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A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY OF LITURGICAL 
DRAMA AT ROUEN 1 

Although the liturgico-dramatic offices connected with the 
cathedral at Rouen during the Middle Ages have been an object 
of study for at least two centuries, 2 it appears that by no means all 
of the pertinent information has yet been brought forward, and 
that part of the accessible information is unreliable. The purpose 
of the present article is to contribute to the subject certain new 
texts from manuscripts, and to estimate the validity of certain 

texts already published. 

I 

The existence of the two dramatic offices contained in the first 
text that I offer has been generally known since 1893, when Mon- 
sieur A. Graste called attention to them and printed extracts from 
one of them. 3 To the desire, repeatedly expressed, 4 for a complete 

1 It will be obeerved that in tbe texts publi^hed in tbis article tbe rubrics are printed in 
italics, the abbreviations of the manuscripts being expanded in Roman type. The liturgical 
text itself is printed in Roman type, with expansions in italics. 

2 See Bibliographical Note at the end of this article. To t hat bibliography one may add 
the following references bearing upon the liturgical peculiarities and the liturgical dramatic 
oflices of Rouen: Dissertotion nur la UgitimiU des brtviairesde France en gtntral, et du bri- 

viaire de Rouen en particulier, par M. (Paris, 1830); [L'Abbe Bourdin], Des liturgies 

/rancaises en gintral et de la liturgie normande en particulier (Paris, 1856); Langlois, 
Mtrmdre sur les variations de la Uturgie de Rouen (Rouen, 1861); A. Oollette, Histoire du 
brtviuire de Rouen (Bouen, 1902), pp. 81-151; L'Abbe Picard, in Prtcis analytique des 1ra- 
vaux de V Acadtmie de Rouen, XLIX (1847), 373-82; Revue du clergt francais, XXXIII 
(1902-3), 240-49 ; A. Oollette et A. Bourdon, Histoire de la Maltrise de Rouen (Rouen, 1892), 
pp. 18-27; [Dom Pommeraye]. Histoire de 1'tglite cathtdrale de Rouen (Rouen, 1686), pp. 620, 
621; P. Aubry, La musique et les musiciens d'tglise en Normandie au Xllle siecle (Paris, 
190i), PP. 23-30; T. Bonnin, Regestrum Visitationum Archiepiscopi Rothomngensis (Rouen, 
1852), pp. 44, 166, 167, 197, 384. 431, 517 ; Le Graduel de VtglUe cathtdrale de Rouen au XHIe 
siecle, 2 vols. (Rouen, 1907), Vol. I, pp. 13-16, 31-33, 58-62, 193-98; J. Loth, La cathidrale de 
Rimen (Rouen, 1879), pp. 569-71 ; L. Delisle, " Un livre de choeur normano-sicilien," Journal 
des savanU (1908), pp. 42-49; Voyages liturgiques de France .... par le 8it ur de Molton 
(Paris, 1718), p. 305; Edmund Bishop, "Holy Week Rites of Sarum, Hereford, and Rouen 
Compared,'- Transactions ofthe Society of St. Osmund, Vol. I, Part IV, pp. 77-100. 

3A. Gaste, Les drames liturgiques de la cathtdrale de Rouen (fivreux, 1893), pp. 33, 34, 
53-56. 1 may mention the fact that this indispensable study exists in three forms: (1) An 
article, under the title given above, in Annales de la Facultt de Leitre* de Caen, 4"°« Annee, 
No. 1, pp. 1-18; No. 2, pp. 95-1:11; (2) An enlarged version of the same article under the same 
title in Revue catholique de Normandie, January, 1893, pp. 349-^72; March, pp. 477-500; May, 
pp. 593-605; (3) A repriut of (2). My references throughout are to (3), the reprint. 

* Sen W. Meyer, Fragmenta Burana (Berlin, 1901), p. 41 ; E. K. Ohambers, The Mediaeval 
Stage (Oxford, 1903), Vol. II, pp. 43, 48, n. 1; H. Anz, Die lateinische Magierspiele (Leipzig, 
1905), p. 11. 
201] 1 [Modeen Philologtt, October, 1908 



2 Kabl Young 

text of these two dramatic offices, there has been hitherto, I 
believe, no response. 

The manuscript under consideration bears the mark, H. 304, 
in the Bibliotheque de la Facult6 de M6decine, Montpellier. 1 
Since former descriptions of the manuscript have been incomplete, 
and since an indication of its exact contents is important for an 
understanding of the text that I present below, I offer the follow- 
ing information. 

Montpellier MS H. 304 measures 176X256 millimeters, and 
contains 51 folios of substantial parchment bound in dark gray 
cloth. The collation may be expressed as follows: 

a 2 a l + 8 tj8 c 2 + l + 4 (J4 (Iwanting) e 6 £10 + 1 „8 (5 wanting) £2 

On the recto of the second fly-leaf at the beginning of the codex 
we read: 

Joannis de Bayeux Episcopi Abrincensis ad Maurilium. Rotoma- 
gensis ecclesiae Archiepiscopum Collectio ex Sententijs ss Patrum et 
consuetudinibus diuersarum ecclesiarum eorum quae ad divini cultus 
officia pertinent. Concilium habitum Rotomagi anno MLXXIV. Capitula 
Concilij apud Wintoniam celebrati. Concilium habitum apud Illebonam 
anno MLXXX, cuius capitula et canones inseruntur. Alitgarii Liber de 
octo Vitijs et eorum Remedijs. Eiusdem de Virtutibus et actuali Vita; 
desunt II extrema capita. 

Codex MS. 

BlBLIOTHECAE BuHEBIANAE 

D. 71. 
MDCCXXI. 

The codex contains the following articles. 

1. Fols. l r -l v : Praeceptum de eo quod observandum est si ceciderit cor- 
pus vel sanguis Domini. 

2. Fols. 2 r -22 v : Johannis de Bayeux, Abrincensis tunc episcopi, de officio 
ecclesiastico. 2 

1 See Catalogue giniral des manuscrits des bibliothiques publiqv.es des Dtpartements, 
Tome I (Paris, 1849), p. 408. From this riescriptinn I adopt the titles of the artioles con- 
tained in the manuscript. See also Migne's Nuuvelle encyclop&dit ihiologique, Vol. XL (1853) , 
col. 592. I wish to express my gratitutle to Monsienr Benri Omont, through whose kindness 
this manuscript was deposited for my study in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris. 

2 This version of the Liber de Offlciis Ecclesiasticis of Jean d'Avranches is somewhat 
more complete, at the end and elsewhere, than is the edition of 1679, Joannis Abrincensis 
Episcopi deinde Botomagensis Archiepiscopi Liber De Offlciis EccUsiasticis. Notis D. Joan- 
nis Prevotii .... illuitratus. Botomagi, 1679. One passage not found in this edition but 
found in Montpellier MS H. 304 may be seen below, p. 4, n. 5. The MS, or MSS, used in the 
edition ol 1679 are thus referred to on the title-page: Primum ex codice MS. coenobii Salico- 
satti in lucem editus, nunc ex M8. codice bibliothecae Bigotianae auctus et emendatus. The 



HlSTOBY OF LlTUBGICAL DBAMA AT KoUEN 3 

3. Fols. 23 r -24 r : Concilium Rothomagense (anno 1074, praeside eodem 
Johanne). 

4. Fols. 24 r -24 y : Concilii Wintonensis canones XVI. 

5. Fols. 24 v -27 r : Concilium Illebonense (anno 1080, eodem Joanne prae- 
side). 

6. Fols. 28 r -42 v (27 v is blank); Fragmentum operis de ratione divini 
officii (incerti auctoris). 

7. Fols. 43 r -43 v : Gregorii papae epistola ad Secundinum monachum. 

8. Fols. 44 r -44 v : Sermo ad monachos (incerti auctoris). 

9. Fols. 45 r -51 v : Halitgarii episcopi Cameracensis de vitiis et virtutibus 
libri II. 

The part of the codex with which we are especially concerned 
is No. 6: "Fragmentum operis de ratione divini officii (incerti 
auctoris)." The Fragment begins at the very top of folio 28 r as 
follows : 

.... cantantwr, uel qwo sacrifieium celebratur, duo simul nm aliqw/s 
interpositws fuerit, now sedeant. Igitwr sacra auctoritate prohibitum est 
ne aliqw/s clericws post solis occasum per plateas ue\ uias absqwe neces- 
sitate wel testimonio bonorwm uirorwm pergat, nulliwsqwe domum absqwe 
licentia decani wel fideli testimonio intret. Qui autem istud preceptum 
uiolauerit, tribws diebws ab inicio matitunalis officii usqwe ad finem com- 
pletorii ita in ecclesia maneat, ut inde nisi causa prandendi wel purgandi 
exeat. 

The Fragment ends at the very bottom of folio 42 v , in the 
midst of the Officium Stellae, as may be seen below. The several 
articles in the codex are written in several different hands, all 
of the twelfth century. The Fragment was all written by one 
scribe, in a hand seen nowhere else in the codex. 1 

Since the Fragment is found in a codex containing several 
documents explicitly connected with Normandy and with Rouen, 
and since Rouen was eminent during the later Middle Ages for its 
liturgical dramas, one is inclined to presume, provisionally, that 
the Fragment, with its dramatic offices, is also connected with 
Normandy, if not with Rouen itself. M. Gaste, however, the only 

editor of this edition was Le Brun D- smarettes, who under the pseudonym, DeMoleon, pub- 
lished Voyaues Ulurgiques de France (P&ris, 1718). See Revueduchantgrigorien, XI il%2-3), 
p. 191, n. 1. Thi- edition of 1679 is reprinted by Migue, Palrologia Lalina, CXLVII, cols. 15-116. 
Since Misne reprodures accurately all the points in which I wish to refer to this work, I 
shall make my references to the more accessible repi int. U. Chevalier is pnparing a new 
edition of the Liber de Qfficiis Ecclesiantlcis. See Rev. du chant gr£g., loc. cit., and A. Col- 
lette, Histoire du brfviaire de Rttuen (Kouen, 1902), p. 65, n. 3. 
1 This manuscript contains no music. 

203 



4 Karl Young 

writer who, so far as I know, has discussed this special point, 
believes that this document and the dramatic offices are "d'un 
auteur d'une autre province." 1 For this opinion Gaste seems to 
have two reasons. In the first place he quotes, probably from the 
Fragment, 2 the following passage, which gives preliminary direc- 
tions concerning the Officium Pastorum: 

Interim praeparentur VII juvenes, amictis et albis et tunicis induti, 
baculos in manibus ferentes, in similitudine pastorum. 

Regarding this excerpt Gaste says, " Ce simple detail, mais carac- 
teristique, me ferait croire que le traite incomplet de Ratione 
divini officii, qui contient les offices des Pasteurs et de 1'Etoile, et 
qui se trouve, dans le MS. de Montpellier, a la suite du Liber de 
Officiis Ecclesiasticis de Jean d'Avranches et d'autres opuscules 
d'origine normande, est d'un auteur d'une autre province." 3 The 
writer's reasoning seems to be that since in connection with the 
Officium Pastorum contained in well-known Rouen Ordinaria* 
there is no rubric similar to that quoted above from the Fragment, 
this latter document cannot be associated with Rouen. 

