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Full text of "A Kafir-English dictionary"

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Kafir=English Dictionary 



BY 
REV. ALBERT KROPF, D*D., 

SUPERINTENDENT OF THE BERLIN MISSION, 



SECOND EDITION 

EDITED BY 

REV. ROBERT GODFREY, M.A. 



SOUTH AFRICA: 

LOVEDALE MISSION PRESS. 

1915. 




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HLlAJL' 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 



"Y^HEN I arrived in Kaffraria in 1845, the only Vocabulary of the 
language of the people that I could at first obtain was a small 
Kafir-German one, written by the Rev. L. Dohne, containing a few 
more words than the appendix to his Zulu Dictionary p. 393, published 
in 1857. I thereupon set to work to find what Missionaries of other 
Churches had done in this direction. A small but trustworthy vocabulary, 
partly printed and partly in manuscript, compiled by the Rev. John 
Bennie in 1830, came into my hands. This contained only words 
whose stems commenced with the letters c, p, d, t. Later I became 
acquainted with Dr. Van der Kemp's "Woordenlijst" of 1801, which, 
being a first attempt, is naturally more of a curiosity than a help to 
the student. In 1872 appeared a "Dictionary of the Kaffir language, 
including Xosa and the Zulu dialects, by the Rev. W. , J. Davis." 
In compiling a vocabulary of the language for my own use which I 
had at first no intention of printing, I derived more or less help from 
each of these sources. 

The printing of this Dictionary was first suggested many years ago by 
the Board of Revisers of the Kafir Bible, but I was unable and unwilling at 
that time to undertake the labour of preparing it for publication, as I had 
other work on hand. At the United Missionary Conference held in King 
William's Town in 1889, it was proposed by the late Mr. Andrew Smith, 
that " the lexicon should be printed, if only as a memorial of the Kafir 
language which would soon be supplanted by English." I still hesitated, 
and it was not till 1893, when the Brethren of the Free Church of Scotland 
Mission urged me strongly to prepare the work for the press, and the 
authorities at Lovedale offered to have the book printed there at their 
own risk, that I decided to publish the Dictionary. The printing of the 
work commenced in 1895 and has extended over four years, during which 
time I have been able to collect some additional words. These form an 
Appendix to the work. 

517625 



I hope that my advanced age and consequent defective hearing, 
may be taken as an excuse for the errors and omissions in the book, and 
trust that younger Missionaries may be encouraged to build on this 
foundation a better and more enduring structure. 

In conckision I have to express my indebtedness to the late Rev. 
Bryce Ross, D.D., and my indebtedness and thanks to the Revs. J. Stewart, 
M.D., D.D., Canon Woodrooffe, M.A., J. McLaren, M.A., E. Makiwane, 
W. B. Rubusana, and Mr. J. Knox Bokwe, for their valuable aid towards 
making the work as complete and convenient as possible. 

A. KrOPF. 

Stutterheim, 
South Africa, 
December, 1899. 




PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 



On 10th March, 1911, Principal Henderson handed over the work of 
editing a new edition of Kropf's 'Kaffir-English Dictionary ' to my care, 
leaving me with an absolutely free hand; on that same day he gave 
into my keeping Dr. Kropf's annotated copy of the dictionary which 
had been bequeathed to Lovedale by its owner, and thereafter he passed 
on to me the various lists of corrections and additions that reached him 
from time to time in response to his appeal for help. In this connection, 
acknowledgement is here made to Rev. J. Knox Bokwe, Rev. W. Bourguin, 
Mr. J. Bud -M'belle, Rev. J. Lennox, Rev. L. Marx (for a collection of 
proverbs made by Dr. Kropf), Rev. J. K. Mather, Father Wallis, Canon 
Wyche and Archdeacon Woodrooffe (who has since gone to his rest). 

I have sought help from every quarter and under all circumstances 
and cannot therefore attempt to give a list of the persons to whom I am 
indebted. But I must mention some of my helpers. The Misses Ross of 
Pirie, daughters of the late Dr. Bryce Ross, have put their knowledge of 
Kafir constantly at my disposal ; the girls of Lovedale and of Pirie have 
greatly assisted me in collecting Hlonipa words and in other ways ; the 
scholars of St. Matthew's of the year 1910 enthusiastically gathered bird- 
names and bird-lore for me ; Rev. J. H. Soga has sent specimens of birds 
and helped me in gathering the Kafir names of birds, and Rev. D. B. 
Davies has provided some bird-lore ; Dr. Peringuey of the South African 
Museum, Mr. J. Hewitt of the Albany Museum and Mr. Austin Roberts 
of the Transvaal Museum have ungrudgingly assisted in the identify- 
ing of natural history specimens ; Dr. C. Meinhof, Hamburg, sent some 
sheets of suggestions, of which those relating to the relationships of 
Kafir words were especially valuable. 

Mr. McLaren, whose researches in Kafir have become through his 
Kafir Grammar (1906) part of the inheritance of all Kafir scholars, tore 
up his own well-annotated copy of the first edition of the dictionary and 
sent it on by instalments ; in addition to this he supplied a long list of 



new entries, and also granted me (on 27th April, 1911, at Nqamakwe) 
a lengthened interview, in which he discussed fully with me the pho- 
netics of the language. In only one essential point does the system 
followed in the present edition differ from his system, viz. in the so-called 
r5, which has been indicated as r h in accordance with Mr. 
Bennie's appreciation of the sound. 

Mr. W. G. Bennie has rendered untiring assistance ; he it was who 
revealed to me the secret of tone in the Kafir language, a fact which has 
still to be reckoned with and for the expression of which some printing 
device has yet to be invented. Mr. Bennie read over in proof as far as 
the end of F, and in MSS. from the beginning of G to the end, making 
good many deficiencies through his possessing a knowledge of Dutch as 
well as of Kafir; he and Canon Wyche have taken great pains to find 
suitable names for the verbal forms referred to in the Introduction, 

In the naming of mammals, Chubb's *A Revised List of the 
Mammals of South Africa' (South African Journal of Science, Feb. 1910) 
has been followed ; and in the naming of birds , Gunning & Haagner's 
'A Check-list of the Birds of South Africa' (Supplement to the Annals 
Transvaal Museum, 1910) has been followed. 

Sim's 'The Forests and Forest-Flora of Cape Colony' (Taylor and 
Henderson, Aberdeen, Scotland, 1907) has served as the standard in the 
naming of trees ; from a botanical point of view this work is invaluable, 
though in the spelling of Kafir words it is often defective. Dr. Kropf ex- 
tended the scope of his dictionary to include the Zulu names of trees, and 
it becomes clear from Sim's book that Kropf 's Zulu tree-names owe their 
origin to Fourcade (whose book I have not had the opportunity of seeing). 
Some of these Zulu names had been wrongly placed by Kropf (u-Mumbu 
instead of umu-Mbu ; i-Sanyana instead of is-Anyana), but these and 
many others have now been excised as belonging to a Zulu, and not to a 
Kafir, dictionary. At the same time there are still some tree-names, as 
well as other words, which have been allowed to stand, not because they 
are genuine Kafir words, but because in the limited experience of the 
present editor they could not be proved to be wrong. 



Vll. 

Bud-M'belle's 'Kafir Scholar's Companion' (Lovedale 1903^ and 
Rubusana's 'Zemk' inkomo' have provided a number of words and pro- 
verbs, and Bryant's 'Zulu-English Dictionary' (Pinetown, Natal 1905), 
though it came into my hands late, has proved of great assistance and 
is an indispensable v^rork for a Kafir student. Madan's 'Living Speech in 
Central and South Africa' (Oxford 1911) deserves to be mentioned for its 
suggestiveness. 

The printing has taken over two years, but could not have been finished 
within this time but for the enthusiasm of Mr. Atkinson and his native 
staff. The native compositors have taken a keen interest in the progress 
of the work and latterly rendered great assistance in the definitions of 
words. On 14 July, 1915, when the dictionary had been printed off as 
far as page 368, our joint labours were nearly consumed in smoke by 
a fire breaking out in the engine-room immediately beneath the place 
where the printed sheets were stored. The presence of mind of one of 
the native boys enabled him to deal effectively with the cause of 
the outbreak and Mr. Atkinson at great personal risk fought the fire, 
being badly burned but saving the dictionary ! 

In conclusion, let me invite readers who detect errors or gaps in the 

present edition to communicate with the Principal of Lovedale or with 

myself. 

ROBERT GODFREY, 

pirie mission, 

King William's Town, 

1/ 11/ 1915. 



TO THE MEMORY 
OF 

MY FELLOW-COUNTRYMEN 

WHO 

BY THE GREAT SACRIFICE 

HAVE MAINTAINED MY LIBERTY AND MY RIGHT TO WORK 

AND TO THE MEMORY 

OF 

ONE IN PARTICULAR 

ROBERT BARBOUR WHYTE 

COMPANION AND FRIEND 

CALLED TO HIGHER SERVICE 

FROM THE BATTLEFIELD OF FRANCE 

25TH SEPTEMBER 191 5 

THIS EDITION 

IS AFFECTIONATELY AND GRATEFULLY DEDICATED 



INTRODUCTION. 

The nature of the structure of the prefix-using Kafir language, differing absolutely from 
that of the suffix-using English, renders the construction of a Kafir dictionary on English 
lines an impracticability. In Kafir, every noun, except a limited number in their vocative 
cases, is preceded by a prefix; and every verb in every one of its multitudinous inflections 
(save in the simple form of the imperative) is preceded by a subject or an object which may 
assume any one of many different forms and which may stand alone or in one of many possible 
combinations. 

Were we to follow the alphabetical order of Kafir words, as we do in English, we should 
find the great bulk ofthe dictionary entered under the vowels and ii and we should have very 
little use for any other initial letter. For this reason Kafir scholars have practically agreed 
that a Kafir dictionary should follow the alphabetical order of stems rather than of words. 
Kropf's dictionary was constructed on this plan. Where a group of words had a common 
stem the root of the verb was placed first and it was followed by the various verbal forms 
with the derived nouns at the end. Kropf's method has been slightly modified in the pre- 
sent edition ; the derived nouns have been attached to the verbal forms from which they 
spring and the whole series of derived words under any one stem has been indented to aid 
the reader's eye. If the reader examines carefully a few stems such as uku-Fa, tiku-Ma and 
uku-Lunga, he will understand the principles on which the dictionary has been constructed. 

Although the greatest care has been exercised to discover the stems and to place 
under them only such woi'ds as are actually derivatives, further study of the language will 
demand a certain amount of re-arrangement in future editions ; and it is hoped that the 
following conclusions regarding stems and their derivatives which have been reached after 
a careful and minute analysis of words in the present edition will materially aid in settling 
questions of arrangement. 

Kafirverbalstemsareof two kinds (A) Primary or strong stems; (B) Secondary or weak 
stems. 

A. Primary or Strong stems. Primary stems are those which retain their final vowel in the 
simple verbal forms which are derived from them*. The great majority of these primary 
stems were originally adverbial or interjectional particles and in some instances remain in 
use still as adverbs or interjections; they are at present, however, generally compounded 
with ukutl, and they are much more numerous than the present edition of the dictionary 
indicates, occurring commonly in Kafir intsoini and izibongo and waiting to be gathered. 

The auxiliary iikut't, used along with these uninflected particles, is probably the most 
important word in Kafir; when standing alone, it means 'to say ' ; but when accompanied by 
a gesture on the part of the speaker it means 'to do' (the thing indicated by the gesture) or 
'to act' (in the way indicated by the gesture). Now, though gestures may be employed to 
express a wide range of meaning, they have their limitations ; and these adverbial and inter- 
jectional particles serve in the place of gestures or to the accompaniment of gestures to 
widen out still further the application of the verb iikuti [see uhi-Ti 4 (a) and (b)]. These 
particles are often onomatopoetic or suggestive in their sound, e.g. ukiiti-Mpompo (of water, 
to pump up), ukuti-Gelekeqe (to throw a stick along the gi-ound to another), ukuti-Tu (to 
(appear suddenly). 

These particles may havfe a wide range of meaning (see e.g. tikuti-Ntla), but are always 
made to carry a definite idea in any particular instance of their use. Although in the 
dictionary these simple verb forms (ukut'i followed by a particle) are usually classified as 
transitive or intransitive, they are not properly circumscribed by these English grammatical 
terms and are in many instances capable of being either transitive or intransitive according 
to circumstances. 

a apparently is ukuti-Gqubutu ; but in'this case Gqulutela, etc., might be from a lost stem 



In the case of these strong stems, modifications of meaning may be expressed either 

[I] by a change in the auxiliary ukuti or 

[II] by the addition of one or more syllables to the particle. 

I. The changes which take place in the auxiliary are of four kinds: 

1. Reciprocal, formed by replacing the final i of ukuti by ana, as: 

ukutana-Nqwd, to meet with each other suddenly at a certain spot, 

from ukuii-Nqwd, to meet with suddenly. 
N.B. ukutana-Gaga, to attack one another, has the alternative form uku-Gagana. 

2. '''elative, formed by replacing the final / of ukuti by ela, as: 

ukutela-Jwi, to throw suddenly towards, 

from ukutt-Jwi, to throw down suddenly, 

3. Stative, formed by replacing the final i of ukutt by eka, as: 

ukutika-Nga, to be wonderful, 
from ukutt-Nqa, to wonder. 

4. Reflexive, formed by inserting the syllable zi before -tt, as ; 

ukuziti-Nama, to join oneself to, 
from ukutt-Nama, to cleave to. 

II. The changes which take place in the particle may be grouped under two heads 

(a) those which retain ukuti and an uninflected form of the particle ; 

(b) those which substitute uku for ukuti and adopt an inflected form (ending in a) 
of the particle. 

(a) To this group belongs the Reduplicated form, which, as its name implies, 
consists of a simple reduplication of the particle, and which expresses repetition 
or intensity of the original root-idea, as: 
ukuti-Tshil-tshu, to keep on piercing or stabbing, 

from ukuti-Tshu, to pierce suddenly once. 
Sometimes the reduplication is only half effected and, in those cases where 
the second syllable of the stem is repeated, the resulting word remain^ an 
indeclinable particle, as : 
ukuti-Badada, to fall down flat suddenly, 

from ukuti-Bada, to fall down flat. 
ukuti-Cititi, = ukuti-Citi, to come suddenly into sight. 
ukuti-Gqududu, to stumble, 

from ukuti-Gqudu, to stumble once. 
ukuti-Guququ, to turn round quickly, 

from ukuti-Guqu, to turn from one thing into another. 
Where, however, the first syllable of the stem is repeated, the final vowel usually 
becomes a and the resulting verb bears the simple prefix uku, as; 
uku-Dlikidla, to give a good shaking, 

from ukuti-Dliki, to shake once. 
uku-Hlokohla, to keep poking, 

from ukuti-Hloko, to poke. 
uku-Nyikinya, to shake back and forward, 

from uhiti-Nyiki, to cause pain. 
uku-Vikiva, to bruise, 

from ukuti-Viki, to be broken off short. 
N.B. ukuti-Tyeketyi ( = ukuti-Tyeketyeke) to be flabby, does not follow this rule. 

(b) To the second group belong all the remaining verbal forms, of which the following 

are the most noteworthy: 
1. Effective, formed by adding la to the stem, denoting action and frequently 

transitive, as : 



XI. 

uhu-Batula, to take a handful, 

from ukuti-Batu, to take a small part of the whole. 
uku-Cola ( = ukuti-Cd), to pick up. 
uku-Nqamla, to cut off, 

from ukuti-Nqam, to cut off suddenly. 
uku-Nyikila, to pinch, 

from ukuti-Nyiki, to cause pain. 
uku-Jingxela (-ukuti-Jingxe), to hop on one leg. 
uku-Mangala ( = ukutt-Manga), to be amazed. 

In the case of stems ending with a reduplicated syllable, the reduplication is 
discarded before the suffix la : 
uku-Pulula, to rub gently, 

from ukutt-Pululti, to be slippery. 
uku-Kupiihila, to throw out with a jerk, 

from ukutt-Kupiilulti, to get up suddenly. 
N.B. uku-Nqwala, to nod the head, is probably to be considered as a weak verbal 

stem formed from the strong stem ukuit-Nqwale to bow the head, rather than 

as a derivative from ukutt-Nqwa. Similarly uku-Ntywila, to dive, is rather to 

be considered as a weak verbal stem formed from ukuti-Ntywili than as a 

derivative from ukutt-Ntywi. 
uku-Dwela is a relative form of uhiti-Dwe. 
, 5tatlve, formed by adding ka, indicating a state of being acted upon, actually or 
potentially, and usually intransitive, as: 
uku-Badluka, to be perforated with large holes, 

from ukutt-Badlu, to pierce. 
uku-Boioka ( = iikiiti-Botd), to be indented. 
uku-Dilika ( = ukutt-Dili), to fall in by reason of rain, 
uku-Nqamka, to be cut off, 

from ukutt-Nqam, to cut off suddenly. 
In the case of stems ending with a reduplicated syllable, the reduplication is 
discarded before the suffix ka, as : 
uku-Jibilika ( = iihit't-Jibilili). to go back on one's word. 
uku-Kupuluka ( -ukuti-Kupululu), to get up at once. 

The verb ukuti-Fuku forms a good illustration of a stem which in its primary form 
may be either transitive ('to lift up') or intransitive ('to swell a little'); it 
becomes definitely transitive m the form uku-Fukula, to lift up, and definitely 
intransitive in the form uku-Fukuka, to rise, as from fermentation. 
N.B. Two verbs uku-Nqika ( = ukutl-Nqi), to open, and uku-Qusheka ( = ukiitt-Qushe) 

to cover out of sight, are treated as stems and form definite stative forms of 

their own : uku-Nqikeka, to be opened up, and uku-Qushekeka, to be hidden. 
. Factitive, formed by adding za, implying the act of inducing a certain tate or 
action, as: 
uku-Gqadaza, to move hither and thither, 

from ukutt-Gqada, to come unexpectedly. 
uku-Dweza, to form into line, 

from ukuti-Dwe, to stretch out in line. 
uku-Diliza, to demolish, 

fi-om ukutt-DUi, to fall in through rain. 
uku-Gqohoza, to break open by a heavy blow, 

from ukutt-Gqobogqobo, to break out, as sores. 
uku-Qapuza, to puff out smoke or to raise dust, 

from ukuti-Qapu, to puflf out, in smoking a pipe. 
uku-Tyumza, to break by pressing together, 

from ukutl-Tyum, to bruise. 



Xll. 

N.B. nkii-Hiishuza, from Hush, restores a lost u. 

In the case of stems ending with a reduplicated syllable, the reduplication is 
discarded before the suffix za, as: 

nku-Dttndnluza ( = ukutt-Dii!idultdu), to lie at full length. 
uhi-Fiiiiza f --ukiitt-Finini), to make grimaces. 
ukii-QongqoJoza, to pour out wholly, 

from iihit'i-Qongqololo, to be poured out. 
uhi-Nycheh'za ( = ukuil'NyebeleleJ, to steal away stealthily. 

Effective, Stative and Factitive forms appear sometimes to be intensified by the 
insertion of the syllable In in front of the suffix, as: 
Intensive effective, uku-BuiiyuIitla, uku-Hlubuhila, nhi-Vutulula. 
Intensive stative, iiku-Hlubuluka, uku-Tapuluka, tiku-ViUuluka. 
Intensive factitive, tikn-Taptduza. 

Analogy, however, suggests that these forms are derived from strong stems 
(nkuti-Bunyululii, iikutt-Hluhtiltihi, ukuti-Tapululu, and ukiUtViitululu) which are 
either lost or have not yet been detected as existing in Kafir. 

4. Progressive, formed by adding zda to the stem and conveying the idea of 

continued or repeated action, as: 

uku-Tyatyazela, to keep on making a noise like the cracking of timber, 

from ukuti-Tyalyatya, to creak, as a falling tree. 
uku-Xokozela, to keep on making a confused noise, 

from uknti-Xokoxoko, to make a noise. 
iihi-Bmgczda, to glitter, 

from uhit'i-Benge, to flash. 
N.B. In a number of cases zela is a compound verbal form. Factitive-relative, 

as: uku-Tyobozela, to break through at a place, derived directly from uku-Tyo- 

boza, and indirectly from ukut'i-Tyobo, to break. 

5. Durative, formed by adding ma to the stem, and expressing the idea of more or 

less prolonged action, or indicating a state of activity, as: 
uku-Badama, to lie in wait, 

from nkiiti Badn, to fall down flat. 
uku-Nyikimn, to tremble, 

from ukut'i-Nyiki, to cause pain. 
uku-Pazma, to wink quickly. 

from tikuti-Pazi, to obtain a momentary glance of a thing. 
uku-Cukumn, to go off, as a gun, 

from uktitl-Cuku, to touch lightly. 
uku-Diidunia, to thunder,- to keep on making the noise du, du. 
ukii-Xiuna, to leap up and down in one spot, 

from ukuti-Xu, to jump. 
Where the stem ends in a reduplicated syllable, the reduplication is discarded 
before adding ma, as: 
uku-Butuma, to lie on the belly, as cattle, 

from nkuti-Butiitu, to crouch suddenly. 

6. Operative, formed by adding ba to the stem, and expressing action. This suffix 
is very similar to Ja. 
nkii-Diba, to fill up a hole, 

from uhiti-Di, to pour in upon. 
uku-Nxiba ( = ukuti-NxiJ, to put on (clothes), 
uku-Tsiba (= ukut't-Tsi), to jump up. 
uku-Ngqiiba ( - ukiiti-Ngqu), to knock up against. 



Xlll. 

7. Punctative, formed by adding ta to the stem, and expressing definite and pointed 
action, closely related to pa which is referred to later on, as: 
ukii-Bimbtta ( = ukutt-Bhnbt), to swallow up greedily. 
uku-Pepeta, to blow away (actively), 
from tihutt-Pepe, to flutter. 

Simple verbal forms derived from Nouns. 

Many nouns and adjectives in Kafir are treated as strong stems, from which 
simple verbal forms are derived by the addition of an extra syllable in the same 
manner as is followed in forming simple verbal forms from the uninfiected particles. 
In cases where the stem is reduplicated, the verbs are formed from the simple 
unreduplicated stem. The outstanding simple verbal forms so derived are as 
follows : 

1 . Effective, formed by the addition of la to the stem, as : 

uhi-Limala, to be crippled, 

from isi-Lima, a cripple. 
uku-Fipala, to become dim, 

from ti-Fipa, obscurity. 
uku-Yelenqela, to concert secretly an evil plan, 

from /- Yelenqe, a secret plan. 
uku-Badula, to wander about, 

from isi-Badubadu, a wanderer. 
uku-Jaada, to go in rags, 

from i-Jacii, a rag. 
uku Punyiila, to cause to slip off, 

from im-Punyutnpunyu, slippery. 
uku-Tutula, to carry off, 

from i-Tutu, a robber. 

2. 5tative, formed by the addition of ka to the stem, as: 

uku-Vetyeka, to be flexible, 

from i- Vetyevetye, flexible. 
uku-Kewuka, to have the edge broken out, 

from isi-Kewu, a nick in the blade of a knife. 
uku-Nyoluka, to be greedy, 

from Nyolunyolu, greedy. 
uku-Punyuka, to slip off, 

from im-Punyumpunyu, slippery. 
uku-Rauka, to be singed, 

from i-Rau, a nettle. 
N.B. The form uku-Baneka, from lun-Bane lightning, acquires in addition a causative 
signification : baneka apa, bring the light here. 

3. Factitive, formed by the addition of za to the stem, as; 

uku-Htbasa, to gad about, 

from isi-Hiba a fool. 
uku-Hekeza, to act foolishly, 

from i-Hekeheke, a foolish person. 
uku-Nikiza, to tear into shreds, 

from ama-Nikiniki, rags. 
uku-Goxoza, to ratlle, 

from u-Goxo, a heap of things that rattle. 
uku-Hlii<empuza, to become poor, 

from i-Hlwempu, a poor person. 
uku-Pamza, to fumble, 

from isi-Pampam, a wanderer. 



XIV. 

4. Progressive, formed by adding zela to the stem, as: 

tiku-Laqazela, to be restless, 

from isi-Laqa, a restless person. 
iiku-Lekezela, to hang loosely, 

from Lekeleke, hanging loosely. 
uku-Bikizela, to shake from being swollen and watery, 

from i-Bikibiki, a swollen part hanging loosely. 
uku-Bakuzela, to hurry along with garments flapping, 

from Bakiibaku, flapping. 

5. Durative, formed by adding ma to the stem, as: 

liku-Lulama, to be submissive, 

from Liila, light in weight. 
uku-Pongoma, to project, 

from isi-Pongo, a person with a protuberant forehead. 
ukii-Puiuma, to go in search of, 

from Putuputu, hasty. 
uku-Tukuma, to throb, 

from in-Tuku, a mole. 

6. Ingressive, formed by adding pa to the stem, and denoting definite and pointed 

action, action in point of time, being closely akin to ta, as: 
uku-Vilapa, to idle, 

from i-Vila, an idler. 
uku-Hlonipa, to be bashful from respect, 

from in-Tloni, bashfulness. 
uku-Kalipa, to be bold, 

from ubu-Kali, sharpness. 
uku-Nandipa, to expect with joy, 

from Mnandi, pleasant. 
uku-Ncipa, to grow less. 

from Nci, little. 

7. Punctative, formed by adding ta to the stem, as: 

uku-Lakata, to trouble a person, 

from tt-Laka, officiousness. 
uhi-Yeketa, to hold lightly, 

from i-Yekeyeke, a person whose attention is easily distracted. 
ului-Gongota, to beat often, 

from i-Gongo, a swelling. 

8. Causative, formed by adding sa to the stem, and corresponding to the suffix isa 

formed from weak verbal stems, as : 
uku-kwalasa, to eat unripe maize, 

from kwala, nearly ripe. 
uku-Dulusa, to incline towards, 

from u-Duludulu, continual disagreement. 
uku-Tumisa, to hurt an old wound, 

from in-Tumintunu, easily irritated. 

Compound verbal forms from strong stems. 

The primary verbal forms from strong stems may be combined as indicated by the 
following table in a great variety of ways. 

Compound form Stem 

Reduplicated Qittqiti QUI 

-effective Bovubovula Bdvu 

-stative Guquguqiika Guqu 

-reciprocal Qiwuqiwukana Qlwu 

,, -factitive Nkentenkentesa Nkente 



-progressive 


Nxenxhela 


-reciprocal 


Nxinxizelana 


-relative 


Nxenxizelela 


Effective 


Xwila 


-reciprocal 


Nqamlana 


-relative 


Xovulela 


-stative 


Cubuleka 


., -causative 


Golisa 


Stative 


Puluka 


-reciprocal 


Pulukam 


-2 


Guqukeka 


-relative 


Qetukela 


-reciprocal 


Capukelana 


-causative 


Fukukisa 


-reciprocal 


Cnpukisana 


-relative 


Vitikisela 


Factitive 


Hlekeza 


[ -relative 
( Progressive 


Hlekezela 


Dimftzela 


f Factitive -relative -reciprocal 
X Progressive -reciprocal 


Qekezelana 


Dumzelana 


Progressive -stative 


Pepezeleka 


( -causative 
(.Factitive -relative -causative 


Duduzelisa 


Menyezelisa 


Progressive -relative 


Bengezelela 


Factitive -stative 


Botozeka 


-causative 


Hilizisa 


Durative 


Pazima 


-reduplicated 


Xmnaxuma 


-relative 


Piitumela 


-reciprocal 


Lulatnelana 


-stative 


Lulameka 


-causative 


Pazimisa 


-relative 


Lulamisela 


Operative 


Diba 


-reciprocal 


Dibana 


-causative 


Dibanisa 


-relative 


Tsibela 


-2 


Nxibelela 


-reciprocal 


Nxibelelana 


-stative 


Dibeleleka 


-stative 


Ngqubeka 


Ingressive 


Nandipa 


-relative 


Nandipela 


-stative 


Ncipeka 


-causative 


Ncipisa 


-relative 


Ncipisela 


Punctative 


Kweleta 


-relative 


Kweletila 


-reciprocal 


Kweletelana 


-causative 


Kweletelisa 


-stative 


Nyinyiteka 


-causative 


Nyinyitekisa 


-causative 


Hlokotisa 


-relative 


Namatisela 



Nxi 

Nxi 

Nxi 

Xwi 

Nqam 

Xovu 

Cuba 

Go 

Pululu 

Pululu 

Guqu 

Qetu 

Capu 

Fuku 

Capi 

Viti 

Hleke 

Hleke 

Dimfi 

Qeke 

Dumdum 

Pepe 

Du du du 

Menye 

Benge 

Bold 

Hilt 

Pazi 

Xii 

PutupM 

Lula 

Lula 

Pazi 

Lula 

Di 

Di 

Di 

Tsi 

Nxi 

Nxi 

Di 

Ngqu 

Mnandi 

Mnandi 

Nci 

Nci 

Nci 

Kwkle 

Kwkle 

Kwkle 

Kwkle 

Nyinyi 

Nyinyi 

Hloko 

Nama 



strong stems wanted. A critical examination of Kafir verbs, based on the facts 
that have been brought forward in connection with Primary or Strong stems indicates that 
there are in Kafir many verbal forms now in use which have sprung from strong stems that 
have not as far as the present edition of the Dictionary is concerned been detected as 
occurring nowadays in Kafir. A list of such words is attached, in order that students of 
the language may help in gathering strong stems which may still be in use, though omitted 
in this edition, or in tracing the stems in allied languages. 

The strong stems are hinted at by a division of the words, as dabu-la and dabu-ka, 
whose root is found in the Zulu ukuti-dabu; and pub u-ka and pubu-za, whose root is found 
in the Zulu ukutipubu ; in the case or four-syllabled words ending in-liila or-luka, the pro- 
bable stem is a four-syllabled word ending in lulu, as shwabulula from ukutl-shwabululu. 

In the present edition of the dictionary, a number of these verbal forms have been 
entered under the corresponding weak stems, as etiika under eta, and jwaqulula under jwaqa 
but the conclusions from the present investigation would suggest their separation from the 
corresponding weak stems. Let them be placed under the strong stems, if such are known, 
or else let them stand by themselves. 



Strong Stem 


Effective form 

ahlu-la 

andlu-la 
ane-la 


Stative form 

aJdu-ka 
alu-ka 


Causative form 
alu-sa 


Factitive or 
Progressive 

ane-za 




apu-la 


apu-ka 


apu-sa 






balu-la 






bambe-zela 
bange-zela 




bo-la 






bo-zisa 
bongo-za 




buku-la 






buhi-za 


Z. ukut'i-bushu 










bushu 


bushu-la 






bushu-za 
cengce-zela 


Z. ukutt-dabu 


dabu-la 
dima-la 
dlatu-la 
duma-la 
dwabu-lula 

hlwabu-la 

jwaqu-lula 

kala-la 

kanye-la 

kata-la 

kubu-la 

kumbu-la 

kuta-la 

liba-la 


dabu-ka 

dlatu-ka 

divabu-luka 

etu-ka 

fudu-ka 

godu-ka 

hlalu-ka 


etu-sa 
fudu-sa 

godu-sa 
hlwabu-sa 

kubu-sa 


dima-za 
duma-za 

fut^-za 

gqibe-za 

hlalu-zela 

hlenge-zela 

kala-za 
kanye-za 
kata-za 

kumbu-za 

kuta-za 

liba-zisa, 



Strong stem 


Effective fonii 


Stative form 


Causative form 




nabu-lula 


nabu-luka 






ndulu-la 


ridulu-ka 






nqiitu-la 


nqutu-ka 






nyu-la 


nyu-ka 


nyu-sa 




opu-la 










oyi-ka 


oyi-sa 




pala-la 


pala-ka 






pengu-lula 






Z. ukuti-pubu 




pubu-ka 





Factitive or Progressive 
meme-za 



pala-la 


pala-ka 




phla-za 
pileke-zela 


pengu-lula 






pinde-zela 




pubu-ka 




pubu-za 
pume-za 
punge-zela 




qamba-ka 




qamba-za 


qandu-la 




qandu-sela 




shutnaye-la 






shutnaye-za 


shwabu-lula 


shwabu-luka 






sonde-la 






sonde-za 




sudu-ka 


sudu-sa 






tumbu-ka 


tumbu-sa 


vute-zela 
xamle-za 
xine-zela 
xugxu-zela 


xwebu-la 


xwebu-ka 




zungule-za 


we-la 






we-za 



Students of Kafir will recognise that this enquiry into strong stems and their derivatives 
might be carried still deeper and result in the breaking up into their component parts of 
many dissyllabic words that in the meantime have been allowed to pass as stems ; some of 
the suffixes referred to above run right through the dictionary, e.g.-la (bala, bala, bila, bula, 
bula, cala, cela, cila, cula, etc. ), or-pa (bopa, cbpa, cupa, kapa, papa, pepa,pipa, pupa). Concentrated 
study on such words ought to yield profitable results by leading us straight to the elemental 
syllables on which the language is built up. 



B Secondary or Weak Stems. 

Secondary stems consist almost entirely of Kafir verbs in the usually accepted 
grammatical sense, i.e. of words after the pattern of M^M-i*a, uku-TsJia, uku-Wa. That 
these verbs are derived from older strong stems is shewn by many illustrations from 
current Kafir, as uku-Tsha to burn, from ukutt-Tshe; uku-Bukuqa to overthrow, from 
ukuti-Bukuqu; uku-Cima to extinguish, from ukutiChni; and such illustrations suggest that 
a very fruitful line of study lies in investigating the origin of the weak verbal stems 
ending in a. 

From these weak stems are derived many verbal forms either 

[I] by the direct addition of one or more syllables, or 

[II] by the addition of one or more syllables with an accompanying change in the 
final a of the weak stem. 



I. The outstanding simple forms derived from weak stems by the direct addition of a 
suffix without any alteration of the final a are : 

1. Reduplicated, as Bexabixa (from Bexa), to mix by stirring. 

In such a word as Hlaktihlakula, it seems at first sight as if the reduplication 
were confined to the first two syllables, but fuller knowledge will probably shew 
that this word as well as others (Cdbacabasa, Cazucazulula and Cwilicwilisha) are 
reduplications of dissyllabic strong stems with a suffix added. 

2. Reciprocal, formed by adding na to the weak stem, and expressing relationship 

between two parties both of which may be included in the subject or one of which 
may be the subject and the other the complement of the verb ; as Tandana (from 
Tanda) to love one another. 
The verb uku-Tsho makes uku-Tshono in the reciprocal. 

3. Intensive Effective, formed by the addition of lala to the weak stem, as: 

Fumbalala, to lie in a heap, 

from Fumba, to heap up. 
Pangalala, to scatter abroad, 

from Panga, to seize. < 

Tshangalala ( = Tshanga), to be hasty. 

4. Intensive Stative, formed by the addition of kala to the weak stem, as: 

Bonakala, to appear, 

from Bona, to see. 
Fihlakala, to be mysterious, 

from Fihla, to hide. 
Vakala, to be audible, 

from Va, to hear. 

5. Progressive, formed by the addition of zela to the weak stem, as: 

Babazela, to flap about, 

from Baba, to flutter. 
Ndandazela ( = Ndanda), to flutter about. 
Papazela, to flap the wings, 

from Papa, to flap. 
Xapazela, to splash, 

from Xapa, to lap. 

6. Durative, formed by the addition of ma to the weak stem, as: 

Bahama, to be furious, 

from Baba, to flutter. 
Otama, to lounge, 

from Ota, to warm oneself at a fire. 
Papama, to be wakeful, 

from Papa, to become awake. 
Tozama (= Toza), to be quiet. 
Xakama, to be suspended by being caught in a tree, 

from Xaka, to puzzle or hinder. 

7. Punctative, formed by the addition of ta to the weak stem, as: 

Dubata, to perplex, 

from Diiba, to mix. 
Fumbata, to grasp and keep, 

from Fumba, to pile up. 
Lambata, to be destitute, 

frcm Lamba, to become hungry. 



XIX. 

II. The outstanding simple forms derived from weak stems by the addition of a suffix 
with an accompanying change in the final a are: 

1 . Relative, formed by changing final a into ela, and indicating that the action of 

the verb is directed towards some person, animal, place, or thing, as: 
Bopela, to bind for, 

from Bopa to bind. 
N.B. uku-Tsho forms ukuTsholo, and the adv. Kd when affixed to a pronoun may 

assume the form kolo. 

2. 5tative, formed by changing final a into eka, as: 

Lahleka, to be lost, 

from Lahla, to throw away. 
Gauleka, to be fit for chopping or to be chopped, 

from Gaula, to chop. 

3. Causative, formed by changing final a into -isa, as: 

Ngenisa, to bring in, 

from Ngena, to enter. 
Tengisa, to sell, 

from Tenga, to buy. 



Compound Verbal forms from Weak stems. 

In the following table some indication is given of the variety of ways in which 
the simple forms from weak stems may be combined : 
Compound form 
Reduplicated Bojabdja 

Reduplicated-reciprocal Betabetana 

,, -relative Citac'itela 

,, -relative -2 Piimapumelela 

-stative Gxobagxobika 

-causative Palapalisa 

Reciprocal Tandana 

Reciprocal -causative Bambanisa 

-reciprocal Kmdanisana 

-relative Futanisela 



Intensive-effective 



Intensive-stative 



-causative 

-relative 

-relative 

-causative 
-causative 



Progressive 

-relative 
-causative 
Durative 
-relative 
-causative 
Punctative 

-relative 
-stative 
-causative 



-reciprocal Pambaniselana 
-stative Betaniseka 

Pangalala 
Pangalalisa 
Pangalalisela 
Bonakala 
Bonakalela 
Bonakalelisa. 
Bonakalisa 
(intensified) Bonakalalisa 
-relative Bonakalisela 
(intensified) Bonakalalisela 
Papazela 
Papazelela 
Xapazelisa 
Papama 
Papamela 
Papamisa 
Dubata 
Fumbatela 
Dubateka 
Fumbattsa 



Weak stem 
Bdja 
Beta 
CM 
Puma 
Gxoba 
Pala 
Tanda 
Bamba 
Khnda 
Futa 
Pamba 
Beta 
Panga 



Papa 



Xapa 
Papa 



Duba 
Fumba 
Duba 
Fumba 





Compound form 


Relative 


Abela 


Relative-reciprocal 


Abelana 


-causative 


Xolelanisa 


-stative 


Bandezeleka 


,f -2 


Vumelekeka 


-relative 


Nqwenelekela 


-causative 


Fanelekisa 


-causative 


Pelelisa 


-reciprocal 


Gqibelisana 


-relative 


Sitelisela 


,. -reciprocal 


Eyeliselana 


-stative 


Eyeliseka 


-2 


Bingelela 


-2 -reciprocal 


Fikelelana 


,. -causative 


Lungelelanisa 


-relative 


Lungelelanisela 


-stative 


Sikeleleka 


-causative 


Memelelisa 


-3 


Enzelelela 


-causative 


Patelehlisa 


Stative 


Abeka 


-reciprocal 


Lahlekana 


-causative 


Lahlekanisa 


-relative 


Galelekela 


-2 -reciprocal 


Xomekelelana 


-causative 


Famkisa 


-reciprocal 


Lahlekisana 


-relative 


Fanekisela 


-2 


Ganekeka 


Causative 


Misa 


-reciprocal 


Bolekisana 


-relative 


Ftimblsela 


-reciprocal 


Miselana 


-stative 


Miseleka 


V -2 


Lungiselela 


-reciprocal 


Lungiselelana 


-stative 


Andiseha 


-2 


Bikisisa 


-reciprocal 


TMsisana 


-intransitive 


Visiseka 



Weak stem 
Aba 
Aba 
Xola 
Bandeza 
Vutna 
Nqwena 
Fana 
Pila 
Gqiba 
Sita 
Eya 
Eya 
Binga 
Fika 
Lunga 
Lunga 
Sika 
Mema 
Enza 
Pata 
Aba 
Lahla 
Lahla 
Galela 
Xbma 
Fana 
Lahla 
Fana 
Gana 
Ma 
Boleka 
Fnntba 
Ma 
Ma 
Lunga 
Lunga 
Anda 
Bika 
Teih 
Va 



XXI. 

Enquiry into the present state of our knowledge of Kafir nouns. 
Table of prefixes. The following table shows the various forms of the prefixes for 
the eight classes of Kafir nouns: 

Class Sing. Plur. 

aba (dbe, ab) 



Hi (i) 



ulu (ul, ulw) 
ulwa 

urn (u) 

ubu (ub, uty) 

uku (uk, ukw) 



ama (am) 
Izin (in) 
izim (im) 

izi (iz) 

'za 

Izin, izim, izi 



The u of cl. I is a personifying prefix, standing apart from um of the same class. The 
changes in the form of the prefix in all the other classes are due to the euphonic demands 
of the language. 

Nouns of class 1. Nouns of class I are very distinctly divided into two groups, (I) 
those with the prefix um, denoting persons, and (2) those with the prefix u, denoting mainly 
personifications. 

(l) Nouns with prefix um, when derived from other stems, are subject to the following 



1. When derived from nouns, adjectives or adverbs, they retain the stem of the 

noun, adjective or adverb unchanged : 
um-Yeke, an unstable person from i-Yekeyeke 

um Dala, an elder Dala, old 

um-Pantsi, an inferior Pantsi, beneath 

2. When derived from weak verbal stems or from any secondary form of such 
weak stems, with the exception of the reciprocal form, they change the final a 
of the active voice into /, and retain the final a of the passive voice: 

um-Bulali, a murderer tim-Bulawa, a murdered person from Bulala 

um-Bambi, a captor um-Banjwa, a captive from Bamba 

um-Fundisi, a missionary ww-i^M^z^iswa, one being trained from Funda 

um-Dunyelwa, one renowned from Duma 

3. When derived from the reciprocal, they soften the final aio e: 

um-Alane, an opponent from reciprocal form of Ala 
um-Alamane, a relative Alama 

um-Gqwagqwane, an excited person Gqwagqwa 

um-Lingane, a companion Linga 

um-Melwane, a neighbour Ma 

um-Zingane, an importunate person Zinga 

One other word um-Mbitele, a person who dies without revealing his wickedness, 
from Mbltela, follows this rule. 

N.B. aba-Ncedani fellow-helpers, and um-Tengelani a customer, are exceptions but 
may both be translators' coinages. 



XXll. 



4. Compound nouns retain the full form of the simple noun from which they are derived : 
um-Gcini-sihlalo and iim-Hlali-ngnpambili, a chairman. 
um-Lilisi-xilongo and iim-Videli-xilongo, a trumpeter. 
wn-Nist-mviila, a rain-maker. 
um-Pumi-mkosi, a warrior. 
um-Veli-nqangi, the great First Cause. 
um-Wisi-mteto, a prophet. 
um-Pitikezi-mayeza, a chemist. 
N.B. um-Lala-kanye, and umSul'udaka are exceptions. 

(2) The prefix m of class I, as far as derivative nouns are concerned, is the personifying 
prefix and may be prefixed to any part of speech or even to a| phrase to form a 
personified noun. Such nouns retain the form of the stem from which they are 
derived. A representative selection of such nouns is given to shev, the wide range of 
the sources from which they are derived. 



from dent. pron. Naiitsi 
adj. Nyulushe 
adv. Napakade 

i-Gogode, cl. 2. sing. 

i-Nyarini, cl. 2. sing. 

ama-Gungqti, cl. 2. plur. 

i-Nkomo, cl. 3. sing. 

i-Nqahe, cl. 3. sing, (dimin.'form). 

isi-Xenxe, cl. 4. sing. 

u-Nyaivo, cl. 5. sing. 

Biiha, imperat. plur. 

Pumla ' let us rest' 

ukutt-Poqo 

ukutt-Xamfu 

Guqiika 

Gweva 

Ngcotsha 

Vimba 
phr. 'Bring down pride' 
phr. 'Agreeing to everything' 
phr. 'Above the arm' 
phr. 'Laughed at by a dog' 
phr. 'Asking the leavings ' of milk 
in the cow's udder' 

The combinations u-No 'mother of and u-So 'father of are referred to at length 
in the body of the dictionary. 

N.B. urn-Tina, one of us, belongs to this group, forming its plural om-Tina. 
u-Gejane, a tramp, follows the analogy of reciprocals. 

The following compound nouns, entered under cl. 5 in the dictionary, should be 
assigned to this group of cl. I : u-F'eptwe, u-Jongwa-lipela, u-Gqada-mbekweni, u-NqapHa- 
ndikiile and u-Qukulti-bede. 



u-Nantsi, So-and-so 

u-Nyulushe, the Spotless One 

u-Napakade, eternity 

u-Gogode, September 

ti-Nyarini, a red-eyed person 

u-Magungqu, a vole 

u-Nkomo, a strong man 

u-Nqatyana, a sparrow 

H-Sixhtxe, 'odd man' 

o-Nyawo-ntle, bringers of good tidings 

u-Bubani, bubonic (lit. 'die ye') 

u-Masipumle, a 'bed' in a girls' game 

u-Poqo, a religious sect 

ii-Xamfu, a policeman 

u-Guqiika, the bateleur 

u-Gwei:n, an illicit diamond-buyer 

u-Ngcotsha, a fast runner 

u-Vimba, a store-room 

u-Tob' iratshi, rinderpest 

u-Vuma-zonke, Pliable 

u-Pezukomkono, the red-chested cuckoo 

u-Hlekwa yinja, a defective maize-cob 

u-CeV izapolo, Venus as an evening star 



XXlll. 

Nouns of class a. 

1. Nouns of class 2 derived from strong verbal stems, from adjectives or adverbs, 
retain the stem unchanged, as: 

i-Pasalala, discord from ukuti-Pasalala 

i-Bengehenge, a glittering thing ukuti-Bengehenge 

i-Fittti, moistness of the skin ukuti-Fit'iti 

i-Bodlo, a tumble-down building ukuti-Bodlo 

i-Batu, a handful ukuti-Batu 

i-Tytimtyum, a brittle thing iikutt-Tyum 

ama-Ngabangaba, may-be may-be's Ngaba 

i-Katnva, the consequence Kamva 

i-Rwola, a nearly-ripe fruit Rwala 

ama-TUetUe, certain things Tile 

i-Pakati, a councillor Pakati 

i-Pukupuku, a fit of anger Pitkupukii 

Except when the derived noun is put in the diminutive, as: 

i-Badlubadlwana, a tattered thing from ukutt-Badlu 

i-Botobotwana, a baby ukuti-Boto 

2. Compound words retain unchanged the stem of the first word in the compound, as: 

i-Hlala-nyatt, lit. sitting on the buffalo, a kind of bird, 
i-Ceba-zinto, lit. devising things, a counsellor. 
i-Pemba-shiya, lit. kindling and leaving, a tale-bearer. 
i-Qaba-mbola, lit. painting with ochre, a 'red'. 
i-Twala-ndwe, lit. bearing the crane-feathers, a warrior. 
ama-Vela-mva, lit. appearing afterwards, offspring. 

3. Personal words derived from the passive voice of weak verbs also retain the stem 
unchanged, as: 

i-Giqwa, one who is satisfied from Giqa 

i-Konxwa, a prisoner Konxwa 

i-Tenwa, a eunuch Tena 

The non-personal i-Bulawo murder, from Bulala, follows the usual rule of non-personal 
derivatives. 

4. In the case of words derived from weak verbal stems, it has not been found possible 
to reach definite conclusions; from the pages of this edition may be culled illustrations of 
words ending in a, e, i, and u, entered as if derived from weak verbal stems, but whether 
all these illustrations are rightly entered remains an open question. Further knowledge 
will probably reveal another and a truer affinity for the two words ending in u, viz. 
i-Gabugabu, and i-Rurti. 

Nouns derived from the reciprocal forms of the verb generally soften the final a to e, 
as: 

i-Bungane, a kind of beetle from reciprocal form of Biinga 

i-Dlelane, a consort Dla 

i-Kolwane, a friend Kolwa 

i-Qabane, a companion Qaba 

i-Tshabane, a rouglxperson Tshaba 

But the following words, also ending in e, are not so derived: i-Bexebexe (which is the 
stem of Bexeza), ama-Bope, i-Cule, i-Fute, i-Gcahe, i-Gcabe, i-Gexegexe, i-Gungiibele, i-Gwegwe, 
i-Gxeke (stem of Gxekeza), i-Hlalutye, i-Kete, i-Kohlekohle, i-Konye, i-Liuge, i-Nqiueme, i-Fike, 
i-Qdle, i-Shweshwe, i-Sinde, i-Site and i-Tende. They are entered here in order to provoke 
enquiry. 



5. O in this class, as in others, is the distinctive non-personal termination, as: 

i-Baviwio, a growl from Bavuma 

i-Beto, a song of triumph Beta 

i-Xiloiigo, a trumpet Xilonga 

The apparent exceptions are, as Bennie suggests, possibly derived directly from 
class 7, and only indirectly from the weak verbal stem : 

i-Limtko, a wise person from ubu-Lumko, wisdom 

i-Nono, a gentleman ubu-Nono, respectability 

i-Tshijolo, a rascal ubu-Tshijolo, rascality 

i-F//tf, a stupid person m^m-F//*?, stupidity 

6. The terminations a and / may indicate either personal or non-personal words, but the 
rules guiding their formation are not yet apparent. As personal words may be given the 
following : 

i-Bida, a thief i-Bidi, a confounder from Bida 

i-Cula, and iCitli, a skilful person Cilia 

iVimba and j-FhM^i, a stingy person Vimbi 

i-Bada, a thief ,, Bada 

i-Gcisa, an expert Gcisa 

i-Gqweta, a law-agent ^ Gqweta 

i-Roti, a hero Rota 

i-Tshitshi, a loafer Tshitsha 

i-Xoki, a liar Xoka 

As non-personal words may be given : 

i-Dinga, a promise Dinga 

i-Linga, an attempt Linga 

ili-Va, feeling Va 

i-Ratshi, pride Ratsha 

i-Tontsi, a drop Tontsa 

i-Xayi, a peg Xaya 

As words which may be either personal or non-personal may be given: 
i-Ncwaba, a grave or a grave-watcher from Ncwaba 

i-Xaba, a bar or a contentious person Xaba 

Nouns of class 3. 

I. The prefix of class 3 in- is found unchanged before the consonants d, g, j, k, t and z, 
as: in-Delo, in-Goiio, in -Jolt, in-Katazo. ift-Teio, in-Zalo, 

Before m, n and simple h, as also before borrowed words, it is shortened to i, as: 
t-Mbatsha, i-Ntcnetya, i-Hambo, i-Kofu (Coffee), i-Ti (Tea). 

Before labials b, p, /, v it becomes im, as : 

im-Bangeli, im-Pasalala, im-Fakwa, im-Veli. 

Before a simple click it demands the voiced sound and the prefix becomes ing, as: 
ing-Camango, ing-Qwenga, ing-Xiibe. 

Before an aspirated click it demands the sharp sound of the click, as : 
in-Citakalo, in-Qwisha, in-Xentsi. 

Before 5 and sh it demands the insertion of / and becomes int, as: 
int-Salela, int-ShumayeJo. 

Before /, r and the prefix in- cannot stand, and, with the very doubtful exceptions 
of i-Ruluwi and i-Rundasi both of which are probably borrowed words, no native 
word belonging to class 3 is found beginning with these letters; foreign words, 
however, occur with the prefix i, as: 
i-Lamnni, i-Rasi, i-Wayini. 

Before hi, it changes the h of the stem to /, as: 
in-Tlalo, from uku-Hlala. 

Before /, it hardens the / to d, as: 
in-Dima, from uku-Lima. 
in-Devu, from isi-Levu. 

Before y there does not appear to be any derivative word of class 3 in Kafir. 



from ukuti-Balakaxa 





Getye 





Fingi 





Jobodo 





Gqushu 




Dumdum 


adj. 


Ngwevu 


adj. 


Pitip'iti 



2. Words of this class derived from strong verbal stems or adjectives retain the 
original stem intact, as: 

hn-Balakaxa, a lazy person 
in-Getyengetye, an overgrown person 
im-FingimJingi, a mass of people 
in-Jobodo, one that struggles 
in-Gqushu, a well-trodden path 
in-Dumdmn, muttering 
i-Ngwevu, a grey-headed man 
im-P'ithnpiti, uproar 

In the body of the dictionary the following exceptions are found, and are noted 
here for further enquiry : 
im-Pinzane, a hermit, 

from ukuti-Pinzi, to yield only a glimpse in passing. 
im-Pepo, a gentle breeze, 

from ukutt-Pepe, to flutter. 
int-Sihlo, the caper-bush, 

from ukuttSihli, to be pitch-dark. 
im-Viko, a goad, 

from ukutl-Viki, to be broken off short. 

3. Compound words also generally retain intact the original stem of the first word in 
the compound: 

im-Faka-dolo, a breechloader from Faka 



in-Gqibela-qoyi, the end 
in-Kuba-bulongo, a dung-beetle 
im-Puma-langa, the East 
in-Tshona-langa, the West 
im-Vela-nqangi, the great First Cause 
im-Vusa-kufa, something bringing death 



Gqiba rel. form 

Kiiba 

Puma 

Tshdna 

Vela 

Vusa 



Contrast, however, in-Tlek'abafazi, ing-Qonomfel'encwadini and intSengwebekwa. 
4. Where words of this class have been derived from the reciprocal form of verbs or 
assimilated to reciprocal forms they generally soften the final a to e, as: 

itn-Balasane, that which is conspicuous from reciprocal form of Balasa 

im-Belekane, something clinging to one 

im-Btdane, something that confounds 

in-Cucane, something perforated 

in-Gqatsane, burning heat 

in-Gumbane, an imaginary boring creature 

in-Jalane, an ill-natured person 

in-Kintsane, a jump 

%'-Kul1lwane } ^ fellow-countryman 

i-Ngungane, a crowd 

tm-Palane, a new hide garment 

int-Shiyelaue, a remnant 

in-Tatambane, a- frolicsome child 
At the same time it is to be noted that quite a number of words derived from recipro- 
calsand especially from the passive voice assume the recognised non-personal termina- 
tion of 0. Such words are: im-Balelano and im-Balelwano, itn-Bambano, im-Bangiswano, 
im-Bukwano, in-Kulelwano, im-Pikiswnno, in-Teugehvano, Un-Vtsisano and im Visiswano, 
im-Vuselelwano ; in some instances these may^belong to the plural of cl, 5. 



Bida 

Chca 

Gqatsa 

Gumba 

Jala 

Kintsa 

Kula 

Ngunga 
Pala 
Shiya 
Tatamba 



XXVI. 

5. A number of nouns ending in e and not explained by the above rules have been 
entere' as derivatives from weak verbal stems; they are gathered here for reference, 
in oroer that they may be submitted by students to closer examination. These words are : 
im-Bamhk, im-Bencebence, iniBdndembdnde, im-Bune, in-Jube, in-Kelenkele, in-Ket^, in-Kutne- 
nkume, i-Neenceshe, itn-Pangele, tm-Pohole, in-Tende, in-Tungele, im-Vume, ing-Xiibe. In some 
instances at least they will be found to be derived from strong verbal stems and to accord 
with rule 2 above. 

6. Three words ending in u : im-Bacu, i-Ntlantlu and i-Nxiinxu, have been inserted as 
derivatives of weak verbal stems, but they may have to be removed from their present place. 

7. O in derivative nouns of class 3 is distinctively non-personal, as : 

im-Pilo, health from Pila 

intSabo, flight Saba 

ing-Qondo, understanding Qonda 

8. Nouns of this class ending in a or /, and derived from weak verbal stems, may be 
either personal or non-personal, though preference is given to a for non-personal, and to i 
for personal, significations. The idea of expertness or excellence often attaches to the 
personal nouns of this class ending in i. 

As personal words may be given: 

i-Ndongela, a weak person from Ndongela 

im-Panza, dispersed people Panza 

in-Tanda, a beloved one Tanda 

in-Tshatshela, a hero Tshatshela 

in-Kosi, a chief Koka 

in-Kweli, a good horseman ,, Kwela 

i-Nyabi, a fool Nyaba 

intShumayeli, a fine speaker Shumayela 

As non-personal words may be given :] 

i-Mbatsha, barrenness from Mbatsha 

i-Ncwina, a moan Ncwina 

intSalela, remnant Sala 

im-Pinda, the double Phtda 

i-Nqolotici, the back of the head Nqolonca 

in-Jikelczi, going round and round Jikeleza 

ing-Xozi, fine inner bark Xoza 

intSomi, a fable Soma 

Some words, as i-Nqala and int-Suzi, may have both a personal and a non-personal 
meaning. 
Nouns of class 4. 

I. The prefix isi of class 4 becomes is before the vowels a, e and 0, the only exceptions 
being isi-Aha-aha, which is an onomatopoetic word, and isi-Alam from Du. arm. It occurs in 
the form isa in over forty different words, and in this form may be further varied by the 
addition of w or n to meet the euphonic demands of the language, as: 

isa-Bbbb, something wide and deep cf i-Bbbb, a hole 

isa-Dyenge, a tear starting 
isa-nDawane, the spotted hyena 
isa-mPompolo ") 
isa-Pbmpolo j 

Sii ] a young .hoc, 

isa-tnVemve, a wagtail 
In forty other words it is not certain whether the a of isa is part of the prefix or part 
of the stem. 



a vicious kind of ant 



isi-Dyengedyenge] 
Z. isi-Dawane 

isi-Pbnipolo. 



um-Vemve 



2. Nouns of class 4 derived from strong verbal stems or from adjectives retain the 
stem unchanged : 

isi-Kahla, things cast in a heap from ukutt-Kahla 

isa-Mbembe, a bore Mbenibe 

isi-Tshikitshiki, one who despises his friends Tshiki 

isa-Ngco, a sweetheart Ngco 

isi-Pitu, a squinting eye Petu 

isi-Nqam, a bit of a thing Nqam 

isi-Fittpiti, confusion adj. Pittpiti 

isi-Potopoto, a nimble person Pbtbpbtb 

isi-Pukupuku, a senseless person Pukupiiku 

3. Compound words generally retain unchanged the stem of the first word of the 
compound : 

isi-Bulala-mntu, a murderer. 
isi-Dla-kudla, a glutton. 
isi-Vuka-mpunzi, one who starts a discussion. 
isi-Tuta~ndaba, a scandal-carrier. 
Contrast, however, isi-Munguny' igazi, a blood-sucking fly. 

4. Nouns derived from the passives of weak verbal stems remain unchanged when 
personal, but change the final aXo when non-personal : 

isi-Tandwa, a loved one from Tanda 

isi-Dalwa, a creature Dalu 

isi-Gxekwa, a laughing-stock Gxeka 

isi-Shiywa, a forsaken woman Shtya 

isi-Tunywa, a messenger Tuma 

isi- Tungwa, a silent person Tunga 

is-Aktwo, a building Aka 

isi-Biwo, theft Ba 

isi-Bulawo, the magical cause of death Bulala 

5. Nouns derived from the reciprocal forms of the verb or assimilated to reciprocal 
forms generally soften the final ato e : 

is-Alamane, a relative from reciprocal form of Alama 

isi-Tandatie, a trusty person Tanda 

isi-Zolane, a grave person Zola 

isi-Qalatie, a termite heap just forming (dimin. form) 
A number of non-personal nouns derived from reciprocals take the distinctive 
non-personal ending oio, as: is-Ahlukano, is-Ahlukahlukano, is-Ahlulelwano, isi-Lungelano and 
isi-Pikiswano. 

The following words ending in e, though not derived from reciprocals, have been 
entered under weak verbal stems and are noted here to stimulate research : isi-Bexebexe, 
isi-Dubedube, isa-Dunge, isi-Gwegwe, isa-Nabe, isa-Nuse, isa-Qunge, isi-Ralarume, isi-Sinde, 
. isi-Pbti and isi-Tite. Some at least of these are derived from strong verbal stems. 

6. Three nouns ending in m, namely isiPiindlupundlu, isi-Gudu and isi-Tulu, have 
been inserted in the dictionary as derivatives of weak stems. The two latter 
instances raise the question of the power of m in a penult to attract under certain 
conditions the final vowel Vo u also. 

7. As in classes 2 and 3, at the end of a noun derived from a weak verbal stem is 
the distinctive non-personal termination, as : 

is-Ono, sin from Ona 

isi-Gqibo, a decision Gqiba 

isi-Kalazo, a complaint Kalaza 



from 


Ala 




Banxa 





Jora 




Gidima 




Ona 


" 


Swela 


from 


Dumba 





Paluka 





Tya 





Goca 





Vika 





Xw&la 


ed from other nouns, 


iim-Kweta 




um-Xosa 




ili-Zive 




in-Dwe 




tim-Nga 




ubu-Lumko 





8; The terminations a and i may indicate either personal or non-personal words. 
As personal words may be given : 
is-Ala, an obstinate person 
isi-Banxa, a fool 
isi-Jora, a violent person 

isi-Gidimi, a messenger 
is-Oni, a sinner 
isi-Stveli, a poor person 

As non-personal words may be given : 
isi-Dumha, a heap 
isi-Paluka, discontent 
isi-Tya, a dish 

isi-Goci, eloquence 

isi-Viki, a shield 

isiXwali, loss 

9. In this class a number of words have been deri\ 

isi-Kweta, the language of the abahveta from 
isi-Xosa, the Kafir language 

isi'Zwe, a tribe 

isi-Ndwe, crane-feathers 

isi-Nga, an acacia clump 

isi-Lumko, a wise person 

Nouns of class 5. 

I. The prefix of class 5, ulii (in its contracted form n), becomes m/w before stems beginning 
with the vowels a and e, and ul before those beginning with i and 0, as: 
ulw-Abo, manner of dividing from ukw-Aba 

ulw-Enzelelelo , vicarious action ukw-Ema 

ul-Ibo, first fruit ukw-Iba (uku-Ba) 

ul-Olulo, stretching out uk-Olula 

Before some stems beginning with m and n, iilw becomes ulwa, as: 
ulwa-Mvila, a sting from ukutt-Mvi 

lilwa-Ndile, sound uku-Ndila 

ulwa-Ndyula, heavy pain uku-Ndyula 

ulwa-Nana, a foolish braggart cf. i-Nanamfti, a swollen thing 

iilwa-Vela, alarm of conscience, 
probably comes from uku-Vela, and, if so, belongs to 

this group. 

In single instances ulwa demands an m before/, an n before t, and a t before s: 
ulwa-mFitl, a shrub with edible fruit ; cf. isi-Fitu 

ulwa-nTunge, a shiftless person; cf. uhi-Tungatunga and uku-Tungata to roam about. 
ulwa-tSaka, a disorderly heap; cf. in-Tsnkantsaka, a disorderly scattering, from 
ukutiSaka, to scatter, as seed about a field. 

The exact relationships of the following words, and consequently the exact form of 
the prefix, have yet to be determined: ulw-Acane, ulw-Agcibe, ulw-Amityi, ulw-Angwtli, 
ulw-Attle and ulw-Avivi. 

N.B. u-Lamnyani and u-Lamtsasa have been entered in the dictionary as belonging to 
this class. They are personified nouns of class I, the 'Lam' being the Em. equivalent of 
'No' 'mother of. 



XXIX. 

The plural izin, contracted in, is subject to the same euphonic changes as the prefix 
of cl. 3. 

u-Bambo, a rib plur. im-Bamho 

u-Fudo, a tortoise im-Fudo 

ulu-Vo, feeling izim-Vo 

ti-Cango, a door ing-Cango 

u-Qambu, ligament of the tongue ing-Qambu 

u-Xande, a square house ing-Xande 

ulu-Cwi, saliva izin-Cwe 

u-Qwitela, a whirlwind in-Qwitila 

u-Xaxazo, an ankle ornament in-Xaxazo 

ulti-Su, skin izin-tSu 

u-Hlati^a, a tribe in-Tlanga 

ulu-Mvi, a hair izi-Mvi 

u-Nwele, a hair i-Nwele and ama-Nwele 

(with difference of meaning) 

u-Nwabu, a chameleon i-Nivabu and ama-Nwabu 

u-Lovane, a chameleon i-Lovane and ama-Lovane 

ulu-Re, a rumour ama-Re 

It will be noticed that class 5 plural escapes the difficulty of in before r by resorting 

to the plural form of class 2, and that it escapes the similar difficulty of in before / by 

contracting in to i. The younger generation use plural forms of class 2 somewhat 

commonly for nouns of this class; in addition to ama-Nwabu and ama-Lovane they have 

also ama-Bondo, ama-Fudo and ama-Swazi. 

2. Nouns of class 5, formed from strong verbal stems or from adjectives, retain 
the stem intact, as: 

u-Babalala, wide extent from ukuti-Babalala 

ulu-Dwe, a row Dwe 

u-Ncwalazi, early twilight Ncwalazi 

u-Fukufuku, a loose heap Ftiku 

u-Dumdum, muttering Dumdum 

u-Tywinetywine, that which clings adj. Tywinetywine 

u-Ninzi, the majority Ninzi 

u-Kulu, the many Kulu 

N.B. Three words in the dictionary seem to contradict this rule : u-Fehlo weakness, 

from ukuti-Fehle ; u-Viko a pointed pole, from ukuti-Viki, and u-Mfixo (with u-Mfixane) 

stuffiness of the nose, from ukuti-Mftxi. 

3. As the nouns of class 5 are mainly non-personal, they assume the distinctive non- 
personal ending of when derived from weak verbal stems, as : 

u-Hambo, a journey from Hamha 

u-Manyano, union Manya 

u-Velwano, sympathy Va 

uShwesho, marrying without uduli Shweshwa 

u-Liwo, fight Lwa 

u-Bujiso, destruction Bubh 

N.B. For the omission of w before in u-Shwesho and u-Bujiso, cf. isi-Kweko from 
uku-Kwekwa. 

4. A number of problems arise from a consideration of class 5 nouns entered in the 
dictionary as derivatives from simple verbal stems. 

i. The verb uku-Siza to succour, has three derived nouns of this class, viz: u-Sizo 

help; u-Sizi sympathetic sorrow; and uSiza that which is helpful. 
ii. The following words end in a : u-Futa, u-Hlanya, u-Kanda, u-Kida, ulwa-Ndyula, 

ul-Obuza, u-Qwhnesha, u-Qwitela, u-Singa, in-Tupa, u-Tyukutya, u-Tywashumba, 

u-Tywatywa, u-Walakahla and u-Xingwa. 
iii. The following words end in e : u-Cente, u-Kke, u-Kombe, u-Ndwendwe , u-Ngungane 

(reciprocal), u-Melwane (reciprocal), ulwa-Ndile, u-Poti, u-Tinde and ulwan- lunge. 
iv. u-Gwali is more probably the stem of uku-Gwala than a derivative from it. 



Nouns of class 6. 

1. The only modification of the prefix of class 6 is the shortening of the sing, prefix 
before m in the word ii-Moya, air. 

2. Words of this class follow closely the rules for previous classes. Those formed 
from strong verbal stems, from adjectives or adverbs, from the passives of verbs and from 
nouns of other classes retain the stem intact. 



inn-Puta, a fruitless plant from 


iikuti-Puta 


um-Kehlekehle, something worn out 


., Kihle 


tim-Tsi, a jump 


Tsi 


um-Qapu, wild cotton 


Qhph 


um-Pandle, the outside 


adv. Pandle 


um-Pantsi, the lower part 


adv. Pantsi 


uni-Qalwa, a horse being broken in 


Qahx 


um-Gotywa, a clasp-knife 


Goba 


um-Pula, ear-wax 


im-Pula, n. J. 


tim-Gazi, a blood-red bead 


i-Gazi, n. 2. 


um-Sehenzi, work 


umSehenzi, n. I. 



3. Compound words of this class retain the stem of the first word in the compound, as: 

utn-Fa-ngqele, a hungry, lean thing. 
um-Fa-nkungu, haziness. 
um-Lima-ndlela, a boundary. 

4. Words formed from the reciprocal form of verbs or assimilated to a reciprocal 
termination end in e, as: 

um-Alane, opposition from reciprocal form of Ala 

um-Babane, itch or fury Baba 

iim-Bizane, fascination Biza 

um-Kusane, a screen Kusa 

utn-Tsalane, fascination Tsala 

MW-rM/i^fe^iKf, change of garments Tulula 

um-Tezane (from ukutt-Teze), weakness after sickness, also follows this rule. 
There are in addition in the dictionary the 'following five words ending in e, 

entered as derivatives from weak stems: um-Londe, utn-Onde, um-Rube, um-Tende and 

um Xengc. 

5. Three words ending in u: iim-Dumbu a crowd of men sitting at a feast, um-Jivagu a 
very lean animal, and um-Zungulu a climbing creeper, are entered as derivatives of weak 
verbal stems ; all of these words demand further enquiry. 

6. The distinctive termination for nouns of this class formed from weak verbal stems 
is 0, but a few end in / and many end in a. The rules that guide the formation of the 
words in a and / are not yet apparent. As examples of words ending in may be given : 

tim-Bono, a phenomenon from Botia 

urn-Lingo, a temptation Linga 

um-Kumezelo, a drizzling rain Kumezela 

um-Qabo, paint Qa^a 

um-Gongxo, a pit Gongxa 

N.B. tim-Viko, the border of cultivated land, is entered as a derivative of the strong 
stem uktitt-Viki. 

The following end in i: 

um-Gidi, a certain kind of feast from Gida 

cf. um-Gido, a gift of provisions for a feast 
um-Godi, an artificial shaft Goda 

um-Hluzi, broth Hluza 

um-Vumbi, smell from continuous rain Vitmba 

um-Losi, a whistle Loza 



XXXI. 

Over thirty words ending in a have been entered as derivatives from weak verbal stems 
and in at least three cases there are parallel words ending in o: 

um-Pavtba, ambush um-Pambo, a circular handle from Pamba 

um-Panga, loss by death um-Pango, the act of robbing Panga 
um-Ftnda, revenge um-Pindo, a fold Phtda 

The others ending in a are gathered together here for the purposes of study (the 
prefix being omitted) : Basa, Baxa, Bevuza, Bongisa, Cwisha, Dla, Dlatuka, Duka, Dumba, 
Gada, Godla, Gquba, Guxa, Kukula, Lahla, Nyoluka, Pa, Pangalala, Pmiga, Qukuqela, 
Qwemesha, Sekela, Setuluka, Tambama, Timba, Tshaza, Vuka and Xaka. One word um-Lola, 
is entered as from a strong stem, ukuti-Lote. 
Nouns of class 7. 

1. The prefix tibu is contracted to ub before e and o, as: ub-Enzeleleli, ub-Omelelo. 
Before a it may remain uncontracted, as: ubu-Ata-ata and ubu-Atalala, or, in McLaren's 

opinion, it may be palatalised, as in uty-Ani and utyw-Ala. McLaren's finding requires 
further consideration especially in the case of u-Tywala, which appears also as ubu-Tywala 
and even has a plural in-Dywala. 

2, Nouns of this class describe a state and are in the majority of instances derived from 
other nouns; a few are derived from adjectives and from strong verbal stems, and a 
number are formed from weak verbal stems. The general rule applicable to nouns of this 
class is that they retain intact the stem of the word from which they are derived. A few 
words derived direct from the active voice of a weak verbal stem end in o. It is to be 
noted that words formed from class 3 often make a new stem by incorporating the m or n 
of the cl. 3 prefix. 

ubu-Dala, age ' from adj. Dala 

ubu-Mhlope, whiteness Mhlope 



ubu-Manzi, wetness 
ubu-Ngwevu, greyheadedness 
ubu-Hlolo, state of being a widower 
ubu-Bangara, disagreement 
ubu-Mbozisa, corruption 
ubu-Denge, stupidity 
iibu-Ntombi, maidenhood 
ubu-Ngcembe, tardiness 
ubu-Gqwididi, doubt 
ubu-Hlakanipa, cunning 
ubu-Nyakama, moisture 
tibu-Takata, witchcraft 



Manzi 
Ngwevu 
um-Hlolo, n. I 
i-Bangara, n. 2 
im-Bbzisa, n. 3 
isi-Denge, n. 4 
bi-Ntombi, n. 3, 
ukuti-Ngcembe 
ukuti-Gqwididi 
Hlakanipa 
Nyakama 
Takata 



As examples of words formed from weak verbal stems by changing the final a \.o 

may be given: 

ubu-Cwayitb, joyfulness from Cwayita 

ubu-Ncipo, low condition Ncipa 

ubu-Kukuzo, sucking Kuktiza 

3, The following nouns belonging to this class and believed to be derivatives demand 

further enquiry : 

ubu-Me, condition from Ma 

ubu-Dwesi, foolhardiness Dwesa 

uhu-Lanzi, state of need Lamba 

^M-Jw^s/, aiiy. understandable Tweza 

bu-Nkwalatnhesi, adv. hyprocritically Nkwalainbisa 

Nouns of class 8. 

As class 8 is simply the infinitive noun, it calls for no special consideration here. 

Before a, ^ and / .the prefix becomes iikw, as: iikw-Aka, ukw-Enza, iikw-Indla ; and before 

p it is contracted to uk, as: uk-Ona. 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



absol. signifies 


absolute 


intens. signifies 


intensive 


adj. 


adjective 


interj. 


interjection 


adv. 


adverb 


interrog. 


interrogative 


aor. 


aorist 


Kaf. 


Kafir 


app. 


appendix 


lit. 


literally. 


aux. 


auxiliary- 


loc. 


locative 


card. 


cardinal 


n. 


noun 


caus. 


causative 


N.B. 


Note well I 


cf. 


compare 


neg. 


negative 


cl. 


class 


num. 


numeral 


comp. 


compound 


obj. 


object, objective 


condit. 


conditional 


orig. 


originally 


conj. 


conjunction 


P- 


person 


conj. and 




partic. 


participle or particle 


conjunct. 


conjunctive 


pass. 


passive 


contrac. ,, 


contracted 


perf. 


perfect 


cop. 


copula 


pers. 


personal 


dem. 


demonstrative 


phr. 


phrase 


diet. 


dictionary 


pi. and plur. 


plural 


dimin. 


diminutive 


pluperf. 


pluperfect 


distrib. 


distributive 










poss. 


possessive 


Du. 


Dutch 


pot. and 




e.g. 


for example 


potent. 


potential 


Em. 


Embo (Fingo) 


pref. 


prefix 


emphat. 


emphatic 


prep. 


preposition 


Eng. 


English 


prepos. 


prepositional 


esp. 


especially 


pres. 


present 


etc. 


et cetera (and so on) 


pron. 


pronoun or pronominal 


euphem. 


euphemistic 


ref. 


referring 


fig. 


figuratively 


refl. or reflex. 


reflexive 


fr. 


from 


rel. 


relative 


fut. 


future 


sing. 


singular 


HI. 


Hlonipa 


subj. 


subject, subjective 


i. 


intransitive 


t. 


transitive 


i.e. 


that is 


temp. 


temporal 


imperat. 


imperative 


us. 


used 


imperf. 


imperfect 


V. 


verb 


ind. and indicat. 


indicative 


viz. 


namely 


indef. 


indefinite 


voc. 


vocative 


infinit. 


infinitive 


Z. 


Zulu 


When a word is 


printed in SMALL CAPITj" 


LLS, this indicates that it has been borrowed 


from Eng. or Du. 









KAFIR-ENGLISH DICTIONARY. 



A in Kafir is pronounced short as a in 
English sofa: loena, thou; or long as 
a in father : zvako, thine. 

1. It terminates all verbal roots, except 
iikuti, utiU.^ho and ukwazi, and is the only 
inflected vowel in them : ukutanda, to love ; 
ckutandeui, in loving. 

2. This final a changes (a) in the nega- 
tive of the pi-es. and imperf. tense of indi- 
cat. mood, and in the conjunct., potent., 
condit., imperat. and infinit. moods of the 
active voice into /; ndiyatandu, I love; 
aiidiiandi, 1 do not love ; but remains un- 
changed in the passive voice : anditandwa, 
I am not loved, and in the conjunctive past 
(aorist) tense : andatanda, and I loved not. 

(b) In the subjunctive, conjunctive and 
imperative moods it changes into e: ukuze 
alande, that he may love; ahavibe, and 
walk; Jitanditande, let me love; litande, 
(ilizwi), love it (the word). 

3. With the representative letters of the 
governing nouns it forms 

(a) The possessive particle: ua-ica, ia = 
ya, etc., and changes the representative 
letters of the dependent nouns, u into o, and 
*' into e, as lun/azi wa-indoda = umfazi we- 
ndoda, the wife of the man ; izinto za- 
nmiitu izinto zomntu, the things of the 
person. (In poetry the a Ynay be unchanged: 
iimj'azi irandoda). 

Before proper names and in the loca- 
tive cases the full form appears : tc7nntu 
irase-Ku'ruxi, a man of Kubusi river ; faK^o 
zaMi'Mldahcjii, things of the earth ; 



(b) The verbal prefix of the aorist : iida- 
ya, I went ; andaya, and I went not. 

4. It is the pron. subj. of 2 cl. pi. in the 
simple tenses of verbs: umahanht ayaba- 
leka, the horses run; abahka, they ran; aha- 
hkiU, they have run; ayn kubtdeka, they 
will run ; and with adjectives : amahashe alii- 
wjile, the horses are good; amatye anzima, 
the stones are heavy. 

5. It is the rel. pron. of 2 cl. pi. (a) form- 
ing adjectives from verbs: amahashe aba- 
lekayo, the horses which run, i.e. swift 
horses; amadoda alungileyo, the men who 
are good, i.e. the good men; and (b) ex- 
pressing the possessive: amadoda ankonio 
zininzi, the men whose cattle are many; 
amatole am, my calves ; and, when put be- 
fore nouns and pronouns I and 2 cl.pl., 
emphasizing the possessive relation: abctu 
abantu, ovr people ; and giving these classes 
a distinguishing force: awona madoda ma- 
kulu, the really great men in contradistinc- 
tion to others ; awelizwc amadoda, the 
comiiry's men. See bona, wona. 

6. ^4 as used instead of the pron. subject 
u in I cl. (a) in relative sentences which 
fall into the objective: ihashe alitandayo, 
the horse which he loves ; 

(b) In dependent and conjunctive sen- 
tences with or without ukuha, ukuze, or 
ukuti: ukuze ahambe, that he may walk; 
ukuha adle ascle, that he may eat and 
drink ; ukuze abe, that he may be or exist, 



AB 

to be distinguished from a'n, (ebe) that he 
may steal, and abc, that he may distribute ; 

(c) After adverbs of time: .m nhambayo, 
when he walks; 

(d) In the negative of the verb, 3rd p., 
sing., pres., perf., and fut. akatandi, he 
does not love ; 

(e) In a lively narrative: apendule at'i 
kiiye, he answers and says to him. (Pro- 
perly this verb is in the conjunctive mood 
following one understood.) 

7. It is privative (a) forming the negative 
verbal prefixes of the simple tenses of the 
indicative by being put before the prono- 
minal subject: anditandi, I do not love; 
andimncedi mjamali, I do not help him 
with money ; (b) with tia preceding nouns : 
andinamali, I have no money ; see Na 2. i. 

8. A! is a salutation used by an inferior 
to his superior : A, kumkani! Hail, king! A 
Mhodla ! Hail Wildcat ! (the chief Umha- 
la's name) ; witch doctors are greeted A, 
dla-ii(jamaiulla ! but the Amazizi greet 
thus: A, Dlamini! ; in crossing a river: 
A, Dalidipu! A, Tai/i! 

9. a ! Intfvj. of contempt. 

Aba, (a) Prtjix I cl. pi. : ahantii huh'imh'a, the 
people travelled. 

(b) Ud. jiron. I cl. Y>^.: (ihanta ahakohla- 
kdtyo, the people who are bad, i.e. the bad 
people; ahan/a abak'ulu, the people who 
are great, i.e. the great or old people ; 
abakoyo, who are present ; with poss. sig- 
nification ; ahantiL ahamahaxht iidiwaboiii- 
Iti/o, the people whose horses I have seen. 

(c) JJem. prou. I cl. pi. These here : 
aba?'i7/, these people. Put after the noun 
it is weaker and more like the definite 
article : nhuutu nlm, the people. 

(d) Xril. rrrh. ],r>'f. of I cl. pi. of all 
tenses: aba/'/<", they are not asleep; to be 
distinguished from abalclc, who are asleep ; 
abahl((f ;/(, they have not been stabbed, 
abahlaii/v-e, who have been stabbed; aba- 
linnjd'', ihey ?irQ not good or fit for ; ab5- 
luvtjde., who are good or fit for ; and of the 
conjunctive past of I cl. pi. : nhantu abat'eta, 
and the people spoke not ; and of 7 cl. : 
uhuln-elu-e abaxiika, and the sickness did not 
go away. 

Aba, Those yonder, see Ahaya. 

ukw-ABA, v.t. pass, ukwdlnwn, To divide 
in portions, distribute, allot: uyazaha 
impahla zak'e, he apportions his chattels; 
ukiize ahe, that he may distribute ; see 



AB 

A, 6. b. {Aha, abbrev. rel. 2 cl. pi who or 
which divide ; aha, absol. past, they divided; 
aha, conjunctive past, and they divided; 
dhd short pres., they divide). 
um-Abi, )(. I. A divider, an arbiter, 
is-Abo, 11. 4. ^ ,, i- ,. ,. 

ulw-Abo, n. 5 I Manner of dividmg, etc., 

nlwaho lunye, or isabo siiiye, one manner 
of dividing. 
ulw-Ablwo, n. 5. Apportionment. 
ukw-Abeka, v. To be divided, separated, 

distributed, divisible, separable. 
Abela, r. To divide, apportion, distri- 
bute for, or among : ndamahda iiikomo 
zam, or ezinkomeni znm, I gave him a por- 
tion of my cattle ; kwatyelwa, partners are 
assigned at a marriage. 
um-Abeli, n. i. One who apportions or di- 
vides to others. 
um-Abelwa, n. i. Partner, shareholder. 
is-Abelo, n. 4. Portion, part, share of what 
is apportioned : isahdo mvi, my share or 
portion. 
ukw-Abelana, r. To give reciprocally; to 
divide among each other : hayahdana nye- 
mali, they divide the money with each 
other, i.e. each has a share in the money. 
Abange, Ncg. verb. pref. I cl. pi., see Bamje. 
Abanye, Adj. l cl. pi. Some, others: see Nye. 
Abaya, contrac. aba, Dem. prou. l cl. pi. 
Those yonder: abaya bantu, those people 
there, yonder, distant ; to be distinguished 
from abayd, and they went not ; see aba (d). 
Abe, Aux. in forming compound tenses 2 cl. 
pi. : ahe et'et'a, contracted abe/'e/'a, they [ama- 
doda, men) were or have been speaking; 
see tiku-Ba, 1 . 2. a. 
ulw-Abici, . 5. Home affairs. 
Abo. (a) Dem. prou. I cl. pi. Those : uhobaiifK, 
those persons. Its meaning stands mid- 
way between aba and abaya; aba, those by 
me ; abo, those by you ; abaya, those yonder, 
(b) Prou. poss. 3 p. pi. ref. to 2 cl. pi. 
Their; amazwi aho, (ahantu) their (the 
people's) words; and of 7 cl. Its: ukujika 
kwaho (nbukumkani), its (the kingdom's) 
arrival ; see Bo, I (b). 
is-Ab6b6, n. 4. See under i-Bobd. 
is-ABOKWE, 11. 4. A whip made of hippopo- 
tamus hide ; fr. the Du. sambok. 
Abona. See Bona. 

is-Abongo, ?(. 4. Foul, offensive eructation 
from the stomach after eating anything with 
an offensive smell, or drinking too much ; 
t(l)odV isah'ongo, he casts up a bad smell. 



A 

is-Abonkolo, n. 4. A tadpole. 

All throat diseases, according to Kafir 

belief, are caused by this animal. 
Abu, Neg. verb. pre/. 7 cl. : uhuknmkani ahu- 

fiki, the kingdom does not arrive. 
Abunge, Nerj. verb. pre/'. 7 cl., see Bttnge. 
is-Acaka, n. 4. = isa-Caka. 
ulw-Acane, n. 5. A kind of shrub. 
is-Aci, 11. 4. =im-Ci. 
is-Ac6lo, 11. 4. Arm-ring, bracelet worn as 

an ornament. 
is Adiunge, n. 4. A kind of Protea, larger 

than isi-Qwane. 
is-Adunge, n. 4. See under uka-Dunfjn. 
is-Adyenge^=^if<i-I)yengedyenge. 
is-Adywedywe, ti. 4. A good for nothing, 

useless person; a girl whom no one will 

marry. 
is-Afobe, n. 4.=isi-Fobe. 
is-Aga, n. 4. A kind of bird. 
is-Agampe, n. 4. Em.=isi-Gampe. 
ulw-Agcibe, n. 5. Sandy and rocky beach 

with bush along the shore. 
is-Agqili, n. 4. See under nl-n-Gqila. 
is-Agqukwe, v. 4. A forest bird. 
is-Agwelo, V. 4. Speaking in phrases; 

singing, whistling or scolding in a way 

not to be understood by others ; speaking 

out of order, or as when one sings a tune, 

and another person falls in with quite a 

different one. 
isAgwityi, n. 4. The South African quail, 

Coturnix africana Tern, and Schl. 
isi-Aha-aha, n. 4. One who does not know, 

or who is at a loss what to do. 
ukw-Ahluka, Intram. form of ukw-AMula, 

To be separate from, differ, dissent : ndahluka 

hiye, I separated from him ; ndahluka kuye 

iigentetb, I differ from him in speech. 

is-Ahluko, . 4. Division, portion, part ; 
dimin. Uahhikwnna, a small part. Em. isa- 
hhikwanyana, a very small part, express- 
ing contempt. 

um-Ahluko, n. 6. A difference, distinction. 

ukw-Ahlukahluka, v. To be wholly 
different: hahfnkuhlnka ngamasiko, they 
differ in customs. 

Ahlukahlukana, r. To be wholly 
different from each ot|ier. 

is-Ahlukahlukano, n. 4. Division: imiku- 
ngahiko sahlukahlukano kuni, may there be 
no divisions among you. 

ukw-Ahlukana, v. To part from or with one 
another; separate, withdraw from : ndahhi- 



AH 

kana naye endleleni, I parted from him oh 
the road ; to lose : ndahlukana nenkomo zam, 
I lost my cattle ; fig. to dissent, differ, 
disagree in : ndahlukana naye vgokutl, I 
differ from him in saying; nkirahluka^ia 
kwendlela zomhini, the parting of two paths. 
is-Ahlukano, n. 4. The state of being 

divided among themselves. 
ukw-Ahlukanisa, v. To cause a separa- 
tion; to disunite; put asunder: kwahln- 
kaniswa indoda no77i/azi, the man was 
separated, divorced from his wife. 
um-Ahlukanisi, n. i. One who causes 

factions or divisions. 
is-Ahlukaniso, n. 4. (a) Separation, divi- 
sion, (b) Partitions in a house; (c) Cause 
of strife. 
ukw-AHLULA, v. t. (a) To separate, divide 
into parts: yahlide kidnni, divide it into 
two parts; nsahlule (not nmhlnlile) you have 
separated us, said to one who has decided 
a matter in dispute; ndayahhda imali, I 
divided the money; /w/i^?(i?e?ii8, separate them 
(those who are fighting). 

(b) To disentangle, explain, speak dis- 
tinctly : yahlula iufamh'o, separate the thong, 
i.e. cut it into two ; or separate the thongs, 
i.e. divide them into two portions; yahlu- 
la amazim ak'o, make your meaning plain. 

(c) To discern, judge, adjudge between 
two parties, decide: yahhile.ni londavo, 
decide this matter. 

um-Ahluli, n. i. A divider, separator, me- 
diator, arbiter, judge, umpire, justice of 
the peace. 

um-Ahlulwa, n. i. One who has been se- 
parated ; a Nazarite. 

is-Ahlulo, n. 4. (a) The act of dividing. 
(b) Portion, share: ndinike imhlulo mm, 
give me my portion. 

um-Ahlulo, n.6. A veil, a dividing curtain. 

ukw-Ahlulahlula, v. To divide often, or 
into small pieces; ndakwahlulahlula uku- 
tya, I divided the food. 

Ahluleka, v. To be divisible, separable, 
to be separated; to cleave open. Neg. 
not to leave off. 

Ahlulela, %k To separate, divide for: 
wamahlulela isikumba, he divided the skin 
for him ; wazahlulela ku-Yehova, he separa- 
ted himself unto the Lord. 

is-Ahlulelo, n. 4. AUoted portion: u-Sahlu- 
lelo sika-Yakobi, The Portion of Jacob. 

ukw-Ahlulelana, v. (a) To divide or to 
make portions for or with each other: 



AH 

makahlulclane ncnkomo tigotyani bomhlaha, 
let his portion be with the beasts in the 
grass of the earth. 

(b) To be divided among themselves: 
nhiha ii-Satana ivalilulelcnc ycclwa, if Satan 
is divided against himself: amakwenkwe 
ahlulelana, the boys divided (in fighting) 
among themselves. 
am-Ahlulelana, n. 2. pi. only. Partners: 
hakoba amahlulelana, they beckoned unto 
their partners. 
is-Ahlulelwano, n. 4. Partnership: uKasa- 
hlulehvano sinina okolwayo iwngakblwayo? 
what partnership has a believer with an 
unbeliever? 
is-Ahombe, ti. 4. See ulu-Homha. 
Aka, Neg. verb. pre/, (a) of 3 p. I cl. sing, in 
the simple tenses of the verb: akayi, he 
goes not; okayii, and he went not; (b) of 
2 cl. pi. nmahashc aknbalchi, the horses do 
not run. 
ukw-AKA, V. t. To build a place, house 
or cattlefold; to construct any edifice; 
wake kona, he has built, or he lives, there ; 
to take possession : 'Maka kivdozwc, he took 
possession of, or established himself in, or 
dwelt permanently in, that land; bake 
uluhlit, put an army in battle array; ukiiaka 
uhuhlobo, to build up friendship. Abbrev. 
rel. 2 cl. pi. akd, who or which build; absol. 
past aka. they built ; conjunctive past aka, 
and they built; short pres. &ka, they 
build. Phr. enye intaka yaka itgoboya benyc. lit. 
one bird makes its nest of the feathers of 
another, i.e. one is helped by another; intak' 
ayak'i figoboya hezinye, a bird does not 
build its nest with other birds' down, i.e. 
every-one must help himself. 
um-Aki, n. I. A builder, mason. 
is-Akiwo, 7 
is-Ak6, 3 
ukw-Akana, v. To build up, edify, one 
another: niasistikclc izinlo zokivakana, let 
us follow after the things whereby we 
may edify one another. 
Ak^ka, V. To be built up, edified. 

It. 8. Edifying, edification. 
ulvv-Ak6ko, n. 5. Edification. 
ukw-Ak61a, v. To build for, on or in: iva- 
ndakela, he built for me; indlii yakclivc 
phu kwamalyc,X\\e house is built on stones. 
-Ak^lana, v. (a) To assist each other in 
building, (b) To build near each other: 
sakelenc tina. we arc neighbours. 



^ . 4. A building, erection. 



AK 

Akisa, V. To help, assist to build; to 
build carefully. 
ukw-AKAMA, v. i. To gape, yawn: ela- 
lajileyo lakama ngokittigcuaDiliiiganiso, the 
grave opens its mouth without measure; to 
be bewildered. 
Akameka, v. To be split ; to be rent in 

two; to suffer from flatulency. 
Akamela, v. To be beside o:iescU" for 
or on account of; to be open and ready 
to swallow up: bandakainele umlovw, they 
gaped upon me with their mouth. 
Akamisa, v. To cause to yawn ; to open 

the mouth ; iiku-Kamisa. 
Akamisela, v. To open the mouth 
against : zonke intshaba zako zikwakcmnsclc- 
le lunlomo, all thine enemies have opened 
their mouth wide against thee. 
Akange, Neg. verb. pref. I cl. sing, and 2 cl. 

plnr., see Angc. 
Ak^, Poss. proii. I cl. sing. ref. to 2 cl. pi. 
His : amahashe akc, his horses ; to be distin- 
guished from ake 3 p. sing. I cl and 3 p. pi. 
2 cl. of the conj. mood of uku-Ka I. and 
II. and iikw-Aka, and the contracted perfect 
of these verbs. 
Ak6, (a) Poss. pron. 2 p. sing. ref. to 
2 cl. pi. Thy: amandla akd, thy strength, 
(b) Poss. pron. 7 cl. ref. to 2 cl. pi. Its: 
amandla akd (ukutya), its (food's) strength ; 
to be distinguished from akd: amandla akd, 
strength is there or present; see Kd I. 
is-Ak6nibe, n. 4. A semicircle. 
is-Ak6no, n. 4. See isa-Kdno. 
Aku, Neg. verb. pref. (a) Of pcrs. pron. 2 p. 
sing. : akutandi, thou lovest not. 

(b) Of 8 cl.: akupekivanga ukiulla, the 
food has not been cooked. 
Aku, Pref. of Temp, mood, 3 p. sing, and 

1 cl. sing.: ahihamba, when he walked; 
i okuba ehambile, when he had walked; 2 cl. 

j pi.: akiibalckn amahashe, when the horses 
! ran ; akuba ehalekile. when they had run. 
\ Akunge, Neg. verb. pref. 2 p. sing, and 8 cl., 

see Unge. 
i Akwa, Neg. verb, pref . (a) Of 2 p. sing, aor.: 
\ akivaleta, and thou spokest not; (b) Of 8 

cl.: akwadliwn ukwUa, and the food was 

not eaten. 
-is-Akwatsha, n. 4. Eii^.^isi-Kw'ilsha. 
Ala, AV^. verb. pref. of past indefinite tense 

2 cl. sing. : ihashe alahaleka, and the horse did 
not run. 

ukw-ALA, 7'. /. pass, nkivalnva. I. To 
reject, oppose, resist, refuse, object, dis- 
4 



AL 

allow, forbid; to be unwilling, immoveable: 
sajntetelela, yala inkosi, we interceded for 
him, but the chief was not to be moved ; to 
decline: wala nokutabata ukudla, he would 
not even take food: wala nendaba, he re- 
fused the news: wamala umfazi wake, he 
rejected, i.e. put away his wife ; umpii wala 
the gun missed fire; ukudla kuyandala, Wi 
the food refuses me; this may mean, the 
garden is unfruitful when I cultivate it, or 
food disagrees with me when I eat it ; indic- 
ia eyaliweyo, a forbidden path ; lentsimi ya- 
lilc, this garden has refused (to produce), the 
seed has not come up. (Abbrev. rel. 2 cl. pi. 
aid, who or which refuse ; absol. past ala, they 
refused; conj. past ala, and they refused; 
short pres. ila, they refuse), 
n. 8. Refusing to yield, i.e. unfruitfulness, 
sterility when the seed does not sprout. 

2. To begin to put milk into a calabash 
for the first time : yala iselwa, put milk into 
the calabash for the first time. 
is-Ala, n. 4. An obstinate person. 
ulw-Alo, //. 5. Refusal, rejection, opposition. 
ukw-Alana, v. To reject one another: bala- 
}ia nayc, lit. they opposed, resisted him; 
they were not in harmony with him, did 
not like him ; iihlanganis' imihlamb' eyala- 
nayo, (Ntsikana's hymn), the Gatherer of 
the opposing herds. 
um-Alane, ;/. I An opponent, enemy. 
um-AIane, 71. 6. Opposition, prevention. 
ukw-Aleka, v. To be opposed, unaccept- 
able, resistible : iwintu oivaldkayo, a person 
not respected. 
Alela, V. To prohibit, disallow, deny, 
resist, restrain, hinder: wamalela ukuba 
asebenze, he did not allow him to work; 
isiqamo esalelweyo, the fruit which was 
forbidden him; inkomo iyalela, the cow 
won't let the calf suck, said of a cow in 
ceasing to give milk. 
is-Alelo, n. 4. Prevention, prohibition, 
interdict: siqinisc isalelo, establish the 
interdict. 
ukw-AIisa, v. To cause to restrain; to 
hinder : ndaliswa tikutela, I was hindered 
from speaking; to make unacceptable: 
lendoda izalisile, this man has rendered 
himself unacceptable, x 
utyw-AIa, w. 7. Kafir beer ; see ii-Tywala. 
isi-ALAM w. 4. A poor person, from Du. 

arm. 
ukw-AIama, v. t., pass, nkivalanywa. To 
recognize suddenly, unexpectedly; to dis- 



AL 

cern; to have a short view or glimpse; to 
descry in the distance: hdayalama intaba 
cnkulii, I had a glimpse or first sight of the 
great mountain; fig, to see that which is 
not lawful for man to see; adv. ngokwalavia 
suddenly, unexpectedly. 
Alamana, v. To come from a common 
stock or family; to be connected, related, 
known friends to each other: u-Kama 
walamana no-Pato, Kama is related to 
Pato. 
um-Aiamane, n. i. A relative, friend. 
is-Alamane, n. 4. A relation, relative, kins- 
man or kinswoman; fig. tlie relative pro- 
noun. 
ukw-Alamanisa, v. To connect with: 
wamalamanisa netyala, he connected him 
with the guilt though innocent; to in- 
gratiate oneself into the friendship or 
good will of another: wazalamanisa, he 
endeavoured to ingratiate himself and be 
reckoned a friend or relation. 
Alameka, v. To have appeared suddenly. 
ukw-AIasela, v. t. To mend broken pieces 

by sewing or nailing them together. 
ukw-ALATA, v. t. To point at or to- 
wards one with the finger : ndalatwe, I was 
pointed at, which is offensive to a Kafir ; 
amehlo ake alata isifo sake, his eyes show 
that he is ill. 
um-Alat6, n. 6 The forefinger, the fourth 

finger with the Kafirs. 
ukw-Alatisa, v. To point out to one; to 
direct him to a place ; to show the right 
way. 
um-Alatisi, ;/. l. One who points out or 
directs. 

is-AIatiso, n. 4. | Waymark, guide, lead- 
um-AIatiso, H.6. J ^ '^ ' 

er, index, register: isalatiso-xesha, an 
almanac ; zimiseleni izalat'iso, set up way- 
marks. 
ukw-Alatlsela, v. To point out for, to 
guide to: into endalat'isehvc ngiiye, the 
matter I was directed to by him. 
is-Alatiseleli, w. 4. Direction by describ- 
ing a way, etc. 
ukw-ALEKA, v. t. (a) To put one coat 
on or over another : yaleka cnye ingubo, put 
on yet another garment ; uinntii owalekileyo, 
one who has covered himself with more than 
one blanket; to overlay, cover: wayaleka 
ngegolide,he overlaid it with gold; yaleka 
umsundtilo, lit: overlay or put a second 
course of sinew on the assegai in binding 



AL 

the shaft on the iron; fig. recapitulate or | 
corroborate what you have spoken ; support 
another by seconding him. 

(b) To acid another article to that which 

is bought ; yaleka isitshetshc kwingubo, add a 

knife to the blanket. (To be distinguished 

from yaleka, be advised). 

um-Aleko, n. 6. Overlaying : umaleko wc- 
mifanekiso eqingqiweyo, the overlaying of 
the graven images. 

ukw-AIekana, v. To be one upon another! 
to become double or manifold. 

Alekanisa, v. To make double or 
manifold ; to put on armour ; to prepare 
for war. 

Alekela, v. To do a thing again, a 
second time ; to renew an action ; to con- 
tinue what has been relinquished for a 
while; to join with: /?/>/ yalekela kuya,, 
the enemy joined him ; iimtdto walekehva, 
the law was added; to come next by 
birth: tt-Dosi xvalckda n-Ngonyama, chief 
Feni is next to chief Oba in point of 
birth. (Feni and Oba are not brothers by 
the same mother). Used in an adv. sense : 
walekcla ukivenza. he further did. 

Alekelana, v. To come next to each 
other in birth; to unite themselves one 
with another. 

Aleklsa, v. To help to put on additional 
covering. 
All, Neg. verb. pref. 2 cl. sing.: ilizwi alivakali, 

the voice is not audible. 
Allnge, Neg. verb. pref. 2 cl. sing., see Linge. 
Alo, Poss.pron. (a) of 2 cl. sing. ref. to 2 cl. pi. 

Its; ilizwi litiamandla alo, the word has its 

power; (b) of 5 cl. sing. ref. to 2 cl. pi.: 

ulando lunamandla alo, love has its strength ; 

see Lo 2. 
Mn, Neg. verb, pref . 5 cl. sing.: ufefe alupeli, 

tender feeling does not end. 
ukw-ALUKA, V. i. Primary meaning, to 

go out into the field ; hence, to be circum- 
cised, as this rite was originally performed 

away from home in the field, where the 

circumcised young men also are kept 

during healing time. 

ulw-AI&ko, n. 5. Circumcision. 

ukw-AI&sa, V. To circumcise, (boys and 
animals). 

um-AlfisJ, n. I A circumciser. 
Alunge, Neg. verb. pref. 5. cl. sing., see Lunge. 
ukw-ALUPALA, v. i. To wear out, grow 

old: amatambo am alupele. my bones have 

grown old and stiff. 



AM 

ukw-Alupalela, v. To grow old at; iidalu- 

palela apa, I'm growing old here. 
Alupalisa, v. To cause to wear out, or 
needlessly destroy a garment, instrument, 
or a vehicle by not greasing it. 
ukw-ALUSA, V. t. To herd cattle or sheep. 
um-Alusi, ?;. I. Herd, shepherd: ;<- IV Atwrr 
ngutnalusi warn, the Lord is my shepherd. 
ukw-Alusana, v. To herd with: andalusani 
tiaye, I am not herding with him, i.e. I 
don't know where he is. 
ukw-Alusela, v. To herd at : walnsela p'lna f 
where do you herd your flock .? 
Aiwa, Neg. verb. pref. aor. 5. cl. sing. : usapo 
alwavuya, and the children were not joyful ; 
to be distinguished from ahva, 2 cl. pi. : they 
(boys, amakzvenkwe,) fouglit. 
Am, Poss. pron. My. I p. sing, referring to 2 cl. 

pi.: amahashe am, my horses; see M. 
Ama, (a) PI. prefix of 2 cl.: amahashe, the 
horses, (b) Rel.proti. 2 cl. pi. before adj.: 
amafu amakiilu, big clouds. 
Amanye, Adj., 2 cl. pi. Some, others; see 

Nye. 
um-AMANGlLE u. 6. An almond tree, from 

Du. amandel. 
is-Ambalo, w. 4. Ornament for the neck, 

necklet. 
is-Ambantlanya, n. 4. A crush with great 

noise ; loud cry, especially war-cry. 
ukw-AMBATA, v. i. To cover the body; 
to put on garments, dress oneself: lento 
indambete, this thing sticks or cleaves to me. 
Phr. wambata enkosint, or hivinkosikazi he hid 
himself with the chief or chieftainess. The 
person and dwelling of the chief and chief- 
tainess were deemed sacred, any one taking 
refuge under their garment, or behind their 
back, or in their dwelling, became safe; 
hence, ndambate ivena, I look to you for 
safety or help; also to allude: wambete wena. 
he alludes, refers, hints at you; euphem, 
wambata umfazi. he slept with the woman. 
is-Ambat6, n. 4. Clothing, garment. 
ukw-Ambatisa, v. To cover another 
person ; wamambatisa ngengubo, he covered 
him up with a garment. 
Ambatisana, v. To give each other a 

share of a covering. 
ukw-Ambesa, v. Orig. to kill a bullock 
and give a skin of it to one's wife; to 
clothe another, especially to furnish a 
wife with a full ornamental dress. 
is-Ambembe, n. 4. See ukut'i-mbhnbi; 



AM 

is-Ambuku, //. /[.-^isi-Mbtiku. 
ukw-Ambula, Invcrs. trans, of tikw-Aiiibald 
Em. to uncover the body; to take off clothes; 
to expose, reveal. To beat with a big 
stick, not a switch. 

Ambulela, v. I. To clothe with an old 
garment: ndamambiilcla ihcmpe, I gave 
him an old shirt. 

2. To shake out the remains of tobacco 
left in a bag. 
ulw-Aitibulelo, n. 5. The act of giving 
one old clothes. 
\%-\m'b\xru-= isi-Mbuku. 
ulw-AmfitJ, n. 5. A kind of shrub with : 

edible fruit. 
is-Amfumfu, n. 4. Swelling, stuffing of the 

nose. 
ulw-Amityi, n. 5. Used in phr. ziqum' iihva- 

inityi, they get constantly pregnant. 
ukw-AMKELA, v. t. To accept what is 
offered; to receive: bamkcla walowo imali, 
they received every man money; to receive 
pay or rations : imini yokwatnkela, pay-day; 
to lodge, welcome: ndamamkela endlwini 
yam, I took him into my house. 
um-Amkeli, n. l. A receiver, collector. 
is-Amkelo, n. 4. Acceptance, receipt. 
ukw-Amkelana, v. To receive one 

another. 
Amkeleka, v. To be acceptable. 
Atnkelisa, v. To cause to accept; 
give a ration, or portion or pay: nda- 
mkclise, give or pay me my wages. 
um-Amkelisa, n. 6. Portion, ration. 
is-Ampaza, . 4. The part of the bag which 

appears first in bearing of animals. 
is-Ampokwd, n. 4. 'Em.^^im-Poktve. 
is-Amp6mpoIo, Km.=is-Apdmpolo 
is-Ampu, II. 4. See under tikuti-Mpu. 
is-Amvemve, ;/. 4.=um-CclHtnvemve. 
ulw-Amvila, //. 5. See under ukuti-Mvi. 
Ana, Ncg. verb. pref. aor. 2 p. p\.: anatanda, 

you loved not. 
ana, Suffix, forming (a) the Reciprocal form 
of verbs by changing the last letter of the 
root into aita: siyatanda, we love; siyata- 
ndana, we love each oth^r; ndazana (fr. 
ukwasi) naye, I am his friend. 

(b) diminutives of nouns: intaka, bird; 
intakana, little bird; into, thing; intwana, 
little thing; ndinokupilana, I am a little 
better. 
ulw-Anana, n. 5, A foolish braggart. 



AN 

ukw-ANANA, v. t. To take or receive in 
exchange ; to offer or give in exchange ; to 
barter ; to get one to take in exchange either 
honestly or dishonestly, both literally and 
figuratively: abantu bam banane ngozuko 
Iwabo into engancediyo, my people have 
changed their glory for that which doth 
not profit. 

um-Anani, . l. One who gives in ex- 
change. Abanani bemali, money-changers. 
is-Anano, . 4. (a) Exchange: worola nto- 
nina umntti ibe sisanano sompefumlo wake? 
what shall a man give in exchange for 
his soul ? (h)=isa-Ci. 
ulw-Anano, n. 5. Exchange: inkohlakalo 
iya ktiba lulwanano Iwake, evil shall be his 
recompense. 
ukw-Ananana, v. To exchange one thing 
for another: ubulumko abunakwananana 
nempahla ze-golide, golden vessels are no 
exchange for wisdom. 
Ananela, v. To change for. 
um-Ananeli, n. l.=um-Anani. 
is-Ananelo, n. 4. Exchange. 
ukw-Ananisa, v. To cause or endeavour to 
effect an exchange ; to give in exchange : 
wananisa ngento zonke abe nazo wayitknga 
iperile, he parted with all that he had for 
the pearl. 
um-Ananis? , w. i. One trying to effect an ex- 
change : abananisibemali,mor\e.y-c\\7ingtr&. 
is-Ananiso, ;/. 4. Causing one to take a 
thing in exchange; giving in exchange, 
bartering; fig. making one statement or 
giving one reason instead of another, 
with the view either of concealing the 
real one, or of exculpating or excusing 
oneself. 
ukw-Ananisela, v. To effect an exchange 
for another, either honestly, as when a 
man gives his second daughter to his son- 
in law instead of the first who has turned 
out unsuitable, or surreptitiously, as when 
Laban substituted Leah for Rachel. 
um-Ananlseli, ;/. I. One who performs 

the action described under the verb. 
ukw-Ananiselana, v. To give in exchange 
to one another. 
Anda, Neg. verb. pref. of I pers. sing, past: 
andatanda, I loved not ; to be distinguished 
from the pres. etc. of ukw-Anda. 
ukw-ANDA, V. i. To extend, enlarge, 
widen in length and breath, as limits, 
bounds, fences, etc. ; fig. to increase ; inkomo, 
zandile, tre cattle have increased; to spread : 



AN 
ilizwi lanJile cmhlabcni wonlc, the word has 
spread through the wliole earth. (2 cl. pi., 
abbrev. rel, andd, who or which increase; 
absol. past anda, they increased; conj. past 
anda, and they increased ; short pres. dnda, 
they increase). Phr. ukwanda kwaliwe ngu- 
mtakatt, family increase is prevented by a 
witch. 

ulw-Ando, w. 5. Increase, usury. 
ukw-Andeka, v. To be increasing, to multi- 
ply: igusha ziyandeka, the sheep are 
increasing. 
Andela, v. To increase for or upon: 
ndandelwe yimfuyo, my cattle have in- 
creased for me. 
Andisa, v. To enlarge, increase, widen : 
basandisa isibaya, they made the fold 
wider ; ndaitdisa inkotno, I reared, increased 
cattle. 
ulw-Andiso, n. 5. Increase, usury. 
ukw-Andlseka, i'. To be enlarged : /wi/M 

yandis<;kile, the house has been enlarged. 
Andisela, v. To increase for or to: 
Ukuba bate banda onyana bake, bandiselwa 
irele, if his children are increased, it is for 
the sword. 
is-And&, M. 4. The back part of the head ! 
when bald: lomfo nnesanda, the back part of i 
this man's head is bald. 
is-Anda, . 4. Place where corn is spread for 
thrashing; thrashing floor. ! 

is-Andanda, . 4. The upper part of the I 
pelvis; almost exclusively applied to cattle, i 
is-Andawane, n. 4.-r=i-Ncttka-ciya. The spot- 
ted hyaena, Hyasna crocuta (Erxl.). Its 
skin is used for witchcraft. In olden times 
people who wished to save themselves the 
trouble of burying their dead were said to 
attract these animals by dragging a branch 
of um-paf a along the ground and then digging 
a hole through the back of the deceased 
man's hut, to allow of the hyaenas getting 
at the body. 
is-Andekela, . 4. An honourable, respect- 
able man; one in prosperous and happy 
circumstances, an aristocrat. Phr. usettz' 
isandekela, he makes himself a gentleman. 
Andi, Neg. verb. pref. I p. sing. pers. pron. 

