Early Journal Content on JSTOR, Free to Anyone in the World
This article is one of nearly 500,000 scholarly works digitized and made freely available to everyone in
the world by JSTOR.
Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other
writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the
mid-seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries.
We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this
resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non-commercial
Read more about Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate-jstor/individuals/early-
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people
discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching
platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit
organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please
LAEGAIRE MAC CRIMTHANN'S VISIT TO FAIRYLAND
The following tale is found in the twelfth-century Book of Leinster
[LL.] (Facsimile, p. 275, b, 22— p. 276, b, 25) and in the fifteenth-
century Book of Lismore (167, r., o, 24 — 167, v., a, 32). Text and
translation of the Lismore manuscript, which omits the verse, are
given by S. H. O'Grady in Silva Gadelica (London and Edinburgh,
1892, I, 256 f.; II, 290 f.). Most of the verse has been translated
by Kuno Meyer in the Voyage of Bran (London, 1895, I, 180 ff.) and
in his Selections from Ancient Irish Poetry (2d ed., London, 1913,
p. 19). In the English rendering of the LL. version here offered, I
have, wherever possible, followed the translations of Dr. Meyer, to
whom I am also indebted for personal assistance. In translating
the prose I have derived much help from the valuable, though inac-
curate, rendering of the Lismore text given by O'Grady. Owing
to the large number of errors in O'Grady's transcription, I reprint
the Lismore version, which I was able to consult in 1912 through the
courtesy of the Duke of Devonshire's agent at Lismore Castle.
Summaries of the tale are given by Nutt (Voyage of Bran, I, 180 ff.)
and by A. C. L. Brown ([Harvard] Studies and Notes, VIII , 40,
n. 2). The student of folk-lore will be interested in the story as an
early example of the fairy world under water — a feature common in
later Celtic popular literature (cf. this journal, XII , 603,
nn. 2 and 3).
BOOK OF LEINSTER
Batar Connachta fecht and i n-dail oc Enloch for Mag Af. Cremthand
Cass iss 6 M ri Connacht in tan sin. Ansait inan dail in aidchi sin. Otrach-
tatar matin moch arnabarach conaccatar in fer chucu triasin ciaig. Bratt
corcra coicdiabulta imbi. Da sMeig cofcriwni in a laim. Sciath co m-buali
olr fair. Claideb orduirn for a chriss. A mong 6rbuide dar a aiss. "Ta-
braid f&ilti dond ihir doth^t chucaib," or Laegaire Llban mac Crimthand.
Moc-saide is alnem rob6i la Connachta, in Laegaire. "Fochen don laech
nadathgenamar," or Laegaire. "Is bude lim," or se. "Cid imm6tracht?"
or Laegaire. "Do chungid sochraide," or se. "Can duit?" or Laegaire.
"Do fAeruib side dam. Fiachna mac Retach m'ainm-se. Mo ben iarwm
731] 155 [Modern Philology, April, 1916
156 Tom Peete Cboss
rucad uaim .i. rofuc Eochaid mac Sail. Dorochair-side lim-sa i rr6i chatha,
condeochaid co mac brathar d6 .i. co Goll mac nDuilb, rl duin Maige Mell.
Doratusa secht catha doside, 7 romemdatar form uile. Forruacrad iarum
cath lind indiu. Do chungid chobartha iarum dodechadsa." ISandasbert:
"Aildiu maigib, Mag da Cheo,
iwma luadet linni cr6.
Cath fer side Ian do gail,
ni clan disMu inid fail.
"Tindsamar fuil fichda fland
a corpaib segda s6erchland.
For a collaib ferait br6n
bantrocht dian derach dfm6r.
"Cet orggain cathrach da chorr,
iwma rabe toeban toll.
Dorochair co cind fri cath,
Eochaid mac Sail sirechtach.
"Tren ronbagi Aed mac Find
in n-irgail n-uallaig n-adrind.
Goll mac Duilb, Dond mac Nera,
ronbagi m6r caemchenna.
"Maithi m'eich, ailli mo mna.
me fadem ni Aed namma,
Urrand argait 7 6ir.
teit liw cacA duine dian ail.'A.
"Findne gela [i]na llaim,
co cowiarthaib argait bain,
Co claidbib glanaib glassaib,
cornaib cruachaib comrasaib.
