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FOUR ORIGINAL LETTERS, 1820-1830.
Prom Original Letters Written to Mr. Pascal P. Enos, 1 and
Presented to the Illinois State Historical Society by Miss
Louise I. Enos, the Granddaughter of Mr. Enos.
Senate Chamber, (Washington, D .C.)
December 4, 1820.
Dear Sir — In reply to your letter of the 28 Oct. I have to inform you
that it is yet doubtful whether or not there will be a land office estab-
lished in the Sangamon Country at the present session of Congress, and
that there is no vacancy at the other point mentioned in your letter.
The Missouri constitution has not yet been passed upon by Congress,
and it is very uncertain what may be its fate.
I have been laboring hard to clear the way preparatory to granting
relief to the purchasers of public land under the old system and flatter
myself that my efforts have in some measure been crowned with suc-
cess. The Secretary of the Treasury very much to his own credit, and
not a little to the interests of the purchasers to which I refer — pre-
sented a report today by which he recommends the propriety of allow-
ing the purchaser to retain so much of any tract as the money al-
ready paid amounts to, and to abandon the residue — or to deduct 25 or
37 <fo per centum (as congress may order) upon payment being made
by the 30 Sept. next or to pay for any tract in ten annual installments
(without interest) provided payment be punctually made — at the option
of the debtor — Interest in all cases to be released by the Govt. It re-
i Pascal Paoli Enos, pioneer, was born at Windsor, Conn., in 1770; graduated at Dartmouth College
in 1794, studied law, ana after spending some years in Vermont, where he served as High Sheriff of Wind-
sor County, in September, 1815, removed west, stopping first at Cincinnati. A year later he descended
the Ohio by flat-boat to Shawneetown, 111., crossed the State by land, finally locating at St. Charles, Mo.,
and later at St. Louis. Then, having purchased a tract of land, in Madison County, HI., he remained
there about two years, when, in 1823, having received from President Monroe the appointment of Receiver
of the newly established Land Office at Springfield, he removed thither, making it his permanent home.
He was one of the original purchasers of the land on which the city of Springfield now stands, and joined
with Maj. Elijah nes, John Taylor and Thomas Cox, the other patentees, in laying out the town, to
which they first gave the name of Calhoun. Mr. Enos remained m office through the administration of
President John Quincy Adams, but was removed by President Jackson for political reasons, in 1829.
Died at Springfield, April, 1832.
mains yet to be determined whether Congress will adopt those recom-
mendations so important to the people of the west.
I am with much esteem dr. sir
Jesse B. Thomas. 2
Vandalia, 4th January, 1825.
Dear Sir — You have doubtless learned the fate of our recent election
of Judges. It has produced severe feelings here. It was the fact that
there was so little combination among the representation from our Cir-
cuit, that the members from the other circuits were trying to barter off
all the candidates that stood in their way, and send them to our Circuit.
Hence McBoberts 8 and others were run for our Circuit. I was run
among the rest, but could not consent until the morning of the elec-
tion owing to Mr. Matheny being a candidate.
A message was sent by a member of the Convention to the anti party
that if the latter would take me up they would run me to which it was
expressly understood they had consented. And at 8 Oclock my election
was looked at as one of the certain events of the day. The Convention
party to a necessary extent did support me. But it seems that my name
was not announced in time to make any concert. No party seems to
have known perfectly the others sentiment. The Anti party seem to
have been panic struck at the instant, at the prospects of Turney being
elected, and under the impression that Sawyer was the strongest sup-
ported him almost to a man on the first ballot although they did not
I believe that election has given as much satisfaction as any other.
My old friends regret it perhaps on account of personal feelings and the
friends to the system regret it, because they think that I would be more
« Jesse Burgess Thomas, youngest son of Jesse and Sabina (Symes) Thomas, was bora in Hagerstown,
Maryland, 1777, where the family had long resided, and was descended from Lord George Calvert, of
the Irish peerage created in 1624, to whose son, Sir Cecil Calvert, Baron of Baltimore, the Maryland
patent was issued by Charles the Second on June 20, 1632. Taken west in childhood, he grew to manhood
and settled at Lawrenceburg, Indiana Territory in 1803; in 1805, was speaker of the Territorial Legisla-
ture, and, later represented the Territory as Delegate in Congress. On the organization of Illinois Terri-
tory (which he had favored) he removed to Kaskaskia, was appointed one of the first judges for the new
Territory, and, in 1818, as delegate from St. Clair County, presided over the first State Constitutional
Convention, and, on the admission of the State, became one of the first United States senators, Governor
Edwards being his colleague. Though an avowed advocate of slavery, he gained no little prominence
as the author of the celebrated "Missouri Compromise " adopted in 1820. He was re-elected to the Senate
in 1823, serving until 1829. He subsequently removed to Mount Vernon, Ohio. Died May 4, 1853.
