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Full text of "Kadhanika Swaropa Swabhavaalu"

sr 



kathaanika svaruupa svabhaavaafu (Short Story Its Structure 
and Nature), a thesis in Telugu, awarded PhD Degree by the 
Osmania University, 1977 , Author Poranki Dakshmamurty 



120/. 

198S 



Si SS^o^^, esofi fSofutf) 1-100, 

660 



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66 



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17, 



21, 



EJ n [ tl F^ ) 2PEPp)<>C&;So 60, 

61, (^tfSsSotfo 64, 



73-174 



V1I1 



114, 

-il5, 

124, 



3, s'qs'^s' $&s$Spea 175-229 



^^-205, ^si'a^ . ^^"-207, 
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211, 



IX 



230-454 



239, 



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455-614 



455, 



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457, 



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1846 fif* >o^&o<3 S^ S"SN 

S. q3"&5 (1803-1885) Si^^i o'OoO^ Athenaeum 
i^S^<Sc{5^o aQAofi 

, S5ooi^ 



gj. 



L flS)(Jacob Grimm, 1785-1863) 
evidence of nature myths Ai^^Sg' ^ 

53-5Jga a^53-^ SSj'^ SS^O^ (1828.1900] g & 

(J G Frazer, 1854-1941) afl&, etftfoes 
^primitive and popular folklores) (3o(j<> 



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L Gomme 1853-1916) 
^historical appioach) 
(Malmovski), a i> ^"S-^<^ ('Radclife-Brown) 



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folklore 



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L n 



Soi 



COD myth, folktale, and 
legend 



/secular] 



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oral literature 



written 
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o fij'^' 

^i^S 



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^literary anthropology) ^n 
(anthropological literary criticism") 



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13 






i i 
L Q L 

1910 ST 8 ecS es^. fAntu Aarne'i 
oL V / 

^^j^ ^ ^Verzeichnis der Marchentypen"\ 
&9^ n Ko^o iSS^aoiyi^o '^SPS'&o &?=' ("Index of Tale 
TyPesW iS5S)d53o?6 & iKoQPfO^ ^^ ZiPo^N^ (StithThomp. 



1961 ^ 

SJO^^D /"Types of the Folktale A Classification 
and Bibliography) Sjo&cS" 8 2000 

, 



510, 'epSb tfo"'- sVsr=S TOO 

_ 

^;\co 

, 90, i>oO, 69, 



versions 



^, 66, D6^^c6^, 42, 



14 

41, 38, 11, 



cr-IOS wSs-tfo >tfM&&ofi 4s 

aJ 



1932-1936 

e 
Motif-Index of Folk-Literature A Classification of 

Narrative Elements in Folktales, Ballads, Myths, Fables, Medie- 
val Romances, Exampla, Fabliaux, Jest-Books and Local Legends 

. 1955.1958 



^motifs 1 Ass oa 



i 

L 



(Obstacle flight) D 672 






.^ 20 

L o 



(1") 



15 



Epi 
o L 



(multiplicity') (2) t&^&^ti ^irrationa 
lity) 'a, "3 



Sf 



Raglan), ^S^ o*o" (Otto RankV 



mo. 



IB 

del 



21 
22 



53-3SD5" ^S (Vladimir Propp) 100 
81 



LevistrauissV <iso\5" ep5" (Albert Loid\ <&v5 &c& fAlan 
^ o \ / v 

Dandes) S^6 

^Sp^^o^oei i 
j L 

iS^8D^ 



[Morphology of the Folktale^ 



^1968") ^553^ 65 1^05^;, OPOOT 5 i S 

(The American Folkloie Society, Inc , and 
the Indiana University Research Center for the Language Scien- 

ces 1968; gc&S* ,i^5 eaQ^ Dl^sa j^q^^orf, ^Qj^*|d 
'- o L L 

/dramatis personae\, s5 i ^Ss^D'go^r' /functions\ 
'S5S i^sVeaI a,^ Sd^iftSo. s-^ 

L L El i ' 

&nti One of the members of a family 
absents himself from home ^^cjt^^o absentation, ?6o^e^o 

31 (^dDex) 26-68) 
>) ^,^ex> 3S^ 
i^^O'^e:^ ^o* &$?Z>>ct& 'liS'j-^^o BsS^oa &C?H villian. 

L. <j oi U 

donor, 



17 



helper, princess, dispatcher, hero, false hero o s D ^gSSQS 

t3& ()kex> 79-80) 

101,104,105) 

119.127) 



The Folk 

tale esS^aci'ej" &,j*fon B &, i^^eS^ori ^ (^ So^j 

195 1#* 



is 



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$3d3oiDs3, 

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009 



tale, myth, hero story, ballad, locale, legend 
^ folktale e^fe fairytale 



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[2] 



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6|tf*&fi. 






'p) ^sophisticated literature) 

i 



Marchen, 
conte popalaice, SioA^jspS:) fairy tale, 



skazka 



69 ?6^ 






, household tale fs?oi*3o3 tf>\ 9^-\ fi conte populaire 
\ / - 

^) i8 '^0' ^ a^Q.-o ejd'^S'eo 3 
^ S5^c "^ ^q^&s-o ^motifs") 



a.S' 

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20 






(novella^ &~$&c&5 ^^ ^^S^iT^, Ts*^(Sr> (Boccaccio) 






(Hero tale) 59^(5 &5*d3 Aofi 
SSpSar^ ijSSo^oS^^r' 3Sj5o^SSb^, ^Sej' 

53 iSSsSo^o^^p Sbi3b6*sS^ "Si 3o& ii 
- L tJ L L 






local tradition, local legend, migratory legend, tradition popu- 
laire 55 ^ ^cyoef 5 es^ 53 53^ S5e S o^c&cp^g iSScitSbsp^eu esfi 



Pied PiPer of Hamelnx 



21 



/explanatory tale) EjS'c^g' SdcoSb a,"fjfio <^ocSbC) 



,| 

ul_ 



S55cCo 



myth 



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lo 






lest narrative unitV )eso /"motiA 



simp- 






tfo /something logically whole') esro: 



26 



[A Mythological MotifsV 3o<&S2}ex> ^B Ani- 
mals) 3x> 3 !Pa*e^ ^q5l)s^o?6 &l^ 12 
t^Sjo^^ (1) fo^^ (A 0-A99 Creator), ^2) 
(A100.A499 Godb), ^8) 3 5Po^c6o^dbe, ^o^ 

(A500-A599 Demigods and Cultural He.ces), 
'^sSfocs-o^o, S^ppS^^ 8 ^ TA600-A899 Cos-. 
mogony and Cosmology), f5)^t^o 0X^03 (A900-A999) 
Topographical Features of the Earth\ (6) i 
(A 1000-A1099 World Calamities), (7) 

(A 1100-A1199 Establishment Natural O.der) 
rA1200-A1699 Creation and 



ordering of Human life), (9) KoefclsSft^ (A 1700- 
A2199 Creation of Animal life), (10") Ko^bo^e^cot 
(A 2200 - A2599 Animal Characteristics), (11) 3to T 
SuS'^o ^rftoo (A2600.A2699. O.igm of Trees and 
Plants) ,M2) 36 oKs^e^ ktfyteo f A 2700-A 2799 Origin. 
of Plants Characteristics^ 

26 



23 



^ ( A2J lj '^^L S5 " d6 ^ > ( A31 ) 

Stfo a3Qflo<3 &3 3$c,rr '^S 
' (A 151 2), 'jfr'Sp^' (A401) w^S 
8 ^ iTo'ES^ ajo^b^q^^s^ex) s ^^_ 
(C Tabu), sjo^S'eDo (D Magic), sSo^dbeo (E 



Dead), tSiSbxe^ex) ^F. Marvels), J&o^rp^, <5dipgei) ("G 
Ogres), 6j(a> ^H Tests), SO^^^So^, SDad^SSsy 
(] The Wise and. the Foolish}, 3TK>a^K Deceptions 
^ooii)ex) S'SS^o ^L Reversal of Fortune), 
(M Ordaining the Future") 
TN Chance and Fate), KiSScpajo i'P Society) 
?X^ (Q Rewaids and Punishments V EDoiSe, 
^R Captives and Fugitives), ts^^ae I^Q'SO ^S Unnatural 
Cruelty), e3_ofld&o ^T Sex), PfoSiSrV^g'o, U . . . 
a small number of motifs, mostly from fable literature, that are 
of a homilectic tenden c V "1, S$oto ("V Religion), o 
(W Traits of Cha.actei), G?6go (X Humor), g' 
i^io'f6s5aj'SJ 6 co fZ Miscellaneous Groups of Motifs) 

S 



24 



(X 917) 



(A 625) 
crto tsqPd'orv 1 i^ofi (A 843*) noaoD 

(A 1127) ^fo^^o gbSSb^coD (A 1131 1) ^ 

S'otocfi. (A 1168) 
i ( A 1224 3 1 } ^S^cS ^o^s^dSo es^^ (A 

\ ) es -* \ 

1241) Sio^o ^bSo^ ^Sb^^oe) &sdSS^^ Sbg (A 1811 2) 
^&*D& So"& S-^o ^?03oa (B 16J 3) afcSb$)OD j6^Sra 

Sj* \ / 

^i^eo sdb^ro^oj^(B 230) 1, ^^j^^ Sr>?o:"^^^)o(S (B 
552"! zg & S30 

y -o- C3 

(D702 1 1) a^dxi^goi^^eD^g^ ^otooa /D 1831) 

^To^db (E 413) 

(E 732) ^d^^ 
(F 611 1 11) tfrttfo SiSSas^oS* g'S^^^ofi.^F 944) ^^ 

x>?3a>tfoi 

o L 

(J 121) 



2072 



. 

(K 754 1) ^ 
S^db (K 1535) 

1811) sabas* 

2155 1 1) 



(K 221 4) sf^c& jcb& EBdoS" S*&Sof3*< ( 



L 111 



(L 113 1 1) ^rSgo sSsfc^s-sFoa ^cSbgbef a.0^3 
ea&^&ofi. CM 872^ ^COD^ AoKif 

\ / 

(N 211 1) esSS^*^ wcxs^ BJtf& 
R 151 n [^r>6'^^a)?5 e ^ ^OM 

(S 11,31,51) 
ea^^obofi (T 1 1 4 1). 

CT 545) fr^a^ai^cF" ^S^ODodj'o^ (^V/ 111 1) 

(W 111.32) 



21 1) go* 
i gcxa, iS 






481-487) s;a ea^-gj-oSS^ sSdSS' &?6aou) 
s5ciJ B (^oS)53 iTe^ocD (1) Esof&g'tfeo CAnimal tales 1-299) 

(2) &P&J*CO g'^^^g'^ex) (Ordinary folktales, 800.749) 

(3) L^&^tf ^<5Je, e^o^d'o^g' ^De^ (So&dotfco (Jokes and 
Anecdotes, 1200-2499] eso^^ST 8 (1) es^Sefo^^OD (1.99) 

>-~Sjo^<&a3o&3)e (1CO-149) (3) ^p^^)^- 
(150-199). (4) ^o^&ajo^b^co (200-2L9) 
(5)^5^^(220-249), 3ex> (250-27 4) 
(275-299) 



r 
26 



830 



O 

So&Sb 



/share 1 ) *6;>rofaoo(3 (1-5) 

V / \ / 

eoeSbff'odj'oco (1.6) 

iH]S^&>&o<3(l-.100\ ^D 
\ J o 

/I- 110) 

(1-156) 

3o^ fi*ca&exp ^dbg^d^ (1-201) ^ 
^ (1-220) s^ ia^don 8 ^Sj^STofiaooa (1-243) 

1-250) 



S27B) ^P^O ^^^ a^r o^ofi (11.331) 

' IT- \ / 

s3dfEp& (11-400) 

V J 

(11.402) a*K&j&<& 
(11.433) CT>esgb^pa SI ^s^d^ca (11-432), 

^=fi (11-436) 
(11.465) 

\ / 

(11-465 A) 
e^^Sj^ca (11-561) g^dg"^ ^ic 

(H-750 A) &&& ftse5Qoa^53a ^a^oo ^ctf^^ (n. 

750 B) craigb^e $fiai&^e* "^c(3 (11-860) 

(11-1036) 
(111-1200) 
(111-1210) 

\ / 

(111-1430) 



27" 



a-S g'tf&ofl /III. 1880) s 
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238(^0(3 



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28 



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65^ 



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i 
, 65^ 



235 



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C3O 



(2-12-3) 



20 

109 sSpSj'g'o^ SEr>t 



io 

^ (10.10-3) sa -^s S)5PSSS<co 



34 



_ 

_.o 



(10-61-6) 






(10-61-7) 25^) ^g^sSa && 









i O') 



o EDr 



\SfrSFtf sag X off* n D ed5j*a3 



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, ^|Si6" 1939, ^do 392) 



oeo 



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Ssao^bS* a,^ ^ S 



37 



. 

- CO 

"Long long ago..." &&rr3 "Once upon a time,.." 

