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Table of Contents 

North Carolina's Part in the War 2 

John Wilber Jenkins. 

The New Education 7 

(By permission from Munsey's Magazine.) 
Loots A. Springer. 

Farming and Technical Subjects Form Vital Part in English Course. ... 12 
N. I. White. 

Everyday Art 16 

M. Lillian Burke. 

Drawing as Taught in the New Bern Schools 19 

Willie Greene Day. 

Why I Am Again in School 25 

Edna Campbell. 

The Psalm of the Country Woman 27 

(By -permission from Pictorial Review.) 
Helen Christine Bennett. 

Latin as a Vocational Subject 28 

Daisy Bailey Waitt. 

Ways of Economizing in Cooking 30 

Vermelle Worthington. 
Effie Baugham. 

How We Became Interested in Finding Subjects to Write About 33 

Committee From Second Year Academic Class. 

James Whitcomb Riley 35 

Alavia Cox. 

The Trip to Raleigh 39 

Lizzie Stewart. 

The Legislature as a Junior Saw It 41 

Willie Jackson. 

Feed the Nation — The President's Appeal 

Editorials 43 

Editorial Departments — 

Suggestions , 51 

Reviews 61 

Alumnae 67 

The Class of 1917 ' 73 

School Activities 101 

School Notes 109 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

North Carolinians in High Places 

Claude Kitchin Walter H. Page F. M. Simmons 

David F. Houston Josephus Daniels 

Lee S. Overman Philander P. Claxton J. Y. Webb 

John H. Small William H. Osborne S. L. Rogers 

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Vol. IV APRIL, MAY, JUNE, 1917 No. 1 

What America is Fighting For 

(From President Wilson's War Message, delivered at a joint session of 
the two houses of Congress, April 2, 1917) 

THE right is more precious than peace, and 
we shall fight for the things which we have 
always carried nearest our hearts — for de- 
mocracy, for the right of those who submit to 
authority to have a voice in their own govern- 
ments, for the rights and liberties of small na- 
tions, for a universal dominion of right by such a 
concert of free peoples as shall bring peace and 
safety to all nations and make the world itself at 
last free. 

To such a task we can dedicate our lives and 
fortunes — everything that we are and everything 
that we have — with the pride of those who know 
that the day has come when America is privi- 
leged to spend her blood and her might for the 
principles that gave her birth and happiness and 
the peace which she has treasured. God help- 
ing her, she can do no other. 

North Carolina's Part in the War 

John Wilbee Jenkins 

TN this momentous time, when the world is ringing with President 
Wilson's call to battle for humanity, it must be a source of pride 
to North Carolina to know that her sons are among the foremost 
in preparation for war. 

When diplomatic relations with Germany were broken off and the 
whole country realized that armed conflict was practically inevitable, 
the first question that arose in every mind was, "Is the Navy ready?" 
And it was a relief to find that the Navy had been brought up to a 
high standard of efficiency, that it was stronger, better officered and 
manned, better prepared than the average man had believed or dared 
hope for. In spite of all the carping critics, it is incomparably supe- 
rior in both ships and personnel to what it was a few years ago. And 
this is due in no small degree to the work of Josephus Daniels. No 
member of the administration has been more bitterly assailed — or more 
unjustly. And the very policies that have been most severely denounced 
are those that have worked out most successfully. 

Daniels banished liquor from the Navy. Europe followed suit the 
moment the war broke out. Clear heads and steady nerves are required 
at the guns in the turrets, as well as in the officers in command. And 
it is a comfort to know that in this crisis none of our battleships will 
be endangered from whiskey-muddled brains. Daniels opened the 
Door of Opportunity to enlisted men, so that the youngest recruit who 
enlists today has the chance through ability and effort to rise to the 
highest rank. That has aroused the ambition of the jackies, and in- 
spired them to their utmost efforts. He turned the Navy into a vast 
school, and today our "jackies" are probably the most intelligent, best 
educated, best informed body of fighting men in the world. Officers 
who resented the removal of the "dead-line" and declared that the 
abolition would make thorough discipline impossible — it has not, in 
fact — may still cherish resentment against the Secretary, but the en- 
listed men swear by him. The improvement in the personnel has been 
remarkable. It has been shown in every element of efficiency. When 
the call came ships and men were ready for instant service, and we 
may be sure they will give a good account of themselves on the firing 

The tasks that have confronted the Navy Department in the past 
three months have been colossal. And the way in which they have 
been and are being solved is an exhibition of the way in which Amer- 
icans can rise to an emergency. 

North Carolina's Part in the War 3 

The Naval Advisory Council which Daniels created has proved of 
incalculable value. By the way, that was another thing in which 
France, England, and the other European countries quickly followed 
America's lead, creating councils of their own on the same line. With 
Thomas A. Edison at its head, it has marshaled the inventive genius of 
the country in the service of the Government. Daniels had a great 
deal to do with the establishment of the National Council of Defense, 
which is mobilizing our manufacturing establishments, railways, ship- 
yards, and steamers into a vast industrial army that is hardly second 
in importance to the actual fighting forces in winning the war. 

Steps have been taken to avoid the scandals and muddling that char- 
acterized our preparations at the beginning of the War with Spain. 
The Government is not going to be robbed by contractors making for- 
tunes out of its necessities. Big things are being done quietly and 
efficiently. Many millions of dollars worth of steel are required for 
ships, armor, and guns. The heads of the great steel manufacturing 
plants were called to Washington, and in conference with the Secretary 
of the Navy and the Secretary of War agreed to furnish the Govern- 
ment all the steel it requires at far less than the prevailing market 
prices. The sum of $12,000,000 was saved on the first contract. Cop- 
per mine owners have made the same agreement. Torpedo manufac- 
turers were promptly brought to terms. The makers of munitions have 
agreed to produce all the ammunition, shells, and guns we can use or 
that we may wish to send to the Allies, and at rates which assure only 
a fair profit. 

This saving of millions, this mobilizing of industry, has been accom- 
plished by the National Council of Defense so quietly and effectively 
that few people realize what great things have been done. And two 
North Carolinians are members of that council — Mr. Daniels and 
David Franklin Houston, Secretary of Agriculture. 

Mr. Houston's task as head of the Agricultural Department is only 
second to that of the heads of the army and navy. One of the British 
commissioners remarked that the war would be won on the wheat fields 
of America. For the first and greatest aid we can give the Allies, as 
both the French and British envoys told us, is food. Houston is a 
native of Monroe, Union County, and as college professor, President of 
the University of Texas, and Chancellor of Washington University, 
St. Louis, he became an authority on social and political science. He 
made a special study of the farmers' problems, and when he became 
Secretary of Agriculture sought to make the Government's agencies 
more useful to the farmer. He has revolutionized the Department, 
establishing the Bureau of Markets, sending county agents into every 
corner of the country, organizing corn clubs, canning clubs, instituting 

4 The Training School Quarterly 

better methods of farming, cooking, housekeeping, making country life 
more attractive and profitable. 

He is charged with the handling of the food situation — increasing 
crops, getting grain to market, the vast task of preventing a food short- 
age in America, and feeding the French and English and Belgians. 
He has become suddenly one of the most powerful and important of 
American officials. And he is planning work on a broad scale that 
will result in changes in farming methods, operation, labor, and mar- 
keting that will count not only in the war, but for generations to come. 

When the President called for a war loan of seven billion dollars — 
the largest ever made by any nation at one time in all history — North 
Carolinians had charge of the great financial measure in both House 
and Senate. For Representative Claude Kit chin is Chairman of the 
Ways and Means Committee and floor-leader of the Democratic ma- 
jority in the House, and Senator F. M. Simmons is Chairman of the 
Senate Co mm ittee on Finance. Though Mr. Kitchin voted and spoke 
against the declaration of war against Germany, he did yeoman service 
in putting through the bill authorizing the huge "Liberty Loan," which 
Congress passed unanimously, a thing almost unprecedented. 

Senator Lee S. Overman is Chairman of the Senate C omm ittee on 
Judiciary and Representative E. Yates Webb, of Shelby, ~N. C, is 
Chairman of the Judiciary Committee of the House. They have charge 
of some of the most important legislation pertaining to the war — the 
Espionage Bill, the bill enabling the Allies to enlist their citizens who 
are residents of the United States — all the legislation relating to the 
legal aspects of the conflict, the detection and punishment of spies, 
censorship and control of telegraphs, telephones, cables, the wireless, 
and the various means of communication. 

Representative John H. Small, of Washington, 1ST. C, is Chairman 
of the House Rivers and Harbors Committee, which controls legisla- 
tion relating to waterways — a vital feature of the National defense. 

Colonel William H. Osborn, of Greensboro, is Commissioner of 
Internal Revenue, and will direct the collection of the hundreds of 
millions in war taxes — a vast undertaking that covers every foot of the 
country and touches every one of its citizens. 

And North Carolina is also at the forefront in diplomacy. No 
diplomat in the trying times of the past three years 1 has made a more 
notable record than Walter H. Page, the Ambassador to England. He 
occupies the premier position in our diplomatic service. And while 
firmly maintaining America's right, he has won the confidence and 
esteem of the British. His innate modesty, his aversion to "fuss and 
feathers," and his avoidance of spectacular display or sensational ut- 
terance have resulted, to some extent, in the failure of Americans 
generally to recognize the signal ability he has shown — not "displayed" 

North Carolina's Part in the War 5 

— and the great work he has done for us in England and with the other 
European nations. But when the history of diplomacy in the colossal 
conflict is written, the name of Page will stand high on! the list of 
diplomats who served well their countries and the world. 

Worth Carolina has also "done her bit" for the Allies on the firing 
lines. Soon after the beginning of the war a number of her sons 
volunteered for service with the British and the French — some as sur- 
geons, some with the ambulance corps, and others in the ranks of those 
who held the line against the German invaders. 

Few more interesting stories have come out of the war than James 
R. McConnell's account of the American Escadrille at Verdun, pub- 
lished under the title, "Flying for France." His account of the daily 
life and exploits of those daring soldiers of the air has in it the thrill 
of that mighty conflict. In that little corps of less than a dozen were 
two North Carolinians — McConnell and Kiffin Rockwell, of Asheville. 

Rockwell had volunteered almost at the outbreak of the war, had 
seen service in a score of battles, and had been wounded at Carency 
before he joined the aerial service. He was the first member of the 
escadrille to bring down an enemy plane in aerial combat. Flying 
alone over Thann, he came upon a German on reconnaissance, rushed 
after him, and facing the gun of the German aviator closed in until 
he was within thirty yards of him before he began firing. The fourth 
shot struck its mark, the pilot crumpled up in his seat and the plane 
went crashing down into the German trenches. Rockwell was abso- 
lutely fearless and rushed to the attack at every opportunity. 

This brave Carolinian lost his life on September 23, 1916, in a des- 
perate duel in the air over the French lines near Verdun. Plunging 
through a rain of bullets, he engaged a powerful German machine. 
He was struck by an explosive bullet and killed instantly ; his aeroplane 
was riddled and crashed to earth. 

"The best and bravest of us all is no more," said the Captain, in 
breaking the news to the escadrille. McConnell pays this highest 
tribute to his fellow Carolinian, who, he says, was the soul of the corps: 
"Kifiin was imbued with the spirit of the cause for which he fought, and 
gave his heart and soul to the performance of his duty. He said : 'I 
pay my part for Lafayette and Rochambeau,' and he gave the fullest 
measure. The old flame of chivalry burned brightly in this boy's fine 
and sensitive being. With his death France lost one of her most valu- 
able pilots." 

Rockwell had been given the Medaille Military and the Croxide 
Guerre, on the ribbon of which he wore four palms, representing the 
four citations he had received in the orders of the army. He was given 
such a funeral as only generals and heroes receive, buried near the 

6 The Training School Quarterly 

lines where he fell — a notable figure in one of the greatest battles that 
history records. 

Only a few weeks ago McConnell himself fell a victim to his own 
daring, being brought down by the Germans, his machine crashing to 
earth within their lines. First he was reported "missing" and it was 
hoped he might somehow have escaped. But later the news of his 
death in action was posted and his name was recorded on the immortal 
roll of those who have given their lives for France and Liberty. 

A number of other Carolinians have fought and are fighting in the 
Allied armies. One adventurous youngster, Carroll D. Weatherly, a 
native of Raleigh and a grandson of the late O. J. Carroll, once United 
States Marshal, enlisted in the Canadian contingent, fought in the 
trenches in Belgium, took part in those desperate battles of 1915, and 
was wounded at Ypres. He was invalided and returned to America. 
When we declared war against Germany he was among the first to 
volunteer, and has been assigned to the Flying Corps as pilot. There 
are many more like him, and the thousands of "Tar Heels" who will 
be enrolled in our new armies just being created may be depended upon 
to give a good account of themselves. They will be worthy of their 
fathers who in the War Between the States were "first at Bethel ; far- 
thest to the front at Gettysburg and Chickamauga, last at Appo- 

The New Education 

Louis A. Springee 

(By permission from Munsey's Magazine for March) 

CHE great war has forced upon America a general stock-taking 
in educational matters. We see in the belligerent countries a 
wonderful national devotion born and nurtured in the public 
schools. We see their governments recognizing not only the debt they 
owe to the schools, but also the increased responsibility which the 
future imposes upon them. They realize that the schools must begin 
wheie the armies stop, that boys and girls yet unborn must be trained 
and disciplined to take the burdens imposed by the war, and to save the 
nation's honor in peace as the soldiers have defended it in battle. 
Already England has appointed a commission to review the whole field 
of national education with a view to the requirements of the recon- 
struction period. 

Perceiving all this, Americans are asking themselves what our schools 
are doing to instill a national spirit in the rising generation, and how 
they are preparing our boys and girls for the great social and economic 
readjustments that must come in the period following the war. 

Every progressive educator has but one answer — that our system is 
outgrown and insufficient for the vital needs of the times, and that the 
solution of its difficulties is one of the most urgent of national problems. 

"Our educational system is frayed out," to use the pungent words of 
President Nicholas Murray Butler, of Columbia University. 

Long before the war crystallized the feeling of unrest in educational 
circles, the leaders had recognized the inadequacy of present methods. 
Vast sums of money were being lavished on public schools, and the 
country had a right to expect a commensurate return in the form of 
well trained, efficient citizens. Instead, the boys and girls issuing from 
the public schools have shown themselves, on the whole, ill prepared 
for the duties of life and too often lacking in national spirit. 


Educators have faced the facts honestly, and have cast about for 
measures that would remedy the most glaring defects without too vio- 
lently attacking the position that the public school system has always 
held in the hearts of the American people. The result of their efforts 
has been to develop in the schools an elaborate and overcrowded course 
of study, which has served to increase rather than to assuage the gen- 
eral discontent. It seems clear, however, that this condition is but an 

8 The Training School Quarterly 

evidence of transition. The prevalent dissatisfaction and unrest are, 
as it were, the growing pains by which our educational system is shak- 
ing off the outworn methods of the past and preparing itself to meet 
the demands of the future. 

"The growth of cities, the removal of people from the land, their 
crowding together in smaller houses, the specialization of labor — all 
these," said Thomas W. Churchill, former president of the New York 
Board of Education, "have withdrawn from children a great part of 
the developing influences which were the rule fifty years ago. The 
equipment of the old-fashioned schools was meager and poor, but co- 
operating with tbxm were forces greater than they. There was a freer 
contact then than now with nature and the outdoor life; there was the 
old-fashioned home, and there were the old forms of industry, in which 
children learned skill of hand, correctness of eye, and economy of 
management. These influences are so essential to the training of the 
kind of men and women that America must have that there falls to the 
managers of the public schools the heavy burden of supplying, in so 
far as possible, what the change of living conditions has taken away 
from the children." 


"Knowledge is power," was the compelling motto of early education 
in New England, the cradle of our school system. Knowledge is and 
always will be power, but scholastic ideals confused knowledge and 
learning. In the name of knowledge the schoolboy was plied with every 
date of history and with every fact of the universe, whether it had or 
had not any bearing on his own personal problem of existence. But 
in the course of time it became evident to the most superficial thinker 
that a youth might know the length of all the rivers in the world, and 
the height of all the mountains, and yet not grow into one-quarter of 
a man-power in the co mm unity in which he lived. 

Thoughtful people next questioned another popular ideal of the 
times — that the first purpose of the schools was to turn out "a scholar 
and a gentleman." Such a theory was all very well if education was 
to be for the few, for those destined for moral and intellectual leader- 
ship, but it took no account of the rest of the community. This article 
of faith, too, was cast out, and thus there passed into educational history 
two of its most sacred traditional tenets. 

There followed a period of belief in pure mental discipline, when it 
was held that by the exercise of some faculty of the mind we increased 
the power of readiness of all the faculties. We studied the classics 
that we might the better know English; learned algebra that we might 
form habits of "mental attention, argumentative sequence, and absolute 

The New Education 9 

accuracy," and that by the exercise of these habits we might analyze 
the problems of living and arrive at a true result. 

But, alas, certain practical souls pointed out that probably the poorest 
English ever published was to be found in the accredited translations 
of these same classics; that the mental discipline of algebra did not 
carry over into life, since the man with all the albegraic formulas at 
his finger-tips was quite as likely to buy a fake rubber plantation in 
Timbuctu as the man who had never heard of a coefficient. 

It must not be thought that the old gods of education were easily 
overthrown. On the contrary, they offered a fight that is not yet 
ended. But out of the turmoil of conflicting opinions, higher than 
the protests of the reactionaries could always be heard the compelling 
plea of the American father and mother : "Give our children a practical 
education, thorough and effective. Fit them for life!" 


It is not very long since the idea of vocational training was seized 
upon as the panacea for every educational ill. The lowest schools and 
the highest were swept by it as by a wind. Kindergarten and college 
alike felt its breath. Every educator who opposed its excesses was 
marked down as unprogressive by his radical brethren. 

This period of exaggeration passed, and it is now generally admitted 
that training the hands alone is not enough. Recent events have 
shown clearly that the spirit of our youth must be trained, and must 
be stimulated by a broad acquaintance with national ideals, national 
life, and national activities. 

"Vocational training will always have an impregnable position in 
the public school system," said Dr. William McAndrew, associate city 
superintendent of the New York schools ; "but since our aim is to turn 
out persons of ability useful to society as well as to themselves, we 
must not stop with vocational training alone. We must train — yes, 
create, if necessary — a national consciousness. The next ten years will 
see great changes in our ideals and in our schools, the details of which 
we cannot now forecast, any more than we can forecast in detail the 
outcome of any of the great intellectual movements of the present criti- 
cal time. Of one thing only we may be sure — that the outcome will be 
a movement in the direction of closing the gap between what the world 
demands and what the schools give." 

Not even the most radical anticipate that the actual machinery of 
the existing school system will be greatly altered by the development 
of the new ideas. Indeed, little change in actual school organization 
need be expected. The most immediate and obvious changes will come 
in the methods and in the substance of teaching. 

10 The Training School Quarterly 

teaching that functions in service 

As higher education reaches its greatest usefulness when it functions 
in service to society, so must elementary education prove itself by 
functioning in service to the individual child. Spelling, for instance, 
must function in correct writing, grammar in correct speech. No 
method which fails to attain this practical result will be tolerated. 
Theoretical grammar has no place in the schools of the future. 

History is valuable in life only as it deals with events that have 
survived in their influence on the institutions of civilizaton. The 
schoolboy of the next generaton will be spared the dreary study of long 
campaigns and "famous victories" that have left no actual impress on the 
life he must live. Dr. Arthur Benson, president of Magdalene College, 
Cambridge, believes that the histories of the future will be largely 
written upon economic and biographical lines, paying special attention 
to the growtb of political institutions and to the "development of the 
ideas that lead to the peaceful combinations and corporate grouping 
that are known by the name of civilization." 

The geography of the future will give a real picture of the world as 
it is, not crushing the childish imagination with a mass of unrelated 
facts and tongue-twisting names, but stimulating it by a vivid presenta- 
tion of the commercial and esthetic relations of the whole world to 
the learner's personal experiences. 

The study, or rather the use, of the reading lesson in the public school 
has already undergone a marked change. Excerpts from classic litera- 
ture have not yet disappeared from the school readers, nor have the 
moral lessons pointed by the priggish exploits of unnatural children; 
but these are rapidly being supplanted by reading lessons which clarify 
and explain for the small student the life and institutions around him. 

For example, New Orleans uses in its schools a "Book of New 
Orleans," which sets forth entertainingly the history and traditions 
of the city, its landmarks and institutions. There is in use in the 
public schools of JSTew York a reader specially adapted to the city child. 
It does not teach him facts that meet with no response from his own 
experience, but tells him, instead, the stories of the subway, the great 
bridges, the hospitals, the Fire Department — all the things that he sees 
about him every day. 

Science on general lines will assume increased importance in the 
schools of the next generation. Many educators, notably Dr. Edward 
L. Thorndike, professor of educational psychology at Teachers College, 
Columbia University, believe that in a combination of vocational and 
scientific training lies the future of modern education. 

"The schoolboy of the future will know more about the care of a 
gasoline engine than he will about the capes and bays of the African 

The New Education 11 

coast," said Dr. Thorndike. "The schoolgirl will have a clearer idea 
of the chemistry of the family milk-bottle and the mechanism of a 
typewriter than she will about cube root or Greek mythology." 


Of all the human agencies that enter into the education of youth, 
the teacher remains the most important. The definition of a university 
as "Mark Hopkins at one end of a log and a student at the other end" 
is still significant. The parents, the friends, the public speakers and 
writers of the day all have their influence, but the power of the master 
mind remains great. 

"The present so-called vocational education is proper as a subordi- 
nate, but not as a dominant principle of education. It might do for 
bees or ants, but not for men. It rests upon and is controlled by a 
false idea, which underlies the whole educational system of the United 
States today, and which, if persisted in, will make us far inferior to a 
less rich and prosperous people possessing a national idea and purpose. 
Those who see this are trying to rescue our educational system, not by 
going back to the old methods, but by improving the new while pre- 
serving the best of the old, and bringing it all to an end none the less 
intellectual for being adapted to the needs of the times. 

"What great purpose will our new education serve if it stops with 
being practical? How lasting will be the results that are measured 
by dollars and cents alone? Tiue American education must develop 
lofty conceptions of citizenship and compel high national purposes and 
policies. These will be found the true measure of its success or failure." 


THE importance to the Nation of a generously adequate food 
supply for the coming year cannot be over-emphasized in 
view of the economic problems which may arise as a result 
of the entrance of the United States into the war. Every effort 
should be made to produce more crops than are needed for our 
own requirements. Many millions of people across the seas, as 
well as our own people, must rely in large part upon the pro- 
ducts of our fields and ranges. This situation will continue to 
exist even though hostilities should end unexpectedly soon, since 
European production cannot be restored immediately to its nor- 
mal basis. Recognition of the fact that the world at large, as well 
as our own consumers, must rely more strongly on American 
farmers this year than ever before should encourage them to 
strive to the utmost to meet these urgent needs. — Secretary of 
Agriculture David F. Houston. 

Farming and Technical Subjects Form Vital Part 
of English Course 

N. I. White 

(From the Montgomery Advertiser) 

[Here is something that needs to be considered in every school in the United 
States, from the Universities and Seminaries down to the one-teacher rural 
school. In your day and our day in the school our English classes wrote 
compositions on every topic under the sun except those that really concerned 
our everyday life. We wrote on "Which Was the Greater Man — Alexander 
or Napoleon"? "American Poets," whoever they were; 'Emerson's Essays"; 
"The Great Lakes"; "Spencer's Poetry" — heaven save the mark; "The Eliza- 
bethan Age"; "Westminster Abbey"; "Women in Literature," etc. And all 
that time we should have been writing on "The Relation of Business to Farm- 
ing"; "Cooperation in Buying and Selling"; "Nature's Principle of Soil Fer- 
tility"; "The German Rural Credits System"; "Nitrogen and Its Relation to 
All Life"; "Municipal Markets"; "The Menace of Flies"; "How to Make 
Money in Summer," etc. If we had been writing about and studying these 
topics and dozens of others, useful and inspiring, we would not have come 
out of school so blissfully ignorant of the world around us. But those were 
dark days in education, and the darkness still clings around many institutions 
"of learning." When we heard that Prof. N. I. White, of Auburn, had begun 
to mix English with agriculture, electricity, surveying, and mechanics, we 
wrote and asked him to tell our readers all about this new mental foodstuff. 
Here he outlines the plan of work. It is worth reading, not with the idea 
of imitating it, but of adapting its suggestions to primary grades, grammar 
grades, and high schools. This is the sort of education — this is the viewpoint 
— that must be obtained in all schools if they are to turn out the mentally 
alert and physically capable boys and girls that the country wants and this 
age needs. — Editor Montgomery Advertiser.] 

The course here described is one that is being given by the English 
Department of the Alabama Polytechnic Institute, and has so far 
yielded fairly satisfactory results. 

It has been designed to meet the special needs of agricultural and 
technical students. There is no effort on the part of the English 
Department to persuade the technical or agricultural students to take 
this course to the exclusion of purely literary courses ; on the contrary, 
the English Department feels that the importance of purely literary 
courses is perhaps underestimated by the average agricultural and 
technical student, but it also realizes : 

1. That the student is best reached through that which interests him 

2. That many students not interested in literature or conventional 
composition later have occasion to express themselves in writing on 
technical subjects. 

Farming and Technical Subjects 13 

3. That agricultural and technical graduates, according to their 
trade papers and their own admission, are frequently ill at ease in 
writing on subjects within their special fields. It was to meet this 
situation that the course here described was designed. 


The course is composed of two sections, one of agricultural students 
and one of technical students — mechanical, surveying, and electrical. 
The two groups meet together once a week and separately once a week. 
The agricultural students subscribe to an agricultural magazine, the 
technical students to a technical magazine. No text-book is used. Each 
week, in addition to the theme written out of class, the student is 
required to stand a "quiz" on the current issue of the magazine or to 
write an impromptu theme on some subject treated in the issue. This, 
although it incidentally augments his store of technical knowledge, 
intends primarily to make him familiar with the accepted method of 
expressing technical knowledge. 


By far the most important part of the work is the weekly theme re- 
quired of each student. This paper is from 1,000 to 1,500 words (five 
to eight pages) in length. It must be some subject within the student's 
special field of study. The student is encouraged to write on the sub- 
ject in which he is most interested and is never assigned a subject 
except by special request. With each theme during the first term he 
must submit a brief outline of two subjects that he would be interested 
in treating later. This is to prevent hurried and haphazard choice 
of subjects. The papers are returned with written criticisms, some- 
times with directions to rewrite, and are also criticised orally in class 
or in consultation. 


In both the writing and the criticising the journalistic point of view 
is maintained as far as is practicable. The student writes with a 
definite audience in mind — the readers of a technical journal. This 
acts as a check on aimlessness and empty generalization. It also throws 
the emphasis of the criticism to the two main points of (1) interest 
of idea, and (2) clearness of expression. If occasionally an article 
seems to justify such action the student is advised to rewrite and 
actually submit it to a farm or technical journal. In addition to the 
themes written during this course the student is given some training 
in the making of an extended report on a problem involving the inves- 
tigating and organizing of a number of factors. 

14 The Training School Quarterly 


During the second term the work takes the form of two magazines, 
the Junior Technical Weekly and the Junior Agricultural Weekly. 
Each student acts as editor in turn. The editor plans the issue, assigns 
and collects the articles and writes the editorials. The articles are very 
much the same nature as those written during the first term. In the 
writing of all articles during the first two terms the student, except 
when writing purely from personal experience, is expected to read and 
refer to at least two articles bearing on the subject treated. This 
tends to check wild and irresponsible statements. Perhaps the nature 
of the magazine will be best seen by the following table of contents of 
three issues of the Junior Agricultural Weekly. 

VOL. 1, NO. 4 

Progressive Issue 

The Effect of Freeing the Negro. O. L. Martin. 
Farm Implements. D. L. McMurry. 
Farm House Improvements. O. C. Newell. 
Editorials. B. A. Storey. 

The Man Who Says Can't. 

Winter Months on the Farm. 

The City Man on the Farm. 

Boys' Pig and Corn Clubs. 

Take An Inventory of Stock. 

The Farmer and His Clothes. 
Reviews of Farm Journals. S. W. Hill. 

Comparison Between Progressive and Unprogressive Methods. C. J. Brock- 

Defects of the Southern Farm. J. H. Reynolds. 

VOL. 1, NO. 6 

Orchard Special 

Suggestions for Growing Home Fruit. S. W. Hill. 
Hints to Orchardists. O. C. Newell. 
The Legend of the Coosa (story). B. A. Storey. 
Editorials. J. H. Reynolds. 

What the Gasoline Engines Can Do. 

The Farmer's Automobile. 

Checking Pests. 
The Home Fruit Garden. C. J. Brockway. 
Review of Farm Journals. O. L. Martin. 

VOL. 1, NO. 3 

Vetch For Soil Improvement. S. W. Hill. 
Potatoes As a Truck Crop. O. C. Newell. 
The Use of Corn For Ensilage. B. A. Storey. 

Farming and Technical Subjects 15 

Peas: Their Growth and Uses. J. H. Reynolds. 
The Effect of the War on Agriculture. O. L. Martin. 
Raising Cotton Under Boll Weevil Conditions. O. C. McMurry. 
Editorials. C. J. Brockway. 

Progress on the Stock Farms of Alabama. 

Soy Beans the Source of Numerous Products. 

The Extension Service of the Alabama Polytechnic Institute. 


During the third term each student works on some large subject of 
which his weekly installments are but chapters. The subject is de- 
cided by the professor and the students after the student has handed in 
a theme discussing an interview on prospective subjects with some 
member of the technical faculty. The division of the subject is worked 
out in class and in individual consultations. The first installment 
is in each case a complete bibliography of the subject. The next six 
weeks are given to six installments of the paper and a week or two 
at the end of the term is devoted to the revision of the whole. At 
present writing the course has just reached the point of selecting sub- 
jects. It has been found impracticable to assign related subjects to the 
section composed of mechanical, surveying, and electrical students, but 
the agricultural students have taken subjects all of which bear upon 
Alabama conditions and are somewhat related to each other. Thus 
one man writes on "The Cotton Crop in Alabama," another on "Stock 
Farms in Alabama," and another on "Leguminous Crops in Alabama." 
The writing of these long themes will, it is hoped, give to the student 
an experience in research work and organization not provided in the 
ordinary advanced composition course. 

Everyday Art 

M. Lillian Bubke 

nOT such a great many years ago art was thought of as being con- 
fined to galleries, studios, and drawing books — cut off from the 
life of the majority of humanity and encouraged by a select few 
who had an evident talent. However, times have changed, and whether 
we will it or no, consciously or unconsciously, art, in the big sense of 
the word, enters the daily life of every one of us. More and more is 
the importance of teaching art becoming realized, and the mass of the 
people, principally through the schools, are being given at least some 
of the fundamentals of an art education. 

For what is Art? When we decide what color necktie or ribbon to 
wear— it is art. When we arrange a flower in a vase it is art. When 
we place furniture in our homes or in our schoolrooms — it is art. When 
we put work on a blackboard it can be arranged artistically, or not. 
When we demand sheets of written work from classes the papers may 
be well arranged, or not, and the whole appearance of ourselves, our 
work, the houses and schoolrooms in which we live, reflect to a great 
degree our appreciation of this big, potent subject. 

It isn't necessary to be able to draw or to know the technique of 
drawing to teach art. Most every teacher knows the laws of composi- 
tion in literature, and, to a certain extent, these may be applied to this 
other subject in exactly the same way. The laws of selection, arrange- 
ment, balance, hold good for the pictures which hang in our schools 
the same way that they do in the written composition. What kind of 
pictures should we have? I should say one or two prints of master- 
pieces selected with the age of the pupils in mind, and, if possible, 
correlating with some subject studied. Certain artists are particularly 
suited to certain grades — Rosa Bonheur and Sir Joshua Eeynolds, per- 
haps, for the younger children, Corot and Millet for the older ones. 

Small pictures should be hung in groups, not too high up, and, if 
possible, the wires not showing. Either the upper or lower edges of 
the pictures should be even. 

Everyday Abt 


Large ones should be hung with two wires, and also not too high up. 


Anything which is hung should be hung straight. If specimens of 
work are put on exhibition, let them be pinned or tacked at least in the 
two upper corners. If there are a number, see that there is a margin 
around the entire group and let the spaces between the papers be 
uniform. This will make such a group appear as a unit. 




In written papers which the pupils pass in, let the margins be care- 
fully planned, and in the drawing lesson let the placing of the name 
and date be a part of the problem to make a well arranged page. 
Even in such small matters as these good design is being taught. 

A few facts must necessarily be a part of every teacher's equipment. 
She should know the primary colors — red, yellow, blue — and the sec- 
ondary ones — orange, green, violet. She should know that green is 
the complementary color to red, orange to blue, and yellow to violet. 
These simple beginnings of color study and harmony should be taught 
the class; also what are grayed colors. Every day chances arise 
where this knowledge may be applied and the teacher, in her own dress 
and in the colors she has in the schoolroom, should be a subconscious 

18 The Training School Quarterly 

agent in cultivating good taste in the children. So often the teaching 
of art is such a drudgery to a teacher that she gladly lets go by that 
part of the school curriculum, not realizing what a lot of real pleaure 
and good is being lost both to herself and her pupils. It is such a 
splendid opportunity to bring something of the aesthetic and ideal into 
the lives of her classes. To the majority of them this will be their only 
chance of having opened to them a world which will make their lives 
fuller and finer, which cannot fail to have its influence on the develop- 
ment of character and which will bring joy and a new interest into too 
often prosaic lives. 

A new note has been sounded in the educational world and the im- 
portance which art will take in the future has not as yet been measured. 
With the high standards of modern advertising, with the demand for 
superior textiles and other manufactured articles which are based on 
artistic design, with the whole country awakening to a keener apprecia- 
tion of its importance, art, in the broad educational sense, is coming 
into its own, and from being a subject brought out from a corner for 
an occasional lesson, to be laid aside until the next week or month, it is 
now taking a vital place in the courses of study of all progressive 
schools- -not as a burden, but as a living, interesting subject, closely 
associated with the everyday life of every one of us. 

Drawing as Taught in the New Bern 
Public School 

Willie Greene Day, '13 

IN" our school we use no regular set of drawing books, but the work 
has been based largely upon the Graphic Drawing Books. I like 
to pass these around often for the observation of color and pencil 
work. The plan of work to be covered by each grade is definitely 
decided upon before school opens. The progress in the work is then 
largely regulated by what we intend to cover in each subject in each 
room. All of the work we try to make vitally associated with the lives 
of the children. Just as far as is possible I take the children into my 
confidence, explaining the why and wherefore of measures. We discuss 
our problem, then different ones give their opinion of how to proceed. 
Our materials are comparatively simple. We use 6x9 and 9 x 12 
manila drawing paper, often bogus or the white paper of the same size, 
and sometimes colored paper, especially for chalk drawings. The me- 
diums are pencil, crayons, pen, and chalk. 

Our aim has been to help the children to see and appreciate beauty 
of line, form, and color, and to give expression to what they see through 
study and practice in the execution. With this in mind, I have grouped 
the work into the following classes, the basis of the object part being 
the sphere, the cube, and the cylinder. 

1. Object drawing and perspective, which includes drawing from 
nature, life, and groups of still-life objects. 

2. Design as taught by borders, surface, patterns, book covers, desk 
sets, decoration of construction work. 

3. Figure and landscape composition and pose work. 

4. Picture study for appreciation and enjoyment. 

5. Construction work, paper tearing and cutting. 

6. Theory of color or color work. 

7. Observing, enjoying, and beautifying our surroundings in school 
and at home. 

1. Ohject Drawing. Each season is a source and offers possibilities 
and suggestions for work in each grade. In the fall, for instance, we 
find grasses, fall flowers, leaves, fruits, fall scenes, and Thanksgiving 
work. In the primary grade we do much of this work in mass, using 
crayon. In the grammar and intermediate grades we pay some atten- 
tion to details and still use colored crayons the color of the object, or we 
use pencil. All such drawings of flowers, fruits, sprigs, and objects 
must be true in their line of growth and form in preference to being 
made beautiful at a sacrifice of the expression of right lines. Such 

20 The Training School Quarterly 

work as this must aim to teach the direct ways of handling different 
mediums and the possibilities of these mediums when the pupil becomes 
thoroughly familiar with them through usage. To aid such famil- 
iarity with our crayons, pencil, pen, or chalk, to illustrate differ- 
ent treatments of the same objects, to apply principles we have 
studied, we often take very ordinary, everyday objects for models and 
study them so as to promote all of this. In one room we took a vase 
that stood on the teacher's desk. We drew it with three different 
mediums, (1) pencil, (2) chalk, (3) crayon; six different ways, (1) 
outline, (2) light and shade, (3) black crayon, (4) natural coloring, 
(5) shaded with pencil, (6) chalk at the board, and in two positions. 
In another room we studied a fruit basket in much the same way. 
After we had finished in both cases we booked the work together and 
placed a conventional design of the object done on brown paper for the 
back. In such treatment great care must be exercised by the teacher 
to prevent the fascination of color from overbalancing the more im- 
portant idea of form. No amount of rich color can correct defective 

Along with object drawing comes the tremendous subject of perspec- 
tive. We start this work in the primary grade by teaching the placing 
of trees in simple scenes, apples on a page, etc., and by the third year 
we begin observing the tops of cups, baskets, etc. In the fourth year 
we study and dwell at length on the effect of distance upon objects. 
We teach recognition of the type forms, and the use of these forms in 
very simple pictures. In the fifth grade we teach the principle govern- 
ing a foreshortened circle, illustrating it with a circle cut from card- 
board with a hatpin through the middle, so as to move the circle up and 
down in different positions. This leads into the study of the cylinder 
in this same grade. In the sixth grade we study the cube. In the 
seventh we review the study of the cube and take it in more complex 
drawings. In each grade, as we introduce a new subject, we lay great 
stress upon the teaching of it and try to direct most of the work in this 
subject toward this end. I try never to force a principle I wish to 
present. We take the object we are to study, try to find examples of 
the type in other objects, talk about it, examine it thoroughly, then 
begin a study holding it in different positions. Every conclusion we 
draw, every statement we make concerning it is tested, and either proved 
or rejected. There are many different devices which we use for testing; 
some examples of these are putting toothpicks to the back corners of 
a. cube, tying strings to the edges of the cube, and showing how the 
lines seem to converge. The using of these very simple devices proves 
fascinating and helps the children to see and understand in a more 
comprehensive manner the principles. 

Drawing as Taught in New Bern 21 

2. Design. Our work in design this year has been planned each 
time to meet a definite need, such as decorating a basket, a Christmas 
box, a desk set, condec shades, tiling for our miniature house, furnish- 
ing patterns for linoleum design, for stained glass window or wall 
paper. The designing of these patterns has come after the study of 
flower motiffs, symbols of the season, rhythm borders, animal and 
still life, or simple geometric forms. In each case we have studied the 
composition and color harmony along with this when the case permitted. 
We have worked upon lettering to decorate booklet backs, to make 
school posters, for copying of poems, verses for cards, etc. Beginning 
with the single word in the first grade we work forward till by the third 
grade we begin to study spacing in its simplest sense. In the fourth 
and fifth grades we use spaced paper and continue the practice of 
simple forms of letters, gradually working to improve the shape of 
these. In the sixth grade we begin learning how to do a great deal 
of the spacing with the eye. I have introduced Japanese letters and 
Old English forms and found the children like them, consequently, do 
quite good work in using them. In the seventh grade we try to work 
for accuracy in line, space, and form, and to acquire freedom and 
rapidity with the work. I find a definite aim, such as making a class 
poster or copying a poem for a booklet, presents all of the problems 
necessary, holds the attention, and creates interest much better than 
when we letter aimlessly just to learn how. 

3. Figure and Landscape Composition. In the figure and silhouette 
work I begin with action figures and figures and forms in mass, illus- 
trating the play of the children. Familiar with these we go to the 
pose work. About the third and fourth grades we draw figures, ani- 
mals, and birds in mass, in outline, and later finish with shading, either 
of color or pencil. This continues through the entire course, either in 
simplicity or complexity, to suit the grade. Along with this comes the 
rendering of Mother Goose figures and cut work, illustrating plays 
and games. In all of this work we study to get the pose best suited to 
the grade and one that at the same time reveals most completely the 
character of the subject. 

4. Landscape. The beginning of landscape work with us is the enjoy- 
ing of beautiful pictures and scenes. Then follows the production. 
In the first grade our work is but the combining of simple washes to 
make land and sky. The addition of a tree, a hill, or mountain helps 
us to vary these scenes. We use the primary colors in different com- 
binations with this work throughout the first three grades. Later we 
add clouds to the sky, put in an avenue of trees, take a scene with a 
river, expressing it all in one color, using differing values or using 
a color with its complementary color. By the end of the fourth year 
we begin doing landscape work with pencil. At no time should we 

22 The Training School Quarterly 

lose sight of the fact that the pencil is after all one of the most widely 
used and one of the most effective mediums. There is no better place 
than in this work to teach its handling. It is possible here to introduce 
the different strokes of the pencil and to teach its different values; 
therefore, we do much of our landscape work in pencil, especially in 
grades 6 and 7. The finder is introduced. We try finding small 
pictures in larger ones and fitting a picture to different spaces or study- 
ing how the picture is spaced and then drawn to fit these spaces. We 
then do different spacing of our paper and draw a landscape with parts 
to fit in these spaces and make a picture. 

5. Picture study is closely connected with landscape, but more in- 
clusive. Pictures on the wall, those found in our monthly journals 
and school books have served to give us much pleasure and to increase 
our apprecition of the best of art expression. We try finding the 
centers of interest and discovering how the artist has manifested this. 
We discover small pictures in larger ones. We enjoy collecting pic- 
tures of a beautiful type and also pointing out those found in 
Nature. One of those we have studied from Nature has been our 
down river view. We visited it off class, carrying the points in mind 
we were to look for. When we next came to class we discussed what 
we had seen, tried sketching it on the board, then at our seats. In a 
later class we finished it in color and in pencil. The results were 
surprising in the manifestation of how eager the children were to do 
the work, how they talked of the beauty of the scene, and 1 of other 
similar views, and we were pleased with what good ideas they had of 
expressing what they saw. 

6. Color work. Our first work and chief aim in color in the primary 
grades is to teach the primary colors. We do most of the work in this 
subject so as to bring out this one aim. In the fourth grade we teach 
the tints, shades, and normal color, and do objects and scenes to illus- 
trate this. Sometimes we divide our picture into three parts, doing 
one part in light, the other in medium, and the last in dark. For a 
second picture we will do the first part in dark, the second in medium, 
the third in light and so on till we exhaust our color shifts. By the 
time we have finished the child has learned to draw the subject well, 
has not tired of it, but, because of the change each time, has enjoyed 
doing it over and over, and has learned the color chart, incidentally. 
In the fifth grade we teach complementary colors. We try doing 
objects in either of the primary colors with the complementary colors 
in combination. Just as we tried in the fourth using the shades, tints, 
and normal color in different places, we try each primary color and its 
complementary colors, then change these about in the treatment of the 
same object, scene or subject. We try doing trees, fruits, buildings, etc., 
in flat tones for decorative work, making no pretense whatever at 
realistic work. Oftentimes we better illustrate this by using a color 

Drawing as Taught in New Been 23 

for drawing entirely different from that of the color object we are 
drawing. Then the children readily see what we are trying to impress. 
Complementary color scenes offer a great range. We take the work 
of this sort through the seventh year. In each grade we make our 
own color charts. If they are only simple strips of color mounted they 
serve the purpose and act as a guide for the child. 

7. Construction work, paper tearing and cutting. Our construction 
work has been closely associated with the design in that in most cases 
it has been decorated by that work. In season, we have made cornu- 
copias, constructed Pilgrim villages, Esquimo houses, Indian villages, 
made Thanksgiving books, Christmas booklets, Easter baskets, George 
Washing-ton hats, and much miscellaneous work in the grades done to 
fit in with work they were studying in other subjects. In all of our 
primary grades we have based most of our work on constructing such 
things as doll furniture, on the IG-inch fold. This was to teach the 
use of the ruler. In the grades in which they were taking up either- 
half or quarter of an inch we would suit our work to aid in the use 
of that particular measure. In the grades in which the study of the 
cylinder and cube were taken we tried basing some of the construction 
work on those objects; for example, lamp shades, based on the cube, 
flower holders on the cylinder. Toys of the children in the lower 
grades were made. In the higher ones we made desk sets, telephone 
pads, folders, and book cases for the drawings, etc. We have torn 
trees, cut letters and torn animals from block forms made up of differ- 
ent units we wished to teach in particular grades. And so as the work 
goes forward paper construction progresses with it to fill a certain 
need of training the hands, muscles of the fingers and arms, the eye and 
brain all to work together, and to aid in holding the interest and arous- 
ing some children naturally a little slower than the others. Just in 
this connection, in the primary grades we have devised a plan which we 
hope will in time be worked through the school. In those grades known 
to the teacher as being slow we have tried clay modeling, raffia work, 
a great deal of weaving, sewing, and other hand work. The children 
take a delight in illustrating with clay such stories as "Three Bears," 
"Fox and Pigs," "Fox and Grapes," etc. In the first named we used 
three different colors of clay — the bears, chairs, beds, and bowls one 
color (brown) ; Curly Locks a lighter color with curly hair of brown, 
a nice green dress and brown sash. In connection with the raffia work 
one room made a whole suit of furniture for the living room of their 
doll house. 

8. Observing, enjoying, and beautifying our surroundings. I try to 
remember if we are to expect the children to produce beautiful things 
we must help them to see and enjoy beautiful things. I try brighten- 
ing the rooms; it seems to work wonders just to tear down old pictures, 
put up a new one, a flag or some work of the children. If a certain 

24 The Training School Quarterly 

room happens to be particularly interested in any one thing I use that 
as a lesson for enjoyment. In one room, for instance, they have a 
hobby of birds. We spent several lessons enjoying, studying, and 
drawing a bird house. I did not count any of the time wasted, for 
every time we call attention to any object, point out its beauty and 
speak of how its appearance may be improved. We have taught an 
appreciation for drawing. Did you ever try straightening or rehang- 
ing the pictures on the wall? Do you put up pretty borders in har- 
mony with the season, or do those fall borders still hang on through 
the spring? Arrange your desk neatly, place the chairs in a pleasing 
manner, see that the shades aren't all faded, worn and about to fall 
down. If you can, be sure and observe beautiful garden plots, pretty 
streets, pretty buildings, unusual rooms and remark on their beauty, for 
by so doing you are teaching drawing and cultivating a sense of the 
beautiful, a conscious love of nature and a healthy, happy mind in 
every child under your care. 

Through all of our work I try to remember we have a definite 
plan, there is a certain amount prescribed and a course to follow. 
Each year's work is but a step in completing the whole plan. As 
I reach a subject I do not necessarily try to stick to it regardless 
of all other work. I try not to forget it must be completed within the 
length of time given, but if opportunity presents itself and the time 
seems best I stop to enjoy holidays, seasons, birthdays, and whatever 
else here offers that we cannot enjoy later. Often we take a sprig, 
plant, or flower when it is in the stage we wish it. Even if it interrupts 
a study of something else we take it then as that may perish and the 
other can be gone back to later. After we have completed a study of 
some object I frequently leave it without further comment to come back 
to later for a memory drawing. We do this with no object for reference 
in view. It is good training and a splendid way to help the child 
make the drawing his own. Results are not expected to be as great as 
when it is done from the object, so I am not disappointed if it takes 
several attempts to get the best work. A great deal of blackboard work 
gives good training, too. One-half of the class may draw at the board 
while the others draw at their seats. In this way no time is wasted and 
a valuable end is attained. The teacher in charge of the room will 
find it restful and quieting to allow the children to go to the room to 
draw an object, say for the specified length of time, 3 or 5 minutes 
between classes. At the end of that time have the class seated and 
proceed again with the regular work. 

To accomplish the best in drawing everyday practice is needed. If 
you can have only two regular lessons a week practice on those lessons 
in odd periods, or maybe for only five or ten minutes. The results 
will far exceed those when only two lessons a week are given. 

Why I am Again in School 

Ednia Campbell, '12 

*W^ ■ HY am I in school again? I presume I am a normal person, 
111 particularly in my ability to study and in my ambitions. 
^P^^^ Yet this question is often asked me, and I suppose in a 
changed form confronts many students, particularly student-teachers. 
By student-teachers I mean working teachers holding the genetic view- 
point. To this type teacher comes the question : Shall I strive and 
make further sacrifices to go on in my chosen profession? — will going 
to college be really worth while? — will I be repaid for the effort it will 
cost ? Having asked myself these questions many times, hesitated, 
risked the outcome of going to college and found it so satisfying, I 
advise any earnest student to do the same. 

Like the average American girl and boy I received my elementary 
education and entered high school with the ambition to make good 
grades, finish, and then enter college or some vocational school. I 
entered into all forms of student activities with enthusiasm, even those 
of pinning tags on the professor's backs, but I took everything as an 
event of that day, week, or month alone. Why I was studying certain 
subjects, what ultimate good they were going to be to me beyond their 
possible informational value, rarely, and never for serious considera- 
tion, received a moment's thought. I took them because they were in 
the curriculum and necessary to "get through." Deep underlying 
principles and methods seen and used by the teacher were as unknown 
to me as Sanskrit — yet, I was going to teach. Always, as a child, 
teaching had been the goal toward which I must work. It was such 
an early idea with me that I am unable to say whether it was of my 
own choosing, or was stamped upon me by my mother's earnest desire 
that I should teach. Anyway, after finishing high school, teaching 
was my next goal, just what or how or where I did not so much care — 
only it must not be in a rural school, or must not be grammar or Latin. 

I spent two years training. In that time teaching with its large 
possibilities, its deep underlying principles of habit formation, its 
agency in character building, its heavy responsibilities, dawned upon 
me and I earnestly tried to assimilate, to have for my very own a work- 
ing knowledge of the essential facts of psychology, pedagogy, methods, 
school management, and necessary content. 

Upon graduation I entered my work with zest. I was eager to see 
just what I could do. My first two years were in a one-teacher rural 
school ; I taught grammar and I enjoyed it all so much that I hope to 
return to rural work again. My next two years were in a city school. 

26 The Training School Quarterly 

After the four years active service I felt these were some of my problems 
of that and all time: Am I presenting this lesson so James gets it? 
Jack does, but I am not sure of James. Is it my fault — isn't there 
some way I can help him to get it for himself? Aren't these children 
merely absorbing facts for "school reports" and not for life use? How 
can I help them to change? Are these children seeing life in nature 
and people and taking their daily part as well as preparing for greater 
responsibilities? Can I by conscientious effort aid them in doing this? 
Can the community be brought together to work upon problems of 
saner, more wholesome living — what agency can I be in this? These 
and dozens of other similar problems came. Some I have been able to 
solve partially ; some I have not. Always, I felt the need of experience 
and greater knowledge of the underlying principles of causes and 
results. It is true I read teachers' magazines, now and then a pro- 
fessional book, and attended summer-schools, but for serious study and 
research in answer to my problems, beyond what experience was giving 
me, I found, due to the demands of necessary work and society, that I 
had very little time or energy. 

Then, too, I awakened to the fact that I was fast settling into a rut. 
I needed fresh content matter, methods and contact with people of 
different viewpoint, or else I would quickly become the teacher satisfied 
with having her grade measure up to the required standards of the 
school in which she is working, losing sight of the big aims of education 
in a mass of details. For my own sake and for that of those people 
I come in contact with, and the children I am to teach, this could not 
be. Then came the question, How can I best find a solution to all 
my problems ? The answer came, By mingling with people who are 
consciously facing your same or similar problems, and being under 
the direction of people with ablity to guide and give. College, of 
course, presented these conditions, either Columbia, Chicago University, 
or Peabody. Selecting Peabody and still a little dubious as to what a 
college year would give I came back to work as a student. And now 
that I am at the place to summarize just what the year has meant to 
me, I find it hard to do because so much of it has been of an inspira- 
tional, intangible nature. Among the larger things gained has been a 
firmer grasp of the principles that dawned upon me as a normal school 
student ; a clearer insight into causes and effects ; a loving appreciation 
and respect for experimental work, and such work as John Dewey and 
the McMurrys are doing; a real appreciation of the significance of the 
big educational movements ; personal contact with C. A. McMurry and 
other members of the faculty ; a fresh enthusiasm for my work ; the 
joyousness of being a student among students, attending student gath- 
erings, playing basketball, swimming, and making friends with people 
from all parts of the globe. 

Why I am Again in School 27 

I hope I have made myself clear as to why I am in school "again," 
and just a few of the things it is meaning. From no viewpoint is it 
possible for the year not to repay its outlay in time, energy, and money 
unless the student refuses to enter into it. Personally, I am returning 
"again" as soon as possible and would advise any teacher remaining 
in our profession to do the same. 

The Psalm of the Country Woman 

Helen Christine Bennett 
(From Pictorial Review, by permission) 

I am a country woman. 

When the sun shines my pulses beat with gladness. 

At night, when I have ceased my labors, I look upon the stars. When 

I see the myriads shining above me — each, perchance, a world as my 

own — I know that life is not futile nor finite. 
I cannot count the stars, there are so many. How then can I hope to 

grasp infinity? 
The sting of Death has touched me, but altho it has robbed me of a 

Presence, yet may I rejoice. 
For every Spring I see again the miracle of resurrection. I have 

planted the tiny seed and have guarded its growth until I have the 

tiny seed within my hands again. So I comprehend dimly a cycle 

that has neither beginning nor end. 
By day I work with my hands and under them I see transformed the 

sustenance of life. 
It is good to see butter come gold in the churn. 
There are those who come from the places where many dwell, from the 

cities where these things are not. Such say to me: 
"Is not life here monotonous?" I smile within my secret self to hear 

For they know not of the drama that is held in producing the means of 

life, the never-ceasing battle waged with Nature, nor of the joy of 

The wild carrot grows by my doorsteps. I have seen it countless times, 

yet ever is it a thing of exceeding beauty. 
And it is but one of uncounted beauties about me. 
The air is sweet. 
The arms of my mate are strong. 
My children, brown under the sun-kiss, discover each day new wonders 

in the fields and woods. 
I have pity for the blindness of those who thus speak to me. 
For I have known the fullness of life and my eyes can see. 

Latin as a Vocational Subject 

Daisy Bailey Waitt 

FOR the average high school student Latin should be a vocational 
subject. Is it as our high school courses are now offered? The 
number of students who study the subject two or three years and 
forget it in less time is far greater than the number who study it for 
four years and are fortunate enough to go to college. Even with the 
latter class is the work offered always as practical in character as our 
dependence on the Latin language for our everyday speech would jus- 
tify? I shall not attempt to go into the subject except as it relates to 
the first two or three years. 

In a recent article in the Classical Weekly Prof. H. C. Nutting, of 
the University of California, says: "The demand of the hour is for 
concentration upon the problems of first and second-year Latin, and 
with two aims in mind, (1) so to enrich the first two years that the 
student will desire of his own volition to continue the work beyond that 
point, and (2) to make the work of the first two years preeminently 
worth while even for those who can pursue the subject no further." 

Under the second head Latin as a vocational subject naturally finds 
a. place. The number of high school students who do not go to college, 
but enter some trade or industry is greatly in excess of the students 
who go to college. In various types of work of this kind it is an 
acknowledged fact that ignorance of English, that is, a lack of knowl- 
edge of the meaning and use of words derived from Latin, is the greatest 
obstacle to promotion. Too often the work the schools offer make their 
courses to fit the college entrance requirements and their content is 
influenced by these requirements rather than by any immediate or 
practical benefit to be derived from the subject itself, and there are 
very decided values of a practical and vocational character that should 
come to the student in the pursuit of Latin even though he never learns 
to read fluently and drops the subject just when it should be becoming 
most interesting. 

From the beginning Latin should not be to the student a dead lan- 
guage, but rather his parent tongue, and I speak advisedly since Eng- 
lish is far more Latin than Anglo-Saxon and not a few words familiar 
to the student such as junior, senior, orator, census, have not even 
changed their form, while many others have but slightly changed 
theirs. The increase in the students' observation of the use of words 
along with his knowledge of words and feeling for their proper use 
should be one of the first practical tests of his Latin. A test of this 
sort will demonstrate the value of his Latin, whatever trade, occupation, 

Latin as a Vocational Subject 29 

or profession a student may afterwards enter, to say nothing of the 
cultural and disciplinary values, for they have not been proved alto- 
gether nil, and the hasis Latin forms for grammatical study of English 
and other modern languages as well. 

Experiments in vocational Latin to date have been eminently suc- 
cessful, but they have been confined primarily to special schools and 
commercial courses, notably the experiments made by Albert S. Perkins 
in connection with the commercial courses in the Rochester High 
School. It remains for a practical high school course to be worked 
out which shall give to the student the ability to apply his Latin as he 
gets it to make his English help his Latin and his Latin help his 
English, to seek and find the Latin element in all around him. 

To bring the application closer home for the primary or elementary 
teacher such training is invaluable. If to quote from a recent article 
on commercial Latin, "a broad, flexible, discriminating vocabulary is a 
prime business asset," certainly a training which enlarges the vocabulary 
and impresses on the mind a discriminating use of words is absolutely 
indispensable for the girl who is going to engage in any form of teach- 
ing. It is with this idea in view that a two-years course in practical 
Latin is being offered in the Academic Department of the Training 
School, and it is the honest conviction of experience that such a course 
will not only be of far more practical value to the student who can 
pursue it no further, but that it will arouse more interest and secure 
a greater desire for a further study of the subject than the usual college 
entrance requirements generally studied. This course does not take from 
the usual college entrance requirements any of the bone and sinew which 
make them worth while, but rather differs in content, which is in the 
main equivalent, and will, perhaps, make possible even greater require- 
ments because of greater interest, and form the basis for more varied 

Ways of Economizing in Cooking 

Substituting in Recipes 

ON account of the high price of foodstuffs this year we have been 
emphasizing in our cooking class how we can best reduce the 
cost of our cooking. 
We have taken up the cooking of: first, breads; second, cakes; and 
third, meats and vegetables. 

In cooking our breads we found we could reduce the cost considerably 
by using the cheaper fats, such as cottolenc, which is now 23 cents per 
pound, 2 cents cheaper per pound than lard. In keeping accounts of 
prices we have noted carefully the increasing cost of ingredients. Take, 
for instance: 


Cost in November. Cost now. 

1 c meal $.009 $.015 

1% tsp baking powder 004 .004 

y>2 tsp. salt — — 

2 lb. melted fat (lard) 005 .007 

1 egg 03 .025 

1 c milk 025 .037 

Total $.073 $.088 

Notice the substitutions we made that cheapen the cost. 

Cottolene can be used and very good bread can be made with less fat 
than is called for in the recipe. 

Second. Instead of using sweet milk and baking powders we used 
sour milk, which costs one-half as much as sweet milk, and one-half 
teaspoonful of soda. This made the bread as good, and also cut the 
price down. Two tablespoonfuls of flour can be used instead of the 
egg, but the bread would not have been as rich in protein value. 

The next thing we attempted to cheapen was the cooking of cakes. 
"We could reduce the cost here by using fewer eggs and a smaller amount 
of fat. We could also reduce it by using sour milk and soda instead 
of sweet milk and baking powders. One teaspoon of baking powders 
can also be used instead of one egg. 

The cooking of meats was the most important part of our work. We 
had to be very careful of the cost. The lessons were carefully planned 
so nothing would be wasted ; for instance, we stewed the meat for one 
lesson, and in the next lesson made croquets for which we used the 
stewed meat. We bought the cheaper cuts of meat; by that I do not 
mean the cheapest per pound at the market, but the cuts that would be 

Ways of Economizing in Cooking 31 

the cheaper after the bones and gristle were taken out. Such cuts as 
brisket, ribs, and neck seem very cheap when we think only of the 
price per pound, but after about one-third, which is bone and gristle, 
are taken out, the cost mounts up to about the cost of round steak. 

All the meat that was left, including the uncooked, was used for 
some other dish. The cooked meats were used for croquets, hash on 
toast, in pie, or baked, or for salads. The uncooked meats were used for 
flavoring as in soup and scalloped meats. In fixing the egg for the 
croquets one-fourth cup of water can be mixed with one egg. 

This reduced our expenses in two ways: first, by using the left-over 
meats which would have been thrown away ; second, by using the bread 
crumbs, left over cereals, and potatoes. We made these left-overs into 
very appetizing dishes. Vermelle Worthington, '17. 

Other Means of Economizing 

In this day of high prices and scarcity of food the women can be 
more economical by substituting cheaper foods for the more expensive 
ones, and by knowing how to save and preserve the things that they 
have on hand. 

Instead of letting the surplus fruits and vegetables spoil, can vege- 
tables such as corn, beans, peas, tomatoes, beets, and squash, for winter 
use. Can, preserve, and dry all apples, peaches, and other fruits that 
you have or can buy cheap. 

N"ow, while butter is easy to get, buy a supply and pack it away in 
salt in earthern jars for future use. It will keep any length of time. 

Eggs may be kept by being packed away in salt, or in a solution of 
water glass, which is prepared by using one part water glass to ten 
parts water. 

The use of corn meal in the place of so much wheat flour would 
reduce the cost of food for the family. Very good bread may be made 
from corn meal and wheat flour, half and half. All batter breads are 
better if part corn meal is used. Puddings, and even doughnuts and 
cakes are made with corn meal as the basis. 

Corn meal mush may be used in many ways, besides as a breakfast 
or supper dish. Fried mush, mush with cheese, and mush with fruits 
may be used. 

By writing to the Department of Agriculture at Washington one can 
get the bulletin, "Sixty Ways to Use Corn Meal." 

Since more rice was produced in the United States last year than 
ever before, it is cheap now. 

The Southerners realize the value of rice, and it is one of the staples 
along the sea coast and gulf coast. Boiled rice is often used for dinner, 
taking the place of bread. 

32 The Training School Quarterly 

Cold boiled rice may be mixed with all batters of flour, or corn 
meal; it reduces tbe quantity of other foods needed, and is a way of 
using the left-over cereals. Cold boiled rice may be used, with or 
without a little meat, for croquettes, and with eggs, sugar, milk, or 
other ingredients for making puddings and other deserts. 

The left-overs from a meal may always be made into some attractive 
dish. The left-over pieces of meat or fish may be made into croquetts 
or baked hash. The left-over potatoes may be used for potato salad. 
All left-over cooked fruit may be made into puddings, custards, or 

The fuel bill could be reduced greatly by the use of a fireless cooker, 
which can be made at home. Write to the Department of Agriculture 
at Washington to get directions for making one. 

Effie Batjgham, '17. 

Why Boys Leave the Farm 

(From Munsey's, by permission) 

"Why did you leave the farm, my lad? Why did you bolt and quit 
your dad? Why did you beat it off to town, and turn your poor old 
father down? Thinkers of platform, pulpit, press, are wallowing in 
deep distress; they seek to know the hidden cause why farmer boys 
desert their pas. Some say they long to get a taste of faster life and 
social waste; some say the silly little chumps mistake the suit-cards for 
the trumps, in wagering fresh and germless air against the smoky 
thoroughfare. We's all agreed the farm's the place ; so free your mind 
and state your case!" 

"Well, stranger, since you've been so frank, I'll roll aside the hazy 
bank, the misty cloud of theories, and show you where the trouble lies. 
I left my dad, his farm, his plow, because my calf became his cow. I 
left my dad — 'twas wrong, of course — because my colt became his horse. 
I left my dad to sow and reap, because my lamb became his sheep. I 
dropped my hoe and stuck my fork, because my pig became his pork. 
The garden-truck that I made grow — 'twas his to sell, but mine to hoe. 
It's not the smoke in the atmosphere, nor the taste for 'life' that brought 
me here. Please tell the platform, pulpit, press, no fear of toil or love 
of dress is driving off the farmer lads, but just the methods of their 
dads!"— J. Edward Tuft. 

How We Became Interested in Finding Subjects 
to Write About 


* J ■ S preparation, the interest of the class was aroused in composi- 

B"ra li' 1 " l',V studying the Progressive Farmer, the Country Gen- 
%W m tleman and other such magazines. We studied these articles 
to see the methods other people used for making themselves understood, 
and to notice subjects people were interested in. After a study of these 
articles each member of the class made a list of subjects from these 
magazines. Each then wrote one paragraph on an article from one of 
those papers, carefully selecting a subject she knew enough about to 
write on. Each girl then selected the magazine or paper she wished to 
write for, and in this way there was no feeling of a mere class exercise, 
but each felt that she was writing for a purpose. 

When the class had finished this work each member handed in to a 
committee, chosen from the class, a list of subjects that were of interest 
around her home, in her community, or on the farm. Our committee 
sifted and organized these under general topics. When this list had 
been reorganized it was placed on the bulletin board in the class room 
where each girl could study it. Each selected a subject that she was 
interested in and felt that she could write an article on that would 
reach the standard of those she had been studying. After she had 
decided on the subject she wrote her article and handed it in. 

This caused the girls to open their eyes. Then to begin to notice the 
interesting features around the school. 

Each girl handed in a list of the features she had taken notice 
of and was especially interested in around the Training School. This 
list was placed on the bulletin board as the other had been and each girl 
read the subjects and handed in her first and second choice to write an 
article on. It was surprising to know that all the subjects were taken 
and nearly every girl had her first choice. The girls' interest in this 
work was so great that each threw herself into it; and some exceedingly 
good articles were written. They were not only interested themselves 
but they made their fellow-students in other classes interested and some 
girls even became guides for sight-seeing parties around the school. 

Each girl had an interview with the person who could give her the 
most information on her subject. Many of those interviewed gave good 
reports of the young journalists. 

Following is given a suggestive list of some of the subjects : 

Community subjects. — The school : How we succeeded in consolidat- 
ing three one-teacher schools into one ; The teacher : How one teacher 

34 The Training School Quarterly 

helped our community; The kind of school we need; How we painted 
our school house. 

Clubs. — The work of the tomato club in our county; How we organ- 
ized a tomato club ; What the tomato club has meant to me ; The eight 
weeks club a Training School girl organized in my neighborhood; The 
corn-club boys in our county; My work in the poultry club; The boy 
scouts in our town; Why we organized a Farmers' Union. 

Public utilities. — A plan for efficient telephone service in my com- 
munity ; What the telephone means to us ; Rural delivery makes us a 
part of the world ; What the daily paper means to us ; The condition of 
the roads in my county ; The old road and the new running to my home ; 
Our good road to market; How we keep up the roads in our county; 
Our road-making day. 

Miscellaneous. — A community library of farm bulletins; How a girl 
can make money in North Carolina; The tenant problem in our com- 
munity; How we got up a community fair; What our community fair 
meant to us; The automobiles in our neighborhood; How the automo- 
bile on the farm pays for itself. 

In the Home. — How to do things, directions for making labor-saving 
devices, for cooking, for canning, and suggestions that had been tried 

Topics of interest around the Training School. — The cold storage 
plant ; The heating and lighting plant ; The arrangement of the kitchen 
and dining room ; The management of the dining room ; How the school 
is fed; The disposal of the garbage; The school garden; The Model 
School (1) The plan of cooperation with the Greenville schools; (2) 
The management of the student-teaching ; The library : what is in it and 
how it is managed; The infirmary; The Bursar's office: how the book- 
keeping is handled ; How the records of the students are kept ; The Loan 
Funds : history, how managed, etc. ; Facts and figures about the summer 
terms ; The history of the establishment and growth of the school ; His- 
tory of the various organizations of the school, such as the Y. W. C. A., 
the societies, Athletic League, and of the Quarterly, etc. 

Rena Harrison. 
Zelota Cobb. 
Elizabeth Speir. 

James Whitcomb Riley 

Alavia K. Cox, '17 

J^* AMES WHITCOMB RILEY, the most popular American poet, 
was born in Greenfield, Indiana, in 1853. His father, an eminent 
lawyer, was very anxious to have his son study law, but the poet 
refused to do it; he tells us: "Whenever I picked up Blackstone or 
Greenleaf my wits went to wool-gathering, and my father was soon 
convinced that his hopes of my achieving greatness at the bar were 
doomed to disappointment." Referring to his education the poet fur- 
ther says: "I never had much schooling, and what I did get I believe 
did me little good. I never could master mathematics, and history was 
a dull and juiceless thing to me; but I always was fond of reading in 
a random way and took naturally to the theatrical." 

Riley's first occupation was sign-painting for a patent medicine man, 
with whom he traveled one year. 

Riley is widely recognized as the poet of the country people. 
Although he was not reared on a farm, as most people believe, he so 
completely imbibed its atmosphere that few of his readers suspect that 
he did not actually live among the scenes he describes. "When the 
Frost is on the Pumpkin," "The Ole Swimmin' Hole," "Airly Days," 
"That Old Sweetheart of Mine," and scores of others go straight to the 
heart of the fun-loving countryman with a mixture of pleasant recol- 
lections, humor and sincerity that is most delightful. To every man 
who has been a country boy and "played hookey" on the school master 
to go swimming, or fishing, or bird-nesting, or stealing watermelons, or 
simply to lie on the orchard grass, many of Riley's poems come as an 
echo from his own experiences, bringing a vivid and pleasingly melodi- 
ous retrospective view. 

The West and the East, and particularly the middle sections of the 
country, all agree that James Whitcomb Riley was the poet of the 
common American life. He interpreted it as no other writer has done — 
its loves, its aspirations, its gaiety, its underlying religious faith. "He 
took by divine right," says the New York Sun, "the place of an Ameri- 
can poet which has not been occupied since Longfellow's tenancy ended. 
His universal appeal lay in the fact that he grew up close to nature 
and never became sophisticated in life or literature." 

Riley wrote much dialect, although he preferred the recognized non- 
dialect poetic form. He tells us, "Dialectic verse is natural and gains 
added charm from its very commonplaceness. I follow nature as closely 
as I can and try to make my people think and speak as they do in real 
life." The chief merit of Riley's dialect verse is its effectiveness as a 

36 The Training School Quarterly 

medium for character portrayal. Whimsical, lovable, homely, racy, 
quaint, pathetic, humorous, tender, are his dialect poems; essentially, 
he has shown us life as a superior writer of prose sketches might do, 
adding the charm of his lyricism. For some years the people, critics 
chiefly, have censured Riley by saying he was sentimental. And, indeed, 
he was — as sentimental as Dickens, Victor Hugo, or Burns. Perhaps 
no poet was ever so loved as Riley by so many and such diverse people 
unless he possessed that eager, tender, human warmth which is senti- 
ment. With Riley it never degenerated into sentimentality, which is 
the sign of the incompetent artist, who is attempting to force an emotion 
that he does not feel. There is no better evidence of the genuineness of 
Riley's sentiment, particularly in the dialect poems, than the discretion 
with which he touches the pathetic chord when he touches it at all. 

The true genial nature of our Hoosier Poet is revealed in his great 
love for little children. His successful thousand dollar entertainments 
were often given when surrounded by a delightful audience of little 

Riley spent delightful evenings playing the guitar and singing old 
songs for the little people. One afternoon while entertaining them he 
was asked to write his confession in a little girl's Mental Confession 
Album. Four of the twenty answers will give you an idea of its sarcasm 
as a whole : 

Favorite Flower — 

"The cultivated jimpson bloom, 
Of course excusin' the perfume." 

Favorite Animal — 

"Of all of those that I have tried, 
I think I like the rabbit — fried." 

Character in Fiction — 

"Belle Wilfer, 'cause she gave her dad 
The first full suit he ever had." 

Ideal Woman — 

"Sweet as a rose, in kitchen clothes, 
With a smirch of flour on her nose." 

An editorial that appeared immediately after Mr. Riley's death in 
the Chicago Evening Post, says : 

"The man who had the key to the Kingdom of Childhood has entered its 
portals and the gates have closed behind him. Little Orphant Annie and 
the barefoot boy bade him welcome. By either hand they took him and led 
him through its fields, where the cool greenness never fades and the starry 
wild flowers bloom year in and year out. 

"He is no stranger there. All the children know him, and he knows all 
the winding paths, the brooks and valleys, the hills and groves of shady 
trees. His own songs will make glad music for him, as they have made music 
for us. 

James Whitcomb Riley 37 

"James Whitcomb Riley always belonged to that kingdom. Through his 
60 years and more of tarrying in a world that grows old with cares and 
sorrows, with futile yearnings after foolish baubles, cruel stripes and wars, 
he sang to us of its beauties, bearing its charm and fragrance with him. 
It seemed to lie far away for many of us — somewhere in the long distance 
behind us. Riley had the magic to conjure the vision of it for others, but 
it was scarcely more than a dream, from which we wakened suddenly to 
the matter-of-fact world that claims our drudging thought and effort. For 
him it was never further than a short step. 

"Years gone he sang about the first bluebird. To Riley it was the emblem 
of happiness. He followed the flight of the bluebird. The shimmer of its 
wings never escaped him; the gladness of its song echoed in all his lyrics. 

"He has gone. He leaves us a rich heritage, dearer now than ever. In 
his songs we may find the key to that kingdom; we may learn to weave its 
magic spells." 

By many people Riley was considered very eccentric. He would 
invite the "Muse" while going about the streets, either riding or walk- 
ing, and as soon as the poems were thought out he immediately trans- 
ferred them to paper. He was one of the many poets who could write 
only when the spirit moved him. Much of his work was done at night, 
and at twelve o'clock a large cup of coffee and some custard pie were 
appreciated. He would sweeten his coffee until one fairly shuddered 
when he drank it. One morning he was reminded that seven lumps of 
sugar had disappeared into his syrup-like coffee. "Yes, I know," he 
drawled, "but when I was a boy I was never allowed to have enough 
sugar, so I'm taking it now. Of course I don't like it, but I'm doing 
it for spite." He played the role of a very deaf old man all the while 
he was at the table. ISTever, by any chance, was he known to answer 
a question correctly — hitting wide of the mark each time he pretended 
to reply, which convulsed his fortunate audience, for his acting was truly 

Like Whittier and many other genial poets Riley never married. 
Through his charming verses of "An Old Sweetheart of Mine" we are 
led to believe, however, that sometime back in the "Airly Days" love 
played for him its magic spell. 

For several years Riley spent much of his time on the lecture platform 
in company with the humorous writer, "Bill ISTye." An announcement 
of their appearance always insured them an enthusiastic welcome and 
a crowded house. Mr. Riley's inimitable rendering of his poems carried 
his audience back to the "Ole Swimmin' Hole" and other scenes, while 
Mr. Nye's droll remarks or a story told by one of the "Forty Liars" 
shook the house in convulsions of laughter. 

Before his death, which occurred on July 22, 1916, his sufferings were 
intense. When his tired body answered the call of his dream children 
we think the bluebird lighted on his window sill and gave the call. 

38 The Training School Quarterly 

His bachelor life was pleasantly spent at his sister's home in Indian- 
apolis, Indiana. Of this home he writes — 

Such a dear little street, it is nestled away 

From the noise of the city and the heat of the day, 

In cool, shady coverts of whispering trees, 

With their leaves lifted up to shake hands with the breeze, 

Which, in all its wide wanderings, never may meet 

With a resting place fairer than Lockerlie Street. 

Mr. Riley gave large audiences in all the leading cities of America 
the rare treat of listening to his interesting recitation of his poems. 

He was a Hoosier who happily escaped enslavement; the things 
hidden from us, or revealed only in flashes, remembered but vaguely 
from the days of our own happy life, he continued to see steadily; he 
lived among them familiarly to the end, and until the end was their 
interpreter to us. 

Psychologists are born, not made. Thirty years from now it will be 
interesting to see if this child is not a leading psychologist of his day. 

Is this next generation to profit by the thinking along psychological 
lines this generation is doing? Is it true that one generation reaps 
after the last one has sown? The story below is of a boy five and a 
half years old, lacking just two days. 

One Sunday morning at the breakfast table this conversation took 
place : 

William — "Papa, my thinking brain is out of fix." 

Father— "Why, what's the matter with it?" 

William— "It's out of fix." 

Mother — "Explain to papa, baby." 

William — "Last night I was thinking about something and some- 
thing else just butted right in and made me stop thinking about what 
I wanted to think about." 

Mother — "Baby, explain to papa what you wanted to think about." 

Father — "Yes, son, explain." 

William — "I was thinking about your making me a automobile and 
something else just butted right in and made me stop. My thinking 
brain is out of fix." 

Here the family broke in laughing. Questions were asked him as to 
how one could fix his "thinking brain," but William was not to be 
laughed out of trouble. To him his condition was serious and he was 
concerned over it. It was suggested to him that he could not think if 
his "thinking brain" was out of fix, but he replied that he could think 
some, but his brain did not work as it should. Have you ever been in 
this fix? Did it trouble you? What are you going to do about it? 

The Trip to Raleigh 

Lizzie Stewabt, '17 

•yy ■ HEN Mr. Wright announced in chapel the final decision that 
fi (LI there would be a holiday in honor of the trip to Raleigh, we 
^^^^ who were going were overwhelmed with thanks and showered 
with good wishes from the less fortunate. Excitement then began in 
earnest. The question that was uppermost in the mind of every person 
planning the trip was : What can I wear to make me look the most at- 
tractive in order to keep up the reputation of the school? That in the 
mind of the girl who was going was : How much money can I afford to 
spend on the flash we are planning, and have some left for the movies? 

February 20 came at last. After an early breakfast, and many cau- 
tions as to the care of our health, we were settled in our own private cars, 
two in number, and on our way to Raleigh. Time passes quickly when 
one is excited, so being surrounded by a jolly crowd, singing and laugh- 
ing, and having unusually congenial chaperones, Miss Davis, Miss 
Waitt and Miss Maupin, we soon reached our destination. 

The pleasant face and the familiar expressions, "Ah! The dear 
lambs, here they are ! All looking pretty as usual ! Ah ! Precious 
angels dear !" of Col. Fred Olds, greeted us at the station. Ninety- 
eight girls all rushed for his hand at one time. Col. Olds was assisted 
in receiving us by Mr. T. E. Browne of A. & E. College, and Mr. J. B. 
Pearce, of the department store of Raleigh. 

No time was wasted, for we at once began to explore the city. For 
various reasons we went to the Capitol first. Here we saw the Legisla- 
ture, both the House and the Senate in session. This enriched our 
experience somewhat in the line of History and came at the psycho- 
logical moment. Governor Bickett then received us in his private office, 
where we were introduced by Col. Olds. Governor Bickett made us a 
short talk, pledging to us his hearty support in behalf of our institution. 
Col. Olds then announced that we would go to pay our respects to "Mrs. 
Governor." The Governor gave us permission to hold his half of the 
mansion for the time being, regretting that he could not be there with us. 

A photographer greeted us at the mansion and with Mrs. Bickett, 
Mrs. B. R. Lacy and Mrs. J. Y. Joyner in the center, a very attractive 
picture was made. 

Mrs. Bickett was assisted in receiving the girls in an informal recep- 
tion by Mrs. Lacy, Mrs. Joyner, and Miss Davis. Mrs. Bickett's hos- 
pitality granted to us the other half of the mansion that the Governor 
did not reign over. Col. Olds was kept busy. It did not seem that. 

40 The Training School Quarterly 

there was one single piece of furniture that did not have some historical 

We were not sorry when Col. Olds announced that we would go to 
the Woman's Club and get lunch next. For the first time since we 
reached Raleigh we sat down. The club house is a beautiful building 
designed, owned and operated by women. We rested awhile after lunch 
before we started on our afternoon tour. 

Being quite refreshed by our lunch we started to the Museum. This 
perhaps was the place of most interest and surely of most value to a 
large majority of the girls. 

We next enjoyed the hospitality given us at Boylan-Pearce's depart- 
ment store, where we were allowed to range at our will. 

We were deeply concerned when it was suggested that we take a look 
in at the Wake County Court House, for you know Wake is in hearty 
cooperation with the Training School girls. When, after a short talk 
by Superintendent Giles, we came away, one could hear the murmur 
going over the crowd : "I am certainly going to teach in Wake County." 

About eight minutes were left before our special cars would be ready 
to take us out to A. & E., so we utilized the time by taking a peep at the 
city auditorium. 

Our cars were waiting for us so nothing prohibited a speedy arrival 
at the College. As we alighted we were cautioned by Miss Davis to 
remember the instructions given before we left : that was not to let our 
joy in being at A. & E. be too evident. We were met by President Rid- 
dick and escorted out to the field, where a dress parade was given for 
our especial benefit. The masses became groups and scattered around 
to various places of especial interest. The dinner hour came all too 
soon. The dining room was beautifully decorated with red and white 
carnations. The boys showed their college spirit by giving us yells. 
These were responded to in such a manner by the girls that the boys 
said they were almost ashamed to let such a small crowd of girls beat 
them so much. After dinner there was an informal gathering in the 
Y. M. C. A. hall, where familiar songs were sung, and some special 
music, both vocal and instrumental was given. 

The last place visited was the Supreme Court Building. Here we 
examined the Hall of History, seeing many things of educational value 
and interest. Chief Justice Clark made a short talk on woman suffrage. 

Many of the happy memories of the day will stay with us forever. 

"We, the members of the senior class, hereby recommend that the 
custom of visiting, annually, the capital of our State, be faithfully 
adhered to as an unbreakable precedent." 

Subscribed to by all who made the trip. 

The Legislature as a Junior Saw It 

Willie Jackson, '17 

One of the most interesting places that we visited while in Raleigh 
was the Capitol, where we had the good fortune to see the General 
Assembly in session. Owing to Colonel Olds' schedule for the day we 
had to split our crowd so that a part observed in the Senate and the 
other in the House of Representatives. The House is a larger hall than 
the Senate, and the seats are arranged in a semi-circle, with the speaker's 
seat in front. 

There should have been 120 representatives in the hall, but for various 
reasons, strolling on the grounds, standing on the street corners, gossip- 
ing, etc., there were a good many vacancies. The Speaker, who is chosen 
by the House, sat in his elevated box in front. Just behind him, there 
were suspended the two well known flags, that of the State and that of 
the nation. These formed a sheer curtain beyond which we saw men 
standing in groups carrying on conversations, and drinking water from 
the buckets which were constantly being refilled by a small boy, who no 
doubt thought that he was a very important person in this great assem- 

Naturally, one would think that the presiding officer, since he occu- 
pies such an important place in North Carolina's law-making body, 
would be very dignified and quite attentive to what was going on on 
the floor. But not so. He sat half reclining in his chair, reading a 
newspaper, which I saw him buy from a newsboy just as we entered. 
Every now and then he raised himself up, took a sip of Adam's ale from 
the cup, which was placed to his right, then demanded the attention of 
the house by knocking with a hammer on his desk. One of the seniors 
thought he did this to quiet things down, so that he might understand 
what he was reading. By watching very closely, I found out that this 
is the method of recognizing a member who wants the floor. "Will the 
gentleman from Iredell County give his remarks on the bill now before 
the House ?" 

Then the gentleman from Iredell arose and spieled forth a speech 
which seemed to interest no one so much as himself, for the other gentle- 
men read newspapers and magazines, wrote letters, and held friendly 
conversations with their immediate neighbors. Every now and then I 
saw one open his mouth and yawn. It looked as if he might swallow 
the man nest to him. But of course that was impossible. Finally some 
got up, stretched, walked around and thereby rested their weary bones. 
Such a relief it seemed ! 

My eye fell on one sitting in a far off corner and as his face was 

42 The Training School Quarterly 

"neither sad nor glad," I concluded he was asleep. And sure enough 
he was, for all at once he woke up. Then to give the appearance of 
having kept up with the argument of the gentleman who had the floor, 
he arose and asked about a point that should have been questioned, if at 
all, five minutes before. 

We were in the House long enough to hear one of our own representa- 
tives from Pitt plead for his Good Eoads Bill, which afterwards 
passed. I fancy when he saw us filing in, he felt somewhat as we do 
when the president ushers a visitor into our class room. But like us 
he bore himself with Spartan fortitude and batted not an eyelid. 

We were also in the House long enough to see an illustration in prob- 
lem solving. One of the messenger boys was sent on an errand. In order 
to reach his point of destination, he had to pass between two men who 
were on the floor addressing the House. He saw his difficulty. It is 
dollars to doughnuts, that he had been taught by one of our girls, for 
quick as a flash he was on his all fours and passed beyond without dis- 
turbing the speakers. 

It was with genuine regret that I had to follow Colonel Olds' march- 
ing orders. I did want to see how a vote could be taken amid so much 
confusion and disorder, but I had to hurry on. 

€tye draining gkfjool (©uarterlp 

Published by the Students and Faculty of the East Carolina Teachebs 
Tbaining School, Greenville, N. C. 

Entered as Second Class Matter, June 3, 1914, at the Postoffice at Greenville, N. C, 
under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

Price: $1.00 a year. 

25 cents single copy. 

FACULTY EDITOR Mamie E. Jenkins 

ALUMNiE EDITOR Bettie Spenceb 


Poe Literary Society. Lanier Literary Society. 

Fannie Lee Speib, Editor-in-Chief. Ruth Spivey, Business Manager. 

Sallie France:, Assistant Editor. Jennie Taylob, Assistant Editor. 

Vol. IV 


No. 1 

Keep the 
Fires Burning 

Keep the fires burning on the school altars so that 
none of the good we now have will go out. That is part 
of the teachers' "bit." 

Each community is now a part of the world. Any 
Remember one who thinks in terms of his community only is selfish 

and is not a patriot. 

Salute the 

Is there a flag on your schoolhouse? Do the children 
salute it? Do the older people salute it? 

Do You Know Do you and your neighbors know the words of "Star 

the Words of Spangled Banner," "America," "Columbia, the Gem of 

the National r ° ' . ' ' 

Songs ? the Ocean," and "Carolina," or are you leaving this to 

the school children ? "Carolina" was on the program 
for a meeting of a woman's club, the first half of the first stanza was 
strong, but the last half was weaker and weaker. The chorus was full 
and strong, but two different sets of words were contending for the 
mastery of the first part of the second stanza, and one voice alone car- 
ried through the last half of the stanza. Try "America" on an audience 
in which there are no children. 

44 The Tbaining School Qtjabterly 

Wh . Perhaps the teacher who lives near her school is in 

Teachers charge of a farm garden, where she is trying to meet 

Can Do fa e p resen t situation by getting the children interested 

in raising food stuffs, and at the same time she is teaching the funda- 
mentals of agriculture. 

While the teacher is willing, yet she can not do as much as she would 
like to because the school term ends too early, and begins too late for 
her to aid much in the production of food. But how can she help ? By 
getting the children so interested in the work that they will go home 
and begin their own garden. Then, too, when the teacher goes home 
for vacation she can help carry on the work that the regular teacher 
has begun. 

Again, she can help by teaching the children to practice the strictest 
economy in their use of school supplies, and also in the domestic science 

There is no more patriotic duty than keeping right on. The teacher 
in her work is doing as patriotic service for her country as the soldier 
boy, and she should not be lured from her post of duty by romantic 
appeals. The government realizes this and has listed the teacher as 
being in patriotic service for the country. — F. L. S. 

„ _ , The teacher must pay board and laundry, she must 

Make Ends dress fairly well, she must subscribe to educational 

et journals, and own books, and she must go to summer 

school. How can she meet these requirements with the compensation 
of $50 per month for six months? Board has increased 50 per cent, 
shoes have increased 40 per cent, and there is no telling where 
it will go, and every commodity of life has increased greatly. How 
much has the teacher's salary increased? None. Less than $45 
a month is the magnificent salary paid the average school teacher in 
the county in which the East Carolina Teachers Training School is 
situated. This is a progressive county, and wants progressive teachers, 
and rightly so. Teachers are willing to give their services to the school, 
but at the same time they must live. By the time she has done her 
community work and school work there is little time for making clothes, 
even when the teacher can sew well. 

What can the teacher do and what can the people of the community 
do to help to relieve the situation ? The teacher can show her patriotism 
by wearing the simplest clothes, by eliminating luxuries, and by practic- 
ing the strictest economy in every way possible. The people of the com- 
munity or the family with whom she boards can help by keeping board 
reasonable. There is no reason why board in the country should be so 

Editorials 45 

greatly increased if the farmer produces most of his food supply, as he 
should. She must do as others are doing, do the most she can with 
what she has. — F. L. S. 

What are you, young woman teacher, going to do this 

What of the summer? Teacher, no matter where you are for the 
Summer? , ■'. 

summer, you can find things to do. It is vacation and 

you may be far from the community in which you teach, hut you can 

do something wherever you are. 

You may be at home. Do you feel that you have earned the right 

to loaf because you have had a hard winter? If you are at home, you 

have opportunities for service. You should fit into your community and 

work as if you had never left it. You can carry on things the teacher 

began last winter. If she did not leave anything for you to carry on, 

you can begin things and leave them for the teacher next fall to carry 

on for you. 

1. Garden. Is it not too late? Yes, for radishes and English peas; 
~No, for late vegetables, the second crop of Irish potatoes, turnips, and 
other late vegetables. Start a school garden for the teacher who comes 
to your community next fall. She will be glad to find things started. 
Get ready for winter vegetables. Get some hot-beds made for her. 

2. Help promote the canning clubs. Can things yourself; boost the 
canning club ; study up on household questions and pass ideas of econ- 
omy and conservation on to others. 

3. Help the girls of the community with ideas about their clothes. 
If you can sew, have a sewing bee to popularize "make your own clothes 
movement;" if you cannot sew yourself, form a partnership with some 
one who can who will do that part of the work and you can help the 
girls in planning and designing. You should be able to help them with 
ideas of economy and taste. 

4. Help make supplies for the Eed Cross Society or for some other 
society that makes a business of directing and collecting supplies. Al- 
though a first aid class may be out of the question, any community can 
fill at least one box of supplies. Make bandages according to the specifi- 
cations sent out by the Eed Cross Society, or make garments. Learn 
how to knit socks. Get the old ladies of the community organized into 
a knitting club. Get them to teach the younger ones how to knit socks. 
They will be delighted to know that the well-nigh lost art of turning 
heels and narrowing toes is once again popular. The old-fashioned 
knit yarn sock is what is needed now. Did you ever hear of wrist- 
bands? These will be wanted. These will be in fashion for the sol- 
diers next winter. Knit sponges are among the articles called for. 
Knitting is as fascinating as making tatting, or crocheting. If you 

46 The Training School Quarterly 

cannot get together the supplies for a whole box, get in touch with the 
Red Cross work in a large town nearby and offer to send a certain 
number of things to them. In this way several communities can com- 
bine and fill large boxes. 

Whatever comes or goes, do something, don't sit idle. 

Red Cross What is a woman's work in war ? Be a Red Cross 

RedCrlsI 8 ' nurse? That is the first answer one gets. The Red 
Work Cross nurse is now a highly trained person, and only 

those who have had special training and experience are considered at 
all. Those who went into training for this work when the great war 
broke out are just getting sent to the front. Science has pushed into 
the background everything here except efficiency. The sweet, soothing 
little woman who has sentimental dreams of administering to poor suf- 
fering soldiers because she has so much sympathy for them is not turned 
loose in hospitals now. Even to be an aid to a Red Cross nurse takes 
hard study, and special qualifications, and the work is entirely volunteer. 

When the work was first started in North Carolina by the women in 
a woman's club, a young girl came to the club and announced that she 
had come to be a Red Cross nurse. She had come from a small country 
school, had no idea of what war meant, no conception of nursing, had 
never been in a hospital, but she thought that was the only way a girl 
could do anything. There are perhaps many such throughout the State. 
They are eager to help and simply need direction. 

You can do Red Cross work in your community that counts, that is 
as essential as that done on the field, and yet use only the time and 
energy that is going to waste. In the meantime you are carrying on 
things at home. 

The universities in mobilizing their forces have sent 

What is a ou |. ^ a ]j w jj nave ever Dee n connected with them lists 

Woman s Part? 

to be checked. The list below, sent out to women by 

Columbia University, is full of suggestions, both as to the kind of work 
the women are called on to do and as to the work they are fitted for. 

Author Making surgical dressings 

Automobile driving Manager 

Raker Messenger 

Bookkeeper Mail carrier 

Care of children Motorcyclist 

Clerical work Nurse 

Cook Practical 

Dairy Trained 

Dietition Pharmacist 

Factory inspection Physician 

Editorials 47 

Factory work Photographer 

Farming Postmistress 

First aid Poultry raising 

Gardening Powder boats 

Garment-making Reader 

House work Relief visiting 

Instructing blind, maimed, etc. Sewing 

Journalist Social club work 

Knitting Stenography 

Languages Tailoring 

French Teaching 

German Telegraph 
Russian Wire 

Spanish Wireless 

Laundry work Telephone 

Lecturing Trade 

Letter writing Typewriting 

This is the fourth senior class that has been featured 

The Senior j n ^e Quaeteelt. The initial number of the Quab- 

Department ™ 

teely was a Senior number, that of the class of 1914. 

Each class has followed the precedent set by that class, because we feel 

it to be a good thing. 

The purpose of this department is to leave an historical record of the 
class activities from the student's standpoint — a record that we may 
turn to in recalling the memories of our life at this institution. 

This section is entirely the work of the class. It affords an oppor- 
tunity for many a Senior who doubts her ability to write anything for 
print, but whose interest is especially appealed to, when she attempts to 
write something for her class. Then she finds that expression comes 
readily, and she can write well the assigned topic. 

Selfish motives, if they ever exist, are thrown aside when the good 
of the class is at stake, and splendid team work is the result. The 
department this time represents the work of more than half of the in- 
dividuals in the class, but it is unsigned, because it is a product of the 
class rather than of individuals. 

When the contents of this department are analyzed, they will be found 
to contain the essential elements of an annual, and at a great deal less 
expense. We feel that this department is more in harmony with what 
this school stands for than an annual would be with the expense which 
is attached to it. We consider that we get the good effects of an annual 
and not the evil. 

Doubtless the class itself is more interested in this section of the 
Quaeteelt than anyone else, but we hope and believe that other people 
will read it with more patience than they would read a publication 
dealing entirely with personal, long-strung-out affairs of the class, pro- 
fusely and expensively illustrated. — S. F. 

48 The Training School Quarterly 

Art in Every 
Day Life 

The article in this issue by Miss Lillian Burke, super- 
visor of drawing in Washington, D. C, opens our eyes 
to the fact that art is not confined to galleries, but 
may be found in the simple, practical things of life. Indeed, we find 
that teachers of art themselves have embodied in their work, in many 
instances, the little insignificant things which we have not been able 
to perceive as yet, because we are not keen-eyed and on the alert for 
the beautiful. Since we do not have the habit of looking for beauty 
everywhere and of trying to create it in all that we produce, it is a 
problem worthy of consideration to see how this can be established. 
Though it may seem too late for many who are past the plastic age 
to begin, it is never too early, and it seems that since the school is the 
logical place for it, we, as teachers, cannot begin too early to establish 
the habit of bringing art into daily life and making the commonplace 
things radiate with beauty. Every teacher may be a teacher of art, 
whether she occupies the chair in an art room or not. 

It is interesting to note the changing ideas of decoration. Not so very 
many years ago it seemed quite the proper thing to have a room clustered 
with gaily flowered rugs and draperies, family crayon portraits, and 
every little piece of bric-a-brac that could be collected. "We have come 
a long ways when we recognize now that simplicity is the keynote of 
beauty, and the fewer the things in a room, the better. 

In the schools the girl should be hastened by a wise teacher through 
the stages which seem necessary before her appreciation for the aesthetic 
becomes fixed. There is a time in her life when nothing can please her 
better than big, gaily colored ribbon bows. The photograph stage is 
when she wants a picture of every one of her relatives, friends, and 
acquaintances arranged on her dresser, table, and mantel. Along with 
this comes the poster stage, when each square foot of wall space is hung 
with the heads of girls and men. The pennant stage comes into the life 
of every boarding school girl — the time when she simply cannot get 
enough pennants in her room — pennants of every shape, size, and color 
are tacked on her walls, and when she can stand back and survey a mass 
of thirty-seven of them she is well pleased, and thinks that no art gallery 
could be more beautiful. When we are able to see the beauty in the 
everyday things of life, then, and not before will art mean more to us 
than merely big masses of canvas daubed with paint and hung in some 
gallery. — J. T. 

What is the public sentiment in Worth Carolina in 

Credit for regard to school credit for home work ? This idea has 

Home Work . , . 

grown rapidly in many of our very best schools, and is 

a pronounced success. It is well worth considering, even in the little 

Editorials 49 

country school. The teacher could outline the conditions on which she 
would be willing to give credit, if the community desired it, and we be- 
lieve it' could be worked out most successfully. Many a child who is 
otherwise laggard and uninterested may be appealed to, through this 
school credit for home duties. Its effect is far reaching, and since it 
is such an essential part in the child's development, why not give credit 
for it?— J. T. 

Mr. White, the writer of the article on practical English, is a North 
Carolinian who is making good in Alabama. He is a graduate of 
Trinity College. 

"Look out of thine eyes, behold the things around thee, and write," 
for all practical purposes has taken the place of the old adage, "Look 
into thy heart and write." Most progressive teachers of English are 
realizing that the only effective means of getting results from the com- 
position of girls and boys and to get them to express themselves sincerely 
and well is to let them write of the subjects that are of interest to them, 
to open their eyes to the things around them, help them to see a story 
in everything. If the teacher does this, the task is half done. The day 
of having students write literary hash is gone. 

Miss Campbell, who graduated from East Carolina 

Articles by Teachers Training School in the class of 1912, has at- 

Alumnae ° ' 

tended summer school here two summers, and has been 

in constant contact with this school. She gave up her position in the 

Winston Graded Schools last fall for the purpose of going on further 

and studying. When a student completes her work in a Normal school, 

she often has the idea that she is fully equipped to teach and all she needs 

she can supply from experience. Ambition seems dead. Occasionally 

the student who seems to have the greatest possibilities open up before 

her is satisfied and gets into ruts and fails to grow. This article directly 

from one who completed her work in a Normal school, succeeded in her 

teaching, and returned to study further, is especially interesting to those 

who are wondering what there is ahead for them if they go on further. 

It will be of interest to know that since this article was mailed there 

comes the news that Miss Campbell will teach Primary Methods in the 

Summer School of the University of Mississippi. 

Another Training School Alumna who is making good is Miss Willie 

Greene Day, who is now supervisor of drawing in the Newbern public 

schools. She tells in this number of the Quarterly just what she has 

been doing. 



The Training School Quarterly 

What the Ap- In the last issue of the Quarterly the needs of the 

Mean to the ' sc h°°l were set forth in the report from the Board of 
Training School Trustees, and in the president's report. It was at a 
time when the authorities of the Training School were in suspense, 
wondering what the fate of the school for the next two years would be. 
Great was the rejoicing when news of the bond issue, and of the appro- 
priation of $200,000 for permanent improvements, came to us. This 
means that the school can go forward; that dormitory room will be 
provided for a great many more students so that the cry of "no room" 
will be stilled for a while; it means that there will be added more room 
to the Model School so that the student-teachers will have places in 
which to teach, and that the State can buy the Model School building 
and no longer be pensioners on the town of Greenville for the building 
used for practice and observation work; it means a library building, a 
gymnasium, and, perhaps, other good things. Exactly what will be 
done first has not yet been decided. Report will be made later. 

The increased maintenance was necessary to keep up with the in- 
creased cost of Hying, but we are profoundly grateful for it. All 
friends of East Carolina Teachers Training School are grateful to the 
members of the General Assembly of 1917 for their generous appro- 

Tbe Quarterly is indebted to the courtesy of the Baltimore Sun for 
the photographs of the North Carolinians who are figuring prominently 
in world affairs now. Commissioner of Education Claxton, although 
not born in North Carolina, was long identified with educational work 
in the State. 

Practical Agriculture at the Training School 
Senior Gardens 


Thought Division in Reading 

Beading as thought getting deserves especial attention in the lower 
as well as in the higher grades. Today we are concerned with the im- 
portance of teaching the children how to study as it involves controlled 
thinking and is the beginning of habit formation. No subject can offer 
a better opportunity for this than reading. 

The children in the first grade, during the second term of this school 
year, with occasional help from the teacher, were able to divide several 
of their stories, such as, "The Three Little Pigs," and "The Three 
Bears," into thought divisions. The teacher threw the responsibility 
entirely upon the children. Her questions were so carefully and clearly 
given that they gave the children their aim for the silent reading. She 
did not say, "Bead the next four or five lines," but she said, "Bead the 
part that tells me about the first little pig," or "The part that tells me 
all about his house," and so on. It was indeed interesting to the people 
who were observing in the grade ; many were astonished to see how 
quickly they responded. The silent reading was checked by requiring 
the children to read orally and present the thought clearly to the rest 
of the class. This work was very simple and the children were not 
conscious that they were dividing the story into parts. 

