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THE NISQUALLY JOURNAL 

In the Quarterly for July, 1915-April, 1916, was published the 
first volume of the Nisqually Journals, edited by Clarence B. Bagley, 
assisted by the writer. At the time of publication is was generally 
understood that to reproduce all of the work was a task wholly beyond 
the capacity of the magazine, but as requests have come in for a repro- 
duction of more of this material it has been decided to run one more 
portion. 

Up to the year 1838, Fort Nisqually may be regarded as a semi- 
farming, semi-trading establishment; but in that year a certain event 
came to pass which was to change its character entirely. As early as 
1833 Chief Trader Archibald McDonald had urged the Hudson's Bay 
Company to permit certain persons to form a subsidiary concern for 
the purpose of raising cattle and produce in the West. Older heads, 
however, frowned on the idea as likely to interfere with the fur busi- 
ness, and dropped the whole matter. But drop the matter as it 
would, the company was of necessity obliged to raise agricultural prod- 
uce not only to meet its own demands, but the needs of its foreign mar- 
kets, and thus certain of its establishments were turned into small farms. 
Nisqually was one of these, and went on for several years in this dual 
capacity. By 1838 the agricultural business had assumed such propor- 
tions that its prosecution by the company was deemed inadvisable, and 
a new company, the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company, was planned 
to handle this end. On paper it was a separate organization, with a 
capital stock, etc., but its by-laws were so framed as to make it little 
else than a "set of books," wherein were recorded the agricultural opera- 
tions of the fur company. Its officers were from that company, its 
shareholders persons interested in the fur trade; its direction in all 
affairs by it. Inasmuch as land and buildings were never carried on 
the books, the new company began business on December 23, 1 840, by 
purchasing the fur company's cattle. Herds were driven in from east 
of the mountains and California, and soon Nisqually became the scene 
of operations on a grand scale. Here, and at the Cowlitz Farm and 
Vancouver, the two companies went on side by side, in reality as of old, 
but under a new bookkeeping arrangement. While Nisqually is the 
chief scene of operations the headquarters are at Vancouver. No com- 
plete inventories have as yet been compiled, but we know that from a 
small farm in 1838, Nisqually possessed in 1841 200 acres of land 

(205) 



206 Victor J. Farrar 

under cultivation, with 3,000 sheep and 1,500 cattle; and in 1851 1,500 
acres of land under cultivation with 10,000 sheep and 6,000 cattle. 

The labor was performed entirely by servants and Indians. Only 
at one time did the Company depart from this system, in 1841-42, when 
some 18 Red River immigrants were settled upon those places since 
known as Steilacoom, Muck, Spanaway, etc., where they were expected 
to assist in the raising of produce, but when they had all departed to 
the valley of the Willamette, the Company resettled these places with 
servants, who continued on the former salary arrangement. 

Although the Oregon Question had been settled in 1846 and the 
country American, expansion continued unabated. The pathfinder- 
settlers Simmons, et al., are here, but they offer no serious obstacle 
to the Company and seem to work to its advantage. It is the settler 
migration following on the Oregon Land Law which is to spell defeat 
to the Company. Victor J. Farrar. 

[March, 1849] 1 
Saturday 10th. Fair all day, work as before. 
Sunday 11th. Sleet, rain & snow most o[f t]he day. 
Monday 12th, Cold, windy weather Wren, Cowie & two Indians, 
squaring wood for press shed. Slocum making saddle bags, Thibeault 
working about Marrons. Lowe brought in wild horses for thrashing 
tomorrow. 

Tuesday 18th. Mild throughout the day. Slocum sowed 4^ bush. 
Oats, Beinston treading out wheat with horses. Steilacoom 2 & Squally 
sent out to Muck 3 to split rails for lambing Parks. 
Wednesday llfih. Morning frosty. Day milder & Cloudy. Sowed 10 
Bush. Oats — harrowed by 3 harrows. Adam winnowing wheat. The 
rest as before. Sent two Ox tumbrils to Tenalquot* with provisions. 
Slagomas arrived from Vancouver accompanied by a Kanaka; 3 old 
Milch Cows found dead. 



1 The Nisqually Journals which have come down to us cover the following periods : Max 
30, 1833, to April 25, 1835; April 26, 1835, to August 23, 1836; September 1, 1836, to 
October 31, 1837 ; November 1, 1837, to May 31, 1836 ; January 20, 1846, to April 30, 1847 ; 
March 10, 1849, to August 6, 1850 ; August 7, 1850, to August 31, 1851 ; September 1, 1851, 
to October 3, 1852; October 4, 1852, to May 28, 1854; May 29, 1854, to August 15, 1856; 
August 25, 1856, to August 23, 1857 ; September 26, 1857, to September 27, 1859. It will 
be seen that certain books are missing, having in some way been extracted from the series : 
some four or five journals covering the six odd years from May 31, 1839, to January 20, 1846 ; 
and one journal the two years from April 30, 1847, to March 10, 1849. In addition to the 
Nisqually Journals the collection includes Muck Farm Journal from April 22, 1858, to April 
16, 1859 ; and Tithlow Journal from January 1. 1851, to August 2, 1851, and from November 
19, 1856, to April 30, 1857. 

2 Not the Indian for whom the town of Steilacoom is named and whom we encountered in 
the Journal for 1833, but just a servant Indian, or halfbreed, bearing this cognomen. Com- 
pare, Squally (Nisqually), and Kalama, mentioned elsewhere in this Journal. 

8 A farmsite and herdsman's station maintained by theCompany, situated near the present 
town of Roy, Pierce County. The creek of the same name was known to the Company as 
Douglas River. 

4 A farmsite and herdsman's station maintained by the Company on a prairie of the same 
name near Mcintosh, Thurston County. 



The Nisqually Journal 207 

Thursday 15th. Weather as before. Wren, Cowie and Kalama, off 
in quest of wood for Cart wheel spokes. Sowed 13 bus. oats. Slocum 
& the Indian gang burning brush wood in swamp. Schooner Cadboro 5 , 
Capt. Sangster 6 arrived, with some supplies for this post. T. Linklater 
sent to Tinalquot to replace Nelson, during lambing. [Page 2.] 
Friday 16th. Cloudy & overcast. All hands down the beach discharg- 
ing salt. 

Saturday 17th. Weather & work as before. 

Sunday 18th. Rainy with a strong wind from SW. 
Monday 19th. Cloudy, with occasional showers of rain. Slocum & 
Kalama, with 6 Indians loading schooner Cadboro. Wren fixing pad- 
locks on Fort gates. Beinston, with 5 Indians skinning dead cattle of 
which numbers are dying now from starvation. M Nelson arrived from 
Tanalquot, for the lambing season. 80 Wedders sent by L'caille to 
Tinalquot for food for the herds, the remainder of the wedder band 
counted 526. Louis Ledoux left this [morning] for the Cowlitz, 7 in 
exchange for Kalama who remains here. Croaking of Frogs heard here 
for first time — heard at Macleod's 8 occasionally for the last month he 
says. 

Tuesday 20th. Rainy, with strong breezes of wind Schooner laded, 
& ready for sailing tomorrow. Lambing commenced. Cowie sent to 
Lambing. 

Wednesday 21st. Weather as yesterday. Schooner Cadboro left this 
morning with a fair wind. Slocum with 5 or 6 Indians, setting up 
fenceing. Adam, treading out wheat with horses. Wren making shut- 
ters for new store. Cooper 9 sick. 



8 See, ante, volume vi, no. 3 (July, 1915), page 192, note 41. 

James Sangster, a native of Port Glasgow. He had entered the service of the Company 
as early as 1832, when we find him on the Columbia as a seaman. His rise was exceedingly 
rapid, and in 1837 he commanded the brig Llama. In 1848 he was captain of the Cadboro, 
which position he held until 1854, when he removed to Victoria. Here he held many positions 
— harbor master, collector of customs, postmaster, etc. He died at Esquimau in 1858. 

7 The Cowlitz Farm, a separate post maintained by the Companies in townships 11 and 
12 north, range 1, west of the Willamette meridian. About 1838 Simon Flomondon and 
another servant named Faineant went to this region to live out their days, it having been 
reserved by Dr. McLoughlin as a home for superannuated servants. Shortly after the forma- 
tion of the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company, or somewhere between 1838 and 1839, it was 
taken over for a farm. All the land available for cultivation, some 1200 acres, was fenced 
in and eleven barns erected, together with a mill. 

8 A farmsite and herdsman's station near Steilacoom, known also as Whyatchte. 

8 Captain James Cooper. He was a native of England, and entered the service of the 
Hudson's Bay Company in 1844, and in 1849 commanded the bark Columbia. Owing to ill 
health, he left the sea for the purpose of engaging in practical farming on a large scale on 
Vancouver Island. He brought out from England a small iron ship, and secured the services 
of a Mr. Thomas Blinkhorn as superintendent and took up land at Metchosin, where operations 
were commenced. Trade connections were opened with San Francisco and the Sandwich 
Islands. The venture might have proved a success had it not been for the monopolistic tend- 
encies of the Company, which brooked no competition. The farm was sold in 1856 soon after 
the death of Mr. Blinkhorn. In 1859 Mr. Cooper became harbor master for British Columbia 
and in 1860 harbor master for New Westminster. In 1879 he removed to California. 