This argument loses all its force, I believe, before the follow- 
ing considerations: 

1. The version of the Liber de Officiis Ecclesiasticis of Jean 
d'Avranches contained in the Montpellier codex offers the pre- 
cise rubric pointed out by Gaste as peculiar to the Fragment. 

Interim preparentur vii iuuenes, amictis et albis et tunicis induti, 
baculos in manibus ferentes, in similitudine pastorum. 6 

iGaste, p. 34. 

2 Gaste does not tell us (pp. 33, 34) from what part of the Montpellier MS he quotes, and 
evidently he w«s not aware of the fact that this precise passage occurs twice in this MS, in 
tbe Fragment (fol. 32') and in the treatiso of Jean d'Avranches (fol. 9'). 

3 Gaste, p. 34. 

*The Offlcium Pattorum from Rouen MS ¥. 110 (Ordinarium Rothomagense) is printed 
(with somv variants from Rouen MS Y. 108) by Gaste, pp. 25-32. The text from Bibl. Nat. MS 
lat. 1218 (Ordiuarium Roth tmageuse) is printed below. 

5 Montpellier MS H. 30i, fol. 9'. The MS or MSS used by Le Prevost in Mb edition of 
Jean d'Avranches did not contain this detail (see Migno, CXLVII, 41); bence Chamhers 
(Med'aeval Stage, II, 43-44) inferred, from "the absence of any reference to the Offleium 
Pastorum by Jolin of Avranches," that this observance was not known at Roucn until later 
— later, that is, than about 1070. Oni! may observe that the "vii iuuenes" in tlie rubric 
quoted from the Montpellier MS has a parallel in the following rubic from the Offlcium 
Pastorum in the Roueu Gradual (Bibl. Nat. MS 905, fol. 12') : 

" Hoc audientes vii pueri stantes in alto loco dicant . . . ." 
To be sure, the " vii pueri " are the angels who sing the Gtoria in excelsi», and are not 
" pastores," as are the " vii iuuenes " of the Montpellier MS. Since no other Rouon Offlcium 

204 



HlSTOKY OF LlTURGICAL DRAMA AT KOUEN 5 

There can be no doubt that Jean d'Avranches wrote for Rouen, 
or certainly, at least, for the provincia of Rouen. 1 The " simple 
detail, mais caracteristique " is, then, a mark of relationship 
between Rouen and the Fragment, rather than a point of diver- 
gence between them. 

2. The Officium Pastorum of the Fragment as a whole agrees 
strikingly with the similar texts incontestably connected with 
Rouen. 2 

Gaste's other reason for refusing to associate the Fragment 
with Rouen is that the Officium Stellae in the Fragment is con- 
spicuously different from the similar officia known to have been 
performed at Rouen. 3 This reason has force, and, in fact, the 
differences referred to are so important that one could hardly 
admit a connection with Rouen without strong positive evidence. 
Such evidence can, I think, be found. 

In the part of the Fragment that is placed under the rubric, 
De Festiuitatibus Sanctorum* we read, 

He sunt autem festiuitates que more dominicali celebrantur, excepto 
quod Matutinum non dicatur: Siluestri, Sebastiani, Vincentii, Agnetis, 
Cecilie, Agathe, Cathedre 6 Sancti Petri, Geruasii, Translationis Sancti 
Martini, Wandregisili, Germani, Inuentionis Sancti Stephani, Remigii, 
Georgii, Leodegarii, Romani, Audoeni, Lucie uirginis, et alie que placu- 
erint; et omnium sanctorum pontificum qui huic ecclesie prefuerunt. 6 

Pasttorum has a rubric like this one from Bibl. Nat. MS lat. 904, appointing " vii pueri" to 
sing the Qloria m exceUis, one might apply Gaste's reasoning and argue f rom " ce simple 
detail " that MS 904 does not come f rom Rouen. But it incontestably does. 

1 See below, p. 6, n. 2. Mr. Edmund Bishop characterizes the De Officiis Ecclesiasticis 
of John of Avrauches as " Ronen coremonial of the eleventh century " (Transactions of the 
Society ofSt. Osmund, Vol. I, Part IV, p. 99). 

2The similar Rouen texts are found in Gaste, pp. 25-32, from Rouen MS Y. 110, fol. 
22r-23r; in E. de Coussemaker, Drames liturgiques au moyen age (Rennes, 1860), pp. 235-41, 
from Bibl. Nat. M3 lat. 904, fol. llv-12*; in the text below from Bibl. Nat. MS lat. 1213, 
pp. 17, 18. 

31 rfer to Konen MS Y. 110, fol. 38"-39', printed by Gaste, pp. 49-52; Bibl. Nat. MS 
lat. 904, fol. 2jv-30r, printed by Coussemaker, pp. 242-49; and Bibl. Nat. MS lat. Iil3, pp. 34, 
35, priuted betow. The OJflcium Steltae in the Montpellier Fragment differs not only from 
these three Rouen texts, but also from all the other Officia Stellae with which I am 
acquainted. 

i Montpr'Uier MS H. 304, fol. 40r. 
!>MS, cathedra. 

6 Id„ fol. 4U. The same passage is found also in the Liber de Officiis Ecclesiaslicis of 
Jean d'Avranches. See Migne, Pat. Lat., CX.LVII, 61. 

205 



6 Kabl Yodng 

This enumeration of saints at once attaches the Fragment indis- 
putably to Rouen. 1 It has been suggested that the placing of 
the great Rouen saints, Romanus and Audoenus, in a list of 
saints of a lower order at Rouen may indicate that the writer was 
composing his treatise not for Rouen alone, but for the provincia 
of Rouen. 2 In any case, the document cannot be disassociated 
from the use of Rouen, and an "auteur d'une autre province" 
is, I think, out of the question. 

TEXT FROM FRAGMENTUM OPERIS DE RATIONE 
DIVINI OFFICII 3 

[fol. 41 r ] De Die Dominico 

Dies dominzcus ita celebratur. In Sabb&to, psalmis diei cum 
antiphonis suis dictis, et capitulo dicto, responsorium a duobus cleiicis 
absque cappis cantetur, quod hymnus sequ&tur; et ad Magnificat altare 
incensetur. In Matutmis Inuitatorium a duobus clericis absque cappis 
cantetur. Nouem Zectiones et nouem responsoria dicautur. Te Deum 
Zaudamus, excepto Aduentu et Qu&dragesima, dicatur. Hymnus in 
Nocturnis et Matutmis Lawdibus dicatur. In Afatfutinis Laudibus, 
exceptis prefatis temporibus, una tantum antiphona cantetuv. Post 
Primam processio fiat, ut predictum est. Ojficium cum duobus cantori- 
bus celebretur. Ministri ita indua-ntur: diaconus dalmatica, subdiaconus 
tunica, duo in albis, qui candelabra, et unus qui thuribulum deferat. 
Gradale duo iuuenes in albis canaxit, et duo cwm cappis .AZZeluia. 4 

i For the sanclorale of Rouen sen the calendars in Rouen MS Y. 110, fols. l'-6v; Bibl. 
Nat. MSSlats. 1266 A„ fols. 133-38, and 1213, fols. C-G; A. Collette, Histoire du briiiaire de 
Souen (Rouen, 19U2), pp. 153-91; H. Loriquet, J. Pothier, and A. Collette, Le graduel de 
Figlwe catliidrale de Bouen au xiii e siecle (Rouen, 1907), Vol. I, pp. 6-11. 123-40; Vol. II, 
Introduction. For the identiflratiim of the saints in the list quoted abnve see Bibliolheca 
Hagiottraphira Latina antiquae et mediae aetaiis, edidemnt Socii Bollandiuni (Bruxellis, 
1898-99); H. Srotefend, Zeitreclmung dee Deutsrhen Mittelulters und der Neuzrit, Bd. II, 
AbtheilunK II, pp. 55 ff. S 'e also Gams, Series Episcoporum Kcclesiae Catholicae (Ratis- 
bonao, 187:1). PP> 613-15. On the same liBt of saints in the treatise of Jean d'Avranches see 
Migne, Pat. Lnt., CXLVII, col. 116. Sne also L. Delislo, Jouinnl des savant< (1908), p. 44. 

2Sie Migne, Pat. Lat.. CXLVII, col. 116, where the comment on the precisely similar 
list of saints in the treatise i>f Jean d'Avranches applies equally well to the li>t in the 
Fragment. The list of saints in the treatise of Jean d'Avranches of cours-e attaches that 
work also to the provincia of Rouen, an attachment that is inevitable f rom Jean's eminent 
association with that provincia. A discussion of the fact that the author of the Fragment 
seems to liave borrowed mnny considorable passages from the treatise of Jean d'Avrancties 
is no part of my present study. A discussiou of these relations will probably form part of 
Chevalier's forthcoming eilition of the Liber de Officiis Ecclesiasticis. 

sMontpellier MS H. 3"4, fol. 4H-4.v. 

*Tnis paragraph, which has, obviously, no essential connection with the dramatic 
offices, I present merely in order to make cleur the exact position of the dramatic offices in 
the Fragment, and tii show that in this paragrapb (as in many others) the Fragment agrees 
exHctly with ihe Liber de Officiis Ecclesiasticis of Jean d'Avranches (see Migne, Pat. Lat., 
CXLVII, 61, 62). 

206 



HlSTOKY OF LlTUBGICAL DBAMA AT KOUEN 7 

Quia 1 ecclesiastica officia diuersi diuerse celebrant, quedam que 
communi ordine omisimus inserere, hoc in loco congruum nobis uidetur 
annotare? 

[OFFICIUM PASTOEUm] 

In Natiuitate Domini, finito Te Deum faudamus, pueri in uno loco 
ecclesie baculis se sustentantes in similitudine Pastorum consistant. 
Unus autem puer in excelso, amictu et alba indutus, in similitudine 
Angeli Natiuit&tem Domini annuntiantis, hunc «ersum dicens : 

Nolite timere, ecce enim euangelizo uobts gaudium magnum, quod 
erit omwi popwlo, quia natws est uohis hodie saluator mundi in ciuitate 
Dauid, et hoc uobis signum: Inuenietis infantem pannis inuolutum et 
positum in presepio. 

Sint item plures pueri dextra et sinistra parte similiter induti, qui, 
flnita prefata antiphona, incipiant cantando .• Gloria in excelsis Deo, 
et in terra pax hominibws bone uoluntatis, aileluia, alleZitia. 

Hoc iterum finiio, Pastores, subsequentem antiphonam cantantea, 
ad locum in quo p&ratum fuit Presepe accedant : TranseamM» usqwe 
Bethleem et uideamws hoc verbum quod factum est qwod fecit Dominus 
et ostendit nobis. 

^ttem dum intrauerint, duo clerici qui [fol. 41 T J ad presepe fuerint 
incipiant cantare: Quem queritis in presepe, pastores, dicite? 

