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August 3, 1795. 

The Story of a Great Treaty whereby the Site of Chicago was 
Secured from the Indians by the U. S. Govern- 
ment, and the Great Indian Menace 
of the Northwest Shattered. 

By Charles A. Kent, A. M., Principal of the Eugene Field 
Elementary School, Chicago, 111. 

It is not often that a small village like Greenville, nestled 
among the low hills at the western edge of Ohio, has fame 
thrust upon it, unless there a great person was born, a battle 
was fought, or a negotiation for peace once honored the place. 
Vienna is spoken oftener these days, where the infamous com- 
pact of 1815 was drawn up, possibly than as the seat of gov- 
ernment and authority of one of the * * central powers. ' ' Ap- 
pomattox would long ago have been relegated to oblivion, save 
that Grant and Lee met there for parley and peace in those 
sad but glorious hours that ended the strife of the Civil War. 

And so Greenville, bearing the name of a gallant and 
brave Eevolutionary leader, might even already be forgotten, 
but that there was a treaty signed between the Indian con- 
federacy and Anthony Wayne, representing the United States 
Government, and a stop put to the general menace of Indian 
conspiracy nearly a century and a quarter ago. 

One ought to go back to 1763, in retelling the story, to 
that time when, after four bloody wars to "bring a decision," 
as military men now like to say it, between England and 
France for the ultimate control of the North American con- 
tinent. A treaty signed that year in Paris provided that 
France give over to Spain all lands west of the Mississippi 
Eiver and the town of New Orleans, which controlled the 
navigation of that river. She in the same year made over all 
her claims to land east of the Mississippi to England, retain- 



Alte.3,1735. , 




^ % 



ing two small fishing islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The 
transfer was not immediate, however, for when England at- 
tempted to take possession of her new dominions west of the 
Alleghanies and north of the Ohio, trouble with the Indians 
in that section arose at once. The French, embittered by the 
loss of this territory, stirred up the savages against the 
English, and the conspiracy of Pontiac was the core of the 
revolt — till his death in 1765 put an end to the remonstrance. 
England had driven out of North America successively the 
Dutch (1664) and now the French (1763). Spain alone re- 
mained to contest possession, and she gave Florida to England 
in exchange for Havana, which the English had captured 
during the war. 

The English government had no sooner quieted her title 
to North America, so far as her European rivals were 
concerned, than her very own colonists along the Atlantic 
seaboard bestirred themselves to oppose her unjust discrim- 
inations against them wherein they had been given no expres- 
sion or voice in the management of affairs of the realm. The 
year that saw the English jack first run up over Fort 
Chartres (1765) was the identical year that bears the date 
of the repeal of the Stamp Act — a move intended to conciliate 
the men of Massachusetts and the east who made continued 
protest to the home government across the Atlantic against 
unfair representation of the colonies in Parliament. " Com- 
mittees of Correspondence" and other effective secret agen- 
cies of communication between the colonies were built up to 
further the spread of liberal ideas and of resistance to the 
follies of the prime ministry of England. The relations be- 
tween the king and the colonist subjects grew no better. 

Emigration to the west of the Alleghanies moved forward 
slowly, because of the dangers of Indian treachery and the 
slow-perfecting plans for safety developed there under Eng- 
lish rule. Sir Guy Carleton had been appointed Governor 
of Canada in 1768. Henry Hamilton was Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, and Carleton assigned him as superintendent of De- 
troit and the dependencies included in the entire Northwest. 
It thus became Hamilton's duty to put down all insurrections, 
to quiet the Indians, and to uphold the power of England 
throughout the whole region from the Mississippi River east- 


ward to the mountains, south to the Ohio Biver. Thus it came 
about in 1778, when George Rogers Clark penetrated the 
region by way of the Ohio River and arrived undiscovered 
at Kaskaskia, capturing that place, with Fort Chartres, etc., 
that he met and routed Hamilton at Vincennes, the English 
troops having reached that fort on the Wabash by way of the 
Wabash River and the Maumee, after setting out from 
Detroit. Clark's brilliant conquest had a powerful effect, not 
only in heartening the French settlers, in gaining and retain- 
ing their confidence and support, but on one later day, when 
Jay and Franklin sat down in council with the English treaty 
delegates in 1783, and the royal commissioners stood out 
strong for a boundary line that would leave the region north 
and west of the Ohio River in the hands of England. Franklin 
pointed out to them the practical conquest of that area by 
Clark in 1778-9, and won over the English delegates to agree 
to the boundary of the United States being established west 
to the Mississippi. 

