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Full text of "Journal of John Work, Sept. 7th-Dec. 14th, 1825 (Continued)"

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Vol. v., No. 3 Juh, 1914 



l^asiftington ||is;tarical ©uartedp 



JOURNAL OF JOHN WORK, SEPT. 7TH-DEC. 14TH, 1825 

(Introduction and annotations by T. C. Elliott) 

That part of this Journal covering the period from June 21st to 
Sept. 6th, including the introduction thereto, is already familiar to readers 
of Vol. v.. No. 2 (April, 1914), of this Quarterly; a second installment 
is now given, and the third and last will appear in the October number. 
From September 7th to November Nth Mr. Work is in charge of Spo- 
kane House, the Hudson's Bay Company Trading Post located near the 
present city of Spokane, and his journal relates the day-to-day occurrences 
there, the arrival of the express from across the Rocky Mountains, the 
starting off of the clerk going to the Kootenay District for the winter, 
etc. On the 14th of November Mr. Work leaves Mr. Birnie at Spokane 
House and himself starts off for his winter station at Flathead Post or 
Fort on the Clark Fork of the Columbia. This journal enables us to 
identify positively the location of this Flathead Fort at this time, it being 
several miles further up the river than the original Saleesh House built 
on Thompson's Prairie or Plain by David Thompson in 1 809. The 
parenthetical marks are used to designate words that are doubtful because 
indistinct in the original manuscript, of which this is a copy. 



JOURNAL 
(Continued from Page 115. Vol. V., No. 2.) 

Wed.y. 7 

Fine warm weather. 

The three freemen got a small supply of articles to enable them to 

reach Mr. Ogden"" and went off to join him. — I wrote to him by them. 

liol'eter Skene Ogden, then in charge of the Snake Country trapping 
expedition and on the headwaters of eitlier the Snalce or the Missouri rivers. 

(163) 



164 T.C.Elliott 

Sent a man & an Indian off to the Kettle Falls with a supply of 
tools and articles of Trade for Mr. Dears."^ 

Some of the men were employed clearing out the store and opening 
& arranging some of .the furs. — 

Thursday 8 

Sharp cold weather in the mornings but warm in the middle of the 
day. The men employed about the store. — I am busy making out a 
(scheme) to take an inventory and get the papers arranged. — 

Little doing in the way of Trade, a few fish and roots but no 
beaver worth mentioning — A horse was traded today. 

Friday 9 
Overcast weather. 

The men were employed airing and beating the Snake furs. — 
Mr. Birnie & Kittson & I taking an inventory of the goods &c in 
the store. — 

Saturday 10 

Thunder & heavy showers of rain. 

The Store is in such bad order that the least rain pours in through 
the roof that scarcely anything can be kept dry except it is covered. Part 
of the Snake beaver were put out in the morning to air and be beat but 
the rain coming on they had to be taken in. 

We are getting a few bad salmon in the barrier, but the most of 
them are so bad that they can scarcely be eaten. 



Sunday 1 I 



Clear fine weather. 



Monday 12 
Clear fine weather. 

The men employed airing and beating the beaver. — Some Pendent 
Oreille Indians arrived and traded about 20 beaver. 

Tuesday I 3 
Overcast lowering weather. 
The men employed about the store. 

Wed.y. 14 
Clear fine weather. 

The people employed about the store, the remainder of the furs were 
aired and beat, they are now all piled bye in excellent order. 

fiiTlios. Dears, a clerk in eliarKO of the buildinK at the new trading post 
at Kettle Falls, Wash., to be known as Fort Colville. 



Journal of John Work 1 65 

Getting very little fresh provisions, the barrier is producing nothing 
even of the bad salmon. 

Thursd.y. 1 5 

Sent a man and an Indian off to the Kettle Falls with some pro- 
visions & other articles required for the Express. Mr. McLeod's family*- 
accompanied them. — 

The smith & one man employed making Axes. The other man clean- 
ing up the store & about the Fort. A few Nezperces Indians with a large 
band of horses arrived from the plains, they had been collecting roots 
and came on a visit. No furs. 

Friday 16 

Thunder & heavy showers of Rain. 

The smith making Axes, the other men differently employed about 
the Fort. 

Satd.y. 1 7 

Pleasant weather. 

Had horses brought from the plains to set out to the Kettle fals 
tomorrow accompanied by Mr Kittson to send off the canoe with the Ex- 
press to the Rocky Mountains & see how the people are getting on with 
the buildings. 

After dark a man and an Indian arrived from Wallawalla in three 
days with letters from Fort Vancouver dated on the 5 th inst. Some for 
Mr Ogden & some for the (mountain), with instructions to forward the 
former by a trusty person to meet Mr Ogden at the Flat Heads or carry 
them to him if it can be done with safety. I am also directed by Mr 
McLoughlin to stop the buildings at Kettle Falls till the arrival of the 
Express from across, because the site"^ pointed out for the Fort is on the 
South side of the River. — 

I wrote to Mr Dease as I have to be off early in the morning, though 
the man will not get off for a day or two as his horses are fatigued. 

Sunday 18 

Foggy weather in the morning. Mr Kittson & I set out at Yi past 
5 oclock from Spokane and arrived at the Kettle Falls at '/2 P^st 6 in 
the evening which is good days ride. We had two horses each, we left 
the ones which we rode in the fore part of the day about half way, though 
they were not knocked up. We were only two hours from the South end 

62The family of John McLeod en route to the Red River Dlst. Consult 
Note No. 40, p. 102, of April Quarterly. 

83Dr. McLoughlin visited this place the following summer and the 
Fort was built where Gov. Simpson had selected the site. 



166 T.C.Elliott 

of the long plain"'' to the Kettle Falls. The men who left Spokane on 
the 1 5 th arrived last night. — 

Monday 19 

Cloudy weather. 

Set the Express men to work to gum the boat and sent them oflf®" 
at 4 o'clock in the afternoon. The crew consists of 8 men. The boat 
is not deep laden but a good deal lumbered on account of the passengers, 
Mr McLeod's wife & 2 children, Mr Ross's wife and 4 children & St. 
Martin & 1 child. The men have provisions, corn, pease, dry meat & dry 
salmon for 36 days. The despatches are in Pierre L'Etang's charge. — 
Two of the Express men were sick one with venereal, two others had to 
be sent in their place. — 

Since I have been here last very little progress has been made in 
the building. Not a stick of the house is up yet nor will the timber be in 
readiness for some time, I expected the frame at least would have been 
up. The causes assigned for this slow progress is principally the want of 
a proper hand to lay out the work for the men. L. La Bonta it appears 
is quite unfit for this duty, the whole of the posts (1'4) were squared 
too small & others of a proper size had to be taken out of the woods. — 
J. B. Proveau is now laying out the work & the business is going better 
on. The timber for the frame is now pretty well advanced in readiness 
to put together, but only about the 1 /3 of the filling up pieces are squared. 
Sawing also has gone on very slowly, only about 93 boards & planks are 
yet cut — ^the saw at first was badly sharpened, & some time was lost 
putting it in proper order. Some of the men were also often sick, or 
pretended to be so, & unfit for work. Certainly there is little work done 
for the number of men & limes they were employed. 

7 men since the 1 0th or 1 2 th August and 

9 more men since the 1 st inst. 

Tuesday 20th 

Raining in the forepart of the day. — 

Set out at 1 1 oclock on our return to Spokane & encamped at 7 at 
the Big Camass plain.*' 

Left directions with Mr Dears to keep the men at work a few 

64More recently known as Long Prairie, about 18 miles from the Fort. 

sBThls Express boat ascended the Columbia River to Boat Encampment 
at the mouth of Canoe river and met there by appointment the H. B. Co. 
officer returning from York Factory after the annual summer council 
there. The horses that brought that Gentleman's party across the Atha- 
basca pass returned with these passengers and dispatches, and the officer 
came back down the Columbia in the boat. Consult this text Oct. 31st 
Prox. 

