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Full text of "Justus Falckner, mystic and scholar, devout Pietist in Germany, hermit on the Wissahickon, missionary on the Hudson : a bi-centennial memorial of the first regular ordination of an orthodox pastor in America, done November 24, 1703, at Gloria Dei, the Swedish Lutheran church at Wicaco, Philadelphia"

UC-NRLF 



B ^ SIE 7D4 



FALCKNER 

IFVOU r FI&TSST IN GERMANY 

HERMIT ON niE WISSA.HICKON 
MISSIONARY ^N IIIE HUDSON 






FALCIvlN^ER. 



JUSTUS FALCKNER 

/Ift^stic anb Scholar 

DEVOUT PIETIST IN GERMANY 
HERMIT ON THE WISSAHICKON 
MISSIONARY ON THE HUDSON 



■■ ■"'■■■ A 

Bi' Centennial Memorial 

OF THE First Regular Ordination of an Orthodox Pastor in 

America, done November 24, 1703, at Gloria Dei, the 

Swedish Lutheran Church at Wicaco, Philadelphia 

Compiled from Original Documents, Letters and Records at Home and Abroad 

BY 

3uUu0 J^ric^ricb Sacbse, Uitt.D. 

Member American Philosophical Society — Historical Society of Pennsylvania — Pennsyl- 
vania-German Society — American Historical Association — XHI 
International Congress of Orientalists, etc., etc. 



l^llflaticlplifa: 
PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR 

MDCCCCIII 










Of this Letter Press Edition 
Five Hundred Copies have been Printed 

No. /^' 

February, 1903. 



copyright 1903 
By Julius F. Sachse. 



All rights reserved. 



PRESS OF 

THE P4ew ERA PRINTING COHPANV 

LANCASTER, PA. 



flDublenbers Colleoe, 

The Institution Bearing the Name and Perpetuating 
THE Faith of 

Tbcnrg ^elcbfor /IBublenberg 

The Patriarch of the Evangelical Lutheran Church 

IN America, who Cherished, Revived and Propogated 

THE Seed cast into the Virgin soil of Pennsylvania 

AND New York by 

2)ominie Justus jfalcSner 

Who was the First Lutheran Minister Ordained 
IN North America 

THIS 

/IDemocial is rcepcctfuU^s OeMcatcd 



111 



f^53959 




PROLOGUE. 




®' 



iF all the interesting char- 
acters, prominent in the 
earl}' history of the settlement 
of Pennsylvania, none are more 
so than the company of Ger- 
man Pietists, Mj'stics and^The- 
osophists, who, in the year 1694 
settled on the shores of the 
romantic Wissahickon, a tribu- 
tary to the Schuylkill, and now 
within the corporate bounds of the City of Philadelphia. 
The stories of Magister Kelpius, Johan Selig, Daniel Falck- 
ner, the heroic Koster, and their associates have served as a 
theme for manj' writers. The subject has been exhaustively 
treated by Rev. T. E. Schmauk, D.D., in his new " History 
of the Lutheran Church in Pennsylvania" as well as by the 
present writer in his " German Pietists." 

No incident, however, in the life or history of this Mystic 
Community surpasses the story of Justus Falckner, the 
younger brother of Daniel Falckner. How he came here 
with his brother upon his I'eturn to America, and at first 
withdrew from the world and lived as a recluse or hermit 
in a sheltered dell on the Wissahickon, passing his time in 

(X) 



Prolosrue. 



b ' 



prayer, study and silent contemplation. Thence urged by 
the appeals of the Hollandish Lutherans in the valley of 
the Hudson who were in dire straits, and the persuasion of 
the Swedish pastors on the Delaware, finally consented to 
be ordained by them to the ministry, according to the 
Swedish Lutheran ritual, in the venerable landmark on the 
Delaware, " Gloria Dei," after which he at once assumed 
charge of the scattered Lutherans in the adjoining Colonies, 
and remained a faithful shepherd amongst them until called 
to join the church triumphant. 

The present year marks the two hundredth anniversary 
of this ordination, and it is but meet and right that some 
special notice be taken of this episode, and that the story 
of this noble missionary should be more widely known — 
how he labored for twenty years in his extended field, 
reaching from Manhattan to Albany, and East New Jersey 
to Long Island, until at last he succumbed a martyr to his 
zeal and duty. 

Upon this account the writer presents this sketch as a 
Bi-Centennial Memorial to that devout pioneer. The foun- 
dation of this storj- is my chapter on Justus Falckner in 
the " German Pietists." Much new and additional material 
of greatest importance, however, is presented in the present 
publication — material gathered at home and abroad at a 
great cost of time and labor. The finding of the letters 
from the Swedish pastors and the diploma of ordination 
signed at the Old Swedish Church, November 24, 1703, 
now published for the first time, however, amply repaid the 
writer for his outlay. 

This memorial is issued in the hope that the history 
of this devout pioneer may be further investigated and 
studied, and that the name of Domine Justus Falckner, 
the German Pietist of the Halle School, hermit and theos- 



Prologue. 3 

ophist on the Wissahickon, and devout pastor and mis- 
sionary in New York, may be enrolled in its proper place 
in the historic annals of our state and country. 

Acknowledgments are due to the College van Ouder- 
lingen der Evang. Luthersche Gemeente te Amsterdam, 
specially to Pastor Van Wijk, Jr., Captain A. F. P. Car- 
tens and Herr G. D. Martens of that corporation, also to 
Rev. J. H. Sieker, pastor of St. Matthew's Ev. Luth- 
eran Church in New York, who is a direct successor in 
office to the subject of our sketch, to Rev. Henry Eyster 
Jacobs, D.D., for assistance in the Latin translations, 
to the Right Reverend Archbishop of Sweden, at Upsala, 
for the verification of the diploma of ordination, to the offi- 
cials of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania for cour- 
tesies extended to the writer, and to William C. Lane, Esq., 
librarian of Harvard University, for title page of Zenger 
pamphlet and Swedish pastoral. 




CONTENTS. 

Prologue 



CHAPTER I. 

Justus Falckner. 
Genealogy — Arms — Earliest Record — Halle Uni- 
versitj' — Thomasius and Francke — Student at Halle 

— Composes Hymns, " Rise Ye Children of Salvation," 
" If Our All on Him We Venture." — Candidat Theo- 
logia — Leaves Halle, Journeys to Dutchy of Schles- 

wig — Dominie Miihlen I3~23 

CHAPTER II. 
Daniel Falckner. 
Returns to Europe — Aug. Her. Francke, Leader of 
German Pietists on Wissahickon. — Falckner's Report 

— German Pietists in Pennsylvania and Virginia. — 
Philadelphian Society. — Reception at Halle — Citizen 
and Pilgrim in Pennsylvania — Answers Questions — 
Abstracts Published — Political Nature of Visit — Re- 
ports to Benj. Furley. — Frankfort Company Appoint 
Him to Supersede Pastorius — At Rotterdam — Lubeck 

— Return to America 24-31 

CHAPTER III. 
On the Wissahickon. 
Arrival of Daniel and Justus Falckner — Bailiff and 
Burgess — Justus Retires to Hermit's Cabin — Sends 
Missive to Dom : Muhlen. in Scheswig. — Returns to 
Active Life, Attorney for Penn and Furley — Before 
Land Commissioners — Spleen of Pastorius — Purity 
of Character 32-37 

CHAPTER IV. 
Falckner's Missive from Germantown. 

Condition of the Church in America — As a Her- 
mit — Indians — Innumerable Sects — Qiiakers — Evan- 

(5) 



6 Contents. 

gelic, Lutheran and Reformed Churches — Swedes and 
Their Church — Germans — Attend Swedish Church — 
Pastor Rudman Dehvers German Address — "Satur- 
nine Stingy Qiiaker Spirit " — Appeal for an Organ for 
Gloria Dei — Quotes Luther — Asks for Intercession 
with Sweden's King. Colophon 3S-48 

CHAPTER V. 

Causes Leading to the Ordination at Wicacoa. 
Justus Falckner's Interest in Swedish Church — 
Dom. Rudman Called to New York, Assumes Lutheran 
Charges. — Taken Sick with Yellow Fever — Returns 
to Philadelphia — Sends Call to Justus Falckner — 
Rudman and Biorck Remove Falckner's Scruples" — 
Interesting Correspondence — Call Extended from New 
York, Biorck's Missive — Acceptance of the Call . . 49-59 

CHAPTER VI. 

The Ordination at Gloria Dei. 

A Venerable Landmark — Solemn Occasion — His- 
toric Importance, November 24, 1 703 — Procession — 
Candidate Invocation — Rudman as Vice Bishop — 
Questions and Answers, Apostolic Succession — Sign- 
ing of the Ordination Diploma 60-71 

CHAPTER VII. 
Dominie Falckner in New York. 
Arrives in New York — Accepts the Charge — Re- 
ports to Amsterdam — Sends Copy of Ordination Di- 
ploma, Finding of this Document, Fascimile — An Im- 
portant Historic Document — Latin Invocation in Church 
Book, Troublesome Times — His Extended Charges — 
Calls Church Meeting — Appeals for Financial Help — 
Description of Church — First Report to Amsterdam — 

Needs of the Congregation ']2-&o 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Copy of the Report to the Amsterdam Consistory. . S1-S4 



Contents. 7 

CHAPTER IX. 

A Rare Bradford Imprint. 

Lutheran vs. Calvinist, A Rare Book — Justus Falck- 
ner's Fundamental Instructions — Compendium Doc- 
trinae Anti-Calvinianum — Facsimile of First Original 
Lutheran Hymn printed in America — Falckner's Ex- 
tended Charges, New York to Albany, New Jersey 
to Long Island — Kocherthal — Biorck's Account of 
Justus Falckner's Ministrations. S5-94 

CHAPTER X. 
Dominie Falcker's Church Records. 
Records of Old Trinity Church — How Rescued — 
Commenced by Dom. Rudman, Table of Contents — 
Facsimile — Baptismal Register — - Invocations — Com- 
municants — Indian Baptism — Exorcism of Satan — 
Baptism of Negro Slave — Rev. John Sharpe — Dom. 
Falckner's Marriage, Facsimile of Entry — Letter of 
Thanks to Amsterdam, Last Entry and Death of Dom- 
inie Justus Falckner — Widow and Children — His 
Character — Documentary Evidence 95-111^ 

CHAPTER XI. 
The Van Dieren Controversy. 

Dom. Falckner's Experience with Van Dieren, Hes- 
selius' Advice to Falckner — Berkenmeyer's pamphlet — 
Title — Falckner Admonishes his People Against Van 
Dieren — Sybrand's Offer — Johann Michael Schiitz — 
Contradictory Missive — Van Dieren's Attempts to 
Preach, Ejected from Pulpit — Description of Church 
— Account of Services — Trials of the Pastor — Tailor 
and Preacher — Van Dieren and his Actions, Alleged 
Ordination by Pastor Gerard Henckel — Opposition of 
Swedish Pastors 116-131 

CHAPTER XII. 
Pastorai, to the Hackensack Congregation. 132-13S 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Falckner arms . frontispiece 

Tutors of Justus Falckner facing page i6 



Magister Kelpius • 

Typical Hermit's Cabin 

Falckner Swamp Lutheran Church 

Gloria Dei (old Swedes) Wicacoa, exterior 

" " " " interior, organ loft .... 
" " " " tomb of Dom. Rudman . . 

" " " " interior, chancel 

" " " " ancient Swedish carvings 

Dominie Eric Tobias Biorck 

New York, street scene in 1704 

" Old Dutch Stadt Huys 

" " Trinity Lutheran Church, 1729 

Certificate of ordination 

Old Lutheran Church at Amsterdam 

Swedish Churches on the Delaware, Cranehook 

Church of 163S 
" " " " " Christina . . . 

" " " " " Penn's Neck . . 

" " " " " Racoon 

The Vallev of Schoharie 



24 
32 
36 

44 

48 

52 
60 

64 
56 
72 
96 

79 

74-75 
82 

106 
112 
120 
136 

128 



(9) 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE. 

ARMS. 

Falckner. ... 13 

Halle 14 

Lubeck 23 

William Penn 24 

Rostock 33 

Pastorius 36 

Schleswig 38 

Amsterdam 81 

Printer's Guild 84 

New York (1686) ..... 92 

New York Colony iiS 

Holland 131 

Sweden 132 

AUTOGRAPHS. 

Sprogel, John H. . . . 

Falckner, Justus 

Falckner, Daniel 

Furly, Benjamin 

Kelpius, Johannes 

Falckner, Justus and Daniel . , 

Rudman,And 

Biorck, Rev. E. T 

Gerhartt, Henkell 

TITLE PAGES AND 
FACSIMILES. 



14 

25 
30 
30 

3.'; 

so 

.S7 

134 



Hvmn, "Aiif ihr Christen 
Weyrauch's Hiigel . . . 
Curieuse Nachricht, 1702 
Continuatio, 1704 . . . 
Missive to Muhlen . . . 
Colophon to Missive . . 
Rudman's entrv in churchhook 



19 
20 

28 

29 

40 

47 



PAGE. 

Rudman's letter to Falckner. . 53 

Rudman's reply to Falckner . . 56 

Biorck to Falckner ...... 58 

Notice to Amsterdam 73 

Certificate of Ordination . . 74-75 

Falckner's first entry 76 

Falckner's official signature . . 77 

Grondlycke Onderricht, title . 88 

Original hymn . 89 

Quassaik Church 91 

Dissertatio Gradualis, title . . 93 

Falckner's Entry 97 

Baptismal Record 99 

Section of Map, 1704 lOO 

Section of Map. 1740 .... loi 

Communicant Record .... 103 

New York Paper Money ... 105 

Marriage Entry 107 

Getrouwe Wachter Stem ... 117 

EMBELLISHMENTS. 

Headpiece, History 13 

Halle Student i6 

Halle University 15 

Halle Lecture Room 17 

Rostock, View of 22 

Headpiece, Literature ... 24 

Halle, View of 26 

Falckner Colophon 31 

Headpiece, Mysticism 32 

Minuet's Monument 37 

Headpiece, Dawn 38 

GloriaDei, A. D. 1800 ... 48 

Headpiece, X. P 49 

Seal of Solomon 49 



Illustrations. 



II 



PAGE. 

Tailpiece, Light and Time . . 59 

Headpiece, Faith 60 

Halle Symbol 60 

Portrait, Rev. Collin 71 

Headpiece, pilgrims 72 

Labor and hope 72 

Seal of New York 77 

Seal of New York Congregation 78 

Gloria Dei, A. D. 1700 .... So 

Headpiece, Dutch Si 

Headpiece, Labor 85 



PAGE. 

Falckner Seal 94 

Headpiece, Manuscript .... 95 

Ephrata pilgrim 95 

Albany Seal 102 

Portrait Wm. Vesey .... 108 

Headpiece, Controversy ... 116 

Vignette 116 

Headpiece . 132 

Book plate London Society . 135 

Tailpiece, finis 138 






Ube Jfalckncc Hrms from Seal of 
Justus yalcbncr. 



^' 



USTUS FALCKNER, 

born November 22, 
1672, was the fourth 
son of Rev. Daniel Falck- 
ner, the Lutheran pastor at 
Langen-Reinsdorf (former- 
ly known as Langen-Rhens- 
dorf and Langeramsdorf), 
near Crimmitschau, parish 
of Zwickau, situated m that 
part of Saxony formerly 
known as the Markgravate 
of Meissen, and was a scion 
of an old Lutheran family. His ancestors on both sides 
had been ordained Lutheran ministers. 

His grandfather. Christian Falckner (d. November 5, 
1658), as well as his son Daniel Falckner (d. April 7, 
1764) father of the subject of our sketch, were both pastors 
of Langen-Reinsdorf. The latter left four children, viz : 
Paul Christian, born February 2, 1662 ; Daniel, born No- 
vember 25, 1666; a third child of whom the writer has 
found no record, and Justus, the subject of our sketch.^ 



'For the history of Daniel Falckner-vide Dr. Schmauk's "Lutheran 
Church in Pennsylvania, 163S-1S00," and Sachse's " German Pietists, 
1694-1708." 

(■3) 



H 



Dominie Justus Falckner. 



All the sons were educated with the same object in view, 
and were eventually ordained to the holy ministry. 

He was the younger brother of Daniel Falckner, a 
leader among the German Pietists, who came to America in 

1694 with Kelpius and Koster, and accompanied him upon 
his return to Pennsylvania in the year 1700, and together 
with Johann Jauert, Arnold Storch, Johann Heinrich and 
Ludovic Christian Sprogel, and others, reinforced the com- 
munity of German Pietists who had 
established themselves on the roman- 
tic banks of the Wissahickon a short 
distance from Germantown. 

The earliest official record of Jus- 
tus Falckner known to the present 
writer, excepting the entry of his 
birth, is that recorded in the oldest 
register of the venerable university 
at Halle a. S. Germany, which bears the following title 
and date, viz : 

" Catalogus de?-er Studiosorum, so anf hiesiger FRIED- 
RICHS, Universitdt, immatriculiret worden. Nach Ord- 
nung des Alphabet's Eingerichtct. De Anno MDCXCHI." 
The first entry upon the sixth page reads : 
" FALCKNER, Justy, Langeramsdorf, Miss." 
"P. R. Thomasius, 1693, 20 Jan." 







o 




yustHS- Tci/c-ytln.er' 



St tide lit at Halle. 



IS 



The above entry shows that Justus Falckner was one of 
the students at Leipzig who followed Thomasius ^ to Halle 
after the latter's expulsion from that city. 




THE UNrV'ERSITY AT HALLE, A.D 



Just how long the student remained at the university at 
Halle is not known to the writer. There is ample evi- 



2 Thomasius was one of the most distinguished German philosophers of 
his time ; born at Leipsic^in 1665, he studied .it Frankfort on the Oder, and 
returning to Leipsic in 1679 delivered philosophical lectures there. His 
freedom of thinking, however, raised him many enemies, and he was 
finally obliged to leave the country. He went to Halle in 1690, where he 
took an active interest in establishing the university, and three years later 
became a professor and afterwards, head of the university. Thomasius 
was the first in Germany to exert his influence to procure the abolition of 
torture, of trials for witchcraft, and of restraints upon freedom of thought. 
It was under the tutelage of this great man that Justus Falckner studied 
and graduated. 



i6 



Dominic Justus Falclcner. 



dence, however, during his sojourn there that he was in 
close touch witli the celebrated German Pietist, August 
Herman Francke,' under whom he studied the oriental 




QjiJlcadetniciLf 0fall£fhrts. 



A STUDENT AT THE HALLE UNIVERSITY, 1698-170O. 

languages at the universit)-, and who was then one of the 
recognized religious leaders in Europe. 

'August Herman Francke, German Pietist, theologian and philanthro- 
pist, was born at Liibeck, March 23, 1663. Embracing the pictistical 
teachings of Spener, he began to lecture on the practical interpretation of 



Within the Aula. 



17 




i8 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

The devout and spiritual trend of mind of the young 
theological student is best shown by several of his hymns, 
incorporated at the time by Francke in his revised hymn- 
book : 

" Geistreiches Gesang Buck " Halle i6gy. 

The most noted of these hymns is the one commencing 
with the line : 

^^ AuJ ! ihr Christen, Christi glieder." 

This is found on page 430 of the original edition. This 
hymn is a stirring, vigorous composition of eleven stanzas 
of six lines each. It was set to the melody " Meine Hojff- 
nung stehet veste," and was well calculated to raise the 
religious fervor of the worshippers. 

Upon a manuscript copy of this hymn, Falckner notes 
two references to the scriptures as his theme, or the foun- 
dation of its composition, viz. : 

" Finally my brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of His 
might" (Eph. vi. lo). 

" For whatsoever is born of God, overcometh the world, and is the vic- 
tory that overcometh the world, even our faith " (i John v. 4). 

Originally the hymn was designated, "An encourage- 
ment to conflict in the Christian warfare," it was retained 
by Freylinghausen in the make-up of his Gesang Buck of 
1704, but in subsequent editions it was relegated to the 

the Bible, and met with so much success that he was attacked on all sides, 
and the celebrated Thomasius, then residing at Leipsic, undertook his de- 
fence. '^ Successively driven from Leipsic and Erfurth, he went to Halle as 
orofessor of the new university, at first, of the Oriental languages, and 
afterwards of theology. Francke was personally interested in the band of 
German Pietists who settled on the Wissahickon under Kelpius, 1694-170S. 
The old Trappe Church in Pennsylvania was named in his honor, " Z>«e 
Augustus Kirche" by Rev. Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, who was sent to 
these shores in 1742 by the son, Rev. Gotthilf August Francke. 



As an Hymnist. 



19 



J 9?. XWt\. mcinc ^off; 

OrUf,it)t *il)Ci|'e"/ 5()ii|li 
<li i:bli(D(t;! Di( t^c noc() 
bai^t an txm ipaiipt;aufl 
n>a(^t aufiermannt (net) mic^ 
t)er,tt)i()rn)er&et tjingtraubt. 
©atan btur an btn *Str-eit 
€f)n(lo iinb fca* €{)n|l{nl)cit. 

2. Sluflfolgt 6l)rift0/ eurtm 
^<lbc, trailer feintifi (larcfcii 
SIrm, lijgt ber Sotan gleid) iii 
gclbe mil l)tin gan^en ^6nen= 
©(tfonrm : ilnb borf) ber nocf) 
t)ie(met)r/ bie Da {lii^ ftnt) urn 
uns l)er. 

?.gjiiraurc&ri(li5?liitqf!?.v 
fletmit (Sebtt unb Sffiastfain: 
fcit,l)iefc^ macfeet Jinocringer. 
unb rjc^t fnpfrt 5tricge^-?ciil; 
€l)riflj SSli:t gibt un5 ^:j}?utl) 
iricbcr ailt Jcufclg^Srut. 
4- 5t)ri(li fteert«(!reM^«s=5a&= 
nc, fo \>a. it)ei§ iinb roll) gt; 
fprengt,i|l fd)on auf DemSitgt^ 
*i5Innc un^ jum Xro|1e a-igge^ 
J)dngt;n5crbl{r tritgt, nie er-- 
liegt, fonbtfn unttcm grcu^c 

fi«gf. 

?. iMcftn Sieg bfltrtiicf)cm< 
pfiinben Bieler i>ei(gcn (larcftr 
SKutl), ba fie baben uberroiinbc 
frfali* Dure!) DtS Eamcs 5SIut, 
©olttn mir bann aObier au((> 
uitbt (Treitcn mit ®cgicr. 

6. 5Bei: l)i{.@«lap«iD jiurVte^ 



b«,3Ieifc5e«':)iiibunbSi(^ff 
|}eit,unbbcn'Siiiibcn|i(1)er9ir 
b(t/ bcc t)nt n-^t'iig fuft sum 
©licit ; Den bic SJartjt, »£ Qtan< 
^ad}t,bnt it}ninDcn Srtjiaf 
gebfa(J)t. 

7. 2ibern)cnbic5Bciii)tiii(i), 
ret, tras bie Jieobeii fur nn 
Xl)til,bc|[cn^eiii 111 (i)jDii flit) 
ferret, feincm adcvliod) fie W. 
fu(f)taDeinoUncSd)tin5i)tifil 
frcDcr Sncd)! jii fci;ti. 

8. Senn Dcrgniig! ciiKljiiiolil 
bas Sebcn, fo ber ^'rci)beii iiiiw 
g{InmuS?2Cerfi(!)(yDiini(l)l 
gnn^ trgebcn, bai niir 5?ii!), 
9lng|l unb 9?erbrii|;';t>cr,titr 
triegt recjjt cevjtiiigt/ireifiin 
I'eben fclfrlUcfiegt. 

9. Brum ail f! (aft iin^iit'tr: 
rcinben in bcm Sluie r>5|ii 
e()ri|T, nnb an .unfre @iin« 
binbenfeinI!3ort,foein3e"3"if 
i|], baS uno be(f 1 iinD eriuKfi, 
unb nnd) holies CicbefdjintiJi. 

