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JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact email@example.com. MARINE DISASTERS OF THE ALASKA ROUTE The thousand mile long channel extending north from Seattle to Skagway, Alaska, with its by-ways among the islands, constitutes an unique waterway, like to none other in the world. The story of the casualties that have happened to the fleet that has been plying on this course for over half a century is a long one. It begins in Russian days, and even before the Muscovite had made his settlement on the Alaskan Islands. The way as traced today has names that recall Vancouver, Quadra, Gray, Butterworth, Valdes, Caamano, and others, all of whom helped to trace out this intricate maze. The first account of a marine accident comes to us from the pages of Vancouver 1 when in August, 1 792, surveying the unknown waters of Queen Charlotte Sound, he says, "we suddenly grounded on a bed of sunken rocks about four in the afternoon." The "Discovery" had struck an unknown rock, and the ship had little more than extricated itself from its unfortunate position than the hidden dangers arrested the progress of the "Chatham." Thus began the long line of accidents, some of them disasters, that have marked the coast with wrecks. While all have not been so fortunate as Vancouver in saving their vessels, the loss of life has been remarkably small when the stretch of coast without a lifesaving station is considered. As late as 1897 the farthest north light-house to shed its beams across the way was situated on Entrance Island at Nanaimo Bay, on the Gulf of Georgia. The first light-houses to be established in Alaskan waters were those at Five Fingers in Stephens Passage and Sentinel Island, Lynn Canal, both in the year 1902. 2 For more than fifty years before the first light-house was constructed in Alaska the steamers of Russia and of Great Britain had been conducting their traffic on the route. The Hudson's Bay Company's boats, the "Beaver," "Otter," 3 and "Labouchere," went on their company's busi- lVancouver's Voyages. 1901 Ed., Vol. 2, pp. 209, et seq. 2LigTit List Pacific Coast, U. S. Govt. Ptg. Ofc, 1914. The Russians maintained a light in the cupola at top of the Baranof Castle, during many years. When the United States assumed control the Collector requested an allowance to maintain a light, and the request was answered by the Collector being appointed as Superintendent of Lights for the Territory of Alaska, Nov. 11, 1868. A soldier was detailed to keep the light burning, for which an allowance of 40c per diem was paid. This was the first light in Alaskan waters under the United States rule. See Customs Records of Alaska, Letters. This service was probably discontinued with the withdrawal of the Military from Alaska, for, in 1878, the Special Agent for the District re- ports "there is not a single lighthouse in the whole district." Report Wm. Gouverneur Morris, 1879, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 59, 45th Cong., 3rd Sess., pg. 20. 3The H. B. Co.'s boats had several minor accidents and in 1880 the Otter struck a rock near Bella Coola, and sank, but was afterward raised and again put into service. See Lewis & Dryden's History, page 46. (21) 22 C. L. Andrews ness, and, though they met with some accidents, were attended with gen- eral good fortune, but as much cannot be said for their neighbor in the fur trade, the Russian American Company. We find their steamer, the "Nikolai I," a total loss near Kake Village in 1861, and the crew owed their lives to the good offices of the natives who saved and entertained them until a vessel arrived from Sitka. s% The transfer to the United States had scarcely been consummated until the list of losses of American vessels began. The schooner "Growl- er" was one of the first vessels to reach Sitka, having on board H. M. Hutchinson who purchased the property of the American Company at Sitka. She returned to Victoria and in the Spring of 1868 outfitted for sealing on the Pribylof Islands, sailed by way of the Queen Charlotte Sound and was lost at sea with all on board. Her wreckage and the bodies of some of her crew drifted ashore on the south end of Prince of Wales Island and that is all that tells the story of her fate. 4 November 25th, 1868, the American schooner "Thomas Wood- ward" was one of the first victims of the dangerous shoals of Point Mudge. She was under charter to the Quartermaster's Department of the U. S. Army and was laden with stores for the post at Sitka. 6 The vessel was a total loss but a portion of the supplies were saved and were carried for- ward by the Br. Str. "Otter" to their destination. Other disasters over- took the transports of the War Department, for on February 16th, 1874, the Schooner "Margaret," sailing from Sitka for the San Juan Islands, was driven ashore near the Kake Village with complete loss of the vessel. The Indians followed the ancient law of the beachcombers and pillaged the cargo. 6 The U. S. Transport "Newbern" on leaving Wrangell on a stormy fall night in 1869, in Clarence Strait, struck an uncharted rock, tore away her keel, sustaining damages that required her being beached for repairs. 7 To attempt to chronicle the number of vessels that struck on reefs with more or less damage would be an endless task and in this article only the more important will be noted. The charts used in those years were the ones based upon the surveys of Vancouver in 1 793 and 1 794, with additions made by British, Russian and American navigators. A ship generally carried all she could secure of each, and then was poorly 3%Alaska and its Resources, 1870, by Wm. H. Dall, pg. 349. 4The Seattle Intelligencer, May 4, 1868, May 18, 1868, and May 29th, 1868. Lewis & Dryden's History, pg. 168. BSeattle Intelligencer, December 14th, 1868. Report to Treasury Department of Coll. Customs of Alaska of Decem- ber 16th, 1868. aReport of Coll. of Customs, Alaska, May 24th, 1874. 7Report Special Agent, Wm. Gouverneur Morris, pg. 55-6. Marine Disasters in Alaska 23 equipped. 8 The revenue steamers "Wayanda" and "Lincoln" seldom made a cruise to Alaska without striking a rock. The Treasury Agent Morris says in 1879: "The U. S. S. 