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CO 



300 

(Aesop) 
i 



1939, ^ 439) 

y^Sy^g^"^ s'S' l 

i^o^o ,2JNoJT'^' / L0 
L t) cr 

65^(3 fiSi ^S&'O^tfo ^ I ^0^0 -^S^^b^O^QO 

o^uJoO^sy^ (''oss 11 ^)?^ "He was placed in the same pedastal 
as Valmiki and Vyasa," ssotpfib 0^)0 g\Qj*tptfQ 

^^"5*00 



5 



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"Gunadhya was born at Pratishthana on the Goda^ 
van So says Kshemendra Somadeva mentions the 



city of Supratishtha, Capital Pratishthana, or at 
times calls it Pratishthana on the banks of the 
Godavan It is the capital of the Andhra dynasty 
of Satavahanas of which Hala or Satavahana or 
Sahvahana was an illustrious scion According to 
Puranas Hala was the son of Anshta Satakarm and 
ruled between 2644-2649 Yudhishthira Saka, that is, 
495 to 490 B C On an identification of Satavahana 
and Sahvahana it has been said by modern scho- 
lars that the patron of Gunadhya lived about 
78 A D , the date of the Sahvahana era" 29 



oi 

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13 fc'e^ao ^CT 23 ^spaosptfo) eo^S", il $ 6s$ 

a o co L o 

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40 



2) g>&osK> 3) ep^ea^o 4) Stfsj'Si'JSrfS 8 ^ d 5) 
Bs, 6) & &&s, 7) SS^E", 8) &p>tfg^E> 9) 
stfS&, 10) tfja***, 11) 3_^, 12) 2>o3&, 13) 
14) ^otf, 15) sSs^S)^, 16) SB^&oaS, 17) 

18) 



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aai 6 (Burzoe or Buarzuyeh) 



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daal number^ 



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IjS SST^ ^gStfjo&oo S *& as&o 
frrf^tfo ^ftoS 8 A&oa*> SSj^Stf (Orion) 
(Sword and belt) 



e^fl fad&&\ 

oJ 



55 Kxi^^S^ (Pleiads) es 
/Aldebarn") e5 <*o&> e^S/-^ "Sic^)^i" fHyades) 

\ / C5-- V. ' 



Milky Way a sSonps*S 



48 



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2000-1700 



war* 



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, 2000 f33^ BE^ ,3 so So 



S}<3 



"For one thing we are told that Cheops, the builder of 
the great pyramid caused folktales to be told to him, and 
we are thus able to get our first historic view of story- 
telling as a human activity five thousand years ago ^ 



e) 



&otoo(3 



i 
L 






, K 754 IN &&$> fofl^iD'o (hippopotamuses^ 
gp 
741 
b- ' 
' (M 341 241) 

fM 372 
V / 



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I^O ^^di es&>5, 83^42 

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&rt>s:fc e^rf 3oi5tf 



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ft fie>3? SP "ftDcS* fC W. von Sydow") 

O B \ / 



5 55 T 

o 



52 

(The Trea 

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sure House of Rhampsmitus, Type 950) 



a 
24 



f*K^fi33 tTcpsS^ i^oq^^ /mythological texts) 



650 



2000 
45 



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cxxi 



85) 
CD: 
(Noah) & ^S^oS SJS 3 36" SftfSo 



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(Asarhaddan") 2<X 
(Achikar) S"^ (H 681 5) i 






53 

420 &Qti& irf2j*otfs$tfc cS^fl^o &oi&, 
tfS^o&ra o'SpSg E^O tf<&S3ep 

* * T 



, i 

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". a thorough study of the individual cases tends 
to show that normally that story as it appears in Greek 
literature is merely the adaptation of a popular Greek 
iprm of a folktale already well established in the 



(Homer') tf 

\ / 

J ("Polyphemus') s5\o 
go ai&r3j*s^ /Odyssues'j 



ACSII c^^^ /Achilles) 
/B 211 3), sSbtf^oSj" 
(F535 5 l^-^sogorf 6 SSS^^<" (BelleroPhon) 



54 



a 



o, K 978); 

(T 68). ~2PO*^ (Hera- 
les) &&P && &a*raJf<ex> ^eB-a 

* CO 

650) !b5"?STgS (Perseus) 
(Hartland) 



ifoo 10 6jer73 ef^RPiS'N fArgonauts^j 

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iioio if er>$<^ ^oSb c'gcieT'exi S'^Sj^oco il^o 



,^o Sio^6o^to adaSSoa^D" 

L J n 

(Vitgil) ^5" (Aenied) fif 6 95* 

<5j (^Odyssey) 



(Apuleius'j 
gSiS.Jilo ^35 (Cupid and Psyche) iS 



55 






o. i 
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|^*&^ ^pgr'!pa giird 



35 



(Johannes Bolte) 
i^'^bcr'g^ , [^^^ 
Morphology of the Folktale 
&spn'RJS ^G^c^ 
(Svatava Pirkova 



JakobsonV 18s5 

(SkazkaS SSxi^ j 



0(3 S'ST'gCO 



56 



"No wonder then the Russian folktale was 
reflected in the Russian popular tale of 
eighteenth century, left itb unmistakable 
im.pT.mt on the sophisticated short story, 
which was being fashioned at that time in 
Russia after the Western model, and even- 
tually became the primary source from 
which the the greatest Russian writers of 
nineteenth centruy created the Russian 
literary usage 1t48 



63 

^ 
8E 



57 
l.sSp-. 2000-1700 



SStS^aoa The Folktale 






Great Short Stones of the World es^ itfotfod* 

50 " 



g 'siS5y3' 195, 58, 85, 048 
51 165" ^Sb^ ^^^ (Sir James Jeans) 



~do&> 



BL& 



i 



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58 

fatiotfo 
gS3oi< 

* 



54 



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o 






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1500 



SJ(3 



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18 3 S'S'aS" 8 SSc&S fi*S^ /William Jones) 



on* i^tp^&^flr 6 SocS^tf spi^tfgd&tfo Sdo 



19 






"Soofi ? /4\ 3- "I ^^ePop^i ^CPO) ^Co^dbrp jf^)Sb?ooodJ coD 



TKmder-und Hausmarclien, 
1819) 1856 r* 



c$&tf3o;5 



ic 



eaQfl 



61 



CO Q CO 

006" (Max Muller), 
/A.n g elo de GubernatisV s*^ qi^A- [John FiskeV Jo5" 
(Sir George Cox) 



s 58 ssoi^p ej^oi^ /An. 



drew Lang"i 

J 



i^p ej^oi^ / 



/both the general Indo-European and mytho_ 

logical theories) 3o<3 
/ 



(Theodor 
\ 

Ben fey) 



57 ^ ^ c& SSjj' w S' 5P g) CT o e^ o 

Q 



i 

L . 



^ (Loiseleur Deslongchamps^ i 
Essai sur fables indiennes 



60 

i 



62 



"My investigations in the field of fables 
Marchen., and tales of the Orient and Occi- 
dent have brought me to the conviction that 
few fables, but a great- number of Marchen 
and other folktales have spread outward 
from India almost over the entire world 61 



o 
^s5 , 



, 

3 ST^g iS 
L 



(T 



uti 



(Bhccaccio), ^SS5^O' [Stcaparola] 
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tS' ^Emmanuel Cosquin"! 
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"Most modern folktale scholars are con- 
vinced that India was important as a source of many 
sources, but that it was only one of several great centres 
of invention and dissemination 



" 



iS 
63 



. 13 



"I observed that tales similar to the 
Aiyan in incident and Plot existed in non_ 
Aryan coantnes-Afnca, Samoa, New Guinea, 
North and Central America, Finland, 
among the Sarnoyed, and so forth," 64 



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1. 

, 1955, s3)i) 8. 



'2. CPU 2). 

, 1958, ^)6ex) 910. 



3. Folk Tales of Bihar, Foreword, Sahitya Akademi, New 
Delhi, 1968, p v 

4. "Anonymous tales that are well-known and often repeated 
through a speech community make up its folklore"- 
Mischa Titiev, Introduction to Cultural Anthropology, Holt 
Rmehart and Winston, New York, 1961, p. 375 

5. q 



6. Alan Dundes, Oral Literature, Introduction to Cultural 
Anthropology, James A. Clifton <ed.), Houghton Mifflm 
Company, Boston, 1968, p. 118. 

7. "One version of a folktale is no more than one synchronic 
slice of a protean diachronic continuum. For this reason, 
it is incorrect to speak of "the" version of a folktale One 
has only "a" version."- Alan Dundes, Oral Literature^ 
Introduction to Cultural Anthropology, James A. Clifton 
(ed.) f 1968, p. 119. 

8. Alan Dundes, Oral Literature, Introduction to Cultural Anth- 
roplogy, p. 124. 

9. " primitive man in telling these stories was notguilty of 
deliberate misrepresentation but rather that owing to his- 
inability to perceive the relationship between cause and 
effect, or to distinguish between fact and prejudice . "- 
Introduction, Egerton Sykes (Compiler), Everyman's Dictio- 
nary of Non-Classical Mythology, J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 
London, E. P Dutton & Co , Inc; New Yark, 1965, p ix 

" . there is scarcely a relgious ritual of any of the 
present day Churches which has not its roots m the far 
distant past." , ibid, p. xi 



10, & ZEPO^S 60^600?$ ^tfo : The Folktale, The Drydon 
Press, New York, 1951, p 456. 

10.3. 3 & oa*, $. S 

11. 



1971) 



89 



12. 



. V. Propp, Morphology 

of the Folktale, The American Folklore Society Inc. and 
The Indiana University Research Centre for the Language 
Sciences, University of Texas Press, Auston, London, 
Second Edition, 1968, p. 12. 

13. Stith Thompson, The Folktale, pp. 488-500 
14 ibid, pp,488. 

15. P. C. Roychoudhury (Gen. Ed.), Introduction, Folktales of 
Gujarat, Tara Bose, Sterling publishers, New Delhi - 16, 
1971, p 8. 

"16, Mischa Titiev, Introduction to Cultural Anthropology, Holt, 
Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1961, p. 376. 

17 ibid, pp. 377, 378 

18 ibid, pp. 378 

19. 



1967, &. 64-144 


20. &*<&&* &L?^S3g 

eatfssa 1942, 3. 236. 
21. 

JJ2. 

1967, SpSp^g JsSS L sS. >. eo^s^S", si. 7. 
. 12 



70 



24. 3 SBfSiToer 9 , $. 14 

25. M. Krishnamachariar, History of Classical Sanskrit 
Literature, Motilal Banarsidas, Varanasi, First Reprint 1970, 
p,412 



26. esS j&tftfos*, SB. 413 



27. CPU oi^sPO'cSbes odT, *o< gSftdcSpod fej<3& 2* 
3>. 15 

28. acStf'fo 

29. M. Krishnamachariar, History of Classical Sanskrit Literature* 
p. 41 7. 



80. 

ar 
31. 3dc, ^cuL?/T &o$ frfrvvo, rSo^doo 1. 



4-18. 

33 M Knshnamachanar, History of Classical Sanskrit Litera- 
ture, pp. 423, 423. 

34. CP 
4- 24. 

85. 



36 P. C. Roychoudhury, Introduction, Folktales of Gujarat p.9 

37, Stith Thompson, The Folktale, p. 272 

38. *3 siSSotf, 4. 273 
39. 



71 



40. &3 ^BoeS $. 274 

41. 



42. SPCPO^^O : wrSvx, eo0 : Great Short Stories of the World, 

Berreth H. Clark & Maxim Lieber (ed.), Spring Books, 
London, 1964, p. 3. 

43. v3 S^Sfcx^, $. 4-11; 

Stith Thompson, The Folktale, p. 275. 
44 Stith Thompson, The Folktale, p. 276. 
45. ibid. p. 277 

46 //?/</ 

47 ibid, p 278 

48. Svatava Pirkova- Jakobson, Introduction to the First Edition, 
Morpholgy of the Folktale, p. xix 

49. "From ancient Egypt we have several collections of tales 
which have been preserved on papyri. These show rather 
clearly a traditional background in many respects resem- 
bling that found in the oral literature of present ^day 
Europe and Western Asia .. 

The earliest of these surviving Egyptian tales dating from 
2000-1700 B.C. is that of the Shipwrecked Man" The 
Folktale, p. 273 

50. p. 3 

51. /Tejj^a 3odT B ;6otf ( a o &c5oig), ff* $*$ 

>, 1960, &. 4. 



52. 3 $S oe f 5&. 8-4. 

53. ta&. CPU fc. 



1967, $. 81, 2. 



72 



54. 



55. && 3>^o&, $. 2 
6. , ,, ^. 



57. Stith Thompson, T/?e Folktale, p. 371 

58. Ibid, p. 372 

59. tt/rf f pp. 375, 376 

60. /6/tf, p.376 

61. /rf f p. 376 

62. //?//, p. 378 

63. /6/c/ f p. 379 
64- iWrtSBO 

65. /6/Ap 392 

66. ibid, pp. 15,16 

67. /W, p. 283 

68. /A/V ( p.284 

69. //>/rf, p. 285 
70. 



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1 . Vaman Shiva Ram Apte, 77?e Students, Sanskrit English 
Dictionary, Motilal Banarasidass, Delhi, Patna, Varanasi, 
1968 (First Published, 1890). 

2. $> sr^eixSr 8 SSi&oa, 

co -* 

3. See; Vaman Shiv Ram Apte, The Student's Sanskrit English 
Dictionary, p, 1 85, 

, 1875, 



4. 251. 

4 Charles Philip Brown, A Dictionary of Telugu and English, 
Mixed Dialects used in Telugu, A. P. Sahitya Akademi, 
Hyderabad, 1966 (First Published 1852). 



eo. 
, 1959, ft. 874. 



6. 

7. 

8. ^ ^g'o^, si. 375. 



16. 'tfofio 1 , ^^ fratettiti^ ftfa> 9 eacJfioG, ^S5o, 1958, 
^, 49-52; 83?6. 1959, ft. 39.44; . 1959, ft. 33.35. 