10. Unfcrl'cbenfeoccrl'ocgcii 
mitet)ri|1oin«0itnilc|n.(iiif 
\io,^ roir an iennn iUlorgeii mil 
it)moffenbnraii(l)fci;n,bat"'' 
l'eit)bicfer3eiMi?ci'beiii3icDltt 

lauicr ^reuD. 

11. S)a GiDtl feiiicn ircmii 
Rne(f)ienqcbeiin)iibDen&nn> 
Den^eobn, unb Die ;?!i.'ieiij)« 
®crc(J)tenf!iniinfnniibcn«ii; 

qe^^Jbon; Dfl fiii'iPi'')f 7'; 
K« ettnar Jbn n-irb Icnj 

iinintcDar. 



FACSIMILE OF HYMN IN THE ZIONITISCHER WEYRAUCHS HUGEL. 



20 



Dominie Justus Falckner. 



Anhang ox appendix. Thus in the edition of 173 1 it be- 
came hymn No. 634, p. 769. 

From the very outset the hymn came into extended use 
in both Europe and America. It became a favorite hymn 
with the so-called separatists, or dissenters from the 
orthodox church, and was incorporated into their hymn- 
books ; a prominent instance being the Davidsche Psalter 
Spiel der Kinder Zions, Berlenburg, 1718. This was the 



ZIONITISCHER 

Otitr: 

liDttpen geto, 

D(f noA Sipoihcrtr ' JTunil labutiicKi 
3jQU(^ ■ TOtrtf ju finCcn. 

^rt Qll(rl(n tifbfiJ'^^iirtfungcn b(r in ffiOtX 

St()(i[r9t(n €((lcn, rodift fiit m oidtr ant) manttttltj 

gcrfllKtcn uno iKMiittn tlicDtrn aujgcbtlCU. 

9llj barmnm 

2)(r If^tf Kuff ?iu 6fm abmBmabt ^ca grop 

fen (B^TtceB auf unttrfdjiiMiAc ITcife 

trctflicb 0115 gt^rucfttuR i 

Bum SitnH 

Dtr in bfm SiNnB. ^'anSifchin ^TOdf • 't^nl aU 

CiU ^f'n ItnKrqan) bee ^pnncu tript<ficn Jfict^r 

GiO(lt'> unb 111 ibrcr l^rmunKrims auf bit 

(Dtilltrni)[t)iii( Sufunffi bit ^rnutijami 

ana Cicfct itcgteben. 



TITLE PAGE OF FIRST BOOK PRINTED WITH GERMAN TYPE IN AMERICA. 

first distinct hymnal published for the use of the Separatists. 
In America it was incorporated in the celebrated Zio- 
nitischer Weyratichs Hiigel, of the Ephrata Community 
(Sauer, 1738, hymn 395, page 444); also in der Kleine 
Davidische Psalterspiel der kinder Zions (Sauer, hymn 38, 
page 41), and a number of other early American hymn- 
books. It is also to be found in the Manuscript Hymnal 
of the Zionitic Brotherhood, which is known as the Para- 



As an Hymnist. 21 

diesische Nachts Tropffen, 1734 (hymn 11, p. 6).* This 
hymn, after a lapse of two centuries, is still used by nearly 
all the Protestant denominations in Germany, and is re- 
tained in their hymnology in America as well, the latest in- 
stance being its retention by the Lutheran Church of the 
United States in their new G &rma.n Kir c ken Buck, wherein 
it is hymn 331. Especial attention is called to it in Stip's 
Unverfdlschtcr Liedersegen (Berlin, 185 1). 

Julian, in his Dictionary of Hymnology, mentions the 
following translations into the English language : " Rise, 
ye children of Salvation " (omitting stanza four) in Mrs. 
Bevans' "Songs of Eternal Life," 1858, page 10. Three 
centos ' have come into use, the translations of stanzas, 
one, three and nine, in Dr. Pagenstecher's collection, 1864 ; 
— of stanzas one, five, nine and eleven in the English 
Presbyterian psalms and hymns, 1867 ; and the Temple 
Hymn-Book, 1867 ; and stanzas one, five and eleven in 
Laudes Domini, New York, 1884. 

Another one of his hymns is 

" If our all on Him we Venture" 

a translation of stanzas three, as stanza two of hymn No. 
1064 in the supplement of 1808 to the Moravian Hymn- 
Book of I 801. 

Another celebrated hymn attributed to Justus Falckner is : 

O Herr der Herrlichkeit 
O Glantz der Seligkeit, 
Du Licht vom Lichte, 
Der Muden siisser Saft, 
Des grossen Vater's Kraft, 
Sein Angesichte. 



* Collection of Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

'Cento, a composition formed by verses or passages from different 
authors disposed in a new order. 



22 



Dominie Justus Falckner. 




Ai Liibeck and Rostock. 



23 



This hymn was also printed in the Weyraucks Hugel (No. 
475' P- 54°) ^^^ Sauer's Psalterspiel (No. 361). 

It is not known to a certainty how long the academic 
term of young Falckner lasted at Halle. When he left 
that institution he was what was 
known as a Candidat TheoJogia 
or a candidate for holy orders. 

It appears that, after he left 
Halle, he went to Liibeck and 
Rostock. The former city was 
the birthplace of his friend and 
tutor, Aug. H. Francke, the lat- 
ter a university town, whose great 
seat of learning up to a few years 
before was presided over by 
the renown Dr. Heinrich Miiller 
(Muhlen). Both of these cities had for some years been 
centers of pietistic activity. 

Whether Justus Falckner studied or spent any time at 
the university at Rostock has not been determined. From 
a document found in the library there, it is shown that he 
spent some time in the Duchy of Schleswig, and was aided 
and befriended by a son and namesake of the noted pie- 
tistic theologian Dominie Heinrich Miiller (Muhlen) men- 
tioned by Gotfried Arnold in his Kirchen and Ketzer 
gescktchte, and who was also a church dignitary and had 
succeeded his father in the office as superintendent. Thence 
young Falckner went to the adjoining Duchy of Holstein, 
where he evidently for a time taught school or acted as 
a private tutor. 






CHAPTER II. 

Daniel Falckner. 



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'T was about this time, 
either late in 1698 
or early in 1699, that his 
elder bi other Daniel re- 
turned to his native land 
as an emissary from Am- 
erica. From documents 
lately discovered in the 
archives of the Halle or- 
phanage we find that the 
elder Francke was vir- 
tually one of the chief 
factors in the settling of 
the colony of German 
Pietists on the Wissahickon, and the introduction of Ger- 
man pietism in America, which eventually proved so pow- 
erful a factor in upholding the orthodox Lutheran faith in 
the Province of Pennsylvania, and we might say shaping 
the destiny of a large part of our community. 

(24) 



1703-MEMORIAL OF DOM. JUSTUS FALCKNER-1903. 




. sACHse, pmoto 



JOHAXISTES KELPIUS. 

MAGISTER OF THE GERMAN PIETISTS ON THE WISSAHICKON. 



FROM THE ORIGINAL CANVASS BY DR. CHRISTOPHER WITT, 

NOW IN THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



« « c e « « 



Daniel Falckner. 25 

In view of this greatly improved condition of the relig- 
ious situation in Pennsylvania, which, early in 1698, was 
strengthened still more by the arrival of Rev. Thomas 
Clayton, the first minister of the Church of England who 
came to the Province, it was concluded by the leaders of 
the German Pietists on the Wissahickon, partly at the sug- 
gestion of the Swedish pastors, to send an emissary from 
among their number to Europe to make public the true 
state and spiritual condition of the Germans who had emi- 
grated to Pennsylvania ; set forth the labors of the Pietis- 
tical brethren among their countrymen in America, and 
solicit aid and additional recruits, so that the perfect num- 
ber of forty ^ could be kept intact, and at the same time 




%riAM J^dU/:j<:iicy 



could extend their usefulness in educating and ministering 
to their neglected countrymen in Pennsylvania and Vir- 
ginia. 

Another important scheme then under consideration was 
the emigration of the members of " the Philadclfhian 
Society " ^ in a body from England and the continent to 
settle in Pennsylvania, and there found a colony where 
their peculiar teachings should be their only law. Con- 
siderable correspondence had taken place upon the subject, 
and it was thought by Kelpius and others that the time 
had arrived for a consummation of the scheme. It was 
therefore desirable that a thoroughly competent person 

'For a full explanation of this theory, 7»jV/e " German Pietists," pp. 

37-42- 

' Philadelphischen Societat, vide " German Pietists," p. 16. 



26 



Dominie Justus Falckner. 








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Orphanage at Halle. 27 

should be sent on the mission at that time. For this im- 
portant service Daniel Falckner was selected. He was a 
man of strong character and practical piety, as well as the 
executive head of the community, and, in addition to his 
religious duties, took considerable interest in secular affairs. 

Daniel Falckner, pursuant to the above arrangement, re- 
turned to Europe, as before stated, toward the close of the 
year 1698 or early in the spring of 1699. After a short 
sojourn in Holland, he went to Germany to visit his old 
associates. Upon his arrival in Saxony, he found that 
time had wrought many changes in the condition of his 
former companions — some had been banished, others 
lived in obscurity, while the former leader of the local 
Pietistical movement, August Herman Francke, now 
posed as professor of Oriental languages at the newly 
established University of Halle,' pastor of the suburb 
Glaucha, and superintendent of an orphanage of his own 
projection. 

Upon his arrival at Halle, Daniel Falckner was cordially 
received by the elder Francke, and installed at the orphan- 
age, and requested to render an account of his stewardship, 
and give authentic information of the affairs, both civil and 
religious, in far-off Pennsylvania. 

For this purpose Francke presented a number of ques- 
tions in writing, which Daniel Falckner answered in ex- 
tenso, his replies covering about 197 folio pages, to which 
he signs himself as " Citizen and Pilgrim in Pennsylvania 
in Northern America." 



' The bicentennial of the Halle (Frederick-Wittenberg) University was 
celebrated with great iclat, August 2, 3, 5, 1S94, the Emperor of Germany 
being represented upon the occasion by Prince Albrecht of Prussia. The 
present writer attended as a delegate from the Old Augustus (Trappe) 
Church. For a full description of this Jubilee, see] The Lutheran, Phila- 
delphia, September 6, 1S94. 



28 Dojninie Justus Falckner. 

Both of these interesting documents are still preserved 
in the archives of the Glaucha institution, and are now be- 
ing copied verbatum for the writer's use. 

An abstract of this report was published in Germany in 
1702 under the following title : 

Curious account of Pennsylvania, in Northern-America 
which at solicitation of good friends regarding 103 questions 
submitted, and at his departure from Germany to above 



Curieufe «it®i;iSt 

t)on 

PENSYLVANIA 

tit 

TCelcbe/ 

P6ec vocfleleflte 103. ^rd^ 

gen/ bet) fauer5i(>ieiOau6^euifcl^ 

InnD unci) obigem l^anDc Anno 1700. 

evtljeilct/unbnun Anno i7oain&cn^rurf 

X>on 

Spaniel ^aKnetn/Profcflbrc, 

- 

FACSIMILE TITLE OF FALCKNER's DESCRIPTION OF PENNSYLVANIA, 

1702. 



A Curious Account. 29 

Country Anno 1700 are answered, and Now Anno 1702, 
are given in print by Daniel Falckner, Professor, Citizen 
and pilgrim there. 



CONTINCTATIO 

©efWbuna t)ee2anl>f(|a» 

PENSYLVANIiE 

an t)ettcn €nD:®r4n$m 

AMERICiE. 

Relatiooes* 
^ Stii m (joltent) : 

Tiit Situation, unt)§nic&t6arfeft&ed 
€r^bl)^entf♦ 2><e ©cfeiffrf <c6e lm^anftctf 

gluffe. 2)ic 2In§al)t bercr bi§^ero gebautm ©tdbtt. 

^i« icltiamc (irfofurrn an Siimn/Oigtin BBtglfiea. 

Bir Mmerii.tn iin& (Siie(.jeftn'nt Otrto r<nge6o6T»eB MV 

«enS5clrf«r(Sprac6tn/ Slfl/fllonuitDetStrfuA*. Un» 

Di( (rjtm (Et)i't|}if(5«n fjflan^cr naO Si|a6anrc 

t)ief(l ^an^^. 

Stfc^rieben von 

GABRIEL THOMAS 

£an(e^. 

•SJelcf;em Traftclrttin nod^ bttjsefuget fInB : 

2)fd^tt.DANItLFALCKNERS 

iBurgcriS tint) ^itgtimS in Pcnfylvaaia i93« 
S^caittirortuiigcn u/f vorgdcgte Srafltn dob 
flufm SrtanPtn. 



30 Dotninie Justus Falckner. 

A somewhat extended abstract was issued two years later 
(1704) by the same publishers, under following title : 

Daniel Falckner's visit to Europe also partook somewhat 
of a political nature, which was destined to work radical 
changes in the civil affairs of the German township of 
Pennsylvania. 

His reports to Benjamin Furly at Rotterdam, and to the 
leaders of the Frankfort Company, at Amsterdam, Liibeck, 
and Frankfort, but confirmed the unsatisfactory rumors, 
and dissatisfaction as to Pastorius' management of their 
property in Pennsylvania. 

This resulted in Daniel Falckner and Johann Jauert, a 
commercial traveller, son of Balthasar Jauert,' a leading 

pietist of Liibeck and member of the Frankfort Company^ 
being summoned to Frankfort-on-the-Main early in the 
year 1700, and a power of attorney given them, together 
with Magister Johannes Kelpius, to take charge of their 
property and affairs in Pennsylvania. 

This document was dated January 24, 1700, and was 
signed by all of the surviving members or their assigns. |^ 

From Frankfort, Daniel went to Rotterdam and in April 



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'The correct spelling of this name is Jauert, not Jawert as usually 
spelled. 



Departs for Ainerica. 31 

of the same year a power of attorney of like import was 
given to him and his brother Justus, who had decided to 
accompany his brother to Pennsylvania, on a mission hav- 
ing for its chief object the spreading of the Gospel in the 
" Land of Darkness " {Abend-land). 

A few weeks later we find the two brothers at the old 
Hansastadt of Liibeck in conference with the elder Jauert, 
and Balthasar Jaspar Konneken, a learned scholar, pietist 
and astronomer, who had taken an active personal interest 
in the German settlement of Pennsylvania, from the time 
of the arrival of the first pioneers in 1683, and among whose 
effects we find the earliest reports from the German town- 
ship. He also wanted to join the colony of German'Tietists 
on the Wissahickon, but was dissuaded on account of__his 
advanced age. 

Finally, toward the middle of May, quite a little party 
of Pietists had assembled at Liibeck and set sail by way 
of England. The white cliffs of Albion's shores were 
lost to view on the 25th of May and the capes of^the Dela- 
ware were sighted early in August, after a passage of about 
ten weeks. 

•2)ertTKtf 5mpff«ni)«/ nltt[cy^en* 
t)e/ ^n^ tTluboffrnbi ax\ be tn 
ilcibe "yt^n 1 <mg<pfI<;nQtc 
tTJitf necfet / <rwart«nb mei» 
t\i9 tSrQfi^cttna unO ^im* 
ine(ff»:Rdnt09 in \t\in\i(i)im 

©onfelSafcfner/^iir^fnjnt) 

^^t\Xtl itt Penfyivanieti ia 
$^01M Amef ica« 

DANIEL PALCKNER's COLOPHON. 







CHAPTER III. 



On the Wissahickon. 




H' 



LMOST immedi- 
ately after the 
return of Daniel Falck- 
ner to the German town- 
ship of Pennsylvania, 
bringing his brother 
Justus and a number of 
Theosophists and Piet- 
ists, a change took place 
in the civic government 
of the German borough. 
In the fall of the same 
year (1700), Daniel 
Falckner was elected bailiff, his brother Justus a burgess, 
Johann Jauert, recorder, and Daniel Geissler, crier of the 
court. 

At a court held at Germantown, 7th day of 9 mo., 1700, 

Justus Falckner appears to have sat as one of the judges. 

The cares and worriments of judicial office, together 

with the strife and bickerings of the infant community, 

were not congenial to our young Pietist, and all was so 

(32) 



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As a Herinit. 



33 



different from the ideal life he expected to find here in the 
virgin forests of Pennsylvania, that before many weeks 
passed we find him retiring from the world, its allurements 
and ambitions, and installed in an humble log cabin, beside 
a spring of clear water, on the banks of the Wissahickon, 
passing his time as a hermit, communing with his God in 
silent contemplation of nature, and continuing his theosophi- 
cal studies under the tutelage of Magisters Kelpius and 
Selig, the former secretary of the great Spener. 

In addition to his esoteric and theosophical studies, dur- 
ing his year of retirement as a recluse, Justus Falckner 
made good his promise to Senior Heinrich Muhlen, of 
Schleswig, to advise him as to 
the condition of the church in 
America. Just how many mis- 
sives he sent is not known. The 
first one, however, dated German- 
town in the American province 
of Pennsylvania, otherwise New 
Sweden, the ist of August, 1701, 
was printed in Germany. A 
single copy of this heretofore un- 
known contribution to the his- 
tory of our province was found 
some years ago in the library of the University at Rostock, 
where it was bound up with a number of other tracts. This 
missive is not alone valuable as it sets forth the religious 
condition of the Germans within the province at the begin- 
ning of the eighteenth century, but it also contains a plea 
for an organ for the Swedish Church in Philadelphia. 
That this appeal was not in vain is shown from records 
still extant, and which make mention, as early as 1703, of 
•'Jonas the Organist." At the end of his year of self-im- 




34 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

posed seclusion, we again find some record of Justus 
Falckner in public affairs. 

That there was evidently some understanding and inter- 
course between William Paiti and the Falckner brothers 
during the former's second visit to the province, is shown 
by several entries in Minute-book G of the Board of Prop- 
erty of the Province of Pennsylvania, where, in a dispute 
about some land, the Proprietary steps in and issues an 
order in favor of Daniel Falckner.'" The next entry in the 
same book, made 12th of nth Month, 1701, shows that 
Penn's interest in Falckner continued during the former's 
stay in the Province. One of Penn's last official acts prior 
to his departure was the letter quoted in these Proceedings 
before the Land Commission : 

"James 

" Prepare a Wart' for 4,000 acres for Benjamin Furly, 
out of which 3 Wart's for 500 acres Each for Falkner and 
Brother and Dorthy and Brother and Sister, which recom- 
mend to the Commiss'rs of Propriety if not done before I 
goe. 25th 8ber., 1701. 

" Wilhn Penn" 

According to the old minute-book ♦' G," before quoted, 
he appears as joint-attorney with his brother for Benjamin 
Furly of Rotterdam, and was so acknowledged by William 
Penn during his second visit to the Province (1699-1701). 
In a subsequent entry, on the 19th of nth month, 1701, 
Daniel and Justus Falckner appear as attorneys for the 
Frankfort Land Company, and produce a patent for some 
city property. Upon the i8th of the 12th month, 1701, 
both brothers again figure before the Land Commissioners 
in the interests of Benjamin Furly. At . different times 

^"Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, vol. xix., p. 219. 



As an Attorney. 35 

after the above entry they continue to press the claims of 
their principals. 

On 5th of 2d month, 1703, Daniel and Justus went 
before the land commissioners, and produced a return of a 
warrant for fifty acres of Liberty Lands surveyed to Ben- 
jamin Furly. They also pressed a claim for a High 
Street lot of 132-foot front. 

On the 30th of the 6th month, 1703, Justus Falckner 
appears alone before the Commissioners, and as attorney of 
Furly produces a "return of 1000 acres in Chest'r County, 
said to be in Pursuance of our Warr't dat. 16, 12 Mo., 
1701, and the Same Land appearing to be an Encroachm't 
upon the Welch Tract within their Settlements, and 
already granted to David Lloyd and Is. Norris, the same 

HEADING OF LETTER FROM FURLY TO FALCKNER BROTHERS. 

is Rejected and disapproved of, and thereupon 'Tis 
Ordered that the Same be Certifyed by Indorsement On 
the said Return under Ye Comm'rs hands, which is ac- 
cordingly Done." 

It is evident from the above official minute that the loss 
to Furly of this parcel of land was not through any fault 
of the Falckner brothers, as has been frequently stated by 
Pastorius. The charge by the latter that they sold the 
above land for their own use and benefit is also hereby 
shown to be without any foundation. 

The above entry is the last notice of Justus Falckner 



36 



Dominie Justus Falckner. 



upon the official records of Pennsylvania. This attempt 
to recover the land for its rightful owner was evidently the 
beginning of the differences with Daniel Lloyd and Isaac 
Norris, which ended five years later in the Sprogel con- 
spiracy and the dispossession of Daniel Falckner. 

That Justus Falckner, dur- 
ing his sojourn in Pennsyl- 
vania, was a man without re- 
proach and one with exem- 
plary piety, may be judged 
from his subsequent career 
and the fact that his name is 
not even mentioned by the 
splenetic Pastorius, who so 
persistently villified the elder 
brother." Just what part 
Justus bore in the organiza- 
tion of the Lutheran con- 
gregation at Falckner's Swamp (New Hannover, Mont- 
gomery County, Penna.), the first High German Lutheran 




ARMS OF PASTORIUS. 



" The following memorandum was found among the Frankfort papers 
at the Pennsylvania Historical Society. It is in the handwriting of Pas- 
torius and it shows how vindictive the deposed steward of the Company 
was toward his successor. It is needless to say here that these charges 
have been shown to be far from the truth, vide Dr. Schmauk's " History 
of the Lutheran Church, 163S-1800," and Sachse's " German Pietists." 

" In the afores'' year 1700 at the end of the 6"" Month (August) Daniel 
Falckner and Johannes Jawart being arrived here, began along with Johan- 
nes Kelpius to administer the Company's affairs, to whom the s'' Pastorius 
Delivered up the land, house, barn, stable, corn in and above ground, 
cattle, household goods utensils &c and besides in arrears of Rents & other 
Debts due to the Company, about 23o£ hoping they would do Business 
with better success, than he signified to the partners in Germany, that he 
was able or capable to do himself. But soon after Johannes Kelpius noti- 
fied me he would not act as attorney for the s* Company, calling himself 
Civilites Mortus. Whereupon Daniel Falkner plaid the sot, making Bone- 



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His Activity. 



37 



congregation organized in America, or how often he was 
wont to visit the congregation or minister to his fellow coun- 
trymen, cannot be told to a certainty ; although we have 
no direct record of the facts, he without doubt actively sec- 
onded his brother in organizing and ministering to the 
German settlers on the Manatawney tract ; nor can his so- 
journ among the Mystics on the Wissahickon be traced in 
detail. His intercourse, however, with Kelpius, Selig, 
and the Swedish pastors, Rudman, Biorck, Sandel and 
Auren, is known to have been frequent and intimate. 

fires of the Company's Flax in open street, giving a piece of eight to one 
Boy to show him in his drunken Fit a house in Philad", and to another a 
Bit to light him his pipe &c. In so much that his Fellow Attorney Johan- 
nes Jawert affixed an advertisement on the Meeting house at Germantown, 
that no one should pay any Rent or other Debt due to the Company unto 
the s* Falckner. — Yea and the then Bailiff and Burgesses of the German- 
town Corporation acquainted the s'' Company of the s'' Administration of 
this their attorney, in a letter, which (as they afterwards did hear) Mis- 
carried.' ' 




MONUMENT ERECTED BY PETER MINUET ON THE SHORES 
OF THE DELAWARE A. D. 163S. 




CHAPTER IV. 

Falckner's Missive from Germantown. 




M' 



E will now present a trans- 
lation of Justus Falck- 
ner's unique missive to Germany, 
concerning the religious condi- 
tion of Pennsylvania in the year 
1701.'^ 

" IMPRINT I of a MISSIVE 
|TO Tit: Lord D. Henr. 
Muhlen, | From Germanton in the 
AMERI I CAN Province of Penn- 
sylvania, otherwise | New Sweden, 
the First of August, in the Year | of our salvation One 
thousand, seven hundred | and one | CONCERNING the 
condition of the CHURCHES I in AMERICA.! MDCCII." 



«' SHALOM. 



" Right Reverend, Most Learned, Especially 
Honored, Lord General Superintendent. 

