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Modern Greek in Asia Minor. A Study of the Dialects of SUli, 
Cappadocia, and Phdrasa, with Grammar, Texts, Translations, 
and Glossary. By R. M. Dawkins. With a Chapter on the 
Subject-Matter of the Folk-Tales, by W. R. Halliday. 
Cambridge: University Press; New York: Putnam, 1916. 
This book is a notable contribution to the study of the philology and 
folklore of the Greeks of Central Asia Minor. The first two chapters 
(pp. 1-214) are devoted to a careful grammatical presentation of the dialects. 
The value of these chapters for classical students has been pointed out in a 
review by R. McKenzie in the Journal of Hellenic Studies, XXXVI (1916), 
406-8. The larger relations of this grammatical research are very interesting 
and are not sufficiently emphasized by McKenzie. It is a significant contri- 
bution to the study of language-mixture.' Behind all the Turkish excres- 
cences it is possible to discern a Greek language, common to all the villages, 
and possessing peculiarities which link it up with Pontic Greek, the koiv^ 
BiaXtKT(K of Asia Minor before the Turkish invasion. The varying sus- 
ceptibilities of the different parts of speech to foreign influence are clearly 
displayed, and every stage in the decay of a conquered language is exposed 
to our view. 

The remainder of the book (pp. 215-579) is devoted to 95 folk-tales 
printed in the original Greek with a translation facing the text. These tales 
were collected in the village of SiUi (7 tales), in the Cappadocian villages of 
Ulaghdtsh (12), Axo (7), Phloita (8), Phdrasa (32), and elsewhere in Cappa- 
docia in less numbers. As an introduction to this part of the work W. R. 
Halliday contributes a chapter on the subject-matter of the tales, in which 
he reviews the whole collection and cites all the Greek analogues accessible 
to him, as well as certain typical tales from other lands. HalUday's list of 
collections of Greek Mdrchen is not complete. One notices the absence of 
the following works (which are of very unequal value): M. P. Bretos, 
Contes et poemes de la Grece moderne^ (Leipzig, 1858); E. Capialbi and L. 
Bruzzano, Racconti greci di Roccaforte (Montaleone, 1885-86); Carnoy and 
Nicolaides, Contes licencieux de I'Asie Mineure; Georgeakis and Pineau, 
le Folklore de Lesbos (Paris, 1894); K. N. Kannellakes (comp.), Xtaxa 
avdXcKTa, ^Tot <rvAAoy^ ridSiv, iOifjLiov, irapoi/uStv (Athens, 1890); Misotakis, 
Ausgewahlte griechische Volksmdrchen^ (BerUn, 1889); Pineau, Revue des 

» See an important article by Windisch, " Zur Theorie der Mischsprachen und Lehn- 
w5rter,*' Berichte liber die Verhandlungen der k. sdchs. Gcs. der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, 
XLIX (1897), 101-26. 

735] 175 

176 Reviews and Notices 

traditions populaires, XII, etc. Reinhold Kohler (Kkinere Schriften, I, 
365-77) gives an annotated bibliography of all the modern Greek folk-tales 
published down to 1871. Halliday's labor in collecting parallels to the 
tales might have been greatly reduced by the use of Kohler; Bolte and 
Polfvka, Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- und Hausmarchen; and Chauvin, 
Bibliographie des ouvragee arabes. The second volume of the Anmerkungen, 
which appeared in 1915 and continues the annotation of Grimm's collection 
through the one hundred and twentieth tale, may of course have been 
inaccessible to Halliday. 

The different narrators display a greater or less incapability to tell a 
good story, and the versions are consequently fragmentary and often unintel- 
ligibly corrupt. These faults are increased by the terseness of the style, so 
that comparison with related forms is necessary to throw light on what is 
really meant. Dawkins' praiseworthy accuracy in reproducing what he 
really heard conceals none of these difficulties. In subject the tales have 
much in common with those current among the Turks, Southern Slavs, and 
other near Eastern peoples. Halliday denies wholly — due exception being 
made for the fables — the possibility of their descent from ancient Greek 
literature. Only one tale, which is more or less of the Polyphemos type, can 
even be compared to anything in ancient Greek literature, and there is no 
good reason for insisting on its descent from Homer: see Halliday's remarks, 
page 217, and add Chauvin, IX, 93 to his references. In this connection one 
might expect to find mention of J. C. Lawson, Modern Greek Folklore and 
Ancient Greek Religion, which is a study of classical religion and literature 
in the light of present-day tradition. 

