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Full text of "Jungle warfare"

JUNGLE WARFARE 



(NAVMC— 3131) 




Published:— 
For Instructional Purposes Only. 



MARINE CORPS SCHOOLS 

MARINE BARRACKS, QUANTTCO, VIRGINIA 

1943 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I 

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 

Paragraph Page 

Definition 1 1 

Movement 2 1 

Special Features 3 1 

Training 4 2 

CHAPTER II 

INDIVIDUAL CONSIDERATIONS 

Food 

Sleeping 

Clothing 

Medical Care 

Bathing 

Snakes 

Crocodiles 

Wasps and Bees 

Poisonous Insects 

Leeches 

Care of Small Arms 

Expedients 

• 

CHAPTER III 

JUNGLE DISEASES 

SECTION 1 

General 17 

SECTION 2 
DISEASES 

Insect and Animal Borne Diseases 

Water-Borne Diseases 

Fungus Diseases 

Snake Poisoning 



5 


3 


6 


3 


7 


4 


8 


4 


9 


5 


10 


5 


11 


5 


12 


5 


13 


5 


14 


6 


15 


6 


16 


6 



18 


10 


19 


11 


20 


11 


21 


11 



i 



CHAPTER IV 
THE ARMS 



Infantry 

Field Artillery 

Mechanized Units 

Engineer and Pioneer Troops 

Aviation 

Parachute Troops 



Paragraph 


Page 


22 


13 


23 


14 


24 


15 


25 


15 


26 


15 


27 


16 



CHAPTER V 
SECURITY 



General 

Counter-Reconnaissance 
Maintenance of the Initiative 

Antiaircraft Security 

Antimechanized Security 



CHAPTER VI 

MARCHES AND BIVOUAC 

SECTION 1 

MARCHES 



28 


17 


29 


17 


30 


17 


31 


18 


32 


18 



33 


19 


34 


19 


35 


20 


36 


20 



General 

March Instruction . . 
Meeting an Ambush 
Trail Cutting 



SECTION 2 
BIVOUAC 

Requirements 37 22 



CHAPTER VII 

ATTACK AND DEFENSE 

SECTION 1 

ATTACK 

Paragraph Page 

Forms of Attack 38 25 

Formation 39 25 

Reserves 40 26 

SECTION 2 
DEFENSE 

General 41 27 

Discussion 42 27 

Preparation 43 28 

CHAPTER VIII 

SPECIAL OPERATIONS 

Patrols 44 31 

Night Attacks 45 32 

Ambushes 46 32 

Attack and Defense of River Lines 47 33 

CHAPTER IX 

SIGNAL COMMUNICATION 

General 48 35 

Appendix I 37 



CHAPTER I 
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 

1. Definition. — Jungle warfare will include all operations in 
a region characterized by a high annual rate of rainfall result- 
ing in heavy growths of vegetation which hinder vision, move- 
ment, and fire. Jungle country may vary from the vast forests 
of Malaya, Burma and the highlands of Africa to the scrub-cov- 
ered low hills of East Africa, India and the Middle East. The 
features common to these areas are: scarcity of roads and 
railways; limited visibility for both ground and air forces; 
and difficulties presented to cross country movement of all 
troops and vehicles. Much of the typical jungle country is 
broken by grassy open plains or sabanas where the vegetation 
is sparse and visibility good. These plains usually exist on 
ridges or upward toward the crest of mountains. The slopes 
of grassy sabanas are often steep and become very slippery 
when wet, making them difficult to ascend, particularly with 
heavy weapons. 

2. Movement. — The jungle, although not impenetrable, is 
difficult to traverse. Movement through it is generally limited to 
narrow trails which either already exist or which must be cut 
by troops for the specific purpose. Old trails are usually in poor 
condition and so winding as to make following a compass direc- 
tion while moving on them extremely difficult. Large swampy 
areas and streams are often numerous; bridges are usually 
either non-existent or very poor. The high annual rate of rain- 
fall will make most trails virtually impassable to motor vehicles 
and armored mechanized units much of the time. 

3. Special Features. — A distinctive type of combat is neces- 
sary to surmount the difficulties presented by nature in jungle 
warfare. The special features of the jungle must be exploited 
to advantage by the use of tactics suited to the particular condi- 
tions. Because of low visibility, poor means of communications 
and the difficulties of movement and control, jungle warfare is 
conducive to the efforts of small semi-independent, self-sustain- 
ing units, able to operate efficiently on their own initiative under 
their own commanders. Commanders must, therefore, develop 
initiative and quick tactical perception. They must appreciate 
the vital necessity of personal control. The normal system of 
control through staff and signal communication facilities is 
often too slow to meet the rapidly moving tactical situation; 
therefore, all staffs must be highly trained and facilities for 
signal communication be of such a nature as to permit a maxi- 
mum of control by commanders under the most adverse con- 
ditions. 

a. When contact is imminent, commanders must be well 
forward, ready at all times to evaluate the type of resistance 



encountered and to seize the tactical initiative. The success 
of any jungle operation will depend primarily upon the initia- 
tive and training of individuals and small units. More than any 
other type of combat, jungle fighting is a contest of indi- 
viduals. When the fight has begun its outcome will be the 
result largely of the degree of training received by the com- 
mand to fit them for jungle combat. Instruction must be such 
that subordinate commanders and men are made to understand 
the conditions which may confront them when they approach 
and close with the enemy in the jungle. Failure to prepare 
troops thoroughly for actual conditions which will be encount- 
ered in this type of combat will result in their being surprised 
both mentally and physically. A standard of training must be 
attained which will enable us to defeat the enemy under the 
most adverse condition; that is, when he has superiority on 
ground, sea and in the air. The difference between trained and 
untrained troops in jungle warfare is so marked that, even 
under such conditions, it will be possible to wrest the tactical 
initiative from the enemy provided we are prepared for the 
particular conditions imposed by the jungle and not surprised 
by them. 

4. Training. — A training program for troops who will take 
part in jungle combat should include components designed to 
develop the prime requisites of initiative, resourcefulness, con- 
trol of small groups in the jungle, stalking, instantaneous reac- 
tion in ambush, and aggressive action at all times. Special em- 
phasis must be placed on night training in offensive and defen- 
sive maneuvers as well as scouting and patrolling. A maximum 
of the training time should be spent under field conditions in 
the application of tactical principles necessary to success in 
jungle combat for it is of the utmost importance that troops 
be conditioned to withstand the extreme rigors which jungle 
warfare imposes both physically and mentally. 

a. All phases of training should be positive and direct, 
with the ultimate purpose of developing teamwork and indi- 
vidual initiative in all units. Collective and individual mobil- 
ity, initiative, resourcefulness, self-sufficiency, the power to 
endure and the desire to close with the enemy and kill should 
be the attributes of all commands. 



CHAPTER II 
INDIVIDUAL CONSIDERATIONS 

5. Food. — Jungle service will require that most foods be 
ready to eat without cooking, and all food carried give the 
maximum food value for the minimum weight. Dried foods 
which are easily carried and have a high nutritive content are 
desirable in such operations, because they are less likely to 
spoil in a humid climate and are easily carried. Two pounds 
per day of such dried foods as rice, dried beans, dried cooked 
meats, dried fruits and vegetables, powdered milk, and coffee 
essence give ample nutrition, vitamins, roughage, and volume 
for prolonged hard marching. The C, K, and D Rations have 
been found very satisfactory for operations in jungle country, 
although it is not advisable to use the "D" ration in situations 
where water is not plentiful because of the thirst this ration 
will create. 

a. It is essential that all men engaged in jungle opera- 
tions have at least a rudimentary knowlege of cooking. Uten- 
sils for this purpose need include only a light vessel for boiling, 
such as the aluminum canteen cup, and a spoon. Most foods 
obtainable in the jungle can be cooked over an open fire. 

b. Clean food is essential. A lifelong disease such as 
amoebic dysentery may be contracted from eating even the 
smallest amount of unclean or contaminated food. Flies must 
be kept away from all foodstuffs; leftovers should not be 
eaten — food will spoil in a few hours in a tropical climate. 
Wash and disinfect all eating vessels and utensils before and 
after eating. A little chlorine or iodine solution will kill germs. 
Whenever possible mess gear should be sun dried. Native 
houses are one of the worst sources of disease and must be 
avoided. Individuals should be cognizant of those edible foods 
(berries, roots, fruits, etc.) which grow wild and are indigen- 
ous to that area in which he is operating. Bananas, papaya, 
taro, cabbage palm, pineapples, coconuts, and citrus fruits 
will be found in practically every jungle country. Some of 
the eatable kinds of meat found in the tropics are, wild 
chicken, duck, pigeon, cattle, pigs, flying fox, fish, and fresh 
water crawfish. 