'Saginaw* struck several times while in Alaskan waters. The Alert, an English man-of-war, struck going into Sitka Harbor. The schooner Roscoe, in going to Klawack, struck an unknown ledge and came near being a total loss. The schooner 'Northwestern' struck a rock in Clarence Straits and was beached to save the lives of passengers and crew. The schooner 'Louise Downs,' in Lynn Canal shared a similar fate. The schooner 'Langley' struck a reef in Chatham Straits and was a total loss." 9 These were before the days of making wreck reports in Alaska and the records of the Custom Office do not record them. The U. S. S. Suwanee was lost on a sunken rock at the entrance to Queen Charlotte Sound, July 9, 1 868, with great loss of life. 10 The first serious wreck along this coast, with great loss of life, was that of the Str. "Geo. S. Wright," and all those who were in Oregon or Washington in 1 873 will remember the weeks of waiting and the thrill of horror that went over the coast when day after day passed and no news came from the vessel. The last that was known of her was that she cleared from Sitka on January 20th of that year with officers of the garri- son and other passengers. All that was known of her fate was the wreck- age that strewed the shores from Queen Charlotte Sound to Prince of Wales Island, and the body of Paymaster Walker, U. S. A., that drifted ashore at Port Bazan, on Dall Island. To the natural terrors of the situation was added the rep'ort that the passengers had been captured and tortured by the Hydah Indians, but this last is probably without any foundation whatever. 11 In 1875 the U. S. S. Saranac struck the sunken rock in Seymour Narrows, was barely beached and the crew and provisions and ship's pa- pers ashore when she slid off into deep water and sank out of sight. 12 These Narrows claimed another boat in April, 1 883, when the Br. Steamer Grappler, trading on the coast, took fire on entering, the tiller ropes burned, 8Id., pg. 55. He says: 'The want of reliable charts is the great draw- back to Alaskan navigation. From the boundary line north, Cape Pox, to the head of inland navigation, including the coast to Bering Bay (Yakutat) the Russian and American charts are entirely unreliable. The English have published no charts north of 54 40'." Also says: 'Even the best pilots in these waters are continually find- ing unknown rocks, and if a man goes a few feet out of the track he is liable to fetch up." What he says is still applicable, as a proof note the Mariposa of July 16th, 1915, the California, on Aug. 17, 1913, the Curaco, on June 21st, 1913, ' 9Id., pg. 56. lOSeattle Intelligencer, July 20th, 1868, also July 27th, 1868. nDaily Morning Call, San Francisco, Cal., April 2?rd, 1877. Seattle Intelligencer, March 3rd and March 24th, 1873. The body of Paymaster Walker was taken to Portland, Or., for burial, on the Rev. Cutter Wolcott, in 1875. See the report of J. G. Swan, Commr. for Centennial Exhibit from Alaska, Appendix to Morris' Report, pg. 148. i2Daily Morning Call, S. F., Cal., June 22, 1875. 24 C. L. Andrews the boats swamped, and the passengers were driven overboard only to sink in the swirling waters. 13 Sept. 1 3th, 1 886, the Str. Ancon struck the rock at the entrance to Glacier Bay that is since known as Ancon Rock, off Point Gustavus, and was only saved from sinking by the empty salmon barrels stowed in her hold. 14 She was kept afloat by them until she reached shore where she was beached. The respite of the Ancon was brief, for August 28th, 1 889, she went on a rock in Naha Bay, at Loring, and her wreckage may yet be seen on the rock at low tide. 15 The number of boats that plied on the Inside Passage to Alaska were few in the earlier years. During the first years of American Occu- pation the steamers went from San Francisco. Then for a period of nearly ten years Portland was the point of departure for Sitka and once in a month was the time for a trip. During the eighties the route was changed to Seattle and the service increased to twice a month in summer and this service continued with little change until 1 89 7, when the gold rush to the Klondike brought numbers of ships of every description on the run and with an increased number of casualties. Considering the number of boats, their condition, and the lack of aids to navigation, it is only a source of wonder that the marine disasters were not more in number during the closing years of the century. 16 Scarcely had the first ships unladen at the new ports at the head of Lynn Canal, when the S. S. "Mexico," on her way south, passing from Clarence Straits through Dixon's Entrance, struck an uncharted rock in the open sea. The passengers, hand baggage, and the mail were hurriedly i3Appleton's Guide to Alaska, 1898, by E. R. Scidmore, pg. 22. i4The Sitka Alaskan, September 18th, and October 2, 1886. isSeattle Post-Intelligencer of September 5, 1889, says "early morning of Wednesday, August 28th," with 111 passengers and 15,000 cases of salmon. lMn 1867, the Str. John L. Stephens ran to Alaska from San Francisco and was present at the transfer of the Territory. In 1868 the "Califor- nia" came on the run in March and made monthly trips. The Str. Geo. S. Wright made one trip in July. In 1869 the Str. "Youkon" entered April 26th, from San Francisco. The Br. Str. "Otter" made regular trips from Victoria to Wrangell via Sitka, commencing in 1867. The U. S. Transport Newbern made trips to Sitka and other Army posts in 1869 and other years. The Am. Str. "Active" came in 1869, with the party of Secretary Seward. In 1869 the California and the Geo. S. Wright came from Port- land, Or., and the same year the Str. Constantine made trips from Port- land. The Gussie Telfair came to the run in Sept., 1871, and the Str. Idaho, in 1872. The Str. Los Angeles made a trip in 1881, and the Eureka cleared on April 26th, and on the margin is the note "wrecked near Peril Straits." In 1884 the "Ancon" came as an excursion boat under Cap- tain Carroll and made three trips during the year. The "Olympian" came 7 trips in 1887, and in 1888 the Idaho and the Ancon alternated in trips, both being on the run, and the Geo. W. Elder made four trips during the year. This year initiated the semi-monthly service. In 1889 the City of Topeka entered the Alaska trade, and in 1890 the Santa Cruz appears and also the Jeanie, as well as the Queen and the Mexico, the Queen being on the tourist run. The route was changed from Portland to the Puget Sound about 1886. In the earlier years all boats went outside Cape Ommaney, to Sitka, and only small vessels used Wrangell Strait, but in 1884 Captain Cough- lin, U. S. N., surveyed and buoyed the channel and it was used from that time forward. See E. R. Scidmore, Alaska Guide 1898, page 73. Marine Disasters in Alaska 25 transferred to the ship's boats, and a few minutes later she sank. All of the crew and passengers safely landed at Port Chester, on Anette Island. The winter of 1897-8 every vessel that had been lying in the har- bors and waterways of the Pacific coast was renovated and put in the Alaska trade. Old hulks that had not seen service for years were repaired and sent out to the north. Forty-four different vessels entered the port of Skag- way during th month of February, 1 898. 