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Public School 


From the collection of the 

v Jjibrary 

San Francisco, California 













SEP 8 1936 







All rights reserved. This book, or parts 
thereof, must not be reproduced in any 
iorm without permission of the publisher. 




This text is designed as a beginning text in foods to be used 
with pupils soon after they enter the period of secondary edu- 
cation. That is, these units are to be among the early 
educational experiences that have as their chief purpose the 
adjustment of pupils to some of the materials, ideas, and 
situations that constitute living. It is organized in units as 
described by Dr. H. C. Morrison in The Practice of Teaching 
in the Secondary Schools.' 1 The organization, point of view, 
and numerous devices resulted largely from teaching in the 
Labortory Schools of the University of Chicago. However, 
a wide variety of experiences afforded contributions. 

The sequence of the units as given is considered advisable 
under some conditions; under others it may be disregarded. 
Experience has shown that a positive attitude toward particular 
foods is economically furthered when pupils prepare these 
foods themselves. If pupils have had no experience with food 
preparation, it is well to have the nutrition unit follow the 
one on preparation. Otherwise too much attention would be 
diverted to preparation to the detriment of the nutrition learn- 
ings. In addition, knowledge of the ingredients of various 
dishes as gained in the preparation unit is of positive assistance 
in nutritional evaluations. As will be noted, family marketing 
is based on nutritional requirements. Consequently, it is 
essential that pupils taking up the unit on marketing have nutri- 
tional understandings. The learnings gained from the prepara- 
tion unit are also important in making marketing intelligible. 

1 H. C. Morrison, The Practice of Teaching in the Secondary Schools 
(The University of Chicago Press, revised edition, 1931). 



The text is designed to allow and encourage considerable 
pupil independence. That is, the questions, problems, readings, 
and directions are placed so that pupils can proceed with a 
minimum of dependence upon the teacher. Teachers are then 
free to help in difficulties, to discover individual problems, to 
supplement wherever needed. Thus attention is centered upon 
pupil growth. Pupils may move through a unit at individual 
speeds, additional suggestion being listed for those who com- 
plete the unit earlier than most. Pretest questions, presenta- 
tions, considerable assimilation materials, both expressed and 
suggested, are additional structural elements that facilitate both 
learning and ease of class management. 

Because there is wide variation in time allotment for home- 
economics study, no definite period can be suggested as prob- 
ably sufficient to secure mastery of the units in this text. How- 
ever, an attempt has been made in its structure to recognize 
the problems of the teacher with few and widely spaced class 
meetings as well as those of the teacher whose daily meetings 
permit of better continuity. That is, there is grouping within 
the units such that widely spaced lessons may have a measure 
of completeness without losing their vital relationship to the 
unit concept. When teachers find themselves in this situation, 
it is to be hoped that they will take extra precautions that the 
learnings of the isolated lessons be definitely kept as a part 
of the whole. 

The illustrations are of various types such as animated 
statistics, cartoons, diagrammatic explanations, and photo- 
graphs. Each type was chosen for the specific kind of teaching 
it would do. For example, the animal photographs in the 
nutrition unit give information but in addition are convincing 
in their appeal. The diagram was selected in numerous in- 
stances because it eliminated everything but the point to be 
made. The authors wish to express their appreciation for the 
cooperation of many commercial firms in providing photo- 


graphs. The Bureau of Home Economics was very helpful in 
supplying pointed illustrations for the nutritional unit. 

Special credit is due a number of persons. Mr. Linn Hough 
of the photographic department of The University of Chicago 
spared no pains to make his photographs of teaching value. 
Miss Grace Wertenberger of Western Reserve University 
helped in collecting various informations. Credit should be 
given to instructors from whom valuable points of view and 
suggestions were gained, among whom are Miss Faith McAuley, 
Dr. Evelyn G. Halliday, and Dr. Lydia J. Roberts, all of the 
University of Chicago. Dr. Henry C. Morrison was particu- 
larly encouraging through his sincere interest in nutritional 

M. R. F. 
H. S. 


When education is considered to be a personality change, 
objectives are expressed in terms of attitudes based upon 
understandings or appreciations. First, then, we must select 
the aims we hold for our teaching. The next step is to discover 
to what extent pupils have already progressed toward attaining 
these objectives. For this purpose a set of pretest questions 
has been supplied for each unit in this book. Most teachers 
will find this list is insufficient in breadth to serve adequately, 
or that there are local conditions that make additional ques- 
tions advisable. They will probably find also that written 
testing needs to be supplemented by oral questioning in order 
to give a clear picture of individual and group understandings 
and attitudes. It must not be thought, however, that any 
amount of pretesting will uncover all the difficulties that pupils 
are likely to encounter. The discovery of such difficulties will 
be constant from the beginning of the unit to its finish. How- 
ever, a teacher is eminently better equipped to present informa- 
tions in such a way as to be effective if she analyzes carefully 
the results of pretesting. 

Young people as well as adults enjoy a clear understanding 
of the purpose of what they are doing. They are confused 
and their progress is slow if they must wander about seeking 
a goal that they cannot recognize. For this reason a presenta- 
tion of each unit is given under the heading, "What This Unit 
Is About." If, after this section is read and perhaps discussed 
by the teacher, a test reveals that some pupils still do not 
know what there is to be learned in the unit, she will need to 
present it again, using stories perhaps, examples, and other 


informations so that pupils will not only know what is to be 
learned but will be anxious to start. With practice pupils soon 
have little difficulty in establishing this concept. 

Now when we are sure pupils know what they are about, 
we give them access to such information, experiences, and 
interpretations as we think will develop those understandings 
and attitudes that we set up as objectives. We encourage ex- 
perimentation and an inquiry into their own experiences. An 
attitude results usually from demonstration or experience re- 
peated until the pupil is convinced. For example, the attitude 
that, principles of cookery must be recognized if good products 
are to be developed is a process of rather slow growth in a 
student new to the preparation of foods. As she goes from 
the preparation of one kind of dish to another, she discovers 
that each new food has certain characteristics that cause it to 
respond to manipulation in either a new or an old way. As she 
experiences good and poor results in which she recognizes the 
effects of use or violation of the many principles of cookery, 
she comes to the conclusion that to be a successful cook one 
must know and use the proper method under different cir- 
cumstances. Having truly developed this attitude, her ap- 
proach to cooking will always be intelligent, since she will seek 
to understand her materials, know what product and what 
standard she desires, and discover the method that will give this 
result. In addition, she has developed independence, since 
she can apply principles in new situations with assurance of 

In each unit has been included a considerable amount of 
assimilative material. The numbered questions and problems 
are designed to further progress by requesting interpretation 
of reading, illustrations, and personal experiences. There can 
be no assurance, however, that this assimilative material will be 
sufficient in any particular case. Teachers will probably find 
that they must supplement on every hand, with books, pic- 


tures, magazines and newspaper clippings, their own experiences 
and those of the pupils. The writers have indicated sources 
for a considerable amount of valuable supplementary material 
but have in no way exhausted the possibilities. The responses 
to the problems and questions may be used somewhat as a 
check on pupil progress. 

When the teacher believes that most of her students have 
arrived at the goal set, she tests. Since we have the concep- 
tion of education as a change in understandings and attitudes 
that result in changed performance, the most accurate test 
is the observance of unconstrained performance. In the school 
situation this is not always possible. Often reports from the 
home give a clue. A nonvalid form of testing is one that 
grades for mere memory of information. The ability to explain 
or interpret that depends upon understanding is, of course, a 
good type of test and one that is possible in the school situation. 

Reteaching may be necessary for those pupils who have 
failed to reach the objectives set up. Those members who 
are ready now round out their understanding by organizing 
in some form the chief points of the unit. At the level for 
which this text was written, the making of an outline may 
require considerable guidance from the teacher. However, the 
ability to express one's understanding of a body of material 
in an outline is of sufficient importance to each individual that 
teachers can with profit include this kind of instruction in 
their teaching program. In addition, making an outline furthers 
a grasp of the unit and serves as a form of test. The ability 
to express oneself orally and in writing is also of extreme 
importance. Pupils may practice for these skills with the 
familiar material of the unit. 

Two types of units have been developed, Unit I, "Prepara- 
tion," being of the practical-arts type, and Units II and III, 
"Nutrition" and "Marketing," of the science type. In the 
practical-arts unit the experiences are largely direct and ma- 


nipulative. Thus, in Unit I, attitudes toward the preparation 
of food are developed primarily by the cooking of foods, 
reading and discussion being used to interpret what the pupil 
sees is happening as she cooks. In the units on nutrition and 
marketing, the experiences and informations provided are of 
necessity to a large extent vicarious. We give such direct 
experience as the school situation and the restrictions of the 
ordinary person's life permit. Animal feeding experiments, and 
experiments such as removal of mineral from a bone are 
examples of direct experience in nutrition. In the marketing 
unit, visiting lessons, handling of foods of contrasting quali- 
ties, experiments of different kinds with foods are of great 
value in satisfying pupils of the validity of what they are 
learning through the informations that have been culled from 
the experiences of others. In the practical-arts unit, manipu- 
lation is supplemented by reading and discussion, in the 
science-type unit the direct experiences are used to give life 
and meaning to what may be learned from others. 

In all the units, but especially in the practical-arts unit, it 
may be observed that the emphasis is upon attitudes toward 
food, rather than a high degree of skill. General education is 
for the purpose of adjusting individuals to the situations they 
are likely to meet in their association with things and with 
each other. Trade education is for the purpose of making a 
living and requires the development of a high degree of skill. 
Units in general education should develop such a degree of 
skill only as will give pupils personal satisfaction and will 
further the intelligence with which they may meet the varied 
situations of both adolescent and adult life. 

Unfortunately many home-economics teachers have been 
forced to develop a high degree of skill in their pupils, since 
parents and administrative officers have often failed to recog- 
nize other more valid objectives and have measured the suc- 
cess of the teacher by such things as perfection of garments in 


an exhibit, or of foods served at a school board dinner. In 
general home economics, we should no more ask that skilled 
cooks and seamstresses be developed than we call for account- 
ants from arithmetic classes or artists from art classes. 

In school organizations where the time allotted to home 
economics is meager, teachers may find it to be good practice 
to limit the preparation of food to but one meal project. Since 
the objectives of the unit are understandings and attitudes 
toward the preparation of food, one carefully guided project 
can be used to develop all of these attitudes. Where the time 
allotment is more generous, it is of course desirable to use all 
three projects because the wider experiences in a variety of 
connections will probably contribute to more effective function- 
ing of the new points of view. 

As a result of the teaching of nutrition pupils should have 
understandings of and good attitudes toward the nutritious 
foods. For the psychological effect it is good practice to have 
pupils prepare as many of the valuable foods as time permits, 
particularly if certain dislikes that would be likely to throw 
many days' diets out of balance are discovered. Since wide- 
spread nutritional research is constantly establishing new facts, 
teachers can vitalize their teaching by bringing these facts to- 
gether with the human interest connected with their discovery 
to their classes. Perhaps a word of caution should be given 
in regard to the use of tables of approximate food values and 
needs provided in the unit on nutrition. The authors wish to 
be understood that they consider neither to be exact representa- 
tions. Also they recognize that a great number of contributing 
factors, the study of which is too technical for inclusion in a 
text at this level, affects the utilization of food elements. How- 
ever they feel that it would be futile to repeat the generalities 
heard in homes such as, "You must drink milk"; "Vegetables 
are good for you." The tables are included to give a basis 
for such tangible evidence as would convince pupils of the 



value of milk, vegetables, and so on in their own diets, and of 
the necessity of conscious choice from among food possibilities 
in order that they may be supplied with their various needs. 

As will be observed, pupils are prepared in a general way 
by the materials in the text for visits to markets. Teachers 
will find it necessary to supplement this preparation by means 
of discussion with both the pupils and the market man as to 
what is to be seen. It is the unusual market man who has the 
educational point of view, and his willingness must be guided 
in order to insure the success of the visiting lesson. 

The following is an analysis of important specific understand- 
ings that should result from the use of the text. For the 
several understandings there are listed the informations and 
pupil activities selected to use in giving these understandings. 





Pupil Activities 

1. Principles of cook- 

1. This point of view 

1. Practicing measure- 

ery must be recog- 

is consciously devel- 

ments and other ac- 

nized if good prod- 

oped throughout the 

tivities throughout 

ucts are to be devel- 


the unit. 


2. The content and 

2. Foods and their 

2.-7. Cookery. Break- 

other characteristics 

cookery, such as ce- 

fast: cereals, fruits, 

of foods determine 

reals, fruits, muffins, 

beverages, eggs, ba- 

the method of cook- 

creamed dishes, 

con, muffins. Lunch- 

ery to be used. 

salads, meats, vege- 

eon: soups, creamed 

tables, simple des- 

dishes, salads, sand- 

serts, and confec- 

wiches, desserts and 


confections. Din- 

ner : meats, vege- 

3. The method of cook- 

3. Vegetables, cereal, 

tables, salads, com- 

ery should conserve 

meat, and other 

b i n a t i o n dishes, 

the nutritional ele- 


desserts. Judging 


products. Experi- 



UNIT I. Continued 




Pupil Activities 

4. Sanitation is of 

4. Related to care of 

ments: Freeing car- 

prime importance in 

dishes, washing of 

bon dioxide from 

handling foods. 

foods to be used, 

baking powder and 

raw and cooked 

soda ; temperature 

meat, milk, 'and 

effect of salt when 

vegetable cookery. 

mixed with ice; see 

the effects of differ- 

5. Appetizing appear- 

5. Related to salads, 

ent methods of pre- 

ance and flavor are 

cereals, creamed 

paring grapefruit, 

the result of care. 

dishes, desserts, and 

apples, and other 

so on. 

fruits, cocoa, rice, 

muffins. Making 

6. Texture, flavor, 

6. Meal planning : 

collections of recipes. 

color, and custom 

breakfasts, lunch- 

Planning and pre- 

should be considered 

eons, dinners. Sal- 

paring meals for 

when foods and 

ads, creamed and 

family ; making 

flavors are combined 

other combination 

rolled sandwiches ; 

in dishes or in meals. 


varying French 


7. Variety contributes 

7. Meal planning and 

to our enjoyment of 

cookery of many 



8. Planning is of much 

8. Preparation of 

8. Outlining plans of 

importance in the 

breakfasts, lunch- 

procedure for work. 

work of meal prep- 

eons, and dinners. 






Pupil Activities 

1. The foods we eat 
determine to a con- 
siderable extent how 
we grow and how 
well we are. 

1. Emphasis upon re- 
lation of food and 
physical well-being 
throughout the unit. 

i. Experiments and ac- 
tivities throughout 
the unit, such as 
animal feeding, 
preparation of foods 



UNIT II. Continued 




Pupil Activities 

2. The body has need 
for warmth and for 
energy to be sup- 
plied by an ade- 
quate amount of 

3. Growth and repair 
of the body are pos- 
sible only when the 
building elements 
are supplied in suf- 
ficient quantities. 

4. Adequacy in the 
various body regu- 
lating elements must 
be supplied by our 

2. Body needs for fuel 
foods ; how these 
needs are supplied; 
comparison of foods 
as to value; meals 
to supply needs. 

3. Body needs: how 
supplied, foods val- 
uable for. How to 
select meals. Dishes 
valuable for protein 
and mineral. 

4. Body needs in vita- 
mins and roughage, 
how supplied ; study 
of meals and dishes; 
how the body rids 
itself of wastes. 

especially valuable 
for elements, study 
of own diet, etc. 

2. Setting out foods ir 
groups based on cal- 
oric values. Cook- 
ing two breakfasts 
of contrasting val- 
ues. Making food 
models for practice 
in selecting foods. 

3. Protein: analyzing 
recipes for, planning 
meals for, selecting 
foods in cafeteria 
Iron: seeing cor- 
puscles in goldfish 
playing game with 
paper squares tc 
learn how to sup- 
ply. Calcium: play- 
ing game with 
squares, rat-feeding 
experiments, reduc- 
tion of milk, re- 
moval of minerals 
from bone, ana- 
lyzing recipes anc 

4. Making a vitamin 
rule; making an ex- 
hibit of roughage ; 
planning a picnic 
lunch to supply vi- 
tamin needs. 



UNIT II. Continued 




Pupil Activities 

5. If we like nearly all 

5. How food likes de- 

5. Choosing meals 

of the commonly 

velop; dangers of a 

from menu cards ; 

served foods, we are 

finicky appetite; 

making menus for 

more likely to eat 

food habits of chil- 


well balanced meals 

dren; menu cards; 

than if we have 

eating between 

finicky appetites. 


6. Other good health 

6. Other health habits ; 

6. Checking health 

habits help foods 

sleeping, elimination, 

chart and score. 

to maintain bodily 

play, brushing teeth, 



7. Bodily well-being is 

7. This point of view 

7. Animal-feeding ex- 

worth a conscious 

is developed in rela- 



tion to each of the 

aspects of nutrition. 





Pupil Activities 

1. Meal plans are the 

1. Mary makes a 

1. Making Mary's 

basis for market 

market list based on 

market list. 


a specific day's 

meals for her family. 

2. Each kind of food 

2. Study of vegetables. 

2.-S. Cooking fresh 

has definite qualities 

fruits, canned goods, 

and wilted vege- 

we seek to purchase. 

eggs, milk, cheese, 

tables to compare 

staples, sea foods 

flavor ; studying cost 

and meats. 

of low-priced imper- 

fect vegetables; 

3. Good nutrition may 

3. Comparison in vege- 

canned and fresh 

be purchased at va- 

tables, meats, fruits, 

vegetables ; small 

rious costs. 


fruit versus large. 



UNIT III. Continued 




Pupil Activities 

Study of flavor of 

4. Different grades and 

4. Examples from a 

various brands ; 

kinds of foods are 

wide variety of 

making collections 

satisfactory for dif- 


of labels and cans; 

ferent purposes. 

study of fresh and 

stale eggs; study of 

5. Brands are our best, 

5. Examples. 

comparative costs of 

but still an unsatis- 

fresh and prepared 

factory, guarantee of 

milks ; numerous ad- 


ditional activities 

with other foods. 

6. We should make in- 

6. Labels, government 

6. Visiting lessons to 

telligent use of such 

stamps and regula- 

dairies, food fac- 

marketing assistance 

tion, pure food laws, 

tories, markets, etc. 

as is available. 

market practices, 

Collection of labels 


for study ; looking 

up state and city 

regulations concern- 

ing dairy products." 

7. Spoilage of food in 

7. Causes of spoilage 

7. Experiments in 

the home may be de- 

and control. 

growth of molds; re- 

layed or prevented. 

frigerator tempera- 

tures. Studies in 

loss from spoilage. 

8. The prices of our 

8. The cost of services 

8. Study of family con- 

foods cover wide 

in producing grape- 

tributions in service. 

range of services. 


9. The storekeeper and 

9. Social and economic 

9. Report of observed 

the purchaser both 

influences of buyer 


have responsibilities. 

and seller; activities 

and attitudes. 



PREFACE .............. V 










PROTEIN NEEDS . . . 127 


















INDEX 293 




Write answers to these questions before you start to 
read the unit. Answer each as fully as you can. Your an- 
swers will help your teacher to plan for your work. She 
may wish to talk over some of them with you, and prob- 
ably she will have additional questions to ask. 

1. How do you decide what foods to combine in a meal? 

2. Do the members of your family prefer light or heavy break- 

3. In what ways do we improve our foods through the prepara- 
tion of our meals? Give examples to explain. 

4. Is it better to cook eggs at a high or a low temperature? Ex- 

5. Why do we soak dried fruits before cooking them? 

6. When should we sear meat? 

7. If we wish our meats to be tender, do we cook them quickly 
or slowly? 

8. Does the batter method for mixing muffins give a coarse- or 
a fine-grained product? 

9. What is the advantage of boiling green vegetables rapidly 
in a large quantity of water? 

10. Describe the appearance of a sandwich you would like to 
have in your lunch box. 

11. What is the purpose of the dasher in the ice cream freezer? 


Food for the savage. The savage is satisfied to spend 
but little time and trouble with his cooking. He eats 
foods raw when they are at all palatable in that form. 



He has only an open fire and very few cooking utensils. 
Naturally there is but little variety in the way his foods 
are cooked. 

Variety demanded by the civilized man. Civilized 
man, on the other hand, has come to demand a great 
deal of thought and skill in the preparation of his meals. 
For instance, he wants milk served not only as a bever- 
age, but in cream soups, in ice cream, in sauces, in baked 
foods, and in fancy beverages. Sometimes he likes his 
apples raw, but at others he wants them in sauces or 
baked, or in dumplings or fritters. His vegetables he 
has learned to enjoy not only in soups and stews, but 
baked, boiled, and stuffed as well as in salads and as 

We like each meal to include a number of different 
kinds of foods, and we like these meals to be different 
from day to day. It is fun to plan meals because there 
are almost numberless ways of cooking foods suggested 
in cookbooks, in magazines and newspapers, and in ad- 
vertisements, and there are so many kinds of foods from 
which we may select. Variety is one of the values we 
may give to foods by our work in preparing them. 

Cleanliness in food. To-day we demand a degree of 
cleanliness in our foods that was unknown to our an- 
cestors. The more closely people live together, the bet- 
ter is the chance that unwholesome germs or bacteria 
may thrive and be communicated. In the preparation of 
our foods we are able to wash away or kill those bacteria 
that would harm us. It is very easy to pick up bacteria 
on our hands as we get on and off cars, as we handle 
money, and even from the dusty air. First of all, the 
cook is careful that she does not bring bacteria to food. 


She wears clean clothing and is clean herself, especially 
her hands and nails. Should people who are ill with 
communicable disease prepare foods for others? What 
precautions might be suggested to cooks who have colds? 
It is important to wash foods carefully, especially those 
that are eaten raw. Cooking kills bacteria, so washing is 

From Ava L. Johnson, Bacteria of the Home" (Manual Arts Press) . 
A. B. 

Fig. 1. Bacterial growth. 

Each large dark circle is a photograph of gelatin on which bacteria 
have been allowed to grow. Each white spot represents thousands, 
often millions, of bacteria. The larger the white spot, the more the 
bacteria. You can see why it pays to wash both dishes and hands 
thoroughly with warm water and soap and dry them with clean towels. 

A. Bacterial growth from clean fingers after drying on a used linen towel. 

B. Thorough washing with soap and warm water leaves very few 

not so essential in foods that are cooked, though it is 
desirable. A second value we give to foods by our work 
with them is to make them wholesome by removing and 
by destroying harmful bacteria. 

Appetizing qualities. A turkey that is roasted an 
even golden brown, kept unbroken, and garnished with 
parsley makes our mouths water before we have even 
had a taste. How do the odors of meats cooking or of 
fresh cookies affect your appetite? Is the odor as satis- 
fying if the meat cr cookies have been scorched? We 


have come to expect our foods to give us pleasure 
through sight and smell as well as through taste. When 
father and mother, brothers and sisters get so much pleas- 
ure from attractive foods, it is worth while to learn how 
to prepare them so that they will stimulate the appetite by 
their appearance and by the odors that they give off. 

In order to give to food appetizing flavors and attrac- 
tive appearance a cook must have considerable knowl- 
edge and skill. For example, starch scorches very easily. 
Our ways of cooking starch must be such that we can 
avoid burning it. Some vegetables may have very poor 
flavor if they are cooked a long time in a small quantity 
of water. Meat may be made tender and juicy if we 
choose a good way of cooking it. So we might go through 
the entire list of foods and show that the right method 
will give the flavors we enjoy, whereas wrong methods 
may spoil even the choicest of foods that the grocer and 
the butcher may send us. A third value that a cook 
may add to foods is to contribute such appearance and 
flavor that we have more pleasure in eating them. 

Contrasts in foods. Those who cook give additional 
values to our foods by selecting dishes for the same 
meal that combine flavors we like or that give such 
contrast that they improve each other. Apples and pork, 
cranberries and turkey, sweet potatoes, pineapple and 
ham, are well known combinations. We do not like too 
many starchy foods at one meal, or too many rich foods. 
So we can see that by her wisdom in combining joods, 
that is, by meal planning, a cook may give us additional 

1. Name the values we may give to foods by careful 
choice and preparation. 


Information that a cook should have. What must 
a cook know to give all of these values? To give variety, 
a cook would certainly have to know how to use many 
utensils. A double boiler is used for one purpose, a bak- 
ing pan and oven for another. In addition, she will have 
to be acquainted with a great many different kinds of 
foods and a variety of ways to serve each one. To pre- 
pare our foods so they are clean and wholesome, cooks 
must have clean habits. An understanding of harmful 
germs and how they live will help her to make our foods 

To make our foods please us by their appearance and 
by their taste, cooks will have to know the effect of 
different ways of cooking. If eggs are cooked over too 
hot a flame, they become tough. A light, feathery cake is 
better for us than a rich and soggy one. .To prepare and 
serve foods so that they will be attractive, cooks must 
know what a standard product is. For example, they 
must know how potatoes look that are properly mashed. 
If they are able to recognize a good product, their pota- 
toes may be smooth, fluffy, white and hot, instead of 
lumpy, yellow, and cold. 

Learning by cooking. The best way to learn about 
these values is to cook. To know how to cook, you will 
want to read about the different foods and why some 
ways of cooking will give us dishes we like. Also before 
you start to cook you will need to become acquainted with 
the cooking laboratory. That is, you will have to learn 
where utensils, towels, etc., are kept and the order in 
which they are kept. 

The reading and cooking that are planned in this unit 
will help you to understand more about the different 


values which cooking may give to food. Sometimes when 
you cook a dish, you may learn about one or two of these 
values. In preparing other dishes you may learn some- 
thing about all of them. When you have truly learned 
to give these values to any food, you may be proud to 
serve it to your family and friends. 

Good cooks never have disorderly kitchens even when 
they are getting big meals. They have a definite way in 
which they do their work. Because they have planned 
carefully, and follow their plans, the task of getting a 
meal is much easier. 

Planning. In order that cooking may be easy, you 
will need to learn how to plan the steps of your cooking 
lesson. Then each time you have a new lesson, you will 
make a plan to fit it. For the first lesson or two, it might 
be better if you actually wrote down what you will do 
first, what second, and so on. When you have a little 
more experience, you can keep your plans in your mind. 
When you are sure you are acquainted with the way the 
laboratory is kept, you will be ready to start learning 
about the values cooking gives to cereals and to plan your 
first laboratory experience. 

Getting ready to cook in the laboratory. Your 
teacher will help you to become acquainted with the 
laboratory. In addition to knowing where and in what 
order everything is kept, there are many general practices 
with which girls in all laboratories must become familiar. 
Your teacher will help you answer the following ques- 
tions and will probably give you others which are es- 
pecially fitted to your laboratory. 

A. Where will you keep your aprons? What special care 
may be taken to keep them looking clean and unwrinkled? 


B. What is a good laboratory plan for washing dishes? 
How much soap should you use? 

C. How will you handle the towels after washing the dishes? 
Why is it important to take such care of towels? 

D. Who will have charge of cupboards, common sinks, and 
stoves, the demonstration table, the refrigerator, etc.? Since 
these are not the responsibility of any particular girl, the 
duties will need to be divided. 

E. The first thing you will always do when coming into the 
laboratory to cook is to wash your hands. Why? 

F. You will need to know how to use the measuring cups 
and spoons. 

t. = teaspoon 
T. =. tablespoon 
C. = cup 

3 t. = 1 T. 

16 T. = 1 C. 

2 C.= l pint 

4 C. = 1 quart 

2. How many T. in i C.? In J C.? In f C.? 

Fig. 2. Measurements should be level and accurate. 

A. Leveling a cup. B. Leveling a spoon. C. Dividing a spoonful in 

half. D. One-half spoonful. 


The pictures will show you how to measure. 

3. Using salt, measure 1 t., J t., 1 T., J T. 

4. Using water, measure J C., J C, | C., f C., \ C. 

5. Why do you cut lengthwise rather than crosswise 
of the spoon for a half? 

READINGS. University of Colorado, Agricultural Extension Serv- 
ice Bulletin, "Dishwashing." 

Ava Johnson, Bacteria of the Home, Ch. iv, "The Dishes"; Ch. 
iii, "The Hands." 


Different kinds of breakfasts. Perhaps the easiest 
of all meals to prepare is the breakfast. We usually 
plan to have but three or four dishes in addition to a 
beverage. People vary as to the kinds of breakfasts they 
need and enjoy. If father's work is the kind that keeps 
him very active, he will need and will want a heavy break- 
fast. If, on the other hand, he sits at a desk the greater 
part of the day, he may not be such a hearty eater and 
will want a lighter breakfast. Boys of ten to eighteen 
years of age usually need a great deal of food, and so 
will want heavy breakfasts. Grandmother, who is quite 
old and inactive, may want but a small amount of food 
each morning. Baby sister, of course needs less and 
different kinds of foods from that eaten by the grown-up 
members of the family. When people, such as farmers, 
work before breakfast, they have a greater appetite. 

A light breakfast may consist of fruit, a cereal, some 
toast and marmalade, and a glass of milk. A heavy 
breakfast might have in addition bacon and eggs, or pan- 
cakes and sausage, or fried chicken and a hot bread. 

1. Which members, if any, of your family eat heavy 
breakfasts? Which members prefer light breakfasts? 

A girl's breakfast. Girls in school need good break- 
fasts every day. They lead very busy lives, taking care 
of their rooms after their morning meal, walking to school, 
going from class to class, playing in the gymnasium, and 



studying in the library or in the home room. After school 
there are many hours both at home or with their friends 
when they are constantly active. We have the most fun 
when we have so much extra strength that we are anxious 
to be doing and going. When we are listless and pale, 
when we tire easily, we cannot get as much pleasure from 
our lessons, our parties, and our helping at home as we 
do when we are strong and well. To be at her best, a girl 
should choose a nourishing breakfast as well as other 
meals that are health-giving. 

Fruit for breakfast. We usually like fruit to start a 
breakfast because of its tartness. Many people have 
come to enjoy tomato juice for this reason. Custom,, 
however, has made it more common to eat fruits than 
vegetables for breakfast, though there is no dietary reason 
for choosing one rather than the other. Vegetables usu- 
ally require more time to prepare, and, since there is less 
time for cooking breakfast than other meals, it has be- 
come customary to have fruits rather than vegetables for 
this meal. Also, raw fruits are more generally enjoyed 
than raw vegetables. It is fortunate that we like fruit 
and some of the vegetables so well in the morning, since 
we need both of them in our diets each day. Often these 
fruits and vegetables should be raw. 

2. Name some breakfast fruits eaten raw; some that 
your family eats cooked. 

Cereal products. Cereal of some kind nearly always 
forms a part of the breakfast. Cereals are the seeds of 
grains. Wheat, corn, oats, rye, barley, and rice are our 
common cereals. The American Indian used corn to a 
great extent. He ground it by pounding it between two 



stones. When it was fine, he cooked it in various ways. 
To-day our cereals go through very complicated manufac- 
ture and come to us in a great many 
forms. For example, we have white flour, 
graham flour, wheatena, cracked wheat, 
cream of wheat, puffed wheat, shredded 
wheat, wheat flakes, etc., all made from 
wheat but by different processes. Other 
cereals are also treated in different ways, 
none quite so elaborately as is wheat. 

3. Name several forms in 
which we buy corn. 

The breakfast cereal. A common 
American breakfast dish is a porridge. 
This is made of some cereal such as oat- 
meal, wheatena, or cornmeal. Toast is 

usually made of bread baked of wheat 

Fig. 3. Cereals are 
flour. Often we have muffins, waffles, t he seeds of grains. 

or pancakes, made of cereal also. Ce- 
reals give a great variety to our breakfasts because 

we can prepare them in so 
many different ways. 

Construction of cereal 
grains. All cereal grains 
are much alike in their con- 
struction. The outer layer 
is bran, a yellow or brown 
tough substance called cellu- 
lose. When wheat is manu- 
factured into "refined" prod- 
ucts, this bran and the germ 
are removed, the part left 



Fig. 4. Construction of a grain 
of wheat. 


being white and almost pure starch. The bran and germ 
contain minerals, protein, and fats. The whole cereals, 
therefore, are much better food than are the refined prod- 
ucts. The whole cereals are brownish in color, the 
refined white or light yellow. 

4. Name some cereals of each kind, refined and 

5. Perhaps you would like to test several cereals to 
see if they contain starch. Iodine turns starch dark 
blue. To test cereals for starch add a few drops of 
weak iodine to a little of the cereal mixed with water. 

6. What cereals do you find that contain starch? 

The breakfast beverage. " The beverage is an im- 
portant part of the breakfast. For growing boys and 
girls, milk in some form is needed if they are to have 
a chance to grow into healthy men and women. Since it 
is necessary for them to have about a quart of milk apiece 
each day either as a beverage, on cereals, in soups or 
other dishes, every boy and girl should have milk as a 
breakfast drink. 

7. How many glasses are there in a quart of milk? 

8. Do you think it would be possible to get all the 
milk you need without drinking much of it with your 

Some people like milk when it has been chilled, others 
enjoy it hot, especially on cold winter mornings. For 
variety many people like milk in the form of cocoa. 
Others like "orangized" milk. That is, instead of taking 
milk and orange juice separately they combine them in 
one glass. Grown people often drink coffee for break- 
fast. This may do them no great harm other than that 
it may prevent them from drinking as much milk as they 


should. Adults need to have at least a pint of milk each 
day in their foods. For children and young people, it is 
a mistake to drink coffee because it contains caffein, a 
drug that is not good for them. Besides, they need the 
milk which the coffee would keep them from drinking 
with their meals. 

9. Plan a light breakfast, which you can prepare in 
the laboratory, of fruit, a cereal porridge, milk or a milk 
drink, toast and marmalade, or cinnamon toast. If your 
class works in groups, perhaps you will plan and pre- 
pare several breakfasts, changing the menu each day so 
that every girl will have a chance to prepare each kind 
of dish. 

READING. University of Colorado, Agricultural Extension Serv- 
ice Bulletin, "Planning the Family Meal." 

Below are some suggestions that will help you to cook. 
Girls get more pleasure from their cooking when they 
know why they follow the rules given, because then they 
can be more sure of making good products and their work 
is more interesting. 


Values from the cooking of cereals. There are sev- 
eral reasons why we cook certain cereals for our break- 
fasts. The chief reason is that cooking makes them taste 
better. Do you like raw oatmeal or flour? Not only is 
the taste better, but in addition the starch granules have 
lost the feeling that raw starch gives to the tongue, and 
have become smooth. We like this smooth feeling. We 
vary the way we cook the cereals and the kinds of cereals 
we serve, so that our breakfasts will not be monotonous. 
When we come to the table and see a dish on it which 


we have not had for a long time, our appetites are sharp- 
ened. Because we get more value from foods when we 
eat them with relish, it is well to plan changes in our 
breakfasts from day to day. 

Another reason for cooking cereals is to soften the 
cellulose. Cellulose, you remember, is the tough fiber 
found in the bran of cereals. It is also found in the skins 
of fruits and the fibrous parts of vegetables. As you 
will learn later, it is important that we have cellulose in 
our foods. In cereals it is a good practice to soften the 
cellulose by cooking since it is so hard and tough. For 
this reason the whole-grain cereals must be cooked a long 

10. What values does cooking give to breakfast 

The cooking of starch. The chief element in our 
breakfast cereals is starch. Starch burns very readily 
so we must select ways of cooking that will prevent 
scorching. It is very difficult to prevent scorching when 
cereals are cooked in water directly over the flame. When 
starch cooks, it makes a paste that sticks to the bottom 
of the pan. To keep this layer of paste from scorching, 
the cook must stir it constantly, being careful to move 
the pasty layer away as it forms. This requires constant 
attention. Since most cereals should cook for a long time, 
this would take too much of a cook's time. Some clever 
person invented the double boiler so that we could cook 
cereals and other foods at such a low temperature that 
they would not burn. 

The double boiler. Water cannot get hotter than boil- 
ing temperature (212 degrees) in our cooking. After it 



reaches that temperature it loses the heat as fast as it 
gets it from the gas burner. Starch will not burn at boil- 
ing temperature So we put water in the bottom of the 
double boiler, put our cereal and water mixture in the 
top and set it over the water. The food never can get 
hotter than the water beneath it. However, if we should 
let all the water boil away, the cereal would soon scorch. 

The fireless cooker. Another way of controlling the 
temperature is to use the fireless cooker. In this method 
a specially made box is used which does not allow heat 
to escape very fast. We bring the cereal to the boiling 
temperature, heat a stone, put both into the box and close 
the lid. The cereal will be kept at about the boiling 
temperature long enough to cook it. Some electric ovens 
have a fireless-cooker arrangement. We may save gas 
or other fuel by using the fireless cooker for our cereals. 

The proportion of water to cereal. In cooking dif- 
ferent cereals we must use varying amounts of water. 
The proportion of water to cereal depends upon the fine- 
ness of the cereal. 

11. Examine the directions on cereal boxes to see 
what proportions of water and cereal are suggested. 









4 C 

2 C 

i t 

30 min 

about 4 


4 C 

24 C 

4 t 

30 roin 

about 4 

Corn meal 

4 C 

2 C 

4 t 

1 hr 1 

about 4 

Rolled oats . 

4 C. 


4 t. 

1 hr.i 

3 or 4 

1 Longer cooking is 'desirable, when possible, for the improvement in flavor. 

12. How do the fine cereals compare with the coarse 
in the amount of water needed? 


The amount cooked and the proportion of water. 
The proportion of water to be used also depends upon 
the amount of cereal we are cooking. If we are cooking 
a large quantity, there will be not so much loss of water 
in the steam that comes off in proportion to the amount 
of water used. Less water also will be taken up in 
moistening the sides of the double boiler. Therefore, 
when we cook just enough for one serving, we should 
figure the amount of water needed from the table and 
add about 1 T. A lid for the kettle should be used so 
that some of the moisture will condense on it and drip 
back into the porridge. Without a lid this steam would 
float away and the water be lost. Water may need to be 
replenished when cereals are cooked a long time. 

Time of cooking cereals. Different cereals also re- 
quire different lengths of time for cooking. Their starch 
granules and cellulose differ to some extent. Soaking of 
cereals lessens the time needed in cooking because the 
cellulose has been softened. Rolled oats is a cereal often 
soaked for several hours in the water in which it is later 
cooked. For children whose digestive systems are not 
well developed, it is especially important that the cellulose 
be thoroughly softened and the starch well cooked. Sev- 
eral hours of cooking are required to make a cereal thor- 
oughly wholesome for a little child. 

Standards for our finished products. Good cooks 
have high standards for their finished products. A high 
standard in cooked cereals demands that they be smooth, 
that is, without lumps. They should feel smooth to the 
tongue. They should be of the consistency, or thickness, 
that we enjoy. People vary somewhat in what they con- 
sider a good standard of consistency. Some persons 



1. Put water into 
bottom of double boiler. 
Note water line in inset 
to right. Set onto heat. 

2. Measure quantity 
of water needed for ce- 
real and put into top 
of the double boiler. 
Measure salt and add. 
Set on a second burner 
to heat. 

3. Measure into a 
cup the amount of ce- 
real needed. 

4. When the water 
boils, add the cereal 
slowly while stirring. 
Stir while cooking for 
two or three minutes. 

5. Put the double 
boiler together, put on 
a lid and cook the re- 
quired number of min- 

Fig. 5. Steps in cooking cereaL 


prefer their cereals to be thin enough to run slightly, 
others enjoy them most when they stand firmly when put 
into the cereal dishes. A good standard of flavor de- 
mands that cereals have enough salt, but not too much, 
and that they have not the slightest tinge of scorching. 
We usually like our cereal porridges served hot. 

13. What is your standard for consistency? 

Planning to cook a cereal. Using the cereal you 
planned in the breakfast, figure out what quantity of each 
of the ingredients you will need for one or more servings, 
depending upon whether you cook for yourself alone or 
whether you work with a group in preparing a breakfast. 
Keep your slip of paper to use on the day when you 
actually do the cooking. Since it requires such a long 
time to cook cereal, you must be ready to start the instant 
you come into the laboratory. 


The pictures on page 19 will show you the steps that 
may be followed in cooking a breakfast cereal. 

14. If you have a fireless cooker at home, or if you 
will use one in the laboratory, make a step plan similar 
to the one above which you will follow. Writing this 
plan in step form will help you to save time and get 
good results. 

Serving cereals. We like to eat our foods in clean 
and orderly surroundings. Our foods look more attrac- 
tive and taste better if they are served with care. On 
page 21 is a picture of a nicely served dish of cereal. 

Notice the paper napkin under the cereal, the placing 
of the utensils, and the orderliness of the desk. 



Fig. 6. Cereal attractively served in laboratory. 

There are various attractive ways of serving cereals. 
The most common is with cream and sugar. Fruits, fresh, 
such as sliced banana or peach; canned or dried, such 
as dates and raisins, may be added. Sometimes the dried 
fruits are cooked with the cereal. Some people like to 
flavor their cereals at table with butter and brown sugar, 
maple sugar, or honey without the addition of cream. 

15. How do we improve cereals by cooking them? 

Judging your product. When you are ready to eat, 
spend a few minutes deciding whether you have suc- 
ceeded in cooking a dish which has the qualities that you 
and your group enjoy. Below is a form which gives you 
a means of checking. 


16. Perhaps you would like to copy this form and 
use it to judge your own product by putting a check in 
the proper space. Comparison of your product with 
others in the class or with one which your teacher may 
put out for you will help you to judge your own. 







(Is it lumpy or 

(Is it too thin 
or too stiff?) 

(Does it have 
enough salt?) 

(Is it too hot, 
too cold or just 

(Has it 





Neatness of desk 

Order of utensils 

Neatness of dish 

Position of paper 

Have cooking 
utensils been 
soaked ? 

READINGS. Below are listed several books in which you will find 
additional information about breakfast cereals. You may be in- 
terested to learn what is to be found in them. 

Harris and Lacey, Everyday Foods, Ch. v, pp. 366-368, "Cereal 
Breakfast Foods." 

Fannie Farmer, The Boston Cooking School Cookbook. 

Peterson and Badenock, Simplified Cooking. 

The Settlement Cookbook. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. You may use these and other 
cookbooks throughout the unit if you would like to try additional 




Variety in breakfast fruits. Most people, as we 
know, enjoy tart fruits to start their breakfasts, for these 
sharpen the appetite and make the foods following taste 
better. Many people like orange juice or tomato juice 
to be followed by another fruit such as stewed dried 
prunes or apricots; or raisins or dates cooked with their 
cereals; or bananas and cream, put over the cereal. Since 
each day we need something raw in our meals, the orange, 
grapefruit, apple, and banana have grown in popularity 
during the winter months when they are the most com- 
mon fresh fruits. 

Preparing oranges. Oranges may be prepared by 
cutting them in halves crosswise of the inner sections of 
the fruit. The pulp may be loosened by running a sharp 


Fig. 7. Preparation of grapefruit. 


knife between it and the rind without cutting the tough 
inner skin. Sometimes we also loosen each section of the 
pulp from this inner skin. Grapefruit is prepared in the 
same way. Many people prefer to have their orange in 
the form of juice. Florida oranges are juicy and thin 
skinned but are not so sweet as are those from California 
which are deeper in color. These fruits are most appetiz- 
ing when cold. If the juice of the orange is sour, it may 
need the addition of a little sugar Too much sugar 
spoils the tartness, which is one of the reasons for our 
enjoyment of the orange. Grapefruit is considered deli- 
cious by many when sweetened with honey. 

Preparing dried fruits. Fruits are dried to preserve 
them. This is done by exposing them to sunshine and 
dry atmosphere or by putting thm into artificial dryers. 
The warm air, circulating over them, takes out the 
moisture, reducing their size. For this reason there is 
more sugar in proportion to the amount of fruit. This 
concentration of sugar and a sulphur treatment prevent 
bacteria from living on the fruit, so it will keep well if 
simply put into packages. These packages are much less 
expensive and lighter to ship than cans or glass jars. 
The flavor of dried fruit is different from that of the 
fresh or canned. Many people are especially fond of 
these flavors. Among the dried fruits are raisins, prunes, 
Italian plums, peaches, apricots, pears, apples, and cur- 

When dried fruit is packed in large boxes that are 
opened in stores and the contents left exposed, or if it is 
handled by people with dirty hands, it should be washed 
carefully before soaking, and boiled for two or three 
minutes after soaking. Why? Dried fruit that was clean 


when put into packages that are unbroken when we re- 
ceive them need not be washed. Some companies pas- 
teurize their packed fruits, that is, heat them to kill the 
bacteria, which gives additional safety. 


