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Judge Lynch's Court
THE NUMBER OF NEGRO CONVICTS IN
PRISON IN AMERICA, AND OTHER
INJUSTICE DONE TO THE
NEGRO IN AMERICA
By REV. ELIJAH CLARENCE BRANCH,
Judge Lynch's Court
THE NUMBER OF NEGRO CONVICTS IN
PRISON IN AMERICA, AND OTHER
INJUSTICE DONE TO THE
NEGRO IN AMERICA
By REV. ELIJAH CLARENCE BRANCH.
IJDGE LYNCH'S IN AMERiC
pmriP 60 CENTS
HELP ME fO PUT OUT 40,000 COPIES
REV. ELIJAH C BRANCH, Autiior
By tracer er
The White House.
Rev. ELIJAH CLARENCE BRANCH
JUDGE LYNCH'S COURT
The national condition that confronts us as a race is
alarming, and I have become so impressed until I am com-
pelled to write a story of it, record the facts and statistics
of the same for a period of six months, especially of Judge
Lynch's court, on the Negro in the United States, I feel it
a Godsent work that devolves upon me. However, as it is
known that I am not a college man, and my ability may be
questioned as to whether I can merit the attention of the
learned men of America, both white and black, I only wish
and demand a fair chance to prove that I am a man of
thought, if not of letters. The busy world cares nothing about
a man's college diploma, but crowns a man truly great for
what he can do. A simpleton may be armed with a college
diploma with many degrees of honor and yet he may not
be able to do anything. Just to be smart is not enough for
this busy world. A man must do something. He must let
the nation know he is in it by something put forth. The first
thing I wish to discuss :_The progress of our race financially
for these fifty years of freedom is phenomenal and unparal-
leled in the annals of time.
Consisting of the following: Farm lands, ranches, fine
blooded stock, grist mills, cotton gins, drug stores, dry goods
stores, undertaking establishments, State banks, grocery
stores, real estate concerns and high institutions of learning.
All of which are owned and operated by Negroes. This
progress within itself under unfavorable conditions has chal-
lenged the attention of the civilized world. The educational
progress has been the same, in a large degree. But however,
under the most favorable educational conditions in America
for our race, we have too many who have failed to grasp
the opportunity. .There are too many young Negroes under
twenty years old, who cannot read and write. Too many lit-
tle boys and girls in the villages, towns and cities, who do
not attend the public schools, ages ranging from eight to six-
teen, and it goes without saying they do not attend Sunday
school or church. Ignorance gets a strong hold on them.
It is this class that becomes the property of Judge Lynch's
Court and the property of the State prison by a legal trial.
It is this class of Negroes that ignorant, malignant, self-con-
stituted mob violence court always gets, consisting of uncivil-
ized white men, who are uneducated, who have a disregard
for law, and no regard for human life. The ignorant white
man will join a mob in the absence of any facts or evidence
of the guilt of the accused. Since ignorance is dangerous,
let the race "get busy" in trying to encourage education of
the, masses. In the city of Houston, Texas, there are night
schools conducted free for young and old. It will take edu-
cation and Christianity to bring about a change of conditions
affecting crime among our race. The school room and pulpit
are the hope of civilization of the race. I mean school rooms
with strong educated moral teachers in them. I mean pulpits
with converted men in them, not educated men, not a home
destroyer, nor virtue miner, but a clean Christian man of
high standard, destined to lift up the race to higher and
nobler ideals in life.
I have little faith in a teacher who has an opportunity for
two or three years to impress a boy or girl for good and fails
to do so, unless the boy or girl is exceptionally bad and
doomed to degradation. The teacher ought to be able to in-
spire his pupils, pointing them to higher aims in life, thus
setting their very souls on fire of inspiration/ When once a
boy gets it into his head that he wants to be somebody he is
pretty well safe, and there is little danger of him ever be-
coming among the debased class.
<- The fireside training in our Christian homes is the place
where the right conduct of our boys and girls must be well
laid. There is no need of so many boys and girls going to
ruin. In a large degree the parents are to blame, on account
of negligence on their part. As late as 8 p. m. some parents
can't tell you where their children are from eight to twpWe
years old. You might ask: Where are your children? Oh,
they are out on the streets. You can just count on about 95
per cent of all such children being among the number des-
tined to reach the lowest hellhole or the State prison. The
good families who are trying all they can to raise o-ood chil-
dren are greatly handicapped in this way : They take all the
pains with their children to properly raise them, and at
school the well-raised children come in contact with the
children whose parents have turned them loose to the world.
They grow up without home training. These uncultured
children are naturally to a decent set of children what a
mad dog would be to a fine set of dogs, which have no dis-
ease. Then you can readily see what effect these uncultured
children will have on society. To check mob violence we
must raise better children. To thoroughly accomplish this
sole remedy we must have better mothers and fathers. This
brings to our mind the 3d chapter of St. John, Nicodemus'
question to Jesus. Some might ask: How can we make
them better mothers and fathers after they become old ? The
surest way is to raise them. But for immediate results
there must be a general crusade on the part of the public to
organize the mothers into a union ; to take under considera-
tion the best method how to successfully rescue the boys
and girls of our race who are on the very eve of degrada-
tion. Much good could be realized by the organizing of a
mothers' union or club. The preachers are organized for the
best method. The teachers are organized for the purpose
of discussing the best method in teaching and management.
The great railroads qf the country are organized to discuss
the best methods of handling the great amount of traffic
and the best system of so doing. The laboring men are or-
ganizing for the best way or method of getting higher wages,
so they say. I am in sympathy with the laboring man. I
believe he has a right to organize to better enable him to
take care of himself and family. So long as he obeys the law
and lives up to the golden rule, I believe he has a right to
strike, but not to dictate, unless he owns some stock in the
concern which caused the strike. However, there are but
few union men among the Negroes, and in a large degree
they conduct this affair and grievance in a legitimate way
and satisfactorily to all concerned. I must let it be known
now that I have no prejudice against the white man. Preju-
dice without a real cause is only due to ignorance and un-
cultured malignant spirit. I rather like the unprejudiced
people who are willing to give justice to my race. However,
there are very few poor white men free from race pre-
judice, possibly due to the fireside training. In this connec-
tion, we will make special mention of one, Hon. C. W. Rob-
inson, District Judge of Harris County, Houston, Texas, who
said some time ago that "A man's color had nothing to
with him giving justice, if a white man was being tried for
killing a Negro." This is true of this good man. I don't
know whether or not he is a Christian, but I do believe this
is God's hand working in him.
The Southern Pacific Railroad Company has for its presi-
dent another good man who lives now in New York. He is
not unfriendly to any class of law-abiding people. It must
be said that he is the Negro's best friend. God intended
him to be a great man in creation. I believe He saw him
coming up from the South and his motto being, "Justice to
the strong and weak alike," and he had the reins in his
hands that operated, governed and controlled millions of
dollars, and his power from ocean to ocean. The Negro can
depend upon the better classes of whites as their friends. It
is unfair to say we have no friends among the white people.
It is unfair also for the white people to class all the Negroes
alike. I have been in towns in this State (Texas) where a
colored man could not visit certain houses of our race after
night unless he did so at his own peril, and did not think
all the white men were getting on our side of the fence, be-
cause these white men would not allow Negroes to call on
their own colored girls. It will be better for all concerned
when the country white boy is better educated. The edu-
cated white man has less use for his gun than the ignorant
white man. This is, no doubt, the cause of the police killing
so many Negroes. The position from a financial viewpoint
is not very inviting, and the educated white man wants
something better ; therefore, the cities are compelled to take
mostly uneducated men as policemen. There are some who
learn by practicing on the Negro.
However, we look for better conditions here in the City
of Houston. There is already a great improvement and at
this writing there is a greater improvement in sight. I have
had occasion to personate only one white man, and he is
Judge C. W. Robinson, whom I would like to see on the Su-
preme bench. He never allows a white man who kills a Negro
in cold blood to be set free if it is in his power to prevent it.
Honorable R. S. Lovett, president of the Southern Pacific
Railroad Company, stood by the Negro switchmen of the
Houston & Texas Central yards some years ago when a very
able white Methodist preacher went all the way from Hous-
ton to New York to persuade him (Mr. Lovett) to discharge
all these Negro switchmen and place white men in their po-
sitions. Mr. Lovett consulted the car damage records in the
United States and discovered that the Houston & Texas Cen-
tral had less drawheads broken than any other road in Amer-
ica. And Mr. Lovett told this good minister who used the
high church office to aid him in attempting to take from
these poor Negroes their bread and butter, "The Negroes are
eligible and the Southern Pacific will make no changes." Pos-
sibly he didn't think the golden rule applied to the Negro.
The Negro's only salvation is to trust God. He created us,
and will protect us against all hurt, harm or danger. The
Negro as a whole has no special race prejudice against the
white man, without some special cause. Notwithstanding,
he is not treated right, in rural districts. White men run
over some of our best girls and the Negroes are powerless
to help themselves. The Negro girl stands alone in the
world. The Federal Government has thrown around the
white girl its strong arms. She is protected by the white
slave law. There is no black or colored slave law. She has
no legal protection against white men. The object of this lit-
tle book is to plead for better homes and pure homes. I have
shown that the hope of our race depends upon the fireside
training, school rooms and pulpits. We need better teachers
and preachers in some sections of this country. We need
teachers that will teach morality and live it. Any teacher who
has a wife and flirts with women is unfit to teach. The same
rule applies to the preacher; yes, more so, he promised to
live Christlike. And any church supporting an immoral,
ignorant preacher is equally guilty, knowing it, and possibly
not in heavenly fellowship. If a preacher is ignorant, he
must be clean for my respect. But if he is both ignorant
and immoral, too, I have nothing but contempt for him.
He can not do the race any good. He can not instruct the
public. The world has no confidence in him.
Rev. Dr. E. W. D. Isaacs, once, when speaking about the
little preachers, said that "The longer the coats the less
they know." What we need is able preachers, teachers and
leaders to help raise the standard of citizenship. We only
have one Dr. Booker T. Washington. He is a brave leader,
a fact that all must confess. The greatest preacher in the
world, in the person of Dr. C. T. Walker, said his name was
written upon future time. Dr. J. W. E. Bowen and Dr. M.
C. B. Mason are also among the race's shining lights.
There is indeed a problem to be solved by the race leaders,
"How to save the boys and girls of our race." The good
families are handicapped on account of various environ-
ments that confront the youth. The opera and moving pic-
ture shows are no longer an intellectual benefit. They are
indeed very harmful to both church and society. The red
light song is sung on the stage of today ; it is worded "Every-
body's Doing It." It contradicts the virtuous life of our best
girls, and causes many weak girls to accept it for the truth,
the vulgar poet's song, while many would accept it for an
excuse only to do bad. Decent homes must not allow this
dangerous song in them if they wish to raise any good girls.
The pulpit must take a stand against it. Evil environments
are catching and our young girls will be the greatest suffer-
ers. Are the mothers trying to raise wives for the young
men of tomorrow? If so, without great preparation, what
have they to offer the cultured young man of tomorrow? The
same thing holds good of the young man.
There must be an improvement in our society or else we
cannot suppress crime nor the ill-fame house.
If we have law-abiding citizens, possibly there will be no
lynching ; however, all victims are not guilty of rape nor at-
tempt to rape. Some have been lynched for trying to pro-
tect themselves in a fight. We are created in God's own
image; He will make all things right in due time. Let the
young Negro stay out of bad company. Ofttimes bad com-
pany gets an innocent person in trouble.
The better class of white people must stop the lynch law.
They may shoot the Negro down at will ; they may burn him
at the stake for the least provocation, but there is certainly
to follow the Negro's blood some big railroad wreck, a steam-
ship disaster, or the burning of some big hotel, causing the
loss of many lives. It may be a serious question to accept
as a fact, but as a rule, these disasters do not catch this poor
class that constitutes mob violence very often. But God
would have them know that "You are your brother's keeper."
For the benefit of the law have they ever tried to stop mob
violence? Have they ever spent or offered to spend any part
of those millions to protect the Negro? The strong must
protect the weak.
We are weak because we are few in number, slavery only
fifty years behind us. Notwithstanding, in many backwood
places slavery still exists in the South. Ignorant Negroes
are caught, locked in jail and worked free without a chance
to get away. But first and last the United States will catch
them all for the slave system act. God is in heaven ; we must
tell Him all about our troubles.
In the first chapter I had occasion to say that the police
system would improve. I note with appreciation the won-
derful improvement in Denver, Colo., in the police system.
(From the Houston Press.)
Denver, Oct. 28. — Take away the policeman's club.
Prevent him from using a revolver unless his own life is
Keep fat men off the police force.
Apply plain, Christian teachings to police problems.
These constiute the platform of George Creel, newspaper
writer, turned police commissioner of Denver, who has in-
stituted a campaign to prove his contention that clubs and re-
volvers are not necessary to the enforcement of the law.
The first step in the commissioner's campaign has been the
enforcement of an order abolishing the carrying of clubs
by policemen. His second is contained in the following
"Any officer who beats or otherwise maltreats a prisoner
must be prepared to show justification of absolute self-de-
fense under the penalty of discharge and future prosecution
under the State law.
"Any officer who discharges a revolver at one whose
crime is not known or any case where the known crime is
less than a serious felony or in the event his own life is not
in peril, will be dismissed from the force."
To back up these orders, Creel has accomplished the sum-
mary dismissal of Sergeant Dooley and Patrolman Joessel
who recently shot and wounded an alleged "masher" named
Fike. The latter shot Fike as he was running away in
fright and the former beat the man as he lay prostrate on
"I am taking away clubs because they invite brutality and
are of no real use," said Creel today. "In case of assault,
the officer does not rely on his club but upon his revolver.
I have always believed also that the police should not carry
revolvers, but I am loathe to eliminate them until we get
an effective law against gun selling and gun-toting.
"As it is now, every pawnshop and hardware store finds
profit in the sale of revolvers, dirks and blackjacks, and be-
cause of this profit, these men killed a bill in the last Colo-
rado legislature that would have done away with the evil
and lifted from the city the menace of frontier lawlessness.
"I mean to stop this thing of police brutality and reck-
less shooting if I have to discharge every man on the force.
I shall proceed to a reorganization of the Denver force that
will result in the dismissal of the brutal, the stupid, the
crooked and the inefficient.
"The reason so many fugitives are fired at is because the
officers are too fat to give chase. The reason so many offi-
cers beat prisoners generally is because they were appointed
for political reasons and have developed the autocratic sense.
The reason they protect gamblers and law breakers gener-
ally is because they are accustomed to a frank partnership
with vice and crime."
To take the gun away from the police is a good thing. I
say this from personal experience. About twelve years ago,
a big policeman "snapped a forty-five" in my face twice be-
cause I did not get to my office in time to get the ice up as
soon as the ice man put the ice out for me. The gun did not
go off and I protected myself as best I could. This man is
still on the force in Houston, Texas, at this writing.
In Houston we have not more than three policemen of the
Negro race on the force and I, personally, make no kick. Too
often it makes a good man a bad man, a church man a black-
hearted sinner and murderer, a moral sinner an immoral
grafter and thief. However, there are some exceptions to
this rule. Some months ago, our law-abiding citizens feared
the police in getting over the city at night more than they
feared the highwayman, because the highwayman has no
protection from the city and State; a policeman trying to
hold up a citizen may be killed, and the citizen who kills
him must be convicted for having killed an officer. I see
no reason why the standard of the policemen can not be
raised. The city of New York has undergone a police dis-
grace which belongs to history.
If all is true which has been said about the chief of police
the City of Houston has a good man now. I have said that
I do not care much about Negro police. I do not see any
good they can do. We need more leaders and better leaders.
They must come from the school room and from the pulpit.
Jack Johnson is a member of our race, but what good
can he do our cause, being a sporting character, without
culture or race pride?
I have never thought that any amount of progress in
civilization depended upon Jack Johnson's type of charac-
ter. In the same sense, I do not see how his misconduct
should affect our race as a whole. The race cannot point to
him with any degree of pride. I shall present some articles
from the Houston Press and shall for the present dismiss
his case without further comment.
(From The Houston Press, Oct. 28.)
Chicago, Oct. 28. — "The black man who becomes wealthy
or influential is now doing what he can to retaliate against
the conditions of servitude in which he was previously held."
This statement was made today by Mrs. Alice Phillips
Aldrich, head of the Chicago Law and Order League, who
has been interested in the investigation of the case of Jack
Johnson, the Negro pugilist, who is charged with abducting
pretty Lucile Cameron, the Minneapolis white girl.
Mrs. Aldrich predicted that the free intermingling of the
black and white race would result early in the degradation
of both races and that it will never result in elevating the
"The problem of intermarriage and intermingling of black
and white persons is a very serious one," said Mrs. Aldrich.
"The fad for Negro men to have white wives and sweet-
hearts is growing in every large city north of the Ohio. As-
sociation of Negroes with white girls is thriving under po-
lice protection in Chicago and several other large cities. In
the Chicago tenderloin there were — until recently closed —
many resorts housing white girls that catered to Negro men.
"Race purity in this country is nowhere maintained except
in the South. Race barriers are first broken down in the
public schools where the races and the sexes mingle indis-
criminately in the classroom and in the schoolyard.
"From that period in her life, a white girl is in danger
from Negro men, the danger being increased by the degree
of her poverty. If the girl is poor and works as a domestic
in homes of wealthy persons, hotels or other places, she is
forced to mingle on terms of social equality in a majority
of cases with Negro butlers, porters, chauffeurs, coachmen
or other male Negro help.
"Sex intermingling is the most natural outcome of such
a situation. Any employer who hires a white girl to share
a common condition with a black man, as a fellow employe,
contributes to this peril to our race purity. The elevation
in many instances of Negroes to positions as head waiters,
foremen, assistants to managers, and even in some cases
managers, suddenly reverses the race relation and subordin-
ates the white woman, servant to the black man, master.
"In the East, almost without exception, the only girls to
fall into the hands of Negroes are from poor families. The
Eastern Negro is not as wealthy as his Western brother, and
he cannot attract girls from the better homes with gifts of
diamonds and other costly presents. But there are ^hun-
dreds of wealthy Negroes in the West who can and do."
(From The Houston Press, Oct. 29, 1912.)
New York, Oct. 29. — "If the suicide of my daughter might
be taken as a warning to other white girls ; if I thought it
might save someone else from a similar fate, my own crush-
ing burden of sorrow would be easier to bear, and I would
feel that her death had not been in vain."
Mrs. David Terry, widowed mother of Etta Duryea John-
son, the white wife of Jack Johnson, who shot herself in
Chicago September 12, made this statement today, believ-
ing it to be her Christian duty, she said, to help drive the
black pugilist from the city and country. Mrs. Terry was
seen in her home in Brooklyn, where she lives, broken in
health and under the constant care of a physician.
The reporter had carried to Mrs. Terry the story of the
Chicago grand jury's investigation into Johnson's alleged
kidnaping of Lucile Cameron; of the girl's mother's fight
for her daughter, and had finished by asking :
"Mrs. Terry, what, in your opinion, should be done with
the husband of your dead daughter?"
a mother's vision.
"It would be wrong for me to tell you what ought to be
done," she replied, her voice hardening. "It is not for me
to judge. God will do that, but every night a prayer goes
up from my pillow asking God to send this man the punish-
ment he deserves. Two weeks ago I had a vision of Jack
Johnson's end. I believe that vision was God's promise of
"In a vision as plain as day I saw a boat on a beautiful
stream. In that boat was my daughter glorified in white,
talking to my dead husband. Suddenly out of the water rose
a giant glistening black. It was Jack Johnson. With both
hands he grabbed for the boat as if he would crush it, but
he missed ; my daughter rowed away and disappeared with
a ripple of happy laughter on her lips. Then the water
turned as black as ink and swallowed the black man up."
The Negro must stay on his side of the fence, from a so-
cial standpoint. And he must demand the white man to do
the same with the same determination in which the white
man demands him. And that should be death. This is the
golden rule. The Negro must be proud of his own race.
His own women must be the ideal women in the world for
No doubt there is a superior race. Then the Negro race,
no doubt, is classed as one of the inferior races. The white
man has superior circumstances, and he is confronted with
superior conditions. This, however, will not hold good col-
lectively, but individually. /A white man as member of the
superior race is not superior to the Negro because he is
white ; if at all it must be on account of culture, morals and
finance surpassing that of the Negro. This is a fact that
must be inculcated. For instance, a Negro convict is as
good as a white convict. If the crime for which they were
convicted is the same they are equal. The cultured and
financial white man who stands for all of the principles that
it takes to constitute a true gentleman, is of himself a
superior man from a standpoint of superiority.
If a man thinks his own race is not good enough for
him, it is very natural he would desire to leave it and join
another. It is not manly to desire to go where you are not
welcome. The white man has been guilty and so has the
If a white man will sell his vote, the Negro that sells his
vote is just as good a citizen as the white man, and just as
honest, regardless of the difference in the purchase price.
Both can be bought for a price, what is the difference? A
dollar changed their principles, a dollar changed their man-
hood. A dollar changed their loyalty to the country. What
is the difference between the white man who steals a na-
tional bank and a Negro who steals a cow? Just here I will
dismiss this subject.
My appeal to the mothers and fathers is to raise better
sons and daughters ; this is the object of this little book. The
school room and pulpit are called upon to auxiliate in this
great move. Good sons and daughters are the hope of our
race. This is the material that must constitute our model
citizenship. Our way now seems dark and cloudy, but way
down the line of future time God Himself has fixed a change
of conditions affecting the welfare of the Negro. No power
on earth at the proper time can offset the Negro's elevation.
It is a Bible truth, God programmed in creation, "And Ethi-
opia shall stretch forth her hand."
A QUALIFIED VOTER.
If an ignorant white man is not able at all times to use
his judgment in voting, and if he is not a failure, why then
should any prejudiced mind say that the enfranchisement of
the Negro was a failure? There are plenty of white men
who are not able to read one section of the National Consti-
tution. This class consists mostly of backwoodsmen. Why
should an ignorant white man have any more political rights
than an ignorant Negro?
These are conditions it would be well for our best white
citizens to look into.
Col. E. T. Taliaferro indorses Mr. Root's speech.
(From The Houston Post, Feb. 15, 1903.)
MR. ROOT'S SPEECH — INTERPRETED BY NEW YORKERS AS UN-
FAVORABLE TO NEGRO VOTING.
New York Commercial.
Widespread interest was created by Secretary Root's
speech at the Union League club, in which he pronounced Ne-
gro suffrage a failure.
Colonel Edwin T. Taliaferro, who had just returned from
a trip through Virginia, said it was the greatest mistake in
the history of this country to give the blacks the right of
suffrage. "I agree most heartily with Secretary Root," Col-
onel Talliaferro said, "when he says that the Negro suffrage
plan has been a failure. They have done nothing to better
themselves. It was a great mistake ever to give them the
right to vote or to hold office, and I think the sentiment of
the entire South and a great part of the North is with me
when I say it.
"They ought never to have been put on a level with the
white man. I would unhesitatingly support any legislation
to disfranchise the blacks, and I think they would be better
off in that condition. If that were done, this would be one
united country there would be no sectional feeling, no North,
no South, but just one government — a white man's govern-
ment. Mind, I would entirely protect the legal rights of the
black — his property rights."
Former United States Senator William Lindsay said:
"Federal office holding has not elevated or benefited the
Negro race. Secretary Root is right in what he said last
night. The Southerners are not to blame for the situation.
The influences that gave to Negroes the right of suffrage
and failed in the attempt to elevate them are charged with
the responsibility of trying any new experiment of what-
ever character. The States of the South can not inaugu-
rate a new policy unless permitted to do so by the country at
large. The Negro should be removed from political influ-
Colonel John C. Calhoun said : "I do not agree with Presi-
dent Roosevelt's expressed opinion in reference to the Negro
race. The Negro has made remarkable strides in civiliza-
tion, and in the South is becoming a property owner, but his
education should be given him, and aside from that he should
be let alone. If he is let alone and not used as political capi-
tal it will come nearer solving the question of the Negro's
future than anything else."
John R. Abney of No. 71 Broadway, former president of
the Southern Society, said : "The real situation of the Ne-
groes living in the South does not seem to be generally under-
stood. The republican party claims to have set them free
and expects their votes. The great mass of the Negroes are
engaged in agriculture; and the tariff law, which has been
made by the republican party, militates against their agri-
cultural interest and helps to keep them poor.
"They are grateful to the republican party for their free-
dom; and yet they know that their financial interest is in-
jured just as is that of the white man engaged in the same
pursuit. If they take an active part in politics and vote for
the republican party, that places them in a false position
with the whites with whom they live. If they do not vote
the republican ticket, the few Negro leaders who want office
charge them with ingratitude.
"So they are in a dilemma which challenges sympathy
from all fair-minded and thinking men. If left alone they
would prefer not to vote. The republican party ought to
leave them alone and get along without their votes."
THE NEGRO BALANCE OF POWER.
(From The Houston Chronicle, Jan. 1, 1903.)
Washington, Jan. 1. — A number of republican newspa-
pers are distributing the assertion of some democratic writ-
ers for the press that the Negro vote holds the balance of
power in the country, and as it is always cast for the re-
publican ticket, generally elects that ticket.
While it is true that in 1896 and 1900, by reason of the
radical division in democratic ranks, McKinley would have
been elected without the Negro vote, still the facts are that
the Negro vote gives the republicans the greatest advantage
over the democrats, and in a clean, square way, all else be-
ing equal, especially in issue and unity, the vote of the Negro
for the republican ticket swings the pendulum to the repub-
In the following table are included all the republican States
of the North having any considerable Negro. population, and
also certain border States now held by the republicans, or
which are considered something doubtful, in which there is
a heavy Negro vote.
Indian territory and Oklahoma are set down because there
is some probability that they will be admitted as States. The
total Negro population of each State, by the census of 1900,
is stated, and all colored males 21 years of age and over, or
voters, as shown by the same census.
HIS VOTING STRENGTH.
None but persons of Negro descent are included.
Negro Popu- Negro vote
States— lation 1900. 1900.
Massachusetts 31,974 10,456
Rhode Island 9,092 2,765
Connecticut 15,226 4,576
New York 99,232 31,425
New Jersey 69,844 21,474
Pennsylvania 156,845 51,668
Delaware 30,697 8,374
Maryland 235,064 60,406
Ohio 96,901 31,235
Indiana 57,050 18,186
Illinois 85,078 29,762
Michigan 15,816 5,193
Iowa 12,693 4,441
Missouri 161,234 64,418
Kansas 52,003 14,695
Nebraska 6,269 2,298
Oklahoma 18,831 4,827
Indian Territory 36,853 9,146
Colorado 8,350 3,215
California 11,045 3,711
Kentucky 284,706 74,728
West Virginia 43,499 . 14,786
REALLY DEMOCRATIC STATES.
The republicans here are claiming that Indiana is anchored
for good in the republican column. This may be so if the
Indiana democrats keep up their fight against each other up-
on awkward and dead issues, but not otherwise. When the
democrats of Indiana regain their senses and get together
they can carry the State. They carried it in 1876 and lost
it in 1880 because the party refused to renominate Tilden to
the disgust of many good democrats ; they carried it again
in 1884, and lost it in 1888 because Cleveland had soured
the party and shamefully mistreated Hendricks.
They, however, forgot the wrongs of Cleveland in 1892 and
again gave him the State. Then came the marriage of Cleve-
land and Wall Street, to be followed by the free silver craze,
the one as bad as the other, and, of course, Indiana was lost
as well as the Union, and is still in the wilderness. But up to
the split in the democratic party, Indiana, notwithstanding
its 21,000 Negro votes, was democratic and will be again
with the other democratic States of the Union whenever the
party gets back to its old, time-honored principles.
FIGHT OVER NEGRO POSTMASTER.
North Carolina republicans are having a hot time with
one another about the question of giving another appoint-
ment to S. H. Vick, the colored postmaster at Wilson, N. C.
President Roosevelt and Postmaster General Payne are
receiving daily mail contributions to the already much-dis-
The latest is from ex-Representative Ewart, whose nomi-
nation for a federal judgeship was defeated by ex-Senator
Marion Butler. President McKinley three times nominated
Ewart as a federal judge for North Carolina, but each time
his confirmaton was prevented by Mr. Butler.
The fact that Mr. Butler came here a short time ago and
indorsed the action of Senator Pritchard, protesting against
Vick's reappointment, is the basis of a long letter from
Mr. Ewart, who denounces ex-Senator Butler as a traitor
to almost every man and cause with whom or which he was
ever connected in North Carolina.
Then Mr. Ewart, who is evidently aspiring to leadership
in North Carolina, takes the Negro side of the "lily white"
question. As to Mr. Butler, he says :
"I suppose this is the same Butler whose seat was scarcely
warm in the senate before he began scheming and plotting
to defeat his colleague, J. C. Pritchard, to whose re-election
he was bound ; the same Butler who in 1897 resorted to meth-
ods to defeat Pritchard."
AN APPEAL FROM HON. C. W. HINES TO THE WHOLE
WORLD IN INTEREST OF THE RACE.
Cleveland, Ohio, March 24. — Three hundred thousand Ne-
groes who belong to the Equal Rights Association have ap-
pealed to the emperors and kings of the old world to aid
them in the United States. The petitioners declare they are
victims of gross injustice and that all of them are likely to
be murdered by the whites of America. Intervention
through the representatives of the European and Asiatic
monarchs at Washington is requested to compel the United
States to grant the blacks the justice they assert is denied
C. W. Hines, chairman of the executive committee of the
Equal Rights Association, is the author of the appeal to the
old world. He made public the appeal at the headquarters
of the association in this city.
The views expressed are not his alone. They represent
the sentiment of all the members of the association, for they
were adopted at a secret session of the association in this
city February 9. W. H. Thorp of Boston is president and I.
E. Turner of New York is treasurer of the association.
The right of the Negroes to appeal and foreign govern-
ments to intervene is based on the United States' interfer-
ence in behalf of the Cubans. Copies of the appeal have
been sent to the heads of all foreign governments. Addi-
tional copies will be distributed throughout the United
Text of Negroes' Appeal.
"We, the Afro-Americans of the United States of Ameri-
ca," says the appeal, "are brutally and barbarously mal-
treated and basely compelled, for no crime or misdemeanor,
to suffer every indignity, cruelty and murder that inhuman,
fiendish nature can invent, by some of those who once held
the Afro-Americans in bondage and slavery or the descend-
ants of those who once held the Afro-Americans in slavery
and bondage in the United States, and who still without
cause harbor in their hearts a deadly hatred against the
"We behold with sorrow and grief the twentieth century
has ushered in with the same bloody catalogue staring the
American people in their faces, witnessing mob violence,
murder, disfranchising and crime against the Afro-Ameri-
can in this city to be most alarmingly on the increase. Such
oppression, wholesale lynching and wanton murder of an
innocent people was never before heard of in any civilized
"From one to five or more are either tortured, hung, shot
or butchered and driven from their homes daily, while others
are burnt to death at the stake. It has come to such a com-
mon occurrence that the press and pulpit say but little about
it. They pay more attention to the barbarities of the for-
eign countries than they do to their own America; to slake
the deadly hate and foul thirst for murder and to wallow
their hands in the warm blood of their dying victims..
"The foreign powers have the same and a better right to
interfere in defense of 10,000,000 people that are liable to be
murdered at will by prejudiced classes who use that nick-
name, the whites of America, for no cause whatever, only
their skin is darker than those that call themselves white
Name Monarchs They Rely On.
"In God's name will the King of England, will the Em-
peror of Germany, will the Czar of Russia, will the Sultan of
Turkey, will the Shah of Persia, will the Emperor of Austria,
will the King of Italy and will the King of Greece, will the
President of Switzerland, will the King of Portugal, will the
President of France, will the King of Sweden and will the
King of Siam, will the Emperor of or the Mikado of Japan,
will the rulers of Belgium, Roumania, Luxemburg, Monte-
negro and all other foreign powers interfere in some way in
behalf of the suffering, outraged and murdered Afro-Ameri-
can people of the United States and thus save the name of
Christianity from reproach, mockery and derision and the
name of humanity from shame, ridicule and contempt, and
civilization with all of its dear amenities, from disgrace,
scorn and ignominy?
"For God's sake intervene to save us, the Afro-American
men, women and children, before we are all murdered by
those so-called prejudicial whites of America. We plead, we
beg you, to save us."
The Negro claims a right to vote as he pleases under the
fourteenth and fifteenth amendments of the United States
Constitution and does not feel obligated to forfeit that right
on account of favoritism from any class of people.
The Negro, as a laborer, has been misrepresented. Some
years ago some white people wrote letters to the Houston
press, saying that the Negro was not a reliable servant.
This complaint was regarding house servants; but if thor-
oughly investigated, it will be found that those complaints
came from people who were not able to pay for the services
of a good house servant, or else the complainants were
mean and hard to get along with. Some of the best white
people of this city have employed the same servants for from
five to twenty years, and these Negroes seem to them as their
family. The Negro, as a public laborer, is faithful. He is
not a striker, neither is he a dynamiter, but loyal to his
trust, ever looking to the best interests of his employer.
He is always determined to give an honest day's work.
This he has proven. For instance, take the great strike
last year in the local system of the Harriman Railroad,
known as the Southern Pacific. During that strike the Ne-
gro proved faithful to his trust. The union men asked the
Negroes to join with them in the strike; the Negroes gave
them to understand that they were not satisfied with their
salary, but they had no other hope than that of peaceable
means of getting a raise. And they were not brothers, any-
way, therefore, could do them no good. As the union men
demanded a closed shop and the Negroes could not become
members of their union, the Negroes thought it most unrea-
sonable of the union men to ask them to help the union to
win a strike that prohibited the Negro making bread and
butter for his wife and children. The result : a strike was
called and fourteen hundred men lost out.
Many Negroes are doing skilled work, but are not receiv-
ing sufficient pay for same. I cannot say whether condi-
tions are bright for the Negro or not. During the strike
the Negro faced death to be loyal to the company. A great
many were beaten and shot at, coming to and going from
work, and full appreciation has not yet been shown the
Mr. J. W. Small, the new superintendent of motive power,
is a railroad man from the new railroad school, and the only
way to stand in with him is to put in an honest day's work
for the company. He is nothing else but a company man.
He treats all men alike. He is easy to approach, if you have
business with him.
The Southern Pacific Company has a new president in
Texas, with all system lines in Texas and Louisiana under
his management, in the person of Mr. W. B. Scott. Mr.
Scott is a different man from Mr. T. Fay, the retiring presi-
dent. I have in my mind now the completion of the new
general office, the eleven-story building, about the time of
the big strike here in Houston, Texas, of the shop men, and
while some loyal Negroes in the shop were facing death to
help the company carry on its work without hindrance, Mr.
T. Fay, president, was at the general office discharging all
Negro porters, to give employment to the same class of men
who were on a strike in the shop. All these Negro porters
were faithful and honest. I knew them all; they did good
work. And had it not been a case of race prejudice the Ne-
gro would have been more satisfactory from this point of
view : Less men, quicker work and better work. But now
he is gone. It is said he resigned to go into other business,
which is the usual saying with all big men. It is bad luck
to harm a Christian or praying man or woman. God is al-
ways on the side of a praying person. And when in trouble,
no job, no money, no bread and meat in the storeroom, the
Christian Negro will tell God about it. God will move all
opposition from praying people, if by death !
I have had my race at heart for many years. I am very
poor trying to do something to help better the condition of
my race. I once invested $500 in a passenger transfer line
when the street car company put up partitions to separate
Negroes from the whites. Things went well until the street
car company paid some of the leading Negroes $5.00 per day
to get the masses of Negroes to ride. Thus my investment
failed to materialize. The next move I made was to organ-
ize a Co-operative Building, Lumber, Land and Loan Com-
pany of Texas, and chartered under the general laws of
Texas, with shares of stock at $1.00 each. I saw that the
poor laboring class of Negroes needed an easy co-operative
system like this, in order that all could put their dollars to-
gether in one interest, in a combination system well planned,
and success was sure. I wrote the plans and Hon. J. S. Tib-
bitt wrote the charter. But some how or other, other par-
ties saw, to let our company live, it would have taken Texas.
So one Negro newspaper man was called into the fight, and
he got on our little company, to the extent that the stock-
holders would not pay up their stock. And a failure was
certain. One white lumberman, who operated a saw mill,
wrote me to let him know within twenty-four hours if we
would take 1,000 acres of timber land for 7,000 shares of
our stock. He offered a guarantee that the land would turn
out two million feet of lumber. I called the board together,
but they refused his proposition. Some who only had three
shares said they didn't want any white man in the company.
This was our only hope, as we could not get stockholders to
pay up their stock. I gave up a paying position and sold my
fine horse and buggy in order to fight to keep the company
alive — the company I loved so much, because I was t^ie pro-
moter. But it went down. I wish to say I shall not try
to organize my people any more, in a business concern. My
late wife was against me trying to organize the colored peo-
ple ; she told me I could not make them stick up. But now,
in my view of the present high cost of living, I see nothing
for the laboring men but a hard fight to make it up the hill,
if at all. There are many unification plans that would be
well for the poor man, if his confidence could be called into
action. He will not go in with the big moneyed men, and he
will not go in with the poor men. He must in some way
form a joint co-operation with his brother, who is in the same
financial condition. This is the only salvation for the poor
laboring man. It is the quickest way to success. The lead-
ers should help them to see it. The preachers should preach
along this line. A preacher who cannot preach business
once in a while is a poor preacher. He would do better
service on the farm, without his Bible.
The Negro must teach race pride around the fireside. It
must be taught from the pulpit and in the school room.
The Italians have a private cemetery solely of negro victims
throughout the United States to their credit, and the Negro
will pass by a Negro business house to go to a Dago. I no-
tice some of the Negro business men who expect the Negro
to patronize them do not practice what they preach. They
want the Negro's business, and when they take their meals
they go to the Greek Cafe. The Negro business man must
exchange business with his brother. As a business man, if
he fails to do this, he cannot ask anyone else to do what he
will not do himself. Every Negro business must do the ex-
change act with each other. This must be taught around
the fireside continually without fail. This is the only way
to build up a strong Negro business.
There are no greater agencies for dragging down young
women in the world than these upstairs club rooms for men
and women behind closed doors ; where they play pool, drink
whisky and get drunk. To women club rooms are the main
road to prostitution and destruction. For men they are the
advance agents for the State penitentiary. They are human
butcher shops. They make widows and orphans. They
cause meal barrels to go dry. They cause babies to cry for
bread. They are dangerous to the church, and more dan-
gerous to society. The flaming hell has no greater agency
than the clubs. They must be killed. The woman that at-
tends the club is not suitable material for a model housewife,
neither a mother, from the fact that our sons and daughters
must come from pure homes. For noble sons and daughters
the mothers must be noble Christian women. That's the
only hope for our race. In this connection I am compelled
to mention the name of Mrs. Pearl A. Lights, who was in her
life time a model Christian woman, the wife of Dr. F. L.
Lights, D. D. Her work was local, but unsurpassed. She
was born into the world to do the special work which she
did with her whole heart. She was a Christian lady of the
highest type ; a church worker, but she did the greatest good
among the children, notwithstanding she worked with the
eld people also. She was a power unequaled at anything she
took hold of. She was kind to all, had an encouraging word
at all times for anyone in trouble. Though rich, yet no one
was too poor for her to stoop down and try to raise up.
Had her work been national instead of local, America would
mourn her loss. But why so? That's heaven's gain. And
before she left here she finished her part of the program on
I will take up the condition of the Negro and what he is
confronted with. He is unprotected as a citizen or as a man.