Anditki, I do not speak. 
I"w-An'dnet. 5. ] See under i,.,-,-. 
Andinge, Neg. verb. ptef. I p. sing., see 

Ndinge. 
is-Andlti. n. 4. Disturbance, uproar, con- 
fusion. 



am-AndIa, n. 2. PL Power, force, strength, 
ability, dominion, sway, authority : M;/m- 
ndln, he is strong ; u-Somandla, the Almighty ; 
indawo ezinamandla, important matters; ma- 
ndla ma-nif how much? how great? ndite 
amandla, I am disheartened ; ndingate ama- 
rf/a, I not being disheartened (see uku-Ta); 
ndimte amandla, I came accidentally upon 
him and saw him ; ndisalene tnandla naye, or 
kuye, when I was still looking at him. 
is-AndIa, . 4. The human hand ; fig. means, 
agent, instrument, trowel; clerk: isandla 
seinantyi, magistrate's clerk; ndipe isandla, 
help me; unesandla esihle, he writes a 
beautiful hand; unesandla eside, he has a 
long hand, i.e. he is a thief; ukubamba isandla, 
to shake hands. 
ukw-ANDLALA, v. To lay or spread a mat 
or carpet on the ground ; to make a bed ; 
igumb't elandlelweyo, a furnished room ; fig. 
to lay a case before a judge, king, etc. 
is-Andlalo, . 4. Any thing spread on the 
ground to lie or sit on : isandlalo satnatye, 
a pavement. 
um-Andlalo, . 6. Mat or bed, spread to 

lie on. 
ukw-Andlaleka, v. To fall flat: ndandla^ 

lekile, I lie stretched on the ground. 
Andlalela, v. To spread a mat or make 

a bed for. 
Andluia, v. To roll up the mat; to 
make up one's bed, put it in order. 
is-Andle, n. 4 Sweet veld, as opposed to i-Jojo; 

a dry, rainless district. 
ulw-Andle, n. 5. pi. ilwandle. The sea ; ocean ; 
abelwandle, seafaring men ; loc. elwandle, in 
or on the sea. 
is-Andlozi, . 4. Prominent staring eyes; 
yinto emehlo azandlozi vgati ngawesele, his 
eyes are as big as those of a frog. 
is-Ando, n. 4. An instrument for beating or 
extending, i.e. a hammer. Dimin. isandwana, 
a small hammer. 
ukw-ANDULA, v. aux. with adv. meaning. 
It denotes (a) " Just now," or, " for the first 
time": usanduV or usand' iikufika, he has 
just arrived ; ungandule timke, do not leave 
immediately; unganduV ujike, do not turn 
yet ; besa\ie, abbrev. for besanduV tikuva, as 
soon as they hear. 

(b) Following another verb "and then": 
wayisa lento kuye, wandiila ukubuya, he took 
the thing to him and then returned, 
um-AnduIa, . l. pi. amandulo. Com- 
mencement : owamandnlo, one of the com- 



. 4. A type, figure. 

!. 4. That which is first in 



AN 

mencement; an ancestor, or forefather; 
former times, times of old: iminyaka ya- 
mandulo, ancient years. 
is-Andulo, n. 4. That which commenced a 
thing; that which belongs to former times. 
ukw-Andulela, v. To start first; to begin 
before another ; to be first in order of 
time; to precede: wandulcla ukuvuna, be 
way the first in harvesting; wandulcla 
ukulima, he began ploughing before 
others; umfundisi u-Nyengana wandulcla 
kivama-Xosa, Van der Kemp was the first 
missionary to the Kafirs. 
um-Anduleli, . I. Predecessor, fore- 
runner. 
is-Andulela, 
is-Andulelo, 
order. 
is-Andundu, n. 4. The prominent part of 
the cheek-bone : uncsandundu, he has a high 
cheek-bone. 
ulw-Andyula, n. 5. See under uku-Ndyula. 
ukw-ANEKA, v. t. To lay out, open, spread 
clothes, mats, corn for drying in the air ; fig. 
intliziyo yaneka okubi, the heart exposes (its 
own) evil. 

um-Aneki, n. l. One who stretches out: 
umancki wamazulti, he who stretches out 
the heavens. 
ukw-Anekela, v. To spread out at a place, 
etc. : iya kuba yindawo yokwanekcla iminata^ 
it shall be a place for spreading out nets. 
ukw-ANELA, v. t. To be sufficient, enough 
for : tikudla kuyawanela amadoda, the food is 
sufficient for the men; tikudla kwancle, 
there is food enough; inguho ayaneli, the 
blanket is not large enough ; akwaneli nio, 
it is not enough, does not suffice; to be 
satisfied, esp. in perf. ndancle: banela uku- 
sikangcla, they simply or merely saw us, 
i.e. they did no more than see us; ngesisancla 
zinto zinina? with what should we be satis- 
fied? akaneli ukusikiilula ,\\e not only delivers 
us, but ; ukwanela iikuteta, suffice it to say, 
is quite distinct in meaning from ukwanela 
kukuteta, to be satisfied with speaking. 
Aneiisa, v. Ndanclisiwe lizwi lako, your 
word satisfies, pleases, gratifies me ; aliba- 
nelisi, it does not suffice them; manda- 
nelisive kukut't ndilandc, may it please me 
to love. 
Aneiisana, v. To give mutual satisfac- 
tion. 
B ( 



AN 

Aneza, v. To make perfect, full; to 

suffice. 
Anezelela, v. To supply abundantly, 
fully, frequently: ndanezelehve nguye, he 
has done enough, sufficient for me. 
Anezisa, v. To stretch the means to 
the end proposed. 

Anga, (a) Ncg. verb. prcf. of l cl. sing, and 
2 cl. pL in conjunctive mood : ndamnika 
ukudla ukuzc atigafi, I gave him food that 
he might not die ; kangela amahashe ukuze 
angemki, look after the horses that they may 
not go away, (b) Prefix of the same classes 
in the potential mood: angatanda, he may 
love; angabaleka, they (horses) may run. 
(c) Auxil. for forming the conditional mood, 
see Angc. (d) Pres. etc.'of tiku-nga, (a) and 
(b), and of ukw-Anga, which see. (e) Ncg. rel. 
of A, 5.: aniadoda angalungileyo, men who 
are not good ; ngawapina amadoda angekoyo 
or angckabiko, which men are not here or 
are not yet here 1 

ukw-ANQA, V. t., pass, ukwangkva. To kiss: 
ukwang' isandla, to thank ; because in thank- 
ing a chief this was literally done. (2. cl. 
pi., abbrev. rel. angd, who or which kiss; 
absol. past anga, they kissed; conj. past 
anga, and they kissed; short pres. dtiga, 
they kiss). 

ulw-Anga, n. 5. The portion of game or of 
a slaughtered beast (the breast and fat at- 
tached thereto,) presented to the chief. 
ulw-Ango, n. 5. A kiss. 
ukw-Angana, v. To kiss each other. 
Angela, v. Ndasangelangomlomo warn isa- 
ndla sam, my mouth hath kissed my hand. 

is-Anga, ;/. 4. The glimmering vapour of 
the sunshine of a hot day; a mirage; fig. a 
wonderful phenomenon : sibone izanga nam- 
hlanje, we have seen strange things to-day ; 
ukusukela izanga, to pursue unrealities. 

is-Angca, ". 4. See under ukutl-Ngco. 

is-Angcape, n. 4. The South African Stone- 
chat, Pratincola torquatus (L.) = i-Ncapc. 

is-Angcet6, ;/. 4.= isa-Ngccte. 

is-Angcozi, n. 4. Corn which has been 
stored in a pit in the cattle-fold. It has a 
nasty smell, but is liked by Kafirs. 

is-Angcunge, //. 4. One who is quiet, does 
not speak. 

Ange, (sometimes anga). Auxil. for for- 
ming the cond. mood of I cl. sing, and 
2 cl. pi.: ange (anga) etanda, he would love 5 
angc (anga) ebaleka, they (horses) would run, 



AN 

is-Ango, . 4. Singing after one's own way. 

not following that of the other singers; 

tune, style of singing, sound of something 

one hears. 

is-Angqingqi, . 4. An energetic, active, 

lively person ; cf. iiku-Ngqingqiza. 
is-Angqu, n. 4. A blanket with black stripes 

and red bordering. 
is-Angqungqwane, w. 4- A very short 

thing or person. 
ulw-Angwili, , 5. Private family talk. 
Ani, Neg. verb. pref. of 2 p. pi.: anihambt, 

you are not walking. 
uty-AnI, n. 7. Pasture, grass, hay; grass 
growing in the maizefields; weeds: utyani 
balomhlaha buhlc, the pasturage of this 
country is good. 
Aninge, Neg. verb, pref, 2 p. pl contrac. 

Ninge, which see. 
is-Ankobo, . 4. A great or old man, whose 

mouth is always open for drink. 
i-ANKORE, H. 3. An anchor, from Du. Anker. 
is-Ankwane, n. 4. A man's worsted cap. 
is-Ankwankwa, n. 4. See under ukuti- 

Nkwa. 

is-Anqa, n. 4. (a) A circle; halo round the 

sun or moon ; waye umnyama ivenze isanqa 

etroneni, and there was a rainbow round the 

throne; a fairy ring on the grass; a ring 

or ripple on water; a fabulous story; adv. 

esanqeni, round about, (b) A cyclone. 

is-Anqawe, n. 4. A white round spot on an 

animal's forehead ; an ornament round the 

head, a cockade. 

is-Antanta, . 4. A rushing to and fro; a 

running madly together at or from one 

point: bazizantanta, they rushed together 

hither and thither. 

ulw-Antunge, n. 5. A shiftless person, not 

steady or persevering in any occupation. 
is-Antya, n. 4. Velocity, speed: waharnba 
ngesatitya, he went fast; ihashe linesantya, 
the horse is swift. 
is-Antywenka, w. 4. A large deep water- 
hole in the river, the resort of the hippopo- 
tamus; = i-Ntywenka. 
is-Anuse, 11. 4. A witch-doctor; and ub- 
Anuse, n. 7. Witch-craft. See under uku- 
Nuka. 
is-Anxa, //. 4. [First (a) is long] The South 
African Harrier, Circus ranivorus (Datid). 
Sometimes applied to the Jackal Buzzard, 
Buteo jakal (Daud.). 
is-Anx&, H.4. [First (a) is short] Perseverance. 



AN 

is-Anxayi, . 4. A kind of bird, probably 

a wheatear. 
is-Anxu, . 4. An old, grave, dignified man 
of experience: ndifumene izanxii zamadoda 
odmi kulandlu, I found a collection of old, 
grave, dignified men in that house; an 
animal or man come upon unexpectedly. 
ukw-ANYA, V, t. To suck the breast; amatole 
anyile, the calves have sucked all the milki 
inkonyana ayanyanga, the calf has not suck- 
ed. Phr. wamanya amahlanza, he stabbed 
him; wanyitve amahlanza, he was stabbed; 
itkwanya ngentshiintshe , to stab with a spear. 
Anyeka, v. To be sucked out altogether ; 

to be lean. 
Anyela, v. To suck in place of, said when 
an old calf deprives the young one of the 
milk by sucking, or when boys do the same ; 
fig. to beat in competition; to surpass, 
excel, exceed, out-do: Usanyele ngantonina 
gxebe ? Wherein is your condition better 
than ours ? 
Anyelana, v. To compete with one 

another, to rival one another. 
Anyisa, v. To give suck; to nurse ; unina 
'd'amanyisa umnhvana, the mother suckled 
the child ; imfazi onokwanyisa , a wet nurse ; 
ukwanyisa kofileyo, to defraud, cheat, act 
dishonestly. 



uin-Anyisi, n. i. 

nursing mother. 

um-Anyisikazi, : 

ukw-Anyisela, 



One who gives suck, a 



. I. A wet nurse. 

To give suck for 

another: inkorno yanyiscla inkonyana, the 

cow allows the calf to suck her. 

Anyiselela, v. To endeavour to get a 

calf that has lost its mother to suck another 

cow : inkomo yanyiselelwe, the cow is sucked 

by another calf (when she has lost her 

own) ; wanyiselcla tmfazi endodcniyake, he 

is the cause of the wife being loved by her 

husband ; fig. to try by deceit to get one to 

take or agree to what he does not like. 

um-Anyiseleli, n. i. One who causes any 

thing to suck, or to be loved. 

is-Anyamtya, . 4- Lit. one who sucks a 

leading string; a childish, silly person; one 

in dotage ; a poor, miserable, useless object. 

-anyana, Suffix for diminutives; /6/7., a 

wild beast; isilw.inyana, a small wild beast. 

is-Anyandu, . 4- A person or thing with 

big fearful eyes. 



AN 

is-Anyankonio, n. 4. The ball-frog, Rana 
adspersa Bihr. It receives i:s name from 
the fancied resemblance of its call to that 
of a calf bellowing for its mother's milk. 

am-Anzi, n. 2. pi. Water: amanzi atshile, 
the water is dried up, absorbed; amanzi 
onyawo, the sole of the foot; used as Adj. 
Wet : iiujubo zimanzi, the clothes are wet, 
damp. 

ubu-mAnzi, ". 7. Moisture, wetness, damp- 
ness. 

is-Anzwili, n. 4. (a) Noises in the ear; a 
deafening sound, fig. imnzivili sozindhda, 
heaviness of dearth, (b) The Capped wheat- 
ear, Saxicola pileata (Gm) ; also applied 
to the Ant-eating Chat, Myrmecocichla 
formicivora ( Vieill) ; from ukuti-Nztvi. 

Api, adv. Here, in this place : ndilapa, I am 
here; hlala kioalapa, remain here in this 
very place ; nyapa, this way, or on this side, 
or in this direction: ndahamha iigapa, I 
walked on this side. 

uIw-Apesi, a. 5. The resin-bush, Euryops 
tenuissimus, LeH. and x)ther species of 
Euryops ; fr. Du. harpuis. 

is-Apeta, n. 4. A bow to shoot arrows with. 

um-Apisi, n. i. A great eater, devourer, see 
im-Piiii. 

Ap6, adi: There, in the place where the 
person addressed is, or which has already 
been named or arrived at : (ipo ukona, where 
you are; kwalapd, there and then; in that 
very place; iKjapd, that way: nakuhamha 
ngapo nobulawa, when you go that way, 
you will be killed. 

is-Ap6kwe, n. 4. (a) The whistling of small 
boys learning to whistle, (b) Corn coming 
into ear; trees or pumpkins blossoming: 
imitt kulentsimi sif^apokum, the trees in that 
garden are in blossom. See im-Pokwe. 

is-ApdIo, n. 4. A teat full of milk drawn into 
a boy's mouth ; a mouthful : luanya izapolo, 
the boy sucked the last drops from the cow, 

is-Ap6mp6lo, n. 4. A black ant, which builds 
its nest in trees, and whose bite is very 
painfu'. The body of a person accused of 
witchcraft is sprinkled with water and then 
covered with these vicious ants, so that the 
person may be driven by his suffering to 
make confession. 

is-Ap6ntshane, n. 4. Noise, tumult, = 
Ponlshane (b). 

ukw-Apuka, Intrans. form ofukw-Apula. To 
break : umltnze wapuk'de, tWe leg is broken 



AP 

inqwelo yapiikih, the wagon has broken 
down ; fig. ndapuka mjumtioalo, I sank under 
the burden; vmpuke iniliziyo, his heart is 
broken; imivumho emashumi mane kwapuka 
mnye, forty stripes save one. n. 8. calamity : 
ukwapuka kwam, my travail. 
is-Apuko, n. 4. A break, a breaking down 

under a burden. 
ukw-Apukela, r. To be broken for, to be 
weary with, labour ior : ndapukelwa ngum- 
komhe kalatu, thrice was I shipwrecked. 
ukw-APULA, V. t. to break; yapule inlonga, 
break the stick ; fig. wapula umteto, he broke 
the law ; imdapule ngamazwi ako, you have 
distressed me by your words ; nz'unganda- 
puli, says a girl to one who wishes to injure 
her ,muM'ukuzapula, don't trouble your head. 
Phr. indoda izele, yapuV uluti, the man has 
very many children ; ifyehe, yapul' uluti he is 
very rich (in cattle.) 
um-ApuH, n. I. One who breaks. 
is-ApiJlIo, n. 4. Act of breaking down ; 

rupture, breach. 
uIw-Apulo, M. 5. I Breaking, a breach, des- 
um-Apl)llo, n. 6. J truction. 
ukw-Apulela, v To break for or on account 
of: ngumzhnba warn lo, owaptdelwa iiiiia^ 
this is my body, broken for you; to 
annoy, distress, worry : umfazi lonimapule- 
la nina ? why do you trouble the woman .? 
ukw-Apusa, r. To cease to give milk: 
inkomo yapudle, the cow is dry, gives no 
more milk; see u-Xam. 
is-Apusela, n. 4. A calf which gets no more 
milk from its mother. 
is-Aqafa, n. 4. A cow which gives but little 

milk; fix-Aqaka is also used^. 
is-Aqomolo, ". 4. A fish called steenbras 

in Dutch. 
is-Aqoni, n. 4. Monkey tow, wild grape. 
is-Aqunge, n. 4. See under nku-Qiinga. 
is-Aqwiti, v. 4. See under uku-Qji-'Ua. 
Ara, Interjec. of disgust. Pshaw ! from the 

Dutch ach. 
i-ARENTE, n. 3. One who works on behalf 

of another, an agent ; from Du., agent. 
is-Afwadi, '. 4. Bast; the fine, thin, internal 

bark of a tree. 
Asa, Neg. rerh. pre/, of indie, and conj. aorist 
(a) 4 cl. sing.: amsika isitshetxhe, and the 
knife did not cut; (b) of pers. pron. I p. pi. : 
asatela, and we spoke not. 
Asi, I. Neg. verb. pref. of pers. pron. I p. pi. ; 
asitkh, we do not speak; and of 4 cl. sing: 



II 



AS 

/.so)//.Y( a^iiUiim, the bread is not eaten. 

2. (a) Impersonal neg. before nouns and 
pronouns, " it is not": (mngitf/p, it is not he; 
usingnho, it is not they; asinynmnlii, he is 
not a man, i.e. he does not behave as a man ; 
a.-^iu/o, n>*ilntd, fmyonfo, it is nothing, it 
matters nothing; uk-id-dnza e-Nkosini aiku- 
knmlomo irodwa, the Lord is not to be served 
by the mouth only. 

(b) Sometimes it expresses a superlative 
idea: axililo nrh'i-'hf .' what a horse is this! 
i.e. it is no common horse, but one that 
excels others: n>iui(jityr nomnfn! what a man 
is this ! nsikiraknha ku.-^rkd into, there is noth- 
ing left; asikiiko noknha ndiyayinqwtnda 
lento ! there is nothing that I desire so much 
as this thing! axikiikd noknha ndidanile, I am 
very much ashamed; cf. vku-Ba, I. B. 

i-AsiN. . 3. Vinegar; fr. the Du. azyn. 

Asinge, ^"'',7. rei-Ji. jn-pf. I. p. pi., see Singe. 

Aso, y^o.sx. pron. 4. cl. sing, ref, to 2 el. pi. 
Its: isouka sinaviandln aso, bread has its 
strength ; see So. 

i-Ata-ata, ^ 

i Atalala, J 
singnma-atalala, we cannot do anything 
for oui-selves. 

ubu-Ata-ata,j | 

ubu-Atalala, J 
ness, powerlessness. 

Atl-ke! O! with sense of vexation; "hang 
it all! "see nkii-Ti. 

ulw-Atlle, //. 5. Horsewood, Hippobromus 
alata E. & Z., used medicinally for sore eyes 
and syphilis. 

ulw-Atsaka, n. 5. A heap (of pumpkins) 
lying about; a group. 

is-Atutwane, ;/. 4. Epileptic fit; epilepsy. 

ulw-Ave!a, /;. 5. Inward alarm of con- 
science; fear of evil arising from a bad 
conscience in consequence of evil conduct; 
suspicion of oneself; self-condemnation; 
suspicion of evil intentions on the part of 
others towards oneself; suspicion of guilt 
without proof; ill humour. 

is-Avenge, n. 4. Portion, fraction, driblet. 

ulw-Avivi, ri. 5. Being wholly against; 
discarding, excluding a thing: abantu ba- 
lidwavivi, tlie people are disputing, pick- 
ing a quarrel. 



One who is helple; 



II. 7. Helplessness, weak- 



aW 

Awa, Neg. verb. pref. of indie, and conj. aor. 6 
cl. sing : nmti awahluma, and the tree grew 
not. 

Awo, Poss.pron. (a) of 6 cl. sing. ref. to 2cl. pi. 
Its : utnlambo namanzi awo, the river and its 
water; (b) of 2 cl. pi. ref. to 2 cl. pi.: 
amahashc ananiendu aivo, horses have their 
swiftness; see Wo. 

Awona, see A. 5 (b) and Wona. 

Awu, Neg. verb. pref. 6 cl. sing: umnxuma 
awudityelehve, the hole is not filled up. 

Awu I hiterj. Expressing (a) pain, (b) surprise, 
sympathy, regret, (c) woe! the feeling of 
impending calamity: yoba awu, or simply 
iawu hiwe, woe to you ! 

is-Awukawu, . 4. Abantu bazizaivuka- 
wu, the people are many and noisy. 

Aya, Neg. verb. pref. of indie, and conj. aor. (a) 
3 cl. sing: inkomo ayabuya, and the cow came 
not back; (b) of 6 cl. pi.: iinitt ayawa,^x\d 
the trees fell not. 

ukw-AYAMA, v. i. To lean against or 
upon; to lie close to; to join to; to 
border upon ; wayama eludongeni, he leaned 
against the wall ; ndayama ngnye, I leaned 
on him; fig. tidayanyiva zingozi, I was 
ever accompanied by misfortunes. 

is-Ayamo, . M ^j^^to^^j^i^ho^e leans; 
um-Ayamo, n. o. ) 

a lean-to of a house. 

ukw-Ayamana, v. To be connected with, 
accompanied by, attached to ; ridayamene 
naye, I am connected with him ; indlu yam 
yayamcne neyak^^ my house is next to his. 

Ayamela, v. Wayamela ngengalo, he 
rested himself on both arms. 

AyamJsa, v. To cause a thing to lean 

against: Wayamise umhlakulo eludongeni, 

lean the spade against the wall; fig- to 

border, limit. 

Aye Aux. used in forming compound tenses 

2 cl. pi.: amadoda aye etanda, contract. 

ayetanda, the men were loving ; aye enga- 

telanga, contrac. ayengalelanga, they had not 

spoken; see uku-Ya, 2. (c.) 
. Ayi, Neg. verb. pref. (a) of 3 cl. sing: ayihambi 

inqwelo, the wagon is not moving; (b) of 

6. cl. pi.: imitandazo nyivkva, the prayers 

are not heard. 
Ayinge, Neg. verb. pref. 3 cl. sing, and 6 cl. 

pi., see Inge. 



is-Avu, u. 4. (a) The Namaqua dove, Oena ' Ayo, Pass. pron. (a) 3 cl. sing. ref. to 2 cl. pi. 
capensis (L.) Cf. isi-Vuvu. (b) Oonth-bosje, I Thclv : inkosi inamadoda ayo, the chief is with 
Conyza ivaefolia Less, used for galisickness. ; his men; (b) 6 cl. plur. ref. to 2 cl. pi. imiti 



AZ 

yavutulula amagqabi ayo, the trees shed their 
leaves; see Yo. 

Aza, A'^'^. verb. pref. of indie, and conj. aorist 
(a) 3 cl. pi. : azadla imazi, and the cows ate 
not ; (b) 4 cl. pi. : izitya azahlanjwa, and the 
vessels were not cleaned; (c) 5 cl. pi. : izinlsu 
azapahva, and the skins were not scraped. 

Aza, 2 cl. pi. past tense of uku-Za, used 
idiomatically to introduce a further state- 
ment. Then : aza amadoda ati, then the men 
said: see uku-Za 2 (b). 

ukw-Azakala, v. seldom used, nearly 
=^ukw-Azeka; see vkv-Azi. 

Azakalisa, v. seldom used, nearly 
r=ukw-Azisa; see nkw-Azi. 

-azana, Suffix, forming diminutives of 
feminine nouns: intombi, a girl, daughter; 
tntombazana, a little girl. 

im-Azi, n. 3. Any female animal, especially 
a cow : imazi yohlobo, a choice cow ; iniazi 
eniasu mane, a cow that has calved four 
times ; dimin. imazana, a little cow. 
ubum-Azi, n. 7. The state, age, quality of a 
female animal. 

Azi, I. Neg. verb. pref. of (a> 3 cl. pi.: igusha 
azidli, the sheep do not feed; (b) 4 
cl. pi. : izonka azisikwa, the loaves of bread 
are not cut; (c) 5 cl. pi.: intshaba azifi- 
kaiiga, the enemies have-not arrived. 

2. Interjcc: dear me! I wonder how! 
azi oku knhle ! how beautiful! azi zihle 
izincoko zako! how fair is thy speech or 
conversation ! azi ndiyamlandcla-na ? do 
I really follow him ? azi, namhla baiiinzi 
ahakoitzi nhakohlakeleyo! O, there are 
many bad servants now a-days! 

ukw-AZI, V. t. pass, ukwazi-wa. To know, 
distinguish, understand : uyakivazi konke, 
he understands all; to be versed \n: andi- 
yazi lonto, I am not versed in that, I do not 
do it; to admit or be conscious of a fault: 
andiyazi lonto, I have not done that, I know 
nothing about it. Phr. nngnz' nye ehizelweni, 
you do not know that you are going to die 
(by the word of the i-<(inu^e). 

n. 8. Knowledge, intelligence: vnokirazi, 
he has a great mind, observes closely. 
is-Azi, n. 4. An intelligent, wise man. 
ulw-Azi, ;/. 5. Knowledge. 
ukw-Azana, v. To be known to each other; 
to be acquainted, familiar, intimate with 
each otlier : ndazana naye, I am his friend ; 
abazana 7mm bandilibcle, my familiar 
friends have forgotten me. 



AZ 

Azeka, v. To be known : indaba ezazeki-^ 
leyo, news publicly known ; babenombanjwa 
obesazeka, they had a notable prisoner. 

Azela, V. To know for or against ; andi- 
mazeli nto, I know nothing in his favour or 
against him; to know for a purpose, in 
respect to, by or for oneself: ndiyazazela 
lento, I know that for my own benefit, or I 
know this of myself. 

is-Azela, n. 4. That which one hears or 
feels inside, dimly not clearly; hence used 
by some missionaries for conscience ; by 
some used only for a bad conscience. 

is-Azelo, . 4. Knowledge, experience 
about something ; theory. 

-I.a.el'et':lT<"'now for another; .0 

be careful not to do anything to his injury ; 
to be careful to provide what is suitable to 
his wants or circumstances; iikuzazelela, to 
be acquainted with anything for one- 
self: andizazeleli tito, I know nothing 
against myself, n. 8. Foresight, provid- 
ence. 

Azisa, V. To make known, inform, give 
notice, advertise, introduce to. 

um-Azisi, n. I. One who makes known: 
ngati ngutnazisi uezitixo zasemzini,he seems 
to be a setter-forth of strange gods. 

is-Azisi, n. 4. That which or one who 
makes known, gives information; pass- 
port, letter of introduction. 

is-Aziso, n. 4. Notice, advertisement. Isa- 
ziso sakomkulu, Government notice. 

ukw-Azisana, v. To inform each other; 
make known to, make acquainted with 
each other. 

Azisela, v. To give knowledge or notice 
for, or a description of a thing to one: 
ndamaziscla ukuma kivehlabati,! gave him a 
description or idea of how it stands in the 
world. 

is-Aziselo, ;/. 4. Knowledge (objective) of 
a thing; description. 

um-Azlseleli, n. I. One who makes known 
for, or instead of, another; a prophet, 
teacher. 

is-Aziseleli, = is-Azisi. 

ukvv-Azisisa, v. To give a good clear 
description or correct information. 
Azlnge, Neg. verb. pref. 3, 4 and 5 cl. pi., see 

Zinge. 
is-Azinge, n. /\. isa-Zinge. 
13 



BA 
Azo, Ppss. proii. (a) of 3 cl. pi. ref. to 2 cl. pi. 
Their: inkosi znkivela cmahashcni azo, the 
chiefs rode on their horses; (b) of 4 cl. pi. 
ref. to 2 cl. pi.: izidcngc zinamaq'inc^n azo, the 
stupiil have their own excuses; (c) of 5 cl 
pi. ref. to 2 cl. pi.: intsapo ziteta amazivi azo, 
the little children speak their own words, 
see Zo. 



BA 

iz-Azobe, ti. 4. See under iihi-Zoha. 

is-Azulu, n. 4. (a) The hair on the back of 
an animal growing in a circle, tending to- 
wards the centre; so called, because it is 
surrounded by the other hair growing in 
its natural direction; (b) hence the centre 
of a circle, a central locality; esazulwini, 
in the midst : ndiini esazulwini samadoda 
amnkiilti, I stand in the midst of elders. 



"D has two sounds ; one is inspirated, produced 
^-^ by compressing and then gently opening 
the lips nearly as in the English word tub, 
as bala, count; the other is expirated, 
produced by closing and opening the lips 
forcibly in expelling the breath explosively 
like the first b in baby, as bala, write. 
Note, m speaking Kafir, Europeans generally make 
the mistake of using only the second b. 

In printing, the aspirate is put over the vowel, 
though it belongs to the preceding consonant. 

In locative cases and before the diminutive ter- 
mination-""", b is changed into ti/: ingnho, garment ; 
engnfycni, in the garment ; indnbn, news; indufi/ana, 
little news; in some nouns, however, i remains un- 
changed in the locative, z%i-tahe)ii, on the mountain. 
Before the passive inflection '", inspirated h becomes 
t;i: iilcuilnbnla, to shoot ; id-iuhifi/ulira, to be shot; 
and expirated b becomes./- ukubiiblfd, to destroy;; 
nkiihiijisiffi, to be destroyed ; in a few instances b 
remains unaltered, as nkiibnbi-hi, pass nlububelicd. 
Before all three inflections mb, if altered at all, 
becomes / ; iimlamhn, a river; emJanjent, at the 
river, but sometimes it remains unaltered, e.g. 
nmk-ombe, a ship; cmhimhciii, in the ship. 

Ba, I. Proii.siibj. i. cl. pi. (a) before verbs: 
b^teta ycna, (short pres.), they speak of him ; 
haleta yeun, (absol. past), they spoke of him ; 
hsiteta yena (conj. past), and they spoke of 
iiim. (b) before adj. : abantn bakt'du, the 
people are great. 

2. Proit. obj. I. cl. pi. : ivabsigxota abantii, he 
drove the people away. 

3. Poss. partic. I. cl. pi.: abanht 
ba;;/, my people; 7 cl. : ububelc b&ke, his 
kindness; ahaiikvana bcndlu^ba-indUi, the 
children of the house; ubuhtml-ani bama-' 
Ngcsi=- ubuhnnkani ba-nmaNgesi. 

4. The temporal mood, I. cl. pi. and 7 
cl.: b&hiitandaza. when they prayed ; bahiba 
luftkilr ubiikitmkaiii. when the kingdom 
had arrived. 

uku-BA, I. T'. /. I defective). To be. 

1. The idea of being is expressed, (a) When 



a noun or pronoun follows, by the pron. 
copula: ndingimntu, I am a man; mlingnye, 
I am he. 

(b) When an adj. follows, by its predicate 
form: ndimkulu, I am great; waye vtkulu, 
he was great; imil'i mikiilu, the trees are 
great ; abantii bakulii, the people are great. 

(c) When an adv. or prep, follows, by 
the juxtaposition of the words: ndilapa, 
I am here ; ndibe ndilapo, I was there ; 
ndinenkomo, lit. 'I am with a beast,' i.e. I 
have a beast ; ndandiiu'haxhe, I used to have, 
or I had, a horse. 

2. The root ba appears : 
(a) in the perfect be, which is used in form- 
ing the compound tenses: ndibs nditeta 
contrac. bcndileta, I was speaking; 5/be 
sidlilc, contrac. bcsidlile, we had eaten; 
abantii Jiabei/a kntanda, the people were 
going to love. 

(b) In the future tenses : uya hiba. liroti, 
lie will be a hero ; nya htba. mktilu, he will 
be great ; ndiya kubsi ndiyahlamha, I shall 
be cleansing ; he.nya kuba. siyakala, we 
should be crying ; especially in conditional 
sentences: soba sitanda, we would love ; 
koba. kuliiiigile, it would be good ; soba 
uxin(jnhafiuidi, we would not be disciples ; 
ilifa loba aVmipuini edingeni, the inheritance 
would be no more of promise. 

(c) In the imperative : 3'5ba natt, be with 
us; 3'/ba/ iienccba. be ye merciful. 

(d) In the aorist : inlaba komh'du, I was 
at the chief's place ; kimbako isipUtptt't, there 
was a confusion. 

(e) In the potential mood : inkomo ingaba 
yiyo, the cow may be the same; a'cnmjifbi 
iito, it may be nothing. 

(f) In the temporal mood : ndaknba tidi- 
iet'de, when I have or had spoken ; see above 
Ba 4. 



BA 

(g) In the subjunctive mood: uku-^e abe 
yindoda, that he may be a man. 

(h) In the negative : musani uhiba. iiga- 
bahdnzibcziti.xo,ne\\.\\fix'bQ.yc idolators ; uhuze 
singahl ngabakattuki bezinto ezimbi, to the 
intent that we should not lust after evil 
things ; andibanga nako ukuza, I have not 
been able to come. 

(i) In expressing an urgent wish : andaba 
(andabl) bendincndawo yokulala! would that 
I had a lodging place ! ayaba intloko yam 
ibi ngamanzi! O, that my head were water ! 

(k) In exclamations of admiration: Hayi, 
ukiiba mhle kwako! O, how fair you are! 
hayi, tikuba nkulu kwazo (izinto)! O, how 
great they (the things) are! 

3. With the prep, na (see Na, 4) it ex- 
presses to have : ndoba nenkomo, I shall have 
cattle. 

From its general import uku-Bd, to be, 
with its forms and compounds comes to be 
used with the power of adverbs and 
conjunctions. 

A. Adverbs: The potential mood: ingaba, 
ngaba, ingabi, ngabt, it may be, it seems as if, 
is used adverbially in the sense of likely, 
probably: nditigaba tidofika namhla, I shall 
probably arrive to-day ; ngaba lihashe latn, 
likely it is my horse ; kungaba njalo, possibly 
it is so; See above 2 (e). 

B. Conjunctions, as follow: (all of which 
are modifications of the infinitive iihiba) 
uku-Ba, intens. okoku-BS. (a) If; expressing 

possibility or uncertainty: iihiba kuko 
uyalo, if there is any exhortation ; ukiiha 
abantti bayanit'iya, if the people hate you ; 
tikuba ndit'i ndigwebe, if I judge ; iikiiba iite 
wanani, if he had been with me; ukuba 
ubulapa, umnakwdu nge engafanga, if thou 
hadst been here, our brother had not died. 

(b) If, i.e. whether; ukukangcla ukuba 
amanzi alula-na, to see if the waters were 
abated; masibacikide abantu, ukuba nga- 
bakowdu-na, let us try the people if they 
belong to us. 

(c) That: undixclele ukuba iifikile, he 
told me that you had come : niiyazi uku- 
ba ulapa, I know that he is here. 

(d) That, in order that : ndize ukuba ndi- 
bone wena, I have come that I might see 
you; akanatyala, lokuba abulawe, he is not 
guilty that he should be kiWed: wabayala 
ukuba bangaxdeli nabani, he charged them 
that they should tell no man. 



BA 

eku-Beni, intens. ekoku-Beni, Lit. in 
being, i.e. in as much as, for as much as: 
ckubeni niligiba ilizwi lam, seeing you 
thrust my word from you. 

kwaku-Beni, Though, nakwaku-Beni, 
Even though : nakwakubeni waycngayazi 
ukuba ingaba yinto-nina, even though 
he did not know what it was. 

ngaseku-Beni, Near to that, in that. 

naku-Ba, naku-Beni, naseku-Beni, 
Even if, even in that, although : nakuba bo- 
tike bey a kukubcka kuwe, though all shall 
be offended in you ; akayalekanga nakuba 
ebona ukuba ubuntu baki bupelile, he did 
not take warning, though he saw that his 
human worth was gone. 

noku-BS, intens. nokoku-Ba, (a) And if: 
nakuba ubani uyanibuza, and if any one 
ask you. 

(b) Even if, though: nakuba undiba- 
mhezele, even if you detain me; nakuba 
anikohva ndim, though you believe not me ; 
nokuba utsho, nokuba akatsho, even though 
he say so, or even though he do not say so. 

(c) Rather than: kukalawjele ukuba 
unyene ezidwini u^ilima kuiiokuba upo- 
i^we cnililweni, it is better for thee to enter 
into heaven maimed than to be cast into 
the fire. Sometimes it expresses a super- 
lative idea : a>iikuka nokuhi unemLshi, O, 
how haughty you are! (see Asi); noka 
kiDiijtkuko nokuba arara amazwl ako ! 
though your words are ever so bitter! 

Note, nakuba (from na and kuba) and 
nokuba (from na and ukuba) cannot be used 
quite indifferently, though sometimes the 
one may be used for the other. Nakuba is 
used when reality is implied. Nokuba, 
when the thing may or may not be ; 
nakuba esitsho, although he says so ; nokuba 
utsho, even though he say so. 

ku-Ba, For, because, (a) with the participle : 
kuba beteta, because- they speak ; (b) with 
the indicative when making an affirm- 
ation: kuba andize kubiza Jiina, for I have 
not come to call you. 

ngaku-Ba and ngoku-Ba, intens. ngoko- 
ku-Ba Lit. through that i.e. because, 
(followed by the participle or indie, see 
ku-Ba): wamdubula lomntu ngokula 
cngaguqukanga, he upbraided this man, 
because he repented not; ngokuba benga- 
kolwt kiim, because they believe not in 
me. In the neg. ngakuba is used: asi^ 



15 



BA 

sindiswa ngukuba sitandaza, we are not 
saved because we pray, i.e by prayer; 
anindifiini ngakuba nabona imiqondiso, you 
seek me not because ye saw the miracles. 
ngangoku-BS, intcns. ngangokoku-BS, As 
much as; so great that; so much that; 
so as that: ngangokuba oyikc ukulala, 
so much so that he was afraid to lie down. 
njengoku-BS, intens. iijengokoku-Ba, 
According as that; as; even as; njengo- 
kuba i-Nkosi yamnikayo ulowo tialmvo, 
even as the Lord gave to everyone ; ttje- 
wjokuha etanda, according as he wishes ; cf. 
Njc. 
ngenx' enoku-B5, and ngenxa yoku-BS, Be- 
cause that ; see i-Nxa. 
suku-B5, contrac. su-BS, s.i-B' (fr. sul-a and 
uknha), denotes contingency and is follow- 
ed by the participle; to happen to be; 
it is so as if; perhaps; just so; generally 
expressed by the English 'so ever': umiitu 
osnhuha esifa, whosoever should happen to 
be sick; o.-'ukuha esidla ewtfonka, whosoever 
eats of this bread ; into oiiiuktiha nii/ibopa, 
whatsoever you bind ; apo uxukuha vaii/a 
kona, ndokulandda, wheresoever thou 
goest I will follow thee ; mjamaxc^ha oiike 
pui.mkiiha nit/isda, whensoever, i.e. as 
often as, ye drink it. 
uku-BS, II. ('. ?. To become: ndiha wjumntu, I 
become a man ; ndiha mkulu, I become great ; 
xiha ngakumkani, he became king ; ma.nl>one 
iiknhii (tmapupa oba nja-ni-naf let us see 
what will become of his dreams? Phr. 
ndisnrja ktiha nijumn/ii, I shall still be or 
become a human being, said of one who is 
anticipating a blessing of health or joy, e.g. 
one who gets married after having been a 
widower or widow. 
uku-BS, III. V. i. To mean; to be of opinion; 
to think, imagine, suppose : bendiba yintsimbi, 
I thought it was iron ; kwakukd ababa, there 
were those who thought; umjabi, do not 
imagine. 

2 p. pi. abbrev. rel. aJxi, who or which 
think ; absol. past aba, they supposed ; conj. 
past aba, and they supposed; short pres. cWa, 
they suppose. 

ubu-Bo, n. 7. Meaning, imagination, 
thought. 
uku-BS, (ukw-lba), IV. v. t. To steal : wcba, he 
stole; uznwjchi, do not steal; euphem. uka- 
j/'tba iiUombi, to deceive, cheat a girl, to lie 
with her without her knowledge; n/cmnba 



BA 

umnta, cunningly to get one to express an 
opinion, or to give defective or wrong in- 
formation, in order to use it injuriously. 
isi-Biwo, n. 4. ^ 
isi-Bo, n. 4. [ Stealing, theft. 

ulu-Bo, n. 5. ) 

uku-Bela, r. To steal from : ndabzhca lento, 
this thing was stolen from me; abelunyu 
bayabeUcii kakiilii, the Europeans are rob- 
bed very much; baaibSla igmha nkiize bafu- 
mane imali yoiyioalu, they steal sheep for 
themselves to get money for drink ; nmntu 
obelweyo, the man from whom something 
has been stolen ; to steal for : wabsla 
ukuznlisa ukulamba kicake, he stole to 
satisfy his hunger; uyibele ntonina into 
yam.-' why or for what reason have you 
stolen my thing ? To eat the first ripe fruit 
clandestinely; see nllbo. 
um-BS, n. 6. A dangerous edge between the 
declivities of a mountain; a steep narrow 
pass where the game steals through; a 
narrow defile between precipices; a stair 
in a rock; fig. danger; nkahamba nrfemiba, 
to have to take to dangerous places in 
travelling. 
ama-Baba, n. 2. Patches or shingles like 
ring-worm; marks or scales on the body, 
as on a leprous man. 
um-Baba, n. 6. Wild chestnut, Calodendron 
capense, Tlmnb, the fruit of which, small 
and black, is sometimes bound by hunters 
round their wrists for the purpose of charm- 
ing the game. 
uku-BABA, V. i. To be sharp, biting to the 
feeling; to smart, feel a stinging sensation 
or irritation of the skin, as from a nettle; 
to itch : isilonda siyababa, the sore is itching 
is biting. 

um-Babebabe, /(. l. (a) One who feels itchy 
all over; fig. an irritable person. 

(b) One who outruns others in a race. 
um-Babane, n. 6. (a) Itch, (b) Fury. 
im-Babazane, n. 3. A nettle. 
uku-Babela, v. To feel itching, biting: nda- 
babdwa, I felt itching; to set fire before- 
hand to the grass near anything you wish 
to preserve and so prevent it being burnt 
in an anticipated conflagration ; to burn the 
grass round the huts near a village ; to use a 
preventive ; fig. to utter exciting language. 
Babelana, >'. To produce pain ; to throb 
after: i</a2i lihabdana n<jemitamhd emzi- 
inbuni, the blooci throbs in the arteries. 



16 



BA 

Babixa, v. To cause to itch ; fig. to incite 
desire. 
uku-B'AB'A, V. i. (a) To flutter like a bird in a 
trap; to struggle to escape from a snare; 
to fly. (b) To extract moisture by the 
application of heat. 

i-Babdtane, n. 2. (a) A moth or butterfly. 

(b) One who wanders about from place to 

place, (c) One who wanders in his speech, 

i.e., who does not stick to the truth. 

uku-Babama, v. To rage; to be furious- 

i-Babama, n. 2. An irascible or choleric 

person. 
u-Babamo, . S- 1 -c- i. 

um-Babamo, n. 6. j ^''''''^ ^^S^' o"'^"^''^ 

of anger; choler. 
uku-Babamela, v. To address one in wrath. 
Babamisa, v. To enrage, irritate. 
Babazela, v. (a) To flap about, as a 
duck attempting to fly. (b) To growl 
exceedingly, as a lion or leopard. 
Babisa, v. (a) To ensnare or catch in a 
trap: inyamazanu ibajisiot esibattni, the 
animal has been caught in a snare; tine, 
bantu sibajiswe mjezono, we- people are 
ensnared by means of sins, i.e. sin has 
taken hold of us. (b) To move the shaft of 
an assegai o/er the fire to make it elastic. 
uku-BABALA, r. t. pass, hatyahra, I. General- 
ly, to do a thing spontaneously of one's own 
accord or feeling, not through compulsion 
of anything external ; awjathuaa ukuti anga- 
sibahali wjtzinto sonkei'i how shall he not 
freely give us all things.? 

2. Particularly (a) to confer a benefit of 
one's own voluntary will : unanttiundibabale, 
ndibont mjtnto seyiwjena, such a one has given 
me a free gift, I only knew of it by its enter- 
ing my house or fold; (b) to attack or 
insult one quite gratuitously without cause 
or provocation: yini ukuba andibahale. ndiiujt- 
nzanga nto '^ why has he gi-atuitously attacked 
me without my having done any thing (to 
provoke him) .? (c) to seize, as a disease, in a 
way that cannot be accounted for: aiidita::i 
esisifo sifumane. sandibabala, I cannot account 
for this illness, it has seized me withoul 
cause. 

isi-Babalo, . 4. An unasked gift. 
u-Babalo, n. 5. Grace; the benediction. 
im-Babal, n. 3. (a) The bushbuck, Trage- 
laphus scriptus sylvaticus (Spar.); imbab.da- 
kazi, the doe of the bushbuck. Phr. uyimbabx- 
la yolwantunge, he is a buck of an endless 
forest, i.e., a shiftless man who ne /er con- 
C 



BA 

tiniies long in any place or occupation; a 
ne'er-do-well, one guided by no fixed princi- 
ple, (b) A species of butterfly, red with 
white spots, (c) Rust in Kafir-corn. 

ukut'i-Babalala, v. (a) To fall suddenly or 
with violence, (b) To sit or dwell spread 
out. 
isi-Babalala. ??. 4. A stout person or animal ; 

isibabalala somfo, a very stout man, 
u-Babalaia, n. 5. Wide extent, compass. 

i-BABALAZA, . 3. Sickness caused by 
intemperance, which compels the person 
affected to seek meat to relieve himself; 
from the Dutch. 

i-Babatane. n. 2. A moth, etc. See under 
iihi-Baba. 

isi-Babatu, h. 4. Any thing uncommonly 
v/ide, broad or extensive. 

uku-Babaza, v. t. pass, batyazwa, To report one 
as very ill, or as acting uncommonly well, 
or as bestowing very bountifully; to exag- 
gerate. Em. to speak highly of a person ; to 
exalt, extol. 

""^R^^K^^f ' I ! Anexaggerator; one 
um-Babaz!, 3 ^^ ' 

who is always complaining. 
um-Babazo, n. 6. Exaggeration ; the act of 
reporting one as very sick, or as acting 
uncommonly well, or as bfestov/ing very 
bountifully. 
uku-Babazela, see under uku-Baba. 
Babe, Auxll. in forming the compound tenses, 
I cl. pi.: babe betatida, contrac. babetarida, 
they were or have been loving; babe benga- 
tetanga, contrac. babengatetanga , they had not 
spoken; babe bey a kuhamba, contrac. babeya 
kuhamba, they were going to walk; they 
should have walked, see uku-Ba, I. 2. (a). 
um-Babebabe, ti. I. See under uku-Baba. 
Babo, Pass. pron. I. Its. 7 cl. ref. (a) to I 
cl. pi. : ubukumkani hinabantu babo, the king- 
dom has its people, (b) to 7 cl. : tibtisi buno- 
bumnanii babo, honey has its sweetness. 

2. Their. I cl. pi. ref. (a) to I cl. pi. : abantu 
nabantwana babo, the people and their child- 
ren, (b) to 7 cl. : okumkanibanobukumkanibabo, 
the kings have their kingdom. See Bo; 
ababo, companions, sing, uwabo. 
jku-Babu!a, v. t. To draw, paint, tattoo. 
.iku-Babulu!a, ohs.,uku-Tungulula. 
iiku-B'ACA, I. V. i. To cutandmake thQisibaca. 
isi-Baca, n. 4. That part of the woman's 
kaross which hangs loose behind ; its length 
is equal to the length of the kaross. It is 



i; 



BA 

generally made of the dressed hide of a i 
dark red coloured ox. The hair is not taken i 
off and the hairy side is outward. The 
whole breadth, formerly about a foot, is 
formed of small longitudinal strips, each 
about two inches broad, which are neatly 
sewn together and variously ornamented 
with buttons; the kaross itself; fig. a 
shawl; the flap of a wagon sail. 
um-Baco, tt. 6. A long strip of cotton 
blanket made like a dress and worn by 
Kafir women and girls. ; 

uku-B'ACA, II. V. i. To go without having any , 
definite object in view; to wander about in j 
a destitute state; to be homeless; cf. uku- 
Mfenguza, j 

im-Baca, ) One wandering in search i 

mi-Bacu, 3 -^ 

of a home or livfelihood, refugee; bazimba- I 
cii, they were scattered by hunger or war ; 
they wandered about for work. 
uku-Bacela, v. To wander to a certain place 
or person for aid; tvabacela emlungwini, 
he sought for help among the Europeans. 
Bacisa, v. To turn one from home ; to 
cast him destitute on the world. 
isi-Bada, ;;. 4. (a) An isolated patch or spot I 
on the ground, of distinctive colour, (b) An , 
incapable being, (c) Any small circular 
thing placed on the head as an ornament;; 
fig. a scar on a person. j 

uku-B'ADA, V. t. (a) To plunder, rob, (a kind : 
of legal stealing, done secretly and confessed j 
afterv/ards) ; to use for a time that which J 
belongs to another without his permission. ! 

(b) To kill, murder secretly; to assassinate. 

(c) To ravish (not by force), ^=uku-Zuma. 
i-Bada, n. 2. A thief, assassin, ravisher. 
um-Bido, n. 6. The act of appropriating 

another person's property for a time with- 
out permission ; robbery, plunder, murder ; 
ravishing. 
ukut'i-B'ADA, V. i. To fall down flat ; ndite-bada 

ngesisH, I fell flat on my stomach; ikaka 

lentsbnhi elithva-bada esifubcni. a breastplate. 

ukut'i-Badada. v. To lie down flat suddenly. 

im-Badada, . 3. A sandal. 

uku-Badama, v. To sit or lie down in wait ; 
to watch, as a cat for a mouse. 

isi-Badama, n. 4. A stupid person. 

uku-Badameka, v. To be stupid. 

Badamela, v. To watch for the appre- 
hension of a criminal, or capture of an 
enemy. 



^-Badaza u | ^ ^^^^ cautiously, 

Badabadaza, v. S " 

not firmly, like one who walks barefoot 
for the first time, or as a child ready to 
fall; to waddle like a duck; to speak 
hesitatingly. 
Badazela, v. To walk cautiously in. 
Badeka, v. To put, place, lay, clap 
down flat: abifazi babubadcka ubulongo 
cbuhlant'i, or amalongo pezu komlilo, the 
women put the wet cow dung in the cattle 
fold flat on the ground or against the 
walls to dry, or the dry dung on 
the fire; to put the hand flat on the fat 
swimming on- soup or food and lick it off. 
Badekela, v. To place flat for. 
u-Badakazi, . l. An uninhabited region: 
ndiiftamba kwa-Badakazi apo kiingcko namanzi, 
apb huigeko mzi, I travelled in the wilder- 
ness where there was neither water nor a 
village ; fig. midnight: ndafika kwa or kwesika- 
Badakazi, I arrived at midnight. 
i-Badana, n. 2. A small springbuck ; dimin. 

of i-Badi. 
i-Badi, 11. 2. (a) The springbuck, Antidorcas 
euchore fZimtn.); fem. ibadikazi ; dimin. 
ibadana; itikabi ebadi, and inkomo ebadi, and 
ibadikazi elibomvu, an ox or a cow with some 
red on the sides, and much white on the 
back and belly ; ibadikazi elrmnyama, a cow 
with black on the sides, (b) General 
name for butterflies, (c) One who wanders 
about from place to place. 
uku-BadIa, v. i. Em. To simmer, boil. 
i-Badlala, 1 
i-Badlalala, J 

last or drop behind in a race; fig. an un- 
wieldy person. 

'^^:^' ].'. To pierce through a 
hollow thing as the belly with a blunt 
instrument, or stick ; to fill a garment with 
holes; fig. to reveal, v. i. Of a pimple or 
scab, to appear. 

i-Badiubadlvtana, n. 2. A thing pierced 
or beaten into tatters; fig. a person full 
of talk. 
im-Badlula, . 3. One who opens up things, 

reveals secrets. 
isi-Badlu, n. 4. Anything perforated with 
holes, as a garment or as the wooden 
part of a brush into which the bristles are 
inserted; anything blotched with grease 
or ink. 
18 



n. 2. The oxen which are the 



J8A 

uku-Badluka, v. To be perforated with 
big holes, as clothes by fire, or a bag of 
mealies by mice, or the walls of a house 
by rain: inxowa ibadluldle zitnpukn, the 
mice have eaten big holes in the bag. 

^R^H^ti!!'.,"' ^"^ I A rambler, roamer, 
isi-Badubadu, . 4. ) ' ' 

wanderer, vagabond, emigrant; one in 

search of anything; a straying animal. 

uku-Badula, ) , ^^ oK^t. ^ 

-Badubadula, \ ^- ^^ S ^b"^' ^ 

migrate; to wander constantly, roam 

about; to be a vagabond; fig. to wander 

in speaking or addressing. 

isi-Baduli, n. 4. =i-Badubadu. 

uku-BaduIela, v. To wander to or for: 

bona babadulel'i ukudla, they wander in 

search of food. 

Badulisa, v. To make to wander. 

um-BAKA, n, 6. The balsam-tree. 

isi-Bakabaka, . 4. The space or expanse 
between heaven and earth, the firmament. 

i-Bakala n. 2. Step, space, section, paragraph, 
p3riod, school standard. 

isi-Bakala, n. 4. Public : beka inyatn i esibak.:- 
leni, put the meat in an open place before 
all. The pi. is used for good, sweet words, 
reasons, proofs, arguments, by which one is 
convinced. 

ukut'i-Bakata, v. i. To come unexpectedly on 
anything feared; to close in fight with an 
enemy. Of boys, to step forward, to go at 
one in fighting: wati bakata kum, he attacked 
me suddenly, before I expected him; to 
throw at a near object. 

uku-Bakaxa, v. i. (a) To rush in an extended 
line : balibakaxa ihlati, they rushed all spread 
out into the forest; fig. to speak all at once, 
without order ; to confuse : inteto yake indi- 
bakaxile, his speech has come to me from 
every point and confused me. (b) To take 
a by-path, (c) To sew on a patch, (d) To 
enter as an assegai blade horizontally; to 
beat with the middle of a stick, not with the 
end ; to hit with the shaft, not with the blade. 
isi-Bakaxa, n. 4. Anything misshapen or 

ill made. 
uku-Bakaxisa, v. To cause to rush, take 
a by-path, sew, enter, etc. 

Bake, Pass. pron. 3 p. sing. His, her; ref. (a) 
to I cl. pi. : ahantu bake, his people ; (b) to 7 
cl. : ubukumk.mi bake, his kfngdom ; emphat. 
abake abanhvana, his or her own children. 
(To be distinguished from the 3 p. pi. pres. 
indie, of uku-Ka or uku-Ke, and the I cl. pi. 
pres. conj. of the same, and of uku-Ka, to 
draw, and ukw-Aka, to build). 



BA 

Bako, Pass. pro:i. (I) 2 p. sing. Thy; ref. (a) 

to I cl. pi. : abatitwana b.iko, thy children ; not 

to be confounded with the 3 p. pi. pres. indie. 

of ukubako, they are present or in existence ; 

emphat. abako abatitwana, thy children; (b) 

to 7 cl.: ubuhlanti bako, thy cattlefold; 

emphat. oiaA'(5 ubuhlanti; thy cattlefold. 

(II) 8 cl. Its; ref. (a) to I cl. pi.: ukutya 

kudliwe tigabapeki bako, the food has been 

eaten by its cooks, (b) to 7 cl.: ukufa 

kunobmizima bako, death has its burden ; see 

Kd. 

Baku, Temp, mood I cl. pi. : bakudla abatitwana, 

when the children ate ; 7 cl. : bakuba bupelile 

utywala, when the beer had been finished. 

i-Bakuba, n. 2. (a) Bakuba is an ideal country 

far away. Phr. kukude e-Bakuba, you will have 

to run before you can escape me; Bakuba 

is far away, no person ever reached it, i.e. do 

not build castles in the air; it also means 'ifs 

and buts'. (b) A species of castor oil plant. 

Bakubaku, adj. Flapping, applied to the ears 

of an elephant or of certain breeds of dogs 

with long drooping ears. When applied to 

persons, it is used offensively. 

i-Baku, n. 2. (a) A dog with long drooping 

ears, (b) The long-tailed widow-bird, 

Diatropura procn; (Bodd), the male of 

which has in the breeding-season a 

peculiar flapping flight, (c) A certain way 

of fastening a handkerchief round the 

head of a girl. 

uku-Bakuzela, v. To walk at full speed 

with garments flapping; fig. to act as one 

who travels aimlessly without a stick, etc. 

i-BAKUMA, ti. 3. An oven, fr. the Du. bakoven. 

uku-BALA, x>. ;. To count, reckon, compute, 

number. Phr. ih(7she lihaV indlebe, the horse 

pricks up one ear and thsn the other. 

um-Bali, n. I. One who counts, reckons; 

accountant, computer. 
i-Bali, n. 2. Old story, old occurrence, in- 
cident; historical fact or event. 
im-Bala, n. 3. used as adj. One, only one. 
im-Bali, (S short) n. 3. Narrative, tale: yenz' 
itnbali, recount or narrate a story or 
history. Phr. bavuya imb'ili, they rejoiced 
marvellously ; yiitibali lonto, that's a yarn. 
im-Balwa, n. 3. pi. Few: ndiiienkoino ezl- 

mbakva, I have a few cattle. 
isi-Bali, n. 4. One expert in counting. 
im-Balo, . 3- ) 

isi-Ba!o, n. 4. > That which is counted, 
um-Balo, n. 6. ) 

reckoned; arithmetic. 
uku-Balela, v. To count for, enumerate- 
19 



BA 

Euphem. ivamhalcla, lie slept in her h/.t; 

said of a polygamist sleeping a certain 

number of nights in the huts of his wives 

in turn. 
um-Baleli, w. I. The quack who enumerates 

the places in which a wizard has hidden 

charms. 
um-Balelo, . 6. Enumeration, account. 
uku-Balelana. v. To reckon with one 

another: wabrilelana nabakbnzi bake, he 

reckoned with his servants. 
Balisa, v. To cause to count, relate, 

recite, narrate. It implies always that 

the thing narrated is old. 
im-Ba!iso, ?;. 3. Narrative, relation, history, 

account. 
uku-Balisela, v. To narrate, tell news or an 

old matter of dispute to or for: ndibabali- 

sela ukukamba kwam, I gave them an 

account of my journey. 
Baliselana, v. To narrate to each other, 

or alternately; to tell stories to each 

other: baklala bebaliselcna, they sat down, 

or they continued, telling one another old 

stories. 

Balula, ] , \ -r 1 11 T 

-Balubalula,] '"'^^^ To pick, cull, specify, 

distinguish, note, mark out, select; 
reflex, wazibalula, he distinguished him- 
self, in the sense of making himself distinct 
from others, (b) To except, (c) To open 
or lift up the eyes. 

isi-Balulo. ;;. 4. Selection; the best, chief 
person or thing. 

uku-Baluleka, v. To be distinguished, etc. : 
indodi ebalulekileyo, a prominent, con- 
spicuous, distinguished, weighty, import- 
ant man. 

u-Baluleko, n. 5. Distinction. 

uku-Balulela, v. To mark out on account of 
or for others. 
uku-B'ALA, V. t. To mark, write, sign, paint: 

bala encwiidini, write in the book. 

um-Bali, . I. Scribe, writer, clerk; iimbali 
mhiqopiso, a notary. 

im-BaJl. (a long) n. 3. An expert in writing. 

im-Balo, v.. 3. The art of writing. 

u-Bi*o^ "4- j Writing, record, scripture. 

um-8a3o, . 6. Writing, mark, stripe; a 
woollen blanket with a black stripe. 

uku-Balela, t'. To write for or to a person: 
wondibalela incw::di, you must write a letter 
for me or to me. Phr. wabaleJa edolweni, 
lit. he wrote on the knee, i.e. he was 
insincere, shifty, cheating; he spoke lies 
wherever he went. 



BA 

I um-Baleli, . I. A correspondent. 

[ um-Balela dolwcni, w. i. A wiseacre. 

j im-Balelano, n. 3. Correspondence. 

I uku-Balisa, v. To cause to write. 

Balisana, v. To cause to write to each 

I other. 

Balula, V. To scratch, make stripes by 
scratching with claws; to shave off the 
rough parts of a skin. 

1-Bala, M. 2. (a) Colour, hue, mark, spot; 
ibala lake lilubehi, his colour is yellow. 
Phr. amabal' eugwe, lit. leopard's spots, i.e. 
hints, remarks ; fig. ubeka ibala, he blames, (b) 
A bare space, or a yard near or round a 
house, or a glade in or near a forest ; a lawn ; 
dimin. ibalana. 

ama-Bal'engwe, n. 2. plural. A name given 
to the Lesser Cape Bishop-bird, Euplectes 
capensis approximans (Cab.). 

im-Bala, n. 3, Spots, blotches, or marks on 
the shin-bone of old people from sitting 
over the fire too much. 

isi-Bala, ;/. 4. (a) The great muscle on the 
ribs, pect. maj. (b) Open place. 

u-Bala, n. 5. A place cleared off, open, where 
nothing is to be seen ; hence, a desert, wilder- 
ness; ilizwe liluhala, the country is desert, 
uninhabited. 

um-Bala, n. 6. Shin-bone (tibia). 

ukut'i-Balakaxa, v. i. To fall sprawling into 
a hole or ditch; to fall over some one in 
running: ndai'i-halakaxa ehantwini besiba, I 
stumbled on people stealing, i.e. I caught 
them in the act. 

im-Ba!akaxa, . 3. A very lazy person 
always sitting in one place.- iiti-nina usuke 
w:Ui mbalakaxa 7!jc? why are you sprawl- 
ing there idle ? 

isi-Balala, n. 4. (a) Shouting, loud crying on 
the part of men pursuing: bazibalala, they 
are running away, (b) A rug, or coloured 
blanket. 

u-Balangiie, n. l. A white horse, or ox. 

im-Balafa, n. 3. (a) One who distinguishes 
himself, excels in strength, courage, or 
ability, e.g. in shooting, etc; the boldest 
hero; the greatest prince (God), (b) The 
bitterest medicine. 

uku-Balasa, v. To cry as a calf when caught, 
or as a cow for its calf. 
im-Balasane, w. 3. That which is brilliant, 
eminent above all others, used esp. of 
young bulls; eminence, brilliance. 



BA 

uku-Balasela, v. To shine; to make con- 
spicuous, very bright or dazzling, so as to 
overpower; of an ox or cow, to keep 
bellowing till it disturbs. 
uku-BALEKA, v. i. To run, flee ; impi yabaleka, 
the enemy fled; to avoid: ndambaleka, I 
fled from him ; to fly, as a bird. 
um-Baleki, n. I. Runner, fugitive. 
im-Baleki, n. 3. A good runner, a race horse. 
uku-Balekela, v. To run, flee for or to 
towards, into: ndibalekela ku-Tixo, I flee 
to God; to attack without cause: into 
ebalekelweyo, a thing attacked without 
cause; to meddle with; to provoke: undi- 
balekele full, he provoked me often. 
Balekisa, v. (a) To make one run, flee; 
to spur on: ukubalekisa amahashe, to race 
horses, (b) To run with, or along with, 
(c) To work nimbly; to handle tools 
cleverly. 
Balekisela, v. To drive away for or to. 
uku-Balela, v. To shine ; to be hot ; to scorch, 
burn up, applied to the sun; ilang.i libalele. 
the sun is hot, or there is a drought. 
Balelela, v. To scorch ; umhlabn ubalelelwe 

lilangi, the earth is scorched by the sun. 

Balelisa, v. To cause to shine, to scorch. 

im-Bali n. 3. The small seed of any tree, 

plant, blossom or flower ; hence, progeny. 

Balo, Poss.pron. Its. (l). 2 cl. sing. ref. (a) to I 

cl. pi. : ilizwi linabrp'ilapuli balo, the word has 

its listeners; (b) to 7 cl.: uhude balo. its (the 

country's) length. (2). 5 cl. sing. ref. fa) to I 

cl. pi. : usana Iwagcinwa 7igabazali balo, the 

child was kept by its parents ; (b) to 7 cl. : 

ubunzulu b.ilo. its (the sea's) depth. See Lo. 

uku-BaluIa, See under uku-Bala. 

uku-Balula, See under uku-Bala. 

ukut'i-BaluIu, V. To open the eyes; to come 

to oneself after a faint. 
Bam, Pass. pron. My; ref. (a) to I cl. pi. 
abantwana bam, my children; emphat. abam 
abantwana, my own children; (b) to 7 cl.: 
ubuko bam, my presence ; see M. 
ukut'i-Bam, v. i. To fall flat ; to become feeble. 
uku-BAMB'A, v. t. pass, banjwa. To seize, 
grasp, apprehend; catch, hold, to keep back, 
restrain ; yibambe inkabi ingabaleki, hold fast 
the ox that it may not run away ; wabanjwa 
tvasiwa kulimbt ilizwe, he was caught and 
taken to another country ; uyibambtle imali 
yam, he has kept back my money; wabamb' 
umzimba, he braced his body, or became 
wary; wabamb' ameJilo, he cheated; wabamb' 
amazinyo, he shuddered; wabamb' umloftto, 



BA 

he was amazed; bamba ilizwi, think of the 
word, keep it in remembrance; wazibamba, 
he held himself back, was reserved; he was 
self-possessed at the time of excitement, 
refrained from action; fig. to hold as, to 
count for: ngokuba bcbebambe ukut'i uyinkosi, 
because they counted him for a chief. See 
also under isi-Sila. 
um-Bambi, n. I. A captor: umhamhi sahlulo 

a shareholder. 
um-Banjwa, n. I. A captive, prisoner. 
i-Bamba, n. 2. (a) The eyetooth, tusk of 
animals, (b) The lath bent over the thatch 
on a hut, to which strings or ropes are 
tied to bind down the thatch, (c) One 
who acts for another ; a regent ; a locum 
tenens. 
im-Bambe, n. 3. The boundary of a forest : 
embambeni yehlati, at the edge of the 
forest. 
isi-Bambo, n. 4. An instrument for holding, 
as a handle, vice, pincers; the evidence 
of the capture of a thief or other culprit ; 
f\-g.=am-Andla. 
u-Bambo, n. 5. (a) A rib; ubatnbo Iwempeiii, 
the false or lowest rib ; ubambo lomahlulo, 
the highest rib. (b) The ring or band of a 
wheel, (c) A muscle of the breast. Dimin. 
u-Banjana. 
um-Bamb6, n. 6. Capture. 
uku-Bambana, v. To strive, struggle, grap- 
ple, catch, take hold one of another, as 
wrestling men; fig. to contend about a 
matter in which both parties maintain 
their right; hence the war cry: ibambene 
ngazo! or hibanjenwe ngazo! the enemy is 
at war with us about them (the cattle); 
to cohere: ubuso bamanzi anzongonzongo 
bubambene, the face of the deep is frozen. 
im-Bambane, n. 3. Debate, controversy. 
im-Bambano, n. Z- \ ctr ( 
u-Bambario, n. 5. ) ^^''^^' controversy. 
uku-Bambanisa, v. To cause divisions. 
u-Bambaniso, n. 5. Division resulting from 
strife: balumkeleni aba benza imbambaniso, 
beware of those who cause divisions. 
uku-Bantibeka, v. To be held fast, either 
actually, as an imperfect screwnail in 
wood giving no catch to a screwdriver; 
or figuratively, as a person by work or 
sickness: ndibambekile kulomzi, I am de- 
tained at this place ; ndisabambekile ngum- 
sebenzi, I am held fast by my work; 
unjanina? usabambekile , how is he.? he is 
still gripped fast, i.e. he is still sick. 



21 



BA 

Bambekisa, v. To cause to be held fast. 

Bambela, v. To catch or hold for 
another; to be a substitute for: Jidiyiha- 
mbele lendoda, I work or act for this man, 
in his stead. 

um-Bambeli, . I. Deputy, proxy, repre- 
sentative. 

uku-Bambelana, v. To seize mutually on 
behalf of each party: kwahanjelwana a- 
Belungu nama-Xosa, the Europeans and 
Kafirs seized mutually on behalf of their 
respective parties. 

Bambelela, v. To hold on to; to hang 
by: lisana luhambelela kiinina, the child 
holds on, i.e. is attached, to its mother, 
isi-Bambelelo, n. 4. Anything to hold on 
by. 

uku-Bambelelana, v. To hold on to each 
other. 

uku-Bambezcla, v. To keep waiting; to 
hinder, impede, prevent, detain till it is 
too late : windilxunhezela selehamhile uhdwo, 
he kept me back, when my father had 
already gone far; fig. to repay, retaliate, 
recompense: wahamhezela ngenkomo zotn- 
kuluwe wake, he retaliated, i.e. recovered 
(his cattle) by seizing his brother's cattle, 

isi-Bambezelo, h. 4. (a) Interruption, de- 
tention, hindrance, stoppage, delay; re- 
taliation, (b) That which is given as 
securitj'. 

uku-Bambisa. v. To cause to grip: zihamhise 
intlanzi, catch fish; to hold with, retain 
by ; to have a hold on one by having 
possession of his property; fig. to take 
hold along with; to help, assist: ndiha- 
mhise emsehenzini warn, help me in my 
work; to pledge; to mortgage, promise: 
wandihatuhisa ngenkomo, he gave me a 
cow to keep meanwhile. 

um-Bambisi, . I. Catcher, captor; umha- 
mh'tsi tventlanzi, a fisherman. 

isi-Bambiso, . 4. A trap for catching; fig. 
pledge, engagement. 

u-Banjiso, . 5. A catch (of fishes). 

uku-Bambisana. v. To keep one another 
by the hand; to assist each other; fig. to 
enter into a mutual engagement; to co- 
operate ; to pledge or bind each other to 
an engagement or enterprize; to enter 
into confederacy. 

isi-Bambisano, n. 4. Mutual help. 

uku-Bambisela, v. To pledge. 

isi-Bambiselo, n. 4. Pledge. 



iSA 

im-Batnbalala, n. 3. That which is big; 
intonibi iyimbambalala, the girl is big, stout. 
uku-B'AMB'AT'A, v. t. pass, hanjatwa, To pat, 
tap encouragingly with the flat hand; to 
quiet, allay, appease, coax, flatter; fig. to 
hint, allude to. 

um-Bambato, n. 6. A medicinal plant. 
uku-Bambatisa v. To encourage, promise, 
vow; to cause to hope for favours; u- 
Herode ivayibamhMsa intotnbi ngcsifungo, 
Herod promised the girl with an oath; 
to assent seemingly, grant apparently. 
isi-Bambatiso, n. 4. A vow. 
uku-Bambezela, see under ttkii-Bamba. 
isi-Bana, n. 4, Dimin. of isi-Bi. 
isi-Banana, n. 4. A swell: usisihanana, he 

goes about with a show of enlightenment. 
um-Banc6!o, n. 6. A beggarly, poor, home- 
less person. 
uku-Banda, v. i. To be cold, chill or frigid, i.e. 
to the feeling, (it does not mean, to feel 
coldi. . 8. Coldness. 
Bandisa, v. To make cold; to cool. 
um-Bandiswa, . l. One who is cold from 

rain. 
isi-Bandiso, . 4. A cooler. 
isi-Banda, n. 4. A scar, scratch, cicatrix. 
um-Banda, n. 6. A species of Strychnos. 
uku-Bandakanya, v. 4. (from i-bande and 
kanye). To join, put things together in one 
class, title, etc. ; to set, fix, bring one or more 
things into connection with one another; 
sibandakanyiwe tio-Tixo, we have been joined 
to God; indoda ihandakanywa nomfazi wayo, 
the man is joined to his wife. 
Bandakanyana, v. To be adjoining; 
imizi-le ibandakanyene, the places are close 
to each other. 
Bandakanyisa, v. To make to join 
ndabnndakanyisa lento nalento, I joined this 
and that; iizibandakanyisile tialonintu, he 
has joined himself to that man. 
isi-Bandakanyiso, . 4. A coupling, joining. 
i-Bande, n. 2. A bandage: babdlshwa ngabande 

nye, they were tied with one bandage. 
i-Bande . 2. A small heap of corn, grass or 
firewood, either loose or tied up in a bundle. 
im-Bande, n. 3. (a) The shinbone, which the 
Bushmen use as a whistle, (b) A pipe, flute, 
fife, (c) A shrub, (d) A little village close by 
a chief's residence. 
isi-Bande, . 4. A certain kind of long, 
aromatic grass, used by lying-in women 
and menstruating females. 
uku-Bande!a, v, t. To load up very much. 
-Bandelela, v. To overload. 



BA 

um-Batidela, n. 6. A bone in the hock, (fibula) ; 
an amendment to a resolution or pi-oposition ' 
iidensa umbandcla kwelozivi, I added to that 
word ; amaha:uldn, things grafted in ; fig. 
people who attach themselves to another 
body of people; a mixed multitude, as that 
which went up from Egypt with the 
Israelites. 
uku-BANDEZA, v. t. To keep back; to 
depri^-e, debar; to prevent the use of 
a thing; to refuse to lend or gran':: 
lotmttu asikuko nokiiba tiyayibmideza into yak''. 
this man is exceedingly averse to lending. , 
uyawubandezn lanzimba wako, thou refuses 
to give the use of thy body to do a thing ,. 
uyayibandeza indicia, he refuses to give th. 
use of the road; uyibandezile iivayini entU , 
thou hast kept back the good wine. Phi- 
mnona wasemliingwini ubandeza ic'itywa enga- 
liqabi, the envy of the Europeans preventt^ 
the getting of red clay from the pit, and yet 
they do not use it, (describing the dog in 
the manger). 
um-Bandezwa, n. l. One who has been 

asked for and withheld. 
i-6andeza, n. 2. A person who keeps back, 
withholds, refuses to grant, deprives; fig. 
a miser, niggard. 
i-Bandezi, n. 2. That which forms an 
obstruction to the light or heat of the 
sun or fire, and reflects it; any corner 
very hot through the concentration of 
the sun's rays ; oppressive heat ; resistance 
like that of a toll-bar; an enclosure, with 
a wide entrance narrowing to a pitfall 
(isi-Hogo), into which game is dri/en in 
hunting. 
isi-Bandezo, n. 4. Withholding, keeping 

back; refusal. 
uku-Bandezela, v. To press one thing 
against another ; to press from both sides 
so as to pinch or squeeze: izihlangu 
ziyabandezela, the shoes pinch, fit narrow- 
ly; umnive iibandezehve clucangweni, the 
finger is jammed between the door and the 
frame; wabandezeleni amahashc ngotango, 
hem in the horses against the fence; fig. 
to oppress, distress, afflict, harass, hem in, 
coop up, close in upon, besiege: indlalc 
isibandezele, the dearth distresses, presses 
hard upon us; to cause to suffer severely: 
isifo sindibandezele, the illness makes mt 
to suffer greatly; uyandibandezela ngoku- 
buza kwake, he presses me with questions 
to urge, enforce. 



BA 

um-Bandezeli, n. l. An oppressor. 

im-Bandezelo, n. 3. Affliction, oppression. 

isi-Bandezelo, n. 4. Any instrument of 
pressure ; impression on the heart. 

um-Bandezelo, n. 6. Any place in which 
game or people are cooped up by hunters 
or pursuers; affliction, oppression, dis- 
tress, suffering. 

uku-Bandezeleka, v. To be distressed, 
oppressed, under severe suffering: ndiba- 
ndezelekile, I am oppressed, distressed. 

Bandezisa, v. To restrain, repress. 
'.-Bandla, n. 2. The people of one chief, as 

distinguished from those of another. In 

this sense it is generally used in the pi: 

inkosi ijikile nauiabandla ayo, the chief has 

arrived with his suite; a division, cohort 

of an army; a body of men; assembly, 

company, congregation, church. 
Bane, n. 2. A firebrand. 
id-Bane,- n. 4. Anything that emits light, a 

lighted stick, flambeau, lamp, candle; fig. 

sun, moon. 
-:m-Bane, n. 6. Lightning. 

uku-Baneka, t. To light, lighten: baneka 
isibaue, light a candle; izulu liyabaneka, 
the sky lightens, n. 8. ukubaneka kwezulii, 
the lightning of the sky. 

Banekela, v. To lighten for or about: 
ndabanekekva ngen.va zouke Inkanyiselo olu- 
kulu, there shone a great light round 
about me. 

Banekisa, v. To lighten. 

Banekisana, v. To lighten mutually. 

Banekisela, v. To illuminate, enlighten, 
instruct. 
Banga, (a) Neg. verb pref. of I cl. pi. : ukuze 

bangatet'i, that they may not speak; ilizwi 

abattgalitetanga, the word which they did 

not speak. 

(b) V. pref. I cl. pi. of potent, mood: 
bangahamba, they may walk. 

(c) Pres. and aor. tense, I cl pi. and aor. 
7 cl. of uku-N'ja, (a) and (b), and iikw-Anga, 
which see. 

(d) Aux. of condit. mood, see Bange (a). 
jku-BANGA, V. t. (a) To cause, originate, 

make, occasion, produce, bring on: lento 
yabdnga imfazwe, this thing caused war; 
yinto-nina ebdng' ukuba uhambe ngalendlelaf 
what is it that makes you walk this way ? 

(b) To demand, claim, in disputing the 
proprietorship of anything: ndiyalibdnga 
elihashe, I claim this horse. Phr. ubukulu 
abubdngwa tigomlomo bahlulwa kukutshata 
one does not become great by 



BA 

claiming greatness, i.e. birth and actions, 

not talk and boasting, are what people judge 

by; honour is merited. 

um-BSngi, . I. A claimer. 

i-Bang:a, h. 2. Distance or space between 
two lines; width or breadth of a row of 
bead-work, or between the seams of a 
dress, or a row of binding in a mat; lately 
used for step by step; fig. reason: bek' 
amabatiga, speak what is true, i.e. give 
your reasons for speaking this and that ; 
degree, extent. 

im-Bangi, n. 3. Cause, means, claim ; i-eason 
of dispute: imhangi yoko, a cause of that; 
originator, author. 

i-Bango, . 2. I Disputed claim, contest 

im-Bango, Ji. 3. 3 
at elections, right. 

isi-Bango, n. 4. Medicine to kill another 
with, 

u-Bango, n. 5. Cause, reason; the act of 
claiming anything. 

um-Banga, n. 6. Debate, dispute. 

i-Bangafa, n. 2. One who originates a 
quarrel. 

ubu-Bangafa, ?i. 7. Disagreement. 

uku-BUngela, v. (a) To cause for; to bring 
upon: iso>w sandibAiigcV ttkufa, the sin 
caused my death; londaivo indibdngeV 
uvuyo, this matter giv^es me joy. (b) To 
claim, etc., for another. 

im-Bangeli, . 3. Originator: imhafigeli 
yesifo, the originator of sickness. 

uku-BSngelana, v. To help each other to 
claim. 

uku-Bangezela, to cause, etc.^=uku-Banga. 

um-Bangezeli, . l. Originator. 

isi-Bangezelo, n. 4. | ^.^^^ ^ ^^. -^ 

um-Bangezelo, . 0. ) 

uku-Bangisa, v. To dispute, contend for. 

im-Bangiso, n. 3. Dispute, contest. 

uku-Bangisana, v. To debate, dispute with 
each other in claiming a thing : bayabdngi- 
satia ugclifa, they dispute with each other 
in claiming the inheritance; amadoda 
ayabdtigisana ngcntoinb'i, the men are 
competing with one another for the girl. 

im-Bang;swano, . 3. Dispute in claiming. 

^}^":?!A'^*^^'^' ] V. i. To pass away; to cease 
ukuti-Banga, 3 ^ " 

suddenly ; to get lost, dispersed ; to perish : 

tite-baiiga timlilo, the fire is suddenly 

extinguished; amafti ate-banga, the clouds 

suddenly dispersed; kvatt-banga uvuyo 

Iwam, my ioy suddenly 



BA 

ukut'i-Bangabanga, v. To wave: iatba litt- 
baiigabanga, the tobacco is broad and 
waving. 
i-Bangabanga, 2. Waving, as corn, 
tobacco or pumpkin leaves; inqolowa 
ilibangabanga, the wheat is broad and 
waving; a large leaf. 
u-Bangabanga, n. 5. One who acts, speaks 
or runs persistently without yielding to 
others ; a person far-famed for his prow- 
ess: lendoda ilubangabanga, this man 
outruns others. 
uki!-Bangaza, v. To scatter, spread, dis- 
perse ; to wander about in distress. 
i-B&ngaza, n. 2. One who wanders about 

in distress. 
uk-j-Bingazeka, v. To be suddenly dis- 
psrsed : impi yabangaseka, the enemy was 
dispersed, i.e. is gone; lomzi uhaiigazekile, 
this village is ruined; to be mourning. 
Bin;;>;azela, v. To run away in distress 
upon being dispersed ; to flame up, as fire. 
Bingazelela, v. To run in distress away 
to; ndabangazelela emlungwini, I had to 
run away to the Europeans, i.e. to the 
Colony. 
Bingazisa, v. To cause to scatter, etc. 
Bangisa, v. To cause to cease, to pass 
away, to get lost, etc. 
i-Bangala, 71. 2. Head ornament. 
u-Bangalala, n. 5. Ignorance: ndabashiya 
beselubangalaleni, I left them, not knowing 
the place where they were. 
um-Bangandlela, or Bangandlala, n. 6. 
Heteromorpha arborescens, Cham. & Schle- 
cht, a small tree with yellowish flower, used 
for stomach disorders, scrofula, thread- 
worms in horses, etc. 
i-Bangafa, see under uku-Banga. 
Bange, (a) Auxil. forming the conditional 
mood, T cl. pi. : bange (banga) bekwela they 
should or ought to ride, (b) Neg. verb, pref, 
(contrac. fr. abange), of potent, mood of I 
cl. pi. : abafazi bangepatun kakubi, the women 
may not be treated badly. 
um-Bangendleia, n. 6. The rush, which in 
the history of the Embo tribe is said to 
have been used as walking sticks by those 
who were fugitives, and by which they 
fought their enemies on their way, and 
even drove away the wild beasts in self- 
defence. 
uku-Bangezela, see under uku-Banga. 
ist-Bangubangu, n. 4. An intelligent person. 
uku-Bangula, v. To probe with an instru- 
ment ; to extract a thorn. 



BA 

Bangulula, v. To search out, discover, 
expose to view a hidden matter or thing; 
to examine, interrogate closely, disen- 
tangle a complicated case: wabavguluJa 
lomcimbi, he examined this matter. 

uku-Bangxa, v. t. To come between, as the 
land between two rivers, v. i. To go or send 
in all directions. 

Bani! Salutation used by an inferior to a 
superior, or to common people. 

u-Bani, pi. obani, (a) Anyone; with negatives, 
no one: bizani ubani nohani, call the people 
(abantu) whosoever they be; akakaiali na- 
ngubani, he does not care for any one, i.e. he 
cares for no man; ahtko bani uya kusinda, 
there is none who shall escape, i.e. no man 
shall escape ; akmiabatii, he has no one whom 
he regards or fears, i.e. he is godless, (b) 
In interrogation ; who .' ngiihaui-na ? who is 
it? kwakiiko bant-na iidiiigckabikd mna, who 
was there before me? tigcsitanda bani-naf 
whom ought we to love ? tigobani-ua abohantu 
betnkayof who are those persons who are 
leaving. 

u-Ban|iso, and um-Banjwa. see iiku-Bamba. 

isi-Banqa, . 4. Multitude. 

i-BANTi, . 3. Belt, band, (from the Du. band}. 

uku-Bantsa, i'. /. Em. to toy, play with; to 
lay the hand playfully on another. 

uku-B'ANXA, V. i. To speak or do foolishly. 
i-Banxa, it. 2. A thief who prowls about 

at night. (Tembu). 
isi-Banxa, n. 4. A fool; one who does not 
know what he is doing, who has no under- 
standing, (an abusive word). 
ubu-Banxa, ;/. 7. Foolishness. 

uku-Banyalaza, v. i. To writhe with pain 
or from anger, as a child resenting to do its 
mother's will ; to stretch out to die. 

Banzi, adj. Broad, wide: Lsango libanzi, the 
gate is wide; of the eyes, wide open in 
expectation : amehlo ake abaiizi, his eyes are 
wide open, expecting something; adv. lento 
yaziwa banzi, this thing is known far and 
wide. 

Banzikulu, adj. Of the mind, demented. 
ubu-Banzi, ;;. 7. Breadth, width. 

uku-BAPTIZA, and uku-BAPTIZESHA, v. t. To 
baptize (from the Greek). ^ 
u-Baptizo, ;/, 5. Baptism. 

uku-Baqa, v. t. To come, spring upon one 
suddenly, unexpectedly ; to surprise ; to take 
unawares: lento ittdibaqile, this matter has 
tak' .1 me by surprise; ingonyania ibabaqile, 
the lion has sprung suddenly upon them. 

D 25 



BA 

i-Baqo, ;;. 2. Surprise; adv. ngebaqo, by 
surprise, suddenly. 

i-BaqoIo, ;;. 2. Maize boiled on the cob. 

im-Baqolo, n. 3. Any very bitter thing. 

uku-Bafa, v. i. To be parched with drought, 
dry : ilizwe libarile, the land is parched ; to 
be in poor circumstances, in want of food, 
poverty stricken. 

uku-Barisa, v. To make desolate, lay waste : 
basibarisile isiziba sam somhlaba, they have 
laid waste my portion of land. 

im-Bara, n. 3. Beer-selling. 

uku-BafuIa, ") . -r . , 

Barumla \ '"' '' vociferate, shout, pro- 
claim in anger; to address in a contumelious 
manner ; to roar as a lion, vociferate as a 
baboon, n. 8. Roaring: ukubarula kivazo 
kiuijengokivcngonyatna, their roaring is like 
that of a lion. 
Barulela, v. To roar at or against. 

jm-Basa. ;/. 3. White spot or mark at the 
forehead of an animal; a head ornament, 
sign, cockade, diadem, a soldier's cap-plate ; 
%. the head of a party; the chief personage 
residing on a stream; fig. a certificate. 

uku-BASA, V. t. To make or kindle a fire. 
um-Basi, n. I. A firelighter. 
i-Baso, n. 2. A distant fire, the light of a 

fire. 
um-Basa, n, 6. Em, Month of March, when 

fires are made for roasting mealies. 
um-Baso, n. 6. A fiaming fire. 
uku-Basela, v. To kindle fire for or in a 
particular place. 

i-BASO, n. 2. A present, asked from a shop- 
keeper by a purchaser who is paying cash ; 
the giving of it indicates that the shopkeeper 
is behaving like a lord (Du. baas) ; a gift of 
any kind; dimin. ibaswana, a little present; 
ibasokazi, a large present. 
uku-BASELA, V. To give a present which is 

asked ; ndibasele, give me a present. 
im-BASELI,*?/. 3. A distributor of presents; 

fem. imbasc'likazi. 
uku-BASELELA, V. To bestow a gift in the 
name of another. 

Baso, Pass. pron. Its. 4 cl. sing. ref. (a) to 1 
cl. pL: isizwe nabenii baso, the tribe and its 
inhabitants; (b) to 7 cl.: isifo sinobiMungu 
baso, sickness has its'pain ; see So. I. 

i-BASTlLE, n. 2. (I) A bastard, applied both 
to men and cattle; from Du. baster. (2) 
A marble, used in a boy's game; fr. Du. 
albaster. 

i-Bata, ;/. 2. A long, overgrown, extended 
hoof. 



BA 

uku-Batabata, an 1 Bataza, v. To walk 
unsteadily, as one just reco .ered from 
illness, or as catlle with sore feet ; to wad- 
dle like a di;ck; cf. uku-Badaza. 

isl-Bata. r. 4. An opening in the game 
enclosure where a .snare is set; the fowler's 
snare, consisting of nooses made of lonj 
hairs from a co.v's tail, and ipre \d over the 
entrance of a bird's nest, or fixe 1 on a spot 
fre luentcd by Jo.es. and cor.cealed by the 
ref ise of corn; a p'ace with cob-webs. 

ukiit'i-BataJzi, v. To rc',tte.% flee i 1 all direc- 
tions. 

ukii-BATALA, V. t. To piy, (i:o.:\ D.itch be- 
talen). 

i-BATALO, 11. 3. Payment. 
uk.i-BATALELA, t'. To pay to so neone. 

i-BArATA, ,v. 2. A s\ve?t potato. (Di!.). 

i-Bitshabatsha, ?;. 2. A worth'ess trifling 
persoi; a babbler, prater. 

ukat'.-B.\TU, V. t. To take a small part of 
the whole. 

i-Batu, w. 2. As mi;ch (tobacco^ as one can 
take in his two han Is joine 1 together; a 
small bun lie or faggot of f'.iel ; a detach- 
ment, as of soldiers. 
uka-Batula. v.] To take a handfal. 
Batulela, r. To take a handful for 
another person. 

im-Batu, ti. 3. Scorched foo 1 adhering to the 
bottom of the pot in which it has been 
prepared: timtsliakazi el>csitya inhatu, the 
bride must ha/e eaten 7nhatu, (which ex- 1 
plains why rain shoald have fallen on her ; 
marriage day); unclean matter attached to 
the intestines. 

uku-B'ATYA, v. t. ia~i To mix up; to eat 
different things at one time. (b):To talk 1 
incoherently, waiidering away from the ; 
subject under di:c;;ssion, or paying no heed 
to the question tliat is being asked; to strike 
up one's own tune at a marriage instead 
of joining in with the tune that is being 
sung. 

u-Batya, .v. 5. Mixtarc ; eating and drinking . 

pell-mell (beer and brandy); excitement, 1 

Idsciviousness. I 

uku-Bityela. v. To prepare a mixed dish 

for one; to butter bread for one. 

uku-Batyaza, v. t. To speak or act feebly, : 
timid.ly, diflidently, in distrust. 1 

u-Batyetye, . 5. Any tliing ve.'-y beautiful. 

i-BATYl 71. 3. A jacket, from the Du. 

u-Batyubatywana. n. I. from uku-B'iba. Lit. j 
the little flutterer. A species of bird. 



BA 

uku-Batywa, pass, of ukii-Baba, to itch. To 
be under the influence of sexual excitement 
or amorous desire. 

isi-Bau, ft. 4. A gadfly, biting severely, in- 
festing cattle .and horses. 

u-Baubau, n. 5. Sharpness or keenness of 
appetite, desire or anger: ultibaubau, he is 
very angry or greedy. 

im-Baula, ;/. 3. A tin-can or other vessel, 
with perforated sides, used for making fire 
in. 

u-Bausliana, n. I. A haughtily dressed, proud 
girl," conspicuous by her gait, her talk, and 
her dress; a prostitute. 

uku-B'AVUMA, v. i. To grumble; to speak 
gruffly ; to growl as a lion. 
i-Bavumo, n. 2. Growl, hideous noise. 
u-Bavumo, ;/. 5. Indignation. 
ukii-Bavumela. v. pass, havwiyehva. To 
growl at; to be angry against. 

uku-BAWA, V. i. To be greedy, ravenous. 
i-Bawa, ;/. 2. A miser, niggard. 
uku-Bawela, v. To long, desire for: baha- 
ivela iikudla, they were ravenous for food. 
Bawisa, v. To make another greedy by 
eating in front of him, or to make an 
animal greedy by feeding another animal 
in its sight. 

Bawo, Poss. pron. I. Its. 6 cl. sing. ref. (a) to 
I cl. pi.: nmhlabn fiabemi bawo. the earth 
and its inhabitants; (b) to 7 cl. : uhutyeln 
biuvo, its riches. 

2. Their. 2 cl. pi. ref. (a) to I cl. pi.: 
amado.Ia nahafazi bawo, the men and their 
wives; (b) to 7 cl.: ubukulii bawo, their great- 
ness. See Wo, I. 

u-Bawo, . I. My father; my father's brother; 
also term of respect to an older man, or to 
one who exercises paternal care over another 
as benefactor, supporter, etc.; pi. obawo, an- 
cestors; bawo! voc. used as interjection of 
astonishment, wonderful ! strange ! also as an 
oath by daughters; voc. pi. bobawo! 
u-Bawokazi u. I. My paternal uncle. 
u-Bawokulu, n. I. My forefather, grand- 
father. 

I. My father-in-law (said 



u-Bawozala, 

b}^ women). 
isi-Bawu, . 4 = 

uku-B'AXA, V. 



si-Ban. 



(I) To be full: isikivebu 
fsibaxileyo, a heavy maize cob hanging down. 
(2) To fork. 
i-Baxa, n. 2. Crotch or fork in the branch 

of a tree ; a jut in a post on which things 

can be hung. 



BA 

im-Baxa, n. 3. A branch of any thing, 
a tributary of a river; a forked stick, a 
fork; fig. halting between two opinions : 
ndimbaxa, I have two ideas before me, but 
do not know what to do; lunntu oinbaxa, 
a double-minded person. 
isi-Baxa, n. 4. Fork of two brandies; fig. a 

tributary of a river; gulf, bay. 
um-Baxa, n. 6. A double-barrelled gun; 
trousers. Onombaxa, people that wear 
trousers (Tembu). 
ukut'i-Baxa, v. i. To sit down anywhere, even 
though the person sees that the place is 
filthy : njeiigehaiigu ete-baxa eludakeni, like a 
pig wallowing in the mire. 
Baya, (fr. xihi-Ya) Auxil. I cl.pl. for forming 
the pres. absol. and ord. fut. : bayataiida, they 
love; baya kutanda, they shall love. 
isi-Baya, n. 4. Fold for sheep or calves, or 
for Kafircorn before it is thrashed out;* 
(the calves' fold of a chief is held sacred as 
a place of refuge- for culprits); isibaya 
seciiba, a tobacco plot. Phr. ayibaleki zibuyeni 
zibini, a sheep does not run into two folds, 
a man is not great under two chiefs. 
Baye, Auxil. in forming the compound tenses, 
I cl. pi.: baye bckwela, contrac. babckwela,' 
they were riding, or used to ride ; baye i 
bengasenga)iga, contrac. babeiigasenganga, \ 
they had not milked, or had not used to ; 
milk ; ba(ye) beiigayi kuliina, they would not 
have ploughed; or they will not plough; 
7 cl.: iibiimiiyama ba(ye) biisimka, darkness 
was departing. 
i-BAYl, n. 2. (a) A cotton blanket, (b) The 
upper part of a woman's dress made of 
such a blanket; from (Algoa) Bay, where 
such blankets were first imported. , 

uku-Bayizela, v. i. To dance in a certain way j 
practised by young people. The word and | . 
the dance have been introduced from the j 
mines: amakwenkive avel ejoyineni, ngokwe-' 
nene sele bayizela, aimikwenkwe azidla ngabii- ; 
nina? The boys are back from work, now in ' 
truth they can dance ; why are the boys so 
proud ? 
Bayo, Pass. pron. I. His, her, its. 3 cl. sing. ref. 
(a) to I cl. pi. : inkosi iyabuswa ngabantu bayo, 
the chief is served by his people ; (b) to 7 cl. : 
tibukulu bayo (inkosi), his^(the chief's) great- 
ness. 2. Their. 6 cl. pi. ref. (a) to I cl. pi.: 
abantu bayo (imizi) babaninzi, the people of 
them (places) are many; (b) to 7 cl.: ubude 
bayo (imiti), their (the trees') height. See 
Yo, I. 



BE 

Baza, I cl. pi. past tense of ukii-Za, used 
idiomatically to introduce a further state- 
ment. Then: baza batsho, then they said; 
7. cl.: baza bahainbiseka ubukumkani buka- 
Tixo, then the kingdom of God went for- 
ward. See ukii-Za 2 (b). 
im-Baza, v. 3. The edible sea-mussel. 
uku-Baza, v. t. (from uku-Baba) To sharpen 
to a point : haza izint'i, sharpen or point the 
end of the laths; fig. baz' indlehe, sharpen 
the ears, i.e. be attentive. 
um-Bazi, n. I. One who works wood with 

an axe or adze. 
im-Bazi, w. 3. One who makes clubs and 

wooden spades. 
ubu-Bazi, ?i. 7. (a) A nettle, or any thing 
sharp: lemela bubazi, this knife is sharp, 
(b) Red ants. 
uku-Bazeka, v. To be pointed or sharpen- 
ed : indlehe yako make ibazeke, \et thine ear 
now be attentive. 
Bazela, v. To sharpen for, be attentive 
to : zibazele indlebe zako nkuiandaza okukule- 
ndazvo, let thine ears be attentive to the 
prayer that is made in this place. 
i-Bazelo, . 2. A chip. 
isi-Bazelo, w. 4. A block or anvil on which 
one sharpens points. 



Bazo, Poss. pron. Their, (a) 3, 4, and 5 cl. pi. 
ref. to I cl. pi.: izitnvu ziyalusn'a ngabalusi 
bazo, the sheep are herded by their shepherds ; 
izitya ziyahlanjululwa ngabapati bazo, the 
vessels are cleansed by their users; intsapo 
ziyatandwa ngabazali bazo, the children are 
loved by their parents, (b) 3, 4, and 5 cl. p\ 
ref. to 7 cl.: utyivala b zo (inkosi), their 
(the chiefs') beer ; ubude bazo (izibonda), their 
(the poles') length, ubulumko bazo (intsana), 
their (the children's) prudence. See Zo, I. 
i-Bazolwana, n, 3. Cattle with pointed 
horns, stretched up in front, ready to charge ; 
fig. a contentious, wrathful person, (an 
abusive term). 

Be, (a) Perf. of uku-Ba, which see. (b) Pro?:, 
subj. of participle I cl. pi.: betanda, they 
loving. 

Be! Inter j- Em.- awii! yo! 

ukut'i-Be, V. i. To be gone: yitt-be! be gone! 
\ite'be lomzi, this place is gone, i.e. either 
because the people are all away at work 
such as hoeing, or because the place has 
been confiscated. 

uku-Beba, v. i. To make a noise like a he- 
goat. 



27 



BE 

Bebe, Contrac. from babe be; see Babe. 

isi-8ebe, n. 4. A thin, broad, flat thing like a | 

slate; a flat shell-Iish. I 

isi-Bebelele, n. 4. A broad, flat substance, j 

as a leaf, an official envelope; fig. a too 1 

wordy speech without depth of meaning; \ 

dimin. hibebelclana. I 

uku-Bebeta, v. t, pass, bejetwa. To chase, ! 
drive away or out; to scare, frighten away;t 
rudely repulse by refusing to listen to a [ 
person, or entertain him, or allow him to 
remain in the house ; to expel, banish. 
u-Bebet6, n. 5, Expulsion. 
uku-Bebeteka, v. To be banished. 
//. 8. Banishment. 

u-Bibetyu, //. 5. One that refuses, rejects 
everything. 

im-Bebevu, n. 3. A long, ugly, beardless face. 

uku Bebeza, v. t. To flare, flicker: isibane 

siyabebesa, the candle flickers; iimlilo uya- 

bebeza, the fire flares; fig. to relate, or make 

up fictitious tales; to mumble: uyabebeza 

tigokuteta kzvako, you speak in a mumbling 

manner; to speak gruffly. 

Bebezela, v. To flare up as a torch in 

the wind; to quiver with the lips: ktibebe- 

zela wiilebe yake yodwa, only her lips 

moved. j 

uku- Bebeza, 11. /. To babble. ; 

u-Bebezulu, w. 5. Vehemence, tempest: 

into elubebhiilu, a great bluster or blusterer. 

Bebu, Contrac. fr. biibe bii, see Bube. 

uku-Beculula, v. t. To tear the eye-lids 
open with the fingers; to open up a heap; 
fig. to explain, make clear a complicated or 
confused statement; to examine judicially. 
um-Becululo, n. 6. A judicial examination. 

uku-Beda, i>. t. To hunt buffaloes. Phr. 
tikubed' idlaba, to neglect ; to be ungrateful ; 
to reward evil for good ; see i-Dlaba. 

ukutVBedelele. | . To turn and go in the 
uku-Bedeleza, ^ ^ 

opposite direction; to be a turncoat: bedelele 

kwati-nina? what excuse! what shift do you 

make (in speakingi.' 

i-Bedengu, //. 2. A rogue, villain, rascal, 
impostor, hypocrite; pretending to do good, 
when he is doing mischief; one who denies 
what he promised or said. 

uku-Bedengu, . 7. Villainy, roguery, rascal- 
ity; hypocrisy, disowning of what was 
promised or said. 

uku-BedengeJa, v. To act villainously to; 
to deceive. 



BE 

uku-BEDESHA, V. i. To pray, (Du. bidden). 

u-Bedesho, . 5. I 
um-BEDESHO, //. 6. J 



im-Bedlenge, //. 3. ) 
u-Bedlenge, . 5, 3 



Praying. 
isi-Bedlele, . 4. Em. A hospital. 

A poor, impoverished, 
despised person having no home ; a home- 
less wanderer; used contemptuously: uyi- 
mbedloige kabani-iia? whose poor creature 
are you? 
u-Bedu, . 5. (a) Copper, (b) A rich grass, (c) 

An uncommonly beautiful male. 
uku-Beduia, i'. /. To turn up the eyes, shew- 
ing the white; to provoke. 
im Bedulo, n. 3. Provocation. 
uku-Bedulela, v. To turn up the eyes at 

one, indicating anger on the part of the 

person so acting. 
um-Befu, . 6. Asthmatic, hard breathing. 
isi-Befubefu, ?i. 4. An asthmatic person; 

one who wheezes in breathing. 
uku-Befunyeka, ;;. To gasp for breath ; 

to make short and frequent respirations; 

to sob, sigh, weep with a suppressed 

lamentation. 
Befunyekl5a, v. To cause to make short 

respirations. 
Befuza, v. To be out of breath with 

running, with weeping, or with passion, 

. 8. Hard breathing. 
Befuzela, v. To gasp for breath; to pant 

after. 
u-Bejazana, n. i. Maize with small cobs and 

seeds. 
uku-BEKA,f.^ (a) To set, lay, place, deposit, 
put down in a certain place : bek' amazimba 
apa, put the Kafir-corn here ; iihiheka nxa- 
mnye, to lay aside ; akakabekwa zandla, he is 
not yet ordained ; fig. bek' indlebe , give ear, 
be attentive ; iikubeka isililo, to raise the 
cry of mourning ; vdiyayibeka kum lendaivo, I 
shall mind this matter ; zvazibeka eJuhambeiii, 
he applied himself to his journey ; ukubeka 
ityala, to accuse, charge with a crime ; 
iva'yeka /igedhiga. he promised; ukubeka'bala, 
to blame ; iiku'wka iimkouto, to put down or 
give a spear, e.g. when one promises to pay 
the ukulo'jola later on ; also ~ukuhlolela or 
ukiihlo:iui iisiba ; baya kubeka aniacala panlsi, 
they will go to sleep. Idiom: wobeka phta f 
how much more? 

(b) To lead, guide: i-Nkosi indibeka 
endleleni, the Lord leads me into the way ; 
to give one the correct and true account of 



BE 

a thing ; inkomo zaheka azayeka iigendlela, the 
cattle went in file straight home. 

(c) To honour, esteem ; beka nyihlo no- 
uyoko, honour thy father and thy mother ; 
iizibekile, he honours himself; he is quiet, 
virtuous, decent, respectable, avoids foolish 
conduct. 

(d) Euphem. to pay for a female, whether 
married or unmarried, with whom one has 
illicit intercourse. 

im-Beka, n. 3. The small square of light 
skin which covers a woman's breast when 
at work or at home. 
im-Beko, n. 3. Honour; respect. 
isi-Beko, n. 4. Something put down instead 
of something else; a substitute; e.g. a 
china egg placed in a hen's nest as a 
nest-egg. 

um-Beko, 11. 6. That which is put away for 
another time, esp. for the next morning; 
food left at supper and warmed up in 
the morning; fig. that which has not 
been finished in consultation; a bank- 
deposit. 

um-Beko, n. 6. The ox which the bride- 
groom brings as a part of th,e dowry to 
the father of the bride at the wedding. 

uku-Bekeka, v. (a) To be fixed, established. 
(b) To be honoured: indoda ebekekileyo, an 
honourable, respectable, worthy man. 
. 8. Respected state. 

u-Bekeko, n. 5. Honoured state or con- 
dition ;in/'/r. honours: imbekeko zake ziya- 
ncbla, his honour is becoming sullied, said 
of a person, especially a chief or man 
of rank, who makes people disrespect him 
by degrading or debasing actions. 

uku-Bekekisa, v. To make honourable. 

Bekela, v. To put by or for; to lay up 
for: imali ebekelweyo, money hoarded up 
or put by; fig, isitsaba soboini ndisibekelue 
ezulwhii, the crown of life is laid up for 
me in heaven ; kuhekeV indle'oe ukutetii kwam, 
listen to my speaking; to gire a contribu- 
tion on behalf of another: >idibekela u- 
Yohane iponti, I put down a pound on 
behalf of John. 

im-Bekelo, n. 3. That which has been 
hoarded up; riches. 

uku-Bekelana, v. To ruuNparallel (roads) ; 
to bet, wager. 

isi-Bekelo, n. 4. One posted to watch, asentry. 

uku-Bekeleia, v. To pile up; to give an 



BE 

one upon another against a high tree, 
so as to form a ladder; to place stones so 
as to form a pavement; to go in a long 
line ; fig. to apply. 

um-Bekelelo, n. 6. A thing connected with 

that which was before; a layer, stratum, 

stack of wood, step of a staircase, rov/ in 

baskets; ladder. 
uku-Bekeleleka, v. To be piled up. 

. 8. Application. 
Bekisisa, v. To put, set, place in good 

order or position. 
uku-B'EKA, D. r. To turn to; to fix, fasten 
the eyes on; to give attention or heed to: 
l/ek' apa, look here; bek2 kum, look to me- 
wamheka, he looked round at him ; to go in 
the direction of: ndibeka e-Dikeni, I am 
proceeding to Alice. Phr. itkubeka ngesUm- 
luhulu, to look with owlish glassy eyes like 
a drunken man. 
Bekabeka, v. To turn the face to all 

sides; to look about (in fear or suspicion). 
ama-Bekebeke, n. 2. pi. Any thing flapping, 

like leaves, or a hat with a broad brim, 

or the ears of mules. 
uku-Bekisa, v. To turn to : bekisa iihuso boko 

kum, turn your face to me ; zihekise entabeni 

inkomo, direct the cattle towards the 

mountain. 
Bekisana, v. To cause one another to 

turn to, look at, face each other on 

purpose. 
Bekisela, v. To refer: ilizivi elibekisehve 

kum, the word which refei's to me. 
Bekiselela, v. To aim; to tend to. Adv. 

tigckuliekiselele, relating to. 
Bekis'sa, v. To look very closely; to 

scrutinize. 
isi-Bekede, n. 4. One who runs with all his 

might. 
i-BEKILE, n. 3. A tin-can of any size ; a sheet 

of corrugated iron, (ft-om Du. beker). 
Beku, contrac. fr. kube ku, see Kube. 
uku-Bela, from uku-Ba IV. To eat the first 

ripe fruit. 
ama-Bele, n. 2. pi. Em. Kafir-corn. 
i-Bele, n. 2. (a) The female breast: abasema- 
bcleni, sucklings, (b) The udder in the 
female, and the corresponding part in the 
male ; when an animal is killed, this portion 
is claimed as the perquisite of the men; 
dimin. i-Belaiia. 



extra coating to a thing; to add, place or ! izi-Bele, n. 4. pi. Acts of natural affection, 
pour ojie thing on another; to stack poles ; mercies. 