6. Sleeping. — Jungle conditions will require that all men 
take special steps to insure adequate rest. The ground in the 
jungle will often be too wet to permit the individual to sleep 
comfortably without making some arrangements beforehand. 
No man should sleep on the wet ground unless it is impossible 
to do otherwise. To do so may seriously impair his combat 
efficiency by depriving him of adequate rest, as well as making 
him more susceptible to disease. 



a. Branches laid together to form protection from the 
wet ground may be used to advantage. When time and the 
situation permit, a crude bed may be constructed by driving 
four forked sticks into the ground to support a frame of two 
inch poles. Across this frame thinner poles are lashed and 
covered with light branches. The shelter tent and mosquito 
net may then be pitched over this, or the mosquito netting 
alone in dry weather. Hammocks may be improvised from a 
shelter half or blankets hung between trees. It is important 
that the mosquito net be used at night, for it is at this time 
that many disease carrying insects are most active. The upper 
part of the body should be warmly covered at night as the 
tropical nights are often cool. A sleeveless sweater or flannel 
shirt should be worn while sleeping. 

7. Clothing. — In general, clothing items of cotton and can- 
vas are most suited to conditions met in jungle combat. Cloth- 
ing should be loose fitting, porous and highly resistant to saw 
grass, thorns, brambles and insect pests. The light-weight 
poncho, which serves a number of purposes, will be more satis- 
factory than a raincoat. The helmet liner Ml has been found 
more satisfactory than either the fiber tropical helmet or 
the fatigue hat for jungle wear. A head net and gloves which 
are mosquito proof are inseparable parts of each individual's 
equipment. Shoes should be new when beginning jungle opera- 
tions, and kept oiled to prevent wet rot. Lightweight canvas 
and rubber shoes have been found useful for scouting. 

8. Medical Care. — The individual will provide much of his 
own medical care in jungle operations, therefore a knowledge 
of first aid and the rules of personal hygiene is essential. In 
addition to his issue First Aid Pack each man should carry, 
easily available, a small bottle of iodine, adhesive tape, insect 
repellent, salt tablets, and sulfa drugs in form of pills and 
powder. These as well as atabrine or quinine should be avail- 
able in every platoon headquarters, since jungle combat will 
often call for the independent operations of small units. The 
nature of jungle combat is such that small cuts and scratches 
may result in serious infection. Each man must be careful to 
keep such wounds clean and protect them from jungle filth 
through his own initiative. The excessive sweating which re- 
sults from heavy muscular exercise in the jungle will produce 
a deficiency of fluid and salt (sodium chloride) in the body. 
Thirst is created, and further intake of water will merely result 
in additional loss of salt. To offset this all men must increase 
their salt consumption during periods of heavy muscular exer- 
tion, by using more salt on their food, drinking salt water, and 
taking salt tablets. Usually 10 to 15 grains of salt per day 
will be sufficient to maintain the salt balance of the body dur- 
ing these periods. A criteria would be 10 grains of salt for 
each canteen of water drunk. 



9. Bathing. — One of the important functions of the skin 
is to regulate the body temperature through perspiring, there- 
fore it is important that all men exercise scrupulous personal 
cleanliness while engaged in jungle operations in order to 
permit the bodily cooling system to equalize the effects of 
the heat. The skin also excretes waste through the pores and 
frequent bathing will be necessary to keep these pores free 
from oil and accumulated dirt and germs. The skin is the 
individuals best weapon against disease and infection. It 
actively works to prevent the ingress of germs into the blood 
stream. It is, therefore, important that the best possible care 
be taken of the skin by frequent bathing in warm or hot wa- 
ter with a mlid germicidical soap. Caution should be exercised 
that no water gets into the mouth. Sponges are breeding 
grounds for germs and should never be used. Do not bathe in 
jungle streams unless the water is approved by a medical 
officer. 

10. Snakes. — Although snakes of many varieties inhabit 
most jungle countries, the snakes in the tropics are less dan- 
gerous than those found in New Mexico or Florida, insofar 
as the chances of being bitten is concerned. Many tropical 
islands are completely free from snakes. Snakes will seldom 
bite a man unless molested. All ordinary precautions should 
be taken to avoid snakes and areas likely to be infested with 
them. Particular care should be taken to avoid snakes when 
clearing ground for a bivouac area, trails and fields of fire. 

11. Crocodiles. — Crocodiles infest many tropical regions. 
These reptiles will seldom attack a man, however caution 
should be exercised when swimming in rivers and jungle lakes , 
that no crocodiles are present. When approaching or attempt- 
ing to kill a crocodile care must be taken to avoid the powerful 
sweep of its heavy tail with which it can easily break a 
man's leg. The crocodile can move rapidly across country, but 
is unable to change direction readily, therefore if pursued 
by a crocodile it is best to change direction often. 

12. Wasps and Bees. — Wasps and bees are abundant in 
many jungle areas, but need not be feared since they will not 
ordinarily attack unless their nests are disturbed. In some 
localities a small bee known as the "sweat bee" will be found 
which collects on exposed parts of the body in large numbers 
during the dry season, especially if the individual is sweat- 
ing. These bees will not sting and can easily be brushed off. 

13. Poisonous Insects. — In the tropics large centipedes and 
scorpions are found which can inflict painful, although not 
deadly stings. These insects like dark places, and may be 
found in blankets, clothing or shoes. Spiders of poisonous 
variety may be found in some jungle areas and although 
most of their bites are not serious, they are very painful. 



Ants are a possible danger to injured personnel lying on the 
ground and unable to move. 

14. Leeches. — Leeches are common to most jungle areas. 
They are found especially in swampy areas and streams of 
most jungle country. Although not poisonous the bite of leeches 
can cause infection if not cared for because the small wound 
made by the leech may provide a point of entry for the organ- 
isms which cause tropical ulcers or "jungle sores". All men 
should be on the alert for leeches on the body and remove 
them before they have a chance to bite. If they have taken 
hold of the skin do not pull them off forcibly but make them 
release their grip by touching them with a moist piece of 
tobacco mixed with red pepper, or by touching them lightly 
with the burning end of a cigarette or cigar. 

15. Care of Small Arms. — Because of the high humidity in 
jungle country, the individual must be especially careful of his 
small arms. Unless all weapons are given scrupulous care and 
attention with daily cleaning and oiling, rust will render them 
unserviceable in a very short time. Each man is responsible 
for the weapon issued to him and must be cautioned to keep it 
ready for action. 

a. Officers and non-commissioned officers must be alert 
to see that all weapons in their command are kept in a state of 
efficient readiness at all times. 

16. Expedients. — Jungle conditions will require that the in- 
dividual be especially adept at devising expedients to meet the 
varied situations that will arise. Of the many methods and 
devices that are most useful in the jungle, the following are 
of especial value: 

a. Carry matches in a completely waterproof container, 
otherwise perspiration and the jungle humidity will soon ren- 
der them useless. 

b. Never go anywhere without a compass that you 
know how to use. 

c. A good pocket or sheath knife is essential in the 
jungle as both a tool and a weapon. 

d. A watch should be carried to help in estimating dis- 
tance, direction, and to tell time. 

e. Although running water is usually purer than still 
water, all water should be boiled or chlorinated before being 
drunk. Most mud and solids can be removed from water by 
straining it through a cloth or filtering through sand. (Refer 
to Marine Corps Schools Text, "First Aid and Field Sanita- 
tion.") When on the trail, the use of 2 or 3 drops of iodine 
per canteen is the easiest and most convenient method of 
purifying water. 



f. Cardboard containers are undesirable for use in 
tropical climates because of the high humidity which will cause 
them to disintegrate rapidly. 

g. In many situations it will be advisable for men to 
carry two canteens of water. At all times men must be care- 
ful to observe water discipline and use their supply sparingly. 

h. Keep your shirt on. Tropical sun contains a danger- 
ously high percentage of nerve destroying infra red rays as 
opposed to the health giving ultra-violet rays which predom- 
inate in more temperate climates. 

i. Many jungle vines can be used in place of string or 
rope. 

j. If you lose your matches or other fire making de- 
vices, a magnifying glass or lens (including most spectacles) 
may be used to start a fire by focusing the sun's rays. 
By shredding the dry, fiberous lining of bamboo stalks, a 
satisfactory tinder can be made. Dry leaves, grass, or the 
bark of some trees can also be used. Another method of 
starting a fire is by use of a cartridge. Eemove the bullet 
from a cartridge; pour about half of the powder charge on 
the tinder you have selected; plug the end of the cartridge 
with an oily rag and fire upon the ground. This will usually 
ignite the oily rag. 

k. To prevent hookworm, never go barefoot in the 
jungle. 

