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I BV , 


Formerly Scholar of Oirion College, Camhrulye, 


Tkd bold at 



< i 

l^ool hhl 

/u^p-i, //. 3'. 









Anenakaranavishkritavtttaalyeua caritena ka^ya ua 
bandhutvani adhyaropayasi.' 

*/ 1 


Thb story of Kadambarl is interesting for several reasons. 
It is ^ standard example of. classical prose ; it has enjoyed 
a long popularity as a romance ; and it is one of the com- 
paratively few Sanskrit works which can be assigned to a 
certain date, and so it can serve as a landmark in the 
history of Indian literature and Indian thought. 
Bfinabhatta, its author, lived in the reign of Harsha- 
vardhana of Thrineyar, the great king men- 
tioned in many inscriptions,-^ who extended 
his rule over the whole of Northern India, and from whose 
reign (a.d. 606) dates the Harsha era, used in Nepal. 
Bana, as he tells us, both in the * Harsha-Carita ' and in 
the introductory verses of * Kadambarl,' was a Vatsyayana 
Brahman. His mother died while he was yet young, and 
his father's tender care of him, recorded in the * Harsha- 
Carita,'^ was doubtless in his memory as he recorded the 
unselfish love of Vaic^ampayana's father in * Kadambarl * 

* It is needless to give here more than the few facts essential for the 
understanding of * Kadambarl,' for the life and times of Bana will 
probably bo treated of in the translation of the * Harsha-Carita ' by 
Professor Cowell and Mr. Thomas in this series ; and Professor Peter- 
eon's Introduction to his edition of ' Kadambarl ' (Bombay Sanskrit 
Series, 1H89) deals fully with Bana's place in literature. The facte 
here given are, for tlie most part, taken from the latter work. 

'^, the Madhuban grant of Saiji 25, E. I. i., 67 fif. For this 
and other chronological references I am indebted to Miss C. M. Duff, 
who has let mo use the MS. of her 'Chronology of India.' 

3 For Bana's early life, V. * Harsha-Carita,' chs. i., ii. I have to 
thank Mr. F. W. Thomas for allowing mo to see the proof-sheets of 
his translation. 


(p. 22). In his youth he travelled much, and for a time 
' came into reproach,' by reason of his unsettled life ; but 
the experience gained in foreign lands turned his thoughts 
homewards, and he returned to his kin, and lived a life of 
quiet study in their midst. From this he was summoned' 
to the court of King Harsha, who at first received him 
coldly, but afterwards attached him to his service; and 
Bana in the * Harsha-Carita ' relates his own life as a 
prelude to that of his master. 

The other works attributed to him are the ' Candikfi- 
Vataka,'^ or verses in honour of Candika; a drama, * The 
Parvatlparinaya'; and another, called * Mukutataditaka,' 
the existence of which is inferred from Gunavinayagani's 
commentary on the * Nalacampu.* Professor Peterson also 
mentions that a verse of Bana's (* Subhashitavali,' 1087) 
is quoted by Kshemendra in his * Aucityavicaracarca,' with 
a statement that it is part of a description of Kadambari's 
sorrow in the absence of Candraplda, whence, he adds, * it 
would seem that Bana wrote the story of Kadambarl in 
verse as well as in prose,* and he gives some verses which 
may have come from such a work. 

Baiia himself died, leaving * Kadambari ' unfinished, and 
his son Bhushanabhatta took it up in the midst of a speech 
in which Kadambari's sorrows are told, and continued the 
speech without a break, save for a few introductory verses 
in honour of his father, and in apology for his having 
undertaken the task, * as its unfinished state was a grief to 
the. good.' He continued the story on the same plan, and 
with careful, and, indeed, exaggerated, imitation of hia 
father's style. 

The story of * Kadambari' is a very complefx one, dealing 
The Plot of as it does with the lives of two heroes, each 
Kadamiuri. of whom is reborn twice on earth. 

(1-47) A learned parrot, named Vaivampayana, was 
brought by a Camjala maiden to King (^udraka, and told 
him how it was carried from its birthplace in the Vindhya 

1 Peterson, • Kadaiuban,* pp. 96-98 ; and * The SubhaBbUnvaU,* 
edited by Peterson (Bombay Sanskrit Series, 1886), pp. 62-66. 


Forest to the hermitage of the sage Jabali, from whom it 
learnt the story of its former life. 

(47-95) Jabali's story was as follows : Tiirapida, King of 
UjjayinI, won by penance a son, Candraplila, who was 
brought up with Vai9arapriyana, son of his minister, 
^'ukanfisa. In due time Candraplda was anointed as Crown 
Prince, and started on an expedition of world-conquest. 
At the end of it he reached Kailusa, and, while resting 
there, was led one day in a vain chase of a pair of kinnaras 
to the shores of the Acchoda Lake. (95-141) There he 
beheld a young ascetic maiden, Mahfu/vetri, who told him 
how she, being a Gandharva princess, had seen and loved 
a young Brahman Pun(jarlka ; how he, returning her 
feeling, had died from the torments of a love at variance 
with his vow ; how a divine being had carried his body to 
the sky, and bidden her not to die, for she should be 
reunited with him ; and how she awaited that time in a 
life of penance. (141-188) But her friend Kadambarl, 
another Gandharva princess, had vowed not to marry 
while Mahfu/veta was in sorrow, and Maha(;veta invited 
the prince to come to help her in dissuading Kadambarl 
from the rash vow. Love sprang up between the prince 
and Kadambarl at lirst sight ; but a sudden summons from 
his father took him to UjjayinI without farewell, while 
Kadambarl, thinking herself deserted, almost died of grief. 

(188 - 195) Meanwhile news came the^ his friend 
Vaic^ampayana, whom he had left in command of the 
army, had been strangely affected by the sight of the 
Acchoda Lake, and refused to leave it. The prince set 
out to find him, but in vain; and proceeding to the 
hermitage of Mahayveta, he found her in despair, because, 
in invoking on a young Brahman, who had rashly ap- 
proached her, a curse to the effect that he should become a 
parrot, she learnt that she had slain Vai^ampayana. At 
her words the prince fell dead from grief, and at that 
moment Kadambarl came to the hermitage. 

(195-202) Her resolve to follow him in death was broken 
by the promise of a voice from the sky that she and 

Maha9veta should both be reunited with their lovers, and 
she stayed to tend the prince's body, from which a divine 
radiance proceeded; while King Tfiraplda gave up his 
kingdom, and lived as a hermit near his son. 

(202 to end) Buch was Jfibfili's tale ; and the parrot went 
on to say how, hearing it, the memory of its former love 
for Mahru/voia was reawakened, and, though bidden to stay 
in the hermitage, it flew away, only to be caught and taken 
to the Cau<jala princess. It was now brought by her to 
King Tudraka, but knew no more. The Cai.njala maiden 
thereupon doelarod to (hldraka that she was the goddess 
LakshniT, mother of Puncjarika or Vai(;ampriyana, and 
announced that the curse for him and C^'udraka was now 
over. Then (/lidraka suddenly remembered his love for 
Kadambarl, and wasted away in longing for her, while a 
sudden touch of Kfidambari restored to life the Moon con- 
cealed in the body of Candrfiplda, the form that he still 
kept, because in it he had won her love. Now the Moon, 
as CandrfipTila and (/udraka, and Pun<jarika, in tlie human 
and parrot shape of Vaivampayana, having both fulfilled 
tbe curse of an unsuccossful love in two births on earth, 
were at last set free, and, receiving respectively the hands 
of Kadambarl and Mahfu/veta, lived happily ever after- 

The plot is involved, and consists of stories within each 
other after the fashion long familiar to Europeans in the 
* Arabian Nights ' ; but the author's skill in construction is 
shown by the fact that each of the minor stories is essential 
to the development of the plot, and it is not till quite the 
end that we see that Ciidraka himself, the hearer of the 
story, is really the hero, and that his hearing the story is 
necessary to reawaken his love for Kadambarl, and so at 
the same time fulfil the terms of the curse that he should 
love in vain during two lives, and bring the second life to 
an end by his longing for reunion. It may help to make 
the plot^clear if the threads of it are disentangled. The 
author in person tells all that happens to Cudraka 
(pp. 3-16 and pp. 205 to end). The parrot's tale (pp. 16- 


205) include that of Jabali (pp. 47-202) concerning Gan- 
draplda, and Yai^ampayana the Brahman, with the story 
told by Maha9veta (pp. 101-186) of her love for Pundarlka. 

The story as told in the Katha-Sarit-Sfigara of Somadeva* 

differs in some respects from this. There 

AS TOLD IN * Nishada princess brought to King Sumanas 

THK Katha- a learned parrot, which told its life in the 

BAoAiiA. forest, ended by a hunt in which its father was 
killed, and the story of its past life narrated 
by the hermit Agastya. In this story a prince, Homa- 
prabha, after an early life resembling that of Candrfiplda, 
was led in his pursuit of kinnaras to an ascetic maiden, 
Manorathaprabhu, whose story is that of Mahru/vetfi, and 
she took him, at his own request, to see the maiden Maka- 
randika, who had vowed not to marry while her friend was 
unwed. He was borne through the air by a Yidyfidhara, 
and beheld Makarandika. They loved each other, and a 
marriage was arranged between them. The prince, how- 
ever, was suddenly recalled by his father, and Makaran- 
dikiVs wild grief brought on her from her i)arenis a curse 
tbat she should be born as a Nihlifida. Too late they 
repented, and died of grief; and her father became a 
parrot, keeping from a former birth as a sage his memory 
of the (/astras, while her mother became a sow. Pulastya 
added that the curse would be over when the story was 
told in a king's court. 

The parrot's tale reminded King Sumanas of his former 
birth, and on the arrival of the ascetic maiden, sent by 
Civa, * who is merciful to all his worshippers,* he again 
became the young hermit she had loved. Somaprabha, too, 
at Civa's bidding, went to the king's court, and at the sight 
of him the Nishada regained the shape of Makarandika, 
and became his wife ; while the parrot * left the body of a 
bird, and went to the home earned by his asceticism.' 
'Thus,* the story ends, * the appointed union of human 

» Translated by Mr. C. Tawney (Calcutta, 1884), vol. ii., pp. 17-26. 
Somadova'e date is about a.d. 1063. 


beings certainly takes place in this world, though vast 
spaces intervene.* 

The main difference between the stories is in the persons 
affected by the curse ; and here the artistic superiority o! 
Bfina is shown in his not attaching the degrading forms of 
birth to Kfidambari or her parents. The horse is given as 
a present to the hero by Indra, who sends him a message, 
saying : * You ure a Vidyadhara, and I give you the horse 
in memory of our former friendship. When you mount it 
you will be invincible.' The hero's marriage is arranged 
before his sudden departure, bo that the grief of the heroine 
is duo only to tlieir separation, and not to the doubts on 
which Bfiua dwells so long. It appears possible that both 
this story and ' Kfidambari ' are taken from a common original 
now lost, which may be the Brihatkathu of Guumlhya.^ In 
that case the greater refinement of Bana's tale would be the 
result of genius giving grace to a story already familiar in 
a humbler guise. 

The author of the Sahitya-Darpana- speaks of the 

llEFKUENCKs TO KadamiiauI ^^^^^^^^ ^^ follows : * lu tho Katlia 
IN THE Sahitya-Darpana (talo), wMch is one of the species 

AND ELSEWHEUE. ^ .• j ... 

oj poeiwal coiii2)o8itwu tn proses a 
poetical matter is represented in verse, and sometimes the 
Arya, and sometimes the Vaktra and Apavaktraka are the 
metres employed in it. It begins with stanzas in saluta- 
tion to some divinity, as also descriptive of the behaviour 
of bad men and others.' To this the commentary adds : 
*The **Kridambari" of Banabhatta is an example.* Pro- 
fessor Peterson corrects the translation of the words 
* Kathfiyam sarasarp vastu padyair eva vinirmitam,' giving 
as their sense, * A narration in prose, with here and there 
a stray verso or two, of matter alreadjj existituj in a metrical 
/>/•///.'" According to his rendering, the Katha is in its 
essence a story claiming to be based on previous works in 
verse, whether iif this case the original were Bana's own 

1 V, Totorson, ♦ Kridaiiiban,' pp. 82-00. 

^ Transhvjtod by Uallantyno and rraniadri-DuBa-Mitra (Calcutta, 
1875), § 507. Tlio italics represent words supplied by the translators. 
3 ♦ KAdaaibarl/ p. 09. 


metrical version of ' Kadambari/^ or the work which was 
also the original of the Katha-Sarit-Sagara story. 

The story of Pundarika and Mahayveta receives mention, 
firstly, for the introduction of death, contrary to the canon ; 
secondly, for the determination of the nature of their 
sorrow, and its poetic quality, and consequent appeal to the 
feelings of the reader. Firstly : (§ 216) * Death, which is a 
condition to which one vmi/ he brouyht hy love, is not described 
in poetry and the drama^ where the other conditions^ such as 
anxiety^ etCy are constantly d escribed j because it, instead of 
enhancinf/f causes the destruction of ** Flavour. "^ But it 
may be spoken of (1) as having nearly taken place, or (2) 
as being mentally wished for ; and it is with ^jro/^nV/// 
described (8) if there is to be, at no distant date, a restora- 
tion to life.' The commentary takes the story of Pundarlka 
as an example of the third condition, and describes it as a 
* case of pathetic separation.* Secondly : (§ 224) ' Either of 
two young lovers being dead, and being yet to be regained 
through some supernatural interposition , when the one left 
behind is sorrowful, then let it be called the separation of 
tender sadness ' (haruaaripraUnnbha). The commentary 
gives Mahri(;vetri as the instance, and continues : * But if 
the lost one be not regainable, or regainable only after trans- 
mi (/ration in another body, the flavour is called the 
** Pathetic " simply, there beiny in this case no room for any 
admixture of the '* Erotic ",- but in the case just mentioned — 
of Pundarlka and Mahayveta—immediately on Sarasvati's 
declaration from the sky that the lorers should be reunited^ 
there is the *' Erotic in its form of tender sadness," for 
desire arises on the expectation of reunion, but previously 
to Sarasrat'Vs jironiise there was the ** Pathetic *' ; such is 
tlio opinion of the competent authorities. And as for what 
some say in regard to the case of Pundarlha and Mahac^vetaf 
that ** moreover aftkii the expectation of reunion, excited 
by SarasvatVs promise to that ejfectf there is merely your 

* Professor Peterson does not, however, make this deduction in 
favour of Buna's own version. 
'^ I.e., raaa^ poetic charm. 


honour's variety of " love in absence,'* (§ 222) the one which 
you call " beingabroad " (§ 221)— others hold it to be distinct, 
because of the presence of that distinction, death, which i$ 
something else than merely being abroad,' These are the 
l)assages in which direct mention is made of ' Kadarabarl,* 
and in § 735, which defines special mention (parisamlchyd) 
as taking place ' when something is affirmed for the denial, 
expressed or understood, of something else similar to it,' 
the commentary adds : * When founded upon a Parono- 
masia, it is peculiarly striking, e,g,, *' When that king, 
the conqueror of the world, was protecting the earth, the 
mixture of colours (or castes) was in painting, etc," — a 
passage from the description of Cyiidraka in " Kfidambari " 
(p. 5).' 

References to Bfiiia in other works are given by Pro- 
fessor Peterson, so that three only need be mentioned here. 
The first I owe to the kindness of Professor C. Bendall. 
In a collection of manuscripts at the British Museum 
(Or., 445-447) ' consisting chiefly of law-books transcribed 
(perhaps for some European) on European paper in the 
Telugu-Canarese character,' one. Or., 44G c, the Kaman- 
daklya-Nlti-Castra, contains on folios 128-131 a passage 
from * Kfidambari ' (pp. 7G-84, infra)^ on the consecration of 
a crown-prince, and the duties and dangers of a king. It 
forms part of an introduction to the Kamandakiya-Niti- 
Castra, and occurs without any hint of its being a quotation 
from another work. The author of the Nalacampu not only 
writes a verse in honour of Bana,^ but models his whole 
style upon him. A curious instance of the long popularity 
of * Kfidambari' is that in the 'Durge^anandini' by Chattaji, 
an historical novel, published in 1871, and treating of the 
time of Akbar, the heroine is represented as reading in her 
boudoir the romance of * Kfidambari.'^ 

1 * Kfidambari,' Nknaya Sagara Press, Bombay, pp. 205-221. » Evaiu 
samatikrrimatsii — fijagama.' 

^ Bombay edition, p. 6.. ,.„..., xt i i »r 

s Profes^r CoweU's review of ' A Bengali Historical Novel. Mac- 

miUan, April, 1872. 


It may be asked What is the value of * Eadambari ' for 
The Interest European readers? and to different persons 
or*KADAMBABr/ the answer will doubtless be different. 
Historical interest, so far as that depends on the narration 
of historical facts, appears to be entirely lacking, though it 
may be that at some future time our knowledge from other 
sources may be so increased that we may recognise portraits 
and allusions in what seems now purely a work of romance. 
But in the wider sense in which history claims to deal with 
the social ideas that belong to any epoch, * Kfidambarl ' will 
always have value as representing the ways of thinking 
and feeling which were either customary or welcome at its 
own time, and which have continued to chaim Indian 
readers. It is indeed true that it probably in many ways 
does not give a picture of contemporary manners, just as a 
media)val illuminated manuscript often represents the dress 
and surroundings prior to the time of the illuminator, so 
as to gain the .grace of remoteness bestowed by reverence 
for the past. In India, where change works but slowly, 
the description of the court and city life, where all the 
subjects show by outward tokens their sympathy with the 
joys and sorrows of their ruler, as in a Greek choius, is 
vivid in its fidelity.^ The quiet yet busy life of the hermits 
in the forest, where the day is spent in worship and in 
peaceful toils, where at eve the sunbeams * linger like birds 
on the crest of hill and tree,' and where night * darkens all 
save the hearts of the hermits,* is full of charm.*^ 

* V. Peterson, ' Kridainbarl,' p. 42. 

^ Indeed, this description is so like in spirit to that of Clairvaux, 
that I cannot forbear quoting a few lines of the latter. The writer 
describes the workshops where the brethren labour, and the orchard 
used for rest and quiet thought, and goes on to say hnw the Aube 
is raised by the toils of the ' brethren to the level of the Abbey ; it 
throws half its water into the Abbey, 'as if to salute the brethren, 
and seems to excuse itself for not coming in its whole force.' Then 
' it returns with rapid current to the stream, and renders to it, in 
the name of Clairvaux, thanks for all the services which it has per- 
formed.' The writer then goes on to tell of the fountain which, pro- 
tected by a grassy pavilion, rises from the mountain, and is quickly 
engulfed in the valley, ' offering itself to charm the sight and supply 
the wants of the brethren, as if it were not willing to have connnuni- 
tion with any others than saints.' This last is surely a touch worthy 


The coronation of the crown prince, the penances per- 
formed by the queen to win a eon, the reverence paid to 
Mahakilla, also belong to our picture of the time. The 
description of Ujjayini, surrounded by the Siprfi, is too 
general in its terms to give a vivid notion of what it then 
was. The site of the temple of Mahakula is still shown 
outside the ruins of the old town. A point of special 
interest is the argument against the custom of suicide on 
the death of a friend. Candrai^ida consoles Mahri9vetri that 
she has not followed her lover in death by saying that one 
who kills himself at his friend's death makes that friend a 
sharer in the guilt, and can do no more for him in another 
world, whereas by living he can give help by sacrifices and 
offerings. Those, too, who die may not be reunited for 
thousands of births. In the * Katha-Kova * ^ a prince is 
dissuaded from following his wife to death because * Even 
the idea of union with your beloved will be impossible when 
you are dead '; but the occurrence of the idea in a romance 
is more noteworthy than in a work which illustrates Jain 
doctrines. The question of food as affected by caste is 
touched on also (p. 205), when the Cancjfila maiden tells 
the parrot that a Brahman may, in case of need, receive 
food of any kind, and that water poured on the ground, and 
fruit, are pure even when brought by the lowest. Another 
point to be remarked is the mention of followers of many 
sects as being present at court, (^iva, especially under the 
name of Mahakala at Ujjayini, receives special worship, and 
Agni and the Matrikas (p. 14) also receive reverence. The 
zenanas include aged ascetic women (p. 217) ; followers of 
the Arhat, Krishna, Vi9ravasa, Avalokite^vara, and Virifica 
(p. 162) ; and the courtyard of Cukanasa has (^'aivas and 
followers of (^akyamuni (p. 217), also Kshapanakas (ex- 
plained by tl^ Commentary as Digambaras). The king,* 

of B/lna. V. Dr. Eale's'translation of ' St. Bernard's Works.' London, 
1889, Vol. ii., pp. 462-467. 

1 Translated by Mr. C. Tawney. Oriental Translation Fund Series, 
p. 113. 

2 V. ' Kadambarl,' Nirnaya Sagara, p. 19, 1. 2. » 


however, is described as having an unid (the hair meeting 
between the brows), which is one of fiuddha*s marks; but 
the Commentary describes the urnd as eakrarartiprahhri' 
tindm eva ndnyasya, so probably it only belongs to 
Buddha as cakravarti, or universal ruler. This shows 
that the reign of Harsha was one of religious tolerance. 
Hiouen Thsang, indeed, claims him as a Buddhist at heart, 
and mentions his building Buddhist stupas,^ but he describes 
himself as a Caiva in the Madhuban grant,^ and the pre- 
eminence yielded in * Kfidambarl * to (Jiva certainly shows 
that his was then the popular worship. 

Another source of interest in * KadambarT ' lies in its 
contribution to folklore. It may perhaps contain nothing 
not found elsewhere, but the fact of its having a date gives it 
a value. The love of snakes for the breeze and for sandal- 
trees, the truth of dreams at the end of night, the magic 
circles, bathing in snake-ponds to gain a son, the mustard- 
seed and ghl- put in a baby*s mouth, may all be familiar 
ideas, but we have a date at which they were known and 
not despised. Does the appeal to the truth of her heart by 
Mahru/vetfi in invoking the curse (p. 11)8) rest on the idea 
that fidelity to a husband confers supernatural i)Ower,^ or 
is it like the * act of truth ' by which Buddha often performs 
miracles in the * Jataka * ? 
The unsettled chronology of Indian literature makes it 
impossible to work out at present Buna's 
' KadambauI.' relations with other Sanskrit writers. Pro- 
fessor Peterson,'* indeed, makes some in- 
teresting conjectures as to his connection with other 
authors of his own country, and also suggests, from simi- 
larity of phrase, that he mny have fallen indirectly under 
the influence of Alexandrian literature. Be that as it may, 

* * Kiouen Thsang.,' translated by St. Jiilien, * Memoires sur lea 
Contr^CB Occidentales,* I., pp. 247-265. Cf. also ' Harsha-Carita,' ch. viii. 
(p. 236 of the translation), where he pays great honour to a Buddhist 

'' E. I. i. 67. 

^ V. ' Katha-Sarit-Sagara,* i. 505. 

* V. ♦ KadambarT,' pp. 97-104. 



he has been for many oenturies a model of style, and it is 
therefore worth while to consider briefly the characteristios 
of his style compared with European standards. The first 
thing that strikes the reader is that the sense of proportion, 
the very foundation of style as we know it, is entirely 
absent. No topic is let go till the author can squeeze no 
more from it. In descriptions every possible minor detail 
is given in all its fulness ; then follows a series of similes, 
and then a firework of puns. In speeches, be they lamenta- 
tions or exhortations, grief is not assuaged, nor advice 
ended, till the same thing has been uttered with every 
existing variety of synonym. This defect, though it springs 
from the author's richness of resource and readiness of 
wit, makes the task of rendering in English the merit of 
the Sanskrit style an impossible one. It gives also a false 
impression ; for to us a long description, if good, gives the 
effect of * sweetness long drawn out,* and, if bad, brings 
drowsiness ; whereas in Sanskrit the unending compounds 
suggest the impetuous rush of a torrent, and the similes 
and puns are like the play of light and shade on its waters. 
Bfuia, according to Professor Weber,^ * passes for the special 
representative of the Princfili style, '^ which Bhoja, quoted 
in the commentary of the * Sahitya-Darpana,' defines as 
*a sweet and soft style characterized by force (ojas) and 
elegance (kunti), containing compounds of five or six 
words.* But style, which is to poetic charm as the body 
to the soul, varies with the sense to be expressed, and 
Bana in many of his speeches is perfectly simple and 
direct. Owing to the peacefulness of * Kadambari,' there is 
little opportunity for observing the rule that in the ' Katha* 
letters * ought not to be too rough, even when the flavour 
is furious.'^ (tf the alliteration of initial consonants, the 
only long passage is in the description of Cukanasa (p. 50), 
but in its subtler forms it constantly occurs. Of shorter 
passages there are several examples — e,g,, Candra Candala 

^ V. * History of Indian Literature,' translation, London, 1878, 
p. 282. 

« V, ♦ Sahitya-Darpana/ § 626-628. 

3 Ibid., § 630. ^ 


{ir{fra, p. 127) ; Candrapida Candalo (Sanskrit text, p. 416) ; 
Utkantham sotkantham kanthe jagraha (Ibid,, p. 867) ; 
Kamam Bakamam kuryam (IhiiL, p. 350) ; Candraplcla 
pidanaya (^Ibid,, p. 870). The ornament of <;le8ha, or paro- 
nomasia, which seems to arise from the untrained philo- 
logical instinct of mankind seeking the fundamental 
identity of like sounds with apparently unlike meaning, 
and which lends dramatic intensity when, as sometimes in 
Shakespeare,^ a flash of passionate feeling reveals to the 
speaker an original sameness of meaning in words seemingly 
far apart, is by Bfiiia used purely as an adornment. He 
speaks of pleasant stories interwoven with puns * as jasmine 
garlands with campak buds,' and they abound in his 
descriptions. The rasanojiamd^'^ or girdle of similes, is 
exemplified (p. 115), * As youth to beauty, love to youth, 
spring to love ' so was Kapifijala to Pundarika. Vishamam 
(incongruity) is the figure used in * the brightness of his 
glory, free from heat, consumed his foes ; constant, ever 
roamed ' (p. 48). It can scarcely be separated from 
virodha (contradiction)— often used, as in * I will allay on 
the funeral pyre the fever which the moon, sandal, and all 
cool things have increased ' (p. 195)— or from vicitram^ 
(Btrangeness), where an act is contrary to its apparent 
purpose : * There lives not the man whom the virtues of 
the most courteous lady Kfidambari do not discourteously 
enslave* (p. 159). Arthdpatti^ (a fortiori conclusion) is 
exemplified in * Even the senseless trees, robed in bark, 
seem like fellow-ascetics of this holy man. How much 
more, then, living beings endowed with sense !' (p. 43). 
Time and space would alike fail for analysis of Bana's 
similes according to the rules of the * Sahitya-Darpana.'^ 

* * Not on thy sole, but on thy soul, harsh Jew, 

Thou makest thy knife keen.' 

* Merchant of Venice,* IV. 1, 128 (Globe edition). 
* Now is it Rome indeed, and room enough, 
When there is in it but one only man.' 

♦ Julius Ceesar,' I. 2, 166. 
'^ V. ♦ Bahitya-Darpana,' § 664. 
^ Ibid., § 718-722. . * Ibid., § 788. 

* V. Peterson, ' Kadambari,' p. 86. 

i XX 


The auihor of the * Raghavapaudaviya ' considers Subandhu 
and £ana as his only equals in vakrokti, or crooked speech, 
and the fault of a * meaning to be guessed out * (* Sahitya- 
Darpana,* § 674) is not rare. The * Kavya-Prakri9a,' in 
addition to the references given by Professor Peterson, 
quotes a stanza describing a horse in the * Harsha-Carita * 
(chap, iii.) as an example of svahhdvulcti. 

The hero belongs to the division described as the high- 
spirited, but temperate and firm (* Sahitya-Darpana,* § 64), 
f.f., he who is *not given to boasting, placable, very 
profound, with great self-command, resolute, whose self- 
esteem is concealed, and faithful to his engagements,' and 
who has the * eight manly qualities ' of * brilliancy, vivacity, 
sweetness of temper, depth of character, steadfastness, keen 
sense of honour, gallantry, and magnanimity * {Ihid,^ § 89). 
Kadambarl is the type of the youthful heroine who feels 
love for the first time, is shy, and gentle even in indigna- 
tion (Ihi(Ly § 98). The companions of each are also those 
declared in the books of rhetoric to be appropriate. 

The work which most invites comparison with * Kadam- 
barl * is one far removed from it in place and 
Parallels, time— Spenser's * Faerie Queene.' Both have 
in great measure the same faults and the 
same virtues. The lack of proportion, — due partly to too 
large a plan, partly to an imagination wandering at will— 
the absence of visualization — which in Spenser produces 
sometimes a line like 

* A lovely Ladie rode him faire beside 
Upon a lowly Asse more white then snow, 
Yet ahc much whiter t* 

and in Bana many a description like that of Maha^veta'B 
fairness (pp. 95-97)— the undiscriminating praise bestowed 
on those whom they would fain honour, the shadowy nature 
of many of their personages, and the intricacies in which 
the story loses itself, are faults common to both. Both, 
too, by a, strange coincidence, died with their work un- 
finished. But if they have the same faults, they have 
also many of the same virtues. The lo¥e of what is 


beautiful and pure both in character and the world around, 
tendernesR of heart, a gentle spirit troubled by the disquiet 
of life,^ grace and sweetness of style, and idyllic simplicity, 
are common to both. Though, however, Candraplda may 
have the chivalry and reverence of the Red Cross Knight, 
and Una share with Kadambari or Rohiiii * nobility, tender- 
ness, loftiness of soul, devotion and charm,'- the English 
hero and heroine are more real and more strenuous. We 
are, indeed, told in one hurried sentence of the heroic 
deeds of Candrapicja in his world-conquest, and his self- 
control and firmness are often insisted on; but as he 
appears throughout the book, his self-control is constantly 
broken down by affection or grief, and his firmness 
destroyed by a timid balancing of conflicting duties, while 
his real virtue is his unfailing gentleness and courtesy. . 
Nor could Kadambari, like Una, bid him, in any conflict, 
* Add faith unto your force, and be not faint.' She is, 
perhaps, in youth and entire self -surrender, more like 
Shakespeare's Juliet, but she lacks her courage and 

The likeness of spirit between these two leads to the ques- 
tion, Had Bana, like Spenser, any purpose, 
OF 'KadamuauI/ ethical or political, underlying his story? 
On the surface it is pure romance, and it is 
hard to believe that he had any motive but the simple 
delight of self-expression and love for the children of his 
own imagination. He only claims to tell a story * tender 
with the charm of gracious speech, that comes of itself, 
like a bride, to the possession of its lord 'f but it may be 
that he gladly gathered up in old age the fruits of his life's 
experience, and that his own memory of his father's tender- 
ness to his childhood, of the temptations of youth, and of 
the dangers of jn'osperity and flattery that assail the heart 
of kings, was not used only to adorn a tale, but to be a 
guide to others on the perilous path of life. Be that as it 
may, the interest of * Kadambari,' like that, of the * Faerie 

' Cf. Spenaer's stanzas on Mutability. 

" V. infra, p. 20S. , » F.Vn/ra, p. 2. 


Queene,' does not depend for us now on any underlying 
purpose, but on the picture it presents in itself of the life 
and thought of a world removed in time, but not in 
sympathy, from our own; on the fresh understanding it 
gives of those who are in the widest sense our fellow- 
countrymen; and on the charm, to quote the beautiful 
words of Professor Peterson, * of a story of human sorrow 
and divine consolation, of death and the passionate longing 
for a union after death, that goes straight from the heart 
of one who had himself felt the pang, and nursed the hope, 
to us who are of like frame with him . . . the story which 
from the beginning of time mortal ears have yearned to 
hear, but which mortal lips have never spoken.* 

The translation of Bana presents much difficulty from the 

elaboration of his style, and it has been a 
The Plan of the - ^^ ^ •, , ^ i i- 

Translation. specially hard task, and sometmies an im- 
possible one, to give any rendering of the 
constant play on words in which he delights. I have some- 
times endeavoured to give what might be an English equiva- 
lent, and in such cases I have added in a note the literal 
meaning of both alternatives ; perhaps too much freedom 
may have been used, and sometimes also the best alterna- 
tive may not have been chosen to place in the text ; but 
those who have most experience will know how hard it is to 
do otherwise than fail. Some long descriptions have been 
omitted, such, f.//., as a passage of several pages describ- 
ing how the dust rose under the feet of Candrripl(la*s 
army, and others whore there seemed no special interest 
or variety to redeem their tediousness. A list of these 
omissions^ is given at the end, together with an appendix, 
in which a few passages, chiefly interesting as mentioning 
religious sects, are added. I have acted on Professor 
Cowell's advice •as to the principle on which omissions 
are made, as also in giving only a full abstract, and not 
a translation, of the continuation of ^Kadambari' by 

* The list looks long, but the pages in the • Nirnaya-Sagara ' edition 
contain frequently but few lines, and many of the omi^ions are a lino 
or two of oft-repeated similes. 


Bhushana. It is so entirely an imitation of his father's 
work in style, with all his faults, and without the originality 
that redeems them, that it would not reward translation. 
In my abstract I have kept the direct narration as more 
simple, but even when passages are given rather fully, it 
does not profess in any case to be more than a very free 
rendering ; sometimes only the sense of a whole passage is 
summed up. I regret that the system of transliteration 
approved by the Royal Asiatic Society came too late for 
adoption here. 

The edition of * Kadambarl ' to which the references in the 
text are given is that of the Niniaya-Sfigara Press (Bombay, 
181)0), which the full commentary makes indispensable, but 
I have also throughout made use of Professor Peterson's 
edition (Bombay Sanskrit Series, No. xxiv.). For the last 
half of the Second Part^ I have referred to an anonymous 
literal translation, published by the New Britannia Press 
Depository, 78, Amherst Street, Calcutta. 

I have now to offer my grateful thanks to the Secretary 
of State for India, without whose kind help the volume 
could not have been published. I have also to thank Miss 
G. M. Duff for allowing me to use the MS. of her ' Indian 
Chronology ' ; Miss E. Dale, of Girton College, for botanical 
notes, which I regret that want of space prevented my 
printing in full ; Mr. C. Tawney, librarian of the Indian 
Office, for information as to the sources of Indian fiction ; 
Mr. F. F. Arbuthnot and Professor lihys-Davids, for valu- 
able advice; Professor C. Bendall, for his description of 
the Kaniandaklya-Niti-Castra, and his constant kindness 
about my work ; Mr. F. W. Thomas, of Trinity College, 
for letting me see the proof- sheets of the translation of the 
* Harslia Carita ' ; and others for suggested renderings of 
difficult phrases, and for help of various kinds. 

But especially my thanks are due to Professor Cowell'^ 

* Beginning at p. 686 of the ' Nirnaya-Sagara ' edition. 

* I here take the opportunity to acknowledge what by an oversight 
was omitted in its proper place, my indebtedness to Professor Cowell 
for the rendering into English verso of two couplets given on pp. 11 
and 113. 


for a generosity and unwearied helpfulness which all his 
pupils know, and which perhaps few but they could 
imagine. I read through with him the whole of the First 
Part before translating it myself, so that mistakes in the 
translation, many as they may be, can arise only from mis- 
understanding on my part, from too great freedom of 
rendering, or from failing to have recourbe to the know- 
ledge he so freely gives. 

* Vrihatsahriyali karyuntjuii kHhodtyunapi gacchati ; 
Sainbhuyrunbodhiin abhyeti luahanadya nagapajj^a.' 

^ i 


(1) Hail to the Birthless, the cause of creation, continaanee, 
and destruction, triple^ in form and quality, who shows 
activity in the birth of things, goodness in their continu* 
ance, and darkness in their destruction. 

(2) Glory to the dust of Tryambaka's feet, caressed by the 
diadem of the demon Bfina ^ ; even that dust that kisses the 
circle of Eavana's ten crest-gems, that rests on the crests 
of the lords of gods and demons, and that destroys our 
transitory life. 

(3) Glory to Vishnu, who, resolving to strike from afar, 
with but a moment's glance from his wrath-inflamed eye 
stained the breast of his enemy, as if it had burst of itself 
in terror. 

I salute the lotus feet of Bhatsu,^ honoured by crowned 
Maukharis : the feet which have their tawny toes rubbed on 
a footstool made by the united crowns of neighbouring kings. 

Who is there that fears not the wicked, pitiless in cause- 
less enmity ; in whose mouth calumny hard to bear is 
always ready as the poison of a serpent ? 

The wicked, like fetters, echo harshly, wound deeply, and 
leave a scar; while the good, like jewelled anklets, ever 
charm the mind with sweet sounds. 

(4) In a bad man gentle words sink no- deeper than the 
throat, like nectar swallowed by Eahu. The good man 
bears them constantly on his heart, as Hari his pure gem. 

* As the three Vedas, or the triad. * Vishnu, Purana, Bk. v., ch. 88. 
^ His guru. 



A Btory tender with the charm of gracious speech, creates 
in the heart joy full of fresh interest^ ; and it comes of itself, 
with native feeling, to its lord's possession, like a fresh 
bride.* ♦ 

Who is not carried captive by tales fashioned in freshness 
of speech, all alight with similes, and the lamps of glowing 
words* : pleasant tales interwoven with many a contrast of 
words,* as jasmine garlands with campak buds ? 

There was once a Brahman, Kuvera by name, sprung 
from the race of Vatsyayana, sung throughout the world 
for his virtue, a leader of the good : his lotus feet were 
worshipped by many a Gupta, and he seemed a very 
portion of Brahma. 

(5) On his month SarasvatI ever dwelt : for in it all evil 
was stilled by the Veda ; it had lips purified by sacrificial 
cake, and a palate bitter with soma, and it was pleasant 
with smriti and ^astra. 

In his house frightened boys, as they repeated verses of 
the Yajur and Sama Veda, were chidden at every word by 
caged parrots and mainas, who were thoroughly versed in 
everything belonging to words. 

From him was born Arthapati, a lord of the twice-born, 
as Hiranyagarbha from the world-egg, the moon from the 
Milky Ocean, or Garuda from Vinata. 

As he unfolded his spreading discourse day by day at 
dawn, new troops of pupils, intent on listening,* gave him a 
new glory, like fresh sandal-shoots fixed on the ear. 

(G) With countless sacrifices adorned with gifts duly 
offered,^ having glowing Mahavlra fires in their midst,^ and 
raising the sacrificial posts as their hands,^ he woii easily, . 
as if with a troop of elephants, the abode of the gods. \ 

> Raaa={a) tho eight raaaa ; (6) love. 

* f«2/y^^=(^) coj^position ; (6) couch. 

^ {a) Which sparkle with emphatic words and similes ; (6) like 
flashing lamps. 

* (a) Pun ; (b) proximity. * Hanging on his ear (as an ornament). 

* In the case of elephants, * having their ichor rogulatqd by a proper 
regimen.' - .U 

' With renowned warriors on their backs. : ' 

* Having trunks as thick as sacrificial posts. ^ 


He in due course obtained a son, Citrabhanu, who amongst 
his other noble and glorious sons, all versed in 9ruti and 
9astra, shone as crystal, like Kailasa among mountains. 

The virtues of that noble man, reaching far and gleam- 
ing bright as a digit of the moon, yet without its spot, 
pierced deep even into the hearts of his foes, like the 
budding claws of Nrisimha (Vishnu). 

The dark smoke of many a sacrifice rose like curls on 
the brow of the goddesses of the sky; or like shoots of 
tamala on the oar of the bride, the Threefold Veda, and 
only made his own glory shine more bright. 

From him was born a son, Bilna, when the drops that 
rose from the fatigue of the soma sacrifice were wiped from 
his brow by the folded lotus hands of SarasvatI, and when 
the seven worlds had been illuminated by the rays of his 

(7) By that Brahman, albeit with a mind keeping even in 
his unspoken words its original dulness blinded by the 
darkness of its own utter folly, and simple from having 
never gained the charm of ready wit, this tale, surpassing 
the other two,^ was fashioned, even Kadambarl. 

There was once upon a time a king named Cudraka. 
Like a second . Indra, he had his commands honoured by 
the bent heads of all kings ; he was lord of the earth girt in 
by the four oceans ; he had an army of neighbouring chiefs 
bowed down in loyalty to his majesty ; he had the signs of 
a universal emperor; (8) like Vishnu, his lotus-hand bore 
the sign of the conch and the quoit ; like Civa, he had 
overcome Love ; like Kartikeya, he was unconquerable in 
might'^; like Brahma, he had the circle of great kings 
humbled'* ; like the ocean, he was the source of Lakshml ; 
like the stream of Ganges, he followed in the course of 
the pious king Bhaglratha ; like the sun, he rose daily in 
fresh splendour ; like Meru, the brightness of his foot was 

* I.e., Vasavadatta and the Brihatkatha ; or, r., adinifi/d, unrivaUed. 

* (a) Unconquerable in might ; (b) having unconquerable shafts. 

* In the case of Brahma, *he made his chariot of flamingoes." 

honoured by aU the world ; like the elephant of the quarters,* 

he constantly poured forth a stream of generosity. He 

was a worker of wonders, an offerer of sacrifices, a mirror 

of moral law, a source of the arts, a native home of virtue ; 

a spring of the ambrosial sweetness of poetry, a mountain 

of sunrise to all his friends,^ and a direful comet to all his 

foes. (9) He was, moreover, a founder of literary societies, 

a refuge for men of taste, a rejecter of haughty bowholders, 

a leader among the bold, a chief among the wise. He was 

a cause of gladness to the humble, as Yainateya^ was to 

Vinata. He rooted up with the point of his bow the 

boundary-mountains of his foes as Prithuraja did the 

noble mountains. He mocked Krishna, also, for while the 

latter made his boast of his man-lion form, he himself 

smote down the hearts of his foes by his very name, and 

while Krishna wearied the universe with his three steps, 

he subdued the whole world by one heroic effort. Glory 

long dwelt on the watered edge of his sword, as if to wash 

off the stain of contact with a thousand base chieftains, 

which had clung to her too long. 

By the indwelling of Dharma in his mind, Yama in his 

wrath, Kuvera in his kindness, Agni in his splendour, 

Earth in his arm, Lakshml in his glance, SarasvatI in his 

eloquence, (10) the Moon in his face, the Wind in his might, 

Brihaspati in his knowledge. Love in his beauty, the Sun 

in his glory, he resembled holy Narayana, whose nature 

manifests every form, and who is the very essence of deity. 

Boyal glory came to him once for all, like a woman coming 

to meet her lover, on the nights of battle stormy with the 

showers of ichor from the elephants* temples, and stood by 

him in the midst of the darkness of thousands of coats of 

mail, loosened from the doors of the breasts of warriors. 

She seemed to be drawn irresistibly by his sword, which 

was uneven in its edge, by reason of the drops of water 

forced out by the pressure of his strong hand, and which 

* (a) His hand was wot with a stream of constant giving ; (b) the 
trunk was wot with ichor. 
' Or, to tho sun's orb. ^ Vinata = (a) mother of Garuda ; (bX humble. 

was decked with large pearls clinging to it when he clove 
the frontal bones of wild elephants. The flame of his 
majesty burnt day and night, as if it were a fire within his 
foes* fair wives, albeit reft of their lords, as if he would 
destroy the husbands now only enshrined in their hearts. 

(11) While he, having subdued the earth, was guardian of 
the world, the only mixing of colour^ was in painting ; the 
only pulling of hair in caresses ; the only strict fetters in the 
laws of poetry ; the only care was concerning moral law ; 
the only deception was in dreams ; the only golden rods^ 
were in umbrellas. Banners alone trembled ; songs alone 
showed variations'^ ; elephants alone were rampant ;* bows 
alone had severed cords f lattice windows alone had 
ensnaring network ; lovers' disputes alone caused sending 
of messengers ; dice and chessmen alone left empty squares ; 
and his subjects had no deserted homes. Under him, too, 
there was only fear of the next world, only twisting in the 
curls of the zenana women, only loquacity in anklets, only 
taking the hand^ in marriage, only shedding of tears from 
the smoke of ceaseless sacrificial fires ; the only sound of 
the lash was for horses, while the only twang of the bow 
was Love's. 

(15) WJian the thousand-rayed sun, bursting open the 
young lotus-buds, had not long risen, though it had lost 
somewhat of the pinkness of dawn, a portress approached 
the king in his hall of audience, and humbly addressed 
him. Her form was lovely, yet awe-inspiring, and with 
the scimitar (a weapon rarely worn by women) hanging at 
her left side, was like a sandal-tree girt by a snake. Her 
bosom glistened with rich sandal ointment like the 
heavenly Ganges when the frontal-bone of Airavata rises 
from its waters. (16) The chiefs bent before her seemed, 
by her reflection on their crests, to bear her on their fore- 
heads as a royal command in human form. Like autumn,^ 
she was robed in the whiteness of hamsas ; like the blade 

^ Or, caste. « Qr, fines of gold. ^ Qr, fickle affections. 

* Had, viada^{a) pride ; (6) ichor. 

* Or, breaking away from virtue. * Or, tribute. 
^ In autumn, the haitisaa^ or wild geese, return. 

6 " 

of Para9urama she held the circle of kings in submission ; 
like the forest land of the Vindhyas, she bore her wand,^ 
and she seemed the very guardian-goddess of the realm. 
Placing on the ground her lotus hand and knee, she thus 
spake : * Sire, there stands at the gate a Gandala maiden 
from the South, a royal glory of the race of that Tri9ai?iku^ 
who climbed the sky, but fell from it at the murmur of 
wrathful Indra. She bears a parrot in a cage, and bids 
me thus hail your majesty : ** Sire, thou, like the ocean, 
art alone worthy to receive the treasures of the whole earth. 
In the thought that this bird is a marvel, and the treasure 
of the whole earth, I bring it to lay at thy feet, and desire 
to behold thee." (17) Thou, king, hast heard her mes- 
sage, and must decide !* So saying, she ended her speech. 
The king, whose curiosity was aroused, looked at the chiefs 
around him, and with the words * Why not? Bid her 
enter ?* gave his permission. 

Then the portress, immediately on the king's order, 
ushered in the Candala maiden. And she entered and 
beheld the king in the midst of a thousand chiefs, like ! 
golden-peaked Meru in the midst of the noble moun- 
tains crouching together in fear of Indra's thunderbolt ; or, 
in that the brightness of the jewels scattered on his dress 
almost concealed his form, like a day of storm, whereon 
the eight quarters of the globe are covered by Indra*s 
thousand bows. He was sitting on a couch studded with 
moon-stones, beneath a small silken canopy, white as the 
foam of the rivers of heaven, with its four jewel-encrusted 
pillars joined by golden chains, and enwroathed with a 
rope of large pearls. Many cowries with golden handles 
waved around him ; (18) his left foot rested on a footstool 
of crystal that was like the moon bent in humiliation before 
the flashing beauty of his countenance, and was adorned by 
the brightness of his feet, which yet were tinged with blue 
from the light rays of the sapphire pavement, as though 
darkened by the sighs of his conquered foes. His breast, 
crimsoned by the rubies which shone on his throne, recalled 
» Or, bamboos. « Ram. I. 60. 

Erish^^, red with blood from the fresh slaughter of Madha- 
kaitabha; his two silken garments, white as the foam of 
ambrosia, with pairs of hamsas painted in yellow on their 
hem, waved in the wind raised by the cowries ; the fragrant 
sandal unguent with which his chest was whitened, be- 
sprinkled with saffron ointment, was like snowy Kailasa 
with the early sunshine upon it ; his face was encircled by 
pearls like stars mistaking it for the moon ; the sapphire 
bracelets that clasped his arms were as a threat of chains 
to bind fickle fortune, or as snakes attracted by the smell of 
sandal-wood ; (19) the lotus in his ear hung down slightly ; 
his nose was aquiline, his eyes were like lotuses in full 
blossom, the hair grew in a circle between his brows, and 
was purified by the waters that inaugurated his possession 
of universal rule ; his forehead was like a piece of the 
eighth-day moon made into a block of pure gold, garlanded 
with sweet jasmine, like the Western Mountain in the dawn 
with the stars growing pale on its brow. He was like the 
God of Love when struck by (Jiva's fire, for his body was 
tawny from the colour of his ornaments. His hand- 
maidens surrounded him, as if they were the goddesses of 
the quarters of the globe come to worship him ; the earth 
bore him, as on her heart, through loyalty, in the reflection 
of his image in her clear mosaic pavement ; fortune seemed 
his alone, though by him she was given to all to enjoy. 
(20) He was without a second, though his followers were 
without number ; he trusted only to his own sword, though 
he had countless elephants and horses in his retinue; he 
filled the whole earth, though he stood in a small space of 
ground ; he rested only on his bow, and yet was seated on 
his throne ; ho shone with the flame of majesty, though all 
the fuel of his enemies was uprooted ; he had large eyes, 
and yet saw the smallest things ; he was the home of all 
virtues, and yet was overreaching ;* he was beloved of his 
wives, and yet was a despotic lord ; he was free from in- 
toxication, though he had an unfailing stream of bounty ; 
he was fair in nature, yet in conduct a Krishna -? he laid 
* He had (a) groat faults ; (6) a long arm. * Dark. 


no heavy hand* on his subjects, and yet the whole world 
rested in his grasp. 

Such was this king. And she yet afar beholding him, 
with a hand soft as the petal of a red lotus, and sur- 
rounded by a tinkling bracelet, and clasping the bamboo 
with its end jagged, (21) struck once on the mosaic floor 
to arouse the king ; and at the sound, in a moment the 
whole assemblage of chiefs turned their eyes from the king 
to her, like a herd of wild elephants at the falling of the 
cocoanut. Then the king, with the words, * Look yonder,* 
to his suite, gazed steadily upon the Cane Jala maiden, as 
she was pointed out by the portress. Before her went a 
man, whose hair was hoary with age, whose eyes were the 
colour of the red lotus, whose joints, despite the loss of 
youth, were firm from incessant labour, whose form, 
though that of a Matanga, was not to be despised, and 
who wore the white raiment meet for a court. Behind her 
went a Cantjala boy, with locks falling on either shoulder, 
bearing a cage, the bars of which, though of gold, shone 
like emerald from the reflection of the parrot's plumage. 
(22) She herself seemed by the darkness of her hue to 
imitate Krishna when he guilefully assumed a woman's 
attire to take away the amrita seized by the demons. She 
was, as it were, a doll of sapphire walking alone ; and over 
the blue garment, which reached to her ankle, there fell 
a veil of red silk, like evening sunshine falling on blue 
lotuses. The circle of her cheek was whitened by the ear- 
ring that hung from one ear, like the face of night inlaid 
with the rays of the rising moon ; she had a tawny tilaka 
of gorocana, as if it were a third eye, like ParvatI in 
mountaineer's attire, after the fashion of the garb of 

She was like Cri, darkened by the sapi3hire glory of 
Narayana reflected on the robe on her breast ; or like Eati, 
stained by smoke which rose as Madana was burnt by the 
fire of wrathful Civa ; or like Yamuna, fleeing in fear of 
being drawn along by the ploughshare of wild Balarama ; 
* I.e., imposed no heavy tribute. ^ 

or, from the rich lac that turned her lotus feet into budding 
shoots, like Durga, with her feet crimsoned by the blood of 
the Asura Mahisha she had just trampled upon. 

(23) Her nails were rosy from the pink glow of her 
fingers ; the mosaic pavement seemed too hard for her 
touch, and she came forward, placing her feet like tender 
twigs upon the ground. 

The rays of her anklets, rising in flame-colour, seemed to 
encircle her as with the arms of Agni, as though, by his 
love for her beauty, he would purify the stain of her birth, 
and so set the Creator at naught. 

Her girdle was like the stars wreaihed on the brow of 
the elephant of Love : and her necklace was a rope of 
largo bright pearls, like the stream of Ganga just tinged by 

Like autumn, she opened her lotus eyes ; like the rainy 
season, she had cloudy tresses ; like the circle of the 
Malaya Hills, she was wreathed with sandal ; (24) like the 
zodiac, she was decked with starry gems ;^ like (yrl, she 
had the fairness of a lotus in her hand ; like a swoon, she 
entranced the heart ; like a forest, she was endowed with 
living- beauty ; like the child of a goddess, she was claimed 
by no tribe ;^ like sleep, she charmed the eyes ; as a 
lotus-pool in a wood is troubled by elephants, so was she 
dimmed by her Mfitanga'* birth ; like a spirit, she might 
not be touched ; like a letter, she gladdened the eyes alone ; 
like the blossoms of spring, she lacked the jati flower f her 
slender waist, like the line of Love's bow, could be spanned 
by the hands ; with her curly hair, she was like the 
Lakshmi of the Yaksha king in Alaka.^ She had but 
reached the flower of her youth, and was beautiful exceed- 
ingly. And the king was amazed ; and the thought arose 
in his mind, (25) * Ill-placed was the labour of the Creator 
in producing this beauty ! For if she has been created as 

^ Or, ' with citrCi and cjavana^' lunar mansions. 

2 Or, living creatures. 

3 {a) Of lowly birth ; (6) not dwelling on earth. 
* {ii) Caiulala ; (6) elephant. 

•'• Or, ajdti^ without caste. 

^ Alaka = {a) curls ; (b) a city. 


though in mockery of her Candala form, such that all the 
world's wealth of loveliness is laughed to scorn by her 
own, why was she born in a race with which none can 
mate ? Surely by thought alone did Prajapati create her, 
fearing the penalties of contact with the Matanga race, 
else whence this unsullied radiance, a grace that belongs 
not to limbs sullied by touch ? Moreover, though fair in 
form, by the baseness of her birth, whereby she, like a 
Lakshml of the lower world, is a perpetual reproach to the 
gods,^ she, lovely as she is, causes fear in Brahma, the 
maker of so strange a union.' While the king was thus 
thinking the maiden, garlanded with flowers, that fell over 
her ears, bowed herself before him with a confidence 
beyond her years. And when she had made her reverence 
and stepped on to the mosaic floor, her attendant, taking 
the parrot, which had just entered the cage, advanced a 
few steps, and, showing it to the king, said : * Sire, this 
parrot, by name Vai^ampayana, knows the meaning of all 
the 9astras, is expert in the practice of royal policy, 
(26) skilled in tales, history, and Puranas, and acquainted 
with songs and with musical intervals. He recites, and 
himself composes graceful and incomparable modern 
romances, love-stories, plays, and poems, and the like ; he 
is versed in witticisms, and is an unrivalled disciple of the 
Vina, flute, and drum. He is skilled in displaying the 
different movements of dancing, dextrous in painting, very 
bold in play, ready in resources to calm a maiden angered 
in a lover's quarrel, and familiar with the characteristics 
of elephants, horses, men, and women. He is the gem of 
the whole earth ; and in the thought that treasures belong 
to thee, as pearls to the ocean, the daughter of my lord has 
brought him hither to thy feet, king! Let him be 
accepted as thine.' 

Having thus said, he laid the cage before the king and 

retired. (27) 'And when he was gone, the king of birds, 

standing before the king, and raising his right foot, having 

uttered the words, * All hail!' recited to the king, in a song 

1 Or, whose love would be a reproach. 


perfect in the enunciation of each syllable and accent, a 
verse* to this effect : 

* The bosoms of your foemen'e queens now mourn, 
Keeping a fast of widowed solitude, 
Bathed in salt tears, of pearl-wreaths all forlorn, 
Scorched by their sad hearts' too close neighbourhood.* 

And the king, having heard it, was amazed, and joyfully 
addressed his minister Kumarapalita, who sat close to him 
on a costly golden throne, like Brihaspati in his mastery 
of political philosophy, aged, of noble birth, first in the 
circle of wise councillors : ' Thou hast heard the bird's 
clear enunciation of consonants, and the sweetness of his 
intonation. This, in the first place, is a great marvel, that 
he should raise a song in which the syllables are clearly 
separated ; and there is a combination of correctness with 
clearness in the vowels and annndsikas, (28) Then, again, 
we had something more than that : for in him, though a 
lower creation, are found the accomplishments, as it were, 
of a man, in a pleasurable art, and the course of his song is 
inspired by knowledge. For it was he who, with the cry, 
** All hail !" straightened his right foot and sang this song 
concerning me, whereas, generally, birds and beasts are 
only skilled in the science of fearing, eating, pairing, and 
sleeping. This is most wonderful.' And when the king 
had said this, Kumarapfilita, with a slight smile, replied : 
* Where is the wonder ? For all kinds of birds, beginning 
with the parrot and the maina, repeat a sound once heard, 
as thou, king, knowest ; so it is no wonder that exceeding 
skill is produced either by the efforts of men, or in con- 
sequence of perfection gained in a former birth. Moreover, 
they formerly possessed a voice like that of men, with clear 
utterance. The indistinct speech of parrots, as well as the 
change in elephants' tongues, arose from a curse of Agni.' 

Hardly had he thus spoken when there arose the blast 
of the mid-day conch, following the roar of the drum 
distinctly struck at the completion of the hour, and 

* A verse in the drya measure. 


announcing that the sun had reached the zenith. (29) And, 
hearing this, the king dismissed his band of chiefs, as the 
hour for bathing was at hand, and arose from his hall of 

Then, as he started, the great chiefs thronged together 
as they rose, tearing their silk raiment with the leaf-work 
of their bracelets, as it fell from its place in the hurried 
movement. Their necklaces were swinging with the 
shock ; the quarters of space were made tawny by showers 
of fragrant sandal-powder and salYron scattered from their 
limbs in their restlossnoss ; the boos arose in swarms from 
their garlands of mfilatl flowers, all quivering ; their 
cheeks were caressed by the lotuses in their ears, half 
hanging down ; their strings of pearls were trembling on 
their bosoms — each longed in his self-consciousness to pay 
his respects to the king as he departed. 

The hall of audience was astir on all sides with the sound 
of the anklets of the cowrie bearers as they disappeared in 
all directions, bearing the cowries on their shoulders, their 
gems tinkling at every step, broken by the cry of the 
kalahamsas, eager to drink the lotus honey ; (30) with the 
pleasant music of the jewelled girdles and wreaths of the 
dancing-girls coming to pay their respects as they struck 
their breast and sides ; with the cries of the kalahamsas 
of the palace lake, which, cliarmod by the sound of the 
anklets, whitened the broad steps of the hall of audience ; 
with the voices of the tame cranes, eager for the sound of 
the girdles, screaming more and more with a prolonged 
outcry, like the scratching of bell-metal ; with the heavy 
tramp on the floor of the hall of audience struck by the feet 
of a hundred neighbouring chiefs suddenly departing, 
which seemed to shake the earth like a hurricane ; with 
the cry of ' Look !' from the wand-bearing ushers, who were 
driving the people in confusion before them, and shouting 
loudly, yet good-naturedly, * Behold !' long and shrill, 
resounding far by its echo in the bov;ers of the palace ; 
(31) with the ringing of the pavement as it was scratched by 
the points of diadems with their projecting aigrettes, as the 


kings swiftly bent till their trembling crest-gems touched 
the ground ; with the tinkling of the earrings as they rang 
on the hard mosaic in their owners* obeisance ; with the 
space-pervading din of the bards reciting auspicious verses, 
and coming forward with the pleasant continuous cry, 
* Long life and victory to our king !' ; with the hum of the 
bees as tliey rose up leaving the flowers, by reason of the 
turmoil of the hundreds of departing feet ; with the clash 
of the jewelled pillars on which the gems were set jangling 
from being struck by the points of the bracelets as the 
chieftains fell hastily prostrate in their confusion. The king 
then dismissed tlie assembled chiefs, saying, /liest awhile *; 
and after saying to the Caiiijrda maiden, * Let Vai^ampayana 
be taken into the inner apartments,' and giving the order 
to his betel-nut bearer, he went, accompanied by a few 
favourite princes, to his private apartments. There, laying 
aside his adornments, like the sun divested of his ra3'8, or 
the sky bare of moon and stars, he entered the hall of 
exercise, where all was duly prepared. Having taken 
pleasant exercise therein with the princes of his own age, 
(82) he then entered the bathing-place, which was covered 
with a white canopy, surrounded by tlie verses of many 
a bard. It had a gold bath, filled with scented water in 
its midst, with a crystal bathing-seat placed by it, and 
was adorned with pitchers placed on one side, full of 
most fragrant waters, having their mouths darkened by 
bees attracted by the odour, as if they were covered with 
blue cloths, from fear of the heat. (88) Then the hand- 
maidens, some darkened by the reflection of their emerald 
jars, like embodied lotuses with their leafy cups, some 
holding silver pitchers, like night with a stream of light 
shed by the full moon, duly besprinkled the king. 
(84) Straightway there arose a blare of the trumpets 
sounded for bathing, penetrating all the hollows of the 
universe, accompanied by the din of song, lute, flute, 
drum, cymbal, and tabor, resounding shrilly in diverse 
tones, mingled with the uproar of a multitude of bards, 
and cleaving the path of hearing. Then, in due order, the 

1 14 

king put upon him two white garments, light as a shed 
snake-skin, and wearing a turban, with an edge of fine silk, 
pure as a fleck of white cloud, like Himalaya with the stream 
of the heavenly river falling upon it, he made his libation to 
the Pitris with a handful of water, consecrated by a hymn, 
and then, prostrating himself before the sun, proceeded to 
the temple. When he had worshipped (yiva, and made an 
offering to Agni, (35) his limbs were anointed in the 
perfuming-room with sandal-wood, sweetened with the 
fragrance of saffron, camphor, and musk, the scent of 
which was followed by murmuring bees ; he put on a chaplet 
of scented malati flowers, changed his garb, and, with no 
adornment save his jewelled earrings, he, together with the 
kings, for whom a fitting meal was prepared, broke his 
fast, with the pleasure that arises from the enjoyment of 
viands of sweet savour. Then, having drunk of a fragrant 
drug, rinsed his mouth, and taken his betel, he arose from 
his dais, with its bright mosaic pavement. The portress, who 
was close by, hastened to him, and leaning on her arm, he 
went to the hall of audience, followed by the attendants 
worthy to enter the inner apartments, whose palms were 
like boughs, very hard from their firm grasp of their 

The hall showed as though walled with crystal by reason 
of the white silk that draped its ends ; the jewelled floor 
was watered to coolness with sandal-water, to which was 
added very fragrant musk ; the pure mosaic was ceaselessly 
strewn with masses of blossoms, as the sky with its bevy 
of stars; (36) many a golden pillar shone forth, purified 
with scented water, and decked with countless images, as 
though with the household gods in their niches ; aloe 
spread its fragrance richly ; the whole was dominated by an 
alcove, which held a couch white as a cloud after storm, 
with a flower-scented covering, a pillow of fine linen at the 
head, castors encrusted with gems, and a jewelled footstool 
by its side, like the peak of Himalaya to behold. 

Reclining on this couch, while a maiden, seated on the 
ground, having placed in her bosom the dagger she was 


wont to bear, gently rubbed his feet with a palm soft as the 
leaves of fresh lotuses, the king rested for a short time, 
and held converse on many a theme with the kings, 
ministers, and friends whose presence was meet for that 

He then bade the portress, who was at hand, to fetch 
Vai9ampayana from the women's apartments, for he had 
become curious to learn his story. And she, bending hand 
and knee to the ground, with the words * Thy will shall 
be done!' taking the command on her head, fulfilled 
his bidding. (37) Soon Vai9ampayana approached the 
king, having his cage born by the portress, under the escort 
of a herald, leaning on a gold staff, slightly bent, white 
robed, wearing a top-knot silvered with age, slow in gait, 
and tremulous in speech, like an aged flamingo in his love 
for the race of birds, who, placing his palm on the ground, 
thus delivered his message : * Sire, the queens send thee 
word that by thy command this Vai^ampayana has been 
bathed and fed, and is now brought by the portress to thy 
feet.' Thus speaking, he retired, and the king asked 
Vai9ampayana : * Hast thou in the interval eaten food 
sufficient and to thy taste ?' * Sire,' replied he, * what have 
I not eaten ? I have drunk my fill of the juice of the jambu 
fruit, aromatically sweet, pink and blue as a cuckoo's eye 
in the gladness of spring ; I have cracked the pomegranate 
seeds, bright as pearls wet with blood, which lions' claws 
have torn from he frontal bones of elephants. I have torn 
at my will old myrobalans, green as lotus leaves, and sweet 
as grapes. (38) But what need of further words ? For 
everything brought by the queens with their own hands 
turns to ambrosia.' And the king, rebuking his talk, said : 
'Let all this cease for a while, and do thou remove our 
curiosity. Tell us from the very beginning the whole 
history of thy birth — in what country, and how wert thou 
born, and by whom was thy name given ? Who were thy 
father and mother ? How came thine attainment of the 
Vedas, and thine acquaintance with the Castras, and thy 
skill in the fine arts ? What caused thy remembrance of a 


former birth ? Was it a special boon given thee ? Or dost 
thou dwell in disguise, wearing the form only of a bird, and 
where didst thou formerly dwell ? How old art thou, and 
how came this bondage of a eago, and the falling into the 
hands of a Candula maiden, and thy coming hither?' 
Thus respectfully questioned by the king, whose curiosity 
was kindled, Vaiyampayana thought a moment, and 
reverently replied, * Sire, the tale is long ; but if it is thy 
l^leasure, let it be heard.' 