208 Victor J. Farrar 

Thursday 22nd. Sleet & rain all the day. Noon Tomma the Inr. 

arrived from Victoria 10 with dispatches. The Bqn. Columbia arrived 

from England, Capt. Cooper in command. [Page 3.] 

Friday 23rd. Snow fell during the night to the depth of about 5 ins. 

& More fell till noon after which, great part of it disappeared, horses 

brought in for the express tomorrow. Cooper laid up with a severe 

attack of inflamation. Tomma & party returned back. 

Saturday 24th. Snow fell last night but all soon disappeared. Dr. 

Tolmie 11 started off with the express to Vancouver, accompanied by 

two Indn. lads. Squally came to me this evening & said that three 

Sinahomish 12 had killed a cow this morning, at the beach between the 

Salt Marsh & store & at present they were encamped near the mouth of 

the little river. 18 

Sunday 25th. Fine clear weather. Started to the beach with four 

hands & searched the Killer's lodge, we found the hide & part of the 

carcase and the meat appearing to be very sound & had some fat, we 

seized a gun and a few trifles & brought them up, but the Indians saying 

the cow was found dead, I promised to return the property on their 

bringing up the head of the animal to be examined & perceive if it was 

shot or not. Cooper much better. 

Monday 26th. Windy with occasional storms of hail & Snow. Wren 

& Kalama planking up gable ends of new store. Slocum & mob setting 

up fenceing. A lot of women engaged cutting ladies fingers for seed. 

Jack replaced by Sam at plough who will hereafter overlook potatoe 

planting. Cooper rather worse. [Page 4.] 

Tuesday 27th. Strong breezes & rainy. Wren & Kalama splitting 

oak for cart wheels, the rest as before. An Indn. brought up the 

head of the cow killed & bore no signs of being shot but I did not give 

up the gun, &c for having heard that they first knock down the cow with 

stone & then cut its throat. 

Wednesday 28th. Cold & Windy. Wren, Kalama & Steilacoom off 

for two or three days to square wood for a new press, the others as 

before. 



10 Fort Victoria, at the site of the city of the same name on Vancouver Island. It was 
the last of the company forts erected on the Sound, and with the passing of Vancouver became 
the headquarters of the Company in these parts. The date of its founding was 1843, and 
besides its expected utility as a fur trading station and farm was so selected that it might 
serve as a refuge for British whalers. For several years it went by the Indian name of the 
roadsted, Camosum or Camousak, but was rechristened Victoria to honor the Queen. The city 
was laid out in 1852. 

11 William Fraser Tolmie, chief trader for the Hudson's Bay Company and superintendent 
for the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company. See, ante, volume vi, no. 3 (July, 1915), page 
181, note 5, for a short biographical sketch. 

12 Snohomish. A Salish tribe living on the south end of Whidbey Island and on the main- 
land opposite at the mouth of the Snohomish Eiver. 

13 The Sequalitehew Creek. 



The Nisqually Journal 209 

Thursday 29th. Fine & clear. Commenced planting early potatoes, at 
lower Mallard hollow. Oxen drawing the drills. Sowed 10 bus. oats, 
making a total of 40 Bushels. A cart with a yoke of oxen sent to 
Tinalquot to assist hauling out rails. A party of five horsemen tried to 
drive in some wild oxen for breaking in, but could not manage to get 
them closer than the entrance to the lane. Reed, a letter from Dr. 
Tolmie, dated Cowlitz 16th Ult. enclosing a counterfeit dollar palmed 
off on Mr. Roberts, 14 — examined all Cash on hand and found two that 
did bear the test, given by the Dr. in his letter. 

Friday 80th. Fine and clear till Noon, when it overcast, rain towards 
evening. Jack at the head potato planters, Slocum sowed 16 bus. oats 
Thibeault at Marrons, Cooper much better today. [Page 5.] 
Saturday Slst. Rainy all the day. Slocum, C. Jack and all the mob, 
men and women, shifting fenceing. Wren & Kalama setting XCut 
Saws & repairing wheel barrows. 

[April, 1849] 

Sunday 1st. Cloudy & cold with some little rain. Blue partridge & 
Geese seen. 

Monday 2nd. Fair & cloudy. Oat sowing & potatoe planting resumed. 
Wren, Kalama & Squally setting up a shed behind kitchen for Indians 
to mess undis. Baptiste engaged for ploughing. Bill & Steilacoom 
treading out wheat with horses. Cooper comeing round nicely; two 
Yankees trading, Obriss 15 & Kindred. 10 Five head of cattle found 
today dead through starvation. 

Tuesday 3rd. Fine, all the day. Wren, assisting Lowe & Thibeault 
driving in wild oxen for breaking in, of which 8 good ones, were 
brought in and parked, finished sowing oats Potat 84 bushels. The 
other work as before. Steilacoom treading out wheat. 
Wednesday 4th. Rainy. Slocum commenced sowing pease. C. Jack 
with his gang planting potatoes in garden 8 variously. Wren, Thi- 
beault, & the [page 6] hands catching, yokeing & working wild oxen 
and seem to do well, hauled firewood. 

Thursday 5th. Rainy first part of the day, clear in the afternoon. 
Wren, Kalama & Squally, fixed the other half of straw shed for a stable 
for Cart horses; & making a gate for garden fence. Steilacoom, 
cleared up the wheat 2^ days thrashing 33 bushels, Slocum sowed 
lei/obushels, pease last of big field, in the afternoon delving & garden 



11 George B. Roberts, at this time agent for the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company at 
the Cowlitz. 

« C. Obriss, a settler of 1847. 

16 John Kindred, a settler of 1847 at Tunrtvater. 



210 Victor J. Farrar 

and sowed onions. Jack and his gang planting potatoes &c. Thi- 
beault sent to the plains to assist Lowe killing Cattle for Shepherds; 
a large party of Snowqualmie's 17 arrived. 

Friday 6th. Fair all the day. Work as yesterday. Ploughs plowing 
new land. Thibeault returned, having killed three Beaver. Sent 7^ 
bus. Wheat to Muck. 

Saturday 7th. Weather as yesterday. Wren finished the gate. Jack 
with a part of the mob planting potatoes in garden, Slocuru with the 
other part gardening. 

Sunday 8th. Fine clear weather. No news. 

Monday 9th. Cloudy. Slocum sowed 17 bus. wheat making a total of 
47 bushels sown. All the spare hands setting up fenceing of new 
ground. Wren & his associates roofing Indian shed. Beinston running 
the Sheep over oat land. Seven Cattle found mired today at Squally 
lake. 18 [Page 7.] 

Tuesday 10th. Cloudy, with strong breezes of wind. Hands em- 
ployed as. yesterday. 

Wednesday 11th. Fine & clear. Slocum busied in gardening. C. 
Jack and his mob making drills for potatoes in garden. Oxen carting 
dung. The two horse carts brought in 27 bus. Wheat from Steilacoom, 
plough pig. new land. 

Thursday 17. Weather as yesterday. Planted the patch in garden 
with Spanish potatoes. Wren finished covering Indian shed, the rest 
of the hands employed as before. 

Friday IS. Weather still continues. Mob repairing fenceing, plant- 
ing and other different jobs. Wren & assistants making a gate for gar- 
den. Thibeault & Lowe killing beef for the plainherd[ers]. 
Saturday llfth. Warm agreeable weather, sowed more pease. Mob 
variously employed. Wren assisted Lowe & Thibeault & brought in 
two wild oxen, one of them had his leg broke. Killed him for beef. 
Rainy toward night. 

Sunday 16th. Fair. Slocum & Jack with the mob planting potatoes 
in Mallard Hollow. Wren laying a foundation of a new oven under 
indian shed. Thibeault, Adam & Lowe brought in some milch cows. 
A large party of Soquamish 19 here, traded 19 [ ] skins. [Page 8.] 

Tuesday 17th. Hot weather. Work as yesterday. Dr. Tolmie re- 
turned from Vancouver. A Whale killled by the Soquamish down the 
beach. 



" Snoqualmie (or Snoqualmu, the latter form being the "official" and "scientific" spell- 
ing), a Salish division on the Tipper branches of the river of the same name. 

18 Nisqually Lake. 

19 Suquamish. A Salish division oa the west side of Pnget Sound from Appletree Cove to 
Gig Harbor. 



The Nisqually Journal 211 

Wednesday 18th. Sultry in the afternoon. Wren & assistants enlarg- 
ing wool press shed for the purpose of constructing a new Press. In- 
dian Mob delving in Marsh & planting potatoes at South side of Fort; 
Thibeault, Beinston & Lowe brought in a few more milch Cows. 
Thursday 19th. Cloudy most part of the day, people employed as 
yesterday. Linklater returned from Tenalquot. Gohome sent with an 
Express to Victoria. 

Friday 20th. Weather as yesterday. Slocum and his gang setting up 
fencing round piece of land at Washington's lake, Linklater killing 
Sheep for tomorrow's Rations, the res.t of the hands as yesterday. 
Sunday 22nd. Showery. 

Monday 2Sd. Showery. Mr. Ross 20 Inds. and Jacob off to repair 
road between Tinalquot and Grand Prairie. 21 Indian gang clearing 
land at Tyrrell's Lake. 22 Wren and Kanakas going on with press- 
house. Keanehaceow returned from sheepherding. 
Tuesday 2£th. Showery Partial Sunshine Wren and others splitting 
wheel spokes. Mr. Forrest 23 arrived fro mCowlitz about 2 P. M. No. 
letters. [Page 9.] 