His home is unprotected. The white man often runs over
him ; he has no rights he feels bound to respect. The white
man's home is sacred, we have been taught, and we are
more than willing to accept it as a fact, and the whole truth.
Why not our homes be sacred also? We do not want social
equality, and we don't want the white man in our homes.
The following article appeared in the Houston Press No-
vember 8, 1912- which explains itself:
"I am thejheWo who stabbed R. M. Cook," said Abner
Windom in the eounty jail today. "He was in a room with
Bessie Thaniel, my girl, and when I went to the window to
talk to her, he hit me in the face. Yes, I stabbed Cook, and
I am sorry now."
Cook, 47, white, boarding at the Lone Star Hotel, Humble,
and telegraph operator for the Sun Oil Company, was killed
early yesterday morning. He was slashed from the left
shoulder to the lower part of the abdomen and died at the
Houston Infirmary at 7 o'clock last night.
Windom, the Negro, was told this morning Cook was dead.
"Well, I guess I am charged with murder," he said. "I
was in hopes he would not die. God knows what they will
do with me, but I stabbed him while I was angry. I went up
to the window to talk to Bessie and I didn't know anyone
was in the room. I was hit above the eye and that made
me mad. I pulled my knife, reached my hand through the
window and cut him as much as I could. She was my girl
and he had no right to hit me for talking to her."
The wound Cook received was eighteen inches long. Three
ribs were almost severed, his abdomen was exposed and when
undertakers from the Westheimer Company started to pick
him up, his intestines fell out upon the floor.
Before he died he asked the Thaniel woman to leave him.
After she was gone he called for help and white persons run-
ning the place went to his rescue after he had been in agony
for nearly a half hour. A pool of blood surrounded him.
"I was sleeping in a rear room of the Lone Star Hotel,"
said Cook in his dying statement to Justice Crooker. "I
hoaid someone talking and I went to the window. I saw a
rLeVro trying to get in at the window and I hit him with my
fistY He reached through the window and cut me."
The Westheimer Undertaking Company is trying to locate
Cook's relatives. They have found one man who knows
Cook's relatives, but he refuses to tell exactly where they live
or to reveal his own name.
"He has relatives in Illinois and Pennsylvania," said the
Cook, a widower, said to be of a good family, may be buried
in the potters' field because of the bad circumstances under
which he was killed.
If the white man be allowed to run over our homes, we
cannot produce the women we hope to produce. The Negroes
all over America would say the white man has a right to
resort to the unwritten law in every case when he catches
a negro in his bed. Yes, a Negro in a white man's bed !
His private home! If we allow you the golden rule, should
we be deprived of the same golden rule on account of color?
Very often colored women give away to white men because
they are afraid to resist ; they know their own men in many
cases are unprepared to protect them. The Negroes, as a
race, do not want social equality. The white man thinks
political equality is next to social equality. See editorial
from the Houston Chronicle, March 3, 1903 :
"A NEGRO RESERVATION.
"One of the most interesting and important articles on the
Negro was contributed by Colonel Robert Bingham of North
Carolina to the European edition of Harper's Monthly for
July, 1900. The writer comments on the ostracism and out-
lawry of a white criminal by white people and the encour-
agement and protection of a Negro criminal by Negroes.
Many Negro associations have denounced Negro crime, but
the New Orleans Times-Democrat in endorsing Colonel Bing-
ham's view, points as proof of it to 'recent incidents in ur-
ban centers in the South, and especially in New Orleans,
Atlanta, Memphis and Richmond.'
"In the course of Colonel Bingham's article he quotes from
two competent authorities on the condition of the Negro
race, Prof. Walter H. Wilcox of Cornell University and Dr.
George T. Winston, formerly president of the University of
Texas and now president of the Agricultural and Mechani-
cal College of North Carolina. The conclusions of these two
authorities are endorsed by Prof. J. R. Stratton in the North
American Review for 1900. Prof. Stratton points out that,
according to the census of 1890, the minimum illiteracy of
the Negro is found in New England, where it is 21 7-10 per
cent, and the maximum in the Southern 'black belt,' yet the
Negro is four and one-half times more criminal in New Eng-
land, hundred for hundred of the population, than he is in
the black belt.
"The conclusions referred to, reached by Prof. Wilcox and
Dr. Winston are:
"1. The Negro element is much the most criminal in our
"2. The Negro is much more criminal as a free man than
he was as a slave.
- "3. The Negro is increasing in criminality with fearful
rapidity, being one-third more criminal in 1890 than in 188'0.
"4. The Negroes who can read and write are more crim-
inal than the illiterate, which is true of no other elemenc o^
"5. The Negro is nearly three times as criminal in the
Northeast, where he has not been a slave for a hundred
years, and three and a half times as criminal in the North-
west, where he has never been a slave, than in the South,
where he was a slave till 1865.
"6. The Negro is three times as criminal as the native
white and once and a half times as criminal as the foreign
white, consisting, in many cases, of the the scum of Europe.
"These conclusions demonstrate that from a moral point
of view the education of the Negro is a failure, yet in justice
to the Negro it should be said that the industrial discrimina-
tion of the North in keeping the Negro out of the trades tends
to make him a criminal. In the South, however, where the
Negro is not discriminated against industrially, the crimi-
nal tendencies of the race are so much in excess of those of
the whites, even the scum of Europe, who come over as im-
migrants, as to occasion great discouragement to the most
"Now social equality, the president's panacea, would result
in miscegenation and the ruin of our own race if it could be
carried out, which is impossible. There are not nearly
enough federal offices to go round. So the president's other
plan is seen to be inadequate. The great mass of the Ne-
groes are not helped a jot by appointments of a few blacks
to office and the invitation of a few to White House recep-
tions. Even if we should grant, for the argument's sake,
that these absurd remedies are good remedies they do not
stretch far enough to do the slightest good.
"Harper's Weekly takes up the Waco Times-Herald's sug-
gestion of a Negro State. It points out that the Negroes
increased 18 per cent in last decade, now numbering 8,840,-
789. 'It is obvious,' the editor of Harper's Weekly argues,
'that at this rate of expansion not many decades can elapse
before the colored inhabitants' of the republic will exceed
twenty millions, most of whom will be concentrated in the
States south of the Potomac and Ohio. Can we marvel that
the Southern whites regard with grave misgivings the omi-
nous increase of this element of their population, or they
would gladly seek relief, if they could, in the wholesale de-
portation of the blacks ?'
"The remedy that Harper's Weekly suggests is the pur-
chase from Mexico of Chihuahua and two or three others
of the northern and thinly peopled Mexican States and a
voluntary and assisted immigration thither of Southern
blacks. We have Indian reservations, why not a Negro res-
ervation? Southern Negroes are better than the Negroes
of Hayti and could be depended on not to revert to barbar-
ism. On a reservation of their own they could work out
their salvation in their own way, and the Negro problem
which has vexed this country for many years in many ways."
The following article is from the Kansas City Star, Feb-
ruary 14, 1903, dealing on the race question :
"THE RACE PROBLEM A SOCIAL ONE.
"Evidently the problem of what must be done for the
black race in the United States cannot be ignored. Secre-
tary Root's manly statement that the course heretofore pur-
sued has failed is startling, chiefly because it gives definite
and perhaps authoritative expression to a thought that has
been more or less clearly developed in everybody's head.
Some might state the question, what must be done with
the Negroes? instead of for them. But that might be taken
to imply that they ought to be transported to Africa or some
other place. The Negroes are here and probably always
will be, and Mr. Root was right in saying that the problem
they present calls for the best thought and patriotism of the
"Not long since the Star called attention to the difference
between the Negro and the nigger. If that distinction is
kept in mind, it will help to make these facts clear: That
the question should be regarded as a social and not a polit-
ical one; that it is national in its bearings and not sectional.
It is the 'mean nigger' that holds his race in practical sub-
jection, and not the Negro, who is a good and self-respect-
ing citizen. It is the mean nigger whose insolence in poli-
tics and depravity in every walk of life has fostered that
race hatred which is death to his own elevation and is det-
rimental to the advancement of the whites. It is the mean
nigger who is responsible for the unreasoning fear enter-
tained in some quarters that if the blacks are educated and
uplifted there might result a social intermingling. The
respectable Negro knows as well as the white persons who
are not prejudiced through fear know that there is be-
tween them a race repulsion strong enough and beneficent
enough to keep the two divisions forever separate.
"Clearly, then, the patriotism that would solve the race
problem in the United States would devote itself to bringing
the Negroes as a whole to the standard of good citizenship.
It would not treat the matter as a cause of sectional or po-
litical dispute between the North and the South. If the
Negro doesn't get an office he should comfort himself with
the knowledge that there are millions of white men in the
United States who 'would trade their chances for the presi-
dency for a ham sandwich ;' that there are hundreds of thou-
sands of women who pay taxes, yet who not only may not
hold office, but who may not even vote. The reward of
office would seem to be as just and as much of an incentive
to good citizenship to the black man as to the white, but it
will be withheld or given grudgingly until the Negroes as a
class are better types of citizens.
"In the meantime, if the ministers and those who con-
tribute money for sending missionaries on good, fat salaries
to the uttermost parts of the earth to convert the heathen,
would send them or go themselves among the black people
of the South or among the 'nigger' settlements in large cities,
they would find plenty of work to do and they would be
serving the Lord and their country at the same time. The
respectable element of Negroes has been blamed justly for
condoning too readily the faults of their brethren, the 'nig-
gers.' But the race should not be left alone. The whites
have a responsibility. Their 'best thought and patriotism'
must be extended toward them to the end that the black
race should be lifted and the white race saved from a dis-
tracting political feud."
The following race article appeared in the Kansas City
Star March 16, 1903:
"A SOUTHERN WOMAN'S VIEWS ON THE RACE
"The Rev. Thomas Dixon, with his prediction of a war
to the finish between whites and blacks, represents the views
of one faction in the South as to the race problem. In the
current issue of the Outlook Mrs. L. H. Hammond, a South-
ern woman, states the opinion of another, and it is believed
a large and growing party, on the same question. Her at-
titude is as hopeful as that of Mr. Dixon is pessimistic. She
does not anticipate the speedy advent of the millennium.
But she looks forward to a gradual change for the better.
"In Mrs. Hammond's opinion, the solution will lie, not in
social equality — that is out of the question — but in the in-
dustrial training of the Negro. Friendly business relations
between the two races she believes is possible of attainment.
"That the South is not oblivious to the Negroes' needs is
apparent from the fact that out of its comparative poverty
after the war it contributed within twenty-five years 120
million dollars to schools for its freedmen. Its hostility to
higher education for Negroes Mrs. Hammond attributes to
its reasonable belief that the race must be able to earn a liv-
ing with its hands before it studies Latin and Greek. Man-
ual training along the lines laid down at Hampton and
Tuskegee is regarded with growing favor throughout the
"Present conditions, bad as they are, do not discourage
Mrs. Hammond. As a Southern woman, she does not un-
derestimate them. 'It is difficult,' she says, 'for the people
of the North to understand either the pressure of the whole
great race problem upon us as a people, or its endless rami-
fications into the smallest details of our individual life.'
Yet, remembering how recently the race has emerged from
barbarism, she does not wonder at the 'darker side' of the
problem. 'It is in the exceptional Negroes,' she says, 'and
in their constantly, if slowly, increasing numbers, that we
find a visible warrant for our faith in the future of their
"Mrs. Hammond does not agree with Mr. Dixon that the
industrial and moral education of the Negro will only in-
crease race hostility. In her experience she has found much
mutual kindliness and respect. The business dealings of
the two races, she believes, are generally carried on without
friction. 'No honorable Negro,' she says, 'lacks the respect
of his white neighbors. This respect does not take the form
of social intercourse, which such Negroes desire as little as
we ; but it is none the less expressed and understood.'
"It is evidently in some such way as that indicated by this
Southern woman that the race problem is to be solved. That
these views are held in the South, where the work is to be
done, gives them an especial significance."
The following is an editorial in the Houston Chronicle
December, 1909. My note book does not show date of the
month. I do not accept it as a whole ; however, some part of
it is too good to not reproduce it in this race booklet.
"AMERICAN SOCIAL PROBLEMS.
"We may as well make up our minds that the American
Negro will never go to Liberia for the purpose of forming a
Negro republic. He is here to stay. He came in the first
instance, not because he wanted to, but because he was com-
pelled to make his home in America. It is a pathetic story
— this story of the imported African who now furnishes
about one-seventh of our entire population. Other races
of immigrants, by contact with our institutions, have been
civilized. The Negro has been only domesticated. The
very qualities of manliness and intelligence which are essen-
tial for citizenship in a democracy were systematically ex-
punged from the Negro race through 200 years of slavery.
The stronger, independent type was practically eliminated.
It is true that the Negro's present condition is not altogether
the result of his slavery to the white man. Back of his
slavery are centuries of barbarous existence, the influences
of which are still being felt. Not many centuries ago the
Negro was brother to the beast in the jungles of Africa.
It cannot be expected that the Negro will leap from this
degradation to a position of equality with the white race in
the short space of a couple of hundred years. It took the
white man much longer than this to acquire his present su-
"The Negro is coming to the city. In Chicago, from 1880
to 1890, the white population increased three-fold while the
colored population increased five-fold. In Philadelphia,
during the same period, the white population increased 50
per cent, while the colored population increased 100 per cent.
In the thirty-eight largest cities of the country the Negro
population in ten years increased 38 per cent, while the
white population, including foreign immigration, increased
only 33 per cent— this in spite of the fact that the Negro pop-
ulation has not kept pace with the native white population
throughout the United States.
"The Negro and the white race, especially in the South,
are in many ways indissolubly linked together. In many
respects the welfare of one depends upon the welfare of the
other. The low standard of living among the Negroes keeps
down the wages of the whites. If the Negro is content to
live in a miserable hut, dress in rags, subsist on the poorest
kind of food, the wages of the white man, engaged in the
same kind of work, will be constantly pressed toward the
same low level. The higher the standard of living among
the Negroes the higher will be the standard of the white
people in the same occupation, and in the same territory.
If the Negro's tendency is toward criminality, there is con-
stant incitement to criminal tendencies in the white man.
Crimes committed by one race provoke crimes on the part
of the other. If the Negro is diseased it will be difficult to
prevent the spread of the contagion among the white people.
According to the last census, for a portion of the Northern
States, for every 1,000 white children under 5 years of age,
there was 49.7 deaths in one year, and for every 1,000 colored
children under 5 years of age there were 118.5 deaths, an
excess of Negro infant mortality of 137 per cent. The cen-
sus also reports that Negro deaths in cities owing to tuber-
culosis are proportionately 2.8' times as many as white deaths*
while deaths owing to pneumonia are 89 per cent greater.
In a leading Southern city where mortality statistics of Ne-
groes were compiled before the war it has been shown that
from 1822 to 1848 the colored death rate from consumption
was a trifle less than the white, but since 1865, the white
mortality from that cause has decreased 38 per cent, while
the Negro mortality has increased 70 per cent. The death
rates from consumption in Charleston in 1900 were 189.8
for 100,000 whites and 647.7 for 100,000 Negroes, an ex-
cess of 241 per cent.
"It is largely due to the immorality of the Negro that the
death rate of his race is so great, but, unquestionably, his
ignorance has very much to do with it. Surely here is a
race which must have the attention of our American citizen-
ship, because the destinies of the white man and the black
man are linked up forever. If the black man goes down,
the white man is bound to go down with him.
"The remedy for the situation is not to be found in the
so-called higher education. To be sure, it is necessary to
have Negro doctors and preachers and lawyers, as well as
Negro teachers, but it is far more essential to have Negro
carpenters and blacksmiths and plumbers and machinists.
It is only as the Negro can hold his own in the community
as a producer that the white man will respect him. It is
only as he does a man's work in the world that he will find
the place that should belong to him.
"But the elevation of the Negro race cannot, in all fair-
ness, be left in the hands of the Negro himself. He is en-
titled to the help and co-operation of those who have been
more highly favored than he. While it may be true that the
Negro is the most criminal element in our population and
that he is constantly increasing in criminology, it should be
remembered that more than seven-tenths of the Negro crim-
inals are under 30 years of age. Our task is with the chil-
dren and the young people, and these are responsive to the
efforts of an enlightened American Christian citizenship."
The white man claims the Negro votes against his best
friend in the South.
This is an issue, and the Negro has a right to his opinion.
I can't agree with the Chronicle. From the fact that the Ne-
groes, as a whole, vote to bring prosperity to all the people,
therefore he is not voting aginst the interests of the South-
ern white man, but to retain good times and confidence in
the administration. But the man who votes for the party
that wrecks the big industries and financial institutions and
drives the commercial activity to the wall, is indeed the
dangerous voter. This is not the Negro in this class of
The Negro, when he votes for the party whose principles
are the safest, is not voting against the South, but for the
best interests of all the people. But v , on the other hand,
the white man who votes for the party whose principles are
unsafe, is not voting only, as he thinks, against the Negro,
but against all the people and all the industries, as well as
all legitimate investments. Thus, he stops the money from
rolling and he causes banks to go to the wall ; he also hits at
his own meal barrel and smokehouse.
There is a difference between the Northern and Southern
Democrats. The uninformed Southern Democrat, in the
country knows nothing about Democratic principles, and
neither can he explain anything about them ; he only clings
to the name on account of slave prejudice from fireside train-
ing. He does not know it is an issue based upon principle,
dealing with high and low tariff.
Ex-President Cleveland was a Northern Democrat, and
not a very able statesman, but a good man. A fair-minded
man, unprejudiced to the Negro race.
The following is his speech in the interest of Dr. Wash-
ington's school April 15, 1903, from the New Orleans Daily
"New York, April 14. — Former President Grover Cleve-
land was the principal speaker tonight at a meeting held in
the Concert Hall of Madison Square Garden in the interest
of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute.
"Among those on the platform with Mr. Cleveland were:
Mayor Low, who presided; Booker T. Washington, Edgar
G. Murphy, Dr. Lyman Abbott and George F. Peabody. Mrs.
Cleveland sat in the gallery with Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Car-
negie, who are Mr. Cleveland's hosts while he is in the city.
"Mr. Cleveland, who was greeted with prolonged applause
as he was introduced by Mayor Low, said :
Grover Cleveland's Address.
" 'I have come here tonight as a sincere friend of the Ne-
gro, and I should be very sorry to suppose that my good and
regular standing in such company needed support at this
late day either from certificate or confession of faith. In-
asmuch, however, as there may be differences of thought
and sentiment among those who profess to be friends of the
Negro, I desire to declare myself as belonging to the Booker
Washington-Tuskegee section of the organization. I be-
lieve that the days of 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' are past. I do
not believe that either the decree that made the slaves free
or the enactment that suddenly invested them with the rights
of citizenship any more purged them of their racial and
slavery-bred imperfections and deficiencies than that it
changed the color of their skin. I believe that among the
nearly 9,000,000 of Negroes who have been intermixed with
our citizenship there is still a grievous amount of ignorance,
a sad amount of viciousness and a tremendous amount of
laziness and thriftlessness.
" 'I believe that these conditions inexorably present to the
white people of the United States, to each in his environ-
ment, and under the mandate of good citizenship, a problem
which neither enlightened self-interest nor the higher mo-
tive of human sympathy will permit them to put aside. I
believe our fellow countrymen in the Southern and late slave-
holding States, surrounded by about nine-tenths, or nearly
8,000,000, of this entire Negro population, and who regard
their material prosperity, their peace and even the safety
of their civilization interwoven with the Negro problem,
are entitled to our utmost consideration and sympathetic
fellowship. I am thoroughly convinced that the efforts of
Booker Washington and the methods of Tuskegee Institute
point the way to a safe and beneficent solution of the vexa-
tious Negro problem at the South, and I know that the good
people at the North, who have aided these efforts and meth-
ods, have illustrated the highest and best citizenship and the
most Christian and enlightened philanthropy.
" 'I cannot, however, keep out of my mind tonight the
thought that with all we of the North may do, the realization
of our hopes for the Negro must, after all, mainly depend —
except so far as it rests with the Negroes themselves — upon
the sentiment and conduct of leading and responsible white
men of the South, and upon the maintenance of a kindly and
helpful feeling on their part toward those in their midst
who so much need their aid and encouragement.
" 'I need waste no time in detailing the evidence that this
aid and encouragement has thus far been generously forth-
coming. Schools for the education of Negro children and
institutions for their industrial training are scattered all
over the South and are liberally assisted by the Southern
public and private funds. So far as I am informed the sen-
timent in favor of the largest extension and broadest influ-
ence of Tuskegee Institute and kindred agencies is universal,
and I believe that without exception, the Negroes who fit
themselves for useful occupations and service find willing
and cheerful patronage and employment among their white
neighbors. The man who is beyond doubt the best authority
in the world on the prospects of the Negro race, he who
founded and is now at the head of the Tuskegee Institute,
and is the most notable representative of Negro advance,
said at the Atlanta Exposition in 1895 :
" ' "And in this connection it is well to bear in mind that
whatever other sins the South may be called to bear, when
it comes to business pure and simple, it is in the South that
the Negro is given a man's chance in the commercial world,
and in nothing is this Exposition more eloquent than in em-
phasizing this chance. Our greatest danger is that in the
great leap from slavery to freedom, we may overlook the
fact that the masses of us are to live by the production of
our hands and fail to keep in mind that we shall prosper
in proportion as we learn to dignify and glorify common la-
bor and put brains and skill into the common occupations
of life — shall prosper in proportion as we learn to draw the
line between the superficial and the substantial — the orna-
mental gewgaws of life and the useful."
" 'I do not know how it may be with other Northern friends
of the Negro, but I have faith in the honor and sincerity of
the respectable white people of the South in their relations
with the Negro and his improvement and well-being. They
do not believe in the social equality of the race and they make
no false pretense in regard to it. That this does not grow
out of hatred of the Negro is very plain. It seems to me that
there is abundant sentiment and abundant behavior among
the Southern whites toward the Negroes to make us doubt
the justice of charging this denial of social equality to preju-
dice, as we usually understand the word. Perhaps it is
born of something so much deeper and more imperious than
prejudice as to amount to a racial instinct. Whatever it is,
let us remember that it has condoned the Negroes' share in
the humiliation and spoliation of the white men of the
South during the saturnalia of reconstruction days, and has
allowed a kindly feeling for the Negro to survive the time
when the South was deluged by a perilous flood of indiscrim-
inate, unintelligent and blighting Negro suffrage. What-
ever it is, let us try to be tolerant and considerate of the feel-
ings and even the prejudice of racial instinct of our white
fellow countrymen of the South, who, in the solution of the
Negro problem, must, amid their own surroundings, bear the
heat of the day and stagger under the weight of the white
' 'There are, however, considerations related to this fea-
ture of the Negro question which may be regarded as more
in keeping with the objects and purposes of this occasion.
" 'As friends of the Negro, firmly believing in the possi-
bility of his improvement and advancement, and sincerely
and confidently laboring to that end, it is folly for us to ig-
nore the importance of the ungrudging co-operation on the
part of the white people of the South in this work. Labor
as we will, those who do the lifting of the weight must be
those who stand next to it. This co-operation cannot be
forced ; nor can it be gained by gratuitously running counter
to firmly fixed and tenaciously held Southern ideas, or even
prejudices. We are not brought to the point of doing or over-
looking evil that good may come when we proceed upon the
theory that before reaching the stage where we may be di-
rectly and practically confronted with the question of the
Negro's full enjoyment of civic advantage or even of all of
his political privileges, there are immediately before us and
around us questions demanding our immediate care, and that
in dealing effectively with these we cannot confidently rely
upon the encouragement and assistance of every thoughtful
and patriotic citizen of the land, wherever he may live, and
whatever may be his ideas or predelictions concerning the
more remote phases of the Negro problem. These questions
that are so immediately pressing have to do with the practi-
cal education of the Negro, and especially with fitting him
to compete with his white neighbors, in gaining a decent, re-
spectable and remunerative livelihood. Booker Washing-
ton, in speaking of the conditions and needs of the race, has
wisely said :
" 'It is at the bottom of life we must begin, and not at
the top. Nor should we permit our grievances to over-
shadow our opportunities."
" 'In summing up the whole matter, there is one thing of
which we can be absolutely and unreservedly certain. When
we aid Tuskegee Institute and agencies like it, striving for
the mental and manual education of the Negfo at the South,
we are in every point of view rendering him the best possible
service. Whatever may be his ultimate destiny, we are thus
helping to fit him for filling his place and bearing its respon-
sibilities. We are sowing well in the soil at "the bottom of
life" the seeds of the black man's development and useful-
ness. These seeds will not die, but will sprout and grow;
and if it be within the wise purpose of God, the hardened
surface of no outward sentiment or prejudice can prevent
the bursting forth of the blade and plant of the Negro's ap-
pointed opportunity into the brightest sunlight of a cloud-
" 'I think that wise men everywhere are recognizing in
the principal of Tuskegee one of the greatest moral assets
of our country today.
" 'The South has not applauded him with undiscriminat-
ing agreement, nor with monotonous, thoughtless, profitless
acclaim. The South has sometimes blamed him. But the
South is too fair to him and to his race to allow the occasion
of disagreement to distort the broad perspective in which she
has viewed and appreciated that arduous public service
through which, for twenty years, in cheerful patience and un-
affected modesty, he has labored for the upbuilding of his
humble and untutored fellows.
" 'He has greatly done a great work in response to a great
need. North and South, there have been those who have
seen peril in the Negro's progress, but if the progress of the
Negro brings peril with it, that peril is nothing in compari-
son with the perils attendant on the Negro's failure.'
"Dr. Lyman Abbott, who followed, said that the South de-
served great credit for taking up, as it had, an untried prob-
lem in helping the Negro to help himself.
" 'And the North,' he said, 'has given her scant credit.
She has given him schools that the North has refused him,
and done many other things toward his future that the North
never thought of.'
"Dr. Abbott next spoke of the great work of Booker T.
Washington, and praised him in the highest terms, declaring
he had done as much for the white race as for the colored.
His work had really brought about the union of North and
South in the work that he had taken up as his life task.
"Quoting a remark made by Henry Ward Beecher, to the
effect that we should 'make the Negro worthy first, and then
give him suffrage,' Dr. Abbott said:
'We made the error of giving him suffrage first, and the
unfortunate Negro has had to suffer ever since. What the
Negro wants is education. It all depends upon education
whether the Negro will be a shackle to our feet or wings to
"W. H. Baldwin, Jr., treasurer of the Tuskegee Institute,
announced that, since the meeting had begun, he had re-
ceived two telegrams, one announcing a gift of $10,000 from
a lady in Ohio, and the other a gift of $1,000 from a lady and
gentleman in the South. He said that $56,000 had been need-
ed to pay the indebtedness of the institute, and that, taking
the gifts into cons'ideration, there was still a sum of $45,000
needed, for which he made an urgent plea, as well as for a
further endowment sum.
"Mr. Cleveland, in introducing Booker T. Washington, the
last speaker of the evening, said :
" 'I have to introduce to you a man too well known by every
man in the United States, a man who has been spoken of too
frequently and too favorably, for it to be necessary for me
to say more than — here is Booker T. Washington.'
Prof. Washington's Address.
"Prof. Washington said in part:
" 'The Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute at Tus-
kegee, Ala., is the outgrowth of the efforts of General S. C.
Armstrong of the Hampton Institute in Virginia. General
Armstrong was one of the great seers and prophets who re-
alized that the task of the-nation was not fulfilled when the
shackles of physical slavery were struck from the limbs of
the millions of slaves of the South.
' 'He realized that 9,000,000 of human beings, steeped in
ignorance, minus experience, could be but half free. He
foresaw that the nation must have a new birth and a new
freedom, and that this regeneration must include the indus-
trial and moral and religious freedom of the ex-slaves. Fur-
ther, in refusing to return to his comfortable Northern home
after the surrender at Appomattox, and in deciding to re-
main South to help in fighting for freedom in the larger and
higher sense, General Armstrong appreciated, as few Amer-
icans have, that the North owes an unfilled duty to the
" 'General Armstrong said, by word and action, that it was
unjust to leave the South with its industrial system disor-
ganized and overturned in the midst of a poverty that for-
bade the proper education of the white youth — to say nothing
of millions of recently emancipated black children.' !
THREE GREAT PARTIES, VIZ.: THE DEMOCRATIC,
REPUBLICAN AND THE NATIONAL PRO-
Now the question is, which is the best for the Negro?
As far as the Negro is concerned the Republican party has
outlived its usefulness through President Taft, from the
fact that he said he "would not appoint a Negro to office in
the South where there was any objection." It seems very
strange that he was so very anxious to please a Democratic
South, which was against him. All he should have required
was an indorsement from the leading Republicans of the
South or the State in which the applicant" lived. The Dem-
ocratic party is not built upon a safe foundation. The Pro-
gressive party is a new party, with its history to make.
But who is behind it? Its leader is the greatest living
American statesman today under heaven, in the person of
Col. Theo. Roosevelt. I can't see other than the necessity
of the new party. All fair-minded men must agree with
the colonel in his contention that the nomination was stolen
from him at the National Republican Convention in Chicago,
111. The general election proved that fact. Then why
should any honest man or set of men criticise him for not
desiring to further associate with a dishonest party, whose
motto is to rob and steal?
Do you say the standards cannot be raised? Do you say
there is nothing fair and square in politics? If so let the
Colonel put forth all efforts to build up a clean, new party.
The Republican party has closed the door of hope against the
Negro. There will be no more civil wars, with the white
man against the white man in the interest of the Negro!
There are no more Abraham Lincolns.
Col. Roosevelt has no equal today. Those who dislike him
must confess that he is a great man. He is only Col. Roose-
velt. He may be hard to understand, but, however, he does
what he thinks is right and for the best interests of all the
people. That's all we can expect of any leader. The Son
of God could not please all the people when on earth. Neither
do we expect man to do so.
I further refer you to the press concerning him :
"THREATS AGAINST THE SOUTH."
(From the Houston Chronicle February 23, 1903.)
"Recent Washington dispatches of the New York Even-
ing Post and recent editorials in that paper threaten the
South with another 'carpetbag' regime unless the South con-
sent to appointments like the recent one of Crum to the
collectorship of the Port of Charleston. The New York
Tribune has been flourishing the bludgeon of Crumpacker-
ism, the reduction of Southern representation under that
clause of the Fourteenth amendment which constitutional
lawyers agree is nullified by the Fifteenth amendment.
"The South is not intimidated by either of these threats.
The white men of the South are not looking for trouble, but
are ready to meet any trouble that may be thrust upon them.
It would be possible for the Northern majority to reduce the
South's representation without legal right to do so. The
South would properly defend itself against such an usurpa-
tion of right which the Supreme Court of the United States
would in all probability set aside as an encroachment upon
its jurisdiction. If the constitutional provisions of the
Southern States are violative of the federal constitution,
it is not Congress, but the Supreme Court of the United
States that must be appealed to. It has been shown over
and over again that Northern States have the same educa-
tional qualifications of the suffrage that the Southern States
have, that what the extreme negrophilists are saying in ef-
fect is this : Tn the North an educational qualification of
the suffrage that excludes white men mainly is legal and
morally right, but in the South the same educational qualifi-
cation of the suffrage, because it excludes black men mainly,
is illegal and morally wrong.'
"When it comes to the other threat of a revival of the
'carpetbag' regime, that is sheer nonsense. Many people
and many politicians in the North are mad with negrophil-
ism, but scarcely to this extent. It is as well not to blink
the truth. Although telling the truth may bring upon us
the unjust charge of disloyalty, it is right that the truth
should be told. A revival of 'carpetbagism' in the South
would mean nothing less than civil war.
"If 'carpetbagism' was overthrown, not without bloodshed
in the years succeeding Appomatox when the South was pros-
trate from defeat in the greatest war of modern times, does
any sane man think it would be tolerated after twenty-six
years of recuperation and marvelous prosperity and increase
in strength? Dragooning the South would result in armed
revolution no less certainly than a similar policy in any part
of England. We of the South are Anglo-Saxons and the
spirit of liberty and home rule is strong within us. The
South grew loyal after the last war because, after reconstruc-
tion had been overthrown, our liberty, our State govern-
ments were left us. We are anxious to remain loyal, but
our loyalty to liberty and to our State governments is para-
mount. The administration may be as imperial as it pleases
abroad, but imperialism at home crosses the danger line.
We of the South are citizens of a republic of republics, not
subjects of an empire."
(Houston Post, February 25, 1903.)
"Washington, Feb. 24. — Senator Tillman of South Caro-
lina finished his speech on the Negro question late this even-
ing. The consensus of opinion among those who heard him
seems to be that he did much toward removing from his
name the stigma which has rested there so long on account
of his intemperate declaration and actions and his 'pitch-
fork' brand of statesmanship in general. He said yesterday
that he proposed speaking in a way that would surprise his
friends and disappoint his enemies, and it is generally held
that he succeeded in doing this very thing. There was
nothing at all intemperate about that portion of his speech
delivered today, and he handled convincing facts at his com-
mand in a manner eminently to his credit. He treated the
race question, from the Southerner's standpoint, and did it
so well that the cause of the South was, no doubt, benefited
instead of harmed, as many feared it would be. The gal-
leries were packed long before he commenced to speak, and
he was given the closest attention throughout.
"Washington, Feb. 24. — The Indianola, Miss., postoffice
case occupied the major portion of the Senate's time today.
Mr. Tillman spoke for three hours in continuation of his re-
marks begun yesterday on the race question, and was fol-
lowed by Mr. Carmack (Tenn.). During the morning hour
several bills and resolutions were passed and consideration
was given the bill to further provide for the safekeeping of
public money on deposit in national banks. The agricultu-
ial appropriation bill was also considered and the committee
amendments agreed, to, except the Statehood rider, which
was passed over. The Senate will meet tomorrow at 11
o'clock, which, until otherwise ordered, will be the hour for
"Mr. Tillman, in opening his remarks begun yesterday
in reference to the Indianola, Miss., postoffice case, said the
president and the postmaster general, in dealing with the
Indianola postoffice, had transcended their authority and re-
sorted to methods which were both tyrannical and unconsti-
"He wanted to know if, in figuring up the purpose of their
new-born zeal, this cold-blooded, calculative, advisedly-taken
action was not prompted by a low motive. He charged that
800,000 Negroes were coercing 50,000,000 of whites in the
North to deal with 17,000,000 white men in the South, in the
interest of the 8,000,000 ignorant Negroes in that section.
He referred to the cost in lives and money on account of the
race problem in this country, and addressing the Republican
side, called on them to meet him 'upon the same plane of pa-
triotism, of race pride and civilization, and not to fall into
the pitiful cesspool of party politics.' He read extracts from
the letter of the president, written some time ago, giving his
views with respect to appointment of Negroes to office. He
wanted to be just to the president, he said, but the views
were superficial. 'How little and small and infinitesmal,' he
said, ' is the knowledge behind such a view.' He added that
the people of the North have no more use for the Negro at
close quarters than he had. He cited instances of assaults
by Negroes on white women and declared that the more the
Northern people find out about the Negro the less use they
have for him. The ballot of the Negro, he maintained, was
a menace to good government and the people of the North
are coming to realize that the enfranchisement of him bor-
dered on a crime.
"Reverting to the president's utterance that he was un-
willing to shut the door of hope and opportunity in the case
of a worthy and competent colored man, Mr. Tillman said
at first blush there is not a man alive who would not agree
with that sentiment, but he inquired if it ever occurred to
anyone that in opening that door of hope it might not be
shut in the face of the white man. The door of hope in
South Carolina, said he, at one time had been closed by
bayonets to the whites for eight years, while rapine, murder
and misgovernment ran riot, with an abomination in the
sight of man presiding over the State. He declared that he
did not hate the Negro, and that all Negroes are not bad.
Only a small percentage were bad, and these, he said, are
leading the rest and being patted on the back by the politi-
"He regarded it as his duty, he said, to his State, to stand
forever opposed to any idea of political or social equality on
the part of the Negro with the whites. The purpose of those
who indorse the president's door of hope policy, he declared,
is that in time South Carolina should become a state of mu-
lattos, and in this event he predicted that there would be
more blood shed than was ever shed before.
'• 'I beg you, for God's sake,' he said, facing the Republi-
can side, 'not to produce an acute stage of hatred which will
bring the two races together with the resolve of the whites
to die in order to retain their supremacy.'
"Mr. Tillman said his newspaper friends always took great
pains to quote everything he said that was 'hot,' leaving out
the rational, and in this respect a great wrong had been done
him. 'A lie,' he said, 'never had any particular truth,' and
he would not attempt to make even a start to run down those
that have been told on him.
"Mr. Tillman poked fun at Mr. Hanna and read the title
of the bill he recently introduced to pension ex-slaves. 'Oh,
my God,' said he. 'did Mr. Hanna mean that, or is it a polit-
"The effect of the bill was, he declared, to give opportunity
to unscrupulous Negroes to bamboozle and deceive their peo-
ple by securing subscriptions, ostensibly to further interests
of the bill. He concluded by saying that 'in proportion as
you arouse false hope in the minds of these people, you are
only sowing the wind which will flame up into a whirlwind
"Mr. Tillman spoke -for three hours. He was followed by
Mr. Carmack (Tenn.), who said the action of the president
in the Indianola case was not in accord with reason, justice
or the constitution. He said that if the closing of the Indian-
ola postoffice is to be taken as the measure of the strength
of the executive and the power of the federal government,
that the government at Washington deserves to be despised
for its weakness and imbecility. The postoffice belonged, he
said, to the United States, and he inquired if a handful of
ruffians was more powerful than the government, 'with its
militant president at its head.'
"A bill was passed today creating a new division of the
Eastern District of Texas, and provided for the holding of
sessions of court at Texarkana.
"Mr. Quay sought to secure a vote on the Statehood bill
tomorrow, but Mr. Nelson objected."
Mr. Carmack of Tennessee was killed. — Writer.
(From the Houston Chronicle, February 17, 1903.)
"Washington, Feb. 17. — Word has reached Washington
that President Roosevelt's action in closing the postoffice at
Indianola, Miss., is not proving nearly so disastrous to the
white people of that town as to the colored residents.
"The whites have organized and are maintaining a special
messenger service between Indianola and Greensburg, where
all mail for Indianola is delivered now, and through this
service are obtaining their letters twice a day.
"The messengers are under orders not to accept the let-
ters of the colored people of Indianola under any circum-
stances, with the result that all communication between the
plantations in that part of Mississippi practically has ceased.
"The colored people are in despair.
"They do not understand the situation. They only know
in a general way that the postoffice has been closed by order
of the president of the United States and that their mail is
not coming to them on that account.
"The situation has a humorous as well as a pathetic side.
"The purpose of the president in closing the Indianola
office was to punish the white residents for their conduct in
forcing the colored postmistress to resign. It now appears
that the punishment is being visited on the colored brethren
and that the whites are taking fairly good care of themselves.
"They have ceased to protest about the office being kept
closed and are awaiting philosophically the time when the
scandal shall die out and the department conclude to resume
(From the Kansas City Star, March 19, 1903.)
"Washington, March 18. — The race question was discussed
in the Senate today again. Mr. Money spoke for two hours,
his remarks having direct reference to the action of the pres-
ident in closing the Indianola, Miss., postoffice. Mr. Money
delivered a severe criticism of the president, stating in the
course of his remarks that Mr. Roosevelt was not fair. He
said that in the South it was believed that Mr. Roosevelt,
when he succeeded Mr. McKinley, would make an American
instead of a sectional president, but that a change had come
over this dream. 'He is not so much of an American presi-
dent,' said Mr. Money, 'as he is president of the black belt,'
and he added with some feeling, 'we don't consider him a
great American president.'
