BOARD OF EDUCATION
CITY OF NEW YORK
From the collection of the
San Francisco, California
JUNIOR HOME ECONOMICS:
JUNIOR HOME ECONOMICS
MATA ROMAN FRIEND
FORMER HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HOME ECONOMICS,
THE LABORATORY SCHOOLS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO;
AUTHOR OF "EARNING AND SPENDING THE FAMILY INCOME"
FORMER HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HOME ECONOMICS,
THE LABORATORY SCHOOLS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO;
AUTHOR OF "MAKING HOMES"
SEP 8 1936
CITY OF NEW YOEK
JAMES I. ROOT AND ANNE VAN NICE GALE
D. APPLETON-CENTURY COMPANY
COPYRIGHT 1933 BY
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY
All rights reserved. This book, or parts
thereof, must not be reproduced in any
iorm without permission of the publisher.
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
This text is designed as a beginning text in foods to be used
with pupils soon after they enter the period of secondary edu-
cation. That is, these units are to be among the early
educational experiences that have as their chief purpose the
adjustment of pupils to some of the materials, ideas, and
situations that constitute living. It is organized in units as
described by Dr. H. C. Morrison in The Practice of Teaching
in the Secondary Schools.' 1 The organization, point of view,
and numerous devices resulted largely from teaching in the
Labortory Schools of the University of Chicago. However,
a wide variety of experiences afforded contributions.
The sequence of the units as given is considered advisable
under some conditions; under others it may be disregarded.
Experience has shown that a positive attitude toward particular
foods is economically furthered when pupils prepare these
foods themselves. If pupils have had no experience with food
preparation, it is well to have the nutrition unit follow the
one on preparation. Otherwise too much attention would be
diverted to preparation to the detriment of the nutrition learn-
ings. In addition, knowledge of the ingredients of various
dishes as gained in the preparation unit is of positive assistance
in nutritional evaluations. As will be noted, family marketing
is based on nutritional requirements. Consequently, it is
essential that pupils taking up the unit on marketing have nutri-
tional understandings. The learnings gained from the prepara-
tion unit are also important in making marketing intelligible.
1 H. C. Morrison, The Practice of Teaching in the Secondary Schools
(The University of Chicago Press, revised edition, 1931).
The text is designed to allow and encourage considerable
pupil independence. That is, the questions, problems, readings,
and directions are placed so that pupils can proceed with a
minimum of dependence upon the teacher. Teachers are then
free to help in difficulties, to discover individual problems, to
supplement wherever needed. Thus attention is centered upon
pupil growth. Pupils may move through a unit at individual
speeds, additional suggestion being listed for those who com-
plete the unit earlier than most. Pretest questions, presenta-
tions, considerable assimilation materials, both expressed and
suggested, are additional structural elements that facilitate both
learning and ease of class management.
Because there is wide variation in time allotment for home-
economics study, no definite period can be suggested as prob-
ably sufficient to secure mastery of the units in this text. How-
ever, an attempt has been made in its structure to recognize
the problems of the teacher with few and widely spaced class
meetings as well as those of the teacher whose daily meetings
permit of better continuity. That is, there is grouping within
the units such that widely spaced lessons may have a measure
of completeness without losing their vital relationship to the
unit concept. When teachers find themselves in this situation,
it is to be hoped that they will take extra precautions that the
learnings of the isolated lessons be definitely kept as a part
of the whole.
The illustrations are of various types such as animated
statistics, cartoons, diagrammatic explanations, and photo-
graphs. Each type was chosen for the specific kind of teaching
it would do. For example, the animal photographs in the
nutrition unit give information but in addition are convincing
in their appeal. The diagram was selected in numerous in-
stances because it eliminated everything but the point to be
made. The authors wish to express their appreciation for the
cooperation of many commercial firms in providing photo-
graphs. The Bureau of Home Economics was very helpful in
supplying pointed illustrations for the nutritional unit.
Special credit is due a number of persons. Mr. Linn Hough
of the photographic department of The University of Chicago
spared no pains to make his photographs of teaching value.
Miss Grace Wertenberger of Western Reserve University
helped in collecting various informations. Credit should be
given to instructors from whom valuable points of view and
suggestions were gained, among whom are Miss Faith McAuley,
Dr. Evelyn G. Halliday, and Dr. Lydia J. Roberts, all of the
University of Chicago. Dr. Henry C. Morrison was particu-
larly encouraging through his sincere interest in nutritional
M. R. F.
When education is considered to be a personality change,
objectives are expressed in terms of attitudes based upon
understandings or appreciations. First, then, we must select
the aims we hold for our teaching. The next step is to discover
to what extent pupils have already progressed toward attaining
these objectives. For this purpose a set of pretest questions
has been supplied for each unit in this book. Most teachers
will find this list is insufficient in breadth to serve adequately,
or that there are local conditions that make additional ques-
tions advisable. They will probably find also that written
testing needs to be supplemented by oral questioning in order
to give a clear picture of individual and group understandings
and attitudes. It must not be thought, however, that any
amount of pretesting will uncover all the difficulties that pupils
are likely to encounter. The discovery of such difficulties will
be constant from the beginning of the unit to its finish. How-
ever, a teacher is eminently better equipped to present informa-
tions in such a way as to be effective if she analyzes carefully
the results of pretesting.
Young people as well as adults enjoy a clear understanding
of the purpose of what they are doing. They are confused
and their progress is slow if they must wander about seeking
a goal that they cannot recognize. For this reason a presenta-
tion of each unit is given under the heading, "What This Unit
Is About." If, after this section is read and perhaps discussed
by the teacher, a test reveals that some pupils still do not
know what there is to be learned in the unit, she will need to
present it again, using stories perhaps, examples, and other
x TO TEACHERS
informations so that pupils will not only know what is to be
learned but will be anxious to start. With practice pupils soon
have little difficulty in establishing this concept.
Now when we are sure pupils know what they are about,
we give them access to such information, experiences, and
interpretations as we think will develop those understandings
and attitudes that we set up as objectives. We encourage ex-
perimentation and an inquiry into their own experiences. An
attitude results usually from demonstration or experience re-
peated until the pupil is convinced. For example, the attitude
that, principles of cookery must be recognized if good products
are to be developed is a process of rather slow growth in a
student new to the preparation of foods. As she goes from
the preparation of one kind of dish to another, she discovers
that each new food has certain characteristics that cause it to
respond to manipulation in either a new or an old way. As she
experiences good and poor results in which she recognizes the
effects of use or violation of the many principles of cookery,
she comes to the conclusion that to be a successful cook one
must know and use the proper method under different cir-
cumstances. Having truly developed this attitude, her ap-
proach to cooking will always be intelligent, since she will seek
to understand her materials, know what product and what
standard she desires, and discover the method that will give this
result. In addition, she has developed independence, since
she can apply principles in new situations with assurance of
In each unit has been included a considerable amount of
assimilative material. The numbered questions and problems
are designed to further progress by requesting interpretation
of reading, illustrations, and personal experiences. There can
be no assurance, however, that this assimilative material will be
sufficient in any particular case. Teachers will probably find
that they must supplement on every hand, with books, pic-
TO TEACHERS xi
tures, magazines and newspaper clippings, their own experiences
and those of the pupils. The writers have indicated sources
for a considerable amount of valuable supplementary material
but have in no way exhausted the possibilities. The responses
to the problems and questions may be used somewhat as a
check on pupil progress.
When the teacher believes that most of her students have
arrived at the goal set, she tests. Since we have the concep-
tion of education as a change in understandings and attitudes
that result in changed performance, the most accurate test
is the observance of unconstrained performance. In the school
situation this is not always possible. Often reports from the
home give a clue. A nonvalid form of testing is one that
grades for mere memory of information. The ability to explain
or interpret that depends upon understanding is, of course, a
good type of test and one that is possible in the school situation.
Reteaching may be necessary for those pupils who have
failed to reach the objectives set up. Those members who
are ready now round out their understanding by organizing
in some form the chief points of the unit. At the level for
which this text was written, the making of an outline may
require considerable guidance from the teacher. However, the
ability to express one's understanding of a body of material
in an outline is of sufficient importance to each individual that
teachers can with profit include this kind of instruction in
their teaching program. In addition, making an outline furthers
a grasp of the unit and serves as a form of test. The ability
to express oneself orally and in writing is also of extreme
importance. Pupils may practice for these skills with the
familiar material of the unit.
Two types of units have been developed, Unit I, "Prepara-
tion," being of the practical-arts type, and Units II and III,
"Nutrition" and "Marketing," of the science type. In the
practical-arts unit the experiences are largely direct and ma-
xii TO TEACHERS
nipulative. Thus, in Unit I, attitudes toward the preparation
of food are developed primarily by the cooking of foods,
reading and discussion being used to interpret what the pupil
sees is happening as she cooks. In the units on nutrition and
marketing, the experiences and informations provided are of
necessity to a large extent vicarious. We give such direct
experience as the school situation and the restrictions of the
ordinary person's life permit. Animal feeding experiments, and
experiments such as removal of mineral from a bone are
examples of direct experience in nutrition. In the marketing
unit, visiting lessons, handling of foods of contrasting quali-
ties, experiments of different kinds with foods are of great
value in satisfying pupils of the validity of what they are
learning through the informations that have been culled from
the experiences of others. In the practical-arts unit, manipu-
lation is supplemented by reading and discussion, in the
science-type unit the direct experiences are used to give life
and meaning to what may be learned from others.
In all the units, but especially in the practical-arts unit, it
may be observed that the emphasis is upon attitudes toward
food, rather than a high degree of skill. General education is
for the purpose of adjusting individuals to the situations they
are likely to meet in their association with things and with
each other. Trade education is for the purpose of making a
living and requires the development of a high degree of skill.
Units in general education should develop such a degree of
skill only as will give pupils personal satisfaction and will
further the intelligence with which they may meet the varied
situations of both adolescent and adult life.
Unfortunately many home-economics teachers have been
forced to develop a high degree of skill in their pupils, since
parents and administrative officers have often failed to recog-
nize other more valid objectives and have measured the suc-
cess of the teacher by such things as perfection of garments in
TO TEACHERS xiii
an exhibit, or of foods served at a school board dinner. In
general home economics, we should no more ask that skilled
cooks and seamstresses be developed than we call for account-
ants from arithmetic classes or artists from art classes.
In school organizations where the time allotted to home
economics is meager, teachers may find it to be good practice
to limit the preparation of food to but one meal project. Since
the objectives of the unit are understandings and attitudes
toward the preparation of food, one carefully guided project
can be used to develop all of these attitudes. Where the time
allotment is more generous, it is of course desirable to use all
three projects because the wider experiences in a variety of
connections will probably contribute to more effective function-
ing of the new points of view.
As a result of the teaching of nutrition pupils should have
understandings of and good attitudes toward the nutritious
foods. For the psychological effect it is good practice to have
pupils prepare as many of the valuable foods as time permits,
particularly if certain dislikes that would be likely to throw
many days' diets out of balance are discovered. Since wide-
spread nutritional research is constantly establishing new facts,
teachers can vitalize their teaching by bringing these facts to-
gether with the human interest connected with their discovery
to their classes. Perhaps a word of caution should be given
in regard to the use of tables of approximate food values and
needs provided in the unit on nutrition. The authors wish to
be understood that they consider neither to be exact representa-
tions. Also they recognize that a great number of contributing
factors, the study of which is too technical for inclusion in a
text at this level, affects the utilization of food elements. How-
ever they feel that it would be futile to repeat the generalities
heard in homes such as, "You must drink milk"; "Vegetables
are good for you." The tables are included to give a basis
for such tangible evidence as would convince pupils of the
value of milk, vegetables, and so on in their own diets, and of
the necessity of conscious choice from among food possibilities
in order that they may be supplied with their various needs.
As will be observed, pupils are prepared in a general way
by the materials in the text for visits to markets. Teachers
will find it necessary to supplement this preparation by means
of discussion with both the pupils and the market man as to
what is to be seen. It is the unusual market man who has the
educational point of view, and his willingness must be guided
in order to insure the success of the visiting lesson.
The following is an analysis of important specific understand-
ings that should result from the use of the text. For the
several understandings there are listed the informations and
pupil activities selected to use in giving these understandings.
UNIT I: FOOD PREPARATION
1. Principles of cook-
1. This point of view
1. Practicing measure-
ery must be recog-
is consciously devel-
ments and other ac-
nized if good prod-
oped throughout the
ucts are to be devel-
2. The content and
2. Foods and their
2.-7. Cookery. Break-
cookery, such as ce-
fast: cereals, fruits,
of foods determine
reals, fruits, muffins,
beverages, eggs, ba-
the method of cook-
con, muffins. Lunch-
ery to be used.
salads, meats, vege-
eon: soups, creamed
tables, simple des-
dishes, salads, sand-
serts, and confec-
wiches, desserts and
ner : meats, vege-
3. The method of cook-
3. Vegetables, cereal,
tables, salads, com-
ery should conserve
meat, and other
b i n a t i o n dishes,
the nutritional ele-
UNIT I. Continued
4. Sanitation is of
4. Related to care of
ments: Freeing car-
prime importance in
dishes, washing of
bon dioxide from
foods to be used,
baking powder and
raw and cooked
soda ; temperature
meat, milk, 'and
effect of salt when
mixed with ice; see
the effects of differ-
5. Appetizing appear-
5. Related to salads,
ent methods of pre-
ance and flavor are
the result of care.
dishes, desserts, and
apples, and other
fruits, cocoa, rice,
6. Texture, flavor,
6. Meal planning :
collections of recipes.
color, and custom
Planning and pre-
should be considered
eons, dinners. Sal-
paring meals for
when foods and
ads, creamed and
family ; making
flavors are combined
rolled sandwiches ;
in dishes or in meals.
7. Variety contributes
7. Meal planning and
to our enjoyment of
cookery of many
8. Planning is of much
8. Preparation of
8. Outlining plans of
importance in the
procedure for work.
work of meal prep-
eons, and dinners.
UNIT II: NUTRITION
1. The foods we eat
determine to a con-
siderable extent how
we grow and how
well we are.
1. Emphasis upon re-
lation of food and
throughout the unit.
i. Experiments and ac-
the unit, such as
preparation of foods
UNIT II. Continued
2. The body has need
for warmth and for
energy to be sup-
plied by an ade-
quate amount of
3. Growth and repair
of the body are pos-
sible only when the
are supplied in suf-
4. Adequacy in the
various body regu-
lating elements must
be supplied by our
2. Body needs for fuel
foods ; how these
needs are supplied;
comparison of foods
as to value; meals
to supply needs.
3. Body needs: how
supplied, foods val-
uable for. How to
select meals. Dishes
valuable for protein
4. Body needs in vita-
mins and roughage,
how supplied ; study
of meals and dishes;
how the body rids
itself of wastes.
for elements, study
of own diet, etc.
2. Setting out foods ir
groups based on cal-
oric values. Cook-
ing two breakfasts
of contrasting val-
ues. Making food
models for practice
in selecting foods.
3. Protein: analyzing
recipes for, planning
meals for, selecting
foods in cafeteria
Iron: seeing cor-
puscles in goldfish
playing game with
paper squares tc
learn how to sup-
ply. Calcium: play-
ing game with
tion of milk, re-
moval of minerals
from bone, ana-
lyzing recipes anc
4. Making a vitamin
rule; making an ex-
hibit of roughage ;
planning a picnic
lunch to supply vi-
UNIT II. Continued
5. If we like nearly all
5. How food likes de-
5. Choosing meals
of the commonly
velop; dangers of a
from menu cards ;
served foods, we are
making menus for
more likely to eat
food habits of chil-
well balanced meals
dren; menu cards;
than if we have
6. Other good health
6. Other health habits ;
6. Checking health
habits help foods
chart and score.
to maintain bodily
play, brushing teeth,
7. Bodily well-being is
7. This point of view
7. Animal-feeding ex-
worth a conscious
is developed in rela-
tion to each of the
aspects of nutrition.
UNIT III: MARKETING
1. Meal plans are the
1. Mary makes a
1. Making Mary's
basis for market
market list based on
a specific day's
meals for her family.
2. Each kind of food
2. Study of vegetables.
2.-S. Cooking fresh
has definite qualities
fruits, canned goods,
and wilted vege-
we seek to purchase.
eggs, milk, cheese,
tables to compare
staples, sea foods
flavor ; studying cost
of low-priced imper-
3. Good nutrition may
3. Comparison in vege-
canned and fresh
be purchased at va-
tables, meats, fruits,
vegetables ; small
fruit versus large.
UNIT III. Continued
Study of flavor of
4. Different grades and
4. Examples from a
various brands ;
kinds of foods are
wide variety of
satisfactory for dif-
of labels and cans;
study of fresh and
stale eggs; study of
5. Brands are our best,
comparative costs of
but still an unsatis-
fresh and prepared
factory, guarantee of
milks ; numerous ad-
with other foods.
6. We should make in-
6. Labels, government
6. Visiting lessons to
telligent use of such
stamps and regula-
dairies, food fac-
tion, pure food laws,
tories, markets, etc.
as is available.
Collection of labels
for study ; looking
up state and city
ing dairy products."
7. Spoilage of food in
7. Causes of spoilage
7. Experiments in
the home may be de-
growth of molds; re-
layed or prevented.
tures. Studies in
loss from spoilage.
8. The prices of our
8. The cost of services
8. Study of family con-
foods cover wide
in producing grape-
tributions in service.
range of services.
9. The storekeeper and
9. Social and economic
9. Report of observed
the purchaser both
influences of buyer
and seller; activities
PREFACE .............. V
UNIT I: FOOD PREPARATION
WHAT THIS UNIT IS ABOUT 3
PREPARING BREAKFAST 11
PREPARING LUNCHEON . 41
PREPARING DINNER 77
UNIT II: NUTRITION
WHAT THIS UNIT IS ABOUT 103
FUEL NEEDS 109
PROTEIN NEEDS . . . 127
MINERAL NEEDS . 135
VITAMIN NEEDS . 155
RIDDING THE BODY OF WASTE 167
NEED FOR A BALANCED DIET 171
UNIT III: MARKETING
WHAT THIS UNIT IS ABOUT 183
MEAL PLANS AND MARKET LIST 186
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 195
PREVENTING WASTE IN STORAGE 249
COST OF SERVICE 255
BUYER AND STOREKEEPER 264
PUPILS' REFERENCES 275
TEACHERS' REFERENCES . . 277
JUNIOR HOME ECONOMICS
Write answers to these questions before you start to
read the unit. Answer each as fully as you can. Your an-
swers will help your teacher to plan for your work. She
may wish to talk over some of them with you, and prob-
ably she will have additional questions to ask.
1. How do you decide what foods to combine in a meal?
2. Do the members of your family prefer light or heavy break-
3. In what ways do we improve our foods through the prepara-
tion of our meals? Give examples to explain.
4. Is it better to cook eggs at a high or a low temperature? Ex-
5. Why do we soak dried fruits before cooking them?
6. When should we sear meat?
7. If we wish our meats to be tender, do we cook them quickly
8. Does the batter method for mixing muffins give a coarse- or
a fine-grained product?
9. What is the advantage of boiling green vegetables rapidly
in a large quantity of water?
10. Describe the appearance of a sandwich you would like to
have in your lunch box.
11. What is the purpose of the dasher in the ice cream freezer?
WHAT THIS UNIT IS ABOUT
Food for the savage. The savage is satisfied to spend
but little time and trouble with his cooking. He eats
foods raw when they are at all palatable in that form.
4 FOOD PREPARATION
He has only an open fire and very few cooking utensils.
Naturally there is but little variety in the way his foods
Variety demanded by the civilized man. Civilized
man, on the other hand, has come to demand a great
deal of thought and skill in the preparation of his meals.
For instance, he wants milk served not only as a bever-
age, but in cream soups, in ice cream, in sauces, in baked
foods, and in fancy beverages. Sometimes he likes his
apples raw, but at others he wants them in sauces or
baked, or in dumplings or fritters. His vegetables he
has learned to enjoy not only in soups and stews, but
baked, boiled, and stuffed as well as in salads and as
We like each meal to include a number of different
kinds of foods, and we like these meals to be different
from day to day. It is fun to plan meals because there
are almost numberless ways of cooking foods suggested
in cookbooks, in magazines and newspapers, and in ad-
vertisements, and there are so many kinds of foods from
which we may select. Variety is one of the values we
may give to foods by our work in preparing them.
Cleanliness in food. To-day we demand a degree of
cleanliness in our foods that was unknown to our an-
cestors. The more closely people live together, the bet-
ter is the chance that unwholesome germs or bacteria
may thrive and be communicated. In the preparation of
our foods we are able to wash away or kill those bacteria
that would harm us. It is very easy to pick up bacteria
on our hands as we get on and off cars, as we handle
money, and even from the dusty air. First of all, the
cook is careful that she does not bring bacteria to food.
WHAT THIS UNIT IS ABOUT 5
She wears clean clothing and is clean herself, especially
her hands and nails. Should people who are ill with
communicable disease prepare foods for others? What
precautions might be suggested to cooks who have colds?
It is important to wash foods carefully, especially those
that are eaten raw. Cooking kills bacteria, so washing is
From Ava L. Johnson, Bacteria of the Home" (Manual Arts Press) .
Fig. 1. Bacterial growth.
Each large dark circle is a photograph of gelatin on which bacteria
have been allowed to grow. Each white spot represents thousands,
often millions, of bacteria. The larger the white spot, the more the
bacteria. You can see why it pays to wash both dishes and hands
thoroughly with warm water and soap and dry them with clean towels.
A. Bacterial growth from clean fingers after drying on a used linen towel.
B. Thorough washing with soap and warm water leaves very few
not so essential in foods that are cooked, though it is
desirable. A second value we give to foods by our work
with them is to make them wholesome by removing and
by destroying harmful bacteria.
Appetizing qualities. A turkey that is roasted an
even golden brown, kept unbroken, and garnished with
parsley makes our mouths water before we have even
had a taste. How do the odors of meats cooking or of
fresh cookies affect your appetite? Is the odor as satis-
fying if the meat cr cookies have been scorched? We
6 FOOD PREPARATION
have come to expect our foods to give us pleasure
through sight and smell as well as through taste. When
father and mother, brothers and sisters get so much pleas-
ure from attractive foods, it is worth while to learn how
to prepare them so that they will stimulate the appetite by
their appearance and by the odors that they give off.
In order to give to food appetizing flavors and attrac-
tive appearance a cook must have considerable knowl-
edge and skill. For example, starch scorches very easily.
Our ways of cooking starch must be such that we can
avoid burning it. Some vegetables may have very poor
flavor if they are cooked a long time in a small quantity
of water. Meat may be made tender and juicy if we
choose a good way of cooking it. So we might go through
the entire list of foods and show that the right method
will give the flavors we enjoy, whereas wrong methods
may spoil even the choicest of foods that the grocer and
the butcher may send us. A third value that a cook
may add to foods is to contribute such appearance and
flavor that we have more pleasure in eating them.
Contrasts in foods. Those who cook give additional
values to our foods by selecting dishes for the same
meal that combine flavors we like or that give such
contrast that they improve each other. Apples and pork,
cranberries and turkey, sweet potatoes, pineapple and
ham, are well known combinations. We do not like too
many starchy foods at one meal, or too many rich foods.
So we can see that by her wisdom in combining joods,
that is, by meal planning, a cook may give us additional
1. Name the values we may give to foods by careful
choice and preparation.
WHAT THIS UNIT IS ABOUT 7
Information that a cook should have. What must
a cook know to give all of these values? To give variety,
a cook would certainly have to know how to use many
utensils. A double boiler is used for one purpose, a bak-
ing pan and oven for another. In addition, she will have
to be acquainted with a great many different kinds of
foods and a variety of ways to serve each one. To pre-
pare our foods so they are clean and wholesome, cooks
must have clean habits. An understanding of harmful
germs and how they live will help her to make our foods
To make our foods please us by their appearance and
by their taste, cooks will have to know the effect of
different ways of cooking. If eggs are cooked over too
hot a flame, they become tough. A light, feathery cake is
better for us than a rich and soggy one. .To prepare and
serve foods so that they will be attractive, cooks must
know what a standard product is. For example, they
must know how potatoes look that are properly mashed.
If they are able to recognize a good product, their pota-
toes may be smooth, fluffy, white and hot, instead of
lumpy, yellow, and cold.
Learning by cooking. The best way to learn about
these values is to cook. To know how to cook, you will
want to read about the different foods and why some
ways of cooking will give us dishes we like. Also before
you start to cook you will need to become acquainted with
the cooking laboratory. That is, you will have to learn
where utensils, towels, etc., are kept and the order in
which they are kept.
The reading and cooking that are planned in this unit
will help you to understand more about the different
8 FOOD PREPARATION
values which cooking may give to food. Sometimes when
you cook a dish, you may learn about one or two of these
values. In preparing other dishes you may learn some-
thing about all of them. When you have truly learned
to give these values to any food, you may be proud to
serve it to your family and friends.
Good cooks never have disorderly kitchens even when
they are getting big meals. They have a definite way in
which they do their work. Because they have planned
carefully, and follow their plans, the task of getting a
meal is much easier.
Planning. In order that cooking may be easy, you
will need to learn how to plan the steps of your cooking
lesson. Then each time you have a new lesson, you will
make a plan to fit it. For the first lesson or two, it might
be better if you actually wrote down what you will do
first, what second, and so on. When you have a little
more experience, you can keep your plans in your mind.
When you are sure you are acquainted with the way the
laboratory is kept, you will be ready to start learning
about the values cooking gives to cereals and to plan your
first laboratory experience.
Getting ready to cook in the laboratory. Your
teacher will help you to become acquainted with the
laboratory. In addition to knowing where and in what
order everything is kept, there are many general practices
with which girls in all laboratories must become familiar.
Your teacher will help you answer the following ques-
tions and will probably give you others which are es-
pecially fitted to your laboratory.
A. Where will you keep your aprons? What special care
may be taken to keep them looking clean and unwrinkled?
WHAT THIS UNIT IS ABOUT
B. What is a good laboratory plan for washing dishes?
How much soap should you use?
C. How will you handle the towels after washing the dishes?
Why is it important to take such care of towels?
D. Who will have charge of cupboards, common sinks, and
stoves, the demonstration table, the refrigerator, etc.? Since
these are not the responsibility of any particular girl, the
duties will need to be divided.
E. The first thing you will always do when coming into the
laboratory to cook is to wash your hands. Why?
F. You will need to know how to use the measuring cups
t. = teaspoon
T. =. tablespoon
C. = cup
3 t. = 1 T.
16 T. = 1 C.
2 C.= l pint
4 C. = 1 quart
2. How many T. in i C.? In J C.? In f C.?
Fig. 2. Measurements should be level and accurate.
A. Leveling a cup. B. Leveling a spoon. C. Dividing a spoonful in
half. D. One-half spoonful.
10 FOOD PREPARATION
The pictures will show you how to measure.
3. Using salt, measure 1 t., J t., 1 T., J T.
4. Using water, measure J C., J C, | C., f C., \ C.
5. Why do you cut lengthwise rather than crosswise
of the spoon for a half?
READINGS. University of Colorado, Agricultural Extension Serv-
ice Bulletin, "Dishwashing."
Ava Johnson, Bacteria of the Home, Ch. iv, "The Dishes"; Ch.
iii, "The Hands."
Different kinds of breakfasts. Perhaps the easiest
of all meals to prepare is the breakfast. We usually
plan to have but three or four dishes in addition to a
beverage. People vary as to the kinds of breakfasts they
need and enjoy. If father's work is the kind that keeps
him very active, he will need and will want a heavy break-
fast. If, on the other hand, he sits at a desk the greater
part of the day, he may not be such a hearty eater and
will want a lighter breakfast. Boys of ten to eighteen
years of age usually need a great deal of food, and so
will want heavy breakfasts. Grandmother, who is quite
old and inactive, may want but a small amount of food
each morning. Baby sister, of course needs less and
different kinds of foods from that eaten by the grown-up
members of the family. When people, such as farmers,
work before breakfast, they have a greater appetite.
A light breakfast may consist of fruit, a cereal, some
toast and marmalade, and a glass of milk. A heavy
breakfast might have in addition bacon and eggs, or pan-
cakes and sausage, or fried chicken and a hot bread.
1. Which members, if any, of your family eat heavy
breakfasts? Which members prefer light breakfasts?
A girl's breakfast. Girls in school need good break-
fasts every day. They lead very busy lives, taking care
of their rooms after their morning meal, walking to school,
going from class to class, playing in the gymnasium, and
12 FOOD PREPARATION
studying in the library or in the home room. After school
there are many hours both at home or with their friends
when they are constantly active. We have the most fun
when we have so much extra strength that we are anxious
to be doing and going. When we are listless and pale,
when we tire easily, we cannot get as much pleasure from
our lessons, our parties, and our helping at home as we
do when we are strong and well. To be at her best, a girl
should choose a nourishing breakfast as well as other
meals that are health-giving.
Fruit for breakfast. We usually like fruit to start a
breakfast because of its tartness. Many people have
come to enjoy tomato juice for this reason. Custom,,
however, has made it more common to eat fruits than
vegetables for breakfast, though there is no dietary reason
for choosing one rather than the other. Vegetables usu-
ally require more time to prepare, and, since there is less
time for cooking breakfast than other meals, it has be-
come customary to have fruits rather than vegetables for
this meal. Also, raw fruits are more generally enjoyed
than raw vegetables. It is fortunate that we like fruit
and some of the vegetables so well in the morning, since
we need both of them in our diets each day. Often these
fruits and vegetables should be raw.
2. Name some breakfast fruits eaten raw; some that
your family eats cooked.
Cereal products. Cereal of some kind nearly always
forms a part of the breakfast. Cereals are the seeds of
grains. Wheat, corn, oats, rye, barley, and rice are our
common cereals. The American Indian used corn to a
great extent. He ground it by pounding it between two
stones. When it was fine, he cooked it in various ways.
To-day our cereals go through very complicated manufac-
ture and come to us in a great many
forms. For example, we have white flour,
graham flour, wheatena, cracked wheat,
cream of wheat, puffed wheat, shredded
wheat, wheat flakes, etc., all made from
wheat but by different processes. Other
cereals are also treated in different ways,
none quite so elaborately as is wheat.
3. Name several forms in
which we buy corn.
The breakfast cereal. A common
American breakfast dish is a porridge.
This is made of some cereal such as oat-
meal, wheatena, or cornmeal. Toast is
usually made of bread baked of wheat
Fig. 3. Cereals are
flour. Often we have muffins, waffles, t he seeds of grains.
or pancakes, made of cereal also. Ce-
reals give a great variety to our breakfasts because
we can prepare them in so
many different ways.
Construction of cereal
grains. All cereal grains
are much alike in their con-
struction. The outer layer
is bran, a yellow or brown
tough substance called cellu-
lose. When wheat is manu-
factured into "refined" prod-
ucts, this bran and the germ
are removed, the part left
Fig. 4. Construction of a grain
14 FOOD PREPARATION
being white and almost pure starch. The bran and germ
contain minerals, protein, and fats. The whole cereals,
therefore, are much better food than are the refined prod-
ucts. The whole cereals are brownish in color, the
refined white or light yellow.
4. Name some cereals of each kind, refined and
5. Perhaps you would like to test several cereals to
see if they contain starch. Iodine turns starch dark
blue. To test cereals for starch add a few drops of
weak iodine to a little of the cereal mixed with water.
6. What cereals do you find that contain starch?
The breakfast beverage. " The beverage is an im-
portant part of the breakfast. For growing boys and
girls, milk in some form is needed if they are to have
a chance to grow into healthy men and women. Since it
is necessary for them to have about a quart of milk apiece
each day either as a beverage, on cereals, in soups or
other dishes, every boy and girl should have milk as a
7. How many glasses are there in a quart of milk?
8. Do you think it would be possible to get all the
milk you need without drinking much of it with your
Some people like milk when it has been chilled, others
enjoy it hot, especially on cold winter mornings. For
variety many people like milk in the form of cocoa.
Others like "orangized" milk. That is, instead of taking
milk and orange juice separately they combine them in
one glass. Grown people often drink coffee for break-
fast. This may do them no great harm other than that
it may prevent them from drinking as much milk as they
should. Adults need to have at least a pint of milk each
day in their foods. For children and young people, it is
a mistake to drink coffee because it contains caffein, a
drug that is not good for them. Besides, they need the
milk which the coffee would keep them from drinking
with their meals.
9. Plan a light breakfast, which you can prepare in
the laboratory, of fruit, a cereal porridge, milk or a milk
drink, toast and marmalade, or cinnamon toast. If your
class works in groups, perhaps you will plan and pre-
pare several breakfasts, changing the menu each day so
that every girl will have a chance to prepare each kind
READING. University of Colorado, Agricultural Extension Serv-
ice Bulletin, "Planning the Family Meal."
Below are some suggestions that will help you to cook.
Girls get more pleasure from their cooking when they
know why they follow the rules given, because then they
can be more sure of making good products and their work
is more interesting.
THE COOKING OF BREAKFAST CEREALS
Values from the cooking of cereals. There are sev-
eral reasons why we cook certain cereals for our break-
fasts. The chief reason is that cooking makes them taste
better. Do you like raw oatmeal or flour? Not only is
the taste better, but in addition the starch granules have
lost the feeling that raw starch gives to the tongue, and
have become smooth. We like this smooth feeling. We
vary the way we cook the cereals and the kinds of cereals
we serve, so that our breakfasts will not be monotonous.
When we come to the table and see a dish on it which
16 FOOD PREPARATION
we have not had for a long time, our appetites are sharp-
ened. Because we get more value from foods when we
eat them with relish, it is well to plan changes in our
breakfasts from day to day.
Another reason for cooking cereals is to soften the
cellulose. Cellulose, you remember, is the tough fiber
found in the bran of cereals. It is also found in the skins
of fruits and the fibrous parts of vegetables. As you
will learn later, it is important that we have cellulose in
our foods. In cereals it is a good practice to soften the
cellulose by cooking since it is so hard and tough. For
this reason the whole-grain cereals must be cooked a long
10. What values does cooking give to breakfast
The cooking of starch. The chief element in our
breakfast cereals is starch. Starch burns very readily
so we must select ways of cooking that will prevent
scorching. It is very difficult to prevent scorching when
cereals are cooked in water directly over the flame. When
starch cooks, it makes a paste that sticks to the bottom
of the pan. To keep this layer of paste from scorching,
the cook must stir it constantly, being careful to move
the pasty layer away as it forms. This requires constant
attention. Since most cereals should cook for a long time,
this would take too much of a cook's time. Some clever
person invented the double boiler so that we could cook
cereals and other foods at such a low temperature that
they would not burn.
The double boiler. Water cannot get hotter than boil-
ing temperature (212 degrees) in our cooking. After it
reaches that temperature it loses the heat as fast as it
gets it from the gas burner. Starch will not burn at boil-
ing temperature So we put water in the bottom of the
double boiler, put our cereal and water mixture in the
top and set it over the water. The food never can get
hotter than the water beneath it. However, if we should
let all the water boil away, the cereal would soon scorch.
The fireless cooker. Another way of controlling the
temperature is to use the fireless cooker. In this method
a specially made box is used which does not allow heat
to escape very fast. We bring the cereal to the boiling
temperature, heat a stone, put both into the box and close
the lid. The cereal will be kept at about the boiling
temperature long enough to cook it. Some electric ovens
have a fireless-cooker arrangement. We may save gas
or other fuel by using the fireless cooker for our cereals.
The proportion of water to cereal. In cooking dif-
ferent cereals we must use varying amounts of water.
The proportion of water to cereal depends upon the fine-
ness of the cereal.
11. Examine the directions on cereal boxes to see
what proportions of water and cereal are suggested.
TABLE FOR GUIDANCE IN THE COOKING OF CEREALS
1 hr 1
Rolled oats .
3 or 4
1 Longer cooking is 'desirable, when possible, for the improvement in flavor.
12. How do the fine cereals compare with the coarse
in the amount of water needed?
18 FOOD PREPARATION
The amount cooked and the proportion of water.
The proportion of water to be used also depends upon
the amount of cereal we are cooking. If we are cooking
a large quantity, there will be not so much loss of water
in the steam that comes off in proportion to the amount
of water used. Less water also will be taken up in
moistening the sides of the double boiler. Therefore,
when we cook just enough for one serving, we should
figure the amount of water needed from the table and
add about 1 T. A lid for the kettle should be used so
that some of the moisture will condense on it and drip
back into the porridge. Without a lid this steam would
float away and the water be lost. Water may need to be
replenished when cereals are cooked a long time.
Time of cooking cereals. Different cereals also re-
quire different lengths of time for cooking. Their starch
granules and cellulose differ to some extent. Soaking of
cereals lessens the time needed in cooking because the
cellulose has been softened. Rolled oats is a cereal often
soaked for several hours in the water in which it is later
cooked. For children whose digestive systems are not
well developed, it is especially important that the cellulose
be thoroughly softened and the starch well cooked. Sev-
eral hours of cooking are required to make a cereal thor-
oughly wholesome for a little child.
Standards for our finished products. Good cooks
have high standards for their finished products. A high
standard in cooked cereals demands that they be smooth,
that is, without lumps. They should feel smooth to the
tongue. They should be of the consistency, or thickness,
that we enjoy. People vary somewhat in what they con-
sider a good standard of consistency. Some persons
1. Put water into
bottom of double boiler.
Note water line in inset
to right. Set onto heat.
2. Measure quantity
of water needed for ce-
real and put into top
of the double boiler.
Measure salt and add.
Set on a second burner
3. Measure into a
cup the amount of ce-
4. When the water
boils, add the cereal
slowly while stirring.
Stir while cooking for
two or three minutes.
5. Put the double
boiler together, put on
a lid and cook the re-
quired number of min-
Fig. 5. Steps in cooking cereaL
20 FOOD PREPARATION
prefer their cereals to be thin enough to run slightly,
others enjoy them most when they stand firmly when put
into the cereal dishes. A good standard of flavor de-
mands that cereals have enough salt, but not too much,
and that they have not the slightest tinge of scorching.
We usually like our cereal porridges served hot.
13. What is your standard for consistency?
Planning to cook a cereal. Using the cereal you
planned in the breakfast, figure out what quantity of each
of the ingredients you will need for one or more servings,
depending upon whether you cook for yourself alone or
whether you work with a group in preparing a breakfast.
Keep your slip of paper to use on the day when you
actually do the cooking. Since it requires such a long
time to cook cereal, you must be ready to start the instant
you come into the laboratory.
STEPS IN COOKING BREAKFAST CEREALS
The pictures on page 19 will show you the steps that
may be followed in cooking a breakfast cereal.
14. If you have a fireless cooker at home, or if you
will use one in the laboratory, make a step plan similar
to the one above which you will follow. Writing this
plan in step form will help you to save time and get
Serving cereals. We like to eat our foods in clean
and orderly surroundings. Our foods look more attrac-
tive and taste better if they are served with care. On
page 21 is a picture of a nicely served dish of cereal.
Notice the paper napkin under the cereal, the placing
of the utensils, and the orderliness of the desk.
Fig. 6. Cereal attractively served in laboratory.
There are various attractive ways of serving cereals.
The most common is with cream and sugar. Fruits, fresh,
such as sliced banana or peach; canned or dried, such
as dates and raisins, may be added. Sometimes the dried
fruits are cooked with the cereal. Some people like to
flavor their cereals at table with butter and brown sugar,
maple sugar, or honey without the addition of cream.
15. How do we improve cereals by cooking them?
Judging your product. When you are ready to eat,
spend a few minutes deciding whether you have suc-
ceeded in cooking a dish which has the qualities that you
and your group enjoy. Below is a form which gives you
a means of checking.
16. Perhaps you would like to copy this form and
use it to judge your own product by putting a check in
the proper space. Comparison of your product with
others in the class or with one which your teacher may
put out for you will help you to judge your own.
(Is it lumpy or
(Is it too thin
or too stiff?)
(Does it have
(Is it too hot,
too cold or just
Neatness of desk
Order of utensils
Neatness of dish
Position of paper
READINGS. Below are listed several books in which you will find
additional information about breakfast cereals. You may be in-
terested to learn what is to be found in them.
Harris and Lacey, Everyday Foods, Ch. v, pp. 366-368, "Cereal
Fannie Farmer, The Boston Cooking School Cookbook.
Peterson and Badenock, Simplified Cooking.
The Settlement Cookbook.
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. You may use these and other
cookbooks throughout the unit if you would like to try additional
FRUITS FOR BREAKFAST
Variety in breakfast fruits. Most people, as we
know, enjoy tart fruits to start their breakfasts, for these
sharpen the appetite and make the foods following taste
better. Many people like orange juice or tomato juice
to be followed by another fruit such as stewed dried
prunes or apricots; or raisins or dates cooked with their
cereals; or bananas and cream, put over the cereal. Since
each day we need something raw in our meals, the orange,
grapefruit, apple, and banana have grown in popularity
during the winter months when they are the most com-
mon fresh fruits.
Preparing oranges. Oranges may be prepared by
cutting them in halves crosswise of the inner sections of
the fruit. The pulp may be loosened by running a sharp
Fig. 7. Preparation of grapefruit.