Pastores respondebunt : Saluatorem Xpistum Vominum infantem, 
pannis inuolutum, secMwdwm sermonem angelicum. 

Ad Presepe stantes iterum dicant: Adest hic paraulus cum Maria 
matre sua, de quo dudum uaticinando Ysaias dixerat prophetfa: Ecce 
uirgo cowcipiei et parietf filium et nomen eius Emmanuel dicetwr. 

Pasfores : Natus est nohis hodie saluator qui est Xpistuc Dominus 
in ciuitate Dauid. 

Te Dewm laudamws. 

Quo finito, idem Pastores incipiant Introitum: Dominus dixit ad 
me, et regant chorum ad omnem Missam. Finita Missa, incipiat 

1 At this point in his treatise Jean d' Vvranclies proceeds to symbolistic generalizations 
upon what has prec-*ded. It is in the comparative ahscnce of symbolism that the Fragment 
differs most essentially from the treatise of Jean (l'Avranches. Since the Fragment agrees 
with tlie Liber of Jean not only in mnny details but also in general scope, and since at the 
point where the dramatic offices are a d«'d in the Fragment Jean is practically at the end 
of hia treatise, 1 infer that very little is lost at the emt of the Fragment — probably only the 
end of the Offlcium Stellae, and, since such is mentioned in the body of the Fragment 
(fol. Sl"?), an Officium Sepulchri. 

2The officium Pastorum, Officium Stellae, nnd Officium Sepulchri are mentinned in the 
body of the Fragment iu connection with ('hristmns, Epiphany, and Easter respectively as 
follows: " . . . . Te Deum laudamus alta uoce incipiat. Interim preparentur vii iunenes 
amictis et albis et tunicis induti, ba"uli>s in manibus fnrent s in similitudine pastorum, 
qui, flnito Presepis Officio, iu piima Missa usque ad flnem Matutinorum regent chorum" 
(MontpellierMSH.304, fol. 32r); ". . . . TeDeum 1 mdamus incipiat. Deinde Stelle Offlcium 
sequatur" (id., fol. 33'); ". . . . Post tercium responsorium Offlcium Sepulchri celebretur " 
(id., fol. 37v). 

207 



8 Kakl Young 

Presul uersum: Benedictws qui uenit in nomine Dotnini. Deinde, Dews 
in adiutorium, cum Glorta Patri, et Alleluia. Postea incipiat cantor 
ontiphonam: Quem uidistis, usque, Quis apparuit, et Pastores dicant: 
Natur» uidimws, usque in finem. Postea incipiant Pastores : Dominws 
regaauit, et ad finem regendo chorum ipsi Matutinas perducant. Finita 
collecta Matutinarum, cantetur antiphona: Ecce completa swnt omwia, 
cum subsequenti coZfecta: Dews qui salutis eterne. 

[OFFIOIUM STELLAE] 

Officium Stelle ita celebretur. Ubi Stella apparebit, dicat Rex 
stans post altare maius : Stella f ulgore nimio rutilat. 

Alter, aliunde ueniens ex dextera parte, dicat : Que regem regum 
natum monstrat. 

Tercius a sinistra ueniens dicat: Quem uenturum olim prophetia 
signauerat. 

Regi a dextera uenienti dicat Rex medius : Pax tibi, irater. 

Cui respondeat idem cum alio a sinistra ueniente : Pax qwoqwe tibi , 

sese osculando. Quo finito, chorus cantet antiphonam : Hec primum 
orientales fines collustrans illarum colonis partium magne rei prebuit 
signum hec illos tres magos insignes prudentie capaces ad adorandum 
regew natum perduxit dicentes: 

Et interim Reges, alter alteri ostendendo Stellam baculis innuentes 
erectis dicat medius: Ecce stella! 

Alter in dextera dicat : Et ecce stella. 

Tercius in sinistra dicat: Et ecce urrit stella! 

Quo finito, dicant Reges : Eamus ergo et inqMtramws eum, offerentes 
ei munera, aurum, 1 thus, et myrram. 

Herodi in throno suo residenti dicat Internuntius : Salue, rex 
Iudeorum. 

Huic Rex econtra : Salue[t] te gratia mea. 

Item Internuntius : Assunt nobis, Domine Kex, uiri ignoti ab oriente 
uenientes nouiter natum quendam regem queritantes. 

Rex econtfra: 

Anteuenire iube qwo possim singwla scire, 

Qui sint, cur ueniant, quo nos rumore requirant. 

Item Internuntius: Qwod mandas citiits, Rex, milite perficietur. 

Quo peracto, Internuntius rediens ad Magos dicat : Que sit causa 
uie? Qui uos, uel unde uenitis, dicite. 

Cui Magi: [fol.42 t ] 

Rex est causa uie; reges sumus ex Arabitis, huc uenientes; 
Querimws hic regen» regnantibws imperitantem, 
Quem natum mundo lactat Iudaica uirgo. 

Internuntius Herodi: Reges swnt, ut dicunt, ex Arabitis, regem 
regum regnantibws imperitantem queritantes. 

IMS, durum. 208 



HlSTOBY OP LlTURGICAL DfiAMA AT ROUEN 9 

Rex Internuntio : Ad nos uocentur, ut eorum a nobis sermones audi- 
antur. 

Internuntius Magis: Regia uos mandata uocant; non segniter ite. 

Internuntius precedens reges Herodi nuntiat, baculo innuendo : 
En magi ueniunt, 

et regem regum natum stella duce reqMirwwt. 
Portant insonti sua munera cuncta regenti. 

Quo finito, medius Rex Herodi dicat : 

Salue, rex popwli fortis, dominator et orbis, 
Quid uis edissere nobis f 

Quem osculetar Herodes, faciendo eum sedere in dextera parte sui. 
Alter in dextera Herodi dicat : Ase ai ase elo allo abadac crazai nubera 
satai loamedech amos ebraisim loasetiedet inbedo addoro otiso bedoranso 
i et o iomo bello o illa et cum marmoysen aharon et cum cizarene raui- 
dete qui adonay moy. 

Hunc osculando iubeat Herodes sedere iuxta priorem. Tertius in 
sinistra Herodi dicat : some tholica lama ha osome tholica lama ma 
chenapi ha thomena. 

De quo Herodes faciat ut de prioribus, quibus Herodes dicat : Regem 
quem queritis natum esse qwo signo didicistis ? 

Magi econtra: Illum natum esse didicimws in oriente stella monstrante. 

Hic ostendant Magi stellam baculis, quibus Rex : Si illum regnare 
creditis, dicite nobis. 

Item Magi : Illum regnare f atentes cum misticis muneribws de terra 
longinqita adorare uenimus, trinum T)eum uenerantes tribus cum muneri- 
btts. 

Primus Rex erigens se a sede genufiexo ante Herodem dicat: 
Auro regem. 

«Secunous similiter dicat : Thure sacerdotem. 

Tercius similiter dicat : Myrra mortalem. 

Herodes JEpistolartis : Huc, simiste mei, disertos pagina scribas pro- 
phetfica ad me uocate. 

Quo finito, JEpistolarB uenientes ad scribas dicant : Vos legis periti 
a rege uocati, cum prophetarum libris properando uenite. 

Scribe cum JEpistolariis uenientes dicant Herodi : Dissere, Rex, quid 
uis, assumus ecce tibi. 

Quibus Rex : O uos scribe, interrogati dicite si qwtd de hoc puero 
scriptum uideretis in libro. 

Huic Scribe : Vidimws, Donune, in prophetarum lineis nasci Xpistum 
in Bethleem, ciuitate Dauid, propheta sic uaticinante. 

Quo finito chorus dicat : Betleem, now es minima, 

Msgue in finem. 1 Quo audito, Herodes prospiciens in libro prophetie 

iln the MS a black line is drawn through the words, "usg.ue in finem," perhaps by a 
later hand. 



10 Kael Young 

iratus proiciat. Deinde dicat Magis : Ite, et de puero diligenter inuesti- 
gate, et inuento, redeuntes mihi renuntiate ut et ego [fol. 42 T ] ueniens 
adorem eum. 

Qui redeuntes ab Herode insinuando sibi intei se preuisam stellam 
dicant : Ecce stella in oriente preuisa iterum precedit nos lucida. 

Qui gradientes uersus presepe interrogent Pastores obuiam factos : 
Pastores, dicite qtudnam uidistis et annunciate Xpisti natiuitatem. 

Quibus Pastores respondeant : Inf antem uidimws pannis inuolutum 
et choros angelorwm laudantes saluatorem. 

Quo audito Magi inde transeuntes cantent : 
Quem non preualent propria magnitudine 
Celi terre atqwe maria anphisepere, 
De uirgineo natws utero ponitwr in presepio. 
Sermo cecinit quem uatidicws stant simul bos et asinws. 
Sed oritwr stella lucida prebitura domino obseqwia. 
Quem Balaam ex Iudaica oriturum dixerat prosapia. 
Hec nosfrorwm oculos fulguranti lumine perstrinxit prouidos. 
Atqwe ipsos preuia ducens ad cunabula -perduji.it uilia. 
His peruenientibus ad Presepe dicant Obstetrices : 

Qui sunt hii qwi, stella duce, nos adeuntes inaudita ferunt? 
Magi econira: Nos sumws, qwos cernitis, reges Tharsis et Arabum et 
Saba, dona ferentes Xpisto regi nato Domino, quem, stella deducente, 
adorare uenimus. 

Item Obstetrices aperiendo Presepe dicant : Ecce puer adest quem 
queritis. Iam properate, adorate, qwia ipse est redemptio mundi. 

Quo uiso, primus Magus aurum offerendo in terram prostratus dicat : 
Salue, Rex, secwlorwm, cuiws ad imperium uniuersa pauescunt, suscipe 
nwrac aurum, regis signum. 

Secundus Ihus offerendo subinfera[t]: Domine, Kex eterne glorte 
suscipere dignare thus sicwi Dews uerws. 
Tercius mirram offerendo dicat : 

Puer iacens in presepe, 
Tamen imperans ubiqwe, 
Suscipe mirram signum sepulture. 

His adorantibus puer qu&si Angelus desuper stans cantet: Impleta 
swwt omnia que prophetice dicta swrat; ite, uiam remeantes aliam, nec 
delatores tanti reges puniendi eritis. 

Quo expleto, Magi aliunde redeuntes cantent : O magnum misterium, 
usque in flnem. Illis redeuntibus Internuntius dicat Herodi : Delusus 
es, Domine, magi uiam redierww^ aliam. 

Qua peracta, Filius Herodis ad patrem: Salue, pater inclite, salue, 
rex egregie, qui ubiqwe imperans sceptra tenens regia. 

Cui Herodes : Fili amantissime, digne laudis munere, laudis pompam 

210 



HlSTOBY OF LlTUBGIOAL DfiAMA AT RoUEN 11 

regie tuo gerens nomine, rex est natws fortior nobis, et potentior uereor 

ne nos exturbe£ nosiri ' regni solio. 
Item Filius patri : 

Contra natuw puerum, cowtra illum regulum, 
Iube, pater, maximum imminere premium. 