The importance of this independent work must therefore be realized 
from the beginning. One of the values from this work is the child 
finds out that he can go ahead for himself and does not depend upon the 
teacher for everything. He is unconsciously forming the correct habits 
of study. We realize, therefore, that thought division in reading should 
be made more difficult each year. 

This year in teaching "The Dog of Flanders" to the children in the 
third grade we thoroughly discussed the story and then divided it into 
thought divisions. It has been seen that before in grades one and two 
they divided the stories into parts but they were not conscious of it, 
while in the third grade they became conscious of it for the first time, 
therefore this work was practically new to them. Their aim was to 
divide the story into larger thought divisions. Each child had a right 
to agree or disagree and then give his reasons. Good thinking was the 
result and the children corrected themselves. For example, one little boy 
said, "I do not think the division should be made there." He was asked 
why and he said, "Because it is in the middle of a conversation;" they 
all agreed that he was right. There were several topics given to one 
division, one as good as another, but the children selected the best topic, 
or "name," as they called it for each division and then the names were 

52 The Training School Quarterly 

written on the hoard. After they had finished this work the story was 
more vital to them; the larger divisions stood clearly before them as 
one big unit. 

Does not this work pave the way for the paragraph? In conclusion, 
we see that to have this kind of reading a good foundation is essential. 
After developing several stories like the above the children become more 
interested and efficient in their reading. Begin in the first grade and 
make the work more difficult each year. 

Eula B. Pappendick, '17. 

The Sandtable and Primary Reading 

The value of the sandtable in the primary grades is without question 
very important. ISTo child will fail to be interested as it creates a desire 
to do something. Not only are history stories and holiday work made 
effective on the sandtable, but stories from the primers and first grade 
readers. Oftentimes the results from one or two seat-work periods will 
be sufficient to represent a story in this way. For illustration, in the 
Little Red Hen, the pig, dog, cat, and hen can be cut during one seat- 
work period. Each one has as his aim to cut the best ones he can so 
his will be selected for the sandtable. Some of the children can bring 
from home some wheat, a seed, and other things as the story calls 
for. A little stove made of paste-board serves for cooking the bread. 
The sandtable may be divided into sections and several scenes shown. 
Divide the children into groups and let each group be responsible for 
a scene. 

Many other stories from the readers and primers may be illustrated 
in this way. At the Model School, with the story "The Three Pigs" the 
sandtable was effectively used. The children read the story and then 
decided what in the story they wanted to show on the sandtable and how 
they could do it. Of course they decided on the three houses : brick, 
wood, and straw; the four pigs: mother, big, middlesized, and little 
pig ; and the wolf ; a few branches for trees and a fence were used where 
the old mother pig was sending her three pigs out to seek their fortune. 

For the brick house we took a chalk box, covered it with red paper 
marked off into bricks. We made a roof of paste-board and had a 
chimney to come through the center. Inside was shown the fireplace 
and on it a pot made of clay. We placed a porch in front. For the 
wood house we used a chalk box and placed in front of this a porch, 
but the porch and roof were made of a different shape from the brick 
house. We took a paste-board box, covered it with pine straw and sewed 
it with raffia for the straw house. All the children modeled pigs out of 
clay and the best four were used for the sandtable. This gave an aim to 
the children in their clay modeling. These things were placed on the 
sandtable by the children according to their own ideas. 

Suggestions 53 

The idea here was not elaborately planned work, but was done quickly 
and at the same time was effective. Some people think that much time 
must be put on standtables and the teacher must do the work. This is 
a mistake. Let the children do the work. One of the great values is 
to let them see their mistakes and correct them themselves. 

Fannie Grant, '17. 

How Other People Live 


Swiss life followed easily and naturally after the children had studied 
Eskimo life. They had become accustomed to countries of snow and 
ice, but they were surprised to learn that there could be snow and ice 
in countries that were not in the Far North. 

The first lesson was a description of the country of Switzerland. 
Pictures were given making it as vivid and real as possible. After they 
had seen the pictures of the mountains and glaciers, some child asked 
where the people lived and what kind of houses they lived in. 

"Between the high mountains there are beautiful green valleys where 
the people live," was the answer the teacher gave them. 

Pictures were then shown them of the Swiss house, or chalet. The 
fact that the cattle and goats were kept under the same roof as the 
family interested them in Swiss houses. 

Naturally, the next question that arose was, "What kind of work did 
the Swiss people do?" The answer given was that when the grass was 
green on the mountain sides in the spring, the country and village peo- 
ple drove their cattle and goats up the mountain side to graze, and they 
made butter and cheese in their mountain chalets. The town people 
do about the same kinds of work as other people living in towns in other 
countries do. 

Then two days more were given to the Swiss life, the children were 
told to imagine that they were Swiss boys and girls writing to American 
children about their country. And in this way they gave back to me 
most that I had given them. 

The country was then worked out on the standtable. The sand was 
shaped and covered with flour and artificial snow, to form the mountains 
and glaciers. The children moulded the cows and goats from clay. 
Log cabins were used for the chalets. The children cut out pictures 
from old magazines that were connected with Swiss life, and made a 
chart from them. 

Reference books used : "The Story of Little Conrad," by Camp- 
bell, "Seven Little Sisters," "Frye's Home Geography," "Carpenter's 
Geographic Reader," and the "Geographic Magazine." 

Effie Baugham, '17. 

54 The Training School Quarterly 

dutch life. 

I planned an imaginary trip for my first lesson in teaching Dutch 
life to the third grade of the Model School. I did this because I real- 
ized the danger of monotony in presenting the lives of other peoples 
as the class had just made a study of the Eskimo and the Swiss. 

I told the children that I had a surprise for them and they quickly 
responded, "you are going to tell us about some other people." Then I 
told them I was going to take them on a trip to a quaint country to see 
some quaint people. Some of them guessed the name of the country. 
I warned them that I would not take them on this trip unless they 
promised to keep their eyes wide open so they might be able to represent 
this wonderful country on our sandtable when we returned. 

"Just imagine you are going to start from Switzerland, the country 
you have just been studying about; — get into a boat and sail down the 
Rhine river until we land on the shores of Holland." In a short time 
a merry band of children found themselves in Holland. Pictures of 
landscapes were shown to them. Instantly, from the pictures they dis- 
covered that this country was quite different from Switzerland, in that 
no mountains were seen, but instead a low level country. I noticed that 
the children were constantly comparing and contrasting the country of 
Holland with Switzerland throughout the study, while in their study of 
the Swiss people and their country they compared Switzerland with 
the Northland. 

The remainder of this lesson was spent in giving the children a con- 
cept of the surface features of Holland through conversations and pic- 
tures which I found in the Geographic Magazine for March, 1915. 
This magazine proved very helpful because of its pictures showing 
Dutch people and Dutch life. 

The construction of the dykes was one of the things that the class 
seemed especially interested in, so some time was spent in showing pic- 
tures and discussing their construction. Some of the children remem- 
bered having made sand dams, and because of this they understood the 
dyke more clearly. 

After studying the country for a while, on the second day the children 
went into the heart of Holland to visit the country homes and study the 
life of the country people. Colored post cards showing country life and 
country people, which a member of the faculty gave me, were used to 
bring to the minds of the children country life as it actually exists. 

The children found dairying to be the most interesting occupation 
of the country people. Because they were interested we paused to study 
dairying in Holland, and then made a study of dairying in our country. 
By doing this the class saw the differences in this occupation as engaged 
in by the Dutch and our people. This is an outline of the work — 
a. Sanitary dairying. 

Suggestions 55 

b. Our dairy as compared with that of Holland. 

c. Butter and cheese making. 

d. Value of milk as a food product. 

(Here we see a hygiene lesson growing out of language work). 

Another interesting occupation was the raising of flax. One lesson 
was spent on how flax was raised ; how harvested and how prepared for 
the loom. 

After we had become familiar with the country and country life we 
got into a boat and glided down a quiet canal until we reached the city 
of Amsterdam. The first thing we did in this city was to find out what 
the people were doing. Factories, stores, work shops, markets, and vari- 
ous other workplaces were visited. I was very fortunate to get a cup, 
saucer, spoon and cream pitcher that came from Holland. I showed 
these to them as we were making our imaginary trip through these 
places. The children modeled several pieces of Dutch china and put 
designs on them with blue crayola. The results were fair. 

After we had roamed about the city we decided to visit the home of 
a Dutch boy and girl, Hans and Gretchen. I had two Dutch dolls. I 
placed these on my desk and introduced them to the children. Hans 
and Gretchen gave their guests a hearty welcome into their home. By 
having an imaginary conversation with Hans and Gretchen they learned 
of the games, sports, school and home duties of the Dutch city children. 

The children insisted that we spend another week in Holland, but 
finally I persuaded them to sail for home; when they returned they 
all declared that they had enjoyed the trip. 

My last lesson in connection with Dutch life was a picture lesson. 
We made a study of the "Dutch Windmill." At the end of the lesson 
the windmill song was sung and we all played windmill just as if we 
really were one of those Holland windmills. 

By placing Holland on the sandtable I had an opportunity to correct 
a number of erroneous ideas. Nannie Mac Beown, '17. 


Pastoral life was a big unit taught in the second grade during the 
month of January. This was primarily language or history, but 
around it all other subjects centered. The immediate aim of the Pas- 
toral work was to lead the children to understand the life of those who 
care for sheep, and to realize the value of sheep to us. Back of this was 
a broader purpose of leading the children to appreciate the picturesque 
and practical phases of Pastoral life. 

The care that the animals require was taught by means of a story, 
showing clearly the needs of the animals and their dependence upon 
those who care for them. A series of stories and poems, familiar to 
the grade, relating to Pastoral life were reviewed with much enthusiasm. 

56 The Training School Quarterly 

Pictures furnished interesting conversational or practical oral lan- 
guage lessons. "The Eeturn of the Flock," "The Knitting Shepherd- 
ess," "The Contented Flock," and "The Sunset Glow," were among the 
pictures used. 

The realization that sheep must be protected from the weather caused 
the children to want to make a sheep-fold. This was taught as a draw- 
ing lesson, hut also furnished an excellent motive for a lesson in meas- 
urement. They were all anxious to put their work on the sand table. 

Wool was the topic which led to some of the most effective work. 
As it was winter the woolen clothes worn, suits and caps of the boys, 
coats and dresses of the girls, were talked about constantly. This 
gave an opportunity to teach in a simple way the processes through 
which wool has to be carried before it is ready to be worn. As an 
introduction to that part of the development two stories were reviewed 
with new interest, "Pattie's New Dress," and "How Jack Got a New 

Then we took an imaginary trip to make the processes more vivid. 
First we imagined that we were helping a farmer shear his sheep on 
a bright spring day. Next, we visited the woolen mills and were first 
taken to a room where the wool was being sorted and cleaned. 

After the cleaning we saw it torn into a fluffy mass and sprinkled 
with oil to make it softer. 

We next visited the carding machines, and soon afterwards saw the 
wool spun or twisted into yarn, and the yarn woven into cloth. It 
was then ready to be washed and pressed, and next to be made into 
clothes. The last visit was to a store where ready-made clothes were 
for sale and cloth waiting to be made into clothes for our use. This 
presentation appealed to the imagination of every child. 

Oral language work was the chief aim during the first week, but in 
the second .week most all the work was based on written language. The 
children made a booklet and decorated the cover with a border of sheep. 
One day they went to the blackboard and wrote sentences that told 
what the shepherd does for his flock, and another day their sentences 
told of the value of sheep to us. The work was corrected by the 
teacher with suggestions from the children. Then they were given 
paper to write the sentences to put into the booklets. Original work 
was encouraged, therefore no two were exactly alike. When the written 
work was completed the covers and leaves had to be put together. That 
was the time for a simple lesson in book-binding. All were glad to 
take their Sheep Booklets home for others to read, for in them they had 
written two familiar jingles, "Baa, Baa, Black Sheep," and "Little 
Lambs so White and Fair." On one page sentences told of the shep- 
herd's care, and on another page they told of the usefulness of sheep 
to us. 

Suggestions 57 

The spelling lessons were always very interesting because all realized 
that the words they were learning were words they would need to use 
in the sentences they would want to write on the board or in their 

Songs related to Pastoral life were taught and made the subject more 
interesting. "Over the Mountain" and "The Song of the Shearers" 
were especially suitable. 

A poster was made for seat work. The children were given paper 
and scissors to cut things for their poster. The best cuttings were 
pasted on a large piece of black paper to represent a shepherd leading 
his flock toward the fold. 

The seat work at another time was to make a border for the room. 
Each child was given a piece of brown paper and a sheep pattern. The 
sheep were traced and filled in with chalk. These made an attractive 

A simple, yet very effective sand table grew out of this subject. 
The children planned what they could put on it and then worked it out. 
The sheep-fold was made of white cardboard, colored with brown 
crayola. This was placed in one corner and hay and water placed near. 
Part of the table was fenced in for a pasture. The fence made for seat 
work was another lesson in measurement, as each strip had to be a 
certain length and width. 

The land beyond the pasture was hilly with a small stream running 
among the hills. 

Sheep of different sizes were hectographed on cardboard and given 
to the children. They cut them out, pasted a prop on one side to make 
them stand up, and a thin layer of cotton on the other side, which 
made them appear woolly. The shepherd and his dog were put on to 
guard the flock. Before this was done grass had been planted which 
grew, in spite of very cold weather, and helped to make it all seem 

The sand table was very simple, yet it showed what could be done 
by the children with only a little material. They enjoyed planning 
and doing the work. Because of that it meant more to them. 

For two weeks Pastoral life was our language and history unit, but 
not only oral and written language grew out of it, but also reading, 
writing, number work, singing, memorization, drawing, spelling, and 
seat work. 

Following is a list of references which were useful for the children in 
the study of Pastoral life, and also a list used by the teacher : 

Free and Treadwell — Second Reader. 
The Wide Awake — Second Reader. 
The Summers — Second Reader. 

58 The Training School Quarterly 

Graded Classics — Second and Third Readers. 

How We Are Clothed — A Geographical Reader by James Franklin Cham- 
berlain. Macmillan & Co., Publishers. 
Geography Text-books. 
"The Song of the Assyrian Guest." jj Ay g AWTER 'tf 

How I Taught "How Little Cedric Became a Knight" 

The purpose of giving the story "How Little Cedric Became a 
Knight" was to give the children of the second grade a clear idea of a 
knight, of his work, of his home, and of his ideals. 

The children told of the knights they had read about in the fairy 
stories as the introduction to the lesson. One child had seen a castle 
at the moving picture show a few nights before, so he was able to give 
a fairly good description of the knight's castle. After this the use of 
the moat, walls, and tower was explained, and pictures of knights and 
castles were shown to the class. 

After this they were told that knights were friends of the king, and 
that they were brave, pure, and true. "How do you suppose the king 
chose his knights?" was the question put to the children. Wow the 
story of "How Little Cedric Became a Knight" was told with the in- 
structions to notice the things little Cedric had to do in order to become 
a knight. 

The story illustrates the qualities tbat Cedric had which would make 
him a knight — bravery, politeness, kindness, a strong body — and the 
knights praise him each time he does a deserving act. Later, when 
the knights offer him a position in the castle it is shown that it is not 
an easy place to fill, and that he will have to work a long time before 
he can be a knight. After a long time he was honored by being sent 
with a message to the king. Other qualities of the knight — kindness 
to old people and to dumb creatures, and obedience — were shown on 
the journey. 

The introduction to knights, showing pictures of knights, and telling 
the story completed the work of the first day. 

The next day the children suggested that the story could be drama- 
tized and could be put on the sand table. A few minutes was spent 
in discussing the sand table, and then they selected the characters and 
the places needed for playing. After this the story was retold so that 
they might see if they had all the characters, and what children would 
be best suited for the different parts. They were reminded that 
the children who acted most like knights should be chosen to play. 
This motivated behavior, because all the boys were anxious to be 

The children suggested swords, shields, and a crown for the king 
and queen to use in their play. 

Suggestions 59 

At the next period they chose the characters and places. Then one 
child told the story to be sure it was fixed in the minds of the children, 
for they were to be thrown on their own resources in the actual playing. 
The child who told the story went far beyond the expectation of all 
the girls who were observing. The story was told well, in good, clear 
English, and no part of it was omitted. 

They played the story exceedingly well, so well that we decided to 
give it to the fourth grade, who were studying about knights also. 

The drawing and the seat work was correlated with the study of 
knights. Posters with a castle and a knight riding a horse were made. 
The castle and knights and horses were made for the sand table as seat 
work. The castle was made of pasteboard marked off to represent 
stone ; the horses and knights were cut out of white paper. 

From the study of knights the children not only created an ideal and 
established a standard of conduct, but they received practice in or- 
ganizing, story-telling, selecting, and judging. They expressed them- 
selves through the hand with drawing, with the sand table, and with 
hand work. 

Both the children and their teacher were intensely interested from 
the very beginning, and could hardly wait for the language period to 
come. Their enthusiasm was shown by the fact that they continued to 
talk about it and wanted to play it every day for several days. 

The story was adapted from Progressive Roads to Reading, Supple- 
mentary Book IV. Fannie Lee SpEIE> , 1? 

Court Life in the Fourth Grade 

The story of Sir Walter Raleigh and his court life was taught in the 
fourth grade, after the children had taken up stories of pioneers. 

The children soon warmed so to the story of Raleigh that they liter- 
ally begged for details and minor incidents about him. Throughout 
the whole story, from his birth to his death, interest did not wane. 

Most of the time was spent on Raleigh's life at Elizabeth's Court. 
This brought in an intensive study of the castles of that day, of the 
splendor and magnificence of the queen's court, her courtiers and ladies, 
the dress of that period, knighthood, and every other factor which came 
in connection with court life, and touched the story of Sir Walter 

The story brought up questions such as these, asked by the children : 
"Who is king of England now?" "Is he a wicked king?" "Has he as 
much power as Elizabeth and James I had?" "Does the head of our 
Government have as much power as the king of England, and why not?" 
These questions show that the story caused them to think. 

An outline was given back by the class, for the purpose of deciding 

60 The Training School Qtjabtebly 

which part of it to put on the sand table. Although the parts of the 
story telling of Raleigh as a soldier and statesman, and of his attempts 
to colonize America, were enjoyed, the class at once chose the part 
which we had hoped they would choose, although it had not been sug- 
gested. "Let's put Queen Elizabeth's castle, and have Raleigh spread- 
ing his cloak for her to walk over," was one of the first suggestions. 
The class liked this idea, so we planned it out together, deciding on 
everything needed on the sand table. This gave an excellent review 
of the castle and the dress of that period. 

We made a large castle, using an orange crate for the foundation, 
and tacking thick gray poster paper over it for the sides and top. The 
towers were made of the same. There was a high tower at each corner, 
many windows made of oiled paper battlements cut out around the 
top of the castle and^towers, and the whole blocked off with brown 
crayola, so it would look like stone. This made an attractive and firm 

We used the sides of the table for the wall, and dug out the moat on 
the inside of this. The drawbridge was in front across the moat, and 
in the outer court, near the front of the castle, we placed our people. 
For the queen and her train, we used dolls, brought by the children, 
and all of them were dressed according to the fashion of that day. In 
front of the queen was posed Raleigh, placing his red coat over the 
puddle for her to pass. 

Groups of children stayed after school and helped make the things 
for the sand table. The castle required more time than anything else. 

The class afterwards read King Arthur stories and seemed to appre- 
ciate and enjoy them more because of their study of castle and court 
life in connection with the story of Sir Walter Raleigh. 

Ruth Lee Spivet, '17. 


Dressmaking. By Jane Fales. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 
1917, pp. 508. 

Miss Fales has given to the teachers of home economics a book most 
valuable and helpful in every way. While written as a text-book for 
college classes, it can be adapted easily to the use of students in the 
high school, and to women in the home. 

The book is divided into three sections. The first deals with the 
development of costume from the standpoint of history and design up 
to the year 1870. Well chosen illustrations make this section most 

The second section is on textiles with the emphasis on the economic 
value of the various fabrics and fibers. The general processes of textile 
manufacture are given so as to serve as a basis for the consideration 
of cost and wearing qualities of any fabric. 

Part three is on the construction of clothing, and treats of the cutting, 
fitting, and finishing of garments so as to meet the demands of art and 
fashion. It includes directions for drafting patterns as well as for 
adapting commercial patterns. Designing and draping are given in 
detail. The section closes with an unusually well written chapter on 
embroidery stitches and finishings. 

Numerous clear illustrations and a well chosen bibliography add to 
the value of the book. M. A. 

The wide publicity given to the cause of mobilizing our food re- 
sources is bringing forth many excellent articles and appeals. The 
magazine or newspaper that is not doing its bit to help this cause is 
unworthy. Among the best of these is the series in the May number 
of the Review of Reviews. Under the general title "Mobilizing our 
Eesources" we find "American Farm Problems," by Carl Vrooman, 
Assistant Secretary of Agriculture. Mr. Vrooman is well and favor- 
ably known in the South. Recently he toured the South "in a whirl- 
wind campaign of missionary work on behalf of the growth of food 
crops." The article is a sane, brief statement of the situation as it is 
seen in the Department of Agriculture, and at the close he suggests 
a program for the Nation which is published elsewhere in this issue. 

"Our Armies of Food Supply, How the nation is prepared for the 
mobilization of its food producing and distributing forces," by Hugh J. 
Hughes, editor of Farm, Stock, and Home, Minneapolis, is an excellent 
article in which a plan for agricultural mobilization is suggested. A 

62 The Training School Quarterly 

diagram representing the Department of Agriculture as a circle, in the 
center, Production on one hand, Distribution on the other. 

Production is organized under State Relations Service. A represents 
the leaders of county agent work under these; B is the 1,000 county 
agents in the United States; C is the organized farmers, societies, clubs, 
shipping, and cooperative associations, and then come the individual 

Under Distribution, Office of Markets and Rural Organization M 
represents agents of the Bureau in all larger towns; IS]" mills, packing 
plants, cold storage and refrigerator car service, wholesalers; O is the 
retail system of distribution ; and P municipal markets where existing 
agents fail to meet the demand. 

He urges cooperation with Washington. "Keep the Farmer on 
the Farm," remembering that "the farms are munition factories." The 
efficient system of distribution is important. 

If the food producing forces of the nation organize, cooperating with 
Washington ; if we keep the farmer on the farm, remembering that 
"farms are munition factories" ; and if the system of food distribution 
is efficient, plenty not only for ourselves, but for the Allies is assured, 
the writer thinks. Both of these articles are educational in the broader 

What the schools can do is shown in two articles: "Public School 
Thrift: a Practical Development," by Teresa M. Lenney, and "School 
Gardening in the Food Crisis," P. P. Claxton, the United States Com- 
missioner of Education. In the former this definition of thrift is given : 
"Thrift is only the best way of doing things, and leads to mastering 
the art of simple living." "True national thrift can best be acquired 
through the medium of the public school." The suggestions for con- 
crete work are these — the sections of the article under these headings : 
"Good roads teach thrift," "The practical service of school gardens," 
"Teaching girls how to buy and prepare food," "Collecting and selling 
waste paper," "Savings banks in schools," "Health conservation." 

Commissioner Claxton urges the school forces to take advantage of 
the vacant lots and back yards. The conservative estimate given of 
the value of this to the nation in money is $750,000,000, and the cost of 
transportation and storage would be saved. 

National Conference on Rural Education and Rural Life. Held at 
Winthrop Normal and Industrial College, Rock Hill, S. C, April 12 
to 15. 

The Department of the Interior through its Bureau of Education is 
waging a nation-wide campaign for better rural schools and for the 

Reviews 63 

improvement of rural life. The first national conference in this work 
was held at Chicago in September, 1914; the second was held at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., in November, 1915. The interest in the work has so 
developed and its scope so widened that it has been thought best to 
hold a series of conferences in various sections of the country this year 
in promoting this movement. A successful conference was held at 
Lincoln, Neb., February 22 to 25. The second conference for the pres- 
ent year was held at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 
April 8 to 11, inclusive. The third conference was held at the Win- 
throp Normal and Industrial College, Rock Hill, S. C, April 12 to 15, 
inclusive. This was a very successful meeting. 

The main purpose of these conferences is to improve the rural schools, 
and through these agencies to improve rural life conditions. That 
there is need of improvement in these lines, it is all too evident, for, 
as President T. J. Coates of the State Normal School, Richmond, Ky., 
declares : "The average farmer and rural teacher think of the rural 
school as a little house, on a little ground, with a little equipment, 
where a little teacher, at a little salary, for a little while, teaches little 
children little things." There is no way to exalt the rural schools 
except by the exaltation of the teacher; there is no way to exalt the 
teacher except by professional training and better salary. 

School and Home Garden. It seems a pity to cut any of following 
letter issued by the Bureau of Education, therefore we give it in full. 

The Home Garden: Its Economic Value and its Relation to the 
School in Towns and Cities. The home garden as an adjunct to the 
school is not a new idea. Its significance as a social, an educational, 
and an industrial factor, however, is just beginning to be appreciated. 
In most cities there are hundreds of acres of land in the form of back 
yards and vacant lots that might profitably be used for the production 
of vegetables, fruits, and flowers. In these same cities there are thou- 
sands of boys and girls who, with proper guidance, would be willing 
to utilize this nonproductive land. Furthermore, these same cities are 
importing yearly thousands of dollars worth of vegetables, fruits, and 
flowers that might be raised within their borders, and much of the 
money that is sent to distant parts in payment for these products might 
be kept at home. 

Industrial Possibilities : The earnings from these garden activities 
represents clear gain, for neither the land nor the labor would other- 
wise be utilized. To put the proposition in a more concrete form, let 
us consider the possibilities in the! city of "Washington, a city of 331,069 
inhabitants. The Thirteenth Census Report shows that there are some- 
what over 50,000 pupils in school between the ages of 6 and 20 years. 

64 The Training School Quarterly 

Assuming that one-tenth of this number, 5,000 pupils, should carry on 
garden work, and that they should make an average profit of $10, the 
result would be a total profit of $50,000. This is a very conservative 
estimate, both from the standpoint of the possible number of pupils 
who may undertake the work, and from the standpoint of the possible 
earnings. Many city-school pupils have made from $100 to $200 from 
their gardens. With proper direction a large number of pupils in 
each school should be able to earn at least $100. 

A Garden Survey : In order that the various municipalities may 
determine for themselves the local possibilities, the Bureau of Educa- 
tion has prepared a suggestive outline for making surveys. A survey 
of even one or two school districts of a city may reveal amazing possi- 

The survey outline calls for information on the following points : 
Number of children in each home between the ages of 9 and 16 years; 
number of boys ; number of girls ; occupation of those children during 
the previous summer; income from their work; amount of land avail- 
able ; estimate of the value of the products that may be grown ; char- 
acter of soil ; amount of garden work being done ; who cares for the 
garden; opportunities for raising fruit, etc. A supply of these forms 
will be furnished upon request with the understanding that the Bureau 
should be supplied with a summary of the results. 

In so far as facilities permit, the Bureau specialists personally will 
make a number of surveys in representative areas, and will assist local 
organizations in instigating the work in any section. They will also 
suggest plans for garden enterprises based upon either a general or 
detailed survey. 

The Plan : In general the Bureau's recommendation to schools re- 
garding home-garden work is to engage in each graded school one 
teacher who is prepared by training and experience to take charge of 
the garden work for the whole school. Such teacher should be engaged 
for 12 months and with the understanding that she should devote the 
regular number of hours to teaching usual school subjects, and that the 
garden work should be done after school hours, on Saturdays and holi- 
days, and during the summer vacation. (Arrangements may be made 
for a short vacation during the winter.) The gardening teacher would 
be the logical person to teach such subjects as nature-study, elementary 
science, agriculture, and hygiene. Such a teacher will demand and 
should be paid a higher salary than the regular teachers. The work 
later may require the services of a special gardener to supplement the 
efforts of the teacher. 

The above plan in no way interferes with the regular school program, 
and the only additional expense necessary will be the difference in 
salary between a regular teacher, employed for the regular school term, 

Reviews 65 

and a special teacher, employed for a full year. This item of expense, 
from the monetary standpoint alone, is significant compared with the 

The Duties of the Supervising Teacher: The teacher should assist 
the pupils by way of securing suitable land for gardens and should 
advise them with regard to the size of gardens, keeping in mind the 
experience and capabilities of the individual pupils. In a great many 
instances back-yard gardens will be unavailable, and the teacher will 
need to arrange for the use of vacant lots. The vacant lots should be 
leased for at least one whole season and a nominal rent paid to legalize 
the agreement. In other cases it will be necessary to go to the suburbs 
and lease one or more tracts of land which may be divided among the 
pupils. (In some places trolley companies have given reduced rates, 
or free transportation, to city pupils who conduct gardens in the 
suburbs.) Under such conditions it is well to organize the pupils in a 
sort of cooperative club, so that they may join in paying the expenses 
connected with the rent of the land, plowing, fertilizers, seeds, etc., 
and in the marketing of their products. Some clubs of this kind have 
borrowed enough money from public-spirited citizens to pay for the 
initial expenses. This amount may b"? retained from year to year as 
a working fund and each gardener charged with his share of the 
interest on the investment. The garden enterprise, in whatever form, 
should be conducted on a business basis. The teacher should also in- 
struct the pupils regarding the preparation of the land, planting, culti- 
vating, harvesting, and marketing. A small piece of land at or near 
the school grounds is very useful for the purpose of demonstrating 
methods. It should be regarded, however, as a laboratory rather than 
a business garden. A pamphlet giving practical garden directions is 
under preparation and will be sent to all teachers interested in garden 

Opportunities in Canning: The teacher will find that in most sec- 
tions there is a great opportunity in the canning of fruits and vegetables, 
and she should be prepared to instruct the pupils, especially the girls, in 
the cold-pack method of canning, both in tin and glass jars. This is 
not a difficult operation and any 10-year-old pupil may become profi- 
cient in the work after one or two demonstrations. A pamphlet for the 
use of teachers and dealing with the subject of canning is under prep- 

The Garden Age: The first and second grade children are as a rule 
too young to conduct home gardens on a business basis. They may be 
encouraged, however, to grow some flowers at home, or they may be 
given an opportunity to have a small plot of either flowers or vegeta- 
bles at school. The school gardens, as commonly conducted, would 

66 The Training School Quarterly 

best be reserved for the smaller pupils, and should in no way take the 
place of home or vacant-lot gardens for the higher grades. 

Most pupils after reaching the age of 8 or 9 years are capable of 
carrying on a home-garden project, but there is great danger in their 
attempting too much. The pupils of the junior and senior high schools 
should be able to conduct garden enterprises on an extensive and profit- 
able basis. Many boys and girls under favorable conditions should be 
able to earn enough in this way to give them an opportunity of a high 
school training which otherwise would be impossible. This home-garden 
movement should go a long way toward solving the problem of elimina- 
tion in our schools. 

Kewards for Achievement: In general the usual pecuniary returns 
from good gardening should be sufficient incentive to bring out the 
pupil's best endeavors, but the competitive spirit is so strong in boys 
and girls that some form of contest is necessary to produce the highest 
achievements. Such contests satisfy the child's competitive spirit in 
much the same way as the common school games. The practice of 
offering money premiums, or expensive prizes, should be discouraged, 
for the reward in such cases is likely to dominate the achievement. 
The custom in many schools of offering certain symbols of achievement, 
such as badges and buttons, is recommended. The plan should make 
it possible for a number of pupils to win achievement badges, either 
of uniform or varying grades. 

Conclusions : Home gardens under school supervision are worth 
while for many reasons, of which the following may be enumerated : 

1. They contribute to the income of the home and enable boys and 
girls to remain longer in school. 

2. They utilize for productive purposes unused land and labor, and 
thus contribute to the wealth of the community, the State, and the 

3. They provide experience for boys and girls in an occupation that 
may be the means of a livelihood. 

4. They provide an exercise that vitalizes school work. 

5. They provide an opportunity for a business experience. 

6. They stimulate industry by providing school pupils with whole- 
some employment, and incidentally save them from the evils attending 

7. They make it possible for the parents and neighbors to obtain 
fresh vegetables and fruit, an advantage not usually appreciated. 

8. They necessitate the clearing up of back yards and vacant lots, 
thus contributing to the hygienic and aesthetic conditions and enhanc- 
ing land values. 


Louie Delle Pittman, '13, has finished another successful year in the 
Selma Graded School. Louie Delle writes : "I am working in a new 
$45,000 building that is situated on a ten-acre lot. It is needless to 
say that is the biggest feature of our plant. We have been trying out 
the Departmental System this year. I am very enthusiastic about it, 
as are the other teachers. We have found that it works just fine. I 
am afraid that I will have a hard time finding another superintendent 
like Mr. Frederick Archer, and such a nice building and community. 
We think that our school promises to be one of the leading schools in 
the State in a short while." 

Mary Chauncey, '14, has finished a most successful year in the 
Warrenton graded school. The report comes, "Everybody likes her 
and she is doing her work well." 

Jessie Daniel, '16, was principal of a two-teacher school at Currie 
this winter. She taught a model fifth grade arithmetic lesson and a 
seventh grade geography lesson before a group teachers' meeting which 
was held at her school this winter. Jessie reports a most successful 

Maude Anderson, '15, has finished her second year as fourth and 
fifth grade teacher in the Falling Creek High School. Maude's grades 
gave a Fairy Operetta for commencement. She has succeeded in con- 
vincing her superintendent that the Training School is one of the best 
places from which to get good teachers. Maude expects to attend 
Summer School at Chapel Hill this summer. 

Dinabel Floyd, '16, has had a most successful year as primary teacher 
in the Orrun High School in Robeson County. 

Helen Daniel, '14, has closed her third year's work at Epsom High 
School. President Wright delivered the commencement address at her 
school, and Helen says, "My entire school fell in love with him." 
Helen attended Summer School at Chapel Hill last summer and has 
planned a trip to Texas for this summer. 

68 The Training School Quarterly 

Emma Brown, '15, who taught primary work in the Richland Graded 
School says that they greatly improved the school ground equipment 
and raised funds for a library and for song books for the school. 
Emma says that she cannot stay away from the Training School any 
longer, so is going to attend the summer session. 

Ila Daniel Currin, '14, finished her third year's work at the school 
sbe has been teaching ever since she finished school, and then joined 
the Matrimonial Bureau. Ila says that she knows she married the best 
man in the world. She is now living near Oxford. 

Sallie Jackson, '15, has finished her second year with the older pupils. 
She has been principal of a two-teacher school in Greene County. She 
reports a most successful year. 

Annie Bishop, '16, writes : "I taught primary work at Piney Grove, 
Beaufort County, this winter. This is a two-teacher school in a special 
tax district. Part of the building is new and the cornerstone was laid 
April 5, 1917. This is the first thing of its kind in Beaufort County. 
The school paid for the stone. The money was raised through box 
parties. At Christmas we had an entertainment and a community 
Christmas tree. Every one in the community took part. We had a 
simple program for Washington's birthday, and a big entertainment 
for the close of school." 

Emma Cobb, '14, Clara Davis Wright, '15, Lila Prichard, '13, Connie 
Bishop, '15, Sallie Jackson, '15, Allen Gardner, '16, Trilby Smith, '16, 
Bettie Spencer, '15, and Carrie Manning, '14, attended the senior play, 
April 23. 

Katie Sawyer, '15, after finishing her year's work had a most delight- 
ful trip to Washington, D. C, where she visited all the places of in- 
terest. Kate will attend Summer School at Cullowhee this summer. 
Leona Cox, '15, is to attend also. 

Mary Lucy Dupree and Bettie Pearl Fleming, of the Class of '13, 
who have been teaching in DuLj have returned home and report a 
successful year. Bettie Pearl expects to return next year. The engage- 
ment of Mary Lucy (the marriage to take place in June) has been 

Alumnae 69 

Janet Matthews, '16, paid the school a visit on her way home from 
Wendell, where she has been teaching during the past year. She is 
planning to return next year and will teach eight months instead of 
six, as she did this year. She and Bessie Doub, '14, who has been 
teaching there for some time, will both attend the Summer School at 
A. and E. College. 

Edna Campbell, '16, who has been attending the George Peabody 
College for Teachers, will teach Primary Methods in the University of 
Mississippi Summer School, at Oxford, Miss. 

Mr. Wilson reports that Viola Gaskins, '16, has been a popular 
teacher in the school at Falkland. He closed the school there. 

Good reports have come to the school of Susie Morgan, '16, in Farm- 

Allen Gardner, '16, spent a day at the school this spring hunting 
for an assistant from the graduating class. She considers herself very 
fortunate that she has persuaded Ophelia O'Brian to teach with her in 
Lenoir County. 

Nelle White, '16, spent some time visiting in Greenville after her 
school, in Martin County, closed. She was here for the Senior play. 

Blanche Lancaster, '14, is teaching the fifth grade in the graded 
schools of Kinston. She was among a number who coached an operetta 
there this spring. 

Fannie Lee Patrick, '16, has had a good year at House, so Mr. Austin, 
who spoke at the close of her school, reports. 

Carrie Manning reports a very successful year at the Enon School in 
Granville County. The Community Club, about which she wrote an 
article for the Quarterly, is very enthusiastic. The club and the 
school made about $125 during the term in different ways, such as 
money made on premiums at a fair, selling farm produce, and giving 
plays. The two plays presented during the year were "The Night 
Riders," and "The Cuban Spy," both of which Carrie says are very 
good for club purposes. They are raising money to pay for a piano. 

70 The Training School Quarterly 

The following is from one of the daily papers : 

Averette-Stanfield. — Durham, March 27. — A marriage that will be of great 
interest to their many friends in this State was solemnized yesterday at 5:30 
at the Malbourne Hotel. The contracting parties were Miss Anna Laura Stan* 
field and Mr. S. J. Averette. Miss Stanfield is the beautiful and accomplished 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. B. F. Stanfield, of Leasburg. 

Mrs. Averette is a graduate of the East Carolina Teacher Training 
School and for the last three years has been one of the teachers of a very 
successful school at Enon, near Oxford. Miss Carrie Manning, of Pitt County, 
with whom the bride has been teaching, accompanied her, and Mr. Otho 
Daniel, of Oxford, came with the groom to Durham. 

Rev. B. E. Stanfield of Fairmont, a brother of the bride, spoke the solemn 
words that made them one. 

Mr. Averette is a very successful farmer and business man and has a large 
circle of friends. The bridal party left immediately on Southern train for 
Raleigh and the bride and groom continued on for a bridal tour of a few 

Greenville, N. C, April 28, 1917. 

Deae Alumnae. — During the past year I have been principal of a two- 
teacher school in Wake County. When I tell you there were ninety-five pupils 
enrolled, thirty-two of whom were in my room, you can judge for yourself 
that I was a busy teacher. 

In addition to other duties, I took upon myself the responsibility of a 
moonlight school. For six weeks, Nina Harris, the primary teacher, and I 
taught this school from 6:30 until 9 o'clock on Tuesday and Thursday even-* 
ings of each week. We enrolled twenty-one pupils, seven of whom were illit- 
erates. Reading, writing, arithmetic and spelling were taught to all. We 
used the State Bulletin for moonlight school and supplemented this with 
practical farm-life work. This work was very beneficial and thoroughly ap- 
preciated by the community. I shall always rejoice in what we accomplished. 

Another thing that was helpful in gaining cooperation was the use of the 
Babcock Milk Tester. The school bought the outfit and I 1 tested the milk of 
most of the cows in the neighborhood. This set the people thinking along a 
new line. 

On Friday, April 20, we had commencement exercises. At 11 o'clock we 
had the playground program by the children. This is the program: 

1. March from school building to the enclosure on the yard. 

2. Song — America By the School 

3. Welcome First Grade Pupils 

4. Little Mothers Motion Song By Small Girls 

5. Little Farmers Motion Song By Small Boys 

6. Story — Tar Baby Alma Baker 

7. Rose Drill By Sixteen Girls 

8. Song— Old North State By the School 

9. Announcements. 

10. Reading — Reveries in Church Virginia Ray 

11. March into building. 

After this we had about the most inviting thing of all, a picnic dinner. 
After dinner there was a rally of the Farmers' Union. 



In the afternoon we had an address delivered by Supt. D. F. Giles of 

Following this address we had a short talk by our guest, Prof. Quintero, a 
member of the Board of Education in Yucatan, Mexico. 

As a bit of athletic sport there was a match game of baseball played be- 
tween the boys of our school and a team from Wakelon High School. 

After the program and the game, those present were invited to look over 
the exhibit of school work of the year as it was displayed in the two rooms. 

Thus ended my school term in Union Level school for the year 1916-1917. 

Greetings to all. I am, Sincerely, 

Grace E. Smith. 

Feed the Nation the President's Appeal 

1TAKE the liberty of addressing this word to the farmers 
of the country and to all who work on the farms. The 
supreme need of our own nation and of the nations with 
which we are co-operating is an abundance of supplies, and 
especially of foodstuffs. The importance of an adequate 
food supply, especially for the present year, is superlative. 
Without abundant food, alike for the armies and the peoples 
now at war, the whole great enterprise upon which we have 
embarked will break down and fail. The world's food re- 
serves are low. Not only during the present emergency but 
for some time after peace shall have come both our own peo- 
ple and a large proportion of the people of Europe must rely 
upon the harvests in America. Upon the farmers of this 
country, therefore, in large measure, rests the fate of the war 
and the fate of the nations. 

May the nation not count upon them to omit no step 
that will increase the production of their land or that will 
bring about the most effectual co-operation in the sale and 
distribution of their products ? The time is short. It is of 
the most imperative importance that everything possible be 
done and done immediately to make sure of large harvests. 
I call upon young and old alike, and upon the able-bodied 
boys of the land, to accept and act upon this duty, — to turn 
in hosts to the farms and make certain that no pains and no 
labor is lacking in this great matter. 

I particularly appeal to the farmers of the South to plant 
abundant foodstuffs as well as cotton. They can show their 
patriotism in no better or more convincing way than by re- 
sisting the great temptation of the present price of cotton 
and helping, helping upon a great scale, to feed the nation 
and the peoples everywhere who are fighting for their liberties 
and for our own. The variety of their crops will be the vis- 
ible measure of their comprehension of their national duty. 


The Class of 1917 

Dear Keader: — If you are not interested in the school life of girls 
and all that pertains thereto, be charitable and skip the next twenty- 
five pages. They are filled with ideas of little sense and much nonsense 
— thoughts that are indifferent and different, chiefly different. Such 
insertions as the one you will find here do not occur but once a year, 
and even then the editor and the business manager are most careful 
to limit the amount of space given to them. We know that it is not 
polite to talk about ourselves to other people or to talk about other 
people to ourselves; however, we have deliberately broken both these 
rules of etiquette. But, gentle reader, you should not forget, before 
you pass too severe judgment on us, that we have been in strict bondage, 
some two, some three, and some four years; remember that this is our 
first, last, and only opportunity of giving partial expression to our 
long pent-up feelings. 

It has been impossible, on account of space, to depict everything of 
interest that has happened during our career here, but we have made 
an effort to give proper emphasis to the different branches of our school 
life in a limited number of pages. These have been treated both 
humorously and seriously, and where criticism has crept in, either favor- 
able or unfavorable, we trust it will be taken in the right spirit. You 
have found throughout the year the serious side of our school life de- 
picted under the heading "Suggestions." 

Those who have written these articles have perhaps one selfish mo- 
tive in view: mainly to produce for the Class of '17 a summary of the 
activities and aspirations of this class during the past four years. We 
can look over it in after years and recall incidents and happenings 
which would otherwise never return to our minds, but we believe we 
also had an unselfish motive — to produce something of interest and 
enjoyment for people other than the Class of 1917. 

The President. 

74 The Training School Quarterly 

Our Motto 

Esse Quam Videri has been our one and only motto. But why did 
we choose these words as our motto? Because we have seen that our 
"Grand Old State" has lived up to the same motto. We cannot do 
better than emulate her great accomplishments. If the words "Esse 
Quam Videri" are a suitable recognition of the honest, sturdy, unpre- 
tending character of our people, why can't we, North Carolina's daugh- 
ters, as the Class of '17, build our lives on this same motto that passed 
the General Assembly of 1893 ? 

Its meaning in English will reveal to all what a strong foundation 
we have had, for the following are the words that have led us in all our 
joys and sorrows, "To be rather than to seem." And if any of us in 
future life should fail in some undertakings, may we look back to our 
Class of '17 and think of the motto and take heart. 

And may we always be able to translate "Esse Quam Videri" in 
actions, deeds, and words, and live up to "our motto," which is that of 
the State and of the Class of '17, as "To be rather than to seem." 

The following are answered by the names of some members of the 
Class of 1917 : 

1. What was the most common fighting weapon used by the ancients? 

2. What do we sometimes use instead of a check or money? Bond. 

3. Who is the best cook in the world? Baker. 

4. What is another name for a truck farmer? Gardner. 

5. What do people sometimes ask of their superiors? Mercer '(Mercy). 

6. What did I do when you came in? Sawyer. 

7. What is one of the very common pieces of furniture used in most 
houses ? Credle. 

8. What is one of the essentials a seamstress must have? Tucker. 

9. How do you like rolls cooked ? Brown. 

10. What is the name of one big minstrel in the U. S. ? O'Brian. 

11. What would you do if Patrick hit you? Kilpatrick. 

12. What would you do if a very good friend sent for you? Joyner. 

13. Who will make the best preacher? Bishop. 

14. Who was the greatest American General on the north side during 
the war? Grant. 

15. What signifies age? Whitehead. 

16. What did Isaac offer to God as a sacrifice? Bulluck. 

17. How would you treat a girl friend in trouble? Suther. 

18. What must a blacksmith always have? Sledge. 

19. Who discovered the North Pole? Perry. 

Aspirations of the Class of 1917 

In these pages, we the Paul Pry's of the class, hope to give the reader 
some insight into the hearts and minds of our '17 girls. They have ideals 
and standards which they have aspired to all along. Toward these they 
still strive, and for these they will continue to sacrifice pleasure. 

On reading this you may remark that they have set the goal too far 
off. You will probably think that these worthy ambitions can never 
be realized, but remember, "a man's reach should exceed his grasp or 
what's a Heaven for?" 

1. The one great desire of Eunice Hoover's heart, whatever else she 
may do, is to continue to wear baby dresses, baby shoes, curls and ribbons 
and to remain always, the "Infant" of the class. 

2. It is the avowed determination of Little Mae Whitehead, Myrtle 
Brendle, and Sallie Franck to attend one faculty meeting at E. C. 
T. T. S. so they may participate in presenting and solving the prob- 
lems of the school. We fear these girls will replace the present teachers 
of the pedagogy department. 

3. Viola Kilpatrick — "Are Marguerite Clark and Mary Pickford dead 
yet !" "Why ?" "Because I have got to take their places." 

4. The only stimuli strong enough to make Fannie Lee Speir draw her 
breath, is that of discovering the minimum amount of human effort 
necessary to delude everybody in life's school into thinking her as ener- 
getic as she has succeeded in making the folks of E. C. T. T. S. believe 
her to be. 

5. The Chinaman had better look to his rats, the South American 
to his snakes, and the African to his flies, the supply of such materials 
in this country will soon be exhausted at the rate certain girls of class 
'17 are determined to pursue their search for anti-toxins for the follow- 
ing diseases : Diminutiveness — Agnes Absher, Virginia Suther, Jennie 
Taylor, Effie Baugham, and Loretta Joyner; dignity, Ola Carawan; 
corpulency, Lou Ellen Dupree; altitude, Elizabeth Mercer. 

6. When Esther McNeil graduates from this school, she hopes to be 
able to take the place of some great designer of costumes, that she may 
hereafter and forever, persuade her sex to wear loose, straight-lined 

7. Diogenes and his lantern were nothing in comparison to Blanche 
Satterthwaite in her search for a school where she may graduate in two 
or less years. 

8. Perhaps Eula Pappendick and Jessie Bishop will sometimes find 
cosmetics which will aid them in making themselves more beautiful, 
without interfering with their making 100 on all their studies as they 
so much desire. 

9. To be able to give toasts at any time, on any occasion, on any sub- 

76 The Training School Quarterly 

ject, to any gathering, without calling on the Lord in the presence of 
company to stimulate her memory, has long been the end to which May 
Sawyer is still working. 

10. "My ambition? That of every girl, to get married, and I am 
ahead in the 1917 race" — Hannah Cuthrell. 

11. So far as Bessie Cason, Amelia Clark, Musa Harris, Ada Credle, 
and Vermelle Worthington are concerned, their specific and everlasting 
aim of each is to teach, in time, certainly, in eternity, too, if the Angels 
want to learn some new methods. 

12. Will someone please inform Lucile Bulluck that there is nothing 
original under the sun, save original sin, so she may turn her search- 
light in some other direction? 

13. To be so versatile in her accomplishments that she can take part 
in anything that anybody on the face of the earth might do, is the pur- 
pose of Elizabeth Baker; also, to persuade the North Carolina Legis- 
lature to make an appropriation of $5,000, to buy silver spoons for sou- 
venirs, to be given to E. C. T. T. S. girls. 

14. Helen Gardner will be supremely happy in whatever course in life 
she pursues, provided she is allowed to go to bed at 7.30 every night 
and rise only after the sun is high in the sky, for her sole happiness 
depends on the amount of sleep she gets. 

15. If she does the thing she now considers most important, Mary 
Wooten will connect herself with some furniture company, in order 
that she may help supply all future school girls with rocking chairs, in 
which they may eat, sleep, dress, and study. 

16. To establish a post graduate course at the Training School, so it 
will not be necessary to separate the Siamese Twins until 1919, at least, 
is the immediate purpose of Leona Tucker. 

17. Martha O'Neal and Buth Lowder? — Why, no ambition — ambi- 
tions are sinful ! 

18. "Elliott's Candy Palace" will be seen on the shingle outside of 
Julia Elliott's factory, in which she herself will be the sole employer 
and employee, if her present tendencies find expression in motor-activ- 
ity. As a "trust buster" she will prove this principle of psychology — 
that a habit can never be broken. 

19. Perhaps the aspirations of Flora Hutchins and Agnes Thompson 
run too high for our interpretation, but along whatever trend, we know 
that their desire to do as they please, to change their minds under no 
conditions, and to dismiss all outside suggestions which tend to unfix 
some erroneous idea from their brain, will accompany their work. In 
this way they hope to put down the principle of "enrichment of old 

20. To be a famous critic teacher in the observation school at Teach- 
er's College in order that she may voice all her contrary suggestions, 
discouragement to others, and severe criticism of those under her super- 

3 j3 

Dry ^B -"^ V t . ■ 

1. Christine Johnston 

2. Elizabeth Mercer 

3. Lillie Mae Whitehead 

4. Viola Kilpatrk-k 

5. Helen Gardner 

6. Flora Hutehins 

7. Ola Carawan 

8. Jennie Taylor 

9. Vivian Case 

10. Hannah Cuthrell 

11. Ruth Lowder 

12. Mary Wooten 

13. Wita A. Bond 

14. Myrtle Brendle 

15. Alavia K. Cox 

16. Agnes Thompson 

17. Vermelle Worthinglun 

The Class of 1917 77 

vision has long been, according to all appearances, the direction in which 
Virginia Sledge's interests have turned. 

21. Just dreaming — Ethel Perry, "when dreams come true," will have 
reached the highest mark of her specific aim in life. 

22. Sometimes in the coming years, to find some institution in which 
they may, for the entertainment of others or for their own enjoyment, 
sing songs without tunes, composed by themselves, is what Fannie 
Grant and Wita Bond devoutly hope for. 

23. If after continued efforts some organization of either children or 
adults is found which will follow all the suggestions, directions, and 
dictations given by Jennie McGlohon she will be satisfied, at least for 
the time being. 

24. Christine Johnston and Myrtle Lamb evidently would very much 
like to enter some establishment where their intense desire for the latest 
dresses, hats, shoes, and gloves will be realized, and, as a consequence, 
they shall reign supreme so far as wearing apparel is concerned. 

25. We think Hallie Jones should abolish the idea of teaching and get 
a license to preach instead, so she may more emphatically show the moral 
side of every question. 

26. Since all the girls of the Training School will testify to the fact 
that there is no rest or quiet when Alavia Cox is around on account of 
the unusual amount of noise and confusion which radiates from her 
personage, we are sure that in the future no position will offer a better 
opportunity for her to express herself than that of an auctioneer in a 
tobacco warehouse. 

27. If anyone wishes to undertake a task which no one else has ever 
been able to accomplish, let him attempt to help Sue Walston carry 
out her one purpose in life, i. e., to manufacture or discover a pair of 
shoes large enough for her to wear comfortably. 

28. In order to prove her assertions on class concerning Civil Govern- 
ment and Current History and to show that she is not as ignorant on 
these subjects as would seem from the first impression, Mary Cowell 
would very much like to engage someone to instruct her along this line. 

29. The only one in the 1917 class who even thinks of ever taking 
the Lady Principal's place in some college, so she can be allowed to mete 
out all kinds of measures to those beneath her, just to experience that 
feeling of superiority, is Vivian Case. 

30. To make Lizzie Stewart happy, allow her to continue studying 
at the various schools in the world until she has succeeded in making 
A 1 on English. 

From the above you see that our class is not going out in life without 
specific aims. We hope they will realize in the end what are now mere 

We the committee have partly voiced our ambitions, the same as those 
of Paul Pry, i. e., to analyze and synthesize the characters and motive* 
of all people with whom we come in contact. Committee. 

The Senior Play 
"The Rivals" 



Fag, Servant to Captain Absolute Myrtle Brendle 

Thomas, Coachman to Sir Anthony Blanche Satterthwaite 

Lydia Languish, Mrs. Malaprop's niece Ruth Spivey 

Lucy, Maid to Lydia Sue Walston 

Julia Melville, Cousin to Lydia Viola Kilpatrick 

Mrs. Malaprop, Guardian to Lydia Lizzie Stewart 

Sir Anthony Absolute, Guardian to Julia Flora Hutchins 

Captain Absolute, Son to Sir Anthony Christine Johnston 

Paulkland, Fiance to Julia Melville Fannie Lee Speir 

Bob Acres, Country Gentleman, Suitor to Lydia Ophelia O'Brian 

Boy May Sawyer 

Sir Lucius O'Trigger, Irish Baronet, Suitor to Lydia Helen Gardner 

David, Servant to Bob Acres Bessie Cason 

Maid Agnes Absher 

The Greenville Reflector in commenting on the play said : 

" 'The Rivals,' presented on April 23 by the Senior class of the Training 
School to a full house, was one of the most brilliant dramatic events ever 
offered at the Training School. That the high standard set by previous 
plays at the school was maintained, is the verdict of those who have kept up 
with the Senior plays from year to year." 

In the headlines appeared : "The best in the history of the local in- 

The following is the full report from the Reflector: 

The cast was well chosen and the actors entered into their parts with the 
spirit and ease that characterize the professional actor. The young ladies of 
the class became the lords and ladies of the romantic, sentimental period of the 
eighteenth century, a day when panniers and curls were used to enhance the 
charms of young ladies, when "Thought was not becoming to a young woman," 
when men were richly dressed in brocades and satins, and when there was 
much talk of "honor" and duelling. It was an aristocratic, emotional age, 
when extravagance of dress, manner, and feeling were in order. The cos- 
tumes were rich and picturesque, and the interiors in the stage settings 
were attractive and in keeping with the age. 

The audience followed closely the intricacies of the plot and appreciated the 
finer points, especially the flashes of fun and wit. The audience did not 
seem to realize the length of the play, as their interest was kept to a high 
pitch until the last. There was a large crowd from the neighboring towns 
and surrounding communities. 

While Sheridan did not write for an all-star cast, this performance was an 
all-star performance if one judges by the acting, for those in the minor parts 
played their roles as well as those in the star parts. 

The Class of 1917 79 

Mrs. Malaprop, with "her select words so ingeniously misapplied without 
being mispronounced," was played by Miss Lizzie Stewart, with a breeziness 
that carried her audience with her, and tew of the choice bits of word twisting 
that have made Sheridan famous were lost on the audience. 

Miss Ruth Spivey, as the romantic, sentimental Lydia Languish, who ac- 
cording to her aunt, Mrs. Malaprop, was as headstrong as an "allegory on the 
banks of the Nile," was very pretty inded, and the audience did not blame the 
men in the play for being rivals for her hand. 

The part of Captain Jack Absolute, often under the assumed name of En- 
sign Beverly, was played by Miss Christine Johnston with a dash and ease 
that is rarely found in an amateur actor, much less when a young lady at- 
tempts to play the role of a man. Her acting was remarkable in that she did 
not even seem to lose the part she was playing, even when she was for a 
moment in the background. 

The rages of Miss Flora Hutchins as Sir Anthony Absolute as he domi- 
neered over his son, and the changes from hot to cold gave the audience a 
vivid picture of that violent age when a man spoke as he thought and felt. 

Miss Ophelia O'Brian played remarkably well the difficult part of Bob 
Acres, the gallant, rough and ready country gentleman, who had little use for 
swords and duelling. 

Another difficult part well played was that of Sir Lucius O'Trigger, the 
Irish baronet, played by Miss Helen Gardner. 

Miss Viola Kilpatrick, as Julia, .he cousin of Lydia, played her part very 
well indeed. She and Lydia in their confidential scenes made very pleasing 

Miss Fannie Lee Spier, as Paulkland, made an excellent contrast to Miss 
Johnston as Capt. Absolute, and she and Miss Kilpatrick made the minor 
love story stand out for itself. 

Those who took the parts of servants played their parts with as great 
polish and spirit as did those who took the leading roles. Miss Bessie Cason, 
as David, did some of the best acting of the evening. 

The setting for the play was the charming and attractive sitting room 
of the eighteenth century. Wood scenery, supplemented by trees and 
vines, was used for the outdoor scenes. The costumes for all of the 
characters were rented from a professional costumer. They were very 
handsome and made the characters stand out as the true lords and ladies 
of that period. 

By means of various methods of advertising the play was kept continu- 
ally before the eyes of the public. Some posters which were character- 
istic of the play were used but the class broke away from the precedent 
of conventional posters and used comic ones which seemed to attract 
more attention than the other kind. Handbills and posters were sent 
to all nearby towns and distributed about Greenville. Many personal 
letters were written to the Alumnae, and the girls who lived near Green- 
ville wrote to their friends telling them about the play. In this way 
the whole community became interested in the play and as a result there 
was a full house. 

The class cleared more on this play than any previous class has made; 
this was due in part to the class adviser, Mr. Meadows, who deserves 

80 The Training School Quarterly 

great credit for his management of the play. Miss Muffly, who has 
coached so many of the plays never deserved greater praise for her work ; 
she was ably assisted by Miss Maupin. 

Between acts Miss Lida Hill played to entertain the audience. A 
chorus from the class sang, "Drink To Me Only "With Thine Eyes," and 
Virginia Suther sang, "When the Dew is on the Clover." Those 
who sang in the chorus were: Lou Ellen Dupree, Elizabeth Baker, 
Hannah Cuthrell, Alavia Cox, Amelia Clark, Hallie Jones, Ruth 
Lowder, Myrtle Lamb, Ada Credle, Elizabeth Mercer, Martha O'Neil, 
Ethel Perry, Eula Pappendick, Mary "Wooten, and Mary Cowell. 

The marshals for downstairs were: Jessie Bishop, chief; Effie 
Baugham, Virginia Sledge, Leona Tucker, Nannie Mac. Brown, "Wita 
Bond and Julia Elliott ; for upstairs : Eunice Hoover, Vermelle Worth- 
ington, Musa Harris, and Vivian Case. 

Jennie McGlohon was chairman of the advertising committee, and 
Esther McNeil sold tickets. 

Those who took up tickets downstairs were : Lillie Mae Whitehead, 
Ola Caravan, Jennie Taylor, and Loretta Joyner ; upstairs, Fannie 
Grant and Agnes Thompson. 

Lucile Bulluck, president of the class, and Sallie Franck were stage 

// We Were Different 

1. I strongly disapprove of casing. It is the greatest menace to the 
20th century girl that I know of. L. Tucker. 

2. I'm so thankful I didn't get any mail — especially from Tarboro. 

N. M. Brown. 

3. Girls, I'm so distressed. I weigh five pounds less than I did this 
time last week. L. Dupree. 

4. I'm so tired of men ! Their proposals are getting so stale and 
boring. M. Harris. 

5. Sure thing I'm not going to study a lesson tonight. I'm going to 
write to my sweetheart. E. Hoover. 

6. I like to study and recite history better than any other lesson. I 
just wouldn't stay here if I had to drop it. M. "Wooten. 

7. I do think it is perfectly awful to waste two whole weeks for 
Christmas holidays. I do wish they would abolish that custom. 

F. Hutchins. 

1. Ada Credle 

2. Bessie Cason 

3. Fannie Grant 

4. Esther McNeill 

5. Martha O'Neal 

6. Lou Ellen Dupree 

7. Blanche Satterthwaite 

8. May Sawyer 

9. Eunice Hoover 

10. Musa Harris 

11. Julia Elliott 

12. Amelia Clark 

13. Ethel Perry 

14. Ruth Spivey 

15. Elizabeth Baker 

16. Mary Cowell 

17. Sallie Franck 


Christmas Party to the "B" and "F's" 

After the regular business meetings of the classes, on Saturday even- 
ing, December 16, 1916, the Senior Class entertained their sister classes, 
the "B's" and "F's." 

The Christmas colors were used as decorations. The guests began 
arriving about 8 :30 o'clock. They were met at the top of the stairs, on 
the right, by Misses Leona Tucker and Virginia Sledge, and on the left, 
by Misses Lucile Bulluck, president of the class, and Christine Johnston. 
Each guest was given a minature "Santa Claus." They were then shown 
into the Y. W. C. A. Hall where a few minutes were spent in getting 
thoroughly acquainted. It was the business of each Senior to go among 
the crowd and see that everybody knew everybody else and was having 
a good time. 

A bell was then tapped by Miss Julia Elliott, who invited the guests 
into the recreation hall and asked them to be seated. In one end of the 
room there were desks and chairs; the audience guessed that a school 
was to follow. They were not held in suspense long, for a little girl, 
evidently the teacher's pet, came in and put some flowers on her desk. 
The other pupils came in with buckets, baskets, and books. Miss Lillie 
Mae Whitehead, under the assumed name of "Miss Elzala Doolittle," 
carried out the part of a "country school teacher" to perfection. Mr. 
Wilson and Mr. Austin were carried back to their early school days, 
when the teacher sharply cracked the youngsters over their heads and 
announced that the next four pages would be their lesson for the follow- 
ing day and they must be sure to know every word of it. The audience 
observed Miss Doolittle teach a lesson in hygiene and sanitation, a 
spelling match, and a reading lesson. She announced that the county 
superintendent was coming to visit their school and they would give the 
program which was practiced the Friday afternoon before. Miss Ola 
Carawan, as "Mr. Do-all," took the part of the superintendent. After the 
program, which consisted of poems and songs given by the children, he 
made a short talk to the children in which he commended Miss Elzala 
for her excellent work in the school and community. The children were 
dismissed a half hour earlier because they had been "so good," as Miss 
Elzala said. 

The guests were then invited into the hall where the following stunts 
were given : Picking up peas with a toothpick, eating marshmallows 
on a string, wrestling on one foot, potato race, the broad grin, and eating 
crackers. Each stunt counted so many points for the two classes par- 
ticipating. The B class had the greater number of points. A music 

82 The Training School Quarterly 

box was presented to Miss Rena Harrison, president of the class. Miss 
Eleanor TJzzell, president of the F class, was presented the booby, a red 

A delightful salad course was served by the "school children." Mr. 
Meadows then read a beautiful Christmas story, and everybody went 
home declaring that they had the best time they ever had and that 
Christmas was really here again. 

"D's" and "F's" Entertained by "B's" 

The "B" or second year Academic class, entertained its sister classes, 
the Seniors and "F's," on Saturday evening, February 17, with a very 
delightful valentine party. 

The halls on the third floor of the administration building were at- 
tractively decorated with red, green, and blue, the Valentine colors, 
potted plants and pennants representing the three classes. The guests 
were met at the top of the stairs, on the right by Miss Rena Harrison, 
president of the class, and Misses Eva Outlaw and Lois Hester; on the 
left by Misses Jewel High, Zelota Cobb, and Vera Bennett; they were 
given either a cupid or a heart with the date on it. They were shown 
to the punch bowl, where they were served by Misses Catherine and 
Maude Lister. 

After lingering in the hall for a few minutes to be sure that every- 
body knew everybody else, the guests were next ushered into the recrea- 
tion hall, where members from each class took part in an "Arrow Con- 
test." Mr. Meadows, the Senior class adviser, was declared the most 
skilled at this art of shooting at hearts and received as a prize a very 
attractive little dog, which he hopes will help him in his hunting 
expeditions next fall. This was followed by a recitation, "Cave's Court- 
ship," by Miss Maude Lister. 

Miss Rena Harrison, president of the class, proposed a toast to the 
Seniors and "F's" which expressed the delight of the "B's" in having 
their sisters as their guests for the evening. 

The guests drew numbers from a box which aided them in securing 
partners for a "Heart Contest." They were given papers and pencils 
and told to write a "yell" making an acrostic of the word "Heart." 
Misses Ethel Perry and Thelma Bryant wrote the best yell and were 
given a very attractive picture as a prize. This was followed by a dance, 
the Virginia Reel, given by Misses Ethel Stancell, Jessie Lano, Vera 
Bennet, Lyda Tyson, Ina McGlohon, Lois Hester, Vivian Hudnell, and 
Annie Gray Stokes. 

While a delightful salad course was being served by members of the 
class, Miss Ethel Stancell sung "The Little Gray Home in the West." 
The evening passed quickly with much fun and merriment for all and 
just as the guests were saying good-night Miss Ola Caravan gave a 

The Class of 1917 83 

toast to the "B's" and "F's." Miss Towney Patterson responded to this 
by giving a toast to the "D's" and "B's." All went home declaring they 
had never had a hetter time. 

Senior Team Entertained by "B" Team 

The "B" basketball team entertained the Senior team and its class 
adviser on the evening after the last game of the tournament, from 6 :45 
to 7 :30, on the second floor of the administration building. The hall 
was decorated with the pennants and banners of the two classes. The 
guests were welcomed at the door by a yell of "Rahs." The first enter- 
tainment of the evening consisted of a "county contest," the prize being 
awarded to Ruth Spivey, captain of the Senior team and Lizzie Stewart. 
After this, original riddles were asked, while cake and punch were being 
served. All the guests, with pardners from the "B's," then went into 
the domestic science room and toasted marshmallows over the gas. 
Several toasts were given. The crowd then reassembled in the outer 
hall, brought all of their chairs close together, turned out the lights and 
told ghost stories the remainder of the time. The guests, after having 
spent a very enjoyable evening, left amid many "Rahs" from their 

The following are answered by the names of some member of the 
faculty : 

1. What part of the sun do we like the most? Ray. 

2. What town near us is on ~N. and S. ? Wilson. 

3. What class adviser is as green as grass? Meadows. 

4. What is the most provoking task we all have to perform? Waitt. 

5. What does a man need to wear around his neck in cold weather? 
Muffly (Muffler). 

6. What man in history do Southerners hate? Sherman. 

7. What man in history do Southerners respect and love? Davis. 

8. What elevation of land is nearest like a mountain ? Hill. 

9. What man did she like best of all? Herman (Her man). 

10. What ideal do we always have conflicting with wrong-doing? 

11. What kind of flour is most wholesome? Graham. 

12. What do we look for when we are tired? Comfort. 

13. In what would you want to be strong in order to be able to join in 
athletics ? Armstrong. 

Our Christmas Bazaar 

We, as Seniors, were very anxious to raise all the money we could 
this year, in various ways, to let go for some good purpose. Back in 
the fall, in thinking over some of the ways of raising this money, a 
bazaar was suggested. This met with the approval of the entire class, 
and so we decided to have it just before school closed for the Christmas 
holidays, in order to give the students, and faculty members an oppor- 
tunity to buy some of their Christmas presents. This was a great con- 
venience to all, for any one could get her presents ready made, and for 
the same price or cheaper than she could have purchased them at the 

Each member of the class took an active part in getting something 
ready for the bazaar. Some made only one thing, and some made three 
or four things, just as she had the time and money to spend for such 
a purpose. There was a quantity of hand work, such as center pieces, 
pin cushions, small aprons, towels, chamois, tatting medalions, bags of 
various kinds, and some smaller pieces of clothing. Also many little 
Christmas toys, such as small dolls, animals of various kinds, and jump- 
ing-jacks were sold. A quantity of good candy was also sold with great 

The room in which we had our bazaar was decorated with the Christ- 
mas decorations. A white cloth was hung across one side of the room 
on which was pinned the handwork ; and at the top of this cloth there 
was a wreath of holly, and small bits were pinned about over it. In 
two of the corners there were stands, one from which the toys were sold, 
and the other one the candy. Both of these were also covered with ever- 
greens, and there were other pieces of evergreens about the room which 
made a very pretty effect with some red mixed about with it. 

Owing to the pleasure and success of our bazaar, we feel as though it 
was a good thing, and it was something in which each member took a 

Encouraged by the success of the bazaar, different members of the 
class have made candy from time to time, and sold it to the girls on 
Saturday afternoons. 

1. Myrtle Lamb 

2. Virginia Sledge 

3. Agnes Absher 

4. Loretta Joyner 

5. Effie Baugham 

6. Fannie Lee Speir 

7. Leona Tucker 

8. Sue Walston 

9. Virginia Suther 

10. Jennie McGlohon 

11. Lueile Bulluck 

12. Lizzie Stewart 

13. Eula Pappendick 

14. Jessie Bishop 

15. Hallie B. Jones 

16. Nannie Mack Brown 

17. Ophelia O'Brian 

The Ten Minutes Before Class 

"The ten minutes before classes should be spent in preparation for 
the next class." 

Psychology Room — V. Su. (springing on the high stool). "Begin to 
make the connection and association between our previous recitation 
and this during the ten minutes before class." 

L. B.— Have you comprehended the deep thought of our lesson? If 
so you may preside as leader and help to solve the problem which has 
been left with us." 

V. SI. (skilled in the art of drawing and loath to settle down to prob- 
lem solving). — "I shall proceed to sketch on the blackboard." (She 
draws the graduating dresses, the loving cup, pictures of her beloved 
classmates, A. A. and L. S.). (As the rightful leader takes the chair all 
slip into their seats quite dignified and absorbed in "the assigned prob- 
lem in Psychology.") 

Primary Methods Room — (The class goes in and is immediately 
attracted by the play houses, sand tables, and clay models. All go 
around the room carefully examining them). 

1ST. M. B. — "Through much labor we became acquainted with the 'pos- 
sibilities' of the Swiss, Dutch, Indian, and Eskimo people. We remem- 
ber that some of the preparatory work, although showing wonderful 
'possibilities,' seems rather 'far-fetched. : 

7 ?J 

Science Room. — (Each sniffing as she enters). M. L. — "What kind 
of chemical odor is this?" 

M. B. — "It is S0 2 which the "B" class has been using to bleach blue 
violets." "Oh, I don't object to it at all. Isn't it delightful?" 

School Management Room. — (Before the bell rings). H. C. — "What 
practical problem of the teacher's life are we going to solve today?" 
H. G. — "By what means are we going to solve it?" 
V. W. — "Just use Pedagogy and common sense." 
N". R. — "Girls, we had better get quiet, he is coming." 

Math. Room. — (Teacher present — girls very quiet and dignified enter, 
each going to her respective place). M. S. : "Can we multiply inches 
by inches and get square inches?" 

R. L. — "No, she explained that a few days ago. Don't you remember 

86 The Teaining School Quabtekly 

History Room- — (The day after Miss Rankin entered Congress). 

J. T.— "Did Miss Rankin faint?" 

M. C. — "Why do you think the Germans are ahle to continue their 

V. C. — "Will all of our brothers and fathers have to go to war?" 

(Bell rings). — These are interesting topics to discuss, but the young 
ladies now give their undivided attention. 

Drawing Room — (Girls go in and are attracted by the basketry mak- 
ing). A. C. — "I wish she would teach us to make baskets." 

L. B. — "She will teach us out under the trees some afternoon." 

Cooking Laboratory. — (Girls enter the room and immediately do the 
assigned housekeeping duty). W. B. — "How many inches do we place 
the spoons and forks from the edge of the table?" 

L. B. — "Do you go the left or the right of a person when you are 
serving them?" 

(Bell rings) : "We will have to do some rapid work during the first 
part of the lesson today." 

Music Room. — (Girls enter singing and skipping). W. B. — "What 
are we going to sing today?" 

F. G. — "Do you think she will have us sing our solos today?" 

"Girls, get your songs ready. She is going to have each of us sing a 
solo today." 

(Every one begins practicing before the period begins with quaky 
and trembly voices). 

English Room on the first floor. — (The Dl section enters the room just 
after chapel and immediately assemble around the teacher's stool and 
begin to ask questions). — O. O. : "Should we clap when we have a ser- 
mon or a religious song in chapel?" 

J. T. — "Did you say you would help me with my article?" 

L. P. T — "Or application?" 

F. L. S. — "Would it be all right to teach Hamlet in the grades?" 

O. O. — "What do you mean by those 'curious long tailed arrows' here 
between the lines in my theme?" 

English Room on the second floor. — (D2 section teacher — rather busy 
at desk.) (Students enter the room carrying on a general conversa- 
tion.) M. L. : "Do you think he will take up the written reproduction 

V. C. — "I wouldn't be surprised if he doesn't." 

A. C. : "We will 'pause' a few minutes now to copy the outline from 
the board before discussing it." (Bell rings.) 

A Midnight Feast 


Scene 1. — "Buying the Eatables." 

In the afternoon a group of girls go down to buy the eatables. In a 
grocery store they try to decide what they want while an amused clerk 
offers suggestions. Whereupon they buy pickles, cakes, bread, cans, etc., 
and come out laden with bundles. 

Scene 2. — "There's Many a Slip." 

Upon reaching the campus they hide their bundles under wraps and 
in sleeves, so that when they pass the lady principal in a corridor of 
the dormitory she looks at their innocent faces and little thinks the 
mischief they are up to. 

Scene 3. — "All is Safe at Last." 

The girls rush to their rooms and store the things away in bureau 
drawers, closets, hat boxes, and even under the bed. 

Scene 4. — "Nightfall." 

When the lights go out the lady principal goes up and down the cor- 
ridors to see that all is quiet. After she passes each door the girls bob 
their head out and wave at each other until she starts back again. Then 
they go to bed as usual and lie awake in their beds until twelve o'clock. 

"Come on, its twelve o'clock." 

The clock strikes twelve and the six girls steal out in the corridor 
where they all meet. Then they go off into the room where the food has 
been hid, and begin preparations for the feast. 

Scene 5. — "The Feast." 

Candles are lighted. The table is cleared of books and a towel is 
spread upon it, while the food is brought forth. Sandwiches are made 
and as there is some dressing left over they can not find anything to 
put it in. Some pick up soap dishes, hair receivers and the like, while 
one goes out after her pin tray. 

"My Ivory Pin Tray will hold the dressing." 

Hastily returning with it in her hands she stealthily opens the door 

"Hush ! Here comes the night watchman." 

All the girls scramble to the window to see the night watchman pass- 
ing by their window; just as he gets right under the window one of the 
girls lets slip a giggle. He hears it and looks up, but sees nothing, and 

88 The Training School Quarterly 

after pausing a few minutes, lie goes on his way, much to the relief of 
the girls, who continue with their preparations. Soon the table is 
spread, the candles are placed on it, and they draw up boxes and chairs 
to begin the feast. In doing this the tray of dressing is knocked from 
the table but is hastily recovered as it gets no further than one of the 
girl's lap. The feast now begins in earnest. They eat and chatter 
merrily until some one says, 

"Scoot ! There's somebody coming !" 

Then they all scatter, two get under the bed, one behind the bureau, 
two in the closet, while one gets in bed and pretends to be asleep. All 
is quiet for about five minutes, when one by one they steal out from 
their hiding places. They again light the candles and continue their 

Scene 6. — "The President Arrives on the One O'Clock Train." 

About this time the one o'clock train pulls in and off steps the presi- 
dent of the school. When he alights from the carriage at his own door 
he sees a light in one of the rooms. On looking more closely he sees 
figures moving about in it. Hailing the approaching night watchman 
he points it out to him and bids him go and report the affair to the lady 

Scene 7. — "An Unwelcome Visitor." 

Still the feast goes on. A toast mistress is elected who takes her glass 
and standing in the middle of the bed gives a toast, while the others 
clink their glasses, and drink with her. But just here the door opens, 
and in walks that lady herself, holding up her hands in holy horror. 

"Girls ! Girls ! What on earth do you mean ?" 

And before a single one can hide she gets the name of every girl in 
the crowd. 

"Report at my office after lunch tomorrow." 

After sharply reproving and even shaking some she hustles each one 
off to her own room. Coming back later to the room in which the feast 
was held she takes everything to eat that is left and dumps it into the 
waste basket. She then stands by until the girls humbly get into bed. 
Whereupon she takes their candles, matches, etc., and haughtily marches 
out of the room. 

Scene 8. — "Lady Principal's Office." 

The next afternoon six dejected girls make their way to the office of 
the lady principal where they receive a sharp lecture, wound up by 
"You are under restrictions for a solid month." 

Senior Groups 

The Tree-Planting 

The Class President with the Cup The Captain of the Basket-Bull Team with the Cup 

The Adviser of the Senior Class and the Adviser of the Sister Class, '19, with the Cup 

The Basket-Ball Team 
In the Midst of the Game 

The Class of 1917 89 

Scene 9. — "Restbicted." 

Several days later the girls who are not allowed to go down town, go 
to the edge of the campus with two other girls, who are going shopping. 
They look very melancholy as the other girls leave them and cry out, 
"Please do bring us an ice cream cone." 

When they return with the cones the six restricted girls run and get 
them. Whereupon they sit down and eat them, and count on their 
fingers the days before the month is up. 

Ads — It Pays to Advertise! — Try It! 

1. Wanted — To make people consider me the most interesting con- 
versationalist. H. Jones. 

2. Wanted — To know the art of being "cute." A. Absheb. 

3. Rewabd — Will someone tell V. Sledge how she can get along with- 
out working so hard? 

4. Lost — "My curling irons." C. Johnston. 

5. Wanted — Something to say. H. Cuthbell. 

6. Wanted — To know why all the Seniors in our class have a "beau" 
except me. O. Cabawan. 

7. Baeoains — Wholesale bargains offered daily by Bishop and Pap- 
pendick Grocery Co. 

8. Wanted — To make people know and understand that I went to 
the State Normal at Greensboro and my picture was in the annual. 

E. McNeil. 

9. Wanted — To know if she can be in the receiving line at the 
Junior-Senior reception. A. Thompson. 

10. Lost — Fannie Grant in an elevator at Tunstall's. 

11. Wanted — To drop Arithmetic and take Math. 

L. M. Whitehead. 

12. Wanted — Unlimited popularity. O. O'Bbian. 

13. Found — A letter between W. Dormitory and Administration 
Building beginning "Dear Sue" and signed "Ed." Owner call in library 
and receive the same. 

14. Wanted — A Senior ring. T. White. 

15. Notice — Rooms 33 for rent during the summer months. Apply 
to L. Bulluck. 

16. Wanted — A remedy for awkwardness. E. Mebceb. 

17. Fob sale — Dimples. V. Sutheb. 

[Continued on page 93] 

The History Class of '17 in Athletics 

The class of '17, the winners of the cup for basketball for two years, 
are, it is safe to say, champions in athletics. It has on its team this year 
four girls who were among the number of the 27 little "A's." These 
four girls have been on the class team each year. 

During the four years of our work, two of academic and two of pro- 
fessional, the class has made for itself an enviable reputation for its 
accomplishments and leadership. Its members have developed initiative 
and independence, and have ever been ready to contribute to all whole- 
some school activities. 

The class has emphasized the fact that "all work and no play makes 
Jack a dull boy." It is true, we were timid at first, but our "winning 
ways" soon took us to the head of the line — a place our sisters of '13 
left for us. The athletic association was organized November 10, 1913, 
at the beginning of our "A" year. The class of 1913 had left the key 
to their dear little "A's," to unlock the door to all knowledge and vic- 
tory. We have used this key each year since we received it and still 
have it in use. We shall leave it for our sisters, the class of 1919. 

During our entire "A" year, sustained interest was shown in all forms 
of athletics. We were small and could not walk far, so that accounts 
for our not being champions in cross-country walking. But what class 
has made the championship in anything the first year. In tennis we 
worked hard and played in the tryout games. But our chief interest 
even from the first was in basketball. Although we were not in the 
final game we continued to play our best. Victory came, as it has come 
every time to the odd class, the class of '15, our sisters. 

When we were "busy B's," we played on. We then had two basketball 
teams, a number of tennis players, a captain ball team, and many were 
interested in walking. 

On Thanksgiving a match game of tennis was played. Of course the 
Juniors played, but who was to play with them? Mighty Seniors? 
Way, the "B's" won a place in the match game. The Juniors were vic- 
torious, but we did not give up, for, in January the class teams for the 
basketball tournament were posted. Imagine the delight among us when 
we found it was between the "B's" and "D's" ('15-'17). We were proud 
of it, but it would never do for us to play against our dear sisters, so 
we played the tie off and the Juniors won. It is not necessary to tell 
that the class of '15 won the first two games, the cup, and the champion- 
ship this year, for the "odds" are always at the head of the line. 

It was during this year the League decided to give a cup for the other 
activities — captain ball, walking, and tennis combined — but as this was 
the first year, the cup was not awarded. 

The Class of 1917 91 

As Juniors, we returned ready for what was to come to us, with 
plenty of high school students enthusiastic in athletics, our 27 grew 
to 87. We had four teams in basketball this year. We played twice a 
week every week the weather would permit. We lost only one game the 
whole year. It came time for the Thanksgiving game. We were already 
missing our '15 sisters, but the class of 1919 was standing by our side. 
The game was between Juniors and Seniors. The Juniors won, the 
score being 13-5. There was true sportsmanlike spirit shown on both 
sides. The two teams, Junior and Senior, were entertained the follow- 
ing Monday by the Junior class. The spirit for basketball did not die, 
for, in January, the Juniors and Seniors played the tournament games. 
Each year we play the best two out of three games for the cup. How 
many games were played last year ? Three ? Nay, two. How many the 
year '16? Three? Nay, two! What did this? The "winning ways" of 
the little "A's" of '17. It seemed as though it might be on the habit 
basis. We had used the key which the class of 1913 left and it has 
proved successful so we could use it again in 1916-'17. 

The tennis tournament was played in May between Juniors and 
Seniors, but we were defeated by the Seniors. 

This year here we are as 51 Seniors still enthusiastic in athletics. A 
new activity in athletics was put in this year. Ophelia O'Brian, '17, 
has charge of it. General playground games. The girls have taken 
a great interest, and enjoyed playing very much. In the fall Ophelia 
worked up a demonstration of playground games for the teachers of 
Pitt County. 

"When a habit is good stick to it." That is what we have been doing 
in our Senior year, and did Thanksgiving. We won the Thanksgiving 
game over the Juniors in basketball, the score being 16-6. They took 
the defeat well, as was evidenced by the fact that they entertained the 
Senior team in the afternoon. 

The tournament was postponed this year on account of the vaccinated 
arms and bad weather; but when we played, we played. The games 
were held on March 28th, 29th and 31st. This was the first time three 
games had ever had to be played, both teams worked hard, but the 
regular guards and substitute guard of the Juniors could not keep our 
three regular forwards from making the goal. The Seniors won the first 
game, the score being 12-9, the Juniors won the second, with a score of 
5-6 ; and who won the third ? Who has always won ? "Odds," yes, the 
Seniors, the score being 9-3. When the cup was presented by President 
Wright after the game, he expressed great pleasure at having to present 
the cup twice to the same class, stating that this was the first time he 
had had the pleasure of presenting it to the same class for two succes- 
sive years. Owing to the absence of Mr. Wright in 1915, Mr. Wilson 


The Training School Quarterly 

presented it to the class of '15. The Senior team was entertained in 
the evening by the "B" team, our sisters of '19. 

The trial games for tennis are being played now, the Seniors and 
Juniors being the classes to play in the tournament. These contests 
are being held just as The Quarterly goes to press, so that the results 
can not be given. The Volleyball Tournament is also being played while 
this is in the press. But every one knows where the victory lies. 

We are sorry that we shall have to leave so soon, but we shall come 
back next year and see the "nineteeners" carry on the tradition that the 
"odd" classes have so well established. 

[Continued from Page 89] 

It Pays to Advertise 

18. Wanted — To know how to make grass grow on the front campus. 

Mr. Wright. 

19. Lost ! — L. Joyner. Finder please return to E. Baugham and 
receive reward. 

20. Who'll apply? — Will some one consent to give M. O'Neal cas- 
ing lessons? 

21. Lost — Between rising bell and first breakfast bell — beauty sleep. 
Finder please return to F. L. Speir. 

22. Wanted — Some one to hold an umbrella over me while I work 
in my garden. M. Cowell. 

23. Wanted — To fill a hundred pages in the Quarterly. 

L. Bulluck. 
S. Walston. 


The Staff 

My purpose is to give a brief history of the staff during its stay in 
the Training School. 

This very interesting object made its first appearance in this school 
when the class of 1912 presented a staff to the class of 1913 to be hidden 
during the following year. This was at class day exercises in 1912, and 
the above mentioned staff which very closely resembled a carnival cane 
was accepted by the class of '13. 

In 1913 the staff was hidden and the Junior class, the class of '14, in 
spite of their attempts to find it, were unsuccessful. 

In '14, the '15 class, because of its perseverance, patience, and wisdom, 
did succeed. This gave the class of '15 sufficient cause to be proud. 

In '15 the '16 class was unsuccessful, of course, and as much may be 
said for the class of '17 in its effort to find the staff in '16. Perhaps 
this is the reason that the class of '16 advised the class of '17 not to 
accept the staff when it would be presented to them at class day exer- 
cises. Regardless of + his recommendation, the staff, which was now a 
new one, was accepted and hidden by the present Senior class. The class 
of '18 declined to look for the staff this year. 

In June, the class of '17 will return this staff to its original owners, 
the class of '12. Probably the staff will not be accepted when it is pre- 
sented to the next class, as the '18 class looks upon the staff as being 

The class of '17 believes that the custom of hiding the staff is a good 
thing to keep alive a spirit of friendly rivalry between the Junior and 
Senior classes. 

What We Have Gained From the Training School 

As the time has come for us to leave we realize the deep affection we 
hold for this school, the campus, the buildings, the halls, and especially 
the faculty and students. Although we are indeed glad the time has 
come for us to go out into our own State and begin the work for which 
we have been prepared, we are saddened to think that in leaving this 
school, we are leaving behind the guiding hand of our leaders and that 
instead of relying upon them, now we must become the leaders who will 
shape the young lives that are intrusted into our keeping. Probably 
some of our classmates and friends we will never see again, but, while 
we may be widely separated, we know that we have made many perma- 
nent friends not only with those in our own class but with the students 
of other classes as well; there will always exist, however, a peculiar 
bond between us of the same class. We are glad that we have spent 
the two, three, or four years here in training, although sometimes we 
have been discouraged, feeling that our work was too hard and that those 
ideals we wished to gain could never be realized. 

"Was it worth while? We have given these years of our time, work, 
and talent, what did we get in exchaange? Was it a spirit of careless- 
ness, or one of high ideals and service? It would be difficult to select 
and express accurately and adequately the most valuable things we have 
gained from the East Carolina Teachers Training School. 

The meaning of habit formation is one of the important factors we 
have gained. We have learned psychologically that the result of almost 
everything we do is controlled by our habits and that in teaching we 
should work to that end. That is, the teacher herself should have the 
correct habits and then in place of the bad habits of the pupils she 
should help them to form the right ones and should not rest until that 
thing, whatever it may be, has been made automatic. 

As students we have gained the habit of punctuality. "On time 
every time" is one of the mottoes of the president, and this is provided 
for by a definite schedule that the students and faculty are required to 
keep. Not only is this for class, but the number of hours we are to 
sleep, when we must go to our meals, and in fact, everything we do must 
be done on schedule time, even entertainments begin at "8 :30 sharp." 

We have learned the value of time, how necessary and vital it is that 
we should conserve our time in every possible way. Never before have 
the twenty-four hours of each day seemed insufficient to accomplish the 
necessary work and play of our school life. Each minute seems to fly 
away more rapidly than the preceding one and sometimes we wonder 
where our time has been spent. But usually we find we have not been 
concentrating all our thought and energy upon the one subject that is 
before us or that some of the time was wasted upon things of less 

The Class of 1917 95 

We have gained such moral habits as that of respecting the rights of 
others, of giving each student a fair showing, of seeing both sides of a 
question before giving our opinion, and of having the proper respect 
and care for public property — all of these and other important princi- 
ples have been instilled. 

In forming the habit of correct study, we have gained many princi- 
ples that will never lose their value for us as teachers. We have thrown 
aside the old theory that learning is memorizing and we do not expect 
to tax our pupils as we have been taxed in the past, with excess memory 
work. We have also learned that before any problem is given to a 
student or a group of students, there should be a desire or a need felt 
for that problem and also it should touch his life or interests. 

Another important factor is self-confidence. Although some of us 
have not sufficiently learned this, we have improved so much over our 
former selves that we could barely be recognized as the same persons. 
Some of the members of the class have so developed their personalities 
that they have been fitted for leaders in country communities, while 
other members are not suited for leadership. There is some consolation 
in the old idea that it takes a well-educated person to be a good follower 
as well as it does to be a leader. But is there one that cannot be a 
leader in some line? 

Especially has our practice teaching been a valuable experience to 
each member of our class. We were able to see and also to put into 
operation the correct principles and methods of teaching. We feel that 
observation work was extremely helpful. 

We have gained as a class, we hope, the respect and friendship of 
both the faculty and the students. 

The greatest thing that we have absorbed during our stay is the spirit 
of service. The motto of the school is "to serve" and this is not only 
a motto but an habitual practice. 

All our teachers practice this motto, for there is never a time when 
they are too busy to hear and help some student with her problems. 
They are not working for money (for no one that teaches school or is 
preparing to teach school expects to get rich at this profession), but they 
are working because they love their work and feel that they are accom- 
plishing more good for others and for their Master in this profession 
rather than in some money-making profession. 

We have heard many talks about serving, co-operating and working 
with the community that you are thrown in, giving all the time that 
you can spare to every organization that is uplifting, and we have been 
urged to be helpful in every possible way. 

Our seeing and coming in contact with people of this school who 
practice this unselfishness, has caused us to absorb some of these prin- 
ciples. This spirit and attitude, if carried in our future work, should 
help us toward success. 

S. W. : "I thought you took Home Nursing last year." 
V. S. : "I did, but the faculty encored me." 

N. M. B. : "Did you ever take chloroform?" 
M. L.: "No, who teaches it?" 

E. Mc. : "I don't think I deserve zero." 

Miss D. : "That's as low as I am permitted to give." 

A. A. : "What books have helped you most ?" 

V. S. : "The ones I didn't read ; they saved my time." 

L. S.: "What is a hypocrite?" 

0. C. : "A person who goes to psychology with a smile on his face." 

New Girl: "What denomination are you?" 
Junior : "Oh ! I'm taking Junior work." 

Mr. M. : "Fools ask questions wise men can't answer." 
Senior : "That's the reason I fell so flat on exams." 

L. J. : "When I have memorized a page of outline I can close my 
eyes and still see the page." 

S. F. : "So can I, but its all blank verse." 

Junior: "Who is Ty Cobb?" 

R. F. : "I really don't know much about those North Carolina 

Scenes from "The Rivals" 

The Class of 1917 97 

Mr. A.: "What is the difference in April 1775 and now?" 
L. B. : "About 200 years difference." 

E. H. : "What is infantry ?" 

J. T. : "The younger generation of men." 



"Oh, I'm so cold." 

Isn't there any heat in your room ?" 

"No, I've had my feet over the transom and they aren't warm 

Senior : "Are we going to have ice cream for dinner ?" 
Junior: "Yes, I just saw it written on the schedule" (meaning 

What Others Think of Us 

Following are some remarks which will tell you what the officers, 
faculty, and others think of the class of nineteen hundred and seventeen : 

Pees. Wright — "The best class we ever had." 

Mb. Spilman — "First-class financiers." 

Mrs. Beckwith (when she is pleased) — "Good children." (When 
otherwise.) "Foolish daughters." 

Dr. Laughinghotjse — "A healthy lot." 

Miss Beaman — "Very considerate, as they take up neither my time 
nor my aspirin tablets." 

Miss Ross — "Chatter-boxes." 

Miss Jones — "Businesslike." 

Mrs. Jeter — "Dear, and wasteful." 

Mr. Wilson — "Sensationless." 

Miss Muffly — "Mocking birds." 

Miss Ray — "They are full of possibilities, though they may seem 

Mr. Austin — "Lacking in that sense without which all other sense 
is nonsense." 

Miss Armstrong— "Splendid artists — especially on subjects relating 
to cows." 

Me. Underwood — "A jolly bunch." 

Miss Davis — "Real teachers of history." 

Miss Lewis — "The perspective of the class is pleasing — at a distance." 

Miss Comfort — "Hard to manage in athletics." 

Miss Graham — "They are real problems." 

Miss Maupin — "They certainly do not hurt themselves studying." 

Miss Waitt — "Far behind the Class of 1916." 

Miss Hill — "Very harmonious." 

Miss Fahnestock — "Rather noisy." 

98 The Training School Quaeteely 

Miss Sherman — "Too dignified." 

Miss Jenkins — "A terrible class in comparison with, my Juniors." 
Miss Heeman — "No hope for them." 
Me. Meadows— "Equal to the Class of 1913." 

The Ceitic Teachees — "There will never be any more like them." 
"A's"— "Very wise." 
"B's" — "Everything good-angels." 

Junioes — "Inconsiderate and overbearing to under classmen." 
"F's"— "An authority on all things." 

The People of Geeenville — "Always quiet, except on special occa- 

Fates — "Impossible to conquer." 

May Sawtee, '17. 



Sept. 26 — Old girls — osculation. 

27 — New girls — matriculation. 
Oct. 8 — Society initiation. The goats and greasy poles of the new 

girls' dreams made a reality. 
9 — Seniors begin teaching in the practice school. 

17 — Seniors give an order for their class rings. 

20 — Nothing doing — cloudy weather. 

21 — Anxiety among the Seniors — their class rings have not 
Nov. 17 — Senior tree-planting. 

27 — Thanksgiving german. 

28 — Thanksgiving basketball game — burial of the Juniors. 
Dec. 14 — Order for the Senior rings countermanded. 

15 — North Carolina day. 

17 — Senior bazaar. 

22 — Smiles ! A's looking for Santa Claus. 



Jan. 5 — Work begins — enough said. 

27 — Senior chapel exercises — James Whitcomb Riley 

22 — Excitement in the music department — musical concert by 

Mr. George F. Boyle. 
23 — A new order made for the Senior rings. 
24 — Beware ! Seniors are "traveling" tonight. 

. .., >.. KVfi ' 
...... .*.■■ ..v^ - 

The Class of 1917 99 

Feb. 1 — First day of a new month. 

20 — Holiday — girls go to Ealeigh. 

23 — Mail flooded with letters from A. & M. 

26 — Just a blue Monday. 
Mar. 23 — Seniors begin their career as farmers. 

24 — Intersociety debate — Poes won. 

25 — New hats go to church. 

31 — Seniors win the loving cup. 
April 3- — Panic ! ! Three bells ring — Mr. Wright only wants to give 

the combinations for the new postoffice boxes. 
6 — "War declared. 
7 — Junior class banner lost. 

19 — Mr. Wright returns from an out of town visit. 

20 — Junior class banner found. 

21 — joy! The Senior rings have come. 

23— Senior play— "The Kivals." 

25 — New word aaded to the Senior vocabulary — "graduation." 
May 20 — Preparation for final exams. 

22 — Still cramming. 

28— Eeports! ! ! 
June 6 — Climax — graduation. 


Reminder of a time so dear, 
Attendant of the peaceful spring, 
Gift of the gods to please and cheer, 
Graceful and pure, your petals bring 
Eternal joy. Your blossoms blue 
Do always tell us to be true. 

Reveal to us thy hidden power; 
O make us, in the testing hour, 
Both wise and good, sweet little flower. 
Inspire us with a love for beauty, 
Nor let us leave the path of duty. 

School Activities 


The classes have all been busy during the last quarter. The activi- 
ties of the Senior Class are included in their department. 

The Opeka, Eobin Hood 

An arrangement of the opera "Eobin Hood," by Reginald DeKoven, 
was given by the Junior Class on April 2. A report of this is given 
among the School Notes. This is the most ambitious free performance 
ever given by a class to the school public. 

Junior Assemblies — the School Journal 

The School Journal, a paper to be published occasionally by the 
Junior Class or any other class who wishes to take it up, was presented 
on March 1st. This is one of the chief contributions of the class. The 
first issue was especially interesting, as its purpose was to feature the 
trip to Raleigh, and the General Assembly. 

Miss Elizabeth Evans, Business Manager, announced that the class 
would present a paper, the name of which would be thrown on the 
screen. Immediately sixteen girls arose and taking their respective 
places, held in order the letters which made known the name, "T-H-E 
S-C-H-O-O-L J-O-U-R-N-A-L." 

After this Miss Evans gave the purpose of the paper and read the 
table of contents which was as follows : 


The High Cost of Coughing 1 

Katie Lee Matthews 

The World of Moving Events 2 

Clellee Ferbell 

A Glance Over the Whole School 4 

Jessie Howaed 

Editorials : 6 

The President and Congress 
Contributed Articles 
Inter-Society Debate 
The Legislature and the Suffrage Bills 
Elsie Morgan 

The Legislature from a Junior's Point of View 8 

Willie Jackson 
Our Trip to Raleigh 10 

Thelma White 
Wit and Humor of Our Girls 13 

Ruth Cooke 

102 The Training School Quarterly 

Fashion Notes 14 

Lula Ballance 

Sadie Thompson 

The other section of the class presented the second number the next 
week on March 10. This special historical number was for the purpose 
of marking the tenth anniversary of the real beginning of the school, 
and to celebrate the bond issue passed by the Legislature that week, 
which we believe marks a new birth in the history of the school. The 
particular purpose was to review briefly the growth of the school during 
its first decade. The articles which the issue contained showed us very 
plainly that its growth has been marvelous and that no school in North 
Carolina has ever had such a history of achievement in so short a 
period, and with the spirit which exists both in the faculty and in the 
student body, and with the $200,000, the school promises to be much 
greater at the end of its next decade. 

One of the most interesting features connected with this issue was an 
exhibition of photographs of the faculty, the different classes, the 
Y. W. C. A., the basketball teams, the buildings, and the campus, all 
taken at various times since the establishment of the school. These 
were arranged in the front hall of the Administration Building so that 
all who wished to could easily see them. This proved to be a great 
benefit as well as a pleasure to the students who had no idea of the 
first days of the school. 

Miss "Willie Wilson, the manager of this number, announced the pur- 
pose of the special number of The School Journal, and that there would 
be an exhibition of "original photographs, portraits, and cuts," and 
then read the table of contents, which was as follows: 

Front Cover — Quotations from Pres. Wright. Read by Bess Tillet. 

Frontispiece — The two founders, Governor Jarvis and Mr. Ragsdale. 
(Their portraits were hanging on opposite sides of the stage.) 

Editorials — Annie Bridgman 

The Purpose of This Issue. 
School Spirit. 
Forecasting the Future. 

Articles : 

The Beginnings of the School Gladys Hendebson 

Tribute to James Lawson Fleming Gladys Hendebson 

Tributes to William Henry Ragsdale Sophia Coopeb 

Sketch of Governor Jarvis May Renfeow 

Reminiscences of the First Year Helen Lyon 

Beginnings of the School Activities Fannie Bishop 

Facts and Figures Bessie Richardson 

Advertisement of the School Estelle Jones 

School Activities 103 

The "B" or Second Yeae Academic Class 

This class, in assembly period on April 5, gave a patriotic program, 
which was one of the most spectacular and interesting of this kind ever 
held at the Training School. 

The exercises were indeed spirited and inspiring, since it was so 
appropriate to the present crisis in our country's history. Everything 
centered around the flag. The stage was decorated with flags, and the 
whole student body wore little flags, which were given out to them by 
the class. 

The class marched in and found its place on the stage by military 
orders given by its class adviser, Mr. H. E. Austin. Miss Rena Harri- 
son, president of the class, conducted the religious exercises, and then 
gave a short introductory talk explaining the program. The entire 
school then sang "Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean." "Our Heritage," a 
well known selection from Webster's Bunker Hill Oration, was read 
by Thelma Mumford. This gave a vivid comparison of the conditions 
of our country in Webster's time and its condition today. 