17 Of this fleet the Corona was one of the first to meet misfortune, but she was in a position to escape with no loss of life and was afterward raised and taken south. Not so fortunate was the "Clara Nevada." Leaving Dyea on a stormy night, February 5th, she was seen from Berner's Bay to be on fire and soon after an explosion occurred and the lights went out. Boats attempted to set out from Seward City to go to her assistance but the winds of Lynn Canal drove them back. The next day the Str. Rustler set out from Ju- neau to search for the survivors, but of the crew of 28 men and of all the passengers on board the lost steamer, the number unknown, but one body, that of Purser Beck, was found. The wreck lay on the reef of Eldred Rock, the spars above water at low tide, and a gaping hole confirmed the story of the explosition told by those who witnessed the fire from Berner's Bay. 18 In this month the Oregon was blown ashore at Juneau and when the tide receded she was left on shore dry to her very keel. On the 19th the Bark "Canada" went on a rock four miles below Skagway, and when the tide fell the vessel heeled over until the horses on board had to be shot to end their misery. The Str. "Whitelaw" took fire in the harbor at Skagway on March 4th, went ashore with the wind and burned with a loss of $75,000.00 in ship and cargo. On April 11, the Am. Bk. "Mercury" was driven ashore at the same place and so badly damaged that she was towed to the head of the Tyea Sahnka and aban- doned. On August 3rd the towing steamer "City of Astoria" struck an unknown rock between Dyea and Skagway, rolled over under the strong wind and tide, and the crew had barely time to escape when she disap- peared. October 1 3th the Str. "Brixham" was wrecked on the rocks of Blashke Island, and on November 24th the Str. "Detroit," bound from Skagway for Juneau, went on a reef at the north end of Shelter Island in a driving snowstorm and became a total loss. The list for December closes with the wreck of the fishing schooner "St. Lawrence" on her way from Seattle to Juneau, the 28th of December, in a storm near Pybus Bay. The year 1 899 was a fortunate one for the vessels on the southeastern Alaska route, the only vessel to go down being the Br. Str. "Cutch," one iTCustoms Records, Skagway Office, Alaska. isAlaska Searchlight, Juneau, February 12th, 1898. Skagway Alaskan, February 14th, 1898. The Clara Nevada was formerly the Revenue Cutter Hassler. 26 C. L. Andrews of the fleet that came with the northern rush. She had been the private yacht of a Rajah of a province of India, was brought to these waters, sank in Stephens Channel, was raised and sold to the United States of Colombia, and there used as a gunboat. The loss of the Str. "Townsend," January 16th, opened the year 1 900. She went ashore about three miles below Haines, in a storm. On December 8th the Str. "City of Topeka" struck on the rocks at the south end of Sullivan Island, Lynn Canal, and her passengers and crew were fortunate enough to reach the shore with enough equipment to make a camp in the midst of the storm that was howling down the Chilcat Inlet. On a pleasant evening, August 14th, 1901, the Br. Str. Islander left the port of Skagway on her way south, and made her way down the magnificent waterway of Lynn Canal. The night was calm and there was not a hint of danger as she plowed her away along the inland waters. At 2 A. M. the next morning, just west of Douglas Island, in Stephens Passage, a sudden shock nearly threw the sleeping passengers from their berths. All was excitement, many of the passengers rose, dressed and hurried out to find the boats being made ready and the ship headed toward shore under command of the Pilot. The Captain, coming on deck, assured the frightened people that there was no danger, ordered the ship on her course and the boats taken in. He had no sooner done so when it was seen that she was taking water fast and the boats were again ordered out and the ship headed for shore. Then confusion prevailed and a rush was made for the boats. One boat was launched and with women and children on board was swamped by others jumping from the sinking ves- sel. Another boat was swinging at the davits and a man handed his wife into it. He was a moment after knocked into the boat by some one run- ning against him, and the same moment the after fall was loosed, the boat swung by the prow, he fell to the water and his wife hung to the thwarts. The ship was hardly headed for the shore when she sank, taking with her one of the boats and a raft that had been launched. A woman on the deck was carried down the ventilator by the water as the ship sank. A fog hung over the water, making it impossible to distinguish the land, though it was but a short distance away. Soon a boat reached the land, a fire was built and the work of rescuing the survivors, and resuscitating them after the chill of the waters, was begun by those fortunate enough to be able to work. Hour after hour they toiled but many of those rescued from the water died of cold and exhaustion after being brought ashore. Of the crew of 62 men and the passenger list of I 1 1 , on board the ship, there were 42 persons who lost their lives, as shown by the official report Marine Disasters in Alaska 27 of the wreck. 1 * The loss of the ship was attributed to striking an iceberg, but it was more than likely that she was off her course and crushed her bottom on the rocks off Point Hilda. Of all the numerous wrecks on the Inside Passage this has the great- est loss of life. The Br. Str. "Bristol" was lost Jan. 2, 1902, on the reefs of the islands known as the Gray Island and the Green Island, two round, glacier polished rock masses that rise at the side of the route a little way below Dixon's Entrance in British waters. She was a freighter laden with coal and the master, Captain Mclntyre, and six of the crew were lost, while two boats were picked up by the "Cottage City" and their occupants saved. 