"Co cowarlib in chatha
ar beluib a find[f]latha
Cengait dar gao glassa
buidni bana bar[r]chassa.
"Crot[h]ait irgala ecrat,
orcit cech tir fo-n-uapret.
Cain cengait uili don chath,
sluag dian deligthe diglach.
"Deithbtr d6ib cid mor am brig;
at meic 2 rigna 7 rig.
Fil for a cennaib uile
monga aille 6rbuide.
1 As Meyer observes, the bad rhyme between 6ir and dil indicates that the stanza
is corrupt. The letter A shows that the first of the two poems which are here pieced
together ends at this point. The last poem also consists of two fragments, the first
ending at the letter A.
' Leg. male.
Laegaibe Mac Crimthann's Visit to Faibyland 157
"Co corpaib mmib massaib,
roscaib relib rindglassaib,
fiaclaib glain[id]ib glanaib,
belaib dergaib tanaidib.
"It maithe fri guin [n-]duine,
binne fri uair cormthige.
Sech it suithe for rannaib,
iddera 1 for fidchellaib." findne.
Lasin ims6i liadib. "Mebol duib," or Laegaire, "cen chobraid ind
fMr." Fon6pairstde .1. laech ina diaid. Gaibidside remib fon loch.
Gabaitseom dano ina diaid. Conaccatar an diinad ar a cind 7 in cath in
agid araile. Esseom rempo corranic an diinad .i. Fiachra (sic!) mac Retach.
Condrancatar i suidiu na da chath. "Maith, a F/iiachnai," or Loegaire,
" condricub-sa frisin toesech anall .1. laech." "Roticub-sa iramoro," or
Goll mac Duilb. ImMostuarcat andfb coicdaib cotulaid Loegaire ass a
choicait im bethaid iar tuitim Guill con a choecait. Maidid in cath remib
iarsin coralad a n-ar. " Caft i t& in ben ? " or Laegaire. " Ata in dun Maige
Mell," ol Fiachna, "7 leth in t-sMuafg impe." "Anaid sund condarisa
mo ch6icait," or Laegaire. Luid iarwm Loegaire corranic an dun. Robas
immoro oc gabail in diiine. "Bid bee torbai," or Laegaire. "Dorochair
far ri 7 dorochratar for c6im. Lecid in mnai immach 7 tabar slan diiib
taris." Dognlther on, 7 is and asbert si oc tuidecht immach .i. osnad
ingen Echach Amlabair:
"Nip inmain ]& negtar fuidb
foblth corpaln Guill mate Duilb,
Nech rocharusa, romchar!
ni sceol Laegaire Lfban!
"Ba mellchu lim dul [don] dail,
ingnais Echada mote Sail.
Meti ni badam b6o
d'ingnais rig Maige da Cheo.
" Iarsain carsor Goll mac Duilb,
lashgontais, [las] scailtis fuidb.
Fo reir nD6 tiagsa immach
dochum Fiachnai mai'c Retach."
Luid Loegaire iarsin cotarat a laim i llaJm Fniachna, 7 foid ra Loegaire
ind adaig sin .i. DeVgm'ne ingen FAiachna, 7 dobreth .1. ban da choicait
laech. Anait leo co cend m^bKadna. "Tiagam do fnis sc61 ar tlri," or
Laegaire. "Dia tisaid aridisi," or Fiachna, "berid eochu lib, 7 na tarlingid
dlb." Dognither 6n. Tiagait corrancatar an 6inach. Connachta andsin
bhadan Ian oc a chafnisium. 2 Condafairnechtar in oendail ar a chind.'
• Meyer suggests a possible connection between the obscure iddera and fithir, which
O'Reilly translates "a doctor, teacher."
! Leg. cainisium( ?). » Leg. c ind( ?).
158 Tom Peete Cross
Rolingset Connachta do fAailti friu. "Na taet," or Loegaire. "Do chele-
brad dfb dodechamar." " NachamfMcaib," or Crimthand. "Rige teora
Connacht duit : a n-6r 7 a n-argat, a n-eich 7 a srein 7 a mna coema dot r&r,
7 nachanfacaib." Conid and asbert Loegaire:
"Amra sin, a Chrimthai'n Chaiss,
carma imthecht da cech frais!
Immam catha c6t mfle,
techt arrige irrige.
"Ceol soer sirechtach side,
techt arrige irrige,
01 a 1 stabaib glana,
acallaim neich nocara.