' There is a forest, by name Vindhya, that embraces the 
shores of the eastern and western ocean, and decks the 
central region as though it were the earth's zone. (39) It 
is beauteous with trees watered with the ichor of wild 
elephants, and bearing on their crests masses of white 
blossom that rise to the sky and vie with the stars ; in it 
the popper-trees, bitten by ospreys in their spring gladness, 
spread their boughs ; tamala branches trampled by young 
elephants lill it with fragrance ; shoots in hue like the 
wine-flushed cheeks of Malabarls, as though roseate witli 
lac from the feet of wandering wood-nymphs, overshadow 
it. Bowers there are, too, wet with drippings from parrot- 
pierced pomegranates ; jjowers in wliich the ground is 
covered with torn fruit and leaves shaken down by restless 
monkeys from the kakkola trees, or sprinkled with pollen 
from ever-falling blossoms, or strewn with couches of clove- 
branches by travellers, or hemmed in by fnie cocoanuts, 
ketakis, karlras, and bakulas ; bowers so fair that with their 
areca trees girt about with betel vines, they make a fitting 
home for a woodland Lakshml. Thickly growing iJlas make 
the wood dark and fragrant, as with the ichor of wild 
elephants; (40) hundreds of lions, who meet their death 
from barbaric leaders eager to seize the pearls of the 
elephants' frontal-bones still clinging to their mouth and 
claws, roam therein ; it is fearful as the haunt of death, 
like the citadel of Yama, and filled with the buffaloes dear 
to him ; like an army ready for battle, it has bees resting 
on its arrow-trees, as the points on arrows, and the roar of 


the lion is clear as the lion-cry of onset ; it has rhinoceros 
tusks dreadful as the dagger of Durga, and like her is 
adorned with red sandal-wood ; like the story of Karnlsuta, 
it haH its Vipula, Acala and ('ac/a in the wide mountains 
haunted by haros,^ that lie near it ; as the twilight of the 
last eve of an aeon has the frantic dance of blue-necked 
(^'iva, so has it the dances of blue-necked peacocks, and 
bursts into crimson ; as the time of churning the ocean had 
the glory of CrI and the tree which grants all desires, and 
was surrounded by sweet draughts of Yaruna,- so is it 
adorned by Cyri trees and Varuna- trees. It is densely dark, 
as the rainy season with clouds, and decked with pools in 
countless hundreds ;-^ like the moon, it is always the haunt 
of the bears, and is the home of the deer.** (41) Like a 
king's palace, it is adorned by the tails of cowrie deer,'' and 
jH'otected by troops of fierce elephants. Like Durga, it is 
strong of nature,^ and haunted by the lion. Like Sita, it 
has its Ku^a, and is held by the wanderer of night." Like a 
maiden in love, it wears the scent of sandal and musk, and 
is adorned with a tilaha of bright aloes ;^ like a lady in her 
lover's absence, it is fanned with the wind of many a 
bough, and possessed of Madana f like a child's neck, 
it is bright with rows of tiger 's-claws,''^ and adorned with a 
rhinoceros ;^^ like a hall of revelry with its honeyed draughts, 
it has hundreds of beehives^- visible, and is strewn with 
tiowers. In parts it has a circle of earth torn up by the 
tusks of large boars, like the end of the world when the 
circle of the earth was lifted up by the tusks of Mahavaraba ; 

* Vipula, Acala, and (^ara, characters in the Brihatkatlia. Or, 
broad mountains and hares. 

- V'(inii/a, tree ; vdrutia^ wine. 

•■' Or, with h^'htniufjf. 

^ ConstellationH. The moon was supposed to have a deer dwelHng 
in it. 

'' {a) The cowries held by the suite ; (6) different kinds of deer. 

" {a) Rocky ; (6) having (,'iva. 

" Ku(;a : (a) Sita's son ; {h) grass. Nujacara : (a) Havana ; (b) owls. 

^ (a) Mark of aloes on the brow ; (b) tilaka trees and aloe trees aU 

» (a) Love ; (h) madana trees. • ^^ Ah an amulet. 

•' Name of an ornament. ^'^ Wine-cups. 



here, like the city of Ravana, it is filled with lofty q&i&B^ 
inhabited by restless monkeys ; (42) here it is, like the scene 
of a recent wedding, bright with fresh ku(^a grass, fuel, 
flowers, acacia, and palaya ; here, it seems to bristle in 
terror at the lions* roar ; here, it is vocal with cuckoos 
wild for joy ; here it in, as if in excitement, resonant with 
the sound of palms^ in the strong wind ; hero, it drops its 
palm-leaves like a widow giving up her earrings ; liere, like 
a field of battle, it is filled with arrowy reeds ;^ here, like 
Indra's body, it has a thousand iictras ;* here, like Vishnu's 
form, it has the darkness of tamalas ;^ here, like the banner 
of Arj Una's chariot, it is blazoned with monkeys; here, 
like the court of an earthly king, it is hard of access, 
through the bamboos ; here, like the city of King Virata, 
it is guarded by a Kicaka ;'^ here, like the Lakshml of tlie 
sky, it has the tremulous eyes of its deer pursued by the 
hunter ;^ here, like an ascetic, it has bark, bushes, and 
ragged strips and grass.** (IJJ) Though adorned with 
Saptapariia,'' it yet possesses leaves innumerable ; though 
honoured by ascetics, it is yet very savage ;'^ though in its 
season of blossom, it is yet most pure. 

* In that forest there is a hermitage, famed throughout 
the world — a very birthplace of Dharma. It is adorned 
with trees tended by Lopamudra as her own children, fed 
with water sprinkled by her own hands, and trenched 
round by herself. She was the wife of the great ascetic 
Agastya ; he it was who at the prayer of Indra drank up 
the waters of ocean, and who, when the Vindhya moun- 
tains, by a thousand wide peaks stretching to the sky in 

* (a) Halls ; (b) (.fil trees. 

* (a) Clapping of hands ; (6) pahn-trees. 

3 (a) Arrows ; (b) reeds. * (a) Trees ; (6) eyes. 

* (a) As tamfila trees (very dark) ; (6) with taniala trees. 

« Virata, a king who befriended the ruiulavas. Tlie chief of his 
army was named Kicaka. V. Mbh., Bk. iv., 815. Kicaka also means 
* bamboo.' 

^ Or, the twinkling stars of the Deer constellation, pursued by the 
Hunter (a constellation). 

* Bark garments, matted locks, and rags of grass. 
® (a) Seven leaves; (6) a tree. 

^^ (a) Of fierce disposition ; (6) full of wild beasts. 


rivalry of Mera, were striving to stop the course of the 
sun's chariot, and were despising the prayers of all the 
gods, yet had his commands obeyed by them ; who digested 
the demon Vatapi by his inward fire ; who had the dust of 
his feet kissed by the tips of the gold ornaments on the 
crests of gods and demons ; who adorned the brow of the 
Southern Region; and who manifested his majesty by 
casting Nahusha down from heaven by the mere force of 
his murmur. 

(44) * The hermitage is also hallowed by Lopamudra's son 
Driijhadasyu, an ascetic, bearing his staff of pala(;a,^ wearing 
a sectarial mark made of purifying ashes, clothed in strips 
of ku(;a grass, girt with mufija, holding a cup of green 
leaves in his roaming from hut to hut to ask alms. From 
the large supply of fuel he brought, he was surnamed by 
his father Fuelbearer. 

* The place is also darkened in many a spot by green 
parrots and by plantain groves, and is girt by the river 
Godaverl, which, like a dutiful wife, followed the path of 
the ocean when drunk by Agastya. 

* There, too, Efima, when he gave up his kingdom to keep 
his father's promise, dwelt happily for some time at 
Paiicavatl with Sltfi, following the great ascetic Agastya, 
living in a pleasant hut made by Lakshmana, even Rama, 
the vexer of the triumphs of Ravana's glory .^ 

* There, even now, the trees, though the hermitage has 
long been empty, show, as it were, in the lines of white 
doves softly nestling in the boughs, the hermits' pure 
lines of sacrificial smoke clinging to them ; and there a 
glow bursts forth on the shoots of creepers, as if it had 
passed to them from Slta's hand as she offered flowers of 
oblation ; (45) there the water of ocean drunk and sent 
forth by the ascetic seems to have been wholly distributed 
among the great lakes round the hermitage; there the 
wood, with its fresh foliage, shines as if its roots had been 

^ The si^ of a Vow. 

* Or perhaps, ' not caring for the fascination of the beauty of Rivana,' 
i.e. his sister. He was loved by Ravana's sister. 


watered with the blood of countless hosts of demons struck 
down by Rfima's many keen shafts, and as if now its 
palfi^as were stained with their crimson hue ; there, even 
yet, the old deer nurtured by Slta, when they hear the 
deep roar of fresh clouds in the rainy seanon, think on the 
twang of llfima's bow penetrating all the hollows of the 
universe, and refuse their mouthfuls of fresh grass, while 
their eyes are dimmed by ceaseless tears, as they see a 
deserted world, and their own horns crumbling from age ; 
there, too, the golden deer, as if it had been incited by the 
rest of the forest deer slain in the ceaseless chase, deceived 
Slta, and led the son of liaghu far astray ; there, too, in 
their grief for the bitter loss of Sltfi, lifima and Lakslimana 
seized by Kabandha, like an eclipse of sun and moon 
heralding the death of liavaiia, filled the universe with a 
mighty dread ; (4G) there, too, the arm of Yojanabahu, 
struck off by Eama's arrow, caused fear in the saints as it 
lay on the ground, lest it should be the serpent form of 
Nahuslia, brought back by Agastya's curse ; there, even 
now, foresters behold Slta painted inside the hut by her 
husband to solace his bereavement, as if she were again 
rising from the ground in her longing to see her husband's 

* Not far from that hermitage of Agastya, of which the 
ancient history is yet clearly to be seen, is a lotus lake 
called Pampa. It stands near that hermitage, as if it 
were a second ocean made l)y the Creator in rivalry with 
Agastya, at the prompting of Varuna, wrathful at the 
drinking of ocean ; it is like the sky fallen on earth to bind 
together the fragments of the eight quarters when severed 
in the day of doom.^ (48) It is, indeed, a peerless home 
of waters, and its depth and extent none can tell. There, 
even now, the wanderer may see pairs of cakravakas, with 
their wings turned to blue by the gleam of the blossoming 
lotuses, as if they were swallowed up by the impersonate 
curse of Rama. 

* On the left bank of that lake, and near a clump of palms 
» Does this refer to the reflection of tlio sky in its clear water ? 


broken by Rama's arrows, was a large old 9almall tree.* 
It shows as though it were enclosed in a large trench, 
because its roots are always encircled by an old snake, 
like the trunk of the elephants of the quarters; (M)) it 
seems to bo mantled with the slough of serpents, which 
hangs on its lofty trunk and waves in the wind ; it strives 
to compasH tlie measuromont of the circle of space by its 
many boughs spreading through the lirmament, and so to 
imitate Civa, whose thousand arms are outstretched in his 
wild dance at the day of doom, and who wears the moon on 
his crest. Through its weight of years, it clings for support 
even to the shoulder of the wind ; it is girt with creepers 
that cover its whole trunk, and stand out like the thick 
veins of old age. Thorns have gathered on its surface like 
the moles of old age ; not even the thick clouds by which 
its foliage is bedewed can behold its top, when, after 
drinking the waters of ocean, they return from all sides to 
the sky, and pause for a moment, weary with their load of 
water, like birds amongst its boughs. From its great 
height, it seems to be on tiptoe to look- at the glory of the 
Nandana* Wood ; its topmost branches are whitened by 
cotton, which men might mistake for foam dropped from 
the corners of their mouths by the sun's steeds as, ])eset 
with weariness of their path through the sky, they come 
near it in their course overhead ; (50) it h&s a root that 
will last for an aeon, for, with the garland of drunken bees 
sticking to the ichor which cHngs to it where the cheeks of 
woodland elephants are rubbed against it, it seems to be 
held motionloss by iron chains ; it seems alive with swarms 
of bees, Hasliing in and out of its hollow trunk. It beholds 
the alighting of the wings of birds, as Duryodhana receives 
proofs of (Jakuni's^ partizanship ; like Krishna, it is en- 
circled by a woodland chaplet ;^ like a mass of fresh clouds 
its rising is seen in the sky. It is a temple whence wood- 

* (_^'dl null f=- Bilk cotton-tree. 

- Lit., * Htrivin^ upwards to see,' 
•* Iiulra's wood. 

* rakuni = {a) bird ; (h) name of Duryodhana's supporter. 
'• Or, ' by Vanamdhl,' Krishna'H chaplet. 


land goddesses can look out upon the whole world. It is 
the king of the Dandaka Wood, the leader of the] lordly 
trees, the friend of the Vindhya Mountains, and it seems to 
embrace with the arms of its boughs the whole Vindhya 
Forest. There, on the edge of the boughs, in the centre of 
the crevices, amongst the twigs, in the joints of the trunks, 
in the holes of the rotten bark, flocks of parrots have taken 
their abode. From its spaciousness, they have conlidently 
built in it their thousand nests ; from its stoepnoss, they 
have come to it feurloHsly from every quartor. Though its 
leaves are thin with ago, this lord of the forest still looks 
green with dense foliage, as they rest upon it day and 
nigiit. (51) In it they spend the nights in their own nests, 
and daily, as they rise, they form lines in the sky ; they 
show in heaven like Yamuna with her wide streams 
scattered by the tossing of Jiala's ploughshare in his 
passion ; they suggest a lotus-bed of the heavenly Ganges 
flowing away, uprooted by the elephant of heaven; they 
show forth a sky streaked, as it were, with the brightness 
of the steeds of the sun's chariot ; they wear the semblance 
of a moving floor of emerald ; they stretch out in the lake 
of heaven like long twines of Vallisneria ; they fan the 
faces of the quarters wearied with the muss of the sun's 
keen rays, with their wings spread against the sky like 
plantain leaves ; they form a grassy path stretching through 
the heaven, and as they roam they grace the firmament 
with a rainbow. After their meal they return to the young 
birds which stay in the nest, and give them, from beaks 
pink as tiger's claws reddened with the blood of slain deer, 
the juice of fruits and many a dainty morsel of rice-clusters, 
for by their deep love to their children all their other 
likings are subdued ; (52) then they spend the night in 
this same tree with their young under their wings. 

* Now my father, who by reason of his great age barely 
dragged on his life, dwelt with my mother in a certain old 
hollow, and to him I was, by the decree of Fate, born as 
his only son. My mother, overcome by the pains of child- 
birth when I was born, went to another world, and, in 


spite of his grief for the death of his loved wife, my father, 
from love to his child, checked the keen onrush of his 
sorrow, and devoted himself in his loneliness wholly to my 
nurture. From his great age, the wide wings he raised 
had lost their power of flight, and hung loose from liis 
shoulders, so that when he shook them he seemed to be 
trying to shake off the painful old age that clung to his 
body, while his few remaining tail feathers wore broken 
liko a tatter of ku(;a grass ; and yet, though he was unable 
to wander far, he gathorcd up bits of fruit torn down by 
parrotH and fallen at the foot of the tree, and picked up 
grains of rice from rico-stalkH that had fallen from other 
nohtH, with a boak the point of which was broken and the 
edge worn away and rubbed by breaking rice-clusters, and 
pink as the stalk of the sophalikfi ilower when still hard, 
and ho daily made his own meal on what I left. 

(53) * But one day I hoard a sound of the tumult of the 
chaso. The moon, reddened by the glow of dawn, was de- 
scending to the shore of the Western Ocean, from the island 
of the h(3avenly (langoH, like an old lianisa ^vith its wings 
reddenfjd by the honey of the heavenly lotus-bed ; the circle 
of space was widening, and was white as the hair of a ranku 
deer; the throng of stars, like flowers strewn on the pavement 
of heaven, were being cast away by the sun's long rays, as if 
they were bioonis of rubies, for they were red as a lion's 
mane dyed in elephant's blood, or pink as sticks of burning 
lac ; the cluster of the Seven Sages was, as it were, de- 
scending the l)ank of the Mfmasa Lake, and rested on the 
northern quarter to worship the dawn ; the Western Ocean 
was lifting a mass of pearls, scattered from open shells on 
its shore, as though the stars, melted by the sun's rays, 
had fallen on it, whitening the surface of its alluvial 
islands. The wood was dropping dew ; its peacocks were 
awake ; its lions were yawning ; (54) its wild elephants 
were wakened by herds of she-elephants, and it, with its 
boughs raised like reverential hands, sent up towards the 
sun, as he rested on the peak of the Eastern Mountain, a 
mass of flowers, the filaments of which were heavy with 


the night dews. The lines of sacrificial smoke from the 
hermitages, gray as the hair of an ass, were gleaming like 
banners of holiness, and rested like doves on the tree-tops 
whereon the wood-nymphs dwelt. The morning breeze 
was blowing, and roamed softly, for it was weary at the 
end of night ; it gladdened swarms of bees by the Howers' 
perfume ; it rained showers of honey dew from the opened 
lotuses; it was eager to teach the dancing creepers with 
their waving boughs ; it carried drops of foam from the 
rumination of woodland buffaloes ; it removed the perspira- 
tion of the weary mountaineers ; it shook the lotuses, and 
bore with it the dewdrops. The bees, who ought to be the 
drums on the elephant's frontal-bones to recite auspicious 
songs for the wakening of the day lotus-groves, now sent 
up their hum from the hearts of the night-lotuses, as their 
wings were clogged in the closing petals ; (55) the deer 
of the wood had the markings on their breast, gray with 
resting on the salt ground, and slowly opened eyes, the 
pupils of which were still squinting with the remains of 
sleep, and were caught by the cool morning breeze as if 
their eyelashes were held together by heated lac ; foresters 
were hastening hither and thither; the din of the kala- 
hamsas on the Pampa Lake, sweet to the ear, was now 
beginning ; the pleasant flapping of the wild elephant's 
ea^s breaking forth caused the peacocks to dance ; in time 
the sun himself slowly arose, and wandered among the 
tree-tops round the Pampu Lake, and haunted the mountain 
peaks, with rays of madder, like a mass of cowries bending 
downwards from the sun's elephant as he plunges into the 
sky; the fresh light sprung from the sun banished the 
stars, falling on the wood like the monkey king who had 
again lost Tara ;' the morning twilight became visible 
quickly, occupying the eighth part of the day, and the 
Bun's liglit became clear. 

* The troops of parrots had all started to the places they 
desired ; that tree seemed empty by reason of the grent 

' Tt}rtl=^{a) wife of Sugrlva, the monkey king; (b) star. 


stillness, though it had all the young parrots resting 
quietly in their nests. (56) My father was still in his own 
nest, and I, as from my youth my wings were hardly 
fledged and had no strength, was close to him in the 
hollow, when I suddenly heard in that forest the sound of 
the tumult of the chase. It terrified every woodland 
creature ; it was drawn out by a sound of birds* wings 
flying hastily up ; it was mingled with cries from the 
frightened young elephants ; it was increased by the hum 
of drunken bees, disturbed on the shaken creepers ; it was 
loud with the noise of wild boars roaming with raised 
snouts ; it was swollen by the roar of lions wakened from 
tlieir sleep in mountain caves ; it seemed to shake the 
trees, and was great as the noise of the torrents of Ganges, 
when brought down by Bhaglratha ; and the woodland 
nymphs listened to it in terror. 

* When I heard this strange sound I began to tremble in 
my childishness ; the cavity of my ear was almost l)roken ; 
I shook for fear, and thinking that my father, who was 
close by, could help me, I crept within his wings, loosened 
as they were by age. 

* Straightway I heard an outcry of ** Hence comes the 
scent of the lotus beds the leaders of the elephants have 
trampled ! Hence the perfume of rushes the boars have 
chewed ! Hence the keen fragrance of gum-olibanum the 
young elephants have divided ! Hence the rustling of dry 
leaves shaken down ! (57) Hence the dust of antheaps that 
the horns of wild buftaloes have cleft like thunderbolts! 
Hence came a herd of deer ! Hence a troop of wild elephants ! 
Hence a band of wild boars ! Hence a multitude of wild 
buffaloes! Hence the shriek of a circle of peacocks! 
Hence the murmur of partridges ! Hence the cry of 
ospreys ! Hence the groan of elephants with their frontal 
bones torn by lion's claws ! This is. a boar's path stained 
with fresh mud! This a nuiss of foam from the rumina- 
tion of deer, darkened by the juice of mouthfuls of grass 
just eaten ! This the hum of bees garrulous as they cling 
to the scent left by the rubbing of elephants' foreheads with 


ichor flowing ! That the path of the ruru deer pink with 
withered leaves bedewed with blood that has been shed. 
That is a mass of shoots on the trees crushed by the feet of 
elephants ! Those are the gambols of rhinoceroses ; that is 
the lion's track jagged with pieces of the elephant's pearls, 
pink with blood, and engraved with a monstrous device by 
their claws ; that is the earth crimsoned with the blood of 
the newly born olVspring of the does ; that is the path, like 
a widow's braid, darkened with the ichor of the lord of the 
herd wandering at his will ! Follow this row of yaks 
straight before us ! (Quickly occupy this part of the wood 
where the dung of the doer is dried ! (58) Climb the tree- 
top ! Look out in this direction ! Listen to this sound ! 
Take the bow ! Stand in your places ! Let slip the hounds !" 
The wood trembled at the tumult of the hosts of men intent 
on the chase shouting to each other and concealed in the 
hollows of the trees. 

* Then tliat wood was soon shaken on all sides by the roar 
of lions struck by the (^abaras' arrows, deepened by its echo 
rebounding from the hollows of the mountains, and strong 
as the sound of a drum newly oiled ; by the roar from the 
throats of the elephants that led the herd, like the growl of 
thunder, and mixed with the ceaseless lashing of their 
trunks, as they came on alone, separated from the fright- 
ened herd ; by the piteous cry of the deer, with their 
tremulous, terrified eyes, when the hounds suddenly tore 
their limbs ; by the yell of she-elephants lengthening in 
grief for the death of their lord and leader, as they wandered 
every way with ears raised, ever pausing to listen to the 
din, bereft of their slain leaders and followed by their 
young ; (51)) by the bellowing of she-rhinoceroses seeking 
with outstretched necks their young, only born a few days 
before, and now lost in the panic ; by the outcry of birds 
flying from the tree-tops, and wandering in confusion ; by 
the tramp of herds of deer with all the haste of limbs made 
for speed, seeming to make the earth quake as it was struck 
simultaneously by their hurrying feet ; by the twang of 
bows drawn to the ear, mingled, as they rained their arrows, 


with the cry from the throats of the loving she-OBpreye ; by 
the clash of swords with their blades whizzing against the 
wind and falling on the strong shoulders of buffaloes ; and 
by the baying of the hounds which, as it was suddenly sent 
forth, penetrated all the reccHses of the wood. 

* When soon aftorwardw the noise of the chase was stilled 
and the wood had become quiet, like the ocean when its 
water was stilled by the censing of the churning, or like a 
masH of cloudH nilent iifter the rainy Bcason, I felt loss of 
fear and became curious, and so, moving a little from my 
fathor's embrace, ((50) 1 stood in the hollow, stretched out 
my neck, and with eyes that, from my childishness, were 
yet tremulous with fear, in my eagerness to see what this 
thing was, I cast my glance in that direction. 

* Before me I saw the (^'abara^ army come out from the 
wood like the stream of Narmada tossed by Arjuna's*'' 
thousand arms; like a wood of tamalas stirred by the wind; 
like all the nights of the dark fortnight rolled into one ; like 
a solid pillar of antimony shaken by an earthquake ; like a 
grove of darkness disturbed by sunbeams ; like the followers 
of death roaming ; like the demon world that had burst open 
hell and risen up ; like a crowd of evil deeds come together ; 
like a caravan of curses of the many hermits dwelling in 
the ])an(jaka Forest ; like all the hosts of Dfishana** and 
Kliara struck by llama as he rained his ceaseless shafts, 
and they turned into demons for their hatred to him ; like 
the whole confraternity of the Iron Age come together; 
like a band of bullaloes prepared for a plunge into the 
water ; like a mass of black clouds broken by a blow from 
a lion's paw as he stands on the mountain peak;^ like 
a throng of meteors risen for the destruction of all form ; 
it darkened the wood ; it numbered many thousands ; it 


Arjumi, or KarttavTrya, was captured by IMvai.ia wlien sporting in 
NerlnuUlha, and was killed by Paravurnma. V. Vishnu Punlna, 

^ Mountainoor. 



Bk. iv., ch. 11. 

3 Dushana was one of Havana's generals; Khara was Havana's 
brother, and was slain by Kama. 

* Cf. Uttararamacarita, Act V. 


inspired great dread ; it was like a multitude of demons 
portending disasters. 

(01) * And in the midst of that great host of (Jabaras I 
beheld the Cabara leader, MiTtanga by name. He was yet in 
early youth ; from his great hardness he seemed made of 
iron ; ho was Hko Ekalavya^ in another birth ; from his 
growing beard, ho was like a young royal elephant with its 
temples encircled by its first Hne of ichor ; he filled the wood 
with bcjuuty that Htreunicd from him sombre as dark lotuses, 
like the waters of Yamuna ; he had thick locks curled at 
the ends and hanging on his shoulders, like a lion with its 
mane stained by elephant's ichor ; his brow was l)road ; 
his nose was stern and aquiline ; his left side shone red- 
dened by the faint pink rays of a jewelled snake's hood 
that was made the ornament for one of his ears, like the 
glow of shoots that had clung to him from his resting on a 
leafy couch ; he was perfumed with fragrant ichor, bearing 
the scent of saptacchada blossoms torn from the cheeks of 
an elephant freshly slain, like a stain of black aloes ; ((52) 
he had the heat warded off by a swarm of bees, liko a 
l)eacock-feather parasol, flying about blinded by the sccnit, 
as if they were a la'anch of tamfda ; he was marked with 
lines of perspiration on his cheek rubbed by his hand, as 
if Vindhya Forest, being conquered by his strong arm, were 
timidly offering homage under the guise of its slender waving 
twigs, and he seemed to tinge space by his eye somewhat 
pink, as if it were bloodshot, and shedding a twilight of the 
night of doom for the deer ; he had mighty arms reaching 
to his knees, as if the measure of an elephant's trunk had 
been taken in making them, and his shoulders were rough 
with scars from keen weapons often used to make an 
offering of blood to Kfill ; the space round his eyes was 
bright and broad (is the Vindhya ^Mountain, and with the 
drops of dried deer's blood clinging on it, and the marking 
of drops of perspiration, as if they were adorned by large 
pearls from an elephant's frontal bone mixed with gunja 
fruit; his chest was scarred by constant and ceaseless 
* Ekalavya, king of the Nishfidas, killed by Krishna. Mbh., I., 132. 



fatigue ; he was clad in a silk dress red with cochineal, 
and with his strong legs he mocked a pair of elephants' 
posts stained with elephants' ichor; he seemed from his 
causeless fierceness to have been marked on his dread brow 
by Vi frown that formed three banners, as if iJurga, pro- 
pitiated by his great devotion, had marked him with a 
trident to denote that he was her servant. (OH) He was 
accompanied by houndn of every colour, wliicli were his 
familiar friends; tlioy showed their weariness by tongues 
that, dry as they were, seoniod l)y their natural pinkness to 
drip deer's blood, and which hung down far from tiredness ; 
as their mouths were open they raised the corners of their 
lips and showed their flashing teeth clearly, like a lion's 
mane caught between the teeth ; their throats were covered 
with strings of cowries, and they were hacked by blows 
from the large boars' tuf-ks ; though but small, from their 
great strength they were like lions' cubs with their manes 
ungrown ; they were skilled in initiating the does in widow- 
hood ; with them came their wives, very large, like lionesses 
coming to beg an amnesty for the lions. He was surrounded 
by troops of (aburasof all kinds: some had sei/ed elephants' 
tusks and the long hair of yaks ; some had vessels for hoiu^y 
made of leaves closely bound ; some, like lions, had hands 
filled with many a pearl from the frontal bones of elephants; 
some, like demons, had pieces of raw flesh ; some, like 
goblins, were carrying the skins of lions ; some, like Jain 
ascetics, held peacocks' tails; some, like children, wore 
crows' feathers;^ some represented Krishna's''^ exploits by 
bearing the elephants' tusks they had torn out ; (G4) some, 
like the days of the rainy season, had garments dark as 
clouds.-^ He had his sword-sheath, as a wood its rhino- 
ceroses ;* like a fresh cloud, he held a bow^ bright as 
peacocks' tails; like the demon Yaka," he possessed a 
peerless army; like Garu<Ja, he had torn out the teeth 

• Or, curls. ^ V. Harivunira, 8M. 

=* Or, with clouds. * She-rhinoceros. ' ^ Or, rainbowH. 

« Kkacalira = {a) a city possessed by Yaka ; {h) one army, or one 


of many large nagas;^ he was hostile to peacocks, as 
Bhishma to Cikhandl ;2 like a summer day, he always 
showed a thirst for deer f like a heavenly genius, he was 
impetuous in pride ;* as Vyasa followed Yojanagandha,*^ so 
did he follow the musk deer; like Ghatotkaca, he was 
dreadful in form f as the locks of Uma were decked with 
(^iva*s moon, so was he adorned witli the eyes in the 
peacocks* tails f as the demon Hiranyukac/ipu^ by Maha- 
varaha, so he had his breast torn })y the teeth of a great 
boar ; (65) like an ambitious man,^ he had a train of captives 
around him ; like a demon, he loved^*^ the hunters ; like the 
gamut of song, he was closed in by Nishadas ;^i like the 
trident of Durga, he was wet with the blood of buffaloes ; 
though quite young, he had seen many lives i)ass ;^'- though 
he had many hounds, ^^ he lived on roots and fruits ; though 
of Krishna's hue,^'' he was not good to look on ; though he 
wandered at will, his mountain fort^^ was his only refuge ; 
though he always lived at the foot of a lord of earth, ^^ he 
was unskilled in the service of a king. 

* He was as the child of the Vindhya Mountains, the 
partial avatar of death ; the born brother of wickedness, 
the essence of the Iron Age; horrible as he was, he yet 
inspired awe by reason of his natural greatness,^' and his 
form could not be surpassed.^^ His name I afterwards 
learnt. In my mind was this thought: **Ah, the life of 

» A^^I^a = (a) elephant ; (^^) snake. 

2 Or,' Cikhandl, a son of Drupada, a friend of the Pandavas. 

3 Or, mirage. 

< Or, eager for the ^^^lnasa lake. The Vidyadhara was a good or 
evil genius attending tlie gods. V. KuUiika on Manu, xii., 47. 

^ Yojanagandhfi, mother of Vyasa, 

Or, 'bearing the form of Bhlma.' He was Bhfma's son. V. 
Mbh., I., 155. 

7 (a) Crescent moon of (.Mva ; (h) eyes of peacocks' tails. 

^ Hiranyukaripu. V. Harivanica, 225. 

» Or, an ambitious man surrounded by bards (to sing his praises). 
^® Or, loving blood. 

" Niiihd(la8 = (a) mountaineers ; (h) the highest note of the scale. 
^^ (a) Had passed many ages ; (6) had killed many birds. 
" Or, great wealth. »* Black. '» Or, Durga. 

*<J Or, mountain. 

»7 (a) Magnanimity ; (6) great strength. 
" AnahhihhavaniyA°. 


these men is full of folly, and their career is blamed by the 
good. (66) For their one religion is offering human flesh 
to Durga ; their meat, mead, and so forth, is a meal loathed 
by the good; their exercise is the chase; their 9astrai is 
the cry of the jackal ; their teachers of good and evil are 
owls ;2 their knowledge is skill in birds f their bosom 
friends are dogs; their kingdom is in deserted woods; 
their feast is a drinking bout ; their friends are the bows 
that work their cruel deeds, and arrows, with their heads 
smeared, like snakes, with poiHon, are their helpers ; their 
song is what draws on bewildered deer ; their wives are 
the wives of others taken captive ; their dwelling is with 
savage tigers ; their worship of the gods is with the blood 
of beasts, their sacrifice with flesh, their livelihood by 
theft ; the snakes' hood is their ornament ; their cosmetic, 
elephants' ichor; and the very wood wherein they may 
dwell is utterly destroyed root and branch." 

* As I was thus thinking, the (^abara leader, desiring to 
rest after his wandering through the forest, approached, 
and, laying his bow in the shade beneath that very cotton- 
tree, sat down on a seat of twigs gathered hastily by his 
suite. (67) Another youthful (/abara, coming down hastily, 
brought to him from the lake, when he had stirred its 
waters with his hand, some water aromatic with lotus - 
pollen, and freshly-plucked bright lotus-fibres with their 
mud washed off; the water was like liquid lapis lazuli, or 
showed as if it were painted with a piece of sky fallen 
from the heat of the 3un's rays in the day of doom, or had 
dropped from the moon's orb, or were a mass of melted pearl, 
or as if in its great purity it was frozen into ice, and could 
only badistinguished from it by touch. After drinking it, the 
C^'abara in turn devoured the lotus-fibres, as Eahu does the 
moon's digits ; when he was rested he rose, and, followed 
by all his host, who had satisfied their thirst, he went 
slowly to his desired goal. But one old (^'abara from that 
barbarous troop had got no deer's flesh, and, with a 

^ (a) Awakening cry; (6) moral law. 

^ Owls are Hupposed to be descendants of the sage Vi(^vamitra. 

3 As omens. 


demoniac! expression coming into his face in his desire 
for meat, he lingered a short time by that tree. (68) As 
soon as the Cabara leader had vanished, that old Cabara, 
with eyes pink as drops of blood and terrible with their 
overhanging tawny brows, drank in, as it were, our lives ; 
he seemed to reckon up the number in the parrots* nests 
like a falcon eager to taste bird's flesh, and looked up the 
tree from its foot, wishing to climb it. The parrots seemed 
to have drawn their last breath at that very moment in 
their terror at the sight of him. For what is hard for the 
pitiless ? So ho climbed the tree easily and without effort, 
as if by ladders, though it was as high as many palms, and 
the tops of its boughs swept the clouds, and plucked the 
young parrots from among its boughs one by one, as if they 
were its fruit, for some were not yet strong for flight ; some 
were only a few days old, and were pink with the down of 
their birth, so that they might almost be taken for cotton- 
flowers ;-' some, with their wings just sprouting, were like 
fresh lotus-leaves ; some were like the Asclepias fruit ; 
some, with their beaks growing red, had the grace of 
lotus-buds with their heads rising pink from slowly un- 
folding leaves ; while some, under the guise of the cease- 
less motion of their heads, seemed to try to forbid him, 
though they could not stop him, for he slew them and cast 
them on the ground. 

(69) ' But my father, seeing on a sudden this great, de- 
structive, remediless, overwhelming calamity that had come 
on us, trembled doubly, and, with pupils quivering and 
wandering from fear of death, cast all round a glance that 
grief had made vacant and tears had dimmed ; his palate 
was dry, and he could not help Jiimself, but he covered me 
with his wing, though its joints were relaxed by fear, and 
bethought himself of what help could avail at such a 
moment. Swayed wholly by love, bewildered how to save 
me, and puzzled what to do, ho stood, holding mq to his 
breast. That miscreant, however, wandering among the 

1 Pi(;itdf;ana, a demon, or, according to the conniientary here, a tiger. 

2 Lit., ' creating a doubt of.' 


boughs, came to the entrance of the hollow, and stretched 
out his left arm, dreadful as the body of an old black 
snake, with its hand redolent of the raw fat of many boars, 
and its forearm marked with weals from ceaseless drawing 
of the bowstrings, like the wand of death ; and though my 
father gave many a blow with his beak, and moaned 
piteously, that murderous wretch dragged him down and 
slew him. (70) Me, however, he somehow did not notice, 
though I was within the wings, from my being small and 
curled into a ball from fear, and from my nou having 
lived my fated life, but he wrung my father's neck and 
threw him dead upon the ground. Meanwhile I, with my 
neck between my father's feet, clinging quietly to his 
breast, fell with him, and, from my having some fated life 
yet to live, I found that I had fallen on a large mass of dry 
leaves, heaped together by the wind, so that my limbs were 
not broken. "While the Tabara was getting down from the 
tree-top, I left my father, like a heartless wretch, though I 
should have died with him ; but, from my extreme youth, 
I knew not the love that belongs to a later age, and was 
wholly swayed by the fear that dwells in us from birth ; I 
could hardly be seen from the likeness of my colour to the 
fallen leaves ; I tottered along with the help of my wings, 
which were just beginning to grow, thinking that I had 
escaped from the jaws of death, and came to the foot of a 
very large tamala tree close by. Its shoots were fitted to 
be the earrings of Cabara women, as if it mocked the beauty 
of Vishnu's body by the colour of Balarfima's dark-blue 
robe, (71) or as if it were clad in pure strips of the water 
of Yamuna ; its twigs were watered by the ichor of wild 
elephants ; it bore the beauty of the tresses of the Yindhya 
Forest; the space between its boughs was dark even by 
day ;^ the ground round its root was hollow, and unpierced 
by the sun's rays ; and I entered it as if it were the bosom 
of my noble father. Then the Tabara came down and 

^ Cf, Knicrson's Essay on Kspcru'ticc : * Sleep lingers all our life- 
time about our eyes, as night hovers all day in the boughs of the fir- 



gathered up the tmy parrots scattered on the ground ; he 
bound them hastily in a basket of leaves with a coil of 
creepers, and going off with hasty steps by the path 
trodden by his leader, he made for that region. I mean- 
while had begun to hope for life, but my heart was dried, 
up with grief for my father's recent death ; my body was in 
imin from my long fall, and I was possessed by a violent 
thirst, caused by fright, which tortured all my limbs. Then 
I thought, ** The villain has now gone some way," so I 
lifted my head a little and fjazed around with eyes tremu- 
lous with fear, thinking even when a blade of grass moved 
that the wretch was coming back. I watched him go step 
by step, and then, leaving the root of the tamfila tree, I 
made a great effort to creep near the water. (72) My steps 
were feeble, because my wings were not yet grown, and 
again and again I fell on my face ; I supported myself on 
one wing ; I was weak with the weariness^ of creeping along 
the ground, and from my want of practice ; after each step 
I always lifted my head and panted hard, and as I crept 
along I became gray with dust. *' Truly even in the 
hardest trials," I reflected, "living creatures never become 
careless of life. Nothing in this world is dearer to all 
created beings than life, seeing that when my honoured 
father, of well-chosen name, is dead, I still live with senses 
unimpaired! Shame on me that I should be so pitiless, 
cruel, and ungrateful ! For my life goes on shamefully in 
that the grief of my father's death is so easily borne. I 
regard no kindness ; truly my heart is vile ! I have even 
forgotten how, when my mother died, my father restrained 
his bitter grief, and from the day of my birth, old as he 
was, reckoned lightly in his deep love the great toil of 
bringing me up with every care. And yet in a moment I 
have forgotten how I was watched over by him ! (73) Most 
vile is this breath of mine which goes not straightway forth 
to follow my father on his path, my father, that was so 
good to me ! Surely there is none that thirst of life does 
not harden, if the longing for water can make me take 

* Kead, dranui. 



trouble in my present plight. Methinks this idea of 

drinking water is purely hardness of heart, because I think 

lightly of the grief of my father's death. Even now the 

lake is still far off. For the cry of the kalahamsas, like the 

anklets of a water-nymph, is still far away; the cranes' 

notes are yet dim ; the scent of the lotus-bed comes rarely 

through the space it creeps through, because the distance 

is great ; noontide is hard to bear, for tlie sun is in the 

midst of heaven, and scatters with his rays a blazing heat, 

unceasing, like fiery dust, and makes my thirst worse ; the 

earth with its hot thick dust is hard to tread ; my limbs 

are unable to go even a little way, for they are weary witli 

excessive thirst ; I am not master of myself ; (74) my heart 

sinks ; my eyes are darkened. that pitiless fate would 

now bring that death which yet I desire not !" Thus I 

thought ; but a great ascetic named Jabali dwelt in a 

hermitage not far from the lake, and his son HArlta, a 

youthful hermit, was coming down to the lotus-lake to 

bathe. He, like the son of Brahma, had a mind purified 

with all knowledge ; he was coming by the very path where 

I was with many holy youths of his own age; like a second 

sun, his form was hard to see from its great brightness ; 

he seemed to have dropped^ from the rising sun, and to have 

limbs fashioned from lightning and a shape painted with 

molten gold ; he showed the beauty of a wood on fire, or of 

day with its early sunlight, by reason of the clear tawny 

splendour of his form flashing out ; he had thick matted 

locks hanging on his shoulders red as heated iron, and pure 

with sprinkling from many a sacred pool ; his top-knot was 

bound as if he were Agni in the false guise of a young 

Brahman in his desire to burn the KhaiKJava Wood ;- he 

carried a bright crystal rosary hanging from his right ear, 

like the anklets of the goddesses of the hermitage, and 

resembling the circle of Dharma's commandments, made 

to turn aside all earthly joys; (75) he adorned his brow 

^ Lit., ' To have been an extract from.' 

- Sacred to Indra, and burnt by Agni with tlie lielp of Arjuna an.1 


with a tripundraka^ mark in ashes, as if with threefold 
truth ;* he laid his left hand on a crystal pitcher with its 
neck held ever upwards as if to look at the path to heaven, 
like a crane gazing upwards to the sky ; he was covered by 
a black antelope skin hanging from his shoulders, like thick 
smoke that was coming out again after being swallowed'* in 
thirst for penance, with pale-blue* lustre ; he wore on his 
left shoulder a sacrificial thread, which seemed from its 
lightness to be fashioned from very young lotus-fibres, and 
wavered in the wind as if counting the framework of bis flesh- 
less ribs ; he held in his right band an usbrKlba''' staff, baving 
on its top a leafy baHket full of creeper-blossoms gathered 
for the worship of (/iva ; be was followed by a deer from 
the hermitage, still bearing the clay of the bathing-place 
dug up by its horns, quite at homo with the hermits, fed on 
moutbfuls of rice, and letting its eyes wander on all sides 
to the ku(;a grass flowers and creepers. Like a tree, be was 
covered with soft bark f like a mountain, be was surrounded 
by a girdle ;^ like l^fibu, he bad often tasted Soma ;^ like a 
day lotus-bed, he drank the sun's rays ; (70) like a tree by 
the river's side, bis tangled locks were pure with ceaseless 
wasbing ; likcj a young elephant, bis teeth were white as^ 
pieces of moon-lotus petals; like Drauni, he bad Kripa*^ 
ever with him ; like the zodiac, he was adorned by baving 
the hide^^ of the dappled deer ; like a summer day, he waa 
free from darkness;*'- like the rainy season, be bad allayed 
the blinding dust of passion ;''' like Varuna, he dwelt on the 

' 'J'hreo horizontal linoH. 

* Truth in thought, word, anil dood. ' Head, NiHhjxitatd, 

* NllajhUuhi, njottlod blue and white Tlio Hindu pcnanco U 
to bo between live liren : four on earth and tlie Hun above. V, Manu,. 
vi. 2JJ. 

^ Tiie Hign of a vow. 

« (a) IJark gjinnent ; (6) bark of trees. 

' (a) Girdle. V. Manu, ii. 42 ; (/>) mountain slope. 

' Or, the moon. " Or, with. 

*" in) A'/w7;(( = comi)a8Hion ; (b) Kripa was tlio teacher of AvvatthJlma,. 
or Drauni. 
'• Or, Virgo, CervuH, the Pleiads and Draco. 

^'^ (a) Having twihglit drunk up; {b) liaving many faults eradicated^ 
" li(ijaH^{a) dust; (6) passion. 


waters ;^ like Krishna, he had banished the fear of hell ;' 
like the beginning of twilight, he had eyes tawny as the 
glow of dawn ;^ like early morn, he was gilded with fresh 
sunlight ; like the chariot of the sun, he was controlled in 
his course ;* like a good king, he brought to nought the 
secret guiles of the foe i'^ (77) like the ocean, his temples were 
cavernous with meditation ;" like Bhaglratha, he had often 
beheld the descent of Ganges f like a bee, he had often 
tasted life in a wator-ongirt wood f though a woodsman, 
ho yet entered a great home;" though unrestrained, he 
longed for release ;^^ though intent on works of peace, he 
bore the rod ;^^ though asleep, he was yet awake ;^'^ thougli 
with two well-placed eyes, he had his sinister eye abolished.^* 
Sucli was ho who approached the lotus-lake to bathe. 

' Now the mind of the good is ever wont to be com- 
pasttioiiate and kind instinctively. Wherefore he, seeing 
my plight, was lillod with pity, and said to another young 
ascetic standing near : (78) ** This little half-fledged parrot 
has somehow fallen from the top of that tree, or perhaps 
from a hawk's mouth. For, owing to his long fall, he has 
hardly any life left ; his eyes are closed, and he ever falls 
on his face and pants violently, and opens his beak, nor 
can he hold up his neck. Come, then, take him before his 
breath deserts him. Carry him to the water." Ho saying, 

* In porfonunnco of a vow. V. Maiui, vi. 2Ji. 

'^ Or, * of tho dc'iiion Nanika,' Hlain by KriHlii.ia. Harivaiiiva, 122. 
^ Or, liad HtarH tawny at tho junction of niglit and day. 

* Lit., (a) lloldin/,' all hiH passionH in firm roHtraint ; (6) having the 
axlo of itH wIiooIb firm. 

^ Lit., {(i) Ho liad a body waHt(3d by Hccret porfonnance of ponanco ; 
(h) ho brougiit to nought the ononiioH' plana of battlo by secret counnol 
and by Iuh army. 

" Or, having cavca with wlilrlpoola and tho circles of sholls oblique. 

' Or, (juayH. 

" (a) PurhapH Pushkara, tho place of pilgrimage in Ajmere ; (b) lotui- 

(a) Having entrance into great halls ; {h) being absorbed in Brahma. 

*•* Or, salvation. 

" Or, inllicted punishment; or, though intent on the Sama veda, he 
was yet a (hitidl ; t.t'., an ascetic wlio despises ritual. 

'^ llaving beautiful matted locks. 

" {a) Having no left eye ; (6) having no crooked glances. 


he had me taken to the edge of the lake; and, coming 
there, he laid down his staff and pitcher near the water, 
and, taking me himself, just when I had given up all effort, 
he lifted up my head, and with his finger made me drink a 
few drops of water ; and when I had been sprinkled with 
water and had gained fresh breath, he placed me in the 
cool wet shade of a fresh lotus-leaf growing on the bank, 
and went through the wonted rites of bathing. After that, 
ho purified himself by often holding his breath, and 
murmuring the cleansing ag]minarHlnina\ and tlion he 
arose and, with upraised face, made an ollering to the sun 
with freshly-plucked red lotuses in a cup of lotus-leaves. 
Having taken a pure white robe, so that he was like the 
glow of evening sunlight accompanied by the moon's 
radiance, he rubbed liis hair with his hands till it shone, 
and, (71)) followed by the band of ascetic youths, with their 
hair yet wet from recent bathing, he took me and went 
slowly towards the penance grove. 

* And after going but a short way, I beheld the penance 
grove, hidden in thick woods rich in flowers and fruit. 

(80) * Its precincts were filled by munis entering on all 
sides, followed ))y pupils murmuring the Vedas, and bearing 
fuel, ku(;a grass, flowers, and earth. There the sound of 
the filling of the pitchers was eagerly heard by the pea- 
cocks ; there appeared, as it were, a bridge to heaven under 
the guise of smoke waving to exalt to the gods the muni 
race while yet in the body by fires satisfied with the cease- 
less offering of ghee ; all round were tanks with their waves 
traversed by lines of sunbeams stainless as though from 
contact with the hermits they rested upon, plunged into 
by the circle of the Seven Kishis who had come to see 
their i)enance, and lifting by night an open moon-lotus-bed, 
like a cluster of constellations descending to honour the 
rishis; the hermitage received homage from woodland 
creepers with their tops bent by the wind, and from trees 
with their ever-falling blossoms, and was worshipped by 
trees with the afijali of interlaced boughs ; parched grain 

1 11. v., X. 190. 


was scattered in the yards round the huts, and the fruit of 
the myrobalan, lavall, jujubo, banana, bread-tree, mango, 
panasa,^ and palm pressed on each other ; (81) the young 
Brahmans were eloquent in reciting the Vedas ; the parrot- 
race was garrulous with the prayer of oblation that; they 
learnt by hearing it incessantly; the subrahmanyu- was 
recited by many a maina ; the balls of rice offered to the 
deities wore devoured by tlia cocks of the forest, and the 
offering,' of wild rice was eaten by the youn^' kalabamHas of 
tlio tanks close by. The eating-places of the sages were 
protected from pollution by aslies cast round tliem. (82) Tlie 
lire for ilio munis' honia sacrifice was fanned by the tails of 
their friends the peacocks ; the sweet scent of the oblation 
prepared witli nectar, the fragrance of the half- cooked 
sacrifieiiil cake was spread around ; the crackling of flames 
in the ofTering of a stream of unbroken libations made 
the place resonant ; a host of guests was waited upon ; the 
ritris were honoured ; Vishnu, Tiva, and Brahma were 
worshipped. The performance of (/raddha rites was taught ; 
the science of sacrifice explained ; the (/astras of right 
conduct examined ; good books of every kind recited ; and 
the meaning of the (/astras pondered. Leafy huts were 
being begun ; courts smeared with paste, and the inside of 
the huts scrubbed. Meditation was being firmly grasped, 
mantras duly carried out, yoga practiscjd, and offerings made 
to woodland deities. Brahmanical girdles of munja grass 
wore being made, bark garments washed, fuel brought, deer- 
skins decked, grass gathered, lotus-seed dried, rosaries strung, 
and bamboos laid in order for future need.'* "Wandering 
ascetics received hospitality, and pitchers were filled. 

(84) * There defilement is found in the smoke of the obla- 
tions, not in evil conduct ; redness of face in parrots, not 
in angry men ; sharpntjss in blades of grass, not in disposi- 
tions ; wavering in i)lantain-leave8, not in minds ; red eyes* 
in cuckoos alone ; clasping of necks with pitchers only ; 

* Aiiotlior kind of broad-treo. 
^ Tlu* (lomiiR'Htary expliiiim it as 'Veda.' 

•' Tlu) tridandaUa or three Htaven of the mendicant 13ralinmn who 
lja» reHi^'iied tlie world. * Or, hupaHnioned ghmceH. 


bliMlin^of ^inll<jH In vowh, not in ({unrralH; pahiihapata^ In 
vjh'.Uh, not in M',UiuiiUr, iliMcuHHionH ; wan^lorin^ in making 
i\ni Huu^im turn toiumI thn Honia firo, f/iit not orror in tho 
VH(^lntM ; nif^ntion of tlni Vuhiih in Ni^orMJH, hut not longing 
for wf^fillh i roiintin^ of )huu\h for Kiiflni, )/iit ua liccoiuit niailo 
of tlio )>o(ly ; )oMt< of Uh'Mh hy thd naintn in tho jiractico of 
>ta(tril)r<r, hill, not Iomh of their r.hihh'<;n'^ hy duath ; propitia- 
tion of Hunia hy n^i^itin^ tho Itunmyana, not of wr)nM;n' hy 
youth ; wrinhhth hniuj/ht on hy ohl a^o, not hy prido of 
ri<'hoM ; tho Joath of a <,'al(uni^ in tho Mahahharata only ; 
fUily in tho I'lnana windy talK /' in ohi ap(o only Iohh of 
tititli /' rohlnof.M only in tho park Handahtn^cH ;^ (H!'t) in 
Uti'H only tinninf/ to aidioii ;'^ only door lovo to lioar Hon^ ; 
only poacochii raro for dancinp; ; only HoakoH woar lioodH ;'' 
only nionlioyM dihiro fruit;'" only rootH liavo a downward 

(Htt M{l, rondohMdd) * TIhu'o, honoath tho Hhado ol a ro(l 
aroha troo, hrautooiiM with now ohlatiooH of lloworn, puriliod 
with oihtinont (d frohh f/oniaya, f.^arlandod with kiira ^^ohhh 
and ntripM of hark tiod on hy tho horniita|.Mi ntaidonn, 1 naw 
tho h(dy Jahnli Minroinidod hy nioht aiii'otic Haf.',oH, liko tinio 
hy ii'ooM, tho Initt day hy hiniM, tho Hacriiico hy hoarorn of 
tho thioo liroM," tho fjoldon inounhLin hy tho nohio liillH, or 
tho oiirth hy tho oroanit. 

(MiM 'And MM I looked on him i thoiif^ht : "Ah! how 
f/roMt iM I ho powor of potian<'ol IUm foini. ralni an it in, yot 
ptno MM nmlton ^'old, ovorpoworM, liko lif.;htniiif<, tho hri^;lit- 
noMM of tho oyo willi ilM hrillianr(t. TImmi^Ii ovor tranipiil» 
it inMpiioi« foar at lirMt approach hy itn inhrront niajoHty. 
Tho Mplondour nf oviMi thono ahcoticH who liavo practiHod 
hot litllo arn'otiriMni iM Wi»nt to ho i>aMily provokcul, lik(t lir(» 
hwiflly falliofi, on dry roodn, kMra f^ranH, or llow(»rH. (ilO) How 
nno li ni<U(>, tloMi. thai of litdy nion liko IIioho, whomt fo(«t 

* (lO Muiillliifi ; (/)) piu OMMnrililp, 

** /',l/.i-(.i) l»nii , ^/0 tliililrni. ^ /I'.OnJ, wttmiui, 

* r.t/.iMM — (•!) li lilnl ; {!>) hurNoilliitMa'n un«'lo. 

^ ( .i//(i (ill wliitii (/•) ^r«Milli. " ^ii^ 'IVolli ; {tt) \\i'i\\\uu\\\H, 

" (l|, titlllionn, " Ol , »MM>KlllK lUOMjMMilV. 

♦• Ol, dmpK rii)«iviiii<iil. '" Or m»«Ml f«trhiiu'. 

'* 'riu> Uioliit)>iii,Nti, haKnhlvM. iOlil AllHMilM.Mt l\ri<K, 


arc lionoiii^ixl hy tho wholo world; whoHO HUins are worn 
away by ponanco, who look with divine iiiHii^ht on the 
wliolo oarih aH if it woro a rnyrobalan' in the hand, and 
who pur^o away all Hin. For ovon Um nioniion of a f^roat 
Ha^o haH ilH roward ; much uioro, ihon, tho night of him I 
Jltippy ih tho hormitago whoro dwollH thiH king of linilnnanH! 
Nay, raihor, happy in tho wlioh) world in hoing trod(h)n hy 
him who in tlio v(;ry IJrahnni of (jjirth ! Truly thcjHO HJig»;H 
({hjoy th(j roward of tlioir good d(;(;dH in tliiit Ihoy ationd 
him day and niglit with no othor duty, h(;aring holy storicjH 
and ovor fixing on him tlujir Htoady ga/(i, hh if Ikj w(5ro 
anothor lirahnm. Hjippy in SaraHvaii, who, oncin^hul hy 
hiH nliining tcoih, and over enjoying tho noarncHH of hin 
lotuH-mouili, (hscllH in Ink Horono mind, with itH unfathom- 
iihlo d(!piliH and iin full Htr(;am of tiMidornosH, liko a hantHa 
on tho Munaha lako. Tho four N'odan, that havo long dwelt 
in tho four lotuH-moutliH of lirahma, iind horo thoir hoHt 
and most iitiing homo. {U\} All tlu; KcioncoH, which ho- 
camo turhid in tho rainy HoaHon of tho Iron Age;, hccomo 
puro whon thoy r(!ach him, aH rivorH coming to autiuun. 
Of a HUHity, holy Dluirnui, having taken up hin ahodo 
hero after ipu^lling the riot of the; Iron Ag(5, no long(!r carciH 
to njcall the (lolden Age. Jloaven, WMiing earth trodd(;n 
hy him, no longcsr taken pride in being dwelt in by the 
Severn KiHliin. How bold ih old ages, which fearn not to 
fall on bin thick nuttted lo(diH, moonbeam-pale aH I hey 
are, and hard to ga/e on an the rayn of the Hini of doom.'' 
l^'or it falln on him an OangeH, white with lleckn of foam, 
on <^'iva, or an an olT(jring of milk on Agni. Kven the Hun'a 
rayn ke(!p far from the p(!nanc(5-grove, an if terrified by 
th(3 gr(!atneHH of the miint whoHo hermitage in darkened by 
the thick nmoke of many an oblation. ThcHe lircH, too, 
for love of him, rec(5ive oblationn puriiitjd by hynniH, for 
their IbuneH are preHHed together by the wind, like bandn 
reverently raimjd. (112) The wind itncilf approachen him 

* rrovcrhiul pliniHo for cIciiriMMH. 

'' ViHiiiiu IMinii.iii, vl., «'li. ''. *'I'lio HovoM Holui* ni^H diliito to hovcjii 
uuiiH, iiiid Hdl llut lluoo vvoi'Mh oil Dro.' 


timidly, just Btirring the linen and bark dresses, fragrant 
with the sweet creeper blossoms of the hermitage, and 
gentle in motion. Yet the glorious might of the elements 
is wont to be beyond our resistance ! But this man towers 
above^ the mightiest! The earth shines as if with two 
suns, being trodden by this noble man. In his support 
the world stands firm. He is the stream of sympathy, the 
bridge over the ocean of transient existence, and the home 
of the waters of patience ; the axe for the glades of the 
creepers of desire, the ocean of the nectar of content, the 
guide in the path of perfection, the mountain behind which 
sets the planet of ill,'- the root of the tree of endurance, the 
nave of the wheel of wisdom, the staff of the banner of 
righteousness, the holy place for the descent of all know- 
ledge, the submarine tire of the ocean of craving, the touch- 
stone of the jewels of the ^'astras, the consumhig flame of 
the buds of passion, the charm against the snake of wrath, 
the sun to dispel the darkness of delusion, the binder of 
the bolts of hell's gates, the native home of noble deeds, 
the temple of propitious rites, the forbidden ground for the 
degradation of passion, the sign-post to the paths of good, 
the birthplace of holiness, the felly of the wheel of effort, 
the abode of strength, the foe of the Iron Age, the treasury 
of penance, the friend of truth, the native soil of sincerity, 
the source of the heaping up of merit, the closed gate for 
envy, the foe of calamity. (1)3) Truly he is one in whom 
disrespect can fnid no place ; for he is averse from pride, 
unclaimed by meanness, unenslaved by wrath, and un- 
attracted by pleasure. Purely by the grace of this holy 
man the hermitage is free from envy and calm from 
enmity. Great is the power of a noble soul. Here, ceasing 
their constant feud, the very animals are quiet, and learn 
the joy of a hermitage life. For hero a snake, wearied by 
the sun, fearlessly enters, as if into fresh grass, into the 
peacock's tail, like an interwoven grove of ojDen lotuses, 
with its hundred beauteous eyes, changing in hue as the 
eyes of a deer. Here a young antelope, leaving his mother, 
1 Lit., *is leader of.' '^ Or. caprice. 


makes friends with the lion-cubs whose manes are not yet 
grown, and drinks at the bounteous breast of the lioness. 
Here a lion closes his eyes, and is pleased to have his 
moon- white mane pulled by the young elephants that 
mistake it for lotus-fibres. Here the monkey-tribe loses 
its capriciousness and brings fruit to the young munis after 
their batli. There the elephants, too, though excited, are 
tender-hearted, and do not drive away by their flapping 
the bees that dwell round their frontal bones, and stay 
motionless to drink their ichor. (94) But what need of 
more? There even the senseless trees, with roots and 
fruits, clad in bark, and adorned with outer garments of 
black antelope skin perpetually made for them by the 
upward creeping lines of sacrificial smoke, seem like fellow 
ascetics of this holy man. How much more, then, living 
beings, endowed with sense !" 

* And while I was thus thinking, Hurlta placed me some- 
where in the shade of the ayoka tree, and embracing his 
father's feet and saluting him, sat down not far from him 
on a seat of ku^a grass. 

* But the hermits, looking on me, asked him as he rested : 
** Whence was this little parrot brought*?" *' When I went 
hence to bathe," replied he, **I found this little parrot 
fallen from its nest in a tree on the bank of the lotus-lake, 
faint with the heat, lying in hot dust, and shaken by the 
fall, with little life left in him. And as I could not replace 
him in his nest (for that tree was too hard for an ascetic to 
climb), I brought him hither in pity. So, while his wings 
are not grown, and he cannot fly into the sky, let him live 
in the hollow of some hermitage tree, (05) fed on the juice 
of fruits and on handfuls of rice brought to him by us and 
by the young hermits. For it is the law of our order to 
protect the weak. But when his wings are grown, and he 
can fly into the sky, he shall go where he likes. Or perhaps, 
when he knows us well, he will stay here." The holy 
Jabfili, hearing this and other remarks about me, with 
some curiosity bent his head slightly, and, with a very 
calm glance that seemed to purify me with holy waters, 


he gazed long upon me, and then, looking again and 
again as if he were beginning to recognise me, said : ** He 
is reaping the fruit of his own ill-conduct." For by the 
l)otency of penance the saint with divine insight beholds 
the past, present, and future, and sees the whole world as 
though placed on the palm of his hand. He knows past 
births. He tells things yet to come. He declares the 
length of days of beings within his sight. 

* At these words the whole assemblage of hermits, aware 
of his power, became curious to know what was my crime, 
and why committed, and where, and who I was in a former 
birth; and implored the saint, saying: (96) ** Vouchsafe, 
sir, to tell us of what kind of misconduct he is reaping the 
fruits. AVho was he in a former birth, and how was he born 
in the form of a bird? How is he named? Do thou satisfy 
our curiosity, for thou art the fountain-head of all marvels." 

* Thus urged by the assemblage, the great saint replied : 
** The story of this wonder is very long, the day is almost 
spent, our bathing-time is near, while the hour for wor- 
shipping the gods is passing. Arise, therefore; let each 
perform his duties as is meet. In the afternoon, after your 
meal of roots and fruits, when you are resting quietly, I 
will tell you the whole story from beginning to end — who 
he is, what he did in another birth, and how he was born 
in this world. Meanwhile, let him be refreshed with food. 
He will certainly recall, as it were, the vision of a dream 
when I tell the whole story of his former birth." So saying, 
he arose, and with the hermits bathed and performed their 
other daily duties. 