Hae pevacta, Duces tenentes nudatos gladios dicant Herodi: De- 
cerne, Donune, uindicari iram tuam, iube occidi pueros, forte inter occisos 
occidetwr et puer. 

Herodes acceptum gladium librans hac et illac reddat hac quo 
sumpsit . . . . 2 

II 

In previous seacb.es among the liturgical documents at Rouen 
for liturgico-dramatic texts, one manuscript of importance f or our 
subject seems to have been entirely overlooked. I refer to MS 222 
(olim, 551) in the Bibliotheque de la Ville at Rouen, of which we 
have the following official description: 

Processionale ad usum S. Audoeni Rothomagensis. XIII 6 siecle. 
Parchemin. 92 feuillet. 172 sur 110 millim. Rel. mod. (Saint-Ouen de 
Rouen. — Ancien n°. A. 345). 3 

The assignment of the manuscript to the use of the monastic 
church of St. Ouen at Rouen may rest upon the inscription, in a 
cursive hand of the seventeenth or eighteenth century, at the top 
of the first folio, "Ex lib. S. Audoeni Rotg. Congreg. S. Mauri." I 
can find no other authority for this assignment, which, in any case, I 
believe to be wrong. The frequent occurrence of the word, archi- 
episcopus, throughout the rubrics* seems to me clearly to indicate 
that the manuscript was written for use in the Cathedral of Rouen, 
with the usages of which, both processional and dramatic, it agrees 
throughout. 

Of dramatic offices the manuscript contains only the Officium 
Stellae (fragmentary) and the Officium Peregrinorum!' Since 
the manuscript has suffered considerable laceration and loss of 

i MS, nrii. 

2 Hero ends the page and the Fragment. 

tCatalogue g6n6ral des manuscripts des bibliotheques de France, Tome I (Paris, 1866), 
p.44. 

* Cf. fols. 8', 15v, 18», 21r, 27t, 40*, 41*. I flnd nothing at all in the rubrics to suggest 
monastic nsage. 

5 These two dramatic offices are provided with music, in square notation on f our red lines. 

211 



12 Kabl Young 

leaves, 1 one is tempted to suppose that it may once have contained 
others of the dramatic offices characteristic of Rouen; 2 but for 
this I can offer no positive evidence. 

[OFFICIUM STELLAE] 8 

[fol. 4 r ] . . . . [pue\rum, ita dicentes : Salue, Princeps seculorum. 

Tunc primus accipiens aurum a ministro suo offerat et dicat : Su[s]- 
cipe, Rex, aurum. 

Secundus offerens thus ita dicat : Tolle thus, tu uere Deus. 

Tercius offerat mirram, et dicat : Mirram, signum sepultwre. 

Orantibus Magis et qu&si sopitis 4, qxadam puer, alba et amictu iu- 
dutus guasi angelus, ante altare illis dicat hanc antiphonam : Impleta 
sunt omnia que prophetice dicta sunt. Ite, uiam redeuntes aliam, ne 
delatores tanti regis puniendi eritis. 

Finita antiphona, cantor incipiat hoc responsorium, et intret pro- 
cessio chorum, et fiat oblatio a clero et populo : Tria sunt munera pre- 
ciosa que obtulerunt Magi Domino in die ista, et habent in se diuina mis- 
teria, in aurum ut [fol. 4 T ] ostendatur Regis potencia, in thure sacerdotem 
magnum considera, et in mirra dominicam sepulturam. Fersus: Salutis 
nostre auctorem Magi uenerati sunt in cunabulis, et de thesauris suis 
misticas ei munerum species obtulerunt. In aurum. 

Sequatur Missa, ad qu&m tres Reges regant chorum, qui cantent 
Kyrie fo»s, Mleluia, Versum: Vidimus, Sanctus, et Agnus festiue. 5 

[OFFICIUM PEREGRINORUM] 6 
[fol. 43 r ] .Feria secunda' in MatutimB, processio ut in die Pasche. 
In Vespeiis similiter, excepto quod duo tantum de maiori sede regant 
chorum, et duo similiterde maiori sede cantent Alle/ma, Redempttonem. 
Ad Vespexas post tres psalmos, finita antiphona, duo de secunda sede 
cantent hoc responsorium: Hec dies. Fersus: Dicant nunc Israhel, 
quoniam bonus, quoniam in seculum | [fol. 43 v ] misericordia eius. Duo 
regentes chorum: Alleluya. Fersus: Nonne cor nostrum ardens erat in 
nobis, de Ihesu dum loqueretur nobis in uia? Versus: ResurrextY Domi- 
nws. Antiphona: Et coegerunt illum dicentes, mane nobiscum quia 
asuesperascit, alleluya. Psalmus: Maguificat. 

i The loss of leaves in the eztant gatherings will appear in the following collation : 
a 2+l (3wanting) b6 c' 6 ('.<». 1*. 15, 16 wanting) <J8 e* f 8 g 6 h* ilO j2 kl2 II*. 

2 See Bibliographical Note at the end of this article. 

3 Rouen, Bibliotheque de la Ville, MS 222 (olim, A. 551), fols. lr-4v. Fol. 3, which cer- 
tainly contained the first part of this dramatic office, is torn out. 

*Between quasi and sopitis the MS has a blank space sufficient for receiving such a 
word as sompno (see the other tezts of the Rouen OfficiumStellae), no sign of which appears. 
In the blank space a hand of a century later has inserted the word in. 

&The rubric, Dominica infra Octauam, follows immediately. 

6 Bonen, Bibliotheque de la Ville, MS 222 (olim, A. 551), fols. 43"--45'. 

' Easter Mouday. 

212 



HlSTOKY OF LlTUEGIOAL DbAMA AT ROUEN 13 

Post jBeneeficamus fiat Processio ad Fontes, ut in die Pasche, et pro- 
cessione stante in medio nauis ecclesie et cantante psalmum: In exitu, 
circa finem psalmi duo clerici de secunda sede induti tunicis et desuper 
capis in transuersum portantes baculos et peras in similitudinem Pere- 
grinorum intrent ecclesiam per dextram portam occidentalem et lento 
pede uenientes usque ad processionem. Cum finitas fuerit psalmus, 
subsistentes in capite processionis incipiant cantare hymnum: Ihesu, 
nosZra redempt»o, et cum cantauerint usque ad locum illum, Nos tuo 
uultu sa[ties], tunc quidam sacerdos indutus alba et amictu, nuduspedes 
crucem ferens in manibus intret ecclesiam per sinistram portam occi- 
dentalem et ueniens usque ad eos uultu demisso subito stet inter iltos et 
dicat: [fol.44 r ]. 

Qui sunt hii sermones quos confertis ad inuicem ambulantes, et estis 
tristes. 

Peregrini quasi admirantes et eum respicientes dicant: Tu solus 
peregrinus es in Iherusalem, et non cognouisti que facta sunt in illa hiis 
diebws f 

Sacerdos interroget : Que ? 

Peregrini respondeant : De Ihesu Nazareno, qui fuit uir propheta, 
potens in opere et sermone coram Deo et omni populo. 

Sacerdos utrimque respiciens dicat: O stulti et tardi 1 corde ad cre- 
dendum in omnibws que locuti sunt prophete! Nonne sic oportuit pati 
Xpistum et ita intrare in gloriam [fol. 44 T ] suam? 

Quibus dictis, statim recedat sacerdos fingens se longius ire, et 
Peregrini festinanter prosequentes eum detineant qu&si ad hospicium 
inuitantes et trahentes baculum ostendentes Castellum, et dicentes: 
Mane nobiscum quoniam aduesperascit, et inclinata est iam dies. Sol 
uergens ad occasum suadet ut nostrum uelis hospicium, placent enim 
sermones tui quos refers de resurrectione magistri nostri. 

Et ita cantantes ducant eum usque ad tabernaculum in medio nauis 
ecclesie in similitudinem Castelli Emaus pxeparatum. Quo cum ascen- 
derint et ad mensam ibi pwcatam sederint et Dominus inter eos sedens 
panem eis fregerit, in fractione panis agnitus ab illis subito recedens 
ab occulis eorum euanescat. Illi autem quasi stupef&cti surgentes can- 
tent uersus processionales: AlleZma, cum Versu: Nonne cor nosfritm. 
@uo reiZerafo uertant se MersMspwZpitum et cantent hunc uersum sequen- 
ter: Dicnobis, Maria, quiduidisti in uia? 

Tunc quidam de maiori sede indutus dalmatics. et amictu et uinctus 
in modum mulieris caput circumligatus respondeat: Angelicos testes, 
suda [fol. 45 r ] rium et uestes. 

Tun[c\ ostendat et explicet unum syndonem ex una p&xte loco sua- 
darii, et alium ex altera p&rte loco uestium, deinde dicat: Surrexit 
Xpistus, spes nostra; precedet uos in Galileam. 

iMS,tradi. 

213 



14 Kabl Young 

Chorus cantet alios duos «ersus sequentes residuos, et interim rece- 
dant Maria et Peregrini, et processio, f&ctis memoriis, redeat in choro, 
et ibi flniantur Vespere.' 

III 

The third manuscript — Bibl. Nat. MS lat. 1213 — from which 
I offer a series of texts is readily accessible and has been fre- 
quently referred to. In view of these frequent references and of 
the interest in the dramatic offices of Rouen, it is surprising that 
the pertinent parts of this manuscript have never been printed in 
full. The absence of complete printed texts from this manuscript 
is, perhaps, partly due to the fact that they follow rather closely 
similar Rouen texts already printed, but more probably to the 
fact that through erroneous statements and misleading references 
many have been led to believe that the pertinent texts are already 
in print. 2 On account of these misunderstandings and of the 
need of more accurate texts from Rouen, I venture to offer the 
following series of complete texts. 

[OPFICIUM PASTORUM] 3 

[P. 17] .... Hodie* lectio nona iJwangrelium: In principio erat uer- 
bum. jResponsorium: Verbum caro. Fersus: In ■principio. Plenum. 
GloWa, et cetera. Omnes presbjteri m superhciis sint in modum corone 

i The rubric, Feria tertia, follows immediately. 

2See Bibliographical Note at the end of this article. The incidental remarks nf E. Du 
Meril (Les orujines latines du tht&tre moderne [Paris, 1897], pp. 96, n. 1 and 147, n. 2) regard- 
ing this MS are entirelycorrect. Gast6(p.4, n.2) inhi^supposition, "Nouspeusons que c'est 
Ift [i.e., Bibl. Nat, MS lat. 1213] un des MSS consultes par dom Jenn Le Prevost .... pour 
les variantes qu'il a mises en manchettes," is, J think, in error. H. Anz (Dir lateinizchen 
Magierspiele [Leipzig, 1905], p. 9) did no harm in ignoriog this MS. P. Aubry (La musique 
et les musiciens W&glise en Normandie au Xllle siecle [Pnris, 1906], p. 27, n.l) writes. "Le 
tezteen [i. e., of the Eouen Festum Asinorum] a^Wpublifipar Du Cangedans leGlossarium 
a 1'article FestumAninorum, d'apres un Ordinaire de 1'eglise de Rouen dn xv» siecle,aujourd'- 
hui a Paris, Bibl. Nat., lat. 1213, p. 24." As a matter of fact, the Festum Asinorum is 
fouod neither on the page indicated nor anywhere else in this MS. The same writor s"ems 
to imply (p. 29, n. 1) thnt the dramatic offices presented by Lp Prevost (Migoe, Put. Lat., 
CXLVII, 135-42) are taken from this same MS. This implication cannnt, I think, be sub- 
stantiated. A further discussion of these relations is presented in the Bibliographical Note 
below. 