20 The "Cottage City" went on the rocks at midnight on Septem- ber 8th, 1902, about twenty miles south of Wrangell, on the shores of Etolin Island. The passengers and crew were taken off by the City of Spokane, which fortunately arrived a short time after. The ship was afterward raised and continued on the route until, on Jany. 26, 1911, she piled up on the treacherous shores of Cape Mudge, near the Seymour Narrows, and became a total loss. 21 As the years passed the rocks took their toll. To attempt to describe the losses in detail would be a lengthy task and but a few of the more important ones can be mentioned. The Bark Richard III stranded and was lost in Clarence Strait on January 23rd, 1907. In 1909 the Str. Ohio was wrecked in Heikish Narrows, above Milbank Sound, with a loss of two lives. In 1911 the Str. Spokane struck Ripple Rock in Sey- mour Narrows, and there was barely time to beach her in a cove beyond the Narrows. Two lives were lost in consequence of the wreck. Next to the Islander, the loss of life on the Str. State of California is the greatest that has occurred in any disaster on the Inland Passage up the coast. On a clear, bright day, August I 7th, 1913, the ship left the wharf at the Gambier Bay Cannery, swung round from the landing, and settled down on her course toward the mouth of the harbor. Four min- utes after she left the dock an uncharted pinnacle rock ripped open the bottom of the boat as she passed over. The ship was headed for shore and the whistle sounded for assistance. Within three minutes after striking the rock the vessel was beached on the rocky shore and the cannery tugs were on the way to her assistance. No sooner had she reached the beach than the stern settled beneath the surface and she slid back into the deep water, taking with her many of the passengers and crew. The decks lODaily Alaskan Despatch, Juneau, August 19th, 1901. Daily Alaskan, Skagway, August 17th and 18th, 1901. Alaska Traveler's Guide, Skagway, August 16th, 1901. Official Report Purser of Islander. Report of Customs Officer Allen J. Walker. 20Daily Alaskan, Skagway, Jany. 11, 1902. 2iRecords of Pacific Coast S. S. Co., Seattle, Wash. 28 C. L. Andrews were raised as by an explosion ; the bridge floated off with the Captain shout- ing his orders as it drifted away; the masts went overboard, smashing the boats that lay in their path; and the next moment there was nothing on the surface but a struggling mass of human beings among the wreckage. The cannery tenders and available small boats rendered every assistance possible, but of the hundred and forty-six persons on board the ship, thirty- five went down to their death. 22 The Str. "Jeanie" after her many years of adventure among the fogs and ice of the north came to her last resting-place at the south end of Cal- vert Island, Queen Charlotte Sound, on December 1 9th, and this closes the list of 1913. In this article the intention has been to confine the account of the wrecks that have occurred directly upon the line of the most traveled high- way along the coast between Seattle and Skagway. By going to one side of this route the list would be lengthened accordingly as the digression extended. It would include the "Star of Bengal," Sept. 20, 1908, on the rock mass of Coronation Island as she was being towed to sea, that smashed to fragments on the cliffs with the loss of over an hundred lives; the "Curacao," on June 21st, 1913, on an uncharted rock in the passages west of Prince of Wales Island; the "Delhi," January 18th, 1915, on Strait Island, Sumner Strait, and many others; but no attempt will be made to do so, beyond appending a list of the vessels lost in Alaskan waters so far as is to be procured from the records. This year of 1915 has claimed one ship, the liner "Mariposa," that went on the rocks at Pointer Island, B. C, near Lama Pass, during a fog on the morning of October 8th. She was northward bound with pas- sengers and freight at the time of the disaster, but fortunately there was no loss of life. 23 This is not the first time she has been near the same end, for, on July 16th, she sustained $10,000.00 damage by an un- charted rock off Pt. Harrington, Etolin Island, and on July 27th, 1914, she was stranded near Ellamar with a loss of $ 1 4.000.00. 24 The waterway from Seattle to Skagway is almost a continuation of the reaches of Puget Sound; a deep channel behind protecting islands that enclose it like a river that has no sandbars and whose current is the tide. When storm or fog does not close down upon the ship, the way is as safe as a harbor; but when the waterway is wrapped in mist,, or the snow drives down the inlets, until the shores are scarcely distinguishable a boat length away, then there is danger. The other dread of the navigator is the pres- ence of pinnacle rocks in the channels. A submerged rock may lie where 22Alaska Daily Empire, Juneau, August 18th, 1913. 23Juneau Daily Empire, Juneau, Alaska, October 8, 1915. 24See extracts from Customs Records of Puget Sound, and Alaska, as appended hereto. Marine Disasters in Alaska 29 soundings are made on all sides and indicate deep water; boats may pass over time after time; then on an especially low tide a deeply laden ship will crush her planking and unless she can limp ashore she is lost. On every trip the log of the ship shows how long is the run on each course, and notes the wind and tide. On running in the fog or storm the same courses are run, checked by past experience, and the echo of the fog signal against the mountain sides give additional warning. Each year the aids to navigation along the way add to the safety of the boats, and the long delayed drag survey is at last locating the sunken rocks that heretofore cost a ship to find, in almost every case. 25 Because of the lack of aids to mariners the marine insurance to Alaska is greater than to almost any part of the world. The rate from Seattle to Skagway is as much as the rate from Seattle to Liverpool, via the Panama Canal, in times of peace. The government tax on canned salmon is less than 1 % , while the marine insurance on this same salmon from Bristol Bay to Seattle is 3%. With adequate aids to navigation along the coast the rate need not be greater than to other parts of the civilized world. The buoys and lights, the fog signals and the wireless telegraph are fast putting aside the marine dangers of Alaskan waters. Some of them are badly needed, have been long delayed, and are warmly welcomed as they arrive. Thirty-five years elapsed before the first light- house was built and nearly half a century has passed and not a light on Bristol Bay, a place from which there is 1 ,500,000 cases of salmon shipped each year. The government has not done, and is not now doing, what it should do toward the upbuilding of the Territory of Alaska. Its policy has here- tofore been that of repression, rather than of assistance. If, instead of building forts and maintaining military establishments in the country at an immense cost, only to be abandoned, there had been light-houses and coast protection provided, the advancement of the land would have been secured and property amounting to millions of dollars would have been saved. In every instance it has waited for private enterprise to go ahead in the development, while it reaped a benefit before it made an investment. 