24 FOOD PREPARATION
knife between it and the rind without cutting the tough
inner skin. Sometimes we also loosen each section of the
pulp from this inner skin. Grapefruit is prepared in the
same way. Many people prefer to have their orange in
the form of juice. Florida oranges are juicy and thin
skinned but are not so sweet as are those from California
which are deeper in color. These fruits are most appetiz-
ing when cold. If the juice of the orange is sour, it may
need the addition of a little sugar Too much sugar
spoils the tartness, which is one of the reasons for our
enjoyment of the orange. Grapefruit is considered deli-
cious by many when sweetened with honey.
Preparing dried fruits. Fruits are dried to preserve
them. This is done by exposing them to sunshine and
dry atmosphere or by putting thm into artificial dryers.
The warm air, circulating over them, takes out the
moisture, reducing their size. For this reason there is
more sugar in proportion to the amount of fruit. This
concentration of sugar and a sulphur treatment prevent
bacteria from living on the fruit, so it will keep well if
simply put into packages. These packages are much less
expensive and lighter to ship than cans or glass jars.
The flavor of dried fruit is different from that of the
fresh or canned. Many people are especially fond of
these flavors. Among the dried fruits are raisins, prunes,
Italian plums, peaches, apricots, pears, apples, and cur-
When dried fruit is packed in large boxes that are
opened in stores and the contents left exposed, or if it is
handled by people with dirty hands, it should be washed
carefully before soaking, and boiled for two or three
minutes after soaking. Why? Dried fruit that was clean
when put into packages that are unbroken when we re-
ceive them need not be washed. Some companies pas-
teurize their packed fruits, that is, heat them to kill the
bacteria, which gives additional safety.
METHOD OF COOKING DRIED FRUITS
The most important part of cooking dried fruits is the soak-
ing. By soaking we return water to the fruit, making it soft
and juicy, and causing it to swell. Boiling is needed chiefly
as a means of sterilizing when we fear that the fruit may not
have been handled carefully. Soak the fruit in enough water
to cover for at least 24 hours; or better, 48 hours. It is
unwise to add sugar until after the fruit has soaked because
the sugar prevents the proper softening of the fruit. Boil
in the same water for 2 or 3 minutes.
17. What values do we get as a result of the prepa-
ration of our fruits for breakfast?
READINGS. Harris and Lacey, Everyday Foods, pp. 14-17; 357-
Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, Ch. iii.
Kinds of toast. People differ in the way they like
toast to be made. Some like it thin, dry, and crisp.
Others like it thick with a soft interior, but crisp on the
outside. Some want it buttered, others dry. If making
thin, dry toast, cut bread a day or more old into slices
about % inch thick. Put it into a moderate oven until
it is a golden brown color. To make the soft toast, cut
the bread thicker and toast on the broiling rack or toaster.
In this way the surface is browned quickly without drying
the inside of the slice. Butter lightly while still hot.
26 FOOD PREPARATION
Whole-wheat, nut, date, and raisin breads make delicious
To make cinnamon toast toast thin slices of whole-wheat
or plain bread. It is best to cut the slices in halves or thirds
for convenience in eating. Then spread with buttei and
sprinkle with a mixture of C. sugar and 1 t. cinnamon.
Use about 1 T. to li T._of the mixture for a full slice of the
toast. Put in a hot oven for a minute or two and serve imme-
Another method of making cinnamon toast is, after toasting
the bread on both sides, spread with a mixture of 2 T. butter,
3? C. sugar, and 1 t. cinnamon. Return to oven for a few
minutes and serve immediately.
18. Why do we go to the trouble of toasting bread?
THE BREAKFAST BEVERAGE
Values from the cooking of milk. The preparation
of milk may increase its value as food. When milk sours,
it forms curds that separate from the watery portion
called whey. Our stomachs secrete an acid (hydro-
chloric) that acts upon milk forming curds much as does
vinegar. Cooked milk forms smaller, softer curds than
does the uncooked. The smaller, softer curds are more
easily digested than are the harder, larger ones. For this
reason doctors often recommend that milk given to babies
be boiled. Boiling is not necessary for older children
and grown persons. Boiling changes the flavor of milk.
Some individuals do not care for the flavor of boiled
19. Pour a little vinegar into some milk. Notice the
Cooking may be necessary when milk is not pasteurized.
Careless handling may cause the growth of so many and
such harmful bacteria that it may be necessary to cook
all the milk used. However, in most large cities, milk as
delivered by the milkman is safe. In the country, the
farmer and his family can exercise the care necessary to
make raw milk healthful.
The greatest value, probably, that we gain from the
preparation of milk is the variety it gives to our meals.
20. List a dozen different ways that milk may be
used in making beverages, desserts or other dishes.
Milk contains a considerable portion of protein and
sugar. For this reason it scorches very easily.
21. What utensil would you suggest using when cook-
Cocoa. Since milk in some form should be the regu-
lar breakfast beverage, we can add variety by choosing
from a number of modifications. Below is a recipe for
hot cocoa or chocolate which we may enjoy on cold winter
mornings. The chocolate gives a richer drink because it
contains more fat than does the cocoa.
COCOA OR CHOCOLATE
Water \ C.
Cocoa 3 T.
Chocolate 1 square (1 oz.)
Milk 4 C. (1 qt.)
Sugar 3 T.
Salt few grains
Whipped Cream ... i C. (if desired)
28 FOOD PREPARATION
Cook water and cocoa or chocolate together until smooth.
If the chocolate is grated, it will dissolve more readily. Add
milk, sugar, and salt and heat to boiling. Beat with a Dover
egg beater and serve at once, adding 1 T. whipped cream to
each cup. If the beverage must be kept hot for a time, use a
double boiler with a lid. Have the water in the bottom hot
but not boiling.
For other milk beverages from which you might like
to choose for your breakfast see pages 73 and 74.
READINGS. Harris and Lacey, Everyday Foods, pp. 25-26.
Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 68-69.
Willard and Gillett, Food Study for High Schools, pp. 123-126,
22. You will probably have time to plan and prepare
a heavier breakfast, one suitable for people who lead
active lives and who therefore need much food. Below
you will find a discussion of some dishes that are suit-
able for such breakfasts and how to prepare them so
that they will be palatable and attractive.
EGGS FOR BREAKFAST
Different ways of cooking eggs. Eggs are a com-
mon breakfast dish. We prepare them with a number
of processes such as scrambling, boiling, and poaching.
There are but a few raw-egg dishes which we find
palatable, but eggs cooked in various forms are important
in our menus.
The food elements of eggs determine their method of
preparation. The white of the egg is largely protein.
Protein hardens and toughens at a hot temperature, so
our method of cooking eggs must avoid high tempera-
tures. Protein starts to cook at about 130. It would
take a very long time to cook eggs at this temperature.
However, 175, a temperature much lower than boiling,
will cook them rapidly enough and give a very tender
23. What is boiling temperature? How warm does
water at 130 feel? Use a thermometer to make this
When eggs are fried, the fat should not be smoking hot,
otherwise the white would toughen and get very hard.
When cooking eggs in the shell, the best results are ob-
tained if they are kept just below the boiling temperature.
One plan is to put them into the top of the double boiler
into which boiling water has been poured, the water in
the bottom also boiling. Keep over flame for 30 minutes
for a hard-cooked egg, 6 minutes for a soft-cooked egg.
This gives a very tender product.
24. Is the water in the top of the double boiler above
25. Perhaps your teacher will demonstrate a properly
and an improperly fried egg. Compare the condition of
the yolks and the whites in these two samples. What
caused the differences?
26. Why do we prefer to have our eggs cooked?
27. How may we lessen the value of eggs in cook-
Handling eggs. Wash eggs before using them be-
cause they may have been laid in dirty nests or handled
by people with bacteria-covered hands. When cooking
eggs it is a wise precaution to break them into a saucer
before adding them to other ingredients. This may save
the loss of the other ingredients if by chance one of the
eggs is spoiled. To break an egg, hold it in the left hand
and strike in the center with the edge of a spatula or
knife. Use just enough force to crack the shell. Insert
the thumbnails of both hands in the break. Pull the
halves of the shell apart, letting the egg fall into a saucer.
FAMILY OF FOUR
Milk . ...
Mix ingredients slightly, turn into a buttered saute pan 1
that has been heated over a very low flame. When the egg
has cooked a few minutes, use a spatula or pancake turner
to push the solid portion gently aside so that the uncooked
portion may run over the exposed bottom of the pan. Do not
disturb more than is necessary. Before the egg has cooked
completey, cut through the center and turn one half over the
other. Continue cooking for a minute and serve immediately
on a warm plate. Many people prefer the omelette to be
28. How well done do you like omelette?
you achieved the standard you like?
Fig. 8. Eggs in a saute pan.
EGGS POACHED IN
Put a small
amount of butter in
a saute pan just
large enough for the
number of eggs to
be poached. The
butter prevents the
eggs from sticking
1 The difference between frying and sauteing is that in frying deep
fat is used, while sauteing requires but a small amount of fat.
to the pan. Light a low flame under the pan. Before the but-
ter is hot enough to turn brown, slip the eggs from a saucer
into the pan. Pour over them about li T. milk per egg, sprinkle
with salt, cover with lid and cook slowly until a white film has
formed over the yolks of the eggs. Do not allow the yolk to
harden. Use a large spoon or a pancake turner to remove eggs
to buttered toast. Pour remaining milk over eggs. Serve
READINGS. Harris and Lacey, Everyday Foods, pp. 378-382.
Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 96-98.
Willard and Gillett, Food Study for High Schools, pp. 59-61.
Although bacon is usually classed as a meat, it really
is mostly fat. We like it chiefly for the good flavor
which develops when much of this fat has been cooked
out, and the bacon is crisped. For breakfast, we either
pan broil bacon over the flame or in the oven or broil it
under the oven flame. People differ in the degree of
crispness they prefer bacon to have, some liking it so
dry that it may be eaten with the fingers, others liking it
better when it is browned slightly but still soft enough
to cut with a knife. We usually allow two or three slices
of bacon to each person, most often probably serving it
with eggs or with muffins and jelly, marmalade, or honey.
29. How crisp do you prefer your bacon?
METHODS OF BROILING BACON
To pan broil bacon place thin slices, from which the rind
has been removed, close together in a skillet. Cook slowly
until as brown as desired, turning the strips from time to
time and shifting them from the center of the pan to the edge
32 FOOD PREPARATION
if the center slices brown the more quickly. Drain broiled
bacon on brown paper for a minute and serve.
To cook bacon in a broiler place the bacon on the wire frame
on the broiling pan. Broil under the flame (or in the oven)
until as crisp as desired. Turn the bacon when necessary.
Ingredients of muffins. Muffins are made of cereal
and other ingredients combined and baked in a special
way. Flour made of some cereal is always used in bak-
ing breads of every kind. Muffins may be made with
white, graham, or rye flours, or with corn meal. We give
further variety to muffins by adding many other ingre-
dients, such as sweetening, blueberries, the dried fruits,
nuts, and spices of many kinds. The kind of flour used
in making muffins affects the flavor. Each of the other
ingredients contributes something to the color, flavor, the
feeling, and the appearance.
Need for liquid. A liquid is necessary to hold the flour
together in a batter. It also provides moisture for cook-
ing the starch grains and to make the muffin soft. Water
adds nothing in flavor, so most often we use milk and
sometimes cream for the liquid. These make the product
tender and also increase the food value.
Purpose of eggs. Eggs bind the starch granules to-
gether as well as give flavor and color. When egg whites
are beaten and then added to the batter, they make it
lighter. By beating, air bubbles are formed. The stiffer
the egg3 are beaten, the finer the air bubbles become.
30. Perhaps your teacher will demonstrate the beat-
ing of an egg white. By observing it at various stages,
you will see the differing sizes of the bubbles.
Expansion of air by heat. Have you ever seen what
happens to a toy balloon when it is taken from a cold
to a warm room? As air heats it expands. A balloon
may be small and look somewhat wrinkled when in a
cold place. When taken into a warm room, the air in the
balloon expands and fills it out. If you heated the air
very hot, it might expand enough to burst the balloon.
Air a leavening agent. When you fold beaten egg
whites into a batter, the air bubbles are scattered through
the batter. If you are careful not to break the bubbles
by stirring too hard, the bubbles will expand when the
air is heated during the baking. This will cause the loaf
to rise and make it light and spongy. This is called
Other leavening agents. We use other leavening agents
for baking. One of these is the steam that forms when
the batter gets hot. Another is carbon dioxide gas. We
make bubbles of this gas by mixing water or sweet milk
with baking powder, or by using sour milk with soda.
These combinations work in the same way. Baking pow-
der is made by mixing soda and an acid. To prevent
the formation of carbon dioxide in the baking powder
box, starch is added so that the ingredients will be kept
31. Why should we keep the baking powder can
32. If you add some water to baking powder or weak
vinegar to soda you will see the bubbles of carbon
Using the carbon dioxide to leaven. If we scatter these
leavening agents through the flour and other dry ingre-
dients, and then add the liquid, the carbon dioxide forms
34 FOOD PREPARATION
tiny bubbles all through the batter. When put into the
hot oven, these tiny bubbles expand, increasing the size
of the holes in the batter. The muffin sets when the
starch cooks, and we have a light, spongy product full
of many tiny holes, quite different from the compact mass
that would result without the use of the leavening agent.
Tenderness resulting from shortening. Various fats are
used to make muffins and cookies tender and rich in
flavor. Vegetable fats such as crisco (cotton-seed oil)
and mazola (corn oil) are used. Butter is a very com-
monly used fat, as is lard. Both of these are animal
fats. Oleomargarine, a vegetable fat, is also used for
shortening. Butter and oleomargarine both contain salt,
but the other fats are unsalted. When an unsalted fat
is used, we must add some salt, or we shall have tasteless
products. Even when we use butter or oleomargarine,
we usually put in some additional salt.
Variety in baked foods. We prefer some of our baked
foods, such as cakes, cookies, and some muffins, very
sweet. In bread and rolls, on the other hand, we prefer
a bland flavor. Granulated sugar is our commonest
sweetening substance, although we sometimes use brown
sugar, molasses, honey, maple sugar, and such dried
fruits as dates and raisins.
Accuracy in measurements. Accuracy in measuring
is highly important. At first glance we might think that
a cup of flour at one time would be the same as a cup
of flour at another. Yet different ways of measuring
flour may give cups that really differ in size by as much
as 6 tablespoons. Always use a measuring cup. Sift the
flour into a bowl just before measuring, and then, with
a spoon, fill a cup lightly. Level off the top with a spatula.
Never tap the cup to make it even for then the flour will
pack and you will have more than a cup when you fill
the space left. The sifting before measuring is to break
up the packed flour. Accuracy when baking small quan-
tities is even more necessary than when making large
quantities. For example, if we made the mistake of 3
tablespoons of flour in a recipe calling for three cups, this
would not be as serious as a mistake of 3 tablespoons in
a recipe calling for ^ cup.
Results of poor measurement. Careless measuring
of any of the ingredients except salt can be seen or felt
in the finished muffin. We can only discover a mistake in
the salt by the taste. Too much flour makes a stiff, hard,
tough muffin. If we do not use enough flour, there is too
much fat and sugar in proportion, and the muffin may be
soggy and heavy. If we use too much fat, the muffin
will be soggy and oily; if too much sugar, it will also be
heavy but crisp on the outside where it has dried. If not
enough leavening agent has been used, not enough tiny
holes will have formed, and it will not rise as high as it
should and will be heavy. If too much leaven has been
used, the muffins will be coarse. It is very important
therefore, that we measure the ingredients carefully.
Mixing the muffins. Sifting the dry ingredients. We
mix the baking powder and the flour thoroughly by sift-
ing them together one or more times. In this way we
are sure that the bubbles of carbon dioxide will form in
every part of the batter. It is also important that the
sugar and salt be thoroughly distributed in the cake.
For this reason it is well to sift all the dry ingredients
together. When the sugar and salt are evenly distributed,
they help to prevent the flour from forming hard lumps
36 FOOD PREPARATION
with the liquid. Sugar and salt dissolve in a liquid very
quickly. If these grains are thoroughly scattered among
the grains of flour, the liquid will run between the grains
of flour when dissolving the sugar and salt. In this way
also the liquid will be more evenly distributed.
Adding the liquid. Then we add the amount of liquid
given in the recipe, and stir rapidly just long enough to
dampen the flour mixture. Many cooks have experi-
mented to discover the best ways of mixing the ingredients
in baking. One thing they have discovered is that the
action of the baking powder takes place very quickly.
For this reason we must be careful not to stir muffins too
much. By overstirring, we break the bubbles of carbon
dioxide, thereby letting out the gas and losing the effect
of the baking powder. Do not overstir is perhaps the
most important caution to remember when preparing
Filling the muffin tins. Turn the batter immediately
into the muffin tins because if you let it stand for a time,
more of the gas bubbles will form. Then when you poured
or dipped the batter into the muffin tins you would break
these bubbles and the gas would escape.
Saving time. Since it takes 25 minutes to bake
these muffins, it will be necessary to manage the measur-
ing and mixing in but a few minutes at the beginning of
the hour. Be sure to have the recipe and method in
mind when you come to class so that no time will be
wasted. If it is necessary to prepare the muffins in a
very short time, cooks sometimes measure and mix the
dry ingredients the day before, and cover the bowl care-
33. How could you manage in the laboratory?
4? P ,
From Halliday and Noble: "The Hows and Whys of Cooking." By permission of
the University of Chicago Press.
Fig. 9. Even and uneven texture in muffins.
Above is a light muffin, in which there were plenty of gas bubbles
evenly distributed. Below is a muffin that is uneven in texture, due to
uneven distribution of gas bubbles, and the fact that some of the gas
escaped before the muffin was baked.
Baking the muffins. A moderately hot oven is the
best for baking muffins. If the oven were very hot, a
crust would form over the top before the leavening agents
had an opportunity to work fully. Then the muffins
would split open and the soft batter run out from the
inside. Also, the outside of the muffins would burn be-
fore the starch on the inside had an opportunity to be
cooked. We like our muffins to be an even, light brown.
A moderate oven is from 300 to 350. The most accu-
rate way to know whether an oven has reached this
temperature is to use an oven with a regulator or a ther-
mometer set into the oven. Experienced cooks judge the
temperature fairly well by holding the hand inside the
oven for a few seconds.
Judging whether the muffins are done. When the
muffins are done, they spring back when touched lightly
with the finger, and also separate from the sides of the
pan. Another test is made with a clean toothpick. Push
the toothpick into the center of a muffin. If the toothpick
comes out clean, the muffin is done.
10 OR 11 MUFFINS
Baking powder . .
a few grains
3 T (may use half
and half, butter
and other fat)
2 whites, 1 yolk
1. Gather all ingredients and
grease muffin tins.
5. In another bowl mix wet
ingredients (eggs, oil, and milk).
2. Heat the oven and set the
regulator for a moderate tem-
perature (about 350).
6. Pour wet ingredients into
dry ingredients and stir just
enough to mix.
3. Sift flour into a bowl and
lift lightly into cup to measure.
4. Measure all dry ingredients
(flour, sugar, salt, and baking
powder) and sift.
7. Drop by spoonsful into
muffin tins and put into oven to
bake. Bake about 25 minutes.
8. Remove from muffin tins
with spatula or knife.
Fig. 10. Steps in making muffins.
40 FOOD PREPARATION
Judging the product.
34. Below are listed a number of qualities to con-
sider when judging your product.
Evenness of holes
Shape of holes
35. If you have failed in any respect, how will you
proceed the next time to correct the mistake?
READINGS. Harris and Lacey, Everyday Foods, pp. 375-77,
Trilling, Williams, and Reeves, A Girl's Problems in Home Eco-
nomics (1931), pp. 410-418.
Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 82-88.
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. Some members of the class
may have time and opportunity when they have finished the unit,
for additional study. If you are interested in breakfast cookery
you might choose one of the suggestions on page 99, or you might
work on a problem of your own selection.
Luncheon or supper. Probably in most American
city homes, one or more members of the family are absent
during the day. Therefore the heaviest meal, dinner, is
planned for the evening when the entire family will have
gathered. The midday meal, then, is a light one and is
called luncheon. In some families, however, all the mem-
bers of the family are present and have time for a leisurely
meal at noon. These families often serve their dinner
at noon, to be followed by a light evening meal called
supper. Dishes suitable for luncheon are likewise well
adapted for supper. Leftovers are often used in planning
luncheons and suppers. These meals are lighter, and
fewer people may be on hand to eat them. Leftovers are
often easier to prepare than new dishes.
1. Is luncheon or supper served in your home?
Planning the luncheon. Flavors. The pleasure we
get from luncheon depends to a considerable extent upon
the combinations of foods that we plan. For example,
we should not enjoy a meal made largely of a number
of tart foods such as tomato, pineapple, cranberry sauce,
etc. Neither would we care particularly for a meal con-
sisting entirely of very bland foods such as potato,
creamed peas, milk, and cornstarch pudding. So one
thing to remember in planning a luncheon is to select
from both the more highly flavored foods and from those
which have relatively little flavor.
2. Make a list of those foods which you think of as
highly flavored. Meats and the stronger vegetables
would be found in this list.
Contrast in textures. We like other contrasts in our
food also. A soft food tastes better in contrast with
something which is firm or crisp. This quality of firm-
Courtesy Evaporated Milk Association.
Fig. 11. A simple luncheon.
ness or softness we call texture. This is one reason why
we enjoy lettuce, celery, and radishes so much. A daintily
fresh salad and crisp crackers help us to enjoy soup and
other soft foods, just as these soft foods make the crackers
and salad more delicious. Contrast in the color of our
foods also stirs our appetites. Red tomatoes, bright green
spinach, yellow carrots, yellow and green lettuce, and
brown bread are examples of simple colorful foods. Such
foods might be used to brighten what might be an other-
wise colorless meal such as the one of cream-of-celery
soup, mashed potato, creamed tuna fish, buttered onion,
and sliced banana with cream.
Nutrition. Of course if our meals are to be of greatest
value to us, we must choose those foods which will make
us healthy and keep us in good health. In the next unit
you will learn to select foods so that your bodies will
grow well and strong, and so that you will be able to do
the many things which are such fun. Now, however, you
can remember to include fruits and vegetables liberally
as well as milk and cereals.
Sample menus. There is an almost endless variety of
dishes from which we can choose when planning a
luncheon. Below are a few combinations from which a
great variety of menus may be planned.
Cream of vegetable soup
Bread and butter
A glass of milk
A cookie, a sweet muffin, or gingerbread
Creamed fish, vegetable, or eggs on toast
A fruit gelatin
A milk drink
A simple confection
Salad, either fruit or vegetable
Cocoa or hot chocolate
Cup custard, ice cream, or other 'simple dessert
3. Below are some suggestions for preparing a num-
ber of dishes. Also you will find additional recipes sug-
gested in cookbooks and magazines. Glance through
these suggestions and then plan and, after study, prepare
one or more luncheons. Be sure that they are attractive
because of their contrasts in color, flavor, and texture
and that they contain fruit or vegetables or both, and
milk or some milk dish.
REFERENCE. University of Colorado, Agricultural Extension
Service Bulletin, "One-Dish Meals."
VEGETABLE CREAM SOUPS
White sauce as the base. Cream soups are made by
combining two things, a white sauce and a flavoring food,
either pressed through a strainer or diced. White sauces
are used as the base in many kinds of cookery. Before
starting to prepare a cream soup, list the ingredients and
quantities and plan all the steps.
Step 1. Making the white sauce.
Sauce number 1 is used in cream soups, number 2 usu-
ally for creaming most vegetables, and number 3 for
creaming watery vegetables such as spinach.
Set double boiler on to heat with water in the bottom.
Put butter, salt, and flour in the top and stir till thoroughly
mixed. Add a third of the total quantity of milk and stir
rapidly, being sure to move pasty layer from all parts of the
bottom and sides of the pan. When all the lumps have disap-
peared, add the remainder of the'milk and stir. When the
sauce coats the spoon, it is done. This coating will take place
when the sauce starts to steam freely. When a small portion
is cooked, a little additional milk may be needed.
4. Why is it a good plan to use a double boiler?
5. What is the only difference in the ingredients of
the three kinds of white sauce?
Step 2. Preparing the vegetables. Use canned or
cooked fresh vegetables. Either rub them through a
sieve or put them through a ricer when making a puree or
pulp. Some of the fibrous vegetables must be cut into
Step 3. Combining the sauce and vegetables.
VEGETABLE CREAM SOUPS
One serving of each
Tomato . .
Potato . . .
Asparagus . .
4 to 4 C. 1
4 to 4 C.
4 to 4 C.
4 to 4 C.
i If the pieces are comparatively large, use i C., if small I C.
46 FOOD PREPARATION
Those vegetables that tend to thicken the soup them-
selves require the number 1 sauce, the others need the
number 2. Most of the vegetable soups are improved by
adding a little grated onion. Bacon fat may be substi-
tuted for the butter. Season with salt.
6. Which sauce will you use for the soup you have
chosen to make?
Have both vegetable pulp and sauce hot. Add pulp to
sauce, stirring constantly. Serve immediately. A bit of
whipped cream adds to the attractiveness. Have the whipped
cream ready if you plan this addition. If using diced vege-
tables, add the vegetable to the sauce and heat. If white sauce
is overcooked, there is a tendency to curdle. When using
peanut butter, add hot sauce slowly to peanut butter, stirring
Cream of tomato soup. Since cream of tomato soup
curdles readily, special care must be exercised to use
fresh milk, not to overcook the white sauce, and to add
the hot tomato slowly, while stirring, to the hot white
sauce. Some people prefer to prevent curdling by adding
^ teaspoon of soda to each cup of pulp before heating.
Acid curdles milk. Since tomato is acid, the soda is used
to neutralize the acid and so to prevent curdling. Many
people do not care for the flavor resulting from the use
of soda. They prefer to be more careful in not over-
cooking the sauce, in adding the tomato slowly to the
sauce when both are hot, and in serving immediately.
A flavorsome soup may be made by using canned tomato
soup for the pulp. The tomato soup has less tendency
to curdle the milk than does tomato pulp. Use about
J of the required quantity of flour in the white sauce
when using the soup.
Judging the product. Perhaps you would like to copy
the chart below and check your product on it.
7. If you have not been entirely successful, what
change will you make the next time you prepare this
Courtesy General Electric Co,
Fig. 12. Cream of corn soup.
Serving the soup. Cream soups should be hot when
served. Many varieties of cereal products are eaten with
soup, such as wafers, crackers, rye crisp, etc. Croutons
are commonly made at home. Perhaps when you make
cream soups at home you will have time to toast croutons.
Butter slices of bread, cut \ inch thick. Cut again into
^-inch cubes. Put into a pan and toast slowly to a light
brown. Serve while freshly toasted.
Creamed foods on toast are popular luncheon dishes.
They consist of various kinds of vegetables, or flaked fish,
or diced eggs combined with a white sauce and served on
freshly toasted bread. Avoid too much stirring when
adding the white sauce. Often the food may be placed
on the slices of toast and the sauce poured over it. A
creamed dish is most appetizing when the pieces of the
ingredients are not broken up fine, and when the white
sauce is not too thin. Below are suggestions for a num-
ber of such dishes.
Salmon . . .
1C., broken into pieces
8 whole stalks or
16 large tips
4 diced hard-cooked
READINGS. Harris and Lacey, Everyday Foods, p. 383.
Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, Ch. xix.
Willard and Gillett, Food Study for the High School, pp. 227-228.
Choosing ingredients. Appearance. The appear-
ance of salads is one reason for including them in our
menus. We must, therefore, be especially careful to have
them attractive. Crispness in fresh vegetables and fresh
flavor in fruits are the result of careful selection and good
methods of preparation and care. If we wish our salads
to be attractive, we must avoid buying wilted vegetables
and overripe or underripe fruits. We should also choose
those vegetables that have a clear bright color. Freshly
gathered fruits and vegetables have a sweet flavor which
deteriorates if they are permitted to stand. People who
have kitchen gardens have an advantage in the freshness
of the vegetables they may serve.
Flavor. The success of salads depends largely upon
the flavors of the ingredients. We usually choose vege-
tables with mild flavor for the bulk of the salads, and
add others that have more distinctive flavors. The addi-
tion of bits of highly flavored vegetables such as garlic,
onion, caper, and pimiento makes an otherwise flavorless
salad more appetizing. Tastes differ considerably, and
salads may be modified to please these tastes. The same
principle holds in combining fruits in a salad. Tart
fruits such as the pineapple are combined with bland
fruits such as the banana and mild apples. Contrast in
texture is also desirable in salads. Soft ingredients such
as macaroni, rice, or cottage cheese are combined with
firm or crisp foods such as celery, cucumbers, pineapple,
Importance of the luncheon salad. Salads for lunch-
eon often form the most important dish. On the other
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hand, salads served with a dinner are a minor part of the
meal, being included for their fresh, crisp coolness, for
their color, and for the vitamins that they contain. When
the luncheon salad is the main dish, it is usually large,
and is made of vegetables or fruits or a combination of
both which satisfies us when we are hungry. A mayon-
naise dressing which has much food value is used. The
dinner salad, on the other hand, has less food value, being
small and dainty and usually has a French dressing.
On pages 50 and 51 are some suggestions for appro-
priate luncheon or supper salads.
8. Which of the ingredients do you think makes them
suitable as main luncheon dishes?
METHOD OF MAKING SALADS
Step 1. Making the mayonnaise dressing.
Cayenne Pepper . ...
Vinegar (diluted if strong)
Add sugar, cayenne, salt, and mustard to egg yolk and
beat. Add vinegar or lemon juice and beat. Add 1 t. oil
at a time and beat. After adding 6 or 8 t. in this fashion,
add 1 T. at a time and beat. After having added 6 T., the
dressing should be very thick. Pour in half of the remainder
of oil and beat. Pour in the remaining amount and beat.
The whole process should not require more than 5 to 6 min-
utes. It is desirable to have all the ingredients cold. One
will find it easy to make the dressing if the acid is added
before the oil in accordance with the directions. For fruit
salads add sugar.
Step 2. Preparing the vegetables and fruits. Re-
freshening. Vegetables wilt easily. Unless they are
freshly picked from the garden or have had especially
good care in shipping and in the store, they are not so
fresh as one would like them to be. All vegetables are
composed to a considerable extent of water. The potato,
which we think of as a very dry vegetable, is almost three-
fourths water, whereas celery is almost 95 per cent water.
When any of this water evaporates, the vegetable shrinks
and becomes limp. When once this has happened, a
vegetable does not have the same flavor as when freshly
picked. We can refreshen vegetables by putting them in
cold water for a time and then into the ice chest, taking
care that they are kept moist, but not standing in water.
Covered tin, enamel, glass, and earthenware containers
which allow but a small amount of air circulation are
excellent. As soon as vegetables are delivered, they
should be washed and put into such a container and into
the ice chest or other cool place.
Removing bacteria. Washing vegetables removes dirt
and bacteria. Even in our country there is some danger
from disease germs carried on fresh vegetables. In some
foreign countries disease germs carried by foods present
extreme danger. However, as a precaution, it is well to
wash all vegetables carefully. Water cress will grow in
polluted streams. We should always soak it in salted
vinegar water (2 T. of each per quart of water) for an
hour or two. This is helpful in destroying typhoid bac-
teria which might be present. Occasionally spinach,
cauliflower, lettuce, and other greens have insects among
their leaves. When these vegetables are soaked in the'
salted vinegar water the insects creep out and may then
be washed away, thus making the vegetables perfectly
Lettuce for use under salads. To prepare a head of
lettuce for use under salads it is necessary to separate
the leaves without breaking them. To do this cut out
the heart (the stem end) and hold the lettuce under the
faucet so that cold water will run into the hole that was
made. As the water runs in about the leaves, its weight
forces them apart without breaking them. Drain the
leaves or wipe dry with a cloth if using immediately. If
Courtesy General Electric Co.
Fig. 13. A stuffed tomato salad decorated with
pieces of pimiento.
the lettuce leaves are not to be used for a time, keep them
moist in the refrigerator or other cool place.
Step 3. Arranging the ingredients. The arrange-
ment of salads on plates is important in making them
attractive. Salads should never be mussy looking. Mus-
siness results from too much salad dressing, too much
stirring, overcooking of vegetables, and careless placing
on the lettuce leaf. Color, as we have learned, is also
important in salads. We like such combinations as white
cauliflower, fresh green asparagus tips, and yellow car-
rots. On the other hand, we get less pleasure from red
tomato and yellow carrot together or red tomato and beet.
The delicate green of the lettuce leaf makes a pleasing
base for any other vegetable or for fruit.
Judging the product.
9. Below is a chart which will help you to judge the
success of your salads.
Appropriate Size of Pieces
READINGS. Harris and Lacey, Everyday Foods, pp. 427-434.
Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, Ch. xxii, pp. 287-300.
56 FOOD PREPARATION
Trilling, Williams, and Reeves, A Girl's Problems in Home Eco-
nomics, p. 507.
University of Colorado, Agricultural Extension Service Bulletin,
Convenience of sandwiches. Sandwiches are a very
convenient way of serving combinations of foods. We
use bread or crackers to hold an almost countless num-
ber of fillings. If these fillings and bread were served
separately, they would require the use of more dishes
and silver than when served in the form of sandwiches.
It is proper to take bread in our fingers, but not con-
venient to pick up meat, butter, jelly, or any one of the
many kinds of fillings. So for picnics, luncheons, after-
noon teas, lunch-boxes, etc., we have developed a great
variety of appetizing sandwiches.
Neatness an essential quality. Neatness is one of
the essential qualities of sandwiches. The bread in a
well made sandwich is cut of uniform thickness. People
differ in the thicknesses they prefer. Usually, however,
the choice is for bread to be cut rather thin, about a
quarter of an inch.
Cutting the bread. In cutting bread for sandwiches
there is a tendency to cut either the bottom or the top
of the slice thicker, gradually making the face of the loaf
crooked. This makes badly shaped sandwiches. As you
cut, watch carefully to have the slice just as thick at the
bottom as at the top. To prevent squeezing the bread and
to keep the slices of even thickness use a sawing motion.
Fitting the slices of bread. If the sandwich is made
of two slices of bread, they should fit together. We select
adjoining slices as they come from the loaf so that they
Fig. 14. Cutting of bread.
A. Gauge for slicing bread. B. One loaf of bread shows incorrect
slanting, the other correct slicing. C. Slices of bread used for sandwiches
should fit exactly, as shown on the left here. On the right are slices that
58 FOOD PREPARATION
will fit accurately. If we are especially interested in
making dainty sandwiches, as for an afternoon tea, we
remove the crusts. Many persons prefer to keep the
crusts, as they are the most tasty part of the bread.
Convenient size. A whole slice from the loaf makes
too large a sandwich to be handled gracefully. So we
cut it into two or three pieces after the filling has been
put in, being careful not to squeeze the bread and force
the filling out. We may cut the sandwiches into fancy
shapes. Again it depends upon the occasion how small
and how fancy we make our sandwiches. If we are out
in the woods at a picnic where every one will be hungry,
the loaf-sized sandwich may be cut into but two pieces
and perhaps have thicker slices of bread than the sand-
wiches prepared for a party indoors.
Neatness of filling. To make neat sandwiches care
must be taken to keep the filling within the sandwich
and not let it run over the edges. To avoid this the fill-
ings should not be too soft. Usually fresh, crisp lettuce
extending slightly beyond the edge of the bread may add
to the attractiveness of the sandwich. Limp, wilted let-
tuce showing beyond the bread, however, makes a very
Variety in sandwiches. The many kinds of sand-
wiches may be grouped in two classes, the double sand-
wich and the open-faced sandwich. In the latter, but one
slice of bread is used, covered with some kind of spread.
Open-faced sandwiches, of course, cannot be packed but
may be made most attractive for serving at home. Many
kinds of colorful decorations are possible, such as bits of
jelly on cream cheese, sliced stuffed olives on cheese,
grated egg yolk. etc.
Courtesy of the Jelke Co.
Fig. 15. Attractive sandwiches.
Above, checkerboard sandwiches. Below, a variety of sandwiches.
60 FOOD PREPARATION
The double sandwich lends itself to a great variety of
fillings, such as meat, cheese, nut and fruit mixtures,
tomato and lettuce, fried or hard-cooked egg, and so on.
Combinations of vegetables and meats on toasted bread
make attractive sandwiches of several layers. Ribbon
and checkerboard sandwiches are made by combining
slices of white and graham bread with creamed butter or
cheese and cutting in such a way as to give the fancy
Bread for sandwiches. The choice of materials is im-
portant in making good sandwiches. Bread is the basis
for a sandwich. It should not be so fresh that it will
not cut well, but must be moist and spongy. Properly
made bread twenty-four hours old is most desirable. The
loaf should be shaped so that the slice will be practically
If the crust is to be used, it should be a golden brown
on all sides. The nutty flavor adds to the taste of the
sandwich. Good sandwich bread is of fine and even
10. Criticize the bread shown on page 57 as to shape
of loaf and evenness and fineness of grain.
11. When making sandwiches, decide whether the
bread comes up to these standards.
Butter for sandwiches. Butter, of course, should be
of good flavor. It should be soft enough to spread evenly,
but not melted. A good way to prepare butter for spread-
ing is to cream it, that is, work it with a wooden spoon
until it is soft enough to spread easily with a knife.
Unless butter is the only filling, a thin coating on one
slice is all that is needed. This is especially true if a
rich filling is used.
1. Cream the butter.
5. Cover with rest of slices.
2. Trim the bread.
6. Cut into convenient shapes.
3. Lay slices evenly on table.
7. Wrap in oiled paper if to be
4. Cover half the slices with 8. Arrange attractively on plate,
butter and filling.
Fig. 16. Steps in making a number of sandwiches.
62 FOOD PREPARATION
Fillings. Fillings vary so much that it would take a
great deal of discussion to cover, even a few of them. In
general, they should not be so soft that they will run,
but moist enough to be appetizing. They should be
highly flavored because the bread is so bland. Combina-
tion fillings usually have at least one ingredient that is
highly flavored such as mayonnaise dressing, pickle, sharp
cheese, or onion. Fresh, crisp lettuce adds to the tasti-
ness and appearance of almost any sandwich.
12. How should lettuce be handled to have it fresh
and crisp, moist but not wet?
Making a number of sandwiches. On page 61 is a
picture showing the steps that would save time if you were
making a number of fancy sandwiches.
LETTUCE AND BACON SANDWICH
Pan broil a full slice of bacon cut into two pieces. The
aim in frying bacon is to remove some of the fat, keep it even
in shape and make it crisp and evenly browned. This is best
done over a low flame and with frequent turning and moving
in the fat.
Cut two slices of graham bread, butter one slice and cover
it with a piece of lettuce. If the lettuce is very curly press
it down so that the cover slice will lie flat. Spread with
mayonnaise, put bacon on top, and cover with a second slice
of bread. Press lightly to flatten the sandwich and cut into
two or more pieces.
COLD COOKED EGG OR MEAT SANDWICHES
Chop eggs or grind meat. Add enough mayonnaise to make
a paste. Catsup may be substituted for the mayonnaise in the
meat sandwich or a bit of horseradish added to the mayon-
naise for variety. Spread on the buttered slice of bread, being
careful not to have it so thick at the edges that the filling will
squeeze out. Put on the cover slice of bread and cut into
two or more sandwiches.
PEANUT AND HONEY SANDWICH
Mix peanut butter with about ^ as much honey. Spread
as for any other filling.
TOASTED CHEESE SANDWICH
Spread one slice of bread lightly with butter. Sprinkle with
grated American or other cheese, or spread with a soft, snappy
cheese. Put' on cover slice of bread, toast on the broiling
rack on both sides, and serve hot.
13. Perhaps you would like to make a collection of
sandwich recipes. Either copy them on cards or in a
READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 228-231.
University of Colorado, Agricultural Extension Bulletin, "Sand-
Choosing a luncheon dessert. The dessert selected
for luncheon depends largely upon what has been planned
for the preceding part of the meal. If many sandwiches,
rich creamed dishes, or such dishes as baked beans or
macaroni have been a part of the meal, we should enjoy
a light dessert such as fruit gelatin, ice cream, or junket.
On the other hand, if we are planning a heavy dessert
such as a rice pudding, we will select a juicy vegetable
or a fruit salad for an earlier course.
Values gained by using fruits. Variety. We gain
several advantages from the use of fruit for dessert.
Courtesy Charles B. Knox Gelatine Co.
Fig. 17. Fruit gelatine molded for individual service.