BE 

um-Bele, //. 6. The nipple of the breast ; the 
teat of the udder. Phr. wakanyela ivahila 
iigoiiihcle, he denied point blank (lit. he 
denied, touching the ground with the teat; 
descriptive of a horse running at full speed). 

ubu-Bele, n. 7. Natural, properly maternal 
affection, kindness of disposition, sympathy, 
benevolence, goodwill: inkuku inofnibelc, the 
hen shows affection to its young. Phr. 
u!)uhcle hiifiiii' ol'iinyc, kindness begets kind- 
ness. 

um-Belebsle, ;/. 6. An asclepiad (Sarcostem- 
ma viminale E.M.) which climbs among the 
branches of the trees. The sharp edged 
pods have an astringent taste and are eaten 
when green. The sharp, milky sap is used 
as medicine for scarcity of milk in women 
and cows, the latter feeding on it in winter. 
A decoction of this plant is given to a cow 
which has lost her calf to induce her to 
suckle another. The shrub when burnt 
gives a great smoke. 

uku-Beleka, v. i. To place and carry a child 
on the back, as the maize stalk carries its 
cob: Hinliona iihelckilc, the maize bears fruit; 
Em. to bear a child: iinifazi wain tihelekilc, 
my wife has borne a child. Phr. uzil>elek' 
cmhlana inyaivo, he carries his feet on the 
back, i.e. he takes to his heels as fast as he 



im-Belekane, n. 3. A burden, such as debt 
or wrongdoing, that clings to one until it 
is put right ; a heap of closely packed i 
people ; an army with one or more divi- ' 
sions behind. i 

im-Beleko, 11. 3. The skin or blanket in ! 
which a baby is carried on a woman's 
back ; that which is asked from a man by 
relations of his wife when she has been 
confined at their place. 
isi-Beleko, //. 4. The womb. 
uku-Belekisa, v. To place a child on the 
back of another person. 
i-BELELE, It. 3. Ebony. 

um-Belese, //. 6. The lath or band made of 
baboon rope or rushes for tying and keeping 
down the thatch on the round huts. 
uku-Beleza, v. i. To prate, gabble ; to speak 

incessantly, incoherently ; cf. uku-BM'CZit. 
Beli, contrac. fr. lihc It, see Lil>c. 
Belu, contrac. fr. hil>c hi, see Lulic. 
u-Be!u, ;/. 5. Yellowness: into clii'>clii, a yellow 
thing; iif'eln loinsclc or livasciusdciii, Kafir- 
beer; a beautiful, pretty person: n.linol>elii 
30 



BE 

hvain, I have my pretty one, a term of 
endearment. Dimin. iiliehvana,di little yellow 
fellow like a Hottentot; a poor, wretched, 
mean, d:?-:pised person. 
i-Belukazi, n. 2. A yellow cow. 

ama-Belubentsu, n. 2. pi. Various efforts 
made in perplexity ; restlessness, confusion, 
espec. before a war breaks out ; unsteadiness, 
instability; being here to-day, there to- 
morrow; doing a thing in one way to-day, 
in another to-morrow. 

i-Bemba, n. 2. Fibre of uhi-Zi, used in making 
the kilts of circumcised boys; a string of 
the Hin-S'.tndulo. 

im-Bemba, //. 3. Chaff, bran, husks of corn. 

u-Bemba, n. 5. Ear of Kafir-corn thrashed 
out. 

ukut'i-Bembe, 1;. /. To subside, abate, rest, 
said of sickness, war, persecution, dearth ; 
to burn with less brightness. 

izi-Bembe,i w. 4. pi Any portion Of food 
given to a lying-in woman. 

um-BeiTiberana, n. i. A little, lean, sleepy 
person, to be laughed at. 

ukii-Bembesa, v. t. To be ungrateful. 

im-Bembeto, n. 3. A cake. 

im-Bembashane, ;/. 3- \ Swiftness, speed; 
um-Bembetshane, H. 6.3 

a swift person, one excelling in speed. 
uku-B'ENA, V. i. To bend the back inwards; 
to be hollow-backed: inkahi ihe:iih', the 
bullock is hollow-backed; ngohnvila iyrJihia 
imiqadi, through, sloth the rafters sink ; to 
refuse to accept a story as told by another, 
to contradict, dispute, quibble o/er; ^- 
Ptka. 
isi-Bene, //. 4. A curve which has its points 

turned upwards ; any thing hollow backed ; 

a hollow on a ridge of a mountain or hill: 

loinntu iisisil>ene, this person is hollow 

backed. 
isi-Benana, //. 4. Bullock or small animal 

with hollow back; fem. isil>enekazi. 
isi-Beno, n. 4. An appeal. 
uku-Benela, v. To appeal : ndihcncle cnkosini, 

I have appealed to the chief. 
Benisa, v. To curve, bend down in the 

centre. 
uku-B'ENCA, V. t. To lay open, expose, 
disclose anything, whether (a) material, as 
in disclosing something hidden under 
garments or grass; or (b) mental, as in 
revealing secrets, confessing evil deeds; 
hcitai! open your clothes; confess, is said 
to thieves and women; zvazil'c.int, he reveal- 
ed himself. 



BE 

im-Bencebence, //. 3. One who speaks and 
does all things openly without regard to 
prudence or propriety. 

u-Benco, n. 5. Exposure, disclosure, con- 
fession. 

uku-Benceka, ;'. To be exposed, disclosed, 
confessed: into ehencckilcyo, a revealed 
matter, n. 8. Disclosure, exposure, con 
fession, discovery. 

Bencisa, v. To expose, expose to danger ; 
to cause or assist to reveal, etc. 
i-Bende, //. 2. Blood which has flowed out 

in large quantity and become cold and 

coagulated in the inner part after slaughter- 
ing. 
ubu-Bende, n. 7. Blood in a liquid state at 

slaughtering. 
u-Bende, n. 5. (a) Milt, spleen, (b). Disease 

of the milt or anthrax; in this sense - /- 

Dili = ifiyama yainakwenkwc. This disease 

often proves fatal to cattle. Persons who 

skin a carcase infected with this disease or 

who eat any portion of the meat, may also 

die of it. 
um-Bendeni, . 6. Redwater, a disease of 

cattle. 
Bendt, contrac. fr. ndihe ndi, see Ndil>e. 
u-Bendiela, n. i. Flint. 
i-Benebene, . 2. A frivolous, thoughtless 

person. 
uku-BENQA, v. t. (l) To cut meat into large 

coUops for broiling on coals. (2) To fold 

down the edge of a garment. 

Bengabenga, v. To cit a piece of meat 
lengthwise and frequently when forming 
a long coUop. 

u-Bengo, n. 5. A strip or cutting of some- 
thing. In olden times it was a glittering 
piece of copper (gold.') worn by nobles 
on the breast or forehead like an m-Basa, 
as a decoration or mark (order) of 
distinction, hence used for breast-plate; 
dimin. iin-Be/tgwitia. 

um-Bengo, n. 6. Long collop of meat, chop, 
carbonado ; dimin. itm-Bcngwana. 
im-Benga, n. 3. A vessel made of rushes for 

milking. 
Benge, Neg. v. pref. of participle i cl. pi- 

when used with the auxil. ka : heiigekahlangard 

nave, before they came together with him. 
ukut'i-BENGE, and Bengebeiige, v. i. To 

flash, ^ive a sudden and transient light, as 

the reflection of a mirror thrown in a 

particular direction. 

i-Bengebcnge, . 2. Anything shining 
glittering or sparkling. 



BE 

uku-Bengezela, v. To glitter, shine with 
dazzling brightness, as metal, water, or a 
mirror reflecting light, n. 8. Glittering. 
u-Bengezelo, . >. ) c 1 j 
ubu-Bengezelo,.7.i ^Plendour. 
uku-Bengezelela, v. To enlighten over or 

about. 
uku-Bengezelisa, v. To make to shine. 

um-Bengele, w. 6. Pigeonwood, Trema brac- 
teolata, Blume ,=um-Vaiigazi. 

uku-Bengeqa, v. i. Not to care for anybody 
or anything; to become independent, in a 
bad sense ; to be arrogant and haughty. 
i-Bengeqa, w. 2. Arrogance, temerity on 

account of riches; vanity, petty pride. 
ubu-Bengeqa, w. 7. Vanity. 

uku-Bengeza, v. t. To squander by exposing 
what one has; to spread abroad what was 
said to another confidentially ; to inform of 
a secret, reveal ; to give warning to enable 
a person to flee from danger. 
Bengezeka, v. To be squandered. 

u-Bengu, //. 5. (a) The white rind of the 
stalk of Kafircorn or sweet cane, (b) A 
piece of sharpened cane used by mid-wives 
for dividing the umbilical cord. Adj. Sharp, 
hard. 

um-Bcngu, n. 6. Cleverness, sharpness: zveiis' 
umhengu, he is smart in tracing spoors. 

i-Bengubengu, n. 2. A flapping article ; a 
restless person, who never remains long in 
one place, or who has no weight. 
i-Bengubengwana. . 2. A narrow gar- 
ment not covering properly; fig. one who 
cannot keep anything but must blab it 
out ; one who is not right in his mind. 
uku-Benguza, v. To flap; to let fall the 
raised hand in speaking: ivahenguza nge- 
sandla, he waved with his hand. 

u-Bengxeshe, 71. i. A woman who has 
children, but no lawful husband; an old 
bachelor. 

Beni, contrac. fr. nihe ni, see Nil>e. 

ukuf^B'ENQE,}, ^,_ ^_ ^^ ^Q^i^ig ^ f^i^ 

uku-Beiiqa, 3 

over the hem or edgepart of a garment; to 
turn a garment inside out; to turn up the 
ground in ploughing; tiyaivubenqa umhlaba, 
he lays the ground open ; to open up, unfold 
like a flower; intyantyamho ezite-henqe, open 
flowers; to speak strongly when angry 
without regard to the consequences or 
another's feelings; iitete wahenqa washiya 
atigalaziyo, he spoke so strongly that he did 
not know or care what he said. 
u-Benqo, n. 5. A folded down collar. 



31 



BE 

um-Benqo, n. 6. That part of a garment 
which is fohled over, as the collar of a 
kaross or coat. 
uku-Benqeka, v. To be opened up: mnsi- 
I'onc ukiilia intyantyamliu ziheiiqckile-ua, let 
us see if the flowers are open. 

uku-Bentsa, v. i. To sit or lie with the private 
parts exposed, from negligence or drunken- 
ness; fig. to expose what should be hidden. 
Em. to play, sport or jest with one; to put 
the hand on jokingly. 

Bentseka, v. To have the private parts 
exposed, (especially having the penis un- 
covered). 

uku-Bentsuza, v. i. To agitate the body in 
such a way as to cause anything on the 
posteriors to move up and down; said of 
a circumcised youth causing his kilt to fly 
up behind, or of a Cape sheep running with 
its fat tail tossing up and dovrn; fig. to be 
restless; to run about; to be troubled. 

Benu, Poss pron. Your. 2 p. pi. ref. (a) to I cl. 
pi. : ahaseheuzibenii, your workmen ; emphatic 
and distinctive: ahenii al>ascl>enzi, your work- 
men; (b) to 7 cl.: uhukulii benu, your great- 
ness: see Enii. 

a.mA-^enubentsu,-=^ aina-Belubentsu. 

i-Benxa, n. 2. The ant-bear, Dutch aardvark, 
Orycteropus afer (PallaS). 

ukut'i-Benya, v. i. Only used in the phrase, 
ndiya kiiiiibeta kiidc kui'i bcnyd or ade alt bcnyd, 
I'll give him a proper swishing. (This pro- 
verb occurs in an alternative form, ndiya 
kiimbcla Hgoluka-Benya, I shall beat him 
with Benya's stick.) 

um-Benya, n. 6. A kind of tree, ( ? an old name 
for the Cape willow, Salix capensis Thunb.; 
= um-Nculuba.) 

ama-Benya, . 2 pi. Excuses, evasions, sub- 
terfuges, delusions; beating about the bush; 
jumping from one matter to another : Imtu- 
?!ga annhenyd, or amapoiido, they helped 
themselves to escape in 'war by going 
through the forest corners. 

isi-Benyana, v. 4. Em. an animal with hollow 
back; cf. isi-Benaua. 



BE 



A small green bird, (b) 
;rass bracelet made and 



A small bush with tough 



u-Benyws 

twigs. 
uku-Beqa, v. i. To speak haughtily. 
uku-Beqa, 1'. t. To paddle, row. Amapini okit- 

lieqa, oars. 

um-Beqi, n. I. A rovi^er. 
uku-Bequla, v. i. To spring, bound, like some 

game. 
uku-Befeza, ;. /. (a) To puke, spew after 

sucking or eating, (b) To offer food as a 

niggard to those already satisfied. 



um-Bese, n. 0. (a) 
A hoop, (c) A i 
worn by children.- 

uku-Besha, v. (a) To go naked ; (uncommon) ; 
see tiku-Btis/ia. (b) To start before others- 
(ci To outrun others. 

Best, contrac. fr. sihe si, see Sihe. 

uku-BET'A, V. t. (a) To strike, hit, beat, as 
with a stick, hammer etc.: beta isikoiikwanc^ 
strike the nail; to play on an instrument: 
iikubet' im-Bande, i-Kwelo, i-Nqomfiyo, u-Hudi, 
&c., means to play on these different musical 
instruments; uktibcla unilozi or ikwelo, to 
' whistle', i.e. to pretend innocence or care- 
lessness; to punish: hon' abo baya k.ibelwa, 
those shall be punished; Phr. ndiya kiunbeta 
ngoluka-Benya, lit. I shall beat him with 
Benya's stick, i.e. I shall put him right. 
Pass, to be struck ; fig. to be influenced or 
overcome : ndibetwa bittongo, I am o verpo wer- 
ed by sleep; ndibetwa liisizi, I feel compas- 
sion, or sorrow; ndibeiiva lutando, I am" 
influenced by love; ndibetwa livuso, I am 
smitten with fear of danger or retribution. 

(b) To touch, rtSich :inja yalibeta iliza, 
the dog reached or caught the antelope; 
anuvizi abete apa, the water reached here 
(showing with the hand, how far it reached). 

(c) Wabeta ngale:idlda, he took this road ; 
wayibeta indlela ngcnyawo, lie walked the 
road on foot; wabet' ccaleni, he missed, 
departed from the proper course, or from 
the subject he spoke of; ndabcta pantsi, I 
missed the point. 

(d) It is used as an auxiliary, in the sense 
of to cause, make, become: ezonto zibete 
ndatemha, those things made me hope ; nibete 
ndoyika, you made me afraid; wabeta nde- 
nqumama, he caused me to stand still ; lento 
indibcta ndiugabi nakudinwa, this thing makes 
me feel not tired. 

Phr. ukubeta kome, lit. to beat dry, i.e. to 
i conquer, convince wholly; to hit point 
i blank; to proceed straightforward to the 
I goal ; to shut the mouth of contradicters, to 
make them speechless; zibete koma, they 
(enemies) have run away, can not be found ; 
wamheta emlonycni, he interrupted or snub- 
bed \\\m; nbet'ilc eukaidni, he exchanged the 
bullock ; into ayibelwa ngankana, i.e. not to 
vent a secret to strangers you do not trust. 
um-Beti, /;. I. A beater. Ababct'i boliadi, 

harpers. 
i-Betd, H. 2. A war song of triumph or 
exultation. 



32 



BE 

isi-Bet6, . 4. Punishment, judgment; fig. 
a 'plague': sisiheto pczn kwake, we're a 
plague to him. 

u-Bet6, n. 5. A striking, chastisement. 

uku-Betabeta, v. To beat about; to fluctu- 
ate. 

i-Bet6bet6, n. 2. and isi-Bet6bet6, ;/. 4. 
Who or what hinders discourse. 

uku-Betabetana, v. To beat or smite 
against one another; amadolo ake aheta- 
hctaua, his knees smote together. 

Betana, v. To beat each other; to strike 
mutually; fig. iziiito zihetenc, to give one 
thing for another ; to exchange cattle. 

Betanisa, v. (a) To break clods; to 
harrow; fig. iikiihetanisa uktiteta, to speak 
vaguely ; ukubetanisa umkosi, to charm the 
army or chiefs, (b) To interrupt. 

Betaniseka, v. To be interrupted. 
n. 8. Interruption. 

Beteka, v. To be fit for beating: isando 
asiheteki, the hammer is not good for 
hammering; to beat oneself against: 
ndabeteka ctyeni, I struck (my foot) against 
a stone; fig. to be exhausted by labour, 
running, disease or age : uselehetekile, imi- 
nyaka yake sdihamhilc, he is exhausted, 
his years are advanced. 

Betela, v. To beat for. fasten to; to nail 
to : hetela isikumha, beat i.e. peg, nail down 
the skin for drying; hamhetela emnqam- 
lezwciii, they crucified him. 

Beteleka, v. To be fastened, nailed fast ; 

fig. to perform an action resolutely; to 

proceed with hard and measured steps, 

as one wading through mire. 
Betelela, v. To fasten, spread for in a 

particular place: betelela inteiite apa, 

fasten the tent here; to hammer (a nail); 

to fasten by nailing; to k( ep a calf from 

sucking by striking it while its mother 

is being milked. 
isi-BetelsIo, 11, A switch used to keep a 

calf from sucking at milking. 
uku-Betisa, v. To cause or help to beat: 

yinina iikuha uzibethef why do you cause 

yourself to be smitten.? Phr. wahethn 

tigomoya, he paid no regard. 
Betisana, v. To help each other in 

beating. 
Betisisa, v. To ^ause oneself to be 

beaten. 
i-Betambeliba, /;. 2. A person not to be 
trusted or depended upon; a despicable 
person, a traitor. 

E 33 



BE 

isi-Betankunzi, n. 4. Lit. the bull beater. 
Carissa arduina Lam. a thorny shrub with 
small bright red edible fruit. The natives 
entertain the notion, that when the bull is 
beaten with this shrub, he becomes 
excited and seeks his mate. 
um-Bete, n. 6. Dew. Phr. itshoba lalal' 
imibete, the tail-brush was covered with 
dew, i.e. he died (a sarcastic expression). 
um-Betembete, n. 6. An uncommonly large 

family ; a troop of dogs. 
Betii, Poss. pron. Our. I p. pi. ref. (a) to I cl. 
pL: abantwana betu, our children; emphatic: 
abeti'i abanhv.ma, our children, as distinguish- 
ed from those of others ; (b) to 7 cl. : ubiikosi 
betu, our authority. Phr. an ke betu! O, ye 
my friends; see Etu. 
um-Betwayo, n. I. Em. The ringhals snake, 

Sepedonhaemachates (Lacep). 
uku-Betya, v. t. To bend back (fingei-). 
Betyeka, v. To be bent or pointed back- 
ward. 
ukut'i-Betye, v. i. To bend, as from weakness. 
ukut'i-Betyebetye, v. To bend to and fro, 

as from weakness ; to waddle. 
i-Betyebetye, 7t. 2. us. as adj. Supple, 

pliant, flexible ; fig. a wobbler. 
ubu-Betyebetye, w. 7. The bending to and 

fro ; waddling. 
uku-Betyeza, v. To slip with the ankles. 
iku-Bevumla, v. i. Em. to make a noise ; to 
growl, snarl as a dog; to groan, grumble 
indignantly ;=z(^--S(3V/</a. 
uku-Bevuza, v. i. To cause strife and fighting 
by speaking vain words. 
um-Bevuza, 71. 6. Fighting, resisting with 
words or weapons: ivehla umbevuza, the 
fight commenced. 
im-Bewu, . 3. Seed. 

uku-B'EXA, V. t. To mix food by stirring it 
round; .to beat up an egg; to swing the 
shoulders forward alternately in walking. 
isi-Bexo. n. 4. A piece of wood to stir round 

food ; an oar. 
um-Bexo, . 6. Food prepared by having 

been stirred. 
uku-Bexabexa, v. To mix by stirring from 
side to side ; fig. to cause the isi-Baca to 
swing, as women do in walking; fig. to 
row ; see nku-Bexeza. 

i-Bexebexe, n. 2. | ^ person running; a 
isi-Bexebexe, H. 4. J *^ 

hasty person ; one who is in too great a 

hurry to do or seek for a thing properly, 

however anxious he may be to get it; a 

frivolous, thoughtless person. 



BE 

ukii Bexeza, ;'. To move the upper part of 
the body in swimming or running, bring- 
ing the shoulders forward and backward 
with a swinging motion; to waddle as a 
duck. 
Bexezela, v. To move or run as quickly 
as possible, causelessly; to act hastily. 
uku-Bexeslia, v. t. To drive a wagon. 

um-Bexeshi, ;/. I. A wagon driver. 
im-Beyiya, w. 3. A jester. 
im-Beza, ;/. 3. Em. A kin:! of spoon or flat 
knife, made of bone or iron, used for re- 
moving the perspiration from the face. 
isi-Beza, ;;. 4. Any broad cutting instrument. 
Bezi, contrac. fr. zHk' zi, see Zibf. 
um-Bezo, ;/. 6. A shrub for destroying in- 
sects, Crabbea cirsioides. 
Bi, adj. Bad, evil, wicked, corrupt, depraved, 
ugly, poor, useless, miserable, corrupt, foul, 
filthy, impure, worthless, naughty, polluted, 
deformed, vicious, expressing all bad physi- 
cal and moral qualities: uiinitu omhi, an ugly, 



BI 

u-Bibinxa, //. 5. An ill-looking, deformed 
person. 

u-Bicl, n. 5. That what causes misunder- 
standing. 

ulwa-Bici, . 5. Home affairs. 

uku-B'IDA. ) , -r ^ 1 1-1 u 

Bidabida,) ""' '* ^^ dodge like a hare in 

running; to confuse, confound, puzzle, mis- 
lead, purloin, betray confidence, defraud. 
i-Bida, ;/. 2. A petty thief; a fraudulent 

person. 
i-Bidi, V. 2. A confounder. 
im-Bidane, w. 3. Anything which confounds 

or puzzles one. 
isi-Bidi, u. 4. Beer; phir. sediment, dregs 

which re.Tiain behind in cooking meat; 

lees of liquors; fig. disagreeable things. 
um-Bido, 11. 6. A fraudulent act. 
uku-Bideka, ) 
Bidabideka, j 

founded, puzzled. 
u-Bideko, //. 5. Confusion. 
isi-Bidala, n. 4. That which is inconsistei 



To be confused, con- 



bad person ; izidti libi, the sky is threatening, | ukut'i-Bidi, v. i. Yal'i-bidi rieiiye iiuloda, he got 
cloudy; hihi him ndiku-wia aph-njc, it is un- | into a quarrel with another man. 
pleasant to me to see you here ; ab.vitu abahi, ' uku-BidHiza, v. i. To talk like a little child 

who is commencing to speak. 
im-Bid;yane, . 3. Hurtfal drink made 

from syrup. 
; uku-Bidiza, v. i. To speak nonsense. 
Mote, rubbish, refuse. Dimin. i uku-Bidlika, v. i. To become soft; of a wall, 
to fall to pieces after rain; to fall off as 
plaster from a wall; to become soft and 
burst, as a boil. 

Bidllza, V. To cause to become soft 
etc.: imvida izib'idlizile izitena, the rain 
softened the bricks. 

). I. To turn, twist: uyaz'.b'ija- 



persons who do not pay their respects to 
their chief by visiting him ; atn vizi amabi 
bad water; intliziyo yam imb'i, I am down 
hearted. 
isi-Bi, ;/. 

isibaua. i 

ubu-Bi, //. 7. Badness, illness, wickedness. 1 

(All meanings oi bi in an abstract sense). 
ama-Bibi, ?/. 2. pi. Dried, decayed weeds in 

heaps in a garden or field. 
uku-Biba, v. t. To powder a garment black. 

i-Biba. n. 2. The rotten or decomposed j uku-B'IJA^, ) 

substance taken out of the hollow of a | uku-Bijabija, j 



tree, then burnt in a pot and ground into 
powder, which is sprinkled on a kaross to 
blacken it; black dye; see uka-Gcaba. 

im-Biha, ;/. 3. The striped field mouse, 
Arvicanthis pumilio (Sparr) -i-Nqalu. 

isi-Biba, n. 4. (a) A heap of dark things 
(cattle), (b) The stomach of the porcupine 
dried and powdered. The powder is sup- 
posed when put on a superiiclal wound to 
protect one for ever against snakebite, 
uku-Bibidla, ~ 



when teething 
intelligibly. 
uku-Bibilsha, t 
been granted. 
Bibil sh-Ma, 



To utter sounds as a child 
uyablb'idla. you speak un- 



'. To take more than has 
ore for another 



To take 
than has been granted. 
i-Bibilishelo, //. 3. Greediness. 



b'lja, he writhes, or twists himself from pain. 

ukut'i-Bijebije, v. To turn, twist: ingwe 
imte-b'ijsb'Jc ngomsila, the leopard twisted 
his tail roim:l him. 

Bijabijela, v. To turn, twist round and 
round: wah'ijab'ijelwa ngoswazi, he was 
beaten round about his body, on all sides. 

Bijana, v. To twist together, as ropes. 

Bijela, v. To fasten a reim round the 
neck or horns ; to couple oxen ; to wind 
round on: inyoka iiidib'ijde, a snake has 
coiled round me; to ent ingle: iiitatnbo 
ib'ijeiwe, the thong is entangled; fig. to 
entangle, in/olve in a certain matter; to 
misstate designedly. 

Bijelana, v. To be entangled in each 
other, twisted together, as branches of a 
tree. 



Bl 

Bijelanisa, v. To intertwist, intertwine. 

i-Bika, n. 2. A black substance or mass. 

uku-BIKA, V. i. To report, acquaint, inform, 
announce, especially in reporting officially 
accidents or cases of sickness or death: 
ndabika isifo somntwana, I reported the ill- 
ness of the child ; uzihikile, he reported him- 
self as ill or in need, with the view of 
getting aid: ndiyinto otgenayo neyokubihi 
iiikoino, I have not got even one cow. 
um-Biki, . I. A reporter. 

um'-Biko,"'. 6. } Reporting or announcing 
officially an event, such as an accident, 
illness or death ; death-notice. 
uku-Bikeka, v. To be reported as sick. 
The cry of the bird Nomnlan' ofayo is 
rendered as: ndina 'mntan' ofayo, ?idiba 
ndiyambika, kanti ak.ibikeki, I have a sick 
child, I think I am reporting him, but he 
is ignored. A child, seeing another eating, 
will repeat this rhyme in order to get a 
share of the food. 
Bikela, v. To report etc., for or to 
another: ndj.mbikela isifo sikn-bawo, I re- 
ported the sickness of myfather to him; 
bikela amaziko, report to the head-families ; 
uzibikele, he asked help for himself. 
Bikelana, ik To report etc., to each other. 
um-Bikata, n. 6. A piece of a broken earthen 
pot, in olden times used for cooking pur- 
poses by an iimdlezana. 
i-Bikibiki. . 2. A bulky thing; a corpulent 
person; a swollen part so full of matter, 
that it hangs down; a mass of people or 
cattle ; pi. debris, grass, wood, flood-refuse. 
uku-Bikizela, v. To shake (of a swollen 
part when hanging on account of watery 
matter) ; fig. to shake with rage. 
uku-B'IKICA, V. t. To look for and gather 
small things, as ears of corn or pieces of 
wood from the ground; to glean; to feel, 
touch, examine (cloth or other articles) with 
the hands; to break wood into small pieces; 
uyendisile ubikicile, he has married his 
daughter as one who gleans, i.e. too young; 
also said of a boy circumcised too young. 

im-Bikicane, n. 3. ") t-u j: .. r-u 

um-Bikicane, n 6.\ ^^^ ^^ ^^' C^^" 
nopodium ambrosioides, L., growing in 
deserted kraals, used as insect powder; 
Chenopodium vulvaria, L., used as a 
styptic; fig. said of a girl who is married 
too young. 



Bf 



That which has been 



im-Bikico, ;/. 3."! 
u-Bikico, ;/. 5. J 

gathered, small fragments; . the act of 
gathering such things; a gleaning. 
u-Bikwe, n. I. Burchell's Coucal, or Vlei 
lourie, Centropus burchelli. Swains. Its head 
is preserved and given to pups for the 
purpose of making them expert hunters. 
uku-BILA, V. i. Of water, to boil: ibila kade 
itnbka, the pot is taking a long time to boil ; 
umtombo uyabila, the fountain bubbles out; 
fig. of dough or beer, to ferment; to sweat, 
perspire: ndibilile, I am in a sweat, n. 8. 
Perspiration, fermentation. 
Bileka, v. To be fermenting, leavening. 
Biieia, v. To boil over: iinbiza iyabilela 
pautsi, the pot boils over on the ground; 
to sweat for: iidiyibilcle lento, I have wrought 
hard for this thing; fig. to boil over with 
rage and anger; to come over a person as 
an overwhelming calamity. 
Blllsa, V. To cause to boil, ferment, 
sweat. 

i-BlLA, ;/. 3. Beer, as drunk by Europeans 
(from Eng. beer). 

im-Bila, ?/. 3. The dassie, or coney, Procavia 
capensis (Pallas), used as a nickname for an 
uncircumcised person. Phr. ukumttika imbila 
ng<:ntloko, to give a person a dassie by the 
head or biting part, i.e. to cheat one; 
ulilangene nemb'ila zic'itakala, (or Em. zic'ita,) 
he came upon the dassies dispersing, (or 
Em. urinating), i.e. he did not long enjoy 
what he had received, (said in the case of a 
woman whose husband has died shortly 
after marriage, or of one dying shortly 
after having received a pension) ; imbila 
yaswela untsila vgokiiyaleza, the dassie lost 
its tail by ordering (some other animal to 
bring it), i.e. do your own business yourself, 
don't trust to others doing it for you. 

im-Bilap6, n. 3. The gland in the groin. 

im-Bilati w. 3. (a) Fore arm or fore leg of 
animals, (tibia), (h) =^utn-Nqabaza, the as- 
segai tree, whose wood is used for making 
lance shafts. 

isi-Bill, . 4. Girth, thickness, bulk, trunk, 
stem: unesibili, he is stout. 

uku-BlLIBISHA, ) . T^ , . 

-BILIBISHELA, \ ^- ' T ^^^'^ t ^^ 

something; to persevere in an undertaking; 
to prosecute it with diligence, (fr. the Du. 
arbeiden). 

im-BlLIBlSHELO, n. 3. Hard work. 
im-Bilibondo, //. 3. A confused statement. 



35 



ukut'i-Bilikityi, -c'. /. To slide, slip, miss; ] uku-BINGA, f. /. To render what is due to 



used both physically and morally. 

im-Bilini, //. 3. That which is inside mentally, 
the mind, thoughts, purports, etc.: kup' 
imb'iliiii, reveal your inmost thoughts, mind; 
imh'iHiii yakc iqinilc, he is confident, firm in 
purpose; ivabctiva liisiai cwh'iUnhii, he felt 
much pity; fig. c/iilnliniiii yokiWid/c. in the 
midst of the sea. 

izi-Bilini, ;/. 4. pi. The material things con- 
tained inside; the entrails, intestines, all 
the viscera ; fig. tender affections. 

um-Bilini, ti. 6. The inside as a cavity: inqaiva 
yaku inoiiibilini, your pipe has a large hollow 
space, i.e. is capacious, can hold a great 
deal ; lomiitu UHOwbilini, this man has a 
capacious belly, is voracious. See uku- 
Q'lpiika and iiku-Q'ipuln. 

u-Bilo, n. 5. Dewlap of cattle. 

uku-Bimba, v. t. To swallow a substance 
without masticating it. 
uku-Bimbilitela, v. To cat greedily; to 
give all to one instead of dividing ; to take 
more than was granted. 
im-Bimbilitelo, . 3. Greediness, voracity. 
uku-Bimbiliza.and BlmWitk,^ ukii-B'imba. 

i-Bimbi n. 2. A thoughtless person, one of 
weak intellect; unripe, green in judgment, 
not skilled. 

um-Bimbi, //. 6. A wrinkle on the face due 
to old age ; a flabby cheek. 

i-Bimbiti, ;/. 2. A sour, sullen, morose, sulky 
person ; one who has an uncomely visage. 

uku-Bina, v. i. To gallop, race; fig. to rival, 
emulate. 1 

Binisa, v. To gallop, race. i 

uku-Binda, v. t. To choke, suffocate; offend, 
vex, grudge. ;/. 8. Choking, suffocation. 
Bindeka, v. To be offended, obstructed. 



departed ancestors, which is done by sacri- 
fice; or to a river, which is done by 
slaughtering an animal and throwing every 
part of it into the river; or to the doctor 
who conducts the work of offering, by 
slaughtering for him; this does not include 
other fees. 
um-Bingi, ;/. I. The host who offers, i.e. 

who gives the animal for a sacrifice. 
isi-Bingo, ;/. 4. The animal slaughtered for 

offering. 
um-Bingo, n. 6. A sacrifice. 
uku-Bingela, 11. To sacrifice for. 
Bingelela, v. To slaughter and offer for 
a child (not for twins) at its birth, on the 
day the mother ceases lying-in, which is 
done by the father or a man of the village, 
not by the priest-doctor. The false 
prophet u-Mlanjeni used it with an ex- 
tended meaning: bingelelnui inkomo ezim- 
daka, offer in sacrifice the dun-coloured 
cattle. 
um-Bingeleli, n. I. The person who offers 

for one ; hence a priest. 
isi-Bingelelo, ;/. 4. The place for offering; 
(this word is used by translators for altar). 
um-Bingelelo, //. 6. An offering, sacrifice 

for one. 
ubu-Bingeleli, ;.'. 7. The priest's office. 
uku-Bingelelela, v. To offer for, instead 

of. 
um-Bingeleleli, n. I. One who offers for 

or instead of another. 
um-BIngelelelo, . 6. The offering, sacri- 
ficing for or instead of one. 
isi-Bingibingi, ?/. 4. One so much offended 
that he can liardly speak : uqumbe wasisibingi- 
bhi,<ri, he is dumb with anger. 



silenced, vexed, fretted, grieved: /7J/Y>/^'- , uku-Bingila, v. t. To remove weeds from 



kile iigoktitka kwako, I am grieved by your 
talk. 
Bindisa, v. To choke, suffocate. 

isi-Bindi, n. 4. (a) The liver; fig. courage, 
vigour, energy: lomiitu luicsibiiidi, this person 
has courage, i.e. can do things coolly, (b) 
A liver-coloured fungus growing on rotten 
trees, used as a medicine for anaemia 
(ihlwili) in cattle, also rubbed by people on 
their faces in hot weather. 

um-Bindi, //. 6. (a) The principal part of a 
thing, as the district or region where the 
principal men, the flower of the tribe, are 



cleared ground,^= iikii-Siiigila. 

Bini, Em. Bili, Card. num. Two: zimbini 
inkomo, the cows are two ; amanqhta amabini, 
two witnesses; izinto zombhii, both things. 
Adv. kabini, twice: yenza kabini, do it twice; 
kubi/ii, into two: ra?tda kubini, cut into two 
parts; tigambhii. in twos; by pairs. 

isi-Bini, 11. 4. Two, as an abstract number: 
isliumi elincsibini, twelve; imiti dishtimi 
i'linesibiiti, twelve trees; the second: umhla 
wesibiiti, the second day; ngohvesibini, i.e. 
tisuku, on the second day, on Tuesday; 
okwesibiiii, the second time or secondly. 



. (b) A forest tree, Garcinia gerrardi ' uku-B'INQA, 7;. /. To gird the loins; to bind 
Ilarv., ranging from Egossa to Zululand ; any clothing around the hips ; to buckle on ; 
its sap is yellow. i to make ready. 

36 



BI 

i-Binqawa, n. A girdle, girdle belt. (In 
this word the Hottentot suffix I'a has 
become wa). 
um-Binqo, n. 6. Anything (garment) bound 
round the hips, except a girdle; a petti- 
coat. 
uku-Binqeka, v. To be fit for girding. 
Binqela, v. To gird etc. for; to strive to 
finish: ulwaluko lubhtqehve e-Nceinera, 
circumcision was put an end to at Peelton. 
Binqisa v. To cause, help to gird. 
Binqisana. v. To gird one another. 
Binqiseka, v.=Binqeka. 
i-Binxala, . 2. Abundance of milk. 
uku-BINZA, V. t. To throw a spear, dart 
to strike by throwing an 
inkwenkiv:'2i iyahinza, the 



assegai ; fig. 
star shoots. 
um-Binzi, 



I- ) 



im-Binza, n. 3. 3 



A spearman. 



um-Binzwa, n. l. One who has been 

speared. 
uku-Binzeka, v. To be fit for throwing; 
to be, or to be capable of being, pierced 
by an assegai, 
Binzisa, v. To cause or to help throwing. 
i-Binza, n. 2. A quantity of corn placed on 
the stone where it is to be ground, or a 
quantity of ears of corn placed where they 
are to be thrashed out ; dimin. i-Binz ina, a 
small detachment. 
um-Binza, ;/. 6. A wild fruit tree with edible 
berries, septee, Halleria elliptica, Jhiin. 
The fruit, if pulled at the proper season, 
becomes ripe and black by being put into a 
hole in the ground for two days; it is eaten 
in time of famine. Green branches of this 
tree are burned in sacrifice. The ripening 
of the fruit is the time for sowing Kafir- 
corn. Phr. sisisele somhinza, it is a pitful of 
binza fruit, i.e. something very easily got 
see also isi-Sulit. 
isi-Bipa, n. 4. An uncommonly ugly person. 
isi-Biql, . 4. The discharge from a putrid 
wound or place ; any bad thing, as dirt or a 
lump in milk or water; refuse, debris. 
uku-Biqiza, v. To suppurate, discharge 
any thing putrid, as pus, or clotted blood, 
or the placenta in parts ; of cattle, to get 
rid of a dead foetus in, putrid parts; fig. 
lomntii uyab'iqiza ukuteta, this person speaks 
dirty things; inyama ib'iqiza impetu, the 
meat is beset with maggots. 
u-Bisi, ;/. 5. Sweet milk; ubisi lengwe, lit. 

leopard's milk, i.e. brandy. 
im-Bishimbishi, u. 3. A corpulent person 



BI 

uku-B'ITY A, V. To fall off in flesh exceeding- 
ly, become very lean: inkomo ibityile, the 
cow is very lean. n. 8. Leanness. 
u-Bityo. . 5. Excessive leanness; a thing 

that is in an impoverished state, or that 

has died of poverty: hidliwe nbttyo or iibi- 

tyokazi, a very lean animal. 
im-Bitywana, n. 3. One who is emaciated, 

very lean. 
uku-Bityisa, v. To cause great leanness, 

(used both physically and morally) ; to 

terminate the existence of a very lean 

animal :bltyisa ohiliibityokazi, finish off this 

very lean animal. 
u-Bivana, 11. 5. That which is lean, without 

bones. 
i-Bixa, w. 2. An indigent person; one who is 
unable to giv'e that whit;h is asked from him. 
ubu-Bixa. n. 7. Indigence, poverty, penury. 
uku-Bixanisa, v. To identify with: undi- 
bixanisj nabani-na? with whom do you 
identify me ? 
\-E\.Y A,^ i-Bila, European beer. 
uku-BIYA, V. t. To fence: biya ubuhlmtt, 
fence the cattle fold, (which is done by 
laying bushes around, or putting them into 
the ground, or by wattling). 
u-Biyo, . 5. The act of fencing. 
uku-Biyela, v. To fence for or round about: 

biycla amasimi, fence the gardens. 
Biyisa, v. To help to fence. 
u-Biya, n. I. Em. The ringhals snake ; = /- 

Phnpi. 
im-Biza, n. 3. Formerly an earthen pot for 
cooking, as distinguished from an iron one; 
now any pot for cooking. 
uku-BIZA, V. t. To name, call, invoke, invite, 
order, say, repeat: biza izicaka, call the 
servants; ndibiza im-.li yim kuive, I demand 
my money from you ; umbize igavia elingu-N., 
thou shalt call his name N. ; iwibiza ngokuba- 
Nkosi, or iigokuti-Nkosi, he calls him Lord ; 
iibizwa ngabanina ? what is your surname ? 
im-Biza and im-Bizo, n. 3. A convened 

meeting, after the analogy of SesuXopitso 

from pitsa. 
isi-Bizo, n. 4. (a) A distinguishing name; 

surname, (b) That by which anything 

asked is obtained. 
u-Bizo, 11. 5. Invitation, cry, calling. 
um-Bizane, n. 6, Attraction; fascination, 

such as a snake exerts over a bird. 
uku-Bizeka, v. To be utterable; to be 

summoned, cited ; to have a name ; to be 

renowned, famous: igama lake libizeka 

kamiiandi, his name sounds pleasant. 

?/. 8. Appellation. 



37 



Bl 

Bizela, v. To call, invite for or to: 
tiJihizelivd it y aid lam, I am called on 
account of my debt or cri.ne; to invite 
to ; to read to ; fig\ to draw by suction 
into the mouth, as through a straw, to 
swallow, deglut. 



BO 



u-Bize!o ;/ ^ S ^ *^'' ' ^cclama 

tion: uiigiiz' u\\' chiz:lw 

to a meeting without knowing why yoi 

are called, you do not know you are 

going to die by tiie word of the isauiisc. 

uku-Bizelana, v. To gather togetlier (in a 

hostile sense): ha'uzrlaiid ndivivj'iyc !i,i(o- 

Moscs iiango-Arou, they gathered together 

against Moses and Aaron. 

uku-Bizisa, v. To cause or make to name, 

call, etc. :u':ffrdil>izisa liuilcto rlis'nimi, he 

made me repsat the ten comman Iments. 

Bo, I. Contrac. form of pron. emphat. bo.-ia, 

I cl. pi. and 7 cl. They, it. It is (a) governed 

by prepositions: ham'iain naho (ahaiitu), go 

ye with them (the people) ; ngenaui knho 

(iibiikiinikiiiij, enter into it (the kingdom); 

bcka pczu kwaho, put it on them. 

(b) Poss pro;i. of I cL p!. : into y.bo, their 
(the people's' thing; 7 cL: iikifka kwaho, 
the arrival of it (the kingdom); emphat.: 
cyaho into, t/wir thing; okivabo ukujika, its 
arrival, (c) It is used in forming the copula 
and to express causal relationship: ngabo, 
it is they; bubo, by it. 

2. Verb prcf. of the con:lit. and hypo- 
thetical future tense, I cl. pi. : xa ate iveza 
b'dktinika Umto, when you come, they will 
give this thing to you; 7 cl.: bojika ubukuni- 
kani, the kingdom will come. 
-bo, Enclitic particle to strengthen exhort- 
ations, when affixed to the imperative: 
hcim^n'i-bo! now do go! apa-bo! here it is. 
ukut'i-B6, ;'. i. To fall off: ihashe litc-bo, the 
hair of the horse has fallen off. 



isi-Ba, n. 4. ) 



See itku-Ba IV. 



ulu-Bo, //. 5. ) 

ubu-Bo, H. 7. See iiku-Ba, III. 

um-Bd, ti. 6. Scab on a dog, mange. 

uku-B6ba, v. t. To speak nonsense. 

uku-BOBA, V. i. To compress or bring the 

sides of a thing near each other ; to make a 

depression in a yielding article; fig. to 

soften down; to speak in a conciliatory, 

dispassionate manner. 

um-Bobi, n I. \ ^ conciliatory person. 
isi-Bobi, . 4. 3 ' 



uki;-Bobaboba, v. To narrow, diminish 
breadth; to calm, pacify, appease, soothe, 
mollify, soften one who has been offend- 
ed ; to coax. 
i-Sobo, u. 2. Hole, hollow, excavation ; a cavi- 
ty which has been made or bored, as that of 
a chimney, or gun; hence, a tube; a piping 
through which water flows; fig. a sound. 
', i.e. never go ' im-B6b6, ;/. 3. ^ i-Bobo. 

isa-B6b6, //. 4. Something wide and deep; 

iuxcba elisabobo, a wide, deep wound. 

uni-Bdb6, ;/. 6. Em. a gun; a steam-whistle 

such as is used at large works to indicate the 

hours for beginning and for ceasing work. 

isi-Babo, ;/. 4. Any thing dense, as a thick, 

long, strong beard. 
u-Bobo, 91. 5. A species of thorn tree, which 
grows very densely, with black, edible 
berries; it is used for making charms, z//- 
Pi'ifa. Phr. bambu hibobo, entangle him by 
the thickets, i.e. hold him fast. 
u-B6bdyi, n I. The African Hoopoe, Upupa 
africana, Bechst. Its early return in spring 
informs the natives that winter is past. 
uku-B6b6za, v. i. To issue, ooze, as water 
from a foimtain, or scrofulous matter from 
an ulcer, or pus from the genitals. 
n-Bdbozo, n. 5. Any thing issuing in the 
manner just described. (Blennorrhoea ur- 
ethrae). 
um-Bodamo, 11. 6. Confusion from people 
running out and in ; a crowd pressing in to 
get at a thing first. 
uku-B'ODLA, V. i. To eruct, belch, which 
sometimes is ascribed to witchcraft: ubodV 
esambesa, lit. he loathes while he clothes, i.e. 
he is outside friendly but inside hostile. 
um-BddIo, ?/. 6. The belching of wind 

from the stomach; eructation. 
uku-Bodlisa, v. Fig. to take, as does a 
chief, the property of a deceased father. 
im-BddIa, n. 3. Em. The African wild cat, 
Felis ocreata cafra, Desm.^ i-Cataza and 
in-GaJa; mbodlaiidini, a nick name. 
ukut'i-BodIt), f. t. To pierce with a needle 
or anything sharp: udiugakuti bodlo tigale- 
?nela, I would stab you with this knife. 
i-B6dlo, //. 2. An old tumble-down building. 
i-B6dlob6dlo, ;;. 2. One who is pierced 
through in many places, or many persons 
who are pierced through. 
uku-B6dIoza, v. To stab with any sharp 
instrument as a knife ; to strike home with 
a stick, as boys try to do when fighting: 
ndimbodlozile ngentonga, I got at him with 
my stick ; = uku-Badluza. 



38 



BO 

im-BODLELA, tt. 3. A bottle (from Eng., or 
from the second made by liquid being 
poured out of a bottle.) 

im-Bddlololo, n. 3. Bullock with horns 
standing straight up from the head. 

i-BODOLOSHE, n. 3. Botheration. (Eng.) 

Bodwa, Adj. Alone, only, I cl. pi : abantwa- 
na bodwa, the children alone ; babodwa, they 
are alone ; 7. cl. : tihulungisa bodwa, righteous- 
ness only; see u-Dwa. 

ukut'i-Bof u, V. t. To pierce, as a thorn. 

uku-Bof ula, V. i. To walk heavily or struggle 
(in the mud) ; to exert oneself with difficulty. 

uku-Bohla, v. i. To fall, as a swelling, or as 
a sack containing fermenting liquor when 
opened; to collapse, sink, decrease: ama- 
nzi abohlile, the water decreased (after a 
flood); fig. to be lowered: iizibohlile, he 
has lowered himself, he is ashamed. 
Bohlisa, v. To cause to sink; to lessen 
the bulk by drawing oat portion of the 
contents. 

uku-B'OJA, ) , . , 

-Bdjaboja, J ^- ' ^^ PP^^^ "^ ^ '^^^ ^ 
greater degree pacific or healing 
measures; to disturb; trouble,, stir up 
strife or confusion. 
um-Bdjabdji, n. i.^ 
i-B6ia, n. 2. f A ,, 

i-B6jab6ja, n. 2. ( ^ ^^^^^'^^"' ^^P^'^'^^ 
isi-Boja, ;/. 4. j 
disputant, a disturber. 

u-BdjSana, ] i- ^ kin;l of small iron 
spade manufactured in Europe and sold to 
Kafirs by the traders ; it was made express- 
ly for Kafir trade. 

u-B6jongela, n. 5. Anything long and moving 
in file; cattle moving in long droves, 
whether in drought or in war or on re- 
moval of habitation, or going home in file: 
impaJila ilubdjo'igela, the cattle go in pro- 
longed droves. 

um-Boko, n. 6. Proboscis, snout; elephant's 
trunk. (When an elephant is brought down, 
the chief huntsman cuts off the point of the 
proboscis and buries it, for which he gets a 
small fee. A superstitious respect towards 
the elephant is shewn by this proceeding. ) 
Fig. a spout, a chimney; a watch-chain, see 
itku-Gab'isa. "^ 

uku-Bokoda, v. i. To be poor ; not to find or 
gain a li'/elihood. 

i-B6konifu, ;?. 2. A big corpulent person; a 
fat animal walking with difficulty; a bulky 
.serpent, such as a heavy puffadder. 



.39 



BO 

uku-Bokonxa, v. t. To thrnw an assegai or 
pointed stick so that in falling it sticks into 
the ground. 

Bdkonxisa, v. To cause, help to throw, 
etc. 

ama-Bdkoti, n. 2. pi. Changes. 

im-B6kot6 and im-B6kotwe, n. 3. A round 
or oval stone, especially one for grinding 
corn; often used for diamonds, therefore 
the Diamondfields are ca.W&'i elzm-Bokohve; 
fig. one who says or does whatever, another 
does. Phr. kwafa ilitye, (the under stone) fie- 
/!ibdko!wj, (the upper one), lit. both miil- 
stonss died; said when two persons are in 
mutual conflict or deadly encounter, or 
when raceoxen or racehorses keep closely 
contending, and generally when a contest 
is stoutly maintained, or when the enemy 
destroy everything, even to the grinding 
stones ; nothing was spared. 

uku-B6koxa, v. i. To use or give the whole; 
tikuzibdkoxa, to spend oneself; to mix one- 
self up in a degrading matter; to bring 
oneself into trouble or to fall. 
B6koxela, v. To spend the whole on; 
to open the whole -mind to : iizibokoxela, 
he empties himself out, on or to, speaks 
out all that he has to say. 

uku-Bdkozela, v. i. To speak to one in an 
indistinct manner; to articulate with a 
rough voice; to growl as a lion enraged, 
while he lashes his sides with his tail. 

uku-Bokozela, v. i. {from uku-Bokoda . To 
have nothing; to go a begging; to go stark 
naked without any co/ering on the body; 
(used of big boys going without the isi-Dla). 

i-BoKUVA H. 3. A buck-wagon; from the Du. 

i-BOKWE, n. 3. A goat (from the Du. bok). 

i-BOLA, n. 3. (a) Gimlet or auger (from Du. 
boor), lb) A ball, the game of cricket (from 
Eng. ball). 

um-BOLO, n. 6. A boring; a thing bored; a 
gunbarrel; iim-Bdlombhn, a double bar- 
relled gun. 

uku-BOLA, V. t. To bore a hole (Du. boren). 

im-B61a, //. 3. Orig. clay of a red colour 
which was burnt, and then pounded and 
made into a paste and painted on the 
body; now any red paint put on the 
body. (Kafirs reckon a black person as un- 
comely). 

uku-BOLA, V. i. To spoil, corrupt, rot, de- 
compose, putrefy : inyama ibolile, the meat 
is putrid, i.e. spoiled; amatanga alolile, 
the pumpkins are rotten ; to sham death : 



iifiido sdnhoUlc. the tortoise is sliamming , im-B6mbd, ii. 3. (a) External angle, street 



death. ;/. 8. Corruption, decay, rottenness, 
putrefaction. j 

i-Boli, . 2. Anything quite rotten; great ; 
mortality, whether of man or beast, , 
whether caused by disease or war. \ 

uku-Bolisa, v. To cause to rot, etc. | 

ukut'i-BoIe, v. i. To be wholly covered with j 
sores. I 

uku-BOLEKA, V. t. With locati/e case of the I 
person it means to borrow ; with the j 



corner: ilitye leinbdnibo, corner stone; loc. 
cmbombeni ; dimm. imbonjana. (b). The black- 
crowned bush-shrike, Pomatorhynchus se- 
negalus (L). 

ama-Bombd, n. 2. pi. High temples or fore- 
head: bazisiiigise amabombo tigase-Sude, they 
(cattle) were facing Southward. 

um-Bomb6, n. 6. The arch of the nose in 
men and beasts. Phr. Into isembonjeni, the 
matter is quite clear. 



accusative case of the person it means to ' um-Bombdmfene, 11. 6. A forest-tree, Plect- 



lend, e.g. ndibolekc i/iiali k'uyc. I have 
borrowed money from him; tindiholcke 
imali, he has lent me money ; bolcka iiiiali kti- 
Mhala, borrow money from Mhala; mbolcke 
imali u-Mlmla, lend Mhala monay. 
um-Bolekl, w. I. A borrower, a creditor. 

Icko, a borrowed cow; lending: i'lzala ye- 
mbolcko, usury. 
uku-Bolekana, v. To lend each other, or 
borrow from each other, as e.g. of two 
people having one jacket between them 
and wearing it on alternate days. 
Bolekela, v. To borrow for another; 
ndambolckela ihashc kit-NaiUsi, I borrowed 
a horse for him from such a one. 
Bolekisana, v. To take turn about with 
each other, e.g. at herding. 
i-B6lo, . 2. Candle wood, Pterocelastrus 

variabilis Sond. 
U-B6I0, ?/. 5. A large penis. (Vulgar). 
u-B6lob6lo, II. I. The diaphragm, the large 
intestine in cattle or sheep, the perquisite 
of the dogs when a beast is cut up. 
um-B6lompo, ti. 6. A tube, as a telescope ; 
tunnel; ravine; porch, portico; passage be- 
tween high banks of a mountain torrent; 
fig. anxiety; the feeling of apprehension 
felt before an approaching catastrophe. 
uku-B6lora, v. i. To carry on singing all 
night, in preparation for a marriage. 
um-B6lofo, ;/. 6. Night-singing of young 
people, in preparation for a marriage. 
Night-concert. 
i-BOMA, n. 2. A fruit garden. In pliir. fruit, 

from Du. boom. 
u-Bdmale, n. i. A kind of field-cricket, 

Nasidius truncatifrons. 
im-B6mbe, ;/. 3. The fruitstalk of the palm 



ronia obovata fKlotsJ. 

uku-Bdmb6loza, v. i. To shout, cry aloud, 
as when giving warning of the approach 
of an enemy, howl, roar. ti. 8 Shouting. 

um-B6mb6mbd, w. 6. A house which is 
comparatively very wide and high. 

im-B6mb6sholo, n. 3. ) a n 

isi-B6mb6to, ;,. 4- 3 "^"^ well-propor- 
tioned body ; a tall, stalwart, proportionately 
built person: timntti nsisibdmbdlo, the person 
is tall, stalwart. 

im-Bomboza, n, 3. Strangury. 

uku-Bomela, v. t. To harass, pester by beg- 
ging ; to accuse falsely : iisibomele, he wrongs 
us persistently without cause ; to persist in 
not doing what others charge one to do. 

um-Bomvane, n. 6. Saffronwood, Elasoden- 
dron croceum, D.C., the roots of which are 
used by witchdoctors as an emetic of the 
nature of an ordeal ; the bark is used as a 
purgative. 

Bomvu, adj. Red: iqiya ebonivii, a red hand- 
kerchief; inkonio ibomvu, the cow is red; 
boniviimnyama, purple; bomvtira, reddish. 

Bomvu, Inter}. In the boy's game untinti, 
when 'bomvu ' is called out, the boys of the 
one side have to run the gauntlet through the 
boys of the other side, and to endeavour to 
do so without getting their heads rubbed. 

Bona, Pron. emphat. (a) I cl. pi. They, or 
them, as distinguished from others: bona 
bafika, they arrived; ndabakaiigcla bona, I 
looked at them; abo:ia bantu bakuln, the 
people who are great, compared with others, 
or the really great people. 

lb) 7 cl. Nditeta ubukumkaiii bona, I 
speak of it. the kingdom ; bona buycza, it 
comes ; emphat. : o'^ona bukumkani bukulu, 
the kingdom which is great compared with 
others, or the really great kingdom. 



, made into uku-BONA, 



To see, perceive, behold, 



grass, stripped into small shreds, 
a brush, used in supping sweet or sour milk. : observe, regard: ndikubonile, I have seen 
Em. A piece of wood or horn used as a you; akasiboni, he does not see us, i.e. he is 
snoon- dimin. im-bonjana- ' above noticing us; ndibone, Nkosi, do look 

40 



BO 

on me, i.e. have mercy on me, Lord. 
(When very hot, Kafirs pray, Sibo?ie!) sakii- 
hona! hail! Voc. bona! yabona! behold! pi. 
bonani! yabonani! behold ye, perceive! 
ndiboua ngocargo luvaleka, I perceive the 
door closing; amahashe alahlekileyo aboniwe, 
the lost horses have been seen, i.e. found; 
ndiza kiikubona, I come to see you, i.e. to 
visit you; ifnali yam andiyiboni, my money 
I do not find, i.e. I miss; to examine a 
girl^ ttkiihlola. Phr. umntu okade ebona, an 
old man who has seen much and undergone 
many difficulties. 

As an auxiliary, ukubona is used to express 
"when, at the time when" : bakubon' iikuba 
bat'i, when they are saying; akubon' ukuba 
uyazicinga ezizinto, naco isitunyiva sibonakala, 
while he was thinking on these things, 
behold, an angel appeared. 

w. 8. Opinion : ukuhona kivam, my opinion. 
um-Boni, n. l. One who sees or has seen. 
im-B6ni, . 3. (a) An adept at seeing, (b) 
A woman who examines a girl to see if 
she is a virgin. 
isi-Bono, n. 4. A gift by which a lover or a 
father declares his attachment or his 
gratitude. When a young man desires a 
girl's parents to send her to him that she 
may become his wife, they demand the 
isibo:;o; from the phrase yenza kesibone, 
come now, let us see what you are pre- 
pared to give. When a father asks to 
see the child that has been born to him, 
his friends demand the isibo>!0. 
um-Bono. n. 6. Phenomenon, vision, sign 

Em. rupture of the navel. 
ama-BonaiidenzUe, n. 2. pi Efforts, risks, 
hazards, ventures made without hope of 
succeeding. 
isi-Boninge, n. 4. Strange, unwelcome sight. 
uku-Bonabaita, v. To look about with 
pleasure or agreeable surprise, as the 
lepers in Israel who found the cjimp 
deserted, but full of spoil; to look 
attentively. 
uku-Bonakala, v. To appear; to be visible; 
to be within view : iiikwcukivczi ziyabo.ia- 
kala, the stars are visible ; fig, to be clear : 
kuyabonakala ukiiteta kwako, your speaking 
is clear, can be comprehended; uyeuze 
lo.'ito rgokubo:iakalayo, he has done this 
openly, in public; to be fitting: ukuba 
knte kwahonakala, if it is fitting, n. 8. 
ukubo/takala kwake kubi, his appearance or 
character is ugly. 
F 



im-B6nakaIo, . S- ) i-u c 

isi-Bonakalo, n. 4. j ^he appearance of a 

thing; the thing that appears; appear- 
ance, view, sight, vision. 

uku-Bonakalalisa, v. To disclose, make 
clear or manifest. 

um-Bonakalaliso, n. 6. Proof, token. 

uku-Bonakaleld, v. To be transparent, as 
water, glass or a sieve ; fig. to be left 
in destitute circumstances, as orphans. 

Bonakalelisa, f. ) T^^ ^ .^ ^ ^,. 

-Bonakalisa, J. 1 ^^ ^^"'^ * ^PP^^'^' 
to discover, disclose, reveal, make clear. 

isi-Bonakaliso, n. 4. The act of making or 
giving an appearance; a thing which 
makes to appear, evidence, revelation. 

uku-Bonakalalisela, v. \ y^ ^^Up .. ,.. 

-BonakaliseJa, v. )^ ^^^^ ^^ '^'^^^^ 
etc. for, or to. 

Banana, v. To see each other. 

Bonela, v. To look on at (an exhibition, 
spectacle), observe: wabonela ukududa, he 
looked on at the dancing ; uzibonele, see for 
yourself; to call the attention of others: 
bonelani musebenzi want, behold ye my 
work; bonelani kuye, follow his example; 
to look for: ukubonela intaka, to find a 
bird's nest ; indawo yokubonela, a theatre. 

um-Boneli, n. I. A spectator. 

isi-Bonelo, n. 4. | Exhibition, spectacle, 

um-Bonelo, . 6. ) ' ^ ' 

play. 

uku-Bonelana, v. To look, etc., for each 
other, i.e. to care for or make provision 
for each other. 

Bonelela, v. To take advantage of: 
uyandibonelela, he takes advantage of me ; 
iiyambonelela iibudenge, he takes advantage 
of his stupidity ; tiyazibonelela izinfun zake, 
he perceives coming evil beforehand and 
provides for his sheep against it. 
-Bonlsa, v. To cause or make or help to 
see or look; to show, point out, prove, 
exhibit to view: ndababonisa abantu izono 
zabo, I showed the people their sins ; boni- 
sa ihashe, said by one in search of a horse 
to one he meets or suspects; bonisani, 
help me to see (strayed or lost animals) ; 
ndiyahonisa, I advise. 

um-Bonisi, n. I. One who makes others 
see, a counsellor. 

isi-Boniso, ;/. 4. That which shows; a 
token, argument, reason, proof. 

um-Boniso, . 6. Show, exhibition; sign, 
proof, sample, specimen, pattern, evi- 
dence, demonstration. 



BO 

uku-Bonisana, v. To show to each other. 

Bonisela, v. To show for another; tc 
look out, watch, guard on a stage or hill 
to spy, espy the approach of birds, or of 
an enemy; to find a bird's nest. 

um-Boniseli, ti. I. ) t-u i ^ i 

im-Bdnlseli, . 3. ] The guard, watch, spy, 

who is in an elevated place; one who 
sounds the war-cry. 

im-Bdniselo. . 3. High place for watch- 
ing; watchtower. 

uku-Bonisisa, v. To show clearly; to de- 
monstrate. 
uku-BONDA, V. t. To stir round: ho:ida 

isidudu, stir round the porridge; fig. to 

confuse the subject; to seize unjustly 

um-Bondi, . l. A tale bearer. 

im-Bdndembdnde, . 3. A mass formed of 
mingled ingredients; a mixture. 

isi-Bonda, n. 4. (a) A pole or stake in a 
fence or hut; fig. a headman of a local- 
ity or district, who upholds the Govern- 
ment's authority, (b) A severe, constant 
pain. 

u-Bondo, . 5. A big wooden spoon for 
stirring food. 

um-Bonde, n. 6. A confused statement; 
= vn-Biliboiido. 

ubu-Bonda, . 7. The office of a headman. 

uku-Bondela, v. To stir round for. 

um-8ondovu, . 6. Mixture : umbondovii 

wesi-Xosa, an indiscriminate mixture of 

words, either of English and Kafir, or in 

Kafir alone. 

um-Bonelo, and um-Boneli, see iiku-Bona. 

uku-BONQA, V. t. To praise, extol loudly 

and impromptu by songs or orations; to 

praise, magnify, laud, celebrate the deeds 

of a chief, or the feats of race oxen, or the 

valour of an army. Old men of the chief's 

clan, though distant, creep out of their huts 

at daybreak and loudly celebrate his praises. 

Phr. lento umnlti iyemkci fwko ibo:igwayo, man 

goes away, though he is celebrated, i.e. the 

most renowned must die. 

im-B6ngi, ti. 3. The poet who praises; an 
improvisator. 

or hum of a nurse to lull a child to sleep. 
Plur. izibongo, poems descriptive of the 
feats and character of chiefs or heroes. 
Among the Abambo, isibongo is the clan 
name, e.g. Mabengn, Dlamini, Radebc ; in 
greeting or in thanking a person the clan 
name is used. 

42 



BO 



To praise in respect to. 
To cause, help, make to 



uku-Bongela. v 
Bongisa, 

praise. 

Bonglsela, v. To praise one by allusions 
to another; to speak constantly good or 
bad of another: udc wabuha ebongisela 
iigojiantsi, till he died he spoke constantly 
of N. 

uku-Bongoza, v. (a) To beseech, entreat, 
solicit, importune, petition, implore for- 
giveness; to press by persuasion; to be 
importunate: 7idize htwc 7idikubo>igdza, I 
came to beseech you. (b) To coax, 
wheedle, flatter. ;/. 8. Entreat.v. 

isi-Bongoza. ;/. 4. (a) An entreaty, solicita- 
tion, petition, (b) That which a coaxer 
promises or gives. 

uku-Bongozela, v. To entreat for; to 
implore on behalf of another. 
uku-B'ONGA, V. i. To bellow like a calf or 

ox in distress for food; to cry out, as one 

in distress; to roar as artillery. 

u-B6ngeinpandeni, w. i. A big fly that 
makes a humming sound in a vessel, like 
that of a top. It is said that its eggs, 
produce the isi-Biiiigu. Fig. worthless. 

i-B6ngo, 11. 2. Used more in pi. Fanciful! 
talk, whims, freaks, sallies; a soliloquy. 

um-B6ngo, ;/. 6. The bellowing, lowing of 
an ox, noise of a gun. 

uku-Bongela, v. To ring: ihlati libougchve, 
the forest is made to ring with shooting. 

BongiSa, v. To cause to cry out ; to twirl ; 
fig. to struggle as a female to escape 
from a ravisher. 

im-B6ngisa, //. 3. The cone shaped fruit 
of the iim-Bd)igisa, called monkey apple, 
used by the children as a spinning top. 

um-B6ngisa, n. 6. Two shrubs: the larger 
is Royena lycioides, D.C. whose fruit is 
used as a spinning-top; the smaller with 
pinkish-yellow fruit is Royena pallens, 

a calabash of its contents, leaving it quite 
empty. 

isi-B6ngobiyana, n. 4. A contemptible, 
cheeky person. 

im-B6ngolo, //. 3. A mule (between the horse 
an.l the ass); an ass; anything with pro- 
minent nose or mouth. 

uku-Bongoza, etc. see under uku-Boaga. 

uku-B6ngozeIa, v. i. To grow fast (said of a 
child or tree). 

u-Bdngwana, n. 5. Windpipe, throat. 



BO 



i-Boni, n. 2. (a) A large duncoloured grass- 
hopper; pi. many: ngatnatole atnaboni ! what 
a lot of children ! It is used of grasshoppers 
when they are eaten by birds or fowls, (b) 
The mo!e-i-at, Georychus hottentotus (Less.) 
(c) The great rain which fell during Rar'abe's 
life time is stiJl distinguished by this name. 
im-Bdni, im-B6niseli, isi-Boniso, etc., see 

uku-Bona. 
Bonke, Adj. l cl. pi. All, the whole: abantu 
bofike, all people ; 7 cl. : ubukulu bake bonke, 
all his greatness; see 0/ike. 
um-Bono, see uku-Bona. 
u-B6ntsi, 7t. I. The gvQditiOQ: bay any atelana 
vgobontsi, they are ready to fight. Phr. 
ukuma vgobontsi, to deny point black. 
uku-B6nxa, v. i. To become full and tense 
to fill with milk; to swell as buds or veins, 
or cows' teats : imibele ibonxile, the teats are 
enlarged and full. 

Bonxisa, v. To cause to fill with milk. 
uku-BOP'A, V. t. pass, bolshwa. To bind, tie, 
pack, fasten : bopa inyanda, tie the bundle of 
wood; to fasten on, as a burden or saddle; 
to harness, yoke: bopa ihashe, saddle the 
horse ; bopa inkabi, yoke the oxeij ; bopa ama- 
nxeba, bind up the wounds; fig. usibopile 
ngeswi lake, he has bound us by his word, 
i.e. he has got the better of us in argument; 
inqina elifumana lisibopa, a witness who 
brings a false charge against us. Phr. 
kuyabotshwa nonyaka, lit. this year there is 
tying, i.e. they will remove, die ; Ubotshive 
ngentambb cmasendeni or emnweni, the wizard 
is tied with a thong at the testicles or finger 
a kind of torture to extract confession. 
um-Bopi, n. I One who binds: umbop'i 

wezitungu, a binder of sheaves. 
ama-Bope, n. 2. pi. Bands, thongs; sorceries, 
enchantments: ukuhopa ngomabope, to 
charm. 
isi-Bop6, n. 4. Anything to bind with 

(string, band, thong). 
u-Bop6, n. 5. A bond, obligation, liability. 
um-Botshwa, n. 6. (a) A chained or bound 
captive, (b) Anything tied up, e.g. a bag 
not quite full that is tied up. (c) The 
sinew or tendon which is behind the knee 
of an animal, connecting the knee joint; 
the hamstring, and tjie corresponding 
tendon in man. 
uku-Bopana, v. To bind, tie or fasten 
together: inkabi zibophte, the oxen have 
entangled each other; fig. to entangle 
each other in speech, as in backbiting 
and telling tales. 

43 



BO 

-Bopeka, v. To be bound : kobopeka emhla- 
beni, it will be bound on earth. 

-Bopela, V. To bind for, at: ndibopeV 
inxowa, bind the sack for me ; uyabotshelwa, 
is said of a young person who is being 
compelled by relations to marry one 
whom he or she does not want. 

-Bopelana, v. To tie or bind for each 
other ; fig. to plot, conspire, 

-Bopelela, v. To fasten to a certain place 
or thing, as a horse to a stake, or a 
bullock to a wagon: inkabi zibotshelehve 
enqwelweni, the oxen are tied, fastened up 
to the wagon. Phr. ubopelele inja enkangeni, 
lit. he has fastened his dog to the inkanga; 
when applied to an elderly person, this 
means, he is stingy; but when applied to 
children, he is foolish or silly or he is 
telling lies. 

lstlo*pla,"ll A .hong o. lath .o 

which other things are fastened. 

u-Bopelelo, n. 5. The tying up to; attach- 
ing oneself to another in travelling. 

uku-Bopisa, v. To cause, assist to bind, etc. 

Bopisana, v. To assist each other in 
binding, etc. 

Bopisisa, v. To fasten well, make tight. 
u-Bdqo, n. 5. The large convolvulus, Phar- 

bitis hispida, Chois. with a stout root which 

sometimes breaks ploughs in the lands. 

Cattle feeding on it thrive well, but their 

milk acquires a disagreeable quality and 

causes inflation of the bowels. 
im-B6fa, . 3. and u-B6fa, n. 5. Em. Belching 

with a disagreeable smell ; stink, stench. 

uku-B6foza, v. To retch, vomit from 

nausea caused by a bad smell. 
i-B6shob6sho, . 2. A babbler. 
im-B6sholoIo, n. 3. Depravity. 
um-B6shonqa, n. 6. That which is long, or 

large in size, fruitful: umboshonqa wamatye, 

large hailstones. 
i-Boso, n. 2. Carving or bowie knife 
uku-BosOLA, V. t. To brush, clean. From Du. 

borstel. 
uku-B'OTA, V. t. To greet, done by women 

to each other, or by lovers to lovers; not 

by men to each other or to people of 

higher rank: bota! all hail! 

B6tana, v. To greet each other. 

B6tisa, V. To cause to greet. 

B6tisela. v. To send greetings to: ndt- 

botisele kuye, give him or her my greetings. 

i-BOTANlSl, n. 2. A button, esp. white, sewn 

on the clothes of the red Kafir women; in 



BO 

general, any button ; (from the Eng.) 
i-BOTlLE, . 3. Bottle (from the Eng.) 
ukut'i-BOT'O, V. i. Of a vessel, to be indented 

or bruised. 

isi-Botd, . 4. (a) A depression in a metaj 
vessel, (b) Small insects which keep 
hitting a traveller in the face, (c) A small 
kind of grasshopper, (d) A little baby. 

i-Botdbot\vana, n. 2. A young child when 
able to sit. 

uku-Botdka, v. Of a vessel, to be indented 
or bruised. 

Bot6za, %\ To depress or compress, 
bruise a vessel. 

Botdzeka, v. Of a tin dish, to be bashed in. 
i-BOTOLO, H. 3. Butter (fr. Du. boter). Butter 

is made for the purpose of anointing the 

body. 
im-B6tshaiie, 11. 3. Strife about what has 

been said by others or heard from others. 
um-Botshwa, see uku-Bopa. 
i-B6twe, . 2. The house of the great wife 

of a chief where the councillors meet; it is 

held sacred as a place of refuge for culprits ; 

palace, capital, metropolis, the seat of 

government, hence Capetown. Phr. ndinge- 

yiyo inkosi ndingc nabatwe, I am not the chief, 

I have no palace ; loc. ebotive. 
uku-Botya, v. t. To cause confusion by 

telling lies. 

im-Bdtye, w. 3. Complicated, confused state. 

isi-BotyoIo, n. 4. Confusion. 
im-BoTYi, . 3. Bean, (from Du. boontje). 
um-Bovana, ti. 6. A thorny climbing plant. 
im-B6vane, ;/. 3. The generic name for ants; 

applied also, though loosely, to termites. 

Phr. imbovane zilamb'ile, the ants are hungry, 

a contemptuous way of silencing an un- 

circumcised man who is attempting to speak 

at a public meeting; referring to the fact 

that at the time of circumcision, the ijivabu 

is buried in a termite-heap. 
uku-B6vela, v. i. To be stunted: ubhele, a 

dwarf; inkomo ibovele, a cow of stunted 

growth. 



BO 

ukut'i-B'OVU, ) , -r , . 
uku-B6vula, ] " ' ^^ ^^^^ ^ go^^ ^''th 

the horns : inkomo yatiiva-bovii, the cow was 

gored; fig. aniazwi ako andite-bovu, your 

words have wounded me. 

B6vub6vula, v. To stab, wound often. 

isi-B6vubdvu, w. 4. A coarse, rude, bluster- 
ing, ill-natured, violent, quarrelsome, 
dangerous creature, having the manner 
of a bull. 

ubu-B6vub6vu, ;/. 7. Rudeness, violence. 

uku-B6vulana, v. To wound, abuse each 
other. 
uku-B'OXA, :'. /. To disturb, mix up, scatter: 

iiija iziboxile igiisha, the dog has scattered 

the sheep; fig. to break up or terminate a 

discussion; to pervert, confound, block up, 

impede, obstruct a discussion or dispute ; to 

be obstinate in insisting upon what is 

contested; to interfei-e so as to defeat a 

purpose. 

i-Bdxo, 71. 2. A feast given to the relatives 
of a concubine. 

im-B6xo, n. 3. Oval, oblong, elongated, 
erect: in'.o cmbbxo, an oval shaped thing. 

isi-Bdxi, n. 4. An obstinate, quarrelsome 
person; a troubler, confounder. 

isi-B6xoiaIo. ;/. 4, (a) A cow with straight 
horns pointed up. (b) A large fine head of 
Indian corn. 

isi-B6xongo, n. 4. A horn, which only 
lately has grown out; tig. a greenhorn. 

isi-B6xoti, n. 4. A straight horn, having 
a little inclination forward; fig. a person 
who inclines to proceed, but who remains 
stationary through fear. 

um-B6xo, n. 6. An oval, an oblong. 

uku-B6xab6xa, v. To lengthen a dispute. 

Boxana, v. To obstruct, etc., each other's 
mind; to oppose each other. 

B6xisa, V. To cause confusion ; to compli- 
cate matters. 
i-Boza, n. 2. The site of a deserted village. 



im-B6vu, w. 3. The upper lip; the chaps J ubu-Baza, //. 7. Maturity. 

inside a whale's mouth, providing the whale isi-Bozi, n. 4. An old skin bag for churning; 

bone. [ a churn. 

ubu-Bovu, . 7. (ir om. uku-Bola). Pus; white I uku-Bozisa, v. t. from iiku-Bola. To cause 



or yellowish matter suppurating from 
wounds or ulcers. 
um-B6vu, n, 6. (a) Fruit like great red 
pearls from i-Dywadi, or African boxthorn, 
Lycium horridum, L. (b) A bead, (c) An 
ornament. This word is from same root as 
im-Bohi red clay, and iiii-Bdx>ane, a (red) ant. 



rottenness, ruin; to putrify, corrupt; fig. to 

abuse with words, slander, calumniate, 

reproach. 

im-B6zisa, n. 3. That which causes rotting, 

as rain making the corn rot ; fig. reproach, 

abuse, slander, hideous deed. 
ubum-Bozisa, ?/. 7. Corruption. 



BO 

isi-Bdzo, n. 4. Eight, as an abstract number: 
ishumi cUncsihozo, eighteen; izilya ezisibozo, 
eight vessels; igiisha yesihozo, the eighth 
sheep. Adv. kasibdzo, eight times. Cf. isi- 
Mbcxo. 
ukut'i-BozoIoIo, V. i. To subside; to calm 
down; to feel faint; to be ashamed, dis- 
appointed after having been angry. 
Bu, (a) Pron. suhj. of 7 cl. : iibiikuaikani 
buyapela, tlie kingdom is coming to an 
end; ubiikosi bake bukidti, his authority is 
great, (b) Pron. ohj. : hulnJilc ubiideiige bako, 
leave off your stupiditj'. (c) Cop. and cause: 
hxibo, it is it; kwciiziwc bubiikali, it is done 
by sharpness; see Bo. I. (c). 
ukut'i-Bu, V. To put upon; to cover over; 
wamti-bu, he covered him with a blanket; 
utnsebenzi ivc-bu, the work is too much, 
cannot be managed. 
ukut'i-Bu, V. i. To make a hollow noise: 
uvisinga ivenyosi we-bu, the bees are swarm- 
ing; yati-bu intoiiga, the stick made the 
sound bu when thrown. 
Bucala, Adv. Aside, see i-Cala. 
uku-B'UB'A, V. i. To become extinct; to be 
annihilated; to perish, die, exjjire, cease to 
be. n. 8. Extinction. 

u-Bubani, n. I. Lit. 'die you!' Bubonic 
plague. The word is a punning form of 
the Eng. v/ord ' bubonic' 
im-Bubo, w. 3. Destruction. 
uku-Bubela, v. To pei-ish, etc., in a certain 
place or among certain people: ubiibele 
ciidlwini or ckaya, he died in the house, or 
at his home ; in the pass, to be bereaved : 
lomfazi ivabujelwa. figumntwarm, this wo- 
man was bereaved of a child. 
Bublsa, pass, bujiswa. v. To cause to 
perish, etc.; to destroy; to annihilate, 
kill, degrade, depose, make useless, in- 
valid: isifo esibub'isayo, a deadly sickness; 
indlu ibujisiwc, the house, i.e. marriage, 
is dissolved; zinkosi, nibujiswe Jigubaiii-iiaf 
who has deposed you, sii's? 
um-Bubisi, n. 1. A destroyer. 
im-Bubisa, n. 3. Perdition, destruction. 
uSli's^';,^.] Destruction. ^ 

uku-Buba, and uku-Bubaza, v. t. To press a J 

thing together; make^ uniform, equally 

thick; to prevent, hinder from speaking. 

Bubana, v. To fall together; indlu, 

ibubcne, the house has altogether tumbled \ 

down, is ill ruins. 1 

Bubaka, v. To be pressed together, like 1 

an old dish, I 

45 



BU 

Bube, Ahx. in forming the compound tenses, 
7 cl. : ubukiDttkani bttbc b'lfika, contrac. bcbuii- 
ka, the kingdom was or has been arriving; 
iibusi (bu) behuya kudlhva, the honey was 
going to be eaten. 
i-Bubesi, n. 2. Beast of prey, espec. the male 

lion. 
Bubo, Ccptila and causal relationship, 7 cl. 

It is it; see Bu and Bo (c). 
isi-Bubu, n. 4. A thorny plant. 
i-BUBU, u. 2. A swarm of bees, clustered 
together and making a noise; fig. a pro- 
miscuous number of people together, mak- 
ing a humming noise, like a swarm of bees. 
uku-Bubula, v. To hum; to low in a low 
tone, as an ox ; to growl in a low tone, as 
a leopard, lion or dog; fig. to mutter 
dissent or reluctant consent ; to muse, 
meditate. 
u-BubuIo, ;/. 5. Humming, lowing. 
uku-BubuHsa, v. To make to hum, etc. 
Bubulisana, v. To make one another to 
hum, etc. 
i-Bubulufa, n. 2. A big, burly person. 
uku-Bubu!uza, v. i. To sidle, creep through 

or under a narrow opening. 
uku-Bubuza, v. i. from ukut't-Bu. To buzz, 
hum like bees; to make a noise like a pair 
of bellows, or as a bird fluttering ; to chatter, 
prattle. 

i-Biibuzela, n. 2. A chattering, prating 
fellow;^/. People without a chief. 
uku-Buca, V. t. (a) To attempt, (b) To mix 
together with the hand, as mortar, porridge, 
paste; to blend colours; to kneai bread; 
fig. to search diligently. 
Bucabuca, v. To attempt frequently; to 
work single handed at a thing which is 
too much for one. 
Bucela, v. Em. to mix for: bucela utywala, 
mix for beer, 
ukut'i-Bu cu, V. t. To finish off quite, cf. 

ukut'i-PiicH. 
uku-Biicula, v. t. To crush a soft thing, as an 

insect, under foot. 
uku-B'UDA, V. i. To be delirious; to wander 
in delirium; to speak incoherently, in dream 
or fever. 

um-Budi, n. I. A mad person. 
uku-Budabiida, v. To confuse by hurrying; 
to catch at quickly bat ineffectually; to 
scramble; fig. to interrupt another while 
speaking; to snatch, grasp, seize. 
i-Budabuda, n. 2. One who snatches away 
or up; fig. a partially insane person; one 
suffering from delirium tremens. 



BU 

uku-Budela, v. To speak nonsense to : uiiga- 
li'idcU kuiii, do not speak nonsense to me. ! 
- Budelana, v. To walk closely together, 
pell mell, not iii order; to rush madly into 
one place, \ying with each other, as 
bullocks into the entrance of a kraal or 
to a heap of maize; to struggle with each 
other. 
Budeleka, v. To press in and out fre- 
quently. 
Budisa, t'. To sham madness: uyazilm- 
disa, he pretends to be delirious; to make 
mad ; pass, to be mad. 
uku-Budla, ;). /. To blow hard (wind). 
ukut'i-Budubudii, v. t. To do a thing hastily. 
i-Budubu:>'.!, u. 2. One who does a thing 
hastily ; a partially insane man ; one suffer- 
ing from delirium, one who is crazy. 
isi-Budubudu, ;/. 4. One passing in and 

out frequently. 
ubu-Budubiidu, ti. 7. Hastiness, used as 
adv: ji fit nil hubuditbudii, he searches here 
and there, round about, and that hastily. 
uku-Buduza, v. To act hastily, unadvisedly; 
to blunder, stumble; to be in haste in 
catching birds. 
Buduzela, v. To act confusedly; to do a 
thing hastily, so that it has no effect; of 
a multitude, to crowd around a man or 
object, each one striving to get a sight of 
the central attraction. 
ukut'i-Bududu, v. i. To fail down, us. as adv. : 

lento hvc biidiidii, this tiling fell suddenly. 

i-Buje, n. 2. A tall proportionately-built man. 

u-BujIso, 11. 5. see iiku-Buba. 

u-Buka, //. I. A climbing plant which is 

weaved into doors. A girl on reaching the 

marriageable period is washed with water 

in which u-Biika has been macerated. She 

binds it also to the doors of the calves' and 

cattle enclosures, and sprinkles the calves 

with it and gives them an infusion of it, 

that they may become strong, be always 

fat and never cast their young; a woman 

who has miscarried is washed with this 

water. 

uku-BUKA, V. t. To fondle, to prize a thing 

so much that one cannot part with it, hence, 



BU 

and cannot part with them; uyazibuka esi- 
pUir.i, he admires himself in the looking 
glass; siyakubuM ! all hail! 
i-Buka, n. 2. A frugal person, a sparing 

one; fem. ibukakazi; dimin. ibukana. 
i-Bukazana, . 2. A female child who 

will not readily part with her playthings. 
im-Buko, ?/. 3. ) T- J , r ^ 

u-Buko, //. 5. ] Fondness, deference, from 

admiration of character. 

uku-Bukana, v. To look on each other 
with pleasure, as when friends meet. 

im-Bukwano, n. 3. Mutual fondness. 

uku-Bukeka, v. To be preferred; to be 
comely, beautiful. 11. 8. Frugality, parsi- 
mony. 

Bukisa, v. To cause or make to look on 
with pleasure. 

Bukula, V. Used of a cow, sheep or 
goat refusing to let her little one suck; 
imazi iyibiikiile inkonyana, the cow will not 
have the calf, pushes it away; a bird 
forsaking her eggs or young, because 
they have been touched in her absence; 
to renounce, disown; recently applied to 
people: indoda inibiikide iinifazi ivayo, the 
man dislikes, turns away his wife; baiii- 
bukiila namhla, to-day they disown him. 

Bukuza, V. To have a disinclination for; 
to dislike or reject a husband or certain 
food, as pregnant women do; to cast off 
as a wound any extraneous matter. 

u-Bukuzo, . 5. Sickness of cattle shewn 
by yellowness of the skin, and caused by 
eating some unhealthy bush. 

um-Bukuza, ;/. 6. Food which is disliked. 
i-Bukubuku, //. 2. A swarm of bees, clustered 

on a tree when resting during their flight; 

many common people meeting together in 

crowds. 
isi-Bukubukwana, . 4. A short, stout thing, 

block of wood; fig. a short, stout child. 
uku-Bukuca, v. t. (a) To squeeze a thing 

out, cf. uku-Cikida and ukn-P'icota. (b) To 

g\Q^r\,^'iikii-B'ikica. 

im-Bukuca. n. 3. Squeezing out; fig. vex- 



atious treatment. 
to be frugal ; to speak friendly with one on ' uku-BukuIa, etc. See under iikit-Biika. 
the road; to receive and entertain strangers uku-BukuIa, v. t. To trip or throw down 



in a friendly way by preparing and pro- 
viding every comfort for them; to look on 
with pleasure, prefer, admire: ndiyamhiikn 
lomntivdua, I am fond of that child ; ndiya- 
yibuka iiiyaiiga, I look with pleasure on the 
moon; uyazibuka czonto, he likes those things 



suddenly. 

Bukuleka, v. To be thrown : inyamakazi 
yabiikiileka, the game was thrown down 
(by a stone etc.), got up and fell again, got 
up and ran away. 

ukut'i-Bukulubukulii, v. To roll down. 



BU 

uku-B'UKUQA, v. t. To overthrow, put up- 
side down ; to cause to fall ; to upset : ivayi- 
buhiqa lomizi, he overthrew those cities ; to 
pour food out of a pot; fig. to deceive, get 
people to do a thing to their injury or 
destruction; to act the impostor. 
im-Bukuq;, n. 3. An impostor. 
u-Bukuqo, n. 5. Overthrow, destruction. 
um-Bukuqo, n. 6. Imposture. 
uku-Bukuqeka. t'. To be fallen or turned 
over, as a vessel or boat ; to be destroyed. 
Bukuqela, v. To fall on, or in a certain 

place: babukuqehve yinqivdo, the wagon 

fell on them. 
ukut'i-Bukuqu, v. To rush, fall upon: bate- 

buhiqu phu kivahe, they rushed upon him, 

felled him down ; bamt'i-biikuqu, they threw 

him down. 
isi-Bukutu, ;/. 4. A person or thing very fat 

in the face. 
im-Bukwano, see uku-Buka. 
i-Bula, n. 2. Scab in goats and sheep. 
uku-B'ULA, V. t. (a) To thrash or beat out 
corn with sticks, bullocks or horses : baya- 
bula inqolowa, they thrash out wheat; fig. 
to cause to forsake, (b) To try, or help to 
bring out, ascertain, discover the person 
who caused any man's sickness, by beating 
the ground with sticks in response to the 
incantations of the witchdoctor. 
isi-Bulo, n. 4. Stick for thrashing out corn 

or beating the ground; a flail; fig. an 

irritating speech. 
uku-Buleka, v. To hi easily thrashed: 

inqolowa iyabiilek 1, the wheat comes out 

nicely in the thrashing. 
Bulela, V. To thrash out for: ndibiilele, 

lit. thrash (your bag) for me, i.e. give me 

some tobacco. 
isi-Bulelo, n. 4. The floor or place on 

which any thing is thrashed out. 
uku-Bul.isa, I ^^ ^^^,gg ^^ ^I^^^gl^ o^t 
Bulisisa, 3 

to assist in thrashing: nkubulisa iblati, to 

beat the bush with sticks or to fire into 

it to drive out the ' game ; fig. to try 

to find out a thing by putting leading 

questions. 
-BuUsana, | ^ ; ^^^^ ^^^^^^. j,^ 
Bulis:sana, j 

thrashing: siyabulisaiin fi/ia, we help one 

another in thrashing. 

uku-BULA, V. t. To declare one's sentiments 

freely, as a young couple in respect to each 

other; to confess immorality: bula! i.e. 

.confess your incest, is said to circumcised 



BU 

boys when they heal slowly, in which case 

they are understood to have been guilty of 

impurity with relatives; bula! confess your 

incest, is said to a woman in child-bed and 

to her husband, when the child refuses to 

take the breast, which according to their 

superstition is caused by the man or woman 

having been unfaithful in heart at least; 

mbeteni abide, beat her that she may confess; 

tizibide iigokwake, he or she has confessed 

himself or herself guilty ; umfazi ivake wazi- 

bida, his wife confessed herself guilty, (not 

to be confounded with wazibida, she gave 

birth to her first child). Ukubida was limited 

formerly to confessing incest, it is now 

extended to confession of impurity, even 

dreams about the im-Pundtdu, etc. 

u-Biilo, 11. 5. Confession of incest. 

um-Bul3, n. 6. Formerly this word was 

limited to incest, but is now extended 

almost to all impurity; an inordinate 

desire ; fornication. 

uku-Bulela, v. Lit. to manifest the mind 

to, i.e. to give thanks, express gratitude 

for a favour: nddibidele hiye ilizwi, I thank 

him for the word. Phr. akiihidelwa kaoayo, 

thanks are not recorded to the living but 

to the dead. 

isi-Bufelo, 71. 4. An expression of gratitude, 

the gift by which gratitude is expressed. 

u-Bule|a,.5. I Thanksgiving. 
um-Bulelo, . 6. ) ^ t. 

uku-Buleleka, v. To be thanked for, 
worthy of thanks, 

Bulelela, v. To thank for or on behalf 
of another for favours bestowed: ndiya- 
mlndelela, I return thanks for him. 

Bulelisa, v. To cause or make one to 
thank. 

Bulisa, V. (a) To greet or salute: ukuba 
babidislle kiisasa, barigabi sabidisa emini, 
when they have greeted in the morning, 
they may no more greet in day-time, (b) 
To make, cause, force to confess incest 
by beating. 

isi-BuIiso, n. 4. An expression of greeting. 

u-Bulisp, n. 5. I Greeting, saluting. 

um-Buhso, . 6. j ^' ^ 

uku-Bulisana, v. To greet mutually. 

Bulisela, v. To give greetings for an- 
other: tindibtilisclc kuye, gwQ my greetings 
to him, remember me to him. 

Bulisisa, v. To cause to greet. 

Bulisisana, v. To cause to greet each 
other. 



47 



BU 



uku-BULALA, v. t. n. 
murder, a'so used oi'iiri 
ter and of !e,;;il and 
to cause pain or injiu" 
to destroy, break in pi 



biihr^m 



use : 



';:tIako 



To kili 

lediiatedslau-h- 

ilable Iiomicide; 

llict grievously ; 

, render unfit for 
bula'a, my head pains me; 
srbcnzii, I hurt niyscif by 



1 liU 



iti 



eat): 



himself too mach ( 



3. A murderei 



iidazibuhila i/gokus. ih' 
liard working; ihi:!!i 
the sun killed all th 
iiyozihidalj, he exert: 
in vain. 

um-Bulali, ;?. I. 
im-Bulali bantu, //. 
isi-Bulala-mntu, ;/. 

slayer, assassin, destroi'er. 
im-Bula!o, ;/. 3. Murder; (expresses all 

meanings of the verb). 
isi-Bulalo, ;/. 4. Any magical instrument 

of death; the same as nhu-Ti. 
um-Bulawa, u. I. A murdered one. 
i-Bulawo. . 2. ( p .,. _,,.,,,, ,^,,., 
im-Bulawo, //. 3. i ' "^"^^'^'' -'^- 

slaughter, caused through charms. 
isi-Biilawo, ;/. 4. The supposed cause of 

sickness or murder through incantaiion 

or charms. 



:uiother. 



ii-Bulavi'o, ;/. 5. M. 




iiku-Bulalana, i'. 1 




Bulaieka, 7'. T 




injured; to be ex' 




am exhausted ; I . 




is gone. 




im-BuIaleko, v. 3. 


LLboai 


uku-Bu!alekela, v. 


To lab 


Bu!a!ela. v. lo !; 


:i!l for < 


Iwa and w.iluhiw: 


':l:< ' /'. 


for us; 'iv,-;l':ihvi\ 


kca .-. 


killerl at King Wi: 


ii's. Tov 


-Bulalisa, %k To 


cause t 



cause to be pat to death. 

Bulalisisa, v. To car.s,e to be put to 
death. 
j-Bulawa, n. 2. A p'ant, Sebaea crassuiaefo- 

lia, C. & Siii., used for snake-bites and 

stitches. 
isi-Biiielo. isi-BuIo. see ukii-Buhi. 
isi-Bulelo, isi Bnliso, u-Bulo etc. See id-u- 

Bula. 
i-BULORO, ;/. 3. A bridge. From Da, brug. 
im-Bulukudti, //. 3. A sudden charge or 

attack. 
i-BULUKWE, ;.'. 3. A pair of trousers; from 

Du. brock. 
uku-Bulula, V. I. To strip off. 
i-Bulu!u, //. 2. A specially thick puffadder 1 

(so called from its creejiiiig). 



BU 

, ukut'i-Buliilu, V. i. To undress; to put down 

ail one's clothes; to strip off all leaves from 

a twig; fig. to be thin, v/atery (food*, or 

small (beer). 

; im-BuIunibu!u, w. 3. A round globe-like 

substance, like the eyeball. 
im-BuIunga, ;.'. 3. A ball made of soft 
material, such as cow dung, or ground 
maize; a dumpling, pudding. 
uku-Buiisn^a, v. i. (a) To treat gently (a 
I child); to pat. (b) To overlook faults; to 
connive; to suffer evil to exist unchecked. 
um-BuIungi, ;/. I. One who treats gently, 

pats, or who v/inks at injustice. 
isi-Bu!ungo, ;/. 4. An act by which one 
treats a child gently, or approves or 
' over-looks faults. 

um-BuIungo, n. 6. Gentle treatment, pat- 
' ting; tacit approval of evil. 

isi-Eul>valwa, n. 4. An extended surface of 

tlaL rocks; see n-Lwahva. 
ukr.t'i-Bunia, v. i. To fall with a crash (a 
houoc) ; to fall with violence or on some- 
thin.;, to sit on the bare ground; fig. to 
perii..li completely. 
uku-Bl.'MB'A, ;'. .'. pass, buiijwa. To work 
clay into shape, i.e. into earthen vessels; 
to mould bricks: -auibHudu'i imb'iza, he made 
pots; to work moist cattle-dung into balls; 
lig. iiikabi yalni'Ji'.'d zcziuyc, tlie ox was put 
between others; ukubiauba amaiiga, to form 
lies; Hknbiiuiba amanyala, to cover up the 
evil deeds of one. ;/. 8. uhiibiiiijiva kwetii, 
our frame. 

um-Bumbi, ,v. I. Potter. 
i-Bumba, //. 2. Clod-prepared pot-clay. 
im-Bumba, ;/. 3. (a) An unshapen mass: 
aiiichlo ak'j aiidibona iidiscyitiibuniba, Thine 
eyes did see my substance, yet being 
imperfect. 

(b) Dung near a h'.it consisting of pieces 
which h::' , " \'.ssivcly applied to 

the bo(f. ill for the purpose 

of remo . s 
im-Bumba yar.ianyama, ;.'. 3. The scrap- 
ings from the ir.side of the skin, from 
which all forms of snuff-boxes are made; 
as phrase: a ball of scrapings, i.e. unity 
is strength. 
uku-Bumbana, v. To be united with each 

other; to love 0110 another heartily. 
Buiiibela, v. To shape for ; to cover v.'hat 
is bad by putting the good around it; to 
shield one by gathering around him. 
isi-Bumbu, ;/. 4. Mens veneris. 



48 



BU 

im-BumbuIu, n. 3. Any round thing, shaped 
like a ball; a bullet; a round fruit, as an 
apple; amabuinbuln ainehlo, eyeballs; fig. the 
case which in some fruits contains the seed 
a peremptory order, or the essence of a 
thing to which the attention is directed 
nantso-ke imbumbiilu endininlkayo, mhani nayo, 
there is the order I give you, depart with it. 

uku-Biimbuta, v. i. (a) To beat (cattle) hard 
with. Siwin-Duku. (b) A\\\e.Ato uk.i-Bavibata: 
to strike gently, generally with a flat sur- 
face, as a heap of earth with a spade to 
give it an even surface ; or a child with the 
open hand to quiet it, to make it sleep; 
hence to appease, soothe, conciliate. 

Bum in i, adv. Lately; see i-Mini. 

ukut'i-Bumtse, v. i. To stand firmly, either 
lit. or fig. 

uku-BUNA, V. ?. To fade, wither, flag, droop: 
amagqabi abunile, the leaves are withered. 
ira-Bune, n. 3, Sweet-cane, apples or other 
fruit which, having been put away for a 
time in a suitable place, becomes softer 
and sweeter. 
uku-Bunisa, *. To cause to fade, make to 
wither. 

um-Bundane, n. 6. The cut-worm, a grub 
that destroys young maize when sprouting. 

um-Bund!u, n. 6. A young dog, which cannot 
yet follow the old ones; dimin. umbundlivane, 
a dog about se ven days old. 

um-Bund(i, ?/. 6. Any raised part on the 
floor, espec. the circular raised border or 
edge of the fire-place; recently used for 
threshhold, step; dimin. um-bundwarta. 

i-BunduIana, ;/. 2. A slight ascent. (See 
in-Duli). 

Bunga, V. prefix, 7 cl. sing, of Potent mood: 
ubuninyama bungapela, darkness may end. 

2. Pres. tense 7 cl. sing, of ukiiSga (a) 
and (b). 

3. Aiixil. 7 cl. sing, of Condit. mood: ubu- 
tataka bako bunga wonakalisa lomsebenzi, your 
laziness would spoil this work. 

4. A'^^. verb. pref. 7 cl. sing, of dependent 
and relat. sentences: palaza ntyivala tikuze 
bungasehva, pour out the beer that it may 
not be drunk; wandibonisa^iibubele obiinga- 
telekiyo, he showed me kindness which cannot 
be^expressed ; andof ConJit. mood: obuboini 
tigebtingalahlwa, this life should not be 
thrown away. 

i-Bunga, 11. 2. Rotten wood; fig. an old, 
done-up man. 
G 49 



BU 

uku-B'UNQA, V. i. To come together; to 
consult one another in secret council, to 
take secret council together. 
i-Bunga, n. 2. Council of a chief or of a 
district; private consultation; hence. 
Board: ibiinga lesU'ili, Divisional Council. 
i-Bungane, H. 2. (a) Buzz, secret talk; a 
degree of madness; 2t\50=^i-Bunga. (b) 
General name for beetles; a large beetle 
which makes a buzzing sound when fly- 
ing: ndifike kulila ibungane, I arrived 
when there was no one at home, when 
the only sound was the droning of the 
beetle. 
uku-Bungisa, v. To cause to hold a secret 
council. 
um-Bungashe, n. 6. Medicinal plant for colds 
and coughs, Lichtensteinia interrupta E. 
Mey. 
uku-Bungca, (a) v. i. To escape alone under 
very dangerous circumstances: mna ndibii- 
ngce ngamabonandenzile, I have escaped 
through great efforts; to pass unobserved, 
(b) V. t. Of a man or dog, to be the first to 
reach the game which has been shot: 
ivayibiivgca imbabala, he reached the antelope 
first; to take away what another has shot 
without telling him. 

Bungcabungca, v. To escape successive- 
ly, as one who evades several enemies. 
Bunge, Neg. verb. pief. 7 cl. sing, (a) of 
Potent, mood: ubukosi bunge- (fr. abunge-) 
delwa, the chieftainship may not be despised, 
(b) Before, ka, ko, and na : beza bungekafiki 
ubusiiku, they came before nightfall; ndalala 
pcrntsi bungeko ubutongo, I lay down without 
sleeping; akuko butyebi buiigenakupela, there 
are no riches which do not come to an end. 
um-Bungela, . l. One who does not reside 
at a chief's village. 

Bungela, n. 2. A common man, not a chief 
or councillor, one who has not served at 
court. 
uku-Bungeze!a, v. i. To wag its tail, as a 
dog manifesting pleasure at meeting its 
owner; to fawn; to entertain joyfully or 
hospitably; to receive kindly by showing 
pleasure in meeting a friend. 
u-Bungezelo, n. 5. Friendliness, attention, 

politeness, 
i-BungezeIwano,.2 I ^^ j f^j^^_ 
u-Bungezelwano, n. 5. j 
liness, pleasure on meeting after a long 
separation. 



BU 

isi-Bungu, ti. 4. A kind of earth maggot 

which bites; a mite found in beer, produced 

from the egg of ii-Bdngempandeni. 
um-Bungu, h. 6. Tree maggot found in dry 

wood; dimin. um-Buugivana. 
ukut'i-Bungubungu, v. i. To dangle, wave. 

uku-Bunguzela, v. To creep like a cat, or 

with a wriggling motion like a snake. 

ukut'i-Bungubungu, v. i. To grow quickl}^ 

(child, cloud). 

i-Bungubiingu, n. 2. A tall, sturdy, young 
person who is still growing. 

isi-Bungu, n. 4. A young woman whose 

breasts are protuberant; dim. isihiingwa- 

zana, a girl of about twelve years, whose 

breasts are just forming. 

i-Bunguza,'. 2. A cudgel with a large head 

and short handle, a knobkerrie with a large 

knob for throwing at game. 
im-Bunguzulu, n. 3, Anything incomparably 

valuable. 
uku-Buntsha, v. i. To go or wander about 

for nothing ; to be a loafer. 
izi-Bunu, n. A. pi. The posteriors or seat; 

as adj. : steep. 
um-Bunu, . 6. Euphem. for iim-Nqundu. 

um-Bunu wenyat?, . 6. Euphem. name 
for the tree um-Nqundu u 
ukut'i-Bunyu, "^ 
uku-Bunya, ( 

uku-Bunyula, 
uku-BunyuluIa 

the bark of a tree, or as the skin when burnt ; 

to strip, tear off the clothes or weapons 

from a fallen foe; to plunder: izihauge zain- 

hiinyiila inguho, the robbers stripped him of 

his clothes. 

uku-BunyuIisa, v. To cause to strip, 
plunder, etc. : zvazilmnyulisa, he made him- 
self a prey. 
i-Bunzi, n. 2. Forehead; loc. ehnnzi, on the 

forehead; fig. a precursor. 
uku-B'UQA, V. i. To destroy or trample down 

in eating, as cattle in a garden; to follow 

in the track of those of a party or army 

who preceded; fig. to act rigorously or 

harshly, unjustly or hurriedly; to make 

havoc, as one possessed of power and 

authority; uynsihiiqa, he writhes; iiyazibuqa- 

huqa, he wallows. 

ura-Buql, u. I. A robber. 

um-Buqwa, //. I. One ruined, wrecked. 

T.^il'ql^l'.'s: ] Destruction; that which is 
done or said unjustly by a powerful 
opponent. 



> V. t. To skin clean off, as 



BU 

uku-Buqeka, v. To become hard, solid by 
trampling ; to be destroyed : imihlaha uhu- 
gckile, the land is beaten hard; intsinii 
ihuqekile, the garden is destroyed. 
Buqisa, v. To cause to trample down; 
to drive the cattle into the fields already 
harvested, which is always done as soon 
as the latest corn has been removed; fig. 
to hasten ; to cause to make haste. 
im-Buqu, n. 3. Hasty, eager search ; rashness. 
uku-Buquza, v. i. To be in such a hurry 
or haste, as to prevent the efficient 
performance of an action or enterprize. 
Buquzisa, v. To cause perturbation 
from a hasty action. 
ubu-Bufu, M. 7. Stealing cattle from neigh- 
bours and slaughtering them. They must be 
slaughtered and eaten, otherwise they are 
not iibu-Buhi. 
i-Buruma, ti. 2. One who eats a great deal, 
even raw meat; one with a big belly; an 
improvident man who goes about expecting 
to obtain food from other people without 
exerting himself. 
uku-Bufuza, V. i. To vomit or belch; to 

speak loudly, ^ngv\\y; = ukH-Bdroza. 
uku-Busa, Caus.form of uhi-Biika. To wait on 
a chief or king by personal service, which 
is a great honour among Kafirs; to serve a 
superior unconditionally: ndahusa kuye, or 
ndamhusn, I served him (the chief); also, 
espec. in Zulu, to rule : inkosi iyahiisa, inkunzi 
iyahusa. 

um-Busi, w. I. Servant at court; an un- 
conditional servant; one who serves with- 
out having made any previous engage- 
ment, either as to time or wages. 
um-Buso, n. 6. Court service, unconditional 

service; religion; also the Go/ernment. 
uku-Busela, v. To serve for one or in a 
particular place. 
uku-Busha. ^ 

Bushula-z6, ' . ^ ,. , 

-Bushuza-ze. { " ' To go naked. 
Bushuzela-z6, j 

Bushuiisa, v. To make naked, strip, 

deprive, plunder. 

\m.-Bushumhixshu, = im-B]shimhishi. 

uku-BU T'A, V. i. To gather, collect together: 

huta atnahashe, get the horses together; huta 

izikwe'iu ezkvileyo, pick up, glean, harvest 

the ears which have fallen down; tikuhuta 

amaloiigo, to collect dry dung for fuel. {Phr. 

wsuke abnte inca yonke, he gathers all kinds 

Qf grass, i.e. he is too stupid to understaod. 



50 



BU 

the differences between things, v. i. To 
lie down together, as cattle : inkomo zihutile, 
the cattle have come together and lie 
comfortably together ; to congregate : ahantu 
hayahtita enkosini, the people are gathering 
and sitting comfortably together at the 
chief's. 
um-Buti, n. I. A gatherer, collector: 

utnhuti wonikelo, or woqolo, or werafu, a 

tax gatherer. 
i-Butd, . 2. Things gathered, a company 

of people, a regiment or squad of soldiers ; 

a flock, herd of cattle formed or produced 

in one season. 
u-Butd, . 5. The work or act of gathering. 

um'-Bu^t6/.\l ^" assembly for social or 
other intercourse: indawo yemhuto, market 
place. 

uku-Butana, v. To come, assemble, stay 
together. 

Buteka, v. To be fit for being collected; 
intaka zihutekile, the birds are gathered 
together, ti. 8. iikuhutek kwamahashe, a 
gathering of horses. 

Butela, V To gather, collect, congregate 
for, at or about, in a special place: 
hahutela kuye, they came crowding near 
or about him. Phr. uyabutela ahandakanye, 
he gathers (indiscriminately) and joins 
together, i.e. he makes no distinction be- 
tween things that differ, he is very stupid. 

i-Butela, ?/. 2. A gathering or congregating. 

im-Butelo, n. 3. The place of gathering. 

uku-Butelana. v. To gather together in 
one place. 

Butlsa, V. Applied to cattle which are 
reduced by poverty and hunger, and are 
no longer able to rise from the place 
where they lie down or have fallen: 
inJt.ihi ibiitisile, lit. the ox has gathered 
itself together, i.e. it has lain down to die. 
To gather: iiyihuttsa pina imihlambi? 
where dost thou gather the flocks .' 

Butisana, v. To lie down together to die. 

Butuma, v. To lie down on the belly, 
as cattle; to sit low putting the arms 
between the knees, or having them rest- 
ing on th' thighs and the chin on the 
knees; to lie down under a burden, not 
bearing up. 

im-Butumbutu, w. 3. A conflux of up- 
roarious people ; uproar, confusion, as in 
a disorganized army. 
u-BuTi, n. '. Brother, a title of respect given 

to the younger men (from the Dutch.) 



BU 

im-ButAsana, . 3. A stumpy youth: imbutu- 

sana yenkwenkwe, a short stumpy boy; 

imhiiiusana yomfana, a stumpy young man. 
ukut'i-Bututu, V. i. To suddenly crouch or 

fall down : ingonyama ite-bututu, the lion has 

crouched. 
uku-Butya, v. i. To seek or track unsuccess- 
fully; to look unavailingly for work; to 

imitate. 

i-Butye, n. 2. A talkative, nonsensical 
person, whose speech cannot be under- 
stood: pi. unusual sounds. 

uku-Butyabutya, n. To be a busybody 
without effecting anything; to act with- 
out vigour. 

Butyana, v. To struggle or co itend with 
each other. 
im-Butye, n. 3. Dying in great numbers. . 
ukut'i-B'UTYU, v. i. Of a sore, to burst: 

isilonda site-butyu, the tumour has burst. 

Butyubiityu, adj. Soft from rotting: izi- 
qhmo zibutyubutyu, the fruit is soft and 
rotten from being carried. 

i-Butyubutyu, n. 2. An inefficient person, 
acting without vigour; an unlucky, un- 
fortunate person ; dimin. ibutyiilmiywana. 

ubu-Butyubiityu, . 7. Inefficiency. 

uku-Butyuka, v. To be opened up, burst 
up: isilonda sain sibutyukile, my sore has 
burst. 

Butyula, v. To rub the skin up and down 
the back of the fingers till it comes off; 
to work something between the fingers 
and the thumb, so as to open it up; to 
break up from inflammation. 

Butyulana, v. To rub the skin on the 
back of each other's fingers, as children 
do, professing to bring a bean out of 
them; to work in something with the 
fingers : ndimhle kakulu, andinako tihibiityu- 
lana nodaka, I am very pretty, I cannot 
be kneading mud. 

Butyuza, v. To search for a missing 
thing by scraping the ground with the 
feet; to muddle; to miss in catching 
an ox with a riem; to be bereft of 
children, =^M/c//;:y^ yinzalo. 
im-Buwa, a plant; see i-Mbhva. 
uku-Buxa, V. t. To dabble in mud; mus' 

ukuhiixa udaka, do not tramp in the mud. 
ukut'i-Buxe, v. i. To be fixed, stand firm, 

both lit. and fig. : isibonda sile-buxe, the pole 

stands firm. 
i-Buxenge, n. 2. One who is poor, utterly 

destitute. 