(97) 'The day was now drawing to a close. When the 
hermits rose from their bathing, and were offering a 
sacrifice, the sun in the sky seemed to bear upwards before 
our eyes the offering cast on the ground, with its unguent 
of red sandal-wood. Then his glow faded and vanished ; 
the effluence of his glory was drunk by the Ushmupas^ 
with faces raised and eyes fixed on his orb, as if they were 
ascetics ; and he glided from the sky pink as a dove's foot, 

* Vislinu Puruna, i., 123. 


drawing in his rays as though to avoid touching the Seven 
Rishis as they rose. His orb, with its network of crimson 
rays reflected on the Western Ocean, was like the lotus of 
Vishnu on his couch of waters pouring forth nectar ; his 
beams, forsaking the sky and deserting the lotus-groves, 
lingered at eve like birds on the crest of hill and trefe ; the 
splashes of crimson light seemed for a moment to deck the 
trees with the red bark garments hung up by the ascetics. 
And when the thousand-rayed sun had gone to rest, twi- 
light sprang up like rosy coral from the Western Ocean. 
(98) Then the hermitage became the home of quiet thought, 
as the pleasant sound of milking the sacred cows arose in 
one quarter, and the fresh ku(;a grass was scattered on the 
altar of Agni, and the rice and ol)lations to the goddesses 
of space were tossed hither and thither by the hermitage 
maidens. And red-starred eve seemed to the hermits as 
the red-eyed cow of the hermitage roaming about, tawny 
in the fall of day. And when the sun had vanished, the 
lotus-bed, in the grief of bereavement, seemed to perform a 
vow in the hopes of rejoining the lord of day, for she lifted 
the goblets of her buds, and wore the fine white vesture of 
her hamsas, and was girt with the sacrificial thread of white 
filaments, and bore a circle of bees as her rosary. And the 
^starry host leapt up and filled the sky, like a splash of spray 
when the sun fell into the Western Ocean ; and for a brief 
space the star-bespangled sky shone as though inlaid with 
flowers offered by the daughters of the Siddhas^ in honour 
of twilight ; ])ut in a moment the whole glory of the gloam- 
ing vanished as though washod away by the libations which 
the hermits, with faces upraised, cast towards the sky; 
(DO) and at its departure, night, as sorrowing for its loss, 
wore a deeper darkness, like a black antelope's skin — a 
blackness which darkened all save the hearts of the 

* Learning that the sun had gone to rest, the lord of rays 
ambrosial, in pure severity of light, arrayed in the white- 
ness of clear gossamer, dwelling in the palace of his wives 
* Semi-divine beings dwelling between the earth and the sun. 


with Tara,* mounted the sky which, in that it was outlined 
with the darkness of tamula-trees, presided over by the 
circle of Seven Rishis, purified by the wanderings of Arun- 
dhati,2 surrounded by Ashiwjha,^ showing its Mula* with its 
soft-eyed white deer,'^ was a very hermitage of heaven. 
White as a hamsa, moonlight fell on the earth, filling the 
seas ; falling, as Ganges from the head of (^'iva, from the 
sky which was decked with the moon, and inlaid with the 
shattered potsherds of the stars. (100) And in the moon- 
lake, white as an opening lotus, was seen the motionless 
deer, which went down in eagerness to drink the water 
of the moonbeams, and was caught, as it were, in the mud 
of ambrosia. The lakes of the night-lotus were fondly 
visited by the moonbeams, like luimsas, falling on the 
ocean white as sinduvara flowers in their fresh purity after 
the rains. At that moment the globe of the moon lost all 
the glow of its rising, like the frontal bone of the elephant 
Airfivata when its red lead is washed away by plunging 
into the heavenly stream ; and his highness the cold- 
shedder had gradually risen high in the sky, and by his 
light had whitened the earth as with lime-dust ; the breezes 
of early night were blowing, slackened in their course by 
the cold dew, aromatic with the scent of opening moon- 
lotuses, (101) and gladly welcomed by the deer, who, with 
eyes weighed down by the approach of sleep, and eyelashes 
clinging together, were beginning to ruminate and rest in 

* Only half a watch of the night was spent, when Hapta 
took me after my meal and went with the other holy hermits 
to his father, who, in a moonlit spot of the hermitage, was 
sitting on a bamboo stool, gently fanned by a pupil named 
Jalapada, who held a fan of antelope skin white as dharba 
grass, and he spake, saying : '* Father, the whole assemblage 

' Trira = (a) stars; (b) wife of lirihaspati, curried away by tho 

- (a) Wife of the sage Varishtha; (h) the morning star. 
3 {a) ConsteUation ; (h) staff borne during a vow. 
* (a) Constellation; {b) roots for the hermits' food. 
'' Or, constellation. 


of hermits is in a circle round thee, with hearts eager to 
hear this wonder ; the little bird, too, has rested. Tell us, 
therefore, what he has done, who was hej and who will he 
be in another birth?" Thus addressed, the great saint, 
looking at me, and seeing the hermits before him intently 
listening, slowly spake : ** Let the tale be told, if ye care to 
hear it. 

' *' (102) There is a city named Ujjayinl, the proudest 
gem of earth, the very home of the golden age, created by 
Mahfikala,^ creator, preserver, and destroyer of the three 
worlds, and lord of Pramathas, as a habitation meet for 
himself, as it were a second earth. There the sun is daily 
seen paying homage to Mahukula, for his steeds vuil their 
heads at the charm of the sweet chant of the women 
singing in concert in the lofty white palace, and his pennon 
droops before him. 

(lOD) * ** There darkness never falls, and the nights 
bring no separation to the pairs of cakravakas ; nor need 
they any lamps, for they pass golden as with morning 
sunshine, from the bright jewels of women, as though the 
world were on fire with the flame of love. (110) There the 
only unending life is in jewelled lamps, the only wavering in 
pearl necklaces, the only variations in the sound of drum 
and song, the only disunion of pairs in cakravakas, the 
only testing of colour- in gold pieces, the only unsteadiness 
in banners, the only hatred of the sun* in night lotuses, the 
only concealment of metal in the sheathing of the sword. 
(HI) Why should I say more? For he whose bright feet 
are kissed by the rays of the jewelled crests of gods and 
demons, who hath the river of heaven wandering lost in his 
locks tawny with a wreath of flame for the burning of the 
world ; he the foe of Andhaka ; he the holy one ; he who 
hath given up his love for his home on Kailasa ; even 
he whose name is Mahfikfila hath there made a habitation 
for himself. And in this city was a king named Tara- 
plda. He was like unto the great kings Nala, Nahusha, 
Yayati, Dundhumara, Bharata, Bhaglratha, and Da(;aratha ; 
^ (,'iva. ^ Caste. ^ Friends. 

• 48 

by the might of his arm he conquered the whole world ; he 
reaped the fruits of the three powers ;^ wise and resolute, 
with an intellect unwearied in political science, and a deep 
study of the law books, he made in light and glory a third 
with the sun and moon. (112) His form was purified by 
many a sacrifice ; by him the calamities of the whole world 
were set at rest ; to him Lakshml openly clung, deserting 
her lotus- woods and despising the happiness of her home in 
the breast of Nrirayana, she the lotus-handed, who ever joys 
in the contest of heroes. He was the source of truth, ever 
honoured by the race of saints, as the foot of Yislinu was of 
the stream of the heavenly Ganges. 

* **From him arose glory, as from the ocean of the moon, 
for his briglitness, free from heat, consumed his foes ; 
constant, ever roamed ; stainless, darkened the brightness 
of the lotus-faced widows of his foes ; white, made all things 
gay. (118) He was the incarnation of justice, the very 
representative of Vishnu and the destroyer of all the 
sorrows of his people. 

(115) ' '* When lie ai)proached the throne that blossomed 
with the rays of many gems and was hung with clusters of 
pearls, like the elephant of space approaching the tree of 
desire, all the wide quarters of space, like creepers weighed 
down by bees, bowed down before his majesty ; and of him, 
I think, even Indra was envious. From him, too, pro- 
ceeded a host of virtues, like a flock of hanisas from Mount 
Kraunca, brightening the earth's surface, and gladdening 
the hearts of all mankind. His fame wandered, so that the 
world echoed with it throughout the ten regions, making 
fair the world of gods and demons, like a streak of foam of 
the stream of milk tossed by Mandara, ambrosial sweet. 
His royal glory never for a moment laid aside the shade of 
her umbrella, as though scorched by the heat of a splendour 
hard to bear. (116) His achievements were heard by the 
people like news of good fortune, were received like the 
teaching of a guru, were valued like a good omen, were 
murmured like a hymn, and were remembered like a sacred 
^ I.c.i king, minister, and energy. 


text. And while he was king, though the flight of the 
mountains was stayed, the flight of , thought was free; 
suffixes alone were dependent, and the people feared no 
foe ; nought dared to face him but his mirror ; the pressure 
of Durgu^ was given to (yiva's image alone ; the bow was 
only borne by the clouds ; there was no uprising save of 
banners, no bending save of bows, no shaft sped home save 
the bee's on the bamboo, no enforced wandering save of the 
images of gods in a procession, no imprisonment save of 
flowers in their calyx, no restraint save of the senses; 
wild elephants entered the pale, but none paled before the 
water-ordeal ; the only sharpness was in the edge of the 
sword ; the only endurance of the flame- was by ascetics ; 
the only passing the Balance^ was by the stars ; the only 
clearing of baneful^ waters was in the rising of Agastya; 
the only cutting short was of hair and nails ; the only 
stained garb was of the sky on stormy days; the only 
laying bare was of gems, and not of secret counsels ; the 
only mysteries'"' were those of religion ; (117) none ceased to 
behold the light save slaughtered Taraka^ in the praises of 
Kumara ; none dreaded eclipse save the sun ; none passed 
over the First-born^ save the moon ; none heard of the 
Disobedient save in the Mali fibh fir ata; none grasped the 
rod^ save in the decline of life; none clung to a sinister 
object save the sword-sheath; no stream of liberality was 
interrupted save the elephant's ichor; no squares were 
deserted save those on the dice-board. 

* ** That king had a minister, by name Cukanasa, a 
Brahman, whose intelligence was flxed on all the affairs 
of the kingdom, whose mind had plunged deeply into the 
arts and castras, and whose strong affection for the king 
had grown up in him from childhood. Skilled in the 
precepts of political science, pilot of the world's govern- 

^ Or, misfortuno. ^ An ordeal. ^ An ordeal. 

^ (a) Clearing' of the Avaters after the rainy season ; (6) ordeal of 

^' (a) Ma^ic ; (/j) practice of Yo<j[a. 

(a) Lit., ' tearinfj out of eyes ;' (/>) slau<,'hter of the demon Tfiraka 
by Kfirtikeya. 
' ^ A star in the Scorpion's tail. ^ Seizing of tribute. 


ment, unshaken in resolve by the greatest difficulties, he 
was the castle of constancy, the station of steadfastness, the 
bridge of bright truth, the guide to all goodness, the con- 
ductor in conduct, the ordainer of all ordered life. Like the 
serpent Cesha, enduring the weight of the world ; like the 
ocean, full of life ; like Jarasandha, shaping war and peace ;^ 
(118) like Civa, at home with Durgfr; like Yuddhishthira, 
a daysin-ing of Dharma, he knew all the Yedaa and 
Yedangas, and was the essence of the kingdom's prosperity. 
He was like Brihaspatr^ to Sunfisira ; like Cukra to Vrisha- 
parvan ; like Yavislitha to Da(;aratha ; like Yi^vfimitra to 
Enma; like Dhaumya to Ajfita^atru ; like Damanaka to 
Nala. He, by the force of his knowledge, thought that 
Lakshml was not hard to win, resting though she were on 
the breast of Nurfiyana, terrible with the scars of the 
weapons of the demons of hell, and a strong shoulder 
hardened by the pitiless pressure of Mount Mandara as it 
moved to and fro. Near him knowledge spread wide, thick 
with many a tendril, and showed the fruits gained from 
conquered realms like a creeper near a tree. (119) To him 
throughout the earth's surface, measured by the circum- 
ference of the four oceans, and filled with the goings to and 
fro of many thousands of spies, every whisper of the kings 
was known as though uttered in his own palace. 

* ** Now, Tarfipiila while yet a child had conquered the 
whole earth ringed by the seven Dvlpas by the might of his 
arm, thick as the trunk of Indra's elephant, and he devolved 
the weight of the empire on that councillor named (^'uka- 
nfisa, and having made his subjects perfectly contented, he 
searched for anything else that reniained to be done. 

***Andas he had crushed his enemies and had lost all 
cause for fear, and as the strain of the world's affairs had 
become a little relaxed, for the most part he began to 
pursue the ordinary pleasures of youth. 

(124) * ** And some time i^assed while the king pursued 

' Or, haviii^^ his body united. V. Dowsoii, ' Cljissical Dictionary.' 
2 Having fortresses subdued. 
These are teachers of tlie gods and lieroes. 


the pleasures of youth, and entrusted the afifairs of state to 
his minister ; and after a time he came to the end of all 
the other pleasures of life, and the only one he did not get 
was the sight of a son born to him ; so that his zenana was 
like reeds showing only flowers without fruit ; and as youth 
went by there arose in him a regret produced by childless- 
ness, and his mind was turned away from the desire of the 
pleasures of sense, and ho felt himself alone, though 
surrounded by a thousand princes ; blind, though possessed 
of sight ; without support, though supporting the world. 

(125) ***But the fairest ornament of this king was his 
queen YilrisavatI ; as the moon's digit to the braided hair 
of (^'iva, as the splendour of the Kaustubha gem to the breast 
of the foe^ of Kaitabha, as the woodland garland to Bala- 
rama, as the shore to the ocean, as the creeper to the tree, 
as the outburst of tiowers to the spring, as the moonlight 
to the moon, as the lotus-bed to the lake, as the array of 
stars to the sky, as the circling of hamsas to Lake Manasa, 
as the line of sandal- woods to Mount Malaya, as the jewelled 
crest to C,'esha, so was she to her lord ; she reigned i)eerles8 
in the zenana, and created wonder in the three worlds, as 
though she were the very source of all womanly grace. 

* ** And it chanced once that, going to her dwelling, he 
beheld her seated on a stately- couch, weeping bitterly, 
surrounded by her household mute in grief, their glances 
fixed in meditation, and attended by her chamberlains, who 
waited afar with eyes motionless in anxious thought, while 
the old women of the zenana were trying to console her. 
Her silken robes were wet with ceaseless tears; her orna- 
ments were laid aside ; her lotus-face rested on her left 
hand ; and her tresses were unbound and in disorder. As 
she arose to welcome him, the king placed her on the couch 
again, and sitting there himself, ignorant of the cause of 
her weeping, and in great alarm, wiped away witli his hand 
the tears from her cheeks, saying: (120) * My queen, what 
means this weeping, voiceless and low with the weight of 
the heavy sorrow concealed in thy heart ? For these eye- 

1 Vishnu. - Lit., * tiriii.' 


lashes of thine are stringing, as it were, a network of pearls 
of dropping tears. Why, slender one, art thou unadorned ? 
and why has not the stream of lac fallen on thy feet like 
early sunlight on rosy lotus -buds? And why are thy 
jewelled anklets, with their murmur like teals on the lake 
of love, not graced with the touch of thy lotus-feet? And' 
why is this waist of thine bereft of the music of the girdle 
thou hast laid aside ? And why is thore no device painted 
on thy breast like the deer on the moon ? and why is that 
slender nock of thine, fair-limbed quoon, not adorned with 
a rope of pearls as the crescent on (^iva's brow by the 
heavenly stream ? and why dost thou, erst so gay, wear 
in vain a face whose adornment is washed away with 
flowing tears? And why is this hand, with its petal-like 
cluster of soft fingers, exalted into an ear-jewel, as though 
it were a rosy lotus? (127) And why, froward lady, dost 
thou raise thy straight brow undecked with the mark of 
yellow pigment, and surrounded by the mass of thine 
un))ound tresses ? For these flowing locks of thine, bereft 
of flowers, grieve my eyes, like the loss of the moon in 
the dark fortnight, clouded in masses of thickest gloom. 
Be kind, and tell me, my queen, the cause of thy grief. 
For this storm of sighs with which the robe on thy breast 
is quivering bows my loving heart like a ruddy tendril. 
]fas any wrong been done by me, or by any in thy service? 
Closely as I examine myself, I can truly see no failure of 
mine towards thee. For my life and my kingdom are 
wholly thine. Let the cause of thy woe, fair queen, be 
told.' But Vilasavatl, thus addressed, made no reply, and 
turning to her attendants, he asked the cause of her ex- 
ceeding grief. Then her betel-nut bearer, Makarikfi, who 
was always near her, said to the king : ' My lord, how could 
any fault, however slight, be committed by thee ? (128) and 
how in thy presence could any of thy followers, or anyone 
else, offend ? The sorrow of the queen is that her union 
with the king is fruitless, as though she were seized by 
lifihu, and for a long time she has been suffering. For at 
first our lady was like one in heavy grief, was only occupied 


with difficulty by the persuasion of her attendants in the 
ordinary duties of the day, however fitting they might be, 
such as sleeping, bathing, eating, putting on of ornaments, 
and the like, and, like a Lakshml of the lower world, 
ceaselessly upbraided divine love.^ But in her longing to 
take away the grief of my lord's heart, she did not show 
her sad change. Now, however, as it was the fourteenth 
day of the month, she went to worship holy Mahfikfda, and 
hoard in a rocitation of the Malifiblifirata, *' No bright 
abodoH await tlie childless, for a son is he who delivers 
from the sunloss sliadoH"; and when she heard this, she 
returned to her palace, and now, though reverently 
entreated thereto by her attendants, she takes no pleasure 
in food, nor does she busy herself in putting on her jewels, 
nor does she vouchsafe to answer us ; (12<J) she only weeps, 
and her face is clouded with a storm of ever-flowing tears. 
My lord has heard, and must judge.* So saying, she 
ceased ; and, with a long and passionate sigh, the king 
spoke thus : 

* " ' My queen, what can be done in a matter decreed by 
fate ? Enough of this weeping beyond measure ! For it is 
not on us that the gods are wont to bestow their favours. 
In truth, our heart is not destined to hold the bliss of that 
ambrosial draught, the embrace of a child of our own. In 
a former life no glorious deed was done ; for a deed done 
in a former life brings forth fruit in man's life on earth ; 
even the wisest man cannot change destiny. Let all be 
done that may be done in this mortal life. Do more 
honour to the gurus; redouble thy worship of the gods; 
let thy good works be seen in thy reverence to the rishis ; 
for the rishis are a powerful deity, and if we serve them 
with all our might, they will give boons that fulfil our 
heart's desire, hard though it be to gain. (130) For 
the tale is an old one how King Brihadratha in Magadha 
won by the power of Can(]akau(;ika a son Jarasandha, victor 
of Vishnu, 2>eerless in prowess, fatal to his foes. Dayaratha, 
too, when very old, received by the favour of Rishyayringa, 
1 (rt) The gods; (b) love. 


son of the great saint Yibhanclaka, four sons, unconquerable 
as the arms of Narayana, and unshaken as the depths of the 
oceans.! And many other royal sages, having conciliated 
ascetics, have enjoyed the happiness of tasting the ambrosia 
of the sight of a son. For the honour paid to saints is 
never without its reward. 

* *' * And for me, when shall I behold my queen ready to 
bear a child, pale as the fourteenth night when the rising 
of the full moon is at hand ; and when will her attendants, 
hardly able to bear the joy of the great festival of the birth 
of my son, carry the full basket of gifts ? When will my 
queen gladden me wearing yellow robes, and holding a son 
in her arms, like the sky with the newly-risen sun and the 
early sunlight ; and when will a son give me joy of heart, 
with his curly hair yellow with many a plant, a few ashes 
mixed with mustard-seed on his palate, which has a drop 
of ghi on it as a talisman, (llJl) and a thread bright with 
yellow dye round his neck, as he lies on his back and smiles 
with a little toothless mouth ; when will this baby destroy 
all the darkness of sorrow in my eyes like an auspicious 
lamp welcomed by all the people, handed from one to 
another by the zenana attendants, shining tawny with 
yellow dye ; and when will he adorn the courtyard, as he 
toddles round it, followed by my heart and my eyes, and 
gray with the dust of the court ; and when will he walk 
from one place to another and the power of motion be 
formed in his knees, so that, like a young lion, he may try 
to catch the young tame deer screened behind the crystal 
walls ? and when, running about at will in the courtyard, 
will he run after the tame geese, accompanied by the 
tinkling of the anklets of the zenana, and weary his nurse, 
who will hasten after him, following the sound of the bells 
of his golden girdle ; (182) and when will he imitate the 
antics of a wild elephant, and have his cheeks adorned 
with a line of ichor painted in black aloe, full of joy at the 
sound of the bell held" in his mouth, gray with the dust of 
sandal-wood scattered by his uplifted hand, shaking his 
• Four was the number of the oceans and of the arms of Naruyana. 


head at the beckoning of the hooked finger; and when 
will he disguise the faces of the old chamberlains with the 
juice of handfuls of lac left after being used to colour his 
mother's feet; and when, with eyes restless in curiosity, 
will he bend his glance on the inlaid floors, and with 
tottering steps pursue his own shadow ; and when will 
he creep about during the audience in front of me as I 
stand in my audience-hall, with his eyes wandering be- 
wildered by the rays of the gems, and have his coming 
welcomed by the outstretched arms of a thousand kings ? 
Thinking on a hundred such desires, I pass my nights in 
Buflering. Me, too, the grief arising from our want of 
children burns like a fire day and night. The world seems 
empty ; I look on my kingdom as witliout fruit. But what 
can I do towards 13rahmri, from whom there is no appeal ? 
Therefore, my quoen, cease thy continual grief. Let thy 
heart be devoted to endurance and to duty. For increase 
of blessings is ever nigh at hand for those who set their 
thoughts on duty.' (IBIJ) Thus saying, with a hand like a 
fresh tendril, he took water and wiped her tear-stained face, 
which showed as an 02)ening lotus ; and having comforted 
her again and again with many a speech sweet with a 
hundred endearments, skilled to drive away grief, and full 
of instruction about duty, he at last left her. And when 
he was gone, Yilfisavatl's sorrow was a little soothed, and 
she went about her usual daily duties, such as putting on 
of her adornments. And from that time forth she was 
more and more devoted to propitiating the gods, honouring 
^ Brahmans, and paying reverence to all holy persons; 
whatever recommendation she heard from any source she 
practised in her longing for a child, nor did she count the 
fatigue, however great; she slept within the temples of 
Duv^'d, dark with smoke of bdellium ceaselessly burnt, on a 
bed of clubs covered with green grass, fasting, her pure 
form clothed in white raiment; (134) she bathed under 
cows endued with auspicious marks, adorned for the 
occasion by the wives of the old cowherds in the herd- 
stations, with golden pitchers laden with all sorts of jewels, 


decorated with branches of the pipal, decked with divers 
fruits and flowers and filled with holy water; every day 
she would rise and give to Brahmans golden mustard-leaves 
adorned with every gem ; she stood in the midst of a circle 
drawn by the king himself, in a place where four roads 
meet, on the fonrteonth night of the dark fortnight, and 
performed auspicious rites of bathing, in which the gods 
of the quarters were gladdened by the various oblations 
offered ; she honoured the shrines of the siddhas and 
sought the houses of neighbouring Mutrikas,^ in which 
faith was displayed by the pooi)lo ; she bathed in all the 
celebrated snake-ponds ; with a sun-wine turn, she wor- 
shipped the pipal and othi>r trees to which honour was 
wont to be shown ; after bathing, with hands circled by 
swaying bracelets, she herself gave to the birds an oH'oringof 
curds and boiled rice placed in a silver cup ; she ofYered daily 
to the goddess ])urgrt a sacrifice consisting of parched grain 
of oblation, boiled rice, scKaniuni sweetmeats, cakes, unguents, 
incense, and flowers, in abundance ; (15^5) she besought, 
with a mind prostrate in adoration, the naked wandering 
ascetics, bearing the name of siddhas, and carrying their 
begging -bowls filled by her; she greatly honoured the 
directions of fortune-tellers ; she frequented all the sooth- 
sayers learned in signs ; she showed all respect to those who 
understood the omens of birds ; she accepted all the secrets 
handed down in the tradition of a succession of venerable 
sages ; in her longing for the sight of a son, she made the 
Brahmans who came into her presence chant the Veda; 
she heard sacred stories incessantly repeated ; she carried 
about little caskets of mantras filled with l)irch- leaves 
written over in yellow letters ; she tied strings of medicinal 
plants as anuilets ; even her attendants went out to hear 
passing sounds and grasped the omens arising from them ; 
she daily threw out lumps of flesh in the evening for the 
jackals ; she told the pandits the wonders of her dreams, 
and at the cross-roads she ofTered oblation to C^'iva. 
***And as time went on, it chanced once tliat near the 
* The (livlno inothorM, or poiHoniflt'd ciiiTgioH of tlio chief iloitioH. 


end of night, when the sky was gray as an old pigeon's 
wing, and but few stars were left, the king saw in a dream 
the full moon entering the mouth of Vilasavatl, as she 
rested on the roof of her white palace, like a ball of lotus- 
fibres into the mouth of an elephant. (1B6) Thereupon he 
woke, and arising, shedding brightness through his dwelling 
by tlio joyous dilation of his eyes, he straightway called 
(/ukanfiHa and told him tlie dream ; whereto the latter, 
filled with sudden joy, replied : * Sire, our wishes and those 
of thy subjects are at length fulfilled. After a few days 
my lord will doubtloHs oxporionco the happinosH of beholding 
the lotuH-faco of a son ; for I, too, this night in a d:eam saw 
a whito-robod linihman, of godlike bearing and calm aspect, 
place in Munorama's^ lap a lotus that rained drops of honey, 
with a hundred outspread white petals, like the moon's 
digits, and a thousand (juivering stamens forming its 
matted locks. Now, all auspicious omens which come to 
us forotell the near approach of joy ; and what other cause 
of joy can there be than this? for dreams seen at the close 
of night are wont to l)car fruit in truth. (VM) Certainly 
ere long the queen shall bear a son that, like Mandhatri, 
shall bo a leader among all royal sages, and a cause of joy 
to all the world ; and he shall gladden thy heart, king, 
as the lotus-pool in autumn with its burst of fresh lotuses 
gladdens the royal elephant ; by him thy kingly line shall 
become strong to bear the weight of the world, and shall 
be unbroken in its succession as the stream of a wild 
elephant's ichor.' As ho thus spoke, the king, taking him 
by the hand, entered the inner apartments and gladdened 
the queen with both their dreams. And after some days, 
])y the grace of the gods, the hope of a child came to 
Vilasavatl, like the moon's image on a lake, and she 
became thereby yet more glorious, like the line of the 
Nandana wood with the tree of Paradise, or the breast of 
Vishnu with the Kaustubha gem. 

(1.S8) '"On one memorable day the king had gone at 
evening to an inner pavilion, where, encircled by a 

' Wifo of (JuUiuiAhii. 


thousand lamps, burning bright with abundance of scented 
oil, he was like the full moon in the midst of stars, or like 
Narayana seated among the thousand jewelled hoods of the 
king of snakes; he was surrounded only by a few great 
kings who had received the sprinkling of coronation ; his 
own attendants stood at some distance; close by Qukanasa 
was sitting on a hi^'h stool, clad in white silk, with little 
adornment, a statesman profound as the depths of ocean ; 
and with him the king was holding a conversation on many 
topics, full of the confidence that had grown with their 
growth, when he was approached by the handmaiden 
Kulavardliana, the queen's chief attendant, always skilled 
in the ways of a court, well trained by nearness to royalty, 
and versed in all auspicious ceremonies, who whispered in 
his ear the news about Vilasavatl. (181)) At her words, so 
fresh to his ears, the king's limbs were bedewed as if with 
ambrosia, a thrill passed through his whole body, and he 
was bewildered with the draught of joy ; his cheeks burst 
into a smile ; under the guise of the bright flash of his 
teeth he scattered abroad the liappinoss that overflowed his 
heart, and his eye, with its pupil quivering, and its lashes 
wet with tears of gladness, fell on the face of (^'ukanasa. 
And when ('ukanfisa saw the king's exceeding joy, such as 
he had never seen before, and beheld the approach of 
Kulavardhanri with a radiant smile on her face, though he 
had not heard the tidings, yet, from constantly revolving 
the matter in his mind, he saw no other cause befitting the 
time of this excess of gladness ; (110) he saw all, and 
bringing his sen,,t closer to the king, said in a low voice : 
* ^fy lord, there is some truth in that dream ; for Kulavar- 
dliana has her eyes radiant, and thy twin eyes announce a 
cause of great joy, for they are dilated, their pupils are 
tremulous, and they are bathed in tears of joy, and as they 
seem to creep to the lobes of thy ears in their eagerness to 
hear the good tidings, they produce, as it were, the beauty 
of an ear-pendant of blue lotuses. My longing heart yearns 
to hear the festival that has sprung up for it. Therefore 
let my lord tell me what is this news.' When he had thus 


said, the king replied with a smile : ' If it is true as she 
saysi then all our dream is true ; hut I cannot helieve it. 
How should so great a happiness fall to our lot? For we 
are no fitting vessel for the hearing of such good tidings. 
Kulavardhanfi is always truthful, and yet when I consider 
how unworthy I am of such joy, I look upon her as having 
changed her nature, liise, therefore ; I myself will go and 
ask the queen if it is true, and then I shall know.* (141) So 
saying, he dismissed all the kings, and taking off his orna- 
ments, gave them to Kulavardhana, and when, on his 
gracious dismissal of her with gifts, he received her homage 
paid with a deep reverence as she touched the earth with 
her straight brow, he rose with Tukanasa and wont to the 
inner apartments, hurried on by a mind iilled with exceed- 
ing happiness, and gladdened by the throbbing of his right 
eye, which seemed to mimic the play of a blue lotus-petal 
stirred by the wind. He was followed by a scanty retinue, 
as befitted so late a visit, and had the thick darkness of the 
courtyard dispelled by the brightness of the lamps of the 
women who went before him, though their steady flame 
ilickered in the wind." ' 

(Brina then describes the birth of Tfiraplija's son, who is 
named Candrupliia, from the king's dream about the moon, 
and also that of Cukanasa's son Vaivampayana.^] 

(155) * ** And as Candrapuja underwent in due course all 
the circle of ceremonies, beginning with the tying of his 
top-knot, his childhood i)asKed away; and to prevent 
distraction, Taraplcja had built for him a palace of learnhig 
outside the city, stretching half a league along the Sipra 
river, surrounded by a wail of white bricks like the circle 
of peaks of a snow-mountain, girt with a great moat run- 
ning along the walls, guarded by very strong gates, having 
one door kept open for ingress, with stables for horses and 
palanquins close l>y, and a gymnasium constructed beneath 
— a fit palace for the immortals. He took infinite pains in 
gathering there teachers of every science, and having placed 
^ Sinnniiuy of pp. Hl-ir^O. 


the boy there, like a young lion in a cage, forbidding all 
egress, surrounding him with a suite composed mainly of 
the sons of liis teachers, removing every allurement to the 
sports of boyhood, and keeping his mind free from dis- 
traction, on an auspicious day (15C) he entrusted him, 
together with Vaic/ampfiyana, to masters, that they might 
acquire all knowledge. Every day when ho rose, the king, 
with Vilasavatl and a small retinue, went to watch him, 
and Candrfiplija, undisturbed in mind and kept to his 
work by the king, quickly grasped all the sciences taught 
him by teachers, whose efforts were quickened by his great 
powers, as they brought to light his natural abilities ; the 
whole range of arts aKsoniblod in his mind as in a pure 
jewelled mirror. lie gained tlie higliost skill in word, 
sentence, proof, law, and royal policy ; in gymnastics ; in 
all kinds of weapons, sucli as the bow, quoit, shield, 
scimitar, dart, mace, battle-axe, and club; in driving and 
elephant-riding ; in musical instruments, sucl? as the lute, 
life, drum, cymbal, and pipe ; in the laws of dancing laid 
down by Jiharata and others, and the science of music, 
such as that of NTirada ; in the management of elephants, 
the knowledge of a horse's age, and the marks of men ; in 
painting, leaf-cutting, the use of books, and writing ; in all 
the arts of gambling, knowledge of the cries of birds, and 
astronomy ; in testing of jewels, (157) carpentry, the work- 
ing of ivory ; in architecture, physic, mechanics, antidotes, 
mining, crossing of rivers, leaping and jumping, and sleight 
of hand ; in stories, dramas, romances, poems ; in the 
Mahabharata, the Puraiias, the Itihasas, and the 
Bfanayana ; in all kinds of writing, all foreign languages, 
all technicalities, all mechanical arts ; in metre, and in 
every other art. And while he ceaselessly studied, even in 
his childhood an inborn vigour like that of ]3hTma shone 
forth in him and stirred the world to wonder. For when 
he was but in play the young elephants, who had attacked 
him as if he were a lion's whelp, had their lim])s bowed 
down by his grasp on their ears, and could not move ; 
with one stroke of his scimitar he cut down palm-trees as 


if they were lotus-stalks ; his shafts, like those of Para^u- 
rama when he blazed to consume the forest of earth's royal 
stems, cleft only the loftiest peaks; ^e exercised himself 
with an iron club which ten men were needed to lift ; and, 
except in bodily strength, he was followed close in all hig 
accomplishments by Vaivampayana, (1''38) who, by reason 
of the honour Candrripula felt for his deep learning, and of 
hiH reverence due to (/ukanfiHa, and because they had played 
in the dust and f^rown up together, was the prince's chief 
friend, and, as it were, his second heart, and the home of 
all his confidences. He would not bo without Vaic/ampfiyana 
for a moment, while Vaivampayana never for an instant 
ceased to follow him, any more tlian the day would cease 
to follow the sun. 

* ** And while Candraplda was thus pursuing his acquaint- 
ance witli all knowledge, the spring of youth, loved of the 
three worlds as theamiita draught of the ocean, gladdening 
the hearts of men as moonrise gladdens the gloaming; 
transient in change of iridescent glow, like the full arch of 
Indra's bow to the rainy season ; weapon of love, like the 
outburst of flowers to the tree of desire ; beautiful in ever 
freshly revealed glow, like sunrise to the lotus-grove ; ready 
for all play of graceful motion, like the plumes of the 
peacock, became manifest and brought to flower in him, 
fair as he was, a double beauty; love, lord of the hour, 
stood ever nigh, as if to do his bidding ; his chf^st expanded 
like his beauty ; his limbs won fulness, like the wishes of 
his friends ; his waist became slender, like the host of his 
foes ; (ir>i)) his form broadened, like his liberality ; his 
majesty grew, like his hair; his arms hung down more 
and more, like the plaits of his enemies' wives ; his eyes 
became brighter, like his conduct; his shoulders broad, 
like his knowledge ; and his heart deep, like his voice. 

*** And so in due course the king, learning that Candra- 
pl(ja had grown to youth, and had completed his knowledge 
of all the arts, studied all the sciences, and won great praise 
from his teachers, sunnnoned Jklfdiaka, a mighty warrior, 
and, with a large escort of cavalry and infantry, sent him 

j 62 

on a very auspicious day to fetch the prince. And Balahaka, 
going to the palace of learning, entered, announced by the 
porters, and bending his head till its crest-jewels rested on 
the ground, sat down, by the prince's permission, on a seat 
befitting his office, as reverently as though in the king's 
presence; after a short pause he approached Candraplda 
and respectfully gave the king's message : * Prince, the king 
bids me say : ** Our desires are fulfilled ; the ^astras have 
been studied ; all the arts have been learnt ; thou hast 
gained the highest skill in all the martial sciences. 
(160) All thy teachers give tliee permission to leave the 
house of learning. Let the people see that thou hast 
received thy training, like a young royal elephant come 
out from the enclosure, having in thy mind the whole 
orb of the arts, like the full moon newly risen. Let the 
eyes of the world, long eager to behold thee, fulfil their 
true function ; for all the zenanas are yearning for thy 
sight. This is now the tenth year of thine abode in the 
school, and thou didst enter it having reached the ex- 
perience of thy sixth year. This year, then, so reckoned, 
is the sixteenth of thy life. Now, therefore, when thou 
hast come forth and shown thyself to all the mothers 
longing to see thee, and hast saluted those who deserve 
thy honour, do thou lay aside thy early discipline, and 
experience at thy will the pleasures of the court and the 
delights of fresh youth. Pay thy respects to the chiefs; 
honour the Brahmans ; protect thy peojile ; gladden thy 
kinsfolk. There stands at the door, sent by the king, this 
horse, named Lidrayudha, swift as Garuda or as the wind, 
the chief jewel of the three worlds; (161) for in truth the 
monarch of Persia, who esteemed him the wonder of the 
universe, sent him with this message : ' This noble steed, 
sprung straight from the waters of ocean, was found by me, 
and is worthy for thee, king, to mount;' and when he 
was shown to those skilled in a horse's points, they said : 
* He has all the marks of which men tell us as belonging to 
Uccaiheravas ; there never has ])een nor will be a steed like 
him.' Therefore let him ])e honoured by tliy mounting 


him. These thousand princes, all sons of anointed kings, 
highly-trained, heroic, wise, and accomplished, and of long 
descent, sent for thine escort, wait on horseback, all eager 
to salute thee." * Having thus said, Balahaka paused, and 
Candraplda, laying his father's command on his head, in a 
voice deep as a new cloud gave the order, * Let Indrayudha 
be brought,' for he desired to mount him. 

* ** Immediately on his command Indrayudha was brought, 
and he beheld that wondrous steed, led by two men on each 
side grasping the circle of the bit, and using all their efforts 
to curb him. He was very large, his back being just 
within reach of a man's ui)lifted hand ; he seemed to drink 
the sky, which was on a level with his mouth ; with a neigh 
which shook the cavity of his belly, and filled the hollows 
of the three worlds, he, as it were, ui)l)raicled Garuda for 
his vain trust in his fabled speed ; (102) with a nostril 
snorting in wrath at any hindrance to his course, he, in his 
pride, examined the three worlds, that he might leap over 
them ; his body was variegated with streaks of black, 
yellow, green, and pink, like Indra's bow ; he was like a 
young elephant, with a many-hued rug spread over him ; 
like Civa's bull, pink with metallic dust from butting at 
Kailasa's peaks; like PrirvatT's lion, with his mane 
crimsoned with the red streak of the demon's clotted 
blood ; and like the very incarnation of all energy, with a 
sound emitted from his ever-quivering nostrils, he seemed 
to pour forth the wind inhaled in his swift course ; he 
scattered the foam-fiakes that frothed from his lips from 
the champing of the points of the bit which rattled as he 
rolled it in his mouth, as if they were mouthf uls of ambrosia 
drunk in his ocean home. (164) And, beholding this steed, 
whose like was never before seen, in form fit for the gods, 
meet for the khigdom of the whole universe, (105) possessed 
of all the favourable marks, the perfection of a horse's 
shape, the heart of Candraplcja, though of a nature not 
easily moved, was touched with amazement, and the 
thought arose in his mind : * What jewel, if not this 
wondrous horse, was brought up by the Suras and Asuras 

( 64 

! - •• ■ 

when they churned the waters of ocean and whirled round 
Mount Mandara with the serpent Vasuki revolving in cease- 
less gyration ? And what has Indra gained by his lordship 
of the three worlds if he did not mount this back, broad as 
Mount Meru? Surely Indra was cheated by the ocean 
when his heart was gladdened by Uccaihyravas ! And I 
think that so far he has not crossed the sight of holy 
Narayaiia, who even now does not give up his infatuation 
for riding Garucla. My father's royal glory surpasses the 
riches of the kingdom of heaven, in that treasures such as 
this, which can hardly be gained in the whole universe, 
come here into servitude. From its magnificence and 
energy, this form of his seems the shrine of a god, and 
the truth of this makes me fear to mount him. For forms 
like this, lit for the gods and the wonder of the universe, 
l)elong to no common horse. Even deities, subject to a 
muni's curse, have been known to leave their own bodies 
and inhabit other bodies brought to them by the terms 
of the curse. (lOG) For there is a story of old how 
Sthula(;iras, a muni of great austerity, cursed an Apsaras 
named Eambha, the ornament of the three worlds ; and 
she. leaving heaven, entered the heart of a horse, and thus, 
as the story goes, dwelt for a long time on earth as a mare, 
in the service of King (Jatadhanvan, at MrittikavatI ; and 
many other great-souled beings, having had their glory 
destroyed by the curse of munis, have roamed the 
world in various forms. Surely this must be some noble 
being subject to a curse ! My heart declares his divinity.' 
Thus thinking, he rose, wishing to mount ; and in mind only 
approaching the steed, he prayed thus : * Noble charger, 
thou art that thou art ! All hail to thee ! Yet let my 
audacity in mounting thee be forgiven ! for even deities 
whose presence is unknown taste of a contumely all unmeet 
for them.' 

* ** As if knowing his thought, Indrayudha looked at him 
with eye askance, the pupil turned and partly closed by the 
lashing of his tossing mane, (167) and repeatedly struck 
the ground with his right hoof, till the hair on his chest 


was gray with the dust it cast up, as though summoning 
the prince to mount, with a pleasant whinnying long drawn 
out into a gentle soft murmur blent with the snorting 
of his quivering nostrils. Whereupon Candraplda mounted 
IndnTyudha, as though invited thereunto by his pleasant 
neighing; and, having mounted, he passed out, thinking 
the whole universe but a span long, and beheld a cavalcade 
of which the furthest limits could not be seen ; it deafened 
the hollows of the three worlds with the clatter of hoofs 
breaking up the earth, fierce as a shower of stones let fall 
from the clouds, and with a neighing sounding the fiercer 
from nostrils choked with dust ; it decked the sky with a 
forest of lances all horrent, whose shafts gleamed bright 
when touclied by the sun, like a lake half hidden in a 
grove of blue lotus-buds upborne on their stalks ; from its 
darkening the eight quarters with its thousand umbrellas 
all raised, it was like a mass of clouds iridescent with 
the full arch of Indra's bow shining on them; (1()8) while 
from the horses' mouths being white with foam -flakes cast 
abroad, and from the undulating line of their ceaseless 
curvetting, it rose to sight like a mass of ocean billows 
in the flood of final destruction ; all the horses were in 
motion at Candraplda's approach, as the waves of ocean 
at the moon's rising ; and the princes, each wishing to be 
first in their eagerness to pay their homage, having their 
heads unprotected by the hasty removal of their umbrellas, 
and weary with trying to curb their horses, which were wild 
with trampling on each other, drew around the prince. As 
Iklahaka presented each by name, they bowed, bending 
low their heads, which showed the glow of loyalty under 
the guise of the rays uprising from the rubies in their 
waving crests, and which, from their having buds held 
up in adoration, were like lotuses resting on the water in 
the pitchers of coronation. Having saluted them, Can- 
drapida, accompanied by Yaicampayana, also mounted, 
straightway set out for the city. (1G9) He was shaded by 
a very large umbrella with a gold stick, borne above him, 
formed like the lotus on which royal glory might dwell, 



like the moon's orb to the moon-lotus grove of royal races, 
like an island being formed by the flow of the cavalcade, in 
hue like the circle of Vasuki's hood whitened by the sea of 
milk, garlanded with many a rope of pearls, bearing the 
devico of a lion designed above. The flowers in his ears 
were set dancing by the wind of the cowries waved on 
either side, and his praises were sung by many thousands 
of retainers running before him, young, for the most part, 
and brave, and by the bards, who ceaselessly recited aloud 
auspicious verses, with a soft cry of *Long life and 

* '* And as he passed on his way to the city, like a mani- 
festation of the god of love no longer bodiless,^ all the 
people, like a lotus-grove awakened by the moon's rising, 
left their work and gathered to behold him. 

* *' * Kartikeya scorns the name of Kumara,^ since his own 
form is looked on with scorn by the throng of lotus-faces 
when this prince is by. Surely we reap the reward of great 
virtue in that we behold that godlike form with eyes wide 
with the overllow of love sprung up within us, and upraised 
in eager curiosity. (170) Our birth in this world has now 
brought forth its fruit. Nevertheless, all hail to blessed 
Krishna, who in the guise of Candraplda has assumed a 
new form!' With such words the city folk folded their 
hands in adoration and bowed before him. And from the 
thousand windows which were unclosed from curiosity to 
behold Candrfiplda, the city itself became as it were a mass 
of open eyes ; for straightway on hearing that he had left 
the palace of learning filled with all knowledge, women 
eager to see him mounted the roofs hastily throughout the 
city, leaving their half-done work ; some with mirrors in 
their left hand were like the nights of the full moon, when 
the moon's whole orb is gleaming , some, with feet roseate 
with fresh lac, were like lotus -buds whose flowers had 
drunk the early su4ilight; some, with their tender feet 

* Or, Ananga, naino of Kama. 

" Since ho can only give it the name, not the substance or meaning. 
Kuindra = {a) nauio of Kartikeya ; (6) prince. 


enmeshed in the bells of their girdle, fallen to the ground in 
their haste, were like elephants moving very slowly, checked 
by their chain ; some were robed in- rainbow hues, like the 
beauty of a day in the rainy season ; some raised feet that 
bloHHomed into the white rays of their nails, like tame 
kalaliamsas drawn by the sound of the anklets ; (171) some 
held strings of large pearls in their hands, as if in imitation of 
R;iti with her crystal rosary gras2)ed in grief for the death 
of Love ; some, with wreaths of pearls falling between their 
breasts, were like the glory of evening when the pairs of 
cakravakas are separated by a pure slender stream ; some, 
with rainbow flashes rising from the gems of their anklets, 
shone as if lovingly accompanied by tame peacocks ; some, 
with their jewelled cups half drunk, distilled, as it were, 
from their rosy Hower-like lips a sweet nectar. Others, 
too, with their orbed faces appearing at the interstices of 
the emerald lattices, presented to the eyes a lotus-grove 
with its opening buds traversing the sky, as they gazed on 
the prince. On a sudden there arose a tinkling of orna- 
ments born of hasty motion, with many a sound of lutes 
struck sweetly on their chords, blended with the cry of 
cranes summoned by the clanging of the girdles, accom- 
panied by the noise of peacocks shut up in the zenana and 
rejoicing in the thunder caused by the stairs being struck 
by stumbling feet, (172) soft with the murmur of kala- 
liamsas fluttering in fear of the clash of fresh clouds, 
imitating the triumphant cry of Love, taking captive the 
ears of lovely women with their ropes of jewels resounding 
shrilly as they touched one another, and re-echoing through 
all the corners of the houses. In a moment the dense 
throng of maidens made the palaces seem walled with 
women ; the ground seemed to blossom by the laying on it 
of their lac-strewn lotus-feet ; the city seemed girt with 
grace by the stream of fair forms ; the sky seemed all 
moon by the throng of orbed faces; the circle of space 
seemed a lotus-grove by reason of the hands all raised to 
ward off the heat ; the sunshine seemed robed in rainbows 
by the mass of rays from the jewels, and the day seemed 


formed of blue lotus -petals by the long line oi bright 
glances. As the women gazed on him with eyes fixed 
and widened in curiosity, the form of Candrapida entered 
into their hearts as though they were mirrors or water or 
crystal ; and as the glow of love manifested itself there, 
their graceful speech became straightway mirthful, con- 
fidential, confused, envious, scornful, derisive, coquettish, 
loving, or full of longing. (17Ji) As, for instance : * Hasty 
one, wait for me ! Drunk with gazing, hold thy mantle ! 
Simpleton, lift up the long tresses that hang about thy 
face ! Remove thy moon-digit ornament ! IMinded with 
love, thy feet are caught in the flowers of thine offering, 
and tliou wilt fall! Love -distraught, tie up thy hair! 
Intent on the sight of Candrripl<la, raise thy girdle ! 
Naughty one, lift up the ear-llower waving on thy cheek ! 
Heartless one, pick up thine earring ! Eager in youth, 
thou art being watched ! Cover thy bosom ! Shameless 
one, gather up thy loosened robe ! Artfully artless, go on 
quicker ! Inquisitive girl, take another look at the king ! 
Insatiable, how long wilt thou look *? Fickle-hearted, think 
of thine own i)eople ! Impish girl, thy mantle has fallen, 
and thou art mocked ! Thou whose eyes art filled with 
love, seest thou not thy friends? Maiden full of guile, 
thou wilt live in sorrow with thy heart in causeless 
torment ! Thou who feignest coyness, what mean thy 
crafty glances? (174) look boldly! Bright with youth, 
why rest thy weight against us ? Angry one, go in front ! 
Envious girl, why block up the window? Slave of love, 
thou bringest my outer robe to utter ruin ! Drunk with 
love's breath, restrain thyself ! Devoid of self-control, why 
run before thine elders? Bright in strength, why so 
confusod? Silly girl, hide the thrill of love's fever! Ill- 
behaved girl, why thus weary thyself? Changeful one, thy 
girdle presseth thee, and thou sufferest vainly ! Absent- 
minded, thou heedest not thyself, though outside thy 
house ! Lost in curiosity, thou hast forgotten how to 
breathe ! Thou whose eyes art closed in the happy 
imagination of union with thy beloved, open them ! He 


is passing ! Bereft of sense by the stroke of love's arrow, 
place the end of thy silken robe on thy head to keep off the 
sun's rays ! Thou who hast taken the vow of Sati, thou 
lettest thine eyes wander, not seeing what is to be seen ! 
Wretched one, thou art cast down by the vow not to gaze 
on other men ! Vouchsafe to rise, dear friend, and to look 
at the blessed fish-bannered god,^ without his banner and 
bereft of Rati, visibly present. (175) His crest of malati 
flowers under his uml)iella looks like a mass of moonbeams 
fallen in under the idea that night has set in, on his head 
dark with swarms of bees. His cheek is fair as a garland of 
open ^irlsha flowers touched with green by the splendour of 
his emerald earring. Our youthful glow of love, under the 
guise of rich ruby rays among the pearl necklaces, shines 
out eager to enter his heart. It is so seen by him among 
the cowries. Moreover, what is he laughing at as he talks 
to Yaivampfiyana, so that the circle of space is whitened 
with his bright teeth? Balahaka, with the edge of his 
silken mantle green as a parrot's plumage, is removing 
from the tips of his hair the dust raised by the horses* 
hoofs. His bough-like foot, soft as Lakshml's lotus-hand, 
is raised and s2)ortively cast athwart his horse's shoulder. 
His hand, with tapering fingers and bright as pink lotus- 
buds, is outstretched to its full length to ask for betel-nut, 
just as an elephant's trunk in eagerness for mouthfuls of 
vallisneria. (170) Happy is she who, a fellow-bride with 
earth, shall, like Lakshml, win that hand outvying the 
lotus ! Happy, too, is Queen Vilasavati, by whom he who 
is able to bear the whole earth was nourished in birth, as 
the elephant of the quarters by Space !' 

* ** And as they uttered these and other sayings of the 
same kind, Candraplda, drunk in by their eyes, summoned 
by the tinkling of their ornaments, followed by their hearts, 
bound by the ropes of the rays of their jewels, honoured 
with the off'ering of their fresh youth, bestrewn with flowers 
and rice in salutation like a marriage fire, advancing step 

* Kfiina. 


by step on a mass of white bracelets slipping from their 
languid arms, reached the palace." * 

[Dismounting and leaning on Vai^ampayana, he entered 
the court, preceded by Balahaka, and passing through the 
crowd of attendant kings, beheld his father seated on a 
white couch and attended by his guards.^] 

' '* (181)) And on the chamberlain's saying ' Behold him !* 
the prince, with his head bent low, and its crest shaking, 
while yet afar off made his salutation, and his father, 
crying from afar, * Come, come hither !' stretched forth 
both arms, raised hiniHclf sliglitly from his couch, while his 
eyes filled with tears of joy and a thrill passed over his 
body, and embraced his rovercnitly-bont son as though he 
would bind him faHt- and absorb him, and drink him in. 
And after the embrace, Candraplda sat down on the bare 
ground by his father's fooisiool, kicking away the cloak 
which liad been rolled up and liaHiily made into a neat by 
his own bot(4-nut bearer, and softly bidding her take it away; 
(1!H)) and then Yaic/ampfiyana, being embraced by the king 
like his own son, sat down on a seat placed for him. When 
he had been there a short time, assailed, as it were, by 
glances from the women who stood motionless, with the 
wavhig of the cowries forgotten, glances of love, long as 
strings of lotus stirred by the wind, from line eyes 
tremulous and askant, he was dismissed with the words, 
* Go, my son, salute thy loving mother, who longs to see 
thee, and then in turn gladden all who nurtured thee by 
thy sight.' Respectfully rising, and stopping his suite 
from following him, he went with Vai(;ampayana to the 
zenana, led by the royal servants meet to enter therein, 
and approaching his mother, saluted her " ' [as she sat 
surrounded by lier attendants and by aged ascetic women, 
who read and recited legends to her*]. 

* ** (11)1) She raised him, while her attendants, skilled in 
doing her commands,' stood around her, and, with a loving 

^ buimnury of pp. 170-189. - Lit., ' hgvv liiiii to himself.* 

^ ISuiniiittry of pp. 11)0, 191. 


caress, held him in a long embrace, as though thinking 
inwardly of a hundred auspicious words to say, and 
straightway, when the claims of affection had been 
satisfied, and she had embraced Vai^ampuyana, she sat 
down, and drew Candraplda, who was reverently seated 
on the ground, forcibly and against his will to rest in her 
arms ; (192) and when Yai(;ampriyana was seated on a 
stool quickly brouglit by the attendants, she embraced 
Candrfiplda again and again on brow, breast, and shoulders, 
and said, with many a caroHHing touch : * Hard-hearted, my 
child, was thy fatlier, by whom so fair a form, meet to be 
chorisluid by the whole univorne, was made to undergo 
great fatigue for ho long ! IIow didst thou endure the 
tedious restraint of thy gurus? Indeed, young as thoii 
art, thou hast a strong man's fortitude ! Thy heart, even 
in childhood, has lost all idle liking for childish amusement 
and play. Ah well, all devotion to natural and spiritual 
parents is something apart ; and as I now see thee endowed, 
by thy father's favour, with all knowledge, so I shall soon 
see thee endowed with worthy wives.* Having thus said 
as he bent his head, smiling half in shame, she kissed him 
on the cheek, which was a full reflection of her own, and 
garlanded with open lotuses ; and he, when he had stayed 
a short time, gladdened in turn by his presence the whole 
zenana. Then, departing by the royal door, ho mounted 
Indrriyudha, who was standing outside, and, followed by the 
princes, went to see (^'ukanasa," ' [and at the gate of an 
outer court, tilled with priests of many sects, he dismounted^] 
* ** (104) and entered the palace of Tukanasa, which resem- 
bled a second royal court. On entering he saluted Qukanasa 
like a second father as he stood in the midst of thousands 
of kings, showhig him all respect, with his crest bent low 
even from afar. Tukanasa, (piickly rising, while the kings 
rose one after another, and respectfully advancing straight 
to him, with tears of joy falling from eyes wide with glad- 
ness, heartily, and with great afiection, embraced him, 
together with Yai(;ampriyana. Then the prince, rejecting 
* Summary of p. 193. 

I 72 

the jewelled seat respectfully brought, sat on the bare 
gi'ound, and next to him sat Vai^ampayana ; and when he 
sat on the ground, the whole circle of kings, except (Jukanasa, 
leaving their own seats, sat also on the ground. C^ukanasa 
stood silent for a moment, showing his extreme joy by the 
thrill that passed over his limbs, and then said to the 
princo : * Truly, my child, now that King Tarfipida has 
seen thee grown to youth and possessed of knowledge, he 
has at length gained the fruit of his rule over the universe. 
Now all the blessings of thy parents have been fulfilled. 
Now the merit acquired in many other births has Ijorne 
fruit. Now the gods of thy race are content. (195) For 
they who, like thee, astonish the three worlds, do not 
become the sons of the unworthy. For where is thy age ? 
and where thy superhuman power and thy capacity of reach- 
ing boundless knowledge ? Yea, blessed are those subjects 
who have thee for their protector, one like unto Bharata 
and Bhagiratha. What bright deed of merit was done by 
Earth that she has won thee as lord ? Surely, Lakshml is 
destroyed by pcrHisting in the caprice of dwelling in 
Vishnu's bosom, that she does not approach iheo in mortal 
form! But, nevertheless, do thou with thine arm, as the 
Great Boar with his circle of tusks, bear up for myriads of 
ages the weight of the earth, helping thy father.' Thus 
saying, and offering homage with ornaments, dresses, 
flowers, and unguents, he dismissed him. Thereupon the 
prince, rising, and entering the zenana, visited Yaic^am- 
l)ayana's mother, by name Manorama, and, departing, 
mounted Indrayudha, and went to his palace. It had been 
previously arranged by his father, and had white jars filled 
and placed on the gates, like an image of the royal palace ; 
it had garlands of green sandal boughs, thousands of white 
flags ilying, and filled the air with the sound of auspicious 
instruments of music ; open lotuses were strewn in it. A 
sacrifice to Agni had just been performed, every attendant 
was in bright apparel, every auspicious ceremony for 
entering a house had been prepared. On his arrival he 
sat for a short time on a couch placed in the hall, and 


then, together with his princely retinue, performed the 
day's duties, beginning with bathing and ending with a 
banquet ; (196) and meanwhile he arranged that Indrayudha 
should dwell in his own chamber. 

* ** And in these doings of his the day came to a close ; 
the sun's orb fell with lifted rays like the ruby anklet— its 
interstices veiled in its own light — of the Glory of Day, as 
she hastens from the sky. (108) And when evening had 
begun, Candrfiplda, encircled by a fence of lighted lamps, 
went on foot to the king'H palace, (199) and having stayed a 
short time with his father, and seen Vilfisavati, he returned 
to his own house and lay down on a couch, many-hued 
with the radiance of various gems, like Krishna on the 
circle of (/esha's hoods. 

* ** And wlien night had turned to dawn, he, with his 
father's leave, rose before sunrise, in eagerness for the new 
delight of hunting, and, mounting Indrayudha, went to 
the wood with a great retinue of runners, horses, and 
elephants. His eagerness was doubled by huntsmen lead- 
ing in a golden leusli hounds large as asses. With arrows 
whoso shafts were bright as the loaves of a blossoming 
lotus, and fit to cleave the frontal bones of young wild 
elephants, he slew wild boars, lions, (,*arabhas,^ yaks, and 
many other kinds of deer by thousands, (200) while the 
woodland goddesses looked at him with half-closed eyes, 
fluttered by fear of the twanging of his bow. Other animals 
by his great energy he took alive. And when the sun 
reached the zenith, he rode home from the wood ('201) 
with but a few princes who were well mounted, going over 
the events of the chase, saying : ' Thus I killed a lion, thus 
a bear, thus a buffalo, thus a 9ariibha, thus a stag.' 

* "On dismounting, he sat down on a seat brought hastily 
by his attendants, took off" his corselet, and removed the 
rest of his riding apparel ; he then rested a short time, till 
his weariness was removed by the wind of waving fans ; 
having rested, he went to the bathroom, provided with a 

* (,^arabha, a fabulous animal supposed to have eight legs, and to 
dwell in the snowy mountains. 


hundred pitchers of gold, silver, and jewels, and having a 
gold seat placed in its midst. And when the bath was 
over, and he had been rubbed in a separate room with 
cloths, his head was covered with a strip of pure linen, his 
raiment was put on, and he performed his homage to the 
gods ; and when he entered the perfuming-room, there 
approached him the court women attendants, appointed by 
the grand chamberlain and sent l)y the king, slaves of 
Vilfisavatl, with Kulavardliiinri, and zenana women sent 
from the whole zenana, bearing in baskets diflorent orna- 
ments, wreaths, unguents, and robes, which they presented 
to him. Having taken them in due order from the women, 
he lirst himself anointed Vaic/ampayana. When his own 
anointing was done, and giving to those around him 
flowers, perfumes, robes, and jewels, as was meet, (202) he 
went to the banquet-hall, rich in a thousand jewelled 
vessels, like the autumn sky gleaming with stars. He 
there sat on a doubled rug, wiili Yai(;ampriyana next him, 
eagerly employed, as was litiing, in praising liis virtues, 
and tbe host of princes, placed each in order of seniority on 
the ground, felt the pleasure of their service increascnl by 
seeing tbe great courtesy with which the prince said : * Let 
this be given to him, and that to him !* And so he duly 
partook of his morning meal. 

* *' After rhising his mouth and taking betel, he stayed 
there a short time, and then went to Indrayudha, and there, 
without sitting down, while his attendants stood behind 
him, with upraised faces, awaiting his commands, and 
talking mostly about Indrayudha's points, he himself, with 
heart uplifted by Indruyudha's merits, scattered the fodder 
before him, and departing, visited the court ; aiul in the 
same order of routine he saw the king, and, returning 
home, spent the night there. Next day, at dawn, he beheld 
api)roaching a chamberlain, by name Kailasa, the chief of 
the zenana, greatly trusted by the king, accompanied by a 
maiden of noble form, in her first youth, from her life at 
court self-possessed, yet not devoid of modesty, (208) grow- 
ing to maidenhood, and in her veil of silk red with cochineal. 


resembling the Eastern quarter clothed in early sunshine. 
(204) And Kailasa, bowing and approaching, with his right 
hand placed on the ground, spoke as follows : 

( << < Prince, Queen YilrisavatI bids me say: " This maiden, 
by name Patralekha, daughter of the King of Kuluta, was 
brought with the captives by the great king on his conquest 
of tlie royal city of Kulfiia while she was yet a little child, 
and waH i)laced among the zenana women. And tenderness 
grew up in me towards her, seeing she was a king's 
dauglitor and without a protector, and she was long cared 
for and brouglit up by me just like a daughter. Therefore, 
I now send lior to thoo, thinking her lit to be thy betel- 
bearor ; but she must not be looked on by thee, groat 
prince of many days, as thine otlier attendants. She must 
be cared for as a young maiden ; she must be shielded from 
the thoughtless like thine own nature ; she must be looked 
on as a pupil. (205) Like a friend-, whe must be admitted 
to all thy confidences. By reason of the love that has long 
grown up in mo, my heart rests on her as on my own 
daughter ; and being sprung from a great race, she is litted 
for such duties ; in truth, she herself will in a few days 
charm the prince by her perfect gentleness. My love for 
her is of long growth, and therefore strong; but as the 
prince does not yet know her character, this is told to 
him. Thou must in all ways strive, hapi)y prince, that she 
may long be thy fitting companion." ' When Kailasa had 
thus spoken and was silent, Candraplda looked long and 
steadily at Patralekha as she made a courteous obeisance, 
and with the words, * As my mother wishes,' dismissed the 
chamberlain. And Patralekha, from her first sight of him, 
was filled with devotion to him, and never left the prince's 
side either by night or day, whether he was sleeping, or 
sitting, or standing, or walking, or going to the court, just 
as if she were his shadow ; while he felt for her a great 
aflection, beginning from his first glance at her, and con- 
stantly growing; he daily showed more favour to her, 
and counted her in all his secrets as part of his own 

I 76 

' ** As the days thus passed on, the king» eager for the 
anointing of Candrapnla as crown prince, (206) appointed 
chamberlains to gather together all things needful for it ; 
and when it was at hand, Oukanasa, desirous of increasing 
the prince's modesty, great as it already was, spoke to him 
at length during one of his visits : * Dear Candrfipula, 
thou^'h thou hast loarnt what is to be known, and read all 
the (/astras, no little remains for thee to learn. For truly 
the darkness arising from youth is by nature very thick, 
nor can it bo pierced by the sun, nor cleft by the radiance 
of jewels, nor disptillod by the brightness of lamps. The 
intoxication of LakHhml is terrible, and does not cease even 
in old ago. There is, too, another blindness of power, evil, 
not to be cured by any salve. The fever of pride runs very 
high, and no cooling api)liances can allay it. The madness 
that rises from tasting the poison of the senses is violent, 
and not to bo counionicied by roots or charms. The d(5iile- 
ment of the stain of i)aHKi()n is never destroyed by bathing 
or purification. The sleep of the multitude of royal pleasures 
is ever terrible, and tlie end of night brings no waking. 
Thus thou must often be told at length. Lordship inherited 
even from birth, fresh youth, peerless beauty, superhuman 
talent, all this is a long succession of ills. (207) Each of 
these separately is a home of insolence ; how much more 
the assemblage of them ! For in early youth the mind 
often loses its purity, though it be cleansed with the i)ure 
waters of the (/astras. The eyes of the young become 
inflamed, though their clearness is not quite lost. Nature, 
too, when the whirlwind of passion arises, carries a man 
far in youth at its own will, like a dry leaf borne on the 
wind. This mirage of pleasuria, which captivates this senses 
as if they were deer, always ends in sorrow. When the 
mind has its consciousness dulled by early youth, the char- 
acteristics of the outer world fall on it like water, all the 
more sweetly for being but just tasted. Extreme clinging 
to the things of sense destroys a man, misleading him like 
ignorance of his bearings. But men such as thou art the 
fitting vessels for instruction. For on a mind free from 


Btain the virtue of good counsel enters easily, as the moon's 
rays on a moon crystal. The words of a guru, though pure, 
yet cause great pain when they enter the ears of the bad, 
as water does ; (208) while in others they produce a nobler 
beauty, like the ear- jewel on an elephant. They remove 
the thick darknena of many sins, like the moon in the 
gloaming.^ The teaching of a guru is calming, and brings 
to an end the faultH of youth by turning them to virtue, 
juHt aH old ago takes away the dark stain of the locks by 
turning thorn to gray, Thip is the time to teach thee, 
whilo thou hawt not yot tawtod the ploawuros of sonse. For 
toacliing poui'H away like wator in a heart whattorod by the 
btroko of love's arrow. Family and sacred tradition are 
unavailing to the f reward and undiwciplined. Does a fire 
not burn when fed on sandal-wood ? Is not the submarine 
ih'o the fiercer in the water that is wont to quench lire ? 
But the words of a guru are a bathing without water, aide 
to cloanHO all the stains of n\an ; they are a maturity that 
changes not the locks to gray ; they give weight without 
increase of bulk ; though not wrought of gold, they are an 
ear-jewel of no common order ; witbout light they shine ; 
without startling they awaken. They are specially needed 
for kings, for the admonishers of kings are few. (20\i) For 
from fear, men follow like an echo the words of kings, and 
so, being unbridled in their pride, and having the cavity of 
their oars wholly Ktop[)ed, they do not hear good advice 
even when ofl'ered ; and when they do hear, by closing 
their eyes like an elephant, they show their contempt, and 
pain the teachers who offer them good counsel. For the 
nature of kingH, being darkened by the madness of pride's 
fever, is perturbed ; their wealth causes arrogance and false 
self-esteem ; their royal glory causes the torpor brought 
about by the poiyon of kingly power. First, let one who 
strives after happiness look at Lakshmi. For this Lakshmi, 
who now rests like a bee on the lotus-grove of a circle of 
naked swords, has risen from the milk ocean, has taken her 
glow from the buds of the coral-tree, her crookedness from 
* (a) Many sins ; (6) twilight. 