8 B. N. MS lat. 1213, pp. 17, 18. For brief descriptions of this MS and for an indication 
of its historysee Catologuscodicummanuscriptorum Bibliothecae Regiae,Tom. III(Parisiis, 
1744), p. 96, col. 1; L. Delisle, Bibliotheca Sigotiana Mannscripta (Ronen, 1887), p. 67; Gaste, 
p, 4, n. 2. The MS is of paper, measures 195x140 millimeters, and is bound in yellow leather. 
It contains A-H folios+283 pages, folios Ar-v, Br-v, and p. 284 being blank. It i» written in 
a small cursive script of the fifteenth century. The MS contains no music. Its baving been 
in nse at Eouen is frequently stated in the text itself. Cf., for ezample, pp. 1, 5, 17, and 34. 

*Christmas. 

214 



HlSTOEY OF LlTUBGICAL DEAMA AT ROUEN 15 

in medio chori, et cantent prosam, et incipiatur sic : Que[m] ethera et 
terra, et choras respondeat newma. Fiuita prosa, qxadava sacerdos 
reuestitus omm&us indumentis sacerdotalibus, cum ipso subdiaconus 
tunica reuestitus cantet ante altare EuaugeWum: Liber generacionis. 
Finito Euangelio, Domiuus Arc/uepiscopus aat decanus uel alius de 
maioribus de dextro choro incipiat ante altare cum candelabro et 
turibulo : Te Deum Zaudamus. 

Finito Te Deum \audamus, peragatur Officium Pastorum hoc modo, 
secundum usum Rothomagensem. Presepe sit paratum retro altare, et 
ymago S&ncte ilfarie sit in eo posita. In primis quidam puer ante 
chorum in excelso in similitudLinem angeliNatiuitatem 1 Domini nuucians 
ad quinque canonicos quindecim marcharum et librarum, uel ad eos 
uicarios de secunda sede, Pastores intrantes per magnum [p. 18] ostium 
chori per medium chorum transeuntes, tunicis et amictihus [indutos], 
hunc wersum ita dicens : Nolite timere, usque, In presepio. Sint plures 
pueri in uoltis ecclesie qu&si Angeli, qui alta uoce incipiant : Gloria, in 
excelsis Deo, et cantent usque, Voluntatis. iJoc audientes Pastores 
ad locum in quo paratum est Presepe accedant cantantes* hunc wersum: 
Pax iw terris, totum. Qaod dum intrauerint, duo presbyteri dalmaticati 
quasi Obstetrices, qai ad presepe fuerint dicant : Quem queritis, usque, 
Dicite. Pastoresrespondeant: Saluatorem Xpistum, usque, Angelicum. 
Item Obstetrxces cortinam aperientes puerum demonstrent dicentes: 
Adest hic paruulws, wsgue, Ysaias dixerat prophefei. Hic ostendant 
matrem pueri dicentes : Salue uirgo singwlaris, usque, Frui natws uisione. 
Deinde uertant se ad chorum redeuntes et dicentes : Alleluia, alleluia, 
iam uere scimws, usque, Cum propheia dicewtes. 3 

Hoc flnito, incipiatur Missa, et Pastores regant choram. Dominus 
.Arc/uepiscopws, si presens fuerit, cantet * Missam, aut decanus. Offi- 
ciura: Dominws dixit ad me. Psalmus: Qware fre[muerunt]. Kyrie- 
\eyson, Rex genitor. Glor»a in excelsts. Pastores cantent prosam: 
Que[m] ciues celici, et cum uenerint ad locum ubi dtcitur, Suscipe 5 de- 
■precationem nostram, omnes flectant genua uersus altare. Oratio: Dews 
qui nos sacratissimam. De beata ifeTaria Oratio: Dews qui salutis. Qui- 
dam de Pastoribus cautet iupulpito lectionem : Popwlus gentium. iSine 
interuallo subdiaconus legat epistolam : Apparuit gratia Dei saluatoris. 
Dwo Pastores de secunda sede Oraduale: Tecum principium. T^ersus: 
Dixit Dominws. Reiteretur Graduale: Tecum principium. Duo de 
maiori sede: AlleZwm, Dominws dixit ad me. «Segwentia: Nato canunt 
omnia. .Ewanaelium: Exiit editum. Credo. Ojfertorium: Letentwr 
celi. Offerant" omnes qui uoluerint. Secreta: Accepta Ubi sit, Domine. 
Alia Secreta: Muneribws nosftris. Prefatio: Quia per incarnati. Hec 

i MS, natiuitatis. 8 MS, ducentes. b MS, Suscepe. 

SMS, cantores. *MS, cantent. 6 MS, oSerenda. 

215 



16 Kakl Young 

prescripta Prefatio dicatux ommous festiuis diebus usque ad Purifica- 
tionem, ecccepto die Epyphanie Domini,cum eius octauis. Communi- 
cantes et noctem sacratissimam dicatur. Sanctus et Agnus festiue. 
Communio: In splendoribws. Post-Communio: Da nobis, quesumus, 
Domine Deus noster. Alia Post-Communio.- Hec nos communio. Ite 
missa est. 

Finita Missa,Dominus arc/iiepiscopus, uel alius dicat Tersum: Bene- 
dictus qui uenit in nomineDomini. Fersum: Deus Dominus, et cetera. 
AlleZma. Deus in adiutorium. Gloria pairi. Sictit erat, et cetera. 
AlleZtua. Arc/riepiscopus uel alius uersus ad Pastores dicat: Quem 
uidistis, pastores, dicite; annunciate nobis in terris qwi[s] apparuit. 
Pastores respondeani : Natum uidimws, et cetera, et totam antiphonam 
finiant. Dehinc incipiat quidam Pastor a dextra parte psalmum: 
Dominus regnauit. Antiphona: Quem uidistis. Pastores alias antipho- 
nas incipiant, wnusquisgue suam secundum ordmem, et omnes cwm neu- 
mis finiantur, et Pastores regant chorum. Antiphona: Gewuit puerpera. 
Psalmus: Iubilaie. Antiphona: Angelws ad pa[stores]. Psalmus: Deus, 
Deus. Antiphona: FactaesZ. Psalmus: Henedicite. .Antiphona: Paruu- 
lus filiws. Psalmus: Laudate. Capitulum: Popwlus gentium. Fmnus: 
[p. 19] A solis ortws cardine. Versus: Viderwwt omnes fines. Antiphona 
sicutin Vespem 1 terrepetatur: Glorta in excelsts Deo. Psalmus: Bene- 
dictus. Oratio: Concede queswmws omnipotens Deus. Benedicamws 
canieZur a Pastoribus: Verbum paMs hodie. Quofinito, Pastores can- 
tent hanc antiphonam totam inpulpito: Ecce completa. Arc/iiepiscopus 
uel sacerdos dicat wersum: Post partum. Oratio: Dews qui salutts. 
Benedicamws, tres pueri? 

[FESTUM INFANTUM] 3 

[p. 24] .... Ad Vesperas duo presbjteri regant chorum. ^lntiphone 
cttm newmis finiantur. Antiphona: Tecum principium. Psalmus: Dixit 
Dominus, et cetera. Capitulum: Iocuwditaiem. Pesponsorium: In 
medio eccZesie. Omnes presbyteri, ut prenotatur in fe[sto~] Sancti 
Stephani, Fmnus: Bina celestis, uel Letabundws. Fersus: In [omnem 
terram]. 4 Antiphona: In medio eccZeste. Psalmus: Magnificat. Oratio: 
EccZesiam tuam. BenedicamwsadpZacitumpresoyterorum. <Seguan£ur 

1 MS, uis. This same abbreviation, in the same context, is found in Eouen MS V. 110, 
fol. 23r, from which Gast6 (p. 31) expands it to voltls. I expand into uesperin in accordance 
with the following rubric concerning the Antiphon of the Magnificat in First Vespers of 
Christmas (B. N. MS lat. 1213, p. 16) : "Antiphona cum trina repetitione." whieh explains 
precisely the rubric, " Antiphona sicut in Vesperis ter rcpetatur," in the case before us. 
Gaste did not consider the similar rubric in First Vespers in Ronen MS Y 110, fol. 21', " Anti- 
phona cum trina repeticione." 

2 The words, Sequatur Missa de Luce, follow immediately. 

3B. N. MS lat. 1213, pp. 24-27. 

*The MS seems to have In az, which I «annot explain in this place. 

216 



HlSTOBY OF LlTUEGICAL DeAMA AT ROUEN 17 

Memorie Natixiit&tis et «Sanct* Steph&ni t&ntum. Antiphona: Pastores. 
"Persus: Verbum caro. Oratio: Concede, qweswmws, omnipotens Dews. 
Antiphona; Constitutws. Versus: Gloria, et ho[nore]. Oratio: Omni- 
potens sempiterne Dews. Sequarfur Processio: Sancta. et immacwlata, et 
sint presbyteri in superiore p&rte processionis, ut supra notfatur in die 
S&ncti Stephani. Hoc finito, duo pueri tunicis et amictibus induti, 
tenentes candelabra cum cereis ardentibus, et omnes pueri ecclesie in 
cappis tenentes cereos ardentes cum suo Episcopo exeant de uestiario 
bini et bini cantantes responsorium: Centum qwadraginta; et, proces- 
sione ordinata, ueniant per chorum et eant ad altare Innocentium, et 
ibi stutionem faciant, et finiatur ibi; et tres pueri cantent; Hi empti 
surat. Quo finito, sequ&tur antrphona,: Innocentes. Tres pueri wersum: 
Letamim. .Episcopws orationem: Dews hodterna die. In reditu anti- 
phona weZ responsorium [p. 25] de S&ncta Jlfaria adpZacitum. Dwopres- 
bjteri cantent wersum: Fost partum. JSpiscopws orationem: Dews qui 
salutts. Pweri dicant: Benedicamws. Sequ&tur Benedictio Episcopi, 
et dicat unus puer alta uoce : Humiliate uos ad benedict/onem, et alii 
respondeant : Deo grateis. Benedictio : Dominus omnipotens benedicat 
uos, et cetera. 

Ad Comptetorium Antiphona: Natws est nobts. Psalmus: Cum inuo- 
carem, et cetera, stcut prenofatur in Comptetorio diaconorum. 