" In sending to Your Magnificence the present missive 



"A photo-mechanical facsimile of this unique book can be seen at the 
rooms of the Pennsylvania Historical Society; there is also a copy in the 
library of the writer. A copy of the original German version is printed 
in Rev. George J. Fritschel's " Geschichte der Lutherischen Kirche in 
Amerika." — GUtersloh, 1896. 

(38) 



Eremite in the Desert. 39 

from such a distant part of the world, I am moved there- 
unto partly by the recollection of the high favor and civility 
which you extended toward me while I was in Schleswig 
with you, prior to my departure from Holstein to America, 
as you also were kindly disposed, by virtue of your episcopal 
and priestly office, to extend your great ecclesiastical bene- 
diction, and thereby to further my proposed journey to a 
blessed purpose ; upon the other part, I am obliged thereto 
by the express commands which you enjoined upon me at 
sundry times, that I should correspond with you as much as 
possible concerning the condition of the church in America ; 
(de statu Ecclesia in America). This honored command 
emanating from the love of God, I will comply with for the 
good of his church, and give satisfaction so far as I may : 
therefore I will make a beginning herewith. Indeed I 
must declare that since the time when I was there [in 
Schleswig] I have now, God be thanked, arrived safely 
here. This was during the past year at the beginning of 
August, after we had sailed from England on May 25. 
Since my arrival here, I have for many material reasons, 
lived entirely alone in a small block-house, which I had 
built for me, as an eremite in the desert (in Deserto). Hav- 
ing had but slight intercourse with the people, much less 
travelled hither and thither, and having [merely] gathered 
information from one and the other, so I do not know the 
particulars of the status here in every respect. 

" But now, after having schooled myself a little in the 
solitude, I begin as if from a mirror (tanquam ex spectilo) to 
take cognizance of one fact and the other. I have gone 
more among the people, and subsequently have resolved to 
give up the solitude I have thus far maintained, and, accord- 
ing to my humble powers, to strive at least with good inten- 
tion publicly to assist in doing and effecting good in this 



40 Dominie Justus Falckner. 





Tit. ^erm 
%x^ ®ttmanfon / in bet 5fmeti^ 

CaniftSen Province Penfylvanla, fonft No* 

ra succia, tmerften Augufii, im^u^i; 
ttnfer^^e^l^ eintviufenb |icl)f n5unt)at 

©ett 3«ftan^ bet ^trc&ett 

in America befrcffenD* 



MDCCII. 

TITLE-PAGK OF FALCKNER's MISSIVE TO GERMAm', I70I. 

From only known copy in the Rostock University Library. 



opinion of the ^takers. 41 

spiritual and corporeal wilderness. So far as I am able to 
draw conclusions concerning the condition of the churches 
in these parts, and indeed particularly in this Province, it 
is still pretty bad. The Aborigines or Indians, from lack 
of sufficient good instruction, remain in their blindness and 
barbarity, and moreover are angered at the bad living of 
the Christians, especially at the system of trading which is 
driven with them, and they only learn vices which they did 
not have formerly, such as drunkenness, stealing &c. The 
local Christian minority, however, is divided into almost 
innumerable sects, which pre-eminently may be called sects 
and hordes, as Quakers, Anabaptists, Naturalists, Ration- 
alists, Independents, Sabbatarians and many others, espe 
cially secret insinuating sects, whom one does not know 
what to make of, but who, nevertheless, are all united in 
these beautiful principles, if it please the Gods (5/ J?is 
placet) : Do away with all good order, and live for your- 
self as it pleases you ! The Quakers are the most numer- 
ous, because the Governor favors this sect, and one might 
be inclined to call this country a dissecting-room of the 
Quakers ; for no matter how our theologians labored to 
dissect this carcase and discover its interiors, they could 
not do it so well as the Quakers here in this country are 
now doing themselves. It would easily make a whole 
tractate were I only to set forth how they, by transgress- 
ing their own principles, shew in plain daylight the kind 
of spirit that moves them, when they virtually scoff at the 
foundation of such principles, and become Ishmaels of all 
well regulated church-institutions. Hie Rhodus, hie sal- 
tant. When I learn that my letters come safely into the 
hands of Your Magnificence, I will at another time report 
sfecialora. The Protestant Church, however, is here 
divided into three confessions and nations. According to 



42 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

the confession, the local Protestants, as they are compre- 
hended under this name in the European Roman Empire, 
are either of the Evangelical Lutheran, or of the Presby- 
terian and Calvinistic Church. And as the Protestant 
Church is here also divided into three nations, so there 
are here an English Protestant Church and a Swedish 
Protestant Lutheran Church ; and also persons of the Ger- 
man nation of the Evangelical Lutheran and Reformed 
churches. About these more at another time. 

" Now I will only speak somewhat of the Evangelical 
Church of the Swedish nation, and touch upon the German 
Evangelical Lutherans. 

"The Swedes have two church congregations: one at 
Philadelphia, the capital of this country, and another several 
miles therefrom on a river called Christina. They have 
also two devout, learned and conscientious preachers, 
among whom I know in specie the Reverend Magister 
Rudman. He, with his colleagues, endeavours to instil the 
true fear and knowledge of God into his hearers, who pre- 
viously, from a lack of good instruction and church disci- 
pline, had become rather unruly. The outward worship of 
God is held in the Swedish language, and partly according 
to the Swedish liturgy, so far as church ceremonies are 
concerned. 

"The Germans, however, I have spoken of not without 
cause as merely several Evangelical Lutheran Germans, 
and not the German Evangelical Lutheran Church : those 
who are destitute of altar and priest forsooth roam about in 
this desert {scilicet qui ard Saccrdotcque desfituti, vagantur 
hoc in deserto:) a deplorable condition indeed. Moreover 
there is here a large number of Germans who, however, 
have partly crawled in among the different sects who use 
the English tongue, which is first learned by all who come 



JRecofnendattons. 43 

here. A number are Quakers and Anabaptists ; a portion 
are Free-thinkers and assimilate with no one. They also 
allow their children to grow up in the same manner. In 
short there are Germans here, and perhaps the majority, 
who despise God's Word and all outward good order ; who 
blaspheme the sacraments, and frightfully and publicly 
give scandal, (for the spirit of errors and sects has here 
erected for itself an asylum : Spiritus enim errorum et 
Sectarum Asyhim sibi hie constittiit) ; and herein is the 
great blame and cause of the lack of establishment of an 
outward and visible church assembly. Then while in the 
Theologia naturali omnibus hominibtis co7uiata there is as 
it were, the first Thesis: religiosum quendam cultum obser- 
vato, so it happens that when these people come here and 
find no better outward divine service, they rather select one 
than none at all although they are already Libertini; for 
even Libertinism is not without its outward forms, whereby 
it is constituted a special religion without being one. 

"Now I recommend to Your Magnificence, as an intelli- 
gent (cordate-ii) German Evangelical theologian, for your 
mature consideration and reflection for God and His 
church's sake, on account of the wretched condition of the 
German Evangelical communities, whether with assistance 
perhaps from some exalted hand, some establishment of an 
Evangelical church assembly could be made in America, 
since the Germans are now increasing rapidly. For as 
most of the Germans are addueendi et reduce7idi, so must 
the means be expected to come from others ; or I will say 
the decoy [Loek-Pfeiffe) wherewith which the birds are to 
be allured cannot and must not be expected to come from 
the birds, but must be made by or for such as want to 
entice them here. 

"Both myself and my brother, who is sojourning here, 



44 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

keep ourselves to the Swedish church, although we under- 
stand little or nothing of their language. We have also 
been the means of influencing divers Germans by our ex- 
ample, so that they now and then come to the assemblies, 
even though they do not know the language. Still they 
are gradually being redeemed from barbarism, and becom- 
ing accustomed to an orderly outward service. 

"Above all one of the Swedish pastors, Magister Rud- 
man, has offered, regardless of the difficulty to assume the 
German dialect {dialcctuvi). For nothing less than the love 
of God's honor he has offered to go to this trouble and now 
and then to deliver a German address in the Swedish 
church, until the Germans can have a church of their own, 
together with the necessary establishment. Accordingly 
the Germans who still love the evangelical truth, and a 
proper outward church order, much prefer to attend {in- 
teresse) the Swedish churches here until they can also have 
their divine worship in their own language as a people. 
The means are hereby offered in a measure to spread the 
Gospel truth in these wilds, whereby many of their brethren 
and fellow-countrymen may be brought from wrong to 
right, from darkness to light, and from the whirlpool of 
sectaries to the peace and quiet of the true church. Where- 
fore such Swedish Evangelical churches, for my humble 
part, have best and heartfelt wishes, and I seek also and 
pray Your Magnificence to kindly recommend, as occasion 
offers, such churches with their ministers, to His Illustrious 
Serene Highness and Her Highness his spouse, who is a 
royal Swedish Princess, and also to contrive that your 
interest may be earnestly brought to the notice of his 
Serene Majesty of Sweden. 

"I will here take occasion to mention that many others 
besides myself, who know the ways of this land, maintain 



1703-MEIV1ORIAL OF DOM. JUSTUS FALCKNER-1903. 




GLORIA DEI (OLD SWEDES), WICACOA, A. D. 1903. 



AfTER ETCHING BY LUOWIG E. FABER. 



Pleads for an Organ. 45 

that music would contribute much towards a good Christian 
service. It would not only attract and civilize the wild 
Indian, but it would do much good in spreading the Gospel 
truths among the sects and others by attracting them. In- 
strumental music is especially serviceable here. Thus a 
well-sounding organ would perhaps prove of great profit, 
to say nothing of the fact that the Indians would come run- 
ning from far and near to listen to such unknown melody, 
and upon that account might become willing to accept our 
language and teaching, and remain with people who had 
such agreeable things ; for they are said to come ever so 
far to listen to one who plays even upon a reed-pipe {rohr- 
fifeiffe) : such an extraordinary love have they for any 
melodious and ringing sound. Now as the melancholy, 
Saturnine stingy Quaker spirit has abolished {relegiret) all 
such music, it would indeed be a novelty here, and tend to 
attract many of the young people away from the Quakers 
and sects to attend services where such music was found, 
even against the wishes of their parents. This would 
afford a good opportunity to show them the truth and their 
error. 

" If such an organ-instrument {Orgcl-Tvcrck) were placed 
in the Swedish church, (for the Germans as yet have no 
church, and the Swedish church is of a high build and 
resonant structure) it would prove of great service to this 
church. As the majority of the Swedes are young people, 
and mostly live scattered in the forest, far from the churches, 
and as we by nature are all inclined to good, and above all 
to what may serve our souls, such as the Word of God 
which is dead and gone, so are especially the youth ; and 
it is so with the Swedish youth now under consideration. 
When they have performed heavy labor for the whole 
week, as is customary here, they would sooner rest on a 



46 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

Sunday, and seek some pleasure, rather than perhaps go 
several miles to listen to a sermon. But if there were such 
music there, they would consider church-going as a recre- 
ation for their senses. 

" Thus does Luther of blessed memory in one place 
highly recommend the use of the organ and sacred music 
for this very reason, that it is serviceable, and induces 
young and simple and, says he foolish folk, to listen unto 
and receive God's Word. It would also prove an agree- 
able thing for God, angels and men ; if in this solitude and 
wilderness, which as it were struggles under so many 
Secula, the Lord of Hosts, with whom there is fulness of 
joy and at whose right hand there are pleasures for ever- 
more, would be praised and honored with cymbal and 
organ, as he hath commanded. And it may be assumed 
that even a small organ-instrument and music in this place 
would be acceptable to God, and prove far more useful 
than many hundreds in Europe, where there is already a 
superfluity of such things ; and the more common they are, 
the more they are misused. 

" If now Your Magnificence were kindly to intercede 
with his Serene Highness and Her Highness his Consort, 
and also with such other exalted personages with whom 
you are held in high esteem, and present to them the bene- 
fit to be hoped for ; I doubt not, but that something could 
be effected. There are in Europe masters enough who 
build such instruments, and a fine one can be secured for 
300 or 400 thalers. Then if an experienced organist and 
musician could be found, and a curious one who would 
undertake so far a journey, he would be very welcome 
here. In case this could not be, if we only had an organ, 
some one or other might be found here who had knowl- 
edge thereof. 



Colophon to Missive. 47 



twtj tiHt ©kt^unCf It 2:^ aUt ^aa«i;f 611W man au(b 
rincn crfa^mcnOrgamftcn uno Muficum fintm Ut 
curicux , unt) 10 tmvoutt lH«Te t^un werte/ijcc wuP- 
tc^(etrcl)C(«igcnc^mrei)n/tt)4rec^ otrt mtt)t/ unb 
man ^4ttc vmmt Orgel/fomSc^te ficO cttra not© 
cm obfctep anfcrtf Oi«r fin&en/l)er<2B<j]enrc$afftD0' 

t)On ^4ttt:. 0($U(^IicOcn trenn (£U. Magnificent 

toicigmcfgfamworten n?oltcn/ jo glaubf n)irt> tit 
It^t addrcrte ttt S8rfcff( an Den ©(^tvrtifc^tn Rd- 
(ident ingontenfcp/ftjo^tn aucO Wer aegfntvtirtf* 
ac?3mffaddrcfllrct tt)orl»m loUt x>mti<i)t Mfm 
©wfcli>trf(^ont)ffTere(5cU5tn^ett - * sytutt 
((^ fc^tteflc unt> empfc{)lt €u. Magnificcno ^eift 
©c^utj unb fcet ®nal)c ®0m6 ju «Hfn QDo^Ut* 
Q(^cn / ttnD tJtr&arrf 



<Suer Magnificence 



GenntntoaintfC AmeriMnifi6<n 
FroTtnecPeaf/lrabia, fcnRmi- 
TaSuccii,t(ni.Augufti itn 3a|)f 

l^dlirtunD cinl. 

5(1 ^&<t im» SDMcn 

Jufhis Fakkmr* 



m:o)m 



COLOPHON OF JUSTUS FALCKNER's MISSIVE TO GERMANY. 



48 



Dominie Justus Falckner. 



" Finally if Your Magnificence would be highly disposed 
to answer, I believe the best address for the letter would 
be in care of the Swedish Resident in London, through 
whom also the present letter is addressed. Or perhaps 
you are aware of some better opportunity. 

" In conclusion I now commend YOUR MAGNIFI- 
CENCE to the protection and grace of God to all pros- 
perity, and remain 

" to YOUR MAGNIFICENCE 

" GERM ANTON in the American 
Province of Pennsylvania, otlierwise New 
Sweden, the ist. of August in the year 
of our Salvation one thousand seven 
hundred and one. 

" For Prayer and service 
" most devoted, 

"Justus Falckner." 




GLORIA DEI A CENTURY LATER. 



1703-MEMORIAL OF DOM. JUSTUS FALCKNER-1903. 




. f. SACHSE, PHOTO. 



GLORIA DEI, A. D. 1903. 
INTERIOR LOOKING WEST— SHOWING ORGAN GALLERY. 




CHAPTER V. 



Causes Which Led to the Ordination at Wicacoa. 




^^ROM the missive sent to 
II Dom. Muhlen it is shown 
how close the intimacy was be- 
tween the Swedish pastors and 
Justus Falckner, our candidate for 
holy orders, and of the interest he 
took in the Swedish Lutheran ser- 
vices held at Gloria Dei. The cir- 
cumstances which brought about 
the ordination of Justus Falckner 
at Wicacoa are as follows : 
Andreas Rudman, the Swedish pastor at Wicacoa, had 
received repeated calls for help from the distressed and op- 
pressed Lutherans, who had been without any clergyman 
to minister to their wants for some length of time. Conse- 
quently, after the arrival of Rev. Andreas Sandel, March 
lo, 170I Magister Rudman gave their forlorn condition 
his earnest consideration, and finding their case as bad 
as had been represented concluded personally to take 

(49) 



50 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

charge of the extended mission on the Hudson and the ad- 
joining territory. 

In pursuance to this resolve he, on July 5, 1702, installed 
Sandel as pastor of Wicacoa, and on the 19th of the same 
month he preached his valedictory sermon. At the con- 
clusion of the sermon he embraced the opportunity of mak- 
ing public Auren's Sabbatarian doctrine and implored his 
parishioners to be upon their guard and remain true to the 
Lutheran faith according to the unaltered Augsburg Con- 
fession. A confessional service and the Eucharist closed 
the impressive occasion. 

Early on the next day, July 20th, Rudman started for 
New York, accompanied by Mr. Thomas, a schoolmaster 



^^V J^' 



yK/Zy^ 



at Christ Church, who was in deacon's orders and intended 
to sail for England to receive ordination. A number of 
Swedes, led by pastor Sandel, Matz Keen, Peter Rambo 
and Eric Keen, also accompanied them part of the way. 

Rudman, upon his arrival in New York, at once com- 
menced to gather up and organize the Lutherans (German, 
Dutch and Swedish), who were scattered over so large a 
territory, which, in addition to the embryo city and the val- 
ley of the Hudson, included parts of Long Island and East 
Jersey. 

After Rudman was well established in his new field of 
labor, he sent to Pennsylvania for his wife and young 
family, and all went well until the summer of the follow- 
ing year, when the yellow fever broke out in the citadel 
and town. In the latter part of August Dominie Rudman 
and his family were prostrated by the terrible scourge, 



Rudman's Entry. 



SI 




52 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

and upon the death of his second son, Anders, he wrote 
to Philadelphia for aid, stating that both he and his 
daughter were stricken with the disorder.'' 

In response to this urgent appeal, Revs. Biorck and 
Sandel at once made arrangements to go to his assistance ; 
but so slow were the imperfect means of communication at 
that time, it was not until September 13th when a start was 
made from Philadelphia to relieve the stricken pastor. 
The party arrived in New York on the afternoon of the 
i6th, where they found Dominie Rudman recovering, but 
his daughter still severely ill." 

Dominie Rudman never entirely recovered from this 
attack, and being of a frail constitution he realized, after 
another year's trial, that on account of the rigor of the 
climate he could not continue in charge during another 
winter. In this extremity, not wishing to leave the field 
uncovered, he bethought himself of the Falckner brothers, 
and finding that Daniel had married and was occupied 
with the civic affairs of the German township, he wrote 
the younger brother a Latin letter of which the following 
extract is translated. 

"New York, September 21, 1703. 

"But only listen, I beg of you: for I am going to give 
you some unexpected news, for you to seriously and prayer- 
fully ponder. 

"I have decided to leave this province, to dispose of 
my affairs in Pennsylvania for some time, and to revisit 



"Sandel's Diary. 

^^ Sandel in his diary, notes: "Sept. 17, 1702, we went looking about 
the town that day and saw the English Church and also the Dutch [Re- 
formed?] both of them edifices of beauty. 

Sept. 10. "To-day we went calling on all who profess the Lutheran 
creed ; there are very few here." 



1703-MEMORIAL OF DOM. JUSTUS FALCKNER-1903. 




J 

THIS MARd^c ^w 

REMAINS 

wi THE REVREND ANDREW RUOMAN 

BEING SENT HITHER FROM S>X(EDEri. 

HE FIRST FOUNDED^ BUILT THIS CHURCH. 

WAS A CONSTANT FAITHFUL PREACHER 

IN TH' ENGLISH, swede's V DUTCH CHURCHES 

ELEVEN YEARS IN THIS CQUMtREY 

, WHERE HE ADVA NCbT*Ri{E PIETY, 

BY SOU MD DOCTRINE U GOOD EX AMPLE 

HE DIED. SEP^J3» 300 8 
^_^^^ AGED 4-0 YEARS. 



GLORIA DEI A. D., 1903. 
TOMB OF REV. ANDREAS RUDMAN IN FRONT OF CHANCEL. 



Receives Letter. 



S3 




%• 



ffe'i^l' 



ri'Sl^ 












54 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

Sweden. What! you ask ; are you going to desert your 
little flock? 

"Wherefore, as I look around, no one has occurred to 
me as a more suitable person to whom I can safely com- 
mit my sheep than yourself. Only weigh the following 
reasons : 

"(i) The call will be plainly divine. Samuel, when 
called of God, thought " Shall I ask Eli " whence is this? 
Whence can it be, unless God has imitated the voice of 
Eli ! So, be assured, God is calling you through me. So 
far as I have heard from the people, all agree, and that to, 
with great delight. 

"(2) In Europe, you could have obtained greater and 
more lucrative churches ; but I know that you have been 
averse to this on account of the abandoned life of cour- 
tiers and others. Here matters are very different ; guile 
less scattered sheep, few, docile, obedient — thirsty and 
famished. 

"(3) You seem to have been called from the womb. 
Will you bury your talent with a good conscience? 

"(4) You have dignified me with the name of 'Father,' 
receive, therefore, the exhortation of a father. If I can 
persuade the Ministerium, you will be initiated (sacro or- 
dini) into the ministry by our Swedish ministers. 

•'If you decline, I will be compelled to leave my sheep 
without a successor and this will be hard and difficult." 

Justus Falckner for a time hesitated about accepting the 
call, as he entertained some doubts as to the regularity of 
such ordination. Unfortunately we have not the reply to 
the above letter. However, in a subsequent Latin letter 
Rudman seems to have set his doubts at rest and removed 
all scruples from the mind of the German Pietist on the 
Wissahickon. 



Dominie Abelius. 55 

In his letter, dated October 4, 1703, Dominie Rudman 
writes : 

"Episcopal authority for consecrating churches, ordain- 
ing, etc., has been granted me unreservedly by the bishop, 
especially with reference to a contingency such as this. 
This was done previously in Pennsylvania among the 
Swedes by Rev. Laurentius Lock,'' who ordaind Avelius " 
there, etc. Besides you know that in Holland, Lutherans 
have no bishop, and are, therefore, inducted into the min- 
istry by the vote of the presbyters. You should have no 
doubt whatever, therefore, concerning the fact of which I 
assure you, that, if you prefer to be subject to his protec- 
tion and promotion, the Bishop of Sweden, as I certainly 
know will transmit his confirmation." 

Falckner's answer to this letter was evidently his consent 
to receive the Swedish ordination and take charge of Rud- 
man's flock in New York under certain conditions. 



"Dom. Lars, Carlson Lock (Lockenius) came to America in time of 
Gov. Printz, about 1648, d. 16SS. He served the congregation at Chris- 
tina and Tinicum for about forty years. 

"From the above note it would appear that there was a Lutheran ordi- 
nation in Pennsylvania before that of Justus Falckner. There is, how- 
ever, no record of any such ceremony having ever taken place. The only 
mention of an ordination on the Delaware by another presb3rter is this allu- 
sion in Dom. Rudman's letter, which the latter evidently learned from 
hearsay. Dom. Lock died twelve years before Rudman's arrival in Amer- 
ica. The person to whom the allusion reien, Avelius, was a Dutch student 
by the name of Abelius Zetskoorn, also written Selskoorn, who came to this 
country and for a time performed divine service at Sandhook. He went to 
Manhattan with a recommendation to the Lutheran Congregation at that 
place. Governor General Stuyvesant, to get rid of him, sent him to Dom- 
inie Lars Lochenius on the Delaware, where it appears that he taught 
school, took upon himself to baptize children, and on Whitsuntide 1663 
was permitted to preach a sermon at Tinicum. Shortly afterwards he re- 
turned to New York, where he appears to have ministered to the Dutch 
Lutherans and appears in the records as Dominie Abelius. Dom. Berken- 
meyer in his list of Lutheran pastors of Manhattan mentions him as Goet- 
water's successor. 



56 



Dominie Justus Falckner. 



%m \ 







1703-MEMORIAL OF DOM. JUSTUS FALCKNER-1903. 




PHOTOGRAPHED FROM THE ORIGINAL CANVAS IN SWEDEN 



KEV. ERIC TOBIAS BIORCK. 

ONE OF THE OFFICIATING MINISTERS AT ORDINATION OF JUSTUS FALCKNER. 



Admonition from Dominie Biorck. 57 

The church council at New York, under date of Octo- 
ber 27, 1703, wrote him to come to New York and preach 
a trial sermon. This was followed three days later by a 
formal call from the congregation to serve them as pastor. 