I 78 

the moon's digit, her reBtlessness from the steed Uccaih- 
<;rava, her witchery from Kalakuta poison, her intoxication 
from nectar, and from the Kaustubha gem her hardness. 
(210) All these she has taken as keepsakes to relieve her 
longing with memory of her companions' friendship. There 
is nothing so little understood here in the world as this 
base Lakshml. When won, she is hard to keep ; when 
bound fast by the firm cords of heroism, she vanishes; 
when luild by a cjigo of swords brandished by a thousand 
iierco champions, she yet escapes^ when guarded by a 
tliick band of elephants, dark with a storm of ichor, she 
yet flees away. She keeps not friendships ; she regards not 
race ; she rocks not of beauty ; she follows not the fortunes 
of a family ; she looks not on character ; she counts not 
clciverness ; she hoars not sacred huirning ; she courts not 
righteousness ; she honours not liberality ; she vahu^s not 
discrimination ; she guards not conduct ; slie understands 
not trutli ; she makes not ausjncious marks her guide ; like 
the outline of an ai-rial city, she vanishes even as ^\e look 
on her. She is still dizzy with the feeling produced by the 
eddying of the whirlpool made by Mount Mandara. As if 
she were the tip of a lotus-stalk bound to the varying 
motion of a lotus-bed, she gives no firm foothold anywhere. 
Even when held fast with great effort in palaces, she 
totters as if drunk with the ichor of their many wild 
elepliants. ('ill) She dwells on the sword's edge as if to 
learn cruelty. She clings to the form of Narayaiia as if to 
learn constant change of form. Full of fickleness, she 
leaves even a king, richly endowed with friends, judicial 
power, treasure, and territory, as she leaves a lotus at the 
end of day, though it have root, stalk, bud, and wide- 
spreading petals. Like a creeper, she is ever a parasite.^ 
Like Ganga, though producing wealth, she is all astir with 
bubbles ; like the sun's ray, she alights on one thing after 
another ; like the cavity of hell, she is full of dense dark- 
ness. Like the demon Hidamba, her heart is only won by 
the courage of a Bhima ; like the rainy season, she sends 
* Lit., (a) climbs trees ; (b) protects parasites. 


forth but a momentary flash ; like an evil demon, she, with 
the height of many raen,^ crazes the feeble mind. As if 
jealous, she embraces not him whom learning has favoured ; 
she touches not the virtuous man, as being impure; she 
despises a lofty nature as unpropitious ; she regards not 
the gently-born, as useless. She leaps over a courteous 
man as a snake ; (212) she avoids a hero as a thorn ; she 
forgets a giver as a nightmare; she keepn far from a 
temperate man as a villain ; hIio mocks at the wise as u 
fool ; she manifests her ways in the world uh if in a jugglery 
that unites contradictions. For, though creating constant 
fever,- she produces a chill ;•* though exalting men, she 
shows lowness of soul ; though rining from water, she 
augrneiilH thirst ; though bestowing lordship,^ she shows an 
unlordly^ nature; though loading men with power, she 
dopriviss them of weight;'* though sister of nectar, she 
leaves a bitter taste ; though of earthly inould,^ she itf 
invisible ; though attached to the highest,^ she loves the 
base ; like a creature of dust, she soils even the i)ure. 
Moreover, let this wavering one shine as she may, she yet, 
like lamplight, only sends forth lamp-black. For she is 
the fostering rain of theiwison-plantsof desire, theliunter's 
luring Kong to the (le(;r of the senses, the polluting smoke 
to the pictures of virtue, the luxurious couch of infatuation's 
long sleep, the ancient watch-tower of the demons of pride 
and wealth. (21 JJ) 8he is the cataract gathering over eyes 
lighted by the (;astras, the banner of the reckless, the native 
stream of the alligators of wrath, the tavern of the mead of 
the senses, the music-hall of alluring dances, the lair of the 
serpents of sin, the rod to drive out good practices. She is 
the untimely rain to the kalahanisas^ of the virtues, the 

1 (a) Showing the elevation of many men ; (6) rising in stature to 
the height of many men. 

- Or, arrogance. -* Or, stupidity. 

•* Or, wealth. ^ Or, ill-fortune. 

« Balam = {a) strength; {h) army. Laghuvia^{a) lightness; (b) 

7 Vtgrahavati= (a) having a body ; (6) full of strife. 

** Purushottama, i.e., Vishnu. 

" The rainy season sends away the hamsaa. 


hotbed of the pustules of scandal, the prologue of the 
drama of fraud, the roar of the elephant of passion, the 
slaughter-house of goodness, the tongue of llahu for the 
moon of holiness. Nor see I any who has not been 
violently embraced by her while she was yet unknown to 
him, and whom she has not deceived. Truly, even in a 
picture she moves ; even in a book she practises magic ; even 
cut in a gem she deceives ; even when hoard she misisads ; 
even when thought on she betrays. 

* ** * When this wretched evil creature wins kings after 
great toil by the will of destiny, they become helpless, and 
the abode of every shameful deed. For at the very 
moment of coronation their graciousness is washed away 
as if by the auspicious water-jars; (214) their heart is 
darkened as by the smoke of the sacrificial fire; their 
patience is swept a\yay as by the ku(;a brooms of the priest ; 
their remembrance of advancing ago is concealed as by the 
donning of the turban ; the sight of the next world is kept 
afar as by the umbrella's circle ; truth is removed as by the 
wind of the cowries ; virtue is driven out as by the wands 
of ollice ; the voices of the good are drowned as by cries of 
** All hail !" and glory is flouted as by the streamers of the 

* '* * For some kings are deceived by successes which are 
uncertain as the tremulous beaks of birds when loose from 
wearhiess, and which, though pleasant for a moment as a 
firefly's flash, are contemned by the wise; they forget their 
origin in the pride of amassing a little wealth, and are 
troubled by the onrush of passion as by a blood-poisoning 
brought on by accumulated diseases ; they are tortured by 
the senses, which though but five, in their eagerness to 
taste every pleasure, turn to a thousand ; they are be- 
wildered by the mind, which, in native fickleness, follows its 
own impulses, and, being but one, gets the force of a 
hundred thousand -in its changes. Thus they fall into 
utter helplessness. They are seized by demons, conquered 
by imps, (215) possessed by enchantments, held by 
monsters, mocked by the wind, swallowed by ogres. 


Pierced by the arrows of Kama, they make a thousand 
contortions ; scorched by covetousness, they writhe ; struck 
down by fierce blows, they sink down.* Like crabs, they 
sidle ; like cripples, with steps broken by sin, they are led 
helpless by others ; like stammerers from former sins of 
falsehood, they can scarce babble ; like saptacchada^ trees, 
they produce headache in those near them ; like dying 
men, they know not even their kin ; like purblind' men, 
they cannot see the brightest virtue ; like men bitten in a 
fatal hour, they are not waked even by mighty charms ; 
like lac-ornamentH, thoy cannot endure strong heat ;* like 
rogue elepliants, being firmly fixed to the pillar of self- 
conceit, thoy refuse t(3achiiig ; bewildered by the poison of 
covetousness, they see everything as golden ; like arrows 
sharpened by polishing,'^ when in the hands of others they 
cause destruction ; (210) with their rods'^ they strike down 
great families, like high-growing fruit ; like untimely 
blossoms, though fair outwardly, they cause destruction ; 
they are terrible of nature, like the ashes of a funeral pyre ; 
like men with cataract, they can see no distance ; like men 
possessed, they have their houses ruled by court jesters ; 
when but heard of, they terrify, like funeral drums ; when 
but thought of, like a resolve to commit mortal sin, they 
bring about great calamity ; being daily iilled with sin, they 
become wholly puffed up. In this state, having allied them- 
selves to a hundred sins, thoy are like drops of water 
hanging on the tip of the grass on an anthill, and have 
fallen without perceiving it. 

* ** * But others are deceived by rogues intent on their 
own ends, greedy of the flesh-pots of wealth, cranes of the 
palace lotus-beds! ** Gambling," say these, "is a relaxa- 
tion ; adultery a sign of cleverness ; hunting, exercise ; 
drinking, delight ; recklessness, heroism ; neglect of a 
wife, freedom from infatuation ; (217) contempt of a guru's 
words, a claim to others' submission ; unruliness of servants, 

^ Lit., their limbs fail them. * Which have a strong scent. 

3 Men having throbbing eyes. * (a) A noble man ; (6) fire. 

^ Or, drink. « Or, taxes. 


the ensuring of pleaBunt service; devotion to dance, song, 
music, and bad company, is knowledge of the world ; 
hearkening to shameful crimes is greatness of mind ; tame 
endurance of contempt is patience ; self-will is lordship ; 
disregard of the gods is high spirit ; the praise of bards is 
glory ; restlessness is enterprise ; lack of discernment is 
impartiality.** Thus are kings deceived with more than 
mortal praises by men ready to raise faults to the grade of 
virtues, practised in deception, laughing in their hearts, 
utterly villainous ; and thus these monarchs, by reason of 
their senselessness, have their minds intoxicated by the 
pride of wealth, and have a settled false conceit in them 
that these things are really so ; though subject to mortal 
conditions, they look on themselves as having alighted on 
earth as divine beings with a superhuman destiny ; they 
employ a pomp in their undertakings only fit for gods (218) 
and win the contempt of all mankind. They welcome this 
deception of themselves by their followers. From the 
delusion as to their own divinity established in their minds, 
they are overthrown by false ideas, and they think their 
own pair of arms have received another pair ;^ they imagine 
their forehead has a third eye buried in the skin.- They 
consider the sight of themselves a favour ; they esteem 
their glance a benefit; they regard their words as a 
present ; they hold their command a glorious boon ; they 
deem their touch a purification. Weighed down by the 
pride of their false greatness, they neither do homage to the 
gods, nor reverence Brahmans, nor honour the honourable, 
nor salute those to whom salutes are due, nor address 
those who should be addressed, nor rise to greet their gurus. 
They laugli at the learned as losing in useless labour all 
the enjoyment of pleasure ; they look on the teaching of 
the old as the wandering talk of dotage ; they abuse the 
advice of their councillors as an insult to their own wis- 
dom ; they are wroth with the giver of good counsel. 

* ** * At all events, the man the}^ welcome, with whom 
they converse, whom they place l)y their side, advance, (219) 
1 Like Vishnu. '-* Like Civa. 


take as companion of their pleasure and recipient of their 
gifts, choose as a friend, the man to whose voice they 
listen, on whom they rain favours, of whom they think 
highly, in whom they trust, is he who does nothing day 
and night but ceaselessly Salute them, praise them as 
divine, and exalt their greatness. 

* ** ' What can we expect of those kings whose standard 
is a law of deceit, pitiless in the cruelty of its maxims ; 
whose gurus are family priests, with natures made merci- 
less by magic rites ; whose teachers are councillors skilled 
to deceive others ; whose hearts are set on a power that 
hundreds of kings before them have gained and lost ; whose 
skill in weapons is only to inflict death ; whose brothers, 
tender as their hearts may be with natural affection, are 
only to be slaughtered. 

* ** * Therefore, ray Prince, in this post of empire which 
is terrible in the hundreds of evil and perverse impulses 
which attend it, and in this season of youth which leads to 
utter infatuation, thou must strive earnestly not to be 
scorned by thy people, nor blamed by the good, nor cursed 
by thy gurus, nor reproached by thy friends, nor grieved 
over by the wise. Strive, too, that thou be not exposed by 
knaves, (220) deceived by sharpers, preyed upon by villains, 
torn to pieces by wolvish courtiers, misled by rascals, 
deluded by women, cheated by fortune, led a wild dance by 
pride, maddened by desire, assailed by the things of sense, 
dragged headlong by passion, carried away by pleasure. 

* " ' Granted that by nature thou art steadfast, and that 
by thy father's care thou art trained in goodness, and 
moreover, that wealth only intoxicates the light of nature, 
and the thoughtless, yet my very delight in thy virtues 
makes me speak thus at length. 

* ** * Let this saying be ever ringing in thine ears : There 
is none so wise, so prudent, so magnanimous, so gracious, 
so steadfast, and so earnest, that the shameless wretch 
Fortune cannot grind him to powder. Yet now mayest 
thou enjoy the consecration of thy youth to kinghood by 
thy father under happy auspices. Bear the yoke handed 


down to thee that thy forefathers have borne. Bow the 
heads of thy foes ; raise the host of thy friends ; after thy 
coronation wander round the world for conquest; and 
bring under thy sway the earth with its seven continents 
subdued of yore by thy father. 

' ** * This is the time to crown thyself with glory. (221) 
A glorious king has his commands fulfilled as swiftly as a 
great ascetic* 

* " Having said thus much, he was silent, and by his 
words Candraplda was, as it were, washed, wakened, 
purified, brightened, bedewed, anointed, adorned, cleansed, 
and made radiant, and with glad heart he returned after a 
short time to his own palace. 

* *' Some days later, on an auspicious day, the king, 
surrounded by a thousand chiefs, raised aloft, with (^uka- 
nasa's help, the vessel of consecration, and himself anointed 
his son, while the rest of the rites were performed by the 
family priest. The water of consecration was brought from 
every sacred pool, river and ocean, encircled by every 
plant, fruit, earth, and gem, mingled with tears of joy, and 
purified by mantras. At that very moment, while the 
prince was yet wet with the water of consecration, royal 
glory passed on to him without leaving Taraplda, as a 
creeper still clasping its own tree passes to another. (222) 
Straightway he was anointed from head to foot by Vilasa- 
vatl, attended by all the zenana, and full of tender love, 
with sweet sandal white as moonbeams. He was gar- 
landed with fresh white flowers ; decked^ with lines of 
gorocana ; adorned with an earring of dilrva grass ; clad in 
two new silken robes with long fringes, white as the moon ; 
bound with an amulet round his hand, tied by the family 
priest; and had his breast encircled by a i^earl-necklace, 
like the circle of the Seven liishis come down to see his 
coronation, strung on filaments from the lotus-pool of the 
royal fortune of young royalty. 

* ** From the complete concealment of his body by 
wreaths of white flowers interwoven and hanging to his 

1 Lit., 'inlaid.' 


knees, soft as moonbeams, and from his wearing snowy 
robes he was like Narasimha, shaking his thick mane/ 
or like Kailasa, with its flowing streams, or Airavata, rough 
with the tangled lotus-fibres "of the heavenly Ganges, or the 
Milky Ocean, all covered with flakes of bright foam. 

(223) ' *' Then his father himself for that time took the 
chamberlain's wand to make way for him, and he went to 
the hall of assembly and mounted the royal throne, like 
the moon on Meru's peak. Then, when he had received 
due homage from the kings, after a short pause the 
great drum that heralded his setting out on his triumphal 
course resounded deeply, under the stroke of golden drum- 
sticks. Its sound was as the noise of clouds gathering at 
the day of doom ; or the ocean struck by Mandara ; or the 
foundations of earth by the earthquakes that close an aeon ; 
or a portent-cloud, with its flashes of lightning; or the 
hollow of hell by the blows of the snout of the Great Boar. 
And by its sound the spaces of the world were inflated, 
opened, separated, outspread, filled, turned sunwise, and 
deepened, and the bonds that held the sky were unloosed. 
The echo of it wandered through the three worlds ; for it 
was embraced in the lower world by Cesha, with his 
thousand hoods raised and bristling in fear ; it was chal- 
lenged in space by the elephants of the quarters tossing 
their tusks in opposition ; it was honoured with sunwise 
turns in the sky by the sun's steeds, tossing^ their heads 
in their snort of terror ; (224) it was wondrously answered 
on Kailasa's peak by Civa's bull, with a roar of joy in the 
belief that it was his master's loudest laugh ; it was met in 
Meru by Airavata, with deep trumj^eting ; it was reverenced 
in the hall of the gods by Yama's bull, with his curved 
horns turned sideways in wrath at so strange a sound ; and 
it was heard in terror by the guardian gods of the world. 

* ** Then, at the roar of the drum, followed by an outcry 
of * All hail !' from all sides, Candraplda came down from 
the throne, and with him went the glory of his foes. He 

* Or, kesara flowers. * Recaha, so commentary. 


left the hall of assembly, followed by a thousand chiefs, 
who rose hastily around him, strewing on all sides the large 
I^earls that fell from the strings of their necklaces as they 
struck against each other, like rice sportively thrown as a 
good omen for their setting off to C( nquer the world. He 
showed Hke the coral-tree amid the white buds of the 
kalim-trees ;^ or Airavata amid the elephants of the 
quarters bedewing him with water from their trunks; or 
heaven, with the firmament showering stars; or the rainy 
season with clouds ever pouring lieavy drops. 

(225) * ** Then an elephant was hastily brought by the 
mahout, adorned with all auspicious signs for the journey, 
and on the inner seat Patralekhfi was placed. The prince 
then mounted, and under the shade of an umbrella with a 
hundred wires enmeshed with pearls, beauteous as Kailasa 
standing on the arms of Rfivana, and white as the whirl- 
pools of the Milky Ocean under the tossing of the mountain, 
he started on his journey. And as he paused in his 
departure he saw the ten quarters tawny with the rich 
sunlight, surpassing molten lac, of the flashing crest-jewels 
of the kings who watched him with faces hidden behind 
the ramparts, as if the light were the fire of his own 
majesty, flashing forth after his coronation. He saw the 
earth bright as if with his own glow of loyalty when 
anointed as heir-apparent, and the sky crimson as with the 
flame that heralded the swift destruction of his foes, and 
daylight roseate as with lac-juice from the feet of the 
Lakshml of earth coming to greet him. 

* " On the way hosts of kings, with their thousand 
elephants swaying in confusion, their umbrellas broken by 
the pressure of the crowd, their crest-jewels falling low as 
their diadems bent in homage, (226) their earrings hanging 
down, and the jewels falling on their cheeks, bowed low 
before him, as a trusted general recited their names. The 
elephant Gandhamadana followed the prince, pink with 
much red lead, dangling to the ground his ear-ornaments 
of pearls, having his head outlined with many a wreath of 
* Both trees of paradise. 


white flowers, like Meru with evening sunlight resting on 
it, the white stream of Ganges falling across it, and the 
spangled roughness of a bevy of stars on its peak. Before 
Candrapi(]a went Indrayudha, led by his groom, perfumed 
with saffron and many-hued, with the flash of golden 
trappings on his limbs. And so the expedition slowly 
started towards the Eastern Quarter.^ 

* ** Then the whole army set forth with wondrous turmoil, 
with its forest of umbrellas stirred by the elephants' move- 
ments, like an ocean of destruction reflecting on its 
advancing waves a thousand moons, flooding the earth. 

(227) * " When the prince left his palace Vaiyampayana 
performed every auspicious rite, and then, clothed in 
white, anointed with an ointment of white flowers, accom- 
panied by a great host of powerful kings, shaded by a white 
umbrella, followed close on the prince, mounted on a swift 
elephant, like a second Crown Prince, and drew near to him 
like the moon to the sun. Straightway the earth heard on 
all sides the cry : * The Crown Prince has started !' and 
shook with the weight of the advancing army. 

(228) * ** In an instant the earth seemed as it were made 
of horses ; the horizon, of elephants ; the atmosphere, of 
umbrellas ; the sky, of forests of pennons ; the wind, of the 
scent of ichor ; the human race, of kings ; the eye, of the 
rays of jewels ; the day, of crests ; the universe, of cries 
of * All hail!' 

(228-2U4 condensed) ' '*The dust rose at the advance of 
the army like a herd of elephants to tear up the lotuses of 
the sunbeams, or a veil to cover the Lakshml of the three 
worlds. Day became earthy ; the quarters were modelled 
in clay ; the sky was, as it were, resolved in dust, and the 
whole universe appeared to consist of but one element. 

V (234) * ** When the horizon became clear again, Vai- 
^ampayana, looking at the mighty host which seemed to 
rise from the ocean, was filled with wonder, and, turning 
his glance on every side, said to Candrapida : * What, 
prince, has been left unconquered by the mighty King 

' » The quarter of (,'attiknitu or Indra. 


Taraplcja, for thoe to conquer ? What regions unsubdued, 
for thee to subdue ? (235) What fortresses untaken, for 
thee to take ? What continents unappropriated, for thee 
to appropriate? What treasures ungained, for thee to 
gain? What kings have not been humbled? By whom 
have the raised hands of salutation, soft as young lotuses, 
not been placed on the head ? By whoso brows, encircled 
with golden bands, have the floors of his halls not been 
polished ? Whose crest-jewels have not scraped his foot- 
stool ? Who have not accepted his stufT of ollice ? Who 
have not waved his cowries? Who have not raised the 
cry of " Hail !" ? Who have not drunk in with the crocodiles 
of their crests, the radiance of his foot, like pure streams ? 
For all these princes, though they are imbued with the 
pride of armies, ready in their rough play to plunge into 
the four oceans ; though they are the peers of the groat 
kings ])a(;aratlia, Bhaglrailui, Blmrata, Dillpa, Alarka, and 
Mrindliatri ; though they are anointed princes, soma- 
drinkers, haughty in the pride of birth, yet they bear on 
the sprays of crests purified with the shower of the water 
of conBecration the dust of thy feet of happy omen, like an 
amulet of ashes. By them as by fresh noble mountains, 
the earth is upheld. These their armies that have entered 
the heart of the ten regions follow thee alone. (2JJ()) For 
lo I wherever thy glance is cast, hell seems to vomit forth 
armies, the earth to bear them, the quarters to discharge 
them, the sky to rain them, the day to create them. And 
methinks the earth, trampled by the weight of boundless 
hosts, recalls to-day the confusion of the battles of the 

* " ' Here the sun wanders in the groves of pennons, with 
his orb stumbling over their tops, as if he were trying, out of 
curiosity, to count the banners. The earth is ceaselessly 
submerged under ichor sweet as cardamons, and flowing 
like a plait of hair, from the elephants who scatter it all 
round, and thick, too, with the murmur of the bees settling 
on it, so that it shines as if fllled with the waves of Yamuna, 
The lines of moon-white flags hide the horizon, like rivers 


that in fear of being made turbid by the heavy host have 
fled to the sky. It is a wonder that the earth has not 
to-day been split into a thousand pieces by the weight of 
the army ; and that the bonds of its joints, the noble 
mountains, are not burst asunder ; and that the hoods of 
(;esha, the lord of serpents, in distress at the burden of earth 
pressed down under the load of troops, do not give way/ 

(287) ' *' AVliile he was thus speaking, the prince reached 
his palace. It was adorned witli many lofty triumphal 
arches ; dotted with a tliounand pavilions enclosed in 
grassy ramparts, and bright with many a tent of shining 
white cloth. Hero he diHmount{3d, and porformod in kingly 
wise all duo rites ; and though the kings and ministers who 
had come together sought to divert him with various tales, 
ho spoilt the rest of tlui day in sorrow, for his heart was 
tortured with bitter grief foi* his fresh separation from his 
father. When day was brought to a closo he passed the 
night, too, mostly in slenplcHsness, with Vai<;ampriyana 
renting on a couch not far from his own, and Patralekha 
sleeping hard by on a blanket placed on the ground; hia 
talk was now of his father, now of his mother, now of 
(/ukanasa, and he rested but little. At dawn he arose, and 
with an army that grew at every march, as it advanced 
in unchanged order, he hollowed the earth, shook the 
mountains, dried the rivers, emptied the lakes, (288) 
crushed the woods to powder, levelled the crooked places, 
tore down the fortresses, lilled up the hollows, and hollowed 
the solid ground. 

* " l]y degrees, as he wandered at will, he bowed the 
hauglity, exalted the humble, encouraged the fearful, pro- 
tected the suppliant, rooted out the vicious, and drove out 
tho hostile. He anointed princes in different places, 
gathered treasures, accepted gifts, took tribute, taught local 
regulatioiiH, established monuments of his visit, made 
hymns of worship, and inscribed edicts. He honoured 
Brahmans, reverenced saints, protected hermitages, and 
showed a prowess that won his people's love. He exalted 
hia majesty, heaped up his glory, showed his virtues far 


and wide, and won renown for his good deeds. Thus 
trampling down the woods on the shore, and turning the 
whole expanse of ocean to gray with the dust of his army, 
he wandered over the earth. 

* " The East was his first conquest, then the Southern 
Quarter, marked by Tri(;anku, then the Western Quarter, 
wliich has Varuna for its sign, and immediately afterwards 
the Northern Quarter adorned by the Seven Rishis. 
"Within the three years that he roamed over the world he 
had subdued the whole earth, with its continents, bounded 
only by the moat of four oceans. 

(239) *'*ne then, wandering sunwise, conquered and 
occupied Suvariuipura, not far from the Eastern Ocean, the 
abode of those Kirfitas who dwell near Kailasa, and are called 
Hemajakutas, and as his army was weary from its world- 
wide wandering, ho encamped there for a few days to rest. 

* ** One day during his sojourn there he mounted Indra- 
yudha to hunt, and as he roamed through the wood he 
beheld a pair of Kinnaras wandering down at will from the 
mountains. Wondering at the strange sight, and eager to 
take them, he brought up his horse respectfully near them 
and approached them. But they hurried on, fearing the 
unknown sight of a man, and fleeing from him, while he 
pursued them, doubling IndnTyudha's speed by frequent 
pats on his neck, and wont on alone, leaving his army far 
behind. Led on by the idea that he was just catching 
them, he was borne in an instant fifteen leagues from his 
own quarters by Indrfiyudha's speed as it were at one 
bound, and was left companionless. (240) The pair of 
Kinnaras he was pursuing were climbing a steep hill in 
front of him. He at length turned away his glance, which 
was following their progress, and, checked by the steepness 
of the ascent, reined in Indrayudha. Then, seeing that 
both his horse and himself were tired and heated by their 
toils, he considered for a moment, and laughed at himself 
as he thought : * Why have I thus wearied myself for 
nothing, like a child? What matters it whether I catch 
the pair of Kinnaras or not ? If caught, what is the good ? 


if missed, what is the harm? What a folly this is of 
mine I What a love of busying myself in any trifle I What 
a passion for aimless toil! What a clinging to childish 
pleasure ! The good work I was doing has been begun in 
vain. The needful rite I had begun has been rendered 
fruitless. The duty of friendship I undertook has not been 
performed. The royal office I was 'employed in has not 
been fulfilled. The great task I had entered on has not 
been completed. My earnest labour in a worthy ambition 
has been brought to nought. Why have I been so mad as 
to leave my followers behind and come so far? (211) and 
why have I earned for myself the ridicule I should bestow 
on another, when I think how aimlessly I have followed 
these monsters with their liorHes* heads ? I know not how 
far off is the army that follows me. For the swiftness of 
Indrfiyudha traverses a vast space in a moment, and his 
speed prevented my noticing as I came by what path I 
should turn back, for my eyes were fixed on the Kinnaras ; 
and now I am in a great forest, spread underfoot with dry 
leaves, with a dense growth of creepers, underwood, and 
branching trees. Roam as I may here I cannot light on 
any mortal who can show me the way to Suvarnapura. I 
have often heard that Suvarnapura is the farthest bound 
of earth to the north, and that beyond it lies a supernatural 
forest, and beyond that again is Kailasa. This then is 
Kailasa ; so I must turn back now, and resolutely seek to 
make my way unaided to the south. For a man must 
bear the fruit of his own faults.' 

* " With this purpose he shook the reins in his left hand, . 
and turned the horse's head. Then he again reflected: 
(242) ' The blessed sun with glowing light now adorns the 
south, as if he were the zone-gem of the glory of day. 
Indrayudha is tired ; I will just let him eat a few mouthfuls 
of grass, and then let him bathe and drink in some 
mountain rill or river; and when he is refreshed I will 
myself drink some water, and after resting a short time 
under the shade of a tree, I will set out again.* 

* *' So thinking, constantly turning his eyes on every side 


for water, he wandered till at length he saw a track wet 
with masses of mud raised by the feet of a large troop of 
mountain elephants, who had lately come up from bathing 
in a lotus-pool. (243) Inferring thence that there was 
water near, he went straight on along the slope of Kailuna, 
the trees of which, closely crowded as they were, seemed, 
from thoir lack of boughs, to bo far apart, for they were 
mostly pines, (/fd, and gum olibanum trees, and were lofty, 
and like a circle of umbrellas, to bo gazed at with upraised 
head. There was thick yollow sand, and by reason of the 
stony soil the grass and shrubs wore but scanty. 

(244) * ** At length he boheld, on the north-oast of Kailusa, 
a very lofty clump of trees, rising like a mass of clouds, 
heavy with its weight of rain, and massed as if with the 
darkness of a night in the dark fortnight. 

* ** The wind from the waves, soft as sandal, dewy, cool 
from passing over the water, aromatic with flowers, met 
him, and seemed to woo him ; and the cries of kalahamsas 
drunk with lotus-honey, cliarming his ear, summoned him 
to enter. So he wont into that clump, and in its midst 
behold the Acchoda Lake, as if it wore the mirror of the 
LakshniT of the three worlds, the crystal chamber of the 
goddess of earth, the path by which the waters of ocean 
escape, the oozing of the quarters, the avatar of part of the 
sky, Kailasa taught to flow, Ilimavat liquoliod, moonlight 
melted, (yiva's smile turned to water, (245) the merit of the 
three worlds abiding in the shape of a lake, a range of hills 
of lapis lazuli changed into water, or a mass of autunm 
clouds poured down in one spot. From its clearness it 
might be Varuna's mirror ; it seemed to be fashioned of 
the hearts of ascetics, the virtues of good men, the bright 
eyes of deer, or the rays of pearls. 

(247) * ** Like the person of a great man, it showed clearly 
the signs of lish, crocodile, tortoise, and cakra ;* like the 
story of Kiirtikeya^ the lamentations of the wives of 
Kraunca^ resounded in it ; it was shaken by the wings of 

* All uuRpicious Higns. Cakra U (a) a quoit ; (6) a oakravuku. 
^ ((f) A demon ; (/>) tho lioroii. 

. 98 

white Dhartarashtras, as the Mahabharata by the rivalry 
of Pandavas and Dhartarashtras; and the drinking of 
poison by (viva was represented by the drinking of its water 
by peacocks, as if it were the time of the churning of ocean. 
It was fair, like a god, with a gaze that never wavers. 
(218) Like a futile argument, it seemed to have no end ; 
and was a lake most fair and gladdening to the eyes. 

' ** The very sight of it scorned to remove Candrupi<la*8 
weariness, and as he gazed ho thought : 

* *** Though my pursuit of the horse-faced i)air was 
fruitless, yet now that I hoc this lake it has gained its 
reward. My eyes' reward in beholding all that is to be 
seen has now been won, the furthest point of all fair things 
seen, the limit of all that gladdens us gazed, upon, the 
boundary line of all that charms us descried, the perfection 
of all that causes joy made manifest, and the vanishing- 
point of all worthy of sight beheld. (21!)) 13y creating this 
lake water, sweet as nectar, the Creator has made his own 
labour of creation superfluous. For this, too, like the 
nectar that gladdens all the senses, produces joy to the eye 
by its purity, ofYers the pleasure of touch by its coolness, 
gladdens the sense of smell by the fragrance of its lotuses, 
pleases the ear with the coasoless murmur of its haipsas, 
and delights the taste with its sweetness. Truly it is from 
eagerness to behold this that Oiva leaves not his infatuation 
for dwelling on Kailana. Surely Krishna no longer follows 
his own natural desire as to a watery couch, for he sleeps 
on the ocean, with its water bitter with salt, and leaves this 
water sweet as nectar ! Nor is this, in sooth, the primaeval 
lake ; for the earth, when fearing the blows of the tusks of 
the boar of destruction, entered the ocean, all the waters of 
which were designed but to be a draught for Agastya ; 
whereas, if it had plunged into this mighty lake, deep as 
many deep hells, it could not have been reached, I say not 
by one, but not even by a thousand boars. (250) Verily it 
is from this lake that the clouds of doom at the seasons of 
final destruction draw little by little their water when they 
overwhelm the interstices of the universe, and darken all 


the quarters with their destroying storm. And methhiks 
that the world, Brahma's egg, which in the beginning of 
creation was made of water, was massed together and 
placed hero under the guiHC of a lake.* So thinking, he 
reached the south bank, dismounted and took off Indra- 
yudha's harness ; (251) and the latter rolled on the ground, 
arose, ate some mouthfuls of grass, and then the prince 
took him down to the lake, and let him drink and bathe at 
will. After that, the prince took off his bridle, bound two 
of his feet by a golden chain to the lower bough of a tree 
hard by, and, cutting off with his dagger sonio durva grass 
from the bank of the lake, threw it before the horse, and 
went back himself to the water, lie washed his hands, 
and feasted, like the cfitaka, on water ; like the cakravaka, 
he tasted pieces of lotus-fibre; like the moon with its 
beams, he touched the moon-lotuses with his linger-tips ; 
like a snake, ho welcomed the breeze of the waves ;^ like 
one wounded with Love's arrows, he placed a covering of 
lotus-leaves on his breast ; like a mountain elephant, when 
the tip of his trunk is wet with spray, he adorned his hands 
with spray-washed lotuses. Then with dewy lotus-leaves, 
with freshly-broken fibres, he made a couch on a rock 
embowered in creepers, and rolling up his cloak for a 
pillow, lay down to sleep. After a short rest, he heard on 
the north bank of the lake a sweet sound of unearthly 
music, borne on the ear, and blent with the chords of the 
vlnfi. (*252) Indnlyudha heard it first, and letting fall the 
grass he was eating, with ears fixed and nock arched, 
turned towards tlie voice. The prince, as he heard it, rose 
from his lotus-couch in curiosity to see whence this song 
could arise in a place deserted by men, and cast his glance 
towards the region ; but, from the great distance, he was 
unable, though he strained his eyes to the utmost, to 
discern anything, although he ceaselessly heard the sound. 
Desiring in his eagerness to know its source, he determined 
to depart, and saddling and mounting Indiftyudha, he set 

* For tho lovo of Hiiakoa for the breo/e, V. HughuvjuiivH, XI [I., 12, 
and IJiuldhufiirita, I., 44. Snakes arc sonictiinoH viilhd vdyuhahaha. 


forth by the western forest path, making the song his goal ; 
the deer, albeit unasked, were his guides, as they rushed on 
in front, delighting in the music* 

(258-250 condensed) * ** Welcomed by the breezes of 
Kailasa, ho wont towards that spot, which was surrounded 
by trees on all sides, and at the foot of the slope of Kailfisa, 
on the left bank of the lake, called Candraprabha, which 
whitened the whole region with a splendour as of moon- 
light, he beheld an empty temple of Qiva. 

(257) * '* Ah ho entered the temple he was whitened by 
the fallinj^ on him of kotaki pollen, tossed by the wind, as 
if for the sake of seeing ( /iva he had been forcibly made to 
perform a vow of putting on ashes, or as if he were robed 
in the pure merits of entering the temple ; and, in a crystal 
shrine resting on four pillars, he beheld C^iva, the four- 
faced, teacher of the world, the god whose feet are honoured 
by the universe, with his emblem, the //m/a, made of pure 
pearl. Homage had been paid to the deity by shining 
lotuses of the heavenly Ganges, that might be mistaken 
for crests of pearls, freshly-2)lucked and wet, with drops 
falling from the ends of their leaves, like fragments of the 
moon's disc split and set upright, or like parts of Oiva's 
own smile, or scraps of ('esha's hood, or brothers of 
Krishna's conch, or the heart of the Milky Ocean. 

(258) * " But, seated in a posture of meditation, to the 
right of the god, facing him, Candrupuja beheld a maiden 
vowed to the service of (Jiva, who turned the region with 
its mountains and woods to ivory by the brightness of her 
beauty. For its lustre shone far, spreading through space, 
white as the tide of the Milky Ocean, overwhelming all 
things at the day of doom, or like a store of penance 
gathered in long years and flowing out, streaming forth 

* The following refcronco to Tliomas JJell's 'History of BritiHli 
QuiulrupeilK ' wiiH f;\\cn by Mr. S. J). Chiirlosworth. 'Writing about 
tho (leer of our parks (p. 401) ho (Hell) quotes Play ford's '* Introduction 
to MuhIo" as follows : *' Travelling sonio .years since, I met on tlio road 
near lloyston a herd of about twenty deer following a bagpipe and 
violin, which while tho nnisio played went forward. When it censed 
they all stood still, and in this manner they were brought out of York- 
sliiro to Hampton Court.* " V. Bupra^ pp. 40, 79. 

I 96 

massed together like Ganges between the trees, giving a 
fresh whiteness to Kailasa, and purifying the gazer's soul, 
though it but entered his eye. The exceeding whiteness of 
her form concealed her limbs as though she had entered a 
crystal shrine, or had plunged into a sea of milk, or were 
hidden in spotless silk, or were caught on the surface of a 
mirror, or were veiled in autumn clouds. She seemed to 
be fashioned from the quintessence of whiteness, without 
the bevy of helps for the creation of the body that consist 
of matter formed of the five gross elements. 

(251)) She was like sacrifice impersonate, come to worship 
Civa, in fear of being seized l)y the unworthy; or Rati, 
undertaking a rite of propitiation to conciliate him, for the 
sake of Kama's ])ody ; or Lakshml, goddess of the Milky 
Ocean, longing for a digit of Oiva's moon, her familiar 
friend of yore when they dwelt together in the deep; or the 
embodied moon seeking (yiva's protection from Rahu; or 
the beauty of Airavata,^ come to fulfil (yiva's wish to wear 
an elephant's skin ; or the brightneKs of the smile on the 
right face of (Jiva become manifest and taking a separate 
abode ; or the white ash with which (^'iva IxmpriiikloH him- 
self, in bodily sliapo ; or moonlight made manifest to dispel 
the darkness of ('iva's neck ; or the oini)odied purity of 
Gauri's mind ; or the impersonate chastity of Kartikeya ; 
or the brightness of (/iva's bull, dwelling apart from his 
body ; (2()0) or the wealth of flowers on the temple trees 
come of themselves to worship (^iva ; or the fulness of 
Brahma's penance come down to earth ; or the glory of the 
IVajfipatis of tlio Golden Age, resting after the fatigue of 
wandering tin'ough the sovc^i worlds ; or the Threes Vedas, 
dwelling in the woods in grief at the overthrow of righteous- 
ness in the Kali Age; or the germ of a future (iolden 
Age, in the form of a maiden ; or the fulness of a muni's 
contemplation, in human shape ; or a troop of heavenly 
elephants, falling into confusion on reaching the heavenly 
Ganges ; or the beauty of Kailasa, fallen in dread of being 

» .AfcKliadnta, 88. 


uprooted by Ravana ; or the Lakshmi of the ^vetadvipa* 
come to behold another continent; or the grace of an 
opening ka9a-blo88om looking for the autumn ; or the 
brightness of (^esha's body leaving hell and come to earth ; 
or the brilliance of Balarama, which had left him in 
weariness of his intoxication; or a succession of bright 
fortnights massed together. 

* ** She seemed from her whiteness to have taken a share 
from all the hiimsas ; (2G1) or to have come from the heart 
of righteousness ; or to have been fashioned from a shell ; 
or drawn from a pearl ; or formed from lotus-fibres ; or 
made of flakes of ivory ; or purified by brushes of moon- 
beams ; or inlaid with lime ; or whitened with- foam-balls 
of ambrosia ; or laved in streams of quicksilver ; or rubbed 
with melted silver ; or dug out from the moon's orb ; or 
docked with the hues of kutaja, jasmine, and sinduvara 
flowers. She seemed, in truth, to be the very furthest 
bound of whituneHH. Iler head was bright with matted 
locks hanging on her slioulders, made, as it were, of the 
brightness of morning rays taken from the sun on the 
Eastern Mountain, tawny like the quivering splendour of 
flashing lightning, and, being wet from recent bathing, 
marked with the dust of (^iva's feet clasped in her devotion ; 
she bore (Jiva's feet nuirked with his nanuj in jewels on her 
head, fastened with a band of hair ; (202) and her brow 
had a sectarial mark of ashes pure as the dust of stars 
ground by the heels of the sun's horses. (2G()) She was a 
goddess, and her age could not be known by earthly 
reckoning, but she resembled a maiden of eighteen 

' '' Having beheld her, CandnTpl(ja dismounted, tied h'lH 
horse to a bough, and tlien, reverently bowing before the 
blessed Civa, gazed again on that heavenly maiden with a 
steady unswerving glance. And as her beauty, grace, and 
serenity stirred his wonder, the thought arose in him ; 

^ Thu dvljxia aro continonts soparatod from eiicli othor by ocoana. 
Tho rvcludulpa, or Wliito (Jontincjut, in, according to Wolxsr, Huggcntod 
by Aloxttiidria. V. ' Induclui Studion,' I., 400; II., »U7, »0«. 



' How in this world each matter in its turn becomes of no 
value 1 For when I was pursuing the pair of Kinnaras 
wantonly and vainly I beheld this most beautiful place; 
inaccessible to men, and haunted by the immortals. (267) 
Then in my search for water I saw this delightful lake 
sought by the Siddhas. While I rested on its bank I heard 
a divine song ; and as I followed the sound, this divine 
maiden, too fair for mortal sight, met my eyes. For I 
cannot doubt her divinity. Her very beauty proclaims her 
a goddess. And whence in the world of men could there 
arise such harmonies of heavenly minstrelsy? If, there- 
fore, she vanishes not from my sight, nor mounts the 
summit of Kailasa, nor flies to the sky, I will draw near 
and ask her, ** Who art thou, and what is thy name, and 
why hast thou in the dawn of life undertaken this vow?" 
This is all full of wonder.* With this resolve he approached 
another pillar of the crystal shrine, and sat there, awaiting 
the end of the song. 

***Tlien when she had stilled her lute, like a moon- 
lotus bed when the pleasant hum of the bees is silenced, 
(2G8) the maiden rose, made a sunwise turn and an 
obeisance to (Jiva, and then turning round, with a glance 
by nature clear, and by the power of penance confident, 
she, as it were, gave courage to Candrfiplila, as if thereby 
she were sprinkling him with merits, laving him with holy 
water, purifying him with penance, freeing him from stain, 
giving him his heart's desire, and leading him to purity. 

* ** * Hail to my guest !* said she. * How has my lord 
reached this place ? Rise, draw near, and receive a guest's 
due welcome.* So she s^mke; and he, deeming himself 
honoured even by her deigning to speak with him, 
reverently arose and bowed before her. ' As thou biddest, 
lady,' ho replied, and showed his courtesy by following in 
her steps like a pupil. And on the way he thought : * Lo, 
even when she beheld me she did not vanish ! Truly a 
hope of asking her questions has taken hold of my heart. 
And when I see the courteous welcome, rich in kindness, of 
this maiden, fair though she be with a beauty rare in 


ascetics, I surely trust that at my petition she will tell me 
all her story.* 

(269) * ** Having gone about a hundred paces, he beheld 
a cave, with its entrance veiled by dense tamalas, showing 
even by day a night of their own ; its edge was vocal with 
the glad bees' deep murmur on the bowers of creepers with 
their opening blossoms ; it was bedewed with torrents that 
in their sheer descent fell in foam, dashing against the 
white rock, and cleft by the axe-like points of the jagged 
cliff, with a shrill crash as the cold spray rose up and 
broke ; it was like a mass of waving cowries hanging from 
a door, from the cascades streaming down on either side, 
white as Civa's smile, or as pearly frost. Within was a 
circle of jewelled pitchers ; on one side hung a veil worn in 
sacred meditation ; a clean pair of shoes made of cocoanut 
matting hung on a peg ; one corner held a bark bed gray 
with dust scattered by the ashes the maiden wore ; the 
place of honour was filled by a bowl of shell carved with a 
chisel, like the orb of the moon ; and close by there stood 
a gourd of ashes. 

* " On the rock at the entrance Candraplda took his seat, 
and when the maiden, having laid her lute on the pillow of 
the bark bed, took in a leafy cup some water from the 
cascade to offer to her guest, and he said as she approached 
(270) : * Enough of these thy great toils. Cease this excess 
of grace. Be persuaded, lady. Let this too great honour 
be abandoned. The very sight of thee, like the aghamar- 
shana hymn, stills all evil and sufliceth for purification. 
Deign to take thy seat !' Yet being urged by her, he 
reverently, with head bent low, accepted all the homage 
she gave to her guest. When her cares for her guest were 
over, she sat down on another rock, and after a short 
silence he told, at her request, the whole story of his 
coming in pursuit of the pair of Kiniiaras, beginning with 
his expedition of conquest. The maiden then rose, and, 
taking a begging bowl, wandered among the trees round 
the temple ; and ere long her bowl was filled ^yith fruits 
that had fallen of their own accord. As she invited 

' 100 

Candraplda to the enjoyment of them, the thought arose in 
his heart : * Of a truth, there is nought beyond the power 
of penance. For it is a great marvel how the lords of the 
forest, albeit devoid of sense, yet, like beings endowed with 
sense, gain honour for themselves by casting down their 
fruits for this maiden. A wondrous sight is this, and one 
never seen before.' 

* *' So, marvelling yet more, he brought Indrayudha to 
that spot, unsaddled him, and tied him up hard by. (271) 
Then, having bathed in the torrent, he partook of the 
fruits, sweet as ambrosia, and drank the cool water of the 
cascade, and having rinsed his mouth, he waited apart 
while the maiden enjoyed her repast of water, roots, and 

* " When her meal was ended and she had said her 
evening prayer, and taken her seat fearlessly on the rock, 
the Prince quietly approached her, and sitting down near 
her, paused awhile and then respectfully said : 

* " * Lady, the folly that besets mankind impels me even 
against my will to question thee, for I am bewildered by a 
curiosity that has taken courage from thy kindness. For 
even the slightest grace of a lord emboldens a weak nature : 
even a short time spent together creates intimacy. Even a 
slight acceptance of homage produces affection. Therefore, 
if it weary thee not, I pray thee to honour me with thy 
story. For from my first sight of thee a great eagerness 
has possessed me as to this matter. Is the race honoured 
by thy birth, lady, that of the Maruts, or Eishis, or Gand- 
harvas, or Guhyakas, or Apsarases? And wherefore in 
thy fresh youth, tender as a flower, has this vow been 
taken ? (272) For how far apart would seem thy youth, 
thy beauty, and thine exceeding grace, from this thy peace 
from all thoughts of earth ! This is marvellous in mine 
eyes ! And wherefore hast thou left the heavenly hermit- 
ages that gods may win, and that hold all things needful 
for the highest saints, to dwell alone in this deserted wood ? 
And whereby hath thy body, though formed of the five 
gross elements, put on this pure whiteness ? Never have I 


heard or seen aught such as this. I pray thee dispel my 
curiosity, and tell me all I ask.* 

* ** For a little time she pondered his request in silence, 
and then she began to weep noiselessly, and her eyes were 
blinded by tears which fell in large drops, carrying with 
them the purity of her heart, showering down the innocence 
of her senses, distilling the essence of asceticism, dropping 
in a liquid form the brightness of her eyes, most pure, 
falling on her white cheeks like a broken string of pearls, 
unceasing, splashing on her bosom covered by the bark 

(273) * *' And as he beheld her weeping Candraplda re- 
flected : * How hardly can misfortune be warded off, if it 
takes for its own a beauty like this, which one might have 
deemed beyond its might ! Of a truth there is none whom 
the sorrows of life in the body leave untouched. Strong 
indeed is the working of the opposed powers, of pleasure 
and pain.^ These her tears have created in me a further 
curiosity, even greater than before. It is no slight grief 
that can take its abode in a form like hers. For it is not a 
feeble blow that causes the earth to tremble.' 

* '* While his curiosity was thus increased he felt himself 
guilty of recalling her grief, and rising, brought in his 
folded hand from the torrent some water to bathe her face. 
But she, though the torrent of her tears was in nowise 
checked by his gentleness, yet bathed her reddened eyes, 
and drying her face with the edge of her bark robe, slowly 
said with a long and bitter sigh : 

(274) *** ' Wherefore, Prince, wilt thou hear the story of 
my ascetic life, all unfit for thy ears ? for cruel has been 
my heart, hard my destiny, and evil my condition, even 
from my birth. Still, if thy desire to know be great, 
hearken. It has come within the range of our hearing, 
usually directed to auspicious knowledge, that there are in 
the abode of the gods maidens called Apsarases. Of these 
there are fourteen families : one sprung from the mind of 
Brahma, another from the Vedas, another from fire, 

* Dvandva, a pair of opposites, as, e.g.^ pleasure and pain. 


another from the wind, another from nectar when it was 
churned, another from water, another from the sun's rays, 
another from the moon's beams, another from earth, and 
another from lightning ; one was fashioned by Death, and 
another created by Love ; besides, Daksha, father of all, 
had among his many daughters two, Muni and Arishta, 
and from their union with the Gandharvas were sprung 
the other two families. These are, in sum, the fourteen 
races. But from the Gandharvas and the daughters of 
Daksha sprang these two families. Here Muni bore a 
sixteenth son, by name Citraratha, who excelled in virtues 
Sena and all the rest of hia fifteen brothers. For his 
heroism was famed through the three worlds ; his dignity 
was increased by the name of Friend, bestowed by Indra, 
whose lotus feet are caressed by the crests of the gods cast 
down before him ; and even in childhood he gained the 
sovereignty of all the Gandharvas by a right arm tinged 
with the flashing of his sword. (275) Not far hence, north 
of the land of Bharata, is his dwelling, Hemakuta, a 
boundary mountain in the Kimpurusha country. There, 
protected by his arm, dwell innumerable Gandharvas. By 
him this pleasant wood, Caitraratha, was made, this great 
lake Acchoda was dug out, and this image of ^iva was 
fashioned. But the son of Arishta, in the second Gand- 
harva family, was as a child anointed king by Citraratha, 
lord of the Gandharvas, and now holds royal rank, and 
with a countless retinue of Gandharvas dwells likewise on 
this mountain. Now, from that family of Apsarases which 
sprang from the moon's nectar was born a maiden, 
fashioned as though by the grace of all the moon's digits 
poured in one stream, gladdening the eyes of the universe, 
moonbeam - fair, in name and nature a second Gaurl.^ 
(27(5) Her Haiusa, lord of the second family, wooed, as 
the Milky Ocean the Ganges ; with him she was united, as 
llati with Kama, or tjie lotus-bed with the autumn ; and 
enjoying the great happiness of such a union she became 
the queen of his zenana. To this noble pair I was born as 

» (a) Brilliant ; (6) Durga. 


only daughter, ill-omened, a prey for grief, and a vessel for 
countless sorrows; my father, however, having no other 
child, greeted my birth with a great festival, surpassing 
that for a son, and on the tenth day, with the customary 
rites h^ gave me the fitting name of Maha9veta. In his 
palace I spent my childhood, passed from lap to lap of the 
Gandharva dames, like a lute, as I murmured the prattle 
of babyhood, ignorant as yet of the sorrows of love ; but in 
time fresh youth came to me as the honey-month to the 
spring, fresh shoots to the honey-month, flowers to the 
fresh shoots, bees to the flowers, and honey to the bees. 

* *' * ^And one day in the month of honey I went down 
with my mother to the Acchoda lake to bathe, when its 
beauties were spread wide in the spring, and all its lotuses 
were in fiower. 

(278) * <* ' I worshipped the pictures of Qiva, attended by 
Biingiriti, which were carved on the rocks of the bank by 
Parvati when she came down to bathe, and which had the 
reverential attendance of ascetics portrayed by the thin 
footprints left in the dust. '' How beautiful !" I cried, ** is 
this bower of creepers, with its clusters of flowers of which 
the bees' weight has broken the centre and bowed the 
filaments ; this mango is fully in flower, and the honey 
pours through the holes in the stalks of its buds, which the 
cuckoo's sharp claws have pierced ; how cool this sandal 
avenue, which the serpents, terrified at the murmur of 
hosts of wild peacocks, have deserted ; how delightful the 
waving creepers, which betray by their fallen blossoms the 
swinging of the wood-nymphs upon them ; how pleasant 
the foot of the trees on the bank where the kalahamsas 
have left the line of their steps imprinted in the pollen of 
many a flower!" Drawn on thus by the ever-growing 
charms of the wood, I wandered with my companions. 
(271)) And at a certain spot I smelt the fragrance of a 
flower strongly borne on the wind, overpoweriug that of all 
the rest, though the wood was in full blossom ; it drew 
near, and by its great sweetness seemed to anoint, to 
* Summary of p. 277. 


delight, and to fill the sense of smell. Bees followed it, 
seeking to make it their own: it was truly a perfume 
unknown heretofore, and fit for the gods. I, too, eager to 
learn whence it came, with eyes turned into buds, and 
drawn on like a bee by that scent, and attracting to me 
the kalaharnsas of the lake by the jangling of my anklets 
loudly clashed in the tremulous speed of my curiosity, 
advanced a few steps and beheld a graceful youthful ascetic 
coming down to bathe. He was like Spring doing penance 
in grief for Love made the fuel of Qiva's fire, or the 
crescent on ^iva's brow performing a vow to win a full orb, 
or Love restrained in his eagerness to conquer (^iva : by 
his great splendour he appeared to be girt by a cage of. 
quivering lightning, embosomed in the globe of the summer 
sun, or encircled in the flames of a furnace : (280) by the 
brightness of his form, flasliing forth ever more and more, 
yellow as lamplight, he made the grove a tawny gold ; his 
locks were yellow and soft like an amulet dyed in gorocana. 

' The line of ashes on his brow made him like Ganges with 
the line of a fresh sandbank, as though it were a sandal- 
mark to win Sarasvati,^ and played the part of a banner of 
holiness ; his eyebrows were an arch rising high over the 
abode of men's curses ; his eyes wore so long that he 
seemed to wear them as a chaplet ; he shared with the 
deer the beauty of their glance ; his nose was long and 
aquiline ; the citron of his lower lip was rosy as with the 
glow of youth, which was refused an entrance to his heart ; 
with his beardless cheek he was like a fresh lotus, the 
filaments of which have not yet been tossed by the bees in 
their sport ; he was adorned with a sacrificial thread like 
the bent string of Love's bow, or a filament from the lotus 
grove of the pool of penance ; in one hand he bore a 
pitcher like a kesara fruit with its stalk ; in the other a 
crystal rosary, strung as it were with the tears of Rati 

• waihng in grief for Love's death. (281) His loins were girt 
with a munja-grass girdle, as though he had assumed a 

* The Commentary says : ' A house is whitened to welcome anyone. 
The face (or mouth) is the dwelling of Sarasvatl.' 


halOi having outvied the sun by his innate splendour ; the 
office of vesture was performed by the bark of the heavenly 
coral-tree,^ bright as the pink eyelid of an old partridge, 
and washed in the waves of the heavenly Ganges ; he was 
the ornament of ascetic life, the youthful grace of holiness, 
the delight of SarasvatI, the chosen lord of all the sciences, 
and the meeting-place of all divine tradition. He had, like 
the summer season, ^ his ashadha^ ; he had, like a winter 
wood, the brightness of opening millet, and he had like the 
month of honey, a face adorned with white tilaka.* With 
him there was a youthful ascetic gathering flowers to 
worship the gods, his equal in age and a friend worthy of 

(282) * ** ' Then I saw a wondrous spray of flowers which 
decked his ear, like the bright smile of woodland ^ri joying 
in the sight of spring, or the grain-offering of the honey- 
month welcoming the Malaya winds, or the youth of the 
Lakshml of flowers, or the cowrie that adorns Love's 
elephant ; it was wooed by the bees ; the Pleiads lent it 
their grace ; and its honey was nectar. ** Surely," I 
decided, ** this is the fragrance which makes all other 
flowers scentless," and gazing at the youthful ascetic, the 
thought arose in my mind ; *' Ah, how lavish is the Creator 
who has skilP to produce the highest perfection of form, for 
he has compounded Kama of all miraculous beauty, excel- 
ling the universe, and yet has created this ascetic even 
more fair, surpassing him, like a second love-god, born of 
enchantment. (283) Methinks that when Brahma^ made 
the moon's orb to gladden the world, and the lotuses to be 
Lakshmi's palace of delight, he was but practising to gain 
skill for the creation of this ascetic's face ; why else should 
such things be created? Surely it is false that the sun 

* Mandara, one of the trees of Paradise. 

2 The month June— July. ^ Staff. 

* (a) A tilaka, or mark of ashes ; (b) abundance of tilaka trees white 
with blossoms. 

^ Read Kau<;ala8ya. 

® Cf. ' Dulco rudimentura meditantis lilia quondam naturap, cum sese 
opera ad majora pararet.' — Ilapin, on the convolvulus. V. Hallam, 
• Hist, of Lit.,' rt. iv., ch. v. 


with its ray Sushumna^ drinks all the digits of the moon as 
it wanes in the dark fortnight, for their heams are cast 
down to enter this fair form. How otherwise could there 
be such grace in one who lives in weary penance, beauty's 
destroyer?" As I thus thought, Love, beauty's firm 
adherent, who knows not good from ill, and who is ever at 
hand to the young, enthralled me, together with my sighs, 
as the madness of spring takes captive the bee. Then 
with a right eye gazing steadily, the eyelashes half closed, 
the iris darkened by the pupil's tremulous sidelong glance, 
I looked long on him. With this glance I, as it were, 
drank him in, besought him, told him I was wholly his, 
offered my heart, tried to enter into him with my whole 
soul, sought to be absorbed in him, implored his protection 
to save Love's victim, showed my suppliant state that 
asked for a place in his heart ; (284) and though I asked 
myself, ** What is this shameful feeling that has arisen in me, 
unseemly and unworthy a noble maiden ?" yet knowing 
this, I could not master myself, but with great difficulty 
stood firm, gazing at him. For I seemed to be paralyzed, 
or in a picture, or scattered abroad, or bound, or in a 
trance, and yet in wondrous wise upheld, as though 
when my limbs were failing, support was at the same 
moment given ; for I know not how one can be certain 
in a matter that can neither be told nor taught, and 
that is not capable of being told, for it is only learnt 
from within. Can it be ascertained as presented by his 
beauty, or by my own mind, or by love, or by youth or 
affection, or by any other causes ? I cannot tell. Lifted 
up and dragged towards him by my senses, led forward by 
my heart, urged from behind by Love, I yet by a strong 
effort restrained my impulse. (285) Straightway a storm 
of sighs went forth unceasingly, prompted by Love as he 
strove to find a place within me ; and my bosom heaved 
as longing to speak earnestly to my heart, and then I 
thought to myself : ** What an unworthy action is this of 
vile Kama, who surrenders me to this cold ascetic free from 

* Vishnu Puruna, Wilson, 1865, vol. ii., p. 297. 


all thoughts of love ! Truly, the heart of woman is foolish 
exceedingly, since it cannot weigh the fitness of that which 
it loves. For what has this bright home of glory and 
penance to do with the stirrings of love that meaner men 
welcome ? Surely in his heart he scorns me for being thus 
deceived by Kama ! Strange it is that I who know this 
cannot restrain my feeling ! (28G) Other maidens, indeed, 
laying shame aside, have of their own accord gone to their 
lords ; others have been maddened by that reckless love- 
god ; but not as I am here alone 1 How in that one 
moment has my heart been thrown into turmoil by the 
mere sight of his form, and passed from my control ! for 
time for knowledge and good qualities always make Love 
invincible. It is best for me to leave this place while I yet 
have my senses, and while he does not clearly see this my 
hateful folly of love. Perchance if he sees in me the effects 
of a love he cannot approve, he will in wrath make me feel 
his curse. For ascetics are ever prone to wrath.'* Thus 
having resolved, I was eager to depart, but, remembering 
that holy men should be reverenced by all, I made an 
obeisance to him with eyes turned to his face, eyelashes 
motionless, not glancing downwards, my cheek uncaressed 
by the flowers dancing in my ears, my garland tossing on 
my waving hair, and my jewelled earrings swinging on my 

*'**As I thus bent, the irresistible command of love, 
the inspiration of the spring, the charm of the place, the 
frowardness of youth, the unsteadiness of the senses, (287) 
the impatient longing for earthly goods, the fickleness of 
the mind, the destiny that rules events — in a word, my 
own cruel fate, and the fact that all my trouble was caused 
by him, were the means by which Love destroyed his firm- 
ness by the sight of my feeling, and made him waver 
towards me like a flame in the wind. He too was visibly 
thrilled, as if to welcome the newly-entering Love ; his 
sighs went before him to show the way to his mind which 
was hastening towards me; the rosary in his hand 
trembled and shook, fearing the breaking of his vow ; drops 

I 108 

rose on his cheek, like a second garland hanging from his 
ear ; his eyes, as his pupils dilated and his glance widened 
in the joy of beholding me, turned the spot to a very lotus- 
grove, 80 that the ten regions were filled by the long rays 
coming forth like masses of open lotuses that had of their 
own accord left the Acchoda lake and were rising to 
the sky. 

* ** * By the manifest change in him my love was redoubled, 
and I fell that moment into a state I cannot describe, all 
unworthy of my caste. " Surely," I reflected, ** Kama him- 
self teaches this play of the eye, though generally after a 
long happy love, else whence comes this ascetic's gaze? 
(288) For his mind is unversed in the mingled feelings of 
earthly joys, and yet his eyes, though they have never 
learnt the art, pour forth the stream of love's sweetness, 
rain nectar, are half closed by joy, are slow with distress, 
heavy with sleep, roaming with pupils tremulous and 
languid with the weight of gladness, and yet bright with 
the play of his eyebrows. Whence comes this exceeding 
skill that tells the heart's longing wordlessly by a glance 
alone ?" 

* '* * Impelled by these thoughts I advanced, and bowing 
to the second young ascetic, his companion, I asked : 
** What is the name of his Reverence ? Of what ascetic is 
he the son ? From what tree is this garland woven ? For 
its scent, hitherto unknown, and of rare sweetness, kindles 
great curiosity in mo." 

'*** With a slight smile, he replied : *' Maiden, what needs 
this question ? But I will enlighten thy curiosity. Listen ! 

ttmt rj^ij^i-e dwells in the world of gods a great sage, 
(Jvetaketu ; his noble character is famed through the 
universe ; his feet are honoured by bands of siddhas, gods, 
and demons; (289) his beauty, exceeding that of Nala- 
kubara,^ is dear to the three worlds, and gladdens the 
hearts of goddesses. . Once upon a time, when seeking 
lotuses for the worship of the gods, he went down to the 
Heavenly Ganges, which lay white as Civa's smile, while 

* Son of Kuvera. 


its water was studded as with peacocks' eyes, by the ichor of 
Airavata. Straightway Lakshml, enthroned on a thousand- 
petalled white lotus close by, beheld him coming down 
among the flowers, and looking on him, she drank in his 
beauty with eyes half closed by love, and quivering with 
weight of joyous tears, and with her slender fingers laid 
on her softly-opening lips ; and her heart was disturbed by 
Love ; by her glance alone she won his affection. A son 
was born, and taking him in her arms with the words, 
' Take him, for he is thine,' she gave him to Cyvetaketu, 
who performed all the rites of a son's birth, and called him 
PuiKlarika, because he was born in a pundarika lotus. 
Moreover, after initiation, he led him through the whole 
circle of the arts. (290) This is Pundarlka whom you see. 
And this spray comes from the parijata tree,^ which rose 
when the Milky Ocean was churned by gods and demons. 
How it gained a place in his ear contrary to his vow, I 
will now tell. This being the fourteenth day of the month, 
he started with me from heaven to worship Tiva, who had 
gone to Kallasa. On the way, near the Nandana Wood, a 
nymph, drunk with the juice of flowers, wearing fresh 
mango shoots in her ear, veiled completely by garlands 
falling to the knees, girt with kesara flowers, and resting 
on the fair hand lent her by the Laksmi of spring, took 
this spray of parijata, and bending low, thus addressed 
Pundarlka : ' Sir, let, I pray, this thy form, that gladdens 
the eyes of the universe, have this spray as its fitting 
adornment ; let it be placed on the tip of thy ear, for it 
has but the playfulness that belongs to a garland ; let the 
birth of the parijata now reap its full blessing I' At her 
words, his eyes were cast down in modesty at the praise he 
so well deserved, and he turned to depart without regarding 
her ; but as I saw her following us, I said, ' What is the 
harm, friend. Let her courteous gift be accepted !' and so 
by force, against his will, the spray adorns his ear. Now 
all has been told : who he is, whose son, and what this 
flower is, and how it has been raised to his ear." (291) 

* The coral tree. 