ASA prairie still known by the same name; near Springdale, Stevens 
county. 



Journal of John Work 1 67 

days longer to have the timber for the store all in readiness to be put 
up in the spring if another situation does not be fixed upon. There 
is no other convenient spot near the fishing at the falls on vfhich to build 
a fort. It will be necessary to call home the men to put the houses, 
etc., at Spokane in order to pass the winter. — Mr Dears is to be in readi- 
ness to proceed up the Pendent Oreville River when the men are called 
home. 

Wed.y. 21 

Foggy in the morning, fine weather afterwards. 

Proceeded on our journey at 6 oclock and arrived at Spokane before 
I 1. Mr. Kittson & I crossed the point from the (Buffau de Chaudin"^), 
in 50 minutes. 

Nothing material has occurred during our absence. By an Indian 
arrival lately from the Flat Heads it is reported that the Blackfeet have 
stolen the most of our peoples' horses which were in company with the F 
Head Indians. It seems the horses & some of the freemen who last left 
Mr Ogden were ahead of the Flat Head camp with some of the chiefs 
and that the women & people had stopped to gather berries while the 
horses went on a short distance ahead with (Revit)"** & crossed a small 
River where the Blackfeet were lying in wait and drove them off. The F. 
Head chiefs, on the alarm being given, instantly pursued but could come 
up with only a few of the horses, and killed one of the thieves, and it 
is now reported that the F. Head chiefs are so exasperated that war is 
determined upon & that the Blackfeet will be attacked immediately, 
however this is only Indian reports 

The young Indian who was sent off with the despatches to Mr Ogden 
on the 28th Augt. is supposed to have reached the Flat Head camp 
some time ago. — 

Thursday 22nd 

Clear fine weather. 

Part of the men here employed covering the store with mats, the 
others getting firewood. 

Fresh provisions are now very scarce scarcely a sufficiency of trout 
and a small kind of salmon can be procured for on our table, and very 
few of the bad salmon are got so that the people are mostly fed on dry 
provisions. 

STProbably Walkers Prairie, where the Walker-Eells Mission was 
located in 1838. 

esThls would be Francois Rivet, an Interpreter, who was given some 
authority by the traders. He afterward settled on French Prairie below 
Salem, Oregon. 



1 68 T. C. Elliott 

Friday 23 
Clear fine weather. 

The people employed as yesterday, two covering the store with mats 
& two getting firewood. 

Saturday 24 
Clear fine weather. 
Men employed as yesterday. Finished covering the store with mats. 

Sunday 25 

Weather as yesterday. 

Part of the Nezperces Indians went off today, they have been here 
some time. 

Monday 26 

Fine weather. 

Late last night Faneant one of Mr Ogden's men arrived from the 
Missouri with letters dated on the 1 1 th inst — Mr. Ogden is now on his 
way with 20 men to Wallawalla by the Snake Country"" and has sent 
orders here for the part of his outfit that is at this place, with about 50 
horses, 20 saddles and appichimans, leather, cords, etc., to be forwarded 
to meet him at Wallawalla. he expects to reach that place about the 20th 
October. He also requests Mr Dears to be sent to meet him with the 
horses. — There will be only about 20 horses left, and the most of them 
unfit for any duty. — 

Tuesday 27th 

Clear fine pleasant weather. 

Sent off an Indian to Wallawalla with Mr Ogden's disptaches, so 
that they may reach Mr Deane as soon as possible, that he may forward 
them to the sea if he deems it necessary & also have time to purchase 
horses for Mr Ogden. — An Indian with some horses was sent off to Kettle 
Falls with instructions for Mr Dears to get the potatoes put in a pit 
and well covered up so that the frost cannot injure them, that they may 
serve for seed next year, he is also to get the timber laid up in a proper 
manner, & come home as soon as possible with the men and all the tools. — 
We will have plenty of work for all the men here, preparing material for 
boats, & providing fuel for the winter and repairing the houses. These 
jobs require to be done before the Express arrives as the number of men 
allowed for this place will have plenty to do attending to the boat building 
and other necessary jobs during the winter. My object in having them af 
Kettle falls when I was last there was to save provisions & to have the 

09Tliat is, by the Snake river route through Boise, Payette, Welser, 
Burnt river and the Grande Ronde in Eastern Oregon. He actually arrived 
at Fort Walla Walla on Nov. 9th. 



Journal of John Work 169 

material for them ready to set up. Mr Dears is directed to leave strict 
injunctions with the old chief to see that nothing that is left there be in- 
jured by the Inds. The tools are all to be brought home. 

Wed.y. 28 

Clear fine weather. 

A few Indians coming & going, but very little doing in the way 
of trade. I am busy arranging the accounts, but the Inventory was so 
incorrectly taken in the spring and the goods disposed of in the beginning 
of the season so badly accounted for that, I cannot get any kind of a sat- 
isfactory account made out out. — 

Thursday 29 

Fine weather. 

Had a man employed these two days past cutting (?) (?) into cords. 
An Ind. was employed, boiling gum. — Scarcely any fresh provisions. 
Nothing for the people, and but very little for our own table. 

Friday 30th 
Cloudy mild weather. 

Visited the hay makers they will require a day or two yet to have 
a sufficiency made. 

Octr. Satd.y. 1 

Some rain in the night, cloudy mild weather afterwards. 

Mr Dears and the men under his charge arrived from Kettle Falls with 
all -their tools baggage etc. They were sent for in good time as they 
would have been obliged to come home or have had provisions sent to them 
as no more could be got there. — He took up the potatoes and put them bye 
in a little house that was built there by one of the men, the produce is 
only 1 3 kegs'" from six that were sowed, they burried & (put) a good 
thickness of earth over them that the frost may not injure them so that 
they may serve for seed next year if the Indians do not steal them in the 
winter. The old chief is directed to take particular care of them. The 
timber &c is also left under his charge, and he promised to take good care 
of it as well as the potatoes. 

It would require ten men, 8 or 1 days yet to have the store up and 
ready for covering the roof. The frames are now all ready for setting 
up and about the one half of the filling up pieces ready, of the covering 
planks 18 feet long are ready plank of ten feet for doors &c and boards 
of two feet for the gable ends are also ready. — ^There have been 7 men 

"oThe first vegetables grown in Stevens county, Washington, by white 



1 70 T. C. Elliott 

at work from the 1 or 12 of Augt. to the 30th. 1 6 & part of the time 
I 7 from the I st to 1 9th Sept, and 9 men from the 1 9th of Sept to the 
28th were employed doing this work. — had there been an experienced hand 
to lay out the work for the men much more would have been done. — 

We will have full employment for all the men now till the Express 
arrives preparing material for boats, making cor(r)als, getting firewood, 
and putting the houses in order for the winter, these works will require to 
be done now, as there will not be enough of people here to attend to them 
in winter. — 

Sunday 2nd. 

Heavy rain in the night & forepart of the day. — 
The Indian who was sent to Kettle Falls with the horses did not 
return till today One of his horses which he had to leave by the way 
was stolen by an Indian & taken to the Chutes, he said he had taken him 
in revenge for a quarrel he had with one of the women of the fort from 
whom he got a bloody face, this happened only a few days ago. 

Monday 3 

Fair mild weather. 

Had four of the men off seeking timber to saw for boats, they felled 
nine trees none of which would serve, they are a good distance up along 
the River seeking il.'^ Wood of the dimensions required, 40 feet long 
& 1 4 inches square, is difficult to find. 