Wednesday 25th. Showery. Wren and party squaring fitting logs 
for press-houses. Father Chirouse 24 [ ] Blanchet 25 arrived from 

[ ] in the afternoon. 17 bush pease sown. 

Thursday 26th. Fine [ ] Two plows sent to Spanueh 26 and one 

to Muck. [ ] press-house placing couples &c. 

Friday 27th. Fine. Mg. frosty. Wren and party splittting Oaks for 
felloes. Priests off. Reported this evening that Gohome is encamped 
at Kitsons 27 island with a passenger probably Mr. Fenton. 
Saturday 28th. Fine. Mr. Fenton with Gohome arrived at breakfast 
time. Gohome in going to Victoria was robbed of a gun an axe and all 
the party's provisions by Snietlam 28 and a party of Scad jets, 29 whom 



20 Mr. Walter Boss, clerk at Nisqually. 

21 Grand Prairie or Mound Prairie, a peculiar geological formation south of the present city 
of Olympia, once thought to be the handiwork of the mound builders. 

22 Long Lake, near Lacey, Thurston County. The name "Tyrrell" was evidently an honor 
for Treeman W. Tyrrell, a settler of 1849, who took a claim on what is now Hawk's Prairie. 

23 Mr. Charles Forrest, agent for the Puget Sound Agricultural Company at the Cowlitz. 

24 Eugene Casimir Chirouse, O. M. I., a Roman Catholic missionary to the Yakima IndianB. 
For accounts of his life, together with the activities of other priests in these parts, see Charles 
M. Buchanan, "Evolution of an Indian Hero," The Washington Historical Quarterly, July, 
1918; also, The Indian Sentinel (Chirouse Number), January, 1918. 

2 « Probably Rev. A. M. A. Blanchet, of Walla Walla, rather than his brother, Archbishop 
Norbert Blanchet, of Oregon City. 

20 Spanaway, a farmsite and herdsman's station, near the lake of the same name in Pierce 
County. 

27 Ketron Island, in Puget Sound, opposite Steilacoom, named by Wilkes (1841) in honor 
of William Kitson, chief trader, and formerly in charge of Nisqually. The present spelling, 
due to an error on Wilkes' charts, has been perpetuated. 

28 Kwuss-ka-nam or George Snatelum, a Skagit chief, later one of the signers of the Gov- 
ernor Stevens' treaty on January 22, 1855. His residence was at the site of the present 
Watsak Point, south cape of Penns Cove, known locally as "Snakeland" Point. He died on or 
before December 19, 1852, of putrid sore throat. His son, Hel-mits, or George Snatelum, Jr., 
also a signer of the treaty, is the character so well known to early residentc of the Island. 

29 Skagit. A body of Salish living on the river of the same name, particularly at lta 
mouth, and on the middle portion of Whidbey Island. 



212 Victor J. Farrar 

he encountered while windbound at Pt. Partridge. 30 Mr. Finlayson 81 
is to acquaint Mr. Yale 32 of Snietlams misdemeanour, so that worthy 
will meet with an indifferent reception when next he visits any of the 
Coy's establishments. Mr. Ross and party returned about noon having 
rendered the road from Tinalquot to Grand Prairie passable for wag- 
gons. 

Sunday 29th. Cloudy with occasional glimpses of sunshine. 

Monday 80th. Slight rain throughout the day. Wren & his party at 
wool press. Slocum gardening. Jack in swamp with the mob burning 
brush. Lowe & Thibeault assisting Beinston getting in milch cows. 
Oxen hauling firewood. [Page 10.] 



[May, 1849] 

Tuesday 1st. Cloudy with a strong SW. breeze. About noon a large 
party of Snoqualmie & Skeywhamish 33 armed arrived & took up their 
position before the water-gate, where they had an affray with our peo- 
ple, in which the American, Wallace 84 was killed & Lewis 85 slightly 
wounded, one the enemy was killed & another slightly wounded, the 
cause and commencement are nearly as possible as follows: 

As the horn blew for dinnner a large party of Skeywhamish & 
Snoqualmich were reported to have arrived, our working & the other 
Indians immediately commenced running into the fort 30 bringing with 
them their moveables & when dinner was over a large party of them 
to the number of about a hundred, were observed advancing across the 
plain on the N. W. side of the Fort, when they arrived part went to 
Lahalet's 37 lodge & the others (the greater part) gathered round the 
Watergate where they were soon after rejoined by the others, on being 
asked the reason why they came in such numbers, and making such a 
warlike demonstration, they replied that they had heard that young 
Lahalet (who is married to a daughter of one of their petty chiefs) 
was beating his wife brutally, and that they did not come with the in- 

10 A cape on the western shore of Whidbey Island. 

*' Roderick Finlayson, chief trader, In charge of Fort Victoria, since 1844. 

" James Murray Yale,, chief trader, in charge of Fort Langley. 

" Skykomish. A body of Salish on the river of the same name. 

M Leander C. Wallace, a settler of 1846. 

*• The christian name of Mr. Lewis has not been ascertained. 

«• Old Fort Nisqually, or the first fort, erected in 1833, was abandoned during the season 
of 1842-43, and the new Fort Nisqually built. The first fort, though large enough at the time, 
proved too small to accommomdate the great agricultural expansion which took place after the 
formation of Puget's Sound Agricultural Company, besides being too far from available fresh 
water and too distant from the theatre of operations. 

" Lahalet, chief of the Nisqually tribe. His successor was Leschi. 



The Nisqually Journal 213 

tention of harming any of the whites, the chief Patakynum 38 was then 
invited into the fort, and to the others were given tobacco to smoke in 
the pipe of peace, for which they retired to one of the deserted lodges. 
We took the precaution of placing two armed men at the gate, Thibeault 
& Gohome with orders to let none of them in. I also took my gun and 
knocked about our Indians, who in fear of the enemy, were engaged 
sweeping out the fort. I had just taken round them, when I heard a 
shot. I repaired immediately to the gate & learned that it had been 
fired by Gohome in jest. I reproved for his carelessness & told him 
to take good care. Soon after I [page 11] arrived at the gate four or 
five of the worst Snoqualmie's came rushing to the gate, provoked no 
doubt, by the shot unguardidly fired by Gohome, one of their number, 
Copass, more forward than the rest, rudly pushed Gohome — who was 
standing between the door posts into the fort & took his place. I 
went to him & demanded why he did that for, and told him to keep 
quiet, but answering only with insult, I put him out, upon which, he 
cocked his gun, & drew his dagger, making two or three threats at me 
with it. Wren standing a piece off at the time from the gate, he was 
called in. I called out to close the gate, which was done, but finding 
Wren shut out, it was again opened. Wren on entering seized one of 
their guns whereupon a scuffle ensued, and the gun falling between 
the door & the fort, prevented us from closing, during that time, I 
observed Copass pointing his gun at me. I at once presented mine, 
and as I thought fired first (but it is maintained by the friendly Indians 
outside that, one of the Sn' "Qullawood" provoked by a blow given by 
Wren, with the butt end of the gun, to one of their chiefs, fired at him, 
but missing, my shot followed (which is the right way I cant be posi- 
tive, the noise excitement being too great) but missing him, wounded 
another, a good many shots then followed, the gate closed, we took to 
the bastions, but our people taking some time to get armed (the affair 
being rather sudden) by the time they were at their stations, most of the 
enemy were out of shot, runnning away full speed across the plain to 
their canoes. Patakynum who was in the fort at the commencement of 
the row, escaped after the closing of the gate, unperceived by none of 



38 Patkanim, as the name is now generally spelled, chief of the Snoqualmie tribe. He was 
born about 1815, but does not come into prominence until the year 1848, when, according to 
accounts which have come down to us, he was the chief instigator in a general uprising against 
the whites. In that year he plannend a great hunt on Whidbey Island, to which he invited all 
the Indians of the Sound, and to them unfolded his plans for ultimate attack. The move was 
abandoned, due to the action of certain Indians who lived at the upper Sound, who looked upon 
the Company and the few whites then in the country as the means of their economic and physi- 
cal salvation. After the affair delineated in the Journal, Patkanim changed his attitude mate- 
rially towards the whites, and while many doubted his sincerity his acts, nevertheless, were 
friendly. He was a signer of the Governor Stevens Treaty at Point Elliott in 1855, and during 
the so-called Yakima Indian War which followed in 1855-56, served in the capacity of soldier, 
the leader of some eighty odd braves. He died in the fall of 1858. 



214 Victor J. Farrar 

our people, young Lahalet showing him the way. Wallace & Lewis 
were unfortunately standing outside, when the affray commenced, they 
did not respond to the call of: "All hands come in and shut the gate", 
they perhaps thought themselves secure from harm [page 12] as they 
were Americans, and did not belong to the Fort, if this was the case 
they were sadly mistaken ; They were also beckoned in by Simmons 39 & 
others there at the time, but unfortunately they either unheeded or did 
not perceive them. Copass is said to be the one that shot poor Wal- 
lace. Lewis escaped unhurt most wonderfully, one ball went through 
his Vest & trousers, another slightly grazed his left arm. Ssgeass an 
Indian received a flesh wound in the neck by the ball meant for Wren. 
A Medicine Man a Skeywhamish is the one killed, and a Snoqualmie 
wounded in the shoulder. 