The entire school sang another of our national songs, "The Star 
Spangled Banner." A recent editorial from the Baltimore Sun, "The 
Flag is Still There," was read by Rena Harrison. This showed the 
increased reverence and honor for the national flag by our people today. 
Sallie Barwick read the "Flag Code." This was a lesson for all on 
the symbolism and forbidden uses of the flag. Following the Flag 
Code, Ina McGlohon gave Bennett's poem, "The Flag is Passing By." 

The most effective part of the program was a flag drill by sixteen 
girls dressed in white middy suits with red and blue ties and carrying 
flags. Just before, the drill began Fannie Mae Finch, the standard 
bearer, marched on the stage holding aloft a large national flag. Fol- 
lowing the girls in the drill were girls dressed to represent Liberty, 
Lyda Tyson, Justice, Maude Lister, and Equality, Sadie Speight, who 
came forward and knelt before the flag. The remainder of the class 
took their places near the back of the stage, and remained until Evelyn 
Williford stepped near the flag and recited, "Your Flag and My Flag." 
The entire class then saluted the flag and sang "America," in which 
the school joined. 

The program was exceedingly interesting to the entire school and 
helped to bring each individual to realize what the flag means to us, 
especially at this critical time. 

The second year academic, or "B" class, entertained its sister classes, 
the "D's" and "F's," on February 18. A full account of this is given 
in the Senior Department of this issue. 

A Saint Patrick's party was held on March 17 in honor of the "C" 
class by their sister class, the "A's." Other guests invited were: Miss 

104 The Training School Quarterly 

Jenkins, the "C" class adviser, Miss Maupin, the "A" class adviser, 
Mr. "Wright, the President, and all the teachers of the "A" class. 

On arriving, each person was given a shamrock with a number on it, 
and was told to seek a partner with a corresponding number. After 
this the Gypsy fortune-telling booths were visited, and the remarkable 
things of the future were revealed. Immediately following the fortune 
telling, two interesting contests took place. One was the soap bubble 
contest, the object being to touch the shamrock, which was suspended 
from the center of the room with a soap bubble. The other was to pin 
the tail on the donkey. A box of candy and a bottle of toilet water 
were awarded to the winners of the contests, Miss Ruth Williamson 
and Mr. L. R. Meadows. After the contests two comedies, a mock 
marriage and a minstrel show, took place, and they were very much 
enjoyed by all. Then delightful refreshments, consisting of ice cream 
and cake, were served, after which the rest of the evening was spent 
in dancing. Every one passed a most enjoyable evening. 


Presidents of Societies foe 1917-18 

Edgar Allan Poe Sidney Lanier 

Estelle Jones Camille Robinson 


Chief: Mary Banks, Sidney Lanier Society. 

Lanier Society Poe Society 

Elizabeth Hathaway Elizabeth Hutchins 

Sadie Thompson Annie Bridgman 

Mattie Paul Ruth Cooke 

Cora Lancaster Lucy Buffaloe 

The marshals are elected at the first regular meeting of each society 
during the second term. This gives them the opportunity to serve at 
every public function from then until the close of school, and thus 
insures experienced commencement marshals, a time when they are 
especially needed. 

The Debate 

The annual debate between the two societies was held March 24, 
1917. The question was, Resolved, "That the Federal Government 
should own and operate the Railroads of the United States." As the 
Poes were the challengers this year, the Laniers had their choice between 
the negative or affirmative, and chose the affirmative. 

School Activities 105 

The debaters were : 

Laniers Poes 

Ida Walters Gladys Yates 

Lola Gurley Estelle Jones 

Cora Lancaster Bernie Allen 

The decision was unanimous for the negative. 

The Quarterly staff of student editors next year will be as follows : 
Lanier Society Poe Society 

Editor in Chief — Sadie Thompson Business Editor — Ruth Fenton 

Assistant — Cora Lancaster Assistant Editor — Elsie Morgan 

Edgar Allan Poe Society. 

The Poe Society was exceedingly fortunate to get the cooperation of 
Miss Muffly in getting Sarah Storm Crommer to give a song recital 
for them. This was complimentary to the Lanier Society. The faculty 
and officers of the school were among the guests. This great artist sang 
for an hour on the evening of May 3. She repeated some of the songs 
she gave in a recital the evening before, and then allowed the girls to 
call for their favorites. It was a rare treat for the members of the 
societies to hear such a great singer. When the name of Sarah Storm 
Crommer becomes famous in grand opera all who were at this recital 
will feel thrills and recall the pleasure of that evening. 

Lanier Song 

(To be sung to the tune of "Rah! for the Black and Blue," a Johns 
Hopkins University song.) 

Come Laniers, ready and faithful, 
Come Laniers, raise a cheer; 
Come Laniers, hrave and true; 
Come Laniers, you have no fear. 
Come all ye loving sisters, 
Come join with voices bold; 
Sing praise to dear Lanier; 
Sing for the green and gold. 

Tune every heart and voice 
Bid every care withdraw 
Let every one rejoice 
In praise of dear Lanier. 
To thee we lift our praises, 
Swelling to heaven loud, 
Our praises ever ring. 
Lanier, of thee we sing. 


Hail for the green, Hail for the gold, 

Hail for this society, 

We pour forth our praise, to dear society days, 

Hail for Lanier, 

The green and gold. 

106 The Training School Quarterly 


The basketball tournament played during tbe last week of March was 
won by the Seniors. This is the first time the third game has ever 
had to be played in a tournament at the Training School. More de- 
tails of the game are given in the Senior Department. 

The tennis tournament has not been played yet, but the girls are 
practicing with a vim these long afternoons, and a stiff game is ex- 

A great deal of interest is being shown in volley ball at present, and 
in this, too, the players are getting as much practice as possible before 
the tournament games. 

Ophelia O'Brian is still continuing her work in playground games. 

Y. W. C. A. 

At the regular business meeting on March 3 the following officers for 
the coming year were elected : Agnes Hunt, president ; Annie Bridg- 
man, vice-president; Lillian Shoulars, secretary; Lois Hester, treasurer. 

The chairman of the standing committees which, with the officers, 
who constitute the cabinet are: Annie Bridgman, chairman of Member- 
ship Committee; Elizabeth Hutchins, chairman of Bible Study Com- 
mittee ; Iola Finch, chairman of Missionary Committee ; Jessie Howard, 
chairman of Religious Meetings Committee; Sallie Best, chairman of 
Music Committee ; Elizabeth Evans, chairman of Association News 
Committee; Lois Hester, chairman of Finance Committee; Ruth Cooke, 
chairman of Social Committee; Mildred Maupin, chairman of Room 
Committee; Evelyn Williford, chairman of Sunshine Committee. 

Miss Mary Pescud of Raleigh, a missionary to Brazil who is at home 
on a furlough, conducted the Y. W. C. A. services at the Training School 
one Sunday evening in March. She gave a most interesting talk on 
Brazil and her experiences in that country. She began by telling the 
listeners to imagine themselves ready for a voyage, and she gave an 
account of the trip and life on a steamer. She spoke a little in Portu- 
guese so as to give an idea of the impression she had on landing, before 
she had learned the language. She described the city of Bahia, where 
the imaginary voyagers landed ; she explained the geographical location, 
and described the scenery. She then told of many interesting manners 
and customs and gave some amusing experiences. She made her list- 
eners feel as if they were really her fellow travelers through an inter- 
esting land. At the close she spoke of the importance of the work in 
Brazil and made an appeal to those who felt that they might be called 
to missionary work. She told them that if they wished to do something 
that would count in their lives they would find a field for service in 

School Activities 107 

Some of the Sunday evening services held during the quarter are 
reported here. Each year there is great interest in the new officers. 
The installation service of the Y. W. C. A. was conducted at the 
Training School Sunday night, April 15. Mr. H. E. Austin read the 
28th chapter of Genesis for the Bible lesson, and explained the story 
of "Jacob and Esau," making it so clear that each one present could 
make the application. The retiring president, Miss Martha O'lSTeal, 
mind. She said, "The test of an educated person is the person who 
gave a report for the year, and told of the many things the association 
had meant to her, and left the wish to the new cabinet members that 
the association would mean to them what it had meant to her. The 
new president, Miss Agnes Hunt, then gave her plans for the coming 
year, and read the names of the new cabinet members which were as 
follows : vice-president, Annie Bridgman ; secretary, Lillian Shoulars ; 
treasurer, Lois Hester. A duet was sung by Misses N"eta White and 
Ophelia O'Brian. 

Bey. B. W. Spillman of Kinston led in the Y. W. C. A. Sunday 
evening service once during this term. His subject was on Sunday 
Schools. He gave an interesting and excellent talk on the value of 
Sunday Schools to children, to teachers, and to the business people who 
do not have time for special Bible lesson at any other time other than 
Sunday morning. 

He then explained the plan for the international Sunday School 
lessons. He spoke with authority on this subject, for he is a member 
of the International Board. 

Bev. Bunn, a student from Wake Forest College, led the Y. W. C. A. 
service on the third Sunday evening in April. 

Bev. John E. Ayscue led the services Sunday evening, March 18, 1917. 
The lesson was taken from 1st Samuel, chapter 17. Mr. Ayscue's sub- 
ject was "Success." He said if we wished to succeed we must learn the 
true elements that go to make up success. Self-reliance, persistence, and 
reliance upon God. The greatest help in achieving success is to learn to 
have confidence in yourself. He said that if we persisted success was 
ours, but if we give way failure stared us in the face; he urged his 
listeners to rely upon God in all things. There was special music by 
the choir. An instrumental solo was rendered by Miss Agnes Hunt 
and a vocal solo by Miss Ethel Stancell. 

Miss Sallie Joyner Davis one evening made a patriotic talk. She 
read the evening lesson from the 67th Psalm, and read portions 
of the address, "North Carolina of Tomorrow," which was delivered 
at the State Literary Historical Association, two years ago, by Clarence 
Poe. It was peculiarly timely after an address by Mr. Harding Satur- 

108 The Teaining School Quabteely 

day, and a talk by Mr. Wright in which he referred to the changed 
conditions showing that the future will be built on the ideas we now 
have. An instrumental solo was played by Miss Cora Lancaster. 

Several members of the faculty have led the service during the quar- 
ter. Miss Daisy B. Waitt led during the quarter. She read the third 
chapter of Ecclesiastes for the Bible lesson and talked on the subject of 
"Belief Work in the War," which is something we cannot keep out of 
mind. She said, "The test of an educated person is the person who 
can do the right thing at the right time." She told about conditions in 
Belgium that had been caused by the war and explained how the 
American people had stood by the Belgians in time of need. She read 
several letters from Belgian children, which show the gratitude the 
Belgians have toward the Americans in appreciation of what they have 
done for them. Mr. Hoover, who has charge of the relief work in 
America, says : "It is necessary for this work of helping the Belgians to 
go on," as they would suffer for food if the American relief work were 
to stop. An instrumental solo was played by Miss Ethel Smith, and 
Miss ISTeta White sang "The Lord is Mindful of His Own." 

Mrs. ~K. R. Beckwith made a very practical talk one evening. She 
read the sixth chapter of Ephesians for the evening lesson, and took 
as her subject, "Justice and what it means." She said, "Justice enters 
into the small things in life," and there would be no wars and no rumors 
of wars if there was justice. Where justice is, selfishness can find no 
place. Justice is that perfect equation of the relation of each man 
and woman to every other man or woman. It does not seek to deprive 
others of their necessities of life, but is manifested in the every-day 
things of life. An instrumental solo was played by Miss Bess Tillitt, 
and a duet was sung by Misses Ethel Stancell and Flora Hutchins. 

Miss Maria D. Graham led the services on April 22, making a practical 
talk on "Diligence," showing the great need of this virtue at this crisis. 
She read the Scripture lesson from Proverbs. She quoted passages 
contrasting the diligent man and the sluggard and proved that diligence 
in the everyday affairs of life leads to success. She made an appeal 
to the girls to show their patriotism by becoming diligent in the work 
of the canning clubs, in helping with gardens, and in any way they 
can to help better food conditions. 

The "B" Class led the services one Sunday evening in March. The 
Bible reading from the 27th Psalm was read by the president of the 
class, Miss Eena Harrison. And a sexette was sung by members of the 
class. A reading, "Today," was read by Miss Mary Hollowell. An 
instrumental solo was rendered by Miss Elizabeth Speir. A reading, 

School Activities 


"Be True," was read by Miss Sadie Speight. A solo was sung by 
Mr. H. E. Austin, class adviser of the class. The program was very 
much enjoyed by the association. 

The services on April 8 consisted of a music program. The Scrip- 
ture lesson was read from the 20th Psalm by Miss Lillian Shoulars. 
Special Easter songs were sung by the choir. A reading, "Sacrifice," 
was read by Miss Elizabeth Evans. A quartette was sung by Misses 
Priscilla and Elizabeth Austin and Pearl and Mary Wright. 

School Notes 

Our Reception T ne telegram sent by Senator Harding announcing 

of the Good that this school had received $200 000 for permanent 

News of the 

$200,000 Ap- improvement was received here about noon on the Mon- 

propriation d a v the bond issue passed the House, which is our 

holiday. "When the students saw Mr. Wright's beaming face they knew 

instantly that his and our hopes had been fulfilled. However, the girls 

and teachers were not willing just to hear about the good news, but 

insisted on seeing the actual piece of paper that caused so much rejoicing. 

The students who do not expect to receive the direct benefit from the 

money were just as glad for the school's appropriation as those who 

will be here when the buildings are erected. 

Later there was rejoicing again when we found our maintenance fund 

had increased from $50,000 to $60,000. 

Talk to Stu- Mr. F. C. Harding, a member of the executive com- 

dentsby Sena- m ittee of the Board of Trustees, made an exceedingly 
tor Harding of ' & J 

Pitt County interesting and helpful talk to the girls the Saturday 

after he returned from Raleigh after the General Assembly closed. He 
was an earnest and active friend for the school throughout the meeting 
of the Legislature. What he told the girls of the significance of the 
appropriation and their part in it was so good that instead of having 
a mere report of it in the news department of the Quarterly, it will 
appear in the summer number. It is a message to all who have gone 
out from the school or will ever go out. 

Mr. "Wright in introducing Mr. Harding told the girls that he was 
the first person who voiced the idea that the State must issue bonds. 
He spoke of him as a "progressive legislator." Mr. Harding ex- 
plained very clearly just what situation the legislators had to face and 
gave the reasons for their action. 

Mr. Y. T. Ormond, chairman of the Executive Committee of the 
Board of Trustees, who is an indefatigable worker for the school, but 
who is usually so busy working for the school that he will not often 
talk, broke his rule one morning recently and talked a few minutes 
during the assembly period. He commented on the difference of the 
expressions on the faces of members of the faculty and students on his 
first visit after the close of the Legislature this year and two years ago. 
He briefly reviewed the growth of the school. He has been a member 

School Notes 111 

of the board ever since the school was established and has anxiously 
watched everything about it, and has taken great pleasure in seeing it 
grow. He showed the students how the larger opportunities increased 
their obligations to the State and to the children of North Carolina. 

, r . . . r . The visit of the Legislative Committee, which was 

Visit of Legis- ^ 

lative Com- just after the last issue of the Quarterly went to press, 

mlttee W as one of the most exciting events of the year to the 

students. The committee was composed of Messrs. H. L. Swain, a 

former student of the Training School, Pruitt of Gaston, Suttlemyre 

of Caldwell, Matthews of Mecklenburg, Widenhouse of Cabarrus. Mr. 

Butt of Beaufort was on the committee, but was in some way prevented 

from visiting the school. 

At assembly period the school was turned over to the visitors. The 
students wished to hear from each of the legislators, therefore each one 
in turn had a few words to say. They indulged in pleasantries, and 
put the girls in a glorious humor by expressing their satisfaction with 
what they had seen about the school and the students. They pledged 
themselves to support the claims of the school. 

It was interesting to notice that several of the committee were from 
central and eastern parts of the State, and were eager to know what was 
being done in the eastern section, and particularly anxious to see what 
was being done in this school. Each one of the committee must have 
spoken a good word for the school if one can judge by the results. 

Sarah Storm Sarah Storm Crommer, dramatic soprano of New 

Crommer York and Baltimore, who has been visiting her friend. 

Gives Song ' ° 

Recitals Miss May B. B. Muffly, of the faculty of East Carolina 

Teachers Training School, gave two song recitals in Greenville, one 
to the End of the Century Club and their friends, and one for the 
Edgar Allan Poe Society as complimentary to the Lanier Society and 
faculty and officers of the school. 

This singer has become a great artist. She has a voice of marvelous 
power and of great purity of tone, and has had the best of training, is a 
tireless worker, and is absolutely devoted to her art, sacrificing every- 
thing for it. She is in training in New York for the operatic stage, 
and at present is singing in choirs and in concerts. She has attained 
that quality of voice which is the highest ideal of singers, the mezzo- 
voce, that veiled, exquisite tone that stirs the emotions and is the 
despair of most singers. The program of the recital for the club was 
as follows: 

112 The Training School Quarterly 

Songs : Morning Rogers 

Wind Star Rogers 

Star Sparks 

Saeah Storm Crommer. 

Piano: Romance Libelius 

Whims Schumann 

Lula Sherman. 

Songs: II Bacio Arditi 

The Sunshine of Your Smiles Ray 

Sarah Storm Crommer. 

Piano: Marche Mignon Poldini 

Caprice Gluck 

Lida Hill. 

Songs : Life and Death Coleridge-Taylor 

The Rainbow Child Coleridge-Taylor 

Deep River Burleigh 

Sarah Storm Crommer. 

Songs: Hayfields and Butterflies .- Del Regio 

The Beaming Eyes Macdowell 

The House of Memories Aylward 

Heigh-Ho, The Sunshine. 

Sarah Storm Crommer. 

"Deep River" is the old negro plantation song raised to the art form. 
This was sung with great appreciation and feeling. The Italian song, 
"II Bacio," was a florid, coloratura song, which is now so popular with 
artists. The program was varied and gave her audience an opportunity 
to hear her voice in different types of songs. 

On the evening of May 3 she gave a recital for the Poe Society in 
honor of the Laniers. She gave several of the same songs as in the 
ahove program, but added a number of others, and sang special favorites 
of the girls. It seemed to those who heard her both times that she 
sang even better than she did the evening before. She was very gracious 
and accommodating, singing for the different classes as they met for 
music periods, and singing between times. Her visit was a rare treat 
to the school. Not only the school, but the town, owes Miss Muffly a 
debt of gratitude for having this artist come to the town. 

Miss Justine Long, in her lecture at the Training 
Miss Longs School last evening, April 9, gave a sane, wholesome, 
and exceedingly pleasant talk on dress, personal ap- 
pearance, good manners, and the other factors that enter into the 
question of the expression of personality. Expression is secondary, 
what is expressed is primary, were points she stressed throughout. 

School Notes 113 

Sincerity is the basis of true art, whether in dress, manners, or in the 
broader field of art. When dress and form of expression become pri- 
mary matters then they take up too much time in life. She laid down 
the four rules for dress that give the secret of attractiveness: first, 
lines; second, suitability; third, simplicity; and fourth, self-expression 
or becomingness. She told stories showing the origin of different fash- 
ions, and proving that the instinct that causes people to follow fashions 
is one of the oldest instincts of the race, that of imitation ; that instinct 
which causes people to follow certain ones in fashion is the instinct of 

In bringing out the first rule she laid down Miss Long said the funda- 
mental facts of framework are far more important than any other 
outside adornment. She told stories of girls who were cheating them- 
selves of their just dues because they did not know how to dress suitably, 
who had reputation for being flashy and cheap, whereas they were 
worthy and strong and true, but their appearance belied these facts. 
Simplicity does not mean plainness, nor ugliness, nor severity, nor 
cheapness, but does mean designs that are not cluttered up with trim- 
mings that are confusing and showy, those furbelows that confuse. 
Sometimes the beauty of the fabric should be the keynote to the dress. 
The simple dress demands more of the personality than the fancy dress. 
"Regardless of fashions, choose what is becoming to you," is the guiding 
rule she gave, but she made it clear that one could always do this and 
not be entirely out of mode. 

Sincerity was the word she emphasized when she talked on manners 
and speech. Pleasant manners are a true expression of kindly, inter- 
ested feelings. The voice should be natural and easy. She illustrated 
the influence of voice throughout the whole evening by her own beau- 
tiful, well modulated voice. She could be heard all over the house, but 
talked in a natural, easy, conversational tone. She urged the girls not 
to acquire a "teacher voice," but to cultivate the pleasing voice. She 
related an experience she had on the train last Sunday. A group of 
selfish, loud talking girls had disturbed the quiet and peace of a whole 
car. They showed their ill manners by ignoring the presence of others. 

After the lecture Miss Long came down from the platform, on a level 
with the girls, and answered any question they wished to ask. This 
informal, intimate part of the evening was perhaps of even more benefit 
to those who stayed than the lecture itself. — Greenville Reflector. 

Charles M. On Monday evening, March 19, Charles M. ISTewcomb, 

"Th^TT' ' n W ^° f° rmer ^y traveled with the Chautauqua, but who 
University." is now a professor of oratory in the University of Dela- 
ware, Ohio, gave a splendid and most enjoyable entertainment — "The 

114 The Training School Quarterly 

Unique University." It was unique in every sense of the word, and all 
pronounced it a success. So humorous and witty was it that the au- 
dience was continually in a state of uncontrollable laughter. 

The Young Women's Christian Association was instrumental in 
getting Mr. Newcomb. The money raised at this time made it possible 
for the Association to send delegates to the Blue Ridge Conference, 
which is held every year at Blue Ridge as a place of training for Asso- 
ciation workers. 

Mr. Newcomb has been here in the school before. A year ago he 
gave the "Prince Chap," which all remember with delight. 

Ninety-eight girls and two teachers made an educa- 

RaleVh tional trip to Raleigh on February 20. A full account 

of this appears elsewhere in the Quarterly. It was 

a great day for the girls. Those who stayed at home had a holiday 

and had a good time, also, doing as they pleased. 

Capt. W. A. Graham, of Company H, Third Regiment N". C. National 
Guard, was a welcome visitor to the Training School in April. He spoke 
to the students as a soldier who had been actually engaged in military 
work on the border. He showed that military life was not as pleasant 
as some seem to think it is. It meant much to the girls to have a 
"real soldier" talk to them and explain conditions in the camps on the 

Rev. Marshall Craig of Kinston, who held a revival meeting at the 
Immanuel Baptist Church, led in the devotional exercise at the Train- 
ing School one morning while in Greenville. He made an interesting 
talk to the students on "The Dull Student in the Work of Christ." 

Rev. C. A. Jenkins, pastor of the Baptist Church in Washington, 
was a visitor to the school on April 6. He conducted the services at 
the assembly hour and made a short talk to the students. He brought 
out the three most hopeful factors in human life : the home, the school, 
and the church, showing how each has its specific work to do and yet 
are so closely related that the well-rounded man is influenced by all and 
must do his part in each. 

Col. Fred. A. Olds, that rare gentleman who presides 

A Visit from over tne jj a jj f History, and who is the avowed friend 
Colonel Olds •' . 

of all young people and of all North Carolinians, vis- 
ited the school on May 3. He delighted the girls by talking at the 

School Notes 115 

assembly period and later visited some! of the classes and gave them 
special talks. He talked to some History classes on historical subjects. 
He told one class in English that was studying the "Tale of Two 
Cities" things he had seen in France that made the setting of the 
story vivid to them, and he connected the story with present conditions 
and made them see the part the French had played in our own history. 
He spoke to the seniors of the rich material they will find to feature, and 
of the value of giving publicity to whatever the communities they work 
in are doing. Colonel Olds has been the promotor of the annual trips 
to Raleigh and has endeared himself to the girls because of his con- 
sideration and thoughtfulness of them in these trips. He is always a 
welcome visitor. 

«R b" H d" ^ taD l° m version of the the opera "Robin Hood" 
Presented by was given by the Junior class to the school and a few 
Juniors friends of the members of the class, April 9. While 

much of the opera was cut out, especially the difficult parts for heavy 
male voices, enough of it was preserved to make the plot, although those 
who are familiar with the opera noticed that liberties were taken with 
the arrangement and the dialogue parts. 

There are almost a hundred students in this class at present and 
practically all of these took part in the performance, at times all were 
on the stage at once making very effective groups. 

The costumes were of bright and attractive colors and there were sug- 
gestions of the period and of the characters, but one of the valuable 
features of the entertainment was that the costumes were adaptations 
of material at hand or were of inexpensive material. No costume cost 
more than twenty-five cents and some cost only three cents, while many 
costing nothing whatever. 

The chorus singing was remarkably good and spirited, and the solo 
parts were well received by the audience. The audience seemed to like 
especially the Tinker's chorus, the opening chorus, which was repeated 
several times, the choruses of the milkmaids, especially the "Churning 
Song," with the solo part by Maid Marian, Miss Neta White ; "Spring- 
time Comes," by the villagers, and "Farewell to Thee," by Robin Hood, 
Elizabeth Hutchins, and his outlaws were pleasing. 

All in the performance did well. It was not as polished or as expen- 
sive as the public performances usually given at the school, but it was 
valuable to those who took part in it and was greatly enjoyed by those 
who were so fortunate as to see it. 

Miss Jenkins, class adviser, and Miss Muffly arranged and coached 
the opera. 

116 The Training School Quarterly 

The music recitals by the music pupils in the various 
The Class classes have been unusually good this spring. 

The programs of each are given below : 


Marche Pontifical Gounod 

Ruth Lowdek, Blanche Satterthwaite 

Chaconne Roubiere 

Valsette Barouski 

Ruth Lowder 

Consolation Mendelssohn 

Gavotte Hofman 

Ophelia O'Brian 

To a Wild Rose MacDowell 

Nannie Mac. Brown 

Scherze Wrede 

Leona Tucker, Loretta Joyner, Ola Carrawan 

On the Mountains Frontine 

Eunice Hoover 

Waltz in A Flat Chopin 

Lou Ellen Dupree 


Bouree Bach 

Funeral March Heller 

Agnes Hunt 

Parade March Low 

Cora Lancaster, Irene Wiggins 

Prelude Chopin 

Valse Gentil Nevin 

Lula Ballance 

Flying Leaves Koelling 

Ethel Smith. 

Chaconne Durand 

Two pianos — Louise Croom, Agnes Hunt. 

Waltz in E Minor Chopin 

Sallie Best. 

Minuet Beethoven 

Andante Heller 

Louise Croom 

Paupee Valsante Poldini 

Bess Tillitt 

Russian Dance Frank 

Elizabeth Hutchins, Lida Thomas 

School Notes 117 


Baker Scottishe — Duet 

Catherine Lister and Maude Lister 

Harris Melodie 

Iola Pinch 

Schumann Little Romanze 

Burand Waltz in E Flat 

Lois Daniel 

Bach Prelude in C 

Haydn Andante from Surprise Symphony 

G. F. Boyle Morning 

Elizabeth Speir 

Merkel Butterfly 

Ina McGlohon 

Chaminade Scarf Dane 

Nevin Goodnight 

Norma Dupree 


Kullak Deut 

Gladys Howell, Kathleen Vaughn 

Bristow .' The Goat Ride 

Mildred McCotter 

Button A Fairy Tale 

Belle Miller 

Maxime The Elephant and the Mouse 

Mildred Maupin 

Mozart Menuetto 

Sybil Heath 

; a. Evening Shadows 
Fairy Dance 
Callie Ruffin 

i a. 
Spindler -j . 

Ellmenreich Spinning Song 

Ina Carr 

Wing The Wind 

Beatrice Tucker 

Button Forest Horns 

Helen Stewart 

Martinez The Approach of the Dryads 

Ruth Liverman 

Poldini The Music Box 

Kathleen Vaughn 

Schytte Impromptu in A Flat 

Bessie Brown 


The Training School Quarterly 

11:00 a. m. 
8:30 p. m. 

Commencement Program 

Sunday, June 3 
Commencement Sermon — Dr. T. W. O'Kelley, Raleigh, N. C. 
Young Women's Christian Association Sermon — Rev. P. Swin- 
dell Love, Aberdeen, N. C. 

Monday, June 4 
6:00 p. m. Class Day Exercises. 
9:00 p. m. Music Recital. 

10:00 a. m. 

8:00 p. m. 

10:30 a. m. 
11:30 a. m. 

Tuesday, June 5 
Meeting of the Board of Trustees. 
Meeting of Alumnae Association. 
Alumnae Dinner. 

Wednesday, June 6 
Address — Lieut.-Gov. O. Max Gardner. 
Graduating Exercises. 

The men of the faculty have delivered the commencement address 
at quite a number of places in eastern North Carolina. President 
"Wright spoke at the following places: Epsom High School, Hobbsville 
High School, Fountain, Williamston, Bailey, Farmville, and Pinetops. 
He had engagements at Kinston, Vanceboro, Hope Mills, and Aulander, 
but did not fill these on account of illness in the family. 

Mr. Meadows spoke at Washington, Pungo, Nashville, Robersonville, 
Langley's School, Smithtown, Drum Hill, Pactolus, Marlboro, and 

Mr. Wilson spoke at the Black Jack, Benston, and Falkland schools, 
and at the Sladesville, Eureka, and Holly Springs high schools. 

Mr. Austin spoke at Winterville, Grimesland, and at Fleming's School 
near House. 

flflfje draining ikfjool 

Jul?, August, &eptetriber 

Table of Contents 


The Patriotic Teacher 120 

Robert Hebbing Weight. 

Trustees for the State 124 

Senator F. C. Harding. 

The Certification Law and the City Teacher i 126 

W. R. Mills. 

School Agriculture and Community Service 128 

Me. Heald. 

Geography in the Primary Grades 131 

Fanny McPhail. 

Address Before the Graduating Class 134 

Lieutenant-Governor O. Max Gardner. 

How I Put Up Tomatoes in a Variety of Ways 136 

Ethel Smith. 

Commencement of 1917 138 

Boys Eager to Learn How 150 

The Chicago Evening Post. 

Editorials 151 

Editorial Departments : 

Suggestions 156 

Reviews 169 

Alumnae 172 

School Notes 177 

The Summer Term 185 


C. W. Wilson 
Director Summer Term 

Gflfje framing ikfjool ©uarterlp 


"// is of the utmost importance that American young 
men and women be given right ideals and right train- 
ing. The responsibility rests on the teachers. The 
whole world is looking to the American teacher. If we 
are going wrong, the whole world will be led astray. " 

"It is as much a patriotic duty to educate as it is 
to produce. " 

% ij: * * jJs 

"// / could get the ear of every American youth I 
would say, 'Go to school. ' The world never needed 
educated young men and women as it will need them 
from now on." 

sf: ijs * s& * 

"You are doing the greatest service when you are 
teaching. " "You are doing your patriotic duty when 
you spend your money and time to equip yourself for 
better service as a teacher." 


"Eliminate the schools, and a people revert to sav- 

^t % ;fe ^j # 

"Remember you are rendering to humanity and the 
world the greatest service posssible for you to render 
if you educate the coming generation. " 


"Educating is as important as fighting and farm- 




The Patriotic Teacher 

Robert Herring Wright 
(An Address Delivered on Founders' Day) 

"I firmly believe that the training of children is as im- 
portant as furnishing food, or munitions, or as going out to 
fight in the trenches. " 

"It is good pedagogy to take hold where the student is interested, 
leading from that to something else; therefore I make no apology for 
talking about the war. Many of you are already personally interested 
now, and before long you will have brothers in France. I have been 
wondering if you know how big this war is." 

President Wright then attempted to give his listeners some concep- 
tion of the magnitude of the war. He asked them if they realized 
what it meant for one-half of the world to be at war, and gave them 
some concrete comparisons to enable them to grasp the vast sums of 
money it is costing. For example, he told them that enough money 
had already been spent to pave every railroad from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific with twenty-dollar gold pieces; that the United States had 
already appropriated enough to give every human being in the world 
four dollars apiece ; that enough men are fighting to make four lines of 
soldiers, two steps apart, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 

All forces are now turned to the destruction of human beings and of 
wealth, he said. Many more people than in the whole of North Car- 
olina have been killed, and many, many more than that have been 
wounded, and yet it costs $15,000 to put one soldier out of commission. 
He portrayed some of the horrible destructive forces now used. 

"If, when Governor Jarvis was a boy, some one had prophesied that 
two years after his death men would be fighting three miles in the 
heavens, on the earth, and in the earth to the depth of thirty or forty 
feet, and under the depths of the sea, he would have been called a wild, 
impractical dreamer ; no one then could even dream of what we actually 
see and know today. 

"America," he declared, "has taken the foremost position in the 
nations' of the world. The world's capital is now Washington. If 
any prophet had dared predict that this would be true in the twentieth 
century he would have been considered an idle dreamer; any English- 
man would have known he was a false prophet." 

The Patriotic Teacher 121 

President Wright then gave a clear idea of America's place among 
the nations of the world, and proved his statement that Washington 
is the capital of the world politically and financially. "Delegations of 
the most distinguished men of the world, from the greatest nations of 
the world, gather there holding conferences, risking their lives by 
coming themselves instead of sending messages, coming to see what 
America will do. Does this not prove that Washington is the political 
center of the world ?" 

"It is the political center because ideas are radiating out in every 
direction. It is the banking center, the financial center, as America 
is lending money to the Allies and is feeding the world and fighting 
for the freedom of mankind freely and willingly. It took England 
two years to do what we did in two months, that is, to draft recruits 
for the army so that those who could best be spared would be taken 
and the others would be left at home." 

He prophesied that there would be a unifying of religious beliefs 
and interests so that the Protestants and the Catholics will unite as 
Christians until there will be a world-wide Chiistian religion. "When 
the war is over there will be a new world politically, socially, finan- 
cially, and religiously." 

"Man will have more respect for his fellow-man ; all distinctions will 
be shot to pieces; it will make no difference whether he hauls coal, 
runs a bank, is a minister, runs a train, has a little store at the cross- 
roads, is a rural mail-carrier, or what not, a man's a man. Honest 
people are going to rule the world ; there will be a clear union of man 
to man, a clear union in the political world, and men will agree to 
disagree and still be friends, but Truth will be the center of all. The 
voice of the people will be the voice of God, and in the multitude of 
opinions Truth will be found. 

"In the social changes the snob will be done away with ; the man or 
woman who does things will count, and not the one who inherits rights 
and property. A new method of distribution will make a new nation 
financially. 'Love one another' will be the key to the new life." 

Here Mr. Wright told a story of the trenches that showed that love 
was still alive among men, and that there would be friendly intercourse 
again when this horrible nightmare was gone. He put these questions to 
his audience, "What have you to do with it? What is your mission? 
You will be training the first generation that will try out the new 
ideas," he said. "What is your part in this industrial, commercial, 
religious center of the world? I firmly believe that the training 
of the children is as important as furnishing food, or munitions, or as 
going to fight in the trenches." 

"The greatest era of change that has ever come over America is ahead 
of us ; different conditions must be faced, and we must know how to 

122 The Training School Quarterly 

adjust ourselves to these changed conditions; there is not a revolution, 
but there has been a change of ideals and of attitudes ; we are not the 
same we were even twelve months ago. It is of the utmost importance 
that American young men and women be given right ideals and right 
training. The responsibility rests on the teachers, and, although it 
has ever rested on the teacher, today the responsibility is greater than 
ever before; the whole world is looking to the American teacher. If 
we are going wrong the whole world will be led astray. It is as much 
a patriotic duty to educate as to produce. 

"If I could get the ear of every American youth I would say, 'Go to 
school, young man.' The world never needed educated young men and 
women as it will need them from now on. If you want to serve your 
nation, your State, and your God, prepare for work ; then work. Don't 
be a slacker; be a volunteer." 

Mr. Wright said that when war was declared he sat down, took a 
survey of his life, trying to find what he ought to do for his country; 
and, after seriously considering all possible ways in which he could 
serve his country, he was firmly convinced that his work should be right 
here; this is the place where his life would be of the greatest service. 
"The work being done in an institution of this kind is as important as 
any work being done anywhere else in the world. 

"You are doing the greatest service when you are teaching. You 
are doing your patriotic duty now, this summer, when you spend your 
money and time to equip yourself for better service as a teacher. 

"Eliminate the schools, and a people revert to savagery. Each gen- 
eration of children are born savages, and will remain so if they are not 
trained. Of course, all the educational forces are not in the school; 
but the school is the most important of the organized forces, not even 
excepting the ministry, and no one has a higher regard for the ministry 
than I have. The minister has a chance to teach one day in the week, 
whereas, the teacher has from five to seven days, for the teacher often 
does community work on Saturdays and teaches a Sunday School class 
on Sunday. 

"You should give the best in your lives to the children you teach, 
and unless you do you are not doing your full duty. Be conscientious, 
earnest, sincere in all your dealings with the young life that is initrusted 
to your care. You may feel that you can live one thought-life and 
another life of deeds, but your thought-life will radiate from you and 
the child will get to the core of your life and realize what your thought- 
life is. 

"Let me urge you, as you guide children, guide them conscientiously 
and seriously and honestly. What a blessing if all would deal in 
absolute honesty with all others! You cannot do a dishonest thing 
without a child's finding it out. 

The Patriotic Teacher 123 

"There is no place in the world's hive for drones. Give the children 
training that will enable them to live, and to do something so they will 
not be drones. This is the time of the year when the bees take a drone 
out and kill him." 

Mr. Wright proved that North Carolina was a great place in which 
to work. "The soil is of great fertility, the natural resources vast and 
undeveloped ; in fact, North Carolina is the garden spot of the world." 
He asked his audience if they knew that there were places in North 
Carolina where they actually did this: cut the timber from the land, 
burn the brush, ditch the land, then take a stick and jab a hole in the 
ground, drop the seed in the holes, then go off and do nothing else until 
harvest time, then harvest fifty bushels of corn to the acre. He told 
of hearing one man deplore the fact that he had to plow deep now; 
when asked how deep, he said, "6 or 7 inches." 

"We are not awake," he said ; "we do not realize our blessings, we 
do not see what is around us. The boys and girls should be brought up 
with their eyes open to the opportunities around them. It is your duty, 
fellow-teachers, to enable these boys and girls to see; it is yours to de- 
velop their powers so that they will have a willingness and a desire 
to develop the natural resources. Beaufort County alone has enough 
rich land to feed North Carolina. 

"The reward will not be to you in dollars and cents, but it will come 
to you a hundred-fold. Seeing the fruit of your labor is in itself 
great reward. 

"My parting injunction to you is, remember you are rendering to 
humanity and the world the greatest service possible for you to render 
if you educate the coming generation. Hold this in mind, Educating 
is as important as fighting and farming. This is your duty. Don't 
be a slacker. Do your bit." 

Trustees for the State 

Senator F. C. Harding, 

Member of Executive Committee, Board of Trustees 

CHE North Carolina General Assembly of 1917 was conservative, 
progressive, and constructive: conservative, because it declared 
its faith in the conservation of existing educational and charita- 
ble institutions of the State; progressive, because it not only provided 
liberal support for the institutions already established, but created 
new institutions with a purpose and a plan to work out problems in 
new and untried fields for the uplift of humanity and the good of the 
State; constructive, because it did not hesitate to make an appropria- 
tion of three million dollars to the State's institutions, as a safe and 
sane foundation whereon they might begin to build for the future. 

A three million dollar bond issue was not popular at first. It was sug- 
gested that those who favored it would never be returned to the General 
Assembly. The idea that the members of the General Assmbly were 
not elected to legislate for their return, but for the purpose of legislat- 
ing for the best interests of the State, soon prevailed, and, with the 
great majority, there was no hesitation. The appropriation of three 
million dollars was the State's investment in manhood and womanhood. 
A great State cannot exist without great men and great women, and 
the General Assembly of 1917 had absolute faith in the sanity and 
wisdom of the investment. 

Of this amount, the East Carolina Teachers Training School will 
receive two hundred thousand dollars. There are two factors in the 
investment so far as this institution is concerned. First, the General 
Assembly has provided the money which carries with it larger oppor- 
tunities. Second, what will the students of this institution do with 
the opportunity? The State invests two hundred housand dollars in 
the students of this institution, and the State expects a large return 
on the investment. Each student becomes a trustee of a fund and 
carries the fund in the form of higher efficiency in teaching ability to 
every student who comes under her teaching influence. Each student 
of this institution will probably train from thirty to forty pupils each 
year, within the borders of the State, most of you in rural schools. 
Through you, the State is giving opportunity to thousands of boys and 
girls out in the rural districts. One teacher, trained by the State, 
means better opportunity and higher training for a hundred boys and 

The town is not the salvation of the country. The rural district is 
the real bone and sinew of our great country. The great city of New 
York would retrograde within twenty years were it not for the new 

Trustees foe the State 125 

blood and bone and sinew which flow into the great metropolis every 
year from the country, the rural district, the cross-roads and the country 

The State expects large dividends from its investment in the rural 
school teacher. Out of this investment, the State will receive a million 
times more in the elevation of manhood and womanhood than can ever 
be counted in dollars and cents. We have an abiding faith in the trus- 
teeship of the students of this institution, in carrying the effect of 
this investment to thousands of girls and boys in ISTorth Carolina, and 
we have an abiding faith in the splendid part they will play in the 
building of a larger State based on the broad foundation of Christian 

The Certification Law and the City Teacher 

W. R. Mills, 
Superintendent Louisburg Schools 

PUBLIC school teachers are just as human as any other class of 
public servants, and view with critical eyes any movement that 
will change their legal status. They are conservative, they 
are jealous of their privileges and jealous to defend themselves against 
any seeming injustice. 

It is not to be wondered at, therefore, that the teachers in our city 
schools have been alarmed somewhat when the Legislature has said that 
all teachers, city as well as rural, must be certified by a State Board 
of Examiners. These teachers for years have enjoyed immunity from 
all academic and professional tests, except such as the local superin- 
tendent or local board might demand. In the majority of cases the 
teachers in the city schools have been compelled to stand no examina- 
tion, have not been required to attend institutes or summer schools, and 
they have in many instances seen no reason why they should do any 
professional reading. In the majority of our city schools 'he only 
legal requirement for a position has been the ability to induce the 
majority of the members of the local school board to vote for the 
teacher. This made the city teacher feel that she had drawn a capital 
prize in the educational lottery. 

But from the viewpoint of the best interests of the schools as a whole 
this has not been a blessing. It will be admitted that the city schools 
have been able to secure and retain the best trained' teachers in the 
country, but there has been a tendency in many of our smaller towns 
and cities, and perhaps in some of the larger towns, for the teacher 
to take her immunity from examinations and other demands that are 
made on her rural sister as a sort of license to neglect her professional 
training. She is tempted to feel secure in her position through the 
influence of a kinsman or personal friend on the local board. The 
superintendent may try as earnestly as he will to induce her to make 
daily preparation for her work, to read professional books, and do other 
things that tend to make her more efficient, and she will not do it. 
There are dozens of superintendents in Worth Carolina who have had 
this experience with a teacher. It is admitted that the above is an 
extreme example of indifference, but it is a fact that this sort of thing 
frequently happens in this State. Our system of special charter schools 
with no legal qualification or standard for teachers is a vicious one 
and invites inefficiency. It tends to offer a haven of refuge for the 
unprofessional and nonprogressive teacher. 

Faculty and County Groups 

The Certification Law 127 

The new certification law will remedy this. Henceforth we must all 
live up to the same legal requirements. No longer will there be in the 
public schools of this good State a sort of educational aristocracy, a 
privileged class. The State means to safeguard the interest of the 
child who has the good or bad fortune to live in a town or( city, just 
as surely as it does the interest of the child of the humble)3t tenant 
farmer. The city teacher must think no longer that she is responsible 
only to the whims of the local board or the citizenship of the com- 
munity in which she may be working. She must come to realize that 
she is a part of that larger enterprise that is set up by all the people of 
the State for the development of all the people of the State. 

But the certification law will work no hardship on the city teacher, 
nor will it deprive her of one single legitimate privilege. On the other 
hand it will tend to improve her status. If she is a teacher worthy of 
the name, she knows that she is meeting unjust competition all the 
time under our present system. It does not put a premium on efficiency 
and frown down on inefficiency. Under the new law, the ambitious, 
conscientious, energetic teacher will not be rated with the teacher who 
is lacking in one or all of these qualities. The new law will in the 
course of a few years aid tremendously in the elimination of the unpro- 
fessional teacher, but this is a distinct service to the teacher who is 
striving to meet the demands that our modern life is making on the 

In their recent bulletin, the State Board of Examiners have outlined 
their policy of certifying for one year all teachers now in service in 
our special charter schools. No teacher now in service in a city school 
will be expected to stand an examination this year, and it is quite 
probable that she will be given an opportunity to keep her certificate 
in force without examination on academic subjects. She will be ex- 
pected to do a reasonable amount of professional work each year, but 
she can in no sense consider this a hardship. The inner law of the 
school — that felt need in human society that called the school into 
being — has made this demand on all of us from the beginning, but in 
too many instances we have ignored the call. Now those who heed 
this demand will be rewarded for their faithfulness, while those who 
take the opposite stand will quickly find themselves relegated to the 
walks of private life. We stand at the beginning of a new era in 
things educational in North Carolina. The well-trained teacher is to be 
encouraged to give her life to the work with the assurance that the 
State will protect her from unjust and ruinous competition. The 
certification law is her safeguard, and the city teacher should welcome 
it as an invitation to enter into a more stable and permanent relation- 
ship with the State and the community which she may be called to 
serve. It lifts the calling of the teacher to the level of a profession. 

School Agriculture and Community Service 

[Mr. Heald, from the United States Department of Agriculture, is working 
in collaboration with Mr. Hoover on the food problem. This is the plan 
outlined by him for making school agriculture count in a community. Ed.] 

^T a time when our nation demands that each person do his 
utmost for the common cause of humanity, the rural school 
teacher is in a position to render a great service. 
In connection with both agriculture and home-making, she should 
not be content with formal school courses, but should render all of her 
work applicable to the life and needs of her community. 

It is evident that unless she is well informed as to conditions in the 
district, it will be entirely an accident if she renders any considerable 
service. If she becomes well informed about the farming and home 
conditions in her district, she can attack these problems intelligently. 
This leads us to infer that a community survey covering crops or 
animals may be one essential step in the process of teaching agriculture 
in the terms of farm life. {Chart vsed as follaws:) 


Ihe Aims. 

To know the district. 

To obtain a basis for teaching agriculture. 

To interpret better statistics of State and Nation. 

To observe progress by successive surveys. 

To provide vital correlation material. 

The Method. 

Prepare adequate lists of questions. 

Cover one phase of farming in each survey. 

Collect data from all farms. Use each pupil. 

Tabulate data by farms. 

Make a summary of tabulations. 

Make the survey data. District map. 

Utilization as — 

Basis of class instruction. 

Problems, reports, and other correlations. 

Means of developing home projects. 

Entering wedge for community service. 
Having obtained the information concerning the local farming, all 
the agriculture taught should be measured by three requirements : 

1. Its local application. 

2. Its seasonableness. 

3. Its power to interest the pupils. 

School Agriculture and Community Service 129 

The most effective way to interest the pupil and to lay the basis of 
real community service is to have each pupil carry a home project. 
In fact, it would be wise for the pupil to carry both a plant and animal 
project through the year as the laboratory phase of the school agri- 

The home farm is the most natural laboratory for the school in this 
respect, and nearly all the lessons on animal life might be woven about 
or applied in a pig project or a poultry project. In the same way a 
corn project might involve nearly all the lessons on the plant phases 
of agriculture. 

The chart issued to develop the "Home Project" was as follows: 


A Statement of Essentials 

1. A Plan of home work to cover a more or less extended period of 

2. A Part of school instruction in agriculture. 

3. A Problem more or less new to the pupil. 

4. An Agreement on the plan between parent, pupil, and teacher. 

5. Supervision of home work by competent persons. 

6. Detailed Records of time, method, cost, and income. 

7. A Report based on record, submitted to teacher. 
This is commonly called home-project, club-project, etc. 
(Practicums are less extended exercises.) 

This plan is developed in United States Department Bulletin No. 
385 (price 5 cents). 

With the proper selection of illustrative material while the class is 
on a field trip, and the proper use of practical exercises at school, the 
teacher may avoid the bookish type of course and render a real service 
to her community. 

The teacher should not be ashamed to say, "I don't know," but in 
each case should seek for the information at the proper sources. The 
State College of Agriculture will furnish most of the information 
needed, and when an emergency problem arises the Extension Service 
will render valuable assistance. 

Every teacher should know how to use the United States Department 
of Agriculture. Ask the Division of Publications to send you regularly 
the monthly lists of new publications and to put your name on the 
mailing list to receive the list of Farmers' Bulletins as frequently as 
it is revised. 

Sign your name, give your proper address, and send to the United 
States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Farmers' Bulletins may be obtained free, in limited numbers, from 
the same Division. Other bulletins are issued in limited editions, and 

130 The Training School Quarterly 

when the free edition is exhausted may be obtained at a small price 
from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D. C. 

If any teacher writes about her own needs or problems, and addresses 
the Division of Agricultural Instruction, States Kelations Service, 
United States Department Agriculture, her request will receive personal 

Outline of Lessons on Food Conservation 

[These lessons sent out by Hoover as a course for Summer Schools, have 
been given at the Training School. Ed.] 

I. Part 1. Food the Deciding Factor. 

Part 2. Hoover's Plan of Food Administration: 
Organization for food conservation. 

II. Food Conservation Measures. 
Use of local foodstuffs. 
Use of perishables. 
Elimination of waste. 
Conservation of wheat. 
Conservation of fats, sugars, meats. 
Preservation of perishable foods. 
Adequate feeding for health. 

Ill — IV. Wheat Conservation: Demonstrations of Emergency Breads. 

V. Conservation of Meat. 

VI. Conservation of Fats and Sugars. 

VII. Food Preservation: Demonstration of Canning. 

VIII. Food Preservation: Demonstration of Drying. 

IX. Fundamentals of an Adequate Diet: Adults, Children, Infants. 

X. Methods op Organizing Local Groups into a Working Unit. 

Geography in the Primary Grades 

Fannie McPhail, 

Supeivisor Stevens County, Oklahoma 

CHE subject of geography has been a long neglected one in con- 
sidering the proper material to be incorporated in our daily 
programs for the primary grades. This neglect may come 
from various causes, but chief among them is probably the lack of a 
full appreciation of this subject in relation to other subjects that hold 
their place without question. 

In the primary grades we must think of the study of geography with- 
out a text-book, for there is no true home geography text since each 
community has its own individual environments; but there are general 
geographical principles that may be applied anywhere. So each teacher 
must find her own material for the beginner, and plenty of it she will 
find, too, if she keeps her eyes open and possesses the resourcefulness 
which every primary teacher should possess. 

Home geography is not a subject within itself, nor even a separate 
division of geography, but only a means of approach from the known 
to the unknown through the everyday experiences of the children. It 
is closely related to nature study, history and arithmetic, and forms 
a great center for language work. 

The first lessons should be "talking lessons," in which the pupils, 
with the teacher, discuss the different things touching the life of that 
particular community. The distance to the nearest town, the roads 
and their condition, the necessity of good roads, the modes of travel, 
the means of transportation and communication, the relation of town 
and country, the marketed produce, reasons for trade, and the many 
other things that are part of the very existence of a people. 

An intensive study of home products should be taken up. Cotton, 
for example, should be studied in its growth, the gathering, the ginning, 
and the marketing by the farmer. Then the cotton factories in differ- 
ent cities with their facilities for elothmaking prove interesting to 
children, particularly if the teacher has had an opportunity of visiting 
a factory and can give first-hand stories of cloth manufacture. And 
so with wheat and other native crops this cycle of trade may be traced, 
and the child will become more interested in the growing things around 
him if he knows something of their ultimate value. Many factories 
have arranged educational exhibits of their products in the different 
processes of manufacturing and are glad to send them out to schools 
to add interest to product study. In this day of conservation of food 
children should be taught more of the actual cost of things, and there 
is no better place to touch on the subject than in the home geography 

132 The Training School Quarterly 

lessons. The subject should not be dealt with too extensively, but only- 
presented in a simple way that ties up with their everyday experiences. 

Taking the school as the center of a community, a simple plan or 
map illustrating the schoolhouse and grounds could be made, giving the 
correct directions and relative location of all buildings and roads. Dif- 
ferent neighboring farms should be located around this plan that the 
children may get a real bird's-eye view of their district. If the teacher 
has a kodak she may make an interesting booklet for display on the 
school reading table. She can get good snapshots of the school building 
and grounds, various views of children engaged in different games, and 
pictures of the farm homes of the community, emphasizing the best 
modern improvements in the locality. What farmer would not with 
pride pose for his picture before a new barn or standing beside a 
favorite fine horse, cow, or a drove of thoroughbred Poland Chinas; 
and the wife with her chickens, garden, or flowers? This booklet en- 
titled, "Our Community," will be exhibited with pride at the county 
fair or school rally. 

Primary children enjoy sand-table work and will enter into the 
building of mountains, valleys, rivers, plains, volcanoes, and other 
physical features of the earth's surface with as much zest and enthu- 
siasm as they enter into their play. And it is play to them, the kind of 
educational play that should have a great place in our primary school. 

Many of our supplementary readers contain stories of children of 
other lands, and from these stories may grow interesting lessons of the 
manners and customs of different people. How dear to a child's school 
life is the experience of representing Indian life, an Eskimo village, 
or a Japanese town on the sand table and connecting this construction 
work with their stories ! 

The making of booklets containing cut-out pictures taken from 
magazines or advertisements is another form of interesting construc- 
tion work relative to geography. The pictures may represent phases 
of industrial life of our own country or views of the raising and manu- 
facturing of many of our imported products. A first grade will enjoy 
making simple booklets and entitle them, "How We Travel," illustrated 
with pictures of horses, buggies, automobiles, bicycles, trains, boats, 
and airships; "What We Wear," with pictures of the cotton industry, 
wool production, and silk raising; or, "What We Eat," easily illus- 
trated with various material taken from seed catalogues and other ad- 
vertising sources. 

In the third grade the study of the world from the globe may be 
profitably begun. A blackboard globe should be used in connection 
with the other globe that the children may learn to locate for them- 
selves the great land and water bodies. This is better than the flat 

Geography in the Primary Grades 133 

surface map drawing which is often misleading to children and gives 
them no correct idea of the earth's shape. 

Seasons, climate, and general local weather conditions can be dis- 
cussed with primary children and they will become very observant when 
properly interested. If a thermometer is placed near the schoolroom 
and a daily record of temperature kept, a lively interest will be shown 
in comparing these reports. 

Children should be encouraged to make observations of the moon and 
stars and report on them next day. If the teacher properly questions 
her pupils and gives them something definite to find, they will take 
eager interest in these things. The milky way, the big dipper, the 
clearest stars seen at different times, and the moon in its changes are 
subjects of interesting study. Children like to draw the shape of the 
moon they saw the night before, and compare it with the moon as 
previously seen. 

To accomplish the best work in primary geography the teacher must 
be keen to see the many occasions in which this subject may be brought 
in incidentally, and make the material she uses really count for some- 
thing in the children's lives. 

Address before the Graduating Class 


"Patriotic Womanhood." His address was embellished with 
stories and was expressed in a rich flow of language. At times 
he spoke with fire and zeal. He referred time and time again to the 
work of this institution and to the type of womanhood it is turning 
out. He called the school an "educational reservoir for young women, 
sending out its waters to water the land." He believed the teacher is 
the most privileged of all women except the mother. He referred to 
the early struggles of this school, and paid tribute to Governor Jarvis. 
He said he believed that this was the greatest piece of constructive work 
that great man ever did, and that this school expresses the best aims 
and aspirations of his life. This school is dedicated, he said, to the 
idea that man was commanded to eat his bread in the sweat of his 
brow, dedicated to the training of young women not only to work with 
their minds, but to labor with their hands. Men and women must 
work in order to make the most perfect manhood and womanhood. 
Wealth and prosperity of a nation are dependent on the labor of indi- 
viduals; the old idea that was prevalent before the war has been worn 
threadbare and thrown away. 

"A nation's prosperity is but the result of the individual's labor. 
This is the source of a nation's greatness and its revenue." The speaker 
here used the figure of speech comparing the course of this labor to a 
rill, broadening out until it enters the bosom of the ocean and becomes 
the bearer of the destiny of the world. 

He emphasized the great significance of this wonderful period and 
the part women have to play in it. He briefly reviewed the advance- 
ment of womankind from the days when she was merely the "boss 
slave," through the first step, when she was elevated by the abandon- 
ment of the purchase of wives. She did not advance far in Hebrew 
history, or even in Greek history in the days of Homer. It has been 
the "irony of fate and the sarcasm of destiny" that the daughters of 
these women slaves have been equal and superior in the arts of civiliza- 
tion to men. He told a story in which was quoted the facetious remark, 
"man's first sleep became his last repose." 

He here paid tribute to the mothers of the leaders of the world, and 
quoted Ruskin in praise of woman. He cited famous women of the 
world who have influenced men, thrones and dynasties, as Cleopatra, 
Joan of Arc, and Frances Willard. He warned his listeners against 
one fault that men and women are both guilty of, that is, severe judg- 
ment of human beings, criticism, prejudice, daring to reconstruct a 

Address Before the Graduating Class 135 

whole individual's reputation from a few scattered facts. He read a 
bit of fugitive verse, "Forget It," which contained timely admonition. 
He warned against what Dean Swift called a "wolfish woman." 

He urged the young women of the class to be constructive rather 
than destructive forces. He referred to the seriousness of June 5, and 
said the supreme test was being made now as to whether or not a govern- 
ment for the people and by the people can exist; citizens of the State 
and the Nation are confronted with the problems that involve democ- 
racy, freedom, liberty, and equality. He reminded his North Carolina 
audience that the red blood of the same fathers as those with whom we 
shall fight, our allies, flows in our veins, and we must do our duty. North 
Carolina has ever been slow and conservative, and she has not been 
among the first to feel the impulse of patriotism, but when once aroused 
she has been irresistible. 

"It is no time for any man or set of men to plan for their own profit 
without considering the cry of the nation and the distress 1 of the times. 
We need to kindle the fires of patriotism and foster reverence for the 
flag." He spoke of this nation as the champion of the little nations; 
it is the symbol of liberty and equality, which means that only the 
people are sovereigns. "If there is any one who cannot honor it he 
should keep his mouth shut." He referred to the unexpectedness of 
the war and declared that he believed we entered it without passion. 
We had believed we had arrived at an age of eternal peace when we 
were caught in this furious seething turmoil, but he expressed the 
belief that good would somehow come out of it all, but that peace would 
not come until the sea is cleared and free for all. The United States 
is dedicated, he believes, to the cause of clearing the seas. 

He expressed the hope that this class was filled with splendid impulse 
and broad hope, and with a desire to relieve the suffering and lighten 
the sorrow and load of care. Education is not complete unless ideas 
of service are deeply imbedded in each one. 

The speech closed with a fine peroration calling blessings upon the 
heads of the young women who are going forth in the world. 

How I Put Up Tomatoes in a Variety of Ways 

Ethel Smith, Class of '18 

~a ■ FEW years ago when I was interested in the Girls' Tomato 

JfflHS Club work, I was working faithfully and earnestly each day 
*^ B "To make the Best Better." I raised about twenty-seven bush- 
els of tomatoes on one-tenth of an acre, which filled six hundred and 
twelve quart cans, and lost only eight quarts out of this number. I 
had such a quantity of nice tomatoes I was anxious to learn other ways 
of putting them up for home use. Our superintendent suggested that 
we, the girls in our club, as a group, try for the State prize offered to 
the club girl who had an exhibit of tomatoes put up in the greatest 
variety of ways. He told us if there was a prize offered at the Pitt 
County fair we could use the same exhibit again. Three of us worked 
faithfully, getting up our exhibit for the fair. It was fun hunting 
through many cook books, magazines, and papers to find recipes for 

It required thought and work to get up the exhibit, but it was a 
pleasure to me to try out the different recipes. If I found one that 
was especially good I made enough for home use. I made only a pint 
jar of each kind for the exhibit. The exhibit was made very attractive, 
by labeling each jar; then the recipe of each thing was attached to it. 

Much to my delight and surprise, I was successful in putting up 
thirty-two different varieties, the second girl put up sixteen, and the 
third twelve. We three, as a group, won the State prize for the best 
county exhibit. I won a prize of six dollars at the county fair for the 
largest number of ways of putting up tomatoes. I was very proud 
of my success and felt that I was well repaid for my summer's work. 

The following is a list of a few of the thirty-two things I had success 
with: Two kinds of "Ripe Tomato Marmalade," "Green Tomato 
Marmalade," two different kinds of "Chili Sauce," "Green Tomato 
Sauce," "Green Tomato Soy," "Tomato Catsup," "Tomato Catsup with 
Vinegar," "Tomato Butter," two kinds of "Chopped Pickle," "Ripe 
Tomato Pickle," "Green Tomato Pickle," "Ripe Tomato Preserves," 
"Green Tomato Preserves," "Tomato Honey," "Sweet Pickle Tomato," 
Tomato Relish," and "Chow-chow." 

After the fair I brought the goods I had on exhibit home and we 
used them for the table; many of them added greatly to our lunches to 
take to school. So all the family enjoyed the results of my work, and 
in using the exhibit in this way I found out which ones people liked 
best, or at least which ones my family liked best. I was glad to know 
this so I could put up a larger quantity of these particular kinds for 

Tomatoes in Variety of Ways 137 

home use another year. I passed a number of these recipes on to 
neighbors and to people at a distance, at their request. 
Following are a few of the recipes that were popular : 


Pare and slice two quarts of ripe tomatoes; remove the peeling from two 
large lemons and cut the pulp fine, taking out all seeds; add two pounds 
of granulated sugar and one-half cup of seeded raisins; put into a preserving 
kettle and cook slowly until thick (from 2 to 3 hours usually required) ; put 
into small jars or glasses and cover with melted paramne. 


Take green tomatoes and slice them; put them in a tub, sprinkling each 
laye- slightly with salt, and let them stand over night. Next morning wash 
them until they taste fresh, and drain them. To 10 pounds of tomatoes add 
5 pounds of sugar, 5 dozen cloves, 2 ounces of cinnamon, 1 tablespoonful of 
mace, 1 heaping teaspoonful of salt, % gallon of vinegar, and toil all to- 
gether for two hours. 


Slice 4 gallons of green tomatoes; put in 3 tablespoonfuls of best English 
mustard, 3 gi. of mustard seed, 2 spoonfuls of pepper, 3 of salt, 1 of allspice, 
1 teaspoonful of cloves, 1 pint of chopped onions, 1 quart of sugar, 5 pints of 
vinegar, % teacup of celery seed, boil two hours. 


Put 1 peck of ripe tomatoes in a porcelain kettle, cut up in quarters; add 
1 pint of cider vinegar, 1 teacup of sugar, 1 gi. of mustard seed, 1 teaspoonful 
of black pepper, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1 blade of mace, 1 dozen grains of 
cloves and 2 dozen of allspice. Boil all an hour and strain through a 
colander. Bottle when cold and cork tight. 

Commencement of 1917 

Sunday, June 3,11:00 a.m. — Commencement Sermon, Dr. T. W. O'Kelley, 

Raleigh, N. C. 
8:30 p.m. — Y. W. C. A. Sermon, Rev. F. Swindell Love, 
Aberdeen, N. C. 
Monday, June 4, 6:00 p.m. — Class Day Exercises. 

9:00 p.m. — Music Recital. 
Tuesday, June 5, 10 : 00 a. m. — Meeting of the Board of Trustees. 

Meeting of Alumnae Association. 
8:00 p.m. — Alumnae Dinner. 
Wednesday, June 6, 10 : 30 a. m: — Address, Lieut.-Gov. O. Max Gardner. 
11 : 30 a. m. — Graduating Exercises. 

Hymn Sunday, June 3, 11:00 a. m. 

Prayer Rev. J. M. Daniel 

"Gloria" Mozart 

Scripture Lesson 

"List! The Cherubic Host!" Gaul 


Annual Commencement Sermon, Dr. T. W. O'Kelley 

"Oh, for the Wings of a Dove! " Mendelssohn 


Service of Young Women's Christian Association, 8 : 30 p. m. 

"Prelude" Porter 

"The Lord is My Shepherd" Smart 

"Prayer" — For Soprano Heller 

Scripture Lesson 

Hymn — "Now the Day is Over" 

Prayer Rev. J. J. Walker 

"Lift Thine Eyes" Mendelssohn 

Sermon Rev. F. Swindell Love 

"Pilgrims' Chorus" Wagner 


Commencement Sermon 

Dr. T. W. O'Keujsy 

The two sermons at the Training School were remarkably appro- 
priate and strong sermons. The chorus singing by the students under 
the direction of Miss Muffly, was beautiful. There were no services 
at the churches, so that the people of the town could have an oppor- 
tunity of hearing the commencement preachers. 

The Commencement Sermon was preached by Dr. T. W. O'Kelley, 
pastor of the First Baptist Church of Raleigh. It was an earnest, 
serious and, at times, an impassioned appeal to the listeners to live 
worthy lives to their uttermost. It was singularly appropriate to the 
young women who are going out in life just at this crisis in national 

Commencement of 1917 139 

The text was Romans 1 :15, "So much as in me is, I am ready to 
preach the gospel to you in Rome." The first of this text should be the 
motto of every man who wishes to live a full, enthusiastic, serviceable 
life, giving himself to the full limit of his powers, not only to those 
around him, but to the cause of humanity. 

Dr. O'Kelley said each one should check himslf up frequently to 
see that none of his powers are goiDg to waste, and there should not be 
one who is doing less than he has the ability to do. He cited Paul as 
an example of one who gave himself fully, at the beginning, on the 
journey of life, and at the close; he balked at no task or embarrassment ; 
he lived far from Rome, yet heeded the call to Rome. He urged his 
listeners to translate the truths found in the life of Paul into their 
own lives, and depend upon divine inspiration as Paul did. 

Dr. O'Kelley declaredl that, if each one lived a large, full life, with 
frequently renewed spirit and determination, success would be with 
him, and no failure would be possible: nothing is impossible, nothing 
in vain if God is in the task. God has made all things for use, there 
is no waste in His plans; hence there is no place for the lazy, the in- 
different, the unworthy. He illustrated this point by the sun, which 
through the ages continues to give out heat and light and to do its work 
for all its system as if it had not been expending its powers. Those 
who use their powers to the fullest find that they are not diminished, 
for as the limit is almost reached the horizon broadens until man is 
amazed at what he can do, and accomplishes what seems at first the 
impossible. "God meant for us to be everlastingly on our mettle." 

He avowed that all wisdom, skill, and strength were needed now at 
this awf id hour ; the world needs full powers, the best we can give, and 
there is something even the weakest and the most poorly equipped can 
give for our land and for the nations whose causes have become ours; 
no man or woman can get the consent of his mind to settle down to a 
life of ease now. The Government is calling for each to do a part : 
the women can do Red Cross work, can conserve the forces in the home 
and can help with the food problem; the young men are called on to 
work on the farms, in the munition factories, and called to the training 
camps, and, perhaps finally, to the trenches ; each has a contribution to 
give. "To be living in such a great and awful time is sublime;" each 
has a chance to do a little bit in Christ's name, for the uplift of the 
people and for the Government. 

The preacher warned his listeners against the satisfying feeling that 
one is doing something for the people near to him, taking care of him- 
self and those around him, and called attention to the example of Paul, 
who, although a long ways from Rome, felt under obligations to the 
men of Rome. The one great truth Dr. O'Kelley wished to lay upon 
the hearts of all who heard him was this : Each one is under obligations 

140 The Training School Quarterly 

to the people lie has never seen as well as to those whom he knows and 
loves, to lay himself utterly upon the altar of service; the only worthy 
obligation is through Christ. He cited the great utterance of Hoover, 
the Food Commissioner, who has said the only justification of a rich 
man was that he become the trustee, and declared that we are the 
trustees of our powers to use them for the good of the world, with new 
zest, new speed, and new strength. He illustrated this by using the 
parable of the talents. 

God is settling with the nations because we have used material things 
for misappropriation. When we attempt to do our part we should be 
convinced that the purpose is of infinite importance, and we should 
become willing to let God work through us for the accomplishment of 
the purpose. If each one will see which way God is going and put 
himself in touch with God, he can learn what God wants him to do; 
when he shows an unselfish life and pursues his mission there will be 
no evening shadows. 

At the close he commended to all the motto : "Live to the fullest." 
The cry comes now for the children to be fed, and for the world to be 
reconstructed; the liberties of the world are being endangered, and 
many are in darkness and despair who need to see the light. Therefore 
the call is for greater strength, broader visions, until the great day when 
wars shall be no more. The big purpose of all should be to bring the 
world into fellowship with God. 

Y. W. C. A. Sermon 

Rev. F. Swindell Love, pastor of the Methodist Church of Aberdeen, 
and the recently elected president of Louisburg College, preached the 
sermon before the Young Women's Christian Association. 

President Wright, in his introductory remarks, said that the school 
had been a factor in the educational life for eight years, and that the 
Y. W. C. A. had been a factor in the Training School for eight years. 
He expressed his pride in the religious life in the school from the 
beginning. This year, he said, had been an excellent year in the Asso- 
ciation and in its work in the school. 

The sermon was a strong, clear, logical development of the infinite, 
unrealized possibilities of the human soul and of human beings. He 
contrasted the "is" and the "might be," taking his text from two sections 
of the Bible ; one from Exodus 14 and 1 5, the story of the children of 
Israel just before they crossed the Red Sea, before the way was opened 
to them ; the words quoted were : "Speak to the whole army of Israel" ; 
the other was from Revelations 3 :S, "Behold I have set before you an 
open door that no man can shut." He began by contrasting the two 
scenes, one near the dawn of history and the other at the close of sacred 

Commencement of 1917 141 

history. One gives a picture of life as it is, and the other gives a 
glimpse of the unrealized possibility of life. 

He began by saying that in the individual life, in the State, and in 
religion there is something inherent in people that makes them wish to 
leave things as they are; but there is a force in every individual who 
thinks that is dynamic, vital, that ever is moving in the arrangement 
or direction of life's forces. Yet we are forever attempting to reach 
the ultimate — in creeds, for instance. "Constitutions in themselves 
become the greatest enemy of progress." Those things that have chal- 
lenged the best mental powers of the world, men look at as things that 
must not be touched, and the man who dares to lay hands on the estab- 
lished must pay dearly for it, and often with his life. 

In religious life, he said, one age brings new insight, new life, new 
faith, and new incentives for personal religion, but even Luther turned 
against the men who dared go one step further than he went; many 
look with horror upon any one who dares touch what Wesley, Calvin, 
or Knox stood for. Men of power and daring must be bold and ready 
to strike the shackles from man. The horizon is widened and a new 
world opened up to the man who dares. The world lures without 
revealing. There is nothing so alluring as the unknown. 

To the woman of today there is a new world that calls for a new 
faith, a new power, a new training, a new courage, that comes with 
experiment and endeavor. The authority of the church and the State 
are broken, the old power of the priesthood has passed away, and the 
individual is assured that there is no one between him and God. There 
is no limit to life ; while there is merit in the larger freedom there are 
some laws we must always face. 

He said that the boat on the sea might be a greater significance than 
the sea itself, as the ideas that fill the soul is of greater significance than 
what you are. That is the divine. He declared that no creed is fit 
for a people who have adopted the creed of evolution. 

Each one must dedicate himself to some great end. Buoyant faith 
and the determination to make sacrifices for that faith enable people 
to dare to face life. 

The attitude of men is not material, but each should be true to his 
own soul and listen to the voice that calls one to the larger things of 
life. There is no time today for men who are old while still young 
in years, and for women who have lived their lives and become settled 
in ruts before they are twenty-five. It is a time when men dare to do 
and be all things. 

He closed with the admonition, "Be wooed of the impossible, fear 
not to dare, be courageous in every conflict, and to him that over- 
cometh I will give him to eat of the tree of life in the Paradise of God." 

142 The Training School Quabterly 

Class Day Exercises 


President Lucile Efulluck 

Vice-President Sue Walston 

Secretary Wita Bond 

Treasurer Ethel Perry 

Motto: — "Esse Quam Videri." 

Colors: — Yale Blue and White. 

Flower: — Ragged Robin. 

Star Spangled Banner — School. 
Welcome Address. 

I. Retrospection 
Class History. 

Folk Dance. 

Reminiscences of Senior Year. 

II. Introspection 
"It's Good to be a Senior." 


III. Prospection 

"When We Leave the Training School." 

Last Will and Testament. 

"Some Day We'll Wander Back Again." 

Presentation of Gift. 

1917 Class Song. 

Monday afternoon the Senior Class held their Class Day exercises 
on the west side of the campus, on an improvised stage under the trees. 
Although some of the wit and fun was intelligible only to the school, 
the audience could enter into most of it. 

From the moment the line of girls dressed in white, bearing their class 
banners and wearing their class colors, came in sight, until the end of 
the program, the class had the undivided attention of the audience. 

The "A," or first-year Academic Class, led the line. All of the other 
classes followed and left an open lane for the Seniors to march down. 
After the Seniors had taken their places on the stage the classes ranged 
themselves on the hillside, one on one side and two on the other facing 
each other. The whole school sang "The Star Spangled Banner." 

Miss Lucile Bulluck, the president of the class, delivered the address 
of welcome. She gracefuly expressed the pleasure of the class in 
greeting their friends, and gave some idea of what the class stood for. 

The program was divided into three parts : Retrospection, Introspec- 
tion, and Prospection. 

Miss Ophelia O'Brian read the class history reviewing the activities 
and interests of the class for the past four years. It was noticeable that 


County Groups 

Commencement of 1917 143 

the class had led in athletics. They have had the loving cup for basket- 
ball for two years and it is the first class that has held the two cups 
for athletics. They won the cup this year for general athletics. The 
few minutes given to the past, living again the events of the school life 
that make it interesting to the students, were thoroughly enjoyed, espe- 
cially by the class. A beautiful folk dance, "Green Sleeves," was a 
feature of this part of the program. This dance was given by the class 
of '17 in their Junior year, hence the place in the retrospection. 

Miss Ruth Spivey then gave "Reminiscences of the Senior Year." 
She proved that the class had been busy with things not in the curricu- 
lum nor on the schedule. Many of the hits and sallies of wit were 
greeted with tumultuous applause by the other classes, especially by 
the "sister classes." 

The class sang "It's Good to be a Senior" as a part of "Introspection." 
The dance, "Tantoli," danced by young ladies dressed in white and 
having draperies of the colors of the rainbow, was poetic and charming. 

"Prospection" began with the prophecy. This was presented in very 
clever style. Miss Nannie Mack Brown, the prophet, introduced a 
series of moving picture scenes supposed to be thrown on the screen 
eight years from now. In the "Movies" she saw the various members 
of the class about their various activities. As she recalled each one 
they passed across the stage, stopping for pantomime long enough to 
show what they were doing. Some of the hits were exceedingly clever, 
and judging from the applause from the students, must have been some- 
what according to the reputation of each girl. 

The song "When We Leave the Training School" was especially 
appropriate after the prophecy. 

Miss Ola Carawan read the Last Will and Testament. The bequests 
to members of the faculty, the other classes in the school and to the 
members of the class called forth repeatedly applause from the school. 

"Some Day We'll Wander Back Again" was sung after this. 

The last thing on the program, except the singing of the class song, 
was the really big thing that the class has been working for, the gift to 
the school. 

Four hundred dollars was left as the gift of the class to swell the loan 
fund for needy students. This is the largest gift that has ever been 
left by a class to this fund, and the class deserves great credit for their 
untiring efforts in raising this amount. The proceeds from the play, 
"The Rivals," made the bulk of the amount, but the class has been on 
the alert for every opportunity to add to this. President Wright, in 
accepting the gift, called attention to the fact that this was the largest 
class in the history of the school, and that they had given by far the 
largest amount any class had ever given. 

144 The Tbaining School Quarterly 

The Recital 

The eighth Annual Commencement Recital was a success in every 
way. The program was largely of modern music and the musicians 
proved that they understood the spirit that modern music expresses. 
Each one on the program played well, with excellent technique and sym- 
pathetic interpretation. It would be difficult to pick out the favorites 
of those who played. The singers, Misses Suther, Ballance, White, and 
McGlohon delighted the audience. The teachers of the Music Depart- 
ment, Misses Hill, Sherman, Wilson, and Muffly are to be congratu- 
lated on the impression their pupils made. 

Part One 

Bizet Minuet from L'Arlesienne 

Nannie Mack Brown, Loretta Joyner 

Heller Andante in D Min. op. 47 No. 10 

Curious Story 

Bess Tillitt 

Cadman At Dawning 

Jennie McGlohon 

Nevin A Shepherd's Tale 

Ophelia O'Brian 

Bohm A Fanfare, Military Rondo 

Elizabeth Speir, Leona Tucker 

Woodman In a Garden 

Neidlinger The Rose in the Garden 

Virginia Suther 

Liszt ., Canzonnetta del Salvato Rosa 

Louise Croom 

Whepley Minuet in A flat 

Agnes Hunt 

Godard Lullaby from Jocelyn 

Chorus by Junior Class 

Part Two 

Durand Chaconne for two Pianos 

Louise Croom, Agnes Hunt 

Chaminade The Flatterer 

Nannie Mack Brown 

Cadman I Hear a Thrush at Eve ) 

Rogers A Love Note } For Soprano 

Neta White 

Mozart Minuet from Symphony in E flat 

Lou Ellen Dupree, Norma Dupree 

Dvorak On The Holy Mount 

Lou Ellen Dupree 

Boyle Morning 

Elizabeth Speir 

Rogers Star of Me j 

Rogers The Wind Song [ For Soprano 

Lula Ballance 


Wrede Mazurka 

Sallie Best, Ethel Smith 

Commencement of 1917 145 

Alumnae Dinner 

The Alumnae dinner this year was one of the most brilliant affairs 
of the kind ever given at the school. There were over a hundred grad- 
uates of the school present, including the class just admitted to the 
Association, several members of the Board of Trustees, and the faculty 
and officers of the institution. 

Miss Estelle Greene, president of the Alumnae, was toastmaster, and 
presided graciously, introducing the different speakers of the evening 
in a graceful manner. The dining hall was beautifully decorated in 
red, white and blue flowers and in flags. Red and white were the pre- 
dominating colors in the menu. The groups were arranged according 
to classes, all those of each class sitting together with their class adviser 
or with a representative from the faculty, and the speakers, guests of 
honor, and other faculty members were at the tables in the center. 

There was not the care-free atmosphere that has characterized these 
gatherings in the years past, but the enjoyment was deep and the young 
women perhaps felt more clearly drawn to each other because of the 
crisis through which the country is passing and of the troubles through 
which their brothers are passing. 

The dinner was prepared under the direction of Miss Martha Arm- 
strong, teacher of Domestic Science. It was served by thirty members 
of the Junior Class. 

It is interesting to note that several items on the menu were raised 
by the Seniors in their gardens; these were beets, turnips, and lettuce. 
The strawberries were picked from the school patch by members of the 
Y. W. C. A. 

Miss Greene first welcomed the new members into the association, 
and Miss Ruth Spivey responded for the class in a very happy manner. 
Mrs. Eula Proctor Greathouse, of the class of 1912, told something of 
what the Alumnae had done in the six years of its history, what it 
wished to do, and gave some interesting statistics about the class. She 
announced that they had raised $341 on the swimming pool, and Mr. 
Wright assured them that they could swim in their own pool before 
much longer. She told the Alumnae she thought it was time they were 
doing something for the Training School to pay for what they had 
received from the school, that was why they were working so hard for 

Miss Blanche Lancaster, for the Class of 1914, was called upon to 
give some of her experience. She told the girls that she had taught 
in a school that had been conscious of the war from the beginning, as 
she had taught in Smithfield with a Belgian, Mr. Vermont, and they 
had fought and suffered with him. She has been teaching in Kinston 
for the past year and spoke very highly of her work and the town. 

146 The Tkaining School Quarterly 

Miss Alice Herring, of the Class of 1916, told in a sprightly manner 
of her various experiences teaching in the mountains, near Henderson- 
ville. She told well the story of the first whipping she had to give 
because she had threatened a little fellow. Her advice to the girls 
just starting out was, "Just smile, and keep on smiling, no matter what 
happens, and all will come out right." 

Miss Ernestine Forbes, for the class of 1915, responded to the toast, 
"Doing Our Bit." Tbe classes of 1911 and 1913 were not represented. 

Between toasts the different classes sang their songs. When President 
Wright was called on tbe whole crowd rose and sang a toast to the 
Training School and to President Wright. He then arose and told the 
girls the news of the school which was of interest to them. They greeted 
with enthusiasm his announcement of the $200,000 and what could be 
done with tbis fund through the six years of building. He called their 
attention to tbe campus and tbe work of the societies in planting it in 
shrubs and plants. He reminded them that they were never strangers, 
"once a Training School girl, always a Training School girl." "If 
she is a Training School girl you will know her because her life is 
beating in unison with your soul, your purposes and ideals are one, 
and you are not strangers." 

Dr. Laughinghouse was next called on and he paid a high tribute to 
the girls of the Training School. He said that he went into the homes 
and lives of the people, even into their closets and kitchens, and he 
often found improvement, more sanitary management, and civilizing 
influences emanating from the Training School girls who were teaching 
in the communities. He declared that the school was doing in tbe 
county what no other force could do. He told the story of one old 
man who was getting a rich, full life in his old age just because his 
grand-daughter had been off to school and had become a teacher. 

Mr. Underwood was called on from the faculty. He told a story 
that amused the audience. 

Mr. F. C. Harding was called on from the Board of Trustees, and 
responded by reminding tbe happy group of the serious condition of 
the country and of what the stars and stripes were meaning today. 
He said that the solution of the greatest problems that the world has 
to face is in the hands of the women of the class represented here. 
Now, when the sovereignty of the home has yielded place to the sov- 
ereignty of tbe community, tbe teachers yield a power such as teachers 
have never had before. "It is theirs to be tbe guardians of the liberty 
and of the real freedom, theirs to have a place in the rebuilding of 
nations and governments." He predicted that the time must come 

Commencement of 1917 147 

when there would be an international supreme court to settle affairs 
between nations. 

[The report of the business meeting of the Alumnae Association 
appears in the Alumnae Department.] 

Commencement Day 


Prayer— Rev. William H. Moore 

Chorus — American Hymn — Keller 

Spring Song — Mendelssohn — Miss Lou Ellen Dupree 

Chorus — I Would That My Love — Mendelssohn 

Address — Hon. 0. Max Gardner 

Chorus — Carolina 

Glee Club — Old Kentucky Home — Poster 

Presentation of Diplomas and Bibles 




June 6 was Commencement Day at the Training School, and the day 
belonged to the forty-eight young women who were granted diplomas. 
A large crowd had gathered in the auditorium before 10 :30 a. m., when 
the Senior Class led the way, followed by the entire student body. The 
graduating class sat on the stage and back of them were grouped the 
members of the chorus. 

President Wright, in his introduction, paid high tribute to the speaker 
of the day, Lieutenant-Governor O. Max Gardner. He reminded the 
audience that he was the youngest Lieutenant-Governor the State has 
ever had, and that his party nominated him without opposition. He 
expressed great pleasure in having present a son of North Carolina whom 
North Carolina loves to honor and one who stands for the highest 
things in civilization, and has made a splendid record and has a bril- 
liant future before him. He spoke of him as one who loves this in- 
stitution and who loves the little children of tbe State. He referred to 
the fact that last fall when both the acting Governor and the Governor- 
elect could not be present on Governor's night at the Teachers Assembly 
Lieutenant-Governor Gardner came to the rescue and represented the 
State and introduced the Governor of Pennsylvania. He then deter- 
mined to have him come to this school as soon as he could get him. 

[The address appears elsewhere in this issue of the Quarterly.] 

At the close of the address President Wright delivered Bibles and 
Diplomas to the forty-eight young women in the graduating class: 

Agnes Absher Surry County 

Effie Mae Baugham Northampton County- 
Jessie Adelia Bishop Wilson County 

Wita Avis Bond Bertie County 

148 The Tbaining School Quabteblt 

Myrtle Elizabeth Brendle Haywood County 

Nannie Mack Brown Edgecombe County 

Gladys Lucile Bulluck Edgecombe County 

Mary Ola Carawan Pamlico County 

Mary Vivian Case Greene County 

Bessie Mae Cason Pitt County 

Amelia Blount Clark Bertie County 

Ada Myrtle Credle Hyde County 

Mary Theresa Cowell Pitt County 

Alavia Katie Cox Onslow County 

Hannah Cuthrell Beaufort County 

Lou Ellen Dupree Pitt County 

Juliana Elliott Perquimans County 

Sallie Franck Onslow County 

Helen Finetta Gardner Warren County 

Fannie Grant Northampton County 

Musa Perry Harris Franklin County 

Flora Ellen Hutchins Yadkin County 

Christina Johnston Robeson County 

Hallie Blanche Jones Granville County 

Mattie Loretta Joyner Northampton County 

Viola Kilpatrick Pitt County 

Myrtle Alice Lamb Perquimans County 

Ruth Lowder Onslow County 

Elizabeth Mercer Edgecombe County 

Jennie McGlohon Pitt County 

Esther McNeill Robeson County 

Ophelia Mae O'Brian Granville County 

Martha Elvin O'Neal Hyde County 

Ethel Grover Perry Franklin County 

Barbara Blanche Satterthwaite Beaufort County 

Annie Mae Sawyer Beaufort County 

Virginia Bascom Sledge Edgecombe County 

Fannie Lee Speir Pitt County 

Ruth Lee Spivey Perquimans County 

Lizzie Mabel Stewart Nash County 

Virginia Young Suther Wayne County 

Jennie Palmer Taylor Lenoir County 

Agnes Humphrey Thompson Onslow County 

Leona Pearle Tucker Pitt County 

Lillie Mae Whitehead Durham County 

Sue Walston Edgecombe County 

Emma Mary Wooten Wake County 

Annie Vermelle Worthington Pitt County 

President "Wright made the announcement that this class had left 
a loan fund for needy students, and told the audience that this meant 
work and sacrifice on the part of these students. The one-year pro- 
fessional class for 1917 left $15 to the Loan Fund. 

President Wright announced that the Board of Trustees decided to 
add another story to the Model School, thus making room for eight 
grades, and announced that the arrangements were practically complete 

Commencement of 1917 


for a three-teacher country school for observation and teaching pur- 

The audience arose and sang with the students, "America." The 
benediction was pronounced by Rev. ~W. H. Moore. 

The following nineteen students received the school's certificate : 

Menky Batchelor 
Luna May Clapp 
Annie Elizabeth Clark 
Lucile May Clements 
Sallie Josephine Daniels 
Kate Darden 
Maggie Louise Farless 
Georgia Estelle Jones 
Lettie Lee Leonard 
Hallie Maude Marston 

Mary Belle Maxwell 
Viola Pate 

Tempie Towns Patterson 
Myrtle Fay Pinkham 
Bessie Sessoms 
Daisy Lee Smith 
Elma Southerland 
Dulcie Tharrington 
Martha Eleanor Uzzell 

Boys Eager to Learn How 

From The Chicago Evening Post 

Writing in the Nineteenth Century, an English school teacher reports 
an extraordinary intellectual stimulus as the effect of the war on his 
pupils. The strange phenomenon must somewhat mitigate for him the 
horror of Europe's tragedy. The sudden conversion of the indolent 
and indifferent schoolboy into an alert, eager student is enough to make 
glad the heart of any drudging master. 

And this is what has happened, according to the writer's story. There 
has been a remarkable revival of interest in literary and debating socie- 
ties. Affairs of the day are discussed with ardor, backed by such study 
of history and geography as was never before known. The composing 
of themes, stories and poems occupies much of the juvenile leisure. The 
teacher finds himself besieged by eager youths seeking advice and criti- 
cism for their literary efforts. Most amazing of all has been the effect 
of this revival on the trade of the tuck shops. Readers of English 
school stories such as "Stalky & Co.," will recall the large part the tuck 
shop played in the life of the average boy. His allowance flowed into 
its till in exchange for pop, pork pies, and pastry. When ready cash 
was exhausted he mortgaged his future or pledged his most treasured 
possessions to satisfy his appetite. 

But we are assured that many of the sixpences and shillings that the 
tuck shop counted upon without fear of rival are now being invested 
in — of all things — poetry. Think of the average British schoolboy — 
or any other, for that mater — voluntarily spending his limited income 
on poetry. We direct the attention of Mr. Llewell Jones to this mira- 
cle. We feel that justice to it can be done only by such a pen as his. 
With less expert appreciation of its significance, we merely venture the 
belief that here is real hope for the days that will follow the war. 

Of course, the schoolboy is tremendously interested in military mat- 
ters, and there is much drilling and maneuvering, much working out of 
strategy and many sham battles that are at times sanguinary. This was 
to be expected. It is merely the intensifying of the normal, with an 
added spirit of seriousness that gives its higher meaning. But that 
it should be accompanied by a quickening of literary interest and an 
appetite for poetry rather than pork pies surprises us with a sense of 
distinct encouragement. 

W&t draining ^>cfjool ©uarterlp 

Published by the Students and Faculty of the Bast Carolina Teachers 
Training School, Greenville, N. C. 

Entered as Second Class Matter, June 3, 1914, at the Postoffice at Greenville, N. C, 
under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

Price: $1.00 a year. 25 cents single copy. 

FACULTY EDITOR Mamie E. Jenkins 

ALUMNAE EDITOR Bettie Spencer 


Summer Assistants. 

Beenie Allen 

Mattie Bright 

Summer Business Manager, Elizabeth Baker. 


c A summer school made up of teachers fresh from the 

Summer r 

Teaching Far schoolroom, who become students for a few weeks for 
eac ing ^ p ur p 0se f getting ideas, or for a new outlook, or a 

point of view, or who wish to measure themselves by others, is a place 
where any one, teacher or student or visitor, can get inspiration. It 
is an inspiration to the teacher, but an inspiration that carries with it 
a responsibility. The students here this summer come from almost 
half a hundred counties, and will carry back what they get here to 
approximately three hundred communities, and that means twenty-five 
children, at least, in each community. A little figuring will show 
what a wide influence a summer school has, especially when one con- 
siders that every school is now the center of the community and every 
one in the community is touched by the teacher. 

Return to ^^ e °^ arts are com ^ n g \> w ith many new ones 

Old Time modeled on the old. The primitive arts are genuine, 

sincere. A nation should never get far away from 
them. When the middle-aged folk were children their summers were 
not all play. The elder folk urged them to peel fruit for drying. 
After all was "put up" in preserves, pickles, cans, the remainder was 
not wasted. It was spread on the drying boards, or put in brine, or 
stored in some form. Every meat skin was saved for the soap pot, 
and even the grease from the edge of the dish-pan was scraped off and 

152 The Training School Quarterly 

put into the gourd for the soap. The economy our people had to 
practice during the Civil War was in vogue. Then came a period of 
prodigality. Factory soap, factory canned goods, "evaporated" fruit, 
released the country boy and girl so that they could go joy riding in 
the wonderful new plaything, the automobile. This new-found, irre- 
sponsible freedom naturally went to the heads. The big farms of the 
west and the factories had become the ravens that were feeding us. 
Now these ravens have warned us that they cannot keep it up. We are 
finding that these carefree girls and boys are, after all, the children 
and grandchildren of those who saved and "worked, and they will rise to 
the emergency and feed not only themselves, but the world that needs 
food. Thanks be, there are still enough who know the old arts to 
teach the younger people ! 

Get the men in the community to contribute the 
Lessons money for the material for Red Cross sewing, get the 

Through Red women together for sewing bees and have them teach 
the girls how to make the garments. Get in touch 
with the Red Cross Association nearest to you, and promise to furnish 
them so many garments. They will be glad to instruct a few leaders 
in the exact way it should be done. Do not think because you cannot 
furnish a whole box from your community that you can do nothing. 
Get the older ladies to get out the rusting knitting needles and teach the 
girls how to knit. Do not spend the time on knitting socks now ; the 
call is for the old-fashioned wristlet, for scarfs, and sweaters. Socks 
can be made by machines. The grandmothers will be delighted to know 
that they can do something. 

Every woman in America should do something for the Red Cross, or 
for some organized society for furnishing supplies to the hospitals or 
to the soldiers. 

How Will Already messages are coming to us from "a port in 

the Teacher France." Soon there will be coining from "somewhere 
Stand the ° 

Test? in France," only short, censored notes, and that will be 

all we know of our sons and brothers and late schoolboys, until the 
horror is over and they come out of the "somewhere" into the "here." 
Some will get nowhere beyond a trench, and some will wander off into 
the anywhere. None of them will come back as they went off. It is 
the testing time for the American school and home. We should watch 
carefully to see what helps and what hinders these boys — what is worth 
while in supreme teste, and what is useless. 

Every teacher who has taught a single one of these boys is helping 
to win or to lose the fight. Every teacher who goes into a schoolroom 
this fall is already taking part in the reconstruction that] will come 

Editorials 153 

hereafter when the school girls and boys of today are the men and 
women rebuilding what is now being torn down. 

„ r .. Teaching has been largely woman's work in America 

Women Must ° . . . 

Hold Things ever since the reconstruction days. The district school- 
Together master of the days before the war gave place after the 
war to the district schoolmarm. With the passing of the academy 
passed the schoolmaster in elementary work. The primary work as 
we know it now had not come into being until after the war except as it 
was given in the home by the mother or in some dame scbool. True, men 
have held the administrative positions, have held a few of the high 
school positions, and have been in the colleges, but few have been in the 
rank and file. The women have done most of the teaching of children. 
The task for the woman in school work is not new. It is merely to 
go on doing the same thing, but doing it better. There will be still 
fewer men and more women. Some women who have been teaching in 
the ranks will step up higher and fill the vacancies left by the men, but 
only those who have proved themselves in the lesser tasks will pass up, 
and these will be put on their mettle. The schools are not going to 
suffer. There will be many more doing demonstration and supervisory 
work, but this is teaching in a broader field. 

Geography, as charity, should begin at home, and 
Should Begin that right early, but it should not stay there. As the 
at Home mind of the child reaches out in other ways it should be 

led out geographically. Now is a glorious time for geography for all 
ages and sizes and grades, and for every kind of geography : home geog- 
raphy, commercial geography, but not for mere text-book geography. 
Every paper, every report, every magazine, now is full of material for 
teaching geography. The questions beginning with "where" are on 
every tongue all the time: "Where are they going?" "Where are they 
fighting?" "Where does it come from?" "Where can we get it?" "Where 
shall it be sent?" "Where do the raw materials come from?" "Where 
are our camps?" And every "where" is followed by a "why": "Why 
are they going there?" "Why is that a good place for the camp?" All 
the questions and problems are so bound up with geography that it is 
impossible to follow anything intelligently without bringing in geog- 
raphy and without enlarging geographical ideas. 

There was a time when the schoolroom had an atmos 
The Changed phere conducive to sleep and rest. One driving along 

the road past a schoolhouse would hear the droning of 
the voices, and if he stepped in, teacher and children were too drowsy 
to give a cordial welcome to the visitor, but he was welcomed because 

154 The Training School Quarterly 

he broke the dull, stupid monotony of the school. JSTow the air around 
a live school is charged with activity and interest; a peep through the 
door reveals a busy working group. The visitor receives a cordial 
welcome, but he drops into the background because teacher and pupils 
are engrossed in important matters that must not be broken into. 

When the letters "Y. M. C. A." are at the top of let- 
Y. M. C. A. ^ers from the boys in camp, they bring comfort and con- 

solation to the folks at home. They give confidence and 
assurance that out yonder the boys are not drifting away from all fine 
influences and ideals, but there is something keeping them clean and 
straight. ~No wonder people are eager to contribute to the fund to 
keep the work going wherever the soldier boy goes ! If there is not a 
boy from your own home there is one from your neighbor's home. Do 
your part in helping that cause. 

Every girl or boy who attends a State school accepts 

Trusteeships f rom the State something. None of the State schools 
of Students . . . , . , n 

begin to pay their way, or rather, to make the students 

pay their way. The State could not afford to do this if it did not feel 
assured that the money put into the education of the young people was 
an investment that would bring returns in dollars and cents, and in 
the many intangible ways that an educated citizenship can help build 
up the State. Senator Harding expresses the idea well in this number 
of the Quarterly. 

. T . Is it possible there are still people in this time, which 

Still is full of big, world-wide events that come to your own 

With Us? doorstep, who are quarreling over whether the hen is 

"sitting" or "setting," and are using good gray matter to see whether 
that famous frog of the problem gets out of the well or falls in deeper? 

Is any teacher judged by the answer she gives to the favorite old 
catch questions? 

Are there still some teachers who think these are the all important 
problems for her to solve? 

Don't let the two get together. Send a live teacher to stir up the 
backward community, and send the old-fogy teacher to a community 
that will drive her out of the profession or wake her up. 

What has become of the "settled woman"? You used to hear of 
her, but now you never do. Is she so busy doing things that she hasn't 
time to settle? 

Editorials 155 

No Rest in If one wants a good, snug nest to snooze in, he must 

the School- not g e( . j nto a schoolroom; he may find it a hornet's 

room of ° . 

Today nest. The person who puts his mind to rest and lets 

his body work on as an automaton, without disturbing him, had better 

go into a factory where the body can be made to do the work of a 

machine, and where the mind may safely go to sleep ; he should not go 

near a schoolroom. 

There are still a few who catch the world only through 

1 '"' the newspapers. Their sight catches it in cold print, 

and no other sense is touched and nothing gets beyond 
the retina. They do not see or hear anything first-hand and are sus- 
picious of all they read, believing "newspaper chat" is not news, but is 
printed for the sake of puffing the paper. They will not believe that 
newspapers now cannot begin to tell half. They are going calmly and 
serenely on, with a stupid optimism that is like that of the ostrich. 
They will not acknowledge that these times are vastly different from 
other times. "The lightning has never struck me, and I don't believe 
it ever will," simply because it never has ; "Let those folks who got us 
into this get us out"; "I've heard of hard times before, but I haven't 
starved yet" ; "I'll not worry until I see the bottom of the barrel." 


How the Children Found the Answer to "Who is Hoover?" 

A Lesson Developed by the Sixth and Seventh Grades in the Model School, 
Miss Maude Rogers, Critic Teacher 

"Who is Hoover?" was the question asked by several children in the 
sixth and seventh grades at the Model School during a dictation lesson 
when this sentence was given : "President Wilson hopes that Herbert 
C. Hoover will be made food-dictator." 

Only two out of a class of twenty had ever heard the name of 
Hoover, and the knowledge these possessed was very indefinite. At 
once the teacher and the children decided they would like to have a 
composition lesson for the next day on "Herbert C. Hoover, Food- 
dictator." As the magazines have been so full of answers to this ques- 
tion which all America has been asking, it was easy to cite the children 
to material which they could easily collect for the lesson. The teacher 
suggested to the pupils that in their reading they watch out for reasons 
why Hoover was peculiarly fitted to be Food-dictator. 

The next morning several magazines were brought to class and the 
children could hardly wait for the composition hour to tell what they 
had found out, as they were fairly bubbling over with information. 
"Wait," was the only response the teacher gave to many questions and 
requests for discussion. The composition lesson had been placed the 
last hour of the morning, so that it would be a climax to the morning's 
work. All other work went swiftly and well because the children were 
impatient of any delays. 

When the lesson was begun the children and teacher decided that 
they needed an outline on the board as a guide. A picture of Hoover 
was placed before the class. They determined to select only those facts 
in Hoover's life that helped make him a great man and fitted him for 
his work as food-dictator. 

This is the outline that was finally placed on the board : 
Herbert C. Hoover, Food Dictator 

1. Preparation for life — 

Born on a farm in Iowa; good habits and strong body. 

Graduated from Leland Stanford University in mining engineering. 

2. Mining engineer — 

in America, 
in Australia, 
in China, 
in England. 

(So successful he becomes a millionaire. 
Shows wonderful power as an organizer.) 

Suggestions 157 

3. Relief Commissioner — 

in England, getting Americans home at the beginning of the war. 
in Belgium, in feeding the starving people, 
in France, in relieving suffering. 

4. Why he is fitted to become food dictator — 

Honest, sincere, unselfish, strong in body and in mind, calm and de- 
liberate, an organizer, has a knowledge of food values, experienced in 
feeding and relieving other nations. 
We look to him to feed the world. 

Every point was carefully developed and freely discussed. Many 
bits of information were rejected as unnecessary to the big aim. Per- 
haps the most interesting feature of the discussion to the observers was 
the children's comments on Hoover's picture; some of them did good 
character reading, while others had to be directed as to how to judge 
a man by his face. 