The most important part of cooking dried fruits is the soak- 
ing. By soaking we return water to the fruit, making it soft 
and juicy, and causing it to swell. Boiling is needed chiefly 
as a means of sterilizing when we fear that the fruit may not 
have been handled carefully. Soak the fruit in enough water 
to cover for at least 24 hours; or better, 48 hours. It is 
unwise to add sugar until after the fruit has soaked because 
the sugar prevents the proper softening of the fruit. Boil 
in the same water for 2 or 3 minutes. 

17. What values do we get as a result of the prepa- 
ration of our fruits for breakfast? 

READINGS. Harris and Lacey, Everyday Foods, pp. 14-17; 357- 

Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, Ch. iii. 


Kinds of toast. People differ in the way they like 
toast to be made. Some like it thin, dry, and crisp. 
Others like it thick with a soft interior, but crisp on the 
outside. Some want it buttered, others dry. If making 
thin, dry toast, cut bread a day or more old into slices 
about % inch thick. Put it into a moderate oven until 
it is a golden brown color. To make the soft toast, cut 
the bread thicker and toast on the broiling rack or toaster. 
In this way the surface is browned quickly without drying 
the inside of the slice. Butter lightly while still hot. 


Whole-wheat, nut, date, and raisin breads make delicious 

To make cinnamon toast toast thin slices of whole-wheat 
or plain bread. It is best to cut the slices in halves or thirds 
for convenience in eating. Then spread with buttei and 
sprinkle with a mixture of C. sugar and 1 t. cinnamon. 
Use about 1 T. to li T._of the mixture for a full slice of the 
toast. Put in a hot oven for a minute or two and serve imme- 

Another method of making cinnamon toast is, after toasting 
the bread on both sides, spread with a mixture of 2 T. butter, 
3? C. sugar, and 1 t. cinnamon. Return to oven for a few 
minutes and serve immediately. 

18. Why do we go to the trouble of toasting bread? 


Values from the cooking of milk. The preparation 
of milk may increase its value as food. When milk sours, 
it forms curds that separate from the watery portion 
called whey. Our stomachs secrete an acid (hydro- 
chloric) that acts upon milk forming curds much as does 
vinegar. Cooked milk forms smaller, softer curds than 
does the uncooked. The smaller, softer curds are more 
easily digested than are the harder, larger ones. For this 
reason doctors often recommend that milk given to babies 
be boiled. Boiling is not necessary for older children 
and grown persons. Boiling changes the flavor of milk. 
Some individuals do not care for the flavor of boiled 

19. Pour a little vinegar into some milk. Notice the 


Cooking may be necessary when milk is not pasteurized. 
Careless handling may cause the growth of so many and 
such harmful bacteria that it may be necessary to cook 
all the milk used. However, in most large cities, milk as 
delivered by the milkman is safe. In the country, the 
farmer and his family can exercise the care necessary to 
make raw milk healthful. 

The greatest value, probably, that we gain from the 
preparation of milk is the variety it gives to our meals. 

20. List a dozen different ways that milk may be 
used in making beverages, desserts or other dishes. 

Milk contains a considerable portion of protein and 
sugar. For this reason it scorches very easily. 

21. What utensil would you suggest using when cook- 
ing milk? 

Cocoa. Since milk in some form should be the regu- 
lar breakfast beverage, we can add variety by choosing 
from a number of modifications. Below is a recipe for 
hot cocoa or chocolate which we may enjoy on cold winter 
mornings. The chocolate gives a richer drink because it 
contains more fat than does the cocoa. 


(Serves four) 

Water \ C. 

Cocoa 3 T. 


Chocolate 1 square (1 oz.) 

Milk 4 C. (1 qt.) 

Sugar 3 T. 

Salt few grains 

Whipped Cream ... i C. (if desired) 


Cook water and cocoa or chocolate together until smooth. 
If the chocolate is grated, it will dissolve more readily. Add 
milk, sugar, and salt and heat to boiling. Beat with a Dover 
egg beater and serve at once, adding 1 T. whipped cream to 
each cup. If the beverage must be kept hot for a time, use a 
double boiler with a lid. Have the water in the bottom hot 
but not boiling. 

For other milk beverages from which you might like 
to choose for your breakfast see pages 73 and 74. 

READINGS. Harris and Lacey, Everyday Foods, pp. 25-26. 

Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 68-69. 

Willard and Gillett, Food Study for High Schools, pp. 123-126, 

22. You will probably have time to plan and prepare 
a heavier breakfast, one suitable for people who lead 
active lives and who therefore need much food. Below 
you will find a discussion of some dishes that are suit- 
able for such breakfasts and how to prepare them so 
that they will be palatable and attractive. 


Different ways of cooking eggs. Eggs are a com- 
mon breakfast dish. We prepare them with a number 
of processes such as scrambling, boiling, and poaching. 
There are but a few raw-egg dishes which we find 
palatable, but eggs cooked in various forms are important 
in our menus. 

The food elements of eggs determine their method of 
preparation. The white of the egg is largely protein. 
Protein hardens and toughens at a hot temperature, so 
our method of cooking eggs must avoid high tempera- 
tures. Protein starts to cook at about 130. It would 
take a very long time to cook eggs at this temperature. 


However, 175, a temperature much lower than boiling, 
will cook them rapidly enough and give a very tender 

23. What is boiling temperature? How warm does 
water at 130 feel? Use a thermometer to make this 

When eggs are fried, the fat should not be smoking hot, 
otherwise the white would toughen and get very hard. 
When cooking eggs in the shell, the best results are ob- 
tained if they are kept just below the boiling temperature. 
One plan is to put them into the top of the double boiler 
into which boiling water has been poured, the water in 
the bottom also boiling. Keep over flame for 30 minutes 
for a hard-cooked egg, 6 minutes for a soft-cooked egg. 
This gives a very tender product. 

24. Is the water in the top of the double boiler above 
boiling temperature? 

25. Perhaps your teacher will demonstrate a properly 
and an improperly fried egg. Compare the condition of 
the yolks and the whites in these two samples. What 
caused the differences? 

26. Why do we prefer to have our eggs cooked? 

27. How may we lessen the value of eggs in cook- 
ing them? 

Handling eggs. Wash eggs before using them be- 
cause they may have been laid in dirty nests or handled 
by people with bacteria-covered hands. When cooking 
eggs it is a wise precaution to break them into a saucer 
before adding them to other ingredients. This may save 
the loss of the other ingredients if by chance one of the 
eggs is spoiled. To break an egg, hold it in the left hand 
and strike in the center with the edge of a spatula or 
knife. Use just enough force to crack the shell. Insert 



the thumbnails of both hands in the break. Pull the 
halves of the shell apart, letting the egg fall into a saucer. 








Milk . ... 

4 T 

1 T 


i t 


Mix ingredients slightly, turn into a buttered saute pan 1 
that has been heated over a very low flame. When the egg 
has cooked a few minutes, use a spatula or pancake turner 
to push the solid portion gently aside so that the uncooked 
portion may run over the exposed bottom of the pan. Do not 
disturb more than is necessary. Before the egg has cooked 
completey, cut through the center and turn one half over the 
other. Continue cooking for a minute and serve immediately 
on a warm plate. Many people prefer the omelette to be 
rather soft. 

28. How well done do you like omelette? 
you achieved the standard you like? 


Fig. 8. Eggs in a saute pan. 


Put a small 
amount of butter in 
a saute pan just 
large enough for the 
number of eggs to 
be poached. The 
butter prevents the 
eggs from sticking 

1 The difference between frying and sauteing is that in frying deep 
fat is used, while sauteing requires but a small amount of fat. 


to the pan. Light a low flame under the pan. Before the but- 
ter is hot enough to turn brown, slip the eggs from a saucer 
into the pan. Pour over them about li T. milk per egg, sprinkle 
with salt, cover with lid and cook slowly until a white film has 
formed over the yolks of the eggs. Do not allow the yolk to 
harden. Use a large spoon or a pancake turner to remove eggs 
to buttered toast. Pour remaining milk over eggs. Serve 

READINGS. Harris and Lacey, Everyday Foods, pp. 378-382. 

Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 96-98. 

Willard and Gillett, Food Study for High Schools, pp. 59-61. 


Although bacon is usually classed as a meat, it really 
is mostly fat. We like it chiefly for the good flavor 
which develops when much of this fat has been cooked 
out, and the bacon is crisped. For breakfast, we either 
pan broil bacon over the flame or in the oven or broil it 
under the oven flame. People differ in the degree of 
crispness they prefer bacon to have, some liking it so 
dry that it may be eaten with the fingers, others liking it 
better when it is browned slightly but still soft enough 
to cut with a knife. We usually allow two or three slices 
of bacon to each person, most often probably serving it 
with eggs or with muffins and jelly, marmalade, or honey. 

29. How crisp do you prefer your bacon? 


To pan broil bacon place thin slices, from which the rind 
has been removed, close together in a skillet. Cook slowly 
until as brown as desired, turning the strips from time to 
time and shifting them from the center of the pan to the edge 


if the center slices brown the more quickly. Drain broiled 
bacon on brown paper for a minute and serve. 

To cook bacon in a broiler place the bacon on the wire frame 
on the broiling pan. Broil under the flame (or in the oven) 
until as crisp as desired. Turn the bacon when necessary. 


Ingredients of muffins. Muffins are made of cereal 
and other ingredients combined and baked in a special 
way. Flour made of some cereal is always used in bak- 
ing breads of every kind. Muffins may be made with 
white, graham, or rye flours, or with corn meal. We give 
further variety to muffins by adding many other ingre- 
dients, such as sweetening, blueberries, the dried fruits, 
nuts, and spices of many kinds. The kind of flour used 
in making muffins affects the flavor. Each of the other 
ingredients contributes something to the color, flavor, the 
feeling, and the appearance. 

Need for liquid. A liquid is necessary to hold the flour 
together in a batter. It also provides moisture for cook- 
ing the starch grains and to make the muffin soft. Water 
adds nothing in flavor, so most often we use milk and 
sometimes cream for the liquid. These make the product 
tender and also increase the food value. 

Purpose of eggs. Eggs bind the starch granules to- 
gether as well as give flavor and color. When egg whites 
are beaten and then added to the batter, they make it 
lighter. By beating, air bubbles are formed. The stiffer 
the egg3 are beaten, the finer the air bubbles become. 

30. Perhaps your teacher will demonstrate the beat- 
ing of an egg white. By observing it at various stages, 
you will see the differing sizes of the bubbles. 


Expansion of air by heat. Have you ever seen what 
happens to a toy balloon when it is taken from a cold 
to a warm room? As air heats it expands. A balloon 
may be small and look somewhat wrinkled when in a 
cold place. When taken into a warm room, the air in the 
balloon expands and fills it out. If you heated the air 
very hot, it might expand enough to burst the balloon. 

Air a leavening agent. When you fold beaten egg 
whites into a batter, the air bubbles are scattered through 
the batter. If you are careful not to break the bubbles 
by stirring too hard, the bubbles will expand when the 
air is heated during the baking. This will cause the loaf 
to rise and make it light and spongy. This is called 

Other leavening agents. We use other leavening agents 
for baking. One of these is the steam that forms when 
the batter gets hot. Another is carbon dioxide gas. We 
make bubbles of this gas by mixing water or sweet milk 
with baking powder, or by using sour milk with soda. 
These combinations work in the same way. Baking pow- 
der is made by mixing soda and an acid. To prevent 
the formation of carbon dioxide in the baking powder 
box, starch is added so that the ingredients will be kept 

31. Why should we keep the baking powder can 
tightly covered? 

32. If you add some water to baking powder or weak 
vinegar to soda you will see the bubbles of carbon 
dioxide form. 

Using the carbon dioxide to leaven. If we scatter these 
leavening agents through the flour and other dry ingre- 
dients, and then add the liquid, the carbon dioxide forms 


tiny bubbles all through the batter. When put into the 
hot oven, these tiny bubbles expand, increasing the size 
of the holes in the batter. The muffin sets when the 
starch cooks, and we have a light, spongy product full 
of many tiny holes, quite different from the compact mass 
that would result without the use of the leavening agent. 

Tenderness resulting from shortening. Various fats are 
used to make muffins and cookies tender and rich in 
flavor. Vegetable fats such as crisco (cotton-seed oil) 
and mazola (corn oil) are used. Butter is a very com- 
monly used fat, as is lard. Both of these are animal 
fats. Oleomargarine, a vegetable fat, is also used for 
shortening. Butter and oleomargarine both contain salt, 
but the other fats are unsalted. When an unsalted fat 
is used, we must add some salt, or we shall have tasteless 
products. Even when we use butter or oleomargarine, 
we usually put in some additional salt. 

Variety in baked foods. We prefer some of our baked 
foods, such as cakes, cookies, and some muffins, very 
sweet. In bread and rolls, on the other hand, we prefer 
a bland flavor. Granulated sugar is our commonest 
sweetening substance, although we sometimes use brown 
sugar, molasses, honey, maple sugar, and such dried 
fruits as dates and raisins. 

Accuracy in measurements. Accuracy in measuring 
is highly important. At first glance we might think that 
a cup of flour at one time would be the same as a cup 
of flour at another. Yet different ways of measuring 
flour may give cups that really differ in size by as much 
as 6 tablespoons. Always use a measuring cup. Sift the 
flour into a bowl just before measuring, and then, with 
a spoon, fill a cup lightly. Level off the top with a spatula. 


Never tap the cup to make it even for then the flour will 
pack and you will have more than a cup when you fill 
the space left. The sifting before measuring is to break 
up the packed flour. Accuracy when baking small quan- 
tities is even more necessary than when making large 
quantities. For example, if we made the mistake of 3 
tablespoons of flour in a recipe calling for three cups, this 
would not be as serious as a mistake of 3 tablespoons in 
a recipe calling for ^ cup. 

Results of poor measurement. Careless measuring 
of any of the ingredients except salt can be seen or felt 
in the finished muffin. We can only discover a mistake in 
the salt by the taste. Too much flour makes a stiff, hard, 
tough muffin. If we do not use enough flour, there is too 
much fat and sugar in proportion, and the muffin may be 
soggy and heavy. If we use too much fat, the muffin 
will be soggy and oily; if too much sugar, it will also be 
heavy but crisp on the outside where it has dried. If not 
enough leavening agent has been used, not enough tiny 
holes will have formed, and it will not rise as high as it 
should and will be heavy. If too much leaven has been 
used, the muffins will be coarse. It is very important 
therefore, that we measure the ingredients carefully. 

Mixing the muffins. Sifting the dry ingredients. We 
mix the baking powder and the flour thoroughly by sift- 
ing them together one or more times. In this way we 
are sure that the bubbles of carbon dioxide will form in 
every part of the batter. It is also important that the 
sugar and salt be thoroughly distributed in the cake. 
For this reason it is well to sift all the dry ingredients 
together. When the sugar and salt are evenly distributed, 
they help to prevent the flour from forming hard lumps 


with the liquid. Sugar and salt dissolve in a liquid very 
quickly. If these grains are thoroughly scattered among 
the grains of flour, the liquid will run between the grains 
of flour when dissolving the sugar and salt. In this way 
also the liquid will be more evenly distributed. 

Adding the liquid. Then we add the amount of liquid 
given in the recipe, and stir rapidly just long enough to 
dampen the flour mixture. Many cooks have experi- 
mented to discover the best ways of mixing the ingredients 
in baking. One thing they have discovered is that the 
action of the baking powder takes place very quickly. 
For this reason we must be careful not to stir muffins too 
much. By overstirring, we break the bubbles of carbon 
dioxide, thereby letting out the gas and losing the effect 
of the baking powder. Do not overstir is perhaps the 
most important caution to remember when preparing 
muffin batter. 

Filling the muffin tins. Turn the batter immediately 
into the muffin tins because if you let it stand for a time, 
more of the gas bubbles will form. Then when you poured 
or dipped the batter into the muffin tins you would break 
these bubbles and the gas would escape. 

Saving time. Since it takes 25 minutes to bake 
these muffins, it will be necessary to manage the measur- 
ing and mixing in but a few minutes at the beginning of 
the hour. Be sure to have the recipe and method in 
mind when you come to class so that no time will be 
wasted. If it is necessary to prepare the muffins in a 
very short time, cooks sometimes measure and mix the 
dry ingredients the day before, and cover the bowl care- 

33. How could you manage in the laboratory? 


j^ ^ 

4? P , 

From Halliday and Noble: "The Hows and Whys of Cooking." By permission of 
the University of Chicago Press. 

Fig. 9. Even and uneven texture in muffins. 

Above is a light muffin, in which there were plenty of gas bubbles 
evenly distributed. Below is a muffin that is uneven in texture, due to 
uneven distribution of gas bubbles, and the fact that some of the gas 
escaped before the muffin was baked. 



Baking the muffins. A moderately hot oven is the 
best for baking muffins. If the oven were very hot, a 
crust would form over the top before the leavening agents 
had an opportunity to work fully. Then the muffins 
would split open and the soft batter run out from the 
inside. Also, the outside of the muffins would burn be- 
fore the starch on the inside had an opportunity to be 
cooked. We like our muffins to be an even, light brown. 
A moderate oven is from 300 to 350. The most accu- 
rate way to know whether an oven has reached this 
temperature is to use an oven with a regulator or a ther- 
mometer set into the oven. Experienced cooks judge the 
temperature fairly well by holding the hand inside the 
oven for a few seconds. 

Judging whether the muffins are done. When the 
muffins are done, they spring back when touched lightly 
with the finger, and also separate from the sides of the 
pan. Another test is made with a clean toothpick. Push 
the toothpick into the center of a muffin. If the toothpick 
comes out clean, the muffin is done. 






4 C 

u c 


3 T 

4 C 

Baking powder . . 

4 t 

2 t 


a few grains 

i t 


4 T 

3 T (may use half 

Milk (lukewarm) 

3 T 

and half, butter 
and other fat) 
4 C 

Egg (medium) 


2 whites, 1 yolk 


4 t 

4 t 



1. Gather all ingredients and 
grease muffin tins. 

5. In another bowl mix wet 
ingredients (eggs, oil, and milk). 
Stir thoroughly. 

2. Heat the oven and set the 
regulator for a moderate tem- 
perature (about 350). 

6. Pour wet ingredients into 
dry ingredients and stir just 
enough to mix. 

3. Sift flour into a bowl and 
lift lightly into cup to measure. 

4. Measure all dry ingredients 
(flour, sugar, salt, and baking 
powder) and sift. 

7. Drop by spoonsful into 
muffin tins and put into oven to 
bake. Bake about 25 minutes. 

8. Remove from muffin tins 
with spatula or knife. 

Fig. 10. Steps in making muffins. 


Judging the product. 

34. Below are listed a number of qualities to con- 
sider when judging your product. 






Evenness of holes 

Shape of holes 






35. If you have failed in any respect, how will you 
proceed the next time to correct the mistake? 

READINGS. Harris and Lacey, Everyday Foods, pp. 375-77, 
"Quick Breads." 

Trilling, Williams, and Reeves, A Girl's Problems in Home Eco- 
nomics (1931), pp. 410-418. 

Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 82-88. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. Some members of the class 
may have time and opportunity when they have finished the unit, 
for additional study. If you are interested in breakfast cookery 
you might choose one of the suggestions on page 99, or you might 
work on a problem of your own selection. 


Luncheon or supper. Probably in most American 
city homes, one or more members of the family are absent 
during the day. Therefore the heaviest meal, dinner, is 
planned for the evening when the entire family will have 
gathered. The midday meal, then, is a light one and is 
called luncheon. In some families, however, all the mem- 
bers of the family are present and have time for a leisurely 
meal at noon. These families often serve their dinner 
at noon, to be followed by a light evening meal called 
supper. Dishes suitable for luncheon are likewise well 
adapted for supper. Leftovers are often used in planning 
luncheons and suppers. These meals are lighter, and 
fewer people may be on hand to eat them. Leftovers are 
often easier to prepare than new dishes. 

1. Is luncheon or supper served in your home? 

Planning the luncheon. Flavors. The pleasure we 
get from luncheon depends to a considerable extent upon 
the combinations of foods that we plan. For example, 
we should not enjoy a meal made largely of a number 
of tart foods such as tomato, pineapple, cranberry sauce, 
etc. Neither would we care particularly for a meal con- 
sisting entirely of very bland foods such as potato, 
creamed peas, milk, and cornstarch pudding. So one 
thing to remember in planning a luncheon is to select 
from both the more highly flavored foods and from those 
which have relatively little flavor. 




2. Make a list of those foods which you think of as 
highly flavored. Meats and the stronger vegetables 
would be found in this list. 

Contrast in textures. We like other contrasts in our 
food also. A soft food tastes better in contrast with 
something which is firm or crisp. This quality of firm- 

Courtesy Evaporated Milk Association. 

Fig. 11. A simple luncheon. 

ness or softness we call texture. This is one reason why 
we enjoy lettuce, celery, and radishes so much. A daintily 
fresh salad and crisp crackers help us to enjoy soup and 
other soft foods, just as these soft foods make the crackers 


and salad more delicious. Contrast in the color of our 
foods also stirs our appetites. Red tomatoes, bright green 
spinach, yellow carrots, yellow and green lettuce, and 
brown bread are examples of simple colorful foods. Such 
foods might be used to brighten what might be an other- 
wise colorless meal such as the one of cream-of-celery 
soup, mashed potato, creamed tuna fish, buttered onion, 
and sliced banana with cream. 

Nutrition. Of course if our meals are to be of greatest 
value to us, we must choose those foods which will make 
us healthy and keep us in good health. In the next unit 
you will learn to select foods so that your bodies will 
grow well and strong, and so that you will be able to do 
the many things which are such fun. Now, however, you 
can remember to include fruits and vegetables liberally 
as well as milk and cereals. 

Sample menus. There is an almost endless variety of 
dishes from which we can choose when planning a 
luncheon. Below are a few combinations from which a 
great variety of menus may be planned. 


Cream of vegetable soup 

A salad 

Bread and butter 

A glass of milk 

A cookie, a sweet muffin, or gingerbread 


Creamed fish, vegetable, or eggs on toast 

A fruit gelatin 

A milk drink 

A simple confection 




Salad, either fruit or vegetable 

Cocoa or hot chocolate 
Cup custard, ice cream, or other 'simple dessert 

3. Below are some suggestions for preparing a num- 
ber of dishes. Also you will find additional recipes sug- 
gested in cookbooks and magazines. Glance through 
these suggestions and then plan and, after study, prepare 
one or more luncheons. Be sure that they are attractive 
because of their contrasts in color, flavor, and texture 
and that they contain fruit or vegetables or both, and 
milk or some milk dish. 

REFERENCE. University of Colorado, Agricultural Extension 
Service Bulletin, "One-Dish Meals." 


White sauce as the base. Cream soups are made by 
combining two things, a white sauce and a flavoring food, 
either pressed through a strainer or diced. White sauces 
are used as the base in many kinds of cookery. Before 
starting to prepare a cream soup, list the ingredients and 
quantities and plan all the steps. 

Step 1. Making the white sauce. 








No. 1 


1 T. 

2 T. 
3 T. 

1 T. 
1 T. 
1 T. 

i t. 

1 C. 
1 C. 
1 C. 

No 2 

No 3 

Sauce number 1 is used in cream soups, number 2 usu- 
ally for creaming most vegetables, and number 3 for 
creaming watery vegetables such as spinach. 



Set double boiler on to heat with water in the bottom. 
Put butter, salt, and flour in the top and stir till thoroughly 
mixed. Add a third of the total quantity of milk and stir 
rapidly, being sure to move pasty layer from all parts of the 
bottom and sides of the pan. When all the lumps have disap- 
peared, add the remainder of the'milk and stir. When the 
sauce coats the spoon, it is done. This coating will take place 
when the sauce starts to steam freely. When a small portion 
is cooked, a little additional milk may be needed. 

4. Why is it a good plan to use a double boiler? 

5. What is the only difference in the ingredients of 
the three kinds of white sauce? 

Step 2. Preparing the vegetables. Use canned or 
cooked fresh vegetables. Either rub them through a 
sieve or put them through a ricer when making a puree or 
pulp. Some of the fibrous vegetables must be cut into 
i-inch cubes. 

Step 3. Combining the sauce and vegetables. 

One serving of each 










Tomato . . 
Potato . . . 


i c. 

2 T 




4 c. 

4 C. 
4 c. 

4 C 

Asparagus . . 

Cabbage ... 


4 to 4 C. 1 

4 to 4 C. 
4 to 4 C. 

4 C. 




4 c. 

4 c. 

4 C. 

Carrot ... 

i c. 

i C. 


4 C. 
4 c. 

Onion, raw 
(grated) ... 



4 C. 

Beans .. 

i C. 


4 c. 

(chopped) . 

4 to 4 C. 



i If the pieces are comparatively large, use i C., if small I C. 


Those vegetables that tend to thicken the soup them- 
selves require the number 1 sauce, the others need the 
number 2. Most of the vegetable soups are improved by 
adding a little grated onion. Bacon fat may be substi- 
tuted for the butter. Season with salt. 

6. Which sauce will you use for the soup you have 
chosen to make? 

Have both vegetable pulp and sauce hot. Add pulp to 
sauce, stirring constantly. Serve immediately. A bit of 
whipped cream adds to the attractiveness. Have the whipped 
cream ready if you plan this addition. If using diced vege- 
tables, add the vegetable to the sauce and heat. If white sauce 
is overcooked, there is a tendency to curdle. When using 
peanut butter, add hot sauce slowly to peanut butter, stirring 

Cream of tomato soup. Since cream of tomato soup 
curdles readily, special care must be exercised to use 
fresh milk, not to overcook the white sauce, and to add 
the hot tomato slowly, while stirring, to the hot white 
sauce. Some people prefer to prevent curdling by adding 
^ teaspoon of soda to each cup of pulp before heating. 
Acid curdles milk. Since tomato is acid, the soda is used 
to neutralize the acid and so to prevent curdling. Many 
people do not care for the flavor resulting from the use 
of soda. They prefer to be more careful in not over- 
cooking the sauce, in adding the tomato slowly to the 
sauce when both are hot, and in serving immediately. 
A flavorsome soup may be made by using canned tomato 
soup for the pulp. The tomato soup has less tendency 
to curdle the milk than does tomato pulp. Use about 
J of the required quantity of flour in the white sauce 
when using the soup. 



Judging the product. Perhaps you would like to copy 
the chart below and check your product on it. 









7. If you have not been entirely successful, what 
change will you make the next time you prepare this 

Courtesy General Electric Co, 

Fig. 12. Cream of corn soup. 



Serving the soup. Cream soups should be hot when 
served. Many varieties of cereal products are eaten with 
soup, such as wafers, crackers, rye crisp, etc. Croutons 
are commonly made at home. Perhaps when you make 
cream soups at home you will have time to toast croutons. 
Butter slices of bread, cut \ inch thick. Cut again into 
^-inch cubes. Put into a pan and toast slowly to a light 
brown. Serve while freshly toasted. 


Creamed foods on toast are popular luncheon dishes. 
They consist of various kinds of vegetables, or flaked fish, 
or diced eggs combined with a white sauce and served on 
freshly toasted bread. Avoid too much stirring when 
adding the white sauce. Often the food may be placed 
on the slices of toast and the sauce poured over it. A 
creamed dish is most appetizing when the pieces of the 
ingredients are not broken up fine, and when the white 
sauce is not too thin. Below are suggestions for a num- 
ber of such dishes. 








Salmon . . . 

1C., broken into pieces 


1 C. 

4 slices 



H c. 


1 C. 

4 slices 



8 whole stalks or 

16 large tips 


1 C. 

4 slices 



4 diced hard-cooked 


1 C. 

4 slices 


READINGS. Harris and Lacey, Everyday Foods, p. 383. 

Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, Ch. xix. 

Willard and Gillett, Food Study for the High School, pp. 227-228. 



Choosing ingredients. Appearance. The appear- 
ance of salads is one reason for including them in our 
menus. We must, therefore, be especially careful to have 
them attractive. Crispness in fresh vegetables and fresh 
flavor in fruits are the result of careful selection and good 
methods of preparation and care. If we wish our salads 
to be attractive, we must avoid buying wilted vegetables 
and overripe or underripe fruits. We should also choose 
those vegetables that have a clear bright color. Freshly 
gathered fruits and vegetables have a sweet flavor which 
deteriorates if they are permitted to stand. People who 
have kitchen gardens have an advantage in the freshness 
of the vegetables they may serve. 

Flavor. The success of salads depends largely upon 
the flavors of the ingredients. We usually choose vege- 
tables with mild flavor for the bulk of the salads, and 
add others that have more distinctive flavors. The addi- 
tion of bits of highly flavored vegetables such as garlic, 
onion, caper, and pimiento makes an otherwise flavorless 
salad more appetizing. Tastes differ considerably, and 
salads may be modified to please these tastes. The same 
principle holds in combining fruits in a salad. Tart 
fruits such as the pineapple are combined with bland 
fruits such as the banana and mild apples. Contrast in 
texture is also desirable in salads. Soft ingredients such 
as macaroni, rice, or cottage cheese are combined with 
firm or crisp foods such as celery, cucumbers, pineapple, 

Importance of the luncheon salad. Salads for lunch- 
eon often form the most important dish. On the other 

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Finely chopped ca 
Shredded, drained 
Quartered marshm 
Whipped cream 

Diced apple 
Finely cut celery 
Chopped or broke 

Mayonnaise dressi 
Whipped cream 




Diced pineapple 
"Mayonnaise dressi 
Whipped cream 



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hand, salads served with a dinner are a minor part of the 
meal, being included for their fresh, crisp coolness, for 
their color, and for the vitamins that they contain. When 
the luncheon salad is the main dish, it is usually large, 
and is made of vegetables or fruits or a combination of 
both which satisfies us when we are hungry. A mayon- 
naise dressing which has much food value is used. The 
dinner salad, on the other hand, has less food value, being 
small and dainty and usually has a French dressing. 

On pages 50 and 51 are some suggestions for appro- 
priate luncheon or supper salads. 

8. Which of the ingredients do you think makes them 
suitable as main luncheon dishes? 


Step 1. Making the mayonnaise dressing. 




Egg Yolk 




i t 

A t 


i t 

4 t 

Cayenne Pepper . ... 

few grains 

few grains 

Salt . 

4 t 

4 t 

Lemon Juice 

2 T 

1 T 

Vinegar (diluted if strong) 

2 T 

1 T 

Salad Oil 

1 C 

4 C 

Add sugar, cayenne, salt, and mustard to egg yolk and 
beat. Add vinegar or lemon juice and beat. Add 1 t. oil 
at a time and beat. After adding 6 or 8 t. in this fashion, 
add 1 T. at a time and beat. After having added 6 T., the 
dressing should be very thick. Pour in half of the remainder 
of oil and beat. Pour in the remaining amount and beat. 


The whole process should not require more than 5 to 6 min- 
utes. It is desirable to have all the ingredients cold. One 
will find it easy to make the dressing if the acid is added 
before the oil in accordance with the directions. For fruit 
salads add sugar. 

Step 2. Preparing the vegetables and fruits. Re- 
freshening. Vegetables wilt easily. Unless they are 
freshly picked from the garden or have had especially 
good care in shipping and in the store, they are not so 
fresh as one would like them to be. All vegetables are 
composed to a considerable extent of water. The potato, 
which we think of as a very dry vegetable, is almost three- 
fourths water, whereas celery is almost 95 per cent water. 
When any of this water evaporates, the vegetable shrinks 
and becomes limp. When once this has happened, a 
vegetable does not have the same flavor as when freshly 
picked. We can refreshen vegetables by putting them in 
cold water for a time and then into the ice chest, taking 
care that they are kept moist, but not standing in water. 
Covered tin, enamel, glass, and earthenware containers 
which allow but a small amount of air circulation are 
excellent. As soon as vegetables are delivered, they 
should be washed and put into such a container and into 
the ice chest or other cool place. 

Removing bacteria. Washing vegetables removes dirt 
and bacteria. Even in our country there is some danger 
from disease germs carried on fresh vegetables. In some 
foreign countries disease germs carried by foods present 
extreme danger. However, as a precaution, it is well to 
wash all vegetables carefully. Water cress will grow in 
polluted streams. We should always soak it in salted 
vinegar water (2 T. of each per quart of water) for an 



hour or two. This is helpful in destroying typhoid bac- 
teria which might be present. Occasionally spinach, 
cauliflower, lettuce, and other greens have insects among 
their leaves. When these vegetables are soaked in the' 
salted vinegar water the insects creep out and may then 
be washed away, thus making the vegetables perfectly 

Lettuce for use under salads. To prepare a head of 
lettuce for use under salads it is necessary to separate 
the leaves without breaking them. To do this cut out 
the heart (the stem end) and hold the lettuce under the 
faucet so that cold water will run into the hole that was 
made. As the water runs in about the leaves, its weight 
forces them apart without breaking them. Drain the 
leaves or wipe dry with a cloth if using immediately. If 

Courtesy General Electric Co. 

Fig. 13. A stuffed tomato salad decorated with 
pieces of pimiento. 



the lettuce leaves are not to be used for a time, keep them 
moist in the refrigerator or other cool place. 

Step 3. Arranging the ingredients. The arrange- 
ment of salads on plates is important in making them 
attractive. Salads should never be mussy looking. Mus- 
siness results from too much salad dressing, too much 
stirring, overcooking of vegetables, and careless placing 
on the lettuce leaf. Color, as we have learned, is also 
important in salads. We like such combinations as white 
cauliflower, fresh green asparagus tips, and yellow car- 
rots. On the other hand, we get less pleasure from red 
tomato and yellow carrot together or red tomato and beet. 
The delicate green of the lettuce leaf makes a pleasing 
base for any other vegetable or for fruit. 

Judging the product. 

9. Below is a chart which will help you to judge the 
success of your salads. 





Appetizing Combination: 



Appropriate Size of Pieces 

Lightlv mixed 

Not watery 

Not mussy 

READINGS. Harris and Lacey, Everyday Foods, pp. 427-434. 
Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, Ch. xxii, pp. 287-300. 


Trilling, Williams, and Reeves, A Girl's Problems in Home Eco- 
nomics, p. 507. 

University of Colorado, Agricultural Extension Service Bulletin, 


Convenience of sandwiches. Sandwiches are a very 
convenient way of serving combinations of foods. We 
use bread or crackers to hold an almost countless num- 
ber of fillings. If these fillings and bread were served 
separately, they would require the use of more dishes 
and silver than when served in the form of sandwiches. 
It is proper to take bread in our fingers, but not con- 
venient to pick up meat, butter, jelly, or any one of the 
many kinds of fillings. So for picnics, luncheons, after- 
noon teas, lunch-boxes, etc., we have developed a great 
variety of appetizing sandwiches. 

Neatness an essential quality. Neatness is one of 
the essential qualities of sandwiches. The bread in a 
well made sandwich is cut of uniform thickness. People 
differ in the thicknesses they prefer. Usually, however, 
the choice is for bread to be cut rather thin, about a 
quarter of an inch. 

Cutting the bread. In cutting bread for sandwiches 
there is a tendency to cut either the bottom or the top 
of the slice thicker, gradually making the face of the loaf 
crooked. This makes badly shaped sandwiches. As you 
cut, watch carefully to have the slice just as thick at the 
bottom as at the top. To prevent squeezing the bread and 
to keep the slices of even thickness use a sawing motion. 

Fitting the slices of bread. If the sandwich is made 
of two slices of bread, they should fit together. We select 
adjoining slices as they come from the loaf so that they 

Fig. 14. Cutting of bread. 

A. Gauge for slicing bread. B. One loaf of bread shows incorrect 
slanting, the other correct slicing. C. Slices of bread used for sandwiches 
should fit exactly, as shown on the left here. On the right are slices that 
are mismated. 


will fit accurately. If we are especially interested in 
making dainty sandwiches, as for an afternoon tea, we 
remove the crusts. Many persons prefer to keep the 
crusts, as they are the most tasty part of the bread. 

Convenient size. A whole slice from the loaf makes 
too large a sandwich to be handled gracefully. So we 
cut it into two or three pieces after the filling has been 
put in, being careful not to squeeze the bread and force 
the filling out. We may cut the sandwiches into fancy 
shapes. Again it depends upon the occasion how small 
and how fancy we make our sandwiches. If we are out 
in the woods at a picnic where every one will be hungry, 
the loaf-sized sandwich may be cut into but two pieces 
and perhaps have thicker slices of bread than the sand- 
wiches prepared for a party indoors. 

Neatness of filling. To make neat sandwiches care 
must be taken to keep the filling within the sandwich 
and not let it run over the edges. To avoid this the fill- 
ings should not be too soft. Usually fresh, crisp lettuce 
extending slightly beyond the edge of the bread may add 
to the attractiveness of the sandwich. Limp, wilted let- 
tuce showing beyond the bread, however, makes a very 
unappetizing sandwich. 

Variety in sandwiches. The many kinds of sand- 
wiches may be grouped in two classes, the double sand- 
wich and the open-faced sandwich. In the latter, but one 
slice of bread is used, covered with some kind of spread. 
Open-faced sandwiches, of course, cannot be packed but 
may be made most attractive for serving at home. Many 
kinds of colorful decorations are possible, such as bits of 
jelly on cream cheese, sliced stuffed olives on cheese, 
grated egg yolk. etc. 

Courtesy of the Jelke Co. 

Fig. 15. Attractive sandwiches. 
Above, checkerboard sandwiches. Below, a variety of sandwiches. 


The double sandwich lends itself to a great variety of 
fillings, such as meat, cheese, nut and fruit mixtures, 
tomato and lettuce, fried or hard-cooked egg, and so on. 
Combinations of vegetables and meats on toasted bread 
make attractive sandwiches of several layers. Ribbon 
and checkerboard sandwiches are made by combining 
slices of white and graham bread with creamed butter or 
cheese and cutting in such a way as to give the fancy 
Bread for sandwiches. The choice of materials is im- 
portant in making good sandwiches. Bread is the basis 
for a sandwich. It should not be so fresh that it will 
not cut well, but must be moist and spongy. Properly 
made bread twenty-four hours old is most desirable. The 
loaf should be shaped so that the slice will be practically 

If the crust is to be used, it should be a golden brown 
on all sides. The nutty flavor adds to the taste of the 
sandwich. Good sandwich bread is of fine and even 

10. Criticize the bread shown on page 57 as to shape 
of loaf and evenness and fineness of grain. 

11. When making sandwiches, decide whether the 
bread comes up to these standards. 

Butter for sandwiches. Butter, of course, should be 
of good flavor. It should be soft enough to spread evenly, 
but not melted. A good way to prepare butter for spread- 
ing is to cream it, that is, work it with a wooden spoon 
until it is soft enough to spread easily with a knife. 
Unless butter is the only filling, a thin coating on one 
slice is all that is needed. This is especially true if a 
rich filling is used. 



1. Cream the butter. 

5. Cover with rest of slices. 

2. Trim the bread. 

6. Cut into convenient shapes. 

3. Lay slices evenly on table. 

7. Wrap in oiled paper if to be 
kept long. 

4. Cover half the slices with 8. Arrange attractively on plate, 
butter and filling. 

Fig. 16. Steps in making a number of sandwiches. 


Fillings. Fillings vary so much that it would take a 
great deal of discussion to cover, even a few of them. In 
general, they should not be so soft that they will run, 
but moist enough to be appetizing. They should be 
highly flavored because the bread is so bland. Combina- 
tion fillings usually have at least one ingredient that is 
highly flavored such as mayonnaise dressing, pickle, sharp 
cheese, or onion. Fresh, crisp lettuce adds to the tasti- 
ness and appearance of almost any sandwich. 

12. How should lettuce be handled to have it fresh 
and crisp, moist but not wet? 

Making a number of sandwiches. On page 61 is a 
picture showing the steps that would save time if you were 
making a number of fancy sandwiches. 


Pan broil a full slice of bacon cut into two pieces. The 
aim in frying bacon is to remove some of the fat, keep it even 
in shape and make it crisp and evenly browned. This is best 
done over a low flame and with frequent turning and moving 
in the fat. 

Cut two slices of graham bread, butter one slice and cover 
it with a piece of lettuce. If the lettuce is very curly press 
it down so that the cover slice will lie flat. Spread with 
mayonnaise, put bacon on top, and cover with a second slice 
of bread. Press lightly to flatten the sandwich and cut into 
two or more pieces. 


Chop eggs or grind meat. Add enough mayonnaise to make 
a paste. Catsup may be substituted for the mayonnaise in the 
meat sandwich or a bit of horseradish added to the mayon- 


naise for variety. Spread on the buttered slice of bread, being 
careful not to have it so thick at the edges that the filling will 
squeeze out. Put on the cover slice of bread and cut into 
two or more sandwiches. 


Mix peanut butter with about ^ as much honey. Spread 
as for any other filling. 


Spread one slice of bread lightly with butter. Sprinkle with 
grated American or other cheese, or spread with a soft, snappy 
cheese. Put' on cover slice of bread, toast on the broiling 
rack on both sides, and serve hot. 

13. Perhaps you would like to make a collection of 
sandwich recipes. Either copy them on cards or in a 
recipe book. 

READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 228-231. 
University of Colorado, Agricultural Extension Bulletin, "Sand- 


Choosing a luncheon dessert. The dessert selected 
for luncheon depends largely upon what has been planned 
for the preceding part of the meal. If many sandwiches, 
rich creamed dishes, or such dishes as baked beans or 
macaroni have been a part of the meal, we should enjoy 
a light dessert such as fruit gelatin, ice cream, or junket. 
On the other hand, if we are planning a heavy dessert 
such as a rice pudding, we will select a juicy vegetable 
or a fruit salad for an earlier course. 

Values gained by using fruits. Variety. We gain 
several advantages from the use of fruit for dessert. 



Courtesy Charles B. Knox Gelatine Co. 

Fig. 17. Fruit gelatine molded for individual service. 

Variety is one of these important values. The number 
of ways in which we serve the extensive list of fruits gives 
an amazing number of dishes. Fruit juices, salads, baked 
fruit, stewed fruit, shortcakes, dumplings, pies, ice 
creams, and so on, are but an indication of this great 


variety. By canning and preserving fruits, we are able 
to increase still further the variety we may have at all 

Freedom from bacteria. It is important that we eat 
fresh, uncooked fruit and vegetable every day. Washing 
fruits carefully is advisable to remove dirt and bacteria 
which might collect from the handling which is required 
in picking and selling fresh fruits. It is necessary to 
cook some fruits to make them suitable and satisfactory 
for eating. Some apples, for example, are not very good 
raw. Cranberries are another example of fruit that needs 

Kinds of gelatin. A very common way to prepare 
fruit is to combine a variety of fruits and stiffen their 
juices with gelatin. Gelatin is an animal product. It is 
sold for household uses in two forms, the one, pure granu- 
lar gelatin; the other, colored and flavored with artificial 
colorings and flavorings and sweetened with ordinary 
sugar. These latter are sold under special trade names 
and are more expensive than the plain gelatin. Raw 
pineapple cannot be used in gelatin because it prevents 
the gelatin from stiffening. When the pineapple is cooked, 
it no longer has this effect. When using either of the 
kinds of gelatin, be sure to prepare in accordance with 
the directions on the box. 

Soak gelatin in cold water for 5 minutes since it does not 
dissolve in boiling water without previous soaking. While 
soaking, heat fruit juice to boiling. Pour on gelatin and stir 
until thoroughly dissolved. Add sugar and set aside until 
cool and syrupy. Pour over the chilled fruit. Set aside 
for several hours in the ice chest or other cool place. Serve 
with plain or whipped cream or a cooked custard. 










2 t. 



Cold water (for soaking) 

2 T. 

1 T. 


Pineapple juice (boiling) 

H c. 

i c. 


2 T 


Drained diced pineapple 

4 slices 


Sliced banana 


Quartered marshmallows 


to li 

Lettuce for base 

4 leaves 




1 T. 



Cold water (for soaking) 

2 T. 



Boiling water 

H c. 

i c. 

Lemon juice 

i C. or 

1 T. 

1 lemon 


* c. 

li T. 

Diced orange 1 

1 large 


Sliced banana 

2 large 


Chopped nuts 2 to sprinkle on top 

Lettuce for base 

4 leaves 

1 leaf 



1 T. 

i T. 


Cold water (for soaking) 

2 T. 

1 T. 


Mixed juice (chiefly pineapple) 

If C. 

i c. 



4 T. 



Diced pineapple 

i c. 


Diced peach 

i c. 


Diced pear 

i c. 


Stoned cherries 

i c. 