8 Samuel McRoberts, United States Senator, was born in that part of the Northwest Territory which
afterwards became Monroe County. Illinois, February 20, 1799; graduated from Transylvania Uni-
versity in 1819; in 1821, was elected the first circuit clerk of his native county, and, in 1825, appointed
circuit judge which office he held for three years. In 1828, he was elected State Senator, representing the
district comprising Monroe, Clinton and Washington counties. Later he was appointed United
States District Attorney by President Jackson, but soon resigned to become Receiver oi Public Moneys
at Danville, by appointment of President Van Buren, and, in 1839 solicitor of the General Land Office
at Washington. Resigning the latter office in the fall of 1841, at the next session of the Illinois Legisla-
ture he was elected United States Senator to succeed John M. Robinson, deceased. Died, at Cincin-
nati, Ohio, March 22, 1843, being succeeded in the Senate by James Semple.
popular in the district than the person elected, and it would therefore
aptly make the system more durable. But on my own account I would
prefer the office for which I am now a Candidate, and to which I am
Confident I will succeed if the law passes.
I am &
J. H. Pugh. 4
Greenville, Jany. 26, 1825.
Paschal P. Enos, Esq.:
Deab Sib — I have just passed the evening with Mr. Forquer, our new
Secretary. I rejoice that he was elected & Hamilton rejected, although
I confess my profession & wishes would have been and are in favor of
Stars. 5 It was infamous to cast him aside after his nomination had been
once confirmed & the authors of it deserve universal reprobation. One
thing Mr. Forquer mentioned to me which I cannot help repeating,
that if it had not been for Mr. Pugh's strenuous & unsparing exertions
that the county seat of Sangamon would have been removed according
to Hamilton's wishes. By the way when Pugh left Vandalia he was in-
debted to Ankeny for his bill $60, and Ankeny threatened to sue him
unless it was settled. Mr. Pugh came to me and rehearsed the circum-
stances of the case, telling me that yourself & Taylor & some others
had promised to see that his expenses were paid, and wished me to sign
a note with him to Ankeny upon your responsibility. Knowing some-
thing of the matter & being acquainted also with his efficiency in pro-
moting your views I endorsed a note for that amount for him trusting
to your interest & responsibility to secure me from loss — which I pre-
sume you will do. Be so good as to write me by next mail upon the
subject and inform me.
I am very Eespectfully
B. Mills. 6
« Jonathan H. Pugh, pioneer lawyer, born in Bath County, Kentucky, came to Bond County, Illinois,
finally locating at Springfield in 1823, and being the second lawyer to establish himself in practice in that
city. He served in the Third, Fifth, Sixth and Seventh General Assemblies, and was defeated for con-
gress by Joseph Duncan (afterwards Governor) in 1831. Died in 1833. Mr. Pugh is described by hi»
contemporaries as a man of brilliant parts, an able lawyer and a great wit.
* Probably Henry Starr, a brilliant lawyer of Edwardsville.
« Benjamm Mills, lawyer and early politician, was a native of western Massachusetts and described
by his contemporaries as a highly educated and accomplished lawyer, as well as a brilliant orator. He
emigrated to Illinois in 1819, and settled at Greenville, Bond County; wasprobate judge in Bond County
in 1822. He, in conjunction with Alfred Cowles, prosecuted Palemon H. Winchester for the killing of
Daniel D. Smith, in Edwardsville, in 1823. He was a member of the Legislature from JoDaviess County
in the Eighth General Assembly, 1832-1834. At this session occurred the impeachment trial of Judge
Theophilus W. Smith, of the Supreme Court, Mr. Mills acting as chairman of the Impeachment Commit-
tee, and delivering a speech of great power and brilliancy. Hon. Cyrus Edwards declared that he never
heard a more finished and scholarly or eloquent oration, and that it could not be surpassed. Brilliant
passages from his address were quoted on the streets at Vandalia for a long time afterwards.