25The waters of British Columbia, through which the ships pass on the Inland route to Alaska, are better lighted than the American channels. They are not so well protected, however, that vessels do not go ashore or strike sunken rocks, for, in addition to the wrecks already referred to in this article, the following notes are appended, to-wit: Str. "Mexico," Apr. 1, 1887, struck rock in Active Pass; Nov. 24, 1888, Str. "Idaho" struck reef, Queen Charlotte Sd.; July 5, 1895, Str. 'Portland," pinnacle rock, Dundas Id.; Apr. 17, 1898, Str. 'Cottage City," rock, Heikish Nar- rows; Feb. 12, 1900, Bk. "Colorado," stranded, Johnstone Str.; Feb. 6, 1904, Str. "Cottage City" struck bottom, Seaforth Channel; Jan. 4, 1905, Str. 'Santa Ana" stranded, Heikish Narrows; Aug. 16, 1905, Str. "Edith" struck Ripple Rock, Seymour Narrows; Feb. 17, 1907, Str. "Portland" struck rock, Entrance Id.; Sept. 8, 1907, Str. "Santa Barbara" stranded, Active Pass; Feby. 8, 1911, Str. "San Juan" struck rock in Graham Reach; June 29th, 1913, Str. "Dolphin" stranded, Pearse Id., Johnstone Str.; July 5, 1914, Bge. "Gerhard C. Toby" struck Ripple Rock, Seymour Narrows. 30 C. L. Andrews With an income greater than the expense, which is a condition that has existed in no other territory of the Union, practically thirty years elapsed before a single permanent public improvement was constructed by the United States. It forgets, that, owning almost the whole of the public domain, it is one of the greatest beneficiaries by the development of the land. On the other hand, the ones who have realized the greatest results have contributed very little to the cause of advancement. The policy has been to rob the resources and export the proceeds. The salmon fisheries paid absolutly nothing for many years, and today evade a large part of their duties by releasing salmon fry to provide a supply for fish for their own canning the next year. The whole amount paid by the millions of dollars of fish that are taken from Alaska is but a trifle compared with the amount contributed to the other commonwealths to which the wealth thus taken from the country is transferred. The immense sums of gold taken out of the ground have left practically nothing to aid local institu- tions. The vast sums extracted from the placer mines of the interior, amounting in some years to the sum of over $1 5,000,000.00, paid not one cent of revenue and did not add one dollar in permanent improvement of any kind. The lode mines for many years paid no tax of any kind and for years, thereafter, all the revenue received from them was the sum of $1.00 per stamp in the stamp mills. A mill of three stamps producing a thou- sand dollars a day paid $3.00 per year tax, for all purposes. Other mines paid nothing. A million dollars a month of copper ore exported pays no revenue to the Territory whatever. If the great industries that are exploiting the resources of Alaska, and are taking out vast sums from its mountains and seas, would contribute a rasonable amount toward the expenses of coast protection, and other local needs of the country, and the government would wisely apply that sum, the record of loss would be greatly diminished, and the decrease in the marine insurance would cover the expense. The government should have, long ago, placed the ordinary safe- guards to commerce along the shores, as a sane business investment to prevent the loss of existing revenue producing property, and to add •? such property by encouraging and safeguarding development. The Government owns the great bulk of values in Alaska. This property is useless and non-productive of revenue until used. The chief owner should take the initiative in development, instead of lagging be- hind and waiting for private interests to take the initiative, as it has done in the past. To this article is appended a list of wrecks in Alaskan waters, that covers only total losses, taken from the Pacific Fisherman of Seattle, Alaska Marine Disasters in Alaska 31 Fisherman's Number, November, 1914. Also a wreck list taken from the records of the Customs Office at Juneau, Alaska, and this is supplemented by a list of wrecks upon the Customs Records of Puget Sound that have occurred in Alaskan waters. C. L. ANDREWS. LIST OF WRECKS IN ALASKAN WATERS PROM PACIFIC FISHERMAN Year Lost 1848 1848 1851 1851 1851 1851 1851 1851 1851 1851 1851 1851 1851 1853 1853 1853 1853 1853 1856 1862 1864 1867 1870 1870 1870 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1871 1872 1876 1878 1878 1879 1879 1880 1881 1882 1882 1882 1883 1885 1885 1885 1885 1885 1885 Name of Vessel Where Lost Bark Gem Bering Sea $ Ship Richmond Bering Sea Ship Mary Mitchell Arctic Ship Acushnet St. Lawrence Is. . . Ship Mexican Arctic Ship Honqua Arctic nr. C. Oliver Ship Arabella Near East Cape . . . Ship Susan Arctic Ship Washington Pitt's Island Ship Hy Thompson Diomede Island . . . Ship Globe Bering Straits .... Ship Armata Cape North Value of Hull and Cargo Ship Ship Ship Ship Ship Bramin Arctic Liverpool Bering Straits . . . Marcus Bering Straits Kingfisher Bering Straits Citizen Bering Sea Ship Mongongahela Arctic Bark Iris Arctic Sch. E. R. Sawyer Nunivak Island . . Ship Louisiana Kotzebue Sound . . Bark Washington Cook Inlet Ship Hibernia Arctic Ship Almiral Arctic Bark Awashonks Arctic Bark Carlotta Arctic Ship Gay Head Arctic Bk. Geo. Ho wland Arctic Bk. Massachusetts Arctic Bark Oriole Arctic Ship Reindeer Arctic Bark Navy Arctic Bark Seneca Arctic Bark Thomas Dickason Arctic Ship Champion Arctic Bark J. D. Thompson Arctic Ship William Rotch Arctic Bark Monticello Arctic Ship Florida Arctic Bark Eugenia Arctic Bark Fanny Arctic Bark George Arctic Bark John Wells Arctic Bark Oliver Crocker Arctic Bark Roman Arctic Bark Emily Morgan Arctic Bark E. Swift Arctic Bark Henry Taber Arctic Bark Minerva Arctic Bark Concordia Arctic Ship Mary Arctic Bark Roscoe Arctic Ship Arctic Arctic Sch. St. George Kodiak Island Sch. Kodiak Geese Island Bark Mt. Waliaston Arctic Bark Vigilant Arctic Sch. Nagay Shumagin Island . Sch. Henrietta St. Lawrence Is. . . . Sch. Sapho Arctic Sch. General Miller Shumagin Island . Sch. H. L. Tiernan Shumagin Islands Sch. Wild Gazelle Shumagin Islands Bk. Amethyst Arctic Bark Montana Bristol Bark Gazelle Arctic Bark Rainier Arctic Bark George and Susan Arctic