Lettuce for base 

4 leaves 


1 An orange is made of sections or carpels, each surrounded by membrane which 
can be pulled away, leaving only the pulp. When you want to serve an especially 
delicious dessert, peel the carpels. 

2 If the nuts were put into the gelatin, they would soak, darken, and lose flavor. 

3 These may be jmitted but make an attractive addition. 

Custard. Custards are very easy to mix, but require 
great care in baking. They are made of eggs and milk, 
flavoring and sweetening. Since both the eggs and milk 


are protein foods, a hot temperature should be avoided. 
To prevent overcooking, set the cup of custard in a pan 
of hot water so that the water comes up about f of the 
way on the cup. Set the oven flame so low that the water 
does not boil. A well-made custard is jelly-like in con- 
sistency. We can tell when it is done by inserting a clean 
knife. If the knife comes out uncoated, the custard is 
done. An overcooked custard will be curdled and watery. 





Eeg . 


1 (small) 


3 c 

1 c 


3 T 

1 T 


1 t 

few drops 

Beat eggs slightly, add the other ingredients and stir until 
well mixed. Put into custard cups. Set cups in hot water and 
bake about 20 minutes at about 300. 

Ice cream. Popularity of ice cream. Ice cream is a 
deservedly popular dessert because when properly made 
it is such a wholesome food. In addition, it is dainty and 
refreshing. It provides another way of getting milk into 
our diets. It may be prepared with a variety of flavor- 
ings and may be combined successfully with many kinds 
of fruits. 

Qualities of good ice cream. Good ice cream feels very 
smooth to the tongue and melts readily in the mouth. 
When water freezes, it forms long hard crystals. Since 
milk and cream contain so much water, ice cream is made 
up largely of crystals of frozen water. To have a velvety 
ice cream we must prevent these crystals from becoming 


large. The smaller the crystals, the smoother the cream. 
There are several ways to prevent the formation of long, 
thick crystals. One way is to have a large proportion of 
cream in the mixture to be frozen. The tiny fat globules 
separate the particles of water and so do not allow large 
crystals to form. To many people this rich mixture is 
distasteful. Other ways are to add a bit of egg, a bit of 
gelatin, or to use evaporated milk in the place of part of 
the fresh milk. In addition, if the ice cream is frozen 
slowly at the start, the churning of the beater carries air 
into the ice cream just as you saw it beaten into egg 
whites. The air bubbles that form also prevent the for- 
mation of large water crystals. When fruit juices are 
added, the mixture should be partly frozen to prevent 

14. Mix 1 C. of finely chopped ice with 54 C. of 
coarse salt. Test with a thermometer to see how 
many degrees below freezing the mixture goes. 

Effect of salt on ice. Salt water must be colder than 
32 to form ice. You remember that ordinary water 
freezes at 32. Therefore, when we put salt on ice, it 
changes from ice to water rapidly at a lower temperature 
than freezing. As it changes it takes up heat. If we 
surround an ice-cream mixture with this ice-and-salt mix- 
ture, it takes heat from the ice cream which then becomes 
solid. If we put a large amount of salt on the ice, the 
ice cream will freeze more quickly than is desirable since 
we want to beat as much air into it as is possible. One cup 
of salt to each 3 quarts of chopped ice is a mixture that 
will not freeze the cream too quickly if the freezer is 
turned rapidly. A freezer with a beater should be used. 
Unless you have an ice shaver, crush the ice by putting 



1. Wash dasher and can. 

5. Pour mixture of ice and salt 
around can. 

2. Pour mixed ingredients into 6. Turn until frozen, 


3. Adjust top of can and crank. 

7. Remove top layer of ice and 

4. Crush ice. 8. Open can and serve. 

Fig. 18. Steps in making ice cream. 


it into a sack and pounding with a mallet. Turn slowly 
for a few rounds, then rapidly as long as you can. Turn 
constantly. When you can no longer turn the crank, 
serve or pack for later use. 

To pack, open the can after carefully removing the ice 
near the top and wiping away any drops of water. If you 
do not take this precaution, you may get salty water into 
the ice cream. Remove the beater, scraping off the cream 
into the can and pack the cream down into the can with 
a spoon. Return the lid and put in a cork to prevent the 
brine from getting into the freezer. Pour out the water 
and refill with a mixture of ice and salt over the top of 
the can. Cover with a paper and a damp cloth. This 
packing for an hour or two improves the ice cream. 

Serve plain, with crushed sweetened fruit, or a choco- 
late or other sauce. 






i C 

11 C 

Coffee Cream 

1 C 

24 C 


3 T 

2 r 

Vanilla . 

4- t 

u t 

15. In what ways was your product satisfactory? 

When we make frozen desserts in a mechanical refrig- 
erator, we must be especially careful to select ingredients 
such that long, thick ice crystals will not form. Since the 
freezing mixture is not stirred constantly as in an ice 
cream freezer, air bubbles cannot be beaten in while 
freezing to prevent the formation of crystals. Gelatin 
whipped when it begins to thicken, whipped cream, and 


stiffly beaten egg whites are used in some recipes, air 
bubbles being furnished in this way. Other ingredients 
are also useful in making a smooth product as well as to 
add flavor. Marshmallows, fruit, and thin custard are 
examples. Below is a recipe in which the formation of 
ice crystals is prevented in a number of ways. Can you 
discover these ways? 


(Serves six) 

Milk 1C. Sugar f C. 

Cornstarch IT. Whipping cream ..1C. 

Salt few grains Vanilla 1 t. 

Eggs 2 

Add salt to f C. of milk and scald in double boiler. 
Mix the cornstarch with the remaining milk and add. Cook 
15 minutes, stirring occasionally. Beat egg yolks and sugar. 
Add a few spoonsful of the cooked mixture and stir. Then 
pour the egg mixture into the double boiler slowly, stirring 
constantly. Cook 2 minutes longer, strain, and cool. Fold in 
the stiffly beaten egg whites, then the stiffly beaten cream and 
the vanilla. Put into refrigerator tray and freeze for 5 hours. 
Serve plain or with crushed, sweetened fruit. 

Marshmallows contain so much sugar and gelatin that 
they are highly useful in making frozen desserts in a 
mechanical refrigerator. 


Melt one-half Ib. marshmallows in top of double boiler to a 
spongy consistency. Make a sauce by boiling a one-ounce 
square of bitter chocolate in a scant cup of water. Stir while 
boiling. Add this to the melted marshmallows. When cool, 
add this mixture slowly to one-half pint of cream, whipped. 


This freezes in one and one-half hours. It serves eight 

READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, Ch. xxiv, 
pp. 311-325. 

University of Colorado, Agricultural Extension Service Bulletins, 
"Milk and Its Use"; "Simple Desserts." 


Milk beverages sometimes form an important part of 
a luncheon. On pages 73 and 74 are suggestions for 
making a variety of such drinks. Chocolate sauce is 
sometimes used as a flavoring. 


Melt one square of chocolate in a pan over a very low 
flame. A high flame will burn the chocolate. Stir constantly. 

Courtesy General Electric Co. 

Fig. 19. Grape lacto. 



Add 1 C. water and 2 C. sugar. Cook to a smooth paste. Or 
boil i C. cocoa with 1 C. water. Add 2 C. sugar and cook 
to the consistency of cream. 








Milk Shake. 

1 C. 

1 T. 

chocolate and 
Vanilla and 
nutmeg or 
Maple syrup 
(no sugar) 

Raw Custard 

1 C. 

1 T. 



Malted Milk 

1 c. 

i C. water 

1 t. 

Malted milk 2 T. 
May be served plain or 
with chocolate sauce or 
maple syrup (no sugar) 



1 C. buttermilk 

1 t. or 
salt i t. 

Coffee cream \ C. 
Whipped cream 1 T. 

Grape Lacto . 

| C. buttermilk 

Grape juice $ C. 
Whipped cream 
(if desired) 

i If an especially nourishing drink is desired. 

Mix all ingredients and stir. Sugar requires but little 
stirring to make it dissolve. When eggs are included, use an 
egg whip to make the drink light and fluffy. Malted milk must 
be dissolved in 1 T. of cream to make a smooth paste which 
can then be thinned with the milk. 



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Orange Nog , 
Loganberry Milk 
Strawberry Freeze . 


cd . u 
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173 "S a 

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Chocolate Milk Shal 
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Have all ingredients very cold. Put all but fruit juices in a 
pint or quart jar depending upon the quantity made. Add 
mixed fruit juices, fasten down the lid, and shake vigorously. 
Serve immediately. If you were serving any of these drinks 
at a party, you might decorate with a bit of whipped cream 
on top. 


Time for eating confections. We make confections 
because we like sweet foods to finish our meals. Some 
people eat confections between their meals. You will 
learn in Unit II why this is a mistake. However, par- 
ticularly for boys and girls who are growing fast, it is a 
very wholesome thing to have sweet things as desserts. 
They are appropriate for home luncheons and school 
lunch boxes. When you make these confections at home, 
pack them into airtight jars or boxes, keep in a cool place, 
and serve immediately after meals. 


If bulk dates are used, wash carefully and dry. Remove 
pits and the paper-like lining about the pits. Insert ^ Eng- 
lish walnut or pecan. Close the date about the nut and roll 
in powdered sugar. 


Grind 1 C. each of washed dates, figs, raisins, prunes, and 
nuts. To prevent the fruit getting too sticky, mix in the nuts 
as you grind the fruit. Mix after adding the juice of one 
large or two small lemons. Work 1 C. of powdered sugar 
into the fruit. Cut off a lump the size of a walnut, roll into 
a ball and coat with powdered sugar. 



Butter a granite plate and spread \ C. freshly roasted 
peanuts evenly over it. It is better if the peanuts are sepa- 
rated into halves. Put J C. sugar into a saute pan, place 
over a low flame and keep the sugar moving constantly by 
stirring it slowly and evenly. It will burn if it is not moved. 
Just as soon as it is all melted, pour it over the peanuts. 
When cold, break into conveniently sized pieces. 


(14 cookies} 
Butter ................ IT. Egg 

Sugar ................. i C. Milk ................. IT. 

Peanut Butter ......... J C. Flour ................. % C. 

Vanilla ............... J t. Baking Powder ......... ft. 

Cream the peanut butter with the fat and sugar. Add milk, 
vanilla, and egg, and beat. Add sifted flour and baking 
powder. Drop with a teaspoon on a buttered cookie sheet or 
pan about 2 inches apart. The lumps of dough should be 
about the size of a walnut. Bake in a moderate oven (350 
to 375) for 8 to 10 minutes. Remove to oiled paper or cool- 
ing rack with a spatula or pancake turner. 

If you bake these cookies at home, multiply the amounts 
of the ingredients to make the number of cookies you would 
like to have. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. If you have time when you 
have finished the work of the unit, you will find suggestions for 
additional problems on luncheon cookery on page 100. 


Planning the dinner menu. When we make our din- 
ner menus, we follow the same rules that guided us in 
planning luncheons. That is, we include fruit, vege- 
tables, and milk liberally, as well as cereals and meat, 
and we choose from both the bland and highly flavored 
foods. We select both the soft-textured and crisp, firm 
foods, and we choose some foods with color to make the 
meal look more attractive. Dinner is usually a more 
elaborate meal than luncheon or supper since it is the 
heaviest meal of the day. It is planned for the time 
when the whole family can come together for leisurely 
enjoyment of both the food and each other. 

Number of dishes. A greater number of dishes is 
usually served in the dinner than in the other meals. 
Meat, potatoes or some other starchy food, two vege- 
tables, one often in the form of a salad, and a fruit, as 
well as milk, especially for the children, are often in- 
cluded in a well planned dinner. Since the dinner usu- 
ally has a number of dishes such as meat and potatoes 
which satisfy the appetite, we choose the lighter salads, 
soups, and desserts for this meal. For example, instead 
of a cream soup we choose a clear broth. French dress- 
ing is correct for dinner salads. Also a dinner salad is 
smaller than a luncheon salad. A light dessert such as 
plain fruit, an ice or ice cream, or gelatin is appropriate 
for a dinner that has several courses or that has several 
rich dishes. 



Simple dinner menus. Sometimes we serve a very 
simple meal at the dinner hour. For example, we may 
cook meat and vegetables together in a chowder or a 
thick soup. With this we enjoy a dish contrasting in 
texture and flavor such as a tart, crisp salad, followed 
possibly by a simple dessert. In this kind of dinner we 
have fewer dishes, but usually eat larger servings, and 
have a variety of foods in a single dish. 

1. On the pages following you will find a discussion 
of the preparation of a number of dishes which may be 
combined in dinner menus. Perhaps members of the 
class have recipes that are favorite with their families 
which might be especially nice to use in your laboratory 

The first course of a dinner. If those who prepare 
our dinners have plenty of time, or if occasionally we 
enjoy serving a somewhat more elaborate dinner, we start 

Courtesy General Electric Co. 

Fig. 20. An appetizing vegetable plate. 



Courtesy General Electric Co. 

Fig. 21. Tart fruits are suitable for a first course. 

it with some kind of appetizer. Two simple types of 
appetizers are clear soups, such as consomme, and mix- 
tures of tart fruits. An appetizer should not be so large 
in quantity or so rich that it blunts the appetite. In fact, 
it should do the opposite, make us more hungry. A bouil- 
lon or consomme is the stock made by cooking meat and 
bone a long time. The liquid is cleared by removing the 
fat and straining out the seasonings that have been cooked 
with the meat. It contains practically no nourishment, 
but it starts the secretion of the digestive juices in our 
stomachs. This improves our digestion and in addition 
makes us enjoy the food that follows. Tart fruits, when 
served in small quantities, also make us relish the rest of 
the meal more. 


Families often omit this first course, since as a whole 
our appetites are keen enough, particularly if we have 
had the proper amount of out-of-door exercise. They add 
to the work of preparing and serving a meal. However, 
we occasionally like to serve a meal which gives the added 
pleasure of a first course. Cookbooks give recipes for 
consomme, bouillon, and fruit cup. 

READING. Harris and Lacey, Everyday Foods, pp. 145-150. 


Tenderness of meat. Age of animal. Some meats 
are tenderer than others. The sea foods such as oysters, 
clams, and lobster are very tender. Young animals of 
all types have tenderer meat than do the full grown, and 
particularly those which are very old. Spring chicken, 
lamb, calf (veal), and suckling pig are examples of the 
young animals we use for food. Many people, however, 
prefer the flavor of mature meat. Mutton (sheep), beef 
(cows and steers), pork (hogs), and roasting and stewing 
chickens are examples of mature meat. These many 
kinds of meats provide great variety in flavor. 

Place of cut. The place in the carcass from which the 
meat is cut also makes a difference in its tenderness. 
The loin and rib cuts are tender because the muscles of 
which they are made have had comparatively little use. 
The meat of the leg muscles, on the other hand, are large 
and coarse because they are used so much. In Unit III 
you will learn more about the various cuts of meat. 

2. In the picture on page 81 find the place from which 
sirloin, porterhouse, club steaks, and rib roasts are cut. 



Use of cuts. The round may be used for steaks 
though it is less tender than the loin cuts. The rump 
and chuck are used for roasts, while the flank is used for 
baking and stewing. The remainder of the cuts are used 
for stews, soup, hamburger, chipped beef, etc. This meat 
is as wholesome as are the more expensive cuts. The dif- 

Adapted from a chart by Armour &r Co. 

Fig. 22. Cuts of beef. 

The shaded portion indicates packing house waste used to make by- 
products. Fat and tenderloin comprise 3 per cent of the carcass, and 
are not shown here. 

ference lies in the fact that other methods of preparation 
must be used in order that attractive dishes may be pre- 
pared from them. 

Results of cooking. Flavor. Few people like raw 
meat. Many like it fairly rare, claiming that in both 
flavor and tenderness it is superior to that well done. 
For most people, then, cooking is necessary to make meat 


Variety. It would probably be possible to have a dif- 
ferent meat dish every day in the year for there are so 
many possibilities for variety in the way our animal foods 
are cooked. This variety adds a great deal to the pleas- 
ure we get from our foods. The odor of cooked meat and 
its flavor, aside from its nutritional value, make it im- 

W holes omeness. Occasionally, in spite of the most care- 
ful inspection, pork is put on the market which has tiny 
larvae imbedded in the muscles. These larvse may de- 
velop in our bodies and cause illness if we eat the pork 
raw. For this reason, it is important that pork in par- 
ticular be cooked thoroughly in order to kill any larvae 
which, by mischance, might be present. Cooking also 
destroys any bacteria that may have gathered on meat 
through careless handling in the shop or home. 

Principles of meat cookery. Protein. Meat is 
another of the protein foods. Like eggs, for best results 
it should be cooked at a low temperature. A high tem- 
perature for a considerable time will toughen the most 
tender cut which may be bought. Meat will cook at a 
temperature below that of boiling water. 

3. At what temperature does protein of eggs start to 

Product desired. The way we cook meat also depends 
upon the product we are planning. If we are cooking 
soup, our purpose is to draw all of the juices and flavors 
out of the meat into the soup. If we should plunge the 
meat into boiling water, the outside of the meat would be 
hardened immediately and would tend to seal the juices 
and flavors in the meat. So we cut the meat into small 


pieces, thus opening the cells, put them into cold water 
which we bring to the boiling point slowly. In this way 
we help to draw the juices and flavors into the soup. 

Roasting meat. However, if we want to keep all the 
juices and flavors in the meat as in a roast or steak, we 
can help to seal them in. We do this by searing all 
sides, either in a hot oven, under a hot flame in the 
broiler, or in a saute pan over a hot flame. Sometimes 
we sprinkle the meat with flour. When the flour cooks, 
it makes a coating around the meat. This helps to retain 
the juices. Then, since long continued cooking at a high 
temperature toughens meat, we turn the flame very low 
to finish the cooking. No further cooking may be neces- 
sary for steak, but roasts of beef, pork, lamb, chicken, 
etc., may require an hour or more of this slow cooking. 

Cooking tough cuts. The toughness of the cut also de- 
termines the rnethod of cookery. In those cuts in which 
the muscles are large and coarse, long cooking at a low 
temperature is more necessary than when the cut is ten- 
der. Acid tends to soften protein. So some cooks add 
a tablespoon or two of vinegar. The acid of tomato has 
a similar effect and adds flavor besides. Long cooking 
also develops flavors that we enjoy, since meat is then 
brown and juicy. 

Properly cooked meat does not require the use of a 
very sharp knife in eating. Very tender meat may be cut 
with a fork almost as easily as potatoes. 

Left-over meats. When meat is left after a meal, we 
very often make it into combination dishes with other 
foods. Meat loaf, hash, stuffed green peppers, cro- 
quettes, and Spanish rice are examples of this kind of 


Courtesy General Electric Co. 

Fig. 23. A dish made of leftover meat and vegetables. 


Place a piece of round steak about two inches thick on a 
bread board. Dredge (sprinkle heavily) with flour. Using 
the edge of your little granite plate, your case knife, or a 
meat hammer, work the flour into the fiber of the meat. If 
it will take more flour, repeat the process. Turn the meat and 
repeat on the other side. 

Put enough fat (lard, oil, crisco, or suet) into your saute 
pan to coat the bottom. When it is hot, put the meat into it. 
Watch it carefully to see that it does not burn. When browned 
on both sides, put it into an earthen baking dish, with a lid 
if possible. Season with salt. Pour over it J C. of water, 
cover tightly, and put into a heated oven. Set the regulator 
as low as possible, or turn the flame as low as you can. Cook 



for 3 hours. You may need to put in additional water from 
time to time. You will start this in class and must return 
at noon or after school to take it out of the oven. Reheat 
when you serve. 


There are several variations of Swiss steak. One, very 
appetizing, is Spanish steak. Prepare the meat as you did 
for the Swiss steak. When in the baking dish, add J C. of 
canned tomato and lay two slices of onion on top. A bit of 
celery and green pepper, chopped fine, are good additions. 
Cook in the same way as Swiss steak. When serving, lift out 
of the baking dish carefully so as not to disarrange the 

For family use, allow J to ^ pound for each adult; J 
pound for each child is ample. A Dutch oven or skillet with 
a close fitting lid as well as covered baking dishes are satis- 
factory utensils. 

Fish is also a protein food. Canned" salmon has been 
cooked in the can until tender. Consequently when mak- 
ing a loaf, very little cooking will be necessary. Milk and 
eggs are used. All three ingredients require a low tem- 
perature. Why? 






1 pound can 

-4 can 



1 T slightly beaten 

Crumbs (coarse bread or 

4 C. 

3 T. 


1 C. 

3 T. 


2 T. 

2 t. 





Mix all the ingredients, put into a buttered baking dish 
and bake for 15 to 20 minutes in an oven of moderate tem- 
perature (350). At home you will need to bake the larger 
loaf for 25 to 30 minutes. Turn onto a platter, cover with a 
white sauce into which has been cut some hard-cooked 

If the loaf is cooked in too hot an oven, it will burn to the 
pan and the surfaces will be hard and crisp. This is not 
desirable. It should be firm enough to keep its shape, but 

(For Family of Four) 

Cod or Halibut 1 Ib. Salt 1 t. 

(head or tail end) 
Potato, i in. cubes 1C. Pepper dash 

Carrots, J in. cubes .... ^ C. Bay leaf very small piece 

Onion, finely chopped . . J C. Milk 1 C. 

Salt pork, J in. cubes . . J C. 

Bacon fat lj T. 

Remove all skin from fish. Put fish in small pan, add bay 
leaf and just cover with water. Cover and simmer until flesh 
and bones can be easily separated. Remove bay leaf. Put 
potatoes and carrots in a second sauce pan, add salt and 
pepper, and strain fish liquor over them. Cover and cook. 
When fish has cooled somewhac, remove bones and flake. 
Saute onion with salt pork or in the bacon fat. When potatoes 
and carrots are done, add fish and onion. Before serving, add 
milk and heat. 

4. If you cook an individual serving, what quantities 
will you use? 


READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 358-374. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Leaflet No. 17, "Cooking Beef 
According to the Cut." 

University of Colorado, Agricultural Extension Service Bulletin, 
"Lamb Cuts and Recipes." 


Classifying vegetables. The cook divides vegetables 
into different groups. One classification she makes is 
according to whether they must be cooked or may be 
eaten raw. Those which she can serve raw, she uses in 
salads. Even those which require cooking are often served 
in garden-vegetable salads. 

Require Cooking Usually Served Raw May Be Served Either 

Raw or Cooked 

Potato Lettuce Cabbage 

Peas Endive Tomato 

Squash Swiss chard Turnips 

Spinach Water cress Carrot 

Beans Celery cabbage Dandelion greens 

Asparagus Radishes Celery 

Beets Cucumbers Cucumbers 
Beet tops 
Brussels sprouts 

Value of vegetables. There are many ways to pre- 
pare vegetables. Before we can decide how to cook them, 
we must know what we hope to get as a result of their 
preparation. As you will learn in Unit II, our vegetables 
are very important to us for the iron and other minerals 
that they contain and for their vitamins. In preparing 
them we must be sure not to lose these valuable food 
elements. One of the vitamins, C, which is most im- 
portant to us, is destroyed by cooking. We need this 


vitamin each day. Consequently we must eat daily either 
some raw fruit or raw vegetable, preferably both. In 
addition, there is no loss of minerals if we eat our vege- 
tables raw. Salads of raw vegetables are becoming in- 
creasingly popular with people who are intelligently 
interested in their health. Therefore we should know 
how to prepare a great variety of raw vegetables in 

Retaining the values of vegetables. Since we need 
the minerals that our vegetables contain, we must know 
how to retain them in cooking. Some methods of cook- 
ing vegetables are more wasteful of minerals than others. 
If we cook them in water, some of the mineral dissolves 
in the water and is poured away. However, if we bake 
our vegetables or prepare them in casseroles, there is no 
loss. Steaming does not cause so much loss as does boil- 
ing. Different ways of boiling affect the amount of min- 
erals that are lost from our vegetables. If we use more 
water than necessary, the loss is greater. If we cook 
them slowly, the loss increases. There is a great increase 
in loss if we cook them longer than is necessary. So the 
rule in cooking vegetables is to bake them when we can 
either in their skins or as baked dishes. If we boil them 
and the vegetable is of the kind which makes it possible, 
we should use as little water as possible and never cook 
them longer than is needed to make them tender. Over- 
cooking spoils not only their mineral value but their 
appearance and flavor. 

Need for different methods of cooking. Not all 
vegetables lend themselves to boiling in a small amount 
of water. The "strong-flavored" vegetables such as cab- 
bage, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, turnips, and onions 


have a poor flavor if not enough water is used. We use 
a large amount with these vegetables and cook them with- 
out a lid, so that the strong flavors which come up with 
the steam may escape. The green vegetable does not 
lend itself to cooking in a small amount of water. All of 
our green vegetables become brown and very unappetiz- 
ing if we do not use a generous amount of water or if we 
cook them longer than is necessary. Also, they should 
be cooked without a lid. Spinach, green beans, cabbage, 
brussels sprouts, and asparagus are examples. 

5. Name some vegetables which may be cooked in a 
small quantity of water. 

Determining when vegetables are done. Cooking 
vegetables only till tender is probably the most important 
precaution. Long cooking gives bad taste and color, and 
removes the valuable food elements. When we begin 
to think about what we mean by "only till tender," we 
find that different people have different notions. Cab- 
bage that is "done" still has a firm texture. When over- 
done, it is soft and pasty. When shredded, it should 
cook about 8 or 9 minutes. Green beans are still very 
firm when done and should be cooked ^ hour or less, de- 
pending upon the tenderness of the bean. When very 
tender, 20 minutes are sufficient. As we begin experiment- 
ing with the time of cooking vegetables, we find that we 
come to enjoy a great deal those vegetables that we might 
have earlier thoughtlessly considered underdone. The 
overcooked become distasteful. It is important to have 
the water boiling rapidly when the vegetable is placed 
in it and kept boiling rapidly during all of the cooking 



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Table for cooking vegetables. On pages 90 and 91 is 
a table that will help you in deciding how long to cook 
vegetables and how much water to use. Very young vege- 
tables require less time than 
the mature. As you will see, 
it is advised to prepare the 
vegetables in rather small 
pieces in order to make the 
cooking time short. Vege- 
tables are cut lengthwise of 
the fiber as in the carrot to 
prevent unnecessary loss of 
minerals. In the picture 
you will see that in cutting 
crosswise the cells are 
opened allowing the miner- 

Fig. 24. Pieces of carrot under 
the magnifying glass. 

The cells run lengthwise of the 
carrot. To save the minerals, cut 
the carrot lengthwise as shown in 
the piece at the bottom. 

als to dissolve out. If we 
scrape or pare vegetables 
too deeply, we waste much 
of them. In potatoes, par- 
ticularly, this waste is important since much of the 
mineral matter lies just under the skin. 

6. What advantage is there in boiling potatoes with 
the skins on? 

The amount of a vegetable used for four portions will 
vary somewhat depending upon the kind of vegetable 
and how savingly it is prepared. Salt is always added 
to the cooking water, 1 to 1^ t. to each quart of 

Flavoring cooked vegetables. Cooked vegetables 
are often flavored with butter, about 1 T. per serving. 



For variety we sometimes flavor with a white sauce (See 
page 44). 

7. How will you know which white sauce to use? 

Combination dishes. Often dishes combining several 
vegetables are made. This is an excellent way to use left- 
overs. Below is an example. 






3 Ib fresh or 

Bread Crumbs 

2 C. 
2 C. 

i c. 
i c. 

Green Pepper (chopped) 

1 small 

i C. 

Onion (finely chopped) ...... 

2 T. 

1 t 

Celery (finely chopped) 

4 C 

1 t (very finely 

Butter or Butter Substitute or 
Thick Sour Cream 

3 T. or 
1 C. 


1 t. or 
2 T. 

Place a layer of tomato in a buttered casserole or baking 
pan. Sprinkle with a layer each of chopped onion, celery, and 
pepper. Add a layer of bread crumbs. Add butter or part of 
cream. Put on another layer of tomato and continue as above 
until all materials have been used. Bake in a moderate oven 
(325) for about 40 minutes. Twenty minutes will be enough 
for the individual serving. 


The dinner salad is small and is not very rich. A leafy 
vegetable with French dressing is one correct dinner 






Lettuce (leaf or head) 

Swiss Chard 

Endive (French or curly) 

Dandelion greens 


Celery cabbage 


Tomato (sliced) 

Cucumber (sliced) 

Beet tops 
Brussels sprouts 

Horseradish leaves mixed 
with mustard greens 




Green beans 






To develop freshness and crispness, wash 
carefully and chill. Cover with dressing be- 
fore serving or serve dressing at table; or 
coat each chilled, dried leaf by dipping it in 
dressing and allowing it to drain before 
arranging on salad plate. 

Season with dressing before serving or at 

To marinate, mix the dressing lightly with 
the vegetable and allow to stand for an hour. 
The purpose of marinating is to have the 
flavor of the dressing go through the food. 
In a garden vegetable salad, bits of fresh 
and left-over vegetables may be combined. 
Green beans, cauliflower and carrots; canned 
peas, beets, and asparagus are two examples 
of combinations. 










French dressing 

1 orange 
1 grapefruit 

i c. 


2 T. 

Select a large orange and 
a small grapefruit in order 
to have carpels of nearly 
same size. Alternate the 
carpels. Serve on lettuce 


Halves of pear 
French dressing 

\ C. 

2 T. 

Serve on lettuce leaf. 





Oil (2 parts) 

2 C 

2 T 

Vinegar or 
Lemon Juice (1 part) 

i C 

1 T 

Salt ... 

1 t 



i C 1 

1 t. 


A t. 


i This makes a sweet dressing suitable for a fruit salad. Use less sugar for a 
vegetable saJad. 

Beat in a bowl or shake in a tightly stoppered bottle or 
tightly covered quart jar. For those who enjoy the flavor of 
onion or garlic in a vegetable salad rub the bowl with the cut 
edge of either for the slight flavor this will give. 

Arranging the salad. Since you have had experience 
in making luncheon salads, you know that appearance is 
our chief consideration in arranging them. Salads may 
easily be made mussy by overstirring. Most often in 


using French dressing, the salad is arranged and then 
dressing is poured on it, thus enabling especially fresh 
looking salads. 

8. Does your salad come up to a high standard in 
appearance? In flavor? 

Serving the salad. Sometimes the dinner salad is 
served as a separate course. In this case, some type of 
cracker is usually served with it. Ordinarily in family 
service, however, the salad is placed on the table before 
the family is seated at the table and is eaten with the main 

READING. Harris and Lacey, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 434- 


Selecting the dessert. The kind of dessert served 
with the dinner as with the luncheon depends to a large 
extent upon the other dishes. If the meal consisted of a 
number of dishes that were rather heavy and rich, the 
dessert would of course be light. If, on the other hand, 
the dinner was somewhat light, pie, or a rich pudding 
would be fitting. 

9. Below are given two dinner menus, one heavy, the 
other lighter. Also is given a list of desserts, some rich, 
others simpler. List the desserts which would be the 
more appropriate with the heavy dinner. List those you 
would choose for the lighter dinner. 


Oyster Cocktail Tomato Cocktail 

Consomme Broiled Halibut and Lemon 

Roast Pork and Dressing Mashed Potato 

Apple Sauce Buttered Asparagus 

Candied Sweet Potatoes Cucumber and Lettuce Salad 
Buttered Carrots 
Cole Slaw 



1. Plain Ice Cream 

2. Ice Cream with Chocolate 

Sauce and Nuts 

3. Fruit Gelatin 

4. Plain Jello 

5. Junket (plain) 

6. Apple Pie 

7. Plum Pudding . 

8. Watermelon 

9. Strawberries and Sugar 
10. Strawberries and Cream 

10. What desserts that you learned to make in your 
study of luncheons would also be appropriate for dinner? 
On the following pages are some additional dessert 


11. What quantities will you use if you prepare an 
individual serving? 




Buttered Bread 

3 i" slices 

2 slice of bread 


About a dozen 

Egg Whites 


Egg Yolks 



1 C 

Butter the bread. Place in a buttered baking dish and cover 
with the marshmallows cut into small pieces. Beat the whites 
of the eggs until stiff. Add the yolks and beat. Add the 
milk. Pour the mixture over the bread and bake in a slow 
oven (250 F. to 275 F.) until the custard is set. 

(Four-of-a-Kind Ice} 




Large Orange (juice) 



Lemon (juice) 



Sugar . . .... 

A C 

4 C 


1 C. 

4 C. 

Egg Whites (unbeaten) 

i Egg 

4 Eggs 


Squeeze fruit and remove seeds and any pieces of tough 
fiber. Mix all ingredients and freeze according to directions 
for ice cream. Be sure to turn the dasher rapidly and con- 
stantly while freezing. 

12. A pint serves two or three people. How many 
will a gallon serve? 

(Serves 12) 

Marshmallows pound Whipping Cream 2 C. 

Crushed Pineapple .. l C. Powdered Sugar 2 T. 

Vanilla it. 

Cut jresh marshmallows into fourths, add pineapple, and 
mix well. Allow to stand a few hours or overnight in re- 
frigerator. Whip cream, add vanilla and powdered sugar. 
Mix well and fold into fruit and marshmallow mixture. Pour 
into trays of mechanical refrigerator. Serve either chilled or 
frozen. This quantity fills two trays. 

Fig. 25. Dessert made in a mechanical refrigerator. 


13. In what ways was your product satisfactory? 

READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, Ch. xxxi, 
pp. 434-446. 

University of Colorado, Agricultural Extension Service Bulletins s 
"Milk and Its Use"; "Simple Desserts." 


Readings will be found at appropriate places throughout this unit. 


Below are some suggestions for problems if you have time for 
independent work. 

On Breakfast Cookery 

1. Grapefruit. Prepare grapefruit in different ways to discover 
differences in flavor and ease of eating. Prepare one the evening 
before, cutting it in two, crosswise. Scoop out the pulp of one half 
and season it with sugar. Leave the other half as it is, seasoning 
with the same amount of sugar. In the morning prepare another 
grapefruit, separating the pulp from the skin as suggested on page 
23. Season with the same amount of sugar. Prepare the other 
half in the same manner and season with 1^ T. honey. Describe 
the differences in flavor and tell what you think caused the differ- 
ence. How do the ones prepared in the evening differ from each 
other? From the one prepared in the morning and flavored with 
sugar? How is the flavor of the one seasoned with honey different? 
How do the servings differ in the ease with which they may be 

2. Raw Apples. Wash the skins and core two eating apples. 
Slice one crosswise and cut the slices in two. Arrange the half 
slices in a circle on a plate around a center mound of powdered 
sugar or stoned dates. Cut the second apple in the same way. 
Rub both sides of each piece with the cut face of a lemon and 
arrange as in the first case. Allow both servings to stand about ten 
minutes before serving for breakfast. Describe the difference in 
the color and the flavor of the apples. 

3. You might compare other fruits cooked in different ways. 
Examples are peaches with and without the stones, grapes with and 
without skins, baked apples with and without the peel. 


4. Prepare at the same time both the cocoa and the chocolate 
according to the recipe, page 27. What is the difference in color 
and flavor? Is there a settling in either cup? If there is, describe 
its appearance. 

5. Make a collection of recipes for the cooking of eggs for break- 
fast which you have tried out with your family. Tell which products 
your family enjoyed most and why. 

6. Rice is a common cereal that may be used as a breakfast 
food, served in a variety of ways as any other breakfast cereal. 
Prepare rice in two different ways to discover how the two products 
differ. Divide the amount necessary to cook for your family into 
two parts, one to be cooked in one way, the other in a different way. 

1st part Cook in a double boiler, using 4 times as 
much water as rice. Add a small amount of salt and 
cook until tender. 

2nd part Cook in a large quantity of rapidly boiling 
salted water, about 3 pints of water to each half cup of 
rice. Cook about 20 minutes, drain through a strainer, 
hold under the cold water faucet, shaking so that the 
water runs between the grains, washing away the sticky 
starch. Reheat by covering and setting in a warm oven. 

Questions you might answer: How do the two kinds of rice differ 
in appearance? How does each feel on the tongue as you eat it? 
Is the flavor different? 

7. On two successive mornings bake muffins using recipes, the 
only differences in which are that in one case you use baking 
powder and sweet milk, and in the other, soda and sour or butter- 
milk. When substituting sour milk for the sweet, use i t. soda to 
a half cup of milk. Can you report any difference in the muffins 
you made? 

8. On two successive mornings make muffins of white flour and 
of graham flour. You may get recipes from cookbooks. What 
differences do you find in flavor and appearance? 

On Luncheon Cookery 

1. Look about in the cupboard and ice chest at home to see what 
foods may have been left from dinner or breakfast to see if any 
can be used in making a salad. Many times this may be done. For 
instance, a few cold boiled potatoes, either in jackets or peeled, a 
few tomatoes, and some peanuts may be made into a salad. Might 


any other ingredients be added? Make a salad of left-overs and 
describe it to the class. 

2. Make a collection of salad recipes that you have tried and 
found to be good. 

3. But a few of the many kinds of desserts suitable for luncheon 
have been suggested. Can you add any others which are simple to 
prepare and with which you are familiar? Write out each recipe 
and tell whether you would consider it a heavy or a light dessert. 
With what kind of luncheon would each be appropriate? 

4. Plan and prepare a simple luncheon or supper for your family. 
Write your menu, and show that the dishes were well chosen from 
the standpoint of contrasts in color, flavor, texture, and so on. In 
what ways was the dessert appropriate in this meal? If there was 
anything interesting and new which you learned, you might tell 
about it. 

5. Left-over meats and vegetables may be used in creamed dishes 
for luncheons. Sometimes two or more small amounts may be com- 
bined, thus making a quantity large enough to serve the number 
dining. Peas and lamb, peas and fish, boiled potatoes and cheese, 
boiled noodles, egg, and cheese, are examples of left-over foods 
which may be combined by means of a white sauce into appetizing 
dishes. Use left-overs in your home in one or more such dishes 
and tell about them in class. 

6. Make a rolled sandwich in each of two ways some time when 
you have occasion to make a number of sandwiches. The first way 
is to remove the crusts on all sides of the loaf, cut the bread in the 
ordinary manner, making the slices thin. After spreading with the 
filling, try to roll it. Next cut a slice the length of the loaf, spread 
and roll it. In which case were you the more successful? How 
does the grain of the bread affect rolling? The length of the piece? 

On Dinner Cookery 

1. Many variations may be made in French dressing by chang- 
ing the acid used. For fruit salads, f lemon juice and ^ pineapple 
juice is delicious. When using orange or grapefruit in the salad, 
you might use f pineapple juice and 3 lemon juice. Vinegar from 
pickled peaches or pears is good for a dressing on a salad of mild 
flavored fruits, since there is a rather strong flavor of spices. 
Tarragon vinegar or the vinegar from sweet pickles is good in a 
dressing for vegetables, especially the leafy ones. When the meals 
planned for your family permit, try a number of such variations and 
report them to class. 


2. Look through cookbooks and find as many different ways 
of cooking meat as you can. Boiling would be one, roasting another. 
List them and describe each method. 

3. Which is used most commonly in your locality, meat or fish? 
List the pieces or cuts you might select for each day of a week, 
and choose at least one good recipe for the preparation of each. 

Other Problems 

1. Prepare one of the following meals at home and make a 
report to your class. 

a. Saturday luncheon 

b. Sunday breakfast 

c. Sunday evening tea 

In your report you should discuss your reasons for choosing the 
menu. It should include recipes for dishes served and the method 
of preparation. Also tell in what ways your dishes were good and 
in what ways they might have been improved. Did you judge 
quantities accurately? Other things worth reporting may occur to 

2. Report on one or more favorite family dishes, giving the 
quantities of ingredients, an exact description of the way it is made 
and the number of people the recipe will serve. Give one or more 
menus of which each dish might be a part and show why it would 
be suitable in these menus. 


Write answers to these questions before you start to 
read the unit. Your answers may be brief, but you 
probably will know something about each question. Try- 
ing to answer them will help you to determine how much 
you already know. Your teacher may have additional 
questions for you. 

1. Why is health so important to us? 

2. Name some fuel foods. 

3. Why do we need fuel foods? 

4. Why must we have protein in our foods? 

5. Name some protein foods. 

6. How is iron used in our bodies? 

7. What foods might one select in order to get enough iron 

8. For what mineral is milk particularly valuable? 

9. Why is calcium valuable to those of us who are still growing? 

10. What would happen to us if we had no vitamins in our foods? 

11. How do fruits and vegetables help the body to rid itself of 

12. What is meant by "a well balanced diet"? 


Franz and his little sister Angelica lived in Germany 
near the French border. 1 Franz was a sturdy boy, tall, 
strong, and happy. Angelica played all day because she 

1 See S. Blanton, "Mental and Nervous Changes in the Children of 
the Volkschulen of Trier, Germany, caused by Undernutrition," Mental 
Hygiene, July 1919, p. 346. 



was so well. Their parents were sturdy people who pro- 
vided the kinds of foods that would enable the children 
to grow as they should and that would keep the whole 
family well and strong. 

When Franz was eight years old and Angelica six, war 
broke out in Europe. Their father was soon called into 
the army, and the mother and the children had to pro- 
vide for themselves as well as they could. For a few 
months they lived fairly well. Then gradually one of 
the good foods after another had to be omitted from their 
diets. One season the drought ruined the potato crop, 
and the grain was demanded by the government to feed 
the army. It was no longer possible to buy milk and 

Within two years the diet of the children was very 
poor. For breakfast they had rye bread and marmalade. 
The bread was so coarse and otherwise of sucl. poor 
quality that their digestive systems could not extract 
much of the nourishment it contained, and the children 
developed intestinal disturbances. The marmalade was 
made of turnips and the lowest grade of syrup from a 
sugar refinery. At ten o'clock they again had some bread 
and marmalade. For the midday meal they usually had 
potatoes, "war soup," and perhaps some bread. The 
soup was made of vegetables and contained no meat and 
but little fat. At four o'clock they again had bread and 
marmalade, and at six some potatoes, soup, and bread. 
On Sundays they sometimes had a little meat, and per- 
haps a little butter or oleomargarine. 

A great change took place in Franz and Angelica. In 
spite of the number of meals they ate each day, they were 
badly undernourished. In school they were fairly bright 



during the first hour or two. Then they fell asleep over 
their desks or sat in class in a dreamy state. The teachers 
discontinued running games at recess because the pupils 
were too weak for such violent exercise. In earlier years 
pupils were taken to the river to swim. Now teachers 
were afraid to take them for fear some of the children 
would drown. Thousands of children in Europe suf- 
fered as did Franz and Angelica. They grew thin, pale, 
listless, and weak. Neither their bones nor their muscles 
grew as they should. The stress of war had made it im- 

Courtesy United States Bureau o) Home Economics. 

Fig. 26. Children affected by malnutrition. 

All the girls in this photograph are seven years old. The girl on the 
left is a child of normal growth for her age. The other girls were all 
affected by the poor and insufficient food inAustria during the world war. 

7] 183 


possible for the mother of Franz and Angelica to give 
them the food elements that were necessary for their 
proper health and growth. 

Sometimes people are poorly fed in the midst of plenty 
because they do not know what foods to choose. Many 
boys and girls do not grow as they should and are pale 
and listless because they dislike so many of the foods that 
their bodies need. Sometimes we believe that if the ap- 
petite is satisfied with wholesome food we are being well 
fed. This is not necessarily true. The man who lives 
chiefly on bread, butter, meat, potatoes, coffee, and 
French pastry, even though they are of the best quality 
available, fails to get many of the food elements which 
are needed to keep him in good health. 

Illness from poor diet such as resulted during the war 
led scientists to study the relation of our food to our 
health. In addition to observing what happens to people 
who are living under poor conditions, they study other 
animals such as white rats, rabbits, pigeons, monkeys, 
and so on, in laboratories. By feeding these animals 
different combinations of food and comparing their re- 
sults with the experiences of people, they have learned 
much about what people need to eat in order to be well. 
Dr. Robert McCarrison of India had over a thousand 
little white rats kept in clean surroundings and eating 
whole-wheat bread, butter, raw cabbage and carrots, 
whole milk, a small amount of meat, and an abundance 
of water. In over two years not one of these rats was 
ill and no adult rat died except as the result of an acci- 
dent. That is, death from disease was entirely prevented 
by cleanliness, comfort, and a chosen diet. 

At the same time Dr. McCarrison had other groups 


of rats living under practically the same conditions ex- 
cept for diet. The diets were lacking in one way or an- 
other. These rats died of all forms of diseases which 
human beings contract. Diseases of the heart, throat, 
lungs, nose and sinuses, stomach, bowels, skin, and glands 
were common. The teeth and bones were affected in 
some cases. 