Mention should be made here, in passing, to the Quebec 
Act of 1774, at which moment, it will be recalled, England 
possessed all of Canada and all land south, as far west as 
the Mississippi River, excepting a strip along the Mexican 
gulf coast which still belonged to Spain. In order, appar- 
ently, to strengthen the authority of the king in America, 
Parliament passed the act creating a distinct empire west of 
the mountains, ostensibly presumed to placate the French 
subjects permitted to remain in Canada but really intended 
to circumscribe England's colonies along the Atlantic shore, 
thus to restrain them from all aspirations to independence. 
For no settler might, under the terms of the act, pass over 
the Alleghanies from the seaboard in search or settlement of 
a home. To such an end all the region northwest of the River 
Ohio, west to the Mississippi, together with Canada, were 
consolidated, and all command over this boundless empire 
invested in one far-removed authority — the king. 

The whole vast domain south of the Great Lakes was 
ceded rather grudgingly, we may imagine, by the Treaty of 
1783. England did not wholly yield up her dominion there 
until 1796, when John Jay signed a treaty, according to the 
terms of which the English forces at last withdrew from 
Oswego, Niagara, Michillimackinac, Detroit and other forts 


in the Northwest. In spirit England continued to nullify her 
cessions of 1783 and 1796, for, when renewed friction sprang 
up in 1812 over the " right of search,' ' and war was again 
declared, the struggle broke out in the west at Detroit and at 
Fort Dearborn the first summer of the war. England's re- 
luctance to carry out her treaty obligations in the west was 
the potential cause of the War of 1812, from the standpoint 
of western history. 

The policy of England toward the colonists west of the 
Alleghanies was little less than that of outright persecution, 
carried on by deceiving the French as to the real character of 
the pioneers who were coming over the mountains seeking 
permanent homes, and by systematic bribe and delusion stir- 
ring up the Indians against whites of English descent who 
were among them. So far-reaching had this spirit of de- 
ception and propaganda been carried out, that it determined 
George Rogers Clark to launch his conquest of 1778-9. He 
won a signal victory over the personal forces of Hamilton 
at Vincennes, and a complete surprise at Kaskaskia, as well 
as a great moral victory in breaking the spell of fear and 
distrust among the French settlers and settlements, where 
it was now learned that the people from Virginia, from Penn- 
sylvania and other eastern colonies were not hated murder- 
ers, but friends in the warmest and truest sense. 

It was not so easy to convert the Indians to this view. 
Many of them had, in their ignorance and suspicion, long 
been taught to look upon the men from the Atlantic seaboard 
as their bitterest foes. And so, tribe after tribe, confedera- 
tion after confederation, was enrolled against the feeble set- 
tlements of pioneers. Thus it came about that the great task 
confronting General Washington when he assumed office as 
first president was the settlement of the Indian question and 
the subjugation of the Indian hordes in the western country. 
With the treaty of peace of 1783, the terms of the Quebec Act 
were abrogated, so far as the United States were concerned, 
and emigration westward started up anew and grew with a 
tremendous pace. But no permanent safety could be guaran- 
teed citizens who moved thither until and unless the sav- 
ages were exterminated, driven out or bargained with. Gen- 
eral Arthur St. Clair had been appointed military governor 


of the region now coming to be known as the Northwest Ter- 
ritory, and he, knowing the acute situation, resolved to strike 
the Indians first, assuming the aggressive by dispatching 
General Harmar with fourteen hundred men into the lair of 
the Indians about the head of the Maumee Eiver in Septem- 
ber, 1790. Harmar 's raiding plans were at first successful, 
but when his command were returning, they were set upon 
by Little Turtle, the great Miami war chief, near where Fort 
Wayne now is, and all but annihilated. 