Justus Falckner acknowledged both letters under date of 
November 3, 1703, accepting the call, but refused to come 
on and preach a trial sermon. As the congregation did 
not insist upon the trial sermon, Dominie Rudman forth- 
with made arrangements to sever his connection with his 
New York charge and returned to Philadelphia to complete 
his arrangements for the proposed ordination at Gloria Dei 
at Wicacoa. 

In the meantime, while Justus Falckner was preparing 
himself for his new position, he received the following 
letter from Magister Biorck, the Swedish pastor at Holy 
Trinity Church (Wilmington). It was dated Christiana, 
Nov. 19, 1703 : 

" Since the Omniscient has known best how to direct 

your resistance and departure to a good end, and to the 
welfare of many, as is now apparent, by permitting you, 
indeed, to come hither to this American desert, not to carry 
away the talent entrusted to you, but, rather, to multiply 
it, that the Father of the household may receive his own 
with profit, for which a desert place very frequently offers 
the richest [reward], and, thus, you have unawares, as it 
were fallen into that, which you had previously escaped ; 
your departure to this province was your mission, and call- 
ing from God. You sought a hiding-place ; but He from 
whom no one can hide is now seeking to call thee thence. 
Come forth then to the light and profit of the public. For 



58 



Dominie Justus Falckner. 



^ 






^4l#ie- 









^~ 







Admonition from Dominie Bidj'ck. 



59 



nothing will be more pleasing to God, than for you to de- 
vote your life to the common good, particularly of souls ; 
Since one who desires to profit only himself, not only does 
not double, much less multiply his talent, but who rather, 
with the useless servant, digs under the earth, will, at last, 
like him, pay a heavy penalty for his folly. We have been 
born not for ourselves, but for others, especially for God 
and his Church, and for which your services are needed 
here, more than they could have been elsewhere in your 
native land, you have been brought hither without thought 
or intention on your part." 





CHAPTER VI. 
The Ordination at Gloria Dei. 



MEDNESDAY, 
November 24, 
1703, marks the date of 
the most noteworthy re- 
ligious service ever held 
within the consecrated 
walls of the old Swedish 
Lutheran Church, Gloria 
Dei, at Wicacoa in Phila- 
delphia.'^ Of the many- 
solemn and festive oc- 
casions which have taken 
place within these ven- 
erable walls, both under 
its original Evangelical Lutheran tutelage or the modern 
Protestant Episcopal regime, not a single one has attained 

"The question is frequently asked, when and what brought about the 
transfer of the Swedish Churches on the Delaware, from the Lutheran 
to the Protestant Episcopal fold? The change was gradual, and one 0£ 

(60) 




1703-MEMORIAL OF DOM. JUSTUS FALCKNER-1 903. 




) BY J. F. SACHSE 



GLORIA DEI, A. D. 1903. 

SHOWING INTERIOR WITH CHANCEL. 



TOMBS OF THE LUTHERAN PASTORS RUDMAN, 

DYLANDER and PARLIN ARE tN THE AISLE. 



Transfer of Gloria Dei. 6i 

successive steps in which the language question, Swedish and English, 
was the chief factor. 

The Swedish Lutheran Church, according to the unaltered Augs- 
burg Confession, was established on the shores of the South or Delaware 
river as early as 1638. The colonists as an old document informs us 
" influenced by a desire to preserve among themselves and their posterity, 
those principles of religion in which they had been instructed in their 
native land, erected churches at various points for the public ministration 
of God's word." 

For one hundred and twenty-nine years these churches maintained 
themselves without any local charters or civil interference. During Pro- 
vost Wrangel's pastorate it was, however, found that under the laws of the 
province, they could not receive or hold any legacies or pious bequests. 
To overcome this defect, Wrangel applied to Thomas and Richard Penn, 
then the Proprietaries for a charter, which was granted September 25, 
1765, under the name of the Rector, Church Wardens and Vestrymen of the 
Swedish Lutheran Churches of Wicaco, Kingsessing and upper Merion, 
then the standard formulze for a church charter. 

Twenty years later Rev. Dr. Collin had the charter amended, that 
whereas, the Swedish language is almost extinct, the vestry shall in 
future have the right to elect ministers to supply said churches provided 
always, that the said Rector and other Ministers shall be in the Ministry 
of the Lutheran or Protestant Episcopal Churches and hold their faith in 
the doctrine of the same. 

This change was made necessary as there was at that time no English 
Lutheran clergymen within the State, and the services for some time had 
been held partly or wholly in English. 

In 181S the charter was again amended, giving the vestry power to sell 
some of its landed posessions. 

In all of these amendments thus far it is emphatically stated that any 
and all ministers shall be in the ministry of the Lutheran or Protestant 
Episcopal Churches. Dr. Collin lived until 1S31, having been pastor of 
Gloria Dei for some 45 years. Dr. Collin during his long ministry of 
almost half a century, was always a consistent Lutheran, although at the 
English services he was forced to permit the use of the book of Common 
Prayer in his churches, as there were then no Lutheran Liturgical books 
in the English language, still he never considered his congregations other 
than orthodox Lutheran. All of his assistants subsequent to the revolu- 
tion owed fealty to the Episcopal Church, and although the question was 
frequently agitated among these assistants how to carry the churches over 
bodily into the Episcopal fold, their plans were always frustrated by the ven- 
erable Swedish shepherd. After the decease of the,old Lutheran patriarch 
in October, 1S31, however, upon the very next Sunday there was an entire 



62 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

the historical, romantic or religious importance of the one 
we are now about to describe. 

It is true that it was only the ordination of an humble 
Saxon student, a German Pietist of the Halle school, as a 
missionary pastor to labor in another province, among 
people of a still different nationality and tongue, according 
to the Swedish ritual, by clergymen owing fealty to the 
Archbishop at Upsala. 

We have here upon this solemn occasion a union of three 
races, viz., German, Swede and Hollander, all combined 
in a single object, to furnish a regularly ordained pastor as 
missionary among the scattered Lutherans in the provinces 
of New York and East Jersey, a territory in which the 
Calvinist almost reigned supreme. 

The historic importance of this occasion will become even 
more apparent when we recall the fact that this was the 
first regular ordination of an orthodox clergyman in Penn- 
sylvania, if not in the western world of which we have any 
authentic record. 

While the names and services are long forgotten of the 
many godly men, Lutheran and Protestant Episcopal, who 
during the past two centuries have so faithfully served 
within the bounds of this venerable religious landmark on 



conformity to the doctrine and worship of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, and old Gloria Dei became lost to the Lutherans for time to 
come. 

In 1846 the charter was again amended, when the word Lutheran was 
finally stricken out of the charter. 

Dr. Colin's assistants were Rev. Joseph Clarkson, 1787-92, who was the 
first minister to be ordained by Bishop White in the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in America, and was ordained for the express purpose of serving 
the Swedish Lutheran churches on the Delaware ; Rev. Slaytor Clay, 
1792-1S21 ; Rev. Joseph Turner; Rev. John C. Clay; Rev. James Wilt- 
bank, 1S16-20; Rev. M. B. Roche; Rev. Chas. M. Dupuy, 1S22-28; Rev. 
Pierce Connelly, 1828-31. 



Ordination. 63 

the banks of the Delaware, the name, history and story of 
this humble German Pietist, Justus Falckner, the first of 
the many saintly men to come to this Province from the 
Halle institutions, is still kept in bright remembrance, and 
the story of his life and labors furnishes one of the bright- 
est pages in the religious history of New York and Penn- 
sylvania, which are now the two greatest commonwealths 
in the American union. 

It was a solemn ceremony which was enacted upon that 
bleak November day within the bare walls of the Swedish 
church on the banks of the Delaware. The sacred struc- 
ture, as yet bare and unfinished, lacked both tower and 
side projections. The interior, with its rough walls and 
exposed roof, earthen floors and hard benches, well matched 
the unadorned altar within the recess in the east, separated 
by a rude railing from the body of the church and its 
primitive surroundings. 

Upon this occasion no pealing organ, with a multitude 
of stops and pedals, vestured choir, or elaborate music 
made melody for the service. No long procession of robed 
clergy, with mitred bishop surrounded by acolytes and led 
by the cross-bearer, were present to add dignity to the scene 
and impress the beholder with awe. 

The ceremony of ordination, although simple and devoid 
of all pomp and glitter, was none the less solemn and im- 
pressive. This was greatly due to a number of the Theo- 
sophical Brethren from the ridge, under the leadership of 
Magister Johannes Kelpius, who had come down from the 
Wissahickon to give eclat to the elevation of one of their 
number as presbyter in the Lutheran Church. 

The Theosophical Brotherhood, partly clad in the habit 
of the German University student, others in the rough 
pilgrim garb of unbleached homespun, occupied the front 



64 Dotninie Justus Falckner. 

benches, while the rear of the church was filled with a 
number of Swedes and a sprinkling of English Churchmen 
and Dissenters. It is said that even a few Quakers and 
Indians were attracted to the church, and enhanced the 
picturesqueness of the scene. 

The service was opened with a voluntary on the little 
organ " in the gallery by Jonas the organist,'^ supple- 
mented with instrumental music by the Mystics on the viol, 
hautboy,^' trumpets {Posamien) and kettle-drums (Pauken)}* 
After this they intoned the Anthem : 

Veni Creator Spiritus. 

While this was being sung, a little procession of six per- 
sons entered the church by the west portal. First came 



'^This is the earliest reference to a ciiurch organ in any Protestant 
church in America. It is not Icnown to a certainty just where or when 
they obtained it. If it had been sent over from Sweden in response to the 
appeal of Justus Falckner in his missive to Dom. Muhlen that fact would 
undoubtedly have appeared upon the records. There is a strong probability 
that this instrument was brought over by Kelpius and his party in 1694, 
and that it was originally set up in the tabernacle on the Wissahickon. 

The present writer has seen a letter by Kelpius in which reference is 
made to an organ, but all trace of this paper now seems to be lost. 
There is also an account that Dr. Witt and others of the community 
built an organ at Germantown or Wissahickon at an early day. Among 
the musical instruments brought over by the Brotherhood was a virginal 
(a keyed instrument, something like a pianoforte). This afterwards re- 
verted to the widow of Magister Zimmerman, and appears in the inventory 
of her effects. 

The first church organ introduced into Christ Church, Philadelphia, 
was obtained in 172S from Ludovic Christian Sprogell, who was one of 
the survivors of the Brotherhood on the Wissahickon. 

"The earliest mention of Jonas the organist is in Sandel's diary, under 
date July 20, 170J, as one of the number that accompanied Pastor Rudman 
part of the way on his journey to New York. 

"Hautboy, a wind instrument, somewhat like a flute or clarionette. 

" Vide Kelpius Diary, Selig, Sendschreiben and Pennsylvania Maga- 
xine, Vol. XI, page 434. 



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A Solemn Procession, 65 

two churchwardens, then the candidate for ordination, with 
Rev. Andreas Sandel as sponsor '^ by his side ; lastly. 
Revs. Erick Biorck and Andreas Rudman, the latter as 
suffragan or vice-bishop.^" 

As the little procession reached the chancel rail, the two 
wardens [Eldeste) stood on either side of the railing, while 
the suffragan and the two pastors entered within the chan- 
cel and ranged themselves in front and at either side of the 
altar, upon which were placed a crucifix and lighted tapers. 
The suffragan was robed in a girdled surplice, with chas- 
uble^' and stole, while the two assistants wore the black 
clerical robe '^ {Schwarze Taler). The candidate, wearing 
the collegiate gown of the German University, knelt before 
the rail, upon which a chasuble^ {ckor kemd) had been 
previously placed. 

The anthem being ended, the suffragan, standing in front 
of the altar facing the congregation, opened the services 
proper with an invitation to prayer. Then turning to the 
east, while all kneeled, he repeated the following invocation. 

["Almighty and everlasting God; the Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, who himself has commanded us that we 
shall pray for laborers in thy harvest, we pray thy un- 
searchable mercy that thou wouldst send us right-minded 
teachers, and give thy holy and wholesome Word into 
their hearts and mouths, so that they without error may 
both correctly teach and perfectly execute all thy com- 

'^ Sandel also acted as secretary of the Consistorium on this occasion. 

*" Vide " Hallesche Nachrichten," new ed., pp. 441, 47S; also W. C. 
Berkenmeyer vs. Van Dieren, J. Peter Zenger, New York, 1728. 

'"This garment was not strictly a chasuble, but a white lace garment 
similar to the Roman surplice. 

'* Similar to the one still worn by the Lutheran clergy. 

"Also known as a " Mess-hemd," a short white garment worn over the 
black robe when officiating at the altar. 



66 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

mandments, in order that we being taught, exhorted, com- 
forted and strengthened by thy holy Word, may do that 
which is pleasing unto thee and useful to us. 

" Grant us, O Lord, thy Holy Spirit, that thy Word may 
always remain among us ; that it may increase and bear 
fruit, and that thy servant may with befitting courage 
preach thy Word, so that thy holy Christian Church " 
may be edified thereby, and may serve thee in steadfast 
faith, and forever continue in the knowledge of thee. 
Through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen."] 

The suffragan then arose and turned to the congrega- 
tion, after which Rev. Sandel, acting as consistorial secre- 
tary, advanced to the chancel rail and read out the name 
of the candidate and the charge to which he was called. 

The suffragan, then addressing the kneeling candidate, 
said : " Inasmuch as you, Justus Falckner, are called to the 
Holy office of the Ministry, and in order that you with us, 
and we with you, may righth^ understand the sacredness of 
this calling, then let us hear the promise and the exhortation 
of the Word of God." At this point. Rev. Biorck stepped 
forward and read out the following parts of Scripture : 

Matt, xxviii, 18-20; St. John ii, 15-17, xx, 21-23; 
Matt. X, 32-33 ; 2 Cor. v, 17-20; Jeremiah xv, 19; Matt, 
v, 13-16; I Tim. iv, 7-8, 12-14, 16; 2 Tim. ii, 15-16, 
22-25 ; I Peter v, 2-4. 

When this reading was concluded, Vice-Bishop Rudman 
advanced and said: " May God give you grace that you 
may faithfully guard these sayings in your heart. May 
they be a guide for your conversation, and remind you of 
your responsibility. May it increase your watchfulness, 
uphold your zeal, and now and forever consecrate you to 
the service of Heaven. 



"Literally, congregation. 



Induction into the Holy Office, 67 

" The Church of Jesus Christ expects of you that, being 
sensible of the weight of the ministerial office, you your- 
self shall consider the important duties which this office 
lays upon your shoulders. The Church of Jesus Christ 
expects of you that, in believing prayers in the name of 
Jesus Christ, you implore God for grace and power worthily 
to exercise it. The Church of Jesus Christ expects of you 
that you fight a good and faithful fight, lay hold of eternal 
life and make a good confession. Confess therefore your 
faith before God and this congregation."' 

Sandel, as secretary, now advanced and slowly read the 
Apostolic Creed, each word being carefully repeated by the 
candidate before the next following one was uttered by the 
secretary." When this important feature of the ritual was 
concluded the suffragan said : 

" May the Lord God grant unto you grace to stand fast 
in this faith to the end, and to strengthen those who are 
your brethren in the faith." 

Advancing to the kneeling candidate, the suffragan 
asked the following questions : 

" Do you, Justus Falckner, declare yourself willing to 
undertake this holy ministerial office in the name of the 
holy Trinity ? " 

To which the candidate answered a clear " Yes." 

"Will you solemnly promise that this office shall be 
worthily and rightly administered in all its parts, to the 
glory of God and the salvation of souls ? *' 

Again the same clear response, "Yes." 

"Will you always continue in the pure Word of God, 
flee all false and heretical teaching, preach Jesus Christ 
according to the Word of God, and administer the Holy 
Sacraments according to his institution?" 

" The original states that the confession was spelled out letter for letter, 
word for word. 



68 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

Response, " I will." 

"Will you so regulate your life that it may be an ex- 
ample to the faithful, and shall scandalize no one?" 

The kneeling man again answered in the affirmative. 

The suffragan continuing, said : 

"You acknowledge therefore j'our obligations. You 
have declared it to be your purpose to fulfill them. Con- 
firm it now with your oath of office." 

The obligation was then administered upon the Holy 
Evangels by the acting secretary.^ 

After which the suffragan continued : 

" May the Almighty God strengthen you and help you 
to keep all this, and according to the power given to me in 
God's stead by the Church, I hereby confer upon you the 
ministerial dignity in the name of God the Father and the 
Son and the Holy Ghost. Amen." 

The candidate here again kneeled, while the Brother- 
hood intoned, to the soft strains of instrumental music, 

the hymn : 

" Veni Sancto Spirit, 
Reple tuorum corda fidelium." 

During the singing of this hymn, the suffragan, assisted 
by the two clergymen, invested the candidate with the 
chasuble and stole. When this ceremony was completed 
and the hymn sung, the suffragan repeated the Lord's 
Prayer, while he imparted the Apostolic succession " by 
the laying on of hands. He then returned to the altar, 
and said, "Let us pray." Then, turning once more to the 
east he read the following invocation : 

"O everlasting merciful God; dear heavenly Father, 
who through thy beloved Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, hast 

"Text of obligation is missing. 

'''This was according to the Swedish ritual. 



Invocation. 69 

said unto us, the harvest is plenteous but the laborers are 
few ; pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest that He 
send forth laborers into His harvest, and who by these 
words hast made us understand that we cannot procure 
right-minded and faithful teachers except only of thy 
merciful hand : we pray thee therefore of our whole heart 
that thou wouldst mercifully look upon this thy servant 
who is now ordained to thy service and to the holy office 
of thy Ministry, and give him thy Holy Spirit, so that he 
may go forth under watching and be strengthened by thy 
Word, and be able to stand fast in the fight for thy king- 
dom, and to execute thy work, teach and reprove men 
with all humility and learning ; in order that thy Holy 
Gospel may continue among us pure and unadulterated, 
and bear for us the fruit of salvation and of eternal life. 
Through thy Son, Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen." 

Here the suffragan, turning to the kneeling postulant, 
said : " Bow down your heart to God and receive the 
benediction." 

After this was given the impressive liturgy was at an 
end. The Theosophists then intoned the 115th Psalm: 
" iVb« Nobis Dominic,''' during which the little procession 
reformed and as the last verse was sung slowly left the 
church, and the solemn and impressive ceremonial which 
marked the first regular ordination of a Protestant clergy- 
man in America was at an end. 

The reader may ask : Did the newly ordained pastor 
keep his sacred ordination vows ? This the sequel of our 
sketch will show. It may, however, be permitted here to 
say without anticipation that no more active, disinterested 
or pious clergyman ever labored among the Germans and 
Dutch during the trying colonial period than this same 
Justus Falckner. 



70 



Dominie Justus Falckner. 



After the ordination services were over, a diploma, such 
as was used in the Swedish Lutheran Church at that day, 
was filled out in due form, and laid upon the altar before 
which the ordination had taken place, and there was signed 
and sealed by the three officiating clergymen, after which it 
was handed to the newly ordained presbyter. It ended thus : 

" They, indeed, who have been legitimately called to 
this holy office, can enjoy a tranquil conscience, and re- 
member their call not without peculiar consolation, and by 
it, as a shield, protect themselves against all the darts of 
adversities. In their number the most eminent and most 
excellent Master Justus Falckner, is to be reckoned, who 
being in due form and order inducted into Holy orders by 
prayer and the laying on of hands, this 24th day of 
November was set apart for the Ministry of the Church, 
we pray God to deign to add success to the office and daily 
to increase to the new Minister the gifts that have been 
bestowed, to the glory of His name, the welfare of the 
Church and his servants profit. 

" Given on the day of his inauguration in the year 1703 
at Wicaco in Pennsylvania " 



Andrew Rudman, 
formerly pastor at Wicaco, afterwards of the 
Lutheran Church in New York, and now about 
returning to his native land ; 

Erick Biorck, 
Pastor of the church at Christiana ; 

Andrew Sandel, 
Pastor of the Lutheran Church at Wicacoa in 
Pennsylvania. 




As Dominie. 



71 



Thus the new dominie was sent out to minister in the 
adjoining Provinces ; and to the Orthodox Lutheran Church 
in Pennsylvania is due to the honor of having ordained 
and sent out the first man, a native of Saxony, for domestic 
missions in the western world ; who was to labor, not alone 
among those of his own kith and kin, but among people 
who used a European tongue foreign to his own. 




M^ pdLiA 



PORTRAIT OF REV. NICHOLAS COLLIN, D.D., THE LAST OF THE LONG LINE 
OF SWEDISH MINISTERS WHO SERVED ON THE DELAWARE. 




CHAPTER VII. 



Dominie Falckner in New York. 




2)' 



kOMINIE FALCK- 
NER at once made 
preparations to enter upon 
his new field of labor. He 
arrived in New York city 
on Thursday, the second 
of December, or just eight 
days after his ordination. 
After preaching on the 
third and fourth Sundays 
in Advent, he was accepted 
as their regular pastor by 
the oldest Lutheran con- 
gregation in America. 
Immediately upon his 
acceptance of the charge Dominie Falckner deposited his 
diploma of ordination among the archives of the church. 
Unfortunately, this, together with other documents of the 
colonial period deposited within the church, are now miss- 
ing, and have evidently long since been lost or destroyed. 

(72) 



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In Nezv York. 73 

Possibly no document has been so diligently and per- 
sistently sought for by historians and investigators than 
this diploma, as its historical value to the Lutheran and 
Protestant Episcopal Church can hardly be overestimated. 
The search, however, seemed hopeless, although reports 
were repeatedly made, notably by a western writer, that the 
coveted document had been seen and in one instance se- 
cured. Upon investigation, however, these stories proved 
delusive. 

During the past summer, however, it was the good for- 
tune of the writer to examine a number of papers, sent to 
Holland by the New York Congregation, among which was 
a copy of this very document in Justus Falckner's own 
handwriting together with the correspondence which led 
to his acceptance of the charge, also a minute account of 
the affairs as they were during his pastorate. 

DOM. falckner's NOTICE TO AMSTERDAM CONSISTORY. 

One of the first official acts performed by Dominie Falck- 
ner after his arrival in New York, was to send a report and 
copy of his ordination to the Lutheran Consistory at Am- 
sterdam, under whose patronage the church in New York 
was established and to whom they looked for assistance 
and encouragement. 

While in Holland during the past summer, the writer, 
in conversation with Rev. J. Nicum, D.D., learned that 
in the archive room of the old Lutheran church in Am- 
sterdam there were bundles of old papers and reports, un- 
classified, nor even their contents known. Acting upon this 



74 DoJtiinie Justus Falckner. 

hint another visit was paid to that northern Venice, and by 
good fortune access was obtained to the archives of the 
church. In wading through a mass of papers, a bundle of 
old, yellow, time-stained folio sheets were found — they were 
in the handwriting of Justus Falckner — the first was a copy 
of his ordination, the second copies of the letters of Rud- 
man and Biorck before quoted. There were also reports 
from the congregation and other letters. 

By courtesy of the clergy of the church, notably Rev. 
Dr. P. van Wijk, Jr., and Captain A. F. P. Carstens, of 
the corporation, photographic copies were obtained of the 
most important papers and certified written copies of the 
others. 

A facsimile of Justus Falckner's copy of the original or- 
dination is now for the first time presented to the American 
reader. The writer will also state that this has since been 
certified to as correct and authentic by the highest Lutheran 
Episcopal authorities of Sweden. 

The first record made by him in the Kercken-Boeck, or 
church register, shortly after his arrival sets forth the facts 
of his call in Dutch, with a short prayer in classical Latin. 

Anno Christi — 1703. ten 2' December, ben Ick Justus 
Falckner, gebooren in Sassen in Germania tot Langen- 
Reinsdorff onder het Ampt Zwickau, van Philadelphia hier 
in Newyorck nae voorgaende Beroepinge, aenge komen, 
en hebbe den derden Advents Sondagh twee Praedicatien 
in de Lutherische Kercke allhier gehouden ; Diesglycken 
oock den vierten Advents Sondagh : Daerop ben ick van 
het Consistorium der Christelycken Protestantischen Luther- 
ischen Gemeene, tot haer ordentlycke Pastor en Leraer 
aengenomen wordten ! 