! 110 

When he had thus spoken, Pundarlka said to me with a 
sh'ght smile : ** Ah, curious maiden, why didst thou take 
the trouble to ask this ? If the flower, with its sweet scent, 
please thee, do thou accept it," and advancing, he took it 
from his own ear and placed it in mine, as though, with 
the soft murmur of the bees on it, it were a prayer for love. 
At once, in my euj^erness to touch his hand, a thrill arose 
in me, like a second parijata flower, where the garland lay; 
while he, in the pleasure of touching my cheek, did not 
see that from his tremulous fingers ho had dropped his 
rosary at the same time as his timidity ; but before it 
reached the ground I seized it, and playfully placed it on 
my neck, where it wore the grace of a necklace unlike all 
others, while I learnt the joy of having my neck clasped, 
as it were, by his arm. 

* " * As our hearts were thus occupied with each other, my 
umbrella-bearer addressed me : ** Princess, the Queen has 
bathed. It is nearly time to go homo. Do thou, therefore, 
also bathe." At her words, like a newly-caught elephant, 
rebellious at the first touch of the new hook, I was un- 
willingly dragged away, and as I went down to bathe, I 
could hardly withdraw my eyes, for they seemed to be 
drowned in the ambrosial beauty of his face, or caught in 
the thicket of my thrilling cheek, or pinned down by Love's 
shafts, or sewn fast by the cords^ of his charms. 

(292) * " * Meanwhile, the second young ascetic, seeing 
that he was losing his self-control, gently upbraided him : 
** Dear Pun(]arika, this is unworthy of thee. This is the 
way trodden by common men. For the good are rich in 
self-control. Why dost thou, like a man of low caste, fail 
to restrain the turmoil of thy soul ? Whence comes this 
hitherto unknown assault of the senses, which so trans- 
forms thee? Where is thine old firmness? Where thy 
conquest of the senses ? Where thy self-control ? Where 
thy calm of mind, thine inherited holiness, thy careless- 
• ness of earthly things? ' Where the teaching of thy guru, 
thy learning of the Vedas, thy resolves of asceticism, thy 

* Or, virtue. 


hatred of pleasure, thine aversion to vain delights, thy 
passion for penance, thy distaste for enjoyments, thy rule 
over the , impulses of youth ? Verily all knowledge is 
fruitless, study of holy books is useless, initiation has lost 
its meaning, pondering the teaching of gurus avails not, 
proficiency is worthless, learning leads to nought, since 
even men like thee are stained by the touch of passion, and 
overcome by folly. (293) Thou dost not even see that thy 
rosary has fallen from thy hand, and has been carried 
away. Alas ! how good sense fails in men thus struck 
down. Hold back tills heart of thine, for this worthless 
girl is seeking to carry it away." 

* ** * To these words he replied, with some shame : ** Dear 
Kapinjala, why dost thou thus misunderstand me? I am 
not one to endure this reckless girl's offence in taking my 
rosary !" and with his nioonlike face beautiful in its feigned 
wrath, and adorned the more by the dread frown he tried 
to assume, while his lip trembled with longing to kiss me, 
he said to me, ** Playful maiden, thou shalt not move a step 
from this place without giving back my rosary." There- 
upon I loosed from my neck a single row of pearls as the 
flower-offering that begins a dance in Kama's honour, and 
placed it in his outstretched hand, while his eyes were 
fixed on my face, and his mind was far away. I started 
to bathe, but how I started I know not, for my mother 
and my companions could hardly lead me away by force, 
like a river driven backwards, and I went home thinking 
only of him. 

(294) *'* 'And entering the maidens' dwelling, I began 
straightway to ask myself in my grief at his loss : ** Am I 
really back, or still there ? Am I alone, or with my maidens ? 
Am I silent, or beginning to speak ? Am I awake or asleep ? 
Do I weep or hold back my tears ? Is this joy or sorrow, 
longing or despair, misfortune or gladness, day or night ? 
Are these things pleasures or pains?" All this I under- 
stood not. In my ignorance of Love's course, I knew not 
whither to go, what to do, hear, see, or speak, whom to 
tell, nor what remedy to seek. Entering the maidens* 


palace, I dismissed my friends at the door, and shut out 
my attendants, and then, putting aside all my occupations, 
I stood alone with my face against the jewelled window. I 
gazed at the region which, in its possession of him, was 
richly decked, endowed with great treasure, overdowed 
by the ocean of nectar, adorned with the rising of the full 
moon, and most fair to behold. I longed to ask his doings 
even of the breeze wafted from thence, or of the scent of the 
woodbind llowers, or of the song of the birds. (295) I 
envied even the toils of penance for his devotion to them. 
For his sake, in the blhid adherence of love, I took a vow 
of silence. I attributed grace to the ascetic garb, because 
he accepted it, beauty to youth because he owned it, charm 
to the pririjata flower because it touched his ear, delight to 
heaven because he dwelt there, and invincible power to 
love because he was so fair. Though far away, I turned 
towards him as the lotus-bed to the bun, the tide to the 
moon, or the peacock to the cloud. I bore on my neck his 
rosary, like a charm against tlie loss of the life stricken by 
his absence. I stood motionless, though a thrill made the 
down on my cheek like a kadamba flower ear-ring, as it 
rose from the joy of being touched by his hand, and from 
the parijata spray in my ear, which spoke sweetly to me 
of him. 

* ** * Now my betel-bearer, Taralika, had been with me to 
bathe ; she came back after me rather late, and softly 
addressed me in my sadness : *' Princess, one of those god- 
like ascetics we saw on the bank of Lake Acchoda — (296) 
he by whom this spray of the heavenly tree was placed in 
thy ear — as I was following thee, eluded the glance of hiq 
other self, and approaching me with soft steps ])etween the 
branches of a liowering creeper, asked me concerning thee, 
saying, * ])amsel, who is this maiden ? Whose daughter is 
she ? What is her name ? And whither goes she ?* I 
replied : ' She is sprung from Gaurl, an Apsaras of the 
moon race, and her father Ilanisa is king of all the Gand- 
harvas ; the nails of his feet are burnished by the tips of 
the jewelled aigrettes on the turbans of all the Gandharvas ; 


his tree-like arms are marked by the coemetioB on the 

cheeks of his Gandharva wives, and the lotus-hand of 

Lakshnii forms his footstool. The princess is named 

Maha^veta, and she has set out now for the hill of 

Hemakuta, the abode of the Gandharvas.* 

nn a When this tale had been told by me, he thought 

silently for a moment, and then looking long at me with a 

steady gaze, as if gently entreating me, he said ; * Damsel, 

thy form, young as thou art, is of fair promise, and augurs 

truth and steadfastness. Grant me, therefore, one request.* 

Courteouwly raising my hands, I reverently replied : (297) 

* Wherefore say this? Who am I? When great-souled 

men such as thou, meet for the honour of the whole 

universe, deign to cast even their sin-removing glance on 

one like mo, their act wins merit — much more if they give a 

command. Say, therefore, freely what is to be done. 

Let me be honoured by thy bidding.' 

<«<««» Thus addressed, he saluted me with a kindly glance, 

as a friend, a helper, or a giver of life ; and taking a 

shoot from a tamfila-tree hard by, he crushed it on the 

stones of the bank, broke off a piece from his upper bark 

garment as a tablet, and with the tamala- juice, sweet as 

the ichor of a gandha elephant, wrote with the nail of the 

little finger of his lotus-hand, and placed it in my hand, 

saying, * Let this letter be secretly given by thee to that 

maiden when alone.' " With these words she drew it from 

the betel-box and showed it to me. 

* ** * As I took from her hand that bark letter, I was 

filled with this talk about him, which, though but a sound, 

produced the joy of contact, and though for the ears alone, 

had its pervading presence in all my limbs manifested by a 

thrill, as if it were a spell to invoke Love ; and in his letter 

I beheld these lines :^ 

A haiUBa on the Manas lake, lured by a creeper's treacherous shine, 
My heart is led a weary chase, lured by that pearly wreath of thine.* 

* ' In the arya metre,' in the Sjinskrit. 

* Milna8ijanm(i = ((i) born in the Manasa lake; (fc) born in tha 
mind, i.e., love. Mziktalatil'^{a) a white creeper ; (h) a pearl necklace. 



(298) * ** * By the reading of this, an even greater change 
for the worse was wrought in ray lovesick mind, as in one 
who has lost his way, hy also losing his bearings ; as in a 
blind man, by a night of the dark fortnight ; as in a dumb 
man, by cutting out the tongue ; as in an ignorant man, 
by a conjuror's waving fan ; as in a confuHed talker, by the 
delirium of fever ; as in one poisoned, by the fatal sleep ; 
as in a wicked man, by atheistic philosophy; as in one 
distraught, by strong drink ; or as in one possessed, by the 
action of the possessing demon ; so that in the turmoil 
it created in me, I was tossed like a river in flood. I 
honoured Taralikfi for having seen him again, as one who 
had acquired great merit, or who had tasted the joys of 
heaven, or had been visited by a god, or had her highest 
boon granted, or had drunk nectar, or had been anointed 
queen of the three worlds. I spoke to her reverently, as if, 
though always by me, she were a rare visitant, and though 
my familiar friend, she were hitherto unknown. I looked 
on her, though behind me, as above the world ; I tenderly 
caressed the curls on her cheek, and entirely set at nought 
the condition of mistress and maid, again and again 
asking, (21)1)) ** How was he seen by thee ? What did he say 
to thee ? How long wert thou there ? How far did he follow 
us ?" And shutting out all my attendants, I spent the 
whole day with her in the palace, listening to that tale. 
The sun's orb hanging in the sky became crimson, sharing 
my heart's glow ; the Lakshml of sunlight longing for the 
sight of the flushed sun, and preparing her lotus-couch, 
turned pale as though faint with love ; the sunbeams, rosy 
as they fell on waters dyed with red chalk, rose from the 
lotus-beds clustering like herds of woodland elephants ; the 
day, with an echo of the joyous neighing of the steeds of 
the sun's chariot longing to rest after their descent of the 
sky, entered the caves of Mount Meru ; the lotus-beds, as 
the bees entered the folded leaves of the red lilies, seemed 
to close their eyes as though their hearts were darkened by 
a swoon at the sun's departure ; the pairs of cakravakas, 
each taking the other's heart, safely hidden in the hollow 


lotus-stalks whereof they had eaten together, were now 
parted ; and my umbrella-bearer approaching me, said as 
follows : (BOO) ** PriiiceBB, one of those youthful hermits is 
at the door, and sayH he has come to beg for a rosary.** At 
the hermit's name, though motionless, I seemed to approach 
the door, and suspecting the reason of his coming, I sum- 
moned another chamberhiin, whom I sent, saying, '* Go and 
admit him." A momont later I beheld the young ascetic 
Kapinjala, who is to Puncjarlka as youth to beauty, love to 
youth, spring to love, southern breezes to spring, and who 
is indeed a friend worthy of him ; he followed the hoary 
chamberlain as sunlight after moonlight. As he drew near 
his appearance betrayed to me trouble, sadness, distraction, 
entreaty, and a yearning unfuUilled. With a reverence I 
rose and respectfully brought him a seat ; and when he 
was reluctantly forced to accept it, I washed his feet and 
dried them on the silken edge of my upper robe ; and then 
sat by him on the bare ground. For a moment he waited, 
as if eager to speak, when he cast his eyes on Taralika 
close by. Knowing his desire at a glance, I said, *' Sir, she 
is one with me. (301) Speak fearlessly." At my words 
Kapinjala replied : *' Princess, what can I say *? for through 
shame my voice does not reach the sphere of utterance. 
How far is the passionless ascetic who lives on roots in 
the woods from the illusion of passion that finds its home 
in restless souls, and is stained with longing for earthly 
pleasures, and filled with the manifold sports of the Love 
God. See how unseemly all this is ! What has fate 
begun? God easily turns us into a laughing-stock! I 
know not if this be fitting with bark garments, or seemly 
for matted locks, or meet for penance, or consonant with 
the teaching of holiness! Such a mockery was never 
known ! 1 needs must tell you the story. No other 
course is visible ; no other remedy is perceived ; no other 
refuge is at hand ; no other way is before me. If it 
remains untold, even greater trouble will arise. A friend's 
life must be saved even at the loss of our own ; so I will 
tell the tale : 


< « ( « j^ ^j^g jj^ ^jjy presence that I sternly rebuked Pun- 
darika, and after that speech I left him in anger and went 
to another place, leaving my task of gathering flowers. 
After thy departure, I remained apart a short time, (302) 
and then, becoming anxious as to what he was doing, I 
turned back and examined the spot from behind a tree. 
As I did not see him there, the thought arose within me, 
* His mind was enslaved by love, and perchance he fol- 
lowed her ; and now that she is gone, he has regained his 
senses, and is ashamed to come within my sight; or he 
has gone from me in wrath, or departed hence to another 
place in search of me.* Thus thinking, I waited some 
time, but, troubled by an absence I had never since my 
birth suffered for a moment, I again thought, * It may be 
that, in shame at his failure in firmness, he will come to 
some harm ; for shame makes everything possible ; he 
must not, then, be left alone.' With this resolve, I 
earnestly made search for him. But as I could not see 
him, though I sought on all sides, made anxious by love 
for my friend, I pictured this or that misfortune, and 
wandered long, examining glades of trees, creeper bowers 
among the sandal avenues, and the banks of lakes, care- 
fully glancing on every side. (303) At length I beheld him 
in a thicket of creepers near a lake, a very birthplace for 
spring, most fair, and in its close growth appearing to be 
made wholly of flowers, of bees, of cuckoos, and of peacocks. 
From his entire absence of employment, he was as one 
painted, or engraved, or paralyzed, or dead, or asleep, or 
in a trance of meditation ; he was motionless, yet wander- 
ing from his right course ; alone, yet possessed by Love ; 
all aglow, yet raising a pallid face ; absent-minded, yet 
giving his love a place within him ; silent, and yet telling 
a tale of Love's great woe ; seated on a stone, yet standing 
in face of death. He was tormented by Kama, who yet, in 
fear of many a curse, remained unseen. By his great 
stillness he appeared to be deserted by the senses which 
had entered into him to behold the love that dwelt in his 
heart, and had fainted in fear at its unbearable heat, or 


had left him in wrath at the tossing o! his mind. From 
eyes steadily closed, and dimmed within by the smoke of 
Love's keen fire, he ceaselessly poured forth a storm of 
tears trickling down through his eyelashes. (304) The 
filaments of the creepers near trembled in the sighs which 
rushed out, bearing the redness of his lips like the up- 
starting ruddy flame of Kama burning his heart. As his 
hand rested on his left cheek, his brow, from the clear rays 
of his nails rising upwards, seemed to have a fresh mark 
of sandal very pure ; from the late removal of his earring, 
the pilrijata flower, his ear was endowed with a tamfila 
shoot or a blue lotus by the bees that murmured a charm 
to bewitch love, under the guise of their soft hum as they 
crept up in longing for what remained of that fragrance. 
Under the guise of his hair rising in a passionate thrill he 
seemed to bear on his limbs a mass of broken points of the 
flowery darts of Love's arrows discharged into his pores. 
With his right hand he bore on his breast a string of pearls 
that, by being interlaced with the flashing rays of his nails, 
seemed bristling in joy at the pleasure of touching hia 
palm, and that was, as it were, a banner of recklessness. 
He was pelted by the trees with pollen, like a powder to 
subdue Love ; he was caressed by ayoka shoots tossed by 
the wind, and transferring to him their rosy glow ; he was 
besprinkled by woodland Lakshml with honey-dew from 
clusters of fresh flowers, like waters to crown Love ; he 
was struck by Love with campak buds, which, as their 
fragrance was drunk in by bees, were like fiery barbs all 
smoking ; (805) he was rebuked by the south wind, as if 
by the hum of the bees maddened by the many scents of 
the wood ; he was bewildered by the honey-month, as by 
cries of * All hail !' to Spring raised by the cuckoos in 
their melodious ecstasy. Like the risen moon, he was 
robed in paleness ; like the stream of Ganges in summer, 
he had dwindled to meagreness ; like a sandal-tree with a 
fire at its heart, he was fading away. He seemed to have 
entered on another birth, and was as another man, strange 
and unfamiliar ; he was changed into another shape. Ag 


one entered by an evil spirit, ruled by a great demon, pos- 
Bessed by a strong devil, drunk, deluded, blind, deaf, dumb, 
all merged in joy and love, he had reached the climax of 
the mind's slavery when possessed by Love, and his old 
self could no longer be known. 

****** As with a steady glance I long examined his sad 
state, I became despondent, and thought in my trembling 
heart : * This is of a truth that Love whose force none can 
resist ; for by him PuiKJarika has been in a moment 
brought to a state for which there is no cure. For how 
else could such a storehouse of learning become straight- 
way unavailing ? (300) It is, alas ! a miracle in him who 
from childhood has b(3cn lirm of nature and unswerving in 
conduct, and whose life was the envy of myself and the 
other young ascetics. Here, like a mean man, despising 
knowledge, contemning the power of penance, he has 
rooted up his deep steadfastness, and is paralyzed by Love. 
A youth which has never swerved is indeed rare !' I went 
forward, and sitting down by him on the same stone, 
with my hand resting on his shoulder, I asked him, though 
his eyes were still closed : * Dear Puncjarlka, tell me what 
this means.' Then with great difficulty and effort he 
oi)ened his eyes, which seemed fastened together by their 
long closing, and which were red from incessant weeping 
and overflowing with tears as if shaken and in pain, while 
their colour was that of a red lotus-bed veiled in white silk. 
He looked at me long with a very languid glance, and then, 
deeply sighing, in accents broken by shame, he slowly and 
with pain murmured : * Dear Kapifijala, why ask me what 
thou knowest ?' Hearing this, and thinking that Pun- 
darika was suffering in this way a cureless ill, but that still, 
as far as possible, a friend who is entering a wrong course 
should be held back to the utmost by those who love him, 
I rei)lied : * Dear Puiidarika, I know it well. (807) I will 
only ask this question : Is this course you have begun 
taught by your gurus, or read in the holy books ? or is this 
a way of winning holiness, or a fresh form of penance, or 
a path to heaven, or a mystic vow, or a means of salvation, 


or any other kind of discipline ? Is this fitting for thee 
even to imagine, much less to see or tell ? Like a fool, 
thou seest not that thou art made a laughing-stock hy that 
miscreant Love. For it is the fool who is tormented by 
Love. For what is thy hope of happiness in such things 
as are honoured by the base, but blamed by the good? 
He truly waters a poison tree under the idea of duty, or 
embraces the sword plant for a lotus-wreath, or lays hold 
on a black snake, taking it for a line of smoke of black 
aloes, or touches a burning coal for a jewel, or tries to 
pull out the club-like tunk of a wild elephant, thinking it 
a lotus-fibre ; he is a fool who places happiness in the 
pleasures of BeiiHO which end in sorrow. And thou, though 
knowing the real nature of the senses, why dost thou carry 
thy knowledge as the firefly his light, ^ only to be concealed, 
in that thou restrainest not thy senses when they start out 
of their course like streams turbid*^ in their passionate 
onrush? Nor dost thou curb thy tossing mind. (308) 
Who, forsooth, is this Love-god ? Relying on thy firmness, 
do thou revile this miscreant.' 

**'*** As I thus spoke he wiped with his hand his eyes 
streaming with tears poured through his eyelashes, and 
while he yet leant on me, replied, rebuking my speech : 
* Friend, what need of many words? Thou at least art 
untouched ! Thou hast not fallen within the range of 
Love's shafts, cruel with the poison of snakes ! It is easy 
to teach another ! and when that other has his senses and 
his mind, and sees, hears, and knows what he has heard, 
and can discern good and evil, he is then fit for advice. 
But all this is far from me ; all talk of stability, judgment, 
firmness, reflection, has come to an end. How do I even 
breathe but by strong effort ? The time for advice is long 
past. The opportunity for firmness has been let slip ; the 
hour for reflection is gone ; the season for stability and 
judgment has passed away. Who but thee could give 
advice at this time, or could attempt to restrain my 
wandering ? To whom but thee should I listen ? or who 
> Scilicet, ill the day. 2 Turbid with (a) dust ; (b) passion. 


else in the world is a friend like thee ? What ails me that 
I cannot restrain myself ? Thou sawest in a moment my 
wretched plight. The time, then, for advice is now past. 
(309) While I breathe, I long for some cure for the fever of 
love, violent as the rays of twelve suns^ at the end of the 
world. My limbs are baked, my heart is seething, my 
eyes are burning, and my body on fire. Do, therefore, 
what the time demands.' He then became silent, and 
after this speech I tried again and again to rouse him ; but 
as he did not listen even when tenderly and afifectionately 
exhorted in the words of the pure teaching of the yiistras 
full of cases like his own, together with the legendary 
histories, I thought, * He is gone too far ; he cannot be 
turned back. Advice is now useless, so I will make an 
effort just to preserve his life.' With this resolve I rose 
and went, and tore up some juicy lotus-fibres from the lake ; 
then, taking some lotus-petals marked by water, I plucked 
lotuses of all kinds, sweet with the fragrance of the 
aromatic pollen within, and prepared a couch on that same 
rock in the bower. And as he rested there at ease (310), I 
crushed soft twigs of the sandal-trees hard by, and with its 
juice, naturally sweet and cold as ice, made a mark on his 
brow, and anointed him from head to foot. I allayed the 
perspiration by camphor-dust powdered in my hand, broken 
from the interstices of the split bark of the trees near, and 
fanned him with a plantain-leaf dripping with pure water, 
while the bark robe he wore was moist with the sandal 
placed on his breast ; and as I again and again strewed 
fresh lotus couches, and anointed him with sandal, and 
removed the perspiration, and constantly fanned him, the 
thought arose in my mind, * Surely nothing is too hard for 
Love ! For how far apart would seem Pundarlka, hy nature 
simple and content with his woodland home, like a fawn, 
and Mahri9veta, the Gandharva princess, a galaxy of graces: 
surely there is nothing for Love in the world hard, or 
difficult, or unsubdued, or impossible. He scornfully 
attempts the hardest tasks, nor can any resist him. For 
* Tlie Vishnu Puruna, Bk. vi., ch. iii., mentions seven suns. 

/ 121 

why speak of beings endowed with sense when, if it so 
please him, he can bring together even things without 
sense ? For the night lotus-bed falls in love with the sun's 
ray, and the day-lotus leaves her hatred of the moon, and 
night is joined to day, (311) and moonlight waits on dark- 
ness, and shade stands in the face of light, and lightning 
stays firm in the cloud, and old age accompanies youth ; 
and what more difficult thing can there be than that one 
like PuiKJarlka, who is an ocean of unfathomable depth, 
should thus be brought to the lightness of grass ? Where 
is his former penance, and where his present state ? Truly 
it is a cureless ill that has befallen him ! What must I 
now do or attempt, or whither go, or what refuge or 
resource, or help or remedy, or plan, or recourse, is there 
by which his life may be sustained ? Or by what skill, or 
device, or means, or support, or thought, or solace, may he 
yet live ?' These and other such thoughts arose in my 
downcast heart. But again I thought, ' What avails dwell- 
ing on this useless thouglit ? His life must be preserved 
by any means, good or bad, (312) and there is no other way 
to save it but by her union with him ; and as he is timid 
by reason of his youth, and moreover thinks the affairs of 
love contrary to his vow, unseemly, and a mockery in him- 
self, he certainly, even at his last breath, will not gratify 
his longing by himself approaching her. This his disease 
of love admits no delay. Good men always hold that a 
friend's life must be saved even by a blamieworthy deed ; 
so that though this is a shameful and wrong action, it has 
yet become imperative for me. What else can be done ? 
What other course is there ? I will certainly go to her. 
I will tell her his state.' Thus thinking, I left the place 
on some pretext, and came hither without telling him, lest 
perchance he should feel that I was engaged in an un- 
seemly employment, and should in shame hold me back. 
This being the state of affairs, thou, lady, art the judge of 
what action is needful for the time, worthy of so great a 
love, fitting for my coming, and right for thyself." With 
these words he became silent, fixing his eyes on my face to 


see what I should say. But I, having heard hhn, was 
plunged, as it were, into a lake of ambrosial joy, or 
immersed in an ocean of the sweets of love, floating above 
all joys, mounting to the pinnacle of all desires, resting at 
the utmost bound of gladness. I showed my happiness by 
joyful tears pouring clear, large, and heavy, because my 
eyelashes were not closed, strung like a garland by their 
unceasing succession, and not touching my cheek, because 
my face was somewhat bent in sudden shame ; (813) and I 
thought at once : '* joy, that Love entangles him as well 
as me, so that even while tormenting me, he has in part 
showed me kindness ; and if Pun(jarlka is indeed in such a 
plight, what help has not Love given me, or what has he 
not done for me, or what friend is like him, or how could a 
false tale, even in sleep, pass the lips of the calm-souled 
Kapifijala? And if this be so, what must I do, and what 
must I say in his presence?" While I was thus de- 
liberating, a portress hastily entered, and said to mo : 
** Princess, the Queen has learnt from her attendants that 
thou art ill, and is now coming." On hearing this, 
Kapinjala, fearing the contact of a great throng, quickly 
rose, saying: ** Princess, a cause of great delay has arisen. 
The sun, the crest-jewel of the three worlds, is now sinking, 
so I will depart. But I raise my hands in salutation as a 
slight offering for the saving of my dear friend's life ; that 
is my greatest treasure." (814) Then, without awaiting my 
reply, he with difficulty departed, for the door was blocked 
by the entrance of the attendants that heralded my Lady 
brother. There were the portresses bearing golden staves ; 
the chamberlains with unguents, cosmetics, flowers, and 
betel, holding waving cowries ; and in their train were 
humpbacks, barbarians, deaf men, eunuchs, dwarfs, and 
deaf mutes. 

'*' * Then the Queen came to me, and after a long visit, 

went home ; but I observed nothing of what she did, said, 

, or attempted while with me, for my heart was far away. 

; When she went the sun, with his steeds bright as haritala 

pigeons, lord of life to the lotuses, and friend of the 


/ X28 

cakravakas, had sunk to rest, and the face of the West was 
growing crimson, and the lotus-beds were turning green, 
and the East was darkening to blue, and the world of 
mortals was overcome by a blackness like a wave of the 
ocean of final destruction turbid with the mud of hell. I 
knew not what to do, and asked Taralika, " Seest thou not, 
Taralika, how confused is my mind? My senses are 
bewildered with uncertainty, and I am unable myself to 
see in the least what I should do. (315) Do thou tell me 
what is right to do, for Kapifijala is now gone, and he told 
his tale in thy presence. What if, like a base-born maiden, 
I cast away shame, relinquish self-control, desert modesty, 
contemn the reproach of men, transgress good behaviour, 
trample on conduct, despise noble birth, accept the dis- 
grace of a course blinded by love, and without my father's 
leave, or my mother's approval, I were to go to him myself 
and offer him my hand ? This transgression against my 
parents would be a great wrong. But if, taking the other 
alternative, I follow duty, I shall in the first place accept 
death, and even so I shall break the heart of his reverence 
Kapifijala, who loved him first, and who came hither of his 
own accord. And again, if perchance that man's death 
is brought about by my deed in destroying his hopes, then 
causing the death of an ascetic would be a grave sin.'* 
While I thus considered, the East became gray with the 
glimmering light of moonrise, like a line of woods in 
spring with the pollen of flowers. And in the moonlight 
the eastern quarter showed white as if with the powdered 
pearls from the frontal bone of the elephant of darkness torn 
open by the lion-moon, (316) or pale with sandal-dust falling 
from the breast of the n^^mphs of the eastern mountain, 
or light with the rising of sand in an island left by the 
tide, stirred by the wind on the waves of the ever-moving 
ocean. Slowly the moonlight glided down, and made 
bright the face of night, as if it were the flash of her 
teeth as she softly smiled at the sight of the moon ; then 
evening shone with the moon's orb, as if it were the circle 
of Cesha's hoods . breaking through the earth as it rose 


from hell ; after that, night became fair with the moon, 
the gladdener of the world of mortals, the delight of 
lovers, now leaving its childhood behind and becoming the 
ally of Love, with a youthful glow arising within it, the 
only fitting light for the enjoyment of Love's pleasures, 
ambrosial, climbing the sky like youth impersonate. Then 
I beheld the risen moon as if flushed with the coral of the 
ocean it had just left, crimsoned with the blood of its deer 
struck by the paw of the lion of the Eastern Mountain, 
marked with the lac of llohinl's^ feet, as she spurned her 
lord in a love quarrel, (JU7) and ruddy with his newly- 
kindled glow. And I, though the lire of Love burnt within 
me, had my heart darkened ; though my body rested on 
the lap of Taralikil, I was a captive in the hands of Love ; 
though my eyes were iixed on the moon, I was looking on 
death, and 1 straightway thought, ** There are the honey- 
month, the Malaya winds, and all other such things 
brought together, and in the same place to have this evil 
miscreant moon cannot be endured. My heart cannot boar 
it. Its rising now is like a shower of coals to one consumed 
by fever, or a fall of snow to one ill from cold, or the bite 
of a black siiako to oiio faint with the swelling of poison." 
And as I thus thought, a swoon closed my eyes, like the 
sleep brought by moonlight that withers the lotuses of the 
day. Soon, however, I regained consciousness by moans of 
the fanning and sandal unguents of the bewildered Tara- 
lika, and I saw her weeping, her face dimmed with cease- 
less tears, pressing the point of a moist moonstone to my 
brow, and seeming possessed by despair impersonate. As 
I opened my eyes, she fell at my feet, and said, raising hands 
yet wet with the thick sandal ointment: ** Princess, why 
think of shame or disrespect to parents? Be kind ; send 
me, and I will fetch the beloved of thy heart ; (JU8) rise, 
or go thither thyself. Henceforth thou canst not bear this 
Love that is an ocean whose manifold passionate waves^ 
are swelling at the rirfo of a strong moon." To this speech 

' Tho HHti^riHin lloliinl. 

'■' IJ tkalik(l = {a) y/iwo', (6) longing. 


I replied : ** Mad girl, what is love to me ? The moon it is, 
even the lord of the night lotuses, who removes all scruples, 
undermines all search for means of escape, conceals all 
difficulties, takes away all doubts, contemns all fears, roots 
out all shame, veils the sinful levity of going myself to 
my lover, avoids all delay, and has come merely to lead me 
either to Pundarika or to death. Rise, therefore ; for 
while I have life I will follow him and honour him who, 
dear as he is, tortures my heart." Thus saying, I rose, 
leaning on her, for my limbs were yet unsteady with the 
weakness of the swoon caused by Love, and as I rose my 
right eye throbbed, presaging ill, and in sudden terror I 
thouglit : **What new thing is this threatened by Destiny ?" 
(JUD) * ** * The firmament was now flooded with moonlight, 
as if the moon's orb, which had not yet risen far, was, like 
the waterpipe of the temple of the universe, discharging a 
thousand streams of the heavenly Ganges, pouring forth 
the waves of an ambrosial ocean, shedding many a cascade 
of sandal-juice, and bearing floods of nectar; the world 
seemed to learn what life was in the White Continent, and 
the pleasures of seeing the land of Soma ; the round earth 
was being poured out from the deptbs of a Milky Ocean by 
the moon, which was like the rounded tusk of the Great 
jioar; the moonrise olYerings were being presented in every 
house by the women with sandal-water fragrant with open 
lotuses ; the highways were crowded with thousands of 
women-messengers sent by fair ladies ; girls going to meet 
their lovers ran hither and thither, veiled in blue silk and 
fluttered by the dread of the bright moonlight as if they 
were the nymphs of the white day lotus groves concealed 
in the splendours of the blue lotuses ; the sky became an 
alluvial island in the river of night, with its centre 
whitened by tlie thick pollen of the groves of open night 
lotuses ; while the night lotus-beds in the house-tanks 
were waking, encircled by bees which clung to every 
blossom ; (:V20) the world of mortals was, like the ocean, 
unable to contain the joy of moonriso, and seemed made of 
love, of festivity, of mirth, and of tenderness : evening was 


pleasant with the murmur of peacocks garrulous in gladness 
at the cascade that fell from the waterpipes of moonstone. 

* " * Taralikii accompanied me, holding powders, perfumes, 
unguents, betel, and various flowers, and I had also that 
napkin, wet with the sandal ointment which had been 
applied in my swoon, and which had its nap slightly dis- 
ordered and gray with the partly-dried mark of. sandal- 
wood clinging to it ; the rosary was on my neck ; the 
parijilta spray was kissing the tip of my ear ; veiled in 
red silk that seemed fashioned from rays of rubies, I went 
down from the top of tliat palace, unseen by any of my 
devoted attendants. On my way I was pursued by a swarm 
'of bees, which hastened, leaving lotus-beds and deserting 
gardens, drawn by the scent of the pfiriji'ita spray, sportively 
forming a blue veil round me. I departed through the 
door of the pleasure-grove and set out to meet Puiidarlka. 
(821) As I went, I thought, seeing myself attended by 
Tjiralikil only : ** What needs pomp of retinue when we 
seek our dearest ! Surely our servants then but play a 
mockery of attendance, for Love follows me with shaft 
fitted to the strung bow ; the moon, stretching out a long 
ray,^ draws me on like a hand ; passion supi^orts me at 
every step from fear of a fall ; my heart rushes on with the 
senses, leaving shame behind; longing has gained cer- 
tainty, and leads me on." Aloud I said : ** Oh, Taralika, 
would that this miscreant moon would with its beams seize 
him by the hair and draw him forward like myself !" As I 
thus spoko, she smilingly replied : ** Thou art foolish, my 
princess ! What does the moon want with Pundarlka '? 
Nay, rather, he himself, as though wounded by Love, does 
all these things for thee ; for under the guise of his image 
he kisses thy cheeks marked with drops of perspiration ; 
with trembling ray he falls on thy fair breast ; he touches 
the gems of thy girdle ; entangled in thy bright nails, he 
falls at thy feet ; moreover, the form of this lovesick 
moon wears the pallor of a sandal unguent dried by fever ; 
(322) he stretches out his ray s*-^ white as lotus-fibres ; under 
' Or, hand. 2 Hands. 

/ 127 

the guise of his reflection he falls on crystal pavements ; 
with rays^ gray as the dust from the filaments inside the 
ketaki, he plunges into lotus-pools; he touches with his 
beams^ the moonstones wet with spray ; he hates the day 
lotus-groves with their pairs of cakravakas once severed." 
With such discourse fitting for the time I approached that 
spot in her company. I then bathed my feet, gray with 
pollen from the creeper flowers on our path, in a spot near 
Kapinjala's abode which had a stream of moonstone, lique- 
fied by moonriso, flowing from Kailfisa's slope ; and there, 
on the left bank of the lake, I heard the sound of a man's 
weeping, softened by distance. Some fear had arisen 
within me at first, from the quivering of my right eye, 
and now that my heart was yet more torn by this cry, as 
if my downcast mind were telling some dreadful tidings 
within, I cried in terror: ** Taralika, what means this?" 
And with trembling limbs I breathlessly hastened on. 

* " * Then I heard afar a bitter cry, clear in the calm of 
night: '*Alas, I am undone! I am consumed! I am 
deceived ! What is this that has befallen me ? What has 
happened ? I am uprooted ! (.S23) Cruel demon Love, evil 
and pitiless, what shameful deed hast thou brought to 
pass ? Ah, wicked, evil, wanton MalifK^vetri, how had he 
harmed thee? Ah, evil, wanton, monstrous^ moon, thou 
hast gained thy desire. Cruel soft breeze of the South, 
thy softness is gone, and thy will is fulfilled. That which 
was to be done is done. Go now as thou wilt ! Ah, 
venerable (^vetaketu, tender to thy son, thou knowest not 
that thy life is stolen from thee ! Dharma, thou art dis- 
possessed ! Penance, thou art protectorless ! Eloquence, 
thou art widowed ! Truth, thou art lordless ! Heaven, 
thou art void ! Friend, protect me ! Yet I will follow 
thee ! I cannot remain even a moment without thee, alone! 
How canst thou now suddenly leave me, and go thy way 
like a stranger on whom my eyes had never rested? 

1 Feet. 2 Hands. 

3 Candracamldla (lit., 'base-born moon') is intended as an asson- 


Whence comes this thy great hardness? Say, whither, 
without thee, shall I go ? Whom shall I implore ? What 
refuge shall I seek ? I am blinded ! For me space is 
empty ! Life is aimless, penance vain, the world void of 
joy! With whom shall I wander, to whom speak, with 
whom hold converse ? Do thou arise ! Grant me an 
answer. Friend, where is thine old love to me? Where 
that smiling welcome that never foiled me ?" 

(324) ' ** * Such were the words I heard Kapinjala utter; 
and as I heard them I uttered a loud cry, while yet far off, 
as if my life had fallen ; and with my silk cloak torn as it 
clung to the creepers by the lake's bank, and my feet 
' placed on the ground regardless of its being rough or even, 
and as hastily as I could, I went on to that place, stumbling 
at every step, and yet as if led on by one who lifted me up 

n( i There I beheld Pundarlka lying on a couch made on 
a slab of moonstone wet with showers of cool spray, close to 
the lake ; it was made of lotus-fibres like a garland of tender 
flowers from all lilies, and seemed to be formed wholly of 
the points of Love's arrows. Pundarlka seemed from his 
great stillness to l)e listening for the sound of my step. 
He seemed to have gained a moment's happiness in sleep, 
as if Love's pain had been quenched by inward wrath ; he 
seemed engaged in a yoga penance of holding his breath, 
as an atonement for his breach of ascetic duty ; he seemed 
to murmur, with bright yet trembling lip : '* By thy deed 
am I come to this pass." He seemed pierced by the moon- 
beams which, under the guise of his bright finger-nails 
placed on a heart throbbing with Love's fire, fell on his 
back as he lay averted in hatred of the moon. (325) He 
bore a mark on his brow of a line of sandal, which, by its 
being pale from dryness, was like a digit of Love's waning 
moon portending his own destruction. Life seemed to leave 
him in anger, saying j ** Fool, another is dearer to thee than 
I !" His eyes were not wholly closed ; their pupils were 
slightly turned to look ; they were red with ceaseless weep- 
ing ; they seemed to drop blood, since by failure of breath 

^ 129 

his tears were exhausted ; and they were partly curved in 
pain at Love's darts. He now experienced the pain of 
unconsciousness, as if together with the torment of love he 
were also yielding life itself ; he seemed to meditate a new 
version of Love's mystery, and to practise an unwonted re- 
tention of breath. His life seemed to be carried off as a 
prize^ by Love, who had in kindness arranged my coming. 
On his brow was a sandal tripuiKJraka mark ; he wore a 
sacrificial thread of juicy lotus-fibre ; his dress clung to 
his shoulder beautiful as the leaf that ensheathes a plantain ; 
his rosary had only the thickness of a single row f- the 
ashes on his brow were of abundant white camphor-powder ; 
he was fair with the string of lotus-fibre, bound on his arm 
as an amulet ; he seemed to wear the garb of Love's vow, 
as if completing a charm for my coming. With his eye he 
tenderly uttered the reproach: ''Hard-hearted! I was but 
followed by one glance, and never again received thy 
favour." (326) His lips were slightly open, so that his 
form gleamed white in the rays of his teeth, which came 
forth as if they were moonbeams that had entered him to 
take away his life ; with his left hand placed on a heart 
breaking with the pain of love, he seemed to say: *'Be 
kind, depart not with my life, thou that art dear as life!" 
and so to hold me firmly in his heart ; his right hand, 
which from the uneven rays of his nails jutting forth 
seemed to drop sandal, was raised as if to ward off the 
moonlight ; near him stood his pitcher, the friend of his 
penance, with neck upright, as if it gazed at the path by 
which his life was just rising ; the garland of lotus-fibres 
which adorned his neck bound him as if with a rope of 
moonbeams to lead him to another world ; and when, at 
the sight of me, Kapinjala, with a cry of "Help, help!" 
raised his hands, and crying aloud with redoubled tears, 
fell on his neck, at that very moment I, wicked and ill- 
fated as I was, beheld that noble youth yield up his life. 
The darkness of a swoon came upon miB, and I descended 

* Fiirtjapdtra, a basket of gifts to be scrambled for at a wedding. 
'^ I.e., the row of pearls given by Mahacvetii. 


into hell ; nor knew I anything of whither I then went, or 
what I did or said. Neither knew I why my life did not at 
that moment leave me ; (327) whether from the utter hard- 
nesH of my stupefied heart, or from the callousness to bear 
thousands of troubles of my wretched body, or from being 
fated to endure a long grief, or from b(3ing a vessel of evil 
earned in another birth, or from the skill of my cruel 
dosiiny in bestowing sorrow, or from the singular perversity 
of malign accursed love. Only this I know: that when at 
length in my misery I regained consciousness, I found 
myself writhing on the ground, tortured, as if I had fallen 
on. a iire, by a grief too hard to bear. I could not believe 
aught so impossible as that he should die and I yet live, 
and rising with a bitter cry of ** Alas, what is this — mother, 
father, friends ?" I exclaimed: "Ah, my Lord, thou who 
uplioldest my life, speak to me! Whither goest thou, 
pitilessly leaving me alone and protectorless ? Ask Tara- 
lika what I have suifored for thy sake. Hardly have I 
been able to pass the day, drawn out into a thousand ages. 
lie gracious ! Utter but one word ! Show tenderness to 
her that loves thee ! Look but a little on me ! ruUil my 
longing ! I am wretched ! I am loyal ! I am thine in 
heart ! I am lordless ! I am young ! I am lieli)loss ! I 
am unhappy ! I am bereft of other refuge ! 1 am van- 
quished by Love ! Why showest thou no pity? Say what 
I have done or left undone, what command I have neglected, 
or in what thing pleasing to thee I have not shown aliection, 
that thou art wroth. (328) Fearest thou not the reproach 
of men in that thou goest, deserting me, thy handmaid, 
without cause? Yet why think of me, perverse and wicked, 
and skilled to deceive by false shows of love ! Alas, I yet 
live ! Alas, I am accursed and undone ! For why ? I 
have neither thee, nor honour, nor kinsfolk, nor heaven. 
Shame on me, a worker of evil deeds, for whose sake this 
fate hath befallen thae. There is none of so murderous a 
heart as I who went home, leaving.pne so peerless as thou. 
What to me were home, mother, father, kinsfolk, followers? 
Alas, to what refuge shall I flee? Fate, show pity to me! 



I entreat thee. Lady of destiny, give me a boon of mercy ! 
Show compassion I Protect a lordless lady ! Ye wood- 
land goddesses, be kind ! Give back his life I Help, 
Earth, that bringest favours to all ! Night, showest thou 
no mercy? Father Kailasa, thy protection I implore. 
Show thy wonted pity !" Such were my laments, so far as 
I romombor, and I murmured incoherently art one held by 
a domon, or posHOHHod or mad, or struck down by an evil 
spirit. In the tears that fell in torrents upon me I was 
turned to water, I melted away, I took upon me a shape 
of water ; my laments, followed by the sharp rays of my 
teeth, fell as if with showers of tears ; (82D) my hair, with 
its flowers ever falling, seemed to shed teardrops, and my 
very ornuments by the tears of pure gemlight that sprang 
from tliom seemed to raise their lament. I longed for my 
own death as for his life ; I yearned to enter his heart with 
my whole soul, dead though he were ; with my hand I 
touched his cheeks, and his brow with the roots of his hair, 
white with dry sandal, and his shoulders with the lotus- 
libres on them, and his heart covered with lotus-leaves 
and flecks of sandal-juice. With the tender reproach, 
** Thou art cruel, Pun(jarjka ! Thou carest nought that I 
am thus wretched !" I again sought to win him back. I 
again embraced him, I again clasped his neck, and wept 
aloud. Then I rebuked that string of pearls, saying : " Ah, 
wicked one, couldst not even thou have preserved his life 
till my coming?" Then again I fell at Kapinjala's feet 
with the prayer, ** Be kind, my lord ; restore him to life !" 
and again, clinging to Taralika's neck, I wept. Even now, 
when I think of it, I know not how these piteous, tender 
words came forth from my ill-fated heart — words all un- 
thought, unlearnt, untaught, unseen before; nor whence 
these utterances arose ; nor whence these heart-rending 
cries of despair. My whole being was changed. (330) For 
there rose a deluge wave of inward tears, the springs of 
weeping were set loose, the buds of wailing came forth, the 
peaks of sorrow grew lofty and a long line of madness was 
begun.' And so, as she thus told her own tale, she seemed 


again to taste the bitterness of that former plight, so cruel, 
and so hardly endured, and a swoon bereft her of sense. 
In the force of her swoon she fell on the rock, and 
Candruplda hastily stretched out his hand, like her servant, 
and supported her, full of sorrow. At length he brought 
her back to consciousness by fanning her with the edge of 
her own bark garment, wot with tears. Filled with pity, 
and with his cheeks bathed in tears, he said to her, as she 
came to life : * Lady, it is by my fault that thy grief has 
been brought back to its first freshness, and that thou hast 
come' to this i)ass. Tlierefore no more of this tale. Let it 
be ended. Even I cannot bear to hear it. For the story 
even of past sorrow endured by a friend pains us as if we 
ourselves were living through it.^ Tliou wilt not there- 
fore surely place on the lire of grief that life so precious 
and so hardly preserved *?' (3;U) Thus addressed, with a 
long, hot sigh and eyes dissolved in tears, she despairingly 
replied : ' Prince, even in that dreadful night my liated life 
did not desert me ;^ it is not likely that it will leave me 
now. Even blessed Death turns away his eyes from one 
so ill-fated and wicked. Whence could one so hard-hearted 
feel grief ? all this can bo but feigned in a nature so vile. 
But bo that as it may, that shameless heart has made me 
chief among the shameless. For to one so adamantine as 
to have seen love in all his power, and yet to have lived 
through this, what can mere speaking of it matter? 

* *' * Or what could there bo harder to tell than this very 
thing, which is supposed to bo impossible to hear or say ? 
I will at least briefly tell the marvel that followed on that 
thunder])olt, and 1 will tell, too, what came as a tiny dim 
cause of my prolonging my life, which by its mirage so 
deludes mo that I bear about a hated body, almost dead, 
alien to me, burdensome, unfitted to my needs, and thank- 
less for my care. That shall suftice. Afterwards, hi a 
sudden change** of feeling, with resolve firmly sot on death, 
lamenting bitterly, I cried to Taralika : " llise, cruel- 

* Owiiiy l)riyajanavi(;V(}8avacanani. '^ Jindidi^ 2)aritijahtd. 

^ Head, ant a re. 


hearted girl ; how long wilt thou weep? Bring together 
wood and make a pile. I will follow the lord of my 

(332) * ** * Straightway a being swiftly left the moon's orb 
and descended from the sky. Behind him he trailed a silken 
voHture hanging from his crest, white as the foam of nectar, 
and waving in the wind ; his cheeks were reddened with the 
brif^'ht gems that swayed in his ears ; on his breast he bore 
a radiant n(3cklace, from the size of its pearls like a cluster 
of Htars ; his turban was tied with strips of white silk ; his 
head was thick with curling locks, and dark as bees ; his 
earring was an open moon lotus ; on his shoulder was the 
inij)ress of the safYron lines that adorned his wives ; he 
was while as a moon lotus, lofty in stature, endowed with 
all the marks of greatiK^ss, and godlike in form ; he seemed 
to purify space by the liglit slied round him cUiar as pure 
water, and to anoint it as by a thick frost with a dewy 
anibroHJal shower that created a chill as he slied it from 
his limbs, cool and fragrant, and to .besprinkle it with a 
rich store of gor/Irsha^ sandal -juice. 

* " * With arms sturdy as the trunk of Airavata, and fingers 
white as lotus-fibres and cool to the touch, he lifted my 
dead lord, (333) and, in a voice deep as a drum, he said to 
me: *' Mahfu/veta, my child, thou must not die; for thou 
shalt again be unittul with him !" And with these words, 
tt'iulor as a father's, he Hew into the sky with Puiujarlka. 

* ** ' But this sudden event tilled me with fear, dismay, 
and eager anxiety, and with upraised face I asked Kapinjala 
what it might mean. lie, however, started up hastily with- 
out replying, and with the cry, ''Monster, whither goest 
thou with my friend?" with uplifted eyes and sudden wrath 
he hastily girt up his loins, and following him in his flight, 
in hot pursuit he rose into the sky ; and while I yet gazed 
they all entered amongst the stars. But the departure of 
Kapinjala was to me like a second death of my beloved, and 
it redoubled my grief, so that my heart was rent asunder. 
Bewildered what to do, I cried to Taralika : ** Knowest thou 

* Qoijrahay a kind of fragrant sandal. 


not? Tell me what this means!*' But she, with all a 
woman's timidity at the sight, was at that very moment 
trembling in all her limbs, overcome by a fear stronger 
than her grief, and was frightened, moreover, by the dread 
of my death ; and so with downcast heart she piteoiisly 
replied : *' Princess, wretch that I am, I know not ! Yet 
this is a great miracle. The man is of no mortal mould, 
and thou wert pityingly comforted by him in his flight as 
by a father. Such godlike beings are not wont to deceive 
UF^, even in sleep, much less face to face ; and when I think 
it over I cannot see the least cause for his speaking falsely. 
(3IU) It is meet, therefore, that thou shouldst weigh it, and 
restrain thy longing for death. In thy present state it is 
in truth a great ground for comfort. Moreover, Kapinjala 
has gone in pursuit of Pun(larlka. From him thou canst 
learn whence and who this ])eing is, and why PuiKJarlka on 
his death was by him raised and carried off, and whither 
he is carried, and wherefore thou wert consoled by him 
with the boon of a hojie of reunion that exceeds thought ; 
then thou canst devote thyself either to life or death. For 
when death is resolved upon, it is easy to compass. But 
this can wait ; for Kapinjala, if he lives, will certainly not 
rest without seeing thee ; therefore let thy life l)e pre- 
served till ids return." Thus saying, she fell at my feet. 
And I, from the thirst for life that mortals Ihid so hard to 
overcome, aiul from the wcMiknesH of woman's nature^ aiul 
from the illusion his words had created, and from my 
anxiety for Kapinjala's return, thought that that plan was 
best for the time, and did not die. For what will not hope 
achieve ? 

* ** * That night I spent in Taralika's company on the bank 
of the lake. To my wretchedness it was like a night of 
doom,^ drawn out to a thousand years, all torment, all 
grief, all hell, all fire. (88.5) Sleep was rooted out; and I 
tossed on the ground ; my face was hidden by the loosened 
; and dishevelled tresses that clung to my cheeks, wet with 

i * V. Vislinu Purana, lik. i., ch. iii. (For tho do8cription of liralimA's 
' night.) 


tears and gray with duat, and my throat was weak, for my 
voice failed, broken with piteous weeping. 

* *' * At dawn I arose and bathed in the lake, and having 
formed my resolve, I took, for love of Pundarlka, his pitcher 
and his bark garments and his rosary ; for 1 clearly knew 
the wortlileHHness of the world. I perceived my own lack of 
merit ; I pictured to myself the remediless cruelty of the 
blows of fate; I pondered the inevitableness of grief; I 
beheld tlie harshness of destiny; I meditated the course 
of love, rich in sorrow ; I learnt the inconstancy of earthly 
things ; I considered the frailness of all joys. Father and 
mother were disregarded ; kinsfolk and followers abandoned; 
the joys of earth were banished from my mind ; the' senses 
held in firm restraint. 

* *' ' I took the ascetic vow, and sought the protection of 
(|iva, lord of the three worlds and helper of the helpless. 
Next day my father came, having somehow learnt my story, 
bringing witli him my mother and kinsfolk. Long he 
wept, and strove with all his might and by every means — 
prayers, admonitions, and tender words of every kind — to 
lead me home. (880) And when he understood my firm 
resolve, and knew that I could not be turned from that in- 
fatuation, he could not, even though without hope, part 
witli his love for his child ; and though I often bade him 
go, be stayed for some days, and went home at length full 
of gri(^f, and with bis heart hot within him. 

* ** * After his going, it was only by empty tears that I 
could show my gratitude to my lord ; by many a penance 1 
wasted my hated body, worn away by love of him, rich in 
ill, devoid of shame, ill-omened, and the home of a thousand 
tortures of grief ; I lived but on water and the roots and 
fruits of the wood ; under the guise of telling my beads 
I counted his virtues ; thrice a day I bathed in the lake ; I 
daily worshipped (Jiva, and in this cell I dwelt with Taralika, 
tasting the bitterness of a long grief. Such am I, evil, ill- 
omened, shameless, cruel, cold, murderous, contemptible, 
useless, fruitless, helpless, and joyless. (337) Why should 
one so noble as thou deign to look on or speak with me, 


the doer of that monstrous crime, the slaughter of a Brah- 
man ?' Thus saying, she covered her face with the white 
edge of her bark garment, as if veiling the moon with a 
fleck of autumn cloud, and, unable to quell the irresistible 
torrent of her tears, she gave way to her sobs, and began 
to weep loud and long. 

' *' From the very first Candrapula had been filled with 
reverence by her beauty, modesty, and courtesy ; by the 
charm of her speech, her unseliishness and her austerity ; 
and by her serenity, humility, dignity, and purity. But now 
he was carried away both by the story of her life, which 
showed her noble character, and by her devoted spirit, and 
a fresh tenderness arose in him. With softened heart he 
gently said : *Lady, those may weep who fear pain, and are 
devoid of gratitude, and love pleasure, for they are unable 
to do anytliing worthy of love, and sliow their affection 
merely by vain tears. But thou who hast done all rightly, 
what duty of love hast thou left undone, tliat thou weepest? 
For PuiKJarlka's sake, thy kinsfolk who from thy birth 
have been around thee, dear as they were, have ))een for- 
saken as if tliey were strangers. (iVdH) Earthly pleasures, 
though at thy feet, have been despised and reckoned light 
as grass. The joys of power, though their riches excelled 
the empire of Indra, have been resigned. Thy form has 
been emaciated by dread penances, even though by nature 
it was slender as a lotus-stalk. Thou hast taken the ascetic 
vow. Th}^ soul has been devoted to great penance. Thou 
hast dwelt in the woods, hard though it be for a woman. 
Moreover, life is easily resigned b}^ those whom sorrow has 
overwhelmed, but it needs a greater effort not to throw 
away life in heavy grief. This following another to death 
is most vain ! It is a path followed by the ignorant ! It 
is a mere freak of madness, a path of ignorance, an enter- 
prise of recklessness, a view of baseness, a sign of utter 
thoughtlessness, and a blunder of folly, that one should 
resign life on the death of father, brother, friend, or 
husband. If life leaves us not of itself, we must not resign 
.it. For this leaving of life, if we examine it, is merely for 


our own interest, because we cannot bear our own cureless 
pain. To the dead man it brings no good whatever. For 
it is no means of bringing him back to life, or heaping up 
merit, or gaining heaven for him, or saving him from hell, 
or seeing him again, or being reunited with him. (389) For 
he is led helplessly, irresistibly to another state meet for 
the fruits of his own deeds. And yet he shares in the guilt 
of the friend who has killed himself. 13ut a man who lives 
on can help greatly, by offerings of water and the like, both 
the dead man and himself ; but by dying he helps neither. 
Bemember how liati, the solo and beloved wife of Love, 
when her noble husband, who won the hearts of all women, 
was burnt up by the lire of (Jiva, yet did not yield her life ; 
and remember also KuntI, of the race of Yrishiii, daughter 
of Surasena, for her lord was rruulu the wise ; his seat was 
perfumed by the llowers in the crests of all the kings whom 
he had conquered without an effort, and he received the 
tribute of the whole earth, and yet when he was con- 
sumed by Kindauia's curse she still remained alive. Uttara, 
too, the young daughter of Virrita, on the death of Abhi- 
manyu, gentle and heroic, and joyful to the eyes as the 
young moon, yet lived on. And IJuhcalya, too, daughter of 
Dhritarashtra, tenderly cared for by her hundred brothers; 
when Jayadratha, king of Sindliu, was slain by Arjuna, fair 
as he was and great as he had become by Civa's^ gift, yet 
made no resignation of her life. (340) And others are told 
of by thousands, daughters of Eakshasas, gods, demons, 
ascetics, mortals, siddhas and Gandharvas, who when 
bereft of their husbands yet preserved their lives. Still, 
where reunion is doubtful, life might be yielded. But for 
thee, thou hast heard from that great being a promise of 
reunion. What doubt can there be in a matter of thine 
own experience, and how could falsehood find a place in 
the words of such noble truth-speaking saints, even when 
there might be greater cause? And what union could 

* Tatah Saindhavako raja kshudras, tata, Jayadrathah, 
Varadanena Ihidrasya sarvan iiah samavarayat. 
(' Then the vile Siiidh kinglet, Jayadratha, through the boon con- 
ferred by liudra, my son, kept us jill back.') — Mahabharata, vii., 2574. 


there be between the dead and the living ? Therefore of a 
surety that wondrous being was filled with pity and carried 
away Pundarika to heaven solely to bring him back to life. 
For the i^ower of great men transcends thought. Life has 
many aspects. Destiny is manifold. Those skilled in 
penance are fitted for wondrous miracles. Many are the 
forms of power gained by previous actions. Moreover, 
however sul)tly we may consider the matter, what other 
cause can we imagine for Punilarlka's being taken away, 
but the gift of fresh life. And tliis, thou must know, is 
not impossible. It is a path often trodden. (841) For 
Pramadvara, daughter of Yiovrivasu, king of the Gand- 
harvas and Menaka, lost her life through a poisonous 
snake at the liei-niitage of Stliulake9a, and the young 
ascetic lluru, son of Pramati and grandson of the JMirigu 
Cyavana, provided her with half his own life. And when 
Arjuna was following the A(;vamedha steed, he was pierced 
in the van of the battle by an arrow from his own son 
]3abhruvribana, and a Nfiga maiden, Ulfipri, brought him 
back to life. When Parlkshit, Abhimanyu's son, was con- 
sumed by Aevattbruna's fiery dart, though he had already 
died at birth, Krishna, filled with pity by Uttara's lament, 
restored his precious life. And at UjjayinI, he whose steps 
are honoured by the three worlds, carried off from the city 
of death the son of Sandlpani the Brahman, and brought 
him baek.^ And in thy case, too, the same will somehow 
come to pass. For by thy present grief, what is effected or 
what won ? Fate is all-jDowerful. Destiny is strong. We 
cannot even draw a breath at our own will. The freaks of 
that accursed and most harsh destiny are exceeding cruel. 
A love fair in its sincerity is not allowed long to endure ; 
for joys are wont to be in their essence frail and unlasting, 
while sorrows by their nature are long-lived. (342) For 
how hardly are mortals united in one life, while in a 
thousand lives they are separated. Thou canst not surely 
then blame thyself, all undeserving of blame. For these 
things often happen to those who enter the tangled path of 
^ Harivaipia, 4900. 


transmigration, and it is the brave who conquer misfortune.* 
With such gentle and soothing words he consoled her, and 
made her, albeit reluctantly, bathe her face with water 
brought in his joined hands from the cascade. 

* ** Straightway the sun began to sink, as if he were 
leaving the day's duties from grief at hearing Maha9veta's 
story. Then day faded away ; the sun hung shining red 
as the pollen of a cluster of priyangu in full blossom ; the 
quarters of space were losing the glow of sunset soft as 
silk dyed in the juice of many lotuses ; (343) the sky was 
tinged with red, glowing like the pupils of a partridge,^ 
while its blue was hidden ; twilight was reddening and 
lighting up the earth, tawny as a pigeon's eye ; the clusters 
of stars shone forth, vying with each other ; the darkness of 
night was deepening into black, and stealing away the 
broad path of the stars with its form dark as a forest 
bufl'alo ; the woodland avenues seemed massed together as 
their green was hidden by deep gloom ; the wind wandered 
cooled by night-dew, with its path tracked by the perfume 
of the , wild flowers as it stirred the tangle of trees and 
creepers ; and when night had its birds all still in sleep 
!Mahri(;veta slowly rose, and saying her evening prayers, 
washed her feet with water from the pitcher and sat down 
with a hot, sorrowful sigh on her bark couch. Candraplda, 
too, rose and poured a libation of water strewn with flowers, 
said his evening prayer, and made a couch on the other 
rock with soft creeper boughs. As he rested upon it he 
went over IMahfu/veta's story again in his mind. ' Tbis 
evil Love,' thought he, * has a power hard alike to cure and 
to endure. For even great men, when overcome by him, 
regard not the course of time, but suddenly lose all courage 
and surrender life. Yet all hail to Love, whose rule is 
honoured throughout the three worlds !' (344) And again 
he asked her : * She that was thy handmaiden, thy friend 
in the resolve to dwell in the woods, and the sharer of the 
ascetic vow taken in thy sorrow — Taralika, where is she ?' 

1 The caJiora, or Greek partridge, was said to have its eyes turned 
red in tlie presence of poison. 


* Noble sir/ she replied, * from the race of Apsarases 
sprung from am])rosia of which I told you, there was born 
a fair-eyed daughter named Madira,^ who married King 
Citraratha, the king whose footstool was formed of the 
buds in the crests of all the Gandharvas. Charmed by her 
countless virtues, he showed his favour by giving her the 
title of Chief Queen, bearing with it cowrie, sceptre and 
umbrella, marked by a golden throne, and placing all the 
zenana below her — a woman's rarest glory ! And, as they 
pursued together the joys of youth in their utter devotion 
to each otlier, a priceless daughter was in due time born 
to them, by name Kfidambarl, most wondrous, the very 
life of her parents, and of the whole Gandharva race, and 
even of all living beings. From her birth she was the 
friend of my cliiklliood, and shared with me seat, couch, 
meat and drink ; on her my deepest love was set, and she 
was the home of all my coniidence, and like my other 
heart. Together we learnt to dance and sing, and our 
cbildbood passed away free from restraint in the sports 
that belong to it. (:M5) From sorrow at my unhappy 
story she made a resolve that she would in nowise accept 
a husband while I was still in grief, and before her girl 
friends she took an oath, saying : " If my father should in 
anywise or at any time wish to marry me against my will 
and by force, I will end my life by hunger, fire, cord, or 
j)oison." Citraratha himself heard all the resolution of his 
daughter, spoken of positively in the repeated gossip of her 
attendants, and as time went on, seeing that she was 
growing to full youth, he became prey to great vexation, 
and for a time took pleasure in nothing, and yet, as she 
was his only child and he dearly loved her, he could say 
nothing to her, though he saw no other resource. But as 
he deemed the time now ripe, he considered the matter with 
Queen Madira, and sent the herald Kshlroda to me at early 
dawn with the mess^ige : *' Dear Mahri(;vetri, our hearts 
were already burnt up by thy sad fate, and now this new 

* Madira, intoxicating, bewitching ; so called because her eyes were 


thing has come upon us. To thee we look to win back 
Kadambarl/* Thereupon, in reverence to the words of one 
so respected, and in love to my friend, I sent Taralika with 
Kshlroda to bid Kadambarl not add grief to one already 
sad enough ; (346) for if she wished me to live she must 
fulfil her father's words ; and ere Taralika had been long 
gone, thou, noble sir, camest to this spot.* So saying she 
was silent. 

* *' Then the moon arose, simulating by his mark the 
heart of Maha(;veta, burnt through by the fire of grief, 
bearing the great crime of the young ascetic's death, 
showing the long ingrained scar of the burning of Daksha's 
curse,^ white with thick ashes, and half covered by black 
anteloj^e skin, like the left breast of Durga, the crest-jewel 
of (yiva's thick locks. (IU7) Then at length Candraplda 
beheld Maljac/vetri asleep, and quietly lay down himself on 
his leafy couch and fell asleep while thinking what Yai(;am- 
payana and sorrowing Patralokha and his princely com- 
peers would then bo imagining about him. 

* " Then at dawn, when Mahficveta had honoured the 
twilight and was murmuring the aghamarshana, and 
Candrapliia had said his morning prayer, Taralika was seen 
coming with a Gandharva boy named Keyuraka (348). As 
she drew near, she looked long at Candraplda, wondering 
who he might l)e, and approaching Maha(;veta, she bowed 
low and sat respectfully by her. Then Keyfiraka, with head 
low bent even from afar, took his place on a rock some way 
off, assigned to him by a glance from Maha(;veta, and was 
filled with wonder at the sight of Candraplda's marvellous 
beauty, rare, mocking that of gods, demons, Gandharvas, 
and Vidyadharas, and surpassing even the god of love. 