Variety is one of these important values. The number
of ways in which we serve the extensive list of fruits gives
an amazing number of dishes. Fruit juices, salads, baked
fruit, stewed fruit, shortcakes, dumplings, pies, ice
creams, and so on, are but an indication of this great
variety. By canning and preserving fruits, we are able
to increase still further the variety we may have at all
Freedom from bacteria. It is important that we eat
fresh, uncooked fruit and vegetable every day. Washing
fruits carefully is advisable to remove dirt and bacteria
which might collect from the handling which is required
in picking and selling fresh fruits. It is necessary to
cook some fruits to make them suitable and satisfactory
for eating. Some apples, for example, are not very good
raw. Cranberries are another example of fruit that needs
Kinds of gelatin. A very common way to prepare
fruit is to combine a variety of fruits and stiffen their
juices with gelatin. Gelatin is an animal product. It is
sold for household uses in two forms, the one, pure granu-
lar gelatin; the other, colored and flavored with artificial
colorings and flavorings and sweetened with ordinary
sugar. These latter are sold under special trade names
and are more expensive than the plain gelatin. Raw
pineapple cannot be used in gelatin because it prevents
the gelatin from stiffening. When the pineapple is cooked,
it no longer has this effect. When using either of the
kinds of gelatin, be sure to prepare in accordance with
the directions on the box.
Soak gelatin in cold water for 5 minutes since it does not
dissolve in boiling water without previous soaking. While
soaking, heat fruit juice to boiling. Pour on gelatin and stir
until thoroughly dissolved. Add sugar and set aside until
cool and syrupy. Pour over the chilled fruit. Set aside
for several hours in the ice chest or other cool place. Serve
with plain or whipped cream or a cooked custard.
FRUIT GELATIN DESSERTS
Cold water (for soaking)
Pineapple juice (boiling)
Drained diced pineapple
Lettuce for base
Cold water (for soaking)
i C. or
Diced orange 1
Chopped nuts 2 to sprinkle on top
Lettuce for base
Cold water (for soaking)
Mixed juice (chiefly pineapple)
Lettuce for base
1 An orange is made of sections or carpels, each surrounded by membrane which
can be pulled away, leaving only the pulp. When you want to serve an especially
delicious dessert, peel the carpels.
2 If the nuts were put into the gelatin, they would soak, darken, and lose flavor.
3 These may be jmitted but make an attractive addition.
Custard. Custards are very easy to mix, but require
great care in baking. They are made of eggs and milk,
flavoring and sweetening. Since both the eggs and milk
are protein foods, a hot temperature should be avoided.
To prevent overcooking, set the cup of custard in a pan
of hot water so that the water comes up about f of the
way on the cup. Set the oven flame so low that the water
does not boil. A well-made custard is jelly-like in con-
sistency. We can tell when it is done by inserting a clean
knife. If the knife comes out uncoated, the custard is
done. An overcooked custard will be curdled and watery.
FOB FAMILY OF FOUR
Beat eggs slightly, add the other ingredients and stir until
well mixed. Put into custard cups. Set cups in hot water and
bake about 20 minutes at about 300.
Ice cream. Popularity of ice cream. Ice cream is a
deservedly popular dessert because when properly made
it is such a wholesome food. In addition, it is dainty and
refreshing. It provides another way of getting milk into
our diets. It may be prepared with a variety of flavor-
ings and may be combined successfully with many kinds
Qualities of good ice cream. Good ice cream feels very
smooth to the tongue and melts readily in the mouth.
When water freezes, it forms long hard crystals. Since
milk and cream contain so much water, ice cream is made
up largely of crystals of frozen water. To have a velvety
ice cream we must prevent these crystals from becoming
68 FOOD PREPARATION
large. The smaller the crystals, the smoother the cream.
There are several ways to prevent the formation of long,
thick crystals. One way is to have a large proportion of
cream in the mixture to be frozen. The tiny fat globules
separate the particles of water and so do not allow large
crystals to form. To many people this rich mixture is
distasteful. Other ways are to add a bit of egg, a bit of
gelatin, or to use evaporated milk in the place of part of
the fresh milk. In addition, if the ice cream is frozen
slowly at the start, the churning of the beater carries air
into the ice cream just as you saw it beaten into egg
whites. The air bubbles that form also prevent the for-
mation of large water crystals. When fruit juices are
added, the mixture should be partly frozen to prevent
14. Mix 1 C. of finely chopped ice with 54 C. of
coarse salt. Test with a thermometer to see how
many degrees below freezing the mixture goes.
Effect of salt on ice. Salt water must be colder than
32 to form ice. You remember that ordinary water
freezes at 32. Therefore, when we put salt on ice, it
changes from ice to water rapidly at a lower temperature
than freezing. As it changes it takes up heat. If we
surround an ice-cream mixture with this ice-and-salt mix-
ture, it takes heat from the ice cream which then becomes
solid. If we put a large amount of salt on the ice, the
ice cream will freeze more quickly than is desirable since
we want to beat as much air into it as is possible. One cup
of salt to each 3 quarts of chopped ice is a mixture that
will not freeze the cream too quickly if the freezer is
turned rapidly. A freezer with a beater should be used.
Unless you have an ice shaver, crush the ice by putting
1. Wash dasher and can.
5. Pour mixture of ice and salt
2. Pour mixed ingredients into 6. Turn until frozen,
3. Adjust top of can and crank.
7. Remove top layer of ice and
4. Crush ice. 8. Open can and serve.
Fig. 18. Steps in making ice cream.
70 FOOD PREPARATION
it into a sack and pounding with a mallet. Turn slowly
for a few rounds, then rapidly as long as you can. Turn
constantly. When you can no longer turn the crank,
serve or pack for later use.
To pack, open the can after carefully removing the ice
near the top and wiping away any drops of water. If you
do not take this precaution, you may get salty water into
the ice cream. Remove the beater, scraping off the cream
into the can and pack the cream down into the can with
a spoon. Return the lid and put in a cork to prevent the
brine from getting into the freezer. Pour out the water
and refill with a mixture of ice and salt over the top of
the can. Cover with a paper and a damp cloth. This
packing for an hour or two improves the ice cream.
Serve plain, with crushed sweetened fruit, or a choco-
late or other sauce.
2 -QUART FREEZER
15. In what ways was your product satisfactory?
When we make frozen desserts in a mechanical refrig-
erator, we must be especially careful to select ingredients
such that long, thick ice crystals will not form. Since the
freezing mixture is not stirred constantly as in an ice
cream freezer, air bubbles cannot be beaten in while
freezing to prevent the formation of crystals. Gelatin
whipped when it begins to thicken, whipped cream, and
stiffly beaten egg whites are used in some recipes, air
bubbles being furnished in this way. Other ingredients
are also useful in making a smooth product as well as to
add flavor. Marshmallows, fruit, and thin custard are
examples. Below is a recipe in which the formation of
ice crystals is prevented in a number of ways. Can you
discover these ways?
NEW YORK ICE CREAM
Milk 1C. Sugar f C.
Cornstarch IT. Whipping cream ..1C.
Salt few grains Vanilla 1 t.
Add salt to f C. of milk and scald in double boiler.
Mix the cornstarch with the remaining milk and add. Cook
15 minutes, stirring occasionally. Beat egg yolks and sugar.
Add a few spoonsful of the cooked mixture and stir. Then
pour the egg mixture into the double boiler slowly, stirring
constantly. Cook 2 minutes longer, strain, and cool. Fold in
the stiffly beaten egg whites, then the stiffly beaten cream and
the vanilla. Put into refrigerator tray and freeze for 5 hours.
Serve plain or with crushed, sweetened fruit.
Marshmallows contain so much sugar and gelatin that
they are highly useful in making frozen desserts in a
CHOCOLATE MARSHMALLOW ICE CREAM
Melt one-half Ib. marshmallows in top of double boiler to a
spongy consistency. Make a sauce by boiling a one-ounce
square of bitter chocolate in a scant cup of water. Stir while
boiling. Add this to the melted marshmallows. When cool,
add this mixture slowly to one-half pint of cream, whipped.
72 FOOD PREPARATION
This freezes in one and one-half hours. It serves eight
READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, Ch. xxiv,
University of Colorado, Agricultural Extension Service Bulletins,
"Milk and Its Use"; "Simple Desserts."
Milk beverages sometimes form an important part of
a luncheon. On pages 73 and 74 are suggestions for
making a variety of such drinks. Chocolate sauce is
sometimes used as a flavoring.
Melt one square of chocolate in a pan over a very low
flame. A high flame will burn the chocolate. Stir constantly.
Courtesy General Electric Co.
Fig. 19. Grape lacto.
Add 1 C. water and 2 C. sugar. Cook to a smooth paste. Or
boil i C. cocoa with 1 C. water. Add 2 C. sugar and cook
to the consistency of cream.
FRESH MILK BEVERAGES
i C. water
Malted milk 2 T.
May be served plain or
with chocolate sauce or
maple syrup (no sugar)
1 C. buttermilk
1 t. or
salt i t.
Coffee cream \ C.
Whipped cream 1 T.
Grape Lacto .
| C. buttermilk
Grape juice $ C.
i If an especially nourishing drink is desired.
Mix all ingredients and stir. Sugar requires but little
stirring to make it dissolve. When eggs are included, use an
egg whip to make the drink light and fluffy. Malted milk must
be dissolved in 1 T. of cream to make a smooth paste which
can then be thinned with the milk.
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Have all ingredients very cold. Put all but fruit juices in a
pint or quart jar depending upon the quantity made. Add
mixed fruit juices, fasten down the lid, and shake vigorously.
Serve immediately. If you were serving any of these drinks
at a party, you might decorate with a bit of whipped cream
SOME SIMPLE CONFECTIONS
Time for eating confections. We make confections
because we like sweet foods to finish our meals. Some
people eat confections between their meals. You will
learn in Unit II why this is a mistake. However, par-
ticularly for boys and girls who are growing fast, it is a
very wholesome thing to have sweet things as desserts.
They are appropriate for home luncheons and school
lunch boxes. When you make these confections at home,
pack them into airtight jars or boxes, keep in a cool place,
and serve immediately after meals.
If bulk dates are used, wash carefully and dry. Remove
pits and the paper-like lining about the pits. Insert ^ Eng-
lish walnut or pecan. Close the date about the nut and roll
in powdered sugar.
Grind 1 C. each of washed dates, figs, raisins, prunes, and
nuts. To prevent the fruit getting too sticky, mix in the nuts
as you grind the fruit. Mix after adding the juice of one
large or two small lemons. Work 1 C. of powdered sugar
into the fruit. Cut off a lump the size of a walnut, roll into
a ball and coat with powdered sugar.
76 FOOD PREPARATION
Butter a granite plate and spread \ C. freshly roasted
peanuts evenly over it. It is better if the peanuts are sepa-
rated into halves. Put J C. sugar into a saute pan, place
over a low flame and keep the sugar moving constantly by
stirring it slowly and evenly. It will burn if it is not moved.
Just as soon as it is all melted, pour it over the peanuts.
When cold, break into conveniently sized pieces.
Butter ................ IT. Egg
Sugar ................. i C. Milk ................. IT.
Peanut Butter ......... J C. Flour ................. % C.
Vanilla ............... J t. Baking Powder ......... ft.
Cream the peanut butter with the fat and sugar. Add milk,
vanilla, and egg, and beat. Add sifted flour and baking
powder. Drop with a teaspoon on a buttered cookie sheet or
pan about 2 inches apart. The lumps of dough should be
about the size of a walnut. Bake in a moderate oven (350
to 375) for 8 to 10 minutes. Remove to oiled paper or cool-
ing rack with a spatula or pancake turner.
If you bake these cookies at home, multiply the amounts
of the ingredients to make the number of cookies you would
like to have.
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. If you have time when you
have finished the work of the unit, you will find suggestions for
additional problems on luncheon cookery on page 100.
Planning the dinner menu. When we make our din-
ner menus, we follow the same rules that guided us in
planning luncheons. That is, we include fruit, vege-
tables, and milk liberally, as well as cereals and meat,
and we choose from both the bland and highly flavored
foods. We select both the soft-textured and crisp, firm
foods, and we choose some foods with color to make the
meal look more attractive. Dinner is usually a more
elaborate meal than luncheon or supper since it is the
heaviest meal of the day. It is planned for the time
when the whole family can come together for leisurely
enjoyment of both the food and each other.
Number of dishes. A greater number of dishes is
usually served in the dinner than in the other meals.
Meat, potatoes or some other starchy food, two vege-
tables, one often in the form of a salad, and a fruit, as
well as milk, especially for the children, are often in-
cluded in a well planned dinner. Since the dinner usu-
ally has a number of dishes such as meat and potatoes
which satisfy the appetite, we choose the lighter salads,
soups, and desserts for this meal. For example, instead
of a cream soup we choose a clear broth. French dress-
ing is correct for dinner salads. Also a dinner salad is
smaller than a luncheon salad. A light dessert such as
plain fruit, an ice or ice cream, or gelatin is appropriate
for a dinner that has several courses or that has several
78 FOOD PREPARATION
Simple dinner menus. Sometimes we serve a very
simple meal at the dinner hour. For example, we may
cook meat and vegetables together in a chowder or a
thick soup. With this we enjoy a dish contrasting in
texture and flavor such as a tart, crisp salad, followed
possibly by a simple dessert. In this kind of dinner we
have fewer dishes, but usually eat larger servings, and
have a variety of foods in a single dish.
1. On the pages following you will find a discussion
of the preparation of a number of dishes which may be
combined in dinner menus. Perhaps members of the
class have recipes that are favorite with their families
which might be especially nice to use in your laboratory
The first course of a dinner. If those who prepare
our dinners have plenty of time, or if occasionally we
enjoy serving a somewhat more elaborate dinner, we start
Courtesy General Electric Co.
Fig. 20. An appetizing vegetable plate.
Courtesy General Electric Co.
Fig. 21. Tart fruits are suitable for a first course.
it with some kind of appetizer. Two simple types of
appetizers are clear soups, such as consomme, and mix-
tures of tart fruits. An appetizer should not be so large
in quantity or so rich that it blunts the appetite. In fact,
it should do the opposite, make us more hungry. A bouil-
lon or consomme is the stock made by cooking meat and
bone a long time. The liquid is cleared by removing the
fat and straining out the seasonings that have been cooked
with the meat. It contains practically no nourishment,
but it starts the secretion of the digestive juices in our
stomachs. This improves our digestion and in addition
makes us enjoy the food that follows. Tart fruits, when
served in small quantities, also make us relish the rest of
the meal more.
80 FOOD PREPARATION
Families often omit this first course, since as a whole
our appetites are keen enough, particularly if we have
had the proper amount of out-of-door exercise. They add
to the work of preparing and serving a meal. However,
we occasionally like to serve a meal which gives the added
pleasure of a first course. Cookbooks give recipes for
consomme, bouillon, and fruit cup.
READING. Harris and Lacey, Everyday Foods, pp. 145-150.
Tenderness of meat. Age of animal. Some meats
are tenderer than others. The sea foods such as oysters,
clams, and lobster are very tender. Young animals of
all types have tenderer meat than do the full grown, and
particularly those which are very old. Spring chicken,
lamb, calf (veal), and suckling pig are examples of the
young animals we use for food. Many people, however,
prefer the flavor of mature meat. Mutton (sheep), beef
(cows and steers), pork (hogs), and roasting and stewing
chickens are examples of mature meat. These many
kinds of meats provide great variety in flavor.
Place of cut. The place in the carcass from which the
meat is cut also makes a difference in its tenderness.
The loin and rib cuts are tender because the muscles of
which they are made have had comparatively little use.
The meat of the leg muscles, on the other hand, are large
and coarse because they are used so much. In Unit III
you will learn more about the various cuts of meat.
2. In the picture on page 81 find the place from which
sirloin, porterhouse, club steaks, and rib roasts are cut.
Use of cuts. The round may be used for steaks
though it is less tender than the loin cuts. The rump
and chuck are used for roasts, while the flank is used for
baking and stewing. The remainder of the cuts are used
for stews, soup, hamburger, chipped beef, etc. This meat
is as wholesome as are the more expensive cuts. The dif-
Adapted from a chart by Armour &r Co.
Fig. 22. Cuts of beef.
The shaded portion indicates packing house waste used to make by-
products. Fat and tenderloin comprise 3 per cent of the carcass, and
are not shown here.
ference lies in the fact that other methods of preparation
must be used in order that attractive dishes may be pre-
pared from them.
Results of cooking. Flavor. Few people like raw
meat. Many like it fairly rare, claiming that in both
flavor and tenderness it is superior to that well done.
For most people, then, cooking is necessary to make meat
82 FOOD PREPARATION
Variety. It would probably be possible to have a dif-
ferent meat dish every day in the year for there are so
many possibilities for variety in the way our animal foods
are cooked. This variety adds a great deal to the pleas-
ure we get from our foods. The odor of cooked meat and
its flavor, aside from its nutritional value, make it im-
W holes omeness. Occasionally, in spite of the most care-
ful inspection, pork is put on the market which has tiny
larvae imbedded in the muscles. These larvse may de-
velop in our bodies and cause illness if we eat the pork
raw. For this reason, it is important that pork in par-
ticular be cooked thoroughly in order to kill any larvae
which, by mischance, might be present. Cooking also
destroys any bacteria that may have gathered on meat
through careless handling in the shop or home.
Principles of meat cookery. Protein. Meat is
another of the protein foods. Like eggs, for best results
it should be cooked at a low temperature. A high tem-
perature for a considerable time will toughen the most
tender cut which may be bought. Meat will cook at a
temperature below that of boiling water.
3. At what temperature does protein of eggs start to
Product desired. The way we cook meat also depends
upon the product we are planning. If we are cooking
soup, our purpose is to draw all of the juices and flavors
out of the meat into the soup. If we should plunge the
meat into boiling water, the outside of the meat would be
hardened immediately and would tend to seal the juices
and flavors in the meat. So we cut the meat into small
pieces, thus opening the cells, put them into cold water
which we bring to the boiling point slowly. In this way
we help to draw the juices and flavors into the soup.
Roasting meat. However, if we want to keep all the
juices and flavors in the meat as in a roast or steak, we
can help to seal them in. We do this by searing all
sides, either in a hot oven, under a hot flame in the
broiler, or in a saute pan over a hot flame. Sometimes
we sprinkle the meat with flour. When the flour cooks,
it makes a coating around the meat. This helps to retain
the juices. Then, since long continued cooking at a high
temperature toughens meat, we turn the flame very low
to finish the cooking. No further cooking may be neces-
sary for steak, but roasts of beef, pork, lamb, chicken,
etc., may require an hour or more of this slow cooking.
Cooking tough cuts. The toughness of the cut also de-
termines the rnethod of cookery. In those cuts in which
the muscles are large and coarse, long cooking at a low
temperature is more necessary than when the cut is ten-
der. Acid tends to soften protein. So some cooks add
a tablespoon or two of vinegar. The acid of tomato has
a similar effect and adds flavor besides. Long cooking
also develops flavors that we enjoy, since meat is then
brown and juicy.
Properly cooked meat does not require the use of a
very sharp knife in eating. Very tender meat may be cut
with a fork almost as easily as potatoes.
Left-over meats. When meat is left after a meal, we
very often make it into combination dishes with other
foods. Meat loaf, hash, stuffed green peppers, cro-
quettes, and Spanish rice are examples of this kind of
Courtesy General Electric Co.
Fig. 23. A dish made of leftover meat and vegetables.
Place a piece of round steak about two inches thick on a
bread board. Dredge (sprinkle heavily) with flour. Using
the edge of your little granite plate, your case knife, or a
meat hammer, work the flour into the fiber of the meat. If
it will take more flour, repeat the process. Turn the meat and
repeat on the other side.
Put enough fat (lard, oil, crisco, or suet) into your saute
pan to coat the bottom. When it is hot, put the meat into it.
Watch it carefully to see that it does not burn. When browned
on both sides, put it into an earthen baking dish, with a lid
if possible. Season with salt. Pour over it J C. of water,
cover tightly, and put into a heated oven. Set the regulator
as low as possible, or turn the flame as low as you can. Cook
for 3 hours. You may need to put in additional water from
time to time. You will start this in class and must return
at noon or after school to take it out of the oven. Reheat
when you serve.
There are several variations of Swiss steak. One, very
appetizing, is Spanish steak. Prepare the meat as you did
for the Swiss steak. When in the baking dish, add J C. of
canned tomato and lay two slices of onion on top. A bit of
celery and green pepper, chopped fine, are good additions.
Cook in the same way as Swiss steak. When serving, lift out
of the baking dish carefully so as not to disarrange the
For family use, allow J to ^ pound for each adult; J
pound for each child is ample. A Dutch oven or skillet with
a close fitting lid as well as covered baking dishes are satis-
Fish is also a protein food. Canned" salmon has been
cooked in the can until tender. Consequently when mak-
ing a loaf, very little cooking will be necessary. Milk and
eggs are used. All three ingredients require a low tem-
FOE FAMILY OF FOUR
1 pound can
1 T slightly beaten
Crumbs (coarse bread or
86 FOOD PREPARATION
Mix all the ingredients, put into a buttered baking dish
and bake for 15 to 20 minutes in an oven of moderate tem-
perature (350). At home you will need to bake the larger
loaf for 25 to 30 minutes. Turn onto a platter, cover with a
white sauce into which has been cut some hard-cooked
If the loaf is cooked in too hot an oven, it will burn to the
pan and the surfaces will be hard and crisp. This is not
desirable. It should be firm enough to keep its shape, but
(For Family of Four)
Cod or Halibut 1 Ib. Salt 1 t.
(head or tail end)
Potato, i in. cubes 1C. Pepper dash
Carrots, J in. cubes .... ^ C. Bay leaf very small piece
Onion, finely chopped . . J C. Milk 1 C.
Salt pork, J in. cubes . . J C.
Bacon fat lj T.
Remove all skin from fish. Put fish in small pan, add bay
leaf and just cover with water. Cover and simmer until flesh
and bones can be easily separated. Remove bay leaf. Put
potatoes and carrots in a second sauce pan, add salt and
pepper, and strain fish liquor over them. Cover and cook.
When fish has cooled somewhac, remove bones and flake.
Saute onion with salt pork or in the bacon fat. When potatoes
and carrots are done, add fish and onion. Before serving, add
milk and heat.
4. If you cook an individual serving, what quantities
will you use?
READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 358-374.
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Leaflet No. 17, "Cooking Beef
According to the Cut."
University of Colorado, Agricultural Extension Service Bulletin,
"Lamb Cuts and Recipes."
Classifying vegetables. The cook divides vegetables
into different groups. One classification she makes is
according to whether they must be cooked or may be
eaten raw. Those which she can serve raw, she uses in
salads. Even those which require cooking are often served
in garden-vegetable salads.
Require Cooking Usually Served Raw May Be Served Either
Raw or Cooked
Potato Lettuce Cabbage
Peas Endive Tomato
Squash Swiss chard Turnips
Spinach Water cress Carrot
Beans Celery cabbage Dandelion greens
Asparagus Radishes Celery
Beets Cucumbers Cucumbers
Value of vegetables. There are many ways to pre-
pare vegetables. Before we can decide how to cook them,
we must know what we hope to get as a result of their
preparation. As you will learn in Unit II, our vegetables
are very important to us for the iron and other minerals
that they contain and for their vitamins. In preparing
them we must be sure not to lose these valuable food
elements. One of the vitamins, C, which is most im-
portant to us, is destroyed by cooking. We need this
88 FOOD PREPARATION
vitamin each day. Consequently we must eat daily either
some raw fruit or raw vegetable, preferably both. In
addition, there is no loss of minerals if we eat our vege-
tables raw. Salads of raw vegetables are becoming in-
creasingly popular with people who are intelligently
interested in their health. Therefore we should know
how to prepare a great variety of raw vegetables in
Retaining the values of vegetables. Since we need
the minerals that our vegetables contain, we must know
how to retain them in cooking. Some methods of cook-
ing vegetables are more wasteful of minerals than others.
If we cook them in water, some of the mineral dissolves
in the water and is poured away. However, if we bake
our vegetables or prepare them in casseroles, there is no
loss. Steaming does not cause so much loss as does boil-
ing. Different ways of boiling affect the amount of min-
erals that are lost from our vegetables. If we use more
water than necessary, the loss is greater. If we cook
them slowly, the loss increases. There is a great increase
in loss if we cook them longer than is necessary. So the
rule in cooking vegetables is to bake them when we can
either in their skins or as baked dishes. If we boil them
and the vegetable is of the kind which makes it possible,
we should use as little water as possible and never cook
them longer than is needed to make them tender. Over-
cooking spoils not only their mineral value but their
appearance and flavor.
Need for different methods of cooking. Not all
vegetables lend themselves to boiling in a small amount
of water. The "strong-flavored" vegetables such as cab-
bage, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, turnips, and onions
have a poor flavor if not enough water is used. We use
a large amount with these vegetables and cook them with-
out a lid, so that the strong flavors which come up with
the steam may escape. The green vegetable does not
lend itself to cooking in a small amount of water. All of
our green vegetables become brown and very unappetiz-
ing if we do not use a generous amount of water or if we
cook them longer than is necessary. Also, they should
be cooked without a lid. Spinach, green beans, cabbage,
brussels sprouts, and asparagus are examples.
5. Name some vegetables which may be cooked in a
small quantity of water.
Determining when vegetables are done. Cooking
vegetables only till tender is probably the most important
precaution. Long cooking gives bad taste and color, and
removes the valuable food elements. When we begin
to think about what we mean by "only till tender," we
find that different people have different notions. Cab-
bage that is "done" still has a firm texture. When over-
done, it is soft and pasty. When shredded, it should
cook about 8 or 9 minutes. Green beans are still very
firm when done and should be cooked ^ hour or less, de-
pending upon the tenderness of the bean. When very
tender, 20 minutes are sufficient. As we begin experiment-
ing with the time of cooking vegetables, we find that we
come to enjoy a great deal those vegetables that we might
have earlier thoughtlessly considered underdone. The
overcooked become distasteful. It is important to have
the water boiling rapidly when the vegetable is placed
in it and kept boiling rapidly during all of the cooking
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Table for cooking vegetables. On pages 90 and 91 is
a table that will help you in deciding how long to cook
vegetables and how much water to use. Very young vege-
tables require less time than
the mature. As you will see,
it is advised to prepare the
vegetables in rather small
pieces in order to make the
cooking time short. Vege-
tables are cut lengthwise of
the fiber as in the carrot to
prevent unnecessary loss of
minerals. In the picture
you will see that in cutting
crosswise the cells are
opened allowing the miner-
Fig. 24. Pieces of carrot under
the magnifying glass.
The cells run lengthwise of the
carrot. To save the minerals, cut
the carrot lengthwise as shown in
the piece at the bottom.
als to dissolve out. If we
scrape or pare vegetables
too deeply, we waste much
of them. In potatoes, par-
ticularly, this waste is important since much of the
mineral matter lies just under the skin.
6. What advantage is there in boiling potatoes with
the skins on?
The amount of a vegetable used for four portions will
vary somewhat depending upon the kind of vegetable
and how savingly it is prepared. Salt is always added
to the cooking water, 1 to 1^ t. to each quart of
Flavoring cooked vegetables. Cooked vegetables
are often flavored with butter, about 1 T. per serving.
For variety we sometimes flavor with a white sauce (See
7. How will you know which white sauce to use?
Combination dishes. Often dishes combining several
vegetables are made. This is an excellent way to use left-
overs. Below is an example.
FOR FAMILY OF FOUR
3 Ib fresh or
Green Pepper (chopped)
Onion (finely chopped) ......
Celery (finely chopped)
1 t (very finely
Butter or Butter Substitute or
Thick Sour Cream
3 T. or
1 t. or
Place a layer of tomato in a buttered casserole or baking
pan. Sprinkle with a layer each of chopped onion, celery, and
pepper. Add a layer of bread crumbs. Add butter or part of
cream. Put on another layer of tomato and continue as above
until all materials have been used. Bake in a moderate oven
(325) for about 40 minutes. Twenty minutes will be enough
for the individual serving.
THE DINNER SALAD
The dinner salad is small and is not very rich. A leafy
vegetable with French dressing is one correct dinner
Lettuce (leaf or head)
Endive (French or curly)
Horseradish leaves mixed
with mustard greens
To develop freshness and crispness, wash
carefully and chill. Cover with dressing be-
fore serving or serve dressing at table; or
coat each chilled, dried leaf by dipping it in
dressing and allowing it to drain before
arranging on salad plate.
Season with dressing before serving or at
To marinate, mix the dressing lightly with
the vegetable and allow to stand for an hour.
The purpose of marinating is to have the
flavor of the dressing go through the food.
In a garden vegetable salad, bits of fresh
and left-over vegetables may be combined.
Green beans, cauliflower and carrots; canned
peas, beets, and asparagus are two examples
Select a large orange and
a small grapefruit in order
to have carpels of nearly
same size. Alternate the
carpels. Serve on lettuce
Halves of pear
Serve on lettuce leaf.
FAMILY OF FOUR
Oil (2 parts)
Lemon Juice (1 part)
i C 1
i This makes a sweet dressing suitable for a fruit salad. Use less sugar for a
Beat in a bowl or shake in a tightly stoppered bottle or
tightly covered quart jar. For those who enjoy the flavor of
onion or garlic in a vegetable salad rub the bowl with the cut
edge of either for the slight flavor this will give.
Arranging the salad. Since you have had experience
in making luncheon salads, you know that appearance is
our chief consideration in arranging them. Salads may
easily be made mussy by overstirring. Most often in
96 FOOD PREPARATION
using French dressing, the salad is arranged and then
dressing is poured on it, thus enabling especially fresh
8. Does your salad come up to a high standard in
appearance? In flavor?
Serving the salad. Sometimes the dinner salad is
served as a separate course. In this case, some type of
cracker is usually served with it. Ordinarily in family
service, however, the salad is placed on the table before
the family is seated at the table and is eaten with the main
READING. Harris and Lacey, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 434-
THE DINNER DESSERT
Selecting the dessert. The kind of dessert served
with the dinner as with the luncheon depends to a large
extent upon the other dishes. If the meal consisted of a
number of dishes that were rather heavy and rich, the
dessert would of course be light. If, on the other hand,
the dinner was somewhat light, pie, or a rich pudding
would be fitting.
9. Below are given two dinner menus, one heavy, the
other lighter. Also is given a list of desserts, some rich,
others simpler. List the desserts which would be the
more appropriate with the heavy dinner. List those you
would choose for the lighter dinner.
Oyster Cocktail Tomato Cocktail
Consomme Broiled Halibut and Lemon
Roast Pork and Dressing Mashed Potato
Apple Sauce Buttered Asparagus
Candied Sweet Potatoes Cucumber and Lettuce Salad
1. Plain Ice Cream
2. Ice Cream with Chocolate
Sauce and Nuts
3. Fruit Gelatin
4. Plain Jello
5. Junket (plain)
6. Apple Pie
7. Plum Pudding .
9. Strawberries and Sugar
10. Strawberries and Cream
10. What desserts that you learned to make in your
study of luncheons would also be appropriate for dinner?
On the following pages are some additional dessert
11. What quantities will you use if you prepare an
FAMILY OF FOUR
3 i" slices
2 slice of bread
About a dozen
Butter the bread. Place in a buttered baking dish and cover
with the marshmallows cut into small pieces. Beat the whites
of the eggs until stiff. Add the yolks and beat. Add the
milk. Pour the mixture over the bread and bake in a slow
oven (250 F. to 275 F.) until the custard is set.
Large Orange (juice)
Sugar . . ....
Egg Whites (unbeaten)
98 FOOD PREPARATION
Squeeze fruit and remove seeds and any pieces of tough
fiber. Mix all ingredients and freeze according to directions
for ice cream. Be sure to turn the dasher rapidly and con-
stantly while freezing.
12. A pint serves two or three people. How many
will a gallon serve?
Marshmallows pound Whipping Cream 2 C.
Crushed Pineapple .. l C. Powdered Sugar 2 T.
Cut jresh marshmallows into fourths, add pineapple, and
mix well. Allow to stand a few hours or overnight in re-
frigerator. Whip cream, add vanilla and powdered sugar.
Mix well and fold into fruit and marshmallow mixture. Pour
into trays of mechanical refrigerator. Serve either chilled or
frozen. This quantity fills two trays.
Fig. 25. Dessert made in a mechanical refrigerator.
SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDY 99
13. In what ways was your product satisfactory?
READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, Ch. xxxi,
University of Colorado, Agricultural Extension Service Bulletins s
"Milk and Its Use"; "Simple Desserts."
Readings will be found at appropriate places throughout this unit.
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
Below are some suggestions for problems if you have time for
On Breakfast Cookery
1. Grapefruit. Prepare grapefruit in different ways to discover
differences in flavor and ease of eating. Prepare one the evening
before, cutting it in two, crosswise. Scoop out the pulp of one half
and season it with sugar. Leave the other half as it is, seasoning
with the same amount of sugar. In the morning prepare another
grapefruit, separating the pulp from the skin as suggested on page
23. Season with the same amount of sugar. Prepare the other
half in the same manner and season with 1^ T. honey. Describe
the differences in flavor and tell what you think caused the differ-
ence. How do the ones prepared in the evening differ from each
other? From the one prepared in the morning and flavored with
sugar? How is the flavor of the one seasoned with honey different?
How do the servings differ in the ease with which they may be
2. Raw Apples. Wash the skins and core two eating apples.
Slice one crosswise and cut the slices in two. Arrange the half
slices in a circle on a plate around a center mound of powdered
sugar or stoned dates. Cut the second apple in the same way.
Rub both sides of each piece with the cut face of a lemon and
arrange as in the first case. Allow both servings to stand about ten
minutes before serving for breakfast. Describe the difference in
the color and the flavor of the apples.
3. You might compare other fruits cooked in different ways.
Examples are peaches with and without the stones, grapes with and
without skins, baked apples with and without the peel.
100 FOOD PREPARATION
4. Prepare at the same time both the cocoa and the chocolate
according to the recipe, page 27. What is the difference in color
and flavor? Is there a settling in either cup? If there is, describe
5. Make a collection of recipes for the cooking of eggs for break-
fast which you have tried out with your family. Tell which products
your family enjoyed most and why.
6. Rice is a common cereal that may be used as a breakfast
food, served in a variety of ways as any other breakfast cereal.
Prepare rice in two different ways to discover how the two products
differ. Divide the amount necessary to cook for your family into
two parts, one to be cooked in one way, the other in a different way.
1st part Cook in a double boiler, using 4 times as
much water as rice. Add a small amount of salt and
cook until tender.
2nd part Cook in a large quantity of rapidly boiling
salted water, about 3 pints of water to each half cup of
rice. Cook about 20 minutes, drain through a strainer,
hold under the cold water faucet, shaking so that the
water runs between the grains, washing away the sticky
starch. Reheat by covering and setting in a warm oven.
Questions you might answer: How do the two kinds of rice differ
in appearance? How does each feel on the tongue as you eat it?
Is the flavor different?
7. On two successive mornings bake muffins using recipes, the
only differences in which are that in one case you use baking
powder and sweet milk, and in the other, soda and sour or butter-
milk. When substituting sour milk for the sweet, use i t. soda to
a half cup of milk. Can you report any difference in the muffins
8. On two successive mornings make muffins of white flour and
of graham flour. You may get recipes from cookbooks. What
differences do you find in flavor and appearance?
On Luncheon Cookery
1. Look about in the cupboard and ice chest at home to see what
foods may have been left from dinner or breakfast to see if any
can be used in making a salad. Many times this may be done. For
instance, a few cold boiled potatoes, either in jackets or peeled, a
few tomatoes, and some peanuts may be made into a salad. Might
SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDY 101
any other ingredients be added? Make a salad of left-overs and
describe it to the class.
2. Make a collection of salad recipes that you have tried and
found to be good.
3. But a few of the many kinds of desserts suitable for luncheon
have been suggested. Can you add any others which are simple to
prepare and with which you are familiar? Write out each recipe
and tell whether you would consider it a heavy or a light dessert.
With what kind of luncheon would each be appropriate?
4. Plan and prepare a simple luncheon or supper for your family.
Write your menu, and show that the dishes were well chosen from
the standpoint of contrasts in color, flavor, texture, and so on. In
what ways was the dessert appropriate in this meal? If there was
anything interesting and new which you learned, you might tell
5. Left-over meats and vegetables may be used in creamed dishes
for luncheons. Sometimes two or more small amounts may be com-
bined, thus making a quantity large enough to serve the number
dining. Peas and lamb, peas and fish, boiled potatoes and cheese,
boiled noodles, egg, and cheese, are examples of left-over foods
which may be combined by means of a white sauce into appetizing
dishes. Use left-overs in your home in one or more such dishes
and tell about them in class.
6. Make a rolled sandwich in each of two ways some time when
you have occasion to make a number of sandwiches. The first way
is to remove the crusts on all sides of the loaf, cut the bread in the
ordinary manner, making the slices thin. After spreading with the
filling, try to roll it. Next cut a slice the length of the loaf, spread
and roll it. In which case were you the more successful? How
does the grain of the bread affect rolling? The length of the piece?
On Dinner Cookery
1. Many variations may be made in French dressing by chang-
ing the acid used. For fruit salads, f lemon juice and ^ pineapple
juice is delicious. When using orange or grapefruit in the salad,
you might use f pineapple juice and 3 lemon juice. Vinegar from
pickled peaches or pears is good for a dressing on a salad of mild
flavored fruits, since there is a rather strong flavor of spices.
Tarragon vinegar or the vinegar from sweet pickles is good in a
dressing for vegetables, especially the leafy ones. When the meals
planned for your family permit, try a number of such variations and
report them to class.
102 FOOD PREPARATION
2. Look through cookbooks and find as many different ways
of cooking meat as you can. Boiling would be one, roasting another.
List them and describe each method.
3. Which is used most commonly in your locality, meat or fish?
List the pieces or cuts you might select for each day of a week,
and choose at least one good recipe for the preparation of each.
1. Prepare one of the following meals at home and make a
report to your class.
a. Saturday luncheon
b. Sunday breakfast
c. Sunday evening tea
In your report you should discuss your reasons for choosing the
menu. It should include recipes for dishes served and the method
of preparation. Also tell in what ways your dishes were good and
in what ways they might have been improved. Did you judge
quantities accurately? Other things worth reporting may occur to
2. Report on one or more favorite family dishes, giving the
quantities of ingredients, an exact description of the way it is made
and the number of people the recipe will serve. Give one or more
menus of which each dish might be a part and show why it would
be suitable in these menus.
Write answers to these questions before you start to
read the unit. Your answers may be brief, but you
probably will know something about each question. Try-
ing to answer them will help you to determine how much
you already know. Your teacher may have additional
questions for you.
1. Why is health so important to us?
2. Name some fuel foods.
3. Why do we need fuel foods?
4. Why must we have protein in our foods?
5. Name some protein foods.
6. How is iron used in our bodies?
7. What foods might one select in order to get enough iron
8. For what mineral is milk particularly valuable?
9. Why is calcium valuable to those of us who are still growing?
10. What would happen to us if we had no vitamins in our foods?
11. How do fruits and vegetables help the body to rid itself of
12. What is meant by "a well balanced diet"?
WHAT THIS UNIT IS ABOUT
Franz and his little sister Angelica lived in Germany
near the French border. 1 Franz was a sturdy boy, tall,
strong, and happy. Angelica played all day because she
1 See S. Blanton, "Mental and Nervous Changes in the Children of
the Volkschulen of Trier, Germany, caused by Undernutrition," Mental
Hygiene, July 1919, p. 346.
was so well. Their parents were sturdy people who pro-
vided the kinds of foods that would enable the children
to grow as they should and that would keep the whole
family well and strong.
When Franz was eight years old and Angelica six, war
broke out in Europe. Their father was soon called into
the army, and the mother and the children had to pro-
vide for themselves as well as they could. For a few
months they lived fairly well. Then gradually one of
the good foods after another had to be omitted from their
diets. One season the drought ruined the potato crop,
and the grain was demanded by the government to feed
the army. It was no longer possible to buy milk and
Within two years the diet of the children was very
poor. For breakfast they had rye bread and marmalade.
The bread was so coarse and otherwise of sucl. poor
quality that their digestive systems could not extract
much of the nourishment it contained, and the children
developed intestinal disturbances. The marmalade was
made of turnips and the lowest grade of syrup from a
sugar refinery. At ten o'clock they again had some bread
and marmalade. For the midday meal they usually had
potatoes, "war soup," and perhaps some bread. The
soup was made of vegetables and contained no meat and
but little fat. At four o'clock they again had bread and
marmalade, and at six some potatoes, soup, and bread.
On Sundays they sometimes had a little meat, and per-
haps a little butter or oleomargarine.
A great change took place in Franz and Angelica. In
spite of the number of meals they ate each day, they were
badly undernourished. In school they were fairly bright
WHAT THIS UNIT IS ABOUT
during the first hour or two. Then they fell asleep over
their desks or sat in class in a dreamy state. The teachers
discontinued running games at recess because the pupils
were too weak for such violent exercise. In earlier years
pupils were taken to the river to swim. Now teachers
were afraid to take them for fear some of the children
would drown. Thousands of children in Europe suf-
fered as did Franz and Angelica. They grew thin, pale,
listless, and weak. Neither their bones nor their muscles
grew as they should. The stress of war had made it im-
Courtesy United States Bureau o) Home Economics.
Fig. 26. Children affected by malnutrition.
All the girls in this photograph are seven years old. The girl on the
left is a child of normal growth for her age. The other girls were all
affected by the poor and insufficient food inAustria during the world war.
' 106 NUTRITION
possible for the mother of Franz and Angelica to give
them the food elements that were necessary for their
proper health and growth.