1. When wounded or disabled move off the trail, out 
of sight and call for help in a quiet voice. Trails are good 
fields of fire — get off them when wounded. 

m. To counteract the affects of early morning chill 
of the jungle, eat a hot meal and drink a hot beverage in the 
mornings whenever possible. 

n. Sulphur taken internally or dusted in the socks 
and underclothing will help repel redbugs or chiggers. 

o. Edible fruits and herbs can usually be identified by 
signs of animals having eaten them. Avoid eating unknown 
fruits and plants except in dire emergency. 

p. If lost in the jungle remember that by going down- 
hill you will ultimately reach a stream ; by going down-stream 
you will reach a larger body of water or inhabited valley. By 
having a proper knowledge and training in woodcraft, and by 
using your head you can travel and live in the jungle inde- 
finitely. 



CHAPTER III 

JUNGLE DISEASES 

SECTION 1 

GENERAL 

17. General. — The tropical jungle calls for many special 
safeguards beyond those of a tactical nature. For example, 
it is only through thorough training and correct precautionary 
measures that the deleterious effect of jungle climates can be 
minimized. Particular care must be taken against malaria, 
dysentery, and other tropical diseases. These require rigid 
training in, and adherence to, important sanitary principles. 
Men who are not accustomed to the tropics — and even those 
who are, including natives — are not capable of as much physi- 
cal accomplishment in a given period of time as in more mod- 
erate climates and less difficult terrain. Inhabitants of the 
temperate zones, when transported to the tropics, require a 
period of physical adjustment to the increased heat and humid- 
ity and the greater power of the sun's rays before they can 
undertake long periods of hard physical exertion without dis- 
comfort and loss of efficiency. All these things a commander 
must take into account in conducting his forces through the 
rigors of a tropical campaign. 



SECTION 2 
DISEASES 

18. Insect and Animal-Borne Diseases. — Insect and animal- 
borne diseases are those in which the agent that causes the 
disease is transmitted from man to man by a bloodsucking in- 
sect or animal. The causal agent may be introduced into the 
blood stream or tissues of man during the bite of the infected 
insect, or it may be deposited upon the skin by the insect dur- 
ing the process of biting or stinging. The irritation resulting 
from the insect bite causes scratching and inoculation of the 
wound with the infectious matter. It is necessary, therefore 
for all troops to exercise every precautionary and preventive 
measure in order to avoid infection. Some of the carriers of 
these diseases which may be met in jungle operations are: 

a. Mosquitoes. — (1) Type: Anopheles, Aedes, and 
Culex. These mosquitoes transmit malaria, yellow fever, den- 
gue fever, and nlariasis. To combat the menace of these dis- 
eases to troops in the jungle, any collection of water should be 
examined as a breeding place of the mosquito. In a stable situ- 
ation it is essential that such breeding places be denied the 
insect by drainage, use of oil, and by safeguards designed to 
prevent the collection of stagnant pools of water in gutters, 
containers, or low ground in the zone of operations. However, 
since jungle warfare is largely one of movement, the control of 
mosquito borne diseases will be based largely upon protection 
of the men from bites by the use of netting, salves, repellents, 
and inoculation. 

b. Ticks. — Ticks transmit the following diseases: Re- 
lapsing fever, Texas, Mexican, Central American, South Amer- 
ican, and African types ; Sao Paula typhus ; South African tick 
typhus; Indian tick typhus; Kenya tick typhus; and Fievre 
butonneuse. Frequent inspection of exposed skin surfaces and 
the prompt removal of ticks is essential in those jungle areas 
where ticks are found. Care must be taken that the entire 
tick is removed without leaving the mouth parts in the bite, 
or squashing the tick in the process. The application of alcohol 
or ether on the tick will cause it to relax its hold permitting 
its safe removal. Antiseptic measures should be taken imme- 
diately after the removal of the tick to prevent infection from 
the wound. Native buildings and animals in tick infested 
areas should be avoided. When native villages are to be oc- 
cupied by troops it is usually best that the area be burned be- 
fore its occupation. 

c. Fleas. — The rat flea is the most common carrier of 
bubonic plague, endemic typhus and other typhus-like diseases, 
although the fleas of other rodents may also transmit these 
diseases. Since rats are the usual host of fleas, the elimina- 
tion of these rodents is the best preventive measure. Food 

10 



should be stored so that rats cannot get to it, and all garbage 
should be burned. In camps, trapping and poisoning should be 
resorted to as soon as rats appear. Native buildings should be 
avoided or burned since they will often be overrun with rats. 

d. Mites. — Mites transmit tropical, scrub, Malaya, and 
Sumatra typhus. The use of repellents by the individual is 
the only control measure. Among the effective repellents are 
sulphur ointment, pine oil, and rotenone. Ten grains of flowers 
of sulphur or powdered sulphur taken internally prior to enter- 
ing the field each day will act as a repellent because of the hy- 
drogen sulphide then excreted in the perspiration. 

19. Water-Borne Diseases. — The principal diseases in this 
group which occur in the tropics are amoebic dysentery, bacil- 
lary dysentery, cholera, helminthic infection (worms), para- 
typhoid fevers, protozoal dysenteries, typhoid fever, and un- 
dulant fever. These diseases are usually transmitted by eating 
or drinking contaminated food or water. 

a. In the jungle, all perishables which cannot be stored 
in a refrigerator below 40° F. should be cooked immediately 
upon receipt, except that frozen meat should be cooked imme- 
diately after thawing. All nonperishable foods should be 
stored in vermin free boxes or chests. Every precaution must 
be made to prevent contamination of foodstuff at all times. 
It is essential that no water be drunk or used in cooking which 
has not been properly treated to render it free of infectious 
content. 

20. Fungus Diseases. — Dhobie itch, athlete's foot, pinta, (a 
fungus disease of the skin which is characterized by pigmented 
patches) and trichosporosis, (a fungus disease of the hair) 
are the principal fungus diseases. 

a. These diseases may be avoided by personal cleanli- 
ness. The body should be bathed as frequently as possible. 
The armpits, groin, and feet should be given especial attention 
and washed daily with soap and water. Foot powder used 
under the arms, about the groin, and between the toes will 
help prevent fungus disease. Socks should be washed daily, if 
possible, in boiling water. At the first symptom of fungus in- 
fection, prompt use should be made of the prescribed medicine 
carried in the individual or group first aid kits. In the event 
of excessive inflammation or itching, a medical officer should 
be consulted as soon as possible. Frequent inspection of the 
feet of the men should be made by the officers to insure early 
treatment. 

21. Snake Poisoning. — In many jungle areas poisonous 
snakes will abound. Each man should be instructed in the 
identification of such snakes as are likely to be met, and have 
a knowledge of the prescribed methods of first aid for snake 
bite. (Refer to Marine Corps text, "First Aid and Field Sani- 
tation," Para. 37 a & b— FM 31-20, Para. 14.) 

