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THE NISQUALLY JOURNAL
In the Quarterly for July, 1915-April, 1916, was published the
first volume of the Nisqually Journals, edited by Clarence B. Bagley,
assisted by the writer. At the time of publication is was generally
understood that to reproduce all of the work was a task wholly beyond
the capacity of the magazine, but as requests have come in for a repro-
duction of more of this material it has been decided to run one more
Up to the year 1838, Fort Nisqually may be regarded as a semi-
farming, semi-trading establishment; but in that year a certain event
came to pass which was to change its character entirely. As early as
1833 Chief Trader Archibald McDonald had urged the Hudson's Bay
Company to permit certain persons to form a subsidiary concern for
the purpose of raising cattle and produce in the West. Older heads,
however, frowned on the idea as likely to interfere with the fur busi-
ness, and dropped the whole matter. But drop the matter as it
would, the company was of necessity obliged to raise agricultural prod-
uce not only to meet its own demands, but the needs of its foreign mar-
kets, and thus certain of its establishments were turned into small farms.
Nisqually was one of these, and went on for several years in this dual
capacity. By 1838 the agricultural business had assumed such propor-
tions that its prosecution by the company was deemed inadvisable, and
a new company, the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company, was planned
to handle this end. On paper it was a separate organization, with a
capital stock, etc., but its by-laws were so framed as to make it little
else than a "set of books," wherein were recorded the agricultural opera-
tions of the fur company. Its officers were from that company, its
shareholders persons interested in the fur trade; its direction in all
affairs by it. Inasmuch as land and buildings were never carried on
the books, the new company began business on December 23, 1 840, by
purchasing the fur company's cattle. Herds were driven in from east
of the mountains and California, and soon Nisqually became the scene
of operations on a grand scale. Here, and at the Cowlitz Farm and
Vancouver, the two companies went on side by side, in reality as of old,
but under a new bookkeeping arrangement. While Nisqually is the
chief scene of operations the headquarters are at Vancouver. No com-
plete inventories have as yet been compiled, but we know that from a
small farm in 1838, Nisqually possessed in 1841 200 acres of land
206 Victor J. Farrar
under cultivation, with 3,000 sheep and 1,500 cattle; and in 1851 1,500
acres of land under cultivation with 10,000 sheep and 6,000 cattle.
The labor was performed entirely by servants and Indians. Only
at one time did the Company depart from this system, in 1841-42, when
some 18 Red River immigrants were settled upon those places since
known as Steilacoom, Muck, Spanaway, etc., where they were expected
to assist in the raising of produce, but when they had all departed to
the valley of the Willamette, the Company resettled these places with
servants, who continued on the former salary arrangement.
Although the Oregon Question had been settled in 1846 and the
country American, expansion continued unabated. The pathfinder-
settlers Simmons, et al., are here, but they offer no serious obstacle
to the Company and seem to work to its advantage. It is the settler
migration following on the Oregon Land Law which is to spell defeat
to the Company. Victor J. Farrar.
[March, 1849] 1
Saturday 10th. Fair all day, work as before.
Sunday 11th. Sleet, rain & snow most o[f t]he day.
Monday 12th, Cold, windy weather Wren, Cowie & two Indians,
squaring wood for press shed. Slocum making saddle bags, Thibeault
working about Marrons. Lowe brought in wild horses for thrashing
Tuesday 18th. Mild throughout the day. Slocum sowed 4^ bush.
Oats, Beinston treading out wheat with horses. Steilacoom 2 & Squally
sent out to Muck 3 to split rails for lambing Parks.
Wednesday llfih. Morning frosty. Day milder & Cloudy. Sowed 10
Bush. Oats — harrowed by 3 harrows. Adam winnowing wheat. The
rest as before. Sent two Ox tumbrils to Tenalquot* with provisions.
Slagomas arrived from Vancouver accompanied by a Kanaka; 3 old
Milch Cows found dead.
1 The Nisqually Journals which have come down to us cover the following periods : Max
30, 1833, to April 25, 1835; April 26, 1835, to August 23, 1836; September 1, 1836, to
October 31, 1837 ; November 1, 1837, to May 31, 1836 ; January 20, 1846, to April 30, 1847 ;
March 10, 1849, to August 6, 1850 ; August 7, 1850, to August 31, 1851 ; September 1, 1851,
to October 3, 1852; October 4, 1852, to May 28, 1854; May 29, 1854, to August 15, 1856;
August 25, 1856, to August 23, 1857 ; September 26, 1857, to September 27, 1859. It will
be seen that certain books are missing, having in some way been extracted from the series :
some four or five journals covering the six odd years from May 31, 1839, to January 20, 1846 ;
and one journal the two years from April 30, 1847, to March 10, 1849. In addition to the
Nisqually Journals the collection includes Muck Farm Journal from April 22, 1858, to April
16, 1859 ; and Tithlow Journal from January 1. 1851, to August 2, 1851, and from November
19, 1856, to April 30, 1857.
2 Not the Indian for whom the town of Steilacoom is named and whom we encountered in
the Journal for 1833, but just a servant Indian, or halfbreed, bearing this cognomen. Com-
pare, Squally (Nisqually), and Kalama, mentioned elsewhere in this Journal.
8 A farmsite and herdsman's station maintained by theCompany, situated near the present
town of Roy, Pierce County. The creek of the same name was known to the Company as
4 A farmsite and herdsman's station maintained by the Company on a prairie of the same
name near Mcintosh, Thurston County.
The Nisqually Journal 207
Thursday 15th. Weather as before. Wren, Cowie and Kalama, off
in quest of wood for Cart wheel spokes. Sowed 13 bus. oats. Slocum
& the Indian gang burning brush wood in swamp. Schooner Cadboro 5 ,
Capt. Sangster 6 arrived, with some supplies for this post. T. Linklater
sent to Tinalquot to replace Nelson, during lambing. [Page 2.]
Friday 16th. Cloudy & overcast. All hands down the beach discharg-
Saturday 17th. Weather & work as before.
Sunday 18th. Rainy with a strong wind from SW.
Monday 19th. Cloudy, with occasional showers of rain. Slocum &
Kalama, with 6 Indians loading schooner Cadboro. Wren fixing pad-
locks on Fort gates. Beinston, with 5 Indians skinning dead cattle of
which numbers are dying now from starvation. M Nelson arrived from
Tanalquot, for the lambing season. 80 Wedders sent by L'caille to
Tinalquot for food for the herds, the remainder of the wedder band
counted 526. Louis Ledoux left this [morning] for the Cowlitz, 7 in
exchange for Kalama who remains here. Croaking of Frogs heard here
for first time — heard at Macleod's 8 occasionally for the last month he
Tuesday 20th. Rainy, with strong breezes of wind Schooner laded,
& ready for sailing tomorrow. Lambing commenced. Cowie sent to
Wednesday 21st. Weather as yesterday. Schooner Cadboro left this
morning with a fair wind. Slocum with 5 or 6 Indians, setting up
fenceing. Adam, treading out wheat with horses. Wren making shut-
ters for new store. Cooper 9 sick.
8 See, ante, volume vi, no. 3 (July, 1915), page 192, note 41.
James Sangster, a native of Port Glasgow. He had entered the service of the Company
as early as 1832, when we find him on the Columbia as a seaman. His rise was exceedingly
rapid, and in 1837 he commanded the brig Llama. In 1848 he was captain of the Cadboro,
which position he held until 1854, when he removed to Victoria. Here he held many positions
— harbor master, collector of customs, postmaster, etc. He died at Esquimau in 1858.
7 The Cowlitz Farm, a separate post maintained by the Companies in townships 11 and
12 north, range 1, west of the Willamette meridian. About 1838 Simon Flomondon and
another servant named Faineant went to this region to live out their days, it having been
reserved by Dr. McLoughlin as a home for superannuated servants. Shortly after the forma-
tion of the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company, or somewhere between 1838 and 1839, it was
taken over for a farm. All the land available for cultivation, some 1200 acres, was fenced
in and eleven barns erected, together with a mill.
8 A farmsite and herdsman's station near Steilacoom, known also as Whyatchte.
8 Captain James Cooper. He was a native of England, and entered the service of the
Hudson's Bay Company in 1844, and in 1849 commanded the bark Columbia. Owing to ill
health, he left the sea for the purpose of engaging in practical farming on a large scale on
Vancouver Island. He brought out from England a small iron ship, and secured the services
of a Mr. Thomas Blinkhorn as superintendent and took up land at Metchosin, where operations
were commenced. Trade connections were opened with San Francisco and the Sandwich
Islands. The venture might have proved a success had it not been for the monopolistic tend-
encies of the Company, which brooked no competition. The farm was sold in 1856 soon after
the death of Mr. Blinkhorn. In 1859 Mr. Cooper became harbor master for British Columbia
and in 1860 harbor master for New Westminster. In 1879 he removed to California.