After a year spent in renewed preparation, Governor 
St. Clair marshaled an army under his own command. He 
even journeyed to Philadelphia to consult Washington, who 
warned him against the treachery of the Indians as he had 
himself warned Braddock before him. Like Braddock, St. 
Clair suffered severely, and was himself surprised and his 
command all but destroyed by Little Turtle's strategy. 

Of course this double set-back put an instant stop to all 
westward migration. The two defeats threw President 
Washington almost into despair. The cunning hand of Eng- 
land was seen in the calling of a great council of Indian 
tribes and warriors, to meet August 13, 1793, on the banks of 
the Maumee in the present state of Ohio. There, in hostile 
pow-wow it was determined that unless the United States 
government should agree to the Ohio River as the boundary 
fine between the whites and the Indians, all the tribes would 
join in a relentless war, and there would be no peace. 

The new American nation could not subscribe to such a 
humiliation. After the first outburst of sorrow and mortifica- 
tion was over, President Washington looked about for the 
leader he could depend upon to break up the overshadowing 
Indian menace. Anthony Wayne was called. He was given 
two years to drill a picked force, capable of fighting the sav- 
ages on equal terms. In October, 1793, with three thousand 
six hundred men he first moved six miles beyond Fort Jef- 
ferson. Here he halted and built Fort Greenville. A strong 
detachment went from there to the scene of St. Clair's defeat 
and built Fort Recovery. Wayne's army wintered within 
these two forts. The time spent in cutting roads and in 
bringing up supplies carried the attack forward to the fol- 
lowing summer. Meanwhile, Little Turtle grew anxious for 



a try-out of strength with Wayne's men, and made one of 
his characteristic onslaughts on the garrison at Fort Re- 
covery, but was beaten back with great loss. When General 
Wayne got ready to move, Little Turtle expected him to strike 
off direct to the St. Mary's River, in the direction where Ft. 
Wayne now is, but instead he marched down the Maumee, and 
there, in the very heart of the Miami country built Fort De- 
fiance, where Harmar had been overwhelmed four years be- 
fore. By this move the Miami country was completely cut 
in twain. 

On August twentieth Wayne's command came upon the 
forces of Little Turtle in an opening torn in the forest by a 
recent tornado, which had left the ground strewn with up- 
rooted trees and bristling with their outstretched branches in 
every direction. Samuel Adams Drake, in his book, "The 
Making of the Ohio Valley States" tells the rest of the story 
in graphic way: 

"Scrambling helter-skelter over the fallen trees, the Americans 
fell upon the crouching warriors with the cold steel. A swarm of 
tawny redskins rose up from the ground and fled before them. 
Then and not till then did the soldiers deliver their fire, right 
and left with destructive effect. Again they pushed on, giving 
the enemy no time to reload or rally for another stand. Soon, in 
every direction, they were being forced back by the impetuous on- 
set of Wayne's veterans. In the rear, the men of the second line 
were madly racing after the first. They never caught up with it. 
The battle was won without them. Even the horse had found a 
way around the enemy's flank in time to do deadly work with 
their sabers. In every quarter of the field they could be seen 
riding down savages. Scores were trampled under foot by eager 
horsemen. After the chase had been kept up for two miles, a re- 
call was sounded. The charge had been so decisive, the pursuit so 
swift, that half of the army could not get near the enemy." 

After the battle "Mad Anthony" slowly and methodi- 
cally moved his forces up the Maumee to its forks, and there 
built Fort Wayne, the thing St. Clair had planned to do but 
so signally failed to do. The scene of Little Turtle's final 
defeat and overthrow was ever after known as "Fallen Tim- 
bers". The defeat of the Indians in this battle cut the hos- 
tile tribes of the east from those of the west. The British 
soon evacuated the forts along the Great Lakes, and the last 
menace to the western pioneer was about to be put away. 