51 



BU 

uku-BUYA, V. i. (a) To go back, return: 
uhuye phia ? whence did you return ? ttdibuye 
kuye, I returned from him; ivahuya umva^ 
he went back, turned his back; fidahiiya 
umva, I turned backwards-- uku-Hlcfila. (b) 
To come again, to repeat an action, us. as 
adverb "again", in negative sentences "no 
more": ndabuya tidatl, again I said; ihashe 
libuye lafiiiiyamva, the horse has been found 
again ; ndohuya ngani, I shall come past you 
and to you; akuyi kuha sahuye uvtiye, thou 
shalt no more rejoice. Phr. ukuhuya tigezi- 
tende, to revert, to go back to what was 
said or done before; ukuhuya nocango, to 
close the door partially, i.e. to retire; isiknni 
si'buya nomkwezeli, the firebrand returns with 
him who fires it, i.e. he falls into his own 
snare, the biter is bitten. 
isi-Buya, w. 4. (a) A person who is unde- 
cided or in doubt as to what course he 
should take: hasisibuya, they are closed 
in, at a loss; lonintu nstike zvasibuya, this 
person is bewildered or perplexed, (b) 
Em. The enclosure to which anything 
returns from the Held, = isi-Baya. 
u-Buyo, n. 5. Return. 
ubu-Buya, n. 7. Change: unobuhuyj, is said 
of a man whose wrath subsides, who is 
soon reconciled. 
i-Buyamb6, n. 2. Change (e.g. from a 
season of drought and scarcity to a season 
of rain and plenty) : andinabuyambd, I do 
not change, 
uku-Buyabuya, v. To go forward and 
backward repeatedly; to return frequent- 

ly- 

Buyela, c To return to or for, as to 
the house formerly occupied: ndabuycla 
kuye, I returned to him ; ndambuyela lonintu, 
I returned for this man's benefit or com- 
fort; to go back for a thing again. 

Buyelana, r. Lit. to return to one 
another; to be reconciled to one 
another; to settle mutually; to tran- 
quillize one another: hebexahene, ke ngoku 
sebebuyelenc, they were bad friends with 
each other, but now they are again on 
good terms. 

Buyelela, r. To return on the same day 
to the place from which one started. 

Buyisa, v. To make to come or go back, 
or cause to return, etc. ; to giv^e, bring or 
carry back: buyisa izembe lam, bring back 
my hatchet; fig. to restore, repay: mak :- 
yibuyise lonto abcyitatile, he must restore 
that thing which he had taken away. 



BU 

um-Buyisi. w. i. A restorer ; one who turns 
a person back. 

uku-Buyisana, v. To cause one another to 
return ; to appease each other. 

Buyisela, r. To cause to return to the 
same place; to restore to; to recompense, 
repay for or to: wabuyisekva endaweni 
yake, he was restored to his place, office. 

um-Buyiseli, n. I. One who makes re- 
compense, restitution. 

isi-Buyiselo, n. 4. Recompense, restitution. 

uku-Buyiselana, r. To restore to each 
other: behebuyiselene inkomo ezitinjkveyo, 
they gave back on each side the cattle 
taken in war. 

Buyiselela, r. To restore to: ndinibuyi- 
selela okweminyaka eyadliwa zinkmnbi, I 
restore unto you the years that the locusts 
have eaten. 

Buyekeza, r. (a) To do a thing over 
again; to make or let it go through the 
same process, as corn passed twice 
through the mill ; hence, to improve. 

(b) To give an equivalent; "to requite 
evil; to compensate, repay: tidobuyekeza 
uJ>ubcle babo, I must recompense their 
goodness ; ningabuyekezi uhubi ngohubi, do 
not render evil for evil. 

im-Buyekezo, . 3. ^ 

isi-Buyekezo, n. 4. > Repetition, requital, 

um-Buyekezo, n. 6. ) 
recompense. 

uku-Buyabuyekeza, v. To re-iterate. 

uku-Buyekezela, v. To requite. 
u-Buyi, , I. A large species of wasp, 

Philanthus, that runs about on the veld. 
u-Buyomva, n. 5. (from uku-Buyaand um-Va). 

Going back morally: tibuyomra lomzi onisu- 

ndu yyona nto ibalulekileyo ngalamaxeshn, 

the retrogression of the native people is the 

most marked movement in these days, 
uku-Buza, caus. form of uku-Bula. To ask, 

interrogate, inquire, investigate, examine, 

question, catechize: buz' indaba, ask the 

news; buz' ityala, investigate the guilt; 

ndambuza, I asked him, is stronger than 

niabuza kuye, I inquired from him. 

um-Buzi, n. I. One who questions; an 
inquirer. 

im-Buzi, /;. 3. One who, when a person is 
accused of witchcraft, asks the reasons 
on which the is-Anuse grounds the 
accusation. 

im-Buzo, ;/. 3. Questioning, catechizing. 

um-Buzo, ;;. 6. The question which is 
under discussion, or that respecting which 
information is sought; a question, query. 



52 



BU 

uku-Buzana, v. To question one another;} 
inquire of each other. I 

""^"^ll^ " ^ .,; I Mutual interro- | 
imi-Buzwano, n. 6. pL J 

gation. I 

uku-Buzela, v. To inquire for, or after, or j 

in behalf of: undibuzele inani lelohashe, 

inquire for me the price of that horse ; 

yiya kusibuzela komkulu, upate nalenjomhe, 

go and inquire on our behalf, taking 

with you also this summons. 
Buzisa, V. To make inquiry, of the ' 

doctors or from idols; ask often, here 

and there. 



BU 

i-Buzisa, n. 2. A catechist. 
uku-Buzisana, v. To make inquiry among 
each other: ekiihuzisaneni kwaho, while 
they questioned together. 
Buzisisa, v. To inquire etc. earnestly, 
diligently; to search out. 
im-Buzane, n. 3. Gnat, midge. 
i-Buzi. n. 2. A rat. 
isi-Buzi, n. 4. The rat kind. 
im-Buzl, n. 3. The kind of goats originally 

belonging to the Kafirs. 
uku-Buzubala, v. i. from uku-Buza and uku- 
Bal.i. To ask and write down the in- 
formation obtained. 



r^ represents the dental click, produced by 1 ukut'i-Cabakatsha, v. i. To step or jump 
^ pressing the tip of the tongue against j over. 
the upper front teeth and gums and drawing u-Cabanga, n. 5. The pit of the stomach ; the 



it suddenly away with a smack. It appear: 
in seven combinations: 

(I) The simple clicks, as in camagu! and 
(2) its aspirated torm c, as in eosi! 

(3) The nasalised form of the simple click, 
written nc, as in cence. Nouns with the 



end of the breastbone ; fig. anguish, anxiety: 
unocabanga, he has fear from conscious guilt. 
uku-Cabasa, v. i. To walk slowly, softly, in 
fe.ir or in valour or in pride. 
Cabacabasa, v. To walk constantly in 
fear, etc. 



prefix in, formed from verbs beginning with um-Cabo, n. 6. A plot of ground recently 
c make inc: as uk.iclta, tncito. I cleared of grass and underwood ; a clearing. 

(4) The voiced click, in which a g sound uku-CACA, v. i. To be clear, to clear up, 
is heard, written gc, as in gcoba. open to view : ibala licacile, the colour is 

(5) The nasalised form of the voiced distinct ; intaka icacile ekudubuleni, the bird 
click written tigc, as in ngcwele. Nouns with can be clearly seen for firing at; to be clear 
the prefix in-, formed from verbs begin- in one's talk: iicacile ekuteteni, he speaks 
ning with c, make ing:-: as uhicinga, ingci- clearly. Alv. ngohicacileyo, clearly, plainly. 
nga. The plurals of nouns of class 5, whose Cacisa, v. To enlighten, make clear, 
stems begin with c, also take ingc-, as isi-Cac!s3, n. 4. A clearing up. 

u-cango, ing caugo. uku-Cacisela, v. To explain, instruct, re- 

(6) The liquid click, in which an sound late, narrate for or to, in a clear way. 

is heard, written nc as in nceda. uku-C'ACA, v. i. To be convalescent: lomntu 

(7) The aspirated form of the liquid click, uyacaca, this person is getting better, is 
written nc as in inch. improving in health. 

Ca! Interj. Em. ^o\=Hayi. u-Caca, n. 7. Convalescence: waba hucaca, 

in-Ca, n. 3. Grass. Phr. ndihkli pezu kwenca, he was or became convalescent. 

I have the menses ; cf. uni Zi. \ uku-Cacisa, v. To heal : inlUziyo evuyileyo 

izi-Ca, n. 4. pl.= in-Ciyo. \ iyalungisa icac'iss, a merry heart does good 

um-Caba, n. 6. Em. Kafircorn boiled and I like medicine. 

ground, eaten dry or with milk or beer in-Caca, n. 3. That which is green, unripe : 
poured over it. ^ inqolowj. encaca, green wheat. 

ukut'i-Caba, v. i. To be flat, as a flat stone or uku-Cacamba, v. i. To burst open, as a ripe 
the top of a table ; of a woman, to squat on bean-pod. 

the ground. ubu-Cacambela, , 7. Love for gaudiness, 

isi-Caba, n. 4. Any thin flat thing, as a \ show, attire, luxury, 
plank, cake, or pane of glass. I i-Cacambisa, n. 2. A swell, fop, boaster. 

53 



uku-Cacamisa, v. t. To hold awhile; to adopt ' ukut'i-Caku, 



as a temporary expedient or substitute. 
uku-Cacateka, v. i. To shiver with cold or 

from fear of um-Shologu ; to shake with 

laughter. 
i-Cacawe, n. 2. A woman's modesty apron, 

made of the small ends of iim-Kwinti ; see 

isi-Dimba. 
um-Cacazo, w. 6. The hollow running down 

the spine on the back. 
uku-Cada, v. t. To roast coffee; to fry meat, 

etc : amaqanda ayacadzva, the eggs are fried. 
in Cagu, II. Z. = i Nca'iH. 
ukut'i-Cagucagu, v. i. To walk proudly; to 

strut. 
uku-Caka, v. t. To divide out food to a 

large number; to give a liberal helping of 

food ; to serve properly, 
isi-Caka, . 4. Orig. one who served the 

chief by bringing the food to his mouth, 

and who might be employed in any 

responsible duty; now, a servant in its 

widest meaning; fern, isicak.ikazi. 

isi-Cakazana, w. 4. A servant girl. 

ubu-Caka, n. 7. Service. 
isa-Caka, >i. 4. An edible tuber. 
isi-Cakadi, . 4. (a) A medicinal plant, used 

for women in childbirth, and for opening 

the bowels of a newly-born infant, (b) The 

dish in which this medicine is kept, (c) An 

egg left in a nest after hatching is completed. | 
uku-Cakalatela, v. i. To go gently in a row. ' 
uku-Cakasa, v. t. To disdain, scorn, contemn. 
ukut'i-Cakata, v. i. To leap up, as a locust; to 

hop, as a bird; to step from stone to stone 

in crossing a stream; to arrive, appear. 

i-Cakata, n. 2. The Cape Honeysuckle, 
Tekoma capensis Lindl. 

uku-Cakatisa, v. (a) To bring a thing into 
a position where it will readily fall or 
break, (b) To be nearly ten, that is nine. 

i-Cakatiso, . 2. I ^. ^i,,akatiso le- 
isi-Cakatiso, . 4. ) 
fikomo, I have nine cows. (A tribal word.) 



V. t. To pick up with the 



ukii-Cakula, 

point of a stick; to dip from the surface of 

water, etc.; fig. to make light of; to have 

no respect for. 

i-Cakulo, n. 2. A periwinkle. 

um-Cakulo, w. 6. Em. A drinking vessel, 
made of a calabash, = h?-C<?/'^. 
uku-Cala, v. t. To draw in the sides: lomntu 

ticaLle, this man has his sides drawn in, or 

is pinched in appearance. 
i-Cala, 11. 2. Side: ecaleni lake, or ecaleni kiiye, 

on his side ; ecaleni kwake, beside him ; tige- 

cala lasehinene, on the right side; ngecala 

lake, on his part ; wahamba cala-nye, he 

missed a part of the ground he should have 

gone over, either from partiality or laziness, 

or any other cause. Dimin. icalana. 
bu-Cala, Adv. wahamba bncala, he walked 

aside ; wamtl-bucala, he led him aside, kept 

aloof. 
uku-Calabisa, v. i. To swagger in walking; 

to go on tiptoe, or to lift a thing with the 

points of the fingers. 
uku-Calamba, v. i. To sit or stand in proper 

order, in ranks or rows, as at a feast, or in 

church, or on parade. 

Calambela, v. To sit or stand in order 
etc., in a certain place, or for a certain 
purpose. 

Calambisa, v. To place, seat in order, 
as at a native repast, etc. 
inCaluba, n. 3.~iNca/uba. 
u-CALUCALU, n. 5. False distinction, lies. 

ubu-Calucalu, . 7. Invidious talk, prattle, 

gossip. 

uku-CalucaluIa, ] ^ distinguish be- 
Calula, 3 

tween things; to make distinction; to 

discern. 
ing-Calulo, n. 3. Discerning, distinguishing. 
uku-Calucaluza, v. To prattle; to be 

loquacious. 
uku-Caluza, v. To detail a thing minutely. 
ubu-CaJuza, v. y.=ubu-C :lucalii. 



Good luck; an acquisition 



um-Cako, . 6. A length or width of skin or 

cloth: iiigubo inemicako cmitalu, the dress is inCaluka, . '^.^i-Ncaluka. 

made of three widths; a piece or strip of | i.Cam, ;/. 2. ) 

land, a clearing. ' ubu-Cam, . 7.) 

in Cakuba. w. i.^i Ncakuha. I which one never thought of, which came 

i-Cakucaku, n. 2. A well dressed, affected, by chance, accidentally, fortuitously, rarely. 

showy person; a good-looking, embellished | uku-C'AMA. v. i. Euphem. To void urine. 

thing. um-Camo, n. 6. Urine. 

ubu-Cakucaku, w. 7. Showiness in dress and uku-Camela, v. To void urine on or in a 

walking. ' special place or vessel. 

54 



CA 

CAMAQUI Interj. Be appeased or pacified! 
be propitious! This is a religious word, 
though like our own terms its use is not 
restricted to religion. 

1. It is addressed to one afflicted with 
severe illness, the affliction being supposed 
to be sent by his ancestors in displeasure 
at something done or left undone, es- 
pecially the latter. People entering his hut 
exclaim: "Camagu maktibe-hele f ma- 
kuhe-cosi! mayikukangele iininyanya yakowenii 
neyamatshawe." i.e. "let there be propitious- 
ness ! let there be clemency or alleviation ! 
let the departed of your people and chiefs 
look upon you ! " In extreme cases they add 
"no-Qattnta makakukangele," "let Qamata 
also look at you." Some say " r^rjv, " and 
others say " Tixo," instead of "Qamata." 
When the three words mentioned here are 
used in regard to the sick they amount to a 
prayer for the sick with the view of obtain- 
ing his recovery. 

2. It is addressed to an officiating 
witch-doctor. They exclaim: "Camagu 
geza!" "be appeased or propitious, frenzied 
one!" In such a case we would say in 
English " I beg your pardon," or " bear with 
me," because it is used when searching or 
unpleasant questions are about to be put to 
the witch-doctor. 

3. In trying to conciliate a displeased 
chief, they exclaim: "Camagu, mlile! 
akuhlanga ftitoj ingehlanga!" or {lulo or lubi) 
lungehlanga, i.e. be pacified, beautiful one ; 
nothing or no evil has happened (to you) 
that has not happened (to others before 
you). In common language ca/iiagu .' is the 
same as taru ! 

i-Camagu, n. 2. The witch-doctor officiat- 
ing at a propiatory sacrifice ; a mediator. 

ubu-Camagu, n. 7. Divination, using of 
charms; propitiation. 

uku-Camagusha, v. To propitiate, appease 
by a sacrifice the departed ancestors who 
are supposed to have caused a person's 
sickness. 

um-Camagushi, n. I. Propitiator. 

ancestor by sacrificing^ an animal on his 
behalf; such a proceeding is often con 
sidered necessary in order to put one's 
house right; propitiation. 
uku-Camagushela,uTopropitiatefor,asis 
done by the people or witch-doctor for 
the sick person. 



CA 

isi-Camagushelo, n. 4. Used for the mercy- 
seat. 
u-Camagushelo, ?;. 5. Propitiation: Yena 
ulucatnagiishelo Iwezono setu, He is the 
propiation for our sins. 
uku-Camanga v. i. To form ideas or thoughts ; 
to conceive, think, consider, reflect, medi- 
tate. 

ffi"gl"' ,": 1} Thought, meditation. 

uku-Camba, v. t. To appoint, select, choose 

one from others for a court messenger, etc. 

isi-Cambacamba, n. 4. A person with a very 

big body; a corpulent person. 
u-Camba, w. 5. pi. ingcamia. A layer of 
stone or other material ; a stratum ; a row 
of soldiers or books. 

ukut'i-Catnbalala, v. To lie as cream on 

milk; to lie stretched out in a half drowsy, 

indolent manner. 

u-Cambalala, n. 5. A stratum, layer, bed. 

u-Cambu, n. 5. Cream. 

isi-Cambucambu, . 4. A person with a very 

small stomach. 
uku-Cambusa, %>. t. To cut a hole by piercing 

the ear; to open a blister or boil. 
i-Cami, . 2. Em. The sun. 
uku-Camngca, v. i. To speak by oneself 
secretly; to ponder, muse, meditate, specu- 
late. 

isi-Camngc3, . 4. Meditation, speculation. 
uku-Cana, v. t. To hit ths mark: iibuse 
jiyicaiiile, you just hit the mark. 
in-Cani, n. 3. A good marksman, or shot. 
uku-Canaba, v. t. To place over a fire or 
hot coals or in the sun; to roast; fig. to 
spread, expose in public. 
uku-Canca, v. i. To be in row> arranged 
in order, as stepping-stones; fij. to move 
about from place to place. 
Candisa, v. To place in rows, as stones; 
to arrange in order the corrugated iron 
sheets for a house, or the laths or props 
for a round hut; fig. to narrate in good 
order. 
Candisela, v. To arrange for: amasoldati 
acanciselwe td'ulwa, the soldiers are put 
in battle array. 
uku-Cancata, v. i. To step from one stone to 
another, or walk on a piece of wood lying 
horizontally across a river. 
um-Cancatd, n. 6. Stones placed for cross- 
ing a stream on ; a bridge; a path where 
the traveller has to step warily. 
in-Canda, . 3. = iNcanda. 



55 



CA 

uku-CANDA, V. t. To divide asunder, cleave, 
spit: Cauda iukuni, chop the wood; uku- 
caud' iimhia'ia, to sarvey; to pass through: 
tiddcanda ilizivc, I passed through the land. 
um-Candi, n. I. A hewer of wood; one 

who chops wood. 
um-Canda-tanib6, u. 6. A tree, Schmidelia 

decipiens Arii. 
uku-Candacanda, v. To divide, pass 
through: u'llanga olulizivc liica't hicandur 
yimilainbo, a nation whose land the waters 
divide. 
Candeka, v. To become split: ukuni 
lucaudekile, the wood is split; to be crack- 
ed: imb'iza icandekile, the pot is cracked. 
Candela, v. To split for, divide for, etc. 
See iim-Galagala. 

tcrnd'eVo/'^.'s. ) ^ ^^^^^^" ^''-^^'^^ f^ 

another. 
uku-Candlsa, v. To cause or help to split 
etc; to make to go through; to go 
through: br.candisa niseiiivulciii, they went 
even through rain. 
uku-Candise!a, v. To cause to pass through 
to. 

um-Cane, w. 6. A species of forest tree, 
Sclerocarya caffra Soiid. 

isi-Cangca, ;/. 4. An old, ragged sleeping 
mat; fig. anything worn out: umkonzi usisi- 
cangca, the servant is worn out, no longer 
fit for work; euphem. isicangsa sendlela, a 
loose woman. 

i-Cangci, ;/. 2. A cymbal, a piece of zinc 
sheeting. 

uku-Cangcisa, v. To put in a row; = H^.7- 
Cancisa. 

u-Cang3, ;/. 5. pi. ingcaugo. Door, that is the 
thing that closes, distinguished from um- 
Nyango, the doorway; fig. the clerk who 
shews one into the Magistrate's office. 

in-CanI, see iiku-Cana. 

um-Cani, ??. 6. The spike or point of grass. 

i-Canti, >i. 2. A fabulous snake of many 
colours, supposed sometimes to leave the 
water and fascinate a person, who becomes 
afterwards a doctor. It is said of such an 
one: iviecanli, he has the snake, or uhv'isa 
tigecaiiti, he is initiated by the snake. 

uku-Cantsa, v. I. To guess or make mention 
of a sweetheart's name. Word used for 
flirting purposes. 
Cantsisa, v. To cause to guess. 
Cantsisana, v. To guess mutually. 



CA 

u-Canzibe, . l. The large bright star 

Canopus, visible in the southern hemisphere 

in winter; the month of May is called eka- 

Caiizihe, and is the time for harvesting. 

uku-Capa, v. I. To make smooth, soft or 

slippery. 
ukut'i-C'AP'A, V. i. To touch delicately, to 
shine out upon or strike the first rays upon : 
ilanga Ui'i-capa ezintaheni, the sun strikes his 
rays on the mountains, just after rising 
fuliy in the morning; inipukaue ziti-capa, the 
flies cat little; ukut'i-capa czwini or ckuteteni, 
to say the correct thing, i.e. to hit the nail 
on the head; to pour a drop or two on 
anything; to drip, to rain in single drops 
when a shower is commencing. 
ukut'i-Capacapa, ~\ 
uku-Capacapaza, [ r= ukuti-Capa, 
Capaza, ) 

i-Capaza, ;/. 2. . Drop, blot, spot. Phr. 
ba'uviiacapaz' egazi, lit. they have drops of 
blooi, i.e. they wish to fight. Dimin. 
ica'sl'i^zatii't. 
uku Caj;azela. v. To drop upon: tiyandi- 
cijpaz 1 1 i'gatnanzi, he drops water on me, 
or ciuies water to drop on me; to blot, 
spot: abaiitu bacalshazelwa ligazi, the 
people are bespattered with blood. 
i-Capdti, //. 2. Chronic tenderness, or inflam- 
mation of the eyelids. 
ukut'i-CAP'U,^ 



i. To be squeamish; to 



Capucapu, . . 
uku-Capiika, ) 

nauseate, loathe; fig. to be offended, out of 

patience, annoyed, irritated, embittered. 

i-Capucapu, u. 2. A person of weak con- 
stitution, one who is squeamish; one who 
is easily offended, is weak and touchy, 
crabbed, sullen, peevish. 

isi-Capucapii . 4. | Peevishness, sullen- 

ubu-Capucapu, n. 7. 3 

n?ss, irritation; squeamishness: lints' iikii- 
ndijonga sciidibe ncsicopiicapu, don't stare 
at me, I am already getting sick. 

ing-Capuk>, /;. 3. Ill humour, chagrin, 
indignation. 

Capukela, v. pass, caishukdwa. To be 
offended at, displeased with; to have an 
aversion to (persons or things) ; to loathe, 
hate: nyamcapkkisa tunhlobo warn, ukuzc 
aidicapukidr, yoj cause my friend to be 
offended with me. 

Capukeiana, x'. To be offended atone 
another about something. 



CA 

Capukisa, v. pass, catshukisiva. To cause 
one to be offended; to annoy, trouble, 
irritate ; to provoke : nyandicapukisa, you 
irritate me. 

ing-Capukiso, w. 3. Any thing or person 
exasperating, enraging, exciting to anger ; 
provocation. 

uku-Capuklsana, v. To offend, etc., one 
another. 

Capukisela, v. To cause offence by in- 
stilling evil thoughts into the mind of 
one person towards another. 
uku-CAP'ULA, V. t. pass, catshulwa. To take 

part of the contents of a vessel, or bag, by 

dipping into it and taking some out : capiila 

ukudla emhizeni, take part of the food out 

of the pot ; Em . tiku Capma. 

Capulela, v. To take a part out for some 
one. 

Capulelana, v. To take" part out for one 
another. 

Capulisa, v. To cause or help to take 
out part. 

Capulisana, v. To help one another to 
take out. 
uku-Cafaza, v. i. To rustle like dry grass, 

leaves or branches, when trodden upon. 
in-Cafibe, ;/. 3. A plant, Withania somnifera, 

Dun. = iibu-Vimbe . 
in Casa, n. ^. = i-Ncasa. 
uku-C'ASA, V. U To oppose, differ form; to 

be against one : uyandicasa, he is against me. 

um-CasJ, n. I. Opponent. 

in-Caso, n. 3. Opposition. 

uku-Casana, v. To be against each other; 

to be contrary to: amasiko enu acasene 

nelizwi lika-Tixo, your usages are opposed 

to God's word. 

i-Casawe, n. 2. Venereal disease. 

ukut'i-Cas", v. i. To stand erect, exposed; of 

people, to spread themselves out in going 

with each other; or to look with eagerness 

and wonder at something. 
uku-Cata, v. t. To take out one or two 

animals from a number with the view of 

getting the rest to follow : iimcat'ilc, he has 



CA 

i-Cataza, v. 2. The Kafir cat, Felis ocreata 

cafra Desm. : licataza elinyawo mbini, he is a 

wild cat with two feet, i.e. he is a thief like 

the wild cat. 

uku-Catimla, v. i. Em. To 5\\me,-=tiku-Kazi- 

tnla. 
uku Catula, v. t. To walk defiantly, despise. 
i-Cawa, n. 2. Sunday; a religious meeting, 
gathering for prayer; itidlu yecawa, church; 
week : icawa egqitileyo, last week. 
in-Cawa, 71. i. = i-Ncawa. 
u-Cawucawu, w. 5. Unnecessary and in- 
vidious distinction ; see ii-Calucalu. 
uku-Cayita, =tiku-Ctvayita. 
uku-C'AZA, V. t. To comb the hair; to tug it 
fine : ocaze waiicamisa, who combed himself 
finely; umt'i ucazkvc, the tree has been 
stripped of its leaves; to make a line of 
incisions with the view of drawing blood; 
to make cuttings on the face, as some tribes 
do or did ; to cut a wound, to scarify, after 
a snakebite ; fig. to explain, make clear, ex- 
pound : licaze elozwi, explain that word. 
um-Cazl, . I. One who combs: umcazi 
wengubo, a fuller of cloth; one who 
explains: umcazi mteto, the. Attorney- 
General ; umcazi masiko, one who explains 
the customs. 
i-Caza, n. 2. Combed hair, or one with 

combed hair. 
in-Caza, . 3. A comb. 
in-Cazo, n 3. Explanation. 
uku-Cazana, v. To comb one another. 
Cazeka. v. To be combed away; to be 

thinned o.it by combing. 
ubu-Cazeka, n. 7. State of being thread 
bare, worn out : ingubo ibucazeka, the gar- 
ment is somewhat in shreds. 
uku-Cazela, v. To unravel, explicate, un- 
fold for. 
in-Cazelo, w. 3. Explanation to. 
uku-Cazelana, v. To comb; to explicate, 

explain to one another. 
Cazlsa, V. To help to comb ; to explicate 

etc. properly. 
Cazisisa, v. To pick very fine; to ex- 
plicate to the utmost. 



taken out his sweetheart sfrom a mimber ! uku-Cazucazulula, 1 ^,^^ ^^ ^^^^ feathers 
of girls sitting together. \ -^T^^^^^^^l ^^^^,^. gg. ,^ ,,,,,^1 the most 

intricate subjects, explain a mystery; to 



ukut'i-Cata, ] ^ y^ j. o^^ ^ little with 

uku-Cataza, 3 

care : catazn amasi, pour out the sour milk 
carefully; to pour or drop a little (medi- 
cine) on. 

Catazela, v. To pour out a little for one. 
H 57 



go into the most minute parts. 
uku-C'EBA, X'. /. pass, celywa. To shave the 
head; shear sheep, goats, etc. 
um-CebJ, . l. A shearer. 



CE 

um-Cebo, . 6. All the wool obtained at a 
shearing ; a fleece. 
in Ceba, . s. = i Nccba. 
uku-CEBA, V. t. To devise, scheme, propose, 

counsel, conspire against: bamctba, they 

conspired against him; kucetyiwe! con- 
spiracy! ibokwe icctyiwe, the goat is doomed; 

uziccbe 7igokivake, he has betrayed, injured 

himself. 

urn-Cebl, h. I. A counsellor. 

i-Ceba-zinto, v. 2. A counsellor or adviser 
at court ; pi. aina-Ccba, the jury. 

i-Cebo, . 2. Device, plan, proposal, pur- 
pose, counsel, scheme : iidipe iccbo, give me 
advice, devise a plan for me ; in a bad sense 
it means a trick, stratagem, artifice, plot, 
trap, fraud, deceit : bamkohlisile ngamacebo, 
they imposed on him, deceived him by 
evil devices. Phr. ongmkcli cebo aka- 
nakuucedwa ntntu, he who will not be 
advised cannot be helped. 

uku-Cebana, v. To counsel together; to 
conspire together. 

u-Cebano, . 5. Consultation, conference, 
agreement. 

uku-Cebanisa, v. To assist each other in 
consultation, etc. 

Cebela, v. To interest oneself in 
another's behalf; to bespeak what one 
wishes to buy; to consult for: uyicchele 
ihlazo indlii yako, thou hast consulted 
shame to thy house. 

Cebelana, v. To conspire together on 
both sides. 

Cebisa, v. To counsel. 

um-Cebisi, w. I. One who assists in devis- 
ing, counselling etc. 

i-Cebiso, n. 2. A plan. 

ing-Cebiso, ;/. 3. Counsel. 

uku-Cebisana, and Cebacebisana, v. To 
take counsel with one another; to con- 
spire one with another. 

ing-Cebiswano, ;/. 3. Mutual advice, 
counsel. 
i-Ceba, n. 2. See unrler iikiitl-Cchn. 
i-Cebe, w. 2. Haughtiness, arrogance: soka 

silitobe iceba lake, we will bring down his 

haughtiness. 
uku-Cebesha, v. t. To hunt for honey. 

i-Cebesha, ;;. 2. A. man who himts for 
honey. 
uku-Cebesha, v i. To be lazy, indolent. 

um-Cebeshi, 

i Cebesha, n. 
indolence. 



j A person given up to 



CE 

ubu-Cebesha, w. 7. Laziness, tardiness. 

in-Cebeta. w. ^.=^i-Ncebeta. 

ukut'i-Cebetshu, and ukuba ma-Cebetshu, 

used as Adv. Nearly; denoting usually a 

hairbreadth escape from danger: bate-cebe- 

tshti ukubanjwa, they scarcely avoided being 

seized; cebetshu betidipautse ukuw.i ehasheni, I 

was in danger of falling from the horse; 

cebetshu ukuyibamba kwetii inkabi, we caught 

the bullock with difficulty; wasinda macebe- 

ishu or ibimacebetshii uhisinda kwake ekuweni, 

he scarcely, narrowly, escaped from falling. 

ama-Cebetsliu, n. z. pi. Perils, dangers, 

hazards. 

i-Cebetyu, and i Cebetye, ?/. 2. A small 

piece used, as a piece of soap. 
um-Cebisi, ing-Cebiswano, and i-Cebo, see 

nku-Ceba. 
ukut'i-CKBU, V. i. To split off. 

i-Ceba, ;/. 2. pi. aviaccba and itigccba. Chip, 

split; slice of pumpkin or meat: iceba lo- 

kuqala, the first quarter of the moon : 

iceba lokugqibela, the last quarter. 

uku-Cebula, v. To split off a splinter of 

wood or horn. 
uku-Cebuka, v. To be split: ixolo licebukile 
emi'ini, the bark is stripped off the tree. 
uku-Ceca, v. i. To avoid. 
Cecela, v. To avoid, shun, pass by from 
fear. 
i-Ceceleya, n. 2. Wild garlic. 
in-Cede, ;/. l.^i Ncede. 

uku-Cedulula, v. t. To unfold (a book or its 
leaves) ; to loosen (a stone which is fixed in 
the ground). 

um-Cedululi, 11. I. One who discovers and 

unearths hidden things. 

i Cegceya, w. 2. Cassinopsis capensis (Soiid.), 

a shrub with fine pointed thorns, and glassy 

bead like berries. When eaten by goats, 

it gives the milk a very pronounced taste. 

ukut'i-Ceke, v. i. To feel cold when touched 

by a cold substance. 

i-Cekeceke, 11. 2. As Adj. Cold or flavour- 
less: iiihh-tba olicckcccke, cold ground; 
imintn oUcekeccke, a cold person, or one 
who is indifferent, weak, feeble, wanting 
strength. 
ubu-Cekeceke, n. 7. Coldness of the 
ground; weakness, want of strength, 
in Ceke, 11. i.^iNccke. 

uku-Cekeca. v. t. To despise, contemn, dislike. 
u Ceke-menzani, ;/. I. and 5. A very fat 
animal slaughtered; fig. one filled to satiety 
or repletion, i.e. beyond natural desire, so 
that he has to stop partaking before finish- 
ng what is set before him. 



58 



CE 

uku-Ceketa, v. t. To make thin or slender ; to 
shave off, in dressing leather or planing 
planks; to giv^e a vessel thin sides in 
moulding it. 

Ceketeka, v. To become thin; to wear 
away like leather ; to be so thin or slender 
as to be ready to break into pieces ; to be 
transparent ; fig. to be thin-skinned. 
Ceketlsa, v. To make thin; to be 
insecure : isikonkiv.me siccketisile, the nail 
is not firm; isitya usiceket'isile, you have 
put the dish where it is in danger of falling. 

in-Cekevu, . 3. A hateful thing or person. 

uku-Cekisa, v. t. To contemn, despise, scorn; 
to belittle ; to loathe : ndiyakucekisa ukidla, 
I am disgusted with the food. 
Ceklseka, v. To be despised. 

isi Ceka, n. 4. A drop or small quantity of 
something liquid. 

in-Ceku, n. S. = i Ncekii. 

uku-CekuIa, v. i. To chatter, like children. 
Cekuza, v. i. = uku-Ceknla. 

i-Cekwa, . 2. (a) A cause or matter of 
strife or quarrel, provocation : abantii benza 
icekwa loiushe, the people make it a cause 
of hubbub or quarrel, as when one has 
ploughed beyond the boundary of his garden 
into another man's land. 

(b) A children's game, corresponding to 
'tig.' In beginning the game, each child 
shouts ayinam or alinam (icekwa) 'it is not 
with me'; the last child to shout this has 
the ' cekwa' and must give chase to the 
others and set himself free by touching 
someone else, and saying linawe icekwa 'it 
is with you.' In finishing the game, each 
child spits on the ground saying plii! ntyoli! 
andiyenzi or ayinam. The last to spit and 
speak is consoled by the others with the 
taunting remark, lilele nawe, uyakutya umvubo 
onamapela, the cekiia has slept with you, 
you will eat umvubo with cockroaches in it. 
Alternatively, the game is played by two 
rows of girls standing facing each other. 
The girls sing t'lna senjenje xa sidlaV icekwa; 
linawe, linawe, linawe icekwa (This is how 
we dn when we play icekwa; with you, with 
you, with you is the cekwa.) At the word 
linawe, each girl begins clapping her own 
hands and her partner's alternately. Wandi- 
shiya ndinecekwa, he left me, having bedaub- 
ed me with guilt or misfortune, though I 
am innocent; ndisulelekile ngecekwa, I am 
befouled with guilt I do not know of; 
kulicekwa ukufa, death rides fast. 



f Request, petition. 



CE 

uku-CELA, V. t. To ask for, beg, request: 
ndiyaccla ukudla, I ask for food; see uku- 
Vuta. 
um-Celi, n. I. One who asks a favour; a 

petitioner. 
u-Cel-izap6lo, h. I. Lit, one who asks 

milk. The name of Venus as the evening 

star, because it appears at milking time; 

see is-Apolo. 
isi-Cela-nkobe, w. 4. Em. Lit. one who 

asks for cooked Kafircorn. A name for 

Venus as the evening star; see in-Kobc. 
ing-Cela, n. 3. 
isi-Celo, n. 4. 

uku-Celana, v. To request each other. 
Celeka, v. To be desirable; to be fit for 

being asked for. 
Celela, v. To ask for, in behalf, etc; to 

engage: lentombi icelelwe lendoda, this 

virgin is betrothed to this man; fig. to 

echo : iliwa liyacelela, the rock echoes. 
Celelana, v. To ask for or from each 

other. 
Celisa, v. To cause or help to ask, etc. 
Celisana, r. To cause or to help ask one 

another. 
Cslisisa, v. To beg, etc., very earnestly, 

urgently. 
um-Cele, n. 6. A single \h\ng: siyimicele, we 

are scattered, single, lonely. 
i-Celekwana, . 2. The smallest turtle dove, 
the Laughing Dove, Turtur senegalensis 
(Linn.). Its cry is rendered as ndivel' ema- 
Xoseni, I come from Kafirland. 
i-Celesi, n. 2. The ratel, Mellivora ratel 

(Sparr.). 

i-Celu, . 2. Generic name for pipits, small 

plain-coloured birds, which run actively on 

the veld; there are three species so 

designated, the Plain-backed pipit, Anthus 

leucophrys Vieill; Nicholson's pipit, A. 

nicholsoni Sharpe; and Raalten's pipit, A. 

raalteni Bp. 

um-Celu, 

um-Celumvemve, 

Motacilla capensis, L., often seen on Kafir 
huts, and held sacred by the Kafir boys. 
uku-Cembeta, v. i. To enumerate; to talk 

unceasingly. 
isi-Ceme, n. 4. A muzzle for calves to pre- 
vent them from sucking. 
Cence, Inter j. Cence, mlanjana! run, little 
stream ! said by children, when running or 
wading in the streams made in the road by 
rain. 
59 



. 6. The Cape wagtail. 



CE 

isi-Cenene, n. 4. The last drop of milk or 
of water left: kuyahtanjiva ngesici'iiciic, we 
must wash with little water. 
uku-CENOA. 1'. /. To give o; promise some- 
thing with a view to gaining one o/er ; to 
persuade, coax, gain advantagesor influence 
by gifts or flattery; to bribe: ivamcenga 
ngemali, he bribed him with money; to 
coax (a horse or ox) : viiis'tikuyinxamcla 
inkabi, yicenge, don't force the ox, coax it. 
isi-Cengo, n. 4. A bribe. 
uku-Cengacenga, v. To use much persua- 
sion; to flatter. 
Cengana, v. To bribe one another. 
Cenganlsa, v. To cause or make to 

bribe one another. 
Cengela, v. To insinuate: imzicciigela 
kuye, he insinuated himself, curried favour 
with him. 

tedious narrative; to speak with wearisome 

prolixity ; to relate every detail ; to 

continue doing a thing without leaving off, 

e.g. to continue felling a tree with a small 

hatchet till it falls. 

ing-Cengceleza, . 3. A long story; little 
news. 
isi-Cenge, .. 4. To be exposed; to be in 

danger: usisicenge scmfdcwc, he was in the 

hottest of the fight. 
i-Cengecenge, . 2. Fat dripping down: 

iibuso bulichigeceng.', the face is smeared 

with so much fat that it drips down. 
u-Cengezana, h. 5. An ox with long horns 

pointing outwards horizontallj^ 
uku-Centa, v. t. To make small incisions into 

the skin; to tattoo. 

u-Cente, . 5. Two small incisions on each 
temple to bleed -a child suffering from 
sore eyes. This is done by a boy who 
thereupon seizes a large cake of bread 
previously put into the child's hand 
by its mother; the boy runs off with 
it followed by other boys. These young- 
sters, after eating it up, all go a hunting 
after birds which they bring and present 
to the child's mother. 
i-Cep6, n. 2. A chip or any concave article 

used as a spoon; a spoon. 
um-Cepe, ti. 6. Half a calabash, used as a 

ladle for drawing water or milk or taking 

out food, esp. beer. 

u-Cetshana, . l. A vegetable marrow 
= u-Senza. Phr. ugiimhiHilo ka-cctshaiia, it is 
a load of vegetable marrows, i.e. it is a 
troublesome thing. 



CE 

uku-Cesha, v. i. To hasten away; to go 
straight away like one offended ; to leave a 
place, intending to visit it no more, from 
some dislike or offence ; of a horse, to run 
away. 

u-Ceshana, w. l.= u-Cetshann. 

i-Cesika,.3. Em.]p 

i-Cesina, . 3. J i'ever. 

ubu-Cesika, n. 7. State of having fever. 

u-Cetshana, u. l. See under um-Ccpe. 

uku-Ceuka, v. i. To be addicted to lying or 
stealing ; = uku-R'iunrcka. 

i-Ceya, w. 2. A method of drawing lots 
adopted by two herd-boys to determine 
which of them is to turn the cattle. One boy 
grasps a stick with both hands, placing 
one above the other along the stick; the 
second boy follows suit with both of his 
hands, close to the upper hand of the first 
boy; thus they continue to measure the 
stick until they, reach the end of it. The 
boy who gets the grasp of the end says 
to the other ndikiillile, I have eaten you, 
and the other has to turn the cattle. 

Another method adopted is as follows ; 
one boy hides something between the 
thumbs and the forefingers of the closed 
hands, and withdraws them suddenly, 
leaving the other party to guess where the 
hidden thing is. This latter is an adaptation 
of a Hottentot game played by boys. 

um-Ceya, u. 6. Real yellow wood, Podocarpus 
latifolia, LHer. 

um-Ceya, w. 6. The Southern Giraffe, Giraffa 
capensis {Less.). 

uku-Ceza, v. i. To pass by at a distance ; 

to turn away or aside from the road or 

from a certain object ; to avoid. 

Cezela, v. To turn away to or from: 

akumbona wacczcla pay a, when he saw 

him, he passed by on the other side; 

wayicczela inyoka, he avoided the snake. 

i-Ceza, u. 2. That which is outward: timzi 
zvasccezem, a place that lies outward, aside. 

ama-Ci, ;/. 2. pi. Devices, tactics, tricks. 

isa-Ci, 11. 4. A pet saying or a characteristic 
trait of a particular person; a motto; 
uniform. 

isi-Ci, . 4. One who regards no one ; a proud, 
cold-hearted person ; a supercilious person. 

ubu-Ci, n. 7. Superciliousness, arrogance, 
presumption, pride. 

i-Cibi, n. 2. A pool, lake, pond ; dimin. /d/jaiw. 

isi-Cibliili, . 4. (a) A waxbill. At Pirie the 
name is given to the South African ruddy 
waxbill, Lagonosticta rubricata (LiciiL), 



CI 

but it seems to include other species in 
other districts, (b) A part of a plough. 
uku-Cibisa, v. t. To ([Qsp\,e,, = uku-Cckisa. 
um-Cibo, n. 6. Wasela iigomcibo or uiionicibci, 
he drank without leaving off, nearly to the 
last drop. 
u-Cicane, it. i. The little finger ; = u-Cikicane. 
i-Cici, H. 2. (a) Earring, circle, (b) A small 

number or division of people. 
isi-Cici, n. 4. A white ring round the tuft of 

an animal's tail. 
isi-Cicibala, . 4, One who is respectable fi-om 
appearance, behaviour, etc. ; an ox of goodly 
appearance ; also used for gaudiness, pride. 
Cicilili! Intcrj. I am at the end I 
uku-Ciciteka, v. i. Of children, to titter. 
uku-Cika, v. t. To put the lid on a pot; to 
put a twig in a bucket full of water, in order 
to keep the water from spilling when the 
bucket is carried on the head. 
isi Ciko, 7t. 4. A lid. 

uku-Cikeka, v. To be covered, as with a 
lid: isiselc sicikekile ngc'minyn>ii yamazit?tba 
nangobuloftgo nomgqiiba, the mealie-pit is 
closed over with thrashed out Kafir-corn 
heads and manure. 
uku-Cika, t) /. To jest, joke, without meaning 
what one says. 

i-Cikiciki, . 2. What is trivial or worth 
less; more usually in pi, things uttered 
just as they come into one's mind, without 
being true ; joking, fooling ; miisan' iikiuidi- 
kataza ngokundibusa lamacikiciki maninzi, 
do not trouble me by asking me so many 
trivial questions; tidcnzkva amacikiciki, 
they played with me as with a ball; dis- 
gusting language; anything performed 
under extreme difficulties (in this sense 
nma-Cikacika is also used.) 
uku-Cikana and Cikisana, v. To jest with' 
each other. 
ukut'i-Cike and Ciki, v. i. To be full to the 
brim: imb'iza ite-ciki, the pot is full to the 
brim. 
isi-Ciki, ?;. 4. The dregs or remains of liquid 

in a vessel. 
uku-Clkica, v. t. To rub the clothes soft in 

washing; fig. to examine carefully. 
u Cikicane,7z. l. The little finger. The Kafir 
children play at a singing game with their 
five fingers; beginning witlj the little finger, 
they give each finger a name in succession, 
thus: 1 ngii-Ciklcane lo ; 2 ngu-Ngompe lo ; 
3 Ngompemate lo ; 4 ngu-BSla lo ; 5 ngu-Mntu 
otnkulu lo. A common variation for 5 is 
Ngqibizikaka. In some districts, the Fingo 



61 



CI 

children, playing at the same game, have 
names for all ten fingers, beginning with 
the little finger of the left hand and finishing 
with the little finger of the right hand. 
i-Ckiciki, see under ukiiCika. 
uku-Cikida, v. t. To ascertain the nature of 
a thing by feeling it with the fingers; to 
examine, test, prove ; fig. makazicikide umntu, 
let a man test himself. 
um-Cikidi, . l. One who tests, proves: 
umcikidi weiitliziyo ngii-Yehova, the Lord 
trieth the heart. 
u-Cikido, ;/. 5. Testing, proving:. ///^'^ lo- 

cikido, a tried stone. 
uku-Cikideka, v. To be tested, approved: 
iiK^qiqo engacikidekileyo, a reprobate mind. 
uku-Cikiza, v. t. To do anything neatly and 
finely, such as sewing or writing. 
Cikizeka, v. To be, or become, fine, 
beautiful, precious: iytguho ecikizekileyo, 
a beautifully wrought garment. 
ubu-Cikizeko, n. 7. The state or quality 

of being refined ; refinement. 
uku-Cikizela, v. To work finely for one. 
u-CikiZ3, n. 5. Em. A piece of fire-wood. 
i-Clko, ?;. 2. A fluent, eloquent speaker; an 
orator; a good singer. 
ubu-C!kD, . 7. Eloquence, oratory. 
uku-Clkoza, v. To speak fluently, eloquent- 
ly, (generally used sarcastically;, 
um-Cikwane, n. 6. Generic term for the com- 
mon grasshoppers of which the Mantis, or 
Hottentot god, is a species. 
uku-Cila, V. i. To hasten away, etc., =uku- 

Cesha. 
ukut'i-Cilikiti, z>. /. To rise up suddenly ; to 
rush out unexpectedly. 
in-Cilikiti, n. 3. Dizziness: uneiicilikiti, he 
is dizzy, giddy. 
i-Cilitshe, n. 2. A lizard. 
uku-Ciliza, v. t. Em. To push down, or asidr. 
i-Cilo, 11. 2. = i-Culo, A short song, as dis- 
^ tinguished from the great ones. 
ukuti-CIMl,) , , . ^ 
uku-Cima, ] ^- * ^"^ ' ^^ extmguish, put 
out a fire or a light: chna isibane, blow out 
the candle; to shut the eyes for a moment: 
cim' amehlo, shut the eyes; to be put out: 
umlilo ute-cimi or uciinile, the fire is ex' 
tinguished; to inject, give an enema. 
i-Ciini, . 2. Extinction, darkness. 
u-CimaniehIa, n. I. A small snake like the 

utnainlambo. 
isi-Cima-mlila, n. 4. Em. for i-R'tibuxa. 
uku-Cimeka, v. To be going out, as fire ; to 
become extinct : indlu or usapo lucimekile, 
the house or family has become extinct. 



CI 

Clmela, v. To extinguish etc. for. 

Cimeza, v. Em. To shut ona's eyes for 

a moment, as in saying grace ; = uhi-Chna. 
Cimisa, v. To help to extinguish. 

CImlsela, t'. To cause to extinguish for. 
uku-CImba, v. i. To go or pass continually; 

to depart one by one. 
um-C?mbl. w. 6. A subject under discussion; 
affair, transaction, hu^ine^s; iimcimhi tiwile, 
the subject has been stated; fig. the birth 
has passed. 
ukut'i-ClmbI, v. i. To fall as a spark on 
clothes, or as a fly into milk ; to disappear as 
a mouse in a hole, or as cattle in a wood. 
isi-Cina, ri. 4. The different coloui'ed patterns 
in beadwo.'.c: tifaka izicina zokusoma, he 
brings in forms and flourishes of inter- 
pretation. 
uku-Cinezela, v. t. To press from above, as 
the hand on the head ; fig. to afflict, oppress ; 
likucinezela pantsi, to press down. 
um-Cinezeli, n. l. An oppressor. 
ing-Cinezelo, n. 3, Pressure, affliction, 

oppression. 
isi-Cinezelo, h. 4. A squeezing press; em- 
phasis. 
uku-Cinezelana, v. To press against each 

other; fig. to have griping pains in the 

bowels. 
Cinezeleka, v. To be afflicted. 

. 8. Affliction. 
uku-CINQA, V. i. To employ or occupy the 
mind; to form thoughts and ideas in the 
mind; to think, muse, commune inwardly; 
to fancy, imagine, suppose; to reflect, 
consider, perceive, conceive, intend, con- 
clude : bacinga ububi ngam, they think evil 
against me; umntu owjnayo akacingi, the 
sinner does not think (of the consequences). 
ing-Cinga, . 3.^ 

ing-Cingo, w. 3. V Thought, idea, reflection, 
isi-Cingo, . 4.) 

meditation; dimin. ingcingane, little 

thought. 
ing-Cingongcingo, . 3. Different thoughts, 

etc. 
uku-Cingela, v. To think of or over : 

mabangazicingelt tigapezu koko bavielwe 

kuzicingela ngako, let them not think of 

themselves more highly than they ought 

to think. 
Cingelana, v. To think towards one 

another: ctngelanani nto nye, be of the 

same mind one towards another. 
Cinglsa, v. To cause to think: ucingiswe 

biihlwempu bake, his poverty made him 

think. 



CI 

um-Clnga, n. 6. A straw or halm of grass or 
whsat; umcinga xvomlilo, a match; fig. 
WMig fuciiiga, he became thin. Phr. suke 
wjhl.i no iicinga, he or she ran away secretly, 
or eloped. 

u-Cingo, . 5- pl- ingciiigo. Brass, copper or 
any other wire; a telegraph wire; a tele- 
gram ; ucirigo Iwamaitzi, a cable ; fig. a fence. 

uku-C'ntela, t;. /. To milk the last drop, to 
leave nothing for the calf. 

uku-Ciatsa, v. t. To take, drop, break, 
crumble a little; fig. to use enchantments 
before proceeding on a warlike expedition. 

ukut'i-Cintsl, t'. t. To pay, give or grant 
freely. 

u-CJnya, . 5. A narrow way with precipices 
on both sides ; a defile ; adj. narrow : indicia 
iluci lya, the road is narrow; a foot path. 

ukut'i-Clpu, V, i. To be cloven, cut into; to 
be divided, notched, indented. 
uku-CipuIa,u . To chop or cut into chips ; to 
chip off from the sides of a tree. 

i-Cifa, w. 2. A species of bird, like a stork, 
whose wings are used in time of war in- 
stead of crane wings. 

uku-CISHA, V. t. To select, choose; to guess 
at what one has hidden in his hand; to 
draw lots (done by children). 
isi-Cisho, n. 4. Lot. 

um-Cisho, . 6. Casting of lots; a riddle, 
uku-Cishana, v. To select, draw lots etc., 

upon each other. 
Cishela, v. To select, draw lots for 

another person. , 

Cishisa, v. To cause to select or draw 

lots, etc. ; to cast lots. 
Cishisana, r. To cause to draw lots 
mutually. 

uku-C'IT'A, V. t. To scatter: wabacita abantti, 
he scattered the people ; to destroy : ubucitlle 
ubuhlanti, he has pulled the kraal to pieces; 
to spill : amanzi ac'ittwe, the water is spilled ; 
to waste improvidently : w:zic'ita itnali zaki, 
he spent his money; to disperse, remove by 
force. Em. to urinate. 

"-ciS,^i;.'2. ' j Destroyer, waster. 

in-Citd, H. 3. Waste, spending. 

i-Citl. n. 2. Mostly \vl pi. Things scattered 
about. Fig. bangamadti or bangabactti, they 
are not of one accord, do not live in 
harmoni^ 

uku-Citana, v. To scatter one another. 

'^I^K- ] " ^ -'"- "^""- 

waste ; Intcns. to destroy completely. 



CI 

um-Citaciti, n. I. One who scatters: 
untc'itac'it'i ka-Sirayeli uya kutnbuta, He that 
scattered Israel will gather him. 

uku-Citacitela, v. To scatter at or amongst. 

Citeka, v. To be wasted: imali zake ziya- 
c'lteka, his money decreases, gets less, is 
being spent. 

Citela, V, To spend in a certain place, or 
upon certain things, or by certain doings: 
iinini zake wazic'itela e-Monti, he wasted 
his days in East London. 

Citisa, V. To cause to waste, destroy, etc. 

uku-Citakala, v. To become scattered, 
wasted, come to ruin; to be bankrupt: to 
be broken up as a people : isizwe sic'itakele, 
the tribe is broken up; to be forced to 
migrate to other parts, either by famine 
or by war. 

truction (intr. sense). 
uku-Citakalisa, v. To cause ruin, etc. 
um-Citakalisi, n. I, Destroyer, waster, 

prodigal. 
u-Citakaliso, w. 5. Destruction, waste (in 

an active sense). 
uku-Citakallsana, v. To destroy, etc., each 

other. 
CitakalJsela v. To destroy for. 

Citi, Intcrj. used after sneezing: c'lt'i ukule^ 
sneeze and grow big. When one sneezes 
another will say ' C'ltV to wish him good 
luck. 

ukut'i-Citi, and ukut'i-Cititi, v. i. To come, 
rise, start suddenly into sight: ndabo::a inya- 
Diakazi isitl-c'iti paya, I saw the game suddenly 
rise in the distance; lento yatt-cUt pantsi, this 
thing has come up from or out of the ground. 

isi-Ctti, n. 4. A tuft of long grass on the turf. 

um-Citi, in-Cito, see uku-C'ita. 

uku-Citsha, 11. f. To guess, choose; Em. to 
refuse to give ; to be stingy. 

i-Citywa, n. 2. Red clay, used for anointing 
the body. The red clay is painted on the 
body first ; after drying it is brushed off and 
then the body is smeared with fat. 

isi-Civava, n. 4. An immovable thing. 

uku-Civela, v. t. To toss, tlirow out the peel 
of sugar-cane, etc. 

i-Ciyane, n. 2. (a) The common waxbill,= 
i-Ntshiyane. (b) A kind of red clay, (c) A 
soft plant growing in pastures about the 
sources of the Keiskama, which is fatal' to 
sheep when eaten by them. Em. = isi-Fikane. 



63 



CI 

in-Ciyo, . 3. (a) A woman's modesty apron, 
made of skin and ornamented with beads. 
In a more general sense, this word includes 
also i-Cacawe. (b) The marriage gift brought 
by the bride to the mother of the bride- 
groom. 
uku-Ciza, V. i. To ooze out, flow gently 

(blood). 
um-Ciza, w. 6. (a) Medicine of herbs; pi. wet, 
green, damp fire wood, (b) Any sort of 
stick. 
ukut"i-C6, to pick up, see uku-Cola. 
uku-Coba, Em. To kill lice with the finger 
nails, = iiku-Tyoha. 

Ccbela, v. Em. To break brush-wood into 
bits and put them on the fire,--uku-Cwa- 
bela. 
ukut'i-Cobocobo, v. i. To be ground. 

uku-Coboza, v. To grind (coffee, etc.). 
uku-COCA, V. t. To clean, make white, purify; 
to tidy up; to respect, v. i. To become 
clean, pure, white. 

um-Coci, . I. A purifier, cleanser, refiner. 
um-Cocwa, . l. A person who has been 
purified, who is without blemish in 
character. 
uku-Coceka. v. To be cleansable ; to be 
pure, lovely, in form or appearance (e.g. 
fine cloth) : timntu orocekileyo, a clean 
person ; to be free from blemish : intliziyo 
icocekile, the heart is pure, clean. 
Cocisa, V. To make clean, pure by re- 
moving blemishes or deformity from an 
object or person. 
isi-Cdcd, w. 4. A small drop of beer, or water 

which is left, = /5/-C^/^<7. 
uku-Cocobala, v. i. To become hot, as before 

a fire. 
uku-Cocombela, v. i. To dresG in gaudy 
apparel. 

isi-Cocombela, n. 4. A person dressed in 

fine apparel ; the priest-doctor in his robe. 

ubu-Cocombela, n. 7. Finery, showiness, 

gaudiness. 

u-C6c6yi, ;/. 5. The crown of the head; a 

pinnacle; a conical top of a mountain; a 

tower or higher point in a building: ivema 

clucocoyini liventala, he stood on the 

mountain top. 

uku-COFA, V. t. To feel a parcel with the 

hand in order to find out its contents; to 

press a thing with the hand, as the milk 

sack when it is full ; to agitate the contents 

thereof, or to press a blown up belly : iiya- 

cofa isisii, he draws in his belly, pressing it 



CO 

with his hand, (to show that he is hungry) ; 

fi:J. to sound a person, so as to discover 

what lies concealed in his breast: kaiicof^ 

kuye, just sound him. 

ing-Cofo, >i. 3. A substance soft to the 
feeling, as cloth. 

uku-Cofeka, :. To be soft, touchable. 

uku-Cafela, v. To press at or for: acofchva 
kona amaluie alio, there were their breasts 
pressed. 

Cofisa, V. To make soft, etc., 

Cofisana, v. To feel etc. each other. 
uku-COKA, V. i. To be fine, proper, prudent, 

refined, polite in manners and in behaviour 

as a gentleman, 

Cokela, v. To prepare for by putting 
every thing in proper order and in its 
proper place; to e:lit. 

um-Cokeli, 11. I. An editor; a composito: 

uku-Cokelana, v. To come together, party 
after party. 

Cokisa. V. To do a thing neatly; to per- 
form a work carefully ; to cause to behave 
well; w.icokisa ukubuza, he questioned 
carefully, severely. 

Cokiseka, v. To have receiv-etl a finish: 
lento icokiscke kakuhlc, this thing has re- 
ceived a finish, is very neat. Adv. ugokuco- 
kisekileyo, in order. 

Cokisela, v. To narrate in a clear manner 

from the beginning. This form is not 

confined to speaking, see the form before. 

isi-Coki, It. 4. A species of plant. 

ukuba-C6k>c6k5. v. i. To be spotted or of 

different colours of a dress). 

i-C6koc6ko, ;/. 2. A coloured thing, a spot- 
ted dress: si:>giniacdk:>cdko, we are dress- 
ed in different colours. 

ubu-C6koc6ko, n. J. Gaudiness, showiness. 
ubu-Cokonyana, /;. 7. bitvula ibucokonya.ui, it 

rains gently, lightly. 
um-C6kose, and um-C6koso, ;/. 6. White 

spots on the skin ; motes, pimples, summer 

freckles. 
i-Cola, //. 2. The Fiskal flycatcher, Sigolus 

silens (Shaw). 
ukut'i-C'O) 
uku-C6la, 3 

ground; I to find little things: ndiyicole huali 

apa, I fo-.;nd the money here ; of a young 

man, to 'pick I'l/ a girl. Phr. iidicjl' it'iki, lit. 

I am i)icking up a thre:-penny-bit, i.e. I 

have stumbled; ucoliuK'-Mvia. you have been 

picked up, you are a foundling. 

um-C6li, )i. I. One who picks up, a name 
applied to God in one of the Kafir hymns. 



'. t. To pick or take up from the 



CO 

nia-C6li! Intcrj. That's mine! E.xclama- 
tion uttered by one of a party who finds 
something lying on the path traversed. 

uku-C6lac6la, v. To pick up here and there. 

um-C6lacdIi, 71. i. One who picks up 
(firewood, gossip) here and there. 
uku-COLA, V. t. To grind fine, as flour. 

Coleka, v. To be fine: umgub' ocolekileyo, 
fine meal ; to be broken. 

Colisa, V. To help to pulverize ; to grind 
to powder. 
i-C6lac6Io, n. 2. Helichrysum nudifolium, 

Less., used for colds and coughs. 
isi-Coiokuma, n. 4. Sobbing in sleep; feeling 

pain over one. 
uku-Colombii a, v. t. To walk or move gently, 

so as not to disturb. 
i-Co!or'a, and i-Co!or'u, ?/. 2. Any exposed, 

cold, cheerless, dreary place. See App. I. 
u-Coloti, ;/. 5. The evening twilight. 
uku-Coinbela, v. i. To do one's best, to the 

utmost ability, in executing a thing. 
uku-Co:nbulula, v. i. pass. co:ijuliilwa. To 

disentangle, loosen a string, rope : to unwind 

a coi! ; fig. to explain: walicombidula ilizwi 

lake, he explained away his word ; to wind 

up a iav/suit. 

Cuinbuluka, v. To become disentangled, 
be made loose : iutainbo icombulukile, the 
thong has become loose. 

uku-Combululela, v. To unravel or dis- 
entangle for; to explain to. 
uku-Cona, v. t. To swear, (stronger than tiku- 

Ftiiiga): coiui bcvc abobantit, swear that those 

people may hear it. 

ama-C:>nini, //. 2. pi. used mvoc ma-Conini ! 
as a strong form of oath by a husband or 
the people of his kraal to prevent his wife 
from touching certain food or certain 
articles : ina-Coitini! lento ingubawo! Hands 
off! this is my father! i.e. avoid it as you 
would avoid your father-in-law! ubonti 
biima-conini, life is inviolable. 

Conisa, v. To adjure (which can be done 
only by a husband or man) ; to interdict, 
prohibit; to warn a rival of the serious 
consequences which will ensue, if he does 
not leave off seeking the affection of 
another rival's girl. 

Coniseka, v. To be adjured. 
in-Condo, ;/. 3. pi. Naturally thin legs: lento 

incncondo, ngat'i lip.ic, this person has very 

scraggy legs, he's just a cockroach (offen- 
sive). 
um-Condo, n. 6. A fine limb, usually in 

plural: i/iaslie lincmicondo, the horse has fine 

delicate limbs. 



64 



-c;nd"tza, I " ' T ^'and on .ip.oe; ,o 

walk on tiptoe, slowly, softly, so as to 
avoid being heard; fig. to be cautious; to 
do, speak, teach carefully, by degrees, only 
a little at one time. 

Condobezela, v. To perform a work in 
a careful, cautious manner for another 
person. 
Condobezisa, v. To cause to be cautious. 

uku-C6nga, v. t. To pick, single out; to hit 
the mark : uyicongile, you have it, you have 
found what you looked for. 

uku-Conga, v. t. To spare, save: akamconga- 
nga iinyana wake, he has not spared his son. 
Adv. kakucongn, sparingly. 

i-Congco, n. 2. A hot thing which has become 
very cold; pi. ice. 

uku-Congcotnisa, v. i. To walk or tread or 
do a thing softly, gently ; to convey. 

i-Congwane, . 2. The flesh beneath the 
upper thigh. 

Conini. See under uku-Cona. 

uku-Conontela, v. i. To bring a thing or 
action to an end, so that nothing is left to 
be done ; to make perfect. 
Conontelisa, v. To cause to do all 
things perfectly, in the best possible manner. 

uku-Conta, v. i. To decline, grow less; to be 
in need, distress, hunger. 
Contisa, v. To make lean (e.g. a cow by 
milking her too much). 

uku-C'OP'A, V. i. To sit, perch, squat on the 
highest point of a pole, edge of a rock or 
precipice: intaka icop'ile esibondeni, the bird 
perched on the pole; to sit as if ready to 
rise or to fall : iqiya icop'ile entloko, the hand- 
kerchief sits loose on the head, ready to fly 
off; to sit on the edge of a stool or chair, 
ready to move or go over; to sit on one's 
haunches. 

Phr. bacopa pezu kwengubo, they squat on 
their bundles, i.e. they have no settled place, 
but carry their things everywhere, having 
no time to untie them ; they are shifty. 
isi-C6pd, n. 4. A seat. 
ubu-C6pd, . 7. The brain. 
uku-C6pac6pa, To sit up when convales- 
cent. 
C6pela, To be ready for: iicopela tikti- 

fika, he is ready to come here. 
C6pisa, To cause to sit or squat: wandi- 
cdp'isa entahcni, he made me sit on the top 
of the mountain. 

in-Copd, H. 3. A high point or pinnacle: 
encotsheniyentaha, on the top of the mountain. 



CO 

uku-Coselela, v. i. To give close attention to 
a matter. 
u-Coselelo, n. 5. Close attention. 

Cdsi! interj. used by a mother in the form 
makube cdsi! hush ! to her child when it cries 
or is ill or after it sneezes; the phrase seems 
to have the import of a prayer; cos' ubeko! 
is used when one, whom we wish to see, un- 
expectedly arrives; lentyantyatnbo inuka cdsi, 
this flower smells sweetly, (of recent 
usage) ; see Camagu. 

uku-C6simela, v. i. To shout, cry, make a 
great noise, as the rushing of wind or hail. 

uku-COT'A, V. i. To walk, or creep softly, 
gently, on the heels, like a convalescent 
person ; to go slowly, 

Cotela, V. To steal upon (game); to 
approach stealthily : lowo umlahlayo u-Tixo 
wocotelwa lilishwa, who casts away God 
will be followed by misfortune. 

Hcottcotisa. ] - To make one to go or 

follow slowly. 
Cot6za, V. To walk slowly, lazily. 
u-Cot6zo, . 5. A slow, lazy walk. 
uku-Cot6cot6zisa, v. To retard ; to cause 
to go slowly, as Jacob did with the weak 
cattle. 

isi-C6t6, n. 4. A hurricane with rain and hail. 

i-Cowa, n. 2. The Southern giraffe, Giraffa 
capensis (Less.). 

ukut'i-Cu, V. i. To hold gently ; to sit, remain 
for a short time: wasebenza wati-cu, he 
wrought and remained a short time ; wabola 
witi-cii phiilu, he bored only a little, not 
through ; to perch like a bird. 

uku-C'UBA, V. t. To peel; to take off the 
corn from a maize-cob; to pick out the 
pith or kernel ; fig. to select or pick out the 
best ; ciiba izizatu, examine the reasons ; fig. 
to civilize. 
Cubeka, v. To be peeled, wasted, 

languished ; to be civilized. 
in-Cubeko, . 3. Civilization (recent use). 
uku-Cubisa, v. To cause or help to peel, 
etc. 

i-Cuba, n. 2. Tobacco. 

i-Cuba lassndle, n. 2. The largest kind of 
Solanum, Solanum giganteum, /at:?. 

isi-Cuba, . 4. Tobacco garden. 

ukut'i-CUB'U,) ^ . , , 1 .u 

Cubucubu, [ V. i. To feel lazy, lethargic, 

uku-Cubuka, ) 
relaxed (after drinking plenty of milk) ; to 
be in a state of collapse, as a snake on pass- 
ing the lee side of an umdlezana or of a 
sucking infant is said to be. 



65 



cu 

Cubukisa, v. To cause laziness, etc. 
Cubula, V. To make lethargic; to crush 
under foot (a worm, insect); to squeeze: 
ndictijuhve yinqwelo, I was run over by 
a wagon. 
Cubuleka, v. To be made lethargic, to 
be crushed. 
uku-Cubunga, ^ 

Cubucubunga, > v. i. To pinch off; to 
Cubungula, Em.) 

break off in small pieces; to crumble; to 
nibble like mice; fig. to do the work little 
by little; to plough a little before others 
commence, v. t. to excite, provoke. 
uku-Cuca, V. t. To void small stools. 

um-Cuco, n. 6. Small motion of the bowels. 

uku-Cuci, V. t. To cut holes in a skin or hide. 

in-Cucane, n. 3. Anything having holes or 

spots in it, as a mat, etc. 

ukut'i-Cuce, v. i. To be mute ; not to speak or 

answer. 
i-Cucu, . 2. Ear of cattle cut so as to hang 

down in strips. 
uku-CUDISA, V. t. To sjueeze (a wound, 
ulcer), so as to press out liquid ; to crush so 
that the entrails come out; fig. to destroy a 
man by taking all his cattle; to oppress. 
um-Cudisi, n. I. An oppressor. 
u-Cudis9, . 5. Oppression. 
uku-Cudisela, v, To deal oppressively to- 
wards. 
uku-Cukela. v. i. To be annoyed or to quarrel 

with one about trifles. 
isi-Cuku, n. 4. That which you can take with 
your fingers; a small heaf), clump (of lo- 
custs) ; a group of people sitting together. 
um-Cuku, H. 6. Em. Boiled, ground grain 

mixed with Kafirbeer instead of milk. 
ukut'i-C'UKU, V. t. To touch softly, lightly. 
u-Cuku, n. 5. That which ought to be 
lightly esteemed, which ought not to be 
minded, is unimportant, insignificant, but 
which a troublesome person makes a 
source of annoyance: utnntu onocuku, a 
dealer in trifles, who quarrels about every 
little thing ; dim. ucukwjna, a vain, worth- 
less little thing or matter; inifazive yen'cu- 
kuuciiku, war abour trifles. 
ubu-Cuku, n. 7. What is unimportant or 

trifling. 
uku-Cukula, v. To take a rag, etc., up on 
the end of a stick and cast it away; fig. to 
despise. 
Cukutna, v. To go off (a gun, trap, 
snare) ; fig. to get angry, break out, attack. 



CU 

Cukumisa, v. To touch slightly; to 

make to go off; to touch things which 

may become dangerous on being handled ; 

fig. to provoke, make angry. 
in-Cukumiso, n. 3. The trigger of a gun; 

the spring of a trap or snare. 
isi-Cukumiso, //. 4. ~) 
u-Cukumisa, . 5. [ Provocation. 
um-Cuku m ISO, /;. 6. ) 
uku-Cukuzela, v. To speak lightly of one; 

to bring up trifles against him : bacukiize- 

Iwe, vain things are spoken against them. 
uku-Cukuceza, v. t. To cut, break, or divide 
into small pieces; fig. to despise, contemn, 
esteem lightly. 

71. 8. iikucukucez-iva kwjko, thy shame. 
isi-Cukucezo, n. 4. Derision. 
u-Cukucezo, n. 5. Dishonour, shame; iizuko 

Iwabo ndiya kiilwaiianisa ngokucukucezo, 

their glory will I change into shame. 
uku-CukuceZeka, v. To become broken 

up into small pieces; to be despicable. 

71. 8. shame. 
uku-Cukucezela, v. To despise, contemn: 

nyisc 7ionina babacukucezcle, they have set 

light by father and mother. 
ukut'i-Cukucuku, v. t. To pierce a thing or 
wound an animal in a number of places 
with an instrument making small holes. 
i-Cukucuku, w. 2. Anything that is very 

lean; a weak, infirm, helpless person. 
isi-Cukujeje, . 4. The Black tit, Parus niger, 

VicilL, so called from its cry. 
uku Cukusa, v. t. To do a thing thoroughly, 
whether mentally or manually, as to clean 
the land by taking weeds or other stuff 
from it ; fig. to investigate closely ; allied 
to uku-Cokisa. 
uku-C'ULA, zi. /. To hold by the end, not 
firmly ; to take up on a fork ; to touch with 
the bayonet; fig. to keep others at a dis- 
tance through contempt or selfishness; to 
disregard, despise, contemn others : u/7intu 
oculayo = imtntuozi.Uayo, a conceited person. 
i-Cula, i-Cule and i Culi, w. 2. One who 

hits well in shooting or throwing the 

assegai ; fig. a skilful person. 
um-Cula, 7t. 6. A sharp pointed stick or 

iron (needle, assegai, etc.) often used as 

a fork for picking up meat, etc. 
ubu-CuIe, 7t. 7. The ability to aim and hit 

well ; adroitness, tact. 
uku-C'ULA, V. i. To go naked in the upper 
part of the body (applied to women). In 
modern application, to dress smartly (of 
both men and women). 



66 



ubuCuIa, n. 7. Nakedness. 

uku-CULA, V. i. To sing; orig. used of little 

songs. 

i-Cul3, n. 2. Originally a short song, now 

a hymn. 
urn Culo, n. 6. Concert, singing on certain 

days. 
uku-Culela, v. To sing for. 
Culisa, V. To cause to sing. 
um-Culisl, , I. One who teaches singing. 
isi-Culiso, n. 4. A musical instrument: um- 
culisi wacuUsa kakuhle vgesicidiso, the 
musician played well upon the instru- 
ment. 
isi-Culujeje, n. 4. An honourable gentleman. 
isi-CuluIwane, w. 4. One who sits quiet and 
speechless, and does not speak when spoken 
to: isiculukvane sentsini, an object of 
ridicule. 
uku-CuIumaca, v. i. To be gay, merry, 
cheerful, happy, self confident; to approach 
a dangerous thing without fear ; to be self- 
satisfied. 
uku-Culungana, v. i. To draw oneself up in 
sitting or standing; to move aside to avoid 
a thing thrown. 
ukut'i-CUM, V. i. To fall or break in pieces 
(an egg or cup); to crumble = m^m;/-7>'ma; 
also used as adv. : iilele cum, he is fast 
asleep. 

uku-Cumka, v. To be broken in pieces, as 
a cup, egg, or calabash; to be crushed, 
smashed. 
Cutnza, and Cumcutnza, v. pass. 
cunyuzwa. To break into very small 
pieces; to crush, smash, 
uku C'UMA, V. i. To grow abundantly, 
luxuriantly; to flourish; to be fruitful: 
atnasimi acumile, the gardens are flourish- 
ing ; (said also of the tapeworm). 
Cumela, v. To prosper for: mnadoda acunye- 
Iweyo, men with whom everything prospers. 
Cumisa, V. To cause to grow, prosper, 

thrive. 
uku-CUMB'A, V. -t. To lay one thing upon 
another, as bags, bricks, etc. 
isi-Cumba, . 4. A clump or bunch (of 

raisins, figs). 
uku-Cumbacumba, v. To tickle. 
Cumbacumbana, v. To tickle one ano- 
ther. 
Cumbelele! said in children's play, when 
they pinch or draw up the skin on the 
back of one another's hands; on finishing, 
they call out pangalala. 



cu 

uku-Cumbeleza, r. i. To take a long time 
in doing a thing, either from sluggishness 
or uncertainty (e.g. in saddling or inspan- 
ning). 

uku-Cumbusa, v. t. To bore the ears for 
inserting earrings; lance a boil: fig. to 
delay in performing or completing an 
operation, doing little by little. 

uku-Cumka, see under ukutl-Cum. 

uku-Ciimsa, r.t. To stitch together a mat: 
ucicmsa inttingele, he stitches a mat. 

u-Cumse, n. I. Crushed, ground red clay ; 
red ochre. 

uku-Cuntsa. ") . t- * 1 l ^ . , 

-Cuntsula,] '' ' ^ *^^^ apmch;to take 

a little (bread or clothes) ; to remove a 
small part of any thing (earth) from one 
place to another. 

Cuntsulela, v. To take a little for: 
ndicuntsiilele isoiika, break off a small 
piece of bread for me. * 

Cuntsulelana, v. To share with another 
(tobacco). 
uku-Cunuba, v. i. To provoke, annoy ; to be 
hostile, inimical. 

um-Cunubl, n. I. One who pro/okes, or 
annoys; an enemy. 
uku-CUNULA, V. t. =uku-Cunukisa. 
Cunuka, v. To be annoyed, vexed, 
offended, displeased (with work which 
does not turn out well); to be disgusted 
(by sarcasm and taunts) ; = uku-Capuka. 
Cunukisa, v. To revile, reproach, pro- 
voke, annoy, offend ; to be sarcastic, etc. 
ing-Cunukiso, n. 3. An exasperation, en- 
raging, exciting to anger. 
uku-Cununga, = uku-Cubunga. 
ukut'i-Cununu, v. t. To behave without fault, 
innocently; to refute a charge of guilt en- 
tirely; to clear oneself from accusation, 
so as to leave no doubt of one's innocence: 
lomntii ute-ciinunu kuIo:ito bebefuna iikumnxiba 
ityala ngayo, that person wholly justified or 
cleared himself in the matter they thought 
to prove him guilty in. 
uku-Cupa, V. t. To cut off a small piece from 
the end of a stick, or from the ear of an 
animal ; to mark by cutting a notch ; to 
tear the point (of a feather) ; to take hold 
of the point of a stick; fig. to shorten, dis- 
continue a speech. 
um-Cupi, w. I An informer; a detective for 

illicit diamond buying, 
uku Cupeza, r. To beat, touch softly with 
the point of a stick; to pick. 



67 



cu 



cw 



Cup^zeka, v. To be fit for chopping : I u-Cwane, . 5. Foot and mouth disease of 



izembe liyaciipezeka, the hatchet 
gently. 
uku-Cushuluza, v. i. To go quite naked. 
uku-CUT'A, r. t. To narrow (an enclosure or 
opening), straiten, compress; lo narrow in 
bulk (as by peeling a fruit) ; fig. waciita 
ityala lake, he minimized his guilt ; tikticiita 
inteto, to bring the subject to a point in 
speaking. 

Cutana, v. To be narrow in width : 
indicia icutene, the road is straitened, 
narrow. 
Cutanlsa, r. To make narrow in width. 
^Cuteka, r. Of a road, to be narrowed ; 
of the eyes, to be nearly shut ; to be 
sharpened to a point. 
ing-CutSko, . 3. Anguish. 
u-CutSko, n. 5. An isthmus; distress. 
uku-Cutisa, v. To cause or make narrow 
etc., (an enclosure, kraal). 
ukut'i-Cuttklala, r. /. To sit, squat, cower 
down at the side of a road, or at a house 
door, in a listless manner, 
ukut'i Cutu, V. i. To contract the eyes, to 
open them a little. 

isi-Cutu, n. 4. Amehlo azicutii, eyes which 
are not wide open, which are contracted 
by matter, or by being bleared. 
isi-Cutungu, n. 4. One who is not on good 
terms with another person ; one who has a 
long mouth from anger. 
uku-Cwaba, r. t. To break up small sticks in 
the cattle fold for firewood; to pluck off 
leaves; fig. to be in readiness ; to give un- 
important details without coming to the 
real thing; to make allusions with the view 
of drawing one out. 
Cwabela, xk To break for: cwabela iziko, 

break brushwood for the fireplace. 
Cwdbisa, V. To help or cause to break. 
ukut'i-Cwaka, v. i. To be silent : wail-cwaka, 
he ceased to speak; umoya watl-cwaka, the 
wind calmed, became still; to be entire- 
ly: zizele zati-cwaka, they were quite full 
used as adv. very, quite, entirely : kushushu 
cwaka, or kushushu cwaka kanye, it is very 
hot. 

ukut'ela-Cwaka, v. Uzitele-cwaka, she kept 
quiet herself. 
uku-Cwala, v. i. To sit still, waiting, espec. 
said of an enemy sitting down opposite the 
place he wishes to attack : tmpi icwalile, tha. 
enemy sits still. 
u-Cwambu, . 5. Em. Cream. = M-Caw/^M. 



cattle and sheep. 
uku-CWANQCA, r. /. To place in line side 
by side, as soldiers. 

Cwangcisa, v. To place in order: waz/- 
cwangcisa inkuni, he laid the wood in 
order. 
isi-Cwangciso, . 4. Placing in order, 
planning. 
um-Cwangele, w. 6. The bald ibis or wild 
kalkoen, Geronticus calvus (BoddJ; fig. a 
man who has no hair on the head, whom the 
Kafirs think a beauty: indoda ingumcwavgele, 
the man is fair; used also of a nice looking 
and glossy stabled horse. 
uku-Cwanya, v. i. To perch ; to sit on a horse. 
uku-Cwaraza, r. /. To clap; (not so severe as 

to box). 
uku-Cwatshula, r. i. To move stealthily, as 

a cat towards its prey, 
uku Cwayita, r. i. To be joyous, cheerful; 
also to be noisy. 

ubu-Cwayit6, . 7. Cheerfulness. 
uku-Cwayitisa, v. To cheer, gladden: intli- 
ziyo eruyileyo iyabucwayitha ubuso, a merry 
heart maketh a cheerful countenance. 
ubu-Cwazicwazi, n. 7. Brightness, splen- 
dour. 
izi-Cwe, M. 4. pi. Helichrysum pedunculare, 
D.C., a medicinal herb used for inflammation 
in a wound, esp. to heal circumcised boys. 
ulu-Cwe, . 5. Saliva of a man; plur. izi- 

ncwe, of animals. 
ukut'i-Cwe, c /. To cut off a thin piece of meat 
or skin ; to take a little of anything, such as 
meat or sugar; to take a small quantity out : 
yiti-cwe etyuweni, take a little of the salt. 
ukut'ela-Cwe, . To take a little of some- 
thing, as meat, for a person : ndamtila-cwe 
enyanieni, I gave him a small piece of the 
meat. 
i-Cwecwe, n. 2. Any flat substance (stone, 
plank, table-top) : amacwecwe omabini esi- 
nqhto, the two tables of testimony; dimin. 
icwecwana. 
isi-Cwecwe, . 4. used as adj. Flat : isitya 
esicwecwe, a flat dish ; icangci elisicwecwe, 
a flat piece of zinc sheeting; amatye 
asicwecwe, flat stones. 
u-Cwecwe, n. 5. Any flat shell, such as a 
limpet. Such shells are used as spoons, adj. 
flat, as glass, ice, or a flat stone ; fig. ndilu- 
cwecwe, I am hungry. 
ubu-Cwecwe, . 7. Flatness. 
uku-Cweba, v. t. To throw the iguni, (a flat 
stone) in the game of u-Nocweba. 
68 



i-Cw^ba, n. 2. A lagoon of clear, still water 
at a river's mouth, separated from the sea 
at low tide by a bar of sand; an estuary: 
icweba le-Xesi, the mouth of the Keiskama. 
Dimin. ictvetyaiia. 

i-Cwebesha, . 2. An indolent person, = /- 
Cehesha. 

uku-Cwecula, v. t. To cut off a thin slice 
from the upper part. 

uku-Cwecwa, v. i. To walk softly so as not 
to disturb a person who is reading or rest- 
ing; to steal in; to sneak in. 

Cwecwisela, c. To manoeuvre so as to 
entrap; to lead to one quietly, stealthily. 

uku-Cwela, r. t. To shave or smooth a pole 
or plank; to peel a potato or fruit. 
um-Cweli, n. I. A carpenter. 
in-Cwela, n. 3. Parings, shavings. 

u-Cwele, M. 5. That which is white, or green- 
ish white, as corn just coming up. 

uku-Cweletela, r. (. To keep off, prevent, 
hinder. 

i-Cwem, w. 2. Cataract of the eye. 

uku-Cweta, r. t. To touch or pick out with | 
the hand or with a stick; to push away. 

uku-Cweteza, r. t. To type. 

u-Cwete, n. I. A shrew ; the name given to 
all members of the family Soricidae. Phr. 
nocwet' uzibon' ubukulu, even a shrew thinks 
itself great, i.e. even a poor man thinks 
himself somebody; ukiiba ubulele ucwete, iiya- 
kwapula izilya, if you have killed a shrew, 
you will break dishes. 



uku-Cweya, v. i. To consult secretly by going 
aside, n. 8. Secret consultation: ukucweya 
kuka-Yehora kunabanioyikayo, the secret of 
the Lord is with them that fear Him. 
u-Cweyo, n. 5. Secret consultation. 

uku-C weza, = uku-Ceza. 

ukut'i-Cwi, r. /. To be tall, slender, straight. 

isi-Cwibi, n. 4. A cutting in a parson's flesh. 

uku-Cwila, 'Em.^ nhi-Cula, to sing. 
i-Cwilo, = i-C/o. 

uku-Cwila, v. t. To cut into small pieces; 
fig. to state, narrate accurately, precisely. 
i-Cwili, n. 2. 
isi-Cwili, M. 4. 
pieces: andifumananga necwili, I did not 
even get a small piece or bit (of meat). 

isi-Cw H i j eje, - isi-Cukujeje. 

i-Cwilika, n. 2. A steel for striking fire. 

uku-CwiHsha, ] ^, 



[ That which is cut into small 



-Cwilicwillsha, j ' '' '^^ ^P^^ ^^^ ^^ 
cutting little bits; to tear off the meat from 
bones; fig. to tease one. 

uku-Cwisha, r. t. To tear long strips from 
monkey rope, or bark from trees to make 
rope with, or strips of flesh from the bones 
in eating, or that which adheres to the hide 
after flaying it; fig. to chide, scold, inveigh, 
insult, mock. 

um-Cwisha, n. 6. The strip torn off; fig. a 
tall person. 

ukut'i-Cwishi, '. /. To turn and walk off; fig. 
to be tall, high. 



D 



T^ is a clear dental sound, as in the English 
^-^ words do, did; ukudada, to swim. The 
combination dl is a voiced variety of the 
Welsh //. ukudlala, to play. D in the 
Bantu languages is closely related to /; in 
Kafir it appears sometimes as a euphonious 
form of / after the prefix in-, e.g. itku-Litha, 
in-Dima; isi-Leru, in-Devu. 
uku-DA, V. i. Perf. de. To extend; to be 
limited. As an auxiliary it has adverbial 
signification "at length, until, at last, final- 
ly": uda atete, at length he speaks; salinda 
wada wafika, we waited until he came 
ndiya kuda ndifike, I shall at length arrive 



length a good year has arrived; oselede 
wancanywa ngabanye abatitu, who had already 
come so far as to be given up by the other 
people ; asiinti kungade knt'iwe abantu bapila 
nguwo, notwithstanding it is not a tree that 
people could be said to live upon. Sometimes 
the pers. subj. is dropped: de alihlaule ityala 
elo, till he should pay that which was due. 
For the adverbs derived from the perf. see 
under De. 

um-Da, n. 6. A line made by scratching; a 
stripe or weal made by a lash; fig. ex- 
tension, boundary line, limit: imida weli- 
, the boundary of the land. 



andisayi himka ningadanga nindixelcle inya- in-Daba, . 3. ) ^ews, tidings, information, 
niso, I shall not go away until you have told u-Daba, m. 5- ) 



me the truth ; hlaV apa tidide fidigqibe, remain 
here until I have finished ; ude watt, at length 
he said; ude wafika umnyaka olungileyj, at 



intelligence, story, report, message, errand: 
zsnz' indaha, tell the news; indaba-vilonyeni, 
a by-word; dimin. indatyana, little news; 



DA 

ndibiziwc, kiiko tidaha ekaya, I have been 
called, there is something the matter at 
home. (In all the meanings there is the 
assumption that something has happened.) 
Phr. indaba yakwantombi, lit. news of the 
daughter's place (i.e. where she is married), 
news about which the parents do not like 
to hear or speak; indaba yemiloivo. news 
which is to be discussed only among blood 
relations; indaba azilali cndleleni, the news 
is not lying on the road, i.e. it is not station- 
ary but is moving about, it is in every one's 
mouth, cf. u-Ndaba. 

uku-Dabalala, v. i. To do something with 
all one's might: ubalcke wadabalala, he ran 
his hardest ; balima badab.ilala, they plough- 
ed as fast as they could; of a horse, to be 
knocked up; to lean forward in running at 
full speed in a race (always used of a number 
of people); to fall down through exhaustion 
or through intoxication, or to fall down 
dead. 
um-Dabalalana, . 6. One who is doing his 

utmost. 
uku-Dabalalisa, v. To make tired or to fall 

down; to use up. 
Dabalaza, v. To lie down flat, to sit with 
the legs spread out. 

isi-Dabane, n. 4. The skin of the Ula, Pauzi 
or Liza, Properly it should be that of the 
Ula, used as dress in fighting parties, or in 
dances at marriage feasts; it is usually fast- 
ened round the neck so as to hang loosely 
down the back, as a kind of hood; it is 
bound round the loins of fighters. 

um-Dabazo, w. 6. Rushing off: inqivelo isuke 
yangumdabazo, the wagon (and oxen) rushed 
off; of warriors, taking up their weapons 
and rushing away; fig. making a rush in 
public speaking, glorifying one. 

uku-Dabeka, r. t. To lay athwart, shoot 
athwart; fig. to slander, accuse falsely; 
bamdabcka tigctyala, they heaped accusations 
upon him; cf. uku-Tyabska. 

uku-DSbekeka, v. i. To go in one line in 
war; fig. to speak or write plainly, = m^,7- 
Caciscla. 

i-Dabi, n. 2. Fight, conflict between people 
of the same district ; a civil broil or petty 
war, Dimin. idatyana. 

uku DABULA, r. t. To sunder; to beat or 
strike so hard as to cause a swelling. (The 
men fre:iuently beat their wives in this 
manner.) Em. (a) To tear a cloth or gar 
ment. (b) To originate. 



DA 

Dabuleka, v. To be separated; to be or 
to fall in pieces: induli iyadabiileka, the 
heap is falling to pieces. 
Dabiika, v. To make way, by separating 
or going asunder, as a body of people 
do, to let one pass through. Em. (a) To 
fall or tear into two, as old clothes, (b) 
To separate, descend from ; to originate 
(of a tribe or of cattle, or of bees which 
have left the hive or the clusters), (c) To 
become light after a mist or when clouds 
separate ; to awake from sleep. 
Dabulela, v. To separate for. Em. To 
tear in pieces for : iiyidabulela nina f why 
are you tearing it ? 
Dabuluka, v. To break up, used of some- 
thing which was previously in a heap or 
mass: impi idabulukile, the army breaks 
forth, extends to fight ; to gush forth, as 
water. 
ukut'i-Daca, v. t. To spread (a mat). 
uku-Dada, v. i. To float, swim. 
i-Dada, n. 2. Generic term for duck: idada- 
kazi, the duck: idad' induni, the drake. 
The duck says isifiiba sam site ga ga git, 
my breast is too far forward; and the 
drake replies usit'i-tshwe tshwe tshwe, you 
should anoint yourself. 
uku-Dadisa, v. To make or cause to swim. 
u-Dada, n. 5. Thicket, jungle, copse; much 

close short bush. 
uku-Dadasa, v. i. To take up more room 
individually, as people sitting together do 
on perceiving an undesirable companion 
approaching to sit down among them. 
i Dadangule, n. 2. (a) A kind of long grass 
formerly used for making ropes with, (b) 
One at a loss or in perplexity, 
uku-Dadazela, v. i. To be flurried or in a 
nervous excitement, as on seeing a friend 
suddenly at one's door, and not knowing 
what food to give h\m;=: uk:i-Tatazela. 
u-Dade, I. Sister (as used by men only) : 
udade wctii, (not warn,) our common or joint 
sister, i.e. my sister ; udade wabo (not wake), 
his or her sister; udade bobawo, paternal 
aunt; udade ho-Sindile, Sandile's sister. 
i-Daf ini, n. 3. A bird living near the Orange 

River. 
um-Daka, n. l. A very dark person; pi. imi- 

daka, common men. 
i-Daka, n. 2. Dung cut into sods. 
im-Daka, n. 3. used as adj. Dark, muddy, 
dirty : inkomo em laka, a dun-coloured cow ; 
fig. intliziyo yam imdaka, I am miserable, 
seedy; evil: akatelanga nelimdaka hiye, not 
even an evil word had he spoken to him. 



70 



DA 

u-Daka, n. 5. Mud, mire, clay, mortar. 
ubu-Daka, ;/. 7. Dunness in colour. 
uku-DAKA, V. i. To go out of sight or 
existence ; to disappear, vanish, so as to be 
lost: inyamakazi yadaka chlalhii, the game 
was lost in the forest; fig. to wander; to be 
out of one's mini. 

Dakela, v. To disappear in a certain 
place, e.g. in the forest or by diving under 
water: iiialiti yaiakela enceiii, the needle 
was lost in the grass; fig. amazwi aiakcle 
kwakuye, the words stuck fast in his throat; 
uiakele phta? where have you been, I did 
not see you ? 
Dakisa, v. To cause to vanish or dis- 
appear; to act as not having heard what 
one wishes you to say or to do. 
in- Dakisa, . 3. Delay. 
uku-Dakada, v. t. To cut or tear (meat) in 
pieces ; to lacerate, mangle ; to disperse and 
slay in battle; fig. to survey land. 
in-Dakada, n. 3. Great slaughter, butchery, 
massacre. 
u Dakada, n. 5. Milt of animals, the per- 
quisite of the boys. 
ama Dakadaka, Jt. 2. pi. Illness beyond hope : 
scle madakadaka, he is very ill, there is no 
hope for him, he is dying; W3nze kw.rma 
dakadaka, the illness has left me no hope. 
in-Dakanda, n. 3. That which is difficult to 
get to appear or be found, though urgently 
looked or pressed for. 
um Dakana, . 6. The white pear tree, 
Apodytes dimidiata, Mcy. 

-oiSyf 1 " ' '"' "'^"'^' """"' 

rove about. 

Dakatyeka, v. To be lost. 
i Dakatye, h. 2. The African rook; = u-Nom 

yayi. 
uku Dakumba, 
ukut'i Dakumba, 

spiritless, dejected, depressed. (It is not 

confined to the mind). 

iDakwa, , 2. \q ^vo cannot drink 

isi Dakwa, n. 4. j 

without becoming drunk ; one who looks as 

if he had been drawn out of the mud, (recent 

usage). 

ubu Dakwa, n. 7. Drunkenness. 

Dala, Adj. Old, aged, ancient: ingiibo enda- 
la, an old garment : ihashc lidaLi, the horse 
is old: ndinidala, I am old; ndimdala, kade 
ndibona, I am old, I have seen (much), i.e. 
I have experience, I am no chicken. Adv. 



To become dull. 



DA 

kudala, kwakiidala, vgokudala, of old : kudala 
yenziwe loiito, of old, i.e. long ago this thing 
has been done. 
um Dala, n. i. An elder, officebearer in the 

church. 
ubu-Dala, n. 7. Age, oldness, antiquity: 
ubudala bake yiminyaka elLshunii, he is ten 
years old. 
Dala, . 3. A moderate native beverage, 
manufactured chiefly by the Abambo. 

u-Dala, n. 5. A poor person. 

uku- DA LA, V. t. To make, bring into exis- 
tence, create, ordain, appoint: ngubani tia 
odalelomsebjiizi? who originated this work? 
Plir. wamdala ugodo, he made him stiff, he 
killed him. . 8. Creation. 
um-Dall, . I. A maker, creator. 
i Dalo, n. 2. Work, idol. 
in-Dalo, n. 3. Formation, creation. 

!.t'5?ir.r'i.ai 6. 1a creature. 

uku-Dalela, v. To make or create for. 
uku Dalasa, v. i. To call aloud, cry in anger. 
in-DALlSO, n. 3. A dollar, one shilling and 

sixpence; Du. daalder. 
u-Dalo, n. 5. The end of a stick (umnqayi): 

ndamfika ngodalo lo:iinqayi warn, I struck him 

with my stick. 
in-Dalu, n. 3. A plant, Greyia sutherlandi, 

Hook, and Haw. 
u-Dalu, n. 5. A very sharp pointed stick to 

scratch with. 

uku-DaluIa, v. t. To scratch, cut into; to 
make stripes, furrows. 
uku-Dama, v. i. To be pulpy or pappy. 

Dam-sa, v. To make pulpy or papj y. 
i-Damaka, n. 2. (a) The site of an old hamlet 

which is still distinguishable by its appear- 
ance and productions, (b) An o'.d, frail 

person, 
um Damasi, n. 6. An herb; pi. ascend sncy. 
uku DAMB'A, v. i. To subside; to diminish (of 

a swelling, abscess 1 ; to become tame, calm in 

temper ; to be subdued, assuaged, reconciled. 

Dambisa, v. pass, darjiswa. To cause 
to subside; to tame, break in. subdue: 
wadanib'isa u!i:s.':;do wake, he calmed his 
wrath. 

um Dambiso, . 6. Senecio concolor, D.C., 
a plant used for wounds and sore 3. 

uku-Dambisela, v. To subdue (o:ie's wrath) 
against another person. 
i'Da'iiiba. n. 2. A coarse, black fish v/hich is 

easily caught. 
isi-Dambakazi, n. 4. A woman with a narrow 

waist. 
71 



DA 



DA 



uku Dambalala, I). /. To lie stretched out. \ Dandapisa, t^. To cause discouragement, 
i-Dambudambu, . 2. (a) One who walks \ delay, 
unsteadily, tottering, owing to weakness or uku-Dandateka, v. i. To be terrified, trou- 



liquor. (b) One who by his firm, slow pace 
seems to be conscious of his superiority; 
fig. an upright one, who is confident, having . 
truth on his side. 

uku-Dambuza, v. To waddle like a duck. 
uku-Dambuzela, v. i. (a) To walk like a 
little child, (b) To exhibit superiority by 
pacing slowly and firmly; fig. to show 
integrity or honest intention by one's 
conduct. 
e-DAMBULO, adv. Down below; from Eng. 
in-Damse, ii. 3. The lion, 
uku DANA, V. i. To be disappointed, con 
founded; to appear to be convinced of 
having acted or spoken wrongly; to feel 
ashamed, cast down, sorrowful, discouraged, 
mortified: ivadana ngnnyana wake, he was 
ashamed of his son. 

i'Dano, w. 2. That on account of which 
there is disappointment, or sense of shame. 

ii" i?a^n"o**';r' 5^' ] Disappointment, shame. 
uku Danela, v. To be disappointed in; to 

be ashamed for or of. 
Danisa, v. To disappoint; to cause one 
to have a sense of shame, etc. ; to make 
ashamed: lofiio indidanisilc, that matter 
has made me ashamed. 
i-Danda, . 2. A prominent bone. In the 
inferior animals it is the bone that sticks 
out behind, or is prominent in monkeys and 
very lean scurvy dogs. In the human 
skeleton it is the prominent part at the 
head of the thigh bone, where the in- 
Tsluuidda is. 

in-Dandalala, . 3. That which is big in 
size ; a superior or prominent one in rank. 
uku-Dandalaza, v. i. To lie stretched out 
on the side, with the i-Danda prominent; 
to sit exposed, from the prominence of the 
situation; to stand open, clear, evident, 
as the moon; to be quite distinct, perfect- 
ly intelligible. 
Dandalazi^a, ;. To make to stand out 
distinctly or be prominent; to expose; to 
be quite distinct, perfectly intelligible. 
uku-Dandapela, v. i. pass, dandatshdwa. To 
be discouraged or downcast from not 
obtaining what one looks for, or from fail- 
ing to get what one hoped for or aimed at; 
to be uneasy, as when coming too late to 
church : tvadandatshdiva yiloiito, he was dis- 
heartened by it; to be hindered, delayeJ. 



bled, restless, in anguish or pain from not 
obtaining what one much desires. 
um-Dandateko, . 6. Trouble (subj.), un- 
easiness, anguish, etc. 
uku-Dandatekisa, v. To cause troubles, 

etc. (espec. on account of an old debt or 

offence). 
isi-Dandatekiso, u. 4. Terror lin an active 

sense) : izidandatekiso zako zindibangisile, 

thy terrors have cut me off. 
uku-Danduluka, *. /. To call loudly: izwi 
lolandulitkayo cntlango, the voice of one 
crying in the wilderness; to shout for 
assistance or anything else. 
Dandulukana, "c'. To call to one another- 
isi-Danga, n. 4. Ornament of many strings 
of beads worn on the neck or across the 
upper part of the body ; garland : isidanga 
solmhlalti, the royal ornament, see ubii- 
Hlaln. 
ukut'i-DANGA, v. i. To blaze, flame, flare up: 
umpu uti-danga, the gun flashes in the pan. 
i-Dangadanga, n. 2, A ^great, blazing 

flame; fig. great wrath, vehement desire, 

appetite. 
i-Dangatye, n. 2. Glare, blaze, flame, beam 

of fire. 
uku-Dangazela, v. To burn intensely, 

flare up, flame, blaze, glisten, shine 

brightly (fire) ; fig. to desire vehemently. 
Dangazeiisa, v. To cause to burn 

intensely; fig. to cause to be under the 

influence of the passions. 
uku-Dangala, v. 1. To become incapable, 
lazy, inert; to lack vigour. 
i-Dangala, . 2. One who is unfit for active 

employme.it through laziness or indis- 
position to work. 
in-Dangalo, ;?. 3. Inability to work from 

laziness or from want of haart. 
uku-Dangalisa, v. To make incapable, 

lazy; to enfeeble, disable, invalidate; 

cause inertness, lassitude; to make (the 

word of God) ineffectual. 
i-Dangatye, sec under ukut'i-Danga. 
i-Dano, in-Dano, sec iiku-Dana. 
i-Danti, . 3. A kind of very intoxicating 
beer, made from prickly pear and other 
ingredients. 
i-Dasadasa, 11. 2. One who is unstable, fickle, 
inco.istant, perplexed, not knowing what to 
do, from having many projets. 



72 



DA 

isi-Dasha, n. 4. An independent person; a 

nobleman. 
uku-Datyaza, v. L To walk with weak knees 

from being tired or hungry. 
i-Dauwa, n. 2. The zebra; a brindled bullock. 
in-Dawa, Em. in-Dawu, ft. 3. The nodules 
on the aromatic roots of the Cyperus plant. 
When pared and strung with beads and 
teeth of wild animals (leopards), they are 
used by women and maidens as a necklace 
(talisman). They have a pungent smell, 
and are used as a medicinal tonic. 
in-Dawo, n. 3. Place, locality, stead : endaweni 
yam, in my place, instead of me ; ihashe lam 
andilifumananga ndawo, I found my horse 
nowhere; topic, subject or matter spoken 
of: titeta ndawo-nlna? which matter do you 
speak of.' a point of dispute: lomlawo andiyi- 
boiti, that point I do not see; imandawo-nina? 
what is the matter with you .? what ails you ? 
andinandawo, I do not want anything, is of 
wide application ; andinandawo yokuhlala, I 
have no place to live; andinandawo tidiyi- 
tctayo, I have nothing to say ; andinandawo 
indibulalayo, there is nothing which pains 
me, etc ; akasiniki ndawo isono, he gave no 
place (room) to sin ; fig. umntu ongendawo, 
an unmanageable, restless, false, wicked 
person ; lomntii akandawo, that person is not 
good, is godless, wicked ; asindawo, we are 
wicked ; imikwa yoke ayindawo, his behaviour 
is not proper or good ; wandenza ngendawo, 
he dealt badly ^with me ; ngandawo-nina f 
wherefore? Dimin. indawana. 

Adv. ndawonye, together; ndaiveni-nyc, in 
one place or heap. 
in-Dawondawo, n. 3. Different places, things 

or topics. 
in-DawuIe, n. 3. Em. Bones of different 
animals thrown, similarly to dice, by witch- 
doctors to aid them in foretelling the fortune 
or misfortune of a man or war party, or in 
discovering lost property. 
i-Dayidayi, . 2. Anything left lying about, 
uncared for, as the odd mealie grains that 
are jerked out of the stamp block at the 
time of stamping and not picked up again; 
= u-Hlantlalala. 
De, (a) Pcrf. of tiku-Da. (b) Adj. Long, high, 
tall : intambo inde, the thong is long ; iliwa 
elide, a high rock; nmnlti omdc, a tall person; 
dimin. dana, danyana, danyanana, longish, 
tallish: intaba indana, the mountain is not 
so high; umfazi omdazana, a woman not 
very tall. 
K 



DE 



ka-De, Adv. Long, far off in time, referring 
either to the past or the future: kade 
sayenza lonto, we did that long ago ; umti 
uiva kade, the tree is long, i.e. slow, in 
falling; uva kade, he is slow in hearing, i.e. 
listening; ndiya kutshata kade, it will be 
long before I marry ; kukade siteta oku, it 
is very long since we said that. 
ama-Kade, n. 2. pi., used with adv. meaning. 
Long or often : ngenxa yamakade ndibona, 
because of things I have long or often 
seen, i.e. according to my experience. 
kaka-De, andukaka-De, a<^f. of affirmation. 
Of course, to be sure; it is a settled 
matter: kakade sateta oku, of course we 
said that ; kakade niya kuwuieta kum lom- 
zekeliso, of course, i.e. doubtless, ye will 
say to me this parable. 
kaka-Deshe, adv. Very long ago. 
ku-De, adv. Far, far away : ikude kum indawo 
leyo, the place is too far from me ; ndiya 
kukutuma kude, I shall send you far away. 
ngokoku-De, adv. Until, at length, so that : 
ngokokude intaka zihlale emasebeni, so that 
the birds lodge in the branches. 
um-De-ngentonga, n. I. One great in 

discussion. 
ubu-De, n. 7. Length, height: ubude bomntu, 
a person's height. Phr. wapiima nobude, 
he went out armed; iibude abupangwa, 
height is not reached in a hurry. 
in-Debe, n. 3. A calabash, ladle; communion 
cup. Phr. usela ngendebe endala, he drinks 
out of the old cup (handed down from his 
ancestors), i.e. he is a rich man, he prospers 
as his forefathers did. 
u-Debe, n. 5. The lower lip; see isi-Lebe. 

\-^^^f}ff^^n.2 \ Incoherent speech; 
m-Debelsfele, n. 3. j *' . 

frivolous talk, nonsense : indebelefele, iimisfio- 
tsho wamasele, senseless talk, the night 
croaking of frogs. The word is also used 
apparently as a punning version of ' devil of 
a fellow' to indicate a wild, worthless, 
fellow. 
ukut'i-Debelele, v. i. To sit down or lie down 
through laziness and unwillingness to work. 
ama-Debelele, n.2. pl. = i-Debelefele. 
uku-Debeleza, v. i. To speak vain things, 
nonsense; to wander in speech: ufana 
emana ukudebeleza, he just keeps on talking 
nonsense. 
u-Debeza, n. l. The South African Nightjar, 
Caprimulgus pectoralis, Cuv., so called 
from its wide mouth ; its cry is rendered as 
ndake ndaya, ndake ndaya, nde-tendelcle or tyi- 
71 



bilifi, I went, I went, and I slipped ; or ZLsyiza 
ncngtiho leyo, samhat'ise Iciitotololo, bring this 
blanket, and let us cover this decrepit 
object. 
uku-DEDA, V. i. To stand off or back; to 
change place, to evacuate a place: tf^-J' apa, 
go away from here; to go aside,. move to 
one side: deda endleleni, move out of the 
way; fig. to keep aloof; to avoid. Phr. 
deda, mhlangala, eiidaweni ycnyw'igi, civet 
cat, move out of the way of the wild cat, 
i.e. make way for your betters. 
Dedela, v. To draw back, make room 
for : wondidedela kiilomhlaba tidilimc kbna, 
you must make room for me on that land 
that I may plough there ; hadedcla paya, 
they draw back (a few paces in combat, 
but still facing the enemy). 
Dedelana, v. To make room for, or 
stand out of the way of each other. Phr. 
amanzi ayadedclana, the waters (of two 
streams at their junction) give way to 
each other, used o!:" reciprocating a good 
turn, or of two great men meeting and 
honouring one another. 
Dedisa, v. To move a thing, an ob- 
struction, out of the way. 
in-DedSbe, . 3. A great person, espec. a chief 
councillor, who knows perfectly the lav/s 
and customs of olden times; a grandee, 
chronicler, recorder. 
ukut'i-Dedelele, = uku-Deda. 
i-Dedeleya, n. 2. Slackness, laxity, pithless- 

ness, after sickness or drinking. 
i-Dedengu, . 2. That which is afraid. 