Dr. McCarrison says his experience leads him to be- 
lieve that human beings are affected by diet as are his 
experimental animals and that many of the diseases which 
affect man are the result of improper diets. Other scien- 
tists all over the world who are also working to discover 
what foods we need to eat in order to be well, agree with 
Dr. McCarrison. 

In this unit you will be learning how your food affects 
you and what foods you should choose in order that you 
may grow properly and that you may be well. You will 
find that we need food to keep us warm and to give us 
the energy to play and to work. You will learn that our 
bodies are made of the same substances as are our foods. 
In order that our bodies may grow, we must supply these 
substances when and as the body needs them. You could 
not expect a bricklayer to build the kind of house you 
wanted if he had only half enough bricks and if some of 
these were poor. Your house would have to be smaller 
and might not be a very strong one either. So when we 
are building our bodies we must supply enough of just 
the right kinds of foods. Perhaps you would like to feed 
some white rats to see just what happens with different 
diets. On page 281 of the appendix you will find a 
description of a number of such experiments. 

Boys and girls who are strong and well have a very 


happy time. They never have to sit by and watch others 
enjoy themselves. They make friends because of the 
happy disposition that usually goes with good health. 
Furthermore, boys and girls who are well and strong 
have a good chance of growing up into men and women 
who can do things, who are leaders. By following good 
rules for health in the years when we are growing, we 
determine to a large extent that our lives shall be useful 
and happy. 


Food for warmth. All things in a room, except those 
that are living, come to have the same temperature. 
After you have finished ironing, the hot iron gradually 
cools until finally it is just as cool as everything else near 
it. As long as the electric cord was attached, it was 
heated as fast as it lost heat. When the electric current 
was cut off, the iron could not keep itself hot. Neither 
can our bodies keep themselves warm without fuel. Our 
fuel is in the form of food. 

Loss of body heat. Our bodies are constantly losing 
heat. In winter mornings when we dress, our clothes 
feel cold. Soon, however, they are warmed from our 
bodies. A crowd of people may meet in a room that is 
rather cool. Soon the heat that their bodies give off 
raises the temperature noticeably. In winter we wear 
fur coats to keep the heat of our bodies from escaping into 
the air. A thin coat would allow the heat to leave us 
very quickly, and we should feel cold. We lose more 
heat in winter than in summer because cold air takes up 
heat much more readily than does warm air. In fact, we 
are uncomfortable in summer because our bodies cannot 
get rid of the heat they make fast enough. Our food is 
the source of this heat. 

Food for energy. Not only does our food keep us 
warm, but it also enables us to move. The same electric 
current that heats the iron will also turn the electric fan. 
Just so the food we eat may either keep us warm or it 




Fig. 27. The fuel foods give warmth and energy. 

What foods are helping this boy? 

may be used in moving our arms or legs, in the beating 
of our hearts, or in breathing. Every time you move 
your finger, or wink your eye, or move your tongue you 
are using energy that comes from food which you ate 
some time in the past. Just as coal is the fuel that heats 
the steam engine and enables it to move and do work, so 
is food the fuel that makes us warm and active. 

Cells of the body. All living things are made of cells. 
The cells are so small that one must use a microscope 
to see them. The cells of our bodies are different, de- 
pending on where they are found and the kind of work 
they have to do. For instance, the cells that make up 
your skin are very different from those of which your 
brain or heart is composed. Many of the cells of the 
body act something like little stoves. They take in very 
tiny bits of our food and burn them, giving off heat or 


the energy we use in moving. Some of the cells are fat 
cells in which energy is stored. 

Different amounts of food needed. Different peo- 
ple need different amounts of fuel. A man needs more 
fuel than does a baby. We know, too, that when a girl 
is playing very hard, she will be using more fuel than 
when she is lying down. When you jump rope or play 
basketball or hockey, you use more fuel than when you 
sit reading a book. Do you get hungry when you play 
hard out of doors? Girls who are growing very fast need 
more fuel than those who are growing more slowly. 

Storage of food in our bodies. Our bodies are won- 
derfully made. If they were not, we could not go without 
food a single day, since every minute of the day and 
night we need fuel to keep us alive. The body has the 
power to store up energy so that if by accident we can- 
not get food for a day, or a week, or even for longer, we 
can use that which is stored. This was very important 
before people became civilized. Now we manage so that 
we have food three times a day. The uncivilized man 
did not plan so carefully. He feasted when food was 
plentiful and fasted when food was scarce. Because the 
body stored food, he could live from one time of plenty 
to the next. Sometimes when we are ill, we cannot eat. 
Then, too, the body must use the food that has been 

Food is stored in the form of a layer of fat around and 
within our bodies. The perfectly well person has such 
a layer that his arms and legs are nicely rounded, the 
muscles of his face are covered so that it looks round 
and smooth. When too little food is stored, a person 
looks thin; when too much, we say the person is too fat. 



Fig. 28. Girls of different body builds. 

The girl on the left is tall and slender; the girl in the center is short 
and stocky, and the girl on the right is of average build. All three of 
the girls are the same age. Notice that all three have the well-rounded 
bodies that go with good health. 

Use of storage. Alice and Helen were cousins who 
were born on exactly the same day. When they first 
started to school, they were in the same room. Alice was 
a strong, tall, healthy, and very attractive child, whereas 
Helen, though just as tall, was thin and pale. Helen had 
the measles and chickenpox the first year. Alice, who 
was exposed just as Helen was, had neither of the dis- 
eases. Alice was rarely cross because paddings of fat 
at various places in her body protected her nerves against 


irritation. Helen, on the other hand, was so thin and un- 
healthy that she was often unhappy. She would probably 
have had a more pleasant disposition had she been a little 
fatter. She was often so tired that she did not want to 
play. She was afraid to learn to skate or to swim be- 
cause she tired so quickly. Alice, in contrast, became 
expert on ice and on roller skates, and she learned to 
swim and to dive. Her friends were constantly asking 
her to play tennis and to go on picnics because she was 
such a good companion. Alice was also a leader in her 
class and in the school clubs, not because she was natu- 
rally more intelligent than Helen, but because she was 
well and had so much energy. When people have such a 
layer of fat that their bodies are well rounded, they are 
quite likely to have an abundance of energy, whereas if 
they are thin they may tire more easily. 

1. In what ways did Alice profit by being well and 

Other signs of health. Weight is only one way of 
telling whether we are well. Sometimes people weigh 
about the number of pounds which the doctor thinks they 
should, and yet they are far from being well. A clear 
skin, without rings under the eyes, firm muscles, good 
posture, a good disposition, bright eyes, and glossy hair 
are other indications that we are well. 1 If girls are list- 
less, if they neither stand nor sit erect, if they are never 
interested in the things that interest their friends, they 
probably are not as well as they should be. 

Health and the fuel foods. Fats. The fuel foods are 
important in keeping our health. They provide the en- 

1 See appendix page 282 for score card. 







Fig. 29. Which girl is having more fun? 

ergy to keep us warm and to enable us to move, and they 
form the layer of fat in our bodies. Some foods contain 
more fuel than others. Have you seen oil or another kind 


of fat burn? If you have, you will remember that it 
made a very hot flame. When we eat oils and other fats, 
such as butter and the fat of meat, they give us much 
fuel for use in our bodies. 

Carbohydrates. Starch and sugar also provide us with 
energy and heat. These two foods are grouped together 
and are called carbohydrates (car'bo-hi'drats). A quan- 
tity of fat gives off 2J times as much heat as the same 
quantity of carbohydrate. A great many of our foods 
contain fat, or carbohydrates, or both. Milk contains 
both fat and sugar, along with other valuable elements. 
Butter and salad oil are almost pure fat. Honey, flour, 
and potato are rich in carbohydrates. 

2. You would find it interesting to test a number of 
different foods to show that fat, sugar, and starch 
are found in some that you would never suspect had 
them. 1 

The calorie. We measure the heat given off by foods 
by means of the calorie. Just as we say that a quart of 
milk contains four cups, so we say that a tablespoon of 
butter or a shredded-wheat biscuit contains 100 calories. 
Foods that give off much heat in our bodies have many 
calories in each serving. Foods that give off little heat 
have few calories per serving. There is a great difference 
in the number of calories one may get from servings of 
different foods. Many servings have 100 calories in each. 
For instance, one-half of a grapefruit has 100 calories. 
So does a very large banana. 

3. On the following pages you will find rectangles 
numbered from 1 to 36. In each rectangle you will find 

1 See appendix, page 281 for methods of making these tests. 






















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stated the quantity of food given which makes an 
ordinary serving, and the number of calories it contains. 
Measure out the amount; put it on a small plate or 
saucer and bring it to a demonstration table. On the 
saucer, put a slip of paper on which you have written 
what you found in your rectangle. Perhaps your teacher 
will assign different foods to different members of the 

4. Which of the foods give many calories in a small 
amount? Put all of these at one end of the laboratory 

5. Which give very little for the amount eaten? 
Group these at the other end. 

6. Is there a middle group? 

7. Are the servings at home larger or smaller than 

8. List the fuel foods that you have eaten so far 
to-day. Do not forget the sugar and cream on cereals, 
candy or cookies between meals, and so on, if you have 
had any. 

Difficulty of judging fuel value of foods. Occasion- 
ally friends describe to each other what they have had 
for breakfast and other meals. Sometimes they come to 
the conclusion that they eat the same amount of food and 
wonder why one is of normal weight or fat, while the 
other is thin. If you follow the directions in the next 
exercise, you will discover a possible explanation for 

9. The whole class might share in preparing the fol- 
lowing breakfasts. The different members might prepare 
different parts. Be sure to use the quantities of ingre- 
dients you find in your assignment. When your part of 
the breakast is ready, bring it to a demonstration table. 
Arrange the breakfasts in the same order that you find 
on the page of your book. Cut a rectangular piece of 
paper and write on it what you find on the section 
assigned to you. Put this paper on or beside your plate. 




Number I 
High in calories 

Number II 
Low in calories 


Grapefruit ^ 





sugar 2 T 


sugar 1 T 



. 200 


.. 150 


Cream of wheat 2 T 


Cream of wheat 2 T 


cooked in milk 4 C 


cooked in water ^ C . 


sugar 2 T 

. 100 

sugar IT.. 


cream \ C. . . 

. 100 

whole milk i C.. . 


Total. . . 

. 375 


. . 185 


Toast (thick) 1 slice... 
butter 1 T.... 


. 100 
. 100 

. 200 

Toast (thin) 1 slice. . 
butter It... 



.. 35 

.. 85 


Scrambled eggs 2 . 

. 140 

Scrambled egg 1 



fried in butter 1 T.. . . 

. 100 

fried in butter % T. . . 


iellv 2 T 


jelly 1 T 



. 340 


.. 170 

Whole milk 1 glass. . . 

Total for breakfast 

. 160 
. 1275 

Skimmed milk 1 glass. . 
Total for breakfast.. 


.. 100 

.. 690 

10. Do these breakfasts look very different? How do 
they actually compare in the number of calories? 

11. Which are the foods that made one of the break- 


fasts so much higher in calories? To what classes of 
foods do they belong? 

12. Is it easy to describe your meals so that others 
will know how many calories you are getting? 

13. Suppose that a girl ate but a part of her cereal 
and was in the habit of drinking but a part of the milk. 
How would this affect the calorie value of her breakfast? 

Food models. Below are some pictures that show 
how to make food models and how they look when corn- 

Fig. 30. Food models and how to make them. 

A. Food models made from illustrations cut from magazines. B. The 
back of the models above, showing how they are made. 


pleted. 1 They were made by cutting out pictures of 
foods in magazines and pasting them on supports of thin 
cardboard. A single strip of cardboard makes both the 
back for the picture and the support. It is bent at the 
top, and the ends are caught together by pasting a thin 
strip of cloth across. This prevents the ends of cardboard 
from spreading apart when the picture is set up. If each 
member of the class makes a number, you can do many 
interesting things such as playing cafeteria. It is not 
always possible to find individual servings shown. If a 
casserole or a can or a family serving is mounted, you 
can think of it as an individual serving when setting up 
the cafeteria. 

14. It would be interesting to put all the models be- 
longing to the class together and to appoint a committee 
to divide these models into three groups. One group 
would be of those foods which have many calories, a 
second would be of those with few calories per serving, 
and the third of those with a medium number. Do you 
agree with what this committee has done or would you 
make changes? If you cannot decide about some of the 
foods, you might look up their values in the appendix, 
page 285. 

Selecting the calorie foods of our lunches. You 
have not enough information to guide you in selecting a 
lunch good in every way. This much, however, you do 
know, that our lunches should contain some dish that 
will give us generously of calories. Sandwiches are a 

1 Food models by L. J. Roberts, University of Chicago Bookstore, 
may be bought at 75^ per set (in lots of 25 or more, 65^). The num- 
ber of calories is printed on the models. Sets of models, 123 to the set, 
may also be purchased from the Detroit Dairy and Food Council, De- 
troit, Michigan, price $3.00. These are colored and have the number 
of calories printed on each model. Colored posters also may be ob- 
tained from this source. 


convenient form for our box lunches. There should be 
several sandwiches to supply the right number of calories. 
A piece of plain cake or cookies may also supply a part of 
our calorie needs. Nuts are a convenient form in which 
to get calories in a box lunch. 

In the cafeteria, one dish, such as potato, a rice com- 
bination, macaroni, or spaghetti should be selected. If 
the portions are small, you should also have bread and 
butter. Milk, of course, should be a part of every lunch, 
either as milk, as cocoa, as a cream soup or in some other 

15. Beginning to-day, select your lunches so each 
will contain milk and some dish especially good for fuel. 
As you study further you will learn how to select prop- 
erly the other kinds of foods in your lunches.- 

Very often one reason why girls do not get enough food 
is that their noon lunch is slighted. If they eat a box 
lunch, it may have been put up hurriedly with no thought 
that our lunches must supply about a third of all the 
calories we need. If girls select their lunches in cafeterias, 
they may choose very badly. The chief reasons are that 
they have not learned how, and that there is such a crowd 
it is difficult to select carefully. Some girls foolishly buy 
nothing but candy for their lunches. 

Calorie foods for other meals. We also select one or 
more dishes especially good for calories in our breakfast 
and dinner. For breakfast we select cereals with sugar 
and cream, and in addition toast and butter with honey 
or jam perhaps, or dried sweet fruits such as dates, figs, 
and raisins. In our dinners we usually include a starchy 
dish such as potato, rice, or macaroni, and butter, and 
also we often end with a sweet dessert. We can see that 


people have learned from experience that it is a good 
practice to include some of the high calorie foods in each 
of their meals. 

16. What did you have for breakfast this morning? 
How did this breakfast supply calories? 

Other health habits. To keep well we must not only 
choose enough of the right kinds of food, but we should 
also follow other good rules for health. Sometimes we 
are tempted to eat sweets between meals. The greatest 
harm that this practice does is to spoil the appetite for 
the foods served at mealtime. // girls are growing very 
fast they may need more food than they can eat at their 
meals. In this case they might have a very light lunch 
after school provided this is not too near mealtime. An 
apple, a glass of milk and a cookie, or a milk-fruit drink 
such as you will find described on pages 73 and 74 are 
suitable provided you have an appetite for the vegetables 
and other dishes served at dinner. A heavy sweet such 
as candy usually spoils the appetite and is therefore 
harmful. It may be a good practice for growing girls to 
eat a piece of candy as a part of the dessert. 

Sleep. For all people, but especially for boys and 
girls who are still growing, enough sleep is essential. 
During the day the poisons that cause us to feel tired ac- 
cumulate faster than the body can get rid of them. At 
night while we are resting, the body can throw them off 
faster than they are made. Unless we sleep long enough 
our bodies are never entirely refreshed, and serious con- 
ditions result. In addition, if boys and girls are active 
too many hours of the day they use too much of the food 
they eat for movement, and do not have enough to build 
cells, that is, to grow. Lack of sleep often makes the 









W. . 








Whole cereal or 
graham bread 

A piece of meat or 
fish, or egg, or 

Sweets between 


With window open 


Play or work out- 

Brushing teeth 



Use a red pencil to check thus, x, if you have followed the most desirable prac- 
tice. If your practice is less than desirable use a black pencil. If your practice 
has been very poor, leave the space blank. If at the end of the period, all spaces 
are checked in red, you will have a very fine record indeed. If many are black 
or blank, you will probably be dissatisfied because you will know you are not giving 
yourself a fair chance to be well. If the weather is exceedingly stormy, you may 
not be able to spend time out-of-doors. However, if we are properly dressed, it is 
fun to be out in the rain and snow. 


The Way to Check 








2, one raw 




2 besides 




1 C. at each 

Less than 1 
C. per 



Whole cereal or 
graham bread 

1 serving 

White bread 
or refined 


A piece of meat 
or fish, or egg, 
or cheese 

1 serving 


Sweets between 





In bed at 
8:30; slept 
10 hours 

In bed by 

In bed later 
than 9:30 

With window 


Part way 


S for stormy 


One or two 




Play or work 

2 hours or 

1 hour 


S for stormy 

Brush teeth 

Morning and 

Once a day 

Not at all 



Once a week 

Less than 
once a 

* In this case use either a red check or leave the space blank. 


appetite poor, which further lessens the amount of food 
available for growth. 

17. On page 124 is a chart of health habits for a 
junior high school girl. Make a copy and check each 
day. 1 As you go through this unit you will learn one by 
one why these health habits are so important. As you 
see, spaces for checking for one week are given. In your 
copy rule spaces for at least six weeks. 

READINGS. Trilling, Williams, and Reeves, A Girl's Problems in 
Home Economics (1931), pp. 341-358. 

Harris and Lacey, Food Facts for Every Day, Ch. i-iv. 

Kinyon and Hopkins, Junior Foods and Clothing, pp. 43-53. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. If you have time when you 
have finished the unit, you will find suggestions for additional prob- 
lems on fuel foods on page 181. 

1 Mimeographed or multigraphed copies would save much time. 


Food for repair. Our bodies are being constantly re- 
made. It has been said that every seven years we have 
entirely new bodies. Some one probably just guessed 
this, for there is no way of knowing how long it takes for 
our bodies to be made of all new substances, or if all 
parts are really replaced. It is true, however, that every 
day our bodies lose some of the substances of which they 
are made. For example, some of the lime of which our 
bones are made is carried away from them and must be 
replaced by other lime. Our entire bodies in this way 
are gradually being broken down and repaired. This 
happens in young people who are growing as well as in 
those who are mature. It is plain to see that if our foods 
each day do not bring the proper materials for repair, 
our bodies will gradually weaken. 

Food for growth. Baby. A baby grows very fast. 
It should double its weight in the first six months of its 
life. That is, its food must provide substances that make 
bone and muscle, skin and hair. We can see that if the 
baby fails to get enough of those foods which are used 
in making muscle, it cannot have such large or strong 
muscles as it might have if the right kinds of food had 
been provided. 

Junior high school girl. Another period of rapid growth 
is at the junior high school age. Girls in their early 
teens sometimes may grow three or more inches within a 
year. During these years of rapid growth they need an 




Fig. 31. These foods are muscle builders and body repairers. 

What protein foods do you see here? 

extra amount of the foods that build muscle, bone and 

Protein, a growth food. One of the growth foods is 
called protein. It is used chiefly in making our muscles. 
One of two things will happen if boys and girls do not 
have enough protein in their meals. They may be stunted 
in their growth; or they may grow to the normal height, 
but their muscles will be of very poor quality. No girl 
or boy would choose to have poor muscles or be stunted. 
Lack of sufficient protein may affect not only our ap- 
pearance, but it may also make us ill. If the muscles 
are weak, they tire easily and they cannot hold the body 
in an erect position. Bad posture results. In turn, the 
bad posture may cramp the lungs and other organs and 
keep them from working as well as they should. On the 
other hand, those children who have a sufficient amount 
of protein in their meals have the strength to walk and 
sit erect, to play hard, and to enjoy all the interests of 
their groups of friends. 

Foods containing protein. Which of our foods con- 
tain protein? We could guess very easily that milk has a 



Fig. 32. Some foods are far ahead of others in the protein race, 
and some must simply stand on the sidelines and watch. 

considerable amount. A baby builds its body while milk 
is its only food. Cheese is made of milk, so of course 
it would be rich in protein. In fact, it is among the very 
richest sources. Butter has very little because it is made 
of just the cream. In churning, all the milk is removed, 
and the resulting butter is almost pure fat. Since meat 
is the muscle of animals, it of course would be very high 
in protein. Most fruits and vegetables have but small 
amounts. Peas and dried beans are an exception. Nuts 
are also a good source of protein. 

Even though vegetables are low in protein, we depend 
on them for help in giving us part of the amount that we 
need. However, we must depend upon the animal foods 
for the greater portion. 

1. When you think you know which of our foods are 
richest in protein, go through the set of food models and 
pick out those foods upon which we depend for most of 
our daily needs. Would you include dishes containing 




Containing Little or 

Other fats 

High Low 

Meat Most 

Fish Fruits 

Chicken and 

Liver Vegetables 

Eggs Cereals 




Dried beans 



Peanut butter 

2. Below are listed a number of combination dishes 
that contain different kinds of foods. Make three col- 
umns like those given, and list the ingredients of the 
dishes under the proper headings. Sometimes the same 
food will be rich in both protein and calories, sometimes 
in neither. Your list will look something like this: 







Macaroni, tomato and 



Scalloped Oysters Salad 


cracker crumbs 

slice of beet 
sliced onion 
hard-boiled egg 
French dressing 


Cream Waffles Cream Soup 






baking powder 

salt 1 



Spanish Steak 

round steak 

bacon or other fats 




pepper * 

flour (to pound into steak) 

Cheese Omelet 







Nut Bread 


baking powder 












flour (for thickening) 

Brown Betty (pudding) 


bread crumbs 



nutmeg 1 

lemon juice 

Codfish Balls 

codfish (flaked) 





parsley * 

Protein in our meals. To be sure you are getting 
enough protein for growth, it is a good plan for you to be 

1 Contains neither calories nor protein. 


sure to have a dish valuable for protein in each of your 
three meals. 

3. What foods have you eaten in your last three 
meals? Was there a food important for protein in each 

4. Below is a day's diet with blank spaces. Not 
enough protein foods have been included as you can see. 
Rewrite the menus and insert dishes in the blank spaces 
that you think would help to supply the protein needs. 
Do not choose a meat dish for more than one meal if 
you can manage without, because meat is among our 
most expensive foods. 


Orange Juice 
Cereal and Cream 

Toast and Butter 

Head Lettuce Salad 

Baked Apple 

Mashed Potato 

Green Beans 

Pineapple, Cabbage, and Marshmallow Salad 

Sliced Peaches and Nut Cookies 


5. Compare the different dishes inserted by the 
members of the class to see the variety that is possible. 

6. Meals may be prepared in the laboratory or at 
home with a wide variety of dishes as the source of 
protein. Which dishes were chosen for protein in the 
menus below? 


Baked Beans 

Sliced, or Chilled Canned Tomato 

Brown Bread and Butter 

Sliced Orange and Custard 


Cheese Omelet 

Grapefruit Salad 

Whole Wheat Bread and Butter 

Baked Rice and Raisin Pudding 


Scalloped Oysters 
Cole Slaw- 
Nut Bread and Butter 
Sweet Muffins and Date Sauce 

7. What is the effect of high temperatures on protein? 
Which of the ingredients in the recipe below are rich in 

8. Below is a recipe for a codfish souffle which may 
be baked in the laboratory. 


Rice . 

Family of Four 
1 C 

i C 


1 qt 

1 C 



i C 

Eggs , 



Butter . 

4 T. 

1 T. 

Cook rice and milk in double boiler until the grains of rice 
are tender and most of the milk has been absorbed. Add 
the butter and the flaked codfish. Fold in the well beaten 
yolks of eggs and then the stiffly beaten whites. Put in 
buttered inset of double boiler or buttered baking dish. Steam 
small portions 25 minutes or bake 20 minutes. For family 
size, steam ! hours, or bake 1 hour at 275 to 300. 

9. For what meals would this dish be appropriate? 

10. If you would like to serve this as a part of a 

meal in the laboratory, below is a suggestion for a menu. 


Codfish souffle 

Head Lettuce Salad, French Dressing 

Bread and Butter 


Canned Peaches and a Cookie 

Perhaps you would prefer making a menu of your own. 

11. Make a list of the protein dishes you might choose 
on one day in the school cafeteria. 

12. Select several lunches from the cafeteria menu 
keeping in mind both protein and calorie needs. It may 
be possible to make arrangements with the cafeteria for 
permission to bring into the classroom several of these 
lunches on trays. 

13. What protein foods could be used in making an 
appetizing box lunch? 

READINGS. F. E. Winchell, Food Facts for Every Day, Ch. v. 

Trilling, Williams, and Reeves, A Girl's Problems in Home 
Economics, pp. 311-317. 

Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 365-370, 376-390, 
392-410. Recipes for meat, fowl and fish cookery. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. On page 181 you will find 
suggestions for additional problems if you have time when you have 
finished the unit. 


The minerals in our bodies. You may be surprised 
to learn that your body contains small amounts of each 
of a dozen or more 
kinds of minerals. 
Sand, aluminum, 
sulphur and cop- 
per are a few of 
the minerals 
found in our 
bodies. Of course 
these minerals are 
not found in us in 
the same form in 
which we see them 
in the outside 
world. They are 
united with other 
substances, and 
we cannot recog- 
nize them, yet 
each one is pres- 
ent and important 
to us since they 
all perform some 
definite service in 
our bodies. 

Courtesy United States Bureau of Home Economics. 

Fig. 33. These rats show the importance 
of phosphorus in the diet. When photo- 
graphed, each was twenty-eight days old. 

A. This rat weighed only 60 grams because 
it had been fed foods containing too little 
phosphorus. B. This rat, which had sufficient 
phosphorus in its diet, weighed 115 grams. 
C. The outlines show clearly the difference 
in size of the two rats. 


Need for phosphorus. We need not concern ourselves 
about most of these minerals. We are probably in no 
danger of getting too little of them. There are several, 
however, that many people fail to get in large enough 
quantities. Among these are iron and copper, lime or 
calcium, and phosphorus. You are in no danger of get- 
ting too little phosphorus if you have enough protein in 
your diet. Milk, fruit, and vegetables are foods that give 
us an adequate supply of the other necessary minerals. 
The need of our bodies for certain minerals is another 
reason, then, for having a sufficient amount of these foods 
in our diet. 


Iron and the color of the blood. Do you know what 
makes your blood such a rich, red color? The iron it 
contains gives it this color. Often the doctor pricks the 
ear of his patient when making an examination and 
squeezes out a drop of blood on a paper. He compares 
the color of this spot with a card having ten different 
shades of red. When the doctor has matched the color 
of the drop of blood with one of the colors on the card, 
he can then tell about how much iron the patient has in 
his blood. The darker the shade of red, the more iron 
the blood contains. The doctor knows that no one can 
be well if his blood is low in iron. So he makes this 
test when trying to see why his patient is ill. 

It seems strange that our blood should have in it such 
a common substance as iron. We wonder what good it 
can do us. In order to understand we must perform some 
experiments. Perhaps you have already seen the follow- 



ing experiment done. If you have, it need not be re- 

1. Set a candle in a glass and light it. After it has 
burned a few minutes, cover the glass with a book or a 
piece of board. What happens? 

When anything burns, it unites with oxygen and forms 
carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). 
In order to burn it 
must have a supply of 
oxygen. Just as soon 
as the supply of oxy- 
gen is cut off, the fire 
goes out. 

2. How can you put 
out a fire with a blan- 
ket? Explain why the 
fire goes out. 

Use for oxygen in 
the body. If you re- 
call what you read 
about how the body Fi S- 34 - A flame must have oxygen. 
keeps warm, you will If the glass were covered with the card- 

remember that many Z,d 

of the cells of the 

body act as little stoves, each one burning tiny bits of the 
fuel foods to give off heat. These cells of course could 
not burn the fuel if there were no oxygen at hand. We 
have also learned that carbon dioxide forms when any- 
thing burns. This happens within the body as well as 
without. Unless the carbon dioxide is removed it inter- 
feres with the use of oxygen. So the body must provide 
some ways of getting oxygen to these millions of little 



cells and of getting rid of the carbon dioxide. The blood 
does both of these important jobs. 

Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. We 
breathe in oxygen from the air, and we breathe out car- 
bon dioxide. The blood circulates to all parts of the 
body. It takes oxygen from the lungs, carries it to the 
cells and at the same time picks up the carbon dioxide, 

brings it to the lungs, 
and we breathe it out. 
This is the work for 
which iron is used. 

The red corpuscles. 
Floating about in the 
blood are little discs, 
called corpuscles. Some 
of them, the red ones, 
contain a considerable 
amount of iron. These little red corpuscles act some- 
thing like little boats in our blood streams. They go to 
the lungs and take on a load of oxygen. Then the blood 
carries them to all parts of the body. They unload the 
oxygen wherever it is needed and take on a load of carbon 
dioxide, which they take to the lungs. Here the carbon 
dioxide is unloaded and the little boats are ready to take 
on another load of oxygen. 

3. Perhaps your teacher will plan to let you see the 
corpuscles floating in the tail of a goldfish. 1 

Importance of having enough corpuscles. It is very 
plain to see that if we have not enough of these cor- 
puscles, some of the cells will have to be neglected. Then 

Fig. 35. Red blood corpuscles, 
much magnified. 

1 For directions for this experiment see appendix, page 290. 


we can not be well. For this reason it is extremely im- 
portant that we have enough iron foods in our diets. 
Every day millions of these corpuscles are destroyed and 
new ones must be made. Girls of junior high school age 
usually are growing very fast. In addition to the re- 
placement of the old corpuscles which are worn out, extra 
new ones must be made to take care of this growth. 
Anemia is the name which doctors give to the condition 
of having too little iron in our blood. 

4. Perhaps you have been tested for the number of 
red corpuscles in your blood by the school nurse or 
doctor. Do you know whether you have a sufficient 

It has recently been discovered that we cannot use the 
iron in our foods unless copper is present also. Liver is 
a very good food, particularly when people are anemic. 
Besides containing iron it also contains the copper which 
enables the body to use this iron. Nuts, dried peas, beans, 
apricots, and peaches also have this power. Spinach 
has not this quality so cannot be depended upon by people 
who are ill with anemia to make their blood rich and red 

5. Why would apricot ice cream be a good dessert? 
Selecting foods for iron. How can we plan our 

meals so that we will get enough iron? Below is the ex- 
planation of a very simple way for you to learn what 
foods to select for iron. Scientists have discovered how 
much iron people need each day. Also they have learned 
how much each of the foods supply. By means of a sort 
of game you can learn what foods you must eat to supply 
your daily needs. 

On page 143 you will find a table of the number of 



Fig. 36. Many foods help to bring us the iron and copper we need. 

portions of iron that will be provided by a serving of 
each of many different kinds of foods. You will need 
60 to 80 of these portions. If you are growing very 
rapidly you will need 80, but if you have reached your 
full height you will need but 60. Your teacher will help 
you decide how many you had better include in your 
diet each day. 

6. To learn how to supply the iron you need each 
day, follow these directions. If you need 60 portions, 
rule a sheet of white paper 5 inches long and 3 inches 
wide in inch squares. If you need 70, make it 5 inches 
long by 3 inches wide. If you need 80, make the page 
4 inches by 5 inches. Write above it "My Daily Needs 
in Iron." Each square represents one of the portions of 
iron which you need each day. 

Now rule two sheets of smooth brown wrapping paper 
into ^ inch squares. These two sheets you will cut up 
into sections to represent the portions of iron which the 
servings of foods supply. 



Turn to the table, page 143, to find how many portions 
of iron an orange gives. You will find that it gives 3 
portions. With your pencil draw a faint line around 3 
squares on the brown paper. Cut along the pencil mark. 
On this section, write "orange, 3 portions of iron." Lay 
the orange section on the white sheet labeled "My Daily 
Needs in Iron." Mark, cut out, and label a section of 
the brown paper to represent the portions that an egg 
will give. Lay this on the white sheet. Now you can 
see what part of your daily iron needs would be supplied 
if you ate an orange and an egg. 

7. Make a list of the foods which contain three por- 
tions or more of iron per serving. Cut out and label 
sections to represent these foods. 

8. Group these sections into fruits, vegetables, meat 
and fish, and miscellaneous. Make a list of each group. 

Fig. 37. The portion of Martha's daily iron needs 
that is supplied by an orange and an egg is repre- 
sented by the squares of brown paper. 


The yolk of the egg contains the iron, the white being 
protein largely. You have probably noticed that oysters 
and liver are nearly equal in the number of portions of 
iron per serving. 

9. How many of the fruits that you found to be good 
in iron are of the dried variety? 

10. Are the green leafy vegetables good for iron? 
For what other food element did you find navy and lima 
beans to be good? 

11. Would you say that meat and fish as a whole are 
good in iron? 

12. Below is a one day's diet eaten by a junior high 
school girl. Her needs were 70 portions each day. You 
will find that you have already cut brown squares to 
represent many of these foods. Cut and label the re- 
mainder necessary. Lay them on the white sheet. 

If the whole sheet is covered, this girl's diet is ade- 


Milk (whole) 1 glass 

Prunes 6 

sugar 1 T. 

cream i C. 

Shredded Wheat 1 biscuit 

sugar 2 t. 

cream C. 

Toast (graham bread) 1 slice 

butter 1 t. 

jelly IT. 


Creamed Egg on 


egg li 

toast (white) 2 slices 

white sauce f C. 

Milk 1 glass 

Apple (raw) 1 

Walnuts . . 8 halves 




Oyster Cocktail 6 oysters 

Brussels Sprouts 1 serving 

butter 1 t. 

Mashed potato 1 serving 

milk It. 


pineapple 2 slices 

lettuce 1 leaf 

cheese 1 inch cube 

French dressing IT. 

Bread (graham) 2 slices 

butter IT. 

Milk . . 1 

13. Make a list of the foods you ate yesterday. Using 
those sections already cut and cutting others if neces- 
sary, find out whether these foods provided enough iron. 

14. If not, what foods might you have added or sub- 
stituted to make your meals satisfactory? Would two 
servings of one or more of the foods help? 







12 to 14 



Apples . 

1 medium 



Apricots (dried) . . 

4 halves 



Asparagus . 

(i c. fresh 




)5 av. stalks 
2 slices 



1 large 



l These values are but approximate and are included to give tangible evidence that 
foods differ in their values and that well rounded diets result from intelligent choices. 
The idea of arrangement by points was suggested by Dr. Lydia J. Roberts. With an 
exception or two of foods not given, computations of food values are based on Sher- 
man, Chemistry of Food and Nutrition (Macmillan Co., 1932). The amounts in 
servings are used in the laboratories of the Department of Home Economics at the 
University of Chicago. 

1 mg. iron .............. 4. points 

1 g. calcium ............. 88.2 points 

Day's need of an adult (Sherman) 
Iron ................... IS. mg. 

Calcium ................ 6& ^ta 







i c. 




4 c 




i c 

2 5 

2 5 

Beef (lean round) . . 

slice 3" X 2i" X 4/' 



(chuck average) 

slice 3" X 2" X 4/' 



(rib roast) 

slice 3" X 24." X 4/' 







Bread (whole wheat) 

slice 4" X 4" X |" 




slice 4" X 4" X |" 




slice 4" X 4" X f" 




1 slice 4" X 4" X |" 



Brussels Sprouts 

i C. 




1 T. 


i c. 




i c. 


3 5 


2 C 




2 pieces 1" X 6" 




4 c 



Cheese (American) 
Chicken (broilers) 

l" cube 
1 slice 3" X 2\" X 4/' 




(fowl) . 

1 slice 3" X 24/' X " 




4, c. 



Crackers (soda) 

6 small 




i c. thin 



Dandelion Greens 

i c 




4 or 5 


1 5 

E or 

1 medium 




f to | c. 



Figs (dried) 

1 large or 2 small 



Fish (halibut) 

3" X 24/' X " 


1 5 


3" X 2^" X 4" 



(white fish) 

3" x 24." x y 


1 5 


1 T 


i medium 




1 large bunch 




3" X 2i" X i" 




2 T. 


5 small head 



3" X 24/' X i" 




1 c. 










Milk (whole) 

1 c. 



1 glass 

2 5 



1 glass 


20 5 

(evap., unsweetened) 
(cond., sweetened) 
IVlola^ses (cane) .... 

4 c. 
i c. 
2 T. 





1 to | c. 


1 5 


2 to 3 

1 5 


4 c. 



1 medium 


z < 

6 to 7 medium 



4 c. 



(1 large half 

1 5 

i < 


) 14 T. juice 
* c. 




(2 halves 


1 5 


)l4 T. juice 
(l large slice 




)3 T. juice 
3 to 4 



Pork chops 

3" X 24" X 4" 



Potato (white) 

1 medium 




4 medium 



4 medium 



4 c. 




4 small red 



(15 large seeded 




)3 T. small 
4 c. 

2 5 



4: c. 


Shredded Wheat 

1 biscuit 




4 c. 




4 c. 




1 c 

3 5 



2 T. 

Tomatoes (canned) .... 

4 c. 




1 small 




4 c 



Veal steak 

3" X 24" X 4" 




8 medium halves 




15. What foods might be included in a box luncheon 
which would help supply the iron we need? 

16. What foods served yesterday or to-day in the 
school cafeteria might you choose for their iron values? 

17. Plan your next lunch to be satisfactory in calories, 
in protein, and in iron. Your lunch should supply almost 
one-third of your iron needs. 

Prune whip is made of egg white and prune pulp while 
the custard served over it is made of egg yolk and milk. 

18. Why would you consider this to be a good dessert 
for iron? 

Below are the recipes for several dishes which are valu- 
able in supplying iron. Perhaps you could prepare a 
meal at school which would use one or more of these 
recipes. Or you might plan one to serve to your family. 


(Individual Serving} 

Whip Custard 

Egg White 1 Egg Yolk 1 

Prune Pulp J C. Milk % C. 

Sugar IT. Sugar IT. 

Lemon Juice ^ t. Vanilla 1 drop 

Whip. Whip egg white until stiff. Add sugar and lemon 
juice to prune pulp. Fold the mixture into the egg white. 
Put into a buttered baking dish and bake in a slow oven 
(about 300) for IS minutes. Serve cold with the custard. 

Custard. Heat milk to scalding in top of the double boiler. 
Add sugar. Beat yolk slightly in bowl. Add hot milk slowly 
while beating. Pour custard into top of the double boiler, set 
over the water and put on the lid. Turn out the flame. If 
you do not turn out the flame the custard may overcook and 
curdle. Stir occasionally. In about ten minutes the egg will 
be thoroughly cooked. The custard is best when served cold. 


19. If you prepare this dish at home, how many 
servings would you need to prepare? What quantities 
of ingredients would you need to use? 


Drain the liquor from a can of spinach by turning the 
spinach into a sieve over a bowl. Measure the liquid. For 
each cup of liquid use 3 T. of bacon fat or butter. Melt the 
fat in a pan. Add 1 T. of finely chopped onion and stir 
until it starts to brown. Add 3 T. flour for each cup of liquid. 
When thoroughly mixed, add the liquor and cook until the 
flour has thickened. Cut through the spinach several times 
with a knife and put in a buttered baking dish. Pour the 
sauce over it and sprinkle buttered bread crumbs over the top. 
Put into a hot oven and brown the crumbs. A number 2 
can serves four. 






1 to H Ibs in one 

A 2^" cube or about 



1 Dt 

4 to 6 ounces 
i c. 


i c 

1 T. (chopped) 


4 C. 

2 t. (chopped) 

Green pepper 

1 small pepper 

1 t. (chopped) 

Salt pork 
or bacon fat 

i c. or 

4 C. 

6 dice, about y or 
1 T. 


1 t. 

A sprinkle 

For the individual serving place the liver in an earthen cup 
and add the other ingredients. Bake slowly (250~275) for 
1 hour. 

For the home (4 servings) use the same process but different 
quantities of the ingredients as indicated and bake for three 



READINGS. Trilling and Williams, A Girl's Problems in Home 
Economics, pp. 322-324, 389, 447. 

Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 388-389. 

National Meat and Livestock Board Booklet, "Liver, Nutritive 
Value and Ways of Serving." 


Use of calcium. There is a reason for our bones and 
teeth being so white in color. It is because they are made 
largely of lime or calcium. Boys and girls who are 

growing fast are 
developing their 
bones. It is easy to 
see that, if they do 
not get enough lime 
in their foods, their 
bones will not grow 
as large as they 
should or else they 
will be weak. 

In the photo- 
Fig. 38. Two rats that show the im- , .. ,, 
portance of calcium in the diet. g r apn notice that 

A. This rat is 28 days old and weighs 90 rat ^ not on l v 
grams. B. This rat, which is also 28 days failed to grow but 
old, weighs 224 grams. Which rat has had WUo 

too little calcium in the diet? appears misshapen 

because it still has 

an underdeveloped, babyish form. Its head is too large 
in proportion to its body. Notice, too, how the two rats 
differ in the shape of the back and the length of the 

20. To see how important calcium is in stiffening our 
bones you might remove the calcium from a bone by 
means of an acid. For directions see appendix, page 290. 

Courtesy of the United States Bureau of Home 


If our bones are not strong, our muscles may pull them 
out of shape and we become deformed. If there is not 
enough calcium in the diet, teeth fail to form properly 
or they decay if they have formed. There is some 
calcium in the blood. When you cut yourself, the blood 
forms a clot and the wound stops bleeding. The calcium 
in the blood helps in the forming of the clot. 

Loss of calcium. Every day some calcium is lost from 
our bodies. For that reason adults who are no longer 
growing need calcium to keep their teeth from de- 
caying and their bones from weakening. Growing boys 
and girls also lose calcium daily. They need more of this 
mineral than do adults, for they must have not only 
enough to make up for this loss but also an additional 
amount to keep pace with the demands made by their 

Voit's experiment. Voit, a German scientist, became 
interested in our need for calcium. For a year he fed 
some pigeons on a low calcium diet. They seemed to 
walk around in their cages in a normal manner. How- 
ever, when he killed them and examined their skeletons, 
he found that their bones were in a very poor condition. 
They were perforated with tiny holes and were mere 
shells. The leg and wing bones were not so badly af- 
fected as was the breast bone. Voit was convinced that 
much emphasis should be put upon calcium needs. 

Lack of calcium and the teeth. A government study 
was made of the children of Gary, Indiana, who were 
too young to go to school. Their diets were studied, and 
a doctor made an examination of their teeth. It was 
found that only one out of ten children with good diets 
had poor teeth. However, eight out of ten with poor 






Fig. 39. A good reason for eating proper foods. 

diets had poor teeth. It seems very worth while to avoid 
toothache and the bad appearance which comes from 
decayed teeth. 

Choosing calcium foods. How can we plan our meals 
so that we will get enough calcium? You may use the 
same game that you used in the iron study page 140). 
You will need ninety portions of calcium each day, so 
your white sheet must be 5 inches by 4^ inches. Label 
this "My daily needs in calcium." On page 143 you 
will find a table of the portions of calcium which the 
different foods supply per serving. Use a paper to cut 
into sections of a different color than that used in the 
iron study. 

21. Make a list of the foods containing four or more 
portions of calcium per serving. Cut sections of the 
colored paper to represent these portions and label them. 
Divide these sections into groups of fruits, vegetables, 
meat and fish, and miscellaneous. 

22. What food is by far the best source of calcium? 

23. What would you say about the value of meat? 
Of white bread? Of potatoes? 



Fig. 40. Some foods offer large gifts of calcium. Others have 
none to give. 

If you made your day's meal of white bread and meat 
alone, you would need to eat four whole pound loaves 
and twelve pounds of meat to get your calcium needs. 
Or, you could substitute a peck of potatoes for the bread. 

24. Do you find any foods good in both iron and 
calcium? Which? 

25. In the same way that you studied the diet of the 
junior high school girl found on page 142 for iron, study 
it for calcium. Do you find it adequate? 

26. Suppose the girl had not had milk with her meals. 
Would she have had enough calcium? 

27. Study your own diet of yesterday and tell in a 
few words on paper whether it gave enough calcium. 
If not, how might you have improved it? 

28. James Ford thinks he does not like milk. It is 
not necessary for him to drink it or have it in his foods 
if he can get all the calcium he needs without it. 
Using the squares plan a day's diet adequate in calcium 
that you think any one might be willing to eat, without 
using milk either as a beverage or in other dishes. Are 
you able to do this? Could you do it day after day 
without repeating foods monotonously? 