In 1834 he was a candidate for congress from the Northern District, but was defeated by William L.
May, (Democrat), as claimed by Mr. Mill's friends, unfairly. He early fell a victim to consumption and,
returning to Massachusetts, died in Berkshire County, in that state, in 1841. Hon. R. H. McClellan,
of Galena, says of him: " He was a man of remarkable ability, learning and eloquence, " while Governor
Ford, in his "History of Illinois. " testified that, "by common consent of all his contemporaries, Mr. Mills
was regarded as the most popular and brilliant lawyer of his day at the Galena bar. "
Vandalia 18, December 1830.
Dear Friend — You will doubtless have learned by this time all about
the senatorial election. Our friends made the discovery before Kanes
did, that he could not be beaten. There were several members who
wanted him beaten but could not vote against him, because they had
said during the August contest that they would be for him. When this
was discovered by our friends they went to work to make the best of a
bad business, and therefore our friends became divided into at least
three squads, for it was utterly impossible to reconcile the conflicting
claims of the respective candidates for the vacancy. Many of the Kane
men were too mad at Eobinson, Young, and Smith for their willingness
to oppose Kane to be for any of them in any event, and therefore joined
that portion of our friends who were for Col. Mather. Old party lines
were most completely obliterated for the time being, and the word was
"the longest pole knock down the percimens" and the election was con-
ducted in the spirit of frolick, every body laughing at the confusion.
Good has however resulted to the minority from the result for much
has been done to destroy the baneful influence of the question in future
elections. Great efforts have been made to secure a harmonious session
of the Legislature. All parties seem to have met and grounded their
arms used in former warfare in the Hall of legislation, and at present
a political millenium exists at this place. Whether angry spirits will
succeed in disturbing this calm remains (remains) yet to be seen.
Among the causes of this political millenium may be classed a recom-
mendation got up for Mr. Kinny to be Governor of Huron Territory.
He has many friends in the Senate and house of Eepresentatives who
were to be gratified, or appeased by the liberality of his opponents, his
recommendation was therefore signed by everybody in the Legislature,
and all the prominent men without regard to party out of it. After this
was done Mr. K. acted very prudently and (left) this place yesterday
I expect to be home in a week and will then tell you all about every
George Forquer. 7
The apportionment at present only allow Sangamon an increase of
one member. I think it will be defeated.
J George Forquer, early State officer, was born near Brownsville, Pennsylvania, in 1794, was the son of
a Revoluntionary soldier and older half-brother of Gov. Thomas Ford. He settled with his mother
(then a widow) at New Design, Illinois, in 1804. After learning and for several years following the carpen-
ter's trade at St. Louis, he returned to Illinois and purchased the tract whereon Waterloo now stands.
Subsequently he projected the town of Bridgewater, on the Mississippi. For a time he was a partner in
trade or Daniel P. Cook. Being unsuccessful in business, he took up the study of law, in which he attained
marked success. In 1824, he was elected to represent Monroe County in the House of Representatives,
but resigned in January of the following year to accept the position of Secretary of State to which he was
appointed by Governor Coles, as successor to Morris Birkbeck, whom the Senate had refused to confirm.
One ground for the friendship between him and Coles no doubt was the fact that they had been united
In their opposition to the scheme to make Illinois a slave State. In 1828, he was a candidate for Congress,
but was defeated by Joseph Duncan, afterward Governor. At the close of the year he resigned the office
of Secretary of State, but, a few weeks later (January, 1829) he was elected by the Legislature, Attorney
General. This position he held until January, 1833, when he resigned, having as it appears, at the previ-
ous election, been chosen State Senator from Sangamon County, serving in the Eighth and Ninth Gen-
eral Assemblies. Before the close of his term as Senator (1835) he received the appointment of Register
of the Land Office at Springfield, which appears to have been the last office held by him. He died in
Cincinnati in 1837. Mr. Forquer was a man of recognized ability and influence, an eloquent orator and
He resided in the small white house on the high ground opposite the State House, which was removed
to make room for the new Supreme Court building.
He married Ann Cranmer, the daughter of Dr. John Cranmer of Cincinnati.
An elder daughter of Dr. Cranmer married James L. Lamb, of Kaskaskia, who was later a prominent
merchant of Springfield.
After the death of Mr. Forquer his widow married Antrim Campbell, a prominent lawyer of Spring-
field, and she lived to an advanced age, and was well known to the older residents of Springfield.