The following winter was spent by Wayne in feeling out 
the temper of the defeated tribes with a view to a permanent 
peace. Nearly all the tribes met him at Greenville the succeed- 
ing summer (1795). On standing to speak to their chiefs and 
warriors assembled, Wayne held up, so that all could see it, 
a carved image of the arms of the United States. He knew 
that with an Indian everything had its symbol and every 
symbol a meaning. Pointing, therefore, to the eagle, seen 
clutching the sheaf of arrows with one talon, and with the 
other the olive branch, Wayne gave the dusky warriors to 
understand that war or peace rested now with them. An 
agreement was finally reached on the third day of August, 
whereby the Indians ceded some twenty-five thousand square 
miles of territory, and sixteen separate additional tracts for 
as many forts, — hence to be known as military reservations. 
By this treaty the Indians were pushed back from the Ohio 
Eiver nearly to the divide separating the waters flowing to 
the Ohio from those running into Lake Erie, or, if the West- 
ern Reserve be included, more than two-thirds of the state 
of Ohio was now thrown open to settlement. Wayne had don. 
his part equally well, whether as soldier or diplomat. 

Thus came about the Treaty of Greenville, signed by 
Wayne for the United States government, Little Turtle 
(Meshekunnoghquoh) and ninety-three fellow-chieftains and 
fighters, for their tribes. It put an end to a destructive war, 
settled all controversies, and restored harmony and friendly 
intercourse between the Indians and the people of the new 
nation. Subsequent individual tribal treaties brought about 
the removal of all the Indians to lands successively further 

That the Indians really desired permanent peace we have 
much evidence. At the treaty conference in Greenville, none 
of the Indians had made a greater sacrifice of long travel 
and exposure to be there than the Pottawattamies from the 
vicinity of Lake Michigan. "One piece of land six miles 
square at the mouth of the Chicago River, emptying into the 
southwest end of Lake Michigan where a fort formerly 
stood" was the price asked of them if they desired the friend- 
ship of the government of the great nation of the United 
States, and it was granted. With the waning influence of the 
British thereabouts, there were indications that the Potta- 


wattamies looked even to the national government and its 
representatives as true friends. New-Corn, one of the chiefs 
present at Greenville, said to General Wayne "I have come 
here on the good work of peace; no other motive could have 
influenced me to undertake so long a journey as I have now 
performed, in my advanced age and infirm state of health. I 
come from Lake Michigan. I hope, after our treaty, that you 
will exchange our old medals and supply us with General 
Washington's. My young men will no longer listen to the 
British whom they have thrown off, and henceforth will view 
the Americans as their only friends. * * * Do not deceive us 
in the manner that the French, the British and the Spaniards 
have done". This was the spirit of the Treaty of Greenville, 
— "to put an end to destructive war, to settle all controver- 
sies, and to restore harmony". 

The original of the great treaty is in the possession of 
the Ohio State Archaeological Museum at Columbus. Besides 
the signatures of Wayne and Little Turtle, were those of 
ninety-three chiefs and warriors of the Wyandots, Delawares, 
Shawanese, Ottawas, Chipewas, Putawatimes, Miamis, Eel- 
Rivers, Weea's, Kickapoos, Piankashawas and Kaskaskias. 
Witnesses signing the document were: — H. DeButts, aid-de- 
camp and secretary to General Wayne, Wm. H. Harrison and 
T. Lewis, aid-de-camps, James O'Hara, quarter-master-gen- 
eral, John Mills, major of infantry and adjutant-general, Ca- 
leb Swan, P. M. T. U. S., George Demter, lieutenant-artillery, 
David Jones, chaplain U. S. S., and ten others, mostly bear- 
ing French names. William Wells and seven others put down 
their names as "Sworn interpreters". Wells had long been 
a member of Little Turtle's household, and had fought against 
his own white kindred, aiding in the defeats of Harmar and 
St. Clair. For turning now to the pale-face in the battle of 
Fallen Timbers in 1794, the Indians never forgave him. His 
horrible death in the massacre at Fort Dearborn in 1812 was 
the revengeful consequence of that bitter hatred toward him 
throughout the entire Indian world. 