17. 

, 1975, ft. 4; P&>& ^ oK^o*c3o t2>. ft. 8 



18. ed Ss^^oST 8 , ft. 37. 

19. ft. 5. 

20. p 
1975. 



168 



21. 

, 1975, ft. 5. 



22. er-n e^-o*^ tfsSrSS8o*ft iSSr^a; S3d&?6 
23. 



4, %. 128. 
24. 



, (;5o^d3 3, SoD^ 4), tioz>& 1923 



; Sj. 58, 59. 



cl 

CT^II ^^0*83* 



2S 4 &atf &o^64&e, 5J&dfc ^^co, ^^^a.r, s&. 3, 

, 14 ss screfi, 1958. 



26. " ..... . ...... sifid&.S" 



27. cm a. o*&<7'22% S'w/s 8$tf7?d&<d*Sr*#&> t s&. 15.22. 

28. 3 ^_^^o^, $). 61. 

29. ft. 62. 

30. lt 



! n , ^S ft jSsfoe*. ft, 60,61. 



, 1958 (3stfd3 SP&J 1954), $. 28 
, ^ftT^clfi/ra 

1968, %. 11. 



38. 






, ^. 19. 



39. "[oScSS^ ^^c^g'^ ^So^tfsSMcao^ c55bj 
'a^ o&o&fc. 



169 



81. .* *>***, 


4). 66. 


32. 


^>. 69. 


33. 


4. 159, 


34. 53w iSi <o. 




35. * 4 Stfofl. 


, 3. 202. 


Q (2 %x ... PN Q rS v/ vi. 
O U . i^j O ^3 O '^ i>T) cu") 


B*XSS7ldS> S>xj&d3cS>o SS0S i^fia 



*, 4. 18^6.27. 

40. wefi^, $&[# votff ^^^ s o, ?5o^. 1, 4. 142- 

41. cm 



1^, 23?6. 1963, 4. 138_143. 
42. *sS ^c3o^, sj). 138. 






43. Soo^o^ tfosS" ^, ^oo5ef, sS>, 18, 

b, 1967. 



44. eS sasStfoflr*, s&. 19. 



170 



45. coo&j*^ ojosi 


****** * v ,^, .o^w. 


c 


^a ^oag", sSr=e^ 1952, ft. 18. 


46. escS^fo. 




47. sscS sjj steo^j 


, ft. 19. 


48. 


ft. 19, 20. 


49. 


4- 20, 21. 


50,51. 


ft. 21. 


52. 


ft. 22. 


53. ,, 


ft. 25. 


54. 


ft. 26. 


55. 


ft. 27. 


56. 


ft. 28. 


57. CPU io. 2be 


>"!tfoft e?oi tf afufrtf ytejd&Sb) : & } *' 



, . , 103, 

^.tfoB-efi_44, 1971, ft. 638. 

58. esS ftS^ofir*, ft. 639; 



59. 3 ftSifofl*, ft. 640. 

60. /T's)T^6 Sog'fcf^o 

esg^S o& g, cr83&.oiS, 1961, ft. 136, 137. 

o o *- 

61. eg ^jSsroe*. ft. 184_186. 

62. SidfcJ5*e ^0^400*4), eo^jT affcTaT JTffjc6<&j, 

-1, 1954, ft. 70. 



171 



63. e3 &_?teo6*, $. 74. 

64. <*btfS*< ws^cpcj), S^odT &I&Q; 

&T>_3, a?P^0(j5 [oD^^ESPOO&O, SS3C&SP&, 1968, $. 122, 

1237 



65. ft&tf^ex) 3oS&o&, eofi srydOc&, S&. 74-79; 

106-112. 



66. Kotf'3 [8DO(^ /^SPO^SI, &)C&&*&&, Sj). 11, 

L Q J 

(rOoSr'. R. S. |sP^V c&o. "ISft^oo ^oS" *, 

1971. 



67. ^b^^^ w^o-6, J^o^T tf^o, (&.), s5). 24-25. 
68. 



69. Encycloped/a Americana, 1966 (First Published 1829),. 
p 746. 

70 "These writers drew freely from the great spontaneous- 
stream of story telling that started with man and flowed 
from the Orient through the continent and on to the 
England" Encyclopedia Americana, p. 746 a. 



(Schlegel) Si^Scp^ 1856 fir 8 
&. 370. 



71 . Encyclopedia Americana, 746 a 

72. W Somerset Maugham, Points of View, 7/?e Short Story, 
William Heinemann Ltd, London, 1958, p. 171. 

73. "He learnt to compose his stories with consummate- 
skill"- W. Somerset Maugham, ibid, p. 164. 



172 



74. /Wrf,p. 171. 

75. /bid, p. 173. 

76. "Nine - tenths of the huge literary output of American 
short stories might be described as acts of faith m the 
literary creed; "There is only one Kipling and 0. Henry 
is his prophet" 0. Henry, who is faithfully initiated by 
atleast nine in every ten contributors to the Amerian 
magazines, copied most of Kipling's mannerisms and has 
made a feature of the expository opening, which is so 
often used in Plain Tales from the Hills and the volumes 
that followed it in the next few years". Encylopaedia 
Bnttanica, Vol 20, 1947, p 581. 

77. W. Somerset Maugham, Points of View, The Short Story, 
p. 157 

78. 



79, sscfr* eaS^^bo s^oo^ SStD SodespSSpo^ "i. . 



0060, S)e3di)5p^, 1969, 4. 36-40. 

80. oS s&^oe*. ft. 38 

81. 6. 335. 

82. ,, &. 256. 



1961 (3tffiSr'fc ) 1954), 4>. 10. 
34. 



178 



85 &3 $ &foS, $. 12 

86. ft. 13. 

87. fl 3). 92-96, 98-99. 

88. i^p. &e$y&* pa?, S^e^O]^ 

SP^ 1972 (atfap 1953), s&. 29-39. 

89. rt>tfsr>< <spy^, c&^cS z_<Jey f sj). 13. 

90 "o*& aadSfia [?vo6^a^cJfie 

080^0(2). ^a iS 

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b. 1977 JisSoo^ 20 



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n ^aofi B&. eso&S" 6 



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The prose Kavyam is divided into 
five sub divisions, such as Akshya 
yika, the Katha, the Khanda Katha, 
the Parikatha, and the Kathanika. 7 



180 



5FSS" 8 



(Short story 



"A work, m order to be included under the sub- 
head Akshyayika, must deal with an eulogistic 
narration ofthe ancentry ofthe hero, as well as with 
abductions or elopements of maidens, war, deceit 
reverses, etc., The style and execution belonging 
to the class Dipta, and in which the story, divided 
into chapters, or Ucchases, should be put into the 
mouth at the hero, or that of a different person. 
The class of work, usually begins with a short 
sketch in verse of the family history of the author 
and in which another episode is introduced to 
enliven the monotony of the original story, and 
which does not admit of a division into chapters, 
or in which, on the contrary, the whole thread of 
narrative is brought to a finale at the end of the 
book, is calfed Katha. A Katha is interspersed 
with the Chatushpadis, become a Khanda - Katha. 
A minister of state, a merchant, or a Brahmana 
usually becomes the hero of these two sorts of 



: &>&s$a&s$fis 18 1 

compositions (Khanda and Pari-Katha). The Rasa 
or the sentiments which mark these sorts of com- 
positions, are the Karuna (pathetic), and the four 
sorts of Vipralambhas. The story, in the first of 
these two sorts of works are not brought to a 
finale at the end, but the incident is left incom- 
plete. The class, called Parikatha, is nothing but 
a combination of the peculiarities of the classes 
Katha and Akshyayika (9-19), 

The class of composition known as the Katha- 
nika opens with a manifestation of the Bhayanaka 
Rasa (the horrible). The story deepens in pathos 
in the middle, and ends with a tinge of the super- 
natural (Adbhuta). The import of the play is 
Sukhpta, and not Udatta (20)." 10 



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story, properly and technically so called, is a distinct 
department of literary art" s$r5^ Zj^vtio iSS^floEPdfc.gfl 

SdSb. oO^^er 8 Conte 






rnonvella 



(1885) ^3 S& S 38&P. Lippmcott's 
Magazine ff 8 The Philosophy of Short-Story' S9cSy ST'^^o 

(Pen and 



CD 

550^ 






1. Originality : "The one absolutely indispensable 

quality is ingenous originality. The short story 
demands an originality which we do not ask of 
the novel." 

2. Unity "The short story has what the novel cannot 

have, the effect of 'totality,, as Poe called it the 



unity of impression A short story deals with a 
single character, a single event, a single emotion, 
or the series of emotions called forth by a single 
situation." 

3. Compression : "Compression needed almost as 
much as ingenuity and originality-compression not 
merely in the telling of the story, but also in the 
style of the writer. No digression is tolerable." 

4 Brilliancy of Style : "The short story should have 
brevity and brilliancy. In no class of writing are 
neatness of construction and polish of execution 
more needed. The style must be direct and vigorous, 
however subtle it may be in suggestion." 

5. Action : "While a sketch may be stifl life, in a short 

story something always happens. A sketch may be 
an outline of character, or even a picture of a mood 
of mind, but in a short story there must be some- 
thing done, there must be action. A short story 
is nothing if there is no story to tell." 

6. Form : "The writer of short stories must have the 

sense of form which Mr. Lathrop has called, 'the 
highest and last attribute of creative writer/ the 
construction must be logical, adequate, harmo- 
nious." 

7 Substance ''Important as form and style, the 
subject of the short story is of more importance 
yet. What you have to tell is of greater interest 
than how you tell it." 

8. If Possible, Fantasy : If the writer of short stories 
has a touch of Fantasy, so much the better. 'To 
mingle the marvelous rather as a slight delicate 
and evanescent flavour than as any actual portion 
of substance ; to quote from the preface to the 
'House of the Seven Gables/ this is, or should be, 
the aim of the writer-of short stories whenever his 
feet leave the firm ground of fact." 26 



192 






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1 Fred Lewis Pattee, T/?e Development of the American 
Short Story, A Historical Survey, Biblo and Tannen, New 
York, 1970, p. 291 



2. ibid 



3. qo^oa 3&&o^, ,T<p<3,sr, 1 LS58J', JSo^fi 1, SoOtf 2: 

1936, 4. 158, 159. " 



4. ^S^6, 4. 159 

5. ...... ,4.160 

6 ............. ,4.159 

7. agnipuraaNam, A Prose English Translation by Man- 
matha Nath Dult Sastri, Vol. II, The Chowkhamba Sans- 
krit Series Office, Varanasi-1, Second Edition, 1967 (First 
Edition 1904), p, 1237 

8. 



1959 atfasj-^i94S f 4. 264 



227 



9. c3s*fc, ft. 264, 265 

10. agnipuraaNam, p. 1237, 1238 

11. ejo^tfoa sS^^n^, tfjp^tf '|3d', ft. 159. 

12. cSa^oc6 

ft. 265, 268 

13. S^o|tf 

2736, Scpc-a^o, rfedfrrfof, s&- 110006, 
1967, ft. 2(U26 

14. P. K. Gode & C. G. Karve (Eds.), Prin, Vaman Shivaram 
Apte's 7/?e Practical Sanskrit - English Dictonary, Part I, 
Prasad Prakashan, 689/23, Sadashiv peth, Poona - 2, 
Revised and Enlarged Edition 1957 (First Published 
1890). 

15. V. S. Apte, The Student's Sanskrit - English Dictionary, 
Motilal Banarsi Dass, Delhi. Patna : Varanasi, 1968 (First 
Published 1890). 

18JL8 ajotfoa fr&SSoo, SPAS* '$&&, ft. 160 



19. Encyclopaedia of Britannica, Vol. 20, printed 1947, 
p. 581 . 

20. Edgar Allen Poe, Twice Told Stories, A Treasury of 
American Literature, Selected and Edited by Joe Lee 
Davis, John T. Frederick, Frank Luther Mott Vol. I, 
Grolier Incorporated, New York, 1948, pp. 471-472 

21. "We have said that the tale has a point of superiority 
even over the poem, In fact while the rythm of this 
latter is an essential aid in the development of the poem's 
highest idea - the idea of the beautiful - the artificialities 
of this rythm are an inseparable bar to the development 
of all points of thought or expression which have their 
basis in Truth. But Truth is often and in very great 



228 



degree, the aim of the tale. Some of the finest tales are 
tales of ratiocination. Thus the field of this species of 
composition, if not in so ehvated a region on the region 
of Mind, is a table - land of far vaster extent than the 
domain of the mere poem. Its products are never so 
rich, but infinitely more numerous, and more appreciable 
by the mass of mankind. The wtiter of the prose tale, 
in short, may bring to his theme a vast variety of modes 
or inflections of thought and expression (The ratiocina- 
tive, for example, the sarcastic, or the humourous) which 
are not only antgonistica! to the nature of poem, but 
absolutely forbidden by one of its most peculiar and 
indispensable adjuncts; we allude, ofcourse, to rythm. 
It may be added here, par paranthese, that the author 
who ains at the purely beautiful in a prose tale is labo- 
ring at a great disadvantage. For beauty can be better 
treated in the poem. Not so with terror, or passion, or 
horror, or multitude of other points" pp. 472 - 473. 

22. Fred Lewis Pattee, The Development of American Short 
Story, 1970, p. 291. 

23, ibid. 
24,25. ibid, p. 293 

26. ibid, p 294 

27-29, 



6, 



1961, ft. 609. 
80. 



1961, $. 17. 