208 Victor J. Farrar
Thursday 22nd. Sleet & rain all the day. Noon Tomma the Inr.
arrived from Victoria 10 with dispatches. The Bqn. Columbia arrived
from England, Capt. Cooper in command. [Page 3.]
Friday 23rd. Snow fell during the night to the depth of about 5 ins.
& More fell till noon after which, great part of it disappeared, horses
brought in for the express tomorrow. Cooper laid up with a severe
attack of inflamation. Tomma & party returned back.
Saturday 24th. Snow fell last night but all soon disappeared. Dr.
Tolmie 11 started off with the express to Vancouver, accompanied by
two Indn. lads. Squally came to me this evening & said that three
Sinahomish 12 had killed a cow this morning, at the beach between the
Salt Marsh & store & at present they were encamped near the mouth of
the little river. 18
Sunday 25th. Fine clear weather. Started to the beach with four
hands & searched the Killer's lodge, we found the hide & part of the
carcase and the meat appearing to be very sound & had some fat, we
seized a gun and a few trifles & brought them up, but the Indians saying
the cow was found dead, I promised to return the property on their
bringing up the head of the animal to be examined & perceive if it was
shot or not. Cooper much better.
Monday 26th. Windy with occasional storms of hail & Snow. Wren
& Kalama planking up gable ends of new store. Slocum & mob setting
up fenceing. A lot of women engaged cutting ladies fingers for seed.
Jack replaced by Sam at plough who will hereafter overlook potatoe
planting. Cooper rather worse. [Page 4.]
Tuesday 27th. Strong breezes & rainy. Wren & Kalama splitting
oak for cart wheels, the rest as before. An Indn. brought up the
head of the cow killed & bore no signs of being shot but I did not give
up the gun, &c for having heard that they first knock down the cow with
stone & then cut its throat.
Wednesday 28th. Cold & Windy. Wren, Kalama & Steilacoom off
for two or three days to square wood for a new press, the others as
10 Fort Victoria, at the site of the city of the same name on Vancouver Island. It was
the last of the company forts erected on the Sound, and with the passing of Vancouver became
the headquarters of the Company in these parts. The date of its founding was 1843, and
besides its expected utility as a fur trading station and farm was so selected that it might
serve as a refuge for British whalers. For several years it went by the Indian name of the
roadsted, Camosum or Camousak, but was rechristened Victoria to honor the Queen. The city
was laid out in 1852.
11 William Fraser Tolmie, chief trader for the Hudson's Bay Company and superintendent
for the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company. See, ante, volume vi, no. 3 (July, 1915), page
181, note 5, for a short biographical sketch.
12 Snohomish. A Salish tribe living on the south end of Whidbey Island and on the main-
land opposite at the mouth of the Snohomish Eiver.
13 The Sequalitehew Creek.
The Nisqually Journal 209
Thursday 29th. Fine & clear. Commenced planting early potatoes, at
lower Mallard hollow. Oxen drawing the drills. Sowed 10 bus. oats,
making a total of 40 Bushels. A cart with a yoke of oxen sent to
Tinalquot to assist hauling out rails. A party of five horsemen tried to
drive in some wild oxen for breaking in, but could not manage to get
them closer than the entrance to the lane. Reed, a letter from Dr.
Tolmie, dated Cowlitz 16th Ult. enclosing a counterfeit dollar palmed
off on Mr. Roberts, 14 — examined all Cash on hand and found two that
did bear the test, given by the Dr. in his letter.
Friday 80th. Fine and clear till Noon, when it overcast, rain towards
evening. Jack at the head potato planters, Slocum sowed 16 bus. oats
Thibeault at Marrons, Cooper much better today. [Page 5.]
Saturday Slst. Rainy all the day. Slocum, C. Jack and all the mob,
men and women, shifting fenceing. Wren & Kalama setting XCut
Saws & repairing wheel barrows.
Sunday 1st. Cloudy & cold with some little rain. Blue partridge &
Monday 2nd. Fair & cloudy. Oat sowing & potatoe planting resumed.
Wren, Kalama & Squally setting up a shed behind kitchen for Indians
to mess undis. Baptiste engaged for ploughing. Bill & Steilacoom
treading out wheat with horses. Cooper comeing round nicely; two
Yankees trading, Obriss 15 & Kindred. 10 Five head of cattle found
today dead through starvation.
Tuesday 3rd. Fine, all the day. Wren, assisting Lowe & Thibeault
driving in wild oxen for breaking in, of which 8 good ones, were
brought in and parked, finished sowing oats Potat 84 bushels. The
other work as before. Steilacoom treading out wheat.
Wednesday 4th. Rainy. Slocum commenced sowing pease. C. Jack
with his gang planting potatoes in garden 8 variously. Wren, Thi-
beault, & the [page 6] hands catching, yokeing & working wild oxen
and seem to do well, hauled firewood.
Thursday 5th. Rainy first part of the day, clear in the afternoon.
Wren, Kalama & Squally, fixed the other half of straw shed for a stable
for Cart horses; & making a gate for garden fence. Steilacoom,
cleared up the wheat 2^ days thrashing 33 bushels, Slocum sowed
lei/obushels, pease last of big field, in the afternoon delving & garden
11 George B. Roberts, at this time agent for the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company at
« C. Obriss, a settler of 1847.
16 John Kindred, a settler of 1847 at Tunrtvater.
210 Victor J. Farrar
and sowed onions. Jack and his gang planting potatoes &c. Thi-
beault sent to the plains to assist Lowe killing Cattle for Shepherds;
a large party of Snowqualmie's 17 arrived.
Friday 6th. Fair all the day. Work as yesterday. Ploughs plowing
new land. Thibeault returned, having killed three Beaver. Sent 7^
bus. Wheat to Muck.
Saturday 7th. Weather as yesterday. Wren finished the gate. Jack
with a part of the mob planting potatoes in garden, Slocuru with the
other part gardening.
Sunday 8th. Fine clear weather. No news.
Monday 9th. Cloudy. Slocum sowed 17 bus. wheat making a total of
47 bushels sown. All the spare hands setting up fenceing of new
ground. Wren & his associates roofing Indian shed. Beinston running
the Sheep over oat land. Seven Cattle found mired today at Squally
lake. 18 [Page 7.]
Tuesday 10th. Cloudy, with strong breezes of wind. Hands em-
ployed as. yesterday.
Wednesday 11th. Fine & clear. Slocum busied in gardening. C.
Jack and his mob making drills for potatoes in garden. Oxen carting
dung. The two horse carts brought in 27 bus. Wheat from Steilacoom,
plough pig. new land.
Thursday 17. Weather as yesterday. Planted the patch in garden
with Spanish potatoes. Wren finished covering Indian shed, the rest
of the hands employed as before.
Friday IS. Weather still continues. Mob repairing fenceing, plant-
ing and other different jobs. Wren & assistants making a gate for gar-
den. Thibeault & Lowe killing beef for the plainherd[ers].
Saturday llfth. Warm agreeable weather, sowed more pease. Mob
variously employed. Wren assisted Lowe & Thibeault & brought in
two wild oxen, one of them had his leg broke. Killed him for beef.
Rainy toward night.
Sunday 16th. Fair. Slocum & Jack with the mob planting potatoes
in Mallard Hollow. Wren laying a foundation of a new oven under
indian shed. Thibeault, Adam & Lowe brought in some milch cows.
A large party of Soquamish 19 here, traded 19 [ ] skins. [Page 8.]
Tuesday 17th. Hot weather. Work as yesterday. Dr. Tolmie re-
turned from Vancouver. A Whale killled by the Soquamish down the
" Snoqualmie (or Snoqualmu, the latter form being the "official" and "scientific" spell-
ing), a Salish division on the Tipper branches of the river of the same name.
18 Nisqually Lake.
19 Suquamish. A Salish division oa the west side of Pnget Sound from Appletree Cove to
The Nisqually Journal 211
Wednesday 18th. Sultry in the afternoon. Wren & assistants enlarg-
ing wool press shed for the purpose of constructing a new Press. In-
dian Mob delving in Marsh & planting potatoes at South side of Fort;
Thibeault, Beinston & Lowe brought in a few more milch Cows.
Thursday 19th. Cloudy most part of the day, people employed as
yesterday. Linklater returned from Tenalquot. Gohome sent with an
Express to Victoria.
Friday 20th. Weather as yesterday. Slocum and his gang setting up
fencing round piece of land at Washington's lake, Linklater killing
Sheep for tomorrow's Rations, the res.t of the hands as yesterday.
Sunday 22nd. Showery.
Monday 2Sd. Showery. Mr. Ross 20 Inds. and Jacob off to repair
road between Tinalquot and Grand Prairie. 21 Indian gang clearing
land at Tyrrell's Lake. 22 Wren and Kanakas going on with press-
house. Keanehaceow returned from sheepherding.