The most of the others were employed getting firewood, they tried 
to raft in the morning but the wood is so far from the water side and the 
river so shallow that they could make nothing of it & had to commence 
cutting cord wood which will have to be carted'^ home by horses. 

Tuesday 4 

Fine pleasant weather. 

The men employed as yesterday, those in search of the boat timber 
found three trees suitable for the purpose & have made some progress in 
squaring them. 

Wed.y. 5th. 

Clear fine weather. 

Two more men were sent to assist the squarers. The others were 
employed taking up the potatoes, the crop is but very indifferent only 
about 28 kgs from 3 that were sowed, they had begun to grow again & 
some of them were budded several inches. 

7iGood cedar timber suitable for boats Is said to have grown above 
the mouth of Deep creek four or five miles above the Fort. 

T2The flat where Spokane House was built was a small prairie with 
some scattering timber In spots. Gov. Stevens found it so in 1853; see 
Part 1, Vol. 12 of Pac. Ry. Reports. 



Journal of John Work 1 71 

Prepared & tied up sundry articles to be sent off tomorrow to Nez- 
perces for the Snake expedition, the horses were brought home in the 
evening to be ready. — 

Thursday 6 

Sharp frost in the morning. — 

The Indian Charlie who is to accompany the people to Nezperces 
did not arrive as he had promised and one of the men's horses being lost, 
deferred sending the party off till tomorrow. 

The men were sent off to assist in getting home the timber, they 
got it in and down part of the way. The River is very shallow & it is 
difficult getting it down the rapids. 

Friday 7 

Weather as yesterday. 

Sent off the party to Nezperces at 8 oclock, it consists of Messrs. 
Kittson, Dears, their wives", six men & 2 Indians, with 50 horses 1 8 of 
which were loaded, the loads are not heavy. Mr Kittson, 4 of the men 
and 1 Indian are to return, some of the horses are to be brought back if 
they can be spared. Mr Dears & the other two men who belong to the 
Snake expedition are to remain. — The party are well armed and I think 
sufficiently strong to pass through the Indians with safety. 

The men at the Fort got home the timber and were afterwards em- 
ployed getting wood for a sawpit. 

Trade has been improving a little for some time past, a few beaver 
are coming in daily. — No fresh provisions, this will likely be a starving 
winter with the Indians, they are getting no bad salmon, formerly at this 
season they used to be abundant. 

By the old Kettle Falls chief I sent a note to be handed to the Gen- 
tlemen coming in with the Express. — It was intended that some one would, 
in compliance with the Governors orders, would have gone up the Pedent 
Oreille River to examine it. Mr Dears was to have gone, but his having 
to go to Nezperces prevented it. Mr Kittson in consequence of a hurt 
in the foot received by a fall last winter of which he is not yet thoroughly 
recovered & which prevents him from undertaking any journey on foot of 
any extent he was incapable of going, moreover it was considered necessary 
that for the more safe conveyance of the property to Walla Walla & the 
safe return of the people who have to come back, that he should (mak) 
(an effort to?) accompany the party. Mr. Bimie declared himself totally 
incapable of embarking in a small Indian canoe & could not undertake the 

T*Mn. Kittson's first wife was from the Walla Walla tribe: their son 
Peter William, born iat Fort Walla Walla in 1830, Is still living (1914) about 
25 miles from Portland, Oregon. 



1 72 T. C. Elliott 

trip but in a large canoe with at least four men, from the press of business 
at present, & a great deal of work being absolutely necessary to be done 
before winter commences it is impossible to spare the men, the examining 
the River must, therefore be deferred until next season. I am sorry it is 
out of our power to execute the Govrs instructions'^, though as we are at 
present situated, not having been able to remove the Fort, the trade can 
sustain no injury by the river not being examined this season, for even 
were the River navigable, the old rout would be preferable. 

Satd.y. 8 

Cloudy cold weather. 

Some of the men employed finished the sawpit & getting everything 
in readiness to commence sawing on Monday. — The others cutting fire- 
wood. 

Sunday 9 

Weather as yesterday, some rain in the night. — 

Monday 10 

Cloudy cold weather, showers of rain 6c hail, rain in the night. 

Men employed as follows. — Two sawing wood for boats, 2 seeking 
stem and stern posts, and six cutting wood for coals. The sawyers got on 
pretty well. The wood for stem & stern posts was also found. 

Tuesday 1 1 
Cold showery weather. 

Sent off 4 men with 6 horses to seek cedar for boat timber. 4 were 
employed cutting wood for coals & 2 sawing. 

Wed.y. 12 

Heavy rain the greater part of the day. 

Men employed as yesterday, but on account of the bad weather, 
both the wood cutters and sawyers were stopped a considerable time. — 
A sufficiency of wood is cut for the coals, but they have yet to build it 
into a pit or furnace. 

Thursday 1 3 

Heavy rain the greater part of the day. The rain kept the people 
idle a considerable part of the day. With this unfavourable weather the 
work is getting on very slowly. 

74See Gov. Simpson's instructions in entry of .Tuly 21st ante. The 
Pend d'Oreille river between Metallne Falls and Its mouth is not navigable 
to this day and this route was never adopted. 



Journal of John Work 1 73 

Friday 14th 

Cloudy fair weather. 

The woodmen finished arranging the wood for the coals, they are now 
ready to set fire to. Those who went off on tuesday returned with the wood 
for boat timber sufficient for 4 boats they would have been back sooner 
had it not been for the bad weather. Ihe sawyers got on pretty well, 
but unfortunately one of the logs which we had so much trouble getting, 
turns out to be rotten in the heart, it was sound at both ends. It will not 
answer the purpose & finding trees of a proper size & getting them home 
is attended with a good deal of difficulty. 

Satd.y. 15 

Cloudy fair weather. 

Four men employed squaring a piece of timber 40 feet long, 12 
inches wide and 6 thick to make up for the boards that are deficient in the 
one that was rotten. Two others of the men brought home some white 
earth to whitewash the houses. The sawyers made about 1 20 feet today. 



Wather as yesterday. 



Sunday 16 
Monday 1 7 



Cloudy fair weather 
The men brought home the log which was squared on Saturday. — ^After- 
wards 6 were employed cutting firewood, 2 cutting wheels for a truck, to 
cart home wood & 2 sawing. It requires all hands to be employed at 
firewood as none was cut in summer it being supposed that the fort was 
going to be removed. 

Tuesday 18 

Cloudy pleasant weather, frost in the night & foggy in the morning. — 
Men employed as yesterday. The sawyers made about 1 1 feet. 

The Indians had taken away the canoe so that the men could not get 

home the wheels after they were cut. 

Old Philip occasionally catches a few little fish with the scoop net 

which with a choice trout got from the Indians serves on our table but the 

people are fed entirely on dry provisions. 

Wed.y. 19 
Cloudy weather. 

Men employed as yesterday. Mr Kittson and his party arrived from 
WallaWalla''" in 5 days. All the property &c reached that place safe. 



T">That is: from Tort Ne/- I*erces or Walla Walla, 



1 74 T. C. Elliott 

He has letters from Dr McLaughlin and Mr Dease, the former had just 
arrived at Walla Walla and intimates that he will probably visit'" this 
place to meet the Express. — Mr Kittson brought five horses & four men 
back with him. two of the men which were sent (Cender) and (La- 
duoite), were exchanged for Wagner and Pierre, the former is sent here 
by way of punishment for disobedience of orders. — Mr. Kittson had six 
horses with him but he had to leave one of them by the way, which the 
Indians promised to take back. So that 5 will have to be deducted from 
the number sent 

Thursday 20 

Fine weather. 

The four men who arrived yesterday employed packing up saddles, 
appichimaiis, cords &c for N. Caledonia & Thompson's River, which 
are to be sent to the Forks to be forwarded to Okanogan by the Express 
boat. Our men employed white washing the Fort, the others employed 
sawing & cutting wood as yesterday. 