This Is a White Man's Country.
"He declared that of all the appointments made in Missis-
sippi none had given such general disgust as those made by
this administration, and he said they had raised the ques-
tion of social equality of the Negro. However, he said,
there could never possibly be any social equality between the
two races. 'There is a race prejudice in the South,' he said,
'and I thank God that there is.'
"The prejudice against the Negro, he asserted, is not local,
but prompted by a universal, world-wide sentiment. An-
swering Mr. Foraker, he said thai; these recent appointments
had revived the race questionXand while the people of the
South had heretofore tolerated negro office holders, they did
not want any more of them. rTriis is a white man's country
and a white man's government,' he said. 'It has been carved
out of the wilderness and conquered from the Indians, not
for the African, but for the white man.'
Negroes Should Not Vote.
"Mr. Money expressed the conviction that the amendment
to the constitution which made Negroes voters was a tre-
mendous mistake, and he said a vast number of the people
of the North entertained the same view. He said there had
been no objection in the South to a Negro working, and none
had been killed for so doing, as was the case in Illinois. The
feeling which obtained in the South, he said, was that if a
white man did not think himself socially better than the
Negro, he was not half so good.
" 'Would you decitizenize the Negro as to voting?' asked
Mr. Foraker, 'and if so, should that be taken into account
in fixing the representation in Congress?'
Negro Office Holders Not Wanted.
" 'That is another question,' said Mr. Money, 'the partici-
pation of the Negro in the affairs of government is dan-
" 'Is the demand of the South,' inquired Mr. Spooner,
'that the president of the United States shall in no case ap-
point a Negro to federal office in the South?'
"Mr. Money replied that there was no demand made and
no authority for it, but that it was the feeling in the South
that no Negro, no matter what his qualifications might be,
should hold federal office. The whole truth of history, he
declared, showed the utter incompetence of the Negro race
So far as Mr. Washington could learn there was no fric-
tion between the races in Calvin township and the vicinity.
The white probate judge of the county assured him that the
condition of the community had improved steadily; that it
gave the courts less trouble than some of the white town-
ships, and that the relations of the two races were "mutually
pleasant." The judge thought there had been no deprecia-
tion in the price of land. "To a stranger buying the land,"
he said, "the colored residents might be an objection; but
I do not think it would be to those who know the colored
people of Calvin." The Cass County clerk told Mr. Wash-
ington that the people met "in a business way with no dis-
tinction." Land sold for as much in Calvin township, he
said, as in any other part of the county. An ex-sheriff de-
clared that the Negroes had made a great advance within the
last twenty-five years, and that the whites who knew them
made no objection to them. A Democratic lawyer of Cass-
opolis and the proprietor of the Democratic paper there
agreed that the third generation at Calvin was showing a
great improvement over the second. "There is no social
mingling," they said, "but otherwise the relations of the
races are entirely friendly."
Mr. Washington thinks there is nothing unusual about
the Calvin community. "It is simply the story," he says,
"of the growth of a people when given the American chance
to grow naturally and gradually. With the Negro, whether
considered as individuals or in groups, I find that the bearing
of responsibility is one of the chief essentials of growth."
The experience of the Calvin Negroes is quite outside the
scheme of things predicted by the Rev. Thomas Dixon.
Mr. Wilson is indeed a good man, and has a noble charac-
ter, and is an educated Christian gentleman.
But is he a statesman? Can his party guarantee there
will be no panic? Can his party guarantee there will be no
3-cerit cotton? Can his party guarantee there will be no
Coxey's army marching into Washington City? If he can
make good there is nothing to be lost by his election. But
he must save the industries ; he must also save the country.
(From the Kansas City Star, February 15, 1903.)
"New York, Feb. 14.— The thirteenth annual dinner of the
JNew York Press Club was given tonight at the Waldorf-
Astoria. More than 300 club members and invited guests
occupied places at the tables, including William J. Bryan,
Mayor Low, Shizoo Rondo, Japan ; Walter Damrosch, Sena-
tor Tillman, General D. E. Sickles and John Schroers of the
St. Louis Westliche-Post. President Joseph Howard, Jr..
announced that President Roosevelt had expected to be pres-
ent, but had sent his regrets at not being able to attend the
dinner. Mr. Howard read a telegram from the German am-
bassador, in which Baron Sternberg said :
" 'Four men met, negotiated in perfect harmony and good
faith and now separate with best feelings of friendship.
If four men can agree there seems to be no reason why four
nations should not be able to agree. I feel confident they
will as soon as they trust and understand each other in the
same way we did.'
Senator Tillman's Speech.
"Senator Tillman's speech was the feature of the night.
He said in part:
" 'I cannot understand why I should have been the only
representative of the august body of which I am a member.
Now, I have no message which I have come to deliver to you.
In my experience I have found that the better acquainted
the gentlemen of the press become with me the better they
like me. But I ask no favors of you. I come from a State
where the people do their own thinking and their own vot-
ing. I think this is an occasion on which I ought to get
even with the press. You have 365 days in the year in
which to make and unmake public men ; but you don't make
and unmake them in the State of South Carolina.'
"Referring to the Negro question, he said that President
Roosevelt had raised a subject that will not easily down. It
had brought forth a number of comments from prominent
men of the North and had raised a storm in the South.
After mentioning a number of these comments and the men
who made them, he said:
" 'You have had this subject, Roosevelt, Hanna, Ireland
and finally Smooted, and now it seems to me it is about time
that we had some one who knows something about it say
something. What are my qualifications?
"Cursed by a Negro.
"First, he said, he had been cursed by a Negro mammy.
Then, although he had not served in the Confederate army,
he had tried to join it and had been prevented only by an
accident that deprived him of his eye. Lastly, he had been
upon the ground and saw the ravages of the war. 'I know
something of what this race question has cost this country.
Many of you who write so flippantly about it know nothing
about it,' he continued. 'And if you write about so grave a
subject when you know nothing of it, you are no less than
criminals. Mr. Roosevelt was very wise in saying it will
take the best thought of both sections of this country to solve
"After an impassioned recital of the perils to the white
population of the South threatened by the increase of the
powers of the Negroes in the last few years, he said :
" 'We are compelled by the exigencies of the situation to
use the shotgun and the tissue ballots, and we used both.
Why? Because in the State of South Carolina there were
30,000 more Negro voters than there are white voters.'
"He said that they in South Carolina had established their
free school and that ever since there have been more Negro
children in those free schools than white children.
"A Burst of Passion.
" 'Do you think it was our purpose to raise these Negro
children to a condition of enlightenment in order that tney
may govern us?' he asked. 'By the Holy God, No!' he cried.
" 'Three months ago,' he continued, 'the president wrote
a letter in which he said that when a Negro showed himself
qualified to hold public office he was unwilling to shut the
door of hope in his face.'
"Commenting on this, Senator Tillman said that if the
present condition of education continues and the Negro is to
gain control of the State of South Carolina and the whites
become subordinate, the deplorable result would be that in
a hundred years the population would be half mulatto. He
had no practicable solution of the problem, he said, unless
it be that the North take its share of the blacks, 'if you love
them so well.'
"His address grew more impassioned as he continued.
At first only applause greeted his utterances, but toward the
end an occasional hiss was heard, and finally he was inter-
rupted by a voice crying: 'What about your nephew?'
"Tillman Talks of Bloodshed.
"Senator Tillman was at the moment defending the sum-
mary measure adopted in the South for the punishment of
Negroes guilty of crime, especially against women. After
the excitement caused by the interruption had subsided, Mr.
Tillman said there was much more he could say and would
like to say, but that he regarded it as highly inappropriate
to refer in public to family affairs.
"Before concluding his address he. took occasion to assert
that if the policy of raising the Negro into power in the
South is carried too far the result will be bloodshed, and
its flow will be upon the heads of those who have tried to
force the white population into subjection to the black.
"This was not a threat, he said, but simply a statement
of what he knew from his personal acquaintance with the
conditions in the South would be the inevitable result."
(From the Houston Chronicle, March 6, 1903.)
"New York, March 6. — The attitude assumed by President
Roosevelt toward the Negro has been indorsed in a rousing
mass meeting of colored people, held in the Bethel Methodist
Episcopal Church in this city, at which Bishop W. B. Der-
rick of the First Methodist Episcopal District made a stir-
ring appeal to his people to turn their eyes to the door of
hope opened by the president to the black race.
"The mention of the name of the president by the speaker
drew forth tremendous applause from both men and women.
The bishop indulged in a bitter denunciation of Senator Till-
man of South Carolina.
"The meeting constituted the first step toward the forma-
tion of the 'Roosevelt Invincibles,' which organization will
favor the renomination of President Roosevelt.
"Bishop Derrick will speak in Philadelphia on a similar
mission, and will address the colored men in many of the
principal cities and organize them into local 'Roosevelt In-
vincibles,' who will use every effort toward placing the col-
ored men as delegates in the next national convention.
"On the platform at the meeting was James H. Hayes of
"During his speech, Bishop Derrick spoke of the appoint-
ment of colored men to office by Grover Cleveland and other
presidents, but said that, whereas these presidents appointed
Negroes, Roosevelt appointed men.
" 'Color is nothing,' said the speaker, 'however much some
white men would harp on it. Why, there are colored men
whom I would not allow in my kitchen, much less in my din-
ing room. Yes, and there are white men whom I would not
allow in my kitchen, either.'
"At the close of his speech the bishop offered the following
resolutions, which were adopted amid cheers:
" 'Resolved, That in his excellency, the president, the Hon-
orable Theodore Roosevelt, the liberty of the world has a
most fervent defender, civilization a gallant representative,
humanity a generous protector, the American nation a type
of civil valor and heroic self-denial which ought to charac-
terize the first magistrate of a republic.
" 'Resolved, That we recognize that the great unfinished
task of Lincoln, fallen into his hands, will be properly and
successfully accomplished for the happiness and prosperity
of the nation.
" 'Resolved, That we pledge ourselves from this time
henceforth to use our influence for his nomination and elec-
tion to the presidency in 1904.
" 'Resolved, That we form ourselves into an association,
to be known as "Roosevelt Invincibles," recommending sim-
ilar organizations to be formed throughout the country.' '
I don't know Mr. Jas. H. Hayes, unless he is the hero that
knocked down Czolgosz to prevent him from shooting Presi-
(From the Kansas City Star, March 11, 1903.)
"President Roosevelt's name is identified with the policy
of publicity as applied to the affairs of the corporations,
just as Blaine's was identified with the policy of reciprocity
and McKinley's with that of the protective tariff. It is a
great thing for a statesman to attach his name to some dis-
tinctive governmental policy, especially if that policy relates
to one of the questions of immediate interest and importance
to the people of the country. Mr. Roosevelt did not dis-
cover publicity, but he has the credit of having adopted it
as a remedy for most of the evils that attach to the trusts,
and as having been able to have it actually enacted into law.
"But sometimes a statesman who is eager and able to ap-
ply a policy to others is unwilling to apply it to his own af-
fairs. It is, therefore, of interest to knpw that President
Roosevelt's rule in the conduct of the White House business
is the rule of publicity.
"No other president, it is safe to say, has ever transacted
business so much in the open. By this we do not mean that
there is any unwise exposure of executive policy before the
time is ripe for publication. Mr. Roosevelt is not contin-
ually rushing into print. He never says in haste what he
intends to do, to repent in leisure after he has discovered
that what he promised was unwise. For a man who has
the reputation of being impetuous and even erratic, Mr.
Roosevelt has in fact developed in office a rare conserva-
tism of executive speech and action.
"But no one has visited the White House during the time
he has been president, without being impressed with the
wholesome air of publicity that pervades the place. No one
is seen there putting his hand to the side of his mouth and
whispering in the ear of another that no one else may possi-
bly hear. There is no doing of business in a corner or in
the dark. Whatever the president chooses to say he says
right out loud, so that all who care to do so may hear, and
often, indeed, he speaks so strenuously that one cannot help
hearing. This may sometimes be embarrassing to others,
but it is a safeguard for himself, and guarantee, so far as he
is concerned, that the business in hand is to be conducted
without suspicious mystery.
"There is a frankness and openness about all that the
president does that is a proof of his sincerity and honesty.
He may be brusque at times, but it is brusqueness without a
string. There is something refreshing and healthy in the
way in which he goes through the exacting routine of the
White House business. His visitors are sometimes star-
tled by the frankness with which he may. announce his de-
cision in some important matter in their presence, and it is
a sure proof of his ability to read the character of those
who call upon him, that the confidence he places in their
discretion is so seldom abused.
"The men who don't like this kind of thing are the politi-
cians who delight to pull secret wires and surround all they
do with an impenetrable veil of mystery. Mr. Roosevelt's way
of doing business is a wholesome example for business men
everywhere and of every class."
The great hatred against the Negro and color prejudice
must cease because God is with the Negro. The Negro
prays and God hears his prayers.
The Negro has passed his darkest days and his hardest
trials. We cannot rely upon the supreme judge at all times
for our legal rights, but we can depend upon the Great Crea-
tor to right all wrongs against our race. From the fact that
the white man who does the most to down the Negro, is less
prosperous; the white man who is most prejudiced toward
the Negro generally has the worst luck ; the white man who
never loses an opportunity to join a lynching party, as a
rule, has most deaths in his own family ; the white man who
cannot make a speech without dogging the Negro will never
be a great man, neither influential. I have my doubts as
to whether such a man can get to heaven, from the fact that
none shall see God but the pure in heart. A hellish heart
cannot be pure. This will cause a great many white people
to be ineligible for heaven, from the lack of pure hearts.
INJUSTICE DONE OUR RACE.
The injustice to our race and their mistake:
I will now turn my attention to the many injustices done
our race in America, and also the records of lynchings, etc.
I chanced to be in Galveston a few Sundays ago and I
heard the secretary of the Y. M. C. A. say he, himself, saw
some mounted policemen driving some colored women to
jail like cattle.
This is indeed very bad for any civilized city in America.
This the Negro must not stand for. He must fight by
In Houston, Texas, we have a good policeman as chief, but
all are not good.
I preach good morals; I teach good morals, and lecture
good morals. But city, State and national governments
combined cannot legislate good morals ; it must come along
a more sacred line than natural force. If it is not reached
at the fireside it must be reached in some other kind and
You cannot force a man to be a gentleman, neither can
you force a man to be a Christian. No decent man should
have any business in company with a debased woman. But
you may run this bad class of women out of town tomor-
row, and there are certain classes of men who would attempt
to make debased women of our best girls. There are a very
few who hold out to the word, "no," without a run being
made upon them by these low-down fellows.
I am sorry for the man who wants a good wife of today
and goes out into society thinking he has no great task.
Good wives and mothers, in a large degree, must now be
raised, and the best time to raise a good girl is to start on
the girl's mother twenty years before she is born. Good
girls must come from good mothers, that is my point.
MISTREATMENT OF THE NEGRO.
I show the readers an article from the Houston Post,
November 23, 1912, where seven white men killed one old
Negro — the father and six sons, This must have been one
of those fathers who talk Negro-killing at the fireside. He
has been made to feel it is a little thing. No condemnation
for killing a Negro, before Texas laws and juries, so he and
his sons think :
"Joe Fulton and His Offsprings Released on Bond, Charged
With Killing Negro.
"Franklin, Texas, Nov. 22. — Joe Fulton, a prosperous
farmer, living about six miles south of this place, and six
sons were arrested and placed in the county jail Thursday,
charged with killing Dave Foster, an old negro, living near
"At an examining trial held before Justice of the Peace
John Cox, Fulton was allowed bail in the sum of $3,000, one
of the sons was held in the sum of $1,000 and the other five
in the sums of $200 each, for their appearance before the
grand jury in January.
"All parties made bond and have been released."
The article in the editorial column of the Houston Press
of November 13, 1912, comes before me so forcibly I now
reproduce the article. It is too good to be thrown away.
No man knows what a little fellow is going to be. He may
be president or he may be a train robber or mob leader.
Does training shape their lives? If so the mothers ought to
get busy and try to turn out good citizens, not criminals :
"The men and women who will be the criminals of twenty-
five years from now are, today, sweet-faced children.
"The man who, twenty-five years from now, will, some-
where in this world, commit the crime that will set humanity
aghast with horror, is today a fine, lovable boy.
"The girls who will be 'walking the streets' — yes, only ten
years from now — are today as sweet and pure and as full
of love and kindness as God's own angels.
"The man who, a quarter of a century from now, will be
at the head of a great, pitiless business, mercilessly trans-
forming the life-blood of women and children into gold —
which he puts onto the backs of his wife and daughters —
is today a fine, manly little fellow, who believes all that his
mother tells him about the value of kindness and gentleness.
"Innocence is in the hearts of children ; love speaks from
baby eyes and God's truths from baby lips.
"And so then, here they are — these criminals-to-be —
among the children all about us, fighting as best they know
against God knows how many odds, to keep their price-
"This world already has too many bloodhounds ; too many
Sherlock Holmeses ; too many policemen, to catch the crimi-
nal after he has committed his crime.
"Now, you have the point. Catch him BEFORE he's com-
mitted his crime. Find a loving Sherlock Holmes, you sug-
gest, who can go among the children and track down the
criminals-to-be and thus permit us to save them — the sweet
"It's a fine idea. But how save them?
"Our children today, in the great factory districts like
Lawrence and other centers of great poverty and oppression,
are crying for help. If you have the right kind of ears you
can hear them.
"These children are sinking into criminality.
"What does the world do? With its cruel right hand, rep-
resenting greed and oppression, it thrusts them into the
stream. Now and then, with its diamond-bedecked left
hand, representing, for instance, the wishy-washy charita-
ble societies that such men as J. Pierpont Morgan and John
D. Rockefeller give their money to, it extends a gracefully
curved little finger, with a make-believe help that makes
the drowning all the more terrible.
"We know where the criminal-to-be can be found among
the children, but we're too selfish to save them; we think
it is cheaper to put them in jail after they have become
I indorse this article, but must confess, however, that I
know nothing discreditable to Mr. J. D. Rockefeller, there-
fore I cannot indorse that part of it.
I wish to go back to April, 1903, and record a lynching
in Joplin, Mo.
The write-up appeared in the Kansas City Times and Star
April 16, 1903.
I doubt very much if any of these uncivilized, malignant
ruffians are living now. There is no good-luck for a black-
hearted mob. However, mobs very seldom appear where
the officers don't want them to. or will not allow them to take
The mob turned another Negro loose who was charged
with assaulting another Negro, and not a white man. They
did not have any proof that the man lynched was the right
man who killed the officer:
Lynching No. 1.
(Kansas City Star.)
"Joplin, Mo., April 15. — An infuriated mob took an un-
known tramp Negro from the city jail this evening and
hanged him to a telegraph pole at the corner of Second and
Wall Streets, two blocks from the jail. The Negro was
charged with having murdered Police Officer C. Leslie, who
was shot dead last night in the Kansas City Southern Rail-
road yards, while endeavoring to arrest several Negroes sus-
pected of theft.
"Orficer Leslie had ordered several Negroes, who had
taken refuge in a boxcar, to surrender, and when they failed
to do so he fired several shots at the car. During the shooting
a Negro slipped from the car and coming up behind the
officer, shot him through the head. The Negro then fled,
and within a short time posses were after him.
"Found in a Slaughterhouse.
"About 3 o'clock this afternoon Lee Fullerton found the
fugitive in a slaughterhouse just east of Joplin. The Negro
was armed with a rifle and defied arrest. Fullerton slipped
into the structure unobserved and crept up behind the Ne-
gro. Suddenly he sprang at the unsuspecting fugitive, and
before resistance could be made, he had the Negro on his
back with a knife at his throat. The Negro then surren-
dered his rifle, and pointing the weapon at him, Fullerton
marched him out of the building.
"With the assistance of another man the Negro was
brought to Joplin and placed in jail. News of the capture
spread rapidly and the jail was speedily surrounded by hun-
dreds of people. There were cries of 'lynch him' on all
sides. The city attorney, P. S. Decker, mounted the jail
steps and made a strong plea in behalf of law and order.
This served to temporarily stay the mob, but it did not ap-
pease it and a short time after Decker's speech the mob
started to batter in a section of the jail wall.
"Battered Down the Door.
."Every effort was made to prevent the entrance of the
mob, but without avail, and within fifteen minutes the in-
furiated men had gained entrance to the jail and secured
the trembling Negro. As he was dragged forth City At-
torney Decker again interfered and urged that the Negro
be given a fair trial. For half an hour he talked, the mob lis-
tened to him with the Negro in their custody. At one time
it seemed that the city attorney would win, as members of
the mob began dispersing.
"Suddenly a rush was made for the spot where the Negro
was being held, and he was dragged two blocks from the
jail, a rope fastened around his neck and, after the rope
had been thrown over the cross-bar of a telegraph pole, a
score of men attempted to pull the Negro from the ground.
Many more seized the Negro and pulled to prevent him being
hanged. For some moments it was a veritable tug of war,
but reinforcements on the free end of the rope proved the
stronger, and the Negro, despite his protestations of inno-
cence, was finally swung into the air and strangled to death,
while shouts of satisfaction went up from the mob.
"As soon as the Negro was dead the mob dispersed. La-
ter the body was cut down and taken in charge by the cor-
oner. There is still great excitement in Joplin, and it is
feared more trouble will follow in case the associates of the
Negro are caught.
"The lynching of the Negro served only to satisfy tem-
porarily the indignation of the mob. Later tonight hun-
dreds of men again assembled and rioted through the Ne-
gro section of the city, burning houses, stoning Negroes and
finally driving every Negro out of Joplin. The police were
"The first act of the mob, after hanging the Negro, was
to demand the release from jail of a local character known
as 'Hickory Bill,' who was under arrest on the charge of
assaulting a Negro. In the hope that this would appease
the mob, the prisoner was set free.
"The Mob Burned Houses.
"But the mob did not disperse. Instead, a rush was made
through Main Street, the principal street of Joplin, and
every Negro was frightened off the street and fled to the
north part of the city, where the colored population lives.
In this way the Negroes were driven from all parts of the
city to the Negro section. Then the mob charged down on
the section. Stones were thrown, doors and windows of
Negro houses were broken in and finally several were fired.
The fire department responded, but many of the houses
were burned to the ground. The mob made endeavors to
prevent the fire department from extinguishing the flames.
"All the officers of the city, township and county were
called out, but the mob swept them aside and proceeded
with the rioting. Mayor Trigg ran from corner to corner,
and mounting boxes, made earnest appeals to the mob to
cease, but, although it cheered the mayor vociferously, the
mob swept on and the depredations continued. The saloons
were hurriedly closed by the mayor.
"After the hundreds of frenzied men composing the mob
had vented their wrath in the north end of the city they
rushed to the southern end, where a number of Negroes
lived. Their houses were vacant and not a Negro could be
found. Three more houses were fired.
"All efforts to reason with the rioters were futile, as ap-
parently a frenzy had seized upon them. The streets were
thronged and at 11:15 the whole city was in an uproar.
So far as known at that hour no fatalities had occurred,
although many persons had received minor injuries."
(Editorial in Kansas City Star, April 16, 1903.)
"THE JOPLIN MOB AND OTHERS.
"The lynching of a Negro at Joplin last night because he
was suspected of having killed a police officer was, unfor-
tunately, a not uncommon crime. Such exhibitions of mob
fury have become so frequent that they are a source of deep
humiliation and discouragement to good citizens. But it
will go on and on so long as public sentiment is merely ag-
grieved, and not aroused to action. It will be continued un-
til there are more rigid laws and a better enforcement of
them; until the rule of a life for a life shall be applied to
mob murderers as well as to other slayers.
"But the Joplin mob made a particularly degrading
exhibition of itself. Not satisfied with taking the life
of a man who was merely suspected of a crime, it drove all
the members of his race from the town and fired many of
their houses. This was pure wantonness — the display of
an insane desire to destroy. It was a good illustration of
the brutalizing effects of mob indulgence. Doubtless .none
of this gang of murderers intended to make a war on the
rest of the Negro population when the jail was broken down
and the unknown black man was taken out and hanged.
But the rabble became more instead of less furious through
its own violence. They surged through the streets, driving
all the Negroes to their homes, then went to the black quar-
ters and drove whole families — innocent, law-abiding men,
women and children — from their dwellings and destroyed
their houses and their household effects. The result of this
raid is that many of these poor people are left without shel-
ter today. Such an outrageous act as this ought to call spe-
cia) attention in this State to the necessity of making mu-
nicipalities and counties responsible for the life and prop-
erty losses sustained through mob depredations.
"Public sentiment in this State does not sanction mob
violence, whether it be lynching or burning of property.
It is time that the better sentiment should be directed espe-
cially to the matter of peace officers. It should become a
positive issue in the election or the appointment of these
officers that they are expected to hold mobs in check by firing
on them, if necessary. There are courageous men who
would fulfill their trust, if placed on guard wfth this under-
standing. But 90 per cent of the danger of mob violence
would be overcome by the mere declaration of a drastic pol-
icy. The most wholesome lesson this country could have
would be the shooting down of a dozen mob leaders."
This Negro, who is now safe behind the bars in the Har-
ris County jail, was on his way to Judge Lynch's court. He
operated in some other town than Houston. He was
caught by a Negro, which all law-abiding Negroes must ap-
prove of the act. See the Houston Post, December 1, 1912.
Yes, the Negro must help run down criminals.
"After he had snatched a pocketbook from a white woman
near the foot of Rusk Avenue Saturday night, Lee Ander-
son, alias Jim Givens, a Negro, was chased for almost a mile
by Will Preston, another Negro, and finally caught in a liv-
ery stable on Preston Avenue.
"When Preston heard the woman scream and saw the
Negro dash by him with a pocketbook in his hand he im-
mediately gave chase. Anderson ran for the bayou, crossed
on the rock dam near the city power plant, and there eluded
his pursuer. He came back into sight almost a half block
away on Cushman Street, but Preston was waiting for him,
and immediately took up the chase.
"Anderson ran to Preston Avenue and turned in at a liv-
ery stable. The building was closed in all around, and there
was no rear exit. His capture and removal to police head-
We. may expect criminals of this kind as long as we have
preparatory schools for criminals. These schools are the
Negro clubs, where men and women can get bad whiskey
every day in the week, Sunday not excepted. The Negro
club room of today is one of the main roads to the State pen-
itentiary, and I see little effort on the part of the Negro
pulpit "to block this road. The 1908 Charity Club
started a crusade against them and put some preachers
on their program to condemn them, but the preachers failed
to show up, from the fact they were not prepared from their
conduct to throw the first stone.
The moving picture shows are just a little better than the
clubs, and no lady should attend a moving picture show.
THE VULGAR SONG.
The vulgar songs are unfit for decent homes. For example,
they sing "Everybody's Doin' It." I don't know what it '
means, but to look at it off-hand, it contradicts the virtuous
woman; it lies on the young woman who is determined to
be a lady or die !
This is a bad thing to have the unborn to believe; if so
they will shape their conduct the same.
If the young women who are trained rightly can be made
to accept this song as a fact, they are likely to accept its
meaning as a modern custom and do likewise.
All society homes are not Christian homes. I appeal to
the society homes to stop this song in your homes. It is the
main road to the red light districts for your girls.
Georgia Mob, 1912.
A Georgia mob killed a Negro who was accused of shoot-
ing two white women. The crime is bad enough, but I see no
proof that the mob got the right Negro. It was said that
a Negro did it, and all Negroes look alike. See the Houston
Chronicle, November 30, 1912:
Lynching No. 2.
"Cordele, Ga., Nov. 30. — Chestley Williams, the Negro
who shot two white women near Rhine and assaulted one of
them, was dragged from the court house at McRae early to-
day by a mob and riddled with bullets.
"The lynching was quiet and the town is now orderly.
"Neither of the victims is dead, but one is not expected
"Williams was taken to McRae shortly after midnight
last night to evade a mob which chased Sheriff Wilcox and
his prisoner in automobiles. The sheriff attempted to out-
Georgia Mob, 1912
wit his pursuers by placing the Negro in the vault of the
county clerk's office in the court house instead of taking him
to jail, but the ruse proved unsuccessful.
"The Negro was accused of entering the home of a prom-
inent farmer near Rhine yesterday in the absence of the
male members of the family. The farmer's wife was shot
and his 18-year-old daughter assaulted. The crimes were
discovered when the farmer returned home and a man hunt
was organized. Friends of the Negro Williams are said to
have revealed his hiding place to the sheriff."
I never am to believe a mob can take a prisoner away
from a sheriff and his deputies unless they want to give the
prisoner up. This Negro might have been guilty, but his
guilt had not been proven. If the sheriff had given this
Negro two 45's and let the leader of the mob know what the
Negro had, there would have been no lynching in Georgia.
Taking this Negro in the court house was only a stall by
the sheriff. The Georgia mob knew him, and knew there
was no harm in him that they need fear. Some of these
sheriffs are only forerunners for mobs.
The law makers of the various States, that believe in civ-
ilization, must turn their attention to the county sheriffs
and their duty, oath and obligation to the Commonwealth,
to man and God.
The Louisiana Mob — Lynching No. 3.
(From the Houston Press, November 29, 1912.)
"NEGROES LYNCHED BY FURIOUS MOB.
"Shreveport, La., Nov. 29.— Mood Burke, Jim Hurd and
Silas Jimmerson. three Negroes who made an almost fatal
assault on Deputy Sheriff Edwards of Bossier Parish sev-
eral weeks ago, were taken from three deputies last night
and lynched in a swamp a short distance from Benton."
These Negroes were accused of assaulting a deputy. I
don't see where they were armed. No doubt this deputy
was beating them over the head with his gun, if they are
The readers will note this lynching happened not far from
the place where the so-called late "Prophet F. K. Smith"
was lynched with two of his members about ten years ago.
Some one of the Church of God members killed a big rich
planter about slapping his wife, and the result was that a
well organized mob lynched every Negro they could catch
who was a member of this co-called Church of God band, ex-
cept the women, but beat them. Strange to say F. K.
Louisiana Mob, 1912
Smith's gang was from Texas. We were glad to have them
go to Louisiana, not on account of the crime committed, but
they were undesirable citizens and not good enough for
Texas, and possibly no other State in the Union.
Prophet F. K. Smith had a large membership, possibly
about 400 members. He one day prophesied that Houston
and Galveston would be destroyed by water, and in the
meantime slipped out to Louisiana and sold his members
to a big planter for $1.00 per head. His members were
all ignorant. His prophecy was since the 1900 Galveston
storm. It has not come to pass yet.
Shreveport, La., Mob.
I shall not number this lynching, from the fact that it
occurred in 1903, and my mission is to record only six-
month lynchings, from November, 1912, to June, 1913. But,
however, I reproduce this lynching to show how often in-
nocent Negroes are lynched on mere circumstances. This
Negro had been working at a butcher shop, which accounts
for blood on his clothes. This case, in my judgment, is al-
most like the Monk Gibson case.
We must call upon God to avenge the innocent Negro
blood. The Negro should set a national day to do this. We
are unable to fight our cause, and He promised to fight our
battle, and I believe His word. It has been nine years ago.
I doubt if any of these lynchers are living now. God don't
intend for lynchers to live very long. Louisiana is a dan-
gerous State, especially North Louisiana. It is a Negro-kill-
ing State; this record proves it without question. If Mr.
Andrew Carnegie would spend some of his millions in this
lynch district for missionary and educational work, possi-
bly he might be able to culture and Christianize this uncivil-
ized class of whites.
(From the New Orleans, La., Picayune, April 15, 1903.)
"Shreveport, La., April 14.— The impression prevails to-
night that the wrong Negro was shot on Saturday, when
Sergeants Gerald and Roquemore killed the supposed mur-
derer of Mrs. Frank Matthews. All of the circumstances
pointed to the guilt of the Negro, but it is currently re-
ported that he was the wrong man. The police stick to the
theory that the Negro, whose body was cremated, really
murdered Mrs. Matthews, and it is difficult to get at the
facts of the matter.
"Today particles of the clothing of the Negro were iden-
tified as those of Albert Washington, a Negro employed on
the Vance plantation, on Red River, about seven miles from
the city. Washington, it is stated, was at Willow Chute
Landing, about nine miles from Shreveport, on Saturday
morning at 7 o'clock. About 9 o'clock he took a freight
train at the Vance place and came to Shreveport. It is also
claimed that, after his arrival here, he was employed by a
butcher named Houston to slaughter cows. If this should
turn out to be the case, it would account for the blood on his
"Houston could not be found tonight, but it is said that
he told a number of persons that the Negro he employed was
the man killed by the police.
"Mr. Cal Vance, upon whose plantation the Negro worked,
came to Shreveport today, and said that Albert Washington
was a good Negro, and that he did not believe he committed
the crime for which he was shot. It was within the bounds
of possibility for the Negro to murder Mrs. Matthews and
get back to W T illow Chute by 7 o'clock in the morning, but
it is hardly probable that he did so.
"The Negroes on the Vance and Stinson plantations,
which adjoin each other, are reported to be greatly wrought
up over the killing, and there was some talk tonight of the
Negroes coming to Shreveport. This proved to be a mistake.
"Senational developments in the murder of Mrs. Matthews
are expected to crop out in the next few days. It has been as-
certained that in all probability the murderer was actually
seen by one of those fortuitous circumstances that often at-
tend events of the most stirring nature, even a crime so aw-
ful as that which shocked the city of Shreveport on the
morning of Saturday last. Not only has a witness been
found that may have seen the murderer as he fled from the
scene of his bloody orgy, but the same witness has stated
that he heard what the sleeping inmates of the Matthews
household never heard — the scream of the woman who was
so foully murdered. Mrs. Phillips, referred to, is the wit-
ness. Mrs. Phillips is quoted as saying that about 3 o'clock
in the morning of Saturday, which is about the hour Mrs.
Matthews is judged to have been killed, she was up with a
sick child, and heard a scream in the direction of the Mat-
thews home. She went to the window and saw a man come
out of the rear of the Matthews residence and button up his
coat, turning up his collar and then run out the back way
and out of the alley. It is said Mrs. Phillips stated that she
thought at the time the man was Porter Matthews, and that
he was going for a physician, thinking some one was ill at
the Matthews home.
"Dr. Schumpert stated today that little Aline Matthews
was greatly improved, and when asked about her ultimate
recovery, he said that it began to look now as if the little
sufferer would survive her terrible injuries. Dr. Schum-
pert, however, is apprehensive of the condition her mind
will be in, even if she recovers her bodily health otherwise.
He said that as yet the little girl had made no statement rel-
ative to the tragedy, but said that she might probably be far
enough recovered to make some sort of statement tomorrow.
It was ascertained also from the doctor that efforts have
been made, in as general a way as possible, to get some in-
formation from her that would throw light on the tragedy,
but that she will not answer questions as to how she got
"It is reported tonight that the police have a white man
under surveillance at Noble, La., on suspicion of being con-
nected with the killing of Mrs. Matthews. The police will
neither affirm nor deny this statement, but they continue to
assert that the right Negro was killed on Saturday. Two
meetings of the Negroes were held here last night, but it is
not thought any race war will grow out of the tragedy of
Saturday morning. Everything is quiet in Shreveport to-
night, and bids fair to remain so."
This poor colored man was shot down by peace officers,
who did not try to take him alive, and his body burned. His
record from a white citizen was good. The colored people
spoke well of him, saying that he was a Christian. It is a
dangerous thing to kill one of God's professed Christians.
Governor Cole L. Blease of South Carolina is in favor of
mob violence. He has said to the mossback mob leader :
"I will turn you loose when charged with lynching a Negro
who is accused of assault on a white woman." This gov-
ernor no doubt promised at some time to uphold the laws
and constitution of the State when he took the oath of office.
He promised to uphold the peace and dignity of the State.
If he cannot live up to the laws of the State, he being the ex-
ecutive head, it would hardly be fair to force others to obey
any of the laws of the State. He has placed himself on
record as saying that all Negroes are guilty without a trial.
The mob ring of South Carolina knows now the governor's
position regarding mob violence. If South Carolina has any
sheriffs who are opposed to mob violence they have no as-
sistance from the governor, therefore they can do nothing.
But God will raise up a man to take his place. He is a citi-
zen of South Carolina. Is he a great man? Is he the ideal
of citizenship of South Carolina? Can civilization prize
such a man? Can society, law and order prize such a man?
Heaven will not. God will not!
See the article from the Houston Post, December 4, 1912,
A Conference of Governors at Richmond, Va. :
"Richmond, Va., Dec. 3. — Governor Cole Li. Blease of
South Carolina served notice to the fifth annual conference
of governors, which opened here today, that lynchers of Ne-
gro assailants of white women would go unpunished in his
" 'I have said all over the State of South Carolina, and I
say it again now,' he declared, 'that I will never order out
the militia to shoot down their neighbors and protect a
black brute who commits the nameless crime against a
" 'Therefore, in South Carolina, let it be understood that
when a Negro assaults a white woman, all that is needed is
that they get the right man, and they who get him will never
"The address was the most remarkable of a day devoted
to the consideration of crime and its punishment.
"Defended His Pardon Record.
"Governor Blease, in his address, after promising im-
munity to lynchers, warmly defended his use of the pardon-
ing power, declaring that in the twenty-two months he had
pardoned or paroled approximately 400 persons, and that he
hoped the number at the end of the second term would
" 'I walked through the penitentiary of South Carolina,'
he said in defending his use of the pardoning power, 'and
found it a tuberculosis incubator, where poor devils were
dying at their tasks, making money for other people; poor
devils who had no choice but to stand and work or take the
lash. Just the other day, Jim Roberts, a Negro from
Charleston, stopped me as I was walking through and re-
spectfully asked permission to speak to me. He told me
that he had been kept in jail for twenty-two years for steal-
ing a $27 watch.
"He Had No Folks.
; 'I said, "if you are telling me the truth you will eat your
Christmas dinner with your home folks." He said : "Gov-
ernor, I have no folks." "Then," I replied, "you will eat it
away from here." And he will.
' 'Another Negro had served eleven years and seven
months for stealing $9; a judge wrote to me that he had
sentenced to death a man when he did not believe the man
had been convicted beyond a reasonable doubt. Another
wrote that he sentenced to death a man whom he did not be-
lieve should be put to death. He did not believe it at the
time, nor does he believe it now.
" 'These are the errors of justice I am trying- to right with
my power to pardon. I am proud of my record.'
I will not leave this matter, as the Houston Post of De-
cember 5, 1912, had such an able article, and I cannot close
this subject without letting the readers have the benefit of
such an able article from such an able paper. I didn't know
the Post was going to write on it. However, I knew the
Post's position on the mob violence question. If the Post
was to favor mob violence, there would be a wholesale mob-
bing of innocent Negroes, from the fact of its large circu-
lation and its very great influence nationally. I don't know
what influence the governor has, if much. There will be
placed at his door a very large graveyard of lynched Ne-
groes, on account of his encouragement of mob violence in
his State. But the United States will be affected where they
like good citizenship. See the Post of December 5, 1912 :
"AN UPHOLDER OF MOB LAW.
"Governor Blease of South Carolina will find that he has
brought his State into unenviable repute by his approval of
lynch law before so distinguished a gathering as the Gov-
ernors' Conference. It would have been far better had he
remained silent. We fancy the intelligent and law-abiding
people of South Carolina will not relish their governor pa-
rading them before the world as anarchists.
"What do the laws of South Carolina amount to if indi-
viduals can wreak their vengeance upon men charged with
crime? Where is the guarantee of protection to life and
property? The constitution of South Carolina guarantees
to every man charged with crime a fair trial and South
Carolina has courts to determine the guilt or innocence of
those accused of crime. Yet, Blease tells the world that
when an angry mob executes a victim and spits upon the
constitution and laws of the State that outraged justice
will not be permitted to resent it.