"Mescmai fairind ofr buide
for fidchellaib fmdruine.
Donfairic 61 meda mind
la fianlaech n-uabrech n-imrind.
" IS i mo ben-sa feme,
ingen FMachna, Dergreine.
Iarsain corai6cws-[sa] duit
ben cech oenfAir dom choicait.
"Tucsam a dun Maige Mell
trichait core, trichait cornd.
Tucsam osnaid canair 2 muir,
ingin Echach Amlabair.A.
"Amra sin, a Chrimthain Chais,
ba-sa fiada claidib glais.
Om-adaig do aidchib 5 side,
ni thiber ar do rige."
IArsin ros6i uadib is a sfd doridise, conidfil i Uethrfge int sMda fri
Fiachna mac Retach .i. in dun Maige Mell, 7 ingen F/uachnai inna
BOOK OF LISMORE
Batur Condachta fecht ann an dail oc Enloch for Maigft Ai. Crimthand
Cass ba ri Connacht in tan sin. Ansat in aigt/ie sin isin dail. Atrachtatar
matun mAoch arnam/iarach cunfftactatar an fer chuca triasin ciaich. Brat
' Meyer would read a[sa], "out of their," to make up the requisite number of syllables.
1 As Meyer suggests, canair appears to be miswritten for canas.
> Meyer emends to d'aidchib.
Laegaire Mac Crimthann's Visit to Fairyland 159
corcra coicdiabuil iwbe. D£ stileig coicrinn 'na lamiA. Sciath co wi-buaili
oirfair. ClaidAiuwA ordAuirn for a cris. Mong6rbAuidAidaraais. "TabA-
raidA failte don f Air dothoet chucaib," for LaegAaire LfbAan mac CrimAthainn.
Macseide is ainemA bui la Connachta. "Focen don loech n& ataithgAenmar,"
ol LaogAaire. "Is buidhe lem," ol se. "CidA ima tudAchad?" ol
LaegAoire. "Do chungAidA sAochraiti," ol se. "Can duit?" or Loegaire.
"Do fAeruibA sithe dam," or se. "Fiachna mac Retach mo ainm. Mo ben
rorfucadA dom cAinn .i. rosfuc Eochaid mac Sail. DorochairsidAe limsa
a-raei catha. Condechaid side co mac brathar dA6 .i. cu Goll mac Duilb,
rf duine Muige Meall. Doraduisa vii catha dAo 7 romeabAutar form uile.
ForfuacradA cath linn inniu, 7 do chuingidA cAabAurtha dodAeochadaisa 7
dober uarrann argait 7 uirann oir da gach aoinfAer diand ail do chinn tecAia
lem." LasodAuin imsoi uadAaibh. "IS meabAul duibA" or LoegAuire,
"cen cabAuir ind fAir ut." ForfAuabuirside coecat loech 'na dAiaigA. GabA-
aidAsidAe reimAeibA fon loch. GabAaitsiumA dono 'na dAaighA. Atconnca-
tar in dunad ar a cind 7 in catA agAaidA i n-aigAaidA. TeitsiumA rempa
corainic a dunad .i. FiacAna mac Retach. ConfAacatar na da cAatA i
suidAe. "Maith tra," or LoegAaire, "condricabsa frisin toisiuch anall
coecat loech." "RottincubAsa," ar Goll mac DuilbA. Imustuai'rcet
andibA coecdaibA. DoluidA Loegaire ais \m bethaid con a coecat iar toitim
GAuill con a coecat ime. MaidAidA in cath reimibA iarsin cu raladA a
n-ar. " Cait i ta in ben ? " or LaogAaire. " Ata in dunad MuigAi Meall," or
Fiachna, "7 in t-sluaig immpe." "AnaidA sund contarossa 7 mo .1.," ol
Loeghaire. Luid Laoghaire iarwm co dunad MAuige Meall. Robas immoro
oc gabAail in duine. "Bid bee tarbAa," or Laegaire. "Dorochuir bAar ri 7
dorochratar bar coeimA. Lecid in mnai iwimach 7 tabar slan duib thairis."
Dognither on. Is ann isbert oc( ?) tuidecht imach .i. osnadA ingin Echach
Amlabair. LuidA Loegaire iarsin cutard a laimA i Uaim FAiachnai, 7 ro-
foidAedA re Laegaire in aigAthe sin .i. Dergreine, ingen Fiachna, ocus
[tuc]atA(?) coecait ban da coecat laech, occus anaid leo co cenn m-bHadna.