Friday 21 

Weather as yesterday. 

Men employed as yesterday. Finished packing the saddles ap- 
pichimans &c — and sent a man & an Indian off to the Plains'' for the 
horses to send off to the Forks tomorrow. 

One of the ( ?) Soteaux who has been here some time set off 
in the evening to the Flat Heads with several of the Spokane Indians, he 
got a small supply of ammunition and other necessary articles. Mr. Ogden 
requested this man to be sent to him to Wallawalla but we could not 
get him prevailed on to go, he is an Indian and it is useless to withhold 
these supplies as he would have gone off without them & in sulks & prob- 
ably hunted more during winter. We endeavored to detain him till 
the arrival of the Express but he would not stop. — 

Saturday 22 

Cloudy fine weather. 

Part of the men employed cleaning about the Fort, the others as 
before. 

Sent off J. B. Proveau, Louis (Shaegockatsta) and two Indians 
(one of them the chief of this place,) to the Forks with 16 horses loaded 
with the appichimans saddles &c for New Caledonia & Thompsons River. 
The people are to remain at the Forks till the Express arrives. 

"liFrom other sources we know that Dr. MoLoughlin did not get further 
inland than Fort Walla Walla that season. 
-'Spokane or Coeur d'Alene prairie. 



Journal of John Work 1 75 

Sunday 23 
Clear pleasant weather. 
Some Nezperces Indians are now driving towards the Fort. 

Monday 24 

Pleasant weather. 

Two men employed sawing, 2 beating & changing the furs to an- 
other place, 5 cutting wood, I making wheels & arranging a carriage for 
wood, 2 sundry jobs. — The sawyers finished the wood for 3 boats, in all 
73 boards 6 Inches wide and 40 feet long & 3 broad pieces for keels 40 
feet long & 14 Inches wide, and 6 pieces for gunwales 40 feet long & 2 
Inches wide in I 5 days, they worked well, they were retarded a good deal 
by bad weather when they commenced. 

Sunday 25 

Clear pleasant weather. 

The sawyers squaring two trees for plank to make a stern box for 
the boat timber. 1 man carting home wood, the other employed as yes- 
terday. 

Wedy 26 

Frosty in the morning fine weather afterwards. 

Two of the men employed covering the dwelling house with mats, 
the sawyers squared a log for boards to make a stearing box, the others 
cutting cord wood. 

Thursday 27 

Weather as yesterday. 

The sawyers sawing, the others employd as yesterday — ^The horse 
keeper came home & reported that three of his horses have strayed. — 

Friday 28 
Weather as yesterday 
The men employed as yesterday. 

Old Philip & another man finished covering the dwelling house with 
mats, — and afterwards commenced burning a pit of coals. 

Saturday 29th 

Overcast mild weather. 

Men employed as before The sawyers brought home another log for 
a few more boards. — 

Sunday 30 

Clear mild weather. 

Employed all day taking an Inventory of the goods in the store. 



1 76 T. C. Elliott 

Monday 31 

Mild pleasant weather. At midnight last night, A. R. McLeod'' 
Esq. C. T. & Mr. F. Ermatinger arrived from the Forks with the Express. 
Mr. Black & Mr. E. Ermatinger remained at the Forks. — Towards even- 
ing Mr. McLeod with three men and an Indian on horseback set out for 
Nezperces to meet Mr McLaughlin with the despatches. Three men' 
were also sent off with provisions for the people at the Forks and to bring 
up some property that has been brought back from the Rocky mountains. 

One of the passengers St. Martin who was going out, was drowned 
crossing a small creek near the mountains. By Mr. McLeod I wrote to 
Mr McLaughhn and to Mr Dease, apprising them that it will be incum- 
oent on Mr Dease who is to come & take charge of this District, to make all 
the Expedition in his power that the Flat Head people may get off in 
sufficient time not to be stopped by the ice. 

Tuesday 1st (November) 

Overcast mild weather. 

Messrs. Kittson'" and Ermatinger left for the Forks the former to 
return with the horses and property, the latter to accompany the boats to 
Okanagan. 

The men remaining at the Fort were employed cutting & carting 
home wood. Mr Birnie & I finished taking the invtry. 

Wed.y. 2 
Overcast cold weather. 

The men employed as yesterday. Two attending the coal pit that is 
burning, (charcoal) 3 cutting wood and 1 carting. 

TTiursday 3 

Overcast cold weather, some snow in the night and the morning. 

Mr. Kittson arrived from the Forks, he left the men behind they 
will not arrive till tomorrow. — The Express gentlemen also left the Forks 
yesterday. From some misunderstanding between Mr. McLeod & Mr. 

T8A. R. McLeod, a clilef trader who remained on the Columbia several 
years and commanded expedition against the Clallam Indians in 1828, for 
which he was criticised and perhaps censured.: Mr. Samuel Black (who 
was afterwards murdered at Kamloops) was on the way to take charge of 
Frot Walla Walla to relieve Mr. Dease there; Francis Ermatinger re- 
mained in the Columbia District for twenty years; but the brother, Mr. 
Kdward Rrmatinger, retired to St. Thomas. Ontario, in 1828. Consult 
"Journal of Edward Ermatinger," published by Royal Society of Canada, 
Ottawa, 1912. This "Express" brought mail from Hudson's Bay and all 
Eastern points. The Forks means the mouth of the Spokane river. 

7!>William Kittson and Francis Ermatinger, clerks of the Hudson's 
Bay Company, the latter on his way to take charge of Fort Oknaogan for 
the winter; Mr. Work and James Birnie, also a clerk, remain in charge 
at Spokane House. Mr. Birnie passed his last days at Cathlamet on the 
lower Columbia; his descendants reside there. 



Journal of John Work 1 77 

Black respecting a man P. Wagner who was exchanged for one of the 
Spokane men at Wallawalla by way of punishment for disobedience of 
orders, & was to be taken to Okanagan taken in his place, and the Spo- 
kane man's place supplied by one of the new hands coming in, instead of 
which Wagner is taken on & no one left in his place, altho* Mr Kittson 
explained how it stood yet he said he had no orders, tho* mr. McLeod 
mentioned the circumstance to him in his letter. We will be a man short 
unless one is sent from Wallawalla. 

Friday 4 

Stormy cold weather, snowing. 

The men arrived with the property from the Forks, they were so be- 
numbed with cold that they could scarcely untie the loads. — the outside 
of some of the Bales were wet with soft rain & snow. 

Satd.y. 5th 
Snowing & raw cold weather, winter hke weather. 
Dilivered the Kootany outfit to Mr Kittson. — 
The men that arrived yesterday not employed. The carter had to 
stop work, the snow clogged so to the wheels that he could not work. 

Sunday 6th 

Stormy, cold, snowing weather. 

There is a good thickness of snow on the ground. — 

Monday 7 

Disagreeable weather soft snow and sleet. 

The horses were brought home from the plains'" & all the Kootany 
outfit prepared to be sent off tomorrow. 

The Coer de Alan chief brought home three of our horses which 
have been missing some time. One of them was thought had been stolen. — 
two or three more have been missing some days. — 

Tuesday 8 

Some showers of rain and sleet & overcast foggy weather. 

Mr. Kittson sent off his people, five men with nine horses and the 
Kootany outfit on horses to the Forks where they are to embark in a canoe 
or small boat and proceed up the Columbia to the entrance of McGilliv- 
rays Kootany^^ River, up which they are to continue to a place called 

soThe prairie pasture between the Spokane Falls and the Coeur d'Alene 
lake. 

siThe Kootenay river was originally named McGillivray's river, by 
David Thompson. 