A quart of milk a day for each child. Nutrition ex- 
perts advise that children have a quart of milk each day. 



Fig. 41. Milk deserves the crown. 

This may be used in cooking, on their cereals and fruit 
and as a beverage. A good plan is to take one glass of 
milk with each meal. The other glass may be used in 
cooking, on cereals, and so on. Grown people should have 
a pint. Experts believe that people are in more danger 
of getting too little calcium than of any other food ele- 
ment. Evaporated, condensed, and dried milk may be 
less expensive than fresh milk and should be used in 
cooking when it is impossible to buy enough fresh milk. 
These forms of milk are especially useful in parts of the 
country where the fresh product is scarce. 

Milk, an important food. Milk is valuable for cal- 
cium, protein, and for fuel. Since it is such an impor- 
tant food, it is worth while to know many ways of getting 
it into our meals. This is especially true for children who 



unfortunately have not developed a liking for milk as a 
beverage. It is also important for adults who allow coffee 
and tea, which give nothing in food value, to replace milk. 

29. Turn back to the combination dishes, page 130. 
Which supplied calcium? 

30. Bring to class the recipe of a dish using a large 
proportion of milk which you and your family enjoy. 
If each member of the class reports a dish, you will 
probably learn many new ways of including milk in the 
diet. Select several of these dishes and plan meals mak- 
ing use of them. Be sure that these meals supply fuel, 
protein, and iron as well as calcium. Perhaps you could 
cook a meal in the laboratory using some of these 
recipes. If you do not have time for all of them in the 
laboratory, try the remainder at home. 






3 C 

l C 

Junket tablet 



Cold water 

1 T 

I t 

White sugar . . 

4. c 

1 T 

Brown sugar 

4 C 

2 T 

Maple sugar 

4 C 

2 T 


i t 

1 drop 


I t 

Mash junket tablet with a wooden spoon and dissolve in 
the water. Heat the milk in a double boiler to 85-90 F. 
If you have no thermometer, let a drop fall on the back of your 
hand when it begins to warm. If it feels neither hot nor cold, 
it is the right temperature. Remove from flame, add sugar 
and vanilla and dissolve junket. Pour into dishes in which it 
is to be served. Set into a warm place until it stiffens. Then 


place in the ice box to chill before serving. Sweetened fresh 
fruits may be served over this dessert. 



(Serves six) 
1 C Milk 

1 qt 


1 C Butter 


or chopped dates .... 


Use the butter to grease the sides of the baking dish or 
double boiler. Wash rice and fruit. If dates are used, cut 
them into small pieces. Put rice and fruit into cooking utensil, 
cover with milk and bake at 250-275 F. for an hour or 
until the rice grains are tender and the milk is absorbed. Stir 
once or twice while baking. Or cook in double boiler. Serve 
with cream and sugar or a custard sauce. 

Many variations of rice pudding are possible. One is to use 
J C. maple sugar instead of the raisins or dates. 

31. Perhaps you could find other variations. 

32. Which ones of the following dishes would you 
say are valuable for including milk in the diet? You may 
find them in the first unit or in cookbooks. 

1. Ice cream 4. Tapioca custard 

2. Bread pudding 5. Pumpkin pie 

3. Floating Island 6. Sponge cake 

READINGS. F. E. Winchell, Food Facts for Every Day, pp. 65-72. 

Trilling, Williams, and Reeves, A Girl's Problems in Home 
Economics, pp. 318-322. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. If you have time when you 
have finished the unit, you will find some problems suggested on 
page 182. 


The vitamins. In times past people suffered from a 
number of mysterious diseases the cause of which no one 
knew. Only within recent years have scientists discov- 
ered the causes and the ways to prevent these diseases. 
They have learned that in our foods are found different 
things which they call vitamins. Just what these vita- 
mins are they do not yet exactly know, since they cannot 
separate each of them out as they do iron or calcium. 
They do know, however, what foods are rich in these 
vitamins and what are the effects of not getting enough 
of them. They have discovered that everybody needs 
these vitamins. If we get a smaller quantity of them in 
our foods than is necessary, we may not contract actual 
diseases, but we shall not grow as we should, or feel just 
as well as we might. 

Many scientists are studying these vitamins. In uni- 
versities and hospitals all over the world laboratory 
workers are trying to learn more about them in order 
to advise people what foods to eat, and what other health 
habits to follow. 

Study of vitamins by means of animals. In study- 
ing about vitamins, the scientist uses little white rats, 
guinea pigs, chickens, pigeons, dogs, and other animals. 
He feeds them certain foods. If an animal shows signs 
of illness, the scientist knows that the food given does 
not have the vitamin that protects against the disease 



the animal has contracted. Then another food is added 
to the diet. If the animal gets well quickly, the scientist 
knows that the new food has much of the needed vitamin. 
If the animal does not improve, it has none, and if it 
improves but slowly, it has but a small amount. In this 
way scientists have found out what foods we can depend 
upon to protect us from the ill health that results from 
lack of the different vitamins. 


An experience in Denmark. During the war many 
of the children of Denmark became ill. They did not grow 
as they should and developed a disease of the eyes. Doc- 
tors found out that their condition was due to failure to get 
enough of one of the vitamins, called vitamin A. The 
people of Denmark did not know the value of cream 
and butter in the diet. They sold these to the Germans 
and English and the children were fed on skim milk. 
Their condition improved when they were given the right 
kinds of foods. Vitamin A is particularly important to 
you because it stimulates growth and helps protect you 
against diseases of your breathing passages. 

Foods that give vitamin A. Somehow the color yel- 
low seems to be closely associated with this vitamin. 
Many of the yellow vegetables are rich in vitamin A. 
Not only is it found in the purely yellow foods but also 
in those which are green. Whole milk, cream, butter, 
cheese, egg yolk, carrot, and squash are examples of the 
yellow foods which will help keep us well. String beans, 
dandelion greens, peas, and spinach are examples of the 
green vegetables that are valuable. 



Fig. 42. Vitamin A marshals his forces. 

How to protect ourselves. A real lack of vitamin A 
in the diets of growing children results in stunted growth. 
This danger may be entirely avoided by including a gen- 
erous quantity of milk products and the green and yellow 
vegetables in your diets. You will be perfectly safe if 
you have enough milk for your calcium needs each day, 
a little butter, and eat the green and yellow vegetables 

1. Which of the green and yellow vegetables do you 

2. How could you supply vitamin A in a box 
luncheon? Would a raw carrot be one way? 

3. What foods were served in the school cafeteria 
yesterday or to-day that you might choose for this 

4. What foods were in your diet yesterday that would 
protect you? If your diet was not satisfactory, how 
might you have improved it? 

5. Begin making a set of rules to guide you in choos- 
ing foods for vitamins. What will be your first rule? 




Results of having too small an amount. Another 
vitamin that we need is called vitamin B. It prevents a 
disease called beri-beri. This disease was formerly very 
common in the Orient and still exists among people who 

live largely on pol- 
ished rice. When 
these people change 
to the whole grain, 
the disease is cured. 
This vitamin is also 
found in the outer 
coating of other 
grains, so that the 
whole-grain cereals 
are more valuable 
to us than the re- 
fined. In the 
United States we 
are in little danger 
of actually getting 
beri-beri. How- 
ever, we may have 
the beginning symp- 
toms such as a cross disposition, listlessness, lack of 
appetite and constipation. 

How to protect ourselves. The unrefined cereals are 
an especially good source of vitamin B, and we should 
include some in our diet each day either as a breakfast 
cereal, or as bread. All vegetables and fruits, as well as 
meat and milk, contain small amounts. Since each food 

Courtesy United States Bureau of Home Economics. 

Fig. 43. How Vitamin B affects health. 

A. This rat was fed on a diet low in vita- 
min B. B. This is the same rat one day 
after vitamin B was added to its food in 
the form of milk and yeast. Notice the 
improved condition of hair and body shape. 


contains but a small amount, we must eat liberally of 
those that contain this vitamin in order to get enough. 
Yeast has a very high concentration of vitamin B. 

6. A certain family made it a practice to eat a sweet 
roll apiece with coffee for breakfast. The children were 
given money to buy coffee cake for lunch. In the 
evening they often had a stew of meat and vegetables 
with liberal quantities of white bread. Did they have 
any whole cereal? Were they probably lacking in 
vitamin B? 

7. Which of the foods which you ate to-day pro- 
vided vitamin B? 

8. What will you add to your rule for selecting foods 
for vitamins? 

9. Following is a recipe using graham flour which is 
made of wheat and contains the portion of the grain 
which is rich in vitamin B. 

(Serves Six or Eight) 

Graham flour 1C. Sugar C. 

Water 1 qt. Dates (chopped) 1C. 

Salt J t. Nuts (chopped) 1C. 

Mix flour, water, and salt in top of double boiler. Heat 
over flame to boiling point, stirring constantly. Set into 
bottom of double boiler and cook 30 minutes. Add sugar, 
dates and nuts. Turn into molding pan and cool. Slice 
and serve with sweetened whipped cream or cream and sugar. 


Results of lack of vitamin C. All through history 
men on the old sailing vessels were reported as being 
subject to a disease called scurvy. First they would feel 
dizzy a'nd tired, sometimes called lazy, and have cross 
dispositions. Their joints would swell and finally their 
teeth would loosen and sometimes fall out. In those days 





Fig. 44. These foods give you vitamin C. 

vessels would often be weeks and months away from land. 
The sailors had to live on dried fruits and vegetables, 
and smoked meats. Now they were not ill because they 
ate the dried and smoked foods, but because they did not 
eat anything fresh and uncooked. Accidentally it was 
discovered that limes, which are relatives of the lemon, 
grapefruit, and orange, would prevent the disease. The 
British navy at one time put a number of barrels of limes 
on each sailing vessel. To this day British navy men 
are called "limeys." 

Pyorrhea and scurvy. Many dentists to-day think 
that some kinds of pyorrhea, a disease of the teeth, are 
caused by failure to get enough vitamin C. So they im- 
mediately put patients on diets that are rich in this 
vitamin. No doubt many people have just enough to 
keep them from having their joints get sore but not 
enough to keep them from being tired and irritable. 

Effect of cooking and storing on foods. Long cook- 
ing, drying, and storing destroy vitamin C. In 1916 and 
1917, Stefansson, an Arctic explorer, discovered that 
scurvy was developing among his men. He threw away 



all the cooking vessels so that the men were forced to 
eat their foods raw, and they improved. A few foods 
retain their vitamin content even when cooked. One 
of these is tomato. For this reason canned tomato is an 
important winter food. The orange and grapefruit are 
especially rich in this vitamin. Babies are given orange 
juice very early in their lives. Sometimes they are given 
tomato juice instead. The young carrot is rich in vita- 
min C while the one that has been carried over the 
winter has practically none. We cannot depend upon 
milk to give us this vitamin unless the cows have been 
fed upon fresh, green food. Too often they are fed 

Courtesy General Electric Co. 

Fig. 45. Fruits and vegetables are sources of minerals and 

vitamins. How many of these fruits and vegetables can 

you name? 


upon dried hay and a bran food. Besides, in cities most 
milk is pasteurized, a process which may destroy the 
vitamin present. 

How to protect ourselves. The rule which we should 
make is to include in our diets each day some raw food. 
We should eat citrus fruits (orange, grapefruit, and 
lemon) often. Americans make use of salads more than 
do people of other nations. This is one very good way 
of getting the vitamin found in lettuce, raw fruits, and 

10. Make a list of the raw vegetables that might be 
made up into salads. Compare your list with those of 
other members of the class. You will be surprised at 
the possibilities. How many of the vegetables listed 
are available at this season? 

11. Make several of those salads which are new to 

12. Make a list of the fruits which may be eaten raw 
at this season. 

13. What foods in your diet yesterday protected you 
from scurvy? 

14. What might you put into a box luncheon that 
would be a protection? 

15. What might you have selected in the cafeteria 
yesterday or to-day that would protect you? 

16. Add to your rule for choosing vitamin foods. 

17. Do you prepare any fresh fruit desserts or drinks 
at home which you consider especially nice and worth 
telling about to the class? 

18. Make either of the following salads or select 
another that would be valuable for vitamin C. 

(Serves one) 

Ground Carrot \ C. 

Chopped Celery \ C. 

Chopped Nuts 3 T. 

Mayonnaise 2 T. 



Combine with plain mayonnaise or with mayonnaise thinned 
with an equal part of whipped cream. Serve on lettuce leaf. 

Another combination is J C. ground carrot, 1 T. chopped 
raisins, and 2 T. chopped apple. Combine immediately with 
the dressing to prevent the apples from darkening. 


(Serves one) 

Finely Chopped Cabbage 
Grated Pineapple (drained) . 
Marshmallows, cut in quarters 
Peanuts (crushed or ground) . 

1 C. 

2 T. 


6 or 8 (if desired) 

2 T. 

Bind with mayonnaise thinned with an equal part of 
whipped cream. Serve on lettuce leaf. Cabbage is particu- 
larly valuable for Vitamin C. 

Courtesy University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. 

Fig. 46. Playing cafeteria with food models. 


19. If you prepare these salads for your family, 
what quantities will you make? 

20. Report to the class another way of serving cab- 
bage, leaf lettuce, head lettuce, dandelion greens, curly 
endive, or French endive. Remember these must be 
raw to provide vitamin C. 


Effect of vitamin D. We all need the sunshine vita- 
min D. It is not found in our foods in sufficient amounts 
to protect us. No matter how wisely we choose our diets 
for calcium and phosphorus, for some reason our bodies 
are not able to use these important minerals unless we 
have the sunshine vitamin also. Have you ever seen grass 
over which a board has lain for a time? It is very sickly 
looking. Soon after the sun has had a chance to shine 
upon it, it grows healthy. Flowers in the house never 
have quite the sturdy growth that they show when out in 
the garden. Ordinary window glass does not allow cer- 
tain of the sunshine rays that have a health-giving quality 
to pass through it. There are, however, special kinds of 
window glass that do permit the passage of a portion of 
these rays. 

Rickets. Lack of vitamin D causes little children to 
get a disease called rickets. This disease of the bones 
results in misshapen bodies: the child's legs may be 
bowed ; the chest, instead of being flat, may protrude and 
be somewhat pointed; the joints may be enlarged. The 
picture of the Austrian girls, page 105, shows extreme 
cases of rickets. When the sunshine vitamin is supplied, 
the body immediately uses the calcium and phosphorus 
available in the body, and the bones begin to mend and 
become strong. 



Fig. 47. Playing in the sunshine. 

Prevention of rickets. To prevent this serious dis- 
ease children are regularly given cod-liver oil, or viosterol 
prescribed by a physician. Many children need these 
treatments especially in winter in northern cities because 

166 INTJrKlTlUiN 

there is less sunshine, and smoke and winter clothing un- 
fortunately often cut off the health-giving rays which the 
sun might give. Children are kept in the sunshine be- 
cause sunshine playing on the skin helps their bodies to 
manufacture vitamin D. Foods may be treated with an 
artificial sunshine ray, and likewise acquire the power of 
supplying the body with this vitamin. Some of our break- 
fast foods are now so treated. Egg yolk and butter con- 
tain small amounts of vitamin D. 

Needs of adults. Lack of the sunshine vitamin also 
affects us after we are past the age when our bones may 
become crooked. For this reason all of us from the baby 
to the grandfather should spend a part of each day out 
of doors in the direct rays of the sun. 

21. What should be added to your vitamin rule? 

22. Restate the whole rule now and put it into such 
form that you could very simply tell a friend how to 
choose foods each day so as to be sure she would get 
enough of all the vitamins. 

Heart and other organs as vitamin sources. More 
vitamin value comes from the organs of animals than 
from the other cuts of meat. Liver, heart, brain, sweet- 
breads, kidneys, and the gizzard of fowls are each ex- 
tremely valuable. 

23. From cookbooks find a number of ways of pre- 
paring each of these organs. 

READINGS. Trilling, Williams, and Reeves, A Girl's Problems 
in Home Economics, pp. 325-333. 

F. E. Winchell, Food Facts for Every Day, Ch. vi. 

Kinyon and Hopkins, Junior Food and Clothing, pp. 23-28. 

Lanman, McKay, and Zuill, The Family's Food, pp. 57-79. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. If you have time when you 
have finished the unit, you may be interested in doing some of 
the problems suggested on page 182. 


Lungs and skin. There is still another reason for 
choosing our foods with care. The body has several 
ways of getting rid of the poisons and wastes that it de- 
velops every day. We learned that carbon dioxide is one 
of these wastes. We breathe it out through the lungs. 
The body also throws off wastes by means of the skin. 
The tiny pores in the skin all over the body are constantly 
secreting perspiration. Usually we are not conscious of 
this since the water in the perspiration dries as it appears 
on the surface of the skin. In the perspiration are waste 
substances in addition to the water. When the water 
evaporates, these wastes are left and must be washed away 
in bathing. Therefore no one should bathe less than once 
or twice a week. To feel at our best, we should take a 
bath every day. Not only does this keep the skin clean, 
but it makes us feel fresh and comfortable. 

Kidneys. A third way of getting rid of poisons is by 
means of the kidneys. It is important to include enough 
water and liquid foods in our diets each day so that we 
pass a considerable amount of urine. In the urine are 
many of the poisons which would make us ill if they were 
kept in the body. Six to eight glasses of water are about 
what we should drink each day. If we have a glass with 
each meal, one immediately when we get up, and one 
before we go to bed, we have five of the number we need. 
This is a good practice for every one to follow. Then 
two glasses between meals will furnish the rest. 



Intestines. It is of great importance that you have 
a bowel movement each day. Those people who are in 
the best of health often have two. When your bowels do 
not move regularly and often, that part of the food which 
is not digested develops poisons. These poisons may be 
absorbed by the body and give you headaches and other 
bad feelings. Habit, proper food, water, and exercise all 
help you to keep well by getting rid of the indigestible 
part of the food or feces before it has a chance to decay 
and form poisons. 

Habit. It is strange how our bodies adapt themselves 
to our habits of living. We have three meals each day at 
fairly regular hours. Usually we begin to feel the need 
for food at these times. That is, we get hungry at meal- 
time. If we are accustomed to a lunch after school, our 
bodies come to demand food at that time. We grow 
sleepy at our regular bed time, we awaken regularly. If 
you go to the toilet at a set time each day, your body 
develops the habit of ridding itself of wastes regu- 
larly. Some people establish this habit immediately upon 
arising, others immediately after breakfast. You can see 
that if we get up so late that we have too little time to 
care for ourselves properly, we may be responsible for 
our own poor health. We should go to bed early and 
regularly so that, when morning comes, we are ready to 
get up in time to carry out our own health habits. 

Roughage. Some of our foods, particularly vegetables 
and fruits contain a considerable amount of cellulose. 
Since cellulose cannot be digested by us, these foods pro- 
vide what is called roughage. Roughage is important in 
keeping the bowels healthily active. Vegetables, fruits, 
and whole cereals are particularly good sources of cellu- 



Fig. 48. Roughage foods help to rid the body of waste. 

lose and are therefore valuable for the roughage they sup- 
ply. The refined cereals have had the bran of the grain 
removed and are very white in color. White flour, cream 
of wheat, and farina are examples. The whole cereals 
are brown because the bran has not been removed. 
Wheatena, shredded wheat, and the bran breads are ex- 
amples. In addition, fruits and vegetables contain acids 
which also help to regulate the body. Sometimes in our 
attempts to serve food in especially attractive forms, we 
remove and throw away much of the roughage which is so 
important to our health. The skins of potatoes, espe- 
cially the baked white potato, if still soft, have a very 
good flavor. They are high in mineral content and 
are a good source of roughage. The peel of 
apples and the pulp of oranges are often mistakenly 
thrown away. Bright red apples sliced with the peel on 
and cooked in water to which sugar was previously added 
make beautiful and appetizing stewed apples. Summer 
apples may be cooked with the peel and rubbed through a 


coarse strainer. Practically all the skin can be rubbed 
through the strainer. When we eat raw fruit, we should 
wash it carefully and eat all the good parts of the skin. 
If we eat enough vegetables, fruits, and whole cereals to 
supply vitamins and minerals, we are also probably get- 
ting enough roughage. 

Exercise. Exercise keeps our bodies in a healthy 
condition. Our ancestors in savage days developed bodies 
that were adapted to lives of much activity in the open 
air. Our bodies are very much like theirs. It is not sur- 
prising then that we sicken and droop when we sit quietly 
indoors. We get rid of poisons in each of the different 
ways more satisfactorily if we spend a part of each day 
in play or work out of doors. 

READINGS. McCollum and Simmonds, Food, Nutrition, and 
Health, Ch. XIV, "The Hygiene of Digestion." 

B. M. Brown, Good Health for Boys and Girls, Ch. viii, pp. 56- 
66, 88-95. 

Cuzzort and Trask, Health and Health Practices, Chs. vi, vii. 


How diets may be unbalanced. By a well balanced 
diet we mean one which has a proper amount of each 
of the needed food elements. If we have so much of the 
protein foods that we crowd out the mineral foods, our 
diets are unbalanced. If we eat candy and other sweets, 
such as cookies, between meals, we are usually not hun- 
gry at mealtime. Then we will fail to get all the elements 
we need, and our diets will be unbalanced. If we allow 
coffee and tea to crowd out milk, our diets will be seri- 
ously unbalanced. 

The finicky appetite. It is very difficult for people 
with finicky appetites to eat balanced diets. If they 

Fig. 49. Too much of the fuel and protein foods unbalances 

the diet. 



refuse to eat of the commonly served foods, there will 
be many meals at which they will not get the requisite 
amount of the different elements. We cannot expect family 
meals to be chosen with our likes only in mind. When 
people eat but a few kinds of foods, they do not have 
as much pleasure from food as do those who like a great 
variety. By cooking disliked foods in many ways we 
may discover one method of preparation which will make 
the food palatable. Most people find that by tasting 
foods and trying to like them a taste for them soon is 

1. Do you know of anyone who developed a liking 
for a food by persistence in tasting it? 

2. Can you give an example to show how a change 
in the method of preparation helped some one to learn 
to like a food? 

Developing food likes in infancy. If we learn to 
eat all foods when we are very young, we need not train 
ourselves to like them when we are older. Some doctors 
recommend that when babies are but a few months old 
vegetable juices such as those of tomato, spinach, string 
bean, carrot, peas, and so on, be put into their bottles. 
Of course, a very small amount of the juice, which is 
made by cooking the vegetable in water, is given the 
babies at first. This is gradually increased in quantity. 
In this way babies learn to like the flavors found not only 
in vegetables, but also in fruits and cereals. As a result 
they are more likely to eat well balanced diets when 
they grow up. 

It sometimes happens that children were not well 
trained in their food likes when they were babies. Unless 
the older members of the family help them by the exam- 



Fig. 50. Good foods are in the limelight. What are they? 

pies they set, these children may never develop good food 
habits. Older brothers and sisters can help in setting a 
good example by eating a wide variety of the kinds of 
foods good for younger members of the family, and by 
encouraging them also to eat of these foods. 

3. A father once said in the presence of his two 
young children, "I think carrots and cabbage are two 
of the poorest foods people serve." At another time he 
said, "Isn't this coffee delicious? Any one who doesn't 
drink coffee doesn't know what he is missing." What 
influence do you think these statements had upon the 

4. What might he have said had he known how im- 
portant it is for children to eat all the common vege- 
tables, and not to drink coffee? 

Setting a good example. In order to be able to set 
a good example, we must know what foods are good for 



the younger brother and sister. The digestive systems of 
babies and young children are not well developed. The 
teeth and the muscles of the stomach and intestines are 
not fully grown and the secretion of the digestive juices 
differs somewhat from that of an adult. As a result young 
children cannot digest hard cellulose such as is found in 
the skins of raw fruits and even the tough ones when 
cooked. Tough meat fibers and fried foods are too dif- 
ficult for babies to digest. Large quantities of rich foods, 
such as cream, cheese, and large pieces of nuts, are not 
good for them. Below are lists of some foods good for 
young children. Can you explain why the suggestions are 
put beside some of these foods? 




All fruit juices 

Stewed prunes, plums and 

apricots (pulp only for 

children under 3) 
Apple (scraped or cooked for 

children under 3) 
Stewed peaches 
Banana (ripe) 

Vegetables (if well cooked) 


Peas (put through strainer 

for child under 3) 
Green beans 
Asparagus tips 


Cabbage (if young, crisp and 

well cooked) 
Lettuce (uncooked) 


Plain cookies 
Sponge cake 
Graham crackers 
Day old bread 

Other foods 

Ice cream 


Eggs, soft coddled 

Meats, roasted or boiled 

Cheese (a small amount in 

white sauce) 
Fish (carefully boned) 

Courtesy University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. 

Fig. 51. A poster drawn by a fifth-grade girL 

Two sisters are shown after school and at the dinner table. The one 
who ate candy and took no exercise seems to have no appetite. What 
effect did play out-of-doors have upon the appetite of the other girl? 


Eating between meals. Eating between meals may 
be a very bad habit. Candy and other sweets quickly sat- 
isfy our appetites because they are so rich in calories. If 
we eat candy and other confections immediately before 
meals, the edge has been taken from our appetites, and 
we do not enjoy the foods on the table as much as we 
should. In addition, we are not likely to eat as much of 
these foods as we need to supply all the requirements for 
a well balanced diet. Another reason why we should not 
eat at any and all times is that our stomachs must have 
a rest. This is not possible if we are constantly sending 
it food which it must digest. 

For people who are recovering from illness, who are 
underweight, or who are growing very fast, it is often a 
good plan to have a simple lunch between meals such as 
bread and milk, a fruit-milk beverage, or an apple, pro- 
vided this does not lessen the amount eaten at the next 
meal. The proper time to eat candy and other confec- 
tions is at the end of a meal. 

5. Do you think a girl who uses her lunch money for 
candy shows good judgment? 

A plan for choosing foods. It would take much time 
to select well balanced meals if we had to think about 
each of the food elements. A general scheme which in- 
cludes all the elements makes planning meals very simple. 
Below is one plan which some people use. Each day they 
include the kinds and amounts of foods suggested. Some- 
times they substitute foods, for example, they select an- 
other starchy food such as macaroni or rice for the potato, 
or cheese for the meat. The food elements are checked 
to show you that this scheme takes care of all of one's 





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6. Using the food models, play cafeteria, and explain, 
why you chose the foods selected. 

7. Plan a day's meals for your family following this 
general scheme. 

Choosing meals from menu cards. Very often when 
we eat in restaurants we are puzzled about what to 
order. You are now ready to make intelligent selections 
because you know that each meal should have in it many 
of the various food elements, and that the meals for any 
one day should contain them all. 

Breakfast Menu 

Toast served with all Egg order* at Breakfast 

Club Breakfasts 

70 Cents 
Choice of Fruit, or Cereal with Cream 

Choice of: 

Broiled Lamb Chop with Potatoes 
Ham Omelet with Potatoes 

Waffles with Sausage 

Butter Cakes, Toast or Rolls 

Coffee, Tea or Milk 

55 Cents 


Liver and Bacon with Potatoes 
Griddle Cakes with Broiled Bacon 

Poached Eggs on Toast 

Fried Ham, One Egg, Potatoes 

Butter Cakes, Toast or Rolls 

Coffee, Tea or Milk 

45 Cents 

Broiled Bacon 
fles with Syri 
Corned Beef 1 
Bacon withX)ne Egg, Potatoes 
Butter Cakes, Toast or Rolls 
Coffee, Tea or Milk 

35 Cents 
Choice of Fruit 

Choice of: 

Griddle Cakes with Syrup 
Orange Marmalade with Buttered Toast 

Toasted Bacon Roll 
Poached Egg on Toast 
Coffee, Tea or Milk 

Dishes to Order 

Bacon and Eggs 
Hamburger Steak 

l>Chop .. 
Ham with One Egg . . 45 Bacon wTth One Egg 

HamandEgni 65 
(Choice of potatoes served witk above orders) 

Corned Beef Hash . . . 25 I Broiled Ham .... 40 
Broiled Bacon . . . .30 Sausage, Apple and Griddle 

Sausage with Potatoes . .40 Cakes 65 

Sausage with Griddle Cakes . SO 

Corned Beef Hash with Poached Egg 40 



Toast, Dry o 

. 15 Bread . 
. 10 

. It) 

Stewed Fresh Rhubarb 
Grapefruit Juice . 
Orange Juice . . 
Stewed Prunes 
Preserved Figs 
Stewed Apricots 

Strawberries 30, with Cream 40 
Tomato Juice Cocktail IS 

Fresh Pineapple . . . 
Orange Marmalade . 
Sliced Banana with Cream 
15 Stewed Prunes and Apricots 
15 Grapefruit .... 
10 Sliced Orange . . . 

Fresh Baked Apple 15; with Cream 20 


With Milk IS 
Flaked Cereals 

With Milk IS 


Boiled Rice 

Cream of Wheat 
With Cream 25 

Shredded Wheat 
With Cream 30 

W.fne, end Griddle Specialties 
Griddle Cakes (tfkeat or Cornmea!) 20 
Waffles with Honey or 



Ham and Eggs with Potatoes 

Pork Chop, Potatoes and Apple Sauce 

Waffles with Broiled Bacon 

Scrambled Eggs with Bacon and Potatoes 

Creamed Finnan Haddie on Toast 

Scrambled Eggs with Chipped Beef, Potatoes 

Shirred Eggs with Bacon 

French Toast with Currant Jelly 




Ess* nd Omelets 

Plain Omelet 
Ham Omelet 
Jelly Omelet 
Western Omelet 

Spanish Omelet 50 

I Browned 
I in Cream 

IS I French Fried 


Coffee per Cup, with 

Enriched Milk . 

Pot of Tea . . 

Postum . . . 

Coffee per Cup, with Pitcher of 

Cream IS 

Milk 10 

HotChocolat 15 

Not mpnriUt for penoaat property unleii tlucked by Mtnagtr 

Courtesy Childs Restaurants. 

We are not responsible for personal property unless checKed. 


Special tenderloin steak 75 
COLD SANDWICHES (Touted 5c oxtra) 

Ham or corned beef 25 Roast beef 35 Roast pork 25 Tongue 25 Combination 35 Lettuce and tomato 25 

Egg salad 25 Salmon or tnnafisb salad 25 Lettuce and egg 25 Sardine 25 Chicken 40 Peanut butter 25 

Brick or American cheese 20 Swiss cheese 25 Liver sausage 25 Bacon and tomato 35 Chicken salad 40 

Toasted cheese and bacon 40 Chopped egg and anchovies 35 Chopped egg and tomato 25 

Pimento 20 Cottage cheese 25 with jelly 35 Cheese and nut 25 

Combination 35 Lettuce and tomato 30 Heart of lettuce 20 Sliced tomato 25 Asparagus tips 35 Potato 15 

Cold slaw 20 Waldorf 30 Fresh fruit 45 Pineapple and cheese 35 Chicken 75 Lettuce and egg 35 

Tomato stuffed with chicken 65 Tomato stuffed crab-meat 65 Fresh shrimp, mayonnaise 65 Tunafish 40 

Roquefort cheese dressing 15 Thousand Island or mayonnaise dressing 10 

Russian salad dressing (for weight reduction 15; 


Boiled ( 2 ) 25 Poached on toast 35 Fried or scrambled 30 Ham or bacon and eggt SO Omelet .plain 35 

Omelet with minced bam 50 Omelet with bacon 50 Omelet with bam or bacon 50 

Omelet with cheese 50 Omelet with minced chicken 65 Spanish omelet 50 

s 15 Cretin of celery, B*lc 15 


Deep sea scallops a la Newbnr, w toast 50 
Grilled fresh caught lake trout Hoteliere, pomme* Julienne 50 

Omelet with sliced peaches flace 65 
^ Club steak with French fried potatoes (20 minute. ' 90 

American chop saey with rice 45 
Shepherd pie with fresh rentable*, Cwudienne 40 

Corned heef hash browned with poached en. farden spbach. c.adied 45 

Broiled chopped rirloia ,teak with shroos> sa.ce, Joe peas, Frech fried potatoes 50 

Roast rib of prime heef JM 75 

Loin steak 70 Small tenderloin steak 90 Pork chops 60 Lamb chops (2) 75 Veal chop (1) 60 

Veal cutlet 60 Veal cutlet, breaded 65 Pork tenderloin 80 

COLD FOODS (SOTOO* with potato **Ud) 

Assorted cold meats 75 Sliced turkey 70 Roast beef 65 Roast Iamb 60 Roast pork 50 

Beef tongue 50 Sugar-cured ham 50 Corned beef 40 Anchovies 45 


Maahed or steamed 10 American fried 15 Hashed brown 15 French fried or julienne 15 

Stewed tomatoes 15 Stewed corn 15 Stewed peas 15 Spinach 20 


Dry or buttered toast 10 Cinnamon toast 20 Milk toast 25 Graham crackers lu 

Griddle cakes with maple syrup 20 Griddle cakes with honey 25 Waffles with maple syrup 25 

Waffles with honey 25 Cakes-waffles with sausage 45 


Apple or coffee nutard pie 15 Deep dish strawberry pie with cream 25 

Hone-nude date cake 20 Cabiaet piddiif with whipped creim 20 Fresh rhubarb sauce with cake IS 
Vanilla, strawberry or chocolate ice cream 15 Fruit sherbet 15 


Baked apple with cream 25 Green gage plums 20 Home-style preserved peaches 20 Orange 15 

Fresh strawberries with cream 35 Sliced orange 20 Orange juice 20 Banana 15 with cream 20 

Preserved figs 30 Orange marmalade 15 Strained honey 20 Stewed prunes with cream 20 

Home-made cottage 15 Camembert 20 Roquefort 25 Swiss, American or pimento 15 

Liederkranz or brie 20 Philadelphia cream 20 McLaren's 25 

COFFEE. TEA, ETC Coffee, cup 10 per pot 15 Tea, (pot) 15 Boston coffee 5c extra 

Chocolate 15 Buttermilk 10 Postum cereal 15 Iced tea or coffee 15 

Hortick's malted milk 30 Cream, per glass 30 Milk, per glass 10 Glass of half and half 20 Lemonade 25 

Roll, mm* brttar lOe por pors> WfcoU wk.t or ftru broad 10c 

One portion served to one person only. 

Courtesy Hotel La Salle. 

Illinois Central Dining Cars serve only Prime or Choice U S. Government Graded Beef 


Celery, 3Jc 
India Relish, 20* 


Ripe or Green Olives, 2f c Pickles, 20c 

Melon Mangoes, 30c Sliced Tomatoes. 3?c 


Consomme, Hot or Cold, Per Cup, 20c 
For Soups see Suggestions Slip 


For Fish see Suggestions Slip 

Boiled Ham or Tongue, 80c Pickled Lamb's Tongue, 60c 

Potato Salad, with either of the above, lOc Extra 

Assorted Cold Meats, Potato Salad, $1.00 

Chicken Sandwich, 55c Tongue Sandwich, 30c 

Club Sandwich, Tic 

Tuna Fish Sandwich. 3Jc 


Sugar Corn, 2Tc 
Stewed Tomatoes, 25c 

Ham Sandwich, 30c 
Imported Sardines, lie 

Potatoes, French Fned, 25c 

Early June Peas, 25c 


Lettuce and Tomato, French Dressing, 4?c 
Chilled Whole Tomato, Mayonnaise, 35c 

Head Lettuce, French Dressing, 35c 

Half Portion Head Lettuce, French Dressing, 2?c 

Potato Salad, 3?c Half Portion Potato Salad. 20c 

French Bread, lie 

Raisin Bread, Ifc 

Graham Bread. Me 


Individual Strained Honey, 30c 

Guava Jelly, 30c Orange Jelly, 30c Orange Marmalade, 2Tc 

Individual Preserves, 30c Ice Cream and Cake, 35c 

Stewed Prunes with Cream, 3fc Preserved Figs, 40c 

Individual Fig Pudding with Sauce. 40c 



Imperial, 30c 

(Wuh Toasted Wafers) 


Roquefort. 40c 

English Breakfast, Orange Pekoe, Oolong or Japan Tea, Pot for One, 25c 
Iced Tea or Coffee, 25c Coffee, Pot for One, 25c 

Cocoa, 20c Milk (Per Bottle), 20c 

Cream (Per Glass), 40c; Half and Half (Per Glass), 2fc 

Malted Milk, 20c Lemonade, 20c Instant Postum, 20c 

Kaffee Hag, Per Pot 25c Sanka, Per Pot, 2?c 

An Extra Charge of Twenty-6ve Cent* Per Person will be 
' Made for Meal. Served out of Dining Car 

Prohibited from Taking Verbal Orderi and Guest* will 
Ij on Presentation of Check on Which 
Order is Written 

It it Our Aim to Provide Dining Car Service which will Please Our Patron* 

Your Suggestions Are Invited 
J. V. LANIGAN. Passenger Traffic Manager, Chicago. HI 

Courtesy The Illinois Central Railroad. 


8. Above are some menu cards. Choose a break- 
fast, a luncheon, and a dinner that you think would 
be satisfactory. When you have finished, check to see 
whether you have included the foods suggested in the 
general plan, page 177. 

READINGS. Kinyon and Hopkins, Junior Foods and Clothing, 
pp. 30-42. 

Harris and Lacey, Everyday Foods, pp. 311-315. 

W. T. Grenfell, Yourself and Your Body. If you would like to 
know more about your body and how it works, be sure to read 
this book, which gives the desired information in a series of 
interesting stories. Do not forget the preface. 


Readings will be found at appropriate places throughout this unit. 


Below are some suggestions for problems if you have time for 
independent work. 

On Fuel Needs 

1. Keep a record of your lunches for two weeks and underline 
those dishes which were of particular importance for their fuel 

2. Start an experiment in feeding animals to see the effect of 
diet on the appearance and weight. See appendix, page 281, for 
a description of such experiments. White rats show results of 
poor diets more quickly than do human beings because they go 
from babyhood to old age in about Vso of the time it takes human 
beings to grow old. In other words, a white rat will show the bad 
effects of a poorly chosen diet in six weeks which would require 
almost four years for a girl or boy to show. 

On Protein Needs 

1. Plan several days' menus for your family satisfactory for 
calories and protein. Which of the foods you prepared in Unit I 
are particularly valuable for protein? 


2. What protein dishes does your family particularly enjoy? 
You might exchange recipes with other members of the class. Be 
sure your recipes are so clearly written that others will have no 
trouble in following them. 

On Minerals 

1. List the foods you have eaten for several days past. Did 
you have enough iron on each of these days? If not, what foods 
might you have added to make your diet adequate? 

2. List the foods good for iron of which you are fond. Is 
there any which you do not enjoy? Perhaps you could find some 
method of preparation which will enable you to enjoy it. Report 
your experiment to the class. 

3. Evaporate a cup of milk to see how large a quantity of 
mineral matter it contains. See appendix, page 291, for directions 
for this experiment. 

4. The effect of milk on growth can be very clearly shown by 
means of an experiment with rats. Feed one rat on crackers and 
water, the other on crackers and milk. You can make a very 
interesting poster by mounting a picture of the rats at the end of 
the experiment and their graphs. If you question whether the 
food is causing the difference in the results which you are getting, 
switch the diets after several weeks. 

On Vitamins 

1. Plan a picnic lunch to include foods to supply all of the 

2. Which of the dishes you prepared in Unit I were particularly 
good for one or more of the vitamins? Perhaps you would like 
to increase the number of recipes you have which are valuable for 
these vitamins. 

On Roughage 

Make an exhibit of roughage from different sources for the class. 
Sift and wash graham flour to get the bran out as clean as pos- 
sible. Peel an apple, remove the strings from celery, rub peas and 
corn through a strainer. The seeds of tomato are also roughage. 
You may think of many other sources which you may exhibit. 
Of course, all your exhibits should be of roughage which we may eat. 


If you have had considerable experience in purchasing 
foods you may be able to answer these questions rather 

1. In what way should your nutrition information help you 
in making a marketing list? 

2. Name several ways in which the money a family has to 
spend determines what shall be bought. 

3. How does available storage space determine the amount 
of food a family will buy? 

4. Why do we choose fresh rather than wilted vegetables? 

5. Tell how to determine when a head of lettuce, green beans, 
and beets are fresh. 

6. Under what conditions are canned peas more desirable than 
the fresh? 

7. What causes foods to spoil? 

8. How may spoilage of foods be prevented? Delayed? 

9. What workers make it possible for you to have potatoes 
if you live in the city? If you live in the country? 

10. How can buyers help the grocer give them good service? 

11. What services is it fair for us to expect of our grocers? 
Can you name any which we should not expect? 


When Mary came home from school one day, she said, 
"Mother, we've started a new unit. In this unit we are 
to learn about buying the different foods which make up 
our meals. You know, in our last unit we studied about 
the foods we need to eat in order to keep well. Now we 



are to learn about buying the foods for good meals. My 
teacher says that after we have read more about it and 
have had some laboratory lessons, the best way to learn 
is to plan some meals for our families and then go to the 
stores and buy the food. May I buy the food for our 
family for one week?" 

Fig. 52. Mary is applying what she learned in school about 
buying foods. 


Perhaps you, like Mary, will want to plan some meals 
for your family and to buy the foods. Before you go 
to the store you must of course plan well balanced meals 
and then make your market list. You must decide which 
stores to patronize, and must select the kinds of foods 
that will please the appetite and that can be prepared 
in your kitchen. You must know how much money you 
may spend and must plan to get food that your family 
needs and will enjoy with this money. In this unit you 
will get many suggestions and much information which 
help you to buy successfully. 


Planning the meals. The first requirement of our 
meals of course is that they give us the food elements 
we need for health. So the first step in making a market- 
ing list for food for a day or more is to plan the meals 
for this period. As we plan we must ask ourselves such 
questions as "Have I included enough milk, have I listed 
some raw foods, have I taken care of the mineral and 
vitamin needs of the whole family?" Then we list the 
supplies we need to buy for these meals on a slip which 
we take to the store with us. Mary's family consisted of 
father, mother, Mary, 12, Sue, 10, and John, 6. The 
family lived in a large city, in an apartment two blocks 
distant from a good shopping district in which was found 
a great number and variety of food stores. Mary planned 
the following three meals for one of the days on which 
she bought the foods. Mary's father came home to 
luncheon as his work was in the neighborhood. So the 
whole family was home for all three meals. 




with Sugar and 

Top Milk 

Cinnamon Toast 


Cream of Tomato Soup 

Crackers and Cheese 
Milk for Sue, Mary, and 


Apple Sauce 



Meat Loaf 
Mashed Potatoes 
Buttered Carrots 

Cabbage and 

Pineapple Salad 

Bread and Butter 



1. Do you think the day's meals are well balanced? 
Explain by comparing with the general plan for a 
balanced diet, page 177. 

Deciding on what to buy. Next Mary had to learn 
which of the foods needed to be purchased since there 
were some supplies on the pantry shelf and in the re- 
frigerator. She found there were no grapefruit. 

2. How many would she need to buy in order that 
each member might average a little less than a half 
grapefruit apiece when scooped from the shell? 

3. Suppose that she could get a better price by buy- 
ing 3 or 4 at a time. What would you advise her to do? 

4. It would be interesting for you to make Mary's 
order list. As she makes her decisions, write down each 
article and the quantity on a slip of paper. 

Mary found there was enough oatmeal for breakfast. 
She discovered, however, that the sugar supply was run- 
ning low. 

5. For what other dishes besides oatmeal in the day's 
menu would she need sugar? 

Quantity determined by storage space. Now Mary 
had to decide whether she would buy 1 lb., 10 Ibs., or 
perhaps even 100 Ibs. of sugar. In the country the 
farmer himself must take all of his supplies home since 
the grocery stores could not deliver to scattered farm 
homes. Also he may go to town but once or twice a 
week, especially in busy seasons. Many farmhouses have 
large storage spaces, so supplies of all kinds and in large 
quantities may be kept. The farmer very often then 
buys sugar in 100-lb. sacks. In the tiny kitchenette in 
the city, there is no place to store such a large quantity, 
so the grocer keeps supplies on hand for people who 


live in small apartments. When we buy food in small 
packages we usually have to pay more for it per pound 
than when we buy it in large quantities. For example, 
we may have to pay 10 cents per pound for sugar when 
we buy it in 1-lb. packages, but only 6 cents per pound 
when we buy 25 Ibs. at a time. However, a large apart- 
ment that provides storage space has a higher rent than 
a small one in the same locality. We may find it more 
convenient to live in the less costly apartment and pay 
the grocer more to keep supplies on hand for us and to 
deliver it in small quantities as we need it. Mary had 
to decide then how much their storage space permitted 
before she could know how much sugar to buy. After 
discussing it with mother she decided to buy a 10-lb. 