Bark Mabel Arctic Bay 75,000 80,000 22,000 50,000 22,000 40,000 25,000 25,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 30,000 20,000 35,000 20,000 30,000 32,000 35.000 20,000 15,000 20,000 50,000 25.000 42,000 42,000 45,000 53,000 50,000 57,000 35,000 43,000 55,000 55,000 60,000 50,000 50,000 43,000 41,000 62,000 40,000 51,000 38,000 40,000 40,000 41,500 42,000 40,000 38,000 40,000 55,000 53,000 55,000 60,000 25,000 25,000 100,000 100,000 2,000 25,000 25,000 15,000 17,000 20,000 50,000 50.000 50,000 50,000 50,000 50,000 32 C. L. Andrews 1885 Bark Napoleon r>ering Sea 50,000 1886 Sch. Clara Light Arctic 10,000 1886 Bk. John Carver Arctic 50,000 1886 Sip. Western Shore Bristol Bay 100,000 1888 Bk. Young Phoenix Pt. Barrow 50,000 1888 Bk. Julia Foard Karluk 42,000 1888 Bark Ohio Pt. Hope 25,000 1888 Sen. Isabel Shumagin Islands 15,000 1888 Sch. Vanderbilt Bering Sea 12,000 1889 S.S. Ancon Loring 100,000 1890 Bark Eliza St. Lawrence Is 50,000 1890 Bark Lagoaa Arctic 50,000 1890 Sch. Silver Wave Pt. Barrow 10,000 1890 Bk. Thomas Pope Pt. Hope 50,000 1890 Bkn. Korea Kalgin Island 75,000 1890 Bkn. Lizzie Williams Tugadak Is 100,000 1890 Bkn. Oneida Sannak Island 125,000 1890 Bark Corea Cook Inlet 51,000 1890 S.S. Wm. Lewis Pt. Barrow 150,000 1891 Sch. Sadie F. Caller Chignik 56,000 1891 Sch. Dashing Wave Bering Sea 25,000 1892 Bk. Abraham Barker Arctic 50,000 1892 Brig Alexander Arctic 50,000 1892 Bk. Helen Mar Arctic 55,000 1892 Bk. John P. West Arctic 50,000 1893 Bark Ohio Nunivak 10,000 1893 Sch. John Hancock Shumagin Islands 30,000 1894 Schooner Mary H. Thomas Bering Sea 8,500 1894 Sch. Mascot Bering Sea 8,000 1894 Schooner Mathew Turner North Pacific 7,500 1895 Bk. Jacob Howland Strong Island 50,000 1895 Ship Raphael Karluk 54,000 1895 Bark Montana Nushagak 10,000 1895 Launch Annie May Karluk 1,300 1896 Bk. Jas. A. Borland Tugidak 114,000 1896 Brig Hidalgo Arctic 30,000 1897 S.S. Mexico Dixon's Entrance 100,000 1897 Bkn. Jessie Freeman Pt. Barrow 50,000 1897 S.S. Orca Pt. Barrow 100,000 1897 Sch. Rosario Pt. Barrow 40,000 1897 S.S. Navarch Arctic 100,000 1898 Ship Sterling Cape Constantine 75,500 1898 S.S. Clara Nevada Lynn Canal 50,000 1898 S.S. Brixam Clarence Straits 100,000 1898 S.S. Anita Cook Inlet 1,000 1899 Pioneer Arctic 45,000 1899 S.S. Laurada Bering Sea 150,000 1899 Bk. Wildwood Nushagak 95,000 1899 Launch Karluk Karluk 5,200 1899 Bk. Lizzie Williams Nome 5,500 1899 Bge. N. A. T. & T. Co. 3 Tugidak 73,000 1900 S.S. Orizaba St. Michael 15,000 1900 Sch. Jessie St. Michael 100,000 1900 Bark Merom Karluk 64,000 1900 Barge Colorado Wrangeli Narrows 50,000 1900 Bark Hunter Bering Sea 50,000 1900 Bkn. Catherine Sudden- Bering Sea 50,000 1900 Bark Alaska Bering Sea 25,000 1901 Grampus Pt. Barrow 50,000 1901 Sch. Laura May Kvichak 6,000 1902 S.S. Balaena Bering Sea 100,000 1902 S.S. Chas. D. Lane Nunivak Island 100,000 1902 S.S. Discovery Yakutat 50,000 1901 S.S. Islander Douglas Island 225,000 1902 Sch. Lettie Port Moller 500 1902 Sch. Anna Bering Sea 18,000 1903 S.S. Cleveland Bering Sea 75,000 1903 Launch Delphine Karluk 900 1903 Sch. Mary and Ida Bering Sea 20,000 1904 Sch. Mary D. Hume Nushagak 15,500 1905 Sch. Wm. & John S. E. Alaska 2,000 1905 Bark Servia Karluk 205,000 1905 Sch. Pearl Shumagin Islands 18,000 1905 Sch. Nellie Coleman Shumagin Islands 20,000 1905 Sch. Francis Alice 15,000 1905 Sch. Laura Madsen Oft Pt. Barrow 20,000 1905 Sch. Marion Sannak Island 20,000 1905 Sch. Mary Ann Unga 15,000 1905 Sch. Mayflower Solomon 3,000 1905 Sch. Seven Sisters Kotzebue Sound 15,000 1905 Sch. Volant Birstol Bay 18,000 1905 Gas s. Admiral Andreosofsky 10,000 1905 Gas s. Anglo Saxon Chiniak 8,000 1905 S.S. Gov. Perkins Nome 10,000 Marine Disaster in Alaska 33 1905 S.S. John Reilly Cape Blossom 60,000 1905 Bg. John J. Mitchell Yukon Flats 10,000 1905 Sch. Margery Sanborn Harbor 4,000 1905 Sch. Pirate Pirate Cove 5,000 1905 Sch. Florence Egowik 3,500 1905 Sch. Bozanza King Point 18,000 1905 Bark Coryphene Off Prince of Wales Island 40,000 1905 SS. Arctic Bird Kobuk River 10,000 1906 Bark Nicholas Thayer Kodiak Island 20,000 1906 S.S. Oregon Cape Hinchinbrook 200,000 1906 S.S. Mariechen Chatam Straits 300,000 1906 S.S. Themis Hardigan Reef 120,000 1906 S.S.Miami Kvichak 10,000 1906 Sch. Excelsior Nelson's Lagoon 23,000 1906 S.S. Koyukuk Tanana River 40,000 1906 S.S. Lotta Talbot Fairbanks 60,000 1906 S.S. Miami Kvichak River 25,000 1906 S.S. Explorer Russian Mission 11,000 1906 Bge. Sesnon No. 6 Nome 4,000 1906 Bge. Sesnon No. 9 Nome 4,000 1906 S.S. Rock Island Chenoa 55,000 1906 Sip. Lila Dauphin Is. Bay 2,000 1906 Sch. Mary Gray Dauphin Is. Bay 2,200 1906 Sch. Olivia Dauphin Is. Bay 2,500 1906 Sch. Sehome Point Gardner 2,800 1906 S.S. Alexander Cape Parry 50,000 1906 S.S. Leah Yukon River 50,000 1906 S.S. Tanana Chief Kautishua River 20,000 1906 Scow Skip Mount Andrew 5,000 1906 Barge Gold Star Tanana River 15,000 1907 Ship John Currier Nelson's Lagoon 145,000 1907 Sch. St. Paul Sukhlish Island 25,000 1907 Bk. Wm. Bayliss Arctic 50,000 1907 Sip. Alta Ugashik 650 1907 Launch Odiak Prince William Sound . . . 3,000 1907 Gas. s. Rita Newman Simeonof Island 50,000 1907 Bark Servia Karluk 205,000 1907 Sch. Glen Unimak Island 20,000 1907 Barge Richard III Virago Sound 20,000 1907 Sch. Defender Kuskokwim Bay 4,200 1907 Gas s. Anglo Saxon Cape Woolley 8,000 1907 Sch. Bender Bros Good News Bay 14,000 1907 Sch. Martha W. Tuft Kattalla River 14,000 1907 Sch. St. Paul Chowiet Island 6,000 1907 Sch. Vine Deering 15,000 1907 S.S. Ella Tanana River 40,000 1907 Gas s. Hammond Storey Island 8,000 1907 Barge No. 3 St. Michael 20,000 1907 Sip. Nymph Hadley 3,000 1907 Gas s. Greyhound Nome 8,000 1908 Sch. Ivy Arctic 6,000 1908 Ship Lucille Ugashik 180,000 1908 Bk. Star of Bengal Coronation Island 330,000 1908 S.S. Saratoga Bushby Island 175,000 1908 Sch. John F. Miller Unimak Island 20,000 1908 Sch. Petrel Pybus Bay 6,000 1908 Sch. Comus Lynn Canal 2,500 1908 Sch. Olga Pt. Freemantle 5,000 1908 Sch. Seven Sisters Cape Espenberg 10,000 1908 S.S. Agnes E. Boyd Kobuk River 14,000 1908 Scow Chignik No. 1 Cape Cleare 8,000 1908 Sch. Bear Near Unalaska 4,000 1909 Ship Columbia Unimak Pass 78,000 1909 Barge Quatsino Dixon Entrance 30,000 1909 Barge Charger Karta Bay 25,000 1909 S.S. Uyak Karluk 20,000 1909 Gas s. Olga Arctic 20,000 1909 Gas s. Canella Vanks Island 4,500 1909 Sch. Linea L Portage Bay 4,000 1909 S.S. Florence ., St. Michaels Canal 15,000 1909 S.S. Nunivak Tanana River 35,000 1909 Gas s. Iona Nome 4,500 1909 Scow Camilla A Chignik Bay 15,000 1909 Barge Michigan Tanana River 18,000 1909 Gas s. Winthrop Nunivak Island 12,000 1910 S.S. Farallon