1 78 T. C. Elliott 

the falls'*- about half a days march below the Old Fort, where they are 
to build. This road is taken in obedience to orders received from Governor 
Simpson/" By this route a considerable deal of horse carriage will be 
avoided, and the Fort being situated farther down the river will be the 
means of keeping the Indians in a part of the country, where beaver are 
more numerous than where they usually hunt near the Flat Head lands. 
Another advantage attending this track is that if necessary they will be 
able to put out much earlier in the spring. The only objection to this 
road is running the risk of being taken by the ice on account of 
the lateness of the season, as the River is not known but very imper- 
fectly except from Indian reports, but as they will not be deep laden 
being only 1 4 or 16 pieces including baggage & provisions and as there 
are five men (an additional one being sent on account of the road not 
being known, & buildings to be erected) it is expected they will still arrive 
before the ice sets in calculating by the other road the distance cannot 
be very long. 

Wed.y. 9 

Foggy soft mild weather. 

One man employed repairing & making horse harness, one filling up a 
pit in the boat house,"^ and one working about the store, two men are 
still attending the coal pit, which is not yet burnt out. 

Put aside the greater part of the Outfit for the Flat Heads. 

Thursday 10 

Weather as yesterday — The snow has not all disappeared off the hills 
& very hollow places yet — 

One man employed cutting wood, the other as yesterday — 
Mr Kittson started for the Forks after his men, where he expects to 
arrive this evening, and embark tomorrow, the men will probably arrive 
a little before him and be employed gumming the boats. — Mr Kittson is not 
certain until he arrives at the Forks, whether he will take a canoe or a 
small boat, the men proposed taking the boat as it would be able to sustain 
much more injury than the canoe, and they thought they would be able 
to carry it, when it was necessary to carry it. I recommended Mr Kittson 
to be certain before he left the Forks whether they will be able to carry it. 

82Kootenay Falls near Troy, Lincoln County, Montana; the "Old Fort" 
referred to stood opposite Jennings, Montana, about 25 miles further up the 
river. For mention of that Fort consult Ross Cox. 

83See letter from Gov. Simpson in Part I of this Journal (p. 98 of this 
Quarterly for April 1914). 

S4That is, the house for building cedar batteaux, whicli were to be 
run down to the Columbia river at high water in the spring. 



Journal of John Work 1 79 

Friday I I 

Excessive heavy rain in the night, overcast mild weather during the 
day. 

Two men cutting wood & 1 carting it home to fill up the sides of the 
house where the boats are to be built. Philip came home from his coal 
pit having finished it. he and another man have been employed at this 
job 1 5 days. Late last night an Indn. arrivd from Okanagan for a horse 
that was promised Mr Ermatinger, with which we sent off the Indn. this 
morning. 

Satd.y. 12 

Mild pleasant weather during the day. Sharp frost in the night. 

Three men employed at wood for the boat house as yesterday — Philip 
doing little jobs in the forge, & Canotte tieing up the pieces of the Flat 
Head outfit. 

An Indian arrived from the Forks with the horses that took down the 
Kootany outfit and brought a letter from Mr Kittson in which he informs 
us that the men were perfectly able to carry the boat and that he was 
going to take it, & expected to get on well — he would be off about noon 
yesterday. 

In the evening the men who accompanied Mr McLeod arrived from 
WallaWalla, and brought letters from Mr Dease*'' informing us that in 
consequence of Mr Ogden not having yet arrived he was prevented from 
setting out for this place but directing me to to lose no time in setting 
out for the F. Heads and to leave Mr Birnie in charge of this place. — 
And also with directions to leave him any notes that may be useful to 
him. — 

The horses from both places are much fatigued. Sent them off late 
in the evening to the plains. — ■ 

Sunday 13 

Overcast mild weather. 

Busy employed getting everything ready to set out to the Flat Heads'" 
tomorrow. The horses were brought home in the evening they are so very 
lean & weak that we will scarcely get 1 2 the number required to carry 
the outfit and baggage across the portage able to go. 

I have all the papers &c in readiness to give Mr Dease all the in- 
formation I can on his arrival, and requested Mr Birnie who is well ac- 

ssMr. J. W. Dease, who had been in charge of Fort Walla Walla, but 
was being transferred to Spokane House, but is delayed waiting for Peter 
Skene Ogden's arrival from the Snake Country of Southern Idaho. 

.lOMr. Work is assigned to spend the winter at the trading post among 
the Flathead Indians in Montana. The "portage" refers to the 75 miles 
over which they must carry the trading goods on pack animals between 
Spokane House and the Pend d'Oreille river. 



180 T.C. Elliott 

quainted with the place and the routine of the business to explain everything 
to him. 

We will be compelled to take 8 men up as fewer would not be able 
to work the canoes, this will leave only 2 men here, but as many as pos- 
sible must be sent down from the F. Heads as soon as we arrived. 

Monday 14 

Foggy soft weather. 

Set out with the people before noon for the Flat Heads, and en- 
camped at the Horse Plains,'^ which is but a short journey but, as the 
horses are very lean & did not feed last night they require to feed. 

The Horses that remain except the 2 (carters) and 6 that are missing 
were put under charge of the Senchos chief who is to keep them during 
the winter. 

Tuesday 1 5 

Proceeded on our journey at 8 oclock and encamped at the little 
River*' at the farthest end of the Coer de Alan plain at 3, the horses 
much fatigued. 

Found four of our horses that were missing in the plain & 1 where 
we slept last night, the other is in the plains at the Chutes,'" which is the 
whole that was missing. 

(Le Course's) horse strayed in the night, he was searching for him 
all day without success, it was dark when he arrived at the camp. 

Two of the men Paul and Felix were about all night. Paul was 
on a marrying excursion and had bargained with an Indian for his sister 
and paid him the articles stipulated for, but on coming a little further on 
passing the lodge of the girl's mother, who it seems had received nothing, 
she objected to the girl going and Paul much disappointed had to come 
away and leave her & the property too. 

Wed.y. 16 

Soft mild weather, heavy fog like drizzling rain. 

Continued on journey before 8 oclock and encamped at 3 at the rat 
Lake"" though but a short journey the horses much fatigued. — 

In the evening Conoth one of the men killed 2 geese. — (Charlo) the 
Iroquoy was off seeking Deer but without success. 

87About where Hilyard now is, near city of Spokane. 
ssRatlidrum creek, probably. 
soThat is, at tlie Spokane Falls. 

noNow called Hoodoo Lake, in Bonner County, Idaho. The Spokane- 
International Ry. passes by it. 



Journal of John Work 181 

Thursd.y. 1 7 

Sharp frost in the night fine clear weather all day. 

Resumed our journey before 8 oclock and reached the end of the 
Portage"' after 10 when the canoes were immediately got out of the 
woods and the men distributed into crews and busily employed repairing 
the canoes arranging paddles poles &c The saddles appichimans &c were 
lied up ready to send off with an Indian who came to take home the horses. 

I had intended to take four canoes as they would be all required to 
bring down the fall trade & for the spring, but on account of the lateness 
of the season and the length of time it would take going up with two men 
per canoe, I am induced to alter my plans & take only three, we will then 
have 3 men per canoe including an Indian who is going up. 

A woman who is going this road to join one of the Gjotenay men 
( ), very shortly after arriving at the camp brought forth a child, and 

seemed attending to her little affairs during the day afterwards as if nothing 
had happened. 

Friday 18 

Some sleet and rain in the morning, foggy soft weather after* 
wards. 

Everything being ready & the canoes loaded, we embarked before 8 
oclock, and made a good days work, as we encamped at the old Fort°^ at 
the upper end of the Lake, it was past 4 oclock when we encamped, for- 
tunately it was calm when we crossed the lake, we were retarded a little 
at the sandy point"'' by the shallowness of the water. 