We do not suppose that the War party came here with the purpose 
of attacking us, but think they had some other object in view besides 
the affair with Lahalet, it was probably their design to kick up a row 
with the fort Indians and then kidnap as many of the women & Chil- 
dren as they could catch, and one circumstance also proves that they 
thought lightly of quarreling with the whites. When the tobacco was 
handed out to them, Qullawowt asked Wren, if it was not poisoned, 
and none of the Indians would smoke until Wren had previously smoked 
& chewed the tobacco in their presence. A good many yarns are told 
of them by the Indians here, what they were saying & going to do, but 
it will be to no purpose to mention any here, being only Indian stories 
more lies than truth. The Snoqualmich & Skeywhamish are the terror 
of all the tribes South of the Soquamish, and the tribes of the sound 
would rejoice to see the above chastized by the Whites, and would 
nearly assist if required. We sincerely hope they will soon get that 
Chastizment they so richly deserve. 40 

Two hours after the affray Bill [page lS]was dispatched to the 
Cowlitz with an Express for Vancouver, & a message from Mr. Sim- 



«• Michael T. Simmons, a settler of 1845, and the possessor of the mill at Tumwater. 

40 Most writers see in Patkanim's attack the beginnings of a general war on the whites. 
Perhaps any settler would have so interpreted the movement. But with Tolniie it was different. 
He had been an almost continual resident since 1833 and never had he witnessed the slightest 
hostility on the part of the Indians toward this establishment. He had had personal encoun- 
ters with rough characters, and certain individuals had at times been ejected physically by 
force of arms from the post; but this was not war. Moreover, the Fort had been for many 
years the scene of tribal brawls, some of which had been rather harmful to its Interests since 
the so-called Fort Indians had oftimes been involved. If one does not imagine too much, the 
affair described here is not without precedent. 



The Nisqually Journal 215 

inons to Gov. Lane. 41 All the plain men came in by order in the even- 
ing. Watch kept 

Wednesday 2nd. Fair. Very little work done. Fort swept clean out. 
Dr. Tolmie with the plain people & others in going out to Steilacoom 
swept round along the Snoqualmich wood in the Am. plain/ 2 but saw 
no signs of the enemy, by all accounts they have gone clean off. Wal- 
lace buried. 

Thursday 3rd. Cloudy but no rain. Work resumed as before. In- 
dians re-encamped outside. 

Friday Ifih. Cloudy, rain towards night. Wren, Kiave, Kalama and 
Squally, roofing Wool Press Shed with three foot Shingles. Cowie 
pining down flooring of lower stories of Bastions. 48 Slocum & Jack in 
swamp making pits for Potatoes on undelved ground. Thibeault & Lowe 
butchering Sheep. Dr. Tolmie accompanied by Linklater on a visit 
to Mr. Chambers. 44 Bill returned from the Cowlitz bringing us two 
small Kegs of Powder, but no lead. 

Saturday 5th. Light showers of rain. Work as yesterday. 
Sunday 6th. Cloudy & overcast all the day. 

Monday 7th. Light summer showers. Wren employed as before. 
Cowie finishing Bastions within, Linklater making two "arm Chests" 
Indian mob in Marsh. [Page 14.] 

Tuesday 8th. Weather & work as before. Letters sent to Vancouver 
by Eilacaca giving a full and correct statement of the unfortunate 
affray of the 1st Inst. 

Wednesday 9th. Cloudy, no change in the work. 

Thursday 10th. Fine. Wren & his gang squared a new lever for wool 
press, the one squared before being too short. Slocum & his Indian 
Mob planting the patch in Tyrrels lake with 9 l / 2 bus. Potatoes. Cowie 
& Linklater furnishing Bastions inside setting up stands for Muske- 
toons &c. 



41 Governor Joseph Lane was appointed to his office by President Polk and arrived at Ore- 
gon City on March 2, 1849. In April he proceeded to The Dalles, where he distributed some 
$200 worth of presents to the Indians and also brought about a peace between the Yakima and 
the Walla Walla, then engaged in tribal warfare. With the receipt of Mr. Simmon's letter he 
concluded to visit the Sound, and accordingly marched to Tumwater in company with Lieu- 
tenant G. W. Hawk'ns and five of the eight men, which constituted the entire United States 
force in the country. When he reached Mr. Simmon's at New Market he received the Intel- 
ligence that Major Hathaway with two companies of the First Artillery had arrived at 
Vancouver on the transport Massachuetts on May 7. 

4= The American Plain, situated just north of the present fort, and on the right bank of 
the Sequalitchew Creek. It is the "Mission Plain" of Wilkes, and undoubtedly took Its name 
from the circumstance that it had been occupied by the Americans Richmond, Leslie, and 
{Vinson. 

w The new fort had not been equipped with defenses as was the old, although it was rather 
throughly fenced in, more as a protection against theft than aggression. 

" Mr. Thomas M. Chambers, a settler of 1847, living on Chambers Prairie, southeast of 
the present city of Olympia. 



216 Victor J. Farrar 

Friday 11th. Weather as before. Work mostly as before 40 Sheep 
butchered. Eilacaca returned from Cowlitz, bringing powder and 
lead, brought from Vancouver. 

Saturday 12th. Mr. Ross started for Cowlitz to meet C F Douglass 45 
and accompany him thence to this place. Wool Press finished and 
tried. 

Sunday ISth. Dominique Farron from Cowlitz arrived with 
Monday Hth. Fine. Wren arranging bastion roofs. Keva and Ka- 
lama wedging and sawing off ends of picket pins — all employed about 
the establishment owing to the report that a large party of Scad jets 
and Snoqualmies were at the beach and were to be up in course of the 
day to talk about peacemaking. In the afternoon Snietlam the Scad jet 
chief came to exculpate himself i e make the best excuse possible for 
having taken a gun and axe from our late lettercarrier to Victoria. 
Huptiekynum a Snoqualimie man [page 15] of note, but not here on 
the 1st Inst, came to express his regret at the foolish conduct of the 
creators of the disturbance of the 1st and his resolution to have no part 
or lot with the guilty Snoqualimies. Had a note from Mr. Simmons of 
Newmarket for a supply of ammunition which was sent. Mr. S. appears 
to have been giving credence to the Indian rumors of invasion on the 
part of the Snoqualimies. 

Tuesday 15th. Forenoon cloudy. Hail and rain P. M. Evg clear & 
cool. Traded some beaver from the Snoqualimie brothers Huptekynum 
and Qushqushum, all hands nearly employed during the forenoon in 
catching and yoking wild oxen. 

Wednesday 16th. Mg foggy. Sunshine. Mr. Wm. MacNeill 46 ar- 
rived from Victoria with an Indian crew of eight bearing letters for the 
Bd. of Management announcing the arrival in Squimault Bay of H. M. 
S. "Inconstant" 36, Captain Shepherd. 47 Sent in different directions 
for a courier but did not obtain one. Wren making a four posted bed- 
stead for Mr. Douglas's use Keva, with an Indian since Monday, 
wedging picket pins. Gowie making gates for Sheep parks. 
Thursday 17th. Sunshine. Rode to Yelm Ferry 48 accompanied by Wm. 
Macneill and dispatched an Indian from thence with the letters for 



45 Chief Factor James Douglas, who In 1840 succeeded McLoughlin at Vancouver. 

'" Captain William McNeill. He was a native of Boston and was on the Coast trading on 
his own account at least as early as 1826. His opposition had been met by McLoughlin by the 
purchase of his ship the brig Llama and his appointment to the position of her commander. 
Thereafter he commanded several other ships and held other positions. McNeill Island, oppo- 
site the Fort, is named for him. 

" One of the five vessels ordered to Fort Victoria from the South Seas to guard the British 
interests pending the settlement of the Oregon Question in 1846, of which the other four were : 
The Cormorant, Captain Gordon; the Fisgard, Captain Duntze; the Constance, Captain Court- 
ney; and the Pandora, Captain Wood. 

48 Yelm, a farmsite and herdsman's station maintained by the Company at the present site 
of Yelm in Thurston County. 



The Nisqually Journal 217 

Vancouver. Edgar shearer and others assisting Sheep Macleod at the 
Fort and got the old Wedder band washed. Got some hints from an 
American Glasgow 49 about further improvements. 
Friday 18th. Sunshine. Some threatenings of rain Wren finished 
bedsteads and afterwards putting a finishing touch to roof of Bastion. 
Cowie making a strong swing gate for ox park. [Page 16.] In the 
afternoon Wren assisted by Keva, Squally and Kalama preparing wood 
for improvements on Wool Press. Reed, a letter 50 fro Govr. Lane 
dated Newmarket [17th] May '49 requesting me particularly not to 
sell powder & ball to the hostile. Indians, also a letter addressed to the 
principal Indian chiefs, which the Governor requested me to read to 
them, and I accordingly assembled all the natives about the Establish- 
ment and translated the letter to them in presence of Mr. Macalister 51 
Govr. Lane states in his letter that he had intended visiting Ft. Nis- 
qually but had abandoned the intention on learning that the American 
War Steamer "Massachusets" 52 was at Vancouver whither he himself 
was immediately to proceed. 150 artillerymen have arrived in the 
Steamer, and 600 Dragoons are en route overland, and may be expected 
in August. 53 

Saturday 19th. Cloudy Partial Sunshine. Wren rather puzzled at 
press work, shall send for Glasgow tomorrow. Planted yesterday and 
to day 14 bushels potatoes in swamp land lately broken up. Cowie 
finished gate. Three flocks of sheep washed. 