"He merely wants the mob to get the right man. How
many times does the mob get the wrong man? Nobody
knows, but there have been scores of Negroes executed upon
suspicion, and no doubt many innocent victims have been
executed. When an innocent Negro is executed, the guilty
man is rarely apprehended. That shows the folly of mob
law. It frequently baffles justice in that way.
"The governor of South Carolina has probably failed to
notice that the majority of lynchings are for crimes other
than assaults upon women. There are mob executions for
minor crimes, and with Judge Lynch enthroned as Blease
proposes there will be mob executions for the most trivial
offenses. A State that winks at mob law is not going to be
able to vindicate its dignity when the mob lynches a victim
for a minor offense. If a mob is to be granted immunity for
killing men in certain cases, it is going to enjoy immunity
in all cases, because the spirit of the law is dead and courts
of justice have become a mockery.
"It is impossible to believe that Blease reflects the senti-
ment of the people of South Carolina. He certainly doesn't
reflect the sentiment of the South. Our executives, judges
and peace officers have universally stood for law and order ;
the pulpit and press have resolutely opposed mob vengeance,
and civilized sentiment has been strong for orderly justice.
Only the voice of Blease is raised in defense of mob law
and its anarchy and brutality.
"In the course of his speech Blease related a number of
instances where justice had erred in the punishment of
criminals, and he boasted that he was trying to right these
errors by the use of the pardoning power. All well and
good, but who is going to right the errors of the mob?
Surely if the courts, through their calm and deliberate pro-
cesses, commit errors occasionally and convict innocent men,
the mob, fired by hatred and prejudice, will be sure to mur-
der the innocent now and then, and when that happens the
mistake is beyond recall and the hands of the mob are for-
ever stained with murder.
"Blease ought to be ashamed of himself for making such
The South Carolina governor, again upholding lynching,
in Richmond, Va., before the Governors' Conference, said:
"To hell with the constitution of his State and the United
Is he any better than Harry Orchard of the West, Hay-
wood, Moyer and Pettibone of Idaho?
Is he any better than the McNamara brothers? They did
not kill anybody, but had it done. Right after his speech
an Alabama mob took him at his word and lynched a Negro
on last night, and got the wrong man. See his second speech
in the Houston Post, December 6, 1912.
Only four governors favor the South Carolina governor's
See the Houston Post, December 7, 1912 :
"Richmond, Va., Dec. 6. — The Governors' Conference
unanimously repudiated today the recent utterances of
Governor Blease of South Carolina concerning the lynching
of Negroes. By a vote of 14 to 4 it adopted a resolution
declaring against mob violence and for the impartial en-
forcement of the law. The four governors who opposed the
resolution declared themselves as strongly indorsing its pur-
port, but voted 'no' because they thought they had no right
to reprimand a colleague.
''Governor Blease, himself the target of the attack, hotly
defended his convictions, snapped his fingers in the face of
his colleagues, told them to 'go to it,' declaring that he cared
not a whit what the conference said, thought, did or did
not do, and announced that all the resolutions they might
ever adopt would not keep him' from the governor's chair
nor from a seat in the United States Senate in 1915 or
"Four Unsigned Letters.
"Four times within as many hours, he asserted, his life
had been threatened because of his utterances, but this ap-
pealed to him as little as did the resolution. All of the four
threatening letters Governor Blease said he received were
anonymous, one was mailed in Richmond, one in Washing-
ton, the third in Louisville and the fourth in Pittsburg. The
Washington writer told him he would pay the penalty if he
ever came to that city. The Pittsburg writer said, 'you will
be taken to account on sight for your words.' The Rich-
ond and Louisville missives were not fit for publication.
"Governor Blease was taken to task by a dozen governors.
Governor Carey of Wyoming denounced him 'for claiming
a monopoly for South Carolina, of the respect of the white
man for women.' Governor Hadley of Missouri declared
that the floor of the conference hall was not a 'clearing
house for local and personal controversies.' "
"Richmond, Va., Dec. 5. — Fully half of the fifty women in
attendance at the Conference of Governors this afternoon
hurriedly departed from the meeting when Governor Cole
L. Blease, for the second tjme, defending the policy of lynch-
ing Negroes guilty of criminal assault, shouted, 'To hell with
"Governor Blease's declaration was made in response to
a question asked by Governor Joseph N. Carey of Wyoming.
Governor Carey desired to know if the South Carolina ex-
ecutive had taken an oath to uphold the constitution and
laws of his State, and if these laws did not protect Negroes
as well as whites.
" 'I will answer that question,' replied Governor Blease.
'When the constitution steps between me and the defense
of the virtue of white women of my State, I will resign my
commission, tear it up and throw it to the breezes. As I
have said before, "To hell with the constitution." '
"Several Women Left Hall.
"When several women present arose and left the hall,
Governor Blease ceased speaking. Among the women who
had made their exit were the wives and daughters of several
governors attending the conference.
"Governor A. W. Gilchrist of Florida took exception to
Governor Blease's remarks. Rising to his feet, he declared :
'The first thing that indicates a manly man or a womanly
woman is thoughtful consideration for other people.' His
remarks were greeted with cheers from the audience.
"Referring to the lynch law doctrine, Governor John F.
Shaf roth of Colorado said :
" 'One mob can do more injury to society than twenty
murderers, because lynching permeates the entire com-
munity and produces anarchy. The influence of mob rule
is most reprehensive. When laws are made it should
be the duty of the governor to enforce them, whether
he approves or not. When the law prescribes hanging for
an offense, and a man is found guilty, he should be hanged,
whether white or black, and there is no excuse for mob laws.
I conceive it to be our duty as governors to declare for law
"Governor Goldsboro of Maryland said he stood by the
resolution because it was a matter of right. Governor Dix
of New York thought it would be 'most unwise' not to adopt
"Governor O'Neal of Alabama, in a ringing speech, which
was drowned time after time by applause, asserted his be-
lief that the entire conference had been belittled by the
South Carolinan's remarks and that it was the sworn duty
of every executive to uphold the law and the enforcement
"Repeated His Remarks.
"To those declarations Governor Blease declared that he
had been quoted yesterday as saying 'to hell with the consti-
tution,' and that what he said yesterday he repeated today,
'to all the good governors here; to all the governors of all
the States; to all the people of the United States.' Once
when his voice was drowned in a storm of hisses, he turned
to the galleries and to his colleagues and said : 'What care
1 for your hisses?' Then shaking his clenched fist he
shouted: 'Hiss if you must; only snakes and geese hiss.'
"Governor O'Neal unloosed the storm when he introduced
the following resolution:
" 'This Conference of Governors does not undertake to
control the individual views of its members upon any ques-
tions of law or administration ; it declares that this govern-
ment is based upon the fundamental principle of law and
order; that the constitution of each State imposes upon its
chief executive the supreme duty of taking care of the laws
faithfully enforced; that it advocates all proper methods
for strengthening and simplifying our methods of civil and
" 'This conference protests against any disposition or ut-
terances, by those entrusted with the execution of the law,
in any of the States of this Union which tends or could be
construed to encourage any justification of mob violence or
interference with the orderly processes of the law.'
"To this Governor Mann of Virginia objected and offered
the following substitute, which was accepted and adopted:
"Resolution as Adopted.
" 'Resolved, That it is the sentiment of the Governors'
Conference in session at Richmond, Va., today that the
whole power of the several States should be used whenever
necessary to protect persons accused of crime of every kind
against the violence of mobs, and to provide for speedy, or-
derly and impartial trials by courts of competent jurisdic-
tion, to the end that the law for the protection of life and
property be duly enforced and respected by all the people.'
" 'I hold in my hand,' said Governor Blease when he rose
to defend himself today, 'the fourth letter threatening my
life I have received this morning. It was addressed to me
in the care of the governor of Virginia and was handed to
me by some one I do not know.'
" 'I know nothing of the letter, sir,' retorted Governor
Mann of Virginia. 'I never heard of it before; I didn't re-
ceive it; I know nothing of its contents.'
" 'It doesn't matter,' continued Governor Blease. 'I
speak nobody's opinion but my own. The newspaper head-
lines have misrepresented me. When I spoke yesterday
about the marriage of Jack Johnson in Chicago, I did not
say he would be lynched in South Carolina; I did say that
the laws of my State forbade the marriage, and I did say
that I did not know if the marriage had been performed in
South Carolina, whether the laws protecting him would
have been possible of enforcement or not.
" 'Women Will Pray for Me.'
" 'Now, what I want to say to you is this : I don't care
one whit whether you adopt this resolution or not. You
may expel me for all I care. On January 21 I will begin my
second term as governor. On March 4, 1915, if God spares
me, I will be sworn in as a member of the United States
Senate. I snap my fingers at your resolutions, for all the
resolutions and all the motions you may act upon will not
avail to keep me out.
"Long after many of you gentlemen here today are resting
in the shades of private life, I will be reaping the rewards
of public service. Long after you good governors are no
longer governors, the white women of South Carolina will
pray for me with their arms around their girls, and will
arise from their knees to kiss their husbands and beg them
to go to the ballot box and vote for Blease to protect them
from their daily terror.'
"A faint round of applause went over the conference
hall, succeeded by a storm of hisses.
"A dozen governors thinking the South Carolinan had
concluded, clamored for recognition, but he held the floor
and smiled at the turmoil.
"When the vigorous rapping of the chairman had brought
order, he continued :
Ridiculed His Hearers.
'You're making yourselvs ridiculous in the eyes of the
nation. Why do you have to declare against mob law?
They ought to know you back in your homes. They ought
to meet you each one at the railroad station with a brass
band and say: "Governor, we are glad you didn't indorse
the utterances of that South Carolinan."
'When I said I never would order out the militia to pro-
tect the black brute who laid his desecrating hand upon a
white woman, I spoke the truth. I say it now again. That
is my position, gentlemen, and if you don't agree with me,
in the words of the great Virginian, "go to it." '
"The four governors who voted against the resolution
declared emphatically that they opposed mob violence. They
voted in the negative, they said, because they thought they
.vould exceed the rights of the conference and violate the
courtesy due a colleague should they vote to reprimand him.
On the final ballot Governor Blease did not vote. After the
result had been announced he arose and said :
" 'I did not vote, gentlemen, because it makes no differ-
ence to me one way or the other what this conference thinks
or does.' "
Alabama Mob — Lynching No. 4.
They lynched the wrong man. See illustration on an-
(From Houston Post, December 7, 1912.)
"PLANTER'S MURDER AVENGED.
"Negro Was Lynched by Mob at Butler, Alabama.
"Mobile, Ala., Dec. 6. — Dangling from the limb of a tree
the body of Azariah Curtis, a young Negro, was found Fri-
day morning at Butler, Ala., as evidence that 'Judge
Lynch' had avenged the murder of B. B. Bush, a planter,
shot to death Monday.
"The lynching followed a confession by Curtis who, with
two other Negroes, had waylaid Mr. Bush and killed him,
believing him to be one of two men whom they intended to
"Curtis was taken from jail by 200 men during the ab-
sence of the sheriff."
(From the St. Louis, Mo., Globe-Democrat, Dec. 6, 1912.)
"Richmond, Va., Dec. 5. — Many women in attendance on
the Governors' Conference today hurriedly left the hall when
Governor Cole L. Blease of South Carolina, for the second
time defending his doctrine of lynching Negroes guilty of
criminal assault, shouted the words, 'To hell with the consti-
"This sentiment was in response to a question by Gov-
ernor Joseph N. Carey of Wyoming, who desired to know if
Governor Blease had not taken an oath to uphold the con-
stitution and laws of his State, and if these laws did not pro-
tect Negroes as well as white men.
" 'I will answer that question,' replied the South Carolinan,
'and I hope the newspaper men will get it right, for in my
campaign in South Carolina they found that I was a fighter
— and a cold-blooded fighter. When the constitution steps
between me and the defense of the virtue of the white women
of my State I will resign my commission, and tear it up and
throw it to the breezes. I have heretofore said, "To hell
with the constitution." '
"When women, some of them wives and daughters of gov-
ernors, left the hall on hearing this, Governor Blease sub-
"Governor Albert W. Gilchrist of Florida answered Gov-
" 'The first thing,' he said, 'that indicates a manly man
or a womanly woman is thoughtful consideration for other
"Later Governor John F. Shafroth of Colorado referred
to the lynch law doctrine.
" 'One mob can do more injury to society,' he said, 'than
twenty murders, because a lynching permeates the entire
community and produces anarchy. When laws are made it
should be the duty of a governor to enforce them, whether
he approves them or not. ;
"Governor W. W. Kitchin of North Carolina said the sen-
timent for standing by the laws daily gains strength. He
believed there should be convictions in nearly every case
when there is a lynching. Governor Mann of Virginia
added that he would call out every soldier in the State if
necessary to protect a man under arrest and give him a fair
Note editorial regarding it, for this date.
I shall soon bring the incident of the South Carolina gov-
ernor to a close. However, it is the object of this book to
show the great injustice done to the Negro all over America.
The Houston Post of December 8 has such an able editorial
on the incident that I am compelled to reproduce it. It
shows the sentiment behind this great daily of Houston,
Texas. This malignant governor has dragged down the con-
stitution of his State; he has cursed civilization; he has
jumped upon law and order with both feet, saying "I am
all the power that exists in my State. It's my mission to
set all the mobs free for lynching a Negro." He has dis-
charged all the law makers, judges and sheriffs of his State,
insofar as power to uphold and enforce the law. The jury
may bring a verdict of guilty and the judge sentence the
mob, but the governor says he will pardon them in advance.
The mob has his word for it.
Now, the question is, what does his word amount to? It
amounted to nothing when he took the oath of office. He
was not worthy to have kissed the Holy Bible on that day.
See the Houston Post, December 8, 1912 :
THE CASE OF BLEASE.
"Governor Blease of South Carolina no longer dwells in
obscurity. He is known from ocean to ocean and from lakes
to gulf, and few governors have gained so much unenviable
notoriety in so short a time. Sitting in a conference of
State executives, he has held the limelight throughout its
sessions and has evoked the scorn and contempt of the in-
telligent people of the country. No executive ever appeared
to poorer advantage, and it is to be hoped that no Southern
State will ever be represented again in such a conference
by a man of his temperament and ideals.
"We do not lose sight of the fact that Blease's conduct was
a reflection upon the people of the South, although he repre-
sented but one Southern State. The fact that a Southern
governor would make such an exhibition of himself shames
us all. The unfortunate State of South Carolina has been
accustomed to Blease's antics for quite a while. The best
people there have blushed for him on many occasions, but
we suppose they have hoped he would not leave the State
and proclaim his boorishness to the whole country.
"Possibly, this latest exhibition of Bleaseism may prove
a blessing in disguise to his constituents. They came very
near defeating him this year. With this latest offense
surely thousands will desert his standard and make it im-
possible for him to realize his ambition to sit in the Senate
of the United States. A Blease occupying a seat once held
by a Calhoun, a Hayne, a McDuffie, a Hampton and a But-
ler, would be a sight for gods and men.
"There is no doubt that Blease deliberately perpetrated
this affront to the Governors' Conference in the hope that
it would appeal to the prejudice, racial and otherwise, of the
voters of South Carolina. He was speaking in the historic
city of Richmond, but he was speaking to his partisans in
South Carolina in the hope that he might keep alive the
frenzy that impelled a narrow majority of them to re-elect
"His assumption of a superior regard for the virtue of
the white women of the South was insulting to the white
people of all the Southern States. There is not a governor
in the South who is not as deeply concerned for the protec-
tion of the white women as Blease could possibly be, and
more intelligently so, and we doubt if there is a governor
in the whole country who is in the slightest degree indiffer-
ent to the inviolability of woman's person.
"It is not necessary for a governor or a citizen to become
an anarchist in order to assert his respect for womanhood,
nor is woman's safety dependent upon such anarchy. All
right-thinking people will sympathize with the people of
South Carolina who have been placed in such a humiliating
attitude before the country by a man who was under the
highest obligations to exemplify their splendid ideals. It
is to be hoped that the South Carolina Legislature may have
the decency to repudiate Blease's conduct, and this could be
done in no more telling way than by impeaching him."
I shall leave the subject of lynching to allow space for the
Chronicle's editorial. It takes the Negro to task because he
votes a Republican ticket. I don't see it that the Negro
should vote a Democratic ticket because he lives in the
South. It would look bad if he voted against his interests
and other poor men's best interests. But the Democrats
cannot guarantee good times. The Negro don't want to see
any more 3-cent cotton. This, however, has been explained
on another page. The Negro has repaid the white man well
for all he has or ever will do for him regarding the school
question. When this country was a vast wilderness the Ne-
gro made it a garden spot without cost.
About the Negro selling out; if he did so, a white man
Is he the only citizen that will sell out? Will the white
Some years ago didn't some of the senators and represen-
tatives sell out at Jefferson City, Mo. ? They were all white.
About the Republican presidents appointing Negroes to
office; Mr. Grover Cleveland appointed Hon. C. H. J. Tay-
lor recorder of deeds. He was a Negro.
About the Brownsville affair; it is like the Monk Gibson
See the Houston Chronicle, December 4, 1912:
"THE PRESIDENT-TO-BE AND THE NEGRO.
"The people of the South entertain views on the Negro
question which are traditional and are so fixed as to have
become profound and unchangeable convictions. Many
people in the North call such convictions senseless preju-
dices, but that narrow and ignorant view cannot change the
facts and is entitled to no respect.
"The people of the South know, as people everywhere else
know, that for nearly fifty years the Negro has been used
as a tool by conscienceless politicians in the endeavor to
fasten Republican government on the Southern States, and
the people of the South were engaged for many years in the
effort to avoid that fate.
"They had a bitter taste and test for more than ten years
of a government conducted by Negroes, instigated, domi-
nated and directed by Republican white men, and the recol-
lection of that fearful period is burned in ineffaceable lines
on the tablets of their memories.
"They know, too, that in every Republican convention the
Negro has been bought and sold like chattels, and that his
vote has often largely influenced the selection of Republican
"They know, too, that, though the people of the South
have, in days of poverty and plenty alike, taxed themselves
to educate the children of the Negro, paying five dollars for
every one he paid, and have steadfastly resisted the effort
to divide the school fund in proportion to the contribution
to it by the taxpayers of each race, yet the Negro voters
have, almost to a man, aligned and arrayed themselves
against the white Democrats, and in every State and national
election have assailed and denounced the Democratic party.
"They know, too, that every Republican president has
thrown a sop to the Negro voters by putting some Negro
politician in some responsible office, the position of register
of the treasury being the berth generally assigned as the
one of greatest distinction.
"Mr. Roosevelt appointed a Negro collector of revenue in
Georgia, a Negro collector of customs at Charleston, a Negro
postmaster in Mississippi, and Mr. Taft appointed a Negro
collector of customs in the District of Columbia and a Negro
assistant attorney general, and some years ago Mr. Harri-
son appointed a Negro collector of customs at Galveston.
"They know that every department of the government at
Washington is filled with Negro employes, and that hun-
dreds of Southern women, descendants of the best families,
are obliged to work side by side with them in many in-
stances and meet them on that measure and footing of social
equality which such condition involves.
"They know that a band of Negro soldiers rioted and mur-
dered in Brownsville, and that the people of Texas had to
arm themselves to prevent outrages by Negro soldiers re-
turning from the Philippines.
"They know that Mr. Roosevelt so treated Booker T. Wash-
ington as to create an impression in the minds of the igno-
rant Negroes, North and South, and stimulate such hopes,
as have wrought incalculable harm.
"They know that in the throng of guests at every presi-
dential function Negro men and Negro women thrust them-
selves in among- those the thresholds of whose homes they
would not dare attempt to cross.
"The people of the South do not believe^ these conditions
should continue. They know that unless Mr. Wilson is
recreant to the traditions under which he was reared and
shall treat with indifference the sentiments — and, if you
please, the prejudices — of his fellow countrymen of the
South and do violence to their convictions of social pro-
priety, he will endeavor to change them.
"A president, in all matters of social action and social
regulations, should reflect the sentiment of the people, just
as he should endeavor to do in matters political, and he
knows and every other man knows, that deep down in their
hearts nine out of every ten intelligent, decent people in the
United States do not approve of social equalty between the
races in any measure or degree, and do not want it, and will
not tolerate it.
"The unconquerable racial instinct rises in protest and
rebels against it, and the president should not, in his official
capacity any more than in his personal capacity, do that
which even in the most formal and impersonal way will rec-
ognize such right or encourage even the remotest hope of a
change in sentiment and conditions and conduct and usage
which are as unchangeable as the laws of the Medes and
The Negro will forget the idea of slavery regarding the
Republican party, and the white man ought to do the same;
if so there would be few Democrats among the whites, from
the fact that the Democrats have not guaranteed and cannot
The modern Negro will adapt himself to principles, and
not to race prejudice. It is as I have said, the poor white
man who is ignorant and knows nothing about the principles
of either party, only votes the Democratic ticket, thinking
he is voting against the Negro, when he is voting against
himself at the same time. If his vote makes hard times, it
is hard on all poor people alike.
The man who has a good bank account is able to stand a
panic, but the poor man must suffer; his children also must
suffer. They must often want bread when the father is
without a job.
The Negro cannot stand all the Democratic company, from
the fact that Jeff Davis of Arkansas, Vai-daman of Missis-
sippi, Ben Tillman of South Carolina, Cole P. Blease, also
of South Carolina, are Democrats, and all have a malignant
feeling toward the Negro. Why should the Negro relish
And, too, the Negro does not want to invite Coxey's army
any more to Washington City by his vote. I shall now dis-
•ni.ss this subject.
I feel it not out of place for a short write-up of the Pro-
gressive party, the winning party for 1916 without fail.
They made a late start, and made a good showing. By doing
systematic work now, for four years hence, everything will
(The Associated Press, December 9, 1912.)
"Chicago, Dec. 8. — Preparations for the National Confer-
ence of the Progressive party here Tuesday and Wednesday
were completed tonight. Members of the local committee
on arrangements announced they had reserved accommoda-
tions for about a thousand delegates before the arrival of
Colonel Roosevelt and his party tomorrow. The National
Progressive Committee will discuss a plan of action for the
next four years which probably will be laid before the con-
ference for approval.
"Colonel Roosevelt and Miss Jane Addams of Hull House
will deliver the chief addresses at the sessions of the con-
"New York, Dec. 9. — Colonel Theodore Roosevelt and 150
other Progressive party leaders and members left for Chi-
cago today on a special train of ten cars, from the rear of
which in electric letters was emblazoned 'Bull Moose Spe-
cial.' The occasion of this midwinter political activity is
the proposed solidification of the new party and the making
of plans for future campaigns. Members from other States
are on the way to join in the Chicago conference.
"Colonel Roosevelt and his party were cheered by a small
crowd as they left at 1 o'clock. Although the colonel had no
comment to make upon the situation, several members of his
party, particularly Oscar Straus and Frank A. Munsey, de-
clared that if the Republican party hoped to rejuvenate it-
self, it would have to be by turning Progressives.
"These sentiments were in reference to the decision of
the Republican Governors' Conference in Washington yes-
terday to wait another year before taking steps to reorgan-
ize the party with the hope expressed that Progressives
would be brought back into the fold.
"Mr. Munsey said that those attending the meeting had 'a
big job on his hands.' He added that the only way to
achieve the union was for the Republicans to accept the Pro-
gressive platform and policies and come into the party as
formed. If they did this, he said, the two parties could be
"Similar sentiments were expressed by several others of
"More than a score of women were in the party which
took the train here."
Colonel Roosevelt is the greatest living American states-
man today, which I repeat again. Our country is safe in his
care. Give him the reins again. God Himself has made
him a leader, therefore he is compelled to be great.
See the New Orleans, La., Picayune.
Vardaman wants the fourteenth and fifteenth amend-
ments of the national constitution repealed. He is a Demo-
crat. He tried to polish his statement, but it was full of
hatred and prejudice against the Negro:
"Jackson, Miss., Dec. 8. — Senator-elect James K. Varda-
man, who has himself established a record for pronounced
views on the race question, has opinions of his own on the
position of Governor Blease of South Carolina, as delivered
before the House of Governors at Richmond two or three
days ago. Having been questioned considerably by wire and
by personal query for his views on the Blease episode, Sen-
ator Vardaman prepared the following statement tonight:
" 'A splendid opportunity was lost by the governors of the
Southern States in the Richmond conference to teach the un-
informed nation the truth regarding the anomalous condi-
tion existing in the South, which condition made it possible
for Governor Blease to make the extraordinary speech ac-
credited to him. Instead of commenting on and condemning
the ebullition of temper manifested on the part of the South
Carolina executive, it would have been better to have brushed
aside his intemperate utterances with an expression of de-
nunciation, if they felt like it, and then proceed to explain to
the American people the reason why hundreds of thousands
of good, law-loving, home-building, God-fearing white men,
both in the North and the South, down, deep in their hearts,
harbor a feeling toward the black rapist, close akin to the
sentiment expressed by Governor Blease. They might with
great profit to the nation and credit to themselves have ex-
plained how it is possible for race feeling to run so high in
Pennsylvania, the State of brotherly love, that the leader of
a mob indicted for hanging a Negro who murdered a white
man was promptly acquitted by a white jury, and the case
against the accessories dismissed by the prosecuting attor-
ney with the statement that race prejudice was so intense in
that community that you could not convict a white man for
killing a Negro.
" 'Governor Blease's unfortunate speech was only a symp-
tom scarcely deserving a passing notice, but the governors
of Alabama and Virginia overlooked the serious problem
beneath it all and were content with denouncing the indi-
vidual, who really counted for nothing, and overlooked the
problem, which is all-important. As a matter of fact, in the
heart of every true Southern man there is a feeling that
would lead him to override the law, defy courts and dis-
regard all the restraints of civilization when it comes to
wreaking vengeance or inflicting punishment upon a beast
in human form who had committed a crime against a mem-
ber of his family more horrible than death.
" 'I have been the governor of Mississippi, and was
called upon to repeatedly enforce the law, and I did it as no
other governor before or since in the South has ever done
to protect the black despoiler 01 the white man's home.
" 'And yet I felt while doing it that if one of my loved ones
had been the victim I would have gone to extremes that
would have shocked civilization to have punished the brute.
I am not inclined to condone the indiscretion of Governor
Blease. There was no necessity of him putting the ques-
tion in the way he did. It was unfortunate, because the
, man was misunderstood. But I think the Southern gov-
ernors who condemned him were guilty of a greater crime
of omission than was Blease's sin of commission. Gov-
ernors Mann of Virginia and O'Neill of Alabama lost a
glorious opportunity to instruct the American people in re-
gard to the race problem of the nation. The evil is here.
It cannot be removed by ill-tempered speeches like the one
delivered by the governor of South Carolina, nor can the
problem be' solved by the stupid timidity displayed by the
governors of Virginia and Alabama. You seldom pick up a
newspaper that does not contain an account of an outrage
perpetrated by some black beast upon a white woman, which
is almost universally followed by hanging at the hands of
the mob. Executives rant and rage and yet no man is ever
punished for participating in the mob. As a matter of
fact, as long as this crime is committed the mob will try
and settle with the perpetrator. But in spite of all that,
wise and dignified governors make no effort to discover the
source of trouble and remove the evil. But they are sat-
isfied with condemning somebody who happens to call at-
tention to the terrible situation in an unhappy way. When
the American people understand that the war amendments
to the Federal Constitution, the fourteenth and fifteenth
amendments, must be repealed or modified as conditions
precedent to the intelligent treatment of this great question
by the lawmaking bodies and the courts, a long step will
have been taken toward the ultimate solution.
" 'The laws must be made to fit the race ; the criminal ten-
dency of the Negro must be restrained by law; his status
in society must be fixed by a statute, and the courts author-
ized to treat him as a race peculiar to himself. Then un-
fortunate incidents like that which occurred in the Confer-
ence of Governors at Richmond the other day, discredita-
ble alike to all participants, will not happen.' "
He wants a separate law for the Negro. It would be un-
(From the Houston Post, December 13, 1912.)
"Whatever Governor Blease may think of lynch law,
there is no mistaking the position of the South Carolina
press and the best citizens of the Commonwealth They,
stand resolutely for law and order, and they resent the hu-
miliating position in which they have been placed by their
rattle-brained governor. Of course, all intelligent people
know that Governor Blease does not represent this ele-
ment in his anarchistic preachments. Nor are we inclined
to believe the ultimate verdict of South Carolina will be
one of approval of Blease's conduct.
"Blease has issued his challenge and announced himself
as a candidate for the Senate, and South Carolina civili-
zation is going to accept it and endeavor to prevent the re-
proach of having Blease the State's spokesman in that au-
gust body. Arrayed against Blease will be the press, the
pulpit, the bench and bar, and the enlightened citizenship of
the State, and these combined ought to redeem the name of
South Carolina and eradicate the stain that Blease has put
"As an evidence of the indignation this man has aroused,
we reproduce the following from the Charleston News and
' 'Unquestionably, the individual who asserts that he does
not care what people think of him is either a fool or else
speaks that which he does not believe. This does not mean,
of course, that a man may not be indifferent to popularity.
There are doubtless plenty of people who are careless as
to whether or not they are liked by those with whom they
associate, who even shun the making of many acquaint-
ances, but to be unpopular is one thing and to be held in
contempt is quite another.
" 'Every man knows that this is so, and while, therefore,
Governor Blease may continue to be brazenly defiant of the
approval of his colleagues who were at Richmond and of
those whom they represent, South Carolina, at any rate,
cannot afford not to take into account the public opinion
of the nation. There is small difficulty about ascertaining
what it is so far as we are concerned. Governor Blease
has made himself for the moment the most talked of man
in America, and the publicity which he has achieved be-
longs not to himself alone, but is shared by the State whose
citizens, knowing him for what he is, failed to repudiate
him when they had the opportunity, but twice elected him
to the highest office in their gift. It was as South Caro-
lina's govenor that he has been accorded front page space
in most of the 2,500 daily newspapers of the land. It is
South Carolina which will continue, for years to come, to
hear the echoes of the exhibition which he has made of her
as well as of himself.'
"People who feel thus deeply may be depended upon to
carry their resentment to the uttermost, and the enlighten-
ed people of the entire South will hope for a successful ter-
mination of their efforts. Blease in the Senate would be
a reflection upon the entire South."
DR. BOOKER T. WASHINGTON'S STATEMENT.
(From the Palestine Plaindealer, Colored, dealing with the
courts and law.)
"Dr. Booker T. Washington, the greatest living mortal
today, is saying a great number of things in our favor.
He first attacks the courts of the South, before which the
Negro is tried. He makes it very plain indeed that it is im-
possible for the Negro to get justice in the courts where
the question involved is between a Negro and a white man.
He says, however, the injury on our race is only temporary,
while the injury on the jury or the whole white race is per-
manent. Other questions which he discussed with inter-
est to the entire race were : 'Unequal Laws Cause of Race
Troubles,' 'The Lack of a "Square Deal" in Education in the
South,' 'Convict Labor a Great Evil in the South,' 'The Bal-
lot to the Intelligent Negro,' and 'The Crime of Lynching.' :
Some club room goers are making it hard, possibly, on
most of the innocent Negroes. We see that the white
women are going to be armed. Some white ladies are very
easily excited. No doubt this will make business for the
undertakers, from the fact, the least stick broken, with a
gun in hand, business would pick up; they would just as
likely shoot a Negro going from them as one coming toward
them. However, we could not feel sorry if the real purse-
snatcher would get killed in every attempt, whether Ne-
gro, Mexican or Dago. See Houston Post, December 4,
"The concentrated efforts of almost every officer of the
police department are at this time directed toward appre-
hending a band of Negro purse-snatchers who, within the
past two weeks, have robbed eight white women on the
streets of Houston.
"Monday night the problem assumed a more serious as-
pect when Mrs. T. D. Jones, 711 Live Oak Street, was at-
tacked by an unidentified Negro. When she resisted him
taking her purse she received painful knife wounds and
rough treatment at the Negro's hands.
"The police have a twofold purpose in their sweeping
search of the city in quest of the Negroes. They are mak-
ing strenuous efforts to break up the band of thieves and at
the same time are endeavoring to offer protection to the
working women who are forced to go to their homes after
dark when they have finished work.
"Chief of Police Noble received numerous requests from
women Tuesday asking that they be allowed to carry weap-
ons while going home from work. In each instance Chief
Noble granted the permission, stating that the police were
giad to indulge in any reasonable practice at this time which
will increase the protection to women on the streets.
"Two Negroes have been arrested charged with snatch-
ing purses. Ten suspects are at this time in the city jail,
but no charges have been preferred against any of them.
The detective department, under the supervision of Chief
Smith, is making a thorough search for the bold thieves."
(From the Houston Post, December 2, 1912.)
"Savannah, Ga., Dec. 1. — 'Rome in her worst days never
harbored such conditions of vice as are prevalent in our
highest social circles at the present time,' declared Bishop
A. W. Wilson of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South,
in a sermon here today.
' 'Never at any period of the world's history,' added
Bishop Wilson, 'has the morals been so thin or so low. The
world is beset today with more insane theories and philos-
ophies, more hypocritical creeds than ever before.
" 'The advance of science and philosophy in the study of
the fine infinite subjects connected with the creation of the
earth is imperiling the religious welfare of the world.
Scientific process will never disclose the hidden secrets of
the universe. The mystery which passeth the understanding
will not be unfolded by the hand of man through the ap-
plication of philosophy.' "
The leading men of the white race are also very much
concerned regarding nowaday society. It is indeed an im-
portant matter to take under consideration by our leading
men and women, and try to stop the decline. For instance,
take Jack Johnson's case. However, I do not hold him as
a model, but rather condemn him for desiring to get away
from our race, when his color will not allow him to do so.
See the press :
(Houston Post, December 4, 1912.)
"JACK JOHNSON AGAIN BENEDICT.
Pugilist Married Lucille Cameron in Chicago Yesterday.
"Chicago, Dec. 3. — Jack Johnson, Negro pugilist, this
afternoon married Lucille Cameron, the 19-year-old white
girl of Minneapolis, who recently appeared as a witness
against him before the federal grand jury which returned
indictments charging him with violations of the Mann act.
The ceremony was performed at the home of Johnson's
mother by a Negro preacher in the presence of a dozen
Negroes and several newspaper reporters.
"The girl wore a suit of gray shepherd plaid. Johnson
had a suit of the same material, especially made for the oc-
"A curious crowd of nearly a thousand men and women
gathered outside the house and a squad of police was kept
busy maintaining order.
' 'The whole affair is antagonistic to public policy and
morals generally,' said Chief McWeeny.
"The marriage will not affect Johnson's case before the
Federal Court, according to Johnson's attorneys.
"Johnson said he told the Cameron girl he had been
blamed for ill-treating her and that 'we might as well be
married right away.'
" 'She is alone in the world now,' said Johnson. 'Her
mother has left her and her stepfather is quoted as saying
he wanted to have nothing more to do with her.' ; '
I don't care to make any further comment on this matter.
See further, the Plaindealer of Palestine, Texas:
(From the Palestine Plaindealer, Colored, Saturday, Nov.
"The abduction case against Champion Jack Johnson was
dismissed in the Municipal Court Tuesday, the prosecution
having failed to make out a case. It is rumored that Lu-
cille Cameron was to be freed and that her mother was to
take her South. But the court refused to release her until
after the champion's trial.
" 'No part of the South for me,' said the Cameron girl
in an interview. 'I am afraid to go anywhere but back to
my home in Minneapolis.'
"The Champion's Victory.
"Jack Johnson, the recognized champion of the world,
won the greatest victory of his life when, through his able
attorneys, W. G. Anderson and Edward H. Wright, he
forced the United States government to admit him to bail
last Saturday morning.
"For a whole week some of Chicago's ablest white lawyers
had been endeavoring to 'land their man' on bail before
Judge Carpenter, but each time they made a move they
were 'turned down,' either by the judge or district attor-
ney. They offered $500,000 cash bail, as well as Mrs. Tiny
Johnson's property, and still they could not get Jack out."
AN HONORABLE CITIZEN— A NEGRO.
The following article is reproduced to show the honesty
of a member of our race, which is a credit to the whole race.
This old man had an opportunity to get away with this
$55,000, as he was alone in the bank soon before day one
morning. The Negro is as safe as a bank, the majority.
"Pensacola, Fla., Nov. 28.— William Bell, until a few
weeks ago a trusted clerk in the First National Bank of
Pensacola, today pleaded guilty in the United States Court
to the theft of $55,000 from the bank on September 18.
Judge Sheppard sentenced him to two years in the Federal
reform school at Washington. The 18-year-old bank clerk
engineered one of the shrewdest robberies in recent bank
history and was not under suspicion when, conscience-
stricken, he returned the money. In broad daylight, in the
presence of a score of other employes in the bank, Bell ex-
changed a bogus package for a package containing $55,000
which had been prepared for shipment, secreting the valu-
able package in the bank until that night when he just as
adroitly removed it to his home.
"Scores of detectives were employed on the case and had
found no definite clew when, on the morning of September
23, almost one week after the robbery, the old Negro jani-
tor of the bank found the $55,000 wrapped in a newspaper
lying against the iron grating of the rear door of the bank
where Bell had placed it. His confession followed the next
"Because of his youth and his previous conduct, Judge
Sheppard imposed the lightest sentence possible."
An accused purse-snatcher — after all he might not be a
Negro, from the fact that very few Negroes wear a No. 5
shoe. This may be a case of blacking the face, but behind
that smut there is a white face. If a Negro, I woudd be as
glad to see him arrested as a white man, but any sensible per-
son who knows white ladies, really knows when he sees
them walking at night they are broke, or they really need
the next day what little change they may have in their
purses. I know them; when they have car fare to spare
they ride. See the Chronicle.
(From the Chronicle, December 15, 1912.)
"Mrs. Michael O'Reilly and daughter, while walking along
Washington Avenue last night, near Houston Avenue,
were the victims of a Negro purse-snatcher, who got $3.20.
He followed them until a dark corner was reached, the po-
lice say, and grabbed the purse and ran.
"Both women screamed for help and a crowd gathered
quickly, but no trace of the Negro could be found. Later
Detectives Fife and Sheley visited the scene and found a
shoe lost by the Negro as he leaped a ditch.
"Assistant Chief Heck immediately telephoned the con-
vict camp for bloodhounds and the dogs were put on the
track about 10:30 o'clock. They took up the trail and fol-
lowed it for some blocks, but finally lost it in a congested
district in the north part of the city.
"Mrs. O'Reilly and her daughter were on their way to their
home at 1530 Kane Street. They were walking hurriedly,
Mrs. O'Reilly swinging her purse in her hand. When they
reached the dark corner the purse was suddenly snatched
from her. She wheeled, saw the Negro, and screamed. A
description of the Negro was furnished the officers.
"The shoe found last night was a number five and a half
or six, and has the top of the front cut away, as if it was
too small. Every indication, though, officers say, is that
the owner is small of stature.
"Last night's affair makes the ninth purse snatched in
the city within a month. Eight of them came in rapid suc-
cession, the last of that number being last night two weeks
ago, when Mrs. T. D. Jones was assaulted with a pocket
knife. She sustained several wounds and has been con-
fined to her home since.
"Following that the police arrested nearly a dozen Ne-
groes, two of whom admitted they had snatched purses.