Of the chiefs and warriors signing with Little Turtle 
the Treaty of Greenville, Winnemac and Wenameac was a 
close friend of the white traders and settlers about the Chi- 
cago River afterwards; then there were Maghpiway, or Red 


Feather; Wapmeme, or White Pigeon; Suggamuk, or Black 
Bird, " chief actor of the Chicago Massacre of 1812". An- 
other notable Indian character there was Mashipinashiwish, 
or Bad Bird. He it may have been who fought at Fallen Tim- 
bers the year before as Match-e-ke-wis, the great leader of 
the Chippewas. He is credited with surprising and captur- 
ing Fort Mackinac in 1763 in Pontiac's War. Longfellow 
makes mention of Mud-je-ke-wis in " Hiawatha". 

A second Treaty of Greenville was subsequently signed 
in 1814, in the midst of the second war with Great Britain. 
Major General Wm. H. Harrison and Governor Lewis Cass 
of Michigan Territory represented the United States Govern- 
ment. The Wyandots, Senecas, Delawares, Shawanese and 
Miamis were the Indian tribes represented at the council 
table. The chief purpose of the treaty was to secure the 
closer cooperation of the warriors of the tribes in the struggle 
against England. 



[Copied from "Senate Documents," Vol. 39, pages 39-45.] 

A treaty of peace between the United States of America and 

the tribes of Indians, called the Wyandots, Dela- 

wares, Shawanese, Ottawas, Chipewas, Puta- 

watimes, Miamis, Eel-Rivers, Weea's, 

Kickapoos, Piankashaws, and 


To put an end to a destructive war, to settle all contro- 
versies, and to restore harmony and a friendly intercourse 
between the said United States, and Indian tribes; Anthony 
Wayne, major-general, commanding the army of the United 
States, and sole commissioner for the good purposes above- 
mentioned, and the said tribes of Indians, by their Sachems, 
chiefs and warriors, met together at Greenville, the head- 
quarters of the said army, have agreed on the following arti- 
cles, which, when ratified by the President, with the advice 
and consent of the Senate of the United States, shall be bind- 
ing on them and the said Indian tribes. 

Henceforth all hostilities shall cease; peace is hereby 
established, and shall be perpetual; and a friendly intercourse 
shall take place, between the said United States and Indian 

All prisoners on both sides shall be restored. The In- 
dians, prisoners to the United States, shall be immediately set 
at liberty. The people of the United States, still remaining 
prisoners among the Indians shall be delivered up in ninety 
days from the date hereof, to the general or commanding 
officer at Greenville, Fort Wayne or Fort Defiance; and ten 


chiefs of the said tribes shall remain at Greenville as hostages 
until the delivery of the prisoners shall be effected. 


The general boundary line between the lands of the 
United States, and the lands of the said Indian tribes, shall 
begin at the mouth of the Cuyahoga river, and run thence up 
the same to the portage between that and the Tuscarawas 
branch of the Muskingum; thence down that branch to the 
crossing place above Fort Lawrence; thence westerly to a 
fork of that branch of the great Miami river running into 
the Ohio, at or near which fork stood Loromie's store, and 
where commences the portage between the Miami of the Ohio, 
and St. Mary's river, which is a branch of the Miami, which 
runs into Lake Erie; thence a westerly course to Fort Re- 
covery, which stands on a branch of the Wabash; thence 
south-westerly in a direct line to the Ohio, so as to inter- 
sect that river opposite the mouth of Kentucky or Cuttawa 
river. And in consideration of the peace now established; of 
the goods formerly received from the United States; of those 
now to be delivered, and of the yearly delivery of goods now 
stipulated to be made hereafter, and to indemnify the United 
States for the injuries and expenses they have sustained dur- 
ing the war; the said Indians tribes do hereby cede and re- 
linquish forever, all their claims to the lands lying eastwardly 
and southwardly of the general boundary line now described; 
and these lands, or any part of them, shall never hereafter 
be made a cause or pretence, on the part of the said tribes 
or any of them, of war or injury to the United States, or any 
of the people thereof. 