31 . Fred Lewis Pattee, The Development of the American 
Short Story, p. 292. 

2. ^odsT, exjtfsptfo 19-9-1956 



229 



33. rtfssarfofi sbeaoaa^, 0* 

e9*eo& 1946) : 



- 2, 1969, sg>. 56. 

C3 Q 

34. Victor Jones, Creative Writing, St. Paul's House, War- 
wick Lane, London, 1974, p. 31 . 

35. MS$<3tfo& &fcoo8DCP&, 
1963, . 21. 

36. e3 ss-Soef*, $. 22 



38,39. "^^(3^ofi3 &^oocr^, 25-6-19? 5 
40. 



500 004 t S&. v 
41. o^ST'otf a^^^(, A jTdT S'tf, ' 

1975, ss>. 13-15, 



37. ^^S-fi &tooe>ocfio*'^, dT0J/, S?f^8rS, So^<*3 6, 

. 652. 



42 ....... . ........ 

4. 25 

43, 'The ripple must start, not finish, with last word." 
James Stern, as quoted by Victor Jones, Creative 
Writing, p. 63 - 64. 



p 



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286 

stranger's face" (Writers &t work, INTRODUCTION, Viking Press, 
fourth printing 1983, p.7)s$ofij*& SSpS^v cosTl). 

"You catch a glimpse of a country track from a car, over 
hear a conversation at night in a city street, see an oddly wor- 
ded poster, notice the way someone walkes from behind, you 
are in a hotel one of the guests is a lady with a lap dog And 
if you can handly this latter stimuli as Chekov did you will create 
one of the greatest of all short stories, Lady with Lapdag. 
This master piece derives frome two 'germs 1 this that Chekov 
could clearly see with his eyes: first, a woman with a lapdog; 
second, a man with all the appearances of a philanderer. From 
then Chekov's past knowledge of how people act synthesises 
these into a story" ,6 

8*3 estffi, 'tf 



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5 iSSeso^ tfS'tf's'e 



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Kx>,EiSj'|S3g5P ( | ) r!Cci 8,5 



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dioS58, SS^^di Jboo tfoifl ^cco?5 a*^ 



(f), CPU fc. 



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1964 



53 



239 



. '33 <T J r5j ^fS^oe?* 3, a. liS 

Q ot* * l_ co 

"I catch a glimpse of fifty new ideas, flicker 
ing like lizards among the masonry of my mind." 12 



, . 

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: tc The sub- 

t c 

Ject of a story must be one that can be adequately and 
effectively developed within the prescribed limits." 20 

?3*ertcQo&S$otfe>3b 






. 
co *- 



243 



i 



22 



244 



S5853P&0 ScQ^S 

id3 sSp^SS^o spg^s'o^) &i 



lo 
^^3^^o^ai. aso&^o&xS "5 



a 

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U 



245 

il > 



gj 



O 



i 



o 
l ^06^ ^LJ^S* 

CO 

i 



romanticist 



246 






j. 

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fc 



Seotfbeo 






05 S^or? 



5*^30 



247 






<T%o<3 ; 



8287^ 



N 



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248 



, 656^, ^SSpfig' fo8rt&0& Qi 
0> <p L 






CD CO 



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CD 



249 



i 
L 



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co L 



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. 1931 

1988 S* 



8. 






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fc. 






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L 

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eoo 






252 






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CO 



eu^fl. 



233 



CO 



crft^ '^5 3 



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e36Ao<3. ^^6 Sbeexp> 



i 



CO 

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254 



. 






i 
L 












255 



ODD. 



(plot). 



o 









S'tfff 8 



256 



"With or without your kind permisson I will 
kick the word ploi right to the sea hoping 
that it will sink and never reappear. It is 
the most deceptive word in the Jargon of 
the art, craft, or what would you. As a noun 
it really means nothing more or less than 
stor? out line or $ynopspsi s . As a verb it 
means to shape or plan 

I hate ambiguities, and so 1 am substitu. 
ting 'stroy out- line' for the noun, and 
'devise' for the verb," 30 



CO 






CO 



257 



0} CO 



n-R), ^5 



^o ffotmula plots^ 

* \ / 



c) i 
o L 

cS^i^^o?^ s.^ SCSL 

oa g 



SofaS 






Sg'S* fi*Sn, '*. ..the best way to plot is not to 
plot. We don't 'Plot' the growth of a shrub we plant 
in the garden. Its sape in determine! in the seed Its 

[17] 



258 

growth is organic. Later we may trim and Prune it, but 
its general form is Predetermined 1 '. 36 



("content^ 

V / 



\ 
J 



es 



3 < i &- _2 



, tf 



259 



S> 



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CO 






o 



260 



CD CD 



ic 



(^synthetic mind) 
mind) 



tfrfaatf, 



CD 



&Ttfc 
a 



aStf (logical^ 









261 



c ' 



Such an author a^ Maupassant does not 
COP/ life; he Arranges it In order the 
better to laterest, excite and surprise. He 
does not aim at a ttanscr Pcion of life, 
but a dramatisation of it". 46 



&*> 60-5 SS5Sb Sb 



L 



03 



CO 



CO 



"The word p]ot signifies a weaving together; 
and a weaving together presupposes the coexistence of 
more than one strand.*' 



: (1) 

SSSb S^(3"i)do^o (simple plot), (2) 
(complex Plot), Sod? 6 &j*&Jfjr& "^ti^^S 

\ / O 

three fold asPect) ^f^dfo: ^1) )&_ (comphcation 
^maior knot, (8) Srfo^) ^explication). 
(middle) 



^Conscious Plotting' 



, 2^5" 



48 



5*8)3: 



268 



CD 



i 






(Pattern^) 
\ / 

"it consists of A; the setting, B, the introduction 
of the characters, C, What they do and what is done 
to them, and the D, the outcome." 50 Sj<3 Ss^rp a*T\S 






264 



3tfo<3o3do&D 
CD 



ic": _ 5* 



2-5* 






fc *5*:(fo, mi of plot 
. Nc-an Fr 



55^ 



(action> 

(theme - 



265 



s$tf\Sio (fortune). 

, ST'c^^'o ^C3 3 



S, , 



siSSS.Mreo 



loo fcharacterV 

\ / 

(thought^ 52 



PLOTS OF FORTUNE 
The Action plot SS^odS )c 
^"iQo^a. 

The Pathetic plot 3*8, &SSPO, 
The Tragic plot (3"c& 



, 
SSo 

The Punitive plot - 



S3 1 83 O 



Sentimental plot 
Admiration plot 






266 

PLOTS OF CHARACTER 

The testing plot ->&#pQ &Q&&* &o<&, tf^tfo, 



PLOTS OF THOUGHT 
The education plot 



The Revelation plot ^c3 > c8SSb&, 



The Affective plot - 



The Disillusionment 

p |ot 



3&goa8 

as; a so 






267 



(1) 






, (2) Soltf q83$^jfo. 






, SS^SS, i 



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288 



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274 






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e8e8n* acSogS^oDoa. licS 






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53 



276 









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277 









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CO ^ 



^truth), tferjjS (fiction) 



ar 8 s 



(fact) 






278 



: "The novelist forsakes the realm of- 
fact in order that he may better tell the truth, and. 
lures the reader away from actualities in order to pre- 
sent him with realities," 56 



co 



'8o" o&roa). ff 8 ^^^^ (jK^o S^d&^o S'dib; 
Sjo^ Sjfi 



(actuality) o&^5SSaae^a; spsSS^ (reality) 



rr 



279 



(regular methods) 

o (hypotheses), 36j(aD (tests), Ib&o&g iS$8 
(theoretic statements) 






tfo 



sSop 



CO 8 



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280 



^fib. 
(finite minded V [S5^ ?Co^d:?5^ \3& 



. "Similarly, the truest characters of 
fiction are so real that even their creator has no power 
to make them do what they will not," 59 



SdSb. 






281 



0) a j^2? 



sjfi : <k Realistic fiction is that which does 
not shrink from the common place or from the unplea- 
sant in its effort to depict things as they are, life as 
it is." 60 



CD 

s 



3 

e o 

S 

(romantics), 
(realists) 



) Q_ 





282 



/inductive method) S) e$&o$Qlb, s*oyte'sapa 
(deductive method) > 9&6S^&. ss 

icS&psso S&^s 



Sfib. 






"Sophocles is a man who saw life steadily and 
saw it whole" 






o 



^ 

"Good literature recreates the sense of life, its weight 
and texture. It recreats the experimental wholeness 
of life .of emotions, the life of the mind, the indivi- 



dual life and the social life, the object - laden world. 
It creates there things together and interpreting as 
they do m the lives we live ourselves." 63 

"Good literature recreates the immediacy of hfe- 
the sense that life was and is all these things, all these 
different order of things, all at once. It embodies the sense 
of human life developing in a historical and moral con- 
text, It recreates the pressure of value-laden life so 
that to extent of writer's gifts and art- we know better 
what it must have meant to live and make decisions 
m that time, at that place, to have thought and felt. 
to have smelt roast beef, been troubled by falling hair 
and wondered what one was making one's life," 64 






284 






event); 






(character and 

6^ 

c<3) $r>*[j$gfrQ (emotional level) 
?sS^oSX)a ^cS^a sj^^r^ 
(interpretative level) 






28> 



& 

c 

S) 



o 

fi*s$j tftf^S^ae*^ 'poetic truth' 



; 69 "The artist's work, is real in so 
far as it is always true; ideal, in that it is never actual." 



foe, 



$86 



, "...art is vitally connected with moarlity. Art 
grows out of life; it is fed by life ; it reacts upon life. 
This being so, it cannot disregard its responsibilities 
to life/' 71 $3o&p&>. SlfiS 



o 



, 3 dSo SS'So^ i ^ 

' . _ L 

dJa> 



es^dfo, 



tf CODE'S. 1 ' 72 

C? 

^S, 3 



o 

. 



287 



CO CO 






u For special problems, we have specialists; it 
is their business to judge the community, the fate of 
Capitalism, the evil of drunkenness../' sjfl 



O 

^ 



, Sjfi SOP es SjS d, S> 
a 






CJ 

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L 



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288 






ox. 

CO k oc CD 



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fts 



STo^&?SaSba, 



286 



|jSof5 



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'[19] 



290 



U 






0^60^ !* 



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sea 



^^ iS)^ e5o6?*& A short story must 'plant its situ- 
ationand promise another in its opening lines ' 78 



CPU 



291 



3o' 



(3) 



esSi 



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o oo ra 



jSQlida&oS* 



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292 



on 

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tsco:^, e5>3 s^d'eso esfi 



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188 



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294 



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sjoS 

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CD 

s^^a, $o<s 



&EP^o*d3coa 



29S 



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CD 






< 



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'fiodS oSoS&^oS. S7S3 SSaoodiirS 



tid\&u*& arfSb 3 25go ScSDgSboep 5 S^W, 



296 



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00 



Aofi. 



Btf e^ 



eoS 



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O 






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297 









afife 



64). 



rfe 









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298 






O 83 



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58) 



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ocp 






/s^dD 96] 



S* 



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300 



121 



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SStfotfo, 



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2. 



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305 



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[20] 



sien> Stftf 



"a 



806 






socc 



c 



crss 



| 55 

flas, 



". ..a crisis is essentially a structural element of 
plot, where as a climax (always produced by a crisis) 



307 

is primarily an index of emotional response from reader 
or spectator. 1 ' 93 



S b 



SSO^ofl. 



o 3si&fc8. 



^S. asorftf 
SofiTtfSbtf 

ca 



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SOB 



8,5* s*g 



aa|S>a 



(climax). qa 1&>o s 

l-^&aar 8 ^ ^jcsbae* sretf 

Sc? 



~3ot&> ad 



tftfiS 






o 



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309 



^suspense )& 
/surprise) 



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L . 



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(climactic order) 



'anticlimax' 



2) tJ 

CPU 



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310 

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CO 

SoSS'o S"3$o&;5 



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311 



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ssar 



a.g' flTS KSo^)So?S^ Sfoa, ^8 






sSdjaer 8 

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tffo^SStf&oer* 



s- L ^_g '' 

65^ 



312 



(denouement) 
V / 






97 









o 



es 



3 



318 






3d s 53 < 






^ ^gj|jSc3r>esSo 



314 



a- "I 



fc'tfo 

__ v^ o 

/decisiveness^ 






, 

u oJ ' eo 



co 

^Sb S):d:S:( 






C 

sii s a A^ 



o 

. &. "?pife ficS* S)tfsS*S 

L CD Q - 



fia^ 



SI'S 

CO 



|j3sSjsor?, 






98 



k< Misyus, where are you? 

But the cry rings out to eternity." 



9 



C3 CO 

. S'fi' 






CO CO 



316 



i 



6, S^) oSSS 

' ^ a o 



"SsidBbo 



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lb"&?6D 



Stfco e3^^ 



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5 a 



2. 

2oo 
si<3 



S. 



31T 






(2) ^(SolcSb ^o^o, (3) 

1, S' 

sjfl 



, ^^ 3 



^3 dBbbdScoetfa SjJsSon* a26flo<3. 



318 






The story should conclude unless there is 
special reason why it must not. But it should 
not be carried far past the climax and 
smoothed down to dullness and conventio- 
nality, "And so they were married and 
lived happily everafter" has gone out of 
date; but the practices still survive in 
endings such as these; " Indeed, the whole 
family were delighted to have Robert 
in. their home, and he never forgot the 
debt of gratitude he owed to them." 103 



^ 

ip^ (character) 
^dialogue), &3 3-^ $&g g^ $&$ /action) 
btfea (motivation] 



fob'c ^stable) 



319 



(consistency) 






, 

$ 6 ^36"' So^off 8 S|. 