Tuesday 2£th. Showery Partial Sunshine Wren and others splitting
wheel spokes. Mr. Forrest 23 arrived fro mCowlitz about 2 P. M. No.
letters. [Page 9.]
Wednesday 25th. Showery. Wren and party squaring fitting logs
for press-houses. Father Chirouse 24 [ ] Blanchet 25 arrived from
[ ] in the afternoon. 17 bush pease sown.
Thursday 26th. Fine [ ] Two plows sent to Spanueh 26 and one
to Muck. [ ] press-house placing couples &c.
Friday 27th. Fine. Mg. frosty. Wren and party splittting Oaks for
felloes. Priests off. Reported this evening that Gohome is encamped
at Kitsons 27 island with a passenger probably Mr. Fenton.
Saturday 28th. Fine. Mr. Fenton with Gohome arrived at breakfast
time. Gohome in going to Victoria was robbed of a gun an axe and all
the party's provisions by Snietlam 28 and a party of Scad jets, 29 whom
20 Mr. Walter Boss, clerk at Nisqually.
21 Grand Prairie or Mound Prairie, a peculiar geological formation south of the present city
of Olympia, once thought to be the handiwork of the mound builders.
22 Long Lake, near Lacey, Thurston County. The name "Tyrrell" was evidently an honor
for Treeman W. Tyrrell, a settler of 1849, who took a claim on what is now Hawk's Prairie.
23 Mr. Charles Forrest, agent for the Puget Sound Agricultural Company at the Cowlitz.
24 Eugene Casimir Chirouse, O. M. I., a Roman Catholic missionary to the Yakima IndianB.
For accounts of his life, together with the activities of other priests in these parts, see Charles
M. Buchanan, "Evolution of an Indian Hero," The Washington Historical Quarterly, July,
1918; also, The Indian Sentinel (Chirouse Number), January, 1918.
2 « Probably Rev. A. M. A. Blanchet, of Walla Walla, rather than his brother, Archbishop
Norbert Blanchet, of Oregon City.
20 Spanaway, a farmsite and herdsman's station, near the lake of the same name in Pierce
27 Ketron Island, in Puget Sound, opposite Steilacoom, named by Wilkes (1841) in honor
of William Kitson, chief trader, and formerly in charge of Nisqually. The present spelling,
due to an error on Wilkes' charts, has been perpetuated.
28 Kwuss-ka-nam or George Snatelum, a Skagit chief, later one of the signers of the Gov-
ernor Stevens' treaty on January 22, 1855. His residence was at the site of the present
Watsak Point, south cape of Penns Cove, known locally as "Snakeland" Point. He died on or
before December 19, 1852, of putrid sore throat. His son, Hel-mits, or George Snatelum, Jr.,
also a signer of the treaty, is the character so well known to early residentc of the Island.
29 Skagit. A body of Salish living on the river of the same name, particularly at lta
mouth, and on the middle portion of Whidbey Island.
212 Victor J. Farrar
he encountered while windbound at Pt. Partridge. 30 Mr. Finlayson 81
is to acquaint Mr. Yale 32 of Snietlams misdemeanour, so that worthy
will meet with an indifferent reception when next he visits any of the
Coy's establishments. Mr. Ross and party returned about noon having
rendered the road from Tinalquot to Grand Prairie passable for wag-
Sunday 29th. Cloudy with occasional glimpses of sunshine.
Monday 80th. Slight rain throughout the day. Wren & his party at
wool press. Slocum gardening. Jack in swamp with the mob burning
brush. Lowe & Thibeault assisting Beinston getting in milch cows.
Oxen hauling firewood. [Page 10.]
Tuesday 1st. Cloudy with a strong SW. breeze. About noon a large
party of Snoqualmie & Skeywhamish 33 armed arrived & took up their
position before the water-gate, where they had an affray with our peo-
ple, in which the American, Wallace 84 was killed & Lewis 85 slightly
wounded, one the enemy was killed & another slightly wounded, the
cause and commencement are nearly as possible as follows:
As the horn blew for dinnner a large party of Skeywhamish &
Snoqualmich were reported to have arrived, our working & the other
Indians immediately commenced running into the fort 30 bringing with
them their moveables & when dinner was over a large party of them
to the number of about a hundred, were observed advancing across the
plain on the N. W. side of the Fort, when they arrived part went to
Lahalet's 37 lodge & the others (the greater part) gathered round the
Watergate where they were soon after rejoined by the others, on being
asked the reason why they came in such numbers, and making such a
warlike demonstration, they replied that they had heard that young
Lahalet (who is married to a daughter of one of their petty chiefs)
was beating his wife brutally, and that they did not come with the in-
10 A cape on the western shore of Whidbey Island.
*' Roderick Finlayson, chief trader, In charge of Fort Victoria, since 1844.
" James Murray Yale,, chief trader, in charge of Fort Langley.
" Skykomish. A body of Salish on the river of the same name.
M Leander C. Wallace, a settler of 1846.
*• The christian name of Mr. Lewis has not been ascertained.
«• Old Fort Nisqually, or the first fort, erected in 1833, was abandoned during the season
of 1842-43, and the new Fort Nisqually built. The first fort, though large enough at the time,
proved too small to accommomdate the great agricultural expansion which took place after the
formation of Puget's Sound Agricultural Company, besides being too far from available fresh
water and too distant from the theatre of operations.
" Lahalet, chief of the Nisqually tribe. His successor was Leschi.
The Nisqually Journal 213
tention of harming any of the whites, the chief Patakynum 38 was then
invited into the fort, and to the others were given tobacco to smoke in
the pipe of peace, for which they retired to one of the deserted lodges.
We took the precaution of placing two armed men at the gate, Thibeault
& Gohome with orders to let none of them in. I also took my gun and
knocked about our Indians, who in fear of the enemy, were engaged
sweeping out the fort. I had just taken round them, when I heard a
shot. I repaired immediately to the gate & learned that it had been
fired by Gohome in jest. I reproved for his carelessness & told him
to take good care. Soon after I [page 11] arrived at the gate four or
five of the worst Snoqualmie's came rushing to the gate, provoked no
doubt, by the shot unguardidly fired by Gohome, one of their number,
Copass, more forward than the rest, rudly pushed Gohome — who was
standing between the door posts into the fort & took his place. I
went to him & demanded why he did that for, and told him to keep
quiet, but answering only with insult, I put him out, upon which, he
cocked his gun, & drew his dagger, making two or three threats at me
with it. Wren standing a piece off at the time from the gate, he was
called in. I called out to close the gate, which was done, but finding
Wren shut out, it was again opened. Wren on entering seized one of
their guns whereupon a scuffle ensued, and the gun falling between
the door & the fort, prevented us from closing, during that time, I
observed Copass pointing his gun at me. I at once presented mine,
and as I thought fired first (but it is maintained by the friendly Indians
outside that, one of the Sn' "Qullawood" provoked by a blow given by
Wren, with the butt end of the gun, to one of their chiefs, fired at him,
but missing, my shot followed (which is the right way I cant be posi-
tive, the noise excitement being too great) but missing him, wounded
another, a good many shots then followed, the gate closed, we took to
the bastions, but our people taking some time to get armed (the affair
being rather sudden) by the time they were at their stations, most of the
enemy were out of shot, runnning away full speed across the plain to
their canoes. Patakynum who was in the fort at the commencement of
the row, escaped after the closing of the gate, unperceived by none of
38 Patkanim, as the name is now generally spelled, chief of the Snoqualmie tribe. He was
born about 1815, but does not come into prominence until the year 1848, when, according to
accounts which have come down to us, he was the chief instigator in a general uprising against
the whites. In that year he plannend a great hunt on Whidbey Island, to which he invited all
the Indians of the Sound, and to them unfolded his plans for ultimate attack. The move was
abandoned, due to the action of certain Indians who lived at the upper Sound, who looked upon
the Company and the few whites then in the country as the means of their economic and physi-
cal salvation. After the affair delineated in the Journal, Patkanim changed his attitude mate-
rially towards the whites, and while many doubted his sincerity his acts, nevertheless, were
friendly. He was a signer of the Governor Stevens Treaty at Point Elliott in 1855, and during
the so-called Yakima Indian War which followed in 1855-56, served in the capacity of soldier,
the leader of some eighty odd braves. He died in the fall of 1858.
214 Victor J. Farrar
our people, young Lahalet showing him the way. Wallace & Lewis
were unfortunately standing outside, when the affray commenced, they
did not respond to the call of: "All hands come in and shut the gate",
they perhaps thought themselves secure from harm [page 12] as they
were Americans, and did not belong to the Fort, if this was the case
they were sadly mistaken ; They were also beckoned in by Simmons 39 &
others there at the time, but unfortunately they either unheeded or did
not perceive them. Copass is said to be the one that shot poor Wal-
lace. Lewis escaped unhurt most wonderfully, one ball went through
his Vest & trousers, another slightly grazed his left arm. Ssgeass an
Indian received a flesh wound in the neck by the ball meant for Wren.