Iliamna Bay 80,000 1910 S.S. Portland Katalla 55,000 1910 S.S. Olympia Bligh Island 150,000 1910 Revenue Cutter Perry St. Paul Island 150,000 1910 Sch. Stanley Sannak Island 8,000 1910 Gas s. Sea Light S. E. Alaska 5,000 1910 Sch. Bob Juneau 3,000 1910 Sch. Never Mind Lynn Canal 3,000 1910 Gas s. Bertha Carter 8,000 34 C. L. Andrews 1910 Gas s. H. Johnston Pt. Hope 25,000 1910 Gas s. Louise Cape Prince of Wales 10,000 1V10 Bge. C. L. Hutchinson Kaltag 6,000 19.10 Bge. K. S. L. Co. No. 7 Channing Island 4,000 1810 Barge Sesnon No. 6 Nome 4,000 1910 Barge Sesnon No. 7 Nome 6,000 1»10 Scow Teller Tuksuk River 5,000 1910 S.S. Princess 5,000 1»10 S.S. Elsie Valdez 20,000 1910 Bge. .v. S. L. Co. No. 4 Willow Bay 5,000 1910 Gas s. J. Matthews Cape Darby 8,000 1910 Gas s. L. S. Sorensen Cape Addington 15,000 1911 Sch. Czarina Nagal Island 30,000 1911 SS. Ramona Cape Decision 150,000 1911 Ship Jabez Howes Chignik 105,000 1911 Gas. Sch. F. S. Redfield Cape Prince of Wales 20,000 1911 Sch. Jessie Minor Nelsons Lagoon 12,000 1911 S.S. Koyukuk Tanana River 25,000 1911 Scow P. C. S. Co. No. 1 Norton Sound 4,000 1911 Gas s. St. Anthony Metlakahtla 5,000 1911 S.S. Grant Hecate Straits 45,000 1912 Bk. Hayden Brown Montague Island 10,000 1912 Sch. Joseph Russ Chirikot Island 20,000 1912 Gas. s. Laclabell Near Ketchikan 5,000 1912 Sch. Compeer Bristol Bay 25,000 1912 Gas s. Oakland Dry Bay 70,000 1912 Bge. Sesnon No. 13 Nome 12,000 1913 S.S. Yukon Sannak Island 170,000 1913 S.S. State of California Gambier Bay 225,000 1913 S.S. Curacao Warm Chuck 225,000 1913 S.S. Kayak Yakutat 12,000 1913 S.S. Welding Queen Charlotte Island . . . 55,000 1913 Gas Sch. Elvira Arctic 35,000 1913 Sch. Transit Kotzebue Sound 15,000 1913 S.S. Armeria (L. H. tender) Cape Hinchinbrook 400,000 1914 Bk. Gay Head Chignik Bay 44,000 1914 Revenue Cutter Tahoma Aleutian Islands 310,000 1914 Bk. Paramita Unimak Pass 200,000 1914 Sch. W. H. Dimond. . Bird Island 35,000 1914 S.S. Karluk Arctic 45,000 1914 Gas s. Alice Cape Decision 15,000 1914 Purse Seiner Schcold Frederick Sound 7,000 1914 Gas s. Alert Near Snettisham 9,000 Total $12,792,250 LIST OF WRECKS IN ALASKAN WATERS PROM RECORDS OF CUS- TOMS OFFICE, JUNEAU, ALASKA 1868 Am. Sch. Growler, Dixon's Entrance, total loss. 1874 Feb. 16, Am. Sch. "Margaret," near Kake Village, went ashore, total loss. 1875 Sept. 20, Am. Sch. "Sitka," near Wrangell, driven ashore, total loss. 1879 Oct. 30, Am. Sch. "W. H. Wood," near Unga, driven ashore, total loss. 1880 Apr. 6, Am. Sch. "Nicholas," Elainia Is., driven ashore, total loss. 1879 Dec. 5, Am. Sch. "Bella," Unamak, went ashore in storm, total loss. 1881 April 2, Am. Sch. "Goldhunter," driven ashore east of Yakutat, to- tal loss". 1881 April 27, Am. Sch. "St. George," unknown rock near Nuchek. 1881 October 6, Am. Sch. "Pauline Collins," Karluk, total loss $7,000. 1884 Apr. 28, Am. Sch. "St. Paul," north of Kodiak, total loss $1,800. 1885 Nov. 22, Am. SI. "Mary," went ashore in storm, total loss, north point Admiralty Id. 1.886 Nov. — , Am. Sch. "Flying Scud," lost at sea near Karluk, 18 lives lost. 1887 March 30th, Am. Sch. "Ounimak" near Pirate Cove, total loss. 7 lives lost. '886 Sept. 13, Am. Str. "Ancon," near Pt. Gustavus, unknown rock, loss $20,000. 1890 Jan. 22, Am. Str. "Despatch," ashore in storm, Seymour Canal, dam- age $3,000. 1.892 Aug. 20, Am. Sch. "Albatross," stranded, Lltuya Bay, total loss. 1893 May 26, Am. Bk. "Sea Ranger," uncharted ledge, Kayak Id., total loss $40,000. 1893 Sept. 23, Am. Sch. "Albert Walter," near Kodiak, total loss $4,400. 1.893 Nov. 6, Am. Str. "Yukon" went ashore in storm, Juneau, loss $1,500. 1894 May 3, Am. Sch. "Helen," near Yakutat, beached, loss $6,000. 1894 March 7, Am. Sch. "Undaunted," near Kayak Id., total loss, $4,100, stranded. 1894 May 11, Am. Whaling Bk, "Jas Allen," sunken rock east of Amlia Id., total loss $30,000 and 15 lives lost. 1884 Jul. 10, Am. Sch. "Alice," Cook Inlet, stranded, total loss, $1,200. Marine Disasters in Alaska 35 1894 Jan. 18, Am. Sen. "Mary W. od," near Kodiak, total loss, stranded. $800. 1894 Oct. 12, Am. Sch. "Mist Vood," foundered in storm, off Sitka, total loss $600. 1894 Aug. 20, Am. Sch. "Two Brothers," stranded, Unalaska Id., total loss, $1,250. 1895 Sept. 27, Am. Sch. "Crystal," stranded, Yakutat Bay, total loss, $3,000. , Am. Sch. "Seventy Six," off Kodiak, lost at lea, $2,000, 7 lives lost 1896 July 30, Sch. 'Hero," struck rock, Barren Id., total loss, $1,000. 1897 April 17, Am. Sch. "Therese," Cold Bay, S. E. Gale, total loss, $3,000. 1897 May 31, Am. St. "Arctic," Yukon River, ice, total loss, $20,000. 1898 Jany. 31, Str. Scow, Dixon's Entrance, — ? 1898 March 8, Am. Sch. "Sitka," off Cape Ommaney, total loss, $800, 3 men, all on board. 1898, Mar. 4, Am. Str. "Whitelaw," Are and ashore, Skagway, $72,000. 1898 Apr. 11, Am. Bk. "Mercury," stanrded, Skagway, loss $11,000. 1898 Apr. 25th, Am. Sch. "Elsie," stranded, Chichagoff Id., total loss, $18,- 600. 1898 Dec. 22, Am. Sch. "Alexandra," Kodiak, Goose Id., stranded, $800, 10 lives, total loss. 1898 April 11, Am. Bk. "Mercury," stranded at Skagway, loss $3,000. 1898 June 2, Bge. "General," foundered at sea, loss ? 1898 July 3, Str. "Alfred J. Beach, foundered at sea, total loss, $42,000. 1898 June 21, Am. Scow "Argo," foundered off Dixon's Entrance, $4,500, total loss. 1898 July 4, Am. "Constantine," foundered at sea, total loss $37,000. 1898 July 25, Br. Str. "Mono," went on rocks, Bushy Id., loss ? 1898 June 28, Am. Steel Barge, fonudered at sea, $15,000. 1898 June 17, Am. Steel Barge "No. 1," foundered at sea, total loss $17,- 000.' 1898 July 1, Br. Str. "Marquis of Dufferin," foundered at sea, $41,000. 1898 June 20, Am. Bge. "No. 5," off Cross Sound, foundered, total loss $4,000. 1898 July 27, Am. Bge. "No. 6," foundered near Dutch Harbor, $4,000, to- tal loss. 1898 , Am. Bge. "No. 7," off Cross Sound, foundered $4,000, total loss. 1898 July 28, Am. Bge. "No. 8," near Dutch Harbor, foundered, $4,000, total loss. 1898 Aug. 7. Am. Bk. "Guardian," stranded, Unimak Pass, total loss $12,- 000. 1898 Aug. 3, Am. Str. "City of Astoria," unknown rock near Dyea, $7,000, total loss. 1898 Aug. 19, Am. Sch. "Louise J. Kennedy," near Pt. Hope, total loss, $17,000. 1898 Aug. 1, Br. Str. "Stickine Chief," foundered at sea, total loss, $37,000. 1898 Nov. 24, Am. Str. "Detroit," stranded on reef near Shelter Id., $12,000, total loss. 1898 Dec. 28, Am. Sch. "St. Lawrence," Pybus Bay, ashore in storm, $4,000, total loss. 1899 Apr. 1, Am. Sch. "Foam," near Unga, total loss, stranded, $400. 