"TigAuimne do fAios sc61 ar tire," oul 1 Loegaire. "Dia tisaidA doridisi," uol
Fiachna, 2 "beridA eocha lib 7 na turlingidA dAib." Dognither on. TiagAait
currancatar int aenach. Batar Connachta andsin oc cainedA in fAiallaig
remraitti i cind na bliadna. Condasairnechtar ar a cAind. 3 Rolingset
ConnacAta do fAailte friu. "Na toeit," or Laegaire. "Do cAeileabAradA
duibA dodAechamar." "NachamfacoibA," ar Crimthann. "Rigiu teora
Connacht duit : a n-or 7 a n-arcat, a n-eich 7 a srein 7 a mna coemai dot reir,
7 nachamfacaibA." Iarsin rosoi uadAibA isin sitA doridisi, condofil i lethrfgi
int sAfdAa fri Fiachna mac Retach, 7 in^en Fiachna 'na fAairad, 7 ni thainic as
i On the margin is written "ar tire oul."
1 On the margin is written "doridisi oul."
•Leg. cind (?).
160 Tom Pebte Cross
BOOK OF LEINSTER
Once upon a time the men of Connaught were in assembly at Bird Lake
upon the plain of Ai. At that time Crimthann Cass was king of Connaught.
That night they remained assembled. When they arose next morning, they
saw a man coming toward them through the mist: a purple five-folded
mantle about him, two five-barbed spears in his hand, a shield with a boss of
gold upon him, a gold-hilted sword at his belt, and a golden-yellow mane
behind him. "Give welcome to the man who comes to you!" said Laegaire
Liban son of Crimthann. The noblest youth among the men of Connaught
was Laegaire. "Welcome to the warrior whom we have not known," said
Laegaire. "Thanks!" said he. "Wherefore hast thou come?" said
Laegaire. "To seek for a band of men," he replied. "Whence art thou ?"
said Laegaire. "Of the men of the fairy-mound am I," he answered.
" Fiachna son of Retu is my name. My wife, moreover, has been taken from
me; i.e., Eochaid son of Sal took her. He fell by me on the field of battle.
She has gone to a brother's son of his; i.e., to Goll son of Dolb, king of the
fort of Mag Mell. 1 I have given him seven battles and they have all gone
against me. Moreover, a battle has been declared by us for to-day. To
seek help, therefore, have I come." Then he said:
"Most delightful of plains is the Plain of Two Mists,
On which stir up pools of blood
A battalion of fairy men full of valor.
Not far hence is where it is.
"We drew foaming dark-red blood
From stately bodies of nobles.
Upon their corpses pour out grief
An eager, tearful, countless band of women.
"The first slaughter of the city of Da Chorr,
Near (lit., around) which was a beloved pierced side
(i.e., body) :
He with his head to the battle fell,
Eochaid son of Sal, the wistful.
"Stoutly boasted Aed son of Find
Of the proud spear-attacking ( ?) battalion, —
Goll son of Dolb, Dond son of Nera, —
Boasted of many noble-headed ones (or 'noble chiefs' ?).
" Good are my steeds, delightful are my women.
As for myself, not that only, —
Abundance of silver and gold.
With me goes each swift man who likes.
1 One of the names for the fairy world of the ancient Irish.
Laegaibe Mac Crimthann's Visit to Fairyland 161
"White shields (they carry) in their hands,
With devices of pale silver,
With glittering blue swords,
With big stout horns.
"In well-devised fashion the hosts
Before their fair chieftain
March amid blue spears,
White curly-haired bands.
"They scatter the battalions of the foe,
They ravage every land which they attack;
Splendidly they all march to combat,
An impetuous, distinguished, avenging host!
"No wonder though their strength be great;
Sons of kings and queens are they.
On all their heads are
Beautiful golden-yellow manes.
"With smooth stately bodies,
With bright star-blue eyes,
With pure crystal teeth,
With thin red lips.
"Good are they at slaying men,
Sweet at the hour of the ale-house ( 7) 1
Apart from being masters in verse-making,
They are skilled at playing fidchell."*
Thereupon he turns from them. "Shame upon you," said Laegaire,
"if you do not help the man." Fifty warriors betook themselves after him.