105 



a e 

two- 



("type") ^|^ esS, a^&dSa (" 
dimensional") 



ly L e 

e 



.1>tfraS*& foos5.S>?6^(S (comp- 

L coS>*- V 

lex). e2c 



o 

sSR)^bo 



320 

^jj)!^e3 (characterization) 






. a-3 



p 



: I 

L 



<a ,^^9^&. i 

Ci L 



C3 



i 



CO 



("objectively", "impersonally", or 



321 
' 'dramatically' 1 } 



055 53 o> 



[21] 



oej 

? 

s) 



. . 

L co 

iS5 



a,"! ssotfolbotf ao^bn Sco^bdb 
\oo"S) ^^^efc 'tfs^sSssSodfi^S'. 

J ^ O C3 

i " 



322 



. 

CO L. 

i5j^ 80 



"It is matter of common experience that 
we have to live for sometime with men 
and women and to see them in different 
relationships and circumstances before we 
get really to know them; and this I take 
it, is as true of men and women in fiction 
as it is of men and women in actual life. 
But in the short story we meet people for 
a few minutes and see them in a few rela- 
tionships and circumstances only and while 
it is indeed true that concentration of atten- 
tion upon a particular aspect of character 
may result in a powerful impression*, still, 
as a rule, such impression is not exactly 
comparable with that left by an ampler, 
more detailed, and more varied respre- 



823 



sentation fxfoot noie : it may be noted 
that Maupassant, of the greatest masters of 
short story, was far more successful with his 
characterisation when working in the story 
than he was when he essayed the novel)." 107 



i 



ct painting) 
(abstract storyj 



i 

sSirs^a 

U 

iir^arY 5 sSeoO?5to s^&ocr* &g* 

G3 Ci J 



324 



Pd&o (contrast^) 

8) \ / 



o 1 - 



o ^ & &x>eo SScP&efc = a. - 



5 



sDej'^T 6o: 
^Sp^'go^a P 

^00 



. 
55 ^jaa 

CO 



oS Jb-i 

J L 

, ^crex, 



(Willard Price) 



325 



umanze or personify^ &*& <5os>5 &<sfo. sa>d3 
\ / o a 



ic 



?S 



(James W. Lmn : Lectures on the 
Short Storyj. 115 SPIOO 






826 






, ss 






"Sex), "ti^S 
^ i 



1666 

570^6" 



"I shall tell you," said Furetiere, "sincerely 
and faithfully, several stories are adventures which 
happened to persons who are neither heroes and heroi- 
nes, will raise no armies and overthrow no kingdoms, 
but who will be honest folk of mediocre condition. 



327 

and who will quietly make their way. Some of them 
will be good-looking and others ugly. Some of them 
will be wise and others foolish; and these last in fact, 
seem likely to prove the larger number. 1 ' 116 

tfj* "Stereo. 



i 

L 



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L. CO 

3 
o 







ScSo 



828 



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329 






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<W 



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331 



. sis 

Xe8&o esS^d&o. (E, M. 
Albright : The Short Story, p. 118; D. Macononchie : 
The Craft of the Short Story, p. SO). 124 






o 



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jjSR58?Sp ^otooa. es 

tf|fer 
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sso J3_<5" /"Short Story, p. 126), 127 



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334 



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o 



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fif? 



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tfcrv' 6<Sr>ASSpo^(!oo e 



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338 



Sfi ^efo^ 



S:, S ^oS^S ^PM 

o 

c2b^ g^Sefij. 

n L sSS^ap^c ^transliteration) 



n 

BSWfc. 



"A composition which produces the effect 
of human talk-as nearly as possible the 
effect of conversation which is overheard" 

Talks on Writing English, p. 218). 132 



839 



Spdoco s^&. STsSeSS^&c 3 & SS 8L.A 
5 



CO 



; SDCPO 



tion) aj^fo^ 1 



__ (stress"), a,^ S" fotfo fintona- 

U O \ / "W IT- <0 \ 



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40 



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SS 






.o i 

CO L. 



CO 

py-tf ts 



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S3\). 

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^phonetic) s-S', S5g>^o&o (phonemic) rv* 



O 






841 



, 53^gSSsJ d'oSr 8 






COD 



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L 






i 

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342 



.cSoS^. <&tfc$os<raex> 

L * * 






53 



esorv 






CD 

S?$ SS^aoo a6 






^sSoe' ^Stream of Consciousness s3 



' ^Stream of Consciousness) 



343 



b s5*?6* 

) CO 



aa 



Irwing Hawthorne, Poe ggpas'S* ^^^S) (narra. 
tion) a&^sS |^saoapgo siCT^e 
tfSb^sS. C>^a ^suggestivenessj 
.S3^^3D?5 ^as'Sfij &\ 

L o ^ 

53< 9 3 T >QO& Sjer ^^^80^(^0 25QAo<3 : 142 

The dialogue short story is a fad of our day, a 
fashionable experiment in literature. Here the chara- 
cters do all the work, reveal themselves, suggest settl- 
ing, shaft scenes and carry the burden of the plot-and 
all by means of conversation." 






344 






" 



, SbSb 



cxoSyckb 



?' J 






345 



" 



" 



" 143 



Sg' ?" 



346 



e? 



"5 "eb^P ?" 



P 






347 



Socfllfr^x, EF^S* 
<r> co 



O 



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48 



G) 



CO 

3> 



S'otffi' 



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349 



, jgi <* 

CJ 



u 



asfin 



/incident") 



s. sss^s a 



350 






oJ 

^ 
l3^2SonS, Dc?^^^ S5<o3 d 

' SS C7 



r 



SSs-dSctforpS aafl AS^&ang, 



3. a, SorfAofi 






g 

"~ " V- 



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v*=y 

Sioc^&o eb, 



SSofi. " 

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CO * CO <^ 









i' 



352 



3 



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63 



K)o&r>i^o. esiS"! eSDSc So 



fosff 8 ^ <&$& 



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iSS* ' 8 






C^SQO 'K 



(conflict) 

oS. 

[23] 



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>, "SodSo 



354 



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CO 



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19 






L 



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355 






*&e6si)) S 

dDo'& tfo 



Q L co 












336 



o 



_ 

u L 

iSSScpo ^i^S^ DSS\) 

V- L. O J 



. ss 



io 



S&tftf&e 

Q 



^conflict of values') 



iSS 






357 



, 

L 

is 6 sLpS'tf^orp Bej 1 * ^^5^3 ("....everybody is some 
body's underdog''), ^s ^^sson' &^S &>&&*&&* 



PPI 

d L 



i 

L 



"All great works in literature contain variations 
and combinations of such archetypal conflicts rooted in 
the human condition, which first occur in mythology 
and are restated in the specific terms of each period. 
Poetry, according to Gerhart Hauptmann, is "the distant 



B58 

echo of the primitive word behind the veil of words." 
In the same sense, the action of drama or novel is al- 
ways the distant echo of some primitive action behind 
the veil of the period's costumes and conventions. There 
are no new themes in literature, just as there are no 
new human instincts; but there are in period new 
sublimations, new settings and rules for fighting out 
the old battles yet again; and new ways of combining, 
several conflicts into composite patterns, that is, plots." 155 



(ests: 









1890, $& 584). 

to 4^ S&' S 

ro (setting) 



L sag . 



co 



359 



Q 



SS S 

3 



^s "So^o 



S Cotfco 

Q ei 

^Oi 
L 



(unities of time, place and action) 



. 



360 



7? 5*5" ;>- 



S)^a?Sa. ^ Sp&gSo e^S a ^5" i&^S 1 (1923) 
(Z$& 72) S* ^c&tf $ej* ss^dfc : 

4 'Local colour, as the term implies, makes its 
appeal largely to the eye of the reader. Atmosphere on 
the other hand makes its appeal almost entirely to the 
emotions. One is objective and the other is subjective. 
One must be true to the fact, the other true to a given 
mood either of the author or of his creature, the lea- 
ding character. 

Local colour attempts to harmonize the details of 
setting and character with the actual canditions of a 
given time and place, atmosphere attempts to hormo- 
nize setting and character with the feelings of a character 
in a certain time and place. Thus it will be seen that 
the one is usually perceived by the intellect, the other 
by the emotions." 157 



,< 
L 



cm 
: (1) 
(2} 



, 

L 



361 



"I fiep&'V "So^fl 









"Many students get the notion that the environ. 
ment is atmosphere and so they fall into the technical 
blunder of trying to produce atmosphere by elaborate 
description of scenery. Their belief is false, and their pra- 
ctice only occasionally sound. The atmosphere is, be it 
repeated, the impression wich environment makes upon 
the beholder and which the beholder in writing seeks 
to convey to his readers." 158 

W. B. Pitkin, 

The Art And Business of 

Story- Writing, 1919, pp. 198, 194. 



362 

off 8 






, 



(narratorV ^<3^5P&> Sr^Sb<& Dreader). S'^^S'acS iS 






&p^ 



(narration) 

V / 



CO 



aa. 



i 

(dialogue); a,"^ S^|j 

(monologue). }fi 






368 



(cS 



I 



364 



, siSSSh 'tfrfcwtf g&So' fir 8 "! 






(direct narration). 
indirect narration, 



"A form of discourse the principal purpose of 
which is to relate an event or series of events. Narra. 
:-on, from Latin word meaning to "tell", is also called 
"narrative", which may be used as adjective or a 
noun..." 1 6o 



: (1) 83571 SJO; (2) 
; (3) 



B- S&!5 (action), fr^ Actors), g^o (setting) 

- 8 



365 
e3S<?ctf ir>>;S3: ' ' 

L a 






, 3 
, '^ StfoSb 'g' 



S'tfoSb '^^' |^5o^o 63?) 
^&P^COJ ^sr^orp i 



. So*, ^S'cxx)^ e^^^ g'cy* &>8 ! 



^point of view) ^od^o. >< 



, 



366 

(1) physical point of view has to do with the 
position in time and space from which a writer appro- 
aches, views, and describes his material; (2\ mental po- 
int of view involves an author' s feeling and attitude to. 
ward his subject; [3] personal point of view concerns 
the relation through which a writer narrates or discu- 
sses a subject whether first, second or third person." 163 



(1) " S^tfo, (2) sSrtSStf rf^tfo (3) 3_c& S 






a, 1 ! 



^third person narration) 



367 
& j& >& #o first person narration 



oo 



ar 

i 












(omniscience) 



368 

fStfesss^Qc ~5z&> f5*co : ^tfrvStfcss^xo (absolute omni- 
science } >6o<> ^D SP^O X ?6^Q2s^Qo (limited or partial 
omniscience^ . 



i 






f3o&&!fo& 



atf<?2ro33<tf)Sr* "So^o 

oj V 

5M so^ (instrusive^ ^ ^o-, 
(umnstrusive or impersonal^ & rfeo. 

\ * J cJ 



ox>;$ ' 



a 



) 



369 

PI& 
&o 
, 1925, $. 80). 



(narrator observant) 



sa 





CO L (OCD O 

L 83"S>^, ^pSbo?^^ cpS>?5 ( a So6~y, 4 a 

-^S ? ^^ ^tfe>?& AcT'SS'Cfeseon ^S'fefo 1 
j^ J'jo : ^s tf&o 









3 'Ss^S I er-SSo' 

* / 

^5;)^ ^sa 3S^j esjj 
'focus or minor or center of consciousness* 



, 4 a 

^S^^CP e$pSToa?6 ^e^rCTp [cSofoS (stream of consci. 
[24] 



ousness) 



370 



C . ''Later writers developed this technique into 
stream cf ccnACicmws narration, in which we are pre- 
sented with outer observations only as they impinge on 
the current of thought, memory and feeling which con. 
stitute the observer's total awareness " 16S 



'A 

CO C oJ 

Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man', 'Ulysses' 



(' 

\ 



^^oc 1 (self-effacing author^ 

_eJ oj \ *' / 

(^disappearance of the author) 



^SS ?6&^or? ^S5&So^3 
cr $ 



cf 



^ J 

oL o., L. 






s*2$tSy, 



1 S5e> 



&o *&> 



371 



CO 

a-S 



^complimentary V 



372 



w 






CO O 



/fortuitous witness') 



oR>JS 

fe' S 



(self-conscious narra- 
tor), e^s ^^ =rf3 tfo^s^^ 5^. 



.5. 



373 



5"' ST 8 






unreliable narrator ^ t31b 



('fallible or 

Sex>s5ccp, 



3 



&odr>cco. 



^as' sSpo<5go /moral obtuseness) 



narration 












(second person 



374 



oce 

v y c 

^Stfo' ^e tfSs&S ^^ Ml7 5 



8 ^ 5P& 



375 



o a i_ 

5. ' 



20, 2SdJg3 1947, 4 
580)^ ^V^^ljS^dlj oa'gRSs tf, 



0, 

L c . n co 



gA fflA 

c5&d35 B fio/T, $),28^ food, 

. / 

(tension) & 

\ / 



876 



o lDctc JCP o. 'Si, c^es So 



<dS$v.&r iiS 6 a-S' 



cripton^. 



sStftf. sifl su^ 



377 

^des- 
oi<. 
(symbolic) rv &c<fco ^3Jo)3|j5 3dSb& 



. S5j(5oco 
s*SSfib^. 



ic 

3s)5Pox). a^la^oS 



^medium) 



tfcfc* 






378 



3 
"S 






poo ^ofi. 