Sometimes people are poorly fed in the midst of plenty
because they do not know what foods to choose. Many
boys and girls do not grow as they should and are pale
and listless because they dislike so many of the foods that
their bodies need. Sometimes we believe that if the ap-
petite is satisfied with wholesome food we are being well
fed. This is not necessarily true. The man who lives
chiefly on bread, butter, meat, potatoes, coffee, and
French pastry, even though they are of the best quality
available, fails to get many of the food elements which
are needed to keep him in good health.
Illness from poor diet such as resulted during the war
led scientists to study the relation of our food to our
health. In addition to observing what happens to people
who are living under poor conditions, they study other
animals such as white rats, rabbits, pigeons, monkeys,
and so on, in laboratories. By feeding these animals
different combinations of food and comparing their re-
sults with the experiences of people, they have learned
much about what people need to eat in order to be well.
Dr. Robert McCarrison of India had over a thousand
little white rats kept in clean surroundings and eating
whole-wheat bread, butter, raw cabbage and carrots,
whole milk, a small amount of meat, and an abundance
of water. In over two years not one of these rats was
ill and no adult rat died except as the result of an acci-
dent. That is, death from disease was entirely prevented
by cleanliness, comfort, and a chosen diet.
At the same time Dr. McCarrison had other groups
WHAT THIS UNIT IS ABOUT 107
of rats living under practically the same conditions ex-
cept for diet. The diets were lacking in one way or an-
other. These rats died of all forms of diseases which
human beings contract. Diseases of the heart, throat,
lungs, nose and sinuses, stomach, bowels, skin, and glands
were common. The teeth and bones were affected in
Dr. McCarrison says his experience leads him to be-
lieve that human beings are affected by diet as are his
experimental animals and that many of the diseases which
affect man are the result of improper diets. Other scien-
tists all over the world who are also working to discover
what foods we need to eat in order to be well, agree with
In this unit you will be learning how your food affects
you and what foods you should choose in order that you
may grow properly and that you may be well. You will
find that we need food to keep us warm and to give us
the energy to play and to work. You will learn that our
bodies are made of the same substances as are our foods.
In order that our bodies may grow, we must supply these
substances when and as the body needs them. You could
not expect a bricklayer to build the kind of house you
wanted if he had only half enough bricks and if some of
these were poor. Your house would have to be smaller
and might not be a very strong one either. So when we
are building our bodies we must supply enough of just
the right kinds of foods. Perhaps you would like to feed
some white rats to see just what happens with different
diets. On page 281 of the appendix you will find a
description of a number of such experiments.
Boys and girls who are strong and well have a very
happy time. They never have to sit by and watch others
enjoy themselves. They make friends because of the
happy disposition that usually goes with good health.
Furthermore, boys and girls who are well and strong
have a good chance of growing up into men and women
who can do things, who are leaders. By following good
rules for health in the years when we are growing, we
determine to a large extent that our lives shall be useful
Food for warmth. All things in a room, except those
that are living, come to have the same temperature.
After you have finished ironing, the hot iron gradually
cools until finally it is just as cool as everything else near
it. As long as the electric cord was attached, it was
heated as fast as it lost heat. When the electric current
was cut off, the iron could not keep itself hot. Neither
can our bodies keep themselves warm without fuel. Our
fuel is in the form of food.
Loss of body heat. Our bodies are constantly losing
heat. In winter mornings when we dress, our clothes
feel cold. Soon, however, they are warmed from our
bodies. A crowd of people may meet in a room that is
rather cool. Soon the heat that their bodies give off
raises the temperature noticeably. In winter we wear
fur coats to keep the heat of our bodies from escaping into
the air. A thin coat would allow the heat to leave us
very quickly, and we should feel cold. We lose more
heat in winter than in summer because cold air takes up
heat much more readily than does warm air. In fact, we
are uncomfortable in summer because our bodies cannot
get rid of the heat they make fast enough. Our food is
the source of this heat.
Food for energy. Not only does our food keep us
warm, but it also enables us to move. The same electric
current that heats the iron will also turn the electric fan.
Just so the food we eat may either keep us warm or it
Fig. 27. The fuel foods give warmth and energy.
What foods are helping this boy?
may be used in moving our arms or legs, in the beating
of our hearts, or in breathing. Every time you move
your finger, or wink your eye, or move your tongue you
are using energy that comes from food which you ate
some time in the past. Just as coal is the fuel that heats
the steam engine and enables it to move and do work, so
is food the fuel that makes us warm and active.
Cells of the body. All living things are made of cells.
The cells are so small that one must use a microscope
to see them. The cells of our bodies are different, de-
pending on where they are found and the kind of work
they have to do. For instance, the cells that make up
your skin are very different from those of which your
brain or heart is composed. Many of the cells of the
body act something like little stoves. They take in very
tiny bits of our food and burn them, giving off heat or
FUEL NEEDS 111
the energy we use in moving. Some of the cells are fat
cells in which energy is stored.
Different amounts of food needed. Different peo-
ple need different amounts of fuel. A man needs more
fuel than does a baby. We know, too, that when a girl
is playing very hard, she will be using more fuel than
when she is lying down. When you jump rope or play
basketball or hockey, you use more fuel than when you
sit reading a book. Do you get hungry when you play
hard out of doors? Girls who are growing very fast need
more fuel than those who are growing more slowly.
Storage of food in our bodies. Our bodies are won-
derfully made. If they were not, we could not go without
food a single day, since every minute of the day and
night we need fuel to keep us alive. The body has the
power to store up energy so that if by accident we can-
not get food for a day, or a week, or even for longer, we
can use that which is stored. This was very important
before people became civilized. Now we manage so that
we have food three times a day. The uncivilized man
did not plan so carefully. He feasted when food was
plentiful and fasted when food was scarce. Because the
body stored food, he could live from one time of plenty
to the next. Sometimes when we are ill, we cannot eat.
Then, too, the body must use the food that has been
Food is stored in the form of a layer of fat around and
within our bodies. The perfectly well person has such
a layer that his arms and legs are nicely rounded, the
muscles of his face are covered so that it looks round
and smooth. When too little food is stored, a person
looks thin; when too much, we say the person is too fat.
Fig. 28. Girls of different body builds.
The girl on the left is tall and slender; the girl in the center is short
and stocky, and the girl on the right is of average build. All three of
the girls are the same age. Notice that all three have the well-rounded
bodies that go with good health.
Use of storage. Alice and Helen were cousins who
were born on exactly the same day. When they first
started to school, they were in the same room. Alice was
a strong, tall, healthy, and very attractive child, whereas
Helen, though just as tall, was thin and pale. Helen had
the measles and chickenpox the first year. Alice, who
was exposed just as Helen was, had neither of the dis-
eases. Alice was rarely cross because paddings of fat
at various places in her body protected her nerves against
FUEL NEEDS 113
irritation. Helen, on the other hand, was so thin and un-
healthy that she was often unhappy. She would probably
have had a more pleasant disposition had she been a little
fatter. She was often so tired that she did not want to
play. She was afraid to learn to skate or to swim be-
cause she tired so quickly. Alice, in contrast, became
expert on ice and on roller skates, and she learned to
swim and to dive. Her friends were constantly asking
her to play tennis and to go on picnics because she was
such a good companion. Alice was also a leader in her
class and in the school clubs, not because she was natu-
rally more intelligent than Helen, but because she was
well and had so much energy. When people have such a
layer of fat that their bodies are well rounded, they are
quite likely to have an abundance of energy, whereas if
they are thin they may tire more easily.
1. In what ways did Alice profit by being well and
Other signs of health. Weight is only one way of
telling whether we are well. Sometimes people weigh
about the number of pounds which the doctor thinks they
should, and yet they are far from being well. A clear
skin, without rings under the eyes, firm muscles, good
posture, a good disposition, bright eyes, and glossy hair
are other indications that we are well. 1 If girls are list-
less, if they neither stand nor sit erect, if they are never
interested in the things that interest their friends, they
probably are not as well as they should be.
Health and the fuel foods. Fats. The fuel foods are
important in keeping our health. They provide the en-
1 See appendix page 282 for score card.
ROPES F. NOT
Fig. 29. Which girl is having more fun?
ergy to keep us warm and to enable us to move, and they
form the layer of fat in our bodies. Some foods contain
more fuel than others. Have you seen oil or another kind
FUEL NEEDS 115
of fat burn? If you have, you will remember that it
made a very hot flame. When we eat oils and other fats,
such as butter and the fat of meat, they give us much
fuel for use in our bodies.
Carbohydrates. Starch and sugar also provide us with
energy and heat. These two foods are grouped together
and are called carbohydrates (car'bo-hi'drats). A quan-
tity of fat gives off 2J times as much heat as the same
quantity of carbohydrate. A great many of our foods
contain fat, or carbohydrates, or both. Milk contains
both fat and sugar, along with other valuable elements.
Butter and salad oil are almost pure fat. Honey, flour,
and potato are rich in carbohydrates.
2. You would find it interesting to test a number of
different foods to show that fat, sugar, and starch
are found in some that you would never suspect had
The calorie. We measure the heat given off by foods
by means of the calorie. Just as we say that a quart of
milk contains four cups, so we say that a tablespoon of
butter or a shredded-wheat biscuit contains 100 calories.
Foods that give off much heat in our bodies have many
calories in each serving. Foods that give off little heat
have few calories per serving. There is a great difference
in the number of calories one may get from servings of
different foods. Many servings have 100 calories in each.
For instance, one-half of a grapefruit has 100 calories.
So does a very large banana.
3. On the following pages you will find rectangles
numbered from 1 to 36. In each rectangle you will find
1 See appendix, page 281 for methods of making these tests.
/ * N
1 fO CU
3 JS II
w i-5 E~*
^ to fO
o II. g
< U tn
< vJ in
W p * <5
| CM ~
v | ^
p (3 3
H CM -H
f o 1
o -< c
~ S =
stated the quantity of food given which makes an
ordinary serving, and the number of calories it contains.
Measure out the amount; put it on a small plate or
saucer and bring it to a demonstration table. On the
saucer, put a slip of paper on which you have written
what you found in your rectangle. Perhaps your teacher
will assign different foods to different members of the
4. Which of the foods give many calories in a small
amount? Put all of these at one end of the laboratory
5. Which give very little for the amount eaten?
Group these at the other end.
6. Is there a middle group?
7. Are the servings at home larger or smaller than
8. List the fuel foods that you have eaten so far
to-day. Do not forget the sugar and cream on cereals,
candy or cookies between meals, and so on, if you have
Difficulty of judging fuel value of foods. Occasion-
ally friends describe to each other what they have had
for breakfast and other meals. Sometimes they come to
the conclusion that they eat the same amount of food and
wonder why one is of normal weight or fat, while the
other is thin. If you follow the directions in the next
exercise, you will discover a possible explanation for
9. The whole class might share in preparing the fol-
lowing breakfasts. The different members might prepare
different parts. Be sure to use the quantities of ingre-
dients you find in your assignment. When your part of
the breakast is ready, bring it to a demonstration table.
Arrange the breakfasts in the same order that you find
on the page of your book. Cut a rectangular piece of
paper and write on it what you find on the section
assigned to you. Put this paper on or beside your plate.
High in calories
Low in calories
sugar 2 T
sugar 1 T
Cream of wheat 2 T
Cream of wheat 2 T
cooked in milk 4 C
cooked in water ^ C .
sugar 2 T
cream \ C. . .
whole milk i C.. .
Total. . .
. . 185
Toast (thick) 1 slice...
butter 1 T....
Toast (thin) 1 slice. .
Scrambled eggs 2 .
Scrambled egg 1
fried in butter 1 T.. . .
fried in butter % T. . .
iellv 2 T
jelly 1 T
Whole milk 1 glass. . .
Total for breakfast
Skimmed milk 1 glass. .
Total for breakfast..
10. Do these breakfasts look very different? How do
they actually compare in the number of calories?
11. Which are the foods that made one of the break-
fasts so much higher in calories? To what classes of
foods do they belong?
12. Is it easy to describe your meals so that others
will know how many calories you are getting?
13. Suppose that a girl ate but a part of her cereal
and was in the habit of drinking but a part of the milk.
How would this affect the calorie value of her breakfast?
Food models. Below are some pictures that show
how to make food models and how they look when corn-
Fig. 30. Food models and how to make them.
A. Food models made from illustrations cut from magazines. B. The
back of the models above, showing how they are made.
FUEL NEEDS 121
pleted. 1 They were made by cutting out pictures of
foods in magazines and pasting them on supports of thin
cardboard. A single strip of cardboard makes both the
back for the picture and the support. It is bent at the
top, and the ends are caught together by pasting a thin
strip of cloth across. This prevents the ends of cardboard
from spreading apart when the picture is set up. If each
member of the class makes a number, you can do many
interesting things such as playing cafeteria. It is not
always possible to find individual servings shown. If a
casserole or a can or a family serving is mounted, you
can think of it as an individual serving when setting up
14. It would be interesting to put all the models be-
longing to the class together and to appoint a committee
to divide these models into three groups. One group
would be of those foods which have many calories, a
second would be of those with few calories per serving,
and the third of those with a medium number. Do you
agree with what this committee has done or would you
make changes? If you cannot decide about some of the
foods, you might look up their values in the appendix,
Selecting the calorie foods of our lunches. You
have not enough information to guide you in selecting a
lunch good in every way. This much, however, you do
know, that our lunches should contain some dish that
will give us generously of calories. Sandwiches are a
1 Food models by L. J. Roberts, University of Chicago Bookstore,
may be bought at 75^ per set (in lots of 25 or more, 65^). The num-
ber of calories is printed on the models. Sets of models, 123 to the set,
may also be purchased from the Detroit Dairy and Food Council, De-
troit, Michigan, price $3.00. These are colored and have the number
of calories printed on each model. Colored posters also may be ob-
tained from this source.
convenient form for our box lunches. There should be
several sandwiches to supply the right number of calories.
A piece of plain cake or cookies may also supply a part of
our calorie needs. Nuts are a convenient form in which
to get calories in a box lunch.
In the cafeteria, one dish, such as potato, a rice com-
bination, macaroni, or spaghetti should be selected. If
the portions are small, you should also have bread and
butter. Milk, of course, should be a part of every lunch,
either as milk, as cocoa, as a cream soup or in some other
15. Beginning to-day, select your lunches so each
will contain milk and some dish especially good for fuel.
As you study further you will learn how to select prop-
erly the other kinds of foods in your lunches.-
Very often one reason why girls do not get enough food
is that their noon lunch is slighted. If they eat a box
lunch, it may have been put up hurriedly with no thought
that our lunches must supply about a third of all the
calories we need. If girls select their lunches in cafeterias,
they may choose very badly. The chief reasons are that
they have not learned how, and that there is such a crowd
it is difficult to select carefully. Some girls foolishly buy
nothing but candy for their lunches.
Calorie foods for other meals. We also select one or
more dishes especially good for calories in our breakfast
and dinner. For breakfast we select cereals with sugar
and cream, and in addition toast and butter with honey
or jam perhaps, or dried sweet fruits such as dates, figs,
and raisins. In our dinners we usually include a starchy
dish such as potato, rice, or macaroni, and butter, and
also we often end with a sweet dessert. We can see that
FUEL NEEDS 123
people have learned from experience that it is a good
practice to include some of the high calorie foods in each
of their meals.
16. What did you have for breakfast this morning?
How did this breakfast supply calories?
Other health habits. To keep well we must not only
choose enough of the right kinds of food, but we should
also follow other good rules for health. Sometimes we
are tempted to eat sweets between meals. The greatest
harm that this practice does is to spoil the appetite for
the foods served at mealtime. // girls are growing very
fast they may need more food than they can eat at their
meals. In this case they might have a very light lunch
after school provided this is not too near mealtime. An
apple, a glass of milk and a cookie, or a milk-fruit drink
such as you will find described on pages 73 and 74 are
suitable provided you have an appetite for the vegetables
and other dishes served at dinner. A heavy sweet such
as candy usually spoils the appetite and is therefore
harmful. It may be a good practice for growing girls to
eat a piece of candy as a part of the dessert.
Sleep. For all people, but especially for boys and
girls who are still growing, enough sleep is essential.
During the day the poisons that cause us to feel tired ac-
cumulate faster than the body can get rid of them. At
night while we are resting, the body can throw them off
faster than they are made. Unless we sleep long enough
our bodies are never entirely refreshed, and serious con-
ditions result. In addition, if boys and girls are active
too many hours of the day they use too much of the food
they eat for movement, and do not have enough to build
cells, that is, to grow. Lack of sleep often makes the
A CHART TO CHECK MY HEALTH HABITS
Whole cereal or
A piece of meat or
fish, or egg, or
With window open
Play or work out-
DIRECTIONS FOR CHECKING HEALTH HABITS
Use a red pencil to check thus, x, if you have followed the most desirable prac-
tice. If your practice is less than desirable use a black pencil. If your practice
has been very poor, leave the space blank. If at the end of the period, all spaces
are checked in red, you will have a very fine record indeed. If many are black
or blank, you will probably be dissatisfied because you will know you are not giving
yourself a fair chance to be well. If the weather is exceedingly stormy, you may
not be able to spend time out-of-doors. However, if we are properly dressed, it is
fun to be out in the rain and snow.
The Way to Check
2, one raw
1 C. at each
Less than 1
Whole cereal or
A piece of meat
or fish, or egg,
In bed at
In bed by
In bed later
S for stormy
One or two
Play or work
2 hours or
S for stormy
Once a day
Not at all
Once a week
* In this case use either a red check or leave the space blank.
appetite poor, which further lessens the amount of food
available for growth.
17. On page 124 is a chart of health habits for a
junior high school girl. Make a copy and check each
day. 1 As you go through this unit you will learn one by
one why these health habits are so important. As you
see, spaces for checking for one week are given. In your
copy rule spaces for at least six weeks.
READINGS. Trilling, Williams, and Reeves, A Girl's Problems in
Home Economics (1931), pp. 341-358.
Harris and Lacey, Food Facts for Every Day, Ch. i-iv.
Kinyon and Hopkins, Junior Foods and Clothing, pp. 43-53.
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. If you have time when you
have finished the unit, you will find suggestions for additional prob-
lems on fuel foods on page 181.
1 Mimeographed or multigraphed copies would save much time.
Food for repair. Our bodies are being constantly re-
made. It has been said that every seven years we have
entirely new bodies. Some one probably just guessed
this, for there is no way of knowing how long it takes for
our bodies to be made of all new substances, or if all
parts are really replaced. It is true, however, that every
day our bodies lose some of the substances of which they
are made. For example, some of the lime of which our
bones are made is carried away from them and must be
replaced by other lime. Our entire bodies in this way
are gradually being broken down and repaired. This
happens in young people who are growing as well as in
those who are mature. It is plain to see that if our foods
each day do not bring the proper materials for repair,
our bodies will gradually weaken.
Food for growth. Baby. A baby grows very fast.
It should double its weight in the first six months of its
life. That is, its food must provide substances that make
bone and muscle, skin and hair. We can see that if the
baby fails to get enough of those foods which are used
in making muscle, it cannot have such large or strong
muscles as it might have if the right kinds of food had
Junior high school girl. Another period of rapid growth
is at the junior high school age. Girls in their early
teens sometimes may grow three or more inches within a
year. During these years of rapid growth they need an
Fig. 31. These foods are muscle builders and body repairers.
What protein foods do you see here?
extra amount of the foods that build muscle, bone and
Protein, a growth food. One of the growth foods is
called protein. It is used chiefly in making our muscles.
One of two things will happen if boys and girls do not
have enough protein in their meals. They may be stunted
in their growth; or they may grow to the normal height,
but their muscles will be of very poor quality. No girl
or boy would choose to have poor muscles or be stunted.
Lack of sufficient protein may affect not only our ap-
pearance, but it may also make us ill. If the muscles
are weak, they tire easily and they cannot hold the body
in an erect position. Bad posture results. In turn, the
bad posture may cramp the lungs and other organs and
keep them from working as well as they should. On the
other hand, those children who have a sufficient amount
of protein in their meals have the strength to walk and
sit erect, to play hard, and to enjoy all the interests of
their groups of friends.
Foods containing protein. Which of our foods con-
tain protein? We could guess very easily that milk has a
Fig. 32. Some foods are far ahead of others in the protein race,
and some must simply stand on the sidelines and watch.
considerable amount. A baby builds its body while milk
is its only food. Cheese is made of milk, so of course
it would be rich in protein. In fact, it is among the very
richest sources. Butter has very little because it is made
of just the cream. In churning, all the milk is removed,
and the resulting butter is almost pure fat. Since meat
is the muscle of animals, it of course would be very high
in protein. Most fruits and vegetables have but small
amounts. Peas and dried beans are an exception. Nuts
are also a good source of protein.
Even though vegetables are low in protein, we depend
on them for help in giving us part of the amount that we
need. However, we must depend upon the animal foods
for the greater portion.
1. When you think you know which of our foods are
richest in protein, go through the set of food models and
pick out those foods upon which we depend for most of
our daily needs. Would you include dishes containing
AMOUNT OF PROTEIN IN VARIOUS FOODS
Containing Little or
2. Below are listed a number of combination dishes
that contain different kinds of foods. Make three col-
umns like those given, and list the ingredients of the
dishes under the proper headings. Sometimes the same
food will be rich in both protein and calories, sometimes
in neither. Your list will look something like this:
FOODS RICH IN CALORIES
FOODS RICH IN PROTEIN
Macaroni, tomato and
Scalloped Oysters Salad
slice of beet
Cream Waffles Cream Soup
bacon or other fats
flour (to pound into steak)
flour (for thickening)
Brown Betty (pudding)
Protein in our meals. To be sure you are getting
enough protein for growth, it is a good plan for you to be
1 Contains neither calories nor protein.
sure to have a dish valuable for protein in each of your
3. What foods have you eaten in your last three
meals? Was there a food important for protein in each
4. Below is a day's diet with blank spaces. Not
enough protein foods have been included as you can see.
Rewrite the menus and insert dishes in the blank spaces
that you think would help to supply the protein needs.
Do not choose a meat dish for more than one meal if
you can manage without, because meat is among our
most expensive foods.
Cereal and Cream
Toast and Butter
Head Lettuce Salad
Pineapple, Cabbage, and Marshmallow Salad
Sliced Peaches and Nut Cookies
5. Compare the different dishes inserted by the
members of the class to see the variety that is possible.
6. Meals may be prepared in the laboratory or at
home with a wide variety of dishes as the source of
protein. Which dishes were chosen for protein in the
PROTEIN NEEDS 133
Sliced, or Chilled Canned Tomato
Brown Bread and Butter
Sliced Orange and Custard
Whole Wheat Bread and Butter
Baked Rice and Raisin Pudding
Nut Bread and Butter
Sweet Muffins and Date Sauce
7. What is the effect of high temperatures on protein?
Which of the ingredients in the recipe below are rich in
8. Below is a recipe for a codfish souffle which may
be baked in the laboratory.
Family of Four
Cook rice and milk in double boiler until the grains of rice
are tender and most of the milk has been absorbed. Add
the butter and the flaked codfish. Fold in the well beaten
yolks of eggs and then the stiffly beaten whites. Put in
buttered inset of double boiler or buttered baking dish. Steam
small portions 25 minutes or bake 20 minutes. For family
size, steam ! hours, or bake 1 hour at 275 to 300.
9. For what meals would this dish be appropriate?
10. If you would like to serve this as a part of a
meal in the laboratory, below is a suggestion for a menu.
Head Lettuce Salad, French Dressing
Bread and Butter
Canned Peaches and a Cookie
Perhaps you would prefer making a menu of your own.
11. Make a list of the protein dishes you might choose
on one day in the school cafeteria.
12. Select several lunches from the cafeteria menu
keeping in mind both protein and calorie needs. It may
be possible to make arrangements with the cafeteria for
permission to bring into the classroom several of these
lunches on trays.
13. What protein foods could be used in making an
appetizing box lunch?
READINGS. F. E. Winchell, Food Facts for Every Day, Ch. v.
Trilling, Williams, and Reeves, A Girl's Problems in Home
Economics, pp. 311-317.
Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 365-370, 376-390,
392-410. Recipes for meat, fowl and fish cookery.
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. On page 181 you will find
suggestions for additional problems if you have time when you have
finished the unit.
The minerals in our bodies. You may be surprised
to learn that your body contains small amounts of each
of a dozen or more
kinds of minerals.
sulphur and cop-
per are a few of
found in our
bodies. Of course
these minerals are
not found in us in
the same form in
which we see them
in the outside
world. They are
united with other
we cannot recog-
nize them, yet
each one is pres-
ent and important
to us since they
all perform some
definite service in
Courtesy United States Bureau of Home Economics.
Fig. 33. These rats show the importance
of phosphorus in the diet. When photo-
graphed, each was twenty-eight days old.
A. This rat weighed only 60 grams because
it had been fed foods containing too little
phosphorus. B. This rat, which had sufficient
phosphorus in its diet, weighed 115 grams.
C. The outlines show clearly the difference
in size of the two rats.
Need for phosphorus. We need not concern ourselves
about most of these minerals. We are probably in no
danger of getting too little of them. There are several,
however, that many people fail to get in large enough
quantities. Among these are iron and copper, lime or
calcium, and phosphorus. You are in no danger of get-
ting too little phosphorus if you have enough protein in
your diet. Milk, fruit, and vegetables are foods that give
us an adequate supply of the other necessary minerals.
The need of our bodies for certain minerals is another
reason, then, for having a sufficient amount of these foods
in our diet.
Iron and the color of the blood. Do you know what
makes your blood such a rich, red color? The iron it
contains gives it this color. Often the doctor pricks the
ear of his patient when making an examination and
squeezes out a drop of blood on a paper. He compares
the color of this spot with a card having ten different
shades of red. When the doctor has matched the color
of the drop of blood with one of the colors on the card,
he can then tell about how much iron the patient has in
his blood. The darker the shade of red, the more iron
the blood contains. The doctor knows that no one can
be well if his blood is low in iron. So he makes this
test when trying to see why his patient is ill.
It seems strange that our blood should have in it such
a common substance as iron. We wonder what good it
can do us. In order to understand we must perform some
experiments. Perhaps you have already seen the follow-
ing experiment done. If you have, it need not be re-
1. Set a candle in a glass and light it. After it has
burned a few minutes, cover the glass with a book or a
piece of board. What happens?
When anything burns, it unites with oxygen and forms
carbon dioxide (CO 2 ).
In order to burn it
must have a supply of
oxygen. Just as soon
as the supply of oxy-
gen is cut off, the fire
2. How can you put
out a fire with a blan-
ket? Explain why the
fire goes out.
Use for oxygen in
the body. If you re-
call what you read
about how the body Fi S- 34 - A flame must have oxygen.
keeps warm, you will If the glass were covered with the card-
remember that many Z,d
of the cells of the
body act as little stoves, each one burning tiny bits of the
fuel foods to give off heat. These cells of course could
not burn the fuel if there were no oxygen at hand. We
have also learned that carbon dioxide forms when any-
thing burns. This happens within the body as well as
without. Unless the carbon dioxide is removed it inter-
feres with the use of oxygen. So the body must provide
some ways of getting oxygen to these millions of little
cells and of getting rid of the carbon dioxide. The blood
does both of these important jobs.
Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. We
breathe in oxygen from the air, and we breathe out car-
bon dioxide. The blood circulates to all parts of the
body. It takes oxygen from the lungs, carries it to the
cells and at the same time picks up the carbon dioxide,
brings it to the lungs,
and we breathe it out.
This is the work for
which iron is used.
The red corpuscles.
Floating about in the
blood are little discs,
called corpuscles. Some
of them, the red ones,
contain a considerable
amount of iron. These little red corpuscles act some-
thing like little boats in our blood streams. They go to
the lungs and take on a load of oxygen. Then the blood
carries them to all parts of the body. They unload the
oxygen wherever it is needed and take on a load of carbon
dioxide, which they take to the lungs. Here the carbon
dioxide is unloaded and the little boats are ready to take
on another load of oxygen.
3. Perhaps your teacher will plan to let you see the
corpuscles floating in the tail of a goldfish. 1
Importance of having enough corpuscles. It is very
plain to see that if we have not enough of these cor-
puscles, some of the cells will have to be neglected. Then
Fig. 35. Red blood corpuscles,
1 For directions for this experiment see appendix, page 290.
MINERAL NEEDS 139
we can not be well. For this reason it is extremely im-
portant that we have enough iron foods in our diets.
Every day millions of these corpuscles are destroyed and
new ones must be made. Girls of junior high school age
usually are growing very fast. In addition to the re-
placement of the old corpuscles which are worn out, extra
new ones must be made to take care of this growth.
Anemia is the name which doctors give to the condition
of having too little iron in our blood.
4. Perhaps you have been tested for the number of
red corpuscles in your blood by the school nurse or
doctor. Do you know whether you have a sufficient
It has recently been discovered that we cannot use the
iron in our foods unless copper is present also. Liver is
a very good food, particularly when people are anemic.
Besides containing iron it also contains the copper which
enables the body to use this iron. Nuts, dried peas, beans,
apricots, and peaches also have this power. Spinach
has not this quality so cannot be depended upon by people
who are ill with anemia to make their blood rich and red
5. Why would apricot ice cream be a good dessert?
Selecting foods for iron. How can we plan our
meals so that we will get enough iron? Below is the ex-
planation of a very simple way for you to learn what
foods to select for iron. Scientists have discovered how
much iron people need each day. Also they have learned
how much each of the foods supply. By means of a sort
of game you can learn what foods you must eat to supply
your daily needs.
On page 143 you will find a table of the number of
Fig. 36. Many foods help to bring us the iron and copper we need.
portions of iron that will be provided by a serving of
each of many different kinds of foods. You will need
60 to 80 of these portions. If you are growing very
rapidly you will need 80, but if you have reached your
full height you will need but 60. Your teacher will help
you decide how many you had better include in your
diet each day.
6. To learn how to supply the iron you need each
day, follow these directions. If you need 60 portions,
rule a sheet of white paper 5 inches long and 3 inches
wide in inch squares. If you need 70, make it 5 inches
long by 3 inches wide. If you need 80, make the page
4 inches by 5 inches. Write above it "My Daily Needs
in Iron." Each square represents one of the portions of
iron which you need each day.
Now rule two sheets of smooth brown wrapping paper
into ^ inch squares. These two sheets you will cut up
into sections to represent the portions of iron which the
servings of foods supply.
Turn to the table, page 143, to find how many portions
of iron an orange gives. You will find that it gives 3
portions. With your pencil draw a faint line around 3
squares on the brown paper. Cut along the pencil mark.
On this section, write "orange, 3 portions of iron." Lay
the orange section on the white sheet labeled "My Daily
Needs in Iron." Mark, cut out, and label a section of
the brown paper to represent the portions that an egg
will give. Lay this on the white sheet. Now you can
see what part of your daily iron needs would be supplied
if you ate an orange and an egg.
7. Make a list of the foods which contain three por-
tions or more of iron per serving. Cut out and label
sections to represent these foods.
8. Group these sections into fruits, vegetables, meat
and fish, and miscellaneous. Make a list of each group.
Fig. 37. The portion of Martha's daily iron needs
that is supplied by an orange and an egg is repre-
sented by the squares of brown paper.
The yolk of the egg contains the iron, the white being
protein largely. You have probably noticed that oysters
and liver are nearly equal in the number of portions of
iron per serving.
9. How many of the fruits that you found to be good
in iron are of the dried variety?
10. Are the green leafy vegetables good for iron?
For what other food element did you find navy and lima
beans to be good?
11. Would you say that meat and fish as a whole are
good in iron?
12. Below is a one day's diet eaten by a junior high
school girl. Her needs were 70 portions each day. You
will find that you have already cut brown squares to
represent many of these foods. Cut and label the re-
mainder necessary. Lay them on the white sheet.
If the whole sheet is covered, this girl's diet is ade-
A JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL GIRL'S ONE DAY DIET
Milk (whole) 1 glass
sugar 1 T.
cream i C.
Shredded Wheat 1 biscuit
sugar 2 t.
Toast (graham bread) 1 slice
butter 1 t.
Creamed Egg on
toast (white) 2 slices
white sauce f C.
Milk 1 glass
Apple (raw) 1
Walnuts . . 8 halves
Oyster Cocktail 6 oysters
Brussels Sprouts 1 serving
butter 1 t.
Mashed potato 1 serving
pineapple 2 slices
lettuce 1 leaf
cheese 1 inch cube
French dressing IT.
Bread (graham) 2 slices
Milk . . 1
13. Make a list of the foods you ate yesterday. Using
those sections already cut and cutting others if neces-
sary, find out whether these foods provided enough iron.
14. If not, what foods might you have added or sub-
stituted to make your meals satisfactory? Would two
servings of one or more of the foods help?
TABLE OF APPROXIMATE FOOD VALUES *
DESCRIPTION OF SERVING
12 to 14
Apricots (dried) . .
(i c. fresh
)5 av. stalks
l These values are but approximate and are included to give tangible evidence that
foods differ in their values and that well rounded diets result from intelligent choices.
The idea of arrangement by points was suggested by Dr. Lydia J. Roberts. With an
exception or two of foods not given, computations of food values are based on Sher-
man, Chemistry of Food and Nutrition (Macmillan Co., 1932). The amounts in
servings are used in the laboratories of the Department of Home Economics at the
University of Chicago.
1 mg. iron .............. 4. points
1 g. calcium ............. 88.2 points
Day's need of an adult (Sherman)
Iron ................... IS. mg.
Calcium ................ 6& ^ta
TABLE OF APPROXIMATE FOOD VALUES Continued
DESCRIPTION OF SERVING
Beef (lean round) . .
slice 3" X 2i" X 4/'
slice 3" X 2" X 4/'
slice 3" X 24." X 4/'
Bread (whole wheat)
slice 4" X 4" X |"
slice 4" X 4" X |"
slice 4" X 4" X f"
1 slice 4" X 4" X |"
2 pieces 1" X 6"
1 slice 3" X 2\" X 4/'
1 slice 3" X 24/' X "
i c. thin
4 or 5
f to | c.
1 large or 2 small
3" X 24/' X "
3" X 2^" X 4"
3" x 24." x y
1 large bunch
3" X 2i" X i"
5 small head
3" X 24/' X i"
TABLE OF APPROXIMATE FOOD VALUES Continued
DESCRIPTION OF SERVING
IVlola^ses (cane) ....
1 to | c.
2 to 3
6 to 7 medium
(1 large half
) 14 T. juice
)l4 T. juice
(l large slice
)3 T. juice
3 to 4
3" X 24" X 4"
4 small red
(15 large seeded
)3 T. small
Tomatoes (canned) ....
3" X 24" X 4"
8 medium halves
15. What foods might be included in a box luncheon
which would help supply the iron we need?
16. What foods served yesterday or to-day in the
school cafeteria might you choose for their iron values?
17. Plan your next lunch to be satisfactory in calories,
in protein, and in iron. Your lunch should supply almost
one-third of your iron needs.
Prune whip is made of egg white and prune pulp while
the custard served over it is made of egg yolk and milk.
18. Why would you consider this to be a good dessert
Below are the recipes for several dishes which are valu-
able in supplying iron. Perhaps you could prepare a
meal at school which would use one or more of these
recipes. Or you might plan one to serve to your family.
Egg White 1 Egg Yolk 1
Prune Pulp J C. Milk % C.
Sugar IT. Sugar IT.
Lemon Juice ^ t. Vanilla 1 drop
Whip. Whip egg white until stiff. Add sugar and lemon
juice to prune pulp. Fold the mixture into the egg white.
Put into a buttered baking dish and bake in a slow oven
(about 300) for IS minutes. Serve cold with the custard.
Custard. Heat milk to scalding in top of the double boiler.
Add sugar. Beat yolk slightly in bowl. Add hot milk slowly
while beating. Pour custard into top of the double boiler, set
over the water and put on the lid. Turn out the flame. If
you do not turn out the flame the custard may overcook and
curdle. Stir occasionally. In about ten minutes the egg will
be thoroughly cooked. The custard is best when served cold.
MINERAL NEEDS 147
19. If you prepare this dish at home, how many
servings would you need to prepare? What quantities
of ingredients would you need to use?
Drain the liquor from a can of spinach by turning the
spinach into a sieve over a bowl. Measure the liquid. For
each cup of liquid use 3 T. of bacon fat or butter. Melt the
fat in a pan. Add 1 T. of finely chopped onion and stir
until it starts to brown. Add 3 T. flour for each cup of liquid.
When thoroughly mixed, add the liquor and cook until the
flour has thickened. Cut through the spinach several times
with a knife and put in a buttered baking dish. Pour the
sauce over it and sprinkle buttered bread crumbs over the top.
Put into a hot oven and brown the crumbs. A number 2
can serves four.
SERVING FOR FAMILY OF
1 to H Ibs in one
A 2^" cube or about
4 to 6 ounces
1 T. (chopped)
2 t. (chopped)
1 small pepper
1 t. (chopped)
or bacon fat
i c. or
6 dice, about y or
For the individual serving place the liver in an earthen cup
and add the other ingredients. Bake slowly (250~275) for
For the home (4 servings) use the same process but different
quantities of the ingredients as indicated and bake for three
READINGS. Trilling and Williams, A Girl's Problems in Home
Economics, pp. 322-324, 389, 447.
Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 388-389.
National Meat and Livestock Board Booklet, "Liver, Nutritive
Value and Ways of Serving."
Use of calcium. There is a reason for our bones and
teeth being so white in color. It is because they are made
largely of lime or calcium. Boys and girls who are
growing fast are
bones. It is easy to
see that, if they do
not get enough lime
in their foods, their
bones will not grow
as large as they
should or else they
will be weak.
In the photo-
Fig. 38. Two rats that show the im- , .. ,,
portance of calcium in the diet. g r apn notice that
A. This rat is 28 days old and weighs 90 rat ^ not on l v
grams. B. This rat, which is also 28 days failed to grow but
old, weighs 224 grams. Which rat has had WUo
too little calcium in the diet? appears misshapen
because it still has
an underdeveloped, babyish form. Its head is too large
in proportion to its body. Notice, too, how the two rats
differ in the shape of the back and the length of the
20. To see how important calcium is in stiffening our
bones you might remove the calcium from a bone by
means of an acid. For directions see appendix, page 290.
Courtesy of the United States Bureau of Home
MINERAL NEEDS 149
If our bones are not strong, our muscles may pull them
out of shape and we become deformed. If there is not
enough calcium in the diet, teeth fail to form properly
or they decay if they have formed. There is some
calcium in the blood. When you cut yourself, the blood
forms a clot and the wound stops bleeding. The calcium
in the blood helps in the forming of the clot.
Loss of calcium. Every day some calcium is lost from
our bodies. For that reason adults who are no longer
growing need calcium to keep their teeth from de-
caying and their bones from weakening. Growing boys
and girls also lose calcium daily. They need more of this
mineral than do adults, for they must have not only
enough to make up for this loss but also an additional
amount to keep pace with the demands made by their
Voit's experiment. Voit, a German scientist, became
interested in our need for calcium. For a year he fed
some pigeons on a low calcium diet. They seemed to
walk around in their cages in a normal manner. How-
ever, when he killed them and examined their skeletons,
he found that their bones were in a very poor condition.
They were perforated with tiny holes and were mere
shells. The leg and wing bones were not so badly af-
fected as was the breast bone. Voit was convinced that
much emphasis should be put upon calcium needs.
Lack of calcium and the teeth. A government study
was made of the children of Gary, Indiana, who were
too young to go to school. Their diets were studied, and
a doctor made an examination of their teeth. It was
found that only one out of ten children with good diets
had poor teeth. However, eight out of ten with poor
LNINE GOOD SETS OF TEETH
BUT THE OTHER EIGHT BAD/
Fig. 39. A good reason for eating proper foods.
diets had poor teeth. It seems very worth while to avoid
toothache and the bad appearance which comes from
Choosing calcium foods. How can we plan our meals
so that we will get enough calcium? You may use the
same game that you used in the iron study page 140).
You will need ninety portions of calcium each day, so
your white sheet must be 5 inches by 4^ inches. Label
this "My daily needs in calcium." On page 143 you
will find a table of the portions of calcium which the
different foods supply per serving. Use a paper to cut
into sections of a different color than that used in the
21. Make a list of the foods containing four or more
portions of calcium per serving. Cut sections of the
colored paper to represent these portions and label them.
Divide these sections into groups of fruits, vegetables,
meat and fish, and miscellaneous.
22. What food is by far the best source of calcium?
23. What would you say about the value of meat?
Of white bread? Of potatoes?
MINERAL NEEDS 151
BOO.' HOOJ WE
CANT GIVE ANYTHING
Fig. 40. Some foods offer large gifts of calcium. Others have
none to give.
If you made your day's meal of white bread and meat
alone, you would need to eat four whole pound loaves
and twelve pounds of meat to get your calcium needs.
Or, you could substitute a peck of potatoes for the bread.
24. Do you find any foods good in both iron and
25. In the same way that you studied the diet of the
junior high school girl found on page 142 for iron, study
it for calcium. Do you find it adequate?
26. Suppose the girl had not had milk with her meals.
Would she have had enough calcium?