DE 

uku-DELA, r. t. To disregard, despise, 
contemn, slight : wayidela inkosi yaki, he de- 
spised his chief. 

i-Dela-zinto, n. 2. A despiser, scorner. 
in Delo, n. 3. Disregard, despising. 
uku-Delana, v. To despise one another. 
Deleka, v. To become despised, des- 
picable, disregarded, unworthy of con- 
sideration : titmttu odclekileyo, a despicable 
person. 
in-Deleko, n. 3. Being despised, in dis- 
honour. 
uku-Delisa, v. To bring into contempt; 
to disregard ; to face danger bodly. 

in-Dembelele, u. 3. One who is tall and 
stately ; one who is inactive, inert. 

uku-Deinbeza, and Dembeleza, v. i. To 
talk incessantly, for a long time, with the 
mere object of carrying on conversation, 
and with no regard to the time that is 
being wasted ; to gabble away. 

in-Detnbu, n. 3. Mistletoe, found growing 
on both native and introduced trees, made 
into bird-lime by the boys, and also used 
as a medicine for lumbago and kidney 
disease ; it is employed as a love-philtre by 
the Hottentots. 

uku-DKMESHA, V. t. To damage; fr. Eng. 

i-Demfu, n. 2. The largest species of South 
African frog, Rana adspersa Bibr., so 
called from having a body which appears 
too heavy for its legs, and from having in 
conseqtience a characteristic waddle; a 
very fat person, whose corpulency renders 
walking difficult ; see ukut'i-Dinifi. 



fainthearted, desponding ; a diffident person | uku-Denda, v. i. To hesitate, delay ; to do a 



or speaker. 
uku-DEKA, V. t. To lay the table ; fr. Du. 

i-D^k^dke, 1 " 2- '^^^^ ^^'^^'^^^ ^^ ^"^^ ^"^ 
soft, as dough which is too wet, or as wash- 
ed clothes; a drenched person; fig. sluggish, 
weak, out of joint. Phr. wahamba ngedekedekc, 
he walked at daybreak, when the dew still 
wetted his teet; a voice which is not firm. 
ubu-Dekedeke, n. 7. Coldness, wantof spirit. 
uku-Dekenda, v. i. To be slow in talking; 

to speak indistinctly. 
u-Dekenda, m. 5. Slimy, like condensed 

milk ; fig. slow talking. 
ubu-Dekenda, n. 7. Sliminess, slowness. 
uku-Dekisa, v. To act in a sluggish, dila- 
tory, negligent manner; not to mind; to 
be slow to speak. 
Dekisela, v. To act slowly, etc., for or 
in respect of another person. 



thing slowly: tingadendi, be prompt, make 
short work. 

isi-Dende, ;/. 4. A medicinal plant. 

isi-Dendeleko, n, 4. A flat, shallow dish; 
saucer, plate. 

u-Dendeleko, n. 5. A long way. 

uku-Deiide!eza, v. i. To spoil a thing by 
taking long to do it, or by wasting time in 
talking; to introduce matter foreign to a 
subject, or which is only distantly con- 
nected with it. 

isi-Oendelezo, w. 4. A round-about story 
or speech. 

uku-DENQA, v. i. To be weak in one's legs, 
to be tottering; to be slack, slow, stupid, 
dumb or without voice; to show apathy, 
indifference; to anything, or signs of 
approaching death: lomntu udengilc, this 
person is apathetic or dazed or stupefied. 



74 



DE 

isi-Deage, n. 4. A stupid, inattentive, 

dull, heavy, dumb person; of animals, it 

sometimes means tame ; fem. isidengekazi. 
i-Dengedenge, n. 2, Anything which 

grows quickly but is wanting in solidity. 

Adj. very weak, loose, slack. 
ubu-Denge, n. 7. Dullness, stupidity, 

foolishness, ignorance. 
uku-Dengisa, v. To make slack, etc.; to 

stupefy. 
u-Dengis5, n. 5. That which stupefies. 
uku-DengezeSa v. To be weak in the feet; 

to go reeling, staggering, tottering, as a 

drunken man. 
um-De-ngentonga, see under De. 
uku-Depisela, v. t. pass, detshisehva. To 
hinder, cause delay; to turn away the 
attention of one eating so that he gets little 
or nothing ; to disappoint expectations 
raised, whereby the disappointed person is 
damaged: uyazidepisela, he hinders himself 
from the performance of a purpose by 
allowing other events and occupations to 
cause delay; iidetshiselwe liratshi lake, he 
was cheated by his haughtiness. 
u-Devu, n. 5. A single hair or a tuft of hairs 
on a woman's face, or downy hair on a 
woman's upper lip ; Plur. indevu, the hair 
on a man's chin, the beard ; see isi-Levu. 
ukut"i-DI, V. t. To pour in upon or mix with 
other things, = uku-Dihanisa. 
uku-Diba, v. t. past, ditywa. To fill up a 

hole with earth or stone ; to fill up a gap ; 

to beat in earth round a stake; fig. to 

intermix, mingle; to make different things 

to be as one ; to force down (an enemy) ; 

to offend (the ear) by big talk. 
in-Dibandiba, n. 3. A mixed multitude. 
uku-Dibana, v. To intermix : igusha zadiba- 

na nehokwe, the sheep mixed with the 

goats; to meet together; fig. to combat 

with each other: sadihana naye, we had a 

combat with him. 
Dibanisa, v. To mix things together 

which were separate and foreign: ukudi- 

hanisa ititloko, to put heads together, i.e. 

to confer. 
um-Dibaniso, n. 6. Collision, battle. 
uku-DJbelela, v. To fill up a hole with 

earth ; to hide underground, inter, bury ; 

fig. to surprise; to hinder one from 

speaking; to violate, desecrate (the Lord's 

day). 
isi-Dibelelo, n. 4. That which is used to 

beat in earth around a stake, a stamper ; 



DI 

fig. something said by a third person 
which causes renewed disagreement 
between two parties who were about to 
settle their disputes amicably. 

uku-Dibeleleka, v. To be filled up from 
internal action, the earth falling gradual- 
ly from the hole's side ; fig. to be painful. 
i-Dibi, n. 2. A gulf. 

isi-Dibi, n. 4. A shallow hole in the 
ground; a shallow in a river; fig. a 
shallow brain, adj. Shallow. 

i-Dlb;dtbi, n. 2. A corpulent person 
whose muscles are flabby, not firm. 
One who is a poor speaker in the 
presence of superiors; an inexperienced 
spealcer who tells only part of the news. 

in-Dibilili, . 3. A mass or heap of 
porridge, mud or cowdung. 

in-Dibongo, n. 3. Boggy, muddy ground. 
i-Dida, n. 2. An ox that sets off well in a 

race but does not keep up; an aged man 

whose strength is failing. 
uku-DIDA, V. i. To hesitate in approaching 

a place from apprehension of danger; to 

start back. 

Dideka, v. To be at a loss, at a stand, 
in a mental strait, agitated, perplexed, 
confused, apprehensive of boding evil. 

ubu-DIdeka, n. 7. Confusion of mind. 

uku-Didekisa, v. To cause confusion, 
perplexity, apprehension of danger; to 
cause to start back. 
u-D3di, n. 5. Row (of stones), order, class, 

caste, column, step, story, kind, generation: 

siludidi lunye, we are of the same sort, class, 

stamp; indidi ngendidi, army upon army, or 

generation upon generation ; indidi ezipantsi, 

the lower classes of people ; indidi ezipaka- 

mileyo, the higher classes. 
i-Dididi, n. 2. Shuffling, hesitation, not 

speaking out at once. 
isi-Didimakwe, n. 4. An aged person who 

can no longer walk; a wonderful thing. 
ubu Didisholo, . 7- State of having cramp; 

inefficiency. 
uku-Didiyela, v. t. To mix, knead together. 
uku-Didiza, v. i. To tingle (of the ears); 

fig. to stagger, tremble, quiver in body 

from agitation of the mind or from illness. 

Didizela, v. Of a bird, to hover quiver- 
ing over its nest; fig. of the limbs, to 
sliake after sickness. 

Didizisa, v. To cause trembling, etc.: 
adidiziswa antatambo am, all my bones 
were made to shake. 
75 



[ n. 2. (a) An unmarried female. 



Dl 

uku-Dika, v. t. To cause satiety: le?iio ihadi- 
kile abantu, this matter has more than satis- 
fied the people; perf. pass, diklwe: to have 
enough of a thing and wish no more; to be 
filled, satiated, fat from eating, drinking, 
satisfying the lusts, etc.; to be wearied, 
disgusted, having more than enough. 
i-Dikwa-msinya, . 2. One soon satis- 
fied, both literally and figuratively. 
uku-Dikisa, v. To satiate, satisfy, ap- 
pease, content. (The idea of oversatiat- 
ing is never absent from this word.) 
i-Dikazana,) 
i-Dikazi, j 

It is difficult to define this word, as it is used 
very loosely. It does not necessarily mean 
that a woman has lost her virtue, while it is 
not applicable to many women who are very 
immoral, e.g. abarcxezayo. It is a term of re- 
proach to all women who are husbandless, 
except the widows who have not left the 
places of their late husbands. A Dikazi may 
be a woman (not girl) who has never had a 
husband, or one who once had one, but has 
been separated from him, or a widow who 
has left her late husband's place. It is never 
applied to a married woman, however loose 
her character. It is applied to all marriage- 
able women without husbands. To be in 
such condition is a great reproach. People 
must be very careful in using this term, as 
there are now unmarried Christian native 
women of irreproachable character. 

(b) The under part of the leg, on which 
cattle lie on the ground. 
i-Dike, n. 2. A pool in a river or near a 
river's bank. 

i-Dike kazi, n. 2. A larger pool than idike; 
a lake. 
ukut'i-DIKI, V. i. Of the eyelid, to wince or 
quiver once, which is taken as a sign that 
either a friend or a letter is coming. 
uku-Dikizela, v. To keep on quivering, 
throbbing, or pulsating ; to vibrate rapidly 
(as the muscles do after heavy work, or 
the flesh of a beast just slaughtered) 
have spasms; fig. applied to the rumbling 
and reverberating of distant thunder. 
Dikidiki, adj. Lukewarm, tasteless: anianzi 
adikidiki, the water is lukewarm. 
ubu-Dikidiki, n. "j. Lukewarmness. 
isi-Dikiii, n. 4. Lasiosiphon meisnerianus, 
Endl. and L. linifolius. Dene., medicinai 
plants, used for wounds, snake-bites, sore 
throat and gallsickness, 



Milt-sickness 



anthrax 



in 

uku-Dikinca, v. i. (a) To eat with the um- 
Hluma. (b) To hitch the shoulders forward. 

i-Dila, H. 2. \ 

in-Dila, 71. 3. ) 
among cattle, also among men in conse- 
quence of eating the flesh of an affected 
animal, generally spoken of under the 
euphemistic name of inyama yamakwenkwe; 
= u-Bcnde ; also a thing legally unclean. 

uku-Dilata, r. /. To wander about in 
uncertainty. 

uku-Dileka, v. i. To be at a loss, beside 
oneself. 

ukut'i-DILI, r. i. Of the mud-wall of a house, 
to fall in through rain. 
uku-Dilika, v. To fall in or down iq a 
great mass (unburnt bricks, mud-wall, 
cornhole, land-slip), by reason of rain or 
otherwise. 
Dilikela, v. To fall upon: abantu badili- 
kclwa itgumhlaba, the people were covered 
by ground falling upon them. 
Diliza, r. To cause to fall down; to pull 

down, demolish, destroy (house, town). 
Dilizeka, = uku-Dilika. 

i-DlLlYA, n. 3. A grape; fr. Du. druive. 
isi-DlLIYA, n. 4. A vineyard. 
um-DlLlYA, n. 6. A vine. 

in-Dima, . 3. from uku-Lima, to plough. A 
piece of cultivated land, as much as one 
can plough in one day, or as much as a gang 
of hoers cover at a stretch ; a piece of land 
already dug or ploughed in a garden; a 
piece of work already done: indima yetfi 
inkulu, we have done a big piece of work ; 
dimin. indinyana. 

u-DIma, n. 5. Having one side of the face 
painted white and the other black, as an 
isanuse has on the day he accuses of witch- 
craft: uqah' udi?na, he has painted his face 
with two colours. 

isi-Dima, . 4. Virtue, respect, worth, 
character: uvifazi onesidima, a virtuous 
woman; ukuyinika into isidima, to respect, 
regard a thing. 

uku-DIMALA, v. i. To give up a thing in 
disgust. 

Dimalela, v. To abhor, be disgusted 
with : aningedimalelii-a ngumpefumlo warn, 
my soul would not abhor you. 
Dimaza, v. To cause to give up in dis- 
gust. 
Dimazeka, v. =Dimala. 

isi-Dimba, w. 4. A girl's fringed modesty 
apron. 
76 



DI 

in-Dimba, n. 3. ~\ 

in-Dimbane, . 3. V A nation, a people, a 

u-Dimba, w. 5. ) 

great number or crowd of people ; things 
innumerable; an army drawn out in battle 
array, but close together. Formerly the 
chief addressed the people : ludimha livako- 
mkulu. 

in-Dimbiliii, . 2. ] . , . . . 

isi-Dimbilili. n. 4. ) ^ ^^^P ^^ ^mnowed 
corn; fig. a great multitude of people; a 
vast number of cattle, such as the thou- 
sands captured by the troops in Kafir 
wars. 
uku-Dimbaza, ?. /. pass, dwjazwa. To take 
corn out of the corn-pit in the cattle fold ; 
fig. to reveal secrets (from the practice of 
witchdoctors in digging up bewitching 
matter.) 
ukut'i-Dimfi, v. i. Of a corpulent person, to 
move the leg forward with difficulty in 
walking, owing to the weight of the body. 
uku-Dimfizela, v. To walk in the manner 
described under ukuti-Dimfi. 
in-Dimla, n. 3. A tonsil; others, the thyroid- 
ean cartilage to which the epiglottis is 
tied ; in tonsilitis they say, udnmhe indimla. 
uku-DINA, V. i. To become tiresome : ;^^tf 
iyadina, this gets tiresome ; generally used 
in the pass, dinwa: to be tired; to fail with 
weariness; fig. ukudimva tigumniii, to be tired 
of, i.e. disgusted with, a person ; ungadinwa 
nangomso, do not be wearied (in giving) 
even tomorrow; i.e. thanks for the present 
and remember me still in the future ; ndidi- 
niwe kukumlinda yena, I am weary of 
waiting for his arrival, n. 8. Weariness, 
lassitude. 

u-Dino K t; ( Weariness, fatigue, trouble, 
vexation. 

uku-Dinisa, v. To make weary or tired; 
to fatigue, harass: uyandidinisa ngokuteta 
kwako, you weary me out with your 
talk ; ungandidinisi ndisasebeitza-ftje, do not 
trouble me while I am working. 
, i-Diniso, n. 2. Military authority: idiniso 
lemfazwe. 

in-Dinisa, and in-Diniso, w. 3. That which 
causes weariness; tiresome business, 
wearisomeness; fatiguing duty. 

uku-Dinisela, v. To tire out, annoy by 
interfering or interrupting a person in 
speaking or working. 
uku-Dinda, v. t. Em. To prepare everything, 

but not bring it to a point; to go on with 

no apparent progress; to continue at a 



DI 

work whose execution requires much time ; 
cf. uku-Ndinda. 

i-DlNDALA, n. 2. A constable, policeman, 
from Du. dienaar. 

i-Dindilili, n. 2. Senecio angulatus, L., a 
climber, supposed to be a digestive to 
carrion birds gorged with meat; the juice 
is applied to sore eyes; the leaves cooked 
with milt-sick meat are said to render it 
non-poisonous. 

in-Dindiiili, n. 3. That which is tough, as 
india-rubber, on which one cannot make a 
lasting impression. 

uku-Dindita, v. i. To stand and tread on one 
place without shifting position ; to continue 
searching carefully in one place. 

uku-Dinga, v. t. Em. to promise. 
i-Dinga, . 2. A promise, vow: ndimbeka 
ngedinga, I promise him. 

uku-DINQA, ") , , ^ . , , 

-Dingadinga, ] ^- ' (^> ^ wander about; 

to be embarrassed, at a loss : uyadingadinga, 

he seeks a place of rest, but everywhere he 

is driven away; he is in doubt and cannot 

come to a decision ; he does not know what 

to do; diriga nenkuni zako, go about from 

place to place, you will not find one to buy 

your wood, (b) To lack: ndiyadinga imali, 

I am in want of, I must needs have, money; 

amanzi akadingwa, there is no lack of water ; 

amazwi akadingwa, there is constant talking. 

um-Dingi, tt. I. One who is embarrassed, 

at a loss; who wishes to work but cannot 

get employment. 

uku-Dingeka, v. To be in a state of 

need: umbona uyadingeka nonyaka, maize 

is scarce this year. 

Dinglsa, v. To cause to wander about, 

or to wander in mind. 

u-Dingane, n. 5. Fullness: indlti iludingane, 
the house is full of smoke or bad smell. 

in-Dingi, n. 3. Melody, harmony of sound. 

i-Dini, n. 2. An animal sacrifice made to 
propitiate departed ancestors, (inti-Nyanya 
or abantu abangasekbyo). 

(1) Should anyone dream about his dead 
ancestors, he took this as an indication 
that they were displeased at some neglect 
and demanded an idini, a propitiatory 
sacrifice. 

(2) Should there be illness either of ma.i 
or beast, and a doctor be called in and say, 'I 
see, your ancestors are displeased, because 
you have not rendered them their due', it 
was understood that a sacrifice was de- 
manded. 



77 



DI 

(3) Should there be no rain, the people 
would go to the chief and say, 'Why do 
you allow it to be thus ? why don't you 
invoke your ancestors?' whereupon he 
would offer a sacrifice.- 

These sacrifices are offered thus : (a) Fuel 
is prepared consisting of sneezewood 
chips, (b) An animal is slaughtered in the 
centre of the cattlefold in the afternoon. The 
blood is carried in a basket from that spot 
into the house of the person who dreamt 
about his ancestors, or who is ill, and 
placed in the backmost part of the hut. 
As it is being carried, drops are purposely 
allowed to fall. All the bones and all the 
flesh of the animal are carried into the 
same hut, and laid on sneeze-wood or laurel 
twigs, (c) Next day a fire is made, chiefly 
of split sneezewood, on the spot where the 
animal was slaughtered. The flesh is 
brought out of the hut ; all of it, except the 
women's portion, is carried back into the 
cattlefold, and laid on sneezewood twigs 
near the fire or hung on the stakes of the 
fold. The women's portion is taken to a 
fire beside the calves' fold. The first part 
offered is the fat upon the liver (in- 
Tlukuhla), which is cast upon the fire and 
wholly burnt. After that pieces of meat 
may be roasted and eaten during the 
morning, but most of the animal is boiled, 
partly o/er the fire in the centre of the 
cattlefold, and partly over the fire beside the 
calves' fold. All the boiled meat is taken 
off the fire in the afternoon, and all eaten 
at the same time by both parties. Next 
day all the fat and every bone and remain- 
ing portion of meat and every twig used, 
are burnt on the fire in the centre of the 
cattlefold. The blood, if not poured out at 
that fire, is poured out at the fence, but 
still within the fold. 

On the day the sacrifice is eaten, a person 
is posted at the entrance of the cattlefold 
and another at the calves' told, and every- 
one who partakes of the sacrifice must 
deposit something in the hands of one or 
other of the posted persons, and, as he 
gives it, he says " Camagu" ; see uku-Ruma 
and Camagu. All these articles, no matter 
what they be, are finally scattered within 
the cattlefold near the fence. Some sacri- 
fices made by the chiefs were wholly burnt, 



1)1 

u-Dini, n. 5. The brink of a river; the edge 
of a wall or precipice; the rim of a cup or 
basin. 

in-Dinisa, in-Dino, etc., see tikii-Dina. 

um-Dints, . 6. Inappetency, want of 
disposition to seek, select or imbibe nutri- 
ment: iisnke wanomdintsi kum, he was not 
disposed to cultivate or seek my friendship. 

uku-DlPA, V. t. To cleanse sheep from scab 
by dipping them in an arsenical or other 
wash ; fr. Eng. 

uku-Dipa, v. t. pass, ditshwa. (a) To take 
handfuls continuously or in quick suc- 
cession from an inexhaustible supply; 
hence to help oneself or one's friends 
liberally from an inexhaustible source. 
This may be done either honestly or 
dishonestly. Used in the latter sense, the 
term knyaditshwa means: they are helping 
themselves liberally to other people's 
property, i.e. stealing is prevalent or rife ; 
cf. iiku-Capula; to put the foot into the 
mud, or any soft matter ; to dip the sleeve 
into water unawares or suddenly. 
isi-Dip6, n. 4. A portion taken from that 
which continues to afford a supply, as a 
portion of honey taken from a hive. 

jn-Dipane, n. 3. Abundance, plenty, cf. 
in-Tapane. 

ukut'i-Dipe, v. i. To dip into: unyawo Iwake 
lute-dipe eludakeni, he dipped his foot into 
the mud. 

uku-DPpuIa, } ^' ' To cut through, tear open, 

cf. uku-R'ipula. 
um-Dlsane, n. 6. A fine, deep tone. 
isi-Dishidishi, n. 4. The awkward walking of 

a tall, corpulent person : isidishidishi somfo, 

a tall, corpulent person. 

uku-Oishizela, v. i. To walk in a stately 
manner, as a corpulent person. 
in-Dishwa, . 3. The imperfect hearing of an 

undertoned conversation. 
uku-Dlwaza, v. t. (a) To distribute, spread* 

(the word of God), (b) To destroy utterly; 

to desolate. 
isi-Diya, n. 4. Quarter-ill in cattle, 
uku-Diza, v. i. To utter unasked that which 

ought to be kept secret, as a thief who in- 
forms on his fellows ; to reveal secrets ; to 

expose ; to stammer, stutter. 
uku-Diza. v. t. from uku-Diliza. To demolish 

(stubble). 



78 



DI 

i-Diza, n. 2. A field of mealies or Kafircorn 

that has been reaped; mto such fields the 

cattle are turned to eat down the stubble : 

yisa inkomo koladiza lika Mhevihe, take the 

cattle to that reaped field of Mbembe. 

u-Diza, II. 5. A stalk of Kafircorn without 

the ear, or of mealies without the cob; 

fig. a cigar, 

um-Diza, n. 6. (a) A degenerate corn-plant, 

the seed of which has a disagreeable 

taste ; a sapless mealie stalk ; darnel ; the 

place or extent of a stubble-field, (b) A 

sweet scented herb. 

uku-DLA, V. t. (a) To eat, to bite, with a wide 

range of meaning; fig. ndadla uboini, I ate 

life, i.e. I lived; of cattle, to pasture, 

graze; inkomo zidla emlanjeni, the cattle 

are grazing at the river; with ilifa, to 

inherit: ndenze nto-nina uknze ndibudle ilifa 

ubom obungunapakcxde? what shall I do to 

inherit eternal life ? of inanimate things 

that have the power to harm, to harm, 

devour : irele ladla abaniu abaninzi, the sword 

devoured many people (in war) ; elatafa 

ladla inkomo zam, that plain (meadow) 

devoured my cattle, i.e. made them sick; 

ndidliwe ngumlambo, lit. I have been bitten 

by the river, i.e. I have a rash. 

Phr. udle iikudla kwamdla, lit. he ate 
food, and it has eaten him, said of one 
under the influence of liquor; iramncwa 
elinamandla lelidlayo (or enamandla ycdlayo), 
food gives strength to the wild beast, he 
who eats longest lives longest; esihleliyo 
sidV ukuhlala esip'ilayo sesilwelwjyo, a sitting 
(i.e. lazy^ man only enjoys his ease and 
gains nothing thereby, but an active man 
will profit by his assiduity; see also i-Ncolo 
and in-Konazana. * 

(b) To 'eat' a man, i.e. to impose upon 
him, to cheat him: undidlilc, you have 
defrauded me ; to confiscate property as a 
punishment for an offence: inkosi inidlile 
lomntu ngctyala lake, the chief ate that man, 
i.e. confiscated the man's property for his 
crime. 

(c) To cost: ingiibo idla mali-nil what 
money does your gar^nent cost.? yadla 
isheleni enye, the price was one shilling. 
Phr. ingwe idla ngamabala, tlie leopard is 
prized for its spots. 

(d) As auxiliary, iikudla is construed 
with ukuba or ukut'i, signifying that 
the circumstances or actions referred to are 



generally or often so : amahashe adla ngokuti 

afunyanive, the horses are usually found; 

sidla ngokuba babi, we are usually bad ; badla 

ngokuha neso'w, commonly they are sinful ; 

ebcdla hixoka, he used to speak lies, was in 

the habit of speaking lies. 
n. 8 Food. 

uku-zi-Dla, Lit. to eat oneself or feed 
upon oneself; i.e. to be proud, vain, con- 
ceited, to be confidently self-satisfied. 

um-DH, n. I. A great eater, one of vora- 
cious appetite. 

um-DIa, 71. 6. Relish: into inomdla, the thing 
is delicious ; fig. regard, delight, respect : 
andinamdla wanto ktdento, I have no de- 
light in this thing ; habcnge namdla utile 
^07'Ka, they thought little of their mother. 

isi-Dia-baiitu, n. 4. A cannibal. 

i-Dla-kudIa, . 2. ') . , .. 

isi-DIa-kudIa,.4.3^^^"""- 

in-Dla-lifa, and in-Dla mafa. n. 3. An heir. 

um-DIa-mbila, n. I. Em. An imaginary 
animal with a face like a dassie and a 
snake's body, which lives among rocks and 
preys on dassies. 

u-DIa nifuno, n. l. A vegetarian. 

u-DIa-mhIaba, n. I. A poor man who 
picks up his livelihood here and there. 

i-Dla-nyama, . 2. One who likes to eat 
meat. 

i-Dla-tyani, n. 2. An animal which is 
grazing on pasturage not belonging to its 
owner. 

um-Dl'ezinye, v. I. The snake that eats 
others, and is said to move v/ith a vertical 
wriggling, probably the Cj.pe cobra. 

i-DI'isidudu, ?;. 2. (Lit. thepDrridge-eater). 
The Red ej^ed Turtle Do.e, Turtur 
semitorquatus (Rilpp.) so called from its 
cooing, which is rendered as ni:k:ilu, ndip' 
isidudu, grandmother, give mc porridge. 

in-Dlo, n. 3. Confiscation of cattle. 

isi-Dlo, n. 4. A gathering for eating, a meal, 
feast; pasturage. 

um-DIo, n. 6. The wild eiible sorrel. 

uku-DIana, v. To eat up one another: 
niyadlana ngokuholeka, ye exact usury one 
of another. 

DIeka, c To be eaten away; to wear out 
or away; to be spent; to be corroded: isi- 
tshetshc sidlekile, the knife is worn out by 
use or corroding; yadlcka itnpuhla yayo 
ipela ngamagqira, she had spent all her 
living upon physicians; to be fleeced by 
the impositions or cheating of rogues in 
business transactions. 



DL 

in-Dleko, 3. Wearing out, spending, 

waste, consumption, expense. 
uku-Dlela, v. To eat at, with, from: isitya 
esidlela kuso, the dish we eat from ; indlii 
yokudlela, a dining room; fig. to confis 
cate for : nhndlela nto-nina f why do you 
confiscate his property 1 Phr. nimdlel'in- 
dlala, you wrong or punish him for 
nothing, i.e. he is innocent. 
i-Dlelo, n 2. Pasturage for stock, com- 
monage. 
in-Dlela, . 3. A path, way, road : indicia 
zemvelo, natural ways or passages ; aiidiyi- 
honi indlela yalonto, I cannot comprehend 
this matter; lento ayinandlela, tliis thing 
has no way, i.e. is impracticable ; loc. 
endleleni, dim. indlelana and mdledlana. 
in-Dlelo, . 3. Crop of a fowl. 
uku-Dlelana, v. To eat together; to sit 
together as one family; to eat at the 
family meal ; to hold friendly intercourse ; 
to partake of more than one's share. 
i-Dlelane, . 2. Partaker of the family 

meal, mate, partner, consort. 
u-Dlelano, n. 5. Those who have com- 
munion; also the act of communicating. 
ubu-Dlelane, and ubu-DIelwana, . 7. 
Companionship, communion, friendly 
intercourse. 
uku-Dlisa, v. To cause to eat, to feed: 
ukudlisa ubotni, to cause to eat life, i.e. 
make alive; to poison (with or without 
ubu-Hlungu): umfnsi wake umdlisile, his 
wife has poisoned him; fig. ukumdlis' 
udaka, lit. to make him eat dirt, i.e. to 
humble him ; ukudliswa amasi, to be made 
to drink sour milk (a form of marriage). 
When a girl is taken as a wife by a lieathen man, who 
is poor and not prepared to go through the ceremony 
of ukududa, he simply collects his friends and 
relatives and announces that he is going to tfh.ita. 
These come together on a certain day, and he 
informs them that he is not going to dndu, but that 
he intends simply to dlim amasi his intended wife 
(lit. to maiie her drink milk). He kills an ox or 
sheep or goat. Then the bridal party (uduli) enters 
the kraal where the men are, and the bride kneels 
before them as in the other form of marriage. 
When this is over, the bridal party returns to the 
house. The oldest man of the kraal (not the father 
of the bridegroom) eats a bit from the intgonj/ama 
meat, which must be taken from the right side of the 
carcase. This he roasts carefully and then takes it 
with a bowl of sour milk to the bridal party's hojse. 
He carries the meat on the point of a sharp stick 
which serves as a fork. When he enters the hut, 
he kneels before the bride, drinks a little of the milk 
and eats a bit of the roasted meat first. He then 
dips the remainder of the meat in the milk and hands 
It to the bride to eat. She eats it and drinks of the 
milk, and the ceremony is over. She is now regarded 
as a wife. 



DL 

i-Dliso, . 2. That which causes sickness 

when enchantments are used, or sickness 

caused by ubut't. Among the Tembus it 

stands for i-Rubuxa. 

u-Dliso, . 5. The form of marriage 

described under uku-Dlisa. 
uku-Dlisela, v. To herd, feed at a certain 
place: hazidlisela inkomo emlanjeni, they 
herd the cattle at the riverside. 

isi-DIa, n. 4. A small bag: (a) isidla sokutsha- 
ya, a tobacco pouch; (b) isidla scntUziyo, 
the pericardium; (c) isidla sokugqishela, 
the penis covering, usually of cloth, but 
often consisting of an empty calabash or 
the empty husk of some fruit. Without 
this covering, the Kafir would be ashamed, 
but with it he considers himself clothed. 

i-Dlaba, n. 2. That which holds itself cold 
and strange in spite of being loved. Phr. 
ubed' idlaba, an unthankful, negligent, 
unsatisfied fellow. 

uku-Dlabaza, v. i. To have liberty to go 
where one likes. 

u-Dlabevu, . S'-i'i-Dhvabevu. 

ukut'i-Dlabi, v.. i. To rush from a dangerous 
or bad place. 

uku-Dlabula, v. t. To would badly; to make 
havoc of; cf. uku-Tyabula. 
uku-Dlabuka, v. To be badly wounded; to 
burst, as a boil : inxowa idlabukile, the sack 
of mealies has burst. 

u-DladIa, w. 5. Em. Round enclosure of 
wicker work erected in the open air for 
storing maize in the cob. 

i-DladlashoIo, n. 2. An animal or bird with 
its hair or feathers in disorder, standing on 
end; fig. a person clothed in torn and 
tattered garments. 

ukut'i-Dladlu, v. i. *To retreat a short dis- 
tance in combat, for the purpose of gaining 
time to better one's position before a new 
attack: ute-dladlu ngomva, he retreated, 
drew back. 

i-Dlaka, n. 2. The grave with the corpse and 
all the relics (clothes, saddle, pipe, bag, etc.) 
of a man who has died. 

in-DIakadia, n. 3. A broken up place or 
tribe: hazindlakadla, they have been van- 
quished and dispersed in all directions; 
wenze indlikadla, he utterly routed them. 

i-DIakadlaka, n. 2. One clothed in tatters; 
having one's head covered with rags, untidy; 
poor. 

uku-Dlakavula. v. t. stronger then Dlavula. 
To speak roughly or in wrath ; to rail at. 



80 



DL 

uku-Dlakaza, v. i. To do a thing roughly; to 
rummage; to sew with uneven and rough 
stitches. Contrast iiku Cokisa. 
u-Dlakazeliso, n. 5. Rough, harsh treat- 
ment. 

u-Dlal^.'w.^sJ ^ kernel or bad lump in 
meat; a gland on the neck ; fig. a bad pass- 
age in a letter; an exception, a fault. 
Phr. ukutyanda auiadlala, lit. to cut open the 
glands, i.e. to criticise for errors and discre- 
pancies: indicia zaho ziketwi a?uadlala, their 
ways or manners are criticised. 

in-Dlala, n. 3. Dearth, {a.m'mQ: ndalala nge- 
ndlala, I slept without food ; indlala yompu- 
nzisa, the famine of 1885 ; see also uka-Dlela, 
under uku-Dla. 

uku-DIala, v. t. and i. To play, sport: aha- 
titwana hayadlala, the children are playing ; 
to trifle with (food). 
um-Dlalo, . 6. A play, sport, joke: 
ngekwa mdlalo, without joking. 

uku-Dlambadlambeka, v. To feel uncom- 
fortable after sleeping; to be fidgety, rest 
less. 

um-DIambulo, n. 6. Th2 lower jaw = M/. 
Nqamhulo. 

uku-Dlamka, v. i. To be in good spirits 
merry, lively, sprightly. 
uku-OIamkela, v. To be joyful, happy (at 

or in a place). 
uku-Dlamkisa, v. To make happy. 

uku-Diamla, v. t. Em. To destroy. 

um-Dlandlovu, n. 6. A name applied to two 
kinds of Bauhinia. 

uku-DIandluIuka, v. t. To be wild; to start 
or go into a rage. 

isi-Dlanga, n. 4. The charms (things or 
animals) which a doctor pretends to draw 
out of the body of bewitched persons. 
. in-Dlanga, . 3. A tick spotted like a tortoise 
shell, infesting cattle ; the 'bont-tick'. 

um-Dlangala, = um-Hlangala. 

isi-DIangalala, n. 4. Furnace for melting ore. 

um-Dlantolo, n. 6. A kind of chat (bird). 

uku-DLATULA, v. t. To tear, pull, pluck out 
(hair). 
uku-Dlatuka, v. Of hair, to fall out; to be 

plucked or pulled out. ^ 
um-Dlatuka, n. 6. One whose hair has 
partly fallen out; dimin. a mean, ugly, 
low fellow, 

ukut'i-Dlavu, v. t. To bite into and tear with 
the teeth, as a dog ; to pinch with the finger 
nails. 

L 81 



An animal with horns 



DL 

i-Dlavu, n. 2. A torn, ragged, worn out 

dress : ingiibo yake yalidlavu, his garment 

became tatters; fig. a bad loose character. 

ubu-Dlavu, ti. 7. State of poverty or rag- 

gedness ; havoc. 
uku-DIavula, and DIavuza, v. To tear, to 
make useless (clothes) ; fig. to spoil a 
speech, n. 8. Robbery, rapine. 
u-DIawu, n. 5. Em. A smith's tongs. 
i-Dlazalala, w. 2. A disorderly person with 

dishevelled hair. 
ubu-Dlazalala, n. 7. State of disorder, e.g. 

of having dishevelled, uncombed hair. 
in-Dlazi, ?i. 3. The speckled mousebird, 

Colius striatus, Gm. 
in-DIazi, n. 3. 
isi-DIazi, n. 4. 

stretched like wings, almost horizontally., 
in-Die, n. 3. The open field; (used only in 
the locative case endle or ezmdle): ndiya 
endle, I go into the field, euphem. for I go 
to stool. Adj. wild: ubusi basendle, wild 
honey; b.isezindle, they are abroad. 
i-DIebe, n. 2. The ear of anything, e.g. the 
'ear' of a pail to which the handle is 
attached; amadlcbe cr.ja or ekati, 'dog's ears' 
or 'cats' ears', two little projections of the 
q'lya when tied after a certain fashion. 
i-Dlebe lendlovu, n. 2. Trimeria alnifolia. 
Planch., a small herb with an aromatic 
taste, eaten after sickness in order to 
give a relish to other food. (Strictly Zulu, 
not Kafir). 
in-Dlebe, n. 3. The ear: ndlncndlcbe, I have 
ear ache; niiyinllebc yake, I listen for him, 
i.e. I report to hira; ulcle tigandlctyana nyc, 
he lies sick; yati ititaka cndlcbeni yam, I 
heard a rumour. 

in-Dlebe yemvu, . 3. Helichrysum ap- 
pendiculatum. Less., a medicinal plant for 
colds and coughs. 
um-Dlebe, n. 6. White iron wood; when 
made into powder and sprinkled it is be- 
lieved to drive away th2 enemy. 
ukut'i-DIeke, v. t. To spread out; to expose 

oneself by spreading out the legs. 
in-DIeko, in-Dlela, etc., see under uku-Dla. 
in-Dlela, i-Dlelane, etc., see uku Dla. 
isi-DIele, n. 4. Cheek: iziilele ezimhekHeyo, 

hollow cheeks. 
i-Dlelo, in-DIe!o, see uku-Dla. 
u-Dlendlelele, . l. One who has no helper, 
master or owner i^ akanabani. cf. in-Dlaka- 



DL 

um-DIesa, n, 6. A name given to two species 
of trees, (a) the Christmas-tree, Pavetta 
lanceolata., Eckl., and (b) the wild coffee, 
Kraussia lanceolata, SonJ. 

um-Dlezana, n. I. A woman who is still 
suckling her child. If an um:ilczana or 
sucking child passes near a snake, the 
smell of the milk is believed to immediately 
overpower the snake and render it helpless. 

in-Dlezana, n. 3. An animal which has 
recently given birth to a young one, e.g. a 
cow with a young calf. 

um-Dlezana, . 6. A hen with young chick- 
ens. 

um-DII, see uku-Dla. 

ukut'i-Dliki, V. t. To give a person a single 

push ; to shake a person once. 

uku-Dlikidla, v. To shake well: utub :mbe 

wamdlikidla, he caught hold of him and 

gave him a good shake; to seize and 

shake as a dog does. 

i-Dliso, in-DIo, etc., see uku-Dla. 

uku-Dloba, v. i. To jump or run about like 
calves or goats; Phr. akuko tikonyana yaka 
yadloha nkundla tnbini, lit. no calf ever 
skipped about in two folds, i.e. no man 
can be famous or great under two chiefs. 
DIobisa, v. To cause to skip or run; fig. 
wadhtyiswa yiniihlali, he jumped for joy. 

in-DIodIo, n. 3. Poor, miserable, dispersed, 
scattered people ; an orphan. 

i-Dlodlosholo, . 2. An animal with long 
hair on its back standing up; a person with 
uncombed hair, stretching more than the 
usual length. 

isi-DlokoIo, . 4. A cap of baboon's skin. 

uku-Dlokova, v. i. To plunge, buck, as an 
untrained horse or ox : inkomo zetii ziyaku- 
dlokova, our /oto/.z-cattle will give the 
drivers much trouble by raising their tails 
and scampering off (if we eat the tail of a 
sheep or cow). Hence girls must not eat 
tails. 

uku-Dloia, V. i. To be barren, said of human 
beings and inferior animals; to be un- 
productive, unfruitful, etc. 
u-DIoIo, n. 5. A barren one; fem. udlolokazi. 

in-Dloloti, . 3. An animal with large staring 
eyes, as a hare or frog. 

ukut'i-DfondIo, v. i. To get or become a 
little higher. 

in-DlondIo, n. 3. A high forehead; cf. in- 
Tlontlo. I 

isi-DlondIo, n. 4. A middle-sized person, ' 

82 



A wild, hasty. 



DL 

uku-Dlondluluka = uku-Dlandluluka. 
ukut'i-Dlongodlongo, v. i. To act wildly or 

hastily, without care or plan. 

i-DIongodlongo, n. 2. 

isi-Dlongodlongo, n. 4. 

noisy person: Itsand' ukugqita apa elo- 
dlongodlongo, that hasty, noisy fellow has 
_ just passed here. 

ubu-Dlongodlongo, n. 7. Hurry, haste, 
wildness, tempestuousness. 

isi-DlongoIolo, n. 4. One who does every- 
thing with haste or hurry. 

uku-Dlongoza, v. To be rowdy, to rush 
tumultuously, to rage. 

isi-DIongozi, n. 4. Rushing into anger or 
rage. 

uku-DIongozela, v. To rush tumultuously 
to ; = ukuti-Dlongodlongo. 
uku-Dlopa, V. obsolete, = uku-Tyapa. 

i-DIopatyapa, n. 2. One who begins well, 
but does not persevere, who cannot be 
relied upon; a fickle, shifty, unsteady 
person: stika, ulidlopatyapa, begone! I 
cannot rely upon you. 
uku-DIova, V. t. To spoil a thing, to make 

havoc of it. 
isi-DIova, n. 4. People of bad, rough, violent 

character. Em. Poor, oppressed people 

whose property has been confiscated; 

vassals. 
ukut'i-Dlovu, V. t. Of a cow, to stab with its 

horn; to pierce: ittaliti indite-dlovu, the 

needle has gone into me. 

in-DIovu, n. 3. The elephant. Prov. Akuko 
ndlovn isindtva ngumboko zvayo, lit. no 
elephant ever felt the burden of its own 
trunk, i.e. a man will not admit the failure 
of his own idea. 

isi-Dlovudlovu, w. 4. One who takes any 
thing without permission ; one who spoils, 
who will have his own way to the injury 
of others. 

uku-DIovula, t;. To take without permission, 
etc. 
i-DIozJ, n. 2. Semen virile; people of the 

same seed. 
in DIozi, n. 3. The serval, Felis serval Erxl. 
in-Dlu, n. 3. House, hut, dwelling, abode. 

Usendhvini yoke, he is in his house; indlu 

Hula, (opposed to indln inzima), the house 

has not many people or chattels ; indlu yc- 

niaka, a bird's nest; indlu yesigcau, a spider's 

web ; itidki encinane eiigasetnva or yelindle, a 

water-closet; ulelc ngendlu, he is laid up 

at home, i.e. he is lying very ill. (The house 

of a chief's great wife is held sacred as a 

place of refuge for culprits.) 



DL 

ukut'i DIu, V. t. To fix the eyes, stare, gaze 
on nothing. 

i-Dlu, n. 2. A swelling from bruises or con- 
tusion; pi. amadlu, bubbles, wind in the 
stomach; a crowd of people; iilwandle 
lusuk' amadlu, the sea has big waves, 
breakers; indoda isuk' amadlu, the man 
became excited, ardent, hot ; yenza amadlu, 
he kept on speaking and would not leave off. 

isi-DIubu, w. 4. Brownish mark of burning on 
the stomach, got from sitting too much 
over the fire. Dimin, isidlutyana, marks 
from burning, a brown mark on the belly 
of a beetle. 

u-Dlubu, n. 5. In phr. uyoUs'udluhu, he speaks 
without end. 

uku-DIubuka, v. i. Of a boil or ulcer, to 
burst open; of the skin, to peel off after 
being scalded; to be rotten; to present 
a sickening appearance, as a decomposing 
corpse. 

uku-Dludla, V. i. To be restless, unsteady; to 
be changeable in one's affections. 

isi-Dludlwana, n. 4. That which is not big, 
though not small. 

i Dluka, n. 2. Bustle, disturbance : ^(7^^ ^;/&^ 
lidluka, there will at length be uneasiness, 
disunion or discord. 

isi-Dlukulu, n. 4. = isi-Dlokolo. 

u-Dlukulwana, . 5. Kafir-corn with short 
and thick ears. 

uku-DHJLA,^'.^ and?. To pass by, go beyond 
a place : wadlula ebuhlanti, he passed by the 
cattle fold ; inkosi yadhda apa izolo, the chief 
passed here yesterday; fig. to surpass, 
excel: lomntu wasidlula ngohulumko, that 
man surpassed us in wisdom ; lento iyandi- 
dlula, this matter is beyond me, i.e. beyond 
my comprehension. (Ukumdlula is the 
euphem. expression for sleeping with a 
wife for the first time. ) 
um-Dluli, n. i. One passing through. 
in-DIula-miti, w. 3. The giraffe (lit. the 

one higher than the trees). 
uku-DIulana, v. To pass by each other; to 

surpass each other in height, etc. 
Dlulela, V. To pass by to a certain 
place: sadlulele kweyake itidlu, we passed 
on to his house. 
DIulisa, V. To cause to pass or go 
beyond; to excel, surpass; to make an 
offence pass away, by forgiving and 
forgetting it. 
Dlulisela, v. To cause a thing to pass 
for or on account of ; to excel in or on 
account of. 



83 



DL 

ukut'i-DIundlu, v. i. To grow or get a little 
bigger or older (of a child between ten or 
twelve years) ; cf. ukutt-Dlondlo. 
um-Dlungu, w. 6. Rotten grain ; the refuse 
after reaping, used for feeding pigs and 
hens or for making beer. 
isi-Dlutyana, ;/. 4. Dimin. of isi-Dlubu. 
in-Dlwabevu, . 3. A very sweet or deli- 
cious thing. 
in-Dlwambedlu, n. 3. A worthless, use- 
less thing, good for nothing. 
isi-Dlwambedlu, n. 4. A useless, bad fellow. 
in-Dlwambedlwili, k 3. A useless, though 

pretentious, person. 
in-Dlwana, n. 3. Dimin of in-Dlu. A trap 

with a door. 
izi-Dlwenga, . 4. pi. Great darkness before 
a thunderstorm: iziilu lizidlwenga, the sky 
has a threatening appearance. 
isi-Dlwengu, n. 4. One who commits vio- 
lence on a woman; a violent, lawless man. 
ubu-Dlwengu, n. 7. Ravishment, rape. 
ukuDlwenguIa, v. To ravish a woman by 
force, to rape, violate ; to act with vio- 
lence: ihashe lindidlwetigule, the horse 
bolted with me. 
uku-Dlwengulela, v. To ravish. 
uku-Dobelela, v. t. To adjudge: umgwebi 
wamdobelela, the judge punished him severe- 
ly ; uyazidohelela, he brings upon himself a 
heavy punishment ; he makes his guilt 
greater by adding other crimes. 
Dobeleleka, v. To be adjudged to a 
long and severe punishment. 
i-DOBILirvi, n. 3. A penny; Du. dubbeltje. 
i-Dobo, n. 2. General term for long, coarse 

grass. 
u-Dobo, n. 5. from uku-Loba. A fishhook. 
uku-Doda, v. i. To become a man by 
circumcision ; to play the man. 
in-Doda, n. 3. plur. amadoda. A man, a 
married man, a husband: indoda yomzi, a. 
public man; hence, strength, valour, 
prowess: uyindoda, you are a man, you 
are manly. 
in-Doda yolwandle, ")^ 
in-Doda yomkombe, 3 

seaman, mariner. 
isi-Doda, n. 4. (a) Mankind, (b) The male 
genitals; umakulu osidoda, my grandfather 
(old Kafir). 
ubu-Doda, n. 7. Manhood, manliness, eu- 
phem, for the penis; virility. 
in-Dodakazi, n. 3. The sister-in-law of a 

wife, i.e. her husband's sister. 
in-Dodana, n. 3. plur. atnadodana. A youth, 
young man. 



3. A sailor, 



DO 

u-Dodana, ;/. 5. A number of young men. 
xibu-Dodaiia, //. 7. Youth. 
isi-Dodo, }i. 4. A fat, heavy mass, atonic, 
feeble, not lively or active ; one much below 
the ordinary size, a dwarf; one who cannot 
walk or speak; a child who exceeds the 
usual period, ere it begins to walk- 
iimnKmna tisiJodo bumini, the child has be- 
come a cripple after having been able to 
walk. 
ubu-Dodo, . 7. The weight or heaviness of 

a fat body, such as a fat pig. 
u-DoDOl'/OYI, . I. from Du. dood gooien, 
'throw dead,' i.c. throw and kill. Heavy 
bread that would kill one if thrown at him. 
Any hard, heavy bread. 
um-Doko, n. 6. A cattle disease. 
um-Doko, n. 6. = anta-R'ewu. 
i-Dokodoko, n. 2. A person with a harsh, 
rough voice: nkuteta tig.'lizivi elidokoiokwana, 
to hector. 

isi-Dokodoko. w. 4. The weight or thick- 
ness of a block, which nobody can carry. 
uku-Dokozela, v. To speak in a loud, deep 

bass voice. 
Dakozelisa, v. To make oneself big; 
to hector. 
u-Dokolwana, n. I. A steam-tug. 
uku-DoIa, V. i. To be disabled, benumbed, 
stiff from cold; to have no feeling; to 
be sleepy, drowsy, indolent, phlegmatic, 
apathetic. 

Dollsa, V. To make indolent, etc. 
um-Dolo, H. 6. Plenty, abundance; a great 
feast where many people eat much meat to 
satisfaction. 
i-Do!o, n. 2. The knee. Phr. iikiiba tiomta 
wedolo, to be alone. 

i-Dolo lenkonyana, n. 2. The smaller 
dock, Rumex eckloni Mcis7t., used for 
tapeworm. 

in-DoIolwane, n. 3. The heavy leaning on 

knees and elbows, in drawing with great 

effort something out of the water or out 

of a ditch, or in drawing a thing towards 

oneself; holding fast a bullock which is 

about to escape from one's hand. Phr. 

nmviindla uiicndololwatie, the hare runs fast 

so as to leave the dogs behind; siwe or 

senze ngendololwane, we have fallen on 

our knees, i.c. we worship, we pi-ay. 

um-Dolomba, n. 6. The undulation or 

overflowing of a x'lvtr: amaiizi angumdolo- 

mha, the waves of the river rise, move up 

and down ; the undulations of a snake ; a 

pillar of smoke; fig. ungumdolomba, he is 

tall and stout. 



DO 

i-DOLOPU, K. 3. A village, town ; Du. dorp. 

i-Doiosi, w. 2. Lungsickness. 
Domb6, n. 2. A nicely-formed leg. 

uku-Dombdza, v. i. To speak loudly and 
slowly in expressing thanks, using many 
agreeable expressions. 

isi-DoMU, n. 4. A stupid person; Du. hij is 
dom, he is stupid. 

uku-Domula, and Donc{i\Si, = uku-Donyula. 

in-Dondo, . 3. A person of rank; a gentle- 
man: indondo zomzi, the chief men of the 
place, = abanini-mzi. 

u-Dondolo, n. 5. A long walking staff used to 
support the infirm; anything which is long: 
indicia iludondolo, the road is long; see 
uku-Va. 

i-Dondololo, n. 2. = um-Dondosholo. 

um-Dondolosholo, . 6. = um-Dondosholo. 

uku-DondopSlela, v. i. To stay, remain, for- 
get; cf. nku-Dandapila. 

um-Dondosholo, n. 6. A big root on the 
surface of the ground ; fig. a swollen blood- 

IJvessel : a swollen weal as the result of a 
beating; a man with a big body; a big 
ridge.| 

uku-Dondota, v. i. To repeat the words of 
a message exactly, or keep on doing the 
same thing. 

Dondoteia, v. To bring out the last drop 
in milking : to press down with all one's 
might: fig. to empty oneself by explain- 
ing thoroughly; to^. speak clearly and 
distinctly. 

u-Donga, h. 5. A wall, dam, mound; the bank 
of a river; plur. indonga, a washed-out gully. 
Phr. indonga ziwclene, the walls have fallen 
one against the other, used of a dispute 
between persons of high rank. 

i-Dongwane, n. 2. Indifference, beclouded 
understanding, loss, damage, misfortune, 
= i-Masi, and i-Qoqonya; unedongwane lo- 
kufa, the dying person has no longer any 
understanding. 

u-Dongwe, n. 5. Pot-clay. 

um-Dotigwe. n. 6. Prepared, formed clay; 
vessel formed of clay. 

um-Doni, n. 6. The Water-tree, Eugenia 
cordata. Laws. 

uku-Dontsa, - uku-Duntsa. 

ukj-Donyula, v. t. To pull up by the roots; 
to eradicate. 

in-Doqo, . 3. Secret charms and medicines, 
used espec. by Malay doctors, not acces- 
sible to other common people, but supposed 
to be powerful to overcome sickness. 



84 



DO 

i-DoSHA, 71. 3. A tinder box (from Du. doos). 
uku-Dovalala, v. i. To sit long in a certain 
posture, unable to get up through weakness ; 
cf. tiku-Dwala. 
ukut'i-Du, V. i. To go off at once, as a flight 
of pigeons; kute-du! it is gone, lost! du 
uhambe, you must proceed then; du uvele, 
come forth now ; hall-du, they (people, 
sheep, or birds) ran off or dispersed. 
uku-DUBA, V. t. pass, dutywa. To mingle, 
compound; to form, mix different things 
together in one mass for food, as a stew ; 
to knead earth, water and cowdung to- 
gether ; to tread clay; to trample on the 
belly ; fig. to bring into disorder, confusion ; 
to disturb, mingle in strife. 
u-Dubo, 71. 5. Confusion. 
isi-Dubanti, or isi-Dubantini, w. 4. One 

perplexed or at a loss. 
uku-Dubaduba, v. To disturb, mix up: 
i7ija iyazidubaduha igusha, the dog makes 
the sheep run pellmell. Adverbially used 
it means to do, beat, touch, etc, contin- 
ually, repeatedly. 
in-Dubanduba, . 3. One whose object! 

is to mislead. 
isi-Dubedube, n. 4. Uproar, tumult, stir, 
bustle, commotion, as when an enemy is 
among cattle; disorder, riot, clamour, 
confusion. 
uku-Dubadubeka, v. To be in a disturbed 

state. 
Dubata, ?. To perplex, embarrass, 
disturb : to go aimlessly, unconcernedly. 
Dubateka, v. To be perplexed. 
uku-Dubada, v. i To look about among 
objects, as if to see whether all expected 
to be seen are present; to search among 
a number for one or more. 
i-Dube, w. 2. The quagga. 
isi-Dubu, n. 4. A collection of u7/i-Dubu trees. 
um-Dubu, n. 6. The name given to two 
species of Bush Willow, Combretum 
erythrophyllum So7td. and C. salicifolium 
E. Mey. Em. iim-Dohi. 
um-Dubu wehlati, n. 6. Combretum kraus- 

sii Hochst. 
i-Dubudubu, 71. 2. A person or animal, 
whose body has become swollen from 
sickness, like dropsy, or whose carcase is 
swollen through putrescence; that which 
has become soft and pulpy; fig. tasteless, 
insipid; the failing to say or to do that 
which is required. 
in-Dubula, . 3. A species of lizard, real or 
imaginary. 



85 



DU 

uku-DUBULA, v. t. and i. pass, dutyulwa. 
To burst or force out; to shoot: waduhula 
7ig077tpu, he fired off the gun ; i)ttaka zadutyu- 
Iwa nguye, the birds were shot by him ; to 
strike the udder with the muzzle as a calf 
does, or with the fist, as a milker does; fig. 
to wound, smite, chide, hit hard by strong 
words: uTididubule 7igokuteta kwako, you have 
hurt me by your words ; of plants, to shoot 
forth in blossom ; of cereals, to come into 
ear: uTTibofia uyadubula, the maize has put 
forth ears (fifth stage of growth) ; to move 
swiftly as a meteor, or as a sharp pain; to 
move in the womb as a foetus. Phr. akuko 
nkang' idubul ivget'i, lit. there is no ragwort 
that blossoms and does not wither, i.e. 
everything is perishable; he once played 
a good part, or it has had its day. 
Dubuleka, v. To be fit for going off: 
U7npu awudubuleki, the gun does not go off; 
fig. to be hurt, mortified, angry, offended. 
Dubulisa, v. To cause to shoot, as fine 
weather does to vegetables. 
in-Dubule, . 3. The largest species of South 
African frog, Rana adspersa Bibr.^is- 
A7iyanko77io. 
uku-Dubuza, v. t. To break a large lump (of 
earth) into small particles with the feet; to 
make mud. 
uku-DUDA, V. i. To dance the umdiddo; v. t. 
To beat, thrash a person. 
in-Dudi, k. 3. A good dancer: fem. iii-Dudi- 

kazi. 
um-Dudo, 71. 6. A formal outdoor dance in 
front of the kraal at a marriage feast, 
. without which a marriage is not legal, 
or at i7t-Tonja7ie; see uku-Guqa and uku- 
Hlaba u/TtkoTtto. Phr. TijengorTidudo ka- 
Mapasa, like the marriage festivities 
of Mapasa, denotes anything unusually 
grand; it is said that these festivities 
were carried on for a whole year; u/Tidudo 
woTio/ikala, the crab's dance, i.e. much 
ado about nothing, a storm in a teapot. 
Both men and women take part in the 
u77idudo, which is performed in the open 
air, and only during the day, never after 
sunset. It consists of two parts. First 
uku-XtTia, in which the men, ranged side 
by side in rows, from two to four deep, 
simultaneously rise perpendicularly a 
foot or so from the ground and simul- 
taneously descend on the same spot, while 
the women stand behind them singing 
(tsholoza). Second uhi-Tyuluba, in which 
both men and women, either in extended 



DU 

lines, or in one encircling those engaged | 
in the xina, make their whole bodies 
quiver from head to foot. The men and ! 
women are not mixed up promiscuously i 
in either part. The men are almost naked, 
having on only the isi-Dla, ornaments, 
and perhaps the skin of i-Ula hanging 
down the back. The women appear in 
full dress, being clothed from head to 
ankle. Formerly they had on the head 
an immense cap covered with beads, and 
bound on with long broad ribbons made 
of bluebuck skins, and on the body a 
great cloak or mantle made of oxhide. 
uku-Dudela, v. Phr. u-Dingnve wadudelwa 
ngu-Zamhise, she grew old and past the 
time of marriage. 
u-Dude, n. 5. That which is without a pro- 
prietor. 
i-Dudu, n. 2. Grains of maize roasted in the 
ashes by children ; persons of the same age. 
isi-Dudii, u. 4. Porridge (distinguished from 
um-Qa, stiff or thick porridge); see uku- 
Silela. 
um-Dudu, ff. 6. That which is common or 

belonging to several. 

ukut'i-DU DU DU, v. i. To make the noise 

du dit: ndafika esiti du du dii amasi, 

I arrived when she was pouring out the 

sour milk, with the gurgling sound du du. 

uku-Duduma, v. To thunder: izulu liyadu- 

duma, the heaven thunders ; to disperse 

in great numbers from one spot, as a 

flock of sheep, a herd of cattle, a swarm 

of locusts, a multitude of people (from 

the dull sound made by their movement) 

in- and u-Dudunia, ;/. 3. and 5. Thunder. 

uku-Dudumela, v. To approach to with 

noise. 
Dudumisa, v. To cause or make a noise 
resembling thunder, as when a wrathful 
chief drives the people from his presence, 
or when a herd of cattle is driven 
hurriedly, or a troop of horses made to 
gallop: to blow a rock up into the air. 
Duduz&la, V. To shake, tremble, shiver, 

quiver. 
Duduzelisa, v. To make to tremble. 
ukut'i-DUKE, and uku-DUKA, v. i. To 
wander away among strangers and be un- 
known ; to be lost to view : inkomo zidnkHe 
ehlat'mi, the cattle have disappaared in the 
forest ; kutiwe-diikc, it is lost. 
isi-Duko, n. 4. (a) Removal from one 
country to another, (b) Family name or 
honour, such as i-Tshaivc or i-Gqwaslm ; 



the name of the ancestor or stock from 
which a clan or tribe is descended, used 
as an exclamation by members of that 
clan or tribe; ve.c&nt = isiBizo. 

um-Duka, w. 6. One who has wandered 
away and is lost among strangers, as an ox 
which has left its owner and its herd and 
has joined another, the owner not know- 
ing where it is. 

uku-Dukisa, v. To conceal anything from 
the view or knowledge of its owner who 
inquires respecting it; to cause to dis- 
appear, to be lost; to evade, put off, 
digress, neglect; to leave off speaking 
when another approaches, or when one 
feels hit; not to take notice of what is 
said; to act as if one has not seen or 
heard, as if the matter was not before 
him. 

in-Dukiso, n. 3. An indisposition to attend 
to what is said; evasion. 

u-Dukiso, n. 5. Disregard, neglect, non- 
attention, remissness, slighting, evading. 

uku-Dukisela, v. To cause to disappear, 
etc., in a certain locality. 
uku-Dukalala and ukut'i-Dukalala, v. i. 

To be declined, turned or put off. 
i-Duku, . 2. A stone for grinding upon: 

ete wgqandulo tidiqandule idtiku, bring a 

cutting-stone that I may dress the grinding 

stone. 
in-Duku, n. 3. A knobbed stick or club for 

throwing at game or for fighting. Phr. 

induku ayinainzi, lit. the stick has no kraal, 

i.e. where there is much quarrelling or fight- 
ing, the kraal (village) will not grow; strife 

is the mother of poverty. 
uku-Dukuda, v. t. To stir, as porridge; fig. 

to make that which is weak or lame worse 

by using it, as to ride a lame horse, or 

travel with a lame foot ; to tire oneself; to 

destroy health by hard labour. 

u-Dukudo, . 5. A large wooden spoon for 
stirring food. 

uku-Dukudeka, v. To be worse ; to be 
exhausted, as that which is weak or lame, 
owing to excess of activity. 
u-Dukuduku, n. 5. An extensive forest ; 

dense smoke ; fig. wide spread reports. 

uku-Dukuza, v. i. To move in a forest 
where there is no way; to grope in the 
dark. 
uku-Dukumfisa, v. t. To beat or stab with a 

blunt instrument. 
uku-Dula, V. i. To lie as an inert mass. 



DU 

uku-DULA, V. i. To be dear, from Du. duur. 
DULU, adj. Dear, from Du. duur. 

in-Dulana, n. 3. A hillock (dirain. of in-Duli). 

isi-DuIanqa, n. 4. A crammed sack; a large 
stack, etc. 

i-Duli, n. 2. An engagement, battle between 
two great chiefs. 

in-Duli, n. 3. (a) A hill: twihlabd undulf, the 
ground is hilly; dimin. indulana. (b) A 
practice in which a number of women go 
to a: married daughter's village with a 
bundle of thatch or firewood, or to weed 
her garden, and have an animal slaughtered 
for them ; allied to u-Duli. 

isi-DuH, . 4. (a) A termite heap; Phr. 
ndatnenza isiduli, I gave him nothing to eat, 
I made him look on only at our eating; 
nqika isiduli, open the termite heap, i.e. 
bring out the secrets of your heart, (b) A 
swoon, fainting fit: wawa or walala isiduli, 
weqwiti siduli, he fell in a fit, he lay in a 
swoon, senseless as if dead, (c) Brachylsene 
elliptica Less., a kind of tree used for 
producing fire; one piece is pointed and 
inserted into a small hole made in the side 
of another piece ; the pointed stick is made 
to revolve rapidly, and, as it revolves, it 
produces a brown dust which soon be- 
comes red-hot and can be blown with 
tinder into a flame. 
isi-DuIi sehlati, . 4. The wild myrtle, 
Eugenia zeyheri Harv. # 

u-DuIi, n. 5. (a) The party selected or appoint- 
ed by a bride's father to accompany her to her 
future home. The party consists of persons 
of both sexes, from five to ten in number. 
They carry the bride's outfit and presents 
to the bridegroom's village. They always 
contrive to arrive there in the evening, and 
sit down in a place where they cannot fail 
to be observed. Should they not be noticed, 
they call attention by coughing, as strangers 
coming into a place are prevented by Kafir 
etiquette from being the first to speak. 
When accosted they say they are a party 
of travellers who have been benighted, and i 
would be thankful for a place to sleep in. 
A hut is assigned them, and they occupy it 
till the marriage ceremony is over. On 
their arrival at the hut, they receive a good 
thrashing to make them urinate (see uku- 
Tunda.) The things dropped now-a-days 
are coins. On their entering the hut an 
animal is slaughtered for them. On 
their return home they drive the dowry 



DU 

given for the bride, if this was not done be- 
fore. An uduli for which an animal has 
been slaughtered, and an umdudo held, is 
taken as proof that there has been a 
marriage. See uku-Dliswa atnasi. 
(h) A smaller mountain bamboo. 
u-Duludulu, n. 5. A struggle with each 
other; a pulling hither and thither; dis- 
traction, continual disagreement, pro- 
tracted war. 

uku-DuIusa, v. To stoop with the buttocks 
raised or exposed; to stretch forwards ; 
to incline towards in preference; to 
stoop and endeavour to reach a thing; 
fig. to quit the service of a chief or 
master for another. 
Dulusela, v. To incline towards a 
certain place, as a promontory stretches 
into the sea, or a bay or gulf into the 
land: inqwelo idulusele ew^'tii, the 
wagon inclined towards the precipice; 
fig. to act with partiality by giving one a 
larger portion than others, all having 
equal rights. 
Duluduiusa, v. To try to overcome 
difficulties by turning here and there, 
without being always successful ; to act 
with tno much haste. 
i-DuluduIusa, w. 2. A person who makes 
many or various attempts to overcome 
a thing although he may not be successful. 
in-Dulumbane, . 3. Rushing over or upon; 
impetuosity with violence, fury: besuka 
indulumhaiic kuyc, they got up ?.nd rushed 
upon him. 
isi-Dulwane, n. 4. Em. Unthrashed Kafir- 
corn tied in bundles, to be carried away on 
the head ; cf . i-Sinde. 
u-Duma, n. 5- A wound on the hsad caused 
by a blow; fig. bad ploughing, with banks 
left between the ploughed furrows; a fine 
for fighting: hlaulclani indumn, pay a fine 
for the wounds on the heads. 
um-Duma, n. 6. The Water-tree, Ilex capsn- 

sis Harv. and So id. 
ukut'i-DUM DUM, v. i. To hum, as bees; to 
mumble or muttsr, as a child shewing its 
displeasure at being sent an errand. 
ama-Dumdum, //. 2. pi. Dull sounds, as of 
people talking low; mut^erings, murmur- 
ings. 
in- and u-Dunidum, n. 3. and 5. Muttering. 
uku-Duma, v. pass, dunyiva. To hum as 
bees; to make a deep toned noise; to 
triumph as victors: kiiyaJunywa, triumph 
is shouted; to become famous, renowned. 



87 



DU 

as warriors or hunters ; to be honoured, 
victorious ; to bear an excellent character : 
iganta lake ladutna kulo lonke ilizwe, his 
name became famous in all the land; to 
become notorious : yaduma loiito yada yaba 
nkulu, the matter increased, until it be- 
came great or notorious ; ukutya kuyaduma, 
food is reported to be abundant ; to per- 
form a military salute. 

isi-Duma-banzi, n. 4. A very famous one ; 
a report widely spread about. 

in- and u-Dumasi, . 3. and 5. Sound 
of distant thunder; fig. a widespread 
rumour, fame. 

in- and u-Dumo, . 3. and 5. Rumour, 
report, fame, honour, renown, triumphal 
song. 

isi-Dumo, n. 4. Virtue, family honour or 
fame, respect, regard. Phr. unantsi uteiige 
isidumo ukuba adume, such a one has 
bought a substance to cause him to be 
famous; cf. isi-Dinta and isi-Duko. 

In this phrase it is a fame-philtre, used 
by the magicians who profess to be able | 
to give them so as to cause fame, and 
those who wish to become renowned buy 
philtres from them and have to slaughter 
an animal into the bargain. 

uku-Dumela, v. To become famous, re- 
nowned, reputed for or on account of 
any deed: kuha edumele tibunxila, for he 
is notorious for drunkenness; udunyelwe 
hikohlnkala, he is notoriously bad; to 
triumph over. 

in-Dumela, n. 3. Notoriety, fame, reputa- 
tion, a report noised about. 

um-Dunyelwa, n. I. A renowned, famed 
person. 

uku-Dumisa, v. To make famous; to cele- 
brate noble deeds; to speak highly or 
with much respect of; to praise, magnify, 
laud, honour: inkosi yadiinyiswa ngabantti 
bayo, the chief was praised by his people. 

in-Dumiso, w. 3. Praise (obj.), a psalm. 

isi-Dumiso, n. 4. The thing that praises, 
or praise in the abstract. 

u-Dumiso, w. 5. The act of making famous 
or of praising (subj.). 

um-Dumiso, . 6. The celebration of 
praise; laudation, glorification, en- 
comium. 

uku-Dumzela, v. To make a low, murmur- 
ing, mumbling sound; to mutter, whisper 
between the teeth; to grumble, growl. 

Dumzelana, v. To murmur, etc., among 
themselves. 

Dumzelisa, v. To cause to grumble, etc. 



A mass, heap; but 



DU 

uku-Duma, v. i. Of food, to be insipid, taste- 
less, flavourless. 

Dumala, t;. To be perplexed, disappoint- 
ed, dejected; of food, to become insipid, 
tasteless: ukuila kwako kudumele, your 
food is puzzling, i.e. has no flavour, is 
vapid, =: uku-Dimala. 

Dumaza, v. To perplex, trouble by 
questions; to place in difficulties; to 
annoy, insult, mortXiy, = nkU'Dima2a. 
in-Dumanga, . 3. A soft, smooth place for 

lying down, like a sofa; a place of rest. 
uku-DUMB'A, V. i. To swell, tumefy: isandla 

sam sidiimbile, my hand is swollen. 

in-Dumba, . 3. ) 

isi-Dumba, 77.4. j 

indnmba is more extensive than isidtimba ; 
indumba yavtazimba or isidumba samazimba, 
a heap of Kafircorn ; indumba yabantu 
(not isidumba sabantu), a crowd of men, 
as it were in a heap. 

in-Dumbi, n. 3. A heap. 

um-Dumba, n. 6. A pod, a lith of an 
orange; bulk; eyom-Dumba, The month of 
February, when the grain is swelling. 

isi-Dumbu, n. 4. A dead body, a carcase : 
isidumbii somntu, a dead body ; izidumbii 
zahantu, the bulk of the people. 

urn Dumbu, 77. 6. A crowd of men sitting 
down at eating. 

uku-Dumbisa, v. To cause to swell; to 
make tumid. 

in-Dumbisa, n. 3. A stye on the edge of 
the eyelid; fig. amazivi andumb'isa, bom- 
bastic words. 
uku-Dumba, v. t. To hit an animal on the 

body, instead of on the head as intended : 

iva/umana wadumba, he shot or threw into 

the air, i.e. he did not hit. 

um-Dumba, n, 6. A cast into the air, a 
random shot. 
i-Dumbe, 77. 2. (a) Palsy, shaking, (b) The 

edible tuber of a large leaved Calladium. 
in-Dumela, in-Dumis3, etc., see ukutl- 

Dum-dum. 
i Dumnyasi, n. 2. A head ornament, necklet, 

(fr. the Hottentot Damywas). 
in-Dumo, etc., see ukut'i-Diim-dum. 
i-Duna, 77. 2. (a) A male; applied only to 

animals: itol'iduna, a bull calf, (b) A man 

who will not go to court to serve a chief, 

and is therefore despised. 
in Duna, 77. 3. (a) A male animal: inja induna, 

a male dog; intenetya induna, a male hare, 

etc. (It is affixed to the generic names of 

animals^ (b) A person w'lo by birth or 



DU 

otherwise is a degree above the com- 
monalty ; one in authority ; a chief councillor 
or minister of the chief; a head, leader of 
the army. 

um-Duna, and um-Dunakazi, n, I. A being 
who excels all rothers of the same kind in 
power or strength, as a lion, elephant, king; 
used only ironically, jokingly or playfully. 

ubun-Duna, w. 7. The dignity of prime 
minister. 

uku-Dundubala, v. i. To crouch, as from 
fear or cold. 

stretched out, exposed like a dead person; 

cf. ukuti-Qungqululti. 

isi-DunduIuza, 11. 4. A body, dead or alive, 

lying at full stretch. 

!*DuTunga.'i Tdis.urb.e.g.apoo,,by 

throwing a stone into it; to nlake water 

muddy by stirring: antanzi adungiwe, the 

water has been made muddy; to mix up, 

mingle with ; to rush among, scatter, stir, 

trouble, put to flight : injn yazidunga igusha, 

the dog rushed among the sheep and 

scattered them. The word used of people 

is ukii-Qungaqunga. 

isa-Dunge, n. 4. A muddy wet place, a pool 
or pond among rushes and reeds; fig. 
confusion, disturbance, tumult, uproar. 

i-Dungadunga, ti. 2. A disturber, a rest- 
less person ; a vagabond, vagrant. 

isi-Dungadunga, ?t. 4. Tumult, disturbance, 
uproar. 

u-Dungadungo, tt. 5. Disturbance, discom- 
fiture. 

uku-Dunganisa, v. To mix, as unmarked 
sheep that have several owners: igusha 
zam zidnnganisiwc, my sheep are mixed 
up with others. 

Dungeka, v. To be scattered: abantu ba- 
dungekile, the people live scattered in 
bad places ; to become troubled, disturbed, 

um-Dungela, n. l. A person or animal 

that has left its owner and got mixed up 

with others; a bastard (?). 

ukut'i-Dungu, v. i. To run off suddenly, at 

once ; = ukut'i-Du. 

uku-Dungudela, v. To abandon friends 
and place of abode thoughtlessly; to 
wander about without aim or home, like 
a deranged person; to loiter about as a 
vagabond. 

i-Dungudwane, n. 2. One who has no 
fixed place of abode; a vagrant, vaga- 
bond. 

M 



DU 

uku-Dungudelisa, v. To cause to become 
estranged and unsettled ; to perplex, con- 
found, confuse; not to allow others to 
speak; to lead others off their aim. 

Dunguzela, v. To burn or set on fire 
(a garment). 

Dunguzeka, v. To burn away or off: 
iruluwa iyadunguzcka, the powder goes or 
burns off. 
in-Dungula, n. 3. A swollen lump or mass; 

a person who has no teeth, and whose gums 

appear swollen in consequence; an old 

toothless ox whose gums appear swollen. 
isi-Dungulu, n. 4. A small piece or strip of 

cold meat; dimin. isidiingulwana, tit-bits of 

news. 
u-Dungulu, 71. 5. A species of black wasp, 

called spider-catcher. 
u-Dunkanka, n. 5. A mystery: ityala ludu- 

nkanka, the crime or guilt is a mystery, 

still in the dark, not yet revealed, not come 

out fully. 

u-Dunkudunku, ] . 5. a ceaseless report ; 
u-Dunkunku, ) ' 

a rumour which is constantly spread among 

the people ; persistent noise, confusion, riot ; 

any protracted evil, as famine, sickness, 

war. 
uku-Duntsa, v. i. To press at stool; to strain 

the bowels in case of constipation; to 

groan (cattle). 

i-Duntso, n. 2. The colon. 

ama-Duntsuduntsu, n. 2. pi. Struggle, 
strife, fight in which there is a straining. 
i-Dunyasi, n. 2. = i-Du>nnyasi. 
um-Dunyelwa, see under ukutt-Dum-dum. 
i-Dupa, n. 2. Assafoetida, devil's drop. 
uku-Dufula, V. t. To give a hard knock; to 

knock a person down. 

uku-Dufuleka, v. To receive hard knocks. 
u-Dushe, n. 5. That which is the immediate 

cause of war; secret information of a 

scandalizing character; noise, hubbub, 

strife, contention: wenze udushc, you have 

raised strife. 
i-Duze, n. 2. The immediate neighbourhood: 

kuseduze = kukufiipl 
uku-DuzuIeka, v. i. To regret the loss of 

any thing ; to feel bad treatment. 
Dwa, Adj. (I) A single one ; one only, alone ; 

ndedwa and ttdodwa, I alone; pi. sodwa or 

sedwa, we alone ; wedwa, thou alone ; pi. 

nedwa or nodwa, you alone; yedwa, he 

alone; pi. bodwa, they alone; cl. 2. lodwa, it 

alone; pi. odwa, they alone ; cl. 3. yedwa, pi. 

zodwa ; cl. 4. sodwa, pi. zodwa ; cl. 5. lodwa, 



DW 

pi. zodwa; cl. 6. wodwa, pi. yodwa ; cl. 7. 
lodwa, it alone; cl. 8. kodwa, see Kodwa. 

(2) Hence unique, strange, wonderful, pre- 
eminent : ndibone ziiito zizodwa, I have seen 
strange things. 

(3) Separate, excluded, equivalent to English 
'besides': ngabo abo babekonza nkumkani, 
bebodwa abamisiwcyo iigiikiimkani emizinienqa- 
tyisiweyo, these are those who waited on 
the king, besides those whom the king put 
in the fenced cities. 

in-Dwa, and in-Dwandwa, . 3. A thing 

which is alone, i.e. in worth, precious, 

valuable: iyindiva lento or indwa yento, 

this thing is precious. 

in-Dv/a-yento, n 3. ] Qne who is un- 

u-Dwa-luto, n. 5. 3 

equalled; one who is noble or illustrious, 
as a great, respectable councillor or 
minister; in the negative form it is 
asindwayaluto : uzenza indwayento, asindiva- 
yaluto noko, he makes himself a nobleman, 
but he is a nobody. 
ubun-Dwa-luto, n. 7. Eminence, respec- 
tability, reputation, authority. 
uku-Dwaba, v. t. pass, dwatyzva. To strip 
tobacco leaves off the plant ; fig. to make 
proposal after proposal; to propose plan 
after plan. 
i-Dwaba, n. 2. A creeper, Popowia caffra, 
Sond,, which is burnt Tjefore a hunting ex- 
pedition, and strewn upon and around a buck 
after it is killed, by which means the 
hunters trust that more game will be charm- 
ed to them, and that they will be successful 
in taking it. 
isi-Dwaba, n. 4. (a) A flight of birds; 
considerable number of men, horsemen, 
horses or calves, (b) A wing of an insect. 
uku-DwabuIuIa, v. i. To run away fast (men, 
cattle, horses, etc.) leaving others behind. 
Dwabuluka, v. To be in the height of 
speaking or singing. 
in-Dwabundwabu, n. 3. A large orifice 
a large, wide mouth; fig. a great, excellent 
thing; anything of large capacity; a com- 
paratively large bag or belly. 
u-Dwaduba,>- 5^ | q^^ ^^^ ^^^ j^^^ j^^^ 
m-Dwadube, /?. 3. j 

country and his all; a homeless wanderer. 
isi-Dwadwa, n. 4. A small tree, identified by 

Sim as Leucosidea sericea, E. and Z. 
ukut'i-Dwadwalala, v. i. see under ukn- 

Dwala. 
uku-Dwadwasa, v. i. To run about like a 
fool or a madman. 



DW 

Dwadwasi, n, 2. One who is running 
about as mad. 
isi-Dwala, n. 4. Capital crime: isidwala setya- 

la, a crime or guilt which is greater than 

one can atone for; a civil case (?). 
uku-Dwala, v. i. To sit long in a certain 

posture, the heels and the posteriors being 

in contact or nearly so, from weakness and 

not being able to get up. 

ukut'i-Dwalala, = uku-Dwala. 

ukut'i-DwadWalala, v. Of a woman, to sit 
down with her dress widely spread out. 

uku-Dwalaza, v. To keep much at home; 
to be slow in movement; to remain long 
and easy in one place ; to sit in a careless, 
indifferent, listless manner, as in a reverie. 

ulE^^mbl;]"- 5- A thing which is struck 

down, or-lying down, though not necessarily 
dead; a dead animal, carcase: ndametiz' 
udwamba pantsi, I struck him down; wamshi- 
ya eludwamba, he left him nearly dead, not 
moving. 

in-Dwandwa, w. '},.=-- in-Dwa. 

in-Dwane, n. 5. A row of wet tobacco leaves 
laid out to dry: bazindwane zokufa, they 
were lying dead in rows; wenza indwane, he 
made havoc, killed right and left. 

ukut'i-Dwangu, v. t. To open, spread out, as 
newspapers or clothes are spread out. 

u-Dwangudwangu, n. 5. A blanket of large 
size ; a person given to scolding. 

isi-Dwangube, n. 4- Orig- an ornament of 
beads, granted as an order to chief 
councillors; now a chief councillor. 

i-Dwantsi, n. 2. A long and strong, new 
thong. 

i-Dwara, w. 2. Senecio latifolius, D.C., a 
medicinal plant for wounds and sores, espec. 
for the sore backs of horses; eye-Divara, 
the month of October; when this plant is in 
flower, it is time for sowing maize. 

in-Dwari, n. 3. (a) A bird which has red legs, 
(b) A spindle-shanked person. 

isi-DWASHU, n. 4. A saddle cloth, fr. Du. 
dwars, across. 

in Dwayi, . 3- & n-Dwayi, n. 5. \ A 

in Dwayinge, vj. 3.& u Dwayinge, .5- 3 
poor, forlorn, miserable, homeless, friend- 
less, castaway creature, wandering about 
without a place of rest ; an orphan. Ati ke 
mna 7nntu uliulwayi! O wretched man that I 
am! 



90 



DW 

ubu-Dwayi, n. 7. Misery, poverty, etc.; 
orphanhood. 
ukut'i-DWE, V. i. To stretch out in line; to 
stand in file (town, village, houses, army), 
not in close proximity to each other: ukiidla 
kiitmc-dwc cqlycui, the food is spread on the 
table-cloth. 

ulu-Dwe, n. 5. A row or chain of moun- 
tains, or anything else stretched out in 
line. 
uku-Dwela, v. To stand in a row in order 

that a certain one may be pointed out. 
Dweliga, v. To cause to stretch out, sit 
in order; to arrange; fig. to comb the 
hair. 
Dweza, V. To form into line; to spread 
out (a blanket) before the eyes; to look 
at a thing in the light, before the e3^es. 
Dwezisa, -c^. To cause to form into line, 
etc. 
in-Dwe, n. 3. (a) The blue crane, Anthro- 
poides paradisea (Lkiit). (b) The head dress 
formed of the feathers of this bird. 
isin-Dwe, w. 4. A collection of cranes' 
feathers, used by warriors as a headdress 
when drilling or fighting; the right to 
wear this was conferred as a reward 
for great bravery. Plur. izindwe, the two 
palm-leaves stuck on either side of the 
head-dress worn by an iinikiveta when 
dancing. 
in-Dweba, n. 3. Aspeciesof bird;^^;-!?^!?^?. 
i-Dwebeba, n. 2. The strewing of corn by 
the witchdoctor in and around a house or 
kraal, who boils a certain dedicated quantity 
in order to propitiate the iminyanya and 
imishologii, and cause them to remove sick 
ness and avert evil. The boiled corn or 
other food dedicated to these beings is 
eaten by adult males and aged people only. 
uku-Dwekesha, v. i. To be talkative. 

i-Dwekesha,. 2 | a person who speaks 
m Dwekeshi, K. 3. 3 

often and much ; a babbler. 
uku-Dwela, see under ukuti-Dwe. 
i-Dwele, n. 2. The Cane rat, Thryonomys 

swinderenianus (Tcmni.). 
uku Dwesa, v. i. Not to care; to be daring, 
disobedient. 

ubu-Dwesi, n. 7. Indifference to danger; 
daring, bravery; foolhardiness. 
in- Dweza, u. 3. A small seed-eating bird, 



DW 

very troublesome among ripening corn, 
and noted on account of its voracity; the 
name is applied to the Streaky-headed 
Seedeater, Poliospiza gularis A.Sm. and 
also to the Icterine Seedeater, Serinus 
icterus (VieilL); fig. one who is voracious. 
uku-Dweza, see under iikuti-Dwe. 
uku-Dwisha, v. t. To drag, pull. 
uku-Dyabaza, v. t. To dabble in mud, splash 
about in the water, as a child with its hands ; 
fig. to do or work in haste, imperfectly, 
faultily; to talk or write, as one who is not 
master of his subject. 
uku-Dyabuza, = iiku-Dyavnza. 
i-Dyagasi, n. 2. A lee corner where the 
sunbeams concentrate, where the sun's 
influence is felt: umi edyagasini, he stands 
in the sunshine. 
u-Dyakalashe, w. I. The jackal, from Du, 

jakhals. 
ukut'i-Dyala, v. i. To lie open; to be public, 
revealed, exposed, visible, apparent: unizi 
ute-dyala, the place is clearly seen, exposed 
to view. 
u-Dyamdyaiti, n. 5. The sensation of 

hunger ; = u-Jamjam. 
uku-DYAl'.'A, V. t. To race horses, especially 
at the umkwelo, on the day before the 
marriage; Du. jagt. 
um-DVAR'O, n. 6. A race, 
Dyas, ft. 3. A jacket or overcoat; Du. jas, 
uku-Dyavuza, v. i. Not to speak correctly; 
to use the wrong word, or one whose 
meaning is not known. 
in-Dyebo, n. 3. Rich harvest in corn; plenty, 

abundance of food; cf. uku-Tyeba. 
i-Dyekedyeke, w. 2. Anything moistened in 
water; soft matter, as liquid gum; wet 
through and ihTOMgh.; = i-Dekedeke. 
in-Dyelelo, n. 3. (from uku-Tyelela). A visit. 
isa-Dyenge, . 4. A tear starting: sel' amehlo 
ezizadyenge, with his eyes full of tears. 
isi-Dyengedyenge, n. 4. (a) A tear in the 
eye which does not run down : izidyengc- 
dyenge zamehlo, bad eyes which try to 
weep, but cannot, (b) Milk curdled 
irregularly. 
uku-Dyengezela, r. To have tears in the 

eye. 
Dyengezelisa, v. To cause to weep; to 
draw tears. 
i-Dyepedyepe, n. 2. That which is soft, 

pulpy, marshy, boggy, muddy. 
um-Dyesha, n. 6. A young springbuck; fig. 
a finely formed youth ; dim, um-Dyeshana, 



91 



DY 

uku-Dyiba, v. i. To rub the eyes or nose, 

continually; to wash away tears; to splash 

in the mud or water. 

i-DyibldyibI, . 2. That which is soft from 
water (washed linen), or is slushy. 

ubu-Dyibidyibi, n. J. Dirtiness, muddiness, 
sluttishness; fig. shyness, reserve, timidi- 
ty. 

ukut'i-Dyibilili, = uku-Dyiba. 

uku-Dyibiza, v. To do work skittishly, as 
in leaving washed dishes undried, or in 
sprinkling too much water before smear- 
ing the house. 

Dyibizisa, v. To wash the tears away. 
ama-DyididyidI, n. 2. pi. Hard treading or 

stepping in dancing. 
in-Dyikitya, n. 3. Killing or dying in great 

numbers: indyikitya yendlala, great dying 

from hunger ; indyikitya yokufa, dying from 

pestilence ; cf. uku-Tyikitya. 
ukuti-DylntyniH, = M^M-Z)Mitj5fl, To evade, 

conceal, etc. 
uku-Dydba, v. t. To tread mortar; fig. to 

render ineffectual by a counter statement 

or motion. 

uku-DYOB'A, V. t. pass, dydjwa. To bemire, 
soil, foul, sully, bespatter ; in the game of 
i-Cehva, when one who is touched continues 
to run under the pretence of not having 
been touched, the player who touched him 
shouts out ndikudyobile; fig. to bemire the 
character, i.e. to bring a charge against an 
innocent person, as Potiphar's wife did 
against Joseph; to accuse, attach guilt 
to a person who is not an accessory. 
um-Dyobi, n. l. An accuser. 
isi-Dy6b6, n. 4. Bemiring accusation. 
iiku-Dyobana, v. To bemire one another. 
Dyob^ka, v. To become bemired, be- 
fouled; to be an abettor ; to be implicated. 
Dyobisa, v. To cause to be implicated 
as an abettor or accessory. 

uku-Dyodyoba, v. t. To plaster with mud. 

isi-Dyoli, w. 4. A secret messenger, detective; 
one commissioned to keep watch on a person 
whose assassination has been decreed. 

i-DYONGO, n. 3, A young man; dim. idyongwn- 
na, Du. jong. 

isi-Dyongolo, ti. 4. A small milk sack or 
calabash ; a milk pot ; dim. isidyotigolwana, 
a very small quantity of food. 

uku-Dyongosha, v. t. To finish; to beat on a 
bag to ascertain if there is still tobacco in 
it ; to press, as the flat stone of a bird-trap 
on its victim, or as a tree that has fallen on 



DY 

one ; fig. to press sorely, as an evil from 

which there is no escape. 

Dyongoshisa, v. To cause to pi'ess 
heavily or sorely upon. 
isi-Dyoni, = isi-Dyoli. 
Dyorum I The cry of the baboon. 
um-Dyuba, w. 6. Meat that is too lean to be 

eaten. 
ama-Dyubele, . 2. pi. Civilised whites. 
ukuti-Dyubu, v. i. To plunge or fall heavily 

into mud. 
ama-Dyududyudu, ?/. 2. pi. Hasty or furious 

action. 

uku-Dyuduza, v. To be in haste, rash, 
unsteady in action. 
i Dyudyu, . 2. Fear or trembling which 

seizes a man, or curse or calamity caused 

by him, who has acted an unmanly part 

toward a woman, such as entering the hut 

of one in childbed, or sitting on the mat of 

one menstruating, or molesting a female 

by taking advantage of the weakness of 

her sex, especially if she belongs to people 

who may be at war with his own: bangeni- 

seV idyudyu, they intimidated. 

i-Dyudyudyu, n. 2. One who is afraid, 
timid ; a coward. 
um-Dyudyulufa, n. 6. An extremely lean 

person or thing. 
i-Dyukudyuku, . 2. Anything soft, flabby, 

as lean meat ; an unsightly and disgusting 

object from wetness. 
um-DyuIu, n. 6. A person or thing without 

the requisite strength. 
ukuti-Dyum, v. i. Of lightning, to strike. 
i-Dyumfudyumfu, n. 2. A thing beaten into 

pulp or a swollen mass. 
ukuti-DYUNGU, v. i. Of the skin, to be 

raised in blisters which may be caused by 

fire or by the river : unilomo warn ute-dymigu, 

my mouth is blistered. 

i-Dyungudyungu, n. 2. A blister (from 
hard working, fire, a nettle, etc.) 

uku-Dyunguka, v. Of the skin, to be 
raised when a blister is formed, and to 
peel off when the Jjlister opens. 

uku-Dyunguzela, v. To have blisters. 
ukuti-Dyupu, v. i. To plunge or fall 

heavily, suddenly, or with violence into 

water or fire. 
uku-DyupuIeka, v. i. To enter disorderly, 

not in file, or without understanding a 

thing. 
um-Dyufa, n. I. A feeble, lean man. 
um-Dyurakazi, w. i. An infirm, lean woman. 
i-Dyufudyuf u, w. 2. Any unsightly object. 



92 



DY 

uku-Dyusha, v. i. To dance. 

ukuti-Dywa, v. i. Sound of falling into a 

thick busli. 
i-Dy wadi, ;/, 2. The Cape box-thorn, Lycium 
. hoi-ndum L., with red berries (um-Bdvu.) 
in-Dy wala, ?;. 3. pi. Large quantity of Kafir 

beer; night debauchery; or as plur. of 

ulyivala; beer-drinkings. 
ukuti-Dywanga, v. t. To finish a work 

immediately, soon. 



DY 

i-Dy wibiba, . 2. Things obtained by chance, 

e.g. meat when a bullock is slaughtered. 
uku-Dywida, v. t. To act rapaciously; to 

seize on gi-eedily, as plunderers; to rob 

food, as the birds which fall with clamour 

on the Kafir corn. 

um-Dywidi, n. I. A spoiler, plunderer. 

u-Dywido, n. 5. Plunder, spoil. 

uku-Dywidana, v. To plunder, from one 
another. 
ukuti-Dzu, V. i. To go straight forward. 



Tip has three sounds; it is (a) short, like e in 
^-^ pen: ktiye, to him; this is its ordinary 
sound in an unaccented syllable; 

(b) long, almost like a in pale: TOi~/, our; 
this sound occurs when the vowel in the 
following syllable is / or u, and it still exists 
in cases where the i or 11 of the following 
syllable is now lost: w'mka, he departed, 
for wemiika ; 

(c) broad, as in there: iveiia, thou; this 
sound occurs when the vowel in the follow- 
ing syllable is a, e, or 0. 

1. E is the initial vowel in all locative 
cases, displacing the article of the noun: 
umhlabci, earth, enihlaheni, on, from, to or in 
the earth ; iidaka, mud, eliidakeni, in the mud ; 
in cases where the noun would have no 
ailicle, e is omitted in the locative : ndifike 
vdaiveni it'tle, I arrived at a certain spot; 
nndamkeU mali haiitwiiii, I do not take 
money from men. 

2. It is (a) the Rel. pron. of 3 cl. sing, and 
6 cl. pi., used with verbs and adjectives: 
indlela exakekileyo, a road which is difficult, 
i.e. a difficult road; indlela ebanzi, a broad 
road ; imit'i egauliweyo, the trees which have 
been cut, i.e. the cut trees; imiti emide, the 
tall trees; and as such expresses 

(b) the Possessive: inkomo etiyama ndiyi- 
tandayo, the cow, whose flesh I like; iiniti 
eziqamo zinmandi, the trees whose fruits are 
sweet. 

(c) the Object, put before the Pron. subj. 
of the I pers. sing, and I >9nd 2 pers. pi.: 
peka ukutya endikiitandayo, cook the food 
which I like; indlu esingene kiiyo, the house 
which we entered ; ihaslie endilitengileyo, the 
horse which ye have bought; and some- 
times before Imperatives: kukulento yodwa 



eviasikangele, it is to this alone that we 
must look. 

(d) When put before nouns with the 
article / and their pron. in the possessive 
relation, it makes them more emphatic: 
elake iliztvi, his word; eyetikosi indlu, the 
chief's house ; eyona ndlu inkiilu, the really 
great house in contradistinction to others, 
i.e. the greatest house of all. 

3. It is the Pron. subj. of the participles, 
I cl. sing, and 2 cl. pi.: ndambona esebenza, 
I saw him working; ndawcva amakwenkwe 
evunia, I heard the boys singing; ndambiza 
esekudc, I called him, he being still far off; 
etet'ile aviadoda, the men having spoken. 

4. It is the contracted form of the ter- 
mination He of the perf. and pluperf; (a) 
when the emphasis is not on the verb but 
on the object or the adjunct of the predi- 
cate: ndibcle inyamakazi, I have killed a 
buck ; but ndiyibel'ile inyamakazi, I have hit 
(not missed) the buck; ndifikile, I have 
arrived, ndifike apa, I have arrived here 
umntu cnditctc ngayc, the person of whom 
I have spoken. 

(b) when the verb has more than two 
syllables and ends in ala, ela, Ha, ola, or iila : 
ndihulelekuye, (from ukubulela), I have thank- 
ed him; iindikulule, (from ukukulula), he has 
released me, and in all rel. forms: undifcle, 
he has died for me. 

5. It is the termination of the present 
conj. : bayabasa bapeke, they kindle a fire and 
cook ; ndihamha iikuze ndincede, I go in order 
that I may help; cf. A. 2. (h) (In this 
termination the e is short or unaccented, in 
the former (4) it is long and partiallj^ ac- 
cented, though the principal accent still 
remains on the penult). 



93 



EB 

Note. From Inattentfon to the tense and sense of a 
passage when these terminations occur, thought- 
less readers read the language in a way which is 
painful to listen to. 

E ! Intcrjec. of aversion or displeasure. 
May be ! Well ! 

E ? (broad e). This particle is put by 
the speaker or by a second party to elicit 
an affirmative answer to a question : is it 
not so.' isn't it.? 

E-e I Intcrjec. used in correcting oneself, 
or on remembering something he had to 
do, or in recovering when stumbling. Oh, 
by the bye ! 
Ebe, Atix. in forming the participles of the 
compoun 1 tenses, I, cl. sing, and 2. cl. pi.: 
ebe etanda contrac. ebctanda, he was or they 
(men) were loving. 
Ebenga, Ncg. of Ebe, changes into Ebenge 
before ka, kb, mi and some adjectives ; see 
Enga and Engc. 
ukw-Ebula, v. t. Em. = Kafir uk-Obula. To 
strip, peel off; to skin: bayebula inkomo, 
they skinned a head of cattle ; to strip the 
bark; to separate the fibres of cords, etc. 
Ebuka, V. Em = Kafir iik-Obuka. To 

peel or fall off (e.g. of the husk of the 

maize cob): isandla sam siyebiika, the 

skin of my hand peels off. 
Ehia! Ehlani 1 /w/fT/ of remonstrance; (a) 
sounded gravely: ah you! but surely! no, 
no! = vr^(?, miis'ukuteta, leave off speaking; 
chlani ! ma-Galati aswele ukiiqonda ; nguha- 
nina oninyangileyof O foolish Galatians, 
who hath bewitched you? (b) sounded 
jocularly: chla wena wenza nlo-ninaf Yes, 
yes, but what are you doing? chla lomntu 
uUwtkile! ah, this is a wise man! 
am-EhIo, n. 2. Plur. oi ili-So. Eyes: ndina- 
nieldo, I have sore eyes; into yamchlo, a 
spectacle, a show. 
Ekoko, Interject Eloko. 

Ekubeni " ' \ ^"J- Inasmuch as, where- 
as, since, seeing that : ekubeni bebnninzi aba- 
qayisayo, seeing that many glory ; ekubeni 
sivile, forasmuch as we have heard; see 
uku-Ba I. B. 

Ekuhleni, Adv. Openly, see uku-Hla. 

Ela, Dou. pron. 2. cl. Yon; contrac. fr. Eliya, 
which see. 

ukw-ELA, V. i. (a) To flow on (water): iimla- 
mbo owelayo, a flowing or perennial stream. 
(b) To go, run, plunge, rush into and 
disappear: usukc wela eldat'uii, he plunged or 
rushed into the forest, (c) v. t. To winnow: 
iimbona zveliwe, the maize has been winnow- 



EL 

ed; fig. to depose from office; to throw into 
prison. 

Elela, V. (a) To flow into; to pour out 
at or into a certain place: umlambo weleln 
chvindlc, the river flows into the sea. (b) 
To winnow into: yelela cnxmveni, winnow 
(the corn) into the bag. 
um-Elelo, n. 6. A place where several 
waters flow together; confluence. 

ukw-Elama, Em. To rtcogmze,- ukw-Alatna. 

Elamani? (sc. icala) Intcrrog. adj. On which 
side ? the Kafir challenge made to a passer- 
by. The person challenged may either reply 
elabafazi, on the side of the women, in which 
case he acknowledges the superiority of the 
challenger ; or elaniadoda, on the side of the 
men, in which case both parties resort to 
sticks to determine which is superior. 

ukw-EIata, v. t. = ukw-AIata, and uku-Lata. 

Ele, Adv. On the other side, beyond, out of 
sight: ele kwentaba, beyond or on the other 
side of the mountain; ele kwake, out of his 
sight. 

ukw-EIeka, Em. To be opposed, see Aleka, 
under ukw-Ala, to oppose; not to be con- 
founded with ukw-Aleka, to add to. 

Ell, (a) Rel. pron. of 2 cl. sing. Which: iliiye 
ellnzima, the stone which is heavy, i.e. the 
heavy stone; ilariga elifudumeleyo, the hot 
sun; expressing also possessive relation: 
iliswe el'ibemi bafileyo, the country whose 
inhabitants are dead, 

(b) Dem. pron. of 2 cl. sing. This: eWlizive, 
this land; less emphatic: iliswe-eli, this 
country; eMlizwe lible this fine country; 
eXUanga lifudunielcyo, this hot sun. 

u-Elimaswane, n. T. The Lesser puff-backed 
shrike ; = u-Noniasivane. 

Elinga, Neg. of Eli [a) : ilizwi cliugatetwanga, 
the word which has not been spoken; 
changes into Elinge before ^(7, ko, na and 
some adjectives; see Linga and Linge. 

Elinye, adj. 2. cl sing. One another: elinyc 
ilizwe belilihle, elinye belilibi, one country 
was fine, another bad; see Nye. 

Eliya, contract, ela, Dem. pron. 2. cl. sing. 
Yon: elalizwe, yon country; elalityc linzima, 
that heavy stone yonder. 

Elo, Dem. pron. 2. cl. sing. That: eXohashe, 
that horse ; eXohashe likidu, that great horse ; 
eXohashe libalckayo, that fast running horse ; 
laelo and lalclo, every (horse). Elo differs 
from eliya or ela as lowo differs from Iowa. 

Eloko, Intcrjec. There he goes! on he went! 

El on a, E.mphat. form ; see Lona and E, 2. (d). 

Elowo, Each one, see Lowo. 



94 



EN 

i-EMBlLE, and i-EMELE. w. 3. A pail (Du. 

emmer). 
Emhieni, emihieni, emhlenikweni. Conj. 

When, see um-Hla. 
Emini, In the day-time, see i-Mini. 
Eminye, Adj. 6. c!. pi. Some others, eminyc 
imiti iliiliihlasa, eminye ihomile, some trees 
were green, others dry ; see Nye. 
Emva, emveni, and emvenikweni. Prep. 

After, behind, see um-Va. 
ukw-ENA, V. i. To be dense or overgrown 
with long grass or bushes : uiyani benile, the 
grass is grown thickly; or the weeds are 
dense (in the gardens) ; indlela yenUe, the 
road is overgrown with weeds, grass or 
bushes, is difficult to walk on ; *of a man, to 
have large bushy whiskers; fig. to be plenti- 
ful; to be rich in stock of all kinds, to be 
flourishing; wotl-nin.i ekwciieni kwe-Yordanf 
what wilt thou do in the swelling of 
Jordan ? 

Enela, v. To be dense or overgrown 
for : uyakwcnelwa hiktVa, he shall have his 
field overgrown with weeds. 
ukw-ENDA, V. i. Of a prospective bride- 
groom, to go with lolwla cattle to the girl's 
place; of a girl, to marry away, towed: 
intombl kabani yendile, the daughter of such 
a one is married. 

Endeka, v. To become married ; to be 
in a married state : ude w^ndeka, she is 
married at last. 
Endela, v. (a) To marry away to a 
certain person or at a certain place: 
u-Nohantu weiidele kii-Makuha c-Kubusi, 
Nobantu is married to Makuba on the 
Kubusi. Phr. ebeha uyakwendeV enkosini, 
kanti uyakwendela kmnfokazana, she 
thought she would marry a chief, but she 
has to be content with a commoner, 
(b) To strike root deeply so as to hold 
firmly in the soil : lomt'i weiidele emhlnbeni, 
this tree is rooted firmly in the ground ; 
to be or lie deep: wenza utnsele wendela, 
he made the ditch deep; fig. to be 
intricate: lendawo yendcle, this matter is 
intricate, involved, difficult to alter or 
reverse; to delay; to be detained; to 
stay: waya kwa-Ngqika wendela, he went 
to Gaikaland and sojourned or stayed 
there. 
Endelisa, v. To cause to take deep root. 
Endelisela, v. To cause to take deep 
root at a place. 



EN 

Endisd, V. To cause to marry; to give 
in marriage : ukiiyendisa iiUomb'i, to give 
the girl in marriage; to perform the 
marriage ceremony ; of the bride's people, 
to take the bride to her husband's place. 
Endisela, v. To give in marriage to. 
Endiselana, v. To inter-marry outside, 
abroad. 
Endle, Outside, see in-Dle. 
um-Endo, n. 6. pi. imendo. A road, highway, 

public road. 
am-Endu, n. I. pi. Speed, lasting strength 
in running or travelling, perseverance : 
ihasJie linatmndu, the horse is swift and 
tough ; amendu am apelile, my vital power is 
gone. 
Enga, Neg. verb. pref. of I cl. sing, and 2 cl. 
pi. (a) of condit. mood : aiige (anga) engadli, 
he would or should not eat ; aiige (anga) 
engafekeli, they (boys) should or would not 
make sport. 

(b) in rel. and participial sentences : enga- 
yanga, he not having gone ; sakwda emiha- 
sheni erig djaleki, we rode on horses which 
are not swift. 

(c) Neg. verb. pref. of 3. cl. sing: imazi 
engasengwayo, a cow which is not milked; 
and of 6. cl, p\.: nd/bonise imiti engagaulwanga, 
shew me the trees which have not been cut 
down. Before ka, kb, na and some adjectives 
enga is changed into enge : tidafik.i engckabi- 
ko yena, I arrived before he was there : nteta 
into engekoyo, you speak of a thing which does 
not exist ; yoyiki indlu engenanitandazo, be 
afraid of a house where there is no prayer. 

Enkangala, In the wilderness, see in-Kanga- 
la. 

uku-ENTA, V. t. To inoculate, vaccinate; 
Du. ent. 

Entia, On the upperside, see in-Tla. 

Enu, Poss. pron. 2 p. pi. Your: amazwi enii, 
your words; emphat. aiventi amazivi, your 
words. 

Enyanyeni, Exposed, see i-Nyanya. 

ukw-Enza, v. pass, tikwenziwa. To do, make, 
perform, act, practice, execute, discharge, 
fulfil; to bring a thing to pass: yenza lanto 
ndayitetayo, do the thing I told you; abantti 
abenza ngokowatcta ngakokubo, the people did 
not act as he commanded them ; yeuz' izzvi, 
make a statement, answer; wenza intsimi, 
he made a garden; bamenze ukumkatii, 
they made him king; bengabeuze nto abanye, 
setting the others at nought, i.e. they des- 
pised them; yinina ukuba usenze ngendawo? 



95 



EN 

why hast thou dealt badly with us? yenza 
kuhlc, wait a little; wayenza btikali, he did it 
sliarply ; wayniza mbi, he made it bad or ugly ; 
ivcuza izinto cziniiizi, lit. he did many things, 
i.e. he was unsteady. Z changes into j, if }ijc 
or tijixlo follows the verb: ziK'njc-r/Je, he did 
thus; -.venjc-tijido, he did so; ckiibeni riingc- 
njanga-ujalo uakuDiiiyc ivabn, ,i;iciijaiiga-iijalo 
nikuin, inasmuch as ye did it not unto one of 
these, ye did it not to me. Phr. Ukuzenza 
akiinjcngakwcnzma, to injure yourself is not 
like being injured by another; iikwcnza 
u-Kaya ka-Mpipiya, to raise strife at home 
among friends. ^ 

um-Enzi, n. I. Doer, worker, performer, 

maker. 
is-Enzo, 11. 4. Deed, work, act, performance. 
ukw-Enzakala, v. To be hurt or injured 
by an accident: ndcnzakck, I am injured; 
kufe abantivana bam, ndenzakcle namhla, 
my children being dead, I am now quite 
undone. 
is-Enzakalo, n. 4. Damage, etc., suffered 
by one: nclincsciizakalo ngokuwa kwam, I 
am hurt by my fall. 
ukw-Ensakalisa, v. To hurt, injure, da- 
mage. 
is-Enzakaliso, n. 4 Damage, hurt, injury 
done by one: ndiiicscnzakaliso ngokukalywa 
lihashc, I am hurt by the kick of a horse. 
ukw-Enzana, v. To do (good or evil) to 

one another. 
Enzeka, v. To come to pass; to take 
effect; to be done; to be in action or 
motion: makwciizckc ukutauda Kwako, Thy 
will be done ; to be possible : kubantn lento 
ayinakweiizcka, kodwa kiiyc ii-J'ixo zo-ike 
izinto zinokivenzcka, with men this is 
impossible, but with God all things are 
possible. 
Enzela, v. To do, make, etc., for another: 
undeiizdc lento, he has done this for me ; 
wazatzcla, may mean, he did the thing 
for himself, or he took the matter into 
his own hands regardless of any one; 
wabcnjcla njalo bonke ahafazi bake, he did 
so for all his v/ives. 
Enzelana, v. To do, etc., for each other. 

Enzejela, ) ^^ ^^ instead (not for) ; 
Enzelelela, ) 

to answer or warrant for; to become 
surety for another; to go bail for; to 
administer the business of another or for 
another, hence lig. to serve or act as 
priest (in the meaning of the Old Testa- 
ment, in the interest of the Lord and the 
95 



EN 

I people); to bestow assistance or favour 

upon another: ahaiitu bayenzelelela inkosi 

yabo, the people gave the dowry, ikazi, 

which their chief should have given. 

um-Enzeleleli, ) ^ u j 

um-Enzeleli, ] " ^' A person who does 

a thing in another's stead, becomes surety, 
goes bail for; lig. a priest (in the Old 
Testament sense). 

is-Enzelelelo, ) . a .. .u . 

is-Enzelelo, j "' 4- ^ctmg m another's 

stead, e.g. by paying a fine for him, or 
giving dowry to get him a wife; a 
meritorious act, merit; assistance of a 
material character. 
ulw-Enzelelelo, n. 5 Vicarious action. 
ub-Enzeleleli, n. 7. Priesthood. 
ukw-Enzisa, v. To cause to do, etc.; to 
help one to do a thing ; ukwcnzisa umkwa, 
to cause to perform the custom of umkwa, 
when girls meeting a man, or young men 
meeting girls, say, yenza umkwa, i.e. 
choose one of us as a sweetheart; uku- 
zenzisa, Reflex, form. lit. to make himself 
as, i.e. to affect, dissemble, pretend, feign; 
to be a hypocrite. 
um-z-Enzisi, w. I. Hypocrite. 
i-z-Enziso, n. 2. Affectation, dissimulation, 

hypocrisy. 
ukw-Enzlsela, v. To cause to do for: 

nd unenzisela, I made him do it for me. 
is-Enziselo, . 4. A kind act benefiting 
another. 
ukw-Eqa, v. i. Em. To spring over; to leap; 
to jump with a quick, sudden motion; to 
dart forward. 
ukw-Eqata, To aWght s\idden\y, = ukuti-Qata. 
I-Er'e, n. 3. A harrow; Du. egge. 
i-ERTYlsi, n. 3. Peas; from the Du. ertje. 
Esa, Dem. pron. 4. cl. sing, contrac. fr. Esiya, 

Yon. 
ukw-Esaba, Em. To flee; see tikii-Saba. 
Ese, Adv. Beyond: ci'^i/'.^, just over there; = 

Ele. 
Esi, (a) Rel. pron. 4. cl. sing. Which : isitya esi- 
vuzayo, a vessel which leaks, i.e. a leaking 
vessel; expressing also Possessive relation: 
isitya csimnini itkoyo, the vessel whose 
owner is present. 

(b) Dem. pron. 4. cl. sing. : eslsando, this 
hammer; less emphatic isando-csi; esisonka 
simnandi, this sweet bread; not to be con- 
founded with e-si, which we : into rsiyiletayo, 
the thing which we speak of; cf E. 2. {c). 
i-EsiLE, . 3. pi. ama. An ass, a mule, (Du. 
ezel). 



ES 

E&inga, Neg. of Esi {a) : isitya esinga-///a- 
njwanga, a vessel which has not been clean- 
ed; to be distinguished from e-singa, which 
we not ; cf. E. 2. {c) ; changes into Esinge 
before ka, ko, na, and some adjectives; see 
Singa and Singe. 
Esinye, adj. 4. cl. sing. One another: csiiiye 
isitya sikulu, esiiiye sincinane, one vessel is 
great, another small ; see Nye. 