Another Negro, whom the police believe is the one who as-
saulted Mrs. Jones, is also in jail, but no complaint has been
A Negro woman was accused of holding up a white
man in Houston, Texas. There is something wrong about
this statement. What unprejudiced person would believe
a weakly woman could go in a man's pocket and get his
money? She didn't have any gun. If this be true, why
didn't he outrun her? He could have kicked the knife out
of her hand, if she had one. This looks like a case of so-
cial equality to me. I don't say she did not get his purse,
but in my opinion she got it when in a social conversa-
tion or some other way. White men should leave Negro
"A bold hold-up occurred last night about 9 o'clock on
San Jacinto Street, near the High School building, when
Geneva Allen, a Negress, robbed a young white man of his
purse containing $6. The woman drew a knife and slashed
at a man and then ran, he told the officers.
"Crying for help, the young man gave chase, finally over-
taking the woman after a race of three blocks. A fight
then occurred with the woman in which his hand was
scratched with the knife. She got away, however, and ran
six blocks before Officers Buford and Bishop caught her.
"Both officers exhibited signs of a fight and a foot race.
At the police station $7, two purses and a ticket were found
on the Negress. The victim of the hold-up identified one
purse and the ticket. A charge of theft will be filed."
(Prof. J. B. Raynor, on the race question, in the Houston
Progress, December 14, copied from the Dallas Express
of another date, and the Louisville, Ky., Defender.)
"VIEWS AND REVIEWS OF PRESS AND PEOPLE.
"J. B. Raynor says : 'The Negro has more virtue, more
education than he has opportunity. What the Negro needs
today is opportunity in the industrial world, and justice in
the courts. The Negro must have opportunity unhampered
to prove that he is willing to take the advice given.' Right,
Mr. Raynor. Many opportunities for employment of our
young people, for instance, are being neglected by our race
not building enterprises and supporting them. The gate
to our industrial and commercial success is open, but we are
behind the fence looking into the other fellow's pasture.
As to justice in the courts, God Himself will have to cor-
rect that. When more of the real love of God is in the
hearts of men, man will get justice, and not before.
"Some preachers are telling their communicants not to
subscribe for this paper. They are doing it because the
editor had the temerity to criticise some of their conduct.
All right, gentlemen, if you want to take it that way, but
you can rest assured you will never close the mouth of the
editor. To stop a paper because there is something in it
with which you do not agree, is silly and foolish."
THE JIM CROW STREET CAR AND AFTER DARK SO-
(From the Texas Guide, copied by the Houston Progress,
December 14, 1912.)
"The Jim Crow street car law has recently become effec-
tive in Charleston, S. C, and as a result there is not only
confusion there, but, to use a Miltonic expression, there is
'confusion worse confounded.' Charleston has more Ne-
groes who are dangerously and confusedly near-white than
has any other city on the globe. Octoroons, quadroons and
just plain mulattoes abound numerously. The result is
that street car conductors are up against a stiff proposition
every minute in the day in trying to discover who is white
and who is Negro. Sometimes he orders a white person
to take a rear seat, and again he invites a near-white Ne-
gro to leave the Negro part of the car and come up among
the white folks. It looks like the sins of the fathers have
descended to the children of the third and fourth genera-
tion, and still the end is not in sight. Charleston should
have been the last place on earth to take to itself a Jim
Crow law, for, in the words of an old ante-bellum preacher
who was running a revival there once, 'the people are so
moral that the very Negroes are turning white, and this
bleaching process has been going on for two centuries or
more.' If some of those street car conductors don't get
lynched or shot full of holes on account of some blunder in
arranging passengers, we shall be surprised. But we
won't be surprised to hear that a law has been passed re-
quiring all 'sure-nufF Negroes to use face powder of a deep
black hue for purposes of identification. South Carolina
is capable of a stunt like that.
"Some weeks ago we spoke of the great likelihood of the
good and respectable practice of lynching falling in disre-
pute, from the fact that the convicts in the Wyoming peni-
tentiary had lynched a Negro who had been sent there for
safekeeping until his trial could be had. It was somewhat
against the proprieties that convicts should indulge in a
sport reserved for good Christian gentlemen. And now
comes a Florida mob and introduces a most diverting fea-
ture into that ancient pastime. They took a colored man
from jail — or rather accepted him from the jailer — marched
him some distance from town, and then told him they
thought they had the wrong man, and that if he wanted
his freedom, he was at liberty to hike. The victim darted
away with that inspiration which comes when one has been
expecting death, but receives life. He had not run more
than twenty yards before that chivalric mob opened fire on
him with shotguns, rifles and automatic pistols. He was
literally shot to pieces. Is the good old practice of hanging
and burning to be replaced by this vaudeville stunt intro-
duced by the mob of Florida gentlemen? What are we
coming to, anyway? — Old Hickory, in Dallas Express.
" 'In some of the smaller places of Texas, where Negroes
give ''entertainments," etc., white men are very conspicu-
ous and take almost as much interest as the Negroes. Let
them cut out the practice, as it is not a good one; in fact,
the white man who "hangs" around Negro festivals is not
there for any good, and should be given to understand that
his presence is not wanted. He is a germ breeder of
trouble, and if we can't get rid o f him, quit giving the en-
tertainments. The chivalrous white man who is helping to
make history, and who is helping in the material advance-
ment of our country, is not the one who participates in Ne-
gro socials. The Texas Guide is uncompromisingly op-
posed to social equality in any old form, and is more so
against 'after dark social equality.' "
It seems very strange that Charleston, S. C, would pass
laws to separate brother and sister. Is there so much prej-
udice in that State until there is no kindred ties or love?
The best Negroes must keep white men's Negro women in
the rear. But some preachers put them in front ranks of
our best girls, and that's little encouragement to our good
The white man will not allow the Negro to cross the line
in the South in districts where he is not welcome. Why
don't the Negro do the same? If it takes death to protect
homes, so mote it be!
Lynching No. 7 — Mississippi Mob.
(From the Houston Chronicle, December 20, 1912.)
"NEGRO ROBBER IS DISCOVERED WITH HIS BODY
FULL OF SHOT.
"Meridian, Miss., Dec. 20. — Riddled with bullets the body
of an unidentified Negro was found in a swamp near Cuba,
Ala., twenty miles north of here, today. The Negro last
night sandbagged and instantly killed Perry Wilkinson,
a jeweler of that place. He was arrested, but escaped from
the city marshal. The Negro was pursued by a number of
citizens, who fired a fusillade after him. It was thought he
had escaped until his body was found today."
This mob has no certainty that they got the right Negro.
They wanted some Negro, that was all.
WHITE MEN TRYING TO DODGE BEHIND
Two white men, masked, put a young white lady on the
H. & T. C. track to be run over, but God was there and she
was not killed. Had she been killed many Negroes would
have been arrested; the white press would have branded
many innocent Negroes as black brutes. But the girl said
white men did it, as in many other cases ; however, most of
which are laid at the feet of the Negro. All of these
purse-snatchers are not Negroes by any means. Masked
men usually mask to dodge behind innocent Negroes. If
this is the usual work of black brutes, and since they did
not do it, there must be white brutes. Time and space will
not allow me to further comment on this incident. See
Houston Post, December 21, 1912. Article is as follows :
"That she was bound hand and feet, gagged and placed
on a railroad track in front of a moving train by two
masked men, is the sensational and thrilling story told by
a 15-year-old girl, who was found last night about 10:30
o'clock in an unconscious condition at the bottom of a 15-
foot railroad embankment on the Houston & Texas Central
Railroad, one block west of the Houston Infirmary.
"The girl declares that by her own efforts she rolled her-
self from the track and down the embankment just in time
to escape being ground to death beneath the wheels of the
''She was discovered by J. K. Griffin, a Houston &
Texas Central Railroad watchman, who was walking along
tne track and saw her body lying in the ditch at the bottom
of the steep grade. Making a hasty examination he im-
mediately notified the. police and Chief Heck and detectives
immediately rushed to the scene.
"Officers lifted the girl from the ditch, loosened the bonds
at her feet and hands and removed the gag from her mouth.
She was then taken to the Houston Infirmary, where a
thorough examination of her body was made. That she
had not been harmed beyond having been bound was deter-
mined by the physicians.
"The girl lay on the operating table, her eyes wide open,
her pulse normal, yet unable to speak a word. Her gaze
was fixed on certain objects, and although severe tests were
made, she did not bat her eyes at any time.
"Both the physicians and the police declared it the most
unusual case that had ever come under their observation.
She was taken to a room and nurses sat by her bedside to
await developments in her condition.
"Shortly after 1 o'clock she regained consciousness al-
most with a shock, and a complete nervous breakdown re-
sulted. While officers and the hospital attendants gath-
ered around her bedside she related the thrilling and har-
rowing story which she says is a correct account of her ex-
" 'Friday afternoon my mother went to town. We reside
at 519 Roy Street, Brunner Addition, and no one was at
home except my sister and myself. I was in the kitchen
cooking supper and was peeling potatoes when I noticed that
the fire in the stove had gone out.
" 'I went out in the yard to the woodpile to get some wood
and was stooping down when I felt some one touch my arm.
I was dragged through a hole in the fence and two masked
white men seized me. Both of them wore masks and while
one of them held his hand over my mouth the other blind-
folded me and put a cloth over my face so that I could not
" 'They tried to get me to drink something out of a small
bottle, but I refused. I think that it was chloroform. I
knocked the bottle aside and then I lost my senses.
" 'I remember no more until I felt and saw a light coming
up from behind me. I heard the noise of a train and knew
it was one approaching. One of the men suggested that
they place me on the railroad track and the other one
wanted to throw me in a boxcar.
" 'The train was getting closer all the time and I was al-
most scared to death. They dropped me on the track and
ran into an alley or somewhere, I can't remember to save
my life. 1 raised myself on my elbows and rolled off the
track and down a hill just as the train went by.
" 'I can't remember any more until I woke up here just
now. I don't know who the two men were and I don't think
I would know them if I saw them again. ^ I can't talk any
more now because I have told all 1 know.'
Many Negroes have been killed by mob violence. But
the great number is offset by the annual report of the In-
terstate Commerce Commission at Washington, D. C, for
the twelve months just ended. Ten thousand five hundred
and eighty-five have been killed by the railroads, the majority
of whom were whites ; 169,538 hurt by railroads, most of
whom were whites.
The Negro's blood and life must be offset by the race that
caused his death. This is God's way. You must be your
ARKANSAS GOVERNOR PARDONED THREE HUN-
DRED AND SIXTY CONVICTS.
I cannot advise what per cent were Negroes ; possibly the
majority were Negroes. As a rule not many white men go
to the penitentiary. He said the prison system in his
State was a hell.
(Houston Post, December 21, 1912.)
"Little Rock, Ark., Dec. 20. — Answering criticisms of
him for pardoning 360 penitentiary convicts, Governor
George W. Donaghey today gave out the following reply :
" 'Ye gods and little fishes ; let me say :
" 'That I never said the convicts paroled by me were not
convicted and put in the penitentiary for crimes. I did not
say that any member of the Penitentiary Board had not in-
troduced .certain resolutions. I have not said that any
member of the board failed to do the best they could.
" 'But here is what I do say, and let us stick to the text.
I want to repeat it :
" 'That the Arkansas penitentiary, under the lease sys-
tem, is a burning, seething hell, consuming human beings,
and that these human beings are being fed to it in a manner
which results in nothing but making fortunes for contrac-
"Among those who have criticised the governor is Com-
missioner of Mines John H. Page, a member of the Peniten-
tiary Board. By turning the convicts out without notice
to the board, Attorney General H. Norwood, a board mem-
ber, today said the State Board is compelled to buy clothes
and shoes for each liberated convict, the price being $7
each. Liberating the convicts will cost $4,000."
The Governor of. .Tennessee pardoned fifty convicts.
(Houston Post, December 21, 1912.)
"PAROLE SYSTEM PROBABLE.
"Governor of Tennessee Proud of Pardoned Men's Rec-
"Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 30. — In a letter to the convicts
at the State penitentiary, sent through Chairman J. S. Beas-
ley of the State Prison Commission, Governor Hooper, on
the eve of a trip to Florida, expresses keen regret that ill-
ness has prevented him from going over numerous pardon
records. He says :
" 'I have conditionally pardoned fifty men in addition to
the absolute pardons, and only one man out of the whole
number has violated his conditional pardon. This en-
courages me to believe that the incoming Legislature will
enact a parole system. When it does there are many men
in the State prison whose conduct will entitle them to im-
mediate consideration.' "
Oklahoma wants to disfranchise the Negro. The Negro
has seen his hardest time; he has seen his darkest days.
However, whatever hardships are put in his way will only
be temporary and not permanent. The white man who
fights him hardest, as a rule, has but little weight or ability
or common sense. As a rule, he is poor, and always will be
poor. For his principle, he has none. God will not let. him
prosper. He will die fighting the Negro, and at the end
land in Sheol. He that has aught against his brother can-
not see God's face in peace. There is no need of- trying to
get to heaven with a prejudiced heart against the Negro.
No white man will ever get to heaven who has a hateful
heart against the black man. If so, the Holy Book is not
true, and I believe every word of it. The Negro is safe,
because he is a student of prayer. He cultivates his heart,
so God will hear and answer his pleading, that trust in him.
You might as well try to stop the sun as the Negro, from the
fact, the Negro as a whole, has employed God on his case.
See the Western Star, December 21, the Negro Baptist
national weekly, published at Houston, Texas:
"UNIQUE QUESTION RAISED.
"Will Die 'Aborning' as All Other Whose Object is Humili-
ation and Oppression.
"Oklahoma City, Dec. 14. — The contention that the Four-
teenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution of the
United States are null and void and that no Negro has the
right to vote, is made in the contest of John J. Carney
against Congressman Dick T. Morgan, prepared today to
be filed in Congress Monday. The contention is made that
the enfranchisement of the Negro was not ratified by a vote
of two-thirds of the States. Lawyers here say there is
something in the questions raised and that all the Negroes
in the South may be disfranchised.
"Carney made the race for Congressman in the Second
District, but was defeated on the face of the returns. Mor-
gan has been given a certificate of election, but before it
was issued Carney filed notice that he would contest the
election in Congress on the ground that the 'grandfather'
clause of the Oklahoma Constitution had been violated by
permitting Negroes to vote for Morgan."
LOUISIANA MOB— LYNCHING NO. 8.
(From the Houston Chronicle, December 23, 1912.)
"Baton Rouge, La., Dec. 23. — When Sheriff Parker went
to the court house of West Baton Rouge this morning he
found the body of Norman Cadore, a Negro, swinging from
a telegraph pole a short distance from the jail.
"Cadore had been convicted of killing James Norman, a
plantation manager, about three weeks ago. Cadore's at-
torneys had taken steps to file a motion for an appeal.
"Details of the lynching were not known here early
A Negro lynched at the Louisiana capital. Most sher-
iffs seem to be only forerunners for mobs. Another human
soul lynched. Another being in God's own image lynched
without judge or jury! No laws to protect him. The
rich will not spend their money to stop mob violence. The
United States Congress will not try to stop it. The white
preachers will not preach against it. The millionaires are
spending many millions to exterminate the hookworm
which, in my judgment, is not as malignant as Judge
Lynch. Why not start a crusade to exterminate mob vio-
You must be your brother's keeper or something will hap-
pen to you, friend.
The Negro is not treated right as a man and citizen by
his white brother. The white man is certainly our
brother, from the fact God never made a second creation
of man. See Gen. 1-27:28.
Is the white man a Christian? Can he get to heaven?
If he believes the Holy Bible and lives it he can. He can
not get to heaven with a prejudiced heart against the Negro.
No malice or prejudice can enter heaven. I will try to
prove this contention by the Bible. See 1 John 4-20, 1 John
3-13, Matt. 5-44, Luke 6-27, Lev. 19-17, Lev. 19-16, Mark
13-13, St. Mark 12-30:31 and Eph. 4:32.
It doesn't make any difference whether white or colored,
if they do not live up to these Bible truths their cases with
God must be questioned.
An incident of twenty years ago comes to mind. When I
desired to take a theological course in school and had no
money, no relatives and no friends able to help me, Dr. W.
L. Balay wrote or sent out a circular letter throughout the
Eastern States. One rich white preacher wrote me and
offered to put me in school until my education was com-
pleted, with traveling expense money, but as soon as he
found out that I was. colored he declined his offer. I did
not think hard of him; he didn't know me. Had I been a
young white man he would not have known me. All I have
to say about him, he had color prejudice in his heart, and
he cannot cross Jordan with prejudice in his heart or see
God's face in peace!
Another great injustice done me, a few years ago, not
long after I lost my beloved wife, I got a job with the
local office of the I. & G. N., a combination job. My title
was porter. These were my duties: Clean up the office,
get the United States mail, copy all outgoing letters, state-
ments of earnings, joint accounts and foreign settlements;
file way bills and expense bills and fire stationary engine
for steam heat. I had a desk, and everything went on
nicely until the chief clerk, Mr. Foster, left for a better job.
There was nothing about the job that gave me any trouble,
as I could be a teacher at that line of work. The new chief
clerk came; he was not there long before I soon found out
he didn't like to see a Negro at a desk. My opinion of him
was right. He came to me one day and said: "Branch,
you have too much clerical work to do; show this white
man how to do your desk work, and you need not do any-
thing but clean up."
I asked the white man if he had ever done any work of
that kind. He told me that he had not. I did not show
him then, but intended to. I went down stairs to fire up
before beginning my teaching of this ignorant white man.
When I got down stairs this white man was just behind me.
I told him he would not have to fire. He told me the chief
clerk told him to watch me do all my work. I said to him :
"You wait here; let me see the chief clerk." I went up
stairs and told the chief clerk to arrange to pay me at 12 m.
He asked, "Why, Branch?" "When you came to the I. &
G. N. you found me here doing this work and knowing how
to do it (I clearly saw he wanted to let me out on account
of color). I have been giving satisfaction. If not, how
can I show him right?" Can a student surpass his teacher?
I told him if he wanted this ignorant white man, who
could barely read, to take my job, he had better send him
to the Massey's Business College. He said to me that he
had another job for me. I told him that was not what he
first said. "And about another job; how do you know I
want what you have to offer me, if anything at all ?"
Not long afterward he was let out by the superintendent.
I heard of it and tried to be Christianlike and not be glad,
but I could not do so. He worked against me without a
cause, when I needed a job. What he did to me was also
to my two little boys. I have nothing against him now,
notwithstanding he has a heart full of prejudice against the
colored man, and without conversion he is bound for Sheol.
MORE FACTS ABOUT THE LOUISIANA LYNCHING.
(From the Washington, D. C, Herald, December 24, 1912.)
"LOUISIANIANS LYNCH NEGRO.
"Baton Rouge, La., Dec. 23. — Simon Cadors, a Negro,
who was convicted of the murder of James Norman, a
wealthy planter, and who had appealed his case to the Su-
preme Court after being sentenced to bang, was taken from
the West Baton Rouge jail during the night and lynched.
The body was found hanging to a telegraph pole today,
bearing this placard :
" 'The inevitable penalty.' "
(The Houston Post, December 30, 1912, in defense of the
"NEGRO MORTALITY IN HOUSTON.
"The mortuary report of the city of Houston stresses,
every seven days, the lesson that we need to learn the prob-
lem that it is imperative for us to solve. The summary
tells the story: 'Deaths in Houston — Whites 18, colored
17. Annual death rate per 1,000 for the week among the
whites in the city of Houston, 11.44. Annual death rate
per 1,000 for the week among the colored in the city, 32.44.'
"The surface indication of this showing is that the Ne-
gro population is indifferent to wholesome living and good
sanitation. But this is merely a surface indication. The
lesson of the figures is this: The white people will have
to take a closer interest in living conditions among the Ne-
groes. Sanitary conditions in the Negro sections are not
good. Thousands of Negroes live in mere shacks, with no
conveniences that tend to comfort and good health. They
are too poor to afford such things. They must exist just
as their white landlords will permit them to.
"The result is inevitable. Under such conditions they
will sicken and die; they will develop malignant diseases;
they will disseminate such maladies throughout the white
sections of the city.
"There is a philanthropic side to the question. It is that
the white people ought to aid the Negroes in improving
living conditions among them. The white people ought to
aid them in wiping out slum life in Houston, and invoke
the power of the municipality in so doing. There are huts
inhabited by Negroes that ought to be condemned by the
city as a menace to the health of the community.
"The municipality ought to enforce sanitary regulations
in the Negro sections, not only against the Negroes, but
against their white landlords.
'The Negroes ought not to depend entirely upon the
white people to combat these conditions. There are in
Houston many Negroes of education. They ought to con-
duct a persistent movement among the poorer and less en-
lightened class to teach them something about health and
"There is an economic side to the question. The Ne-
groes form a large portion of the labor of Houston, and
this labor ought to be conserved. When the Negres were
slaves, their masters were very careful of their health and
wellbeing, because there was a close personal interest that
had to be considered. In a larger sense, the employers of
labor in Houston have a practical interest in the bodily
conditions of the men they employ. Able-bodied laborers
are needed in all tasks that require strength and endur-
ance. Healthy servants are imperative in the households
of the white people.
"White people can't escape the fact they are interested
in this question, when Negro women nurse white children
and have the run of almost every white household.
"There is an opportunity here for co-operation and intel-
ligent effort, and it seems to us the situation makes it im-
"Houston has a general interest in public health. That
is shown by the maintenance of a department of health.
We have an interest in Houston's reputation as a healthful
community. Negro mortality tarnishes a record that would
be good otherwise. A rate of 32.44 among a third of our
population is not good, and it ought to be attended to."
I certainly appreciate this article from the Houston Post.
Coming from such an able paper I don't see why it doesn't
have some effect. Some white people don't care what ac-
commodation the Negro gets. For instance, in the Fifth
Ward, Houston, Texas, the greater portion of the rented
property for colored people is owned by white men, and
many of them will not furnish a plank sidewalk. School
children often go to school over shoe-top in mud ; some take
sick and die with la grippe on account of such conditions.
If the father had any manhood, if he could not get a side-
walk of some kind he would arrange with some white or
colored man who would furnish sidewalks. If he is able
to buy his own home, that's better still.
Negroes need not expect yet to get a fair and sauare deal.
He is not treated right as a skilled or common laborer. If
he can surpass the white man as a skilled laborer, the white
man always gets the most money. I know many cases
where the Negro is teaching the white man how to do skilled
work and the white man is getting 10 cents more per hour
than the Negro. That is not very encouraging for the Ne-
gro. Now about common laborers: As a rule the Negro
is able to do more, still there are two prices, $1.50 to $2.00
for the Negro per day, and for the white man, $2.00 to
$2.50 per day.
This condition must change in future.
The Negro is not a striker, and neither a dynamiter.
Why not be appreciated as an important factor in this la-
Lawrence Clifton Branch, Age 6 Years.
His advice to his father on the 1st day of January, 1913,
as follows : "Papa, do you want to know how to become
rich? I will tell you: Every pay day you give Clarence
(his brother) 5 cents and me 5 cents and save the balance,
and you will soon be rich, and I will be so happy."
Mrs. M. L. Jones.
President of the 1908 Charity Club
A noted Temperance worker, and an essay writer
Atlanta, Ga., reports for 1912 thirty-seven Negroes
killed; seven killed by the blue-coat gunmen. See article.
(The Atlanta Constitution, January 1, 1913.)
"Tragedy stalked freely in Atlanta during 1912 and. in
proportion to the alarming increase among the ranks of
the pistol-toter, fifty-five homicides have occurred in the
year, an unprecedented record since the war period.
"Fifty-five deaths due to violence! This is an average
of more than one a week — more than the city of London,
with its millions of people.
"Thirty-two of this number were shot. Seven were
killed by policemen. Thirty-seven of the slain were Ne-
groes. This number includes the five Negro women for
whose deaths the police blame the uncaught 'Jack-the-Rip-
per,' who terrorized the Negro section during the last of
1911 and early part of 1912.
"The startling growth of 'gunmen' is vividly shown in
the figures of police court; 376 pistol-toters were bound over
by Recorder Broyles. Two hundred and thirty-six of the
gun-carriers were Negroes. Forty per cent of those ar-
rested for the crime were minors, and a deplorable number
were under the age of 18. Fifty or more were women.
"Six of the number killed by policemen were burglars, rob-
bers and prisoners. The case of E. H. Parham, who shot
and killed Henry B. Wright, the Bellwood Avenue youth who
fled when Parham attempted to arrest him for suspected lar-
ceny, is now pending in the courts. The other officers
were exonerated by grand and coroner's juries.
"Policeman J. W. Camp, who killed his roommate, Police-
man S. A. Belding, in an altercation that occurred in their
Central Avenue apartments, was acquitted by the courts.
His plea was self-defense. Later he was discharged from
the department for drunkenness.
"No Comparative Figures.
"No definite comparison can be made with the homicide
record of 1912 and previous years, owing to the laxity of
record-keeping in the police department. The record for
the outgoing year was compiled by Assistant Chief Jett and
Night Clerk B. F. Hall on their own initiative.
"The increase in killings has inspired police and court
officials to express unanimous disapproval of the sale of
firearms. Realizing that the effectual method of dealing
with the man-killer is to deprive him of his weapon, judges,
police authorities and criminologists have endeavored as a
unit to devise means by which the pistol and similar
weapons will be done away with.
"The suggestion of Recorder Broyles has met with wide
approval. His plan to impose a tax so heavy upon dealers
in firearms that they will find weapons a profitless stock
has been accepted as a good one. In a recent interview,
Judge Broyles named $10,000 annually as the proper figure.
"State Law Is Suggested.
"State statutes prohibiting the sale of firearms have also
Atlanta has made killing a business, and especially that of
Negroes. She stands at the head of her class, and the strong
arm of the law cannot stop her. But the little dog in the
fight will not always stand to be kicked around, all the time,
and killed. Some day he will bite.
While many poor innocent Negroes are being lynched
all over the country, it is being offset by suicide. Who
knows but what it is God's way? Suicide is nothing more
than a sinful life. What truly converted person ever com-
mitted suicide? My brother, there is ho way to down the
Negro. He has employed Jesus on his case. He has never
lost a case. See general report, Houston Post, January 5,
"Statistics recently compiled show that during the year
1911 15,000 men, women and children committed suicide.
With one exception, that of San Diego, Cal., a New York
city, Elmira, shows the highest suicide rate, it being 47.8'
per 100,000 population, against a general average of all
other cities of 19.6. The percentage of San Diego was 59.9.
In Greater New York there were 788 suicides in 1911.
The facts disclosed by the statistical analysis show further
that during 1911 the suicide rate in relatively small Ameri-
can cities was higher than in the large cities, says the New
"There is reason to suspect that the cost of living, which
has increased so greatly in recent years, is in part responsi-
ble for the suicide of many of those who determined to en-
gage no longer in the battle for existence. Frederick L.
Hoffman, actuary of the Prudential Life Insurance Com-
pany and one of the best known statisticians in the United
States, from whose recent report these figures are taken,
strongly urges that some concerted action be taken without
delay to check the tendency toward suicide in this country.
"The common belief that in a large number of suicides
there is a pre-existing condition of unsoundness of mind,
Mr Hoffman says, unquestionably has much evidence in its
favor, aside from the statistical returns from Prussia, ac-
cording to which 27.2 per cent of the suicides were directly
or indirectly the result of mental disease.
"Mercer, in his treatise on 'Sanity and Insanity,' takes
exception to this view. He says:
'"It is often assumed not only by the verdicts of cor-
oners' juries, but in the writings and speeches of thoughtful
men that a person who commits suicide must necessarily be
insane at the time of the act. In his opinion I do not share,
it seems to me that a man's circumstances may be such that
he may upon careful and comprehensive review of them
deliberately conclude that life is not worth living and that
it is better to seek annihilation, or to take chance of happi-
ness or unhappiness in a future life, than to submit to cer-
tain and extreme misery in this.
" 'Suppose that a man is subject to a combination of ad-
verse circumstances ; that his wife has run away from him,
his daughters have disgraced him, his sons have robbed
him; that his business is a failure and that he is afflicted
with some horrible and incurable disease. Who will say
that for a man so situated to shorten the poor and misera-
ble remnant of life remaining to him is an act of insanity?
" 'He has to take his choice of evils. Even granting that
by choosing to put an end to himself, to throw down his
fardel and refuse longer to grunt and sweat under a weary
life, he chooses wrongly and unwisely, yet does the wrong
and unwisdom of such a course amount to insanity? Surely
" 'There are strong reasons for believing that this class
of persons is rapidly on the increase in the United States
under the complex conditions of American life,' Mr. Hoff-
man asserts. Moral education, he believes, is largely re-
sponsible for social and moral discontent. The considerable
amount of publicity which is given to suicide through the
press and the means by which life is voluntarily brought
to an end, he believes, imply a most serious menace to the
community on the well established basis of the psychology
"A critical analysis of individual cases of suicide pre-
sents unusual difficulties because of the fact that in many
cases essential information concerning the immediate or
contributory causes is absent, Mr. Hoffman says. The in-
creasing complexity of modern life favors mental and moral
discontent, which is often erroneously assumed to be identi-
cal with mental irresponsibility. The more thoroughly
the underlying causes of suicide are considered, however,
the stronger becomes the conviction that in a large number
of suicides the crime was a result not of a want of mental
balance, but rather of a deliberate conviction that continued
existence would not be worth while because of disappoint-
ment in the realization of material aims or in the certainty
of serious consequences of wrongtul acts.
"Whatever may have been true of suicide in the past it
is a practical certainty that self-murder is today relatively
common among men, and even young women who cannot
be considered as wanting in mental balance or to be even
within the category of the only half sane.
"The method of suicide has an important bearing on the
subject in its larger aspects, for suicides, it is agreed by
medical authorities, are unquestionably to a considerable
extent the result of suggestion. Granted convenient or easy
facilities for self-murder, the deed is often done before there
has been time for reflection. It is nothing short of an in-
dictment of our common sense, Mr. Hoffman charges, that
the facilities for suicide should be as common as they are.
"Regardless of the efforts that have been made to regu-
late the sale of weapons and poisons, it is easy to secure
the means of suicide at a drug or hardware store, pawnshop
and other places. The effect of drastic regulation and pro-
hibition in regard to the sale of poisons and deadly weapons
would, it is believed by many, not alone diminish the sui-
cide rate, but would bring about a material reduction in the
"While suicide is declared to be more prevalent in the
Twentieth Century than in former times, doubtless as a
result of the differing conditions under which people live
in the present times, yet the practice of self-slaughter ex-
isted even in Biblical times.
"Among the stoics, whether Greek or Roman, Seneca was
pre-eminent as an advocate of suicide. He did not content
himself with reserving it for desperate emergencies, but
advised it for almost any evil.
"Epictetus, whom Mayor Gaynor so greatly admires and
so often quotes, observed : 'Either live contentedly or be-
gone, but do not let your life be a tissue of peevish com-
plainings. When the game palls on children, note how soon
they give it up. Do the same with life ; live so long as it is
agreeable to you ; take your exit when it is intolerable.
The door is open ; go if you do not wish to suffer, but if you
deliberately choose to stay don't complain. A little smoke,
though, ought not to frighten you away. Be patient a
while and the trouble may pass.'
"Under the Greek and Roman laws, which regarded the
citizen in the light of his value to the State, attempted
suicide was punished as a political offense, when punished
at all. Similar legal penalties were in force against self-
murder in the age of Plato and Aristotle.
"The wisdom of the New York law against attempted
suicide, which has been in existence for some years, has often
been questioned. It has been cited as an instance of cruel
legislation which would add to the trouble of those already
suffering from great mental strain from whatever cause.
Others declare that the fear of legal punishment has a gen-
erally wholesome curbing effect on the minds of those who
may be thinking of suicide.
"To those whose minds suicide occurs as a means of re-
lease from misfortune or the consequences of their crimes
the observations of Dr. Samuel Johnson of London as re-
lated by Boswell are perhaps the best that can be offered.
Boswell, in relating the incident some time later, said :
" 'We talked of a man's doing away with himself. Dr.
Johnson observed : "I shall never think it time to make
away with myself." I replied, "Take the case of Eustace
Budgell, who was accused of forging a will and threw him-
self into the Thames River before the trial of its authenticity
came on. Suppose sir," I said, "that a man is absolutely
sure that if he lives a few days longer he shall be detected
in a fraud the consequences of which will be utter disgrace
and expulsion from society, what should he do?"
" ' "In that case," Johnson replied, "let him go abroad
to a distant country. Let him go to some place where he
is not known. Don't let him go to the devil where he is
known." ' "
Mississippi Red, it seems, has been arrested. It seems that
Red beat this officer shooting. All the Harrisburg officers
are quick to kill a Negro, with a little exception. The
writer was told that officers made three shots at Red when
Red was about to run, so Red pulled his gun and made one
shot. See Chronicle, January 4, 1913:
"Sheriff Frank Hammond and Special Officer Frank
Hamer are expected to arrive in Houston this afternoon
with Matt Young, alias 'Mississippi Red,' a Negro, alleged
to have killed Constable Isham Isgit of Harrisburg about
eighteen months ago. The Negro was arrested near the
Mississippi River in Louisiana, in the swamps, where he
was at work in a railroad grading camp.
"About three weeks ago the sheriff's office took up the
case and located Young near Mellville. The place was for-
merly known as Red Cross. An investigation led the offi-
cers to believe that the right man had been found and two
days ago the officers went there. A reward of $250 was
offered some time ago by Governor Colquitt for the arrest
of Isgit's slayer."
A very nice article from the Galveston Tribune, copied
by the Houston Chronicle January 4, 1913, concerning the
South Carolina governor. See article:
"Governor Cole L. Blease of South Carolina, who has on
several occasions taken possession of the spotlight and se-
cured for himself a brand of notoriety not generally sought
after by those who desire to have their names handed down
to posterity, appears to like the atmosphere he has created
and is continuing to acquire fame as the man who uses the
power and prestige of his high office to break down and
render impotent the laws he has, as chief magistrate of his
State, sworn to uphold. Not that he has become lawless
in his personal life, but one need not become a thief to en-
courage the crime of theft, nor need a governor declare
the laws suspended governing capital punishment to create
the impression that so far as their full enforcement is
concerned they are a dead letter."
Governor Blease has no regard for the law. He said
he would set free any mob accused of lynching a Negro.
He could not have told the mob any plainer to go ahead and
kill Negroes as an occupation.
(From The Crisis, published in New York, December, 1912.)
"The political campaign seems to have lessened lynch-
ings for a while. Since our last record there have been
"In Americus, Ga., a Negro railroad hand, Yarborough,
was hanged for alleged assault upon a white child. At
Birmingham, Ala., Frank Childress, alias "Will Smith,' was
shot to death by a mob after he had killed a city detective.
"Continual reports appear in the press of white men
being discovered in crime with blackened faces. In New
York three such men killed a butcher on 176th Street.
"The killing of colored men by policemen still goes on.
Such murders are reported this month in New York City
and two in Birmingham, Ala. In two of these cases there
did not seem to be the slightest justification.
"In Philadelphia a policeman murderously assaulted Dr.
Thomas G. Coates for remonstrating at the beating of an-
other colored man.
"Murders of colored people by white men are reported
in three cities.
"In Frederick, Md., Harry Thomas was shot dead by W.
J. Lewis. Lewis said that Thomas was stealing. In Win-
ston, N. C, Oscar Fisher, 'a prominent livery man and
popular citizen of this city,' killed one of his colored em-
ployes because he asked for his wages. At Chubb, in Polk
County, Fla., a Negro, Jack Smith, was shot and killed by
a white man because the man was afraid of him. There
were no arrests.
"In Asheville, N. C, B. Hensley, a young white man, has
been sent to jail for sixteen months for assaulting a colored
"Some months ago a colored man in Georgia accidentally
touched a white woman with one of his hands. He was ar-
rested, charged with assault, and an attempt was made to
lynch him. He was hurriedly tried, found guilty, and
Judge A. W. Fite sentenced him to twenty years in the
penitentiary. The Court of Appeals granted' him a new
trial. At this trial the prisoner was again found guilty
and the same judge gave him the same sentence. The
Court of Appeals again reversed Judge Fite, who pro-
ceeded to make uncomplimentary remarks about the court.
The court thereupon fined him for contempt."
(The Crisis, New York, December, 1912.)
"A letter was sent Governor Donaghey of Arkansas
thanking him for commuting the sentence of Robert Arm-
strong. Mention of this case appeared in the last Crisis.
"In response to a letter from the governor of West Vir-
ginia, calling his attention to the article in the Independent
of October 10, in regard to the lynching of Robert Johnson,
the following reply was received from Governor Glasscock :
'I am in receipt of your favor of October 16, and also
copy of the Independent, of October 10, in relation to the
recent lynching at Bluefield, in this State. You ask if the
State of West Virginia intends to let the murder of John-
son go unavenged or without thorough investigation on the
part of the State authorities. In reply I beg to say that I
had started a company of militia to Princeton on the night
of the lynching and had given orders to the troops to re-
port at Princeton just as soon as I had information that the
local authorities might not be able to control the situation
and prevent the lynching. However, before the troops could
get there the lynching occurred. I then took the matter up
with the prosecuting attorney and the judge of the Crimi-
nal Court of that county, and asked for a special grand
jury to investigate the matter, and the grand jury, after
being in session for a week, adjourned without returning
any indictments. This, however, does not prevent future
grand juries from returning indictments, and I assure you
that I shall do everything within my power to see to it
that the guilty parties are punished, and have so notified
the local authorities, and have also made arrangements
with the legal authorities to furnish them with any funds
necessary to make a proper investigation.
"I am as much opposed to lynching as your association
can possibly be, and during my term of office have pre-
vented four lynchings; on one occasion appearing myself
in person with a company of militia and personally direct-
ing the movements of the troops. I am sure that if I had
been informed a few hours earlier of the seriousness of the
situation I could have prevented this disgrace to the State."
(Houston Post, January 5, 1913, dealing with the Consti-
"The Post has received a booklet written by Rev. William
Hayne Leavell, D. D., LL. D., in which he discussed and af-
firms the wisdom of testing the validity of the Fifteenth
Amendment to the Constitution of the United States.
"Dr. Leavell, who now resides in Carrollton, Miss., is well
known to the people of Houston and of Texas, having for
many years been pastor of the First Presbyterian Church
of this city. In scholarly attainments he ranks among the
highest, and it easily goes "that he is among the South's
most patriotic sons.
"In the discussion of the proposition of the repeal of the
amendment, Dr. Leavell takes the position that it was never
legally adopted and judicial interpretation of the legality
of its adoption has never been had. He, therefore, suggests
that it is perfectly practicable to bring the whole question
of the constitutionality of the amendment before the Su-
preme Court of the United States for its decision.
"In this connection he submits the following plan: 'Let
the Legislature of any one of the States enact a law di-
rectly contravening the provisions of the amendment, un-
mistakably discriminating against the Negro because of his
race or color, and let an accredited officer of the State un-
dertake to enforce that law, and almost certainly you will
have its validity tested before the courts, and finally before
the Supreme Court of the United States itself. If
for any reason, the improbable should really happen, and
nobody should actually take the question up to the Supreme
Court of the Nation, we would in that case and in the sim-
plest possible way, regain the right of the State to regulate
the whole matter of suffrage within its borders. Then every
State that wanted to do so could place such restrictions
round the ballot as would exclude from the polls every
black, or other unqualified citizen.'
"The booklet contains upward of fifty quarto pages, mak-
ing a very strong argument in support of a policy which
many thoughtful Southern men, both in public and private
life, believe ought to be pursued without further delay as
one which would redound to the welfare of the whole
country, the Negro included."
No Christian gentleman will work against the Negro.
And any one doing so has prejudice in his heart against
the Negro. I would not want to be in Heaven where these
people were, if it were possible for them to be there. I
shall not be over-concerned, for they will never be there.