A Medicine Man a Skeywhamish is the one killed, and a Snoqualmie
wounded in the shoulder.
We do not suppose that the War party came here with the purpose
of attacking us, but think they had some other object in view besides
the affair with Lahalet, it was probably their design to kick up a row
with the fort Indians and then kidnap as many of the women & Chil-
dren as they could catch, and one circumstance also proves that they
thought lightly of quarreling with the whites. When the tobacco was
handed out to them, Qullawowt asked Wren, if it was not poisoned,
and none of the Indians would smoke until Wren had previously smoked
& chewed the tobacco in their presence. A good many yarns are told
of them by the Indians here, what they were saying & going to do, but
it will be to no purpose to mention any here, being only Indian stories
more lies than truth. The Snoqualmich & Skeywhamish are the terror
of all the tribes South of the Soquamish, and the tribes of the sound
would rejoice to see the above chastized by the Whites, and would
nearly assist if required. We sincerely hope they will soon get that
Chastizment they so richly deserve. 40
Two hours after the affray Bill [page lS]was dispatched to the
Cowlitz with an Express for Vancouver, & a message from Mr. Sim-
«• Michael T. Simmons, a settler of 1845, and the possessor of the mill at Tumwater.
40 Most writers see in Patkanim's attack the beginnings of a general war on the whites.
Perhaps any settler would have so interpreted the movement. But with Tolniie it was different.
He had been an almost continual resident since 1833 and never had he witnessed the slightest
hostility on the part of the Indians toward this establishment. He had had personal encoun-
ters with rough characters, and certain individuals had at times been ejected physically by
force of arms from the post; but this was not war. Moreover, the Fort had been for many
years the scene of tribal brawls, some of which had been rather harmful to its Interests since
the so-called Fort Indians had oftimes been involved. If one does not imagine too much, the
affair described here is not without precedent.
The Nisqually Journal 215
inons to Gov. Lane. 41 All the plain men came in by order in the even-
ing. Watch kept
Wednesday 2nd. Fair. Very little work done. Fort swept clean out.
Dr. Tolmie with the plain people & others in going out to Steilacoom
swept round along the Snoqualmich wood in the Am. plain/ 2 but saw
no signs of the enemy, by all accounts they have gone clean off. Wal-
Thursday 3rd. Cloudy but no rain. Work resumed as before. In-
dians re-encamped outside.
Friday Ifih. Cloudy, rain towards night. Wren, Kiave, Kalama and
Squally, roofing Wool Press Shed with three foot Shingles. Cowie
pining down flooring of lower stories of Bastions. 48 Slocum & Jack in
swamp making pits for Potatoes on undelved ground. Thibeault & Lowe
butchering Sheep. Dr. Tolmie accompanied by Linklater on a visit
to Mr. Chambers. 44 Bill returned from the Cowlitz bringing us two
small Kegs of Powder, but no lead.
Saturday 5th. Light showers of rain. Work as yesterday.
Sunday 6th. Cloudy & overcast all the day.
Monday 7th. Light summer showers. Wren employed as before.
Cowie finishing Bastions within, Linklater making two "arm Chests"
Indian mob in Marsh. [Page 14.]
Tuesday 8th. Weather & work as before. Letters sent to Vancouver
by Eilacaca giving a full and correct statement of the unfortunate
affray of the 1st Inst.
Wednesday 9th. Cloudy, no change in the work.
Thursday 10th. Fine. Wren & his gang squared a new lever for wool
press, the one squared before being too short. Slocum & his Indian
Mob planting the patch in Tyrrels lake with 9 l / 2 bus. Potatoes. Cowie
& Linklater furnishing Bastions inside setting up stands for Muske-
41 Governor Joseph Lane was appointed to his office by President Polk and arrived at Ore-
gon City on March 2, 1849. In April he proceeded to The Dalles, where he distributed some
$200 worth of presents to the Indians and also brought about a peace between the Yakima and
the Walla Walla, then engaged in tribal warfare. With the receipt of Mr. Simmon's letter he
concluded to visit the Sound, and accordingly marched to Tumwater in company with Lieu-
tenant G. W. Hawk'ns and five of the eight men, which constituted the entire United States
force in the country. When he reached Mr. Simmon's at New Market he received the Intel-
ligence that Major Hathaway with two companies of the First Artillery had arrived at
Vancouver on the transport Massachuetts on May 7.
4= The American Plain, situated just north of the present fort, and on the right bank of
the Sequalitchew Creek. It is the "Mission Plain" of Wilkes, and undoubtedly took Its name
from the circumstance that it had been occupied by the Americans Richmond, Leslie, and
w The new fort had not been equipped with defenses as was the old, although it was rather
throughly fenced in, more as a protection against theft than aggression.
" Mr. Thomas M. Chambers, a settler of 1847, living on Chambers Prairie, southeast of
the present city of Olympia.
216 Victor J. Farrar
Friday 11th. Weather as before. Work mostly as before 40 Sheep
butchered. Eilacaca returned from Cowlitz, bringing powder and
lead, brought from Vancouver.
Saturday 12th. Mr. Ross started for Cowlitz to meet C F Douglass 45
and accompany him thence to this place. Wool Press finished and
Sunday ISth. Dominique Farron from Cowlitz arrived with
Monday Hth. Fine. Wren arranging bastion roofs. Keva and Ka-
lama wedging and sawing off ends of picket pins — all employed about
the establishment owing to the report that a large party of Scad jets
and Snoqualmies were at the beach and were to be up in course of the
day to talk about peacemaking. In the afternoon Snietlam the Scad jet
chief came to exculpate himself i e make the best excuse possible for
having taken a gun and axe from our late lettercarrier to Victoria.
Huptiekynum a Snoqualimie man [page 15] of note, but not here on
the 1st Inst, came to express his regret at the foolish conduct of the
creators of the disturbance of the 1st and his resolution to have no part
or lot with the guilty Snoqualimies. Had a note from Mr. Simmons of
Newmarket for a supply of ammunition which was sent. Mr. S. appears
to have been giving credence to the Indian rumors of invasion on the
part of the Snoqualimies.
Tuesday 15th. Forenoon cloudy. Hail and rain P. M. Evg clear &
cool. Traded some beaver from the Snoqualimie brothers Huptekynum
and Qushqushum, all hands nearly employed during the forenoon in
catching and yoking wild oxen.
Wednesday 16th. Mg foggy. Sunshine. Mr. Wm. MacNeill 46 ar-
rived from Victoria with an Indian crew of eight bearing letters for the
Bd. of Management announcing the arrival in Squimault Bay of H. M.
S. "Inconstant" 36, Captain Shepherd. 47 Sent in different directions
for a courier but did not obtain one. Wren making a four posted bed-
stead for Mr. Douglas's use Keva, with an Indian since Monday,
wedging picket pins. Gowie making gates for Sheep parks.
Thursday 17th. Sunshine. Rode to Yelm Ferry 48 accompanied by Wm.
Macneill and dispatched an Indian from thence with the letters for
45 Chief Factor James Douglas, who In 1840 succeeded McLoughlin at Vancouver.
'" Captain William McNeill. He was a native of Boston and was on the Coast trading on
his own account at least as early as 1826. His opposition had been met by McLoughlin by the
purchase of his ship the brig Llama and his appointment to the position of her commander.
Thereafter he commanded several other ships and held other positions. McNeill Island, oppo-
site the Fort, is named for him.
" One of the five vessels ordered to Fort Victoria from the South Seas to guard the British
interests pending the settlement of the Oregon Question in 1846, of which the other four were :
The Cormorant, Captain Gordon; the Fisgard, Captain Duntze; the Constance, Captain Court-
ney; and the Pandora, Captain Wood.
48 Yelm, a farmsite and herdsman's station maintained by the Company at the present site
of Yelm in Thurston County.
The Nisqually Journal 217
Vancouver. Edgar shearer and others assisting Sheep Macleod at the
Fort and got the old Wedder band washed. Got some hints from an
American Glasgow 49 about further improvements.
Friday 18th. Sunshine. Some threatenings of rain Wren finished
bedsteads and afterwards putting a finishing touch to roof of Bastion.
Cowie making a strong swing gate for ox park. [Page 16.] In the
afternoon Wren assisted by Keva, Squally and Kalama preparing wood
for improvements on Wool Press. Reed, a letter 50 fro Govr. Lane
dated Newmarket [17th] May '49 requesting me particularly not to
sell powder & ball to the hostile. Indians, also a letter addressed to the
principal Indian chiefs, which the Governor requested me to read to
them, and I accordingly assembled all the natives about the Establish-
ment and translated the letter to them in presence of Mr. Macalister 51
Govr. Lane states in his letter that he had intended visiting Ft. Nis-
qually but had abandoned the intention on learning that the American
War Steamer "Massachusets" 52 was at Vancouver whither he himself
was immediately to proceed. 150 artillerymen have arrived in the
Steamer, and 600 Dragoons are en route overland, and may be expected
in August. 53
Saturday 19th. Cloudy Partial Sunshine. Wren rather puzzled at
press work, shall send for Glasgow tomorrow. Planted yesterday and
to day 14 bushels potatoes in swamp land lately broken up. Cowie
finished gate. Three flocks of sheep washed.