&& sY^aod 



^336", 



ssacsa3 






sar 



3^0. 

^ 



379 



P 



"3 8css?S 



-. 

u 



ej 



3. '6 

CO ; 



"Everything that has no relation to it must be 
ruthlessly thrown away, If in the first chapter you 
say that a gun hung on a wall, in the second or third 
chapter it must without fail be discharged." 178 



380 



sSao^^o^S^ s*S), gz^Si^ ^PI 

C3 L 

"I^Soo ^^^s5S) &2sSoR)c5 tfeS^ ^S cameo port 



rait j-s^S "So^o So&ff 8 



tJ CD 



i 



; 

- C; 



. ss 

. 1 

ol ? 



to O 

SPSS 33Ngt*oa;$&a3 Spd'^e^ S) 

C5 oJ 



3 



81 

'a 



03 



is5\>2fo, 

CO o-/ 



o i 

4 'An image can conjure up an idea, but an idea 
can never conjure up an image" 182 






of time, place and action) 









SOD. 



(tfvo * 



, aoS& 3Da&oa' as^^fl 






382 



(word images^ Y}Sb S'dS 

\ /^CO 



C3 * 






ci crca. 
^cS). ...(, 



aofloD^to 



^SS ^ScO 

oJ 






383 






^db. 






^ i 

c^ L 















84 



tfo^S" 6 &cfl. e &&C&OS" 6 



30"! 



A02SOD 



V 



CO 



?' 






^ 

CD 



385 



cS 



, S^oS, 



S5S 



ceo. 



[25] 



S^oS. oaS 11 ^ ^^ 055 
oL 

5*08 



886 



o s^S, cr>t3fc j>efcsa spi^SSeS (lingui- 

^ 2) " V 

Stic expression)^ s'Sajel &&& ^ (style) 



i 

L. 



, "S S, 



"5S, 

. Q *_ * 



CO O 

S^> 

L 



._ 



>. 1090)^ 



887 



"habit, custom, manner of acting or living pra- 
ctice, wage;.,, a special particular interpretation (esp. 
of a concise explanation of a grammatical formV" 



4 V1\ A short explanation of a grammatical apho- 
rism, (2) A mode of expression or interpretation; 
Behaviour, manner of acting, conduct, course." 






3S5^&r>aS 






S<3 

U 

3 sp 

> 



esotfeso 



53*6 












CO C5 






o co 



a, "I ^cx^^ST 8 5*3, 



198 


















890 

(7) ffcv&c ofCP 






(10) 



-^ 



(periodic sentence) 

e?6^ ^c^oS^ W 

(non-periodic, or loose, sentence). 



CO 

^oxi^ PO*&" _ ^o 

C3 






. a3aa 






(paratactic) 

'a SSS B 83^'S*; 

(hypotactic) 









RisSo^on- 



a.^Sjifc 



392 






tfSSb 



ts^Sb, 



1)80 






393 












"So^fb 



a^rv* 



tJ CO 



"Sodlb 



394 



SSidBbsSd'or?' 

(si), e } gc^ssgse^a () 



tf ^S i 



/n 

(2) ^so^^o, (8) tfSgfl^cfec, (4) siSS^e-^c, (5) 



5 









as 

c4 \ 



' Si" 



0^0*3 



SrfiSS" " 
SSooflS") 



"While a good title is essential, it is a great 
mistake to have a startling or sensational title followed 
by a quite little character sketch. Keep the title in 

its proper proportions to the nature and interest of the 
story."*) 1 

-THE CRAFT OF THE SHORT STORY, 

19S6, p. 5. 



396 



technique 

O CO 

SgS$sS^&$&^a. 

sjcAsi 



. 

L_ 

(2) (S> ^ST'S^ ^^go, &PC&O; (3) L 
(4) 3, 3*c^;>; 5j 

6^^' 05 

P^), 3e*&53*fy ^Sr^gSS^sSsSfiS' 



397 



?6oSDC(3; 



fc?6 eso^c, 






98 



57*853*8 



o 



399 



i^ 



tf tf COD# 






400 

o^eao. 



NO b- _ e ' 

oJ 



a>aS>o<S' 



CJ 



^o?6?68X> 



401 






83 25 



si 



[26] 



402 



CD 






403 



r 

_ oL 



^20 



404 



"ieofflS ^Sf 



^ Sg 



ScfibS _ 



c3>ciy>>Sx f ; ^c^ 
?c Vo^ 

) 

' SD 3; 



c, I), 






: fc 

&. 

L 



405 



^^SD?5 oScS 
*- o eo 



, S 






Sboe!>, 



;_ 

U 



406 









'fi^c^eo^fib ^^^ f ' ^ (, lo 

iS 



(behaviourism) 



407 



(5 s , S 



S 






a.g' o^c. ^^8 S^^N^S SoS)&)?5co 

oJ oJ 



i 



408 



I 
L 






8,5' 



409 



eo ^ 

sitfA ^^ 
a s^iM e^sr* 3 c& 

CO * O - 



"3 



CPS'O'O. 



s a 

L ^ 

6, Sea-Sb 



CO 



410 






55 & 



1973) 



411 



*&' 



co 



&ctftf 8 & 



CO 



g'fij 



412 






S3-1 






413 



"ifio 

CD 



"fsfio 



414 



3 



CO 



CO 






^formula stories) ^e ^sSfi^S gg^as^Sersc "&8fio f 



415 



ff* tfr 

3 ^^ S^dssoeo 3oo;\j 



?S3go 



SSS^d^o 



4? 6 



^&^) 

CO 



. 



, unique outlook] es;"^, tf^ca)^ 5eo& 'S cjSo S 
individual commentary) 



553- 



ea 



417 






CD 



flTSS^ftf 



218 



g) (j 



\ 

eJ 



CO <o - 



si<3 



6963*7?, es 



iH). 



'doS* 






[27] 



41 S 



jj5c&sso, 






Aofl; 



419 



o 



' 4 <3rVo 



ca 



So ^ dfc. 



o 






420 



o 



SoSb, 



421 



no 

^ 



O <3CO 



5 



**> 



CO 






Q 



30(3. 



CJ 
O 



422 



, S'tftftfc, 



4o<S. 



57>assSj&> 



no 

"S^iC 



. ga, 



o 






423 



f^ !" 3 



8*6^0) 



ofl. 



5D' 






'ie^ 
L 



cS 30iS 

) _ V- 



424 



oco n co 



<3 CO 

S 

CO 

o o 



2r?6}& '' 

SSS 



)S5>o& ? ""is 



42S 



ooo; 



o)o3o3 



tJ CO 



426 



0)16 






oo3 c fi'So^o-i S^s 13 ^) 






3 siofi S^ 



o 



n 



428 



s* 



3S-. 






, 308&30& 



8^ 



O 



-5 - 

3)2 



COD. 



?? SS ?? ifi. 

55. .. 0083 ?* 

. 65 















CD 



cs 



429 



c? 

& ^cJSpcjSba Sd 



430 



d&eo 



n* 






481 



CO 



c? 



o 



CO CO 



432 



63 O 



sS'cr'S 



CD 

avotfev 



COD. 



6500 



CD 



co 



433 



CD 



- 

afc, ^ds^(? si) 



CD 






[28] 



434 



' tip ' 






o 



a; 



S^cco 



COD. 



&fi"dfo 



00 



43S 



436 



! S) 

. stems' 8 



437 






&cp<3T* 









sia 









iS 

L 



CO 



438 



QC3 CJ) Si 



Sbofi. &o* iab^tfSTS' ool 



o 3t) ^^'- 



; (^e) 

\ / 



Si 






CO 



439 



*. 



CO 



3eoS5<&^ 



oa&e>g'o ^o eS^P?6fec&o. s3tfc6tfQfi3 

>S51 



i 
L 



440 



a 

3 
A 



) IT 

oL 



1. "(1) own state (2) an essential or inherent property, 
natural constitution, innate or peculiar disposition, nature;" 
V.S Apte, The Student's Sanskrit - English Dictionary, 
Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1968, p. 630. 

2. 



441 



3. 

x v* v'.^.v ^QC^C3 *x CG 'T Q 

ojoonco, lyoo o^>. DO /o. 
4. 



5. Victor Jones, Creative Writing, St. Paul's House, Warwick 
Lane, London, 1974, p. 40. 



6. e>o&<3^, ft. 41 

7. 0*^6 tftfo^ea, 
ft. 56, 57 

8. . o&o4^ f p ^^^ <sfj (1951-75), * 
ft.6&. 

9. d. Sa&v^^^S", ^er> ^>^, 'SftfSej* cp^Cb, 1 ft. 11. 

10. eo&0*;3, ft. 14, 

11. f , ft. 15. 

12. Peter Fontaine, Secrets of an Author, Thrift Books, C, A. 
Watts and Co. Ltd., 5 & 6 Johnson's Court, Fleet Street 
London, E. C. 4, p. 10 

13. epftjfib aFT^tfo'ft, F>ff<Sj& c^^^, '^fifScy cp^ei', 

ft. 77. 

14. Grenville Kleiser (Comp.), Introduction, 'Short story wri- 
ting', Funk, Wagnalls Company, New York : London. 

15, 



\974. 
16. Si^o'o^^o CPS'^O, ftftfffoffo, l ^3o cp^db', ft. 115. 



442 



17. o&sft3, ft. 116. 

18. 



, 1965, ft. 5. 

19. eo&<sr*;3, ft. 10-11 



20. William Henry Hudson, >4/7 Introduction to the Study of 
Literature, George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd , London, 1957 
(First Published 1910), p. 338. 



21. *tfSarfoe3 fedMoacpft, tftftf 
1956), ^fipSg ^(^pes^o 1 

5, 3ac&sj'*_2 1 1969, ft. 140, 141. 



22. ^odD^^, ft. 130, 181. 

23. 



24. io. favfcgtfopft, ?GJ/^ $$&*# go* V^\ ^SSoeD^ 1938, 
ft. 641. 



ZD. QSOobS' l^j, o, v4o. 

26. &. 644. 

^7* ^Sex^oP^*, &$ 55ftr(3'^r^'i; J 'sr^H^', c^"^io. 1939, o$). 681. 



29. D. Anjaneyulu : "He is a Marxist without being a commu- 
nist and a progressive without being too much of an idea- 
list" - English Influence on Telugu Fiction (Unpublished). 

30. Francis Vivian, Creative Technique in Fiction, 1946, 
pp. 42-43, as quoted by Dr. Jagannath Prasad Sarma, 
kahaani/ kaa racanaa vidhaan (Hindi), Hindi Pracharak 



443 



Pustakaalay, PB 70, Jnaan Vaapi, Varanasi-1, Second 
Edition 1961, p. 42. 

31,32 Paul, Gallico, How to Write for the Slicks, The Writer's 
Book' (ed , Helen Hull), Barnes & Noble, Inc., New York, 
Tenth Printing 1969 (First published 1950), p. 129. 

33. R S. Crane, The Concept of Plot, The Theory of the 
Novel' (ed., Philip Stevick), The Free Press, New York, 
Collier Macmillan Limited, London, 1967, p 141. 

34. o&e*3, s&. 142. 



35. Victor Jones, Creative Writing, p 43. 

36,37. *9o&^;3, s&. 45. 

38,39. eafi^eyex), S 
40. wo&S*3, ^. 17. 



41. Clayton Hamilton, Materials And Methods of Fiction, 
The Baker and Taylor Company, New York, 1908 r p. 60. 

42. op cit, p 61. 

43. asSsSa^5 jr>&o$p^, ^epr3j tfuf<cr 
6^, "^^^^dj.^^^-S', 1944, $. 17. 

44. e5o^^^, $. 29. 

45. o&^, $). 32. 



46. W Somerset Maugham, The Short Story, 'Points of view* 
William Heinemann Ltd , London, 1958, p. 152. 

47. Clayton Hamilton, Materials And Methods of Fiction,, 
p. 65. 

48. Victor Jones, Creative Writing, pp. 45, 46. 

49. William Henry Hudson, An Introduction to the Study of 
Literature, p. 342. 



444 



50,51 W. Somerset Maugham, The Short Story, 'Points of View', 
p. 184. 

52. Norman Friedman, Forms of the Plot, 'The Theory of the 
Novel', Philip Stevick (ed ), The Free Press, New York, 
1967, pp. 146-156 



58. eo6e*;3, $. 157.164. 

54. V. S Apte, 777e Students Sanskrit - English Dictionary, 
p 317. 

55 Victor Jones, Creative Writing, p 62 

56,57 Clayton Hamilton, Materials And Methods of Fiction, 
P. 2 



8. eso&<5*;3, $. 3.5. 
8. & 12. 

60. wo &<5*;3, $.28. 

61. $. 27. 
62- $. 29, 34 

63. Richard Haggart, A Guide to the Social Sconces, 'L.terature 
and Society, Norman Mackenzie (ed ), The New American 
Library, New York Toronto, 1968, p 204 

64. oo&er 8 ^ $. 205. 



s R - (ed ' } lnt ^uct,on, 'Contemporary 
rt Stones, The L.berty Arts Press, New York, 1 954, 



66. op cit., pp. ix, x 

67. 



4 ^^ 



tf SPSS' : cSs-sSSsftoS 445- 



68- 

1974, ft. 18. 