27. Study your own diet of yesterday and tell in a
few words on paper whether it gave enough calcium.
If not, how might you have improved it?
28. James Ford thinks he does not like milk. It is
not necessary for him to drink it or have it in his foods
if he can get all the calcium he needs without it.
Using the squares plan a day's diet adequate in calcium
that you think any one might be willing to eat, without
using milk either as a beverage or in other dishes. Are
you able to do this? Could you do it day after day
without repeating foods monotonously?
A quart of milk a day for each child. Nutrition ex-
perts advise that children have a quart of milk each day.
Fig. 41. Milk deserves the crown.
This may be used in cooking, on their cereals and fruit
and as a beverage. A good plan is to take one glass of
milk with each meal. The other glass may be used in
cooking, on cereals, and so on. Grown people should have
a pint. Experts believe that people are in more danger
of getting too little calcium than of any other food ele-
ment. Evaporated, condensed, and dried milk may be
less expensive than fresh milk and should be used in
cooking when it is impossible to buy enough fresh milk.
These forms of milk are especially useful in parts of the
country where the fresh product is scarce.
Milk, an important food. Milk is valuable for cal-
cium, protein, and for fuel. Since it is such an impor-
tant food, it is worth while to know many ways of getting
it into our meals. This is especially true for children who
unfortunately have not developed a liking for milk as a
beverage. It is also important for adults who allow coffee
and tea, which give nothing in food value, to replace milk.
29. Turn back to the combination dishes, page 130.
Which supplied calcium?
30. Bring to class the recipe of a dish using a large
proportion of milk which you and your family enjoy.
If each member of the class reports a dish, you will
probably learn many new ways of including milk in the
diet. Select several of these dishes and plan meals mak-
ing use of them. Be sure that these meals supply fuel,
protein, and iron as well as calcium. Perhaps you could
cook a meal in the laboratory using some of these
recipes. If you do not have time for all of them in the
laboratory, try the remainder at home.
FAMILY OF FOUR
White sugar . .
Mash junket tablet with a wooden spoon and dissolve in
the water. Heat the milk in a double boiler to 85-90 F.
If you have no thermometer, let a drop fall on the back of your
hand when it begins to warm. If it feels neither hot nor cold,
it is the right temperature. Remove from flame, add sugar
and vanilla and dissolve junket. Pour into dishes in which it
is to be served. Set into a warm place until it stiffens. Then
place in the ice box to chill before serving. Sweetened fresh
fruits may be served over this dessert.
1 C Milk
1 C Butter
or chopped dates ....
Use the butter to grease the sides of the baking dish or
double boiler. Wash rice and fruit. If dates are used, cut
them into small pieces. Put rice and fruit into cooking utensil,
cover with milk and bake at 250-275 F. for an hour or
until the rice grains are tender and the milk is absorbed. Stir
once or twice while baking. Or cook in double boiler. Serve
with cream and sugar or a custard sauce.
Many variations of rice pudding are possible. One is to use
J C. maple sugar instead of the raisins or dates.
31. Perhaps you could find other variations.
32. Which ones of the following dishes would you
say are valuable for including milk in the diet? You may
find them in the first unit or in cookbooks.
1. Ice cream 4. Tapioca custard
2. Bread pudding 5. Pumpkin pie
3. Floating Island 6. Sponge cake
READINGS. F. E. Winchell, Food Facts for Every Day, pp. 65-72.
Trilling, Williams, and Reeves, A Girl's Problems in Home
Economics, pp. 318-322.
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. If you have time when you
have finished the unit, you will find some problems suggested on
The vitamins. In times past people suffered from a
number of mysterious diseases the cause of which no one
knew. Only within recent years have scientists discov-
ered the causes and the ways to prevent these diseases.
They have learned that in our foods are found different
things which they call vitamins. Just what these vita-
mins are they do not yet exactly know, since they cannot
separate each of them out as they do iron or calcium.
They do know, however, what foods are rich in these
vitamins and what are the effects of not getting enough
of them. They have discovered that everybody needs
these vitamins. If we get a smaller quantity of them in
our foods than is necessary, we may not contract actual
diseases, but we shall not grow as we should, or feel just
as well as we might.
Many scientists are studying these vitamins. In uni-
versities and hospitals all over the world laboratory
workers are trying to learn more about them in order
to advise people what foods to eat, and what other health
habits to follow.
Study of vitamins by means of animals. In study-
ing about vitamins, the scientist uses little white rats,
guinea pigs, chickens, pigeons, dogs, and other animals.
He feeds them certain foods. If an animal shows signs
of illness, the scientist knows that the food given does
not have the vitamin that protects against the disease
the animal has contracted. Then another food is added
to the diet. If the animal gets well quickly, the scientist
knows that the new food has much of the needed vitamin.
If the animal does not improve, it has none, and if it
improves but slowly, it has but a small amount. In this
way scientists have found out what foods we can depend
upon to protect us from the ill health that results from
lack of the different vitamins.
An experience in Denmark. During the war many
of the children of Denmark became ill. They did not grow
as they should and developed a disease of the eyes. Doc-
tors found out that their condition was due to failure to get
enough of one of the vitamins, called vitamin A. The
people of Denmark did not know the value of cream
and butter in the diet. They sold these to the Germans
and English and the children were fed on skim milk.
Their condition improved when they were given the right
kinds of foods. Vitamin A is particularly important to
you because it stimulates growth and helps protect you
against diseases of your breathing passages.
Foods that give vitamin A. Somehow the color yel-
low seems to be closely associated with this vitamin.
Many of the yellow vegetables are rich in vitamin A.
Not only is it found in the purely yellow foods but also
in those which are green. Whole milk, cream, butter,
cheese, egg yolk, carrot, and squash are examples of the
yellow foods which will help keep us well. String beans,
dandelion greens, peas, and spinach are examples of the
green vegetables that are valuable.
Fig. 42. Vitamin A marshals his forces.
How to protect ourselves. A real lack of vitamin A
in the diets of growing children results in stunted growth.
This danger may be entirely avoided by including a gen-
erous quantity of milk products and the green and yellow
vegetables in your diets. You will be perfectly safe if
you have enough milk for your calcium needs each day,
a little butter, and eat the green and yellow vegetables
1. Which of the green and yellow vegetables do you
2. How could you supply vitamin A in a box
luncheon? Would a raw carrot be one way?
3. What foods were served in the school cafeteria
yesterday or to-day that you might choose for this
4. What foods were in your diet yesterday that would
protect you? If your diet was not satisfactory, how
might you have improved it?
5. Begin making a set of rules to guide you in choos-
ing foods for vitamins. What will be your first rule?
Results of having too small an amount. Another
vitamin that we need is called vitamin B. It prevents a
disease called beri-beri. This disease was formerly very
common in the Orient and still exists among people who
live largely on pol-
ished rice. When
these people change
to the whole grain,
the disease is cured.
This vitamin is also
found in the outer
coating of other
grains, so that the
are more valuable
to us than the re-
fined. In the
United States we
are in little danger
of actually getting
ever, we may have
the beginning symp-
toms such as a cross disposition, listlessness, lack of
appetite and constipation.
How to protect ourselves. The unrefined cereals are
an especially good source of vitamin B, and we should
include some in our diet each day either as a breakfast
cereal, or as bread. All vegetables and fruits, as well as
meat and milk, contain small amounts. Since each food
Courtesy United States Bureau of Home Economics.
Fig. 43. How Vitamin B affects health.
A. This rat was fed on a diet low in vita-
min B. B. This is the same rat one day
after vitamin B was added to its food in
the form of milk and yeast. Notice the
improved condition of hair and body shape.
VITAMIN NEEDS 1*59
contains but a small amount, we must eat liberally of
those that contain this vitamin in order to get enough.
Yeast has a very high concentration of vitamin B.
6. A certain family made it a practice to eat a sweet
roll apiece with coffee for breakfast. The children were
given money to buy coffee cake for lunch. In the
evening they often had a stew of meat and vegetables
with liberal quantities of white bread. Did they have
any whole cereal? Were they probably lacking in
7. Which of the foods which you ate to-day pro-
vided vitamin B?
8. What will you add to your rule for selecting foods
9. Following is a recipe using graham flour which is
made of wheat and contains the portion of the grain
which is rich in vitamin B.
(Serves Six or Eight)
Graham flour 1C. Sugar C.
Water 1 qt. Dates (chopped) 1C.
Salt J t. Nuts (chopped) 1C.
Mix flour, water, and salt in top of double boiler. Heat
over flame to boiling point, stirring constantly. Set into
bottom of double boiler and cook 30 minutes. Add sugar,
dates and nuts. Turn into molding pan and cool. Slice
and serve with sweetened whipped cream or cream and sugar.
Results of lack of vitamin C. All through history
men on the old sailing vessels were reported as being
subject to a disease called scurvy. First they would feel
dizzy a'nd tired, sometimes called lazy, and have cross
dispositions. Their joints would swell and finally their
teeth would loosen and sometimes fall out. In those days
Fig. 44. These foods give you vitamin C.
vessels would often be weeks and months away from land.
The sailors had to live on dried fruits and vegetables,
and smoked meats. Now they were not ill because they
ate the dried and smoked foods, but because they did not
eat anything fresh and uncooked. Accidentally it was
discovered that limes, which are relatives of the lemon,
grapefruit, and orange, would prevent the disease. The
British navy at one time put a number of barrels of limes
on each sailing vessel. To this day British navy men
are called "limeys."
Pyorrhea and scurvy. Many dentists to-day think
that some kinds of pyorrhea, a disease of the teeth, are
caused by failure to get enough vitamin C. So they im-
mediately put patients on diets that are rich in this
vitamin. No doubt many people have just enough to
keep them from having their joints get sore but not
enough to keep them from being tired and irritable.
Effect of cooking and storing on foods. Long cook-
ing, drying, and storing destroy vitamin C. In 1916 and
1917, Stefansson, an Arctic explorer, discovered that
scurvy was developing among his men. He threw away
all the cooking vessels so that the men were forced to
eat their foods raw, and they improved. A few foods
retain their vitamin content even when cooked. One
of these is tomato. For this reason canned tomato is an
important winter food. The orange and grapefruit are
especially rich in this vitamin. Babies are given orange
juice very early in their lives. Sometimes they are given
tomato juice instead. The young carrot is rich in vita-
min C while the one that has been carried over the
winter has practically none. We cannot depend upon
milk to give us this vitamin unless the cows have been
fed upon fresh, green food. Too often they are fed
Courtesy General Electric Co.
Fig. 45. Fruits and vegetables are sources of minerals and
vitamins. How many of these fruits and vegetables can
upon dried hay and a bran food. Besides, in cities most
milk is pasteurized, a process which may destroy the
How to protect ourselves. The rule which we should
make is to include in our diets each day some raw food.
We should eat citrus fruits (orange, grapefruit, and
lemon) often. Americans make use of salads more than
do people of other nations. This is one very good way
of getting the vitamin found in lettuce, raw fruits, and
10. Make a list of the raw vegetables that might be
made up into salads. Compare your list with those of
other members of the class. You will be surprised at
the possibilities. How many of the vegetables listed
are available at this season?
11. Make several of those salads which are new to
12. Make a list of the fruits which may be eaten raw
at this season.
13. What foods in your diet yesterday protected you
14. What might you put into a box luncheon that
would be a protection?
15. What might you have selected in the cafeteria
yesterday or to-day that would protect you?
16. Add to your rule for choosing vitamin foods.
17. Do you prepare any fresh fruit desserts or drinks
at home which you consider especially nice and worth
telling about to the class?
18. Make either of the following salads or select
another that would be valuable for vitamin C.
CARROT, CELERY, AND NUT SALAD
Ground Carrot \ C.
Chopped Celery \ C.
Chopped Nuts 3 T.
Mayonnaise 2 T.
Combine with plain mayonnaise or with mayonnaise thinned
with an equal part of whipped cream. Serve on lettuce leaf.
Another combination is J C. ground carrot, 1 T. chopped
raisins, and 2 T. chopped apple. Combine immediately with
the dressing to prevent the apples from darkening.
CABBAGE AND PINEAPPLE SALAD
Finely Chopped Cabbage
Grated Pineapple (drained) .
Marshmallows, cut in quarters
Peanuts (crushed or ground) .
6 or 8 (if desired)
Bind with mayonnaise thinned with an equal part of
whipped cream. Serve on lettuce leaf. Cabbage is particu-
larly valuable for Vitamin C.
Courtesy University of Chicago Laboratory Schools.
Fig. 46. Playing cafeteria with food models.
164 . NUTRITION
19. If you prepare these salads for your family,
what quantities will you make?
20. Report to the class another way of serving cab-
bage, leaf lettuce, head lettuce, dandelion greens, curly
endive, or French endive. Remember these must be
raw to provide vitamin C.
Effect of vitamin D. We all need the sunshine vita-
min D. It is not found in our foods in sufficient amounts
to protect us. No matter how wisely we choose our diets
for calcium and phosphorus, for some reason our bodies
are not able to use these important minerals unless we
have the sunshine vitamin also. Have you ever seen grass
over which a board has lain for a time? It is very sickly
looking. Soon after the sun has had a chance to shine
upon it, it grows healthy. Flowers in the house never
have quite the sturdy growth that they show when out in
the garden. Ordinary window glass does not allow cer-
tain of the sunshine rays that have a health-giving quality
to pass through it. There are, however, special kinds of
window glass that do permit the passage of a portion of
Rickets. Lack of vitamin D causes little children to
get a disease called rickets. This disease of the bones
results in misshapen bodies: the child's legs may be
bowed ; the chest, instead of being flat, may protrude and
be somewhat pointed; the joints may be enlarged. The
picture of the Austrian girls, page 105, shows extreme
cases of rickets. When the sunshine vitamin is supplied,
the body immediately uses the calcium and phosphorus
available in the body, and the bones begin to mend and
Fig. 47. Playing in the sunshine.
Prevention of rickets. To prevent this serious dis-
ease children are regularly given cod-liver oil, or viosterol
prescribed by a physician. Many children need these
treatments especially in winter in northern cities because
there is less sunshine, and smoke and winter clothing un-
fortunately often cut off the health-giving rays which the
sun might give. Children are kept in the sunshine be-
cause sunshine playing on the skin helps their bodies to
manufacture vitamin D. Foods may be treated with an
artificial sunshine ray, and likewise acquire the power of
supplying the body with this vitamin. Some of our break-
fast foods are now so treated. Egg yolk and butter con-
tain small amounts of vitamin D.
Needs of adults. Lack of the sunshine vitamin also
affects us after we are past the age when our bones may
become crooked. For this reason all of us from the baby
to the grandfather should spend a part of each day out
of doors in the direct rays of the sun.
21. What should be added to your vitamin rule?
22. Restate the whole rule now and put it into such
form that you could very simply tell a friend how to
choose foods each day so as to be sure she would get
enough of all the vitamins.
Heart and other organs as vitamin sources. More
vitamin value comes from the organs of animals than
from the other cuts of meat. Liver, heart, brain, sweet-
breads, kidneys, and the gizzard of fowls are each ex-
23. From cookbooks find a number of ways of pre-
paring each of these organs.
READINGS. Trilling, Williams, and Reeves, A Girl's Problems
in Home Economics, pp. 325-333.
F. E. Winchell, Food Facts for Every Day, Ch. vi.
Kinyon and Hopkins, Junior Food and Clothing, pp. 23-28.
Lanman, McKay, and Zuill, The Family's Food, pp. 57-79.
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. If you have time when you
have finished the unit, you may be interested in doing some of
the problems suggested on page 182.
RIDDING THE BODY OF WASTE
Lungs and skin. There is still another reason for
choosing our foods with care. The body has several
ways of getting rid of the poisons and wastes that it de-
velops every day. We learned that carbon dioxide is one
of these wastes. We breathe it out through the lungs.
The body also throws off wastes by means of the skin.
The tiny pores in the skin all over the body are constantly
secreting perspiration. Usually we are not conscious of
this since the water in the perspiration dries as it appears
on the surface of the skin. In the perspiration are waste
substances in addition to the water. When the water
evaporates, these wastes are left and must be washed away
in bathing. Therefore no one should bathe less than once
or twice a week. To feel at our best, we should take a
bath every day. Not only does this keep the skin clean,
but it makes us feel fresh and comfortable.
Kidneys. A third way of getting rid of poisons is by
means of the kidneys. It is important to include enough
water and liquid foods in our diets each day so that we
pass a considerable amount of urine. In the urine are
many of the poisons which would make us ill if they were
kept in the body. Six to eight glasses of water are about
what we should drink each day. If we have a glass with
each meal, one immediately when we get up, and one
before we go to bed, we have five of the number we need.
This is a good practice for every one to follow. Then
two glasses between meals will furnish the rest.
Intestines. It is of great importance that you have
a bowel movement each day. Those people who are in
the best of health often have two. When your bowels do
not move regularly and often, that part of the food which
is not digested develops poisons. These poisons may be
absorbed by the body and give you headaches and other
bad feelings. Habit, proper food, water, and exercise all
help you to keep well by getting rid of the indigestible
part of the food or feces before it has a chance to decay
and form poisons.
Habit. It is strange how our bodies adapt themselves
to our habits of living. We have three meals each day at
fairly regular hours. Usually we begin to feel the need
for food at these times. That is, we get hungry at meal-
time. If we are accustomed to a lunch after school, our
bodies come to demand food at that time. We grow
sleepy at our regular bed time, we awaken regularly. If
you go to the toilet at a set time each day, your body
develops the habit of ridding itself of wastes regu-
larly. Some people establish this habit immediately upon
arising, others immediately after breakfast. You can see
that if we get up so late that we have too little time to
care for ourselves properly, we may be responsible for
our own poor health. We should go to bed early and
regularly so that, when morning comes, we are ready to
get up in time to carry out our own health habits.
Roughage. Some of our foods, particularly vegetables
and fruits contain a considerable amount of cellulose.
Since cellulose cannot be digested by us, these foods pro-
vide what is called roughage. Roughage is important in
keeping the bowels healthily active. Vegetables, fruits,
and whole cereals are particularly good sources of cellu-
RIDDING THE BODY OF WASTE
Fig. 48. Roughage foods help to rid the body of waste.
lose and are therefore valuable for the roughage they sup-
ply. The refined cereals have had the bran of the grain
removed and are very white in color. White flour, cream
of wheat, and farina are examples. The whole cereals
are brown because the bran has not been removed.
Wheatena, shredded wheat, and the bran breads are ex-
amples. In addition, fruits and vegetables contain acids
which also help to regulate the body. Sometimes in our
attempts to serve food in especially attractive forms, we
remove and throw away much of the roughage which is so
important to our health. The skins of potatoes, espe-
cially the baked white potato, if still soft, have a very
good flavor. They are high in mineral content and
are a good source of roughage. The peel of
apples and the pulp of oranges are often mistakenly
thrown away. Bright red apples sliced with the peel on
and cooked in water to which sugar was previously added
make beautiful and appetizing stewed apples. Summer
apples may be cooked with the peel and rubbed through a
coarse strainer. Practically all the skin can be rubbed
through the strainer. When we eat raw fruit, we should
wash it carefully and eat all the good parts of the skin.
If we eat enough vegetables, fruits, and whole cereals to
supply vitamins and minerals, we are also probably get-
ting enough roughage.
Exercise. Exercise keeps our bodies in a healthy
condition. Our ancestors in savage days developed bodies
that were adapted to lives of much activity in the open
air. Our bodies are very much like theirs. It is not sur-
prising then that we sicken and droop when we sit quietly
indoors. We get rid of poisons in each of the different
ways more satisfactorily if we spend a part of each day
in play or work out of doors.
READINGS. McCollum and Simmonds, Food, Nutrition, and
Health, Ch. XIV, "The Hygiene of Digestion."
B. M. Brown, Good Health for Boys and Girls, Ch. viii, pp. 56-
Cuzzort and Trask, Health and Health Practices, Chs. vi, vii.
NEED FOR A BALANCED DIET
How diets may be unbalanced. By a well balanced
diet we mean one which has a proper amount of each
of the needed food elements. If we have so much of the
protein foods that we crowd out the mineral foods, our
diets are unbalanced. If we eat candy and other sweets,
such as cookies, between meals, we are usually not hun-
gry at mealtime. Then we will fail to get all the elements
we need, and our diets will be unbalanced. If we allow
coffee and tea to crowd out milk, our diets will be seri-
The finicky appetite. It is very difficult for people
with finicky appetites to eat balanced diets. If they
Fig. 49. Too much of the fuel and protein foods unbalances
refuse to eat of the commonly served foods, there will
be many meals at which they will not get the requisite
amount of the different elements. We cannot expect family
meals to be chosen with our likes only in mind. When
people eat but a few kinds of foods, they do not have
as much pleasure from food as do those who like a great
variety. By cooking disliked foods in many ways we
may discover one method of preparation which will make
the food palatable. Most people find that by tasting
foods and trying to like them a taste for them soon is
1. Do you know of anyone who developed a liking
for a food by persistence in tasting it?
2. Can you give an example to show how a change
in the method of preparation helped some one to learn
to like a food?
Developing food likes in infancy. If we learn to
eat all foods when we are very young, we need not train
ourselves to like them when we are older. Some doctors
recommend that when babies are but a few months old
vegetable juices such as those of tomato, spinach, string
bean, carrot, peas, and so on, be put into their bottles.
Of course, a very small amount of the juice, which is
made by cooking the vegetable in water, is given the
babies at first. This is gradually increased in quantity.
In this way babies learn to like the flavors found not only
in vegetables, but also in fruits and cereals. As a result
they are more likely to eat well balanced diets when
they grow up.
It sometimes happens that children were not well
trained in their food likes when they were babies. Unless
the older members of the family help them by the exam-
NEED FOR A BALANCED DIET
Fig. 50. Good foods are in the limelight. What are they?
pies they set, these children may never develop good food
habits. Older brothers and sisters can help in setting a
good example by eating a wide variety of the kinds of
foods good for younger members of the family, and by
encouraging them also to eat of these foods.
3. A father once said in the presence of his two
young children, "I think carrots and cabbage are two
of the poorest foods people serve." At another time he
said, "Isn't this coffee delicious? Any one who doesn't
drink coffee doesn't know what he is missing." What
influence do you think these statements had upon the
4. What might he have said had he known how im-
portant it is for children to eat all the common vege-
tables, and not to drink coffee?
Setting a good example. In order to be able to set
a good example, we must know what foods are good for
the younger brother and sister. The digestive systems of
babies and young children are not well developed. The
teeth and the muscles of the stomach and intestines are
not fully grown and the secretion of the digestive juices
differs somewhat from that of an adult. As a result young
children cannot digest hard cellulose such as is found in
the skins of raw fruits and even the tough ones when
cooked. Tough meat fibers and fried foods are too dif-
ficult for babies to digest. Large quantities of rich foods,
such as cream, cheese, and large pieces of nuts, are not
good for them. Below are lists of some foods good for
young children. Can you explain why the suggestions are
put beside some of these foods?
FOODS GOOD FOR YOUNG CHILDREN
All fruit juices
Stewed prunes, plums and
apricots (pulp only for
children under 3)
Apple (scraped or cooked for
children under 3)
Vegetables (if well cooked)
Peas (put through strainer
for child under 3)
Cabbage (if young, crisp and
Day old bread
Eggs, soft coddled
Meats, roasted or boiled
Cheese (a small amount in
Fish (carefully boned)
Courtesy University of Chicago Laboratory Schools.
Fig. 51. A poster drawn by a fifth-grade girL
Two sisters are shown after school and at the dinner table. The one
who ate candy and took no exercise seems to have no appetite. What
effect did play out-of-doors have upon the appetite of the other girl?
Eating between meals. Eating between meals may
be a very bad habit. Candy and other sweets quickly sat-
isfy our appetites because they are so rich in calories. If
we eat candy and other confections immediately before
meals, the edge has been taken from our appetites, and
we do not enjoy the foods on the table as much as we
should. In addition, we are not likely to eat as much of
these foods as we need to supply all the requirements for
a well balanced diet. Another reason why we should not
eat at any and all times is that our stomachs must have
a rest. This is not possible if we are constantly sending
it food which it must digest.
For people who are recovering from illness, who are
underweight, or who are growing very fast, it is often a
good plan to have a simple lunch between meals such as
bread and milk, a fruit-milk beverage, or an apple, pro-
vided this does not lessen the amount eaten at the next
meal. The proper time to eat candy and other confec-
tions is at the end of a meal.
5. Do you think a girl who uses her lunch money for
candy shows good judgment?
A plan for choosing foods. It would take much time
to select well balanced meals if we had to think about
each of the food elements. A general scheme which in-
cludes all the elements makes planning meals very simple.
Below is one plan which some people use. Each day they
include the kinds and amounts of foods suggested. Some-
times they substitute foods, for example, they select an-
other starchy food such as macaroni or rice for the potato,
or cheese for the meat. The food elements are checked
to show you that this scheme takes care of all of one's
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6. Using the food models, play cafeteria, and explain,
why you chose the foods selected.
7. Plan a day's meals for your family following this
Choosing meals from menu cards. Very often when
we eat in restaurants we are puzzled about what to
order. You are now ready to make intelligent selections
because you know that each meal should have in it many
of the various food elements, and that the meals for any
one day should contain them all.
Toast served with all Egg order* at Breakfast
Choice of Fruit, or Cereal with Cream
Broiled Lamb Chop with Potatoes
Ham Omelet with Potatoes
Waffles with Sausage
Butter Cakes, Toast or Rolls
Coffee, Tea or Milk
Liver and Bacon with Potatoes
Griddle Cakes with Broiled Bacon
Poached Eggs on Toast
Fried Ham, One Egg, Potatoes
Butter Cakes, Toast or Rolls
Coffee, Tea or Milk
fles with Syri
Corned Beef 1
Bacon withX)ne Egg, Potatoes
Butter Cakes, Toast or Rolls
Coffee, Tea or Milk
Choice of Fruit
Griddle Cakes with Syrup
Orange Marmalade with Buttered Toast
Toasted Bacon Roll
Poached Egg on Toast
Coffee, Tea or Milk
Dishes to Order
Bacon and Eggs
Ham with One Egg . . 45 Bacon wTth One Egg
(Choice of potatoes served witk above orders)
Corned Beef Hash . . . 25 I Broiled Ham .... 40
Broiled Bacon . . . .30 Sausage, Apple and Griddle
Sausage with Potatoes . .40 Cakes 65
Sausage with Griddle Cakes . SO
Corned Beef Hash with Poached Egg 40
Toast, Dry o
. 15 Bread .
Stewed Fresh Rhubarb
Grapefruit Juice .
Orange Juice . .
Strawberries 30, with Cream 40
Tomato Juice Cocktail IS
Fresh Pineapple . . .
Orange Marmalade .
Sliced Banana with Cream
15 Stewed Prunes and Apricots
15 Grapefruit ....
10 Sliced Orange . . .
Fresh Baked Apple 15; with Cream 20
With Milk IS
With Milk IS
Cream of Wheat
With Cream 25
With Cream 30
W.fne, end Griddle Specialties
Griddle Cakes (tfkeat or Cornmea!) 20
Waffles with Honey or
Ham and Eggs with Potatoes
Pork Chop, Potatoes and Apple Sauce
Waffles with Broiled Bacon
Scrambled Eggs with Bacon and Potatoes
Creamed Finnan Haddie on Toast
Scrambled Eggs with Chipped Beef, Potatoes
Shirred Eggs with Bacon
French Toast with Currant Jelly
Ess* nd Omelets
Spanish Omelet 50
I in Cream
IS I French Fried
Coffee per Cup, with
Enriched Milk .
Pot of Tea . .
Postum . . .
Coffee per Cup, with Pitcher of
Not mpnriUt for penoaat property unleii tlucked by Mtnagtr
Courtesy Childs Restaurants.
We are not responsible for personal property unless checKed.
Special tenderloin steak 75
COLD SANDWICHES (Touted 5c oxtra)
Ham or corned beef 25 Roast beef 35 Roast pork 25 Tongue 25 Combination 35 Lettuce and tomato 25
Egg salad 25 Salmon or tnnafisb salad 25 Lettuce and egg 25 Sardine 25 Chicken 40 Peanut butter 25
Brick or American cheese 20 Swiss cheese 25 Liver sausage 25 Bacon and tomato 35 Chicken salad 40
Toasted cheese and bacon 40 Chopped egg and anchovies 35 Chopped egg and tomato 25
Pimento 20 Cottage cheese 25 with jelly 35 Cheese and nut 25
Combination 35 Lettuce and tomato 30 Heart of lettuce 20 Sliced tomato 25 Asparagus tips 35 Potato 15
Cold slaw 20 Waldorf 30 Fresh fruit 45 Pineapple and cheese 35 Chicken 75 Lettuce and egg 35
Tomato stuffed with chicken 65 Tomato stuffed crab-meat 65 Fresh shrimp, mayonnaise 65 Tunafish 40
Roquefort cheese dressing 15 Thousand Island or mayonnaise dressing 10
Russian salad dressing (for weight reduction 15;
EGGS AND OMELETS
Boiled ( 2 ) 25 Poached on toast 35 Fried or scrambled 30 Ham or bacon and eggt SO Omelet .plain 35
Omelet with minced bam 50 Omelet with bacon 50 Omelet with bam or bacon 50
Omelet with cheese 50 Omelet with minced chicken 65 Spanish omelet 50
s Chiffon.de 15 Cretin of celery, B*lc 15
ENTREES READY TO SERVE
Deep sea scallops a la Newbnr, w toast 50
Grilled fresh caught lake trout Hoteliere, pomme* Julienne 50
Omelet with sliced peaches flace 65
SPECIAL LA SALLE LUNCH ROOM
^ Club steak with French fried potatoes (20 minute. ' 90
American chop saey with rice 45
Shepherd pie with fresh rentable*, Cwudienne 40
Corned heef hash browned with poached en. farden spbach. c.adied y.in 45
Broiled chopped rirloia ,teak with shroos> sa.ce, Joe peas, Frech fried potatoes 50
Roast rib of prime heef JM 75
Loin steak 70 Small tenderloin steak 90 Pork chops 60 Lamb chops (2) 75 Veal chop (1) 60
Veal cutlet 60 Veal cutlet, breaded 65 Pork tenderloin 80
COLD FOODS (SOTOO* with potato **Ud)
Assorted cold meats 75 Sliced turkey 70 Roast beef 65 Roast Iamb 60 Roast pork 50
Beef tongue 50 Sugar-cured ham 50 Corned beef 40 Anchovies 45
POTATOES AND VEGETABLES
Maahed or steamed 10 American fried 15 Hashed brown 15 French fried or julienne 15
Stewed tomatoes 15 Stewed corn 15 Stewed peas 15 Spinach 20
TOAST, GRIDDLE CAKES, ROLLS
Dry or buttered toast 10 Cinnamon toast 20 Milk toast 25 Graham crackers lu
Griddle cakes with maple syrup 20 Griddle cakes with honey 25 Waffles with maple syrup 25
Waffles with honey 25 Cakes-waffles with sausage 45
DESSERT AND ICE CREAM
Apple or coffee nutard pie 15 Deep dish strawberry pie with cream 25
Hone-nude date cake 20 Cabiaet piddiif with whipped creim 20 Fresh rhubarb sauce with cake IS
Vanilla, strawberry or chocolate ice cream 15 Fruit sherbet 15
Baked apple with cream 25 Green gage plums 20 Home-style preserved peaches 20 Orange 15
Fresh strawberries with cream 35 Sliced orange 20 Orange juice 20 Banana 15 with cream 20
Preserved figs 30 Orange marmalade 15 Strained honey 20 Stewed prunes with cream 20
Home-made cottage 15 Camembert 20 Roquefort 25 Swiss, American or pimento 15
Liederkranz or brie 20 Philadelphia cream 20 McLaren's 25
COFFEE. TEA, ETC Coffee, cup 10 per pot 15 Tea, (pot) 15 Boston coffee 5c extra
Chocolate 15 Buttermilk 10 Postum cereal 15 Iced tea or coffee 15
Hortick's malted milk 30 Cream, per glass 30 Milk, per glass 10 Glass of half and half 20 Lemonade 25
Roll, mm* brttar lOe por pors> WfcoU wk.t or ftru broad 10c
One portion served to one person only.
Courtesy Hotel La Salle.
Illinois Central Dining Cars serve only Prime or Choice U S. Government Graded Beef
India Relish, 20*
Ripe or Green Olives, 2f c Pickles, 20c
Melon Mangoes, 30c Sliced Tomatoes. 3?c
Consomme, Hot or Cold, Per Cup, 20c
For Soups see Suggestions Slip
For Fish see Suggestions Slip
COLD MEATS AND SANDWICHES
Boiled Ham or Tongue, 80c Pickled Lamb's Tongue, 60c
Potato Salad, with either of the above, lOc Extra
Assorted Cold Meats, Potato Salad, $1.00
Chicken Sandwich, 55c Tongue Sandwich, 30c
Club Sandwich, Tic
Tuna Fish Sandwich. 3Jc
Sugar Corn, 2Tc
Stewed Tomatoes, 25c
Ham Sandwich, 30c
Imported Sardines, lie
Potatoes, French Fned, 25c
Early June Peas, 25c
Lettuce and Tomato, French Dressing, 4?c
Chilled Whole Tomato, Mayonnaise, 35c
Head Lettuce, French Dressing, 35c
Half Portion Head Lettuce, French Dressing, 2?c
Potato Salad, 3?c Half Portion Potato Salad. 20c
French Bread, lie
Raisin Bread, Ifc
Graham Bread. Me
Individual Strained Honey, 30c
Guava Jelly, 30c Orange Jelly, 30c Orange Marmalade, 2Tc
Individual Preserves, 30c Ice Cream and Cake, 35c
Stewed Prunes with Cream, 3fc Preserved Figs, 40c
Individual Fig Pudding with Sauce. 40c
(Wuh Toasted Wafers)
COFFEE, TEA, ETC.
English Breakfast, Orange Pekoe, Oolong or Japan Tea, Pot for One, 25c
Iced Tea or Coffee, 25c Coffee, Pot for One, 25c
Cocoa, 20c Milk (Per Bottle), 20c
Cream (Per Glass), 40c; Half and Half (Per Glass), 2fc
Malted Milk, 20c Lemonade, 20c Instant Postum, 20c
Kaffee Hag, Per Pot 25c Sanka, Per Pot, 2?c
An Extra Charge of Twenty-6ve Cent* Per Person will be
' Made for Meal. Served out of Dining Car
Prohibited from Taking Verbal Orderi and Guest* will
Ij on Presentation of Check on Which
Order is Written
It it Our Aim to Provide Dining Car Service which will Please Our Patron*
Your Suggestions Are Invited
J. V. LANIGAN. Passenger Traffic Manager, Chicago. HI
Courtesy The Illinois Central Railroad.
NEED FOR A BALANCED DIET 181
8. Above are some menu cards. Choose a break-
fast, a luncheon, and a dinner that you think would
be satisfactory. When you have finished, check to see
whether you have included the foods suggested in the
general plan, page 177.
READINGS. Kinyon and Hopkins, Junior Foods and Clothing,
Harris and Lacey, Everyday Foods, pp. 311-315.
W. T. Grenfell, Yourself and Your Body. If you would like to
know more about your body and how it works, be sure to read
this book, which gives the desired information in a series of
interesting stories. Do not forget the preface.
Readings will be found at appropriate places throughout this unit.
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
Below are some suggestions for problems if you have time for
On Fuel Needs
1. Keep a record of your lunches for two weeks and underline
those dishes which were of particular importance for their fuel
2. Start an experiment in feeding animals to see the effect of
diet on the appearance and weight. See appendix, page 281, for
a description of such experiments. White rats show results of
poor diets more quickly than do human beings because they go
from babyhood to old age in about Vso of the time it takes human
beings to grow old. In other words, a white rat will show the bad
effects of a poorly chosen diet in six weeks which would require
almost four years for a girl or boy to show.
On Protein Needs
1. Plan several days' menus for your family satisfactory for
calories and protein. Which of the foods you prepared in Unit I
are particularly valuable for protein?
2. What protein dishes does your family particularly enjoy?
You might exchange recipes with other members of the class. Be
sure your recipes are so clearly written that others will have no
trouble in following them.
1. List the foods you have eaten for several days past. Did
you have enough iron on each of these days? If not, what foods
might you have added to make your diet adequate?
2. List the foods good for iron of which you are fond. Is
there any which you do not enjoy? Perhaps you could find some
method of preparation which will enable you to enjoy it. Report
your experiment to the class.
3. Evaporate a cup of milk to see how large a quantity of
mineral matter it contains. See appendix, page 291, for directions
for this experiment.
4. The effect of milk on growth can be very clearly shown by
means of an experiment with rats. Feed one rat on crackers and
water, the other on crackers and milk. You can make a very
interesting poster by mounting a picture of the rats at the end of
the experiment and their graphs. If you question whether the
food is causing the difference in the results which you are getting,
switch the diets after several weeks.
1. Plan a picnic lunch to include foods to supply all of the
2. Which of the dishes you prepared in Unit I were particularly
good for one or more of the vitamins? Perhaps you would like
to increase the number of recipes you have which are valuable for
Make an exhibit of roughage from different sources for the class.
Sift and wash graham flour to get the bran out as clean as pos-
sible. Peel an apple, remove the strings from celery, rub peas and
corn through a strainer. The seeds of tomato are also roughage.
You may think of many other sources which you may exhibit.
Of course, all your exhibits should be of roughage which we may eat.
If you have had considerable experience in purchasing
foods you may be able to answer these questions rather
1. In what way should your nutrition information help you
in making a marketing list?
2. Name several ways in which the money a family has to
spend determines what shall be bought.
3. How does available storage space determine the amount
of food a family will buy?
4. Why do we choose fresh rather than wilted vegetables?
5. Tell how to determine when a head of lettuce, green beans,
and beets are fresh.
6. Under what conditions are canned peas more desirable than
7. What causes foods to spoil?
8. How may spoilage of foods be prevented? Delayed?
9. What workers make it possible for you to have potatoes
if you live in the city? If you live in the country?
10. How can buyers help the grocer give them good service?
11. What services is it fair for us to expect of our grocers?
Can you name any which we should not expect?
WHAT THIS UNIT IS ABOUT
When Mary came home from school one day, she said,
"Mother, we've started a new unit. In this unit we are
to learn about buying the different foods which make up
our meals. You know, in our last unit we studied about
the foods we need to eat in order to keep well. Now we
are to learn about buying the foods for good meals. My
teacher says that after we have read more about it and
have had some laboratory lessons, the best way to learn
is to plan some meals for our families and then go to the
stores and buy the food. May I buy the food for our
family for one week?"
Fig. 52. Mary is applying what she learned in school about
WHAT THE UNIT IS ABOUT 185
Perhaps you, like Mary, will want to plan some meals
for your family and to buy the foods. Before you go
to the store you must of course plan well balanced meals
and then make your market list. You must decide which
stores to patronize, and must select the kinds of foods
that will please the appetite and that can be prepared
in your kitchen. You must know how much money you
may spend and must plan to get food that your family
needs and will enjoy with this money. In this unit you
will get many suggestions and much information which
help you to buy successfully.
MEAL PLANS AND MARKET LIST
Planning the meals. The first requirement of our
meals of course is that they give us the food elements
we need for health. So the first step in making a market-
ing list for food for a day or more is to plan the meals
for this period. As we plan we must ask ourselves such
questions as "Have I included enough milk, have I listed
some raw foods, have I taken care of the mineral and
vitamin needs of the whole family?" Then we list the
supplies we need to buy for these meals on a slip which
we take to the store with us. Mary's family consisted of
father, mother, Mary, 12, Sue, 10, and John, 6. The
family lived in a large city, in an apartment two blocks
distant from a good shopping district in which was found
a great number and variety of food stores. Mary planned
the following three meals for one of the days on which
she bought the foods. Mary's father came home to
luncheon as his work was in the neighborhood. So the
whole family was home for all three meals.
with Sugar and
Cream of Tomato Soup
Crackers and Cheese
Milk for Sue, Mary, and
Bread and Butter
MEAL PLANS AND MARKET LIST 187
1. Do you think the day's meals are well balanced?
Explain by comparing with the general plan for a
balanced diet, page 177.
Deciding on what to buy. Next Mary had to learn
which of the foods needed to be purchased since there
were some supplies on the pantry shelf and in the re-
frigerator. She found there were no grapefruit.
2. How many would she need to buy in order that
each member might average a little less than a half
grapefruit apiece when scooped from the shell?
3. Suppose that she could get a better price by buy-
ing 3 or 4 at a time. What would you advise her to do?
4. It would be interesting for you to make Mary's
order list. As she makes her decisions, write down each
article and the quantity on a slip of paper.
Mary found there was enough oatmeal for breakfast.
She discovered, however, that the sugar supply was run-
5. For what other dishes besides oatmeal in the day's
menu would she need sugar?