And for the same considerations, and as an evidence of 
the returning friendship of the said Indian tribes, of their 
confidence in the United States, and desire to provide for their 
accommodation, and for that convenient intercourse which 
will be beneficial to both parties, the said Indian tribes do 
also cede to the United States the following pieces of land; 
to-wit. (1) One piece of land six miles square at or near 
Loromie's store before mentioned. (2) One piece two miles 
square at the head of the navigable water or landing on the 
St. Mary's river, near Girty's town. (3) One piece six miles 


square at the head of the navigable water of the Au-glaize 
river. (4) One piece six miles square at the confluence of 
the Au-glaize and Miami rivers, where Fort Defiance now 
stands. (5) One piece six miles square at or near the con- 
fluence of the rivers St. Mary's and St. Joseph's, where Fort 
Wayne now stands, or near it. (6) One piece two miles square 
on the Wabash river at the end of the portage from the Miami 
of the lake, and about eight miles westward from Fort Wayne. 
(7) One piece six miles square at the Ouatanon or old Weea 
towns on the Wabash river. (8) One piece twelve miles 
square at the British fort on the Miami of the lake at the foot 
of the rapids. (9) One piece six miles square at the mouth 
of the said river where it empties into the Lake. (10) One 
piece six miles square upon Sandusky lake, where a fort 
formerly stood. (11) One piece two miles square at the lower 
rapids of Sandusky river. (12) The post of Detroit and all 
the land to the north, the west and the south of it, of which 
the Indian title has been extinguished by gifts or grants to 
the French or English governments ; and so much more land 
to be annexed to the district of Detroit as shall be compre- 
hended between the river Rosine on the south, lake St. Clair 
on the north, and a line, the general course whereof shall be 
six miles distant from the west end of Lake Erie and Detroit 
river. (13) The post of Michillimackinac, and all the land on 
the island on which that post stands, and the main land ad- 
jacent, of which the Indian title has been extinguished by 
gifts or grants to the French or English governments; and 
a piece of land on the main to the north of the island, to mea- 
sure six miles on lake Huron, or the strait between lakes 
Huron and Michigan, and to extend three miles back from 
the water of the lake or strait, and also the islands De Bois 
Blanc, being an extra and voluntary gift of the Chipewa na- 
tion. (14) One piece of land six miles square at the mouth 
of the Chicago river, emptying into the southwest end of 
Lake Michigan, where a fort formerly stood. (15) One piece 
twelve miles square at or near the mouth of the Illinois river, 
emptying into the Mississippi. (16) One piece six miles 
square at the old Piorias fort and village, near the south end 
of the Illinois lake on said Illinois river: And whenever the 
United States shall think proper to survey and mark the boun- 


daries of the lands hereby ceded to them, they shall give 
timely notice thereof to the said tribes of Indians, that they 
may appoint some of their wise chiefs to attend and see that 
the lines are run according to the terms of this treaty. 

^ And the said Indian tribes will allow to the people of the 
United States a free passage by land and by water, as one and 
the other shall be found convenient, through their country, 
: /■ong the chain of posts herein before mentioned; that is 
to say, from the commencement of the portage aforesaid at 
or near Loromie's store, thence along said portage to the St. 
Mary's, and down the same to Fort Wayne, and then down the 
Miami to lake Erie; again from the commencement of the 
portage at or near Loromie's store along the portage from 
thence to the river Au-Glaize, and down the same to its junc- 
tion with the Miami at Fort Defiance; again from the com- 
mencement of the portage aforesaid, to Sandusky river, and 
down the same to Sandusky bay and lake Erie, and from 
Sandusky to the post which shall be taken at or near the foot 
of the rapids of the Miami of the lake, and from thence to De- 
troit. Again from the mouth of Chikago, to the commence- 
ment of the portage, between that river and the Illinois, and 
down the Illinois river to the Mississippi, also from Fort 
Wayne along the portage aforesaid which leads to the Wa- 
bash, and then down the Wabash to the Ohio. And the said 
Indian tribes will also allow to the people of the United States 
the free use of the harbors and mouths of rivers along the 
lakes adjoining the Indian lands, for sheltering vessels and 
boats, and liberty to land their cargoes where necessary for 
their safety. 