6. Since each of the children needed a quart of milk 
daily and the parents a pint apiece, how many quarts 
would Mary order each morning? 

7. Does the day's menu provide for the use of this 

The problem of making bread or buying it. Toast 
was the next item on the list. Toast, of course, may 
be prepared from homemade bread, or from that pur- 
chased in the store. Also, bread twenty-four hours or 
more old, sometimes known as stale bread, may be 
used in this way. Mary found there would be about 
one-third of a loaf left after dinner, which would be 
enough to make the toast for breakfast. There would 
be none left, however, for luncheon or for dinner. Mary, 
therefore, was faced with a choice of baking bread at 
home or buying it at the baker's or the store. Graham 
muffins would be delicious with the apple sauce for lunch- 


eon and would also supply some of the whole-grain cereal 
which she found in her nutrition study was so valuable. 
However, it would require more work to prepare the 
muffins than to cut the bread bought from the baker. 
Since she could not be at home to bake the muffins, she 
had to confer with Mother to see whether Mother would 
have the time to prepare them for this particular lunch- 
eon. Mother offered to make enough of the muffins so 
that a supply would be left to be reheated for dinner. 

8. What supplies are needed in baking graham 

Mary found there was no graham flour but that a suf- 
ficient supply of baking powder and salt was on hand. 
There was but \ Ib. of butter, but Mother had just pur- 
chased a new can of oil. There was one egg left in the 

9. Would Mary need to order anything new for the 

Mary wondered whether there would be enough milk 
if only the regular amount were ordered. 

10. Could she use prepared milk in making the muf- 
fins? Would you suggest that an extra supply of 
canned milk be kept on hand for emergencies? 

11. Do you think J Ib. of butter would be sufficient 
for the day? For what purposes will she need it? 
What would you advise Mary to do? 

Amount determined by family practice. Tht 
amount of graham flour she would buy would depend 
upon whether she, Sue, and Mother had the time to use it 
often and whether the family enjoyed homemade graham 
breads. Also it depended upon the storage space and 


whether the pans and other utensils they possessed would 
allow them to do very much baking. Some families, who 
have large kitchens and in which the mother and girls 
have the time and enjoy cooking, bake many delicacies. 
In other families each member may be so busy with other 
kinds of work that it is necessary for them to buy their 
breads already prepared. Mary's mother as well as Sue 
and Mary all enjoyed baking, and as there was a large 
can in which it could be kept, Mary decided to buy 10 
Ibs. of the flour. Graham flour does not keep very well 
in hot weather, and this was in early autumn. Mary and 
her mother agreed that they would have to use the flour 
soon in order not to waste part of what was left. Mary's 
bread order for the whole day was thus solved. 

12. Would Mary need eggs for any other part of 
the meal? How many would you suggest that she buy? 

13. What would she need for preparing cinnamon 

General supplies. Since the cinnamon box was nearly 
empty, although there probably would be enough left 
for the morning, Mary decided to buy another box. In 
this way she would avoid forgetting it later. Also, she 
might change her mind after putting in an order some 
day and want to use cinnamon. It is a good plan to 
keep general supplies such as eggs, sugar, flour, and 
spices on hand, as this allows us to change our plans in 
preparation without making a special trip to the store. 

Figuring the amount needed. Mary's family en- 
joyed cream of tomato soup made from the canned to- 
mato soup. If you do not know how many cans she 
will have to buy for her family, you can find out by 
making some measurements in the laboratory. 


14. First decide how many plates of soup each mem- 
ber will probably eat. Then find out how many cups 
would be served in one plate. You can measure this 
with water in the laboratory or at home. How many 
cups of soup then would be necessary for the whole 
family? What proportion of soup is used to milk? How 
many cups of soup are there in one can? How 
much milk will you use for this quantity? How many 
plates will this mixture make? Will this be enough? 

15. How many cans of soup should Mary buy? If 
she can buy several at a saving, would you advise her 
to lay in a supply? 

Mary found there were probably more crackers on 
hand than would be needed for this meal. Since we like 
to have our crackers fresh, she decided not to buy any 
additional at this time. 

Planning for future meals. The next supply she 
needed to consider was apples. She thought perhaps it 
would be a good plan to cook such a quantity of apples 
for luncheon that there would be enough left for the next 
morning's breakfast. Mary wondered how many apples 
or how many pounds of apples she would need for the 
two meals. Mother told her that if the apples were large 
and sound there would be less waste than if they were 
small and bruised, or spotted. The core and peel of 
small apples make a larger proportion of waste than do 
those of large apples. There is less waste, of course, if 
they are prepared with the peel, provided we eat the peel 
when the apples are served. Mary could not decide defi- 
nitely on how many she would need to buy until she saw 
what kinds of apples she might choose. Mother sug- 
gested that 4 to 6 Ibs. would be enough, depending on 
the kind she would select. 

Mary's next question was the kind of cheese to pur- 


chase and the amount. The kind of cheese we select 
depends upon whether it is to be used at table or in cook- 
ing. Her family preferred the soft, prepared cheeses put 
up in packages. She decided that a six- or seven-oz. 
package would be enough. 

16. What cheese would you suggest that Mary buy? 

Use of leftovers. This finished the shopping list for 
luncheon foods and left but those for dinner. The first 
question to decide was what kind and how much meat 
to buy for the loaf. Since the meat would be ground 
and could be cooked slowly, Mary knew from her cook- 
ing lessons that she could buy a less expensive cut. 
Mother called Mary's attention to the leftover rice and 
tomato. She told Mary about the following recipe for 
a meat loaf which was large enough for their family. 

Beef (ground) l Ibs. Tomato C. 

Cooked Rice 1C. Onion (chopped fine) . . IT. 

Green Pepper (chopped Salt 

fine) 2 T. 

Mary thought a cheaper cut of the round would do. 
Mother agreed but suggested that Mary tell the butcher 
just what she wanted the meat for, and he might have 
on hand such a cut as chuck or neck that would be 
suitable if twice ground. They had learned that they 
could trust the advice of their butcher. A quarter to a 
third of a pound of meat per person is ample for a family 
if no bone or other waste is included, especially if one of 
the children is small. Onions, but no green peppers, were 
at hand. 

17. What will you add to Mary's list? 


Method of cooking. When Mary looked into the 
potato box, she found but a few baking potatoes there. 
She knew that some potatoes are used for baking and 
others for boiling. She had noticed occasionally when 
Mother cooked the baking potatoes that the outside went 
to pieces and dissolved in the water before the inside 
was soft. She suggested to Mother that they leave the 
baking potatoes for another meal and buy some boiling 
potatoes for dinner. Since potatoes are used often in 
well balanced menus, they decided to buy a peck. 

Size of bunch. Mary recalled that at different times 
bunches of carrots differed in size. Sometimes the car- 
rots themselves were large, sometimes small. Sometimes 
there were a few in a bunch, sometimes more. She de- 
cided to wait until she got to the store to determine 
whether to buy two bunches or three, although she be- 
lieved she would need three since they were all very fond 
of the sweet young carrots they had been able to purchase. 

Waste. Next on the list was the pineapple and cab- 
bage salad. First Mary thought of all the ingredients she 
would need. She thought she would not need a whole 
large head of cabbage for the salad, but decided that 
what was left could be used the following day creamed 
or buttered. She decided to buy a large head. There 
would be less waste in outer leaves and core than in 
two small ones. There was a can of crushed pineapple 
and some marshmallows in the pantry. Enough salad 
dressing was found in the refrigerator. 

Mary and Sue decided to bake some peanut cookies 
after school. The family was very fond of peanut butter 
in sandwiches also. There was a supply of white flour 
on hand. 


18. Would you advise that Mary buy a small or 
large jar of peanut butter? Why? 

19. Would Mary need to buy other ingredients for 
the cookies? 

20. How many articles have you on the copy you 
made of Mary's order list? 

21. Show that Mary kept the following in mind when 
she made her market list: 

a. A well planned meal 

b. The supplies on hand 

c. The home storage space 

d. The time the family could spend in cooking 

e. The keeping qualities of foods bought 
/. The need for general supplies 

g. Buying for more than one meal 

h. Use of left-overs 

*. Fitting the supply to the manner of cooking 

j. Avoiding waste 

READINGS. U. S. Bureau of Home Economics, Food selection and 
meal planning charts (8). 

SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. If you are interested in doing 
some additional work when you have finished this unit, you will 
find suggestions on page 269. 


Reasons for careful selection. Mary was now ready 
to go to the stores. She was anxious to have her family 
enjoy their meals, so decided to select the articles on her 
market list as carefully as possible. Mary also knew that 
if she made mistakes in buying, some of the food might 
be wasted. She and Sue occasionally wished they might 
have larger allowances. Mary knew that if money were 
carelessly spent upon food, there would be less to use for 
other things that the family wanted. Mary knew too that 
if she bought more than the family needed, the leftovers 
would create a problem. Sometimes leftovers are a source 
of considerable waste. She decided to examine each 
article carefully, and to go to several stores, perhaps, to 
compare the qualities and prices. In this way she would 
learn where she could get a good quality at a price that 
seemed fair. 


Freshness in vegetables. We enjoy fresh vegetables 
very much. Most people living in large cities seldom can 
enjoy the delightful flavors that are to be found in vege- 
tables freshly gathered from the kitchen garden. Vege- 
tables wilt easily because they are composed of a large 
part of water. When any of this water evaporates, the 
vegetable shrinks and becomes limp. WTien once this has 
happened, a vegetable does not have the same flavor as 




Fig. 53. Fresh and wilted vegetables. 
Before they wilted the withered vegetables were the same size as the fresh. 

when freshly picked. Even though refreshened with cold 
water, it can never wholly regain its delicate flavor. Con- 
sequently it was important for Mary to select vegetables 
that had been so carefully packed for shipping and so 
well cared for in the store that they had not wilted. 

1. It would be interesting to experiment in class with 
a vegetable to see just what effect wilting has on the 
flavor. Green beans would be a good vegetable for the 
experiment, although any other would do. Buy a 
quantity of fresh young beans. Put half of them into 
the refrigerator in a jar or other container, after 
sprinkling them lightly with water. Allow the other 
half to wilt in the warm laboratory. Cook both halves 
at the same time in exactly the same way, using a large 
quantity of rapidly boiling, salted water. Cook just 
till tender. How do they differ in flavor? 

How to know fresh vegetables, 
fresh vegetables by their appearance. 

We can recognize 
Green beans from 


which no water has been lost are crisp and firm and of a 
fresh color. They snap when a bit is broken off. When 
they have wilted, they are limp and tough. Limpness and 
a loss of their bright color usually tell us that vegetables 
are no longer fresh. The outer leaves of cabbage that is 
old are tough, limp, shriveled, and yellowed from loss of 
moisture. When beets and other root vegetables are no 
longer fresh, their leaves are wilted. When you go to the 
store, notice the condition of the different kinds of vege- 

2. Describe the appearance of lettuce, celery, and 
rhubarb which have lost their freshness. 

Time of wilting. As you can see in the illustration, 
we use all parts of the plant for food. The leaf of the 
plant is thin and has a large amount of exposed surface 
covered with pores. Leafy vegetables therefore lose 
moisture rapidly. A tuber or root has a much lower per- 
centage of exposed surface since it is thicker and so does 
not wilt so quickly. Stalks lose their moisture less rap- 
idly than leaves, but more rapidly than roots. 

3. Name some vegetables that wilt easily, and some 
that may be kept longer. 

4. If Mary shops at the same time for several days' 
meals, would you advise that she choose both of these 
classes of vegetables? Make a list that you think would 
be good. Which would she use first? 

Ripeness. Vegetables are best when they are not 
overripe. If they are overripe, they lose in flavor. The 
young vegetable contains a considerable amount of sugar 
which gives it a naturally sweet and delicate flavor. In 
the older vegetable the sugar has turned to starch, and the 
sweet flavor is lost. The overripe vegetable is tough be- 

Fig. 54. All parts of plants are used for food. 


cause the fiber has hardened, whereas in the young vege- 
table the cellulose is still soft. Some of our vegetables 
are mature, such as dried beans. These must be soaked 
and cooked a long time to soften the tough fiber. The 
pods of fresh peas at their prime are all green with no 
yellow spots. When the pods begin to get yellow and 
shriveled, they have started to mature, and we can ex- 
pect the peas to be somewhat hard. Peas should be 
shelled as soon as possible after they are bought since 
they continue to mature in the pods. Of course, once 
shelled they must be kept in a moist, cool atmosphere to 
prevent drying until such time as they will be used. 
Green beans that are too old are very fibrous and feel 
hard. They do not snap as easily as young beans and are 
a duller green. Unless of the stringless variety, they have 
large, tough strings. Spinach, broccoli, and other greens 
show the same toughening of fiber and dulling of color 
when they are overripe. 

. Amount of waste. Perfect vegetables give little 
waste. It is desirable therefore to buy well formed vege- 
tables. A well formed potato, for example, has the char- 
acteristic potato shape, and in addition it is smooth, with 
neither deep depressions nor knobs of extra growth. A 
badly formed potato may have areas of rot or may have 
a hollowed or discolored interior. Potatoes may be green 
from exposure to the sun or may have scars from being 
cut in digging. If potatoes have been either frostbitten 
or heated in storage, they will be discolored or have 
rotted spots, and thick parings must be cut away. 

In the photographs, page 200, you can see that in spite 
of very careful paring, the poor potatoes gave a waste of 
12 oz., while the good potatoes gave a waste of only 5 oz. 



Fig. 55. Waste in potatoes. 

A. Perfect and imperfect potatoes. B. The same potatoes peeled, show- 
ing the amount of waste. 

The good potatoes cost 45 ct. a peck while the poor ones 
cost 38 ct. a peck. Two pounds of each kind were bought. 
A peck of potatoes weighs 15 Ib. 

5. How much did each Ib. of good potatoes cost? 
Two Ibs.? 

6. How much did each Ib. of poor potatoes cost? 
Two Ibs.? 

To find out which potatoes really cost most, we must 
learn how much the edible portion of each cost. A Ib. 
weighs 16 oz. In two Ibs., then, there would be 32 oz. 
32 oz. 5 oz. (the waste) = 27 oz. of edible portion of 
the good potatoes. 


32 oz. --12 oz. (the waste)=20 oz. of edible portion 
if the poor potatoes 

6 ct. -r- 27==.22 ct., cost per oz. of edible portion of the 
good potatoes 

16 X .22 ct.=3.5 ct., cost per Ib. 

15 X 3.5 ct=52.5 ct., cost per pk. 

5 ct. -7- 20=.25 ct., cost per oz. of edible portion of the 
poor potatoes 

16 X -25 ct.=4 ct., cost per Ib. 
15X4 ct.=60 ct., cost per pk. 

7. Which potatoes do you think were the better buy? 

8. In what ways may other vegetables be imperfect? 

9. Perhaps your class would like to experiment with 
other vegetables in the same way to discover whether 
low priced, imperfect vegetables may be a costly pur- 

Other qualities. There are other qualities that we 
watch for in certain vegetables. A head of cabbage that 
is solid may have a smaller core than one that is not so 
solid. There is less waste in the same weight of cabbage 
in outer leaves when the head is solid than when the head 
is not so firm. A solid head of lettuce usually has a better 
flavor than one which is not well packed. Since lettuce 
is sold at a certain price per head, it is especially im- 
portant that we choose firm, well shaped heads. Lettuce 
sometimes has brown areas on the edges of the leaves 
which look like rust. This discoloration may go entirely 
through the head and cause much waste. When lettuce 
has been iced for a long time to keep it fresh and is then 
exposed to the air, the whiter portions turn pink, espe- 
cially along the ribs. Of course, this also causes a great 
deal of waste. Tomatoes that are green on the stem side 



Fig. 56. Imperfections in tomatoes are a source of waste. 

A. A scar that must be cut away rather deeply. B. This tomato has 
a good shape and is free of serious imperfections. C. Deep cracks in 
this tomato allows the entrance of bacteria that soon cause decay. 
D. This tomato is badly shaped and is withered. 

although otherwise well colored must be thickly trimmed 
before they are suitable for serving and in addition may 
have a heavy core. 

10. Can you describe qualities in other vegetables 
which we choose or avoid when purchasing? 


Courtesy U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Fig. 57. Graded tomatoes in boxes. 

Advantages of grading. Well graded vegetables are 
worth more than the ungraded. Many of our vegetables 
are now graded as to size and quality. For example, to- 
matoes of the same size are often packed in boxes by the 
wholesale produce dealer who bought from the farmer. 


The number of tomatoes in the box is printed on the label. 
The wholesaler is careful to put into the box only those 
tomatoes that are of good quality. When we buy three 
pounds of these graded tomatoes, we can be surer that 
they are all good than we could be if we bought three 
pounds of tomatoes which were put into a basket as they 
were picked, large and small, good and imperfect to- 

Graded vegetables cost more than the ungraded but 
are worth more. Sometimes, however, the extra cost of 
grading does not give enough value to be worth while. 
Below is a picture of some Idaho potatoes which were 
graded, washed, and wrapped. You can see they are of 
exactly the same size and shape. They cost 23 cents for 
5 Ib. The other Idaho potatoes were not so carefully 
graded as to size, nor so well washed, and they were not 
wrapped, but for ordinary purposes would serve very well. 
They cost but 15 cents for 5 Ib. 

Fig. 58. Baking potatoes may be bought graded and wrapped, as 
on the right, or in bulk. Grading and wrapping increases cost. 


11. How much more would it cost to serve 5 Ibs. 
of the wrapped potatoes than the unwrapped? 

12. Can you give an example when the grading might 
be worth the extra cost? 

When to buy canned vegetables. This is a question 
we often have difficulty in answering. Canned vegetables 
usually are quite different in flavor from the fresh. Al- 
though the flavor is different, we find some kinds of vege- 
tables very desirable if they are well canned. In large 
cities it is sometimes difficult to buy really fresh vege- 
tables because of the time taken to ship them in from the 
farmers and sell them. On the other hand, factories are 
often able to gather the vegetables from the field, and can 
them within the space of a few hours. The canning fac- 
tory also is able to put up vegetables when they are at 
just the right stage of maturity, whereas we cannot al- 
ways buy fresh vegetables in this condition. Vitamin C, 
which is destroyed by long cooking in an open kettle, 
seems not to be lost to the same extent when foods are 
canned by the factory method. Likewise, the mineral 
content and the other vitamins may not be lost to such an 
extent in canned vegetables as those badly prepared in the 
home. Sometimes, then, canned vegetables are better 
in nutrition value than those prepared at home, especially 
when the home-prepared vegetables are overcooked. 

A comparison of costs. The season of the year de- 
termines to a considerable extent whether it is more eco- 
nomical to purchase canned or fresh vegetables. Mrs. 
Johnson, who lived in a northern city, was interested to 
learn one day early in March whether she would be wise 
to purchase fresh green beans, since she knew that from 
a nutritional standpoint, the canned were probably as 


good. Her family particularly enjoyed the flavor of the 
fresh beans, although they were well satisfied with a good 
grade of the canned. She was interested to find out how 
much she would be paying for flavor if she bought the 
fresh beans. Below is a table that shows what she learned 
when she measured the contents of two cans of beans and 
cooked an equal amount of fresh beans and compared the 
costs. The cans were of No. 2 size. 

Canned Beans 

1 can = 2 cups Cut bean, tender, large pod, good 

flavor 10 cts. 

High quality stringless, very ten- 
der 17 cts. 

Fresh Beans 

Quart = 2 cups Good quality, stringless 25 cts. 

The cut beans she judged to be of about the same 
degree of tenderness as the fresh, while the stringless 
were of better quality. 

13. How much would Mrs. Johnson be paying for 
flavor in each two cups if she bought the fresh beans 
rather than the cut beans? The stringless? 

14. Suppose that Mrs. Johnson's family liked beans 
and had them on an average of twice a week. Two 
number 2 cans were needed for one meal. Suppose she 
chose the cut beans instead of the fresh. How much 
would she save in a month at this rate? 

Similar savings may be made in practically all foods 
without lowering the nutritional value of the diet and 
without sacrificing satisfactory flavors. You can see that 
by careful buying of foods a family might save enough 
in a year to buy and do many things that they would 
greatly enjoy. 


15. Can you buy canned beans at the prices Mrs. 
Johnson paid? 

16. If a woman in Montana and one in Florida made 
this study on the same day in March, would they find 
the comparisons in costs to be the same? Explain. 

17. Perhaps you would like to make a similar study 
in the laboratory using a variety of vegetables. You 
may get entirely different results from those that Mrs. 
Johnson found. Your results will depend upon the 
season of the year because the cost of fresh vegetables 
is different at different seasons. Your figures may be 
different because of the place in which you live. The 
north and the south, small towns and large cities, both 
vary as to prices of fresh vegetables and also of the 
canned of the same quality. 

A general rule. In general it is the best practice to 
buy fresh fruits and vegetables in season, and to use the 
unseasonable foods canned for the sake of their food 
values and of variety. Unseasonable fruits and vegetables 
often are of poor quality and flavor and give us little 
return for our money. However, by improvement in ways 
of packing and by shortening the time it takes to ship, 
the season of many rather perishable foods is being 
lengthened. Our southern states ship huge quantities of 
vegetables in late winter and spring into the north, so 
that we now have a rather long period when fresh vege- 
tables are in season. Formerly we had to wait for warm 
weather in near-by regions and our own. Because of 
improvements in cold-storage methods, many fruits and 
vegetables are to be had fresh almost the entire year. 

Things to Keep in Mind When Buying Vegetables 

a. Are they fresh or wilted? 

b. Are they neither green nor overripe? 

c. Are they of such quality that there will be little waste? 

d. Are they graded, or are various sizes and qualities mixed? 


e. Are they in season? 

/. Shall I buy the canned or the fresh? 

READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 247-364. 

Monroe and Stratton, Food Buying and Our Markets, Ch. xxii., 
Preparation of Fresh Tomatoes for Market, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, Farmer's Bulletin, No. 1291. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. You will find suggestions for 
additional problems on vegetables on page 269. 


Variety of fruits. The American table has fruits from 
all over the world. We probably import a greater variety 
and quantity of fruit than any other kind of food. Figs, 
dates, bananas, pomegranates, avocados, and pineapples 
are among the fruits very commonly imported fresh. We 
now produce many fruits which formerly could be had 
only from foreign countries. For example, we produce 
dates, ordinarily a tropical fruit, in parts of the southwest. 
We have recently come to understand how very impor- 
tant it is to have fruit in our diets. As a consequence the 
consumption of fruit in the United States has increased 

Selecting according to use. Oranges. The use we 
make of fruits determines the kind we select. Oranges 
bought for juice may be different from those we plan 
for a salad or to serve in halves for breakfast. The thin- 
skinned, juicy Florida oranges are economical for juice 
although they ordinarily contain many seeds. On the 
other hand, they do not slice so well for a salad as do 
the thicker-skinned, seedless navel oranges from Califor- 
nia. Small Florida oranges that may be very cheap are 
satisfactory for juice. We prefer the large seedless 
oranges, however, if we plan to eat them with a spoon 


from the shell. When we make marmalade, we choose 
oranges with a perfect skin. Imperfections that do not 
affect the flavor are of no consequence when we do not 
use the skin. 

Apples. Apples differ very much in quality. A good 
eating apple is different from one which may very well 
be used in cooking. The Delicious apple justifies its name 
as an eating apple yet is inferior to some others for cook- 
ing. Ordinarily we prefer apples for cooking to be more 
tart than those we choose for eating. Apples may have 
somewhat poor color and rough skins and be just as good 
for cooking as the more perfect apples we prefer for 
eating. Apples differ in the way they cook. Some apples, 
especially those that ripen in the summer, break up in 
boiling water and make fine, delicate applesauce. Others, 
particularly the fall apples, are more firm and make good 
stewed apples since they retain their shape. If a syrup is 
made of the sugar and water before adding the apples, 
they break up still less. 

18. What apples which you can buy in your neigh- 
borhood make good applesauce? Which keep their 

19. If you do not know, perhaps you could experi- 
ment to find out. 

20. Can you give examples of other fruits, the varie- 
ties of which determine the use we make of them? 

Waste due to imperfections. Bananas with black 
spots on the skin usually have soft and discolored spots 
that must be removed. Berries that are no longer fresh 
may have mouldy clumps which must be discarded. Some 
fruits are more perishable than others. These must have 
careful attention and must be used soon after they are 


Courtesy G. H. Howe, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Fig. 59. Waste results from imperfections. 
These photographs show two of many kinds of imperfections in apples. 

purchased. Strawberries and peaches are soft fruits 
containing much water, and therefore bruise and mold 
easily. Quinces, apples, and pears are examples of fruits 
that keep more satisfactorily. Oranges and grapefruit 
soften rather quickly in a warm atmosphere and, when 
soft, become sour and unfit for use. When the price is 
considerably lower, slightly imperfect fruit may be a 
more economical purchase. We must always keep in 
mind, however, that the flavor may be affected if the 
imperfections of fruit extend to the inside. 

21. Can you give examples in which imperfections 
affect only the outside? 

22. Some in which the pulp of the fruit has been 

Size and real cost. The size of fruit may affect its 
real cost. Small fruits that must be peeled, or seeded, 
or both, are less economical than the larger fruits of the 
same kind unless they cost much less. On page 211 is 
a table that shows that with a much lower cost per pound 


it is more economical to buy the smaller sized fruit in 
spite of the greater waste. Prunes and other dried fruits 
are graded according to the number it takes to make a 
pound. The larger the fruit, the fewer there are in a 

23. In which size would there be more seeds per 

24. If the seeds were the same size, in which would 
there be the more waste? 

To find out how much we pay for the portion of the 
prune that we can eat (edible portion) we take out the 
seeds of a pound of prunes and weigh the pulp. Suppose 
that 14 oz. was the edible portion of a pound costing 28 
cts. We would be paying 28 cts. for 14 oz. of edible 
portion, or 2 cts. per oz. A pound of edible portion then 
would cost 32 cts. 







18 to 24 per Ib 



edible portion 


m + o 40 * 




edible portion 



40 to SO ' " 

bou r ht 




edible portion 



1 University of Chicago, Department of Home Economics. 

Because retailers and purchasers recognize that there 
is more waste per pound in the smaller prunes, this size 
is cheaper than the larger ones. There may be such a 
great difference between the prices that the edible portion 
of the smaller prunes is the less costly. However, if 


there is little difference in price, the edible portion of the 
larger prunes may be the less costly. In the table on 
page 211 you will find a comparison of the costs of 
prunes of three different sizes and at two different types 
of stores. 

25. Flavor being equally good, which prunes would 
you buy? Where? 

26. Perhaps you could make a similar table for some 
other fruit. Oranges may be compared for juice, 
apples and other fruits may be peeled and cored for 
comparison. You may find the large fruit to be more 

27. Is the flavor of the smaller fruit as good as that 
of the larger? The way to test this is to have the 
teacher put some of each of the fruit on different saucers 
so that no one in the class will know which is which. 
Then taste and vote on the flavor. Do you think that 
the votes would be unbiased if the class talked about 
the flavors before voting? 

"All-season" fruits. Some fruits ripen over a long 
period and may stand for a time. These are "all-season 
fruits." The orange, grapefruit, and apple are of this 
type. Other fruits are highly seasonal such as peaches 
and strawberries. These fruits mature during but a 
short season and are difficult to keep fresh. As a result 
we do not preserve the orange and grapefruit to any 
great extent, because they are preferable from the nutri- 
tional standpoint when raw. On the other hand, if we 
want peaches occasionally during the entire year, we 
must can, dry, or preserve them. Methods of preserving 
fruits have reached a high state of perfection. A new 
method is that of freezing the fresh fruit and keeping it 
frozen solid. When ready to use, it is allowed to thaw 
out. In this way cherries, strawberries, and other fruits 


may be eaten practically fresh during any time of the 

Increasing variety. Canned and dried fruits differ 
in flavor. We like to use both kinds for variety and 
because of the nutritional content of the brown dried 
fruits. The dried fruits require more preparation than 
do the canned. However they are usually cheaper, so 
we can reduce our food costs as well as increase variety 
by serving both kinds. 

28. Compare the cost of canned peaches with dried 
peaches. You can do this by measuring the contents 
of a can of peaches and finding the cost of an equal 
measure of the dried peaches which have been soaked 
and cooked. Be sure to soak them long enough to make 
them palatable and to have the same amount of liquid 
in each case. Estimate the cost of the sugar used. 

Things to Keep in Mind When Buying Fruits 

a. What use is to be made of them? 

b. Will the imperfections cause waste? 

c. Considering flavor as well as edible portion, which is better 
to buy, small sized fruit at a lower cost, or larger fruit at 
a higher cost? 

d. Which of those on the market should be purchased fresh? 
Which should be purchased canned? 

e. Is variety being provided? 

READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 43-47. 

Monroe and Stratton, Food Buying and Our Markets, Ch. xxii. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Farmer's Bulletin, No. 1160, 
"Diseases of Apples in Storage." 

SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. There are suggestions for 
additional problems on purchasing fruit on page 270. 


Grades of canned fruits and vegetables. The same 
quality of fruit may be canned in different ways, as for 


example sliced and halved peaches, peeled and unpeeled 
apricots. Canned fruits are of different grades, the 
choicest pieces in heavy syrup making the finest grade 
sometimes called fancy. Smaller pieces or large pieces 
not quite perfect in shape, size, or color are canned with 
a syrup not so sweet, and make the extra standard, or 
choice grade. Fruit of imperfect shape, and not uniform 
in degree of ripeness or color, in a still lighter syrup is 
used in the third grade called standard. Pie fruit is 
canned without sugar and makes another grade. All of 
this fruit is wholesome but may vary considerably in 
flavor. Vegetables also have this grading, the fancy 
grade being made up of food having the best color and 
the most tender qualities, in pieces of selected size and 
shape. Poorer qualities of vegetables are found in the 
lower grades. 

Brands. Since we cannot examine the contents of 
cans in stores, we must have some other way of judging 
quality. In the absence of a better way of judging, we 
have come to depend upon brand names. Large canning 
companies advertise their brands all over the country at 
a great expense. They therefore must keep the quality 
of their brand as nearly uniform as is possible in order 
that people will continue to buy. Otherwise the money 
devoted to advertising would be wasted. Small canning 
companies do not advertise widely, nor do they depend 
so much upon the same people asking for their particular 
brand. We therefore may depend more surely upon the 
nationally advertised brands than we can upon those 
which we buy but occasionally. 

. 29. What canned foods does your family buy by 


Brand names unsatisfactory as a guarantee of quality. 
If it were possible for canners always to keep the quality 
of a certain brand the same, we could select the brand we 
consider best at the price and continue to buy it. It is 
impossible for canners always to keep the quality the 
same. For example, there are many canneries for peas 
in Wisconsin. If the weather is cool and enough rain 
falls, the peas grown will be very tender and sweet. If 
the farmers are careful to pick the peas and bring them 
to the cannery when they are just ripe enough, the canned 
peas will be very good. In two weeks the weather may 
turn very hot, and no rain may fall. The peas that ripen 
now will not have the same fine qualities as the earlier 
ones. Sometimes the peas for a whole season will be 
superior to those of another season. We can see then 
that the brand cannot always be depended upon as a 
guarantee of quality. 

Pure Food Law. In 1906 a law was passed by the 
federal government to protect us against harmful in- 
gredients in canned foods This law prohibits adulterants 
and allows coloring matter only under certain conditions. 
When coloring is used, that fact must be stated on the 
label. A label must accurately describe the contents. 
For example, a whole tomato may not be pictured on a 
can of tomato soup. Canning factories must be clean, 
and food must not be allowed to overripen or spoil before 
it is canned. In 1930 this law was amended at the 
request of canners themselves so that further assurance 
of quality may be given to those of us who select foods. 
The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to describe a 
fair standard for the quality and condition of the foods 
canned, and the amount in the can. Each label must 


state whether the food in that particular can is of this 
standard or below it. We must remember that all food 
canned is wholesome food. The Pure Food Law guar- 
antees this. The amendment will help us to know whether 
what we select is above or below the standard of excel- 
lence set by the government. 

30. Is this more helpful than the guarantee by 
brands? Explain. 

31. Can you bring a label of a can to class that 
states the quality according to the government standard? 

Information from labels. Sometimes labels give us 
other helpful information. For example, you may see 
on a can of peas a number that indicates the size of the 
peas. In certain brands the largest peas are number 6 
while the smallest are number 1. However, the size of 
the peas alone does not indicate the quality, for the 
tiny peas may be hard and flavorless. On page 217 are 
pictures of labels, some giving little information, others 

32. Discuss the kinds of information that you would 
like to have on a can of peas, and tell in what ways 
you think each statement would be helpful. Would a 
statement of the nutritional value in calories, minerals, 
and so on be of value? Would you like to know 
whether sugar, salt, and other seasonings have been 
added? Can you add anything to the list which would 
be useful? 

33. Make a collection of labels of canned goods, 
cereal boxes, bottled products, etc., to see how much 
information one may get from them that would help 
in selecting a quality of product that would be satisfac- 

1 LB. 4QZS 




I.S. PAT Off. 



1 LB. 4 OZ. 




ft EC, US PAT OF P. 

Fig. 60. Labels on cans. 

The label at the top gives only the information required by law in 
1930. What additional information is given on the label in the center? 
Would the information suggested on the label at the bottom help one to 
select canned peas more satisfactorily? 


Size of can. All canners use the standard-sized cans. 
Following is a table that gives these standard sizes and 
the approximate contents of each one in cups. 1 

Size Cups 

1 ...................... H 

2 ...................... 2f 

3 ...................... 4 

10 ...................... 13i 

Cans smaller than the number 1 are used for sardines, 
deviled meat, and so on. A number 5 can is put out by 
some canners, but is not common. The number 1 can 
may be flat, tall, or oval in shape. The number 2 size 
is the one commonly used for peas and corn. The num- 
ber 3 size was formerly used for tomatoes but is being 
abandoned in favor of the number 2^ size. This size is 
regularly used for peaches, pears, and other fruits. The 
number 10 size is used largely for pie fruit, and for fruit 
and vegetables for restaurants and institutions. 

34. Make a collection in class of cans of the various 

Advantage of buying in quantity. Foods of the same 
quality are cheaper when purchased in the larger cans. 
You can see why this is true since the can and the labor 
of canning the food in the number 1 can is almost as 
much as in the number 2^ can. It is to our advantage, 
therefore, to choose a can large enough to serve the 
family for two meals, when what is left can be kept from 

1 Day Monroe and Lenore M. Stratton, Food Buying and Our 
Markets (M. Barrows & Co., 1926), p. 188. 


spoiling, rather than a can just large enough for one 
meal. In addition, the fruits in the number 2J cans are 
usually better than in the number 1 cans. 

35. Perhaps you would like to discover just how much 
a family might save by buying the larger cans. Choose 
any fruit or vegetable or other packaged or canned 
food for this study. Examine the labels on cans of 
different sizes. 'Each can should be of the same brand 
of the same food. Note the net contents of each can in 
ounces. Then find out how much each ounce costs. 
How much more does an ounce in the smaller can cost 
than in the larger? How much would a family save by 
buying the larger can instead of enough of the smaller 
cans to make an equal amount? Below is an example 
that will help you solve your problems. 

Small Can Larger Can 

Net Contents 3i oz. 8 oz. 

Cost 7 cts. 13 cts. 

Cost per oz. 7 -*- 3.2 = $.0219 13 -*- 8 = $.0162 

Difference between costs per oz.= $.0219-.0162 = .0057 

Saved by buying the larger can = $.0057 X 8 = $.04 or 4^ saved on 8 oz. 

36. If each member of the class chose a different 
food, you might have enough information to compute 
the savings on a market list for several days. 

Things To Keep in Mind When Buying Canned Goods 

a. Different grades may be bought at different prices. 

b. It is well to buy by brands when we have no more accurate 
way of selecting for quality. 

c. We may get some information from labels. 

d. It is more economical to purchase larger cans provided no 
waste results. 

READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 242- 
245, 527, 529. 


Monroe and Stratton, Food Buying and Our Markets, Ch. xxi. 
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. You will find suggestions for 
additional problems on purchasing canned goods on page 270. 


Keeping eggs fresh. Freshness is exceedingly impor- 
tant in eggs since their flavor is easily spoiled. The shells 
of eggs are porous, that is, they allow air to pass through 
them. Perfectly fresh eggs fill their shells. When eggs 
have stood for a time, some of the moisture has evap- 
orated and air spaces have formed in one end. If you 
shake stale eggs you can feel and sometimes even hear 
the movement of the contents in the shell. As the air 
enters the shell it may carry with it bacteria that cause 
the egg to spoil as well as flavors that may affect the 
taste of the egg. It is always best to keep eggs cool 
since these changes take place rapidly if the eggs are 
warm. Eggs that shake are not necessarily spoiled. If 
they have been kept cold enough, harmful bacteria have 
not had a chance to develop. If eggs have not been kept 
near strong flavored foods, they will not have taken up 
distasteful flavors. Proper storage enables us to keep 
eggs in good condition for many weeks. Newly laid eggs 
are coated with a film that protects them somewhat. Eggs 
should not be washed until ready to use since washing re- 
moves this protective coating. 

37. Break two eggs, one a week or two old, the other 
fresh, into different saucers. How do the yolks differ 
in appearance? The whites? 

Equalizing the supply of fresh eggs. The supply of 
strictly fresh eggs varies. During the cold winter, for 
example, hens do not lay as many eggs as they lay in the 


^ * *mi&^ 



Courtesy Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

A. B. 

Fig. 61. Fresh and stale eggs. 

A. A fresh egg before the candle and out of the shell. Observe that 
the yolk stands up. B. Stale egg, showing a settled yolk and a thin 
white before the candle and out of the shell. 

spring unless the farmer warms the coop, puts electric 
lights in the pens and chooses the feed carefully. When 
the pen is lighted morning and evening, the hens may 
spend the same length of time eating and scratching as 
they do in the summer. This causes them to lay more 
eggs. For many years it was the practice for families to 
pack eggs in salt, grain, or water glass when eggs were 
plentiful and keep them till winter when the supply was 
limited. The salt or other preservative protects them 
against moving air. This prevents rapid evaporation of 


water and the taking up of germs and odors. To-day 
cold-storage plants preserve eggs by modern methods, 
Eggs are candled before being put into storage. That is, 
they are held up before a strong light. If a dark spot 
shows in the yolk, it is no longer fresh, and the egg is not 
put into storage. The temperature is kept low enough to 
prevent the growth of bacteria in the eggs. 

Use of cold-storage eggs. Cold-storage eggs differ 
from fresh eggs in flavor and in the way they stand up 
when broken into a saucer. However they are perfectly 
good for use in cooking when other ingredients are mixed 
with them. When cooked separately as for breakfast, we 
prefer the flavor of a new-laid egg. 

Judging eggs. There are certain conditions that make 
eggs unfit for food. If they have a rotten-egg odor, if the 
yolk sticks to the shell, or if there is a large dark spot in 
the yolk, we would not enjoy foods in which they were 
used. If the yolk has streaked the white, the egg has 
probably spoiled. We must not confuse accidental mixing 
of the yolk and white in breaking the egg with actual 

Grades of eggs. Besides the grading into fresh and 
storage eggs, there are other classifications. Some 
farmers keep the nests so clean that the eggs are not 
soiled. Such eggs need not be washed when they are 
marketed and so may be better flavored than those which 
were soiled and washed. Some breeds of hens lay smaller 
eggs than others. When we buy eggs by the dozen, we 
should not pay as much for a dozen of the smaller eggs 
as we pay for a dozen of the larger ones of the same 
quality. The color of the shell does not affect the flavor 
or the food value of an egg. 


38. By comparing the contents of large and small 
eggs, you can see that the large ones are worth more. 
How many large eggs does it take to fill half a cup? 
How many of the small ones? How many of the 
small ones would it take to equal a dozen of the 

39. Explain why it might be of advantage to buy 
eggs by the pound rather than by the dozen. 

40. How many large eggs would it take to make a 
pound? How many of the small? What is the weight 
of shell in the pound of large eggs? Of the small? 
Which should be sold at the lower price? 

Things To Remember When Buying Eggs 

a. Cold storage eggs are satisfactory to use when mixed with 
other ingredients 

b. Fresh eggs are most desirable for table use 

c. We should not pay as much per dozen for small eggs 
. as for large ones 

READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 92-95. 

Monroe and Stratton, Food Buying and Our Markets, Ch. xxv. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. On page 270 is given an addi- 
tional problem on purchasing eggs. 

. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 575, "How to Candle 


Spoiling of milk. Milk spoils very easily. That is, 
harmful bacteria live and grow rapidly in milk that is 
kept warm. Two kinds of bacteria live in milk, one of 
which is beneficial to our digestion. This kind causes 
milk to sour and thicken into clabber milk. From this 
clabber, we make cheese. The other group is composed 
of harmful bacteria such as the germs of diphtheria, 
tuberculosis, and typhoid fever. If cows are ill with 
tuberculosis, their milk will contain the germs of this 
disease. Occasionally people are diphtheria carriers. 



O Hld for 24 houra 
Fm * " 48 " 
^ n 72 
@ " 'i 96 " 


-40 F. 




Courtesy U. S. Bureau of Home Economics. 


60* F. 

Fig. 62. A chart showing how bacteria in milk increases at 
different temperatures over different periods of time. 

That is, even while they do not have this disease, they 
carry and scatter the germs. Such a person working in 
a dairy could infect all the milk sold by that dairy. 
Typhoid germs are carried very often in water. If dairy 
utensils are washed in water containing these germs and 
are not sterilized by boiling or by steam, all those who 
drink milk put into these Utensils are exposed to typhoid. 


Fig. 63. To produce clean milk, the barn, cows and milkers 
must be clean. 

Notice that this building is light and well ventilated. The stanchions 
are of metal and there is no debris about. 

Laws concerning milk. In the interests of health, 
many states and cities have passed regulations for dairy 
companies. In these regions dairy herds must be ex- 
amined by government inspectors, who remove all the 
cows whose milk might cause illness. All workers must 
be in good health. Sterilization of all dairy utensils is 
demanded. Milk must be pasteurized and delivered in 
bottles with paper caps, on which is printed the day 
of pasteurization. Water makes up the bulk of milk. 
As you learned in Unit II, the remainder is fat, sugar, 
minerals, and protein. In most states the law requires 
that milk have a certain percentage of cream. In some 
states 4 per cent of the milk must be fat. The govern- 
ment helps us by requiring that no dairies sell us milk 
that does not have this standard of richness. Many milk 
distributors voluntarily provide milk which is richer than 
the government standard. 



Pasteurization. In pasteurizing, milk is heated to 
145 for about 30 minutes, and then cooled very quickly. 
This kills the harmful bacteria but allows many of the 
beneficial kind to remain. Longer heating at a higher 
temperature would change the flavor of the milk a great 
deal and would kill all the bacteria present. Pasteurized 
milk is safe, even though many germs were present before 
treatment. However, we much prefer that our milk be 
kept as free from germs as possible before pasteurization, 
so we insist that dairies be extremely careful in the way 
they handle their milk. Certified milk may be bought in 
some regions. This milk has not been pasteurized but 

Fig. 64. Milk being bottled in a sanitary way. 

Milk is coming from the pasteurizing and cooling vats through the 
pipe above the man's head. Each bottle is filled and capped by the 
machine before being sent out. 


is taken from tested cows and is handled in such a 
careful manner that no disease-producing bacteria are 
present. This milk is designed for the feeding of babies 
and invalids. 

41. Does your state or city have laws regulating dairy 
companies? You can find out by writing to the state 
department of health at the state capital and to the 
department of health in your city. 

Handling milk in our homes. We must handle milk 
carefully in our homes. Even though milk may be clean 
and free from harmful bacteria when it is delivered to us, 
careless handling in our homes may cause it to become 
unfit for food. It is usually delivered to us in bottles 
covered with caps. We should keep it in these bottles in 
a cool place and covered. Before removing the cap, we 
should wash the top of the bottle carefully, unless it is 
double-capped, to remove any bacteria or dirt that may 
have collected upon it. We should care for milk, as well 
as all other food*-, immediately when it is delivered, since 
delay allows it to spoil. 