The assignment for the second day was to write four paragraphs on 
"Hoover, Food-dictator," following the outline closely. The children 
were interested the first day, but their interest was at the burning point 
of attention the second day. Each child was anxious for more in- 
formation, especially when he found he needed more to make the para- 
graphs balance well. The teacher and the children decided that they 
could easily develop a full composition from each division of the out- 
line, but as time was lacking they refrained from following up the 

The next day the children expressed a desire to study the life and 
work of another man, this time Lloyd George. Thus the children 
proved that the teacher had achieved her chief aim : the children had 
been aroused to an interest in the live world of events and the work 
of great men of the day as found in newspapers and magazines. 

A History Match 

That the child mind can best grasp and understand that which is 
brought closest to his life is a well established pedagogical fact. Hav- 
ing seen the good results from dramatizing stories and "acting" their 
reading lessons, I conceived the idea of letting my fifth grade "act" the 
lives of the early explorers as given in "White's "Beginners' History," 
calling it a "History Match." 

A few days in advance of the lesson, I assigned each pupil a char- 
acter to impersonate, secretly, of course. They then read all the mate- 
rial available on the subject, and from it wrote a paper in the form 
of an autobiography, omitting the name of the supposed writer. On 
the day of the match they got up one by one and told (not read) the 
story of their lives, the pupils at the seat writing down the name of 
the man who they thought was meant. At the end of the match I 

158 The Training School Quarterly 

read out the correct list of those whom each pupil represented). The 
fact that there were only two incorrect guesses in the class showed that 
each child had not only studied his own individual topic, but the others 
as well, so as to make correct guesses. 

I have since tried this device when working with the many, and 
oftentimes to the child, confusing, countries of Europe. By letting a 
child represent a country, telling its location, climate, products, etc., 
and letting the children guess the country and sometimes the capital. 
I have awakened a great enthusiasm where as before there had been 
apathy and indifference. "When a lesson is put in the form of a game 
it is likely to be well learned. Ruby Melvin, 

Intermediate Grades of Elizabethtown High School. 

Devices for Securing Good Personal Habits 

The problem of teaching the children to form good sanitary personal 
habits is one that confronts almost every teacher today. One gives up 
in despair sometimes when every possible means' has been tried out, 
and all have failed. 

Below are several devices which I have worked out quite successfully 
in the first and second grades. 

First, the problem of getting the children in the habit of brushing 
their teeth regularly had to be solved. When I first asked how many 
brushed their teeth every morning I found that only a small number 
of the children owned brushes. I urged them by all means to have 
brushes by the next morning, stressing the importance of keeping their 
dear little young teeth clean. In a few days every child had a brush 
and some had powder or paste. How proud they were, and how eager 
to tell me! Of course, there were some who were not so eager, and I 
always knew they were the ones who had failed to obey my wishes. 
To prevent them from forgetting the second time, I would draw a 
large snaggle tooth on the board, making it look as dreadful as possi- 
ble, placing in it the names of the children who had failed to brush their 
teeth that morning, and letting it remain all day. There were finally 
no delinquents. 

Another problem was to get them to clean their nails and keep them 
so. I would go around each morning and look at every child's nails, 
and if some child had forgotten I would designate it, in a hand already 
drawn on the board by placing the guilty child's name in one finger 
and making the nail as ugly as possible with colored chalk. Very soon 
the children become ashamed and there was seldom ever a name to be 
placed on the board. 

Here is still another device I used. This was for getting my chil- 
dren to bring fresh handkerchiefs with them. Every morning we played 
a little game in the form of a drill, and every child was required to 

f Jf t t I if 


1 ' ,f * f f j 

»l 1 

m£ 1 

J .. jjj> 

■ * n 

County Groups 

Suggestions 159 

have a nice fresh handkerchief or else he would be omitted from the 
game. Each one, of course, was only too eager to play. In the game 
I brought in a few simple arithmetic problems, namely, one corner plus 
one corner, then add other two corners. Drop one corner, then other 
two, how many left, etc. In this game the children had no idea that 
my motive was simply to have clean handkerchiefs. 

I found that these little devices worked just beautifuly, and that the 
minds and memories were being trained in such a way as never to forget 
to perform these little unpleasant tasks which I feel now are stamped 
so distinctly upon their minds that there is no desire for them to forget. 
We feel that these good personal habits are as essential to their little 
bodies as the food they eat. I hope these devices will help you, sister 
teachers. Just try and see. Mart E. Chatjncey, '14, 

First Grade, Warrenton Graded School. 

Practical Household Art in Our Grades 

When I mentioned window curtains for my room my sixth grade was 
all attention. I asked the girls if they thought we could hemstitch 
them; their eyes fairly danced with anticipation, and they eagerly 
answered "Yes." 

Our room had five large windows. We had just put up nice shades, 
paid for with money that we had raised — a part of it made by picking 
cotton. What we needed next was curtains. 

I went to a store and purchased twelve yards of white cheesecloth. 
The girls and I gathered in our room one afternoon after school and 
cut the lengths for sash curtains. Another time we measured hems and 
drew threads for hemstitching. Some of the girls did not know how. 

We had such a jolly, happy group, for while fingers were busy, 
tongues were not idle. In the other end we made a neat little hem of 
running stitches for the cord to be slipped through, since we could not 
afford rods. 

After the work was begun each girl took a half curtain home to 
finish. When they were completed they brought them back and the 
boys drove nails for us to fasten the cords to. 

When we put a bowl of blooming narcissus on a window shelf we 
thought ou.r room looked real "homey." In comparing ours with those 
of the fourth and fifth grade room, one of our girls said, "It's a sure 
thing we don't want any curtains with flowered borders!" They took 
turns in having the curtains laundered. After school closed, and I 
had left the community, one of the girls wrote me that for fear the 
sun would injure them during vacation she had taken them down, 
laundered them, and put them away. 

I found both girls and boys taking a greater interest in keeping the 
room iidy. The girls proved to be right good housekeepers. The boys 

160 The Training School Quarterly 

seemed ready to lend a hand. They put up window shelves, made boxes 
for plants, polished the heater several times, made rough benches for 
the ytsrd, and oiled the floor. Delia Smith. 

Our Dolls' Home 

(Made by First and Second Grades, Lake Landing Graded School.) 

When school opened in the fall, in order for me to learn my children, 
I began asking questions about father, mother, brothers and sisters, and, 
in fact, everything connected with the home. After these things were 
fully discussed the children wanted to talk about their playhouses. 
I said, "How would you like to make one?" The answer from all at 
one time was, "I would like it fine." 

One of the high school boys constructed the house of two wooden 
boxes. Each of the four rooms was 12 x 14 inches with a 12-inch side 
wall. The room on the third floor was much larger. The house was 
furnished by the first and second grades. We decided to make this a 
real home as near as possible, and I tried to make the children imagine 
that it was their real home. 

The plan used was to divide the first floor into two equal parts : one 
becomes the kitchen, the other the dining-room. The same spaces on 
the second floor are used for a bedroom and a nursery. The third floor 
space under the gable was used for a sitting-room. The children did 
not like a small room for a sitting room. This was the largest, so we 
decided to use it. 

The color scheme for the kitchen is in buff and gray. The paper 
floor covering is made to represent linoleum, the design on one-half 
inch "squared" paper. The walls are buff. The table has a checked 
cover on it. The stove, table, and kitchen cabinet are constructed of 
gray paper. 

The color scheme for the dining-room is white and blue. The walls 
are covered with wall paper design made by the pupils of green and 
pink on white drawing paper. The buffet, table, and chairs are made 
of white paper. The paper floor covering also represents linoleum, blue 
and white blocks with blue border. The tablecloth is white with a 
pink edge crocheted by a second grade child. 

The bedroom walls are covered with white paper, decorated with a 
green design. The rugs are blue and white blocks with blue borders. 
The children wove these during the busy work periods. The curtains 
for the house are of white voile and were made by the little girls. The 
bedroom furniture consists of bed, dresser, and chair, all made of 
white paper. 

The sitting-room walls are covered with blue wall paper, with gray 
and pink border. The art square is blue and white blocks with blue 

Suggestions 161 

border. The furniture consists of piano and stool, library table, one 
round stand for flowers, one rocking chair, three-piece parlor suite, 
divan, armchair and rocker, two small rugs, curtains and one picture. 
Tho furniture was constructed of white, drawing paper. 

The same design of wall paper and carpet was used for nursery as 
that used for bedroom. The furniture consists of cradle, one small 
table, and a go-cart constructed of gray paper. A penny doll was dressed 
in a long white dress for the baby. All of the paper folding and 
cutting was based on the sixteen squares. 

When the house was completed on the inside, the children said they 
did not like the rough, ugly appearance of the outside. One little boy 
just seven years old said, "I will paint the house." The next morning 
he came with paint and brush and painted the house the colors decided 
on by the children. 

The children collected pictures of the furniture for the house from 
books and magazines before we constructed it of paper. I did this 
to see if the children were familiar with the furnishing necessary for 
the home. 

I correlated drawing, spelling, number work, and language with the 
making of the doll's home. In order to do this, we were about a month 
and one-half completing the house. Ella White, '15, 

Primary Teacher in Lake Landing Graded School. 

Helping a School to Grow from a One-Teacher to a Two- 
Teacher School 

I have been teaching in the same one-teacher school for two years. 
When I began teaching, there were no window shades at the windows. 
The heater was in one corner of the schoolroom. There were no waste- 
paper baskets in the room, no foot-mat at the door, no pictures or maps 
on the walls, no library or books of any kind in the room except what 
few I had, and the children's text-books. It was just a bare school- 
room with desks, children, and teacher. 

At the end of two years a rural library was ordered for the school. 
The children had sold flag buttons and gained a large flag and pencil 
sharpener. I had succeeded in securing a stove-pipe, window shades, 
a foot-mat, four maps, a suspension globe, an organ, two waste^paper 
baskets, a large dictionary, Washington's picture, Lincoln's picture, 
and a water-cooler. In order to meet the expense of these things, a 
shadow party, and three box parties were given during the two years, 
the. proceeds of which amounted to $148. 

The school is no longer a one-teacher school. It will be made a 
two-teacher school another year. Almiea Godfrey. 

162 The Training School Quarterly 

How I Raised $60 at a Box Party 

On Thanksgiving Day I gave an entertainment at the schoolhouse 
and invited all the patrons of the community. After the exercise was 
over I made a talk and explained the needs of the school, and asked 
for suggestions for raising money to get these things. We decided on a 
box party. Two of the committee were present and each of them 
made a talk. Many suggestions were offered, and finally we decided 
tliat our box party should consist of boxes containing supper to be sold 
by auction, a cake for the prettiest girl to be sold by votes, cakes and 
boxes of candy to be sold by auction, a grab bag containing things that 
could be made at little cost, which would interest both children and 
grown people, a fruit stand containing bags of parched peanuts, chewing 
gum, loose candy, apples, and oranges, all to be sold by the piece; and 
a fortune teller. The patrons contributed everything that made up 
the box party except the fruit and chewing gum. The school room was 
beautifully decorated and a large crowd was present. The entire pro- 
ceeds from the box party amounted to $60 : 

16 boxes of supper $25.00 

1 cake for prettiest girl 18.05 

3 cakes and 3 boxes of candy 7.25 

Grab bag 2.45 

Profit at fruit stand 5.20 

Fortune telling 2.05 

Total $60.00 

Almira Godfrey, 
Burgess School, Perquimans County. 

Some of the Advantages of Teaching at Home 

"Breathes there a man with soul so dead, 
Who never to himself hath said, 
This is my own, my native land?" 

Now, while our President is calling for loyalty to our Nation, how 
can the teacher show hers more than by staying in her own neighbor- 
hood and doing her best to train the children of her neighbors to be 
true to God and to their country? Surely she will be more interested 
in the social and moral conditions of her own neighborhood than in one 
in which she expects to reside only a few months. Whose pains, whose 
griefs, whose trials, and whose pleasures, would appeal to her more, 
think you? 

In her own community the teacher knows already the interest, de- 
sires, the likes and dislikes, the prejudices and environments of the 
patrons; hence, has a better understanding of the pupils. Also she 
knows the local geography and government, the superstitions and re- 

Suggestions 163 

ligion, which in a strange section it would require a whole tertm to 
learn before she could really adjust herself to the existing circumstances. 

To illustrate : In a certain community an orphan girl was taken by 
her grandparents to rear. They were old and alone, all of their chil- 
dren having homes of their own. As the girl grew older and stronger, 
more of the duties fell upon her, requiring more of her time and short- 
ening her school days until she dropped out of school entirely. When 
she was fifteen she was given the opportunity to go to school again, but 
she refused to go then because she was so far behind the rest of her 
age. After two or three years a lady from the neighborhood was 
elected to teach the home school. Before school opened this girl went 
to see the teacher and had a heart-to-heart talk, for, she said, "I know 
you would understand." When school opened, to the surprise of every 
one, this girl came, and was an earnest, faithful student. 

Another advantage which the home teacher has is solving the ever 
perplexing question of hoard. This problem has been increased now 
by the high cost of all food products, and the servant question. 

There are many places in which the housewife cannot secure a serv- 
ant at any price. With all the duties and cares of her house and 
family devolving upon her alone, she does not feel equal to the task 
of adding another straw to her burden : that of boarding the teacher. 
I believe our teachers appreciate these conditions and try to adapt 
themselves to the circumstances as far as they can ; yet no teacher can 
do her work in the schoolroom unless she can have a comfortable room 
where she can be quiet and plan her work for the next and succeeding 

Schools that are financially able are building "teacherages," and 
until all of the schools are so equipped the board bill will be a perplex- 
ing question to most teachers, but not to the home teacher, for she can 
still enjoy the pleasures of home and loved ones while giving the best 
she has to the children entrusted to her care. 

Julia B. Cobb, 
Teacher of Benthall School, Hertford County. 

How I Raised Money for My School 

During my two years experience as a teacher, I have found at the 
beginning of the school term almost empty schoolrooms, with no pic- 
tures, no blackboards, nor anything except the empty room with a few 
rickety desks. The school grounds have been in almost the same condi- 
tion ; therefore, my first problem has been how to furnish and beautify 
the room and grounds. 

I began solving my problem by organizing Literary Societies and 
Betterment and Athletic Associations. After doing this, I planned a 

164 The Training School Quarterly 

series of entertainments, hoping to make some money in this way. In 
planning these entertainments the things I had to consider most were 
the type of children I had to work with, the people who should attend 
these entertainments, the staging and the costuming. 

I have given the following plays with much success: "Jumbo Jim," 
"Aunt Dinah's Quilting Party," "District School," negro minstrels, 
"Only Young Man in Town," "Fruits of His Folly." Besides these I 
have had programs of recitations, declamations, dialogues, dramatiza- 
tions, and patriotic and motion songs. I gave one play in each enter- 
tainment with a variety of other things, making the program about 
two hours long. 

The best things I could get for primary children were from the 
Normal Instructor and Primary Plans. This one magazine furnishes 
enough new material to make a monthly program one hour long. This 
material grows out of the everyday work of the children, and can be 
gotten up without so much outside effort. Besides, the people seemed 
to understand and appreciate this. From last April's number of this 
magazine I gave "Dr. "Wise," an interesting little dialogue, with the 
doctor, trained nursed, and patient, who was being doctored for telling 
fibs. I also found in this magazine "School's Saving Bank," which 
gave some good ideas on practicing thrift, which were along the line that 
the people are now thinking. The money used in this dialogue was 
made by the children as busy work, while the dialogue was taught as an 
arithmetic lesson. In connection with this we had dramatizations, 
motion songs, and recitations. 

I planned another type of entertainment, which consisted of an old- 
time spelling match, with neighborhood jokes, etc. I did not always 
charge any admission, but sometimes arranged for the girls to have a 
box party, or for the Betterment Association to sell refreshments. 

The best way I could advertise my entertainments was to let the 
children make the tickets, and design and number them as a drawing 
lesson. Each child was given five tickets to sell, and got a free ticket 
for selling them. No one was ever known to come to our neighborhood 
without having the opportunity of buying a ticket. 

There were still other things I did to make money. I had the chil- 
dren to sell badges at ten cents each. When the required number was 
sold we received a premium. In this way we got a flag and a number 
of pictures. Several newspapers offered a book for each new sub- 
scriber. We took advantage of this offer, and received a number of 
books to go in our library. 

There are always hundreds of ways to< get money for educational 
purposes. This can be gotten by the teacher, pupils, and the associa- 

Suggestions 165 

tions working together. The time has now come when there is no 
excuse for a teacher teaching in an ugly, unfurnished schoolroom, sur- 
rounded by a broom-straw patch. Emma J. Brown, '15, 

Fourth Grade, Richlands Graded School. 

A Country Girl is Not a Stranger in Any 
Country Neighborhood 

Just a few words about myself. I am a country girl, raised on the 
farm, and taught by my mother to do any kind of work in the farm 
home. I finished public school and did some high school work. Last 
fall my county superintendent came to my home and said to me, "I 
have some vacant schools and would rather have you teach one than 
some one that T do not know." I thanked him for the confidence he 
had in me, and told him I would do the best I could. I made a good 
average on my examination and he gave me a school where I knew no 
one and no one knew me. 

In high school I believe I was known as one having a smile and a 
kind word for all. I determined to carry these with me when I started 
out on my new work. The people I found not rich, but willing to do 
anything for you if you made yourself one of them. My home was 
with a family where there were four girls. I was counted as the fifth, 
and many is the frolic we had together. I joined heartily in all social 
affairs in the neighborhood. 

Saturday night and Sunday was the time that the people of the 
neighborhood met together. They found out that I could sing and 
could play the piano a little, and we enjoyed singing the "old melodies" 
and hymns together very much, the old people as well as the young. 

Then came the old-fashioned sugar-pullings, which were greatly en- 
joyed by all. Of course, I could help in the cooking and pulling, too; 
any country girl could. 

Christmas was the little folks' treat. They were made so happy by 
their first Christmas tree. The older ones enjoyed serenading. 

Hog-killing was the most enjoyable time of the winter. Neighbors 
always helped each other during the whole time. Big dinners and 
suppers were served to all that helped, and most of the time there was a 
sugar-pulling afterwards. The people thought it strange that I could 
help, but thanks to my mother and the training I received at home, 
I could do even that. 

At school the children found that I could enter into fun and frolic 
as well as fight, and we soon learned to like one another. In this way 
I learned to like the people, just by being one of them. 

Now, just a few more words. When you go into a neighborhood to 
teach, where you do not know any one, dear teacher, have a smile and 

166 The Training School Quarterly 

a kind word for all, and be sure that you do not think that you are 
any better than the people, for are we not all God's creatures? Don't 
be ashamed to pitch in and help. Mart Foxwell, 

Teacher of Hurdle School, Chowan County. 

How I Introduced Music In My School 

When I first went into the district there was not a piano in it. There 
were two organs. I found that the young people enjoyed gathering 
at the homes where the organs were, to spend an evening singing. I 
decided to try to make the school building the center of these gatherings, 
so I began to talk piano for the school. I did not receive much en- 
couragement the first winter. 

Before I went back the next fall I visited the nearest town. While 
there I began to look for a piano at a reasonable price. I went to a 
piano house and told them what I wanted. After school began, the 
manager went up to see my committee and offered to put one in the 
schoolroom for a month's trial. After making several trips to see 
them, they finally decided to let it be put in, but they were sure they 
would not buy it. It was sent out. 

There was a boy in the neighborhood that played the violin, one that 
played the guitar, and one the banjo. I invited them to come out to 
the school that night and play with the piano accompaniment. I also 
invited the people to come hear the new piano and sing some. They 
came, too. The house was full, and they continued to come. When the 
month was out they wouldn't think of giving up the piano. 

At Thanksgiving we had a box party and made up part of the money. 
The balance was paid by the committee. 

Before the winter was gone there were four pianos in the neighbor- 
hood, and we had six music pupils. At commencement we had a simple 
little duet and a solo which were enjoyed very much. 

Edith Sidburt, 
Now Teacher in Wilmington Graded Schools. 

How I Disgusted One Girl with "Trashy" Novels 

Only a few days after my entrance into a certain community I was 
dumbfounded to find that a girl representing one of the oldest and most 
aristocratic families in North Carolina was accursed with the horrible 
habit of trashy novel reading. I say "trashy" — and I mean all that 
the word suggests. From that day I spent a great deal of time trying 
to devise some method by which Edna could be guided into a higher 
phase of novel reading, and in such a way that she would still like to 
read books — though books of entirely a different type. 

I finally decided to visit the girl's home, and find out, if possible, the 
kind of books most approved by the mother and father, and their views 

Suggestions 167 

in regard to their daughter's spending the greater part of her time in 
trashy novel-land. I repeat with emphasis the word ''trashy," because 
we all know that nothing is better for any of us than a good clean novel. 

On my visit to the home I found the very best of books placed 
throughout the entire house, quite convenient and very tempting to a 
lover of good literature. 

I asked Edna if she had read any of these books. She replied that she 
started one of them, but they were so deep she did not care much for 
them. I then asked her what type of a book she liked best ; she imme- 
diately answered : "Oh, well, something not so deep, like 'How He 
Won Her,' 'Lost Love,' etc. In other words, a good love story, but 
mother doesn't like me to read them; she hides them every time I get 

I immediately determined to give her a dose of "good love stories," 
as she termed it. So I invited her down to my boarding place on 
Saturdays to read. She was quite delighted with the idea, and always 
brought one of her mother's books for me, while I managed to get one 
of her type from "somewhere." 

After we had spent eight or nine successive Saturdays in this way, 
Edna, for some reason, did not seem very anxious to com© the next 
Saturday. I insisted, of course, and she finally decided to come, though 
she tried to emphasize the fact that her mother needed her — the very 
first time she had considered her mother in the least degree. The fact 
about Edna was that she had lost some of her enthusiasm for the books 
that had so lately held her spellbound. She came, however, and settled 
down to "The Forsaken Bride," while I took up something very dif- 

We had read about an hour when Edna decided that she was "tired 
to death" reading. "Oh, do come, and let's go for a walk," she said. 
"They are all alike, anyway. I declare I believe I never will like to 
read again." 

"Why, is your book not interesting?" I asked. 

"Yes, I suppose so," she replied. "But somehow I am just so tired." 
"Do you never get tired reading?" she asked. 

"Oh, yes, sometimes," I replied. "But my book is very interesting. 
However, we will stop for awhile and go for a walk." 

We did go for a walk, and in one hour were back again, tired from 
walking. Then I began to tell her about my book. She was soon 
fascinated, as I indeed knew she would be, and from that day she always 
wanted the "new" style, as she termed it. 

And today she still demands the clean, forcible, and uplifting type 
of book. She found to her great surprise that these books were at 
home and that mother did not object to her reading them. Her mother 

168 The Training School Quarterly 

is enthusiastic over the change, and cannot understand how it came 
about. Neither does Edna; she only knows that it is different and 
appreciates the fact. Matme Brooks, 

Teacher in Wesley Chapel High School. 

"A Pupil's Reward" or "School Beatitudes" 

Blessed are the punctual, for they will be called manly. 
Blessed are the early, for they will not be called careless. 
Blessed are the neat, for they shall receive attention. 
Blessed are the obedient, for they shall receive favors. 
Blessed are the studious, for they shall be wise. 
Blessed are the wise, for they shall rule the world. 

W. H. Purser. 


Farmers' Bulletin, No. 755, Common Birds. — In the Southeastern 
States more than 460 species of birds occur at some season of the year. 
This bulletin discusses the general habits and the economic value of 
23 of the best known species. Fanners have a host of insect enemies 
to fight. This bulletin shows clearly the great value birds are in this 
conflict. The farmer should, therefore, welcome his feathered allies 
and see to it that they have every protection he can secure. From this 
bulletin the farmer will learn which birds to harbor. 

Some Facts Concerning Manual Arts and Home-making Subjects in 
One Hundred and Fifty-six Cities — Bulletin 32, 1916, Bureau of 

The data used in this bulletin was collected by means of a question- 
naire sent to the heads of city school systems. One hundred and fifty- 
six schools responded. It was found that the chief aim in teaching 
these subjects was prevocational — just giving knowledge of the various 
occupations, materials, tools, etc. It was found that work in paper in 
the primary grades was more general — joinery and cabinet making 
for boys in the grammar grades, and sewing and cooking for girls in 
the grammar grades. The work was presented by using systematic 
graded exercises. Time given to these subjects was found to be over 
5 per cent of the total school time in the elementary school and over 
25 per cent of the total time in the high school. The method most 
frequently used of disposing of finished products was that of letting 
the pupil keep his own article. 

"Minimum Essentials in the Preparation of Teachers" is an article 
in The American Schoolmaster, by William C. Bagley, Director of the 
School of Education in the University of Illinois. He thinks that the 
teaching profession should he so standardized that a prospective teacher 
shall have to pass certain tests to establish in the minds of the exam- 
iners her ability to teach. Tests on penmanship, blackboard writing, 
and sketching should be given. A teacher should be able to recognize 
errors in oral speech, as well as to speak correctly herself. She should 
speak plainly and with clean-cut enunciation, and to her pupils her 
voice should be in a low, quiet, convincing tone. She should also be 
able to "sense" unhygienic conditions in a classroom with regard to 
lighting, temperature, ventilation, and posture. Mr. Bagley believes 
that by tests of these kinds teaching skill in an individual may be 

170 The Training School Quarterly 

Gardening in Elementary City Schools, C. D. Jarvis, Bulletin 
Bureau of Education. 

The bulletin points out the possibilities of gardening from the point 
of view of democracy in education; its usefulness in developing thrift 
and industry; its value as a substitute for illegal child labor; and its 
justification in inculcating the joy of living. The bulletin also analyzes 
the methods of introducing gardening into the schools; describes the 
different types of gardens; shows the kinds of instruction and super- 
vision that have proved useful ; and goes somewhat into detail in plan- 
ning garden plats and the disposal of the garden crop. There are 
many suggestions that could well be adopted by rural schools or by those 
in the small towns. 

An Educational Program for the War. Suggestions for a pro- 
gram of school activity for different types of educational institutions 
during the war have just been issued by Dr. P. P. Claxton, United 
States Commissioner of Education. After pointing out that attendance 
laws should he enforced as usual, Dr. Claxton says : "Parents should 
be encouraged to make all possible efforts to keep their children in school 
and should have public or private help when they can not do so without 
it. Many young children will lack the home care given them in times 
of peace, and there will be need of many more kindergarten® and 
Montessori schools than we now have. The attendance in the high 
schools should be increased, and more boys and girls should be induced 
to remain until their course is completed. A school year of four terms 
of 12 weeks each is recommended for the high schools, as for the ele- 
mentary schools. In the high schools adopting this plan arrangements 
should be made for half-time attendance, according to the Fitchburg, 
Cincinnati, and Spartanburg, S. C, plans, for a large proportion of 
pupils as possible. All laboratories and manual-training shops in high 
schools should be run at their full capacity. In many of the shops work 
should be done which will have immediate value for the national de- 
fense. In all high schools in which domestic science (sewing, cooking, 
sanitation, etc.) is taught, large units of time should be given in the 
summer and fall to sewing for the Red Cross and for local charities. 
Classes for grown-up women should be formed in which practical in- 
struction can be given largely by lecture and demonstration in the 
conservation and economic use of food. 

High Cost of Living. Dr. P. P. Claxton, Commissioner of Educa- 
tion in the Department of the Interior, makes the following statement 
regarding the high cost of living and a partial solution of it : "Is there 
a remedy? There is a partial remedy at least, but not wholly in in- 

Reviews 171 

vestigations or legislation. This remedy is so simple and close at hand 
that, as is so frequently the case, it is overlooked. In the schools of 
the cities, towns, suburban communities, and manufacturing and mining 
villages of the United States there are approximately 6,000,000 boys 
and girls between the ages of nine and sixteen. Most of them are idle 
more than half of the year. They are in school less than 1,000 hours 
in the year, and allowing 10 hours a day for sleep, are out of school 
more than 4,000 waking hours, more than an average of nine hours a 
day, not counting Sundays. National and State laws make it impos- 
sible for most of them to do any profitable work in mill, mine or shop, 
and many of them are forming habits of idleness and falling into vice. 
Even during the vacation months only about 10 per cent have any 
profitable employment ; only about 5 per cent of them go away from 
their homes except for a few days. Still, they must live and be fed 
and clothed." The remedy is the vacant-lot or back-yard garden. 

Chapter XIX, Educational Hygiene, has this to say of military 
training in the schools: "Military training in the schools conceived 
as military drilling is undesirable and unavailing; military training 
conceived as a comprehensive) program of physical, moral, and civic 
education is desirable and even necessary," declares Dr. W. S. Small in 
a chapter on educational hygiene. Dr. Small points out that military 
training thus conceived "offers a possibility of unifying and ennobling 
the now confused and disjointed activities in the field of physical and 
moral discipline. The physical and moral values of both gymnastics 
and athletics are well understood, but both lack compresensive and 
unifying motive. All systems of gymnastics are individualistic. Their 
appeal is to the desire of the individual for physical perfection. Com- 
petition is narrowly individualistic. Systems of athletics are mostly 
based upon group competitions, and if properly managed are very 
valuable, not only for physical development, but also for training in 
the very fundamentals of social morality. But the philosophy of ath- 
letics is the philosophy of play, and the philosophy of play is the 
philosophy of instinct — a philosophy that is not comprehensive enough 
to serve as a sole basis of physical and moral education. Mili- 
tary training rightly conceived includes these motives and subordinates 
them to the ideal of patriotism." 


Annual Meeting 

The annual business meeting of the Alumnae Association was held 
Tuesday morning, June 5, at 10 :30 o'clock. The meeting was well at- 
tended, each class being represented except the class of 1911. The As- 
sociation has now 240 members. 

The meeting was presided over by the President, Estelle Greene. 
The minutes of the previous meeting were read by the Secretary, Mrs. 
Eula Proctor Greathouse, and were approved. The committees made 
their reports, and all unfinished business from the meeting of last year 
was taken up. The amount as reported for the Gymnasium Fund is 

The election of officers was held and resulted as follows: 

President, Estelle Greene. 

First Vice-President, Grace Smith. 

Second Vice-President Trilby Smith. 

Corresponding Secretary, Allen Gardner. 

Secretary-Treasurer, Eula Proctor Greathouse. 

Alumnae Editor of Training School Quarterly, Bettie Spencer. 



The following is a complete list of the alumnaa attending Commencement: 

Marguerite Davis Warren Greenville 

Eula Proctor Greathouse Rocky Mount 

Sadie Exum Greenville 

Hilda Critcher Greenville 

Estelle Greene Greenville 

Eloise Ellington Greenville 


Corinne Bright Washington 

Lela Deans Rhodes Wilson 

Mavis Evans Greenville 

Rosa Mae Wooton Greenville 

Emily Gayle Whiteville 

Blanche Lancaster Battleboro 

Carrie Manning Parmelee 

Addie Pearson Bailey 

Grace Smith Greenville 

Annie Smaw Henderson 

Mary Chauncey Belhaven 


Connie Bishop Wilson 

Clara Davis Wright Washington 

Alumnae 173 

Bettie Spencer Washington 

Rubelle Forbes Greenville 

Ernestine Forbes Greenville 

Clara Griffin Macclesfield 

Sallie Jackson Greenville 

Ruth Proctor Rocky Mount 

Millie Roebuck Robersonville 

Christine Johnston Greenville 

Christine Tyson Greenville 

Vera Mae Waters Pactolus 


Jessie Daniel Keysville, Va. 

Nellie Dunn Ahoskie 

Lela Durham Dallas 

Dinabel Floyd Fairmont 

Allen Gardner Warrenton 

Viola Gaskins Ayden 

Alice Herring Rocky Mount 

Georgia Keene New Bern 

Martha Lancaster Battleboro 

Lucile O'Brian Oxford 

Kathrine Parker 

Marjorie Pratt Marion 

Louise Smaw Henderson 

Trilby Smith . Greenville 

Alma Spivey Elizabeth City 

Lida Taylor Goldsboro 

Gladys Warren Greenville 

Eunice Vause Warsaw 

Lida Taylor, '16, and Lela Newman, '15, had a most successful year 
in the Aurora Graded School last winter. They gave an operetta, "A 
Day in Flowerdom," for commencement. Lida and Lela say that they 
almost lost their sweet dispositions while training the fifty wrigglers 
for this, hut they were well rewarded for their trouble on the final 
night. Lela will teach in the Durham Graded Schools next year. 

Edna Campbell, '11, taught Primary Methods at the Summer School 
of the University of Mississippi this summer. 

Gelene Ijames, '15, Euth Proctor, '15, Edna Stewart, '15, and Kate 
Tillery, '15, took special work at Chapel Hill this summer. 

Mary Chauncey, '14, as leader of the primary division of the Teach- 
ers Association of the "Warrenton Graded School, wrote a paper on 
Public School Music, and read it at one of the monthly meetings of the 
Association. She illustrated the paper by teaching a model lesson in 

174 The Training School Quarterly 

music. This paper was published in the county paper. Mary says 
that Warrenton is a splendid place, and it must be so as she expects to 
return in the fall. 

Estelle Greene, '12, Florence Blow, '12, Inez Pittman, '13, Juanita 
Dixon, Ml, Bettie Pearle Fleming, '13, Maude Anderson, '15, Nellie 
Koebuck, '15, Mattie Bright, '14, Bettie Spencer, '15, Emma Brown, '15, 
Ernestine Forbes, '15, Bubelle Forbes, '15, were among the students of 
the Training School this summer. 

Clara Davis Wright, '15, spent part of June at Shelby, her old home, 
and while there visited other places of interest in the mountains. 

Elizabeth Southerland, '16, attended the Lynch-Dnpree wedding in 
Greenville in June. 

Katie Sawyer, '15, and Leona Cox, '15, attended the summer session of 
the Cullowhee Training School this summer. 

Pearle Davis, '15, and Mabel Davis, '15, attended the Beaufort 
County Institute, which was held in Washington during the month of 

Gladys Fleming, '14, taught first and second grades at Watertown, 
Tenn., last year. During the winter her grades gave the play, "Sleep- 
ing Beauty," which was a crowning success. Ten bookcases for the 
school library were bought with the proceeds from the play. They now 
have $39 in the treasury of the Womens' Club for next year. 

Annie Smaw, '14, taught the ninth and tenth grades in the Franklin- 
ton graded school last winter. She organized a literary society in 
these grades which met every two weeks. The society gave a Bryant- 
Irving-Cooper program in November, a Christmas program in Decem- 
ber, and a Washington program in February. The debaters from this 
school won in the triangle debate and went to Chapel Hill. Their 
society also sent a representative to the Wake Forest Declamation 
contest. The Senior class gave the play, "All a Mistake." This was 
to raise money for a class gift to the school. 

Alice Medlin, '13, and Agnes Pegram, '14, taught in the Franklinton 
School also and gave an entertainment for the second and third grades 
this spring. 

Alumnae 175 

Christine Johnston, '15, writes from the Normal: 

"You ask what I am doing. Well, I'm getting ready for harder work 
next year. I'm going over my school days, but this time it is at the Normal 
instead of on 'the hill.' Really I can almost imagine myself at the Training 
School, for the atmosphere of work is the same. The problems of teachers 
seem to be the same the world over. 

"I often hear our school spoken of by both girls and teachers, and it does 
me good to see that people are realizing more and more the true worth of 
the Training School. It is worth a trip to the Normal to see the close rela- 
tion of the two schools. I am particularly interested in the playground work 
up here this summer, as I want to try it on our New Bern children next 

"Last year I did first grade work. Two other Training School girls, Willie 
Green Day, and Eliza Branch, were fellow-workers, while Miss Mollie Heath, 
who taught in the Model School one summer, was the source of help in solv- 
ing many problems. We always go back to our alma mater for help and 
are proud to be her daughters." 

Estelle Green, '12, did not teach last year, hut she is attending Sum- 
mer School and expects to return to the ranks and do her "hit" fighting 
for the cause. 

Nell Pender, '11, and Margaret Blow, '11, will teach in Charlotte 
next year. Margaret taught there last year. 

Kuebelle and Ernestine Forbes, '15, have been doing substitute work 
in Greenville, and will continue the same for the coming term. 

Mattie H. Bright, '14, goes to the Dixie School in Edgecombe County. 
She will have the intermediate grades. 

The following is a clipping from the Greenville Reflector: 

Memorial Baptist Church was the scene of a beautiful wedding Thursday 
afternoon, June 7, at 4:30 o'clock, when Miss Mary Lucy Dupree be- 
came the bride of Mr. John P. Lynch of Duke. The church was tastefully 
decorated for the occasion. The choir loft and rostrum were covered with 
white and banked with ferns and palms. Sweet peas were used in profusion, 
and the soft light from the many tapers added beauty to the scene. 

Mrs. Lina Baker furnished the wedding muisc and played several selections 
while the guests were assembling. She played Tannhauser's march as the 
bridal party entered and changed into Lohengrin's "Here Comes the Bride" 
as the bride appeared. Schubert's Serenade was softly played during the 
ceremony and Mendelssohn's Wedding March was used as a recessional. 
Just before the ceremony Miss Inez Pittman sweetly sang "At Dawning." 

[Here followed a description of the wedding. Bettie Pearl Fleming, '13, was 
one of the bridesmaids.] 

Immediately after the ceremony Mr. and Mrs. Lynch left on the Coast 
Line for a bridal tour, after which they will be at home in Duke. The bride 

176 The Training Schooi. Quarterly 

is the only daughter of Mrs. R. Hyman. She is attractive and popular among 
a wide circle of friends. The groom holds a responsible position in Duke. 
He has visited here several times and has won a host of friends. 

Millie Roebuck, '15, is spending most of her vacation in Hayne, Ark. 
She is visiting her brother and uncle. She writes interesting letters of 
the trip across the mountains, the stop in Memphis, crossing the Missis- 
sippi River and the section in which she is staying. She hopes to 
attend an institute while in Arkansas and says she hopes to show those 
people something about what our schools are doing, too. She stayed 
at the Training School for the first two weeks of the summer term. 

School Notes 

Celebration July 2 marked the ninth anniversary of the break- 

of "Founders ing of ground for the first building of the Training 

y School. Each year some special feature calls attention 

to the date. This year President Wright delivered an address to the 
school which carried the minds of the audience out from this actual 
spot into the great world events of today and finally brought them back 
home, but with vision broadened so that they could see the place of this 
school and the teachers of North Carolina in the world of the future. 

Mr. Wilson exhibited the shovel used in breaking the ground nine 
years ago and showed the picture taken of those who took part in that 
interesting ceremony. He referred to the beginning of the school and 
to those who saw the vision of the school, fixed it in mind and gave 
themselves to it. He said that he would not dwell upon the actual 
history of the school nor its wonderful growth, except to say that when 
these buildings were placed here the builders believed they had built 
for ten years at least, and more room was needed after the second year. 

"No other man in North Carolina has so clear a vision of the rural 
school as President Wright has, and no other man is better equipped 
for his place as leader," said Director Wilson in introducing President 
Wright. The address proved that he had a vision of the world-wide 
importance of the school-teacher. It is published in full in this num- 
ber of the Quarterly. 

Dr. Henry A. West, the new president of the Mary- 
A Visitor 

1 ''' Ut - r land State Normal School, which has recently been 

rebuilt and enlarged, was a visitor in the home of 
President Wright during the month of July. He and President Wright 
have been intimately associated in school work in Baltimore. Dr. West 
has for some time been professor of Secondary Education in the Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati. 

The faculty and students were fortunate in having the opportunity 
of meeting him and hearing him talk. He is a man of magnetism and 
force. In his talk he won his audience at first by indulging in pleas- 
antries and personalities, but after he had won them he turned swiftly 
and surely to the message he had for them. He talked on the move- 
ment to eliminate all things not useful, stressing the interpretation of 
the word useful. The word should have liberal significance, and what- 
ever has demonstrable good should be considered useful, he believes. 
Music, art, flowers to him are useful in this broader meaning of the 

He commented on the fact that he noticed soldiers guarding bridges 
as he came down. The schools should follow the example of the sol- 

178 The Training School Quarterly 

diers in service : they leave behind all the baggage they do not actually 
need. He said that the schools should ask tbe question, "What tradi- 
tional subjects do not operate? "What should be left out?" These 
should not be influenced by personal liking, age and traditions, or by 
anything except by the idea of usefulness in the broader sense. 

He stressed the importance now of teaching things in connection with 
events. He told of observing a class in Caesar which was studying the 
campaigns of Caesar that were exactly in the spot where the line of 
battle now is, and there had been absolutely no connecting of the two. 
The "Machinis bellis" had not been compared to the machines of war 
now. He urged the students to connect present situations with what- 
ever they teach. 

He suggested that teachers think of themselves as sentries watching 
bridges. "Have all the equipment necessary professionally, and have 
nothing that will take your minds from the work you are doing." 

D Dr. E. H. Broughton, president of the Baraca and 

Baraca- ° ' l 

Philathea Pbilatbea Sunday School classes of North Carolina, 

' SUO! visited the school on the morning of July 3, and talked 

to the students. It was especially interesting to hear a serious religious 
talk from a man who was neither a preacher nor a teacher. His topic 
was, "The life that wins is the life that puts I into action." He read 
the story of the blind man whose vision was restored by Christ, stressing 
the point that the man with one of his faculties closed did not refuse 
to allow Christ to operate on him. Although we have no interest in 
the egotist, the speaker said, we have no interest in the man who does 
not think well of himself and who does not put himself into whatever 
he does. 

Mr. W. Tom Bost, one of the best known newspaper men in the State, 
delivered an address at the school one evening in June. It was an 
earnest, sincere appeal to the students to live up to the highest and 
best in themselves. 

Dr. E. "W. Knight made a talk to the students at the morning Assem- 
bly the last morning he was here. He gave them some excellent points 
to think about and to put into practice as they go about their work 
nsxt year. 

Mrs. Hollowell was the first visitor to the summer school. She 
dropped in On us the second morning and made an excellent talk on 
the importance of fire prevention and ways and means of decreasing 
the fires in this State. 

School Notes 179 

„ . „ The whole attention in the Department of Home 

servation Economies this summer has been centered on the con- 

servation of food, methods of drying vegetables and 
fruits, putting up vegetables and fruits. The course sent out in outline 
by Mr. Hoover, food commissioner, will be given. The new method of 
preserving vegetables by fermentation is being tried out. The students 
were taught to can chicken because it is just as nice for salads and 
creamed chicken as the fresh chicken, and the chicken food is saved. 
How to preserve eggs in water-glass is one of the things learned, and 
how to pack butter. Convenient drying pans of wire-netting have been 
designed and made at the school. 

Mrs. Beckwith entertained the faculty and officers of the school on 
the evening of June 7. Rook was the order of the evening. A guess- 
ing contest caused a great deal of fun, as the guesses had to be made 
in rhvme. 

On Saturday evening, June 23, the students were 

' ooal given a delightful time socially. A faculty committee 

planned a series of amusements, and groups of students, 
with a guide, passed from one to another. In some places were con- 
tests, in others, story-telling and singing, and other things. Perhaps 
the most popular feature of the evening was a hypnotic stunt by Miss 

The Chautauqua continued through the second week of the summer 
school. The students attended well and enjoyed it greatly. 

The members of the faculty who are not on the campus this summer 
send in reports of pleasant vacations. 

Miss Graham is at the University of Chicago. 

Miss Davis is spending the summer in Montana. She will visit the 
State University. 

Misses Ray and Whiteside are at Peabody College for Teachers. 

Miss Hill is in Florida. 

Miss Muffly is spending the summer in her cottage at La Porte, Pa. 

Miss Fahnestock is at her home in Harrisburg, Pa. 

Miss Jones, President Wright's private secretary, is taking a vaca- 
tion this summer. Miss Blanche Cromartie is taking her place during 
her absence. 

The Young Women's Christian Association has been continued during 
the summer. It has been under the leadership of Miss Bernie Allen, 

180 The Training School Quarterly 

a member of next year's Senior Class. President Wright led the 
services on the first Sunday evening. He made a strong talk on the 
divine in each human being. Some man from the faculty has led the 
services each evening. These talks have been inspiring and helpful 
to the students. 

Dr Ro d ^ r ' Howard Rondthaler, president of Salem College, 

thaler a early in the summer when in Greenville as the guest of 

the Salem Alumnae Association of Greenville and Pitt 
County, visited the Training School and made an address to the stu- 
dents at the morning assembly hour. His magnetic personality made 
a deep impression on the students. He gave three reasons why he was 
especially interested in the Training School, two of them personal and 
one professional. The professional reason was that he had read the 
catalogue of the school and had found the school was absolutely true 
to its catalogue, it was a school doing one specific thing, and claiming 
to do no other; that means strict honesty of purpose and fulfillment. 
One of the personal reasons was that he had met students from this 
school at the Y. W. C. A. Conference at Blue Ridge and had been 
impressed with the representation from the school. The other personal 
reason was that he had known the president of the school for years. 
After these opening personal remarks, Dr. Rondthaler passed swiftly 
on to some of the interesting things of the day and stressed the idea 
that the schools must hold fast to what is good. 

Dr. Rondthaler comes from a school that has seen every war the 
nation has had. Salem was established in 1772. He said that he 
slipped out one night and tried to listen for the spirit of the place that 
had known seven times national war. "War," he said, "is abnormal. 
There are people who can look beyond and have faith to believe that 
out of war will come a greater peace." He asked the question, What 
are we to do? After all, he thinks, the thing for each one to do is to 
do better the thing he has been doing. This is a high type of patriot- 
ism. This school he praised because it is absolutely true to its dis- 
tinctive task; others have become blurred and confused. "The whole 
knowing State admire this institution for its fidelity to its task." 

The Junior Class (Class of '18) has sent a box of 

Red Cross garments to the Red Cross Society. The box contained 

Work & -iii 

48 pajamas, 24 hospital shirts, 24 bath robes, 60 pairs 

socks, and 24 pairs slippers. The box cost $80. For this the class 

taxed themselves to the extent of $50. The Class of '19 generously 

helped by contributing the money for the slippers, which cost $6. At 

Commencement they had not secured the money for the socks. The 

School Notes 181 

Class of '16 gave $4.50 for these, and that went a long ways towards 
getting them. Members of the faculty as individuals gave the money 
for most of the robes. 

In the sewing the class has many, many friends to thank. Those of 
the class who could sew well stood faithfully by the task until Com- 
mencement. As the work was not started until the second week in 
May there was not very much time. The Senior sewing-bee started 
the work, and from then the Red Cross sewing has been going on. 

The members of the class who remained during the summer com- 
pleted the pajamas and corrected garments, and helped direct the mak- 
ing of the robes. The summer students have had several sewing-bees, 
making many of the robes. Some members of the faculty and officers 
have been very kind. Mrs. Austin has given generous aid, and Mr. 
Wilson's mother, and his mother-in-law, Mrs. Mangum, have been veri- 
table button-hole factories. 

The work has been an inspiration to many, and a number of girls 
who caught the fever here are working in the Red Cross work at home. 

Sixteen women of the faculty sent a box of bandages in the late 
spring. They met one evening a week for some time and rolled ban- 

„ . May 14 was Junior-Senior Day at the Training 

and Patriotic School. In the afternoon from 4 to 6 o'clock the Jun- 
y iors, Seniors, teachers, and officers of the school sewed, 

making garments for a box for the Red Cross Society. This was the 
first part of the entertainment which the Juniors gave in honor of the 
Seniors. In the evening from 8 to 10:30, a patriotic party was the 
second part. The afternoon was for work and the evening, reward for 
work done. 

The annual reception given to the Seniors by the Juniors is one of 
the chief social events of the year. This year the Juniors felt that it 
was not in keeping with the spirit of the times to devote all the time 
and money to the social side. They decided to have simple refresh- 
ments and inexpensive decorations and put most of the money on sup- 
plies for the Red Cross, and have the Seniors and faculty assist them 
in preparing the box. 

Some of the merchants were kind to them, letting them have material 
at low prices. Members of the faculty kindly helped them to plan the 
work and get it ready so that the work during the sewing-bee would 
count for a great deal. This part of the work would have been impos- 
sible without the direction and assistance of Miss Armstrong, teacher 
of Home Economics. Seventy-two garments were cut ready for the 
machine or for hand-sewing. 

As the guests arrived there was no time lost. Each one drew for a 
working place. At each place was a Junior who had work ready at her 

182 The Training School Quarterly 

machine, and a few minutes after the guests arrived there were twenty- 
three groups of six each, all busily sewing. 

There were instructors, girls keeping supplies and materials straight, 
and others who were ready to act as aids, attaching themselves to any 
group that needed assistance. The work was carefully organized, so 
that everybody had something to do. 

Two rooms and the corridors on the first floor of the Administration 
building were used* These were decorated with flags, class pennants, 
and flowers. In the center of each table was a vase of red, white and 
blue flowers, corn flowers, poppies, and white roses. The corn flower is 
the Senior flower. The Juniors wore white middy suits. Every one 
present had a red cross pinned on the arm. The groups of workers 
made a charming picture. 

At the end of the first hour's work recess was announced. All dropped 
work while iced tea was served. During the intermission toasts were 
proposed to President Wilson, to our soldier boys, and to the Red Cross 
Society; for the navy Miss Lula Ballance sang "Heave-Ho, My Lads," 
and the Juniors joined in the chorus. 

When the 6 o'clock whistle blew many seemed to hate to leave their 
work and lingered on. Later smaller groups met and continued until 
all of the garments are completed. 


At 8 o'clock the crowd reassembled on the third floor. This time 
all were in light dresses ready for a good time socially. Girls dressed 
as nurses met the guests at the head of the steps, and led them to the 
receiving line. Here the class adviser, Miss Jenkins, introduced them 
to the line, Miss Thelma White, president of the Junior Class, Presi- 
dent Wright, Mrs. Beckwith, the lady principal, and Mr. Meadows, 
the Senior Class adviser. 

Girls dressed in Boy Scout suits then took charge of the guests and 
led them to either the army or navy recruiting tent where they enlisted, 
each one signing her name by a number. Somewhere there was a lucky 
number that meant a prize. The Seniors were conscripted and had to 
sign their names in a booklet. After the enlisting the guests were led 
across the hall and given seats. Uncle Sam and a drummer boy led 
in a procession of girls in costumes representing the Army, Wavy, the 
Red Cross, France, John Bull, Belgium, Russia, Italy, and the figures 
of Justice, Democracy, Liberty, Humanity, etc. Juniors not in cos- 
tume were grouped near the piano, and as those in costume marched 
around the room all sang patriotic songs. A Red Cross poem was read 
by Miss Luna Lassiter, and a Senior, Miss Ophelia O'Brian, responded 
by reading a poem. 

The most interesting feature of the latter part of the evening was 
the distribution of the favors. The Seniors were asked to gather in a 

School Notes 183 

group. Instead of calling the name of the Senior for whom one of 
the mysterious boxes was intended, the president of the Junior Class 
gave some bit of fun characterizing the Senior and made them guess 
who it was. The favors were thimbles. 

The book which contained the names of the Seniors was presented 
to the Senior Class adviser by President Wright. He also presented 
the lucky-number prize to the winner, Miss Vennelle Worthington. 

The last thing of the evening was a grand march in German style. 

The students of the Latin Department of the Train- 
p? tln ing School, under the direction of Miss Waitt, teacher 

of Latin, gave an exceedingly interesting Latin play on 
Monday evening, May 21. The play, "A Roman Wedding," by Susan 
Payon, was arranged for four scenes — the introduction which gave a 
scene in Cicero's home, the Sponsalia, or the betrothal, the Nuptials, or 
the wedding ceremony, and the deduction, or the procession to the 
groom's house. It made the marriage customs of the Romans very 
clear and vivid to the audience. The lines were in Latin, and even 
though some could not follow the lines all could follow the events from 
the action and the expression. 

... . Hon. James H. Pou delivered a great war address 

Address by ° 

Hon. James on the evening of July 16. This was Red Cross even- 

• u ing at the Training School. Miss Pattie Wooten, pres- 

ident of the Greenville Chapter of the Red Cross, and Mrs. Ficklen,. 
secretary, and Mr. Austin, representative of the Pitt County Chapter, 
were on the rostrum. Director Wilson introduced the speaker. At 
the close of the evening Mr. Austin presented the cause of the Red 
Cross to the audience urging those who had not joined to join on that 

Mr. Pou gave a comprehensive review of the history of Germany 
during the last century, tracing tendencies and traits of the people, and 
showing how the present situation is a logical result of the series of 
events that have carried her farther and farther away from liberty^ 
He drew a fine contrast between the French and the German people, 
proving that the growth and development of liberty in the one had a 
spiritual blossoming, and the crushing of liberty in the other had 
reached its climax in a mighty materialism. The address was rich in 
historical matter, in a logical development of causes and effects, and 
was excellent in its interpretation of national character and reactions. 

A full report of the address will probably appear in the next issue of 
the Quarterly. It was too late for it to be published in full in this 

184 The Training School Quarterly 

Work on the Model School will begin at once, so as 

Addition 1 * 001 to have h ready for the P enin g in tne fal1 - Plans 
have been accepted and contracts let. A full story will 

be added. 

Mr. W. C. Crosby, the Executive Secretary of Community Work, 
spoke on the evening of July 9, and again at assembly hour the next 
morning. He delighted the students with stories that were rich, rare, 
and racy. Each story, however, had a point that flashed on some prob- 
lem in community service. Sometimes the story was sufficient to stand 
without application, and again it was aptly applied. 

Hon. A. D. Ward of New Bern, one of the most prominent lawyers 
in eastern North Carolina made a talk to the students of the Training 
School on the evening of July 22. Director Wilson, in his introduc- 
tion, said he wished the students to get the point of view of a man who 
had been a teacher, a farmer, and a lawyer — a three-fold view from 
such a man would have valuable suggestions and observations. Mr. 
Ward's talk was practical, informal, and was evidently from a rich 
life experience. 

The Summer Term 

The members of the regular faculty that remained for the summer 
term are: Mr. C. W. Wilson, who is Director of the Summer Term; 
Messrs. Austin, Meadows, and Underwood; Misses Comfort, Lewis, 
Armstrong, Jenkins, Maupin, Herman, Sherman, McFadyen, and Mor- 
ris. Following is the list of the teachers from other places who are 
members of the summer faculty : 

W. R. Mills, superintendent of the Louisburg Graded Schools, has 
pedagogy. He was a member of the faculty last summer. 

Mr. Hunter, who teaches History in the Atlanta School of Tech- 
nology, is teaching History here. He is a native of Sampson County 
and a graduate of Trinity College. His first teaching was in this 

Dr. E. W. Knight, the newly elected superintendent of Wake County, 
who was until recently professor of Education at Trinity College, taught 
History during the first month of the summer term. 

Mr. Long, superintendent of Northampton County, is teaching His- 
tory the second month of the term. 

Mr. Hoy Taylor, superintendent of Greenville Public Schools, is 
teaching Mathematics. 

Miss Eva Manor has charge of Public School Music. She is super- 
visor of Public School Music in the Durham City Schools. 

Miss Fannie McPhail has charge of Primary Methods. She is super- 
visor of Consolidated Schools in Stevens County, Oklahoma. She has 
been specializing in Primary Education at Peabody College for Teach- 
ers during the past year. 

Miss Maude Rogers has the special sixth and seventh grades at the 
Model School. Miss Rogers does special grade work in the Durham 
Schools. She was in the Model School faculty last summer. 

Miss Nan Lacy, who is a regular teacher in the Raleigh schools, has 
the second grade in the Model School. Miss Morris, who usually has 
the second grade, is teaching the third grade during the summer. 



Up to the 9th of July, 334 students registered for the summer term. 
These are from 43 counties. They teach in 48 counties. 

Teachers of one-teacher schools 58 

Primary teachers 60 

Teachers of Intermediate grades 25 

Principals 8 

Teachers in private schools 2 

High School teachers 1 

186 The Training School Quarterly 

The remainder have not taught, hut most of them are planning to 
teach this fall. 

Number who have attended the Training School before, 102. 
Number of High School graduates, 101. 

Three young women who were members of the Senior Class, hut who 
had not taken the complete work, returned this summer and expect to 
get their diplomas at the close of the su mm er term. These are : 

Elizabeth Baker Fairmont, Robeson County 

Eunice Hoover Old Trap, Union County 

Eula Pappindick Elizabeth City, Pasquotank County 

The following students expect to complete the three terms of the one- 
year professional course and will get the certificate from the school : 

Ruth Austin Delia Smith 

Bessie Barnhill Mrs. Florence Thorne 

Almira Godfrey Alma Vickers 

Alia Mae Jordan Mary Willey 

The following is the roll by counties : 

Ayre, Lee Belhaven 

Bennett, Sallie Edward 

Best, Carrie Edward 

Bishop, Phrocine Belhaven 

Bonner, Gaynelle Bonnerton 

Bright, Mattie H Washington 

Brown, Mabel Pinetown 

Carawan, Lizzie Belhaven 

Carter, Estelle Pungo 

Clark, Anna B Washington 

Collins, Velma Belhaven 

Credle, Leathia Belhaven 

Cutler, Olive Washington 

Edwards, Amanda Blount's Creek 

Elsworth, Mary Lillian Washington 

Ferrell, Beatrice Edward 

Gaskins, Louise Aurora 

Giles, Brownie Washington 

Gradeless, Viola Belhaven 

Gurganus, Eva Belhaven 

Hardy, May Aurora 

Harris, Mary Emma Royal 

Hodges, Annie L Washington 

Price, Fannie Aurora 

Sawyer, Ruth Belhaven 

Spencer, Bettie Washington 

Swanner, Ava Belle Washington 

Ward, Clara Washington 

Warren, Lily Mae Chocowinity 

Summer Teem 187 

Beaufort — Continued : 

Whitley, Goldie Surry 

Williams, Delia Washington 

Winfield, Mattie Pantego 

Woolard, Mrs. S. A Washington 


Bazemore, Eva Lewiston 

Plythe, Jessie Roxobel 

Joyner, Dayloe Aulander 

Keeter, Fannie Avoca 

Lawrence, Sophia Avoca 

Miller, Hallie Colerain 

Phelps, Ferol E Windsor 

Vaughan, Sallie Ahoskie 

White, Janie C Aulander 


Caine, Ora Lee White Oak 

Edge, Plana White Oak 

McDuffie, Lula Ruskin 

Melvin, Ruby Elizabethtown 

Vickers, Alma Ruskin 


Price, Esther Southport 

Tharp, Susie Town Creek 


Mitchell, Bettie Old Trap 

Pugh, Janie Old Trap 

Tillitt, Arc Belcross 


Bell, Blanche Morehead City 

Hardesty, Maybelle Harlowe 

Stewart, Maude Gloucester 


Boyce, Beulah Tyner 

Foxwell, Mary A Edenton 

Morris, Ada Edenton 


Nance, Lelabelle Evergreen 

Wells, Elizabeth Acme 


Arthur, Amy Askin 

Bonner, Celia Askin 

Bonner, Ella W Askin 

West, Etta Dover 


Grumpier, Hosic Stedman 

Geddie, Hettie V Fayetteville 

Monroe, Alice Manchester 


Austin, Ruth Corolla 

Lewark, Odessa Seagull 

Gregory, Maude A Jarvisburg 

188 The Training School Quarterly 


Creef , Mary East Lake 

Midyette, Evy Manteo 

Miller, Nannie Buxton 

Sanderlin, Jessie East Lake 

Twiford, Florence Sycamore 

Twif ord, Gercia Sycamore 


Clifton, Ethel Faison 

Carr, Ollie Mae Teachey 

Dixon, Myrtle Rose Hill 

Goodson, Alvie Mount Olive 

Jones, Martha Catherine Lake 

Marshburn, Addie Wallace 

Outlaw, Stella Seven Springs 

Perrett, Mary Faison 

Sandlin, Jennie Beulaville 

Simmons, Dearie Seven Springs 

Smith, Johnnie Albertson 

Whitfield, Blanche Mount Olive 

Whitfield, Mabel Mount Olive 


Crisp, Cinnie Pinetops 

Moses, Ellen Tarboro 

Powell, Kate Rocky Mount 

Taylor, Enid Bethel 

Thorne, Mrs Pinetops 

Whichard, Minnie Butue 


House, Nannie Spring Hope 

Harper, Lillian Castalia 

Lamm, Pattie Mapleville 

Perry, Florence Franklinton 

Sledge, Clara Louisburg 

Tharrington, Emma Louisburg 

Gates : 

Hobbs, Abbie Belvidere 

Hollowell, Carrie Hobbsville 

Rountree, Ellie Hobbsville 

Russell, Sibyl Hobbsville 


Brooks, Mayme Snow Hill 

Sugg, Callie Kinston 

Taylor, Mary Snow Hill 

Halifax : 

Britt, Urma Enfield 

Boyce, Elizabeth Littleton 

Currie, Bessie Enfield 

Lowe, Ruby Scotland Neck 

Myrick, Annie Littleton 

Vick, Mary Enfield 

Willey, Mary Enfield 

Williams, Sallie J Airlie 

Summer Term 189 


Godwin, Meta Dunn 


Cobb, Julia B Ahoskie 

Sumner, Estelle Aulander 

Sumner, Ethel Aulander 

Watford, Eva Winton 


Bragg, Kathleen Ocracoke 

Cox, Blanche B Middletown 

Lavender, Helen Lake Landing 

Mann, Edna Edna 

Murray, Blanche Lake Landing 

Williams, Pink Scranton 

Williams, Ruby Swan Quarter 

Williams, Viola Swan Quarter 


Bailey, Annie Selma 

Creech, Maggie Benson 

Etheridge, Ida Kenly 

Godwin, Lerma Benson 

Godwin, Bessie Benson 

Johnson, Cora Benson 

Moore, Cecil Pair Oaks 

Pope, Pearl Kenly 

Sanders, Sallie Pour Oaks 

Turlington, Callie Benson 


Hurst, Minnie Maysville 

Mattox, Beatrice Maysville 


Jarrell, Edna Jonesboro 

Thomas, Katie Jonesboro 


Carr, Ina Mae Kinston 

Cauley, Mary Kinston 

Croom, Rebecca Kinston 

Kennedy, Jessie La Grange 

Russell, Bessie Lee La Grange 

Sugg, Glenn Kinston 

Martin : 

Ange, Eva Gladys Jamesville 

Davenport, Maggie Hamilton 

Hough, Nina Everett's 

Hines, Irma Hamilton 

Holliday, Ruth Jamesville 

Roberson, Annie Parmele 

Robertson, Mary Hamilton 

Rogers, Olivia Hamilton 

Teel, Ray Everett's 

190 The Training School Quarterly 


Alford, Eleanor Middlesex 

Boone, Eugenia Castalia 

Daniel, Sarah Middlesex 

Lancaster, Maude Castalia 

Lewis, Leigh Middlesex 

Luper, Maggie Sharpsburg 

Morgan, Essie Middlesex 

White, Ollie Middlesex 

New Hanover: 

Brown, Vila Lee Wilmington 


Brown, Emma J Rich Square 

Britton, Mary L Seaboard 

Britton, Elizabeth Conway 

Elliott, Lucy Rich Square 

Johnson, Mildred Woodward 

Nelson, Mary Rich Square 

Parker, Audrey Seaboard 


Basden, ^va Richlands 

Beasley, Eva Snead's Ferry 

Dixon, Ethel Verona 

Edens, Pearl Holly Ridge 

Everett, Millie Holly Ridge 

Hewitt, Lillie Catherine Lake 


Bennette, Cassie Arapahoe 

Brinson, Minnie Arapahoe 

Brinson, Maude Arapahoe 

Cutler, Mamie Alliance 

Dawson, Joella Bayboro 

James, Lillie Merritt 

Miller, Belle Maribel 

Ensley, Beatrice Arapahoe 


Ives, Sarah Okesko 

Lister, Maude Elizabeth City 

Pappindick, Eula Elizabeth City 

Pender : 

Fisher, Berta Maple Hill 

Johnson, Annie Willard 

King, Eva Sloop Point 

Sidbury, Edith Scott's Hill 

Walker, Lena Burgaw 

Wells, Callie Willard 

Perquimans : 

Barclift, Lessie Durant's Neck 

Chappell, Luna Belvidere 

Godfrey, Almira Hertford 

Summer Term 191 


Ashley, Eva Roxboro 

Brooks, Annie Roxboro 

Hall, Alma Roxboro 

Wilkerson, Mary Roxboro 


Allen, Bernie Winterville 

Andrews, Ruth Bethel 

Barnhill, Bessie Greenville 

Bryan, Annie Greenville 

Blow, Margaret Greenville 

Barwick, Ruth Grif ton 

Carroll, Annie Greenville 

Cox, Blanche B Winterville 

Cox, Carey Winterville 

Cox, Lena Winterville 

Caraway, Mrs. W. B Farmville 

Edmonson, Clyde Bethel 

Exum, Geneva Greenville 

Exum, Novella Greenville 

Exum, Rosa a . . Greenville 

Everett, Johnnie H Stokes 

Forbes, Ernestine Greenville 

Forbes, Rubelle Greenville 

Fleming, Bettie Pearl Greenville 

Godley, Ethel Grimesland 

Greene, Estelle Greenville 

Harper, Clara Belle Winterville 

Harris, Lucy Greenville 

Jenkins, Leota Greenville 

Johnson, Dorothy Winterville 

. Jones, Clara Greenville 

Kittrell, Annie Grimesland 

Kittrell, Olive Grimesland 

Lee, Maude Greenville 

Lister, Goldie Greenville 

Moore, Madeline Bethel 

Moye, Bessie Lee Greenville 

Munford, Katie Greenville 

Parker, Reid Falkland 

Pender, Nell Greenville 

Pollard, Madeline House 

Purser, W. H Vanceboro 

Rountree, Louise Greenville 

Smith, Delia Greenville 

Smith, Ethel Greenville 

Taylor, Ruth Greenville 

Teel, Claudia Greenville 

Thomas, Edith Stokes 

Vincent, B. F Greenville 

Whitehead, Minnie Winterville 

Wooten, Helen Chicod 

Worthington, Isabelle Winterville 

192 The Training School Quarterly 


Baker, Elizabeth Fairmont 

Blackwell, Lillian Lumberton 

Bracey, Carolina Rowland 

Bracey, Kate Rowland 

Powell, Mattie Lumberton 

Steele, Marjorie .Lumberton 


Daughtry, Eva Paison 

Greene, Hettie . . : Parkersburg 

Hunter, Daisy Turkey 

Lewis, Ruth Clinton 

McLamb, Flossie Newton Grove 


Jones, Hettie Gum Neck 


Newton, Bessie Lee Kittrell 


Coley, Alice Raleigh 

Dunn, Mary Raleigh 

Jordan, Alia Mae McCullers 

Warren : 

Clark, Jimmie Inez 

Robertson, Mabel Marmaduke 


Allen, Maude Plymouth 

Barco, Ethel Roper 

Barco, Lillie Roper 

Bateman, Clara Plymouth 

Davenport, Mary Plymouth 

Minnie Hodges Mackey's 

Norman, Stella Creswell 

Spruill, Lula Creswell 

Swindell, Alethia Creswell 

Williams, Gladys Creswell 

Woodley, Annie Creswell 

Wayne : 

Becton, Cora Lee Fremont 

Grantham, Annie Bentonville 

Jernigan, Callie Genoa 

Jones, Elberta Mount Olive 

McCullen, Georgia Mount Olive 

Pipkin, Mary Goldsboro 

Smith, Chloe Goldsboro 

Suther, Anna Goldsboro 

Suther, Evelyn Goldsboro 

Taylor, Sallie Mount Olive 

Taylor, Stella Mount Olive 


Mills, Katherine Rocky Mount 

Windley, May Portsmouth 

Summer Term 193 

The students who entered after July 9 are as follows: 

Batts, Nannie Macclesfield, Edgecombe County- 
Bowling, Nannie Greenville, Pitt County 

Bowers, Martha Littleton, Halifax County 

Bulluck, M. Georgia Battleboro, Edgecombe County 

Council, Helen Hamilton, Martin County 

Darden, E. Jeannette Hertford, Perquimans County 

Eason, Nina Belle Tyner, Chowan County 

Edwards, J. H Mount Olive, Wayne County 

Futrell, Bessie Rich Square, Northampton County 

Gaynor, Eva Farmville, Pitt County 

Harrell, Lillie M Colerain, Bertie County 

Jackson, Sallie Greenville, Pitt County 

Jones, Valeria Eureka, Wayne County 

Kirman, Cora V Marshallburg, Carteret County 

Matthews, Mamie L Littleton, Halifax County 

McCallum, Eva Rowland, Robeson County 

White, Mary M Colerain, Bertie County 

Williams, Bettie Ahoskie, Bertie County 

These bring the number for the summer to 352. 

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©ttobtx, Mobtmbtv, ©ecemtoer 

Table of Contents 

The Joyner School 196 

No Compromise Peace 199 

James H. Pou. 

What Shall We Teachers Do? 208 


Food Production and Conservation in North Carolina 212 

J. P. Lucas. 

The Quest of Pood Substitutes 216 

Martha Abmstbono. 

War Reminiscences 217 

Miles O. Sherrill. 

Patriotic Music in the Grades 220 

Sallie Best. 

Address on the Maryland School System 223 

Samuel M. Noeth. 

Impressions of the University of Chicago 226 

Maria B. Graham. 

Editorials 231 

Departments — 
Suggestions : 

Conversation Lessons on the Home 237 

The Harvest as a Language Topic 239 

Indian Legends 241 

Assignments for Teaching Pandora. 243 

Checking-up Thought-Getting 244 

A Columbus Contest ' 245 

Language and Number Work 247 

Cutting of Playground Games 248 

Random Suggestions for Opening Exercises • 249 

Notes from Observers 250 

Reviews 252 

Alumnse 261 

School Activities 269 

School News 277 

-,_.*»V - :'■■& ' '■v.^ , ^.i 

(1 and 3) The Joyner School the Opening Day. 

(2) President Wright, Superintendent Underwood, and the Faculty of the School 

Wi)t framing ikftool (©uarterlp 

Vol. 4 October, November, December, 1917. No. 3 

The Public Schools and World Democracy 

To School Officers: 

The war is bringing to the minds of our people a new 
appreciation of the problems of national life and a deeper 
understanding of the meaning and aims of democracy. 
Matters which heretofore hare seemed commonplace and 
trivial are seen in a truer light. The nrgent demand for 
the production and proper distribution of food and other 
national resources has made us aware of the close depend- 
ence of individual on individual and nation on nation. 
The effort to keep np social and industrial organization in 
spite of the withdrawal of men for the army has revealed 
the extent to which modern life has become complex and 

These and other lessons of the war must be learned 
quickly if we are intelligently and successfully to defend 
our institutions. "When the war is over we must apply the 
wisdom which we have acquired in purging and ennobling 
the life of the world. 

In these vital tasks of acquiring a broader view of 
human possibilities the common school must have a large 
part. I urge that teachers and other school officers in- 
crease materially the time and attention devoted to instruc- 
tion bearing directly on the problems of community and 
national life. 

Such a plea is in no way foreign to the spirit of Ameri- 
can public education or of existing practices. Nor is it a 
plea for a temporary enlargement of the school program 
appropriate merely to the period of the war. It is a plea 
for a realization in public education of the new emphasis 
which the war has given to the ideals of democracy and to 
the broader conception of national life. 


The Joyner School 

A Model Rural School 

The East Carolina Teachers Training School from its 
Plans and beginning has held to the idea that about 85 per cent of 

its students should teach country children, since about 
85 per cent of our people live in the country, or small villages. We 
do not believe that all of our students should go to the country districts 
any more than we believe all of our students should go into the graded 
schools. This being a State institution, we believe that it is our duty to 
prepare for all of the public schools of the State. 

It has been our desire to have connected with the Training School a 
real country school, but until recently we have not been able to do so. 
We hold to the idea that if children are transported from the country 
into the towns that we cannot in that way get a country school. All 
propositions for transferring of students in the town's graded school, 
the idea of building a one-room rural school in the town and transport- 
ing children to it, or the idea of having an ungraded group as a country 
school, has never met with my approval, because no one of these plans 
will give a country school. Unless the school is in the country, with 
country ideals and standards, with the country environment, it can never 
be called a typical country school. 

Since the Training School opened we have been forced to do our ob- 
servation and practice teaching in the four-room Model School. (This 
building is now being enlarged to am eight-room school). This is, of 
necessity, graded school work, but it was the only thing available. The 
result has been that we have not been able to do observation and prac- 
tice work for the rural schools; but the work however, in our Model 
School, and the type of teacher employed by the school as critic teacher, 
has been making itself felt in our town and community. The improve- 
ment of the roads and the fact that a few of our graduates came from 
the neighborhood of the Joyner School has led this community to get 
interested and, as a result, in May of this year, we were asked by the 
school committeemen through the County Superintendent to take over 
the Joyner School and make of it a Model School for teachers of rural 
schools, along the same general lines of our Model Graded School. This 
school has enough students to be developed into a full-fledged three-room 
country school. As our State Department of Education is trying to 
make the three-teacher school the State's type of country school, and as 
the Training School needs very much a country school for observation 
and practice purposes, when the matter was placed before our Board of 
Trustees, June 5, and they were told that this is our opportunity — the 

The Joyner School 197 

one we have been looking for for eight years — "It was moved and sec- 
onded that the Training School take over the Joyner School, to be used 
as a Model School, at a cost not to exceed $500. Unanimously car- 
ried." This extract from the Minutes of the Board shows clearly that 
not only the teachers and officers in the Training School, but that the 
Board of Trustees, realize the importance of having a school of this 

The appropriation allowed for this school is to cover the expense of 
the transportation of students from the Training School to the Joyner 
School, and to supplement the county funds for salaries for teachers. 

The school committeemen have not relinquished any of their authority 
in connection with the school, only with reference to teachers. They 
have left it entirely with the President of the Training School and the 
County Superintendent to secure the teachers for this school. 

This is the first school in our State to be taken over by a normal 
school and used as a training school for rural teachers. 

Robert H. Wright, 
President East Carolina Teachers Training School. 

To the Pitt County school administration the taking 

Inspiration over of tne j oyner School by the East Carolina Teaich- 

to Others . . _ f ... . T 

ers Training School comes as a distinct opportunity. It 

is a pleasure to us to put this school at their disposal, and to cooperate 
with them in every possible way. Building up a strong three-teacher 
school at this point will be a wonderful stimulus to every other school 
in the county. We can go there for inspiration and suggestion in the 
solution of many problems. We hope to use the teachers of this school, 
and their experiences, in our teachers' meetings and in various other 
ways for aid in the county work. 

Perhaps the most valuable service the school will render the county 
will be as an object lesson to show other communities what such a 
school can and will accomplish in a community. We hope and believe 
that it will lead to the strengthening of our whole system. 

We regard it as a wonderful opportunity, and we hope we can rise to 
the occasion and take full advantage of it. S. B Underwood 

County Superintendent. 

This Year's 

The plans for the Joyner School, as placed before the 
teachers, are of broad and farsighted significance. With 
President Bobert H. Wright, Superintendent S. B. Un- 
derwood, and the whole Training School back of these, we hope to ob- 
tain a solution to ai problem that has not yet been satisfactorily solved in 

198 The Training School Quarterly 

our State — that of the three-teacher rural school. To accomplish this, 
we want, and must have, first, the cooperation of the students, and, 
second, the whole-hearted cooperation of the community ; and we believe 
we shall get both. 

As yet the development of our plans is in its first stage. The grada- 
tion of the students is not permanently settled, the sanitary conditions 
in and around the building are not the best, neither is the comfort of 
the house desirable on a cool day. But we are taking hold of things as 
they are, working towards things as they ought to be. 

Thus the social and physical problems of the community are before 
us first. We hope at the end of our seven months term to leave the 
Joyner School not only the social center for the teachers and students, 
but for the whole community. Nancy F. Wall, Principal. 

On Sunday afternoon, prior to the opening of our 
The First school on Monday, there were special services held at 

our school building. Besides the regular minister, Kev. 
J. M. Daniel of Greenville, there were present President Bobert H. 
Wright, Superintendent S. B. Underwood, and Mr. C. W. Wilson, all 
of whom made fitting remarks to the patrons and friends of our school, 
as to what the school really means to them, and asking their coopera- 
tion in carrying out the plans involved. This was really a preparation 
for the problems with which we have to deal. 

On October 15 we began our work with thirty-six students. Since 
then our enrollment has reached fifty-eight, twenty-five of whom are 
in the higher fifth, seventh, and eighth grades, fifteen are in the inter- 
mediate, or third, fourth, and lower fifth grades, and eighteen are in the 
primary, or first and second grades. The primary teacher has charge 
of a music class of eleven pupils. 

Like other rural schools, we have to deal with poor readers, but with 
continued effort on our part we hope to teach them how to read -and then 
we will be better able to decide in what grade each child should be. 

To help us solve the social problems of the community, we had a mis- 
cellaneous program on Friday afternoon, November 2, to which the 
patrons of the school were invited. Only a few responded to the invi- 
tation, but those present, together with the teachers, formulated plans 
for a big Community Bally and Improvement Day on the following Fri- 
day, November 9. We are trying "to serve," and we must succeed. 

Mary Newby White, 
Teacher of Intermediate Grades. 

No Compromise Peace 

(Speech delivered by James H. Pou of Raleigh on Founders' Day, Trinity 
College, Trinity Park, Durham, N. C, October 2, 1917.) 

PEACE is not near. Peace at this time would not be a blessing. 
Peace at this time could not be a good peace. Peace at this 
time would be peace only in name. At best, it would only be 
a compromise — a truce, in which to prepare for a recommencement of 
war. Peace now would be like those of Ryswick, Aix-la-Chapelle, and 
Amiens — a mere breathing spell before renewing the titanic struggle. 
Such a peace would be a calamity almost as great as the war ; for soon 
as it were made every country would begin feverishly, and to the limit 
of its power, preparing for the war which all would know was just 
ahead. There would be no time to develop the occupations of peace, 
nor time to repair the ravages or assuage the sufferings of this war. 
We would work under the shadow of war; and in our sleep the night- 
mare of war would ever haunt us. If peace were a compromise, all the 
blood spilled and all the treasure spent will have been in vain. But 
if the Great Alliance shall win a complete victory, the war will be 
worth all it will have cost ; for this world will have endured its supreme 
tragedy, and a better day and a better world will be at hand. 

A compromise peace would be an illogical conclusion to this war. 
This war is not merely a conflict between nations and peoples, on a 
collossal scale. It is this and more. It is an irrepressible struggle for 
world supremacy between two conflicting and irreconcilable ideas. If 
either of these ideas shall decisively win, this will be the last great war. 
The world will hereafter, in such case, live under the dominion of force, 
directed from Berlin; or it will live under the spirit of international 
fraternity regulated by a great world tribunal. 

If neither idea shall gain complete victory, the war must be fought 
again, with added horrors, and still more appalling carnage. 

The idea of government by force finds its highest expression in the 
Prussian system. Prussia is the one government that has not now, and 
never has had, a friend. Prom the day it was founded, to this day, 
it has never had, and apparently has never sought, the friendship of any 
other nation. Its plan for an alliance is first to attack and defeat its 
future partner, and, having shown its power, accept the defeated coun- 
try as an ally or a partner. 

During my life Prussia has ruthlessly and without necessity, almost 
without excuse, overrun every other Teutonic nation; Holland and 
Switzerland (if they be called teutonic) alone excepted. She made 

200 The Training School Quaeteelt 

war on and robbed Denmark in 1864. In 1866 sbe made war on Austria, 
Bavaria, Saxony, and the smaller states, and crusted and annexed 
Hanover and Brunswick. Sbe then formed tbe North German Con- 
federation and took control of all German states except Austria. Some 
years later sbe accepted Austria as an ally. Not one of these German 
states has any love for Prussia. And Prussia does not expect love. 

The very name, Prussia, carries such bitter memories that it is seldom 
used. Prussia rules Germany and all her allies with rods of iron and 
whips of scorpions. But she uses the name Germany whenever possible ; 
and the name Prussia only when no other name can be used. The sub- 
jection of Germany to the will and power of Prussia was the most 
unfortunate development of the nineteenth century. From that cause 
grew this war. The conquest of Germany by Prussia made this struggle 
for world supremacy both inevitable and final. 

The world was slow to grasp the true significance of the Prussian 
spirit. In fact, the world refused to believe that this spirit was what 
Prussian publicists and writers declared it to be. Let us call some 
of the greatest Prussians and let them speak. General Blucher in 1815 
visited London as the honored guest of a grateful nation. In viewing 
the city he exclaimed : "What a city to loot !" People thought it was 
a grim, rather coarse, Prussian joke; smiled, and passed it by. 

Three-quarters of a century later, Bismarck, writing of war, said that 
the civil populations of conquered or occupied countries should be so 
treated that they would have nothing left "but eyes to weep with." 

General Bernhardi, Prussia's greatest military writer, in his books 
declared that peaceful occupations were for common people, the lowly, 
and for serfs ; that the only honorable pursuit is war. That war was 
the noblest pursuit of man, and, rightly conducted, the most profitable. 

Prussia's favorite and official historian, Professer Treitscbke, taught 
in the universities, and advocated in his books, the dogma that the 
"will to power" is the highest manifestation of human intellect. He 
had contempt for the idea that any duty or obligation rested on the 
strong man, or the strong nation, to help the weak. On the contrary, 
it was tbe right and the duty of the strong to overcome the weak. If 
the weaker man or nation can be used by the stronger, then use him or it. 
If of no use, then destroy them from the face of the earth. He taught 
that to help the weak and feeble was wrong. He believed that the 
weak were abortions of nature, and that, instead of being helped, they 
had best be removed as useless cumberers of the earth, whose places 
should be taken by the strong. He taught that a strong nation must 
not be bound by treaty. A treaty might be made as a temporary expe- 
dient ; but tbe moment tbe treaty became an obstacle to the development 
of a strong nation, that moment must the treaty be brushed aside. He 
said that it were the grossest sin for a nation to allow a treaty to stand 
in the way of manifest destiny. 

'No Compkomise Peace 201 

Nietzche, son of a minister, renounced religion, deified power, and 
taught that war was the supreme good; that men were made to he sol- 
diers; that soldiers should take what they would; that the function of 
women were to gratify the passions of soldiers and to raise children to 
he soldiers. He said that ignorant people in the market places some- 
times spoke of God. But they were foolish people; for God was dead. 

In 1900 when the emperor was bidding farewell to the expeditionary 
force, leaving for China to put down the Boxer uprising, he told his 
soldiers to take no prisoners ; to slay men, women, and children, and 
to so act that no Chinaman for a thousand years would dare look ask- 
ance at a German. 

The world heard and read these things, but did not grasp their ter- 
rible significance. Bather, the world regarded them as figures of 
speech, grossly out of harmony with the age ; in exceeding bad taste ; 
but not seriously intended; and certainly never to be put in practice. 
We know now that these were true expressions of Prussian spirit. We 
know now that Prussia does not joke, bluff, exaggerate, or utter idle 
threats. Every word was uttered or written in absolute earnestness and 
in the deepest sincerity. They have become the creed of Prussia ; and 
this wair and its horrors are the fruition of this creed. 

Germany has accepted as gospel these vile principles. This war and 
its conduct are the concrete expressions of this belief. So fully do the 
German people seem to believe this creed that they are, or seem to be, 
surprised that civilization is shocked by their conduct. They seem to 
believe that their attack on Belgium was no sin. They believed it was 
to their advantage. According to Professor Trietschke, it was not only 
right to violate the treaty, but it would have been a mortal sin not to 
have done so. Hence Bethman-Hollweg's impatience with the British 
minister on August 3, 1914, when the minister reminded Hollweg that 
both England and Prussia had recognized and guaranteed the independ- 
ence and neutrality of Belgium. England had never been at war with 
Prussia ; had often been her ally ; and Bethman-Hollweg could not under- 
stand how any country would feel compelled to go to war for a mere 
promise. He said with wonder and impatience: "Will you go to war 
for a scrap of paper ?" 

In obedience to these teachings, Germany has made war in the fashion 
of the dark ages. Her conduct in this war is a combination of the effi- 
ciency of the twentieth with the savagery of the tenth century. And 
Germany is surprised that the world is horrified. Germany has made 
scraps of paper of her treaties, and she has cast to the winds all rules 
of civilized warfare, and all agreements respecting the decencies and 
humanities of war. Hence the destruction of all property ; the devasta- 
tion of peaceful countrysides ; the cutting down of orchards ; the poison- 
ing of wells; the shooting of priests; the burying alive of civil officers 

202 The Training School Quarterly 

suspected of secreting public money or records; the killing of wounded 
and of prisoners; the wholesale outrage of womanhood; fighting with 
burning oil and poisonous gas; scientific distribution of disease germs; 
(bombing hospitals and Red Cross establishments. These things reveal 
Germany as Prussia has made her in the last half century: a curse to 
mankind, the negation of all religion and of all civilization. She is an 
outlaw nation, ruled by criminals. Her generals are literally high- 
waymen ; her officers, confirmed thieves stealing from private houses ; 
the soldier brave, but constrained to act as a brutish savage. This is 
the Germany of today. God help us to clothe her and restore her to her 
right mind. Germany, under Prussian rule, is today the most malign 
and dangerous power which has existed since the world began. 

Before Prussia subjected Germany to her will Germany was as other 
nations. She took her full part in the spiritual and moral life of the 
world. In some lines she was a leader. But in the last half century 
nothing that is not material, grossly material, has come out of Germany. 
Books by the thousand have been written in Germany; but they are all 
of science, trade, chemistry, socialism, atheism, war, and the worship 
of power and success. And like the books, the men — Scientists, Mate- 
rialists, Anarchists, Socialists, Atheists, Soldiers, Sycophants, Spies, 
by the tens of thousands ; strong, efficient men and captains of industry, 
but without conscience or soul. 

She has not produced in a generation a man or a book with any 
helpful message or any word of comfort to mankind. No appeal to 
the spirit can be found in German life or literature since Prussia be- 
came Germany. 

Note that I have quoted from none but Germans. I am letting Ger- 
mans give expression to their ideals. Let me now call as witnesses two 
Germans of a former generation. About a century ago Baron Fouque, 
a Prussian officer, wrote a little book — an allegory — which is entitled 
to a place in every library along with Rasselas, Fior de Alisa, Paul and 
Virginia and Piceiola. He called the book Undine. It is the story of 
a wood sprite, captured in infancy, adopted and reared as a human be- 
ing. She developed into a beautiful and intellectual woman. But she 
was incapable of affection, gratitude, kindness, or humanity. She was 
cynical, cruel, mocking, and almost vicious. The good people by whom 
she was reared were distressed and sent for the village priest. He said 
that Undine was not a woman; that she was without soul and without 

Prussia is today the Undine of nations. 

Goethe, the greatest of German poets (and one of the world's great 
poets), born in Prussia, and knowing Prussians as they are, described 
them with the accuracy of a demonstration in science. He said: "The 
Prussian is a savage, and education makes him ferocious." 

No Compromise Peace 203 

I will call another German witness ; not a Prussian, a Saxon — Wagner. 
He was a reformer, almost a republican, a revolutionist. After 1848 
he became an exile and fled to France for life and refuge. After years 
he was permitted to return to Germany, if he would not go to Saxony, 
but live in Bavaria. He accepted the terms, and spent the remainder 
of his life in Bavaria and became the favorite poet and composer of 
his race. His work will live as long as German language or German 
music will be heard by man. 

While in exile he conceived the idea, and partly wrote, his great 
Tetralogy. He used the gods of German Mythology as the personages 
of his drama. 

The gods desired a new and greater palace, and made a contract with 
the giants to build the palace. As compensation the giants were to have 
the daughters of the gods for wives. The palace was built, but the gods 
refused to premit their daughters to marry men. To satisfy the giants, 
the gods robbed the Rhine maidens of their mystic, miraculous, magic 
hoard of gold — the gold which was a blessing to its rightful owners, 
but which brought a curse to any one who held it wrongfully. Soon as 
the giants obtained the gold, their power became immense, but all haip- 
piness vanished. As the stolen gold passed from one to another both 
power and evil increased. Crime after crime, each of deeper villainy, 
followed fast. All who touched the gold or came within its influence, 
became enmeshed in sin and crime. However much power increased, 
evil was always greater. Gods, heroes, giants, valkyrs, volsungs, nibe- 
lungs, dwarfs, all who came near were drawn into the whirlpool of sin. 
Every promise became perjury, every act a fraud, every marriage a 
tragedy, every feast had its poison cup, every hunting party an assassi- 
nation. The land was foul with crime and red with murder. Gods and 
men saw that it must end. Here the magic gold, the unbreakable sword, 
the spear which knew no brother and which no man could splinter ; the 
invisible helmet ; the enchanted horse ; and the knowledge of the language 
of the birds (whereby they knew what was happening over the entire 
world). But all failed. The sword was broken. The spear was shiv- 
ered. The invisible helmet lost its potency ; and the bird spies brought 
evil news. The very earth was sick of crime. The stolen gold is re- 
turned to the Bhine maidens. And the daughter of the god least guilty 
decrees the doom of all who took part in the crime. She rides the 
enchanted horse into the blazing funeral pyre of her murdered husband, 
but not until she has taken a torch and set fire to the palace of the gods. 
The last scene shows the palace in flames, and every god clothed in royal 
robes sitting around the council table, crown on head, scepter in hand, 
sword beside, calmly, bravely awaiting his fate in the burning palace, 
around which has been piled the limbs and the wood riven from the 
trunk of the world-spreading ash tree. The funeral pyre consumes the 

204 The Training School Quarterly 

hero and his spouse. The palace burns with every heathen god. As 
they burn, the curtain falls, and Wagner pronounces this epilogue : 

"At last the dreadful day of doom has dawned, 
The curse has worked its wrath, despair and death, 
At last the twilight of the gods has come, 
And Wotan's loveless kingdom is at end. 
At last the gathering night has covered all, 
And the cruel reign of loveless law is done. 
Now dawns the day of nobler men and deeds, 
And a new world under Love's great law begins." 

We thought forty years ago when the tetralogy was rendered, that 
Wagner had given us a drama of mythology. We know now it was 
prophecy set to music. Instead of portraying the remote past, he was 
giving us what was then beginning, and what would soon come to pass. 
He showed that evil could not be permanent, and that power based on 
fraud and crime, however strong, must inevitably fall. He described 
the present German Empire and he cast its horoscope. 

We are now at war with the Spirit of Prussianism. 

There can be no compromise. The war must be fought to a finish 
now or hereafter. This is a fight to the death. The Spirit of Force 
or' the Spirit of Fraternity must win. The earth is too small to contain 
both. The government of Germany is the incarnation of evil. It is 
Antichrist in the flesh. If it be not crushed, this world will not be 
fit for the habitation of man, and civilization as we understand it must 

We are at war because Germany made war on us. She made war on 
us long before we accepted the gage of battle. She began in February, 
1915. She sank our ships; drowned our people; covered our land with 
spies; corrupted industry; subsidized newspapers; attempted to debauch 
public opinion ; blew up our ships with bombs secretly placed ; destroyed 
factories; made her diplomatic service in this country a syndicate of 
crime; plotted with Mexico to make war upon us, and asked her to ar- 
range with Japan to do likewise; parceled out American States as gifts 
to her allies ; and finally prescribed certain narrow lanes across the 
ocean and forbade us under penalty of death to travel elsewhere ; and 
she even prescribed the colors we must display when we used those 

Germany knew this was war, because soon as the note of January 
31, 1917, was delivered, German officers and crews of interned vessels 
in our harbors from Norfolk, Va., half around the globe to Manila, P. I., 
obeying orders already in hand, destroyed, sank, or disabled their ships 
full two months before we recognized that war existed. 

We entered the war regretfully, reluctantly. We wished to avoid it. 
We did our best to stay out. We risked much for peace. We were deaf 

N"o Compromise Peace 205 

to the call of safety; and slow, fearfully slow in answering the call to 
duty. God called us in May, 1915 ; and we did not answer. Far better 
would it have been if we had gone to war when the Lusitania was sunk. 
Our task, accepted then, would have (been far lighter than when it was 
forced upon us two years later. 

But the war can yet be won. The military situation is this : Ger- 
many cannot, in this war, win a complete victory. She hopes for a 
compromise peace. She is confident she can win completely in the next 
war, and become mistress of the world. The Allies can win a complete 
victory in this war, if they be willing to pay the price. The weight of 
numbers and of materials is still overwhelmingly with the Allies. De- 
spite their repeated blunders, both in action and in diplomacy, they still 
retain the power to beat Germany. If the German Armies be beaten, 
a revolution at home will overturn every throne in the Central Alliance. 
The rulers of Germany live on military success and prestige. Defeated 
in the field, their power at home vanishes. They are fighting for their 
existence. They are fighting with the coolness of desperate resolve. 
They are fighting after long training and thorough preparation. They 
are fighting with singleness of purpose and under an unified command. 
They possess certain great advantages which they are using to the utter- 
most. They no longer expect victory, but they believe they can bring 
about a compromise. In that hope they are fighting bravely, and they 
are carrying on behind the lines in every enemy country carefully 
planned and well financed propaganda to create and vocalize sentiment 
for peace by compromise. Herein lies our danger. These German 
emissaries, under varying disguises and names, are at work among us. 
They are accomplishing something. Their efforts are covert. They 
use magazines and newspapers. They have used the pulpit.. They have 
tried to corrupt labor, but they have failed. I do not consider the I. W. 
W. a labor organization. It is a band of fanatics, anarchists, and 
criminals. Germans and their active sympathizers have their hands 
in politics, as evidenced by the late primaries in New York City. Amer- 
ica faces foes across the water — open, brave, strong. And she faces foes 
at home — covert, treacherous, disguised, desperate, and venomous. Those 
at home are the viler and more dangerous. Let us hope the Government 
at Washington will deal with spies and traitors at home this fall and 
winter as bravely and as effectively as our Army and ISTavy will deal 
next spring with our open enemy across the sea. The danger is here. 
German spies have been and are in Worth Carolina. We have their 
names and numbers. We know that in North Carolina germs of an- 
thrax have been soaked into bandages knit by the Eed Cross for our 
wounded. We know that German sympathizers here in North Carolina 
are doing all they dare do to discourage patriotism and to obstruct the 
Government. We need not lull ourselves into fancied security. The 
danger is great. It is imminent. It is at our door. 

206 The Training School Quabterly 

Grievous and numerous have been the 'blunders of our allies ; and but 
for these blunders the victory long ago would have been theirs. Never- 
theless, the resources of negotiation and diplomacy are not yet ex- 

Power to win complete victory can still be thrown into the battle line. 
Japan is ready ; and her terms are reasonable ; her terms are just. She 
wishes assurances that Eastern Asia shall no longer be exploited by 
white man's selfishness. If Japan will agree not to claim any selfish 
advantage or exclusive privilege in China, the Allies should consent to 
a Japanese Monroe Doctrine in Eastern Asia. We should ask Japan 
to promulgate such a doctrine as England asked President Monroe to 
announce in 1823. The Allies should agree that hereafter no nation 
shall violate the territory of China. They should agree that violation 
of Chinese territory shall be regarded as an act unfriendly alike to 
Japan and to the Great Alliance. They should guarantee assistance, 
moral and financial, and military if necessary, to Japan in maintaining 
this new Monroe Doctrine. With this promise, Japan will enter the war 
with us next spring, and the campaign of 1918 will bring final and 
complete victory. Every crowned head in the Central Empires will be- 
come an exile or a prisoner. The Prussian devil will be cast out of 
Germany. The German people will taste freedom. The greatest and 
the last of wars will have been ended. The reign of perpetual peace, if 
not at hand, will at least be in sight. 

We who do not go to the front have duties just as plain and just as 
imperative as those our soldiers must perform. We must see that our 
Government lacks for nothing it can use in defeating the enemy. The 
Government needs money in almost countless millions. It is building 
huge military and naval machines. The more effective these machines 
become the fewer American lives will be lost. Our Government must be 
supplied with money so freely that it can use machinery instead of men. 
With greater guns, greater and more numerous aeroplanes, better equip- 
ment, we can beat down the German defenses with machines and metal 
instead of with men. We must pay taxes and buy bonds to the extent of 
our ability, and beyond. We must give and pay until we feel it. We 
must not be content to use only our surplus, or to consult only our 
convenience. We must place at the disposal of our Government our- 
selves and all we have. It is a duty and a privilege to help in this war. 
I can hardly understand a man who is now content to pile up money 
while the world is passing through the valley and shadow of death. 

I would be ashamed of money hoarded now. We should say to the 
Government at Washington : "Take all that you need. Take our 
money, our boys; take us. If you don't want us at the front, tell us 
what to do at home. We will instantly obey your commands." All we 
ask in return is that the Administration shall be strong, resolute, and 
effective, and that it will throw into battle the full weight of American 

No Compromise Peace 207 

power in men, money, and diplomacy. We ask that our nation strike 
with all its power and thus bring this terrible war to an end with a com- 
plete victory for civilization. 

I propose that we take upon ourselves five simple but solemn pledges. 
I have personally taken each and all, and, God being my helper, I will 
keep all. Here they are: 

1. We pledge ourselves not to say or do anything during this war which 
will weaken the hands of our Government, or which could give aid, 
comfort, or encouragement to the enemy. 

2. We pledge ourselves during this war to do promptly and cheerfully 
all which our Government shall ask us to do, the same being in our 

3. We pledge ourselves not to support any candidate for office who does 
not whole-heartedly support our country's cause in this war. 

4. We pledge ourselves not to let the family of a soldier suffer for want 
of anything we can supply. 

5. We pledge ourselves to give preference in all things, where practi- 
cable, to the soldier who went and did his duty over the man of mili- 
tary age and fitness who did not go. 

What Shall We Teachers Do ? 


iy ■T ■ E are at War. We must help to win the War. Our friends, 
ft ft I our brothers arc. leaving for the front. Tomorrow they shall 
||,K^~ ^jjg their place in the trenches of Flanders. Shall we sit 
idle, whilst they do battle for us? 

What shall we teachers do? We hold in our hands the activities of 
innumerable children. We influence the actions of their parents. Shall 
we neglect our task of training these thousands in the higher virtues of 
genuine patriotism? 

Our enemy, Germany, is training her least school children to the 
highest war service. What shall we do? 

First of all, let the Teacher understand the War. To be ignorant of 
the causes that led up to the world conflict is unworthy of our profes- 
sion. If, perchance, you have neglected this simple information, take 
out your geography and have a look at Europe. On the European sea- 
board lie the liberal countries of that continent, England, Holland, Bel- 
gium, France, Italy, and, away from the sea, Switzerland. Russia, re- 
cently declared a republic, lies at the eastern extremity of Europe. Be- 
tween these two extremes lie the Central Lands, Germany and Austria. 
These two countries are highly organized and their citizens trained 
in the art of war. They count their soldiers by the millions. These 
millions, especially in Germany, are held at the command of one man, 
the Kaiser. The people of Germany believe that their Kaiser is ap- 
pointed by God to rule their country. He is responsible to no one but 
to himself. A neighbor like the Kaiser is dangerous; no man should 
have in his power the liberty and lives of millions of men. 

Around the Kaiser revolved a constellation of noblemen called Junk- 
ers. These are the great proprietors of Prussia, and they virtually con- 
trol all the higher positions of the Government. They are hearty sup- 
porters of the claims of the Kaiiser ; they live in his light. They are 
aristocrats whom the rest of Europe has never loved. They are noted 
for their superciliousness ; they are the military caste of their country. 
They are hated even in Germany. Under their care and direction the 
army of Germany became a most perfect machine of destruction and of 
death. It was a perpetual threat to the peace and welfare of the neigh- 
bor nations. 

What Shall We Teachers Do ? 209 

This danger, always imminent, became a reality when Germany 
marched her armies through Belgium and threw to the four winds the 
treaty she had signed with us and other nations to protect that country. 
We were immensely interested in this invasion from the very first. Any 
contract or treaty between nations should be as sacred as the signed word 
of individuals. It should be more so. We stood in horror at this inso- 
lent assault on Belgium. We did not protest because we thought our 
protest inopportune. 

This crime prepared the way for other crimes. In turn, we had the 
sinking of the Lusitania, the destruction of our factories, the repeated 
sinking of our ships, the wanton slaughter of hundreds of Americans. 
We saw Belgians deported from their homes, we saw youthful girls 
taken from Lille and carried to Germany; we saw arson, rapine, deso- 
lation — and we were at war. We ceased to be neutral in our minds 
from the time the first German army assaulted Liege. We tried to be 
neutral in fact. But the time came when even our neutrality in action 
had to be abandoned. We drew the sword that the world might be made 
safe for democracy. "He that is not with Me is against Me," said 
Christ. "He who is not with me in my conduct of the war is against 
me," cried the Emperor of Germany. We could not be with him in 
the sack of villages, the murder of innocent men, women and children ; 
we could not approve of his massacre of Aerschot, his burning of Lou- 
vain, his extermination of the Armenians. We were against crime; 
we declared war on the perpetrators of the biggest outrages in history; 
we were against him ! 