11 



CHAPTER IV 

THE ARMS 

22. Infantry.— Infantry is the general purpose arm in jungle 
warfare. The nature of jungle terrain is particularly suited 
to the movement of lightly equipped troops armed with weap- 
ons which can be brought into action immediately. A compro- 
mise must be made between mobility and armament which will 
result in a highly effective fighting force able to move with 
stealth and speed to strike sharp, telling blows where the 
enemy least expects it. 

a. Combat will frequently resolve itself into a series of 
personal encounters between individuals or small groups. For 
this reason, every man must be trained in hand-to-hand fight- 
ing and be proficient with the rifle, automatic weapons, bayo- 
net, and knife. The entire command must be trained to 
withstand protracted periods on limited rations and water 
under strenuous field conditions. The arduous aspects of jun- 
gle warfare will make it mandatory that all men so engaged 
be in excellent physical condition. 

b. Because of heavy undergrowth, obtaining optimum 
fields of fire for the specific weapon employed is quite often im- 
possible without extensive clearing of fire lanes. Along jungle 
trails fifty yards is generally the longest field of fire that will 
be available. On the other hand, excellent fields of fire may 
be found on the open ridges often found in jungle country, or 
along streams in the upper reaches wiiere they have a straight- 
a-way run for some distance. Since most jungle combat will be 
at extremely close range and practically all targets will be 
those of opportunity only, light weapons capable of a heavy 
fire power should be extensively employed. Instruction in 
"snap shooting" should be stressed in the jungle training 
program. 

c. Scouting and patrolling must be emphasized in 
training. Practice in quiet movement and observation in 
heavily wooded areas will prevent casualties later from enemy 
ambush. The jungle terrain is particularly suited to the em- 
ployment of ambush; therefore troops should have a knowl- 
edge of the most effective methods of ambushing the enemy 
as well as an instantaneous, aggressive reaction to similar 
activity on his part. 

d. All units and individuals must be impressed with 
the importance of maintaining all-around, continuous security 
against attack from any direction. In terrain where move- 
ment by the enemy is largely screened by the profuse vegeta- 
tion, patrolling must be continuous to the front, flanks, and 
rear. 



13 



e. In jungle operations the tactics and methods of the 
early Indian fighter can be applied most effectively to infan- 
try — stealth, cunning, deception are enhanced by the nature 
of the jungle and should be employed to the utmost. 

23. Field Artillery. — In relatively stable situations, field 
artillery supports infantry in jungle operations much the 
same as in operations in more open country by utilizing the 
range and flexibility of its weapons. Its fire is particularly 
effective in heavy woods or jungle due to the high percentage 
of tree bursts against which overhead cover is necessary for 
protection of personnel. 

a. In moving situations, the availability of field artil- 
lery will depend largely upon the existence of suitable roads 
and trails. Roads must be available to move the motorized 
equipment of the organic field artillery of the Marine Infantry 
Division. Pack artillery can move over trails with the same 
mobility as infantry supply elements. In continuous action, 
the limited organic transport of Marine field artillery units 
makes ammunition supply a major problem at distances 
greater than five to eight miles from a base of supplies, in 
which case additional transport is required. 

b. The serious limitations to observation in the jungle 
will require that forward observers operate with the most 
forward infantry elements. In many situations it is desirable 
to provide forward observers in larger numbers than the 
tables of organization specify, in order to adequately cover 
densely wooded terrain. Observers, liaison, and intelligence 
personnel should participate in patrol activities in order to 
thoroughly familiarize themselves with the zone of action. 
Efficient intelligence work is invaluable, particularly in plac- 
ing unobserved fires on enemy positions such as assembly 
areas, bivouacs, command posts, supply installations, and 
routes of communication and supply. 

c. Efficient communication between artillery and in- 
fantry units is of the utmost importance in all jungle opera- 
tions. Limited visibility will require the extensive use of all 
means of signal communication to maintain contact between 
these arms and between batteries. It is important that suffi- 
cient liaison personnel operate with regiments and smaller 
units to enable supporting batteries to be brought into action 
quickly when they are needed. 

d. Due to the usual absence of definite lines and fixed 
positions, and the inherent instability of jungle warfare, field 
artillery positions must be such that wide zones of fire, some- 
times as much as 360 degrees, can be covered. This involves the 
use of additional emplacements to permit batteries to change 
front, formations permitting all-around fire, and facilitate free 
movement to nearby alternate positions. Clearings must be 
available for battery positions. If no suitable clearings are 

14 



available they must be cut. Such cuttings must be concealed 
by careful camouflage utilizing naturally growing vegetation 
whenever possible since cut vegetation will wither rapidly in 
the intense heat. Artillery positions must be closer together 
in jungle country than in more open terrain in order to proper- 
ly provide for local security against infiltrating enemy troops. 
Although local security is coordinated with the general security 
plan of the force in the normal manner, field artillery units 
must rely less on the presence of other troops and more upon 
integral security detachments from each battery. 

24. Mechanized Units. — In heavily wooded jungle mechan- 
ized units will have limited combat effectiveness, although 
they can be used to advantage on beaches, grassy ridges and 
other cleared terrain which will be found usually in jungle 
country. Seldom will roads be found which will permit the pas- 
sage of armored wheeled vehicles without some improvement. 
When mechanized units constitute a part of a force operating 
in jungle areas, pioneer troops should be attached to the mech- 
anized elements to cut passage through jungle obstacles and 
improve roads essential to the wheeled elements of the com- 
mand. The abundant concealment offered to enemy tank de- 
stroying units will require that all tanks operate with mutually 
protecting infantry. 

25. Engineer and Pioneer Troops. — It is essential that En- 
gineer and Pioneer Troops accompany all jungle columns. 
They will be used to construct bridges, prepare obstacles and 
demolitions or clearing of obstacles, trail making and main- 
tenance, water purification, and the construction of permanent 
emplacements and defensive works. When air support is assist- 
ing infantry, these troops will often be required to clear and 
prepare landing fields and construct runways. 

26. Aviation. — While conditions of observation will limit 
somewhat the use of aviation in the jungle, this arm will be 
an invaluable support to the operations of infantry. Aviation 
will be used to strafe and bomb enemy positions, protect troops 
from enemy air attack, naval bombardment, and observation, 
as well as to conduct both close and distant reconnaissance 
missions. Both land and carrier based planes are employed to 
soften enemy shore defenses in the establishment of beach- 
heads, and to cut off and destroy enemy supplies and rein- 
forcements coming in by land or sea. As a vital factor in the 
supply and evacuation of troops in the jungle aviation is becom- 
ing increasingly important. Aviation is used advantageously to 
transport troops, artillery and supplies when other methods 
are either too slow or impossible because of the nature of the 
terrain or enemy action. 

a. Great care must be taken in the employment of 
aviation on close support missions in the jungle. Unless there 
is a natural boundary such as a river, edge of clearing, ridge 

15 



line, etc. to mark the lines, it is dangerous to request strafing 
and bombing missions against enemy positions, since panels 
will seldom be visible and planes cannot distinguish friend from 
enemy. 

27. Parachute Troops.- — Parachute troops are used effect- 
ively to reinforce jungle columns, to carry out raids on enemy 
supplies and installation in the rear, and to establish beach- 
heads and bridge heads. Although these troops may land 
with comparative safety in the jungle, it is usually preferable 
that cleared ground be chosen for the landing to facilitate the 
rapid assembly of troops in a minimum of time. 



16 



CHAPTER V 
SECURITY 

28. General. — In jungle operations the conventional idea of 
the front and flanks must be discarded. Seldom, if ever, will 
there be lines defining a "no man's land" between friendly and 
enemy positions. Flanks can never be considered secure and 
safe against encircling movements by the enemy. In such 
regions as the jungle where covered routes of approach abound 
and offer excellent opportunities for infiltration, security must 
be maintained continuously by all units. Security will embrace 
all measures taken by a command to protect itself from obser- 
vation, surprise and annoyance by the enemy, and includes 
also those necessary to obtain freedom of action for itself. 
No matter how remote from the foremost troops a unit may 
be, it is always in danger of observation and attack at any 
time. Every officer and man must have his assigned post in 
event of enemy attack. This applies to all headquarters and 
supply installations as well as combat troops. Men must be 
impressed with the importance of unceasing vigilance ; special 
measures must be taken to minimize infiltration through our 
lines. 

29. Counter-Reconnaissance. — To overcome the liabilities of 
the terrain, counter-reconnaissance measures must be ex- 
tended to cover all possible routes of approach which offer con- 
cealment to enemy patrols. By the use of wire and other 
obstacles, booby traps and road or anti-personnel mines, the 
movement of enemy groups toward our position can be canal- 
ized to some extent. All obstacles must be covered by the 
fire of automatic or antitank weapons. Outposts should be 
numerous and supplemented by highly mobile patrols whose 
mission it is to maintain contact between outposts, intercept 
enemy infiltration and keep under surveillance the entire front, 
flanks and rear of the position. Jungle outposts must be strong 
and armed with a high percentage of light automatic weapons. 
They should be well concealed for their best security lies in 
denying the enemy knowledge of their location. Supplementary 
positions should be prepared for occupation at night. Every 
effort should be made to provide outposts with sufficient signal 
communication equipment to enable them to maintain contact 
with higher echelon at all times. 