Quantity determined by storage space. Now Mary
had to decide whether she would buy 1 lb., 10 Ibs., or
perhaps even 100 Ibs. of sugar. In the country the
farmer himself must take all of his supplies home since
the grocery stores could not deliver to scattered farm
homes. Also he may go to town but once or twice a
week, especially in busy seasons. Many farmhouses have
large storage spaces, so supplies of all kinds and in large
quantities may be kept. The farmer very often then
buys sugar in 100-lb. sacks. In the tiny kitchenette in
the city, there is no place to store such a large quantity,
so the grocer keeps supplies on hand for people who
live in small apartments. When we buy food in small
packages we usually have to pay more for it per pound
than when we buy it in large quantities. For example,
we may have to pay 10 cents per pound for sugar when
we buy it in 1-lb. packages, but only 6 cents per pound
when we buy 25 Ibs. at a time. However, a large apart-
ment that provides storage space has a higher rent than
a small one in the same locality. We may find it more
convenient to live in the less costly apartment and pay
the grocer more to keep supplies on hand for us and to
deliver it in small quantities as we need it. Mary had
to decide then how much their storage space permitted
before she could know how much sugar to buy. After
discussing it with mother she decided to buy a 10-lb.
6. Since each of the children needed a quart of milk
daily and the parents a pint apiece, how many quarts
would Mary order each morning?
7. Does the day's menu provide for the use of this
The problem of making bread or buying it. Toast
was the next item on the list. Toast, of course, may
be prepared from homemade bread, or from that pur-
chased in the store. Also, bread twenty-four hours or
more old, sometimes known as stale bread, may be
used in this way. Mary found there would be about
one-third of a loaf left after dinner, which would be
enough to make the toast for breakfast. There would
be none left, however, for luncheon or for dinner. Mary,
therefore, was faced with a choice of baking bread at
home or buying it at the baker's or the store. Graham
muffins would be delicious with the apple sauce for lunch-
MEAL PLANS AND MARKET LIST 189
eon and would also supply some of the whole-grain cereal
which she found in her nutrition study was so valuable.
However, it would require more work to prepare the
muffins than to cut the bread bought from the baker.
Since she could not be at home to bake the muffins, she
had to confer with Mother to see whether Mother would
have the time to prepare them for this particular lunch-
eon. Mother offered to make enough of the muffins so
that a supply would be left to be reheated for dinner.
8. What supplies are needed in baking graham
Mary found there was no graham flour but that a suf-
ficient supply of baking powder and salt was on hand.
There was but \ Ib. of butter, but Mother had just pur-
chased a new can of oil. There was one egg left in the
9. Would Mary need to order anything new for the
Mary wondered whether there would be enough milk
if only the regular amount were ordered.
10. Could she use prepared milk in making the muf-
fins? Would you suggest that an extra supply of
canned milk be kept on hand for emergencies?
11. Do you think J Ib. of butter would be sufficient
for the day? For what purposes will she need it?
What would you advise Mary to do?
Amount determined by family practice. Tht
amount of graham flour she would buy would depend
upon whether she, Sue, and Mother had the time to use it
often and whether the family enjoyed homemade graham
breads. Also it depended upon the storage space and
whether the pans and other utensils they possessed would
allow them to do very much baking. Some families, who
have large kitchens and in which the mother and girls
have the time and enjoy cooking, bake many delicacies.
In other families each member may be so busy with other
kinds of work that it is necessary for them to buy their
breads already prepared. Mary's mother as well as Sue
and Mary all enjoyed baking, and as there was a large
can in which it could be kept, Mary decided to buy 10
Ibs. of the flour. Graham flour does not keep very well
in hot weather, and this was in early autumn. Mary and
her mother agreed that they would have to use the flour
soon in order not to waste part of what was left. Mary's
bread order for the whole day was thus solved.
12. Would Mary need eggs for any other part of
the meal? How many would you suggest that she buy?
13. What would she need for preparing cinnamon
General supplies. Since the cinnamon box was nearly
empty, although there probably would be enough left
for the morning, Mary decided to buy another box. In
this way she would avoid forgetting it later. Also, she
might change her mind after putting in an order some
day and want to use cinnamon. It is a good plan to
keep general supplies such as eggs, sugar, flour, and
spices on hand, as this allows us to change our plans in
preparation without making a special trip to the store.
Figuring the amount needed. Mary's family en-
joyed cream of tomato soup made from the canned to-
mato soup. If you do not know how many cans she
will have to buy for her family, you can find out by
making some measurements in the laboratory.
MEAL PLANS AND MARKET LIST 191
14. First decide how many plates of soup each mem-
ber will probably eat. Then find out how many cups
would be served in one plate. You can measure this
with water in the laboratory or at home. How many
cups of soup then would be necessary for the whole
family? What proportion of soup is used to milk? How
many cups of soup are there in one can? How
much milk will you use for this quantity? How many
plates will this mixture make? Will this be enough?
15. How many cans of soup should Mary buy? If
she can buy several at a saving, would you advise her
to lay in a supply?
Mary found there were probably more crackers on
hand than would be needed for this meal. Since we like
to have our crackers fresh, she decided not to buy any
additional at this time.
Planning for future meals. The next supply she
needed to consider was apples. She thought perhaps it
would be a good plan to cook such a quantity of apples
for luncheon that there would be enough left for the next
morning's breakfast. Mary wondered how many apples
or how many pounds of apples she would need for the
two meals. Mother told her that if the apples were large
and sound there would be less waste than if they were
small and bruised, or spotted. The core and peel of
small apples make a larger proportion of waste than do
those of large apples. There is less waste, of course, if
they are prepared with the peel, provided we eat the peel
when the apples are served. Mary could not decide defi-
nitely on how many she would need to buy until she saw
what kinds of apples she might choose. Mother sug-
gested that 4 to 6 Ibs. would be enough, depending on
the kind she would select.
Mary's next question was the kind of cheese to pur-
chase and the amount. The kind of cheese we select
depends upon whether it is to be used at table or in cook-
ing. Her family preferred the soft, prepared cheeses put
up in packages. She decided that a six- or seven-oz.
package would be enough.
16. What cheese would you suggest that Mary buy?
Use of leftovers. This finished the shopping list for
luncheon foods and left but those for dinner. The first
question to decide was what kind and how much meat
to buy for the loaf. Since the meat would be ground
and could be cooked slowly, Mary knew from her cook-
ing lessons that she could buy a less expensive cut.
Mother called Mary's attention to the leftover rice and
tomato. She told Mary about the following recipe for
a meat loaf which was large enough for their family.
Beef (ground) l Ibs. Tomato C.
Cooked Rice 1C. Onion (chopped fine) . . IT.
Green Pepper (chopped Salt
fine) 2 T.
Mary thought a cheaper cut of the round would do.
Mother agreed but suggested that Mary tell the butcher
just what she wanted the meat for, and he might have
on hand such a cut as chuck or neck that would be
suitable if twice ground. They had learned that they
could trust the advice of their butcher. A quarter to a
third of a pound of meat per person is ample for a family
if no bone or other waste is included, especially if one of
the children is small. Onions, but no green peppers, were
17. What will you add to Mary's list?
MEAL PLANS AND MARKET LIST 193
Method of cooking. When Mary looked into the
potato box, she found but a few baking potatoes there.
She knew that some potatoes are used for baking and
others for boiling. She had noticed occasionally when
Mother cooked the baking potatoes that the outside went
to pieces and dissolved in the water before the inside
was soft. She suggested to Mother that they leave the
baking potatoes for another meal and buy some boiling
potatoes for dinner. Since potatoes are used often in
well balanced menus, they decided to buy a peck.
Size of bunch. Mary recalled that at different times
bunches of carrots differed in size. Sometimes the car-
rots themselves were large, sometimes small. Sometimes
there were a few in a bunch, sometimes more. She de-
cided to wait until she got to the store to determine
whether to buy two bunches or three, although she be-
lieved she would need three since they were all very fond
of the sweet young carrots they had been able to purchase.
Waste. Next on the list was the pineapple and cab-
bage salad. First Mary thought of all the ingredients she
would need. She thought she would not need a whole
large head of cabbage for the salad, but decided that
what was left could be used the following day creamed
or buttered. She decided to buy a large head. There
would be less waste in outer leaves and core than in
two small ones. There was a can of crushed pineapple
and some marshmallows in the pantry. Enough salad
dressing was found in the refrigerator.
Mary and Sue decided to bake some peanut cookies
after school. The family was very fond of peanut butter
in sandwiches also. There was a supply of white flour
18. Would you advise that Mary buy a small or
large jar of peanut butter? Why?
19. Would Mary need to buy other ingredients for
20. How many articles have you on the copy you
made of Mary's order list?
21. Show that Mary kept the following in mind when
she made her market list:
a. A well planned meal
b. The supplies on hand
c. The home storage space
d. The time the family could spend in cooking
e. The keeping qualities of foods bought
/. The need for general supplies
g. Buying for more than one meal
h. Use of left-overs
*. Fitting the supply to the manner of cooking
j. Avoiding waste
READINGS. U. S. Bureau of Home Economics, Food selection and
meal planning charts (8).
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. If you are interested in doing
some additional work when you have finished this unit, you will
find suggestions on page 269.
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES
Reasons for careful selection. Mary was now ready
to go to the stores. She was anxious to have her family
enjoy their meals, so decided to select the articles on her
market list as carefully as possible. Mary also knew that
if she made mistakes in buying, some of the food might
be wasted. She and Sue occasionally wished they might
have larger allowances. Mary knew that if money were
carelessly spent upon food, there would be less to use for
other things that the family wanted. Mary knew too that
if she bought more than the family needed, the leftovers
would create a problem. Sometimes leftovers are a source
of considerable waste. She decided to examine each
article carefully, and to go to several stores, perhaps, to
compare the qualities and prices. In this way she would
learn where she could get a good quality at a price that
Freshness in vegetables. We enjoy fresh vegetables
very much. Most people living in large cities seldom can
enjoy the delightful flavors that are to be found in vege-
tables freshly gathered from the kitchen garden. Vege-
tables wilt easily because they are composed of a large
part of water. When any of this water evaporates, the
vegetable shrinks and becomes limp. WTien once this has
happened, a vegetable does not have the same flavor as
Fig. 53. Fresh and wilted vegetables.
Before they wilted the withered vegetables were the same size as the fresh.
when freshly picked. Even though refreshened with cold
water, it can never wholly regain its delicate flavor. Con-
sequently it was important for Mary to select vegetables
that had been so carefully packed for shipping and so
well cared for in the store that they had not wilted.
1. It would be interesting to experiment in class with
a vegetable to see just what effect wilting has on the
flavor. Green beans would be a good vegetable for the
experiment, although any other would do. Buy a
quantity of fresh young beans. Put half of them into
the refrigerator in a jar or other container, after
sprinkling them lightly with water. Allow the other
half to wilt in the warm laboratory. Cook both halves
at the same time in exactly the same way, using a large
quantity of rapidly boiling, salted water. Cook just
till tender. How do they differ in flavor?
How to know fresh vegetables,
fresh vegetables by their appearance.
We can recognize
Green beans from
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 197
which no water has been lost are crisp and firm and of a
fresh color. They snap when a bit is broken off. When
they have wilted, they are limp and tough. Limpness and
a loss of their bright color usually tell us that vegetables
are no longer fresh. The outer leaves of cabbage that is
old are tough, limp, shriveled, and yellowed from loss of
moisture. When beets and other root vegetables are no
longer fresh, their leaves are wilted. When you go to the
store, notice the condition of the different kinds of vege-
2. Describe the appearance of lettuce, celery, and
rhubarb which have lost their freshness.
Time of wilting. As you can see in the illustration,
we use all parts of the plant for food. The leaf of the
plant is thin and has a large amount of exposed surface
covered with pores. Leafy vegetables therefore lose
moisture rapidly. A tuber or root has a much lower per-
centage of exposed surface since it is thicker and so does
not wilt so quickly. Stalks lose their moisture less rap-
idly than leaves, but more rapidly than roots.
3. Name some vegetables that wilt easily, and some
that may be kept longer.
4. If Mary shops at the same time for several days'
meals, would you advise that she choose both of these
classes of vegetables? Make a list that you think would
be good. Which would she use first?
Ripeness. Vegetables are best when they are not
overripe. If they are overripe, they lose in flavor. The
young vegetable contains a considerable amount of sugar
which gives it a naturally sweet and delicate flavor. In
the older vegetable the sugar has turned to starch, and the
sweet flavor is lost. The overripe vegetable is tough be-
Fig. 54. All parts of plants are used for food.
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 199
cause the fiber has hardened, whereas in the young vege-
table the cellulose is still soft. Some of our vegetables
are mature, such as dried beans. These must be soaked
and cooked a long time to soften the tough fiber. The
pods of fresh peas at their prime are all green with no
yellow spots. When the pods begin to get yellow and
shriveled, they have started to mature, and we can ex-
pect the peas to be somewhat hard. Peas should be
shelled as soon as possible after they are bought since
they continue to mature in the pods. Of course, once
shelled they must be kept in a moist, cool atmosphere to
prevent drying until such time as they will be used.
Green beans that are too old are very fibrous and feel
hard. They do not snap as easily as young beans and are
a duller green. Unless of the stringless variety, they have
large, tough strings. Spinach, broccoli, and other greens
show the same toughening of fiber and dulling of color
when they are overripe.
. Amount of waste. Perfect vegetables give little
waste. It is desirable therefore to buy well formed vege-
tables. A well formed potato, for example, has the char-
acteristic potato shape, and in addition it is smooth, with
neither deep depressions nor knobs of extra growth. A
badly formed potato may have areas of rot or may have
a hollowed or discolored interior. Potatoes may be green
from exposure to the sun or may have scars from being
cut in digging. If potatoes have been either frostbitten
or heated in storage, they will be discolored or have
rotted spots, and thick parings must be cut away.
In the photographs, page 200, you can see that in spite
of very careful paring, the poor potatoes gave a waste of
12 oz., while the good potatoes gave a waste of only 5 oz.
Fig. 55. Waste in potatoes.
A. Perfect and imperfect potatoes. B. The same potatoes peeled, show-
ing the amount of waste.
The good potatoes cost 45 ct. a peck while the poor ones
cost 38 ct. a peck. Two pounds of each kind were bought.
A peck of potatoes weighs 15 Ib.
5. How much did each Ib. of good potatoes cost?
6. How much did each Ib. of poor potatoes cost?
To find out which potatoes really cost most, we must
learn how much the edible portion of each cost. A Ib.
weighs 16 oz. In two Ibs., then, there would be 32 oz.
32 oz. 5 oz. (the waste) = 27 oz. of edible portion of
the good potatoes.
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 201
32 oz. --12 oz. (the waste)=20 oz. of edible portion
if the poor potatoes
6 ct. -r- 27==.22 ct., cost per oz. of edible portion of the
16 X .22 ct.=3.5 ct., cost per Ib.
15 X 3.5 ct=52.5 ct., cost per pk.
5 ct. -7- 20=.25 ct., cost per oz. of edible portion of the
16 X -25 ct.=4 ct., cost per Ib.
15X4 ct.=60 ct., cost per pk.
7. Which potatoes do you think were the better buy?
8. In what ways may other vegetables be imperfect?
9. Perhaps your class would like to experiment with
other vegetables in the same way to discover whether
low priced, imperfect vegetables may be a costly pur-
Other qualities. There are other qualities that we
watch for in certain vegetables. A head of cabbage that
is solid may have a smaller core than one that is not so
solid. There is less waste in the same weight of cabbage
in outer leaves when the head is solid than when the head
is not so firm. A solid head of lettuce usually has a better
flavor than one which is not well packed. Since lettuce
is sold at a certain price per head, it is especially im-
portant that we choose firm, well shaped heads. Lettuce
sometimes has brown areas on the edges of the leaves
which look like rust. This discoloration may go entirely
through the head and cause much waste. When lettuce
has been iced for a long time to keep it fresh and is then
exposed to the air, the whiter portions turn pink, espe-
cially along the ribs. Of course, this also causes a great
deal of waste. Tomatoes that are green on the stem side
Fig. 56. Imperfections in tomatoes are a source of waste.
A. A scar that must be cut away rather deeply. B. This tomato has
a good shape and is free of serious imperfections. C. Deep cracks in
this tomato allows the entrance of bacteria that soon cause decay.
D. This tomato is badly shaped and is withered.
although otherwise well colored must be thickly trimmed
before they are suitable for serving and in addition may
have a heavy core.
10. Can you describe qualities in other vegetables
which we choose or avoid when purchasing?
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 203
Courtesy U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Fig. 57. Graded tomatoes in boxes.
Advantages of grading. Well graded vegetables are
worth more than the ungraded. Many of our vegetables
are now graded as to size and quality. For example, to-
matoes of the same size are often packed in boxes by the
wholesale produce dealer who bought from the farmer.
The number of tomatoes in the box is printed on the label.
The wholesaler is careful to put into the box only those
tomatoes that are of good quality. When we buy three
pounds of these graded tomatoes, we can be surer that
they are all good than we could be if we bought three
pounds of tomatoes which were put into a basket as they
were picked, large and small, good and imperfect to-
Graded vegetables cost more than the ungraded but
are worth more. Sometimes, however, the extra cost of
grading does not give enough value to be worth while.
Below is a picture of some Idaho potatoes which were
graded, washed, and wrapped. You can see they are of
exactly the same size and shape. They cost 23 cents for
5 Ib. The other Idaho potatoes were not so carefully
graded as to size, nor so well washed, and they were not
wrapped, but for ordinary purposes would serve very well.
They cost but 15 cents for 5 Ib.
Fig. 58. Baking potatoes may be bought graded and wrapped, as
on the right, or in bulk. Grading and wrapping increases cost.
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 205
11. How much more would it cost to serve 5 Ibs.
of the wrapped potatoes than the unwrapped?
12. Can you give an example when the grading might
be worth the extra cost?
When to buy canned vegetables. This is a question
we often have difficulty in answering. Canned vegetables
usually are quite different in flavor from the fresh. Al-
though the flavor is different, we find some kinds of vege-
tables very desirable if they are well canned. In large
cities it is sometimes difficult to buy really fresh vege-
tables because of the time taken to ship them in from the
farmers and sell them. On the other hand, factories are
often able to gather the vegetables from the field, and can
them within the space of a few hours. The canning fac-
tory also is able to put up vegetables when they are at
just the right stage of maturity, whereas we cannot al-
ways buy fresh vegetables in this condition. Vitamin C,
which is destroyed by long cooking in an open kettle,
seems not to be lost to the same extent when foods are
canned by the factory method. Likewise, the mineral
content and the other vitamins may not be lost to such an
extent in canned vegetables as those badly prepared in the
home. Sometimes, then, canned vegetables are better
in nutrition value than those prepared at home, especially
when the home-prepared vegetables are overcooked.
A comparison of costs. The season of the year de-
termines to a considerable extent whether it is more eco-
nomical to purchase canned or fresh vegetables. Mrs.
Johnson, who lived in a northern city, was interested to
learn one day early in March whether she would be wise
to purchase fresh green beans, since she knew that from
a nutritional standpoint, the canned were probably as
good. Her family particularly enjoyed the flavor of the
fresh beans, although they were well satisfied with a good
grade of the canned. She was interested to find out how
much she would be paying for flavor if she bought the
fresh beans. Below is a table that shows what she learned
when she measured the contents of two cans of beans and
cooked an equal amount of fresh beans and compared the
costs. The cans were of No. 2 size.
1 can = 2 cups Cut bean, tender, large pod, good
flavor 10 cts.
High quality stringless, very ten-
der 17 cts.
Quart = 2 cups Good quality, stringless 25 cts.
The cut beans she judged to be of about the same
degree of tenderness as the fresh, while the stringless
were of better quality.
13. How much would Mrs. Johnson be paying for
flavor in each two cups if she bought the fresh beans
rather than the cut beans? The stringless?
14. Suppose that Mrs. Johnson's family liked beans
and had them on an average of twice a week. Two
number 2 cans were needed for one meal. Suppose she
chose the cut beans instead of the fresh. How much
would she save in a month at this rate?
Similar savings may be made in practically all foods
without lowering the nutritional value of the diet and
without sacrificing satisfactory flavors. You can see that
by careful buying of foods a family might save enough
in a year to buy and do many things that they would
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 207
15. Can you buy canned beans at the prices Mrs.
16. If a woman in Montana and one in Florida made
this study on the same day in March, would they find
the comparisons in costs to be the same? Explain.
17. Perhaps you would like to make a similar study
in the laboratory using a variety of vegetables. You
may get entirely different results from those that Mrs.
Johnson found. Your results will depend upon the
season of the year because the cost of fresh vegetables
is different at different seasons. Your figures may be
different because of the place in which you live. The
north and the south, small towns and large cities, both
vary as to prices of fresh vegetables and also of the
canned of the same quality.
A general rule. In general it is the best practice to
buy fresh fruits and vegetables in season, and to use the
unseasonable foods canned for the sake of their food
values and of variety. Unseasonable fruits and vegetables
often are of poor quality and flavor and give us little
return for our money. However, by improvement in ways
of packing and by shortening the time it takes to ship,
the season of many rather perishable foods is being
lengthened. Our southern states ship huge quantities of
vegetables in late winter and spring into the north, so
that we now have a rather long period when fresh vege-
tables are in season. Formerly we had to wait for warm
weather in near-by regions and our own. Because of
improvements in cold-storage methods, many fruits and
vegetables are to be had fresh almost the entire year.
Things to Keep in Mind When Buying Vegetables
a. Are they fresh or wilted?
b. Are they neither green nor overripe?
c. Are they of such quality that there will be little waste?
d. Are they graded, or are various sizes and qualities mixed?
e. Are they in season?
/. Shall I buy the canned or the fresh?
READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 247-364.
Monroe and Stratton, Food Buying and Our Markets, Ch. xxii.,
Preparation of Fresh Tomatoes for Market, U. S. Department of
Agriculture, Farmer's Bulletin, No. 1291.
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. You will find suggestions for
additional problems on vegetables on page 269.
Variety of fruits. The American table has fruits from
all over the world. We probably import a greater variety
and quantity of fruit than any other kind of food. Figs,
dates, bananas, pomegranates, avocados, and pineapples
are among the fruits very commonly imported fresh. We
now produce many fruits which formerly could be had
only from foreign countries. For example, we produce
dates, ordinarily a tropical fruit, in parts of the southwest.
We have recently come to understand how very impor-
tant it is to have fruit in our diets. As a consequence the
consumption of fruit in the United States has increased
Selecting according to use. Oranges. The use we
make of fruits determines the kind we select. Oranges
bought for juice may be different from those we plan
for a salad or to serve in halves for breakfast. The thin-
skinned, juicy Florida oranges are economical for juice
although they ordinarily contain many seeds. On the
other hand, they do not slice so well for a salad as do
the thicker-skinned, seedless navel oranges from Califor-
nia. Small Florida oranges that may be very cheap are
satisfactory for juice. We prefer the large seedless
oranges, however, if we plan to eat them with a spoon
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 209
from the shell. When we make marmalade, we choose
oranges with a perfect skin. Imperfections that do not
affect the flavor are of no consequence when we do not
use the skin.
Apples. Apples differ very much in quality. A good
eating apple is different from one which may very well
be used in cooking. The Delicious apple justifies its name
as an eating apple yet is inferior to some others for cook-
ing. Ordinarily we prefer apples for cooking to be more
tart than those we choose for eating. Apples may have
somewhat poor color and rough skins and be just as good
for cooking as the more perfect apples we prefer for
eating. Apples differ in the way they cook. Some apples,
especially those that ripen in the summer, break up in
boiling water and make fine, delicate applesauce. Others,
particularly the fall apples, are more firm and make good
stewed apples since they retain their shape. If a syrup is
made of the sugar and water before adding the apples,
they break up still less.
18. What apples which you can buy in your neigh-
borhood make good applesauce? Which keep their
19. If you do not know, perhaps you could experi-
ment to find out.
20. Can you give examples of other fruits, the varie-
ties of which determine the use we make of them?
Waste due to imperfections. Bananas with black
spots on the skin usually have soft and discolored spots
that must be removed. Berries that are no longer fresh
may have mouldy clumps which must be discarded. Some
fruits are more perishable than others. These must have
careful attention and must be used soon after they are
Courtesy G. H. Howe, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station.
Fig. 59. Waste results from imperfections.
These photographs show two of many kinds of imperfections in apples.
purchased. Strawberries and peaches are soft fruits
containing much water, and therefore bruise and mold
easily. Quinces, apples, and pears are examples of fruits
that keep more satisfactorily. Oranges and grapefruit
soften rather quickly in a warm atmosphere and, when
soft, become sour and unfit for use. When the price is
considerably lower, slightly imperfect fruit may be a
more economical purchase. We must always keep in
mind, however, that the flavor may be affected if the
imperfections of fruit extend to the inside.
21. Can you give examples in which imperfections
affect only the outside?
22. Some in which the pulp of the fruit has been
Size and real cost. The size of fruit may affect its
real cost. Small fruits that must be peeled, or seeded,
or both, are less economical than the larger fruits of the
same kind unless they cost much less. On page 211 is
a table that shows that with a much lower cost per pound
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 211
it is more economical to buy the smaller sized fruit in
spite of the greater waste. Prunes and other dried fruits
are graded according to the number it takes to make a
pound. The larger the fruit, the fewer there are in a
23. In which size would there be more seeds per
24. If the seeds were the same size, in which would
there be the more waste?
To find out how much we pay for the portion of the
prune that we can eat (edible portion) we take out the
seeds of a pound of prunes and weigh the pulp. Suppose
that 14 oz. was the edible portion of a pound costing 28
cts. We would be paying 28 cts. for 14 oz. of edible
portion, or 2 cts. per oz. A pound of edible portion then
would cost 32 cts.
COMPARATIVE COSTS OF PRUNES 1
SIZE OF FRUIT
18 to 24 per Ib
m + o 40 *
40 to SO ' "
bou r ht
1 University of Chicago, Department of Home Economics.
Because retailers and purchasers recognize that there
is more waste per pound in the smaller prunes, this size
is cheaper than the larger ones. There may be such a
great difference between the prices that the edible portion
of the smaller prunes is the less costly. However, if
there is little difference in price, the edible portion of the
larger prunes may be the less costly. In the table on
page 211 you will find a comparison of the costs of
prunes of three different sizes and at two different types
25. Flavor being equally good, which prunes would
you buy? Where?
26. Perhaps you could make a similar table for some
other fruit. Oranges may be compared for juice,
apples and other fruits may be peeled and cored for
comparison. You may find the large fruit to be more
27. Is the flavor of the smaller fruit as good as that
of the larger? The way to test this is to have the
teacher put some of each of the fruit on different saucers
so that no one in the class will know which is which.
Then taste and vote on the flavor. Do you think that
the votes would be unbiased if the class talked about
the flavors before voting?
"All-season" fruits. Some fruits ripen over a long
period and may stand for a time. These are "all-season
fruits." The orange, grapefruit, and apple are of this
type. Other fruits are highly seasonal such as peaches
and strawberries. These fruits mature during but a
short season and are difficult to keep fresh. As a result
we do not preserve the orange and grapefruit to any
great extent, because they are preferable from the nutri-
tional standpoint when raw. On the other hand, if we
want peaches occasionally during the entire year, we
must can, dry, or preserve them. Methods of preserving
fruits have reached a high state of perfection. A new
method is that of freezing the fresh fruit and keeping it
frozen solid. When ready to use, it is allowed to thaw
out. In this way cherries, strawberries, and other fruits
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 213
may be eaten practically fresh during any time of the
Increasing variety. Canned and dried fruits differ
in flavor. We like to use both kinds for variety and
because of the nutritional content of the brown dried
fruits. The dried fruits require more preparation than
do the canned. However they are usually cheaper, so
we can reduce our food costs as well as increase variety
by serving both kinds.
28. Compare the cost of canned peaches with dried
peaches. You can do this by measuring the contents
of a can of peaches and finding the cost of an equal
measure of the dried peaches which have been soaked
and cooked. Be sure to soak them long enough to make
them palatable and to have the same amount of liquid
in each case. Estimate the cost of the sugar used.
Things to Keep in Mind When Buying Fruits
a. What use is to be made of them?
b. Will the imperfections cause waste?
c. Considering flavor as well as edible portion, which is better
to buy, small sized fruit at a lower cost, or larger fruit at
a higher cost?
d. Which of those on the market should be purchased fresh?
Which should be purchased canned?
e. Is variety being provided?
READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 43-47.
Monroe and Stratton, Food Buying and Our Markets, Ch. xxii.
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Farmer's Bulletin, No. 1160,
"Diseases of Apples in Storage."
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. There are suggestions for
additional problems on purchasing fruit on page 270.
Grades of canned fruits and vegetables. The same
quality of fruit may be canned in different ways, as for
example sliced and halved peaches, peeled and unpeeled
apricots. Canned fruits are of different grades, the
choicest pieces in heavy syrup making the finest grade
sometimes called fancy. Smaller pieces or large pieces
not quite perfect in shape, size, or color are canned with
a syrup not so sweet, and make the extra standard, or
choice grade. Fruit of imperfect shape, and not uniform
in degree of ripeness or color, in a still lighter syrup is
used in the third grade called standard. Pie fruit is
canned without sugar and makes another grade. All of
this fruit is wholesome but may vary considerably in
flavor. Vegetables also have this grading, the fancy
grade being made up of food having the best color and
the most tender qualities, in pieces of selected size and
shape. Poorer qualities of vegetables are found in the
Brands. Since we cannot examine the contents of
cans in stores, we must have some other way of judging
quality. In the absence of a better way of judging, we
have come to depend upon brand names. Large canning
companies advertise their brands all over the country at
a great expense. They therefore must keep the quality
of their brand as nearly uniform as is possible in order
that people will continue to buy. Otherwise the money
devoted to advertising would be wasted. Small canning
companies do not advertise widely, nor do they depend
so much upon the same people asking for their particular
brand. We therefore may depend more surely upon the
nationally advertised brands than we can upon those
which we buy but occasionally.
. 29. What canned foods does your family buy by
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 215
Brand names unsatisfactory as a guarantee of quality.
If it were possible for canners always to keep the quality
of a certain brand the same, we could select the brand we
consider best at the price and continue to buy it. It is
impossible for canners always to keep the quality the
same. For example, there are many canneries for peas
in Wisconsin. If the weather is cool and enough rain
falls, the peas grown will be very tender and sweet. If
the farmers are careful to pick the peas and bring them
to the cannery when they are just ripe enough, the canned
peas will be very good. In two weeks the weather may
turn very hot, and no rain may fall. The peas that ripen
now will not have the same fine qualities as the earlier
ones. Sometimes the peas for a whole season will be
superior to those of another season. We can see then
that the brand cannot always be depended upon as a
guarantee of quality.
Pure Food Law. In 1906 a law was passed by the
federal government to protect us against harmful in-
gredients in canned foods This law prohibits adulterants
and allows coloring matter only under certain conditions.
When coloring is used, that fact must be stated on the
label. A label must accurately describe the contents.
For example, a whole tomato may not be pictured on a
can of tomato soup. Canning factories must be clean,
and food must not be allowed to overripen or spoil before
it is canned. In 1930 this law was amended at the
request of canners themselves so that further assurance
of quality may be given to those of us who select foods.
The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to describe a
fair standard for the quality and condition of the foods
canned, and the amount in the can. Each label must
state whether the food in that particular can is of this
standard or below it. We must remember that all food
canned is wholesome food. The Pure Food Law guar-
antees this. The amendment will help us to know whether
what we select is above or below the standard of excel-
lence set by the government.
30. Is this more helpful than the guarantee by
31. Can you bring a label of a can to class that
states the quality according to the government standard?
Information from labels. Sometimes labels give us
other helpful information. For example, you may see
on a can of peas a number that indicates the size of the
peas. In certain brands the largest peas are number 6
while the smallest are number 1. However, the size of
the peas alone does not indicate the quality, for the
tiny peas may be hard and flavorless. On page 217 are
pictures of labels, some giving little information, others
32. Discuss the kinds of information that you would
like to have on a can of peas, and tell in what ways
you think each statement would be helpful. Would a
statement of the nutritional value in calories, minerals,
and so on be of value? Would you like to know
whether sugar, salt, and other seasonings have been
added? Can you add anything to the list which would
33. Make a collection of labels of canned goods,
cereal boxes, bottled products, etc., to see how much
information one may get from them that would help
in selecting a quality of product that would be satisfac-
1 LB. 4QZS
JOHN Doc GROCERY Co.
I.S. PAT Off.
EARLY JUNE PEAS
SIZE Na 2 PEAS
1 LB. 4 OZ.
PACKED BY THE
WEST VIRGINIA CANNING CO.
WAYSIDE, WEST VA
ft EC, US PAT OF P.
Fig. 60. Labels on cans.
The label at the top gives only the information required by law in
1930. What additional information is given on the label in the center?
Would the information suggested on the label at the bottom help one to
select canned peas more satisfactorily?
Size of can. All canners use the standard-sized cans.
Following is a table that gives these standard sizes and
the approximate contents of each one in cups. 1
1 ...................... H
2 ...................... 2f
3 ...................... 4
10 ...................... 13i
Cans smaller than the number 1 are used for sardines,
deviled meat, and so on. A number 5 can is put out by
some canners, but is not common. The number 1 can
may be flat, tall, or oval in shape. The number 2 size
is the one commonly used for peas and corn. The num-
ber 3 size was formerly used for tomatoes but is being
abandoned in favor of the number 2^ size. This size is
regularly used for peaches, pears, and other fruits. The
number 10 size is used largely for pie fruit, and for fruit
and vegetables for restaurants and institutions.
34. Make a collection in class of cans of the various
Advantage of buying in quantity. Foods of the same
quality are cheaper when purchased in the larger cans.
You can see why this is true since the can and the labor
of canning the food in the number 1 can is almost as
much as in the number 2^ can. It is to our advantage,
therefore, to choose a can large enough to serve the
family for two meals, when what is left can be kept from
1 Day Monroe and Lenore M. Stratton, Food Buying and Our
Markets (M. Barrows & Co., 1926), p. 188.
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 219
spoiling, rather than a can just large enough for one
meal. In addition, the fruits in the number 2J cans are
usually better than in the number 1 cans.
35. Perhaps you would like to discover just how much
a family might save by buying the larger cans. Choose
any fruit or vegetable or other packaged or canned
food for this study. Examine the labels on cans of
different sizes. 'Each can should be of the same brand
of the same food. Note the net contents of each can in
ounces. Then find out how much each ounce costs.
How much more does an ounce in the smaller can cost
than in the larger? How much would a family save by
buying the larger can instead of enough of the smaller
cans to make an equal amount? Below is an example
that will help you solve your problems.
Small Can Larger Can
Net Contents 3i oz. 8 oz.
Cost 7 cts. 13 cts.
Cost per oz. 7 -*- 3.2 = $.0219 13 -*- 8 = $.0162
Difference between costs per oz.= $.0219-.0162 = .0057
Saved by buying the larger can = $.0057 X 8 = $.04 or 4^ saved on 8 oz.
36. If each member of the class chose a different
food, you might have enough information to compute
the savings on a market list for several days.
Things To Keep in Mind When Buying Canned Goods
a. Different grades may be bought at different prices.
b. It is well to buy by brands when we have no more accurate
way of selecting for quality.
c. We may get some information from labels.
d. It is more economical to purchase larger cans provided no
READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 242-
245, 527, 529.
Monroe and Stratton, Food Buying and Our Markets, Ch. xxi.
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. You will find suggestions for
additional problems on purchasing canned goods on page 270.
Keeping eggs fresh. Freshness is exceedingly impor-
tant in eggs since their flavor is easily spoiled. The shells
of eggs are porous, that is, they allow air to pass through
them. Perfectly fresh eggs fill their shells. When eggs
have stood for a time, some of the moisture has evap-
orated and air spaces have formed in one end. If you
shake stale eggs you can feel and sometimes even hear
the movement of the contents in the shell. As the air
enters the shell it may carry with it bacteria that cause
the egg to spoil as well as flavors that may affect the
taste of the egg. It is always best to keep eggs cool
since these changes take place rapidly if the eggs are
warm. Eggs that shake are not necessarily spoiled. If
they have been kept cold enough, harmful bacteria have
not had a chance to develop. If eggs have not been kept
near strong flavored foods, they will not have taken up
distasteful flavors. Proper storage enables us to keep
eggs in good condition for many weeks. Newly laid eggs
are coated with a film that protects them somewhat. Eggs
should not be washed until ready to use since washing re-
moves this protective coating.
37. Break two eggs, one a week or two old, the other
fresh, into different saucers. How do the yolks differ
in appearance? The whites?
Equalizing the supply of fresh eggs. The supply of
strictly fresh eggs varies. During the cold winter, for
example, hens do not lay as many eggs as they lay in the
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 221
^ * *mi&^
Courtesy Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Fig. 61. Fresh and stale eggs.
A. A fresh egg before the candle and out of the shell. Observe that
the yolk stands up. B. Stale egg, showing a settled yolk and a thin
white before the candle and out of the shell.
spring unless the farmer warms the coop, puts electric
lights in the pens and chooses the feed carefully. When
the pen is lighted morning and evening, the hens may
spend the same length of time eating and scratching as
they do in the summer. This causes them to lay more
eggs. For many years it was the practice for families to
pack eggs in salt, grain, or water glass when eggs were
plentiful and keep them till winter when the supply was
limited. The salt or other preservative protects them
against moving air. This prevents rapid evaporation of
water and the taking up of germs and odors. To-day
cold-storage plants preserve eggs by modern methods,
Eggs are candled before being put into storage. That is,
they are held up before a strong light. If a dark spot
shows in the yolk, it is no longer fresh, and the egg is not
put into storage. The temperature is kept low enough to
prevent the growth of bacteria in the eggs.
Use of cold-storage eggs. Cold-storage eggs differ
from fresh eggs in flavor and in the way they stand up
when broken into a saucer. However they are perfectly
good for use in cooking when other ingredients are mixed
with them. When cooked separately as for breakfast, we
prefer the flavor of a new-laid egg.
Judging eggs. There are certain conditions that make
eggs unfit for food. If they have a rotten-egg odor, if the
yolk sticks to the shell, or if there is a large dark spot in
the yolk, we would not enjoy foods in which they were
used. If the yolk has streaked the white, the egg has
probably spoiled. We must not confuse accidental mixing
of the yolk and white in breaking the egg with actual
Grades of eggs. Besides the grading into fresh and
storage eggs, there are other classifications. Some
farmers keep the nests so clean that the eggs are not
soiled. Such eggs need not be washed when they are
marketed and so may be better flavored than those which
were soiled and washed. Some breeds of hens lay smaller
eggs than others. When we buy eggs by the dozen, we
should not pay as much for a dozen of the smaller eggs
as we pay for a dozen of the larger ones of the same
quality. The color of the shell does not affect the flavor
or the food value of an egg.
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 223
38. By comparing the contents of large and small
eggs, you can see that the large ones are worth more.
How many large eggs does it take to fill half a cup?
How many of the small ones? How many of the
small ones would it take to equal a dozen of the
39. Explain why it might be of advantage to buy
eggs by the pound rather than by the dozen.
40. How many large eggs would it take to make a
pound? How many of the small? What is the weight
of shell in the pound of large eggs? Of the small?
Which should be sold at the lower price?
Things To Remember When Buying Eggs
a. Cold storage eggs are satisfactory to use when mixed with
b. Fresh eggs are most desirable for table use
c. We should not pay as much per dozen for small eggs
. as for large ones
READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 92-95.
Monroe and Stratton, Food Buying and Our Markets, Ch. xxv.
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. On page 270 is given an addi-
tional problem on purchasing eggs.
. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 575, "How to Candle
Spoiling of milk. Milk spoils very easily. That is,
harmful bacteria live and grow rapidly in milk that is
kept warm. Two kinds of bacteria live in milk, one of
which is beneficial to our digestion. This kind causes
milk to sour and thicken into clabber milk. From this
clabber, we make cheese. The other group is composed
of harmful bacteria such as the germs of diphtheria,
tuberculosis, and typhoid fever. If cows are ill with
tuberculosis, their milk will contain the germs of this
disease. Occasionally people are diphtheria carriers.
O Hld for 24 houra
Fm * " 48 "
^ n 72
@ " 'i 96 "
BACTERIAL MILK HELD AT
MILK HELD AT
MILK HELD AT
Courtesy U. S. Bureau of Home Economics.
MILK HELD AT
Fig. 62. A chart showing how bacteria in milk increases at
different temperatures over different periods of time.
That is, even while they do not have this disease, they
carry and scatter the germs. Such a person working in
a dairy could infect all the milk sold by that dairy.
Typhoid germs are carried very often in water. If dairy
utensils are washed in water containing these germs and
are not sterilized by boiling or by steam, all those who
drink milk put into these Utensils are exposed to typhoid.
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 225
Fig. 63. To produce clean milk, the barn, cows and milkers
must be clean.
Notice that this building is light and well ventilated. The stanchions
are of metal and there is no debris about.
Laws concerning milk. In the interests of health,
many states and cities have passed regulations for dairy
companies. In these regions dairy herds must be ex-
amined by government inspectors, who remove all the
cows whose milk might cause illness. All workers must
be in good health. Sterilization of all dairy utensils is
demanded. Milk must be pasteurized and delivered in
bottles with paper caps, on which is printed the day
of pasteurization. Water makes up the bulk of milk.