We are at war because we believe in the right of every man to life 
and freedom, because we believe in the sanctity of the home ; because we 
believe in the liberty of nations. 

Knowing the cause of this international conflict, it behooves us to 
know who the prominent men are that have part in it. To know who 
Waddell, Harnett, Daniel Boone, John Sevier and other equally worthy 
men were is praiseworthy. To be ignorant of the great men of the 
present war is worthy of condemnation. Who are the Kaiser, the Crown 
Prince, King Albert, King George, Lloyd-George, Michaelis, Joffre, 
Petain, Von Hindenburg, etc.? Where are Tpres, Verdun, Riga, Bag- 
dad, and what are the most important places of battle? 

The daily papers have never been more interesting. The world is 
afire; the journals bring us daily the reports of the conflagration. Shall 
we remain uninformed when even the least of our students are inter- 
ested ? 

A few days study will easily make us acquainted with all these simple 
facts. We have no right to be ignorant of the great men who have 

210 The Teaining School Quarterly 

part in the struggle. Especially should we know what America is 
doing. Who are our generals? What is our hospital staff doing? Who 
are our great men ? 

Knowledge of these facts will stimulate our souls to contribute actively 
to the success of the war. And here is the part we can actively play : 

1. We can remain in touch with our folks and our friends at the front. 
We can send letters, mail literature. We have more time to write than 
our boys have. The letters from home should be more frequent than 
those from the camp. 

2. We can get in touch with some soldier who has no friends at home. 
The French girls have "the godmother work." They obtain information 
concerning some one who receives no letters. They send him all sorts of 
little things. They "adopt" him. 

3. We can actively contribute our work to the Red Gross Society. 
It will be almost a crime to make Christmas presents for each other this 
year, wasting our time on trifles, when some sore-wounded soldier will 
need the thousand and one cares of the Red Cross. Away with the 
Christmas useless gifts ! In a time of stress like this a mere Christmas 
card will suffice. Our soldiers need all manner of hospital help. Why 
not give it? 

4. Our school children can do "busy work" and help. There are trench 
torches to be made that will keep some boy from freezing in the chilly 
trenches in Flanders. The climate is cold, damp, moist. A piece of 
paper and some paraffin will save a life — maybe the life of your very 
friend or brother. 

Children, even in the First Grades, can do service. They can bring 
rags and cut them into little bits. Rag-pillows are needed by the thou- 
sands, by the hundred thousands. A card to Mrs. Isaac Manning, Chapel 
Hill, will bring the needed information. Then there are arm-slings to 
be made of old sugar sacks, etc. 

5. We can help the fight by eating mostly things that we have abun- 
dantly. Our Allies have no sugar. They never have learned to eat corn 
bread. They need wheat, wheat, wheat ! 

6. Think of the school teacher who shall have created unbounded 
enthusiasm in garden work, in canning and preserving. There shall be 
a pig club in her school, there shall be a poultry club, a dairy club. Our 
Allies need the food that we can produce, we must produce it ! 

7. We can save in clothes, in shoes. A patched shoe will be a sensible 
shoe. Think of the thousands who are barefooted because the leather 
supply of the world is so heavily taxed. A patched coat will not be 
without honor. The time has come to save more than we ever saved. 
Wasting is a crime ! 

What Shall We Teachers Do? 211 

8. We can save in food. Think of the tons of good bread, good food 
that is wasted on the school grounds ! What about a school-pig fed on 
the things that are generally thrown away? 

9. Best of all, we can cultivate a spirit of devotion to our country, a 
spirit of loyalty that will make every teacher proud. We can teach a 
spirit of self-possession, of sacrifice, a spirit which the wealth of recent 
years has made us almost forget. 

This great war is reestablishing the value of things. We have placed 
too much importance on things that are unnecessary. Now the call is 
for patriotism, for self-denial, for all the greater moral factors in the 
lives of the individual, in the life of the Nation. We are rebaptized into 
a broader, a nobler, a more spiritual life. Shall we' teachers pursue the 
even teaching of grammar, of geography, of writing and arithmetic, 
and forget the greater teaching of Life itself? 

Because of their belief in these, the greater things of life, our sailors 
sail our seas, our soldiers stand in the water-soaked trenches of Flanders. 
Because of these ideals Belgium gave her life, France bled herself white ! 
Hundreds and thousands of men are at this moment bleeding, dying on 
the battlefields. Our very sons, brothers, friends are crossing the waves. 
The American flag is waving over the plains of Flanders, on the hills 
of Northern France. This is no dream, this is an actuality. This War 
is here! We shall do our part to win it. 

Food Production and Conservation in North 


By John Paul Lucas, Executive Secretary, Food Administration 

TN" few, if any, States has the Government's appeal for increased 
production and conservation of foodstuffs met a readier and more 
telling response than in North Carolina. 

Even before the American nation was definitely engaged in war with 
Germanic Allies North Carolina's foresighted Governor had issued a 
formal proclamation calling upon the people of our State to double the 
number of their home gardens. When wair had become an actuality 
instead of a strong probability the Governor was prompt to take steps 
looking toward increasing the acreage and production of food and feed 
crops in the State. 

With this idea in mind he appointed a State Food Commission, con- 
sisting of Maj. W. A. Graham, Commissioner of Agriculture; Mr. B. W. 
Kilgore, Director of the Agricultural Extension Service ; Dr. W. C. 
Riddick, President of the State College of Agriculture and Engineering; 
Dr. H. Q. Alexander, President of the Farmers' Union ; Mr. John Paul 
Lucas, President of the State Farmers' Convention ; Mrs. Jane S. Mc- 
Kimmon, Director of the Home Demonstration and Canning Club 
Work in the State; Mr. C. R. Hudson, Director of Farm Demonstra- 
tion Work in the State, and Mr. James H. Pou. 

The commission met in the Governor's office April 17th, and deter- 
mined that ai vigorous propaganda for increased production of food 
and feedstuffs and for the conservation of foodstuffs should be con- 
ducted during the planting season, and Mr. Lucas, because of his combi- 
nation of training as a newspaper man and farmer, was requested to 
direct and conduct such a campaign. 

Every one realized that time was short, the planting of spring crops 
being already under way. The campaign began actively the following 
day. The newspapers of the State, realizing the gravity of the situa- 
tion, cooperated liberally and the newspaper propaganda was especially 
effective. A State-wide organization, however, was also effected and 
invaluable work was accomplished in every section of the State by ac- 
tive local workers. A County Food Commission was appointed in each 
county, consisting of the chairman of the Board of County Commis- 
sioners, the farm demonstration agent, the home demonstration agent, 
and three or four others selected by them. This commission brought 
into active cooperation those forces which were already interested in 
crop production and others who turned their time and energy toward 
this end. Under the auspices of these commissions, mass meetings were 
held in every township and community of many counties and wonderful 

Food Production and Conservation 213 

results were secured. The cooperation also of chambers of commerce, 
boards of trade and other organizations was enlisted. 

The people of North Carolina had been importing into this State 
food and feed products to a vailue of $SO,000,000 a year, this total 
being based on normal prices of these products. Among other items 
25,000,000 bushels of corn had been imported yearly. The quantity of 
canned vegetables and fruits brought in was prodigious. 

As a result of the work of the North Carolina Food Commission dur- 
ing its campaign of a little more than four months, with the coopera- 
tion, of course, of the other effective forces of the State working along 
the same lines, the value of the production of North Carolina gardens 
was increased by $12,000,000 to $15,000,000, The corn crop was in- 
creased from less than 55,000,000 to 70,000,000 bushels, an increased 
value, at $1.50 a bushel, of $22,500,000 in this one crop alone. There 
was a tremendous increase also in the acreage and production of Irish 
and sweet potatoes, sorghum for syrup, soy beans, cowpeas, and hay. 
The increase in the value of the hog crop which will be finished and 
slaughtered this winter and spring is probably not less than $20,000,000. 
All crops considered, it is estimated that the increased value of this 
year's production of food and feedstuffs in North Carolina above the 
production of last year is not less than $80,000,000, while it may be 
considerable in excess of these figures. 

During its campaign the North Carolina Food Commission attempted 
to bring our people into a realization of their personal responsibility in 
the War and to make them see how vital their active cooperation is to 
the Government. It is a notable fact that in those counties where an 
active compaign was waged by the local forces and the people were 
brought to something of a realization of their responsibilities and oppor- 
tunities, wonderful results were shown. 

The State Food Commission was without authority and without 
funds, and necessarily it was handicapped to a considerable extent, but 
it filled the field effectively and prepared the way for more effective 
work by the Federal Food Administration under State Food Adminis- 
trator Henry A. Page, who promptly annexed the executive secretary 
of the State Food Commission as the executive secretary of the Food 
Administration in North Carolina. 

The Food Administration is charged with the duty not only of seeing 
thait our own people are supplied with foodstuffs at as reasonable prices 
as conditions warrant, but also of providing from the country's resources 
of foodstuffs a sufficient quantity of wheat, beef, pork, fats, and sugar 
to keep the armies of our Allies in good fighting trim and the civilian 
population of our Allies from starvation. Several hundred thousand 
people in neutral nations of Europe aire threatened with starvation also, 
and our best information is that, despite the very most that the Ameri- 
can people can do, tens of thousands of innocent people will die from 

214 The Training School Quabtebly 

starvation and exposure during the next five months. Thus, the Ameri- 
can people are confronted not only with a problem of patriotism and 
self-defense, but with a humanitarian problem as well. 

In order to meet the situation the American people individually are 
requested to substitute the products of corn and other cereals for wheat ; 
to substitute fish, poultry, game, and nitrogenous vegetables, such as 
beans, for beef and pork products, and to exercise the most rigid 
economy in their consumption of sugar and fats. It is not necessary 
that any American should go hungry. We have ample foodstuffs of a 
nature that makes them unsuitable for export which may be substituted 
for the products which, because of their concentrated nature and keep- 
ing qualities are suitable for export. 

The success of the War and the fate of tens of thousands of women 
and children and old men in Europe depend upon the actions of the 
individual consumers of foodstuffs in this country. The food is needed 

Will our people meet the situation ? Will they wake up in time ? 

The Quest of Food Substitutes 

Mabtha Aemstbong 

OUR Allies must have wheat, sugar, fats, beef, and pork. Every 
patriotic American will do his part to see that they get them. 
These facts seem to stare the teacher of cookery in the face in 
whatever direction she turns, for these very materials are the ones she 
has used most often in her lessons; they seem to illustrate most clearly 
the principles she wants to leave with her students, and to be the mate- 
rials with which they will work in after years when this war, like others, 
is a thing of the past. In small places they are the materials most easily 
secured, and (alas!) even with our present high prices, they are some of 
the chearpest of the available supplies — a fact difficult to explain in many 
cases, and most difficult to keep in the background when preaching food 
conservation to the housekeeper who is already stretching a few dollars 
to the utmost in providing for the needs of her family. 

On every hand the teacher sees advice and recipes, learned and un- 
learned, practical and impractical, as to what to substitute for these 
materials and how to do it. Some of these substitutes are good, while 
others give combinations of materials that result in dishes, especially 
breads, no mortal would eat anywhere short of actual starvation. 

What is a legitimate use of these materials in the classroom, and what 
and where must she substitute for them? These are the questions that 
she and her class must solve; and with us, as yet, the solution is still 
to be found. 

In bread-making, for this part of the country, where we know and 
eat breads made of cereals other than wheat, we are using wheat flour 
to teach biscuit and yeast breads, then emphasizing breads made of corn 
meal and of mixtures of corn meal or wheat flour with rice, grits, oat- 
meal, or any other cereal that is at hand. This seems a better plan than 
to make all breads of a mixture of cereals, as it offers more variety, gives 
people some white bread, and still conserves wheat. Whole' wheat 
breads, too, are valuable, as they require less flour for a loaf than breads 
made of white flour ; but whole wheat flour, for some inexplicable reason, 
costs more than patent flour ; so there is little difference in the cost of the 
two loaves. 

In cake-making no satisfactory substitute for flour has been found 
that can be used in all cakes. In gingerbread and cakes of that type 
corn meal has proved a very satisfactory substitute for part of the flour ; 
and in devil's food mashed Irish potatoes in plaice of part of the flour 
adds very materially to the delicacy of the cake as well as to its keeping 
qualities, and at the same time allows us to eat it with a clearer con- 
science. White cakes made partly of corn starch have long been famil- 

216 The Training School Quarterly 

iar to us all. Possibly at some time in the near future we shall be able 
to add "Flourless" to the "Eggless, Butterless, Milkless Cake," for which 
we see recipes in all the magazines; but that time has not yet come. 

To replace sugar we may use honey, molasses, maple sugar, and the 
syrup from preserves. Of these, molasses is proving the most satisfac- 
tory, as it is the cheapest and the most easily obtained. Honey is scarce 
in this section of the country, hence is expensive, costing at least five 
cents more per pound than sugar. Fruit syrups can be served in so 
many other ways that it seems a pity to use them in breads and cakes 
where their delicate flavors are lost. 

In fats we have a wider field tham in sugars : peanut and cotton- 
seed oils, chicken fat, beef suet, drippings of all kinds, nut butters, 
especially peanut, black walnut, and pecan butters, all of which can be 
made at home from Worth Carolina nuts. For those who own cows, 
cream has wonderful possibilities ; but in the laboratory, with the milk- 
man doling us out a few pints of milk a day, cream is out of the ques- 

When we come to meats here again we are fortunately situated, for 
both fish and oysters are available. Chickens and, in some cases, rab- 
bits, squirrels, and birds, are good materials for lessons. 

And so the quest goes on. Even if the course in elementary cookery 
seems in danger of developing into experimental cookery, even if there 
seems a possibility that the student may lose some of the customary 
drill on principles, she may, at least, gain a broader knowledge of the 
possibilities of food materials, and, better than that, she may gain a 
deeper realization of her duty to her neighbor, a keener sense of world 
values and civic relations, and a power to meet emergencies that will 
serve her well in the broader responsibilities and privileges now opening 
to women the world over. 

War Reminiscences 

By Miles 0. Sherrill, Former State Librarian 

rDO not know that it has ever been decided what war is. General 
W. T. Sherman said "War is Hell." I cannot bear witness to 
that, for I have never been there; and I hope that none of us 
will ever go there; for if it is worse than war, amd especially prison life, 
we will all do well to so live as not to go there. 

Our company, A, of the 2d N. C. (late the 12th), was organized in 
Newton, Catawba County, in April and May, 1861. My father, Hiram 
Sherrill, a successful farmer near Sherrill's Ford, had died in 1860. 
Mother was left with some slaves, and several farms. I tried to get this 
dear young brother to remain there, for he was too young; but he came 
to us at Norfolk, Va., in 1862. He came and enlisted in our company 
and had the name of being one of the bravest; never minded a skirmish 
or fight, and at the battle of South Mountain, Md., September, 1862, he 
was wounded, captured, and murdered. Alf Sigmon, Co. A, who also 
came from Catawba, is the only one now living who was present, for 
when the command came to fall back, retreat, none were left but the 
dead, and wounded, and no one knew but that all were killed, and until 
Sigmon returned from prison, in 1865, nothing was known as to the 
wounding of Sigmon and Sherrill. Comrade Sigmon, also being 
wounded, and lying near Sherrill, saw what was done. Alf says that 
at the command to "Fall Back," he was shot down and could not obey 
the order; that Sherrill, instead of retreating, stood up to fire what 
looked like a "farewell shot." As he did so and turned to go he was shot 
down. Comrade Sigmon could not tell how he was wounded, but in 
firing the last shot, Sherrill must have shot a Union soldier, for when 
the United States troops came up a half-drunk soldier stood over my 
poor brother and bayoneted him to death, while lying on the ground 
wounded, helpless, and a prisoner. I could not have done a poor help- 
less dog that way. Some one who heard of that sad and cruel incident, 
asked me how I could forgive the Union soldiers. I said, "Easy 
enough" ; I could not hold the Union Army responsible for what one 
drunk fool did. 

The Confederate and Union soldiers were perfectly friendly when 
not fighting. Our boys would swap tobacco for rations, for the Rebels 
had the most tobacco, the Union soldiers had the most rations and coffee. 
If the Confederates received an order to fire on the enemy they would 
holla: "Look out, Yank; we have orders to fire." Then the United 
States soldier would get back into his trench. And when the Union 

218 The Training School Quarterly 

soldiers received an order along the line to fire on the Rebels they would 
cry out: "Look out, Johnny; we have orders to fire," and they hid the 
best they could. 

In April, 1861, I was in school at the Bingham Institute, in Taylors- 
ville, N". C, and on April 27, 1861, went over to my native county and 
enlisted at Newton, N". C. I never got back to that school any more; 
but spent four years in war, ten months of it in prison. I tell this to 
let you see how it is with war. Young men can get out of school, as 
well as risk their lives, and often never have a chance of school again. 
I did enter high school at Catawba College after the war, but was elected 
probate judge and clerk of Superior Court of Catawba County in 1868, 
so I "quituated" instead of graduating at Catawba or any other college. 
I tell these things to aid in showing the disadvantages of war. 

Think about what the women and children suffered on both sides in 
1861-5. It was awful. Think how much money, sorrow, and suffering 
could have been avoided if it had been agreed to compromise and paid 
for the slaves. No one wants slavery now — at least, should not. "Let 
us do unto others as you would have them do unto us." "Love is the 
fulfilling of the law." 

If we love God and love our fellow-men, we will not want war, and 
we will agree with the colored president of the school at Durham : "We 
will not want riots and lynchings. The trouble with those things, and 
war is, thait the innocent suffer. How many poor women and children 
and other innocent ones suffer from the bombs, shells, etc., thrown 
from aeroplane, guns, and other firearms ! It is so in riots ; so many 
innocent ones have to suffer. If you have any women in your vicinity 
who lived in 1861-5 see if they suffered when that terrible war was 
going on. How many thousands left home and never came back ! 

In May, 1864, I was shot at the battle of Spottsylvania Court House, 
Virginia ; I was captured, and the right leg was amputated, midway be- 
tween the knee and crotch. 

The only conversation that passed between Dr. Cox of Ohio, a sur- 
geon in the United States Army, and myself, was there on the late battle- 
field. He had me placed on the table, entirely helpless, and I said to 
him: "Doctor, is there any chance to save my leg?" His reply: "I am 
afraid not, Johnny." The next thing was the chloroform. When I re- 
gained consciousness I glanced over at a pile of arms and legs, al- 
ready amputated, and piled up. There I saw the right leg of Miles O. 
Sherrill of Catawba County; and I have not seen it since, nor do I 
expect to see it until the day of judgment, when I hope to see it. And 
I expect to see my friends, especially that young brother, James Albert 
Sherrill, and other relatives, who have gone before. 

I spent from May, 1864, until April, 1865, in prison ; and among other 
things I had the smallpox and the doctor in the hospital said : "Johnny, 
you should be thankful that you lost a leg." I wanted to know why. 

Wae Keminiscences 219 

He replied : "But for that you would have been gone. Did you notice 
the great increase of the discharge (virus) from your stump, since you 
took smallpox?" I told him I certainly did. He said: "But for the 
lost leg you would have been gone. You had one of the worst cases of 
smallpox I ever saw, and I had no idea you could live." 

President Wilson was a blessing in keeping off war. It had to come. 
We now trust the common people of Germany will step forward and 
command peace. 

In the last of 1860 and the first of 1861, in my boyhood, I remember 
how many bright speeches were being made over North Carolina. The 
most of them were in favor of secession and war. Zeb B. Vance was the 
main one that spoke against secession and war; he said it "would get 
us into trouble." I heard him speaking in a certain courthouse; he 
was making a fine speech. Some one came in bringing a telegram : 
"President A. Lincoln, calls on North Carolina for 5,000 troops." 
Vance read it, laid it down, and stopped. Then he exclaimed : "That 
ends it ! We have to go with one side or the other, and we will go with 
our own side." The courthouse was filled with cheers. Vance vol- 
unteered and went to the army, and became colonel of the famous 26th 
N. C. regiment, and did his duty. Because of his position and conduct 
he was elected Governor of North Carolina during the war. 

I remember some who made fiery speeches. To have heard them, 
you would have thought they would be among the first to go. Many of 
them never went at all. I will not give the names now. Their own 
families are not responsible for this lack of patriotism. It is easy to 
favor war in speech; but let all who favor it with tongue be ready to 
march when called to go. 

I had never heard of that big word "cantonment." It was in the 
open with us. Judge W. A. Montgomery was an officer in the 12th 
N. C. regiment. Ask him as to our experiences in rains and snows. 
The judge was a true, faithful soldier. Sometimes it poured down on 
us, rain, hail, and snow; we had no shelter, and often no change for 
drenching wet clothes. 

We had no air guns or automatics in those days. It is time for wars 
to cease. Think of the innocent ones who must suffer ! War is the most 
expensive business any nation can engage in. None but the cruel can 
enjoy war. 

Men who have been through a war like unto 1861-5, need no warn- 
ing. We want those who may have to go to do all they can to establish 
peace on earth and good will to all mankind. If we cannot prevent it, 
let every one do his duty, and stand by our faithful President. 

Patriotic Music in the Grades Best, '18 

*W*V H HY teach patriotic music in the grades? That is a question 
fl A j to be considered by every teacber at this particular time when 
^^■^ our country is undergoing the greatest difficulty of its kind in 
history. The children hear of patriotism at home, in the Sunday school, 
and down the street. Why should they not hear of it in the classroom 
through patriotic music ? The patriotic songs bring a message of patriot- 
ism to the children in such ai way that they get the spirit and enjoy 
them, singing them with enthusiasm. 

The ideal of history is not to teach facts alone, but to teach patriot- 
ism, which leads to the development of a better citizenship. The good 
citizen must have well-formed habits in respects to his community, his 
fellow members at large, and thereby will be interested in his nation. In 
the development of an ideal citizen music plays an indispensable part. 
Some great man has said : "Let me make the songs of a country, I care 
not who makej its laws." 

Music in the grades can be made much more interesting and bene- 
ficial to the students if they thoroughly understand the songs they 
sing. Patriotic songs are useless unless taught with spirit. The spirit 
and interest taken in a song by the students depend entirely on the 
teacher. When the teacher puts forth her energy and interest in a 
song, the students in return put forth their energy and interest. There- 
fore we see where it is necessary for the teacher to understand thoroughly 
a song before she teaches it. 

The patriotic songs which should by all means be taught in every 
school are as follows: "America," "Yankee Doodle," "Dixie," "Star- 
Spangled Banner," and "Columbia, Gem of the Ocean." 

"America," our own patriotic song, the words of which were written 
by Dr. Samuel Smith, was adapted to an old English air, and it is the 
national air of England, "God Save the King." 

"Yankee Doodle" was a song used by the British to ridicule the Amer- 
icans during the Revolutionary War. The Americans took this ridicule 
with good spirit and turned the ridicule on the British by adopting the 
air as their own national air. The words we now have were not com- 
posed until 1776, about the time Washington took command of the 
army. This song is a genuine American song. 

"Dixie," our own Southern air, was used merely as a song for amuse- 
ment before the Civil War and was not at first adopted as a Southern 
song. This song was used even during the war as a piece that caused 
great amusement. 

Patriotic Music in the Grades 221 

"The Star-Spangled Banner," our national air, should by all means 
be emphasized in the grades as our own national song. Every child 
should know what the "Star-Spangled Banner" stands for and should 
rise immediately when they hear it sung, and, if there is a flag, salute 
the flag during the singing. This song carries a sad but thrilling story 
with it which the children should know. During the war of 1812, 
about the time Baltimore was under bombardment, Francis Scott Key, 
who was a prisoner of war, was on a ship anchored out in the Chesapeake 
Bay. From this ship Key and his friends were in a position to see 
our flag waving over Fort McHenry during a battle. They watched 
anxiously all day, expecting each minute to see our flag come down. At 
night the noise of the bombardment was awful, and held them in 
suspense until in the morning as the first rays of the sun came over the 
hills Key could see our flag still waving. The words of this song came 
to his mind and he jotted them down on the back of an envelope. That 
day, after he was released as a prisoner, when he reached Baltimore 
he had handbills printed with the words of our national song. 

"Columbia, Gem of the Ocean," is another of our national songs which 
carries a spirit of feeling with it. 

The children should know something about the national songs of 
other countries, so that they may feel the sentiment of the songs as they 
feel their own. "La Marseillaise Hymn," the most popular of the 
French hymns, was composed in 1792, during the French Revolution. 
It was sung with much enthusiasm by the soldiers condemned to death 
as they were led out to give their lives for their country. The sounds 
of the song could be heard until the last one of twenty-one was taken. 
This song gained its popularity after "The Reign of Terror" and was 
adapted as the national air of France. This song is sung with feeling 
through all America. 

The new songs that are sung by boys and girls today, showing our 
feeling in this war, are very interesting to teach in the classroom. A 
few of these songs, such as "We're Going Over," "Joan of Arc, They 
Are Calling You," "Over There," "What Kind of An American Are 
You?", "If I had a Son for Each Star in Old Glory," and "Good Bye, 
and Luck be with You, Laddie Boy," are splendid popular patriotic 
songs for the grades. All these have good thoughts and a martial swing 
in them which will develop a sympathetic feeling. These thoughts can 
be made much clearer by asking questions concerning them. The chil- 
dren take on to these quickly and enjoy them very much. They should 
be used to stir up a sentiment of patriotism among the students and are 
good to use in patriotic rallies. 

In my practice teaching in the Model School I taught as my first song 
"We're Going Over." I tried to put my whole heart and soul into the 
song while teaching it, and the children were carried away with it. I 
asked thought questions about different phrases in the song, and they 

222 The Training School Quarterly 

gave quick response. By these questions the children soon learned the 
words and enjoyed singing it. This song is especially good to mark 
time by, and the children use it as a march coming out of chapel in the 

The following are a few of my questions on this song, "We're Going 

After I had sung the song for them I let them name it. Then my 
questions were as follows : "What do you think they are going over to 
France for?" "What fuss do they want us to settle up?" "Do we care 
if we have to settle up this fuss?" "What is it we are going to do to 
prove to them what the Yankee Doodle boys can do?" "Who are the 
Yankee Doodle boys?" "When are we coming home?" 

The way of teaching patriotic music depends on whether it is taught 
to a class or to a crowd. In teaching and singing patriotic songs such 
as "America," "Dixie," and "The Star-Spangled Banner" the children 
should have books, if possible, but in teaching the popular patriotic 
music, as "We're Going Over," and "Over There," rote is best. The di- 
rections for teaching rote songs are as follows : 

1. Teacher sing song through, class listen. 

2. Informal talk about meaning of song. 

3. Teacher sing song through again. 

4. Teacher sing first phrase many times. 

5. Class sing first phrase, teacher listen. 

6. Second phrase to be taught like first one. 

7. Teacher put two phrases together. 

8. Third phrase to be learned like first, also fourth. 

9. Put third and fourth phrases together. 

10. Teacher sing the song through. 

11. Class sing the song through. 

Address by Samuel M. North, Inspector of High 
Schools in Maryland 

mR. SAMUEL M. NORTH, State Inspector of High Schools 
in Maryland, delivered an address at the Training School on 
the evening of October 15. 

Mr. North gave a clear, concise, and interesting explanation of the 
system of public schools and school laws in Maryland, and the conditions 
which prevailed prior to the change. 

This is of peculiar interest in North Carolina just now because of the 
new school laws which have just gone into effect this year, and which 
are similar to those of Maryland. 

Mr. North showed the professional side and then the material side. 

He summed up the situation as it is here given. 

The certification of teachers has been taken from the hands of the 
county superintendents and placed in the hands of the Staite Superin- 
tendent, and the selection of the teacher taken from the board of trus- 
tees, or committeemen, and placed in the hands of the county superin- 
tendents. The committeemen are held responsible for the material help, 
and the teacher is no longer carpenter, scrub woman, janitor, paper- 
hanger, etc., because the committeemen see that these things are at- 
tended to. 

Maryland was spending a great amount of money for her schools 
without getting the results she should get. In order to see where the 
trouble lay, a survey of the schools was made and a type study was made. 
The result was a new set of laws. She is spending no more money now, 
but is getting results, simply by readjustment. 

The line of demarcation between the high school and the elemlentary 
school is very sharp. The requirements for the former are that the 
applicant must be a graduate of a first-class college, must have had 200 
hours of secondary education, and adolescent psychology, and must have 
pursued her specialty. 

The elementary teacher must be a graduate of a high school and 
must attend a normal school before getting a certificate. 

When Maryland reorganized her system of schools it realized that the 
chief thing it must work for was to get better teachers, better classroom 
instruction for the children, and that this could not be done unless it 
had trained teachers. Therefore, one million dollars was set aside for 
the rebuilding of the State Normal School. A committee inspected 
various normal schools of the country. Many remember well their visit 
to East Carolina Teachers Training School. When they reorganized 

224 The Training School Quarterly 

their normal they modeled the new school after the plan of this, the 
Greenville school. Mr. North says this school is constantly quoted in 
Maryland as an authority. 

Maryland realized that the biggest tragedy in American education is 
the old-time country school, just as Worth Carolina is realizing, and set 
herself the task of improving these schools by consolidating them and 
by giving the teachers professional guidance through supervisors. 

The new laws have, been at work in Maryland long enough to prove 
that they can work well, and results are seen at every turn. That means 
that North Carolina will soon see results also. 

It was discovered that there were only 30 per cent of the teachers who 
were not changing each year, and salaries were at a standstill. In spite 
of the great sums of money being spent, the children were no better 
taught and one million and a quarter dollars was being spent on 65 per 
cent of the children. "A thinker thinks aloud," therefore it was im- 
pressed on the Legislature that the schools should be surveyed. The 
General Board of Education actually saw 40 per cent of the white schools 
and 20 per cent of the colored. They made type studies. 

As a result in something over a year Maryland had these new school 
laws. There is no more money spent than by the old way ; it has been 
simply a matter of readjustment, from the top down. 

By the old way a child from the seventh grade could get a certificate 
— and could get a school, the worst and hardest kind of school to manage. 
Now this is impossible. Before the readjustment some counties were 
full of small schools; for example, there were five schools only three- 
quarters of a mile apart, in a straight line, in one Eastern Shore County. 
Consolidation has changed all of this. 

Every county in Maryland has primary school supervisors, helping 
tactfully with theory, methods, and devices gained through years of expe- 
rience, and there is usually more than one in a county, the best counties 
having as many as eight. 

The old-time county superintendent, who was a mere clerk, a mani- 
kin, is now a real personage of flesh and blood and brain. 

Now the children are going to school partly because the attendance 
officers are wise women who see that the laws are enforced. The per- 
centage of attendance in 1916-17 was from 9 to 10 per cent higher than 
it was the year before. 

The three things that are strictly professional that have brought about 
changes have been (1) certification of teachers, (2) supervision, by giv- 
ing teachers a source of help, and (3) compulsory attendance. 

On the material side the two things that have received careful atten- 
tion are (1) architecture and (2) accounting. The windows have been 
closed on one side and enlarged on the other so as to overcome bad 

Address by Samuel M. North 

A standardization of grades Has been established. Wo longer are 
students who are doing only sixth or seventh grade work classified as 
eighth or ninth grade. The course of study in the high school has 
been reorganized. Latin is not required. In the course leading to 
college the requirements are four years of English, two years of 
Mathematics, two years of History and two years of Science. Domestic 
Science is in the course. The high school is growing fast. In the past 
twenty years the high school has increased four times faster than the 
population of the country. People are sending their children to the 
high school, and from the high schools will come the leaders. 

President Wright in introducing Mr. Worth, a close personal friend 
and a former coworker, said that he was a teacher who had given his 
life to the work and had no apology for being a teacher, because he loves 
folks. In its code of laws on public school education, he said, Maryland 
is at the forefront. The new laws in North Carolina profited by the 
laws Maryland was just putting into practice and followed her example. 
He reminded the audience of the fact that when Maryland was planning 
to reorganize its normal school it sent a commission here to this school 
that saw what we were doing, and that they followed this school as 
nearly as possible. 

Mr. North impressed the people of the Training School as a man of 
magnetism and force. 

Impressions of the University of Chicago 

Maria D. Graham 

V *¥ B HILE the impressions one gains from only a six weeks course 
IAN in a great university are very .superficial from the university 
^F^fc^ viewpoint, they mean much to the teacher who has been giving 
for a good long period without taking time to stop for refreshment or 
recreation. Even in as short time as six weeks the purposeful teacher 
can gain much in enthusiasm, in inspiration, in encouragement, in 
breadth of vision, in addition to whatever knowledge he may gain in 
the classroom and outside. 

While Chicago is not very far West, it has a decidedly western air as 
compared with New York City. The bigness and broadness of the 
university first impressed me greatly : the large campus, the broad 
stretches of rich velvety green grass, the number of splendid tennis 
courts in every direction filled with players at practically all hours of 
the day, and the vast number of large, handsome buildings. Nor could 
one fail to be pleased with the harmony of the whole scheme due to a 
well-defined plan and to one style of architecture. The buildings at 
some universities look like patchwork — some of stone, some of red brick, 
some of pressed brick, some of one style of architecture and others of 
another. Such is not the case at Chicago University, for all the build- 
ings are of brown stone and all of a similar style of architecture. It 
seemed to me that every possible building was to be found, and that there 
was no limit to the amount of money that had been spent in such a short 
time, for the university is only about twenty-five years old. I had not 
been there long, however, before I heard of many improvements to be 
made in the near future. 

And yet, in spite of the bigness of the place, there is a "homeiness" 
about it one could hardly expect. This is due in part to the fact that the 
university is so far from the business part of the city. It is really a 
village in itself. Instead of one large dormitory for women students 
and another for men, there are five dormitories or halls for women and 
five for men. Each of the ten dormitories accommodates from forty to 
seventy-five people. Each has its own homelike parlor, library, and 
dining-room, and a group of people numbering around fifty can in a 
very short time become fairly well acquainted. The increase in expenses 
because of so many dormitories is not as great as one would imagine, 
for the buying and cooking and the laundry work for all of the halls 
is under the same management. The same meals are served in each 
at the same hour. 

The number allowed to register for the various courses is also limited, 
and therefore most of the classes are small. Women students are given 

Impressions of the University of Chicago 227 

the same consideration as men and are granted admission to practically 
all classes. Within the last two years a special woman's building, Ida 
Noyes Hall, has been constructed and presented to the university. The 
architecture and furnishings are not only handsome, but exhibit the best 
of taste. This hall contains a gymnasium for women thoroughly 
equipped, a swimming pool, rest rooms, reading rooms, reception halls 
for all kinds of socials, a ballroom, and a cafeteria. It meets a long-felt 
need, especially on the part of women students who cannot obtain rooms 
in the dormitories. Mandel Hall is the general assembly hall of the 
university. There public meetings of various kinds are held. In it is 
a splendid pipe organ which is used at the chapel exercises conducted 
there each day and at the regular Sunday 11 o'clock service. The 
chimes which peal forth each morning and evening bear a kindly message 
to all expectant listeners. 

As for the work, I was impressed with the fact that every one was 
there for business, and that grades were of great importance. I also 
received my first introduction to "term papers." In nearly every senior 
college and graduate course classroom work counts for one-third ; a 
term paper which represents about thirty hours of reading and research 
work counts for one-third ; and final examination counts for one-third. 
Because the recitation counts for only one-third there is a free and easy 
spirit in the classroom. 

One of the courses for which I registered was a graduate course in 
Rural Education. There were two sections, one large, the other small. 
I was fortunate in being in the small section in which there were only 
ten students, three women and seven men. The teacher was Mr. George 
Roberts, professor of education in Purdue University, Indiana, a real 
man and a real teacher. Two of the members of the class were from 
Missouri ; one each from Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Ohio, North 
Carolina. Canada, Japan, and India each had a representative also, 
The roundtable conferences were indeed interesting and instructive. 
They were eye-openers. I learned that where the teaching of agriculture 
really amounts to something there must be a school farm and a school 
garden, and that the teacher of agriculture should be a trained man 
who lives in the community in which he teaches and be employed for 
twelve months in the year. Among some of the topics studied and dis- 
cussed were the following which make for better rural schools: the 
reduction of the number of school officers, the prepared and efficient 
superintendent, the creation of a larger taxing unit (the county instead 
of the township), a different basis for the distribution of State aid, con- 
solidation and longer terms, compulsory attendance enforcement, better 
supervision, better trained teachers, a redirected curriculum. 

The other two courses for which I registered were in the teaching of 
mathematics. Both were under Professor Myers, head of the Depart- 
ment of Mathematics in the School of Education. The one dealt with 

228 The Training School Quarterly 

the teaching of high school mathematics, the other with the teaching of 
elementary mathematics. In both of these courses each student was 
held accountable not only for what was given in the text-books and on 
class, but he was also called upon for a short oral report on some live 
article dealing with mathematics which he found in some recent mathe- 
mathical magazine. A term paper on his individual problem for the 
coming year in the teaching of mathematics was also required of each 
student in both courses. 

The chief topic of study and discussion in the course in the teaching 
of high school mathematics was the question of Unified Mathematics, or 
Fusion Mathematics. By fusion mathematics is meant the union in 
instruction of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry, so that 
they are made as nearly as possible a coherent, composite whole. The 
simpler principles of the above subjects are brought together in such a 
way as to lead up to more complex aspects of these branches of mathe- 
mathical science. Interest in this question of fusion mathematics is 
what took me to the University of Chicago this summer. We had been 
attempting some work along this line for two years here at the Training 
School, but we were not altogether satisfied with results. We wished to 
better organize and unify, so I went to where it had been tried out with 
success for a number of years. Professor Myers strongly recommends 
a course in fusion mathematics for the first two years in the high school, 
on the ground that such a course approaches most nearly to the domi- 
nant general educational ideals of today : practicality , psychological jus- 
tifiableness, social value. The University High School has met with 
marked success in teaching fusion mathematics. They claim that the 
number of failures in mathematics has been greatly reduced and that the 
interest in the subject has been increased. Graduates of the high school 
have no difficulty in entering standard "A" colleges and in making good 
after they enter. 

Mr. Breslich, head of the Department of Mathematics in the Univer- 
sity High School, has edited a series of text-books in which arithmetic, 
algebra, and geometry, together with a good deal of trigonometry, have 
been unified. These books are called "First- Year Mathematics," "Sec- 
ond-Year Mathematics," "Third-Year Mathematics." These are the 
texts which he and his colleagues use in the high school. By special 
permission from Dean Gray, I was allowed the privilege of observing 
Mr. Breslich teach a class in Second- Year Mathematics for one hour 
each day. There I saw the theory studied in Professor Myers's class 
put into practice. This observation class meant as much to me as any 
other course, and perhaps more. I saw that pupils should be made to 
do stiff thought work in fusion mathematics as well as in our ordinary 
standard courses. As a result of the two courses, we already have on 
hand Breslich's First- and Second- Year Mathematics for use in our 
two preparatory classes here at the Training School. 

Impressions of the University of Chicago 229 

In the course in the teaching of elementary mathematics the great 
values of motivation were stressed. Plays and games as a means of 
motivating arithmetic were strongly recommended. The importance of 
habituation was also emphasized, but the dangers of present tendencies 
towards habituation without a proper amount of rationalization were 
carefully pointed out. If the pupil understands, habituation comes with 
far greater ease. The only way one can fail to become a machine is to 
think to the bottom of things, to rationalize. 

Standard practice tests were recommended especially for drill work 
in the elementary grades. Supervised study was urged for pupils taking 
either elementary or secondary mathematics. In fact, supervised study 
in all subjects in all grades from the fourth up seems to be the topic of 
most importance to educators first now. 

Because of the remoteness of the university from the car line, and be- 
cause of a full schedule, I did very little sightseeing. Public lectures 
and addresses of a very high order were open to the students each 
afternoon without cost. Besides these free lectures, there was a series 
of pay entertainments given Friday evenings. As I did not take my 
tennis racket with me, my recreation consisted of an hour's walk each 
day either to Washington Park or to Jackson Park. Bathing in Lake 
Michigan and rowing on one of the lagoons were enjoyed by many. 

From the above account you can draw your own conclusions as to 
whether or not summer school work, even for only six weeks, counts for 
much with the busy teacher who is unable from the point of time or 
money to afford a year off for study. 

A Menagerie of Plants 

"Sharp Eyes," making a collection of plants for use in Nature Study, 
finds this botanical menagerie living in peace on the campus of East 
Carolina Teachers Training School. 

"Woolly Elephant's Foot 

Partridge Berry and Dog Fennel 

Colt's Foot and Horse Nettle 

Hawkweed and Henbit 

Beggar's Lice 


Butterfly Weed 

Babbit Tobacco 

Toadflax and Rattlesnake Root 

Dogwood and Fleabane 

Lion's Tongue and Lamb's Quarter 

She wishes to transplant from other fields : 
Adder's Tongue and Bee Balm 
Lizard's Tail and Monkey Flower 
Sheep Laurel and Squirrel Corn 
Turtle Head and Whippoorwill's Shoe 
Fox Glove 
Tiger Lilies 
Moccasin Flower 

Will some one help her find them? 

(1) The Joyner Schoolhouse as it is now. 

(2) The original Joyner Schoolhouse. 

Wfje draining ikfjool (©uarterlp 

Published by the Students and Faculty of the East Carolina Teachers 
Training School, Greenville, N. C. 

Entered as Second Class Matter, June 3, 1914, at the Postoffice at Greenville, N. C, 
under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

Price: $1.00 a year. 25 cents single copy. 

FACULTY EDITOR Mamie E. Jenkins 



Sadie Thompson, Editor-in-Chief Ruth Fenton, Business Manager 

Cora Lancaster, Assistant Editor Elsie Morgan, Assistant Editor 

ALUMNAE EDITOR Bettie Spencer 


The acquisition of the Joyner School as the Model 

The Model Rural School affiliated with East Carolina Teachers 

Rural School 

Training School is perhaps the most significant thing 

that has happened in the history of the School since its doors were first 

It brings to fulfillment the promise made to the State when the 
School was established; this promise is incorporated in the charter 
granted by the State Legislature of 1907, and is given in section 3, 
where the purpose of the School is stated : 

"That the said School shall he maintained by the State for the purpose of 
giving to young white men and women such education and training as shall fit 
and qualify them to teach in the public schools of North Carolina." 

The authorities have been fully aware of the fact that teachers are 
not fully qualified and fitted to teach in the public schools of North 
Carolina until they have observed and taught in a rural school. 

The opening of the Joyner School is the third step in putting into 
practice the original plans for giving the student-teachers opportunities 
for teaching. 

232 The Training School Quarterly 

Growth in In the fall of the second year of the School there was 

Practice rejoicing when one grade in the Greenville Graded 

Facilities School was set aside as a practice grade, one critic 

teacher in charge, and the first seniors began their practice teaching 
under manifold handicaps. Great indeed was the rejoicing when the 
Model School was opened, with four grades and every advantage for 
practice teaching. This was in the fall of 1914. It seems to advance 
in decades of four years. For four years the seniors trudged to the one 
grade at the graded, school ; for four years they have had only four 
grades in which to teach. Next fall, at the beginning of another four 
years, there will be every grade below the high school, and a rural school. 

_. ,,. , . The "Joyner School" has become a part of East Car- 

The Work of * r 

Joyner School olina Teachers Training School and at the same time 
This Fall keeps its own identity. The work this first year is that 

of adjustment, getting things in shape so that student-teachers of the 
Training School who intend to teach in the country can observe the 
critic teachers doing their work, both in the schoolroom and in the com- 
munity, and can, under the supervision of these critic teachers and the 
direction of the Department of Pedagogy in the Training School, have 
some practice in teaching in this school. This means that the critic 
teachers must first have a chance to see for themselves what is to be done 
and that the people must have time to grasp the situation so that there 
will be no loss of motion, no friction, no waste from pushing ahead pre- 
maturely. This further means that the students of the Training School 
have not yet started their work in the school. 

Each step of the way will be carefully followed and fully reported. 
The teachers of the school will report their problems and some of the 
things they are doing, giving suggestions to others from time to time. 
When the student-teachers get to work out there their suggestions will be 
published in the Quarterly just as those from the Model School have 
been published for the past three years. 

Five hundred dollars in Liberty Loan Bonds is ex- 
Bonds' L ° aD cellent for tllis School. The significant fact is not so 
much the amount of money, but that every single per- 
manent organization that has any source of income subscribed for bonds. 
Classes that had not had time to organize came together for this purpose 
alone and bought bonds. They caught the true spirit of the war by 
stressing the idea that this giving was to be made from what they had 
by turning it from some other place to this. 

Editorials 233 

The feeling was strong that each one wished to have an active part in 
whatever war work was to he done. 

_,. _ , , The schools have placed themselves at the head of the 

The Schools ... 

and War roll in helping with war work, and that is where they 

should be. When it is taken into consideration that the 
schools are all consumers of wealth, and not by any stretch of the imag- 
ination can be placed as producers, they have done well indeed. The 
students in these schools have nothing of their own ; they have no ways 
in which they can make money except to readjust their allowances. 
Whatever they give here is taken from there; they have to "rob Peter 
to pay Paul." If they get up dramatic performances and bazaars to 
make money, they are making a sacrifice of time, and in a schoolgirl's 
life the time is so nearly filled there must be a careful redistribution of 
time for her to get in anything beyond the routine. The teachers, it is 
a well-known fact, are on salaries that give little margin for anything 
beyond the necessities of life. 

To Liberty Bonds they have given their money, and most of it comes 
without taxing the homefolks, but by doing without something. To the 
Ped Cross work they are giving their recreation time, and are turning 
that into recreation. To help in food conservation they are giving up 
chocolates and other candy, and "eats," and this is a real sacrifice to a 
schoolgirl, a sacrifice that others hardly realize. 

Deny Yourself Turn your Christmas giving into war work. If it 

Christmas really is the thought and the feeling that make the gift 

Giving count, send the thought to your friends and send the 

gift to the soldiers or turn the money into war work. Spend as much as 
ever, but spend it differently. Every magazine is full of suggestions 
as to what to do. The article in this issue of the Quarterly on "What 
Can We Teachers Do?" has suggestions. The Red Cross and the 
Y. M. C. A. will gladly help you to place your gifts. That soldier boy 
from your own home or neighborhood knows soldier boys who have no 
people to look out for them. You and your friends work together for 
the boys. Do not let the children lose faith in Santa Claus, but they 
can quickly see the reason for fewer toys if they know that Old Santa 
is taking the things they did not get to little children across the seas, or 
to the big soldier brothers far away. 

The article, "What Shall We Teachers Do?" is full of timely sugges- 
tions, and is written by a teacher who knows and understands conditions 
thoroughly, and can speak with feeling. Read this again and again 
and see exactly where you can take hold and do your part. 

234 The Training School Quarterly 

„ .. „ Hon. James H. Pou has become Worth Carolina's 

North Caro- 
lina's Interpre- master interpreter of the war to the citizens of the 

ter of the War gt a t e . He is a close student of history and of political 
situations, and is one who can see far back into the causes of present-day 
conditions and events, and can look far into the future and see towards 
what results present tendencies are moving. Not that he can foretell 
what will be the outcome, or prophesy as to what will happen, but he can 
project "ifs" and draw conclusions. 

He is a man of imagination and one who knows people, in the mass 
as well as individually. He is one of those men who are spending them- 
selves utterly for the cause, trying to do their part by living for the 
cause as the young men have given themselves to die for it, if necessary. 
His interpretation in this issue of the Quarterly is worthy of being pre- 
served among the documents you are going to put away for your grand- 
children to read. 

^, „ The reminiscences of the veterans of the War Be- 

The Bon 

Between 1861 tween the States have peculiar significance now. There 

and 1917 j s a svm p a thy and understanding between this genera- 

and that which was impossible so long as the younger people had had no 

war experiences. It is fortunate that there are still some who can tell 

of the struggles and mistakes and failures and triumphs of those days, 

and can help us to profit by them. Miles O. Sherrill, so well known 

throughout the State, in recent years as State Librarian, recalls his war 

experiences and lets the boys of today see how a young man of that 

other war fared. 

, _. . "To read of the experiences of the soldiers in this war 

Their , 

Wounds Soeak is thrilling, but I have seen and talked with those who 

for 1 hem have been over the top, in gas fights, and in air raids, 

and have the wounds to show for it, and that is what makes it all strike 

into your being." This is what one soldier on the other side writes. 

The veteran who has gone through a long life, here in the South, without 

a leg or an arm, a figure we have been accustomed to all our lives, is now 

getting a sympathetic appreciation because this generation realizes the 

horrors he has lived throuffh. 

... _ , "Eatless parties" should become the fashion. Ke- 

Make Eatless 

Parties Fash- freshments are not served because of the food value 

ionable f w jj a |; ls served, but for the social value. Can you 

not prove that you can be entertained without having to have your palate 

tickled ? 

Editorials 235 

Are you keeping before your public tbe need for tbe 

Are You wheatless, meatless, sweetless meals? There are so 

Helping? . . . ' 

many things left lor us to eat, it seems as if we could 

easily give up the few things we are called upon to give up. We of the 

South are fortunate because we have been partly reared on cornbread, 

grits, rice, and sweet potatoes. These things are plentiful and we do 

not have to cultivate a taste for them. Doing without them would be a 

real deprivation. A little less flour bread will hardly be missed. Yet 

even if we missed it greatly, we still should give it up cheerfully. 

Teachers, are you preaching the gospel of the clean plate and helping 

with food conservation ? 

Is it not strange how quickly we become accustomed 
Heed the Calls to a thing ? Are you not among those who have become 
so accustomed to giving that the more you give the more 
you find you can give? We had a feeling that we were being sapped 
last summer, but that was the first tapping of the sap, and we find even 
now that the sap is just beginning to run freely, and we can be tapped 
time and time again without being seriously injured. 

It was easier to raise the thirty-five million dollars for the Y. M. G. A. 
work this fall than it was to raise the five thousand dollars last summer, 
the campaign workers claim ; and they do not expect to have to work at 
all for the next money they call for. The last call for a bond issue in 
England went faster than the first calls three years ago. 

T . . TT The embarrassment of the richness of material for 

Link Up .... 

School with enlivening school work is the only trouble in "linking 

the War U p -yyj^ Jif e " every subject in the curriculum. Here- 

tofore the teacher was often at her wits' end to know how to attach the 
child's experiences with things they should know in geography and his- 
tory and arithmetic ; she floundered around trying to get outside of the 
little routine of neighborhood life for subjects for composition in Eng- 
lish, and the connecting links between their minds and the necessary 
background for the simplest classics sometimes had to be slowly, care- 
fully, and laboriously built up from the outside. What a change ! If 
the teacher only halfway keeps in touch with moving events she can lead 
the children out into events that illumine the whole school life. Even 
those of us who thought that we knew and had understood and felt have 
had the flashlights of present-day events clear up the dim spots, aud find 
that much of it was gray and cloudy. 

236 The Training School Quarterly 

You may have been lulled to sleep by the soothing sound of the word 
"motivation" on the pedagogue's tongue, but that abstract idea should 
now be a live, concrete thing in your work. 

_ . True, sister teacher, little Johnnie and little Susie 

Remember . 

Jean and are the subjects of most vital concern in your work, 

Susanne therefore, in your life, but are you letting little Johnnie 

and Susie stay so near to your nearsighted eyes that you cannot see the 

little Jeans and Susannes and the whole world of events that are now 

centered around their homes? 

_. ,,. . . He that hath ears to hear does hear the voices of the 

The Voice in 

the School- teachers in the counties and in the towns, and he that 

room hath not ears to hear is sometimes blest because he 

does not hear these voices. Do teachers think that the mere crossing 
of the threshold of the school causes the children to become deaf? Is 
it because they imagine themselves on a stage, with a back gallery to be 
reached and the orchestra to overcome? Can they not realize that they 
are talking to children who are in the same room? 

_,, _ , , The meeting of the Teachers' Assembly gives the 

Assembly in teachers an opportunity to see one of the camps, to get 
Charlotte j n touch w ith the atmosphere of the war, to get a 

glimpse of the activities of the training, of the life the soldier lives before 
he goes over, to see the effect of this on the community into which it 
has come. Some will only catch the outside, see only the uniformed men, 
the outward show; some will be so busy with their own problems they 
will not see beyond the one thing they went there to see; while others 
will see and hear all there is to see and hear, both in the meetings of 
teachers and around Charlotte. 

"I want it said of every Training School girl that her word is as 
binding upon her as any law ever written upon the statute books of the 
State." "May it never be said that she broke her contract without 
cause." These are utterances by President Wright. Peculiar tempta- 
tions are now coming to the teacher. So many jobs are vacant, looking 
for teachers, and the bird in the bush looks so much more attractive than 
the one in the hand. Be careful that you do nothing that is not honest. 


First Grade Conversation Lessons on the Home 

"Whait can I possibly do with this subject so as to appeal to the baby 
children in my grade ?" was the question that confronted me when I had 
been given my assignment, language, for practice teaching in the first 

"Home" was my topic, and I planned my work so as to get from the 
children a greater appreciation of home and its members and I hoped to 
get freedom and ease in expression. 

The three questions on which I based conversational lessons were as 
follows : 

1. What did you do before you came to school this morning? 

2. What does mother do for you at home? 

3. What does father do for you? 

The collective response to my first question was : 

"I got up, dressed, washed my face and hands, combed my hair, ate 
my breakfast, and came to school." 

As each child wished to answer the question himself, this took up the 
language period for one day. It was found almost invariably the mother 
or father helped them do almost all they did. This naturally led up 
to what mother and father did for them. 

We got from the children such replies as : "Mother cooks my breakfast, 
helps me dress, puts me to bed. Father works and gets money to buy 
my clothes and food." 

To make home more impressive, and to get the children to see a sim- 
ilarity between our home life and that of animals and fowls, we had a 
few lessons on the home, and family life of the chicken, bird, squirrel, 
and rabbit. 

I told the children that soon we were going to build a little home, 
but before we began I would tell them a story, "How the Little Boy 
Got His Home," which is by C. S. Bailey and C. M. Lewis, from "For 
the Children's Hour." Below is given a brief outline of the story : 

1. Introduction of the little boy and his family. 

2. The "Home Bank." 

3. Plans for the home building. 

4. The father's work in the forest. 

5. The father's return, and the home completed. 

The children became very much interested because of the story and 
the idea of building a little home. The story proved to be an excellent 
introduction for the playhouse. 

238 The Training School Quarterly 

The playhouse had to be very simple because we started it early in 
the year and had only a very small corner of the classroom in which to 
build it. 

We used two wholesale egg boxes, each having a partition in the 
middle. Our idea was to put one on top of the other, having the front 
facing open. This enabled us to look into the rooms easily, and gave 
two rooms upstairs and two downstairs. We had no doors and win- 
dows in it. 

We wished to leave it here for the children to arrange the rooms and 
see if they could think out a plan so as to have more rooms than those 
already provided, using just the two boxes. 

In the next few lessons the arrangement of the house was decided 
upon. In the meantime the children had been asked to observe their 
homes. One lesson was especially good in that the children responded 
with much careful thought and good judgment, giving a reason for 
their ideas. 

For example, when we were discussing how we were to arrange the 
four rooms in order to put in a bathroom, they resented the idea most 
bitterly of having to cut off part of the dining-room or kitchen and put 
the bath next to these. This was suggested because we thought we could 
do with a smaller cook-room or dining-room better than a smaller sit- 
ting-room or bedroom. We also wished to give the children a chance 
to judge and decide as to the proper placing of rooms with reference 
to each other. They finally decided to take out the partition upstairs 
and arrange two partitions, making the bedroom and sitting-room 
smaller, and thus make room for a bathroom next to the bedroom. 

The children appreciated the playhouse much more because they really 
did much of the actual work themselves. The children had made a 
foot ruler, and learned what the foot and the inch was, in a drawing 
lesson. They were eager to use these rulers whenever occasion arose 
for taking measures in building the playhouse. 

I took a group of boys down to a store in town and let them help select 
and measure the material for the partitions and the roof. Another 
group helped saw the partitions and put them in, and cut the card- 
board roof and put it on. Another group helped paint the house. 

This work was done outside of class, but these boys gave a report 
to the class of all outside work. In one of the drawing lessons they had 
made borders for papering the walls of the playhouse, so we took a class 
period and let a group of girls paper one of the rooms. We called these 
little girls our "paper-hangers," since we had leairned the names of 
those employed in building a house, carpenter, mason, etc. 

My time having expired in this grade, I left the furnishings of the 
house to my successor. Clellie Ferrell, '18. 

Suggestions 239 

The Harvest as a Language Topic in Second Grade 

The harvest was the central theme around which I grouped a number 
of cooperative language lessons for the second grade in the Model School. 
This topic, as I dealt with it, naturally divided itself into nine dis- 
tinct lessons, most of which were purely conversational. The general 
purpose of this piece of work was to give the child a general knowledge 
and appreciation of the harvest; also to increase his conversational 

I introduced the harvest in general, and took wheat as my special 
topic for the first day. I started with the bread the children ate for 
breakfast, and took it through all the processes from the grain to the 

First, the wheat planting was taken up in three points : time for 
planting, preparation of soil, and methods of sowing. Then followed 
the growth of the wheat, the appearance immediately after sprouting, 
the appearance at time of ripening. Next, naturally followed the wheat 
harvest, which was dealt with as to the time and the methods. Some 
of the children were not familiar with the hand method and others knew 
nothing of the reaper ; thus they had a good time exchanging experiences. 
Then we imagined the wheat in the mill, and studied all the different 
processes through which it went to become nice white flour — the crush- 
ing, the sifting, and the sacking. Lastly, we saw the flour distributed 
to bakeries, stores, and homes. 

A few members of the class had never seen wheat, and knew nothing 
of the source from which their bread came; hence they had no apper- 
ceiving basis, which was a disadvantage. But most of the class re- 
sponded beautifully. 

Wheat was given as the drawing lesson for the day, and the song, 
"The Mill "Wheel," was taught at the music period. 

The story, "How Bread Came to the Children," the wheat lesson in 
story form, found in Kindergarten Review, November, 1909, was used 
for the next day, to fix the lessons already taught. After the story was 
told by the teacher, a dramatization was planned and carried out by the 

The harvest of fruits was the next natural division. I took the apple, 
the peach, and the grape as types, and led the children to compare 
them as to relative value, and to name the uses of each. This was fol- 
lowed by the marketing of these fruits, which was taken up in two 
points : marketing at home, and marketing afar off. This, of course, 
involved the different ways of gathering, packing, and transportation. 
The next step was the storage of fruits raw and in other ways. Before 
we left the fruit harvest a brief summary was made by the class. 

Pears and apples were drawn, and the "Autumn Song" was taught 
that day. 

240 The Training School Quarterly 

The next lesson was an experimental lesson, and it had a number as 
well as a language phase. Under directions of the teacher, the class 
peeled, cut, measured and weighed apples for drying. This introduced 
the scales and the quart measure; and also gave the child a practical 
lesson in the storage of fruits. 

The next week a lesson was given to check up this one. The class 
measured and weighed the fruit again, and noted the amount of shrink- 
age and the loss in weight. The conclusion was that drying was a good 
way to store fruit, because it is light and easily handled, and keeps 
well. A good bit of conversation was brought in about drying other 
fruits and vegetables. This was handled by letting the children ex- 
change their own experiences. Finally, under direction of the teacher, 
the class wrote an account of the proceedings and the results, to carry 
home to their mothers. 

The story, "The Big Red Apple," an excellent one to follow the fruit 
harvest, was given as the next lesson. After the story was told, and the 
harvest side stressed by the teacher, a dramatization was planned and 
carried out by the class. 

After the fruit harvest, I took the class on an imaginary nutting 
party. They planned to take an all-day trip down Tar River. Each 
child was to take something to contribute to a picnic spread; also a 
basket for nuts and a fishing rod. 

The real teaching came in the gathering of the nuts — walnuts, hickory 
nuts, scaly-barks, pecans, and chinquapins. We took up how each grows, 
how they are gathered, and their uses. Our nutting customs were con- 
trasted with those in California, where they suspend school two weeks 
to gather nuts. This is known as "Walnut Vacation." The lesson was 
ended by different children giving their own nutting experiences. 

The harvest of vegetables, another natural division, was divided into 
three points : classification, marketing, and storing. The vegetables 
were classified according to the parts used. Some of the leaf vegetables 
taken were cabbage, collard, lettuce, amd mustard ; roots : turnips, radish, 
carrot, and beet; stem: celery, and asparagus; fruit: tomato and okra; 
seed : peas, lima beans, and corn ; flower : cauliflower. 

The marketing took in gathering, packing, and transportation of the 
different vegetables, for both home and distant market. 

Next, I took up the storage of vegetables, and discussed those that 
could be canned, and those, such as turnips and potatoes, that could be 
stored raw. 

Pumpkins, turnips, carrots, beets, and radishes were given in the draw- 
ing lessons that day and the day before. 

Corn was the next topic. I gave the Indian legend of the first corn, 
taken from Hiawatha, after which followed a conversation lesson. First, 
the planting was taken up in three points : time, preparation of soil, and 

Suggestions 241 

methods of planting. Some children had never seen the old method of 
dropping each grain by hand. Next was the growth and cultivation of 
corn, and, finally, the harvest. The different hand methods of pulling 
and cutting corn, and also the machinery methods, were discussed. We 
also talked about the old-time corn shucking and the cribbing. 

The various uses of corn were dealt with, special attention being given 
to grinding it into meal for bread. 

A stalk of corn was given as the drawing lesson for that day. 

After we had finished man's harvest, the harvest and preparation for 
winter in the animal world was taken up. First we took the squirrel 
and discussed his zealous habits of storing nuts. Poems that fit well 
here are, "Bushy Tail in October" and "The Squirrel's Arithmetic." 
The habits of birds in fall and winter were studied — those that migrate 
and those that stay here. The scarcity of food for birds was mentioned, 
and the children were encouraged to feed them in winter. Next the 
rabbit and the opossum were discussed — their ways of getting food and 
where they make their beds. After this came the domestic animals — the 
horse as a type — and what they do in fall for winter. Finally, we took 
the lower forms of life, such as the worms, ants, snakes, and frogs, and 
found that they are very different from others in that they sleep all win- 
ter and require no food. 

One of the best things about the whole piece of work was the harvest 
poster. All the fruits, vegetables, corn, etc., that were drawn were 
saved and the best selected and mounted on brown paper about 30" x 42" 
Two tall stalks of corn were mounted on each side, and the fruit and 
vegetables about the middle, in groups, each according to its kind. This 
made a very attractive poster, and the class was pleased to see such 
results from its work. 

A farm scene on the sandtable may also be worked up effectively. 
When the harvest topic was finished, I saw that the children had a 
better idea of the harvest, and also a greater appreciation of it. 

Gladys Yates, '18. 

[The farm in the springtime, planting the seeds and getting things 
started, had been given in the first grade in the spring. A sandtable 
was made and the children had planted seed and had watched products 
growing. This was written up in the Department of Suggestions in 
the winter issue of the Quarterly for 1917. — Editor.] 

Indian Legends 

Indian Legends, because they are mythical and appeal to the child, 
were chosen for the language work in the fourth grade, to develop organ- 
ization of stories. They fitted naturally into the history work, also. 

242 The Training School Quarterly 

I chose from "Legends of the Eed Children," by Mara Pratt, the fol- 
lowing four: "The Legend of the Rainbow," "The Sun a Prisoner," 
"The Opeehe," and "The Lily Star." 

I acquainted the children with Indian life, dwelling mostly on the 
story tellers of the different tribes. I told how the Indians loved to hear 
and tell stories of nature. I showed them a picture of an Indian story- 
teller and his listeners sitting around a campfire. I gave this intro- 
duction in a story form with questions thrown in. The value of my 
introduction was to lead the children to understand how the white people 
obtained these wonderful stories and put them in books, and explained 
why they called them legends. 

They decided that each child was to make his own book of Indian 
Legends, copying each story neatly in the book as they learned them. 
They made these booklets attractive by drawing a wigwam on the cover. 

Before presenting each story I rewrote it, translating it into a child's 
simple words. 

I read the story to the children as a whole, asking questions while 
reading, to see if they were really getting the meaning. I announced 
to them that we were going to make an outline, having explained that 
an outline was something that people used when writing stories ; that 
they put all their big thoughts in the outline and put nothing but what 
was needed to tell the story. I then read as much of our legend as would 
cover our first big thought, and asked, "What big thing does this talk 
about?" I would always let several express their thoughts and the Test 
of the class judge. We now called this our first big thought and wrote 
it on the board. 

I continued reading the story in sections until we had all our big 
thoughts. Then we went back to our first big thought and by careful 
questioning and judging we filled this in with smaller thoughts. We 
filled in the remaining of our big thoughts in the same manner. I al- 
ways told the children that we wanted to put in only what would be 
necessary for us when we wanted to tell our story. 

As we passed from one story to another I could notice that the chil- 
dren were getting more capable of judging the thoughts for them- 

After we had made our outline we would go over it to see our mis- 
takes. In making our first outline, I found the tenses were mixed, so 
I had to ask them if it would sound right for us to put one thing as if 
it had happened a long time ago and another as if it were just happen- 
ing. I was making them realize tense. In the following outlines the 
children naturally looked back to see if we had all our things happening 
at the same time. They also examined the thoughts so as to judge 
whether we could leave out or add anything. They would sometimes 



notice that we would have some of our smaller thoughts under the wrong 
big one. As we made each outline the children's wits were getting 
keener and keener. 

Now that we had our outline correct, we proceeded with the next les- 
son, telling and writing the story. I had the outline on the board and 
let several children tell it from the outline ; then they all wrote it, care- 
fully following the outline. 

I corrected these first papers and they copied them over in some of 
their study periods and had them ready to put in their booklets. 

Besides getting the idea of organization the children were getting a 
clearer idea of the paragraph. In teaching this subject this student- 
teacher learned how to judge ideas swiftly as the children gave them. 

The following are two outlines of the story, "The Sun a Prisoner." 
The first is just as the children gave it, with the tense mixed, etc. The 
second is after the children made their corrections. 

I. Shooter of Birds. 
How he got his name. 

He slept for hours on the moun- 

The sun scorches his coat. 

He goes home to get a cord to 
punish the sun. 

II. Shooter of Birds ties the sun. 
The animals were so cold that 

they went into their caves to 
keep warm. 
The flowers and trees drooped 
their heads for the want of 

III. The mole unties the cord and 

sets the sun free. 
The sun goes up and gives them 

The animals came out of their 

holes again and the flowers 

lifted their heads again. 

IV. The mole was blinded because 

the glare of the sun was so 
The mole could still smell and 
enjoy the flowers and the 

I. Shooter of Birds. 

He got his name from shooting 

He slept for hours on the moun- 
The sun scorched his coat. 
He went home to get a cord to 

punish the sun. 
II. Shooter of Birds tied the sun. 
The animals were so cold that 

they went into caves to keep 

The flowers and trees drooped 

their heads for the want of 


III. The mole untied the cord and 

set the sun free. 
The sun went up and gave them 

The animals came out of their 

caves and the flowers lifted 

their heads. 

IV. The mole was blinded because 

the glare of the sun was so 
The mole could still enjoy the 
flowers and the weather. 

Euth Fenton, '18. 

Assignments for Teaching "Pandora" 

The familiar story "Pandora" is one which may be handled in many 
ways if the teacher appreciates the story, can see the many possibilities, 
and is able to take advantage of the opportunities presented in it. 

In my teaching of the story in the fourth grade, my biggest aim for the 
group of children with which I was working was to improve oral read- 
ing, with special stress upon expression. I found that a few of the 
children had read the story before; this made me realize that I must 
put forth every effort to hold the interest of these with the others. 

244 The Training School Quarterly 

I shall give a few suggestions as to how I divided the story with 
assignments ais given for each lesson. 

In my introduction I explained to the children that at the time of the 
opening of this story conditions were very different from what they are 
today. Then everything was peaceful — everybody was happy. Now 
what is our situation? We are in war. I left this question with the 
children : "What do you suppose could have caused everything to he 
changed so much?" 

Going from this, I said : "Wow we are going to read about two chil- 
dren, Pandora and Epimetheus, who disputed and quarreled. Now 
let us find out what this quarrel was about and which one we think was 
right." (In this discussion this quarrel may be, in a way, compared to 
the quarrel between the nations.) This first lesson ended at the point 
■where Pandora is almost tempted to open the box. "Do you think 
Pandora will open the box? Would you open it? Why? Por to- 
morrow find out what Pandora decides to do about it. By the time 
you get through page 96 you will know." This was my assignment for 
the second lesson, which told that "The winged troubles had been al- 
lowed to fly out an open door, all abroad." In discussing these troubles, 
the comparison may be followed up by suggesting that these troubles 
were as great for Pandora and Epimetheus and as hard for them to bear 
as the things we are having to endure seem to us. Why? Because it 
was such an unusual thing, bringing out the idea that these were the first 
troubles. "Exactly what were these ugly creatures, and what did they 
do?" were the questions naturally arising. These I assigned, with these 
remarks : "Now Pandora and Epimetheus are very sad, but something 
will happen to cheer them up. Find out what thait is, too." After 
this has been found out and discussed the children may be asked to sug- 
gest ways in which Hope helps us today. 

Through using these assignments and taking suggestions from the 
children I think the story was enjoyed and appreciated. When, after 
a few review questions, I asked for suggestions for another name for the 
story, several, such as "The First Trouble," "Trouble and Hope," "Why 
We Have Troubles," and "How Troubles Came Into the World," were 
given. These showed that the thought of the story was clear to them. 

Elsie Morgan, '18. 

Checking up Thought-Getting 

In testing the children's ability to get thought by reading silently we 
decided to use other means rather than oral reading. 

The children were told to read silently until they found out what a 
certain person or character said and did, then some child was called on 
to tell the class what he read. 

Questions were asked that required thoughtful reading on the part of 
the children. They were told to find answers to the questions by reading 

Suggestions 245 

silently. They were told to read until they found out a certain thing 
and see if there was anything they could pantomime or dramatize. Dif- 
ferent children were allowed to decide what should he done and to 
choose as actors particular children. Sometimes they arranged to have 
a short dialogue. 

Some of the questions I asked in the story "Alfred the Great" will 
illustrate the way in which I handled it. "What sort of man was King 
Alfred and what did he do for his country?" The children found the 
answer by reading silently. Instead of telling them to read a certain 
paragraph, I gave them the opportunity to decide for themselves how 
far to read. Some child was then called on to tell what he read. All 
were required to close their books while he reported. "What did the 
cowherd say to Alfred?" was asked. They were told to read silently 
until they found out. Then some child was called on to say just what 
the cowherd said. If there was anything they could act they would 
readily see it, and delight in trying to imitate some person in the story, 
while the other children guessed what they were doing. For example : 
when King Alfred was following the cowherd home one child imitated 
the cowherd leading the cattle, several children imitating the cattle, 
and King Alfred followed behind. One child imitated Alfred the Great 
sitting on the hearth before the fire making arrows for his men. One 
little girl imitated the old woman in the story, making the bread and 
cooking it. Then several of the boys tried to act as King Alfred's men 
did when they saw him coming. One boy was Alfred taking charge of 
his army. Sallie J. Williams, '18. 

A Columbus Contest 

The text-books that I found best and richest in detail for study in 
working up the story of Columbus to give to the children in the fourth 
grade were the following : 

Columbus and the Discovery of America, by Altemus. 
Socializing the Child, by Sarah A. Dynes. 
Stories of American History, by Dodge. 

America's Story for America's Children, or Discovery and Explora- 
tion, vol. II, by Pratt 
Beginner's History of United States, by White. 
Builders of Our Nation, by Burton. 

Makers of American History, by Chandler and Chitwood. 
American Leaders and Heroes, by Gordy. 

I picked from these the parts that would present the most vivid de- 
scriptions to the children and thereby make the impressions as real and 
vivid to them as possible. I also used a large picture of "The Landing 
of Columbus" and "The Eve of the Discovery," and presented them to 

246 The Training School Quarterly 

the children for study and discussion when these points in' the story were 
reached. This greatly helped to strengthen the impressions they re- 

The story was given in the simplest form possible and in full detail, 
as the children had no text-books and lacked geography as a hasis for 
this work. My outline was very similar to the one given in "Sugges- 
tions" in the fall Quarterly of 1916; but this year, instead of sand- 
table, we used a contest. I did not use the sandtable because we were 
in different quarters and it was not convenient to have one there, 
though I wished for it. 

The contest was given by using questions on cards, and was a means 
of checking up the teacher's work and also of seeing if the children 
had the story in a clear and connected form. I made out a complete list 
of questions to cover the story of Columbus. These were taken from 
the preceding lessons and brought out the most important points in the 
story; they also required definite answers from the children. Two chil- 
dren were selected as leaders to choose sides, thus dividing the room 
into two sections. Then the questions on the cards were asked the 
children, first of one section, then of the other, as in a spelling match. 
The card with the question on it was given to the child answering it 
correctly; and at the end of the lesson the side holding the most cards 
was the winning side in the contest. There were about ninety questions 
on this story, some of which are given at the close of this article. 

The children greatly enjoyed this method of reproduction, which was 
new to them; it appealed to their instinct of competition just enough 
to make them put forth their best efforts to win. Each child was 
eager to answer the questions and give his ideas on the different points. 
The work in this contest called for thought on the part not only of the 
children, but I, the student-teacher, found that it required swift think- 
ing to judge whether the answers given were definite and full enough 
to entitle the child to the card. 

In the handling of this story I fully realized that it is possible for 
children to get real history without text-books in their hands. I also 
found that much depends upon the manner and personality of the teacher. 
By putting one's self on the same plane with the children and being 
able really to feel and make them see the lessons, it will naturailly reflect 
on the children and appeal to their interest and imagination. It con- 
vinced me that history is not just a subject made up of dry facts, but 
one continuous link of real, romantic adventures and happenings. 

A few of the questions asked on the story of Columbus : 

1. Who were the first people that lived in our country? 2. Who was 
the first white man to come over to this country? 3. Why was not the 
path that the sea captains used in going to India a good one? 4. Why 
was Columbus not afraid to look for a new route to India? 5. Why 
was it hard for Columbus to get sailors to go with him on his voyage? 

Suggestions 247 

6. Why was every sailor so anxious to be the first one to see land? 7. 
Why did not Columbus and his men go to the sbore when they first saw 
that they had found land? 8. Wbat did the people on this new land 
think of Columbus and his sailors? 9. Why did Columbus decide to 
call these people Indians ? 10. What were some of the things that Co- 
lumbus got by trading with the Indians? 11. What would he have to 
do to prove to the people of Spain that he had really found a land on 
which there were strange people and things? 12. Why were the King 
and Queen so happy over Columbus's voyage? 13. Why did he not 
have any trouble in getting people to go with him on his second voyage ? 
14. Why did the people that came to this new country soon begin to dis- 
like Columbus? 15. How did the King and Queen receive Columbus 
when he was sent to Spain in chains ? 16. How did the people of Spain 
treat Columbus in his old age, and in what condition did they allow him 
to die? 17. What did the country that Columbus thought to be India 
prove to be? 18. Why should Columbus be honored as much as if he 
had really found India? 19. Why has the discovery of America proved 
to be_ as great as the finding of a new route to India? 20. Why should 
all the children in America study about Columbus? 

Mat Renfrow, '18. 

Language and Number Work 

Lack of time for language work is a complaint, particularly among 
teachers of the first, second and third grades. This shortage in the 
time element may well be balanced, if the teacher puts a little planning 
on her work, consults her course of study, and correlates language with 
her other subjects. 

A usage language lesson may easily be taught in connection with 
number work in the grades above mentioned. The work consists of drill 
on the additive facts and that great bugbear, the multiplication table. 
Of course, the teacher presents these facts in some concrete way, but as 
soon as this is done, comes drill, or putting them on the habit basis. 
The child must be drilled until he can tell you five and four are nine, 
or, three times two are six, without having to remember these may be 
counted with blocks, straws, books, etc. Then to give a good drill we 
must give our directions in series and clearly, so the child can readily 
interpret them. If the child can give these directions to the class in the 
same way, that will score once for good language. There is another 
element of drill valuable for language work, namely, the responses. 
These can be made grammatically correct as easily as otherwise. For 
example, "Three and four are seven." 

Some games which are used very successfully with number work, and 
which may be handled from a language standpoint, are "The Guessing 
Game" and "The Domino Game." The "Guessing Game" is simple 
and easily handled. A child selects an additive fact, as, six and seven 

248 The Training School Quarterly 

are thirteen, and comes out before the class and says: "I am thinking 
of two numbers whose sum is thirteen; of what am I thinking?" Any 
child raising his hand may be called upon, and he will use the form, 
"Are you thinking of — and — are thirteen?" This game gives a num- 
ber of guesses, which drill on both number work and language. This 
game may also be used with the tables with equal success. Each time 
the teacher gives the rules clearly and the child must use the correct 
formula, or he is as much wrong as if he gave the wrong combination. 

The second game is the "Domino Game." To give the number facts 
in a concrete form, the children are allowed to make dominoes with 
their drawing paper and crayon. A convenient size is one and one- 
half inches by one inch. They make only the combinations with the 
number being taught that day and play the game to check up. If the 
children are learning the combinations with four, in the game they have 
a range of guesses from five to fourteen. As in the "Guessing Game," 
a child selects one of the dominoes and comes before the class and says : 
"I have a card which we have just made; who can guess what it is?" 
If the child says, "I have got a card" he is checked up for not playing 
according to the rules. The child answering asks, "Have you four and 
five are nine?" or any of the combinations with four. He also must use 
the correct form, or he is counted out by saying, "No, he doesn't know 
how to play, and we don't want any one playing who doesn't know the 
rules," or something similar. The idea is keeping the child's language 
standard as high as his efficiency in number work. 

The above games are only indicative of the possibilities of language 
in all drills. Any teacher can see the double value of games of this 
nature, that is, a thorough drill on the work, and a series of repetitions 
which will give good language habits. These games may be varied from 
time to time, when the teacher finds a common error in language, thus 
she is putting the correct form before the child, drilling on it, amd ap- 
pealing to a very dominant instinct, play. Estelle Jones, '18. 

Cutting of Playground Games 

Cutting playground games furnished much enjoyment to the children 
in the third grade. 

Before the cutting began they talked about the games which they 
liked to play, then the student-teacher told the pupils that they had let 
her know with their lips what they liked to play, and now they might 
show her with their scissors. 

To give them a desire to do their best work, she told them she would 
select the best cuttings to be mounted and put in the room. The student- 
teacher promised them they might have a guessing game, after they 
had finished cutting, and guess from the cutting what the game was. 

Suggestions 249 

This added enjoyment to the lesson. Then she let the pupils know that 
she also had cut a game, and they might guess the name of it after they 
had guessed each other's. 

A few minutes were allowed so they might think about what game 
they wanted to cut. Fifteen minutes was taken up cutting the games. 
After this they had much fun guessing what games the cuttings repre- 
sented. Then the cuttings were collected and later the best ones were 
mounted for a playground poster which was displayed in the front of 
the room. 

Some of the games which they cut were : "The Slide," "Sling the Bis- 
cuits," "Mother and Children," "Volley Ball," and "Swings." Most 
of these were cut so well that the children had little trouble in guessing 

"The Slide" was represented with two pieces of paper, one being the 
ladder and the slide and the other being used as a support. A doll was 
cut sliding down the slide. A group of dolls having hold of hands was 
cut for the game of "Sling the Biscuits." In cutting the game "Mother 
and Children" they cut one large doll and several small ones standing 
about her. One mother doll was cut with a child in her arms. A net 
and a ball were cut to represent the game "Volley Ball." Holes were 
cut in the net. The ball was placed on the poster as going over the 
net. Some of the swings showing the tree that they hung from were 
cut. A row of swings was cut, some having little dolls standing in the 
swing, while others cut the dolls sitting down swinging. 

Mattie White, '18. 

Random Suggestions for Opening Exercises 

"Well begun is half done." From 9 o'clock to 9 :15 should be just as 
important a part of the day's work as the lessons that follow. It may 
be truly said that the results obtained from the day depend entirely on 
the spirit that pervades the opening exercises. It is an excellent oppor- 
tunity to encourage free expression among the children by having them 
relate their various experiences, thus bringing out the timid and en- 
couraging the social instinct. One should vary and plan opening exer- 
cises well, for children, just as adults, tire of monotony, or, too soon they 
will feel that this time is the most boring part of the day. 

Below are a few suggestions that teachers may find helpful in plan- 
ning opening exercises. These were all used in the second grade this 

A short story, as, "Do What You Can," may be told them; thus inci- 
dentally leaving a moral with them. Since harvest was the topic the 
teacher was using for their language work in the second grade, I cor- 
related and used this story just at the time they were studying about 
corn. Often a nature story may be told them, as, "How Seeds Travel." 
This will encourage them to observe nature more closely, and they will 

250 The Training School Quarterly 

learn why and how different kinds of trees, plants, and flowers are scat- 
tered. This idea doubtless has not occurred to them before. 

"Why we are talking about Columbus on this particular day?" was 
the question I answered by telling them a short, simplified, and carefully 
organized story about him him on Columbus Day. 

An occasional short poem with a happy, joyful mood, as "Come, 
Little Leaves," "September," and "My Shadow," by Eobert Louis Ste- 
venson. It is sometimes well to read to them for appreciation and follow 
the reading by a free discussion of it, and sometimes they can mem- 
orize it. 

As all children possess an abundance of surplus energy, singing games 
appeal to them.. "See-Saw," "The Mill-Wheel," "Did You Ever See 
a Laddie ?" "This is the Way We Wash Our Clothes" may be used effect- 
ively. Songs that are full of action and can be made real by dramatiza- 
tion, are the most interesting to them. 

For morning prayer we sometimes substituted "Father, We Thank 

So as to give the children an opportunity to tell what they had learned 
in the first grade, we devoted one morning to reviewing "Mother Goose 
Rhymes." After a few suggestions from the teacher, the children eager- 
ly responded, took the initiative, and dramatized them. The results 
•were very favorable as well as interesting to them. 

As the greatest interest was manifested in Hallowe'en, they dramatized 
a story that had been taught them in their language. This they thor- 
oughly enjoyed, as they always delight in displaying their newly ac- 
quired knowledge. One morning we discussed Hallowe'en pictures, the 
teacher telling stories about them. Each child was encouraged to give 
his interpretation of them. This appealed to them, for several had 
played the games the pictures represented. 

Of course, every experienced teacher knows it is always well to close 
by singing some song that the children know, in order to get them in 
the right mood for the day. Bess Tillitt, '18. 

Notes from Observers 

The student-teacher in writing criticisms on observation lessons of 
their fellow teachers prove that they understand what they are working 
for, and have a bond of sympathy. They are growing in power of dis- 
crimination and discernment. They know how to pick out the things 
worked for. Below are a few of the criticisms. You will see that they 
were of great benefit : 

"Oh wad some power the giftie gie us 
To see oursel's as ithers see us." 

"In her first lesson she did not know how to take suggestions from the chil- 
dren. But after the first lesson, she was ahle to check up these points. She 



readily took the children's suggestions and followed them out. She threw 
the whole responsibility on the class and acted as a leader for them." 

"She was natural and apparently forgot there were observers in the room." 

"She always had something to leave with the children for another day." 

"In playing the song she became so interested that she forgot her voice, 
which rose above that of the children." 

"She was a good teacher because of her composed manner and ingenuity. 
When her planned method failed she invented or tried others. This shows 
that her open-mindedness will help her to meet the various situations in- 
volved in teaching." 

"She has the voice requirements of a good teacher — which must neither 
be too shrill, nor bass. A good teacher must possess a good, emphatic, ex- 
pressive, and impressive voice." 

"She did not destroy the interest of the class by constantly calling to mind 
some disorder going on, and she gave her directions definitely." 

"When the children gave a point she had not thought of, she took it at its 
full value." 

"Her directions were always very direct and explicit and very seldom was 
there confusion." 

"She did not know enough about her plan to teach it. Later her work was 
very carefully planned." 

"She backed up against the blackboard and left a space between her and 
the pupils. That kept her from being physically near the children. She 
forgot that 'to be mentally near you must be physically near.' " 

"Her statements were not concise or clear, and she could not wait for the 
children to think, but insisted on answering her own questions. Her aims 
were good in quality, but too many for the children in a low grade to read, and 
get both mechanics and thought, and hold them in mind. A good point was, 
the amount of preparation put on the lessons by the teacher. This shows 
that the teacher is earnest in her work and anxious to succeed." 

"Some good points in X's teaching were: (1) her self-confidence — she 
looked as if she had something to say and that she knew it; (2) her pointed 
questions — when she stated a question she held an unwavering countenance 
until the answer came; (3) her correct standing position inspired the chil- 
dren to stand the same way." 

"Her pictures were so vivid that the children could imagine how it was. 
If a child brought up a point that was on the lesson she followed this until 
it was made clear to the children." 

"An admirable thing about this girl was her good, clear, correct English." 

In C's criticism of D's lesson on drawing, we find: 
"I liked Miss D's teaching inasmuch as her voice had such a calm and 
smooth tone, that it made the children give her their attention. Her questions 
were definite and clear. I like the way she seemed to forget her observers, 
and put her whole soul into her work. She worked for the whole room, not 
for the individual. Every child got what the teacher was working for. Her 
aims were good." 

In A's criticism of B's lesson we find that B was so conscious of her 
work as a teacher that she did not leave enough work for the pupils. 

S. T. 


The Bureau of Education, in cooperation with the United States 
Food Administration, is issuing a series of Lessons in Community and 
National Life. These lessons are being issued in the form of circulars 
of the Bureau of Education. The first appeared on October 1st, and 
others will follow on the first of each month up to and including May 

The lessons consist of reading material in form to be put directly into 
the hands of pupils. The text in each case deals with selected topics, 
and will be followed by questions and suggestions as to topics which 
may be studied in addition to those presented in the text. Each lesson 
is accompanied also by references to supplementary reading maitter cog- 
nate to the text. 

There are three grades of lessons, one designed for pupils in the 
fourth, fifth, and sixth grades; one for pupils in grades seven and eight 
and in the first year of the high school; one for students in the three 
upper years of the high school. There will be 32 pages of each grade 
of lessons each month. 

The following suggestions are offered with regard to the introduction 
of these lessons into the program. They can properly be introduced 
as part of the work in reading classes and as subject-matter for discus- 
sion in English classes. In this connection it may be noted that the 
subjects taken up will commonly be suitable for compositions. Second, 
the close correlation of the materiail with geography and history jus- 
tifies the use in the grades of at least one hour a week drawn from the 
allotment made to those subjects. Third, where a course in civics or 
a course in current topics is now given in the school, the lessons will be 
available as part of the regular work. Fourth, it is suggested that an 
independent plaice on the program for a course of this type is amply 
justified even in the crowded curriculum now given. 

The first circular deals with types of social organization. About one- 
fourth of each of the sections of this circular will utilize the experience 
of the war to show how interdependent are the members of a modern 
social group. These "war lessons" will take up in the concrete such 
topics as the following : What the war has used up ; what the war pre- 
vents men from producing; new needs which grow out of the wair and 
are met by invention. 

The section of the circular prepared for use in the upper classes of 
the high school presents in a series of concrete descriptions the contrast 
between the life of a frontiersman and the life of a modern city. 

The section for the seventh and eighth grades and the first year of 
the high school describes the life of a colonial family as an example of 

Reviews 253 

a fairly independent economic unit. Following this will be a descrip- 
tion of a modern factory and the community about it, and a description 
of a town produce market. 

The section for the lower grades deals with the things which society 
makes and uses. The specific topics in the first circular are the making 
of cloth in a colonial family, the water system of a town, and the collec- 
tion, refinement, and use of mineral oils. 

The second circular deals with production and conservation. The 
series as a whole will deal with the economic, sociological, and civic as- 
pects of modern life. 

An edition of 12,500 copies of the first circular will be published for 
distribution by the Bureau of Education. Subsequent circulars will be 
published in editions of 3,000 copies. 

The Superintendent of Public Documents is prepared to supply re- 
prints of each of the sections of 32 pages, when these are ordered in 
bulk. The sale price of these reprints is to be found on the order card. 
Small schools are asked to consolidate their orders through the county 
superintendent or through the State department of education. 

It is recommended that teachers secure for their own use each month 
the three sections. Those in the lower grades will find material in the 
sections designed for the upper grades which will give them the prin- 
ciples that they should incorporate into their teaching. In like manner 
the teachers in the upper grades will find illustrative material in the 
section prepared for the lower grades. 

The arrangements provided make it possible to supply during the 
year to each pupil 256 pages of reading material at an aggregate cost 
of 8 cents, and to supply to a teacher 768 pages of material for 24 cents. 

Commissioner of Education P. P. Claxton in a letter to superintend- 
ents says : 

"Much of the material to which attention should he given in such courses 
is to he found in the environment of the school. The lessons provided will 
be most successful if they lead teachers and pupils to study the communities 
in which they live. 

"All school officers are urged to join in this plan, and by the use of the les- 
sons and by encouraging the study of community problems near at hand, to 
aid in developing general instruction in the schools of the United States in 
the privileges and duties of life under our modern social organization." 

Herbert Hoover, Food Administrator, in a letter to the superintend- 
ents says : 

"These lessons will serve the very urgent immediate purpose of calling 
attention to the necessity of conserving food and all other resources of the 
Nation. They will serve at the same time the broader purpose of training 
pupils in the schools to recognize their rights and obligations in the coopera- 
tive society in which they live. 

254 The Training School Quarterly 

"I urge all school officers to promote with vigor this plan for the more defi- 
nite and comprehensive teaching of democracy." 

The letter from President Wilson is published in full page elsewhere. 

Bulletin (1917), No. 36, of the Bureau of Education: Demand 
for Vocational Education in the Countries at War, by Anna Tolman 
Smith, specialist in foreign educational systems, answers the frequent 
requests for information as to current activities in regard to vocational 
education in the principal European countries engaged in the present 

The lessons of war and the waste of war have made the education 
and training of youth between the ages of thirteen and eighteen a para- 
mount question in every nation engaged in the conflict. Therefore, the 
existing provision for this purpose and its further development have 
excited an interest never before manifested. 

One advantage of Germany's system of elementary education is that 
in the last year of the course the boy is given some kind of technical 
training in the workshop attached to the school or in other ways. Fol- 
lowing are three principles of the German system which have been 
gradually and effectively worked out: (1) It is universally applied; (2) 
attendance is compulsory for all boys after the completion of the ele- 
mlentary school, and for a large proportion of the girls; (3) employers 
are obliged to cooperate with the State in carrying out the provisions 
of the law. However, one objection to this system is that it tends to 
divert attention from the community and to fix it on the egoistic trade 
centers, as is shown in the absolute want of every general formative 
discipline, like literature or history. The monotechnical day schools 
have one important objection : they make it easy for the pupil whose 
ambition is greater than his capacity to forsake a career in which he 
could succeed for one of greater distinction in which he is almost bound 
to fail. 

In France the lack of compulsion in respect to vocational schools has 
been recognized as one of the faults of the system. To overcome this 
and other evils a bill which establishes the principle of compulsory edu- 
cation at public expense, in continuation schools for all young people 
who have completed the required term of elementary education is under 
consideration. Since it applies to boys who do not attend the secondary 
schools up to the age of twenty years and girls up to the age of eighteen, 
it must be threefold — intellectual, vocational, and physical. The pro- 
visions of the bill are such as to centralize control of education, but 
city or communal committees have direction of the continuation classes. 

England is alive to the danger of neglecting young people at the most 
critical period of their lives. Schemes varying in detail have been 
brought up by the different associations interested in education and 

Reviews 255 

social welfare, but they agree in demanding that the period of com- 
pulsory education shall be extended and that all continuation schools 
should provide for vocational education. A draft of revised regulations 
has been issued by the board of education, which is taking advantage of 
the interest awakened by the events of the war. 

From the careful survey of each country as is given in this bulletin 
we conclude that France and England are about equal in their progress 
toward a national system of continued education. In regard to the 
outlook on this subject, its complex relations, and the new forces which 
the war itself will bring to bear upon the problem, the bulletin gives a 
passage from the address of Lord Archbishop of Canterbury to the House 
of Lords, which sums them up strikingly. In regard to the returning 
soldier he asks the pertinent question : "Ought he to be satisfied with 
the old conditions as regards housing, and as regards, in some depart- 
ments of life, wages and the rest?" E. M. 

Higher Technical Education in Foreign Countries. Bulletin (Nov., 
1917), No. 11, Bureau of Education. 

The purpose of this bulletin is to meet the demand of school officers 
and business men of the United States for information about the organ- 
ization and conduct of the foreign schools, their courses of instruction, 
and the relative value of diploma. 

In a broad survey of the subject, it is seen that the term technical is 
more generally restricted to schools which specialize in engineering and 
mechanical arts that involve the application of science, and it is in this 
limited sense that the term is used in this bulletin. But even this 
restricted province includes schools exclusively professional, and those 
that combine with departments of professional engineering a wide range 
of specialties relating to productive industry. 

Although it is impossible to set up an exact uniform scheme of presen- 
tation for these institutions or to draw comparisons between their 
standards, it may be said, however, that all the institutions here classed 
as technical require the same entrance qualifications as the universities 
of their respective countries and confer diplomas that have equal value 
with the university diplomas. 

The material presented includes (1) a survey of the studies prelim- 
inary to the higher technical schools, (2) accounts of typical schools, 
(3) statistical summaries comprising additional institutions of the same 
order. So far as possible the information in regard to each country is 
arranged under the given heads in the order named above. 

Detailed programs which are used in practically all institutions are 
put under the head of typical schools to avoid wearisome repitition. 

256 The Training School Quarterly 

The courses of study preliminary to the higher technical instruction 
are covered by the programs of secondary schools which in nearly all 
foreign countries are fixed by official decrees and are strictly maintained. 
Marked deviations from these standards are discussed under the different 

It is noticeable that, while the courses of preparatory study differ in 
scope, stress is invariably placed upon mathematics and the elements of 
the exact sciences. Thus, while the same mental maturity is demanded 
in candidates for the higher education, whether general or technical, it 
is recognized that the latter depends upon the habit of exact observation 
and close reasoning, which is the product of scientific training. Prac- 
tically, however, the two orders of higher education rest upon the sarnie 

In a completely organized system of technical education the line of 
relation between the lower grades and the highest starts with the model- 
ing and weaving exercises of the kindergarten and is continued by 
manual training and sciences in elementary and secondary schools. 

The close relation between the progress of industry and that of tech- 
nical education is emphasized anew in every survey of this subject. 
These two purposes have determined the subsequent development of 
technical education to a great extent in all foreign countries. 

C. L. 

In the American Schoolmaster Florence Shultes, Instructor in His- 
tory, State Normal College, Ypsilanti, Michigan, has a very delightful 
and comprehensive article on The World War and the Status of Women. 
In the following paragraph will be seen the sum of her article : 

"There has heen an obvious change in public sentiment during the last six 
months regarding the question of women's recognition after the war. Surely, 
the work of Europe will be better done, for the jobs will be distributed ration- 
ally, not arbitrarily. Woman has responded to every call made upon her; and 
only when war is over and the final reckoning of the nations made will it be 
possible truly to appraise her work and measure her worth. Her advance, 
intellectually, because of the larger world in which she has been a factor, and 
because of the new opportunities for education, both formal and practical, that 
have come as a result, will make it imperative that she be considered in all 
great movements initiated hereafter. Gains made by women in one country 
will soon be reflected in che life of other countries, for international ideas of 
all kinds are today growing and spreading rapidly. One wonders if it will 
ever again be necessary for women to ask for what they have called in the 
past their 'rights,' and whether they have not established themselves on equal 
terms with all men of all ages. Or can that be accomplished only after they 
possess the ballot?" g_ X. 

Eeviews 257 

Military Training in Foreign Countries, Bureau of Education, 
Bulletin (1917), No. 25. 

A bulletin on military training published by the Bureau of Education, 
shows the widest variation in type of training for boys of the school age. 
Great Britain, although she has resorted to conscription in the present 
war, has not had military training of boys of school age except in the 
nature of strictly voluntary work carried on by private agencies. The 
following is a brief statement of the practice in twenty of the nations 
of the world. Many of the statements have been obtained directly from 
the embassies or legations of the nation concerned : 

British Empire: 
Great Britain. — Strictly voluntary work carried on by private agencies. 
Australia. — Military instruction compulsory for all boys from 12 to 18 years. 
New Zealand. — Military instruction compulsory for boys over 14 years. 
Canada. — Military instruction carried on in voluntary cadet corps. 


Prescribed military instruction without arms, and rifle practice in ele- 
mentary and higher elementary schools. Ages 9 to 13 years; rifle practice 
limited to boys over 10 years of age. Specially trained instructors. Strong 
organizations carry on the work of military preparation among older boys. 


Voluntary organizations of older public school pupils and students of second- 
ary schools. Training loithout arms. Decrees issued during the war provide 
for preparatory military training of all boys over 16 years of age. 

Austria-Hungary : 

Austria. — Voluntary organizations for military training of pupils of second- 
ray schools, under government protectorate. Optional rifle practice in the 
last two years of secondary schools. 

Hungary. — Voluntary organizations in elementary, secondary, and higher 
schools. In many districts military instruction is obligatory in secondary 


Instruction in military gymnastics in elementary schools obligatory through- 
out the school age. Conducted by specially trained instructors. Voluntary 
rifle practice and military drill both with and without arms. 

Sweden : 

Compulsory rifle practice in public secondary schools for boys from 15 to 18 
years of age. Given by special instructors. 

Norway : 
Voluntary rifle practice. 

Italy : 

Military training given as obligatory subject in "national colleges." Private 
agencies provide for simple military drill for younger boys. 


No distinct military training is given. Some simple drill is included in the 
program of physical training. 

258 The Training School Quarterly 


No military training is given in schools. The subject of "physical culture," 
which is taught generally, includes simple drill without arms. Boy scout 
organizations are numerous. 

Prescribed military gymnastics in elementary and secondary schools. 

Netherlands : 

Military training given in voluntary organizations for boys over 15 years 
of age. 

Greece : 

Very intensive military instruction is given in gymnasia, under the patron- 
age of the king. Simple drill obtains in all public schools in connection with 
physical training. 

Japan : 

Military gymnastics obligatory in elementary, secondary, and normal 

Mexico : 

Obligatory military drill with arms in all primary and secondary schools. 
Regulated by state laws. 

Argentina : 

Obligatory military training in the last two years of secondary schools. 
Specially trained instructors. 

Bolivia : 

Simple drill in connection with gymnastics. 

The Playground for October, 1917, is devoted to war recreation serv- 
ice. This service is in response to a request from the Commission on 
Training Camp Activities, asking the Playground and Recreation Asso- 
ciation of America "to be responsible for the work of stimulating and 
aiding communities in the neighborhood of training camps to develop 
and organize their social and recreational resources in such a way as 
to be of the greatest possible value to the officers and soldiers in the 

This work affords an excellent opportunity for America to demon- 
strate to the world what can be accomplished through cooperation; in 
fact, it is a cooperative movement in which party lines, sectarian divi- 
sions, and arbitrary differences in creed or politicatl beliefs are swept 
away in common service — every organization can have a share in it, 
every group of people can join in it. 

The work of the Commission is divided into three parts. The first 
of these, the Y. M. C. A., maintains a building for each brigade, where 
the soldiers are given the advantage of books and magazines, provisions 
for writing letters, lectures, church services, songs, games, moving pic- 
tures, and other forms of educational and recreational activities. 

The second branch of the work has as its aim the exclusion of vice 
and vicious resorts from the neighborhood of each camp. 

Reviews 259 

The third branch of the work is based on the belief that the under- 
lying cause of the great and obvious evils found in the camps is the 
cutting off of the men from normal social intercourse, especially the 
breaking off of relations to homes, friends, and church. This branch 
is trying to offset these results by making it possible for members of 
the soldiers' families to be near the camps ; by bringing the soldiers into 
active service in Sunday school classes, having them participate in va- 
rious organizations; to provide social occasions where they may meet 
girls and women under wholesome conditions; and to place the public 
resources of the community at the disposal of the officers and men. 
Thus each community in which camps are located is really responsible 
for the carrying out of the program. 

Some special features of the work are as follows : 

Weekly automobile trips, especially for the convalescing soldiers, 
are a part of the program, in some communities. Through registra- 
tion cards churches and fraternal orders can get in touch with their 
members in camp and extend their hospitality. 

Home entertainment, through which the soldiers are invited into 
private homes for meals and can feel for a little while at least thait 
they are members of a family group, probably touches their lives more 
vitally than any other feature. 