In consideration of the peace now established and of the 
cessions and relinquishments of lands made in the preceding 
article by the said tribes of Indians, and to manif est the liber- 
ality of the United States, as the great means of rendering 
this pea^e strong and perpetual; the United States relinquish 
their claims to all other Indian lands northward of the river 
Ohio, eastward of the Mississippi, and westward and south- 
ward of the Great Lakes and the waters uniting them, accord- 
ing to the boundary line agreed on by the United States and 
the king of Great Britain, in the treaty of peace made between 


them in the year 1783. But from this relinquishment by the 
United States, the following tracts of land, are explicitly 
excepted. First. The tract of one hundred and fifty thousand 
acres near the rapids of the river Ohio, which has been as- 
signed to General Clark, for the use of himself and his war- 
riors. Second. The post of St. Vincennes on the river Wa- 
bash, and the lands adjacent, of which the Indian title has 
been extinguished. Third. The lands at all other places 
in possession of the French people and other white settlers 
among them, of which the Indian title has been extinguished 
as mentioned in the third article and fourth. The post of 
Fort Massac towards the mouth of the Ohio. To which sev- 
eral parcels of land so excepted, the said tribes relinquish 
all the title and claim which they or any of them may have. 

And for the same considerations and with the same views 
as above mentioned, the United States now deliver to the 
said Indian tribes a quantity of goods to the value of twenty 
thousand dollars, the receipt whereof they do hereby 
acknowledge; and henceforth every year forever the United 
States will deliver at some convenient place northward of 
the river Ohio, like useful goods, suited to the circumstances 
of the Indians, of the value of nine thousand five hundred 
dollars reckoning that value at the first cost of the goods in 
the city or place in the United States, where they shall be 
procured. The tribes to which those goods are to be annually 
delivered, and the proportions in which they are to be de- 
livered, are the following: 

First. To the Wyandots, the amount of one thousand 
dollars. Second. To the Delawares, the amount of one thou- 
sand dollars. Third. To the Shawanese, the amount of one 
thousand dollars. Fourth. To the Miamis, the amount of one 
thousand dollars. Fifth. To the Ottawas, the amount of one 
thousand dollars. Sixth. To the Chippewas, the amount of 
one thousand dollars. Seventh. To the Putawatimes, the 
amount of one thousand dollars. Eighth. And to the Kicka- 
poo, Weea, Eel-River, Piankashaw and Kaskaskia tribes, the 
amount of five hundred dollars each. 

Provided: That if either of the said tribes shall hereafter 
at an annual delivery of their share of the goods aforesaid, 
desire that a part of their annuity should be furnished in 


domestic animals, implements of husbandry, and other uten- 
sils convenient for them, and in compensation to useful artifi- 
cers who may reside with or near them, and be employed for 
their benefit, the same shall at the subsequent annual deliver- 
ies be furnished accordingly. 

To prevent any misunderstanding about the Indian lands 
relinquished by the United States in the fourth article, it is 
now explicitly declared, that the meaning of that relinquish- 
ment is this: The Indian tribes who have a right to those 
lands, are quietly to enjoy them, hunting, planting, and dwel- 
ling thereon so long as they please, without any molestation 
from the United States; but when those tribes, or any of 
them, shall be disposed to sell their lands, or any part of them, 
they are to be sold only to the United States; and until such 
sale, the United States will protect all the said Indian tribes 
in the quiet enjoyment of their lands against all citizens of 
the United States, and against all other white persons who 
intrude upon the same. And the said Indian tribes again 
acknowledge themselves to be under the protection of the 
said United States and no other power whatever. 