Sunday 20th, Cloudy, a Steady S W breeze a shower of hail & rain. 
Several of the garden and agricultural seeds lately received from Eng- 
land are coming up. 

Monday 21st. Cloudy Partial Sunshine. Two showers of hail and 
rain and some peals of thunder. Wren and Kalama splitting Oak and 
P. M. making a table. Cowie making another swing Gate. Keva 



" Thomas M. Glasgow, a settler of 1847. In 1848 he built a cabin on what is now Bbey 
Prairie, Whidbey Island, and lived there with the daughter of an Indian chief until driven 
away by demonstrations of hostility in the summer of that year. In the light of his past ex- 
perience he undoubtedly influenced Mr. Simmons to send the note to Governor Lane. 

» "New Market, May 17, 1849. Sir: I have just learned by express that two companies 
of artillery have arrived at Vancouver by the United States steamer Massachnetts. It was my 
intention to visit you at the fort, but owing to this fact I have deemed it necessary to return 
without delay. I have, therefore, to make the particular request of you not to furnish the 
Indians with ammunition, and to ask of you the favor to cause the hostile tribes who have 
committed the outrage to be informed that any repetition of the like conduct will be visited 
promptly with their complete destruction ; that our force, which will be immediately increased, 
is at this time amply sufficient for an immediate expedition against them; and that the 
moment I am informed that any injury has been committed by them upon our people, they will 
be visited by sudden and severe chastisement. By making this communication you will greatly 
oblige."— Lane to Tolmie, Sen. Ex. Doe., 31 Cong., 2nd Ses., Doc. 1, B, Ser. No. 587, p. 157. 

« James McAllister, a settler of 1845, one of the Simmons party, now settled in the vicin- 
ity of Tumwater, but who later took a claim on Medicine of McAllister Creek, just south of the 
of Tumwater, but who later took a claim on Medicine or McAllister Creek, just south of the 
Nisqually. . 

52 For a fuller account of the arrival of these troops see the reference mentioned in loot 
note 50. ... „ 

«• An account of the overland march of Federal troops to Fort Vancouver is given in la., 
Doc. 1, pp. 123, 261-266. 



218 Victor J. Farrar 

finished wedging picket pins. Sheepshearing commenced. Shears 
scarce and fleeces light. Revd. Fathers Ricard 54 and Remppit 55 arrived 
today, the former with the view of seeing Mr. Douglas and the latter 
to go on a professional visit to Victoria by request of Mr. D. 

Tuesday 22nd. Fine. The American Glasgow having arrived after 
breakfast Wren resumed work at the Press and by evening had it in 
working trim and commenced packing a bale of Fur [page 17] towards 
evening. Cowie at gate part of the day. Commenced ploughing lake 
adjoining Race course plain. 

Wednesday 28rd. Fine. Sheepwashing and shearing going on. Wren 
and two islanders 56 superintended by Glasgow, making a Windlass for 
raising inner extremity of Wool Press lever. The press with this fur- 
ther improvement tried in the evening and found to answer well. 
Thursday 2Jfth. Cloudy light showers. Two bales of Wool pressed 
today six hands only employed exclusive of two sowing bales. The new 
press will thus be worked more economically and more safely than the 
old, and also somewhat more expeditiously. Wren at table. Cowei at 
Gate treading out wheat. Mr. D. Chambers 57 arrived in the evening. 
Friday 25th. A refreshing shower at sunrise. Wren and Thibeault 
butchered three oxen. About 2 P. M. Mr. C. F. Douglas arrived on 
horseback accompanied by his three eldest daughters and followed in 
the course of the afternoon by five waggons containing cases of gold 
dust, bales of Furs and Mr. Ds private property. Mrs. Douglas and 
the two younger children arrived in the last waggon. Messrs. Mac- 
arthur 58 and W. Ross 59 also arrived. 

Saturday 26th. Fine. Cowlitz men with their waggons started on 
their return. Sent 58 bushels Wheat by them to Tinalquot for the 
transport of which they received 20 cents per bushel. About forty dol- 
lars cash sales made to the Cowlitz men. Wren at table and afterwards 
arranging wood for frame of slaughter house. 
Sunday 27th. Fine. 

Monday 28th. Fine. Schooner Cadboro arrived about Nine A. M. and 
by evening had discharged her cargo. [Page 18.] 

Tuesday 29th. Fine. Wren on board the Cadboro fitting up the hold 
for the reception of live stock. Kalama & Keva pressing wool. An 



•* Rev. Pascal Ricard, who, on June 14, 1848, had established St. Joseph's Mission on the 
site of the present Priest Point, Buck! Inlet, near Olympia. 

55 Identity not ascertained. 

M Natives of the Sandwich or Hawaiian Islands Called Kanakas. 

•' Mr. David Chambers, son of Mr. Thomas M. Chambers, a settler of 1847, on a small 
prairie near the present city of Olympia. 

88 Identity not ascertained. 

50 Mr. Walter Ross, clerk at Nisqually. 



The Nisqually Journal 219 

American Bull brought by Mr. Douglas from Ford's 60 escaped from the 
enclosure and has probably returned towards his former favorites. 
Wednesday 30th. Fine. Sheepwashing and other operations con- 
nected with the wool-harvest going on satisfactorily. T. Linklater 
aided by some Indians commenced salting and cleaning the Hides. 
Fathers Ricard and Lempfrit arrived also Mr. Simmons and his 
brother. 61 Cowie returning from Tinalquot where he had been making 
a Wheat Bin found the lost Bull and drove him in. 
Thursday Slst. Fine. All hands employed about the wool in one way 
or other. Wren and the Sandwich Islander Kahili ordered for Victoria. 
A quantity of grass cut in the salt marsh for the live stock to be shipped. 

June, 1849 
Friday 1st. Cloudy. Partly Sunshine. The live stock having been 
shipped in the morning, Mr. Douglas and family accompanied by Mr. 
Macarther and Father Lemfrit embarked after an early dinner, and 
the schooner dropped down with the tide in the afternoon. Jacob Lowe 
butcherd two cattle in the evening. 

Saturday 2nd. Cloudy. Clear P. M. Work as on Thursday Lowe 
looking after an ox that had escaped with the yoke. 
Sunday 3rd. Fine. [Page 19.] 

Monday £th. Cloudy & windy. Wren employed as last week. Cowie 
& Kalama sick. 

Tuesday 5th. Weather as yesterday. Low[e] castrating young 
horses. Keve grinding axes. Cowie variously. Potatoe planting su- 
perintended by Jack. The rest as before. 

Wednesday 6th. Weather cloudy, work as before. Killed two head 
Cattle for rations. 

Thursday 7th. Weather as before, no sheep-shearing today, no band 
dry enough. All the spare Indian mob planting & weeding potatoes. 
Keva & Kalama squaring flooring for new slaughter house. Wool 
pressing going on well. Patakynum & a party of Snoqualmies re- 
ported to be at Steilacoom. 

Friday 8th. Refreshing showers of rain. Wool pressing stopped. 
The rest of the hands as yesterday. A party of women, wives of the 
Snoqualmies at Steilacoom, came and traded a good many chevl. skins 
& three or four Beavers. The S', having arrived in the course of the 
day at Kittson's Island, Patakynum being sent for came alone, to whom 
the Doctor delivered Govr. Lanes message; he made a good many 
professions of friendship, and said that his people were very sorry 



M Sidney S. Ford, a settler of 1846, at the confluence of the Skookumchnck and the Che- 
htllB, near the present town of Centralia, Lewis County. 

61 Michael T. Simmons and his brother, Andrew J. Simmons, who had located a claim on 
the Cowlitz. 



220 Victor J. Farrar 

for what they had done, & hoped that the whites would not harm 

them, but Dr. T. made answer that it was not for him, but for the 

Govr. to arrange all affairs and told them to be ready to come when he 

sent for them. 62 [Page 20.] 

Friday 9th. es Showery. Work as before. 

Sunday 10th. Fine & clear all the day. 

Monday 11th. Sunshine, the sheep not being dry enough to clip, all 

the mob, under McLeod planting Potatoes in lazy beds. 84 Shearer 

assisting at Wool Press. Cowie Keva & Kalama squaring wood for 

flooring for new slaughter-house. 

Tuesday 12th. Fine. Sheep shearing & washing resumed a band of 

the best ewes clipped, amongst the fleeces some weighed from 4 to 6 

lbs. chiefly meringo Wool will press from 3 to 400 fleeces in a day 6 

hands in all. Kalama again sick off duty. Nedpalu returned to duty. 

Lowe killed 8 Beeves, brought home by two ox tumbrils. 

Wednesday 18th. Cloudy towards evening. Work as yesterday. 

Amongst the ewes clipped to day chiefly X bred 65 Cheviot and Leicester 

their fleeces averaged from 5 to 6 lbs. Some salt 66 Indians traded 

a few Skins, &c. Two of sheepwashers very ill of dystery. 67 

Thursday 14th. Incessant rain. Indian mob under Slocum. Shearer 

& Jack, weeding garden, hoeing potatoes, &c. Olen hauling flooring 

for slaughter house. Some Snoqualmie arrive for trade, they are in 

some numbers. [Page 21.] 