Sunday 20th, Cloudy, a Steady S W breeze a shower of hail & rain.
Several of the garden and agricultural seeds lately received from Eng-
land are coming up.
Monday 21st. Cloudy Partial Sunshine. Two showers of hail and
rain and some peals of thunder. Wren and Kalama splitting Oak and
P. M. making a table. Cowie making another swing Gate. Keva
" Thomas M. Glasgow, a settler of 1847. In 1848 he built a cabin on what is now Bbey
Prairie, Whidbey Island, and lived there with the daughter of an Indian chief until driven
away by demonstrations of hostility in the summer of that year. In the light of his past ex-
perience he undoubtedly influenced Mr. Simmons to send the note to Governor Lane.
» "New Market, May 17, 1849. Sir: I have just learned by express that two companies
of artillery have arrived at Vancouver by the United States steamer Massachnetts. It was my
intention to visit you at the fort, but owing to this fact I have deemed it necessary to return
without delay. I have, therefore, to make the particular request of you not to furnish the
Indians with ammunition, and to ask of you the favor to cause the hostile tribes who have
committed the outrage to be informed that any repetition of the like conduct will be visited
promptly with their complete destruction ; that our force, which will be immediately increased,
is at this time amply sufficient for an immediate expedition against them; and that the
moment I am informed that any injury has been committed by them upon our people, they will
be visited by sudden and severe chastisement. By making this communication you will greatly
oblige."— Lane to Tolmie, Sen. Ex. Doe., 31 Cong., 2nd Ses., Doc. 1, B, Ser. No. 587, p. 157.
« James McAllister, a settler of 1845, one of the Simmons party, now settled in the vicin-
ity of Tumwater, but who later took a claim on Medicine of McAllister Creek, just south of the
of Tumwater, but who later took a claim on Medicine or McAllister Creek, just south of the
52 For a fuller account of the arrival of these troops see the reference mentioned in loot
note 50. ... „
«• An account of the overland march of Federal troops to Fort Vancouver is given in la.,
Doc. 1, pp. 123, 261-266.
218 Victor J. Farrar
finished wedging picket pins. Sheepshearing commenced. Shears
scarce and fleeces light. Revd. Fathers Ricard 54 and Remppit 55 arrived
today, the former with the view of seeing Mr. Douglas and the latter
to go on a professional visit to Victoria by request of Mr. D.
Tuesday 22nd. Fine. The American Glasgow having arrived after
breakfast Wren resumed work at the Press and by evening had it in
working trim and commenced packing a bale of Fur [page 17] towards
evening. Cowie at gate part of the day. Commenced ploughing lake
adjoining Race course plain.
Wednesday 28rd. Fine. Sheepwashing and shearing going on. Wren
and two islanders 56 superintended by Glasgow, making a Windlass for
raising inner extremity of Wool Press lever. The press with this fur-
ther improvement tried in the evening and found to answer well.
Thursday 2Jfth. Cloudy light showers. Two bales of Wool pressed
today six hands only employed exclusive of two sowing bales. The new
press will thus be worked more economically and more safely than the
old, and also somewhat more expeditiously. Wren at table. Cowei at
Gate treading out wheat. Mr. D. Chambers 57 arrived in the evening.
Friday 25th. A refreshing shower at sunrise. Wren and Thibeault
butchered three oxen. About 2 P. M. Mr. C. F. Douglas arrived on
horseback accompanied by his three eldest daughters and followed in
the course of the afternoon by five waggons containing cases of gold
dust, bales of Furs and Mr. Ds private property. Mrs. Douglas and
the two younger children arrived in the last waggon. Messrs. Mac-
arthur 58 and W. Ross 59 also arrived.
Saturday 26th. Fine. Cowlitz men with their waggons started on
their return. Sent 58 bushels Wheat by them to Tinalquot for the
transport of which they received 20 cents per bushel. About forty dol-
lars cash sales made to the Cowlitz men. Wren at table and afterwards
arranging wood for frame of slaughter house.
Sunday 27th. Fine.
Monday 28th. Fine. Schooner Cadboro arrived about Nine A. M. and
by evening had discharged her cargo. [Page 18.]
Tuesday 29th. Fine. Wren on board the Cadboro fitting up the hold
for the reception of live stock. Kalama & Keva pressing wool. An
•* Rev. Pascal Ricard, who, on June 14, 1848, had established St. Joseph's Mission on the
site of the present Priest Point, Buck! Inlet, near Olympia.
55 Identity not ascertained.
M Natives of the Sandwich or Hawaiian Islands Called Kanakas.
•' Mr. David Chambers, son of Mr. Thomas M. Chambers, a settler of 1847, on a small
prairie near the present city of Olympia.
88 Identity not ascertained.
50 Mr. Walter Ross, clerk at Nisqually.
The Nisqually Journal 219
American Bull brought by Mr. Douglas from Ford's 60 escaped from the
enclosure and has probably returned towards his former favorites.
Wednesday 30th. Fine. Sheepwashing and other operations con-
nected with the wool-harvest going on satisfactorily. T. Linklater
aided by some Indians commenced salting and cleaning the Hides.
Fathers Ricard and Lempfrit arrived also Mr. Simmons and his
brother. 61 Cowie returning from Tinalquot where he had been making
a Wheat Bin found the lost Bull and drove him in.
Thursday Slst. Fine. All hands employed about the wool in one way
or other. Wren and the Sandwich Islander Kahili ordered for Victoria.
A quantity of grass cut in the salt marsh for the live stock to be shipped.
Friday 1st. Cloudy. Partly Sunshine. The live stock having been
shipped in the morning, Mr. Douglas and family accompanied by Mr.
Macarther and Father Lemfrit embarked after an early dinner, and
the schooner dropped down with the tide in the afternoon. Jacob Lowe
butcherd two cattle in the evening.
Saturday 2nd. Cloudy. Clear P. M. Work as on Thursday Lowe
looking after an ox that had escaped with the yoke.
Sunday 3rd. Fine. [Page 19.]
Monday £th. Cloudy & windy. Wren employed as last week. Cowie
& Kalama sick.
Tuesday 5th. Weather as yesterday. Low[e] castrating young
horses. Keve grinding axes. Cowie variously. Potatoe planting su-
perintended by Jack. The rest as before.
Wednesday 6th. Weather cloudy, work as before. Killed two head
Cattle for rations.
Thursday 7th. Weather as before, no sheep-shearing today, no band
dry enough. All the spare Indian mob planting & weeding potatoes.
Keva & Kalama squaring flooring for new slaughter house. Wool
pressing going on well. Patakynum & a party of Snoqualmies re-
ported to be at Steilacoom.
Friday 8th. Refreshing showers of rain. Wool pressing stopped.
The rest of the hands as yesterday. A party of women, wives of the
Snoqualmies at Steilacoom, came and traded a good many chevl. skins
& three or four Beavers. The S', having arrived in the course of the
day at Kittson's Island, Patakynum being sent for came alone, to whom
the Doctor delivered Govr. Lanes message; he made a good many
professions of friendship, and said that his people were very sorry
M Sidney S. Ford, a settler of 1846, at the confluence of the Skookumchnck and the Che-
htllB, near the present town of Centralia, Lewis County.
61 Michael T. Simmons and his brother, Andrew J. Simmons, who had located a claim on
220 Victor J. Farrar
for what they had done, & hoped that the whites would not harm
them, but Dr. T. made answer that it was not for him, but for the
Govr. to arrange all affairs and told them to be ready to come when he
sent for them. 62 [Page 20.]
Friday 9th. es Showery. Work as before.
Sunday 10th. Fine & clear all the day.
Monday 11th. Sunshine, the sheep not being dry enough to clip, all
the mob, under McLeod planting Potatoes in lazy beds. 84 Shearer
assisting at Wool Press. Cowie Keva & Kalama squaring wood for
flooring for new slaughter-house.
Tuesday 12th. Fine. Sheep shearing & washing resumed a band of
the best ewes clipped, amongst the fleeces some weighed from 4 to 6
lbs. chiefly meringo Wool will press from 3 to 400 fleeces in a day 6
hands in all. Kalama again sick off duty. Nedpalu returned to duty.
Lowe killed 8 Beeves, brought home by two ox tumbrils.
Wednesday 18th. Cloudy towards evening. Work as yesterday.