If any citizen of the United States, or any other white 
person or persons, shall presume to settle upon the lands 
now relinquished by the United States, such citizen or other 
person shall be out of the protection of the United States; 
and the Indian tribe, on whose land the settlement shall be 
made, may drive off the settler, or punish him in such manner 
as they shall think fit; and because such settlements made 
without the consent of the United States, will be injurious 
to them as well as to the Indians, the United States shall 
be at liberty to break them up, and remove and punish the 
settlers as they shall think proper, and so effect that protec- 
tion of the Indian lands herein before stipulated. 

The said tribes of Indians, parties to this treaty, shall 
be at liberty to hunt within the territory and lands which 
they now have ceded to the United States, without hindrance 


or molestation, so long as they demean themselves peaceably, 
and offer no injury to the people of the United States. 

Trade shall be open to the said Indian tribes; and they 
do hereby respectively engage to afford protection to such 
persons, with their property, as shall be duly licensed to re- 
side among them for the purpose of trade, and to their agents 
and servants; but no person shall be permitted to reside at 
any of their towns or hunting camps as a trader, who is not 
furnished with a license for that purpose, under the hand and 
seal of the superintendent of the department northwest of 
the Ohio, or such other person as the President of the United 
States shall authorize to grant such licenses; to the end, that 
the said Indians may not be imposed on in their trade. And 
if any licensed trader shall abuse his privilege by unfair deal- 
ing, upon complaint and proof thereof, his license shall be 
taken from him, and he shall be further punished according 
to the laws of the United States. And if any person shall, 
intrude himself as a trader, without such license, the said 
Indians shall take and bring him before the superintendent 
or his deputy, to be dealt with according to law. And to 
prevent imposition by forged licenses, the said Indians shall 
at least once a year give information to the superintendent 
or his deputies, of the names of traders residing among them. 

Lest the firm peace and friendship now established 
should be interrupted by the misconduct of individuals, the 
United States, and the said Indian tribes agree, that for in- 
juries done by individuals on either side, no private revenge 
or retaliation shall take place ; but instead thereof, complaint 
shall be made by the party injured, to the other: By the said 
Indian tribes, or any of them, to the President of the United 
States, or the superintendent, by him appointed; and by the 
superintendent or other person appointed by the President, 
to the principal chiefs of the said Indian tribes, or of the 
tribe to which the offender belongs; and such prudent mea- 
sures shall then be pursued as shall be necessary to preserve 
the said peace and friendship unbroken, until the Legisla- 
ture (or Great Council) of the United States, shall make 


other equitable provision in the case, to the satisfaction of 
both parties. Should any Indian tribes meditate a war 
against the United States, or either of them, and the same 
shall come to the knowledge of the before-mentioned tribe, 
or either of them, they do hereby engage to give immediate 
notice to the general or officer commanding the troops of 
the United States at the nearest post. And should any tribe, 
with hostile intentions against the United States, or either of 
them, attempt to pass through their country, they will en- 
deavor to prevent the same, and in like manner give informa- 
tion of such attempt, to the general or officer commanding, 
as soon as possible, that all causes of mistrust and suspicion 
may be avoided, between them and the United States. In 
like manner the United States shall give notice to the said 
Indian tribes of any harm that may be meditated against 
them, or either of them, that shall come to their knowledge; 
and do all in their power to hinder and prevent the same, 
that the friendship between them may be uninterrupted. 


All other treaties heretofore made between the United 
States and the said Indian tribes or any of them, since the 
treatry of 1783, between the United States and Great Britain, 
that come within the purview of this treaty, shall henceforth 
cease and be void. 

In testimony whereof, the said Anthony Wayne, and the 
sachems and war chiefs of the before-mentioned nations 
and tribes of Indians, have hereunto set their hands and 
affixed their seals. 

Done at Greenville, in the territory of the United States 
northwest of the river Ohio, on the third day of August, 
one thousand seven hundred and ninety-five. 
[Here follow the signatures.]