30. Maintenance of Initiative. — Maintenance of the initiative 
is the best form of mental and physical security. The enemy is 
then forced to conform to our movements and must hold his 
troops in a position of readiness. Even when our mission is of 
a defensive nature, the initiative can be denied the enemy by 
utilizing the offensive in local and general counter-attack 
against him. 



17 



31. Antiaircraft Security. — In a moving situation in jungle 
operations, it will often be impossible for antiaircraft artillery 
to keep up with the column; therefore all units will provide 
for immediate protection against low flying attack aviation by 
using their own weapons which are suitable for that purpose. 
The concealment offered by jungle growth provides a great 
degree of passive protection to troops against enemy aviation, 
and it should be a general rule that all men will withhold fire 
unless discovery is certain. 

32. Antimechanized Security. — The limitations which jungle 
terrain imposes on the operations of mechanized units will 
simplify the details of antimechanized security. Approaches 
such as roads, improved trails, stream-ford, etc., which lead 
into positions along the outskirts of the jungle should be 
blocked by antitank obstacles and mines which are covered 
by fire. Individuals should be trained to make the maximum 
use of the concealment which the jungle affords foot soldiers 
in fighting tanks. This terrain favors the action of small 
units utilizing explosives, "Molotov Cocktails", and other ex- 
pedients for destroying tanks. 



18 



CHAPTER VI 

MARCHES AND BIVOUAC 

SECTION 1 

MARCHES 

33. General. — Marches in jungle operations will be affected 
by the size of the unit involved, capacity and number of trails, 
distance to be covered, season of the year, methods for supply 
and evacuation and means of transportation. It is essential 
that all movement in the jungle be planned carefully in advance 
with these factors in mind. Route reconnaissance and a study 
of maps and aerial photographs will enable the commander to 
select routes offering the least physical resistance to his 
troops. Native guides, when they are available and considered 
reliable, will be of assistance to troops on cross country move- 
ments. 

34. March Instruction. — Before beginning a march in jungle 
operations each man should know: the formation, what 
action to take if attacked, and what to do when the objective 
is reached. It is essential that every man who has a map 
know the compass bearing to be used and the distances to be 
marched on each bearing in order to arrive at the objective. 
Since jungle combat requires a great measure of individual 
initiative and independent action, the entire command should 
be informed of the situation as it affects them in order to 
insure concerted action by all units. 

a. The formation to be adopted will depend largely on 
the terrain. Limitations of visibility will usually require that 
units adopt formations which are relatively vulnerable to 
enemy fire in order to provide adequate control of the column. 
Most movement will be on or astride roads and trails which 
are, for the most part, cut through dense jungle growth. Such 
being the case, troops will deploy only as much as practicable 
to retain control and mobility. Whenever possible units should 
be reinforced by attaching elements from weapons companies 
to enable them to function as efficient combat teams in event 
of sudden attack. To increase mobility, light machine guns 
are preferable to heavy machine guns which may slow the 
progress of the column. If it becomes necessary to move off 
the trail the light machine guns can be more easily man- 
handled than the heavy guns, and can accomplish the same 
missions covering the march. 

Commanders must be well forward with their units 
where they can maintain control in any situation with no 
loss of time. Trains are located centrally in the column, while 
the rear should be protected by rifle units, reinforced with 

19 



machine guns guarding against attack from that direction. 
(See Small Wars Manual; 1940.) 

(1) Because heavy growth along trails will make 
it difficult for flank patrols to keep up with the column, secur- 
ity on the flanks will depend mainly on the vigilant and con- 
stant observation of all members of the command. Flank 
security units should be sent out to cover all lateral trails 
until the column has cleared open areas should be reconnoitered 
by scouts before the column is allowed to cross them. On 
jungle trails men must be prevented from bunching up. It 
is especially important that the point be well dispersed in 
length to the limit of visibility in order to prevent multiple 
casualties from a sudden burst of fire along the trail, pre- 
serve the point as a fighting unit in case of attack, and confuse 
an enemy which habitually holds its fire until the point has 
passed. 

35. Meeting an Ambush. — The best preparation against the 
disorganization and demoralization of troops who may be 
ambushed is to prepare them mentally for the shock of an 
ambush. They must be steeled to withstand a sudden blast 
of fire at close quarters and to react to it in a manner which 
will unnerve the enemy. To accomplish this troops must have 
a thorough understanding of what is likely to happen when 
ambushed and be trained to react aggressively and positively 
to meet the situation. 

a. To assure coordinated action within each unit, prior 
to the march subordinate elements should be assigned sectors 
or areas of responsibility. When fired upon, troops at once 
hit the ground and crawl or roll to cover, and each subordinate 
unit faces the sector for which it is responsible. The fire will 
be returned immediately by all men who have located a target 
within their area of responsibility. Leaders will gain control 
of their units and commence to put into effect the prear- 
ranged scheme of maneuver which the situation indicates. 
This scheme of maneuver will cover supply trains, automatic 
and supporting weapons, and rifle units ; it will determine the 
manner in which the maneuver group will be selected. That 
unit which is the best position to disengage itself from the 
fire fight and move into a position from which the ambush 
can be outflanked should do so of its own initiative, and attack 
aggressively under the covering fire of other elements of the 
column. 

36. Trail Cutting. — In many cases it will be necessary for 
jungle columns to cut new trails to accomplish their mission. 
Trail cutting is done by teams with a leading cutter charged 
with direction on an azimuth or previously determined direc- 
tion followed by a second cutter who widens to the right, a 
third who widens to the left, and so on depending on the 



20 



number of cutters and the width of the trail desired. Map 
reconnaissance to determine the best and quickest route 
should be made previous to beginning the march. Selection 
of the route will be determined largely by the ease with 
which the trail can be cut. Slight detours will often save time, 
while zig-zagging trails up steep inclines will be easier to 
traverse than a straight trail. Frequent rotation of cutters 
within each small unit or detail will speed the cutting of the 
trail and bring relief to the cutters. (See Appendix I for rate 
of trail breaking and clearing.) 



21 



SECTION 2 

BIVOUAC 

37. Requirements. — Three essential requirements of a biv- 
ouac area to be occupied by troops on the march are: that 
it be a good natural defensive position where the security of 
troops can be maintained, especially during the hours of 
darkness and dawn; that it facilitate the distribution of sup- 
plies ; that it serve as an initial point for the next days opera- 
tions. Patrols which precede the main column should select 
and reconnoiter the bivouac area, lay it out and partly clear 
it, if possible, before troops move in. 

a. The bivouac should be selected primarily for its 
value as a defensive position. The ideal area will be close to 
a water supply and on high, well drained ground which pro- 
vides ample overhead concealment to troops from enemy 
aviation, and is surrounded by wide cleared spaces offering 
favorable fields of fire for rifles and automatic weapons. When 
no overhead cover exists, troops should move into the bivouac 
after dark. 

Since optimum fields of fire will seldom be found in the 
jungle, the clearing of fire lanes should have a high priority 
in the establishment of the camp site. 

b. The bivouac defense must be planned to give all 
around protection to the troops which will occupy that area. 
Machine guns and automatic weapons sited on the perimeter 
of the area will provide close-in protection. The fire of these 
weapons should be as mutually supporting as possible. This 
will require extensive clearing of fire lanes placed to enfilade 
an attacking enemy. Riflemen and automatic riflemen should 
be spotted to protect those areas unable to be covered by 
machine guns. Beyond this band of defensive fires will be 
an outpost composed of small listening posts and observation 
posts supplemented by highly mobile patrols. Extensive patrol 
activity is necessary to protect the small isolated posts, and 
may serve to mislead the enemy as to our disposition. The 
use of night patrols will call for highly trained personnel and 
definite plans of action. The patrol plans should be known 
by all friendly troops, otherwise there is danger of troops 
firing upon their own patrols, or letting infiltrating groups 
of the enemy pass through the lines believing them to be a 
friendly patrol. 