Prepared milk. In many regions it is impossible to 
buy fresh milk. Condensed, evaporated, and powdered 
milk must then be depended upon to supply the nutri- 
tional elements which you found to be so important. In 
places where fresh milk costs more than the powdered 
or canned, and when otherwise it might not be possible 
to buy as much milk as the family needs, the prepared 
milk should be used in cooking. In some dishes the pre- 
pared milk improves the flavor. Ordinarily we prefer 
the fresh milk to drink, although some people learn to 
enjoy the prepared kind even as a beverage. For the 


food value which milk gives it is cheap at the prices 
ordinarily charged. 

42. What is the difference between evaporated and 
condensed milk? You may learn this by studying the 
labels on the cans. 

43. Does the evaporated or powdered milk cost less 
in your neighborhood than the fresh milk? Follow the 
directions on the cans and prepare a quantity of each. 
Compare its cost with an equal quantity of fresh milk. 

Buying beverages for food value. One day a little 
girl, poorly clad and sickly looking, came into a store 
with twenty cents. With this money she bought a bottle 
of ginger ale. For thirteen cents she might have bought 
a quart of milk. Below is a graph that shows how a 
bottle of ginger ale compares with milk in its food values. 
A quart of milk contains 600 calories while a bottle of 
ginger ale has but 136. In the second group, the empty 
bottle shows that there is no calcium in ginger ale. 

44. Does ginger ale have any protein? Any vitamin? 

45. Do you think the little girl chose well? 

46. How much might she have saved in a week if 
she had bought milk each day instead of ginger ale? 

600 136 

Fig. 65. Ginger ale and other synthetic drinks give little food 
value for the money spent. 

A small amount of sugar gives them some calorie value; but they are 
lacking in minerals and vitamins. 


47. With this saving might she have bought some 
article of clothing which would have made her feel and 
look better? 

Things To Remember When Buying Milk 

a. Is the milk safe, that is, has it been pasteurized or pro- 
duced under conditions that insure its freedom from 

b. Does the method of keeping it in the home keep it safe? 

c. When shall we buy prepared milk? 

READINGS. There are many references on milk which you may 
find in the books listed at other places in this unit. Look up milk 
in the indexes of these books. What do you find that suggests 
there will be information on the pages listed about the purchase of 
milk? Review the section on milk to see what are some of the 
subjects you might select to read about. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. On page 271 you will find an 
additional problem on milk if you have time when you have finished 
the unit. Perhaps you have some problem of your own you would 
like to do. 


Source of cost. Cheese is made from milk, either 
whole or skimmed. The milk is allowed to form curds, 
either through the addition of rennet, a substance ex- 
tracted from the lining of calves' stomachs, or by souring, 
or perhaps by both. Then the whey, the watery portion, 
is drained away. The more thoroughly this whey is re- 
moved, the harder the cheese becomes. One hundred 
pounds of milk makes from 7 to 11 or more pounds of 
cheese. The cheeses are cured or ripened for some months 
and are treated in different ways in order to obtain the 
flavor that is desired. It is this flavor that determines 
how costly or how inexpensive a cheese will be. People 
who enjoy cheese very much are willing to pay high 


prices for the kinds that have the distinctive flavors which 
some of the processes give. 

Varieties of cheese. A great variety of cheeses were 
developed in Europe, countries and many communities 
within a country each developing its particular kind. 
For many years it was necessary to import these different 
varieties. American cheese manufacturers, however, have 
now learned to make cheeses of flavors, many of which 
resemble closely the European products. 

48. Perhaps you could have samples of imported 
and domestic Roquefort, Camembert and other cheeses 
in class. 

Hard cheeses. The common American cheese is a 
hard cheese, called Cheddar. It is of a light- or deep- 
yellow color and comes in round cakes of varying 
diameters and thicknesses. From these cakes the grocer 
cuts wedges of the size his customers want and sells it 
by the pound or part of a pound. 

Another hard cheese is Swiss, which is very pale yellow 
in color, of a sweet and nutty flavor, and is filled with 
small holes. It requires from three to ten months to 
ripen this cheese and the more regular the holes, the 
better is the cheese judged to be. These cheeses are 
very large in size, averaging about 100 pounds each. The 
domestic varieties are called Swiss cheese, while the im- 
ported is labeled Switzerland cheese. Pineapple and 
Edam are also hard cheeses with different flavors. 

Semi-hard cheeses. Roquefort. Perhaps this is the 
best known of the semi-hard cheeses. It is of a creamy 
white color and is streaked with a greenish mold that 
grows in the ripening process on the crumbs of bread 


which have been sprinkled into the curds of sheep's milk. 
It is ripened in caves which are of such a temperature 
and humidity that a particular mold develops to give it 
the sharp, nippy flavor which so many people enjoy. It 
has been found difficult to treat cheese in this country 
to give quite the same flavor. 

Camembert and Brie. These cheeses are similar in 
flavor and appearance. They are molded in discs about 
1^ inches thick and a few inches across. A mold grows 
on the outside and develops the flavor of the cheese. 
When properly ripened, the cheese is quite soft but does 
not run. Both of these kinds of cheese are now made in 
this country. 

Unripened soft cheese. Cottage and Philadelphia 
cream cheese are examples of this type. Often manu- 
facturers vary soft cheeses by adding seasonings such as 
pimento and caraway seeds, each manufacturer having his 
own brand. 

Buying cheese. The kind of cheese we purchase 
should depend upon how it is to be used. The hard 
cheeses keep longer than those that are soft, and so may 
be kept on hand for seasonings. Those cheeses that are 
particularly valued for their individual flavors such as 
Swiss, Roquefort, and Camembert are more expensive 
than the ordinary Cheddar cheese and are reserved for 
table use. The inexpensive cheeses are used for cooking. 
The soft cheeses which have not been ripened must be 
kept cool and eaten soon after purchase since they spoil 

49. Perhaps you may obtain samples of these cheeses 
and others that the class could taste. The unusual 
cheeses are considered to be delicacies. 


50. A committee may get prices for a rather wide 
number of cheeses, both domestic and imported. No- 
tice the label to see what is the net weight. Make a 
report on relative costs and tell the class what you 
think is the reason for the difference. Compute the cost 
per pound of each kind. 

Things To Keep in Mind When Buying Cheese 

a. Which cheese does your family enjoy because of its flavor? 

b. Which kinds should be used for the table and which kind 
for cooking? 

c. How do I expect to use the cheese I am about to purchase? 

READINGS. Monroe and Stratton, Food Buying and Our Mar- 
kets, Ch. xx. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Farmer's Bulletin No. 608, 
"Varieties of Cheese: Description and Analyses." 

SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. On page 271 you will find 
an additional problem on cheese. 


Buying staples. The staples are the foods we use 
regularly and may plan to keep on hand. Such articles 
as salt, butter, spices, flavorings, vinegar, cocoa, bread, 
and breakfast cereals would be classed as staples. Each 
article has certain qualities that make it satisfactory. 
For example, we like salt to be rather fine grained, and 
to remain free from lumps. Sometimes we choose the 
kind that contains iodine. We like our spices to be 
freshly ground because of the finer flavor and odor. 
Small quantities of staples cost more per ounce or pound 
than the same quantity costs when bought in larger 
amounts. Perhaps your class would like to show that 
this is commonly true. 

51. Each member of the class might choose a differ- 
ent staple and price it in the smallest quantity she can 


buy, and in the largest, and compare the cost per 
ounce or pound. Then each might report on what she 
has found. Your teacher will help you to select the 

52. Would it be advisable for a small family to buy 
a large quantity of a staple which is used but seldom? 

Breads. Breads of many varieties and qualities are 
sold in food stores. Some kinds we choose, both for their 
flavor and food values, as rye with or without caraway 
seeds, whole wheat, or raisin bran. Breads made with 
milk keep moist longer than those made with water. 
Fruits such as raisins and dates also help retain the 
moisture in bread. We like rather fine grained bread 
with a browned crust that is not burned or baked too 
hard. We prefer bread but a few hours old since it may 
be 24 hours or more before the loaf is entirely consumed. 
Some breads have a nutty flavor, especially in the crust, 
which we enjoy very much. For sanitary reasons we 
prefer bread to be wrapped. 

53. What kinds of bread can you buy? 

54. Which do you prefer? Why? 

55. Do the various loaves differ in weight? How 
can you tell? 

56. For what qualities do you choose breakfast 

Bulk cereals versus the packaged. In some regions 
it is difficult to buy oatmeal, corn meal, and other cereals 
in bulk. Manufacturers and grocers prefer to handle 
them in packages. It takes more time for a grocer's 
clerk to weigh a pound of oatmeal than it does to lift a 
box down from the shelf. Another reason the grocer 
prefers packaged cereals is that it is easier for him to keep 


his store looking clean and trim. Those of us who buy 
cereals in packages also have certain advantages. We 
are more sure to have honest weight because the Pure 
Food Law requires that the label tell the net contents. 
However, we often buy by the box without knowing how 
much or how little we are actually getting for our money. 
The box is a handy container to keep in our pantries. 
When buying in bulk, we must supply glass or tin con- 
tainers. In addition, nationally advertised brands of 
breakfast cereals are more likely always to be of the 
same quality whereas bulk cereals may vary considerably. 
Also if a storekeeper is not careful, bulk cereals may not 
be as sanitary as are those which are packaged. How- 
ever, equipment for stores is available that insures perfect 
cleanliness with reasonable care. 

57. Compare the labels on a number of breakfast- 
food boxes to see what variation there is in the net 
contents. Does the size of the box indicate how much 
the contents will weigh? Compare several prepared 
cereals with some that require cooking. 

The big disadvantage in buying packaged cereals is 
the great increase in cost. 

58. Perhaps a committee made of two or three mem- 
bers of the class would like to get prices of both bulk 
and packaged cereals of the same kind, and report to 
the class how much more per pound the packaged con- 
tents cost. 

Things to Keep in Mind When Buying Staples 

a. To keep a supply on hand 

b. The amount purchased depends upon how much is used, 
and the keeping qualities 

c. Each staple may have good qualities which we seek to buy 

d. When is it worth while to pay the extra cost of packaging? 


READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Home Making, pp. 49-52. 

Monroe and Stratton, Food Buying and Our Markets, Ch. xvii, 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Farmer's Bulletin No. 1190, 
"Rice as Food." 

SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. On page 271 you will find 
some additional problems on buying staples. 


Perishableness. The sooner we eat fresh sea foods 
and other fish after they are caught the better is their 
flavor. Those of us who live inland, particularly if we 
are not near large bodies of water, do not have the same 
pleasure from fish and sea foods as do those living near 
our coasts or the Great Lakes. Fish are frozen and 
shipped, and if not thawed until shortly before they are 
cooked, may be quite satisfactory. In buying fish, the 
odor will tell of its freshness. A fish with a strong odor 
should not be purchased. The eyes of a fresh fish are 
shiny, not gray and dull. In purchasing fish, perhaps 
more than any other kind of food, we must choose an 
honest, reliable dealer and depend upon his selling us a 
good quality. 

Iodine. Sea foods are especially valuable for their 
iodine. For this reason, if we are too far inland for 
fresh sea fish, we should occasionally eat canned fish such 
as salmon and tuna. In addition, the canned fishes are 
cheaper than meat with an equivalent food value. In 
this way we can cut down on the cost of our meals. 

59. What kinds erf fish are sold in your market? 

60. Are any of these caught near where you live? 

61. How much does a can of salmon cost? What is 
the net contents of the can? How much does an ounce 


of the salmon cost? A pound? How does this com- 
pare with the cost of round steak? 

READING. Monroe and Stratton, Food Buying and Our Mar- 
kets, Ch. xxvi. 


Identifying meats. One of the most expensive foods, 
but one which most people enjoy very much, is meat. 
Because we are faced with such great variety in cuts of 
meat, our judgment in selecting them must be trained. 
Of course we want to supply enough meat to our families 
for proper nutrition, of such quality that we will enjoy 
it, but at a price that will not prevent us from buying 
as much of other foods as we need for health. Since 
meat is expensive, it is easily possible to spend too much 
of the food money for this one item. 

Color. The first step in learning to judge of meat is 
to be able to identify the kind of animal from which it 
was taken. Beef (from steers and cows) differs in ap- 
pearance from veal (from calves). Pork (from hogs) 
and mutton (from sheep), and lamb all vary in color. 
Freshly cut beef should be a bright, almost cherry red, 
while mutton should be a darker, duller, more purplish 
red. Fresh pork and lamb are a light pink, the pork of 
a grayed pink and lamb slightly purplish, while veal is 
a paler pink. 

62. Study colored charts of meat which you can get 
from the U. S. Department of Agriculture, from pack- 
ing houses, and from the Institute of Meat Packers, 
to see just what the differences in color are. Later a 
trip to a butcher shop will be even more helpful in 
training you to distinguish between the meat taken from 
different animals by means of its color. 


63. When you make a trip to the butcher shop, you 
will want to have a number of things pointed out to you. 
Color is one. As you study further, you will discover 
others. Start a list of ways in which cuts of meat 
differ so that when you go to the shop you will know 
for what to look. Add to the list as you discover what 
these ways are. 

Grain. The 
grain of meat 
taken from the 
different ani- 
mals is some- 
what unlike. 
The grain of 
meat from a 
young animal, 
such as veal, is 
finer than from 
the mature ani- 
mal, such as 
beef. By grain 
we mean the 
appearance that 
is given by the 
size of the mus- 
cle fibers. We 
would naturally 
expect that 
young animals 
such as lambs 
and calves 
would have 
smaller muscles 
than the mature 

Fig. 65. Difference in grain of meat. 

At the top is small piece of beef from the 
shank, and below is one from the round of veal, 
showing a difference in grain. In the beef the 
muscles and the lines of white connective tissue 
show distinctly that such meat is very tough. 
The connective tissue in the veal can hardly be 
seen. The white around the edge is fat. 


animals. On page 237 is a picture that will help you to 
know what is meant by grain. 

64. Can you point out on the colored charts that 
your teacher will provide good examples of cuts of meat 
that are of different grain? Will you add this to your 
list of things to see on your trip to the butcher shop? 

Size of cut. The size of a whole cut will often tell 
us whether the animal was large or small, and so help 
us to identify the kind of animal. Rib roasts from any 
of the animals are taken from the back, but differ greatly 
in size, the beef roast being much longer and larger in 
every way than the roasts from other animals. The 
figure, page 241, shows the comparative sizes. 

Reasons for making common cuts. There are many 
different cuts taken from the carcasses of animals. In 
different parts of the country butchers may cut up the 
carcasses somewhat differently. The attempt always is 
to get as many of the tender cuts as possible, since a 
higher price can be asked for them. The tenderest cuts 
are those of muscles that the animal uses least often. 
Animals stand and walk a great deal, so of course the 
leg muscles are largest and strongest. The neck and 
shoulder muscles are also well developed, while those 
in the loin region, that is, the part along the backbone, 
are not so well developed, and are therefore more tender. 

The tenderness of the cut also depends upon the way 
the butcher cuts the meat. If he cuts across the grain, 
that is, across the muscles, the piece of meat will be more 
tender than if he cuts it in the same direction in which 
the muscles run. In carving meat the same rule holds. 
Below is a chart of half a beef that will help you to 













Courtesy U. S. Department of Agriculture 















(9) NECK 


Fig. 67. Meat cutting chart. 

see how the butcher plans the cuts of meat so as to cut 
across the grain wherever possible. 

65. In what direction do the muscles along the back- 
bone run? In the legs? 

66. Which cuts do you think would be most tender? 

67. Which do you think would be toughest? 

68. Would you like to see half a beef and have the 
butcher show you how he would cut it? Perhaps you 
can have this done when you visit the shop. 

Identifying cuts. Of course, each one of the differ- 
ent cuts from an animal has a different shape from the 


others. The bones are shaped differently, too, so that 
an experienced person can readily tell from which part 
of the animal a piece of meat is taken. In a beginning 
book such as this it is only possible to describe the shape 
and appearance of a few of the more commonly used cuts. 
As you buy more meats and notice the pieces from which 
the butcher cuts your order, you will gradually come to 
recognize more of these cuts. 

Shape. On pages 241 and 242 are the pictures of a 
number of cuts of meat. A shows different cuts of 
the round. Notice that the general shape of the cuts 
is the same, and that each has a small round bone toward 
one end. 

69. Locate the place on the carcass (see figure on 
page 239) from which ham and round steaks are cut. 

70. How do these cuts seem to differ in color? What 
difference do you remember from the meat you have 

71. Notice the small proportion of bone to meat. 
Is there much waste on round cuts? 

72. Which cuts seem to have fine grain? Which is 

B shows loin cuts. The small end of the pork chop 
has been cut away. The tenderest portion of these cuts 
lies above the bone. That below the bone is not so tender 
although very good, while the tail shaped piece is tougher. 

73. How do these cuts compare in size? 

74. Can you see why the beef cut is called a T-bone 

75. Locate the place on the carcass from which the 
loin cuts are made. 

76. Would you expect these cuts to be tender? Why? 

77. Compare these cuts with those from the round 
as to the amount of waste. 

Fig. 68. The same cuts of meat from different animals. 

A. Cuts from the round. Left, beef; center, veal; right, ham. Notice 
the general shape of the meat and the bone in each case. B. Loin cuts. 
Left, T-bone steak ; center, loin lamb chop ; right, loin pork chop. The 
tender round piece of meat at the right of the bone in each case is 
part of the tenderloin. The tail of the pork chop was removed. 



Fig. 68. The same cuts of meat from different animals. 

C. Rib cuts. Left, beef; center, lamb chop; right, pork chop. The 
beef is a two-rib roast. Note the similarity of shape in both cut 
and bone. 

C shows rib cuts. Notice that the general shape is the 
same. Beef ribs are usually cut into roasts of two or 
more ribs. The veal and pork are cut into either chops 
of one rib or into roasts of a number of ribs. 

78. Locate the place on the carcass from which these 
cuts are made. 

79. Do these cuts have much waste? 

80. On one or more of your charts find the picture of 
a rump roast. From which portion of the carcass is 
this cut taken? 

81. Since this is not as tender as are the rib and 
loin cuts, what method of cooking would you recom- 


Courtesy National Live Stock and Meat Board. 

Fig. 69. Round steak. 
Sections 1 and 3 of the round steak are tenderer than 2 and 4. 

82. If you were choosing a portion of the round for 
hamburger, which section would be satisfactory? 

83. If you were choosing a piece to pan broil, which 
section would you choose? 

84. Locate the place on the carcass (see figure on 
page 239 from which the flank steak is taken. 

Notice that this is a thin cut and that the muscles run 
lengthwise. Since it is rather tough, it is often scored, 
that is, cut partly through in both directions to make 
it more tender. 

85. What have you added to your list of things to see 
in the butcher shop? 

These are but a few of the many cuts that are taken 
from a whole animal. The neck, chuck, fore shank, 
brisket, and plate all provide different kinds. As you 
help your mother to plan meals and buy meats, you will 
gradually become acquainted with many of these cuts. 



Courtesy National Live Stock and Meat Board. 

Fig. 70. How a flank steak is removed. . 

This is a thin piece of beef with tough fibers. Notice how is it pulled 
away from the rest of the flank section. 

Using many cuts allows one to provide wide variety in 

86. What methods of preparation would be suitable 
for a T-bone steak or lamb chop? Explain. 

87. Describe a method which would be suitable for 
a chuck roast. Explain your reason for this choice of 

Recognizing tender cuts. A round steak from a 
young steer or cow may be more tender than a T-bone 


steak from an old 
animal, particularly 
if it was badly fed. 
We therefore must, 
when buying, con- 
sider not only the 
kind of cut, but 
also the appearance 
which indicates 
something about its 
tenderness. The 
government helps 
us to some extent in 
selecting good qual- 
ities. Every ani- 
mal that is killed in 
packing houses is 
examined by gov- 
ernment inspectors 
who reject any ani- 
mals that are not 
well. All carcasses 
that are passed are 
stamped with a 
round blue stamp, 
of harmless vege- 
table coloring (Fig. 

88. Ha ve y o u 
seen such a stamp 
on meats? Can 
you find this stamp 
in the illustration. 

Courtesy U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Fig. 71. Beef stamped by the govern- 
ment to show its grade or quality. 

The lengthwise stamp tells the grade. 


The government puts an additional stamp on the high- 
est grades of carcasses if asked to do so. This stamp 
makes a continuous line from end to end of the carcass. 
Since the government does not stamp all the choice meat 
in this way, we must learn to tell by the appearance of 
cuts whether they are likely to be tender. Of course, 
we also take the precaution of selecting a butcher who is 
honest in telling us of the quality of his meats. Tender 
meat is well mottled. This means that areas of fat are 
scattered among the muscles. 

89. Find examples of well mottled meat in the il- 
lustrations in the book and in the colored charts. 

The color of the fat is also an indication of the age 
of the animal. A creamy, firm fat indicates that the 
animal was young, while if the fat is definitely yellowed 
and flabby, the animal was probably old and thin. 

90. Add to your list of things to see in the butcher 
shop the mottling of meat and the color of fat. 

Frozen meats. It is becoming more common for the 
packer to do all the cutting of meat. He wraps the vari- 
ous cuts and sends them frozen to -retail stores such 'as 
groceries, delicatessens, and some butcher shops. Such 
meats should be kept frozen until shortly before cooking. 
All cuts may be purchased in this form. 

Relative cost of cuts. In order to make people will- 
ing to buy the tougher cuts, they are priced less than 
those from the loin region. The cheaper cuts, moreover, 
are just as nutritious as the more expensive, and, if well 
prepared, may be tender and of good flavor. In fact, the 
well prepared cheap cut is preferable to the badly pre- 
pared expensive cut. 


91. How do cooks sometimes spoil tender cuts of 

92. How do round steak and porterhouse compare 
in price? Rib and rump roasts? Neck meat and T-bone 

Choosing cuts for the family. When Mary's mother 
bought meat for her family for a week, she found that it 
was a good practice to buy the cheaper cuts ordinarily 
and occasionally to buy a more expensive piece. In this 
way she supplied the nutritional needs of the family but 
did not spend so much on meat that it prevented her 
from buying the other foods which are so very important. 

Things To Remember When Buying Meat 

a. Since meat is one of our most expensive foods, we must 
be careful not to buy kinds and amounts that will cause 

b. We choose different kinds of meat according to the dishes 
we wish to prepare. 

c. Meat from different animals is different in color, grain, 
and flavor. 

1. Some cuts of meat have more waste in bone and fat than 

e. One government stamp insures that the meat is whole- 
some, another that it is of an established grade. 

READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 347-364, 
380-388. Especially good for illustrations. 

Lanman, McKay and Zuill, The Family's Food, pp. 311-324. 

Monroe and Stratton, Food Buying and Our Markets, Ch. xxiii. 

"Fresh Meat in Packages," Better Homes and Gardens, June, 
1930, p. 49. Especially valuable for true coloring of variety of 
tender cuts from different animals. 

Bulletins of the National Livestock and Meat Board, 407 South 
Dearborn St., Chicago: "Cashing in on Beef," "Cashing in on 
Lamb." "Grading and Stamping Prime and Choice Beef Car- 
casses," answers many questions about the work of the government 
with our meats. 


U. S. Department of Agriculture Publications: Circular No. 300. 
"Commercial Cuts of Meat," Farmers Bulletin No. 1246, "Market 
Classes and Grades of Meat." Bureau of Home Economics Bul- 
letins, "Food Selection and Meal Planning," "Refrigeration." 

Colored charts of meat cuts for classroom use may be secured 
from any of the following packing companies in Chicago: Armour 
and Co., National Livestock and Meat Board, Swift and Co., Wil- 
son and Co. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. On page 272 you will find 
some additional problems on buying meat. 


Rate of spoiling. Most foods spoil, but some are 
more perishable than others and need special care. Fresh 
vegetables and fruits, breads, meats, and eggs are some 
of the more perishable foods and must be used soon after 
they are purchased. Some foods keep for long periods 
with proper storage. Navy beans and cereals are ex- 
amples of such foods. 

Causes of spoiling. 
The chief cause for 
spoilage is that bac- 
teria and molds live 
on our foods, and, as 
they develop, the 
foods become unfit for 
use. The air about us 
contains a great many 
kinds of bacteria and 
mold spores. Mold 


Fig. 72. Molds are plants. 

They grow from spores that scatter 
like seeds and float about in the air until 
they settle on something. 

spores resemble seeds 
in the way they de- 
velop and produce new 
plants. When food is 
exposed, some of 
these bacteria and mold spores settle on it, and, if the 
condition is favorable for their growth, immediately start 
to grow and multiply. We cannot see the growth of bac- 



teria as we can of molds, but the harmful ones spoil our 
foods just as effectively. The decay of meat is the result 
of bacterial growth. 

1. Perhaps your class would like to perform an ex- 
periment to prove that the air holds mold spores that 
thrive in a moist, warm condition. You will then be 
able to answer the following questions. For directions 
for this experiment see page 291 in the Appendix. 

2. What is the effect of temperature on the growth of 

3. Will the molds grow even in the refrigerator if 
foods are kept there too long? 

4. What is the effect of sunlight on the growth of 

5. Does bread in a bread box offer good conditions 
for the growth of molds? Explain. 

Controlling the growth of molds and bacteria. By 
care we can control the growth of molds and bacteria. 
We cannot entirely prevent their presence on our foods, 
though by cleanliness and good habits of handling our 
foods we can keep the number low. 'We can, however, 
make the conditions of growth very poor. A good refrig- 
erator, that is, one in which the temperature never gets 
higher than 45, is not favorable to the rapid growth of 
bacteria or molds. However, if foods are kept even at 
this temperature for a long time, molds will develop. If 
spoiled foods are allowed to stand in the refrigerator, they 
will spread the growths to other foods. Refrigerators 
should be kept very clean, since the bacteria and spores 
will live in bits of food or dirt that are allowed to col- 
lect on the inside of the box, or on the trays. For this 
reason, too, we always wipe milk bottles that may have 
collected bacteria and mold spores before we put them 
into the refrigerator. 

Courtesy General Electric Co. 

Fig. 73. Many different types of food are preserved in a refriger- 
ator. To prevent foods taking up flavors and losing moisture it 
is well to cover each food in a dish or with oil paper. 


By scalding and sunning the bread box, we kill the 
bacteria which might be on the sides and so prevent them 
from getting, on fresh bread that is put into the box. If 
our plans have miscarried and we cannot use foods im- 
mediately, we often cook them anyway in order to kill 
any bacteria which might be present and in this way 
prevent spoilage. 

6. Put a thermometer in your refrigerator at home 
to see if it holds the required low temperature. Is 
there a difference when the box is filled with ice and 
when the ice is mostly melted? A range of 45 to not 
higher than 52 is satisfactory. 

Other kinds of spoilage. Bread, cake, and cookies 
may dry out and so be less desirable. Jars and tin boxes 
prevent the escape of moisture. Nuts and other foods 
containing oil may become rancid if kept too long where 
it is warm. When foods become rancid, it means that 
a change has taken place in the oil. A cool, dry place 
is best for most staples that are in no danger of drying 
out. Cereals are somewhat difficult to keep in warm 
weather because a little moth may have laid its eggs in 
the cereal. These eggs hatch into tiny worms. For this 
reason we do not buy excessive quantities of cereals in 
summer, and we keep them tightly covered in boxes or 

7. How would you prepare a can which had contained 
wormy cereal for a new lot? 

Cleanliness. Cleanliness is of chief importance in 
the care of foods. People who understand about harm- 
ful bacteria are careful to wash all fruits and vegetables 
thoroughly with safe water before using, them. Safe 


From Hunter and Whitman, ''Civic Science in the Community" (.American Book Co.) 

Fig. 74. Flies spread disease. 

1. Foot of fly. 2. Growth of bacteria in agar along path of fly, 

which walked on it. 3. The manure pile is the favorite breeding 

place ^of flies. 

water is free from disease-producing bacteria. All food 
utensils are kept very clean. Screens on their windows 
and all other openings keep out flies that may track bac- 
teria over their foods. Streets are washed and sprinkled 
to keep down the dust. Thoughtful people wash their 
hands carefully before handling food. We expect habits 
of cleanliness in all of our friends. 

Quantity buying and spoilage. It is wasteful to 
buy foods when we cannot prevent spoilage. Although 
it is sometimes possible to buy a larger quantity at a 
saving, if we waste part of the food, our bargain may 
have been costly. Margaret saw an advertisement of 
two dozen bananas for 60 cts. In other stores bananas 
of equal size were selling for 40 cts. a dozen. She thought 
the two dozen for 60 cts. were a bargain as she would be 
buying the second dozen for 20 cts. 

8. How did she figure this? 

When she got the bananas home, she found that they 
were riper than she had thought. She planned for her 
family, which was small, to use them as rapidly as pos- 
sible, but in spite of her plans and the best care she 


could give them, six of the bananas spoiled and about 
one-third of each of nine others was wasted because of 

9. About how many bananas did she have to discard? 

10. At 60 cents for two dozen, how much did each 
banana cost? 

11. How much money then was wasted? 

12. Were the two dozen bananas a bargain? 

13. Can you relate another experience that shows that 
it is unwise to buy too large a quantity when we cannot 
prevent spoilage? 

READINGS. Hunter and Whitman, Civic Science in the Home, 
pp. 118-128. 

Ava Johnson, Bacteria of the Home, Ch. vii, pp. 61-69, "Food 
Purchasing," Ch. viii, pp. 69-75, "Food Care," Ch. vi, pp. 57-60, 
"The Refrigerator." 

Herbert W. Conn, Bacteria, Yeasts and Molds of the Home. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 1374, "Care of 
Food in the Home." 


Raising a grapefruit tree. Many people work at 
raising foods. Since the places where our foods are 
grown are scattered all over the world, we can see that 
many different people will have to work with them before 
they may be served on our tables. For example, we 
might study about the work that must be done before we 
may have grapefruit for breakfast. Let us suppose that 
this particular grapefruit came from Southern Texas. 
Some one had to plant a grapefruit seed and raise the 
seedling tree. Some one else, perhaps, cleared the land 

Courtesy Texas Citrus Fruit Grouvrs Exchange. 

Fig. 75. Trees in a grapefruit orchard. 




Courtesy Texas Citrus Fruit Growers Exchange. 

Fig. 76. Grapefruit on the tree. 

and set the little seedling with many of its fellows in a 
row. Since very little rain falls in this region, still other 
people had to develop an irrigation system. That is, they 
had to build ditches to carry water from the Rio Grande 
River so that occasionally water could be brought to the 
trees as they grew. For several years after it is planted 
the grapefruit tree does not bear fruit. But some one 
must keep the ground about it clear of weeds, must see 
that water is supplied, and must spray the tree to kill the 
insects that might destroy it. 

Sometimes the temperature goes down to freezing or 
a bit below. Grapefruit trees are killed by frost very 
easily. When the temperature threatens to go below 
freezing, orchard men sometimes light wood fires, or coke 
or oil heaters among the trees. This is work that must 



be done occasionally if we are to be able to enjoy grape- 

Harvesting a,nd packing. Other people must har- 
vest and pack the foods. Let us say that the trees are 
now ready to bear fruit. Some one must pick the fruit, 
must sort it for size and discard any that is imperfect. 
The perfect fruit is wrapped in paper, and packed in 
boxes or crates especially made for grapefruit. The 

Courtesy California Fruit Growers Exchange. 

Fig. 77. Grading and packing oranges. Grapefruit are graded 
and packed similarity. 

The grapefruit come down the runway between the rolls, the smaller 
dropping out first, the larger coming to the front of the picture. The 
grapefruit fall into the bins from which they are packed into crates. 
The number of grapefruit in the crate depends upon their size 


larger the grapefruit, the fewer can be put in the box. 
A label is put on the box that tells how many the box 
contains. Many people are employed in making the 
boxes. Some cut the lumber, others ship it, and still 
others saw the lumber in the right sizes and make the 
crates. Another group mines the metal and makes the 
nails and arranges to get them into the hands of those 
workers who are making the boxes. Still other workers 
make the paper and print the labels. 

Unless food is eaten on the farm where it is produced, 
much labor must be put upon it to get it to the place 
where it is consumed in such a condition that there will 
be little waste. Obviously, it would be a mistake to 
transport and sell poor vegetables and fruits unless there 
is a shortage of foods of good quality. Retailers and 
wholesalers of food therefore are coming to demand that 
farmers be more careful to sort and grade their produce. 

Transporting. Still other workers must take the 
grapefruit to market. When the box of fruit is packed, 
it is taken to the railroad where it is placed in a refrig- 
erator car. Think of all the people whose work was 
needed to make the car which will bring the grapefruit to 
our city. Think of all the people who will have some- 
thing to do with getting it to us. There is the engineer, 
the fireman, the brakeman, the train dispatcher, the truck 
drivers who take it to and from the railroad, and the 
wholesale man to whom it was addressed. 

Retailing. The neighborhood grocer adds his work. 
The wholesale merchant sells the grapefruit to your 
grocer who in turn sells it to you. Your grocer puts it 
into a paper sack made by some one, and the delivery 
boy brings it to your door. Perhaps ten thousand or 



Courtesy Pacific Fruit Express. 

Fig. 78. Interior of a refrigerator car. 

Platforms are seen against the walls in the foreground. When 
placed on the floor they permit air circulation beneath the fruit. 
When the doors at the end are closed, they form a compartment into 
which ice is put through openings in the roof of the car. 

more people have been directly or indirectly at work to 
make it possible for you to enjoy this delicious grape- 
fruit for breakfast. The money we give helps to pay 
all of these people for their work. 

Services of the storekeeper. Most neighborhoods 
have a variety of food stores. Some sell for cash alone 
and do not deliver goods. At others customers may pay 
each week or each month, and their purchases are brought 
to their doors. Prices at the cash-and-carry stores, as 
stores of the first type are called, are usually lower. 
These stores do not need to pay for so much help since 


the customers do part of the work by selecting the food 
and carrying it home. Then, too, since every one pays 
cash, there is no loss from people who fail to pay their 
bills on time or who even are dishonest and move away 
without paying at all. 

When we buy at stores where we help ourselves, it is 
important that we be able to select foods of good quality. 
This is especially true since some of the cash-and-carry- 
stores do not have the best grade in fresh foods. The 
stores that deliver often carry better grades of fresh 
vegetables and fruits, and in addition the clerks are 
trained to know when foods are good. An inexperienced 
buyer may waste money rather than save it when she 
patronizes stores in which she must make the choices. 
However, to learn we must have the experience of select- 
ing. In buying branded goods we are not so likely to 
make mistakes for both kinds of stores sell identical 

Costs in money or in labor. As you read further 
you will see that either we must pay people to do the 
work necessary for us to have food or we must do this 
work ourselves. The price of our flour pays not only 
the farmer who raised the wheat, but also the milling 
company that ground the wheat into flour and the grocer 
who sold it to us. If we buy flour in the form of bread 
or cake, we must spend more for it since the baker is 
one more person who must be paid for his work. The 
additional cost in many cases is very slight. If the 
baker produces thousands of loaves, he can afford to take 
a surprisingly small profit on each loaf. In restaurants 
We expect to pay more for food than in our homes since 
cooks, cashiers, waiters, and various other workers must 


be paid for their labor. If we buy food in the unfinished 
form, we pay less money, but we must add our own work 
to it. That is, some of the pay for our food is in the 
form of our own work. 

1. If you or some other member of the class has an 
opportunity, buy a glass of orange juice at a soda foun- 
tain. Watch the clerk to see how many oranges he 
uses to make the drink. Or find out in some other way 
how a glass of real orange juice is made at the fountain. 
How much would it cost to make a similar drink at 
home? Which costs most? 

2. Make a list of foods that- we sometimes buy pre- 
pared and sometimes prepare at home. 

3. Make a list of foods ready-to-eat that we cannot 
prepare in our homes. 

4. Make a list of dishes that we must prepare at 
home unless we choose to eat in restaurants. 

5. Do you know of any special family dishes that 
you could not find in restaurants? 

Contribution of the family in work. In some fam- 
ilies, half or more of all the father is able to earn may 
have to be spent for food. As the income increases not 
so large a proportion of the income needs to be devoted 
to this item. However, most families find that the money 
needed for food takes a considerable amount of the fam- 
ily income. Mother, helped by her family, gives many 
hours of her time and work to prepare this food and serve 
it. She must plan the meals, go to the stores and select 
the food, and perhaps carry some of it home. Then she 
washes and peels, slices, cooks and bakes, and the foods 
develop into such forms that we eat with pleasure. She 
must see that dishes and linen are clean, that there is 
orderly and well mannered conduct at the table. Each 
steaming dish may represent work on the part of father, 
mother, and perhaps every other member of the family. 


6. Select some dish which you, your father, and your 
mother all helped to provide. Show how each helped. 

Below are problems showing in several instances how 
much value is given to foods by the work of members of 
the family. 

John and Mary enjoyed eating popcorn with milk for 
Sunday evening supper. Sometimes they bought it al- 
ready popped, sometimes they popped it themselves. One 
day the discussion arose as to how much more expensive 
it was to buy it already prepared. John and Mary de- 
cided they would experiment to find out. They discov- 
ered that a ten-cent box of good quality corn held five 
cups. A can of fine quality shelled pop corn containing 
1^ c. also cost 10 ct. When popped it made 18 C. They 
tried very carefully to give their corn the same flavor 
as that they bought when they added butter. They de- 
cided that 3J T. butter, or about % lb. was the 
amount needed. Since this butter cost 35 ct. per lb., the 
cost of the butter would be 3.5 ct. 

10 ct. + 3.5 ct. = 13.5 ct., the cost of 18 C. 

13.5 ct.-r- 18 = .75 ct. or f ct., the cost of one C. 

5 X I ct. = 3| ct., the cost of 5 C. 

7. How many boxes of popcorn could John and Mary 
pop at home for 10 ct.? 

Their mother decided she would find out how much she 
paid for the work of other people when she bought any 
one of a number of dishes already prepared. Among 
others she studied baked apples. She could buy one at 
the delicatessen for 10 ct. Apples of the same size and 
kind at a cash-and-carry store cost 25 ct. for a dozen, 
or about 2 ct. each. She found she needed about 4 T. 


of sugar for each apple to make it about as sweet as the 
one she bought. There are about 2 C. or 32 T. of sugar 
in each pound, so she used about 1/8 of a Ib. for each 
apple. She bought sugar at the same store in which she 
bought the apples for 48 ct. for 10 Ib. or 4.8 ct. per Ib. 

1 of 4.8 ct. = .6 ct. for each apple. 

2 ct. -f- .6 = 2.6 ct., the cost of an apple baked at home. 

Since Mary's mother planned to bake other foods at 
the same time she baked apples, she judged that the cost 
of the gas used for each apple could not be more than 
.1 ct. 

8. At the total cost about how many apples could be 
baked for 10 ct? 

In some families foods already cooked must be pur- 
chased because no member of the family has the time for 
preparing them at home. This is particularly true when 
the mother works. Then some of the money that the 
mother earns must be used to pay for the extra prepara- 
tion. Girls can sometimes make it possible to buy more 
with the money spent for food by helping to cook. 

9. Can you give an example showing how much you 
contributed by cooking some dish? Compare what 
you paid for the raw materials with what you would 
have had to pay for the cooked food. 

READING. L. C. Marshall, Readings in the Story of Human 
Progress, pp. 153-165, 187-192, 308-313, 314-321, 322-330, 426-432. 


The helpful storekeeper. Advice. How can the 
storekeeper help us? If he is reliable, that is, if he tells 
the truth about the condition and quality of his goods, 
we can be more certain to buy what will satisfy us. For 
example, there is little information on labels to tell us 
what is inside of a can. A storekeeper who can de- 
scribe accurately the contents of a can is very helpful. 
It is quite difficult to judge certain produce, as melons, 
without a great deal of experience. If we can depend 
upon the dealer to make good selections for us, we will 
many times be saved unnecessary disappointments. 

Sanitation. We expect our storekeepers to keep foods 
such as meat and butter in a clean refrigerator, because 
they soon spoil if exposed in a warm atmosphere. We 
expect him to keep cookies, dried fruits, and so on, cov- 
ered so that dust and bacteria may not settle upon them 
and so that the clothing of neither buyer nor clerk may 
brush over them. Do you think that people ought to 
take dogs or cats into stores if it is possible for them to 
sniff at foods? We expect stores to be clean and clerks to 
have clean hands and clothes. We expect stores to be 
free from flies, cockroaches, mice, and other pests. 

Honesty. We expect a storekeeper to give us honest 
weight. We do not tempt him to give us short measure 
by asking for 10 cts. or 15 cts. worth of an article. We 
always buy, when possible, by a definite weight or meas- 




Fig. 79. Insects and bacteria spoil foods exposed on the street. 

ure so that we may hold the merchant to giving us the 
full amount. We expect the grocer to make deliveries 
when he says he will, and we expect him to wrap our 
groceries carefully so that they will not be soiled or 
crushed while being delivered. If the goods he delivers 
are not what he says they will be, we expect him to re- 



Courtesy Diversey Store Fixture Company. 

Fig. 80. A sanitary store. 

place them with the promised articles. If we have a 
charge account we expect him to send us an accurate bill 
at stated times. 

Choosing the store. If a storekeeper satisfies us in 
the ways described, we say he is reliable. In selecting a 
store with which to deal, reliability is of great importance. 
If we refuse to deal with storekeepers who are not trust- 
worthy, they will be forced to improve to keep their 
trade. In addition we select the store that carries a qual- 
ity of goods justified by the amount of money they cost. 
There is a great difference in the qualities that different 
stores carry and therefore in the prices they must charge. 
It is possible to buy satisfactory groceries and other foods 
at a much lower price than is charged by storekeepers 


who handle only the best and give much service. Each 
one of us must decide whether it is more important to 
have the highest priced foods, or to have more money to 
spend for some other things that we should enjoy. As 
you learned in the nutrition unit, the amount we pay 
for our foods does not tell us whether we are well fed, 
since we may choose expensive foods of poor nutritional 
value. A wholesome, medium quality of product may 
have the same food value as the very choicest, particu- 
larly if choosing the most expensive keeps us from buy- 
ing as much food or as great a variety as we need. 

Responsibility of the buyer. Honesty. The store- 
keeper expects those who buy from him to be reliable, 
also. He expects us to pay our bills promptly, since if 
we do not pay him promptly, he cannot pay his bills at 
the proper time. The wholesale houses from which the 
grocer buys usually sell to him more cheaply if the grocer 
pays within ten days, and somewhat less cheaply if he 
pays within thirty days. Therefore the grocer can afford 
to sell his goods more cheaply if his customers help him 
to take advantage of a discount. In the end then, when 
we fail to pay our bills promptly, we increase the price 
we must pay for our foods. If we send goods back that 
have been damaged due to our own carelessness, we are 
increasing the cost of the goods, since the grocer must put 
a retail price on his goods that will make all losses 

Courtesy. When we go into a store, we should take 
our turn, allowing those who were in the store before us 
to be waited on ahead of us. The well-bred person ex- 
hibits the same courtesy in a store that he shows in other 


Intelligence. The more intelligent a purchaser is, the 
better will a grocer be able to serve her. For example, if 
we know just what we want when we go into a store, we 
can be accurate in describing our wants to the clerk, 
and he can help us promptly and accurately. If we are 
good judges of quantity, we can tell quickly whether a 
certain amount will satisfy our needs. Also if we are 
intelligent we will not expect a grocer to supply out-of- 
season goods at the same price or of the same quality 
as when it is in season. We will know whether the value 
we get from unseasonable goods is worth the price asked. 
If we are intelligent about our purchasing, we will be fair 
in not asking for special delivery except in urgent and 
unavoidable circumstances. We will not expect impos- 
sible kinds of service. We must remember that if we 
ask extra service from a grocer he will have to be paid 
for this service and so will have to increase the price he 
asks for food. 

Saving of time. At best the purchasing of food takes 
much time. If we can use the telephone, we can save 
time both for ourselves and for the grocer. There are, 
however, only some kinds of foods that may commonly 
be ordered satisfactorily in this way. A brand of canned 
goods, cereals, flour, and so on can be safely ordered 
without inspection. On the other hand, such things as 
green beans and oranges vary with each lot the grocer 
buys. We may need to see such supplies if we are to 
judge whether they are what we need and whether they 
are worth the price asked. In addition, trips to the store 
keep us acquainted with prices as they go up and down 
and enable us to get more for our money. Many times, 
too, new dishes are suggested by the foods on display. 


Another way to save time is to have a market list. This 
enables us to give our or.der quickly with no time wasted 
in the store thinking about what we need. The grocer 
recognizes the purchaser who is honest, courteous, and 
intelligent in her demands and is likely to give her better 

READING. Trilling, Williams, and Reeves, A Girl's Problems in 
Home Economics, pp. 525-532. 


