was an urn before the judges which contained the numbers. 
When the ceremony began a person standing before the judges re- 
ceived the urn and turned and shook it violently in full view of all 
present. He then returned it to the judge who sat on the left, who 
opened the top of the urn with a key or instrument adapted to that 
purpose. A lad of fourteen or fifteen years of age standing erect 
on that side crossed himself, and then holding up his hand open to 
show the spectators that there was nothing in it, put it into the urn 
and thence drew a little ball between his thumb and finger, which 
he also held up in full view, and then passed it to the principal 
judge who sat in the middle. The judge then opened the ball and 
drew out a slip of paper on which a number was written. This 
number he immediately passed to a person behind him who ap- 
peared to be a lazzarone, and who proclaimed the number with a 
very loud voice. The ceremony was continued five times which is 
the whole amount of numbers drawn. On the proclamation of 
every number there was great agitation among the attending multi- 

1 A carline was, Neapolitan coin, a tenth of a ducat, or ten grains. 

2 William A'Court, Baron Heytesbury (1 770-1860). 



498 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 

tude, and pleasure or disappointment was strongly depicted on 
their countenances, principally the latter. We now returned home 
and Mrs. Russell and Amelia went to visit Mrs. Bird and the 
Princess of Bellmonte, and did not return until half past eleven 
o'clock. 

Lamon's "Life of Lincoln." 

Union Club, 
Boston, December 5, 1910. 

My dear Sir: 

I give you below my recollections of the incidents connected with 
the preparation and publication of the first volume of Lamon's 
"Life of Abraham Lincoln," the only volume of the work published. 
This volume was published in 1872 by James R. Osgood & Co., of 
which firm I was then a member, and I had full charge of the publi- 
cation. You are at liberty to make such use of the following state- 
ment as may serve the purpose of historic truth. Very truly yours, 

John Spencer Clark. 

Horace White, Esq., 

18 West 69th Street, 

New York. 

7". About 1868 I learned that W. H. Herndon was preparing a 
life of Mr. Lincoln, and that he had a quantity of fresh material 
that would throw new light on some phases of Mr. Lincoln's life and 
character. I opened correspondence in the name of my firm with 
Mr. Herndon with reference to the publication of his work. This 
correspondence was continued for some time, Mr. Herndon not 
being ready to submit his copy. 

77. Some time in 1870 Col. Ward H. Lamon appeared on the 
scene as the owner of all the Herndon material, which he had pur- 
chased, 1 and also as the possessor of much other valuable material 
which he had procured through his acquaintance and semi-official 
connection with Mr. Lincoln, and he came prepared " to talk busi- 
ness" in the matter of publication. I was convinced that Colonel 
Lamon had the material, and he stated that this material was to be 
used and put in literary form by Chauncey Black, a clever writer, 
and a son of Jeremiah Black, a tough, hard-headed old democrat 
of the pro-slavery school, and a leading, if not the dominating spirit 
on constitutional questions in the Buchanan Cabinet. 

777. I raised objection to a life of Mr. Lincoln being prepared 
under such apparently hostile influences, and Colonel Lamon as- 

1 See Newton, Lincoln and Herndon, 306. 



ipi8.] LAMON'S u LIFE OF LINCOLN." 499 

sured me that nothing politically hostile to Mr. Lincoln should 
go into the work; that Mr. Black was a great admirer of Mr. Lincoln, 
and that the work should be in full sympathy with the fundamental 
points in Mr. Lincoln's life and character. Colonel Lamon later 
brought Mr. Black to see me, and he also assured me of his loyalty 
to Mr. Lincoln, and his good faith in presenting the political aspects 
of his career. On the strength of these assurances we entered into a 
contract for publication. 

IV. While the proofs of the early chapters as they came in to me 
showed a lack of appreciation of the finer qualities of Mr. Lincoln's 
nature, and a disposition to keep the rougher, coarser, aspects of his 
pioneer life prominent, I saw nothing I could positively object to 
until I received the proofs of Chapter xv, purporting to give a brief 
history of the Kansas struggle. Here I saw well known historic 
facts perverted to shield the pro-slavery democratic party from 
"high crimes and misdemeanors" in their attempt to bring in Kansas 
as a slave state. I protested to Colonel Lamon that the account 
was not only untrue, but was also wholly inconsistent with Mr. 
Lincoln's position on the Kansas question. After considerable 
discussion and the exhibition of much feeling on the part of Mr. 
Black, Colonel Lamon fully sustained me and authorized me to 
substitute the text as it now stands in place of what had been 
prepared by Mr. Black. 

V. This experience with the Kansas matter made me suspicious 
of Mr. Black's good faith, and when the proofs came of the chapter 
pretending to give an historic record of the very memorable period 
between Mr. Lincoln's election and his inauguration, it was only 
too evident that justice to Mr. Lincoln during this critical period 
was sacrificed to an effort to extenuate if not excuse the shambling 
policy of the Buchanan administration — a policy which weakly 
supported the Constitution with one hand, while attacking it vigor- 
ously with the other hand. I put the matter squarely before Colonel 
Lamon and he saw the unwisdom, if not the absurdity, of com- 
promising Mr. Lincoln in the slightest degree at this great period 
when in the tremendous swirl of political complications his was the 
sanest mind of all — sanest not only because he stood for the Union, 
but also for the inherent power of the Union under the Constitution 
to protect itself. 

Mr. Black's effort to condone the interpretation of the Con- 
stitution by the Buchanan Administration during its last days — 
an interpretation which Mr. Lincoln had to fight during his whole 
term — in a life of Lincoln, was therefore unceremoniously cut 
out, as appears at the bottom of page 527; and although I have not 



500 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [JUNE, 1918 

a distinct recollection of the details that followed, I do know that 
Mr. Black was greatly angered, that there was a split, and that we 
got no more copy for the work. 

VI. Colonel Lamon impressed me as a man of fair intelligence 
and good sense, gained by a sort of rough and tumble experience, 
and while in no way a man of literary culture or of positive con- 
victions in regard to the higher phases of Mr. Lincoln's character, 
he was an admirer of Mr. Lincoln as an honest political statesman, 
and in the matter of having Mr. Lincoln's life truly set forth he 
only needed to have the truth shown to him to stand by it. I think 
he at first put full confidence in Black, that there was a sort of good- 
fellowship understanding between them that was "busted" when 
Lamon saw clearly that Black's adherence to the flesh-pots of his 
democratic faith was stronger than his desire to see full justice done 
to Mr. Lincoln's memory. 

VII. The publication of the work, which was entered upon with 
a belief in its historic importance, and high anticipation of its com- 
mercial success, came, with the publication of the first volume, to 
an untimely end. No more work was done upon it and the under- 
taking proved a losing venture all around; and I came to class the 
outcome as among those publishing experiences which show the 
futility of endeavoring to combine essentially antagonistic elements 
in the production of an important literary work.