Amongst the ewes clipped to day chiefly X bred 65 Cheviot and Leicester
their fleeces averaged from 5 to 6 lbs. Some salt 66 Indians traded
a few Skins, &c. Two of sheepwashers very ill of dystery. 67
Thursday 14th. Incessant rain. Indian mob under Slocum. Shearer
& Jack, weeding garden, hoeing potatoes, &c. Olen hauling flooring
for slaughter house. Some Snoqualmie arrive for trade, they are in
some numbers. [Page 21.]
Friday 15th. Showery. Hands employed as yesterday. Snoqualmies
traded a good [ ] Chevl. Skins. Patayknum the chief visited
the Fort. Bush brought an American Bull of three years old, for
which he received Five old Ewes [with] their lambs and Bush bought
5 others [with] their lambs, 4 at $5 & 1 at $6 each.
Saturday 16th. Showery all the day. Work as before.
Sunday 17th. Fair. Schooner Cadboro, reported to be in sight, sent a
canoe off to her for the dispatches, the Chartered ship, Harpooner 6 "
62 Across the page in the Journal in Dr. Tolmie's handwriting is written the following :
"Patakynum was informed that if on being called npon by Govr. Lane he did not bring the
guilty Indians before the Govr. to answer for their misdeeds himself and the whole tribe of
Snoqualmies would be held responsible and looked upon as participators in the crime of Copass
and the others. — W. F. T."
63 An error. Saturday.
84 A bed in which potatoes are grown, made by placing the seed on the top of the row and
covering them with earth obtained from between the rows.
" The Indians who dwelt on Puget Sound, or salt water.
67 Dysentery, but probably enteritis.
68 The first settlement under the crown grant on Vancouver Island was made by W. Col-
quhoun Grant, a former captain in the Scottish Guards, who fitted out a small colony at his
own expense and shipped them via the chartered ship Harpooner to Soke Harbor. Here the
settlers, eight in number, tilled the soil under the Captain's direction until 1851, when he
became tired of his project and leased to a number of the men. But they, deprived of their
leader, soon fell out, whereupon Grant, to save his property sold and left the country.
The Nisqually Journal 221
Capt. Morris, had arrived with 38 passengers, Miners & Settlers & a
Monday 18th. Fair clipped a band of ewes. At noon, Cadboro, an-
chored at the ground. She has a few things for us, and 203 bushels
of wheat to be ground into flour at Simmon's Mill for Victoria. Capt.
Tuesday 19th. Thick mist in the morning cloudy all the day. No
sheep work. Cadhoro disccharged in the afternoon she left for New-
market where she will take in lumber & get the wheat ground. The
Spare mob under McLeod hoeing potatoes, pressed three Bales Wool
450 fleeces. In the evening Mr. Lewis, the Amern. & a Col. Taylor 68
& Mr. Wallace, 70 brother of the one shot, arrived. [Page 22.]
Wednesday 20th. — Fair. Cowie with two Indians getting filling wood
for New Slaughterhouse. After breakfast Colonel Taylor and party
started for Newmarket in quest of Mr. Simmons whom they had ex-
pected to have found there. Mr. Ross sent to Newmarket to see the
lumber measured and shipped, the grain ground and flour shipped,
and likewise to assist in endeavoring to apprehend any of the seamen
who may desert. 71 Packet for Cadbo. 72 ford, to Vancr.
Thursday 21st. Fine. Work as yesterday. Wheat coming in ear and
pease blossoming, a few blossoms appearing on potatoes.
Friday 22nd. Fine. Oxen hauling Cowie's filling pieces out into the
plains where they are being barked and cut in lengths.
Saturday 28. Fine. Sultry. Cowie finished sawing and barking
filling pieces. In the afternoon Mr. T. M. Chambers arrived with the
view of assisting in the valuation of the buildings stock & on the farm
lately occupied by the deceased I. T. Heath. 73
Sunday 24- Fine. Rode out to Steilacoom along with Mr. Cham-
Monday 25th. Cloudy Cowie with his indians getting rafters for
slaughter house. Kalama still sick. Wool packing going on. Mr.
D. Chambers arrived.
Tuesday 26th. Cloudy Partial Sunshine. Showery P. M.The Messrs.
Chambers left after breakfast. Work as yesterday. Sheepshearing
finish. [Page 23.]
Wednesday 27th. Showery. Sheepwashers and shearer mostly paid
off. McLeod and Shearer took their departure for the plains.
« 8 Probably Colonel James Taylor, comptroller of the mint for the Provisional Government
of Oregon, and promoter. He is possibly on a visit to Mr. Simmons with a view to purchas-
ing the mill at Tunwater.
70 Possibly Mr. William Wallace.
71 The wholesale desertions were brought about by the discovery of gold in California.
72 This much abbreviated line may be read : Packet for Cadboro forwarded to Vancouver.
7S A company settler at Steilacoom. Mr. T. M. Chambers and Dr. Tolmle were the
222 Victor J. Farrar
Thursday 28th. Sunshine Evg. showery. Cowie with Indians pre-
paring cedar blocks for slaughterhouse. The engaged gang of In-
dians hoeing and weeding potatoes in garden. Ealama repairing truck
Friday 29th. Showery. Work as yesterday. Rode out to Muck and
Tilthlow 71 . Crops look well at both places. Kalama off on leave to
look for his wife.
Saturday 80th. Showery Sunshine. Work as yesterday.
Sunday 1st. Cool. Showery. Loud Thunder claps.
Monday 2nd. Clear. Sunshine. Cowie finished preparing block.
Kalama finished truck wagon which he has nearly made anew. A
gang of Indians went to Muck and another to Sasluk 75 to weed potatoes.
Slugmas [ ] Tuesday last earthing up potatoes with one horse
plough at Muck, he to day commenced at McLeods. Cadboro arrived
from the Falls 76 in the afternoon and Mr. Ross by land in the evening.
Tuesday 3rd. Fine & sultry. Kalama & Keave repairing Carts &c.
Cowie as before. First 5 or 6 bales of wool is being repressed. In-
dian gang hoeing potatoes at Tyrrells lake. The frost pretty severe
last night on our potatoes. Schooner Cadboro off this morning, she
took no live sheep for Victoria. [Page 24.]
Wednesday ^th. Cloudy with light drops of rain in the afternoon.
Soholah returned from Vancouver with letters, those for Mr. Douglas
were immediately dispatched in a canoe to endeavor to overhaul the
Thursday 6th. Showery. Kiave and Kalama felling down trees near
the intended slaughterhouse. Cowie & Kahannui repairing & making
hand barrows, Linklater weighing wool, Slocum attending his wife,
who [by] all appearances will not be much longer in this world. A
party of Indians sent out to McLeod's to work about the potatoes
the rest of the remaining gang weeding in garden. Dr. Tolmie on a
visit to the Tinalquot. The party sent after the Schooner returned
having fallen in with her at the Soquamish village. 77 Crops looking
well, fine prospects of an abundant harvest.
Friday 6th. Weather as before. Work much as before. Keave sick
off duty. Lowe & Beinston assisted by some of the plain people
assayed to drive in a band of Cows, but were unsuccessfull.
Saturday 7th. Light showers till evening, when it commenced rain-
ing in good earnest. No change in the work. Dr. Tolmie returned.
74 A farmsite and herdsman's station.
75 A farmsite and herdsman's station.
79 At Tnmwater.
" At site of Port Madison. Chief Seattle lived here.
The Nisqually Journal 228
The missing Sinahomish found murdered, now known by his partner
Joe, for some trifling quarrel & Joe confesses that he cut his throat
when asleep during the heat of the day. [Page 25.]
Sunday 8th. Cloudy, with a strong S.W. Breeze.
Monday 9th. Strong occasional showers of rain. Cowie & Kalama
sorting shingles preparatory to covering the big store. Slocum & a
party of Indians clearing water way of Stream 78 where the new
Slaughterhouse is to be built. Cush with the women weeding & hoe-
ing potatoes. Kahannui sent off with two Indians to Tinalquot to
clear roads to the different watering places, for the sheep.
Tuesday 10th. Weather as yesterday. Slocum & Linklater with four
Indians baling up Loose shingles at the beach. The other hands as
before. Keave returned to duty.
Wednesday 11th. — Fine sunshiny weather, work as before. Keave
again sick off duty. Mr. Chambers arrived to settle the affairs of the
deceased I. T. Heath.
Thursday 12. Sultry. Kalama & Cowie commenced roofing the store
3 foot shingles. Dr. Tolmie accompanied by Mr. Chambers rode out
to Mr. Heath's to value his stock.
Friday 18th. Weather very close and sultry. Work as before. Link-
later and Slocum finished baling Shingles. Keave returned to duty.
Saturday 14-th. Weather as before. Link, with a gang dusting &
beating Bullock & Cow Hides. Chambers off in the evening.
Sunday 15th. . . Sultry.
Monday 16th. Weather as before. Cowie, Kalama & Keave engaged
as before, one side of the roof finished. Cush and most of the Indian
Mob sent out to Yanalacows park at the upper end of Muck to hoe
potatoes. Cattle counting commenced, superintended by the Doctor.