(349) * '* When she had finished her prayers, Mahayveta 
asked Taralika, * Didst thou see my dear Kadambarl well ? 
and will she do as I said ?' * Princess,' said Taralika, 
in a very sweet voice, with head respectfully inclined, * I 

* Daksha cursed the moon with consumption at the appeal of his 
forty-nine daughters, the moon's wives, who complained of his special 
favour to the fiftieth sister. 


saw Princess Kadambarl well in all respects, and told her 
all thine advice; and what was her reply, when with a 
continuous stream of thick tears she had heard it, that her 
lute-player Keyuraka, whom she has sent, shall tell thee ;* 
and as she ceased Keyuraka said, * Princess Mahayveta, my 
lady Kadambarl, with a close embrace, sends this message, 
" Is this, that Taralika has been sent to tell me, said to 
please my parents or to test my feelings, or to subtly 
reproach me for my crime in dwelling at home ; or is it a 
desire to break our friendship, or a device to desert one 
who loves her, or is it simply anger ? Thou knowest that 
my heart overflows with a love that was inborn in 
me. How wert thou not ashamed to send so cruel a 
message? Thou, erst so soft of speech, from whom hast 
thou learnt to speak unkindness and utter reproach '? Who 
in his senses would, even if hai)py, make up his mind to 
undertake even a slight matter that would end in pain ? 
how much less one like me, whose heart is struck down by 
deep grief ? For in a heart worn by a friend's sorrow, 
what hope is there of joy, what contentment, what pleasures 
or what mirtli ? (}]5()) How should 1 fuliil the desire of 
Love, poisonous, pitiless, unkind, who has brought my 
dear friend to so sad a plight? Even the hen cakravaka, 
when the lotus-beds are widowed by the sun's setting, 
renounces from the friendship that arises from dwelling 
among them, the joys of union with her lord ; how much 
more, then, should women ! While my friend dwells day 
and night sorrowing for the loss of her lord and avoiding 
the sight of mankind, how could anyone else enter my 
heart ; and while my friend in her sorrow tortures herself 
with penances and suffers great pain, how could I think so 
lightly of that as to seek my own happiness and accept a 
husband, or how could any happiness befall me? For 
from love of thee I have in this matter accepted dis- 
grace by embracing an independent life contrary to the 
wont of maidens. I have despised noble breeding, trans- 
gressed my parent's commands, set at nought the gossip of 
mankind, thrown away modesty, a woman's inborn grace ; 


how, tell me, should such a one go back? Therefore I 
salute thee, I bow before thee, I embrace thy feet; be 
gracious to me. As thou hast gone hence into the forest, 
taking my life with thee, make not this request in thy mind, 
even in a dream." * (351) Thus having said, he became 
silent, and Maha(;veta thought long, and then dismissed 
Keyuraka, saying, * Do thou depart ; 1 will go to her and, 
do wliat is fitting.' On his departure she said to Candra- 
pl(ja, * Prince, Hemakuta is pleasant and the royal city of 
Citraratlia marvellous ; the Kinnara country is curious, 
the Gandharva world beautiful, and Kadambarl is noble 
and generous of heart. If thou deemest not the journey 
too tedious, if no serious business is hindered, if thy mind 
is curious to behold rare sights, if thou art encouraged by 
my words, if the sight of wonders gives thee joy, if thou 
wilt deign to grant my request, if thou thinkest me 
worthy of not being denied, if any friendship has grown up 
between us, or if I am deserving of thy favour, then thou 
canst not disdain to fulfil this prayer. Thou canst go 
hence with nie, and see not only Jleniakuta, that treasure 
of beauty, but my second self, Kmlanibarl ; and liaving 
removed this foolish freak of hers, thou canst rest for one 
day, and return hither the next morn. For by the sight 
of thy kindness so freely^ given, my grief has become 
bearable, since I have told thee my story, breathed out as 
it was from a heart long overwhelmed with the darkness of 
grief. (852) For the presence of the good gives joy even 
to those who are sad at heart, and a virtue springs from 
such as thou art that wholly tends to make others happy.' 

* *' ' Lady,' replied Candraplda, * from the first moment 
of seeing thee I have been devoted to thy service. Let thy 
will be imposed without hesitation ' ; so saying, he started 
in her company. 

' '' Li due time he reached Hemakuta, the royal city of 

the Gandharvas, and passing through the seven inner courts 

with their golden arches, the prince approached the door of 

the maidens' dwelling. Escorted by i)orters, who ran 

^ Lit., ' without cause.' 


forward at the sight of Maha9veta, bowing while yet far off, 
and holding their golden staves, he entered and beheld the 
inside of the maidens' palace. It seemed a new woman's 
world, consisting wholly of women in countless numbers, 
as if the womankind of the three worlds had been gathered 
together to make such a total ; or it might be a fresh 
manless creation, a yet unborn continent of girls, a fifth 
women's era, a fresh race created by Prajapati out of 
hatred for men, or a treasury of women prepared for the 
making of many yugas. The wave of girlish beauty which 
surrounded it on all sides, which flooded space, sprinkled 
nectar on the day, rained splendour on the interstices of 
the world, and shone lustrous as an emerald, made the 
place all aglow as if with thousands of moons ; (1358) it 
seemed modelled in moonlight ; jewels made another sky ; 
service was done by bright glances ; every part was made 
for youthful pleasures ; here was an assem))lage for liati's 
sports, a material for Love's practice ; here the entrance 
of all was made smooth by Love ; here all was alTection, 
beauty, the supreme deity of passion, the arrows of Love, 
here all was wonder, marvel, and tenderness of youth. 
(85()) When he had gone a little way in he heard the 
pleasant talk of the maidens round Kudambarl as they 
wandered hither and thither. Such as * Lavalika, deck the 
lavali trenches with ketaki pollen. Sfigarika, sprinkle 
jewelled dust in the tanks of scented water. Mrinalika, 
inlay with saffron dust the pairs of toy^ cakravakas in 
the artificial lotus-beds. Makarika, scent the pot-pourri 
with camphor- juice. Rajanika, place jewelled lamps in 
the dark tamfda avenues. Kumudika, cover the pome- 
granates with pearly nets to keep off the birds. Nipunika, 
draw saffron lines on the breasts of the jewelled dolls. 
Utpalika, sweep with golden brooms the emerald arbour in 
the plaintain house. Kesarikfi, sprinkle with wine the 
houses of bakul flowers. Malatika, redden with red lead 
the ivory roof of Kama's shrine. Nalinika, give the tame 
kalahamsas lotus-honey to drink. Kadalika, take the 
^ Lit., ' going by machinery.' 


tame peacocks to the shower-bath. Kamalinika, give some 
sap from the lotus-fibres to the young cakravakas. Cuta- 
latika, ^ive the caged pigeons their meal of mango-buds. 
Pallavika, diHtribute to the tame haritfila pigeons some 
topmost leaves of the pepper-tree. Lavangika, throw some 
pieces of pippall leaves into the partridges' cages. Mad- 
hukarikfi, make some flowery ornaments. Mayilrika, 
dismiss the pairs of* khmaras in the singing-room. Kan- 
dalika, bring up the pairs of partridges to the top of the 
playing hill. IlarinikA, give tlie caged parrots and mainas 
tlieir lesson.' 

(85H) * '* Then he beheld Kadambarl lierself in the midst 
of her pavilion encircled by a bevy of maidens sitting by 
her, whose glittering gems made them like a cluster of 
kalpa trees. ^ (:)5I)) She was resting on her bent arms, 
which lay on a white pillow placed on a small couch 
covered with blue silk ; she was fanned by cowrie-bearers, 
that in the motion of tlieir waving arms were like swimmers 
in the wide-llowing stream of her beauty, as if it covered 
the earth, which was only held up by the tusks of Maha- 

**' And as her reflection fell, she seemed on the jewelled 
pavement below to be borne away by serpents ; on the 
walls hard by to be led by the guardians of si)ace ; on the 
I'oof above to be cast upwards by the gods ; to be received 
by the pillars into their inmost heart ; to be drunk in by 
the palace mirrors, to be lifted to the sky by the Vidyad- 
liaras scattered in the pavilion, looking down from the 
roof ; to be surrounded by the universe concealed in the 
guise of pictures, all thronging together to see her; to be 
gazed at by the palace itself, which had gained a thousand 
eyes to behold her, in that the eyes of its peacocks* tails 
were outspread as they danced to the clashing of her gems ; 
and to be steadily looked on by her own attendants, who 
seemed in their eagerness to behold her to have gained a 
divine insight. 

* " Her beauty bore the impress of awakening love, 
* Trees of paradise, 



though but yet in promise, and she seemed to be casting 
childhood aside like a thing of no worth. 

(365) * '* Such was Kadambarl as the prince beheld her. 
Before her was seated Keyiiraka, loud in praise of Candrii- 
plcla's beauty, as Kildambari questioned him, saying, 
*Who is he, and what are his parentage, name, appear- 
ance, and age? What did he say, and what didst thou 
reply ? How long didst thou see him ? how has he become 
so close a friend to Maliri(;veta? and why is he coming 

' " Now, on beholding the moonlike beauty of Kadambarl's 
face, the prince's heart was stirred like the tide of ocean. 
*Why,' thought ho, 'did not tlio Creator make all my 
senses into sight, or what noble deed has my oyo done that 
it mny look on her unchecked ? Huroly it is a wonder ! 
The Creator has here made a home for every charm ! 
Whence have the parts of this exceeding beauty been 
gathered? Surely from the tears that fell from the 
Creator's eyes in the labour of thought, as he gently 
moulded her with his hands, all the lotuses in the world 
have their birth.' 

(866) ' "And as he thus thought his eye met hers, and 
she, thinking, * This is he of whom Key uraka spoke,' let 
her glance, widened by wonder at his exceeding beauty, 
dwell long and quietly on him. Confused by the sight of 
Kadambarl, yet illumined by the brightness of her gaze, he 
stood for a moment like a rock, while at the sight of him a 
thrill rose in Kadambarl, her jewels clashed, and she half 
rose. Then love caused a glow, but the excuse was the 
effort of hastily rising ; trembling hindered her steps — the 
hamsas around, drawn by the sound of the anklets, got the 
blame; the heaving of a sigh stirred her robe — it was 
thought due to the wind of the cowries ; her hand fell on 
her heart, as if to touch Candraplda's image that had 
entered in — it pretended to cover her bosom ; she let fall 
tears of joy — the excuse was the pollen falling from the 
flowers in her ear. Shame choked her voice — the swarm 
of bees hastening to the lotus sweetness of her mouth was 


the cause ; (867) the pain of the first touch of Love's arrow 
caused a sigh — the pain of the ketaki thorns amidst the 
flowers shared the guilt ; a tremor shook her hand — keeping 
off the portress who had come with a message was her pre- 
tence ; and while love was thus entering into Kadambarl, a 
second love, as it were, arose, who with her entered the 
heart of Candrapida. For he thought the flash of her 
jewels but a veil, her entrance into his heart a favour, the 
tinkling of her gems a conversation, her capture of all his 
senses a grace, and contact with her bright beauty the 
fulfilment of all his wishes. Meanwhile Kadambarl, 
advancing with difficulty a few steps, affectionately and 
with yearning embraced her friend, who also yearned for 
tho sight of hor so long doluyod ; and ^rahavvotu returned 
hor embrace yet more closely, and said, * J>ear Kadambarl, 
in the land of Bliarata there is a king named TarapJda, who 
wards oft' all griefs from his subjects, and who has im- 
pressed his seal on the Four Oceans by the edge of the 
hoofs of his noble steeds ; and this his son, named Candra- 
pida, decked- with the orb of earth resting on the support of 
his own rock-like arms, has, in pursuit of world conquest, 
approached this land ; and he, from the moment I first 
beheld him, has instinctively become my friend, though 
there was nought to make him so ; and, though my heart 
was cold from its resignation of all ties, yet he has attracted 
it by the rare and innate nobility of his character. (3(>H) 
For it is rare to find a man of keen mind who is at once 
true of heart, unselfish in friendship, and wholly swayed by 
courtesy. Wherefore, having beheld him, I brought him 
hither by force. For I thought thou sliouldst behold as I 
have done a wonder of Brahma's workmanship, a peerless 
owner of beauty, a supplanter of Lakshml, earth's joy in a 
noble lord, the surpassing of gods by mortals, the full 
fruition of woman's eyes, the only meeting-place of all 
graces, the empire of nobility, and the mirror of courtesy 
for men. And my dear friend has often been spoken of 
to him by me. Therefore dismiss shame on the ground 
^ A pun on ^^/Wa, grief. ^ \ p^,,! on phlri, a chaplet. 

I 148 

of his being unseen before, lay aside diffidence as to hib 
being a stranger, cast away suspicion rising from his 
character being unknown, and behave to him as to me. 
He is thy friend, thy kinsman, and thy servant.* At these 
words of hers Candrfipnja bowed low before Kadambarl, and 
as she glanced sideways at him afHoctionately there fell 
from her eyes, with their l)eautiful pupils turned towards 
the corner of their long orbs, a flood of joyous tears, as 
though from weariness. The moonlight of a smile, white 
as nectar, darted forth, as if it were the dust raised by the 
heart as it hastily set out ; one eyebrow was raised as if to 
bid the head honour with an answering reverence the guest 
so dear to the heart ; (8()9) her hand crept to her softly 
parting lips, and might seem, as the light of an emerald 
ring flashed between the fingers, to have taken some betel. 
She bowed diflidently, and then sat down on the couch with 
Mahri(;vetri, and the attendants quickly brought a stool with 
gold feet and a covering of white silk, and placed it near 
the couch, and Candrapula took his seat thereon. To please 
Mahaeveta, the portresses, knowing Kadambarl's wishes, 
and having by a hand placed on closed lips received an 
order to stop all sounds, checked on every side the sound 
of pipe, lute and song, and the ^fagadlia women's cry of 
' All hail !' (370) When the sc^rvants had quickly brought 
water, Kadambarl herself washed Malnu'veta's feet, and, 
drying them with her robe, sat on the couch again ; and 
MadalokhA, a friend woithy of ivadambari, dear as her own 
life and the home of all her conlidence, insisted on washing 
Candraplda's feet, unwilling though he were, Mahaeveta 
meanwhile asked Kadambarl how she was, and lovingly 
touched with her hand the corner of her friend's eyes, 
which shone with the rcdbicted light of her earrings; she 
lifted the flowers in Kadambari's ear, all covered with bees, 
and softly stroked the coils of her hair, roughened by the 
wind of the cowries. . And Kadambarl, ashamed, from love 
to her friend, of her own well-being, as though feeling that 
in still dwelling at home she had committed a crin)e, said 
with an efTort that all was well with her. Then, though 


lillod with griof and iniont on gazing at Maha9veta'8 face, 
yet her eye, with its pupil dark and quivering as it looked 
out sideways, was, under tlie influence of love, with bow 
fully bent, irresistibly drawn by Candn'ijMda's face, and she 
could not turn it away. At that same moment she felt 
jealousy^ of his being pictured on the cheek of her friend 
standing near — the pain of u))seuce as his reflection faded 
away on her own breast, pierced by a thrill — the anger 
of a rival wife as the image of the statues fell on him — the 
sorrow of desi)airas he closed his eyes, and blindness as his 
imago was veiled by tears of joy. 

{'Ml) * ** At the end of a moment Afahavveta said to 
Kadambarl as she was intent on giving betel : * Dear 
KfulambarJ, the moment has approached for us to show 
honour to our newly arrived guest, Candraplda. There- 
fore give him some.' But averting her bent face, Kadam- 
bari replied slowly and indistinctly, * Dear friend, I am 
ashamed to do so, for I do not know him. Do thou take 
it, for iliou canst without the forwardness there would be 
in me, and give it him '; and it was only after many per- 
suasions, that with difliculiy, and like a village maiden, 
she resolved to give it. Iler eyes were never drawn from 
Mahru/veta's face, her limbs trembled, her glance wavered, 
she sighed deeply, she was stunned by Jjove with his 
shaft, and she seemed a prey to trn*ror as slie btretched 
forth hor hand, liolding tlio iHjtcl as if trying to cling to 
something under the idea she was falling. The hand 
Candra[)T(ja stretched out, by nature pink, as if red lead 
had fallen upon it from the Happing of his triumphal 
elephant, was darkened by the scars of the bowstring, and 
seemed to have drops of collyrium clinging to it from 
touching the eyes of his enemies' Lakshml, weeping as he 
drew her by the hair ; (}}72) its fingers by the forth- 
Hashing rays of his nails seemed to run up hastily, to 
grow long and to laugh, and the hand seemed to raise 
five other fingers in the iive senses that, in desire to touch 
her, had just made their entry full of love. Then contend- 

' Iload ffHliyii//!, vyath(\iji^ und iohIuuji, uh tho Cttlcutta edition. 


ing feelings^ took possession of Kadambarl as if they had 
gathered together in curiosity to see the grace at that 
moment so easy of access. Her hand, as she did not look 
whither it was going, was stretched vainly forth, and the 
rays of its nails seemed to hasten forward to seek Candrfi- 
pl(Ja*s hand ; and with the murmur of the line of bracelets 
stirred by her trembling, it seemed to say, as drops of 
moisture arose on it, * Let this slave offered by Love be 
accepted, '2 as if she were offering herself, and ' Hence- 
forth it is in thy hand,' as if she were making it into a 
living being, and so she gave the betel. And in drawing 
back her hand she did not notice the fall of her bracelet, 
which had slipped down her arm in eagerness to touch 
him, like her heart jiierced by Love's shaft; and taking 
another piece of betel, she gave it to Mahac/vetfi. 

(373) ' ** Then there came up with hasty steps a maina, 
a very flower, in that her feet were yellow as lotus filaments, 
her beak was like a campak bud, and her wings blue as a 
lotus petal. Close beliind her came a parrot, slow in gait, 
emerald-winged, with a beak like coral and neck bearing a 
curved, three-rayed rainbow. Angrily the maina began : 
* Princess Kadambarl, why dost thou not restrain this 
wretched, ill-mannered, conceited bird from following me ? 
If thou overlookest my being oppressed by him, I will 
certainly destroy myself. I swear it truly by thy lotus 
feet.' At these words Kadambarl smiled ; but Maha(;veta, 
not knowing the story, asked Madalekha what she was 
saying, and she told the following tale : * This maina, 
Kalindl, is a friend of Princess Kadambari, and was given 
by her solemnly in marriage to Parihasa, the parrot. And 
to-day, ever since she saw him reciting something at early 
dawn to Kadambari's betel-bearer, Tamalika, alone, she 
has been filled with jealousy, and in frowardness of wrath 
will not go near him, or speak, or touch, or look at him ; 
and though we have aril tried to soothe her, she will not be 

^ 'All the rasa*,' the ton emotions of love, fear, etc., enumerated by 
writers on rhetoric. 
^ Because water was poured out to ratify a gift. 


isoothed.* (874) Thereat a smile spread over Candra- 
pula's face, and he softly laughed and said, * This is the 
course of gossip. It is heard in the court ; by a succession 
of ears the attendants pass it on ; the outside world repeats 
it ; the tale wanders to the ends of the earth, and we too 
hear how this parrot Parihfisa has fallen in love with 
Princess Kridambarl's hetel-bearer, and, enslaved by love, 
knows nothing of the past. Away with tliis ill-behaved, 
shameless deserter of his wife, and away with her too ! 
J3ut is it fitting in the Princess not to restrain her giddy 
slave ? Perhaps her cruelty, however, was shown at the 
ih'st in giving poor Kalindi to this ill- conducted bird.' 
What can she do now ? For women feel that a shared 
wifehood is the bitterest matter for indignation, the chief 
cause for estrangement, and the greatest possible insult. 
Kalindi has bee)i only too patient that in the aversion 
caused by this weight of grief she has not slain herself by 
poison, lire, or famine. For nothing makes a woman 
more despised ; and if, after such a crime, she is willing to 
bo reconciled and to live with him again, shame on her ! 
enough of her ! let her be banished and cast out in scorn ! 
AVho will speak to her or look at her again, and who will 
mention her name ?' A laugh arose among Kadambarl's 
women as they heard ^ his mirthful words. (375) But 
Parihasa, hearing his jesting speech, said : * Cunning 
Prince, she is clever. Unsteady as she is, she is not to be 
taken in by thee or anyone else. She knows all these 
crooked sjieeches. She understands a jest. Her mind is 
sharpened by contact with a court. Cease thy jests. She 
is no subject for the talk of bold men. For, soft of speech 
as she is, she knows well the time, cause, measure, object, 
and topic for wrath and for peace.' Meanwhile, a herald 
came up and said to Mahacveta : * Princess, King Citra- 
ratha and Queen Madira send to see thee,' and she, eager 
to go, asked Kadambari, * Friend, where should Candrapida 
stay ?' The latter, inwardly smiling at the thought that 

^ BluUhita, literally, ' addrcHsed by'; or read, bhavittl, * entering into 
the Bpirit of.* 

I 152 

he had aheady found a place in the heart of thousands of 
women, said aloud, * Dear Maha^veta, why speak thus *? 
Since I beheld him I have not been niistresB of myself, far 
less than of my palace and my servants. Let him stay 
wherever it pleases him and my dear friend's heart.' 
Thereon Mahacveta replied, '* Let him stay in the jewelled 
house on the playing hill of the royal garden near thy 
palace,' and went to see the king. 

(87G) ' ** CandrapJda went away at her departure, followed 
by maidens, sent for his amusement by the portress at 
Kadambarl's l)idding, players on lute and pipe, singers, 
skilful dice and draught players, practised painters and 
reciters of graceful verses ; he was led by his old acquaint- 
ance Keyuraka to the jewelled hall on the playing hill. 

* ** When he was gone the Gandharva princess dismissed 
her girl-friends and attendants, and followed only by a few, 
went into the palace. There she fell on her couch, while 
her maidens stayed some way off, full of i*espect, and 
tried to comfort her. At length she came to herself, and 
remaining alone, she was filled with shame. For Modesty 
censured her : * Light one, what hast thou begun ?' Self- 
respect reproached her : ' Gandharva Princess, how is this 
fitting for thee?' Simplicity mocked her: * Where has 
thy childhood gone before its day was over ?' Youth 
warned her : * Wilful girl, do not carry out alone any 
wild plan of thine own !' Dignity rebuked her : * Timid 
child, this is not the course of a high-born maiden.' 
Conduct blamed her : * liockless girl, avoid this unseemly 
behaviour !* Iligli Birth admonished her : * Foolish one, 
love hath led thee into lightness.' Steadfastness cried 
shame on her : * Whence comes thhie unsteadiness of 
nature ?' Nobility rebuked her : * Self-willed, my autho- 
rity is set at nought by thee.' 

(377) ' ** And she thought within herself, ' Wliat shame- 
ful conduct is this of mine, in that I cast away all fear, 
and show my unsteadiness and am blinded by folly. In 
my audacity I never thought he was a stranger; in my 
shamelessness I did not consider that he would think me 


light of^ nature ; I never examined his character ; I never 
thought in my folly if I were worthy of his regard ; I had 
no dread of an unexpected rebuff; I had no fear of my 
parents, no anxiety about gossip. Nay, more, I did not in 
uiy unkindnesB^ remember thai ^faha^veta was in sorrow ; 
in my stupidity I did not notice that my friends stood by 
and beheld me ; in my utter dulness I did not see that my 
servants behind were observing me. Even grave minds 
would mark such utter forgetfulness of seemliness ; how 
nuicli more Mahfu/veta, who knows the course of love; 
and my friends skilled in all its ways, and my attendants 
who know all its symptoms, and whose wits are sharpened 
l)y life at court. The slaves of a zenana have keen eyes in 
such matters. My evil fate has undone me ! Better were 
it for me now to die than live a shameful life. What will 
my fatlh^r and mother and the Gandharvas say when they 
hear this tale ? AVhat can 1 do ? What remedy is there ? 
IIow can 1 cover this error ? To whom can I tell this folly 
of my undisciplined senses, (378) and where shall I go, 
consumed by Krima, the five-arrowed god ? I had made 
a promise in Mahru/vetri's sorrow, I had announced it 
before my friends, I had sent a message of it by the hands 
of Keyiiraka, and how it has now come about that that 
beguiling Candraplda has been brought hither, I know not, 
ill-fated that I am ; whether it be by cruel fate or proud 
love, or nemesis of my former deeds, or accursed death, or 
anything else. But some power unseen, unknown, un- 
heard of, unthought of and unimagined before, has come 
to delude me. At the mere sight of him I am a captive in 
bonds ; I am cast into a cage and handed over by my senses ; 
1 am enslaved and led to him by Love ; I am sent away by 
affection ; I am sold at a price by my feelings ; I am made 
as a household chattel by my heart. I will have nothing 
to do with this worthless one !' Thus for a moment she 
resolved. But having made this resolve, she was mocked 
by Candraplda's image stirred by the trembling of her 
heart, * If thou, in thy false reserve, will have nought to 
' Read iiirddkahitiyayd. 

I 154 

do with me, I will go.* She was asked by her life, which 
clung to her in a farewell embrace before starting at the 
moment of her determination to give up Candrapida; 
(379) she was addressed by a tear that rose at that 
moment, * Let him be seen once more with clearer eyes, 
whether he be worthy of rejection or no * ; she was 
chidden by Love, saying, * I will take away thy pride 
together with thy life ;' and so her heart was again turned 
to Candrapida. Overwhelmed, when the force of her 
meditation had collapsed, by the access of love, she rose, 
under its sway, and stood looking through the window at 
the playing hill. And there, as if bewildered ))y a veil of 
joyful tears, she saw with her memory, not her eyes ; as if 
fearing to soil with a hot hand her picture, she painted 
with her fancy, not with her brush ; dreading the inter- 
vention of a thrill, she offered an embrace with her heart, 
not her breast ; unable to bear his delay in coming, she 
sent her mind, not her servants, to meet him. 

* '* Meanwhile, Candrapida willingly entered the jewelled 
house, as if it were a second heart of Kadambari. On the 
rock was strewn a blanket, with pillows piled on it at 
either end, and thereon he lay down, with his feet in 
Keyuraka's lap, while the maidens sat round him in the 
places appointed for them. With a heart in turmoil he 
betook himself to jeflection : ' Are these graces of Princess 
Kadambari, that steal all men's hearts, innate in her, or 
has Love, with kindness won by no service of mine, 
ordained them for me ? (380) For she gave me a sidelong 
glance with loving, reddened eyes half curved as if they 
were covered with the pollen of Love's flowery darts as 
they fell on her heart. She modestly veiled herself with a 
bright smile fair as silk as I looked at her. She offered 
the mirror of her cheek to receive my image, as in shame 
at my gaze she averted her face. She sketched on the 
couch with her nail the first trace of wilfulness of a heart 
that was giving me entrance. Her hand, moist with the 
fatigue of bringing me the betel, seemed in its trembling 
to fan her hot face, as if it were a tamala branch she had 


taken, for a swarm of bees hovered round it, mistaking it 
for a ro6y lotus. Perhaps,* he went on to reflect, * the 
light readiness to hope so common among mortals is now 
deceiving me with a throng of vain desires ; and the glow 
of youth, devoid of judgment, or Love himself, makes my 
brain reel ; whence the eyes of the young, as though struck 
by cataract, magnify even a small spot ; and a tiny speck 
of affection is spread far by youthful ardour as by water. 
An excited heart like a poet's imagination is bewildered by 
the throng of fancies that it calls up of itself, and draws 
likenesses from everything ; youthful feelings in the hand 
of cunning love are as a brush, and shrink from painting 
nothing; and imagination, proud of her suddenly gained 
beauty, turns in every direction. (381) Longing shows as 
in a dream what I have felt. Hope, like a conjuror's 
wand,^ sets before us what can never be. Why, then,' 
thought he again, * should I thus weary my mind in vain *? 
If this bright-eyed maiden is indeed thus inclined towards 
me, Love, who is so kind without my asking, will ere long 
make it plain to me. He will be the decider of this 
doubt.' Having at length come to this decision, he rose, 
then sat down, and merrily joined the damsels in gentle 
talk and graceful amusements — with dice, song, lute, tabor, 
concerts of mingled sound, and murmur of tender verse. 
After resting a short time he went out to see the park, and 
climbed to the top of the pleasure hill. 

* '* Kadambari saw him, and bade that the window should 
be opened to watch for Maha^vetfi's return, saying, * She 
tarries long,' and, with a heart tossed by Love, mounted 
to the roof of the palace. There she stayed with a few 
attendants, protected from the heat by a gold-handled 
umbrella, white as the full moon, and fanned by the 
waving of four yaks' tails pure as foam. She seemed to 
be practising an adornment fit for going to meet^ Candra- 
plda, by means of the bees which hovered round her head, 

* A bundle of peacock feathers waved by the conjuror to bewilder 
the audience. 

* The dark blue of the bees was like the blue veil worn by women 
going to meet their lovers. 

! 156 

eager for the scent of the flowers, which veiled her even by 
(lay in darkness. Now she leaned on the point of the 
cowrie, now on the stick of the umbrella; now she laid 
her hands on Tamalikfi's shoulder, (382), now she clung to 
Madalekha ; now she hid herself amidst her maidens, 
looking with sidelong glance ; now she turned herself 
round ; now she laid her cheek on the tip of the portress's 
staff; now with a steady hand she placed betel on her 
fresh lips ; now she laughingl}^ ran a tew steps in pursuit 
of her maidens scattered by the blows of the lotuses she 
threw at them. And in looking at the prince, and l^eing 
gazed at by him, she knew not how long a time had passed. 
At last a portress announced Mahricvetfi's return, and she 
went down, and albeit unwilling, yet to please ^falia(;veta 
she bathed and performed the wonted duties of the day. 

, * "But Candrajada went down, and dismissing Kadambarl's 
followers, performed the rites of bathing, and worshipped 
the deity honoured throughout the mountain, and did all 
the duties of the day, including bis meal, on the pleasure 
hill. There he sat on an emerald seat which commanded 
the front of tbe pleasure liill, pleasant, green as a pigeon, 
bede\\ed with foam from tbe chewing of fawns, shining like 
Yamuna's waters standing still in fear of Balarama's 
plough, glowing crimson with lac-juice from the girls' feet, 
sanded with flower-dust, hidden in a bower, a concert- 
house of peacocks. He suddenly beheld day eclipsed by a 
stream of white radiance, rich in glory, (883) light drunk 
upas by a garland of lotus-filires, earth flooded as by, a 
Milky Ocean, space bedewed as by a storm of sandal-juice, 
and the sky painted as with white cliunam. 

* " 'What!' thought he, * is our lord, the Moon, king of 
plants, suddenly risen, or are a thousand shower-baths set 
going with their white streams let loose by a spring, or is 
it the heavenly Ganges, whitening the earth with her 

• wind-tossed spray, that has come down to earth in 
curiosity ?' 

^ * ** Then, turning his eyes in the direction of the light, he 

^ This passage is condensed. 



beheld ^vadambarl, and with her Madalekhii and Taralika 
hearing a pearl necklace on a tray covered with white silk. 
(384) Thereupon Candruplda decided that it was this neck- 
lace that eclipsed^ moonlight, and was the cause of the 
brightness, and by rising while she was yet far off, and by 
all wonted courtesies, he greeted the approach of Mada- 
lekhfi. For a moment she rested on that emerald seat, 
and tlien, rising, anointed him with sandal perfume, put 
on him two white robes, (385) crowned him with malati 
llowers, and then gave him the necklace, saying, * This 
thy gentleness, my Prince, so devoid of pride, must needs 
subjugate every heart. Thy kindness gives an opening 
eviui to one like me ; by thy I'onu thou art lord of life to 
all ; by that tenderness shown even where there is no claim 
on thee, thou thro west on all a bond of love; the innate 
sweetness of thy bearing makes every man th}^ friend ; 
these thy virtues, manifested with such natural gentleness, 
give confidence to all. Thy form must take the blame, for 
it inspires trust even at first sight ; elf-e words addressed 
to one of such dignity as tliou would seem all unmeet. 
For to speak with thee would be an insult ; our very 
respect would bring on us the charge of forwardness ; our 
very praise would display our boldness ; our subservience 
would manifest lightness, pur love self-deception, our 
speech to thee audacity, our service impertinence, our gift 
an insult. Nay, more, thou hast conquered our hearts ; 
what is left for us to give thee ? Thou art lord of our life ; 
what can we offer thee? Thou hast already bestowed the 
great favour of thy presence ; what return could we make? 
Thou by thy sight hast made our life worth having ; how 
can we reward thy coming? (386) Therefore Kadambari 
with this excuse shows her affection rather than her dignity. 
Noble hearts admit no question of mine and thine. Away 
with the thought of dignity. Even if she accepted slavery 
to one like thee, she would do no unworthy act ; even if she 
gave herself to thee, she would not be deceived ; if she gave 
her life, she would not repent. The generosity of a noble 

^ Read muaho. • 

I 158 

heart is always bent on kindness, and does not willingly 
reject affection, and askers are less shamefaced than 
givers. But it is true that Kadambarl knows she has 
offended thee in this matter. Now, this necklace, called 
(/esha,* because it was the only jewel left of all that rose 
at the churning of nectar, was for that reason greatly 
valued by the Lord of Ocean, and was given by him to 
Yaruna on his return home. By the latter it was given to 
the Gandharva king, and by him to Kadambarl. And she, 
thinking thy form worthy of this ornament, in that not 
the earth, but the sky, is the home of the moon, hath sent 
it to thee. And though men like thee, who bear no orna- 
ment but a noble spirit, find it irksome to wear the gems 
honoured by meaner men, yet here Kfidambarl's affection 
is a reason for thee to do so. (887) Did not Vishnu show 
his reverence by wearing on his breast the kaustubha gem, 
because it rose with Lakshinl ; and yet he was not greater 
than thee, nor did the kaustul)ha gem in the least surpass 
the (^esha in worth ; nor, indeed, does Lakshml approach 
in the slightest degree to imitating Kridambari's beauty. 
And in truth, if her love is crushed by thee, she will grieve 
Mahri(;vetiV with a thousand reproaches, and will slay her- 
self. Mahri(,'vetri therefore sends Taralikfi with the necklace 
to thee, and bids me say thus : ** Let not Kadambarl's first 
impulse of iove be crushed by thee, even in thought, most 
noble prince." * Thus having said, she fastened on his 
breast the necklace that rested like a bevy of stars on the 
slope of the golden mountain. Filled with amazement, 
CandnTplda replied : * What means this, Madalekha ? 
Thou art clever, and knowest how to win acceptance for 
thy gifts. By leaving me no chance of a reply, thou hast 
shown skill in oratory. Nay, foolish maiden, what are we 
in respect of thee, or of acceptance and refusal; truly this 
talk is nought. Having received kindness from ladies ho 
rich in courtesy, let* me be employed in any matter, 
whether pleasing or displeasing to me. But truly there 
lives not the man whom the virtues of the most 

* I.e.. 'relic,' or 'remaining.' '^ Head Mahagvctdt/i. 


courteous lady Kadambarl do not discourteously^ enslave/ 
(888) ThiTs saying, after some talk about Eadambari, he 
dismissed Madalekha, and ere she had long gone the 
daughter of Citraratha dismissed her attendants, rejected 
the insignia of wand, umbrella, and cowrie, and accom- 
panied only by Tamfilika, again mounted to the roof of 
her palace to behold Candrfiplda, bright with pearls, 
silk raiment and sandal, go to the pleasure hill, like 
the moon to the mount of rising. There, with passionate 
glances imbued witli every grace, she stole his heart. 
(390) And when it became too dark to see, she descended 
from the roof, and CandrfipTiJa, from the slope of the 

* ** Then the moon, source of nectar, gladdener of all 
eyes, arose with his rays gathered in; he seemed to be 
worshipped by the night-lotuses, to calm the quarters 
whose faces were dark as if with anger, and to avoid the 
day-lotuses as if from fear of waking them ; under the 
guise of his mark he wore night on his heart ; he bore in 
the glow of rising the lac that had clung to him from the 
spurning of Rohini's foot ; he pursued the sky, in its dark 
blue veil, like a mistress; and by reason of his great good- 
will, spread beauty everywhere. 

' ** And when the moon, the umbrella of the supreme rule 
of Kama, the lord of the lotuses, the ivory earring that 
decks the night, had risen, and when the world was turned 
to whiteness, as though overlaid with ivory, Candraplda 
lay down on a cool moonlit slab, pearl white, pointed out 
by Kadambari's servants. It was washed with fresh 
sandal, garlanded with pure sinduvara flowers, and carved 
round with a leafy tracery of lotus petals. It lay on the 
shore of a palace lotus tank, that seemed from the full 
moonlight to be made of night-lotuses,^ with steps white 
with bricks washed by the waves, as it wafted a breeze 
fanned hy the ripples ; (391) pairs of hamsas lay there 

» Cf. ♦Harfiha Carita* (J3onibay edition, p. 272), • Parainovvarotta. 
2 llead KiwiudajnayyH, 

I 160 

asleep, and pairs of cakravakas kept up their dirge of 
separation thereon. And while the Prince yet rested there 
Keyfiraka approached him, and told him that Princess 
Kadambarl had come to see him. Then Candrfiplda rose 
hastily, and beheld Kadambarl drawing near. Few of her 
friends were with her ; all her royal insignia were removed ; 
she was as it were a new self, in the single necklace she wore ; 
her slender form was white with the purest sandal-juico ; 
an earring hung from one ear; she wore a lotus-petal in 
the ear, soft as a budding digit of the moon ; she was clad 
in robes of the kalpa-trce,^ clear as moonlight ; and in the 
garb that consorted with that hour she stood revealed like 
the very goddess of moonrise, as slie rested on the hand 
offered by ^Madalekha. ])rawing near, she showed a grace 
prompted by love, and took her scat on the ground, where 
servants are wont to sit, like a maiden of low degree ; and 
Candi'jipaja, too, though often entreated by Madalekha to 
, sit on tlie rocky seat, took his i)lace on the ground by 
Madalekha ; and when all the women were seated he made 
an effort to speak, saying, * 1^-incess, to one who is thy 
slave, and whom even a ghuice ghiddens, there needs not 
the favour of speech with thee, far less so great a grace as 
this. (JJi)2) For, deeply as I think, I cannot see in myself 
any worth that this height of favour may befit, !^^ost 
noble and sweet in its laying aside of pride is this thy 
courtesy, in that such grace is shown to one but newly thy 
servant. Perchance thou thinkest me a churl that nmst 
be won by gifts. IHessed, truly, is the servant over whom 
is thy sway ! How great honour is bestowed on tlui 
servants deemed worthy of the bestowal of thy commands. 
But the body is a gift at the service of any man, and life is 
light as grass, so that I am ashamed in my devotion to 
greet thy coming with such a gift. Here am I, here my 
body, my life, my senses ! J)o thou, by accepting one of 
them, raise it to honour.' 

* ** Madalekha snn'lingly replied to this speech of his : 
' Enough, Prince. My friend Kadambari is pained by thy 
' A tree of panulise. 


too great ceremony. Why speakest thou thus? She 
accepts thy words without further talk. And why, to'!, is 
she brought to suspense by these too iiattering speeches ?* 
and then, waiting a short time, she began afresh : ' How 
is King TrirapTcla, how Queen Vih'isavatl, how the noble 
rukunfisa '? What is IjjayinJ like, and how far oflf is it? 
Wiiat is the land of liharata '? And is the world of mortals 
pleasant ?' So she queHtioned him. (81)8) After spending 
Honio time in such talk, Kadambari rose, and summoning 
Keyuraka, who was lying near Candraplcia, and her at- 
tendants, she went up to her sleeping-chamber. There 
she adorned a couch strewn with a coverlet of white 
silk. Candruphja, however, on his rock passed the night 
like a moment in thinking, while his feet were rubbed by 
Keyuraka, of the humility, beauty, and depth of Kadam- 
bari's character, the causeless kindness of JMahuyveta, the 
courtesy of Madalekha, the dignity of the attendants, the 
great splendour of the Gandliarva world, and the charm of 
the Kimpurusha land. 

***Then the moon, lord of stars, weary of being kept 
awake by the sight of Kadambari, descended, as if to sleep, 
to the forest on the shore, with its palms and tamfdas, 
talis, banyans, and kandalas,^ cool with the breeze from 
the hardly stirred- ripples. As though with the feverish 
sighs of a woman grieving for her lover's approaching 
absence, the moonlight faded away. Lakshml, having 
passed the night on the moon lotuses, lay on the sun 
lotuses, as though love had sprung up in her at the sight 
of Candrapida. At the close of night, when the palace 
lamps grew pale, as if dwindling in longing as they remem- 
bered the blows of the. lotuses in maidens' ears, the 
breezes of dawn, fragrant with creeper-tlowers, were wafted, 
sportive with the sighs of Love weary from ceaselessly 
discharging his shafts ; the stars were eclipsed by the rising 
dawn, and took their abode, as through fear, in the thick 

* Tall, a kind of palm ; KandaJa, a plantain. 
^ Or, reading avirala^ thick coming. 



creeper bowers of Mount Mandara.^ (394) Then when the 
sun arose, with its orb crimson as if a glow remained from 
dwelling in the hearts of the cakravakas, Candrapiila, rising 
from the rock, bathed his lotus face, said his morning 
prayer, took his betel, and then bade Keyiiraka see 
whether Princess Kridambarl was awake or no, and where 
slie was ; and when it was announced to him by the latter 
on his return that she was with Mahru/vetri in the bower of 
the courtyard below the ^landara palace, he started to see 
the daughter of tlie Gandharva king. There he beheld 
Mahfi^vetri surrounded by wandering ascetic women like 
visible goddesses of prayer, with marks of white ash on 
their brow, and hands quickly moving as they turned their 
rosaries ; bearing the vow of (;iva's followers, clad in robes 
tawny with mineral dyes, bound to wear red cloth, robed in 
the ruddy bark of ripe cocoanuts, or girdled with thick 
white cloth ; with fans of white cloth ; with staves, matted 
locks, deer-skins, and bark dresses; with the marks of male 
ascetics ; reciting the pure praises of Tiva, Durga, Kartikeya, 
Virravasa,- Krishna, Avalokite^vara, the Arhat, Virinca.^ 
MahrK/vetri herself was showing honour to the elder kins- 
women of the king, the foremost of the zenana, by salutes, 
courteous speeches, by rising to meet them and placing reed 
seats for them. 

(395) * *'He beheld Kadambarl also giving her attention 
to the recitation of the MahAbharata, that transcends all 
good omens, by Narada's sweet-voiced daughter, with an 
accompaniment of flutes soft as the murmur of bees, 
played by a pair of Kinnaras sitting behind her. She was 
looking in a mirror fixed before her at her lip, i)ale as 
beeswax when the honey is gone, bathed in the moonlight 
of her teeth, though within it was darkened by betel. She 
was being honoured by a sunwise turn in departing by a 
tame goose wandering like the moon in a fixed circle, with 
wide eyes raised io her sirlsha earrings in its longing for 

^ The Vishnu PuiTii.m, lik. ii., ch. ii., calls ^randura tlio Mountain of 
the Kast ; (Jandhainrulana, of the South; Vipula, of the West; and 
Supan/va, of the North. 

- Father of Kuvera. ^ Brahma. 


vallisneria. Here the prince approached, and, saluting 
her, sat down on a seat placed on the dais. After a short 
stay he looked at Maha^veta's face with a gentle smile that 
dimpled his cheek, and she, at once knowing his wish, said 
to Kadambarl': * Dear friend, Candraplda is softened by thy 
virtues as the moonstone by the moon, and cannot speak 
for himself. He wishes to depart ; for the court he has 
left behind is thrown into distress, not knowing what has 
happened. Moreover, however far apart you may be from 
each other, this your love, like that of the sun and the day 
lotus, or the moon and tlic niglit lotus, will last till the day 
of doom. Therefore let him go.' 

(3!)()) * ** ' Dear Mulmrvetjl,' replied Kadambarl, * I and 
my nitinue belong as wholly to the prince as his own soul. 
Why, then, this ceremony?' So saying, and summoning 
the Gandharva princes, she bade them escort the prince 
to liis own place, and he, rising, bowed before Mahacveta 
first, and then Kadambarl, and was greeted by her with 
eyes and heart softened by affection ; and with the words, 
'Lady, what shall I say? For men distrust the multitude 
of words. Let me be remembered in the talk of thy retinue,* 
he went out of the zenana; and all the maidens but Kadam- 
barl, drawn by reverence for Candraplda's virtues, followed 
him on his way like his subjects to the outer gate. 

* ** On their return, he mounted the steed brought by 
Keyuraka, and, escorted by the Gandharva princes, turned 
to leave Hemakuta. His whole thoughts on the way were 
about Kadambarl in all things both within and without. 
With a mind wholly imbued with her, he beheld her behind 
him, dwelling within him in his bitter grief for the cruel 
separation; or before him, stopping hhn in his path; or 
cast on the sky, as if by the force of longing in his heart 
troubled by parting, so that he could perfectly see her 
face; he beheld her very self resting on his heart, as if 
her mind were wounded with his loss. When he reached 
Mahfu/veta's hermitage, he there ])eheld his own camp, 
which had followed the tracks of Indrayudha. 

(897) * ** Dismissing the Gandharva princes, he entered 


his own abode amidst the salutations of his troops full of 
joy, curiosity, and wonder ; and after greeting the rest of 
the court, he spent the day mostly in talk with Vai^am- 
payana and Putralekha, saying, ' Thus said Mahri(;veta, 
thus KadambavT, thus Madalekha, thus Tamalika, thus 
Keyuraka.' No longer did royal Glory, envious at the 
sight of Kadamban's beauty, find in him her joy ; for him 
night passed in wakefulness as he thought, witli a mind 
in ceaseless longing, of that bright-eyed maiden. Next 
morning, at sunrise, he went to his pavilion with his mind 
still fixed on her, and suddenly saw Keyuraka entering with 
a doorkeeper ; and as the latter, while yet far off, cast 
himself on the ground, so that his crest swept the floor, 
Candrapida cried, * Come, ccme,' greeting him Ih'st with a 
hidelong glance, then with his heart, then with a thrill. 
Then at last he hastened forward to give him a hearty and 
frank embrace, and made him sit down by himself. Then, 
in words brightened by the nectar of a smile, and trans- 
fused with overfiowing love, he reverently asked : * Say, 
Keyuraka, is the lady Kfidambari well, and her friends, 
and her retinue, and the lady Mahac/vetri ?' "With a low 
bow, Keyuraka, as though he had been bathed, anointed, 
and refreshed by the smile tluit the prince's deep aft'ection 
had prompted, replied respectfully : 

* ** * She is now well, in that my lord asks for her.' And 
then he showed a folded lotus-leaf, wrapped in wet cloth, 
with its opening closed ])y lotus filaments, and a seal of 
tender lotus filaments set in a paste of wet sandal. (8J)H) 
This he opened, and showed thc^ tokens sent by Kfidambari, 
such as milky ])etel-nuts of emerald hue, with their shells 
removed and surrounded with fresh sprays, betel-leaves 
pale as the cheek of a lien-parrot, camphor like a solid 
piece of ( 'iva's moon, and sandal ointment pleasant with 
rich musk scent. * The lady Kfidambari,* said he, * salutes 
thee with folded hands that kiss her crest, and that are 
rosy with the rays of her tender fingers ; Maha^veta with a 
greeting and embrace ; Madalekhfi with a reverence and a 
brow bathed in the moonlight of the crest-gem she has let 


fall; the maidens with the points of the fish -ornaments 
and the parting of their hair resting on the ground ; and 
Taralikfi, with a prostration to touch the dust of thy feet. 
Mahavveta sends thee this message : ** Happy truly are 
tliey from wl>ose eyes thou art never absent. For in truth 
thy virtues, snowy, cold as the moon when thou art by, in 
thine absence burn like sunlight. Truly all yearn for the 
past day as though it were tliat day whereon fate with such 
toil brought forth amrita. Without thee the royal Gand- 
harva city is languid as at the end of a feast. (B99) Thou 
kiiowest that I have surrendered all things ; yet my heart, 
in my despite, desires to see thee who art so undeservedly 
kind. Kridambari, moreover, is far from well. She recalls 
thee with thy smiling face like Love himself. Thou, by 
the honour of thy return, canst make her proud of having 
some virtues of her own. For respect shown ])y the noble 
must needs confer honour. And thou must forgive the 
trou])le of knowing such as we. For thine own nobility 
gives this boldness to our address. And here is this Tesha 
necklace, which was left by tliee on thy couch." ' So saying, 
he loosed it from his band, where it was visible by reason 
of the long rays that shot through the interstices of the tine 
thread, and placed it in the fan-bearer's hand. 

* '^ ' This, indeed, is the reward of doing homage at 
^rahricveta's feet, that the lady Kadambarl should lay so 
great a weight of honour on her slave as to remember him,** 
said CandrripTda, as he placed all on his liead^ and accepted 
it. The necklace he put round his neck, after anointing it 
with an ointment cool, pleasant, and fragrant, as it were 
with the beauty of Kridambai'I's cheeks distilled, or the 
light of her smile liquelied, or her heart melted, or her 
virtues throbbing forth. (400) Taking some betel, he 
rose and stood, with his left arm on Keyuraka's shoulder, 
and then dismissed the courtiers, who were gladly paying 
their wonted homage, and at length went to see his elephant 
Gandhamudana. There he stayed a short time, and after 
he had himself given to the elephant a handful of grass, 
' A plirase denoting reudinoas to obey. V. supra^ p. 15. 


that, being jagged with the rays of his nails, was like lotus- 
fibre, he went to the stable of his favourite steed. On the 
way he turned his face now on this side, now on that, to 
glance at his retinue, and the porters, understanding his 
wish, forbade all to follow him, and dismissed the retinue, 
so that he entered the stable with Keyuraka alone. The 
grooms bowed and departed, with eyes bewildered by terror 
at their dismissal, and the prince set straight Indrfiyudlia's 
cloth, which had fallen a little on one side, pushed back his 
mane, tawny as a lion's, which was falling on his eyes and 
half closing them, and then, negligently resting his foot on 
the peg of the tetheiing-rope, and leaning against the stable 
Mall, he eagerly asked : 

* " ' Tell me, Keyuraka, what has happened in the Gand- 
harva court since my departure ? In what occupation has 
the Gandharva princess spent the time ? "What were 
Mahayvetri and ^fadalekha doing? AVliat talk was there? 
IIow were you and the retinue employed ? And was there 
any talk about me ?' Then Keyuraka told him all : 
* Listen, prince. On thy departure, the lady Kfidambari, 
with her retinue, climbed to th(» palace roof, making in the 
maidens' palace with the sound of anklets the beat of fare- 
well drums that rose from a thousand hearts ; (401) and 
slie gazed on thy path, gray with the dust of the cavalcade. 
When thou wert out of sight, she laid her face on ^[ahuc- 
veta's shoulder, and, in her love, sprinkled the region of 
til}' journey with glances fair as the ^lilky Ocean, and, 
warding off the sun's touch, as it were, with the moon 
assuming in jealousy the guise of a white umbrella, she 
long remained there. Thence she reluctantly tore herself 
away and came down, and after but a short rest in the 
pavilion, she arose and went to the pleasaunce where thou 
hadst been. She was guided by bees murmuring in the 
flowers of oblation; startled by the cry of the house 
l)eacocks, she checked their note as they looked up at the 
shower-like rays of her nails, by the circlets which lay 
loose round her throat ; at every step she let her hand 
rest on creeper- twigs white with flowers, and her mind on 


thy virtues. When she reached the pleasaunce, her retinue 
needlessly told her : *' Here the prince stayed oh the spray- 
washed rock, with its creeper-bower bedewed by the stream 
from a pipe that ends in an emerald lish-head ; here he 
bathed in a place covered by bees absorbed in the fragrance 
of the scented water ; here he worshipped Tiva on the bank 
of the mountain stream, sandy with iiower-dust ; here he 
ate on a crystal stone which eclipsed moonlight ; and here 
he slept on a pearly slab with a mark of sandal juice 
imprinted on it." (402) And so she passed the day, 
gazing on the signs of thy presence ; and at close of day 
Mahriyveta prepared for her, though against her will, a 
meal in that crystal dwelling. And when the sun set and 
the moon rose, soon, as though she were a moonstone that 
moonlight would molt, and therefore dreaded the entrance 
of the moon's reflection, she laid her hands on her cheeks, 
and, as if in thought, remained for a few minutes with 
closed eyes; and then rising, went to her sleeping-chamber, 
scarcely raising her feet as they moved with graceful, 
languid gait, seemingly heavy with bearing the moon's 
relleclion on their bright nails. Throwing herself on her 
couch, she was racked by a severe headache, and overcome 
by a burning fever, and, in company with the j)alace-lamps, 
the moon-lotuses, and the cakravakas, she passed the night 
open-eyed in bitter grief. And at dawn she sunmioned me, 
and reproachfully bade me seek for tidings of thee.* 

'''At these words, CandrapTila, all eager to depart, 
shouted : ' A horse ! a horse !' and left the palace. Indra- 
yudha was hastily saddled, and brought round by the 
grooms, and Candraplda mounted, placing Patralekha 
behind him, leaving Vaivampayana in charge of the camp, 
dismissing all his retinue, and followed by Keyuraka on 
another steed, he went to Hemakuta. (403) On his 
arrival, he dismounted at the gate of Kadambarl's palace, 
giving his horse to the doorkeeper, and, followed by Patra- 
lekha, eager for the first sight of Kadambarl, he entered, 
and asked a eunuch who came forward where the lady 
Kadambari was. Bending low, the latter informed him. 


that she was in the ice- bower on the bank of the lotuR- 

tank below the Mattaniayura pleaBaunco; and then the 

prince, guided by Keyuraka, went some distance through 

the women's garden, and beheld day grow green, and the 

sunbeams turn into grass by the reflection of the i)lantain- 

groves with their emerald glow, and there he beheld 

Kfidambarl. (410) Then she looked with tremulous glance 

at her retinue, as, coming in one after another, they 

announced Candrapnla's approach, and asked each by 

name : ' Tell me, has ho really come, and hast thou seen 

him ? How far off is he ?' She gazed with eyes gradually 

brightening as she saw him yet afar off, and rose from her 

couch of flowers, standing like a newly-caught elephant 

bound to her post, and trembling in every limb. She wns 

veiled in bees drawn as vassals by the fragrance of her 

flowery couch, all murmuring ; her upper garment was in 

confusion, and she sought to place on her bosom the 

shining necklace; (111) she seemed to beg the support of 

a hand from her own shadow as she laid her loft hand on 

the jewelled pavement ; she seemed to receive herstilf as a 

gift by sprinkling^ with her right hand moist with the toil 

of binding together her falling locks ; slie poured forth tears 

of joy cool as though the sandal-juico of lier sectarial mark 

had entered in and been united with them ; she washed 

with a line of glad tears lu^r smooth cheeks, that the pollen 

from her garland had tinged with gray, as if in eagerness 

that the image of her beloved might fall thereon ; slie 

seemed to be drawn forward by her long eyes fastened on 

Candrapida's face, with its pupil fixed in a sidelong glance, 

and her head somewhat bent, as if from the weight of the 

sandal-mark on her brow. 

* ** And CandrfipHJa, approaching, bowed first before 

Maha^veta, then courteously saluted Kadambarl, and when 

she had returned his obeisance, and seated herself again 

on the couch, and the portress had brought him a gold 

stool with legs gleaniing with gems, he pushed it away 

* Pourinfi; water into the hand was the confirmation of a gift. T. 
aupra, p. 160. 


with hi8 foot, and sat down on the ground. Then Keyuraka 
presented Patralekhfi, saying : * This is Prince Candruplda's 
betel-box bearer and most favoured friend.* And Kudani- 
barl, looking on her, thought : * How great partiaHty does 
Prajapati bestow on mortal women !* And as Patralekha 
bowed respectfully, she bade her approach, and placed her 
close behind herself, amidst the curious glances of all her 
retinue. (ITi) Filled even at first sight with great love for 
her, Kadambarl often touched her caressingly with her 
slender hand. 

* ** Now, Candraplda, having quickly performed all tho 
courtesies of arrival, beheld the state of Citraratha*8 
dauglitor, and thought : ' Surely my heart is dull, in that 
it cannot even now believe. ]^e it so. I will, nevertheless, 
ask her with a skilfully-devised speech.'^ Then he said 
aloud : * Princess, 1 know that this pain, with its un- 
ceasing torment, has come on thee from love. Yet, slender 
maiden, it torments thee not as us. I would gladly, by the 
offering of myself, restore thee to health. For I pity thee 
as thou tremblcst ; and as I see thee fallen under the pain 
of love, my heart, too, falls prostrate. For thine arms are 
slender and unadorned, and thou bearest in thine eye a red 
lotus like a hybiscus- from the deep wasting of fever. And 
all thy retinue weep ceaselessly for thy pain. Accept thine 
ornaments. Take of thine own accord thy richest adorn- 
ments ; for as the creeper shines hidden in l)ee8 and 
flowers, so shouldst thou.' 

* *' Then Kadambarl, though naturally simple by reason 
of her youth, yet, from a knowledge taught by love, under- 
stood all the meaning of this darkly-expressed speech. 
(41JJ) Yet, not realizing that she had come to such a point in 
her desires, supi)orted by her modesty, she remained silent. 
She sent forth, however, the radiance of a smile at that 
moment on some pretext, as though to see his face darkened 
by the bees which were gathered round its sweetness. 
Madalekha therefore replied : * Prince, what shall I say ? 
This pain is cruel beyond words. Moreover, in one of so 

* Transpose iti. 

'^ Hybiscus mil tab His changos colour thrice a day. 


(lelicato a nature what does not tend to pain ? Even cool 
lotus-fibres turn to fire and moonlight burns. Seest thou 
not the i^ain produced in her mind by the breezes of the 
fans ? Only her strength of mind keeps her alive.' But 
in heart alone did Kridambarl admit Madalekha*8 words as 
an answer to the prince. His mind, however, was in 
susi^ense from the doubtfulness of her meaning, and after 
spending some time in affectionate talk with Mahfiyveta, at 
lengtli witli a great effort ho withdrew himself, and left 
K!ldaml)ai*rs palace to go to the camp. 

* '* As ho was about to mount his horse, Keyuvaka came 
up beliind him, and said : ' Prince, Madalekhu bids me say 
tliat Prhiccss Kfidamburi, ever since she beheld Tatralekhfi, 
has been charmed by her, and wishes to keep her. She shall 
return later. (11 1) Having heard her message, thou must 
decide.' * Happy,' replied the prince, * and enviable is 
I'atralekliA, in thai she is honoured by so rare a favour by 
the princess. Let her be taken in.' So saying, he went to 
the camp. 
. * ** At the moment of his arrival he beheld a letter-carrier 
well known to him, that had come from his father's presence, 
and, stopping his horse, he asked from afar, with eyes 
widened by aifection : * Is my father well, and all his 
retinue? and my mother and all the zenana?' Then the 
man, ai)proaching with a reverence, saying, * As thou 
sayest, prince,' gave him two letters. Then the prince, 
placing them on his head, and himself opening them in 
order, read as follows : * Hail from Ujjayinl. King Tara- 
piiia, king of kings, whose lotus-feet are made the crest on 
the head of all kings, greets CandrjTpula, the home of all 
good fortune, kissing him on his head, which kisses the 
circle of the Hashing rays of his crest jewels. Our subjects 
are well. Why has so long a time passed since we have 
seen thee ? Our heart longs eagerly for thee. The queen 
and the zenana pine ior thee. Therefore, let the cutting 
short of this letter be a cause of thy setting out.' And in 
the second letter, sent by Tukanasa, he read words of like 
import. Vaivampfiyana, too, at that moment came up, and 


showed another pair of letterB of his own to the same effect. 
(416) Bo with the words, * As my father commands/ he at 
once mounted his horse, and caused the drum of departure 
to be Boun/^ed. He instructed Moghanfida, son of Bala- 
haka, the commander-in-chief, who stood near him sur- 
rounded by a large tioop : ' Thou must come with Patra- 
lekhfi. Keyiiraka will surely bring her as far as here, and 
by his lips a message must be sent with a salutation to 
Princess Kfidambarl. Truly the nature of mortals deserves 
the blame of the three worlds, for it is discourteous, un- 
friendly, and hard to ftrasp, in that, when the loves of men 
suddenly clash, they do not sot its full value on spontaneous 
tenderness. Thus, by my going, my love has become a 
cheating counterfeit ; my faith has gained skill in false 
tones ; my self-devotion has sunk into base deceit, having 
only a pretended sweetness; and the variance of voice and 
thought has been laid bare. ]5ut enough of myself. The 
princess, though a mate for the gods, has, by showing her 
favour to an unworthy object,' incurred reproach. For the 
ambrosially kind glances of the great, when they fall in 
vain on unfitting objects, cause shame afterwards. And 
yet my heart is not so nmch weighed down by shame for 
her as for Mahn(;vetu. For the princess will doubtless 
often blame her for her ill-placed i)artiality in having 
painted my virtues with a false hnputation of qualities I 
did not possess. What, then, shall I do? My parents' 
connnand is the weightier. Yet it controls my body alone. 
(416) But my heart, in its yearning to dwell at Hemakuta, 
has written a bond of slavery for a thousand births to 
Princess Kadambari,- and her favour holds it fast^ as the 
dense thicket holds a forester. Nevertheless, I go at my 
father's command. Truly from this cause the infamous 
Candrapida will be a byword to the people. Yet, think not 
that Candrapida, if he lives, will rest without again tasting 
the joy of worshipping the lotus-feet of the princess. 

' Or, at a wrong time. 

^ Keinove tlie stop after aayCih and CajidrCqudah, and place one 
after gaiitmn. 

^ ' It is not allowed by her favour to move.* 


Salute with bent head and sunwise turn the feet of Mahac?- 
vetfi. Tell Madalekhu that a hearty embrace, preceded by 
an obeisance, is offered her ; salute Tamalika, and inquire 
on ray behalf after all Kadambari's retinue. Let blessed 
Hemakuta be honoured by me with upraised hands.' After 
giving this message, he set Yaiyampayana over the camp, 
instructing his friend to march^ slowly, without overtasking 
the army. Then he mounted, accompanied by his cavalry, 
mostly mounted on young horses, wearing the grace of a 
forest of spears, breaking up the earth with their hoofs, 
and shaking Kailfisa with their joyful neighing as they 
set out ; and though his heart was empty, in the fresh 
separation from Kadambarl, he asked the letter-carrier who 
clung to his saddle concerning the way to Ujjayini. 

(417-42G condensed) * '* And on the way he beheld in the 
forest a red flag, near which was a shrine of Durgfi, guarded 
by an old Dravidian hermit, who made his abode thereby. 

(426) * '* Dismounting, he entered, and bent reverently 
before the goddess, and, bowing again after a sunwise turn, 
he wandered about, interested in the calm of the place, 
and beheld on one side the wrathful hermit, howling and 
shouting at him ; and at tlie sight, tossed as he was by 
passionate longing in his absence from Kadambarl, he 
could not forbear smiling a moment ; but he checked his 
soldiers, who were laughing and beginning a quarrel with 
the hermit ; and at length, with great difliculty, he calmed 
him with many a soothing and courteous speech, and 
asked him about his birthplace, caste, knowledge, wife and 
children, wealth, age, and the cause of his ascetic vow. On 
being asked, the latter described himself, and the prince 
was greatly interested by him as he garrulously described 
his past heroism, beauty, and wealth, and thus diverted 
his mind in its soreness of bereavement ; and, having 
become friendly with him, he caused betel to be offered to 
him. (427) AVhen the sun set, the princes encamped 
under the trees that chanced- to be near; the golden 

^ Kcad 8uhri(lrq)i gmitavj/aw, ' his friend must ro.' 
* Or, sampanna^ ' full-grown, having fruit and Howers,' according to 
the commentary. 


saddles of the steeds were hung on boughs ; the steeds 
showed the exertions they had gone through, from the 
tossing of their manes dusty with rolling on the earth, and 
after they had taken some handfuls of grass and been 
watered, and were refreshed, they were tethered, with the 
spears dug into the ground before them ; the soldiery, 
wearied^ with the day's march, appointed a watch, and 
gladly went to sleep on heaps of leaves near the horses ; 
the encampment was bright as day, for the darkness was 
drunk up by the light of many a bivouac fire, and Candra- 
l)I(la went to a couch prepared fur him by his retinue, and 
imiiited out to him by his porters, in front of the place 
where Indrayudha was tethered. JUit the very moment he 
lay down restlessness seized bis heart, and, overcome by 
pain, he dismissed the princes, and said nothing even to 
the special favourites who stood behind him. With closed 
eyes he again and again went in heart to the Kimpurusha 
land. With fixed thought he recalled Hemakuta. He 
thought on the spontaneous kindness of Mahacveta's 
favours.- lie constantly longed for the sight of Kadambari 
as his life's highest fruit. He continually desired the 
converse of Madalekha, so cliarmhig in its absence of pride. 
He wished to see Tamalika. He looked forward to Keyu- 
raka's coming. He beheld in fancy the winter palace. He 
often sighed a long, feverish sigh. He bestowed on the 
(Jesha necklace a kindness beyond that for his kin. (428) 
He thought he saw fortunate Patraleklia standing behind 
him. Thus he passed the night without sleep ; and, rising 
at dawn, he fulfilled the hermit's wish by wealth poured 
out at his desire, and, sojourning at pleasant spots on the 
way, in a few days he reached l-jjayinl. A thousand 
hands, like lotuses of offering to a guest raised in reverent 
salutation, were raised by the citizens in their confusion 
and joy at his sudden coming, as be then unexpectedly 
entered the city. Tlie king heard from the retinue*^ hastening 
to be first to tell him that Candraplda was at the gate, and 

^ lieskd khinne. - llctid prasdddndm. 