Nota, Frater. In crasftno est Fe[stum] Duplex. Jnwtfatorium 
JDominus .Episcopus, cwm eo dwo pueri: Venite adoremws. Psalmus: 
Venite. Fmnus: Sancforwm meritis. In primo iVocturno, Antiphona: 
Herodes uidens. Psalmus: Beaiws uir. Antiphona: Xpistus infans. 
Psalmus: Qware fre[muerunt]. Antiphona: Arridebat. Psalmus: In 
Domino confido. Fersus: Letamine. Et legantur sex tectiones de 
Sermone; Zelws qwo tendat, et tres tectiones de Expositione, in 
cantu, ut supra, a quodam diacono. Dominus -Episcopws legat nonam 
tectionem. .Expositio: Angelws Domini apparuit. Pesponsorium : 
Sub altare. Versus: Vidi sub altare. Qware. Pesponsorium : Effude- 
rwnt sanguinem. Versus : VincKca, Domine. In circuitu. Pesponsorium : 
Dignws a dignis. Versus: Accipiunt a Xpisto. Et innocens. Gloroa. 
In secundo iVocturno, Antiphona: Norunt infantes Psalmus: Domine, 
qwts habitabit. Antiphona: Erigitwr itaqwe. Psalmus: Conserua. 
Antiphona: Dignws a dignis. Psalmus: Dommi est terra. Tersus: 
Exultent iusti. Pesponsorium: Sub throno. 'Fersus: Sub altare Dei. 
Vindica. Pesponsorium: Adorauerunt. Tersus: Venientes autem. Mit- 
tentes. Pesponsorium Dominus .Episcopus, dwo tunicati cwm eo .• Norunt 
infantes. Fersus: Licuit sanguinem. Fiunt. G\ori&, et cetera. In 
tertio JVocturno, Antiphona: Dicunt infantes. Psalmus: Exultate iusti. 
Antiphona: Licuit sanguinem. Psalmus: Benedicam. Antiphona: 
Vindica, Domzne. Psalmus: Dews, uenerwnt. Fersus: Iusti autem in 

217 



18 Kabl Young 

perpetwwm. .Responsorium: Cantabant sancti. Fersus: Sub throno. 
Et resona. Pesponsorium: Ambulabunt. Fersus: Hi sunt qw cum 
mulieribus. Et non de[lebo]. jBesponsorium: Centum quadraginta. 
Fersus: Hi empti. Hec responsoria dicantur in oct&ua, etfiant tercia 
responsoria: Isti sunt. Versus: Vindica. Quia. Pesponsorium : Isti 
surat sancti. Fersus: Hi sunt qwi cum mulieribus. Ambulabunt. 

Not&. Dum nona Zectio legetur, pergant pueri ad uestiarium. Qua 
ftnita, exeant bini et bini cum cereis ardentibus cantantes responsorium : 
Centum qwadraginta. Tres pueri cantent wersum et prosam; ante 
altare in modum corone illud finiant. Quo finito, incipiatur: Te Deum 
laudamus. 

Quo finito, incipiantm ibi Laudes, et redeant ad chorum, et ibi in 
medio chori finiantur Matutine. -Antiphona in Lawdibus: Herodes ira- 
tus. Psalmus: Dominws regnauit. Antiphona: A bymatu et infra. 
Psalmus: Iubilaie. Antiphona: Vox in rama. Psalmus: Dews, Dews. 
Antiphona: Swb throno. Psalmus: Henedicite. Tres pueri incipiunt 
inpulpito: Laudes reddant pueri. Psalmus: Laudaie Dominum. Anti- 
phona: Laudes reddani. Fersus: Laudafe eum. Antiphona: Laudes 
reddanf, et sic chorus ps&lmum finiant. Pueri ad wnumqwemgue wer- 
sum dicant ; Laudes reddani. Capitulum: Vidi supra montem. Fmnus: 
Rex gloriose martyrum. Fersus: MirabiHs. Antiphona: Hi sunt qui 
cum mulieribus. Psalmus: Henedictus. Oratio: Dews, cuiws hodierna. 
Benedicamws, ad piacitum pwerorum. <Seauaiur ilfemoria iVaiiuitatis. 
Antiphona: Gaudeamws, w£supra. Fersus: Iustwsqwt. Oratio: Omni- 
potens sernpiterne Detis. iVota. In die Innocentium ad ilfa£utinas 
incipiatur prima antiphona de nocte ad Memoriam iSancti Ioh&nnis; 
Iohawnes apostolws, et alie «ntiphone secundum ordinem. yersus: 
Valde honorandws. Oratio: EccZesiam tuam. Sequ&tur processio ad 
altare Innocentium, cantando responsorium: Dignws a dignis, [p. 26] 
cum uersu; et regressu uersus ad placitum. Oratio: Dews qui licet. In 
reditu, de S&ncta ilfaria antiphona uel responsorium ad pZacitum, ut pre- 
noiatur. Fersus: Pos< partum. Oratio: Dews qui salutis, et cetera. 
Qu& finita,pueri cum suo Episcopo ante maiws altare cantantes ut supra 
noiatur m die S&ncti Steph&ni. 

Ad Primam, Fmnus: Corde natws. Antiphona: Herodes iratus. 
Psalmus: Dews, in nomine, et cetera. Antiphona: Grafaas. 1 Psalmus: 
Quicumqwe. Capitulum: Regi secwlorwm. Pesponsorium: Ihesu Xpiste. 
Alle/wia, et cetera, ut supra. 

Post Primam Penedicfto Episcopi, ut supra. Sequ&tur Missa Matu- 
tina. Ojficium: Puer natws. Kyrielewson et Gloria. Oratio: Concede, 
qweswmws, omn?po<ens Dews. ilfemorie S&ncte Marie, /Sancti Steph&ni, 
et iSancti Joh&nnis <antum. Epistola e.t Euangelium de secunda Missa 

i A latei hand bas substituted, Te unum. 

218 



HlSTOEY OF LlTUEGIOAL DfiAMA AT EoUEN 19 

ATaiiuitatis. Cetera de Maiori Missa. Credo, Sanctus, et Agnws festiue. 
Si Pominica/werii, sequatm Aque Benedictio, etpost Tertiam aspergatur. 
Et post[ea] sequatur Processio, et sit de JVafluitate secundum suum 
oramem, et pueri iu capis siut in superiori parte, ut supra noiatur iu 
die S&ncti Stephani. 

Ad Tertiam, Fmnus: Corporis formam. .Antiphona: A bymatu. 
Psalmus: Legempo[ne]. Capitulum: Vidi super montem. Pesponsorium. 
Letamim iw Domino. AlleZma. Fersus: Exultent. Oratio: Dews cuiws 
hodierna. 

Ad Missam, Officium. Omnes pueri iu capis iu medio chori regaut 
chorum. .Episcopus incipisX: Ex ore infantum. Psalmus: Domine, 
Dominus uoster. Kyrielewson et Gloria festiue. Oratio: Dews cuiws 
hodierna. Epistola iu cantu cum Prosa, ut supra: Vidi super montem. 
Oraduale pweri, w<preno<atur: Animanostfra. Fersus: Laqweus. JEpis- 
copus, cwm eo omnes pueri in modum corone : Alleluia. Hi sunt qui cum. 
Seguentiam .Episcopws iucipiat: Celsa pueri. .Ewangrelium in cantu: 
Angelus domini apparuit. Credo. Ojfertorium: Anima nostra, quod 
iucipiatur ab Episcooo, et cetera omm'a, ut supra. Deinde offerant 
omnes qui uoluerint, ut supra no<atur. Secreta: Adesto, Domine, muneri- 
bws. Pre/atio: Qwta per incarnati. Sancftis festiue. Commwnicantes. 
Agnws festiue. Communio: Vox in rama. Post-Communio: Votiwa, 
Domine. 

Ad Sextam, Fmnus: Ecce quem uates. Antiphona: Vox in rama. 
Psalmus: Defecit. Capitulum: Ecce audiui. Pesponsorium: Exultent 
iusti. AUeluia. Fersus: Iusti autem in perpetwwm. Oratio: Dews cuiws 
hodierna. 

Ad Nonam, Ymnus: luste iudex. Antiphona: Cantabant sancti. 
Psalmus: MirabiKa. Capitulum: Et cantabant. Pesponsorium: Iusti 
autem in perpetwwm. Fersus: Mirabihs Dews. Oratio: Dews cuiws 
hodierna 

Ad Fesperas antiphone cwm newmis fiuiantur. Antiphona: Tecum 
ryriucipium. Psalmus: Dixit Dommws, et cetera. Capitulum: Hi 
empti sunt. Pominus .Episcopus, cwm eo duo tunicati, responsorium: 
Iusti in perpetwwm. Fersus: Ideo accipient. Et cogitaWo. Gloria laus, 
qpudwmnum: 1 Sancforwm meritts, uel Letabundws. Fersus: Letamini. 
Antiphona: O qwam gloriosum. Psalmus: Magnificat. Et tamdiu 
cantetur: Deposuit potentes, quod baculus accipiatur qui accipere, 
uoluerit. Fespere fiuiantur a dietario, et cautor tradat tres cappas 
rubeas tribus de maioribus qui regant chorum. Oratio: Dews qui hod«- 
erna. Benedicamws Domino. Sequatur Afemorie iVaftuitatis Pomini, 
/Sancti Stephaui, iSancti Iohanuis, ut prenofcitur. Postea sequatur Pro- 
cessio: Sancia et immacwlata. Quafiuita, redeant ad altare Saucti Thome 
Martyris, et iucipiatur responsorium ab wno de regeutibus chorum, 

1 MS, Ymnus. 

219 



20 Kabl Young 

responsorium : Igitur ductws est Thomas. Tres regentes chorum wersum 
[p. 27] cantent ante altare : Misertws. Versus: Posuisti. Oratio: Dews, 
pro cuiws ecclesiam. In reditu de S&ncta Jfaria. Ad pZacitum Bene- 
dicamws tres pueri. 

Ad CompZetorium accendaniur candelabra more friplici. Antiphona: 
Natws est nobts. Psalmus : Cum inuocarem, et cetera. Fmnus : Saluator 
muwdi. Versus: Custodi nos. .Antiphona: Verbum caro. Psalmus: 
Nunc dimittis, et cetera, ut fieri solet. 

[OFFICIUM STELLAE] 1 

[p. 34] Officiura Triwm Regum secundum usum ecclesie Pofftomagensis 
die iUpwphanie. Tertia cantata, tres de maiore sede more regum induti, 
et debeut esse scripti iu tabula, ex tribus p&rtibus ante altare conueniant 
cwm suis famulis portautibus Regum obl&tiones induti tunicis et amicti- 
bus, et debent esse de secunda sede scripti in tabula adplacitum scriptoris. 
Ex* irious Regibus medius ab oriente ueniens, stellam cwm baculo osten- 
dens, dicat alte : Stella fulgore nimio. 

Secundus Rex a dextra p&rte resvxyndeat : Que regem regum. 

Tertius Rex a sinistra p&rte dicat : Quem uenturwm olim. 

Tunc Magi ante altare sese osculeutur, et simul cautent: Eamws et 
inquiramws. 