Friday 15th. Showery. Hands employed as yesterday. Snoqualmies 

traded a good [ ] Chevl. Skins. Patayknum the chief visited 

the Fort. Bush brought an American Bull of three years old, for 

which he received Five old Ewes [with] their lambs and Bush bought 

5 others [with] their lambs, 4 at $5 & 1 at $6 each. 

Saturday 16th. Showery all the day. Work as before. 

Sunday 17th. Fair. Schooner Cadboro, reported to be in sight, sent a 

canoe off to her for the dispatches, the Chartered ship, Harpooner 6 " 



62 Across the page in the Journal in Dr. Tolmie's handwriting is written the following : 
"Patakynum was informed that if on being called npon by Govr. Lane he did not bring the 
guilty Indians before the Govr. to answer for their misdeeds himself and the whole tribe of 
Snoqualmies would be held responsible and looked upon as participators in the crime of Copass 
and the others. — W. F. T." 

63 An error. Saturday. 

84 A bed in which potatoes are grown, made by placing the seed on the top of the row and 
covering them with earth obtained from between the rows. 
06 Crossbred. 
" The Indians who dwelt on Puget Sound, or salt water. 

67 Dysentery, but probably enteritis. 

68 The first settlement under the crown grant on Vancouver Island was made by W. Col- 
quhoun Grant, a former captain in the Scottish Guards, who fitted out a small colony at his 
own expense and shipped them via the chartered ship Harpooner to Soke Harbor. Here the 
settlers, eight in number, tilled the soil under the Captain's direction until 1851, when he 
became tired of his project and leased to a number of the men. But they, deprived of their 
leader, soon fell out, whereupon Grant, to save his property sold and left the country. 



The Nisqually Journal 221 

Capt. Morris, had arrived with 38 passengers, Miners & Settlers & a 
few mechanics. 

Monday 18th. Fair clipped a band of ewes. At noon, Cadboro, an- 
chored at the ground. She has a few things for us, and 203 bushels 
of wheat to be ground into flour at Simmon's Mill for Victoria. Capt. 
Sangster indisposed. 

Tuesday 19th. Thick mist in the morning cloudy all the day. No 
sheep work. Cadhoro disccharged in the afternoon she left for New- 
market where she will take in lumber & get the wheat ground. The 
Spare mob under McLeod hoeing potatoes, pressed three Bales Wool 
450 fleeces. In the evening Mr. Lewis, the Amern. & a Col. Taylor 68 
& Mr. Wallace, 70 brother of the one shot, arrived. [Page 22.] 
Wednesday 20th. — Fair. Cowie with two Indians getting filling wood 
for New Slaughterhouse. After breakfast Colonel Taylor and party 
started for Newmarket in quest of Mr. Simmons whom they had ex- 
pected to have found there. Mr. Ross sent to Newmarket to see the 
lumber measured and shipped, the grain ground and flour shipped, 
and likewise to assist in endeavoring to apprehend any of the seamen 
who may desert. 71 Packet for Cadbo. 72 ford, to Vancr. 
Thursday 21st. Fine. Work as yesterday. Wheat coming in ear and 
pease blossoming, a few blossoms appearing on potatoes. 
Friday 22nd. Fine. Oxen hauling Cowie's filling pieces out into the 
plains where they are being barked and cut in lengths. 
Saturday 28. Fine. Sultry. Cowie finished sawing and barking 
filling pieces. In the afternoon Mr. T. M. Chambers arrived with the 
view of assisting in the valuation of the buildings stock & on the farm 
lately occupied by the deceased I. T. Heath. 73 

Sunday 24- Fine. Rode out to Steilacoom along with Mr. Cham- 
bers. 

Monday 25th. Cloudy Cowie with his indians getting rafters for 
slaughter house. Kalama still sick. Wool packing going on. Mr. 
D. Chambers arrived. 

Tuesday 26th. Cloudy Partial Sunshine. Showery P. M.The Messrs. 
Chambers left after breakfast. Work as yesterday. Sheepshearing 
finish. [Page 23.] 

Wednesday 27th. Showery. Sheepwashers and shearer mostly paid 
off. McLeod and Shearer took their departure for the plains. 



« 8 Probably Colonel James Taylor, comptroller of the mint for the Provisional Government 
of Oregon, and promoter. He is possibly on a visit to Mr. Simmons with a view to purchas- 
ing the mill at Tunwater. 

70 Possibly Mr. William Wallace. 

71 The wholesale desertions were brought about by the discovery of gold in California. 

72 This much abbreviated line may be read : Packet for Cadboro forwarded to Vancouver. 
7S A company settler at Steilacoom. Mr. T. M. Chambers and Dr. Tolmle were the 

executors. 



222 Victor J. Farrar 

Thursday 28th. Sunshine Evg. showery. Cowie with Indians pre- 
paring cedar blocks for slaughterhouse. The engaged gang of In- 
dians hoeing and weeding potatoes in garden. Ealama repairing truck 
waggon. 

Friday 29th. Showery. Work as yesterday. Rode out to Muck and 
Tilthlow 71 . Crops look well at both places. Kalama off on leave to 
look for his wife. 
Saturday 80th. Showery Sunshine. Work as yesterday. 

July, 1849 
Sunday 1st. Cool. Showery. Loud Thunder claps. 
Monday 2nd. Clear. Sunshine. Cowie finished preparing block. 
Kalama finished truck wagon which he has nearly made anew. A 
gang of Indians went to Muck and another to Sasluk 75 to weed potatoes. 
Slugmas [ ] Tuesday last earthing up potatoes with one horse 

plough at Muck, he to day commenced at McLeods. Cadboro arrived 
from the Falls 76 in the afternoon and Mr. Ross by land in the evening. 
Tuesday 3rd. Fine & sultry. Kalama & Keave repairing Carts &c. 
Cowie as before. First 5 or 6 bales of wool is being repressed. In- 
dian gang hoeing potatoes at Tyrrells lake. The frost pretty severe 
last night on our potatoes. Schooner Cadboro off this morning, she 
took no live sheep for Victoria. [Page 24.] 

Wednesday ^th. Cloudy with light drops of rain in the afternoon. 
Soholah returned from Vancouver with letters, those for Mr. Douglas 
were immediately dispatched in a canoe to endeavor to overhaul the 
Schooner. 

Thursday 6th. Showery. Kiave and Kalama felling down trees near 
the intended slaughterhouse. Cowie & Kahannui repairing & making 
hand barrows, Linklater weighing wool, Slocum attending his wife, 
who [by] all appearances will not be much longer in this world. A 
party of Indians sent out to McLeod's to work about the potatoes 
the rest of the remaining gang weeding in garden. Dr. Tolmie on a 
visit to the Tinalquot. The party sent after the Schooner returned 
having fallen in with her at the Soquamish village. 77 Crops looking 
well, fine prospects of an abundant harvest. 

Friday 6th. Weather as before. Work much as before. Keave sick 
off duty. Lowe & Beinston assisted by some of the plain people 
assayed to drive in a band of Cows, but were unsuccessfull. 
Saturday 7th. Light showers till evening, when it commenced rain- 
ing in good earnest. No change in the work. Dr. Tolmie returned. 



74 A farmsite and herdsman's station. 

75 A farmsite and herdsman's station. 
79 At Tnmwater. 

" At site of Port Madison. Chief Seattle lived here. 



The Nisqually Journal 228 

The missing Sinahomish found murdered, now known by his partner 
Joe, for some trifling quarrel & Joe confesses that he cut his throat 
when asleep during the heat of the day. [Page 25.] 
Sunday 8th. Cloudy, with a strong S.W. Breeze. 
Monday 9th. Strong occasional showers of rain. Cowie & Kalama 
sorting shingles preparatory to covering the big store. Slocum & a 
party of Indians clearing water way of Stream 78 where the new 
Slaughterhouse is to be built. Cush with the women weeding & hoe- 
ing potatoes. Kahannui sent off with two Indians to Tinalquot to 
clear roads to the different watering places, for the sheep. 
Tuesday 10th. Weather as yesterday. Slocum & Linklater with four 
Indians baling up Loose shingles at the beach. The other hands as 
before. Keave returned to duty. 

Wednesday 11th. — Fine sunshiny weather, work as before. Keave 
again sick off duty. Mr. Chambers arrived to settle the affairs of the 
deceased I. T. Heath. 

Thursday 12. Sultry. Kalama & Cowie commenced roofing the store 
3 foot shingles. Dr. Tolmie accompanied by Mr. Chambers rode out 
to Mr. Heath's to value his stock. 

Friday 18th. Weather very close and sultry. Work as before. Link- 
later and Slocum finished baling Shingles. Keave returned to duty. 
[Page 26.] 

Saturday 14-th. Weather as before. Link, with a gang dusting & 
beating Bullock & Cow Hides. Chambers off in the evening. 
Sunday 15th. . . Sultry. 

Monday 16th. Weather as before. Cowie, Kalama & Keave engaged 
as before, one side of the roof finished. Cush and most of the Indian 
Mob sent out to Yanalacows park at the upper end of Muck to hoe 
potatoes. Cattle counting commenced, superintended by the Doctor. 
Tuesday 17th. Sultry. Work as before. Mr. C. T. Todd 79 arrived 
from Victoria. 