As you learned in Unit II, the remainder is fat, sugar,
minerals, and protein. In most states the law requires
that milk have a certain percentage of cream. In some
states 4 per cent of the milk must be fat. The govern-
ment helps us by requiring that no dairies sell us milk
that does not have this standard of richness. Many milk
distributors voluntarily provide milk which is richer than
the government standard.
Pasteurization. In pasteurizing, milk is heated to
145 for about 30 minutes, and then cooled very quickly.
This kills the harmful bacteria but allows many of the
beneficial kind to remain. Longer heating at a higher
temperature would change the flavor of the milk a great
deal and would kill all the bacteria present. Pasteurized
milk is safe, even though many germs were present before
treatment. However, we much prefer that our milk be
kept as free from germs as possible before pasteurization,
so we insist that dairies be extremely careful in the way
they handle their milk. Certified milk may be bought in
some regions. This milk has not been pasteurized but
Fig. 64. Milk being bottled in a sanitary way.
Milk is coming from the pasteurizing and cooling vats through the
pipe above the man's head. Each bottle is filled and capped by the
machine before being sent out.
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 227
is taken from tested cows and is handled in such a
careful manner that no disease-producing bacteria are
present. This milk is designed for the feeding of babies
41. Does your state or city have laws regulating dairy
companies? You can find out by writing to the state
department of health at the state capital and to the
department of health in your city.
Handling milk in our homes. We must handle milk
carefully in our homes. Even though milk may be clean
and free from harmful bacteria when it is delivered to us,
careless handling in our homes may cause it to become
unfit for food. It is usually delivered to us in bottles
covered with caps. We should keep it in these bottles in
a cool place and covered. Before removing the cap, we
should wash the top of the bottle carefully, unless it is
double-capped, to remove any bacteria or dirt that may
have collected upon it. We should care for milk, as well
as all other food*-, immediately when it is delivered, since
delay allows it to spoil.
Prepared milk. In many regions it is impossible to
buy fresh milk. Condensed, evaporated, and powdered
milk must then be depended upon to supply the nutri-
tional elements which you found to be so important. In
places where fresh milk costs more than the powdered
or canned, and when otherwise it might not be possible
to buy as much milk as the family needs, the prepared
milk should be used in cooking. In some dishes the pre-
pared milk improves the flavor. Ordinarily we prefer
the fresh milk to drink, although some people learn to
enjoy the prepared kind even as a beverage. For the
food value which milk gives it is cheap at the prices
42. What is the difference between evaporated and
condensed milk? You may learn this by studying the
labels on the cans.
43. Does the evaporated or powdered milk cost less
in your neighborhood than the fresh milk? Follow the
directions on the cans and prepare a quantity of each.
Compare its cost with an equal quantity of fresh milk.
Buying beverages for food value. One day a little
girl, poorly clad and sickly looking, came into a store
with twenty cents. With this money she bought a bottle
of ginger ale. For thirteen cents she might have bought
a quart of milk. Below is a graph that shows how a
bottle of ginger ale compares with milk in its food values.
A quart of milk contains 600 calories while a bottle of
ginger ale has but 136. In the second group, the empty
bottle shows that there is no calcium in ginger ale.
44. Does ginger ale have any protein? Any vitamin?
45. Do you think the little girl chose well?
46. How much might she have saved in a week if
she had bought milk each day instead of ginger ale?
CALORIES CALCIUM PROTEIN VITAMIN
Fig. 65. Ginger ale and other synthetic drinks give little food
value for the money spent.
A small amount of sugar gives them some calorie value; but they are
lacking in minerals and vitamins.
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 229
47. With this saving might she have bought some
article of clothing which would have made her feel and
Things To Remember When Buying Milk
a. Is the milk safe, that is, has it been pasteurized or pro-
duced under conditions that insure its freedom from
b. Does the method of keeping it in the home keep it safe?
c. When shall we buy prepared milk?
READINGS. There are many references on milk which you may
find in the books listed at other places in this unit. Look up milk
in the indexes of these books. What do you find that suggests
there will be information on the pages listed about the purchase of
milk? Review the section on milk to see what are some of the
subjects you might select to read about.
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. On page 271 you will find an
additional problem on milk if you have time when you have finished
the unit. Perhaps you have some problem of your own you would
like to do.
Source of cost. Cheese is made from milk, either
whole or skimmed. The milk is allowed to form curds,
either through the addition of rennet, a substance ex-
tracted from the lining of calves' stomachs, or by souring,
or perhaps by both. Then the whey, the watery portion,
is drained away. The more thoroughly this whey is re-
moved, the harder the cheese becomes. One hundred
pounds of milk makes from 7 to 11 or more pounds of
cheese. The cheeses are cured or ripened for some months
and are treated in different ways in order to obtain the
flavor that is desired. It is this flavor that determines
how costly or how inexpensive a cheese will be. People
who enjoy cheese very much are willing to pay high
prices for the kinds that have the distinctive flavors which
some of the processes give.
Varieties of cheese. A great variety of cheeses were
developed in Europe, countries and many communities
within a country each developing its particular kind.
For many years it was necessary to import these different
varieties. American cheese manufacturers, however, have
now learned to make cheeses of flavors, many of which
resemble closely the European products.
48. Perhaps you could have samples of imported
and domestic Roquefort, Camembert and other cheeses
Hard cheeses. The common American cheese is a
hard cheese, called Cheddar. It is of a light- or deep-
yellow color and comes in round cakes of varying
diameters and thicknesses. From these cakes the grocer
cuts wedges of the size his customers want and sells it
by the pound or part of a pound.
Another hard cheese is Swiss, which is very pale yellow
in color, of a sweet and nutty flavor, and is filled with
small holes. It requires from three to ten months to
ripen this cheese and the more regular the holes, the
better is the cheese judged to be. These cheeses are
very large in size, averaging about 100 pounds each. The
domestic varieties are called Swiss cheese, while the im-
ported is labeled Switzerland cheese. Pineapple and
Edam are also hard cheeses with different flavors.
Semi-hard cheeses. Roquefort. Perhaps this is the
best known of the semi-hard cheeses. It is of a creamy
white color and is streaked with a greenish mold that
grows in the ripening process on the crumbs of bread
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 231
which have been sprinkled into the curds of sheep's milk.
It is ripened in caves which are of such a temperature
and humidity that a particular mold develops to give it
the sharp, nippy flavor which so many people enjoy. It
has been found difficult to treat cheese in this country
to give quite the same flavor.
Camembert and Brie. These cheeses are similar in
flavor and appearance. They are molded in discs about
1^ inches thick and a few inches across. A mold grows
on the outside and develops the flavor of the cheese.
When properly ripened, the cheese is quite soft but does
not run. Both of these kinds of cheese are now made in
Unripened soft cheese. Cottage and Philadelphia
cream cheese are examples of this type. Often manu-
facturers vary soft cheeses by adding seasonings such as
pimento and caraway seeds, each manufacturer having his
Buying cheese. The kind of cheese we purchase
should depend upon how it is to be used. The hard
cheeses keep longer than those that are soft, and so may
be kept on hand for seasonings. Those cheeses that are
particularly valued for their individual flavors such as
Swiss, Roquefort, and Camembert are more expensive
than the ordinary Cheddar cheese and are reserved for
table use. The inexpensive cheeses are used for cooking.
The soft cheeses which have not been ripened must be
kept cool and eaten soon after purchase since they spoil
49. Perhaps you may obtain samples of these cheeses
and others that the class could taste. The unusual
cheeses are considered to be delicacies.
50. A committee may get prices for a rather wide
number of cheeses, both domestic and imported. No-
tice the label to see what is the net weight. Make a
report on relative costs and tell the class what you
think is the reason for the difference. Compute the cost
per pound of each kind.
Things To Keep in Mind When Buying Cheese
a. Which cheese does your family enjoy because of its flavor?
b. Which kinds should be used for the table and which kind
c. How do I expect to use the cheese I am about to purchase?
READINGS. Monroe and Stratton, Food Buying and Our Mar-
kets, Ch. xx.
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Farmer's Bulletin No. 608,
"Varieties of Cheese: Description and Analyses."
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. On page 271 you will find
an additional problem on cheese.
Buying staples. The staples are the foods we use
regularly and may plan to keep on hand. Such articles
as salt, butter, spices, flavorings, vinegar, cocoa, bread,
and breakfast cereals would be classed as staples. Each
article has certain qualities that make it satisfactory.
For example, we like salt to be rather fine grained, and
to remain free from lumps. Sometimes we choose the
kind that contains iodine. We like our spices to be
freshly ground because of the finer flavor and odor.
Small quantities of staples cost more per ounce or pound
than the same quantity costs when bought in larger
amounts. Perhaps your class would like to show that
this is commonly true.
51. Each member of the class might choose a differ-
ent staple and price it in the smallest quantity she can
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 233
buy, and in the largest, and compare the cost per
ounce or pound. Then each might report on what she
has found. Your teacher will help you to select the
52. Would it be advisable for a small family to buy
a large quantity of a staple which is used but seldom?
Breads. Breads of many varieties and qualities are
sold in food stores. Some kinds we choose, both for their
flavor and food values, as rye with or without caraway
seeds, whole wheat, or raisin bran. Breads made with
milk keep moist longer than those made with water.
Fruits such as raisins and dates also help retain the
moisture in bread. We like rather fine grained bread
with a browned crust that is not burned or baked too
hard. We prefer bread but a few hours old since it may
be 24 hours or more before the loaf is entirely consumed.
Some breads have a nutty flavor, especially in the crust,
which we enjoy very much. For sanitary reasons we
prefer bread to be wrapped.
53. What kinds of bread can you buy?
54. Which do you prefer? Why?
55. Do the various loaves differ in weight? How
can you tell?
56. For what qualities do you choose breakfast
Bulk cereals versus the packaged. In some regions
it is difficult to buy oatmeal, corn meal, and other cereals
in bulk. Manufacturers and grocers prefer to handle
them in packages. It takes more time for a grocer's
clerk to weigh a pound of oatmeal than it does to lift a
box down from the shelf. Another reason the grocer
prefers packaged cereals is that it is easier for him to keep
his store looking clean and trim. Those of us who buy
cereals in packages also have certain advantages. We
are more sure to have honest weight because the Pure
Food Law requires that the label tell the net contents.
However, we often buy by the box without knowing how
much or how little we are actually getting for our money.
The box is a handy container to keep in our pantries.
When buying in bulk, we must supply glass or tin con-
tainers. In addition, nationally advertised brands of
breakfast cereals are more likely always to be of the
same quality whereas bulk cereals may vary considerably.
Also if a storekeeper is not careful, bulk cereals may not
be as sanitary as are those which are packaged. How-
ever, equipment for stores is available that insures perfect
cleanliness with reasonable care.
57. Compare the labels on a number of breakfast-
food boxes to see what variation there is in the net
contents. Does the size of the box indicate how much
the contents will weigh? Compare several prepared
cereals with some that require cooking.
The big disadvantage in buying packaged cereals is
the great increase in cost.
58. Perhaps a committee made of two or three mem-
bers of the class would like to get prices of both bulk
and packaged cereals of the same kind, and report to
the class how much more per pound the packaged con-
Things to Keep in Mind When Buying Staples
a. To keep a supply on hand
b. The amount purchased depends upon how much is used,
and the keeping qualities
c. Each staple may have good qualities which we seek to buy
d. When is it worth while to pay the extra cost of packaging?
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 235
READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Home Making, pp. 49-52.
Monroe and Stratton, Food Buying and Our Markets, Ch. xvii,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Farmer's Bulletin No. 1190,
"Rice as Food."
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. On page 271 you will find
some additional problems on buying staples.
Perishableness. The sooner we eat fresh sea foods
and other fish after they are caught the better is their
flavor. Those of us who live inland, particularly if we
are not near large bodies of water, do not have the same
pleasure from fish and sea foods as do those living near
our coasts or the Great Lakes. Fish are frozen and
shipped, and if not thawed until shortly before they are
cooked, may be quite satisfactory. In buying fish, the
odor will tell of its freshness. A fish with a strong odor
should not be purchased. The eyes of a fresh fish are
shiny, not gray and dull. In purchasing fish, perhaps
more than any other kind of food, we must choose an
honest, reliable dealer and depend upon his selling us a
Iodine. Sea foods are especially valuable for their
iodine. For this reason, if we are too far inland for
fresh sea fish, we should occasionally eat canned fish such
as salmon and tuna. In addition, the canned fishes are
cheaper than meat with an equivalent food value. In
this way we can cut down on the cost of our meals.
59. What kinds erf fish are sold in your market?
60. Are any of these caught near where you live?
61. How much does a can of salmon cost? What is
the net contents of the can? How much does an ounce
of the salmon cost? A pound? How does this com-
pare with the cost of round steak?
READING. Monroe and Stratton, Food Buying and Our Mar-
kets, Ch. xxvi.
Identifying meats. One of the most expensive foods,
but one which most people enjoy very much, is meat.
Because we are faced with such great variety in cuts of
meat, our judgment in selecting them must be trained.
Of course we want to supply enough meat to our families
for proper nutrition, of such quality that we will enjoy
it, but at a price that will not prevent us from buying
as much of other foods as we need for health. Since
meat is expensive, it is easily possible to spend too much
of the food money for this one item.
Color. The first step in learning to judge of meat is
to be able to identify the kind of animal from which it
was taken. Beef (from steers and cows) differs in ap-
pearance from veal (from calves). Pork (from hogs)
and mutton (from sheep), and lamb all vary in color.
Freshly cut beef should be a bright, almost cherry red,
while mutton should be a darker, duller, more purplish
red. Fresh pork and lamb are a light pink, the pork of
a grayed pink and lamb slightly purplish, while veal is
a paler pink.
62. Study colored charts of meat which you can get
from the U. S. Department of Agriculture, from pack-
ing houses, and from the Institute of Meat Packers,
to see just what the differences in color are. Later a
trip to a butcher shop will be even more helpful in
training you to distinguish between the meat taken from
different animals by means of its color.
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 237
63. When you make a trip to the butcher shop, you
will want to have a number of things pointed out to you.
Color is one. As you study further, you will discover
others. Start a list of ways in which cuts of meat
differ so that when you go to the shop you will know
for what to look. Add to the list as you discover what
these ways are.
grain of meat
taken from the
mals is some-
The grain of
meat from a
such as veal, is
finer than from
the mature ani-
mal, such as
beef. By grain
we mean the
is given by the
size of the mus-
cle fibers. We
such as lambs
than the mature
Fig. 65. Difference in grain of meat.
At the top is small piece of beef from the
shank, and below is one from the round of veal,
showing a difference in grain. In the beef the
muscles and the lines of white connective tissue
show distinctly that such meat is very tough.
The connective tissue in the veal can hardly be
seen. The white around the edge is fat.
animals. On page 237 is a picture that will help you to
know what is meant by grain.
64. Can you point out on the colored charts that
your teacher will provide good examples of cuts of meat
that are of different grain? Will you add this to your
list of things to see on your trip to the butcher shop?
Size of cut. The size of a whole cut will often tell
us whether the animal was large or small, and so help
us to identify the kind of animal. Rib roasts from any
of the animals are taken from the back, but differ greatly
in size, the beef roast being much longer and larger in
every way than the roasts from other animals. The
figure, page 241, shows the comparative sizes.
Reasons for making common cuts. There are many
different cuts taken from the carcasses of animals. In
different parts of the country butchers may cut up the
carcasses somewhat differently. The attempt always is
to get as many of the tender cuts as possible, since a
higher price can be asked for them. The tenderest cuts
are those of muscles that the animal uses least often.
Animals stand and walk a great deal, so of course the
leg muscles are largest and strongest. The neck and
shoulder muscles are also well developed, while those
in the loin region, that is, the part along the backbone,
are not so well developed, and are therefore more tender.
The tenderness of the cut also depends upon the way
the butcher cuts the meat. If he cuts across the grain,
that is, across the muscles, the piece of meat will be more
tender than if he cuts it in the same direction in which
the muscles run. In carving meat the same rule holds.
Below is a chart of half a beef that will help you to
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 239
I TO 3 SOUP BONES
I -FLANK STEAK
2-STEWS OR HAMBURGER
I -STEWS OR BONED AND
I -STEWS OR BON ED AND fft
I T03 SOUP BONES J^mpr
^-SHOULDER CLOD ^pp*
Courtesy U. S. Department of Agriculture
I TO l<- ROUND STEAKS
15 HEEL OF ROUND
STEAKS OR ROASTS
I TO 6 SIRLOIN STEAKS
I TO <f RIB ROASTS
5 SHORT RIBS
I & 2 BOTTOM CHUCK ROASTS
3 &ATOP CHUCK ROASTS
ST07 CHUCK RI3 ROASTS
I -BONELESS ROASTS
STEWS OR HAMBURGER
Fig. 67. Meat cutting chart.
see how the butcher plans the cuts of meat so as to cut
across the grain wherever possible.
65. In what direction do the muscles along the back-
bone run? In the legs?
66. Which cuts do you think would be most tender?
67. Which do you think would be toughest?
68. Would you like to see half a beef and have the
butcher show you how he would cut it? Perhaps you
can have this done when you visit the shop.
Identifying cuts. Of course, each one of the differ-
ent cuts from an animal has a different shape from the
others. The bones are shaped differently, too, so that
an experienced person can readily tell from which part
of the animal a piece of meat is taken. In a beginning
book such as this it is only possible to describe the shape
and appearance of a few of the more commonly used cuts.
As you buy more meats and notice the pieces from which
the butcher cuts your order, you will gradually come to
recognize more of these cuts.
Shape. On pages 241 and 242 are the pictures of a
number of cuts of meat. A shows different cuts of
the round. Notice that the general shape of the cuts
is the same, and that each has a small round bone toward
69. Locate the place on the carcass (see figure on
page 239) from which ham and round steaks are cut.
70. How do these cuts seem to differ in color? What
difference do you remember from the meat you have
71. Notice the small proportion of bone to meat.
Is there much waste on round cuts?
72. Which cuts seem to have fine grain? Which is
B shows loin cuts. The small end of the pork chop
has been cut away. The tenderest portion of these cuts
lies above the bone. That below the bone is not so tender
although very good, while the tail shaped piece is tougher.
73. How do these cuts compare in size?
74. Can you see why the beef cut is called a T-bone
75. Locate the place on the carcass from which the
loin cuts are made.
76. Would you expect these cuts to be tender? Why?
77. Compare these cuts with those from the round
as to the amount of waste.
Fig. 68. The same cuts of meat from different animals.
A. Cuts from the round. Left, beef; center, veal; right, ham. Notice
the general shape of the meat and the bone in each case. B. Loin cuts.
Left, T-bone steak ; center, loin lamb chop ; right, loin pork chop. The
tender round piece of meat at the right of the bone in each case is
part of the tenderloin. The tail of the pork chop was removed.
Fig. 68. The same cuts of meat from different animals.
C. Rib cuts. Left, beef; center, lamb chop; right, pork chop. The
beef is a two-rib roast. Note the similarity of shape in both cut
C shows rib cuts. Notice that the general shape is the
same. Beef ribs are usually cut into roasts of two or
more ribs. The veal and pork are cut into either chops
of one rib or into roasts of a number of ribs.
78. Locate the place on the carcass from which these
cuts are made.
79. Do these cuts have much waste?
80. On one or more of your charts find the picture of
a rump roast. From which portion of the carcass is
this cut taken?
81. Since this is not as tender as are the rib and
loin cuts, what method of cooking would you recom-
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 243
Courtesy National Live Stock and Meat Board.
Fig. 69. Round steak.
Sections 1 and 3 of the round steak are tenderer than 2 and 4.
82. If you were choosing a portion of the round for
hamburger, which section would be satisfactory?
83. If you were choosing a piece to pan broil, which
section would you choose?
84. Locate the place on the carcass (see figure on
page 239 from which the flank steak is taken.
Notice that this is a thin cut and that the muscles run
lengthwise. Since it is rather tough, it is often scored,
that is, cut partly through in both directions to make
it more tender.
85. What have you added to your list of things to see
in the butcher shop?
These are but a few of the many cuts that are taken
from a whole animal. The neck, chuck, fore shank,
brisket, and plate all provide different kinds. As you
help your mother to plan meals and buy meats, you will
gradually become acquainted with many of these cuts.
Courtesy National Live Stock and Meat Board.
Fig. 70. How a flank steak is removed. .
This is a thin piece of beef with tough fibers. Notice how is it pulled
away from the rest of the flank section.
Using many cuts allows one to provide wide variety in
86. What methods of preparation would be suitable
for a T-bone steak or lamb chop? Explain.
87. Describe a method which would be suitable for
a chuck roast. Explain your reason for this choice of
Recognizing tender cuts. A round steak from a
young steer or cow may be more tender than a T-bone
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 245
steak from an old
if it was badly fed.
We therefore must,
when buying, con-
sider not only the
kind of cut, but
also the appearance
something about its
us to some extent in
selecting good qual-
ities. Every ani-
mal that is killed in
packing houses is
examined by gov-
who reject any ani-
mals that are not
well. All carcasses
that are passed are
stamped with a
round blue stamp,
of harmless vege-
table coloring (Fig.
88. Ha ve y o u
seen such a stamp
on meats? Can
you find this stamp
in the illustration.
Courtesy U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Fig. 71. Beef stamped by the govern-
ment to show its grade or quality.
The lengthwise stamp tells the grade.
The government puts an additional stamp on the high-
est grades of carcasses if asked to do so. This stamp
makes a continuous line from end to end of the carcass.
Since the government does not stamp all the choice meat
in this way, we must learn to tell by the appearance of
cuts whether they are likely to be tender. Of course,
we also take the precaution of selecting a butcher who is
honest in telling us of the quality of his meats. Tender
meat is well mottled. This means that areas of fat are
scattered among the muscles.
89. Find examples of well mottled meat in the il-
lustrations in the book and in the colored charts.
The color of the fat is also an indication of the age
of the animal. A creamy, firm fat indicates that the
animal was young, while if the fat is definitely yellowed
and flabby, the animal was probably old and thin.
90. Add to your list of things to see in the butcher
shop the mottling of meat and the color of fat.
Frozen meats. It is becoming more common for the
packer to do all the cutting of meat. He wraps the vari-
ous cuts and sends them frozen to -retail stores such 'as
groceries, delicatessens, and some butcher shops. Such
meats should be kept frozen until shortly before cooking.
All cuts may be purchased in this form.
Relative cost of cuts. In order to make people will-
ing to buy the tougher cuts, they are priced less than
those from the loin region. The cheaper cuts, moreover,
are just as nutritious as the more expensive, and, if well
prepared, may be tender and of good flavor. In fact, the
well prepared cheap cut is preferable to the badly pre-
pared expensive cut.
CHOOSING FOR GOOD QUALITIES 247
91. How do cooks sometimes spoil tender cuts of
92. How do round steak and porterhouse compare
in price? Rib and rump roasts? Neck meat and T-bone
Choosing cuts for the family. When Mary's mother
bought meat for her family for a week, she found that it
was a good practice to buy the cheaper cuts ordinarily
and occasionally to buy a more expensive piece. In this
way she supplied the nutritional needs of the family but
did not spend so much on meat that it prevented her
from buying the other foods which are so very important.
Things To Remember When Buying Meat
a. Since meat is one of our most expensive foods, we must
be careful not to buy kinds and amounts that will cause
b. We choose different kinds of meat according to the dishes
we wish to prepare.
c. Meat from different animals is different in color, grain,
1. Some cuts of meat have more waste in bone and fat than
e. One government stamp insures that the meat is whole-
some, another that it is of an established grade.
READINGS. Carlotta Greer, Foods and Homemaking, pp. 347-364,
380-388. Especially good for illustrations.
Lanman, McKay and Zuill, The Family's Food, pp. 311-324.
Monroe and Stratton, Food Buying and Our Markets, Ch. xxiii.
"Fresh Meat in Packages," Better Homes and Gardens, June,
1930, p. 49. Especially valuable for true coloring of variety of
tender cuts from different animals.
Bulletins of the National Livestock and Meat Board, 407 South
Dearborn St., Chicago: "Cashing in on Beef," "Cashing in on
Lamb." "Grading and Stamping Prime and Choice Beef Car-
casses," answers many questions about the work of the government
with our meats.
U. S. Department of Agriculture Publications: Circular No. 300.
"Commercial Cuts of Meat," Farmers Bulletin No. 1246, "Market
Classes and Grades of Meat." Bureau of Home Economics Bul-
letins, "Food Selection and Meal Planning," "Refrigeration."
Colored charts of meat cuts for classroom use may be secured
from any of the following packing companies in Chicago: Armour
and Co., National Livestock and Meat Board, Swift and Co., Wil-
son and Co.
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY. On page 272 you will find
some additional problems on buying meat.
PREVENTING WASTE IN STORAGE
Rate of spoiling. Most foods spoil, but some are
more perishable than others and need special care. Fresh
vegetables and fruits, breads, meats, and eggs are some
of the more perishable foods and must be used soon after
they are purchased. Some foods keep for long periods
with proper storage. Navy beans and cereals are ex-
amples of such foods.
Causes of spoiling.
The chief cause for
spoilage is that bac-
teria and molds live
on our foods, and, as
they develop, the
foods become unfit for
use. The air about us
contains a great many
kinds of bacteria and
mold spores. Mold
Fig. 72. Molds are plants.
They grow from spores that scatter
like seeds and float about in the air until
they settle on something.
spores resemble seeds
in the way they de-
velop and produce new
plants. When food is
exposed, some of
these bacteria and mold spores settle on it, and, if the
condition is favorable for their growth, immediately start
to grow and multiply. We cannot see the growth of bac-
teria as we can of molds, but the harmful ones spoil our
foods just as effectively. The decay of meat is the result
of bacterial growth.
1. Perhaps your class would like to perform an ex-
periment to prove that the air holds mold spores that
thrive in a moist, warm condition. You will then be
able to answer the following questions. For directions
for this experiment see page 291 in the Appendix.
2. What is the effect of temperature on the growth of
3. Will the molds grow even in the refrigerator if
foods are kept there too long?
4. What is the effect of sunlight on the growth of
5. Does bread in a bread box offer good conditions
for the growth of molds? Explain.
Controlling the growth of molds and bacteria. By
care we can control the growth of molds and bacteria.
We cannot entirely prevent their presence on our foods,
though by cleanliness and good habits of handling our
foods we can keep the number low. 'We can, however,
make the conditions of growth very poor. A good refrig-
erator, that is, one in which the temperature never gets
higher than 45, is not favorable to the rapid growth of
bacteria or molds. However, if foods are kept even at
this temperature for a long time, molds will develop. If
spoiled foods are allowed to stand in the refrigerator, they
will spread the growths to other foods. Refrigerators
should be kept very clean, since the bacteria and spores
will live in bits of food or dirt that are allowed to col-
lect on the inside of the box, or on the trays. For this
reason, too, we always wipe milk bottles that may have
collected bacteria and mold spores before we put them
into the refrigerator.
Courtesy General Electric Co.
Fig. 73. Many different types of food are preserved in a refriger-
ator. To prevent foods taking up flavors and losing moisture it
is well to cover each food in a dish or with oil paper.
By scalding and sunning the bread box, we kill the
bacteria which might be on the sides and so prevent them
from getting, on fresh bread that is put into the box. If
our plans have miscarried and we cannot use foods im-
mediately, we often cook them anyway in order to kill
any bacteria which might be present and in this way
6. Put a thermometer in your refrigerator at home
to see if it holds the required low temperature. Is
there a difference when the box is filled with ice and
when the ice is mostly melted? A range of 45 to not
higher than 52 is satisfactory.
Other kinds of spoilage. Bread, cake, and cookies
may dry out and so be less desirable. Jars and tin boxes
prevent the escape of moisture. Nuts and other foods
containing oil may become rancid if kept too long where
it is warm. When foods become rancid, it means that
a change has taken place in the oil. A cool, dry place
is best for most staples that are in no danger of drying
out. Cereals are somewhat difficult to keep in warm
weather because a little moth may have laid its eggs in
the cereal. These eggs hatch into tiny worms. For this
reason we do not buy excessive quantities of cereals in
summer, and we keep them tightly covered in boxes or
7. How would you prepare a can which had contained
wormy cereal for a new lot?
Cleanliness. Cleanliness is of chief importance in
the care of foods. People who understand about harm-
ful bacteria are careful to wash all fruits and vegetables
thoroughly with safe water before using, them. Safe
PREVENTING WASTE IN STORAGE 253
From Hunter and Whitman, ''Civic Science in the Community" (.American Book Co.)
Fig. 74. Flies spread disease.
1. Foot of fly. 2. Growth of bacteria in agar along path of fly,
which walked on it. 3. The manure pile is the favorite breeding
place ^of flies.
water is free from disease-producing bacteria. All food
utensils are kept very clean. Screens on their windows
and all other openings keep out flies that may track bac-
teria over their foods. Streets are washed and sprinkled
to keep down the dust. Thoughtful people wash their
hands carefully before handling food. We expect habits
of cleanliness in all of our friends.
Quantity buying and spoilage. It is wasteful to
buy foods when we cannot prevent spoilage. Although
it is sometimes possible to buy a larger quantity at a
saving, if we waste part of the food, our bargain may
have been costly. Margaret saw an advertisement of
two dozen bananas for 60 cts. In other stores bananas
of equal size were selling for 40 cts. a dozen. She thought
the two dozen for 60 cts. were a bargain as she would be
buying the second dozen for 20 cts.
8. How did she figure this?
When she got the bananas home, she found that they
were riper than she had thought. She planned for her
family, which was small, to use them as rapidly as pos-
sible, but in spite of her plans and the best care she
could give them, six of the bananas spoiled and about
one-third of each of nine others was wasted because of
9. About how many bananas did she have to discard?
10. At 60 cents for two dozen, how much did each
11. How much money then was wasted?
12. Were the two dozen bananas a bargain?
13. Can you relate another experience that shows that
it is unwise to buy too large a quantity when we cannot
READINGS. Hunter and Whitman, Civic Science in the Home,
Ava Johnson, Bacteria of the Home, Ch. vii, pp. 61-69, "Food
Purchasing," Ch. viii, pp. 69-75, "Food Care," Ch. vi, pp. 57-60,
Herbert W. Conn, Bacteria, Yeasts and Molds of the Home.
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 1374, "Care of
Food in the Home."
COST OF SERVICE
Raising a grapefruit tree. Many people work at
raising foods. Since the places where our foods are
grown are scattered all over the world, we can see that
many different people will have to work with them before
they may be served on our tables. For example, we
might study about the work that must be done before we
may have grapefruit for breakfast. Let us suppose that
this particular grapefruit came from Southern Texas.
Some one had to plant a grapefruit seed and raise the
seedling tree. Some one else, perhaps, cleared the land
Courtesy Texas Citrus Fruit Grouvrs Exchange.
Fig. 75. Trees in a grapefruit orchard.
Courtesy Texas Citrus Fruit Growers Exchange.
Fig. 76. Grapefruit on the tree.
and set the little seedling with many of its fellows in a
row. Since very little rain falls in this region, still other
people had to develop an irrigation system. That is, they
had to build ditches to carry water from the Rio Grande
River so that occasionally water could be brought to the
trees as they grew. For several years after it is planted
the grapefruit tree does not bear fruit. But some one
must keep the ground about it clear of weeds, must see
that water is supplied, and must spray the tree to kill the
insects that might destroy it.
Sometimes the temperature goes down to freezing or
a bit below. Grapefruit trees are killed by frost very
easily. When the temperature threatens to go below
freezing, orchard men sometimes light wood fires, or coke
or oil heaters among the trees. This is work that must
COST OF SERVICE
be done occasionally if we are to be able to enjoy grape-
Harvesting a,nd packing. Other people must har-
vest and pack the foods. Let us say that the trees are
now ready to bear fruit. Some one must pick the fruit,
must sort it for size and discard any that is imperfect.
The perfect fruit is wrapped in paper, and packed in
boxes or crates especially made for grapefruit. The
Courtesy California Fruit Growers Exchange.
Fig. 77. Grading and packing oranges. Grapefruit are graded
and packed similarity.
The grapefruit come down the runway between the rolls, the smaller
dropping out first, the larger coming to the front of the picture. The
grapefruit fall into the bins from which they are packed into crates.
The number of grapefruit in the crate depends upon their size
larger the grapefruit, the fewer can be put in the box.
A label is put on the box that tells how many the box
contains. Many people are employed in making the
boxes. Some cut the lumber, others ship it, and still
others saw the lumber in the right sizes and make the
crates. Another group mines the metal and makes the
nails and arranges to get them into the hands of those
workers who are making the boxes. Still other workers
make the paper and print the labels.
Unless food is eaten on the farm where it is produced,
much labor must be put upon it to get it to the place
where it is consumed in such a condition that there will
be little waste. Obviously, it would be a mistake to
transport and sell poor vegetables and fruits unless there
is a shortage of foods of good quality. Retailers and
wholesalers of food therefore are coming to demand that
farmers be more careful to sort and grade their produce.
Transporting. Still other workers must take the
grapefruit to market. When the box of fruit is packed,
it is taken to the railroad where it is placed in a refrig-
erator car. Think of all the people whose work was
needed to make the car which will bring the grapefruit to
our city. Think of all the people who will have some-
thing to do with getting it to us. There is the engineer,
the fireman, the brakeman, the train dispatcher, the truck
drivers who take it to and from the railroad, and the
wholesale man to whom it was addressed.
Retailing. The neighborhood grocer adds his work.
The wholesale merchant sells the grapefruit to your
grocer who in turn sells it to you. Your grocer puts it
into a paper sack made by some one, and the delivery
boy brings it to your door. Perhaps ten thousand or
COST OF SERVICE
Courtesy Pacific Fruit Express.
Fig. 78. Interior of a refrigerator car.
Platforms are seen against the walls in the foreground. When
placed on the floor they permit air circulation beneath the fruit.
When the doors at the end are closed, they form a compartment into
which ice is put through openings in the roof of the car.
more people have been directly or indirectly at work to
make it possible for you to enjoy this delicious grape-
fruit for breakfast. The money we give helps to pay
all of these people for their work.
Services of the storekeeper. Most neighborhoods
have a variety of food stores. Some sell for cash alone
and do not deliver goods. At others customers may pay
each week or each month, and their purchases are brought
to their doors. Prices at the cash-and-carry stores, as
stores of the first type are called, are usually lower.
These stores do not need to pay for so much help since
the customers do part of the work by selecting the food
and carrying it home. Then, too, since every one pays
cash, there is no loss from people who fail to pay their
bills on time or who even are dishonest and move away
without paying at all.
When we buy at stores where we help ourselves, it is
important that we be able to select foods of good quality.
This is especially true since some of the cash-and-carry-
stores do not have the best grade in fresh foods. The
stores that deliver often carry better grades of fresh
vegetables and fruits, and in addition the clerks are
trained to know when foods are good. An inexperienced
buyer may waste money rather than save it when she
patronizes stores in which she must make the choices.
However, to learn we must have the experience of select-
ing. In buying branded goods we are not so likely to
make mistakes for both kinds of stores sell identical
Costs in money or in labor. As you read further
you will see that either we must pay people to do the
work necessary for us to have food or we must do this
work ourselves. The price of our flour pays not only
the farmer who raised the wheat, but also the milling
company that ground the wheat into flour and the grocer
who sold it to us. If we buy flour in the form of bread
or cake, we must spend more for it since the baker is
one more person who must be paid for his work. The
additional cost in many cases is very slight. If the
baker produces thousands of loaves, he can afford to take
a surprisingly small profit on each loaf. In restaurants
We expect to pay more for food than in our homes since
cooks, cashiers, waiters, and various other workers must
COST OF SERVICE 261
be paid for their labor. If we buy food in the unfinished
form, we pay less money, but we must add our own work
to it. That is, some of the pay for our food is in the
form of our own work.
1. If you or some other member of the class has an
opportunity, buy a glass of orange juice at a soda foun-
tain. Watch the clerk to see how many oranges he
uses to make the drink. Or find out in some other way
how a glass of real orange juice is made at the fountain.
How much would it cost to make a similar drink at
home? Which costs most?
2. Make a list of foods that- we sometimes buy pre-
pared and sometimes prepare at home.
3. Make a list of foods ready-to-eat that we cannot
prepare in our homes.
4. Make a list of dishes that we must prepare at
home unless we choose to eat in restaurants.
5. Do you know of any special family dishes that
you could not find in restaurants?
Contribution of the family in work. In some fam-
ilies, half or more of all the father is able to earn may
have to be spent for food. As the income increases not
so large a proportion of the income needs to be devoted
to this item. However, most families find that the money
needed for food takes a considerable amount of the fam-
ily income. Mother, helped by her family, gives many
hours of her time and work to prepare this food and serve
it. She must plan the meals, go to the stores and select
the food, and perhaps carry some of it home. Then she
washes and peels, slices, cooks and bakes, and the foods
develop into such forms that we eat with pleasure. She
must see that dishes and linen are clean, that there is
orderly and well mannered conduct at the table. Each
steaming dish may represent work on the part of father,
mother, and perhaps every other member of the family.
6. Select some dish which you, your father, and your
mother all helped to provide. Show how each helped.
Below are problems showing in several instances how
much value is given to foods by the work of members of
John and Mary enjoyed eating popcorn with milk for
Sunday evening supper. Sometimes they bought it al-
ready popped, sometimes they popped it themselves. One
day the discussion arose as to how much more expensive
it was to buy it already prepared. John and Mary de-
cided they would experiment to find out. They discov-
ered that a ten-cent box of good quality corn held five
cups. A can of fine quality shelled pop corn containing
1^ c. also cost 10 ct. When popped it made 18 C. They
tried very carefully to give their corn the same flavor
as that they bought when they added butter. They de-
cided that 3J T. butter, or about % lb. was the
amount needed. Since this butter cost 35 ct. per lb., the
cost of the butter would be 3.5 ct.
10 ct. + 3.5 ct. = 13.5 ct., the cost of 18 C.
13.5 ct.-r- 18 = .75 ct. or f ct., the cost of one C.
5 X I ct. = 3| ct., the cost of 5 C.
7. How many boxes of popcorn could John and Mary
pop at home for 10 ct.?
Their mother decided she would find out how much she
paid for the work of other people when she bought any
one of a number of dishes already prepared. Among
others she studied baked apples. She could buy one at
the delicatessen for 10 ct. Apples of the same size and
kind at a cash-and-carry store cost 25 ct. for a dozen,
or about 2 ct. each. She found she needed about 4 T.
COST OF SERVICE 263
of sugar for each apple to make it about as sweet as the
one she bought. There are about 2 C. or 32 T. of sugar
in each pound, so she used about 1/8 of a Ib. for each
apple. She bought sugar at the same store in which she
bought the apples for 48 ct. for 10 Ib. or 4.8 ct. per Ib.
1 of 4.8 ct. = .6 ct. for each apple.
2 ct. -f- .6 = 2.6 ct., the cost of an apple baked at home.
Since Mary's mother planned to bake other foods at
the same time she baked apples, she judged that the cost
of the gas used for each apple could not be more than
8. At the total cost about how many apples could be
baked for 10 ct?
In some families foods already cooked must be pur-
chased because no member of the family has the time for
preparing them at home. This is particularly true when
the mother works. Then some of the money that the
mother earns must be used to pay for the extra prepara-
tion. Girls can sometimes make it possible to buy more
with the money spent for food by helping to cook.
9. Can you give an example showing how much you
contributed by cooking some dish? Compare what
you paid for the raw materials with what you would
have had to pay for the cooked food.
READING. L. C. Marshall, Readings in the Story of Human
Progress, pp. 153-165, 187-192, 308-313, 314-321, 322-330, 426-432.
RESPONSIBILITIES OF BUYER AND
The helpful storekeeper. Advice. How can the
storekeeper help us? If he is reliable, that is, if he tells
the truth about the condition and quality of his goods,
we can be more certain to buy what will satisfy us. For
example, there is little information on labels to tell us
what is inside of a can. A storekeeper who can de-
scribe accurately the contents of a can is very helpful.
It is quite difficult to judge certain produce, as melons,
without a great deal of experience. If we can depend
upon the dealer to make good selections for us, we will
many times be saved unnecessary disappointments.
Sanitation. We expect our storekeepers to keep foods
such as meat and butter in a clean refrigerator, because
they soon spoil if exposed in a warm atmosphere. We
expect him to keep cookies, dried fruits, and so on, cov-
ered so that dust and bacteria may not settle upon them
and so that the clothing of neither buyer nor clerk may
brush over them. Do you think that people ought to
take dogs or cats into stores if it is possible for them to
sniff at foods? We expect stores to be clean and clerks to
have clean hands and clothes. We expect stores to be
free from flies, cockroaches, mice, and other pests.
Honesty. We expect a storekeeper to give us honest
weight. We do not tempt him to give us short measure
by asking for 10 cts. or 15 cts. worth of an article. We
always buy, when possible, by a definite weight or meas-
BUYER AND STOREKEEPER
Fig. 79. Insects and bacteria spoil foods exposed on the street.
ure so that we may hold the merchant to giving us the
full amount. We expect the grocer to make deliveries
when he says he will, and we expect him to wrap our
groceries carefully so that they will not be soiled or
crushed while being delivered. If the goods he delivers
are not what he says they will be, we expect him to re-
Courtesy Diversey Store Fixture Company.