He goes before them under the lake; then they follow him. They
saw a fort before them, and a battalion face to face with them. He
(i.e., Fiachna son of Retu) went ahead of them until he reached the fort.
In it they came upon two battalions. "Well, oh Fiachna," said Laegaire,
" I will make an attack upon the chief from the other side [with] fifty warriors."
"I on my part will answer (lit., reach) thee," said Goll, son of Dolb. In
their two fifties they smote each other until Laegaire came out of his fifty
alive after the fall of Goll with his fifty. Then the battle breaks before
them so that there resulted a slaughter of Goll's band. "Where is the
woman?" said Laegaire. "She is in the fort of Mag Mell," said Fiachna,
"and half the host around her." "Remain ye here till I reach her [with]
my fifty," said Laegaire. Thereupon Laegaire went until he arrived at the
fort. Moreover they were a-taking the fortress. "Little will be your
1 This conjectural rendering I owe to Dr. Meyer, who In his Voyage of Bran (I, 181)
translates the line: "At all times melodious are they." In Ancient Irish Poetry (p. 19)
he gives It: "Melodious In the alehouse."
8 A game apparently resembling chess.
162 Tom Peete Cross
profit [from resistance]," said Laegaire. "Your king has been slain; your
nobles have fallen. Let the woman forth, and safety is granted you there-
upon." It is so done, and on coming forth she uttered [the following] : to wit,
the plaint of the daughter of Eochaid the Mute:
"Hateful the day on which weapons are washed 1
For the sake of the dear dead body of Goll son of Dolb,
One whom I loved, who loved me!
Laegaire Liban — little he cares!
"It was very pleasant to me to go tc the gathering
In the company of Eochaid son of Sal.
Feign would I not be alive ( ?)
Because of the absence of the king of the Plain of Two Mists.
"Thereafter I loved Goll son of Dolb,
By whom weapons were hacked and split.
Under the will of God let me go out
To Fiachna son of Retu."
Thereupon Laegaire went until he gave her hand into the hand of Fiachna.
And Dergreine, the daughter of Fiachna, slept with Laegaire that night, and
there were given fifty women to his fifty warriors. They remained with them
(the fairy-folk) to the end of a year. "Let us go to seek tidings of our land,"
said Laegaire. "If you would come back," said Fiachna, "take horses with
you and do not get down from them." It is so done. They went until they
reached the assembly, the men of Connaught having been there a full
year mourning for them, so that they came upon them in one assembly
before them. The men of Connaught sprang to welcome them. "Do not
approach," said Laegaire. "To say farewell to you have we come." "Do
not leave me!" said Crimthann. "The rule of the three Connaughts shall
be thine; their gold and their silver, their horses and their bridles and their
noble women shall be at thy command, only do not leave me!" Then said
"A marvel this, Crimthann Cass,
Beer comes [down] with every shower !(?) 2
The driving of a battalion of a hundred thousand,
They go from kingdom to kingdom.
"The noble wistful music of the sid!
Going from kingdom to kingdom,
Drinking from crystal cups,
Holding converse with the loved one.
1 That is, the day of battle, on which weapons are washed in blood. Meyer.
•Meyer (Voyage of Bran, I, 182) renders this line: "When it rains 'tis beer that
falls!" He now suggests the possibility that frais means 'attack,' but even in that case
the line is obscure.
Laegaibe Mac Crimthann's Visit to Fairyland 163
"We mix chess-men of yellow gold
Upon chess-boards of white bronze.
There has come to us drinking of clear mead,
With a proud spear-surrounded ( ?) warrior.
" My wife, my own unto me,
Is Daughter of the Sun, Fiachna's daughter.
Besides, I shall tell to thee,
There is a wife for each man of my fifty.
"We have brought from the fort of Mag Mell
Thirty caldrons, thirty drinking-horns.
We have brought the plaint that the sea chants (?),
The daughter of Eochaid the Dumb.
"A marvel this, Crimthann Cass,
I was master of a blue sword.
One night of the nights of the sid
I would not give for thy kingdom."
Thereupon he turns from them back into the fairy-mound. Conse-
quently he is now in joint kingship over the fairy-mound — i.e., the fort of
Mag Mell — with Fiachna son of Retu, and the daughter of Fiachna [is] in
his company (i.e., is his wife).
Tom Peete Cross
University of Chicago