Wednesday 18th. Fresh breezes from the Northward. Mr. Todd left 
for the Cowlitz accompanied by Dr. Tolmie. 

Thursday 19. Sultry. No change in the work. Some Snoqualmies 80 
trading. 

Friday 20th. Cloudy first part of the day, balance clear. Cowie and 
his assistants repairing barn roofs &c. Linklater & his gang cleaning 



' 8 The Sequalltchew Creek. 

™ A servant. 

80 Trade with the Snoqualmies increased materially after the affair at the Port. This 
may be explained on the ground that the natives were keenly interested in the outcome of the 
affair, and adopted this method of keeping closely in touch with events. 



224 Victor J. Farrar 

out barns. Indian mob sweeping Fort. J. Ross 81 returned from 
Vancouver. [Page 27.] 

Sunday 22nd. Rain first part of the day fine the balance. Dr. Tol- 
mie returned from Cowlitz. 

Monday 28rd. Fine. Cowie accompanied by myself 82 looked out 
some cedar trees for Shingles, some were found within half a mile of 
the Steilacoom river 83 in a convenient place. Kalama & Squally re- 
pairing rakes &c. Steilacoom and the spare hands cleaning out barns 
& sheds. Women weeding potatoes & thinning turnips. 
Tuesday 24th. Weather cool. Cowie, Kalama & five Indians sent to 
cut & raft home some cedar for making shingles. Keavehaccow by 
permission left for Fort Vancouver to see his friends, before leaving 
he made an engagement for a further term of two years from 1st 
Novr. '49 wages £17 per annum. 

Wednesday 25th. Sultry. An auction took place today, of the re- 
maining effects of the deceased I. T. Heath, which went off at very 
good prices, little work done. 

Thursday 26th. Sultry. Smoky from fires 8 * in the neighborhood. 
Friday 27th. Cloudy; light rain towards evening. Dr. Tolmie ac- 
companied by Mr. Chambers gone on a visit to Newmarket; a sad 
accident happened to J. Ross out at his place by the falling of a 
piece of timber whilst setting up a corn shed, he got his left leg 
broken, a little above the ankle. [Page 28.] 

Saturday 28th. First part of the day cloudy & windy. Towards 
evening clear & fine. Work as before. A good gang of Sinahomish 
& Skeywhamish about traded a few deer skins and provisions from 
them. Slocum's wife died last Wednesday. 

Sunday 29th. Fine clear weather. Dr. Tolmie returned from his 
trip. 

Monday 80th. Cloudy. Linklater & Steilacoom repairing roof of 
Pigsty. Slocum and 6 Indians assisted at J. Ross' to raise a corn shed. 
Cush & his gang of women doing various jobs. 

Tuesday 81st. Signs of rain first part of the day, but clearer by noon. 
Slocum and all the Indian mob breaking up new land in swamps. 

August, 1849 

Wednesday 1st. — Sultry & rain. Slocum mowing grass in meadow, 
some women 35 also with sickles. Linklater with three hands & cleared 



81 Mr. John Boss, a servant. 

02 Mr. Walter Boss, clerk, who with Dr. Tolmie keeps the Journal. 

83 Chambers Creek at Steilacoom, set down as Chudley River by Insklp on Chart 1947, 
1846. 

84 Forest fires. 

88 Indian women. 



The Nisqually Journal 225 

a spot down the Sequalitch Stream of brush wood & felling some 

trees as the commencement of a site for a saw mill. 

Thursday 2nd. Weather as yesterday. Lowe, Slocum and Beinston 

commenced cradling oats. Indians variously employed. Cowie and 

party arrived in the evening with a raft of Shingles & cedar blocks. 

[Page29.] 

Friday Srd. Weather as before, 4 Cradles cutting down oats. Mr. 
C. T. Todd returned from Vancouver, he is accompanied by Capt. 
Grant, 86 one of the Settlers for Fort Vancouver's Island. 
Saturday 4th. Cowie, Kalama, Squally and David repairing Carts, 
cradles &c, the rest as before. 
Sunday 5th. Weather very sultry. 

Monday 6th. Two Canoes, one with Mr. Todd for Fort Langley, and 
the other for Victoria with Capt. Grant left this morning. Kalama, 
Keave, Slocum, Lowe, Linklater & Beinston cradling oats. A large 
gang of about 60 Indians engaged for harvest. 

Tuesday 7th. Sultry. Cowie added to the number of Cradlers. A 
gang of Indians under Steilacoom pulling pease, the rest binding oats. 
Mr. Thornton 87 Sub-Indian agent arrived for the purpose [of] dis- 
tributing some presents to the various Indian chiefs of the sound. 
Wednesday 8th. No change in the weather. Work as before. 
Thursday 9th. Weather & work as before. 

Friday 10th. Harvest going on as well as might be expected. Oats 
finished. 

Saturday 11th. Fine. The wheat not being perfectly ready for cut- 
ting, the mob partly sweeping out the fort, and the rest with Slocum 
breaking up land in swamp, then gave leave to the greater part of 
the Indian mob, until such time as the wheat would be ripe, those of 
the mob cutting patches amongst the wheat that is ripe. Cowie, Bas- 
tien & the other hands set to work about new slaughterhouse. 
[Page 30.] 

Sunday 12th. Sultry. 

Monday 18th. Smoky. Cowie resumed work as on Saturday. Mob 
breaking up land in swamp. McLeod & assistants in bathing lambs 
in Tobacco water. 

Tuesday Hth. Weather as before. No change in the work. 
Wednesday 15th. Sultry. Strong breezes of wind towards evening. 
All the Indian mob commenced cutting wheat with sickles. Cowie & 



M See ante, note 68. 
■* J. Quimi Thornton. 



226 Victor J. Farrar 

party continueing work on Slaughter house, two horse. carts & a ox 
waggon carting in oats. Beinston stowing it. 

Thursday 16. Weather. Slagomas returned from Victoria reported 
the Schooner to be at Port Orchard. 
Friday 17th. Weather and work as before. [Page 31.] 
Saturday 18. Sultry. Schooner Cadboro arrived, bringing a good 
supply of goods for us, and also the Servants Orders. 
Sunday 19th. Sultry. Mr. Tod with his family arrived from F. 
River. 88 

Monday 20th. Cowie and party at work on slaughterhouse. Link- 
later with Indians discharging schooner. Mr. Ross off to Newmarket 
to see to the measurement of a cargo of Lumber for the Schooner 
Cadboro. 

Tuesday 21st. Indians summoned by Judge Thornton Subindian 
Agent, beginning to arrive. In the afternoon he addressed representa- 
tions of the Scad jet, Sinahomish, Soquamish, Stichasamish and Nis- 
qually Tribes, 89 and made presents to the chiefs and principal men. 
Two blankets 3pt. 90 each to three of the former, 1 Blkt. Spt. to one 
and a fm. 91 baize ea. to about 20 of the latter. 

Wednesday 22nd. Smoky. Many more Indians arriving, Klalums, 
Skaywhamish, and others, and to these the Sub Indian Agents made 
presents on rather a more moderate scale than those of yesterday, the 
funds placed at his disposal by Govr. Lane ($400) not admitting of 
greater liberality. Schooner Cadboro off for Newmarket in the morn- 
ing, she having been beached yesterday and repaired in her false keel. 
Thursday 28rd. Work much as on Monday. Wheatreapers advancing 
slowly. In the afternoon Major Hathaway of the U. S. Artillery 
arrived from Vancouver accompanied by Mr. Lattie formerly of the 
H. B. Co.'s marine. Major Hathaway 92 intends proceeding to survey 
some of the river estuaries and harbours along the continental shore 
of Puget Sound. About dusk Captain Hill 93 of the U. S. Artillery 
accompanied by several of the officers of his company arrived from 
the chartered barque Harpooner which anchored this evening in the 
roadstead. [Page 32.] 



88 Eraser River. 

80 These tribes of Sallsh, with their chief places of residence, were In 1849 as follows : 
Skagit, on Whidbey Island the Skagit Hirer ; Snohomish, on the Snohomish Elver ; Suquamlsh, 
at Port Madison, and, Including the Dnwamish, at Elliott Bay; Stechass at Newmarket and 
Buddlnlet ; Nisqually, on the Nlsqually Elver and In the vicinity of the Fort. 

80 Three point, a grade of blanket, so called because three lines were woven into the edge, 
which determined its width and value. 

81 Fathom. 

88 Commander of the 11th Military District, with headquarters then at Oregon City. 
88 Captain Bennett H. Hill, commanding officer at Steilacoom. 



The Nisqually Journal 227 

Thursday 2Srd. Continued. Captain Morice of the Harpooner also 
up and the party remained till a late hour. 

Friday 24-th. Smoky. Rode 94 to Steilacoom this morning in company 
with Major Hathaway, and Captain Hill in order that they might 
judge for themselves as to whether Steilacoom, or Sequallitchew 96 
would form the best winter quarters for the troops. Steilacoom re- 
ceived the preference on account of the number of buildings already 
erected there. On our return, Major Hathaway accompanied by Mr. 
Lattie went on board the Harpooner, and in the afternoon she dropped 
down towards Steilacoom. Snietlam the Scad jet chief engaged to 
convoy Major Hathaway on his exploring trip, the party to start from 
on board the Harpooner tomorrow morning. Mr. Thornton's account 
arranged, preparatory to his starting for Cowlitz tomorrow morning. 
Captain Morice of the Harpooner accompanied Mr. Thornton, he 
being accused of having smuggled goods and sold liquor to Indians, 
while in the Columbia River. 