Hoc finito, cautor incipiat responsorium: Magi ueniunt, et moweai 
processio. Fersus : Cum natws. Sequatur aliud responsorium, si necesse 
fuerit: Interrogabat magos. Processione m naui ecclesie coustituta, 
statiouem faciaut. Dum autem processio nauem ecclesie intr&re ceperit, 
corona ante altare Crucis pendens iu modo stelle, Magi Stellam ostew- 
dentfes ad ymaginem. Sancte Afarie super altare Crucis prius positam 
cantantes pergant : Ecce stella 3 in oriente. 

Hoc finito, duo de maiori sede cum dalmaticis ex utr&que p&rte 
altaris stantes suauiter respondeaut : Qui sunt hi qui stella. 4 

Magi respondeant : Nos sumws qwos cernitis. 

Twnc dwo dalmatic&ti aperientes cortinam dica[n]t: Ecce puer 
adest. 

Twnc procidentes Reges ad terram simul salutent Puerum, ita 
diceutes: Salue princeps secwlorwm. 

Tunc wnus a suo famulo aurum accipiat et dicat: Suscipe rex 
aurwm, 

et offerat. .Secundus Rex ita dicat et offerat : Tolle thws uere. 

Tercius dicat et offerat : Mirram, sigmtm sepulture. 

Iterum fiant oblationes a clero et populo. Tunc Afaaifs] orantibus et 
qu&si somno sopitis, quidam puer alba indutus et amictu super caput 
quasi AnaeZus in pulpito illis dicut hanc antiphonam: Impleta sunt qwe 

i B. N. MS lat. 1213, pp. 34, 35. 2MS, et. 3MS, stella. «MS, stella. 

220 



HlSTOBY OF LlTUBGICAL DBAMA AT EOUEN 21 

prophefie, et cetera. JSToc finito Reges recedant per alam ecclesie awte 
fontes, et intrent chorum per ostium sinistrum, et processio intret chormn 
sicut consuetum est in Dominicis, cantore incipiente hoc responsorium: 
Tria suwt munera. Versus: Salutzs nosire auctor, si necesse fuerit. 

Ad Missam tres Reges regant chorum, qui Kyrie, fons bonitatis, 
Alleluia, Sanetus, et Agnus cantent. Ojficium: Ecceaduewit. Psalmus: 
Dews iudicium. Kyrieleg/sow et Gloria festiue. Oratio: Dews qui hodt- 
erna die. Si ArcMepiscopus cantauerit, Memorie pro Domino Papa et 
Rege fcmtum; sine autem Alleima ilfemorie fia\n~\t- .Epistola: Surge 
illumiware. Predicti famuli cantent Oraduale: Omwes de Sabba. 
Fersus: Surge illumiware. Alleluia. Fersus: Vidimws stellam. <Seguen- 
cia: Epyphawiam Domino. JSwangelium: Cum natws esset Ihesws. 
Credo. Ojfertorium: Reges Tharsts. Deinde offerant Reges, et omnes 
qui uoluerint. «Secreta: Eccfeste tue, qweswmws, Domiwe. Pre/atio: 
[p. 35] Quia cum Unigewitws. Commwwicawtes et diem. Communio: 
Vidimws stellam. Post-Communio: Presfci, queswmws, omwtpotfews 
Dews. Pre/atio et CommuntcawiJes dicantw per ociauam; eiiam ad 
Missam JBeate ilfarie. 

Ad Sextam, Fmnus: Ecce quem uates. Antiphona: Apertis thesauris. 
Psalmus: Defecit. Capitulum: Et ambulabuwt gewtes. Pesponsorium: 
Reges Tharsts. Alleluia. Fersus: Adorate Domiwwm. Oratio: Dews 
qui hodterwa die. 

Ad Nonam, Fmnus : Iuste iudex. Antiphona: Stella ista. Psalmus: 
Mirabilis. Capitulum: Filii tui de lowge. Pesponsorium: Adorate 
Domtwwm. AWeluia,. Fersus: Omwes gewfes. Oratio: Dews qwi 
hodierwa die. 

Ad Fesperas, Antiphona: Tecum principium. Psalmus: Dixit 
Dominus, et cetera, secundum swwm ordinem. Capitulum: Inuwdatto 
camelorwm. JBesponsorium: In columbe specte. Tersus: Vox Domini. 
Fmnus: A pafre Unigenitws, uel Letabuwdws. Versus: Omwes de Sabba. 
Antiphona: Ab oriewte. Psalmus: M&gnificat. Oratio: Dews qui hodi- 
erna die. Nulla memoria. 

Ad CompZetorium, ut heri. 

[OFPICIUM SEPULCHRI]« 

[p. 86] .... Pesponsorium: 2 Dum transisset sabbaiwm. "Persus: 
Et ualde. Ut uewientes. Glona. Alieluia. 

Finito tertio responsorio, Officium Sepulchri ita ceZebratur. 2Ves 
diaconi de maiori sede, induti dalmaticis et amictus habentes super 

1 B. N. MS lat. 1213, p. 86. This text has already been presented by C. Lange, Die latein- 
ischen Osterfeiern ( Mllnchen, 1887) , pp. 155-57. Certain obvious errors iri Lange's text together 
with the desirability of giving the complete series of dramatic ofBces in MS 1213 will probably 
justify my offering a new text of this Offlcium Sepulchri. 

2 Third Bespond of Easter Matins. 

221 



22 Kael Young 

capita sua ad stmiZitudinem mulieram, uascula tenentes in manibus 
ueniant per medium chori, et uersus Sepulcrum 1 properantes uultibus 
submissis cantent pariter hunc wersum: Qwts reuoluet nobis lapidem? 

Hoc finito, quidam puer quasi Angelus, indutus alba et amictus, 
tenens spicam in manu, ante Sepulcrum dicat: Quem queritts m 
sepulcro ? 

Marie respondeant : Iheswm Nazarenum crucifixum. 

Tunc .AngeZus dicat : Non est hic, surrexit enira, 

Et locum digito ostendens. Hoc finito, Angelus citissime discedat, 
et duo presbjteri de maiori sede in tunicis intus Sepulchrum residentes 
dicant : Mwlier, quid ploras ? 

Medius irium Mulierum respondeat, ita dicens : Quia tulerwnt Domi- 
num meura. 

Duo residentes dicant : Quem qweritis, mulieres t 

Marie osculentur locum; postea exeant de Sepulcro. Interim qui- 
dam sacerdos de maiori sede in persona Domini, albatus cum stolla, 
tenens crucem obuians eis, in sinistro cornu altaris dicat : Mwlier, quid 
ploras? Quem qweris? 

Medius Mulier 2 dicat : Domine, si sustulisti eum, dicito mihi. 

Sacerdos illi crucem ostendens dicat: Maria! 

#uod cwm audierit, pedibus eius citissime 3 sese offerat, et alta uoce 
dicat: Eaboni! 

Sacerdos innuens manu dicat : Noli me tangere. 

Hoc finito, sacerdos in dextro cornu altaris iterum appareat, et illis 
tr&nseuntibus ante altare dicat : Auete, nolite timere. 

Hoc finito, se abscondat, et Mulieres, hoc audito, lete inclinent ad 
altare, et conwerse ad chorum hunc wersum cantent : AlleZwm, resurrexit 
Dominus, 3 alleZwia. 

iifoc finito, Dominus Arcftiepiscopus weZ sacerdos ante altare cwm 
turibulo incipiat alte: Te Deura laudamws, et sine neuma /ZniaZur. 
TTersus: ResurrexjZ Doramws uere. Dews in adiutorium* .... 

[OFFICIUM PEREGRINORUM] 5 

[p. 90] .... Ad Fesperas, 6 sicut in die Pasce, duo de maioribus in 
capis : Salue f esta dies, cwm processione, ut supra. Kyrielej/son, ut supra. 
AlleZwja. Psalmus: Dixit Dominws. Psalmus: Confitebor, et cetera. 
Dwo de secunda sede regant chorum. Graduale: Hec dies. Fersus: 
Dicant nunc Isr&el. Duo de maiori sede : AlleZwia. Nowne cor nosZrwm. 
Fersus: Surrexit Doraiwws. jlntiphona: Et coegerwnt. Psalmus: 
Magnificat. Oratio: Dews qui hodierna die. Dwo de secunda sede: 
Benedicamws Dommo. AlleZwia. Nulla memoria wisi fuerit fe[sti], ut 

1 MS, sepulcri. * The beginning of Laudes. 

2 I ange, mulierum. 5B. N. MS lat. 1213, p. 90. 

sOmitted by Lange. 6 Vespers of Easter Monday. 

222 



HlSTORY OF LlTOEGICAL DBAMA AT KOUEN 23 

supra. Seguatur Processio ad Fontes, ut supra. Oratio: Concede, qwe- 
sumus, o[mnipotens] Dews. In reditu : Alleluia. Psalmus: In exitu, et 
cetera, ut supra. 

iVota, Fili. Officium Pereprinorum debet hic fieri hoc modo. Duo 
de secunda sede, qui sint scripti m tabula ad pl&citum scriptoris, induti 
tunicis et desuper capis, tr&nsuersum portantes baculos et peras in 
similitudinem Peregrinorum, et habeant capellos super capita, et sint 
barbati. Exeant de uestiario cantantes ymnum: Ihesu, nosfra redemp- 
tio. Venientes lento pede per dextram alam ecclesie «sgue ad portas 
occidentales, et subsistent in capite processionis. Et cwm cantauerint 
ymnum usque ad eum locum: Nos tuo uultu saties, tunc guidam sacer- 
dos de maiori sede scrip£us in tabula, indutm alba et awwctfus nudus 
pedes, ferens crucem super dextrum humerum, uultu demisso ueniens 
usque ad eos per dextram alam ecclesie et subito stet inter illos et dicat : 
Qui sunt hi sermones? 

Peregrint quasi admirantes et ewm respicientes dica\n~\t: Tu solws 
peregrinus es. 

Sacerdos interroget: Que? 

Peregrini respondeant : De Ihesu Nazareno. 

Sacerdos utrimque respiciens dicat : O stulti et tardi corde. 

§ui6us dictis, statim recedens sacerdos fingens se longius ire, et Pere- 
grini festinantes prosequientes eum detineant qu&si ad hospicium inui- 
tantes et tr&hentes, baculis ostendentes Castellum, et dicentes: Mane 
nobiscum. 

Et ita cantantes ducant eum usque ad tabexnaculum m medio nauis 
ecclesie in stmih'tudinem Castelli Emaux preparatum. Quo cum 
ascenderint et ad mensam ibi p&ratam sederint, et Pominus inter eos 
sedens panem eis fregerit, et fractione panis agnitus ab 1 illia, subito 
recedens ab oculis eorum euanescat. Illi autem qu&si stupef&cti sur- 
gentes, uersis uultibus inter ipsos cantent lamentabiliter : AUeluia., cum 
wersu: Nonne cor nosfrwm. Quo reiterato, uertent se uersus pulpitum 
et cante\n\t hunc wersum: Dic nobts, Marta. 