To enter Heaven one must have or possess a peaceable and
loving heart. No man or set of men who make it a daily
study how to down the Negro can ever hope to see God's
face in peace. It is nothing more than a malignant heart.
Why not try to help him up? What the white man does
may embarrass the Negro temporarily, but to permanently
down the Negro is impossible. Might as well try to pump
the ocean dry or bridge the Atlantic ocean. It cannot be
(The sporting world is against color line — Houston Post,
January 5, 1913.)
' 'It is noted that McCarey in announcing the advent of
his heavyweight tournament declared that the winner
would be presented with a belt emblematic of the white
heavyweight championship. This is all right as far as it
goes, but it doesn't go quite far enough. It would be a
very pleasant thing if the color line were drawn in all
classes, particularly pleasant for pale-faced gladiators who
know what tough game is to be found in the ranks of the
dusky brigade. But there is absolutely no precedent for
establishing such a color line. Negroes have battled within
the ropes from the days of the London prize ring and the
bare knuckle swatting clear through to the milder regime
of the Queensbury sport, and battled with credit to them-
selves and backers,' says George T. Pardy, in the Chicago
" 'And getting right down to basic facts you will find
that on the whole the behavior of the brunette scrappers
was every whit as commendable, and in a great many cases
far more so, than their white contemporaries. Because
one burly brute, with the passions of a satyr, and the brains
of a chimpanzie, has disgraced his race and the profession
of fisticuffs, is no reason why we should forget that Peter
Jackson, George Dixon and Joe Gans, to say nothing of nu-
merous minor lights of their kind, were not only good box-
ers, but popular citizens, and that, at the present time, Sam
Langford and Joe Jeannette are possessed of reputations
that have suffered no injury in or out of the ring.
" 'The last two mentioned fighters, by the way, are the
dreaded obstacles in the path of the victory to be evolved
from McCarey's competition for white heavyweights. Yet
there is this consolation — neither one is deemed by the ex-
perts as dangerous as a year ago. Jeannette is 32, Lang-
ford 27. Jeannette has been boxing since he was 23, while
Langford entered the ring at the youthful age of 16. Amer-
ican sportsmen and boxers who saw Langford perform in
Australia, where he is at present, declare that the Boston
tar baby has slowed up a whole lot, and no longer possesses
the formidable punch that sloughed many an aspirant to
heavyweight honors in the past.
" 'It would not be surprising if this were true. Athletes
who take up the strenuous game of flying gloves early in the
teens usually wither before they reach the 30-year mark,
a result due to constant training and the strain of repeated
batterings sustained in the ring. Jeannette has been
through some terrific grueling sessions, most of his con-
tests having been over long distance routes — such as the
battles with McVey, one lasting forty-nine and the other
thirty rounds. His constitution is beginning to feel
the strain of incessant milling, and in the natural order of
things some husky youth is bound to do a McCarty "elimi-
nation" stunt with him sooner or later. There is talk of
Jeannette going to Australia to meet Langford. The lat-
ter is acknowledged as McVey's master, having whipped
him several times, and it would be a mighty good thing
if Sam and Joe were to decide once and for all who is the
better man. The victor could then return here and take
a chance against the white champ who would by then
be hailed as top-dog in the slamming field of endeavor.
" 'Certain it is that some such schedule will have to be
"followed. You simply cannot ignore the claims of Jean-
nette and Langford to be taken into consideration when
discussing the heavyweight championship problem. Both
have earned their standing in the world of pugilism, and
are not to be impolitely shoved aside on a mere color line
plea. That plea never did get by in the sparring game,
even when advanced by so popular ah idol as the great and
only John L. Sullivan. John dodged Peter Jackson when
the latter was in his prime by putting up a dignified "color
line" excuse, and was roundly cussed from one end of the
country to the other for so doing. The cold unvarnished
truth of the matter was that Sullivan realized what an ugly
customer Peter was, and took preventive measures accord-
" 'In the light of after events Sullivan's action loomed
up as discreet, if not valorous, for Peter, although handi-
capped by a game leg, held Jim Corbett to a 61-round draw,
and the latter took John's crown away from him. No!
the holder of a championship must be prepared to meet all
comers, white or black, brown, magenta, green or ecru
colored. It isn't a question of caste ; it's a trial of strength,
agility and gameness, and whenever you hear a profes-
sional boxer refusing to meet a Negro opponent, you can
safely bet that the keeping of his own thin skin intact is
what troubles him, not the shade of the epidermis pertain-
ing to the other mitt-basher.' "
(From the Houston Chronicle, January 7, 1913.)
"THE FIFTEENTH AMENDMENT.
"Something like eighteen months ago the Chronicle re-
viewed a pamphlet by the Rev. William Hayne Leavell, D.
D., LL.D., entitled 'The Annulment of the Fifteenth Amend-
ment — A Discussion.' The time for the issuance of
the publication proved to be inopportune by reason of
the fact that it came from the press at a time when the in-
tensely heated campaign for United States Senator between
Mr. Vardaman and the other aspirants was in progress,
and the fact that Mr. Vardaman was a strenuous advocate
of the repeal of the Fifteenth Amendment led many people
to believe that Dr. Leavell's pamphlet was a campaign doc-
ument, intended to affect the result of that campaign.
"Nothing was farther from his purpose, but the error
into which many fell greatly lessened the influence and
value of the publication, which has recently been reissued
in an enlarged form.
"There are doubtless those whom the suggestion of the
repeal of the Fifteenth Amendment will fling into a frenzy
of passion, and there are others who, while they will not
be so affected, will pronounce the idea chimerical and vis-
ionary; but no man, North or South, should pass upon the
question until he has read Dr. Leavell's pamphlet.
"It is a calm, dispassionate, logical, instructive discus-
sion of a subject of profound interest, and one -which many
people are giving the thoughtful and serious consideration
which it deserves.
"Dr. Leavell holds that, while 'the means resorted to for
the purpose of escaping the evils of Negro suffrage were
necessary and have been held not to contravene the pro-
visions of the Fifteenth Amendment, we have been
forced to make use of means whose moral quality is not
easily defended from the standpoint of Christian ethics or
that of the permanence of civil liberty.'
"Dr. Leavell expresses the view that, while there is no
blinking the fact that this course costs us much in the mat-
ter of morals and religion, yet so long as it is essential to
our self-preservation and to the maintenance of white su-
premacy we will persist in the employment of such methods
at whatever cost.
"While the argument is condensed into as brief space
as is consistent with thorough discussion, it is impossible
within the reasonable limits of editorial space to analyze it
with that thoroughness which its merits demand, so it
must suffice to condense the main points.
"The repeal of the amendment is advocated as the sim-
plest and most efficient way to insure continued white su-
premacy, and to avoid even the possibility, however remote,
of intermingling in any way of the two races.
"The contention is made that the amendment was never
legally adopted, and the argument in support of the con-
tention is unanswerable.
"John Mabry Mathews of Johns Hopkins University, in
his 'Legislative and Judicial History of the Fifteenth
Amendment,' says : 'In the technical sense the amendment
is still a part of the supreme law of the land, but as a mat-
ter of social consciousness, a rule of conduct, no matter
how authoritatively promulgated, if not supported by the
force of public opinion, is already in process of repeal.'
"The Fifteenth Amendment reads as follows: 'The
rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not Be
denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on
account of race, color or previous condition of servitude,'
and was, of course, part of the reconstruction legislation.
"Those who enacted it did not believe the methods of its
adoption would stand the test of scrutiny by the Supreme
Court of the United States, so when the principle underly-
ing all reconstruction was about to come before the Supreme
Court in the famous McCardle case from Mississippi Con-
gress repealed the act which made review of the legislation
"Every decision of that great court upon questions simi-
lar in any extent to those involved in the matter of the
constitutionality of the amendment has been of such nature
as to lead to the strong belief that the amendment will be
held null and void. Every decision of the Supreme Court
of the United States involving the South's political attitude
toward the Negro has sustained the contention of her people.
"The highest authorities hold that the right to regulate
the exercise of the elective franchise, is one of the functions
essential to the existence of a State, and the Federal Gov-
ernment never had the right to interfere with the exercise
of that function.
"Dr. Leavell points out several practicable ways in which
the question may be tested, but the simplest method will be
for some State to enact a law directly contravening the pro-
visions of the amendment, by unmistakably discriminating
against the Negro because of his race or color, and let some
accredited officer of the State attempt to enforce the law,
and a test case will speedily arise.
"Public sentiment, not only in the South, but in the North,
is rapidly taking such direction as will lead to such action
as will bring the question fairly before the Supreme Court."
The Negro's wonderful progress within the past fifty
years has troubled a great many white people, but I never
thought the educated white preachers would ever try to
block the Negro's progress. I shall not write at length on
this article, because I feel little concerned over the article,
from the fact they may impede the Negro's progress, but
it will not be permanent, only temporary. The Negro's
station in life is already fixed. God Himself has made the
program, and all the prejudiced hearts and minds in the
world cannot undo God's work. The signs of the times
point toward the Negro's onward march.
I believe every man has a calling. If his education is for
the purpose of writing against the Negro, he will never live
long enough to realize any good he has accomplished along
that line, notwithstanding - he is prepared to reach the people
from the pulpit, the platform and with his pen.
He is in the State of Mississippi. He has plenty of com-
pany. Vardaman and others are of Mississippi.
"New York, Feb. 11. — Andrew Carnegie today presented
$1,250,000 in a 4 per cent bond to the Carnegie Foundation,
to be devoted to the endowment of a 'division of educational
inquiry and study.'
"The gift makes permanent provision, it was announced,
for studies hitherto conducted by the foundation out of its
general funds, such as the recently conducted studies on
medical education. The publicity given to these studies re-
sulted in closing down many poorly equipped medical
" 'It shall be the function of the division of educational
inquiry,' says Mr. Carnegie in a letter setting forth the
terms of the new endowment, 'to conduct studies and to
make investigations concerning universities, colleges, pro-
fessional problems of education affecting the improvement
of educational methods, the advancement of teaching or
the betterment of educational standards, and in general to
investigate and to report upon those educational agencies
which undertake to deal with the intellectual and moral
progress of mankind and to publish such results as the trus-
tees may consider of value.'
"The trustees of the foundation plan to make the first
use of the additional funds in taking up at once 'studies
upon legal education and its relation to the supply of law-
yers and the cost of legal process.' "
Mr. Andrew Carnegie would do well to spend $1,000,000
to stop Judge Lynch in America.
THE NEGRO HAS A WHITE FRIEND.
(The Associated Press news.)
"Judge William R. Hammond of Atlanta, Ga., called on
the president-elect to urge support for the bill pending in
Congress which would appropriate $250,000 for the celebra-
tion in Philadelphia of the fiftieth anniversary of the sign-
ing of the emancipation proclamation. The governor said
he approved the objects of the bill and hoped it would be
President Wilson is not against the Negro, and no well
posted Negro ever thought so. Tne Negro was not certain
about his statesmanship, or whether the country would have
confidence in his policy. He is a good man and an educated
Below a Negro is accused of shooting a white man. It
might have been a Negro, and it might have been a white
man with a blacked face.
(From the Houston Post, January 9, 1913.)
"Corsicana, Tex., Jan. 8. — A traveling man of Dallas, whc
gave his name as Pat St. Cyr, was robbed and then shot in
the arm here last night by a Negro footpad.
"Mr. St. Cyr was stopping at the Commercial Hotel, near
the Union Station, and at 10 o'clock went into that section
of town east of the Houston & Texas Central Railroad on
his return to the hotel about 10:30 o'clock. Mr. St. Cyr
was accosted by the footpad a few hundred feet east of
the depot and while on the sidewalk, a pistol was thrown
into his face and he was ordered to hand over his money;
that was done, the Negro getting about $10. The Negro
then demanded his watch, and when St. Cyr refused and
put his hand on the watch, the Negro shot him and fled.
The wounded man went to the hotel and a physician was
summoned, who found that he had an ugly flesh wound in
the left arm about midway between the elbow and shoulder.
"No bones were broken, and Mr. St. Cyr returned to Dal-
las on the early train this morning.
"So far no arrests have been made."
I cannot see how an excited woman, fainting at the time,
who doesn't know anything that is going on, can identify a
Negro with any degree of certainty as being the right man
(Atlanta Constitution, January 7, 1913.)
"Tampa, Fla., Jan. 6. — 'You may lynch this Negro, but
only after you have killed me.' That was the ultimatum de-
livered by Sheriff Galloway of Marion County to a crowd
of white men, who gathered at the jail there last night to
lynch J. J. Johnson, a Negro, who was arrested yesterday
morning for criminally assaulting a white woman near
Citra. The sheriff and three deputies, well armed, bluffed
the crowd away from the jail.
"The sheriff asked the governor for militia, and the gov-
ernor ordered out the Ocala company, which now guards
the jail. The grand jury will convene tomorrow to hear
the evidence and a speedy conviction is certain as the Ne-
gro's victim has identified him."
(Atlanta Constitution, January 4, 1913.)
"Thomson, Ga., Jan. 3.— (Special.)— The fatal wounding
of Watt Baston, deputy sheriff and farmer, by a Negro
whom he had arrested this afternoon, has started a deter-
mined posse in search of the fugitive, and serious trouble is
feared if he is captured.
"The Negro's wife is thought to have joined him after
she had leveled a gun at Hunter Clary, son of Sheriff
Clary, who shot at Butler after Baston was apparently-
"When the officer told the Negro he wanted him on a
warrant charging theft of a mule, the Negro was so peace-
able and quiet that Baston, turning to go to his buggy, neg-
lected the precaution of placing the black in front of him.
Without warning, Baston was suddenly knocked to the
ground, the huge Negro on top of him, struggling to gain
possession of the gun.
"Baston Shot Twice in Face.
"In the scuffle the officer was seriously bitten by the Ne-
gro, and then struck on the head with the gun. As he
turned to flee, Butler fired twice at Baston as he struggled
to rise, both loads taking effect in the face, and inflicting
what will probably be death wounds.
"Clary ran to the assistance of his partner, and Butler
fled. The young man shot twice, apparently hitting the
Negro, but failing to stop him. Butler's wife turned her
pistol on Clary as she saw her husband in clanger, but did
not fire. She then fled in the direction her husband had
"Much excitement was caused by the report of the trag-
edy, and efforts were made to secure dogs. A posse at once
started out in pursuit. Baston was brought here, and is
not expected to live."
Negro preacher to hang; what is termed a legal trial. I
hope before he leaves this land he will let the American
people know the truth, whether guilty or not. I would
rather see some kind of trial than a lynching. See the At-
lanta Constitution, January 8, 1913 :
"NEGRO TO BE HANGED FOR ASSAULTING
"Ocala, Fla., Jan. 7. — One of the quickest trials ever
held in Marion County, considering the seriousness of the
offense, was concluded this afternoon, when Jim Johnson,
a Negro, who criminally assaulted the wife of a prominent
orange grower near Citra, Fla., Saturday afternoon, was
given the death penalty. Only two hours and five minutes
had elapsed when the verdict was rendered.
"About twenty of the local militia and four deputy sher-
iffs escorted the Negro to and from the court room. Fully
2,000 persons assembled about the court house, but only the
prisoner's guard, court officials, attorneys and newspaper
men were admitted to the court room during the trial Of-
ficial papers will be sent to the governor's office tonight
and it is believed the execution will take place next Friday.''
I shall take up this case again if I can get any more facts
After Jack Johnson.
(Atlanta Constitution, January 10, 1913.)
"JACK JOHNSON AT BAR ON SMUGGLING CHARGE.
"Chicago, Jan. 9. — 'Jack' Johnson, Negro prize fighter,
appeared today ready for trial on a charge of smuggling
a diamond necklace valued at $6,000 into this country from
Eugland two years ago.
"Judge Carpenter continued the trial indefinitely and
said he desired to dispose of the indictments charging the
Negro with violation of the Mann white slave act before tak-
ing up the smuggling case.
"Johnson's friends said that he had begun training to re-
enter the ring."
"Chicago, Jan. 14.— First information of Jack Johnson's
flight from Chicago was given by the publication in a local
newspaper of a telegram from a passenger who recognized
the Negro on the train. Acting on this, Charles S De-
woody, superintendent of the department of justice in Chi-
cago, traced the train on which Johnson was supposed to
be traveling, and wired the police at Battle Creek to arrest
"Shortly after his arrest Johnson called Superintendent
Dewoody by telephone and explained that he had no inten-
tion of staying in Canada or making an extended trip. He
said he had no thought of violating the federal law, or of
attempting to forfeit his $30,000 federal bond.
"Johnson was indicted several months ago by the Fed-
eral Court on several counts for alleged violation of the
Mann act, and is at liberty on bonds. He is also charged
with smuggling valuable jewelry into this country from
Europe for his white wife, Mrs. Etta Johnson, who com-
mitted suicide a few months ago. The latter case is
"Mann act violations are not extraditable, and for this
reason Johnson had no right to leave this country, the fed-
?ral authorities assert. His payment on the train of cash
fare to Toronto indicated his intent to go to Canada, say
"BACK TO JAIL.
'Bond Will Be Canceled Pending Trial in United States
"Chicago, Jan. 14. — At a conference of federal officials
t was decided to bring Johnson back to Chicago. The plan
s to obtain a bench warrant for him as a fugitive and send
;wo deputy marshals to Battle Creek to bring him back
"When he arrives, it is said, his bond will be canceled and
;hat he will be held in iail without bail until his trial in the
"AGAIN BEFORE THE COURT.
'Johnson's Attorney Promised to Produce Him on
"Chicago, Jan. 14. — When application was made to Fed-
eral Judge Carpenter for a bench warrant for Johnson's
irrest as a fugitive, the court declined to issue the warrant.
\n attorney who appeared for Johnson said he would pro-
luce his client in court tomorrow morning."
(Atlanta Constitution, January 15, 1913.)
"Chicago, Jan. 14. — Jack Johnson, the Negro heavy-
veight pugilist, was taken to the county jail here tonight
;o await the judgment of Federal Judge Carpenter as to
vhether his bail bond of $30,000 should be forfeited.
"When the pugilist's party, consisting of his white wife,
;wo white secretaries and valet, reached here after being
urned back at Battle Creek, Mich., from a Canada-bound
rain, Johnson asked to talk over the telephone to Charles
?. DeWoody, superintendent of the United States Depart-
nent of Justice. At the conclusion of the conversation
rohnson told Deputy Marshal Meyers that Mr. DeWoody
would allow him to spend the night at his own home.
"Meyers refused to accept the order unless from Mr. De-
Woody direct. The pugilist and his retinue were taken in
in automobile to Mr. DeWoody's residence.
" 'Johnson, if you did not mean to stay out of the juris-
liction of the Federal Court, why did you ship two ot your
lutomobiles to Canada?' demanded Mr. DeWoody. The pu-
gilist hesitated in his reply, and Mr. DeWoody gave him
his choice of being held in a hotel in charge of marshals or
being taken to jail. Johnson chose the jail.
"The first information of Jack Johnson's flight from
Chicago was given by the publication in a local newspaper
of a telegram from a passenger who recognized the Negro
on the train.
"Acting on this, Charles S. DeWoody, superintendent of
Department of Justice in Chicago, traced the train on which
Johnson was supposed to be traveling, and wired the police
at Battle Creek to arrest him.
"Shortly after his arrest, Johnson called Superintendent
• DeWoody by telephone and explained that he had no inten-
tion of staying in Canada or making an extended trip. He
said he had no thought of violating the federal law or of at-
tempting to forfeit his $30,000 federal bond.
"Johnson was indicted several months ago by the Fed-
eral Court on several counts for alleged violation of the
Mann act, and is at liberty on bond. He is also charged
with smuggling valuable jewelry into this country from
Europe for his white wife, Mrs. Etta Johnson, who com-
mitted suicide a few months ago. The latter case in
"Mann act violations are not extraditable and for this
reason Johnson has no right to leave this country, the fed-
eral authorities assert.
"Johnson Denies Running Away.
"Battle Creek, Mich., Jan. 14. — Jack Johnson, who, while
en route for Toronto, was taken from a train here this
morning at the request of United States officials, left for
Chicago late today, accompanied by his wife and other
members of his party. The pugilist was in charge of Bert
J. Meyers, a federal officer. John was accompanied by his
white wife and two Negro friends.
"When taken from the train here, Johnson said he did not
wish to violate any of the terms of the bond insuring his
appearance in United States District Court, and simply
intended to go to Toronto to consult with Tom Flanagan,
his former manager, regarding a proposed fight with Al'
Palzer in Paris. He claimed that the latter's manager had
offered to arrange a fight for $25,000.
"At no time did Johnson appear to take his arrest se-
riously. He denied any intention of running away from
I am not by any means impressed with Jack Johnson, if
uilty. Would a white citizen have been guilty under the
ame facts, not under the same charge; the charge is the
ase. If he beats the case, can there be a case made for
im? What they need to do, possibly, is to change the so-
ial law up there. It's not every time a Negro accompanies
white girl or woman out of the State in a social way, he
as violated the white slave act. It should be proven for
'hat purpose it was done. And how is the public to know
nless secret service men follow them? Men are daily go-
ig from State to State with women who are not related.
d them. Why make a case? First, stop whites and Ne-
roes from social equality, and then make the laws. Hon.
barter Harrison, mayor of Chicago, said : "I have been
rying to find an excuse to close up Jack Johnson's cafe and
un him out of the country." What they ought to do is to
ive him a fair trial. They cannot afford to do anything
lse. We want to see him get a fair trial, as any other cit-
The Sheol-bound man again upholding lynching. I be-
ieve God will raise up a man to take his place. See Atlanta
"Columbia, S. C, Jan. 15. — The first near-clash between
he opposing factions in the House of Representatives came
his morning when G. R. Rembert, floor leader of the Blease
orces, attempted to have a message of Governor Blease
written in the journal. Governor Blease replied to the
harges made against him at the investigation in Augusta.
Ay. Nicholson of Spartanburg opposed the motion on the
ground that it should be held as information until the re-
tort of the investigating committee is made.
"The governor also sent a special message to the Legisla-
ure containing full stenographic reports of the three
peeches he made in Richmond. They were received as in-
brmation and will be printed in the journal.
"Blease Defends Lynching Speech.
"In his message transmitting the Richmond speech, Gov-
ernor Blease says :
" 'To the Honorable Members of the General Assembly
>f the State of South Carolina. — Gentlemen : I herewith
ransmit to you the official stenographic report of my
ipeeches before the Conference of Governors, held in Rich-
nond, Va., December 3 to December 6, 1912. This report
s furnished me by Mr. L. D. Booth, the official stenog-
rapher of the Conference of Governors, who is stenographer
for the State Corporation Commission of the Common-
wealth of Virginia, with headquarters at Richmond.
" 'So much has been said and so much has been written
about the speeches which were delivered by me before the
Governors' Conference, and such cowardly, infamous and
foul editorials have been heralded throughout this country
by various newspapers, that I desire to submit to you
and my constituents in South Carolina exactly what
I said in the three speeches, to-wit': the address on
penology, the address on divorce, and the address on
the resolution which is quoted below in connection with
the three addresses, in order that you and the people
of South Carolina may see that there was absolutely noth-
ing said by me on that occasion in reference to lynch law,
except what I have said all over South Carolina, time and
time again. And I have never yet said it in South Caro-
lina that it did not meet with round after round of applause
from the best people of my State.
" 'I care nothng for the .criticisms of Cubans, mixed-
breeds, Negroes or Negro lovers. However, I want the de-
cent element of South Carolina to see what I said, and to
let them pass judgment on it for themselves. Furthermore,
I want it to be made a part of the political history of my
State, for I am proud of the views I expressed in these
speeches, and stand by every word of them, and I am ready
and willing to meet any man in this State or in the entire
Nation, before the people of South Carolina, upon this issue.
" 'Read what I said, and then think as you like about it.
I have neither any excuse nor any apologies to make. Very
respectfully. COLE L. BLEASE, Governor.' "
TEXAS MOB— LYNCHING NO. 8.
(Atlanta Constitution, January 18, 1913.)
"Paris, Tex., Jan. 17. — Henry Mouzen, a Negro, who shot
and killed the 12-year-old daughter of D. Morrell, a farmer,
near Pecan Gap, a w r eek ago, was hanged from a telephone
pole on the public square at Cooper, Texas, late today by a
mob. The Negro was taken from the sheriff and his dep-
uties near Cooper, after he had pleaded guilty and had been
sentenced to be hanged.
"Mouzen is said to have confessed that he shot at the
girl's brother, with the intention of killing him, and then
attacked the girl. The shot struck the girl. The boy was
"Mouzen's body was cut down early tonight, placed on
pile of railroad ties, saturated with coal oil and burned,
'he Negro population of Cooper is excited tonight, but the
rowds have left the town and no further violence is feared."
This is some of the teachings of the South Carolina gov-
Any person or persons guilty of rape should get the high-
:st penalty of the law. I don't think any person should be
mnished if it is not rape. Often free will and consent is
ailed rape, and the accused must die. When the Negroes
ire accused of rape, often the victim faints. I am up
igainst it as to how they identify the right man, whether
*vhite or colored. They don't know anything or that is
foing on, otherwise it would only be an attempt, from the
act the truth must come. There are but few men who can
commit rape. An attempt can be made almost at any time
>y any one who has such ambition, but the real thing is
loubtful. However, too many white men have put black-
ng on their faces in order to dodge behind the Negro in
heir crimes. And in every case the mob can always find
iome Negro who looks just like this white man in his mask,
rhese conditions will have to change.
I never have and never will desire social equality. Our
vomen suit me. The white man is right about desiring
to give his women the very best protection. The average
Sfegro has the same desire, but he has no power. Look at the
tumble case not long ago. A white man was in the bed
vith a Negro's daughter in the Negro's own house. What
vas the result? The Negro killed him and some of the poor
vhite men wanted to kill the Negro. The Negro, as I have
;aid, has no black slave law for the protection of his women.
3e cannot appeal to the unwritten law. The Federal law
las left his women out of the protection. Can he not pro-
:ect his home? You allow a white man to protect his
iome; why not a Negro?
See the Atlanta Constitution.
(Atlanta Constitution, January 13, 1913.)
"Washington, Jan. 12. — Stanley O. Finch, who has been
n charge of investigations instituted by the Department
)f Justice in enforcing the white slave law, now is in com-
munication with a group of philanthropists formulating
plans for a national movement to reclaim victims of the
traffic. Mr. Finch has just returned from New York,
where he consulted some of the leaders in the proposed
philanthropy, and although he declined to discuss the de-
tails of the plan he said no embarrassment for funds was ex-
pected. It is understood John D. Rockefeller, Jr., is one
of the principal financial supporters of the undertaking.
"Home for the Girls.
"While men who are convicted under the law receive ad-
equate punishment, the problem of caring for their victims
has from the first been the hardest one with which to cope.
It is, therefore, the present plan to expend the income from
a large permanent fund, which may amount to several mil-
lions, in maintaining rescue homes in which girls who are
reclaimed from the underworld may be given care and in-
struction pending such time as may be necessary for them
to get a new start in life. An effort then will be made
to find honorable employment for them and a paternal in-
terest will be taken in their subsequent careers.
"Driven From City to City.
"While there are some of these homes already in opera-
tion, it is realized that there are not nearly as many as are
needed. This fact has been brought home to social work-
ers in recent times during wars upon restricted districts in
many of the cities throughout the country. With no place
to seek shelter, the women have been driven from city to
city and their condition has been abject in the extreme.
"The canvass which special investigators of the Depart-
ment of Justice have been making of women who were lead-
ing vicious lives will be continued, and it is expected eventu-
ally that the department will have a detailed history of the
inmates of segregated districts throughout the country.
The project for the reclamation of all these women aims at
establishing a sufficient number of homes', perhaps more
than 2,000, in all parts of the country so that definite help
may be offered to every woman who will consent to give up
her past mode of life."
THE SOUTHERN LAW.
Is the Southern law a medium of justice to all citizens
I have been to some towns in the South, and upon the
court houses I saw a woman with a pair of scales in her
hands, on a balance, indicating equal justice to all; but not
so. If a white man is caught with a Negro woman, there
is nothing to it. There is no law covering his case. If he
holds a gun on her, there is nothing to it. But if a father
or brother commits an act of the unwritten law ; if the mob
fails to get him, twelve men will say he must die on a cer-
tain date. But if a Negro is caught with a white woman,
and she says she desires to be with him, he is vagged, if he
be a millionaire. A law that cannot reach the white man
when he is guilty of the same crime the Negro has been
convicted of, is defective or unconstitutional.
I believe every man ought to protect his sister or daugh-
ter with his life's blood, if needs be! That's only the kin-
dred ties. Disinterested persons can keep hands off. But
an ignorant mob doesn't want any facts in a case; only a
crime has been committed by a Negro, and the first Negro
caught is the one wanted. It makes no difference if he was
1,000 miles away when the crime was committed, he is the
What we want is a fair trial for the Negro, the same as
a white man would get. See this case:
(Houston Chronicle, January 8', 1913.)
"Chattanooga, Tenn., Jan. 8. — John McLemore, W. E.
Knight and Frank Hunter, on trial at Gaasden, Ala., charged
with the murder of Jacob C. Lutes and wife, an aged couple,
who were brutally murdered and robbed a year ago at Gal-
lant, Ala., were given a verdict of not guilty late yesterday,
Judge Herzberg holding that the evidence was insufficient
The white man has from the local justice of the peace to
the Supreme bench, all white. But God is the universal
Supreme Judge over all. He will take care of the Negroes
in due time.
THE STATE CONSTITUTION.
While some of the Southern States want a new constitu-
tion in order to reach the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amend-
ments, the North is helping the colored women to prepare
for citizenship. See Associated Press news:
(Houston Chronicle, January 6, 1913.)
"Chicago, Jan. 6. — A meeting which had as its object the
organization of the first Woman's Negro Suffragette Club
in Chicago was held last night at Quinn Chapel. The gather-
ing was under the auspices of the 'No Vote, No Tax League
of Illinois,' of which Miss Belle Squire is the moving spirit.
"Miss Squire presided and introduced Miss Clara Gilli-
land and Miss Antoinette Funk, who urged the Negro
women to take an active part in the fight for equal suffrage.
According to the speakers, the organization, if it is formed,
will be the first of its kind in the country."
There is nothing that helps the poor laboring Negro
more than the bill before the Texas Legislature against
thirty-cent money. Negroes all over the country have lost
good jobs on account of the power of attorney. They con-
tract to pay thirty cents on the dollar for thirty days, which
is $3.60 per annum for $1.00.
All the States are making laws against the loan sharks.
"LOAN SHARK DOES SOME FIGURING IN JUDGE
"Chicago, Jan. 25. — Inside facts concerning the opera-
tions of loan agents were uncovered by Judge Landis today.
" 'What rate of interest do you usually charge?' T. B.
Heiv, manager of the National Loan and Trust Company,
35 South Dearborn Street, when asked by the court.
" 'Ten per cent a month,' replied the witness.
" 'Please figure out therefrom the rate of interest on a
loan of $50, payable in three months installment,' requested
" 'It is 379 per cent,' said Heiv after figuring for some
" 'I thought you were somewhat off when you told me
ten per cent,' said the court."
TEXAS LAW MAKERS TRYING TO STOP THIRTY-
"After Loan Sharks.
"Representative Brown of Harris County has prepared
a bill which he will introduce today or tomorrow to prevent
the practice of usury by loan agents in the State. The bill
provides that all persons engaged in the loaning of money
on wages to be earned, on mortgages on household goods,
shall pay an occupation tax of $10,000 to the State and
$5,000 to the county in which they do business, and give
bond in the sum of $50,000 to the State, conditioned that
they shall refund to all persons aggrieved all interest charged
and collected over and above 10 per cent per annum of the
"It is proposed that the principal and sureties on the bond
shall be liable to any person who has been required to pay
a greater interest than the amount named in the bill, and
shall also be liable for all damages sustained by reason of the
loss of employment or sacrifice of property directly result-
ing from the collection of the usurious debt or any attempt
at collecting the same.
"It is also provided that any person offending against
the provisions of the bill shall forfeit his right to do busi-
ness in Texas and pay a fine to the State double the amount
of the bond, and any person whose right has been forfeited
shall not be permitted to again engage in the business in
"A similar bill was introduced in the last session, but
was drawn in such a manner as to call into question its con-
stitutionality. Mr. Brown will endeavor to meet the ob-
jections of the former bill and if his measure passes, Texas
may expect to see the passing of the so-called loan sharks."
I hope the Supreme Court will let it stick, and some good
fellow organize a poor man's bank.
New York on Loan Sharks:
(Atlanta Constitution, January 6, 1913.)
HARD TIMES FOR LOAN SHARKS.
"New York has removed another stout prop from under
the loan shark's structure of chicanery, and extortion. On
November 8 the appellate division of the Supreme Court
handed down a decision which rules 'that usurious loans are
void as to both principal and interest, and if usury has ac-
tually been paid the borrower may recover twice the excess
paid in all transactions within a period of two years.'
" The case,' says The Survey, 'grew out of a loan made to
one Alexander Dunscomb by a lending concern which called
itself the Royal company, and whose directors were Mark
and Philip Sugarman and Frank C. Stratt.
"Dunscomb had borrowed $47.50 and had paid the com-
pany $2.50 a month for twenty payments. He used to go to
the office each month, give them his salary of $50, and re-
ceive back $47.50 of it — making him a new loan, they called
it. Finally Dunscomb refused to pay more, and the Royal
company sued. Dunscomb brought a counter suit to recover
double the amount of usury he had paid. The municipal
court allowed him double the amount of the last payment
he had made. His counsel appealed on the ground that this
was inadequate relief, and the result was the reversal by
the appellate division, granting recovery of double the sum
of all payments.' "
A Quick Trial in Mississippi.
Only seven hours to convict a Negro from the time the
crime was supposed to have been committed up to the jury's
verdict, See the
(Atlanta Constitution, January 22, 1913.)
"Gulfport, Miss., January 21. — Within seven hours after
he had shot and killed Chief of Police Charles Dickey today,
Percy Newkirk, a Negro who had been trapped by the officer
while in the act of burglarizing a store, was indicted by the
county grand jury, tried on a charge of murder, convicted
and sentenced to be hanged just one month from this date.
"Chief Dickey was extremely popular and feeling against
the Negro was intense.
"Notwithstanding the quick justice meted out to the Ne-
gro, a large and excited crowd thronged the streets near
the courthouse and jail after the trial was concluded and
threats of lynching were freely made.
"Chief Dickey was killed at 4:30 this morning when he,
with two other officers, attempted to arrest Newkirk and
another Negro, whom they discovered in the storehouse of
the Rolf Seeberg Ship Chandlery Company. Several citizens
and officers surrounded the building and captured Newkirk,
who confessed to the shooting after he was placed in jail.
He was indicted at 9, placed on trial a half hour later, con-
victed at 11 :15, after the jury had deliberated but three min-
utes, and at 1 :20 he was under sentence of death.
"Newkirk implicated another Negro, John Carr, who es-
caped. The shotgun used in killing Chief Dickey was stolen
just a week ago from a grocer in Biloxi, Miss/'
I don't see how they had time to examine the witnesses
in such a short time. The jury, no doubt, went in the box
prepared for a verdict. No doubt the chief was a man that
believed in beating Negroes over the head with his gun.
Texas Railway Statistics.
The largest verdict ever returned in Texas on account of
a railroad accident was for $35,000. The plaintiff in that
case was an able-bodied, energetic, successful business man,
who lost both legs.
A few years ago what was called the tunnel accident oc-
curred in New York, and one verdict arising out of that
accident was $30,000, another $60,000 and another $100,000.
One plaintiff recovered in Massachusetts $45,000.
In the year ending June 30, 1912, there were killed on
and by the railroads of the United States 10,585, while 169,-
538 were injured — an increase in fatalities of 189 and of
injuries 19,739 over the preceding year. Of 18,215 derail-
ments in that year, 1877 were caused by defects of the rail-
ways and 3847 by defective equipment.
In a letter under date of December 18, from the Hon. W.
D. Williams, one of the railroad commissioners of Texas,
written to a well known lawyer of North Texas, it is stated
that for the year ending June 30, 1912, there were killed and
injured in Texas on and by railroads:
Trainmen killed, 44; injured, 1555. Switchmen, flagmen
and watchmen killed, 66;' injured, 593. Other employes
killed, 66; injured, 3781. Total employes killed, 126; in-
jured, 5929. Passengers and other persons killed, 3; in-
jured, 820. Trespassers killed, 171; injured, 237. Others
killed, 32; injured, 296. Grand total killed, 332; injured
It is contended that with approximately the same railroad
mileage in the British empire less than half a dozen persons
were killed and less than 200 injured in the same length of
"Bicycle Officer M. C. Folds, who, on the night of Decem-
ber 16, shot and killed Cave Daniels, a Negro, was released
on $5,000 bond yesterday afternoon following a hearing be-
fore Judge W. D. Ellis, of the superior court. More than
thirty men appeared in court to testify to the good character
of the officer.
"That Daniels had been drinking and was partially intoxi-
cated when the trouble arose between him and the officer
was the statement of E. M. Gay, a Negro youth, who wit-
nessed the killing. The story of the happenings that led up
to it, as drawn from the statements of Officer Folds and
two Negroes, was highly favorable to the plea of self-defense
as originally claimed by the officer.
"It was to the effect that the sounds of shots in the neigh-
borhood of 100 Fraser street, where a 'chitlin' party was
going on, had drawn the policeman there. A Negro whose
head was bleeding asked him to arrest C. B. Shell, another
Negro, whom he claimed had struck him. Folds did this,
and Shell asked to prove by inmates of the house that it had
been an accident. This led the policeman and his prisoner
to the porch of the house. Here he ordered several Negroes to
cease whistling in reply to signals up the street. Daniels
interfered and drew a fork upon Officer Folds, who pulled
out his pistol and forced him to drop it. As the officer
reached for his electric light, Daniels struck him on the head
with his fist. In the scuffle the Negro threw him down, took
his billy away and struck at his head with it. After order-
ing the Negro to get up to no avail, the policeman pulled his
pistol out and killed him.
"Attorney Carl Hutchinson, who is said to have been em-
ployed to assist the prosecution by members of the Grady
hospital staff, where Daniels formerly worked as an orderly,
took no active part in the case.
"The bond as finally approved by Deputy Plennie Miner,
was signed by R. S. Osborne, Police Captain W. M. Mayo,
Police Sergeant A. D. Luck, A. N. Cook, George G. Garner
and Harry G. Poole.
"With Officer Folds in court were his wife and two chil-
dren: Gladys, aged 9, and Richard, aged 6. Chief Beavers
stated last night that he will remain suspended from the
force pending the action of the police commission."
This officer killed a Negro in Atlanta, Ga., and brought
his little children in court for sympathy of the court. The
State's attorney acting, refused to take part in the case
against the Negro killer.
That's playing out. The Negro is getting tired of being
kicked around. I have no special facts in this case. But as
a rule, I know the Negro, and I know a poor white man with
a gun. When he thinks he is among coward Negroes, he
will hit and kick everyone who fails to put his hat under
his arm and say, "Marse John, I will tell you all I know
about it." I don't believe in any Negro being bad, and neith-
er do I see any cause for one man to be afraid of another,
if both are equally prepared. No law-abiding citizen should
resist an arrest, but he should resist a beating at the cost of
his life, if he has that ambition. You notice those people
who will kick a poor dog around, will never kick a bull dog
around. Take for instance "Mississippi Red," a good fel-
low until someone would do something to him. Well, he
w T ould gamble, and the lawmakers will do the same. The
Negro knows the white man has got the jury, the courts,
from the little justice court to the Supreme Court, sheriffs
and everv organized mob, and if an officer arrests one with-
out beating him he will" not get killed. But brave Negroes
are selling out all over the country now.