"Sings" for soldiers and townspeople are being held in some of the 
communities which realize the value of music as a universally leveling 
and democratizing force. Some of the songs which have seemed most 
inspiring are "Battle Hymn of the Republic," "Carry Me Back to Old 
Virginny," "My Old Kentucky Home," "Perfect Day," "My Hero," 
"Old Black Joe," and, of course, the "Star-Spangled Banner." The 
officers testify to the value of song and to its potent force. 

Khaki Clubs, which are known as recreation or rest rooms, where 
the soldiers will feel at home and find some of the more homelike fea- 
tures which cannot be provided at camp, are among the activities most 
essential to the comfort and enjoyment of the men. Each of these fea- 
tures is explained more fully in an interesting way in this issue. 

The problem of controlling and directing the young girls, many of 
whom lose their heads over the soldiers and in different ways, con- 
sciously or unconsciously, place temptations in the way of the soldiers, 
presents one of the greatest difficulties to local committees. Planning 
a solution to this problem will require the coordination of all the agen- 
cies already at work. 

Besides providing recreation and activities of various flinds for the 
girls and wise leadership for all the social gatherings, it is probable 
that an organization of a system of police women and volunteer police 
patrols will be made. This plan has been employed in England, great 
emphasis being laid upon preventive and constructive phases, every 
effort being made to establish friendly relations with the girls and women 

260 The Training School Quarterly 

of the towns. Special effort has been made to reach the girls who had 
not previously been included in any club, the rougher element whose 
need for recreation is great. This has helped greatly in keeping these 
girls off the street. 

That the development of this system of police women and volunteer 
patrols may be a necessary and important phase in this war recreation 
service is the belief of many social workers. They realize the serious- 
ness of conditions which have already arisen in our country and may 
judge from the experience of England, since the system has been very 
effective in influencing the girls for good and safeguarding them. 

It is of great assistance to the regular police department and it is 
welcomed by the soldiers themselves. 

More detailed suggestions are given in the issue of the Playground. 

E. M. 

Our Flag 

By W. Dayton Wegefarth 

'Twas God who took from Heaven's dome 

The stars that voere twinkling there, 
And the glist'ning light of the fleecy white, 

Enfolding the cloud-hanks fair; 
He took from the roses their deepest red, 

From, violets their azure hue; 
So we call the bars and the fielded stars 
The Bed, 
and Blue ! 

— Book News Monthly, July, 1917. 


"We know we've just got to succeed ; we can't even think it's possible 
for us to fail," is what one graduate of the Training School who is suc- 
ceeding in her work said when asked what she thought was the secret 
of her success. "If there is anything I want advice aibout, I come right 
back to the Training School just as I did when I was here. There is 
something about this place that makes you feel if you do not make good 
you will hurt the School, and I can't bear to be the one to do that," 
comes from another. "We feel as if we always belong here," is a third. 

Here are some random remarks caught by the Editor : 

"If you can possibly find a Training School girl, I want her. I have 
had two, and I want more," said a superintendent. One girl made good 
one year, a second one the next year ; therefore, the superintendent thinks 
all from the School will make good. That's what your success meai*j 
for those who come after you and for the School. 

"Training School girls may not know more than other young teachers, 
but they know how to handle situations." 

"This School was not known in my section until one Training School 
girl came there to teach ; I came here because she succeeded so well ; I 
want to be a teacher, and I decided to come to the' school where she 
learned to teach." 

"The people in my county think this a new school that is just begin- 
ning to experiment. One girl from there strayed off here ; she came 
home delighted with the School, I expected to go elsewhere, but de- 
cided to come back with her. There are others coming on after us, and 
the people are seeing that we are not experimenting ; we are doing." 

The graduates of 1917 are entering on their careers as teachers with 
enthusiasm. Already reports are coming in from these young teachers 
from the communities in which they are teaching. They are swelling 
the ranks of the successful teachers that have gone out from the Training 

The location of each member of the class is as follows : 

Agnes Absher, Falling Creek High School, Wayne County; primary 

Elizabeth Baker, in the Mount Olive school, Wayne County. 

Effie Baugham, fourth and fifth grades in Gatesville High School. 

Wita Bond, intermediate work in Richlands Graded School. 

262 The Training School Quarterly 

Myrtle Brendle, in Fairview School, Haywood County, two miles from 

Nannie Mack Brown, primary grades, Pikeville High School. 

Ola Carawan, Mclver School, Guilford County," intermediate work 
and Domestic Science. 

Vivian Case, in two-teacher school near Farrnville, in Greene County. 

Bessie Cason, primary work, Grimesland, Pitt County. 

Amelia Clark, principal Pine Forest School, Lenoir County. 

Ada Credle, near Burgaw, Pender County. 

Mary Cowell, third grade, Louisburg Graded School. 

Alavia Cox, principal Busy Workers' School, Edgecombe County. 

Hannah Cuthrell (Mrs. Adrian Brown), primary Work. Newton 
Grove, with her husband as principal. 

Lou Ellen Dupree, intermediate grades and piano, Parmele, Martin 

Juliana Elliott, primary grades, Pactolus. 

Sallie Franck, primary work, Farrnville. 

Helen Gardner, principal, Pactolus. 

Fannie Grant, intermediate grades, Merritt, Pamlico County. 

Musa Harris, principal of two-teacher school, Franklin County. 

Flora Hutchins, principal of four-teacher school, Jonesville, Yadkin 

Christine Johnston, seventh grade, Windsor Graded School. 

Hallie B. Jones, intermediate work in three-teacher school in Vance 

Loretta Joyner, primary work, Merritt, Pamlico County. 

Viola Kilpatrick, first grade, Salemburg, Sampson County. 

Myrtle Lamb, primary grades, Ashton School, Pender County. 

Ruth Lowder, primary and music, Joyner School, Pitt County. 

Elizabeth Mercer, primary work in school at Leggett's, Edgecombe 

Jennie McGlohon, principal, two-teacher school, Bynum School, near 
Farrnville, Pitt County. 

Ophelia O'Brian, primary work, Grainger's School, Lenoir County. 

Martha O'lSTeal, primary grades, Sladesville High School, Hyde 

Eula Pappendick, near Elizbath City, Pasquotank County. 

Ethel Perry, fifth grade, Clinton Graded School. 

Blanche Satterthwaite, primary grades, Woodington, Lenoir County. 

May Sawyer, intermediate grades, Pinetops School, Edgecombe 

Virginia Sledge, primary work, Conetoe, Edgecombe County. 

Fannie Lee Speir, primary, Winterville Public School. 

Ruth Spivey, fifth, sixth, and seventh grades, Moss Hill School, Le- 
noir County. 

Alumna 263 

Lizzie Stewart, fourth grade, Louisburg Graded School. 

Virginia Suther, primary, Seven Springs, Wayne County. 

Jennie Taylor, primary work, Moss Hill School, Lenoir County. 

Agnes Thompson, fifth grade, Plymouth. 

Leona Tucker, primary work in two-teacher school, Bynum, near 

Lillie Mae "Whitehead, second grade, Nashville Graded School. 

Sue Walston, first and second grades, Macclesfield High School. 

Mary "Wooten, primary, Forestville, Wake County. 

Vermelle Worthington, principal two-teacher school, Yatesville, Beau- 
fort County. 

Three girls, Lucile Bulluck, Jessie Bishop, and Esther McNeil, are 
staying at home. 

Mabel Davis, '15, and Ethel Perry, '13, are putting into practice in 
the LaGrange Graded School, ideas gained at the Training School. 
Mabel has the third grade and Ethel the sixth. 

Jessie Daniel, '16, is first assistant in the Dortch Academy, Bocky 
Mount, B. F. D. 

Connie Bishop, '15, has second and third grades in the Lucama 
Graded School. 

Trilby Smith, '16, is keeping house for her father. She is doing her 
share in the conservation of food. This summer she put up five hundred 
quart cans of corn, tomatoes, apples, and peaches, and made jelly and 
preserves. She has charge of the Bed Cross work at Arthur. She was 
the prime mover in a patriotic rally recently. Beports from her neigh- 
borhood prove that she is eminently successful as a community leader. 

Mary Weston, '14, has fifth grade work in the Kinston City Schools. 
Mary says : "Love for Uncle Sammy is one big aim in my teaching this 
winter, and I am correlating it with all my work." 

Lyda Taylor, '16, is teaching fourth grade in the Greenville Graded 
School. It looks natural to see her strolling on the campus and visiting 
the School. 

Sallie Lassiter, '16, writes: "I am teaching the first grade in the 
Garland Graded School, and a class in Domestic Science supervised by 
the county demonstrator. We are having basket-ball courts laid off 

264 The Training School Quarterly 

and hope to get right to work on basket-ball. This is a good county 
to work in, the people cooperate well with the teachers, and you can 
find plenty to do." 

Mary Wooten, '17,. who has the primary work in the Forestville 
School, near Wake Forest, taught at the Methodist Orphanage in 
Raleigh the summer months. 

Bloomer Vaughan, '16, is teaching the Oventon School near Nashville, 
N". C. Bloomer says : "I have only thirteen pupils, but have work 
from the first to the sixth grade. All the children are so nice and 
obedient, I enjoy every minute of my work." 

Millie Roebuck, '15, is doing fifth and seventh grade work in the 
Robersonville High School. Millie, with the help of her principal, has 
organized an athletic association which provides for baseball and basket- 
ball for the boys and arch ball and arch goal, and basket-ball for the 
girls, and tennis for all. She has helped to organize a Red Cross and is 
doing her bit in that. 

Mary ISTewby White, '13, and Ruth Lowder, '17, have the honor of 
being the first to teach in the Joyner School. Ruth is doing primary 
work and Mary ISTewby has the intermediate work. 

While you are doing your bit for Uncle Sam, don't forget to do your 
bit for the Quarterly. 

Pearle Davis, '15, has primary work in the Magnolia School, a three- 
teacher school near Washington. 

Emily Gayle, '14, is enjoying her work in the fifth grade in the Chad- 
bourn High School. 

Louise Moore, '15, has a position in the DuPont plant in Hopewell, 

Ruth Proctor, '15, is again doing primary work in the Dixie School. 

Emma Cobb, '14, is rural supervisor of Edgecombe County. Emma 
attended the Chapel Hill Summer School last summer. 

Alumnae 265 

Luella Lancaster, '14, is teaching one of the first grades in the Tar- 
boro Graded School. Mavis Evans, '14, has the music department in 
the same school, Ella White, '15, is teaching drawing and writing 

Christine Johnston, '15, Alice Tillery, '15, and Nora Mason, '12, have 
work in the New Bern Graded School. 

Kate Tillery, '15, has first grade work in the Grimesland School again 
this winter. Sallie Jackson, '15, has third and fourth grades, and 
Bessie Cason, '17, has fifth and sixth grades in the same school. 

Martha Lancaster, '16, has the same work in the Bethel School as 
she had last year. 

Nellie Dunn, '16, is teaching one division of the third grade in the 
Washington Graded School. Bettie Spencer, '15, is teaching one of the 
second grades in the same school. 

Helen Daniel, '14, has primary work at Bobbitt. She has been very 

Marjorie Pratt, '16, is doing excellent work in Epsom High School, 
Vance County. She was a leader in organizing a Bed Cross Auxiliary, 
of which she is now president. 

Agnes Pegram, '14, is still teaching third grade in Franklinton Graded 
School. Annie Smaw still has work in the High School Department 
there. Both of these girls have been very successful. 

Katie Sawyer, '15, has about thirty pupils in Jackson School, near 

Allen Gardner, '16, and Ophelia O'Brian, '17, are teaching at Grain- 
gers. Allen is principal of school and teacher of intermediate work. 
Ophelia has the primary work. Besides this work, Allen is teaching 
cooking and Ophelia music. They have organized a basket-ball team and 
are going to organize a volley-ball team soon. They have also organ- 
ized two literary societies, a "Poe" and "Lanier." At the first teachers' 

266 The Training School Quarterly 

meeting in that county Allen was elected president of athletics. Ophelia 
has made one visit to the Training School this fall, and was received 
with open arms. 

Kuth Moore, '13, is teaching in the Farm-Life School at Aberdeen. 
She is teaching History and English. 

Geneva Quinn, '14, is teaching the primary grades at Chinquapin 
this year. 

Emmai Brown, '15, is teaching at Bichlands. 

Ruth Brown, '16, is principal of a two-teacher school near Robbins- 
ville. This is her second year here. 

Mary Chauncey, '14, is teaching her second year at Warrenton High 
School. Besides grade work, she is teaching domestic science. 

Florence Perry, '15, is teaching at Duke. This is her second year 

Marion Alston, '14, is working in the bursar's office at A. and E. 
College this year. 

Nannie Bowling, '12, has the intermediate work in Fountain Graded 
School. Gertrude Boney, '16, is teaching there also. 

Louise Stalvey, '16, is teaching at Carraway's School again this year. 

Viola Gaskins, '16, is teaching in Falkland, where she has been teach- 
ing for two years. 

Mabel Cuthrell, '15, has third, fourth, and fifth grades in a five-teacher 
school at Pikeville. Reports have reached here that she is a great help 
to the school, and that the people felt that they were fortunate to get 
her again this year. 

Alumna 267 

Selma Edmondson, '16, is teaching intermediate work at Bunn School 
near Rocky Mount. This school took an active part in buying Liberty 
Loan Bonds. 

Mrs. Lela Deans Rhodes, '14, is principal of a two-teacher school in 
Wilson County. 

Nora Mason, '12, has second grade work in New Bern Graded School. 

Susie Barnes, '16, is principal of Oakdale School near Rocky Mount. 
Susie had a box party this fall to raise money for her school, at which 
her box sold for twenty-five dollars. 

Ruth Proctor, '15, and Mattie Bright, '16, are teaching at Dixie High 
School near Rocky Mount. An observer reported last week that they 
were doing good work. 

*s &'■ 

Gladys Warren, '16, is teaching high school work at Pink Hill. 

Katherine Parker is principal of the Rock Hill School. Her post- 
office is Walnut Cove, N\ C. This is a two-teacher school. Katherine 
has been teaching here two years and the people say they want her again 
next year. 

Susie Morgan, '16, is at Farmville again this year. Reports say that 
her work is "satisfactory in every respect." 

Elizabeth Southerland, '16, is teaching in Farmville. The friends of 
Elizabeth and Susie rejoice with them in their reunion. 

Vera Mae Waters, '15, is teaching at Arthur, or, rather, she will 
teach at Arthur. The new school building there is not completed. Be- 
cause of this the opening was delayed, and when the delay seemed to 
be indefinitely prolonged, the powers that be decided that the children 
must not be kept out of school indefinitely; so the teachers are scattered 
about in three different schools. Vera Mae is, for the present, in one 
of these. 

Hattie Weeks, '13, is teaching in Winston-Salem. 

268 The Training School Quarterly 

Lela Carr Newman, '15, is teaching in the Durham City Schools. 

Mary "Weeks, '13, is at Graham. 

Mrs. S. J. Hawes (Lena White, '13), now lives at Dover. She is 
president of the Red Cross Auxiliary there, and is an enthusiastic com- 
munity worker. Her chief assistant is S. J. Hawes, Jr. 

Lucile O'Brian, '16, is teaching at Enon School, and sends the follow- 
ing report : 

"I am teaching in a three-teacher school at my home. Even if it is home, I 
must say that it is the best community for cooperation in North Carolina. 
With the aid of the Country-Life Club we have raised $33 for Red Cross and 
$26 for a library fund. We are now working on a play for the athletic organi- 
zation from which we hope to raise $30. On Arbor Day we planted two water 
oaks on the campus and put up some bird houses made by the boys. The 
parents were invited to this program and asked to carry on the work of plant- 
ing two trees each year until the campus is full. The baseball team plays good 
'league ball,' they call it, and are now loathe to stop and begin the practice of 
basket ball. 

"The girls are doing good work in basket ball. For the primary pupils I 
have put up an acting pole and six swings. We are now trying to have a slide 
for them to tear their trousers so that mother may scold a little." 

The following letter is from Viola Dixon, '13, who is teaching at 
Wilson, K C. : 

"I began teaching in one of the city graded schools in Wilson, September 3, 
1917. Our school building, a large brick building, consisting of two large 
study halls, four recitation rooms and a hall, will soon be completed. We have 
five teachers and six grades in this school. I have the second grade, which 
has fifteen pupils in it. I teach part of the first grade and arithmetic and 
drawing in the first three grades. 

"We are planning our Arbor Day exercises now. Each grade will plant a 
tree in our school yard. 

"Each Friday morning we have chapel exercises together. One teacher has 
charge of the exercises each Friday and her grade entertains the other grades." 

School Activities 

There are 235 Y. "W. C. A. members this year. This 
Y. W. C. A. is the largest number of members that the Y. W. C. A. 

has ever had. The money that is usually set aside for 
refreshments at the social functions of the Y. W. C. A. was invested this 
year in a $50 Liberty Loan bond. The girls felt that the money would 
do more good in this way. They felt they were helping with food con- 
servation as well as in helping with the war fund. 

_ . The campaign for raising the fund for Y. M. C. A. 

Campaign r ° ° . . 

for War Relief and Y. W. C. A. war work was opened at the Training 

Fund School on November 5. Mr. Myrick and Miss Scales, 

the secretaries who are appealing to the students, met committees of girls 
and the faculty, and conducted a mass meeting of the students and fac- 
ulty. The secretaries are hoping to raise from the students of the coun- 
try one million of the thirty-five million dollars they expect to get from 
the campaign. 

Mr. Myrick explained clearly and in an interesting manner what the 
Y. M. C. A. in the army meant : The recreation centers, the meetings and 
personal work among the soldiers, the work among the prisoners, etc. 
This is the only relationship between all the countries at war that has 
not been severed, therefore it is the only way of doing anything for the 
prisoners of the allies that the Germans hold. 

Mr. Myrick not only told of what had been done but of the things 
that had not been done because of the lack of funds. 

Miss Scales told the girls what the Y. W. C. A. was doing, not only 
for the soldiers but for the girls at work in the munition factories and 
other centers where the women were doing war work. The big thing 
they are trying to do now ait the cantonments is to establish "Hostess 
houses," places where the soldiers can meet their friends and where the 
women and girls can see their soldier kin and friends. 

She sketched briefly some of the dangers that surround the soldiers and 
the girls near these cantonments unless there is some attention paid to 
the recreational side of life. 

She told in a most convincing and inspiring manner the things that 
the women can do and are doing, until she made every girl feel that she 
had a special thing to do that she mlust do. 

In the afternoon a committee from the Y. W. C. A. called on the girls 
individually and took subscriptions for the fund. They raised $100. 

270 The Training School Quarterly 

The posters exhibited by the visiting secretaries strikingly presented 
the cause for which they were working. One had on it the legend "Stop 
doing your bit, and do your utmost." 

This is a part of the big campaign being waged over the whole country 
for the war fund to be used for the uplift of our boys in service or in 

The Y. W. C. A. was very active in assisting with the inititiation of 
the new girls into the work and in the various activities of the life of the 

A reception in honor of the new girls was given on Saturday evening, 
September 29. All who attended were tagged with name and address 
so that formal introductions were not necessary. 

The chief feature of entertainment of the evening was a mock game 
of basket-ball between Wake Forest College and the University. The 
goals were Mr. Wilson and Mr. Austin, standing with arms forming 
goals. The players were dressed in dainty light dresses, and were as 
unathletic as possible, powdering noses and peeping into mirrors. Pres- 
ident Wright as score-keeper, instead of announcing the score, stretched 
out a man's tie. The students have never enjoyed a real match game 

The Bible study work is being done again this year in connection 
with the Sunday schools in Greenville. It was tried last year and found 
more successful than having classes over here at school. Meetings are 
held every Thursday night at 10 o'clock by the girls to discuss their 
Sunday school lessons for the following Sundays. 

President Wright conducted the first Sunday evening Y. W. C. A. 
service of the new school year. There is never any mistake about 
where he stands in regard to the religious side of school life. His talk 
was on the importance of living the Christian life day by day, of con- 
stantly "pulling the human end of life Godward" until it becomes God- 
like. He declared that Sunday religion, the kind that was put off on 
week days, was not Christianity. He brought out the importance of 
having faith in oneself, and he said the way to strengthen our faith in 
ourselves was to have faith in other people. He called attention to the 
phrase in the Lord's Prayer where it is implied that our trespasses are 
forgiven us only if we forgive other people's trespasses. He said that 
we should seek the religion that was not prejudiced, and that the one 
who could pray for an enemy, as an American for a German in the 
present war, had this kind of religion. 

School Activities 271 

He preached the religion of deeds of service; said Christianity now- 
called for action and work, and that the happiest life is the life that 
does well whatever task is at hand, although this task be nothing but to 
get lessons. 

Mr. Wright closed by saying that he was not after getting members 
for Y. W. C. A., but he didn't see how the girls could afford not to join, 
because it is their attitude towards such things thait counts. 

On the first Saturday night in October the students were invited by 
the Baraca and Philathea classes of Greenville to the Jarvis Memorial 
Methodist Church, where Miss Hettie Lyon, secretary of the North 
Carolina Philathea Union, made a talk on the work they were doing. 
On account of this there were no Y. W. C. A. services that nisrht. 

Miss Graham conducted the Y. W. C. A. services Sunday evening, 
October 14. She took as her subject "Personality," emphasizing some 
of the charms of personality which we admire, among which are bright- 
ness of manner and expression, thoughtfulness and consideration of 
others, loyalty, honesty, and truthfulness. She said : "We can acquire the 
charms of personality by having good thoughts and communing with 
God through prayer." The Bible passage that is the key to the person- 
ality is, "As a man thinketh in his heart, so he is." Miss Graham made 
a very practical talk, and one which appealed to all the girls. 

Recognition services were held the fourth Sunday night in October. 
These services were very impressive, as there was such a large number 
of new members to be recognized. The membership this year is greater 
than ever before. Because of the large enrollment there is more money 
in the treasury. 

Miss Davis made an intensely interesting talk at Y. W. C. A. the 
third Sunday night in October. She told the story of Sir Philip Sydney, 
taking him as the highest type of young man at that time. She com- 
pared the era that produced Sir Philip Sydney with today. Both were 
times that produced young men of force and might and both were times 
when the young men were called upon to save civilization. 

Mrs. Beckwith conducted the Y. W. C. A. services on the first Sunday 
evening in November. She read as the lesson the thirteenth chapter of 
First Corinthians. She read a sermon written by Eev. Wood, pastor of 

272 The Training School Quarterly 

the Church of the Covenant, Washington, D. C, which developed in a 
strong, inspiring way the love of law and the law of love. 

The chairman of the music committee has had some special musio 
prepared for every Sunday night service. Instrumental solos have been 
played by Misses Agnes Hunt, Ethel Smith, Bess Tillitt, Sallie Best, and 
Miss Hill. 

All those who attend the Y. W. C. A. have enjoyed the vocal solos by 
Misses Lula Ballance, Ethel Stancill, and Elizabeth Hutchins, and the 
vocal duet by Misses Lillian Scholars and Elizabeth Hutchins, and Sue 
Best Morrell. 

Societies, Classes, and Athletic League 

During the fall term all of these organizations are busy getting started 
on the work of the year and attending to the routine business that is 
not of interest to those not directly concerned. 

In order to conserve space, the editors have decided to combine these 
in this number. Whatever reaches beyond the organization, and is for 
the whole School or any other large groups, will be found in the depart- 
ment devoted to School News. 

It was decided this fall "That the members of the 
Societies faculty and officers of the School shall be permanent 

honorary members of one society, and shall be drawn 
by lot as the students are." This action was taken by the faculty and 
by the two literary societies, upon the recommendation of a committee 
composed of the presidents of the two societies, the intersociety commit- 
tee, and a faculty committee working in collaboration. 

The relation of faculty and officers to the societies has been a topic of 
much discussion and experimentation. Two methods had been tried and 
neither seemed to be thoroughly satisfactory. In the first years lots 
were drawn each year, and a teacher fell sometimes in one and some- 
times in the other, as honorary members, until one complained that she 
felt like a "grasshopper member." The students did, however, feel that 
they knew where to go when they needed advice; but there were objec- 
tions to the method. 

The next trial was for the teachers to be honorary members of both 
societies. The students still felt that the ideal plan had not been reached 
and wished to try another. The above plan is one that they believe 
will work here. The honorary membership is as follows : 

Lanier Society. — Misses Beaman, Bertolet, Comfort, Davis, Jenkins, 
MacFadyen, Maupin, Meade, Whiteside, and Wilson and Mr. Wilson. 

School Activities 273 

Poe Society. — Mrs. Austin, Misses Graham, and Hill, Mrs. Jeter, 
Misses Lewis, McCowen, Morris, Muffly, Ray, Ross, and "Wooten. 

The societies held their initiations on the "second Saturday evening 
in October," according to the schedule as fixed by the Constitutions. 

The usual excitement prevailed during the week while the names were 
being collected, the lists were being made, and the new girls were inter- 
ested in the fates that declared which side they were to fall on, and were 
excited over the prospects ahead. The old girls were getting their 
usual fun out of exciting the fears of the new girls. That mysterious 
goat that appears only once a year and pitifully bleats in the Lanier 
flower-beds came on schedule time and his work ended, melted into the 
limbo where he stays between appearances. The Poes, as usual, mys- 
teriously hinted at the something worse than any goat that could be seen. 
When the evening finally arrived, the new members were agreeably sur- 
prised at the charming receptions and delightful programs. The officers 
for the societies are as follows : 

Poe Lanier 

President, Estelle Jones President, Camille Robinson 

Vice President, Mary Hart Vice President, Rena Harrison 

Secretary, Daisy Fuqua Secretary, Ruby Giles 

Treasurer, Dearie Simmons Treasurer, Mildred Maupin 

Critic, Ethel 'Stanfield Critic, Mattie Paul 

Doorkeeper, Bettie Cooper Marshal, Elizabeth Middleton 

Elizabeth Hathaway was elected chief marshal in place of Mary 
Banks, who did not return. The Laniers had the privilege of selecting 
a substitute. Thelma "White was elected. 

Athletic The Athletic League met October 12, 1917, with 110 mem- 

League hers for the purpose of reorgainizing. The following offi- 
cers for the year of 1917-18 were elected: 

President, Mattie Poindexter 
Business Manager, Lois Hester 
Secretary, "Willie Jackson 

An advisory board was also elected which is composed of Misses Com- 
fort, Graham, and Ross. 

"With so large and enthusiastic a membership, this promises to be the 
most successful year in the history of the league. 

Through Miss Comfort's careful instructions in basket-ball this sport 
is the great favorite in the fall. As usual, we expect a match game 
Thanksgiving between the Juniors and Seniors. The class teams have 
been elected, as follows: 

274 The Training School Quarterly 

Senior Class. — Una Brogden, Lena Griffin, Sarah Williams, Kuth 
Fenton, Jessie Howard, Alexa Alford, Thelma White, Mattie Poindexter, 
Rebecca Pegues, (Substitutes: Lola Gurley, Grace Whitaker, Clellie 

Junior Class. — Annie Wilkinson, Mary Warren, Mildred Carpenter, 
Rosa Vanhook, Bonnie Howard, Eva Outlaw, Zelota Cobb, Reba Ever- 
ette, Elizabeth Wagstaiff, Margaret Milam. (Substitutes: Sallie Wil- 
liamson, Edith Bertotti, Mary Outland.) 

Miss Graham has a large crowd of enthusiastic girls out playing ten- 
nis every day that the weather is favorable. 

Quite a bit of interest and enthusiasm is shown in the cross-country 
walking which is under the careful guidance of Miss Ross. Miss Waitt 
is greatly missed in the walking club. She was the one who organized 
the club and has been its leader through the three years of its exist- 

The classes were so eager to get to work this fall 
Classes they could not wait to get organized before getting to 


The Seniors organized soon after the two weeks that must elapse 
before they can elect officers. As soon as they returned they were busy 
with plans, and had given a program before they could elect officers. 

They gave the program on Fire Prevention Day, called the mass- 
meeting for a Patriotic Rally on the first evening of "Liberty Week," 
pushed the liberty loan question, getting back of all organizations, and 
not only "doing their bit, but their utmost," and organized the Red Cross 
Auxiliary. All of these things are reported in the Department of School 

The "Eatless Hallowe'en party" given by them to the School is also 
reported there. They are on the lookout for the things they can do to 
help push things on. A committee, changed from time to time, has 
undertaken to keep the library in order, or, at least, to see that it is left 
in order each evening so that it can begin the day aright. 

The class numbers 79, the largest number by over fifty per cent that 
has ever entered the Senior Class. 

The officers for the year are as follows : 

President, Estelle O'B. Moore 
Vice President, Jessie Howard 

Secretary, Ida Walters 
Treasurer, Ethel Stanfield 
Class Adviser, Miss Jenkins 

On Arbor Day they followed the custom of the preceding classes and 
planted their tree. This time it was the sample tree of a collection they 

School Activities 275 

expect to have on the campus. The following account of the program 
and of their action is taken from the Greenville paper : 

The class of 1918 planted a mimosa tree and adopted that as their emblem. 
They claimed all mimosa trees growing on the campus and propose to add to 
the number during the year. 

The School was called to the assembly hall during the last period of school, 
formed in line according to classes, and followed the Seniors to the spot where 
the tree was to be planted, all singing "What Kind of An American Are You?" 
as they marched. All formed in a circle around the tree, by which stood Sadie 
Thompson, chief marshal, holding the United States flag. Standing at salute, 
the entire school sang "The Star-Spangled Banner." 

The proclamation for Arbor Day was read by Willie Jackson, and an appro- 
priate poem, "The Heart of the Tree," was read by Lucy Buffaloe. These two 
numbers made the crowd realize the significance of Arbor Day. 

After the singing of "Hail to Carolina" by the Seniors, the president of the 
class, Estelle Moore, announced that the class had chosen the mimosa tree as 
their emblem and explained their plan and purpose. Nannie Clapp then 
read a poetic interpretation written for the occasion, "Miss Mimosa, Southern 
Lady." She read it in a clear, ringing voice, and made her audience feel the 
symbolism of the tree. 

As the class sang an Arbor Day song to the tune of "Maryland" they skipped 
by the tree and threw the dirt around it, each one contributing a bit to the 
tree-planting, and yet not in the conventional funereal manner. The president 
of the class used the historic spade which has been used on all planting occa- 
sions since the breaking of ground for the School. At the close of the program 
this spade was passed on to the president of the next class, Rena Harrison, 
for safe keeping, who accepted it in a gracious manner. 

Estelle Moore in presenting the tree to President Wright reminded him of 
a few of the significant things the class has stood for, especially the big, broad 
school spirit, and the patriotic activities and spirit it had fostered; it is the 
class that numbers seventy-nine, having carried the enrollment over fifty 
per cent ahead of that of any other Senior class, and having lost fewer from 
year to year than any other class. President Wright in accepting the tree 
gave the girls a little heart-to-heart talk, expressing his great faith in the 
class, and reminding them of the things that had been done, bringing out the 
remarkable growth and development in the School along all lines, and showing 
how the spirit had broadened and deepened as the years had passed. The 
members of the class, gathered in a ring around him, eagerly drank in his 

The singing of the class song closed the informal but pleasing program. 

The Juniors — 136 strong, the largest class in the history of the School 
by 24 — simply could not wait six weeks to prove themselves as a class. 
This class has the honor of getting the first Liberty Loan Bonds, two 
$50 bonds — and this was done three weeks before they organized as a 
class. This is a remarkable deed to record at best, but even more re- 
markable when it is taken into account that about two-thirds of the 
members are new girls. 

276 The Training School Quarterly 

The old girls of the class entertained the new girls on the evening of 
October 19. It was at this social meeting that they decided to subscribe 
for the bonds. 

The officers are as follows : 

President, Annie Wilkinson 
Vice-President, Mattie McArthur 
Secretary, Frances Sykes 
Treasurer, Marian Morrison 
Critic, Florence Perry 
Class Adviser, Mr. H. E. Austin 

The "B's" (or Second- Year Academics) caught the spirit and held 
meetings before they formally organized, and subscribed to a $50 Liberty 
Loan Bond. Their officers are : 

President, Ruth Liverman 
Vice-President, Olive Grady 
Secretary, Helen Stewart 
Treasurer, Maud Westbrook 
Class Adviser, Miss Maupin 

The "A" (or First- Year Academic) Class eagerly looked forward to 
the time when they could get in line. Their officers are : 

President, Pearl Prescott 
Vice-President, Caroline Fitzgerald 
Secretary, Alice Wilkinson 
Treasurer, Inez Perry 
Critic, Clara M. Todd 
Class Adviser, Miss Graham 

The "F" (or One-Year Professional) Class is the smallest regular 
class the School has ever had, but they claim when they get started they 
are going to make up in quality what they lack in quantity. Their 
officers are: 

President, Sarah Sumner 

Vice-President, Katherine Allen 

Secretary and Treasurer, Bettie Cooper 

Class Adviser, Miss Muffly 

(1) First School Motor Truck in Pitt County. 

(2) Falkland Community Welcoming the Truck. 

School News 

October 15 marked a milestone in the history of 

Opening of East Carolina Teachers Training School because on 

Joyner School 

that day was opened the Joyner School, the school that 

is the rural Model School in which the teacher-students of the Training 
School will get their observation and practice work for teaching in a 
rural school. The Training School was well represented on the opening 
day by the president and a group of teachers. President Wright took 
the distinguished Maryland visitor, Dr. North, out to see the school 
and to talk to the pupils. Superintendent Underwood was on hand with 
Mr. Spilman to take pictures of the school as it appeared on the first 
day. The other members of the faculty who went out to see the work 
b°gin were Mr. Austin, Misses Ray, Maupin, Lewis, Comfort, Wooten, 
and Jenkins. Each one was looking out for possibilities ahead for 
work in which she was especially interested. Miss Comfort took note of 
the fact that there were basket-ball goals on the playground. 

Mr. North told in a delightful manner a little story to the children 
that impressed upon them the idea of saluting the flag. 

_ . -j Samuel M. North, State Inspector of Maryland High 

North's Visit Schools, spent two days in October visiting the School 
to the School and hig friend p res ident Wright. He delivered an 
address to the School on Monday evening, October 15. [This is reported 
in full among the articles in this issue of the Quarterly.] When he 
arrived on Monday morning, President Wright took him immediately 
from the train to Falkland to see the school auto truck come in, and 
from there to visit the Joyner School during its first day. 

He spent the day Tuesday visiting the classrooms and inspecting 
the plant. 

He made a delightful talk to the students during assembly pniiod. 
Mr. North seemed very appreciative of the singing by the School. On 
the evening of his address there was a musical program before he began 
speaking. When he arose he asked the audience if they realized they 
were listening to "real, genuine music." The entire School sang "The 
Star-Spangled Banner" and "Over the Summer Sea." The glee club 
sang a beautiful chorus. Miss Agnes Hunt played a delightful piano 
solo, and Miss Lula Ballance sang "Star of Me." 

The First School At Falkland, on the morning of October 15, the first 

Truck m school automobile truck in Pitt County and the second 

Fitt County, Sec- . . J 

ond in the State in North Carolina began its work of bringing children to 

school. This was a happy morning for Superintendent Underwood 

278 The Training School Quarterly 

and for the people of the Falkland community, as well as for Misses 
Crisp and Gaskins, the teachers of the school. The Craft School was 
consolidated with the Falkland School, and the truck brings the children 
from the Craft neighborhood, as well as those on the way in the Falk- 
land neighborhood, to school each morning. The route traveled is about 
six miles. 

The people of the community gathered at the school building to see 
the truck arrive with its first load and to have a formal opening of the 

Pictures were made of the truck full of children, and of the people of 
the community gathered around it. 

After the excitement of the arrival of the truck the crowd gathered 
in the schoolhouse for the formal opening of school. Superintendent 
Underwood reminded the people that they were making history for Pitt 
County. He expressed the belief that this was only the beginning of 
the movement for consolidation ; it would spread until an auto truck 
carrying children to school would not be a novelty. He said that we are 
getting away from the little school ; there are already fourteen less dis- 
tricts in Pitt County than there were three years ago. 

He introduced President Wright who said that when the Training 
School opened eight years ago one of the visions ahead was the consoli- 
dated school, but he had figured on its taking ten years to get started. 
It is worthy of note, he said, that both of the trucks in North Carolina 
are in this territory, in the eastern section of the State and in the sec- 
tion where there are a great many Training School girls teaching. He 
did not at all claim the credit for the Training School for getting the 
trucks, but he did bring home to the people the fact that wide-awake 
teachers could arouse a community to the opportunities. He commended 
the people of Falkland for their attitude and for their willingness to 
make sacrifices for their children. He asked them to do two things : 
to give the teachers their whole-hearted cooperation and to give their 
children every chance by sending them to school all the time, not allow- 
ing anything to keep them at home. He said he knew that it was a temp- 
tation, when labor was scarce and cotton and tobacco high to keep the 
boy at home to work; but he begged them to remember that the value 
of the lamd depended on the type of citizenship, and the type of citizen- 
ship depended on the chance the boys had. 

President Wright then introduced Mr. JSTorth as a teacher with the 
true teacher spirit, a man filled with earnestness and love for the work. 
Mr. North told the people there was no occasion to say running a school 
truck will work, for it does work all over Maryland, as many as seven in 
one school. The children, he said, are better off in the truck than on 
wet roads. He then made a strong talk on the significance of consoli- 
dating the country schools so as to give to the people as efficient schools 
as those in the cities and towns have. 

School News 279 

A mass meeting of the students was called by the 
Patriotic Rally Senior Class on Monday evening, October 22, the begin- 
ning of Liberty Week, for the purpose of finding out 
just what the Training School could do to prove its patriotism. Instead 
of having student reports on what they felt like doing or wanted to do, 
they had people who knew definitely what could be done and could 
speak with authority to present the different kinds of work the people 
of the Nation are called on to do. The students proved their patriotic 
feeling by the way they sang the patriotic songs and by their ready re- 
sponse to put into practice and express by deeds their patriotism. 

The program was planned so as to make clear the three things the 
people are called on to do, and how the Training School can answer the 
call. The three subjects were: Food conservation, Liberty Loan, and 
Red Cross. 

Miss Estelle Moore, president of the Senior Class, presided over the 
meeting. The Seniors, led by standard bearers carrying the Stars and 
Stripes, the flags of the Allies, and the Red Cross flag, marched in, after 
the remainder of the school had assembled, singing "We're Going Over." 

Miss Armstrong made a forcible, practical appeal for food conserva- 
tion here in the School, urging the girls to help conserve sugar by giv- 
ing up candy. All the girls pledged themselves to practice the gospel 
of the clean plate. Miss Armstrong is the chairman of the Women's 
Committee for Conservation in Pitt County. 

Mr. S. J. Everette, chairman of Food Conservation for Pitt County, 
made a ringing, broad appeal for food conservation. 

The singing of "Joan of Are, They're Calling You," led by a group of 
Juniors, with the School joining in the chorus, seemed to make the pur- 
pose of the evening clearer. 

Mrs. Beckwith, chairman of the Woman's Committee on the Liberty 
Loan, gave a clear explanation of the purposes and plan of the loan and 
made an appeal for all to heed the call to let your dollars fight. 

Miss Pattie Wooten, chairman of the Pitt County Chapter of the 
Red Cross, presented the cause of the Red Cross and told what Pitt 
County was doing and had done. 

President Wright made an earnest, inspiring talk on "Why it is nec- 
essary for us at the Training School to do these three things." He 
brought the subject very close home to the students and made them feel 
they must be up and doing. 

"Keep the Home-Fires Burning" was sung by Miss Lula Ballance, 
the School joining in the chorus. 

Definite plans for applied patriotism were presented to the students. 
The students among themselves and in class groups had been discussing 
for days Liberty Bonds and had been taking account of available funds. 

Mr. Austin made a strong plea for the students to subscribe to Liberty 
Bonds and to use their influence to get others to subscribe. He an- 

280 The Training School Quarterly 

nounced that the Junior Class had, at a meeting the Saturday evening 
before, pledged themselves to buy two $50 bonds. The proposition was 
made that the students raise among themselves money for a bond to be 
left to the School as a gift. Slips were handed out for subscriptions. 

"Over There" was sung by the School. Miss Jenkins, who directed 
the Red Cross work that had already been done by the students, told 
the students, for the benefit of those who were not here last year, what 
had already been done, and explained the advantages of having a 
Training School Auxiliary. Cards were passed out for pledges for 
membership and for work. 

The flag bearers stepped to the front of the stage, "Old Glory" in 
front, and the evening closed with the students singing, as they stood 
at salute, "The Star-Spangled Banner." 

$500 in Every permanent organization in the School invested 

Liberty Bonds i n Liberty Bonds. The roll by organizations is as follows : 

Two literary societies, $100 each $200.00 

Y. W. C. A 50.00 

Classes 250.00 

The Class of 1919, 136 in number, pledged themselves to pay 25 cents 
each, a month for three months, and to save the money by denying 
themselves something. The bond is to form a part of the gift they 
propose to leave to the School when they graduate. 

The Class of 1918 led the campaign for a bond from the entire School 
for some special gift to the School, thus giving the classes that had not 
yet organized an opportunity to help. The subscriptions on the night 
of the rally amounted to about $50. The Seniors pledged enough to 
make this amount $100. 

The Class of 1920 decided to invest the income the class would get 
from dues, etc., in a class bond that would be the nucleus for a class fund 
that could grow through their three years as ai class unit. Special sub- 
scriptions were turned into the School bond mentioned above. 

The Class of 1921, and the one-year professional classes, which had 
never organized, turned their subscriptions into the School bond. Mem- 
bers of the faculty assisted with the School bond. 

The societies turned money in the treasury obtained from dues into 
bonds as investments. 

The Y. W. C. A. had $50 appropriated for social purposes, for the 
social committee to spend on refreshments. They decided to help with 
food conservation by not serving refreshments, and turn this money into 
a bond. 

School News 281 

Training School The Training School Auxiliary of the Pitt County 

Auxiliary of Put Chapter of the Eed Cross Society was organized with 

Chapter of Red * . 

Cross 105 members and over a hundred additional pledged 

workers. The formal organization was effected on Tuesday evening, 
October 23, with the following officers : 

Chairman, Sophia Jarman 
Vice Chairman, Lois Hester 
Secretary, Mary C. Hart 
Treasurer, Jessie Howard 

Committees were appointed, workers registered for work. Arrange- 
ments have been made for the sewing-room to be opened as a work- 
room at stated hours on certain days. Work is progressing in the sew- 
ing. The Greenville Auxiliary furnished material for bed shirts, which 
the sewing girls are making. 

Knitting lessons are given in the parlors in the dormitories in the 
after-supper hour. Mamy girls are knitting and others are impatiently 
awaiting the arrival of the wool. The wool is provided by the Green- 
ville Auxiliary. 

The classes in bandage making are ready to begin as soon as the 
chapter officials are ready to start work along the line of the latest in- 
structions. There is a change in the department of the work handling 
surgical dressings. In the meantime they are making trench pillows. 

Other kinds of work will be added and the work will branch out. 

n „ , . . The Senior Class entertained the Training School 

Hallowe en at the a 

Training School; family at a Hallowe'en party the evening of October 
An Eatless Party 2 7. The serving of mock refreshments instead of the 
usual Hallowe'en refreshments was the special feature of the evening. 
Wads of paper, with a jingle written on them telling where the apple 
they did not get had gone, were served as apples. Paper popcorn made 
some think they were going to get the real corn. Paper "kisses," until 
opened, looked like real candy "kisses." It was announced that the 
refreshments for the evening had been converted into a part of a Lib- 
erty Bond. The guests entered into the spirit of the "eatless party" and 
proved girls could have a good time without "eats." Brownies and 
clowns served the refreshments. One brownie followed the others with 
a small basket of popcorn and doled out a grain or so to each guest as 
consolation for not getting anything to eat. 

Some of the prizes for contests were small amounts of refreshments. 
Apples were bobbed for and the apples themselves were given as the 
rewards. In a peanut contest the few nuts were the prize. One of the 
prizes was a jumping brownie. The contests were the regular Hal- 
lowe'en contests with a few timely twists to them. Witches, ghosts, and 

282 The Training School Quarterly 

devils were in evidence, and the fortune-tellers were kept busy telling 
the past, the present, and the future. One contest was "A garden of 
peas" ; the one who scored the highest won peanuts. 

The class decorated the dining-room with cornstalks and jack-o'-lan- 
terns, and had ghosts stalking about playing pranks during the dinner 

One room in the Administration Building was decorated in the same 
way. , 

„. „ On October 9, Fire-Prevention Day, the Senior Class 

Fire Preven- ' . ml 

tion Pay had charge of the exercises. The program was as 

Program follows : 

Reading of the Governor's Proclamation Sadie Thompson 

Ways and Means of Preventing Fires Thelma White 

"What Would You Do in Case of Fire" Elizabeth Hathaway 

In this last the wrong way and the right way were illustrated by the 
class. In the wrong way, the fire whistle was sounded and the girls in 
a panic rushed wildly around, getting nowhere; in the right way, they 
instantly dropped whatever they were doing and quickly and in an 
orderly way, marched out of the building. At the close directions were 
given as to how to behave in case of fire at the Training School and 
which exits to use. They marched out of the Assembly Hall in the 
order and time they should follow in case of fire. 

The "Model School" is scattered in different parts 

Jchool° del of the Evans Street Graded Sell ool building, while the 

addition to the Model School building is being built. 
There is no difference whatever in the observation and practice work 
of the student-teachers, but it is not quite so convenient, and there is 
less room. Critic teachers, student-teachers, and departmental teachers 
are cheerfully accepting the situation and finding some compensations 
for the inconvenience. 

The work of the Model School is progressing, though not as rapidly 
as might be desired. There are two of Commissioner Young's fireproof 
staircases being erected. 

A new fireproof roof is being erected over the boiler at the power plant. 

All outside woodwork around the School is having a fresh coat of 
f)aint. Also the radiators in the building are having a fresh coat of gilt. 

School News 

President "Wright made a talk at tlie opening of tie 
Faculty ^ p itt County Training School for the colored race, 

which is located at Grimesland. He reported this as a 
most interesting occasion. The others present who took part in the ex- 
ercises were Dr. J. Y. Joyner, Hon. J. Bryan Grimes, and Superintend- 
ent S. B. Underwood. G. R. Whitfield, a leader among the negroes of 
Pitt County, is superintendent of the school. It was through his efforts 
that the school was made pessible. 

Mr. "Wilson attended the meeting of the East Division of County Su- 
perintendents Association in August. He has delivered two addresses 
this fall — one at Grainger's and the other at the community meeting at 
the Joyner School. 

Miss Armstrong made at talk on food values to the "Woman's Club of 

Miss McFadyen is chairman of the Department of Education of the 
"Woman's Club of Greenville. Her department is responsible for a night 
school which is being taught in "West Greenville, near the Greenville 
Cotton Mill. 

Miss Wilson is teaching regularly in the night school. 

Mrs. Beekwith, chairman of Pitt County Liberty Loan Committee, 
Woman's Division, made speeches boosting this cause on the evenings 
of October 22 at the Training School Auditorium ; October 23 at the 
Greenville High School Auditorium, and on October 25 at Farmville 
County Fair. 

As chairman of the finance committee of the Pitt County Unit of 
National Defense, Mrs. Beekwith delivered before the Home Economics 
Department of the Woman's Club of Greenville, on the afternoon of 
October 25, a speech on the subject: "Home Makers' Responsibility." 

On Friday evening, November 9, Mrs. Beekwith delivered an address 
at Smithtown, on "The Country Woman's Part in the World War." 
On the evening of November 10, at Arthur, N. O, she made a speech on 
"Community Service." 

Miss Wooten is chairman of the Pitt County Chapter of the Red 
Cross Society, and is serving her second term in this position. 

284 The Training School Quakteklt 

Mr. Austin is chairman of the Executive Committee of the chapter. 
He, too, was reelected at the recent business meeting. 

There are 314 students enrolled in School this year. 
Numbers There were 127 applicants refused admission because of 

the lack of room. Forty-one students are rooming out- 
side of the dormitory, who take their meals in the School. By a swift 
calculation you will see that we need dormitory room for 168 more girls 
this fall. 

Mr. L. R. Meadows is in the Officers' Training Camp 

i^ r c^rr! adOW8 at Fort °g letnor P e - He writes enthusiastically of the 
camp life. He is on leave of absence from the Train- 
ing School for the fall term while he is undergoing the three months 
training. His leave of absence will be indefinitely prolonged if, at the 
end of his service, he enters the United States Army for full and active 
service. Mr. Meadows is very greatly missed in the School and in the 
town of Greenville, where he has taken active leadership in many things, 
but especially in his church. The School and his fellow-citizens in the 
town, however, are proud of the patriotic stand he has taken in offering 
himself voluntarily for military service. 

The School has suffered the loss of several valuable teachers who have 
been associated with the School for several years, but it is worthy of 
note that in every case the severance of connections was with mutual 

Miss Daisy Bailey Waitt, who has been teacher of Latin for the past 
six years, resigned at the close of last year. Miss Waitt has been so 
closely identified with the various activities and has been such a valuable 
member of faculty committees for solving problems of the School she 
will be keenly missed. She has acted as adviser for classes, for society, 
and for Athletic League. The Cross-Country Walking Club is her crea- 
tion. She has taken an active part in the work in Women's Clubs. 
She was for two years president of the Greenville Branch of the South- 
ern Association of College Women, and was, for the same period, chair- 
man of the Education Department of the North Carolina Federation of 
Women's Clubs. At the time of her resignation she was vice-president of 
the Woman's Club of Greenville. She frequently brought the School 
in touch with the various organizations by attending the meetings. 

School News 285 

Miss Margery Herman, for four years teacher here in the Department 
of Science, was married on September 18, to Mr. Jay Zeamer, of New 
York City. They will make New York headquarters, but Mr. Zeamer's 
business has taken them to Havana, Cuba, for the winter. They are 
staying at the Royal Hotel. Miss Herman's ways of getting the students 
interested in birds and plants will never be forgotten by those who fol- 
lowed her on bird hunts or helped her to plant flowers. 

Miss Lula Sherman, who has taught piano here for two years, was 
married at Syracuse, N. Y., on October 4, to Rev. William L. Carpenter. 
Miss Sherman came to the School two years ago to teach during Miss 
Hill's leave of absence for a year's study. Last fall when at the opening 
of school it was found necessary to have a third piano teacher, Miss 
Sherman was telegraphed for, and returned to us. This fall she re- 
turned to begin work, but changed her plans and asked for her resigna- 
tion to be accepted. Her new home is in "the Manse," Rankin, Mich- 

Miss May Barrett, who was away from School last year on leave of 
absence, studying at Columbia University, has permanently severed her 
connection with the School and is rural supervisor in Maryland, with 
her office at Bel Air, Md. 

Miss Barrett's students, those who studied under her during the four 
years she was teacher of Primary Methods here, are teaching in pri- 
mary grades all over the eastern part of the State, and in some places 
in the western part, and the Training School girls are making a repu- 
tation in primary work. Miss Barrett's constructive ability was shown 
especially in her organization of the student-teacher work and the 
Model School. 

Miss Ray, who took Miss Barrett's place last year, has returned as 
the permanent teacher of Primary Methods. During the summer she 
completed her work at Peabody College for Teachers and received her 

Miss Alice V. Wilson comes to the School in the De- 

New Teachers partment of Science. As Miss Wilson has taught here 

three summer terms, she is hardly considered a new 

teacher. Miss Wilson has been teaching in Winthrop College, Rock 

Hill, S. C. She formerly taught in Greensboro College for Women, and 

286 The Training School Quarterly 

is well known throughout the State. She is a graduate of Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, and has taken work in Science at Cornell and 
at other schools and universities. She taught Hygiene and Sanitation 
at the summer school of the University of Virginia during the past sum- 

Miss Pattie Wooten, of Greenville, a graduate of Randolph-Macon 
Woman's College, has charge, during this term, of the academic classes 
in English. Miss Jenkins has all of the professional classes in English. 

Miss Mary Bertolet, of Reading, Pa., a Peahody Conservatory pupil, 
comes in Miss Sherman's place as teacher of piano. 

Miss Dora Meade, of Rochester, 1ST. Y., a Peabody Conservatory pupil, 
is teaching piano this term in place of Miss Fahnestock, who is away on 
leave of absence. 

The Rural School Supervisor 

(Outline of the work from the Maryland Department of Education) 

1. Assist the counties to determine the field of operations of county 
supervisors, i. e., what kind of schools and what grades should be super- 
vised, and what should be the supervisory function of the county super- 

2. Visit as many schools as possible in company with supervisors, 
note conditions of school property, observe the teacher at work in the 
classroom and the supervisor's manner of working with the teacher, and 
to advise with the supervisor about ways and means of improving class- 
room instruction. 

3. Start work upon a course of study for rural schools, to be formu- 
lated by supervisors in each county, mainly for that county, and a State 
course to be evolved from these. 

4. Secure a workable schedule of time limits for the daily recitations 
in the rural one-teacher school. 

5. Encourage professional growth of teachers through private study. 

6. Encourage the organization and conduct of School Improvement 
Associations — which should be done by the Department in general. 

7. Make reports of conditions observed and prepare, subject to revi- 
sion, articles for the press bearing upon the rural school situation. 

8. Make photographs of school buildings, private houses, lawns, land- 
scapes, etc., illustrative of rural life. 

9. Collect a library of rural-life literature in the Department and as 
a model for school officials and teachers. 

10. A plan of cooperation between the Extension Department of the 
State College of Agriculture and the State Department of Education, 
looking to a larger recognition of the dominant industry of Maryland 
in public school instruction by bringing the work of agricultural exten- 
sion under the direction of the former, and of vocational training under 
the supervision of the latter, into closer union. 

11. Phases of elementary education which the people should know. 

12. Keep a registry of eligible elementary teachers not at present em- 
ployed in Maryland schools. 

288 The Training School Quarterly 

The punster of the Joyner School, Miss Mary ISTewby White, is having 
fun in juggling with the combination of names connected with the 
School, and has jotted them down in a jingle which we are passing on 
to others : 

We're teachers of the Joyner School 

Who keep things going strict to rule. 

The principal, whose name is Wall, 

Makes problems so clear, they seem small, 

The intermediate teacher, whose name is White, 

Works away calmly with all her might, 

While Miss Lowder, the primary marm, 

Attracts the little ones with her charm. 

With the combination of the Lowder-White-W all 

We'll stand the test of any squall. 

All working together, we'll gain much good, 

For we work with Wright and right Underwood. 

What is a Company ? 

Civilians are finding that they are somewhat bewildered by military 
terms and ranks that every soldier can glibly use. Few pupils know just 
what a company is composed of or a regiment. Teachers should be able 
to explain the terms that are connected with the company, the unit that 
each town feels is nearest, and to know the regiments as well as the 
larger divisions of the army. An officer was kind enough to make out 
the list for us. 

Below is given the Infantry Organization as it is now : 

A Squad is composed of 8 men, 7 men under a corporal. 

A Platoon is composed of 7 squads under a lieutenant who has 3 ser- 
geants to assist him. 

A Company is composed of Company Headquarters and 4 platoons. 

Company Headquarters is as follows: 

1 captain in command 

1 first lieutenant, second in command 

1 first sergeant 

1 mess sergeant 
4 cooks 

2 buglers 

4 mechanics (carpenters) 
1 corporal (company clerk) 

First and fourth platoons are commanded by first lieutenants. 
Second and third platoons are commanded by second lieutenants. 

School News 289 

Each platoon is now divided into 4 sections : first section, grenadiers ; 

second and third sections, riflemen (bayonet experts and snipers); 

fourth section handles guns (automatic rifles shooting about 466 times 

per minute). 

The above makes a Company consist of the following officers and men : 
A Company has in it commissioned officers, noncommissioned officers, 

and privates, which aire given below with their j>ay added. 

Commissioned officers; 6: 

1 captain $200.00 per month 

3 first lieutenants 166.67 per month 

2 second lieutenants 146.67 per month 

Noncommissioned officers and men: 

15 sergeants $38.00 per month 

4 cooks 38.00 per month 

33 corporals 36.00 per month 

4 mechanics 36.00 per month 

2 buglers 30.00 per month 

64 privates, first class 33.00 per month 

128 privates 30.00 per month 

Total enlisted men in company is 250. 
Enlisted men are furnished food and clothing. 

A Battalion is four lettered companies commanded by a Major, whose 
pay is $250 per month. He has a first lieutenant as his adjutant. 


A Colonel is commander of a regiment and with him are a Lieutenant- 
Colonel and a Chaplain. (The chaplain ranks as lieutenant, or higher, 
according to length of service.) 

The pay of the Colonel is $366.67, that of lieutenant-colonel, $300, 
and that of chaplain according to rank. 

The regiment is composed of : 

Headquarters Company 

Supply Company 

Machine Gun Company 

Lettered Companies : A, B, C, D, E, E, G, H, I, K, L, M 

Headquarters Company has 6 officers and 294 men. They are divided 
into sections : band, mounted orderlies for field officers, and gun section 
which handles 1-lb. cannon stretcher bearers. 

The Supply Company has two officers and 152 men. They keep up 
food, clothing, and equipment supplies and do all the hauling. They 
have 152 mules and 88 wagons. 

A Brigade is two regiments. The commanding officer of a Brigade 
is a Brigadier-General. He has a major as adjutant and two aides who 
are first lieutenants. They have some enlisted men also as clerks and 

290 The Teaining School Quaeteelt 

A regimental infirmary is attached to the regiment. This has 3 doc- 
tors, 2 dentists, and about 30 enlisted men. This unit makes the dress- 
ing station for slightly wounded men in the rear of battle. 

Red Cross Work in Pitt County 

The Pitt County Chapter of the Red Cross had one of the best reports 
read at the State Convention. This chapter was organized June 27, 
1917. When the report was submitted by the chairman, on October 
27, there were thirteen auxiliaries, and two places where there were 
workers but no auxiliaries. The total number of members is 1,128. In 
addition to this, Greenville has a Junior Auxiliary with a membership of 
700. Greenville was one of the first places in the State to organize the 
school children into an auxiliary. 

The figures showing the amount of money raised are interesting. The 
total collected for Red Cross work is $4,537.44. To this may be added 
$665 raised towards an ambulance. The amount left on hand for car- 
rying on the work through the winter is $2,272.82. 

The total of articles made and shipped is as follows : 3 boxes of gauze 
dressings; 2 boxes of muslin and flannel bandages; equipment for 18 
patients; 26 sets of knitted articles; 255 comfort bags; 2 boxes of sur- 
gical dressings and equipment for 6 patients were ready for shipment 
when the report was made. 

Members of the Red Cross attend the tobacco sales and collect money 
for the work. The first Monday in November the collections were over 

Cfje touting ^>cfiooi 

January, Jf efcruarp, iWarcf) 

Table of Contents 

The Schools When We Are at War 291 

Thomas Stockham Baker. 

How the Schools of Pitt Are Helping 293 

S. B. Underwood. 

Humanizing Civil Government for Rural Students 294 

R. Reid Hunter. 

A Mother's Voice from the Trenches 297 

Mbs. Margaret Crumpecker. 

Organization and Administration of Physical Education and Games in the 

Grade Schools t 298 

R. Russell Miller. 

The Latest Flower of Chivalry 302 

Alice Day Pratt. 

What We Are Doing to Conserve Food and Keep Down Waste 305 

Nannie F. Jeter. 

The Home- Acre Flock 308 

Mothers' Magazine. 

Making Our Own Soap 309 

M. E. J. 

Housewives, Attention! 311 

Ladies' Home Journal. 

Make the Farm Poultry Produce More 312 

Herbert E. Austin. 

The Teacher — Her Call and Her Mission 315 

S. M. Bbinson. 

A Poet Enlists 319 

Amelia Josephine Burr. 

Teaching Correct Usage in the Primary Grades 320 

Agnes L. Whiteside. 

The Story of George Dufant, Pioneer Settler in North Carolina 325 

Ida Walters, '18. 

Economy in Clothing 331 

Martha H. French. 

Judge Stephenson's Address on War Savings 334 

Athletic Badge Tests 338 

Some Facts and Figures About Teachers' Salaries and Expenses 342 

What Training School Graduates Are Doing and Getting 345 

Editorials 347 

Progress of the Work at the Joyner School 360 

Editorial Departments: 

Reviews 353 

Suggestions 364 

Aiumnse 393 

School Activities 400 

School News 404 

Cfje {framing gkfjool ©uarterlp 

Vol. 4 January, February, March, 1918. No. 4 

The Schools When We Are at War* 

Thomas Stockham Bakek, Tome Institute, Port Deposit, Maryland 

TT IS possible that our education has been too individualistic. We 
have at times lost sight of the fact that each boy has very positive 
obligations toward the state, and we must believe that it is the 
province of education to help to develop this feeling of nationalism. Our 
country has always been bountiful, and it has asked but little from its 
citizen's. It has always been an asylum for those who have been oppressed 
by the conditions in Europe. It has not only given them freedom, but 
to many it has given the opportunity of self-development to such an 
extent that they have become men of position and wealth. The State has 
demanded for all these benefits almost nothing, and the opulence and the 
carelessness of our Government may have caused some to feel that the 
obligations between citizens and the States are one-sided. The schools 
must do their share toward correcting this attitude of mind. The little 
Russian schoolboy, who luxuriates in his new-found American freedom 
and the marvelous opportunities of his new home, must be taught that 
the United States Government is a benevolent power, but that it requires 
something in return for the great benefits which it showers on the immi- 
grants who come to its shores. The foreign boy must be taught that he 
must set aside his feeling of fear and his malign opposition to govern- 
mental authority, and he must learn that, while the power of the State 
here is never oppressive and obtrusive, it must, nevertheless, be respected. 
But we are now at war. What are the tasks that fall upon the schools ? 
Education even at this time must not concern itself merely with the 
prosecution of the war. As far as schools are concerned, the saying, "In 
time of peace prepare for war," must be amplified now and must read : 
"In time of war prepare for peace." The important thing is to win the 
war, but we can well consider a form of preparedness which will have to 
do with the problems that will arise after the war ; and in this form of 
preparedness the schools can help especially. It is to be hoped and to be 
expected that the war will be over before many of the school boys of 
today are old enough to bear arms for their country. The schools Can- 
not afford to neglect the idea that their students may some day 
be soldiers, but they have the positive knowledge that their boys 
will some day be citizens, and we therefore dare not allow, in 
the midst of the excitement which confuses the business man 

^Written for the New York Times, Reprinted in Atlantic Journal of Education. 

292 The Training School Quarterly 

and the man of affairs and the statesman, the work of the 
schools to lapse or to slacken in the smallest degree. 

As citizens of the United States we shall have responsibilities and 
opportunities tomorrow which we did not dream of yesterday, and it is 
the patriotic duty of every educator and every parent to see that the boys 
of today receive an education which will help them to gather the benefits 
in the fullest measure which will come from the sacrifices of their fathers. 
The times call for an intenser and more thoughtful form of instruction 
than ever before. They demand a closer study of the needs of the Ameri- 
can youth and a greater zeal in giving to him the benefits of the best think- 
ing of which the Nation is capable. The schools must not be dis- 
turbed. More may be demanded of them; more may be asked of the 
American boys. They must realize in the peril which confronts their 
country that a practical form of patriotism is required of them, and that, 
while they may not serve now as soldiers, they can do a great service 
later if they have fitted themselves to be men of courage, intelligence, 
and energy. 

Let us hope that there may be a quickening in the life of all schools. 
As a result of the war, it is probable that many of the colleges will be 
depleted and the advanced studies in the universities almost cease. To 
balance this slackening in the intellectual life of the country it is espe- 
cially important that the schools be keyed to the highest pitch. 

We must teach our boys more about their country ; we must 
develop in them an intelligent patriotism. The schoolboy in 
every one of the great European States has a more definite idea 
of the aims of his government than does the American boy. 
The young Englishman is conscious of the mighty imperial 
sweep of the rule of Great Britain, and he feels that if he is 
intelligent and if he is a clean sportsman he may, under certain 
circumstances, come to bear a share in the administration of 
the great empire, if not at home, then in some spot in one of 
the four corners of the world. 

The French boy of today has shared the feeling of mortification with 
his father at the defeat of France in 1871 by the Germans and the loss of 
the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, and he has longed for a time when 
he might have the opportunity to wipe out what he conceived to be the 
stain of dishonor that rested upon his country, and the way Frenchmen 
have conducted themselves in the present war is probably the most 
marvelous thing in an age of marvels. If by some mischance France 
were swept into the sea tomorrow the bravery of the French soldiers and 
the devotion of the French people to the cause for which they have been 
fighting would be the most glorious exhibition of patriotism that the 
world has ever known. 

Boys should be taught that we can afford to give up thought of foreign 
conquest, but we must be prepared to stand shoulder to shoulder with 

The Schools When We Abe at War 293 

other great nations in maintaining what is right. We cannot afford to 
hecome a nation of peace fanatics. We must do what we can to make 
the administration of all departments of our Government honest and 

thorough. We must believe more in statesmanship and think 
less of politics. Boys must be taught to want to make our country in 
fact and in deed the land of the free and the home of the brave. 

How the Schools of Pitt Are Helping 

The public schools in Pitt County are trying to do their part toward 
helping to win the war. Numerous letters have been sent out urging 
the teachers to get in behind all the war measures. This note has been 
struck at every meeting held. Every school in the county has been 
visited by the Food Conservation Committee or its representatives, and 
the children enlisted in this movement. The Food Administration and 
the County Superintendent worked in close harmony on this drive. 

The cause of the second Liberty Loan Bond was presented to every 
school in the county that had begun work on Liberty Loan Day. The 
work was done by teams sent out by the central committee. Quite a 
number of bonds were taken by school children. 

Fully 90 per cent of the Red Cross meetings in the county have been 
held in schoolhouses. Red Cross rooms at Bethel, Grimesland, and 
Grifton are located in the school buildings. The sewing class in the 
Grifton High School is conducted practically as an adjunct of the Red 
Cross. The work of the Junior Red Cross has been recently presented 
to the teachers, and results are expected from this campaign. 

Just now we are entering upon the thrift campaign. The last county 
teachers' meeting (January 26) was given over exclusively to this matter 
and to the Red Cross work. Judge Stephenson presented the matter, 
and every teacher pledged full support to the movement. Posters, book- 
lets, etc., were distributed, and a plan of campaign mapped out : 

(1) One-teacher schools 

(2) Schools with from two to four teachers 

(3) All other schools 

A prize will be given to the school in each group with stamps sold to 
the largest percentage of its enrollment by February 15. The campaign 
will be pushed till that date, and wound up with the celebration of 
North Carolina Day (postponed from December 14 on account of bad 
weather) on that day. Teachers will make weekly reports of sales of 
stamps, and the names of purchasers will be published in the county 

At this writing (January 29) fully half the stamps sold in Pitt County 
have been through the Greenville City Schools. 

S. B. Underwood. 

Humanizing Civil Government for Rural Students 

H. Reid Hunteb, Teacher of History, Atlanta School of Technology 

ONE OF the great problems of the rural teacher today is the teach- 
ing of civil government. What are the real principles or aims 
of civil government? What to teach and what not to teach? 
What specific aims or purposes should the teacher set up for the student 
in the teaching of civil government ? How to make the subject interesting 
to red blooded rural students ? These and many more questions are con- 
stantly before the rural teacher. Much progress has been made in recent 
years in the reorganization and enriching the content of many of the 
subjects taught in the public schools, but very little attention has been 
given to the study of civil government from the standpoint of the country 
boy and girl. The teachers in the seventh grade have been spending their 
energy in drilling into students the qualifications of United States Sena- 
tors and Congressmen, Governors of the State, the salary of the Presi- 
dent, and we have failed to teach those things which have vital connec- 
tions with the daily life of the students. So is it any wonder that civil 
government is dull, lifeless, fossilized and a subject or study to be endured 
rather than enjoyed? 

Now the vital question is what can be done to put some life into our 
civil government and make it a study which will function in the lives 
of the children and older people of the community ; not function ten or 
fifteen years hence, but now, in the ever present. Now, to do this, it is 
very evident that we must reorganize our material, change our point of 
interest from Washington, D. C, to our own community, and select new 
material from the great store which is open to all teachers and students. 
In the selection and organization of our new course, we should adopt a 
few fundamental principles and standards to guide us. In the first place, 
let us discard the term, "civil government," and adopt in its place the 
term "community civics." We will use this term to mean the activities 
of individuals in relation to government or other cooperative enterprise. 
Second, we will eliminate all data which does not contribute rather 
directly to the appreciation of the methods of human cooperation and 
betterment of all people in the community. Third, we will make a 
special study of those social efforts and agencies which tend to help make 
man a more efficient citizen of his community. 

The opponents to such a plan will doubtless say this would have a 
tendency to preclude the teaching of practically all the contents of our 
State-adopted texts on civil government. To this, I reply that if the 
data cannot stand the test then discard it, and have the energy, courage, 
and good judgment to make a course which will have the child and com- 
munity as the center rather than a book as a center around which to 

Humanizing Civil Government for Rural Students 295 

In the study of civics, we should begin with the government of the 
home, the school, and then work to the points of contact between the 
child and governmental activities. This will lead to an ever enlarging 
circle. I give at the end of this article a list of a few of the governmental 
activities and other cooperative agencies which can be used to interest 
the student, and in many instances the parent. The list is only sug- 
gestive and can be extended and worked out as conditions may demand. 
In the discussion of these subjects it is suggested that the teacher always 
begins with the student or community and not with the Executive Depart- 
ment in Washington, D. C. These local observations and discussions 
will lead to larger communities, cities, states, nation, and, finally to 
world affairs. In this way one will have an opportunity to teach the 
problems of the community and incidentally teach some formal civics. 
Special effort should always be made to supplement information on 
local affairs by drawing on the world at large. If this is done, a spirit 
of broadmindedness and breadth of view will be cultivated. In closing, 
let me urge that we stress more the responsibilities and duties of citizen- 
ship which contribute to the social welfare rather than the personal 
rights and liberties. 

The following is a list of governmental activities and other coopera- 
tive agencies which can be used in working out a few topics in Rural 
Community Civics : 

I. The postal service 

1. The rural free delivery 

2. Parcel post 

3. Postal money orders 

4. Price list of farm products 

5. Postal laws 

6. Post roads 
II. Health activities 

1. Medical inspection in schools 

2. Treatment of defectives for 

a. Hookworm 

b. Bad teeth 

c. Adenoids 

3. Inocculation 
a. Smallpox 

6. Typhoid fever 

4. Inspection of food 

5. Pure food laws 

6. Water supply 
o. In the home 
6. At school 

c. Pollution of streams 

7. Home sanitation 
a. Drainage 

6. Sanitary toilets 

c. Disposal of garbage, etc. 

8. Federal health surveys 

9. Treatment of contagious diseases 

296 The Training School Quarterly 

III. Agricultural activities of the Government 

1. Free distribution of seed and plants 

2. Promotion of the cattle industry 
a. Tick eradication, dipping, etc. 
&. Quarantine 

c. Vaccine 

3. Home demonstration agents 
a. Poultry clubs 

6. Canning clubs 
c. Literary clubs, etc. 

4. Farm demonstration agents 
a. Testing of soils 

o. Boys' corn clubs 

c. Farm experiments, etc. 

5. Activities of the Weather Bureau 
a. Weather forecasts 

6. Frost and snow warnings 
c. Weather maps 

6. State and Federal experiment stations 

7. Agricultural colleges 

8. Farm-life schools 

9. Stocking fish ponds 
IV. Poverty and relief 

1. County homes 

2. Insane asylums 

3. Hospitals and schools for the blind 

4. Individual or outdoor relief 

5. Pensions, state and federal 

V. General county governmental activities 

1. Building of bridges and good roads 

2. Public buildings 
a. Courthouses 

6. Building of new schoolhouses 

c. Jails 

d. County fair buildings 

e. County home, etc. 

3. Listing and payment of taxes 

4. Justice of the peace court 

5. County fairs 

6. County officials 
a. Sheriff 

6. Commissioners, etc. 

VI. General cooperative activities 

1. Marketing associations 

2. Farmers' Union 

3. Farm loan associations 

4. Rural telephone systems 

5. Drainage projects 

6. Incorporation of rural communities 

7. Woman's betterment associations 

8. Red Cross 

VII. Political parties and elections 

1. The Democratic party 

2. The Republican party 

Humanizing Civil Government for Rural Students 297 

3. Conventions and primaries 

4. Elections 

o. Registration 
&. Voting 

c. Polls- 

d. Bribery 

5. Majority 

6. Election of school officials 
a. Teachers 

6. Committeemen 

c. County Superintendent 

d. County Board of Education 
VIII. Military service 

1. County militia 

2. United States Army 

3. United States Navy 

4. Military and naval schools 

5. Universal military service 

6. Draft laws 

A Mother's Voice from the Trenches 

In a vitally interesting interview in the March Mother's Magazine, 
Mrs. Margaret Crumpeeker gives many incidents of her work in France 
of which one is here quoted : 

"On the battle-field of the Marne, for miles and miles, are unending 
clumps of graves, variously marked. Some have little bottles over them 
with a note inside telling of the buried ; others have tiny flags with the 
caps of the buried ; while still others have only a simple cross to mark 
the resting place, with an occasional note attached to a stick asking if 
any one knows of the resting place of certain soldiers. 

"At one place, quite near the front, we found six little girls wandering 
around together with tiny paper bags which they clung to. Where they 
came from no one knew. Their names had been hastily worked in red 
thread on their little sleeves ; and they had in the little paper bags their 
few small belongings. Their mothers and sisters had been carried away 
by the Germans. One of these little girls, who seemed about two years 
old, was so careworn that she reminded one of a little mummy. They 
all wept and clung to any woman who would notice them. 

"The Red Cross workers gather up these little children and send them 
back to their hospitals as fast as they can, and there they are protected 
and cared for and nursed. I shall never forget seeing a Red Cross nurse 
pick up a wee, deserted baby girl, who was sleeping under a pile of 
debris. When the child awoke to find herself in the arms of a protector, 
her withered arms wound around the nurse's neck and she cooed feebly 
in contentment." 

The Organization and Administration of Physical 
Education and Games in the Grade Schools 

By R. Russell Miller, Superintendent Recreation Department, Raleigh, N. C. 

PLAY is the primary form of education, because activity is the 
sole means of education. However, there is play and there is 
play. There is play that grows like a weed, and never gets beyond 
the weed state, and there is play that has careful cultivation, so that it 
becomes a useful plant. Any thoughtful person who has observed the 
children's activities during an ordinary recess, or at noon, in a school 
where many must stay for lunch, must see that the latter kind is required 
to accomplish results worthy of efforts expended. 

The average recess or noon hour means recreation for comparatively 
few. The larger ones take possession of the grounds in rough-and- 
tumble, unorganized play. The majority of the children stroll up and 
down, collect in little groups, and plan more mischief during that brief 
time than the teacher can cope with in a week. 

Parents are beginning to realize that the school owes the child some- 
thing besides the three "Rs," and unless the school teaches the boy and 
girl how to live, and grow into strong men and women, it is not doing its 
part. Physical education includes and will lead to games, contests, better 
school ventilation, better school yards, school gardens, and school play- 

A plan suggested by the writer in a talk delivered to the Civic Depart- 
ment of the Greenville Woman's Club contained the following standards : 

1. Medical inspection of all children from eight years up; 

2. Two talks of from ten to twenty minutes on personal hygiene each 

3. A two-minute setting-up drill preceding each class ; 

4. A half-hour of supervised play each day. Fifteen minutes morning 
and afternoon. A period to take the place of regular recess, and each 
teacher to take her class to the playground during stated periods and 
teach them the various games. Every child will have a chance to play 
by this method, and both teacher and pupil will return to the classroom 
greatly benefited. 

In planning the school playground, don't forget that the children 
themselves will help solve many difficulties. They will be only too happy 
to put the ground in better shape for their games. Have the boys lay off 
a baseball diamond where there is no danger from stray balls, either 
to windows or to children playing other games. Indoor baseball played 
outdoors is an excellent game for the boys and girls on the school play- 
ground. Provide good balls. The best are the cheapest in the end. Some 
of the pieces of apparatus which have been found to be most popular on 

Games in the Grade Schools 299 

school playground are swings, teeters, a sand box for little children, and, 
by all means, a slide. Every playground should have its jumping pit 10 
ft. by 15 ft. The earth should be spaded up and raked until smooth. It 
should be kept in this condition, for many sprained ankles and other 
injuries are the result of the boys' jumping on the hard ground. Jumping 
is easier if a plank is embedded at the edge of the pit for a "take-off." 
Provide a pair of jumping standards. All apparatus should be placed 
where it will not interfere with the open space needed for games, and 
where there is no danger of a child being hit by a swing when he is play- 
ing another game. 

The best playgrounds are always the ones where the children get most 
of their play through active participation in games, and outdoor sports. 
The first essential of a playground is play leadership. This cannot be 
emphasized too strongly. It is not schoolroom discipline, but rather 
organization and leadership. A sympathetic attitude is the first essen- 
tial. Psychology and philosophy of discipline should be studied from 
the point of view of the children, rather than from books. No amount 
of technical training will bring results, if a love of children and play 
are absent. However, discipline is absolutely essential. Be kind, but 
firm ; prompt and consistent. Boys in particular always respect a teacher 
who enforces discipline. All boys have models, ideals, and they want 
the real article, strong and reliable. The reason a boy likes you (if he 
will tell you) is, you made him mind and do what you wanted him to 
do, when you wanted it done, and the way you wanted it. ISTot once in a 
while, but all the time. You are not doing a boy or girl justice to let' 
them have their own way unless that way is right. 

Keep all children busy doing something. Never suggest a new game 
to the children until they get tired of an old one. 

The fewer rules the better. Insist on fair play, gentlemanly behavior 
and language. 

A most important fact is that you regard your work as an instrument 
with which to build character and make good citizens. The playground 
should be a field of character. 

Appoint leaders in mischief as assistants in caring for the younger 
children. Be sure that they know the rules of the game. But do not 
fancy that when you have appointed these leaders you can go into the 
schoolhouse and correct papers. You must be right on the ground all 
the time. But do not be a bench-warmer. Play with the children. Set 
the pace for vigorous action, skill, courage, regard for rules, and sports- 
manlike temper in defeat or victory. 

"A boy cannot play games without learning subordination, and respect 
for law and order." — Joseph Lee. 

Never hesitate to participate in the play, because of personal dignity. 
Practice what you preach. Don't fly all to pieces every few minutes and 
wonder why the children behave so. By playing with the children you 

300 The Training School Quarterly 

will come into closer contact with your boys and girls, and if you prove 
you are fair and square in your decisions and insist upon fair play from 
them, you will gain their respect and admiration. You can bring home 
in half an hour's play ethical lessons which you could talk on for a year 
in the schoolroom, and fail in making an impression. 

Full explanations should be given before each game. Each playground 
teacher should have a whistle. This saves strain on the voice, and should 
be understood from the outset to command instant quiet, and all play 
to be suspended when it is heard. 

The best playing values of a game are lost when played by more than 
30. The reason for this is the infrequency with which each child can 
get an opportunity to participate, i. e., handle the ball, run, leap, jump, 
etc. Group play, by which is meant the division of players into smaller 
groups, is the ideal method for getting the best sport, and the greatest 
value out of the games. 

The choice of games should be left to the children, after they have 
learned enough games to have a choice. The teacher should suggest in 
this regard, and not dictate. 

Children are made to be able to stand a few falls, knocks, and bruises. 
Don't fear to see them fall now and then. This is nature's way of train- 
ing agility. Circle or ring formations have a pronounced tendency 
toward a spirit of unity among players. A method of forming concentric 
circles is to form a single circle, and have every alternate player step 

Allow or encourage certain relaxation, and make that a part of the 
game or exercise. When it is too hot to do anything calling for active 
exercise, quiet games of educational value are played, as Beast, Bird, 
and Fish ; Air, Fire, Water ; Button, Button, etc. 

There have been a number of suggestive books on games published; 
some of them are : Games for the Playground, Home, School, and Gym- 
nasium, by Jessie Bancroft, containing descriptions of many kinds of 
games from singing games for little children to outdoor games for older 
boys and girls ; Education by Plays and Games and What to Do at Re- 
cess by George E. Johnson; Emmet Angell's Play; Games and Dances 
by W. A. Stecher; Mari R. Hofer's Popular Folk Games and Dances; 
Henry Sperling's Playground Booh. Many others might be mentioned. 
A complete bibliography of books on games is to be found in the report 
of the Committee on Games issued by the Playground and Recreation 
Association of America. The American Sports Publishing Co., 21 War- 
ren Street, New York City, publishes an athletic library of ten-cent 
booklets containing the rules for baseball, indoor baseball, playground 
ball, and other ball games. 

To establish a standard of physical efficiency, the Playground and 
Recreation Association of America has established a series of Badge 
Tests, for both boys and girls. Upon request, the Association will send 

Games in the Grade Schools 301 

rules for conducting these tests, and also the certification blanks which 
will enable the boys and girls to secure the badges. There is nothing 
better than these badge tests and class athletics to do away with the feel- 
ing that only the best athletes in a school might enter in competitions. 
In class athletics a record is made by the whole class or school, rather 
than the individual. The tests are not easy. 

I understand that it is difficult for women teachers to superintend 
athletics for boys, because boys have an idea, as a rule, that they are 
going to be led into something "babyish" that will make "sissies" of 
them. These tests will greatly appeal to boys. It requires a good deal 
of practice and skill to win a badge, and the possessor of such a badge 
has a right to be proud of his athletic skill. 

Girls no longer think it is "unladylike" to run and skip. You will 
find, however, that they have no conception of team-work games. Begin 
with simple games like three deep, touch ball, and gradually work up 
into the other games that require skill and team play. Girls are very 
anxious to play basket-ball, but in the grade schools this game is far too 
strenuous, and more harm than good may come from the game. Captain 
ball is an excellent game to substitute for basket-ball. Do not forget the 
series of badge tests for girls corresponding to those for boys. 

There is no form of play that girls of all ages love more than they do 
folk dancing. A number of books are published which will enable even 
the most inexperienced teacher to include some folk dances in her play 
program. An outline of girls' activities which is very suggestive is issued 
by the Department of Physical Education of the Public Schools of 
Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

Finally, try and remember in all your work with children that "An 
ounce of sympathy and love for children is worth a pound of psychology." 

The Latest Flower of Chivalry 

Alice Day Pratt 

RAVING been granted the dangerous privilege of saying whatever 
I please, I have decided to ride a hobby. I was born a lover of 
animals. Nothing in life has caused me so much pain — and the 
fact that it has been keen and constant suggests the prevalence of the 
conditions about which I intend to speak — as our universally indifferent, 
unthinking, untaught, heartless attitude toward our little brothers in 
Nature, both those who remain in Nature and those for whose condition 
we are wholly responsible, having domesticated them and determined 
their way of life. 

Once, years ago, I was passing on the street car through perhaps the 
most crowded block of downtown Chicago. On the edge of the sidewalk, 
where he had just standing room between the hurrying crowds on the 
footway and the driveway, stood a dog. Every bone in his body was 
pricking through the skin ; his head was hanging in utter discourage- 
ment with the chances of life. Past him, day after day, as he drooped 
and starved, rushed throngs of Christian (?) people who had glibly 
recited since babyhood, "Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain 
mercy." To any one of these unseeing hosts this dog's whole nature 
would have responded with boundless affection. 

This little scene has remained typical for me of our attitude as a race 
toward other races. How much certain "traditions of the elders" as to 
the existence of all other species solely for our use and glory may have 
fostered this arrogant attitude of ours may be only conjectured. One 
can imagine the great Dinosaur giving himself just such airs in his 
relation to the little reptiles. 

Now the phase of this subject that I wish to bring to this publication 
is the question of the training of children in the right regard for animals 
and the really great character-forming possibilities of the process. 

The wise ones tell us that our youngest citizens are, in their tastes and 
impulses, their instincts and intuitions, much more vitally and organ- 
ically in touch with Nature than their perverted elders. The thin veneer 
of civilization in which we delight to hide om- heads, believing ourselves 
immersed therein, impresses them not at all. They are still in the age 
of Wonder — of open mind and unbound sympathies. 

For countless ages it was the lot of the human child to be born into 
a close companionship with the creatures of the woods and fields and 
into the immediate presence of all the seasonal phenomena of Nature. 
How much of the hardness and materialism of our city-bred folk may 
not be traceable to the sudden separation of childhood from this natural 
and congenial companionship? 

The Latest Flower of Chivalry 303 

It is natural that our companions should be both beneath and above 
us in constitution and power, both depending upon us and condescending 
to us. We should be both little among the great and great among the 
little. This latter condition the animal creation supplies for the young 

Let us imagine ourselves in the position of perpetual uplooking to our 
companions (our attitude toward them always more or less propitiatory, 
sometimes hypocritical), and with no creature looking to us for love, 
kindness, and consideration. 

All who have been privileged to care for little children will testify to 
their spontaneous interest in animals and their delight in all out-of-door 

Let the farm-bred reader imagine his childhood as having been wholly 
deprived of the recurring delights of the springtime — not only nor 
chiefly the beauties of Nature, but the renewing of the animal creation : 
the appearance of the first exquisite brood of tender "biddies," led proudly 
from their hiding place and demanding regular and considerate atten- 
tion, the little pigs duly valued and carefully nurtured, the lambs, the 
calves ; Tabby's furry family, rapturously discovered in the hay-loft, 
and faithful Collie's shaggy troop with their irresistible appeal. 

Every country child has the opportunity to practice benevolence, and 
this virtue should be practiced early. If it is our idea of a perfect deity 
that he exercises tender love and consideration for creatures infinitely 
beneath him, should we exempt ourselves from such obligation? 

Why should we feel any confidence in prayer for such benefits and 
mercies as we ourselves have the power but not the will to confer? 

It is my plea, that in developing and training a child's sense of obliga- 
tion toward these creatures that he naturally loves, in teaching him wise, 
patient, and considerate care of all according to their nature, we are 
developing godlike traits, among which is the "quality of mercy." 

There is an incongruity in the association in the same character of 
religious pretensions and indifference to suffering. The pious brother 
whose stock go unsheltered in the icy rains of winter, underfed and over- 
worked, who employs barbarous methods of slaughter, whose faithful dog 
fears to approach him, need offer no public prayers for me. I should not 
consider them effectual even though fervent. 

Many a child has received his initiation into the practice of "atroci- 
ties" on his father's farm. How easily may such an acquirement be 
turned against a human enemy ! On the other hand, what a school of 
humanitarianism the farm may be ! 

Possibly it is one of the consequences of slavery and the relegating 
)f all farm work to the colored folk that the care of stock has, in the 
South, been robbed of much of the dignity and importance that pertains 
io it in some other parts of our country. Certainly indifferences to the 
condition of even valuable animals is far too prevalent. One of the 

304 The Training School Quarterly 

offices of the teaching of agriculture in our schools should be to impress 
upon children the importance of the balanced ration, of systematic care 
and good housing. 

They should be taught concretely what an economical balanced ration 
is, for the horse, the cow, the hen, and should learn to compare the 
results obtained, for instance, from a well-fed, well-housed flock of hens 
and from the neglected hangers-on of the barnyard. 

The town child, if fortunately he may have a pet or two, should be 
made responsible for their care and should be held to it. He should be 
taught that it is worth while to provide a cozy shelter for Towser and 
Tabby against the cold of winter nights, making all the difference between 
warm comfort and keen suffering. 

The caged bird, if, unfortunately, there is one, is the extreme symbol 
of helplessness. 

Let us teach the children that both Mrs. "Do-as-you-would-be-done-by" 
and Mrs. "Be-done-by-as-you-did" are looking on. 

Is not regard for animals the latest flower of chivalry? 

We in America should lead in educational progress more than should 
the people of any other nation. This means that the work of the schools 
must be constantly improved as social conditions change, and as new 
needs arise. This is precisely what the new education is striving to 
accomplish, and the changes which you see taking place in the schools 
are occurring in response to the ever widening and deepening conviction 
that the business of the schools is to teach the young what they will need 
to know and to do when they face the problems of actual life. — Mother's 
Magazine for March. 

What We Are Doing to Conserve Food and Keep 

Down Waste 

Nannie F. Jetee, Manager of the Dining Hall 

T BEGAN my efforts to keep down the waste as soon as I came to the 
Training School, two years before war was declared. I had been 
here only a few weeks when I asked all of the seniors who presided 
at the tables to come to my office and talk over the question of waste. 

I asked them to help me, assuring them that if they saved on bread, 
meat, etc., I could give them ice cream and other dainties so dear to their 
palates. This helped some, but it has taken grim, cruel, relentless war 
to bring them to real saving. The students' cooperation during the past 
few months has been both wonderful and beautiful. I started in the 
dining-room to preach the "Gospel of the clean plate," until now the 
girls take great pride in showing a clean plate after the meal is over. 

Next, I learned to a cupful how many beans, peas, meat and bread 
would go around, and everything is measured. If any food is left from 
one meal we try to fix it in a palatable form for the next meal, to avoid 
carrying over waste food. Waste in the kitchen is carefully guarded; 
servants are required to take on their plates only what they can eat, and 
woe betide the one who is caught with a plate partly filled with food in 
the act of scraping it out. 

The garbage can requires the closest attention, and is inspected daily. 
Nothing goes into it except eggshells, potato skins, bones — after being 
boiled to extract every particle of flavor — coffee grounds, tea leaves, 
orange skins, except what I need to conserve for seasoning, and the roots 
and outside leaves of cabbage and collards. 

Clippings from a newspaper, "Garbage Pail — Put In" "Garbage 
Pail — Keep Out," have been posted on the wall of the kitchen and all the 
servants, kitchen and dining-room help asked to read these and follow 
these instructions as far as possible. This plan worked admirably, with 
the result that the waste from a meal will scarcely fill a quart cup. 

"When I came to the Training School I found a large cask of black 
cooking molasses. Since sugar has been so scarce, I boil the peelings 
and cores of apples, which were formerly used for making a heavy thick 
jelly, add to this a very little sugar, and make a fruit syrup which I 
put in this cask of cooking molasses to improve its flavor, and, like the 
"widow's cruse of oil," it never gives out. 

We save every piece of bread and make crumbs to be used on top of 
baked dishes and to roll fish in before baking or frying. Every ounce 
of fat is saved, rendered, and mixed with other lard, and used as shorten- 
ing for biscuit, thereby saving many a tub of lard. 

306 The Training School Quaeteklt 

After boiling the bony pieces of meat, from which we make stews, and 
baked dishes, we take the stock and with the addition of a few vegetables 
make the soup which forms the main dish for our Monday's lunch. 

Speaking of the garbage can, when I went to look over its contents a 
few days ago I found about a dozen nice looking baked apples. Upon 
inquiring, one of the servants told me that one of the "young ladies" had 
slipped up on her high heels and lost her apples as she was carrying them 
to her tables. I hated very much to lose the apples, but as no harm was 
done to the "young lady," I readily forgave the loss of the fruit. But 
any loss is rare. 

All of the fats and waste grease not good for food I make into soap. 
A full description of the making will be given elsewhere. This soap is 
used practically for all dishwashing and scrubbing. We are using about 
half the quantity of sugar that we used this time last year. Our desserts 
consist mostly of fresh, canned, and dried fruits. When eggs were not 
obtainable some time since, and the girls were hungry for some Sunday 
cake, I went to my old-time recipe book. I glanced at the fruit cake 
used so often in my early housekeeping days, and below I give the in- 
gredients : 

Fruit Cake of 1890. 

1% lbs. butter 2 tablespoonfuls cloves 

1% lbs. sugar 2 tablespoonfuls nutmeg 

1% lbs. flour 2 tablespoonfuls mace 

1% doz. eggs 2 tablespoonfuls cinnamon 

2 lbs. raisins 1 tablespoonful ginger 

2 lbs. currants 2 wineglasses brandy? 
1 lb. citron 

I was short on sugar, brandy, and some of the fruits, so I changed the 
recipe to the following, which was pronounced a success and good sub- 
stitute : 

Fbuit Cake of Febbuaby, 1918 

2 cups Oleo or lard 

1 cup brown sugar (can be omitted and put in syrup) 

2 cups molasses 

2 cups sweet or sour milk 

3 eggs (or omit and put more milk) 

1 tablespoon and 1 teaspoon of soda 

2 tablespoonfuls of ginger 

1 tablespoonful of cinnamon 
1 tablespoonful of vanilla 
1 cup chopped raisins 
1 cup jam 

1 cup preserved orange peel 

2 spoonfuls of baking powder 
&V 2 cups sifted flour 

Bake in a greased mold for two hours. 

To Keep Down Waste 307 

In my early days of housekeeping I did not think a breakfast could be 
served without meat, but now we all eat and enjoy our meatless break- 
fasts. When we serve meat or gravy, we do not serve butter. 

Cutting down the per capita amount of flour, fats, and sugar were the 
problems that all had to solve, and the director of supplies worked con- 
stantly on this. 

When the general call was made for the cutting down of the amount 
of white flour, the buyer bought graham flour, an increased amount of 
oatmeal, grits, and hominy. Graham flour biscuit have been on the 
table once a day since September. 

Cornbread without eggs is served once every day; and sliced Graham 
loaf makes the third meal. 

On Sunday morning the hearts of the girls have always been gladdened 
by the sight of "Sally Lunn" muffins. When eggs were scarce and high 
we had to disappoint them, and when I crossed the campus I was greeted 
with, "Oh ! Mrs. Jeter, when are we to have some more muffins !" At 
last a crate of eggs came, and I was afraid to use them as freely as 
formerly, and, calling my ally, the bread cook, we made the same quantity 
of bread, using exactly half of the eggs formerly used, and everybody 
was pleased and no one knew the difference. In the fall when the Food 
Administrator called upon the people to cut the amount of white flour 
from five pounds per week for one person to four pounds, the school was 
serving a fraction over two and a half pounds. We are using far less 
than that now. Fresh pork has been almost cut out. 

Last year we served bacon about three times a week. This year it is a 
treat about once a week — two-thirds cut. Last year we had ham once 
every week. We now serve it about once in two weeks. An increased 
amount of cereal might seem to mean an increased use of sugar, but 
raisins and dried figs served with the cereal takes the place of sugar. 
Some skeptical person might ask if the girls are getting enough to eat. 
I defy any school to show a healthier, handsomer, or better fed crowd 
of girls. 

The amount of beef used has been cut down perhaps to one-fourth of 
the former amount. This is no longer the foundation of the fare. 

With all of these changes in our manner of living, I am pleased to 
say that I have not heard a complaint, from president's office to kitchen 

The housewife must learn to plan economical and properly balanced 
meals which, while properly nourishing her family, do not encourage 
overeating or waste. It is her duty to use all effective methods to protect 
food from spoilage by dirt, heat, mice, or insects. She must acquire 
the culinary ability to utilize all left-over food and turn it into palatable 
dishes for her family. If only one ounce of food a day goes to waste 
we will in one year lose 1,300,000 pounds of food. 

308 The Training School Quarterly 

This is a war that will be won by the women of our land. The kitchen 
is a place of infinite possibilities, a laboratory of interesting experiments, 
an altar upon which the sacred fires burn. The domain of the housewife 
has been raised from obscurity and hard labor to a position requiring 
brains to conceive and system to operate. 

Domestic Economy takes its place beside Political Economy, and 
"woman's sphere" stretches from Dan to Beersheba, and from the hearth- 
stone to the Capitol. 

The Home-Acre Flock 

It may surprise the readers of Mother's Magazine to learn that a great 
bulk of the poultry and eggs consumed each year by our teeming mil- 
lions of people is the product of poultry flocks managed by women, says 
Charles L. Opperman in the March Mother's Magazine. This condition, 
however, can be more readily understood when we come to realize that 
from eighty to ninety per cent of these products come from the general 
farms of our different States, and that the manager of the farm flock 
is the woman in the home. Upon her falls the task of renewing the flock 
and looking after the breeding, feeding, housing, and general care of the 
birds. How well she has accomplished her task is strikingly shown in 
the tremendous growth of the industry during the past few decades. 
Today we speak of it as our billion-dollar industry, a splendid tribute 
to the skill and perseverance of our farm women. One may truthfully 
say that woman is the master poultry-keeper of America. 

While it is true that the woman on the general farm has played a big 
part in the progress of the poultry industry, we cannot overlook the fact 
that an almost equally important role has been carried out by her sister 
home builder in our countless suburban towns and villages. The ma- 
jority of the latter class are producers in the sense that they produce 
sufficient eggs and poultry to supply the family needs, but it is not un- 
usual for such flocks to return a tidy profit to their owners at the end 
of the year from the sale of surplus eggs and poultry. In fact, only last 
year, I ran across a suburban flock of one hundred and fifty birds that 
made their owner a profit of over three hundred dollars for the year. 

Making Our Own Soap 

M. E. J. 

CHE story of our soap made at East Carolina Teachers Training 
School for the kitchen, in the kitchen, and from the kitchen 
grease, is a story in conservation that is worth passing on. Long 
before war was declared and the necessity for checking the waste had 
been impressed upon us, the soap made in the kitchen of the School was 
a matter of pride. This was when the skins of bacon were saved for the 
grease keg, the enlarged "soap gourd" cherished by our grandmothers. 
It was also in the days when bacon was lavishly used and an abundance 
of beef tallow from the chief article of food fed to schoolgirls, beef, found 
its way into the keg. The waste fats were carefully sorted and saved, 
the beautiful, clean, white fat going into one keg, and the "shoddy" into 
another; and they were made up separately. The result of the former 
was a pure white, hard soap that could pass over the counter of any 
drug store for pure Castile, or, if put on the market in cakes, stamped 
with a trade-mark, and wrapped attractively, would be a rival of Ivory 
soap. The one who has charge of the dining-room and kitchen of the 
School knew the formula used by her foremothers for making soap for 
the plantation, and had inherited from her mother a love for the soap 
gourd. She also knew that the old-fashioned negro could conjure the 
soap pot as no white hand could. She discovered among the servants 
just the one she was looking for — a real artist in soap-making. Whenever 
fifty pounds of grease were in the soap keg, "Aunt Fannie" was given 
permission to take a day off to tend the soap pot. She would accept the 
ingredients given her, and would let the lady give them to her in the 
correct proportion and would listen to the scientific instructions and 
smile, and merely ask to be let alone and she would make it. But she 
said they must not hurry her ; she knew when it was time. She proved 
herself the true creative artist in her demands. She said she didn't care 
so much about what amounts went into the soap, but she could make 
soap out of grease, lye, and water, if the moon was right, the weather 
was right, and if she felt just like making soap ; but she would make only 
a "mess" if she couldn't do it in her own way. Another demand was 
that nobody was to touch it but herself, and nobody was to doubt it. 
Nobody ever dared to interfere with her and force her to make it when 
she was not in the mood. She has never failed to make good soap. 

After food conservation became the watchword of the kitchen, bacon 
fat was used for cooking; the amount of bacon was cut down; the 
meatless days and the porkless days reduced all fats to a minimum, and 
the few skins were put in bread ; the bacon fat was used over and over for 
cooking until there was nothing left to use ; tallow was used in cooking to 

310 The Training School Quarterly 

the last bit. It looked as if there was to be absolutely nothing left for 
soap grease, but the watchful eye found it. The plates were carefully 
wiped out after gravy or meat had been on them. The greasy fishbones 
were put into the keg. The charred scraping of the pans after the fat 
had been used repeatedly, also went into the keg. The soap-grease keg 
had caught what the drain pipe and garbage pail, unnoticed, had caught 
in the plentiful times before the war. Soap was higher and the soap 
made last year was getting low, so the soap problem was getting closer. 

"Grease, lye, and water are the essentials of soap," and this was grease ; 
therefore, soap should be the result. Finally, the fifty pounds were 
saved; "Aunt Fannie," the moon, and the weather were all just right; 
therefore the soap was made. True, it is not the pretty white Castile- 
looking soap, no more than the bread on our tables is pretty and white, 
but it does the work of soap ; therefore it is a success. 

In the meantime, "Aunt Fannie's" fame had gone abroad, and some 
ladies had asked to see the soap while it was in the pot and to see how to 
make it. She had three pots, or "bilings," to make. One of these 
was not nearly so much a success as the other two, because one of the 
ladies touched the paddle with which Fannie stirred it, and the soap was 
disturbed at the touch of another hand; another one asked questions 
which showed she doubted it, that made it "angry," and it took three times 
as long for it to cook. It cannot be denied that it took the "angry pot" 
three times as long to cook as it took the others. 

The soap is made by the following formula : 

50 pounds of grease 

16 boxes of lye 

12 to 15 gallons of water 

The tubs of soft soap are set aside and allowed to stand for some time 
so that it will become hard. The longer it stands the harder it gets. It 
is cut in blocks and placed on planks and dried in the air. It is very 
much better to make it in dry weather unless allowance is made for the 
moisture that will be absorbed from the air, and less water is put in. If 
the soap separates and does not mix well, more water is added ; if it is 
too thin, it is boiled down to the right consistency. The testing of the 
soap is by pouring into a saucer and if it forms a hard cake and lathers 
well, it is done. Any one who has tested fudge can test soap. 