Esiya, contract, esa, Dcin. pron. 4. cl. sing. 
That yonder : Qs&soiika, that bread yonder 
esasipo silniigilcyo, that good gift yonder. 

Eso, Dcin. pron. 4. cl. sing. That; (it stands 
between csi and esiya in signification) 
esosifo sikidti, that great sickness; esosibane 
sikanyayo, that shining candle; sacso, and 
saseso (isitya) every (vessel). 

Esona, Emphat. form, see Sana. 

uku-Eta, V. t. Oifly used in the imperative. 
To hand, give, bring: yi-ete into yam, give 
me my thing ; cteni, give up. 

ukw-Eta, V. /. Em. = Kaf. ?(/v'M-H>^/rt, contrac- 
ted to uku-Ta. To sink down, subside 
amanzi at'tle or awutile, Em. et'ile, the water 
subsided ; fig. to lose hope or heart ; to be 
dispirited, depressed, cast down: ndite ama- 
ndla, lit. my strength is gone, i.e. I despair; 
ukuba batandaze bangcti amandla, that they 
should pray and not faint. 
Etisa, V. To cause to sink down; to 

make despondent. 
Etuka, V. To be startled ; to start back 

from fright. 
um-Etiiko, n. 6. The being startled. 
ukw-Etiisa, v. To startle: to cause fear. 
um-Etuso, //. 6. A causing to fear, or that 
which causes fear. 

Ete-ete, Adj. soft, tender to the touch: 
lento i-ete-ete, this thing is soft. 

ama-Ete-ete, n. 2. pi. Izinto zingama-ete-ete, 
the things are tender, soft. 

Etu, Poss. pron. I p. pi. Our: amazwi etu, our 
words ; emphat. aweti'i amazwi, our woi'ds. 

ukw-Etuka, etc. see under ickw Eta. 

um-Etyiso, YLm. = i{nt-Tyiso, the cud, 

am-Eva. Thorns, see itku-Va, to hear, feel. 

Ewe, Adv. Yes. 

Ewu ! Interjec. Hallo! 

Eya, Aux. of future participle, I cl. sing, and 
2 cl. pi. : ngokuha eya kuteta, for he is or they 
(men) are about to speak. 

ukw-Eya, i\ t. To deem a person or thing of 
less value, strength or importance than it 
appears or ought to have; to despise: 
ukuweya umlamho, to have a low opinion 
of the river, and hence to go into it and be 
N 97 



EY 

carried away ; to be dissatisfied ; to grumble 
on account of the smallness of a thing or 
present given, or of a price offered : ndiya- 

yeya lento, I deem this thing not worth 

noticing. 

Eyeka, v. To be contemptible. 

Eyela, v. To fall into or sink into : uku- 
dla kweyele esityeni kutwelwe, the food 
settled down on the vessel, while carried ; 
to fall in, sink in : inkomo yeyele eliidakcni, 
the cow has sunk into the mud ; to come 
down, i.e. to stumble: weycle etyeni, he 
nearly fell over a stone; weyela! take 
care, you will fall ! Phr. yeyele ngelomkono, 
lit. it (the cow) has fallen in and stuck 
fast by one of the front legs ; in which 
position it cannot extricate itself. This 
is used as a war-cry to summon the 
forces to extricate those in distress. The 
phrase means figuratively that some 
one has got into trouble from which he 
cannot extricate himself, or that one has 
committed himself in a matter of import- 
ance, n. 8. Calamity. 

Eyeliseka, v. To be in the state of 
sinking or falling. 

Eyelisela, v. To cause to sink into a 
hole, river, snare or temptation. 

um-Eyeliseli, n. i. One who causes others 
to fall into danger, destruction, sin or 
any other evil. 

um-Eyeliselo, . 6. A causing to fall into 
destruction, etc. 

ukw-Eyeliselana, v. To cause each other 
to fall into a hole, ditch, or temptation. 

ukw-Eyisa, v. To overcome, convince, see 
uk-Oyisa. n. 8. uku-z-eyisa, self-control. 

um-Eyisi. n. I. A conqueror. 

ukw-Eyiseka, v. To be convinced, sub- 
dued. 

ukw-Eyisela v. To persuade: bazeyisela 
indimhane ekutini zicele u-Baraba, they 
persuaded the crowd to ask for Barabbas. 
Eyona, Emphat. form of Yona, which see. 
Eza, Dem. pron. 3, 4, 5, cl. pi. contrac. fr. 

Eziya. Those yonder. 
Ezantsi. />/-?/'. Below, see i-Zantsi. 
Ezi, (a) Rcl pron. 3, 4, 5, cl. pi. Which: 

inihi eziiikiilii, houses which are great, i.e. 

great houses ; izonka ezimnandi, loaves 

that are sweet; izinti ez'tgaiiliwcyo, cut 

laths; expressing also the Possessive re- 
lation: indlii ezibemi bakoyo, the houses 

whose inhabitants are present; igiis'ta 

ezimninizo ndimaziyo, the sheep whose 

owner I know. 



EZ 

(b) Dem. pron. of the same classes. These 
here: ezigusha zininzi, these many sheep 
here; ezisitya zikulii, these large vessels 
here ; ezxzintya zinde, these long thongs 
here ; izintya-ezi, the thongs. 

Ezinga, neg. of Ezi: ngezandla ezing:a//^a- 
njwanga, with unwashen hands; changes 
into Ezingc before ka, ko, mi and some 
adjectives ; see Zinga and Zinge. 

Ezlnye, Adj. 3, 4, 5, cl. Some others: 



EZ 

ezinye igusha zityebile, ezinyt zibityile, some 
sheep are fat, others lean ; see Nye. 

Eziya, contrac. eza, Dem. pron. 3, 4, 5, cl. 
pi. Those yonder: ezazibane, the candles 
yonder; ezazintya, the thongs yonder. 

Ezo, Dem. pron. 3, 4, 5, cl. pi. (It stands 
between Ezi and Eziya). Those : ezo- 
ndawo zinzima, those difficult matters ; 
ezoziposo zikulii, those great errors ; ezo- 
zintsu zincolileyo, those dirty skins. 

Ezona, Emphai. form oi Zona, which see. 



"P has two sounds, the first as in the 
English word father; the second, after m 
(except the prefix um), as the German pf: 
im(p)fcne, imi pjfama, but umfama, umfazi. 
uku-FA V. i. To die. In pres. and imperf. 
tenses, it means to be dying, i.e. to be sick, 
ill : ndiyafa, I am sick ; ndihe ndisifa, I was sick. 
In perfect, past and future tenses it means 
to have died, to be dead, to be about to die : 
inkomo ifilc, the cow is dsad; umkiiluli wafa, 
the Redeemer died; siya kiifa .sonke, we 
shall all die ; bafa scsosifo, they died of that 
sickness ; to be broken, wasted, worn out, 
ended: isitya sifile, the dish is broken; 
ndifile lunxano, I am dead with thirst; safa 
ngtimsi, bctu! men, we die from smoke! 
wafa! take care, you are in danger! ilizwe 
lifile, the country is dead, i.e. war has 
broken out; inyanga ifile, the month is 
dead, i.e. is at an end; ngonyaka ofileyo. last 
year; titeta into ef'anianqe,hG says a thing 
whose loins are dead, i.e. he says something 
of no avail ; into ebufa mnyami, the thing is 
blackish. Pass, ukufiwa: kiifnva, men die. 
(abbrev. rel. 2 cl. pi. afd, who or which 
die ; absol. past, Ufa, they died ; conj. past, 
afa, and they died ; short pres. dfa, and they 
die.) 

Phr. wafa ehamba, he died while still 
walking, i.e. he is no longer good for any- 
thing; kungaf'intak'enkidu, amaqanda aya- 
bola, if the mother bird dies, the eggs go 
bad, i.e. if the head of a family dies, its 
members go to ruin ; akuko kufa kiinjani, go 
and do your work, regardless of danger, 
all death is alike; incibi yamanzi if a 
ngam inzi, cyczikali if a zizikali, all heroes 
must die, he who carries others through 
the full river and the warrior as well; 
umafeinika njcngcnyanga, it wanes and 



waxes like the moon, i.e. a question 

that seemed to be settled springs up again, 

or a person who seemSd hopelessly ill has 

recovered. 
n. 8. Death : ekufeni kwakk, at his death. 

um-Fi, n. I. A dead man; the deceased; 
fem. iimfikazi. 

um-Fo, n. I. A mortal, i.e. a man : mfu- 
ndini ! fellow ! (either as endearing or in 
derision, according to the tone); iimfo 
wakomki'ilu, a courtier. 

um-Fokazi, n. l. A great man who in- 
spires fear; used also as a term of 
contempt. 

um-Fana, . 1. Dimin. of um-Fo. A full- 
grown boy, a young man : umfana warn, 
my son ; umfana wakiram, a youth of my 
place, my servant. 

um-FazI, . I. fem. of um-Fo. A woman, 
a wife. Dimin. umfazana, and unifaza- 
zana, a young wife; elderly people or 
fathers-in-law speak of young married 
women as abafazazana. 

In its widest meaning, umfazi is a 
woman, as distinguished from umfo, a 
man, or from iniomb'i, a girl. Its ordinary 
meaning, however, is a wife, as dis- 
tinguished not only from intombi, but also 
from inkazana, -a female, from idikazi, a 
husbandless woman, and even from 
ishwcshwe, a concubine. Thougii she be 
a widow, she is regarded and treated as 
a wife so long as she remains at her late 
husband's place, and does not return to 
her father's. Should she return to her 
father's, she becomes an inkazana, and is 
marriageable again. A lawfully divorced 
woman is no longer umfazi, but inkazana. 
Umfazi at her husband's place is not 



FA 

only head of her hut, and owner of her 
garden, but is also mistress of her kraal, 
though she may not enter it. Her hus- 
band's place is called umzi wake, her 
kraal, whereas her father's is said to be 
unisi wakoivabo, the kraal of those related 
to her. While it may be lawful to beat 
iiitombi, no one may beat umfazi, except 
her husband. 

In the complicated establishment of a 
polygamist the wives have their various 
places and ranks. In the fully developed 
establishment of a chief, there is the 
umfazi ontkuhi or great wife, whose 
eldest son takes his father's place at his 
death as supreme ruler of all his father's 
children and people ; there is the umfazi 
wase-Kunene, the right hand wife, whose 
eldest son may form an establishment 
or tribe of his 'Own, but subordinate to 
the great one ; there is also umfazi wasc- 
Xibeni, whose eldest son takes his grand- 
father's place. Under these, there may 
be subordinate wives called ama-Qadi, 
each qadi being under one of the higher 
wives; cf. uku-Zcka. 

um-Fazikazi, n. I. Lit. a great big 
woman; used in a good sense it means 
one who commands respect from her 
appearance, years, conduct, or wisdom; 
in a bad sense it means an imperious 
woman, who arrogates the place and 
assumes the authority of a man. 

isi Fazi, h. 4. Women taken collectively; 
dimin. isi-Fazana, young women taken 
collectively. 

ubu-Fazi, n. 7. Womanhood; dimin. 
ubu-Fazana, womanhood in a young wife, 
espec. a married one. 

ili-Fa, contrac. i-Fa, 71. 2. (a) That which 
is left after death ; inheritance, heritage : 
ezinkomo zililifa lam, these cattle are my 
patrimony; fig. lomniu unefa ngomsebenzi 
wake, this person is earning much from 
his work; lento incfa, this thing is profit- 
able. 

(b) A painless or watery tumour: 
unelifa entanyeni, he has a tumour on the 
neck, a tubercle or tumour of a chronic 
character. 

i-Fa-nankosi, n. 2. gene>rally used in the 
plur. ama-fa-nankosi. Lit. those who die 
with the chief, his bodyguard; because 
they are in duty bound to cleave to him, 
even unto death. 

im-Fa, n. 3. Sickness, death. 

99 



FA 

im-Fa-bele, n. 3. Ears of corn partially 
filled; a mother with insufficient milk in 
her breast. 

im-Fa-mbele, . 3. A cow whose teats 
have been destroyed by the in-Dlanga. 

im-Fazol^' ) "' ^" '^^"t''^^- f''^ ""f^ y^' 
zwe, death of the land. War; imfazwe 
ka-Ngqika no-Ndlambc, 1818; imfazwe ka- 
Hintsa, 1 834; imfazwe yczembc or y avian zi, 
1846; itnfazwe ka-Mlnnjcni, 1850-2; imfa- 
ztve ka-Ncayecibi, 1877-78. 

im-Fo, n. 3. Sickness, death. 

isi-Fo, n. 4. Sickness; izi-Fozifo, all kinds 
of sickness; isifo samatamho, rheumatism; 
isifo sigqitile, he is dead. 

u-Fa-kafa, n. 5. A never-ending thing 
during one's lifetime; an inheritance 
which cannot be taken away. 

u-F'epiwe, . 5. Literally he has died, 
although it has been given to him, i.e. he 
is insatiable. A tin can, usually sold for 
eighteenpence, which does not contain 
enough to satisfy a beer-drinker. 

um-Fa-ngqele, n. 6. Lit. one dead from 
cold; a lean, hungry, poor thing. 

um-Fa-nkungu, n. 6. Haziness, spec, on 
the horizon; dimness of sight. 

uku-Fela, v. To die for or in a certain 
place: um-Sindisi wetu wasifela, our Savi- 
our died for us; uyakufcla kuyc, he will 
stay with her till he dies; tvafela endlwiiii, 
he died in the house; umfazi wafeliva 
ngumntwana, the woman was bereaved of, 
or lost a child; scyide yafcla ukwanya, he 
(the boy) was hard at sucking. 

um-Feli, n. I. Ono who dies for another: 
u-Nyana ka-Tixo ungumfeli wabantu, the 
Son of God is he who died for the people ; 
also one who dies for a cause. 

uku-Felana, v. To die for one another. 

Fellsela, v. To stick to a thing, without 
leaving it; to cling to: ufelisele kwelolizivi, 
he died for that word, he stood to that 
word. 

Fisa, V. To cause, make to suffer or die 
by withholding food, but espec. to kill by 
slow poisoning (ubu-T'i), or by other 
means, as in executing a judicial sentence ; 
to assassinate. 

zi-Fisa, v. To feign or imitate sickness 
or death: woz'fisa, you must act as if you 
were sick or dead. 

isi-Fiso, n. 4. Assassination by poison. 

um-Fisi, n. 6. Any medicinal plant, espec. 
Eriosema salignum Mey., used for scrofula 
and kidney diseases ; = i-Nkomonkomo. 



FA 

uku-Faca, v. i. To be weak, emaciated from 
hunger. 

i-Faca, n. 2. and im-Faca, . 3. An ema- 
ciated person; a wanderer, vagrant. 
(Tiiose Kafirs who in 1856 obeyed the 
orders of ii-Noiigqaitse, by destroying their 
cattle, were called nma-Fi:ca, on account 
of their emaciated state). 
ubu-Faca, ii. 7. Leanness, emaciation. 
uku-Facisa, v. To weaken, enslave, devas- 
tate. 
i-FADUKWE, n. 3. A dishcloth; Du. vaatdoek. 
u-Fafa, . 5. A tall person. 
uku-FAKA, V. t. To put, stuff, cram into, 
(a vessel, bag, the ground, etc.) ; to dip 
(bread into milk): kausifake isandla sako 
esifubciii sako, put thy hand into thy bosom ; 
to put on, referring to European clothes, 
clothes into which you insert the members 
of your body : faka ingubo sako, put on your 
clothes; to put to or in: wafaka ilizwi, 
he put in a word ; wafaka timda, he counter- 
signed ; fak' uimia apo, put a mark there, make 
note (in a letter or pass) of anything special 
waUfaka izipolo ihashe, he set spurs to the 
horse; faka ui/ikala, put on the bridle 
fakani inkabi, inspan the oxen; bamfaka 
intambo, they put a thong round his neck, 
i.e. they made him prisoner; andifakaiiga 
nto emlonyoii, I have tasted nothing ; ndam- 
faka cmatyalcni, I brought him into court to , 
be punished ; bamfaka itviko, they goaded him 
on, gave him no time to rest, made him 
work like a slave; bamfaka igqcba cntloko, 
they laid a knobkerrie (i.e. they beat him) 
on his head ; hafaka cmva kwake, they follow- 
ed on his heels; inkomo isc if akile, lit. the 
cow is already stocking milk, i.e. making 
udder, will soon calve; tikiizifaka ctitwcni, 
to meddle with. Phr. indoda izifake amatblc, 
the man has nii.xed the cows and the calves, 
i.e. he is leaving the place; ukiifak' intaka, 
to put on the crane wings, i.e. to intimidate; 
ndifakc cmpandeni, lit. put me in the beer 
pot, i.e. pardon me by giving me a drink, 
(a vulgarism of drunkards) ; ndifakc ummvc 
czimpi'imlwctn, ndizihlidc zoiike inkomo zako, 
rouse mc, make me angry, and I shall take 
all your cattle; faka iifundo ctyohvcni, lit. 
put your back into the bush, i.e. carry what 
is laid on you. 

urn Faka-dolo, . I. American maize, 
which was imported when breechloaders 
came into use. 



Fa 

im-Faka-doIo, . 3. A breechloader, i.e. a 

gun that is loaded at the knee or bend. 
im-Fakwa, n. 3. and um-Fakwa, n. 6. 

The setting or enchasing of a stone in a 

ring, etc. 
uku-Fakana, v. To confer together: hafa- 

kan' imilomo bodiva, they take counsel 

among themselves only. 
Fakeka, v. To be put among; to insert 

oneself into tlie fellowship or company of 

others. 
Fakela, '. To put in, on, etc., for or on 

account of : ndifakclc, fill for me, i.e. give 

me a pipeful of tobacco. 
um Fakelo, . l. A child given to a wife 

who has no children of her own. 
um- Fakelo, n. 6. Food added to that 

which is already in the pot. 
um-Fakelwa, . 6. Any thing or person 

put instead of another, as the child re- 
ferred to under um-Fakelo. 
uku-Fakisa, v. To cause, help or assist to 

put in, etc. 
u-Fa-kafa, n. 5. An inheritance, see iiku-Fa. 
ukuti-Fakafaka, v. i. To be spotted, see 
Mfakamfaka. 
im-Fakamfele, n. 3. Any thing (garment) 

with small irregular spots, or with spots of 

different colours: ndalukwa ndayimfaka- 

mfclc rzinzuhvini zomhlaba, I was curiously 

v/rought in the depths of the earth. 
isi-Falafala, ;?. 4. One who speaks defectively 

like a child. 
im-Fa-mbele, v. 3. See under uku-Fa. 
uku-Famla, v. i.-nkit-Pamza. 
um-Fana, . l. Dim. of twi-Fo. A young man. 

See under iiku-Pa. 
uku-FANA, V. i. To be like; to resemble; to 
be similar to: ufa:'a nam, he resembles me; 
izinto ziyafana, t!:0 things resemble each 
other; to seem, to appear: ufana ukuba, 
contrac. fm' ukuba tipumile, it seems he has 
gone out ; used in an adv. sense, aimlessly or 
in vain: akiifan' uhamba tije, you're not just 
walking, you have something in view ; ufan' 
utcta, you speak in vain. 
o-Fani, ;;. l. pi Of an i ngofaiii, aW kinds oi 

things. 
ama-Fani, w. 2. pi. Resemblances, things 

that resemble one another. 
im-Fani, n. 3. One like another; of the 

same type : babe mfani-nyc abantu nabenzc- 

Iclcli, priest and people are alike. 
im Fano. n. 3. Resemblance: izinto zimf an' 

inyc, the things resemble each other, are 

alike; a synonym. 



100 



FA 

isi-Fano, )i. 4. Resemblance, shape, form. 

Liku-Fanekisa, v. To cause to be or make 
like to; to liken to: iibukuiiikatti hawazulu 
bufanckisiva mmntti, the kingdom of 
heaven is likened unto a man ; to deem 
like ; to compare : lomntii ndinifanckisa 
no-Nantsi, I compare this man with So- 
and-so ; to exemplify, illustrate by 
example. 

um-Fanekisi, //. 6. One who makes a 
likeness ; a copyist or illustrator ; one 
who likes to wear what he sees others 
wear. 

um-Fanekiso, n. 6. An image, likeness, 
resemblance, figure, picture, photograph : 
umntwana nngiwifanekiso woyise, the child 
is a picture of his father. 

uku-FanekissIa, v. To take a likeness 
of ; to copy after an original; to cause 
similarity, etc. for, after. 

um-Fanekiseli, n. I. One who makes or 
prepares a likeness; a photographer. 

um-Fanekiselo, n. 6. Image, likeness, 
representation in statuary ; a photograph. 

uku-Fanela, x;. To suit : Icngubo indifiuwle, 
this dress suits me ; fig. to be proper ; to 
become; to be fit: akufaude ukiimka, 
it is not proper or right for you to go 
away; ubungafaneic ukiindihlcka, you had 
no right to laugh at me; to be one's duty, 
according to the order, or in the nature 
of things : ndif ancle iikntandaza, I should 
pray ; ubmignfanele uknt'i, thou shouldst not 
have said; itkufiikonza u-T'txo kusifanele, 
it behoves us, i.e. it is our duty, to serve 
God; to deserve: uf ancle ukiihetiva, ihon 
deservest to be beaten ; to be worthy of 
nilufanclc ubizo livenu, you are worthy 
of your calling; ilizvDi Ufanclwe kiikwa- 
nikclwa konke, the saying is worthy of all 
acceptation. Adv. fanel'tikuba^fan'uba, 
probably, perhaps: faneV ukuba wokiitala 
alime, perhaps he will be diligent and 
cultivate ; amadoda af ancle ukuba alishumi, 
the men are about ten. 

im Fanelo, n. 3. Suitableness; propriety; 
desert ; duty. 

uku-Fanelana, v. To be fit and proper 
for each other; to suit each other: abantu 
bafanelene, the people are suitable for 
each other. 

This form is also used irt a conditional 
sense; If, or though one should: ndingafa- 
nelana nditeta ngclwimi zabantu, though I 
speak with the tongues of men ; nngafa- 
nelana unjanina ukuba nzinia, though you 
should be ever so heavy. 



'' ' 'FA' ",-...,,. ', 

Faneleka, v. To be suitable, proper, 
becoming, decent: kufanelekile ukuba 
ndimncede, it is becoming for me to help 
him; abantu bafaneleka xa bangenaziqu 
kakulu, people are becoming when not too 
fat ; into e^anelekileyo, a proper, suitable 
thing. Adv. ngokufanclekileyo, properly: 
masenze ngokufanclekileyo, let us act 
properly. 
im-Faneleko, n. 3. Worthiness, duty. 
uku-Faneleklsa, v. To make proper, 

decent, etc. 
Fanisa, v. To liken to, compare with; 
to seek, trace or search after likeness or 
similarity : nondifanisa nabanina f to whom 
will you liken me ? to try to find out a 
resemblance; to recognise: walifanisa 
ihashc lake, he claimed his horse by tracing 
out its likeness; fanisa into yako enam, 
find out what is thine in my possession. 
um-Fanisi, n. I. One who likens, searches 

or traces a resemblance. 
um-Faniso. . 6. Likening, searching, 

tracing. 
uku-Fanisana, v. To liken on both sides: 
bafaniscne izinto zabo, they have examined 
their goods on both sides; to make their 
things resemble one another. 
Fanisela, v. To resemble for, for the 

purpose of. 
Faniselana, v. To find out among each 
other; to dress alike, i.e. to put on clothes 
or dresses of the same colour: ababantu 
bafaniselenc, the people have dressed alike. 
i-FANANDILE, n. 3. The fat-tailed sheep, 

corrupted from 'Africander.' 
ama-Fa-nankosi, n. 2. pi. The chief's body- 
guard. See under uku-Fa. 
I-Fandesi, n. 3. An auction, from Du. 

vendutie. 
um-Fa-ngqele, n. 6. A lean thing; see uku-Fa. 
um-Fa-nkungu, n. 6. Haziness; see uku-Fa. 
im-Fanta, n. 3. A cleft in a rock, a fissure; 

a ci-ack, in a wall or plank. 
isi-Fanya, n. 4. Slight impression made by 
the nails or fingers, as in dropsy; hollow 
streaks in a wall. 
i-FASlKOTI, n. 3. An apron; Du. voor schoot. 
ukut'i-Fatsha, v. i. Of fine rain, to drizzle. 
uku-Fatya, v. t. To dress or curl the hair 
with fat and red ochre into small knobs, all 
over the head; a custom which was intro- 
duced by the chief Gaika. 
isi-Fatyl, n. 4. Collective, the curling of 
the hair of the whole head. 
i-FATYi, n. 3. A barrel, cask; Du. vaatje. 



-pixanga, ] " ' ^^ "^""^ "^ ^"^^^^^^ = ^^ 
press out (grapes) ; cf. uhi-Xafauga. 
isi-Faxangelo, n. 4. A (wine) press. 
um-Fazi, //. t. A woman; see iikii-Fa. 
im Faz'o, and im-Fazwe, n. 3. War; see uku- 

Fa. 
ukut'i-FE, (I.) V. i. To have emotion, compas- 
sionate feeling. 

u-Fefe, w. 5. Sympathetic feeling, tender 
affection : unofcfe, he is keenly or tenderly 
affected, as is seen by the tears which he 
tries to suppress; fervour, heartiness, 
cordiality: ndihetwe lufefe ngcmhandczclo 
yako, I have a compassionate feeling for 
thy affliction; the benediction, from its 
beginning with ufc/e = grace. Adv. ngo- 
fcfe: ndinikc lento ngofefc, give me this 
thing out of affection ; k.iiwfcfc, feelingly, 
fervently, affectionately. 
ukut'i-FE, (II.) ukut'i-Fefe, and uku-Fefa, 

V. t. To sprinkle gently, to rain gently. 
im-Fe, n. 3. Sweet cane ; a species of sugar- 
cane. Sorghum saccharatum Pers.; imfe 
ycsclc, or iinf escle, a kind of bulrush with 
a square stalk, Cyperus solidus Kunth. ; see 
uku-SUela. 
isi-Fe, n. 4. A small garden, where sweet- 
cane grows. 

uku-Feca, v. t. To bruise, break down 
maize or sweetcane stalks without sever- 
ing the parts entirely : atnazcJe afeciwe, 
the sweet cane has been broken down. 
im-Fecane, n. 3. pi. Marauders, free- 
booters, bandits, lawless tribe, esp. the 
followers of Matiwana, who were de 
feated and broken up at the Umtata in 
1829. 
uku Feba, i;. /. To commit adultery, forni- 
cation. 

isi-Febe, n. 4. A hare; fig. a fornicator, 
adulterer, harlot; a voluptuary, sensual- 
ist. 
ubu-Febe, n. 7. Fornication. 
im-Febenge, n. 3. A very hungry person. 
uku-Feca and im-Fecane, see under im-Fe. 
uku-Feceza, = uku-Feca and uku-Fehleza. 
isi-Fede, n. 4. A stupid, useless fellow; also of 
animals, lazy: isifede sehashe, a slow, lazy 
horse; an unvailing attempt. 
i Fedelele, n. 2. Nonsense. 
ubu-Fedelele, n. 7. Uselessness, worth- 
lessness. 
uku-Fefa, and ukut'i-Fefe, =ukutt FefllJ. 
u Fefe, 1). '5. Compassion, see ukuti-Fe (I). 
uku-Fefeza, and Feiezela, = uku-Fe/a. 



FE 

ukut'i-Fehle, 1 -r u i 

ukut'i Fehlefehle, 3 " ' ^^ become weak. 
Felilefehle, Adj. Weak, feeble, languid 

from sickness. 
uku-Fehleza, v. To walk as one who has 
lost power in his limbs, as one who has 
drunk too much liquor or smoked too 
much iohacco, = uku-Bcxe2a. 

ulpehlr*^' ] " 5- Weakness, languor 
after sickness. Em. palsy, ague. 
uku-Feja, v. t. Em. To copulate. 
u-FeJamanzl, n. 1. Em. A dragonfly, see 

u-Gqamaiizi, under uku-Gqa. 
Fekefeke, w, 5. Emotion, = u-Fcfe. 
ukuFeketa, v. i. To play, sport, frolic: 
abanlw.ina bayafcketa pnndle, the children 
are playing outside ; fig. to toy with or 
trifie at work; to make sport of a person: 
musa ukufckcta tigam, do not make sport of 
me. 
um Feketi, n. I. One who behaves like a 

child. 

im Feketd, . 3. Play, sport, trifling. 

uku-Feketana, ;;. To play with each other. 

Feketlsa, v. To cause or make to play 

or trifle ; to treat playfully. 

isi-Fekexe, ??. 4. Wasifekexe, he fell prostrate, 

had some heaviness on him. 
i-FELANI, n. 3. A cotton blanket; Du vel. 
u-Fele, . 5. A sheepskin; Du. vel. 
ukut'i-Felefele, v. i. Not to be anything, i.e. 

to be nothing. 
um-Feli, see uku-Fa. 
ama-Fene, n. 2. pi. Excuses, used in a bad 

sense, = ama-Menemene. 
im-Fene, . 3. A hahoon; = i-Mfene. 
a-F'epiwe, n. 5. A tin can, see under uku-Fa. 
im-Fesane, n. 3. The navel-string ; fig. com- 
passion: ndisikwa yimfesane ngenxa yendi- 
jnbanc, I have compassion on the multitude. 
im-F'esele, n. 3. A species of bulrush, see 

im-Fe. 
i-FESTlLE, n. 3. A window; Du. venster. 
uku-Feza, v. t. To accomplish; to bring to 
pass; to finish, work out: ndiwufezile umse- 
benzi warn, I have completed my work; to 
overcome difficulties. 
Fezakala, v. To be accomplished. 
Fezeka, v. To be accomplished, in a 

finished state. 
im-Fezeko, n. 3. Fulfilment. 
uku-Fezela, v. To finish, etc., for or on 
account of: ndifezele lento indoyisayo, 
accomplish for me this thing, which is 
beyond my strength. 



102 



Fezisa, v. To help to finish, etc. 
um-FI, n. I. A dead man; see ukuFa. 
im-Fidi, n. 3. Mass (of people, mud, etc.) 
u-Fifana, n. 5. Dimin. of m /'7^. Unofifana, 

he has only a little, indistinct knowledge ; 

ndaka tideva ufifana ngehashe lako, I heard 

something about your horse. 
u-Fifi, n. 5. An indistinct sight, a glimpse of a 

thing not seen properly; fig. an indistinct 

idea, an inkling of a thing: cbengc iialufiji lo- 

kitba babulawa yindlala, he had no inkling 

that they were dying from hunger. 

ubu-Fifi, n. 7. Dimness, weaksightedness. 
uku-Fifinga, v. t. To drive together in a 

rough way by force ; to over-drive people 

in work. 
uku-FIHLA, V. t. To hide, conceal, keep 

secret, suppress : wayijihla pina lonto f where 

did you hide that thing ? wayijihla inyaniso, 

he supressed the truth ; fihla ukuba kivakc, 

do not make his thieving public ; uyazijihla, 

he is hiding himself in time of sickness, 

to be beyond the reach of the person who is 

bewitching him ; to bury. 

im-Ffhlo. H. 3. A hidden thing; beer set 
apart by the giver of a beer-drink, to 
be drunk after the guests have left. 

uku-FihIana, v. To hide, etc., each other. 

Fihiakala, v. To be secret, mysterious, 
not easily revealed, explained, or under- 
stood. 

im-FihIakalo, . 3. A mystery, mysterious 
event. 

uku-Fihleka, v. To be hidden, capable of 
concealment : inkomo zifihlckilc chlattni, 
the cattle are hidden in the forest. 

Fihiela, v. To hide, conceal from or for: 
tiyafidijihlela inkuvihulo zakd,yo\\ are hiding 
your thoughts from me ; niyijihlela bani-na 
lonto f for whom or from whom are you 
hiding this matter.' of a cow, to keep 
back her milk for her calf. 

im-Fihlelo, n. 3. A mystery; a secret. 

isi-FihIelo, n. 4. Something (as poetry) to 
be repeated without the book. 

uku-FihIelana, v. To hide, etc., from each 
other. 

Fihlisa, v. To cause to hide, etc.: 
washiimayela ilizwi ngokungafihlisiyo, he 
proclaimed the word without reserve, 
boldly, plainly. 

Fihlisela, v. To do a thing in secret: 
wenza lento cfihlisela, he did this thing ii 
secret. 



uku-FIKA, V. i. To arrive at; to come to: 
ndifikile kiisasa, I arrived early ; izolo sajika 
ckaya, we arrived at, i.e. reached, home 
yesterday; kujikiwe kona, having arrived 
there ; ndavifika ngentonga, I struck him with 
a stick; sometimes = ?/*M//OT(7a : bafika ku- 
tijengoko bcbetshilo, they found it even so as 
they had said. 

um-Fiki, n. I. A new comer in a district, a 
stranger; a new, i.e. late, comer at a 
meeting. 
um-Fiko, n. 6. Arrival. 
uku-Fikela, v. To reach to: andiyi knfikcla 
kulondawo, I shall not reach or attain to 
that place; to surprise: impi yasijikela, the 
army came upon us, surprised or attacked 
us ; ndafikelw.i bntongo, sleep overcame me ; 
uya kufikelwa yimihla, days shall come 
upon you; ftdamfikela tigentonga, lit, I 
came upon him with a stick, i.e. I beat 
him. 
Fikelela, v. To reach up to a certain 
place or person: andinakufikelcli kulanto, 
I cannot reach up to or attain that thing; 
to have access or admittance to. 
Fikelelana, v. To reach so far as to 

touch one another. 
Fikisa, v. To cause or make to arrive; 
to bring to ; to let come : ndazijikisa inkomo 
e-Qonce, I brought the cattle to King 
William's Town. 
is:-Fikiso, n. 4. Means. 
uku-Fikisela, /. To cause to arrive for 
another, or in a certain place: 
nlamfikisela inqwclo y.:ke c-Bofolo, I 
brought his wagon for him to Fort 
Beaufort. Phr. nzijikisdc, he has eaten 
to his heart's content. 
isi-Fikane, n. 4. Scented grass (Andropogon 
and Lasiospermum radiatum) used for 
making necklaces. 
um-Fikazi, //. l. A dead woman; see iim-Fi, 

under iiku-Fa. 
i-Fiko, n. 2. A person or other object seated 
in a crouching posture : into cfanc yalijiko, 
a thihg that remains inactive, as a troop, 
or a bank of clou is on the horizon. 
im-Fiko, n. 3. pi. Goads, only used in the ex- 
pression iikufak'i imfikj, to goad on. Its 
derivation is uncertain. It may be a 
corruption oi im-Viko, sharp pointed stakes 
on which game are impaled. 
ukut'i-FilikihIi, v. i. To fall down in a heap; 
to fall upon in crowds, as a herd of cattle 
in a corn field. 
uku-FlLISHA, V. t. To court ; Du. vrijen. 



FI 

isi-Fiinfit6, ;;. 4. Any thing very much] 
swollen: isanJla sisijiiiijitd, the hand is very 
nuicli swollen, 
uku FINCA, t\ t. To drink up; to drain the 
lust drop: bawujincilc nniviizo wabo, they 
have their reward, i.e. they liave drunk it 
all up and they have nothing further to ex- 
pect ; HHiUfincile, you have done me down. 
im-Finca, n. 3. A little of a thing: imjinca 

yainasi, a little thick milk. 
uku FIncela, r. tikufa kufincclivc cloyisweni, 

death is swallowed up in victory. 
Fincelela, r. To pour a substance from 
one vessel into another, leaving nothing 
remaining; to use up, leaving nothing; 
to exhaust : ivazifiiicelcla izinto zako, thou 
hast used up thy good things. 
um-Fincafincane, n. 6. The so called Balm 
of Gilead, the wild or red Dar'a, 
Leonotis leon.irus R.Br., used for colds, 
coughs and snakebites. 
urn Fincane wehlati, n. 6. The wild pome- 
granate, Burchellia capensis R. Br. 
uku-Finga,^. t. To tuck up, io\d:finga iuiikoiio, 
tuck up the sleeves ; to shorten ; to make or 
gather folds in sewing a garment; to com- 
press, squeeze into a corner. 
isi-Fingo, u. 4. Lit. the rolling up of the 

night ; the dawn of. the day. 
um-Fingo, 11. 6. Fold, plait in a garment. 
uku-Fingana, v. To bend or twist aside, 
to be flexible: umsoiUo onyikinyiki iiyafi- 
ugaitn, the damp thread bends and does 
not go into the hole. 
Fingeka, v. To be gathered or contract- 
ed, as coils of rope gathered in one heap: 
intambo ifiugckilc, the rope is coiled up. 
ukut'i-Fingi, 1'./. To heap up. v.i. To appear 
in a mass, as a crowd of people or cattle. 
im-Fingimfingi, ti. 3- Heap, mass of 
people, or cattle, etc. 
uku-Fingiza, ---- uku-Funguza. 
ukut'i-Fingqi, v. i. To appear in a mass, as 

an army ; = iikuti-Fiiigi. 
uku-Flngxela,!'. t. To throw things hurriedly 

into a heap. 
uku-Fininika, v. i. To begin to come out, as 
the grass, buds and blossoms in the spring; 
of springs, to begin to flow just before rain; 
to bleed a little. 

Fininikisa, v. To cause to empty out 
the blood, etc.; to bleed one a little. 
ukut'i-Finini, | y ^ j^e body, 

uku-Finiza, 3 

as when about to sit down on the ground ; 
to make faces, grimaces at a person; to 
distort the countenance; fig. iiyazifiniza 
indaba, he distorts the report. 



FI 

Finizela, .v To make a grimace for or 
at; fig. to disregard: undijinizela-ninaf 
why do you show disregard to me? to 
interrupt or prevent one from speaking 
or proceeding. 
um-Fino, n. 6. Em. = um-Fii.'io. 
uku Finxa, v. t. To overdo, go to excess; 

nyazifiiLxa inkomo, he overdrives the cattle ; 

reflex: uyazifinxa, he eats or drinks to 

excess; to be immo:lerate, excessive. 
uku-FINYA, V. i. To blow the nose. 

i Finyaiia, n. 2. One drawn together; a 
low, common person. 

uku-Finyela, v. To draw together; to lie 
as a heap : woinbona cndlwini ejitiyele, you 
will see him in the house lying all in a 
heap; to draw up the legs and arms: 
wafinycla imilcnze, he drew up his legs. 

Finyelela, v. To arrive at a certain 
place ; - iiku Fikclela. 

Finyeza, v. To make short; to shorten 
(a garment, door, time, etc.): finycza 
iiigubo, or imikuno, draw up your garment, 
or fold back the sleeves; finyeza inkomo, 
bring on or nearer together the cattle, 
which remained behind; to draw in: 
finycza inymvo zako, draw in your feet; 
to finish a work: finyeza ukubula, finish 
thrashing. 

- Finyezela, v. To draw in or shorten at 
or for : xvazifinyczela csinqcnqekvjni inyawo 
zake, he gathered up his feet into the bed; 
nkufinyezela pezulti, to tuck up the clothes 
below the waist, as women do before 
beginning to hoe, or as they uncon- 
sciously do when scolding. 

Finylsa. v. To make or cause to blow 
the nose. 

izi-Finyiso, u. 4. pi. Snuffers, tongs. 
u-Fipa . 5. Darkness, obscurity. 

uku-Fipala, v. To become dim, indistinct, 
obscure ; to be dark and cloudy ; to 
change colour ; to grow pale from any 
cause (anger, sickness, death) : iiafipala 
ngnmsindo, his countenance changed from 
anger; ufipclc akasoiguinntu, he was so 
much altered as to be scarcely known as 
a man ; igilas ifipele, the pane is dim ; izulu 
lifipele, the sky is cloudy ; amazwi afipele 
encwadini, the letters are not clearly seen 
in the book; ndifipele ukuva vgoknbeka 
kiiye, I missed hearing by looking at him. 

um-Fipazo, '/. 6. (l) Alteration, change. 
(2) An herb used as an emetic ; prob. the 
ink-plant, whose large white flower _ 
becomes black soon after being pulled. 



104 



FI 

i-FlSA, n. 3, Fist; from Eng. 
um-Fisi, //. 6. A medicinal plant; sec nku-Fa. 
isi-Fiso /(. 4. Assassination; see iikii Ft 
ukut'i-Fiti, v. i. To be crammed full, satiated, 
stuffed, fat, stupid: ite-fit'i kiitycha iiitliziyn 
yabo, their heart is as fat as grease. 
isi-Fiti, 11. 4. The violet pea, Baphi 

racemosa Hochst., a small tree, 
ukut'i Fititi, v. i. Of sweat, to ooze out of 

the skin or body. 
i- Fititi, H. 2. Moistness of the skin, espec. 

of the nose. 
uku-Fitiza, v. i. To put forth : iziilii liyajitha, 
the sky sends forth a drizzling rain 
iimbonn iiyafit'iza, the maize is putting 
forth fdaments from the forming cobs; 
itinloiitbo uyafit'iza, fancV ukuba iza kiina, 
the (dry) fountain begins to flow, probably 
rain is coming; iiiyoka ifit'iza amagwebu, 
the serpent is foaming at the mouth; 
(Kafirs say that, when two serpents 
fight, they retire from each other to get 
fresh' poison and return foaming) ; impi 
ifitiza paya, said of an army continuously 
issuing in small parties from a certain 
place ; fig. not to be clear, to be unintellig- 
ible, to hesitate in speaking, not to 
come to the point ; to sob. 
ukut'i- Fixi, v. t. and i. To sit down too 
closely to another person or upon another 
person in a crowded or overheated hut ; of 
guests, to crowd upon a person; fig. to be j 
angry : ute fixingunisiiido. he was full of an,'er. I 
uku Fixa, v. t. To put forth filaments as 
maize ; of guests, to crowd upon a person. 
Fixiza, V. To put forth filaments; to 
strike one often on the face with the fist, 
etc. 
um-Fiyo, n. 6. Cluytia pulchella Mull, sup 
posed to have the power of warding off 
lightning from a hut or kraal. The roots 
are burnt in the fire, and branches of the 
shrub are hung up roand the eaves of the 
hut and on the kraal fence. 
i-FLAR'A, n. 3. A load, from Du. vracht. 
um Fo, n. I. A man; see uku Fa. 
im Fo, n. 3. and isi-Fo, n. 4. Sickness; see 

iiku-Fa. 
im Fobe, n. 3. Mercy, compassion. 
isi Fobe, n. 4. and isa-Fobe, generally used 
in the plural iznfobc. Speaking indirectly or 
figuratively, loading or obscuring the 
speech with flourishes; a thing of no use, 
for amusement only, such as a valentine, 
ukut'i- FOCO,. V. i. To yield to the touch, as an 
elastic substance or a swelling; to be 
CO iipressible or compressed. 



O 



FO 

uku-Foca, V. t. To press or squeeze : usuke 
waiuHj'ocd cDuati'imln'i, he trampled upon or 
squeezed my bowels; fig. to shed out all 
the blood. 

Focisa, V. To cause to shed, to drain out 
all the blood by squeezing the neck of 
killed birds. 

Foceka, = ukuti-Foco. 
ukut'i FOHLE, v. i. To be depressed, 

to sink : ndite fohle, I feel depressed ; indlu 

ite fohle, mayifakwe inisika, the roof of the 

house has sunk down, it requires a pillar ; 

utefohle, andnbisambona, he slunk away and 

I saw him no more. 

i Fohlefohle, . 2. The repeated beating 
or wounding of skulls in fighting. 

uku-FohIa, v. Lit. To causea depression; to 
break down: vikabi ibufohlile ubuhlanti, 
the ox has, by leaping over, depressed or 
broken the fence of the cattle-fold, 

Fohlana, v. Em. To break each other's 
skulls; to tear each other's clothes, etc., 
in fighiing,^ tihi-Ntlantlana. 

Fohlela, v. To give way; only used in the 
expression : uxob' cfolilcla,he arms and dis- 
arms, said of a coward who pretends to 
be brave by arming himself, but who 
never gets the length of fighting. 

Fohloza, V. To tear ; spoil, - uku-Dlavula. 
--Fohlozana, = uku- Fohlana. 

um-Fokazi, 11. l. A great man; see under 

uku-Fa. 
u Fokot6, . 5. (a) The fontanel or soft 
' place on an infant's head, (b) The umbilical 

cord of a young calf. 
i'Fokotshela, n. 2. A common ignorant 

person; a destitute individual, a worthless 

fellow. 
uku-Fola, V. i. To stay or live with one's 

friend as long as one likes. 
i-Foii, n. 2. The python. 
ukut'i-FoIokohIo, v. i. To fall down, after 

being shot or stabbed. 
i-FOLOKWE, n. 3. Fork; Du. vork. 
uku-FOLOMA, V. To mould bricks; Du. 

vormen. 
ama-FoIotwane, n. 2. pi. Changes (always 

in a bad sense), freakishness, assuming 

protean shapes; different ways and 

manners. 
uku-Foloza, V. i. To express discontent, find 

fault, murmur: uyayifoloza inteto yam, you 

demur at, or find fault with, what I say. 
isi-Fombo, n. 4. A hump-backed or pigeon- 
breasted person. 
ukut'i- Fongqo, v. To arch the body as a 

springbuck in leaping up, or as a worm or 
caterpillar in moving. 



105 



FO 

ama-Fongqo, ama-Fongqongqo.andama- 
Fonjjqofonjjqo, ii.2.pl. Convexities; pro- 
tuberances or arciies, as tiie back of a 
spring-buck when jumping, the neck of a 
horse when prancing, the body of a worm 
wiien moving; fig. iitcta amafongqo- 
fongqo, he uses tricks, artifices, excuses; he 
speaks figuratively, so that others cannot 
understand. 
u Fongqongqo, ;/. 5. A crook backed 

person. 
uku Fongqoza, v. To walk, run or jump 
in a curved, bent position; to arch the 
neck and throw the head like a horse. 
uku-Fononontisa, r. i. To make hopeless 
attempts or unreasonable demands, as 
trying to milk a dry cow, or telling a child 
to do a thing beyond its strength, or impos- 
ing a fine upon a destitute person. 
FOSI, Adj. Chestnut (horse) ; Du. vos. 

/. To be indented, bent in (of 



)f milk and pumpkin. 
3. That which is 



ukut'i-Foto, I ^, . 

uku Fotoka) "''' ' 
a tin vessel). 

isi-Fotd, II. 4. An indentation, bend, as in 
a tin vessel. 

i Fot6yi, n. 2. Porridge 

im-Fotyololo, | 

im-Fotyomfotyo, 3 '' 
supple, flexible, pliant. 

i-FOxongo, n. 2. An old hut. 

u-Foyiyafoco, //. I. Things coming next to 
nothing. 

ili-Fu, . 2. A cloud: iimUfii, he has a cloud, 
i.e. he is in safety because of a cloud of 
defenders; loc. cjiiii, in tlie cloud. 

isi Fu, n. 4. A surly, independent fellow 
loinntu usisifu, this person is angry. 

isi-Fuba, . 4. The human chest: iidinesifu- 
ba, 'I have a sore chest,' may be used of 
any chest complaint whatever; the blouse 
part of a woman's dress when blouse and 
skirt are in one piece; the chest of an 
animal, which in a slaughtered animal is the 
perquisite of the men. Phr. akanasifuba, 
he has no chest, i.e. he cannot keep a 
secret, he is a chatterbox. ii-Sifiiba-sibanzi, 
Christ, afterwards the Christian (so called 
by u-Nlsikana, the first Kafir poetj : loinhla 
ba uya kiuniwa iigosifuba-sibaiizi, this land 
will be inhabited by Christians. 

u-Fuba, n. 5. Anxiety, apprehensiveness, 
hypochondria: lomiitu uiiofuba, this person 
is suffering from hypochondria, cf. u-Nkzvi- 
iitshaiia. 

um-Fube, = uni-Fumbcsi. 

i-FubesI, n. 2. The Spotted Eagle owl, Bubo 

106 



FU 

maculosus (VicilL), whose cry is rendered: 
vima tuta, reap and carry away. 
u-Fudo, . 5. A tortoise; fig. a foul-smelling 

person. 
uku-FUDUKA, v. i. To remove from one 
place to another: kuminyaka iiiibhii safuduka 
e-Dikciii, it is two years since we left Alice; 
safuduka iigenxa yciikomo, we left on account 
of the cattle. 
im-Fuduka, n. 3. Removal of people 

with their cattle and chattels from one 

place to another. 
uku-Fudukela, v. To remove for or to a 

certain locality: wafudukda c-Moiiti, he 

removed to East London. 
Fudusa, V. To remove from one place 

to another; to transfer: kufudusiwc izizwe, 

the tribes have been removed to another 

country. 
Fudusela, v. To remove for, to: ama- 

Ngqika afudnschve pesheya kwe-Nciba, the 

Gaikas have been located beyond the 

Kei river. 
Fuduia, contrac. Fuda, Aux. with adv. 
meaning, always with past signification. 
To have been in the habit of being or 
doing; to have been accustomed to do in 
the past: ubufudula uUma ngaiito-nina? with 
what were you wont to plough ? iidifudula 
iidihaniba, I was in the habit of walking; 
fuduia or fuda ndisitsho, I used to say. 
ukn-Fudumala, v. i. To be warm, hot: 
kufudumelc namhla, sibilile, it is so warm 
to-day that we sweat: atnansi ayafudumala 
ciiib'izciii, the water is getting hot in the pot; 
iidifuna indawo efndumeleyo, I want a warm 
place. 
im-Fudumalo, ;/. 3. Warmth; heat of sun 

or fire. 
uku-Fudumalisa, v. To make warm; to 

cause to be warm: ilauga liyatvufuduma- 

lisa uinhlaba eltlotycni, the sun makes the 

earth warm in summer. 
Fudumeza, v. To warm up iood: fudu- 

iiicza ukudla, make the food warm. 
uku-Fukama, v.' i. To brood, as a hen in 
hatching: iiikukii ifukamilc, the hen is 
sitting on her eggs; also used of a woman 
lying in, or a serpent coiled up after biting, 
or lightning after striking. 
Fukamela, v. To incubate eggs: iukuku 

ifukanuie ainaq :tida, the hen is sitting on, 

is hatching, her eggs. 
Fukamisa, v. To act as a nurse to a 

lying-in woman, to minister to her and 

the infant. 



ukut'i FUKU, r. i. To swell a little: lendazvo 

ili'fiiku, this part is a little swollen; ukoko 

littc-fukii, the scab is somewhat raised, v. t. 

To raise or lift (a pail, a bag of mealies) : 

yit'i-fuku, lift it up. 

u Fukufu, n. 5. ~\ 

i-Fukufuku n. 2. > Things heaped to- 

u-Fukufuku, n. 5.) 
gether loosely, as leaves, rubbish, chaff, 
straw or refuse: ihlati lifukufuku, the 
forest is impassable on account of 
the fallen trees, leaves and scrub; inguh 
ilufukufuku, the garment is loose and 
bulky, like a crinoline. 

im-Fukunifuku, n. 3. A heap of grass; 
adj. entangled, perplexing. 

uku-Fukuka, v. To rise, from fermentation 
or boiling; to swell up: amaziniba akiipe- 
kwa ayafukuka, the Kafircorn when 
cooked rises in the pot; uitlama 
ifukiikile, the dough has risen. 

Fukukisa, v. To leaven; to cause to 
rise, i.e. from fermentation, as in dough. 

Fukula, *'. To lift up; to take up from 
the ground; to heave; to support, as 
when one person assists another by 
holding him up in his arms or on his 
shoulders in passing a dangerous place. 

Fukulela, v. To lift up to. 

Fukusa, r. To raise, lift up earth as a 
mole or pig: iuttikii iya fukusa, the mole is 
li ting up the earth ; to germinate, grow, 
as grass in spring. 

Fukuzela, r. To carry on the head bulky, 
soft things (garments, twigs), which 
dangle down. 

uku-Fukuta, v. t. To munch a thing, as a little 
corn, or mimosa root, or a straw with pipe- 
oil : halifukuta igqwaka, vkuze hazuze antendu, 
they chewed the Bushman tea in order to 
gain swiftness. 

i-FULA, n. 3. Forage, provender ; Du. voer. 

im-FuIa, n. 3. ) . ,, .,, 

um-Fula, . 6. j " P^" valley with a water 

channel: umhlaha uziinfula, the ground is 
full of fissures and clefts; a small stream, a 
brook, a water course, even if dry. Phr. 
Akuko mfula ungnhlokomiyo, lit. there is no 
river that has not its own sound, i.e. every 
creature has its own special gift. Umfidaka- 
zi, a great valley. 

isi-Fula, . 4. A number of imifula in one 
place. 

uku-FuIa, V. t. To go to the garden and 
gather food (mealies, pumpkins) before 
reaping time. 



FU 

uku-Fulatela, and Fulatsela, v. t. Em. To 

turn the back on a person or thing: ungatidi- 
fulateli, do not turn the back on me. 

um-FULAWENJA, H. 6. lit. 'dog's river.' In- 
fluenza, corr. from Eng. and playing on 
the Kafir words. 

uku-FuIela, t;. t. To cover in a house with 
thatch ; to thatch ; to put any kind of roof, 
zinc, corrugated iron, etc., on a house. 
um-Fuleli. . i. A thatcher, etc* 
isi Fulelo. ;/. A. ) -ru . u- c ^ 

u-Fulelo,.5 5 Thatchmg, roofing. 

uku-Fuleleka, v. To be thatched. 
uku-FULER'A, V. t. To plait or braid the hair; 

Du. vlechten. 
uku-Fuma, v. t. To be or become moist, 
damp, humid: amazimha afumih' esiteni, the 
Kafircorn has got damp in the stack. 
Fumisa, v. To cause to be moist; to 
moisten, make damp, 
uku FUMANA, v. t. pass. FunyaKu-a. To 
come to ; to meet with ; to find : tidiy'f.nnene 
imvnyatn ebilahlekile, I have foimd my sheep 
which was lost; to make up to: yib' uhamba 
jidokufujitaita, be going on, I will catch you 
up; to reach: andiyifumaiii lento nangesandla, 
I cannot reach this thing even with the 
hand; fig. to get at: ndiya kukujumana, I 
shall get you, i.e. beat, strike yoii; to gain, 
attain, obtain : ndiyafuiia nknfunda, ke andi- 
hifumaiti, I seek to learn, but I cannot 
attain it; fig. to overtake: unizi ufuiiyctiwe, 
the city was overtaken. Plir. ivod' ufauyamve 
sesiiuatorits' abanzi, you will get yourself 
into difficulties. 

Aux. used adverbially in the sen^e of 
doing a thing in vain, (changing sometimes 
the end vowel a or /' into e). There is a 
distinction between the use of this verb 
with a participle and its use with a con- 
junctive mood, e.g. ufuinana eteta, he speaks 
in vain ; ufumana atete, he speaks at random, 
i.e. without thought or occasion or reason ; 
kuba akafuinanc alipate irele, for he beareth 
not the sword in vain; ufiimane atahate, he 
takes without ceremony; fuuian' iifika sele- 
vikile kwa pezolo, you come too late, he 
having already left last night. 
Fumanana, v. To find, meet, reach, 
catch each other, when seeking each 
other: ndafumanana naye cvdleleni, I met 
with him in the road; wafuviaimna nc- 
xama, he caught or hit the hartebeest. 
Fumananlsa, v. To cause to find each 
other. 



FU 

Fumaneka, v. To be found: ufumancka 
ctembckilc, he is found faithful. 

Fumanela, v. To find or obtain for: 
inkonjane izifiimnmle indlu, the swallow 
has found a nest for herself. 

Fumanisa, v. To cause to find or get. 
Pumanisana, v. To find out one another ; 

to rival. 
uku FUMB'A, V. t. pass. Funjwa. To pile, 
heap up; to collect many things into a 
mass: colani esonto nizifninb^, pick up those 
things and pile them up. 
i-Pumba, w. 2. ) . , 

im-Fumba,.3.J ^ heap, pile. 
isi-Fumba, ii. 4. A hump-backed person; a 

hide folded together. 
uku Pumbafala, r. To be in a crouching 

position; to lie in a heap; to stay in a 

place for a little, without settling down. 

Fumbata, v. t. To clench the fist; to 
grasp and keep, or retain in the closed 
hand: u-T'tkoloshc lowlitye cUngqiikuva 
alifumbatayo; lilo cli Uinba>igcla ukiiba 
angabonaknli, Tikoloshe has in his closed 
hand a round stone which renders him 
invisible; fig. to comprehend. 

i-Funjetwe, . 3. An enclosure, in a 

letter, etc. 
uku-Fumbatela, v. To grasp for or on 

account of. 
Fumbatisa, v. To cause the hand to 

close on something; to give something 

into the hand. 
Fumbela, v. To pile for or at: f umbel' 

apa, heap up here. 
Fumbelana, v. To gather together in 

smdll heaps or masses: bafumbelcnc 

ndmvonyc, they sit together in heaps, 

which generally means, they are too 

crowded. 
Fumbisa, v. To cause to make piles, 

heaps. 
- Fumbisana, ) 
Fumbisisana, 3 

piles or heaps for each other. 
Fumbisela, v. To cause to make heaps 

for. 
um Fumbesi, ti. I. Em. The husband of a 
wife's sister; a term of address between 
men married to sisters. 
uku-FUNA, V. t. To seek, want, desire, aim 
at, inquire for ; to search for edible herbs in 
the lands: ufiina uto-nina npii? what do you 
want here? iidifiina uinscbcnzi iikiizc ttdiziizc, 
I endeavour to gain money by work;/;7(7 
inkomo, zilahlckile, search for the cattle, 



V. To help to make 



FU 

they have strayed; ndiftina ukuziboiia, I 
want to see myself in the glass; iphia imali 
biyijiitia-njc abaniuf where is the money 
the people ask for? ufun' inidiko, he wants 
an opponent, he challenges. 
um-Funi, w. I. One who seeks or is in 

search of any thing ; fig. an inquirer. 
um-Funi joy ini, ;/. I. from Funa and Eng. 

join. A labour agent. 

um-Funo. } ^ ^jj ^ f ^j^le 

um-Funofuno,J 

herbs and of cultivated vegetables except 
grain, maize, etc., and pumpkins. 

uku-Funafuna, v. To seek quickly. 

Funana, v. To want, seek, etc., one 
another: bnfiinana nayc, they wanted him ; 
andifiinant iiuyc, I do not like him, I 
detest him. 

Funeka, v. To be sought, wanted ; to 
be in demand ; to be needful ; to be 
worth seeking; to be desirable: into 
cfunekayo, ii dcsirdblc, needful thing; kit- 
funcka iikiiba lento ycnziwe, this thing 
must be done. 

im-Funeko. n. 3. Necessity. 

uku-Funela, iJ. To want, seek, etc., for: 
iindifuncla-ninaf what do you seek me 
for? wondifuncla ukudla, you must seek 
and get food for me. 

Funisa, v.. To cause a search to be 
made; to help to seek; to try to obtain: 
ndiynfunisa ngcnkoino yam, I try to obtain 
by my cow, i.e. I bring her for sale; fig. 
to try to find, i.e. to guess, suppose. 

FunJsela, r. To try to find for; fig. to 
guess, estimate, reckon, appraise : lomntii 
ngokwam ukiifunisela unetyala, this man 
in my opinion is guilty; inani legusha 
lifunisehm kiu:: waka, the number of 
sheep is esti;Tiat"d at thousands ; to grope 
in the dark, as a blind man. 

i-Funiselo, n. 2. Guessing, estimation. 

uku-Funisisa, v. To help to seek, search 
out, throughout; to want, enquire, etc., 
carefully, earnestly. 
uku-Funca, v. i. To suck up (said of bees and 

flower-sucking birds), - uku-Mfimfita. 
im Funda, n. 3. Em. A flat place or valley 

at a river's bank, inundated when the river 

is in flood. 
um-Funda, n. 6. A place of low, mean people 

who do not serve at court; pliir. outcasts 

who do not willingly submit to the chief's 

orders; a tribe such as ama Gqunukivebe or 

ama Gcina, whose tfhief is not of royal blood. 



FU 

uku- FU N DA, V. t. To learn to do a thing ; to 
learn to work; to learn lo read, build, etc.; 
to gain knowledge: b -fiiiuhi (iiii!:<i(Uim, they 
are learning the alphabet; iifiindilc, he is a 
learned man; uyafunia incwadi, he learns 
to read ; also to read. Em. to take another 
mouthful of food. 



um-Fundi, ti. 
im-Fundi, . 
im-Fundo u. 
education. 
isi Fundo, n. 
um-Fundo, i 



A learner, disciple. 
An expert person. 
What has been learned 



. 4. Lesson, training. 

<.. 5. The act or way 



4. A lesson. 

, 6. A learning ; the act or 

work of one who is only learning. 
uku-Fundela, v. To learn for or in a certain 

place, etc. 
Fundisa, c To teach, instruct: ahantwa- 

nn bafundiswa ndim, the children are 

instructed by me. 
um Fundisi, n. I. (a) Teacher, applied to all 

missionaries and preachers of the Gospel : 

umfnndisi wahnnhvnna, a school master. 

(A school master is now distinguished by 

the name u- or i-titshaln.) 

(b) A nickname for i-Hlungulu, the White 

necked Raven, m reference to his collar, 

and sometimes also for i-Gwangwa, the 

Pied Crow. 
um Fundaswa, . l. One who is being 

taught or trained. 
im Fundiso, //. 3. Instruction, teaching, 

doctrine. 
isi Fundiso, n 
u Fundiso, / 

teaching. 
ubu Fundisi, 

ministry, 
uku Fundisana, v. To teach, etc., each other. 
Fundisela, v. To teach, etc., for: 

iifu/idisela imali, he teaches for money. 
uku-Fundekela, v. t. To annoy, bother, dis- 
turb, vex, tease, trouble, irritate by making 
a noise or clamour: 7mis' ukundifiindekcln, 
do not trouble me;ivandifu>!dckelangenko- 
mo, he troubled me with begging for cattle. 

im-Fundekelo. n. 3. J ^oise, clamour, 

isi Fundekelo, ;/. 4- j ' 

dunning. 

uku Fundekelana, v. To tease, trouble, 
etc., each other by noise or clamour. 
um-Fundi, um-Fundisi, im Fundiso, um 

Fundiswa, im-Fundo, etc., see uku-Funda. 
u Fundo, M. 5. The upper or prominent part 

of the spine: wiofiindo, he is hunchbacked; 

hanofundo, they have a reserve force behind ; 

see uku Fnkn. 
uku-Fundulula, v. t. To banter or speak 

ironically. 



7. Ofitice of teaching, 



FU 

im-Funeko, Necessity; see uku Fuua. 
uku FUNCiA, V. i. To make an oath; to 
swear, which is done by calling by name a 
chief, generally one who is dead, or invok- 
ing a father or brother on the part of 
females, and a sister or mother, especially 
a mother in law, on the part of males (a 
woman never names her father-in-law): 
izizwc ngczizwc zifunga inkosi zazo, the 
various tribes swear by their chiefs; 
udifuiign u Ti.vo, I swear by God. 
i Funga, n. 2. One who takes on oath: 

amafioiga biixoki, false-swearers. 
isi Fungo, n. 4. Oath, affidavit. 
uku-Fungela, v. To swear for: ufungela- 

uiua ? for what purpose do you swear ? 
Fungelana, v. To swear to each other, 
as David and Jonathan did; to conspire 
with each other; to vie with each other. 
Fungisa, v. To cause to swear; to bind 
by, and to put under oath: umgwcbi wawa- 
fungisa amanqina, the judge put the 
witnesses under oath. 
um-Fungisi, n. I. An exorcist. 
isi Fungiso, ti. 4. Used by some mission 
aries for the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper ; = Lat. sacramentum. 
uku-Fungisana, v. To bind each other by 

oath. 
Fungisela, /. To bind by oath for. 
im Fungqa, n. 3. Heap, multitude, 
um Fungqu, . 6. Heap, burden, load. 
im Fungumfungu, n. 3. Rubbish in a heap. 
\x\iuF \in^uza., = Fiiigiza, v. t. To remove a 

heap by carrying (corn, litter, sweepings). 
um Funi, i Funiselo, um Funo, see i4kn- 

Funa. 
i Funjetwe, n. 3. An enclosure in a letter; 

see under uku-Futiiba. 
uku Funqula, v. t. To raise or lift a heavy 
thing or burden. 

Funquka. v. To raise or lift itself, to 
rise ; umzi woiikc iiuiufuuquke, let the whole 
village rise. 
Funquleka, v. To be taken up: funquleka, 
be thou taken up, i.e. raise yourself. 
uku-Funxa, v. i. To draw up any liquid as 
water, marrow or juice into the mouth; it 
may be done in any posture: nknfunxa 
ubucopo bake, to pick his brains. It differs 
from ukn-Scla, ukn-Pung ;, vku-Ncinda, 
vkii-RamiicrIa, uku-Xapn and nku-Kota. 
im-Funxa, n. 3. A sponge. 
uku Funza, v. t. To urge on dogs to hunt, or 
armies to fight or attack: ivaudifnnza nge- 
zinjn, he set the dogs on me; wazifunza 



109 



FU 

iziiija kwiiiyamakazi, he set the dogs at the 
buck. 

-Funzaiia, v. To urge one another to 
fight: basnke bafintznna ahafo ho-Somta, 
the sons of Somta urged one another to 
fight (the enemy). 
Funzela,u. Togive the charge to an army 
to rush on a place; to go straight to a 
place, putting on a bold face: masifunzdc 
kiilawlilo, let us make for that light; of 
a horse, to rush into; of birds, to feed 
their young ones: intaka iyafiinzela aiiui- 
tole ayo, the bird feeds her young ones by 
inserting the food with her beak into their 
mouth. 
um-Funzelo, >i. 6. The food conveyed to 
young birds by their mother. It is now 
used for nourishment generally. 
Fupi, Adj. Short, thick, squat: miiiilit 
oinfiip'i, a short and thick person; inkouto 
rinfiip'i. a squat beast. Adv. near : Iciilo ihifnp'i 
knyc or iiaye, this thing is near to him. 
Futshane, Dim. of Fnp'i. Short: ilizivi 
cUfiitshauc, a short word; indldaimfatsha- 
itc, the road is short. 
uku-Futshanisa, r. To shorten, (intro- 
duced lately). 
u-Fuqa, n. 5. An unpleasant smell. 
um-Fusa, and um-Fusakazi, w. 6. A dark 
brown animal. 

uku-Fuseka, r. To become brown. 
i-Fusi, V. 2. Land formerly cultivated, but 

now left fallow or lying waste. 

im-Fusi, n. 3. The first child born after twins. 

i-Futa, V. 2. White clay, with which circym 

cised boys smear their bodies; chiefly used 

in the pi. (Wiafnta. Any fatty or oily 

substance ; butter, fat, oil, grease, etc. 

isi-F'uta, n. 4. Horse wood, Hippobromus 

alata E.&L., a highly resinous tree. 
uku-Futa, V. t. and /. (from root FU, seen in isi- 
Fii.) To blow in puffs and gusts; to move the 
air by breathing or by a pair of bellows: inifnto 
iyafiUa vgamandla, the bellows blow power- 
fully ; fig. to melt : kwaknfutiva isinyiii, where 
iron ore was melted; to blow at or upon: 
iiiyoka imfnt'dc n<rainnte ayo, the snake blew 
its poison at him; to give a person a 
vapour bath (gumtree or imihlonyane leaves 
are boiled in a pot; the pot with its boiling 
contents is then placed beside the patient 
and a blanket is put over both patient and 
pot ; the lid of the pot is removed, and the 
vapour rises to make the patient sweat); 
to breathe hard, quickly, vehemently; 
to snort : ihashc liyafnia, the horse 
snorts; to begin to stink; fig. to press 



FU 

with solicitations; toimportune; toannoyby 

constantly urging a person to consent to the 

views of another : midifiit'ile, he is constantly 

on me, or presses me hard by pursuit, or 

importunity, or demand ; unintn ofntayo, a 

surly person, = /5/-F. 

i-Fute, ". 2. Persistence, importunity, etc. 

im-Futd, n. 3. Bellows made by the natives, 

of goat skins, which are removed from 

the animal without being cut open 

excepting near the legs, and which thus 

form bags of about 14 to 20 inches in 

length. A horn is inserted at the small 

end which serves as a nozzle ; and at the 

wide open end are two sticks running 

aci-oss each side of the bag, forming an 

opening like that of a carpet bag. These 

are held by the hand so as to open and 

shut the bag, which being alternately 

dilated with wind and compressed by a 

downward stroke of the hand, gives 

a strong blast of wind. Now all sorts of 

bellows are called itnfutd. 

u-Futa, . 5. Stench, mephitic air or gas. 

um Fut6, n. 6. The puff of a snake, 

bullock, cat, or other animal, expressing 

anger or mischief; the sudden emission 

of air through the nostrils ; puffing, rage, 

fury. 

uku Futana, v. To excite each other by 

rivalry ; to press against each other 

closely, e.g. of a large number of people 

in a small compartment. 

Futanisela, v. To smother, by covering 

with a blanket or by pressing hard upon 

a person who is lying down; to tie a 

riem round the nose of a bullock that 

stubbornly lies down when being trained 

and to tighten the riem till the bullock 

feels itself being smothered and stands 

up on its legs. 

Futeka, v. To feel as if suffocated, 

smothered; to breathe vengeance; to be 

inflated, excited with anger: vfidckile 

ngiimsindo, he is full of wrath. 

Futela, y. To blow in, at, upon: inyoka 

yamfiitela, the snake blew at him (poison) ; 

fig. to assail with angry words. 

Futelana, v. Ndifntelcne, I am in a state 
of suffocation (from smoke or anger). 

Futelisa, v. To cause to blow at; to 
inflate. 

Futeza, -^- uku-Fnta. 

Futi, Adv. Often, frequently: ndimhonile 
fiit'i, I have seen him many times; full 



FU 

kangakana-niiuif how often? ycitza fut'i, do 
it frequently; kafiit'i: Vfiokntigabi itakalala 
kafvt'i, in watchings often. 

Futshane, Adj. Short, and uku-Futshaiiisa, 
V. To shorten. See Fiip'i. 

ukuti-FutU, V. i. To be rather warm or 
heated; to be faint, weak, out of breath 
from running; fig. to feel uneasy, uncomfort- 
ably warm, angry; to be excited, in a 
passion. 
isi-Futufutu, n. 4, State of excitement; 

hot, hasty temper. 
ubu-Futufutu, n. 7. Closeness, want of 

fresh air. 
uku-Futukeza, v. To rush upon the enemy 
from behind with vigour and press him 
so that he cannot escape. 

im-Fuxwa, n. 3. Croup; fig. nngenwc yim- 
fiixiva, he is excited, angry. 

uku-FUYA, 1). t. To hold in possession; to 
occupy: siwufiiyilc luiiihlaba, we have 
occupied this country; to farm or breed 
cattle: iifnyc igvsha, he bred ^\\iiQp;aWliniga 
bayayifityn iniali, the white people rear 
money, i.e. give it out for interest; to save, 
spare, reserve. 



FU 

um-Fuyi, //. I. One who rears (stock), a 

farmer. 
i-Fuya, n. 2. A rich proprietor. 
im-Fuyo, //. 3. Possession, property, stock 

of any kind; imfiiyo ycinali, capital of 

money. 
uku-Fuyisa, v. To cause to possess, hold 

reach, make rich. 
uku-FUZA, V. i. To be like, resemble a 
parent or ancestor, espec. in moral char 
acter: lomfana nfnza uyise ngokinixila, this 
young man shows the same disposition 
as his father in drinking, 
im-Fuza, n. 3. A likeness, resemblance in 

manners, etc. Phr. yiiiifnza ka-Qoagqolwa- 

nc, he is a chip of the old block. 



im-Fuzo, ".3-) 
u-Fuzo, /(. 5. j 



- ini-Fuza. 



um-Fuzo, K. 6. A model, 
uku Fuzisa, v. To make to resemble. 
--^Fuzisela, v. To make to liken to or for. 
um Fuziselo, n. 6. A likeness, image, 
illustration, example. 



r^ in Kafir has only one sound, like that 

heard in the English go, give : igauia, name ; 

galcla, pour. Some tribes pronounce it 

harder, nearly like k; some softer, like the 

Dutch g. 

In the case of nouns beginning with in-, 
formed from verbs beginning with c, q, or 
X, the letter g is inserted for the sake of 
euphony between the prefix and the stem: 
in-g-cinga from uku-cinga; in-g-qalo from 
ukii-qala; in-g-xelo from uku-xela. Such 
nouns are inserted in this dictionary under 
the verbal stem from which they arc derived. 
The plurals of nouns of class 5 whose stems 
begin with c, q, or x also insert a g 
between the prefix and the stem : ing-cango 
plural of u-cango; ing-qwcqwe plural of 
u-qweqwe; ing-xande plural of u-xanJe. 

Where the Kafir uses the aspirated form 
of the liquid click, the Fingo uses the 
harder form of the voiced\:lick: e.g. Kafir 
iitn-Ncuniihe, Embo um-Ngcunuhc. 
ukuti-QA, V. i. To go as far as, to reach to: 
intsimi ite-ga apa, the garden reaches to this 
point; ndiye kuti-gn paya, I went as far as 
.there ; = ukuti-Gabii. 



u-Gaba, /;. 5. The peduncle supporting the 
flower of maize or Kafir-corn; hence the 
pedicel of any flower. 

uku-Gaba, I. v. t. To cut in; to dig with a 
pick or hoe ; fig;, of horses, to beat the dust. 
i-Qaba, //. 2. A pick or hoe. 

uku-OAB'A, II. V. i. To dangle, swing, move, 
bend: amanzi ayagaba, the water (being 
carried in a vessel on a person's head) is 
slopping over; to superabound ; fig. to pride 
oneself in; cf. ukit-Gcadiya; fig. to shiver 
from fear, Phr. slsii sigab' amasi soda 
sigab' amanzi, lit. a belly full of sour milk 
will become full of water, i.e. gluttony will 
lead to poverty. 
i-Qaba, n. 2. Em. A large earring. 

'i:8Sawj "- Tha, which grows 
too rapidly and remains therefore thin, 
weak, feeble, slack, flabby ; tasteless 
(meat), loose, useless: Icnlo yangamagaba- 
gaba, that thing was weak, etc. 

uku-Gabela, v. To move, swing, bend on 
or to: nmlambo iiyagabela ngapandlc, the 
river overflows its banks; amanzi ayaga- 
bela pantsi, the water is spilling; fig. to 



III 



GA 

incline the mind to anything ; to desire : 
intliziyo yako igiibela-nina !f on what is 
your heart bent ? 
Uabisa, v. To cause to swing or move ; 
to stir : uyagab'isa iitnboku ivakc, he swings 
his watch chain; fig. to make one inclined; 
to cause to take a pride in. 
Gabisela, v. To make inclined, desirous 
or disposed for. 

uku-Gababi^a, v. t. To take long strides in 
walking ; to cover a large space or area by 
shooting or throwing the assegai over 
the mark ; to plough, etc., more than 
was intended; to go beyond the mark; to 
do a work superficially, and not thoroughly; 
to talk in a general way without coming to 
particulars. 

uku-Gabadela, v. i. To go beyond one's 
means in spending; to be extravagant; to 
become poor through debt; to go deeper in 
a discussion than the actual circumstances 
demand ; to grow too rapidly. 

u Gabajolo, ii. 5. A tall, thin person; a long 
thing: iiiyaivo zako zingabajolo, your feet 
are long. 

in-Gabane, n. 3. A kind of chest complaint 
among children. 

ukuti-Gabangxa, v. i. To make a false step; 
to slip or fall into a hole, or to be caught 
between branches in falling from a tree ; 
to sit or ride astride ; to be not quite full : 
ibekile itegabaiigxa, the beaker is not quite 
full. 
uku-Qabangxisa, v. To fall half full. 

ukuti-Gabanqa, %>. i. To descend suddenly; 
to be steep, sloping, declivitous, as the 
brink of a river ; to be depressed, hollow. 

i-Qabavu, n. 2. A poor man; a dog that 
steals maize from a standing crop. 

uku-Gabaza, v. i. To travel in safety, as in 
times of peace. 

i-Gabecu, n. 2. A new thing that is always 
being looked at or spoken about by its 
owner. 

ukuti-Gabu v. i. To extend or reach to a 
certain point: ite-gabu pakal't, it reached to 
the midst of an object, or to the waist of a 
person, cf. ukuli-Ga. 

i-Gabugabu, see under uka-Gaba. 

ukuti-GABU, x;. /. To part in two, as when 
clouds open suddenly, so that the sun is 
seen through the opening; to clear away 
as mist, not entirely, but so that a vista of 
light appears; said also of a vista in the 
forest, cf. nkii-Gabuka. 



GA 

uku-Qabula, v. t. To clear a way or 
land, make an opening, as through a 
forest or host of opposers ; to cut through 
the lines of an army ; to open the eyes : 
uyagabula izigcau, lit. he clears away the" 
spider webs, i.e. he gets understanding; 
g.ibuhi wcna, mark you, bear in mind, see 
to it. 

um-Gabu!l, n. I. One who clears a way. 

uku-Gabuka, v. To clear away as clouds 
or mist, so as to cause an opening : 
inkiifigu igabukile, the mist has cleared 
away; to give way, as when people re- 
move from a place which is too populous, 
and go to build a new one ; fig. to be open, . 
light : amchlo agabiikilc, the eyes got light ; 
inllungii igabukile, the pain is gone. Phr. 
inlloko igabukile izigcau, lit. the spider 
webs have been removed from the head, 
i.e. the head has become clear, I have 
had some QAwcdL.\.\on;=^ ukuti-Gabu. 

Qabulela, v. To clear away, etc., for 
another or for a certain purpose : yigabu- 
h'le inqw^lo, clear a path for the wagon ; 
zigahulele, make room for yourself; wazi^ 
gahulcla indlela ehlathti, he cut a path for 
himself through the forest; uyazigabu/ela 
kulomsebenzi, he makes himself thoroughly 
acquainted with this work ; ukunigabulcln 
izigcau, to take away cobwebs in his way, 
to prepare the way for. 
uku-Qabuza, v. i. To tell old tales or fables. 
uku-Gada, v. i. To run about in madness; to 

have rabies. 

in-Qada, ?i. 3. The wild cat, Felis ocreata 
cafra Desm., = im-Bodla and i-Cataza. 

um-Gada, n. 6. Rabies, madness; unomgada, 
he is mad. 
i-Gada, h. 2. A lump or cold of earth ; a sod, 

turf ; fig. iliztve selimagad'ahlabayo, lit. the 

country is full of piercing clods, i.e. already 

unsettled, upside do^n, = ulixolile; fig. the 

earth : hayi eligada ! oh what a world (e.g. 

because of war) ! Phr. usukile cgadeni, he has 

grown up fast, he is tall. 

i-Qadalala, \ ^j^^^ ^^^^^ j^ ^^^.^ 

i-Gadava, J 

dried up (skin); fig. a strong corpulent 
person. 

u-Gadasi, n. 5. Hardness of ground. 
isi-Qadi, n. 4. A cluster of stalks, growing 

out of one root, but producing no fruit ; an 

ill-formed, unattractive child; a deformed, 

useless animal ; fig. a person who is not 

loved. 



GA 

in-QadIa, n. 3. A lancet. 

u-Gadia, n. 5. The first thick milk poured 

out of a new milk-sack. 
ukuti-GADLA, and uku-Gadlela, v. t. To 

throw down anything which makes a noise 

in falling, cf. ukii-Kahlcla; to open or close 

a door with a bang. 

u-Gadlagadla, //. 5. A succession of reports 
from things thrown down. 

uku-Qadleka, v. Of a bullock, to fall 
down prostrate. 
in-Gadluma, n. 3. That which is thick and 

uneven in body. 
u-Gadugadu, ;/. 5. That which is hard and 

dry (bread); dried fruit or pumpkin; fig. a 

barren woman. 
uku-Gafela, v. i. Em. To compete for a wife. 
ukuti-GAGA, v. To come upon by surprise; 

to take by surprise; to attack: bate-gaga 

kuyc, they surprised him. 

S!Q:g^nTl"T--ko Cher: 

bagagcne ngczifuba, they ran against each 
other; inkuuzi zaiaiia-gaga, the bulls at- 
tacked eack other unexpectedly. 

Gagelela, v. To get at one for another. 

Gagisana, v. To vie, rival, contend, out- 
bid. 

in-Qagiso, . 3. Rivalry, competition. 
i-Oaga, n. 2. A stony place: wahlwayela 

egdgcni, he sowed in a barren place. 
u-Gaga, n. 5. The Cape Robin Chat, Cossypha 

caffra (L); the cry of uglga is said to 

portend bad luck when an army is on the 

warpath ; hence the proverb, kwalila ng'iga 

lomini, lit. ugilga cried that day, that day 

brought bad luck. 

u-Gaga-s:si, //. 5. The Noisy Robin Chat, 
Cossypha bicolor (Sparrm.) 
u-Qaga. . 5. (a) A dried skin; a parchment; 

fig. a certificate, (b) The sternum: wandi- 

beta elugjgeni, he beat me on the chest ; fig. 

a man of high position; an influential 

courtier of long standing, whose children 

are called abaiitwana bogaga, children of 

noble descent. 
u-Gagade, /;. 5. Pumpkin cut up into small 

strips and dried in the sun. 
i-Gagadele, n. 2. One whose belly is blown 

up; a swollen corpse; fig.^a proud, haughty, 

insolent person. 
u-GagadelCv n 5. A swift runner. 
uku-Gagadlela, = tiku-Gadlela. 
u-Gagadu, n. 5. Hardness of the ground from 

dryness of the weather. 
P 



GA 

u-Gagambu, n. 5. Hitting the water with 
the feet in swimming, cf. u-Gambii. 

uku-Gagamela, v. i. To aim at an object 
beyond one's reach ; to over-do, over-reach 
oneself; to arrogate, usurp, blow oneself 
up as a turkey does: uyigagamele lengubo, 
he prides himself in this dress, though it 
does not become one of his standing or 
means; cf. itkii-Kakamela and uku-Nganga- 
mda. 
isi-Qagamela, n. 4, A person of high rank, 

a chief. 
ubu-Gagamela, = ubu-Ngangamela. 

i-Gagu, . 2. A bold, daring, foolhardy, 
very self-conceited, frivolous man, without 
shame; (used always in a bad sense.) 

ubu-Gagu, . 7. Boldness, daring, foolhardi- 
ness. 

in-GaJala, ??. 3. ~\ 

in-Gajela, n. 3. > A tall, corpulent person. 

isi-Gajilili, ;/. 4.) 

uku-QajuIa, v. i. To walk in long, wet grass. 

um-Gajulo, //. 6. A frock-coat or gown, 
cassock, surplice. 

i-Gala, n. 2. The Bushy-tailed meerkat, 
Cynictis penicillata (Cuvier). 

i,-S.&ta.a%. I Cape Boxood,or Bui.- 

mij-niet, Buxus macowani Oliv. In the 
East Pondoland forests, the name is applied 
to Notobuxus natalensis Oliv. 

Phr. uzicandelc umgalagala, you have 
split boxwood for yourself, i.e. you will 
have to bear the consequences; ndizitatele 
umgalagala, I have brought trouble upon 
myself and must bear the consequences. 

i-Gafakangqa, ;/. 2. Hiccough. 

ukuti-Qalakaxa, v. i. To come down suddenly 
upon a person or thing, as hunters upon a 
buck, or an army upon another army; to 
fall suddenly into a hole or thorn bush;=: 
ukuti-Gaga. 

i-Galakaxa, n. 2. Em. A tall, thin person or 
thing. 

u-Galakaxa, n. 5. An ox with long horns 
and a tall thin body. 

i-Galanga. n. 2. A big fire. 

i-Galawe, u. 2. A white bead. 

uku-Galeia, v. t. (a) To pour forth, out, or in: 
galela amanzi emittni, water the trees; 
langubo ugak'lwe i-oli, flour mingled with oil. 
(b) To strike a blow : wamgalcla ngcndu- 
kii, he beat him with a stick; galela intaka, 
fling stones or a stick at the birds; to join 
in an attack: impi yagalela kut'i, the army 
joined us ; uyise wagalela kubo abafana bake, 
13 



QA 

the father joined his young men in the 

fight, i.e. did not reprimand them; ukngale 

la iiikoino, to pour in cattle in competing 

for a wife ; see ukii-Xunia. 

- Qaleka, v. To have an empty stomach, 
to be hungry. 

Oalelana, v. To join battle; to fight' 
with each other: haguhicma iiayc ngcndu-\ 
ku, they fought him with knob-sticks. j 

Uaieleka, v. To be poured out, to flow 
down : inakugalcleke iimgwebo ujengamaiizi. 
let judgment roll down as waters; to 
attack, invade : impi yagaldeka kusasa, 
the enemy attacked this morning; to 
arrive, generally of a party of people : 
sagaleleka emzini wake, we arrived at his 
village; to disembark. 

Galelekela, v. To rush into a certain 
place: itupi yagaldckcla cswciii Ictu, the 
enemy rushed into our country. 

Galelekisa, v. To cause to be poured 
out: u-Yeliova w galelekisa umoya oinkuln 
ehvaiidle, the Lord cast forth a great 
wind over the sea. 

Qalelelana, v. To take one another's 
wages alternately. 
i-Galimoya, . 2. A kind of sickness, 

supposed to be caused by wind distending 

the stomach ; at present used for dropsy. 
in-Qalo, . 3. The human arm; fig. help: 

babe yingalo yake, they helped him. 
isi-Qalo, . 4. A brawny arm. 
i-Qama, . 2. (a) A name: igawa lako linguba- 

ni-naf what is your name .-' andimazi 

gama, I do not know him even by name ; 

indoda yegam 1, a well-known man. 

(b) Kind: ?iokokiiha isifo sam sasigama liiii- 
na, of whatever kind my sickness was. 

(c) A letter of the alphabet. Dimin. iga- 
nyana. 

u-Gama, . l. Period of time: logama wonke 
iiscnabo, during all the time, or while, he is 
still with them; distance, space. 

isi-Gaina, n. 4. Distance or space between. 
Adv. about. 

um-Gama, //. 6. Distance, space; a mile: 
bcsihaviba umgama omkiila or umgamakazi, 
we went a long distance; a period of time: 
ngayo imigama yokuma kwcliswe, as long as 
the world stands; as adj. far: ndhngaiiiakuye, 
I am far from him ; kumgama or zimgama 
elwaiidle, far from the sea. Adv. bugama or 
emgameni or mgaina. From far: walandela 
bugama, he followed him from far; dimin. 
umganyana, a short distance. 



GA 

ubu-Gama, //. 7. Space or extent of time. 
u-Gambu, n. 5. The sound produced by 
hitting a man's body with the fist; the 
sound produced by beating a drum. 
in-Gambungambu, n. 3. Boxing. 
u-Gambiishe, 11. I. Em.-mnbona orwexu. 
Gamgam, Adj. Blown up, swollen, rotten: 
ubnso bake bugamgatn, his face is puffed out 
(through drink). 

ubu-Gamgam, m. 7. State of being swollen, 
rotten. 
uku-Gamlela, v. t. To cut in the middle; to 
cut a long story short; to commence in the 
middle instead of at the beginning. 
isi-Qampe, Em. isa-Gampe, //. 4. An orna- 
ment for the knee or arm. 
uku-GANA, V. t. Em. To choose, elect, be- 
speak, betroth, = Kafir uku-Qasha. When a 
young man had chosen a girl for his wife, 
and her parents had given consent, it was 
said of the girl, intoinb'i yaganwa yindoda, 
the girl has been chosen by this man, i.e. 
she is betrothed to him. Such betrothal 
might take place even in a girl's infancy, 
if a suitor said to her parents, ' This is my 
wife.' The girl remained thereafter with 
her parents till the time of marriage, and, 
should another suitor appear, her parents 
would say lentombi iseV iganiwe, this girl is 
already betrothed. 

um-Gano, ;/. 6. The second head of cattle 

which the parents or guardian of a girl 

sends with the bride to the bridegroom. 

uku-Ganana, v. To enter into marriage 

with each other. 
Ganeka, v. t. To prove, illustrate, make 
clear, demonstrate ; to cite facts in support 
of one's contention. 
isi-Ganeko, n. 4. A fully established proof; 

a remarkable, or well known event. 
uku-Ganekeka, v. To be fully proved, 

perfectly certain, established. 
Ganela, v. To betroth to: intomb'i iga- 
rielwe u-Nantsi, the girl has been betrothed 
to So-and-so. This implies that the man's 
parents or relatives made the choice. 
Ganisa, v. To bring the bride to her 

new home. 
isi-Ganiso, //. 4. A present to the bride's 
relations. 

uku-Ganda, \ ^ ^ ^n { ^ hole and 
Gandelela, J 
stamp in the ground; to walk with heavy 
tread. 
uku-Garidula, v. t. To dig hard ground. 
114 



GA 

uku-QANQA, t;. /. (first 'a' long). To catch 
a thing (ball, etc.) ; fig. to attempt, venture. 
u-Gango, ti. 5. The act of catching. 
uku-Qangana, v. Of two people, to meet 

suddenly, as at a corner, and knock 

against each other. 
Qangela, v. To catch at. 
Qangisa, v. To cause or make to catch 
isi-Ganga, . 4. A heap or mound of earth, 
a grave, a hillock, rampart, line; fig. 
iziganga zempi, opposing armies ready for 
battle. 
uku-QANGA, v. i. (first 'a' short) To exalt 
oneself; to be bold, impudent; to play 
practical jokes : mnyalc lomntivana uyaganga, 
warn this child, it is impudent, bold, exceed- 
ing all limits; indoJa ig'ingile, the man is 
boasting, bold, etc. 
in-Ganga, n. 3. In a good sense = in-Kidu ; 

in a bad sense : nzcnz' iugdnga, he makes 

himself greater than he is ; cf. i-Ngaiiga. 
isi-GSnga, n. 4. A man of high position. 
ubu-Ganga, . 7. Daring, venturesomeness, 

boldness, self-assurance: unobtiganga ho- 

kumbuza, he dares to ask him ; = &- 

Nganga. 
u-Qanga, ;/. 5. The chest of a person or 

animal, isi-Fuba. 
i-Gangala, w. 2. A dry clod of earth; an 
unburnt brick; a small lump or piece of 
meat. 
uku-Gangalaza, v. i. To walk without fear or 

shame, = uku-Nyalasa, 
i-Gangasane, ti. 2. A young, clever, skilful 

man. 
uku-QANGAT'A, v. t. To tread, or stamp 
down into a solid mass; hence to lay a 
mud-floor by pounding earth, taken usually 
from termite-heaps which contain a gluti- 
nous matter. 
isi-Gangat6, n. 4. A stone used for making 

a floor even and smooth. 
u Gangatd, . 5. The act of laying the 

floor. 
um-Gangat6, /;. 6. The mud-floor of a hut. 

Now used of any kind of floor, also of 

the deck of a vessel. 
uku-Gangateka, v. To be in a barren, dry 

state: intsimi cgaugatekileyo, a dry, barren 

garden. ^ 

ukuti-Gangqa,) ^^ jj^ ^ in; to be 
uku-Gangqa, 3 

depressed, as a hollow part : ufokoto lutc- 
ganqga, the fontanel on the head lies deep ; 
itshatshazi lite-gangqa eluswiiii, the white 
spot lies deep in the skin. 

1 



GA 

ukuti-Gangqagangqa, v. i. To swallow 
greedily. 

uku-Gangqela, v. To enter a house in 
excitement or rage at the inmates. 
ukuti-Gangxa, ) , r^ , ^, , ^ 

uku-Oangxa, ] ^- ' ^^ P"^ ^he neck mto 

something; to put something round the 

neck : iqiya ite-gangxa entanyeni, a handker^ 

chief is put round the neck ; to throw into a 

hole. 

i-Gangxa, n. 2. One who does a thing 
imperfectly, e.g. one who commences to 
ride. 

um-Gangxo, n. 6. That which encircles, 
surrounds, as a necktie; hence a bando- 
lier, 
isi-Ganiso and um-Gano, see uku-Gann. 
um-Ganto, ?;. 6. The Sentinel Rock-thrush, 

Monticola explorator (Vicill.j; perhaps also 

applied to the Cape Rock-thrush, M. 

rupestris (VieilL). 
i-GANTOLO, w. 3. A law court; Du. kantoor. 
Gantshi, interj. This word appears as a 

kind of chorus or refrain in the songs of 

Kafir intsomi; its meaning is lost; it may 

simply correspond to such catches in 

English songs as tra-la la. 
uku-QantsuIa, v. i. To walk boldly, without 

fear. 

isi-GantsuIa, ;/. 4. A person who walks 
boldly, insolently, impudently. 

ubu-Gantsula, n. 7. Boldness, insolence, 
impudence. 
i-Gantuntu, ;/. 2. One who refuses to live 

with other people, building his hut away 

from others ; one who has a kraal but no 

people. 
um-Ganxanxa, n. 6. A hollow, cavity, pit. 
isi-Ganyonyo, n. 4. A strong, burly, brusque 

person. 
uku-Gapa*zela, v. i. Em. To shake up and 

down, uku-Gciycza. 
i-Gaqa, n. 2. A lump of sugar or salt or any 

other substance that can be easily broken 

up; a round thing as an orange or a lemon; 

a short, round ' lump ' of a person. Dimin. 

igaqana : ndipc amagaqaiia c-lamuni, give me 

the lemons. 
isi-Gaqa, w. 4. A lump of bread, clay, etc. 
uku-GAQA, V. i. To creep on hands and 

knees. 

um-Gaqo, n. 6. The 'run' of mice and 

moles; the track of game, hippopotami, 

etc. ; fig. the line along which movement 

should take place: yiyipiiia imigaqo ycntla- 

5 



QA 

nganiso, which are the regulations of the 
meeting; measure, class, standard in 
schools ; also = uin-Cimbi. 
uku-Qaqeia, v. To creep for or on account 
of: izilwanyaiia ziiidigaqdc, little insects 
have crept upon me; fig. to bribe with 
money. 
u-Qafa, n. 5. Tribal. A s\i\n, = u-Gaga; also 
a very lean animal with the bones or ribs 
sticking out. 
uku-QASA, V. i. To be conceited; to have a 
high opinion of one's own accomplishments 
or personal attractions; to be foolhardy, 
bold, careless of danger; to be presump- 
tuous, impudent. 

ubu-Gasa, n. 7. Self-conceit, presumption. 
uku-Gaselana, v. To despise one another; 

to bring on strife. 

Qasisa, v. To make conceited: uyaziga- 

sisa, he fancies himself to have 

power or wisdom. 

uku-Qatya, v. t. To keep any thing at bay; 

to prevent, stop, drive away, clear off. 

um-Qatyi-sifo, Jt. I. A member of the 

sanitary board ; a sanitary officer. 

ukuti-Qatya, v. t. To throw any thing loosely 

over the head or round the neck, as a 

string of beads round the neck of a person, 

or a rope round the neck of a horse, or a 

thong round the horns of an ox. 

i-Qatya, n. 2. A young, tender shoot or 

branch of a tree. 
u-Qatyo, n. S- = tihu-Ti-babafiJzi. 
uku Ciaula, v. t. To cut down; to chop or 
hew timber : bagaula itniti, they chopped 
down trees. Phr. kugaulwa owaziwayo, lit. 
the well-known is cut down, i.e. death takes 
away even well-known or renowned people. 
um-Gauli, . l. A hewer of wood. 
uku-QauIeka, v. To be fit to chop or to be 
chopped: izetnbe aligaulcki, the hatchet is 
not fit for chopping. 
uku-Gawusha, v. i. To pride oneself; to go 
about speaking badly of others; to lord it 
over ; also = uku-Nyalasa. 
um-Gawushi, n. I. A man who counsels or 
rules other people, lords it over them. 
ukuti-GAXA, v. i. To meet unexpectedly or 
by chance, or to fall upon a person or thing 
so as to impede progress; to run or fall 
against an object (as a pole): batc-gaxa 
emlini, they came suddenly against a tree ; 
ndile-gaxa ndafika entabeni, I arrived by 
chance at the mountain. 
uku-Qaxela, v. To interrupt : tuidigaxela-ni? 
why do you interrupt me. 



GA 

Gaxeleka, v. To have suddenly come, or 

fallen, among: ivagaxeleka ezihatigeni, he 

fell among robbers. 
i-Gaxagaxa, 71. 2. A person finely adorned ; 
a hasty person. 

uku-Gaxaza, v. i. To do hastily. 
Qaxazelela, v. To hasten for or on 

account of one. 
Gaxela, v. To put on at one time many 

fancy articles of dress, as brooches, ties, 

chains. 
u-Gaxela, n. i. A bullock with long horns 

turned upwards having the point or tip 

of the horns bent downwards. 
uku-Gaya, v. t. To crush quartz at the gold 
fields, used of the machinery. Phr. liyaga- 
ya liyacola clilitye, this stone grinds both 
coarse and fine. Hence, to form a company 
of men to go to work at the mines; Em. 
uku-Raya. 
um-Gayi, n. I. A man who conducts native 

labourers to the mines; a labour-agent. 
um-Gayo, n. 6. A gang of men going to 

work. 
i-Gazi, n. 2. Blood (in a liquid state) : walenza 
or ivapalazn igazi, he shed blood; fig. ndili- 
gazi lake, I am a relation of his. Blood 
from a .wound or the cloth that has bound 
a bleeding wound must not be burned, but 
buried under earth. 
u-Oazi-mrolo, n. I. One whose blood has 

been shed and is fast oozing out: igazi 

lako limrolo yinina ? why does thy blood 

stream ? 
u-Gazi mtyatyatya, u-Gazi mtyeke, u- 

Gazi tyeketye, and u-Gazirtyetye, n. i. 

Redness: umbona ugazi-iyc-tye, red maize 

(from its bloody colour). 
um-Gazi, ?/. 6. A rt d bead of a blood colour. 
uku-Gazula, v. t. To make one furrow only 

for mai'r.ing out a strip of land to be 

ploughed. 
Gazuka, r. To have sexual desire, (said 

of a circumcised youth, when his wound 

bleeds). 

N.B. For words beginning 
in-Gc not found here, see 
under C: ing-C or u-C 
ukuti-Gca, v. i. To go straight forward with- 
out diverging : amehlo akb makakangcle att- 
gca, let thine eyes look straight before 
thee. 
um-Qca, n. 6. Line, strip, stripe, row, rank: 

amaxesha asemgceni, the exact time ; uku- 

gqil'cmgccni, to be above or go beyond 
16 



GC 

measure ; a comet ; fig. the year of the 
comet, 1841. 

uku-Qcaba, v. t. (a) To pour tepid water on 

a hide, when it is scraped with aloe-leaves 

to raise the nap. (b) To pour an infusion of 

i-Qitia on the same hide, when it is to be 

worked soft, (c) To powder the same with 

a powder made by burning and pounding 

i-Bika; fig. to make smooth, soft or 

slippeiy, by sprinkling water. 

i-Cicabe, w. 2. A hide garment finished 

and powdered as above; a brand new 

garment of good quality: xifak'igcabe, he 

put on a new suit of clothes. 

uku-GCABA, V. i. To burst, crack, get 
rough, applied to the skin of the human 
body when it has been left unoiled or to 
the rind of a pumpkin or fruit, espec. when 
it is quite ripe : ipuzi ligcabile, the pumpkin 
rind is burst. 
i-Gcabe, n. 2. A chapped skin. 

in-Qcabangcosi, n. 3. A long, thin-legged 
thing. 

u-Gcabevii, n. 5. Passionate temper in a 
person or in an animal : usoloko clugcahcvu, 
he is always angry. 

in-Gcaca, n. 3. Cowrie shells used as an 
ornamental band on the foreheads of men, 
or on the headstalls of horses. 

uku-Gcada, v. t. Em. To fry meat, to roast 
coffee or maize ; = Kafir uku-Roqa. 

u-Gcadalala, w. 5. That which is fine, tall, as 
a pot with long legs or a tall man. 

isi-Gcadolo, ?/. 4. A conceited fop, who 
goes about continually in fine clothes , 
ungandishiyi, sigcadolo savt, xa uy'cgoli, 
ndibc vgumtwalo naseinagxeni, iidibe Ucuba 
nasenqaweni, don't leave me behind, my 
dandy, when you go to the goldfields, carry 
me on your shoulders, put me in your pipe 
(Kafir song). 

uku-Gcagca, v.i. To elope: iigcagce nendoda, 
she has eloped with a man. 
Qcagcisa, v. To cause to elope. 

isi-Gcajolo, n. 4. = isi-Gcadolo. 

uku-Gcakaca, v. i. To become degenerate, 
= uhu-Ngcakaca. 

uku-Gcakamela, v. i. To sit and warm one- 
self in the sun; to bask: ndigakamele ila- 
nga, I am basking in the s,un. 
Gcakamelana, v. To face ; to fix one's 
eyes upon : wrgcakamclaiia ?tesilingo, he 
faced temptations. 

i-Gcakasi, . 2. = i-Dyagasi. 
, in-Gcakaza, . 3. A method of drawing lots; 
see i-Ceva. 



OC 

uku-GCALA, V. i. To be wild, passionate, 

vicious, irascible. 

in-Gcala, n. 3. A winged termite; fig. one 
dexterous in aiming. 

Gcalagcala, Adj. Fierce, vicious, passio- 
nate. 
Gcala_ 

ubu-Gcalagcala, n. 7.) 
sionatenesp, viciousness. 

in-Gcalangcalakazi, n. 3. A very passion- 
ate person. 
uku-Gcalisela, ctc.,-=^ ukii-GcayiscIa, etc. 
in-Gcambane, n. 3. A veil of rushes or palm- 
leaves worn by an umkwcta while dancing. 
in-Gcambu, . 3. A vooi, = i-Ngcavdm. 
u-GcsLmewi^-u-GaduTu. 
uku-Gcanabeka, v. t. To lay out in the sun, 

as a garment to dry. 
uku-Gcangca, r. i. Of the sun, to hover 

before setting. 
um-Gcantsi, w. 6. The placenta of animals, 

distinguished from nm-Kaya, the human 

afterbirth. 
in-Gcape, u. 3. The mouth-piece of a pipe 

for smoking; fig. the urethra. Em. a little 

snuff spoon. 
in-Gcatawule, ti. 3. One who dresses finely; 

a gentleman, lady. 
in-Gcau, n. 3. A lewd, unchaste person. 
isi-Gcau, n. 4. (a) A large spider; a spider's 

web, see uku-Gabtika. (b) A pink bead ; fig. 

a man of high rank. 
in-Gcawa, w. 3. A plain woollen blanket. 
uku-Gcayisela, v. t. To entrap in a certain 

locality, by secretly putting down glass, 

thorns, live coals, etc., in the road for the 

purpose of injuring or destroying a person; 

fig to inveigle; to take by wile, stratagem, 

deceit. 

in-Gcaylselo, //. 3. The process of laying 
down (objectively). 

isi-Gcayiselo, n. 4. The articles laid down 
for injuring. 

u-Gcayiselo, n. 5. The laying down of 
snares. 

um-Gcayiselo, ;/. 6. The thing laid down 
in the mind (subjectively). 
in-Gceba, n. 3. A piece of pumpkin, cut into 

big, thick slices for cooking purposes. 
u-Ocedevu, ;/. 5. A piece of an old pot of 

flat shape, a potsherd; or a piece of tin 

used for roasting maize or coffee; used by 

the Bible translators for a censer. 
i-Gcegceya, n. 2. Cassinopsis capensis 

Sond., = i-Ccgccya. 
in-Gcelwane, ti. 3. Aloe saponaria Haw. 
17 



GC 

in-Qcenene, /;. 3. Sitting in ease and pleasure. 
in-Gceng:ce, //, 3. A girdle or waistband, = h- 

Ngcoigc. 
i-Qcigala, n. 2. Storv oi o\d;-=i-Bali. 
in-Gcill, n. 3. An intestinal worm. 
uku-QCINA, V. t. To keep, hold, preserve, 
take care of: n Tixo wandittima ukugcina 
nbomi, God sent me to preserve life 
ligcine ilizn'i lam, keep my word in your 
heart; to save from injury or destruction ; 
to defend from evil : ndigcineenkoMakalwetii, 
keep me from evil; uzigcinile, he keeps him- 
self, takes care of himself; ndigctna kuye, 
I esteem him highly. 
um-GcJni, //. I. A preserver, caretaker. 
um-Gcini sililalo, . I. A chairman. 
isi-Gcina,.4. Service, charge, office, place, 

station, situation ; cf. isi-Gxina. 
isi-Gclna ntloko, ;/. 4. A helmet. 
isi-Gcina sifuba, 11. 4. A breastplate. 
u-Gcino, 77. 5. Preservation 
uku-Gcinakala, v. To be in a state of pre 

servation ; to be kept from injury or evil 

sigcimki'le ezonto zotnbtni, both are pre- 
served. 
Gcinakalisa, v. To cause preservation, 
G c i n e ka , v. = ukii- Gciiuikala. 
Gcinela, v. To keep or preserve for: 

i/ttubi zigchiela ubusika, the termites are 

laying up (a store of grass) for winter. 
Gcinisa, v. To cause or help to preserve ; 

to exert oneself much to keep; to keep a 

firm hold of, etc. 
u-Gciniso, 77. 5. Safe keeping. 
uku-GcipuIa, v. t. To cut slightly with a 

sharp instrument. 
uku-Gcisa v. t. To perform a work rightly, 
properly, skilfully. 
i-Gcisa, n. 2. A skilful man, excellent shot; 

engineer; expert in music. , 
ubu-Gcisa, n. 7. Skilfulness, expertness, 

ingeniousnesS. 
uku-GCOBA, V. i. To be merry, joyful: maku- 
dlhvc kiigcfltywe, let them eat and be merry. 
in-Gcoba, ti. 3. Used in poetry for imi-Gcoho. 

Joy. 
imi-Gcobo, 77. 6. pi. Merriment, frolic, joy: 

zvenza vgcmigcobo, he did it with joy, or 

voluntarily. 
uku-Gcobela, v. To be glad over a thing. 
-Gcobisa, v. pass, gcotyiswn. To cause 

gladness, etc. 
in-Gcobo. 77. 3. Reedgrass; loc. eiigcobcni and 
engcotycni. Phr. kuko u-Hili cngcotyoii, there's 
a Hili among the grass, i.e. out with the 
secret. 

118 



GC 

isi-Qcobo, 77. 4. A roughly made door mat; 
a roughly made basket in which the crane- 
plumes are kept; :iho = in- Gcattibchie. 

uku-Gcogela, = itku-Cdkela, 

i-Gcogwe, n. 2. A tuberous root. 

imi-Gcoloco, n. 6. pi. Sign, show: iniigcoloco 
yemivuyo, expression of joy; frolicsomeness; 
going on the toes. 

in Gcongolo, n. 3. A cane, reed. 

i-Gcube, 77. 3. The first-fruit festival among 
the ama-Baca. 

in-GcubuIuIu, 72. 3. That which is lean or 
emaciated from sickness. 

i Gcudu, 77. 2. Mostly used in the dimin. A 
small heap, small meeting; ama-Gciidwana, 
a few grains of roasted maize. Em. Private 
conversation or discussion. 

uku-GCULA, 7). t. To scorn. 77. 8. Scorning, 
uku-Gculela, v. To mock, jeer, make sport 
of a person; to laugh, rejoice over or 
exult in another's misfortune. 
um-Gculeli, n. I. A mocker. 
isi-Gculelo, n. 4. Mocking, jeering; one 
who is laughed at; a scapegoat. 

in-Gcula, 77. 3. Lean meat, generally that of 
a calf. 

uku-Gcuma, v. i. To moan, as in sickness. 

i-Gcume, 77. 2. A grove, thicket. 

isi-Gcume, n. 4. A bunch of beads; a small 
bunch of anything. 

uku-Gcuntsa, v. i. To throw the isigcuntsa 
at the tuberous root of isi-Kohkoto. By this 
method two boys determine which of them 
is to turn the cattle. The one who misses is 
'eaten,' i.e. defeated, by the one who strikes 
and has in consequence to turn the cattle. 
isi-Gcuntsa, fi. 4. A pin, thorn, piece ot 
wire or small pointed stick, used in the 
play uku Gcimtsa. 

i-Gcuntsu, 77. 2. A small heap, a small 
number or quantity. 

i-Gcushuwa, n. 2. Lues venerea. 

uku-Gcwala, v. i. Em. To be full up to the 
brim. 

uGcwamevn, n. 5. Anger, wrath. 

in Gc wane, 77. 3. A kind of edible grass. 

uku-Gcwayela, v. t. To sprinkle meal or 
salt on food ; to scatter seed. 
um-Gcwayelo, 77. 6. The mixing of flour 
with food. 