I had first intended to take four canoes with two men in each, but 
considering that it would take a long time to get up so weakly manned at 
this late season, I altered my plan & took only three, we have now three 
men in each and an Indian that it going up with us making the 9th man. 

Passed some Indians only one of whom we spoke to him we induced 
to tell all he knew, that Mr. Kittson had taken another rout that the Koote- 
nies would find him below the Chutes^* at the place appointed. 

Before we embarked in the morning sent off the Indians who came 
from the Fort for the purpose, with the horses saddles, appichimans, cords, 
in all 20 horses including the Company's 1 3. Messrs. McDonald"' Kitt- 

91 That is at Sina-acateen crossing ot tlie Pend d'Oreille river, nearly 
opposite Laclede station of the Great Northern Ry. 

oaMeaning the Kullyspell House or trading post established in Sept., 
1809, by David Thompson, but long since abandoned; it stood not far from 
Hope, Idaho. 

»3Sand Point of the present day, very early and properly so named. 

94Kootenay Falls of the oKotenay river. 

osMeaning Mr. Finan McDonald, who had resided among the Spokane 
Indians for years, but who was absent now on exploring expedition Into 
southern Oregon. 



182 T. C. Elliott 

son & myself 3 Men 4 & Indian 3, besides he is to take 5 by the way, 4 
from the Coeur de Alan plains & I from our first encampment, these 
are the horses that were strayed, three are now missing now. 

Satd.y. 19 

Soft foggy weather cold in the morning. 

Embarked a little past six oclock & encamped a little past 3 above 
the (Lower) Rapid^^, to get the canoes gummed as they had become 
very leaky. — This is a pretty good days work at this late season. 

Sunday 20 

Blowing fresh in the night some rain. Mild foggy weather during 
the day. 

It was near 7 oclock when we embarked owing to the bad road we had 
to pass — it required to be broad daylight — ^We were detained two hours 
gumming Chala's canoe, which retarded us considerably, yet we got over the 
Stony Island portage & encamped near 4 oclock at its upper end where 
all the canoes were gummed. 

Monday 21, 

Soft weather but raw and cold. 

Embarked past 6 oclock, and were detained an hour gumming Char- 
la's canoe again, and again encamped a little below the barrier River"' 
a little past 2 oclock to get the canoes thoroughly gummed, it was night by 
the time this business was completed. — Saw 2 deer but could not approach 
them. 

Tuesday 22 

Raw cold foggy weather. 

Embarked a little past 6 oclock and encamped before 4, (in order to 
join the canoes), a httle below the Chutes. Notwithstanding that the 
canoes were gummed yesterday evening an hour was lost gumming Chala's 
one shortly after we started, had it not been for these delays we would 
have been past the Chutes. 

Wed.y. 23 

Foggy in the morning, cloudy pleasant weather afterwards. This is 
the only day the sun shone occasionally since we left Spokane. 

Continued our route at 6 oclock reached the Chutes'* at, had canoes 
and all carried across & the canoes gummed & reembarked at 12 and en- 

ooProbably Cabinet rapids of the Clark Fork river. 
97Probably Trout creek, of today. 
osMeaning Thompson Falls, Montana. 



Journal of John Work 1 83 

camped at the upper end of Thompsons"" near 4. — We took up some 
goods a barrel of powder, 2 traps and two bags of ball and shot mixed 
that were hurried at a rapid a little above the Chutes. Though these 
things were hurried in a dry place the bags that contained the ball were 
completely rotten, and the hoops on the keg so rotten that it hardly held 
together till the powder was got emptied into a bag. Property hidden this 
way ought to have wood all round it on every side so that the earth 
could not touch it, otherwise it will in a very short time be rotten and 
spoiled. 

Some Indians and a freeman visited us shortly after we encamped, 
from the former we got 4 small trout and a bale of meat which was very 
acceptable to the men as they have had nothing but dry salmon since they 
left the Fort. By these people we learn that the Flat Heads are not yet 
arrived, but that the Pendent Orielles are a little above the Fort. The 
two men whom Mr Ogden^"" sent with the F Heads to take up the beaver 
which he hid found them all safe and are on their way in with them. 

Gave the Indians a little Tobacco. 

Thursday 24 

Sharp frost in the forepart of the night rain afterwards, — foggy in the 
morning cloudy in the afternoon. — 

Embarked at a little past 6 oclock and arrived at the Fort"" at 1 1 . 
The houses are all standing but without doors or windows & all the floors 
torn up by the Indians scouting for anything that might be under them. 
Some of the pieces were hurried & marks of where a fire had been made 
in the dwelling house that had the wood been dry would have destroyed all 
the buildings. — Some of the doors could not be found & several empty 
kegs which had been left here were brok to pieces. The men were em- 
ployed the afterpart of the day fixing doors to the store and laying the 
floors. The store was got temporarily closed and the goods stowed in it. 

Two Indians who were here went off to the Pendant Oreille camp 
with whom a piece of Tobacco was sent to the three principal men. — And 
notice sent them that we would be ready to trade tomorrow or next day 
when they chose to come. — 

Friday 25 

Snow in the night & morning the most of which had thawed & disap- 
peared on the low grounds towards evening. 

stuThompson's Prairie or Plain, where David Thompson established his 
Saleesh House In Oct., 1809. The H. B. Co. removed the trading post fur- 
thier up the river. This camp was close to the mouth of Thompson river. 

looPeter Skene Ogden. Consult Oregon Hist. Quarterly, Vol. 10, pp. 
229-78. 

loiFlathead Port or House, then located at or near the present R. R. 
station of Eddy, in Sanders county, Montana, on main line of No. Pac. Ry. 



184 T.C.Elliott 

The men employed arranging their axes and afterwards squaring 
planks for doors & — . 

An Indian one of the Pendant Oreille chiefs arrived to enquire when 
we would be ready to trade, though word had been sent to them yes- 
terday that we were ready when they chose to come. Gave him a little 
tobacco when he set off & a few balls and Powder to send some of his 
young men to get some fresh meat. 

A young man also came with a present of 4 fresh buffalo tongues. 

Saturday 26 

Disagreeable weather with snow and sleet the forepart of the day 
but fair in the afternoon. 

Had the men employed making doors and putting the houses in 
order. 

The Indians began to arrive about noon and a brisk trade was imme- 
diately commenced and continued on till it was getting dark. I am un- 
able to ascertain exactly the amount of the days trade, but there are 
upwards of 340 beaver skins and nearly 40 bales of meat. There was a 
great demand for guns and Tobacco. — The Indians as is the case still 
when a stranger arrives among them, complain about being harder dealt 
with than heretofore, however they seemed well pleased notwithstanding 
that (not?) a single item of their (prices) demanded would be abated. 

Sunday 27 

Sharp frost in the night. Mild pleasant weather during the day. 

The Indians arrived in the morning & trade was resumed and con- 
tinued on nearly all day, but not so brisk as yesterday. The Indians say 
their trade is nearly finished. — Some parchment skins were traded to make 
windows for the houses and some mats to cover them of which they are in 
want as the wet drips through the roofs. 

A present of 16 inches of Tobacco to each of the 3 F. H. chiefs 
was given to an Indian to carry to them and to apprise them of our arrival. 

The Indians with whom we have been trading these two days are 
principally Pendent Oreilles or Collespellums, with a few Flat Heads, or 
Asschesh,'"^, and some Spokans. — 

Monday 28 

Thin frost in the night, fine mild weather during the day. 
Two men employed assorting & examining the meat, the others fin- 
ishing the doors putting in windows, & covering the house with mats. — 

i02The best Mr. Work could make of the Indian family name Saleesli 
or Salisli. 