The intervening area between the outpost line and auto- 
matic weapons should be organized with booby traps, trip 
wires, flare disks and similar devices designed to protect and 
warn troops against enemy infiltration. It is imperative that 
all bivouacs be organized in depth with a highly mobile, central 
reserve held ready in case of enemy break-through. To facili- 
tate organization and control, the bivouac should be divided 

22 



into compartments which are allotted down to the squad. 
Within the bivouac area a minimum of movement should be 
allowed. Strict care must be exercised to see that no men 
make unnecessary noise or use lights of any kind. 

c. All troops must dig slit trenches or individual fox- 
holes as protection against enemy mortar, artillery, and rifle 
fire. Troops on the perimeter should be liberally supplied with 
hand grenades which are especially effective for dispelling 
night attacks. In event of an attack only volley firing, con- 
trolled by responsible leaders, should be allowed. Every pre- 
caution must be taken to prevent indiscriminate firing for 
this will result in the premature disclosure of our positions, 
waste of ammunition and possible casualties among friendly 
troops. All men must be trained to hold their fire until they 
are reasonably sure of their target, refusing to be duped by 
enemy diversions designed to force them into disclosing their 
position. 



23 



CHAPTER VII 

ATTACK AND DEFENSE 

SECTION 1 

ATTACK 

38. Forms of Attack. — Jungle terrain lends itself favorably 
to the two main tactical maneuvers : envelopment and the pene- 
tration. 

a. The penetration is particularly suitable for use 
against an enemy position which aims at attaining width and 
security of flanks by the sacrifice of depth. This attack must 
be made on a narrow front with one or more spearheads 
driving in to a given objective. When used in conjunction with 
infiltration the penetration can achieve the best results. 
Lightly equipped troops infiltrating in advance of as well as to 
the flanks of the main attack create and exploit weak points 
in the enemy lines, permitting the main effort to drive into the 
breach thus developed. 

b. Because operations in the dense jungle present an 
almost impossible task in locating exactly the enemy flanks, 
enveloping actions should be habitually wide with the mission 
of driving past the flanks to hit him deep in his own territory. 
The envelopment, to be successful, must be made quickly by 
highly trained troops capable of rapid movement across coun- 
try, and able to sustain themselves for long periods on limited 
supplies. This force should avoid contact and interference with 
enemy patrols during the approach march as this will entail 
loss of speed, surprise, and minimize control. The envelopment 
in depth, characterized by separate columns fanning out and 
encircling the enemy's rear to strike a succession of blows deep 
in his territory, is especially effective in jungle combat. The 
presence of navigable streams or open water areas on the en- 
emy flanks may provide a favorable avenue of approach for 
the enveloping forces if water transport is feasible. 

39. Formation. — The formation for the attack will, of neces- 
sity, be one which permits the maximum of control and main- 
tenance of direction as well as security and the ability to deploy 
rapidly. Such requirements will usually necessitate a compact 
column formation, or where trails are available, a series of 
parallel columns. Supporting weapons should be so distributed 
that smaller units will be efficient, independent fighting teams, 
ready and able to attack with a minimum of delay. When close 
to the enemy, trails parallel to the axis of advance should be 
used to widen the front of the attack as well as provide flank 
security for the attacking force. In light jungle it is generally 
better to cut new trails when in proximity to the enemy to 

25 



permit a partial deployment of the attacking force. It is 
essential that in this stage of the attack that the plan of 
attack be understood by all members of the command. Each 
subordinate unit must have its own definite assigned objectives 
at which they will reorganize and advance on orders or accord- 
ing to plan. Such objectives will ordinarily be more limited 
and closer together in jungle warfare than in other types of 
combat. 

b. Further deployment of the separated columns 
should not be made until contact with the enemy has re- 
sulted. At this time units must complete the deployment 
quickly and attack aggressively. To gain the initiative it is 
essential that the initial action be pusned vigorously to deny 
the enemy time to recover and counterattack. Full use 
should be made of all supporting weapons before and during 
the attack. Troops should be alert to take advantage of the 
time interval after the supporting fires have lifted to press the 
attack against the enemy. 

40. Reserves. — Great care must be exercised when an objec- 
tive has been taken that all the enemy pockets are wiped out. 
It will be comparatively easy for numbers of the enemy to lie 
undetected until the attack has passed by unless positive meas- 
ures for their elimination are taken by the reserve following 
closely behind the attacking echelon. Reserves must follow the 
assault echelon closely and in a condition of readiness to be com- 
mitted at any moment after the attack begins. For this reason 
it is necessary that the commanders of reserve units be familiar 
with the ground and progress of the attack at all times so that 
they will require a minimum of time for reconnaissance and 
the issuance of orders when the reserve is needed. 



26 



SECTION 2 
DEFENSE 

41. General. — Static defensive tactics are not favored in 
jungle warfare since the factors by which jungle operations 
differ from other operations will greatly limit the use of those 
defensive tactics that rely on mutually supporting terrain fea- 
tures held by relatively few men, supported by machine guns 
and other automatic weapons of great fire power. Seldom will 
such mutually supporting localities be found in the jungle, and 
the use of automatic weapons on final protective lines is greatly 
restricted. Concealed avenues of approach, on the other hand, 
will abound, making conditions for the attack ideal. The flanks 
of a defensive force can be kept under observation only with 
great difficulty; they can never be considered secure. Wide 
streams, or areas of open water on one or both flanks of a posi- 
tion should not lead to a false sense of security. It must be 
expected that an alert, agressive enemy will employ water- 
borne troops to outflank or encircle the position. Not only 
must the commander assure positive observation means, both 
ground and air, to warn of such attack, he must also be pre- 
pared to meet and destroy such attempts by the enemy. 

a. When conditions make it impossible to seize the 
initiative at once, units may be forced to take up defensive 
positions, or in the course of offensive operations it may be 
necessary to pause and consolidate a position while communi- 
cations are improved and supplies replenished. It must be ap- 
preciated at this time, however, that the defense will fail if it 
remains static. A successful defense in jungle combat must be 
offensive in spirit, utilizing combat patrols, local offensive 
actions, counterattacks, and the constant improvement of 
position. Secrecy must be utilized to the utmost by the de- 
fender through skillful use of camouflage, concealment of the 
location of reserves, frequent shifting of gun emplacements, 
and active counter-reconnaissance measures. 

42. Discussion. — Jungle defense is all around defense. From 
the highest to the lowest, units must provide for all-round de- 
fense of their positions. Where cover and concealment abound 
in such profusion as in the jungle, an aggressive enemy may be 
expected to hit from any direction. It will be virtually impos- 
sible to prevent the infiltration of small enemy units ; therefore 
troops must be prepared at all times to meet him in unexpected 
places. A defensive position in the jungle must be as closely 
knit as the terrain dictates. In particularly heavy jungle coun- 
try, this may call for a "shoulder-to-shoulder" disposition of 
the defending troops. Other terrain may be adequately de- 
fended by troops posted to defend points which block avenues 
of approach, tied together by highly mobile patrols designed to 
maintain contact between units as well as guard against an 

27 






enemy break-through along less likely routes to the position. 
To achieve any degree of success all jungle defense must be 
organized in depth. Positions must be backed by deep, highly 
mobile, numerous, local reserves, with a general reserve of 
sufficient strength and maneuverability to move rapidly and 
counter an enemy break-through at any point on the peri- 
meter. The exact location of the local reserves is dictated by 
their mission: to support the forward defense areas by fire; 
to make local counterattacks to eject an enemy who has en- 
tered the forward defense areas; to prevent further advance 
by the hostile force. When an attack by the enemy has been 
successfully repulsed, mopping up parties should be sent out 
to comb the position for any enemy which may have remained 
in hiding on or near the position. 