An unsigned article in Chronicle, January 26, 1913:
The Negro Problem.
"To the Editor of The Chronicle.
"Anyone who has been a constant reader of The Chronicle
as I have been from its beginning would not fail to notice
the continued growth of the paper, both in its physical as-
pect and in the strength and tone of its editorial influence.
Many of your readers, among them myself, have not failed
to admire the strong note of numanitarianism that runs
steadily through the editorial policy of The Chronicle. The
Chronicle strikes a note that rings true and clear for hu-
manity — except in the matters affecting the large mass of
the South's population made up by the Negroes.
"Like many others of your readers there have been times
when I have felt a desire to express appreciation for the
broad and noble sentiments expressed through the editorial
columns of The Chronicle, but I have never before expressed
this appreciation in writing. I want to thank you for the
excellent review of the poem, 'The Kings,' by Miss Louise
Imogen Guiney, in the issue of the 4th instant. The poem
itself will strike the heartstrings of many thousands of pri-
vates struggling in the ranks, their 'sires already beaten try-
ing with broken saber to rise on the last redoubt.' It re-
minded me much of Kipling's similar poem, 'If.' The poetess
touches the greatest depths of pathos and sweeps the loftiest
heights of sublimity — and it was not surprising to me that
you should harmonize with the great note of the song.
"In the month of November, I think it was, The Chronicle
produced an editorial on the suicide of the white wife of
Jack Johnson. In philosophical truth, in practical fact, in
all that tends to portray error and point out the right, to
enthrone righteousness and tear down the wrong, the edi-
torial could not have been excelled. Every right-thinking
Negro — and they are legion — agreed with you.
"The other side of the equation is what the writer would
give much to have you see. As a Negro, it seems to me that
the Negro is not only left out of all consideration from a
standpoint of humanitarianism, but that he is actually dis-
credited by the South's greatest force for good or evil — the
press. I am taking the liberty to ask you directly if you
do not think it is a mistake, looked at from any angle, for
the presfc of the South to hold up to the world only the dis-
creditable side of the Negro? It is to the credit of the race
that Jack Johnson's conduct has been unanimously disap-
proved and denounced by the Negroes. It is to our credit
that even the Negro lawyers refused to defend him when
'they saw the nature of his offense. It is to our credit that
we disapprove of the widespread concubinage of white men
and black women and ostracize these women socially. Yet
of these things the great Anglo-Saxon press is mute.
"On this latter question the South has pursued a course
that is damning. Even in the city of Houston, where in-
creasing thousands of white women and girls are daily la-
borers and where the wage scale is barely sufficient to sup-
port the individual, the strong men of your race do not seem
to realize that this evil not only lies at the root of the labor
problem for white women and girls, but is sapping the life-
blood of the family relation.
"These are strange things to the thoughtful Negro, raised
in the South and taught to obey and respect the laws —
written and unwritten. It is strange to us that as a rule the
white press will feature our misdoings, but will studiously
keep its columns clear of the nice things that we try to do
from day to day. It is strange that the local editor will
report the chicken thieves and burglars, the purse-snatchers,
etc., but would not insert a church directory notice. It is
strange that you plead so eloquently the brotherhood of
man, the amelioration of adverse conditions, the beauty and
righteousness of charity in one week and in the next argue
for the repeal of the fifteenth amendment to the constitution.
These are strange things to us and withal discouraging, but
like the oppressed in all ages on the side of right, we gather
strength from opposition. But, what of the stronger broth-
er who withholds justice and fairness? As an editor of a
great paper will vou address this question to yourself?
The Mann White Slave Act.
A national Federal law, enacted by the people, for the peo-
ple. I am glad to see any people try to protect their women.
The White Slave law, without doubt, is a protection to so-
ciety ; but white society only. I am of the opinion that the
White Slave law is unconstitutional. Regardless to its sense
of good purpose, it is in my judgment a special law for a
soecial people, written under the American Constitution. If
this law will protect the colored or Ne^ro women, it is not
so worded ; it may be, however, so construed. Notwithstand-
ing it is allegorical, and not in harmony with the Fourteenth
and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution of the
United States. Anv laws that only protect one race or cer-
tain citizens are defective. The constitutional laws must pro-
tect all American citizens alike. There can be no seoarate
laws enacted in America for any special race; it must be for
all the people of its citizenship. T will not say anything
about the Supreme Court, but I question this law. because
it does not protect our women also. We are American citi-
zens. Our forefathers developed this country when it was
but a wilderness ; hence, made it a garden spot in this new
world, North America. Is it an oversight or ingratitude
on their part? If the Mann White Slave act does not apply
to Negro women, how can it reach Negro men? The color
line is drawn in the very enactments as worded.
Lynching No. 9.
(Atlanta Constitution, January 24, 1913.)
"Clarksville, Texas, January 23. — Dick Stanley, a 16-year-
old Negro, who, it was charged, attempted to assault a 4-
year-old white girl today near Fulbeyght, Texas, was hanged
by a mob at Fulbeyght this afternoon. Sheriff Mustain was
on his way to jail with the Negro when he was overpowered
by members of the mob."
There was no trial, no proof that this child committed the
act, or whether he was the one who committed the crime.
It is said he was 16 years old; he might have been seven
or eight years old or less. He might have been ten miles
from the place of the crime when committed, if committed
at all, but a Negro boy is dead now and the mob will not be
brought to justice. God may take the mob out of the way
befre the year is passed, but a human soul, a child in God's
own image, has been sent into eternity. Does the strong
arm say, "I am not my brother's keeper?" Does the State
of Texas care? Has she made any efforts to bring the guilty
parties to justice? Are our lawmakers concerned?
South Carolina Wants the 15th Amendment Repealed.
The Governor is in favor of it, but he prefers lynching.
(Atlanta Constitution, January 24, 1913.)
"Columbia, S. C, January 23. — The lower house of the
general assembly today adopted a resolution asking Con-
gress to repeal the Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution
of the United States, and thus take the right of franchise
from the Negroes. The vote was 70 to 46."
Why, we have white citizens in Houston paying $157.50
for a right to vote. If it is that much pleasure to be a citi-
zen, why not let us remain citizens? But, however, I think
all these mossback, backwoods, ignorant, would-be states-
men will be gone to Sheol a long time before the Fifteenth
Amendment will ever be changed. It is out of the question
to say they are going to heaven for there is no heaven for an
evil-spent life! Nor a black heart with the kingdom of hell
set up in it.
See what Representative Roddenbery of Georgia has to
say about his resolution in the house :
(Atlanta Constitution, January 31, 1913.)
By John Corrigan, Jr.
"Washington, January 30. — (Special.) Representative
Roddenbery, of Georgia, in a speech in the house today,
urged the passage of his resolution to amend the federal
Constitution to prevent the marriage of whites and blacks.
He told a pathetic story of the marriage in Niles, Mich., re-
cently of Helen E. Hanson, a 15-year-old white girl, and
George F. Thompson, a Negro of 42.
"Mr. Roddenbery declared that the marriage ceremony
was performed by Charles Ager, 'a minister of the
gospel — a white minister at that, who ought to be tarred
and feathered and put into exile.'
"The Southern congressman waved above his head a copy
of the marriage certificate of the couple, and quoted from
newspaper reports of the marriage, which recounted revolt-
"Mob Law for Such Cases.
" 'My God,' shouted Mr. Roddenbery, 'that the laws of any
civilized State will permit a bestial brute to have sanctioned
by law his wedlock to such a child ! Thompson is being held
in the county jail pending the outcome of the child's injuries.
He' is formally charged with abduction.
" 'As abhorrent as mob law is, men who are human can
be tempted beyond endurance. I appeal for the laws of
States to prevent these dangers and outrages.'
" 'I don't know what they will do about this case in Michi-
gan,' cried Mr. Roddenbery, 'but, by God, I know what they
would do in Georgia. No jail in my section of the country
would be strong enough to hold that nigger.'
"Mr. Roddenbery recalled the fact that a few weeks ago
he addressed the house on the subject of the marriage of
Jack Johnson, the Negro pugilist, to Lucille Cameron, a
white girl, in Chicago.
" 'It was then said by members of the house that the case
was an isolated one,' said the Georgian. 'This repulsive
character of marriage, however, is a common occurrence. I
hold here the certificate of this recent marriage, and upon it
there appears the gentle hand of a white woman and the
strong hand of a white man. Each upraised with fingers
touching each other over an open Bible. This particular cer-
tificate is a defamation of the bodK of Holy Writ and bears
testimony of the hideous marriage of an enfeebled white
child to a demon and a brute. How long will it be before
the States by law will prohibit such marriages? I am happy
to note that in Kansas last week a law was passed forever
outlawing marriage between whites and blacks.'
"Details of the Marriage.
"Mr. Roddenbery related the circumstances of the mar-
riage between Thompson and the Hanson girl. He said it
took place at Niles, Mich., on January 13. He added: 'The
certificate is signed by witnesses and underwritten by
Charles Ager, a minister of the gospel — a white minister,
at that — who ought to be tarred and featherd and put into
exile. Thompson took the girl from Hammond, Ind., arriv-
ing at Niles at 4 :30 in the morning. He concealed the child
in a hotel in the railroad district of Niles. He then visited
a justice of the peace and asked him to perform the cere-
mony. Thompson, who was a widower, saw the child only
two weeks before. She performed clerical work in a groc-
ery store, owned by her mother. The brute was attracted
to the child and bought her candy and ribbons. Finally he
induced her to leave her home, and kept her all night. He
later lured her to Niles, where the marriage was performed.
'Gentlemen, it passes my understanding that this black
brute who abducted this child, bound her in wedlock, and
after outraging her, left her dying, could ever find lodgment
in a jail or be confined in police barracks. Abhorrent as
mob law is, men who are human can be tempted beyond en-
" 'I appeal to the States to pass laws that will prevent
these outrages. Let the people of the several States cry
out to their legislatures to protect by law our weak helpless
and unfortunate against this brutality that cannot but im-
pair our civilization and lead finally to violence and venge-
ance, that all lovers of law and order would deplore. If the
States refuse to do this, I think we had better amend the con-
stitution as I have proposed.' "
I don't know whether this would-be statesman means all
Negroes are bestial brutes or not, which means beast. Why
should he call this man a brute when his marriage was le-
gal? He says the girl was 15 and the man 42. How does he
know? Because the press says so. Does he know these peo-
ple personally? I don't think so. While we in the South
are against inter-marriages from the fact it is not our cus-
tom, but in the East it is a custom and it has become a part
of them. No doubt, the law should be changed; however, it
must be done by the people there, and not by some ineligible
Southern ignorant, would-be stateman. He is not a great
man and never will be. He is not a cultured statesman and
never will be. He tells the world how quick his State will
lynch a Negro. That is nothing great of his State and noth-
ing great of him to approve of such. I have sized him up to
be a malignant sinner. He took God's name in vain in the
greatest capitol of the world, where cultured men look up-
on it as a sacred place. He can never do his people any good
there; he can only hope to just be there and draw his pay.
He will never have any weight, influence and neither follow-
ing in Congress. He calls this man a brute because he mar-
ried a white girl, that the State allowed him to marry. While
I don't advocate inter-marriages, yet I don't believe the man
is a brute. The social condition no doubt will have to work
itself out in the East. I doubt if the legislature can force the
conditions to any effect. Up there the Negro woman, as
well as down South looks good to the white man.
And the white woman of the East in a small degree thinks
the same of the Negro man. If not, he could not marry her;
she is not forced to love him and marry him. These condi-
tions must be handled on the merits. The truth must come,
however, it may not sound good to all concerned. In the
South we don't like it about the white man taking some of
our best girls, but we cannot help ourselves. The law will
not reach our case. In some sections the Negro can not pro-
tect his home. I claim a woman, whether white or colored,
should be just as safe alone in a thousand miles of wilder-
ness with a Negro, as if his sister, if a good citizen, if a
Christian gentleman. And we have this type of manhood.
(Atlanta Constitution, Jan. 24, 1913.)
"Buchanan, Ga., January 23.— (Special.) Charged with
assaulting a 14-year-old girl, said to be mentally unbalanced,
a wealthy citizen of Tallapoosa, about 63 years old, has been
indicted by the Haralson County grand jury in session here.
"Morrow was arrested a few days ago and given a trial
before Mayor Pierce, found guilty of assault and sentenced
to pay a fine of $100 or spend thirty days in jail. He was
serving his term in the Tallapoosa calaboose when arrested
by Sheriff Parker and brought here to the county jail.
"A lynching was threatened in Tallapoosa when news of
the alleged assault became known, but some of the leading
citizens succeeded in persuading the mob to allow the law to
take its course.
"It is said that two or three responsible young men of
Tallapoosa witnessed the alleged deed, but they had never
mentioned the occurrence until a few days ago, and not then
until they were closely questioned by the arresting officers.
Marshal Pope and Deputy Sheriff Smith. They then made
a clean breast of all they had heard and seen, which led to
"When seen in jail, Morrow was very reticent, and would
not talk of the incident.
"At the preliminary trial given Morrow it was shown by
the girl's father that she was mentally unbalanced. He said
she had never been able to learn her A B C's, and could not
tell the time of day by the clock. Morrow has lived in Talla-
poosa for a number of years, accumulating a fortune there
in the real estate business. He has retained counsel, and
will make a fight for his life and liberty. Upon the bill
returned by the grand jury were the words, 'No bond al-
lowed/ and he will be forced to remain in jail until the case
is decided, which will probably be next week."
A white man gets a fair trial; had he been a Negro he
would have been burned to a stake.
Houston, Miss., Mob.
Lynching No. 11.
(Houston Chronicle, Feb. 9, 1913.)
"Houston, Miss., Feb. 8. — Within vision of a powerless
sheriff and several deputies on the court house square, Dib-
rell Rucker, a Negro, aged 30, was burned to death by a mob
this afternoon. His body was tied to a post and tar and
straw applied. When the flames began to spread two shots
were fired from the crowd and one was believed to have
pierced the Negro's heart. He did not move again.
"The Negro admitted killing Mrs. John Clifford Williams,
wife of Deputy Chancery Clerk Williams, at her home Tues-
day morning, for which another Negro, Jim Jones, aged 35,
was lynched by the same mob early Friday morning.
"Rucker was captured last night and was kept in hiding
by the sheriff until about noon today, when the mob found
"The officer and his deputies were overpowered, taken to
the court house and locked in a second story room and per-
mitted to see the mob work through an open window. Jones,
the Negro who was lynched Friday, was an accomplice of
Rucker, according to the latter's story, but Rucker admitted
killing the woman. He said Jones helped conceal her body
in the cellar of her home."
This is a lynching in which the Associated Press says
the Negro admitted his guilt; there is no certainty about it.
The man is dead. It is likely to be a Monk Gibson case.
Who could believe anything a mob said? Who would be-
Houston Mississippi Mob
lieve the sheriff and deputies were powerless to act? The
mob knew the officers is why they preferred to lynch the
Negro on the court house square. Some of that number must
go before the bar of God this year.
More About the Houston, Mississippi, Mob.
(Atlanta Constitution, February 9, 1913.)
"Houston, Miss., February 8. — While a court stenographer
took his testimony, Divel Rucker, a Negro, 30 years old, to-
day, in the presence of 1,000 persons, convicted him of the
murder of a white woman, was condemned to death, and,
while the sheriff and his deputies looked on, powerless to
act, was chained to steel pump in the court house yard, oil-
soaked wood was piled about him, the match applied and the
body incinerated. A member of the mob fired four shots
into Rucker's body before he died. His ashes were gathered
up and carted away and the crowd dispersed.
"Took Negro From Sheriff.
"The lynching was the second in as many days, and fol-
lowed the killing of Mrs. J. C. Williams, who was clubbed to
death in her home here in the daytime Thursday, and her
body thrown in a pit under the house after it had been strip-
ped of a diamond ring and other jewelry. Andrew Williams,
a Negro, was first arrested charged with the crime. He was
taken from jail by a mob and hanged Friday. The same
night, Rucker, an employee of Mrs. Williams' father, was
taken into custody and was hidden in a dwelling by the
"Early today the mob ferreted out the hiding place, took
the Negro from the officers, who were placed under guard,
and determined to give Rucker a public trial without official
interference. He was led down the street to a convenient
open spot, the court stenographer summoned and an oppor-
tunity given the Negro to tell his story.
"Innocent Negro Lynched.
"He was quizzed for two hours. He declared the Negro
previously lynched to be guiltless. He told in detail of en-
tering the dwelling and asking Mrs. Williams for money
and, being refused, he said he choked and beat her to death.
The stenographer duly made a record of the confession, and
at its conclusion the question of punishment was debated.
" 'Burn him,' someone laconically said, and Rucker was
marched to the court house yard, where he was bound to
"District Attorney Knox appealed to the throng to forego
its vengeance. He declared Governor Brewer at Jackson,
with whom he had talked over the telephone, promised a spe-
cial term of court to try Rucker. The crowd listened re-
spectfully, but proceeded with its preparation to execute
"The sheriff and his deputies, under guard in the court
house, witnessed the scene through a window."
NEGRO WOMEN WORKING ON WAYCROSS STREETS.
(Atlanta Constitution, February 5, 1913.)
"Waycross, Ga., February 4.— (Special.) Mayor Harry
D. Reed thinks he has found the solution of the loitering
problem among Negro women of Waycross. Gang sentences
are being given to loiterers by the mayor, and a guard has
been secured to keep the women of this gang at work on
the city streets.
"Today the gang has seven members, and all are on for
fifteen days. A few of them claim to be cooks, but as they
were reported by the police as 'regulars'' at a hang-out joint
for Negroes, they were not allowed to return to their jobs.
Heretofore the arrest of Negro women has merely proved an
extra expense for the city, as the women were kept in jail
when unable to pay their fines.
"It has been several years since women were worked on
the streets of Waycross, and the decision to return to this
custom was arrived at only after serious consideration by
the city officials. Few cases of loitering are anticipated af-
ter it becomes known among those inclined to loaf that the
city has a job for all who are convicted of loitering."
In the State of Georgia, possibly the only State in the
Union where they make colored women work the streets
and city ditches. Texas is far above that !
"Macon, Ga., January 11. — (Special.) A holdup woman is
Macon's latest. Emmett G. Perry, a night dispatcher for
the Georgia, Southern & Florida railroad, was held up and
robbed by a Negro woman early this morning while on his
way home from work. The woman came upon him on Steel
street, and drawing a large knife is said to have demanded
that Perry hold up his hands. She went through his pockets
and relieved him of $25 and some papers belonging to the
"Though a cripple, Perry struck the woman a blow in the
face while she was searching him that staggered her. When
she came at him with the knife Perry picked up a brick and
struck her in the face. A policeman passed about that time
and the woman was arrested. She gave her name as Mary
Abel. When arraigned before the recorder this morning the
woman was committed to the city court under bond of
It may be true, but I don't believe it. I think it is only a
social equality case.
TO BE CARRIED TO GALLOWS ON COT.
(Houston Post, February 9, 1913.)
"Jackson, Miss., February 8. — Seymour Arnold, the Ne-
gro condemned to be hanged Monday at Collins, Miss., for
the murder of William Lowery and W. T. Johns, will have
to be carried to the gallows on a cot. W"hen captured by a
posse several weeks ago, it was found that a bullet had lodged
near his spine, causing complete paralysis of the lower por-
tion of his body."
This man was shot. He might have been shot trying to
protect himself or to save his own life.
The Negroes and Whites Work Together in St. Louis, Mo.
(Atlanta Constitution, January 24, 1913.)
"St. Louis, Mo., January 23. — A committee of five white
persons and five Negroes, appointed by the St. Louis league
to investigate the housing of Negroes, today issued a state-
ment protesting against a proposed ordinance segregating
the Negroes of St. Louis. A bill to that effect is pending in
the municipal assembly.
"The committee's statement says in part:
" 'Our committee is unanimously of the opinion that the
problem of the relation of white people and Negroes cannot
be solved by crystallizing prejudices into legislation. The
proposed law frequently would prevent Negroes from im-
proving their conditions by moving into better neighbor-
hoods. We cannot believe that any broad-minded American
can regard the legal segregation of races as American or
"The committee adds that the proposed law is unconsti-
Atlanta, Ga., Educators.
On practical education and moral uplift for the great
masses of the Negro race a number of Negro leaders made
strong addresses last night at a meeting held in Turner
chapel, corner Julian and Corn streets, under the auspices
of the Atlanta Normal and Industrial Institute, a school for
the practical training of Negro youth.
"How Leading Negro Women May Encourage the Lowly
of the Race" was the subject of Eliza Turner Frazier. She
told in a sensible way how the Negro of opportunity and
chance may help the race to have good manners and be
useful and honest.
M. B. Timbers, one of the teachers of the institute, read
a prepared paper on "How We May Thoroughly Prepare
Our Women and Girls Who Must Necessarily Do Domestic
Work." Other speeches were also made. R. D. Stinson,
principal, presided and urged the large audience that the
duty of the Negro was to be honest and discreet in conduct.
He said the best people of this community, if not the whole
South, are willing at all times to stand by the members of
the race who are trying to be decent. The singing, furnished
by a large choir of the students, was a feature of the oc-
(Houston Chronicle, February 12, 1913.)
"San Antonio, Texas, Feb. 12. — A charge of murder has
been preferred against Mary Wilson, a Negro woman, ar-
rested in connection with the killing of Olaf Olson, a troop-
er of Fort Sam Houston, last Monday.
"According to Sheriff Tobin the woman signed a written
confession and a copy of this has been presented to the grand
jury. She waived preliminary examination before Justice
Campbell and was bound over without bail.
"The woman stated that the soldier was at her house Sun-
day night and threatened her." When she started to go to
a friend's home, she said, he followed her and caught hold
of her. Believing he intended to do her bodily injury," she
says, she drew a revolver and shot him."
A white man was killed and a Negro woman arrested.
What was it? It was only a case of social equality. What
right did he have in her room? The white people are burn-
ing Negro men about white women, unidentified. Why not
let the Negro women protect themselves? Do any honest
set of men regardless to color say he had any right in this
woman's room? The white people will harp on the separa-
tion of the races until a white man is killed about a Negro
woman. She had a legal right to protect herself and home.
An Indiana Man Killed Three Negroes.
Evansville, Ind., February 8. — Allen von Behren, 23 years
old, assistant superintendent of a wood working plant,
owned by his father, B. F. von Behren, shot and killed three
Negro laborers today.
He said they had threatened to kill him. Von Behren was
Dr. Washington Makes An Able Address.
(Atlanta Constitution, January 3, 1913.)
"Tuskegee, Ala., January 2. — (Special.) Booker T.
Washington, principal and founder of Tuskegee Institute,
the famous school for Negroes, delivered a characteristic
address Sunday night in the chapel of the school to nearly
1,600 students, 200 teachers and several hundred colored
citizens from the town of Tuskegee and the Greenwood set-
tlement. Much interest was attached to the address, because
it was the last talk to the student body and teachers for the
old year and because it was expected that the address would
touch upon future work for teachers and students.
"The address was delivered without notes, stenographical-
ly reported, and it was characteristic of the practical and
helpful discourses Dr. Washington delivers Sunday even-
ings to the school.
"Value of Organization.
"Washington's address emphasized two principles as ap-
plied to the Negro: the value of organization and the ne-
cessity of obedience and discipline. Summing up his argu-
ments and stressing the need for respect of authority, he
" 'One of the fine results, satisfactory results, following
the mastery of that lesson is that in any organization, a
school or what not, where people have learned that great
fundamental lesson of respect for authority, obedience to
commands, there you will find order, there you will find
peace, there you will find absence of friction, there you will
" 'Now, let me repeat that one of the differences between
ignorance and intelligence, between crudeness and culture,
consists in the fact that an individual has learned obedi-
ence, respect for authority and the other has not learned it,
and don't make the mistake that so many people make, often
educated people make, that to obey is a sign of weakness, is
a sign of degradation ; to obey is a sign of strength, to obey
is a sign of all that which indicates nobility of character."
I will show the statistics of the convicts in State peniten-
tiaries in the United States for 1912 and 1913 :
The State of Georgia.
Negro men 2,308
Negro women 75
Total Negroes 2,383
White men 320
White 1 women 5
Total whites 325
Negroes, read and write 1,468
Negroes, read only 200
Negroes, illiterate 715
Whites, read and write 258
Whites, read only 19
Whites, illiterate 48
The Negro Reformatory School report not in at this writ-
The State of South Carolina.
Number of Negro men in prison 477
Number of Negro women in prison 46
Number of educated Negroes in prison 250
Number of boys in Reformatory School 137
Number of Negroes pardoned in 1912 (paroled 82) . . 5
Grand Total 690
State of Nebraska.
Number of Negroes in prison 99
Number of Negro women in prison 6
Number of educated Negroes in prison 39
Number of boys in Reformatory School
Number of Negroes pardoned in 1911-1912, about. ... 15
State of California.
Number of Negro men in prison 80
Number of Negro women in prison None
Number of educated Negroes in prison — Very few illiterate.
Number of boys in Reformatory School — No school here.
Number of Negroes pardoned in 1912 None
State of Maine.
Number of Negro men in prison 2
Number of Negro women in prison None
Number of educated Negroes in prison
Number of boys in Reformatory School
Number of Negroes pardoned in 1912 1
State of Virginia.
Number of Negro men in prison 1,647
Number of Negro women in prison 83
Number of educated Negroes in prison — 60 per cent partially
Number boys in Reformatory School, Not under jurisdiction
Number Negroes pardoned in 1912, 21 — paroled, 95. . 116
State of Nevada.
Number of Negro men in prison 12
Number of Negro women in prison 1
Number of educated Negroes in prison 9
Number of boys in Reformatory School — No Reformatory.
Number of Negroes pardoned in 1912 None
State of New Mexico.
Number of Negro men in prison 8
Number of Negro women in prison 1
Number of educated Negroes in prison 5
Number of Negroes pardoned in 1912 None
State of South Dakota.
Number of Negro men in prison 7
Number of Negro women in prison None
Number of educated Negroes in prison None
Number of Negroes pardoned in 1912 None
State of Vermont.
Number of Negro men in prison 31
Number of Negro women in prison 1
Number of educated Negroes in prison 12
Number of Negroes pardoned in 1912 3
State of Oregon.
Number of Negro men in prison 9
Number of educated Negroes in prison 9
Number of boys in Reformatory School 95
Number of Negroes pardoned in 1912 2
State of Kansas.
Number of Negro men in prison 283
Number of Negro women in prison 45
Number of educated Negroes in prison — 10% illiterate.
Number of boys in Reformatory School 343
Number of Negroes pardoned in 1912 None
Paroled, 69 ; 27 discharged by expiration.
State of West Virginia.
Number of Negroes in prison 410
Number of Negro women in prison , . . . . 14
Number of educated Negroes in prison 325
Number of Negroes pardoned in 1912 . 12
State of Ohio.
Number of Negro men in prison 340
Number of Negro women in prison 18
Number of Negroes pardoned in 1912 4
State of Wyoming.
Number of Negro men in prison 38
Number of Negro women in prison : 1
Number of educated Negroes in prison 12
Number of boys in Reformatory School 26
Number of Negroes pardoned in 1912
United States Federal Prison, Atlanta, Ga.
Number of Negro men in prison 290
Number of Negro women in prison None
Number of educated Negroes in prison 222
Number of boys in Reformatory School None
Number of Negroes pardoned in 1912 None
United States Federal Prison, Leavenworth, Kansas.
White men 810
Negro men 409
33 Negroes are unable to read and write. Some are well
educated. See letter elsewhere.
State of Maryland.
Number of Negro men in prison 553
Number of Negro women in prison 27
Number of educated Negroes in prison 376
Number of Negroes pardoned in 1912 10
State of Washington.
Number of Negro men in prison 43
Number of Negro women in prison 8
Number of educated Negroes in prison 39
Number of Negroes released in 1912 16
State of Texas.
Common education —
From Sept. 1, 1910, to Jan. 1, 1912—
Negroes received 838
Negroes discharged 659
Negroes pardoned 114
Negroes escaped 58
Negroes died 36
Negro women in prison 58
Total Negro men and women in prison 2,219
' l ^
Total white and colored convicts who can not read
and write 1,586
State of Idaho.
Number of Negro men in prison 9
Number of Negro women in prison None
Number of educated Negroes in prison 9
Number of Negroes pardoned in 1912 None
State of North Dakota.
Number of Negro men in prison 14
Number of Negro women in prison None
Number of educated Negroes in prison 1
From the reports the Northern States do not convict the
Negro so very fast. It is not because the Negro is not there
in large numbers. It is a fact some of the men who consti-
tute the Southern jury are prejudiced to the young Negro
and they go in the box with a determined mind to send the
Negro to the farm before they have the evidence.
Connecticut State Prison
Ward A. Garner, Warden
W T ethersfield, Conn.
February 5, 1913.
E. C. Branch, Esq., 3219 Haire St., Houston, Texas.
Dear Sir: — Enclosed herewith find card received from
you which we have filled out, showing statistics in regard to
our Negro population.
W. A. GARNER, Warden.
State of Connecticut.
Number of Negro men in prison 54
Number of Negro women in prison 2
Number of Negroes pardoned in 1912 1
State of New York.
Number of Negro men in prison 477
Number of Negro women in prison 72
New York Prison Report.
City Prison, Brooklyn 256
House of Detention, New York City 16
White, male 33,715
Negroes, male 1,636
Women . . ., 299
Total Negroes in New York prison •. . . 1,935
Louisiana State Prison Report, 1912.
White men 364
White women 4
Total white • 368
Negro men 1,591
Negro women 51
Total Negroes 1,642
Negro prisoners able to read and write 206
Negro prisoners unable to read and write 278
Whites able to read and write 118
Whites unable to read and write 28
Massachusetts Prison Report, 1910-11-12.
Shows an unclassified report of 7,006
Therefore I am unable to show what per cent are Negroes
State of New York Prison Report 1911-12.
State prison 4,532
State Reformatory for men 1,718
New York City Reformatory 304
State Reformatories and houses of refuge for women . . 549
County jails 1,8'85
New York City prison 670
New York workhouse 1,661
District prisons, New York City 230
Total, women 398
Total educated 2,496
Total, boys 495
The grand total of men, women and boys in the State pris-
ons is 10,609.
All reports are not in and will not be ready for the first
A GEORGIA TRIAL AT ATLANTA, GA.
Endowed with the historic and Southern name of Battle,
two Negroes, husband and wife, stood before Judge Preston
in police court yesterday afternoon and proved their right
to it beyond all doubt.
"Jedge, this here nigger got so rambunctious I jest had to
do something to conquer him," explained Martha as to why
she had called the police.
"Jedge, I ain't done nothing a-tall ; this women jest wanted
to show what she could do," explained George. "I brings
my money home every week and I been a good husband for
"And what do you do with your money?" the judge asked
"I puts it to good use. I pays policy with it fer the whole
family, so's if George gits laid up I'll git something."
"How much would you get if he broke his neck?"
"Bout $2 I reckon. But I loves him and I don't want
nothing to happen to him."
"That settles it then — only $1.75 for you, George, on ac-
count of your wife."
Then Martha, who had him arrested, paid him out!
THE BOOK A DEFENDER OF THE RACE.
This book is in defense of the Negro race. I have an-
swered every article against the Negro. I have shown rea-
sonable facts in each case. I have pleaded his cause. I have
reproduced many articles from the Associated Press, nam-
ing the paper and giving the date of same. I have shown
lynching. I have shown the number of Negro convicts, al-
most in the United States. The second edition will be com-
plete with all the information obtainable from all of the
States in the Union. I will discuss a solution in the second
edition to the race question. The book covers every injus-
tice done the Negro in America, as well as local conditions.
There is no need of so much prejudice against the Negro.
He is loyal to the country, he is true to the white man. When
he learns to like a white man and take him to be his friend
he will die for him. Big contractors find him to be reliable.
He will take a deep interest in his boss' business. He is not
with that class of laborers who only look for 5 o'clock and
pay day. He is an important factor to the big contractor.
All railrads find him a great help in the time of need. I
have said he will not strike. At any rate, the better class
of laborers will not strike under any circumstances; they
proved this at the S. P. railroad shops.
The superintendent of motive power is indeed a good man.
But there is a plan laid to side-track the Negro from all well-
paying jobs. If Mr. J. W. Small will take a little time and
personally look into these conditions he will do the Negro
untold good. The Negroes have merited this consideration
from the whole Southern Pacific Company. One big man
said not long ago to a little foreman: "Hereafter fill these
vacancies with white men." And the Negro was facing death
during the strike for the company. This is not Mr. Scott's
neither Mr. R. S. Lovett's wishes to side-track the Negro on
account of his color. He has made good. During the strike
the Negro told the railroad company, "I will do anything you
want me to do. All I ask is protection." Southern Pacific
Railroad Company, what will you do? Will you stand to
see him mistreated, thinking you will not need him any
more? You don't know about that.
Another good man who holds a small position is Mr. J
S. Richards ; he is a company man, nothing less. Demand-
ing of all an honest day's work; but all like him, because
he is fair; yet he is strictly business. There are some few
more good men who are not against the Negro in the shops.
An article from Dr. Bonner, one of the leading lights of
the A. M. E. Church :
I think this little booklet has an eye single of character.
Character is one of the greatest motive powers in the
world. In its noblest embodiments it exemplifies human na-
ture in its highest form for it exhibits man at his best; it
is the cornerstone of individual greatness.
Character is to a man what the flywheel is to the engine.
By the force of its momentum it carries him through times
of temptation and trial.
When a person has lost his character all is lost — all peace
of mind ; all complacency in himself has fled forever.
He despises himself, he is despised by his fellow-men —
within is shame and remorse ; without, neglect and reproach.
It is better to be poor ; it is better to be reduced to beggary ;
it is better to be cast into prison or condemned to perpetual
slavery than to be destitute of a good name.
O. L. BONNER,
Pastor of Payne Chapel A. M. E. Church, No. 1519 Hill St.,
A RAILROAD ARTICLE WHICH CONCERNS THE
(Houston Post, February 18, 1913.)
"Three important changes in officials on the Sunset-Cen-
tral Line were announced at the general offices in Houston
Monday. Captain George McCormick is made assistant
general manager in charge of motive power, P. T. Connor is
appointed assistant superintendent at San Antonio, and J.
M. Teachworth is named as assistant superintendent at
"In the appointments, which were made effective Monday,
Captain McCormick succeeds J. W. Small, Mr. Conner suc-
ceeds J. E. McLean and Mr. Teachworth succeeds R. A. Crof-
ton, all of the retiring officials having resigned.
"The men receiving the appointments are all old employes
of the company and have all held various important posi-
tions at a number of points on the system. Few are better
known in Houston than Captain George McCormick, who re-
turns to his home city.
"A. and M. Graduate.
"Captain McCormick was born in Columbus, Texas, in
1872. He graduated from the Agricultural and Mechanical
College of Texas, 20 years of age, and immediately entered
the service of the Sunset Lines in Houston under Master
Mechanic J. J. Ryan. Later he was transferred to San An-
tonio, but returned to Houston in 1894 as assistant to Mr.
Ryan, in which capacity he served until a year ago, when
he was transferred to El Paso, as assistant superintendent
from which position he has been promoted to the one he now
enters, in Houston, at the head of the motive power depart-
"While in San Antonio, Captain McCormick became a
member of the Belknap Rifles, and participated in a num-
ber of competitive drills in which that company carried off
the honors. Upon his return to Houston he joined the Hous-
ton Light Guards, another of the crack military organiza-
tions of the State.
"In 1898 when war was declared against Span, the light
guards volunteered for service and McCormick was elected
captain of the company and remained in command at Miami,
Fla., until the war was ended, when he returned to Houston
and again took up his duties with the Sunset Lines.
"In 1910 he was elected captain of El Mina Patrol, of
Shriners, in which position he continued until his appoint-
ment to the office of assistant superintendent at El Paso.
"Mr. McCormick was welcomed back to Houston Monday
by many friends and the Shriners particularly are elated at
his coming. The family will follow soon and they will again
take up their residence at their home, 1504 Leeland Avenue."
Lynching No. 12.
(Associated Press News, February 15, 1913.)
"Negro Preacher Was Lynched.
"Shreveport, La., February 15. — Charles Tyson, a Negro
preacher in the north portion of this parish, was found
hanging to a limb late Friday afternoon. It is believed that
he was lynched by members of his own race. The cause is
The Press claims this was a Negro mob; no fair-minded
man will believe any such stuff. Take the Houston, Miss.,
lynching. I was writing on that case two weeks ago, and
said some of that mob would die before the year was out.
And the Houston Press of February 14 shows one of the
mob at home hanged himself, which was a good thing; let
him go right on to Sheol. Others will follow.
(Atlanta Constitution, February 15, 1913.)
"An ordinance providing for segregating whites and Ne-
groes in Atlanta has been framed by Congressman Claude
L. Ashley, of the Fourth ward, and will be introduced in
council Monday afternoon.
"The ordinance is identical with the one introduced in Bal-
timore, Md., some years ago and recently declared by the
Maryland supreme court to be constitutional. Councilman
Ashley, the author of the ordinance, says the law will be
worth $50,000 a year for the better health protection it will
" 'I think the ordinance is a good one,' said Charles P.
Glover, president of the Atlanta Real Estate Board, last
night. 'I am not acquainted with the technical features of
the ordinance, but if it is like the ordinances in other South-
ern cities it will be helpful to both races.'
"Increase Realty Values.
"President Glover would not discuss the ordinance for the
real estate men of Atlanta. He said, however, that he be-
lieved the law would increase realty values in white sections
and would also have a tendency to boost property populated
" 'There is no race prejudice nor favoritism in the law
I propose,' Councilman Ashley explained Friday. 'I have
studied social conditions in Atlanta ever since boyhood and
I am convinced that a segregation law will not only tend
to the betterment of health and moral conditions among the
Negroes, but will also aid in the social uplift of the people.'
"Councilman Ashley believes his ordinance will improve
health conditions in Atlanta more than 50 per cent. He says
that the law will soon wipe away the little huts occupied by
both white and black and eradicate the breeding places of
tuberculosis, smallpox, typhoid and other diseases which At-
lanta is pending thousands yearly to combat.
"Will Separate the Races.
" 'There are dozens of tenement houses in Atlanta in which
whites and Negroes live,' Councilman Ashley says. 'It is
my aim to have the races separated and removed into sec-
tions where they can be associated with people of their own
"Councilman Ashley has already been assured the sup-
port of influential members of the council in his fight to get
the ordinance through. He has also passed the measure to
a number of leading real estate men, and they have given
him assurance of support. He says the only objection to
the ordinance will come from owners of property who do
not have the welfare of the people of the city or their ten-
ants at heart.
"The ordinance is to become effective from the date of its
adoption by the council. It makes it a misdemeanor for any
person, white or black, to move into or use as a residence
any building located on a street, alley or thoroughfare, to
be defined by council. Violation of the ordinance is pun-
ishable in the police court by fine or imprisonment, and
for each day the law is violated the ordinance provides for
a separate offense.
"Provisions of Ordinance.
"The law does not prevent domestic servants from resid-
ing in the house in which they are employed or in houses
on the lots.
"The ordinance also provides that persons desiring to erect
houses for himself or as agent in a section denned, shall de-
clare to the building inspector whether the place is to be
occupied by white or Negro tenants.
"The ordinance requires the building inspector to publish
notice of application twice a week for two successive weeks
in an Atlanta newspaper. A majority of the property own-
ers in the block may protest in writing to the inspector with-
in five days after the last publication of the notice.