Fig. 80. A sanitary store.
place them with the promised articles. If we have a
charge account we expect him to send us an accurate bill
at stated times.
Choosing the store. If a storekeeper satisfies us in
the ways described, we say he is reliable. In selecting a
store with which to deal, reliability is of great importance.
If we refuse to deal with storekeepers who are not trust-
worthy, they will be forced to improve to keep their
trade. In addition we select the store that carries a qual-
ity of goods justified by the amount of money they cost.
There is a great difference in the qualities that different
stores carry and therefore in the prices they must charge.
It is possible to buy satisfactory groceries and other foods
at a much lower price than is charged by storekeepers
BUYER AND STOREKEEPER 267
who handle only the best and give much service. Each
one of us must decide whether it is more important to
have the highest priced foods, or to have more money to
spend for some other things that we should enjoy. As
you learned in the nutrition unit, the amount we pay
for our foods does not tell us whether we are well fed,
since we may choose expensive foods of poor nutritional
value. A wholesome, medium quality of product may
have the same food value as the very choicest, particu-
larly if choosing the most expensive keeps us from buy-
ing as much food or as great a variety as we need.
Responsibility of the buyer. Honesty. The store-
keeper expects those who buy from him to be reliable,
also. He expects us to pay our bills promptly, since if
we do not pay him promptly, he cannot pay his bills at
the proper time. The wholesale houses from which the
grocer buys usually sell to him more cheaply if the grocer
pays within ten days, and somewhat less cheaply if he
pays within thirty days. Therefore the grocer can afford
to sell his goods more cheaply if his customers help him
to take advantage of a discount. In the end then, when
we fail to pay our bills promptly, we increase the price
we must pay for our foods. If we send goods back that
have been damaged due to our own carelessness, we are
increasing the cost of the goods, since the grocer must put
a retail price on his goods that will make all losses
Courtesy. When we go into a store, we should take
our turn, allowing those who were in the store before us
to be waited on ahead of us. The well-bred person ex-
hibits the same courtesy in a store that he shows in other
Intelligence. The more intelligent a purchaser is, the
better will a grocer be able to serve her. For example, if
we know just what we want when we go into a store, we
can be accurate in describing our wants to the clerk,
and he can help us promptly and accurately. If we are
good judges of quantity, we can tell quickly whether a
certain amount will satisfy our needs. Also if we are
intelligent we will not expect a grocer to supply out-of-
season goods at the same price or of the same quality
as when it is in season. We will know whether the value
we get from unseasonable goods is worth the price asked.
If we are intelligent about our purchasing, we will be fair
in not asking for special delivery except in urgent and
unavoidable circumstances. We will not expect impos-
sible kinds of service. We must remember that if we
ask extra service from a grocer he will have to be paid
for this service and so will have to increase the price he
asks for food.
Saving of time. At best the purchasing of food takes
much time. If we can use the telephone, we can save
time both for ourselves and for the grocer. There are,
however, only some kinds of foods that may commonly
be ordered satisfactorily in this way. A brand of canned
goods, cereals, flour, and so on can be safely ordered
without inspection. On the other hand, such things as
green beans and oranges vary with each lot the grocer
buys. We may need to see such supplies if we are to
judge whether they are what we need and whether they
are worth the price asked. In addition, trips to the store
keep us acquainted with prices as they go up and down
and enable us to get more for our money. Many times,
too, new dishes are suggested by the foods on display.
BUYER AND STOREKEEPER 269
Another way to save time is to have a market list. This
enables us to give our or.der quickly with no time wasted
in the store thinking about what we need. The grocer
recognizes the purchaser who is honest, courteous, and
intelligent in her demands and is likely to give her better
READING. Trilling, Williams, and Reeves, A Girl's Problems in
Home Economics, pp. 525-532.
Readings will be found at appropriate places throughout this unit.
SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
On Making a Market List
Plan the menus for your family for three days and make the
market list based on these menus. Perhaps your mother will help
you as Mary's mother helped her. Is there a member of your
family who is under five years of age? Check through your menus
to see if you can select suitable meals for him from the family
dishes. Are there any family dishes you would not give him?
Should you buy additional foods for him?
On Purchasing Vegetables
1. Make a list of vegetables which you judge from the price to
be in season. State where each was grown. You might put your
information in the form of a table.
2. If you drive to the country for some of your vegetables, you
might estimate the cost of these vegetables. Find out from your
father how much it costs to run your car a mile. How much did
it cost to make one round trip? What quantity did you buy?
How much was added to the cost of each dollar's worth? How
much would you have paid for the same amount and the same qual-
ity in a store? Would it pay to make the trip especially for the
On Purchasing Fruits
1. Make a list of fruits which you would judge from the price
to be in season. Also state where each food was grown. You
might put your information in a table.
2. Visit a fruit farm on which fruit is dried for market. De-
scribe the process.
3. If you live where fresh fruits are prepared for market, tell
how it is done.
4. Squeeze the juice from large thick skinned oranges and from
smaller thin skinned ones. How many of the large oranges did it
take to make a cup? How many of the smaller? How much did
each cup of juice cost? Which oranges would you buy for juice?
On Purchasing Canned Goods
1. Make an oral report of a visit to a canning factory. Explain
fully how the factory plans to produce foods which are clean and
of good quality. Your audience will probably be more interested
in your talk if you have planned it well and made an outline.
2. Describe how some fruit or vegetable is canned in the home,
telling in what way each step is important. You might write to
the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C., for gov-
ernment bulletins on home canning. Many of your references also
tell about canning in the home.
On Purchasing Eggs
1. There are a number of ways in which eggs are marketed.
Among them are in stores in sealed cartons and in bulk; from the
dairy man; delivered by farmers or egg collectors; by parcel post
SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDY
from farmers. Perhaps you can add others to the list. If it is
possible to buy i or ^ dozen from a number of such sources, com-
pare the eggs for freshness, size, and price.
On Purchasing Milk
1. Make an oral report of a visit to a dairy. Can you tell how
the milk is pasteurized and bottled? Explain fully how the factory
plans to produce foods which are clean and of good quality. Your
audience will probably be more interested in your talk if you have
made an outline.
On Purchasing Cheese
1. The methods of making different cheeses and the stories of
how they were developed are quite interesting. Perhaps you could
make a report to class on some of them. Look up the ones in which
you are interested in the references listed, and also in encyclopedias.
On Purchasing Staples
1. Perhaps your teacher will allow you to purchase a loaf of
white bread from each: a delicatessen, a bakery, a cash-and-carry
store, and a regular grocery store. Study these loaves and get ready
to tell the class what you have found. Weigh each loaf, and make
a chart listing each loaf, its weight and cost. Tell what you found
as to flavor, evenness of grain, and shape of loaf. Have the other
members examine the bread as you tell them about it. Are the
crusts an even golden brown, of good flavor, and even in thickness?
Were all of the loaves wrapped?
2. Some staples such as flour and sugar vary little in price be-
tween stores or between similar brands. Price ten pound sacks of
bread flour at two or three stores, getting the price on 2 or 3 of
the same brands at each of the stores. Put your figures into a
table such as this:
On Purchasing Meat
1. Make a list of as many beef cuts as you can, and in another
column put the methods of preparation that would be suitable for
2. To do this problem study charts and booklets that you can
get from packing houses showing how the different animals are
divided into cuts. Also ask your butcher to help you with any
question that you cannot answer by consulting the charts and
booklets. Fill in the spaces below with the name of the cut or
cuts made from the different sections of the carcass. If no cut
is made draw a line, , in the space.
On Food Spoilage
1. You might perform an experiment to prove that cooking and
the addition of sugar delay spoilage. Apples would be a good food
to use. Cut an apple in two and place it cut side up on a saucer.
Cover it with a dish to prevent the apple from drying. You might
put a small piece of wet cotton under the dish to insure a moist
atmosphere. If the dish is glass, you can observe the growth
of the mold without removing it. Cook the remaining half of
SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDY 273
the apple and another in a small pan with enough water to keep
them from burning. When thoroughly cooked, dip out half of
the quantity onto a saucer. Add about as much sugar to the
applesauce in the kettle as there is sauce. When it has boiled, put
it onto a third saucer. Put each of these saucers under separate
bell jars or glass bowls. If you use cotton for the piece of apple,
also use it for the cooked apple. The warmer the room tempera-
ture, the more quickly will mold develop. Notice which of the
dishes develops mold colonies first, and which keeps the longest.
What is your conclusion as to the effect of cooking and the addi-
tion of a large proportion of sugar in delaying spoilage? Can you
explain why this happens?
On Costs of Foods
1. Select one of the foods listed below, or another if you prefer,
and show the wide variety of services for which we pay when
we buy it.
Butter Canned ham
Milk Dried prunes
Canned pineapple Potato
Peanut butter Sugar
2. Perhaps you could make a report to the class of what you
have seen a grocer do which shows thoughtfulness and courtesy to-
ward his customers. Also cases of courtesy shown by customers.
BROWN, B. M., Good Health for Boys and Girls (Ginn and Co.,
Coxx, Herbert W., Bacteria, Yeasts, and Molds (Ginn and Co.,
CUZZORT, B., and TRASK, J. M., Health and Health Practices (D.
C. Heath and Co., 1923).
FARMER, Fanny M., The Boston Cooking School Cook Book (Little,
Brown and Co., 1927).
GREER, Carlotta' C., Foods and Homemaking (Allyn and Bacon,
HARRIS, Jessie W., and LACEY, Elisabeth B., Everyday Foods
(Houghton Mifflin Co., 1927).
HUNTER, George, and WHITMAN, Walter, Civic Science in the Home
(American Book Co., 1921).
JOHNSON, Ava, Bacteria of the Home (The Manual Arts Press,
KINYON, Kate, and HOPKINS, Thomas, Junior Food and Clothing
(J. B. Lippincott Co., 1928).
LANMAN, Faith R., McKAY, Hughina, and ZUILL, Francis, The
Family's Food (J. B. Lippincott Co., 1931).
MARSHALL, Leon C., Readings in the Story of Human Progress
(The Macmillan Co., 1926).
McCoLLUM, E. V., and SIMMOXDS, N., Food, Nutrition and Health
(Lord Baltimore Press, 1925).
MONROE, Day, and STRATTON, Lenore M., Food Buying and Our
Markets (Barrows Co., 1926).
PETERSON, A. J., and BADENOCH, N., Simplified Cooking (Ameri-
can School of Home Economics, 1928).
Settlement Cookbook (Settlement Publishing Co., 1930).
TRILLING, Mabel, WILLIAMS, Florence, and REEVES, Grace G., A
Girl's Problems in Home Economics (J. B. Lippincott Co.,
WILLARD, Florence, and GILLETT, Lucy H., Dietetics for High
Schools (The Macmillan Co., 1930).
276 PUPILS' REFERENCES
WINCHELL, Florence E., Food Facts for Every Day (J. B. Lip-
pincott Co., 1924).
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Farmers' Bulletins.
"Cooking Beef According to the Cut," Leaflet No. 17, St.
"Diseases of Apples in Storage," No. 1160, St.
"How to Candle Eggs," No. 565, 400.
"Market Classes and Grades of Meat," No. 1246, 300.
"Preparation of Fresh Tomatoes for Market," No. 1291.
"Rice as Food," No. 1195.
"Varieties of Cheese: Descriptions and Analyses," No. 608, 100.
University of Colorado, Agricultural Extension Service Bulletins.
"Lamb Cuts and Recipes."
"Planning the Family Meal."
"Sandwiches and Salads."
Institute of American Meat Packers (506 So. Wabash Ave., Chi-
cago), Department of Home Economics Bulletin.
"Liver, Nutritive Value and Ways of Serving."
National Live Stock and Meat Board (407 So. Dearborn Street,
"Cashing in on Beef."
"Cashing in on Lamb."
"Grading and Stamping Prime and Choice Beef Carcasses."
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Home Economics.
"Food Selection and Meat Planning Chart."
Armour Packing Co. (Chicago, 111.).
"Armour's Star Beef Chart."
"Armour's Lamb, Pork, and Veal Cuts."
Swift and Company (Chicago, 111.), "Educational Advertisement
Institute of American Meat Packers (506 So. Wabash Avenue, Chi-
cago), "Meat Buyer's Guide."
National Live Stock and Meat Board (407 So. Dearborn Street,
Chicago), "Identification of Wholesale and Retail Cuts."
HALLIDAY, E. G., and NOBLE, L, Hows and Whys of Cooking
(University of Chicago Press, 1928).
National Livestock and Meat Board, "Meat and Meat Cookery"
(407 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, 1930).
BOGERT, L. Jean, Nutrition and Well Being (W. B. Saunders, 1931).
BLUNT, Katharine and COWAN, Ruth, Ultraviolet Light and Vita-
min D in Nutrition (The University of Chicago Press, 1930).
EMERSON, William R. P., Nutrition and Growth in Children (D.
Appleton Co., 1922).
MCCOLLUM, E. V., and SIMMONDS, Nina B., Newer Knowledge of
Nutrition (The Macmillan Co., 1929).
ROBERTS, Lydia J., Nutrition Work with Children (The University
of Chicago Press, 1927). Especially well adapted as a back-
ground for teaching nutrition in junior high school. Has an
especially good list of sources of illustrative materials, pp.
ROSE, Mary Swartz, Feeding the Family (The Macmillan Co.,
SHERMAN, Henry C, Chemistry of Food and Nutrition (The Mac-
millan Co., revised edition, 1932).
SPENCER, G., An Animal Feeding Experiment, Showing the Effect
of Deficient Diet on Growth (Division of Extension, University
of Texas, Austin, Texas, 1926, 254).
The American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 96, No. 2, February,
1931, "The Vitamins A and D Content of Some Margarines."
A reprint may be obtained from the John F. Jelke Co.,
278 TEACHERS' REFERENCES
HOFER, C, "Health Program in the Public Schools of Joliet,"
Elementary School Journal, Vol. 22, June, 1922, p. 764.
BLANTON, S., "Mental and Nervous Changes in the Children of the
Volkschulen of Trier, Germany, Caused by Undernutrition,"
Mental Hygiene, III, July, 1919, p. 346.
CHAPLIN, EL, "What Are the Signs of Health, with Special Ref-
erence to Nutrition," Journal of Home Economics, Vol. 18,
August, 1926, p. 485.
FITZGERALD, N., "Nutrition in Public Schools," Journal of Home
Economics, Vol. 16, June, 1924, p. 310.
HARPER, M. A., "Nutrition Classes for Children," Journal of Home
Economics, Vol. 11, November, 1919, p. 471.
MUDGE, G. G., "The Evolution of the Nutrition Class Program,"
Journal of Home Economics, Vol. 14, September, 1922, pp.
STOVER, A. D., and MUDGE, G. G., "The Red Cross Nutrition Pro-
gram in New York City," Journal of Home Economics, Vol.
13, November, 1921, p. 536.
WARDALL, Ruth, "Nutrition and Health Classes for Children,"
Journal of Home Economics, Vol. 13, November, 1921, p.
ROBERTS, Lydia J., "Teaching Children to Eat Wholesome Food,"
Hygeia, Vol. 11, March, 1924, p. 135.
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Circular No. 205, "The Iron
Content of Vegetables and Fruits," 50.
American Child Health Association (370 Seventh Avenue, New
York City). Posters.
Elizabeth McCormick Memorial Fund (848 North Dearborn Street,
U. S. Department of Agriculture Extension Service (Washington,
D. C.). Excellent photographs of animals and children illus-
trating points of nutrition. 'List with prices furnished on
McCoLLUM, E. V., Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, Md.).
Numerous pictures illustrating deficiency diseases. Descrip-
tion leaflet on request.
National Child Welfare Association (70 Fifth Avenue, New York
City). Many excellent posters.
National Dairy Council (810 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago).
TEACHERS' REFERENCES 279
Pictures showing the effects of drinking milk on various ani-
mals. Also other posters and materials. Descriptive booklet
U. S. Children's Bureau (Washington, D. C). Charts on posture,
address Superintendent of Documents. 5C#.
Rats for experimental purposes may be obtained from the General
Biological Supply House, 761 East 69th Place, Chicago, or E.
Michaels, 2907 Diamond Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. State
Departments of Health can often supply them, also.
Rat cages may be obtained from A. C. Lake, 1218 East 63rd
Street, Chicago, Illinois. Booklet on request.
Weight charts may be made by using drawing paper squared
in inch divisions or smaller. Prepared charts may be obtained
from the University of Chicago Bookstore, Chicago; Elizabeth Mc-
Cormick Memorial Fund, Chicago; Nutrition Clinic for Delicate
Children, Boston, Massachusetts.
ANDREWS, Benjamin R., Economics of the Household (The Mac-
millan Co., 1923), pp. 241-246, "Food in Family Life;" Ch. ix,
"Social Aspects of Food Supply."
DONHAM, S. Agnes, Spending the Family Income (Little, Brown &
Co., 1927), Ch. v, "Standards for Food."
FRIEND, Mata R., Earning and Spending the Family Income (D.
Appleton & Co., 1930), Unit IV, "Consumption"; Unit V,
"The Purchase of Food."
MONROE, Day, and STRATTON, Lenore M., Food Buying and Our
Markets (M. Barrows & Co., 1925), Ch. i-xvi.
ROBINSON, Anna Belle, and KING, Florence M., Learning Exercises
in Food and Nutrition (D. C. Heath & Co., 1928). Unit IX,
"How to Obtain the Best Returns for the Money Spent for
TODOROFF, Alexander, What Is What in Groceries (The Grocery
Trade Publishing House, 5650 W. Lake St., Chicago, 1926).
Bulletins and Monographs
WHITNEY, Anne, "The Weighing and Measuring of School Chil-
dren," Bulletin of the American Child Health Association, New
York, N. Y., "Physical Measures of Growth and Nutrition,"
School Health Research Monograph, No. 11.
280 TEACHERS' REFERENCES
"How to Buy Canned Food" (Free popular folder), National Can-
ners' Association (1738 H St., N. W., Washington, D. C).
U. S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin No. 148, "The
Frozen-Pack Method of Preserving Berries in the Pacific
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Farmer's Bulletin No. 1321,
"Fumigation of Citrus Trees for Control of Insect Pests."
U. S. Department of Agriculture Circular No. 73, "The Cold
Storage of Eggs and Poultry."
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Farmer's Bulletin No. 1343,
"Culture of Citrus Fruits in the Gulf States."
1. Experiments in Feeding White Rats
There are a number of experiments that you can try in
feeding white rats to see what is the effect of diet. You must
always have two cages, the rats in one fed in one way, those in
the other in a different way in order to see how differently
they grow and appear. It is best to buy newly weaned
rats of about the same weight. 1 Each day or two you should
observe the rats to see if there is any difference in their
appearance. Notice the hair, the eyes, their activity, and
disposition. A well rat has thick, smooth, fine hair. One
which is not so well may have coarse, thin, rough hair. Shining
eyes go with good health, while dullness is a sign of ill health.
A rat that is growing as it should and feels well is active and
alert, while a rat that is badly fed will be quiet and sit
hunched in a corner of its cage. A sick rat is more likely to
show a bad disposition than one which is well.
Weigh each rat twice a week. A convenient method is to
weigh a small cardboard box which has been perforated with
small holes for ventilation. Then weigh the box with the rat
inside. The difference between the two weights is the weight
of the rat. Keep a record of the weights and make a graph
using a red pencil for one rat and black for the other.
The cages must be cleaned each day. Especially designed
cages make this very easy. Water must be supplied the rats
and they must have fresh food each day. The cages should
be set where there is no draft, and where they will not be
chilled at night.
1 General Biological Supply House, 761 East 69th Place, Chicago, will
supply both tages and rats. City boards of health and state universities
may supply information as to sources. Lake Hardware Company, 63rd
and Greenwood Avenue, Chicago, makes a specialty of cages.
Below are suggestions for various feeding experiments from
among which you may choose to show the results of the par-
ticular diet deficiency in which you are interested. In each
experiment decide what food elements are supplied to Rat B
that are missing in the food of Rat A. If you are not con-
vinced that the diet makes the difference, switch the foods
when there is a decided contrast in the weights and see what
2. White bread
Whole wheat bread
2. What Is Your Health Score?
Are you sure you
are growing and
gaining in weight?
10 Are your teeth
clean and free
from cavities? .
Are your shoulders
level and is your
posture erect ? . . .
Are your muscles
firm and strong?.
Do you drink 3 to
4 glasses of milk
every day ?
10 Do you always
avoid tea and
10 Do you eat vege-
tables every day,
besides potato ? . .
10 Do you eat a
cereal for break-
1 Elizabeth McCormick Memorial Fund, 848 North Dearborn Street,
Chicago. Courtesy Agnes Peterson.
10 Is your skin clear,
smooth, and fresh
Are you free from
Are your eyes
bright and clear?.
Have you a happy,
10 Are you enthusi-
astic about work
and play ?
10 Are you free from
frequent colds ? . .
10 Do you drink at
least 4 glasses of
water daily ? ....
10 Do you always
avoid eating sweets
between meals ? .
Do you stay out of
doors two hours
or more daily and
have your win-
dows open at
Do you clean your
teeth at least twice
Do you wash your
hands before meals
and take a bath
at least 3 times a
Do you go to bed
not later than 9:00
Is your score what you would like it to be? Health and
attractive appearance help to win friends, success, and happi-
3. Tests for Sugar and Fats
A. To test for sugar. Buy the two solutions from a
druggist which when mixed will make Fehling solution. First
boil a little of the mixture diluted to show the color the
mixture alone will give and set aside. Fill another test tube
one-fourth full of water and add -J t. of corn syrup. Add
a few drops of each solution and boil. In the same way test
for the sugar content of a number of vegetables. Use a little
of the water in which the vegetables have been cooked. Onion,
carrot, cabbage, and celery are good examples to use. Test
also the juices of such fruits as lemon, grapefruit, apple, and
so on. The raw juices will give the test. Since cane sugar
will not give the test, boil in water to which has been added
a few drops of vinegar to "invert."
B. To test for fat. Extract fat by means of ether. Beat
an egg yolk in a dish with \ C. of ether. Decant off the ether
onto an undecorated plate. When the ether has evaporated,
a ring of yellow fat will remain. Test the white of the egg
in a similar fashion. To test walnuts, grind or chop fine
before mixing with the ether. Cheese, peanut butter and
chocolate will give interesting results. Be cautious in handling
ether since it is highly inflammable.
4. Food Tables
On the following pages is given a table of foods with their
approximate values. This table gives the number of calories
for a typical portion, as well as indicates mineral and vitamin
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mil i i + 1 i + + 1 i + j .1 j $ + $$
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10 ^J^l ^1 I ^l ^ *, ^3 w ? v ? l/ ^ 1/ l
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: i S : : : . : 1
TABLE OF NEEDS AT DIFFERENT AGES
H f girls
12 - 15 Uoys
Woman (mature) . .
Man (mature) ....
i Adapted from H. C. Sherman, Chemistry of Food and Nutrition (The Mac-
millan Co., revised edition, 1932).
5. To see blood corpuscles circulate
Put a goldfish in a cup of water. Add a saturated solution
of chlorotone, drop by drop. It will take about 1 t. to put a
medium sized fish to sleep. When the fish turns on its side,
place it on a glass slide. Spread its tail so that a thin section
can be placed under a high power microscope such as is used
in science. Now you can see the corpuscles floating along in
the blood. When the blood flows very slowly, return the fish
to fresh water and it will revive. Describe the appearance
of the corpuscles.
6. To remove mineral from bone
Cover a bone from the leg of a chicken or some other fowl
with diluted hydrochloric acid. Be sure to set your dish
where it will not spill. The acid is poisonous. After about a
week, pour off the acid into the sewer and rinse the bone
carefully, and examine- it. The acid eats away the mineral in
7. To extract the minerals from milk
Put a pint of milk into a large evaporating dish. Boil it
down and evaporate all the liquid. What is left will be black.
Continued heating will leave only light gray minerals that do
not burn. What is left is largely calcium. A Petri dish
should be used for the final reduction.
8. To study the growth of mold
Buy three tubes of agar from a drug store or secure them
from the biology department of your school. Bake three
Petri dishes in a hot oven for about one-half hour. By doing
this you can be sure that no live mold spores are on the dishes.
Melt the agar and pour into the dishes. Agar is a good food
for mold. Allow the dishes to stand open in the room about
one-half hour. Cover two of them, allow one to stand in room
temperature (about 70 F.) and put the other into the re-
frigerator under the ice. Expose the third to the direct sun-
light on a roof or on an outside window sill. Glass in the
form of window panes or the cover of the Petri dish shut out
some of the sun's rays which kill bacteria and mold. To be
effective this dish should be exposed to brilliant sunshine and
covered with the upper half of the Petri dish when the sun
is not shining. Examine the agar daily for several days and
compare the three dishes. What do you find? Each spot you
see represents mold growing in a colony. Explain the difference
between the dishes.
as a leavening agent, 33
in ice cream, 68
Appetite, finicky, 171
Appetizer, dinner, 79
Apple, baked, a study in costs,
Apricots, for copper, 139
Austrian war children, 105
Baby, need for food, 127
Bacon, breakfast, 31
as cause of spoilage, 249
control of growth of, 250
from flies, 253
in eggs, 220
in milk, 223, 226
on exposed foods, 265
on milk bottles, 250
removal from fruits, 65
removal from vegetables, 53
Baking powder, in muffins, 33
Banana and pineapple salad, 52
Bathing, for health, 124, 167
Batter, muffin, 33
for copper, 139
for protein, 129
Beef cuts, 80, 81, 236-244
breakfast, 14, 26
comparative costs, 228
comparative food values, 228
calcium in, 148
iron in, 136
calcium in, 148
growth of, 148
Bouillon, 79, 80
Bowel, evacuation of, 124, 168
Box lunch, calories in, 122
Brain, as source of vitamins, 166
assistance from, 260
as guarantee of quality, 215
cutting of, 56, 57
fitting slices, 56
for sandwiches, 60
qualities of, 233
removal of crusts, 58, 60
white for calcium, 151
whole grain for vitamin, 158
Bread box, care of, 252
Bread pudding, 97
a girl's, 11
beverages, 14, 26
kinds of, 11
of nutritional contrast, 119
Bulletins, list of, 276
as shortening, 34
for sandwiches, 60
for vitamin A, 157
saving time, 268
Cabbage, and pineapple salad,
Cafeteria, selecting meals in,
loss of, 149
needs, 150, 285-290
table of foods, 143-145
use in body, 148
Voit's experiment, 149
definition of, 115
for luncheon, 121
in breakfasts, 119
in other meals, 122
judging values, 118
table of, 116-117, 285-290
Can, sizes and contents of,
Canned goods, 213-219
brands of, 214, 215
considerations when buying,,
grades of, 213-214
Cannon balls, 75
Caper, in salads, 49
Carbohydrates, kinds of, 115
as a leavening agent, 33
formation of in body, 137
celery and nut salad, 162
for vitamin A, 157
advantages of, 259
disadvantages of, 260
Cells, of body, 110
as roughage, 169
cooking of, 16
definition of, 13
cooking of, 15-22
cooking small amounts of,
form for judging, 22
serving, 20, 22
standards for, 18
steps in cooking, 19
table for cooking, 17
time of cooking, 18
bulk vs. packaged, 233
construction of grain, 13
costs of, 234
preservation of, 252
products of, 12
unrefined for vitamin B, 158
for roughage, 169
list of, 276
to check health habits, 124
to check health score, 281
considerations when buying,
flavors of, 229
for protein, 129
for vitamin A, 157
kind dependent on use, 231
source of costs, 229
toasted sandwiches, 63
digestive abilities of, 174
foods for, 174
learning from example, 173
liking for foods, 172
beverage recipe, 27
ice cream, 71
malted milk, 74
milk shake, 74
qualities of, 27
sauce as flavoring, 72, 73, 74
sauce recipe, 72
Cocoa, recipe, 27
Codfish souffle, 133
Coffee, harm from, 14
contrasts in meals, 42
in salads, 55
Consomme, 79, 80
Contrasts in foods, 6, 41, 42
Cooking, values from, 4-7, 15
Copper, need for, 139
importance of, 138
work of, 138
Costs, of fruits and vegetables,
comparison of, 206
dependent on size of fruit,
increased by discoloration,
increased by grading, 204
increased by greenness, 201
increased by imperfections,
increased by overripeness, 197
increased by wilting, 197
for vitamin A, 157
in ice cream, 68
percentage of in milk, 225
precautions in making, 48
Curds, milk, 26
in ice cream, 71
Dairy, cleanliness of, 225
Dates, stuffed, 75
Dealer, reliability, 235
dinner, 77, 96-99
ice cream, 67-72
recipes for, 97-99
selection of, 96
Diet, balanced, 171-177
definition of, 41
first course, 78
Diphtheria germs in milk, 223
Discount for retailer, 267
containing protein. 129
for calories, 129
number in dinner, 77
Double boiler, explanation of,
Eating between meals, 124, 171,
beating of, 32
considerations when buying,
equalizing supply of, 220
for vitamin A, 157
fresh vs. stale, 221
grades of, 222
in ice cream, 71
poached in milk, 30
preservation of, 220
use of cold storage, 222
use of in muffins, 32
ways of cooking, 28
Exercise, in regulating body, 168,
blood corpuscles, 290
growth of molds, 291
mineral extraction, bone, 290
mineral extraction, milk, 291
in 'effort, 261-263
in money, 261
as food, 115
in muffins, 34
stored in body, 111
use of storage, 112
Fireless cooker, 17
Fish chowder, 86
Flavors, combining, 41
Flies, source of bacteria, 253
Flour, use of in muffins, 32
a plan for choosing, 176-177
family contributions, 261-
of a grapefruit, 255-259
of harvesting and packing,
of production, 255-256
of retailing, 258
of transporting, 258
money vs. labor, 260
for phosphorus, 136
likes, development of, 172,
storage in body, 111
storage in home, 249-254
tables, 90-91, 116-117, 143-
French dressing, 95
Freshness, preservation in vege-
Frozen frosting, 97
as appetizer, 79
breakfast, 12, 23
canned, grades of, 214
cannon balls, 75
considerations when purchas-
dried, preparation of, 24
for dessert, 64
'for phosphorus, 136
for salad, 49
for vitamin B, 158
for vitamin C, 161
for roughage, 169
in ice cream, 68, 71
in muffins, 34
method of cooking, 25
methods of preservation, 212
preparation for market, 24
selection as to size, 208
selection as to use, 209
variety in, 23, 208, 213
with cereals, 21
foods for warmth and energy,
varying amounts of, needed,
Garlic, in salads, 49
Gary, Indiana, study, 150
effect of pineapple, 65
in ice cream, 70
kinds of, 65
recipes for, 65, 66
Germ, wheat, 13
Ginger ale, food value of,
food needs of, 127
Gizzard, as source of vitamins,
Government stamps, on meat,
advantages of, 203
costs of, 204, 205
Graham pudding, 159
cost of, 255-259
for vitamin C, 161
preparation of, 24
in regulating body, 168
of cleanliness, 253
signs of, 113
Heart, as source of vitamins,
Heat, loss from body, 109
and salt for ice cream, 68
crystals in ice cream, 68, 70
Ice cream, 67-72
in mechanical refrigerator, 70,
New York, 71
popularity of, 67
qualities of, 67
recipes for, 70, 71, 97, 98
steps in making, 69
on exposed foods, 265
removal from vegetables, 54
Iodine, in sea foods, 235
in day's meals, 142
in the blood, 136, 138
liver for, 139, 147
needs, 139, 289
prunes for, 146
spinach for, 146
table of foods, 143-145, 285-
expelling body wastes, 167
information from, 216
requirements in, 215
types of, 217
Laboratory, acquaintance with
Laws concerning milk, 225
Learning, by cooking, 7
definition of, 32
in luncheons, 41
use of, 192
Lemon nog, 74
and bacon sandwich, 62
preparation of, for salads, 54,
Limes, for vitamin C, 160
Liquid, use of, in muffins, 32
as source of vitamins, 166
for copper, 139
for iron, 139, 147
Loganberry milk punch, 74
Loveapple cocktail, 74
calories in, 121
cream soups, 44-48
creamed dishes, 48
definition of, 41
planning of, 41-44
sample menus for, 43
Lungs, expelling body wastes,
as a time saver, 269
based on meal plans, 186
Marshmallow delight, 98
Marshmallows, in ice cream, 71
for salads, 52
in sandwiches, 62
accuracy in, 34
how to make, 9
results of poor, 35
calcium in, 151
effect of acid, 82
effect of temperature, 82
product desired, 82
tough cuts, 82
considerations when buying,
cuts, 80-83, 236-247
grain of, 237
identifying, 236, 239
relative costs of, 246
shape of, 240-242
size of, 238
tender, 80, 238, 244
tough, 81, 243-244
for protein, 129
flavor of, 81
government stamps on, 245
recipes, 31, 62, 84, 85, 147,
variety in, 82
wholesomeness of, 82
cards, 178, 179, 180
sample luncheon, 43
bacteria in, 223, 224
grape lacto, 73
grape shake, 74
lemon nog, 73
loganberry punch, 74
loveapple cocktail, 74
orange nog, 74
pineapple cream, 74
prune punch, 74
shake, 73, 74
strawberry freeze, 74
bottles, bacteria on, 250
bottling of, 226
care of, in home, 27, 227
values from, 26
care in, 27
in muffins, 32
variety from, 27
considerations when buying,
daily need for, 14, 141
evaporated, in ice cream, 68
food value of, 228
for calcium, 151, 152
for phosphorus, 136
for protein, 128, 129
for vitamin A, 157
for vitamin B, 158
for vitamin C, 161
importance of, 152
recipes, 27, 44, 48, 70, 73, 74,
97, 153, 154
see also Recipes
sheep's, in cheese, 231
Mineral needs, 135, 154
Models, food, 120
as cause of spoilage, 249
control of growth of, 250
in bread box, 252
ingredients of, 32
poor qualities of, 35
step method for, 39
importance of, 43
Nuts, protein value of, 129
Oil, rancidity of, 252
Oleomargarine, as shortening,
Omelette, French, recipe, 30
Onion, in salads, 49
for roughage, 169
for vitamin C, 161
preparation of, 23
value of in diet, 23
regulator, 38, 39
Oxygen, use of in body, 137
Pasteurization of milk, 225, 226
Peaches, for copper, 139
and honey sandwich, 63
for protein, 148, 149
canning of, 215
for copper, 139
for protein, 129
Peels, for roughage, 169
foods containing, 136
need for, 136
Pimiento, in salads, 49
effect of on gelatin, 65
frozen dessert, 98
cereal cookery, 20
for contrasts in color, 42
for contrasts in flavor, 41
for contrasts in foods, 6
for contrasts in texture. 42
for nutrition, 43, 186
the laboratory cooking, 8
Popcorn, a study in costs,
larvae in, 82
source of, 80
Potatoes, calcium in, 151
waste in, a study, 199-201
Play, out-of-doors, 124
of eggs, 221-222
of fruits, 212
of milk, 224
Unit I, "Preparation," 3
Unit II, "Nutrition," 103
Unit III, "Marketing," 183
effects of heat on, 28
effects of lack of, 128
for growth, 127, 128
for repair, 127
in eggs, 28
in milk, 27
in our meals, 130
cooking of, 25
iron in, 146
milk punch, 74
according to family practices,
according to size of bunch,
according to storage space,
according to waste, 193
amount, how figured, 190
care in, 195
for several meals, 191
quantity, advantages of, 218
vs. baking, 188
Pure Food Law (1906), 215
amendment (1930), 215
requirements of, 234
Quality, dependent upon use,
Rat experiments, 106
Readings (see also References)
balanced diets, 181
breakfast fruits, 251
buying canned goods, 220
buying cheese, 233
buying eggs, 224
buying fruits, 214
buying meats, 248
buying milk, 230
buying sea foods, 237
buying staples, 236
calcium needs, 154
cereal cookery, 22
cost of service, 264
creamed dishes, 48
dinner desserts, 90
dinner salads, 96
ethics of selling, 270
fuel needs, 126
ice cream, 72
iron needs, 148
luncheon desserts, 72
luncheon salads, 55
meal plans, 195
me^t cookery, 87
one-dish meals, 44
planning the meal, 15
protein needs, 134
ridding the body of wastes,
storage waste, 255
vitamin needs, 166
breakfast cereals, 17
cinnamon toast, 26
bread pudding, 97
confections, 75, 76
fruit gelatin, 65, 66
frozen frosting, 97
graham pudding, 159
ice cream, 70, 71
prune whip, 146
rice pudding, 154
chocolate sauce, 72
custard sauce, 146
white sauce, 44
French omelette, 30
poached in milk, 30
codfish souffle, 133
creamed salmon, 48
salmon loaf, 85
Spanish steak, 85
Swiss steak, 84
bread pudding, 97
creamed dishes, 48
cream soups, 44
ice cream, 70
rice pudding, 154
baked bean, 51
banana and pineapple, 52
cabbage and pineapple, 51
carrot, celery and nut, 162
ground meat, 62
lettuce and bacon, 62
peanut and honey, 63
toasted cheese, 63
boiled, 87, 88
creamed asparagus, 48
creamed peas, 48
cream soups, 45
scalloped tomato, 93
References (see also Readings)
pupils' (complete), 275-276
teacher's (by units), 277-
care of, 250, 251
optimum temperatures, 250
to control spoilage, 249
Rice pudding, 154
cause of, 164
prevention of, 165
importance of, 169
appearance of, 49
description of, 93
dinner, 77, 93-96
dressing for, 52, 95
flavor of, 49
importance of, 49, 162
judging the product, 55
luncheon, 49, 55
method of making, 52
precautions with. 55
recipes for, 50-51, 94-95, 162,
size of, 52, 93
steps in making, 52-55
tables for making, 94-95
Salmon loaf, 85
for vegetables, 92
to freeze ice cream, 68
to remove insects, 53
convenience of, 56
for calories, 122
making a number, 62
neatness of, 56
size of, 58
steps in making, 61
variety in, 58, 62
in foods, 4, 9
in stores, 264
Scurvy, 159, 160
how to judge, 235
iodine content of, 235
perishableness of, 235
of family, 261
of producers, 255-263
of storekeeper, 259
Skin, expelling body wastes, 167
need for, 123
standards for, 124, 282
in cream of tomato soup, 46
in muffins, 33
cream of tomato, 46
judging the product, 47
vegetable cream, 44-48
for copper, 139
for iron, 139
definition of, 7
bulk vs. packaged, 233
considerations when buying,
definition of, 232
desirable qualities of, 232
cooking of, 16
in cereals, 13
for fuel, 115
advice of, 264
cleanliness of, 264
honesty of, 264
responsibilities of, 264
advantages of, 259
disadvantages of, 260
choosing, 259, 266
advantages of, 259
disadvantages of, 260
variety in goods, 266
Strawberry freeze, 74
Suggestions for special study,
costs of foods, 274
food spoilage, 273
making a market list, 270
purchasing cheese, 272
purchasing fruits, 271
purchasing meat, 273
purchasing milk, 272
purchasing staples, 272
purchasing vegetables, 270
breakfast cookery, 99
dinner cookery, 101
luncheon cookery, 100
other problems, 102
source of vitamin D, 164
through window panes, 164
Supper, definition of, 41
Supplies, general, 190
Sweetbreads, as source of vita-
food needs for different ages,
food values, 143-145, 285-289
milk beverages, 73-74
vegetable cookery, 90-91
value of calcium to, 148, 149
in meat cookery, 82, 83
to control spoilage, 250
for fat, 283
for sugar, 282
contrasts in luncheon dishes,
contrasts in salads, 49
definition of, 42
in muffins, 35, 37
Time saving, 36
kinds of, 25
preparation of, 25
for vitamin C, 161
in meat cookery, 83
waste in, 202
Telephone, in purchasing, 26S
Typhoid bacteria in milk, 224
demanded by modern man,
from cereals, 13
from fruits, 63
from meat, 80, 82
from milk, 27
in muffins, 32
in sandwiches, 58
source of, 80
canned, grades of, 214
when to buy, 205
classification of, 87
combination dishes, 92
how to cook, 87-96
in salads, 53-55, 93-96
retaining values of. 88
table for cooking, 89-91
time of cooking, 88
for phosphorus, 136
for protein, 129
for roughage, 169
for vitamin A, 157
for vitamin B, 158
for vitamin C. 162
rule for buying, 207
in diet, 87
for soaking vegetables, 53
in meat cookery. 83
Vitamin A, 156-157
Vitamin B, 158
Vitamin C, 159-162
Vitamin D, 164-166
through intestines, 168
through kidneys, 167
through lungs, 167
through skin, 167
due to imperfections, 209
in quantity buying. 253
various types of, 252
causes of, 249
prevention of, by cleanli-
prevention of. by control of
rate of, 249
amount to drink, 167
crystals in ice cream, 67
Wheat products, 13
as base, 44
Wilting time in vegetables, 197
Yeast, for vitamin B, 159