Readings will be found at appropriate places throughout this unit. 


On Making a Market List 

Plan the menus for your family for three days and make the 
market list based on these menus. Perhaps your mother will help 
you as Mary's mother helped her. Is there a member of your 
family who is under five years of age? Check through your menus 
to see if you can select suitable meals for him from the family 
dishes. Are there any family dishes you would not give him? 
Should you buy additional foods for him? 

On Purchasing Vegetables 

1. Make a list of vegetables which you judge from the price to 
be in season. State where each was grown. You might put your 
information in the form of a table. 




2. If you drive to the country for some of your vegetables, you 
might estimate the cost of these vegetables. Find out from your 
father how much it costs to run your car a mile. How much did 


it cost to make one round trip? What quantity did you buy? 
How much was added to the cost of each dollar's worth? How 
much would you have paid for the same amount and the same qual- 
ity in a store? Would it pay to make the trip especially for the 

On Purchasing Fruits 

1. Make a list of fruits which you would judge from the price 
to be in season. Also state where each food was grown. You 
might put your information in a table. 




2. Visit a fruit farm on which fruit is dried for market. De- 
scribe the process. 

3. If you live where fresh fruits are prepared for market, tell 
how it is done. 

4. Squeeze the juice from large thick skinned oranges and from 
smaller thin skinned ones. How many of the large oranges did it 
take to make a cup? How many of the smaller? How much did 
each cup of juice cost? Which oranges would you buy for juice? 

On Purchasing Canned Goods 

1. Make an oral report of a visit to a canning factory. Explain 
fully how the factory plans to produce foods which are clean and 
of good quality. Your audience will probably be more interested 
in your talk if you have planned it well and made an outline. 

2. Describe how some fruit or vegetable is canned in the home, 
telling in what way each step is important. You might write to 
the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C., for gov- 
ernment bulletins on home canning. Many of your references also 
tell about canning in the home. 

On Purchasing Eggs 

1. There are a number of ways in which eggs are marketed. 
Among them are in stores in sealed cartons and in bulk; from the 
dairy man; delivered by farmers or egg collectors; by parcel post 



from farmers. Perhaps you can add others to the list. If it is 
possible to buy i or ^ dozen from a number of such sources, com- 
pare the eggs for freshness, size, and price. 

On Purchasing Milk 

1. Make an oral report of a visit to a dairy. Can you tell how 
the milk is pasteurized and bottled? Explain fully how the factory 
plans to produce foods which are clean and of good quality. Your 
audience will probably be more interested in your talk if you have 
made an outline. 

On Purchasing Cheese 

1. The methods of making different cheeses and the stories of 
how they were developed are quite interesting. Perhaps you could 
make a report to class on some of them. Look up the ones in which 
you are interested in the references listed, and also in encyclopedias. 

On Purchasing Staples 

1. Perhaps your teacher will allow you to purchase a loaf of 
white bread from each: a delicatessen, a bakery, a cash-and-carry 
store, and a regular grocery store. Study these loaves and get ready 
to tell the class what you have found. Weigh each loaf, and make 
a chart listing each loaf, its weight and cost. Tell what you found 
as to flavor, evenness of grain, and shape of loaf. Have the other 
members examine the bread as you tell them about it. Are the 
crusts an even golden brown, of good flavor, and even in thickness? 
Were all of the loaves wrapped? 

2. Some staples such as flour and sugar vary little in price be- 
tween stores or between similar brands. Price ten pound sacks of 
bread flour at two or three stores, getting the price on 2 or 3 of 
the same brands at each of the stores. Put your figures into a 
table such as this: 











On Purchasing Meat 

1. Make a list of as many beef cuts as you can, and in another 
column put the methods of preparation that would be suitable for 

2. To do this problem study charts and booklets that you can 
get from packing houses showing how the different animals are 
divided into cuts. Also ask your butcher to help you with any 
question that you cannot answer by consulting the charts and 
booklets. Fill in the spaces below with the name of the cut or 
cuts made from the different sections of the carcass. If no cut 
is made draw a line, , in the space. 













Short Ribs 


On Food Spoilage 

1. You might perform an experiment to prove that cooking and 
the addition of sugar delay spoilage. Apples would be a good food 
to use. Cut an apple in two and place it cut side up on a saucer. 
Cover it with a dish to prevent the apple from drying. You might 
put a small piece of wet cotton under the dish to insure a moist 
atmosphere. If the dish is glass, you can observe the growth 
of the mold without removing it. Cook the remaining half of 


the apple and another in a small pan with enough water to keep 
them from burning. When thoroughly cooked, dip out half of 
the quantity onto a saucer. Add about as much sugar to the 
applesauce in the kettle as there is sauce. When it has boiled, put 
it onto a third saucer. Put each of these saucers under separate 
bell jars or glass bowls. If you use cotton for the piece of apple, 
also use it for the cooked apple. The warmer the room tempera- 
ture, the more quickly will mold develop. Notice which of the 
dishes develops mold colonies first, and which keeps the longest. 
What is your conclusion as to the effect of cooking and the addi- 
tion of a large proportion of sugar in delaying spoilage? Can you 
explain why this happens? 

On Costs of Foods 

1. Select one of the foods listed below, or another if you prefer, 
and show the wide variety of services for which we pay when 
we buy it. 

Butter Canned ham 

Milk Dried prunes 

Cheese Bread 

Canned pineapple Potato 

Peanut butter Sugar 

2. Perhaps you could make a report to the class of what you 
have seen a grocer do which shows thoughtfulness and courtesy to- 
ward his customers. Also cases of courtesy shown by customers. 


BROWN, B. M., Good Health for Boys and Girls (Ginn and Co., 

Coxx, Herbert W., Bacteria, Yeasts, and Molds (Ginn and Co., 

CUZZORT, B., and TRASK, J. M., Health and Health Practices (D. 

C. Heath and Co., 1923). 
FARMER, Fanny M., The Boston Cooking School Cook Book (Little, 

Brown and Co., 1927). 
GREER, Carlotta' C., Foods and Homemaking (Allyn and Bacon, 

HARRIS, Jessie W., and LACEY, Elisabeth B., Everyday Foods 

(Houghton Mifflin Co., 1927). 
HUNTER, George, and WHITMAN, Walter, Civic Science in the Home 

(American Book Co., 1921). 
JOHNSON, Ava, Bacteria of the Home (The Manual Arts Press, 

KINYON, Kate, and HOPKINS, Thomas, Junior Food and Clothing 

(J. B. Lippincott Co., 1928). 
LANMAN, Faith R., McKAY, Hughina, and ZUILL, Francis, The 

Family's Food (J. B. Lippincott Co., 1931). 
MARSHALL, Leon C., Readings in the Story of Human Progress 

(The Macmillan Co., 1926). 
McCoLLUM, E. V., and SIMMOXDS, N., Food, Nutrition and Health 

(Lord Baltimore Press, 1925). 
MONROE, Day, and STRATTON, Lenore M., Food Buying and Our 

Markets (Barrows Co., 1926). 

PETERSON, A. J., and BADENOCH, N., Simplified Cooking (Ameri- 
can School of Home Economics, 1928). 
Settlement Cookbook (Settlement Publishing Co., 1930). 
TRILLING, Mabel, WILLIAMS, Florence, and REEVES, Grace G., A 

Girl's Problems in Home Economics (J. B. Lippincott Co., 

WILLARD, Florence, and GILLETT, Lucy H., Dietetics for High 

Schools (The Macmillan Co., 1930). 



WINCHELL, Florence E., Food Facts for Every Day (J. B. Lip- 
pincott Co., 1924). 


U. S. Department of Agriculture, Farmers' Bulletins. 

"Cooking Beef According to the Cut," Leaflet No. 17, St. 

"Diseases of Apples in Storage," No. 1160, St. 

"How to Candle Eggs," No. 565, 400. 

"Market Classes and Grades of Meat," No. 1246, 300. 

"Preparation of Fresh Tomatoes for Market," No. 1291. 

"Rice as Food," No. 1195. 

"Varieties of Cheese: Descriptions and Analyses," No. 608, 100. 
University of Colorado, Agricultural Extension Service Bulletins. 


"Lamb Cuts and Recipes." 

"Planning the Family Meal." 

"Sandwiches and Salads." 

Institute of American Meat Packers (506 So. Wabash Ave., Chi- 
cago), Department of Home Economics Bulletin. 

"Liver, Nutritive Value and Ways of Serving." 
National Live Stock and Meat Board (407 So. Dearborn Street, 

"Cashing in on Beef." 

"Cashing in on Lamb." 

"Grading and Stamping Prime and Choice Beef Carcasses." 


U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Home Economics. 
"Food Selection and Meat Planning Chart." 
"Refrigeration Chart." 
Armour Packing Co. (Chicago, 111.). 
"Armour's Star Beef Chart." 
"Armour's Lamb, Pork, and Veal Cuts." 
Swift and Company (Chicago, 111.), "Educational Advertisement 


Institute of American Meat Packers (506 So. Wabash Avenue, Chi- 
cago), "Meat Buyer's Guide." 

National Live Stock and Meat Board (407 So. Dearborn Street, 
Chicago), "Identification of Wholesale and Retail Cuts." 



HALLIDAY, E. G., and NOBLE, L, Hows and Whys of Cooking 

(University of Chicago Press, 1928). 
National Livestock and Meat Board, "Meat and Meat Cookery" 

(407 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, 1930). 


BOGERT, L. Jean, Nutrition and Well Being (W. B. Saunders, 1931). 

BLUNT, Katharine and COWAN, Ruth, Ultraviolet Light and Vita- 
min D in Nutrition (The University of Chicago Press, 1930). 

EMERSON, William R. P., Nutrition and Growth in Children (D. 
Appleton Co., 1922). 

MCCOLLUM, E. V., and SIMMONDS, Nina B., Newer Knowledge of 
Nutrition (The Macmillan Co., 1929). 

ROBERTS, Lydia J., Nutrition Work with Children (The University 
of Chicago Press, 1927). Especially well adapted as a back- 
ground for teaching nutrition in junior high school. Has an 
especially good list of sources of illustrative materials, pp. 

ROSE, Mary Swartz, Feeding the Family (The Macmillan Co., 

SHERMAN, Henry C, Chemistry of Food and Nutrition (The Mac- 
millan Co., revised edition, 1932). 

SPENCER, G., An Animal Feeding Experiment, Showing the Effect 
of Deficient Diet on Growth (Division of Extension, University 
of Texas, Austin, Texas, 1926, 254). 


The American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 96, No. 2, February, 
1931, "The Vitamins A and D Content of Some Margarines." 
A reprint may be obtained from the John F. Jelke Co., 
Chicago, 111. 



HOFER, C, "Health Program in the Public Schools of Joliet," 
Elementary School Journal, Vol. 22, June, 1922, p. 764. 

BLANTON, S., "Mental and Nervous Changes in the Children of the 
Volkschulen of Trier, Germany, Caused by Undernutrition," 
Mental Hygiene, III, July, 1919, p. 346. 

CHAPLIN, EL, "What Are the Signs of Health, with Special Ref- 
erence to Nutrition," Journal of Home Economics, Vol. 18, 
August, 1926, p. 485. 

FITZGERALD, N., "Nutrition in Public Schools," Journal of Home 
Economics, Vol. 16, June, 1924, p. 310. 

HARPER, M. A., "Nutrition Classes for Children," Journal of Home 
Economics, Vol. 11, November, 1919, p. 471. 

MUDGE, G. G., "The Evolution of the Nutrition Class Program," 
Journal of Home Economics, Vol. 14, September, 1922, pp. 

STOVER, A. D., and MUDGE, G. G., "The Red Cross Nutrition Pro- 
gram in New York City," Journal of Home Economics, Vol. 
13, November, 1921, p. 536. 

WARDALL, Ruth, "Nutrition and Health Classes for Children," 
Journal of Home Economics, Vol. 13, November, 1921, p. 

ROBERTS, Lydia J., "Teaching Children to Eat Wholesome Food," 
Hygeia, Vol. 11, March, 1924, p. 135. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Circular No. 205, "The Iron 
Content of Vegetables and Fruits," 50. 

Illustrative Materials 

American Child Health Association (370 Seventh Avenue, New 
York City). Posters. 

Elizabeth McCormick Memorial Fund (848 North Dearborn Street, 

U. S. Department of Agriculture Extension Service (Washington, 
D. C.). Excellent photographs of animals and children illus- 
trating points of nutrition. 'List with prices furnished on 

McCoLLUM, E. V., Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, Md.). 
Numerous pictures illustrating deficiency diseases. Descrip- 
tion leaflet on request. 

National Child Welfare Association (70 Fifth Avenue, New York 
City). Many excellent posters. 

National Dairy Council (810 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago). 


Pictures showing the effects of drinking milk on various ani- 
mals. Also other posters and materials. Descriptive booklet 
on request. 
U. S. Children's Bureau (Washington, D. C). Charts on posture, 

address Superintendent of Documents. 5C#. 
Rats for experimental purposes may be obtained from the General 
Biological Supply House, 761 East 69th Place, Chicago, or E. 
Michaels, 2907 Diamond Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. State 
Departments of Health can often supply them, also. 

Rat cages may be obtained from A. C. Lake, 1218 East 63rd 
Street, Chicago, Illinois. Booklet on request. 

Weight charts may be made by using drawing paper squared 
in inch divisions or smaller. Prepared charts may be obtained 
from the University of Chicago Bookstore, Chicago; Elizabeth Mc- 
Cormick Memorial Fund, Chicago; Nutrition Clinic for Delicate 
Children, Boston, Massachusetts. 


ANDREWS, Benjamin R., Economics of the Household (The Mac- 

millan Co., 1923), pp. 241-246, "Food in Family Life;" Ch. ix, 

"Social Aspects of Food Supply." 
DONHAM, S. Agnes, Spending the Family Income (Little, Brown & 

Co., 1927), Ch. v, "Standards for Food." 
FRIEND, Mata R., Earning and Spending the Family Income (D. 

Appleton & Co., 1930), Unit IV, "Consumption"; Unit V, 

"The Purchase of Food." 
MONROE, Day, and STRATTON, Lenore M., Food Buying and Our 

Markets (M. Barrows & Co., 1925), Ch. i-xvi. 
ROBINSON, Anna Belle, and KING, Florence M., Learning Exercises 

in Food and Nutrition (D. C. Heath & Co., 1928). Unit IX, 

"How to Obtain the Best Returns for the Money Spent for 

TODOROFF, Alexander, What Is What in Groceries (The Grocery 

Trade Publishing House, 5650 W. Lake St., Chicago, 1926). 

Bulletins and Monographs 

WHITNEY, Anne, "The Weighing and Measuring of School Chil- 
dren," Bulletin of the American Child Health Association, New 
York, N. Y., "Physical Measures of Growth and Nutrition," 
School Health Research Monograph, No. 11. 


"How to Buy Canned Food" (Free popular folder), National Can- 
ners' Association (1738 H St., N. W., Washington, D. C). 

Government Bulletins 

U. S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin No. 148, "The 

Frozen-Pack Method of Preserving Berries in the Pacific 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Farmer's Bulletin No. 1321, 

"Fumigation of Citrus Trees for Control of Insect Pests." 
U. S. Department of Agriculture Circular No. 73, "The Cold 

Storage of Eggs and Poultry." 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Farmer's Bulletin No. 1343, 

"Culture of Citrus Fruits in the Gulf States." 


1. Experiments in Feeding White Rats 

There are a number of experiments that you can try in 
feeding white rats to see what is the effect of diet. You must 
always have two cages, the rats in one fed in one way, those in 
the other in a different way in order to see how differently 
they grow and appear. It is best to buy newly weaned 
rats of about the same weight. 1 Each day or two you should 
observe the rats to see if there is any difference in their 
appearance. Notice the hair, the eyes, their activity, and 
disposition. A well rat has thick, smooth, fine hair. One 
which is not so well may have coarse, thin, rough hair. Shining 
eyes go with good health, while dullness is a sign of ill health. 
A rat that is growing as it should and feels well is active and 
alert, while a rat that is badly fed will be quiet and sit 
hunched in a corner of its cage. A sick rat is more likely to 
show a bad disposition than one which is well. 

Weigh each rat twice a week. A convenient method is to 
weigh a small cardboard box which has been perforated with 
small holes for ventilation. Then weigh the box with the rat 
inside. The difference between the two weights is the weight 
of the rat. Keep a record of the weights and make a graph 
using a red pencil for one rat and black for the other. 

The cages must be cleaned each day. Especially designed 
cages make this very easy. Water must be supplied the rats 
and they must have fresh food each day. The cages should 
be set where there is no draft, and where they will not be 
chilled at night. 

1 General Biological Supply House, 761 East 69th Place, Chicago, will 
supply both tages and rats. City boards of health and state universities 
may supply information as to sources. Lake Hardware Company, 63rd 
and Greenwood Avenue, Chicago, makes a specialty of cages. 




Below are suggestions for various feeding experiments from 
among which you may choose to show the results of the par- 
ticular diet deficiency in which you are interested. In each 
experiment decide what food elements are supplied to Rat B 
that are missing in the food of Rat A. If you are not con- 
vinced that the diet makes the difference, switch the foods 
when there is a decided contrast in the weights and see what 


Rat A 



2. White bread 
Meat (cooked) 
Potato (cooked) 


White bread 
Cooked carrot 

Rat B 


White bread 
Meat (cooked) 
Potato (cooked) 

Whole wheat bread 
Raw carrot 

2. What Is Your Health Score? 






Are you sure you 
are growing and 
gaining in weight? 

10 Are your teeth 
clean and free 
from cavities? . 

Are your shoulders 
level and is your 
posture erect ? . . . 

Are your muscles 
firm and strong?. 




Do you drink 3 to 
4 glasses of milk 
every day ? 

10 Do you always 
avoid tea and 

10 Do you eat vege- 
tables every day, 
besides potato ? . . 

10 Do you eat a 
cereal for break- 
fast? . 

1 Elizabeth McCormick Memorial Fund, 848 North Dearborn Street, 
Chicago. Courtesy Agnes Peterson. 








10 Is your skin clear, 
smooth, and fresh 
looking ? 

Are you free from 
frequent head- 
aches? . 


Are your eyes 
bright and clear?. 

Have you a happy, 
good-natured dis- 
position ? 

10 Are you enthusi- 
astic about work 
and play ? 

10 Are you free from 
frequent colds ? . . 






10 Do you drink at 
least 4 glasses of 
water daily ? .... 

10 Do you always 
avoid eating sweets 
between meals ? . 

Do you stay out of 
doors two hours 
or more daily and 
have your win- 
dows open at 
night ? 

Do you clean your 
teeth at least twice 
daily ? 

Do you wash your 
hands before meals 
and take a bath 
at least 3 times a 
week ? 

Do you go to bed 
not later than 9:00 
o'clock? . 


Your Score 


Your Score 

Is your score what you would like it to be? Health and 
attractive appearance help to win friends, success, and happi- 

3. Tests for Sugar and Fats 

A. To test for sugar. Buy the two solutions from a 
druggist which when mixed will make Fehling solution. First 
boil a little of the mixture diluted to show the color the 
mixture alone will give and set aside. Fill another test tube 
one-fourth full of water and add -J t. of corn syrup. Add 
a few drops of each solution and boil. In the same way test 


for the sugar content of a number of vegetables. Use a little 
of the water in which the vegetables have been cooked. Onion, 
carrot, cabbage, and celery are good examples to use. Test 
also the juices of such fruits as lemon, grapefruit, apple, and 
so on. The raw juices will give the test. Since cane sugar 
will not give the test, boil in water to which has been added 
a few drops of vinegar to "invert." 

B. To test for fat. Extract fat by means of ether. Beat 
an egg yolk in a dish with \ C. of ether. Decant off the ether 
onto an undecorated plate. When the ether has evaporated, 
a ring of yellow fat will remain. Test the white of the egg 
in a similar fashion. To test walnuts, grind or chop fine 
before mixing with the ether. Cheese, peanut butter and 
chocolate will give interesting results. Be cautious in handling 
ether since it is highly inflammable. 

4. Food Tables 

On the following pages is given a table of foods with their 
approximate values. This table gives the number of calories 
for a typical portion, as well as indicates mineral and vitamin 




" + ^ f 1 1 1 1 1 





+ + + + 4-++++ + + + + + 






+ + 



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r 5 


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to to 1 10 to 10 10 

CM ,-i ^H rt ' ^H ^-1 CM' ' -l 1^ O Tt- 



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Woman (mature) . . 








Man (mature) .... 







i Adapted from H. C. Sherman, Chemistry of Food and Nutrition (The Mac- 
millan Co., revised edition, 1932). 

5. To see blood corpuscles circulate 

Put a goldfish in a cup of water. Add a saturated solution 
of chlorotone, drop by drop. It will take about 1 t. to put a 
medium sized fish to sleep. When the fish turns on its side, 
place it on a glass slide. Spread its tail so that a thin section 
can be placed under a high power microscope such as is used 
in science. Now you can see the corpuscles floating along in 
the blood. When the blood flows very slowly, return the fish 
to fresh water and it will revive. Describe the appearance 
of the corpuscles. 

6. To remove mineral from bone 

Cover a bone from the leg of a chicken or some other fowl 
with diluted hydrochloric acid. Be sure to set your dish 
where it will not spill. The acid is poisonous. After about a 


week, pour off the acid into the sewer and rinse the bone 
carefully, and examine- it. The acid eats away the mineral in 
the bone. 

7. To extract the minerals from milk 

Put a pint of milk into a large evaporating dish. Boil it 
down and evaporate all the liquid. What is left will be black. 
Continued heating will leave only light gray minerals that do 
not burn. What is left is largely calcium. A Petri dish 
should be used for the final reduction. 

8. To study the growth of mold 

Buy three tubes of agar from a drug store or secure them 
from the biology department of your school. Bake three 
Petri dishes in a hot oven for about one-half hour. By doing 
this you can be sure that no live mold spores are on the dishes. 
Melt the agar and pour into the dishes. Agar is a good food 
for mold. Allow the dishes to stand open in the room about 
one-half hour. Cover two of them, allow one to stand in room 
temperature (about 70 F.) and put the other into the re- 
frigerator under the ice. Expose the third to the direct sun- 
light on a roof or on an outside window sill. Glass in the 
form of window panes or the cover of the Petri dish shut out 
some of the sun's rays which kill bacteria and mold. To be 
effective this dish should be exposed to brilliant sunshine and 
covered with the upper half of the Petri dish when the sun 
is not shining. Examine the agar daily for several days and 
compare the three dishes. What do you find? Each spot you 
see represents mold growing in a colony. Explain the difference 
between the dishes. 



as a leavening agent, 33 

fresh, 124 

in ice cream, 68 
Appetite, finicky, 171 
Appetizer, dinner, 79 
Apple, baked, a study in costs, 


Apricots, for copper, 139 
Austrian war children, 105 

Baby, need for food, 127 

Bacon, breakfast, 31 


as cause of spoilage, 249 
control of growth of, 250 
from flies, 253 
in eggs, 220 
in milk, 223, 226 
on exposed foods, 265 
on milk bottles, 250 
removal from fruits, 65 
removal from vegetables, 53 
unwholesome, 4 

Baking powder, in muffins, 33 

Banana and pineapple salad, 52 

Bathing, for health, 124, 167 

Batter, muffin, 33 


for copper, 139 
for protein, 129 
salad, 51 

Beef cuts, 80, 81, 236-244 

breakfast, 14, 26 
comparative costs, 228 
comparative food values, 228 
milk, 72-75 


calcium in, 148 

iron in, 136 

calcium in, 148 

growth of, 148 
Bouillon, 79, 80 
Bowel, evacuation of, 124, 168 
Box lunch, calories in, 122 
Brain, as source of vitamins, 166 
Bran, 13 

assistance from, 260 

as guarantee of quality, 215 

cutting of, 56, 57 

fitting slices, 56 

for sandwiches, 60 

qualities of, 233 

removal of crusts, 58, 60 

varieties, 233 

white for calcium, 151 

whole grain for vitamin, 158 
Bread box, care of, 252 
Bread pudding, 97 

a girl's, 11 

bacon, 31 

beverages, 14, 26 

cereal, 13 

eggs, 28 

fruit, 12 

kinds of, 11 

muffins, 32 

of nutritional contrast, 119 

toast, 25 

Bulletins, list of, 276 

as shortening, 34 




Butter continued 
for sandwiches, 60 
for vitamin A, 157 

Buttermilk, 73 


courtesy, 267 
honesty, 267 
intelligence, 268 
responsibility, 267-269 
saving time, 268 

Cabbage, and pineapple salad, 

52, 163 
Cafeteria, selecting meals in, 


game, 150 

loss of, 149 

needs, 150, 285-290 

table of foods, 143-145 

use in body, 148 

Voit's experiment, 149 

definition of, 115 

for luncheon, 121 

in breakfasts, 119 

in other meals, 122 

judging values, 118 

table of, 116-117, 285-290 
Can, sizes and contents of, 

Canned goods, 213-219 

brands of, 214, 215 

considerations when buying,, 

grades of, 213-214 
Cannon balls, 75 
Caper, in salads, 49 
Carbohydrates, kinds of, 115 
Carbon dioxide, 

as a leavening agent, 33 

formation of in body, 137 

celery and nut salad, 162 

for vitamin A, 157 

Cash-and-carry stores, 

advantages of, 259 

disadvantages of, 260 
Cells, of body, 110 

as roughage, 169 

cooking of, 16 

definition of, 13 

breakfast, 13 

cooking of, 15-22 

cooking small amounts of, 


form for judging, 22 
judging, 21 
serving, 20, 22 
standards for, 18 
steps in cooking, 19 
table for cooking, 17 
time of cooking, 18 
bulk vs. packaged, 233 

construction of grain, 13 

costs of, 234 

preservation of, 252 

products of, 12 

refined, 13 

unrefined for vitamin B, 158 

whole, 14 

for roughage, 169 

list of, 276 

to check health habits, 124 

to check health score, 281 

considerations when buying, 

flavors of, 229 

for protein, 129 

for vitamin A, 157 

kind dependent on use, 231 

source of costs, 229 

toasted sandwiches, 63 

varieties, 230-231 

spring, 80 

stewing, 80 




digestive abilities of, 174 

foods for, 174 

learning from example, 173 

liking for foods, 172 

beverage recipe, 27 

ice cream, 71 

malted milk, 74 

milk shake, 74 

qualities of, 27 

sauce as flavoring, 72, 73, 74 

sauce recipe, 72 
Clams, 80 
Cocoa, recipe, 27 
Codfish souffle, 133 
Coffee, harm from, 14 

contrasts in meals, 42 

in salads, 55 
Consomme, 79, 80 
Contrasts in foods, 6, 41, 42 
Cooking, values from, 4-7, 15 
Copper, need for, 139 
Corn, 12 
Corpuscles, red, 

importance of, 138 

work of, 138 
Costs, of fruits and vegetables, 

comparison of, 206 

dependent on size of fruit, 

increased by discoloration, 

increased by grading, 204 

increased by greenness, 201 

increased by imperfections, 

increased by overripeness, 197 

increased by wilting, 197 

for vitamin A, 157 

in ice cream, 68 

percentage of in milk, 225 
Creamed dishes, 

precautions in making, 48 

recipes, 48 
Croutons, 48 
Curds, milk, 26 

in ice cream, 71 

raw, 72 

recipe, 67 

Dairy, cleanliness of, 225 
Dates, stuffed, 75 
Dealer, reliability, 235 

confections, 75-76 

custard, 66 

dinner, 77, 96-99 

fruit, 64 

heavy, 63 

ice cream, 67-72 

light, 63 

luncheon, 63-76 

recipes for, 97-99 

selection of, 96 
Diet, balanced, 171-177 
Dinner, 77-99 

definition of, 41 

dessert, 96-99 

first course, 78 

fish, 85-87 

meat, 80-85 

menu, 77 

vegetables, 87-96 
Diphtheria germs in milk, 223 
Discount for retailer, 267 

containing protein. 129 

for calories, 129 

number in dinner, 77 
Double boiler, explanation of, 

Eating between meals, 124, 171, 


beating of, 32 



Eggs continued 

boiled, 29 

candling, 222 

considerations when buying, 

creamed, 48 

equalizing supply of, 220 

for vitamin A, 157 

fresh vs. stale, 221 

grades of, 222 

handling, 29 

in ice cream, 71 

judging, 222 

poached in milk, 30 

preservation of, 220 

sandwich, 62 

use of cold storage, 222 

use of in muffins, 32 

ways of cooking, 28 
Exercise, in regulating body, 168, 


animal, 155 

blood corpuscles, 290 

growth of molds, 291 

mineral extraction, bone, 290 

mineral extraction, milk, 291 

rat, 281-282 

Voit, 149 

Family contribution, 

in 'effort, 261-263 

in money, 261 

as food, 115 

in muffins, 34 

stored in body, 111 

use of storage, 112 
Fireless cooker, 17 
Fish chowder, 86 
Flavors, combining, 41 
Flies, source of bacteria, 253 
Flour, use of in muffins, 32 

a plan for choosing, 176-177 


family contributions, 261- 


of a grapefruit, 255-259 
of harvesting and packing, 


of production, 255-256 
of retailing, 258 
of transporting, 258 
money vs. labor, 260 

for phosphorus, 136 

likes, development of, 172, 

storage in body, 111 

storage in home, 249-254 

tables, 90-91, 116-117, 143- 

145, 284-288 
French dressing, 95 
Freshness, preservation in vege- 
tables, 195 
Frozen frosting, 97 

"all-season," 219 

as appetizer, 79 

breakfast, 12, 23 

canned, grades of, 214 

cannon balls, 75 

considerations when purchas- 
ing, 213 

dried, preparation of, 24 

for dessert, 64 
'for phosphorus, 136 

for salad, 49 

for vitamin B, 158 

for vitamin C, 161 

for roughage, 169 

in ice cream, 68, 71 

in muffins, 34 

method of cooking, 25 

methods of preservation, 212 

preparation for market, 24 

selection as to size, 208 

selection as to use, 209 

variety in, 23, 208, 213 

with cereals, 21 




foods for warmth and energy, 

varying amounts of, needed, 


Garlic, in salads, 49 
Gary, Indiana, study, 150 

effect of pineapple, 65 

in ice cream, 70 

kinds of, 65 

recipes for, 65, 66 
Germ, wheat, 13 
Ginger ale, food value of, 


food needs of, 127 
Gizzard, as source of vitamins, 

Government stamps, on meat, 


advantages of, 203 

costs of, 204, 205 
Graham pudding, 159 

lacto, 73 

shake, 74 

cost of, 255-259 

for vitamin C, 161 

grading, 257 

harvesting, 257 

packing, 257 

preparation of, 24 

raising, 255 

retailing, 258 

transporting, 258 

health, 123 

in regulating body, 168 
of cleanliness, 253 


habits, 123 

score, 281 

signs of, 113 
Heart, as source of vitamins, 

Heat, loss from body, 109 


and salt for ice cream, 68 

crystals in ice cream, 68, 70 
Ice cream, 67-72 

in mechanical refrigerator, 70, 

New York, 71 

packing, 70 

popularity of, 67 

qualities of, 67 

recipes for, 70, 71, 97, 98 

steps in making, 69 

on exposed foods, 265 

removal from vegetables, 54 
Iodine, in sea foods, 235 

game, 140-141 

in day's meals, 142 

in the blood, 136, 138 

liver for, 139, 147 

needs, 139, 289 

prunes for, 146 

spinach for, 146 

table of foods, 143-145, 285- 

Junket, 153 


expelling body wastes, 167 


information from, 216 



Labels continued 
requirements in, 215 
types of, 217 
Laboratory, acquaintance with 


Lamb, 80 

Laws concerning milk, 225 
Learning, by cooking, 7 

definition of, 32 
agents, 32 
in luncheons, 41 
use of, 192 
Lemon nog, 74 

and bacon sandwich, 62 
preparation of, for salads, 54, 


Limes, for vitamin C, 160 
Liquid, use of, in muffins, 32 

as source of vitamins, 166 
for copper, 139 
for iron, 139, 147 
recipe, 147 
Lobsters, 80 

Loganberry milk punch, 74 
Loveapple cocktail, 74 
Luncheon, 41-76 
beverages, 72-75 
calories in, 121 
confections, 75-76 
cream soups, 44-48 
creamed dishes, 48 
definition of, 41 
desserts, 63-76 
planning of, 41-44 
salads, 49-55 
sample menus for, 43 
sandwiches, 56-63 
Lungs, expelling body wastes, 

Marketing, 184-274 

Market list, 
as a time saver, 269 
based on meal plans, 186 
Marshmallow delight, 98 
Marshmallows, in ice cream, 71 
Mayonnaise dressing, 
for salads, 52 
in sandwiches, 62 
accuracy in, 34 
how to make, 9 
results of poor, 35 

calcium in, 151 
carving, 238 
color, 236 
cookery, 82-85 
effect of acid, 82 
effect of temperature, 82 
leftovers, 83 
product desired, 82 
roasting, 82 
sandwiches, 62 
tough cuts, 82 
considerations when buying, 


cuts, 80-83, 236-247 
choosing, 247 
grain of, 237 
identifying, 236, 239 
relative costs of, 246 
shape of, 240-242 
size of, 238 
tender, 80, 238, 244 
tough, 81, 243-244 
for protein, 129 
flavor of, 81 
frozen, 246 

government stamps on, 245 
recipes, 31, 62, 84, 85, 147, 


variety in, 82 
wholesomeness of, 82 

cards, 178, 179, 180 
dinner, 77-80 



Menus continued 

sample luncheon, 43 

bacteria in, 223, 224 
beverages, 72-75 

grape lacto, 73 

grape shake, 74 

lemon nog, 73 

loganberry punch, 74 

loveapple cocktail, 74 

malted, 73 

orange nog, 74 

pineapple cream, 74 

prune punch, 74 

shake, 73, 74 

strawberry freeze, 74 
bottles, bacteria on, 250 
bottling of, 226 
care of, in home, 27, 227 
certified, 226 

values from, 26 

care in, 27 

in muffins, 32 

variety from, 27 
considerations when buying, 


daily need for, 14, 141 
evaporated, in ice cream, 68 
food value of, 228 
for calcium, 151, 152 
for phosphorus, 136 
for protein, 128, 129 
for vitamin A, 157 
for vitamin B, 158 
for vitamin C, 161 
importance of, 152 
laws, 225 
orangized, 14 
pasteurized, 226 
prepared, 227 

recipes, 27, 44, 48, 70, 73, 74, 
97, 153, 154 

see also Recipes 
sheep's, in cheese, 231 
spoilage, 223 

Mineral needs, 135, 154 
Models, food, 120 

as cause of spoilage, 249 

control of growth of, 250 

in bread box, 252 

baking, 38 

ingredients of, 32 

judging, 40 

leavening, 33 

mixing, 35 

poor qualities of, 35 

step method for, 39 

testing, 39 
Mutton, 180 

Nutrition, 103-183 

importance of, 43 
Nuts, protein value of, 129 

Oil, rancidity of, 252 
Oleomargarine, as shortening, 


Omelette, French, recipe, 30 
Onion, in salads, 49 

for roughage, 169 

for vitamin C, 161 

nog, 74 

preparation of, 23 

value of in diet, 23 

regulator, 38, 39 

temperature, 38 
Oysters, 80 
Oxygen, use of in body, 137 

Pasteurization of milk, 225, 226 
Peaches, for copper, 139 

and honey sandwich, 63 

brittle, 76 



Peanut continued 

butter, 76 

cookies, 76 

for protein, 148, 149 

canning of, 215 

for copper, 139 

for protein, 129 

grading, 216 
Peels, for roughage, 169 

foods containing, 136 

need for, 136 
Pimiento, in salads, 49 

cream, 74 

effect of on gelatin, 65 

frozen dessert, 98 

salads, 66 

cereal cookery, 20 

for contrasts in color, 42 

for contrasts in flavor, 41 

for contrasts in foods, 6 

for contrasts in texture. 42 

for nutrition, 43, 186 

the laboratory cooking, 8 
Popcorn, a study in costs, 


cuts, 241-244 

larvae in, 82 

source of, 80 
Potatoes, calcium in, 151 

graded, 204 

salad, 51 

waste in, a study, 199-201 
Play, out-of-doors, 124 

of eggs, 221-222 

of fruits, 212 

of milk, 224 
Pretest questions, 

Unit I, "Preparation," 3 

Unit II, "Nutrition," 103 

Unit III, "Marketing," 183 


cookery, 82 

effects of heat on, 28 

effects of lack of, 128 

foods, 129-131 

for growth, 127, 128 

for repair, 127 

in eggs, 28 

in milk, 27 

in our meals, 130 

cooking of, 25 

iron in, 146 

milk punch, 74 

whip, 146 

according to family practices, 

according to size of bunch, 

according to storage space, 

according to waste, 193 

amount, how figured, 190 

care in, 195 

for several meals, 191 

quantity, advantages of, 218 

vs. baking, 188 
Pure Food Law (1906), 215 

amendment (1930), 215 

requirements of, 234 
Pyorrhea, 160 

Quality, dependent upon use, 

Rat experiments, 106 
Readings (see also References) 

balanced diets, 181 

breakfast fruits, 251 

buying canned goods, 220 

buying cheese, 233 

buying eggs, 224 

buying fruits, 214 



Readings continued 
buying meats, 248 
buying milk, 230 
buying sea foods, 237 
buying staples, 236 
calcium needs, 154 
cereal cookery, 22 
chocolate, 28 
cocoa, 28 
consomme, 80 
cost of service, 264 
creamed dishes, 48 
dinner desserts, 90 
dinner salads, 96 
dishwashing, 10 
eggs, 31 

ethics of selling, 270 
fuel needs, 126 
ice cream, 72 
iron needs, 148 
luncheon desserts, 72 
luncheon salads, 55 
meal plans, 195 
me^t cookery, 87 
muffins, 40 
one-dish meals, 44 
planning the meal, 15 
protein needs, 134 
ridding the body of wastes, 


sandwiches, 63 
storage waste, 255 
toast, 26 

vitamin needs, 166 

chocolate, 27 

cocoa, 27 

milk, 73-75 
breakfast cereals, 17 
cinnamon toast, 26 
croutons, 48 

bread pudding, 97 

confections, 75, 76 

fruit gelatin, 65, 66 

frozen frosting, 97 

graham pudding, 159 

ice cream, 70, 71 

junket, 153 

prune whip, 146 

rice pudding, 154 

chocolate sauce, 72 

custard sauce, 146 

French, 95 

mayonnaise, 52 

white sauce, 44 

creamed, 48 

custard, 67 

French omelette, 30 

poached in milk, 30 

chowder, 86 

codfish souffle, 133 

creamed salmon, 48 

salmon loaf, 85 

bacon, 31 

liver, 147 

loaf, 193 

sandwiches, 62 

Spanish steak, 85 

Swiss steak, 84 

beverages, 73-74 

bread pudding, 97 

chocolate, 27 

cocoa, 27 

creamed dishes, 48 

cream soups, 44 

ice cream, 70 

junket, 153 

rice pudding, 154 
muffins, 38 

baked bean, 51 

banana and pineapple, 52 

cabbage and pineapple, 51 

carrot, celery and nut, 162 

fruit, 95 



Recipes continued 

potato, 51 

vegetable, 94 

Waldorf, 52 

egg, 62 

ground meat, 62 

lettuce and bacon, 62 

peanut and honey, 63 

toasted cheese, 63 

boiled, 87, 88 

creamed asparagus, 48 

creamed peas, 48 

cream soups, 45 

scalloped tomato, 93 

spinach, 147 

References (see also Readings) 
pupils' (complete), 275-276 
teacher's (by units), 277- 


care of, 250, 251 
optimum temperatures, 250 
to control spoilage, 249 
Rice pudding, 154 

cause of, 164 
prevention of, 165 
foods, 168 
importance of, 169 


appearance of, 49 
arranging, 95 
description of, 93 
dinner, 77, 93-96 
dressing for, 52, 95 
flavor of, 49 
importance of, 49, 162 
judging the product, 55 
luncheon, 49, 55 
method of making, 52 
precautions with. 55 

recipes for, 50-51, 94-95, 162, 

serving, 96 

size of, 52, 93 

steps in making, 52-55 

tables for making, 94-95 
Salmon loaf, 85 

for vegetables, 92 

to freeze ice cream, 68 

to remove insects, 53 
Sandwiches, 56-63 

checkerboard, 59 

convenience of, 56 

double, 59 

filling, 58 

for calories, 122 

making a number, 62 

neatness of, 56 

open-faced, 58 

ribbon, 59 

size of, 58 

steps in making, 61 

variety in, 58, 62 

in foods, 4, 9 

in stores, 264 
Scurvy, 159, 160 
Sea foods, 

how to judge, 235 

iodine content of, 235 

perishableness of, 235 

of family, 261 

of producers, 255-263 

of storekeeper, 259 

reasonable, 268 

Skin, expelling body wastes, 167 

need for, 123 

standards for, 124, 282 

in cream of tomato soup, 46 

in muffins, 33 

cream of tomato, 46 



Soup continued 
dinner, 77 

judging the product, 47 
serving, 48 

vegetable cream, 44-48 

for copper, 139 
for iron, 139 
recipe, 147 
Standard product, 
cereals, 18 
definition of, 7 

bulk vs. packaged, 233 
considerations when buying, 


definition of, 232 
desirable qualities of, 232 

cooking of, 16 
in cereals, 13 
for fuel, 115 

Spanish, 85 
Swiss, 84 
advice of, 264 
cleanliness of, 264 
honesty of, 264 
responsibilities of, 264 

advantages of, 259 
disadvantages of, 260 
choosing, 259, 266 
advantages of, 259 
disadvantages of, 260 
variety in goods, 266 
Strawberry freeze, 74 
Suggestions for special study, 

costs of foods, 274 
food spoilage, 273 
making a market list, 270 
purchasing cheese, 272 

purchasing fruits, 271 
purchasing meat, 273 
purchasing milk, 272 
purchasing staples, 272 
purchasing vegetables, 270 
fuel, 181 
minerals, 182 
protein, 181 
roughage, 182 
vitamins, 182 

breakfast cookery, 99 
dinner cookery, 101 
luncheon cookery, 100 
other problems, 102 

source of vitamin D, 164 
through window panes, 164 
Supper, definition of, 41 
Supplies, general, 190 
Sweetbreads, as source of vita- 
mins, 166 


food needs for different ages, 

food values, 143-145, 285-289 

milk beverages, 73-74 

vegetable cookery, 90-91 

brushing, 124 

value of calcium to, 148, 149 

in meat cookery, 82, 83 

to control spoilage, 250 

for fat, 283 

for sugar, 282 

contrasts in luncheon dishes, 

contrasts in salads, 49 

definition of, 42 

in muffins, 35, 37 



Time saving, 36 

cinnamon, 26 

kinds of, 25 

preparation of, 25 

for vitamin C, 161 

graded, 203 

in meat cookery, 83 

scalloped, 93 

waste in, 202 

Telephone, in purchasing, 26S 
Typhoid bacteria in milk, 224 


demanded by modern man, 

from cereals, 13 

from fruits, 63 

from meat, 80, 82 

from milk, 27 

in muffins, 32 

in sandwiches, 58 

cuts, 241-244 

source of, 80 

canned, grades of, 214 

when to buy, 205 

classification of, 87 


combination dishes, 92 
flavoring, 92 
how to cook, 87-96 
in salads, 53-55, 93-96 
retaining values of. 88 
table for cooking, 89-91 
time of cooking, 88 

for phosphorus, 136 

for protein, 129 

for roughage, 169 

for vitamin A, 157 

for vitamin B, 158 

for vitamin C. 162 

rule for buying, 207 


freshness, 195 

grading, 203 

in diet, 87 

ripeness, 197 

various, 201-202 

waste, 199-202 

for soaking vegetables, 53 
in meat cookery. 83 
Vitamins, 155-166 
Vitamin A, 156-157 
Vitamin B, 158 
Vitamin C, 159-162 
Vitamin D, 164-166 


through intestines, 168 
through kidneys, 167 
through lungs, 167 
through skin, 167 

due to imperfections, 209 
in quantity buying. 253 
various types of, 252 

causes of, 249 
prevention of, by cleanli- 
ness, 252 
prevention of. by control of 

temperature, 250 
rate of, 249 

amount to drink, 167 
crystals in ice cream, 67 
Wheat products, 13 
White sauce, 
recipe, 44 
as base, 44 
Wilting time in vegetables, 197 

Yeast, for vitamin B, 159