"The ordinance provides a method by which a block which
is vacant may be improved.
"Both Richmond, Va., and Baltimore have the same ordin-
ance in operation, and there has been a decided increase of
realty values in both cities."
This is a city law of Atlanta, a law that is adjustable to
meet any condition. It is against the law for a Negro to live
next door to a white family unless the Negro is a domestic
servant of the said white family, in that case the Negro be-
comes white and the law is not violated. What a grand
constitutional city ordinance! It is like the separate coach
bill. If a Negro has got a white baby under the Jim Crow
law the Negro becomes white and eligible to ride in any
coach or Pullman car.
SON ACCUSED FATHER OF MURDERING NEGRO.
(From the Atlanta Constitution, February 24, 1913.)
"Asheville, N. C, Feb. 23. — Joseph Price, a white man of
Marion, charged with the murder of John Allen, colored, in
August, 1911, was acquitted by the jury last night, accord-
ing to a telephone message received here today.
"Price was arrested on the statement of his 16-year-old
son that his father had slain Allen in order to get the gold
which the Negro was supposed to carry on his person. The
boy maintained that on the morning following the murder,
his father compelled him (the son) to assist in the burial
of the victim. The defense during the trial endeavored to
show that the boy's story was concocted in revenge for a
whipping which the father had administered."
Lynching No. 15.
BOY ACCUSED OF STRIKING WHITE MAN— IT HAP-
PENED IN COLE L. BLEASE'S STATE.
(From the Atlanta Constitution, February 24, 1913.)
"Manning, S. C, Feb. 23. — Taken from an officer and shot
by a mob of twelve or fifteen masked men, Marion Cantria,
a 17-year-old Negro boy, was lynched early this morning
"The boy, who was accused of assault and battery on a
young white man, was arrested and committed for trial by
the magistrate at Paxville, near here. An officer set out to
bring the boy to jail at Manning, the county seat at Claren-
"About 4 miles from Knoxville the constable and his pris-
oner were overtaken by a mob of twelve or fifteen masked
men, who took the boy from the officer and shot him to
"The officer reported the lynching, and the coroner held
an inquest today. The verdict was that the Negro had come
to his death at the hands of unknown parties. The inquest
elicited no information as to who composed the mob."
A WHITE CONVICT MADE A CITIZEN.
This man killed Drake without a cause; a harmless Ne-
gro. He was convicted and sent to the farm. He was not
treated like a convict, he was made a trusty and given a job
as guard with a gun, which is his delight. I didn't know
under the Texas laws that guards could be made of criminal
convicts. He should not be pardoned from the fact he is
(From the Houston Chronicle, March 21, 1913.)
"Two Negro convicts at the Ramsey State Farm near Bon-
nie, Texas, were shot and killed and a third Negro badly
wounded during the attempted escape of several of the Negro
prisoners. The shooting is alleged to have been done by the
guards on duty. One of the guards implicated in the trouble
is Jim Lubbock, trusty and former deputy constable at Hous-
ton, who is serving a term at the Ramsey farm for killing
a Negro in Houston, and in whose behalf an application for
a pardon is now pending.
"Details of the shooting at the Ramsey farm are hard
to get, as Captain J. N. South, in charge of the farm, has sub-
mitted his written report of the shooting to the penitentiary
commission at Huntsville, and that body has not as yet
acted in the matter.
''From reliable sources, however, it is reported that sever-
al Negro convicts who had been working in the Ramsey plan-
tations made a break for freedom Wednesday afternoon.
The outbreak was general and the prisoners scattered in all
directions, with the guards in close pursuit.
"It is stated that the dogs of the guards had three of the
Negro convicts penned up. Just how the shooting happened
about this time could not be learned, as it was stated there
were no witnesses on hand, except the guards. From the
Ramsey State Farm it was stated that Jim Lubbock, trusty,
and the other guards in charge of the plantation gang all
participated in the shooting, and that when it was over two
Negro prisoners were dead and a third is not expected to
"All of the convicts were Negroes and from the farm it
was stated that all of the escaped men were recaptured. Ev-
erything is reported as being quiet at the Ramsey farm
Prof. E. L. Blackshear, A. M., the Texas Booker T. Wash-
ington, is educating the Negro farmers of Texas along all
lines of industry. His usefulness to the teacher and farm-
er is untold. See his Farmers' Congress July program, 1913.
Study it and be prepared to discuss it at this great meeting.
I signed the call for this Congress and I am delighted at its
(Houston Chronicle, March 22, 1913.)
PROGRAM FOR COLORED FARMERS' CONGRESS AT
PRAIRIE VIEW MADE UP.
Prairie View, Texas, March 22. — A called meeting of the
executive committee of the Colored Farmers' Congress was
held Friday at the Prairie View State Normal and Industrial
College for the purpose of deciding upon a program for the
coming session of the Congress, to be held at this place dur-
ing the latter part of July.
The meeting was called to order by E. L. Blackshear,
president, at 2 o'clock p. m., and the following persons were
present: Surry Smith, Pittsbridge, Texas; Jackson
of Bellville, Texas ; J. M. Jingles, Hempstead, Texas ; R. L.
Isaacs, Prairie View; R. C. Collins, W. P. Terrell, N. A.
Banks, J. H. Lee, C. H. Waller, Prairie View. The commit-
tee discussed many questions of interest to the colored farm-
er in particular, and to the colored people in general. Among
the things discussed the necessity of the colored farmer's
engaging more extensively in live stock raising took up a
large part of the time of the meeting. The program covers
three days and the following were elected to conduct the
meetings of the Congress: First day, Prof. C. H. Waller;
second day, Jackson ; third day, Surry Smith, Sr.
The following program was adopted: First day's ses-
sion, Tuesday, July 29, "Poultry and Dairying"; (1) "Best
Type of Milch Cow for Texas," discussed by G. W. Tillory ;
(2) "What Can Be Done to Produce Milk as Cheaply in the
South as in the North," Malty McDade, Hempstead; (3)
"The Best Home Method of Butter-Making," H. S. Estelle
of Prairie View, C. R. Gregg of Pittsbridge; (4) "Profit in
the Hen," Mrs. B. Fedford, Mrs. F. W. Jackson; (5) "Best
Breeds of Chickens," W. L. Davis of Hempstead, R. L. Is-
aacs; (6) "Poultry Feeding," N. A. Banks, J. H. Lee.
Second dav, Wednesday, July 30, "Truck Farming and
Marketing"; (1) "Time for Planting," S. A. Rutledge, Dr. J.
D. Dixon; (2) "Kinds of Fertilizers," H. E. Ganaway, John
Singleton, H. Montgomery; (3) "Benefits of Diversification,"
R. C. Chatham, J. V. Smith, Surry Smith, Jr.; (4) "Potato
Growing for Profit," E. W. Roberts, Jack Taylor, B. Fed-
Third day, Thursday, July 31, "Stock Farming." This
subject will be discussed in a general way, allowing every
one an opportunity to give his views on this very important
A paper as read before the B. Y. P. U. of Antioch Baptist
Church, in 1897 by the writer:
Society is the first principle of civilization, especially when
its object is to teach its members the knowledge of God,
and His goodness.
Webster defines society as follows : "A union of persons
in one interest." Therefore, society is a union, and union
means peace and love. Social society is a school of elocution
in which its members learn the delivery of correct language.
Society is a social school, it creates sociability among its
members, it develops them morally and sociably. Society
prepares one for his or her natural use in life. It does not
take the place of schooling, nor would I say so; society is
above school ; school prepares one for social society and social
society prepare one to meet the world on his or her merits.
Society holds out her hand and welcomes the fallen man and
woman to a seat of reform, if they will only accept. So-
ciety creates tact, and tact is but another word for goodness,
but to be good is to be just, to be just is to be kind, and to
be kind is to be loving and peaceable. Society will polish
the mind, and elevate the youth to higher and greater steps
in life. Society fits a person for manhood or womanhood in
this busy world. We have many encouringing features be-
fore us that demonstrate the necessity of the Negro prepar-
ing him or herself to meet the world on his merits. In
society great good will be realized to those who attend it
and are in earnest to make it a success ; success is not hidden
from those who seek it; in this society the little good done
now means something greater in the future. We can not
say too much about society in trying to impress the youth
of its great benefits. There are so many evil places of de-
gradation of today, until it is no little thing to constrain the
youth to an intelligent and religious standing in socety, in
fact it can not be done without society. The places of de-
gradation are as follows: The ball rooms, the gambling
houses and the saloons ; but thousands are lost, and society
can't save them now. Solomon says, "Train a child in the
way he should go, and when he is old he will not depart from
it." In Christian society we are taught not to sit down and
wait for the handwriting on the wall, or the light to shine
from Heaven, but to say, "Lord, what would thou have me
to do?" To elucidate this statement there is plenty to do;
you have the sick at your door, and the hungry also, not
hungry alone for physical food, but for spiritual food; tell
them of God and His profound goodness, and pray with
them. David, no doubt, thought of Christian society when
he said : "Behold how good, and pleasant it is for brethren
to dwell together in unity." Society develops a person's
talent, talent undeveloped is like unpolished stone, incom-
plete for use. Society elevates, and expands the mind. So-
ciety is the stepping stone to intellectual progress. In so-
ciety a person has the opportunity of studying questions;
study brings before a person a chain of thoughts, and there-
by expanding and elevating the mind to greater and nobler
things in life. In Christian society we can do what God
would have us do, and that is earnest Christian work.
The following are the eloquent words of Longfellow : "I
shot an arrow in the air, it fell to earth, I knew not where;
I breathed a song into the air, it fell on earth, I knew not
where : Long, long, afterwards in an oak I found the arrow
still unbroke; And the song from beginning to end, I found
again in the heart of a friend." What do we learn from
that? We learn that no good deed or kind word is lost, it
will have its desired effect. Let us do what we can for the
cause of Christ, and the uplifting of the race, and God will
take care of the results of our work. George Washington
said : "United we stand, divided we fall," he meant to come
together in one interest. In society a person does
not only prepare themselves to face four or five hundred peo-
ple, but they prepare themselves to speak to the world with
their pen. James G. Blaine, the greatest statesman the
world has ever produced, credited his success to society. Fred
Douglass, the greatest Negro the race has ever produced,
credited his success to the Baltimore Improvement Society in
slavery before his fugitive event took place. Ex-President
Benjamin Harrison was once president of the Young Men's
Christian Association. Society is no little thing; when you
are in society you are in good company. One writer says,
"When you are once accustomed to good company, no pun-
ishment* would be greater than to compel you to associate
with the vulgar and debased class one day. We must re-
spect ourselves, we must respect our young ladies, and we
must demand others to respect them. Another question
which we must hold under careful consideration, and that
is this: We must separate ourselves from those who do
not, and will not, pursue the moral path along the line of
civilization. Such is necessary to facilitate the moral de-
velopment of the race. May God help us to do real Christian
work in this society. Let us work, so when the green grass
is growing over our graves, our name will still live.
I am yours truly,
E. C. BRANCH.
THE NEGRO WOMEN OF TODAY.
Mrs. M. L. Jones.
Above all let the Negro know that the elevation of his
race can come only, and will come surely, through the eleva-
tion of its women.
Womanhood ! It is but a generation ago that the colored
woman had no stand, and the term womanhood was not
broad enough in this Christian republic to include women
of African descent. Her birthright was supposed to be that
of banishment from high social circles. In spite of the pre-
judice against her she has in a remarkable way emerged
from obscurity and overcome the prejudice, so that today she
stands on such a level that no one would have supposed her
to have had any relationship with slavery in the recent past.
Appreciation — No one denies that the colored women of
today are appreciating the value of culture and industry.
It is shown in their readiness to enter all open doors in this
direction. Universities and professional industries of this
country and Europe find the colored women ready as soon as
permission is granted. There are very few professions and
callings in which they are not winning their way, in spite
of the prejudice that would restrict them to the lower walks
of life. There are physicians, dentists, lawyers, linguists,
musicians, stenographers and nurses in this rising race that
are an adornment to the positions they hold.
Good Wives — Make it your highest aim to be good wives.
The race needs you and must depend upon you. When we
come to calculate the forces that decide the destiny of na-
tions it must be" confessed that the mightiest and grandest
come from the home! Good homes! The very salt of so-
ciety, the strength and joy of any nation !
That the Afro-American woman appreciates her position
is shown by the federation of women of that race.
False Impressions — We are weary of the false impressions
sent broadcast over the land about the colored woman's in-
feriority, her lack of virtue and other qualities of noble wo-
manhood. We wish to make it clear to the minds of our
countrymen and women that there are no essential elements
of character that they deem worthy of cultivating, that we
do not desire to emulate ; that the sterling qualities of purity,
virtue, benevolence and charity are not any more dormant in
the breast of the white woman than in the Negro woman.
Wants — Our wants are numerous. We want homes in
which purity can be taught — not homes that are police court
feeders. We want industrial schools. We want the dram-
shops closed. We want the pool rooms and gambling dens
of every variety swept out of existence.
Progress — Our progress depends on the united strength
of both men and women. This is indeed the woman's era.
My experience has taught me to advise the race to cultivate
a high sense of the womanhood of the race. This must be-
gin with the mothers. The mother should teach the boy to
respect his parents, to respect his sisters, and as a result,
other men's sisters ; to reverence the seat of the family wo-
man's power as very great.
Young women, did it ever occur to you that you had a
great and awful responsibility resting upon you, and that
you, in part, hold the destiny of our race in your hands? It
has been said, "Whatever the women are the men are sure
to be." Knowing this, fit yourself for the great emergency.
Let your thoughts be as pure, and character as spotless as
the snow upon the summit of the loftiest of mountains, where
the feathered songsters have never plumed their wings for
flight, nor the sweetest sound of their notes have ever been
I would that I had a thousand tongues, and every tongue
a thousand voices, and every voice a thousand echoes, that
could reach from America to the utmost parts of Africa, and
I would speak in loud tones with animating voice to every
Negro woman and bid her take up woman's responsibility.
I am proud to know that in this transition period of ours
we have among us a few men of unimpeachable character.
The young girls of our race, especially, wife and mother,
the greenest laurels ! You may crown her hands with civic
honors, but after all, to her there will be no place like home,
and the crown of her motherhood will be more precious than
the diadem of a queen.
MAY L. JONES.
State Industrial Reformatory,
January 25, 1913.
E. C. Branch, 3219 Harre St., Houston, Texas.
Dear Sir : — Replying to your recent letter to the Superin-
tendent of State Prisons, I beg to advise we have no such of-
ficer in this State, but I will answer your questions so far
as they relate to our institution.
In our institution we receive young men only, and they
must be between the ages of sixteen and twenty-five. Of
such we have in our institution eighty-four Negroes.
Twenty Negroes were given a parole contract during the
calendar year of 1912. About 76 per cent of all the young
men, white and black, that we parole, make good on their
contract; that is, they do not get in further criminal trouble,
and are given a final discharge in from twelve to eighteen
months after they are released from this institution.
So far as I can determine from our records, about the same
per cent of Negroes make good on parole contract as obtains
among the white young men we parole.
For further information regarding this matter, 1 would
suggest you write Superintendent Charles, Boys' Reform
School, Topeka, Kansas, and Warden J. K. Codding, State
Prison, Lansing, Kans.
Yours very truly,
M. F. AMRINE, Superintendent.
Kansas State Penitentiary,
J. K. Codding, Warden.
January 31, 1913.
Mr. E. C. Branch, 3219 Haire St., Houston, Texas.
My Dear Sir: Enclosed find blank filled out showing
number of Negro men and women in the Kansas State peni-
tentiary and number discharged by parole or expiration of
sentence during the year 1912. For information concerning
the number of Negro boys in the Reformatory write to Hon.
M. F. Amrine, Superintendent State Industrial Reformatory,
Yours very truly,
J. K. CODDING, Warden.
Department of State,
Baton Rouge, La.
February 3, 1913.
E. C. Branch, Houston, Texas.
Sir: — Your letter of the 5th inst. referred to the Board
of Control of the Louisiana State Penitentiary at Baton
Rouge, La., with the request that they kindly forward you
copy of the report of that institution.
Yours very truly,
ALVIN E. HEBERT, Secretary of State.
Ohio State Penitentiary,
January 30, 1913.
Mr. E. C. Branch, 3219 Haire St., Houston, Texas.
My Dear Sir : — I am enclosing herewith statement of our
Negro population as requested by you. For any information
regarding the Negro population at the Reformatory write
Hon. J. A. Leonard, Superintendent Ohio State Reforma-
tory at Mansfield, Ohio.
Yours very truly,
T. H. B. JONES, Warden.
West Virginia Penitentiary,
M. L. Brown, Warden.
Moundsville, W. Va., January 30, 1913.
Mr. E. C. Branch, Houston, Texas.
Dear Sir: — I enclose herewith information requested by
you concerning the colored population in our prison. These
figures relate entirely to the State penitentiary. The State
Reform School is located at Grafton, West Virginia, and for
information concerning that institution would refer you to
the Superintendent, Mr. H. E. Flesher.
Yours very truly,
M. L. BROWN, Warden.
United States Penitentiary,
January 31, 1913.
Mr. E. C. Branch, 3219 Haire St., Houston, Texas.
Sir: — Your blank making inquiry about Negro prisoners
in this institution received. Since several items need some
explanation, I am writing this letter. All women prisoners
not placed in local institutions are sent to the Kansas State
Prison, with which the United States Government has a
contract for that purpose. Hence, none are kept here at
Leavenworth. We do not classify prisoners here strictly
according to educational qualifications. At last report there
were present thirty-three colored prisoners unable to read
or write. All the rest were able to read and write, while
some, of course, had good educations. Only three men have
been pardoned from this prison during this administration.
One was a Chinaman and two were whites. Today there
are present a total of 1219 prisoners of whom 409 are col-
R. W. McCLAUGHRY, Warden.
State of West Virginia,
State Board of Control.
January 27, 1913.
Rev. E. C. Branch, 3219 Haire St., Houston, Texas.
Dear Sir : — Your request for statistics, directed to "Super-
intendent of State Prisons," has been referred to this Board.
We have not the information at hand, and have forwarded
the blank to M. L. Brown, Warden of the West Virginia
Penitentiary, Moundsville, W. Va., with the request that he
furnish you the desired information.
Very truly yours,
STATE BOARD OF CONTROL,
By Roy Reger, Secretary.
Department of State.
L. G. Ellingham, Secretary.
H. L. Confer, Asst. Secretary.
February 13, 1913.
Rev. E. C. Branch, Houston, Texas.
Dear Sir : — Replying to your recent communication would
advise that this department has no copies of prison reports
for distribution. We would suggest that you communicate
with the State Librarian.
L. G. ELLINGHAM, Secretary of State.
THE HOUSTON EDUCATIONAL ADVANTAGE.
For the information of anyone wishing to know about the
educational advantage of Houston, Texas. It leads all other
Texas cities. The city educational staff is headed by Prof.
P. W. Horn, a Christian gentleman, as Superintendent, with
a well organized force of first grade teachers. The city
operates a free night school for young and old in the Fourth
and Fifth wards. Already much good has been accomplished
at these schools. I have been told by one of the colored
teachers that Prof. Horn was indeed nice to the colored teach-
ers. He is an educational power for the advancement of
education, true character and the highest type of citizenship.
Good Christian teachers are as important as preachers.
From the fact they lay the foundation of character and citi-
zenship. They have the making of our boys and girls.
PRESIDENT WILSON A STATESMAN.
Prof. R. W. Thompson, one of our race's noted newspaper
reporters and special correspondent to the Indianapolis Free-
man, says President Wilson is making good thus far. Mr.
Thompson is prepared to judge right; he has been at the
National Capitol long enough to know a statesman, when he
comes in contact with the various issues that confront a
president. I have thought all along that Mr. Wilson would
handle the race question as satisfactorily as could be ex-
The following article is from the Indianapolis Freeman,
April 5, 1913:
(By R. W. Thompson.)
"Washington, D. C, March 26.— The Wilson administra-
tion starts out well. The President's utterances bear the
hallmarks of high-grade statesmanship. His admirable
poise, broad view of his relation to all the people of the coun-
try, ready grasp of the great questions of the hour, and com-
plete mastery of the situation, both from a moral and a polit-
ical standpoint, have won the confidence of the thinking ele-
ment of the nation. That Woodrow Wilson will be Presi-
dent of the United States and that he will do his level best
to redeem the pledges made to the people are accepted be-
liefs among the seasoned men of affairs, who have watched
the trend of current events from every possible angle.
"The colored brother is not at all alarmed over the advent
of a Democratic Chief Executive. He is taking things as a
matter of course. There is a general disposition on the part
of the colored citizens everywhere to look upon the bright
side of things. The hope is freely expressed that the pro-
verbial 'Wilson luck' will follow the occupant of the White
House and that the next four years will be a period of un-
exampled prosperity for all the American people. No ap-
preciable fear is felt that a panic is to ensue that will take
away the black man's means of earning an honest living, nor
is there any deep-seated notion that the welfare of the Negro
will be placed in jeopardy by the leaders of the new dispen-
sation. It is a common assertion that the anti-Negro fire-
eaters, whose remarks on the race problem required asbestos
paper for proper recording, are being forced to the rear and
that an era of business men and business methods is upon us.
"Negro delegations have called at the White House and
have been cordially received by the President and his aides.
•Many compliments are being paid Secretary Joseph P. Tu-
multy by colored men of prominence because of the uniform
courtesy he has shown in handling the matters they desired
brought to the attention of the President. Patronage has
been asked for the Negroes who helped to elect the Demo-
cratic national ticket, and the claims presented by Bishop
Alexander Walters, in the name of the Negro Democratic
organization, are being given due consideration.
"The predictions of the well-informed lean toward the idea
that Mr. Wilson intends to proceed slowly and cautiously
with the race problem, but that his ultimate policy will
square with equity and fair play with reference to office and
to legislation affecting the Negro people. The philosophers
are saying little, but are keeping both eyes wide open for
the things that may happen within the near future."
THE DEPARTMENT ADVERTISERS.
I will appreciate it if the readers will favorably note the
advertisements in this book. I know all parties, they were
given to help me personally. I have advertisements from
some of my white friends. They all are honest business men.
I have a newspaper directory. The newspaper men are
our defenders, who daily sit at their desk pleading the Ne-
gro's cause. Read any newspaper you wish, but don't fail
to read some Negro paper.
See the church order of service. You should attend some
church on Sunday. If you fail to do so you are not on the
(From the Western Star, Houston, Texas.)
AN OPEN LETTER TO THE BAPTIST FAMILY OF
"Dear Brother Watchman.
"Since God has blessed us with the sunshine of fifty years
light of freedom, love and mercy, it has been proposed by
the President of the National Baptist Convention, that the
denomination celebrate, in a befitting manner, the emanci-
pation of our race from the chains of slavery.
"As each of you know, the prince of darkness, the enemy
of our souls, has in all these years been striving to enslave
the minds and souls of the people whose bodies were liber-
ated by that prince of statesmen, Abraham Lincoln.
"Slavery is not over. If you will just look from your
watchtower and behold the masses, the multitudes of our
young men, who are growing worse and wicked. They are
creeping into our homes and dragging our women to destruc-
tion in more ways than one. The streets of our cities, where
the Negroes gather, are an awful scene upon the canvas of
time. We can reach them, we must do it, we will.
"Dr. C. T. Walker, Dr. E. J. Fisher, Dr. A. E. Wilson, Rev.
H. R. Wilson and Dr. Tyler have agreed with me to give the
country, as far as it will be possible for us to do so, a can-
vassing and thrashing. First, we propose to meet in some
city, where the pastors may invite us, and open up six
churches for ten days, organizing 'Rescuing Committees,'
etc., and meeting for plans of method during the day.
"1. More of the power of the Holy Spirit in our church
worship. Pentacostal results will follow pentacostal con-
"2. To help the pastors reach the unsaved of their fields
"3. To put all of the all to work.
"4. To put a Bible and hymn book in every home.
"5. To get people to join the church by the means that
John the Baptist used.
"We hope by this means, when the denomination shall
gather in its thirty-third annual meeting of the National
convention, to open in that same city, an evangelistic serv-
ice in which addresses and talks from pastors and workers
will be had during the sessions of the convention, and at the
same time report what God has done for us during the days
of our campaign.
"We hope that all of our denominational papers will pub-
lish the coming - of the 'pentacostal campaign/ and that each
pastor throughout the country will speak, preach, and pray
that God may enable us to bring in the golden grain.
"Our gospel commission reads : 'Go ye into all the world,
beginning at Jerusalem.' Jerusalem is the home field of
every pastor in America. Let us obey our captain, and there
is no question but that when we meet the enemy, they will
"We are, yours in Christ,
"REV. I. TOLIVER, D. D., Washington, D. C.
"REV. A. E. WILSON, D. D., Kansas City, Kans.
"DR. C. T. WALKER, D. D., Augusta, Georgia.
"REV. H. R. WILSON, D. D., El Paso, Texas.
"DR. E. J. FISHER, D. D., Chicago, 111.
'REV. A. J. TYLER, D. D., Washington, D. C.
'And nine thousand others."
WORKING AGAINST THE NEGRO.
Washington, D. C. — The colored postal clerks of the South
are much stirred up over a petition that is being circulated
among the white railway clerks, requesting Postmaster Gen-
eral Burleson to put all the Negro clerks on lines to them-
selves and not allow any Negro mail clerk to be in the same
car with a white clerk. The petition was started by Robert
Prather, a white mail clerk running out of Little Rock, Ark.
Pratier was flattered recently by having had his name called
to tht attention of the postoffice department because he pre-
vented a holdup on his line. He figures that since he is tem-
porally popular that he will win fame with this jim-crow
A few years ago the same scheme was proposed and sev-
eral write clerks were dismissed on account of their activity
in thustrying to cripple the mail service.
The Negro mail clerks have fought their way up in the
postal service, especially in the South, by superior work, even
against the rank prejudice of most of the white clerks who
hesitateto, in most cases, do nothing that is against the col-
ored cleiks, and in many instances their efforts seem to have
been sarctioned by the chief clerks, who have the direct
supervishn of the mail lines. In last days of Postmaster
Hitchcoctfs administration laws went into effect providing
for annua promotions to all clerks with satisfactory records,
and these laws when fairly applied will permit the Negro
clerks on Hg lines to attain large salaries. The envious white
clerks want the colored clerks for these reasons put on small
and insignificant lines.
Assurances have been given by the present administration
that the civil service regulations will be closely adhered to,
and this is taken to mean that this jim-crow proposal, like
its author, will amount to nothing.
AGENTS WANTED THROUGHOUT THE
SPECIAL PRICES TO DEALERS
Paper Bound $1.00
Cloth Bound 1.35
Best Binding, Fancy Finish 1.50
All mail orders promptly filled. Address orders to
REV. E. C. BRANCH,
1323 Schwartz Street
The following named persons are Agents and Generai Tr.veling
Agents for my Book :
LOCAL AGENTS :
HOUSTON, TEXAS— Miss Mary Jones, Mrs. M. L. Jones, Adkins
Brothers, John H. Carter, S. L. Wright, Stephen Role, Dick
Penson, John D. Anderson, Miss L. Brady.
GENERAL TRAVELING AGENTS:
HOUSTON, TEXAS— A. B. Jones, Prof. J. C. McDade, Mill Jones,
Dr. P C. Hunt, D. D., Dr. L. L. Nelson, D. D.
HUNTSVILLE, TEXAS-Noble Naylor, Mace Fisher.
KINDLETON, TEXAS— Miss Maggie S. D. Dillard.
TEXARKANA, TEXAS— Rev. Handy Allen.
DAYTON, TEXAS- Rev. L. J. Alfred, D. D.
FIELD AGENTS :
TEXAS— Rev. Tom Parker, D. D., Rev. M. Williams.
ARKANSAS-Dr. W. L. Balay, D. D.
ilmtnt Hernott iEpti|nbtat iEpiarflfral GUjurij
Corner Clark and Burnett Streets, Fifth Ward
ORDER OF SERVICES
Sunday School 9 A. M.
Preaching at 11 A. M. and 8 P. M.
Spiritual Department of Epworth League, 7:30 P. M.
General Class 3.00 P. M., on First Sundays
Official Board, First Monday's, 7:30 P. M.
Class Meeting Each Tuesday Night
Wednesday Night, Choir Practice, Mrs. A. N. McKinney, Chorister
Thursday Night, Sunday School Board, W. R. Bryant, Supt.
Thursday Evening 4 P. M. Junior Epworth League Meets,
Mrs. Katie Jackson, Superintendent
Friday Night, Epworth League Literary, 7:30 P. M.
Mrs. Anna M. McKinnie, Organist Van H. McKinney, President
Monday Evening, 3:30 P. M., Ladies' Aid Meets,
Mrs. Addie Johnson, President
All are invited to these Services. Seats are free
Rev. Jas. I. Gilmore, Pastor Dr. E. A. Durham, Treaurer
Miles W. Jordan, R. S.
Iroiun'a Olljajml A. M. £ (!ll?urrli
3208 Washington Street
Dr. P. C. Hunt, D. D. Pastor C. F. Smith, Clerk
Mrs. V. Page, Chairman Stewardess Board
Mrs. M. C. J. Smith, Chairman Mission Board
T. J. Rrown, Superintendent Sunday School
Preaching at 11:30 A. M. and 7:30 P. M., Every Sunday
Sunday School at 9:30 A. M. League at 5 P. M.
Visitors are Welcome
iHmmt (Eortntl) lapttat (lHjurd}
Rev. Wm. Sails, Pastor W. E. Colwell, Clerk
ORDER OF SERVICES
Preaching each Sunday at 11 A. M., 3 P. M., and 8 P. M.
Sunday School at 9:30 A. M.
Home Mission Society, Mondays at 2:30 P. M.
®fj? g>tar ICigljt lapttfit (Hljurrfj
Rev. L. L. Nelson, D. D., Pastor J. R. Roberson, Clerk
Joe Crumel, Geo. Spain, H. Williams.
J. R. Robinson, Sunday School Superintendent
Miss Blancha Wilson, Secretary
Mrs. Emma Simms, President Home Mission Society
Mrs. Etha Shumate, Vice President
Miss Alice Goldnait, Secretary
Value of Church Property, $850.00; New Church to cost $8,000.00
to be erected January 1, 1914
ORDER OF SERVICES
Sunday School 9:30 A. M.
Preaching, Sunday 11 A. M., and 8 P.M.; Thursday nights 8 P. M.
We ask any friend, brother or organization to please help us.
No gift too small or too large; we accept a penny collection
What Dr. Alfred Is Doing
REV. L. J. ALFRED, Moderator
FOUNDER OF THE COLORADO WESTERN
MISSIONARY BAPTIST ASSOCIATION OF TEXAS
AND PASTOR OF FOUR GOOD CHURCHES
And also the Founder of the Colorado Western Orphan Home of Dayton,
Texas: located 1% miles North of Dayton, on a 12 acre tract of im-
proved land, and also General Superintendent of the above Home.
P. O. BOX 211. DAYTON, TEXAS
This Association Represents the First Convention of Texas
The Gem Pharmacy
GEO. ROBERTSON. Proprietor
2401 ODIN AVE. HOUSTON, TEXAS
Phnno I Preston 1287
rnone j AutQ A . 3036
Free Delivery and Quick Answers
Turner Confectionery Store
STAPLE AND FANCY GROCERIES
FRUIT, CANDY, CIGARS, TOBACCO
LAUNDRY SOAP, BLUEING, SNUFF
STATIONERY, CHEWING GUM
All Kinds of Cold Drinks and Ice Cream
CORNER CLARK AND ODIN STREETS , HOUSTON, TEX.
R. S. SCOTT L. W. LOMAX
The Orgen Barber Shop
THE BEST EQUIPPED MODERN
NEGRO BARBER SHOP IN THE SOUTH
413 Milam Street
HOT AND COLD BATHS
Shoe Shine Parlor, Cigars, Tobacco and Chewing Gum
This is the Home of Good Tonsorial Artists and Headquarters for those that are
Particular about their Hair Cuts, Shaves, Shampoos, Electrical Massages, Hair
and Mustache Dyeing and Tonics— Sterlized Towels
COURTEOUS TREATMENT TO ALL
Scott & lomax. props. Houston, Texas
Everybody suffering with Rheumatism, Kidney
Trouble, Bladder Trouble and Backache to try the
Famous AUSTRALIAN KIDNEY OIL
Weinberg's Drug Store Mfgr's
Phone, Preston 1828
ON SALE AT ROUSE'S DRUG STORE
JOHN H. CARTER
Groceries, Staple Goods
Cut Price on All Mail Orders Received
...TRY US ONCE...
1102 Schwartz St. Houston, Texas
PHONE. A-4472 FREE DELIVERY
Plain and Fancy Sewing
Ladies and Gentlemen's Clothes Made to Order
A NICE STOCK OF HATS
TRIMMED TO ORDER
A Full Stock of Children's Ready-Made Goods
ALWAYS ON HAND
MRS. LILLIE ROSS
1 103 Hill Street Houston, Texas
DR. A. I. TIMBS
OFFICE HOURS: 8 A. M. to 12:30 P. M 2 P. .M. to 6 P. M.
419% Milam Street HOUSTON, TEXAS
L. V. ALLEN
PRACTICE IN ALL COURTS
Office, 419% Milam Street
THE LABORING MAN'S
Country Produce Bought and Sold
Up-to-Date Full Line of Staple
and Fancy Groceries
L. THOMAS, Proprietor
902 SCHWARTZ STREET HOUSTON. TEXAS
MR. ROBERT GANT
Contractor of Heavy
Hauling and Moving
I CAN MOVE ANYTHING-NOTHING TOO SMALL AND
NOTHING TOO LARGE FOR ME TO MOVE
Always Get My Price Before Letting Out Your Job
1022 HILL STREET HOUSTON, TEXAS
Mrs. Jone's Restaurant
SHORT ORDERS 10c TO 25c REGULAR MEALS 25c
Ice Cream and Cold Drinks
All Kinds of Candy, Tobacco and Cigars
THE BEST SERVICE FOR LESS MONEY. OPEN DAY AND NIGHT.
1010 Schwartz Street Houston, Texas
.MRS. J. M. DAMIEL
of Huntsville, Texas
Is now located in Houston doing Plain and Fancy
Call to see me,
The Price is Right— The Best Work— And the Best Fit for Less
Money. I will appreciate your business.
1701 Clark Street Houston, Texas
TRY US WHEN ALL OTHERS FAIL
We Have Moved
TO CORNER OF TRAVIS AND CONGRESS
We Operate Three Chairs
Our SHINES are the BEST and COST LESS— Always 5 cents
...We Still Want Your Trade...
FLETCHER THOMAS, Proprietor
Congress and Travis Streets Houston, Texas
IF MADE RIGHT
Our Glasses Are
B. R. PETERS
OFFICE, 2908 Providence St.
In the event you cannot call
drop us a card
The Story ^bur
NO VISIBLE LINE
C. A. McCREARY
GEE & McCREARY
General Real Estate and Promoters
of Oklahoma Oil Fields
LOTS $5.00 AND UPWARD
Phone, Automatic A- 1384
Office, 506 Milam Street
FARMS A SPECIALTY
GEO. F. COLLINS,
Cleaning, Dyeing and Pressing Club
PHONE. PRESTON 6455
We Give the Best Service. Clothes Called for and Delivered to
any Address in the City
TOBACCO AND CIGARS
820 San Felipe St.
N. S. AUK I Ns
President of Adhins Bros. & Co.
IT'S THE WOMANS' IRONING COMFOKT
Recognizing the necessity of a suitable device for the women,
we submit here for your consideration, a device,
which we are handling: It is a
Self-Heating Flat Iron
5 1-2 Lbs. for Family Use. 20 Lbs for Tailoring Use
NO SMUT INO SMOKE
One Iron does the work, at a cost of ONE CENT PER DAY.
If you desire one of our Irons on easy payments write us today.
We are Respectfully
1011 Schwartz Street Houston, Texas
The Dallas Express
BOOK, NEWS AND JOB PRINTERS
W. E. KING, Business Manager
Subscriptions $1.25 per annum: 75c Six Months
, 1, . 1 „ c . 1607 Jackson Street
Phonfs- I Main X ' 54
phones. \ Auto M .i754 DALLAS, TEXAS
The Texas Courier
J. MERCER JOHNSON, D. D., Editor and General Manager
Dr. H. M. WHITBY, Contributing Editor
Mr. M. H. GRIFFIN, Assistant Manager
Subscription 50 Cents a Year
Address all publications and business letters to the Editor,
1408 TRAVIS STREET, HOUSTON, TEXAS
Phone, Preston 1387
"And Ethiopia Shall Stretch Forth Her Hand"
A NATIONAL ILLUSTRATED COLORED
Indianapolis, .... Indiana
PUBLISHED EVERY FRIDAY
Rev. C. C. Smith, Editor; Rev. D. H. Shivers, Rev. J. B. Daniels
and Rev. J. D. Bibbs, Mrs. T. A. Castle, Assistant Editors
Rev. A. A. Banks, Manager
One Year, $1.00; Six Months, 50c; Three Months, 25c
BRYAN, .... TEXAS
A MONTHLY MAGAZINE
W. E. DUBOIS, Manager A. L. HOLSEY, Advertising
26 Vesey Street, . . . NEW YORK
Galveston New Idea
DAVID T. SHELTON, Proprietor
and Managing Editor
PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY GALVESTON, TEXAS
One Month 20 cents
Three Months 50 cents
Six Months 85 cents
One Year $1.50
The Boley Progress
A PROGRESSIVE NEWSPAPER
Circulation Sufficient for Your Needs. We do Printing— And Quick
If You Want to Know the News of Boley, Subscribe for the
Progress. Advertise With Us— Our Prices are Right
AGENTS WANTED— WRITE US
Edwin G. Young, Mgr. George W. Perry. Foreman
The Texas Guide
THEO. BAUGHMAN, Editor and Prop.
A LARGELY CIRCULATED NEGRO JOURNAL
$1.00 Per Year
A RACE PAPER GOOD CIRCULATION
Subscription $1.50 Per Year
C. N. LOVE, Editor and Proprietor
D. T. CLEAVER, Editor and Proprietor
L. E. CLEAVER, J. B. LEAK,
Business Manager Foreman Mechanical Dept.
One Year $1.00
Six Months .60
Three Months 35
One Month .15
Single Copy .05
The City Times
Published Every Saturday by WM. H. NOBLE, Jr. Galveston, Texas
WM. H. NOBLE, JR., Editor and Manager
Twelve Months $2.00
Six Months 1.10
Three Months .50
OneMonth .. .20
The Western Star
Published every Saturday at Houston, Texas by the
WESTERN STAR PRINTING COMPANY, 419% MILAM STREET
All letters, money orders, checks, drafts, etc., pertaining to this of-
fice, should be addressed to theWestern Star Publish-
ing Company, Houston. Texas
REV. F. L. LIGHTS, D. D., President
J. M. CODWELL, . Editor
REV. A. R. GRIGGS, D. D., Associate Editor
REV. L. K. WILLIAMS, B. Th. .Associate Editor
E. D. PIERSON, B. S., ...Manager and Managing Editor
TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION
One Copy, One Year, in advance $1.25
One Copy, Six Months, in advance .75
One Copy, Three Months, in advance .50
Single Copies .05
Clubs of Six or more 1.00 .
Advertising Rates will be furnished on Application
Contractor and Builder
PLANS DRAWN AND FURNISHED
Homes. Schools, Churches and Halls Built on Easy Terms
Phone. Preston 7569
1506 SUTTON STREET HOUSTON, TEXAS
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