[In the name of Jesus. In the year of Christ, 1703, on 
the second of December, I Justus Falckner, born in Saxony, 



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His Invocation. 75 

Germany, at Langen-Reinsdorff , in the district of Zwickau, 
came to Philadelphia, thence to New York, after previous 
invitation. On the third Sunday after advent I delivered 
two sermons in the Lutheran Church here. I did the same 
on the fourth Sunday after Advent. Thereupon I was re- 
ceived by the Consistorium of the Christian Protestant Lu- 
theran Congregation as their regular pastor and teacher.] 

Then follows the invocation : 

'■'■ Detis Ter Optimus Alaxi^no qui tntrusit me kanc in 
messeni, adsit speciali sua gratia miki operario abjecto et ad- 
moduni infirmo, sine qua -pcreunduni mihi est sub mole ten- 
tationum, quae me sacpius obrufit. In Te, Domine, speravi, 
non sinas me confu7idi! Redde me ad vocationem meam 
a-ptum; non cucurri, sed misisti, intrusisti ; interim quic- 
quid in me inscio corrupta admiscucrii natura reniitte ; da 
veniam humilitcr dcprecanti, per Dominum nostrum, imo 
meum Jesum Christum. Amen." 

[God, the Father of all mercy, and Lord of great maj- 
esty, who has sent me into this harvest, be with me, thy 
lowly and ever-feeble laborer, with thy special grace, 
without which I should perish under the burden of tempta- 
tion which often overcomes me with its might. In thee, 
O Lord, have I trusted ; let me not be confounded. 
Strengthen me in my calling. I did not seek it, but thou 
hast sent me, yea, placed me in the office. Meanwhile 
wouldst thou grant remission for whatsoever, without my 
knowledge, a corrupt nature has introduced within me, and 
forgive and pardon me upon my humble supplication, 
through our Lord, yea, my Jesus Christ. Amen.] 

Kyacsifuile of this interesting entry is also reproduced ; 
it was photographed from the original by the present 
writer. 

The time when Pastor Falckner arrived in New York was 



76 Dotiiinie Justus Falckner. 

/cJim,,-e/>v /oik "k/n ^W k^n^_ S^d^ -^iWt 9ySiccl{Uau. 

^en OhXA-^W^^^y^Ws* S^tr^oMii .' ^cWrtyp. fen tok. 'vu.yi. ^uj- 
CcnJiff<rri:u)n.S)er CW^^V^^ -JWe/^nteW ZuMsMjiax^ 

WJCf^t^'trtr, . CZleuS Ttf OiiUrtiu-ff cMc^^ix cj\n w-fi-uM nte. fi£nc >^ ftcMn, 
Ciru, Oam flZrwtM^uA. mJU dt, iiM ynAn i^jnuA^o-rvvAn. . a iret }n£.y:2£fh^ 
<Ut> 'l«ra.'f^»niitij_ni-£^v>ri CLji-ftiyn, '^ n^n Cucu^rn • CS -rrU^Jk , rn.lnJi'/h': 

FAC-SIMILE OF JUSTUS FALCKNER's FIRST ENTRY IN THE CHURCH REGISTER AT NEW YORK. 

far from being a propitious one, as the settlers were in con- 
stant fear of attack by both sea and land.^ 

The Hudson Valley from one end to the other was men- 
aced by the enemy. All residents were forced to be con- 
stantly prepared to defend their life and propertj^ by water 
as well as land. 

Two members of the church council, Church Warden 
(Eldcstc) Jan Hendrick and Vestryman ( Vorsteher) Pieter 

•'This was during the war of the Spanish succession, in which England 
was engaged against France. 



Official Signature. 



77 



van Woglom, with whom the new pastor made his home, 
were military officers. The former was a major of infan- 
try, a highlj' respected man, who well appreciated the seri- 
ous aspect of the general situation. 

In addition to the above, Church Warden Andreas van 






c 



rAC\ >n 



^mttic<\^'. 



OFFICIAL SIGNATURE OF DOMINIE FALCKNKR. 



Boskerk ; Vorsteher and Overseer {kirch-meister') Laur van 
Boskerk ; the sacristans Hanns La Grangie and Joh. Viet, 
with Samuel Beekman, reader and sexton, all were liable 
to military duty when the occasion required their services. 

At the other end of his ex- 
tended territory, church af- 
fairs were, if anything, at a 
still lower ebb. Pastor Falck- 
ner, upon his first visit to Al- 
bany, found the congregation 
there virtually disbanded. A 
small and dilapidated house 
was called by courtesy a 
church, and the membership 
scattered without officers or 
organization. It was not until June, 1705, that he suc- 
ceeded in effecting a permanent organization. 

As for any regular stipend in either place, none was in 
prospect. Church finances were at so low an ebb that bare 
promises were not even made looking towards the pastor's 
sustenance. A reliable account that has come down to our 




SEAL OF NEW YORK, A.D. 1703. 



78 



Doininie Justus F'alckner. 



time informs us that the situation for a time was even worse 
in New York than elsewhere. 

Dominie Falckner must indeed have been a courageous 
man as well as a pious one to enter upon this extended 
field, which he eventually enlarged by serving all the Ger- 
mans along the Hudson and in East Jersey, from the 
Hackensack in Bergen County to the valley of the Raritan, 
without any prospect of remuneration. Another fact to be 
taken into consideration, and one that proves more than 
anything else how earnest, faithful and diligent he was, is 
that he came here an entire stranger, among people whose 
tongue was somewhat different from his own, and in the 
face of the direct opposition of the resident Reformed 

clergy and laity, who were then 
numerically in the majority, and 
received their sustenance from the 
Amsterdam Classis. 

One of the first things done by 
our pious evangelist was to issue a 
call for a meeting at the house of 
his landlord, of the " Protestant 
Christian Congregation*' adhering 
to the unaltered Augsburg Confes- 
sion," to take into consideration 
the dire necessities of the church. 
At this meeting, after some desul- 
tory discussion, it was resolved to send out circular letters 
asking for assistance. These letters were signed by Falck- 
ner and the church officers. Four were sent to the 
Swedish Lutheran brethren in the South.'" A fifth cir- 

2' Christliche Protestantischen Gemeinde, der ungednderten Augsburg- 
isclien Confession zugethan. 

'"On the Delaware River, viz., at Wicaco, Christiana and Penn's Neck 
and Racoon in New Jersey. 




OFFICIAL SEAL OF THE 
NEW YORK CONGREGATION 
USED BY RUDMAN AND 
FALCKNER. 



1703-MEMORIAL OF DOM. JUSTUS FALCKNER-1 903. 











TRINITY EV. LUTHERAN CHURCH, 1729-1784. 



(after RUOE SKETCH MADE I74ci. ) 



FORMERLY S. W. CORNER BROADWAY AND RECTOR STREETS. 
DEDICATED JUNE 29, 1729, BY REVS. DANIEL FALCKNER AND BERKENMEYER. 



Appeals for Aid. 79 

cular was addressed personally to Magister Rudman, ask- 
ing his intercession in their behalf with the Germans and 
English in Pennsylvania. Still later a similar circular, 
with special reference to the ruinous condition of the 
church, was sent to the Dutch Lutherans on the Island of 
St. Thomas in the West Indies. 

Subsequently a sum of money was received in response 
to this last appeal, but unfortunately with the proviso that 
it was to be used only towards building a new church.^' 

Here a new complication arose : the money was badly 
needed for congregational purposes, and so was a new 
church building, but during the prevailing financial strin- 
gency there was no way of supplementing the amount 
received so as to make it available. 

In this dilemma another congregational meeting was 
convened by Dominie Falckner at the house of Reader 
Beekman, where it was resolved that the old building 
should be made tenantable with moneys to be collected by 

"The first Lutheran church in New York was built outside of the Cit- 
adel about where Bowling Green now is. When New York came once 
more into the possession of the Dutch, this building was razed for military 
reasons, in lieu of which a lot was given the congregation at what is now 
the S. W. Cor. Broadway and Rector Street extending back to the North 
River. The first church upon this site served the congregation until 1729, 
when a new building was erected, mainly by the efforts of Daniel Falckner. 
A rude drawing of this church has been found by the writer from which the 
picture on the opposite page was drawn. 

July 6, 1784, the congregation having substituted the German for the 
Dutch tongue, united with the German Lutheran Church, known as the 
Swamp congregation, and assumed the name "The Corporation of the 
United German Lutheran Churches of New York," the services were trans- 
ferred to the church at Frankfort and William Streets. About 1826 the 
united congregation moved to Walker Street near Broadway. 

By a special act of the legislature, passed March 29, 1866, the name 
was changed to "The German Evangelical Lutheran Church of St. Mat- 
thew.'' A spacious church was secured at the N. E. Cor. of Broome and 
Elizabeth Streets, where the congregation now worship so. 



8o 



Dominie Justus Falckner. 



the church-wardens, while the St. Thomas funds were to 
remain intact and be kept as the nucleus of a building 
fund for a future church. ^- 

In an old report to the Amsterdam Consistory we find 
the following graphic description of the Lutheran church 
as Dominie Justus Falckner found it. 

"The church we fear will be demolished by the first 
heavy storm, it is more like unto a cattle shed than a house 
of God, only two windows are in the building, one is back 
of the pulpit, .and the other directly opposite. As the 
church is not paved, but merely floored with loose boards, 
some long, others short, one cannot pass through it with- 
out stumbling." Such was the humble sanctuary as the 
young Dominie found it ; however, he was far from being 
discouraged, and in 1705 the following report was sent to 
the Consistory at Amsterdam : ^ 

52 The second church was not built until some years after Justus Falck- 
ner's death, and then only by the personal etforts of his brother Daniel 
Vide page 79, supra. 

"F/rfe Chapter XI. 




GLORiA DEI, A. D. 170O. 




CHAPTER VIII. 






Report to Amsterdam. 

New York, g'' lo, 1705. 

ME, the Pastor, Elders and 
Deacons of the Evangeli- 
cal Protestant Congregation still at- 
tached to the unaltered Augsburg 
Confession at New York and sur- 
rounding places, wish mercy and 
blessing in and through Christ to 
the very Reverend, God devoted, 
very respectable, highly learned 
and very provident Lords, the 
Lords Pastors, Elders and Deacons, and all worthy mem- 
bers of the highly commendable Consistory of the Evan- 
gelical Protestant Church attached to the unaltered Augs- 
burg Confession, at Amsterdam. 

Very Reverend, Much favored Lords, and, in Christ 
our common Saviour, Dear brethren : 

We should deserve the name of uncivil and ungrateful 
people if we did not often refresh ourselves with the mem- 
ory of your zeal and care for the true Evangelical Prot- 
estant Church in this country and did not arduously apply 
ourselves to inculcate the same in our children and descend- 

(Si) 



82 Do7ntnic Justus Falckner. 

ants, that you and your sainted Lords Predecessors' mem- 
ory may remain in blessing with us in this new world. It 
is you, conjointly with your respective forefathers, who, 
by the grace of God, have largely contributed in times past 
by sending us godfearing learned and faithful Shepherds 
to gather a flock into that Sheepfold over which you also 
were appointed Shepherds by the Arch-shepherd Christ 
Jesus. You are those faithful Stewards in the Kingdom 
of Christ who, by supplying Laborers, have promoted 
God's Husbandry in this wilderness. 

All sheep who by this means have been saved from error 
and perdition in this wilderness will call you blessed. The 
wheat which through your succor and care has been gath- 
ered into the barns of our heavenly Father, shall in the day 
of the everlasting and infinite life not leave you hungry. 
Isaiah 95 : 13. Blessed and consecrated hands which are 
helpful in sowing good seed, whilst otherwise weeds and 
thorns grow up, injuring the good soil and making neglect- 
ful servants suffer for their Indolence, with soreness and 
wounding of hands which were unwilling to be instru- 
mental in nurturing those plants of the Heavenly Father. 

And because we firmly believe that you still bear a 
hearty affection towards our little Christian Congregation, 
we, in all due Respect, will on this good occasion give you 
briefly to understand the situation and condition of our 
said Congregation. 

It is well known to you respectively that, since the death 
of the sainted Mr. Bernhardus Arentius, we have been 
many years without Pastor. Hence it is that our Congre- 
gation has become dispersed, the young people and many 
of the older ones have gone over to the so-called Reformed 
Sect, until, three years ago, at our request, a Swedish min- 
ister, Mr. Andreas Rudmann from Pennsylvania, came 
over but remained with us only a little over a year on 



Reports to Amsterdam. 83 

account of the opportunity calling him elsewhere. He 
did, however, not leave us until by his zeal he had per- 
suaded another person, who had already been living for 
some years in this country, to have himself at our formal 
request and call appointed as our present regular Pastor. 
He is by birth a German, from Saxony, where he studied 
Theology, and was, according to Christian custom and 
habit of our Evangelical Church, ordained to the holy 
Office by the Swedish Lutheran Ministerium of Pennsyl- 
vania, on the 24th of November 1703. He has been with 
us now for nearly two years, and fills his office in such a 
manner that neither we nor anyone else has anything to 
remark on his life and work. 

Our congregation here is very small, because its mem- 
bers are dispersed far and near throughout the country ; 
the majority of them are poor and many, especially the 
young people, ignorant on account of the lack of Bibles, 
Catechisms, Psalm and Hymn books, and it would be of 
great service here to have a pamphlet in which, by means 
of short questions and answers, the difference between the 
Lutheran and the so-called Reformed opinions were ex- 
posed, every point thus concluding, " Therefore the Luth- 
eran opinion is the better one." 

Notwithstanding the smallness of the salary (our present 
Pastor is satisfied with it) it is hard and difficult to bring it 
together. Our church-building also is very much out of 
repair and will not long be suitable for the holy service, so 
that we may decide to build a small new church if God 
will move more such good hearts as our Lutheran fellow- 
believers at St. Thomas in the West-Indies have proved to 
be who sent us, as a beginning, three hundred pieces of 
eight some months ago. 

We are the only Dutch Lutheran Congregation in 
America that is yet all right, and it would be a thousand 



84 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

pities and unwarrantable, if it can be helped, to let this 
single little spark be extinguished by those owls who hate 
the light, especially since we enjoy, through the high laud- 
able English government, every kind of Protection and 
good-will, and because there is hope that this our congre- 
gation, if supported only a little at first, will in this Coun- 
try rejuvinate itself as an Eagle and be an asylum to many 
wandering and erring souls. 

We do not doubt but you will take to heart our sad con- 
dition — the sad condition of a congregation which Christ 
has bought with his own blood — and as a loving foster- 
mother not deny us the breasts of your love, care and com- 
fort. We do not pra}' that your abundance may serve our 
wants, but the wants of a portion of the Body of Christ who 
in the day of judgment will to you also say, " as ye have 
done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, you have 
done it unto me." We do not speak for ourselves and our 
private interests, but for the Church of Christ ; we cannot 
but obtain a hearing from such eminent sustainers of the 
same as we know you respectively to be, and in firm con- 
fidence hold all of you as such. Thus we commend the 
same to the Grace, Love and Mercy of the great God and 
our Saviour J. C. ; assuring you that with all due respect 
and true sincerity of heart we sign and remain 

Very Reverend and Much favored Lords, 

Your very devoted Servants, Friends and Brethren, 
(Signed) Justus Falckner, Past. Loci, 
" P. Bruyns, 

♦' JOHANNIS LaGRANSIE, 
" JOHANN ViELT, 

" JoHAN Michael ScHiJTZ,^ 

" PlETER WOGLOM. 



"This Joh. Mich. Schiitz was the father-in-law of Van Dieren. 




CHAPTER IX. 



A Rare Bradford Imprint. 



-^^HE Reformed Church in New 
^^ York was in far better finan- 
cial condition and at first it seems 
strange that no assistance was prof- 
fered or vouchsafed by them to the 
Lutherans. At this time there was 
considerable friction in the colony 
between the Dutch Lutheran and 
Reformed congregations. The 
estrangement was partly caused 
by the orthodoxy of the Lutheran 
pastor and his close adherence to the unaltered Augsburg 
Confession. ^^ Discussions were indulged in, not only by 
the rival pastors, but by the individual members as well, 
and heated arguments often resulted. 

To place his people in a position the better to uphold 
their faith and controvert the arguments of the Reformed, 
Dominie Falckner prepared a little book in the colloquial 
style of the period, in which he attempted to fortify his 




" Vide footnote, page 7S. 



(Ss) 



86 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

readers by quotations from the Scriptures against what he 
designated " Calvinistic errors." 

This book, printed by William Bradford, was in the 
low Dutch language, and was the first Orthodox Lutheran 
text-book published in America. Falckner was the second 
Lutheran clergyman to avail himself of the Bradford press ; 
his predecessor having been Heinrich Bernhard Koster, 
in 1695.'^ 

The title of this work reads as follows : 

"Fundamental Instruction | upon | certain chief | promi- 
nent articles of the | Veritable, undefiled, Beatifical | Chris- 
tian Doctrine, | founded upon the basis of the Apostles and 
Prophets of which | Jesus Christus | is the corner-stone, ] 
expounded in plain, but edifying | Questions and Answers. 
I By I Justus Falckner, Saxo | Germanus, Minister of the 
Christian | Protestant so-called Lutheran | Congregation at 
N. York and Albany. | Printed in New York by W. Brad- 
fordt, I 1708. 

A facsimile of this title page is reproduced upon a fol- 
lowing page. The original is in the collection of the 
Pennsylvania Historical Society. 

In the preface, which is also in Dutch, the compiler 
commits himself absolutely to the symbolism of the Luth- 
eran Church, the confession of the fathers; "which con- 
fession," he continues, "and faith by the grace of God, 
and the conviction of His Word and Spirit, lives also in 
me, and shall remain there until my blissful end." 

He further states that it is to be distinctly understood 
that the contents of this book are to be taken in strict con- 
formity with the teachings, confession and faith of the 
Lutheran Church, to which his parents and grandparents 

"Vide Dr. Schmauk's "Lutheran Church in Pennsylvania," 1638- 
1800, and Sachse's " German Pietists." 



Publishes Text-book. 87 

belonged. He continues : "Both my grandfathers, paternal 
and maternal, as well as my father, were found worthy by 
the grace of God to serve in the holy priesthood of his 
aggressive church." 

The body of the book consists, as before stated, of a 
series of questions and answers. The last two pages are 
taken up with hymns. The first, of three stanzas of ten 
lines each, is a Dutch translation of Luther's hymn, " Wir 
glaubcn all an eincm Gotf." This is followed by a hymn to 
be sung before the sermon, which has four stanzas of four 
lines each. The last one is a hj'mn of two stanzas of 
twelve lines each. These are evidently of his own com- 
position and without doubt are the first original hymns 
published in the Western Hemisphere.^' 

The whole book is remarkable for its orthodoxy, and it 
attracted the attention of leading divines in Germany. 
The celebrated Loscher, in his "Continuations" for 1726, 
designates this text-book as a Co7nfendium. DoctrincB Anti- 
Calvinianum. 

It certainly is greatly to the credit of Dominie Falckner, 
with his widespread field of labor, that he should have 
found time to compile the above book. How earnestly he 
felt for the charges under his care is shown by the fact 
that he invited his elder brother Daniel to leave Pennsyl- 
vania and take charge of the scattered German and Dutch 
congregations in East Jersey. 

Although the chief centers of his activity were Albany 
and New York, we find this untiring missionary establish- 
ing preaching stations at various widely distant points in 
the Hudson Valley. Geographically speaking, his charge 
was divided into two parts : one south, the other north of 

"No traces of these hymns are to be found in the older Lutheran hym- 
nals accessible to the writer. 



88 Dominie Justus Falckner. 



GRONDLYCKE ONDERRICHT 

VAN ] 

Sckcrc Voornamc Hoofd-ftacVen, dcr 
Wtren, Loutcm, SaU|inak£Qdon, 

Chriftelycken Leere, 

Gcgrondct op den Grondc van dc Apo- 
di^Xtti CD Prophetea, dacr 

dc HOECK-STEEN. 

I S. 

Angcwcfca In ecnvoudigc, d<^ ftlgtlyc5« 

Vragen en ^ntwoQrdejt^ 

Door 

JUSTUS FALCKNER, Saj*^ 

GfrruantdSy Miniftcr dcr Chnftclyckcfi 

Pr«t«ftaatfcB GcDHemtCB LctherrchiiB 

Gcmctateu H Tetktu Aibanen^ 

&c. 

Pfal. II9.V. 1O4. {Cod) n ^oort matckj raf 
Ki»etk\ d^terorahtnt iclialle va/frht iVefei^ 

Gtdruckt tt Nicovt-York by W. Bradfordlj, 



I 708 



TITLE OF FIRST LUTHERAN TEXT -BOOK PRINTED IN AMERICA. ORIGINAL 
IN HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



As ail American Hymnist. 89 



4, %^ ^rftlCl^jTf , ^ptff6!>»0l««t 
©[!? }pn tWrfaetiif «n o^m ,!I9arm : 
BDtea Dan m 't lutacrn t>«n mf, ^fer, 
flCngrrft oajr atnticftttot ote Ifec. 

;, ^pl ge (&tr&, ons ta toartlt^efD ttflta 
QStDS Dimttrfi moBUt rh tcms bftir^Or : 
a,tEt V totojbt too? H'objm 'f Vtt inguiib 
fSn l)r!p 0ns Sera na uts bhroiftpii,^ 

4. I^rrr, onf <DoT)t bobea a( tiumiftt 
^n Bne prrfoene^ s'oprnbirrt) 
123? bieflen 5a t;Jtt'I?rk tTaojen, 
^erbwtt &oct> tttfl onfe letO' ; 2ati» 

«■ II I I I »^— 

T_T®et CFo^tUfB ttoiito mrt fCnirt* brrlfHl 
jri Co fc!)k*, Hjn Ijtfl^gpn «Dtc8 «rt teij| 
^if ons He toaet^ftJttt leet* ; 
Cb Qctff tt;OanM. I)n:t, fls, ^ht C'dl^ 
E)«t ons QtD ?iI2H0o;T)f nttt \f itn. f ^, 
f^cr CBntfcl) tut l& bftrrtr» 

W*x %v(fi tori fd^itlk tof tttmi p;fK» 
. ai oafcloM* n» latffl ; 
fjaiat '^nl'reB warfi, »ftt ftlljrterttts 
QSQat boo;«<int «arl^, >iif {itrff btfjraSfi 
"fef toanylm vrvbt fratnt. 

^, (S« fiuur t%i tori' l^fr ^j; «m rfSR 
on? tortrn Mirt 1^ fr»t fu«f< 

^affttrm oiife SNigrt. ^, ^ .„ 

tuftt, »'Ioof, t»?rftf, tnre^tt<tf8*tilliftiBtP 
f^nr oas ato CrrS, tie dnf nfcttttl Mitfe 
. S)at tpti 1^1? mrt «i'0agfn« 

jKkioft tDtr'U CM* trootonftt ton 
i ffit fp ong *irt tJeibfinBe : 
^ Derf uyt ffii 3Partn1^rttrjft"r^ 
Cfon JM 9»rf Boor te 0il<fI>^B|( 
«» ^ip OKI fsMS^ i^ a**^ 



total 



FAC-SIMILE OF THE FIRST ORIGINAL HYMN PRINTED IN AMERICA. 



go Dominie Justus Falckner. 

the Highlands of the Hudson. Falckner was wont to serve 
the former in the summer season, and the latter during the 
winter months. During the summer, in addition to his city 
charge, he served the congregations at Hackensack, Rari- 
tan, Remmerspack, Piscataway, and Elizabethtown in East 
New Jersey. 

His activity extended along the whole valley of the Hud- 
son from New York to Albany and included Loonenburg 
(Athens), Klickenberg, Four Mile Point, Coxsackie, Kin- 
derhook, Calverack and Phillipsborough. Wherever Dutch 
or German Lutherans settled there Dominie Falckner was 
found plying his sacred calling. To the above must be 
added the German congregations founded after the large 
immigration had set in during the early years of Queen 
Anne's reign, which were served in their native tongue by 
the zealous evangelist. 

This latter duty became especially onerous during the 
absence of the German Pastor, Rev. Josua Kocherthal, and 
his subsequent death in 1719, when the German Lutheran 
congregations at Quassaik, Rosenthal, Schawanggunk, 
Langen Rack, Newtown, Tarbush, Qjieensbury, Rhine- 
beck and Schoharie were all visited by Falckner at more 
or less regular intervals. 