The soap is made in a big steam caldron, shaped very much like the old- 
fashioned wash-pot that has been used for soap-making all through the 
South wherever the old customs have been kept up. 

The soap-making here is just the same as the soap-making practiced 
on every plantation years ago, and it is still made on many farms. This 
is simply adapting to an institution one of the old-fashioned methods of 
conservation used by every thrifty housewife on the farm. 

Housewives, Attention! 

The Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Association has issued the following 
timely advice: 


Egg shells — after being used to clear coffee. 

Potato skins — after having been cooked on the potato. 

Banana skins — if there are no tan shoes to be cleaned. 

Bones — after having been boiled in soup kettle. 

Coffee grounds — if there is no garden where they can be used for fertilizer, 
or if they are not desired as filling for pincushions. 

Tea leaves — after every meal. 

Orange skins — unless used as source of jellymaking material to be added 
to rhubarb or strawberry juice. 

Asparagus ends — after being cooked and drained for soup. 

Spinach — decayed leaves and dirty ends of roots. 


BREAD — Slices may be used for toast, moistened with hot salt water. 
Crusts and pieces may be dried and crushed for use on scalloped dishes. 
Mixtures of different kinds of breads and muffins may be crushed and used 
like ready-to-eat cereal. Pieces may be softened in water or milk and used 
in brown bread, griddle cakes and muffins, and for stuffing. 

FAT of all kinds — May be melted and strained, some used in place of lard 
and butter. Any fat too hard, too strong in flavor, or too old may be used 
in soap. 

TABLE WASTE — Each member of the family should be trained to take 
on his plate only as much as he will eat. 

COOKED EGGS — Scramble, omelets, etc., may be used in garnishing 
salad, in hash, soups, etc. 

MACARONI and cheese, tomato sauce, etc., etc., as stuffing for peppers, 
tomatoes, etc. 

COOKED CEREAL — May be reheated, may be fried and served with 
syrup, may be used in muffins, bread, griddle cakes, puddings. 

MEAT — May be served cold, reheated in gravy, chopped and served on 
toast, chopped and mixed with potatoes, or bread, for hash. 

SOUP MEAT — Only about 1-20 of the nourishment in meat is drawn out 
in making soup. The flavor is also drawn out, but if more flavor can be 
added to the meat it can be used in a meat pie, stew, hash, mince meat, etc. 

TABLE WASTE — Only as much should be prepared as will be eaten. 

VEGETABLES, and water in which they have been cooked — Vegetables 
may be used for salad and for soup. Water may be thickened, milk and 
seasoning added, and used for soup. Vegetable water may also be used to 
make gravy for roast meat and used instead of plain water in cooking meat 
for stew. 

STAIE CAKE — May be steamed and served with a sauce, as pudding. 

— The Woman's Journal. 

Make the Farm Poultry Produce More 

Herbert E. Austin 

CHE real function of the public school in the community life is 
being shown as never before in the history of our State. It is the 
center to which all the people of the community are coming in 
increasing numbers for help in meeting the perplexing problems of the 
day and hour. It is the center from which is going out inspiration and 
suggestions that will result in more efficient living. 

Two great problems face our country today. To bring this war to 
a successful close as soon as possible; to prepare our boys and girls 
to take the places of leadership in the world's life after the war. Both 
are imperative; both compelling. In both, the teacher and the public 
schools must play a vital part. 

The pressing problems of the day and hour are the real teacher's 
opportunity to vitalize her school work; to link school with home and 
life by a tie that shall never in the future be broken. 

The great problem of the day and hour is food production and food 

The world is clamoring for food. How to add to the world's supply 
of food is a burning question in every community and household. The 
teacher and the school can help. Garden work, poultry club work, pig 
club work, etc., become the needs of the hour. 

Below are some suggestions for practical poultry work : 

Subject: Poultry. 
Problem. — How best can we increase the poultry products of our community 

without materially increasing the labor and cost of production? 
Pacts that should be known and their value appreciated: 

1. There are enough wastes about the average farm in the South to support 

a flock of one hundred hens without materially interfering with the 
work of the farm. 

2. The average yearly egg production per hen could easily be raised to one 

hundred eggs per hen instead of seventy-five as at present. 

3. The average flock of hens contains too many slackers. Thirty to forty 

per cent are boarders, not workers. The following figures taken from 
a report of investigations made in Connecticut by poultrymen from 
the Connecticut Agricultural College are significant: 
o. Number flocks observed, 75; number hens observed, 7,556; number 
eggs laid week previous, 2,130; number workers found, 4,419; 
number slackers found, 3,137; number eggs laid after removal of 
slackers, 2,018. The removal of 3,137 hens reduced the egg produc- 
tion only 112. 

Make Farm Poultry Produce More 313 

6. Number flocks observed, 1; number hens observed, 980; eggs laid week 
previous, 2,406. Number workers found, 677; eggs laid by workers 
week after, 2,750. Number slackers found, 303; eggs laid by slackers 
week after, 10. 
c. Number flocks observed, 1; number hens observed, 78; number workers 
found, 14; number slackers found, 64. No loss in egg production 
after culling. 
Answers to Our Problem. — A knowledge of the above facts suggest the fol- 
lowing answers to our problem: 

1. Increase number of hens on farm to one hundred. 

2. By better breeding, elimination of scrubs or mongrels, better feeding 

and care, raise production to at least one hundred eggs per hen. 

3. Cull out the slackers; replace them with workers. Workers have pale 

yellow legs, beak, ear lobes and vent. The pelvic bones are wide apart 
and flexible. Slackers have yellow legs, beak, vent, and the pelvic 
bones are narrow. 

Subject: Poultry. 
Problem. — How can we help to prevent the great annual loss due to bad 

methods of producing and handling eggs? 
Facts that should be known and their value appreciated: 

1. Farmers lose millions of dollars annually from bad methods of production 

and handling eggs. The product of the American hen loses $50,000,000 
in value between the time it is laid and the time it reaches the con- 

2. At least one-third of this loss is preventable, because it is due to the 

partial hatching of fertile eggs which have been allowed to become 
warm enough to begin to incubate. The fertile egg makes the blood 

3. The rooster makes the eggs fertile. 

4. The presence of the rooster is not necessary for the production of eggs. 

He merely fertilizes the germ of the egg and makes an egg that will 
hatch. The fertile germ in hot weather quickly becomes a blood ring. 
Summer heat has the same effect on fertile eggs as the hen or incubater. 

5. Infertile eggs will not produce blood rings. 

6. Hens not running with roosters will produce infertile eggs — quality eggs 

that keep best, market best, preserve best. 

Per Cent Loss of Farm Eggs 
Infertile eggs : Total Loss 24.2 % 

15.5 % 4 % 4.7 % 

Fertile eggs : Total Loss 42.5 % 

29 % 7.1 % 6.4 % 


Lobb at Farm In Town In Transit 

Graph teaching desirability of infertile eggs for market 

7. The market desires clean eggs, uniform in size and color. A few low 

grade eggs in a case lowers the grade of the whole case. 

8. Eggs will absorb odors. 

314 The Training School Quarterly 

Answers to Our Problem. — From the above facts we can obtain the following 
common-sense rules: 

1. Remember that heat is the great enemy of eggs, both fertile and infertile. 

2. Gather the eggs twice daily and keep them in a cool, dry place, free 

from odors. 

3. Market the eggs at least twice a week. 

4. Grade your eggs as to size. Uniformity in color may be secured by keep- 

ing but one breed of hens. 

5. Never send a dirty egg to market, or one that has been washed. 

6. Sell, kill, or pen all roosters as soon as the hatching season is over. 

Subject: Poultry. 

Problem. — How can we help to prevent the great annual loss due to bad 

methods of production and handling of eggs? (continued). 

Facts to be known and their value appreciated: 

1. Many eggs fail to hatch each year because they are not fertile. It is 

estimated that sixty-four and a half million eggs are destroyed annu- 
ally by this cause. At 15 cents per dozen what would the annual loss 
amount to? at present prices? 

2. Infertile eggs are due to the following causes: 

a. Having too many hens running with one rooster. 
6. Having a rooster of weak vitality. 

c. Not having the hens running with the rooster for a long enough period 
before the eggs are selected for hatching. 

3. Infertile eggs, if they do not remain over seven days under the hen or in 

the incubator, are good for cooking purposes other than being served 
as boiled, scrambled, fried, etc. 
Answers to Our Problem. — An appreciation of the above facts will suggest the 
following rules: 

1. Select nine or ten of your best layers from your flock and place them in 

a pen with a good vigorous male bird, apart from the rest of the flock, 
three weeks before you begin to select the eggs for hatching. 

2. Do not use eggs over ten days old for hatching. 

3. Do not use eggs that have become chilled for hatching. 

4. Remove the infertile eggs from under the hen or the incubator before 

they are spoiled. 

5. Have a rooster of good vitality. His vitality is indicated by a good long 

lusty crow, and his ability to domineer over the other male birds of 
the flock. 

In the development of the above lessons we are under obligations to 
the following: 

United States Department of Agriculture: 

Bulletin No. 464. Lessons on Poultry for Rural Schools. 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 287. Poultry Management. 

Special Bulletin, November 30, 1914. Suggestions in Poultry Raising for 
the Southern Farmer. 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 574. Poultry House Construction. 

North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station: Bulletin No. 221. Profit- 
able Poultry Raising. 

Agricultural Extension Service: Extension Circular No. 6. The Proper 
Methods of Housing and Handling the Farm Flocks. 

Progressive Farmer: Poultry Special, 1918, 1917. 

The Country Gentleman: 1917-1918. 

The Teacher— Her Call and Her Mission 

S. M. Brikson, Superintendent Craven County 

CHE language of the Apostle Paul in Ephesians (4:10) I should 
like to address to these young ladies and call it my text for this 
discourse: "I [with elimination of intervening words] beseech 
you that ye walk worthy of the vocation wherewith ye are called." 

I am addressing these words to people upon whom larger responsibili- 
ties rest than upon the Ephesians of nearly two thousand years ago. 

Responsibilities are fairly measured by power and influence, and the 
modern teacher has possibilities of influence well-nigh limitless. 

The badge of Divine sanction and approval belongs to her and a dig- 
nity attaches to her profession which no other can claim. 

The purely secular teacher must concede priority to the teacher of 
righteousness — the preacher — but to no other. He, who is clothed with 
the authority of heaven to preach the unsearchable riches of Christ has 
first claim upon us ; but coming closely behind him is the one who opens 
the eyes of the child to the fine things of God's creation and develops in 
him a keen sense of proportion and appreciation. Her mission is holy 
and her influence is measured only by the degree of her appreciation of it 
and ability to fulfill it. 

Plastic mind offers, objectively, the finest, most promising clay for 
mental and moral modeling. Its pliable character, as well as the perma- 
nency and value of its ultimate shape, invests the teacher with a dignity, 
an immeasurable responsibility and nobility, which lifts her from the 
human to the Divine office. 

The chiseled marble eloquently witnesses to the genius of the sculptor. 
The animate clay tells more eloquently still the story of patient labor 
and consecrated talent dealing with immortal mind. 

Cold and passionless marble may for a time withstand the destructive 
forces of nature, but crumbles finally into its native dust. 

A life quickened by her whose soul is aflame with holy zeal, a mind 
trained by her whose ministry includes both skill and loving interest — 
that child will put in motion wholesome influences which shall intensify 
and multiply to the end of time — even through the long stretches of 
eternity itself. 

The efficient business methods of modern times are vast improvements 
over the primitive methods of early days. Barter and exchange have 
given place to scientific systems of finance and business. The social 
development of the race — and especially the intelligent appreciation 
of woman's large part in racial progress — has come with constantly 
quickening pace during these later years. Systems of government all 
over the world for the most part have undergone changes, all tending to 

316 The Training School Quarterly 

juster systems, with fuller recognition of the rights of the citizen, all 
with bent towards a practical and efficient democracy. 

These things have come largely as the fruition of the sacrificial labors, 
the devote'cl and intelligent ministry of the teacher. 

A fair assumption, I think, is that progress resultant from intellectual 
development must have its suggestion and its stimulus in the schoolroom. 
Many of the startling and revolutionizing inventions have come to us 
as the flowering of the seeds planted in the child-mind back in the almost- 
forgotten schoolroom. Much instruction thought to have been lost or 
wasted has yielded to the state and nation fourfold upon the investment 
in the matured conviction of great leaders of the race. 

It is here, in the schoolroom, that the teacher, at her quiet task — 
frequently the dull, prosaic task — of stimulating and directing mental 
activity, leads the child along the road to knowledge, guiding his unwary 
steps over dangerous ground and safeguarding him against lurking 
evils. During those school days — the days of planting for the teacher — 
seed of moral as well as mental kind are planted and watched and tended 
with painstaking care until they shall ripen into infinite blessings. 

The social order, the political systems, the industrial organizations 
have undergone marvelous changes, wholesome development, in these 
latter days — all because somewhere back in the modest schoolhouse of 
Goldsmith's fancy or the impressive schoolhouse of the city child there 
labors with patient care and ungrudgingly some teacher whose conscience 
is not satisfied with perfunctory observance of fixed schedule of work, but 
whose soul feels the thrill of an holy mission and finds infinite joy in the 
young life constantly unfolding under her touch. 

In referring to the teacher I am using the feminine gender, and with 
ample authority for so doing. More than 80 per cent of the teachers of 
youth are women. It is not a mere coincidence that the number of 
women teachers has relatively increased as our country has expanded 
and developed. 

We first find a woman under the hard and cruel restraints put upon 
her by her husband, the life of drudgery and slavery to which this com- 
placent master and husband committed her. Practically all the teachers 
then were men. A thousand years later and, despite the growing spirit 
of independence, only about 5 per cent, of the teachers then were women. 
There were no institutions of learning for them. Now more than 80 per 
cent, of the teachers are women, and their institutions of learning are 
many and compare favorably with those for men. 

All of this has come, keeping pace in every step of progress with the 
growing conscience of the race. The world was never before so greatly 
under the sway of conscience as today. This is said with full knowledge 
of the wide variance from this rule, the glaring exceptions to it, of the 
few nations whose lusts for empire has dulled the hearing to the still, 
small voice of conscience. 

The Teachek — Her Call and Her Mission 317 

The output of the school hears the imprint of -woman, who teaches and 
practices the doctrine of helpfulness, who idealized him who makes the 
path of humanity straighter and easier and not him who moves with 
strident step across the stage, full-panoplied for savage and hrutal war. 

The moral force of America has been intensified and given finer tone 
by that influence quietly exerted in the schoolroom, that spirit which has 
kindled the blaze of national pride in the men and the women whose 
patriotic and disinterested service has made America the leavening power 
in the world civilization. 

The tender qualities of woman, her large store of sympathy, her gener- 
ous impulses, give her natural equipment for child training and instruc- 
tion, aud she, better than man — unless he be the rare exception — can 
develop the gentler nature, can soften and mould the character of plastic 

I wish to discuss briefly The Teacher's Call And Her Mission. 

In the first place, the call to this service comes from a source higher 
than any human authority. 

"Get wisdom, get understanding" (Proverbs 4-5), we are told in 
Proverbs, and insistently told to get instruction. This must presuppose 
the teacher who is to impart this wisdom, this instruction. 

The teachers of religious and secular matters were then the same, but 
the separation of these important offices does not affect the responsibility 
of carrying on the work of both. 

Gamaliel, the teacher of Saul, held high station in the Sanhedrin 
and, through all these centuries, is remembered perhaps as much for the 
openness of his student-mind as the thoroughness of his instruction. 

Timothy (1:3,2) includes among the qualities required of a bishop 
that he "must be given to hospitality, apt to teach." 

In Psalms (94:10) the necessity of the teacher's equipment is set out, 
viz: "He that teaches man knowledge, shall not he know?" 

The high value placed on wisdom — its transcendent importance — by 
implication vests the one who imparts it with high dignity and honor. 
I think wisdom in holy things as well as secular matters is included in 
the various passages which emphasize the importance of knowledge. 

The Divine call of the secular teacher is gathered by implication more 
often than by direct language. The call of the teacher springs, too, 
from the very organization of society. 

The ideal home would give to society, as its product, the well-trained 
citizen. But in practical life it is rare that one can find in a single family 
conditions essential to the wholesome instruction and development of 
the child. Incapacity of parent for this important work, or lack of time 
in this stressful modern life, preclude it. It, too, perhaps accords best 
with the spirit of democratic institutions — as it certainly is demanded 
by the necessities of the situation — that the instruction of the child 
should be committed to the secular teacher. 

318 The Training School Quarterly 

The practical situation, the economic situation, the social organization, 
give urgent call to the teacher, and to the degree that she responds, in 
numbers and efficiency, will the adjustment be wise and beneficial. 

Our political system itself gives strenous call to the teacher. 

If we were living under the sway of some absolute monarch, and our 
destiny should be to so continue to live, it would be unwise, both for the 
governing class as well as the governed, that the latter should be educated. 
Henry George stated it strongly as well as truthfully when he said that 
"If a slave must continue to be a slave, it is cruelty to educate him." 
There is humanity and profound philosophy in this statement. 

If a man is always to remain in servile relation to another, to acquaint 
him with the happy lot, the fortunate circumstances, the independent 
lives of other people would merely tend to embitter his own life and fill 
it with useless, unavailing discontent. 

This condition does not obtain in a nation such as ours. Here every 
man has a voice in naming the officers and shaping the policies of the 
Government. The need, then, of general enlightenment is manifestly 
important, even necessary to the permanence of our liberty. 

A governmental act is an act of the whole, the concrete expression of 
the will of the whole, and to the degree that the body of our citizenship 
is educated, to that degree will the act prove wholesome and wise. The 
early fathers understood this fully when they framed the constitution of 
the State. They saw clearly the relation between education and popular 
government when they put in that instrument the requirement that 
"schools and means of education shall forever be encouraged." 

They had lived under other governments and realized fully the essen- 
tial difference between the old world monarchies and the forms of govern- 
ment which their democratic natures craved and to secure which they 
had braved the perils of strange seas and desperate battles. 

Poor, untutored Russia furnishes an illustration of the nation — mis- 
governed and misguided for centuries, accustomed only to the darkness 
of the dungeon of political despair — now thrust into the open glare of 
its newly acquired liberty, cannot yet have full use of its eyes and, in 
ignorance and blindness, does the foolish and reckless things until adjust- 
ment, through intelligence, shall finally come. 

No political power can regard itself as permanent unless that power is 
a grant from an educated citizenship, and no citizen, who has educational 
equipment, can withhold from the Government that intelligent interest 
in public matters which is the price of the honest return which the State 
has a right to expect and exact. 

This is the American doctrine as opposed to the traditional doctrine 
and practices of the Russian Government. 

The striking contrast presented by these two nations today affords 
splendid proof of the wisdom of the American system. The one, divided 
into conflicting groups, rent by civil strife, torn by contending factions, 

The Teacher — Her Call and Her Mission 319 

a victim of fickle and uncertain sentiment, growing out of the enforced 
ignorance of the masses. The other, demonstrating efficiency of popular 
government by standing with practical unanimity behind an intelligent 
national program of peace and of war — a nation militant in the cause of 
individual and national honor and fair dealing, a nation now applying 
itself to the arts of war only to the end that the prophecy of Isaiah may 
come true and "the swords shall be beat into plowshares and the spears 
into pruning hooks, and nation shall not lift up sword against nation, 
neither shall they learn war any more." 

This system, the American system, presupposes an enlightened citizen- 
ship, and to the teacher we must look for this saving salt of our govern- 
mental system. She it is who shall teach the young American the princi- 
ples of our government and shall stimulate a veneration for our institu- 
tions and a zeal for their maintenance in purity and vigor. 

In the schoolroom, where mind is impressionable, where ideas whether 
right or wrong, are more easily implanted — here it is that correct ideas 
of government should be taught and illustrated and enforced through the 
government of the school itself, where responsibility of citizenship should 
be impressed upon every child and the strong obligation to moral living 
which goes with it. 

A Poet Enlists 

By Amelia Josephine Bukb 

And all the songs that I might sing — 

Madness to risk them so, you say ? 
How it is such a certain thing 

That I can sing them if I stay? 

The winds of God are past control; 

They answer to no human call; 
And if I lose my living sold 

That is — for me — th e end of all. 

Better to shout one last great song — 

Dying myself — to dying men, 
Than crawl the bitter years along 

And never sing again. 

— The Outlook {by Permission). 

Teaching Correct Usage in the Primary Grades 

Agnes L. Whiteside 

DUEING- the last few years educators all over the country seem 
to have awakened to the fact that the so-called language teaching 
of most of our schools has been a failure in the past in so far as 
developing skill and effectiveness in the use of the mother tongue is 
concerned. As a consequence, a revolution, as it were, has come about 
in the methods of language teaching, the wholesome effects of which are 
already beginning to be felt in the results that are being attained. Let 
us hope that this forward movement will continue until its influence 
reaches the remotest sections of our land, and the mother tongue in its 
purest and most attractive form shall be the common heritage of every 
American-born child. If this is to be the goal, parents and teachers must 
cooperate and do nobly their share of the work. 

Before discussing how the work is to be done, let us first look into the 
causes which have made it necessary. Why is it that we find such ex- 
pressions as "ain't," "I didn't see nothing," "He done it," etc., so common 
among people who should know better? In most cases we do not have 
to go far to find the reasons. That "language is caught, not taught," 
is a statement we have often heard, and those of us who are teachers come 
to realize more fully each year just how true it is. The child receives his 
earliest language training in the home, where he imitates, first con- 
sciously, later unconsciously, the habits of speech of his parents and 
other members of the household. Fortunate, indeed, is he if he comes 
from a home where errors in usage are unknown, where the only language 
heard is that which is used by speakers and writers of the best English. 

There is an old saying that "Well begun is half done," and were home 
the only factor which enters into his early training, the child of the 
home alluded to above would grow easily and naturally into correct 
habits of speech. There are, however, other factors to be considered, 
for, during his most impressionable years, the child does not spend all 
of his time in the companionship of his parents and others of the family. 
In many Southern homes children have been left largely to the care of 
"Black Mammy," and under the magic spell of the melodies she has 
crooned to them, and the charm of the weird tales she has related, bits of 
dialect appealing strongly to childish fancy have naturally crept in and 
become a part of their vocabulary. In still other sections children have 
been cared for by illiterate white servants, either American or foreign- 
born. They, too, have left their impress upon the speech habits of the 
young, thereby adding other links to the chain which must later be 
broken if the youth of our land is ever to come into his own. 

Teaching Correct Usage in Primary Grades 321 

A third and most powerful factor which enters into the early language 
training of the child is that of the playground. As soon as the innate 
curiosity of the child leads him to venture forth by himself, he begins 
to find pleasure in the companionship of other children and to seek that 
pleasure as often as possible. The playground of the home gradually, 
as he grows older, widens until it includes that of the street, also, and 
his pleasure in play increases accordingly. He is not at all discrimi- 
nating in his choice of companions, the children of poor and illiterate 
parentage often being preferred to those of better homes, preference 
being based upon what a "fellow" can do, rather than upon who a "fel- 
low" is. The more wonderful the "stunts" of which he is capable, the 
more is he to be admired and imitated. While the spirit of play is at 
its height, the child's mind and heart are open wide to receive impres- 
sions, and that which he takes in so freely, naturally finds lodgment and 
comes out again as his own. Should it seem strange, then, that the 
children of the best homes, so called, are often guilty of such errors as 
" 'Taint so," "You don't know nothin'," and others equally flagrant, 
when they are expressions most commonly heard on the playground? 

Usually, when he enters school the child has been talking four or five 
years and comes with an equipment of all kinds of language, much of 
which the teacher must help him to get rid of, by substituting that which 
is more desirable. This is by no means an easy undertaking, as habits 
once formed are not readily uprooted. The teacher who attains even a 
reasonable amount of success in this work must first of all understand 
child-nature, and next must have a true conception of what language 
teaching is. She should realize that every recitation is a language 
lesson, and the standard of speech in one is the standard in all. Through 
tactful, incidental correction in conversation, and careful direction in 
written work, and, through the use of much rich and interesting material, 
she should seek to direct and mould the taste of the child so that he will 
eventually choose the correct in preference to the incorrect way of say- 
ing things. 

Fortunate, indeed, is the child who receives his early training in a 
school where this new and larger conception of language teaching holds 
sway. He has continually before him two models — the language of the 
teacher and that of the best literature. The powers of imitation are 
so strong within the child that, when once a teacher has won his confi- 
dence and friendship, it is but a short time until he has taken up many 
of her ways of doing things. If she has the gift of attractive and win- 
ning speech, which we'll assume she has all the better, as before very 
long he will be using, all unconsciously, perhaps, some choice word or 
phrase which he has caught from her in the schoolroom or on the play- 

This, however, is not the only source of his new language ideals. 
Another, as I have said before, is the literature around which many of 

322 The Training School Quarterly 

the school activities center — beautiful poems, songs, and stories, which, 
being wisely selected, make a strong appeal to his interest and imagina- 
tion. Through the frequent repetition of his favorites among these 
poems and stories, many of the poems being memorized, he begins to 
realize, vaguely at first, that their charm for him lies as much in the 
way the thought is expressed as in the thought itself. His "linguistic 
conscience" is aroused and he longs to be able to say things as beauti- 
fully as have these authors. Much has been gained when the teacher 
has succeeded in bringing a pupil up to this point; but there is yet 
much to be done. 

Before correct usage can become habitual with a child he must use 
the correct forms again and again in oral and written work, but particu- 
larly in the former, until they come naturally and spontaneously — until 
they become automatic with him. He can hope to break up bad habits 
of speech only by forming good ones to take their place. As an aid in 
this, he must daily be brought in contact with the best literature, must 
have much oral composition, and in addition be given definite habit- 
forming exercises. These exercises will be all the more interesting and 
effective if the game element enters into them. A child's greatest growth 
in language power, we are told, occurs when his interest is at its height, 
and interest is paramount when he plays. Some of these language drills 
or exercises should be incidental, growing out of the study of a favorite 
story or poem; others will be definitely planned for in advance by the 
teacher ; all will be for the correction of errors in usage, common to the 
children of that particular group. 

In almost every school saw and seen are used incorrectly by many of 
the pupils ; therefore, various means and devices will necessarily he 
employed by the teacher in her effort to establish the correct use of these 
forms. There are two poems often given to children of the primary 
grades, which, aside from their beautiful thought pictures, may also 
serve to call the child's attention to the correct usage of saw and seen. 
One of these poems is Foreign Lands by Robert Louis Stevenson ; the 
other is The Wind by Christina Eosetti. After the former poem has 
been read or recited by the teacher, she may ask the children to tell her, 
one at a time, some of the things this boy saw from the tree into which 
he had climbed. "He saw the garden." "He saw the dusty roads," etc., 
will be some of the statements given. "Why didn't he see any more 
things?" "The tree was not high enough." "Could he have seen more 
had he been up in an airship?" Now for a few minutes imagine that 
you have just returned from a journey in an airship. Tell me as quickly 
as you can something interesting that you saw, beginning your state- 
ments with "I saw — ." This will bring out many different statements, 
each child unconsciously repeating the expression, "I saw," several 

Teaching Correct Usage in Primary Grades 323 

Another device for establishing correct usage of this same form is a 
game in which the teacher has all kinds of interesting small articles 
spread out on her desk and then covered over. The children at a given 
signal form in a line, pass around the room quickly, pausing for a 
moment at the teacher's desk, which has been uncovered, and then take 
their seats. Each is then called upon to tell what he saw, naming only 
one article at a time. Later, perhaps, he will be required to write as 
many statements as he can, beginning each with "I saw" and naming one 
of these articles in each statement. This game may be varied in many 
ways, in one of which the teacher has the articles on a tray, which she 
passes quickly up and down between the rows of desks, later calling upon 
each child to tell what he saw. 

Exercises for drill upon has seen, have seen, and had seen may well 
follow the memorization of the little poem entitled The Wind, by Chris- 
tina Rosetti, beginning thus, 

"Who has seen the wind? 
Neither you nor I," etc. 

This poem is one that fits in well with nature study during the month 
of March. After a brief and lively conversation upon good times they've 
had when the wind was blowing, each is called upon to tell some queer 
thing he has seen the wind do, beginning his statement with, "I have 
seen." Then each must try to recall and tell what some one else has seen. 
Many of the exercises on these same forms may grow out of the reading 
of the story, The Little Lame Prince, a story so much enjoyed by children 
of the second and third grades. They may imagine that they went with 
the Prince upon one of his journeys in his wonderful traveling cloak, 
and tell of the many strange things they saw. 

In some schools children use want instead of wasn't and weren't, this 
error also being so prevalent among the adults of those particular com- 
munities that it seems next to impossible to correct it among the children. 
A little game helpful in this case is one in which a child is chosen to 
leave the room, but before leaving selects one person — we'll say Mary — 
to hide in some place during his absence. When he returns, Mary is 
back in her seat, and he is allowed three guesses as to where Mary was, 
the children answering in concert or individually, as the teacher prefers, 
"No, she wasn't under John's desk. No, she wasn't in the book closet," 
etc. If two people are told to hide, the answers will be, "No, they weren't 
in the cloakroom," or something similar. When the leader fails in all 
three guesses, another is allowed to take his place. A poem that might 
be brought in incidentally just here is one entitled One, Two, Three, by 
H. C. Bunner, in which a dear old lady, and a little boy who is a cripple, 
play a make-believe game of hide-and-seek. 

In the poem, April Rain, by Lovemau, the contraction isn't is used 
repeatedly, so that discussion and memorization of this poem will be 

324 The Training School Quarterly 

valuable for establishing the use of isn't rather than ain't. Some of the 
hiding games described above may also be varied so as to help correct 
this same error. 

In drilling upon the cardinal points the child may also, incidentally, 
be taught to use "It is I," "It is she," and "It is he," instead of "It is 
me," etc., which is so common in many places. After one or more lessons 
in which the children have pointed, walked, and run north, south, east, 
or west, the following game may be used to advantage : One child, being 
chosen leader, closes his eyes while four other children tip to points in 
the room directly north, south, east, and west of him. He then asks, 
"Who is north of me?" The child at that point answers, "It is I," and 
he must guess who answered. If he guesses correctly, that child takes 
her seat. If he fails to guess all four of the voices correctly, another 
leader is chosen, and children standing exchange places or a new group 
is selected and the game proceeds as before. It may be varied so as to 
bring in the expressions, "It is he" and "It is she." 

Aside from games, there should, of course, be conversation, oral and 
written reproduction, copying, and dictation, all emphasizing correct 
usage of certain forms. Only one form should be taken up at a time, 
and each child should be given frequent opportunities for using that 
form correctly. The resourceful teacher will find countless avenues of 
approach to this phase of language work. But, after all, it is by her 
own use of correct and attractive language that she will do most to culti- 
vate right habits of speech in those whom she teaches. 

Every man, woman, and child outside of the great cities should do his 
or her "bit" by cultivating some kind of a garden. Even the little fence 
corners might be utilized for growing vines. One of the most beautiful 
sights we have ever seen was a row of blackberry vines trained against 
an old rock fence. The grateful odor and bloom of flowers and vegetables 
about our homes, the sight of scarlet peppers, purple egg-plants, yellow 
squashes, and curly cucumbers, give a joy and satisfaction that only a 
real home-lover appreciates. — Mothers' Magazine. 

The Story of George Durant, Pioneer Settler in 
North Carolina 

Ida Walters, '18 

UENTURESOME hunters and trappers from Virginia about the 
middle of the seventeenth century began to thread their way 
through the tangled woods of the "Wilderness" to the south. 
Returning to their homes, they carried with them glowing accounts of 
the mild climate, the placid streams teeming with fish, the wild game 
and rich furs to be found in the country through which they had 

These marvelous tales fell upon the ears of a youth, a youth who was 
to become one of the brave men to face the hardships and battles of 
pioneer life and make possible the history of the "Old North State." 
This youth, George Durant, was born in October, 1632, in ISTansemond 
County, Virginia. He passed his youth in Virginia and Maryland. At 
the age of twenty-six he married Ann Marwood. He could not settle 
down in a home in Virginia, but he must go to the new "Land of Prom- 
ise" of which he had heard so much. Virginia was growing, the game 
was fast diminishing, and land along the rivers was fast being settled. 
Durant, like Daniel Boone, must have elbow room. 

With several companions Durant set out in 1659 to see for themselves 
if all they had heard concerning the Indian land to the south were true. 
The journey on horseback from Virginia to the new country was long 
and hard, for they had to follow the paths of animals and of the Indians 
through unbroken forests and had to ford the streams along the route. 

For nearly two years Durant explored the country, and then, thor- 
oughly satisfied that the glowing accounts of the hunters had not been 
exaggerated, he determined to build a home and move his family to this 
wonderful country where land could be had for almost nothing. 

Unlike Smith and the settlers of Virginia, Durant did not think it 
right to take possession of the land, so he bought it from the Indians. 
He and his companions met the old Indian chief, Kilcokonen, and some 
of his braves out under a big tree near the chief's wigwam. There they 
decided on the price, and then the old chief gave Durant a deed to the 
land, the first deed on record of land bought from the Indians. So 
important was this deed that it is still preserved in the courthouse at 
Hertford, North Carolina. 

The land Durant bought, which was in as fair a country as man ever 
looked upon, was at the mouth of the Perquimans River, a part of the 
strip lying between the beautiful Perquimans River on the west and 
her sister, Little River, on the east, and which was washed by broad 

326 The Training School Quarterly 

Albemarle Sound on its southern shore. The beautiful Indian name for 
this strip, Wikacome, was now to give place to "Durant's Neck." 

Having thus fairly and justly bought his land, Durant was ready to 
undertake the task of building his house. And it was indeed a task, 
but one that he met cheerfully. It took a long time to cut down trees 
and build the house, for which the materials had to be furnished from 
the forest around the place. At last Durant had built a log house with 
two rooms and an ell. It was covered with cypress shingles three feet 
long and one foot wide, which were fastened to laths by pegs, for there 
were no nails. The cracks between the logs were chinked and daubed 
with mud. The chimney was made of logs daubed inside with mud. 
The doors and windows turned upon wooden hinges. 

Because of the rough way, he could bring no good furniture from 
Virginia, but instead used very crude, home-made furniture. The beds 
were made by fastening two poles In the wall near the corner of the 
room and putting a post under these where they crossed. The poles were 
covered with skins and fur robes. 

After finishing his house, Durant went back to Virginia to move his 
family to the new home. They had to travel again the paths through 
the unbroken forests and undergo the hardships of such a journey. The 
large number of slaves Durant owned had to come with the family and 
help move. This large number of slaves caused Durant to be called 
wealthy, as wealth in those days was counted by the number of slaves a 
man owned. The men who had come with Durant on the exploring trip 
bought lands along the river and built homes. His friend, Samuel Prick- 
love, settled on a plantation near Durant's. Later the Harveys, Heckle- 
fields, Jenkinses and Catchmaids came. 

The task of establishing a home was not yet over, for the woods had 
to be cleared and the ground made ready for the first crop. Durant kept 
his slaves hard at work all winter cutting down trees. Spring came 
earlier here, but by the time the first green shoots began to peep through 
the decayed leaves in the forests the men set to work to provide their 
barns and storerooms with enough to live upon. By the time the eglan- 
tine and jasmine were climbing the dogwood trees and the blue-bells 
were watching their own pretty reflections in the smooth Perquimans, 
the fields were planted. Durant did not expect a great harvest that year, 
but it was much greater than he expected. 

In the forests around the settlers' homes the crimson-berried holly trees 
among the dark pines brightened the winter landscape. The southern 
spring flung wide the white banners of dogwood, made the forests more 
beautiful with the gold of jessamine and with coral honeysuckle, and 
spread the ground with a carpet of velvet moss, of rosy azaleas and blue- 
eyed innocents. The wide rivers that flowed by the wooded banks formed 
a highway for the commerce of the settlers and a connecting link with 
the outer sea. "And however fierce and bold the wild creatures of those 

George Durant — Pioneer Settler 

dark forests might be," there was plenty of fish in the waters and game 
in the surrounding woods to supply the settlers with food. 

The fame of this fertile spot spread rapidly, for more people kept 
coming from Virginia in order to find game, fish, and plenty of good 
farming lands near the rivers. Soon the dense forests that stretched 
down to the river brinks fell beneath the axe of these home-seekers, and 
small farms and great plantations fringed the borders of the streams. 

The people at first lived far apart in log houses like Durant's. ISTo 
nails were used in building them, and later we find nails made by hand 
and mentioned in wills as valuable property. After Durant had been 
here some time and had gotten in closer touch with the outside world, 
the houses were of better type. The poor people still lived in log houses. 
Those better off lived in frame houses about forty feet long and twenty 
feet wide, with a shade at the back and a porch in front. The chimneys 
were made of bricks brought from Boston or England. The wealthier 
people began to build brick houses. 

Durant was among the first to own a brick house. The bricks had to 
be brought over from England, the lime had to be made from oyster 
shells, and there were no skilled carpenters and masons to build it. After 
a long time the house was finished. It was large and high from the 
ground. Beneath it a large cellar ran the whole length of the house. 
The porch was broad and long and tall ; square columns supported the 
roof. The hall was wide and had a large fireplace in one end. The large, 
high-pitched rooms had sash windows, large closets, and big fireplaces. 
In one corner of the kitchen fireplace there was an oven where all the 
cooking was done. The pots and kettles hung from a crane that swung 
down the chimney. The other rooms had quaint old beds and furniture 
which were prized highly and were, too, mentioned in wills, for it was 
not every day that such could be brought over from England. 

Only the wealthier people's houses were furnished like Durant's. In 
the houses of the poorer people the beds were like those in Durant's 
log home. There were some pegs on the walls for clothing and perhaps 
a home-made stool or two in the room. Perhaps there were two such 
rooms and then the kitchen back of them. There one could see a rough 
table, some benches made by splitting logs in two parts and putting in 
legs, a shelf or two, a few pans for cooking, and the big fireplace like 
that in the homes of the wealthy. 

The lights in all the houses were home-made tallow and wax candles 
set in wooden, tin, or silver candlesticks, according to the wealth of the 
family. In the fireplaces huge logs were placed on the fire, and at night 
the coals were covered with ashes to keep them till morning, because 
they had no matches, and it was not a pleasant, task to get up on a cold 
winter morning and go to a neighbor's house to borrow "a coal," or, as 
the Indians did, strike flint together until the wood caught. It was 

328 The Training School Quarterly 

much easier to remove the ashes, lay on some kindling, take the bellows 
and blow until the fire crackled up the chimney. 

What kind of men and women lived in these homes? The women 
were ever spoken of with respect. Mistress Durant and the other well- 
to-do ladies were industrious, good housewives who knew how to direct 
the slaves in the housework, cooking, cheese and candle making, and 
in the spinning and weaving of cloth for clothing. The poorer women 
did this work themselves and helped their husbands on the farms in the 
busy season. The men could not even handle a canoe better than the 

The men were hardy, good workers, good natured and fond of enter- 
taining their friends. There were blacksmiths, carpenters, sawyers, 
shoemakers and masons ; but most of them were farmers. The black- 
smiths made nails and the buggies and other vehicles the people rode in. 
All these people were needed by the settlement ; but perhaps the farmer's 
life was the most interesting of them all. He raised vegetables, wheat, 
corn, and oats. Such a large quantity of tobacco was raised that much 
of it was shipped to England, and it was frequently used in place of 
money. They also bred horses, cattle, sheep and hogs in large numbers. 
Where today we see our pastures, then one could see the fields, while 
outside the animals were free to roam at will. The hogs fed on acorns, 
roots, and berries, and only when the cold winter came did the farmers 
have to feed their stock. So many horses were raised that a law was 
passed saying a man could raise only a certain number. The people 
took advantage of such favorable conditions and made money by ship- 
ping to the mother country beef, pork, mutton, hides, deer, and fish. The 
forests were valuable, for the people could ship much lumber, turpentine, 
and other forest products. 

Durant and his neighbors worked hard, but still not all the time, for 
they had plenty of amusements and pleasures. They had corn-shuckings 
with their stories, songs, and good old-fashioned suppers, harvestings, 
wrestling matches, quiltings and dances. At the latter, everybody talked, 
danced, drank wine, ate cake, and spent a pleasant evening. The boys 
went fishing and hunting, tracked bears and deer, and robbed bee trees of 
the most delicious honey. They learned to trap fish, rabbits, beavers and 
bears, hunted oppossums and killed wild turkeys. The boys and girls 
would go on chinquapin hunts, picnics, canoe trips, and horseback rides. 
In the last two feats the girls equaled the boys. 

No one was more fond of entertainments than Durant. Dressed in 
his long coat and short trousers of homespun, he passed among the great 
crowds that thronged the large old rooms of his home. Many were the 
evenings the huge logs blazed in the old fireplace as Durant and his 
guests, seated in the glowing light, talked with one another, filled and 
refilled their glasses with beer and ate the luscious apples that had be™ 

George Durant — Pioneer Settler 329 

stored for winter use. Durant was so much loved by the community that 
for a long time courts and other public meetings were held in his spacious 

The colony grew rapidly and as it grew many needs arose, among the 
first of which was a government. At first England paid no attention 
to the little handful of settlers along the beautiful Perquimans, but the 
colony grew so that at last England woke up. She decided to show her 
control over the pioneers so she sent over the first governor for North 
Carolina, William Drummond. The people were pleased with the new 
governor, and, as was their right, helped make the first laws for the 
colony. The leading men, Durant, Pricklove, Harvey and others, were 
among those first lawmakers. They met under a spreading oak on a 
little knoll overlooking Hall's Creek in Pasquotank County. "Around 
them the dark forest stretched, the wind murmuring in the pines and 
fragrant with the odor of the spicy needles. At a distance a group of 
red men, silent and motionless, some with bow and arrow in hand, lean- 
ing against the trees, others sitting on the ground, gazed with wondering 
eyes upon the white men. Down at the foot of the knoll the silver waves 
of the creek rippled softly against the shore; on its waters the sloops 
of the planters from the settlements near by ; here and there on its bosom, 
an Indian canoe moored close to its shore." 

The men made the laws, and then, having begun our government, 
returned home, "to manor house and log cabin, to the care of the great 
plantation, to the plow, and the wild free life of the hunter and trapper." 
But their work was not over, for, soon some harsh governors were to try 
their strength. Led by the strong and fearless Durant, the settlers caused 
those governors to be removed from office and better ones to be put in. 

Even with a government, all the needs of the people were not met, 
for it was a good many years before they had any churches or schools. 
Because the settlers had come in small groups, lived far apart and had 
only blazed paths for roads, it was impossible for many years to build 
schools. The mothers taught their children at first as they sat around 
the fireside in the evenings, and a little later some of the wealthier 
secured teachers for their children. The first school was built a long 
time after Durant settled in North Carolina. 

There were no churches in the early days of the colony for the same 
reason that there were no schools. When Durant had been in Carolina 
about twelve years, William Edmundson, a Quaker, came and held the 
first church services in the home of one of Durant's neighbors. The next 
fall George Fox came and preached to the people out under the trees. 
The settlers kept working for a church until a number of years after 
Fox's visit the first one in the State was built on Little River. It was 
a rough, crude little Quaker meeting-house but very dear to the people. 

Durant had led the way into North Carolina, had helped start the 
''•wernment, and had lived among friendly neighbors. Even when an 

330 The Training School Quarterly 

old man the people could not entirely give up their leader, so he became 
a justice of the peace and continued to throw open his doors to his friends 
until he died at the age of sixty-two years in 1694. Although no monu- 
ment now marks his grave, none is needed for us to remember with pride 
the brave, fearless man, George Durant, who was such a daring and 
progressive leader in the early days of the "Old North State." 

Economy in Clothing 

Martha H. French, Assistant Professor of Textiles and Sewing, 
State Normal College, Ypsilanti, Mich. 

nO loyal American woman can fail to recognize that in the present 
world crisis her efforts must be quite as whole-hearted as are 
those of her brother in arms if this war is to be won for democracy. 
She must realize that not alone her own countrymen must be clothed 
and fed, but that the men of the allied countries also must have food and 
clothing to keep them in condition to fight. She has been told just how 
much flour she must save, and how many pounds of sugar her household 
consumption must be cut. She has had "meatless" and "wheatless" days 
brought to her attention. She has been guided through a maze of wheat 
and meat substitutes by literature unlimited, and by recipes from many 
sources. And it is well that she should be. But what of the restrictions 
and substitutions necessary in other commodities — in fuel, in clothing, 
in fabrics for the home ? That man does not live by food alone was 
never truer than now ; and an effective program of conservation does 
not apply to food alone, though we are apt to lose sight of its other 

Women's Wear, a paper published for the trade world, gives in a recent 
issue plans that have been adopted by the makers of women's garments, 
by which they hope partially to overcome the difficult situation. No 
garment is to contain more than from three to four and a half yards of 
material, the amount depending upon the width of the goods. It is stated 
in the same issue that women show no signs of upholding the wishes of 
the Government, but rush to get the very fabrics which it has asked 
them to conserve. 

Streightoff, in his Standards of Living, says that clothing should be 
the corollary of food. It should act as an insulator to conserve bodily 
heat. Persons poorly clad need more food than those warmly dressed. 
Where it is possible, both food and fuel may be conserved by wearing 
warm clothing. To be well clad adds to a person's prestige and self- 
respect; but only in making clothing serve its real purpose can one be 
well clad. 

The Government tells us that in wool fabrics especially we need to 
economize, and the reasons are not hard to find. The use of the animals 
for meat and the reduction of flocks because of the high cost of feed 
have lessened the amount of wool produced. The severity of last winter 
killed many animals and injured both the quality and quantity of wool 
on those that survived. Then, too, our British importations, usually 
large, have ceased. Yet in the face of all these conditions the demands 
for equipping army and navy have greatly increased our total needs 
for wool. 

332 The Training School Quarterly 

The practical problem arises, then, How are we to meet this condition ? 
How can we economize in clothing, thereby conserving materials needed 
for the army and navy — our protectors ? 

1. We must have fewer changes. 

2. We must remodel where possible; I do not mean "where con- 
venient," but where possible. 

3. We must avoid extremes in style, as these necessitate frequent 

4. We must buy durable stuffs, and wear them "to a finish." 

5. We must set worthy standards, and live up to them fearlessly. 
Many times it is difficult to economize in clothing because of the fear 

of public opinion. Prevailing high school fashions, which overdress the 
students and detract from the youthful charm of the wearers, are a 
glaring example of the "follow-the-leader" type of dressing. In the 
United States we have not learned to select clothing from any standpoint 
except a whimsical fancy. In France, to which country we always look 
for charm in dress, woman wears a costume to enhance her own attractive- 
ness, not to take honors from it. In the introduction to a history of 
French fashions, a French woman is quoted as saying : "It is perhaps 
allowable to be sentimental in a sky-blue bonnet, but one must not cry 
in a pink one." 

A few years ago the Society for the Promotion of Child Welfare in 
New York City in one of its exhibits distributed a small pamphlet 
entitled, "What was the Matter with Mary's Last Dress?" In this the 
following questions were asked : "Did it fade ? Did it shrink badly ? 
Did it go to pieces when rubbed on the washing board ? Did it look like 
linen — smooth and glossy at first, and then, after washing, look coarse, 
and open, and dull, Did it spot when Mary was caught in the rain? 
Was it more cotton than wool, in spite of the salesman's assurance that 
it was all wool? Do you really want to know about all these things 
before buying Mary's next dress or coat or underwear?" 

The shopper can examine the fabric by holding it to the light and 
looking through it for imperfections in weave and in threads. Of course, 
if a good, high-power microscope or a chemical laboratory were available, 
many fairly definite tests might be made ; but as a rule the consumer is 
not in a position to use either of these means. 

To sum up, then, the wise shopper may ask herself questions something 
like these when making her purchases : 

1. Is this material what it is represented to be? If adulterated, how? 
Does this interfere with its usefulness to me, 

2. If colored, Are the colors suitable to the purpose, and fast to light 
and washing, Are the decorations lasting, 

3. Is the appearance enhanced by filling or by deceptive finishing, 
The intelligent shopper will know how much she has to spend, and 

never spend more. She will know the quantity of material necessary, 

Economy in Clothing 333 

instead of depending upon the judgment of the saleswoman. She will 
know which stores specialize in certain things. She will know that one 
good garment is hetter than two poor ones, and that simple clothes, 
though not always the cheapest at first cost, wear longer and look attrac- 
tive always. She will avoid bargains, except where training and experi- 
ence guarantee good judgment. Good, standard fabrics must command 
a fair price. 

By thus bringing definite knowledge, a trained judgment, and simple 
taste to bear upon the problem of providing the fabrics of the household, 
the mistress of the average home may give very material aid in our 
national program of conservation and still keep her family well clad. — 
The American Schoolmaster. 

Judge Stephenson's Address on War Savings 

J^'UDGE GILBEKT STEPHENSON made a great talk on War 
Savings to the teachers of Pitt County at their meeting in January. 
The sum apportioned to Pitt County to be raised during the 
year 1918 by War Savings Certificates is $799,480. Judge Stephenson's 
address was the opening of the campaign in Pitt County. The teachers 
are organized, and in turn are organizing their schools and communities 
so as to make a strong and steady pull. 

Colonel Fries has made the assertion that Worth Carolina can raise 
the fifty millions of dollars she is called on to raise with the teachers 
talking, encouraging the sales, and educating the people until they realize 
the need, impressing upon pupils and parents the dire and extreme need. 
The teachers listened eagerly to what Judge Stephenson had to say, and 
entered upon their task with enthusiasm inspired by the great appeal. 
We are giving the speech, partly reported and partly quoted. 

He began by saying that, in face of the facts, the American people 
have not begun to realize the war. At the beginning of the war we had 
no part in it ; the problems were foreign problems. The sacrifice has not 
yet been brought home to us, and we will not realize it until we see the 
maimed in the streets and look upon the horrible signs of war. "Can it 
be possible that our apathy is such that it necessitates the sight of the 
horrors to arouse us ?" There is nothing on our streets that reminds us 
of the war, and no aircraft are threatening us from above. He sketched 
the picture of a scene after a Zeppelin raid — an humble London home. 

"We have never lost, and our cause is just. But we must teach that 
other wars are but as child's play compared to this." We, a peaceable 
people, are called to war, but our cause is just. "Belgium lies upon the 
side of the high roads of the nations, bleeding; the United States, the 
good Samaritan of nations, must go to her rescue." He declared it is 
too late now to discuss the issues that brought about the war, but now 
the future must be settled. "This is the culminating war of history. 
Indecisive war is only a truce." Peace, he said, is as far removed as it 
was in 1914. The peace aims show that we are more at variance than 
ever ; there are more bones of contention than ever before. America 
and England will finally dictate the terms that will win, but not until 
Germany is beaten and we are in a position to accept or to sue for peace. 

"Germany's man power is still unimpaired, because all displaced men 
are replaced by men, women, and children taken from other territory. 
Germany's resources are still unimpaired. She has raised billions of 
dollars. For every dollar it has cost her, Germany has stolen one to 
take its place. She has stolen from Belgium alone eight billion dollars. 
From the French she has taken iron mines, coal mines, locomotives, 

Judge Stephenson's Address 335 

freight ears, and many other things. From Rumania she took gasoline 
and benzine. Her zinc, lead, and tin she got from Poland. She 
has stolen even household and kitchen furniture and the stocking 
trinkets." The "booty shops" in Berlin where the trinkets are on sale 
prove this. Germany is the highway robber of nations. She has stolen 
$40,000,000 of booty. 

"Germany's strategic position is the same it was at the beginning. 
Germany is at the hub of the wheel, and the United States is at the rim. 
That is the explanation of why it can hold the world at bay. It takes 
ten times as much power for the United States to get material to the 
front as it does for Germany. 

"When the war is over the terms are to be dictated by Germany or by 
the Allies. It will not be a draw. What victorious Germany would do 
can be judged only by what Germany did do in 1871. It will be another 
story of indemnity and exaction — the story of Alsace and Lorraine 
repeated, only far worse. The Pan-German spirit has grown until what 
was done then is only a bagatelle as compared to what they would do now. 

"The United States would have to pay. Germany is resentful of our 
having entered the war. We must go on or under, and that means we 
shall forfeit our national existence forever. We are going to win, but 
only when American people as a whole wake up and do their full part. 
Everybody is only waiting to be told what to do. 

"She must give service. Her soldiers, sailors, and all who are serving 
in person are giving this. The Red Cross is one way in which she is 
giving service. The Government is getting service by the selective draft. 
The volunteers are giving themselves. Men and women are giving them- 
selves and their work ; some are giving up what they have to serve without 
salary, as Vanderlip gave up a salary of $150,000 a year to serve for $1 
a year. 

"Nine-tenths of us must give our goods rather than our services. If 
all of the ten million go into active service that leaves ninety million at 
home. Most of us will go on doing the things we have been doing. 
Teachers will continue to teach. Our only opportunity to serve is by 
giving. The Government must have money to buy goods, and it must 
buy in the open market. Nineteen billion dollars have been appropri- 
ated. There are two ways of getting this: (1) by taxation, and (2) by 
loans. Only one-fifth of it can be raised by taxation as things are now. 
The Government is going to get the money — if not by borrowing, then 
by taxing. A tax receipt is exactly the value of last year's bird nest, and 
a bond is worth its weight in gold." 

Two billion dollars is to be raised by War Savings Stamps. Judge 
Stephenson gave a clear explanation of these stamps and the method for 
organizing the school children of the country so that the school will be 
the center of a thrift army. 

336 The Training School Quarterly 

"You millionaire school teachers can have only a thousand dollars 
of these securities at 4 per cent interest," he said. He explained that 
they could be cashed in for 3 per cent interest, but that the postoffice 
could ask for ten days notice so as to give them time to get the money 
in hand. 

Many are asking where to keep it ; but the Government has attended 
to that. If it is registered the billy goat can't eat it up. The campaign 
has been so organized that the nickels and dimes and quarters of the 
children will buy thrift stamps, and these will grow into certificates, or 
baby bonds. The children are to be brought into this work through War 
Savings Societies ; there must be one in every schoolroom in Pitt County. 
In order to have a society the school must have at least ten war savers ; 
these members must do three things: (1) save money, (2) invest the 
savings in war stamps, and (3) must get others to do the same. 

This is one of the two features of the plan. The second feature is to 
let the children see that the child who has enough spunk to save is as 
much of a patriot as his brother who fights in the trenches. These savers 
are to be called the "Army of Thrift." 

This army is to be called the "Army of Thrift," and the members are 
to be called "Soldiers of Thrift." When a soldier joins he enters train- 
ing. When he gets 10 different people to buy stamps he is recognized 
by being given a badge, and his name is published as a soldier of thrift. 
When he brings in 15 more names, making 25, he becomes a captain of 
thrift; when he has 50, a major of thrift; and 100, a colonel of thrift; 
200, a general. A general's name is recorded in the Treasurer's office in 
Washington, and he is known as a hero of thrift. When he is made a 
soldier, he is ready to begin fighting. Girls, as well as boys, are soldiers 
in this army. They are organized into regiments. These boys are 
taking care of soldiers ; Pitt County soldiers of thrift are taking care of 
Pitt County soldiers. 

]STot only the money to buy things with, but the goods, is a serious 
matter, said Judge Stephenson. The amount of goods is limited, as we 
have found from the shortage in coal and sugar. He gave illustrations 
proving that the goods for the soldiers in camp could not be secured as 
fast as needed. At Camp Dix there were 50 per cent without shoes to 
drill in. Vanderlip, on his trip through the South, found a camp where 
there was hospital room for only 800, and there were 200 sick soldiers 
without beds. 

People are continuing to buy shoes and to buy new woolen suits, while 
the shoes and the woolen material is needed for our soldiers. He told the 
story of a manufacturer of shoes who was seen wearing patched shoes, 
and he said he knew well that every pair of shoes bought was just that 
much less depriving the soldier of shoes. A machine gun corps has been 
practicing with sticks instead of guns, because the guns could not be 

Judge Stephenson's Address 337 

The remedy for all these troubles is for us to economize in all lines, 
and economize until it hurts. First, we must economize in food. He 
touched on conditions in Russia, and told of the two millions in Serbia 
who are starving to death. It looks as if even gluttons would be moved ! 
We can economize in wool. It should be a badge of honor to wear last 
year's suit. We should economize in things needed to make war materials. 
For example, we can help with the gas masks. The same sort of labor 
that makes hats makes gas masks. We spend a hundred millions a year 
for millinery. "Would you ask a munition worker to stop and make 
you a hat? Are you not doing the same thing when you buy the thing 
that he makes while he could be working on munitions?" Airship fac- 
tories are using the same materials and labor as automobile factories. 

At Newark, New Jersey, on one side of the street was a munition 
factory which was working only half the time and across the street was 
a phonograph factory that was working the full twenty-four hours. We 
insist on music boxes instead of munitions ! Saving means releasing 
materials and labor. 

The Government wishes to teach people the invaluable lessons of thrift. 
Grown people will lay by who have never laid by before. Ninety-seven 
per cent of people past sixty are dependent. Our per capita wealth in 
the South is the lowest of any English-speaking people in the world. 
Only 7 per cent of the people in the South are money savers, against 70 
per cent in New England. They save more than they spend. This 
should be changed. 

Another phase of the saving the speaker brought out was the oppor- 
tunity the homefolks have to help save so the boys will find something 
when they return. The father can help take care of his sons when they 
return. He can make his savings an investment for them. 

If economy is taught this generation, the next will take care of itself. 
The children are being trained to become either thrifty or spendthrifty. 
We should not be satisfied until we change the figures — until 93 per cent 
are savers, instead of 7 per cent — the reverse of what it is at present. 

The Government is calling on every Pitt County man to give $20 per 
capita. "Every idle dollar is a slacker dollar; every wasted dollar is a 
traitor dollar; and, on the other hand, every war dollar is a patriot 
dollar." Even if it hurts to save, the sacrifice is infinitesimal compared 
to that of our boys. "I cannot conceive of anything more horrible than 
to have one say this : 'He failed to come to his country's call.' " We all 
remember the war stories we heard from grandfathers. The child will 
ask, "What did you do in the war ?" "The test is coming to all, to young 
ladies as well as to men, and we must either serve or be traitors." 

In closing, the speaker quoted Vanderlip : "The number of men who 
will come back home will be governed by the number of men at home who 
made sacrifices." 

Athletic Badge Tests 

REALIZING the need for a standardized test of physical efficiency, 
the Playground and Recreation Association of America, 1 Madi- 
son Avenue, New York City, in 1913 decided upon athletic hadge 
tests for the boys and girls of America which would tend toward all-round 
development and which might be given uniformly in every State in the 
Union and in rural districts and cities alike. A committee of experts on 
physical training from different parts of the country was appointed to 
draw up a series of athletic events which would be interesting as well 
as effective in establishing fair standards of physical efficiency. 

For Boys After much careful thought, the following tests for boys 

were adopted : 

First Test 

Pull Up (Chinning) 4 times 

Standing Broad Jump 5 ft. 9 in. 

60-Yard Dash 8 3/ seconds 


Second Test 

Pull Up ( Chinning) 6 times 

Standing Broad Jump 6 ft. 6 in. 

60- Yard Dash 8 seconds 

or 100-Yard Dash 14 seconds 

Third- Test 

Pull Up (Chinning) 9 times 

Running High Jump 4 ft. 4 in. 

220-Yard Run 28 seconds 

The badges awarded the boys passing the tests, it was felt, should be 
simple and beautiful ; they should not in themselves have intrinsic value, 
but their value should be rather in the ideal for which the badge stands. 
The badges of the Playground and Recreation Association of America 
were designed by Dr. R. Tait McKenzie and are of bronze. 

The tests require only simple apparatus, a comparatively small space. 
They can be conducted in a short period of time even with a considerable 
number of boys, and the measure of each boy's performance can be 
accurately determined. 

No age or weight limit is fixed. Any boy may enter any test at any 

Rules The following general rules shall govern the final com- 

petition : 

No boy is permitted to receive more than one badge in any one year. 

It is necessary to qualify in all three events in any one class in order 
to win a badge. 

Athletic Badge Tests 339 

There shall be but one trial in chinning, one in the dashes, and three 
in the jumps. 

What It Does Every boy ought to be physically efficient. 

Specialized athletics have developed remarkable 
American athletes, but they have done most for those who needed athletic 
training least. 

Every boy ought to try to reach a certain minimum physical standard 
Such standards have been formulated by a committee of experts and are 
here presented. 

Every boy passing the tests is authorized to wear this badge, which 
stands for physical efficiency. 

Every boy wearing this badge as he meets another boy — even though 
their homes be on opposite sides of the continent — when he sees the 
badge upon the other boy knows that they have had the same tests, and 
feels a certain comradeship. 

For Girls* The Playground and Eecreation Association of America 
has adopted the following as standards which every normal 
girl ought to be able to attain: 

First Test 

All-up Indian Club Race 30 seconds 

or Potato Race 42 seconds 

Basketball Goal Throwing 2 goals, 6 trials 

Balancing 24 ft., 2 trials 

Second Test 

All-up Indian Club Race 28 seconds 

or Potato Race 39 seconds 

Basketball Goal Throwing 3 goals, 6 trials 

Balancing (bean-bag or book on head) 24 ft., 2 trials 

Third Test 

Running and Catching 20 seconds 

Throwing for Distance, Basketball 42 ft., or Volley-ball 44 ft. 
Volley-ball Serving 3 in 5 trials 

The athletic sports of the girls in rural communities begin largely 
in the schools. There are 226,000 one-room rural schools in the United 
States, and because of lack of gymnasium equipment and dressing-room 
facilities, events requiring bloomers and bathing suits are not advisable. 
There are many splendid events which cannot be used nationally. For 
instance, rowing, swimming, and other water sports are as impossible 
in many sections of the prairie countries, as are skating and skiing in 
the south. Archery, golf, field hockey, horseback riding, and tennis have 
been found to be quite beyond the means at the disposal of the majority 

*The revision of the badge tests for girls, with the addition of the third badge test, has 
been largely the work of Lee F. Hanmer, chairman of the special committee of the Association 
appointed to work out the tests. 

340 The Training School Quarterly 

of school girls in both city and country. There are communities in 
which any form of dancing does not meet with approval. In view of 
these facts, the above events have been agreed upon as most suitable for 
use throughout the United States. 

Rules for Tests There are no height, weight, or age limits in the 
Athletic Badge Test for Girls. The following general 
rules shall govern the final tests : 

Unless otherwise stated in these rules, there shall be but one trial in 
each event. 

It is necessary to qualify in all three events in any class in order to 
win a badge. 

No girl is permitted to receive more than one badge in any one year. 

No girl is entitled to more than one first, second, or third test badge, 
even though a full year has elapsed since she last qualified for a badge. 

If a girl has already qualified for a third test or a second test badge, 
she may qualify for and receive a badge for the lower test, provided a 
full year has elapsed. 

What It Does Every girl ought to have poise and control over her 


Every girl ought to be able to attain a minimum physical standard. 

Every girl passing the tests is authorized to wear this badge, which 
stands for physical efficiency. 

Girls from every part of America will pass the same tests and wear 
the same badges. 

The girl who is physically efficient will be happier and more useful 
to society. 

It is hoped that once each year in each city there may be a meeting of 
the girls who have qualified in previous years to welcome those who 
have just qualified, and that this meeting will be made a notable annual 
civic event. 

To raise the standard of physical efficiency among the girls of America 
is to give greater freedom, beauty, and power to the women of America. 

Presentation of 1, Singing of Star Spangled Banner. 

Sugges'tive ^. Reading of Lincoln's Gettysburg Speech by the 

Program Mayor or some other adult. 

3. Those who have been previously awarded badges repeat together 
the following declaration of allegiance : 

I will honor my country; 

I will do my best to build up my country's free institutions ; 

I will not disgrace my city or my school ; 

I will try to keep myself strong for my country's service. 

Athletic Badge Tests 341 

4. Those who are now to receive badges repeat the same declaration 
of allegiance to America. 

5. An address not to exceed five minutes on the subject, "For a Better 
America," to help deepen the feeling of patriotism. 

6. Award of the badges to those who have passed the first test, second 
test, third test. 

7. Singing of America, — first stanza by those who have just been 
awarded the badges and those who have received them in previous years ; 
the remaining stanzas by all who have gathered together. 

Wherever possible, it will be found effective to arrange for a proces- 
sional. If the award of the badges is out of doors, the presence of a band 
will help greatly. 

The badges, which are of bronze, are appropriately designed for each 

The Association recommends that each boy and each girl passing the 
tests be allowed to pay for his own badge, just as a young man or woman 
at college elected to Phi Beta Kappa pays for the key awarded. 

Ordering Badges The price, postpaid, either singly or in quantity, is 
twenty cents each. 

Public schools, private schools, playgrounds, evening recreation cen- 
ters, settlements, church organizations, and other organizations of good 
standing in any city, town, village, or rural community may use the 
tests adopted by the Association and certify on blanks furnished by the 
Association the names and addresses of girls and boys passing the tests, 
ordering the number of badges of each kind required. It is not possible 
for the Association to send out sample badges. 

The American Committee on Athletic Standards for Girls will pass 
on each certified list of girls. If such list is accepted by the committee, 
the badges ordered will be forwarded on receipt of the money for such 
badges. The Association will reserve the right to test girls whose names 
have been sent in if in the judgment of the Committee it seems desirable 
to do so. The Association will expect those certifying these lists to 
exercise the greatest possible care. The object in passing on each list 
is so far as possible to make sure that badges shall go only to such girls 
as have passed the tests required. 

The American Committee on Athletic Standards for Boys will pass 
on each certified list for boys under the same conditions as are given for 
the lists of girls. 

Some Facts and Figures About Teachers' Salaries 

and Expenses 

CHE superintendent of Pitt County did not have an easy time 
filling all of tke schoolrooms in the county for this year. He 
anticipates a harder time next year; but he began early to get 
at the facts and figures so he could tell the people exactly what the 
teachers had to say about their plans for next year. He sent out a ques- 
tionnaire, which is given below. He sent it out partly for the purpose 
of finding out just how many and which ones were going to teach next 
year, and to get at the reasons for their answers. He knew full well 
where to find the trouble, as superintendents and school boards all know, 
but he wanted the teachers to speak for themselves. 

The significant things found from the answers to the questions we 
have summed up. Of the 87 answers examined, which were the first to 
come in and which seem to strike the average, only 42 said that they 
expected to teach next year ; 7 had the brief and unqualified answer "!N"o" 
to the question ; 23 replied that they were not going to teach unless 
salaries were increased sufficiently for them to have enough money to 
meet living expenses; the remainder were doubtful. This means that 
perhaps 50 per cent of the teachers who are now teaching will not teach 
next year, unless inducements are offered to keep them in the school- 
room; and the one inducement needful is more salary. 

It may be unfair to draw conclusions from the data as to which are 
the best teachers in Pitt County, and it would hardly be fair to trap the 
superintendent into any admissions as to the relative merits of his 
teachers, but judging from the answers to the other questions, the ques- 
tions that show training, experience, etc., he is going to lose a far greater 
per cent of his best teachers than he will keep. Many of those who are 
going to teach are those not qualified to do other things, and who have 
not initiative and leadership. There is no way to get at this absolutely 
from figures, but it seems on the face of things as if all the weaker 
teachers are to stay in, with only a sprinkling of the best teachers. Some 
of the teachers who will continue to teach are staying on because they 
love to teach, and do not have to make their salaries cover the entire 
year, as they have fathers or other relatives who will take care of them 
during the vacation. 

The causes of the trouble are readily seen when the answers to the 
questions giving salaries and expenses are shown. 

The average monthly salary is $45.66; the average yearly salary is 
$281.56. Minimum salary, $35 a month, $105 a year. The annual 
salaries range as follows: 3 receive $150 or less; 33 from $150 plus to 
$200; 29 receive from $200 plus to $300; 4 receive from $300 plus to 

About Teachees' Salaries and Expenses 343 

$400 ; 13 from $400 plus to $500. One receives just a few dollars beyond 
$500. The list includes 84 teachers, omitting the superintendents who 
were among the 87. Among those are the high school teachers in the 
State high schools. 

The average board in the county is $15.39, but in some cases the 
teachers mentioned extra work they did to reduce their board, as coach- 
ing the children in the house ; others mentioned the fact that they boarded 
with relatives, and therefore paid less than they would have paid other- 

The average amount paid for laundry seemed to be $1.85; but this is 
somewhat uncertain, as some gave the price per month and others per 
week, we judged which from other expenses. A woman can readily see 
that the problem of laundry was "managed" variously. Some of the 
teachers of Pitt must "do up" their handkerchiefs, stockings, and thin 
waists themselves. It must also be remembered that some have the 
privilege of putting things in with the family wash and lumping it in 
with their Tjoard. Furthermore, laundry in winter is not the same as 
laundry in the summer. 

IsTot a soul reported that her salary was sufficient for her to live on 
during the entire year. Two reported other sources of income, but only 
two. "What will you have left to live on during the year ?" was answered 
so variously that the results mean nothing in figures, but are full of 
human interest. Some answers gave a careful, conscientious statement 
in accurate dollars and cents, while others gave approximations, and 
still others gave the one word "nothing." "Other necessary expenses" 
seemed to be a difficult item to handle, and was variously interpreted. 
One had "$1.25 a month" and others had "in excess of salary." Some 
included dress and personal accessories, while some carefully estimated 
only such items as magazines, traveling expenses, and expenses con- 
nected with their school work. 

The reports on how they would take care of their expenses during the 
summer were full of interest. The majority are dependent on fathers, 
and this was told in a number of ways : some said "parental support" ; 
one gave the one word "Dad." Some of them hoped to get some other 
kind of work. Eight said they expected to do other work, but did not 
designate what kind. One will "sew or clerk," one will "stay in a store," 
and one will do "newspaper reporting." One facetiously replied, "Going 
to the county home," while four gave the pathetic answer, "I don't 
know," and one sadly answered "borrow." One woman replied : "If I 
go to a summer school I shall have to be supported by my husband." 

A number express uneasiness about their expenses at a summer school ; 
they are required to go and have nothing to go on. 

It is difficult to judge from the questionnaire the increase in living 
expenses. The increase in salary is so slight and the experience so 

344 The Training School Quarterly 

different that it is worthless to attempt an approximation from the 
answers, but very few showed any noteworthy increase in salary. 

Cost of education was by no means according to actual equipment, 
as some who are the best trained have lived where they had good high 
schools and were in reach of the Training School so that they could come 
from home ; others have had to pay out money for everything they had. 

Tbe answers in these figures may be slightly changed, when all reports 
come in, but the facts will remain the same : in Pitt County low salaries 
and short terms are driving teachers out of the schoolroom into other 

The situation in Pitt County should be multiplied by one hundred 
counties for this State alone. A casual glance at newspapers shows that 
the trouble is confined to no one county or section. The problem facing 
the superintendent of Pitt County is facing every other superintendent. 


School Disteict Township. 

How many teachers in your school? 

How many grades do you teach yourself? How many 


What is the probable length of your school term this year? 

What is your monthly salary? Approximate annual salary? 

Monthly cost of board? Laundry? Other necessary 


Approximately, what will you have left from your salary at the end of the 

year? Will this be enough for you to live on until you begin 

teaching again? If not, how will you take care of your expenses? 

How long have you been teaching? How much has your 

salary increased in that time? How much have your living 

expenses increased in that time? 

Approximately, what amount has been spent on your education? 

What is the extent of your academic and professional training? 

About how much do you spend each year on professional improvement, 

books, magazines, summer schools or institutes, etc.? 

Do you expect to teach next year? 

Remarks : 

What Training School Graduates Are Doing 
and Getting 

A list of questions was sent out to the graduates of the Training School. 
We have checked up the salaries received by these girls. The average 
is less than $50 a month, and the average term for these is less than 
seven months. They average $20 a month for board. These girls are 
teachers that have normal training and prove by their reports that they 
are doing live work in their communities. If you do not think so, look 
at these figures. Of twenty-nine answers received, 15 are doing Red Cross 
work in their schools; 12 had already begun (before February 20) work 
in the Thrift Campaign, and reported that thrift stamps had been sold 
in their schools; 18 told of Sunday school and church work they were 
doing; 20 reported on club work among the children or in the com- 
munity; 21 gave accounts of entertainments; 4 told of service flags. 
These figures are given merely to show that these girls are not merely 
staying in the schoolroom keeping school ; they are working along up- 
to-date lines. 

We are finding that every now and then one of the girls trained here 
especially for the purpose of teaching has found that she could not pos- 
sibly make expenses, so, when other opportunities came they turned to 
other work. Several in the town of Greenville are doing other things. 
Two are working with the exemption board. One graduate stays in a 
millinery store; she says she has a job twelve months in the year, and 
each month she gets more money than she did teaching, and she can 
stay at home and has her evenings free. 

News has recently come that one of the graduates has a Government 
position in Washington City, and another is in Hopewell. One is in the 
bursar's office in one of the State schools. Stenography has claimed a 
few ; the reasons given by one for changing to stenography were : "I 
make a real living at a steady job, and when I am through at the office, 
I am through." 

When the answers all come in there will be further interesting reve- 


One successful teacher, when asked what she had to say about the ques- 
tion of salaries, wrote the following. She is one that many teachers per- 
haps look on with envy. She added in another note that she was seriously 
considering studying for the civil service examinations, as she was so 
tired of trying to make the two ends meet. 


"The High Cost of Living" has been talked about so much that it has 
become a joke — to some people. To the average teacher it is a cruel joke, "a 

346 The Training School Quarterly 

state of affairs to be endured until they are cured." Let us pray for a speedy 
cure! The expression has been twisted about to say, "The Cost of High 
Living." This does not apply to us of the teaching profession, though we 
are expected to appear well dressed in all seasons and to live in fashionable 
quarters, paying a fashionable price for the lodging. A teacher's social stand- 
ing in her community, or field of work, depends more upon the outward show 
than upon her ability to manage her school work properly. Nine people out 
of ten, in discussing a teacher, do not mention her professional status (they 
are content to leave that in the hands of their school board), but they will 
mention and discuss her general appearance. 

A teacher is supposed to continually grow by taking courses during the 
summer. Our State requires its teachers to study every other summer for a 
period of at least two weeks. The present salary paid a teacher is hardly 
large enough to support her, and, if a teacher hasn't a home to rescue her in 
the summer, she is compelled to do some kind of work to support herself. 
This is very humiliating, to say the least. A conscientious teacher, who gives 
the best of herself, her time, her strength, and faculties to the schoolroom 
for nine months out of the twelve needs the other three months to rest and 
relax; and does it seem too much to ask that her salary might be large 
enough so that she could have a much needed vacation? Women are always 
asking questions, and now, all over our country as well as State, they are 
asking of their school boards, "How are we going to make our salary cover 
our increasing living expenses?" (I speak of women because so many of 
our teachers are women.) A teacher's professional dignity gets many a hurt 
from the valuation put on her services by the State. Under present condi- 
tions, with prices of all necessities soaring skyward, I do not see what we are 
to do unless our salaries increase accordingly. I see ahead that the profes- 
sion is to be bereft of many of its best members — not that they will be de- 
serters. They cannot be blamed for wanting a salary equal to necessary 

I've been teaching four years, and I'm still in debt. I began with the school 
debt and it took me three years to get rid of that. I want to go to George 
Peabody when salaries get better. I cannot save enough, and I will not make 
a debt again. 

Cfje draining ikfjool (©uarterlp 

Published by the Students and Faculty of the East Carolina Teachebs 
Training School, Gbeenville, N. C. 

Entered as Second Class Matter, June 3, 1914, at the Postoffice at Greenville, N. C-, 
under the Act of March 3, 1S79. 

Price: |1.00 a year. 25 cents single copy. 

FACULTY EDITOR Mamie E. Jenkins 


Sadie Thompson, Editor-in-Chief Ruth Fenton, Business Manager 

Coba Lancaster, Assistant Editor Elsie Morgan, Assistant Editor 

ALUMNAE EDITOR Bettie Spencer 


Teachers Needed The charge, "Keep the schools going," should be 
to Keep the heeded, or the next generation cannot measure up, can- 

not take hold of the work of reconstruction, and civili- 
zation will be swept off the earth and a new dark age will ensue. Nobody 
questions this. "Keep the boys and girls in school" is another charge 
that the people are making efforts to obey. The public is finding that it 
takes more than buildings and boards and girls and boys to make a 
school, however. It takes teachers in a schoolroom with the boys and 
girls. "Keep the teachers in the schools" is the duty nearest at hand 
now. The answer is not hard to find : Make it worth their while to stay 
there I 

Not a Strike "To teach or not to teach ?" is the question that many 

a one in the schoolroom is facing this spring. Their 
answer depends largely upon what the people are going to do about 

It is not a strike. These teachers are not threatening to stop work. 
There is no understanding between groups of teachers; not even in the 
same school are they acting concertedly. It is individualistic, each one 
acting for herself alone. In many cases the teachers are saying nothing 
about it, but quietly making their plans to change work. If, however, 
they are sufficiently urged by having adequate salaries offered them, they 

348 The Training School Quarterly 

will remain in the schoolroom; and nothing but more salary can keep 
them there. The time has passed when the teacher listens to the adula- 
tion of the man with the comfortable income as he praises her for her 
patience and self-sacrifice, which, he says, bring her rewards far dearer 
than those of having "filthy lucre." She has found that money is not 
always "filthy lucre," and she must have money to keep body and soul 
together. ( 

The situation is almost laughable: — or would be if it were not so serious. 
There can be no charge of lack of patriotism because the teachers are 
answering calls to patriotic positions or are taking the place of men 
who have given up their positions to go into service. 

The School The schools reach every home in America. The 

the Medium teachers have the greatest opportunity for spreading 

the propaganda needed to be spread throughout the country. Teachers 
need not envy others their opportunities for doing war work. Nowhere 
is the opportunity greater than it is in the schoolroom, or reaching out 
from the schoolroom. 

The public schools of America are recognized by the Government as 
the media through which the people can best be reached. It took a 
schoolmaster President to see the value of using the schools. The 
schools of today are theoretically not only teaching children in the school- 
room, but reaching the homes from which the children come. Practi- 
cally all the schools have not as yet become community centers, but the 
demands made on them now are forcing them out into the community. 

Wherever the school succeeds in reaching the people, there the people 
are responding to the calls made by the Government ; but where the 
school fails, there the community fails. Especially is this true in the 
country and in the smaller towns, where the school is perhaps the only 
medium for getting the ear of the public. 

What Are You Are you saving your pennies and nickels and dimes 
Doing? until they become quarters? Then do you put these 

into thrift stamps — quickly, before you are tempted to spend them? 
Are you doing what you are asking the children to do? 

Do you leave scraps of bread on your plate? Do you leave sugar in 
the bottom of your cup to sweeten the dish-water? Do you buy candy? 

Do you belong to the Red Cross? 

Do you have a part in the Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. work in the 

If you do none of these things, how can you get others to do them? 

Editorials 349 

The Teacher's Thrift stamps give the teacher her chance to help. 
Chance to Save liberty bonds are not for her, as is clearly seen by the 
salary she gets. She can, if she carefully cuts a little here and a little 
there, get at least one war certificate. 

Get Others to The teacher's work is largely educational and in- 

Invest spirational. She can know about war activities and 

aids, and can long so to help that she can influence those who have the 
money to help. If she can get three men in the neighborhood to buy 
liberty bonds, and can get 50 per cent of the people to invest in war cer- 
tificates, she has done a greater work than if she alone had invested. If 
each of the teachers in each county influenced only one man each to 
invest in liberty bonds, that would help greatly in pushing through this 
next issue. 

„ . . „ , The farmers and the people in the country and the 

Stir the People . r f\ , 

villages did not subscribe liberally to the other two 

liberty loans. North Carolina, in the number of people who subscribed, 
was low in the scale. Much of the prosperity of North Carolina this 
year is among the farmers and the people in the small towns. The 
figures show clearly that the masses were not reached ; they were not 
educated up to the point of seeing the advantages to themselves and to 
the country. The teachers can do a great work in arousing the people 
from their apathy to intelligent interest and activity. 

_ . t ... , Some teachers are sitting with folded hands, saying 

Get to Work . ° , n 

that when a speaker is sent to talk thrift to them, then 

they will get to work. This is one thing that is easily grasped, has few 
complications, and can be explained by any one who can teach a school. 
The teacher who is not helping in the thrift campaign is a slacker. If 
her superintendent is a slacker, she should take things in her own hands 
and show up what he is. 

Wh t • Th "ft ? Have you thought about the word thrift and juggled 
with it to see what you can get out of the idea? Web- 
ster's dictionary will tell you it is "prosperity, success, good fortune," 
"good husbandry, economical management, frugality." The Standard 
gives the synonyms, "gain, profit, prosperity." When you obey the direc- 

350 The Training School Quarterly 

tion, "See thrive," you find thrive means "to grasp for one's self," "to 
win success by industry, economy, and good management," "to increase 
in goods and estate," "to prosper by any means." 

In the same way follow up the word thrifty, and watch the idea grow 
by showing up the contrast, the negative. The word shiftless is the word 
to set against the word thrifty. 

Thrift is a word the people of North Carolina need to learn thoroughly. 
The startling figures Judge Stephenson gives, showing what an improvi- 
dent people we are, should wake us up. We must be a shiftless lot, as 
we are improvident and do not husband our resources. It is an un- 
pleasant truth, but the way to change it and make it an untruth is to get 
to work. The Government is giving every man, woman, and child a 
chance to help change matters, and at the same time to help the Govern- 
ment, by lending the money, which they will get back later. The 7 per 
cent thrifty should change places with the 93 per cent shiftless. 

Pass on Your Teachers themselves are, as a rule, economical. They 

Devices have to pay careful attention to the spending of their 

money in order to make it cover all the needs. All of us have little 
schemes of economy we practice for ourselves. Pass them on and help 
others. We have had the false notion that we must hide our petty 
economies, as if they were things to be ashamed of. Now we may help 
others by showing how we do it, how we make the small salary do the 
work of a large salary. 

_, „ . . The students of this School have shown a wonderful 

The Spirit ... .... 

spirit of patriotism during this entire year since war 

was declared, when every person and every institution has been tested. 
The spirit and the letter of the times have they obeyed without question 
or murmur. There has been a buoyancy and enthusiasm in their re- 
sponse to all calls made upon their sympathies, time, energy, and means, 
that have been inspiring. The attitude of the student body is such that 
a slacker finds herself unpopular, and girls are quick to detect slacking. 
The girl who dares to leave food on her plate is spotted, and discovers 
she is the subject of talk among her fellow-students; the girl who will 
persist in buying candy is not so popular as she was formerly. 

The feeling is deep and ingrained. An evidence of this is the fact 
that there have been very few pledges and promises; none seem to be 
needed. The students have been quick to see ways in which they can 
show their patriotism, and when they have failed to see opportunities, 
they have been grateful for suggestions, and quick to adopt them. 

Editorials 351 

Great sacrifices have not yet been made, but when the time comes for 
these, and these young women will be called on to give to the uttermost, 
the spirit they now have will help them to meet these sacrifices hero- 

The Simplified In keeping with the spirit of the times, commence- 
Commencement men i [ n th e year 1918 will not be the regulation com- 
mencement of former years. It will be stripped of all of the festive 
features. The sermon to the class will be preached on Sunday morning 
and the graduating exercises held on Monday morning, with the address 
to the class delivered by the president of the School, according to the 
expressed wish of the entire class. On Saturday the Alumnae will gather 
as members of the family, welcomed home, but the fatted calf will not 
be killed for them. The banquet will not be given this year, but the 
Alumnas are especially invited to come. In lieu of the invitations usu- 
ally sent out, announcements of the graduating exercises of the class 
will be mailed to friends of the girls and the School. 

The reasons for the change are many and obvious, some tangible and 
some intangible, therefore hard to put into words, but easily felt. 

There will be material saving, as cutting down the travel saves space 
on the trains and gasoline for the automobiles; but that is perhaps a 
comparatively small matter. The saving here can be readily seen. Ex- 
travagant dressing has never been encouraged in the School, but the girls 
do get new dresses, and the saving of extra dresses is an item worth 
considering when we are called on to save material. 

The moral effect of a simple commencement is great, both on the young 
women who are making the sacrifice and on the public. And it is a real 
sacrifice to a group of young women who have always looked forward to 
graduation, the day when they were to be the observed of all observers. 
It is a big day in a girl's eyes, and she likes to have her family and 
friends present to share her triumph. 

A Pioneer The story of George Durant, pioneer settler in North 

ory Carolina, and the suggestions for teaching it, which 

are printed in this number of The Quarterly, are, we believe, real con- 
tributions to the school literature of the State, and we trust the schools 
will use the story. North Carolina records are full of stories of adven- 
ture and interest, but so few of them are in available form that they are 
not used in the schools as much as they should be. This work was a part 
of the everyday classroom work in History. Individual assignments 
were given a class and each student worked up the story of one pioneer 
*Y t could be taught in the grades. General plans that could be adapted 

352 The Training School Quarterly 

to any grade were called for, and when the group began teaching in the 
Model School some of these plans were turned into definite plans for 
that particular fourth grade. The success of the lessons with that grade 
bear witness to the value of the work done. 

The only changes made in the story of George Durant were cutting 
down the length, leaving to the teacher to supplement the story herself 
with accounts of the country and conditions. 

Extra copies have been printed for class work. 

Getting and This number of The Quarterly has several articles 

Keeping Fit ^at are intended to give teachers ideas on how to get 

the children, the boys, and girls, outdoors, and how to keep them in fit- 
physical condition by having them play games. While the colleges are 
giving military instruction, and while even the high school boys are 
drilling, the schools should be doing something to help with the smaller 
girls and boys. In the towns the boy scouts and the camp-fire girls or 
girl scouts are doing a great work, but in the country the only chance for 
directed physical activity is on the playground. In this number will 
be found suggestions for all ages and sizes from the first grade on up. 

Get to Work You planted well last year, the canning clubs did a 

on Gardens wonderful work, but make your plans to do twice as 

much this year. Encourage the children and the people around you by 
showing them the wonderful things that were done last year, but make 
them realize the need is all the greater this year. 

Reviews : 

Conservation and Regulation in the United States During the World 

This bulletin is prepared to show the plan of the regulation and con- 
servation movement in the United States. Under the stress of war, the 
development of the conservation and regulatory movements has been at 
a speed never before approached. Before the war, the people did not 
realize the necessity for a conservation movement, but the wide cam- 
paign being carried on now by the Food Administration, the United 
States Department of Agriculture, State and local councils of defense, 
and other organizations, have carried conviction to a very large propor- 
tion of the people of the United States of a need for such a movement. 

This bulletin gives the plan by which the regulation and conservation 
was worked out. These regulatory measures come under the following 
heads : The Food Administration ; The Fuel Administration ; The 
Priority Administration ; The War Industries Board ; Shipping ; Print 
Paper; Creation of Correlation Board. 

The question arises in this bulletin as to whether these regulations 
should close after the war. This question is asked, "If the regulatory 
actions prove beneficial during the war, should they be discontinued after 
the war when the country will be undergoing the reconstruction period ?" 

This bulletin places the various kinds of conservation so that they are 
all seen as phases of the same thing. It has the merit of conciseness. 

C. L. 

United States Department of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 592, Courses 
in Secondary Agriculture for Southern Schools. 

This bulletin contains outlined courses which have been prepared 
because of a demand for a more uniform standard in agricultural instruc- 
tion in secondary schools in the South. These courses are intended for 
the third and fourth years, after the study of Agronomy and Animal 
in Secondary Agriculture for Southern Schools. 

These courses will have to be adapted to the needs of the students of 
each school and community, but to meet the needs of the majority of 
schools, the following order has been suggested: First year, soils and 
crops; second year, animal husbandry; third year, horticulture; fourth 
rear, rural economics and farm management and rural engineering. 

Outlines are given in this bulletin for the third and fourth years. 

C. L. 

354 The Training School Quarterly 

Enlistment for the Farm. By John Dewey. 

The war of the nation is a war of organized social and economic effort. 
The ultimate decision as to victory may well be with the farmer. It has 
been said that success will be with the country that can put the last 
hundred thousand men in the field, but they are of no use if their 
stomachs are empty. 

It is food that will win our battles. We must look to all to help in its 
production and in its economical consumption. The school children of 
America can serve definitely, effectively, and with educational results, 
by helping in the plowing of Uncle Sam's acre. There are not enough 
men to man our farms. If we enlist the school children in this work 
they can serve with results as beneficial to themselves as to the nation. 

What, then, is the duty of the school? In the fight for food — and it 
will be a fight — school children can help. This work is valuable and 
educational. It offers, first of all, an opportunity to educators and 
teachers to develop Constructive Patriotism. It enables the teacher to 
help evolve in the growing generation the idea of universal service in the 
great battle of man against nature, which is something American, some- 
thing great ; and which is not a military idea transplanted from Europe. 
It gives a chance for the expression of the idea of service to one's country 
which is not of the destructive kind. It will employ for economic pro- 
duction a great unused labor force which is too young to join the fighting 
forces. It will give the children healthful exercise, a sense of reality 
which means so much to children, and a sense of service in performance 
of work which is really useful. 

Of course, rural and village schools have the greatest opportunity to 
organize their children for farm work; but children in the cities may 
be sent into the country for camps and tent colonies and work on the 
soil. There they will gain a knowledge of the world of nature, the dis- 
cipline of useful work, acquaintance with country life and a broadened 

This work should be planned and conducted so as to reap its educa- 
tional value. The children should not only get some knowledge of 
farming, but every effort should be made to cultivate nature study, in- 
vestigations of plant life and growth; study of insects — those which 
help the farmer and those which hurt him. In addition, some funda- 
mental training in mechanics and arithmetic should be arranged for. 

This is not a dream. 

It can be done, 

By the teachers of America. 

There are aboid six weeks left in this school year. 

Now is the time to organize the work. S. T. 

Reviews 355 

Three Short Courses in Home-Making. Bulletin 1917, ISTo. 23, De- 
partment of the Interior, Bureau of Education. 

The three brief courses in home-making outlined in the pamphlet 
have heen especially prepared for use in the elementary rural schools. 
The articles indicate a few of the important phases of food study, sewing, 
and the care of the home with which the girl in the elementary school 
should be familiar. The underlying thought for each problem should 
be, "Will this help the girls to live more useful lives and will it lead to 
better conditions in their homes ?" 

The lessons are purposely made simple, and the plans are definitely 
outlined, so that the inexperienced teacher will be able to get her problem 
well in hand. The experienced teacher may find in them suggestions 
that will be of value in the further development of her course. 

Because of the short school year in some rural schools and the diffi- 
culty of securing time on the program for frequent lessons in home- 
making, each of the courses has been limited to 20 lessons. 

If a cupboard and table have been arranged for the use of cookery 
classes, most of the suggested work can be carried out with the school 
equipment. Where equipment is not at hand in the school, and school 
conditions do not approximate home conditions, it may be possible to 
secure permission to give the lesson in a near-by home of one of the girls 
after school hours. 

In each lesson the teacher should strive to impress the girls with the 
importance of doing some one simple thing well, giving them helpful 
information in regard to the subject that will be of value to their own 

The rural teacher who is eager to make her schoolroom an attractive 
place can devote some time in these lessons to such problems as the hang- 
ing and care of simple curtains ; the care of indoor plants ; the arrange- 
ment of pictures, the planning of storage arrangements for supplies and 
of cupboards for dishes; and the preparations for the serving of the 
school lunch. S. T. 

The series of Lessons in Community and National Life have been 
turned over entirely by the Food Administration to the Bureau of Educa- 

The lessons have been designed for use in all grades. Those designed 
for use in the intermediate grades are of especial interest to the bulk of 
teachers in ISTorth Carolina. There are twelve lessons already out, and 
with most of the lessons there are questions that will aid both teacher 
and pupil. Supplementary references are also given which will enable 
the teachers to go further into the subjects. 

The topics for the grades are as follows : (1) The War and Aeroplanes ; 
(2) Spinning and Dyeing Linen in Colonial Times; (3) The Water 

356 The Training School Quarterly 

Supply of a Town or City; (4) Petroleum and Its Uses; (5) Conserva- 
tion as Exemplified by Irrigation Projects; (6) Checking Waste in the 
Production and Use of Coal; (7) Preserving Foods; (8) Preventing 
Waste of Human Beings; (9) Inventions; (10) Iron and Steel; (11) 
The Effects of Machinery on Rural Life; (12) Patents and Inventions. 
These lessons may be obtained from the Bureau of Education by 
applying for Lessons in Community and National Life. These lessons 
are designed as follows : Section A — Designed for Use in the Upper 
Classes of the High School. Section B — Designed for Use in the Upper 
Grades of the Elementary Schools and the First Year of the High 
School. Section C — Designed for Use in the Intermediate Grades of the 
Elementary School. S. T. 

Bulletins You Should Have 

The bulletins listed below furnish much valuable information and 
many helpful suggestions for mothers and teachers ; not only for immedi- 
ate use, but they should be filed for future reference. 

Every home and every school should appreciate the work the Govern- 
ment is doing in preparing these bulletins and pamphlets, take advantage 
of the suggestions made in them and cooperate with the Government 
authorities in accomplishing the tremendous tasks before them, for with- 
out this cooperation and the support of the people the things they are 
\rying to do cannot meet with success. 

War Information 

American Interest in Popular Government Abroad. (War Informa- 
tion Series No. 8, Committee on Public Information.) 

American Loyalty (War Information Series No. 6, Committee on 
Public Information). 

Bibliography of Books on the War (Teacher's Leaflet No. 2, Bureau 
of Education). 

National Service Handbook (Committee on Public Information). 

This deserves special notice. It deals with such topics as Domestic 

Welfare, under which are discussed Industry, Education, Social Work, 

etc. ; European War Relief ; Religious Organizations ; Agriculture and 

the Food Supply. 

For the Home 

United States Food Leaflets: 

No. 1. Start the Day Right. 

No. 2. Do You Know Corn Meal? 

No. 3. A Whole Dinner in One Dish. ... 

No. 4. Choose Your Food Wisely. 

No. 5. Make a Little Meat Go a Long Way. 

No. 6. Do You Know Oatmeal? 

Reviews 357 

No. 7. Food for Your Children. 

No. 8. Instead of Meat. 

No. 9. Plenty of Potatoes. Use Them. 

(Apply to Division of Publications, Department of Agri- 
Commercial Evaporation and Drying of Fruits (Farmer's Bulletin 
No. 903, Bureau of Education). 

House Rats and Mice (Farmer's Bulletin No. 896, Department of 

Back Yard Poultry-Keeping (Farmer's Bulletin No. 889, Depart- 
ment of Agriculture). 

The Bureau of Education will furnish directions on School and Home 
Gardening. It urges that the work done under the direction of well- 
trained teachers returns to the community in money many times the 
cost of the work, and that this line of work should be intensified next 
year and incorporated as a part of the school program in every city 
and town in the United States. 

The officials of the Department of Agriculture are trying to impress 
upon the people the great amount of damage done by rats and mice. 
Rats destroy in the United States each year property valued at more 
than $200,000,000. They are the worst enemies of conservation. Isn't 
this a most excellent time to wage a war of extermination ? 

Your Government is trying to help you. Accept its offer and you 
help it ! E. M. 

The Money Value of Education, Bulletin 1917, No. 22. Bureau of 

The purpose of this bulletin is to show in terms that the people can 
understand the definite way in which education promotes industrial 
efficiency and increases military wealth. 

The money value of education has practically been lost sight of by 
some people who admit the value of the education of the schools for 
general culture, aesthetic appreciation, and preparation for citizenship. 
The most valuable result of real education, the broadening, deepening, 
and refining of human life cannot be measured in dollars and cents ; yet, 
while these higher things of the soul cannot be overestimated, they are 
not the only results of education. 

The wealth and power of a nation are determined by education. This 
is proved by comparison and contrast of the amount expended on edu- 
cation by different states and nations and the relative production of 
these states and nations. Why educated nations produce more and why 
the vast natural resources of a country are practically worthless without 
education are clearly explained. Business is growing more complicated, 
thus increasing the necessity of education. 

358 The Training School Quarterly 

Individual efficiency is in a large measure dependent upon the factor 
of individual education. Despite the fact that the occasional marked 
successes of comparatively unschooled men and the frequent failures of 
men of considerable education have attracted the attention of many, 
several studies recently made show the great influence that education 
has upon the individual. These studies are given in detail, and together 
with statistics tabulated, showing the financial return of education, 
clearly portray the fact that comparative poverty is not to be pleaded 
as a reason for withholding the means of education, but rather as a 
reason for supplying them in larger proportion. 

One of the most noticeable and valuable features of the bulletin is the 
number of attractive posters and charts displaying to the eye, in a striking 
form, convincing argument. E. M. 

Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education. Bulletin, 1917, 
No. 33. A Comparison of the Salaries of Rural and Urban Superin- 
tendents of Schools. 

This bulletin has been prepared to show how inadequate are the 
salaries of county superintendents, if persons properly qualified for the 
position are to be obtained. The average county superintendent's salary 
is only 61 per cent of the average city superintendent's. This bulletin 
gives tables showing the salaries of county and other rural superintend- 
ents in comparison with the city superintendents in the 48 States. 

C. L. 

The Placement of Children in the Elementary Grades. 

In recent years many students of education have been placing con- 
siderable emphasis on the study of scientific measurements applied to 
the achievements of school children with a view to putting educational 
practice on a more scientific basis than in the past. 

Because of the lack of scientific information, many theories not jus- 
tified by systematic observation have obtained currency. As a result, 
much time and energy of both teachers and pupils has been spent to a 
great disadvantage; confusion has been produced, and the advancement 
of tbe teaching profession has at a time been greatly retarded. 

Gradually scientific knowledge is gained concerning the actual ac- 
complishment of school children. Administrators are being trained to 
look after this work. By this means city superintendents will be able 
to determine the relative differences between the different schools and 
between the different children. 

This should be run by a business-like method. If school men are to 
secure and retain the support of the business men and the taxpayers, 

Reviews 359 

they must, in the future, demonstrate their ability to handle finances on 
a business-like basis. 

In the scientific movement two great goals have been kept in view. 
They are, first, the establishment of objective standards whereby the 
workers in educational practice cannot only measure actual results of 
their time, energy, and methods, but will also have guide posts which 
will indicate clearly the different stages in the child's development ; and 
second, the prevention of waste through misplacement of children. 

Statistics from a bulletin on A Study of the Schools of Richmond, Va., 
prove that the time of the pupil has been wasted, and also the energy 
of the teacher, through the misplacement of children in the grades. 

In general, it would seem that the changes which have been made in 
the allotment of time to the different subjects indicate an effort to secure 
more intensive and rational teaching, as well as a distribution of time 
by subjects better suited to the capacities of the children in the several 
grades. S. T. 

The mid-winter number of The National Geographic Magazine pre- 
sents a series of illuminating articles pertaining to camp life of our 
boys, both here in America and in France. Many pictures illustrate the 
life of the soldiers in 32 great cantonments. 

The Geographical and Historical Environment of America's 32 New 
Soldier Cities with 18 illustrations gives an insight into the daily life of 
our soldiers. All the names of the different camps are given with a short 
description of the site of each. 

Camp Lee, Virginia's Home for the National Army, is illustrated. 
The history of the camp is given from the very beginning to the present 

Lorraine — That Part of France Where the First American Soldiers 
Have Fallen — is an illustrated article which gives a very definite history 
of the country. 

The article on The Immediate Necessity of Military Highways tells 
why it is very necessary all our highways should be made better in time 
of war more than any other time. There are illustrations that clearly 
show how the roads that were impassable have been made the best roads 
for traveling. 

From the Trenches to Versailles was written by a woman who makes 
it her business to make the life of the soldiers as pleasant as possible 
while they are on leave from the camps. 

The flag number of The National Geography Magazine is the most 
interesting and valuable copy we have seen. This number comes with 
1,197 flags in full colors and 300 additional illustrations in black and 
white. This was a fall number. S. T. 

Progress of the Work at the Joyner School 

—m US YOU learned from the last issue of The Quarterly, some of 
BHS the plans for the work of the Joyner School had just been 
%W M formulated, and perhaps you will be interested in hearing about 
us again. 

We, like the other teachers of the State, have had disappointments and 
discouragements in our work during the year, due to the inclement 
weather and bad roads. With the exception of these providential hin- 
drances, our work has gone on very smoothly during the four months we 
have taught. 