^ Kead "jnndt, etc. 

I 174 

bewildered by sudden gladness, with steps slow from the 
weight of joy, he went to meet his son. Like Mandara, he 
drew to himself as a Milky Ocean his spotless silk mantle 
that was slipping down ; like the kalpa-tree, with its 
shower of choice pearls, he rained tears of gladness ; he 
was followed by a thousand chiefs that were round him — 
chiefs with topknots white with age, anointed with sandal, 
wearing untorn^ linen robes, bracelets, turbans, crests and 
wreaths, l)earing swords, staves, umbrellas and cowries, 
making the earth appear rich in KailAsas and Milky 
Oceans. 1'he prince, seehig his father from afar, dis- 
mounted, and touched tlio ground with a head garlanded 
by the rays of his crest-jewels. Then his father stretched 
out liis arms, bidding him approach, and embraced him 
closely ; and when he had paid his respects to all the 
honourable persons who were there, he was led by the king 
to Vihisavatrs palace. (421)) His coming was greeted by 
her and her retinue, and wluni he had performed all the 
auspicious ceremonies of arrival, he stayed some time in 
talk about his expedition of concjuest, and then went to see 
Cukanasa. Having duly stayed there some time, lie told 
him that ^'ai(;amp^lyana was at the camp and well, and saw 
"Manorauijl ; and then returning, he mechanically''^ per- 
formed the ceremonies of bathing, and so forth, in Vilasa- 
vati's palace. On the morrow ho went to his own palace, 
and there, with a mind tossed by anxiety, he deemed that 
not only himself, but his palace and the city, and, indeed, 
the whole world, was but a void without Kridambari, and 
so, in his longing to hear news of her, he awaited the 
return of Patralekha, as though it were a festival, or the 
winning of a boon, or the time of the rising of amrita. 

* ** A few days later Meghanada came with Patralekha, 
and led her in ; and as she made obeisance from afar, 
Candrfipiila smiled affectionately, and, rising reverently, 
embraced her ; for though she was naturally dear to him, 
she was now yet dearer as having won a fresh splendour 

^ T'. supra, p. 12, wliere the robes of the cliiefs are torn by their 
ornaineiits in their liasty movements. 
2 Paravara iva, or, * with mind enslaved to other thoughts.' 


from Kadambari's presence. He laid his slender hand on 
Meghanada's back as he bent before him, and then, sitting 
down, he said : * Tell me, Patralekhfi, is all well with 
Maha^veta and Madalekha, and the lady Kiidambari? 

(430) And are all her retinue well, with Tamfdika and 
Keyiiraka ?* * Prince,' she replied, * all is well, as thou 
sayest. The lady Kadambari, with her friends and retinue, 
do tliee homage by making their raised hands into a wreath 
for their brows.' At these words the prince dismissed his 
royal retinue, and went with Patralekhfi into the palace. 
Then, with a tortured heart, no longer able from its intense 
love to overcome his eagerness to hear, he sent his retinue 
far away and entered tlie house. With his lotus-feet 
he pushed away the pair of haiusas that were sleeping 
happily on tlie slope beneath a leafy ])Ower that made an 
emerald banner ; and, resting in the midst of a fresli l)ed of 
hybiscus, that made a sunshade with its broad, long-stalked 
leaves, he sat down, and asked : ' Tell me, Patralekha, how 
thou hast fared. How many days wert thou there ? What 
favour did the princess show thee ? What talk was there, 
and what conversation arose? Wiio most remembers us, 
and whose affection is greatest ?*^ Thus questioned, she told 
him : * Give thy mind and hear all. When thou wert gone, 
I returned with Keyuraka, and sat down near the couch of 
Howers ; and there 1 gbidly remained, receiving ever fresh 
nuirksof kindness from the princess. What need of words '? 

(431) The whole of that day her eye, her form, her hand, 
were on mine ; her speech dwelt on my name and her heart 
on my love. On the morrow, leaning on me, she left the 
winter palace, and, wandering at will, bade her retinue 
remain behind, and entered the maidens' garden. ]iy a 
flight of emerald steps, that might have been formed from 
Jamuna's- waves, she ascended to a white summer-house, 
and in it she stayed some time, leaning against a jewelled 
pillar, deliberating with her heart, wishing to say some- 
thing, and gazing on my face with fixed pupil and motion- 

^ Read garlgaa'i. 

2 The Jamuiia is a common comparison for blue or greon. 

I 176 

less eyelashes. As she looked she formed her resolve, and, 
as if longing to enter love's fire, she was bathed in per- 
spiration ; whereat a trembling came upon her, so that, 
sliaking in every limb as though fearing to fall, she was 
seized by despair. 

* " * But when I, who knew her thoughts, fixed my mind 
on her, and, fastening my eyes on her face, bade her speak, 
she seemed to be restrained by her own trembling lim])S ; 
with a toe that marked the floor as if for retreat, she 
seemed to rub out her own image in shame that it should 
hear her secret ; (4iJ2) with her lotus foot — its anklets all 
set jingling by the scratching of the floor — she pushed 
aside tlie tame geese ; with a strip of silk made into a fan 
for her hot face, she drove away the bees on her ear- 
lotuses ; to the peacock she gave, like a bribe, a piece of 
betel broken by her teeth ; and gazing often on every side 
lest a wood-goddess should listen, much as she longed to 
speak, she was checked in her utterance by shame, and 
could not speak a word.* Her voice, in spite of her greatest 
efi'orts, was wholly burnt up by love's fire, borne away hy 
a ceaseless flow of tears, overwhehn(id l)y onrushing griefs, 
])roken by love's faUing shafts, banisluid by invading sighs, 
restrained by the hundred cares that dwelt in her heart, 
and drunk by the bees that tasted her breath, so that it 
could not come forth. In brief, she made a pearl rosary to 
count her nuiny griefs with the bright tears that fell with- 
out touching her cheeks, as with bent head she nuide the 
very image of a storm. Then from her shame learnt its 
full grace ; modesty, a transcendant modesty ; simplicity, 
simplicity ; courtesy, courtesy ; (VM) fear, timidity ; 
coquetry, its (piintcKsence ; despair, its own nature ; and 
charm, a further charm. And so, when 1 asked her, 
'* i'rincess, what means thisV" she wiped her reddened 
eyes, and, holding a garland woven by the ilowers of the 
bower with arms which, soft as lotus-fibres, seemed meant 
to hold her ih'mly in the excess of her grief, she raised one 
eyebrow, as if gazing on the path of death, and sighed a 
* riaciiig a stop after <jadilnm iiiBtuad of after nilu^euham. 


long, fevered sigh. And as, in desire to know the cause of 
her sorrow, I pressed her to tell me, she seemed to write 
on the ketaki petals scratched by her nails in her shame, 
and so deliver her message. She moved her lower lip in 
eagerness to speak, and seemed to be whispering to the 
bees who drank her breath, and thus she remained some 
time with eyes fixed on the ground. 

* ** * At last, often turning her glance to my face, she 
seemed to purify, with the tears that fell from her brimming 
eyes, the voice that the smoke of Love*s fire had dimmed. 
And, in the guise of tears, she bound up with the rays of 
her teeth, flashing in a forced smile, the strange syllables 
of what she had meant to say, but forgotten in her tremor, 
and with great difficulty betook herself to speech. ** Patra- 
leklifi," she said to me, ** l)y reason of my great favour for 
thee, neither father, mother, Mahayveta, Madalekhfi, nor 
life itself is dear to me as thou hast been since I first 
beheld thoo. (4B4) I know not why my heart has cast off 
all my friends and trusts in thee alone. To whom else can 
I complain, or toll my humiliation, or give a sbare in my 
woo ? When I have shown thee the unbearable burden of 
my woe, I will die. By my life I swear to thee I am put to 
shame by even n\y own heart's knowledge of my story ; 
how much more by another's ? IIow should such as I stain 
by ill report a race pure as moonbeams, and lose the 
honour which has descended from my sires, and turn my 
thoughts on unmaidonly levity, acting thus without my 
father's will, or my mother's bestowal, or my elders' con- 
gratulations, without any announcement, without sending 
of gifts, or showing of pictures ? Timidly, as one unpro- 
tected, have I been led to deserve my parents* blame by 
that overweening Candrapida. Is this, I pray, the conduct 
of noble men ? Is this the fruit of our meeting, that my 
heart, tender as a lotus filament, is now crushed ? For 
maidens should not be lightly treated by youths ; the fire 
of love is wont to consume Ih'st their reserve and then their 
heart ; the arrows of love pierce first their dignity and 
then their life. Therefore, I bid thee farewell till our 



meeting in another birth, for none is dearer to me than 
thou. (435) By carrying out my resolve of death, I shall 
clounso my own stain/' Ho saying, she was silent. 

' ** * Not knowing the truth of hor tale, I sorrowfully, as 
if ashaniod, afraid, bowildorod, and boroft of sense, adjured 
hor, saying : ** PrincesH, I long to hear. Tell me what 
Prince CandrapT(ja has done. What offence has been com- 
mitted ? By what dibcourtesy has he vexed that lotus-soft 
heart of thine, that none should vex ? When I have heard 
this, thou shalt die on my lifeless body." Thus urged, she 
again began: **I will tell thee; listen carefully. In my 
dreams that cunning villain comes daily and employs in 
secret messages a caged parrot and a starling. In my 
dreams he, bewildered in mind with vain desires, writes in 
my earrings to appoint meetings. lie sends love-letters 
with their syllables washed away, filled with mad hopes, 
most sweet, and showing his own state by the lines of tears 
stained with pigment falling on them. By the glow of his 
feelings he dyes my feet against my will. In his reckless 
insolence he prides himself on his own reflection in my 
nails. (430) In his unwarranted boldness he embraces me 
against my will in the gardens when I am alone, and almost 
dead from fear of being caught, as the clinging of my silken 
skirts to the branches hinders my aieps, and my friends the 
creepers seize and deliver me to him. Naturally crooked, 
he teaches the very essence of crookedness to a heart by 
nature simple by the blazonry he paints on my breast. 
Full of guileful flattery, he fans with his cool breath my 
cheeks all wet and shining as with a breeze from the 
waves of my heart's longing. He boldly places the rays of 
his nails like young barley-sheaves on my ear, though his 
hand is empty, because its lotus has fallen from his grasp 
relaxed in weariness. He audaciously draws me by the 
hair to quaff the sweet wine of his breath, inhaled by him 
when he watered his favourite bakul-flowers. Mocked by 
his own folly, he demands on his head the touch of my 
foot, destined for the palace a^oka-tree.^ In his utter 

* An allusion to the idea that tho ayoka would bud when touched by 
the foot of a beautiful woman. « 


love madnesSi he says : * Tell me, Patralekha, how a mad- 
man can be rejected ?' For he considers refusal a sign of 
jealousy ; he deems abuse a gentle jest ; he looks on silence 
as pettinhnoBS ; he regards the mention of his faults as a 
device for thinking of him; he views contempt as the 
familiarity of love ; he eHtoeins the blame of mankind as 

* ** * A sweet joy filled me as I heard her say this, and I 
thought, (437) *' Surely Love has led her far in her feelings 
for Candrfiplija. If this indeed be true, he shows in visible 
form, under the guise of Kadambarl, his tender feeling 
towards the prince, and he is met by the prince's innate 
and carefully-trained virtues. The quarters gleam with his 
glory ; a rain of pearls is cast by his youth on the waves of 
the ocean of tenderness ; his name is written by his youth- 
ful gaiety on the moon ; his own fortune is proclaimed by 
his happy lot ; and nectar is showered down by his grace 
as by the digits of the moon. 

* *' * ^Moreover, the Malaya wind has at length its season ; 
moonrise has gained its full chance ; the luxuriance of 
spring flowers has won a fitting fruit ; the sharpness of 
wine has mellowed to its full virtue, and the descent of 
love's era is now clearly manifest on earth. 

* ** ' Then I smiled, and said aloud : ** If it be so, princess, 
cease thy wrath. Be appeased. Thou canst not punish 
the prince for the faults of Kama. These truly are the 
sports of Love, the god of the Flowery Bow, not of a 
wanton Candrapida." 

* ** ' As I said this, she eagerly asked me : '* As for this 
Kama, whoever he may be, tell me what forms he 

tutu jjQ^y Q^^ Y^Q i^Q^yQ forms?" replied L **He is a 

formless fire. For without flame he creates heat ; without 
smoke he makes tears flow ; without the dust of ashes he 
shows whiteness. Nor is there a being in all the wide 
universe who is not, or has not been, or will not be, the 
victim of his shaft. Who is there that fears him not? 
(438) Even a strong man is pierced by him when he takes 
in hand his flowery bow. 

! 160 

«unt Moreover, when tender women are poBsessed by 
him, they gaze, and the sky is crowded with a thousand 
images of their beloved. They paint the loved form ; the 
earth is a canvas all too small. They reckon the virtues of 
their hero ; number itself fails them. They listen to talk 
about their dearest ; the Goddess of Speech herself seems 
all too silent. They muse on the joys of union with him 
who is their life ; and time itself is all too short to their 

* " * She pondered a moment on this ere she replied : 
** As thou sayest, Patralekha, Love has led me into tender- 
ness for the prince. For all these signs and more are 
found in me. Thou art one with my own heart, and I ask 
thee to tell me what I should now do ? I am all unversed 
in such matters. Moreover, if I were forced to tell my 
parents, I should be so ashamed that my heart would 
choose death rather than life." 

* " * Then again I answered : ** Enough, princess ! Why 
this needless talk of death as a necessary condition?^ 
Surely, fair maiden, though thou hast not sought to please 
him, Love has in kindness given thee this boon. Why 
tell thy parents? Love himself, like a parent, plans for 
thee ; (439) like a mother, he approves thee ; like a father, 
he bestows thee ; like a girl friend, he kindles thine affec- 
tion ; like a nurse, he teaches thy tender age the secrets of 
love. Why should I tell thee of those who have themselves 
chosen their lords ? For were it not so, the ordinance of 
the svayamvara in our law-books^ would be meaningless. 
Be at rest, then, princess. Enough of this talk of death. 
I conjure thee by touching thy lotus-foot to send me. I 
am ready to go. I will bring back to thee, princess, thy 
heart's beloved." 

**** When I had said this, she seemed to drink me in 
with a tender glance ; she was confused by an ardour of 

* Amihandha, one of tlie four necessary conditions in writinff. 
(a) Subject-matter ; {h) purpose ; (c) relation between subject treated 
and its end; (d) competent person to hear ii.— V. • Vtdanta Sara.,' 
p. 2-4 ; ' VAcaspatya Dictionary.' 

« 'Hanu.'ix., 90. 

181 . 

aflfecfcion which, though restrained, found a path, and 
burst through the reserve that Love's shafts had pierced. 
In her pleasure at my words, she cast oflf the silken outer 
robe which clung to her through her weariness, and left it 
suspended on her thrilling limbs.^ She loosened the moon- 
beam necklace on her neck, put there as a noose to hang 
herself, and entangled in the fish ornaments of her swing- 
ing earring. Yet, though her whole soul was in a fever 
of joy, she sui)ported herself by the modesty which is 
a maiden's natural dower, and said ; ** I know thy great 
love. But how could a woman, tender of nature as a young 
^irlsba-blossom, show such boldness, especially one so 
young as I ? (440) Bold, indeed, are they who themselves 
send messages, or themselves deliver a message. I, a 
young maiden,- am ashamed to send a bold message. 
What, indeed, could I say? * Thou art very dear,* is super- 
fluous. *Am I dear to thee?* is a senseless question. 

* My love for thee is great,' is the speech of the shameless. 
' Without thee I cannot live,' is contrary to experience. 
*Love conquers me,' is a reproach of my own fault. 'I 
am given to thee by Love,' is a bold offering of one's self. 
' Thou art my captive,* is the daring speech of immodesty. 

* Thou must needs come,' is the pride of fortune. * I will 
come myself,' is a woman's weakness. *I am wholly 
devoted to thee,' is the lightness of obtruded affection. * I 
send no message from fear of a rebuff,* is to wake the 
sleeper.^ * Let me be a warning of the sorrow of a service 
that is despised,' is an excess of tenderness. * Thou shalt 
know my love by my death,' is a thought that may not enter 
the mind." ' " * 

^ I.e., the down on the body rises from joy (a common idea in 
Sanskrit writers), and holds the robe on its, points. 

'^ Head, Samdiqantl, and place the stop after tvayam instead of 
after aamdu^antl. 

^ I.e.f awake a sleeping lion. 


PART 11. 

(441) I HAIL, for the completion of the difficult toil of this 
unfinished tale, Uma and ^iva, parents of earth, whose 
single body, formed from the union of two halves, shows 
neither point of union nor division. 

(442) I salute Narayana, creator of all, by whom the 
man-lion form was manifested happily, showing a face 
terrible with its tossing mane, and displaying in his hand 
quoit, sword, club and conch. 

I do homage to my father, that lord of speech, the 
creator by v/hom that story was made that none else could 
fashion, that noble man whom all honour in every house, 
and from whom I, in reward of a former life, received my 

(443) When my father rose to the sky, on earth the 
stream of the story failed with his voice. And I, as I 
saw its unlhiisliod state was a grief to the good, began it, 
but from no poetic pride. 

For that the words How with such beauty is my father's 
special gift ; a single touch of the ray of the moon, the one 
source of nectar, suffices to melt the moonstone. 

As other rivers at their full enter the Ganges, and by 
being absorbed in it reach the ocean, so my speech is cast 
by me for the completion of this story on the ocean-flowing 
stream of my father's eloquence. 

Heeling under the strong sweetness of Kadambari^ as 
one mtoxicated, I am bereft of sense, in that I fear not to 

* Or, ' wine.' 


compose. an ending in my own speech devoid of sweetness 
and colour. 

(444) The seeds that promise fruit and are destined to 
flower are forced by the sower with fitting toils ; scattered 
in good ground, they grow to ripeness ; but it is the sower's 
son who gathers thera.^ 

* '* Moreover," Kadambarl continued, ** if the prince 
were brought shame itself, put to shame by my weak- 
ness, would not allow a sight of him. (446) Fear itself, 
frightened at the crime of bringing him by force, would 
not enter his presence. Then all would be over if my 
friend Patralekhfi did her utmost from love to me, and yet 
could not induce him to come, even by falling at his feet, 
either perchance from his respect for his parents, or devo- 
tion to royal duty, or love of his native land, or reluctance 
towards me. Nay, more. (448) I am that Kadambarl 
whom he saw resting on a couch of flowers in the winter 
palace, and he is that Candrfiplija, all ignorant of another's 
pain, who stayed but two days, and then departed. I 
had promised Mahri9veta not to marry while she was in 
trouble, though she besought me not to promise, saying, 
that Kama often takes our life by love even for one unseen. 
(441)) But this is not my case. For the prince, imaged by 
fancy, ever presents himself to my sight, and, sleeping or 
waking, in every place I behold him. Therefore talk not 
of bringing him." 

* (450) Thereupon P reflected, " Truly the beloved, as 
shaped in the imagination, is a great support to women 
separated from their loves, especially to maidens of noble 
birth." (451) And I promised Kadambarl that I would 
bring thee, Prince. (452) Then she, roused by my 
speech full of thy name, as by a charm to remove poison, 
suddenly opened her eyes, and said, ** I say not that thy 

^ lihushanabhatta, after these introductory lines, continues Patra- 
leklia's account of Krulambarl's speech, and completes the story. 
2 I.e., Patralekha. 


going pleaBOB me, Patralekha. (458) It is only when I see 
thee that I can endure my life ; yet if this desire possess 
thee, do what thou wilt !" So saying, she dismissed me 
with many presents. 

* Then with slightly downcast face Patralekha continued : 
"The recent kindness of the princess has given me 
courage, my prince, and I am grieved for her, and so I 
say to thee, * Didst thou act worthily of thy tender nature 
in leaving her in this state ?' " 

* Thus reproached by Patralekha, and hearing the words 
of Kadambarl, so full of conflicting impulses, the prince 
became confused ; (454) and sharing in Kadambarl's feel- 
ing, he asked Patralekha with tears, ** What am I to do? 
Love has made me a cause of sorrow to Kadambarl, and 
of reproach to thee. (455) And methinks this was some 
curse that darkened my mind ; else how was my mind 
deceived when clear signs were given, which would create 
no doubt even in a dull mind ? All this my fault has 
arisen from a mistake. I will therefore now, by devoting 
myself to her, even with my life, act so that the princess 
may know me not to be of so hard a heart." 

* (450) While he thus spoke a portress hastened in and 
said: ** Prince, Queen Vilasavati sends a message saying, 
* I hear from the talk of my attendants that Patralekha, 
who had stayed behind, has now returned. And I love her 
equally with thyself. Do thou therefore come, and bring 
her with thee. The sight of thy lotus face, won by a 
thousand longings, is rarely given.' " 

* " How my life now is tossed with doubts !" thought the 
prince. *' My mother is sorrowful if even for a moment 
she sees me not. (457) My subjects love me ; but the 
Gandharva princess loves me more. Princess Kadambarl 
is worthy of my winning, and my mind is impatient of 
delay;" so thinking, he went to the queen, and spent the 
day in a longing of heart hard to bear ; (458) while the 
night he spent thinking of the beauty of Kadambarl, which 
was as a shrine of love. 

* (459) Thenceforth pleasant talk found no entrance into 


him. His friends' words seemed harsh to him ; the conver- 
sation of his kinsmen gave him no delight. (460) His 
body was dried up by love's fire, but he did not yield up 
the tenderness of his heart. (461) He despised happiness, 
but not self-control. 

' While he was thus drawn forward by strong love, which 
had its life resting on the goodness and beauty of Kadam- 
bari, and held backwards by his very deep affection for his 
parents, he beheld one day, when wandering on the banks 
of the Siprfi, a troop of horse approaching. (462) He 
sent a man to inquire what this might be, and himself 
crossing the Sipra where the water rose but to his thigh, 
he awaited his messenger's return in a shrine of Kartikeya. 
])rawing Patralekha to him, he said, '* Look ! that horse- 
man whose face can scarce be descried is Keyuraka !" 

* (463) He then beheld Keyuraka throw himself from his 
horse while yet far off, gray with dust from swift riding, 
while by his changed appearance, his lack of adornment, 
his despondent face, and his eyes that heralded his inward 
grief, he announced, even without words, the evil plight of 
Kadambarl. Candraplcla lovingly called him as he hastily 
bowed and drew near, and embraced him. And when he 
had drawn back and paid his homage, the prince, having 
gratified his followers by courteous inquiries, looked at him 
eagerly, and said, ** By the sight of thee, Keyuraka, the 
well-being of the lady Kadambarl and her attendants is 
proclaimed. When thou art rested and at ease, thou shalt 
tell me the cause of thy coming;" and he took Keyuraka 
and Patralekha home with him on his elephant. (464) 
Then be dismissed his followers, and only accompanied by 
Patralekha, he called Keyuraka to him, and said: ** Tell me 
the message of Kadambarl, Madalekha and Mahavveta." 

' **What shall I say?" replied Keyuraka; ** I have no 
message from any of these. For when I had entrusted 
Patralekha to Meghanada, and returned, and had told of 
thy going to UjjayinI, Maha^veta looked upwards, sighed 
a long, hot sigh, and saying sadly, *It is so then,' re- 
turned to her own hermitage to her penance. Kadambarl, 


as though bereft of consciousness, ignorant of Maha9yeta's 
departure, only opened her eyes after a long time, scorn- 
fully bidding me tell Mahri9veta; and asking Madalekha 
(465) if anyone ever had done, or would do, such a deed as 
Candrai^Tda, she dismissed her attendants, threw herself 
on her couch, veiled her head, and spent the day without 
speaking even to ^ladalokha, who wholly shared her grief. 
When early next morning I went to her, she gazed at me 
long with tearful eyes, as if blaming me. And I, when 
thus looked at by my sorrowing mistress, deemed my- 
self ordered to go, and so, without telling the princess, I 
have approached my lord's feet. Therefore vouchsafe to 
hear attentively the bidding of Keyiiraka, whose heart is 
anxious to save the life of one whose sole refuge is in thee. 
For, as by thy first coming that virgin^ forest was stirred 
as by the fragrant Malaya wind, so when she beheld thee, 
the joy of the whole world, like the spring, love entered 
her as though she were a red ac;oka creeper. (400) But 
now she endures great torture for thy sake." (400-470) 
Then Keyuraka told at lengtli all her suiTerings, till the 
prince, overcome by grief, could l)car it no longer and 

* Then, awakening from his swoon, he lamented that he 
was thought too hard of heart to receive a message from 
Kadambari or her friends, and blamed them for not telling 
him of her love while he was there. 

(470) *" Why should there be shame concerning one who 
is her servant, ever at her feet, that grief should have 
made its home in one so tender, and my desires be un- 
fulfilled? (477) Now, what can I do when at some days* 
distance from her. Her body cannot even endure the fall 
of a flower upon it, while even on adamantine hearts like 
mine the arrows of love are hard to bear. When I see 
the unstable works began by cruel Fate, I know not where 
it will stop. (478 J Else where was my approach to the 
land of the immortals, in my vain hunt for the Kinnaras ? 
where my journey to Hemakiita with Maha^veta, or my 
* Literally, * that forest of creepers, sc. maidens.' 


sight of the princess there, or the birth of her love for me, 
or my father's command, that I could not transgress, for 
me to return, though my longing was yet unfulfilled ? It 
is by evil destiny that we have been raised high, and then 
dashed to the ground. Therefore let us do our utmost to 
console* the princess." (479) Then in the evening he asked 
Koyuraka, "What thinkest thou? Will Kudambarl sup- 
port life till we arrive ? (480) Or shall I again behold her 
face, with its eyes like a timid fawn's ?" **Be firm, prince," 
he replied. " Do thine utmost to go." The prince had 
himself begun plans for going ; but what happiness or what 
content of heart would there be without his father's leave, 
and how after his long absence could that be gained? A 
friend's help was needed here, but Vai9ampriyana was 

* (484) But next morning he heard a report that his 
army had reached Da^apura, and thinking with joy that 
he was now to receive the favour of Fate, in that Vai9am- 
payana was now at hand, he joyfully told the news to 
Keyuraka. (485) " This event," replied the latter, ** surely 
announces thy going. Doubtless thou wilt gain the princess. 
For when was the moon ever beheld by any without moon- 
light, or a lotus-pool without a lotus, or a garden without 
creeper ? Yet there must be delay in the arrival of Vai(;am- 
pfiyana, and the settling with him of thy plans. But I 
have told thee the state of the princess, which admits of 
no delay. Therefore, my heart, rendered insolent by the 
grace bestowed by thy affection, desires that favour may 
be shown me by a command to go at once to announce the 
joy of my lord's coming." (486) Whereat the prince, with 
a glance that showed his inward satisfaction, replied : 
** Who else is there who so well knows time and place, or 
who else is so sincerely loyal ? This, therefore, is a happy 
thought. Go to sui)port the life of the princess and to 
prepare for my return. But let Patralekha go forward, 
too, with thee to the feet of th^j princess. For she is 
favoured by the princess." Then he called Meghanada, 
* So commentary. 


and bade him escort Patralekha, (487) while he himself 
would overtake them when he had seen Vai9ampayana. 
Then he bade Patralekha tell Kadambari that her noble 
sincerity and native tenderness preserved him, even though 
far away and burnt by love's lire, (489) and requested her 
bidding to come. (491) After their departure, he went to 
ask his father's leave to go to meet Vaivarnpayana. The 
king lovingly received him, and said to (^Jukanasa : (492) 
** He has now come to the age for marriage. So, having 
entered upon the matter with Queen Vilasavatl, let some 
fair maiden be chosen. For a face like my son's is not 
often to bo seen. Let us then gladden ourselves now by 
the sight of the lotus face of a bride." (yukanusa agreed 
that as the prince had gained all knowledge, made royal 
fortune lirnily his own, and wed the earth, there remained 
nothing for him to do but to marry a wife. ** How fitly," 
thought Candrfipida, ** does my father's plan come for 
my thoughts of a union with Kadambari! (493) The 
proverb * light to one in darkness,' or * a shower of nectar 
to a dying man,' is coming true in me. After just seeing 
Vaivampfiyana, I shall win Kadambari." Then the king 
went to Yilasavati, and playfully reproached her for giving 
no counsel as to a bride for her son. (494) Meanwhile the 
prince spent the day in awaiting Vai9ampriyana's return. 
And after spending over two watches of the night sleepless 
in yearning for him, (495) the energy of his love was re- 
doubled, and he ordered the conch to be sounded for 
his going. (497) Then he started on the road to Da9apura, 
and after going some distance he beheld the camp, (501) 
and rejoiced to think he would now see Vai9ampriyana ; 
and going on alone, he asked where his friend was. But 
weeping women replied : ** Why ask ? How should he be 
here?" And in utter bewilderment he hastened to the 
midst of the camp. (502) There he was recognised, and 
on his question the cliieftains besought him to rest under a 
tree while they related Vai9ampayana's fate. He was, they 
said, yet alive, and they told what had happened. (505) 
'* When left by thee, he halted a day, and then gave the 


order for our march, *Yet/ said he, 'Lake Acchoda is 
mentioned in the Purana as very holy. Let us bathe and 
worship Civa in the shrine on its bank. For who will ever, 
even in a dream, behold again this place haunted by the 
gods ?' (506) But beholding a bower on the bank he gazed 
at it like a brother long lost to sight, ns if memories were 
awakened in him. And when we urged him to depart, he 
made as though he heard us not ; but at last ho bade us 
go, saying that he would not leave that spot. (508) ' Do 
I not know well,' said ho, * all that you urge for my 
departure ? But I have no power over myself, and I am, 
as it were, nailed to the spot, and cannot go with you.* 
(510) So at length we left him, and came hither." 

* Amazed at this story, which ho could not have even in a 
dream imagined, Candrapl(la wondered : " What can be the 
cause of his resolve to leave all and dwell in the woods ? 
I see no fault of my own. He shares everything with me. 
Has anything been said that could hurt him by my father 
or Cukanasa ?" (517) Ho at length returned to Ujjayinl, 
thinking that where V'aivampfiyana was there was Kadam- 
barl also, and resolved to fetch him back. (518) He heard 
that the king and queen had gone to Cukanasa's house, and 
followed them thither. (519) There he heard Manorama 
lamenting the absence of the son without whose sight she 
could not live, and who had never before, even in his 
earliest years, shown neglect of her. (520) On his 
entrance the king thus greeted him : *' I know thy great 
love for him. Yet when I hear thy story my heart 
suspects some fault of thine." But Cukanasa, his face 
darkened with grief and impatience, said reproachfully : 
** If, king, there is heat in the moon or coolness in 
fire, then there may be fault in the prince. (521) Men 
such as Vai9ampayana are portents of destruction, (522) 
fire without fuel, polished mirrors that present everything 
the reverse way; (523) for them the base are exalted, 
wrong is right, and ignorance wisdom. All in them makes 
for evil, and not for good. Therefore Vai^ampayana has 
not feared thy wrath, nor thought that his mother's life 


depends on him, nor that he was born to be a giver of 
offerings for the continuance of his race. (524) Surely the 
birth of one so evil and demoniac was but to cause us grief.** 
(525) To this the king replied : ** Surely for such as I to 
admonish thee were for a lamp to give light to fire, or day- 
light an equal splendour to the sun. Yet the mind of the 
wisest is made turbid by grief as the Miinasa Lake by the 
rainy season, and then sight is destroyed. Who is there in 
this world who is not changed by youth? When youth 
shows itself, love for elders flows away with childhood. 
(528) My heart grieves when I hear thee speak harshly of 
Vai^ampfiyana. Let him be brought hither. Then we can 
do as is fitting." (529) (^'ukanfisa persisted in blaming his 
son; but Candrfipida implored leave to fetch him home, 
and Cukanfisa at length yielded. (532) Then Candraplda 
summoned the astrologers, and secretly bade them name 
the day for his departure, when asked by the king or 
(^ukanasa, so as not to delay his departure. ** The con- 
junction of the planets," they answered him, *' is against 
thy going. (533) Yet a king is the determiner of time. 
On whatever time thy will is set, that is the time for every 
matter." Then they announced the morrow as the time 
for his departure ; and he spent that day and night intent 
on his journey, and deeming that he already beheld 
Kfidambari and Vai^amjifiyana before him. 

* (534) And when the time came, Vilasavati bade him 
farewell in deep sorrow : ** I grieved not so for thy first 
going as I do now. My heart is torn ; my body is in 
torture ; my mind is overwhelmed. (535) I know not why 
my heart so suffers. Stay not long away.'* He tried to 
console her, and then went to his father, who received him 
tenderly, (539) and finally dismissed him, saying : ** My 
desire is that thou shouldst take a wife and receive the 
burden of royalty, so that I may enter on the path followed 
by royal sages ; but this matter of Vai9ampayana is in the 
way of it, and I have misgivings that my longing is not to 
be fulfilled ; else how could he have acted in so strange a 
way? Therefore, though thou must go, my son, return 



soon, that my heart's desire may not fail.*' (540) At 
length he started, and spent day and night on his journey 
in the thought of his friend and of the Gandharva world. 
(544) And when he had travelled far the rainy season came 
on, and all the workings of the storms found their counter- 
part in his own heart. (548) Yet he paused not on his 
way, nor did he heed the entreaties of his chieftains to 
bestow some care on himself, but rode on all day. (549) 
But a third part of the way remained to traverse when he 
beheld Meghanada, and, asking him eagerly concerning 
Vaiyampayana, (550) he learnt that Patralekha, sure that 
the rains would delay his coming, had sent Meghanada to 
meet him, and that the latter had not been to the Acchoda 
lake. (552) With redoubled grief the prince rode to the 
lake, and bade his followers guard it on all sides, lest 
Vaiyampayana should in shame flee from them ; but all 
his search found no traces of his friend. (553) ** My feet," 
thought he, '' cannot leave this spot without him, and yet 
Kadambarl has not been seen. Perchance Mahay vetfi may 
know about this matter ; I will at least see her." 8o he 
mounted Indrayudha, and went towards her hermitage. 
There dismounting, he entered ; but in the entrance of the 
cave he beheld Mahayveta, with difficulty supported by 
Taralika, weeping bitterly. (554) ''May no ill," thought 
he, ** have befallen Kadambarl, that Mahayveta should be 
in this state, when my coming should be a cause of joy." 
Eagerly and sorrowfully he questioned Taralika, but she 
only gazed on Mahayveta's face. Then the latter at last 
spoke falteringly: **What can one so wretched tell thee? 
Yet the tale shall be told. When I heard from Keyuraka 
of thy departure, my heart was torn by the thought that 
the wishes of Kadambari's parents, my own longing, and 
the sight of Kadambari's happiness in her union with thee 
had not been brought about, and, cleaving even the bond 
of my love to her, I returned home to yet harsher penance 
than before. (555) Here I beheld a young Brahman, like 
unto thee, gazing hither and thither with vacant glance. 
But at the sight of me his eyes were fixed on me alone, as 


if, though unseen before, he recognised me, though a 
stranger, he had long known me, and gazing at me like 
one mad or possessed, he said at last : 'Fair maiden, only 
they who do what is fitting for their birth, age, and form 
escape blame in this world. Why toilest thou thus, like 
perverse fate, in so unmeet an employment, in that thou 
wastest in stern penance a body tender as a garland? 
(55G) The toil of penance is for those who have enjoyed 
the pleasures of life and have lost its graces, but not for 
one endowed with beauty. If thou turnest from the joys 
of earth, in vain does Love bend his bow, or the moon rise. 
Moonlight and the Malaya wind serve for naught.' " 

* ** But I, caring for nothing since the loss of Pundarlka, 
asked no questions about him, (557) and bade Taralikii 
keep him away, for some evil would surely happen should 
he return. But in spite of being kept away, whether from 
the fault of love or the destiny of suffering that lay upon 
us, he did not give up his affection ; and one night, while 
Taralika slept, and I was thinking of Pundarika, (559) I 
beheld in the moonlight, clear as day, that youth approach- 
ing like one possessed. The utmost fear seized me at the 
sight. 'An evil thing,' I thought, *has befallen me. If 
he draw near, and but touch me with his hand, this 
accursed life must bo destroyed ; and then that endurance 
of it, which I accepted in the hope of again beholding 
Puii(jarika, will have been in vain.* While I thus thought 
he drew near, and said: 'Moon-faced maiden, the moon, 
Love's ally, is striving to slay me. Therefore I come to 
ask protection. Save me, who am without refuge, and 
cannot help myself, for my life is devoted to thee. (560) 
It is the duty of ascetics to protect those who flee to them 
for protection. If, then, thou deign not to bestow thyself 
on me, the moon and love will slay me.' At these words, 
in a voice choked by wrath, I exclaimed : ' Wretch, how 
has a thunderbolt failed to strike thy head in the utterance 
of these thy words? Surely the five elements that give 
witness of right and wrong to mortals are lacking in thy 
frame, in that earth and air and fire and the rest have not 

' 193 

utterly destroyed thee. Thou hast learnt to speak like a 

parrot, without thought of what was right or wrong to say. 
^Vhy wert thou not born as a parrot ? (561) I lay on thee 
this fate, that thou mayest enter on a birth suited to thine 
own speech, and cease to make love to one such as I.* So 
sayin*^, I turned towards the moon, and with raised hands 
prayed : * Blessed one, lord of all, guardian of the world, 
if since the sight of Puiidarika my heart has been free 
from the thought of any other man, may this false lover., 
by the truth of this my saying, fall into the existence pro- 
nounced by me.' Then straightway, I know not how, 
whether from tlie force of love, or of his own sin, or from 
the power of my words, he fell Hfeless, hke a tree torn up 
])y the roots. And it was not till he was dead that I learnt 
from his weeping attendants that he was thy friend, noble 
prince." Having thus said, she bent her face in shame 
and silently wept. But Candrapuja, with fixed glance and 
broken voice, replied : *' Lady, thou hast done thine 
utmost, and yet I am too ill-fated to have gained in this 
life the joy of honouring the feet of the lady Kadambarl. 
Mayest thou in another life create this l)liss for me." 
(502) With these words bis tender heart broke, as if from 
grief at failing to win Kadambarl, like a bud ready to open 
when pierced by a bee. 

' Then Taralika burst into laments over his lifeless body 
and into reproaches to Mahavvetfi. And as the chieftains, 
too, raised their cry of grief and wonder, (504) there 
entered, with but few followers, Kadambarl herself, attired 
as to meet her lover, though a visit to Mahacveta was the 
pretext of her coming, and while she leant on Patralekha's 
hand, she expressed her doubts of the prince's promised 
return, (565) and declared that if she again beheld him 
she would not speak to him, nor be reconciled either by his 
humility or her friend's endeavours. Such were her words; 
but she counted all the toil of the journey light in her 
longing to behold him again. But when she beheld him 
dead, with a sudden cry she fell to the ground. And 
when she recovered from her swoon, she gazed at him with 



fixed eyes and quivering mouth» like a creeper trembling 
under the blow of a keen axe, and then stood still with a 
firmness foreign to her woman's nature. (5CG) Madalekha 
implored her to give her grief the relief of tears, lest her 
heart should break, and remember that on her rested the 
ho])es of two races. ** Foolish girl," replied Kfidambarl, 
with a smile, ** how should my adamantine hoart broak if 
it has not broken at this sight *? These thoughts of family 
and friends are for one who wills to live, not for me, who 
have chosen death ; for I have won the body of my beloved, 
which is life to me, and which, whether living or dead, 
whether by an earthly union, or by my following it in 
death, sullices to calm every grief. It is for my sake that 
my lord came hither and lost his life ; how, then, could I, 
by shedding tears, make light of the great honour to which 
he has raised me ? or how bring an ill-omened mourning 
to his dei)arture to heaven ? or how weep at the joyous 
moment when, like the dust of his feet, 1 may follow 
him ? Now all sorrow is far away. (507) For him 1 neg- 
lected all other ties ; and now, when he is dead, how canst 
thou ask me to live ? In dying now lies my life, and to 
live would be death to me. Do thou take my place with 
my parents and my friends, and mayest thou be the 
mother of a son to oHer libations of water for me when 1 
am in another world. Thou must wed the young mango 
in the courtyard, dear to me as my own child, to the 
madhavi creeper. Let not a twig of the a(;okii-tree that 
my feet have caressed be broken, even to make an earring. 
Let the flowers of the miilati creeper I tended be plucked 
only to offer to the gods. Let the picture of Kfima in my 
room near my pillow be torn in pieces. The nuingo-trees 
I planted must be tended so that they may come to fruit. 
(508) Set free from the misery of their cage the maina 
Kalindi and the parrot Tarihrisa. Let the little mongoose 
that rested in my lap now rest in thine. Let my child, 
the fawn Taralaka, be given to a hermitage. Let the i)art- 
ridges on the pleasure-hill that grew up in my hand be 
kept alive. See that the hamsa that followed my steps be 


not killed. Let my poor ape be set free, for she is unhappy 
in the house. Let the pleasure-hill be given to some calm- 
souled hermit, and let the things I use myself be given to 
Brahmans. My lute thou must lovingly keep in thine 
own lap, and anything else that pleases thee must be thine 
own. But as for me, I will cling to my lord's neck, and 
HO on the funeral pyre allay the fever which the moon, 
sandal, lotus-libres, and all cool things have but increased.*' 
(5G9) Then she embraced Mahrivveta, saying : ** Thou in- 
deed hast some hope whereby lo endure life, even though 
its pains be worse than dealli ; but I have none, and so I 
bid tliee farewell, dear friend, till we meet in another 

* As though she felt the joy of reunion, she honoured 
the feet of Candrriplda with bent head, and placed them in 
her lap. (570) At her touch a strange bright light arose 
from Candrripi(la's body, and straightway a voice was 
heard in the sky : ** Dear Mahficvetfi, I will again console 
thee. The body of thy Puncjarlka, nourislied in my world 
and by my light, free from death, awaits its reunion with 
thee. The other body, that of Candrfipida, is filled with 
my light, and so is not subject to death, both from its own 
nature, and because it is nourished by the touch of 
Kadambarl ; it has been deserted by the soul by reason of 
a curse, like the body of a mystic whose spirit has passed 
into another form. Let it rest here to console thee and 
Kadam])an till the curse be ended. Let it not bo burnt, 
nor cast into water, nor deserted. It must be kept with all 
care till its reunion." 

* All but Patralekha were astounded at this saying, and 
fixed their gaze on the sky; but she, recovering, at the 
cool touch of that light, from the swoon brought on by 
seeing the death of Candrfipnja, rose, hastily seizing 
Lulrayudha from his groom, saying: ** However it may be 
for us, thou must not for a moment leave thy master to 
go alone without a steed on his long journey ;" and 
plunged, together with Lidrayudha, into the Acchoda Lake. 
(571) Straightway there rose from the lake a young ascetic, 


and approaching Maha^veta, said mournfully: ** Princess 
of the Gandharvas, knowest thou me, now that I have 
paHsod throu^'h another birth?" Divided between joy and 
grief, she paid liomage to his feet, and replied : ** Blessed 
Kapifijala, am I so devoid of virtue that I could forget 
thee ? And yet this thought of me is natural, since I am 
so strangely ignorant of myself and deluded by madness 
that when my lord PuijKJarika is gone to heaven I yet live. 
(572) Tell me of Pundarika." lie then recalled how he 
had flown into the sky in pursuit of the being who carried 
oir PuiKJarlka, and piiHsing by the wond(»ring gods in their 
heavenly cars, ho had reached the world of the moon. 
** Then that being," he continued, *'i)laccd Pundarlka's 
body on a couch in the hall called ^lahodaya, and said : 
* Know me to be the moon ! (578) When I was rising to 
help the world I was cursed by thy friend, because my 
beams were slaying him before he could meet his beloved ; 
and he prayed that I, too, might die in the land of ]31iarata, 
the home of all sacred rites, knowing myself the pains of 
love. But I, wrathful at being cursed for what was his 
own fault, uttered the curse that he should endure the 
same lot of joy or sorrow as myself. AVlien, however, my 
anger passed away, I understood what had happened about 
Maha(;veta. Now, she is sprung from the race that had its 
origin in my beams, and she chose him for her lord. Yet 
he and I must both be born twice in the world of mortals, 
else the due order of births will not be fuUilled. I have 
therefore carried the body hither, and I nourihh it with my 
light lest it should perish ])efore the curse is ended, and I 
have comforted Mahacveta. (57-^) Tell the whole matter 
to PuiKJarika's father. His si)iritual power is great, and 
he may find a remedy.' And I, rushing away in grief, 
leapt off another rider in a heavenly chariot, and in wrath 
he said to me : * Since in the wide path of heaven thou 
hast leapt over me like a horse in its wild course, do thou 
become a horse, and descend into the world of mortals.* 
To my tearful assurance that I had leapt over him in the 
hlindness of grief, and not from contempt, he replied : 


' The ourse, once uttered, cannot be recalled. But when 
thy rider shall die, thou shalt bathe and be freed from the 
curse.* Then I implored him that as ray friend was about 
to be born with the moon-god, in the world of mortals, I 
might, as a horso, constantly dwell with him. (575) 
Softened by my alloction, he told me that the moon would 
be born as a son to King Tfirapuja at UjjayinI, Puinjarlka 
would bo the son of his minister, (^ukanfisa, and that I 
should be the prince's steed. Straightway I plunged into, 
the ocean, and rose as a horse, but yot lost not conscious- 
ness of the past. I it was who purposely brought Can- 
drapula hither in pursuit of the kinnaras. And he who 
sought thee by reason of the love implanted in a former 
birth, and was consumed by a curse in thine ignorance, 
was my friend Punilarika come down to earth." 

* Then Mahru/vetri beat her breast with a bitter cry, 
saying : ** Thou didst keep thy love for me through 
another birth, Punijarika; I was all the world to thee; 
and yet, hke a demon, born for thy destruction even in a 
frehih life, 1 have received length of years but to slay thee 
again and again. (570) Even in thee, methinks, coldness 
must now have sprung u}) towards one so ill-fated, in that 
thou answerest not my laments ;" and she flung herself on 
the ground. But Kapifijala pityingly replied : *' Thou art 
blameless, princess, and joy is at hand. Grieve not, there- 
fore, but pursue the penance undertaken by thee ; for to 
perfect penance naught is impossible, and by the power of 
thine austerities thou shalt soon be in the arms of my 

* (577) Then Kjidambari asked Kapifijala what had 
become of Patralekhfi when she plunged with him into the 
tank. But he knew naught of what had happened since 
then, either to her, or his friend, or Candrfipida, and rose 
to the sky to ask the sage (yvetaketu, Pundarika's father, 
to whom everything in the three worlds was visible. 

* (577-578) Then Mahri(;veta counselled Kudambarl, whose 
love to her was drawn the closer from the likeness of her 
sorrow, that she should spend her life in ministering to the 


body of Candraplda, nothing doubting that while others, to 
gain good, worshipped shapes of wood and stone that were 
but images of invisible gods, she ought to worship the 
present deity, veiled under the name of Candrupiila. 
Laying his body tenderly on a rock, Kfidambarl put off 
the adornments with which she had come to meet her 
lover, keeping but one bracelet as a happy omen. She 
bathed, put on two white robes, rubbed off the deep stain 
of betel from her lips, (579) and the very flowers, incense, 
and unguents she had brought to grace a happy love she 
now offered to Candrupnja in the worship due to a god. 
That day and night she spent motionless, holding the feet 
of tlie prince, and on the morrow she joyfully saw that his 
brightness was unchanged, (581) and gladdened her friends 
and the prince's followers by the tidings. (582) The next 
day she sent Madalekha to console her parents, and they 
sent ])ack an assurance that they had never thought to see 
her wed, and that now they rejoiced that she hud chosen 
for her husband the incarnation of the moon-god himself. 
They hoped, when the curse was over, to behold again her 
lotus-face in the company of their son-in-law. (583) So 
comforted, Kfidambarl r(;mained to tend and worship the 
prince's body. Now, when the rainy season was over, 
MeghamTda came to Kridam])arl, and told her that mes- 
sengers had been sent by TarapTila to ask the cause of the 
prince's delay, (584) and that he, to spare her grief, had 
told them the whole story, and bade them hasten to tell 
all to the king. They, however, had replied that this 
might doubtless bo so ; yet, to say nothing of their 
hereditary love for the prince, ihe desire to see so great a 
marvel urged them to ask to be allowed to behold him ; 
their long service deserved the favour; and what would 
the king say if they failed to see Candrapuja's body ? 
(585) Sorrowfully picturing to herself what the grief of 
Taraplda would be, Kadambarl admitted the messengers, 
(58G) and as they tearfully prostrated themselves, she con- 
soled them, saying that this was a cause for joy rather than 
sorrow. ** Ye have seen the prince's face, and his body free 

^ 199 

from change ; therefore hasten to the king's feet. Yet do 
not spread abroad this story, but say that ye have seen the 
prince, and that he tarries by the Acchoda Lake. For 
death must come to all, and is easily believed ; but this event, 
even when seen, can scarce win faith. It profits not now, 
therefore, by telling this to his parents, to create in them 
a suspicion of his death ; but when he comes to life again, 
this wondrous tale will become clear to them." (587) But 
they replied : " Then we must either not return or keep 
silence. J3ut neither course is possible ; nor could we so 
greet the sorrowing king." She therefore sent Candraplda's 
servant Tvaritaka with them, to give credit to the story, 
for the prince's royal retinue had all taken a vow to live 
there, eating only roots and fruits, and not to return till 
the prince himself should do ho. 

(580) * After many days. Queen Vilasavati, in her deep 
longing for news of her son, went to the temple of the I)ivine 
Mothers of Avantl,^ the guardian goddesses of Ujjayini, to 
pray for his return ; and on a sudden a cry arose from the 
retinue : *' Thou art happy, (^ueen ! The Mothers have 
shown favour to thee ! Messengers from the prince are at 
hand." Then she saw the messengers, with the city-folk 
crowding round them, asking news of the prince, or of sons, 
brothers, and other kinsfolk among his followers, (591) but 
receiving no answers. She sent for them to the temple 
court, and cried : " Tell me quickly of my son. (592) Have 
ye seen him ?" And they, striving to hide their grief, 
replied: "0 (Jucen, he has been seen by us on the sliore 
of the Acchoda Lake, and Tvaritaka will tell theo the rest." 
"What more," said she, ''can tiiis unhappy man tell me'/ 
For your own sorrowful bearing has told the tale. Alas, 
my child ! Wherefore hast thou not returned ? When 
thou didst bid me farewell, I knew by my forebodings that 
r should not behold thy face again. (593) This all comes 
from the evil deeds of my former birth. Yet think not, my 
son, that I will live without thee, for how could I thus even 

' Avjintl is the province of vvliich Ujjayini is the capital. For the 
Divine Mothors, V. Hupra, p. ^O. 


face thy father? And yet, whether it be from love, or 
from the thought that one so fair must needs live, or from 
the native simplicity of a woman's mind, my heart cannot 
believe that ill has befallen thee." (594) Meanwhile, the 
news was told to the king, and he hastened to the temple 
with (yukanasa, and tried to rouse the queen from the 
stupor of grief, saying: (51)8) ** My queen, we dishonour 
ourselves by this show of grief. Our good deeds in a 
former life have carried us thus far. AVe are not the vessel 
of further joys. That which we have not earned is not 
won at will by beating the breast. The Creator does what 
He wills, and depends on none. We have had the joy of 
our son's babyhood and boyhood and youth. We have 
crowned him, and greeted his return from his world 
conquest. (59(1) All that is Licking to our wishes is that 
we have not seen him wed, so that we might leave him in 
our place, and retire to a hermitage. But to gain every 
desire is the fruit of very rare merit. We must, however, 
question Tvaritaka, for we know not all yet." (597) But 
when he heard from Tvaritaka how the prince's heart had 
broken, he interrupted him, and cried that a funeral pyre 
should be prepared for himself near the shrine of Mahakrda. 
(598) All his treasure was to be given to Bralimans, and the 
kings who followed him were to return to their own lands. 
Then Tvaritaka implored him to hear the rest of the story 
of Yairampayana, and his grief was followed by wonder ; 
while C^ukanjlsa, showing the desire of a true friend to 
forget his own grief and offer consolation, said : (599) 
*' Sire, in this wondrous transitory existence, wherein 
wander gods, demons, animals and men, filled with joy and 
grief, there is no event which is not possible. Why then 
doubt concerning this ? If from a search for reason, how 
many things rest unly on tradition, and are yet seen to be 
true ? As the use of meditation or certain postures to cure 
a poisoned man, the attraction of the loadstone, the efficacy 
of mantras, Vedic or otherwise, in actions of all kinds, 
wherein sacred tradition is our authority. (600) Now 
there are many stories of curses in the Puraiias, the 



Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and the rest. For it was 
owing to a curse that Nahusha' became a serpent, Saudasa^ 
a cannibal, Yayati decrepit, Tricamku^ a Candala, the 
heaven-dwelling Mahabhisha was born as (y'antanu, while 
Ganga became his wife, and the Vasus,* his sons. Nay, 
even the Supreme God, Vishnu, was born as Yamadagni's 
son, and, dividing himself into four, he was born to 
Davaratha, and also to Yasudeva at Mathuni. Therefore 
the birth of gods among mortals is not hard of belief. 
And thou, sire, art not behind the men of old in virtue, nor 
is the moon greater than the god from whom the lotus 
springs. Our dreams at our sons' birth conlirm the tale ; 
the nectar that dwells in the moon preserves the prince's 
body, (CM) and his beauty that gladdens the world must 
be destined to dwell in the world. We shall therefore soon 
see his marriage with Kadambarl, and therein find all the 
pasii troubles of life more than repaid. Do then thine 
utmost by worshipping gods, giving gifts to Brahmans, and 
practising austerities, to secure this blessing." (602-004) 
The king assented, but expressed his resolve to go himself 
to behold the prince, and he and the queen, together with 
(^ukanasa and his wife, went to the lake. (605) Comforted 
by the assurance of Meghanada, who came to meet him, 
that the prince's body daily grew in brightness, he entered 
the hermitage; (60()) while, at the news of his coming, 
Maha(;vetri tied in shame Avitliin the cave, and Kadambari 
swooned. And as he looked on his son, who seemed but 
to sleep, the queen rushed forward, and with fond reproaches 
entreated Candrfipida to speak to them. (608) But the 
king reminded her that it was her part to comfort (^'ukanasa 
and his wife. '' She also, to whom we shall owe the joy 
of again beholding our son alive, even the Gandharva 
princess, is yet hi a swoon ; do thou take her in thine 
arms, and bring her back to consciousness." Then she 
tenderly touched Kadambarl, saying "Be comforted, my 

* V. supra, pp. 19, 20, 47. ^ A king of the solar race. 

^ V. 8Uj)r(t, p. C. ■* Kead ashtdndin api Vasrnidm. 


mother,^ for without thee, who could have preserved the 
body of my son Candrapida? Surely thou must be wholly 
made of amrita, that we are again able to behold his face." 
(009) At the name of Candrapida and the touch of the 
queen, so like his own, Kadambarl recovered her senses, 
and was helj^ed by Madalekha to pay due honour, though 
with face bent in shame, to his parents. She received 
their blessing — " Mayest thou live long, and long enjoy an 
unwidowed life " — and was set close behind VilAHavatl. 
The king then bade her resume her care of the prince, and 
took up his abode in a leafy bower near the hermitage, 
provided with a cool stone slab, and meet for a hermit, (010) 
and told his royal retinue that he would now carry out his 
long-cherished desire of an ascetic life, and that they must 
protect his sulgects. " It is surely a gain if I hand over 
my place to one worthy of it, and by this enfeebled and 
useless body of mine win the joys of another world." 

* So saying, he gave up all his wonted joys, and betook 
himself to the unwonted life in the woods ; he found a 
palace l)eneath the trees ; the delights of the zenana, in the 
creepers; the affection of friends, in the fawns; the pleasure 
of attire, in rags and bark garments. (Oil) His weapons 
were rosaries ; his ambition was for another world ; his 
desire for wcaltli was in penance. He refuscul all the 
delicacies tliat Kadambarl and ^lahrK/veta ofVered him, and 
so dwelt with his queen and (^ukanasa, counting all pains 
light, so that every morning and evening he might have the 
joy of seeing Candraplda.* 

Having told this tale,^ the sage Jabali said with a scorn- 
ful smile to his son Harita and the other ascetics : * Ye 
have seen how this story has had power to hold us long, 
and to charm our hearts. And this is the love-stricken being 
who by his own fault fell from heaven, and became on 
earth VairampAyana, son of Qukanasa. He it is who, by 
the curse of his own wrathful father, and by Mahavveta's 

' The c'oinniontiiry Hiiys ' mother ' is said to a diiughtor-in-law, just 
as tiUOt 'fatlier,' is said to a son. 
^ The parrot's own history is now continued from p. 47. 

/ 203 

appeal to the truth of her heart, has been born as a parrot.' 
(G12) As he thus spoke, I awoke, as it were, out of sleep, 
and, young as I was, I had on the tip of my tongue all the 
knowledge gained in a former birth ; I became skilled in 
all arts ; I had a clear human voice, memory, and all but 
the shape of a man. My affection for the prince, my un- 
controlled passion, my devotion to MahfK^vetri, all returned. 
A yearning arose in me to know about them and my other 
friends, and though in deepest shame, I faintly asked 
Jribali : * Now, blessed saint, that thou hast brought back 
my knowledge, my heart breaks for the prince who died in 
grief for my death. (()1JJ) Vouchsafe to tell me of him, so 
that I may be near him ; even my birth as an animal will 
not gi'ieve mo.' With mingled scorn and pity he replied : 
'Wilt thou not even now restrain thine oUl impatience? 
Ask, when thy wings are grown.' Then to his son's 
inquiry how one of saintly race should l;e so enslaved by 
love, ho replied that this weak and uiu-ostrained nature 
belonged to those born, like me, from a mother only. For 
the Veda says, * As a man's parents are, so is he,' (()14) and 
medical science, too, declares their weakness. And he said 
my life now would be but short, but that when the curse 
was over, I should win length of years. I humbly asked 
by what sucriiices I should gain a longer life, but he bade 
me wait, and as the whole night had passed unobserved in his 
story, (OIT)) he sent the as(!eti('s to offer the morning oblation, 
while ilania took me, and placed me in his own hut near 
his couch, and went to his morning duties. (()!()) During 
his absence, I sorrowfully thought how hard it would be to 
rise from being a bird to being a Brahman, not to say a 
saint, who has the bliss of heaven. Yet if I could not be 
united to those I loved in past lives why should I yet live? 
Ihit Ilarita then returned, and told me that Kapinjala was 
there. (()17-()1H) When I saw him weary, yet loving as 
ever, 1 strove to i\y to him, and he, lifting me up, placed 
me in his bosom, and then on his head. (019) Then he 
told me, * Thy father Cvetaketu knew by divine insight of 
thy plight, and has begun a rite to help thee. As he began 


it I was set free from my horse's shape ; (020) but he kept 
me till Jabali had recalled the past to thee, and now sends 
me to give thee his blessing, and say that thy mother 
Lakshmi is also helping in the rite.' (021) Then, bidding 
me stay in the hermitage, he rose to the sky, to take part 
in the rite. (022) After some days, however, my wings 
were grown, and I resolved to fly to Malim/veta, so I set off 

• towards the north ; (i\2\\) but weariness soon overtook me, 
and I went to sloep in a tree, only to wake in the snare of 
a terrible (^aiMjAla. ((>2 1) I boHouglit him to free me, for I 
was on the way to my beloved, but he said he had captured 
me for the young Canijala princcHB, who had heard of my 
gifts. With horror I heard that I, the son of Lakshmi and 
of a great saint, nmst dwell with a tribe shunned even by 
barbarians ; (()25) but when I urged that he could set me 
free without danger, for none would see him, he laughed, and 
replied : ' He, for whom there exist not the live guardians 
of the world, ^ witnesses of right and wrong, dwelling within 
his own body to l)eh()ld his actions, will not do his duty for 
fear of any other being.' (020) So he carried me off, and 
as I looked out in hope of getting free from him, I beheld 
the barbarian settlement, a very market-place of evil deeds. 
It was surrounded on all sides by boys engaged in the chase, 
unleashing their hounds, teaching their falcons, mending 
snares, carrying weapons, and lishing, horrible in their 
attire, like demoniacs. Here and there the entrance to their 
dwellings, hidden by thick bamboo forests, was to be inferred, 
from the rising of smoke of orpimont. On all sides the en- 

' closures were made with skulls ; (027) the dustheaps in the 
roads were tilled with bones; the yards of the huts were miry 
with blood, fat, and meat chopped up. The life there con- 
sisted of hunting ; the food, of llesh ; the ointment, of fat ; 
the garments, of coarse silk ; the couches, of dried skins ; 
the household attendants, of dogs ; the animals for riding, 
of cows ; the men's employment, of wine and women ; the 

' Tliu couuiKfiitary oxpUiiim thoHu aw Indra, Yaina, V^aruna, Soma 
and Kuvcra. The Calcutta traiiHlation apparently translates a reading 


oblation to the gods, of blood ; the sacriiice, of cattle. 
The place was the image of all hells. (628) Then the 
man brought me to the Candfila maiden, who received 
me gladly, and placed me in a cage, saying : * I will take 
from thee all thy wilfulness.' What was I to do? Were 
I to pray her to release me, it was my power of speech that 
hud made her desire me ; were I silent, anger might make 
lu^r cruel ; (729) Ktill, it was my want of self-restraint that 
liad cuuHful all my misery, and so I rosolvod to restrain all 
my Honsos, and I tluu'oforo kept (entire silonce and rofusod 
all food. 

N(^.\t day, however, the maiden brought fruits and water, 
and when I did not touch them she 8aid tenderly : * It is 
unnatural for birds and beasts to refuse food when hungry. 
If thou, mindful of a former birth, makest distinction of 
what may or nuiy not be eaten, yet thou art now born as 
an animal, and canst keep no such distinction. (G80) There 
is no sin in acting in accordunce with the state to which 
thy past deeds liav(3 brought thee. Nay, even for those who 
have a law concerning food, it is lawful, in a time of 
distress, to eat food not meet for them, in order to preserve 
life. Much more, then, for tljce. Nor needst thou fear 
this food as coming from our caste ; for fruit may be 
accepted even from us ; and water, even from our vessels, 
is pure, so men say, when it falls on the ground.' I, 
wondering at her wisdom, partook of food, but still kept 

* After some time, when I liad grown up, I woke one day 
to Inul myself in this golden cage, and beheld the CaiKjula 
maiden as thou, king, hast seen her. (fiSl) The whole 
barbarian settlement shewed like a city of the gods, and 
before I could ask what it all meant, the maiden brought 
me to thy feet. But who she is and why she has 
become a Cainjrda, and why I am bound or brought hither, 
I am as eager as thou, king, to learn.' 

Thereupon the king, in great amazement, sent for the 
maiden, and she, entering, overawed the king with her 
majesty, and said with dignity : ' Thou gem of earth, lord 


of llohini, joy of Kadambari'a eyes — thou, moon, hast 
heard the story of thy past birth, and that of this foolish being. 
Thou knowest from him how even in this birth he disregarded 
his father's command, and sot oil to seek his bride. Now 1 
am LakHlimJ, liis mother, and his father, seeing by divine 
insiglit that he had started, bade me keep him in safety till 
the religious rile for liim was completed, and lead him to 
repentance. (iiJVi) The rite is now over. The end of the 
curse is at hand. I brought him to thee that thou mightest 
rejoice with him thereat. 1 became a Caiulala to avoid 
contact with mankind. J)o ye both therefore, straightway 
leave bodies beset with the ills of birth, old age, pain, and 
death, and win the joy of union with your beloved.' So 
saying, she suddenly rose to the sky, followed by the gaze 
of all the people, while the firmament rang with her 
tinkling anklets. The king, at her words, remembc^red his 
former birth and said : * Dear rundarlka, now called 
Vaicampuyana, happy is it that the curHe comes to an end 
at the same moment for us both ' ; but while he spoke. Love 
drew bin bow, taking Kadambari as his best weapon, aiul 
entered into the king's heart to destroy his life. (()lJr>) The 
Ibime of love wholly consumed him, and from longing for 
^lahavvetri, Yaivampuyana, who was in truth Puuijarlka, 
endured the same sullerings as the king. 