! Gcweka, n. 2. A nickname used by 
Hottentots for a white man. 

si-Gcwelegcwele, n. 4. An enraged person 
or animal: lomutu iisisigewelegcwele, this 
person is infuriated, enraged ; = ii-Gcalagcala. 

in-Gcwinye, 77. 3. Lues v 



QC 

ukuti Qcwizi, v. t. To miss narrowly; to 
graze. 

i Qcwizigcwizi, w. 2. Being almost hit; a 

narrow escape ; fig. shortcoming, failure. 

um Qeba, n. 6. The Bastard Olive, Chili 

anthus oleaceus Burch. 
uku Qebenga, v. t. pass, gctycngwa. To fall 
upon suddenly and kill; to commit highway 
robbery. 

isi Qebenga, . 4. A murderer, who 
according to Kafirsuperstitionlives in the 
forest, has a distorted face and boar tusks, 
and who kills people with a hatchet; 
a bandit, highwayman; a giant. 
ubii-Gebenga, ;/. 7. Bloody violence.' 

uku-Gebila, ] ^'- ' ^ ^^^^^' ^"^ ^ ^^^^ wound ; 
to cut off a great piece. Rel. form, wanditehi- 
gcbu inyama, he cut for me a great piece of 
meat. 

isi-Ciebu, n. 4. A large cut; a great piece 
or portion, large section. 

uku-Qeca, v. t. To make a clearance, as of 
grass or bush, by a sharp instrument ; to 
open a way by removing stones, etc. 
um-Qeci, n. I. A pioneer. 
uku-Qecela, v. To open up a way for. 

Gece, Adv. Completely: inkukuemnyama gece, 
a jet-black fowl. 

uku-Geda, v. t. Em. To clean oni: geda isisti, 
clean your stomach (by medicine) ; geda 
iselwa, clean the calabash with water; 
ukugeda imali, to empty the purse of money. 

ukuti-Gede, v. t. To make a thing clear so 
that no doubt is left ; to do it finally and 
perfectly ; v. i. : izuln lite-gede nainhla, the sky 
is clear today. 

isi-Gede. n. 3- That which is left incomplete 
after death : washiya umsebenziwake usigede, 
on dying he left his work incomplete, un- 
finished; bazig^de, people have fallen in 
heaps in battle, lie dead in heaps; also said 
of maize-stalks when fallen down in heaps; 
also = isi-Shunqu. 

ukuti-Gedle, v. t. To put aside; to send away 
for the present. 

in-Gedle, n. 3. (a) The Cape Flycatcher, Batis 
Capensis (L.). [b) Ingedle yekofu, a person 
very fond of coffee ; ingedle yecuba, a hard 
smoker. 

i-Gedlegedle, n. 2. A lazy, indolent, slothful 
fellow. 

i-Geduka, n. 2. A hillside. 

uku-Geja and -Gejeza, v. i. To leave home 
often, roaming about, not caring for one's 
.cattle, neglecting the time of ploughing, etc. 



GE 

u-Qejane. N. l. One who has no fixed abode. 

uku-Gejisa, v. To cause to roam about, 
in Geji, //. 3. An engagement ring; Eng. 

engage. 
isi-Gele, . 4. An old green potato, lying on 

the top of others ; fig. an old maid. 
uku Geleba, *'. /. obs. = nku-Gcja. 
i-Geledwane, n. 2. A strong, courageous 

man. 
ukuti-Gelekeqe, v. i. To come out on the 

opposite brink of the river. 
in-GELOSI, n. 3. An angel (from the Greek, 

through the Dii.) 
uku-GELESHA, V. t. To prepare the ground 

for sowing by ploughing and letting it rest 

for a while (fr. the Da.) 
uku-Geletya, = uku-Gcja. 
i-Gemfana, u. 2. A gig. 
in-Gende, n. 3. A dark coloured dove 

living in the forest. 
u-Gende, n. 5. The queen of the termites. 

Sij^S^fM"-'- To open a door; to 

push or burst it wide open. 
i-Genge, //. 2. A woman defective about the 

genital parts, one having no sexual desire. 
ubu-Genge, ti. 7. Defect in a woman's 

genitals. 
uku-Gengqa, v. t. To dig. 
uku-Genqa, v. i. To fit loosely. 

uku-Geqf' ] ^'- '' ^o tarn or throw out 
with a jerk (household-stuff, money or 
stones) ; of a fastidious customer, to keep 
on discarding goods brought by th3 sales- 
man for consideration ; to finish. 
uku-Qeqela, r. To throw to or for. 
ukuti-Getye, v. i. Of a person or tree, to be 
bent. 

in-Getyengetye, n. 3. A tali, overgrown 

person of soft, delicate appearance; a tall 

thing, as a poplar-tree. Dimin. ingetye- 

ngetyana. 

uku-Getyeza, v. To shake up and down 

as a long plank carried on a man's 

shoulder, or as a woman's neck under 

the weight of a heavy load of wood ; to 

heave in an unwieldy manner, as an 

overgrown man does in running. 

Getyezala, v. Of any long thing, to 

wave to and fro, e.g. of reeds in the full 

river or undar the influence of the wind. 

ukuti-GEVE, V. i. Of the knees, to give way. 

Gevegeve, Adj. Feeble, tottering: amadolo 

agevegeve, feeble knees. 
i-Gevane, n. 3. Weakness of the knees: 
amadolo anegevane, the knees are striking 
each other. 
19 



QE 

uku-Qevezela, v. i. To shake in the limbs, 
knees; to be weiik in the limbs. 
i-Oewugewu, ii. 2. The Pied starling, Spreo 

bicolor (Gin.), -i-Giyogiyo. 
uku-Qexa, and uku-Qexagexa, v. i. To 

stagger, totter like a drunken person. 

i-Uexegexe, n. 2. That which is broken, 

rickety ; fig. infirm, in the decline of life. 

uku-GEZA, V. i. To be of a crazy and 

deranged mind ; to be mad, to act wildly, 

madly. 

i-(ieza, . 2. A madman; one raving, 
fnrious, with distracted reason, or in- 
flamed with passion and acting contrary 
to reason; fig. a hare; a witchdoctor;! 
fem. igezazAna. 

^'^^I'-^'J'' ^' . \ Mental derangement, 
iibu-(jeza. n. ? S & > 

madness, extreme folly; headstrong 

passion an J rashness; acting against 

reason ; fury, rage. 

uku-Gezela, i^. To be mad with rage against. 

uku-Gezisa, v. To make mad : inifundo 

cninzi iyakugczisa, much learning is 

making thee mad. 

um-Qezisi, n. I. One who makes others 

mad : umgczisi wabavuinisayo, he that 

maketh diviners mad. 

isi-Qezenga, /;. 4. Pudrling made of boiled 

and crushed gresn maize. 

uku-Oiba, v. I. p:iss. gilywa. To repulse, turn 

off, foil ; to contend a point in argument ; 

to differ in opinion; to refuse entirely: 

iiy.nvjgiba amazwi olnihlobo, you despise 

friendly words. 

u-Glbo, '/. 5. Provocation, contumely. 

um-Gibe, /;. 6. A springe. A stick fastened 

with one end in the ground, and having a 

string tied to the other, the end of which 

is a loop fastened to the trap, keeping the 

stick strongly bent. At the moment an 

animal enters the opening of the trap, in 

which the loop stands, the stick rebounds, 

holding the animal captive. 

u-Gibido, n. I. A very tall person. 

uku-Gibisela, v. t. pass, gilyisdwa. To throw 

at, as with a stick, stone', etc. 

uku-Oida,w. To lake pro /isions (maize, cows 

for milkhig) to a marriage feast, which 

lasts many days; to add to the common 

stock of provisions; to make a present 

from friendship. 

um-Gidi,. 6. A marriage party; the feast 

at the coming-out of the ahakwHa. Em. 

A drinking bout, night revelry. 



01 

um-Qido, ;/. 6. A gift of provisions for a 
marriage feast; support, contribution; a 
gift from friendship (anything eatable, as 
game, etc.); a freewill gift; a present 
given to a sweetheart. 

isi^Gldi"';f"4 I ^ "^nnber which exceeds 

comprehension; a myriad, a million: a- 

baiilu abaligidi, a myriad of people; igidi 

is also used as an Adv.: together, withal, 

exactly. 
uku-Gidima, v. To go with speed; to run 

fast. 

isi Gidimi, . 4. A fast runner, messenger. 

uku-Gidimela, v. To run to, for, or against. 
i-Qidlva, n. 2. Anything plump, heavy, 

like the wheels of the German block 

wagon; unomagidiva, nickname for the 

German blockwagon. 
ukutl-GidIi, V. t. To giv^e abundantly, offer 

much. 
um-GIdo, see uku-Gida. 
isi-G"gaba, n. 4. A great number of things, 

such as carcases lying in heaps ; a sudden 

occurrance, marvellous thing. 
uku-(iigita, v. t. To play with one's fancy ; 

to please oneself with one's thoughts. 

Gigiteka, v. t. To shake with laughter; 
to laugh out immoderately in a silly 
manner ; to titter, giggle. 
uku-Gigiza, i\ i. To go through the move- 
ments of walking. 
u-Qijo, n. 5. A very thin, long stick carried 

by circumcised boys when dancing, = ?</- 

Nqayi omde. 
uku-Gila, V. t. To come against a person or 

thing and knock it down, or push it away ; 

to overthrow in collision; of a horse, etc., 

to tramp on one's feet 

Gilaiia, v. To jostle one another; to 

fall over one another. 

i-Giia, n. 2. The gizzard of a bird or fowl. 

in-Gili, . 3. The large kind of Kei-apple. 

isi-Giligill, n. 4. An indefinite or great 

number of dead things, as a battle field 

full of bones of dead people. 
ukuti-Gilili, v. i. To lie down suddenly in 

order to avoid being seen by an enemy ; to 

fall down dead. 
uku-GINGCA, V. t. To encompass; to close 

in, as the wings of an army. 

u-Qingca, n. 5. That which encompasses, 
as the wing of an army. 

uku-Gingcisa, v. To catch in a trap or 
snare ; fig. to involve, enclose. 

Gingciseka, v. To be caught, enclosed,, 
involved. 



QI 

together ; meeting. 
isi-Qingqi, ti. 4. A basin-shaped hole in the 

ground or anywhere ; a deep rut washed 

out in the road : isigingqi soinkono, the 

hollow of the elbow. 
ukuti-Q ingqi, = ukuti-Gingxi. 

"^"*r?n"^rj' \ ^- To fall down hard or 
uku-Oingxiza, 3 

suddenly from a thing, as a wheel from a 
stone ; to fall into a hole. 
in-Giningini, see i-Nginiiigiiii. 
uku-Gintyela, v.t. To catch with a riem; 
= uku-R'intyela. 

Qintyeleka, v. To be caught with a 
riem. 
um-Ginwa, . 6. Anything resisting a good 
intention; a cow refusing to be milked; 
fig., a raw uncivilized person. 
ubu-Qinwa, n. 7. Heathenism, 
uku- GINYA, V. t. To swallow. Phr. iikiigi- 
iiy'ainate, to swallow saliva, i.e. to long for 
something eatable that one sees and cannot 
get. Fig. to vanquish by argument; to 
embezzle. 

um-Ginyi, n. i. One who swallows up. 
i-Qinyiginyi, 11. 2. One who is voracious, 

greedy. 
uku-Ginyeka, v. To be swallowed, e.g. of 
something that had stuck in the throat 
but has at last got down to the stomach. 
Ginyela, v. To swallow for: waginycla 
amate, he swallowed his saliva for, i.e. he 
desired, coveted. 
Ginyeiana, v. To swallow for one ano- 
ther. 
Ginyisa, v. To cause to swallow ; waba- 
ginyisa amaie, lit. he made them swallow 
spittle, i.e. he was desired, respected, 
esteemed. 
uku-Giqa, v i. To be satiated, full, satisfied. 
i-Qiqwa, n. 2. One who is satiated; that 
which is full: imvaba iligiqwa, the milk- 
sack is very full. 
uku-QiqIsa, v. To satisfy 
uku-Gitagita, v. t. To tickle. 
i Gitslia, //, 2. A very little bird that is good 
at concealing itself; fig. one who is clever 
at hiding. 

uku-Gitshima, To go witVi speed ; = m^h- 
Gidima. 

isi-Gitshimi, A foot runnQv ; = isi-Gidi>ni. 
i-Giwugiwu, = i-Giyogiyo. 
uku-GiXA, V. t. To cut meat into large 
pieces; to give or take great slices of a 



GI 

thing; to castrate a young bull; fig. ainazwi 

enu andigixile, your words have been stout 

against me. 

in-Gixi, 11. 3. Very thick porridge of new 
meal nade from green Kafircorn put in 
water in which sweet-cane has been 
boiled. 

isi-Gixi, n. 4. A kind of assegai with a 
longish blade and rather short neck. 

i-Qixwa, n. 2. A castrated young bull. 

uku-Qixisa, v. To cause one to give great 
slices. 
i-Qiyogiyo, n. 2. The Pied starling, Spreo 

bicolor {Gm.). Fig. uligiyogiyo, he ate his 

fill of fat meat. 
um-GUndi, n. 6. Blinkblaar, Rhamnus 

prinoides L'Her. Sim says that the name 

is also given to the Soapbush, Noltea 

africana Reich. 
ukuti-QO, V. t. Of a swallow, to snatch 

quickly a flying insect , = uku-Gola. 
uku-GOBA, V. t. and /. pass got ywa. To bend: 

goba izapeta, bend the bow ; goba umnwc, 

inflect the finger; to bow down the person; 

to humble oneself; to do homage. 

i-Qoba, w. 2. A tender, slender twig or 
branch. 

um-Qobo, n. 6. The edge of cloth turned 
over in sewing; ahem. 

um-Gotywa, n. 6. A clasp-knife. 

uku-Gobagoba, v. To bend backwards 
and forwards. 

Gobeka, v. To be ^exih\e: ulut'i alugo- 
beki, the shaft of the spear or wattle will 
not bend ; fig. to be humble, meek, lowly. 

Gobela, v. To bend or bow for. 

Gobisa, v. To cause to bend: gobisa 
amadolo, bend the knees. 
i-Gobo, n. 2. A very young animal, or a bird 

just fledged. 
in-Qobo, n. 3. A round enclosure of wicker 

work with a convex roof, standing in the 

open air for storing maize in cobs; cf. 

i-Oonga. 
in-G6bo, n. 3. The young tender maize-cob 

on the stalk before the grain has formed ; 

an unripe pumpkin (Pondo). 
i-Gobogobo, n. 2. An empty shell (e.g. of 

an egg).' 
uni-Gobokati, //. 6. The joy of meeting 

each other again after a long absence. 
i-Gobolokondo, n. 2. A steep cliff, gorge, 

ravine. 
um-Gobongo, n. 6. An extremely high 

head dress ; umpantsho walomfazi umgobongo 

this woman's headdress is very high. 



GO 



. 2. pi. Changes. 
A large, elastic basket for 



To dig into, excavate, 



ama-GobotitI, / 
in-Gobozi, . 3. 

storing corn. 
uku-QOCA, V. 

unearth. 

isi-Goci, . 4. Clear, distinct speaking; 
eloquence, which goes to the bottom of a 
subject. 
uku-Gocagoca, *'. To investigate, examine, 
search, inquire thoroughly into a matter, 
so as fully to master and understand it; 
to perform work thoroughly, fully, 
completely. 
ama-Gocigoci, n. 2. pi. Investigation, 

search. 
uku-Gocagoceka, v. To be searchable, 
capable of being searched out : inani lemi- 
nyaka yake aligocagoccki, the number of 
His years is unsearchable. 
Gocagocela, v. To question in a search- 
ing manner ; to cross-examine a witness 
in a lawcourt. 
uku-Goda, v. t. To dig, excavate the ground 
to sink a shaft; fig. to search, inquire 
investigate. 

um-Godi, w. 6. Artificial hole or shaft 
made in the ground ; used of the mines at 
the Diamond Fields. 
i-Gode, . 2. Ill humour, moroseness, mur- 
muring; complaining (used of a person who 
is dissatisfied with what has been given 
him). 
uku-GodIa, V. t. To suppress, conceal, hold 
back from view. 

isi-GodIo, . 4. The horn of an animal 
when severed from the head (used as a 
powderflask or trumpet) : ivavutela ngesi- 
godlo, he blew with the horn. Em. The 
chief's palace. 
um-GodIa, n. 6. Em. A pocket. 
isi-Godo, n. 4. A short block or log of fire- 
wood; fig. a blockhead. 
u-Godo, n. 5. A stiff, rigid, motionless thing, 
as a dead body, mummy ; a dry skin of an 
animal ; a dry carcase. Phr. wamdala ugodo, 
he made him stiff, i.e. he killed him ; isonka 
sokuza kusa silugodo njeitgomsila wenja, the 
bread of dawn is dry and stiff like a dog's 
tail. 
um-Godo, K. 6. A single formed stool (used 

only of men and dogs). 
uku-GodoIa, v. i. To become or feel cold. 
i-Godongo,.2. A crooked horn turned 

downwards. 
um-Qodoyi, n. 6. Rabies: inja enomgodoyi, a 

122 



GO 

mad dog; also a fabulous dog, a sort of 
werwolf said to devour people. 
uku-Goduka, v. i. To proceed, go or come 
home : ugodukile, he went home, fig. he died. 
Godusa, V. To take or bring home : go- 

diisa inkomo, bring the cattle home. 
Godusela, v. To bring home for or on 
account of: waligoduscla ktimzi walo, he 
brought it (the horse) home to its place. 
isi-Qodwane, n. 4. A kind of dance. 
i-GOFOLO, 71. 2. A well-dressed woman, hold- 
ing up her dress behind in walking. (Prob- 
ably from Du. juffrouw, which, in the 
form of Dyifolo, was the name given to a 
missionary's wife in years gone by). 
uku-Goga, V. i. To hesitate; to be undecided; 
to do a thing in the dark. 
Gogela, V. To catch orve in his speech. 
Oogisa, V. To silence an opponent; to 
stop his mouth. 
i-Gogo, . 2. (a) The Klipspringer, Oreotragus 
oreotragus (Zimm). (b) A witch-doctor, 
enchanter. 
ukuti-Gogo, V. i. To walk with difficulty, 
like a hobbled horse, = ukii-Qohosheka. 
isi Gogo, H. 4. A person with stiff limbs, 
who cannot stretch them out, as one 
paralyzed from cold or any other cause ; 
one whose limbs are bound with a cord ; 
fig. to be at a loss, embarrassed: weiiza 
isigogo, or wasigogo, he was unable to 
speak, or was hindered from speaking. 
u-Gogo, n. 5. The dried skin of an animal; 
a lean person or animal. 
uku-Gogoda, v. t. To scrape out the last of the 
corn from the pit. 

um-Gogodo, n. 6. The last corn from the pit. 
i-Oogode, n. 2. The South African toad, 
Bufo regularis Reuss, so called from its cry, 
which is one of the best-known sounds in 
spring. 

u-Gogode, n. I. August or September, when 
amagogode begin croaking. 
i-Gogogo, . 2. An empty paraffin tin, prob- 
ably from the sound it makes when knocked 
about ; a tin box, a clock case. 
um-Gogogo, . 6. Subterranean gurgling of 

water. 
in-Gogolo, n. 3. A person who keeps back 

his chief reasons. 
ukuti-Gogololo, V. i. To sit on one's haunches, 
to stoop, duck, hide ; nf sickness, to subside ; 
ihlaba lite-gogololo, the stitch has gone 
away ; umoya ute-gogololo, the wind decreased, 
abated; to leave off: bategogololo, they 
were at a loss. 



GO 

uku-Gogoshela, v. i. To hold back more than 

one is entitled to, and to give one's partner 

less than he is entitled to; to take the 

greater portion for oneself. 
i Gogosholo, n. 2. One who hides something 

under the arm or on the chest ; fig. a boaster ; 

one who puffs himself up like a peacock. 
uku-Gogotya, v. i. To be unyielding; not to 

believe what i-Gogo (the wizard) says, nor 

do what he commands. 

i-Gogotya, n. 2. An unyielding, disloyal 
person. The Kafirs who did not kill 
their cattle at Nongqause's command in 
l857 were called amagogotya. 

ukuGogotyela, v. To treat one harshly: 
rvagogotyela kiiye, he treated him hard or 
harshly. 
uku-Goja, V. i. To nod as a very nimble urn 

kiveta does with his plumes on. 
in-Goje, n. 3. A person distinguished for 

shooting and hitting well. 
uku-Gola, V. t. from ukiiti Go. To snatch, seize 

quickly (a bird from the air); to pounce 

upon, as in seizing from behind. 

Golela, V. To spy out in a meeting for 
report. 

Qolisa, V. To speak calmly but deter- 
minedly. 
i-GoLlDE, H. 2. Gold, from the Eng. 
i Golo, w. 2. The end of the rectum protruded. 
ukuti-GoIokongqo, v. i. To fall into a hole, 

gorge or ravine ; of a wall, to tumble down 

completely ; of the setting sun, to disappear ; 

fig. to swallow up entirely. 

Qolokonq6konq6, v. To fall very deep; 
to sound (a bell). 
ukuti-Golokoqo, v. i. Of a bumping wagon, 

to rumble or make a rattling sound. 
um-Qolombane, n. 6. A tinkling brass orna- 
ment, worn on the ankles and arms ; a thong 

with a lock. 
uku-Golombila, 1;. i. To deplore with pity. 
i-Golomi, n. 2. (a) The Cape Loarie, Turacus 

corythaix (Wagl.) (b) An anklet of bronze 

or copper. 
i-GoIonxa, . 2. A corner, angle; a recess, 

a cupboard-like hole. 
in-GoIovane, w. 3. A small truck or trolly 

for removing refuse. 
uku-Goloza, v. i. To sit on^ one's hams; to 

squat alone ; to sit solitary, as in reverie, or 

lost in thought, or waiting for something. 

Golozela, v. To sit on one's hams with 
an object in view, as a beggar sits at a 
door in expectation, hence to sit watching : 
scndiya hiqolozcla iscla, I shall be ready to 



GO 

watch the thief; ndisagolozele into endite- 
njiswe yonn, I am still looking for the gift 
which was promised me ; cf. uku-Qwala- 
sela. 
Golozisa, V. To cause to watch, wait ; to 
detain. 
uku-Gomba, v. t. pass, gonjwa, To scoop, 
hollow or dig out a pit; to excavate; to 
wash out, as water or a flood on river banks 
or on the sea shore; to lead the wings of a 
hunting party in surrounding game. 
uku-Gombdnca, and Gombonqa, v. t. To 
hollow out, scoop out in wood or stone; of 
an ulcer, to eat into the skin; cf. ukii- 
Rombonca. 
in-Qomb6nca, .3. Used as an J/'. Scooped 

out (land) ; deformed, ugly (of the face). 
in-Gomb6nqa, w. 3. Rough, broken country. 
uku-Gomfa, v. i. To sit in a bending, droop- 
ing position, with the head lower than the 
knees, and the hands resting on the feet ; to 
sit without any object in view. 
i-Qomfa, n. 2. A careless, indifferent 
person. 
i-Gomfi, w. 2. An edible root. 
ukuti-GomoloIo, v. i. To rise up again, to 

stand erect. 
ukuti-Gomp6, v. i. To disappear: id'e-gompb 

cmlanjeni, he disappeared in the river. 
uku-QONA, V. t. To embrace; to carry in the 
arms: uyamgona umntwana, he carries the 
child in his arms ; fig. to support : bagonwa 
tiguhani-na? by whom were they supported 
(with provisions) ? 
i-Goni, n. 2. A promise that holds or binds 

one. 
in-Gono, n. 3. Anything to take ho;:l of, as 
the stalk of a pumpkin ; the human nipple ; 
a teat. 
Gonana, r. To embrace one another. 
in-Gone, n. 3. A species of thin, long grass 
without leaves, but with woolly and rough 
points as its seed. (Du. Koper-draad i.e. 
copperwire). 
i-Gongo, n. 2. (a) A lump, swelling; fig. a 
poor creature ; a nickname for a Hottentot, 
(b) A species of bird, probably the Emerald- 
spotted Dove, Chalcopelia afra (L.), which 
in Sepedi is called, from its cry, legongo. 
i-Gongoma, n. 2. Os frontis above the eye; 

the frontal arch. 
in-Gongoma, h. 3. A rising, swelling on the 
head, caused by a blow ; fig. sign, token. 
uku-Gongota, v. t. To beat often; drive 
away, banish. 
in-Gongobala, w. 3. (a) A song at a drinking 
bout, accompanied with dancing in a 
nude state, (b) A round elevation. 
23 



GO 

uku-Qongobezela, r. /, To sit beside the food, 
to keep the food always near oneself. 

u Qongololo, //. 5. A dry, hard skin of an 
animal. 

in (jongolotela, //. 3. A looking for or 
waiting for in vain: sabatigaqivalascla yaha 
yingongolotela, we looked and waited, but 
in vain. 

uku Qongoloza, r. i. To wait long or in vain 
(e.g. for the expected arrival of some one) : 
sagoiigoloza sibaliiidele abantii, we waited on 
expecting the people. 

uku-Oongqa, v. t. To tramp up and down, 
when there is no way ; fig. to search, follow 
up, go deep into the crime or guilt of a 
person; to make a headman responsible for 
the hut-tax of his people. 
uku-Gongqagongqa, v. To tramp up and 
down country covered with (U?ialindi. 

ukuti-Gongqo, r. /. To be hollow; to tread 
or step into a hole unawares: ite-gongqo 
iiikaha, the navel lies deep, is hollow; ze- 
gougqo inkahi, the oxen went out of sight 
into a hollow. 

i-Gongqogongqo, n. 2. A rattling noise. 
uku-Gongqoza, v. i. To make a hollow, 
reverberating noise, as a wheel which is 
dry, or a vehicle rumbling in the distance, 
or thunder. 

i-Qongqongqo, w. 2. An imaginary being of 
great size and cannibalistic tendencies, who 
figures largely in the Kafir intsomi',^i-Zim. 
fem. igqngqougqolidzi. 

uku-GongxJa, v. t. To dig deep (a pit) ; to 
pull the headdress down over the face, as 
a bride does; fig. to question deeply; to 
search out the truth of a statement by 
searching questions. 

in the ground ; a road with bad ruts or 
holes. 

ubu-Gongxo, v. 7. Depth. 

uku-Gongxagongxa, v. To examine very 
closely. 
ukuti-Qongxo, v. i. = ukuti-Gongqo. 
i-Goni, 1K 2. See uku-Gona. 
i-Gonigontsi, n. 2. Trickery in action. 
in-Qono, n. 3. See uku-Gona. 
um-Gonogono, n. 6. A small tree, Psy- 

chotria capensis Vatkc. 
uku-Gononda, v. i. To try to suck a breast 

or udder which is dry. 
u-Gonoti, . 5. A long, thin rod or stick, 

as the stalk of Kafircorn; fig. a tall person. 
uku-Gonqa, v. i. To remain always at home. 
uku-Gonqisa, v. i. To go towards the enemy 



GO 

at a rapid pace in the endeavour to over- 
throw him ; to charge. 
ukutl-Gontslii, r. i. To go in; to enter 

immediately. 
i-Gonts5, V. 2, A kind of plant with an 

edible root. 
in-Gontsi, ;/. 3. A corner of a room ; a 
recess. 

in-Gontsingontsi, ?;. 3. A deep place 

which no man can reach; a secret, 

hidden place. Dimin. ingontsangontsana. 

vku-Qontya, =-' iikuGongxa. 

in-Gonyama, w. 3. A lion; femin. ingonya- 

viakazi, a lioness. 

ubun-Gonyama, u. 7. The state of being 

like a lion, strong, violent. 
uku-Gonyamela, r. To act the lion to- 
wards anyone ; to use force, or violence ; 
to overpower. 
u-Gonyamelo, n. 5. Violence. 
uku-Gonyela, v. t. To give or put forth all 
one's strength ; to exert oneself to the ut- 
most in the accomplishment of an enter- 
prise. 
um-Gony6, n. 6. Meal dumpling cooked with 

venison. 
i-Gope, n. 2 Any convex, hollow thing, as 
an eggshell, potsherd, or hoof grown 
crooked. 
uku-GOQA, V. i. To shut, close, bar or 
lock up a kraal or house by placing a 
piece of wood against it inside ; fig. to 
steady oneself with the heels ; to close in 
the legs when riding ; to fence or ward off 
a blow by pulling up the knees. Em. iiku- 
Gwcqa. 

i-Goqo, )i. 2. A heap of firewood kept 
outside the hut ; loc. cgoqwcni; fig. a 
bullock whose horns point crossways. 
isi-Goqo, n. 4. lVc7iza isigoqo, or ivasigoqo 

he was eml irrassed, became speechless. 
um-Goqo, 11. 6. A bar of wood ; a block 
of wood to sit upon ; anything heavy, 
large; a multitude, =in-Gxokolo; a 
wagontrain ; dimin. um-Goqwana. 
in-Goqi, . 3. A rush; niascnzc uigoqi kuye, 

let us race to him. 
in-Qoqo, n, 3. Boiled maize, = in-Kobe. 
u-Goqogoqo, n. 5. Rattling, clanking. 
uku-Goqoza, v. i. Of a wagon, to make a 
rattling sound when travelling; cf. uku- 
Gongqoza. 
uku-Goqozisa, v. To set the wagon going, 
and thus produce the rattling sound. 
uku-Goqulula, v. t. To move, put, or clear 
away in searching; to uncover; to turn 
A 



GO 

everything upside down; to let fall the 

shield, when pursued hard. 
i-Qofa, n. 2. A brave man ; a hero. 
ubu-Gofa, n. 7. Valour, heroism, bravery. 
u-Qorogoro, n. 5. A rattling, clanking 

sound. 
in-QofoIo, . 3. A number of red things. 
uku-Qosa, r, t. To serve a chief or man of 

high rank, as one trusted ; to be charged, 

commissioned with a certain service. 

i-Qosa, 71. 2. One put in trust ; a 
servant, manager, administrator; an 
office-bearer in a church. 

ubu-Qosa, n. 7. Stewardship ; office (such 
as eldership) in a church. 

uku-Qosela, v. To serve, take care for 
another person, or for a purpose. 

Gosisa, V. To cause or make to serve : 
wazigosisa, he served without being 
commissioned. 
i-Goso, n. '2, and i-Gosogoso, n. 2. That 

which is crooked, bent : iligosogoso indlela 

yendoda enctyala, the way of a guilty man 

is crooked. 

ubu-Goso, and ubu-Gosogoso, w. 7. 

Crookedness ; a bend (e.g in a river). 

in Gotya, n. 3. pi. ama. Anything long (lath, 

pole, stake). 
i-Gotyi n. 2. The blue-mantled Flycatcher, 

Trochocercus cyanomelas (Vieill.). This 

name may be given to other species of 

flycatchers as well. 
i-Gotyiba and i-Gotyiwa, ;/. 2. Watsonia, 

a beautiful mountain plant. 
in-Gotyongotyo, n. 3. A long person or 

thing. 
um-Gotywa, 71. 6. from uku Goba. A clasp- 
knife. 
uku-GOVA, V. t. To be indifferent in cases 

where one should help; to disregard 

danger or cold; to be of improper or 

indecent manner; to behave churlishly, 

disrespectfully. 

in-Gova, w. 3. Indifference, carelessness, 
unprogressiveness. 

uku Govalala, ) t- u j-cc 

ukuti-Govalala, J ^- ^^ ^^ ^" ^" '"^1^^" 
erent, etc., state. 
u-Qovane n. 5. The uvula. Phr. iikusula 

ugovane, to wipe the uvula, i.6. to eat. 
isi-Govugovu, . 4. A wild, vicious man or 

beast. 
ukuti-Goxe, ") 1- u-j -^uj 
uku-Goxa, ] " ' T^ ^'^^' withdraw, re- 
treat into a sheltered place ; to go into the 

pulpit ; to abate, cease, secede. 



125 



GO 

ukuti-Goxo, V. i. To put away out of sight 
in a box or in the ground: ndite goxo yonke 
imali kulo7>mtu, I have put down all my 
money to that man, and have nothing left ; 
V. i. to be put out of sight ; fig. to be buried : 
ute-goxo kwelahafileyo, he has gone down 
among the dead. 

U-GOXO, . 5. ") A U r I 

ubu-Goxo, . 7. J ^ h^^P f thmgs that 
rattle : ndalugoxo Iwcmiata/nbo, I was a 
rattle of bones, a skeleton (from sickness). 
ubu-Goxololo, K. 7. A heap or collection 

of different things. 
in-Goxowane, . 3. Anything that makes a 
rattling noise, as the loose copper-rings 
worn on the arms; a gathering of dry 
bones. 
uku-Goxoza, and uku Goxozela, v. To 
jingle as money ; to rattle, clank, creak 
like a wagon. 
in-Gozi, . 7. A QlsingQr. Vhr. yingozi ei7intwa- 
ne7ii, it is a danger to a child, applied e.g. 
to a knife, a heavy pumpkin or fire. Any 
injury, hurt, bruise, accident, loss. 
ubun-Gozi, 7i. 7. State of being unfortunate. 
N.B. For words beginning 
in Gq not found here, see under 
Q : ing-Q or u-Q. 
uk\x-Qc{a.,r.t. pa^s.gqhon. To copulate. (An 
obscene word, for which the emphemistic 
expressions uhi-Laln, and, in the case of 
animals, uku-Zcka are used.) 
u-Gqamanzi, . l. A dragonfly. In Kafir 
natural history, the dragonfly is always 
of the male sex, and its female is the 
water. The Kafir imagines (when he 
sees the female laying her eggs in the 
water) that he is looking at the male im- 
pregnating the water. In Em. u-Feja- 
7uanzi and in Zulu u-Jeka7)ia7izi, the same 
notion prevails. Owing to its obscene 
suggestiveness, the word is rarely used 
except by children. 
ukuti-Gqa, v. t. To look sharply at one who 

has done wrong. 
ukuti-Gqa, = ukuti-Gqa Gqa. 
in-Gqaba, 71. 3. (a) The red hare, (b) A 
nickname for an old Hottentot man. 
in-Gqabakazi, n. 3. (a) Nickname for an 
old Hottentot woman, (b) A barren 
woman or cow. 
ama-Gqabantshintshi and Gqabatshitshi, 

71. 2. pi. Big raindrops. 
uku-Oqabaza, v. t. To curtail. 
i-Gqabi, n. 2. A leaf of a ti-ee ar plant ; 
igqabi lika-Lo7iji, brandy; dimin. igalyaTia. 



To burst, as a turn- 



GQ 

iikuti-GQAB'U, | 
iiku Ciqabuka, 3 ^* ' 

our, boil or bladder. 

Qqabukela, i'. To burst forth on any 

person or object. 
Gqabula, r. To break off (string 

rope). 
Gqabuza, v. To cause or make to burst; 

or make holes, as hail through a roof. 
Gqabuzela, v. To cause to burst forth 

on any object. 
ukutJ-QQADA, v. i. To come forward with a 
bound ; to come unexpectedly, suddenly. 
i-Gqadi, . 2. Prancing: ihashc linamagqadi, 

the horse is proud, throwing up its head 

and beating the ground with its hoofs. 
u-Gqada-mbekweni, n. 5. A usurper, an 

intruder. Uzcnza ugqada-mbckwcni, lit. 

one who pounces upon, or appropriates 

that which had been intended for another; 

one who eats the remains of a meal with 

out obtaining permission; fig. one who 

desire.s, does, or speaks what is not fit 

for him, who gives an uncalled for opinion 

or interferes. 
in-Gqadangqada, . 3. Activity, quickness, 

being everywhere. 
uku-Gqadaza, t;. t. To move hither and 

thither; to shift from place to place; to 

dodge about; to run about in a playful 

manner. 
Gqadazisa, *. To dodge a person, as a 

hare dodges the hounds by running from 

side to side. 
i Gqagala, n. 2. A great piece of stone; a 
large fruit, as a quince. 
ubu-Gqagala, 11. 7. Roughness of ground ; 

a rocky, stony country full of boulders 

or cliffs and clefts; fig. artful speech, the 

purpose of which is concealed, difficult 

to understand. 
uku-Gqagalisa, v. t. To make a road 

rough by throwing boulders on it. 
ukutl-Qqa-gqa, r. /. To be dotted over, one 
here, one there, as a man with small-pox: 
iscbe lit'iwe-gqa-gqa tiganieva, the branch is 
dotted or scattered over with thorns; 
ingiibo ithvc-qgd-gqa ngamaqula, the garment 
is dotted over with round buttons; iliwe 
Uthvc gqa gqa yimizi, the land is dotted 
with villages. 
uku-Gqagqela, . To trim a garment with 

buttons. 
i-Gqagqi, n. 2 A species of plant. 
i Gqagwe, w. 2. A choice, selected thing; a 
skilful, wise, expert person; cf. i-Qaivc. 

126 



GQ 

uku-Gqakadula, r. /. To jump, kick or run 

about; to skip as children do. 
in Gqakaqa, , 3. Smallpox. 
um Qqakwe, ti. 6. An illegitimate child. 
uku-GQALA, v. t. To take notice of, fix the 

attention or mind on, an object ; to observe 

attentively; to pay attention to ; to remem- 
ber ; to aim with a gun : wagqala ktiyc, he 

aimed at him. 

i-Gqala, n. 2. An observer; an old person ; 
dim. igqalana, a nickname for a thin, 
despicable, old man. 

isi-Gqala, n. 4. A very observant man; fem. 
isigqalakazi. 

uku-Gqalana, v. To observe one another. 

Gqaleka, v. To be observed: nhutyehi 
obuiigagqalckiyo, uncertain riches. 

Gqalisa, v. To draw the attention to, or 
point towards, a certain object. 

isi-Gqaliso, n. 4. A mark calling attention 
or pointing to or guiding to. " 

uku-Gqalisela, v. To observe attentively, 
pay particular attention to an object; to 
select for observation or attraction. 

um-Gqallseli, n. I. An overseer, inspector, 
steward. 

um-Gqaliselo, . 6. Particular attention 
bestowed on a person or thing; a mark. 
in-Gqalutye, n. 3. A ball or pebble used by 

children for throwing in the game uku-Puca. 
inGqarnbashoIo, 11. 3. A strong, tall person. 
in-Qqambu, n. 3. The piece of wood on the 

noose of a trap for birds or game; the 

ligament of the tongue; fig. slowness 0/ 

speech; restraint. 
um-Gqamsholo, . 6. A worthless, useless 

thing (bad tobacco); umntu ongumgqamsholo, 

a bad fellow, bad character. 
in-Gqanda, . 3. A kind of assegai; see 

i-Ngqanda. 
in-Gqanga, . 3. A generic name for large 

birds of prey. 
u-Gqangagqanga, w. 5. A loud noise ; as adj. 

noisy. 
i-Gqange, n. 2. Sagewood, Buddlea salviae- 

folia Lm7i. 
in-Gqaqu, n. 3. Dancing of men. 
i-Gqara, . 2. A fast, swift runner. 
-Gqari, n. 2. A sly person, a snake in the 

grass: unegqari, he has bad devices in his 

heart ; = i-Qinga. 
-Gqafuka, . 2. A cavity. 
-Qqasl, n. 2. The prancing or capering of a 

horse; cf. i-Gqadi. 
n-Gqata, n. 3. Dung in small pellets, of goats, 

sheep, etc. 



QQ 

uku-Gqatsa, v. t. To race horses or cattle. 
u-Gqatso, . 5. A race, racecourse. 
ukii-Gqatsela, v. To race for. 

uku-liqatsa, II. ?'. To expose to a fire; to roast: 
ilmiga ligqatsUc, the sun is burning hot ; iiku- 
zigqatsa, to intrude. 

in-Gqatsane, n. 3. Burning heat: ingqa. 
tsane yclanga, the burning hot sun ; fig. 
forwardness: uzenze ingqatsanc, he placed 
himself forward. 

i-Qqatyana, n. 2. Dim. of i-Gqabi. A small 
leaf. 

in-Qqawane, n. 3. (a) A root used for pain 
in the stomach ; cf. in Dawa. (b) A strand 
wolf, - is-Andawanc. 

in-Gqawe, n. 3. A hard grass, growing from 
a red bulb. 

i-Gqaza, n. 2. The Little Pinc-pinc Grass- 
Warbler, Hemipteryx minuta Gunning; also 
called u-Nonqane. Phr. uratya lwa?nagqaza^ 
the twilight of the magqaza, i.e. the early 
evening twilight when this little bird is still 
flying about. 

in-Gqaza, ;/. 3. A head ornament of red, 
black and white beads, with a string of the 
same hanging down behind, worn by boys. 

window or a person's skull with a stick; to 

destroy. 

i-Gqeba, n. 2. A knobkerrie. 

uku-Gqebagqeba, v. To break or beat on 
the head often or hard : intbko sabo zagqe- 
jwagqcjwa, their heads got hard knocks. 

Gqebana, v. To break skulls of one 
another. 
isi-Gqeba, n. 3. A house of the chief, where 

he meets his councillors or distinguished 

strangers. 
um-Gqebe, n. 6. Beer, drink. 
uku-Gqebela, v. To speak ironically, sarcas- 
tically, saying one thing and meaning 

another; to banter; to call names. 

in-Gqebelelana, . 3. us. as adj. Big, blus- 
tering, arrogant (words) ; bantering. 
uku-Gqebenya, v. i. To claim pre-eminence 

for oneself. 
i-Gqebeqe, . 2. Secret plot, machination; 

an intriguer," plotter, deviser, conspirator. 
um-Qqeku, n. 6. Calves wliich go with dry 

cows; a lot of young \;attle under three 

years: nqumla mngqcku, take off a lot of 

young cattle. 
in-Gqele, n. 3. Frost, cold. 
i-Gqeleba, . 2. An intelligent person who is 

useful in everything. 

127 



GQ 

ukuti-Gqengegqenge, v. i, To hlaze: umlilo 

ute-gqengegqcnge, there is a blazing fire. 
um-Gqepe, n. 6. A cup made from a calabash, 
a great drinking vessel : lendoda imqele, 
ike yafumana uingqcpe, this man is tipsy, he 
has had a cup ; see um-Ngqepe. 
in-Gqeqe; n. 3. A small kind of dog; fig. a 

dwarfish pei'son ; dim. ingqeqana. 
uku-Gqereza, v. i. To talk incoherently. 
-Gqesha, . 2. A girdle, band, napkin, bound 

about the waist. 
in-Gqeshemba, n. 3. Hardness, = /-G(/o5//o- 

mha. 
ukuti-Gqezu, v. i. To wink. 
GQI, inter j. Behold \gqi inyamakazi, see, a buck ! 
kuti esatcta, gqi ilifu elikanyayo labenzcla 
ittnzi, while He yet spake, behold, a bright 
clould overshadowed them. 
ukuti-Gqi, v. i. To appear, project, stick 
out. It denotes the occurrence of a 
sudden event, breaking in as it were 
upon other events. 
ubu-Gqi, n. 7. Enchantment; sorcery; 
magic: wenza ubugqi, he used enchant- 
ment. 
QQJBI! interj. That's all! gqibi he, all is 
over! quite,entirely: buginwa gqibi, heath- 
enism only. 

o?b''' } - ' >- *"^'"^''- 

To finish, accomplish, close, end, termi- 
nate: siivugqibile iinisebcnzi, we have 
finished the woi'k; sendigqibile, I have 
already finished; indlala iyasigqiba, lit. 
the famine is finishing us, i.e. there is 
great scarcity of food ; to purpose, decide : 
ndagqiba vgelitt, I resolved, decided as 
follows; wayegqibe entliziyweni, he pur- 
posed in his heart. 

in-GqJbo, n. 3. End, completion, accom- 
plishment (active). 

isi Gqibo, n. 4. Purpose, result; decision. 

uku-Qqibela, v. To make a full end; to 
finish up: impi yasigqibela, the enemy 
finished us up ; inkoino zamgqibela timbona, 
/m .' the cattle quite destroyed the maize ; 
with adv. signification of wholly, totally, 
quite: amazimba agqibela ukubola, the 
Kafircorn was totally rotten; used very 
idiomatically with the adv. signification 
of 'last': ndamgqibtia enj.ild, I last heard 
of him in that condition ; ndimgqibele ese 
ihashe emlanjcni, I last saw him taking 
the horse to the river ; abokugqibcla kuni, 
the last remaining of you, your residue. 

in-GqIbela-qoyi, n. 3. That which is final; 
the end. 



QQ 

um-Qqibelo, . 6. The last (day of the 
week), i.e. Saturday. Phr. akuposwa 
mgqibelo, you are never missed at the 
Saturday dance, 'there is no show with 
out Punch '. 

uku-Oqibelela, v. To be fully accomp- 
lished; to be complete, perfect : >7ft(7Mi 
ngabagqibelclcyo njcngokuba iiyi/ilo osemi- 
zuhvini cgqibclele, be ye perfect as your 
Heavenly Father is perfect; utando ola- 
gqibekleyo, perfect love. 

in-(jqibeleli, w. 3. A perfect one. 

in-Gqibelelo, . 3. Integrity: amadoda 
ahamba ngokwcngqibelelo yaivo, cngazi ne- 
nto, the men went in their simplicity, 
knowing nothing. 

uku Gqibelellsa, c To make perfect. 

um Gqibelelisi, . /, One who makes 
perfect: imbangi nomgqibelelisi wokolo 
Iwclu, the Author and Perfecter of our 
faith. 

uku-Ogibelisa, v. To see for the last 
time : gqibclisa ilauga, look at the sun for 
the last time (said to a person who is 
about to be put to death). 

Qgibelisana, v. To say good-bye to 
each other for the last time. 

uku Qqibeza, v. Em. ^itku-Gqibcla. 
i-Qqibika, . 2. The fold on the under part 

of the thigh; Kafirs swear by amagqib' ako, 

thy folds. 
uku Gqila, r. /. To pull or draw at the 

nipple; to drain the last drop from the 

cow in milking; to suck at the breast till 

entirely drained: iimntwana uyaingqila 

tinina, akusapnini irto, the child troubles its 

mother with sucking, and there comes no 

more out of her. 

isa Qqill, n. 4. Milk which is drawn from 
the unfilled udder ; dim isagqilana : inkoino 
ipum' isagqilana, the cow is beginning to 
give a little milk. 
in Gqili, . 3. A district. 
in Gqimdolo, w. 3. A species of plant. 
in-Gqindiiili, n. 3. Thickness, etc., see 

i-Ngqindilili. 
in-Gqindiva, n. 3. One who sits with his 

head held proudly back. 
ukuti-Gqipu, r. t. To cut through with a 

knife or scissors; to cleave; to part the 

hoof: ?iozidla izinlo esit'iwe-gqipu iipupu, you 

shall eat whatsoever parteth the hoof; 

wawabona amaztilu ethve-gqipu, he saw the 

heavens rent asunder. 

ukuti Gqipu-gqipu, r. To cleave quickly. 
in-Gqipuia, n. 3. A clod. 



128 



QQ 

i-Gqifa, n. 2. One who is skilled in restoring 
or preserving health, as igqwira is skilled in 
destroying it. These doctors are of 
various kinds : (a) igqira lokiigxa, lit. doctor 
of the spade, who heals by roots and herbs; 
a herbalist; (b) igqira lemvula, one who 
pretends to make rain ; (c) igqira lokucw 
niisa, one who professes to divine ; (d) 
igqira lokumbiilula, one who professes to 
discover bewitching matter by means of a 
spear; (e) igqira eliqubidayo, one who 
pretends to suck out and spit out isidlanga, 
i.e. things troubling a patient; (f) igqira 
elinukayo, = isa-Niise, under ukii-Nuka. 
ubu-Gqifa, n. 7. The profession, skill, 
practice, etc., of an igqira. 
uku-Gqishela, v. To cover the penis. 
um-Gqishelo, u. 6. The private region 
between the anus and the testes. 
uku-GQITA, V. t. To pass by or over ; to 
jump over a point : ndagqita kuye, I passed 
by him ; fig. in a comparative sense, to go 
beyond: lainknfdan'e ugqitilc, that sickness 
has gone beyond (recovery), i.e. the sick 
person is dead (a common way of in- 
timating death) ; akagqitilc, he is not any 
worse; ndigqitwe bubuncoko, I am fond of 
chatting; to surpass, excel: lendoda iwa- 
gqitilc amanye ngobidtwiko, that man sur- 
passed others in wisdom, i.e. is wiser than 
others; igqit'emgccni, it is above measure; 
to transgress: wawugqila umteto. he trans- 
gressed the law. 
um-Gqiti n. I. A transgressor. 
isi-Gqito, n. 4. Passing over the line of 

rectitude; transgression. 
uku-Gqiteia, v. To pass on. to pass over 

to : wagqitcla pambi kwabo, he passed over 

before them. 
Gqitisa, v. To cause to pass by, to 

jump over, etc. ; to proceed: zigqitise in- 

komo, pass on the cattle; to surpass: node 

wagqitisa kiim, and one who is much 

more than I, i.e. who surpasses me ; aka- 

tiako ukuteta isi-Xosa, ugqitisile, he excels 

in speaking Kafir. 
Gqitisela, v. To cause to proceed to- 

words a person or place ; to surpass. 

Adv.: tigokugjitiscleyo, abundantly; above 

measure. 
in-Gqitiselo, . 3. Excelling: //</// ttkuba 

nibe ncngqitisclo, seek that ye may excel. 
uku-Gqitisisa, v. To cause to transgress: 

niyabagqitisisa abantu, ye make the people 

transgress. 



GQ 

i-Qqita, . 2. (a) Scrofula, ulcer, any indolent 
swelling that discharges pus: uiiegqita, he 
is scrofulous, has a swelling or ulcer inside, 
(b) Monsonia ovata Cav., called iyeza 
leramba, snake medicine ; used also for 
dysentery ; the Pondomisi call it ubuhlungu 
hcramba, snake poison. 
in-Qqit!, n. 3. A finger with the terminal 
joint, or the two terminal joints, cut off. 
The custom of taking off the joint is 
followed by several Kafir clans, and is 
supposed to safeguard the child from evil 
ways. Stow says that among the Bushman 
tribes the custom of cutting off the 
terminal joint of the little finger was 
almost universal. 
i-Qqiza, n. 2. A troop, company, a limited 
number of men (not cattle) : igqiza labantu, 
a company of people. 
uku-Ciqoba, v. i. To walk aimlessly in the 
forest where there is no path, as a lost 
person ; to walk unsteadily, as a man who 
disembarks from a ship ; to go in and out : 
ndagqoba nJipuma, I went in and out. 
in-Gqobe, 7. 3. Speed, running fast; rush, 
desperate effort, violent impulse: yenza 
ingqobe, do it speedily, make an effort to 
overtake and seize. 
u-Qqobo, n. 5. A long, stiff tail. 
ukuti-GQOB'OQQOB'O, v. i. To break out 
in (sores, etc.) : bat'i-gqobdgqobo izilonda, sores 
broke out upon them. 

uku-Qqob6ka, v. To break out; to open; 
to be perforated ; to be pierced through 
and through so that a hole is made; to 
burst forth : indlu igqoboke umtombo, 
fountain burst forth in the house ; to 
burst, as an abscess or boil : itumba ligqo- 
bokile, the abscess has burst, opened ; to 
burst through or out from internal 
pressure : amanzi agqobokile edameni, the 
water has burst out from the dam; inxo- 
wa igqobokile, the sack has burst : inkwe- 
ukwc igqoboke ikwelo, the boy has ac- 
quired the art of whistling (which is 
said to be done by putting the in-Kwili 
on the tongue to let it bite it and then 
making an effort to whistle) ; to become 
inured to war: amagwala akakagqo 
boki-naf have the cowards not become 
brave yet? said when war continues 
long ; umkweta ugqoboke ukutshila, the 
circumcised boy has acquired the art of 
dancing ; fig. to be converted. 



GQ 

heathens, who have the idea that the 
word or preaching has pierced a hole 
through the heart, ascribing the change 
to natural causes.) Fem. igqobokazana. 

u Qqobdko, n. 5. Repentance, conversion. 

ubu-Qqob6ko, n. 7. The state of con- 
version, as opposed to the state of 
heathenism. 

uku- Qqob6kela, v. To break out into : 
gqobokda ekumemeleleni, break forth and 
crv. 

Oqob6za, v. t. pass, gqojozwa. To cause to 
burst through by force or pressure from 
without : gqobbza umnxuma, pierce a hole 
through ; to break into a house through a 
wall by instruments ; to open ; to per- 
forate ; to make a hole through : amasela 
ayigqobozilc indlu, the thieves have broken 
into the house ; to beat or crush (glass, 
earthenware, the skull) by a heavy blow ; 
to tear or rip up, as birds of prey do. 

um Qqob6zi, n. I. A breaker, one who 
bursts through. 

uku-Qqob6zela, v. To break through in 
a particular spot or locality : gqobozcla 
inxowa, open the bag (by cutting it open 
at the mouth). 
uku-Qqogqa, v. t. To scrape out (a pot, snuff- 
box, calabash, etc.) so that nothing is left in 

it ; fig. to storm a place, to assail and expel 

an enemy, or the remnants of a vanquished 

foe, who have concealed themselves ; to 

extirpate, break up by violence : ama- 

Sirayeli awagqogqa aina-Kanajtc, the Israelites 

extirpated the Canaanites. 
.in-Qqokongqoko, . 3. A rattling noise; a 

stony place. 

in-Qqokozo, n. 3. A stony place: bawele 
ngelengqokozo izibuko, they crossed by the 
stony drift. 
in-Qqokoqwane, n. 3. A weevil. 
in-Gqokova, n. 3. Used as adj. Very red 

with red clay. 
uku-GqoIa, v. i. Em. To be brown, rusty, 

dirty from smoke ; = iiku-Gxwala. 

in-Qqola, . 3. A species of red locust. 
i-Qqola, n. 2. A stick with a big knob; a 

club. 
ukuti-Qqolo, v. t. To beat with a stick, v. i. 

To be hasty ; to run ; to do a thing often. 
i-Qqolo, n. 2. A miser; a niggardly, selfish 

person. 

-Oqolo, . 3. An unclean animal (baboon). 



.-Qqob6ka, . 2. A convert to Christianity. u-QqoIo, n. 5. A steep, perpendicular ascent; 



(A nickname given to a convert by | 
R 



a hillside. 



OQ 

uku-Qqoloda, v. i. To jump about from over- 
joy in victory. 

u-(jqolonia, w. I. The python. Phr. banczi- 
tena zika Gqoloina, they have the python's 
bricks, and are therefore able to inspire 
awe. (This proverb is used by the Natives 
with reference to white people). 

um Gqoloqd, n. 6. Scarcity of grass, hair, 
etc.; poor condition of a country, or of 
people. 

ill-Jl^ZSM"- 3. A reddish colour as 

that of blood; a darkish red or brown per- 
son ; iiigqombdkazi, a light-red cow. 

in-Gqomflya, n. 3. That which is great, tall, 
stands erect : nmt'i wcma wayingqomfiya, the 
tree was high, stood erect, straight. 

um Oqomogqomo, n. 6. Witgatboom, 
Capparis albitrunca Biirch., a tree whose 
roots are used in times of scarcity as a sub- 
stitute for coffee. 

u Qqonci, . 5. Underbush, Trichocladus 
ellipticus E. & Z. 

in-Gqongana, n. 3. Anything diminishing 
in size, as a river in drought : ilizwe libuyele 
layingqongana, the country became very 
small. 

u-Qqongo, n. I. A protruding navel, umbi- 
lical rupture. 

in-Qqongqo, n. 3. A dried bullock-skin used 
as a drum by the women to accompany 
dancing; a tall, strong person, a giant; a 
person in authority, with power to com- 
mand; hence used adverbially to express 
certainty or finality: lomnHvatia tigumntwa- 
na ivalapa ngqongqo, this child is a real 
child of this place (it is not of obscure 
origin) ; lento ndilka ngqongqo, I say this and 
I mean it, I am firm about this. 

in-Qqongqosholo, n. 3. A tall, corpulent 
person; a hard character. 

in-Gqongqot6, //. 3. A person who excels in 
speech or in anything good. 

i-(iqongwe, //. 2. Anything empty, as a box, 
bag, or paraffin-tin. 

i Gqoqina, n. 2. An herb used as a perfume. 

in Oqoqo, n. 3. An armlet of black shells; 
the colour of a goat. 

isi-Gqofo, n. 4. The first milk of a cow 
during the first two days after calving; 
abundance of food, milk, corn, etc. 

uku-Gqofa, v. t. To break off branches of 
trees for firewood, to speak strongly against 
a person. 
Oqoroza, v. To beat as a smith with his 



QQ 

hammer; to break wood; to work hard; 
to collect people or cattle ; to belch 
wind. , 

l:;:S3oll;otbiV3. } a s.rogly-bu,l, 

muscular person ; anything hard which will 

not soften or yield ; hardness, stiffness from 

cold or fear, in-Gqeshemba. 

ubu-Gqoshomba, n. 7. Hardness, stub- 
bornness, obstinacy. 
uku-Gqoshonqa, v. t. To scold, refuse, rebuff 

in a hard, boisterous, blustering manner. 

V. i. Of a horse, to be startled ; to bristle up. 
uku-Gqota, v. t. To hunt alone or singly 

near home, or outside of the forest ; fig. to 

hunt up people to join any fraternity. 
ukuti-Gqotegqote, v. i. To move quickly; 

to rock or wave to and fro ; to shiver after 

fright or convulsions ; v. t. to knock over 

and destroy. 

in-Qqot6, n. 2. Hasty moving: unengqote, 
he does not find, succeed, etc., from hasti- 
ness, i.e. he is in too great a hurry. 
in-Qqot6, n. 3. The rough edge or skirt of 

a dried skin (with holes through which 

it was fastened by pegs to the ground for 

drying); fig. the outskirts of a village or 

land; a lean bullock. The Abambo are 

called isizive esindlebe zizingqoto, the tribe 

with large holes in the ears. 
uku-Qqotsa, v. i. To run swiftly. 

Gqotsela, v. To run towards or for. 

Gqotsisa, v. To make (a horse) run fast. 
ukutl-Gqu, V. i. Sound of thunder, report of 

a shot. 
uku-GQUBA, V. t. To raise dust or dry dung, 

as cattle in a savage mood; of children, to 

throw up the dust in play. 

i Gquba, n. 2. A place where there had 
formerly been a cattle-kraal ; an old place 
of long standing: abantu bascgqtibeni, the 
people of the oldest or central station in 
a district. 

um-Gquba, . 6. Old, soft, dusty manure; 
fig. kwatige ngat'i kuza kitsala umgquba, it 
looks as if only rubbish will be left. 

uku Gqubela, v. To cover with dust. Phr. 
ugqutyelwa liitiili, he is covered by the 
dust, i.e. he is short in stature; akagqutye- 
Iwa lutuli, he is not covered by the dust, 
i.e. he is very tall. Fig. to accuse. 

Gqubelana, v. To accuse each other. 

Gqubelela, v. To cover over, hide for 
a purpose. 
uku-Gqubula, v. To take secret counsel, 

etc., = uku-Gqugida. 



i-Qqubula, n. 2. A species of plant. 
i-Oqubusha, w. 2, The Rufous-bellied Puff- 
back Shrike, Laniarius rufiventris (Sw.). 
ukuti-QQUBUru and uku-Qqubutela, v. t. 
To cover the head and face from being 
seen by throwing a garment or cloth over 
the head; to veil; to cover the whole 
person with a robe ; to robe. 
isi-Qqubutelo, n. 4. A veil. 
uku-Qqubutelela, v. To veil for a purpose. 
Qqubutelelana, v. To veil one another 

for. 
Gqubutelisa, v. To cause to veil. 
i-Qqudu, n. 2. A short stick with a big knob; 

dimin. igqudwana ; = i-Butiguza. 
ukuti-Gqududu, v. i. To stumble; to fall 

forward. 
i-Qqudutywa, v. 2. One who easily makes 

mistakes. 
uku-Qqugqisa, v. t. To alter, change, abolish 

(a custom). 
i-Qqugqugqu, . 2. A volley, stir, excite- 
ment. 
uku-Gqugula, v. i. To consult together 
privately, take secret counsel together. 
i Gqugula, n. 2. Secret council of a chief 
with his councillors; secret consultation; 
a commission. 
uku Gquka, v. t. To obliterate, rub out a 
track, trace or footmark, so that nothing is 
to be seen; fig. to conceal the meaning. 
V. i. To shift about, to turn from one point 
to another. 

um-Gquki, n. \. A cunning person who 

evades all questions and enquiries, and 

confounds his inquisitors. 

uku-Gqukeka, v. To be obliterated; to be 

subtle, cunning, crafty. 

urn Gqukunqa, n. 6. A species of Ironwood, 

Olea woodiana Knobl. 
in Gqukunyembe, n. 3. An undecided 

person ; a weathercock. 
ukuti-GQUM, v. i. To sound, as an earthen 
pitcher breaking in pieces, or as a gun- 
shot : bate-gqum, they shot. 
Gqumgqum, adj. Full of wind in the 

stomach, puffed up; fig. boastful. . 
uku-Gquma, v. i. To roar as a lion or the 
sea. Phr. akuko ramncwa lingagqiimiyo 
kowalo umnxiima, lit. there is no beast 
that does not roar in its own den, i.e. a 
a man recognizes no superior in his own 
establishment, or every cock crows on 
on its own dung-hill; akuko mlanjana 
ungagqumiyo, there is no stream without 
sound. 

13 



i-Gqumo, . 2. ) tp^o.-;.,^ 
um Gqumo, n. 6. j R^^rmg. 
uku-Gqumela, v. To roar against: ingouya- 
ma ezintsha zigqmncla ukiiqwciiga, the 
young lions roar after their prey, for 
something to rend. 
Qqumelana, v. To roar against each 

other. 
Gqumka, v. (tribal). To burst open, as 
a ball or bladder, or as an egg in falling; 
to be dashed to pieces ; = Tyumka. 
Gqumza, v. To make the sound of 
shooting; to shoot. 
uku-GQUMA, V. t. To cover, as is done by 
throwing a garment over one's head to 
suffocate him; to smother; fig. to conceal, 
hide a thing; to hide anything under the 
garment, causing the garment to be puffed 
up ; euphem. to bolster up the posteriors. 
Gqumana, v. To conceal among each 

other. 
Gqumela, v. To cover or conceal for: 
uy::kiifidirola esibateiii ahahc.sigqttnuic iiina, 
Thou wilt pluck me out of the net, that 
they have secretly laid for me. 
Gqumeleka, v. To be covered, smoth- 
ered. 
Gqumelela, v. To put a blanket or earth 
over something: iiitlabati igqunuiela indic- 
ia, the sand covers up, closes the road. 
Gqumisana, v. To cause to conceal 
among each other. 
Gqumgqum, adj. See under uknl!-Gqin?i. 
uku-Gqumka, (a) See under ukiit'i-Gqum. 

(b) = uku-Nqumka. 
in Qqumfa, n. 3. (a) Maize which has short 
cobs at reaping-time. (b) A crowd of 
people. 
in Gqumshela, see i-Ngqumshela. 
i-Gqunce, n. 2. A species of forest tree. 
i-Gqunde, w. 2. A kind of grass. 
ama Gqungqefe, n. 2. pi. The report or 

reverberation of guns. 
uku-Gqungquluza, see ukn-Qnngquliisa. 
in-Qqungqumbane, n. 3. A small truck or 
troWey j-in-Golovanc; fig. a little, active 
person. 
in-Gqungqusi, n. 3. Foam. 
in-Qqungqwana, h. 3. A short thing or 

person. 
in Gqungungqungu, ?i. 3. Diminutive corn or 
maize with little foodstuff in it; fig. much 
talking without knowing or understanding 
what is talked of; a restless person. 
u-GqupiJi, . 5. Playing by jumping over a 
thong ; skipping. 



ukutl Gqupugqupu, v. i. To jump, rush 
into (water). 
uku-Qqupuza, v. i. To protect oneself 

against the river-spirit and his influence by 

throwing stones into the river, or tying 

rushes round the neck. 
u Gquqwana, . 5. A number, heap (of 

children). 
uku-Qqufa v. t. To burn medicinal plants for 

the purpose of expelling unclean spirits 

and so purifying a place; to cast out by 

conjurations and ceremonies; to exorcise. 
isi Gqufu, n. 4. A clump or clod of earth or 

mortar; fig. a lump: tinesigquru, he has a 

lump in his throat from excitement or 

annoyance. 
uku Qqusha, v. i. To struggle, writhe. 

Gqushagqusha, r. To struggle, as a 
fowl when being killed ; to welter; fig. to 
toil hard; to drudge. 

Qqushalaza, v. To struggle in dying ; to 
turn over frequently. 
ukuti-Qqushu, I , ^^ ^^^^ 1 ^^^^h, 

uku-Gqusha, ) 

pound a road which has been made; to 

stamp with the feet, as sheep or horses ; fig. 

ivayigqusha tnceba yam, he trampled my 

compassion under his feet ; to perform a 

kind of dance. 

in-Gqushu, n. 3. A well trodden place or 
road. 

uku-Gqusheka, v. To be trampled down: 
igqnshckile indicia eya e-Mgwali, the road 
to Emgwali is all trampled down. 
ukuti-Qqute, | ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^e a hole 

uku (jquta, j 

in the ear, or to bore through a calabash ; 

to extract by probing, as wax from the ear, 

or honey from a bottle; to pick the teeth; 

to clean a pipe or loosen the tobacco in a 

pipe with a needle ; fig. gquta indlebe, lit, 

take the wax out of the ear, i.e. open the 

ear, be attentive; watiwa-gqute lihlaba, he 

was attacked by a stitch or pleurisy. 

Gqutagquta, v. To search thoroughly, 
ferret out : gqutagquta indlu, rummage the 
house for bad things. 

Gquteka, v. To be open: indlebe zigqute- 
kile, the ears are cleaned out, open. 
um Gqutsubana, n. 6. A horse or other 

animal that cannot run fast. 
in-Qqutu, n. 3. Something hollow or scooped 

out. 
ukutl-GQUZU, V. i. To burst out laughing 

without any apparent cause : nsuke wegquzu 

ngcntsini, he burst into laughter. 



Gquzugquzu, adj. Brittle, apt to break, 
fragile. 

in-Gquzungquzu, n, 3. A brittle thing; 
us. as adj. brittle. 

ubu-Gquzugquzu, n.j. Brittleness. 

uku-Gquzula, v. t. To break a piece off 
(plaster). 

uku-Gquzuka, v. i. To break off, as plaster 
from a wall by anything coming in contact 
with it in passing ; fig. to go off, to die. 
ukuti-Qqwaba, v. t. To beat on the head. 
i-Gqwaba, n. 2. Coffee or tea, left in the pot, 

without sugar. 
uku-Gqwabaza, v. t. To tap lightly with a 

stick ; to fillip with the finger. 
uku-Gqwagqwa, v. t. To burn pottery or 

bricks; to toast, to half-roast. 

um-Qqwagqwane, . I. A hot, excited, 
angry person. 

uku Qqwagqweka, v. To be burning^ 
angry, full of wrath. 
u-Gqwagqwasi, . 5. Hard, dry land. 
i-Gqwaka, n. 2. A large kind of Bushman's 

tea, Catha edulis, said to give strength when 

chewed on a journey, so that one does not 

get tired; used as medicine for chest 

disease and snake-bite. See uku-Fukuta. 
ukuti-Gqwakagqwaka, v. t. To start 

people on a line of work or study which 

they themselves will follow up. 
in-Gqwalashu, M. 3. A species of marten; 

fig. a mean, destitute person, a Hottentot. 
uku-Gqwanca, v. i. To lose colour through 

smoke ; to become brown. 
in-Gqwangaza, n. 3. The sound produced 

by ox-hide shields at a fight. 
in-Gqwangi, n. 3. The Bakbakiri shrike, 

see i-Ngqwangi. 
Gqwangu, interj. A poke! He has it! 

ukuti-Gqwai: ju, v. To poke, as an ox in 
attacki:^.g another. 
i-Qqwanxe, n. 2. Black ironwood, Olea 

laurifolia Lam. 
u-Gqwangxe, n. 5. A stick or indukii made 

of Black ironwood. 
uku-Gqwanisha, v. t. To abuse. 
u Gqwafashe, n. I. A species of snake. 
uku-GqwashuIa, v. i. To be zealous in 

working and speaking; to adhere, stick 

vigorously to a thing; to storm or speak 

in a rage. 
isi-Gqwati, n. 4. The substance found 
. adhering to the inside of old milk-sacks 

or water casks; any incrustation inside 

vessels; ear wax; dirtiness; any decom- 



posed, mouldy or rotten substance ; rust in 
corn; putridity, rottenness; fig. blemishes in 
speaking. 
i-Qqwatyana, . 2. Dimin. form from ukut'i- 

Gqwaba. A little fight, dance or debate. 
i-Qqwayi, n. 2. A nickname for a Fingo. 
ukuti-Qqwazi, v. i. To be of small compass, 

little, not full or whole. 
u-Qqwegqwelele, . 5. Insincerity, denial : 
wenz' ugqwegqwelele , he excused, exculpated 
himself. 
in-Qqwemla. n. 3. A powerful ruler, tyrant; 

a person of extraordinary size. 
ukuti-Qqwengu, v. t. To poke, as an ox 

with its horn. 
in-Qqweqwe, n. 3. A slice, peel of pumpkin; 
ingqweqwe yengqtie, a flat, thin piece of ice ; 
a thin plate of metal ; the thin board or top 
of a table. 
uku-Qqwesa, v. i. To win in running a race, 
or in learning, or in playing a game. 
V. t. To pervert (in a good sense) ; to get 
the better of another. 
uku-GQWET'A, v. t. To hold or turn a thing 
(book) upside down ; fig, to alter, change ; 
to pervert, making black white, and vice 
versa. 

i-Qqweta, n. 2. A perverter; the common 
name for a law agent, attorney, advocate ; 
igqweta elitshutshisayo, the prosecuting 
barrister. 
um-Qqwet6, n. 6. A man's kaross made 
from a calf's hide, worn usually with the 
tail upwards; pi. perverseness; dimin. 
timgqwetana, a short garment of skin ; fig. 
a parchment, certificate. 
ubu-Qqweta, n. 7. Perversity, unrighteous- 
ness. 
uku-Qqwetela, i;. To pervert into: sizi- 
gqwetela ekufeni, we pervert ourselves to 
death. 
um-Qqwetesha, n. l. One who runs swiftly, so 
as not to be overtaken ; one who performs 
an operation with vigour. 
um-Gqwetesha, n. 6. Manner, mode, style, 

course. 
ukuti-Gqwididi, v. i. To fall; fig. to make 
mistakes in speaking. 

ubu-Gqwididi, I M^^j^ ^^^^^g 

ubu-Oqwidigqwidi, j \' ^ 

in speaking from doubt or uncertainty; 
doubt. 
ukuti-Gqwilikidi, v. i. To knock against a 
thing and fall ; fig. to err; to miss the mark. 
i-Gqwira, n. 2. A malevolent and greatly- 
dreaded person, who is believed to have 



the power of life and death over others ; 
when 'takata' mg, he goes naked, or girt 
with an isitehc only; he rides on a baboon, 
and carries two sticks, one of which, black 
in colour, is for killing, and the other of 
which is for raising to \\iii; = urn-Takati. 
He is a criminal of the deepest dye, hence 
the word is extended to include anyone 
guilty of an infamous act, such as incest. 
ubu-Gqwira. n. 7. Witchcraft, sorcery. 
ukutl-Qqwizi, ") t> ^ ^ 

uku-Gqwizila,j '" ' ^""'^^"^ ^^ ^'^^^ ^ 
touch a thing aimed at; of a bullet, to 
glance off; to miss the mark; fig. to hide 
oneself. 
isi-Gu, . 4. A trap, consisting of a flat stone, 
supported in a slanting position by an 
ingenious arrangement of twigs, to one of 
which the bait ^generally intlava grubs from 
the mealie stalks) is fastened. A bird 
or mouse, on touching the bait, releases 
the supporting twigs and is killed by the 
falling stone. 
um-Gu, n. 6. Effort, etc., = um-Gudu. 
ukuti-GU, V. t. To put a thing a little out of 
the way. 

ukuti-Gu-bucaia, v. To turn aside or step 
out of one's path for any purpose : ndite 
gubucala endlwmi, I stopped aside into 
the house; iite-giibucala cteta nomlingane 
wake, he stepped aside and spoke to his 
companion ; isono samti-gubucala endleleni 
yohulungisa, sin enticed him out of the 
path of righteousness, i.e. made him 
depart from it. 
uku-Gula, V. To mislead: ndiyamgula nga- 

sese, I mislead, seduce him. 
Gulela, V. To step aside for: ndamgulela 
endleleni, I made way for him, stepped 
aside that he might pass; cf. ukuti-Gu- 
hucala. 
uku-GUBA, V. t. pass, gutywa. To grind corn 
into meal; fig. to oppress; to convince: 
undigubile, he convinced, vanquished, me 
by his speech. 
um-Gu bo, n. 6. Meal, flour; any powdery 

substance like meal. 
uku-Gubeka, v. To be grindable; to be 

made into powder. 
Gubela, v. To mix up, to mingle with 
meal. 
uku-GUB'A, V. i. To tremble with fear. Em, 
To bathe. 

Gubela, v. To tremble at. 
Gubisa, v. To make afraid, to cause 
trembling. 



QU 



QU 



in-Quba, 



The muscle below the uku-Cluda, a /. To be smooth, glossy, sleek : 



shoulder. 

in-Gubane, n. 3. A great slaughter in battle; 
a great mortality (such as that from rinder- 
pest) supposed to be caused by an iim- 
Shologu. 
um-Qubasl, n. 6. A doorpost. 
um-Gub^la, . 6. The forefinger. 
in-Qubo, n. 3. A garment, kaross, cloak, 
robe, blanket for covering the whole body ; 
plur. clothes; dimin. ingutyana, a small 
robe, etc. ; loc. engutyeni. 
i-Gubu, n. 2. A dried calabash, prepared for 
use as a musical instrument, connected by 
a bow to a single string, which is beaten 
and resounls in the calabash with a sound 
like gitbu, giibu ; any hollow-sounding thing, 
such as a bottle; hence, a drum, a musical 
band ; dimin. igutyana. 
isi-Qubu, M. 4. A bowl out of which beer is 

drunk ; = iSclwa. 
ukutl-GUBU, V. i. Of the sky, to be over- 
cast : izulii lite-guhu, the sky is lowering. 
ukuti Gubus;ubu, v. Of the sky, to be 

black with clouds. 
uku-Gubula, v. To pick off pieces of 

plaster from a wall, as a child might 

carelessly do. 
Gubuka, v. Of an eruption, to break out 

on the skin ; = uku-Jaduka. 
Gubungela, v. To cover, e.g. the body 

with a garment, or a vessel with a lid. 
isi Gubungelo, m. 4. A covering as of 

cloth. 
ukuti-GUB'U, V. i. Of the stomach, to be 
squeamish ; as adxK, not quite : peka inyama 
itt-giibu, cook the meat underdone. 
i-Gubugubu, n. 2. A tasteless thing, as 

meat. 
uku-Gubula, v. To have gripings in the 

bowels; to vomit. 
Gubulula, V. t. To upset the contents 

of a box, to put them all out of order ; 

-iiku-Hlakaza. To turn over: ikuba 

liyagubiiliila, the plough turns over the 

soil. 
Gubuza, V. t. pass, gujuzwa. To yield 

plentifully, e.g. of a cow giving much 

milk ; tribal Goboza. 
Gubuzela, v. Of the stomach, to be in 

commotion, on the point of throwing up 

its contents ; of a pot, to boil ; also = uku- 

Giiba. 
ukuti Gubudu, v. i. To go down steps. 
i (iubufa, n. 2. A meeting of councillors. 
uku-Gucula, v. t. -uku-Gutyula. 



indlu igudile, the house is proper, in order ; 
inkomo ziguiilc, the cattle are sleek ; to 
milk a cow without putting the calf to her, 
or to milk successfully a cow that has lost 
her calf ; adv. vgokiigudilcyo, flatteringly. 
isi-Gudu, n. 4. A cow which allows her- 
self to be milked without being first 
sucked by her calf, or one which has lost 
her calf and yet allows herself to be 
milked. 
uku-Gudisa, v. To make smooth; to iron; 
to smooth weapons in forging them ; to 
rub a cow gently to induce her to give 
milk freely. 
uku-GudIa, v. t. To rub against an object, as 
an ox against a wall or post : inkomo ziyazi- 
gudla emlini, the cattle rub themselves on 
the tree ; wandigudla ngcngalo ecaleni, he 
knocked me on the side with his arm, when 
passing by; fig. to hit or hint at one in 
speaking to others; to vent one's spleen 
against a person; cf. uku-Kuhla. 
Gudlana, v. To crowd against others 
forcibly: inkomo zigudlana edlelweni, the 
cattle throng each other on the pasturage. 
Gudleka, v. To receive any rubbing; to 
suffer from abrasion : umti ngudlekile, the 
tree has been damaged by rubbing; to be 
in a throng, to be pressed. 
um Gudluli, n. I. The month of April. 
uku-Gudluza, v. i. To shake violently (a 
door, box). 

Gudluzela, r. To shake violently on 
account of. 
Gudu, interjec. Denoting the sudden and 
unexpected occurrence of an event during 
the progress of another: behold! 
ukuti-Gudu, V. i. To change one's plan 
suddenly and do something else: intUziyo 
yam ite-gudu, I have changed my mind 
about that plan which I originally meant 
to carry out. 
i Gudu, M. 2. A bullock's horn used for 
smoking wild hemp. It contains water, 
in which is inserted a reed, so placed that 
the smoke has to pass through the water 
before it reaches the smoker's mouth. 
in-Gudu, k. 3. Undingene ingudu, he. is ever 
tracking me; he urges me on, makes me 
hurry. 
isi-Gudu, . 4. See under M*M-G^rfrt. 
u-Gudu, n. 5. A kind of amphitheatre on the 
side of a mountain or hill, forming a 
hollow running from the lower to. the 



QU 

higher part of the mountain, usually 

covered with trees, not so deep as a ravine 

or gorge ; the steep, declivitous, sloping, 

bank of a river. 
um-Qudu, n. 6. Effort, exertion ; taking 

pains to do a work; notable deed, exploit. 
i-Gududu, n. 2. A sorcerer, conjurer, 

exorcist. 
uku-Gudula, v. t. To plaster a wall; to 

smooth the plastering: zagudulwa isisele, 

the mealie-pits were cleaned in preparation 

for the harvest. 
uku-Quga, V. i. To wear off or out; to 

become old from wear: ingubo yam igugile, 

my blanket is worn out; to be out of 

fashion; to become depreciated in worth. 

Phr. akiiko sibonda sigiiga namaxolo aso, lit. 

no stake grows old with the bark on, i.e. 

years tell upon us all. 

Gugisa, V. To cause to wear out, to put 
out of fashion. 
u-Guga, n. I. The red Kafir water-melon. 
i-Gugu, n. 2. A valuable, precious or worthy 

thing, treasure, jewel ; a person much made 

of; plur. pleasures, fads; ipelis'igugu, it 

(cattle-plague, etc.) finishes riches; igugu 

lingaba likulu, umbombo uyaqoshwa, lit. 

treasures may be great, the nose is buttoned, 

i.e. a boaster is always disappointed. 

uku-Quguzela, v. i. (a) To grow quickly 
and richly after rain, as crops, (b) To 
run for pleasure's sake. 
uku-Guguda, v. i. To run along in all 

directions. 
Gugugu ! intcrj. The noise made by the 

engine of a train ; cf. Jujujii. 
uku-Gugula, V. t. To cut the hair short. 
uku-Guguma, v. i. To rise in a heap ; to boil 

up ; to move in billows as the sea ; fig. to 

boil with anger, n. 8. Wrath: ekugugumeni 

kiv.iko kuinbula inccbj, in Thy wrath 

remember mercy. 

Gugumela, v. To rage against. 
uku-Gugunya, v. t. To pick the flesh from 

the bone, = uku-Kukuza. 
uku-Guguta, V. i. To go along the bank of a 

river or the side of a mountain. 
i-Gukwe, n. 2. A trick, artifice. 
uku-Gula, V. To mislead, see under ukitti-Gu. 
uku-Gula, V. i. To groan, mdan, as when in 

pain or sorrow. Em. to be sick, ill. 

um-Quli, n. I. Em. A sickly person, a 
patient. 

i-Gula, 71. 2. A species of milk calabash, 
so called from the noise made by 
fermentation within it. 

135 



> V. t. To wipe off water with 



QU 
um-Gulo, n. 6. A groan, moan. 
uku-Gulela, v. To groan, etc. over a 
person or thing. Em. To have one's 
relative ill : uguldwe ngabantwana, his 
children are ill. 
Gulisa, T^. Em. To cause illness : Mj/asN 
gulisa, he pretends to be ill. 
in-GuIa, n. 3. Precedence, preference, 

superiority. 
in-Qulube, n. 3. The Bush Pig or Bosch 
Vark, Potamochoerus choeropotamus 
typicus {Maj.). 
um-Gulugulu, n. 6. Strychnos Mackenii. 
ukati-QuluIu, 
uku-Guiula, 
the hand from the body or clothes after 
being washed, or sweat from the face ; to 
slip. 

Gululeka, v. To get wiped off, 
separated : iiitsila iyagululcka engutyeni, 
the dirt separates from the clothes. 
uku-Guma, v. t. To eat hard corn or dry 

bread ; fig. to groan in pain. 
i-Quma, . 2. A person who has not suc- 
ceeded, but has gone backward in his 
circumstances ; Em. = in- Tendelczo. 
in-Gumane, n. 3. Cockspur, Secale cornu- 

tum, common among Kafir-corn. 
i-Gumasholo, n. 2. A drone bee ; fig. a big, 

but inactive man. 
uku-GUMB'A, V. t. pass, gunj'wa. (a) To 
carve ; to scoop out wood : ubondo lugunji- 
we ngesitshetsJie, the ladle has been 
scooped out with a knife; to make hollow, 
excavate; scoop out ground, as water 
does at the banks of a river ; cf. ukii-Gomba. 
(b) To cause strife by speaking evil of an- 
other person. 

in-Gunibane, n. 3. (a) Bleeding piles; 
hemorrhoids, (b) An imaginary creature, 
serpent or worm or uinoya, which is 
supposed to impair all the vital power of 
people, making them weak and sickly; 
its victims are usually young women. 
i-Gutnbi, n. 2. A corner or room, recess, 
ante-chamber immediately at the en- 
trance of a house; dimin. igunjana; 
loc. egumbini. 
u-Gumbe, w. 5. A stream, which washes 
out the ground. Unogumbe was the 
name given to the great flood at Nxele's 
time, which caused great landslips and 
destruction ; hence this name is usied for 
the great flood of Noah's time. 
ukuti-Gumbegumbe, v. t. To scoop out, 
make a little hole, not to dig deep. 



GU 

5. A pernicious, harmful, 



To finish up ; to make an 



To cause un- 



u-Qumpu, / 

person. 
uku-Guinza, 

end of. 
in-Qumza, n. 3. An unripe maize-cob when 

the grain is just forming. 
uku-Quna, v. t. To throw the iguni in the 
game of u-Nocwcba ; - uku-Cweba. 
i-Guni, . 3. A small flat stone used by 
girls in the game of u-Nocwcba; a peever. 
u-Guncu, . I. An old woman. 
uku-Gungisa, v. To cause pressure; to 
catch: intaka igungisiwe, the bird was 
caught in a trap, i.e. was killed. 
ukuti-GUNGQU, V. ?.) 

uku-Gungqa, > To struggle, writhe; 

uku Gungqagungqa, ) 

to have no rest in the mind from pain, etc ; 
to rock about with a rolling motion. Phr. 
bitgiuigqa ngamakaka, they performed the 
war dance. 
u-Gungqo, n. 5. Unrest; unhappiness of 

mind. 
um-Gungqo, n. 6. Struggle, writhing, 

wrestling. 
uku-Gungqela, v. To be in a state of 
unrest and worry over something 
desired. 
Gungqisa, 
Gungqagungqisa. 
rest, struggling; to cause a wagon to 
rock and bump by driving it over large 
stones and rough places. 
i-Gungqu, ti. 2. The name given to the little 
vole-like creatures of the genus Otomys 
CuiK It may perhaps be sometimes given 
to other small mammals. 
u-Gungqu, . 5. Used as Adj. Valuable : into 

elugungqu, a great, valuable thing. 
ukuti-Gungqu, v. /. (a) = uku-Gungqa. (b) 
To sound as a house when suddenly 
entered. 

uku-Gungquza, and uku-Gunguza, v. t. 
and /. (a) To make a noise by rocking, 
knocking, rattling, etc. ; to shake about, 
jolt as a wheel; to cause a knocking 
sound in some hollow thing, as inside a 
house or vessel, (b) To be lonely, 
separated, secluded, without a com- 
panion. 
Gungu, intcrj. Exclamation used when an 
isigu has caught a bird. 
ukuti-Gungu, V. Of an isigu, to close with a 
snap upon a bird. 
i-Gungu, n. 2. = i-Gunya. 
ubu-Gungu, n. 7. Used adverbially. Aside, 
unseen, privately, secretly : waycnza bu- 1 
136 



QU 

gungu lento, he did this without being seen ; 

watela bugungu lento, he told it secretly. . 
uku-Gungubala, v. i. To rise, as meat in 

boiling; fig. to elate or puif up oneself; to 

boast. 

i-Gungubala, . 2. The growth of a boy 
from a certain time. 

i (iungubele, n. 2. The rising of meat in 
the pot when boiling. 
ukuti-GunguIulu, v. t. To touch, hit with a 

stick, lance or stone, superficially without 

entering; to glance off. 

in-Gungululu, n. 3. A morose person. 

uku-Gunguluza, = ukuti-Gungululu. To 

strike the surface only: ilizwi lika-Tixo 

ligunguliizile ezintliziyweni zenu, the word 

of God has not entered your hearts. 

uku-Gunguta, v. t. To beat severely, cf. 

uku-Ngula. 
uku-Gunguza, To make a noise, etc. =w^m- 

Gungquza. 
uku-Gungxa, v. t. To pull the head-dress 

down over the face, as a bride does; = ^M- 

Gongxa. 
ukuti-GUNQXU, =-- uku-Gungxuka. 

uku-GungxuIa, v. t. To throw, push off or 
down; to shift or roll down something 
heavy (large stones from a height, or 
from the walls of a building which is 
being demolished): umt'i ugungxulwe esi- 
kondweni, the tree has been pushed down 
from the stump. 

um-Gungxuli, n. I. A destroyer, demo- 
lisher. 

uku-Gungxulela, v. To cast down to: umzi 
oyingxonde uwugungxule wawugungxulela 
emhlabeni, He hath laid the lofty city low, 
low even to the ground. 

^^iisirulct"'] " ^ f=" "f '- = 

height or seat; to tumble down (used of 

something heavyj. 
uku-Gunica, v. i. To act with partiality. 
uku-Gununda, v. t. To eat the grass off 
short, or the place bare. 
Gunundeka, v. To be eaten off; to be 

bare. 
Gunuza, v. t. To gnaw off. 
GUNYA, M. 2. Deputed authority deter- 
minedly exercised; power, strength; bra- 
vado: uqale walifaka induku isela elo, uku- 
let'isa igunya, he first gave the thief blows 
with a stick to break down his resistance. 
uku-Qunyalaza, v. To show power. 
Gunyaza, v. To speak authoritatively. 



V. t. To stoop, bend on 



GU 

Qunyazela, v. To speak authoritatively 
on behalf of one; to act defiantly against 
anything. 
Qunyazisa, v. To authorise. 
Qunyuza, t'. To show power, authority; 
to master, overpower; to throw in 
wrestling; to seize with a firm muscular 
grasp. 
um-Qupane, n. 6. (a) The Black-crowned 
Bush-shrike, Pomatorhynchus senegalus 
(Linn.), (b) Flesh from the neck. 
uku-QUQA, 
ukuti-Guqalala, 
or upon ; to bend the knee ; to kneel down : 
siguqc ngamadolo, we bent our knees; fig. to 
be humble. Ukuguqa is an essential part of 
the marriage ceremony ; see uku-Duda. 
Quqela, v. To bow down for or in 
respect of: niyakuguqela ukusikwa, ye 
shall bow down to the slaughter. 
Guqisa, v. To make or cause to kneel: 
waziguqisa inkamela, he made the camels 
kneel down. 
ukuti-QUQU, V. i. To change one's state, to 
turn from one thing into another as 
happens in the intsotni: zeguqu inkomo zali- 
hlatt, the cows turned into trees and became 
a forest. 

iSqur^fs. ] Rallying: inkunzi yenza 
ingiiqu, the bull returned to the attack 
after having run away, he rallied. 

ukuti-Guquguqu, v. i. To turn about or 
round ; to change colour, as a chameleon. 

in-Guqunguqu, n. 3. A changing. 

uku-Guqula, v. t. To turn over; to cause 
one to turn back: ziguqule impahla zam, 
return my property ; fig. to cause one to 
change his mind and conduct ; to convert : 
ndaguqulwa lilizwi lika-Tixo, I was con- 
verted by the word of God; to answer, 
rejoin; translate, interpret. 

um-Guquli, 71. l. A translator. 

in-GuquIo, n. 3. A change; translation. 

uku-Guquguqula, v. To turn or roll over 
and over; to make short turns; fig. to 
change or alter modes. 

Ququleka, v. To be turned, changed: 
ukungaguquleki kwecebo lake, the immu- 
tability of His counsel. 

in-Guquleko, n. 3. Change, alteration 
(subj.). 

uku-Guquka, v. To turn, come back: 
akakaguquki, he has not come back yet; 
to go in another direction; fig. to change 



the mind and conduct ; to turn from one 
course of conduct to another; to be 
converted, to repent: guqukani nikolwe, 
repent ye and believe. 

u-Guquka, n. l. The Bateleur, Helotarsus 
ecaudatus (Daud.), a species of eagle 
which turns somersaults in the air. 

um-Guquki, n. I. A converted person. 

in-Guquko, n. 3. Change of mind, conver- 
sion, repentance : wavakalisa ubaptizo Iwe- 
nguquko, he preached the baptism of 
repentance. 

uku-Guquguquka, v. To change often in 
purpose, opinion and conduct; to be 
shifty, unstable, fickle, inconstant, like a 
weather-cock: mna Yehova andiguqugu- 
qiiki, I the Lord change not. 

Guqukeka, v. To turn back or over by 
itself. 

-Guqukela, v. To turn back for; to come 
back to: waguqukela ku-Tlxo, he turned 
towards the Lord, i.e. he became con- 
verted; to turn against: nabendibatanda 
bandigiiqiikcle, and they whom I loved 
are turned against me. 

Guqulela, v. To turn over for or to or 
against ; to change for or into. 

in-Guquielo, n. 3. A change into (obj.). 

ukuti-Guququ, v. To turn round quickly; 
to turn in bed ; to face about : we-guququ 
wall, he turned round and said; fig. to 
change suddenly the subject of conversa- 
tion or discussion ; to fly off to another 
topic. 
u-Gura, n. 5. A very lean thing. 
i-Gusawa, n. 2. A plant like the Bush-tea 

growing by rivers ; it is used for making a 

kind of tea and for its perfume. 
uku-GUSHA, V. t. To hide or conceal a thing 

under the armpit or garment. 

i-Gusha, n. 3. lit. the concealer, (a) The 
woolled or merino sheep, (b) A cloak 
made of sheepskins. Phr. wapum' egusheni, 
lit. he came out of the sheep skin, that is, 
he let the cat out of the bag, 

i-Gushabokwe, n. 3. The fat-tailed Cape 
sheep; a shaggy goat. 

uku-Qusheka, v. To be hidden, concealed. 

Gushela, v. To hide for or from another : 

lento yigushele pantsi kwebatyi yako, hide 

this thing under your jacket, 

um-Gushanxa, n. 6. Great effoi-ts; exertions. 

um-Gushe, n. 6. An edible root. 

i-Gushugushukazi, n. 2. A very good milch 

cow. 
uku-Quta, V. t. To cut off pieces of fat. 



i-Gutyana, w. 2. A small drum; dimin. of 

i-Gubii. 
in-Gutyana, n. 3. Dimin. of in-Gitbo. 
uku-Gutyula, v.t. To remove dirt; to sweep 
out water, which the rain has brought into 
a house. 
uku-Guxa, V. t. (a) To peel, divest, strip 
(leaves); fig. to leave a thing naked; to 
plunder, (h) To scour a dish, cleanse 
thoroughly : iiiiiviitiibo ctyabttlayo igiixa iibubi, 
stripes that wound cleanse away evil. 
um-Guxa, 11. 6. That which is stript, bare, 

peeled : uiiiguxakazi, an old lean cow. 
uku-Guxana, v. To strip or plunder each 
other. 
uku-Guya, v. t. To shave the beard or pubes. 
Em. To dance before a war commences, or 
before the abakweta of the year are circum- 
cised. 

um-Quyo, n. 6. Em. War dance; also the 

all-night dance that takes place before 

the young men who are entering on thi 

circumcision rites are circumcised. 

in-Quza, n. 3. A porpoise or dolphin. 

i-Guzu, H. 2. The bone which is covered by 

the eyebrow. 
uku-Guzuba, v. t. To cleanse oneself of 

Guzuba's sin (incest) by drinking brandy. 
uku-Guzubala, v. i. To feel safe on account 
of; to be puffed up ; to strut, espec. 
processions or feasts. 
uku-Guzula, V. t. To abrade, scrape a wall; 
to rub against it so as to cause the plaster 
to fall off; fig. to remove, discharge, 
depose (a headman or chief from his 
chieftainship). 

uku-Guzuka, v. Used of the skin, or of 

the plaster of a wall, to be abraded by 

friction, rubbing or scraping; fig. to be 

removed, discharged, turned out of office 

or work; to be on furlough. 

ukuti-QWA, V. t. and /. (a) To throw the 

whole into: ute-gwa chlathti, he threw 

himself into the wood; he concealed 

himself in the forest; to give all to one 

who has nothing: ndimtc-gwa tigokutya kivani 

koiikc, I gave him all my food, (b) To be 

full. 

uku-Gwagwa, v. To shut or pen up people 

or cattle in a hole, in prison, or in water. 

Gwagwisa, T>. To be proud ; to boast ; 

to make much ado about little. 
um-Gwagwisi, . I. A boaster. 
uku-Gwagwisela, v. To be arrogant and 
boastful towards others. I 



GW 

uku-GWABA, V. I. To sing, hum a tune; to 

chant. Em. To sing when going to war. 

um-Gwabi, a. i. A singer. Em. Precentor. 

i-Qwaba, n. 2. The Black-crested Cuckoo, 
Clamator serratus (Spainn.) Perhaps 
also the Black and Grey Cuckoo, 
Clamator jacobinus hypopinarus Cab. and 
Heine. 
in-Gwabavu, n. 3. A number of red things. 
i-Gwabugwabu, and in-Gwabungwabu, 

n. 3. That which is wide, loose; cf. in- 

Givatyii. 
uku-GWADA, V. i. To take snuff. 

i-Gwada, . 2. Snuff; igwada lencuka, lit. 
hyena's snuff, i.e. a puff-ball. 

uku-Gwadisa, v. To give snuff to others. 
u-Gwadasi, n. $. = u-Gwadugwadu. 
uku-GwadIa, v. t. To cook a great quantity; 

fig. to take a long time to settle a dispute. 
u-Gwadugwadu, //. i. A noisy, riotous 

person. 
uku-G waguba, v. t. ^ 

Gwagubisa, > (a) To come upon one 
Gwagusha, v. i. j 

unexpectedly, suddenly : handigwaguba 

abantti, iikuba ndishitmayelc knbo, the people 

called unexpectedly on me to preach to 

them, (b) To pursue so as to tire out; 

to continue to follow a person from place 

to place, for the purpose of annoying him. 
uku-Gwagwa, v. See under ukuti-Gwa. 
in-Gwagwa, n. 3. An ornamental ear-button 

of ivory. 
um-Gwagwa, n. 6. A reddish cloud such as 

is often seen at sunset. 
uku-G waja, v. i. To operate like medicine. 
uku-GWALA, r. t. To perform on the 

musical instrument u-Givali; to whistle. 

u-Gwnli; a musician, minstrel. 

u-Gwali, V. 5. (a) An instrument made of 
the fibres of sinew on a bow of wood 
with a quill, flattened on one side, to 
give greater elasticity; the sounds are 
made by the mouth vibrating on the 
catgut, (b) A great singer, (c) The 
points of a maize-cob just forming before 
it has any grain, (d) Great rage: usuke 
xvaltigwali lokulwa oku, he was in a great 
rage. 

ukuGwalela, v. To play to: sanigwalela, 
naza nina anadnda, we piped to you, and 
ye did not dance. 

isi-Gwaliso, n. 4. A musical instrument. 
uku-Gwala, v. i. To behave as a coward. 



1 the 



138 



GW 

i-Gwala, n. 2. A timid, pusillanimous 

person ; a coward. 
ubu-Qwala, w. 7- Cowardice; want of 
courage to face danger ; timidity. 
um-Qwalanyuba, it. 6. A species of shrub 

with edible berries. 
um-Gwalayiba, . 6. A species of tree. 
um-Gwali, . 6. The name given to two 
species of Euclea: I. E. lanceo\ata E. Mcy., 
the Bush Gwarri, used by Hottentots as 
tea. The bark of the roots is used as a 
purgative, iyeza lohtxaxazisa. 2. E. un- 
dulata Thtmb., the Gwarri, whose fruit is 
eaten by the Natives. 
u-Gwaluma, n. 5- Great noise, a loud 
shouting: uvhve ngaschuhlanti apb selcleln- 
gwaluma, he was heard beside the cattle- 
kraal making a loud outcry. 
isi-G warn, n. 4. A number of people collected 

together closely. 
isi-Gwamba, h. 4- Em. A vegetable stew, 
in which the points of young pumpkin 
shoots have been cut up. 
i-Gwambi, n. 2. A concave line formed by 

huntsmen. 
i-Gwampi, 11. 2. A fighting of young men. 
in-Gwampi, n. 3. The Wattled crane, 

Bugeranus carunculatus (Gm.). 
um-Gwamu, n. 6. A number of cattle 
slaughtered at the same time, whose flesh 
is either heaped up or boiled in great 
masses. 
in-Gwamza, n. 3. The White stork or Great 
locust-bird, Ciconia ciconia (L.) ; the word 
is used by the Reds as a nickname for 
school Kafirs, on account of their dress. 
in-Gwane, ??. 3. The octopus or devil-fish. 
uku-Qwangcazela, v. i. To take up a de- 
fensive position ; = uku-R'wacazela. 
Qwangcazelisa, v. To expect an attack. 
Gwangqa, adj. Light brown or bay: iiikahi 
egwangqa, a light brown ox; ifiashe ligwa- 
ngqa, the horse is of a light brown colour ; 
fig. red like a drunkard. 
i-Gwangqa, n. 2. (a) The Rufous-naped 
Lark, Mirafra africana A.Sm., so called 
from its colour. Its song is rendered as 
ndiya etywalcni, I am off to a beer-drink; 
or as sebefikile, they (the herdboys) have 
already arrived (to torment us), (b) A 
European. 
i-Gwangqakazi, n. 2. A lightish red or 
brownish coloured cow. 
i-Gwangqagwangqa, w. 2. Warlike noise, 
bustle ; the noise made by the spears hit- 
ting the shields in fighting. 



QW 

in-Gwangqazo, n. 3. A loud cry, clamour, 
shout; the rattling of a wagon. 
i-Gwangwa, n. 2. The Pied crow, Corvus 

scapulatus Daud. 
in-Qwangwa, n. 3. Clapping with hands at a 

dance ; a noisy multitude. 

in-Gwangwane, n. 3. The stork, = in-Gwamza. 

uku-Gwangxula, v. i. To clean up the weeds 

in maize or Kafir-corn fields when the 

crops have begun to blossom and are tall ; 

to travel a difficult, cumbersome road. 

i-Gwanishe, n. 2. The spekboom, Portulaca- 

ria afra Jacq. 
i-G wantsa, n. 2. A young, full-grown person ; 

one in his full strength, but young. 
uku-Gwanya, v. t. To do a thing by brute 
force; to perform, execute a work under 
difficulties; to claim a thing which is not 
one's own; fig. to remain hard or tough in 
spite of long cooking, as mealies boiled in 
sour water. 

in-Gwanyalala, n. 3. us. as adj. Of a hide, 
hard; fig. austere, fiery, audacious, im- 
pudent, angry (shewn in the face). 
ubun-Gwanyalala, w. 7. Hardness, fierce- 
ness, impudence. 
Gwapisi, n. 2. A thick, strong person; an 
immoderate eater; cf. iim-Apisi. 
ukuti-Qwaqa, v. i. To come suddenly on a 
thing or person : ndimte-gwaqa, esihla endti- 
lini, I came suddenly on him as he was 
descending the hill. 
uku Gwaqaza, r. /. To try; to make an 

effort; to exert oneself. 
i Gwashu, n. 2. Something blown up or out, 
fitting loosely on the body, wide and flap- 
ping : ibulukwc imagwashu, blown out trousers. 
i-Gwatyu, n. 2. A national song. It came 
from the East before the war of 1 846, and 
was first used by boys in reference to war ; 
it was adapted in that war to fighting 
purposes. 

in-Gwatyu, ] Anything wide and 

m Gwatyumba, ^ ^ ^ >= 

flapping, as a wide pair of trousers ; a lean 

cow with pendulous or flapping udder. 

uku-Gwatyuza, v. i. To rustle, as a leathern 
kaross. 

uku-GWAZA, V. t. To stab, wound, pierce 
unawares; to thrust cold steel through a 
body. Phr. ukugwaza ti-Tshaka, ugwaze 
ebona, he hit the nail on the head. 
um-Gwazi, n. I. A stabber, assassin. 
um-Gwazo, n. 6. Stabbing, assassination. 
uku-Gwazela, v. To smite at : naye mgwaze- 
leni enqwelweni yokulwa, smite him also in 
the chariot. 



139 



(jW 

in-Qwe, //. 3. (a) The leopard, Felis pardus 
L. Phr. itigweyaziwa ngamahala, the leopard 
is known by its spots ; iiigwe idla ngamahala, 
the leopard eats by its spots, i.e. the 
leopard's spots deceive ; amahaV cngwe, lit. 
leopard's spots, i.e. hints, remarks ; also 
given as a name to the Lesser Cape Bishop- 
bird ; pi. izingwe, a cloak made of leopard- 
skins, -worn by chiefs, (b) A species of 
butterfly, Papilio demoleus L. 

uku-GWEBA, i:t. pass, gwetywa. (a) To bend 
the head towards: ugweha ngentloko kulo- 
iiqayi, he bends his head over that basin 
(to drink) ; to thrust, keep or turn off: inkii- 
nzi iyagwcba, the bull strikes with one horn 
and then with the other, it can toss well, 
(b) To decide, judge, condemn: ndigwetyiwe, 
I am condemned. The idea of condemna- 
tion or judgment against one comes in when 
the verb is used with the accusative of a 
person : undigwebile, he has condemned me. 
(cf. Latin nutus for parallel meanings). 
um-Gwebi, . I. A decider, judge. 

S-Gweta,' ] -4- A small, short stick, 
which need not have a knob, 

isi-Gwebo, . 4. A judgment; a judicial 
sentence: wawisa isigwebo, he passed 
sentence. 

u-Gwebo, n. 5. The passing of a sentence. 

um-Gwebo, . 6. The act of judging. 

um-Gweba, n. 6. A small, short stick with 
an oblong knob for boys to throw with. 

uku-Gwebana, v. To judge one another: 
masingahi sagwebniia ngoko, let us therefore 
not judge one another any more. 

Gwebela, v. To decide for, to give judg- 
ment in favour of, justify, acquit: 7igoko 
sigwetyelwe-nje sinoxolo, being therefore 
justified, we have peace. (It does not 
mean in proper Kafir " to sentence to a 
penalty.") 

um-Qwebeli, n. I. One who justifies. 

isi-Gwebelo, n. 4. Justifying, acquitting. 

uku-Gwebellsa, v. To bring about or cause 
an acquittal. 

Gwebisa, v. To cause to judge, etc. 
ukuti-Qwebelele, 
Gwebeleza, 

appear secretly. 
i-Gwebu,. 2. (a) Froth, foam, scum ; frothy 

saliva; ainagwcbu, fi'oth, foam (as at the 

mouth), frothy stools, scrapings of the 

bowels, (b) The thin flesh of the breast. 
in-Gwebu, ;/. 3. The froth on milk. 
isi-Gwebu, n. 4, A limpet. 

140 



To abscond, dis- 



GW 

uku-Gweca, v. i. To be always the same, 

without varying. 
i-Gwece, n. 2. A young person or a young 

head of cattle ; a young ox commencing to 

pull. 
uku-Gweda, v. i. To persevere in doing a 

thing; to cry out very loudly. 
i-Qwede, n. 2. A young, unfledged bird. 
uku-GwedIa, t;. /. To paddle, row. Em. To 

move out of the way. 

um-GwedIi, n. I. One who rows or paddles. 
uku-Gwegwa, v. t. To hook, take down with 

a hook, hang with a crook : gwegwa imbiza 

ngesigwegwe, hang the pot with a hook (over 

the fire) ; fig. to trip up in wrestling by 

hooking with the leg; to propose marriage 

to a young woman. 

\SZ^^::i^ ] Anything to hook 

with; a hook or crook. 

imi-Owegwe, . 6. pi. Long, streaky clouds. 

uku-Gwegweda, v. t. and i. To steer clear 
of; to go by a circuitous route, so as not to 
be seen; to keep aloof: wawagwegweda 
amapolisa, ngokiiba esoyika ukubanjwa, he 
avoided the police fearing he might be 
apprehended; gwegweda kuzo inkani, avoid 
strife. 

Gwegwedela, v. To avoid, shun for a 
purpose: umzt-lo uwugwegwedela-tiina? 
why do you avoid that village ? 
Gwegweleza, v. To take a circuitous 
route. 

uku-Gweja, v. t. To tuck up the corner of 
the kaross. 

uku-Gwela, v. i. To keep aloof from a 
person or thing. 

i-Gwele, n. 2. Leaven, yeast. 

i-Gweleba, . 2. One expert in all things. 

uku-Gweleqa, v. t. To allude to; to hint or 
aim at somebody in speaking; to hit in- 
directly.. 

in-GweletSiietshe, n. 3. A small shield, 
used to cover the face in hunting. Phr. 
yini ukuba uroV ingweletshetshe? why are 
you angry ? 

um-G welo, n. 6. The scrapings of meat from 
an animal's skin, roasted in the fire. 

uku-Gwenguia, v. t. and /. To strike the 
surface, graze, hit a little; of a ball or 
assegai, to glance off", rebound: uyagwe- 
ttgula, akulingenisi igaba emhlabeni, you 
strike only the surface, your hoe does not 
go deep into the ground; wayigwengula 
intaka ep'ikweni, you hit the bird on the 
outside of the wing only ; fig. to evade, put 
off, digress, deviate. 



QW 

The Serval cat, 



Felis 



in-Gwenkala, ?/. 3. 

serval Erxl. 
uku-Qwenta. v. t. To murder by stealth 
(witchcraft); to ass-dssma.te ; = tiku-Gwinta. 
isi-Qwenta, n. 4. An assassin. 
QWENXA, adj. Crooked, perverse, wrong, 
wicked: inteid egivenxa, perverse speech; 
ndenza okugwenxa, I did wrong, 
uku-Gwenxa, t;. /. To pervert; to break 

in angrily on the speech of another. 
i-Qwenxa, M. 2. A perverse man; fem. 

igwenxakazi. 
ubu-G wenxa, n. 7. Perverseness, crooked- 
ness, wrong state of things. 
uku-Qwenxagwenxela, v. To talk affect- 
edly, in a peculiar manner, so as to be 
distinguished from other persons. 
Qwenxeka, v. To be in a perverted 
state: intlhiyo egwenxekileyo, a perverse 
heart. 
Qwenxeia, v. To incline to wickedness. 
Qwenxisa, v. To make crooked; to 
pervert; to turn aside from rectitude. 
in-Qwenya, n. 3. The crocodile. Though 
this creature is extinct in Kafirland, its 
name survives in a saying still used by 
children as they enter the river to bathe : 
vaV amehlo ako, tigwenya, ukuze uugasihoni, 
shut your eyes, crocodile, that you may not 
see us. The children believe that, if mgwe- 
nya stares at them, they will be mesmerised 
and will make for that place where the 
animal is, and perish, 
in-Qwenye, n. 3. The fruit of the Kafir 

plum ; also applied to the Loquat fruit. 
um-Gwenye, n. 6. The Kafir plum tree, 
Odina caffra (Bernh). When the fruit is 
ripe, it is time to sow Kafir corn. 
in-Gwenye yenja, n. 3. The fruit of the 

Dog plum. 
um-Gwenye wezinja, n. 6. The Cape ash 
or Dog plum tree, Ekebergia capensis 



GW 

isi-Gwevana, n. 4. Dimin. of isi-Gwevu. A 

term of contempt for an old man. 

i-Gwevu, . 2. (a) A blow struck with a 

stick from below, which it is difficult to 

ward off. (b) A subterfuge, mean device. 

isi-Gwevu, . 4. An old man; fem. isi-gwe- 

viikazi; see Ngwcvu. 
uku-Gwexa, v. t. To stir, = uku-Bexa; to 
churn by shaking backwards and forwards. 
V. i. To row, paddle, = uku-Gweqa. 
in-Gwexa, n. 3. Something quite red, or 

turning red. 
Gwexe, interj. The sound of an axe being 
sharpened on a stone. 

uku-Gwexeza, v. t. To sharpen an axe on 
a stone. 
ukuti-Gwi, V. i. To miss by a hairbreadth ; 
to pass near an object, without hitting it: 
imbumbidu ite-gwi kiiyo inyamakazi, the bullet 
passed close to the buck ; unikonto wati-gwi, 
the spear cut (through the air) near one. 
ukuti-Gwi, V. i. To be quite full. 
i-Gwiba, n. 2. Shelter, corner, lee place ; 

fig. precaution. 
u-Gwidi, n. I. A bird resembling the 

cuckoo. 
uku-Qwija, v. t. To consume all by oneself, 
whether food or drink, or another man's 
portion. 
u-Qwili, n. 5. A crowd of common, noisy 

people, mob, rabble. 
uku-Gwilika, v. i. To fall away, desert, 
revolt, rebel, mutiny, apostatize; to be 
disloyal. 

um-Gwiliki, n. I. A revolter, deserter. 
-Gwilita, n. 2. (a) "A species of bird, prob- 
ably the Brown-hooded Kingfisher, Halcyon 
albiventris {Scop.), (b) A handless, stupid 
person. 