Tunc quidam de maiori sede indutus dalmatica, et amictu, in modum 
mulieris caput circumligatus, respondeat : 

Sepulcrum Xpisti. 
Angelicos testes. 
Tunc ostendat unam sindonem et explicet ex un& parte loco sudarii, 
et aliam ex ali& paxte loco uestium, et proiciat ante magnum ostium 
chori. Deinde dicat : Su[r]rexit Xpistus 

Chorus cantet alios duos wersus sequentes residuos, et interim rece- 
da[n\t Afaria et Peregrini; et processio, memoriis factis, redeat in choro, 
et ibi finiantur Fespere. 2 

1 MS, uel. 2Xhe rubric, Completorium, follows immediately. 

223 



24 Kael Young 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

The following is a list, with some criticism, of the most important 
manuscripts and prints bearing upon the subject of the liturgico-dramatic 
offices of Eouen. 

1. Rouen MS 384 (Y. 110), Ordinarium Rothomagense saec. xiv. 

a) Offlcium Pastorum, fol. 22 r -23 r , printed by Gast6, pp. 25-32. 

b) Festum Asinorum, fol. 33 r -35 r , printed by GastS, pp. 4-20. 

c) Officium Infantum, fol. 28 r -28 T , extracts in Gast6, pp. 35, 36. 

d) Offioium Stellae, fol. 38 T -39 r , printed by Gaste\ pp. 49-52. 

e) Officium Sepulchri, fol. S^^-SS", printed by Gast6, pp. 58-62, and 
inaccurately presented by Lange, pp. 155-57, where some of the 
variants from this MS are appended to an inaccurate text from Bibl. 
Nat. MS lat. 1213. 

/) Officium Peregrinorum, fol. 86 r -86 T , printed by Gast6, pp. 65-68. 

2. Rouen MS 382 (Y. 108), Ordinarium Rothomagense saec. xv. 

a) Officium Pastorum, fol. 23 r -24 r . 

b) Officium Infantum, fol. 28 r -29 r . 

c) Festum Asinorum, fol. 31 T -33 r . 

d) Officium Stellae, fol. 35 T -36 r . 

e) Officium Sepulchri, fol. 70bis T -71 r . 
/) Officium Peregrinorum, fol. 73 r -73 T . 

In printing the corresponding six texts from Rouen MS 384 (Y. 110) 
Gaste' gives occasional variants from MS 382 (Y. 108), but by no means 
all of them. In assuming that MS 382 (Y. 108) is a copy of MS 384 
(Y. 110) Gast6 (p. 2) may be right; in which case the copyist departed at 
times rather widely from his model. See, for example, Gast6, p. 51, n. 1. 

3. Bibl. Nat. MS lat. 1213, Ordinarium Rothomagense saec. xv. 

a) Officium Pastorum, pp. 17-18. 

b) Officium Infantum, pp. 25-27. 

c) Officium Stellae, pp. 34, 35. 

d) Officium Sepulchri, p. 86, printed by Lange, pp. 155-57. 

e) Officium Peregrinorum, pp. 90, 91. 

These five texts are printed in the present article. Monsieur Pierre 
Aubry is certainly wrong in his assertion (La musique et les musiciens 
d'6glise en Normandie au XIII e siecle [Paris, 1906], p. 27, n. 1) that this 
MS contains a text of the Festum Asinorum. 

4. Montpellier MS H. 304, Miscellanea saec. xii. 

a) Officium Pastorum, fol. 41 r -41 T , printed above. 

b) Officium Stellae (incomplete), fol. 41 T -42 T , printed above. Extracts 
in Gast6, pp. 54-56. 

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HlSTOBY OP LlTUBGICAL DBAMA AT RoUEN 25 

5. Bibl. Nat. MS. lat. 904, Graduale Kothomagense saec. xiii. 

a) Offlcium Pastorum, fol. 11 T -12 T , printed by E. de Coussemaker, 
Les drames liturgiques du moyen age (Rennes, 1860), pp. 235-41. 

b) Officium Stellae, fol. 28 T -30 r , printed by Coussemaker, pp. 242-49. 

c) Officium Sepulchri, fol. 101 T -102 T , printed by Coussemaker, pp. 
250-55; by G. Milchsack, Die lateinischen Osterfeiern (Wolfen- 
btittel, 1880), p. 133; and by Lange, pp. 155-57. 

6. Rouen MS 222 (A. 551), Processionale Rothomagense saec. xiii. 

a) Officium Stellae (incomplete), fol. 4 r -4 T , printed above. 

b) Officium Peregrinorum, fol. 43 r -45 r , printed above. 

7. Bibl. Nat. MS lat. 1232, Ordo Romanus saec. xii. 

At the back of this MS are inserted two folios in paper, numbered fol. 
26 and 27. On fol. 26 r -27 r a hand of the seventeenth century has written 
a text of the Festum Asinorum, followed (fol. 27 r ) by the note, in the 
same hand, "Haec supra scripta deprompta fuerunt ex antiquo codice 
Rituali S. Rotom. Ecclesiae, in Festo Circumcisionis Domini." This text 
agrees exactly with the text of the Festum Asinorum in Rouen MS 384 
(Y. 110). 

8. The texts communicated in Joannis Abrincensis Episcopi deinde 
Rotomagensis Archiepiscopi Liber De Officiis Ecclesiasticis, Notis 
D. Johannis Prevotii .... illustratus, Rotomagi, 1679. (The reprint 
of this work by Migne, Pat. Lat., Vol. CXLVII, is accurate in all the 
points in which I refer to it.) 

a) Officium Infantum, pp. 202-5 (Migne, CXLVII, 135, 136). 

b) Officium Stellae, pp. 206-10 (Migne, CXLVII, 135-40). 

c) Officium Sepulchri, pp. 211-15 (Migne, CXLVII, 139-42). 

Regarding his sources Le Prevost writes at the head of his Officium 
Infantum, "Ex ordin. MS Bigot.;" at the head of each of the other two 
officia he writes, "Ex ordinario et libro offic. MSS: bibliothecae Bigoti- 
anae." Various misstatements have been current as to the identification 
of these MSS. Gaste' suggested (pp. 3, 4) that Le Prevost took the music 
for the Officium Stellae and the Officium Sepulchri from the parallel 
texts in Bibl. Nat. MS lat. 904, and (p. 4, n. 2) that Bibl. Nat. MS lat. 1213 
is "un des MSS. consultes par dom Jean Le Prevost .... pour les vari- 
antes qu'il a mises en manchettes." (Le Prevosfs "side-notes" are faith- 
fully preserved in square brackets in Migne's reprint.) Chambers (Medi- 
aeval Stage, II, 45, n. 3), referring to Gaste\ says that Le Prevosfs Offi- 
cium Stellae is "from B. N. 904 and B. N. lat. 1213." P. Aubry (op. cit., 
p. 29, n. 1) squarely implies that the dramatic offices presented by Le Pr6- 
vost are transcriptions from Bibl. Nat. MS lat. 1213. 

I have compared Le Pre>ost's dramatic offices with the two Paris MSS 

mentioned by Gast6, Chambers, and Aubry, and I present the following 

results : 

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26 Karl Young 

a) Le Prevostfs texts are almost identical with the texts in Bibl. Nat. MS 
lat. 1213. His departures from this MS may be illustrated by the 
following comparison: 

"Et moveat processio. Sequatur aliud responsorium ei necesse fuerit" 
(Migne, CXLVII, 137). 

" Et moveat processio, versus: Cum natus. Sequatur aliud responsorium 
si necesse fuerit " (MS 1213, p. 31). 

b) In direct contradiction to Gast6's conjecture I must report that I do 
not find a single case in which Le Prevostfs "variantes .... mises 
en manchettes" could have been taken from MS 1213. Nearly all 
(but not all) of Le Prevostfs "side-notes" agree with readings found 
in B. N. MS lat. 904. 

c ) The melodies accompanying Le Prevostfs texts agree exactly with the 
melodies that accompany the corresponding texts in B. N. MS lat. 904. 
In view of these observations, and in view of the fact that Le Prevostfs 

texts do not agree exactly with the Rouen MSS Y. 110, Y. 108, and 222 
(A. 551), or with Montpellier MS H. 304, I believe that at present the 
exact source of his texts cannot be demonstrated. 

9. Du Cange, Glossarium Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis, 7 Vols., Parisiis 
1840-46. 

a) Officium Pastorum, V, 129. This text of Du Cange is the basis of 
the text given as "Rouen, XIV Century" by C. Davidson, Studies 
in the English Mystery Plays (New Haven, 1892), pp. 50-52, where, 
however, Du Cange is "amplified from Weinholdand Du Meril." 

b) Festum Innocentium, III, 960-61. 

c) Festum Asinorum, III, 255. 

d) Officium Stellae, VI, 367. I suppose that this text is the basis of 
the Officium Regum Trium given by Davidson, pp. 52-64. 

e) Officium Sepulchri, VI, 195. 

/) Officium Peregrinorum, V, 201. 

The b), d), and e) of Du Cange do not agree with the corresponding 
texts communicated by Le Prevost, nor do the six texts agree exactly 
with any of the MSS discussed above. In each case, Du Cange says that 
his text is taken from an " Ordinarius MS," of Rouen. Petit de Julleville 
(Les Mystbres [Paris, 1880], p. 37) says that the MS from which Du Cange 
printed his Festum Asinorum is lost. He adds that this last MS must 
have been written after 1350. P. Aubry (op. cit., p. 27, n. 1) is certainly 
wrong in his assertion that Du Cange's text of the Festum Asinorum 
comes from Bibl. Nat. MS lat. 1213, p. 24. 

10. E. Martene, De Antiquis Ecclesiae Ritibus, 4 Vols. (Antuerpiae, 
1736-38). 

a) Officium Pastorum, III, 96. 

b) Officium Stellae, III, 122, 123. 

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HlSTOKY OF LlTUBGICAL DBAMA AT KOUEN 27 

The Rouen MSS used are not exactly indicated. These texts agree 
exactly neither with any of the MSS mentioned above nor with the corre- 
sponding texts of Du Cange. Martene's Officium Stellae agrees in part 
with the corresponding text of Le Prevost, and in part with the variants 
offered by Le Prevost. 

11. E. Du Meril, Les origines latines du the~atre moderne (Paris, 1897). 

a) Officium Peregrinorum, pp. 117-20. 

b) Officium Sepulchri, pp. 96-98. 

c) Officium Pastorum, pp. 147-50. 

d) Officium Stellae, pp. 153-56. 

The manuscript bases of these four texts are exceedingly uncertain. 
For a serious criticism of Du Meril's four texts see Gast6, pp. 2, 3. Cf . 
Petit de Julleville, I, pp. 26, n. 1, and 61, n. 1. 

In discussing the liturgico-dramatic offices of Rouen, scholars would 
probably do well to refer, as far as possible, to more authoritative texts 
than those of Le Prevost, Du Cange, Martene, and Du Meril. 

12. The complete disappearance of all Rouen Troparia is greatly to be 
deplored by students of mediaeval dramatic origins. That the 
Cathedral of Rouen formerly possessed Troparia is shown by inven- 
tories of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. See Revue de 1'Art 
Chretien, 1886, pp. 456, 466. 

Kabl Young 
Univeksity of Wisconsin 



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