Among the papers relating to the Palatines, published in 
vol. iii. of the " Documentary History of New York," is 
found the following notice: '■'■ Litra B. In the Books by 
our Church,^' Fol. 28, is to be found that our then minister 
Justus Falkenier has baptized Ao 17 10 Ye 19th April in 
the house of one of the Trustees, of which Time he has 
continued to serve the People there every year without any 
Profit of the Glebe." 

That these stations were not merely small hamlets or 

"On Quassaik Creek in Ulster County. 



The Old ^uassaick Church. 



91 







M 






92 



Dominie Justus Falckner. 



isolated farm-houses, is shown by the entries in his register, 
as he frequently upon the same occasion baptized five, six, 
eight, nine or ten children. A personal account of his 
ministrations has fortunately been preserved to us in 
Biorck's Dissertatio Gradualis, before mentioned, pub- 
lished in SwAlen, 1731. 

Biorck there states : " The care of these churches [the 
Dutch Lutheran Churches in New York] was therefore 
[after the illness of Dominie Rudman] committed to 




ANCIENT ARMS OF NEW YORK. 



Magister Justus Falckner, a German, and the planting of 
them brought forth, after some time, so plentiful a harvest 
that seven churches successively ordained in the same way 
might be enumerated, as Falckner intimates in a letter to 
Magister Sandel, dated New York, September 28, 1715. 
" In the Jerseys, there I visit three small Lutheran con- 
gregations '' living a great distance one from the other, all 

"'These congregations were in Bergen County along the Hudson, and 
evidently do not include those on the Raritan, which were ministered to 
by his brother Daniel. 



Serves Seven C/iurc/ies. 



93 



these three consist of about one hundred communicants, 
the most poor people and poor settlers. 

" In the Province of New York I serve four small Lu- 
theran congregations, & all these four consist in all of about 
one hundred constant communicants, besides strangers 
going & coming in the city of N. York, so that in all I 
have seven congregations, whom to serve I must yearly 
travel about twelve hundred English miles." 



r— iin< av3 

DISSERTATIO GRAUUAUS, 

PLANTATIONE 

ECCLESI/E SVECAN/E 

AMERICA, 

QUAM, 

Affr^nte ^mpl. Senatu Pht/o/opb. at 
Rfgio Upfal. Aibmso, 

PR£SIDE, 
t^lRO ^mphsfima aiqut CeUbcmmt 

Mag. ANDREA 

Elh. & Polic Prof. Reg. & Ord 

la Audit. Gu[t. Maj. d. 14 Juo. 

Alt. MOCCXXXI. 

tsamiiiandtm modiflt fi/lil 

Tobias E Biorck. 

AMIBICANO'DALtlARLUS. 

UPSAlIa Uteris Wk&nuuamu. 



Biorck then adds, "Thus these men were punctual 
enough in meeting, although scattered far and wide. 
Moreover : 

"Mr. Kocherthal resideth as yet for the most time in 
one place on Hudson's River, but visiteth two places on 
the other side of the river, where particular Lutheran con- 
gregations meet. He has been as yet but once with those 
Lutheran Palatines that live in the Mohacks' country. 

"We have brought forward these things so much out 



94 



Do7ninie Justus Falckner. 



of our way, in order to make it clear that the splendor of 
the Gospel had already shone in such various places of 
America." 

To reach these widely separated stations was a serious 
question. No regular conveyances existed ; the only means 
of^intercourse was either by canoe on the water courses or 
on horseback through the almost trackless forest, unpro- 
tected from the elements and exposed to the dangers from 
wild beasts and a treacherous savage. Still, even these 
dangers failed to deter this pioneer missionary from his 
path of duty. 

Great as was this widespread field of his ministrations, 
we have records that he, in addition, found time to extend 
his labors and spread the Gospel among the negro slaves 
in the colony, as well as the Indians who still remained in 
the vicinity. 




^/^^A^x: ^<2^^ 



cyi^ 



^>«5:^Ji/ 




'<2:.^^a-*^>2-s--i^^ 



SEAL OF DOMINIE JUSTUS FALCKNER (ENLARGED). 




CHAPTER X. 



Falckner's Church Records. 



(^^HE old church records and 
^^ registers of the vener- 
able Trinity Lutheran Church 
(now St. Matthew's at the cor- 
ner of Broome and Elizabeth 
Streets) give us the best insight 
into the untiring energy and 
piety of Justus Falckner. 

It is indeed fortunate that 
these records have been pre- 
served to the present genera- 
tion. They were saved from 
destruction during the great 
conflagration in 1776 by the heroism of the pastor, who 
rescued them from the burning parsonage at the peril 
of his life ; after which they were securely placed in the 
cellar of the new church, and were forgotten until found 
by chance a few years ago ; and now by the courtesy of 
the Reverend John Henry Sieker, the pastor of the church, 
they have been placed at the disposal of the present writer. 
Dominie Falckner evidently considered the Church Book 
of the New York congregation as his official register, and 

(95) 




96 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

copied his ministerial acts upon its pages, irrespective of 
where they were administered. 

This interesting relic had been procured some time 
previous to the arrival of Dominie Falckner, as is shown by 
a memorandum or two in pastor Rudman's handwriting. 
No effort seems to have been made by the latter to keep a 
separate record of his ministerial acts in New York, and 
they were without doubt entered upon the records of the 
Wicacoa church, which was his official station. 

It was consequently left to Justus Falckner to open the 
church register of the Trinity Lutheran congregation in 
New York. This book is the oldest systematic Lutheran 
record in America, and is in the unmistakable handwriting 
of the pastor. 

On the first page it states that " this is the Church Regis- 
ter {Kerckcn-Boeclc) of the Christian Apostolic Protestant 
Lutheran Congregation, according to the unaltered Con- 
fession of Augsburg, in New York, and the other thereto 
belonging places in America." 

Then follows a brief list of contents : 

" An inventory of books and papers belonging to the Church, folio 3. 

" Baptismal Record {Doop Register'), folio 79a. 

" Register of such persons as partook for the first time with our Chris- 
tian Apostolic Protestant Lutheran Congregation of the Holy Sacrament, 
folio 87*. 

" Register of such as have been dismissed by the congregation, folio 109. 

" Register of such as were married by the pastors of said congregation, 
folio 145. 

" Burial Register, folio 1S5. 

" Register of Church Officers, folio 316. 

"Justus Falckner, Saxo-Germano nf. Eccla. Orthodox Lutheran Belvic 
Nov-Eboraci in America, Pastor." 

To the historian the most interesting item on the above 
page is the reference to an inventory of church papers, then 
(1704) in possession of the corporation. They consisted 



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of several bundles or packages of documents, and were 
labelled " Church papers," Packet I., II., etc., respectively. 
These documents have long since disappeared ; the only 
record of them which has came down to us being Falck- 
ner's inventory in the Kercken-Boeck. 

Among the itemized list. Packet No. II. would be of 
exceeding interest if it were still in existence, as it con- 
tained among other documents, the following : 
Item No. 5. — The congregational call of Justus Falckner. 
" 6. — Rudmann's letter to Falckner, and Falck- 

ner's reply and acceptance. 
" 8. — A personal report from Falckner to Rud- 

mann. 
" p. — The engrossed Diploma of ordination 
granted to Justus Falckner, and signed 
by the three Swedish pastors on the 
Delaware. 
These documents were deposited by Justus Falckner 
with the congregation upon his acceptance of the charge. 
A fac-simile of this diploma was given in a previous 
chapter. 

The body of the book is divided, as the table of contents 
indicates, into six divisions. Reference has already been 
made to Dominie Falckner's first entry and votum. 

The first ministerial act recorded was a baptism admin- 
istered in the barn of Cornelius van Boskerk at Hacken- 
sack in East Jersey, on Monday, February 27, 1704. 
Upon this occasion were baptized three children after a 
full morning service. On April 17, following, which was 
Easter Monday, Falckner baptized a daughter of Pieter A. 
van Boskerk in the church at New York. These four 
baptisms were entered upon the register at the same time 
in the Low Dutch language, with the following voium: 



Baptismal Record. 99 

"O Lord! Lord, let this child, together with the three 
above written Hackensack Children, be and remain en- 
grossed upon the book of life, through Jesus Christ. 
Amen." 

Almost every one of Falckner's entries closes with a 
short prayer or votum for the future welfare of the person 

m 9Vt^ ucrri?! /scam. CtdM. ,j^%&tu\icc en cc-^^krc '^^&i4^L 

^' %^,j:^5r^XiSi"^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

OlJiM'^^^Y^ u^a.^e^ cJUlrfin, cMztOy ^m CM&TOOcr^W 



"-■■%"■ 

FACSIMILE OF EARLIEST BAPTISMAL RECORD. 

mentioned ; showing the deep interest this devout shepherd 
took in the spiritual welfare of his flock, irrespective of 
their nationality or social position. Dutch, English, Ger- 
man, Negro and Indian all lost their individuality with this 



lOO 



Dominie Justus Falckner. 



pious evangelist, whose only aim and object it was to ex- 
tend the Church of Christ in the wilds of America, accord- 
ing to the precepts of the Augsburg Confession. 

The following short prayers follow the respective bap- 
tisms during the first year of his ministration : 




SECTION OF OLD MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF TRINITY LUTHERAN CHURCH 
DURING DOM. JUSTUS FALCKNER'S TIME : NO. I9, CHURCH AND 

parsonage; no. 28, lot where trinity p. e. 
church was built. 

" O God, let this child be and remain a child of salvation 
through Christ. Amen." 

" Lord, let this child also remain forever within thy 
everlasting grace and favor, through Christ. Amen." 

" O God, let this child be included and remain in thy 
eternal favor, through Christ." 

" O Lord, we commend this child unto thee, for both 



Baptizes English Children. 



i(ii; ., 



temporal and eternal welfare, through Christ. O my G6d,'^ 
may this child be and remain a member of thy kingdorfi of' 
grace and glory, through Christ. Amen." 

The baptism of children of English parents was usually 
recorded in the English language. 







SECTION OF MAP OF 174O SHOWING LOCATION OF TRINITY LUTHERAK 

CHURCH DEDICATED BY DOM. DANIEL FALCKNER , JUNE 29, I729. 

13, LUTHERAN CHURCH. 12, TRINITY P. K. CHURCH. 

" Baptized d. lo Octobr, 1704 in ye House of Mr. Wil- 
liam Chambers, Richard, son of Mr. William Chambers en 
his wife Sarah, born d. 10 ditto. 

" Bless, O Lord, this child also with everlasting happi- 
ness, through Christ Jesus. Amen. 

"Anno 1707, the i, Juni [literal transcript], being 
Whitsunday, baptized, in our Lutheran Church at Al- 



I02 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

ba'ny,*" Elizabeth, young daughter of Lieutenant Richard 
Brewer & Catherine his wife, born the ii of March of 
this year. Godfather was Lieut : Henry Holland, God 
mother Madam Elisabeth Weems and Mrs. Margareta 
Kollnis. 

" Grant, O Lord, that this Childt never cast away the 




grace which thou has Schworn, yea given by the Covenant 
of Baptism trough Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen." 

Among the many interesting items in the baptismal 
register is the following : 

In the year 1705 were baptized a daughter of Are of 
Guinea, a negro, and his wife Jora, both Christian mem- 
bers of the congregation. Falckner concludes with this 
votum : 

" Lord, merciful God, who lookest not upon the person, 
but from whom different creatures that fear thee and do 
right find favor, let this child be clothed in the white robe 

'"The first Lutheran Church in Albany, fronted on Pearl Street, be- 
tween Howard and Beaver, long since known as Centre Market. 



First Communicants. 103 

of innocence and righteousness, and so remain through the 
grace of Christ, the Saviour of all mankind. Amen." 

One of the most impressive incidents during Dominie 
Falckner's pastorate in New York occurred on Easter Sun- 
day, 1708. It was a clear, bright April day with the har- 
bingers of spring singing in the air, and the warm sun 
calling all vegetation once more to put on its garb of ver- 

J^ 7 o ^ 



7acra 







RECORD OF FIRST COMMUNICANTS. 



dure ; indeed a typical Paschal day, when all nature seemed 
to rejoice. 

The church was decorated with budding boughs and 
spring flowers. The Paschal candles burned brightly on 
either side of the crucifix upon the altar, all indicative of 
he glorious resurrection to be celebrated. 

It was, however, a gala day in the church independent 



I04 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

of its being one of tiie most joyous festivals. The full 
order of morning service ( Hauft-gottcsdciiist) was com- 
pleted, to the reading of the last collect, when a baptism 
somewhat out of the ordinary course was administered. 
The candidate was a Carolina Indian, who was a slave 
held b}' Peter Woglam. 

When the former first expressed a wish to become a 
Christian, it became a question whether if he were admitted 
to the Church he could still be held in bondage and treated 
as a slave. The master naturally objected, in the fear that 
he might lose his servant. The Indian, however, settled 
the question by stating that he was willing to remain in 
servitude in this world, provided he was assured that he 
would be free and equal in the skies beyond. 

Dominie Falckner, when he heard of the circumstances, 
examined the Indian, found him sincere, and concluded to 
accept him, and instructed him in the catechism and the 
tenets of the faith. 

Upon the Sunday in question, after the holy Eucharist 
had been celebrated, the Indian slave, after having been 
duly prepared, was called up before the altar and publicly 
catechised in presence of the congregation by the pastor 
and wardens. He was then asked by Dominie Falckner 
whether he solemnly promised before the omnipotent Lord 
and this Christian congregation that he would, after he 
was received into the Church, continue to serve his worldly 
master and mistress as faithfully and truly as if he were 
yet in his benighted state. 

Upon the Indian giving his solemn promise that he 
would, Dominie Falckner proceeded to baptize him, after 
he had driven out the spirit of evil with the ancient exor- 
cism according to the Lutheran ritual : " Darnni, du ver- 
maledcyter Teufcl, crkennc dcin urihcil, etc." 



Stipend. 



105 




p^ fifty Shillings, (No>/o6'L 

' athalf a farthing per diem Int. 

THis Indented Bill of Fifty Shil- 
lings^ due from the Colony 
of New- York, to thePofsefsor there- 
of fhall be in value equal to Money, 
8c fliall be accordingly accepted by 
the Treafurer ot this Colony, for the 
time being, inall pubJick Payments, 
and for any Fund at any time in the 
Treafury. Dated, Neu?'Tc?r;!!, the \fi 
o( November^ »709' by order of the 
Lieut. Governor, council & General 
Afsembly of the faid ^lony^ 




SPECIMEN OF MONEY IN WHICH DOMINIE FALCKXER's 
STIPEND WAS PAID. 



io6 Domtnie Justus Falckner. 

The name given to the new convert was " Thomas 
Christian." The ceremony closed with the invocation by 
the Dominie: "That the Lord would henceforth cause 
this unbelieving Tho7nas to become a believing Christian." 
The morning service closed with the benediction. 

History is silent as to the fate of this poor Indian slave 
who thus voluntarily embraced the Christian faith. Pre- 
sumably he continued to serve his master and mistress, ac- 
cording to his solemn promise, with the same fidelity as 
before. Whether his bonds were ever relaxed, or whether 
his subsequent treatment was worse we do not know. 

A somewhat similar ceremony was performed at Albany 
four years after the above. The convert in this instance 
was a negro slave. The entry in the old register reads : 

"Anno 1712, January 27, baptized at Loonenburg in 
Albany, Pieter Christian, a Negro and slave of Jan van 
Loons of Loonenburg, about thirty years of age. He has 
promised among other things that he will hereafter, as well 
as he has done before, faithfully serve his master and mis- 
tress as servant. 

" Grant, O God, that this black and hard Negro-heart be 
and remain a Christian heart, and he may be numbered 
among those who are clothed with white raiment before 
the throne of the Lamb, through the merits of the Lamb 
of God who bore the sins of the world. Amen." 

Under date of February 28, 17 10, Dominie Falckner 
records the baptism of Louisa Abigail, daughter of Pastor 
Josua Kocherthal and his wife Sibylla Charlotta. 

Among the many curious entries in the baptismal record, 
the following is interesting as it illustrates the orthodoxy 
of the Dominie. It appears that during his absence two 
members of his church called upon the English Episcopal 
minister, Rev. John Sharpe, to baptize their children. 



1703-MEMORIAL OF DOM. JUSTUS FALCKNER-1903. 




N, ESQ., PMOTO. 



SWEDISH CHURCHES ON THE DELAWARE. 

ROCKS SHOW SITE OF FORT BUILT BY MINUET 1638. THE CHURCH STOOD WITHIN THE ENCLOSURE (wILMINGTOn). 
MONUMENT ON SITE OF CRANEHOOK CHURCH, 1667-1699. ON BANKS OF DELAWARE, NEW EDEN PARK. 



Marriage. 



107 



^ 



This fact evidently pained him deeply, as will be seen from 
the appended votum : 

" Nov. 30, 1712. During my absence]^Mr. John Sharpe" 
baptized the young daughter of Christian Streit," named, 
Maria Magdalena, born in New York, etc. 

"December 28, 1712. Also baptized by Mr. Sharpe, 
the 3'oung daughter of Johann Phillip Tays, named Chris- 
tine Elizabeth, born in New York, etc. 











FAC-SIMILE OF DOMINIE PALKNER S ENTRY OF HIS MARRIAGE. 

" Lord, Lord God ! Merciful, gracious and forbearing, of 
great mercy and consideration, which thou showest unto 
us in a thousand ways by forgiving us our offences, tres- 

" The Rev. John Sharpe, a clergyman of character and ability, was one 
of the early clergy upon, the rolls of the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts. His chief station under the society was in 
East Jersey. Prior to this he appears to have been stationed in Maryland, 
probably under orders of the Bishop of London. (Nichols to Stubs — 
Perry's Historical Collections, vol. iv., pp. 54, 349). But little is known 
of this clergyman. Upon the rolls of the venerable society' he is entered 
as having been sent out in 1704, after which his career, so far as the society 
goes, seems to be a blank, for immediately after his name and date is 
entered " resigned." According to the above entry by Dominie Falckner, 
he was still performing religious rites as late as 1712. Another account 
names him as a chaplain at New York. The diary of Rev. Sharpe is now 
in the collection of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

'* Christian Streit, a grandson of this man was ordained to the Lutheran 
ministry together with Muhlenberg's two younger sons, at Reading, Oc- 
tober 25, 1770. See Hallisc/ic Nack., new ed., 633. 



io8 



Domim'e Justus Falchier. 



passes and sin, let not one of the above standing names be 
blotted out from thy book [on account of having been bap- 
tized by a minister of a different faith], but let them be 
therein written and remain there through Jesus Christ, thy 
beloved Son. Amen." ^^ 

In the marriage record the following personal announce- 
ment is perhaps the most interesting : 

Under date May 26, 1717. "On Rogate Sunday did 




Reverend William Vesey, commissary and preacher of the 
English Church in New York, on a license of his Excel- 
lency Robert Hunter, at the time Governor of this Province, 

" Heere, Heere Gott, Barmheriig ende Genadig endc Lanckmaedtg ende 
van groote Genade ende Tromve, di Ghy beivyst in duysetif leeden ende 
veigeeft misdaad^ oi'cn/reedinge ende Soude^ laat dock niet een Tan de 
borien staande naamen nyi it Bock uytgcdeigi zvoordfenj maar laat $e daarin 
geschreewen syn en blyz'en door Jesum Christum, invcn lieven Soon. Amen. 



Children. 109 

Me, Justus Falkner, pastor of the Protestant Lutheran con- 
gregation, in my house in little Qiieen street in New York, 
marry and consecrate in the bonds of holy matrimony with 
the honorable virgin, Gerritge Hardick, born in the Prov- 
ince of New York, County Albany. 

" I leave you not, you bless me then. Amen." 
Three children blessed this union : Anna Catherina, 
born in New York, July 17, 1718 ; baptized in the church 
on July 20 ; and Sara Justa, born at Loonenburg, May 
5, 1720; baptized May 8; married Niclas van Hoesan, 
December 22, 1738; Benedictus, a son, born April, 1723; 
baptized at Calverack, April nth. 

In June, 17 17, a letter of thanks was sent to the Amster- 
dam Consistory for aid and assistance rendered the strug- 
gling congregations in the valley of the Hudson. The 
original document, signed by Dominie Justus Falckner, 
and sealed with his coat of arms, is still preserved in the 
archives of the old Lutheran Church at Amsterdam. Fol- 
lowing is a verbatim translation : 

New York, June 12, A° 1717. 

Respective Very Reverend, Reverend, God Devoted, 
Highly and Very learned. Highly and Very Respectable, 
Highly and Very honored Lords and Brethren in Christ. 

When one of our Brethren, by the name of Johan 
Michael Schiitze, was in Holland on his own business last 
year, he, from the zeal and Christian affection towards our 
true Religion of which he is possessed, prayed your assis- 
tance for a new church here in New York. 

And you, being filled with and rich in that true charity 
the nature and character of which is tireless, have, in com- 
pliance with his said prayer, presented him with One hun- 
dred Dutch Guilders. We herewith render you, in duty 



no Dominie Justus Falckner. 

bound, our heartfelt thanks for this beneficence and others 
received from you, with the assurance that we shall take all 
possible care to deport and show ourselves good Stewarts 
of your charity. And that we shall not cease heartily to 
wish and pray that our Emanuel may be a Shield and 
great Reward unto you and his congregation under you ; 
craving that we ever may have the honor to call ourselves, 
to sign and to be 

Respective, Very Reverend, Reverend, etc., Your 
grateful, sincere and faithful Brethren, 

(Signed) Justus Falckner, Past. Eccle. etc. 

PlETER WOGLOM, 

Baeren van Hooren, 
pleter van lopperse, 
johannis logransie, 
Charel Beckman. 
Address 
to 
the Reverend Highly laudable 
Consistorium and Church Council 
of the unaltered Confession of 
Augsburg in Amsterdam, at Amsterdam. 

In the performance of the arduous duties called for by 
his widely extended field of labor, the Dominie had but 
little time for rest or the enjoyment of home life. Forced 
as he was to be away from wife and babes for weeks and 
months at a time, his lot was by no means a sinecure, and 
to make matters worse, so beloved was he that the people, 
wherever he happened to be, were loth to see him depart 
for his next station, and would exact promises for a speedy 
return. 

In their attempt to secure his services, the various con- 
gregations even went further, and provided glebe houses 



Visited by Dominie Sandcl. iii 

that should be ready at all times for the pastor and his 
family. This was the case at Loonenburg (Athens) or 
at a place called Klinkenbergh. He also lived for a time 
at Calverack, and other outlying points, such as Prewen- 
haeck. 

That notwithstanding his arduous duties, Dominie Falck- 
ner still remained in touch with his clerical brethren on the 
Delaware is shown by correspondence with them, and by 
entries in the Diary of Pastor Andreas Sandel. The last 
one reads : 

"July 9, 1718. I sent same day by mail a packet to 
New York, enclosed to Pastor Falkner, to be forwarded 
by the first vessel bound for England." This letter has 
reference to Pastor Sandel's journey to Sweden. 

In addition to Dominie Falckner's arduous and exacting 
duties incident to his widely separated charges and scat- 
tered congregations, a factor arose towards the close of his 
administration, which caused him much concern. This 
was nothing less than the attempt of one Johann Bernhard 
Van Dieren, a tailor by trade in New York, to usurp the 
place as pastor in some of the congregations under Dominie 
Falckner's charge. Van Dieren claimed to have been sent 
to New York as a pastor by Rev. Boehme, court preacher 
at St. James, London, but had no proof of his claim. 

It was not known heretofore that Dom. Falckner was in 
any manner involved in this controversy. The finding of 
his correspondence by the present writer throws consider- 
able light upon this episode in our early religious history. 