Tuesday 17th. Sultry. Work as before. Mr. C. T. Todd 79 arrived
Wednesday 18th. Fresh breezes from the Northward. Mr. Todd left
for the Cowlitz accompanied by Dr. Tolmie.
Thursday 19. Sultry. No change in the work. Some Snoqualmies 80
Friday 20th. Cloudy first part of the day, balance clear. Cowie and
his assistants repairing barn roofs &c. Linklater & his gang cleaning
' 8 The Sequalltchew Creek.
™ A servant.
80 Trade with the Snoqualmies increased materially after the affair at the Port. This
may be explained on the ground that the natives were keenly interested in the outcome of the
affair, and adopted this method of keeping closely in touch with events.
224 Victor J. Farrar
out barns. Indian mob sweeping Fort. J. Ross 81 returned from
Vancouver. [Page 27.]
Sunday 22nd. Rain first part of the day fine the balance. Dr. Tol-
mie returned from Cowlitz.
Monday 28rd. Fine. Cowie accompanied by myself 82 looked out
some cedar trees for Shingles, some were found within half a mile of
the Steilacoom river 83 in a convenient place. Kalama & Squally re-
pairing rakes &c. Steilacoom and the spare hands cleaning out barns
& sheds. Women weeding potatoes & thinning turnips.
Tuesday 24th. Weather cool. Cowie, Kalama & five Indians sent to
cut & raft home some cedar for making shingles. Keavehaccow by
permission left for Fort Vancouver to see his friends, before leaving
he made an engagement for a further term of two years from 1st
Novr. '49 wages £17 per annum.
Wednesday 25th. Sultry. An auction took place today, of the re-
maining effects of the deceased I. T. Heath, which went off at very
good prices, little work done.
Thursday 26th. Sultry. Smoky from fires 8 * in the neighborhood.
Friday 27th. Cloudy; light rain towards evening. Dr. Tolmie ac-
companied by Mr. Chambers gone on a visit to Newmarket; a sad
accident happened to J. Ross out at his place by the falling of a
piece of timber whilst setting up a corn shed, he got his left leg
broken, a little above the ankle. [Page 28.]
Saturday 28th. First part of the day cloudy & windy. Towards
evening clear & fine. Work as before. A good gang of Sinahomish
& Skeywhamish about traded a few deer skins and provisions from
them. Slocum's wife died last Wednesday.
Sunday 29th. Fine clear weather. Dr. Tolmie returned from his
Monday 80th. Cloudy. Linklater & Steilacoom repairing roof of
Pigsty. Slocum and 6 Indians assisted at J. Ross' to raise a corn shed.
Cush & his gang of women doing various jobs.
Tuesday 81st. Signs of rain first part of the day, but clearer by noon.
Slocum and all the Indian mob breaking up new land in swamps.
Wednesday 1st. — Sultry & rain. Slocum mowing grass in meadow,
some women 35 also with sickles. Linklater with three hands & cleared
81 Mr. John Boss, a servant.
02 Mr. Walter Boss, clerk, who with Dr. Tolmie keeps the Journal.
83 Chambers Creek at Steilacoom, set down as Chudley River by Insklp on Chart 1947,
84 Forest fires.
88 Indian women.
The Nisqually Journal 225
a spot down the Sequalitch Stream of brush wood & felling some
trees as the commencement of a site for a saw mill.
Thursday 2nd. Weather as yesterday. Lowe, Slocum and Beinston
commenced cradling oats. Indians variously employed. Cowie and
party arrived in the evening with a raft of Shingles & cedar blocks.
Friday Srd. Weather as before, 4 Cradles cutting down oats. Mr.
C. T. Todd returned from Vancouver, he is accompanied by Capt.
Grant, 86 one of the Settlers for Fort Vancouver's Island.
Saturday 4th. Cowie, Kalama, Squally and David repairing Carts,
cradles &c, the rest as before.
Sunday 5th. Weather very sultry.
Monday 6th. Two Canoes, one with Mr. Todd for Fort Langley, and
the other for Victoria with Capt. Grant left this morning. Kalama,
Keave, Slocum, Lowe, Linklater & Beinston cradling oats. A large
gang of about 60 Indians engaged for harvest.
Tuesday 7th. Sultry. Cowie added to the number of Cradlers. A
gang of Indians under Steilacoom pulling pease, the rest binding oats.
Mr. Thornton 87 Sub-Indian agent arrived for the purpose [of] dis-
tributing some presents to the various Indian chiefs of the sound.
Wednesday 8th. No change in the weather. Work as before.
Thursday 9th. Weather & work as before.
Friday 10th. Harvest going on as well as might be expected. Oats
Saturday 11th. Fine. The wheat not being perfectly ready for cut-
ting, the mob partly sweeping out the fort, and the rest with Slocum
breaking up land in swamp, then gave leave to the greater part of
the Indian mob, until such time as the wheat would be ripe, those of
the mob cutting patches amongst the wheat that is ripe. Cowie, Bas-
tien & the other hands set to work about new slaughterhouse.
Sunday 12th. Sultry.
Monday 18th. Smoky. Cowie resumed work as on Saturday. Mob
breaking up land in swamp. McLeod & assistants in bathing lambs
in Tobacco water.
Tuesday Hth. Weather as before. No change in the work.
Wednesday 15th. Sultry. Strong breezes of wind towards evening.
All the Indian mob commenced cutting wheat with sickles. Cowie &
M See ante, note 68.
■* J. Quimi Thornton.
226 Victor J. Farrar
party continueing work on Slaughter house, two horse. carts & a ox
waggon carting in oats. Beinston stowing it.
Thursday 16. Weather. Slagomas returned from Victoria reported
the Schooner to be at Port Orchard.
Friday 17th. Weather and work as before. [Page 31.]
Saturday 18. Sultry. Schooner Cadboro arrived, bringing a good
supply of goods for us, and also the Servants Orders.
Sunday 19th. Sultry. Mr. Tod with his family arrived from F.
Monday 20th. Cowie and party at work on slaughterhouse. Link-
later with Indians discharging schooner. Mr. Ross off to Newmarket
to see to the measurement of a cargo of Lumber for the Schooner
Tuesday 21st. Indians summoned by Judge Thornton Subindian
Agent, beginning to arrive. In the afternoon he addressed representa-
tions of the Scad jet, Sinahomish, Soquamish, Stichasamish and Nis-
qually Tribes, 89 and made presents to the chiefs and principal men.
Two blankets 3pt. 90 each to three of the former, 1 Blkt. Spt. to one
and a fm. 91 baize ea. to about 20 of the latter.
Wednesday 22nd. Smoky. Many more Indians arriving, Klalums,
Skaywhamish, and others, and to these the Sub Indian Agents made
presents on rather a more moderate scale than those of yesterday, the
funds placed at his disposal by Govr. Lane ($400) not admitting of
greater liberality. Schooner Cadboro off for Newmarket in the morn-
ing, she having been beached yesterday and repaired in her false keel.
Thursday 28rd. Work much as on Monday. Wheatreapers advancing
slowly. In the afternoon Major Hathaway of the U. S. Artillery
arrived from Vancouver accompanied by Mr. Lattie formerly of the
H. B. Co.'s marine. Major Hathaway 92 intends proceeding to survey
some of the river estuaries and harbours along the continental shore
of Puget Sound. About dusk Captain Hill 93 of the U. S. Artillery
accompanied by several of the officers of his company arrived from
the chartered barque Harpooner which anchored this evening in the
roadstead. [Page 32.]
88 Eraser River.
80 These tribes of Sallsh, with their chief places of residence, were In 1849 as follows :
Skagit, on Whidbey Island the Skagit Hirer ; Snohomish, on the Snohomish Elver ; Suquamlsh,
at Port Madison, and, Including the Dnwamish, at Elliott Bay; Stechass at Newmarket and
Buddlnlet ; Nisqually, on the Nlsqually Elver and In the vicinity of the Fort.
80 Three point, a grade of blanket, so called because three lines were woven into the edge,
which determined its width and value.
88 Commander of the 11th Military District, with headquarters then at Oregon City.
88 Captain Bennett H. Hill, commanding officer at Steilacoom.
The Nisqually Journal 227
Thursday 2Srd. Continued. Captain Morice of the Harpooner also
up and the party remained till a late hour.
Friday 24-th. Smoky. Rode 94 to Steilacoom this morning in company
with Major Hathaway, and Captain Hill in order that they might
judge for themselves as to whether Steilacoom, or Sequallitchew 96
would form the best winter quarters for the troops. Steilacoom re-
ceived the preference on account of the number of buildings already
erected there. On our return, Major Hathaway accompanied by Mr.
Lattie went on board the Harpooner, and in the afternoon she dropped
down towards Steilacoom. Snietlam the Scad jet chief engaged to
convoy Major Hathaway on his exploring trip, the party to start from
on board the Harpooner tomorrow morning. Mr. Thornton's account
arranged, preparatory to his starting for Cowlitz tomorrow morning.