But in every school there are problems, both general and individual, 
and those that confronted us in our school were : 

1. Improper gradation of students; 

2. Poor readers and spellers ; 

3. Improper expression in both oral and written work ; 

4. Too many tardies. 

In this school, as is true in many other schools, we found some who were 
promoted to grades that were really beyond what they were capable of 
doing, while others were in a grade too low, and still others who had 
come in from other districts who were really midway between our grades. 
Hence the problem — "In what grade shall we place this child so that he 
will accomplish the most, and that will relieve us of so many classes ?" 
There was a general rearrangement. After about two weeks of strenuous 
effort on the part of the teacher in finding out the ability of the indi- 
vidual pupils, the following grades were formed : first, second, third, 
fourth, lower and higher fifth, seventh and eighth. Perhaps some may 
wonder why there were two divisions of the fifth grade. This is the 
situation : there were some who had been promoted to this grade who 
were fully capable of doing the work, while there were others who were 
ahead of the fourth grade, and yet would have been a drawback to the 
upper section of this grade, and who, too, because of their age, would 
have become discouraged if they had been put with the fourth grade. 
This had to be considered, and while they are known as the lower section 
of the fifth grade, they are doing some work with the fourth grade and 
perhaps will, eventually, unite with that grade. 

In all of the lower grades we have found poor readers and spellers. 
We have given special emphasis to these branches through silent reading 
and then oral reading and expression of thought, drills in sounds, and 
trying to get the child to visualize the word as a whole. In spelling, 
particularly, we have emphasized the visualization of the word, both in 
oral and written form. 

The expressions of the children have been greatly improved by con- 
versations on the life about them. Since this is a tobacco-growing sec- 

Progress of the Work at the Joyner School 361 

tion, all of the children are interested in that line of work, and a very 
good language lesson was developed by the teacher, because, being from 
another section of the State, she did not know about the growth of this 
plant, and the children were anxious "to tell." Those who make gram- 
matical errors in asking permission are refused their wish, and this 
causes them to think. Reproduction of stories, discussions of the war, 
War Savings Stamps, and our part toward the war, are brought in and 
have aided in our work. 

We studied the problem of tardies for some time, appealing to the 
students' pride and honor, in having honor rolls ; but no good results 
were obtained. We finally resorted to the rule that all those who were 
tardy had to remain in the afternoon for fifteen minutes. This has 
greatly reduced our number of tardies. 


On our first visit to the school building we found the problem of much 
needed work and improvement, both inside and outside the building. 
The grounds were covered with tall grass and bushes, a great number of 
windowpanes were out, the floors were covered with dirt and smut, there 
were no teachers' desks, the students' desks were worn-out double ones, 
and there was practically no working material. We immediately began 
to plan how we would improve our school building. 

During the first week of school we had the building cleaned and 
scoured, but the building was not thoroughly cleaned until our Com- 
munity Service Day, a month later. On that day the patrons of the 
school came out, both men and women, and with the school children 
there was really a work-day. The women were kept busy inside the 
building, oiling the floors, desks, and woodwork, while the larger girls 
washed the windowpanes which had been put in by the larger boys of 
the school and community. The men worked on the outside of the build- 
ing, grubbing, raking, and cleaning the grounds. By the afternoon a 
dozen wagon loads of grass had been hauled off and the basket-ball court 
had been nicely cleaned. 

During the day some of our patrons found that we wanted and needed 
single desks, and before leaving the school grounds fifteen dollars had 
been subscribed. Mr. Underwood ordered the desks for us, with the 
understanding that we sell our Liberty Bond and raise the necessary 
funds. He had already ordered teachers' desks ; so now we have teachers' 
desks with chairs, single desks for the three rooms, maps, globes, and 
window shades. We also have buckets, washpans, dust pans, and 
brooms for the three rooms. 


In order to show to the people of this community that we were vitally 
interested in the Joyner School, we came four days before time to begin 

362 The Training School Quarterly 

work. On the day after our arrival, we visited every family who had 
children to send to school. In these short calls we not only met the 
people, but took the census. We found that there were seventy-eight 
children who might be expected to be in school on Monday, October 15. 
When the opening day came, we had thirty-six students. 

Realizing every day the importance and seriousness of our position, 
we began our work in the schoolroom. We had one big object — that 
was, to get the people to come out to the school and then to get the forty- 
two children, who were not in school, there. The first thing we did was 
to get up a few simple exercises for Hallowe'en, after which we hoped 
to organize a Betteri^ant Association. Very much to our discourage- 
ment, there were not enough of the mothers present, so the organization 
was deferred until a more opportune time. Our second plan was a 
general clean-up day. This was to come at the end of the first month. 
In order to get the people to come, we got a car and again visited every 
family in the community, asking the men to come clad in work clothes, 
and the women to bring soap, dust cloths, brooms, and plenty of dinner. 
We also sent Mr. Underwood and Mr. Wright urgent invitations to come 
prepared to work, and dinner would be served them in accordance with 
their work. As a result, they worked earnestly. At the close of the day 
our building and yard had undergone such a change that we could hardly 
realize that it was the same place. 

During the second week of school Mr. Underwood and Mr. S. J. 
Everette visited us. Their talks created so much interest and patriotism 
that the children were eager to buy a Liberty Bond. One dollar was 
raised immediately and turned over to the County Superintendent, who 
bought the bond for us. This bond was later used as a payment on our 
single desks. On November 15th the first real payment on this bond 
was due. To raise the sum, we gave a party at the school building, 
realizing $16. 

"North Carolina Day" confronted us next, but the bad weather came 
on and all our plans were seriously interfered with. The roads were 
almost impassable, even for walking, and our fuel gave out, so we were 
providentially and uncomfortably hindered. In fact, we found it neces- 
sary to close school until after Christmas. Real work did not begin 
again until the 7th of January. Again, we found our school building 
cold. The weather had not moderated so that wood could be gotten, 
neither had the roads dried off. But the teachers felt that they must 
make an effort. All three of us gathered in one room around one stove 
and taught the best we could, but spent most of our time trying to keep 
ourselves and the children warm. During all of this, though, we had the 
heart-felt sympathy of the patrons, and especially of the committee. 
As soon as a fair day came, teams and work hands came from almost 
every home and hauled wood a whole day. Mr. A. M. Waters brought 

Progress of the Work at the Joyner School 363 

his gasoline engine and did the sawing. So now we have plenty of good 
wood and every one is warm and happy again. 

By this time another payment on our Liberty Bond was due. The 
bad weather had kept us from giving an entertainment at the school 
building, so one of the teachers went visiting again, collecting money 
this time. The amount was raised and at last the Liberty Bond was paid. 

February 15 was set aside as North Carolina Day. As this was the 
regular meeting of the Ragsdale Literary Society, we decided to have 
the exercises as our program for that day. Lieut. Leon R. Meadows 
of the Training School came out and talked to us on Camp Life and 
North Carolina's duty toward the war. We had a larffe attendance and 
every one thoroughly enjoyed the program. While getting up this pro- 
gram we were also planning a Colonial Party to take place February 22. 
The object of this was not only to entertain our people, but to raise 
money to pay on our single desks. 

Having done these few things and kept up our school work, you will 
doubtless realize that our program has been full. But we do not forget 
that we have a duty to fulfill toward the Sunday school, and try to be 
there every Sunday afternoon. Two of the teachers have classes; the 
other one teaches the school children the Sunday school lesson every 
Friday morning. Nancy Wall, 

Mary Newby White, 
Ruth Lowder. 


Arithmetic Based Upon the Present War Conditions 

In the fourth grade we worked out a series of lessons in arithmetic 
based upon the present conditions brought about by the war. 

Our first lesson was merely a conversational language lesson. Through 
skillful questions the children enumerated the ways in which we are 
affected by the war. There is a scarcity of labor because our men 
are being sent to the training camps, preparing for service in the Army 
and Navy. As a result of that our industries are in a way hindered, 
thereby causing a scarcity of fuel, clothing, foodstuffs, and luxuries. 
This led them to appreciate the direct need of conserving or saving 
food, which was the next effect which they mentioned. Not only did 
they emphasize the need of food conservation, but they also realized 
that the high cost of living was of equal importance. They appreciated 
the fact that one effect was an outgrowth of the other. 

In dealing with the high cost of living I laid special stress on the 
advance in prices of foodstuffs since we have been engaged in war. I 
separated my class into groups or committees and had them to go to the 
stores and get the actual prices of foodstuffs, dry goods, etc. ; and they 
learned the cost of fuel. They came back with their reports on heavy 
and fancy groceries, dry goods, and fuel. With the information which 
they brought, we made a chart upon which later work in our arithmetic 
was based, that of bill making and problem solving. Our chart was 
merely a list of the various articles and their prices written on the board 
so that the whole class could see it and refer to it in making their prob- 
lems. Of course, we kept it there till we completed our work along that 

Along with the chart we made use of some appropriate posters on food 
conservation which the Government has sent out. Quite a bit of interest 
was shown in this work, for the children realized that these conditions 
exist now and directly concern them. 

We used our chart in such a way as to motivate bill making. For 
instance, one child was the storekeeper, another was the customer, who 
went to the store and purchased the following articles : 1 lb. butter at 
60c ; 3 boxes crackers at 8c ; 5 lbs. lard at 30c. The storekeeper then 
made out the customer's bill. Excellent results were obtained, for we 
had very little trouble with the regular form, which is usually quite 
hard for even fifth graders to get. 

After spending two or three days on bills, we changed the work from 
written to oral work — that of making real problems and solving them. 

Suggestions 365 

In making these problems we emphasized the economic and true-to-life 
side, in that we checked up the kind of things and quantity which they 
would buy during these war times, especially of food. Several days 
were spent in making problems through the use of the chart and then 
solving them. All of this work, as I have said, was done orally. Here 
are some of the problems the children actually made. 

(1) Miss McCowen went down to Johnson's and bought V 2 doz. apples at 
30c per doz.; 2 boxes Uneedas at 8c per box, and 1 loaf bread at 6c. How 
much change did she get back if she gave him one-half dollar? 

(2) I went to Maguire's yesterday and bought 1 jar peanut butter at 15c, 
2 boxes crackers at 8c per box, % lb. candy at 30c per lb. How much was 
my bill? 

(3) Mr. John Jones ordered of the Harvey Woodyard 1 ton of coal at $9 per 
ton and 2 loads of wood at $4.50 per load. How much did Mr. Jones owe 
the Harvey Woodyard? 

By way of a review, this work was motivated by a race which was con- 
ducted somewhat like a spelling match. There were two sides. The 
captain on the one side gave a problem of the same type as the others, as : 

Mary went to the store and bought 2 boxes of crackers at 8c per box, 2 doz. 
apples at 30c per doz, and 1 bottle olives at 20c per bottle. If I gave the clerk 
a one-dollar bill, how much change did I receive? 

The first child on the opposite side solved it, and he in turn gave one. 

Thrift and War Savings Stamps were used as a basis for problems, and 
they were of practically the same value and excited as much interest 
among the children as did our other work. Here are some of the prob- 
lems which we made and used : 

(1) William Taft bought a booklet full of Thrift Stamps at 25c each. How 
much did they cost him? 

(2) In February he exchanged his booklet of stamps for a War Savings 
Stamp. How much more money did he have to pay? 

(3) In 1923 he will get back $5. How much money will he have made? 

(4) Frank, Jr., bought Ave War Savings Stamps in January. How much 
did he pay for them? 

(5) At the end of 5 years he will get back $20. How much money will he 
have made? 

I daresay we, as a general thing, think that it is impossible with most 
of our work to utilize the material at hand, that is, that which vitally 
affects the child's interests and needs. Upon careful investigation we 
find it by far the best plan. While working out these lessons I more 
keenly appreciated the value and necessity of taking hold of and using 
the child's experiences and interests as a basis for further work. 

Willie Jackson, '18. 

366 The Training School Quarterly 

Thrift Stamps and Number Work in the Third Grade 

While competition and the patriotic spirit held sway, and the chil- 
dren's interest in the Thrift Stamp and War Savings campaign was 
held at the highest tension, we used these for numher work in the third 
grade to great advantage. 

Through successive talks by the superintendent in chapel about buying 
these stamps, and the reports given from each grade as to the amount of 
stamps purchased, the children had become very much interested in 
the work. The reports gave rise to much rivalry not only among grades, 
but between individuals. The teacher at once saw the situation and 
took hold of it, and directed the interest and competition into some- 
thing beneficial to both teacher and pupil. 

Some of the parents, through indifference to the cause, and ignorant 
of the real value of this campaign discouraged rather than encouraged 
their children in buying the stamps. But even this did not chill their 
ardor. We see and realize that before our work can be successful and 
aid obtained from the children in work of this kind we must show them 
the real value, and through them arouse the home people. The teacher 
in using the stamps for number work attempted to keep this in mind, 
and never lost sight of the fact that she was not only teaching arithmetic, 
but that she was helping to interest the children and their people in the 
Thrift Stamp campaign. She based her first lessons on the talks given 
in chapel, the cost of Thrift Stamps, amount of interest received at end 
of five years, and cost of the stamps bought in her room. 

We see her aims were twofold — not only to get the children interested 
and working for the cause through competition, but to use this interest 
and competition as a basis for her number work. 

Some of the problems given in the first lesson were : 

1. How much do you have to pay for a Thrift Stamp this month? 

2. How many stamps do you have to buy before you have enough to get a 

3. How much money do you pay to get sixteen stamps or a certificate? 

4. If Dow bought four Thrift Stamps, how much money did he pay for 
his stamps? 

5. How many more does he need to fill out his book? 

6. If we buy sixteen stamps, how much money do we get at the end of 
five years? 

7. How much more is $5.00 than $4.13? How would you find out? 

The next problem was brought up by this question: 

How many of you are willing to save your nickels and dimes that you beg 
mother and papa for to buy candy, chewing gum, and to go to the movies, so 
that you can buy Thrift Stamps and help win the war? 

8. How many days would it take you, if you saved a nickel every day, to 
buy a stamp? 

Suggestions 367 

The parents of the children became more interested every day, and the 
amount of stamps purchased grew larger. So the next lessons were 
directed to the comparisons of the grades as to the number of stamps 
purchased, number of children who bought, and the amount of money. 
Also the amount of the whole school, number of children who bought in 
whole school weekly as the reports were made. 

The report from January 28th to February 4th was : 

Grade Total 

3 A $ 16.80 

3 B 10.50 

4 A 13.74 

4B 132.96 

5 A 43.00 

5 B 10.37 

5C 53.25 

Each week the reports were compared, and the children were credited 
for their good work in such a way that they worked harder each week 
to bring their grade ahead. It was amazing to see the way the number 
of stamps grew from week to week among rivals and grades. 

Some of the problems given in comparison were : 

1. Today let us see how much money all the grades in school have spent so 
far on Thrift Stamps. How can we find out? 

2. How much has Grade 4B spent? How much our grade? How much 
more has 4 B given than our grade? 

3. If Doris hought eight, how much did 6he pay for them? 

4. If Troy bought five, how many more has Doris than Troy? How many 
Thrift Stamps must he buy before he can get a War Savings Certificate? 

5. If J. T. bought two books of Thrift Stamps, how many stamps would he 
have? How much money would he get at the end of five years? 

6. If two weeks ago our grade had bought only seven dollars worth of 
stamps, and now we have ten fifty ($10.50) worth, how much more money 
have we put in Thrift Stamps? 

7. If you bought five Thrift Stamps and handed the postmaster a two-dollar 
bill, how much change will he give you back? How many Thrift Stamps 
can you buy with it? 

At the end of this lesson the children were allowed themselves to make 
problems on Thrift Stamps. They did some good thought work, and 
the results were obtained ; but the children were not qualified to handle 
the dollar mark and the decimal point, and a drill on these before class 
would have saved time during the lesson and more time could have been 
given to problems, instead of teaching the dollar mark and decimal 

j^ot only does this Thrift Stamp and War Saving campaign afford 
us a fine opportunity for number work, but for language, on the side. 
The children were held to a standard of expression, and nothing was 
allowed to pass that was not clear to all. 

Burwell Patterson, '18. 

368 The Training School Quabtekly 

How Thrift Stamps Were Used in the First Grade 

If thrift stamps proved to be a success in the first grade, why can't 
they be doubly a success in the other grades ? 

In the first grade many lessons grew out of the discussion of "Thrift 
Stamps." We talked about what they were and why we should buy 

Number work was one of the greatest topics brought out through the 
use of Thrift Stamps. The children did the actual counting of money 
by quarters. They told how many stamps they could buy for one dollar. 
They knew that if it took one quarter to buy one stamp, it would take 
four quarters to buy a dollar's worth. 

One little girl told that just as soon as her father got his money from 
Wilson she was going to buy a War Savings Stamp. From this the 
teacher brought out the fact that when money was transferred from 
one place to another, it was done by means of checks. The child then 
arrived at this decision, that the money would probably be so much that 
it would be too heavy, and it was moved from one place to another by the 
"check." Then one child brought the real check to school to buy his 
stamp. From this they understood that the check did stand for the 

The little children would delight in telling how they saved their 
money, and how they were going to help save their pennies so they could 
buy more stamps. Their greatest delight was to fill their books with the 
Thrift Stamps, and this is what we were trying to do. They understood 
that it took sixteen to fill the book, and that is what they were working 
to do. One child made the statement that he had ten stamps in his book ; 
it would take six more to fill it. When he finished filling it, he could 
put twelve more cents with it and buy a War Savings Stamp. What 
more was this than addition and subtraction of numbers? 

A great deal of language work also grew out of Thrift Stamps. 
Through the discussions the little children were led to use many correct 
forms of language, as, "Papa gave me fifty cents to buy two stamps, and 
he is going to give me twenty-five cents soon to buy another stamp." 

Many of the children told of how they were helping around the home, 
so when mother paid them for their work they did not spend it, or were 
not going to spend it for candy and chewing gum, but they were going 
to put it up, and keep adding to it until they had enough to buy one or 
more Thrift Stamps. Every morning they would enjoy telling how 
many stamps they had bought, and what they were going to do to make 
money to buy more. 

They discovered that if they bought Thrift Stamps, even if it wasn't 
but one, their names would go in the daily paper. Of course, all children 
like the idea of having their names published ; so this gave them another 
motive to purchase the stamps. Every child in the room became a littlt 

Suggestions 369 

patriot, and saw that it was he helping win the war. Several children 
would tell the class they saw their names in last night's paper, and one 
little boy became so interested in their names being published that he 
cut out the list of purchasers of Thrift Stamps in his room and brought 
them to class for the teacher to read to the whole room. He emphasized 
that they be read aloud to all of the children. This the teacher did, and 
the children who had not bought any stamps determined that they must 
buy one, if no more, to get their names in the paper. One just could 
not bear the idea of any other child getting ahead of him. 

On every Wednesday morning in chapel the buying of Thrift Stamps 
was also encouraged. Some teacher would announce to the school how 
each grade stood in the purchasing of Thrift Stamps. What a good 
time the little people had together clapping for their grade ! 

In this way the buying of Thrift Stamps was carried out in the first 
grade. This gave all the children a desire to buy the stamps, and they 
were all willing to do their part. 

At the same time the children realized the real need of buying the 
stamps, "To win the war we must all do our part, and buying Thrift 
Stamps is one means through which we can help win the war." 

Pattie Farmer, '18. 

War Scrap-book 

A war scrap-book would arouse much interest, at this particular time, 
among the intermediate grades. It is in direct accordance with the 
child's natural desire to collect and hoard material. The idea of making 
a war scrap-book will give the child a strong desire to read newspapers 
and magazines, for the purpose of getting material for his scrap-book. 
Underneath it all he is getting much information and is also acquiring 
the valuable habit of using what is at hand. And this will not only 
serve him throughout his immediate work, but throughout life. 

When a child can see, handle, and own the material that he has col- 
lected, his mind will soon be enriched with this valuable material from 
magazines, newspapers, and other sources. It gives him something to 
talk about and something to write about ; therefore, it furnishes excel- 
lent work for oral and written composition. It will also give the child 
a high sense of pride for his English which will carry over into his other 
work. In fact, he will gain material that will help him practically in 
every subject. It develops good taste in arrangement, good placing, and 
a love for the beautiful. It would, by all means, stimulate much interest 
to put some of their own best written work in their scrap-book. 

It would be a good plan to have a large composite war scrap-book for 
he grade, and divide the children into groups, having each group to 

yr\ on different topics that are connected with the war, thus arousing 

370 The Training School Quarterly 

In making our scrap-book, one group could work up one section of it 
called "Who's Who in This War." This would lead the children to 
know about the leading men of today. Each member of that group could 
collect material on one man. Having President Wilson's picture on the 
front page, there would be no trouble finding material on him for our 
scrap-book. Our next man might be Hoover. Material could be easily 
collected on him and his great work. Advertisements could be found in 
every daily newspaper and magazine on food conservation. There are 
many other men who should have a place in our war scrap-book — Gar- 
field, for one, the coal administrator. Good material could be found in 
Review of Reviews in January and February numbers, especially, in 
Current Opinion and daily papers. Others, which I shall only mention, 
could be worked out along with these that I have taken up, as, Josephus 
Daniels, McAdoo, Baker, and General Pershing. 

Another group could work up a section of the book called "War Loans," 
which would include information about Thrift Stamps, War Saving 
Stamps, etc. This would be very interesting to children, for some of 
them are saving their money by buying Thrift Stamps. They have also 
heard and read much about saving. 

Then another group of pupils would be interested in collecting "War 
Cartoons" for another part of their book. These are found everywhere, 
in daily papers, Literary Digest, Current Opinion, Life, and Review of 
Reviews. This would come in especially good now, since there are such 
expressive cartoons, as the following: "Saving food," "Saving coal," 
, "Helping the soldiers," "The work of Uncle Sam," "Peace,' and "Victory 
for the Allies." 

Then another section could be on public buildings used by Uncle Sam. 
The pictures could be easily found not only from magazines and daily 
papers, but from post-cards which the children already have. 

The resourceful teacher may find many more topics for her scrap- 
book. This is merely a suggestion to the live teacher, and one that can 
be adapted to any grade. Lillian Shoulars, '18. 

The Teaching of the Story of George Durant, the Pioneer 
Settler of North Carolina 

This suggestion is a general plan for the teaching of the story of 
George Durant, and is suitable to he adapted for the fourth, fifth, and 
sixth grades. 

Of course, in the fourth grade it is presented in a much simpler way, 
and with less complications in the plot, than in the fifth and sixth grades. 
In the fifth grade its geographical side may be emphasized, while in the 
sixth grade the government is a very important feature. Each teacher 
may adapt this work to suit her own particular grade and community, 
and approach the story in terms familiar to the children she is teaching. 

Suggestions ">71 

Below is a general outline of the life of George Durant to be used in 
the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades : 


I. The people of Virginia needed more lands. 

a. They followed the streams toward the southeast. 

b. Hunters and trappers reported this region to be rich in game and soil. 
II. George Durant heard this and decided to explore this country. 

a. He set out with a few companions. 

6. Description of the country through which they traveled. 

c. His companions selected their lands. 

d. Durant explored this country for two years. 
III. Durant purchased his lands from the Indians. 

a. He selected his land. 

6. He bought it from Kilcokonen, an Indian chief. 

c. He built his home. 

d. He sent for his family in Virginia. 
IV. Durant's family arrived and prospered. 

a. Description of his home. 
6. The farm products they raised, 
c. They exported as well as imported several things. 
V. Other settlers followed, and the settlement grew and prospered, 
a. The products of the colony. 
B. They sold these to other colonists. 

c. They traded with England. 

d. They used tobacco for money. 
VI. The settlement named Carolina. 

a. King of England gave it to the Lords Proprietors. 
6. The Proprietors named it for King Charles, 
c. They appointed a governor. 
VII. Two bad laws were passed. 

a. A tax on tobacco. 

b. The colonists had to sell their tobacco to English merchants alone. 

c. They objected to these laws. 

d. Durant was selected to make known this objection to the King. 
VIII. Durant as leader of the Albemarle Colony. 

a. The Proprietors selected Eastchurch for governor and Miller to 
assist him. 

b. Miller, acting in Eastchurch's name, carried his authority too far. 

c. The colonists, with Durant to lead them, objected. 

d. Sothel, one of the Proprietors, was sent to govern the people. 

e. Proving unsuitable, he was banished, leaving Durant as leader until 
another could be selected. 

IX. Durant's last days. 

a. He served his colony as a justice of peace. 

In the oral presentation of this story the teacher should choose her 
words carefully, making each picture word, such as "wilderness," stand 
out so prominently that the children see the picture vividly, and as a 
result readily feel themselves a part of the story. Questions thrown out 
at intervals make the children pay attention, or they serve to cheek up 

372 The Training School Quarterly 

the ideas you have given or to make it seem a part of their own lives. 
Whatever the form of introduction, be sure that the concept the children 
have is a basis familiar to them upon which they may found the whole 

The people of Virginia, who had settled around the Jamestown colony, 
selected farms along the river banks on account of the fertility and easy 
transportation. This is splendid to be used for a basis of the story in 
the fifth grade, putting emphasis on the geographical parts and maps. 

The chief crop of this Albemarle colony was tobacco, which they 
shipped to England. This necessitated easy access to the coast. Travel- 
ing through the forests was extremely difficult and dangerous, so the 
settlers pushed farther and farther along the river banks, seeking to find 
good farming lauds near the rivers. From the map of North Carolina 
and Virginia pupils of the fifth grade quickly see why the people came 
toward the southeast. The younger children appreciate this significance 
also if they are led to see it by hints from the teacher. 

The trouble the colony had about governors would be excellent for 
the sixth grade, but would be entirely above the comprehension of the 
lower grades. 

There are only two points in the story of George Durant that could not 
be said of any other pioneer of that time. They are these : the trouble 
about the governors, and the purchase of his lands from the Indian chief 
Kilcokonen, who gave him a deed. Every Worth Carolinian should know 
the story of George Durant, but there are comparatively few who do 
know it. The fact that he owned the first deed ever given in America is 
enough to make him famous. The story is one of the big, thrilling 
pioneer stories that should not be allowed to die. 

Nannie M. Clapp, '18. 

The Plan Used for the Fourth Grade 

The following is the plan actually used in introducing George Durant 
to the fourth grade at the Model School: 

Teacher's aim: To teach the story of George Durant as a type of 
pioneer life. 

Pupils' aim : To find out who George Durant was, where he lived, 

and what he did. 


"What men have we learned about who left their homes and came to 
America ?" 

The children answered, "Columbus, Ealeigh, John Smith, and Mar- 
quette." They also told the country from which each man came. 

"Which one of those men tried to settle North Carolina?" 

The children readily answered that it was Ealeigh, and one child tol< 
about the attempted settlement, very briefly. 



"Now, wouldn't you like to hear about a man who was born in America 
and not in a foreign country, and who did what Raleigh failed to do?" 

Then the story was given by the oral presentation method. The fol- 
lowing is the brief outline and a few typical questions which were asked 
during the presentation of the story: 

I. Where Durant was born, and 
why he came to North Caro- 

II. Explored North Carolina for 
two years until he found a 
place for his home. 
III. Built his house and furnished 

IV. How Durant got ready to farm, 

and what he raised on the 

V. How Durant became able to 

own a brick house. 
VI. The dress of the pioneers. 

(a) Early life and later. 

VII. Amusements of the pioneers. 

VIII. Lack of school and churches. 

IX. The government of the early 
pioneers and the later gov- 

I. What State were you born in? 
Have you ever moved from one 
place to another? Why? Why 
do you suppose Durant came to 
North Carolina? 
II. Why didn't Durant settle down 
when he first came to North 

III. What kind of a house do you 
imagine Durant built? What 
kind of furniture do you think 
he had in his house? 

IV. What are some of the things you 
think Durant raised on his farm? 

V. What did Durant do which made 
him able to own a brick house? 
VI. How do you suppose Durant's 
children dressed? Why couldn't 
they dress as you do? But when 
Durant became rich how do you 
think his children dressed? 
VII. What do you think Durant's 
children did for fun? 
What pleasures do you have 
which they did not have? 
VIII. Why couldn't Durant's children 
go to school and church as you 
do? How were they taught? 
IX. At first the pioneers had no form 
of government. Why did they 
need it later? In what way did 
the early government of North 
Carolina resemble our govern- 
ment today? 

In teaching the story of George Durant, I could not use the map, 
because the children had no knowledge whatever of maps ; also, because 
of their limited knowledge concerning government, I could not take up 
the complicated form of government, but, instead, only touched on it. 


Because of lack of room, we could not have a sand-table. We did 
some hand work, however. The boys made a log cabin of cornstalks. 
Much interest was manifested by all in this work. The boys brought 

374 The Training School Quarterly 

their tools from home, and four boys remained every afternoon and 
worked about half an hour until the cabin was completed. They also 
made furniture out of cigar boxes. The girls cut pictures from maga- 
zines and furnished a modern home by pasting the pictures on a 9 x 12 
sheet of drawing paper. They compared their work with the log cabin, 
thus seeing the progress made. Bernie Allen, '18. 

Time Study As a Language Topic in the Third Grade 

The study of time as a language topic showing the natural divisions, 
old methods as well as new methods of telling time, proved very inter- 
esting to the children of the third grade. This topic, as we dealt with 
it, naturally divided itself into four distinct lessons, all of which were 
purely conversational. 

First, we took up the divisions of time — the year, month, week, day, 
hour, minute, and second. Then we passed on to the seasons — spring, 
summer, autumn, and winter. The children quickly saw for themselves 
these were natural divisions of time. They recognized day and night 
as being natural divisions also. 

In our second lesson we brought in the needs of telling time, and 

why it is so important for us to know how to tell time. The children 

gave several reasons why we should know how to tell time. Some of these 


To know what time to get up. 

To know what time to eat. 

To know what time to go to sleep. 

To know what time to study. 

To know what time to go to catch a train. 

Railroad men should know how to tell time to prevent accidents. 

The different ways of telling time were brought out in our next lesson. 
One of the first ways we found that people used in olden times was by 
the position of the sun in the sky. It was explained to the children by 
the teacher why the sun made longer shadows in the early morning and 
late afternoon than at noon. Another way was by the shadow-stick. 
This was explained in the same way. Next, the hour-glass was taken 
up. There were two kinds of hour-glasses, one in which you used sand 
and in the other, water. We made an hour-glass so that the children 
could see more clearly how it was used. We made it of two ink bottles, 
using one cork for both bottles. Through this cork we made a hole so 
that tbe sand we used could run through very slowly. By having this 
to show the children they seemed to understand clearly how people used 
to tell time. 

How King Alfred learned how to tell time by candles was very intei 
esting to the children, because they had been studying about him in thei 

Suggestions 375 

reading lessons. This was illustrated by a candle marked off with colored 
strings representing hours. 

The sun-dial was discussed next. We made a sun-dial of pasteboard 
which gave the children a very clear idea as to how time could be told 
by it. The children gave several reasons why this was not a good 
method. Some of these were : 

It did not give a chance to tell time at night. 
Some days were cloudy and there were no shadows. 

The conclusion was soon reached by the class that the sun-dial was 
not a good means of telling time. 

The study of clocks and watches was taken up as the climax of the 
subject. The clocks discussed were the grandfather's, cuckoo, alarm, 
and electric. The structure of each of these was studied. The teacher 
told the class of some of the wonderful clocks of the world, the Straus- 
burg clock and others. It was interesting to hear the children tell the 
different places they had seen clocks — in courthouses, churches, depots, 
and postoffices. In connection with clock study the children learned to 
cut different kinds of clocks in their drawing lesson. They also made 
several clocks out of cracker boxes. During their singing period they 
learned a song, "The Clock," taken from "Progressive Music Series," 
Volume I. This correlative work in drawing and singing made the 
work more interesting for the children. Different kinds of watches were 
discussed, especially the watches the soldiers use, and they learned why 
they used this kind. 

At the end of our study of time the children had accumulated a good 
collection of pictures of clocks and watches. These were put on the wall 
on one side of the room. Letha Jabman, '18. 

The Story of Wool. Chapter I — Pastoral Life 

The study of Pastoral Life in the second grade was taken up from the 
standpoint of Language, though it is a continuation of Primary History 
from the hunting and fishing stage of Primitive Life. 

First, a review lesson was given, getting from the children how man 
first obtained food by means of hunting and fishing, the obstacles he 
grappled with and his methods of overcoming them, how man realized 
the need for other ways of maintaining life, after the resources provided 
by Nature had been exhausted. Here there was a discussion of what 
was best to be done, resulting in the decision that the only way to have 
food and clothing was to raise it. A discussion of what animals are 
best for domestication brought some rather random guessing, but was 
easily guided into the right channels. Of several kinds of animals which 
are of domestic value to man, the sheep was found to be a good type to 
base the study of Pastoral Life upon, because of its clothing value and 
food value. 

376 The Training School Quarterly 

This was taken up from the viewpoint of Shepherd Life. It was ap- 
proached by a brief discussion of the value of wool to us today : woolen 
clothing that the girls and boys wear to school in winter, dresses and 
suits and coats ; blankets that keep us warm at night ; woolen thread or 
yarn with which we knit sweaters for the soldiers and for ourselves; 
and the question of where the wool comes from originally. From this 
we passed on to the life of the sheep. As a teacher's reference, "The 
Song of Our Syrian Guest," by William Allen Knight (Pilgrim Press, 
Boston), gives ample and interesting facts which will impress the pas- 
toral care upon children. This little book is simply a development, with 
practical enlarging explanations, of the twenty-third Psalm. To make 
it definite and concrete, the work was taught as a day in the life of a 
shepherd : 

Outline of Work 

I. Needs of the sheep. 

1. Grassy places for pasturage. 

2. Constant change of pasture in those days. 

3. Good drinking places. 

II. Home of the shepherd (not touched upon to any extent). 
III. Round of daily activity. 

1. Roaming existence of the shepherd. 

2. Destination always a drinking place. 

o. Kinds of drinking places found in pastoral countries. 
6. Dangers of drinking places, 
c. Method of watering the sheep. 

3. Familiarity of and confidence of the sheep in the 6hepherd. 

4. Constant and careful watch of the shepherd. 
a. Perilous places in the mountains. 

6. Stupidity and guilelessness of sheep. 

c. Private fields and gardens trespassed upon, sheep are forfeited. 

d. Wrong paths easy to take. 

(1) Some lead off a precipice. 

(2) Some are intricate and the sheep get lost. 

5. Affection of sheep for shepherd. 
a. Trained sheep. 

(1) Wolf gets into the flock; panic of sheep; shepherd gets control 
of sheep by shouting like wolf; this is a signal for the sheep 
which make a rush and thus often instantly crushes wolf. 
6. Robbers lurking in ambush to steal lagging sheep. 

6. Shepherd's weapons and staff. 

7. Dangers for sheep attended to by shepherd. 
a. Poisonous grasses hard to distinguish. 

6. Snake holes in pastures. 

c. Mole holes concealing snakes. 

d. Holes and caves in mountain-sides. 
(1) Wolves, panthers, hyenas. 

8. Home again! 

a. The sheep fold. 

(1) Inspection of the sheep by the shepherd. 

(2) Attention to any wounds. 

(3) Watering. 

(4) Rest under the stars. 

Suggestions 377 

Pictures were used throughout this work, in each day's recitation — 
not from the formal picture-study standpoint, but pictures (copies of 
famous painting's, some of them from The Ladies' Home Journal, from 
The Perry Picture Company, Boston, and any source available) were 
passed about among the children for a brief examination, then attached 
to the wall in front of them and referred to by the teacher during the 
recitation whenever it was deemed appropriate. 

Questions were asked concerning one picture in which there appeared 
a dog. It was then "discovered" or decided that the dog was a very 
valuable domestic animal for many reasons, particularly in the raising 
of sheep. The story of The Good Shepherd as found in "For the Chil- 
dren's Hour" by Bailey and Lewis depicts vividly and very beautifully 
the inestimable devotion of the shepherd for the sheep, and serves as a 
beautiful story with which to end the Pastoral phase of the Study of 
Wool. Elizabeth Hathaway, '18. 

Chapter II — Our Woolen Clothes 

The story of our woolen clothes followed the story of Pastoral Life 
in Language study. 

I introduced this study by using the story of "The New Red Dress," 
taken from "For the Children's Hour." In the story we find exactly 
how wool was manufactured when our grandmothers were little girls. 
I told the story without asking the children very many questions. 

The second day I began the lesson by telling the boys and girls of the 
great sheep ranches of our country. I told them the different ways the 
sheep are sheared and how the wool is cared for until it is carried to the 
great woolen mills. Then followed the story of the wool as it passes 
through the different processes of manufacturing, which are as follows : 
After the wool reaches the mill it is carried to a room, dumped on the 
floor, and sorted. After it is sorted it is carried into another room, where 
it is cleaned. The people give it a good pounding or beating which takes 
out some of the dirt, then they wash it well with lye. This is called 
scouring. When the wool has been cleaned it is carried into another 
room, where there are large drums. In these drums are cylinders con- 
taining sharp teeth. After the wool is put into these drums the cylinders 
rotate very fast, and when the wool comes out it is torn into a fluffy mass. 
This is carried into a large room with a stone floor, where it is spread 
on the floor and by means of machinery it is sprinkled with olive oil. 
This is to make the wool feel softer. 

After the wool leaves this large room it is carried to the carding room. 
Passing through the carding machine it comes out in layers called laps. 
These laps are wound on rollers, where it is spun or twisted into yarn. 
The yarn is then woven into cloth. This is done by many threads, called 
the warp threads, arranged in parallel lines, and another set of threads 

378 The Training School Quarterly 

rapidly woven in and out in opposite direction. These are called the 
ivoof threads. The cloth is then washed and pressed. The fuzz that is on 
the cloth is caused by passing the cloth through the teasel machine. 

Each process of manufacturing will have to be enlarged upon and 
adapted to suit the grade in which it is taught. 

The fourth day we had a general review of both pastoral life and the 
manufacture of wool. In the review I succeeded in getting the stories 
of each from the children. Sadie Thompson, '18. 

Mother Goose Week in the First Grade 

For one whole "Mother Goose Week" the Mother Goose rhymes were 
used for all kinds of work in the first grade. The rhymes were used in 
reading, language, writing, and for seat work. 

In preparation for the "Mother Goose Week" both reading sections 
read some rhymes. The lower section had the rhymes "Little Boy Blue" 
and "Jack and Jill." In these rhymes they learned the words, little, 
boy, blue, come, horn, sheep, in, the, meadow, corn, after, asleep, Jack, 
and, Jill, hill, get, water, down. They memorized the rhymes, sang them 
and played them. 

In playing Little Boy Blue, they chose some one to be Little Boy Blue, 
some children to be the cows, and some to be the sheep. Little Boy Blue 
lay down behind the desk. The sheep and cows were on one side and in 
the front of the room. The children said the rhyme one at a time, then 
others were chosen to play it. In the rhyme, Jack and Jill, a little girl 
and boy were Jack and Jill. They used the waste paper basket for a pail 
and ran across the room for going up the hill. They said the rhyme as 
they played it. 

In the higher section they had the rhymes, "Little Boy Blue," "Little 
Bo-Peep," "Jack and Jill," "Humpty Dumpty," "Little Bettie Blue," 
"Lucky Locket," and "Baa ! Baa ! Black Sheep." They memorized these, 
and sang the ones they knew, which were "Jack and Jill" and "Baa ! 
Baa ! Black Sheep." 

The next week was used to review the Mother Goose rhymes. This 
was called "Mother Goose Week." The reading, writing, language, 
music, and seat work were correlated with Mother Goose. In the reading 
they read Mother Goose rhymes and little stories connected with the 
rhymes in the primer. In the writing lessons they learned to write words 
taken from the rhymes. The words they learned to write were, sheep, 
asleep, Jack, and, Jill, to, get, and, water. 

For seat work they illustrated the rhymes "Little Boy Blue," "Jack and 
Jill," and "Little Bo-Peep" with paper cutting. The children learned 
a new song, "Six Little Mice." They sang this with the ones they already 
knew, "Baa ! Baa ! Black Sheep" and "Jack and Jill." 

Suggestions 379 

In the language work they asked Mother Goose riddles. Each child 
would say something that would suggest a riddle, as, "I am a little hoy. 
I went to sleep under the haystack. Who am I?" The other children 
would guess the rhyme. The one who guessed right asked the next riddle. 

One day they had a game they called "A Mother Goose Circus." In 
this game a stage manager was chosen. He decided on some rhyme he 
wanted to present to the room. He chose the characters and gave them 
instructions. These children left the room for a few minutes to make 
all their preparations, then they came back and acted silently some 
rhyme they had had. In acting "Little Bettie Blue" one little girl took 
off one of her shoes and came into the room hopping and looking all 
around. The other children guessed it right at first. In acting "Little 
Bo-Peep" a little girl walked across the room with a crook in her hand. 
She looked very sad. "Little Boy Blue" and "Jack and Jill" were acted 
in the same way as they were illustrated in the reading lesson. 

When the children guessed the rhyme, instead of saying, "It's Jack 
and Jill," they gave the whole rhyme, "Jack and Jill," or the whole of 
whatever rhyme they thought it was. The child who guessed the rhyme 
was allowed to be stage manager for the next rhyme. 

Since "Mother Goose Week" was at the beginning of the month, a 
Mother Goose calendar was made. This was made by two of the girls 
teaching. It was a Crayola drawing of Jack and Jill going up the hill. 
The children put the date in for each day. 

This work was very interesting to both the teachers and the pupils. 

Louise Ckoom, '18. 

The Continuation of Home Building 

The furnishing of the play-house is now occupying the attention of 
the first grade, as a continuation of the home building, which was given 
in the fall issue of The Quarterly. 

The children and the student-teacher decided they would let the lady 
who was to live in the house furnish it. They concentrated their atten- 
tion on her for a while and let the house alone, as they wanted to know 
something about her before they trusted her to furnish the house. A 
doll was presented to the class as mistress of the home, and they named 
her Katie Gold. 

The making of the dress for the lady of the doll-house was first taken 
up and made a most interesting lesson, for the boys as well as the girls. 

The little one-piece dress with the sleeves and the dress all cut together 
was chosen for the design, because it was easier to cut and make. 
Teacher had them first to cut the pattern which we would use later in 
cutting the dress. A piece of paper 6x9 inches was given to each child. 
This was large enough as the doll was very small. 

The teacher first cut one, and gave the directions as she cut, and when 
she finished, the children cut theirs. For the next assignment she asked 

380 The Training School Quarterly 

them if they would lite to bring the material to be used for the doll 
dress, and said if each one would bring some cloth she would have lots of 
different dresses. Most of them were eager to do this. 

The next lesson was devoted to the cutting of the dress. Many of the 
children brought the goods. Some brought gingham, some silk, some 
percale, and some thin white goods. It was surprising to see how inter- 
ested the boys were in this. The teacher also took some extra material 
in case there was some one who would not bring any. Several patterns 
were cut and given to those that did not get theirs right. The fact was 
brought out that, if the pattern was not perfect, then the dress would 
not be perfect, and Katie Gold would never consent to wear a dress that 
did not fit. 

The class was asked to observe carefully while the teacher folded the 
cloth and pinned the pattern on it, seeing that both the folded edge of 
the pattern and the goods were together. Then the cutting was begun 
by cutting around the pattern as directed. 

The third lesson, and most enjoyable of all, was the sewing of the 
dress, which was done in this way : The teacher made the dress slowly, 
one step at a time, the children doing each thing immediately after her. 
The first step was threading the needle; second, the hemming of both 
sleeves ; third, sewing the sleeves and down the sides ; fifth, and last, 
gathering the neck. Then the dress was completed. Tiny fingers all 
over the room were hard at work, each child trying to make his or hers 
the best, for they were told that the one who made the neatest dress 
would have the honor of letting Katie Gold wear that one first. The 
teacher was astonished at the dresses these little unskilled fingers made, 
and it was hard to judge among several which was the best. 

Now that they had Katie Gold all dressed up, they were ready to help 
furnish the house. 

In looking over the doll-house we found that there were three things 
needed to add to Katie Gold's pleasure and to make the furnishing of 
her bedroom complete. These were the rugs, the bed, and the dresser; 
so our next task was to make these. The chairs and table had already 
been made. 

The weaving of the rugs on the wooden loom, using strips of white 
and blue cheesecloth, was what was done first. This gave the children 
an insight into a big industry. 

Squares of tow-sack were given them as an introduction, and they 
were asked to pull the threads and see how the material was made. They 
at once saw that they had been doing work previous to that on the same 
principle in the weaving of the mats. 

After this introduction, most of them were able to go on weaving the 
rugs with but very little help. Several lessons were needed to complete 
this work, and it was surprising and inspiring to see the results obtained 
in these rugs by children so young. 

Suggestions 381 

Our next work was the completion of the furniture for Katie Gold's 
bedroom. With the children's suggestion, the bed was made first. This, 
they said, was the most important, for she must have a place to sleep. 
The bed was made with the cream drawing paper folded into sixteen 
squares. The directions were given, and the work was done step by 
step, first by the teacher, then followed by the children. The dresser 
was made in the same way by using the sixteen-fold paper. 

These lessons formed a good basis for language and incidental read- 
ing; so our next lesson grew out of these. 

The lesson was begun by asking the children how they would like to 
learn more about their little classmates. As many as would came up to 
the front and told something about themselves. Many of them were 
anxious to do this. To get them started off on this, the teacher first told 
a short story about herself, and then the children that wished to told 
something about themselves. 

The teacher asked them if there was some one else that they would 
like to know about — one that they had been doing so much for. At once 
they all responded, "Katie Gold." 

The teacher had already written on the board, before the class, short 
sentences concerning Katie Gold. She then told them that as Katie 
Gold could not talk for herself, her little life story had been written 
on the board. Then they were asked to read the following sentences : 

My name is Katie Gold. 

I am the lady of the doll-house. 

I have lots of pretty dresses. 

The Blues and Reds made them for me. 

(The room was divided into two sections : the higher section was called 
the Blues, and the lower the Reds.) 

They made nice rugs for my house. 

They made me a nice bed to sleep on, and a dresser to dress by. 

The little boys and girls are so nice to me. 

They even built my house. 

I love all of them. 

After they had read the sentences with the help of the teacher, a little 

game was used, so that they would get the new words. It was played 

this way: A child was chosen as captain, and he was to come up and 

say, "I am thinking of a sentence. Can you guess the one I am think- 

ng of?" The reply was to be: "Are you thinking of, 'My name is 

vatie Gold'?" pointing to the sentence as he or she read it. If this 

vas not the sentence, then the captain was to say : "No ; I am not think- 

ng of, 'My name is Katie Gold' " or, if it is, "Yes ; I am thinking of, 

My name is Katie Gold,' " and so on the game goes. 

This also trains them in sentence making. 

382 The Training School Quarterly 

My time having expired, I bequeathed to my successor the pleasure of 
completing the furnishings of the remaining rooms for Katie Gold's 
house. Blanche Atwater, '18. 

Using the Hands in Teaching Eskimo Life 

In my teaching in the first grade, for two weeks much of my drawing, 
construction work, and language was in connection with Eskimo life. 

The following outline shows how Eskimo life was divided into differ- 
ent lessons in language : 

I. Description of country, animals, and dress. 
II. How the Eskimo lives; what his home is like; what he eats. 
III. Transportation, occupation, amusements. 

I shall not attempt to give a complete report of what was done in 
teaching Eskimo life in the first grade, because this has been in The 
Quarterly before. I wish to emphasize the handwork, that is, the draw- 
ing and construction, that we did this year. Before this the sand-table 
has been used, and all of this work has been for that. 

Each day in my language lessons points were made clear in the minds 
of the children by a simple sketch on the board. In telling them about 
the "Great Northern Lights," not until I had sketched the rays behind 
the great mounds of snow and ice was I able to make it clear in their 
minds. Their canoe was also made more vivid by the blackboard 

Most interesting construction and handwork grew out of each day's 
lesson, for after the first day the child had a pretty clear idea of how the 
Eskimo boy looked dressed in his fur clothes, and I had them cut him in 
two different positions. The first was made very simple by folding the 
paper in the middle ; the other, a little harder for them, showed the bone 
he had in his hand ; but very good results were obtained. 

After another day's lesson they were interested in making a home for 
their little boy. From their previous language lesson they had a good 
mental picture of the igloo, and I let them cut the front view and also 
the side view — of course, cutting one for them first myself. 

Knowing my time was limited, I let other girls, who taught reading 
to one section at a time, give, as seat work to the other section, other 
things connected with Eskimos, such as dogs, sleds, bear, etc. No class 
time was taken up with this. Before beginning her reading lesson, the 
girl placed the object she had cut on the blackboard before them and 
they straightway went to work and interfered not in the least with the 
reading lesson. Each time, at the end of the lesson, I selected the best 
from the lot and kept for the poster, which I had had in mind all along. 

I mounted the children's own cuttings on black paper to make an 
Eskimo village, and used chalk marks for the snow and the "Northern 

Suggestions 383 

Lights." This made a very attractive poster. The children were just 
as interested and excited over the poster as I, and especially those "who 
found their own cuttings on it. Mattie Paul, '18. 

Seeing the Pictures in a Poem 

I selected the little poem, "The Fairies," to teach to the children in 
the third grade, because it is so rich in pictures and in other suggestions 
which are dear to children that are still in the fairy-loving age. The 
title had a charm for them because of their love for the fairy tale. 

My aim was to lead the children to enjoy and appreciate the poem 
by helping them to see the pictures in it. This poem is found in "The 
Progressive Road to Reading," pages 28-30. The author is William 

As I read the poem I told them I wanted them to be thinking about 
the pictures they saw and to be able to tell me some of them when I had 
finished reading the poem. I then read the entire poem, then I asked 
several children to tell me one thing they saw. One child said he saw 
the old king sitting up on the hilltop. Another saw the Fairies with 
red caps and green jackets and white owls' feathers. Another one saw 
the frogs these little Fairies had for their watch-dogs. After this I 
read the poem stanza by stanza. I will quote only one stanza : 

High on the hilltop 

The old king sits; 
He's now so old and gray 

He's nigh lost his wits. 
With a bridge of white mist 

Columbkill he crosses, 
On his stately journey 

From Slieveleague to Rosses; 
Or going up with music 

On cold starry nights, 
To sup with the queen 

Of the gay Northern Lights. 

These are the questions I asked on this stanza : 

Where does the king of the Fairies live ? To this question I got this 
response: He lives up on the top of a high hill. The old Archaism, 
"Nigh," was very funny to them, and they replied that they thought he 
was so old he was almost crazy. 

What kind of bridge did they cross? 
What do you mean by Columbkill ? 
Whom did the king visit? 
What are the northern lights? 
hey did not know what the northern lights were ; so I told them they 
3 lights seen in the northern sky, but we don't see them here as much 
hey do up far north in Eskimo Land. 

384 The Training School Quarterly 

The questions I asked on the other stanzas were these: 

What word tells us the size of these people? 

How do they dress? 

Where else do some of these fairies live except in the mountain and 

What do they live on? To this question I got this response: They 
lived on crispy pancakes, but they were not like the ones our mothers 
make today. 

What did they have for their watch-dog? Why was he called a watch- 

The fourth stanza tells us some of the things they do, so I asked these 
questions : 

What did the Fairies plant? 

Where did they plant them? 

What would they do to people if they dig their plants up? When I 
asked them if they would have dug them up, they all said : "No, indeed ; 
not for any thing, because if we had, they would have put thorns in our 
beds at night." 

Why do people fear these little men ? I got this response : Because 
most people were afraid they would do something these fairies did not 
like. Another thing we found out was that they always went about 

After we had seen the pictures in each stanza separately, I had five 
children to come up and read one stanza each. Then I read the poem 
again so as to be sure to leave the right form before the children. 

The last five minutes were taken up in studying the pictures in the 
book. This made it more real. 

The children as well as the teacher seemed to enjoy the poem very 
much. Alice Outland, '18. 

A Sentence Book 

Although it is claimed that grammar is not taught in the intermediate 
grades, there is a certain amount of it that comes under the head of 
"Language work." By the end of the fifth grade the kinds of sentences 
and the different parts of speech should have been mastered. "Language 
in the Elementary Schools," by Leiper, has at the end of the section for 
fifth grade the amount of technical grammar that should be covered. 

The teaching of the sentences comes first. The teacher should let the 
children see that the sentence is used whenever one person wishes to tell 
a thing to another person. When he writes it with his hand, instead of 
telling it with his tongue, the eye of the other person catches it. You 
must lead them to recognize sentences by the eye before you can expect 
them to write them. This can be done by having them hunt for sentences 

Suggestions 385 

in magazines, newspapers, pamphlets, catalogues, and posters. The war 
posters on display now have excellent examples, as, "Will you do your 
bit?" "Everybody is Helping "Win the War," "Women, Save America," 
"Economy Will Win the World," and others of the same type are in 
abundance everywhere, if the teacher will only lead the pupil to "keep 
his eyes open." 

After they can readily recognize the kinds of sentences, the children 
can clip simple, short sentences they find in print and they can have a 
scrap-book in which to keep them. 

The next step is leading the children to see the subject and the predi- 
cate, the two parts of the sentence. The distinction between the subject 
and the predicate was vividly shown recently in a Food poster, in the 
sentence, "Food Will Win the War." Food was printed in red and the 
remainder of the sentence in black. A child who had learned the subject 
and the predicate would be delighted in finding this. Let the children 
bring clipped sentences to class and cut them into two parts, pasting the 
subject on one side of the book and the predicate on the opposite. If a 
child sees sentences or illustrations in his reading lessons or books that 
he cannot cut up, he can copy these neatly in the scrap-book. These are 
only type suggestions by which the principles of sentence structure may 
be reviewed and applied. 

As they study each part of speech they can look for these in print and 
make collections of them. Sometimes for busy work they can look for 
nouns, cut them out, and have a list of them to paste in their scrap- 
books. This can be done, of course, with any part of speech. 

Near the last part of the fifth grade it is well to check the pupils up 
and see if they understand what they have been doing. The making 
of the scrap-book can be postponed until this review, and can be used 
as a device by which the test can be successfully directed. 

The scrap-book can be easily made and is very simple. Heavy card- 
board taken from old tablet backs or grey drawing paper may be used 
for the back and the white drawing paper as a filler. At the top of 
each page the name of the topic being studied may be written and the 
illustrations pasted in neatly beneath. 

If the child is made to realize that grammar is not only learned in 
school and in a book labeled "Grammar" or "Language," but is in all his 
life, he will see the importance of it, and it will then cease to be an irk- 
some, uninteresting, and formal set of rules memorized and applied 
only during the grammar recitation period. He also takes great pride 
in the subject when he has a grammar book that he has made himself. 

Bess Tillitt. '18. 

386 The Training School Quarterly 

Some Indoor Games for the Schoolroom 

Indoor games used for rest between periods of work requiring mental 
effort, or used on a rainy-day program, are good because they avoid the 
unnecessary handling of books and pencils, and the general restlessness 
of the children in the classroom. They get "the wiggles" out of the 
children, or, in other words, they furnish an outlet for their pent-up 
animal spirits. They are particularly useful in grades below the fourth. 
Only five minutes in the classroom will wake up a class — five minutes 
of lively competition, of laughter and of involuntary interest. What 
a change for the next task requiring concentration ! 

The timid, shrinking child learns to take his turn with others; the 
bold, selfish child learns that he may not monopolize the game or cheat 
the others out of their opportunities to play. Cooperation is the very 
life of the game. 

Below are suggestions for a few of the many games that are especially 
good for cooperation, which may be used for these rest periods in the 
primary grades. 

Automobile Race 

This schoolroom game is played with most of tbe class sitting, and is a 
relay race between alternate rows. The first child in each alternate row, 
at a signal from the teacher (or a child playing the part of referee), 
leaves his seat on the right side, runs forward around his seat and then 
to the rear, completely encircling his row of seats, until his own is again 
reached. As soon as he is seated, the child next behind him encircles 
the row of seats, starting to the front on his right side and running to 
the rear on the left side of the row. This continues until the last child 
has encircled the row and regains his seat. The row wins whose last 
player is first seated. The remaining alternate rows then play, and, 
lastly, the two winning rows may compete for the championship. 

The interest may be increased by making tbe race between different 
makes of automobiles. The first child in each row chooses the make of 
the automobile which he is to represent. The winning row then claims 
that his chosen automobile is the winner 

Cat and Mice 

One player is chosen to be cat, and hides behind or under the teacher's 
desk. After the cat is hidden, the teacher beckons to five or six other 
players, who creep softly up to the desk, and when all are assembled, 
scratch on it with their fingers, to represent the nibbling of mice. As 
soon as the cat hears this she scrambles out from under the desk and 
gives chase to the mice, who may save themselves only by getting back 
to their holes (seats). If a mouse is caught, the cat changes places with 
him for the next round of the game. If no mouse is caught, the same 
cat may continue, or the teacher may choose another at her discretion. 

Suggestions 387 

A different set of mice should be chosen each time, so as to give all 
of the players an opportunity to join in the game. 

I Sat, "Stoop !" 

This game is a variation of the old familiar game "Simon says," but 
calls for much more activity. 

The players stand at their seats or in a circle, and in front of them 
the leader or teacher. The teacher says quickly, "I say, Stoop !" and 
immediately stoops herself and rises again, somewhat as in a curtsy. 
The players all imitate the action; but when the leader says, "I say, 
Stand !" at the same time stooping herself, the players should remain 
standing. Any who make a mistake and stoop when the leader says, 
"I say, Stand!" are out of the game. 

The Lost Child 

The players are all seated, with the exception of one, who is sent from 
the room. When this player is well out of sight and hearing, the teacher 
beckons one of the players, who leaves the group and hides, under the 
teacher's desk or in some other place. The rest of the players then 
change their seats, and the one who is blinded is called back and tries 
to tell which player is hidden. When successful, this first guesser may 
be seated and another chosen to be blinded. Otherwise, the first guesser 
blinds again. 


All players stand by their seats with their arms at their sides, ready 
to begin the game. The teacher in front of the class says, "Chickens 
have feathers," and immediately raises both arms, and lets them fall 
again. The players all imitate the action — that is, if the animal, fowl, 
or bird has feathers. If not, the players stand motionless while teacher 
goes through same process. The game continues, one sentence rapidly 
following another, as, "Catbirds have feathers," "Rabbits have feathers," 
"Dogs have feathers," etc. 

Any pupil who makes a mistake and raises his arms when the object 
does not have feathers, takes his seat and is out of the game. 

Guess Who 

The teacher, standing before the class, calls one of the players to be 
the guesser, and blindfolds him by putting her hand over the player's 
eyes. The teacher then signals one of the players from the group to 
come and stand in front of the guesser, while he, by feeling of the hair, 
dress, etc., guesses what player is standing before him. If the guesser 
is successful in guessing the correct one, he then has another guess. If 
'not successful, the guesser takes his seat and second player takes his 
place. Willie Wilson, '18. 


388 The Training School Quarterly 

Playground Games 

I am giving below some games which were originated or adapted, 
and tried out by a group of children I knew before coming to the Train- 
ing School, and which I used very successfully at the Model School. 

I. Plating Indians 

(Ten to thirty or more players') 

Select two children to be Indians. The other children have their 
home marked off on the playground, using the rest of the playground 
as woods. The children leave their home to play in the woods, 
and are chased by the Indians. The first child that is caught 
is made prisoner and is bound to a tree with a long rope. A 
knot is not permitted to be tied in the rope, but the rope is wound 
around the child and the tree so that the ends are not easily found. The 
other children try to unwind the rope and set the prisoner free without 
being caught. While the Indians are chasing some of the children home, 
the other children are trying to set the prisoner free. If they are caught, 
they also are made prisoners and placed in a prison near the tree, and 
they cannot help to set the other prisoner free. If the prisoner is set 
free before all the children are caught, the second prisoner is bound, 
leaving all the other prisoners in prison; but if all the children are 
caught before the first prisoner is set free, the first two children that 
were caught are selected as the Indians and all the other children are 
permitted to return home, and the game is continued as before. 

II. No Bears Out Tonight 

(Eight to twenty or more players) 

Select two children to be bears. The other children have their home 
marked off on the playground, using the rest of the playground as woods. 
The children leave their home to play, and are chased by the bears. 
The first child that is caught is placed in a prison about fifteen feet 
from the home. The other children try to set the prisoner free, by get- 
ting to the prison without being caught. If they succeed in getting to 
the prison they cannot be caught until they return home. If all the 
children are caught before the first prisoner is set free, the first two 
that were caught are selected as bears; but if all the children are not 
caught, and the "bears" are tired out, the first two children that were 
made prisoners are selected as the bears, and the game is continued as 

Suggestions 389 

III. Tap Hand 

(Ten to thirty or more players) 

The children are divided into two equal groups and stationed in 
straight lines opposite each other about thirty feet apart. The children 
hold out their hands with palms up, while one child selected from one 
of the sides lightly taps each one of them, and then taps one hard. The 
one which he taps hard chases the tapper. If he catches him before he 
reaches his side, the chaser claims the tapper as his captive. Then the 
chaser becomes tapper on the opposite side. The object is to get all the 
children on one side. 

IV. Sheepy 

(Five to thirty or more players) 

Draw a large ring in which all the children except the shepherd are 
stationed. The shepherd walks forward calling, "Sheepy ! Sheepy !" 
while the children in the ring, the sheep, follow behind, answering with 
"Baa ! Baa !" When the shepherd gets away from the ring a short dis- 
tance, he suddenly turns and chases them. All which are caught before 
they get to the ring have to help get the others out by reaching into the 
ring and pulling them out, being very careful not to go into the ring with 
both feet. After all are out, the first one caught has to be shepherd; 
and so on. 

Below are some games which were also very successfully used, the 
directions of which are found in The Game Book written by Bancroft : 

Stealing Sticks. 


Prison Base. 

Follow the Leader. 

Pretty Girls' Country. 

Jessie Howaed, '18. 

Local Errors 

There was a stranger from another part who visited a certain town 
in Eastern Carolina. As this section was new to him, his ears were 
naturally sensitive to local errors. 

Below are some of the errors he heard while he was in this town : 

The "Double Negative," he heard used on the street very often. Some- 
body would say, "I don't think the train has come nohow," or "I don't 
know nothing about that suffragette business." 

The ladies, he noticed, were very fond of saying, "have got." He 
would hear them in the stores saying: "Well, I have got me a new 
spring hat," or, "I have got a new dress." 

He visited the school one day. The pupils said "hain't," "ain't," 
"tain't," and "narry." The teacher thought she was doing her duty by 

390 The Training School Quarterly 

teaching them the correct usage, "It is I." She didn't seem to think 
that it would be much better for them to say, "It is me" all of their 
lives, than to say "hain't," "ain't," "tain't," and "narry." 

At church even his ears were offended. He noticed that the preacher 
always said, "Between you and I," and "These kind." 

He noticed people used the wrong tense in speaking. They would 
say, "He come last week," "I takened," "I seen." But when he heard 
some one say "I would a-went," he just had to cover his ears and grit 
his teeth. 

One night as the stranger was coming from the theater he heard a 
voice behind him saying, "She certainly sung well." A soft little femin- 
ine voice replied, "Yes, I think she sung beautiful." 

He grew very tired of hearing the schoolgirls say "It's been a-being," 
"It belongs to be," and "How come?" But they continued to say it. 

The stranger only smiled when he heard somebody saying, "I'm 

awfully glad to meet you, Mr. ," or, "This is an awfully pretty 


Some would always leave off their verb endings. They would say, "I 
ask you to come yesterday, but you didn't." 

The newsboys were very careless in their speech. They would say, 
"Please buy a Post from me, Mister. Bill, he done sold three this morn- 
ing, and I ain't sold a one." 

The stranger left, but he long afterwards remembered this town in 
Eastern Carolina where he heard so many errors. 

Lola May Gurley, '18. 

[The two suggestions that follow are from the Alumnae. We have been 
hoping the time would come when we could get suggestions that our former 
students have actually tested out for themselves and have found successful. 
We trust that these suggestions from the Alumnae will become a permanent 
feature of the Quarterly. — The Editor.] 

Fourth Grade Geography 

In teaching Part One of the Primary Geography, I have found the 
making of a geography by the class a very successful device for the 
review and thorough understanding of the fundamentals of the subject. 

Before starting the book I explained carefully what we wanted to do, 
and that instead of "Dodge's Primary Geography," ours would be 
"Fourth Grade's Geography." They seemed anxious to begin the book 
for my future use and enjoyment. 

Beginning with the first chapter, they collected pictures of all different 
kinds of homes from newspapers, magazines, and post-cards. Then, for 
the second chapter, illustrations of villages, towns, and cities, and in 
the same way for each succeeding chapter. 



Then each afternoon four of the class were selected to make a chapter 
or a part of a chapter in the book. We used a good notebook, with 
perforated leaves, that could be easily enlarged. The children who wrote 
well were honored by having the privilege of writing in the book just 
what they decided upon, with suggestions from me, while the others 
selected and pasted in the book the illustrations from the large supply 
of pictures brought in. Each one wanted to write in the book, so they 
worked better at the writing period to improve in form and neatness. 

After each chapter was completed the class had the opportunity to see 
the geography. 

The children have thoroughly enjoyed the work, and I believe the ideas 
are their own now. Juanita E. Dixon, '11. 

An Outline for Geography 

I found a very good plan for teaching Geography suggested to us last 
summer at the institute at Chapel Hill. I hesitate in offering it because 
some one may have been using it already in or near Greenville. It really 
has helped me more than anything else I have tried. 

I take it up in studying a new country before using either my own 
questions or those in the book, and the pupils seem to find it much easier 
than anything else I have tried. Of course, this is just a suggestion. 

[To be filled out by pupil during study period — divided according to ability 
of class.] 

I. What Nature has done 

Size and shape 


Coast line 


Rainfall and winds 

Surface features 

Mountains; Plains; Highlands 


Bays; gulfs; lakes 

Seas; straits 


1. Those for clothing 

2. Those for shelter 

3. Those for food 


1. Those for clothing 
Animals J 2. Those for shelter 
3. Those for food 

392 The Training School Quarterly 

C Ocean currents 
Climate J Winds 

{ Heat belts 

(did not take this up much with fifth grade; I just let them 
realize there were such things from map.) 

Minerals { Precious 
j Useful 

II. What man has done: 

1. Political divisions 
World relations \ 2. Capitals 

3. Chief cities 


Schools; colleges; noted buildings; churches 

(We did not take this up much. I mean deeply.) 

r Roads; highways 
III. Transportation J Railways 
[ By water 

I have found so many times pupils seem to know only one way of 
studying Geography — it will be all text-book matter and no questions 
for map study, or all map study and no text study. Many times pictures 
and small maps are seldom used. By using everything at hand the 
pupils usually become interested in this study, and like it. 

If followed too closely, this outline gets a little monotonous ; and it 
is better to use it sometimes as a review to fix information, after the 
teacher's own questions from text and much map study have brought 
this out. It is hard to make this subject vivid and real to most children. 

Emily Gayle, '14. 


You, members of the Alumnse, will be given the glad hand at Com- 
mencement, even if it is not the festive occasion it has been in former 
times. An account of it and an explanation is found elsewhere in this 
number of The Quarterly. A "simplified commencement" means one 
that has only the essential features and no festivities. 

We can have a quiet, intimate, family gathering. You can enjoy the 
School and can learn the new members who come into your fold at that 
time much better than when there were so many distractions. 

The Alumnse meeting will be on Saturday, June 1. 

Some time ago the editors of The Quarterly sent out a questionnaire 
to the members of the Alumnse, asking for a number of things. The 
answers have been coming in steadily, and we trust that before they stop 
we shall have a complete record of the Alumnse, and from these returns 
we can file the roll and keep it checked up every year. There has been 
no regular way of keeping up with the girls. Some of them are near by 
and we see and hear from them frequently, but others farther off we are 
not in touch with. The letters and questionnaire were sent out with a 
double purpose : one was to get in touch with the girls and find out what 
kind of work they are doing, so as to get a record and some personal news 
from them; another was to get together enough statistics to work on so 
that we can see exactly what the girls are doing and are getting. In the 
campaign for increasing teachers' salaries it will be well to find out 
exactly what teachers are getting, what they have to pay for board and 
laundry, and to show what they are doing, and what conditions they 
have to work under. We have a fine opportunity to show up some inter- 
esting and convincing figures. In the first place, we wish to prove that 
here is a set of trained teachers who are scattered all over the eastern 
section of the State and in some parts of the western section, who are 
earning far more than they are getting. We can prove some things 
from statistics. Superintendents can speak largely for their own schools, 
but they get the rest from hearsay and statistics. 

What the Training School girls are actually doing in this State, and 
how they are doing it, is what we are trying to find out from the Alumnse. 
We wish to get hold of this so that we can speak with authority and 
speak in facts and figures, impersonally, and publish it so that he who 

394 The Training School Quarterly 

runs may read. Where the girls are teaching, the kind of schools they 
are teaching in, the part they are taking in community life, the part the 
school plays in the community, the cost of living, and the price paid and 
received for service done, are some of the things that we can find out 
from the girls who are teaching. Some of the girls are no longer teach- 
ing, but they are doing other things — some of them in business, some of 
them are married. They are certainly a part of life, and whatever they 
are doing is of interest. Each one is filling some place, and we want to 
know what. 

You do not know about each other; you have scattered out over the 
State, and perhaps feel that what you are doing is so little compared to 
what others are doing; but that little counts. There is no longer the 
close personal touch between the girls there was when the Alumnae Asso- 
ciation was made up of girls that knew each other. You see new names 
in school affairs, just as we in the School see new faces ; but you are not 
strangers, and you are interested in what any Training School girl is 

As the School grows older and larger we do not wish to lose that family 
feeling we have always had. 

Mattie Bright, '14, who is teaching at Dixie School, reports a Junior 
Red Cross and a War Savings Society in the school. The pupils have 
been knitting sweaters, and have knitted one quilt. The school is well 
equipped for athletics. 

Mary Bridgman, '15, who is teaching at her home in Lake Landing, 
reports a Red Cross Auxiliary in the town. She was planning to organize 
a Junior Red Cross in the school, but on account of the bad weather 
and contagious diseases the school has been closed for several weeks. 
The school bought three fifty-dollar Liberty Bonds. 

Mrs. Frank Greathouse, Eula Proctor, '12, paid a flying visit to the 
School one afternoon in February, coming over from Rocky Mount in 
an automobile. She says she is practicing conservation so strenuously 
that Frank says she is giving him seven eatless days a week. She is 
doing Red Cross work, and substitutes in teaching whenever she is 
called on. 

Sue Walston, '17, was married in January to Edward Pitt, of Tarboro. 

ALUMNiE 395 

The friends of Lalla Pritchard, '13, deeply sympathize with her in 
the loss of her mother. 

Rosa Wooten, '14, is teaching at Chicod. She recently gave an enter- 
tainment which was very successful. Her school was the first in the 
county to have a "soldier of thrift." 

Nell Dunn, '16, who is teaching in Washington, reports that they are 
making every effort to have every child in school a member of the 
Red Cross. 

Amelia Clarke, '17, has recently had a box party in her school. She 
reports they have a good rural library, and use it for reference work 
and reading circle for the children. She says the supervisor has helped 
her greatly through the group-center teachers' meetings. 

Allen Gardner and Ophelia O'Brian, who are teaching at Graingers, 
report the following public entertainments : Hallowe'en, Christmas tree, 
North Carolina Cay, and George Washington's Birthday. They say 
their supervisor helps them very much, and they could not do without her. 

Louise Smaw, '14, who is teaching at Grifton, reports a sewing class 
in the school doing work for Red Cross. The pupils are very much 
interested in athletics. 

Sadie Nichols, '14, is doing primary work near Durham County. Her 
school is interested in War Savings Stamp certificates, and a committee 
is appointed to sell Thrift Stamps. 

Emily Gale, '14, who is teaching sixth grade in Chadbourn, reports a 
service flag in her school with 29 stars on it. There is also a Junior 
Red Cross and War Savings Club in the school. They have basket-ball 
and tennis courts and a good library. The faculty and the pupils of 
the High School, together, subscribe to several magazines, three leading 
State papers, and their county papers. From the use of these they are 
getting good results. 

396 The Training School Quarterly 

Eva Pridgen, '16, who is teaching Primary work in the Gardnerville 
school, says there is a Junior Red Cross Auxiliary in the school. The 
school children have bought War Saving Stamps. 

Lucile O'Brian, '16, who has been teaching in Enon School near 
Oxford, reports a Junior Red Cross in the school. The school has been 
very active in the Red Cross work. Lucile is now teaching at Phoebus, 
Va. She went there the first of the year. 

Millie Roebuck, '15, is teaching the fifth and the seventh grades in 
Robersonville High School. She is doing Red Cross and Food Con- 
servation work. 

Gelene Ijames, '16, is doing Primary work at Farmington. 

Pattie Dowell, '11, is teaching the first grade in the city schools at 
Winston-Salem. She takes an active part in the society and club work. 
The teachers of this school have been aiding in the offices of the Exemp- 
tion Board in filling out questionnaires. They count this as valuable 

Bettie Spencer, '15, who is teaching second grade at her home in 
Washington, says they are encouraging Red Cross work, and have made 
some very attractive scrap-books for the soldiers in school. 

Irene White, '15, writes that she has been having box parties to 
lengthen the school term, as they only had a six months school. She 
has also organized a Sunday school in the community, which she teaches. 
There was not one there before. She is teaching "Burroughs School," 
near Williamston. 

Emma Brown, '15, writes that athletics is encouraged in the school 
at Richlands by having tennis and basket-ball courts, and by introducing 

Alumnae 397 

playground games. She says the literary societies take an active part in 
the school life by giving entertainments and plays. They have a Red 
Cross society connected with the school, in which sewing and knitting 
is carried on. 

Emma Cobb, '14, is rural supervisor of Edgecombe County. She is 
the first one to step from the actual schoolroom to a higher place. 

Hilda Critcher, '12, is teaching at Conetoe. She has the fourth, fifth, 
and sixth grades, and says she has her hands full with school work, 
Junior Red Cross workers, and Parents' club. 

Luella Lancaster, '14, who is teaching first grade at Tarboro, ST. C, 
writes that the children are very enthusiastic over the buying of Thrift 
Stamps. In the High School they have a committee of boys and girls 
who ask others to buy. 

Mattie Cox, '14, has first and second grade work in Eureka graded 
schools. They have been selling War Saving and Thrift Stamps in 
school, and have had their county demonstrator to give lectures on how 
to conserve food. 

Grace Smith, '14, reports that the boys and girls of her school gave 
corn to be sold for Red Cross work. Grace is teaching at Apex. 

Juanita Dixon, '11, who is teaching at Winterville, reports that lec- 
tures on Food Conservation have been well attended and very effective. 

Katie Sawyer, '15, is teaching at Jacksontown, near Winterville, the 
same place she taught at last year ; but they had to increase her salary 
and lengthen the term in order to get her back. As there was no chance 
to get anything from the county funds, the people are paying it from 
their own purses. She says some one has to do the one-teacher work, 

398 The Training School Quarterly 

and she enjoys it; the only trouble is that she sees so much to do and 
finds she cannot do it all. She has a Woman's Betterment Society which 
meets twice a month. At a Hallowe'en party they raised $42.35. She 
is interested in Sunday school work. 

Blanche Everett, '14, is staying at her home in Palmyra this winter 
and is keeping house. She keeps busy doing Red Cross work and joining 
in all kinds of community work. Blanche had charge of the Alumnae 
Bazaar which was held at the Training School in December, on one of 
the snowy, bad days. 

Ethel Everett, '16, is at Peabody College for Teachers again this year. 

Edna Campbell, '12, is teaching at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, in one of 
Tennessee Normal Schools. She is doing critic work in the school that 
corresponds to our Model School. She goes into Nashville at regular 
intervals for work at Peabody College for Teachers. 

Gladys Fleming, '14, is teaching at Watertown, Tennessee, again this 

Ruth Davis, '13, is teaching in Carthage, Tennessee. When it was just 
too late to get the item of news in the last issue of The Quarterly, Ruth 
dropped in on us, having come over from Washington to spend the day. 
Her school had suspended for a while because of contagious diseases, 
and as she had more vacation then than she expected at Christmas, she 
came to Washington to see her sister, Clara. She and Bettie Spencer 
came over and spent the day in Greenville. 

Mrs. Clara Davis Wright, '15, has a little boy, Charles Wright, Jr., 
who is a wonderful little fellow. 

Marguerite Wallace (Mrs. Ray Jones), '16, has a beautiful boy. 

Alumna 399 

There is not a handsomer boy in Greenville than the little son of Mrs. 
Cary Warren (Marjorie Davis, '12). 

Estelle Greene, '12, and Ruebelle Forbes, '16, have been working regu- 
larly with the Exemption Board in Greenville. 

Gertrude Critcher, '14, is staying in Mrs. Lee's Millinery Store. Ger- 
trude likes her job, as she can stay at home and has a job twelve months 
in the year. 

Corinne Bright, '14, is stenographer for a Greenville concern. She 
is very much interested in office work, and she, too, enjoys getting a 
salary check twelve times a year. 

Susie Morgan, '16, was married to Captain Roderick Stamey in De- 
cember. She is now at Lawton, Oklahoma, where her husband is in 
camp. She taught in Farmville until Christmas. 

The roll of girls teaching in Pitt County is of goodly length. The 
Pitt County teachers' meetings have so many of our girls present that 
it seems almost as if it were a class at the Training School. Many of 
those who did not graduate from the School have attended the School. 
Among those attending the January meeting were Elizabeth Southerland, 
Louise Smaw, Ruby Vann, Katie Sawyer, Gertrude Boney, Viola Gas- 
kins, Mary Newby White, Ruth Lowder. 

School Activities 

Dr. B. W. Spilman conducted the Y. W. C. A. serv- 
Y. W. C. A. ices the Sunday evening after Thanksgiving. He is one 
of the most welcome of the annual visitors of the Train- 
ing School. He chose for his subject one which he thought would be 
most helpful to Sunday school teachers, and told the students that when 
they became teachers they would surely be called upon to teach Sunday 
school classes. His subject was the "Eye of the Soul" or the third eye. 
He said the eye of the soul was the faculty by which we see things in 
the invisible world, and that this eye should be cultivated was the thought 
which he carried through his talk. He said that the eye of the soul gave 
marvelous charm to the commonplace things, and gave flesh and blood 
to the scenes of the past. 

The talk was a very interesting one and contained many vivid illus- 
trations, some of which were full of humor, but a big thought was in 
each of these. 

Rev. J. M. Shore, while attending the Methodist Conference here in 
December, preached for the Y. W. C. A. on Sunday night, December 5. 
He preached a splendid sermon. Mr. Shore was the Methodist minister 
here when the Training School opened, and also the only minister here 
for quite a while, so he was welcomed back as an old friend. 

At the second regular Y. W. C. A. Sunday evening services after 
Christmas, Mr. Meadows gave a very interesting talk about his experi- 
ences in camp at Fort Oglethorpe. He said that the experiences of 
camp life were interesting, strenuous, and sometimes discouraging. But 
he considers his experiences as worth while and as of more value to him 
than any three month's training he had ever had. He told many of the 
intimate personal stories of camp life which were very amusing. He 
gave an account of the Field Artillery, especially since that was the 
section to which he was assigned. 

The Y. W. C. A. services on the fourth Sunday evening in January 
were particularly enjoyed because of a beautiful musical program and 
an interesting report given by Miss Graham of the Conference of Young 
Women's Christian Association Workers. 

As introduction to the musical program, the enjoyment of the beauti- 
ful things in life was stressed. Miss Hill, who had charge of the services, 
said that we ought to enjoy more the beautiful things around us, the 
beautiful things in nature, the beautiful things in literature, and the 
beautiful music which we heard. She then said that several popular 
and beautiful musical selections were going to be rendered and that she 
hoped the entire School would enjoy them. 

The program consisted of the following numbers : 

School Activities 401 

Instrumental Duet — "My Country." By Miss Meade and Miss Bertolet. 

Mozart — "Pastorole Variee." By Miss Meade. 

Beethoven — "Slow Movement from Fifth Symphony." By Misses Bertolet 
and Hill. 

Liszt — "Liebstraimne." By Miss Bertolet. 

Handel — "He Shall Feed His Flock," "Come Unto Him." Misses Lula Bal- 
lance and Sue Best Morrill. 

The hymns were beautifully sung, the choir singing the first stanzas 
and the audience joining in on the last. 

Miss Graham gave a brief report of the conference of the faculty rep- 
resentatives from the Y. W. C. A. which met in Greensboro in Febru- 
ary. Miss Graham was the representative from this School. The leaders 
of this conference were Miss Young, student-secretary of the South 
Atlantic Field ; Miss Cady, of Agnes Scott College ; Miss Scales, who 
visited Greenville in the fall in the interest of the Student Friendship 
war fund, and who is the secretary at the Normal College, and Miss 
Hazlett, student-volunteer from California. Miss Graham said that the 
reports as to the results of the Student Friendship war fund were very 
gratifying. The chief business of the conference was to discuss the reso- 
lutions adopted at a meeting held at Northfield, Massachusetts, in Janu- 
ary. These are as follows : 

1. North American students mobilized for world democracy, 1,200,000 
students, three-fourths of all students in the normal schools and colleges 
studying in classes devoted to Bible Study, Mission Study, or Social 

2. Application of the principles: (1) to the individual, (2) to the 
campus, and (3) to the world. 

3. A sufficient number of qualified men and women enlisted for the 
missionary program of the church. 

i. Half a million dollars to be raised for missions. 

Miss Graham reported interesting discussions of all of these, which, 
after being given careful consideration, were adopted as the resolutions 
for the Y. W. C. A. work in the North Carolina schools. 

On the following Sunday evening the Junior Class conducted the 
Y. W. C. A. services. Their subject was "Happiness." They read 
several poems which showed how, by being happy yourself, others may 
be made happy also. 

Miss Edith Fuess, Deaconess and student secretary of the Methodist 
Mission Board of the South, spent a few days here at the Training 
School during the month of January. The girls, because of her charm 
and striking personality, enjoyed her stay very much. She is a young 
woman greatly interested in her work and in young people. 

She conducted the Y. W. C. A. services the Sunday evening she was 
3re and made a beautiful, appealing talk that took hold of the hearts 

402 The Training School Quarterly 

and imagination of her hearers. It was marked by a genuineness of 
feeling and understanding and by richness of suggestion. She began 
by telling a beautiful story of India — "The Tree and the Master," which 
illustrated submission to the master's will. Her theme was the living 
water, and the great need the world today has for Christianity. She 
closed with a strong appeal to young women to let the Master cut the 
channel through their hearts so they would be willing to give themselves 
to the service of the Master. 

The special music of the evening was greatly enjoyed. It consisted 
of a piano solo, "A Chopin Waltz in C Minor," played by Miss Bertolet, 
and a vocal duet, "He Walks With Me and He Talks With Me," by 
Misses Lillian Shoulars and Willie Jackson. 

The Y. W. C. A. services on the Sunday evening of February 11th were 
very interesting. "The Beauty of the Commonplace" was the thought 
which Miss Ray so beautifully presented. She read first from the Scrip- 
ture, John 14, and called attention to the beauty of the commonplace 
things with which Jesus works. She gave a short quotation from George 
Eliot which echoed the scripture lesson. After this she told a very im- 
pressive story, "The Hunt for the Beautiful," which illustrated her point 
clearly. Miss Ray has a rare ability as a story-teller, and all the girls 
enjoy hearing her. 

At the December social meeting of the Y. W. C. A. an impromptu 
program was given. On entering the door, each girl was asked to reg- 
ister, which aroused her curiosity very much. As they registered, they 
were checked off into squads of eight and each squad had to prepare some 
stunt for the entertainment of the evening. The miscellaneous entertain- 
ment had a spontaneity and life about it that was very enjoyable. There 
were no "eats" as the money appropriated for refreshments was turned 
into a Liberty Loan Bond. 


At the first regular meeting of the Lanier Society of this year the 
marshals were elected. They were as follows : Mary Lee Gallup, Mary 
Tucker, Mary Johnston, and Ruby Giles. 

The programs have been unusually interesting. 

The Lanier Society has challenged the Poe Society for the Annual 
debate. The query : "Resolved, That municipal form of government is 
better than city form of government." The Poes gladly accepted the 
challenge. They chose the affirmative. 

School Activities 403 

The marshals for the Poe Society are: Elsie Hines, Chief; Maude 
Poole, Katherine Lister, Francis McAdams, and Annie Wester. 

The program committee has given some very appropriate and enjoy- 
able programs. At the last meeting of the fall term Dickens' "Christ- 
mas Carol" was adapted and given as a play. 

On February 9 a delightful Valentine program was rendered. 

Classes and Athletic Leagues 

The Senior class conducted the Y. W. C. A. services Sunday night, 
November 24, 1917. This Thanksgiving was different from any other 
that we have seen and was observed differently. They thought it best 
to help get the girls in the proper attitude for the day. They took for 
their subject, "Thanksgiving." The ninety-second Psalm, followed by 
a prayer, was read by Alexa Alford. Sadie Thompson read parts of the 
poem "Thanksgiving," by Alice Carey. This was followed by a vocal 
solo, "Lovely Appear," by Lula Ballance. Katie Lee Matthews read 
"Thanksgiving This Year," taken from the editorials of the Ladies' 
Home Journal. The poem "Armageddon" was read by Ethel Smith. 
A short paper, "What the Y. M. C. A. Means to the Soldiers," was read 
by Huldah Barnes. This paper consisted of a few short extracts from 
letters which had been received by girls in school from their friends at 
camp and at the front. 

On the night of January 19, 1918, at the regular class meeting, a very 
interesting program was rendered. "Six Greatest Moments of a Girl's 
Life" was dramatized. Elizabeth Hathaway took the part of the girl 
while Mattie Paul played as her lover. A camp scene was given and 
several girls sang "We Are Tenting Tonight." After this Mutt and Jeff 
appeared. The "B" and "F" classes were invited to see this program. 

The program of North Carolina Day, Friday, December 14, 1917, 
was given by the Senior class. They followed part of the excellent 
program sent out by the State. The program was presented in a very 
attractive manner. 

On account of such extremely cold and disagreeable weather, for some 
time basket-ball, tennis, and walking were almost impossible. We took 
advantage of the few agreeable afternoons and a considerable amount 
of practice was done. Large groups have been on the walking trips. 

School News 

Doctor Dr. Charles O'H. Laughinghouse is greatly missed as 

in Service ' school physician. He is in camp at Fort Oglethorpe. 
Dr. Laughinghouse was one of the first of the phy- 
sicians in the State to volunteer for service soon after war was declared 
last spring. As president of the North Carolina Medical Society, he 
had great influence, and used that influence for getting the physicians 
of the State aroused so that they were ready to respond to the call for 
service. He was held in reserve, and was not called until the first of this 
year. He has the rank of major. He is greatly missed both in the 
School and in the town. He has a very large practice and has been 
identified with all kinds of public welfare work. 

Dr. Carl Pace, Dr. Laughinghouse's assistant, left last summer to join 
an ambulance corps. 

Dr. Noble is the acting school physician during the absence of Dr. 

All who have ever known the Training School will 

Webb-Spillman be greatly interested in the following announcement 
Marriage . . 

which was received during the Christmas holidays : 

Mrs. Calvin Andrew Haste announces the marriage of her daughter, Johnny 
Etta Webb, to Mr. John Barham Spilman on Saturday, the twenty-second of 
December, nineteen hundred and seventeen, Edenton, N. C. 

Miss Armstrong Miss Martha Armstrong, for three and a half years 
age a Community teacher of Home Economics in this school, left the first 
Kitchen of February to take charge of a Community Kitchen in 

Birmingham, Alabama, the second to be established in the South. 

Miss Armstrong's leaving is a great loss to the School and to the town. 
She has been interested in club work and church work. She was the 
president of the Greenville chapter of Southern Association of College 
Women, and has been the leader of one of the societies in her church. 
She was chairman of the Women's work in Conservation for Pitt County. 

The work in her department has been marked by real ability and in- 
genuity in adapting it to present conditions. She was frequently callec 
on to make talks to clubs or to give demonstrations. Her students g( 
away with practical, sensible ideas they can use in their own communi 
ties and homes. 

School News 405 

The work Miss Armstrong is doing is new but is full of wonderful 
possibilities. There are to be one hundred cities in the United States 
that will have these community kitchens, where the housewives can 
come for suggestions, for lessons in the various branches of Household 
Economics, and for advice on all kinds of topics. We hope soon to pub- 
lish a full account of the work of the one in Birmingham. 

Inducements were offered Miss Armstrong to stay in this State, but 
she saw fit to return to her home city. 

In January she spent a day in Farmville giving demonstrations and 
joining in with a group of workers who were helping the women to study 
out present problems in Food Conservation. 

Mrs. Carr Teacher Mrs. Robert L. Carr who, as Miss Elizabeth Pugh, 
Economics taught Household Economics for four years in this 

school, again has charge of this work. Mrs. Carr came 
to the school in the second year and was the first one to establish the 
regular cooking classes and organize the department after there was 
equipment. Since she has been identified with the town of Greenville 
she has been active in club work and all public interests. She is chair- 
man of the Domestic Science Department of the Woman's Club of Green- 
ville. Last summer the canning demonstrations for the women of the 
town were given at her home and under her supervision. 

Mr. Meadows returned to the Training School at 
Returns the beginning of the winter term and resumed his Work. 

He is in reserve for work in the Intelligence Depart- 
ment with the rank of first lieutenant. He has no idea when he will be 
called into active service. He has given exceedingly interesting accounts 
of his experiences while in camp. 

War Work by The members of the faculty are doing their part in 

Members of waging the campaign of thrift, and their service ex- 

tends beyond the School. 

Mr. Austin has made addresses on War Saving Stamps at several 
schools. On January 28 he went to Bethel and Grifton, on February 4 
to Ayden, and on February 15 to Kinston school. 

Mr. Meadows has had several requests to make talks, both on Camp 
Life and War Saving Stamps. He has visited Simpson, Joyner's School, 
Cox's School, and Ballard's Cross Roads. 

406 The Training School Quarterly 

Mr. Wilson made a talk on "War Saving Stamps at Winterville High 

Miss McFadyen is chairman of the Women's work in the Thrift 
Campaign in Greenville. Under her leadership the women have made 
a wonderful start. 

President Wright, Mrs. Beckwith, and Miss McFadyen are on the 
committee for the Thrift Campaign in Pitt County. 

On February 18 Mr. Austin went to New Bern where he met a group 
of graded school teachers and discussed the teaching of Geography. In 
the morning he discussed the power a pupil should have when he has 
finished the elementary grades and how to develop that power, and later 
discussed a type study. 

Mr. Wilson is conducting the professional study classes of the teachers 
of Greene County this year. 

Miss Davis is visiting Staton School on Mondays and is helping solve 
some of the typical rural problems which she finds there. 

Simplified Commencement this year will be unlike that of other 

Commence- i. " ... , , 

ment years. It will not be a festive occasion, with social 

features and with the features that attract the holiday 
-crowd. It will be a more intimate, a simpler occasion, perhaps a kind 
of love-feast among homefolks and friends here. The flutter of ribbons 
and chiffon, the whizzing of company automobiles, the elaborate pro- 
grams, will be missed, but there will be many compensations — the get- 
together feeling, a time of real meetings between those here and the 
home-folks who have come back to us — a time to take stock; a serious 
time, perhaps, but not a solemn time. 

In keeping with the times all the festive features have been taken 
away from commencement. Some of the features have simply been 
placed at another time. The class will have Class Day some time during 
the spring, the Musical will come earlier also. We want the Alumna? 
to come home again and to enter into the spirit of the occasion with us. 

President Wright placed before the members of the class the question 
of what they are going to do about Commencement. The class decided 
to simplify it. They decided that they would not send out the formal 
invitations to the public, as that would perhaps be misleading. As 
they wished to send something out as a matter of record, so that the 
public could see who the graduates were, they decided to send out an- 
nouncements of the graduation exercises of the class. They believed that 
it was in keeping with the times to retain the religious services — have 
the sermon. The question of the evening service was not theirs to decide, 
but the Y. W. C. A. Cabinet decided to have this. 

The class, without consulting the President of the School, requested 
him to deliver the address on the day of the graduation, and he consented 


School News 407 

Sewing for The interest in sewing for the Ked Cross has been 

the Ref 


'""' ' tunee very greatly increased by the new work, that of making 

layettes for the refugee babies. The girls are taking 
the greatest delight in making the tiny garments. This auxiliary had 
the money in hand for five full layettes and hopes later to be able to 
make more. This sewing keeps a number of girls at work because sewing 
and crocheting can be done at the same time, and the girl who hates to 
sew but loves to crochet can get her chance to contribute work. 

Red Cross Most of the time during the winter the sewing for the 

Work Red Cross has continued regularly. Each Monday 

morning the sewing room is a busy place. As many 
girls as can find a place at a machine, or as a helper to the one at the 
machine, are on hand, and as one girl has to leave, another soon takes 
her place. There is not very much boosting for workers, because among 
so many girls it is always an easy matter to get together a group of 
girls who can sew, and many girls with more zeal than skill might come 
and work heroically and only make work for the skillful. The work 
has now become a steady, regular thing. A number of shirts have been 
made during the winter. When the material and patterns for the baby 
clothes were ready there were still a few unfinished shirts ; the girls 
looked with longing eyes away from the prosaic shirts to the baby dresses 
already cut out, but hurried up on the shirts and soon had them finished 
so that they could spend all their time on the baby clothes when they 
had once begun. 

Knitting for Knitting has been the favorite pastime of the girls 

here, as it has of the women all over the country. "More 
wool" has been the constant cry. The knitting committee last fall, while 
waiting for wool to arrive, gave knitting lessons to all who applied so 
that when the wool came there would be no delay. They did their work 
so well that there were more knitters than there was work to give them. 
The Greet ville branch of the Pitt County chapter furnished the wool. 
The knitting committee guaranteed that the knitting would be well done, 
and, when wool was taken out, guaranteed that the knitted garments 
would be returned by a certain date. The knitters were divided into 
groups and the committee into inspectors of groups. These inspectors 
watched faithfully their workers. So as to satisfy as nearly as possible 
the demand for wool, a number of girls were given sufficient wool for 
only half a sweater and the two halves were sewed together. 

In addition to the garments knitted by the students, most of the women 
' in the faculty have been knitting. It is difficult to estimate the number 

408 The Training School Quarterly 

of garments that have been knitted in the school, for many girls and 
teachers have bought their own wool and have knitted for brothers and 
friends. About thirty-five garments have been knitted by the students 
and turned in to the Greenville chapter. 

Pitt County The January meeting of the teachers of Pitt County 


Meeting was held in the auditorium of the Training School on 

Saturday, January 19. This meeting was devoted 
largely to the special problem of getting ready for the thrift campaign. 
Judge Gilbert Stephenson of Winston-Salem, who is giving his time to 
working for this cause, made a strong appeal to the teachers, making 
them realize the urgent necessity of this work and explaining to them 
the way in which the school can organize to assist most effectively in 
this work. His talk was a veritable inspiration, and every teacher felt 
that this was one thing she must do her utmost for. Superintendent 
Underwood, in business session, later told the teachers that he wished 
to say, before any teacher asked him how she was to do this and the 
other things she had to do, that she must do her part in the thrift cam- 
paign and in other war work if she had to leave other things undone. 

The students of the Training School and the faculty attended the 
meeting and heard the address by Judge Stephenson. Mr. D. M. Clark, 
chairman of the Thrift Campaign in Pitt County, and Mr. Kinchen 
Cobb, a member of the committee, were present at the meeting. 

Dr. Miller, who was taking the place temporarily of the Pitt County 
health officer, explained to the teachers what they were to do in the health 
work. The new county demonstrator in Home Economics, Miss Avery, 
was introduced to the teachers. 

There was a full attendance in spite of the fact that the weather had 
not cleared up and the roads were still in a bad condition. 

The report of the address by Judge Stephenson appears elsewhere in 
this number of The Quarterly. 

Miss Jamison Miss Jamison, whose work as demonstrator in Home 

Women Economics is so well known in North Carolina, and 

who is now teaching in the State Normal College, came 
to Greenville at the invitation of the Woman's Club of Greenville and 
gave a demonstration and a talk on how to manage war cooking with the 
materials that had to be used and how to plan and prepare well-balanced 
meals and do all the Food Administration is asking of the housekeepers 
The demonstration was given in the cooking laboratories of the Training 

School News 409 

Miss Jamison made a practical talk that made the women realize 
that the impossible was not requested of them. Her demonstration 
proved to them that the war food could be palatable and attractive. The 
ladies were delighted with some of the things she showed them how to 
make. She made it clear to them that whether or not they wished to 
help with food problems was going to have very little to do with the 
matter, they would have to use the materials they could get, and they 
would be allowed to have only certain things. She showed them an egg 
powder that could be used for cooking instead of eggs. The biscuits 
she made of the war flour that is to be put on the market soon were 

After her demonstration, the ladies were shown some of the things 
that were being done at the Training School. The waste for the three 
meals before the meeting was shown, all for each meal in a very small 
pan. The soup drained from all the plates at luncheon that day was 
considerably less than a quart. The ladies were amazed at the small 
amount of waste, all of it together less than the average family usually 
wastes. They were shown samples of the soap made in the kitchen here. 
Cake made according to the recipe given elsewl ere in this number of The 
Quaeterly was served merely to show the people that desserts could be 
served with little cost. Pickles made of cucumbers from the school 
garden were served with the cake. The meeting was a most satisfactory 
one, and the ladies have been putting into practice the new ideas gained. 

War Talks At the regular chapel period on one morning of each 

by President . 

Wright week President Wright gives a very helpful talk con- 

cerning the war situation. He summarizes the most 
important current events and comments on the significance of these. 
The students find his interpretations very interesting. He also suggests 
particularly good articles available to the students. 

Stor -tellin " T:tie Story-telling Hour," from 6:30 to 7:15 on 

Wednesday evening, is now a regular weekly event 
which is looked forward to with pleasure. Under the leadership of Miss 
Ray, it promises to be an activity of much benefit as well as enjoyment. 
Many good story tellers are being discovered. Their stories are well 
organized and presented in a pleasing manner and they realize the value 
of the experience gained from preparing a story and telling it before 
an audience. 

410 The Training School Quarterly 

A Visit from Mr. David Walsh, demonstrator for the Educational 

jyi an Department of the Victor Talking Machine Company, 

visited the School on February 7. By asking the girls 
to "be little children" for a while, and going through the rhythmical 
motions of a few simple tunes, he gave a very enjoyable demonstration 
of how the talking machine can and should be used in teaching songs, 
games, etc., in the primary grades. 

No Inconve- Because of careful planning and far-sightedness we 

School have not suffered for lack of fuel during the recent coal 

famine. While many have had considerable trouble 
in getting coal, flour, sugar, etc., we were fortunate in having all these 
at hand. Thanks to careful buying and Conservation ! 

Talks by While the Methodist Conference was in session here 

Ministers j agt D ecemDer several of the ministers conducted chapel 

exercises for us. Each of the following ministers made us very interest- 
ing talks: Bev. Harry North, Bev. M. T. Blyler, and Bev. Walter 
Patten, who is now pastor of Jarvis Memorial Church. 

Mr. Brooks Sharp, Y. M. C. A. worker in the United States Army, 
while attending the Conference, made a very interesting talk to the 
students and faculty one afternoon on the Y. M. C. A. work in the can- 

Trips by the President Wright attended three important educa- 

President tional meetings during February. On February 20 he 

was present at a Conference on Bural Education held in Washington, 
D. C. On February 21 he attended the meeting of the Presidents of 
Normal Schools held in Atlantic City; and on February 22, a mep +l 'ng 
of the Superintendents' Department of the National Educational Asso- 

Alumnse The Alumna? Bazaar was held early in December. 

Bazaar Blanche Everett came over in the afternoon and took 

charge. The girls were glad to assist her, and every article was sold. 

Summer School The summer school bulletins were received some time 
Bulletin Out ago and many have been sent out. 

School News 411 

Visit from Miss Edith Fuess, Deaconess and student secretary 

Miss Fuess of the Methodist Mission Board of the South, spent a 

few days here at the Training School during the month of January. 
Her visit was much enjoyed by all the students and faculty. 

Christmas Giving Expensive and elaborate Christmas giving was dis- 
Abandoned couraged in every way possible this year. No class or 

group-presents of any kind were given. This did not mean that remem- 
brances were discouraged, but a card or letter served the same purpose 
and left the money or the time consumed in elaborate things for the war- 
time necessities. 

Higgs=Taft Furniture Co. 


We are Headquarters for High Grade and 
Medium Price Furniture. We furnish the 
Home Complete on easy payments. You 
name the price, we make the terms 




J. R. & J. G. MOYE 

You are cordially invited to visit our store, where you 
will find a well selected and up-to-date line of Dress 
Goods, Trimmings, Silks, Notions, Hosiery, Gloves, 
Coat Suits, Coats, Shoes, Oxfords and Toilet Articles. 
Your patronage will be appreciated 


J. R. & J. G. MOYE