Journal of John Work 1 85 

A few straggling Indians traded a little meat and a few Beaver 
Skins and appichimans. The Indians are all encamped at some distance^"^ 
from the Fort, there is only one lodge here. — 

Tuesdy 29 

Frost in the night. Pleasant mild weather during the day. 

The men differently employed as yesterday. The meat is not all yet 
assorted. 

La (Broch), one of the principal F. Head chiefs arrived with 8 or 
9 men who traded 1 6 bales meat & I 3 Beaver skins, & a few appichi- 
mans. 

A Kootany Indian arrived in the morning from the camp of a small 
party of that tribe that is at a short distance and told us that they intended 
to visit us and trade what furs they had in a few days. I did not wish 
that these Indians would come here at all as a Fort is on their own lands 
expressly for them, but as it is likely it would be well on in the season 
before they might see Mr. Kittson & that perhaps they would not exert 
themselves hunting while they have furs on hand I thought it most advis- 
able not to prevent them from coming in and that after trading they would 
hunt briskly on their way to Mr Kittsons Fort & that although more furs 
would be obtained for the Company I understand there is only a few lodges 
of them here which separated from the Pendent Oreilles & Flat Heads a 
short time ago. 

The carcasses of 3 Deer and 2 Beaver were traded from the Indians. 

Wedy. 30th 

Sharp frost, clear pleasant weather. 

The men differently employed 

A few Indians visited the Fort and traded a little meat & a few 
beaver and appichimans. — I sumed up the trade since our arrival on the 
24th Inst, and find it to amount to 3 1 large & 202 small beaver, 1 1 
otters, 76 Rats, 4 fishes, 1 mink, 1 Robe, 6 dressed deer skins, I 7 pacht. 
do. 4 dressed Elk skins, 1 1 saddles, 1 1 1 fathoms cord, 97 appichimans, 
69 bales, 4094 lbs. net wt. dry meat, 1 70 fresh Tongues, 1 03 dry do. 
342 lbs. 5 14 (dry) fresh venison, 4 Bushels Roots, 50 (? ), 14 
Horns buffalo, 4 Hair Bridles and 2 dogs. 

The Expenditure for the above trade including presents of Tobacco 
& am. to the chiefs, smoaking &c is as follows 4 doz. Indn. awls, 6 
half & 4 small axes, 1 2/3 doz. (hawk balls), 2 '4 lb. N. W. 5 lb. can- 
ton, and 2'/2 yds. green Transparent Beads, 115 lbs. Ball, 1 (Eyed 

lOsProbably about 8 miles away on the Horse Plains, or Plains, Mon- 
tana, where was usual Indian camping ground. 



186 T.C.Elliott 

Dog), 2 Files 7 Inch. 14 guns, 78 flints, 3'/2 ^oz. gun (?), II Look- 
ing Glasses, 37 lbs. gun Powder, 1 1 Kirby hooks, 18!4 lbs. brass & cop- 
per kettles, 4 1/6 doz. scalpers & 11/12 doz. Folding Knives, 3!/^ yds 
Red Strands, 3 pr. ( ? ), 2 lbs. Beav. shot 3'/2 doz- Thimbles, 72 
lb. Tobacco, 3 Beaver Traps and !/2 lb. Vermillion — The awls. Flints and 
gun (worms) were generally given for nothing and also some of the To- 
bacco. The bales of dry meat cost on an average 3 J/2 (Pluis) and was 
paid for principally with ammunition, a little Tobacco & some knives. The 
bales as bought from the Indians average about 60 lbs. net each. Of the 
fbove 4094 lbs. meat, there are 2314 lb. Lean, 1340 Back fat, and 440 
Inside fat. 

Deer. Thursday 1st. 

Overcast frosty weather. 

The men employed splitting planks cutting firewood, &c. 

An old Flat Head chief Le Buche, the only one yet arrived visited 
the Fort with 8 or 9 attendants, who traded in the course of the evening 1 3 
bales of meat and a few beaver skins. — The old chief has taken up his 
quarters with me and says he intends to stay three nights. He has a good 
deal of influence with the Indians. 

Friday 2 

Weather as yesterday. Snow in the night. 

A few Indians still visiting the house but little to Trade. 1 '/2 Deer 
were purchased. 

Saturday 3 

Overcast milder weather than these days past. Some snow in the 
night. 

The men splitting planks. 

A Kooteany Indian arrived yesterday evening and went off only 
this morning With him I sent a letter to Mr Kittson which I supposed 
might be nearly at his fort by this time, but as I had learned from Soteaux 
a freeman that the road was very difficult & that probably he would have 
to return I sent word to the Indians that in case of their not hearing of his 
arrival, to come in here and trade their furs immediately, but if heard of 
his arrival to go to their own Fort & by no means come here. The sooner 
the furs can be got out of the Indians hands the better, as they will then 
exert themselves to collect more. 

Mr Kittson and his people arrived in the evening in a canoe with 
their supplies for the Kootenais. It seems that on entering the Kootany 
River after mounting the Columbia they found the Navigation so diffi- 



Journal of John Work 1 87 

cult that it was deemed impracticable to reach their destination with the 
craft they had (a small boat) or indeed with any craft except one that 
two men could carry. Mr Kittson therefore determined to return to Spokan 
and make his way by the old rout^"* across Au Platte Portage, but 
reaching Spokan the Company's horses were so lean that a sufficient nimiber 
(only 8 or 9) were totally incapable of undertaking the journey and would 
not have been able to perform it. He, therefore proceeded on to this place 
with the canoe that I left at the Gieur d Alan portage, and sent a man 
across land to the Kootenais to apprise them of his failure in attempting to 
get to their country and to make the best of their way to this place to 
Trade. 

Not succeeding in getting to the Kootany country in time will be at- 
tended with some loss in beaver as a part of the fall hunt will be lost, 
however as things are now situated there is no means of remedying it, 
the supplies cannot be sent to meet them and detain them in their own 
country for want of horses, which cannot be procured here. 

The Governor was certainly misinformed regarding the navigation 
when he ordered the Kootany supplies to be sent by water. 

Sunday 4 

Foggy mild weather, but still freezing. 

Eight young men from the Kootany camp arrived and traded 1 5 
small beaver skins for Tobacco with which they set off in the evening to 
regain the camps. A little Tobacco was sent to the chiefs. — The young 
men report that seeing no whites arrive, the chiefs had raised camp to 
come here'"'' & trade, and that the man whom Mr Kittson sent came up 
with them & is now with the Chief. — The camp is not far off but it will 
be some time before they reach this as they make but short days marches. 
They have plenty of beaver. 

Monday 3 th 

Some snow in the morning. Overcast mild weather afterwards. 

The Old Chief La Buche paid us another visit. A few other Indians 
visited the Fort but had little to trade. 

The man whom Mr Kittson sent round by the Kootanies arrived in 
the afternoon accompanied by an Indian. He was very well treated by 
the Indians. The whole tribe are on their way here and at no great dis- 

i04The portage across from Pend d'Orellle lake north to Bonners Ferry 
on the oKotenay river, known as the flat portage because of there being 
no high mountain range to cross, and the Kootenay Indians on that part 
of the river being designated by the same name. 

losThese Indians crossed by the "Kootenae Road," shown on David 
Thompson's famous map (See Henry- Thompson Journals) from near Jen- 
nings, Montana, south across the Cabinet Mountains to Thompson's Prairie, 
or to the Horse Plains. 



188 T.C. Elliott 

tance, but it will still be some days before they arrive as they make but 
slow marching. 