1899 Jul. 31, Am. Bge. "St. Michaels No. 8," stranded, near St. Michael, $5,000. total loss. 1899 July 31, Bge. "St. Michaels No. 1," near St. Michaels, loss $5,000. 1899 Aug. 26, Am. Str, "St. James," capsized in Yukon, total loss, $8,000. 1899 Nov. 4, Am. Str. "Dora," struck ice in Icy Straits, damage $2,000. 1899 Nov. 27, Am. Sch. "Adventure," stranded, , total loss $500. 1899 Oct. 28, Am. Bk. "Mermaid,' whaling in Arctic Ocean, storm, $29,000. 1899 Dec. 12, Am. Bk. "Colusa," near Sitka, on rocks in storm, $20,000. 1900 Jan. 16, Am. Str. "Townsend," near Haines, went ashore, $40,000, to- tal loss. 1900 Jan. 31, Am. Sch. "Wolcott,' struck rock near Ayak Bay, Kodiak, total loss, $ ? 1900 June 23, Bktn. "Leslie D.," stranded Nunivak Id., total loss, $23,000. 1900 June 6, Am. Bk. "Alaska," stranded near Nome, total loss, $55,000. 1900 June — , Am. Sch. "Eclipse," stranded near Cape Romantzoff, $80,000, total loss. 1900 Sept. 17, Am. Str. "Orizaba," stranded on ledge near St. Michael, $75,- 000, total loss. 1900 Sent. 12, Sch. "Genl. McPherson," Safety Harbor, total loss $7,000. 1900 Sept. 10, Am. Sch. "Sequoia," stranded in storm, Nome, loss $18,000. 1900 Sept 12. Sch. "Prosper," stranded near Nome, total loss, $ ? 1 life lost. 1900 Sept 12, Am. Bge. "Skookum," stranded in storm, Nome, total loss, $43,000. 1900 Nov. 29. Am. Str. "Tillamook," stranded at Wood Island, $30,000, total loss. 1900 Dec 8, Str. "City of Topeka," stranded, reef near Sullivan Id., $25,000. 1900 Dec 23, Am. Sch. "Idler," stranded Coronation Id., total loss, $ ? 1900 Oct 13, Am. Sch. "Francis Alice," Bering Sea, total loss, $6,000. 1901 Mar. 3, Am. Sch. "Anna," ashore in storm, Sannak Id., total loss, $29,000. 36 C. L. Andrews 1901 Feb. 20, Am. Sch. "Lliamna," stranded, Kogatoska, total loss, $4,000. 1901 Sept. 12, Am. Str. "Dusty Diamond," stranded Golovin Bay, $2,000, total loss. 1901 July 15th, Am. Bk. "Oakland," stranded near Port Clarence, $23,000, total loss. 1901 Oct. 20, Am. Bge. 'Maude," stranded, 3 miles east Lamont Pt., $6,000, total loss. 1901 Nov. 2, Str. "City of Topeka," collision with ice, Taku Inlet, $6,000. 1901 July 23, Am. Str. "Queen," struck rock near Five Fingers, $5,000 (3. £L ITl £L £* G 1901 Mar. 30, Ch. SI. "Fearless," struck rock near Dutch Harbor, $30,000, total loss. 1901 Nov. 9, Am. Str. "Oriole," carried away by ice, Kotzebue Sd., $2,000. 1902 Apr. 21, Am. Sch. "Viking," stranded, Unga, total loss, $10,000. 1902 Aug. 20, Str. "Will H. Isom" and 2 bges. ashore Pt. Romanoff, $35,- 000 damage. 1902 Sept. 7, Am. Str. "Cottage City," stranded, Etolin Id., damage $50,000 ship and cargo. 1902 Sept. 6, Am. Sch. "J. B. Ward," stranded, Unimak Id., total loss $2,000. 1903 Jan. — , Am. Sch. "Nor'west," stranded Wrangel Bay, total loss $ ? 1903 Feb. 4, Sloop "Marina," stranded, reef, total loss, $250, four lives. 1900 Aug. 3, Am. Str. "Hattie B.," stranded Nome, loss $5,000. 1903 Sept. 4, Am. Sch. "Abbie M. Deering," struck reef, Akutan Pass, $5,- 000, total loss. 1903 Sept. 6, Am. Str. "Excelsior," fire, Wrangel Narrows, loss $25,000. 1903 Oct. 25, Am. Str. 'Rainier," struck rock, Icy Straits, total loss $7,000. 1904 Feb. 24, Am. Sch. "Sehome," stranded, total loss, Douglas Id., $1,200. 1904 May 12, Am. Ship "Balelutha," stranded, Geese Id. Strait, $50,000, total loss. 1904 Aug. 8, Am. Scow, "Elizabeth," foundered, off Cape Cheerful, $500. 1904 Aug. 4, Am. Sch. "Viking," stranded, Wales Id., total loss, $9,000. 1904 Sept. 4, Am. Str. "Sadie," uncharted rock, Kotzebue Sound, $77,500. 1904 Oct. 23, Am. Sch. "J. L. Perry," stranded on Kayak Id., total loss, $1,500. 1904 Nov. 30, Am. Sch. "Columbia," stranded McLeod's Bay, total loss, $1,- 000. 1905 June 21, Sch. "Geo. W. Perkins," stranded, Nome beach, loss, $6,000 total. 1905 July 28, Am. Sch. "Barbara Hernster," stranded, Bering Sea, $36,000, total loss. 1906 May 20, Str. "Koyokuk," rock, Tanana River, damage $12,000. 1906 Sept. 13, Am. Str. "Oregon," struck rock near Hinchinbrook Cape, $25,- 000 damage. 1906 Dec. 27, Sch. "Lesnoy," stranded, Wossnessensky Id., total loss $700. 1907 June 12, Am. Str. "Ohio," damaged $75,000 in ice, Bering Sea. 1907 June 29th. Sch. "Lizzie Colby," stranded, uncharted reef, Bering Sea, loss $25,000. 1910 Aug. 5, Br. Str. "Princess May," stranded, Sentinel Id., $20,000 dam- age. 1911 Sept. 7, Str. "Northland," struck reef, Tangas Narrows, damage $1,- 000. 1914 Sept. 20, U. S. Revenue Cutter "Tahoma," uncharted reef, off Aleutian Islands, total loss. 1915 Jan. 18, Am. Str. "Delhi," unknown reef, Sumner Strait, $140,000 loss. 1915 Sept. — , Am. Str. "Edith," foundered, near Kayak Id., loss, total, $250,000. 1915 Sept. 23, Am. St. Sch. "P. J. Abler," fire, Douglas Id., loss $ ? WRECKS IN ALASKAN WATERS, FROM CUSTOMS RECORDS, SEATTLE 188- , Sch. "Edward E. Webster," sunken reef, off Unga Id., $13,000, total loss. 1897 Sept. 7, Am. Sch. "Hueneme," stranded Unimak Id., total loss, $32,500. 1898 Aug. 7, Am. Bk., "Guardian," Unimak Pass, struck reef, total loss, $12,000. 1898 June 28, Am. Str. "Western Star," blown on reef, Katmai Bay, $46,000. 1898, March 1, Str. "Eliza Anderson," stranded at Unalaska, total $10,000 loss. 1898 Nov. 1, Am. Str. "Wallowa," stranded at Mary Id., uncharted rock, $ ? 1898 Nov. 4, Am. Bk. "Columbia," near Portland Canal, stranded, $14,000 total loss. 1899, March 29, Str. 'City of Topeka," struck rock, Wrangell St., $20,000 damage. 1898 Nov. 25, Am. Sch. "Reub L. Richardson," near Seal Rocks, $2,000, stranded. 1899 June 25, Str. "Geo. Mathews," stranded, near Nome, total loss $5,000. 1900 Aug. 14, "Elvin Thompson," near Cape Newingham, total loss, $1,400. 1900 Oct. 16, Sch. "Ruby A. Cousins," sunken reef, Pr. Wm. Sound, $15,000, total loss. 1900 Oct. 12, Sch. "Emma Louise," near Hone, Alaska, total loss, $13,500. 1900 Nov. — , Sch. "Reub L. Richardson," near Cape Nome, stranded, $10,- 000, total loss. Marine Disasters in Alaska 37 1904 Nov. 23, Am. Str. "City of Seattle," struck rock at Eagle Harbor, $9,- 000 damage. 1907 Nov. 13, Str. Jeanie," stranded, Wrangell Narrows, buoy shifted, $1,- 600. 1911 Feb. 7, Str. 'Victoria," stranded, thick weather, Hinchinbrook, $25,000. 1911 April 19, Str. "Dora," stranded, Akun Pass, thick weather, $2,500 loss. 1911 Dec. 10, Sch. "Zapora," Nesbit reef, Zarembo Id., stranded, $8,000 damage. 1912 May 6, Str. 'Santa Ana," stranded, Channel Id., Tangas Narrows, dam- age $3,500. 1913 Jan. 10, Str. "Latouche," stranded, Icy Strait, thick weather, $15,000 damage. 1913 Aug. 15 Str. "City of Seattle," grounded, Tongas Narrows, $1,200 del msucr 6 1913 Jan. 15, Str. "Cordo a," grounded, Wrangell Narrows, $3,000 damage. 1914 Feby. 27, Str. "Mariposa," stranded, near Bllamar, damaged $14,000.