69. William Henry Hudson, >4A? Introduction to the Study of 
Literature, pp. 166, 167 

70. op. cit pp 168-170 

71. p 170 

72. 8O^ET>e, 3ir.B*3gj*&3), '& SpS^S ft oteo', ft. 6, 7 

73. W Somerset Maugham, The Short Story, 'Points of View', 
p. 172 



74. oo&tgr^, 4. 173. 
73. s0}5ye, tfiT53j 

ft. 28S. 

76. oo&*;3, ft. 290. 

77. ft. 295, 296. 

78. Victor Jones, Creative Writing, p. 62 

79. IP ii eart^ 
ft. 59. 65. 

80. a&J^c&o 

20 002, 1974, ft. 58. 

81. o^5)tfj, |"&S>iJo5 salsiSv e3d&ap<, 1966, ft. 9 

^ r" L CD 

82. 



1973, ft. 174. 

83. yo&e^^, ft. 184. 

84. ,, ft. 239. 



446 



85. 

ap, 1975, ft. 94. 

C3 

?6s5sptf" sSa^Sl^, sc&^tf 2, 1972 

ft. 213. 

87. flpprf*, 3^ej*oitf at}o^ sS^S, Se3d&5pef^2, 1970. 

oJ L o 

88. ^e?^^<2; 3 c&sS e^r 6S5*. &^& : 235^, 194; 

ssc^ sSati^. Stedfcsptf, 1959. 

89. roa ^si&^J, $&& o'ccD^^eT 15 , ft. 9-15. 

90. awstes^S 1 ajp^osp^, ^r^^^^ufrcr, ft. 22, 23. 

91. ^odbs^^, ft. 23, 

92. f"oS ^\^^r 6, ^eu vd&dfSxPi ft. 9. 



93. Harry Shaw, Dictionary of Literary Terms, Me Graw-Hill 
Book Company, New York . London etc , 1972, p. 100. 



94. CT- II 

), ^. . So. 70, grtfspS), ^^ssp^-i, 1961 
S ft. 76. 



95, 

96. eso^^S, ft. 77. 

97. Harry Shaw, Dictionary of Literary Terms, p. 109 
98 Victor Jones, Creative Writing, p 64. 

99. '3sM>', S&a&SSj*S$&i ft. 687. 

100. ftSa^itfea : Sctorf, L s5e5^ ?Soa^, w^aaA 1923. 

101. ^08 Sxp, ^jTey ^c^dT^eT', ft. 20. 



447 



102. tr 11 xrt&^^Sifuofr s&3 s tffap^<T f s3>. 68-72. 

103. oo&e^, $. 72. 



104. M H. Abrams, -4 Glossary of Literary Terms, Holt, Rine- 
hart and Winston, Inc., New York etc., 1957, pp. 20,21 . 

105. E M. Forster, Aspects of the Novel, A Penguin Inter- 
national Edition, Penguin Books Ltd., Harmondsworth, 
Middlesex, England, 1970 (First published 1927), p. 75. 

106. M. H Abrams, A Glossary of Literary Terms, pp. 21,22. 

107. William Henry Hudson, An Introduction to the Study of 
Literature, pp. 336, 337. 

108. Victor Jones, Creative Writing, p. 65. 

109. ibid. 

110. 3fr^5" spfcospS", s'^s'tft^, ^ 62. 

111. oo&*c3, s3>. 48. 

112. _ , s^. 49, 50. 

113. __ _ , $. 52. 

114. _ , s^. 53. 
115. 



116. Brander Matthews, Introduction, 'Mattenals And Methods 
of Fiction', Clayton Hamilton, The Baker and Taylor Com- 
pany, New York, 1908, p. xiv 

117. ftso&sr^, s^. 78. 

118. W. Somerset Maugham, The Short Story, 'Points of View', 
p. 156 

119. BfiEe f ^-cr><3^<2>oi><&, 'c5& sSpatS s3) steo', &. 20. 



448 



120. BBi^EPex 


,, S- .oWoiJ- ^ 


ff* . Mtftf^o^orfD, S>^^ 


&*<>, 383 


idio^^ 2, 1968, i 


s5\ 7 









121. ros ^ 


^SioT* 6, <3T^ey C^cCD^SjeT , ft. 48- 


mx "3 v* *^* 
. cJUO UC 


>&o-5, ^eP ^^ 


ofolu, '^fiS^T o*Sr*db', ft. 136- 


a 


a 


~~* 


1 23. B^S3^5| 


icS^EYo*) , 5"^^ 


' mS A _-rn f VL. Q ft fi 7 

EP ou/^A/5^ v , S on, y/ 


124. 


, ft. 


100 


125. 


, ft. 


101. 


126. 


,ft. 


108, 109. 


127. 


, ft. 


113. 


128. 


, ft 


125, 126. 


129. 


, ft- 


126, 129. 



130. Grenville Kleiser (Comp.), Introduction, 'Short Story 
Writing'. 

131. ibid. 

132. 3sJ"S$)ff $PS>O$P, j-^^^^^^T, ft. 38. 

133. 'asx^rt/, s&a&Srt&fai ^tfd 1 , ft. 67. 



134. Sf//e : (1) The manner of putting thoughts into words ; 
(2) a characteristic of construction and expression in 
writing and speaking; (3) the characteristics of literary 
selection that concern form of expression rather than the 
thought conveyed..." Harry Shaw, Dictionary of Literary 
Terms, p. 360 



135. fiS 
(1) 

1972 ; 



449 



CO 



, 972 
136. 3DSS&^5 $r>Sjosip5", 5pSs*tfj?6, ft. 41 

137. 

188. 
189. 

gpSi, 55Si|jSiXj^o' e9SP\ fib. 

140. aafrSS^S 1 ^fto^c^, &*&> <3T^^ S5)<5o. 42 

141. _ , ^. 43-45 

142. , 4. 46 



143. (i^tf &t*>&> < && 9 $) tftf^fftfo), c5o^)d3 11, 

1961 



144. 



145. J^> "Btf@ey^2 4r^, ft. 137-8. 



146 "For a constant force acting on an object moving in the 
direction of the force, work done on the object by the force 
is the product of the magnitude of the force and the dis- 
tance the object moves."- James & James, Mathamat/cs 
Dictionary, D. Von Nostrand Company, Inc, Princeton, 
N J., Third edition, p. 391. 

147. 3S&5' $pfco$pS, gF>3Si <$, ft. 55,56 



148. "incident: An event or occurrence; a distinct piece of 
action, An incident is a short narrative dealing with a 

[29] 



450 



single situation. When incidents are strung together in 
connected fashion, they become episodes in a plot."- 
Harry Shaw, Dictionary of Literary Terms, p 199, 

149. swti*, 3&X5 Boi^S, sjoSctfp, j$>, 1973, $. 192- 
202 

150. _ , $. 130-152 

151. Fred Lewis Pattee, The Development of American Short 
Story : A Historical Survey, Biblo and Tannen, New York; 
1970, p 372 

152. ibid 

153. Helen Hull (ed.), The Writer's Book, Presented by the 
Author's Guild, Barnes & Noble, Inc., New York, Tenth 
Printing 1969, pp. 69-74 

154. *9o&sr*3, $. 70 



15S. _ ,71 

156. (i) Harry Shaw, Dictionary of Literary Terms] p. 340; 
(ii) M.H. Abrams, A Glossary of Literary Terms, p. 157. 

157. CPU EsKsp PYCJ, $* s* fftftFAFiF, $. 187 



158. , ft. 192 

189. , ft. 194 

1 60. Harry Shaw, The Dictionary of Literary Terms, p. 250 

161. Clayton Hamilton, Materials And Methods of Fiction, 
p. 57 

4 b&5 1954, ft. 81 



451 



163 Harry Shaw, The Dictionary of Literary Terms, p. 293 

164. ^L 23 ^ ^ (* 188-186)& 
J165. e sTtf sPeotf 1915 i L e>s56 4 oLtfs 

1923 



166, M.H. Abrams, A Glossary of Literary Tems> p. 135 

167-170 ibid 

171. op.cit, p. 135-136 

172,173 //>/rf 

174. Clayton Hamilton, Materials And Methods of Fiction, p. 64 

175. ^06 ;vsSxp8 , ^TiTey 0'cCD^SJer', Sg>. 34 

w ^ * 

176. 33DsS&5' ^pftosir'S', g&'jF&jrf, s&. 36-37 



177. W. Somerset Maugham, The S/Kvf ^for/, 'Points of View/ 
p. 170. 



178 //< 

179. 

4, 34 

180. Victor Jones, Creative Writing , p. 65 
181,182. /A/rf 

183. et^83E f epdT^^t^ftT 5S^, ^^S'S^'&o^O, >83c&sp# 2, 
1951, ft. 32,34,47 

184. ja;t2jJZP*i; ^^a (sSxp&Of^dieoN, wtfef^otf&orf, 3e3d& 

sp^_2, Boff*s^rj 1967, ^>. 86 

185. Boa^Epeo, gp'eFcd $&*&&, "5^ SipQ^ $)^o j , s5>. 29 



452 



186. 

187. aytfj.a;, a-Ktf^otfaro, SytpSi^o, 1678, $. 36-37 

188. && t3 

&.&} 1375, $. 8) 

189. ffius^ey, $. 36,87 
190. 

191.- 

_2, 1974, 

^- CO C4 

4- 77 

192. Marry Shaw, Dictionary of Literary Terms p. 360 

193. 



500 004, 1973^ 
4. 88_i03 

194. C. F Hockett, A Course in Modern Linguistics, 1958 f 
p. 556. 



195. 

, 1954 



196. * Style may be defined as, "proper words in proper places": 
Swift 

<>Style is only the frame to hold our thoughts. It is like the 
sash of a window, if heavy it will obscure the light the 
object is to have as little sash as will hold the light that 
we may not think of the former, but have the latter. : 
Emmons 

<0>0bscurity in writing is commonly a proof of darkness in 



453 



the mind; the greatest learning is to be seen in the grea- 
test plainness. : Wllkins 

<0>StyIe is a man's own; it is a part of his nature : Button 

-<>A great writer possesses, so to speak, and individual and 
unchangeable style, which does not permit him easily to 
preserve the anonymous. : Voltaire 

-OPropriety of thought and propriety of diction are com- 
monly found together. Obscurity and affectation are the 
two greatest faults of style : Macaufay 

<>ln what he leaves unsaid I discover a master of style. : 
Schiller 

<>To write in a genome familiar or truly English style is to 
write as any one would speak in common conversation, 
who had a thorough command choice of words, or who 
would discourse with ease, force, and perpescuity, setting 
aside all pedantic and oratorical flourishes. : Hazlitt 
- Tryon Edwards (Comp ), The New Dictionary of 
Thoughts, Universal Text Books Limited, London, pp. 617- 
619 



197. 

$. 94 



198. _ 3>. 94,95 

199. i^oS SSsf JiTey ^ctf^eT*, &. 41,42 



200. CPU earfc^S' |j5r*<5Yc7<, &*> s tftfz* ^STiT, &. 189- 
148 

,201. _ , . 146 (wsyasf) 
202. Sanskrit -English Dictionary, p. 556 
,203. &ffj3S*S F&IC&SS&J, 4- 3 (e*^. 1, . 13) 



454 



204. 

, 1966 4. 1.7 



205. Harry Shaw, Dictionary of Literary Terms, p. 373. 

206. 77?6? Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, Calcutta 
Oxford University Press, Third (Indian) impression 1974 
(First edition 1911), p. 1330 

207. technique 7. The manner and ability with which an 
artist writer, dancer, athlete, or the like, employs the 
technical skills of his particular art or field of endeavour. 

2. The body or specialized procedures and methods used 
in any specific field, esp. in an area of applied science 

3. method of performance or methods so as to effect a 
desired result" - The Random House Dictionary of the 
English Language 

208,209 Sort>ae SSd^cpeF 
1946, $. 408 



210. 

eo^Sptfc^tf ^Sbd, iaftsSfi^o, 1974 
211-215 



216. Maurice Baudm Jr. (ed.), Introduction, 'Comtenporary 
Short Stories', p. vii 

217. 



ft. 90 

218. es 

s&. 17 

219. Victor Jones, Creative Writing, p. 72 

220. tfStoetf, S3), 90-99 



63 



CO 



es 



a, &' 



co 



co 



4S6 



^o 



io^ 

ad&0|8ofl 



i r 

L 

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i 



CO 



co /^cooperative endeavor sV 
a3?5 (division of labour), esS^Sgo (dominance 
(subordination), 5jsS|jS^*5o (communication) 3x>.2 
6 (mammals) 



458 



(Wolfgang Kohler) 

tf ^ aso&^o^)^ e38S>?5 



(unicellular organismjrv 

sjD 






r?a 



co 



CO 



(C.H. Cooley) sScfisp^ 3$j*;$s$r$sWa 
^ fi ti 3 ^ & ( T/ie Scdal Proc ^ses, New York: Scnbners, 
1918, p.28; as quoted by Ashley Montagu, Man m Process, 
p. 45). ^ax)^ ^PO^AD, ^s s^c^S^ spo<5oc>&. 






QS 

2) CD 



Animal Aggregations (Chicago; University of 
Chicago Press, 1931), Cooperation Among Animals (New 
York ; Schuman, 1951 s ) 

/ 

(W.C. Allee) &QSb^ Salo 

So^dipD^. C^tfg'o SD^? S^^P seo&^Sr 6 ^ Unconscious 

CO CTco ^ 

co-operation or automatic mutualism 1 






460 



(planari 



an worms 



0* ! 



as 



461 
?6co (social and 



political institutions) Sb^roc, &oc, sS^ 

/ n 

3 $ <??So&> 5tf5iO*3a cpas? (State \ sS^sSj 

Q 8) \ / S 



. 

s) 2J <j) 

, SidS 



cS^jjScaPfiS^oSb S^tfg'tfo 65$)^)0(5. ?6Si^ 



\ 



*55g 

iSSS 

L, 

(personality^ 

xr>6 So 5^ OP 



S|3 3^?So 3ox>e5cxx>. ^S>ODD^ 3 c& ^ SS^ fl 

- 

Asocial inter stimulation^ 



S$<? 