The men employed packing up what beaver and appichimans we have 
already traded, for the purpose of sending off two canoes. The furs, ap- 
pichimans, saddles &c will not more than load 1 canoe the other we will 
have to load with provisions though by so doing we subject our silves to 
the chance of being in want before the spring in case any mischance 
should befall the Flat Heads so that they have been unsuccessful and do 
not bring in a supply. I much wished to detain the canoes till the F. 
Heads arrived but being anxious to get La Course to Spokan to commence 
the boat building as soon as possible, and being apprehensive that the Nav- 
igation might be stopped by the ice it is deemed necessary to send them off 
immediately, specially as the men have to go to Spokan for some supplies, 
and on account of the canoes it is very disirable that they get back by 
water. — 

Tuesday 6th 

Rain in the night & snow towards morning and snow & sleet during 
the day. 

Sent off the two canoes 5 men each 7 of whom are to return and 3 to 
remain below. The canoes are not deep laden having only 22 pieces each 
besides the people's provisions. — 

Th Old Chief La Buche took his departure in the evening. Some 
Indians traded a few beaver & appichimans. 

Wed.y. 7 

Rained hard in the night and all day. 

Some Indians Pendent Oriells & Spokans traded nearly 40 beavers & 
some appichimans. — 

With the constant rain the water is dripping through the houses in 
every direction. Sent word to the Indians to bring some mats to cover 
them. 

Thursday 8 

Continued raining all night & the greater part of the day. 

Some Indian women arrived in the morning with mats which were 
traded and the men immediately set too to cover the houses with them 
which nearly completed befor night, at least the trading shop & store. We 
have only two men & the cook since we sent the people off. — 

Received news from the F. Head camp they are still at a considerable 
distance and will be some time before they reach us, as their horses are 
very lean & they make but slow marching. It is said they have plenty 
of meat, but no amount of furs. — 



Journal of John Work 189 

Friday 9th. 

Foggy with showers of rain. 

A party of about 20 Nezperces arrived in the evening from the Buf- 
falos^*' but deferred trading till tomorrow. Gave them to smoke. These 
peoples horses are very lean, & from them- we learn that the Flat Heads 
horses are still worse in consequence of which it will still be some time before 
they come away. These Indians fired a salute to the Fort on their ar- 
rival.""* It has been hitherto the custom to return the salute as I had 
omitted to do so to Old La Buche (from not knowing their customs,) when 
he arrived with a few young men and also fired, lest it would cause jealousy, 
however, as the old gentlemen again paid us a visit this evening, & was 
smoking with the chiefs we explained to him the cause of our not firing, 
and told thse people we would give them a round on their departure, which 
La Bouche said would give him no offense. I understand it is pleasing 
to the Indians to receive this mark of respect. As the expense is but 
trifling we intend returning their salutes when they arrive in future. — 

Saturday 10th 

Foggy in the morning, Sun shining occasionally during the day. 

The Nezperces that arrived yesterday traded 1 8 beaver, 23 Appichi- 
mans, 2 Robes, 5 Saddles, 4 dressed skins, 97 Tongues, 10 (Bosses), & 
1 1 Bales of Meat 665 lbs net., principally for Tobacco & ammunition. 

Some other Indians visited the Fort but had little to trade. 

Sunday I I 

Overcast soft mild weather. 

The Nezperces chief & his men went off for the Flat Head camp. 
A few shots were fired on their departure. A little Tobacco was sent 
with the chiefs to C. McKay'"" who is coming in with the Snake furs. — A 
young man arrived from the Kootany Chief who is encamped with all 
his people at a short distance & will be here tomorrow, A small piece of 
Tobacco was sent to the Chief. 

Had 1 1 3 Buffalo Tongues salted in bags made of (pannefiiches) 
having no kegs, we expect they will keep in the bags. 

loTBotli Nez Peices and Flatheads spent the summer and fall hunting 
buffalo on the prairie along the Missouri river. 

losFor a graphic description of this custom consult Oiegon Hist. Quar- 
terly for December, 1913; given in Journal of Alex. Ross, who had charge 
of this Fort in Dec, 1824. 

io9Mr. McKay was bringing furs from Mr. Ogden's party, which had 
been In southern Idaho, but the main party had returned direct to Fort 
Walla Walla. 

iioParflesches or saddle bags. 



190 T.C.Elliott 

Monday 12 

Foggy raw cold weather, drizzly rain in the evening. 

The Kootany chief with about a dozen of his men arrived and smoked 
but brought no furs with them as they said they intended to trade tomorrow. 
The Chief it seems has been occasionally accustomed to get a dram on 
his arrival, and on asking for it got a glass of rum mixed with water, 
which, little as it was, with the smoking took him by the head and made 
him tipsy. A woman who goes in mens clothes'" & is a leading character 
among them was also tipsy with % of a glass of the mixed liquor and 
became noisy, some others of the leading men who got a little were not 
affected by it. Gave them some tobacco to smoke when they went off in 
the evening. 

When it was dark 3 Au Plattes, another band of Kootenais, arrived 
for some Tobacco to smoke, these people are all afoot and were not able 
to keep up with the main band who have horses. They are all said to 
have plenty of beaver. 

The men employed sorting and baling up meat. 

Tuesday 1 3 

Weighty rain in the night, soft mild weather during the night. 

The Kootenay chiefs with 60 to 80 of his people arrived in the 
morning, and after smoking & conversing to about 1 1 oclock a brisk trade 
was commenced and continued on to night, when all their furs & leather 
was traded, the Chief got some tobacco for his people to smoke in the night 
besides a small present of Ammunition and beads 4 Pluis. A present was 
also given to, Bundosh"\a woman who assumes a masculine character 
and is of some note among them, she acted as interpreter for us, she 
speaks F. Head well. A little ammunition & Tobacco was also given 
to some of the other leading men. — The trade was as follows, 481 Large 
& 205 small beaver, 8 Otters, 1200 Rats, 6 Fishes, 7 Mink, 10 Martens, 
21 Elk skins, 27 Deer Skins, 9 (Pannefliches) & 31 fath. cords, which 
may be considered an excellent trade as it is seldom or never that things 
come up to it in the fall. — The Chief & indeed the whole of them went 
off apparently well pleased, though the trade is very cheap, excpt 1 2 guns, 
3 blankts, and a few Kettles, principaly ammunition & Tobacco. — 

Wed.y. 14 

Blowing a storm with heavy rain in the night. Blowing fresh from 
the Northward all day, but fair. 

iiiln ISll two Indians in men's clotlies appeared at Ft. Astoria, as 
related by Francliere, Ross and Irving. They returned to the interior with 
David Thompson's party that summer. He described them as Kootenays 
and one of them as a proplietess and this may be the same Indian. 



Journal of John Work 1 9 1 

The Kootany Chief with some of his people visited the fort & 
Traded 1 5 beaver a few rats & some dressed skins. The beaver traded 
today make up the Kootany trade now 488 Large & 2 1 3 small beaver. — 

C, McKay & Joachim Hubert arrived with the Snake Furs, 1 7 
packs & 4 partons, they had only 4 horses of the Companie's and not being 
able, as Mr Ogden expected, to obtain any assistance from the Indians, 
McKay, had to get part the furs carried by 4 Freemen who accompany 
him. Some of these freemen are in disgrace and wall probably have to 
be punished for their conduct towards Mr Ogden, but as this gentleman 
has not written or sent any instructions on the subject, it was thought best 
to give them a dram & a piece of Tobacco and not make it appear that 
anything was against them till instructions which are written for, be re- 
ceived from below regarding how they are to be dealt with. These steps 
are necessary in order to endeavour to get the furs out of their hands so 
that they may not dispose of them in trade among the Indians. — The caches 
were not found all complete a few beaver belonging to one of the men's 
wives were missing and a cache of 1 00 Large beaver belonging to two 
of the freemen, Bastong & Gadua, was stolen by the Indians. The horses 
are very lean and would have been able to go little farther. They parted 
with the Indians some time ago. The F Heads will not be here for some 
time yet. 

(To be continued.)