Captain Morice of the Harpooner accompanied Mr. Thornton, he
being accused of having smuggled goods and sold liquor to Indians,
while in the Columbia River.
Saturday 25th. Smokey. Mr. Thornton signed an account today of
421 dollars 26 cents for Indian Presents and one of 20 Dollars for
Traveling Expenses, both against Govr. Lane, as Indian Agent. I
afterwards signed both accounts as correct, and forwarded them by
Mr. Thornton under cover to Mr. C. Factor Ogden. 98 Messrs. Thorn-
ton and Morice started in the afternoon. Mr. Tod and I 97 rode out to
Steilacoom to see how the Officers were getting on and whether they
required any assistance.
Sunday 26th. Smokey. Had a visit from Mr. Wright chief officer of
the Harpooner. In the forenoon arrived from Victoria Mr. R. Fin-
layson accompanied by Mr. Mowatt chief officer of the "Mary Dare"
and Mr. Joseph Mackay 98 of Victoria with some engaged men and a
number of Indians all in persuit of 8 seamen and one Canadian
(Champagne) runaways from the Steamer Beaver and Mary Dare.
[Page 33.] Mr. Finlayson and companions started in the afternoon
with fresh crews of Indians for Newmarket. Mr. Ross who had just
arrived, returning thither on horseback accompanied by Mr. Mowatt.
M Dr. Tolmie.
»8 The Military believed that the Hudson's Bay and Puget Sound Agricultural Companies
would shortly remove and the site be given over to the army. The small buildings used by the
Company at Mr. Heath's hardly warranted the expense in fixing over, and most of the quar-
ters were built outright in the course of a few days. In the exploration tour down the Sound
the site held most in favor was Dungeness, where Major Hathaway thought a fort might be
built which would serve the Americans as Fort Victoria served the British.
•• Chief Factor Peter Skene Ogden, now at Fort Vancouver.
•' Dr. Tolmie.
88 Chief Factor Joseph William McKay, recently of Fort Simpson, soon to become famous
because of his discovery of coal at Nanaimo.
228 Victor J. Farrar
Monday 27th. Still Smokey. News was sent from Mr. John Ross
that four men supposed to be white men were seen prowling about his
place. Mr. Finlayson, accompanied by Messrs. Mowatt & Mackay &
myself" started off on horseback in search, but with no better success
Wednesday 29th. Still Smoky, caused by a large fire in the wood
between Steilacoom and Kitson's 100 Island. Mr. Finlayson & party
left for Victoria. Cowie & gang employed about new slaughter house,
Slocum at the head of Indians gleaning wheat fields two horses carting
in oats & wheat.
Thursday 30th. Work as yesterday. News having heard of the run-
aways being at Steilacoom Dr. Tolmie accompanied by Mr. Tod started
off in a canoe with a crew of Indians to see them, and try by reasoning
to persuade them to return to their duty, the Doctor returned later,
saw some trace of them, but no men. Major Hathaway & Mr. Lattie
returned from their trip down the sound not much satisfied as to
capability of finding a fitting site for a dock yard or a town. 101 [Page
Friday Slst. Smoke not so dense, finished gleaning. Cowie & his
gang employed as before.
Saturday 1st. Mornings very cool, frosty rather in the evenings on
the potatoes & vegetables. All the grain safely housed. Harvesting
gang after sweeping off the fort were paid off. News of the Snoqual-
mies coming and making a settlement with the Bostons 102 for the affair
of the 1st May last.
Sunday 2nd. Weather as yesterday, some Snowqualmies (Hatikynum)
arrived they say that Patykynum & his gang will be here in a day
Monday 3rd. Cowie, Slocum, & the others repairing flooring of new
barn. Lowe & Beinston killed an ox for beef for the Soldiers. A
large gang of Sinahomish traded a quantity of mats, Salmon &c. Paty-
num arrived with his gang, Sending 80 3pt Blankets to Steilacoom
to used as circumstances may require, at the time of the settlement
for the Snoqualmie affair.
Tuesday J/ih. Fine. Smoke pretty near cleared off. Cowie, Keave &
98 Mr. Walter Ross.
""> Ketron Island.
ioi g ee ante, note 95.
i° J Boston, a Chinook Jargon term applied to Americans because Americans first came from
Boston. The English were called In the same tongue King George men.
The Nisqually Journal 229
Slocum sick off duty, with severe colds, Kalama & Squally planeing
boards for lining Mr. Forrests room. A good trade done with the
Snowqualmies in the way of Salmon, Baskets & a few skins. [Page 35.]
Wednesday 5th. Fine. Kalama & Keave lining Mr. Forrests room.
All our engaged Indians off to Steilacoom to be present at the making
up of the business with the Snowqualmies, which came off today. Dr.
Tolmie & Mr. Todd present, it ended in 6 of the worst being seized and
confined, the names of 6 are "Whyeek" "Qullawout" "Copass" "Taha-
wai" "Tatam & [ ] 103 all of the Snowqualmich. 80 Blankets were
paid out to the different chiefs of the tribe.
Thursday 6th. Weather still continues smoky. Kalama & Kiave
employed as yesterday. Beinston, Steilacoom, Bill and 1 or 2 others
thrashing wheat with flails. Kahannui sent out to Steilacoom with a
gang of Indians to cut the wheat there. Cowlitz Jack who accom-
panied Major Hathaway returned from Cowlitz. He reports of having
seen the Victoria runaways at the "Skokoom Chuck 104 on their way to
Cowlitz, they were provided with horses.
Friday 7th. Sultry. Kalama & Kiave and David repairing a broken
horse cart, the rest as before.
Saturday 8th. Cloudy most part of the day. Work much as before.
Beinston cleaned his two days thrashing. Eight bushels. [Page 86.]
Sunday 9th. Cloudy & Cool. Morice of the Harpooner returned from
Monday 10th. Fine, but still smoky. Kiave & Kalama repairing
horse carts. Cowie and Gohome splitting Shingles. Commenced taking
up potatoes, of which we will have but a poor crop this year.
Tuesday 11th. Fine. C. Jack with the Indian women taking up po-
tatoes at Tyrrells lake, which turns out pretty well. Lowe sent with
the beef cart to Steilacoom. Kiave & Kalama also sent there to assist
Lahannui to cut the wheat; Capt. Morice gave in 11 thousand dollars
for different debts.
Wednesday 12th. Cloudy, latter part of the day light drops of rain.
Cowie Gohome, and Steilacoom splitting Shingles for new house. Bein-
ston again installed in kitchen in place of Cooper who removed to Cow-
103 In the official account of the trial the Indians mentioned are : Kassas, Quallawort,
Stulharrier, Tattau, Wyesk and Quatthllnkyne. See Ben. Doc, 31 Cong., 2nd Ses., Doc. 1.
B, Serial No. 587.
1M The Skookumchuck, a tributary of the Chehalis at Centralia, from the Chinook Jargon
words "skookum," big, wild or rough, and "chuck" water. Compare Pilchuck "red water"
and Saltchuck "Puget Sound."
280 Victor J. Farrar
litz. A large number of Snowqualmies said to have arrived at Steila-
Thursday 18th. Rainy all the day. Steilacoom, Squally, Neopalu &
Lowe thrashing oats with flails. Cowie & Gohome planeing boards
preparatory to lining Mr. Todds rooms. Snowqualmies made a good
trade in Dry Salmon, Baskets, & Mats. They are going to camp at
Steilacoom till it is understood what is to be done with the Indian
prisioners. [Page 87.]
Friday 14 Fair, but cloudy. Jack and his gang taking up potatoes
at Mallard Hollow which turns well, potatoes pretty numerous & large.
The other hands employed as yesterday. 80 bus White. M. Hollow.
Saturday 16th. Weather fair & clear of smoke. Work as before.
The three Kanakas returned from Steilacoom.
Sunday 16th. Cloudy but fair. Thlekatats 106 arrived at Steilacoom.
Monday 17th. Cloudy. Cowie, Keave, Kalama and three Indians set-
ting up slaughter house. Kahannui sent off to Steilacoom with 5 or 6
Indians to bind the wheat. Mr. Tallmadge 108 the Quartermaster con-
sented to take it as oats for fodder. C. Jack and his gang taking up
potatoes in garden, which are of a superior kind & plentiful!. Dr.
Tolmie accompanied by Mr. Todd visited Newmarket.
Tuesday 18th. Fine & clear. Work as before. Potat quality of S.
potatoes taken up in garden are 70 bush, large & 15 bush. Small, ex-
clusive of what used for mess. Dr. Tolmie returned accompanied by
"'Klikitat, a Shahaptian tribe living on the headwaters of the Cowlitz, Lewis, White
Salmon and Klickitat Elvers.
ion Qrier Tallmadge, acting assistant quartermaster at Steilacoom.
[To be continued]