CO 



462 



(John Donne) 

* 4 No man is an Island, entire of itself; every man 
is a piece of the Continent, a part of the main; if a Clod 
be washed away by the Sea, Europe is the less, as well 
as if a Promontory were, as well as if a Manor of the 
friends or of thine own were; any man's death dimini- 
shes me, because 1 am involved in Mankind; And There- 
fore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; It 
tolls for thee". 8 






1)3 






. 18, 19, 



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466 



3&ps3c 



es^g" esS5*r>e>& ^5 escxnofl 'tfg'o'. 
'blue blood, blood royal, pure blood, full blood, half 
blood, good blood, bad blood, blood tie, blood relation- 



ship' esods* (sso^of*^p, g&tf 55^^^ tf g'o 



. '6" g'Jooao^o' esJO, 'a,"! {? 












i5 






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of certain blood factors 6*3. u 






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467 






. 

co nco 



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CD 






i 



468 







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^cxoofi 



, sjtftf ^^ff 8 

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(urbanization) 

i gdSb. 









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469 






(Friedrich von Bernhardi) ^ icSa&&> 
and the Next Wai (&" j^o^o . 



x 

J 

80 



130 o^o &oS> I^BSPO^ gTdo^S "idaSbofl. 



e3ox)?6 wfib^ SbdSa sSsp^e 8 , e^a^Sb 12 *&>, 50 
STP, a,^ igiS^ooSS^^off 8 ^ S^e^Sb 22 i^So 40 

(F oJ CO 



40 ^ 

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470 

63 3o 84 SP>GC^> s* e^orr- 28,090 



CO CO 



75 

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8,000 

co 'co 

5,000 C5^o6 
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21,000 
50,000 



(1914) * 9 |J 8 2ot3*&) : "C^^^P 7 

! 00(K 

, Spo?6, 



In effect, "Nature" is the name we give ta> 
the projection of the totality of our ignorance concer. 
ning the forces which are conceived to be responsible 
for the generation of life and its maintenance. Nature 
is not a "thing in itself" which operates upon other 
things; the term denotes rather, if it denotes anything 
at all, an artificial construct, the purpose of which is 
to serve as a general sterotype for our ignorance, in 
addition to serving as a deu sexma china to which, is a, 



471 

quandry, we may appeal in order to be confortably relie- 
ved of our perplexities," *3 



d'e 



C? 6) 



cficotf&^fi 






(group) ^5^3 ^$& ^individuals) sSgSS 
. . g ^?6S_^ &5^^j3&^o ^personality) 






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473 
community 



odS : Indian Community, Asian 

L ol u 

Community, Irish Commu- 

nity etc. 
: Dravidian Community, Pa- 

rsee Community etc. 
: Tamil Community, Urdu 

Community etc. 
: Christian Community, 
Muslim Community etc. 



474 



(nucleus). Sa 

2,74,680 rf, S. Sb- es^s? 4,33,94, 951. 5)65* 

' 

3, 49, 99, 146. 
83 95, 805. 14 3w ^o 23 



&, 



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, sjogofi", 



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476 



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. 1971 
24.56 
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L_. 

1,80,86,588 

1,26,72,251; ^^ 54,14,334) 5s5^ 



477~ 



2,53,08,368 (sfctfsHfy : 92,72, 
572; *stfo3tfg: 1,60,85,791). esot) SSsSfc f5 
ea^^S" 8 41.68 er^o &r>|&^> As^fc. 5)65* 
13 43 SP^O; SgSS^Pd^tf &rt)aD 15-59 yo 
12.66 ff^o. Sx> ^-^tf Si ?6c^pi^ ^&ocr S^sp6 5832 



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tion) &>tf&&i&p SSC^ofl. 



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a" (No artist tole- 
rates reality] wa^efc, ^3 ^_S^&>& e5cxo?6 fo"5x (Friedrich 
Nietzsche). &tfo7> "^)/^, w_&^sj-fl (existentialist) 
e$os>;6 ^o^5" s^sSxp' ('Albert Camus), 



(^b )1 (no artist can get along 
without reality) 30 . 



606 



SP 






53 



SJFoflS', 



s> 



gQ? 



Ib^o 

g) 



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' (commitment) 



, ea S$o*a ^ focpoo^as ^CT* sSs^SS g'taofi 

n o eo 












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612 



1 . Charles F. Hocket A Course in Modem Linguistics, The 
Macmillan Company, New York, 11th Printing, 1966 (First 
printed, 1958), p 9. 

2. Leonard Bloomfield, Language (Paper Back Indian Edition), 
Motilal Banarsidass, Jawahar Nagar, Delhi-6, 1963 (First 
published in Great Britain, 1935), p. 61. 

3. Samuel Koenig, Sociology; An Introduction to the Science 
of Society, Barnes & Noble Inc., New York, 1970 (Reprin- 
ted with revisions; First published, 1957), p. 21. 

4. _ , p 18. 

5. ibid. 

6. Ashley Montagu, Man in Process, A Mentor Book/The New 
American Library, 1962, pp. 16, 17. 

7. ed ftjfcfoer 8 , $. 45, 46 

8. *$S $ ;teo<s* *cps6oasa, $. 59 



9. "I have myself never met anyone, however distinguished 
intellectually, who did not subscribe to a good many be- 
liefs which were demonstrably untrue" wa&ff'S Intro- 
duction*, p. xi. 

10. 00245*3, 2&. 32 

11. Encyclopedia Americana (International Edition), Vol. 4, 
American Corporation, International Headquarters: 575 
Lexington Avenue, New York, p. 1829. 

12. Ashley Montagu, Man in Process, pp. 131, 132. 

13. _ f p.71. 

14. e rtes<o asScpo^ 1971 ea^sp S^e jj5stfo 

15. tfO-eP SSsroi &Q&$ tf ^^^^o, 0- -?, 



-500 Q04, ^o^ &P&J 1974 ^atfa acpfirj 1962), $. 45 



16. 

iaa*a3> gXsi&j* a; 3exjrt> &po&Dso> (8 

L. ^o V 

iCT/Tffi 5^/3; . S"^ o?^^ey, Be^^b <BSTtfSb, 1971, ^. 14 
17 



ajeo 



18. 

' ("1965) 



19. 

20. 

7? S", ^ esciioit^ SSa^SS,^, ^Pfib^^S", 383C&5rtf-4, 1970 

21. 
22. ' 



54. "1-12-1946 

esS) 



14 



25. 

1948 



26. 

K ft) 

3eoS5<3o<3: S^o^^ ff^^Sffff^fo (So. 1) 



b, 1962, 
27. &S SoooSoSS S5^^^o: &***$& S^Sffff^fo (So. 2) 



, 1971. 

28. G. R. Madan, Indian Social Problems, Vol. 1 (Social Disor- 
ganization), Allied Publishers, Bombay - Calcutta etc., 
Second (Revised and enlarged) Edition 1969 (First Publi- 
shed 1966), p. 57. 



29. wS^o'fi-p tfsipSS&a*^ (w&.), 
, 1978 



30. Thomas E. Kakoms and Barbara G. T Desmarais (eds.), 
Introduction, 'The Literary Artist as Social Crrtic', Glencoe^ 
Press, Beverly Hills, California, 1969, p. (i). 



617 










. 5 



u ^&^dMrp SS)^ 



SS)casdb. esiifo 



S'* S*, ' 



i 









818 



i 



CP 



db. SSSi 



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eg. S^5"^ a^efc. 



i 



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L L 



CO 

tfflr 8 S 



go (plagiarism) 

^D : k 'PLAGIARISM: the reproduct* 

j 

ion, m whole or essential part, of a manifestation of in- 
tellectual endeavor-such as a book, a statue, or a sym- 
phony_by some one who holds himself out as its creator, 
but is not. The infraction is not theft of the work 
itself, but false representation as to source. However, 
the use of themes and ideas common to every educated 
man is considerd inevitable, and is not plagiarism. The 
mere treatment of a subject identical with that dealt 
with by some one else is not forbidden either. What 
may not be adopted is the other person's unique 
method of treatment. The copy need not be identical 
to be a plagiary; so long as the essence of original is 
used, the offense is committed". 2 






Socp 






(2) [jSs;S 

^B Bc<& tftfSeu* 



, 1972 

W CO 

57_62). 



8 , as$a $& ( 1&5}6* 

\ I 



(I) "So^fc 
(2) 

sjos- 



C3 



(5) 



' <SSrs5? 
4.11-1970 3&c3*a o^tf SiO[*BtfsS|8^ar f 20.23, 122 



125 ^doff 6 jjSifiaoOsa). ^a ^^^-5" s_<" crfo^ 'a 

&<3>l$ff69. & 



622 



fc, SStftfrffi acrfa-tfSj&jSScff 11 a,{f57tfon 
Cotftfo 1970 ^^S) ejSfioS (|S5s*Sb : Waitf^* 



'a 



v> a 



122) 32 



a 3 ab 



&*. tftf ^^^ D. ARJ^COJ (3 f 



33^ (Sfs' 4^ 3 dSb|& 



53*6 sb a* OB 



1938 
f <Do. 



628 



w Sjj. 128 

a 



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CO O 

6 



624 

1925 



"ifib 



1951 ft'Sj 



6, io. ^3. (6583055* ,, 



1 (10 

ri o c5?e8 f i 



i5j&rS 'The Pig of Morain' 

S'fiJoS* 






625 



i960, ^><S* Sodb^ 1963) 
(1-10-1946 



sios 

> " sySo ^^^53-ac^a eS 

ar 



' S^S && 



77.90), ,^J^ wogtfrfoaotf & "> o=i? 'The Ant 

and the Grasshopper' (vol. I) 



. ->oo', to 1^0.0' 

[40] 



626 



>x 

w 



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U 






S ^ SSc4JaoO ^ctfsS&N 

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627 



C3 Si 



(textual material) 

v iSS.IcJi 

tJ \- '^_ 



"The replacement of textual material in 
one language by equivalent textual material 
in another language.,.. " 5 



(borrowing 
the concept), esoeb, a, *S* SS^S S^SP^ siGrg' s^^ff 8 ? 

&&*efo. S)ae^, ^53a^ ^o<so^ s? IP^F$ (source 

language) r ^spS^ l&^^ gy^ (y^^i^aj (borrowing 
language). 



. ,o 

oxxST* aafib^&oa i /U 
o \ / 

^8) spS'gorSI sps^go^o, (4) 
O (word to word, phrase to phrase, clause to 



628 

clause and sentence to sentence). & s35S$ tf?5, 



dress 



fi. 556^d6 srsi 
* 



*flower-bed j 
o 

.S^^o' OS ^o. SjoA^?^ 'I fiflve been writing 
L o 

since morning' 



o |jSS S^ofT 8 ^ |j5a s 






3 CO 

c3^ ^a ^ 

CO 

o 



629 



co 

SS2roa?S 
o 

^aa ^?5aa&^o*S, cs-ssSo 






.-33 So ^ So 



630 



,iptfo$>ot3&. 1)36* . 
i" 



s" 

rJ 



r7&3So 



icc 33iJ 57^^ Se^SSS g'^S^oo Sexx*o 

L. o 



1988; e^S"^cS) ^t5^Sb ^oS3 5 
CD 

S^ 1925) 



881 



3. 



) ic 
s*&, 
oShfl 



a. 



i 

L 






JiQ 



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1954 






414-423). e S^^^S So 

)' (oOos?tf^ 

4). 502-506) 



co 



SS"3^?6 



o i 

CD L 

cfib <i9c& 

CO 89 



633 



, 

^^Dofi. ^o^bSo 

CO 



( 



o* 



634 



*&p S 
co 



CO 

e^, sso^ 

co 



oa 



^3?6o^s5o. 
d^ySj, 2)(SS ^ 



CO 

ssc& 






p 



CO 



29.1U1968 

r^A fe"^ 

<=? 

*\QS*' ss 

eD^O^oC) 

. sso^ofi^S 



2ro3. 



8, 



835" 



k 






, "Itftfff 8 






S), 



19633 Sio&^tfofi* 
|jSsS5. 
|5iiaoaoa. 1967^*, ^^cp^^S^S ^90 



637 



o. 1958 



35, 









888 



COD. 



2. Ralph Rowenbach, Encyclopedia Americana, vol. 22, 1 966, 
p. 143. 



1967 (^>$& ^^88, "^"|08D^ 1963), 

s&. 179.195 

4. Oscar Wilde, The Works of Oscar Wilde, Collins, London, 
The DevotedjFnend', p 484-496. 

5. J.C. CBtiwAgA Linguistic Theory of Translation, Oxford 
University Press, London, 1967, p. 20. 

6. ^". ft. iSS. 



, 1971, $. 274.73 



257 25 sape in shape is 

261 18 

286 14 

305 11 

312 10 e3*a-e>S 

336 10 S5otf3rtf 

3 

346 25 

346 1 

414 17 

427 7 

463 3 
9 

464 21 
516 20 
560 7 

573 3 

574 8 ici8D}&> I oj^)Q 

U. Q L c 

589 6 sociolegal sociological 

596 2 



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