It appears that Dominie Falckner wrote to the Swedish 
pastors on the Delaware for advice in this matter, a trans- 
lation of Dominie Andreas Hesselius', the Swedish provost 
in America, Latin opinion is here presented : " 

** Translation by Rev. H. E. Jacobs, D.D. 



112 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

"As to Bernhard Von Dieren I have been able to dis- 
cover nothing except his singular zeal (would that it had 
been more wisely directed) for serving the church which 
he canvassed with such earnestness and such cares and 
troubles. I only dread that much injury may result; for 
if he be unfortunately transferred to administer affairs for 
which he has not been fitted, he must neglect both his 
order (?) and their duties, and corrupt those of others. If, 
as he professes, he be actually a Lutheran, I wish, that, 
being mindful of Luther's doctrine, he would acquiesce in 
his words : ' Await the One who calls thee ; meanwhile, 
be secure. ... If He (?) need thee. He will call thee. 
No one is enriched by the word, unless one who, without 
his wish, is called to teach.' How in every way this declar- 
ation of Luther is harmonious with the practice of the an- 
cient and purer church, the words of the Emperor Leo will 
stand. The minister of the word of God ought to be so 
free from ambition that he is to be sought for as one who 
has to be constrained ; being asked for he retires, and 
being invited he shrinks back. Let the necessity of mak- 
ing an excuse be his own recommendation. Only he, is 
worthy of the ministry who is ordained unwillingly. 
" Such is the opinion of 

" Andrew Hesselius, Pastor at 
" Christiana and Provost of the 

" Swedish Churches in Pennsylvania." 

In a letter to Dominie Justus Falckner, dated 1721, on 
the day of St. James the Apostle. 



A partial account of Dom. Falckner's part in this con- 
troversy will be found in the final chapter of this memorial. 

Dominie Justus Falckner's married life proved of short 
duration. We know but little of his movements, except 



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His Death. 113 

what can be gleaned from his official entries, which show 
that he continued to cover the whole territory of eastern 
New York, Long Island and Staten Island. 

The last entry found in his private diary, and copied into 
the old church register by Pastor Knoll, shows that he was 
at Phillipsburg early in September, 1723 : 

" Sept. 4, 1723. Baptized at Phillipsburg " at the upper 
mill, in the house of David Sturm, Johann Peter, born in 
the middle of June ; ibidem. Father Pieter Hentz, mother 
Maria, Witness Johann Birger." 

After this his history becomes a blank, the only docu- 
mentary notice being a memorandum made by Pastor Knoll 
in the records of the Lutheran church at Newburgh : 
" Pastor Justus Falcknenier, deceased. Anno, 1723." 

According to the above record, which is no doubt correct, 
Justus Falckner died at the early age of 51 years, after 
having faithfully served the various congregations under 
his charge for twenty years. 

What were the circumstances of his sudden end cannot 
be told. Whether he died alone among strangers, or amidst 
his young family, is an unanswerable question. Not even 
his burial place is known, nor whether he was buried with 
the rites of the church in consecrated ground, or in some 
imknown corner. 

However, should any record be found to shed some light 

•^ Philipsburgh or Philipsborough was a manor granted to Frederick 
Philipse by royal charter in 1693. The lands continued in possession of 
the family until 1779, when they were confiscated by the state of New York. 
The manor included the present city of Yonkers and extended some dis- 
tance above. Its boundaries, as defined in the charter, were as follows : 

" All that tract of land upon the main, bounded to the north by a rivu- 
let called by the Indians, Meccackassin, so running southward to Nepper- 
han, from thence to the kill Shorackkapock and to Paparinnomo, which is 
the southernmost bounds, then to go across the country, eastward by that 
which is commonly known by the name of Bronx's river." 



114 Dominie Justus Falclcner. 

upon the last hours of this devout shepherd in the fold of 
Christ, it will no doubt show that he died in the full per- 
formance of his duty, true to his ordination vows. 

As to his family, it is known that after the father's death 
the widow with her three young children took up her 
abode at Loonenburg, where the latter grew up in the 
Lutheran Church, and were confirmed and married ac- 
cording to its ritual. 

One of the last official acts recorded by Dominie Berken- 
meyer, prior to his death in 1744, was a baptism of a second 
son of one of his church officers — Benedictus Falckner, a 
grandson of his immediate predecessor. 

Justus Falckner is represented by all accounts as a lovely, 
winning character, a man of excellent gifts, good educa- 
tion, fine mind, devout, of decided Lutheran opinions, 
active and of great endurance. In fact, he was an ideal 
pastor, who entered into his office with the full knowledge 
that without God's grace nothing could be accomplished. 
As has been shown, his field of labor extended along the 
Hudson as far north as Albany and landward to Long 
Island and Raritan in New Jersey. 

His services, nominally confined to the Dutch and Ger- 
mans of the Lutheran faith, were extended to all, irrespec- 
tive of creed or color, as is proved by the mention of bap- 
tisms of both negroes and Indians from the earliest days of 
his ministry. 

Nothing could show the devout and sincere mind of 
Justus Falckner in bolder relief than the entries of his 
official acts in the church register, a votiim being added in 
every case. 

From the documentary evidence come to light of late, 
and which forms the basis of the majorit}' of these pages, 
it is shown how the influence of the Pietists of Provincial 



Greatest Monument. 115 

Pennsylvania spread bej-ond the bounds of that Province 
and extended over New York and the Jersej's. No matter 
what the immediate causes maj' have been that induced the 
Falckner brothers to leave their original home in America, 
how the factor time is apt to set all matters right is evi- 
denced in the historj^ of the elder Falckner and the contro- 
version of the Pastorius slanders. 

To the devout and pious Justus Falckner, who first came 
to the western world as a Pietist and mystical Theosophist, 
with the avowed intention there to prepare himself for the 
coming of the Redeemer, history will ever point as one of 
the most devout and sincere missionaries and brightest 
characters in early German-American history. 

Although for years almost forgotten by the present gen- 
erations that now compose the congregations formerly 
served by him, their very existence at the present day, after 
the lapse of two centuries, and the fact of their still adher- 
ing to the Lutheran faith as based upon the unaltered 
Augsburg Confession, are his best monuments. They are 
living memorials, far greater than either shafts of granite 
or tablets of bronze made by the hands of man. 

As a fitting close to this sketch may be quoted the con- 
clusion of the ritual formerly used by the Theosophical 
Brotherhood of which at one time he was a member — 

" MAY GOD GRANT HIM A BLESSED 
RESURRECTION." 





CHAPTER XI. 
The Van Dieren Controversy. 




Z' 



'HAT Dominie Justus 
Falckner had more 
or less trouble in his ex- 
tended field of labor, is 
an indisputable fact. It 
has, however, not been 
known heretofore that 
Falckner was in any man- 
ner concerned in what is 
known as the Van Dieren 
Controversy. 

From an extended frag- 
mentary report, found 
among the loose papers in 
the archives of the old Lutheran church in Amsterdam, 
we obtain a clear insight into how this controversy arose, 
together with Dominie Falckner's action in the premises. 
We learn how a journeyman tailor married the daughter 
of one of the officers of the New York church, and then 
set himself up as a preacher. We also learn much of the 
history of the New York congregation. Unfortunately the 
last page of this report, bearing date and signature, is miss- 

(.16) 



A Rare Pamfhlet. 117 

jifilkm Chrijtoffel Berkemneyer^ 

Bcdienaars des Heyligcn Euangeliums van dc 

Nederdujtfche Geineente 
TE 

Nieiiw^Torh, Alhame en da^r on'trent, 

Iiifgelyks 

derParochye dtxPahtymn hy^afaykf 

DE ONFEB.ANDERDE A. C TOEGEDAAK, 

CETROUWE 

HERDER- en WACHTER 

STEM 

Aande Hoog- en Neder-Duitfche LutherlaaHea 

in defe Geweften, 

eenfteitimig te zyn vertoont 

tnct t»/( Brievot en andere Redenen Luthcrfcbcr I'beologditteHy 
A ANG A.ANDE 

't Van Dierenfche Beroep, 

E N 

De Henkelfche Beveftiging. 

Te Niam-rcrk, by J. feter Linger, A- C. MDCCXXYin. 

FAC-SIMILE OF BERKENMEYER's PAMPHLET. ONLY KNOWN COPY IN HAR- 
VARD UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. 



Il8 Dominie Justus Falchner. 

ing. It is, however, undoubtedly in the handwriting of 
Pastor Berkenmeyer, who was Falckner's immediate suc- 
cessor, and it was his first report to the Amsterdam Con- 
sistory upon his arrival in New York, September 22, 1725. 

There appears a date, 1721, in pencil upon the first 
page. This is correct, so far as it refers to the Latin letter 
of Dominie Andreas Hesselius to Dominie Justus Falckner 
which is appended to the report. 

This report with the local matter left out formed the 
basis for Berkenmeyer's controversial pamphlet printed by 
Zenger in 1728, the title page of which we reproduce on 
the opposite page. 

William Christopher Berkenmeyers | Minister of the 
Holy Evangels to the | Low Dutch congregation | at | New 
York, Albany and parts adjacent | as well as | the Parish 
of Palatines at Qjiassayk | Addicted to the Unaltered 
A[ugsburg] C[onfession] [Faithful pastoral and guardian 
Call I to the High and Low Dutch Lutherans | in these 
wilds I to be of one accord, demonstrated | by two letters 
and other fundemantals of Lutheran Theologians | Con- 
cerning I the Van Dieren Vocation | and | The Henkel Ordi- 
nation I At New York by J. Peter Zenger, A. C. 1728. | 

The writer is indebted to Pastor Van Wijk, Jr., of the 
Amsterdam clergy for a verbatim copy of this interesting 
document, which gives us so many new and interesting 
historical facts concerning our early religious history. 

Translation. 
♦|^\IGHT Reverend, most learned, as also Most Noble 
lt\ and Illustrious Sirs, particularly our Most Kind 
and esteemed Patrons ! 

I regard it as m}' duty, not only to express my thanks in 
particular to you, Right Reverend, Most Noble and most 



Story of Van Dieren. 119 

learned Sirs, for the favors which you extended to me dur- 
ing my sojourn in Amsterdam and after my departure, in 
the positive assurance that God will extend his blessing to 
each and all of you, but also to advise you of what passes 
here, and give you an accurate account how I found the 
condition of this congregation upon my arrival. 

The contentions within the congregation and the letter 
resulting therefrom were caused by the following con- 
ditions : 

There is a member of our congregation in the city one 
Johann Michael Schtitz, a tailor, who gave his daughter 
unto a man who left the needle and assumed the pastoral 
office, over which there had been many a dispute even 
during the lifetime of Dominie Justus Falckner, who as 
he felt his end approaching admonished the wardens and 
vestrymen to seek their refuge with the Right Worshipful 
Consistory at Amsterdam. 

The only obstacle in their way, however, was the heavy 
expense, which it was impossible for them to assume. In 
this dilemma Johannes Sybrand, who was a seafaring man, 
volunteered, as he then stood prepared to go to England, 
to assume the personal expenses of the Dominie, and to 
go over to Holland to procure [a pastor] from thence, pro- 
vided that they would supply him with a collection-book. 
Now as they imagined that they were not risking or were 
responsible for more than the charges on the Dominie's 
baggage, the majority, together with the most respectable 
members, accepted the offer with great pleasure. 

However, the before-mentioned Schiitz would not con- 
sent to anj'thing, as he would gladly have seen a different 
course taken in regard to his son-in-law, who was then at 
Schohari. Albeit he did not permit himself to say or do 
anything until an answer was received from your Right 



I20 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

Worshipful Consistory, stating that, without any previous 
consent or authority of the congregations concerned, one 
would hardly consent to come over ; furthermore that 
nearly all here had lost all courage. 

These facts Schiitz made use of, and not only induced 
one of the Kerkenmeister, Andreas Van Buskerke (who was 
one of the signers of the call frocnratum to Amsterdam) 
together with the latter's brother and son, who live in the 
country, to sign the contradictory missive, but also induced 
Johann Jacob Bos and Michael Peper to do the same. 

Now if we except Johann Michael Schiitz as the author 
and his son J. H. Schiitz, all the remaining signers to 
the missive are either persons who have already severed 
themselves from our holy religion, as Godfried Heyns and 
Johann David Koning, or such as only join in our commun- 
ion as strangers, like Fridiricus Boolt and Uldrig Zimmer- 
diinger ; or such as are scattered about the country far and 
near, like Joh. Jacob Huttrot, Joh. C. Miiller, and A. Beem, 
who has since returned to Newburg. Others are not even 
known here by name. Further, of all the rest or at least 
not a single one of them (exxepting the three Van Bos- 
kerkes and Joh. Michael Schiitz, who formerl}^ served as 
a deacon, and once upon a time, about the j'ear 17 13, took 
upon himself to collect money in Amsterdam, whereof he 
delivered fifteen Pounds to the church after a lapse of three 
years), ever gave a single penny toward the church during 
their whole lifetime. 

Yea, it even came to pass, after a brother of the Van 
Boskerkes, who hailed from Hackensack, had extended a 
call thence to this Van Dieren and permitted him occasion- 
ally to preach in their dwelling houses, that he preached 
once in our church, but only with the consent, forcibly 
obtained, from both the p. t. deacons Lagrannie and 



1703-MEMORIAL OF DOM. JUSTUS FALCKNER-1903. 




COUBTESV OF WM. I. ELITCR*FT, ESQ. 



SWEDISH CHURCHES ON THE DELAWARE. 
ST. GEORGE'S PENN'S NECK, N. J., ORGANIZED 1714. 



Appeal to Amsterdam. 121 

Beekmann. Upon the next occasion, however, these offi- 
cers took possession of the pulpit {priestcr Stuhl) and 
barred the way to the chancel. 

They even threatened to commit murder and force our 
houses and church, if this were not opened unto them. 
Their aim however was merely to obtain possession of the 
strong box of the Church. Consequently the statement, 
as made in their missive, that Johann Van Dieren was 
called unanimously and by general consent, is fictitious. 

The rest of the congregation as a dernier ressort have 
resolved, in case the Right Reverend Consistory at Am- 
sterdam would not favor them, to extend a call to the 
brother of the sainted Falckner, although his own brother 
would not counsel them to do this before they took up with 
Van Dieren. 

And now about the ungodly missive, they knew noth- 
ing at all of it, until they were informed by a good 
friend, who knew about the correspondence of the Consis- 
tory, that Schiitz lied to them when stating that the mis- 
sive had not been sent, and that he regretted that the 
letter had fallen into such loyal hands. Otherwise the 
missive would have been his, even if it had cost him fifty 
pounds. 

The whole congregation accordingly consists of from ten 
to twelve households, which upon the male or female side 
are of the reformed faith. Of the remaining number who 
reside in the town, many for several years have failed 
to adhere to our church, as they either objected to the 
preacher or had some other absurd reason. Others again 
were angered at the bad condition of our church, and be- 
came of a different mind. And of all these, thus far but 
a single household hath returned. 

Now as I arrived here, both friends and enemies — if I 



122 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

may so call them — became disheartened ; the former, as 
they were greatly weakened, by the defection of the Van 
Buskerkes, who were the wealthiest among the congrega- 
tion ; the latter, because they realized that their scheme 
had virtually turned out Archilochian. In the meantime 
it was resolved to say nothing about that missive, if the 
opposite party made no demand for it. In fact no one 
here demanded either to see or read the letter. 

The Church Council thereupon convened a meeting, 
together with all the above-named members of our con- 
gregation, whereat I had no sooner presented my letters 
than Andreas Van Buskerken arose and extended his hand 
to me. In this he was followed by all present, Joh. 
Michael Schiitze being the last one. 

The answering of the letters from the Right Rev. Con- 
sistory was consigned to me, and it was afterwards resolved 
to send the answers in their present form. 

If your Right Reverend and Most Noble Society will 
permit, I will now describe the several conditions of my 
Congregation. As before stated in numbers our Congre- 
gation is but few, and several among them live over two 
German miles from the town. The Church hath no income 
except that of the purse with the bell (^Klingcl Bentel). 
The monies sent from St. Thomas over fifteen years ago 
were, as I learn, put out at interest, which goes toward the 
pastor's salary, and if this is not sufficient, the deficiency 
is collected and supplied ostiantim [collected from door 
to door] . Further there are no accidentia, such as mar- 
riages or funeral sermons, as these hardly occur once in 
many years. 

The church, which we fear will be demolished by the 
first heavy storm, is more like unto a cattle shed than a 
house of God : only two windows are in the building, one 



A Dilapidated Church. 123 

behind the pulpit and the other directly opposite. As the 
church is not paved, but merely floored with loose boards — 
some long, others short — one cannot pass through it with- 
out stumbling. 

The preparations for divine worship are so bad, that I 
doubt whether greater confusion exists in any heathen 
temple. 

The people are not capable of singing a hymn properly, 
and upon several occasions they have stuck in the middle of 
a hymn, and I have had to go thus to the altar or ascend 
the pulpit, although I permit the precentor to sing whatever 
he likes, and what they have been accustomed to sing. 
And now if the seventy-three-year-old one dies, they will 
have no one in the congregation who is capable of acting as 
reader. 

The £i7.ios promised me in the contract, I have just re- 
ceived, as I am preparing to start for Albany. For the time 
that I have served here they give me nothing. The same 
sum was promised me on the part of the Albanians, but to 
facilitate their communion they have also gotten rid of their 
promise, although they said they would give it to me, as I 
offered to repay the 41 Holland florins and 57 English shill- 
ings advanced to me by Joh. Sybrand. This, however, 
they would not permit, as I had used the money to purchase 
a cloak and necessary household furniture. Accordingly 
I did not want to take this sum from them, nor press for 
any salarj' for the short time, though I think that I shall 
receive my bodily food and sustenance from them, and with 
this I suppose I shall have to content myself. God grant 
that his blessing may rest upon my efforts to build up this 
congregation, and may it be a joy unto me, even if not 
fully in time, yet in eternity. 

I further pray that your Right Worshipful Consistory 



124 Dominic Justus Falckner. 

will aid and assist me with good advice and material help, 
as they perceive that it is for God's glory and the mainte- 
nance of Evangelical truth in these lands. 

I have found here a folio Bible, also a church liturgy, 
which I take with me to Albany, for I surmise that, as there 
is no public church there, neither shall I find any of these 
books there. I trust that I shall not commit any wrong if 
I take my books along, or rather the local church books, 
and distribute them, just as I have done with those given 
me by the Rt. Worshipful Consistory of Amsterdam, to- 
gether with those bought at Hamburg with the collection 
money. 

Otherwise there is a universal complaint about the 
scarcity of hymn-books, catechisms and Bibles. Nearly 
all the last-named that we have here are those sent by the 
Rt. Worshipful Consistory of Amsterdam and contain the 
name of the Rt. Rev. J. Wesling. They know little of 
catechisms ; Bibles are found with the older families ; but 
the new families have to borrow one from another. 

About Job. J. Van Dieren I cannot report much that is 
creditable. That he not only wrought as a tailor in Eng- 
land, but also here in New York, and that the spirit of 
fanaticism had already manifested itself in him in England, 
is attested by Mr. Schlej'dorn who knew him there. Here 
he was no less under this influence, and not only acted as 
being in the church, but at divers times cried out aloud in 
his workshop in the basement, and claimed to be holding a 
conversation with God. He made the woman, in whose 
house he lived, believe that he wanted to marry her daugh- 
ter, but that God would not give his consent. 

The name of Jesus the crucified served him for many 
purposes. In his complimentary greeting to me he made 
use of the name no less than ten times, as also the word 
" Christ." 



Ignorance of Van Dieren. 125 

Thereby every man, like unto David, will recognize how 
good and pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in 
unitj'. 

Thus do I find in a letter written by him March 7, 1721, 
to one in Schohari whom he thanks for his kind greeting, 
but complains that he was so cold during the past winter. 
In this letter he makes use of the name of Jesus seven 
times, twice of Jesus Christ, and once where he calls him 
our heavenly prince. 

As to the cold he experienced, this he says was a suffer- 
ing for the sake of Jesus' name. He, however, consoles 
himself with the example set by Jesus, the warm love of 
Jesus and the great glory of heaven. The beginning is 
thus: " yl5 it is only expressed in Holy Writ: 'Jesus to 
greet you, the H0I3' Spirit as a kiss.'" He closes with 
these words : 

" I greet you with the kiss of the love of Jesus, and 
greet me therewith, that we may all be brethren and sisters 
in Christ Jesus, who do not live according to the flesh, but 
according to the Holy Spirit. This greeting from me, 
with the kiss of Jesus Christ. The love of God be with 
them all. Amen." 

That at this time he was still tailoring is shown by a foot- 
note, wherein he writes : " This winter I have still earned 
pretty well." 

The sainted Falckner characterizes him thus (/« Litteris 
ad enndcm exaratis): " In him we find great craftiness in 
place of Christian prudence ; great obstinacy in place of 
humble joyfulness. To prove this I will not give myself any 
trouble." 

So much I learn from the correspondence of that sainted 
man, that this praedicani applied to him is true : that he is 
an arch-ignoramus, who neither knows how to write Ger- 



126 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

man — nor to spell correctly, even though he defends him- 
self with the statement that the apostles of the Lord were 
fishermen and uneducated persons. As he was asked if 
he understood Latin, he took the proffered book and said : 

" God be thanked, this I understand, the beautiful Latin." 

When he attempted a syncretical signature, taking that 
of Dominie Falckner as an example, he wrote thus : 

" Johann Bernhard van Dieren faster Ecclie Jesu Christi 
et Luthcray 

The above letter is from his correspondence with the 
congregation in Schohari which had waited so long for a 
pastor from England, who, although ordained in London 
by the Rev. Consistorial Privy Counsellor Mentzer, im- 
mediately afterwards, ab criminc dicto soldo, had to run 
away, and later committed suicide by hanging in Holstein. 

Thereby he appears to have paved his way to the min- 
istry. Thus I find two letters from Schohari in the year 
1721, dated May 21 and 26 — Herein they report to 
Dom. Falckner that they are informed that a High Ger- 
man pastor for them has arrived in New York. Further 
that he has already delivered a sermon there, which 
pleased them well. From the above it is surmised that he 
[Van Dieren] was the conscrificnt, and notwithstanding 
that three signatures appear to each letter, they do not ap- 
pear to conform or to be by the same hands. They further 
state that when he was asked who had sent him to them, 
the reply was that it was Dom. Boehme in England. They 
also had heard that he was a tailor, but they did not mind 
this, provided Dominie Falckner would examine and ordain 
him. The most remarkable thing about this matter is that 
Dominie Falckner should have taken any personal interest 
in furthering this matter. 

I also find two Latin letters dated July 3, 172 1 — one from 



opposition of Sivedish Pastors. 127 

Jonas Lidman Praepositus Wicacoa, in Philadelphia; 
the other from Andr. Hesselius pastor at Christiana, also 
in Pennsylvania, by which it is shown that the said Falck- 
ner interested himself for Van Dieren, so that he might 
be ordained by the three Swedish pastors. 

The latter sent a prolix and solid letter in contraritim, 
from which I enclose an extract which treats particularly 
of Van Dieren's application.^^ 

Upon the failure of this scheme, he went to a Palatine 
preacher in Pennsylvania'*' (if this be true) from whom it is 
claimed that he obtained an attestation Ordinationis ; but 
no one has thus far been able to get a sight of it.^^ 

Further, after his return he continued to importune 
Dominie Falckner to ordain him. In the meantime he 
settled in Schohari, while boasting of his ordination. In 
presence of Dominie Falckner, when asked why he had 
concealed this from him, he replied : 

"The Devil had blinded him, and he had shed bloody 
tears, regretting that he had lied to him." 

As soon as he had established himself there, he began to 
break the bread in the Holy Communion, and in his sermon 
even ordered such as objected to this to leave the church. 

Accordingly, some fifty-two members of the congrega- 
gation wrote to Dominie Falckner, and as the latter called 
him to account, he answered with a deal of absurd talk, 
in which he said : 

" I adhere to the words of Christ, and all those who do 
otherwise than Christ commanded shall starfd in judgment 
either here or hereafter." 



*^ Vide, pp. 111-112, sufra. 

*' For a full and authentic account of Rev. Gerhard Henkell and Van 
Dieren's actions in Pennsylvania, see Rev. T. E. Schmauk's " History of 
the Lutheran Church in Pennsylvania, 163S-18S0." 