43. Preparation. — In the preparation of a defensive position 
in the jungle, extensive fields of fire must be cleared to increase 
the effectiveness of the defending weapons. Insofar as possible, 
lanes should be cut which will place attacking enemy ranks 
under enfilade fire by automatic weapons. When cutting these 
lanes the bottom branches of trees, and low vines and under- 
growth should be cut leaving the upper branches to prevent 
hostile ground and aerial observation of this part of the defen- 
sive scheme. Barbed wire double apron fences and protective 
wire should be used extensively on the front, flanks and rear of 
the position. Devices such as tin cans filled with small stones, 
booby traps, etc., should be placed along the wire to warn of any 
enemy interference. The use of the Concertina is recom- 
mended because of the heavy gage wire which makes cutting 
difficult. By the extensive use of wire and other obstacles, 
covered by fire, the enemy will be forced somewhat to conform 
to our defensive position, and thus relinquish some of the 
initiative he holds as the attacker. 

a. All men must dig in. The slit trench and the stand- 
ing type foxhole with an overhead covering which offers pro- 
tection from grenades have been found most suitable for jungle 
combat. When the situation permits, all troops should dig 
supplementary and alternate positions to guard against attack 
from any direction. In many cases it will be expedient to 
prepare night positions to the rear of that position occupied 
during the day. This will confuse the enemy and make recon- 
naissance preparatory to an attack difficult. Riflemen should 
be situated in trees or well concealed foxholes to intercept any 
enemy attempt to infiltrate into our positions for the purposes 
of destroying automatic weapons. All positions should be care- 
fully camouflaged, utilizing the abundant materials easily ob- 
tainable in the jungle. Whenever possible live vegetation 
should be used in preference to cut vegetation which will 
wither rapidly in the jungle climate. Artificial means of 
camouflage colored green with a high content of yellow to 
blend with the jungle will be satisfactory when natural means 
of camouflage are not practical. 

28 



b. Because of the extensive clearing which must be 
done in the preparation of fields of fire, the normal engineer- 
ing tools provided for a force preparing a defensive position 
should be augmented by axes sufficient to provide at least 25 
percent of the command. Each jungle soldier should be 
equipped with a machete. A soldier trained in the use of the 
machete and axe can, with these two tools, completely clear 
100 square yards of trail or about 200 square yards of fire 
lane in five hours. (See Appendix I.) 

c. Security detachments should be placed along all 
avenues of approach to the defensive position to observe and 
delay a hostile approach. Patrolling must be active both 
along the approaches and between security detachments, since 
the characteristics of jungle terrain permit easy capture or 
destruction of isolated forward elements. These security ele- 
ments should vigorously oppose an advancing enemy, denying 
him the use of trails or other routes of approach, forcing him 
to deploy prematurely, and inflicting as many casualties as 
possible. 



29 



CHAPTER VIII 

SPECIAL OPERATIONS 

44. Patrols. — In jungle combat the security and effective- 
ness of both the defender and attacker will depend largely on 
the activity of their patrols. Patrols have three paramount 
missions: to deny the enemy access to certain terrain; to se- 
cure information; and to harass the enemy. 

a. The security patrol will operate to intercept, delay 
or break up the enemy movements which threaten the front, 
flanks or rear of the main force. These patrols must be main- 
tained continuously and must be aggressive, mobile units if 
the initiative is to be gained or retained. 

b. Reconnaissance patrols will function in the jungle 
in much the same manner as in other operations. Since events 
move so rapidly under jungle conditions, special means for sig- 
nal communication must be employed to enable the commander 
to act on information received. The use of the portable radio, 
pyrotechnics, flags, etc., depending on the particular situation 
will greatly increase the effectiveness of the reconnaissance 
patrol. 

c. The combat patrol operates with the mission of 
harassing the enemy by operations against his lines of com- 
munication, supply installations, flanks and rear. These oper- 
ations delivered with speed and pushed aggressively serve to 
demoralize the enemy, weaken his will to resist and deplete 
his forces. Jungle terrain makes the efforts of combat patrols 
especially valuable, enabling small, lightly equipped patrols to 
move rapidly around the enemy flanks or through his lines, to 
strike punishing blows where he least expects it. The strength 
and composition of the combat patrol will be dictated by the 
mission assigned and the terrain. The size usually will ap- 
proximate at least one platoon, equipped with a high percen- 
tage of light, automatic weapons capable of delivering heavy 
fire. Formations for the combat patrol are based upon concen- 
tration and all around security. The leader must be able at all 
times to insure the quick and coordinated action of all his men 
and to meet an attack from any direction. 

(1) Orders must be based upon the greatest pos- 
sible advance information. They must contain much detail 
and at the same time must provide for independent emergency 
action by small groups if the necessity for such action arises. 
It is imperative that members of the patrol have all available 
information in advance regarding the mission, the route both 
to and from the objective and any rendezvous which may be 
prescribed. The tactics of the combat patrol are based upon 
surprise. It will move with stealth and take all measures 
necessary to preserve the secrecy of its movements. 



31 



(2) In jungle combat- there should be little dis- 
tinction made between "combat" and "reconnaissance" patrols. 
To restrict a patrol leader to pure reconnaissance (except in 
isolated instances)" is to hamper seriously and even endanger 
that patrol. Jungle patrols must be aggressive when the 
situation demands; it is often their only means of defense. A 
patrol should always seek information, but likewise, it should 
seek to cause as much discomfort to the enemy as possible. 

(3) Unit leaders should be alert to observe those 
men in their command who show a natural inclination toward 
scouting and patrolling. These men usually will be those who 
have grown up in country surroundings, are used to hard- 
ships, and clever in woodcraft. Thorough preparation of the 
entire command in patrolling is a prime requisite for all jungle 
combat. A high percentage of patrol training should be under- 
taken at night with stress placed on silence in moving through 
heavily wooded terrain, swift marches under the most dif- 
ficult conditions and operating over long periods of time on 
limited rations and supplies. All patrol members as well as 
all combatants in jungle operations must be impressed with 
the importance of patience under the most adverse conditions. 
When the natives of the particular theater of operations are 
known to be friendly, every opportunity should be made to 
use their knowledge of the terrain by our patrols. 

45. Night Attacks. — The factors which make a night attack 
difficult in normal operations are accentuated in jungle combat. 
Vision, control, coordination and secrecy are much more dif- 
ficult to attain in the closed, heavily wooded terrain present in 
jungle combat than on more open terrain. Night will increase 
the difficulties so much that such operations will be of limited 
value in most jungles. Night attacks will be made by smaller 
units operating over terrain through which selected routes 
have been reconnoitered. Trails, streambeds or similar fea- 
tures easily identifiable and followed at night should be em- 
ployed. Extra time must be allowed for the delay of columns 
caused by the increased lack of vision and the obstacles to con- 
trol and maintenance of direction which the jungle imposes. 

46. Ambushes. — In the jungle where concealment is easily 
obtained and where movement is closely restricted, ambushes 
may be employed with good effect in either defensive or offen- 
sive operations. A correctly organized ambush must take sev- 
eral factors in consideration: Location, concealment, depth, 
field of fire and route of withdrawal. 

a. The location of the ambush will be determined by 
exacting reconnaissance of enemy supply routes, trails, etc., 
as well as an appreciation of the terrain, in order to choose a 
location which will provide the most profitable targets to the 
ambushing group. Suggested ambush locations are twisting 
trails, water points, enemy defensive positions occupied only 
when the area defended is threatened, supply routes used by 

32 



carriers and jungle stream trails. In any of these locations it 
is often possible to ambush large enemy parties, patrols, or 
supply convoys. 

b. Concealment is highly necessary in ambush opera- 
tions as any suspicious appearance will foil all ambush 
attempts against an alert enemy. Strict measures must 
be taken to prevent men from littering the area of the 
ambush with cigarette butts, paper scraps, ration tins, foot- 
prints and bruised and broken vegetation. All members of 
the ambush party must be trained in camouflage discipline 
and patience, for a high degree of both will be required in a 
successful ambush. 

c. By depth of ambush is meant the distance which 
the enemy must penetrate into the ambush position before 
his leading elements pass out of the line of fire. This depth 
will depend upon the size and formation of the enemy party 
that is to be trapped. When the enemy is fully in position, 
there must be fire both in front and behind him to prevent 
his escape in either direction. 

d. It is seldom possible to place weapons in an ambush 
so as to make use of the optimum field of fire for each. Every 
effort should be made to bring point blank fire to bear on the 
enemy if possible. In this way the fire itself will be extremely 
effective and the attendant roar of weapons will add to the 
confusion of the enemy making his capitulation or annihilation 
more probable. 

e. Careful consideration must be given to the route of 
withdrawal to be employed by members directly after the am- 
bush. The threat of enemy reprisal in force makes it manda- 
tory that one or more favorable routes of withdrawal be desig- 
nated to a previously determined assembly point. Provisions 
should be made for the order of withdrawal to provide a cover- 
ing force whose mission it is to protect the orderly withdrawal 
of troops to the assembly point. 