Halliday's remarks on the several tales call for occasional comment. 
The "Bargain with the Hairless [i.e.. Beardless] Man" (p. 234) consists in the 
agreement between master and servant that the first one to lose his temper 
shall pay a forfeit.' Halliday quotes approvingly von Hahn's statement that 
the "Lying Match" (Dawkins, p. 234) is a "different species of the same 
genus"; but the "Lying Match" is a contest for a loaf in which the one who 
tells the biggest lie wins. Halliday's statement can be true only if the 
"genus" is conceived in the broadest terms, and even then the grouping is 
not suggestive or helpful. The amusing incident of the boggart which could 
not be shaken off appears in a broken-down version of the "Bargain"; it is 
much more frequent in Western Europe than Halliday's one (Irish) parallel 
would suggest.^ The "Son Who Feigned BUndness" (p. 236) is really a 

' See Bolte and Pollvka, II, 293, for abundant parallels to this, the "Zornwette." 
2 Bolte and Pollvka, II, 422, n. 1; Liebrecht, Zt. f. rom. Philol.. VIH, 469; Folk-Lore, 
IV, 400; Axon, Echoes of Old Lancashire, p. 210; Slkes, British Goblins, p. Ill; Blake- 
borough, Wil . ... of the North Riding, p. 205; Hartland, English Fairy- and Folk- 
Tales, p. 146; Koby, Traditions of Lancashire. II (1830), 289-301; J. G. Campbell, 
Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, p. 183; Blake, Jour, of Am. Folk- 
lore. XXVII, 238; Kuhn, MUrkische Sagen. Nos. 43, 103; MUUenhof, Sagen. Marchen 
und Lieder der Herzogtilmer Schleswig-Hotstein. p. 335; Cf. Mitt. d. schles. Ges. f. Volks- 
kunde. Heft 12, p. 77. 


Reviews and Notices 177 

combination of two tales; the episode of the feigned blindness by which the 
husband learns of his wife's unfaithfulness appears both independently and 
as a prelude to the wanderings of the corpse of a lover who trusted too 
implicitly in the husband's pretense. This combination has a very curious 
history; it seems to have been made in India (in recent times), in Germany 
by Hans Sachs, and again in Europe by the folk; see Taylor, Modern Phil- 
ologxj (August, 1917), pp. 226-27. The inclusion of "Ali Baba and the 
Forty Thieves" (p. 241; add Chauvin, V, 79-84 to the references) under the 
heading "Didactic Stories" is somewhat surprising. The class entitled 
"Animal Stories" is even more heterogeneous; fables and Mdrchen are 
thrown together. The laborious task of collecting the variants of the 
"Two Daughters" (p. 255), which Haliiday refuses to undertake, has been 
completed by Bolte and Polivka (I, 207-27, No. 24); and for the "Snake 
and the Magic Wallet, Staff and Ring" (p. 265) one can refer to the same 
work (I, 464-89, No. 54). The "Underworld Adventure" (p. 274) has been 
excellently studied by Panzer, in his Studien zur germanischen Sagenge- 
schichte, I, Beowulf; HalUday's statement (p. 219) that it is "unfamiliar in 
Western Europe" is inaccurate. Panzer claims that its theme is that of 
Beowulf, and notes forty variants from Germany alone. In Panzer's 
volume one can also find a discussion of the "Strong Man" tales (Haliiday, 
pp. 277 ff.). 

As a suggestion of the importance of the collection to the student of 
comparative folklore, one may note the following selection of famihar tales 
and motifs: "Get Up and Bar the Door" (p. 231; add Chauvin, VIII, 132); 
the chastity-testing garment and the CymbeUne motif (p. 237); the "Three 
Words of Advice" (p. 238; add Chauvin, VIII, 138); Bluebeard (p. 248); 
"Zauberlehrling" (p. 265); " Schneewittchen " (p. 269); the "Goldener- 
marchen" (p. 280; add Panzer, Hilde-Gudrun) . Three tales belonging to 
the cycle of the Seven Sages appear: "The Goldsmith's Wife" (Inclusa); 
"How the Companions Rescued the Princess" (Quattuor Liberatores) ; 
"Born to Be King" (Ahmed, which is better known as Schiller's Gang nach 
dem Eisenhammer) ; for additional references to these tales see, of course, 
Chauvin, VIII. As HaUiday points out, there are very few types of Greek 
Marchen that are not represented in this collection. It is a work of the first 
importance for the knowledge of Greek Mdrchen, and of great value, therefore, 
in comparative folklore. 

Archee Taylok 

Washington Univebsity