^^Vide, p. 134. 



128 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

Dominie Hesselius was not alone in giving this person 
a bad -pronosticon. Another one of his friends, after de- 
fending him for his bread-breaking and speaking of him 
with great praise, let this sentence slip into a letter dated 
Feby. 20, 172^ : 

" If his heart is as his mouth speaketh, so it stands well 
with him. If it is falsehood then I hope that it will not last 
long, and he must come to shame and ruin." 

Alas ! the congregation at Schohari is now totally scat- 
tered and he had to leave there some years ago ; the 
church as well as the parsonage there has become a spoil 
for the Reformed of that locality. 

The few who still remain keep to the Reformed. In the 
year 1723 the Lutherans on the Hudson River had in mind 
to call this J. B. Van Dieren. The plan was, however, 
abandoned after a consultation with Dominie Falckner. 
Now as he found that he could meet with no success here 
in New York, he went to the Reformed at Tappan and 
offered to preach the Gospel of Christ unto them, as Christ 
had commanded. Whereupon they took him to Dominie 
Anthonides on Long Island, to discover whether he was of 
the Evangelical Lutheran or Reformed faith. As thus far 
I have not received any account of this act from the mouth 
of Dominie Anthonides, I will not repeat the current 
rumors, though I learn them from trustworthv men." 

In the meantime, as he was not able in a single instance 
ad interim to intrude himself here, he moved to Hacken- 
sack, as he travels around wherever there may happen to 

"It is strange that in all of this controversy about an ordination for 
Van Dieren no mention is made upon the Reformed side officers of Peter 
Tesschenmaeker, a voung licensed bachelor of divinity — ordained in New- 
York, 1679 — Thirty years later Anthonides and Du Bois refused to be a 
party to a similar ordination. Vide "A Manual of the Reformed Church 
in America," by Rev. E. T. Corwin, D.D., New York, 1902, p. 52. 



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A^pfeul to Consistory. 129 

be a church without a pastor, whether Evangelical, Luth- 
eran or Reformed. 

I may mention that his father-in-law looked at me trust- 
ingly and asked, as I delivered my first sermon, that I 
would permit him to fill my pulpit and preach in the after- 
noons and when I happened to be in Albany. 

It is reported that since my arrival he still preaches in 
one of the Van Buskerkes' houses. Although the Van Bus- 
kerkes themselves come to hear my preaching, they ex- 
cuse themselves by saying that he was invited there prior 
to my coming. But neither he [Van Buskerke] nor his 
household came to me to join in our communion, when the 
whole congregation partook of the Communion eight days 
ago. 

Accordingly I beseech your Right Worshipful and Most 
Honorable Reverences, with all proper respect, that you 
will kindly consider and take to heart the pitiful condition 
of my congregation ; and even if I am to suffer poverty, for 
which I shall have the sympathy of all friends both exalted 
and lowly, I trust they will come to my aid, so that the 
Ev. Lutheran Church here shall not succumb, which with- 
out assistance is unavoidable, unless God should perform a 
miracle. 

Further, I beg of you for advice as to how I shall con- 
duct myself toward Van Dieren, particularly if he attempts 
as a wolf to break in among my sheep. 

Lastly, I think to repeat my own and the church coun- 
cil's objection against Johann Sybrand's demands and pre- 
tentions. I trust that your Right Worshipful Consistory 
will give its decision accordingly. This man shows a 
thoroughly wicked heart. He professes to be a consistent 
Lutheran. Now it has come to light that he has no religion, 
as during his whole lifetime he has never once partaken of 



130 Dommie Justus Falckncr. 

our communion, and now he even proclaims publickl}' that 
God's Word is preached by others just as well. 

Notwithstanding his enormous bill for provisions in Am- 
sterdam and England, as true as God lives I have had to 
suffer and have almost died, as this Captain Serley will 
himself testify. During the voyage there was no surplus of 
anything except brandy and whiskey, wherewith during 
the whole voyage he treated the ship's crew, as he now 
sets forth upon my account. 

The bills, of which I send you the originals, will plainly 
show you his character, and even these were only gotten 
from him after much trouble. At first he refused to let any 
one see either of the invoices or present his bill until a reso- 
lution was passed that he should again be sent out, and 
what he was to receive for his trouble. 

Thereupon he demanded £4 monthly as pay, and seven 
Holland florins weekl}^ as spending money. Eventually 
he presented this bill after he had changed the values to 
the Holland standard, although in our findings he ac- 
counted for the collection funds in German monej^. 

The counter charges were made up from my journal 
according to the time and of what we approved, and I truly 
believe that even here he was too greatly favored. Al- 
though I depend entirely upon your Right Worshipful 
Consistory that all wrong will be redressed, we shall ac- 
count ourselves very beholden to your reverences if you 
will trouble yourselves with this matter. 

Lastly, I must remind your Right Worshipful and Most 
Reverend sirs, as our people appear so tardy about com- 
mencing the building, whether it would not be policy for 
the Right Worshipful Consistory to inform us if we have 
any funds on deposit in Holland, or if we should look 
elsewhere for aid. We will then send a plan of the pro- 



Abrupt Close of Missive. 



131 



posed building, and will promise to bring it to completion 
according thereto. 

I trust that your Right Worshipful and Most Reverend 
sirs will hereby see the honesty of my intentions, which 
are not intended for my own, but for the glorj^ of the 
church, and that I be not mistaken in my appeal whereby 
the richest blessings of God. ***** 

[Here the missive comes to an abrupt close, as the last 
page is missing.] 

The following pastoral explains itself. It was sent to the 
Hackensack congregation, upon Berkenmeyer's complaint 
that the)' had accepted Van Dieren as a pastor. This 
letter is of great importance, as it affords a positive proof of 
Dominie Rudman's appointment as Vice Bishop for Penn- 
sylvania, under the signature of all the resident Swedish 
clergy on the Delaware. 




ESCUTCHEON OF HOLLAND. 





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CHAPTER XII. 



The Swedish Pastoral to Hackensack, N. J. 

Honoured Vestry-Men oj the 
Congregatio7i atUakinsack, 
dearly beloved Frie^ids.^ 
We the Swedes Ministers in 
this Colony,'*' have got your 
Letter, in the which you 
are pleased, dearly beloved 
Friends, to propose to us 
your Complaints against yb/^w 
Bernhard Van Dieren, whom 
ye have taken to be your 
Teacher, asking for our Coun- 
sel in this Matter. 

For the ist ye are pleased 
to inform us. That he omits 
all the Christian Ceremonies of our Evangelical Church, 

5° Pages 70 to 91 of the Berkenmeyer pamphlet reprint Verbatim et 
literatim. This copy was obtained through the courtesy of William C. 
Lane, Esq., Librarian of Harvard College Library. 

5'Wicaco (Gloria Dei, Philadelphia), Christiana (Trinity, Wilmington, 
Delaware), Pennsneck (St. George's, Salem County, N. J.), Racoon 
(Swedesboro). 

{ 13^) 









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ARMS OF SWEDEN. 



Statement of Swedish Pastors. 133 

introducing new ones, as breaking the Bread at the Ad- 
ministration of the Holy Sacrament, confessing that never 
himself has taken it otherways, neither will alter his Mind, 
about this Matter, for the Time to Come. And by such 
his doings, several Persons are departed from this World 
without taking the Sacrament, for this oneley Reason. 

For the 2d. That John Bernhard Van Dieren has 
made very absurd Church Constitutions, in the wich he 
proposes what he will have his Hearers do, forgeting his 
own Duty towards the Congregation ; and being Blas- 
phemious in those oppose against his Absurdities. Never- 
theless himself transgresses his own Laws. 

For the j^f. He has saught for to make some Differ- 
ences in Mr. Berckenmeyers Congregation at Albany, and 
he for all is a Minister of Christ lawfully called, ordained 
and sent. And for such his doings he is of the Vestry ex- 
cluded from serving your Church any longer, except he 
will come before us Swedes Ministers and answer to these 
Complaints. But he replys. That we are his Enemies, and 
so not willing to come, using other Means to get into the 
Church by Help of a Widow, and Constituting a new 
Vestry, which upon these Occasions may sute him. 

For the ^tJi. We understand, that he gos about to other 
Congregations, not uniting but destroying them. 

For the sth. Ye have sent us an Extract of the Lutheran 
Consistorium at Amsterdam, and their Judgment about this 



The Swedish Lutheran Church in Lower Penn's Neck, Salem Co., N. 
J., was built on ground given by Jean Jaquett, January 8, 1715. The build- 
ing of the church was immediately commenced, but not completed until 
March 31, 1717. It was of logs twenty-four feet square and weather- 
boarded. This was replaced in 1808 by the present substantial brick 
church, as the original one had fallen into decay. The church was trans- 
ferred into the Protestant Episcopal fold by Rev. John Wade in 1789 when 
the first Vestry was chosen. 



134 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

John Bernard Van Diercn, how unfit a Person he is for 
serving the Church of God. 

These, as we perceive, are the Contents of your Letter. 
And verily we cannot but pity your Condition. 

For the ist. Ye did do very 111, dearly beloved Friends, 
in taking up with such a pretended Minister ; because if 
ordained, it is not done lawfully. He was with us about 
his Ordination, but we denied it him, for two Reasons. 
First, that we had not such Authority, that we could ordain 
Ministers. Mr. Rudman indeed did ordain Mr. Falckner, 
the late Minister of the Lutheran Congregation at New- 
York; but he was made aSuffragane, or a Vice-Bishop by 
the Arch-Bishop of Sivccdland. 

For the second. That we thought him not qualified for 
that Sacred Function. Seeing now that he could not get 
Ordination by us, he gos up to Mr. Hinckler,^' living 
about Manatanien,^^ and by him, some how was ordained 




is likely enough. But yet when Mr. Lidiiian once was 
with Mr. Hinekler, and among other things did ask him 
about Van Dieren his Ordination, he protested then. That 
Van Dieren was never ordained by him. However Mr. 
Lidman has no Witness, but will take his Oath before any 
Magistrate, that he heard Mr. Hinekler say such a Thing. 
In the mean Time do ye think, dearlj' beloved Friends, 
that Mr. Hinekler (God knows what he hath to shew for 
his Ordination of Ministers) could ordain him alone, and 
we four Swedes Ministers, sent hither by Royal and Epis- 

''Rev. Gerhard Henkell, vide Schmaiik, "Lutheran Church in Penn- 
sylvania, 163S-1800," pp. \ifyct seq. 
^'Maxatawnj. 



Reasons for Refusal. 135 

copal Power, by the Consent of two Kingdoms, and 
farthermore recommended by the Venerable Society for 
Propagating the Gospel in foreign Parts, could not ? And 
if he will say, That this was done in Case of Necessity, we 
deny that too ; because we have Vessels yearly and 




BOOK PLATE OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE PROPAGATION OF THE GOSPEL. 

monthl}' going for Eurofc, whether he could come, get 
necessary Learning, be lawfully called, examined, ordained 
and sent ; and not get his Ordination by a single Minister, 
contrary to the Scripture, and likewise the Canons and 



136 Dominie Justus Falckner. 

Ecclesiastical Constitutions of the Church. Mr. Hesselius, 
our late Prjepositus did write a Letter ^* to Mr. Falckner 
aforenamed, in the which he proposes the Reasons, why 
this Van Diercn could not be ordained by us, and we be- 
lieve, is yet in being, and therefore desire it ma}' be trans- 
lated into your Dutch Tongue, and read in your Congre- 
gations, that ye may see whatsoever his Proceedings have 
been. He says farther, that we are his Enemies. And 
we truely declare, that we hate not his Person, but his 
Deeds, being no more Enemies to him than the Apostle 
St. Peter was to Simon, when he gave him a good Coun- 
sel, perswading him to better Behaviours. Being a Tay- 
lor, we perswaded him to keep to his Trade, and leave the 
sacred Office to more fit Persons, or get himself through 
lawful Means. But he would take his own way. And 
ye now, dearly beloved Friends, see the Issue of it. We 
also disown him to be a Minister of Christ, and likewise to 
be our Brother in the sacred function in order to our Evan- 
gelical Church. 

For the 2d. As leaving out the Ceremonies and Holy 
Prayers used so long Time, and with so great Edification 
in the Church of God, and making new ones, we highly 
dislike. Belonging his breaking the Bread at the Holy 
Sacrament, it is in it self an indifferent thing, if the Church 
had so constituted it we might as well break the Bread, as 
use Wafers ; but a single Minister and a single Congrega- 
tion ought not to take upon themselves to alter the Cere- 
monies and make new ones. 

For the 3d. That he is so busie to go about to other 
People and make Differences in Mr. Berkenmeyers Con- 
gregation, is a great Sin. But he that is unjust in one 
thing, is also in others. We hope for all they will for the 
future beware of such Ministers. 



^Vide pp. Ill, 112 supra. 



1703-MEMORIAL OF DOM. JUSTUS FALCKNER-1903 



i 




PHOTO. FURNISHtO BY REV. J y. SURK. 



SWEDISH CHURCHES ON THE DELAWARE. 
RACOON CHURCH, SWEDESBORO. GLOUCESTER COUNTY, N. J. 

ORGANIZED less. 



Reasons for Refusal. 137 

For the ////. Ye have done very well, Dearly beloved 
Friends in excluding him from the Service of your Church, 
and better ye will do, if ye hear him no more, since he is 
like to destroy your Congregation. Neither take up with 
such Men, till they can shew necessary Testimonies from 
some Consistory in Enrobe, of their Lawful Ordination 
and likewise a good Conversation. 

For the §th. We are of the same Mind with the Ven- 
erable Consistory at Amsterdam. 

And so. Dearly beloved Friends, we hope ye will take 
our Answer in good Part, and send a copy of it, or the 
Original to Mr. Bcrkenmeyers Congregation 2.1 New-York 
and Albany, to be read there. Not that we have got any 
Authority more than other Ministers. But we have a Prec- 
edent in Ecclesiastical History. That if any Church did 
forsake the Truth, or commit Disorders in any kind, other 
Churches did sometime take upon them (as the Case did 
move) to warn, advise, reprove it, and so declare against 
its Proceedings, as prejudicial not onely to the Wellfare of 
that Church, but to the common Interest of Truth and 
Peace ; but this was not in Way of Commanding Author- 
ity, but of fraternal sollicitude. So did the Roman Church 
interpose in reclaiming the Church of Corinth from its 
Disorders and Seditions. So did St. Cyprian and St. 
Denys of Alexandria meddle in the Affairs of the Roman 
Church, exhorting Novation and his Adherents to return 
to the Peace of their Church. If any Dissention or Frac- 
tion did arise, other Churches, upon Notice thereof, should 
yeld their Aid to quensh and suppress it, countenancing 
the Peacable, checking and disavowing the Fractious. So 
did St. Cyprian help to discountenance the Novation 
Schism. Thus we all Christians should assist one another 
in the common Defence of Truth, Piety and Peace, when 



138 



Dominie Justus Falclcncr. 



they are assaulted in the Propagation of the Faith and 
Enlargement of the Church, which is to contend together 
for the Faith of the Gospel, to be good Soldiers of Christ, 
warring the good Warfare, striving for the Faith once 
delivered to the Saints. So we commit You and the 
whole Congregation to Gods fatherly Care, remaining, 
Dearly beloved Friends 

Your constant true Well- Wishers and Brethren 
Philadelphia the 31st Day 



of October, 1727. 



Jonas Lidman, 

Pastour & Provost at Wicacoe 
Samuel Hesselius, 

Minister of the Gospel at Christiana 



Petrus Tranberg, 
Minister at Racoon, 
Andreas Windrufwa, 
Minister at Pennsneck, 




INDEX. 



Abelius, Dom., 55. 

Amsterdam, report to, 81. 

Anthonides, Rev., 128. 

Arentius Bernhardus, 82. 

Avelius, Dom., see Abelius. 

Beekman, Samuel, 77, 79. 

Beem, A., 120. 

Berkenmeyer, Pamphlet printed by 

Zenger, 1728, 1 16-118. 
Biorck, Rev. Eric, 52, 70; account 
of Falckner's Ministrations, 92, 93. 
Birger, Johan, 113. 
Boehme, Rev. Anton, 11 1. 
Book, Fridiricus, 120. 
Bos, Job. Jacob, 120. 
Boskerk (Buskerke), Andreas Van, 
77, 120. 

Cornelius Van, 98. 

Laur Van, 77. 

Pieter, A., 98. 
Bradford, William, prints book, 86. 
Brewer, Catherine, 102. 

Elizabeth, 102. 

Lieut. Richard, 102. 
Bruyns, P., S4. 

Chambers, Richard, loi. 

Sarah, loi. 

William, loi. 
Christian, Thomas, 106. 

Pieter, 106. 
Christina Swedish Church, 132-133. 
Churches in Philadelphia, 42. 
Clarkson, Rev. Joseph, 62. 
Clay, Rev. J. C, 62. 

Rev. Slayfor, 62. 



Clayton, Rev. Thomas, 25, 33. 
Collin, Rev. Nicholas, 62 ; portrait, 
71- 

Falckner, Anna Catharina, 109. 

Benedictus, log. 

Christian, 13. 

Rev. Daniel, Sr., 13. 

Daniel, birth, 13 ; Pietist, 14 ; 
visits Europe, 24 ; autograph, 
25; selected for mission, 27; 
citizen and pilgrim, ib. ; 
curious account, 28 ; continu- 
ation 1704, 29; returns to 
America, 31; colophon, ib.\ 
on the Wissahickon, 31 ; as 
bailiff of Germantown, 32 ; 
attorney for Furly, 34, 35 ; 
slandered by Pastorius, 36-37 ; 
attends Swedish Church, 43; 
call to New York, 121. 

Justus, genealogy, 13 ; official 
record, 14; matriculates, 15 ; as 
a hymnist, 18 ; Auf ihr Chris- 
ten, 19; celebrated hymns by, 
22 ; at Lubeck, 23 ; appointed 
attorney, 30; arrives in 
America, 31 ; on the Wissa- 
hickon, 32; Burgess at Ger- 
mantown, 32; becomes her- 
mit, 33; writes to Dom. 
Muhlen, 33; return to the 
world, 34; attorney for Fur- 
ly, 34-35 ; missive to Europe, 
38; hermit, 39; attends Gloria 
Dei, 43 ; pleads for organ, 45 ; 
139 



140 



Index. 



answers it — Rudman's reply, 
55-56 ; called to New York, 
57; Biorck's letter, 58-59; 
ordination of Gloria Dei, 60- 
71 ; in New York, 72 ; notifies 
Amsterdam Consistory, 73 ; 
ordination certificate, 74 ; first 
entry, 76; official signature, 
77 ; serves country churches, 
78; appeal for funds, 78; 
signs report, 84 ; publishes 
text -book, 86; title, 88; hymn 
from, 89 ; activity of, 90; seal, 
94; church records, 95; bap- 
tizes at Hackensack, 98-99 ; 
record, ib. ; list of communi- 
cants, 103 ; baptizes Indian 
slave, 104; Negro slave, 106; 
marries Gerritge Hardick, 
108; reports to Amsterdam, 
109 ; trouble with Van Dieren, 
in; death of, 113; character 
and attributes, 114; opinion 
of Van Dieren, 125. 

Paul Christian, 13. 

Sarah Justa, 109. 

Francke, Rev. Aug. Herman, 16, 24 ; 

receives Daniel Falckner, 27. 
Frankfort Company appoints Kel- 

pius and Falckner, 30. 
Friedrich's University, 14; view, 15 ; 

interior, 17; bi-centennial, 27. 
Furly, Benjamin, autograph, 30. 

Geissler, Daniel, 32. 
Gloria Dei, mention of, 42 ; ordina- 
tion at, 60. 
Guinea, Are of, 102. 

Hackensack extends call, 120. 
Henkell, Rev. Gerhart, 134. 
Hentz, Pieter, 113. 



Hesselius, Dom., 127. 

letter from Rudman, 52-54 ; 

Andrew, letter by, 111-12. 

Rev. Samuel, 138. 
Heyns, Godfried, 120. 
Hoesan, Niclas Van, 109. 
Holland, Lieut. Henry, 102. 
Huttrot, Job. Jacob, 120. 

Jauert, Balthasar, 30. 

(Jawert) Johann, 14, 30. 

recorder of Germantown, 22. 
Jawert, vide Jauert. 
Jonas the organist, 33. 
Julian quoted, 21. 

Kallnis, Mrs. Margareta, 102. 
Keen, Eric, 50. 

Matz (Matthew), 50. 
Kelpius, Johannes, 14, 25, 30, 33, 

63- 

Knoll, Pastor, notes Falckner's 

death, 113. 
Kocherthal, Rev. Josua, 90, 93, 106. 

Louisa Abigail, 106. 

Sibella Charlotta, 106. 
Konig. Joh. David, I20. 
Kbnneken, Balthasar Jasper, 31. 
Koster, H. B., 14. 

La Grangie (Lagransie), Johannes 

Hans, 77-84. 
Lidman, Rev. Jonas, 127, 138. 
Lloyd, David, 35. 
Lock, Rev. Lars, 55. 
Loons, Jan Van, 106. 
Loscher, quoted, 87. 
Lutheran church, location of, lOO-l. 

Albany, 102. 

Condition of in New York, 120- 
1. 

Muhlen, Dom. Heinrich, 23. 
Missive, 10, 38, 48. 



Index. 



141 



Miiller, Dom. Heinrich, vide Muh- 
len. 
Joh. C, 120. 

Nicum, Rev. J., 73. 
Norris, Isaac, 35. 

Paper money, 1709, 105. 
Pastorius, Francis Daniel, charges 
fraud, 35; arms, 36; slanders Falck- 

ner. 36-37- 

Penn, William, appoints Falckner 
brothers attorney, 34, 35. 

Pennsneck, Swedish Ch., 132-3. 

Peper, Michael, I20. 

Philadelphian Society, 25. 

Pietists on Wissahickon, 24, 25, 31. 

Racoon Swedish Ch., 132-133. 

Rambo, Peter, 50. 

Reformed Church in New York, 85. 

Rudman, Anders, 52. 

Rev. A., 42 ; offers to preach in 
German, 44; goes to New 
York, 49; autograph, 50; 
entry in register, 51 ; yellow 
fever, 52 ; letter to Falckner, 
53 ; as vice-Bishop, 60-71, 79, 
82 ; entry in church book, 97, 
98. 

Sandel, Rev. Andrew, 49, 52, 70, 92. 

Rev. Andreas, 11 1. 
Saturnine Quaker spirit, 45. 
Schleydorn, 124. 
Schiitz, J. H., 120. 

Joh. Michael, 84, 109, 120. 
Sects in Pennsylvania, 42, 43. 
Selig, Johann, 33. 
Selskoorn, see Abelius. 



Serley, Capt., 129. 

Sharpe, Rev. John, 106-107. 

Spr6gel,John Henry, autograph, 14. 

Ludovic, 14. 
Streit, Christian, 107. 

Maria Magdalena, 107. 
St. Thomas, funds from, 79. 
Storch, Arnold, 14. 
Sturm, David, 113. 

J. Pieter, 113. 
Swedish Churches on Delaware 

transferred to Episcopal fold, 60- 

62 ; Trinity, Wilmington, St. 

George's, Pennsneck, Racoon, 

Swedesboro, 132-133. 
Sybrand, Joh., 119, 123, 129. 

Tays, Christine Elizabeth, 107. 

Johann Philip, 107. 
Thomas, Rev. Mr., 50. 
Thomasius, Christian, 14, 15. 
Tranberg, Rev. Petrus, 138. 

Van Dieren, J. Bernhard, lii; con- 
troversy, 116-131; Swedish pas- 
toral against, 132-138. 

Veit, 77; (Veilt), Joh., 84. 

Vesey, Rev. Wm., loS. 

Weems, Elizabeth, 102. 
Wesling, Rev. J., 124. 
Weyrauch's Hiigel, quoted, 20, 23. 
Windrufwa, Rev. Andreas, 13S. 
Wogloni, Pieter van, 77, 84. 
Woglam, Peter, 104. 

Zetskoorn, see Abelius. 
Zimmerdiinger,Uldrig, 120. 



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