47. Attack and Defense of River Lines. — The general doc- 
trines of attack and defense of river lines are discussed in 
Marine Corps Schools text, River Crossings, and FM 100-5. 
Jungle conditions will usually modify the tactical application 
of these doctrines as follows : 

a. Attack. — Because of the difficulty which will be en- 
countered in cutting numerous trails to the riverbank, with a 
resultant loss of time and surprise, most attacks on a river 
line will be on a narrow front. Reliance must be made on 
speed, surprise and firepower. Feints will be practical only 
on a more limited front but should not be omitted for that 
reason, because concealment afforded by the jungle can often 
be used to get small groups across secretly, and the confusion 
and uncertainty that small harassing groups can cause may 



be of decisive importance in assisting the crossing of the main 
effort. 

(1) Much of the material for bridging and ferry- 
ing may be obtained locally in the jungle. Seldom will it be 
possible for ponton trains and other engineering equipment 
to accompany the column. Reliance should be made on stream 
crossing expedients for the initial stages of the attack. 

(2) Usually the supporting fire of light automatic 
weapons only will be available. These must be placed along 
the near bank itself to obtain observation. Weapons will 
usually have to be manhandled into position through the jungle 
and time for such movements must be allowed unless the at- 
tacker relies solely on the surprise of a quick rush from the 
point where his trail meets the stream, supported only by the 
fire of such weapons as can be quickly emplaced near the trail. 

b. Defense. — (1) In jungle warfare the main line of 
resistance will often be placed along the riverbank since — 

(a) The jungle and usual lack of trails, 
roads and other routes of movement are deterrents to rapid 
counterattack or movement of rearward reserves; therefore, 
it is undesirable to permit the enemy to gain a foothold on 
the defender's side of the river. 

(b) Positions for supporting weapons ordi- 
narily can be found only on or close to the river bank itself. 

(2) Suitable areas for crossings by the main at- 
tack forces ordinarily will be fewer in number than in more 
temperate climates and more thickly populated areas. How- 
ever, the advantages of concealment and cover favor the cross- 
ing of small groups at any point. 

(3) The defender must provide protection for his 
flanks and rear. The ease with which small, highly trained 
groups can cross and operate stealthily in the jungle area to 
harass troops and damage or destroy installations requires that 
special measures be taken to protect against such hostile ele- 
ments. 



34 



CHAPTER IX 

SIGNAL COMMUNICATION 

48. General. — The characteristics of jungle warfare will 
tend to increase the importance and use of signal communica- 
tion. Since the transmission of orders and enemy information 
is vitally important, means of communication should be in- 
creased above the normal allotments to units. Reliance should 
not be made on any one means of communication, for coordi- 
nated action by troops in jungle combat will require that 
communication facilities operate at all times. 

a. The care of signal equipment is of great importance, 
especially in the rainy season. Prior to beginning jungle opera- 
tions, every possible measure should be taken to dry out and 
protect equipment. Electrical equipment requires special care. 
If waterproof covers for electrical instruments are not issued, 
they should be made from salvage material such as raincoats 
and tentage. Signal equipment should never be placed on the 
ground. All pack animals carrying signal equipment must be 
led by hand. Frequent inspections should be made to determine 
that the equipment is traveling securely. Frequent testing and 
examination of all equipment should be made whenever time 
and the situation permit. 

b. Work at the message center must be done under 
adverse conditions in the jungle. All message center personnel 
must be trained to work with headnet and gloves. Due to the 
heat it is seldom practical to use closed tentage. All lights 
must be adequately shaded or concealed to prevent hostile 
observation. The jungle offers abundant material for the cam- 
ouflage of message centers which should be utilized extensively 
to preserve the secrecy of its location. All message centers 
must take special measures to provide their own security. An 
alert enemy will infiltrate to command posts by following sig- 
nal communication wire, therefore care must be taken by the 
message center and adequate security be posted to prevent 
hostile infiltration. 

c. The messenger is the primary and most reliable 
means of signal communication in jungle warfare. They should 
be carefully selected men, with a high degree of intelligence, 
courage and aggressiveness. Their training should include in- 
struction in jungle lore, trail knowledge and the use of the 
marching compass. All messengers must be kept familiar with 
the location of adjacent units. In many cases under severe 
jungle conditions it will be necessary to employ messengers 
in pairs. As added security it will be best to send identical 
messages by different messengers traveling by different routes. 

d. Although visual means of signalling will be of little 
value in the jungle itself, when sufficient open space or high 

35 



ground exists these means may be employed to advantage. 
Pyrotechnics will be less reliable in the jungle because of the 
humidity, therefore their use should be supplemented by other 
signalling devices whenever possible. 

e. Atmospheric conditions and jungle growth will limit 
the range of radio. Light portable radio sets employing hand 
generators and fishing pole antennae are necessary. Because of 
their weight and bulk, the use of large and more powerful sets 
will be confined mainly to areas immediately adjacent to trails 
and to rear areas. Continuous-wave signals provide greater 
range and are preferable therefore to voice or tone modulated 
signals. 

f . It will often be impossible for wire communications 
to keep up with troops in the attack. In the defense, however, 
wire communication is indispensable, and should be laid to 
connect all echelons in such a way that constant contact is 
maintained between units. Wire will often be threatened by 
small infiltrating groups, therefore whenever time and the 
situation permit all wire must be concealed. Dummy wire and 
booby traps may be used against infiltration to mislead and 
destroy the enemy. Exposed wire will not only give away the 
location of our message centers and command posts, but will 
enable the enemy to tap the wires with a resultant loss of 
secrecy. 

g. Passwords, signs and countersigns should be used 
extensively and changed often in jungle combat. The words 
chosen should be those difficult for the enemy to pronounce 
and used only when other means of identification are imprac- 
tical. Since the Japanese mispronounce certain groupings of 
English letters, words employing any two or all of these letters 
will certainly be mispronounced. The following short table in- 
dicates the manner in which the Japanese would pronounce 
certain groupings of English letters ; note that they substitute 
"r" for "1", "su" or "za" for "th", and "b" for V: 

English Letters Japanese Phonetic 

Pronounciation 

La Rah (soft "r") 

Ly Rye (soft "r") 

Th Su (soft "s" as "soft") 

The Za or Zeh 

Very Bedy ("y" like double 

"e" in "see") 

Velvet Berubet 

h. Challenging at night should be done skillfully. The 
challenger must remain unseen in the shadows of a tree or 
building. He should challenge "Halt, who goes there?" and 
closely survey the party before allowing him to proceed. He 
should not permit the party to come within knife range. If 

36 



the party is recognized sufficiently he should be permitted to 
carry on. The password should not be used unless more posi- 
tive "identification is necessary, and then should be spoken only 
in a whisper. 

JUNGLE WARFARE 

APPENDIX I 

STAFF DATA FOR JUNGLE WARFARE 





dumber 


1 




Area 








of meu 


Distance 


Width 


(square 








(1 


(yards) ' (yards) 


yards) 


Hours 


Tools 




scjnad) 












Trail breaking . . 


12 


3,000 


% 


2,000 


3-6 


Machetes. 


Trail clearing . . 


12 


1,000 


1 


1,000 


12 


Machetes, axes. 


Bridge building 




! 










(animal) . 


12 


6 


3 


18 


4 


Do. 


Corduroying, cut- 




! 










ting and placing. 


12 


100 


3 


300 


12 


Do. 


Area clearing . . 


12 


1,000 


1 


1,000 


12 


Do. 


Trail blocking . . . 


12 


Time for felling 


trees 





Do.e 


Road building, 














dirt, passable 


12 


50 


3 


150 


12 


Machetes, axes, 


for 1 vehicle. 


', 










shovels, picks. 


Fire lane cutting 


12 


1,000 


2 


2,000 


18 


Machetes, axes. 


Tree felling 


2 


Can fe 


11 a single tree fi 


om 10 


Axes. 


(cutting) 




to 2C 


inches 


in diame 


ter in 






- 


15 to 


45 minutes. 
1 







12613 MCS QUANT1CO, VA. 11-13-43-7500 



37