Now at this time there set in the fragrant season of if to burn him utterly,(():M)) and while it intoxicated 
all living beings, it was used by Love as his strongest shaft 
to bewilder the heart of Kadambari. On ivama's festival 
she passed the day with great dilliculty, and at twilight, 
when the (puirters were growing dark, she bathed, 
worshipped Knma, and placcul before him the body of 
Candriij)ida, wiisluul, anointed with nuisk-scented sandal, 
and deckcnl with flowers. (OUT) l^'illed with a deep longing, 
she drew nigh, as if unconsciouwly and suddenly, bereft by 
love of a wonum's native timidity, she could no longer 
restrain herself, and clasped Candrapl(ja's neck as though 
he were yet alive. At her ambrosial embrace the prince's 
life came back to him, and, clasping her closely, like o)ie 


awakened from Bleep (688), he gladdened her by sajmg: 
* Timid one, away with fear ! Thine embrace hath brought 
me to life ; for thou art born of the ApsaraH race sprung 
from noctar, and it was but the curse that prevented thy 
touch from reviving mo before. I have now left the mortal 
shiipo of (^^udraka, that caused the pain of separation from 
tlioo; but tills body I k jpt, 1 ecause it won thy love. Now 
both til is world and the moon are bound to thy feet. 
Vai(;ampuyana, too, the beloved of thy friend MahrK/veta, 
has been freed from the curse with me.* While the moon, 
hidden in the Hluipe of C'andrujmja, thus spoke, Puiujarika 
descended from the sky, pale, wearing still the row of 
pearls given by ^labavvetfi, and holding the hand of 
Kapinjala. (Olit)) (lladly Kfidambaii hastened to tell 
Maliavveia of her lover's return, while Caiulruplda said : 
' Dear Tuntjarika, though in an earlier birth thou wast my 
Hon-in-law,^ thou must now be my friend, as in our last 
birth.' Meanwhile, Keyuraka set oil' to llemakula to tell 
llaiiiHa and Citniratlia, and Madalekha fell at the feet of 
Tarapicla, who was absorbed in prayer to ^iva, Vaiujuisher 
of Death, and N'ilasavatl, and told them the glad tidings. 
(() 10) Then the aged king came, leaning on (/ukanasa, with 
the (lueeii and ^lanonima, and great was the joy of all. 
Kapinjala too brought a message to (Jukanasa from 
(^\'etakatu, saying : ' Puntlarika was but brought up by me ; 
but he is thy son, and loves thee ; do thou therefore keep 
him from ill, and care for him as thine own. (Oil) I have 
placed in him my own lite, and he will live as long as the 
moon ; so that my desires are fuUilled. The divine spirit 
of life in me now yearns to reach a region surpassing the 
world of gods.' That night passed in talk of their 
former birth ; and next day the two (jandliarva kings camo 
with their (pieens, and the festivities were increased a 
thousandfold. Oitraratha, however, said : ' Why, when we 
have palaces of our own, do we feast in the forest ? More- 
over, though marriage resting only on mutual love is lawful 

* Ah tlio betrothed of Maharvetii, who was of the moon-raco of 
ApHaraHOH. • 

I 208 

among uh,^ yet let ua follow the custom of the world.' 
* Nay,' replied Tarapida. * Where a man hath known his 
greatest happiness, there is his home, even if it be the 
forest.^ ((i42) And where else have I known such joy as 
here ?^ All my palaces, too, have been given over to thy 
Bon-in-law ; take my son, therefore, with his bride, and taste 
the joys of home.' Then Citraratha went with Candraplila 
to Hemakuta, and offorod him his whole kingdom with the 
hand of Kadambarl. Hanisa did the same to Pundarlka ; 
but both refused to accept anything, for their longings were 
satisfied with winning the brides dear to their hearts. 

Now, one day Kfidambari, tliough her joy was complete, 
asked lier husband with tears : ' How is it that when we all 
have died and come to life, and have been united witli each 
other, Patralekhfi alone is not here, nor do we know what 
has become of her'?' *How could she be here, my beloved?' 
replied the prince tenderly. * For she is my wife liohinl, 
and, when slie heard I was cursed, grieving for my grief, 
she refused to leave me alone in the world of mortals, and 
though I sought to dissuade her, she accepted birth in that 
world even before me, that she might wait upon me. (048) 
When I entered on another birth, she again wished to 
descend to earth ; but I sent her l)ack to the world of 
the moon. There thou wilt again beliold her.' But 
Kadambari, in wonder at Rohini's nobility, tenderness, 
loftiness of soul, devotion, and charm, was abashed, and 
could not utter a word. 

The ten nights that Candrapida spent at Hemakuta 

passed as swiftly as one day; and then, dismissed by 

Citraratha and ^fadirfi, who were wholly content with him, 

he approached the feet of his father. There he bestowed 

on the chieftains who had shared his sufferings a condition 

like his own, and laying on Pundarlka the burden of 

government, followed the steps of his parents^ who had 

given up all earthly* duties. Sometimes from love of his 

^ For pandlijirva marringo, v. Manu., iii. 82. 
2 Cf. M.Arnold: 

* All, wliere the spirit its higliest life liatli led, 
All Kpots. mutcird with that spot, are less divine.' 


native land, he would dwell in Ujjayini, where the citizens 
gazed at him with wide, wondering eyes ; sometimes, from 
respect to the Gandharva king, at Hemakuta, beautiful 
beyond compare ; sometimes, from reverence to Rohini, in 
the world of the moon, where every place was charming 
from the coolness and fragrance of nectar ; sometimes, from 
love to Pun<jarika, by the lake where Lakshml dwelt, on 
which the lotuses ever blosBomod night and day, and often, 
to please Kfidambari, in many another fair spot. 

With Kfidambari he enjoyed many a pleasure, to which 
the yearning of two births gave an ever fresh^ and in- 
exhaustible delight. Nor did tlie Moon rejoice alone with 
Kfidambari, nor she with Mahfiyvetfi, but Mahfi9vetfi with 
Puncjarika, and Pun<jarlka with the ^foon, all spent an 
eternity of joy in each other's company, and reached the 
very pinnacle of happiness, 

* Ajmnarukta, ' without tautology.' 




(102) There is a town by name UjjayinI, the proudest gem 
of the three worlds, the very birthplace of the golden age, 
created by the blessed Mahiikala,^ Lord of Pramathas,* 
Creator, Preserver and Destroyer of the Universe, as a 
habitation meet for himself, like a second earth. It is en- 
compassed by a moat deep as hell — as by the ocean, mis- 
taking it for another earth — and surrounded by fenced 
walls, white with plaster, like Kailfisa, with its many points 
showing clear against the sky, through joy at being the 
dwelling of Civa. 

It is adorned with large bazaars, like the oceans when 
their waters were drunk by Agastya, stretching far, with 
gold-dust for sand, with conch and oyster pearls, coral and 
emeralds laid bare. The painted halls that deck it are 
filled with gods, demons, Siddhas,^ Gandharvas, gonii, and 
snakes, (103) and show like a row of heavenly chariots 
come down from the sky to behold fair women at ceaseless 
festivals. Its crossways shine with temples like Mandara 
whitened by the milk raised up by the churning stick, with 
spotless golden vases for peaks, and white banners stirred 
by the breeze like the peaks of Himalaya with the heavenly 
Ganges falling on them. Commons gray with ketaki 
pollen, dark with green gardens, watered by buckets con- 
stantly at work, and having wells adorned with brick seats, 
lend their charm. Its groves are darkened by bees vocal 
with honey draughts, its breeze laden with the sweetness of 

* ^iva. 2 Fiends attendant on (Jiva. ' Vide p. 98. 


creeper flowers, all trembling. It pays open honoar to 
Kama, with banners marked with the fish on the house- 
poles, with ])ells ringing merrily, with crimson pennons of 
silk, and red cowries steady, made of coral, standing 
upright in every house. Its sin is washed away by the 
perpetual recitation of sacred books. (104) It resounds 
with the cry of the peacocks, intent on a wild dance with 
their tails outspread from excitement in the bathing- 
houses, wherein is the steady, deep sound of the drums, 
and a storm caused by the heavy showers of spray, and 
beautiful rainbows made by the sunbeams cast upon it. It 
glitters with lakes, fair with open blue water-lilies, with 
their centre white as unclosed moon-lotuses, beautiful in 
their unwaverhig gaze,^ like the thousand eyes of Indra. 
It is whitened with ivory turrets on all sides, endowed with 
plantain groves, white as flecks of ambrosial foam. It is 
girt with the river Siprfi, which seems to purify the sky, 
with its waves forming a ceaseless frown, as though 
jealously beholding the river of heaven on the head of Tiva, 
while its waters sway over the rounded forms of the 
Mrdavis, wild with the sweetness of youth. 

The light-hearted race that dwell there, like the moon on 
the locks of (,'iva, spread their glory- through all the earth, 
and have their horn lilled with plenty ;^ like Mainaka, they 
have known no pahshapdta ;^ like the stream of the heavenly 
Ganges, with its golden lotuses, their heaps of gold and 
rubies^ shine forth ; like the law-books, they order the 
making of water-works, bridges, temples, pleasure-grounds, 
wells, hostels for novices, wayside sheds for watering cattle, 
and halls of assembly ; like Mandara, they have the best 
treasures of ocean drawn up for them ; though they have 
charms against poison," yet they fear snakes ;7 thougli 
they live on the wicked,* they give their best to the good ; 

» Or, with fiflhea. '- Or, light. 

3 laterally {a) whose wealth Ib croros of nipeea ; (h) in the case of 
the moon, ' whose essence is in its horns.' 

* {a) Partizanship ; {h) cutting of pinions. When the rest of the 
mountains lost their wings, Mainaka escaped. 

s Or, padma, 1000 bilhons. « Or, emeralds. 

' Or, rogues. ** Or, granaries. 


though bold, they are very courteous; though pleasant 
of speech, they are truthful ; though handsome,^ content 
with their wives; though they invite the entrance of 
guests, they know not how to ask a boon ; though they 
seek love and wealth, they are strictly just : though 
virtuous, tlie> fear another world. ^ They are connois- 
seurs in all arts, pleasant^ and intelligent. They talk 
merrily, are charming in their humour, spotless in their 
attire, (100) skilled in foreign languages, clever at subtleties 
of speech,^ versed in stories of all kinds,^ accomplished in 
letters, having a keen delight in the Maliabliarata, ruranas, 
and liamayana, familiar with the Brihatkatha, masters 
of the whole circle of arts, especially gambling, lovers of 
the ^astras, devoted to light literature, calm as a fragrant 
spring breeze, constantly going to the south f upright,^ 
like the wood of Himalaya ; skilled in the worship of 
Eama,^ like Lakshmana ; open lovers of Bharata, like 
Tatrughna f like the day, following the sun ;^^ like a 
Buddhist, bold in saying ' Yes ' about all kinds of gifts ;^^ like 
the doctrine of the Siunkhya philosophy, possessed of noble 
men ;^^ like Jinadharma, pitiful to life. 

The city seems possessed of rocks, with its palaces ; it 
stretches like a suburb with its long houses ; it is like the 
tree that grants desires with its good citizens ; it bears in 
its painted halls the mirror of all forms. Like twilight, it 
shines with the redness of rubies ;^^ (107) like the form of 
the Lord of Heaven, it is purified with the smoke of a 
hundred sacrilices ; like the wild dance of (^.'iva, it has the 
smiles, which are its white markets ;^^ like an old woman, 
it has its beauty worn ;^^ like the form of Garuda, it is 

* Or, learned. 

^ Or, though full of energy, they fear their enemies. 

' Or, liberal. * V, Suhitya-Durpana, 641. 

6 Ibid., 56b. Or, offering gifts. 

^ Or, containing pine-trees. * Or, attentive to women. 

• Brother of Kama and liharata. ^^ Or, their friends. 

*^ Or, of the Sarvastivadin School (a subdivision of the Vaibhashika 
** Or, matter and spirit. ^^ Or, lotus-hued. 

** In the case of (^'iva, ' loud laughter, bright as nectar.' 
** It has treasure vaults. 


pleasing in being the resting-place of Vishnu ;^ like the hour 
of dawn, it has its people all alert ; like the home of a 
mountaineer, it has palaces in which ivory cowries* are 
hanging ; like the form of Oesha,^ it always bears the world ; 
like the hour of churning the ocean, it fills the end of the 
earth with its hubbub;* like the rite of inauguration, it 
has a thousand gold pitchers^ at hand ; like Gaurl, it has 
a form fit to sit on the lion-throne ; like Aditi, honoured in 
a hundred houses of the gods ; like the sports of Maha- 
varfiha, showing the casting down of Hiranyaksha f like 
Kadrii, it is a joy to the race of reptiles ;^ like the Hari- 
vain(;a, it is charming witb the games of many children.^ 
(108) Though its courts are open to all, its glory is unin- 
jured ;'* though it glows with colour,^*^ it is white as nectar; 
though it is hung with strings of pearls, yet when un- 
adorned" it is adorned the most ; though composed of 
many elements,^' it is yet stable, and it surpasses in splen- 
dour the world of the immortals. 

There the sun is daily seen paying homage to !Mahakala, 
for his steeds vail their heads at the charm of the sweet 
chant of the women singing in concert in the lofty white 
palaces, and his pennon droops before him. There his rays 
fall on the vermeil floors like the crimson of eve ; and on 
the emerald seats, as though busy in creating lotus beds ; 
on the lapis-lazuli, as though scattered on the sky ; on the 
circling aloe smoke, as though eager to break its dense 
gloom ; on the wreaths of pearl, as though disdaining the 
clusters of stars ; (109) on the women's faces, as though 
kissing unfolding lotuses; on the splendour of crystal 
walls, as though falling amid the pale moonhght of morn- 

* Or, keeping its covenants firm. 

- Or, houses whitened with ivory and cowries. 

•* Or, having splendid mountains always at hand. 

* Or, false. ^ Or, gold pieces. 
*^ (a) Demon ; (b) golden dice. ' Or, rogues. 

^ Or, the sporting of King Bala. 

9 Though the free intercourse with women is allowed, it is of 
irreproaci\able conduct. 
^^ Its cactes are loved. 

" ViJulra {a) without necklaces ; (b) having temples. 
** Having many citizens. 


ing ; on the white silken banners, as though hanging on 
the waves of the heavenly Ganges ; on the sun-gems, as 
though blossoming from them ; on the sapphire lattices, as 
though entering the jaws of Rahu. There darkness never 
falls, and the nights bring no separation to the pairs of 
cakravakas; nor need they any lamps, for they pasH golden 
as with morning sunsliino, from the bright jewels of 
women, as though the world were on fire with the flame 
of love. There, though Civa is at hand, the cry of the 
hamsas in the houses, arising sweet and ceaseless, at the 
kindling of love, fills the city with music, like the mourn- 
ing of Rati for the burning of the God of Love. There the 
palaces stretch forth their flags, whose silken fringes gleam 
and flutter at night in the wind, like arms to remove the 
mark of the moon put to shame by the fair lotus-faced 
Mfdavls. (110) There the moon, deer-marked, moves, in the 
guise of his reflection, on the jewel pavement, cool with the 
sprinkling of much sandal-water, as though he had fallen 
captive to Love at the sight of the faces of the fair city 
dames resting on the palace roofs. There the auspicious 
songs of dawn raised by the company of caged parrots and 
starlings, though they sing their shrillest, as they wake at 
night's close, are drowned and rendered vain by the 
tinkling of women's ornaments, reaching far, and outvying 
the ambrosial voices of the tame cranes.^ (HI) There 
dwells Civa, who has pierced the demon Andhaka with 
his sharp trident, who has a piece of the moon on his 
brow polished by the points of Gauri's anklets, whose 
cosmetic is the dust of Tripura, and whoso feet are 
honoured by many bracelets fallen from Rati's outstretched 
arms as she pacifies him when bereft of Kama. 


(112) Like hell, he was the refuge of the lords of earth,^ 
fearing when their soaring pride was shorn ;* like the stars, 
he was followed by the wise men ;^ like Love, he destroyed 

1 Then follows : ' There— demons ' p. 47, 1. 18. 

2 Follows p. 48, 1. 17, ' gay.' 

8 lletid °kulai/i ; (a)Kmgs; (6) mountains. 
* Loss of dependencies ; or, loss of wings. 
^ Or, by the star Budha. ' ^ 


strife;^ like Da9aratha, he had good friends;' (118) like 
(yiva, he was followed by a mighty host ;' like ^esha, he 
had the weight of the earth upon him;* like the stream 
of Narmada, his descent was from a noble tree.* He was 
the incarnation of Justice, the very representative of 
Vishnu, the destroyer of all the sorrows of his people. He 
re-established justice, which had been shaken to its foun- 
dations by the Kali Age, set on iniquity, and mantled in 
gloom by the spread of darkness, just as Civa re-established 
Kailfisa when carried off by Ravana. He was honoured by 
the world as a second Kama, created by (^iva when his 
heart was softened by the lamentations of Rati. 

(113-115) Before him bowed conquered kings with eyes 
whose pupils were tremulous and quivering from fear, with 
the bands of the wreaths on their crest ornaments caught by 
the rays of his feet, and with the line of their heads broken 
by the lotus-buds held up in adoration. They came from 
the Mount of Sunrise," which has its girdle washed by the 
ocean waves, where the flowers on the trees of its slopes are 
doubled by stars wandering among the leaves, where the 
sandal- wood is wet with the drops of ambrosia that fall 
from the moon as it rises, where the clove-trees^ blossom 
when pierced by the hoofs of the horses of the sun's 
chariot, where the leaves and shoots of the olibanum-trees 
are cut by the trunk of the elephant Airfivata ; (114) from 
Setubandha, built with a thousand mountains seized by the 
hand of Nala,^ where the fruit on the lavall-trees is carried 
off by monkeys, where the feet 0£ Rama are worshipped by 
the water-deities coming up from the sea, and where the 
rock is starred with piecus of shell broken by the fall of 
the mountain ; from Mandara, where the stars are washed 
by the waters of pure waterfalls, where the stones are 
polished by the rubbing of the edge of the fish ornament 

^ Or, his body was destroyed. 
'^ Or, Suuiitra, wife of l)a(;aratlia. 
3 Or, by the ' Lord of Battles,' i.e., KArtikeya. 
* Or, was honoured for his patience. 

^ (a) A great family; (b) a great bamboo from which the river is 
said to rise. ^ V. supra, p. 162. 

' Bead lavanga. ^ A monkey chief. 

I 21G 

of Krishna rising at the churning of amhrosia, where the 
Blopes are torn by the weight of the feet moving in the 
effort of drawing hither and thither Vasuki coiled in the 
struggles of Gods and demons, where the peaks are sprinkled 
with ambrosial spray ; from Gandhamfidana, beautiful with 
the hermitage of Badariku marked with the footi)rints of 
Nara and Nfirayana, where the peaks are resonant with the 
tinkling of the ornaments of the fair dames of Kuvera's 
city, where the water of the streams is purified by the 
evening worship of the Seven llishis, and where the land 
around is perfumed by the fragments of lotuses torn up by 

(188) Preceded by groups of chamberlains, hastening up 
and bowing, he received the respectful homage of the kings, 
who had already taken their position there, who came 
forward on all sides, who had the ground kissed by the 
rays of the crest-jewels loosened from their crests and 
thrown afar, and who were introduced one by one by the 
chamberlains ; at every step he had auspicious words for 
his dismounting uttered by old women of the zenana, 
who had come out from inside, and were skilled in old 
customs ; having passed through the seven inner courts 
crowded with thousands of different living beings, as if 
they were different worlds, he beheld his father. The king 
was stationed within, surrounded by a body-guard whose 
hands were stained black by ceaseless grasping of weapons, 
who had their bodies, with the exception of hands, feet, and 
eyes, covered with dark iron coats of mail, (189) like 
elephant -posts covered with swarms of bees ceaselessly 
attracted by desire of the scent of ichor, hereditary in their 
office, of noble birth, faithful; whose heroism might be 
inferred from their character and gestures, and who in 
their energy and fierceness were like demons. On either 
side he had white cowries ceaselessly waved by his women ; 
and he sat on a couch white as a wild goose, and bright as 
a fair island, as if he were the heavenly elephant on the 
water of Ganges. 


vilAsavatI's attendants. 

(190) Approaching his mother, he saluted her. She was 
surrounded by countless zenana attendants in white jackets, 
like (Jrl with the waves of milk, and was having her time 
wiled away by elderly ascetic women, very calm in aspect, 
wearing tawny robes, like twilight in its clouds, worthy of 
honour from all the world, with the lobes of their ears long, 
knowing many stories, relating holy tales of old, reciting 
legends, holding books, and giving instructions about 
righteousnesB. (191) She was attended by eunuchs using 
the speech and droBS of women, and wearing strange 
decorations ; she had a mass of cowries constantly waved 
around her, and was waited upon by a bevy of women 
seated around her, bearing clothes, jewels, flowers, per- 
fumes, betel, fans, unguents, and golden jars ; she had 
strings of pearls resting on her bosom, as the earth has the 
stream of Ganges flowing in the midst of mountains, and 
the reflection of her face fell on a mirror close by, like the 
sky when the moon's orb has entered the sun. 

(;!Ukanasa's palace. 

(192) He reached Cukanasa's gate, which was crowded 
with a troop of elephants appointed for the watch, ob- 
structed by thousands of horses, (198) confused with the 
hustling of countless multitudes, visited day and night 
by Brahmans, (^.'aivas, and red-robed men skilled in the 
teaching of (^fikyamuni, clothed as it were in the garments 
of righteousness, sitting on one side by thousands, form- 
ing circles, coming for various purposes, eager to see 
Oukanfisa, having their eyes opened by the ointment of 
their several (/astras, and showing their respectful devotion 
by an appearance of humility. The gateway was filled 
with a hundred thousand she-elephants of the tributary 
kings who had entered the palace with double blankets 
drawn round the mahouts who sat on their shoulders, 
having their mahouts asleep from weariness of their long 
waiting, some saddled and some not, nodding their heads 


from their long standing motionless. The prince dis- 
mounted in the outer court, as though he were in a royal 
palace, though not stopped by the guards standing in the 
entrunce and running up in haste ; and having left his 
horse at the entrance, leaning on Vaic/ampfiyana, and 
having his way shown by circles of gatekeepers, who 
hastened up, pushing away the bystanders, he received 
the salutes of bands of chiefs who arose with waving crests 
to do him homage, and beheld the inner courts with all the 
attendants mute in fear of the scolding of cross porters, 
and having the ground shaken by hundreds of feet of the 
retinues of neighbouring kings frightened by the moving 
wands, (194) and finally entered the palace of Tukanfisa, 
bright inside with fresh plaster, as if it were a second royal 


(lOG) The brightness of day approached the west, follow- 
ing the path of the sun's chariot-wheels, like a stream of 
water. Day wiped away all the glow of the lotuses with 
the sun's orb hastening downwards like a hand roseate as 
fresh shoots. The pairs of cakravakas, whose necks were 
hidden in swarms of bees approaching from familiarity with 
the scent of lotuses, were separated as if drawn by the 
noose of destiny. The sun's orb poured forth, under the 
guise of a rosy glow, the lotus honey-draught, as it were, 
drunk in with its rays till the end of day, as if in weariness 
of its path through the heavens. And when in turn the 
blessed sun approached another world, and was a very red 
lotufl-earring of the West, when twilight shone forth with 
its lotus-beds opening into the lake of heaven, (1D7) when 
in the quarters of space lines of darkness showed clear like 
decorations of black aloes; when the glow of eve was 
driven out by darkness like a band of red lotuses by blue 
lotuses dark with bees ; when bees slowly entered the hearts 
of red lotuses, as if they were shoots of darkness, to uproot 
the sunshine drunk in by the lotus-beds ; when the evening 
glow had melted away, like the garland round the face of 
the Lady of night; when the oblations in honour of the 


goddess of twilight were cast abroad in all quarters ; when 
the peacock's poles seemed tenanted by peacocks, by reason 
of the darkness gathered round their summits, though no 
peacocks were there; when the doves, very ear-lotuses of 
the Lakshml of palaces, were roosting in the holes of the 
lattices; when the swings of the zenana had their bells 
dumb, and their gold seats motionless and bearing no fair 
dames ; when the bands of parrots and mainas ceased 
chattering, and had their cages hung up on the branches of 
the palace mango-trees ; when the lutes were banished, and 
their sound at rest in the ceasing of the concert ; when the 
tame geese were quiet as the sound of the maidens* anklets 
was stilled ; (108) when the wild elephants had the clefts of 
their cheeks free from bees, and their ornaments of pearls, 
cowries, and shells taken away; when the lights were 
kindled in the stables of the king's favourite steeds ; when 
the troops of elephants for the first watch were entering ; 
when the family priests, having given their blessing, were 
departing ; when the jewelled pavements, emptied almost 
of attendants on the dismissal of the king's suite, spread 
out wide, kissed by the reliection of a thousand lights 
skining in the inner apartments, like offerings of golden 
campak - blossoms ; when the palace tanks, with the 
splendours of the lamps falling on them, seemed as if the 
fresh sunlight had approached to soothe the lotus-beds 
grieved by sei)aration from the sun ; when the caged lions 
were heavy with sleep ; and when Love had entered the 
zenana like a watchman, with arrows in hand and bow 
strung ; when the words of Love's messenger were uttered 
in the ear, bright in tone as the blossoms in a garland ; 
when the hearts of froward dames, widowed by grief, were 
smouldering in the fire transmitted to them from the sun- 
crystals ; and when evening had closed in, Candrupida . . . 
went to the king's palace. . . . 


(243) The red arsenic-dust scattered by the elephants* 
tusks crimsoned the earth. The clefts of the rock were 

I 220 

festooned with shoots of creepers, now separating and 
now uniting, hanging in twists, twining like leafage ; the 
stones were wet with the ceaseless dripping of gum-trees ; 
the boulders were slippery with the bitumen that oozed 
from the rocks. The slope was dusty with fragments of 
yellow orpiment broken by the mountain horses' hoofs ; 
powdered with gold scattered from the holes dug out by the 
claws of rats ; lined by the hoofs of musk-doer and yaks 
sunk in tlie sand and covered with the liair of rallakas and 
rankus fallen about ; lilled with pairs of partridges resting 
on tno broken pieces of rock ; with the mouths of its caves 
inhabited by pairs of orang-outangs ; with the sweet scent 
of sulphur, and with bamboos that had grown to the length 
of wands of oflice. 


102, 1—110, 6 188, 4—189, 5 196, 4—199, 1 

111, 1-4 190. 6-191, 5 248, 440 ' 

112, 6—116, 1 192, 11—194, 2 


11,7—15,2 176,6-188,4 286,2-4 

♦81, 10-84, 2 *199, 6-200, 9 *846, 7—848, 7 

46, 7—48, 4 208, 2—204, 2 858, 6—866, 9 

81, 8-10 ♦227, 4—284, 6 857, MO 

88, 1-8 242, 6-10 859, 12—866, Q 

86, 8—89, 4 *245, 4—248, 8 809, 2-8 

119, 8—124, 8 250, 8-8 *im<, 6—884, 9 

187, 7-188, 8 ^252, 7—256, 5 888, 5-890, 4 

141, 6-155, 6 2(V2, 1- 206, 8 408, 6-410, 8 

162, 8-164, 8 276, 9-277, 8 417, 1—426, 8 

* Tho figures refer to the page and line of the Nirnaya-S&gara 
edition of KfidaiubarT. 

* PaMHagcH marked ♦ are condensed, and only occasional phrases are 



AcALA, a man, 17 

Acchoda, lake, ix, 92, 102, 108, 108, 

112, 189,191,195,199 
A<;oka, a troo (Joncsia A(;oka)t 40, 

4a, 117, 178 note, 186, 194 
Arvanicdha, Bacrilice, 188 
A<;vattlianian, a warrior, 188 
Abhinianyu, a warrior, 187, 188 
Aditi, a goddess, 218 
Agastya, a sage, xi, 18, 19, 20, 49, 

Aghamarshana, hymn, 88, 141 
Agni, xvi, 4, 9, 11, 14, 35, 41, 46, 

AhavanTya, fire, 40 
Airfivata, Indra's elephant, 6, 46, 

85, 80, 90, 109, 188, 215 
Ajataratru, a king, 50 
Akbar, xiv 
Alakfi, a city, 9 
Alarka, a king, 88 
Aiurita, nectar, 8, and pasaijn 
Ananga, god of love, 06 
Andhaka, a demon, 47, 214 
Af/jali, the salutation of joined up- 
raised liands, 88 
Anuhatidha^ 180 
Knundsika^ a nasal sound, 11 
j^pavaktraka, metro, xii 
psarases, tlic, nymphs, 64, 100, 

101, 102, 112, 140,207 
Arhat, xvi, 102 
Arishta, an Apsaras, 102 
Arjuna, a hero, 18, 137, 188 (Kar- 

tavTrya, a king, 27) 
Arthnpati, a ]^rahman, 2 
Aithdjxitti^ xix 
Arundhatl, 40 • 

Arya, metre, xii, 11 note 
Asliadha, 30, 40, 105 
Asura, demon, 9, 68 

Aube, river, xv 
Aucityavioftra-carca, vlil 
Avalokitevvora, xvi, 162 
Avanti, a province, 199 


Babhruvahana, a warrior, 18B 
Badarika, a hermitage, 216 
]iakula, a tree, Mwiuaopa clengi^ 

10, 144, 178 
Bala, i\ Jialarama, 22 
Bala, a king, 218 note 
Balaluika, a warrior, 61, 62, 68, 65, 

09, 70, 171 
Balarama, brother of Krishna, 8, 

88, 51, 97, 150 
Bana, or IJanabhatta, the author, 

vii, viii, xii, xiv, xvii, xviii, xix, 

XX, xxi, xxii,8 
l^ana, a demon, 1 
Bendall, Professor, xiv 
Bhagiratha, a king, 8, 26, 87, 47, 

72, 88 
Bharata, a king, 47, 60, 72, 88, 102, 

147, 101, 190, 212 
Bliatsu, a guru, 1 
Bliima, a warrior, 00, 78, 216 
BliTslnna, a warrior, 80 
Bhoja, xviii 
Bln;igu, a sago, 188 
Blulshana, or Bhushanabhatta* viii, 

xxiii, 188 
Ihahnia, 2, 8, 10, 35, 89, 41, 65, 94, 

90, 101, 105, 134 note, 147 
Brihadratlia, a king, 58 
Brihaspati, a sage, 4, 11, 46 note, 

Brihatkatha, xii, 8 note, 212 
Birthless, the, 1 
Budlia, a star, 214 note 
Buddlia, xvii 
Buddhacarita, 94 note 



Cabara, a mountaineer, 26, 27, 28, 

29, 81, 82, 88 
Cava, a man, 17 
Caitraratha, a wood, 102 
C'aiva, follower of (;iva, xvi, xvii, 

Cakora, a partridge, 189 
Cakravaka, tho ruddy goose, 20, 47, 
07, 92 note, 94, 114, 127, 142, 144, 
Hf), 100, 102, 107, 214, 218 
C'akuni, a man, 40 ; a bird, 21, 40 
(,'rikyaumni, xvi, 217 
(jTiltreo, Valeria liohuHta^ 92 
(|'alniali, tho HJlk-cotton-troe, Bom- 

hajr Jfcptap/iyllitnif 21 
Ciinipak, a troo, Michclia Cham- 

l>aka, 2, 117, 150, 219 
Candakaiirika, a Hago, b\\ 
Caiiilala, a low cuhIc, viii, x, xvi, 0, 
H,'J nolo. 10, la, 10, 204,205,200 
Candikfirataka, viii 
Cuiulrfiplda, tho hero, viii, ix, x, xi, 

xvi, xxi, xxii,r)9, and^^dssim 
Candraprabha, a place, 95 
(jTintanu, a kin^s 182, 188 
(,'aiabha, 73 

I'astrns, wacrod law-books, xi, 2, 8^ 
' 10, 15, »9, 40, 42, 49, 02, 76, 79, 
212, 217 
(jitadlianvan, a king, 04 
Cutaka, a bird, 94 
(j'atakratu, Indra, 87 
(,'atruglina, a prince, 212 
Teslui, kiii<< of sorponts, 60, 61, 78, 
' 85, 89, 95, 90, 123, 158, 105, 178, 

21M, 215 
Chattaji, xiv 
(^'ikhaiuU, a warrior, 80 
()irIsha,'or Sirlslia, a Hewer, 69, 181 
Citrabliruui, a Hralnnan, 8 
Citraratha, a (iandharva, 102, 140, 

143, 151, 159, 109, 207, 208 
(,'iva, vi, X, xi, xvii, 8, 7, 8, 14, 17, 
21, ao, 30, 39, 41, 40, 47 note, 
49, 50, 51, 52, 50, 03, 82 note, 85, 
92, 93, 95, 90, 97, 98, 99, 102, 
103, 104, 108, 109, 135, 137, 141, 
102, 104, 107, 182, 189, 207, 210, 
(Jlcslia, xix 

Cowcll, Professor, vii, xiv, xxii 
Oaddha, rites for the dead, 89 
C'rl, or Lakshml, 8, 9, 17, 105, 217 ; 
a tree, 17 

(Jruti, Divine tradition, 8 

(;Qdraka, a king, viii, x, xiv, 8, 207 

( lukanasa, a Brahman, ix, xvi, xviii, 
49, 60, 67, 68, 69, 61, 71, 72, 76, 
84, 89, 161, 170, 174, 188, 189, 
190, 197, 200, 201, 202, 207, 217, 

(^ukra, a sage, 60 

(Jutalatika, 146 

(,^x'tadvlpa, the white continent, 97 

Cvetaketu, a sage, 108, 109, 127, 
197, 203, 207 

Cyavaiia, a sage, 188 


Darapura, a city, 187, 188 

Da.-aratlia, a king, 47, 60, 68, 88, 216 

Dakslia, 102, 141 

Dakshii.ia lire, 40 

Daniaiiaka, 50 

Dandaka, wood, 22, 27 

Dai.idi, 37 note 

Dharba, a grass, 40 

Dharnia, god of Justice, 4, 18, 85, 

41, 50, 127 
Dhartaraslitras, 93 

Dhaumya, a priest, 60 

Dhritarashtra, a king, 187 

Digaiiibaras, xvi 

Dilipa, a king, 88 

Disobedient, the, Duhsasana, 49 

Divine niotliers, 199 note 

Dramii, Acvatthfunan, 86 

Dravidian, 172 

])ridhadasvu, an ascetic, 19 


Dundlunnaia, a king, 47 

Durga, wife of Civa, 9, 17, 29, 80, 
31, 49, 50, 55, 50, 102 note, 141, 
102, 172 

Durgoranandini, xiv 

l^firvu grass, 84, 94 

Duryodliana, a king, 21, 40 

Dus'hana, a warrior, 27 

J)va7i(lca, a pair, 101 note 

Dvq^a, a continent, 60 

Eastern Mountain, 23 
Ekalavya, a king, 28 
Ela, cardanions, 16 

Faerie Quccne (Spenser's), xxii 
First-born, a star, 49 
Fuel-bearer, Dndhadaayn, 19 



(langa, or Ganges, 8, and paaaim 
Gandhamadana, an elephant, 86, 

165 ; a mountain, 162 note, 216 
GandharvaH, heavenly beings, ix, 8, 

100, 10'^, 108, 112, 118, 120, 187, 

138, 140, 141, 148, 152, 153, 168, 

161, 162, 163, 165, l(i6, 184, 191, 

196, 201, 207, 209, 210 
Gaiidliarva, iniirriage, 208 
(iarliiipatya, fire, 40 
Gariida, king of birds 2, 29, 62, 68, 

Gaurl or Durga, 96, 112, 132, 218, 

(lliatotkaca, Bhinia'a son, 80 
(fliee, or ghl, xvii, 38 
(rorJrsJia, sandal- juice, 183 
(lodaverl, a river, 19 
(ioniaijn^ 40 
(torocund, a yellow pigment, 8, 84, 

(luhyakas, demigods, 100 
(lUi.iavinayagani, viii 
(iunja, a shrub, 28 
(iuptas, a dynasty, 2 
(rioK, religious teacher, and pa«fii?H 


Ilaijisa, a Gandharva, 102; a bird, 

5, and passim 
Hari, Vishnu, 1 
Harinika, 145 
llarita, an ascetic, 85, 46, 202, 208, 

206, 207, 208, 209 
llaritala pigeons, 122, 145 
IIarivam»;a, 29 note, 87 note, 188, 

I larsha Carita, Professor Cowell and 

Mr. Tliomas, vii, viii, xvii note, 

XX, 1, 159 note 
llarsha, or 1 tarshavardhana of 

Tljfinerar, vii, viii, xvii 
Ifemaiakutas, a tribe, 90 
Ifemakuta, a mountain and city, 

102, li3, 143, 163, 167, 171, 172, 

186, 207, 208, 209 
Ilidamba, a demon, 78 
Himalaya, mountain, 14, 92, 210, 

Ifimavat v. Himalaya, ^2 
Hiouon Tlisang, xvii note 
lliranyagarbha, the golden egg, i.e., 

lU'ahma, 2 
lliranyaka(;ipu, a demon, 80 

Hiranyaksha, 218 
Homa sacrifice, 89 
Hybiscus Mutabilis, note, 169 note, 

Indian Literature, History of, by 

Weber, xviii 
Indische Studien, Weber's, 97 note 
Indra, a god, xii, 8, 6, 18, 48, 60, 

61, 68, 64, 65, 87 note, 102, 186, 

204 note 
Indrayudha, a steed, 62, and paaaim 
Itihasas, The, legendary liistories, 


Jabali, an ascetic, ix, x, xi, 85, 40, 

43, 202, 203, 204 
Jain, xvi 

Jillapada, an ascetic, 46 
Jarasandha, a king, 50, 68 
JatJika, xvi 
Jati, a flower, Jaamimim Orandi- 

Jhruni, 9 
Ja\ adratha, a king, 187 
Jinadliarma, 212 


Kabandha, a Rakshasa, 20 
Ka(;a, a grass, 40, 97 
Kadalika, 144 
Kadamba, Hower, 112 
Kadambarl, the heroine, i, viii, xxi, 

140, 145, and passim; the book, 

i-xxiii, 3 
Kadru, (,'csha's motlier, 218 
Kailasa, a mountain, ix, 8, 7, 47, 

and passim ; a man, 74, 76 
Kaitabha, a demon, 61 
Kakkola, a plant, 16 
Kalahaiiisa, a teal, 12, 24, 86, 89, 

67, 79, 92, 104, 144 
Kalakula, poison, 78 > 

Kali, Din-gA, 28 

Kali Ago. the Iron Age, 96, 216 
Kfilindi, a bird, 150, 151, 194 
Kalpa, tlio tree that grants desires, 

80, 145, 160, 174 
Kama, god of love, 66, 69 note, 81, 

and passim 
KanuiHnikn, 145 
Kfimandaklya-Nitiyastra, xiv 
Kandala, plantain, 161 note. 
Kandaliku, 145 


Kaustubha, Vishnu's gem, 61, 67, 

78, 168 
Kapiiijala, a Brahman, xix, 111, 

115, 118, 122, 123, 127, 128, 129, 

181, 133, 184, 196, 197, 207 
Karira, a plant, 16 
Karnfsuta, 17 
Kartikoya, war-pod, 8, 49 note, 66, 

92, 96, 162, 215 note 
Katha, xii, xviii 
Kathfi-Kora, xvi 
Katlia-Siirit-Sagara, xi, xiii 
Kavya-rrakri(;a, xx 
Kesara, a tree {Mimuaops Elengi), 

85 note, 104, 109 
Kesarikfi, 144 
Ketakl, a trco (Pandanua Odora- 

tissimus), 16, 144, 147, 177, 210 
Kuyuraka, Krulanibarl's page, 141, 

and passim 
KluTiulava AVood, 35 
Kliara, a warrior, 27 
Kieiika, a warrior, 18 
Kindanui, a sii<j[o, 137 
Kinnaras, niytliical beings with 

hiunan bodies and horses' heads ; 

later, reckoned among the Gand- 

harvas as musicians, ix, 90, 91, 

98, 99, 143, 145, 162, 186, 197 
Kimpurusha land, 102, 161, 178 
Kiratas, mountaineers, 90 
Kraunca, Mount, 48, 92 
Kripa, a man, 3() 
Krislina, a god, xvi, 4, 7, 8, 21, 29, 

*30, 37, 66, 73, 93, 95, 138, 162, 

Kshapanakas, xvi 
Kshemendra, viii 
Kshiroda, a man, 140, 141 
Kuca (son of Slta), 17 ; (a grass), 

18, 19, 23, 38, 40, 43, 45 
Kulavardhima, a wonian, 58, 69, 74 
Kulfita, comitry, 75 
Kumilra, tlio war-god, 49, 66 
KiunurapiXlita, a minister, 11 
Kunnidikil, 144 
KuntI, a (pieen, 137 
Kutaja, a tree {Wrightm Antidy- 

sent erica, 97 
Kuvcra (god of wealth), 4, 108 note, 

204 note, 216 ; (a Brahman) 2 


Lakshmana, brother of llama, 19, 
20, 212 

Lakshml goddess of fortune, x, 

48, 77, 206, 209 
Lavall, a tree {Averrhoa Adda), 

144, 215 
Lavalika, 144 
Lavangika, 146 
Liiiga, Civa's emblem, 95 
Lopamudra, wife of Agastya, 18, 19 


MadalekhajKadambari's confidante, 

148, 150, 156 
Madana (god of Love), 8, 17 ; (the 

thorn-apple), 17 
MadhavT, creeper, 194 
Madhuban, grant, vii note, xvii 
Madhukaifabha, a demon, 17 
JMadhukarika, 145 
Madira, 140, 151, 208 
Magadha, a country, 53, 148 
Maliablifirata, the epic, 40, 49, 68, 

60, 88, 93, 162, 201, 212 
Mahabhisha, 201 
Maliarveta, a (landharva princess, 

ix, X, xi, xiii, xvi, xx, 103, 118, 

142, and passim 
Mahakala, (;iva, xvi, 47, 58, 200, 

Mahavaraha, Vishnu's Boar-avatar, 

17, 30, 85, 145, 213 
Mahavira lires, 2 
Mahisha, a demon, 9 
Mahodaya, a hall, 196 
Maina, a bird, 2, 11, 39, 145, 160, 

194, 219 
Mainaka, Mount, 211 
Makarandika, xi 
Makarika (a betel-bearer), 52; (an 

attendant), 144 
MnlabarT, wonian of Malabar, 16 
Malatika, 144 
MTitanga (of (-andala birth), 8, 9, 

10; (a man), 28' 
Malatl (Jasmitnun G randijlorum), 

12, 14,69, 157, 194 
Malavis, women of Mahva, 211, 214 
Malava, hills of Malabar, 9, 61, 

105', 124, 179, 186, 192 
Manasa, a lake, 23, 41, 51, 118, 190 
Mandara, Mount, 48, 50, 64, 78, 86, 

162 note. 
Mandfira, the coral-tree, 105, 174, 

210, 211, 215 
Mfindlultri, a king, 57, 88 
Maukharis, the, a family, 1 



Monorama, Qukanftsa's wife, 67, 72, 

174, 189, 207 
Mojiorathaprabha, xi 
Mantra, hymn, 89, 66, 200 
Maruts, the winds, 100 
Miltrikfis, the, goddesses, xvl, 66 
Mathuril, a city, 201 
Mattiunayum, 108 
Mayurikfi, 145 

Mc'^^haduta, 9(3 note 

Mo^'hanfula, a warrior, 171, 174, 

175, 185, 187, 191, 198, 201 
Menaka, an Apsaras, 188 

Mcru, I\[()init, 13, 0, 19, 64, 85, 87, 114 
Milky Ocean, 2, 85, 80, 95, 96, 102, 

109, 125, 156, 166, 174 
^rrinfthka, 144 
Mrittikfivati, a city, 64 
Mnkutataditaka, viii 
Mnla, a constollation,46 
Muni, an Apsaras, 102 
Mimi, an ascetic, i39, and paaaim 
Mufija, a grass, 19, 89, 104 


Napa, a snake, 80, 188 ; an elephant, 

Nahusha, a serpent, 19, 20, 47, 201 
NmIh, a king, 47, 50. 215 
Nalacanipu, viii, xiv 
Nahikfibara, a god, 108 
Kandana, Indra's wood, 21, 67, 109 
Karada, a sage, 00, 162 
Karnka, a demon, 87 
N a r a-N a r a y a n a, Arjuna and 

Krishna, 216 
Narayana, Vishnu, 4, 8, 48, 60, 64, 

58,* 64, 78, 182 
Karmada, or Nerbuddha, river, 27, 

Ketra, a tree, 18 
Nipunika, 144 
Kishada, a musical note, 80; a 

mountaineer, xi, 28, 80 
Xrisii|dia, or Narasiniha, Vishnu in 

liis ^Ian-lion Avatar, 8, 85 


Palshaimta, partiality, 40 note, 211 
Piilacn, a tree (Butea Frondoaa)^ 

18, 19 
Tallavika, 145 
Tampa, a lake, 20, 24 
Panasa, breadfruit tree, 89 
Pancali style, xviii 
Paiicavatl, a district, 19 

Pai>dava8, The, 18 note, 98 

Pandu, a king, 187 

Para^urama, avatar of Vishyu, 6, 

Parihasa, a parrot, 160, 161, 194 

l^arlkshit, a king, 188 

Parijata, coral tree, 109, 110, 112, 
117, 126 

Parvatl, wife of Civa, 8, 68, 108 

Parvatiparinaya, viii 

P/itralekha, the hero's confidante, 
75, 86, 89, 141, 164, 167, 169, 170, 
171, 178, 174, 175, 177, 179, 180, 
188, 184, 185, 187, 188, 191, 198, 
195-197, 208 

Persia, 62 

Peterson's Edition of Kadambarl, 
vii, viii, xii, xvii, xix, xx, xxiii 

Pipal, a tree {Ficua lidigioaa), 56 

Pippall, long pepper, 145 

Pitris, the Manes, 14, 89 

Prajapati, the Creator, 10, 96, 144, 

Praniadvara, an Apsaras, 188 

Pramathas, demons, 47, 210 

Pramati, an ascetic, 188 

Prithuraja, a king, 4 

Priyangu, panic seed, 189 

Pulustya, xi 

Puiidarika, a Brahman, ix, x, xi, 
xiii, xix, 8, 4, 5, 8, 9, 109, 110, 
115, 116, 118, 120, 121, 122, 126, 
126, 128, 181, 188, 184, 185, 186, 
188, 192, 198, 195, 196, 197 

Puranas, sacred legendary histories, 
10,'40, 60, 189, 200, 212 

Purushottamn, Vishnu, 79 note 

Puslikara, a place, 87 note 

Kaghuvaiiira, 94 note 
llaghavapandavlya, xx 
Pnghu, a king, 20 
Pahu, the demon of eclipse, 1, 81, 

86, 52, 80, 96, 214 
Pnjanika, 144 
Pakshasas, demons, 187 
Rallakas, deer, 220 
Pama, a king, son of Da(;aratha, 19, 

20, 21, 27, 40, 50, 212,216 
Pamayana, the epic of llama, 40, 

60, 201, 212 
Pinnbha, an Apsaras, 64 
Panku deer, 28, 220 
Kapin, 105 note 
liasd^ poetic charm, xiii note 


RatanopanUlf xix 

Rati, wife of the god of love, 8, 67, 

69, 96, 102, 104, 187, 144, 214, 


Havana, the demon King of Ceylon, 
1, 18, 19, 20, 27, 86, 96, 216 

Hig-Veda, 38 note 

Bishi, a wage, 18, 100 ; yiHliis, the 
Seven (or Seven Sagow), Ursa 
Major, 23, 38, 41, 45, 40, 84, 90, 

RriHliyacringa, a hermit, 53 

llohinl, wife of the Moon, xxi, 124, 
159, 200, 208, 209 

lliidra, (,'iva, 40 

Hum, an ascetic, 138 

SilgarikiT, 144 

Sriiiitya-Durpana, \ii, xviii, xix, xx, 

212 note 
Sania Veda, 2, 37 note 
Srmikliya philosophy, 212 
Saudasa, a king, 201 
Sandfpani, a Brahman, 188 
Saptaccliada, or Saptaparna, a tree 

[A/Htoniu), 18, 28, 81 
Sarvfistivadin, 212 note 
Banisvati, goddess of eloquence, 

xiii, 2, 3, 4, 41, 104, 105 • 
tiatl, a wife killing herself at her 

husband's death, 09 
Sena, a (Jandharva, 102 
Sephalikfi, a tree {NijctantJiea Arbor 

Trinlis), 7,23 
Sctubandl.a, Mount, 215 
Shakespeare's ' Merchant of Venice,' 

' Julius Ciesar,' xix 
Siddhas, the, semi-divine beings, 

45, 50, 98, 108, 137, 210 
Sinduvara, shrub {\'ilcx Negundo)^ 

46, 97, 159 
Sindlui, Sindh, 137 

Sipra, river, xvi, 59, 185, 211 

Sirlsha, v. (,'irisha, 102 

Sita, wife of llama, 17, 19, 20 

Smriti, divine tradition, 2 

Son'ia, juice of a plant used in sacri- 
fice, 2, 3, 40 ; (the moon), 80, 126, 
204 note 

Somadeva, xi 

Somaprabha, xi 

Sthalat'iras, an ascetic, 64 

Sthrdake(;a, an ascetic, 188 

Subandlui, xx 

Subhashitavah, viii note, 1 

Subrahmanyft, Vedio veraes, 89 

Sumanas, xi 

SumitrH, wife of Da<;aratha, 216 

Snnilsira, Indra, 60 
Supar<;va, Mount, 162 note 
Suras, the, the gods, 68 
Sfirasena, a king, 187 
Sushunmil, a ray of the sun, 106 
Suvarnapura, a city, 90, 9^ 
Svabhavokti, description of natural 

properties, xx 
Svayainvara, the choice of a hus- 
band by a princess, 180 


TrdI, a palm-tree, 161 

Tamala,a tree {Xanthochijmua Pic- 
toriua), 8, 10, 18, 27, 28, 84, 46. 
99, 117, 144, 154, 161 

TamrdikH, Kadambarl's betel- 
bearer, 150, 156, 159, 164, 172, 
173, 175 

Tara, wife of the monkey king, 24; 
wife of Brihaspati, 46 

Taraka, a demon, 49 

Taralaka, a fawn, 194 

Taralika, Mahru/veta's betel-bearer, 
112, 114, 115, 123, 124, 126, 127, 
129, 131, 132, 133, 134, 185, 189, 
141, 142, 157, 158, 165, 191, 192, 

Taruplda, a king, ix, x, 47, 60, 69, 
72, 84, 88, 147, 161, 170, 197, 

198, 207, 208 
Tawney, Mr. C, xi, xvi 
Telugu-Canareso, xiv 
Thomas, Mr. F. W., vii, xxiii 
TUah'i, a sectarial mark on the 

forehead, 8, 17, 105 ; (a tree), 17 
Tri.amku, a king, 6, 90, 201 
Trida'iidaka, the three staves of an 

ascetic, 39 
Tripuiidraha, a sectarial mark, 129 
Tripnra*, a town, 214 
Tryambaka, (,'iva, 1 
Tvaritaka, a man, 199, 200 
Twice-born, the, Brahmans, 2 


Uccaih(;ravas, Indra's steed, 62, 64, 

Ujjayinl, a city, ix, xvi, 47, 188, 

101, 170, 172, 178, 185, 189, 197, 

199, 209, 210 

Ulupa, a snake-maiden, 188 


Uma, the goddess Durga, 80, 182 
unidf hair meeting between the 

brows, xvii 
Ushmapas, The, spirits of ancestors, 

Uttara, a princess, 137, 188 
Uttara-llania-Caritra, 27 note 
Utpalika, 144 


Vacaspatya by Vacaspati, Tftra- 
natha, 180 

Vu(;ishtha, a sage, 46 note, 50 

Vaibhilshikas, a Buddhist school, 
212 note 

Vairanipavana, a parrot, vii, viii, 
ix, X, xi;^ 10, 13, 15, 16, 200, 202, 
206, 207, 218; (^^ikanfisa's son, 
59, 60, 61, 65, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 
87, 89, 141, 164, 167, 170, 172, 
174, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191 

Vainateya, Garuda, 4 

Vaka, a demon, 29 

Vakrokti, xx 

Vaktra^ xii 

Vallisncria, a water-plant, 22, 69, 

Vanamila, 21 note 

Varuna, god of ocean, 17, 20, 86, 
90,* 92, 204 note; a tree (Cra- 
taeva lioxhiirghii), 17, 158 

Vdru)ja, wine, 17 

VasavadattJi, 3 note 

Vasudeva, a king, 201 

Vasuki, a serpent, 64, 66, 216 

Vasus, the, gods, 40, 201 

Vatapi, a demon, 19 

Viltsyaj'ana family, vii, 2 

Veda, 1 note, 3, 15, 39, 41, 50, 56^ 
96, 101, 110, 200, 203 

Vedangas, works explaining the 
Vedas, 50 

Vedanta Sara, 180 note 

Vibhandaka, an ascetic, 54 

Vicitram^ xix 

Vivravasa, a god, father of Kuvera, 
xvi, 217 

Vii/vilmitra, a sago, 50 

ViQvavasu, a Gandharva king, 188, 

Vihyjldharas, inferior deities, xl, 

xii, 141, 145 
Vilasavatl, a queen, 61, 52, 56, 57, 

58, 50, 69, 78, 74, 76, 84, 161, 

174, 184, 188, 190, 199, 202, 207, 

Vindhya, forest, viii, 6, 16, 28, 83 ; 

mountain, 18, 22, 28, 80 
Vnui^ lute, 10 

Viiiata, mother of Garuda, 2, 4 
Vipula, a man, 17 
Virata, a king, 18, 137 
Virifica, I^ralmia, xvi, 162 
VirodJia, xix 
Vishamam^ xix 
Vishnu, 1, 3, 18, 33, 89, 45, 48, 68, 

57,' 72, 79 note, 82 note, 158, 21a, 

Vishnu-Purana, 1 note, 27 note, 41 

note, 44 note, 106 note, 120 note, 

134 note, 162 note, 201 
Vrishaparvan, Civa, 50 
Vrishni, a family, 137 
Vyasii, a seer, 30 


Weber, Professor, xviii, 97 note 


Yajur Veda, 2 

Yakshas, demigods subject to 
Kuvera, 9 

Yama, god of death, 4, 16, 85, 204 

Yamadagni,.a Brahman, 201 

Yamuna, the river Jumna, 8, 9, 22, 
28, 33, 88, 156, 175 

Yayati, a king, 47, 201 * 

Yoga, practice of religious concen- 
tration, 39, 49, 128 

Yojanabiihu, a demon, 20 

Yojanagandha, Vyiisa's mother, 80 

Yuddhishthira, a king, 50 

Yiifja, era, 144 



AccomplishinentB, 10, 60 
Ayoka-tree budding when touched 

by a woman's foot, 178 
Adornments, 7, 8, 9, 12, 14, 17, 18, 

35, 88, 51, 52, 65, 74, 84, 97, 117, 

159, 169, 174, 198, 217 
Amulets, 10, 50, 129 
Animals, 16, 20, 22, 26, 29, 36, 42, 

73, 92, 145, 219, 220 
Anointing a necklace, 165 
Ascetic's spirit passing beyond the 

world of gods, 207 
Astrologers, 190 
Atheistic philosophy, 114 
Auspicious songs of dawn, 214 ; 

words for dismounting, 216 


Brina, life, vii ; works, viii ; refer- 
ences to, xii, xiv ; style of, xvii- 
XX ; genealogy of, 2, 3 

Bathing in cowsheds, 55 ; in snake- 
ponds, 56 

liees, forming an earring, 117 ; a 
veil, 126, 155 

Begging-bowl, 99 

Bracelet as a good omen, 198 

Buddhists, 212 


Changed relationships in another 

birth, 207, 208 
(Jiva's shrine and Ungay 95 ; his 

four faces, 95 
Conjuror's fan, a, 114 
('reation by thought, 10 
Curses, 64, 137, 141, 196, 197, 201, 

207 ; cannot be recalled, 197 ; 

founded on appeal to truth, 193, 

208 ; Agni's cturse on parrots and 
elephants, 11 


Dangers of youth and prosperity, 76 
Dead restored to life, the, 188 
Descriptions of ascetics, 19, 85, 
104 ; ascetic's cave, 99 ; ascetic's 
emplojTuents, 39, 135 ; ascetic 
women, 162 ; Cabaras, 27 ; an 
encampment, 173; Candala vil 
lage, 204 ; chase, the, 24, 73 ; 
childhood, 54; crown prince's 
palace, 89 ; dawn, 23 ; divine 
being, a, 133; evening, 44, 114, 
139, 160; forest, 16; hall of 
audience, 12, 14 ; hall of exercise, 
13, 59; iiermitage, 18, 2'., 3H, 
peace of, 42; king, 3, 47, 215; 
king's body-guard, 216 ; lakes, 20, 
31, 92; minister, 11, 49; his 
levee, 217 ; night, 45, close of, 
161 ; palace of learning, 59 ; 
penances to win a son, 55 ; queen, 
51 ; her retinue, 122 ; region of 
Kailasa, 220; steed, 62; toilet, 
13, 74 ; UjjayinI, 210 ; whiteness, 
96; women, 5 ; zenana, 51, 144, 
attendants, 217, employments of, 
Different sects, 218 
Difficulty of rismg to a higher birth, 

Dravichan hermit, 172 
Dreams at the end of night, 57 


Elements the witnesses of right and 
wrong, 192 

> Names given in the Sanskrit index are not gtn« rally repiated here. 


Elophantt startled at fall of cocoa* 

nut, 8 
Eyes of the cakora redden in the 

presence of poison, 189 


Former birth, results of, 11, 44, 58, 

197, 199, 200, 202 
Funeral pyre, inn, 195, 200 

Games, 5, 10, 00, 152, 155 
Gifts, 59, 72, 74, 129, 104 ; to Brah- 
mans, 50, 195, 200, 201; at a 
birth, 54 ; at a wedding, 129 
Golden age, 41, 96 
Gold mustard-leaves a gift, 56 
Gods taking other bodies, 64, 201 
Gods of wood and stone but images 
of invisible gods, 198 


Hermitage of Badarika, 216 

Jains and Jinadharma, 29, 212 
Jealousy, a bird's, 151 

* Kadambari,' interest of , xv ; purpose 
of, xxi ; plot of ' Kadambari ' found 
in the ' Kathfi-Sarit-Sagara,' xi ; 
literary parallels, xx ; plan of 
translation, xxii ; editions used, 
xxiii ; Bana's praise o: it, 3 

Kadambari's bequests, lr)4 

King becoming a hermit, 200, 202 

Killing an ascetic, 123 


Light proceeding from a corpse, 195 
Literature, 10, 39, 40, 49, 50, 60, 

152, 162, 189, 201, 212, 218, 

Love of deer for music, 40, 95 
Love of life, 34, 134 


Magic circle, 56 

Magic rites, 83 

Marriage, 188, 200; fire, 69; 
Gandliarva, lawful, ^08 ; vow 
against, 140, 142 ; of a tree to a 
creeper, 194 

Metre, Arya, 11 

Midday conch, 11 

Mountains, boundary, 162, 216 ; 
noble, 6, 40 

Musical instruments, 10, 18, 60, 81, 
99, 152, 156, 162 

Mustard-seed and ghl on a baby's 
palate, 54 

Mystic's spirit apart from his body, 

Mytliology, Airilvata, vide Sanskrit 
Index; Apsaras families, the, 102; 
auspiciouH marks, 8, 7, 92 ; Brah- 
ma's egg, 94, or world egg, 2; 
caste laws about food, 205; (Jiva's 
dance, 21; (Jvetadvlpa, 197; 
daughters of the Siddlias, 45 ; 
deer of the moon, 46, 52, 124, 
215 ; deer, golden, 20 ; demons, 
1, 27, 29, 50, 216 ; Doomsday, 17, 
surrounded by suns, 40, 120 ; 
Dvlpas, the seven, 50, 97 note ; 
elephants of the quarters. 21 ; 
guardians of the world, 204 ; Iron 
Age, 27, 41, 96; kalpa-tree, 86, 
160, 174 ; Kau8tui>ha gem, 51 ; 
ocean of final destruction, 123 ; 
oceans, the four, 3, 50, 147 ; 
rivers, the wives of ocean, 19 ; sub- 
marine fire, the, 77 ; sun's steeds, 
the, 21, 47, 114, 122 ; sun drinking 
the waning moon, the, 106 

Ordeals, 49 



Parrots, 22, 32, 43, 193 
Penalty of childlessness, 53 
Penance, 192 ; power of, 42, 53, 196, 

197 ; its divine insight, 44, 203, 

Picture of Kama, 194 
Powers, the three, 48 

Qualities of a story, 2 


Regaining memory of fonner births, 

Regions, the ten, 48, 108 
Remedies for fever, 120 
Reunion after death, 188, 187, 178, 

195, 203, 206 
Repentance, 206 
Resolving to die at a friend's death, 

133 ; rebuked, 136 


Ritcf, for the dead (rrdddha), 89, 
194; for entering a new house, 
72 ; for anointing a crown prince, 
76 ; for removal of a cur«o, 204, 
206; of arrival, 174; Aghamar- 
shana hymn, 88, 99, 141 ; offer- 
ings, 44 ; a help to the dead, 187 ; 
libations nuiHt bo offered by a 
son, 194 ; morning oblation, 208 ; 
twilight oblation, 219 ; subrah- 
many/l, 89 

RoHaries, 85, 89, 40, 45, 104, 107, 
110, 111, 112, 115, 126, 185, 162, 
176, 202 


Sacrifices, Honia, 89; human sacri- 
fice, 81 ; Mahavna fires, 2 ; 
Souia, 8, 40; three fires, the, 40 

Sruiikhyfi philosophy, 212 

Snakes, 210, 211, 213; haunt 
sandal- trees, 5, 50; love the 
breeze, 94 

Standing at cross roads, 56 

Sunwise turn, 40, 102, 172 

Svayainvaray 180 


Throbbing of the right eye an evil 
omen for women, 127 

Trjidition a sufiicient ground for 
belief, 200 

Transmi^M-ation without loss of con- 
sciousness, 197 

Trees, '21, 89, 40, and j^aasim 

Triad of guuaa, 1 

Tying of the topknot, 59 


Unguents, 7, 40, 52 


Veda, threefold, 8 
Vow, of aicctic, 186; for reunion, 
46 ; taif, 69 ; silence, 112 

Water poured to ratify a gift, 160, 

Weapons, 6, 14, 16, 60 

Western mountain, the, 7 ; ocean, 
28, 45 

White continent, the, 126 

Widows remaining alive, 187 

Wood goddesses or nymphs, 16, 22, 
24, 85, 109, 176 

World-conquest, 89 

Worlds, the seven, 8 

Worship of, Aditi, 218; Agni, 12, 
45, 72; Arhat, the. 162; Avalo- 
kitecvara, 162 ; lirahmS, 89 ; 
Civa, 12, 89, 56, 95, 97, 185, 162, 
167, 1H2, 189. 207, pictures of, 
103 ; Durga, 31, 55, 56, 162, 172; 
as Uma, 182; goddesses of space, 
45 ; Kama, 211 ; Kama's festival, 
206; Kartikeya, 162, 185; 
Krishna, 162 ; Mahakala, 47; on 
the fourteenth day, 53 ; Matrikas, 
56 ; or the divine mothers of, 
Avanti, 199; ritris, 12; Siddhas, 
56 ; sun, tlie, 12 ; trees, 56 ; Vishnu, 
89; as Narayana, 182, as Kama, 
206; Vicravasa, 162; Virinca, 

Weak nature of those born from a 
mother only, 203 

Writing on birch -leaves, 56 


Yamuna, its blue colour, 33 
Yo-a, 128