Saturday 25th. Smokey. Mr. Thornton signed an account today of 
421 dollars 26 cents for Indian Presents and one of 20 Dollars for 
Traveling Expenses, both against Govr. Lane, as Indian Agent. I 
afterwards signed both accounts as correct, and forwarded them by 
Mr. Thornton under cover to Mr. C. Factor Ogden. 98 Messrs. Thorn- 
ton and Morice started in the afternoon. Mr. Tod and I 97 rode out to 
Steilacoom to see how the Officers were getting on and whether they 
required any assistance. 

Sunday 26th. Smokey. Had a visit from Mr. Wright chief officer of 
the Harpooner. In the forenoon arrived from Victoria Mr. R. Fin- 
layson accompanied by Mr. Mowatt chief officer of the "Mary Dare" 
and Mr. Joseph Mackay 98 of Victoria with some engaged men and a 
number of Indians all in persuit of 8 seamen and one Canadian 
(Champagne) runaways from the Steamer Beaver and Mary Dare. 
[Page 33.] Mr. Finlayson and companions started in the afternoon 
with fresh crews of Indians for Newmarket. Mr. Ross who had just 
arrived, returning thither on horseback accompanied by Mr. Mowatt. 



M Dr. Tolmie. 

»8 The Military believed that the Hudson's Bay and Puget Sound Agricultural Companies 
would shortly remove and the site be given over to the army. The small buildings used by the 
Company at Mr. Heath's hardly warranted the expense in fixing over, and most of the quar- 
ters were built outright in the course of a few days. In the exploration tour down the Sound 
the site held most in favor was Dungeness, where Major Hathaway thought a fort might be 
built which would serve the Americans as Fort Victoria served the British. 

•• Chief Factor Peter Skene Ogden, now at Fort Vancouver. 

•' Dr. Tolmie. 

88 Chief Factor Joseph William McKay, recently of Fort Simpson, soon to become famous 
because of his discovery of coal at Nanaimo. 



228 Victor J. Farrar 

Monday 27th. Still Smokey. News was sent from Mr. John Ross 
that four men supposed to be white men were seen prowling about his 
place. Mr. Finlayson, accompanied by Messrs. Mowatt & Mackay & 
myself" started off on horseback in search, but with no better success 
than before. 

Wednesday 29th. Still Smoky, caused by a large fire in the wood 
between Steilacoom and Kitson's 100 Island. Mr. Finlayson & party 
left for Victoria. Cowie & gang employed about new slaughter house, 
Slocum at the head of Indians gleaning wheat fields two horses carting 
in oats & wheat. 

Thursday 30th. Work as yesterday. News having heard of the run- 
aways being at Steilacoom Dr. Tolmie accompanied by Mr. Tod started 
off in a canoe with a crew of Indians to see them, and try by reasoning 
to persuade them to return to their duty, the Doctor returned later, 
saw some trace of them, but no men. Major Hathaway & Mr. Lattie 
returned from their trip down the sound not much satisfied as to 
capability of finding a fitting site for a dock yard or a town. 101 [Page 
84.] 

Friday Slst. Smoke not so dense, finished gleaning. Cowie & his 
gang employed as before. 

September, 1849 

Saturday 1st. Mornings very cool, frosty rather in the evenings on 

the potatoes & vegetables. All the grain safely housed. Harvesting 

gang after sweeping off the fort were paid off. News of the Snoqual- 

mies coming and making a settlement with the Bostons 102 for the affair 

of the 1st May last. 

Sunday 2nd. Weather as yesterday, some Snowqualmies (Hatikynum) 

arrived they say that Patykynum & his gang will be here in a day 

or two. 

Monday 3rd. Cowie, Slocum, & the others repairing flooring of new 

barn. Lowe & Beinston killed an ox for beef for the Soldiers. A 

large gang of Sinahomish traded a quantity of mats, Salmon &c. Paty- 

num arrived with his gang, Sending 80 3pt Blankets to Steilacoom 

to used as circumstances may require, at the time of the settlement 

for the Snoqualmie affair. 

Tuesday J/ih. Fine. Smoke pretty near cleared off. Cowie, Keave & 



98 Mr. Walter Ross. 
""> Ketron Island. 
ioi g ee ante, note 95. 

i° J Boston, a Chinook Jargon term applied to Americans because Americans first came from 
Boston. The English were called In the same tongue King George men. 



The Nisqually Journal 229 

Slocum sick off duty, with severe colds, Kalama & Squally planeing 
boards for lining Mr. Forrests room. A good trade done with the 
Snowqualmies in the way of Salmon, Baskets & a few skins. [Page 35.] 

Wednesday 5th. Fine. Kalama & Keave lining Mr. Forrests room. 
All our engaged Indians off to Steilacoom to be present at the making 
up of the business with the Snowqualmies, which came off today. Dr. 
Tolmie & Mr. Todd present, it ended in 6 of the worst being seized and 
confined, the names of 6 are "Whyeek" "Qullawout" "Copass" "Taha- 
wai" "Tatam & [ ] 103 all of the Snowqualmich. 80 Blankets were 

paid out to the different chiefs of the tribe. 

Thursday 6th. Weather still continues smoky. Kalama & Kiave 
employed as yesterday. Beinston, Steilacoom, Bill and 1 or 2 others 
thrashing wheat with flails. Kahannui sent out to Steilacoom with a 
gang of Indians to cut the wheat there. Cowlitz Jack who accom- 
panied Major Hathaway returned from Cowlitz. He reports of having 
seen the Victoria runaways at the "Skokoom Chuck 104 on their way to 
Cowlitz, they were provided with horses. 

Friday 7th. Sultry. Kalama & Kiave and David repairing a broken 
horse cart, the rest as before. 

Saturday 8th. Cloudy most part of the day. Work much as before. 
Beinston cleaned his two days thrashing. Eight bushels. [Page 86.] 
Sunday 9th. Cloudy & Cool. Morice of the Harpooner returned from 
Willamette. 

Monday 10th. Fine, but still smoky. Kiave & Kalama repairing 
horse carts. Cowie and Gohome splitting Shingles. Commenced taking 
up potatoes, of which we will have but a poor crop this year. 

Tuesday 11th. Fine. C. Jack with the Indian women taking up po- 
tatoes at Tyrrells lake, which turns out pretty well. Lowe sent with 
the beef cart to Steilacoom. Kiave & Kalama also sent there to assist 
Lahannui to cut the wheat; Capt. Morice gave in 11 thousand dollars 
for different debts. 

Wednesday 12th. Cloudy, latter part of the day light drops of rain. 
Cowie Gohome, and Steilacoom splitting Shingles for new house. Bein- 
ston again installed in kitchen in place of Cooper who removed to Cow- 



103 In the official account of the trial the Indians mentioned are : Kassas, Quallawort, 
Stulharrier, Tattau, Wyesk and Quatthllnkyne. See Ben. Doc, 31 Cong., 2nd Ses., Doc. 1. 
B, Serial No. 587. 

1M The Skookumchuck, a tributary of the Chehalis at Centralia, from the Chinook Jargon 
words "skookum," big, wild or rough, and "chuck" water. Compare Pilchuck "red water" 
and Saltchuck "Puget Sound." 



280 Victor J. Farrar 

litz. A large number of Snowqualmies said to have arrived at Steila- 
coom. 

Thursday 18th. Rainy all the day. Steilacoom, Squally, Neopalu & 
Lowe thrashing oats with flails. Cowie & Gohome planeing boards 
preparatory to lining Mr. Todds rooms. Snowqualmies made a good 
trade in Dry Salmon, Baskets, & Mats. They are going to camp at 
Steilacoom till it is understood what is to be done with the Indian 
prisioners. [Page 87.] 

Friday 14 Fair, but cloudy. Jack and his gang taking up potatoes 
at Mallard Hollow which turns well, potatoes pretty numerous & large. 
The other hands employed as yesterday. 80 bus White. M. Hollow. 
Saturday 16th. Weather fair & clear of smoke. Work as before. 
The three Kanakas returned from Steilacoom. 

Sunday 16th. Cloudy but fair. Thlekatats 106 arrived at Steilacoom. 
Monday 17th. Cloudy. Cowie, Keave, Kalama and three Indians set- 
ting up slaughter house. Kahannui sent off to Steilacoom with 5 or 6 
Indians to bind the wheat. Mr. Tallmadge 108 the Quartermaster con- 
sented to take it as oats for fodder. C. Jack and his gang taking up 
potatoes in garden, which are of a superior kind & plentiful!. Dr. 
Tolmie accompanied by Mr. Todd visited Newmarket. 
Tuesday 18th. Fine & clear. Work as before. Potat quality of S. 
potatoes taken up in garden are 70 bush, large & 15 bush. Small, ex- 
clusive of what used for mess. Dr. Tolmie returned accompanied by 
Mr. Chambers. 



"'Klikitat, a Shahaptian tribe living on the headwaters of the Cowlitz, Lewis, White 
Salmon and Klickitat Elvers. 

ion Qrier Tallmadge, acting assistant quartermaster at Steilacoom. 



[To be continued]