To eat till one is satisfied; 



uku-Gwenyulela, v. i. To do a thing super- 
ficially. 
uku-Gweqa, v. i. To row, paddle. 

in-Qweqe, n. 3. A threatening, angry word ; 

a repeated warning. ^ 

isi-Qwetsha, . 4. A choleric person. 
uku-Gweva, v. t. To buy diamonds illicitly. 

u-Gweva, n. I. An illicit diamond-buyer. 
in-Gweva yomganto, n. 3. A kind of bird, 

probably the female of um-Ganio. 



To assassinate ; = M^M- 

and isi-Gwinta, n. 4. 

= isi-Givcfita. 
6. Thick, stiff porridge; 



uku-Gwina, v. i. 

cf. uku-Gwija. 
uku-Gwinta, v. 

Gwetita. 

um-Gwinti, n. 
An assassin ; = 
um-Qwintsa, 

= tun-Qa. 
uku-Gwintsa, v. i. To hum, buzz, as a child's 

nurse ; to cry or sing in a low tone. 

Gwintsilela, v. To commence to cry. 
uku Qwiqa, v. i. = uku-Hlala. 
ukuti-Qwiqi, v. i. To turn and go away 

quickly. 

Gwiqigwiqi, x;. To swallow greedily; 
= ukuti-Gangqagangqa. As adv. Very. 
141 



ow 

Umlamho uzcle gwityi, the 



ukuti-Gwityi, v. i. 
river is very full. 

N.B. For words beginning 
in-Qx not found here, see under 

X : ing-X or u-X. 

u-Qxa, n. I, Ogxa bctii, persons of the same 
age, time or generation, as ourselves. 

ili-Qxa, M. 2. For the singular, i-Gxahiha is 
generally used; pi. amngxa, shoulders: 
habopa imitwalo, bayibckc cmagxcni abantu, 
they bind burdens and lay them on men's 
shoulders. 

isi-Qxa, it. 4. A place at once stony and 
bushy; euphem. for the private parts. 

ulu-Gxa, n. 5. pi. izingxn. Any sharp pointed 
stick or iron rod for digging roots or clay 
with. Igqira lolugxa is a doctor who uses 
medicinal plants; a herbalist. 

ukuti Qxa, v. i. To step up sharply to a 
person or place, v/ithout remaining there 
to be hasty ; to pay a hasty visit : ndat'i-gxa 
kiiye owatka ncun, I stepped up to him who 
spoke with me. 

i-Qxaba, n. 2. (a) Fray, broil, Tiot; = i-Xa- 
bnno. (b) An old garment. 

uku-Qxaba, v. t. To throw a wooden spear ; 
to commence ploughing. 

isi-Qxabo,.4.] A sharp pointed stick, 
u Oxabo, n. 5. 3 ^ ^ 

used by boys in fighting with each other 

and thrown in the same manner as a 

spear. 
uku-Gxabagxabisa, v. t. To do or work 

in haste. 

in-GxabalaIa,.3.] a great number of 
u Gxabalaia, /(. 5. ) ^ 

people or cattle spread out. 
in-Gxabanga, n. 3. The forked branch of a 

tree or the fork in a branch. 
in-GxabatshitshI, . 3. T:\xm\A\.;-^in-Gxobo- 

tshitshi. 
isi Gxabe, ?(. 4- (a) Discord, (b) The part 

of the back between the shoulders. 
uku-Gxabelela, v. t. To throw a dirty thing 

between clean things; to try to unite 

heterogeneous things ; to interfere with and 

spoil other people's work. 
uku-Gxabuza, v. i. To splash in water, as 

when one is crossing a stream, running 

away from or being pursued by an enemy ; 

to walk in the water and make it muddy; 

fig. to cause discord, confusion (used first 

of Mapasa in 1877, because he fought at 

first against the Fingos and then cunningly 

drew out of the conflict). 

142 



GX 

i-Gxabuza, n. 2. A treacherous person; 

used recently of refugees, fleeing for 

shelter to a place of refuge, esp. to a 

foreign country. 

ubu-Gxabuza, ". 7. Defection, treachery. 

ukuti-Gxada, w. To pay a hasty visit: yiti- 

gxada paya, run quickly there and back 

again ; = iikuti-Gxa. 

ukuti-Gxadagxada, v. To go hither and 

thither. 
um-Gxadalala, n. i. A person of a good 

size ; a giant. 
uku-Gxadeka, v. To be under difficulties. 
Gxadazela, v. i. To reel, stagger, like a 

drunken person, so as to fall forward. 
Gxadazelisa, v. To make to reel or 
stagger. 
uku-Gxagxa, v. i. To become reduced in 
circumstances, poor and disorderly. 
i-Gxagxa, n. 2. A rude, uncouth man ; 
one of the lower order of Europeans who 
works for a master as a day-labourer ; a 
loafer; fig. a cur. 
uku-Gxagxeka, v. To be in a poor, reduced 
state. 
uku Gxagxamlsa, v. i. To take long strides 
in walking, lifting the feet up off the 
ground, as if to avoid an apprehended 
danger ; to give the body a kind of shock at 
each step in walking ; to make long running 
stitches in sewing. 
in-Gxakangxaka, n. 3. The lying about of 
many things, stones, etc., higgledy piggledy, 
pell mell; fig. a state of disorder, negli- 
gence and confusion. 
ubu-Gxakagxaka, n. 7. Carelessness, dis- 
order, negligence, confusion. 
uku-Gxakaza, v. t. To do a thing careless- 
ly, negligently, as opposed to ukn- 
Cokisa ; cf. uku-Dlakaza ; to prepare for a 
fight. 
u-GxakwenJ, 7i. I. The Bar-throated 
Warbler, Apalis thoracica (Shaw and Nod.) 
isi-Gxala, n. 4. A red patch on a bilious 
person; the red spot marking a flea- 
bite; the cicatrix of small pox, or a wound 
not yet healed; fig. iikuba ucsigxala, to feel 
wounded in spirit. 
uku-Gxalisa, v. To hurt or wound a 

person's feelings, 
uku-Gxaliseka, v. To feel wounded in 
spirit ; to be offended. 
i-Gxalaba, n. 2. Shoulder, shoulder-blade, 
cf. ili-Gxa. 



QX 

uku-Gxalatelana, v. i. To walk as one in 
haste, with an erect and haughty gait; to 
be puffed up, haughty, boastful. 

uku-Qxaleka, v. i. (a) To fall against an 
object, so as to be driven back by it, and 
impeded in progress, (b) To lose the way, 
go astray, in walking or speaking; to 
stray, ramble (in the forest). 

in-Qxam, n. 3. The seed of um-Gxam. 

um-Qxani, n. 6. The Boerbean, Schotia 
latifolia Jacq., the rough bark of which is 
used for dyeing red. 

uku-Qxama, v. t. To intrude: uyazigxama, 
he intermeddles, interferes. 

i-Qxamesi, n. 2. A village dependent on 
the chief place ; a cattle place at a distance 
from the place of residence; an outpost, 
outstation, farm. 

ukuti Oxampu, v. i. To stamp in the water, 
making it splash. 

uku-Qxampiiza, v. i. To paddle in water, 
wdde; cf. likuGxabuza, 

in-QxamshoIo, n. 3. A tall person ; a giant. 

in-GxanguIa, n. 3. A long pointed tooth, or 
one with long pointed teeth. 

in-Oxangxa, n. 3. A thing not nicely shaped 
or built. Em. A mixture of cooked grain 
and milk'= um-Vubo ; fig. a mixture of things 
which should not be mixed together. The 
children have a jingle characterising each 
nation by its special food; um-Xosa nge- 
ngxangxa, i-Mfeiigii ngompotulo, i-Kula 
tigebanana, i-Lawu ngeketile, ijalimani nge- 
tapile, um-Lungu ngedhiala. 

in-Qxangxasi, n. 3. A waterfall, cascade. 

uku Qxafa, v. i. To be broad-shouldered 
and broad-chested. 

i-Oxafa, n. 2. A person whose lower 
limbs are very small, in proportion to the 
upper part of his body. 

um-Gxashe, n. 6. Beads worn on the head 
and hanging down. 

ubu-Qxatu, n. 7. The back, between the 
shoulder blades. 

in-Qxazangxaza, n. 3. A continuous down- 
pour of rain. 

Qxebe, adv. By the way, pray! if you 
please! rather! I mean to say! (when 
correcting a slip of the tongue) : utt-niiia 
gxebef by the bye, what do you say? angat'i 
nina gxebe iimntu iikutsho? pray, or well 
now, how can any man say so? gxebe 
benditshilo-na? well, did I really say so? 
manditi gxebe, let me rather say! ndipe 
gxebe, I pray you to give me! tnandiyekc 
gxebe, let me give in rather ! (in quarrelling). 



QX 

i Gxebeka, n. 2 and 3. A spoon, ladle. 

i-Gxebekusha, n. 2. A mean white. 

i Qx.QgxeS\,-i Gxagxa. 

uku-GXEKA, and uku-Gxekeza, v. t. To 
deride, mock, scorn. 
um-Qxekl, w. 1. A mocker, derider, 

scorner. 
i-Gxeke, n, 2. A stain, reproach. 
in-Qxeki, n. 3. (a) A kind of bird, prob- 
ably the Crov/ned lapwing, Stephanibyx 
coronatus (Bodd.). (b) The left half of 
an ox or bull's skin, made into a shield; 
cf. u-Jilo. 
isi-Qxekwa, v. 4. A laughing stock. 
isi-Gxeko, w. 4. and u-Gxeko, n. 5. 
Reproach. 

uku-Qxelesha, v. i. To look out of the 
corners of the eyes, to glance sideways. 
Gxeleshela, v. To take a side glance 
at a person or thing; "to ogle: undigxele- 
shela-nina ? why do you ogle me ? 

u-Gxiba, n. 5. (a) A tall man; fern, ugxiba- 
kazi. (b) A large quart bottle. 

in-Gxibilil!, n. 3. Anything great or big of 
its kind : ingxib'dili yomfo, a great big man. 

i-Gxidolo, n. 2. An ill-dressed, slovenly, 
poor person, cf. i-Gxagxa. 

ubu-QxIdolo, . 7- Low, mean, poor, vulgar 
state ; slovenliness in dress and person. 

in-Gxikela, n. 3. A great quantity ; some- 
thing on a large scale : ir.gxikela yekonsati, a 
big concert. 

in-Gxikwane, n. 3. A large piece, bunch 
of grass, heap of grain. 

uku-Qxila, v. i. To grow sparsely, as a thin 
crop of grain. 
Qxilana, ) 
Gxilelana, J 
another there; to stand with wide spaces 
between. 

in-Gxilimbela, ?^ 3. A tall man, a giant. 

in-Gximba, . 3. A band made of the trail- 
ing stems of the wild vine. 

i-Qxina, n. 2. Used mainly in the plural: 
unamagxina = lUHimandla. 

isi-Gxina, n. 4. That which one keeps at 
constantly, e.g. a place, house, person, 
etc., hence: duty, office, trust, headquarters: 
ttstgxina sam, I do not part from him, I 
stick to him, I trust in him without waver- 
ing; a stated portion or share. (When one 
has been given a present, e.g. a leg of 
mutton, he shows his friendship, duty 
(isigxina), by giving in return a present of 
equal value). 



To grow one here. 



ox 



ax 



. 3- 



um-QxJna, n. 6. Assegai-wood, Curtisia fa- 

ginea Aitoii. 
uku-Qxisha, v. i. To put one foot behind the 
other, imitating, as boys do, the galloping 
of horses. 
i-Qxiya, n. 2. A name applied to the Black- 
winged Plover, Stephanibyx melanopterus 
(Crets.) and the Crowned Lapwing, S. 
coronatus (BoJd.J, from their cries. 

in-Qxizakwe, . 3. Anything long and seem- 
ingly endless in duration. 

uku-Uxoba, v. t. 

Gxobagxoba, 

by stirring it up with the feet; to paddle in 
water. 

i-Oxob6, . 2, um-Qxob6, . 6, and um- 
Gxobdzo, II. 6. A swampy piece of 
ground ; a bog, marsh. 
uku-Gxobagxobeka, v. To be stirred: 
wagxobagxobeka uinvaiuicdiva wa/n, my 
sorrow was stirred. 

um-Qxobo, H. 6. An aromatic shrub. 

in-Qxobonga, n. 3. A pick. 

in-Qxobongo, and in-Qxobongwani 
A disease which pits the skin like smallpox 
and causes miscarriage. 

in-Qxob6tshane, w. 3. A clattering, noisy 
conversation, confusion, boasting, hectoring. 

in-Qxobdtshitshi, . 3. Hubbub, tumult. 

uku-Qxoga, r. t. To throw something into 
a bush, so as to arouse a liidden bird or 
head of game, and cause it to break cover; 
to throw with violence at one who is near; 
to kick as a cow does when she puts her 
foot into the milk-pail. 

ukuti-CJxoge, v. t. To stab with a blunt in- 
strument; with much the same meaning as 
tiku-Gxoga. 

ukuti-Qxogxe, v. i. To keep oneself wrapped 
up: wati-gxogxe kivingubo, he kept himself 
wrapped up in a garment ; fig. to persist in ; 
to abide by what one has spoken: wall 
gxogxc kivintcto, he stuck to what he said. 

ukuti-Uxoko, V. i. To put the hand into the 
pocket with a rustling noise. 

i-(jxokogxoko, . 2. A wretched, desolate, 
dilapidated hut ; dimin. igxokogxokwana. 

in-Qxokolo, n. 3. A vast number of things, 
men, cattle, houses, etc., together. 

ukuQxoIoxa, v. i. (a) To feed as cattle do 
near a kraal or house about sunset, (b) To 
investigate, (c) To mock, tease. 

isi-Qxoloxwana, . 4. An ornament. 

in-Qxonde, w. 3. A refuge. 

in-Qxondora, n. 3. A precipitous, rugged 
hill or mountain ; a refuge. | 



uku-GXOT'A, Vi t. To drive away, put to 
flight: gxotii utshaba, drive the enemy away. 
Gxoteka, v. To be driven away : igusha 
ezigxotekileyo, sheep which have been 
driven away; inkumbi azigxoteki, the lo- 
custs will not be driven away. 
Gxotela, v. To drive away to. 
Qxotisa, V. To continue to drive away 
for a long time. 
in-Qxovungxovu, ;/. 3. A blusterer. 
in-Gxoxe, ;/. 3. Noise. 
To make water muddy \ i-Gxuba, n. 2. Rough, lean appearance of 
cattle, with hair standing erect from sick- 
ness, cold or hunger; leanness. 
u-Gxiiba, n. 5. A large drove of animals 

(swine, etc.). 
um-Gxube, w. 6. A species of tree, with 

edible berries about the size of a pea. 
u-Gxudululu, n. 5. A number of cattle, etc. 

walking together; a drove. 
i-Gxugesha, h. 2. A roughly sewn kaross; 

a swelling, a puffed-up thing, 
uku-Qxugxa, Em. = nkn-Xugxa. 
uku Gxukugxa, z^. /. To shake; to gargle; 

~ ukit-Xiikuxa. 
ukuti-GXUKU, v. i. To be loose, puckered, 
pouched. 

i-Gxukugxuku, w. 2. A pucker in a gar- 
ment; a pouch in a blouse. 
ubu Gxukugxuku, n. 7. Looseness (of 
bark); shakiness, want of firmness; un- 
evenness, roughness, as when a mudfloor, 
which was formerly even or smooth, has 
been broken up and made uneven by rain 
or otherwise; fig. unsettledness. 
in-Gxukuma, . 3. A corpulent person. 
uku-Gxukuza, v. t. To loosen, break up a 
road or soil, as is done by a vehicle passing 
over a newly made road which is still soft. 
Oxukuzela, v. Of a rider, to heave up 
and down on a trotting horse; of a 
corpulent person, to heave up and down 
in walking. 
uku-Gxula, v:t. To beat or drive game into 

a trap. 
i-GxuIu, n. 2. A hidden thing or matter. 
in Gxuluba, w. 3. (a) The passage between 

two armies, (b) Afterpains of labour. 
uku-Qxulusha, v. t. To conceal a thing by 
putting it under the clothes or under the 
arm; to slide the hand into the pocket; to 
slip tobacco or fruit into the mouth, without 
being seen; to go without being seen; to 
mask. 
ama-Qxulusha, . 2. />/. A disguise: wenza 



I44 



GX 

amagxulusha, he disguised himself; lahla 
amagxulusha, pull off the mask, be straight- 
forward. 
in-Gxumbungxumbu, n. 3. Great disorder, 
irregularity, confusion. 

ukuti-GXUME, ) , T J * 1 

uku-Gxumeka, j ^- ^- To drive a stake or 

pole into the ground ; to fix an umkonto in 

the ground. 

uku-Gxumekeka, v. To be fixed, stuck 
fast. 

uku-Gxumekela, v. To fix for. 
uku-Gxumleka, v. t. To mock with words 

in jesting. 
in-Gxungula, . 3. A thrower down. 
u-Gxununu, n. l. A species of bird. 

llkll-'il^rpEVeka, } - ' To plunge into, 
to partake of food without being asked ; to 
eat the food of others, or eat in an un- 
becoming manner; to be impertinent; to 
meddle with matters one has no call to. 

Gxupugxupu. adj. Irregular, uneven, un- 
balanced, e.g. having one leg much longer 
than the other. 

in-Gxushane, n. 3. Din, disturbance, quar- 
relling. 

ukuti-Gxushu, v. t. To shove or rub away 
with the feet; to kick a little; to hide for 
preservation; to plough in order to establish 
a claim to land : ibala uzitelc-gxnshu kulo, he 
ploughed the place and kept it for himself. 

in Gxushungxushu, n. 3. Din, tumult. 

ukuti-Gxwa, 0: i. To be amidst strang| 
surroundings; to have come or be put 
between : igusha zam zite-gxwa kwezinye, my | 



GX 

sheep have got mixed up with others; to 
fall suddenly into a hole. 

in-Gxwabilili, . 3. A large herd of 
animals feeding together. 

uku-Gxwagxusha, v. t. To dash or pursue 
constantly ; to scold, bully ; to fight with 
words. 

ukuti-Qxwagxwa, v. L To be dotted here 
and there (huts, villages). 

i-Gxwakugxwaku, . 2. = i-Gxiikugxuku. 

in-Gxwaia, n. 3. A soft, white stone which 
women and circumcised boys pound and 
smear their faces with. 

uku-Oxwala, r. t. (a) To bellow, as cattle 
when excited in fighting, or when throwing 
up the ground at the place where one has 
been slaughtered; to weep aloud; to mock. 
Phr. wamgxwala ngentsini, he laughed very 
much at him ; ukugxwala emswaneni, to cry 
old news, to carry coals to Newcastle, 
(b) IK i. To rust: intsimhi igxwalile, the 
iron is rusty ; amazimba agxwalile, the Kafir- 
corn has mildew. 

u Gxwal' intloko, n. l. A strong horse. 
ama-Gxwala, n. 2. pi. Used in the phrase: 
ukutya kumagxwala, the food is ripening. 
u-Gxwalo, w. 5- Bellowing, 
isi-Gxwalala, n. 4, A person with red hair 
or beard ; fig. one red with anger. 

i-Gxwanana, n. 2. The Fiscal shrike, Lanius 
collaris L., = i-Nxanxadi. 

ubu-Qxwayiba, n. 7. Uncultivated country, 
overgrown with bushes and trees. 

iloxwlmii, ] 2- A squinting, cross-eyed 

person. 
in-Gxwenga, n. 3. A long, tall person. 



H 



Hin Kafir is always pronounced with a 
stronger aspiration than the English k 
in hard, hand, and resembles rather the 
German h in hauen, to beat. In the combi- 
nation /// it sounds like the Welsh //. 
Nouns of class 3, formed from verbs begin- 
ning with hi change the h into t after the 
prefix in-, e.g. intlalo from ukiihlala. Nouns of 
class 5, whose stems begin with /;/, similarly 
change the h into t in the plural : e.g. uhlobo 
plur. intlobo. 
HS! (The aspiration is very light and the 
vowel short) interj. denoting exultation. 



Aha: hd, hil, hd, izikali zika-R'arabe! Aha.1 
the weapons of R'arabe! (the warcry of 
the Gaikas). 

Ha! interj. The cry of a wagon driver to stop 
his team. 

ukuti-Ha, v. t. To destroy utterly; to finish, 
make an end of: impi yama-Xosa ittwe-hd 
yeyama-Ngesi, the Kafir army was com- 
pletely routed and destroyed by the English 
army. 

u-Ha! interj. of sorrow. Woe! misfortune! 
loss! destruction! there is the loss I told 
you of! see also Yeha! 



HA 

um-Haba, n. 6. A large baboon. 

tiabahaba! iittcrj. It is a lie, a yarn! 

u-Habahaba, n. i. A very large garden; an 
exceedingly capacious granary; an in- 
satiable person; fig. one who does not 
listen, who is not easily convinced. 

isi-Habalala, w. 4. That which is very wide. 

uku-Habela, v. i. To go beyond the place 
where one intended to go; to go astray: 
tvahamba wada wahabda, he went so far as 
not to know where he was; to speak so 
much as not to know what one speaks. 

i-HABiLE, . 3. Oats, from Du. haver. 

u-Hadi H, 5. plur. ihadi. A bowlike stringed, 
musical instrument; the string of horse- 
hair is stretched on a wooden bow attached 
by its middle to a calabash which serves as 
a sound-box. The string is struck with a 
stalk of coarse grass (mnchiga); a piano, 
harmonium. 

um-Hadi, n. 6. A deep pit. 

uku-Hagala, v. i. To grow old: ndiliagdc,l 
am very old; imini ihagelc, the day is 
coming to an end. 

i-HAGU, n. 3. The domestic pig; Eng. hog.' 

u-Haka, n. l. One who keeps chattering on, 
without talking sense ; = H-Pw/zi-. 

ukuti-Hala, v. i. To call, to raise the warcry. 
u-Halahala, . I. A hooter. 

i-Halahala, n. 2. Insatiable dQsire.: iinchala- 
hala, he has a desire that cannot be satis- 
fied. 

ubu-Halahala, . 7. Haste, hurry, precipi- 
tancy; sudden excitement. 

Halala! intcrj. of joy and triumph: halala, 
bantu bakowdu! well done, dear friends if 
halala! yatwasa inyanga! a joyful exclama- 
tion on seeing the new moon; halala! 
pambili! ilanga liyatshona! On! on! the sun 
is setting! (the shout of the hoers encourag- 
ing themselves to work). 
uku-Halalisa, v. To shout halala! when 
the animal intended for the marriage 
feast bellows in being slaughtered; to 
exhort the bride how to behave in her 
new estate, which is done by the married 
women. 

imi-Hali, n. 6. pi. Dog's excrement. 

Haluhaiu! Song of praise among Kafirs. 

uku-HAMB"A, v. i. To go, walk, journey, 
travel, advance, proceed forward: masi- 
hambe ngalendlda, let us go this way; to 
flow: amanzi ayahamba ctnfnlcni, the water 
flows (moves forth) in the valley, v. t. To 
travel over; bawahamba amazwe, they 

146 



HA 

travelled over many countries; fig. iiitloko 

ya/:e iyahainba, he is not right in his 

mind; ukuhainb' umziinba, to shudder; 

nkiihamba ncnkazana, euphem. for uku- 

Pimisa. Phr. koda kufike abahamba ngam- 

lenzaua-mnye, lit. till the arrival of those 

who walk with one leg, i.e. even those who 

walk on one leg will at length arrive, 
w. 8. Walking, conduct : ukuhamba kwake 

ktibi, his manner of walking is awkward ; fig. 

his conduct is improper. 

um-Hambi, n. 1. A traveller, sojourner, 
pilgrim. 

i-Hamb6, . 3. Walking: tdye hanibo title, 
may you have a pleasant journey; in a 
moral sense : conduct, behaviour. 

isi-Hambd, n. 4. The purpose, aim of 
journeying or walking. 

u-Hanib6, n. 5. Journey, walk: tihambo 
lomhainb'i, the Pilgrim's Progress. 

ubu-Hambi, n. 7. Pilgrimage. 

uku-Hambahamba, v. To go about from 
place to place, to and fro. 

um-Hambahambi, //. l. A wanderer, 
vagrant; one who has no settled abode; 
cf. i-R'atyiiratyu. 

uku-Hambeka, v. To possess the quality 
of moving, going, etc. : inyanga yinto dia- 
tnbekayo, the moon is a moving thing. 

Hambela, v. To go for another, or for a 
certain purpose; to visit: ndihambda 
ubawo, I go to see my father ; ababi sam- 
hambda, they visited him no more or no 
longer; sihambda entabeni, we are going 
towards the mountain; iiyazihambda, he 
goes on his own account; umntwana sde- 
kwazi ukuzihambda, the child is already 
able to walk alone. 

Hambelana, v. To go towards or visit 
each other. 

Hambisa, v. To cause to walk, go or 
move forward; to proceed further, for- 
ward: hambisa inqwelo, move on the 
wagon; hamb'isani ezindaba, spread these 
tidings; hambisa ekuteteni kwako, go on, 
proceed with your speech; to wind up a 
watch. Phr. hambisa ktiye, take this to 
him, or put this before him, as food. 
Used adverbially: wahambisa watt, further 
or again he said. 

Hambiseka, v. To be going foi-ward ; to 
be moving: utnhlaba uyahambiseka, the 
earth is in motion. (All Kafirs believe 
the earth to be stationary). 

n. 8. ukuhambiscka kwdizwi lika-Ttxo, 
the propagation of God's word. 



HA 

Hambisela, v. To cause to go or move 
for a certain purpose or to a certain 
place or person : umliamhiscle imali pantsi, 
bribe him. 
i-Hamham, n. 2. Anything very light in 
weight, also applied to bread that has 
risen well. 
u-Hamlomo, n. I. One who keeps his mouth 
wide open ; one who is insatiable ; an eel. 
uku-Hanahanisa, v. i. To pretend to be 
doing a thing; to act inconsistently, hy- 
pocritically ; to play the hypocrite. 
um-Hanahanisi, n. i. A hypocrite. 
isi-Hanahaniso, 4.) Hypocrisy. 
u-Hanahaniso, w. 5. j ^^ ^ 
ubu-Hanahanisi, n. J. Hypocrisy. 
isi-Handiba, n. 4. A large subject; a long 
(law) case ; a mighty, great, eminent, res- 
pectable, rich man. 
ubu-Handiba, n. 7. Greatness, might, honour, 

riches. 
Hanewu! interj. A driver's shout to his 

oxen, calling them to stop or stand still, 
isi-Hange, n. 4. A robber, murderer. 
isi-Hanqe, ?/. 4. Public: esihaiiqcni, in public 

(meeting), or before the judge. 
i-Hasa, n. 2. Old food (corn) of former 

yeai's. 

i-Hashe, n. 2. (a) A horse; dimin. ihashana, 

a little horse ; fem. ihashekazi. Abatnahashe, 

horsemen, (b) The Red-necked little 

bittern, Ardetta payesi (Hart.), so called 

because it cries like a horse. 

isi-Hashe, w. 4 Collective, a herd of horses. 

i-HSsiie, w. 2. Orig. the natural impurity of 

newborn infants, believed to arise from 

an internal swelling, of which they had to 

be purified by enchanted medicines, when 

the rite of ukupehlelela was performed, by 

saying: Hashe, Hdshe! while swinging a 

newborn child through the smoke of unt- 

Nukamb'iba ; cf. uku-Pehlelela. Tubercle, 

scrofula ; pain from an old wound ; pus ; an 

abscess; others: a bilious attack, a kind of 

running fever ; ihashe elingwevu, syphilis. 

Hauhau ! interj. Bow-wow ! the bark of a 

dog. 
uku-Haula, v. i. To be greedy, voracious. 
isi-Haula, n. 4. A devourer, glutton; 
bandit, highwayman. 
u-Haya, . 5. Something beyond the 
ordinary limit: izono ziluhaya, the sins are 
great; tikutya kuluhaya, food is abundant. 
Others say ii-Waya. 
Hayil interj. (a) A decided negative. No! 
uya kuya-na ? hayi ! will you go ? no ! Phr. 



Hg 

xasiti 'hayi' kunye, fan'uhiba kuko umniu 
onencwadi kutl, when we both say 'no' 
together, it is likely that someone has a 
letter for one of us. (b) At the commence- 
ment of a sentence it is a strong 
affirmative: hayi, wena ndoda, uburoti bakd 
bukulu ! O man, thy courage is great ! hayi, 
ukutandeka kweminquba yako ! how lovely 
are thy tabernacles ! 
He I hike! hejel interj. of approbation of 

praise. Well ! right ! good 1 well done ! 
Heha, interj. of sorrow; properly Yeha! 
ukuti-Hehele, v. t. To beat, crack on the 

head. 
u-Hehema, w. 5. Anything big and wide, such 
as a wide shallow dish ; used as adj. : uliehe- 
ma Iwendlu, a big, wide house; uhehema 
Iwefatyi, a big cask ; uhehema Iwesitya soku- 
hlanibcla, a laver. 
uku-Heheza, v. i. Of a man or a dog, to 
breathe heavily or pant rapidly after run- 
ning; cf. uku-Befuza. 

Hehezela, v. To run eagerly with a 
story as soon as one has heard it, and to 
tell it to others without having been 
deputed for that purpose. 
Hejel Heke ! = //?.' 
i-Hekeheke, . 2. 
person. 

uku-Hekeza, v. i. 

walk foolishly. 

uku-Heketeka, v. i 

-uku-Yeketeka. 
uku-Hela, v. t. To keep aloof from or walk 
past at a distance; put aside, far away; 
not to do what one inten.ied to do. 
ukuba-Hele, v. i. To be light, that is, not 
close aud oppressive ; to become breezy and 
cool; niakube-hcle ! may there be alleviation, 
that is, from this affliction ; cf. Camagti. 
ukuti-Hele, :>./. To beat. 
isi-Hele, n. 4. A very broad assegai ; = /- 

Nkempe. 
isi-Helegu, n. 4. An event which is both 
wonderful and calamitous; a catastrophe ; 
cf. isi-Manga. 
uku-Helema, v. i. To keep aloof, either from 
fear or laziness. 

Helemisa, v. To cause keeping aloof. 
Hememe I interj. Used in crying over some- 
thing, or in blaming someone for a 
misfortune. You'll catch it 1 I'll tell my 
mother ! = Qayibebe. 
i-Hemhem, n. 2. An unstable person; a 

coward. 
i-HEMPE, rt. 3. A shirt, fr. Du. hemp. 
147 



A thoughtless, foolish 
To laugh or talk or 
To be sleepy, drowsy > 



HE 

i-Hemu, n. 2. The Crowned crane, Balearica 

regulorum (Benn.J, so called from its cry. 
uku-HENDA, r. i. To cause to do evil; to 
tempt (in a bad sense) : u-Sataim wamhenda 
It Eva, watt makadlc, Satan tempted Eve to 
eat. 

um-Hendi, n. l. A tempter ; the devil. 
isi-Hendo, ii. 4. A temptation. 
ii-Hendo, u. 5. The act of tempting. 
um-Hendo, . 6. The act of tempting 
(very similar to isihcndo, not so abstract 
as iihendo). 
uku-Hendahenda, v. To tempt hard. 
Hendeka, r. To yield to temptation. 
Hendekela, r. To yield to temptation 
for or to. 
u-Hengele, n. 5. A cattle disease similar to 

lungsickness. 
i Henyu, . 2. A lascivious, lewd, lustful, 
sensual person; femin. ihcityitkazi. 
ubu-Henyu, n. 7. Whoredom, wantonness, 

lewdness. 
uku-Henyuza, v. i. To play the harlot, 
commit fornication. 

isi-Henyuzo, . 4. ^ u .^- , 

^ > Fornication, whore- 



u-Henyuzo, n. 5. J 
dom. 

uku-Henyuzana, v. To play the harlot 
with. 

Henyuzisa, v. To make another commit 
fornication, to lead into whoredom. 
uku-Hesha, v. i. To make signs with the 

hands, or wink with the eyes to a person, 

either to come or to go away without 

speaking. 
uku-HEULA, i;. /. Em. (a) To rob. (b) To 

seduce ; ravish, violate. 

isi-Heula, v. 4. (a) = isi-Hauge. (b) A 
violated girl, (c) The band of women 
who go wailing to the kraal of the 
young man who has violated one of 
their number, and who claim the fine, 
generally two goats or sheep, which they 
kill and eat on their return home. 
i-Hewu, n. 2. A flat tract of country, a 

plain. See App. I. 
uku-Hexa, v. i. To wave as a cornfield, or 

reeds, in a strong wind ; fig. to . stagger 

like a drunken or palsied T-nnn: i it'oko iya- 

hcxa, his head waggles from side to side 

(like an idiot). 

Hexela, r. To fall helplessly towards an 
object or place: iihcxcJe cliidakaii, he 
staggered or fell into the mud. 

Hexisa, v. To make to reel or stagger. 

148 



HE 

Heyi! intcrj. to call attention. There it is! 

Catch ! 
Hi ! inter j. ! of exultation. It is sung after 
a battle is over, or after a buck has been 
killed by hunters: ///.' we are victorious. 
HI I interj. in raising an objection or excep- 
tion : hi, tikuba, what (is it tobedone)if; 
hi, kwasweleka isihlauu himaliingisa, perad- 
venture there shall lack five righteous. 
isi-Hiba, n. 4. A silly, stupid person; one 
without understanding ; an idiot ; fool, 
jester, clown. 

ubu-Hiba n. 7. Silliness, jesting. 
uku-Hibaza, v. i. To rove or stroll about 
doing nothing. 
uku-Hila, To come upon one suddenly, = 

ukti-Baqa. 
ukuti-HILI, V. i. To be stupefied or confused: 
intloko yam ite-hili, I am not right in 
my head ; I have got confused. 
i-Hilihili, n. 2. A foolish, unsteady person 
who runs thoughtlessly about, guided by 
no certain principle of conduct ; one who 
does and speaks unseemly, improper and 
foolish things. 
ubu-Hllihill, n. 7. Thoughtlessness, fool- 
ishness, unsteadiness, want of principle, 
roving about. 
uku-Hiliteka, v. To become stupid; to 

be confused, bewildered. 
isi-Hilito, tt. 4, Confusion. 
uku-Hiliza, v. i. To go about from place 
to place aimlessly; to act thoughtlessly, 
without reference to what is right; to 
dawdle over one's work; to be unsteady, 
unreliable in work or conduct; not to 
continue in or abide by a business. 
Hilizeia, z;. To neglect: uyalihilizela ili- 
swi lika-T'txo, he neglects to hear or obey 
the word of God. 
Hillzisa, V. To distract, confound; to 
cause unsteadiness. 
Hi-na I hina-nje 1 interj. Hallo ! is it so ! 
who knows! why! Hinanibantwatta! Hallo, 
you children, you fellows! 
ukuti-Hiya = ukuti-Hili. 
uku-HLA (ukw-lhia), tJ. /. To come down, 
descend : wchla entabeni, he came down from 
the mountain; indawo ehlayo, a descent; 
fig. to happen, come to pass, meet with ; to 
come over one; to befall : lento ihle uinina? 
when did this happen? wahliwa yilengozi, 
he met with this accident ; akwehla-ni, 
nothing happened ; selehle intliziyo, he was 
disappointed, broken hearted; yehV intlekele ! 
what a disaster has happened! Phr. ktihla 



HL 

ngamqala mnye, lit. it goes down by one 
and the same throat, i.e. throats are all alike 
in swallowing ; what is sauce for the goose 
is sauce for the gander; yehla indaba, 
history was made that day. 

As aux. it expresses the adverbial mean- 
ing : soon, quickly, at length; wohV 
uqonde, thou wilt soon understand ; yohehle 
ipele, it will soon be at an end ; sihehle sa- 
nxama, we were too hasty ; inkabi engatsaliyo 
ubehle utengise ngayo, a bullock which does 
not pull, you soon sell ; aze ahle abe nako 
ukuteta, and be able quickly to speak. 

The difference in meaning in the two 
following sentences should be noted : cela 
uxolo hi Pato ngokuba uyahihla akumangalelc, 
ask pardon from Pato because he will soon 
sue you ; cela uxolo ku Pato ngokuha angahle 
akumatigalele, ask pardon from Pato 
because he may sue you, i.e. lest he sue 
you. 

isi-Hlo, and ise-Hlo, n. 4. Event, adven- 
ture, chance. 
izi-Hloyihlo, n. 4. pi. Various events. 
uku-Hleka, v. Into ehlekayo, a thing which 
has happened. (This form is not to be 
confounded with uku-Hleka, to laugh). 
isi-Hleko, n. 4. An event. 
uku-Hlela, v. To fall or descend upon, 
i.e. to happen to one : lento yamhlela, or 
wahlelwa yilento, this thing happened to 
him ; nanto-ni yakumhlela, when or when- 
ever anything happened to him. (To 
be distinguished from uku Hlela, to 
separate.) 
isi-Hlelo, . 4. Fate, lot, destiny. 
uku-Hleleleka, v. To be lowered in cir- 
cumstances ; to become poor, impover- 
ished ; to despair. 
uku-Hlisa, or ukw-Ihlisa, v. To let down, 

as a cow lets down her milk : to lower. 
in-Tliso, n. 3. The letting or coming 

down ; the fall of a river. 
uku-Hlisela, To incur ; to draw or bring 
upon : wazihlisela isifo, he caught sickness. 
uku-HIa, V. i. Only used in the locative 
ekuhleni, ngokusehihleni, as adv. Openly, 
publicly, clearly, in open daylight, with- 
out reserve. It is not to' be confounded 
with ekuhleni, in descending. Cf. uku-Sa 1. 
um-HIa, w. 6. A day of twenty-four hours; 
a date, point of time ; ngomhla, on, at, in or 
during the day : ngomhla endandulukayo, on 
the day I departed ; ngemihla, in, at, on, or 
during the days; ngemihla or emihleni ka- 



HL 

Ngqika, in the days of Gaika; itnihla nge- 
mihla, day by day, daily; imihla kamihla, 
customary ; amadinga amhlcni nabaptizwayo, 
the promises you made at the time you 
were baptized. Phr. umhlam u-Ngqika, an 
oath used by Kafirs: ndingeyenzi lento, 
umhlam u-Ngqika, I swear I have not done 
that which I am accused of. 

From this word are derived the following 
adverbs: 
Mhla, mhlana, mhleni, mhlenikweni, 

tnhlezinikweni, the day that, i.e. when; 

jnhlana wetnkayo, when he left; mhleni- 
kweni ivafudukayo, when he left home to 

live elsewhere. 
Mhlaumbi, mhlayimbi, lit. another day; 

perhaps, or. 
Namhia, namhla-nje, to-day; nanatnhla, 

even to-day; unanamhla, till this day; 

umhla wanamhla, the day of to-day. 
Mhlamnene, the day on which one did or 

said something for the first time, once 

upon a time, one fine day. 
Mhla lowo, seldom: lento ihla mhla lowo, 

this seldom happens. 
i-Hlaba, n. 2. The ground scraped out by a 

dog, antbear, or man; gravel. 
um-Hlaba, n. 6. The earth, the land, in 

opposition to the sea ; the soil, ground. 
uku-HLABA, v. t. pass, hlatywa. (a) To stab, 
wound, pierce with a sharp instrument: 
wa77ihlaba amahlanza amatatu, he stabbed 
him three times (holding the spear in his 
hand, not hurling it) ; to prick as thorns; to 
clean out a pipe-stem with a wire, etc. ; to 
thrust or gore with pointed horns: inkomo 
imhlabile emlenzeni, the cow gored him in the 
leg ; to wound mortally ; to kill : inkomo zihla- 
tywa ngomkbnto, cattle are killed with a spear; 
to stitch, sew: asinamntuuhlabapakatikufule- 
Iw.j indlu, we have no one to sew inside 
when the house is to be thatched; fig. to 
prick, give pain: isilonda siyandihlaba, the 
sore gives me pain ; to hit, strike, reach, im- 
press : ilizwi lako lindihlabile, thy word has 
struck me; attiazwi ka-Tixo ahlaba intliziyo, 
God's words alarm the feelings, make im- 
pressions, awaken the heart ; to mark out a 
land, as with a plough: ivahlabautndawayae- 
Shikron, the border was marked to Shikron ; 
to criticize. 

Ukuhlaba umkonto is an essential part of 
the marriage ceremony. The bride carrying 
an assegai enters the cattle-kraal and 
thrusts the assegai into the ground in the 
centre of the kraal. 

(b) To divine, augur, find out: igqira 
lihlabile, the doctor brought to light (the 



149 



HL 

hidden charms) ; hlnha umkosi, alarm the 

warriors; sound the warcry, call to arms; 

tidahlaba izikalt zaiu, I marked my spears 

(by making notches in the iron with the 

in- Tlabo). 

i-Hlaba, . 2. (a) Sow thistle, (b) A species 
of aloe, smaller than nnihlUba. 

i-Hlab'a, . 2. A severe pain in the side, as 
of pleurisy; a stitch; inflammation of the 
lungs: unehlaha csifiiboii, he has a stitch 
in the chest. 

i-HIaba-nkomo, n. 2. (a) Generic name for 
swifts, = i-Hla-ukfltuo. (b) Wood that 
sticks out in the fold and pierces the 
cattle. 

in-Tlaba mkosi, //. 3. War-cry. 

in-TIaba, n. 3. Any instrument for piercing 
with; a chisel, an awl. 

isi-Hlaba, n. 4. Woody, flat places near 
the river or sea; a quicksand; a place 
where aloes grow. 

isi-Hlabo, . 4. Oracle, vaticination. 

um-Hiaba, . 6. Aloe supralsevis Haw, 
used as an aperient; it is made more 
pungent by mixing the dried and pounded 
leaves with snuff. 

um-HIaba ngubo, //. 6. Lit. the garment 
piercer. Black jack, Bidens pilosa L., a 
troublesome weed which clings to the 
garments of a passer-by. 

uku-Hlabana, v. To stab, pierce, etc., 
each other. 

Hlabanisa, v. To set or urge bulls to 
fight each other: uhlabanisa iiikuiisi, you 
are urging bulls to fight ; to let go dogs 
from the line to catch the game ; fig. to 
go straight at a thing; to be steady or 
determined in doing things; to speak the 
truth at once. 

HIabanisela, r. (a) To throw a stick 
at a beast or person for the purpose of 
driving it or him back, and to cause the 
point of it accidentally to enter the bone 
or flesh: miimhlabaiiiscle, I have hurt him 
with the point of my stick; fig. to hurt 
or offend one : uiiiUhlabnniscle, you have 
hurt or offended me. 

(b) If a buck, pursued by many dogs, 
passes a man who does not own any of 
the pursuing dogs, and the man throws 
a stick at the buck and pierces its flesh, 
he shouts : ndiyililaba/tisclc ckohlo, I have 
wounded it with the point of my stick on 
the left side. If he takes it away from 
15 



HL 

the dog that had caught it before the 
owner of that dog arrives on the scene, 
he says: ndiyibungcile ; cf. uku Biingca. 
HIabeka, v. To be cut, stabbed: yahla- 
hckn inkabi, the ox was stabbed; to be 
pricked : bahlabcka ezintliziyweni, they 
were cut in their hearts ; to have the 
quality of cutting, pricking, etc.: intlabo 
ayihlabeki, the chisel does not cut, i.e. 
is blunt. 
Hlabela, v. (a) To stab for: samhlabela 
Hole, we killed a calf for him. (b) To 
call to arms; to strike up a tune; to 
lead a choir; to give one secretly to 
understand. 
um-Hlabeli, n. I. ) . 
in-Tlabeli, . 3. i ^ precentor. 
in-Tlabelo, n. 3. (a) A song, piece of 
music, (b) The first speaker at a meeting; 
fig. the foot-marks of game in the bush. 
um-Hlabelo, ti. 6. A medicinal plant used 

for a sprain or a broken limb. 
uku-Hlablsa, v. To cause or help to stab, 
kill, etc. 
uku-Hlababisa, v. t. To speak disparagingly 
of one : kute-nina seuhlababisa tigam-nje ku- 
Hciiry, kanti lento iiyitetayo besiyigqibile, 
why did you speak disparagingly of me to 
Henry with the object of wounding and in- 
juring me, seeing that we have finished the 
matter you speak of. 
isi HIabane, h. 4. Stalks of maize or Kafir- 
corn, which shoot out at the side of the 
principal stalk, and whose fruit does not 
ripen, or ripens later than that of the 
principal; the after or second harvest ; fig. 
the people that remained over in the 
cattle-killing mania of 1856-7: nina nisisi- 
hlabane sabangasckoyo, you are the offshoot 
or remainder of those who are dead. 
i-Hiabati,' M. 2. (a) Earth thrown out of an 
excavated pit. (b) The world, as a whole. 
uku-Hlafuna, v. t. To chew, masticate. 
in-Tlaf ano, n. 3. The temple of the head ; 
the jawbone; the muscle which moves in 
chewing. 
isi-Hlafuno, n. 4. That which is chewed. 
uku-Hlafunisa, v. To feed: ndihlafunise 
isonka cndisiiniselweyo, feed me with the 
bread appointed for me. 
um HIagela, n. 6. The Bastard White Iron- 
wood, Cyclostcmon argutus Mull. 
uku-HLAHLA, TJ. /. (a) To open a forest or 
road by cutting down or chopping off' 
bushes ; to cut down reeds or stalks of corn : 
hlihla ihlai'i, cut down the wood or forest ; 



HL 

to cut up a slaughtered bullock into joints: 

hlahla inyama, cut up the meat, (b) To 

levy a fine ; ukuhlahla iinpi, to raise an 

army ; ukuhlahla ahantu, to appoint certain 

people; to pay with: uahlahla tukoino, he 

paid with cattle. Phr. hlahla iniloya, bring 

something worth hearing or knowing. 

i-HlahIa, w. 2. (a) A shrub, small bush; a 

branch of a tree with twigs and leaves 

attached: hlahla amahlahla aloinit, cut 

down the branches of this tree; hlahla 

amahlahla okubiya, cut down bushes for 

fencing; dimin.: ihlahlana and ihlahla- 

nyana. (b) Strife, quarrel, fight. 

in-TlahIa, . 3. A fresh, bright, healthy 

appearance, indicative of health and 

beauty; bloom of youth; fine country, 

bush, grove, thicket; brushwood, twigs, 

topping of a tree. 

isi-Hiahia, 11. 4. (a) Payment, i.e. penalty. 

(b) A shrub, a very small piece of bush, 

a clump of trees. 

isi-hilahla, n. 4. The human wrist; the 

fetlock of an animal ; fig. a tangible proof 

of guilt, something which can be used as 

evidence in a case or law suit; isihlahla 

senteto, the pith or gist of a speech. 

um-Hlahla-makwaba, n. 6. Bridelia micra- 

ntha Plan. 
um-HiahIo, H. 6. A garden in the bush. 
uku-Hlahlana, v. To divide: mahahlahlaue 
abantu, let the people (sitting all together 
at a meeting or feast) divide into small 
parties so that they may see, hear or eat 
properly. 
Hlahleka, v. To be cut down and 
cleared away, as jungle, trees or bushes 
on forest land. 
Hlahlela, v. (a) To cut down, chop for, 
at, upon: inyama woyihlahlcla apa, chop 
the meat here ; (b) to pay a fine to or for 
wamhlahlela inkomo, he paid him a fine 
with cattle. 
in-Tlahlela, n. 3. The first fruit; a principal 
one by birth; a great genius; a dis- 
tinguished, excellent person. 
uku-Hlahlisa, v. To compel to pay c 
penalty; to value, estimate. 
uku-Hlahlamba, v. i. To cry very loud 
from pain, as a child, n^ 8. Crying: hive 
ukuhlahlamba kwam, hear my cry. 
um-Hiahle, n. 6. A fibrous plant; any 

plant yielding fibres. 
um-Hlahlo, n. 6. A meeting ordered by 
chief in case of siqkness, to find put by 



HL 

divination and the dancing of a witch- 
doctor the person suspected of causing 
the sickness. Phr. uinhlahlo ngamehlo, the 
ubutl is seen by the people. 
ukuti-Hlaka, v. i. To be spread. Adv. Very 

much. 
i-HIakani, n. 2. Em. A man who carries the 
medicine bag of a Kafir doctor; a cunning, 
crafty, artful person. 
uku-Hlakdnipa, r. i. To speak without 
fear; to be forward, quick, precocious; to 
be alwaj^s ready to gain one's purpose even 
by other than laudable means ; to be 
shrewd, artful, cunning : umntu ohlakanipilc- 
yo, a shrewd, forward person; to be on 
one's guard; to look out: Uakanipa! take 
care! 
um-Hlakanipi, ;/. i. A wise, sagacious, 

shrewd, skilful person. 
ubu-HIakanipa, n. 7. Shrewdness, cun- 
ning, craftiness. 
uku-Hlakanipela, v. To be watchful 
against a snare or a dangerous place or an 
untrustworthy man: mhlakanipele lomntu, 
beware of that man. 
Hlakanlpisela, v. To make sharp, 
watchful, artful, crafty for. 
u-Hlakanyana, ;/. I. A fabulous person 
who figures in the intsomi as one who often 
did the wrong thing, but displayed a cer- 
tain amount of resource; he spoke at his 
very birth; hence a clever, sagacious 
person; fig. the jackal. 
uku-Hlakaza, v. t. (a) To spread abroad, 
scatter, disperse: ama-Babcli azihlakazile 
izizwe zama-Siraycli, the Babylonians dis- 
persed the tribes of Israel, (b) To make 
known, reveal, divulge, expose: ukuteta 
kwako kuyakuhlakaza, thy speech betrayeth 
thee, (c) To give out liberally, without 
stint. 

in-TIakazo, n. 3. Scattering, dispersing, 
spreading, revealing, divulging, exposi- 
tion. 
uku-Hlakazeka, v. To be dispersed : 
ibandla lihlakazckile, the congregation is 
broken up, dispersed. 
Hlaka2ela, c To spend, distribute 
freely and sufficiently for or among. 
um-Hlakoti, n. 6. The wild currant, Rhus 
laevigata L. This tree when burnt throws 
out many sparks, hence the phrase : uzixo- 
xele isikuni somhlakott, lit. you have poked 
a firebrand of umhlakoti, i.e. you have run 
the risk of being blinded. 



151 



HL 

uku HLAKULA, v. t. To hoe cultivated 
lands: lixcsha lokuhlakula amjshni, it is 
the time for weeding the fields. 
in-TlakulO, n. 3. The act of working with 

a spade or hoe. 
Um'H lakulo, h. 6. A hoe, a spade, a plough ; 

dimin. ttmhlakulioaiia, 
uku-Hlakuhlakula, . To hoe in a hurry. 
HIakulana, r. To hoe together, one 

after another. 
HIakuleka, 1^. To be fit for weeding: 

umhlakulo awiihlakuleki, the spade is not 

fit for digging. 
HIakulela, v. To weed, hoe for 

another or to weed for the benefit of the 

plants or trees ; fig. to prepare for, 

= uku-Tshaydcla. 
Hlakulisa, v. To help to weed ; to 

cause to hoe. 
HIakulisana, v. To help one another 

in weeding. 
um-Hlakuva, n. 6. The castor-oil plant, 

= um-Hlaviitwa. 
u-Hlakwe, . l. The male Pin-tailed Widow- 
bird, or King of the six. Vidua serena (L.) 
in full breeding plumage. This little bird 
is of especial interest, in view of his being 
a parasitical polygamist. 
uku-HLALA, v. i. perf. hleli. (a) To sit, stay, 
rest, reside, remain in one place: uhleli 
endlwini, he is sitting in the house ; uhleli, 
he is resting, i.e. he does nothing; iimfazi 
uhleli, the woman has ceased bearing ; hlala 
tiat'i, abide with us; to exist, live: uyihlo usa- 
hlcli-naf is your father still alive ? uhleli-pi f 
(old form uhlczi-pif) where do you live? to 
inhabit: uknJm angabi salihlala elozwe, that 
he may no longer live in or inhabit that 
land ; to be awake : uhleli, he is up, awake ; 
to be quiet, still: hlala, mntwana! he quiet, 
child! wahlala engatetanga, he remained 
quiet, spoke nothing. Phr. kusahleliwe, it is 
so far well, i.e. the people are well; ndihleli 
nje! as I live! kuhleliwe-nje ! as there is life 
(form of assurance and oath). Pass. To 
be indwelt. 

(b) As auxil. used with the adverbial 
sense of "constantly, continually," express- 
ing the action of the following verb, 
which is put in the participial form: ndihla- 
la ndibi'lela kuye, I continually or always 
thank him ; ndohlala nditanda, I shall always 
love; abantu ababehlala besiza kufunda, 
people who came regularly to learn ; inya- 
tiiso ihlaV ihleli, the truth is permanent; 
wena uhlal'ungenandaba, you who never 
have any news. 



H4- 

um HIali ngapambili, n. I. A chairman. 
i Hlala^nyati, ;/. 2. A bird that sits on the 
inyati (buffalo) or on cattle and picks the 
ticks off them. 
in-Tlalo, n, 3. A sitting; the period of 
staying or remaining at any place; fig. 
manner of living : intlalo yam, my usual 
custom or way (of speaking, etc) ; con- 
dition, state, situation, 
isi Hlalo, n. 4. Anything for sitting On; 
seat, stool, chair, bench. Umgcini-sihlalo, 
a chairman. 
uku HIalana, v. To live near one another. 
HIalela, v. To sit, wait for; to mind, 
watch : ndihlalcle wena, I am waiting for 
you ; to be on the point of (before an 
infinitive) : ndihlaleV nkumka, I am just 
about to start ; ndihlaleV iikuaa, I am on 
the point of coming. Phr. wazihlalela, he 
lived for himself, i.e. had no need of 
others ; watnhlalela ngentlamba, he reviled 
or abused him. 
HIalelana, v. To sit, stay, wait one for 

another. 
HIalisa, V. To cause to sit: hlalisa 
lunntwana, put the child down on the 
ground; to settle a person by giving him 
an abode or residence; to keep company ; 
fig. to satisfy, pacify, put to silence (a 
tumult). 
HIalisana, v. To let sit, rest, etc., one 
after another ; to give one another an 
abode ; to live together ; to silence each 
other. 
i-Hlala, //. 2. (a) A pot or small vessel for 
keeping any fatty substance for anointing 
the head or person, (b) The fruit of the 
u?n hlala. 
um- Hlala, w. 6. The Kafir orange, Strych- 

nos spinosa Latn. 
imi-HlaH, n. 6. pi. Pleasure, delight, joy, 

happiness. 
u-Hlalu, ;;. 5, Iron-stone, etc., = M-i///H/K. 
ubu-Hlalu, H. 7. Generic term for beads, 
especially red ones which are considered 
the finest beads ; hence a necklace com- 
posed of large reddish beads worn by 
principal chiefs as a sign of royalty. This 
necklace is put round the neck of a chief 
at his inauguration either by a principal 
chief or by a person deputed by the aina- 
Tshawe and ama Pakati to perform this 
ceremony. Tshiwo put the ubuhlalu round 
the neck of Kwatie, Palo's ancestor; Langa 
and Kawuta, the father of Nqeno and Hintsa 
put it round the neck of the chief Ngqika, 



HL 

Fig. excellence : yivani, kuba nditeta iziuto 

zobuhlalu, hear, for I speak excellent things. 
uku-Hlaluka, v. i. To appear, come in 

sight : itikomo ziyahlalaka emmajigweni, the 

cattle come in sight on the ridge ; fig. to 

rise, originate. 

HIaluzela, v. To bubble up as a fountain, 

or boiling water, or yeast fermenting. 

uku-HIalutya, v. t. To commence a thing 

without finishing it; a skin rubbed only 

with i-Hlalutye is still unfinished. 

i-Hlalutye, n. 2. '\ 

in-Tlalutye, n. 3. \ Iron-stone, gravel. 
u-HIalutye, w. 5. ) 

uku-Hlama, v. t. To give a present to 
friend in expectation of receiving a larger 
and better one in return; e.g. when one 
takes a blanket or shawl to his married 
sister, in order to get a beast from her 
husband. 

isi-HIamo, n. 4. The beast one receives 

from his brother-in-law in return for the 

present mentioned under the previous 

verb. 

uku-mama, TY\h^\, = uku-Hloma. 

uku-HLAMB'A, v. t. pass, hlanjwa. To wash, 

cleanse the body: hlamba izandla ngamanzi, 

wash the hands with water; to bathe, swim; 

fig. (a) To wipe off, wash away: hlamba 

ityala lako, wipe off your guilt, (b) To cast 

off; to have no longer anything to do with 

a person, (used between relations, as father 

and son) : uyise umhlambile unyana wake, the 

father has cast off his son. Phr. uhlamba 

intliziyo, he loathes and vomits ; ukuhlamba 

ubtikosi, to show power; wahlamba isiteto, 

he cleared up the matter; ngahlamb' ezantsi 

kwako! May I wash or bathe in the stream 

below you ! i.e. may I have the same good 

luck ! 

in-TIamba, . 3. A scolding; one who is 
always finding fault, using abusive 
words : ndamhlalela ngentlamba, I scolded 
him. 
in-TIaitibi, n. 3. An excellent swimmer. 

in Tlamb6, ?/. 3 ^ 

isi Hlatnb6, n. 4. > Lit. a place washed 

um HIambd, . 6. ) 

out ; a hollow place where water flows 

after rain; a low valley; a ravine. 
um-Hlamb'amasi, n. 6. The so called 

Quinine tree, Rauwolfia natalensis Sond. 
uku-HIambana, v. To wash one another. 
Hlambeka, v. To be fit for washing or 

being cleansed: isitya asihlambeki, the 

u 153 



HL 

vessel will not become clean by washing; 

Hlambela, v. (a) To wash for or at: 
uhlambela pina f where do you wash ? 
(b) To defile, as by one who is defiled : 
bayalihlambela igama lika-Yehova, they 
defile the name of the Lord ; to disown, 
cast off: yinina iisihlambele? why hast 
thou cast us off? (c) To degrade, as 
when an inferior hits a superior. 

um-HIamb^n, n. i. One who defiles 
another. 

isi-Hlambezo, w. 4. A purifying and con- 
secrating process. The roots of im-Plsa 
u Si'kiki and u-Jcjaiie are put into a vessel 
containing water, from which an infusion 
is made, to be drunk by pregnant 
women, shortly before they give birth to 
a child ; the newborn child is also 
washed with it. The word is also used 
as a term of abuse. 

um-HIambezo, . 6. Fomentation. 

uku-Hlambulula, v. pass, hlanjuluhva. To 
cleanse, purify thoroughly by removing 
all impurities from the person ; to 
cleanse dirty linen, rinse vessels ; fig. to 
clear from fault or guilt ; to explain : 
wayihlambulula imikwa yakowabo, he ex- 
plained their customs and shewed that 
they were not reprehensible. 

in-TlambuluIo, n. 3. A cleansing bath. 

u-Hlambuiulo, //. 5. Purification. 

ukuti-HlambuIulu, v. i. Used adverbially. 
Quite (clear) ; entirely (plain). 

uku-HIambuIuka, v. To become clean; 
to be clean ; amanzi ahlambiiliikile, the 
water is clean ; to be 'cleansed,' i.e. freed 
from the suspicion of having done evil ; 
to be freed from the imputation of 
crime : intliziyo yam ihlambulukile, my 
heart is cleansed, free from guilt ; to be 
ceremonially cleansed, by the killing of 
a beast with due performance of the 
necessary rites : kufe uyise, bahlambuliikile 
namhla, their father died and they 
became 'clean to-day, i.e. came into the 
company of others, from which they had 
been excluded for a time. 

tilambululeka, v. To be clean. 

HIambululela, v. To cleanse for. 
m-H Iambi, n. 6. (a) A crowd of people, 

corporate body of men ; a drove of cattle ; 

a flock of sheep; a troop of horses. 

(b) The dress, made of palm leaves, worn 

round the waist by boys undergoing the 

rite of circumcision. 



hl 

isi-HIamo, tribal, see isi-Hloino. 

ama-Hlampepa, ;/. 2. pL Dirty, shameful, 
disgraceful, things. 

i-HIamvu n. I. (Used mostly in pi. amahla- 
imm). Small twigs with green leaves on 
them; herbs. 

isi-lilana, w. 4. The part on the back of 
animals where there is a circle in the hair. 

um-Hlana, ti.6. The back of a person or 
animal. 

um-iilandela, w. 6. The Natal mahogany, 
Kiggelaria africana L.-um-Vct). 

isi-Hlandla, . 4. A grass tuft. 

isi-Hlandio, . 4. Time, i.e. bout: csisihla- 
ftdlo, this time ; wandit'i-gwcqc czizihlandlo 
zozihini, he has supplanted me these two 
times. 

um-H!andloti, n. 6. The Flat-crown Acacia^ 
Albizzia fastigiata Oliv. 

um-H!anga, n. I. (a) =uhld)tga {a), the 
origin of the aha-Mbo. (b) Em = ingcongolo. 

u-H langa, n. 5. pi. ht-Tlrntga, (a) The incisions, 
made for letting blood, cupping or tattoo- 
ing, (b) Nature, conduct, character. 

u-H langa, . 5. (a) The place or hole, out 
of which, according to Kafir belief, living 
beings, both men and animals, came forth 
originally, hence, nation, tribe, people, 
generation : siluhldnga luka-Xosa, we are 
descendants of Xosa ; family relation. Plur. 
in-Tlduga, Ancestors, persons of the high- 
est rank ; great, honourable, or old people ; 
nation, tribe ; aboriginal natives (modern 
use), (b) An old stalk of Kafircorn or 
maize : uhldnga Iwamazimba, an old stalk of 
Kafircorn. 

ubu-Hlanga, n. 7. Nationality. 

uku-Hlangabeza, v, t. pass, hlangatyezwa. 

To go to meet one who is coming from a 

different direction (used in a friendly and 

also in a hostile sense) : ndamhJaugahcza 

cakahvoii, I met him on the ridge when he 

was coming to me ; ndahlangatyczwa nguye 

cndlelctn, he came and met me on the road. 

Hlangabezana, v. To go to meet each 

other from both sides when on a journey; 

to come against, contrary to, one another : 

taiwya wahlangabezana }:cnhin:h], the wind 

was coming against the locusts. 

um-HIangala, w. 6. The Large grey mun- 
goose, Mungos cafer {GnicJ.). Fhr. deda,mli/a- | 
vga/a, cjuhxweni yenyzvagi, mungoose, get I 
out of the way of the wild cat, i.e. make 1 
room for your betters. I 

154 



uku-HIangana, 



To come or meet 



together ; to assemble ; to unite, join : 
ndUdmigeue naye, I have joined him ; haya 
kuhlavgana figomso, they will assemble to- 
morrow ; mhla kwahlanganwa, on the day 
they were assembled ; fig. inteto azUdangani, 
the statements do not agree ; to come in 
contact with : ndaJdatigaua nengozi, I met 
with an accident ; to meet in conflict, join 
battle. Phr. inyanga ihlavgene, the moon is 
at the full ; umzimba tihlangene, the body is 
compact, said upon his recovery of one 
who had been reduced by illness or starva- 
tion; tntloko yam mayihlangane, let my head 
be put together, i.e. my head is 'cracked,' 
as shewn e.g. by continual forgetfulness. 
kuhlatigene isattga nenkohla, the wonderful 
and impossible have came into collision, i.e. 
an intricate question has cropped up. 
in-TIangano, n. 3. A joining, junction ; 
the place where two roads meet and join 
together ; association, agreement, unani- 
mity ; union, treaty, alliance. 

In the game of ' pins in the hand,' when 
the heads of the pins lie the same way 
or in one form of iceya when the sticks 
appear in the opposite hands of the two 
players, then the one who claims intlanga- 
fio has it; if heads are reversed, or if the 
little sticks appear in reverse hands, it is 
impambauo, 
uku-tilanganela, v. To meet for some 

purpose. 
Hlanganisa, v. (a) To cause to come 
together; to bring together; to assemble: 
baJdanganise abantwana, assemble the 
children ; to join, unite, tie or forge 
together two pieces or things in one- 
ukwigahlaiiganisi iimlotno, lit. not to join 
the mouth, i.e. to be amazed, to gape; 
iihlangcnise iminyaka emashumi mabini 
izolo, he was twenty years old yesterday, 
(b) To ward off; to defend ; hlangatiisa! 
defend yourself! used as a challenge 
when one prepares, to attack another 
with sticks. 
um-Hlanganisi, n. I. One who unites, 
gathers together : umhlavibt onge tiamhla- 
ttgaiiisi, a flock that no man gathers. 

in-Tlanganiso, ) 3 a ^^r,-,-^^o 

in-Tlan|aniswano, j ^- ^ congrega- 

tion of people ; an assembly, a meeting. 
isi-Hlanganiso, n. 4. An instrument for 

warding off", as a stick in case of a blow, 

or food in that of hunger. 



HL 

uku-Hlanganisana, v. To assemble to- 
gether : kwahlanganisana kiiye indimbane 
enkulu, a great multitude was gathered 
unto Him: to join together. 
Hlanganisela, v. (a) To call together 
for or at. (b) To keep or ward off from ; 
to cover, protect, defend : wahlatiganisela 
intloko, he warded off (blows, etc.) from 
his head. 
in-Tlanganisela, n. 3. A gathering to- 
gether: watt u-Tixo intlatiganisela yama- 
nzt zilwandle, God called the gathering 
together of the waters "seas." 
isi-Hlanganiselo, n. 4. Armour, protec- 
tion, defence. 
uku-Hlanganiselana, v. To assemble : 
bahlanganisclana apa ukuba batete ityala, 
they are assembling here to investigate 
a law case. 
uku-Hlanganyela, v. t. To assail, attack on 
all sides, especially used of two or more 
attacking one in a fight ; fig. to assail by 
temptations. 
um-Hlango, n. b. A kind of tree used to 
ward off lightning, or in doctoring a place 
that has been struck by lightning. 
u-Hlangoti, n. 5. The edge of a sword, 
knife or other instrument ; the sting of a 
bee. 
isi-Hlangu, ti. 4. Lit. a thing that protects; 
a sandal cut out of the thick part of a skin ; 
a shoe* or a boot ; isihlangu sezandla, a 
glove ; a shield. 

uku-Hlangula, v. t. To extract, draw out : 
inyosi ziUangula iibusi eziiityantyambeni, the 
bees extract honey from the flowers ; fig. 
to rescue, save, deliver from an enemy; 
to draw out from danger : sihlangule enko- 
hlakalweni, deliver us from evil; ndimhla- 
ngule ematyaleni ake, I have extricated 
him, i.e. relieved him from his debts. 
um-HIanguli, n. i. A deliverer. 
in-TIanguIo, n. 3. The activity of bees 
among flowers in drawing honey from 
them. 
uku HIanguleka, t>. To be delivered. 
i-H la-nkomo, n. 2. A swift ; = i-Hlaba-nkomo. 
um-Hlanti, n. 6. A witch doctor's medicine- 
bag : walixwele elitwala imihlawti, he was a 
doctor carrying about medibines. 
ubu-Hlanti, n. 7. A cattle fold; loc. ebuhla- 
nti, in the cattle kraal. The men assemble 
and feast in the kraal and have their corn- 
pits in it. (Women married into the 
village are not allowed to enter the kraal. 



HL 

This is not because of inferiority, but out 
of respect to their departed fathers-in-law 
who are considered the heads of that 
village and kraal. The kraal is considered 
sacred.) 

um-HIantla, n. 6. A gap between the front 
teeth of the upper jaw ; fig. a breach in 
a wall. 

u-HIantlalala, n. 5. Hardness. 

um-HIantonono, n. l. A species of bird (? 
the Yellow-breasted Bush-warbler, Apalis 
florisuga Reich) 

Hianu, Card. numb. Five: amahashe amahlanu, 
five horses; inkomo zintlanu, the cows are 
five. Adv. kahlami, five times. 

isi-Hlanu, 7t. 4. Five, as an abstract number: 
ishunii elinesihlanu, fifteen; indoda yesihlanu, 
the fifth man; ngolwesihlanu (usuku), on 
the fifth day, Friday; okwesihlanu, the fifth 
day ; ngokwcsililanu, at the fifth day. 

uku-Hlanya, v. i. To be mad, deranged. 
u-Hlanya, n. 5. Em. That which is wild: 
umntu oluhlanya, a deranged, insane, wild, 
unrestrained person. 
ubu-Hlanya, n. 7. Silliness, derangement. 

i-HIanza, n. 2. A stab, cut, wound with the 
assegai : wayihlaha or wayikwela, or wayidla, 
or wayanya indoda amahlanza, he stabbed 
the man right through, the weapon remain- 
ing in the hand of the aggressor. 

uku-Hlanza, Cans, form of uku-Hlamba. (a) 
To cleanse, remove filth: hlanza ingubo, 
cleanse, wash out the clothes. Phr. uku- 
hlanza aniehlo, to wash the eyes, i.e. to give 
a reward for' a find, (b) To clean oneself, 
i.e. to throw off or up, to vomit : wahlanza 
igazi fiit'i, he vomited much blood, (c) To 
wipe off: hlanza ityala lako, wipe off your 
guilt (used by Tembus). (d) To put forth 
shoots; to bud, as plants: impuzi azihlanzi 
nonyaka, the pumpkins do not produce fruit 
this year. Phr. lahlatiz'iselwa, lit. the cala- 
bash threw up the whole inside, i.e. died. 
in-Tlanza-mbilini, n. i. A bastard, born of 

a chief's widow. 
in-Tlanzi, n. 2. General name for fish; 

dimin. intlanzana. 
in-Tlanzo, n. 3. Vomiting. 
um-Hlanzo, n. 6. That which is vomited, a 

vomiting. 

uku-Hlanzana, v. To cleanse one another. 

Hlanzeka, v. To become clean, purified: 

lomntu iihlanzckilc, this person is cleansed. 

HIanzela, v. To vomit at or on: intlanzi 

yamhlanzela u-Yona emhlabeni owomileyo, 

the fish vomited up Jonah on dry land. 



HIanzisa, v. To cause or help to 
cleanse; to purify thoroughly; to cause 
to vomit. 

in-Tlanziso, h. 3- "^ An emetic 
um-Hlanziso, n. 6. ) ^" emetic. 

um-HIanziswana, n. 6. A small plant of 
the euphorbia genus, having both purga- 
tive and emetic properties. 
ukuti-HIanze, v. i. Of an ulcer, to lie deep; 

to spread. 
um-tilap6, n. 6. The soft, fibrous, plushy side 

of a woman's kaross ; loc. cmldapcni. 
ukuti-HLASI, v. /. To seize, snatch hastily, 
abruptly or secretly; to take by force* 
especially in warlike operations: hckitliwa 
kwada kwathva-hlasi umzi, the war con- 
tinued until the city was taken. 
ukutela-HIasi, v. To catch for: nizilele- 
hlasi elowo umkake ezinlombini zaseShilo, 
catch ye every man his wife of the 
daughters of Shiloh. 
uku-HIasela, v. To attack, assail: izihange 
zamhlasela, the robbers attacked him; 
impi yabahlasela, the army attacked them ; 
to take what one considers he has a right 
to, but cannot get by asking ; or to seize 
a friend's articles and then tell him. 
in-Tlaselo, . 3. The act of borrowing or 
taking a thing in the absence of its owner, 
and telling him afterwards. 
u-Hlaselo, . 5. An attack, a raid. 
uku-Hlasimla, v. i. To feel tremor; to have 
nervous twitchings on seeing a snake, etc.; 
to shudder; to be averse to certain food. 
HIasimlisa, v. To cause to shudder. 
i-Hlati, . 2. Dimin. ihlatana. A forest; fig. a 
hiding-place, refuge, protection, stronghold, 
(in time of war women and children found 
refuge in the forest): u-T'ixo idihlati lam, 
God is my refuge. Phr. amahlat'i apelile, the 
forests are gone, i.e. the truth is out, the 
rogue is caught. 
isi-Hlati, h. 4. The cheek. 
um-Hlati, n. 6. The jawbone: umhlati wom- 
hlaba, a strip of ground ; umhlati wciicwadi, 
a page, column of a book or newspaper; 
dimin. iimhlatana : ndip' utuhlatann, give me 
a small place (in your paper, or garden). 

uk"ma'-t4z'"a:'' 1 ' To be nervously 

excited, affrighted : iitwele zake zite-hlatu, his 
hair stands on end from fear of seeing the 
enemy, etc., approaching. 
in-Tlatu, n. 3. Corn growing too densely 
from having been sown too thickly. 



HL 

uku-Hlatuzela, v. To walk affrighted, 
from the apprehension of unseen danger. 

Hlatuzelisa, v. To cause sudden fear; 
to make the hair stand on end from 
apprehension. 
uku-HLAULA, v. t. To settle, pay: ndahlaula 

amatyala am, I settled my debts ; to pay a 

fine or penalty; fig. to redeem, atone, 

expiate a fault by a fine. 

um-HIauli, n. I. A redeemer. 

in-Tlaulo, . 3. Payment, recompense, 
remuneration. 

isi-Hla::lo, . 4. An act of paying off; that 
by which payment is made ; a fine. 

uku-Hla'.:'ela, v. To pay for: wamJdaidcla 
ityala, he paid the debt for him; idihlaide- 
le i-Laix-.:, he paid the Hottentot's fine. 
(It is said that the Basuto chief Moshesh, 
in giving judgment against a Hottentot, 
would pay the fine himself, because this 
poor subject of his Jiad nothing where- 
with to pay.) Fig. to atone for, redeem 
from: vdiya kubafilatdda ndibakidule 
chifcni, I will redeem them from death. 

um-Hlauleli, . I. One who pays for 
another party; a redeemer, atoner. 

in-TIaulelo, . 3. A payment for anything 
or anybody; a fine or punishment paid 
for another; a ransom paid for the 
release of another from punishment. 

isi-Hlaulelo, n. 4. The things given in 
paying for ; redemption, payment for an 
offence ; a fine. 

uku-HlauIisa, v. To make or cause to pay; 
to exact payment; to fine. 

in-TlauIiso, n. 3. The act of causing pay- 
ment. 
isi HIava, . 4. (a) A colony of grubs found 

in stalks of maize and Kafircorn. See 

in-Tlava. (b) A disease of an eating nature 

in horns or skins, (c) White blight. 
um HIavutwa, //. 6. (a) The castor-oil plant, 

Ricinus communis, used for headache, (b) 

The thorn apple. Datura stramonium L. 
uku-H LAZA, V. t. To expose : ungandihlazi, 

do not disgrace me. 

i-HIazo, . 2. Reproach, disgrace: unama- 
hlazo, he is guilty of disgraceful deeds. 

ubu-Hlazofa, H. 7. used as adj. In a dis- 
graceful state: ati oncmfundwana abone 
tikuba ibuhlazora, even a person of little 
education sees that this verges on the 
disgraceful. 

uku-H lazeka, v. To be disgraced by 
doing bad things; to be put to shame; 
to be in disgrace : siyahlazeka nguwe, we 
are disgraced by you. 
56 



HL 

in-TIazeko, n. 3. Shame, reproach. 
uku-Hlazisa, v. To commit a shameful 

thing; to cause to blush, to make 

ashamed ; to disgrace. 
in-Tlazisa, m. 3. Exposing the fault of 

another. 
uku-Hlazisana, v. To commit shameful 

things with one another, or to disgrace 

each other. 
u-Hlaza, n. 5. Short, young, green grass; 
eluhlazeni, in springtime ; cmva kohlaza, at 
the end of spring. Used as adj. (a) Green 
or blue, (these two colours are not dis- 
tinguished by Kafirs): inch iliMaza, the 
grass is green, (b) Unripe; fig. inyama 
iluhlaza, the meat is still raw. (c) Fig. as 
in the following phrase : imfene yawenza 
waluhlaza unttsi yetiika, the baboon made a 
V great spring and got away. 

in-Tlaza, n. 3, Corn not quite ripe. 
um-Hiaza, n. 6. An inveterate sore; a 

persistent ulcer refusing to heal. 
ubuHlaza, //. 7. Greenness, rawness. 
ubu-Hlazafa, . 7. used as adj. Greenish. 
uku-Hlaziya, v. t. To renew, revive, 

restore, make fresh ; to reproduce : hla- 

ziya umoya oqinisekileyo pakati kwam, 

renew a steadfast spirit within me. 
u-HIaziyo, n. 5. The act of renewal, re- 
formation. 
uku-HIaziyeka, v. To become new; to 

renew oneself: ndihlaziyckile, I feel quite 

new, restored. 
u-Hlaziyeko, n. 5. The state of being 

renewed. 
uku-Hlaziyela, v. To renew for or to: 

akiinakwenzeka ukuba babiiye bahlaziyclwe 

enguqukweni, it is impossible to renew 

them again to repentance. 

uKVSX"'} .' To open .he hair 

with the hand before combing; to throw 
or spread loosely about, as tobacco-leaves 
for drying; to let a thing fall and break 
when picking it up; to waste; fig. to blab 
out, vent a secret ; to open, reveal what is 
hidden: wazihlazuliila inkomo zake, he 
exposed his cattle without necessity. 
Hie, after n, tie, adj. Beautiful, pleasant to 
the eyes, fine, light, gentle : mnntu omhle, a 
beautiful person; u-Mntwan' omhle used to 
be applied as a term of highest respect to 
Queen Victoria; lihle ihashe, the horse is 
beautiful; lento intle, this thing is fine 
hamba ndlela-ntle, may you have a good 
journey ; kuhle, it is beautiful, (this is not 



HL 

to be confounded with kiMe, contrac. from 
kiihlile, the perf. indicative, and kuhle, the 
pres. conjunctive of iikuHla.) The voc. 
mUe! is used like nthlekazi! Adv. kuhle, 
kakuMe: kawenze kuhle, wait a little, have 
patience; tela kuhle, speak softly, gently; 
hamba kuhle, go gently; hlala kakuhle, 
farewell. 

um-Hlekazi, n. l. A beautiful person. 
Used as an expression of courtesy, thanks 
or praise. The voc. mhlckazi! is properly 
applied only in addressing chiefs of 
royal blood, as we say. Your Majesty, 
Your Excellency; it is also used nowa- 
days as a term of address to magistrates, 
etc. 
ulu-Hle, w. 5. What is beautiful; young 
beautiful children, cattle, things ; fig. the 
flower of an army. 
ubu-Hle, n. 7. Beauty, loveliness. 
uku-HLEBA, v. t. To inform secretly about 
or against, generally, though not ex- 
clusively, in a bad sense ; to defame, 
slander, backbite secretly: wamhleba, or 
wahleba ngaye, he slandered him. 
um-Hlebi, . l, and in-TIebi, n. 3. A 

defamer, backbiter, slanderer. 
i-Hlebo, n. 2. Information secretly given, 
not necessarily of a libellous character. 
in-Tlebo, n. 3, in-Tlebendwane, n. 3, and 
isi-Hlebo, n. 4. Slanderous speech, cal- 
umny, false accusation. 
uku-Hlebana, v. To backbite, etc., one 

another. 
Hlebela, v. To vent a secret to: nJilihle- 
tyelwe iyelenqe, I was secrclly told of the 
plot. 
Hlebisa, v. To cause backbiting, etc. ; to 
slander, etc., purposely. 
um-Hlebe, . 6. Black ironwood, Olea 
laurifolia Lain, and Bastard ironwood, 
Olea foveolata E. Mey. 
uku-Hlehla, v. i. To go or step backward, as 
when something, e.g. a snake, is seen, which 
excites caution and fear; to draw back 
retreat in fighting; to show cowardice, 
ukuhlehV inyevane, to retreat from what one> 
said. 

um-HIehli, n. I. One who retreats when 
fighting ;, fig. one who departs from what 
he said or did. 
isi-Hlehle, n. 4. A clump of imi-Hlehle. 
um-Hlehle, n. 6. A small euphorbia, Du. 

noorsdoorn. 
uku-Hlehlezela, v. i. To go briskly, hastily 
with anything stolen or otherwise, such as 
157 



HL 

meat or iibut't ; (it is generally used in a bad 
sense) ; to trot steadily with measured steps; 
also = ukii Nxania. 
um-HIehIo, . 6. The inside fat. 
uku-HLEKA, v. t. and/. To laugh; when 
used with the accusative or objective: 
ndiyanihleka, I laugh at you ; nms'ukundi- 
hlcka, do not laugh at me ; into ehlckwayo, a 
laughable, ridiculous thing ; not to be con- 
founded with the intrans. form of iiku-Hla. 
u-Hlekwa ylnja, . i. A defective 

maize cob, or one with defective grain. 
in-TIeki, . 3. One who laughs at, des- 
pises a person or thing. 
in-Tlek'abafazi, . 3. Lit. the one that 
laughs at the women ; the Short-tailed 
Wood hoopoe, Irrisor erythrorynchos 
viridis (Licht.J. 
isi-Hleko, . 4. A thing to be laughed at; 

a laughing-stock. 
u-Hleko, n. 5. Laughter. 
uku-Hlekana, v. To laugh at each other. 
Hlekisa,!). To cause to laugh: banihlekisa 
fiiti, they caused him to laugh often 
ndhigohlckisayo, I make others laugh; 
ndingowokuhlckisa, I am one who is made 
sport of; with prep, nga, to make sport or 
fun of one ; to ridicule : tidahlckisa iigaye, 
I made sport of or through him ; mus'uku- 
hlckisa ngam, do not make a foolof me. 
in-Tlekisa, n. 2. A laughing stock. 
uku-Hlekisana, v. To cause one another 
to laugh ; to keep up a laughing or 
jeering mood together. 
um-Hlekazi, see under Hlc. 
ukutl-HLEKE. v. i. To burst open, as a sore: 
isilonda sit^-hlckc, the sore has burst open ; 
to fall apart or in pieces, as a piece of 
rotten wood. 

HIekehleke, v. i. To split up into pieces 
or break asunder; to be broken up, as 
wood and soft things. 
uku-Hlekeza, v. t. To split up, cleave 
open a thing by breaking it asunder, to 
look at the inside (e.g. of a slaughtered 
sheep), 
um-Hlekezi, n. I. One who dashes in 

pieces ; a disperser. 
uku-Hlekezela, v. To split up, break 
asunder, etc., for. 
uku-HLELA, v. (to be distinguished from 
the rcl. form of nku-Hla.) To pick out and 
put in the proper place (soldiers, bullocks, 
paragraphs of a newspaper) ; to separate 



HL 

the coarse from the fine, as in sorting wool ; 

to sift grain, shake out the grass for 

thatching; fig. to edit, separate, sort. 

um-HIeli, n. I. One who picks out and 
puts in order; the editor of a newspaper. 

i-Hlelo, ti. 2. (a) A picked division or 
army, (b) A file of men, in hunting or 
war; a sect, religious denomination, (c) 
The border or outskirt of a forest or 
plantation ; loc. ehlclweni. 

in-TIelo, n. 3. The picking out, separating 
and putting in order; arrangement, 
disposition, management. 

uku-Hleleka, v. To become separate, 
parted from each other, as when sheep 
separate from goats, or one kind of 
poultry from another. 

uku-Hlelela, v. To pick out for, separate 
for. 

fileleleka, v. To be left alone, separated 

or set apart from the rest ; to be shunned 

by everybody: uya kuhleleleka, you will 

be shunned by everybody. 

um-HlelJ, M. 6. Stamper-wood, Ehretia hot- 

tentotica Burch., a tree with red, edible 

fruit. 
HIeli-nje! interj. a form of oath, ivom. uku- 

Hlala. As I live! 
isi-Hlelo, see tiku-Hla. 
uku-HLENQA, v. t. To assort, leave out; to 

separate the good from the bad : kuhlengwa 

amazimba hdahlwe amabi, when corn is 

cleaned, the refuse is thrown out; to purify 

metal from dross; fig. to regard a man's 

person; to keep the good for oneself and 

give the bad to another; uyandihlenga, he 

leaves me out as bad, or as refuse. 

in-Tlenga, . 3. The last dregs or sediment 
of Kafir-beer. 

isi-Hlenga, n. 4. A float made of reeds; a 
raft; an island formed in the river by 
masses of reeds and earth washed to- 
gether by the current. 

uku-HIengeka, v. To be separated from 
and thrown away. 

Hlengela, v. To assort, separate, etc., 
for. 

Hlengisa, v. To cause to separate, etc. 

i-Hlengezi, w. 2. A curse. 

uku-Hlengezela, v. t. To put an end to, i.e. 
kill, a beast dangerously ill, before it 
dies of itself: uyamhlengezela, he speaks 
rather hopelessly of the recovery of some 
one who is sick and says he will die. 

in-Tlengezela, . 3. The slaughtering pf 
cattle, 



158 



HL 

i-HIengesi, n. 2. The porpoise, the bones of 
which are greatly prized by Natives as they 
are believed to cause increase in cattle. 
eku-Hleni, adv. Openly, clearly; loc. of the 

obsolete verb uhi-Hla. 
uku-HIenxa, v. i. To separate the legs, to 

straddle. 
ukuti-Hlepu, v. i. = uku-Hlepuka. 
uku-Hlepuka, v. To be torn off (e.g. a 
piece of land from a country) ; to be 
cracked, as the little clay oxen when 
beginning to crumble away. 
Hlepuza, V. t. To tear out or off a piece 
from the whole, (as a dog tears away 
strips from a lump of meat). 
uku-Hleza, v. t. To gnaw or chew a bone 

with the teeth. 
i-HIeza, n. 2. The hip bone. 

Hl^y^h [ '^^"^' ^^^^'- ^^^^^ isela lize ehu- 
suku, lest haply the thief comes by night ; 
ndabaleka Meze tidibetwe, I fled lest I should 
be beaten; hleze inganeli kuli nakuni, lest 
there be not enough for us and you. 

uku-Hlika, Em. and Ttrab\i, = uku-hla. To 
come down : uyehlika, he is coming down. 

uku-Hlikihla, v. t. To rub with the hands: 
wahlikihla utnzimba ngamafuta, he rubbed 
his body with fat ; to rub a swelling, skin, 
etc., with the hand : hlihihla idolo ngezatidla, 
rub the knee with the hands. 
in-TlikihIo. n. 3. The rubbing of a 
swelling; the smearing and softening of 
any hard place. 

uku-Hlimfa, v. t. To beat with the fist or a 
knobstick ; = ttku-Ximfa. 

uku-Hlimpilika, v. i. To make unavailing 
efforts; to pull a face (as when about to 
cry); cf. uku-HUninika. 

uku-Hlininika, v. i. To relax the muscles of 
the face, as in pain ; to be ready to cry, as 
with a suppressed voice ; to make faces at 
a person. 

uku-HIiniva, v. t. To make blunt (a chisel, 
saw, hatchet, etc.). 
HIinlveka, v. To be blunt. 

uku-HLlNZA, V. t. To flay, skin: hlinzani 
inkotno ehlatyiweyo, skin the cow which has 
been slaughtered or gored to death; to 
perform a surgical operation upon a 
person; fig. uyandihlinza, he imposes upon 
me or overreaches me. Phr. uhlinza itiipuku, 
or intahimba, he skins a mouse or a flea, i.e. 
he speaks or acts secretly. (Bed-wetting 
used to be cured, supposedly, by giving the 



HL 

child a mouse to eat, disguised as other 
meat ; the mouse had to be skinned 
secretly; hence the idea of secrecy). 
um-Hlirtzi, . I. One who skins animals. 
uku-HIinzeka, v. To be good or fit for 
skinning: isikumba siyahlinzeka, the skin 
comes off" easily. 
HIinzekela, x;. To provide, procure for; 
to care for meat : umhambt uyahlinzekelwa, 
a traveller is supplied with food (meat). 
Hlinzela, v. To skin for; to kill a beast 

for one who has arrived at a place. 
Hlinzisa, v. To cause or help to skin. 

isi-HIo, Event, etc., see uku-Hla. 

uku-Hloba, v. i. To separate, as the curd 
from the whey in fermented milk; amasi 
ahlobile, the milk has become curdled im- 
properly, said when the curdled part has 
separated from the whey and become 
lumpy and hard ; fig. to be unpleasant, 
provoked to anger. 

Hlobisa, v. To make to separate, 
ferment. 

i-Hlobo, n. 2. Summer; loc. ehlotycni, in 
summer ; kusehlotyeni, it is summer. 

umHIobo, n. I. Relative, blood-relation; 
hence friend, acquaintance : umhlobo obuhlu- 
ttgti, best friend. 

isi-Hlobo, n. 4. Relative, blood-relation; 
friend (espec. tised in address) : ndiya ezi- 
hlotyeni zam, I go to my friends ; isiUobo 
esibuhlungii, a very intimate friend, a bosom 
friend. 

u-Hlobo, n. 5. A particular sort or kind of 
anything : oltihlobo Iwenkomo, this kind or 
description of cattle ; inkomo yohlobo, a cow 
of an old favourite stock ; a choice cow ; 
inkomo ngohlobo Iwazo, cattle after their 
kind ; dimin. uhlotyana : zonke intlotyana 
zokutya, all hinds of food. 
in Tlobontlobo n. 5. pi. Different kinds. 

ubu-HIobo, n. 7. Friendship; mutual attach- 
ment, intimacy ; wandinika into yobuhlobo, 
he gave me something as a token of friend- 
ship. Adj. Friendly. 

uku-Hlobonga, v. i. 'Em.- uku-Metsha. 

u-Hiofu, n. 5. A sweet taste. 

uku-HLOHLA, x;. t. To stuff, cram, thrust 
into, with the view of making a thing hold 
as much as it can, as to stuff grain into a 
bag by repeatedly sending a rod down 
through it, or to cram corn into a pit by 
pushing it down with a stake ; to fill wool 
into a bale by tramping it down; to ram 
down as with a ramrod; to thrust a wire 
through the pith of a piece of wood ia 
59 



HL 

making a tip for a smoking pipe ; to thread 
beads on a string by thrusting a thread 
through them, one after another; tihlohUi 
amakwHo, he whistles continuously, one 
whistle after another. 
u-HlohIo, H. 5. A string of beads; a 

series or succession of any kind; a list. 
uku-Hlohleka, v. To be stuffed, threaded, 

or rammed. 
Hlohlela, v. To ram, stuff, cram for or 
into; of a bull, to leap repeatedly or at 
different times upon a cow already in calf. 
um-HIohIa, ;;. 6. A species of plant, the 
leaves of which, when powdered, are used 
as snuff for headache or cold in the head; 
it is also used as an eye lotion. 
uku-Hlohloloza, v. t. To thrust forward 
contemptuously, as a man seized by the 
nape of the neck; =^ ukii-A^t/okottsa. 
isi-Hloko, w. 5. Lit. a head or top, e.g. a 

cluster of grapes ; cf. in-Tloko. 
ukuti-Hloko, /. /. To push (a stick into the 
fire). 

uku Hlokohia, r. t. To keep poking with 
a stick into a hole where bees or snakes 
are; to fill a sack by stuffing it with a 
stick; fig. to improve, better; to incite, 
provoke; c(. nkn H/olila. 
Hlokohleka, v. To be incitable; to go 
in crowds from all parts to a great or 
national dance. 
Hlokotisa, v. To push a burning stick or 
a knife in a person's face, with the pur- 
pose of hurting; to threaten. 
uku-Hlokoma, v. i. To sound aloud, as the 
noise of a whip or of a wagon travelling : 
bayahlokomn ktilomzi tipeshcya komfitla, they 
are making a noise at that place on the 
other side of the ravine ; to make a noise, 
murmur, as water rolling over stones: 
amanzi ayahlokoma, the water makes a 
noise ; to echo, reosund. 
Phr. yakim'imvnla kiihlokoma ticndlcla, when 
it rains, the roads roar with running water, 
i.e. no smoke without fire. 
in-TIokoma, w. 3. A loud voice, as of 
people shouting, or of vehicles running 
on a stony road ; the sound of a bell. 
uku-Hlokomisa, v. pass, hlokonyisiva. To 
cause a noise or sound ; to help to make 
a loud sound : hJokomisa intsimb'i, ring the 
bell; to raise an echo. 
i-Hlokondiba, //. 2. A great number of 

people standing together. 
uku-HIokotisa, see under ukut't-HIoko. 

160 



HL 

uku-Hlokulula, v. t. To sift, make fine, 
either by separating the coarse from the 
fine, or by reducing all to small particles. 
uku-HLOLA, V. t. To spy out: balihlola 
ilizwe, they spied out the country; wayi- 
hlola lencwadi, he searched this book dili- 
gently; to examine (a girl, to see if she is 
still a virgin); to reconnoitre an enemy's 
army or camp ; to inspect (a school). 
u-HIoramatye, //. I. A kind of bird. 
um-HloIa, n. I. A witch-doctor who 

practises divination, = igqira lokuvumisa. 
um-HloIl, . I. An inspector: umhloliwe- 

giisha, a sheep inspector. 
in-TloIa, n. 3. A spy or scout of an army 
who reconnoitres before an attack is 
made ; an inspector, field-cornet. 
u-HIolo, n. 5. The act of inspecting any 
thing; fig. the first green maize plucked 
from the garden. 
um-Hlola, n. 6. Em. Presentiment, bad 
omen or sign of coming evil, as an owl 
settling on the top of a hut, or a dog 
leaping on it : iiknba intaka iza ihlale pezu 
kwendlu, ball ngumhlola, if a bird happens 
to perch on a house, they say it is a bad 
omen. 
uku-Hlolela, v. To put out a feeler for an 
alliance in marriage. The agent in this 
matter simply takes a spear, girdle, or 
some beads (see utn-Lonio) to the girl's 
residence, deposits them there secretly at 
dusk, or, in the case of a chief's daughter, 
in daytime, and comes away without 
saying a word. If the alliance is accept- 
able they are retained, if not acceptable 
they are returned ; to spy out for. 
in-TIolela, ti. 3. One who spies out. Phr. 
uyintlolela yombhit, he is spy for both, i.e. 
he is a talebearer. 
in-TloIelo, n. 3. The agreement made by 
a father for the marriage of his daughter. 
um-Hlolo, K. I. A widower; fem. umhlolo- 

kazi, a widow. 
ubu-HloIo, n. 7. State of being a widower; 

ttbiihlolokazi, widowhocd. 
u-HloIoIwane, w. 5. Buckfood, a species of 

Plectranthus. 
uku-HLOMA, V. t. (The essential idea is, to 
consider a number of separate persons or 
things as one body). To stack, as Kafir- 
corn ears or corn sheaves; to fix up, as 
sticks in a fence; to put on the war dress; 
to gather (of thunder clouds) : iztilit liyahlo- 
tnn, the heavens are gathering for a storm ; 



HL 

to walk in procession: inkomo zipuma ebu- 
hlaiitl zihlomilc, the cattle go out of the 
kraal in a row; fig. ukuhloma usiba, to 
stick a feather on a young girl's head, i.e. to 
seek the consent of her parents to an affiance 
with her. 

isi-HIomo, n. 4. War dress : tsibhmo 
(itnpahla yomkosi) asanele, the war dress 
or armament is incomplete. 
uku-Hlomana, v. To speak with each 

other. 
Hlomela, v. To add to, join one thing 
on to another, as in plaiting; to lengthen 
a garment by adding another piece to it ; 
to make patchwork. 
isi-Hlomelo, n. 4. Addition, amendment, 
supplement. 
i Hlombe, n, 2. A majority of people 
doing one thing, e.g. singing or fighting; 
See in-Tlombe. 
uku-HlomkJsa, v. i. Of the udder, to become 

enlarged and full just before parturition. 
uku-HLOMLA, v. t. pass, hlonyulwa. To 
divide; in hunting, to give a part, a leg of 
the game which has been caught. (The 
leg in question is claimed and removed as 
belonging to the chief or superior. The 
party claiming must stand in the relation 
of superior to the other, whether by right 
or courtesy.) To reciprocate, give in 
return. 
um-Hlomlo, n. 6. The portion of game 

(buck) given to a superior. 
uku-Hlomlela, u. To cut off for one: wJ/- 
hlomlele, cut off a leg of game for me. 
uku HLONA, V. t. To be afraid of 
reverentially. 
in Tloni, n. 3. (a) Bashfulness, sense of 
shame, shamefacedness, shyness, respect, 
modesty : wenze oku2i?itloni, he has done 
shamefully; wahlatywa yintloni, he was 
ashamed, (b) The South African hedge- 
hog, Erinaceus frontalis A. Smith. 
uku-HIoneia, v. To act with deference 
and respect towards another person of 
worth, truthfulness or rank; to reverence; 
to be in reverential fear of; to be shy, 
bashful towards ; torespect: ndiyamhlonela 
ubawo, I fear, i.e. respect, my father. 
uku-Hlonipa, v. i. To be bashful, (the idea 
of respect is essential in it) ; to keep at 
a distance through reverence; to shun 
approach : isifazi sihlonipa uyise wendoda, 
the wives of sons shun approaching their 
father-in-law ; uyaliUonipa igama lake, out 
of reverence she is afraid to call his 
name; iiyaUonipa abantu abakulu, she 
respects older people. 



HL 

This word describes a custom between relations- 
in-law, and is generally bnt not exclusively 
applied to the female sex, who, when married, are 
not allowed to pronounce or use words which 
have for their principal syllable any part or 
syllable of the names of their chief's or their 
husband's relations, especially of their fathers-in- 
law ; they must also keep at a distance from the 
latter. Hence, they have the habit of inventing 
new names for those persons ; for instance : if one 
of these persons is called u-Mehlo, which is 
derived from amehlo (eyes), the women will no 
longer use umeklo, but substitute amakangelo 
(lookers). See Appendix II. 

The custom of women, to avoid going near a 
cattle kraal by making a circuit in passing its 
gate, is also called uku-Hlonipa. Sons-in-law 
must be respectful to their mothers-in-law. 
in-Tlonip6, n. 3. The custom by which a 
married woman shows reverence for her 
father-in-law. 
uku-Hlonipeka, v. To be spoken of under 
another name : amalungu etu ahlonipekayo, 
the members of our body that are spoken 
of euphemistically. 
isi Hlontio, ;/. 4. A number of tree euphor- 
bias standing in one place. 
umHIontIo, n. 6. The Tree euphorbia, 
Euphorbia tetragona Haw., and E. grandi- 
dens Haw., used for cancer and blistering. 
i-HlontIo, n. 2. The receding, hairless part 
of the forehead, above the temples, = w- 
Tlontlo. 

uku-Hlontlotela, v. i. To extend by 
degrees from place to place : ilizwi lika- 
T'lxo lihlontlotela kuzo zonke intlanga, the 
word of God is extending by degrees to 
all nations. 
i-Hlontlwana, . 2. A species of euphorbia 
which grows a few feet high, is thorny, and 
often grows in neglected ground. 
um-Hlonyane, n. 6. Wormwood, Artemisia 
afra Jacq., used for cold and cough. 
Umhlonyane omncinane or womlambd, Matri- 
caria nigellaefolia B.C., with light green 
leaves and flowers somewhat like Cha- 
momile, used for a rash supposed to be 
caused by the river, and for milt-sickness. 
um-Hlope, n. 6. Red milkwood, Mimusops 

caffra E. Mey. 

uku-Hlopisa, v. t. Em. To make hunting 

dogs eat medicines and charms, e.g. the 

wings of the swiftest birds, to make them 

swift and savage ; cf. tikii-Hlupeza. 

i-Hlosi, n. 2. The serval, Felis serval Erxl. 

uku-Hlovuhla, k. t. To pierce through 

repeatedly, so as to cause many wounds. 
izi-HloylhIo, . 4. pi. Events, see ukti-Hla. 



HL 

uku-HIozinga, v. i. To be unstable, going 
backward and forward ; to attempt to do 
something, but leave it undone. 
ulu-Hlu, ff. 5. pi. izintlu. (a) A string or row 
of things (gardens, hills, beads, brasswire, 
maize or persons) ; a wing of an army : 
bak'nluhlu lokuhva, they set the battle in 
array; loc. eluhhvini. (b) plur. The con- 
volutions made by a snake's body. 
uku-Hluba, v. t. and /. To cast the skin, as a 
snake; to moult, as a bird; to cast the hair, 
as a horse : ihashe lihlnbile, the horse has 
got new hair; to strip a mealie-cob of its 
covering, = ukuhlubula; fig. to change the 
coat, undress, strip or cast off (clothes, 
gloves, etc.) from the person. 
i-Hluba, . 2. The slough of a snake. 
ukuti-HLUBU, v. i.=-iiku-Hlubuluka. 
uku-Hlubula, v. t. To strip off, as to pull 
off the sheath or covering from the 
maize-cob. 
um-HlubuIo, 11. 6. The flesh near the 

kidneys. 
uku Hlubuhlubula, v. To open the mouth 
and show the teeth often : wahlubuhlubiila 
amazinyo, he showed his teeth often. 
Hlubuluka, v. Of the skin of a sore, to 

peel off, so that the flesh is exposed. 
Hlubulula, V. To strip off completely 
the skin from the tail of an animal, or to 
pluck bare a bird's neck. 
isi-Hluku, n. 4. (a) Spite, hatred for an old 
offence, (b) Small detached quantities or 
parties. 
uku-HlukuhIa, r. t. To shake, pull, drag a 
person violently; to shake a liquid in a 
bottle or calabash; to shake a sieve, i.e. to 
sift ; cf. uku-Hlokohla. 

in-TlukuhIa, /;. 3. The projection of the 
lower stomach when a living bullock is 
torn open; the fat on the liver which 
appears first in this process and is used 
to appease the departed ancestors. 
um-Hluma, n. 6. The Red mangrove, 

Rhizophora mucronata Lam. 
uku-HLUMA, V. i, To come up, put forth 
leaves, grow, shoot: imifuno iyahluma 
kakuhle, the vegetables grow beautifully; 
intsimi ehluma imit'i, a garden that brings 
forth trees; lamtitu uyahluma, that person is 
prospering; cf. uku-Cuma. 
in-TIumo, n. 3. Growth. 
isi tiluma, /2. 4. A shoot, sprout. 
isi-Hlumo, n. 4. Fertility. 
uku-Hlumela, v. To come or grow forth 
on; to sprout out from (as shoots from 

162 



HL 

the side of a Kafircorn-stalk, or as 
young branches from a tree stump 
which has been cut down). 
i-Hlumelo, n. 2. A young sprout from an 

old stalk or tree; fig. a descendant. 
in-Tlumelo, . 3. Sprout, (usually applied 
to young sprouts from an old plant, e.g. a 
Kafircorn-stalk which has been left in 
the ground after reaping). 
uku tilumelela, v. To grow in continu- 
ance; to propagate or produce. 
Hlumisa, v. To cause, make or let grow, 

shoot, bud, etc. 

Hlumisela, v. To make to sprout for: 

ndiya knyihlumisela upondo iiidlu ka- 

Sirayeli, I will make a horn to bud forth 

for the house of Israel. 

uku-Hlumba, v. t. To be full and heaped up. 

um-Hlumbi, n. 6. The heap on a measure 

of corn ; euphem. the hymen. 
uku-Hlumbisa, v. To fill and heap up. 
isi-HIunga, . 4. The white sugarbush, 

Protea hirta Klotzsch. 
i-Hlungu, n. 2. A spot which has recently 

been cleared by burning off the grass. 
ubu-HLUNQU, n. 7. Poison, venom: inyoka 
itwbiihlungu, the snake is poisonous; an 
antidote, a medicine for illness of a 
poisonous nature. 

When meat is insipid, it is believed to be 
due to the fact that the animal has been 
Jcilled by a man with ubuhlungu, i.e. by a 
man who had been bitten by a snake. If a 
bull-calf dies in castration, the cause of 
death is attributed to ubulilungu in the 
castrating person, who may have drunk the 
gall of a snake. 

Used as adj. Painful, pained, grieved, 

grievous: intloko yam ibuhlungu, my head is 

painful ; intliziyo yam ibuhlungu, my heart is 

grieved; wateta indawo ebuhlungu, he said 

something painful; umfazi ubuhlungu, a 

woman has sorrow ; ukufa kwake kubuhlungu 

kuni, his death grieves me; fig. umhlobo 

obuhlungu, one's best friend ; izinto ezibuMu- 

ngu, the very nicest things; cf. in-Tlungu. 

ubu lilungu bedila, //. 7. Clytia hirsuta 

Muil., used for milt and gall sickness. 

ubu Hlungu benamba, or bemamb^, 

. 7- The name applied to various species 

of Melianthus Linn., used for snake and 

in-Tonjane bites, and for gall sickness in 

goats. 

ubu Hlungu benyoka, . 7. Applied to 



HL 

one of the Geraniaceae, Monsonia ovata 
Cav.; also to the Poison-bush, Acocan- 
thera venenata 6^. Don. 
ubu Hlungu benyushu, n. 7. Teucrium 
africanum Thtin., used for snakebites, 
milt sickness, sore throat, etc. 
ubu-Hlungu beramba, . 7. A medicinal 

plant used for snakebites. 
ubu-HIungu besigcau, n. 7. Crabbea 
hirsuta Harv., used for snake and 
tarantula bites, milt-sickness, toothache. 
uku-Hlungisa, v. To cause pain; to pain: 
yena akatidihlungisanga, he has not 
grieved me (of recent use). 
uku-Hlungula, v. t. To shake, so as to bring 
the husks or chaff to the top; to move a 
mass in a circular way, hence, to sift out. 
i-Hlungulo, H. 2. That which is sifted out 

(corn). 
isi-Hlungulo, n. 4. A sieve. 
uku-Hlunguleka, v. Fit to be sifted; to 

become sifted. 

uku-Hlunguzela, v. To shake the head. 

Hlunguzelela, v. To shake the head at. 

i-HlunguIu, n. 2. The white-necked raven, 

Corvultur albicollis (Lath.) ; used jokingly 

for ministers in black attire with white 

collars: ngamahlungulu kupela idolopu yase- 

Qonce ngaleveki, there's nothing but 

ministers in King Williamstown this week, 

um-Hlungulu, . 6. (a) The Wild laurel, 

Ocotea bullata. (b) A small tree, Euclea 

macrophylla E. Mey. 

um-Hlunguti, n. 6. A species of soft-wooded 

tree, used as a hedge round kraals. 

ukuti-Hlunu, v. i. To have muscle as well as 

skin torn off or torn down ; cf. ukutt-Hliizu 

and uku-Hlunuzeka. 

isi-Hlunu, n. 4. A lump of meat without 

bone ; a muscle. 

uku-Hlunukeza, v. i. Em. To shake one's 

arms up and down ; to jolt, hurt. 
uku-HIunuzeka, v. i. To have fallen off in 

flesh ; fig. to be hurt in the heart. 

uku-Hlunza, v. t. To eat milk with 

Hlunza, Ncunza. 

um-Hlunza, n. 6. A brush with a bushy 

end, made of rushes, with which milk is 

eaten. 

uku-Hlupa, V. t. To cause anxiety, 

convenience. 

uku-Hlupeka, v. To be anxious, to toil in 

vain, 

uku-Hlupeza, v. t. pass, hlutyezwa, and hlu- 

tshezwa. To cause a dog to be ferocious by 

giving it the hair of a lion or other fero- 



HL 

cious animal roasted in the fire, or by 
mixing pounded bones of leopards with its 
food ; to make a man courageous and 
strong by giving him snake-poison to 
drink; to tie a piece of lion's or ratel's 
skin or a leopard's claw round the neck to 
make one fierce, firm : tidihlutsheziwe, I am 
made courageous ; cf. uku-Hlopisa. 
isi-Hluta, n. 4. Em. Long hair; = /5/-7/toiVfl. 
uku-Hluta, V. i. (short 'a') perf. hluti. To be 
satisfied with food : ndihluti, I have enough 
of food. 

in-Tluta, . 3. Sufficiency. 
uku-Hlutisa, v. To satisfy with food; to 
satiate : kuyahlutisa ukudla oku, this food 
is very satisfying. 
uku-Hlflta, V. t. (long 'a') To take away from 
another with violence; to rob, deprive of: 
ndiyihluti kuye or ndimhlnte imali yoke, I 
took his money from him by force ; uhlu- 
tiwe timntwana, the child is lost to you; 
ukuze singayihlutwa lento, that we may not 
be deprived of this; to tear off skin. 
uku-Hlutela, v. To take violently for 
another: akuhltitt elo-na, akuhlutele lona 
u-Kemoshe ii-tixo wako? wilt thou not 
possess that which Chemosh thy god 
giveth thee to possess ? 
ukuti-Hlutu, V. i. To tear off (skin only). 
uku-HLUZA, V. t. To strain: hluza ubisi, 
strain the milk; to refine (silver). 
in-Tluzo, n. 3. A sieve, strainer, filter; the 
residue which remains from filtering, 
straining or sifting; sediment, dregs, 
bran, pollard. 
um-Hluzi, . 6. Broth, gravy, soup of 

meat; strained fluid; extract, essence. 
um-HIuzI, n. 6. A strainer : twihluzi-matyala, 
lit. a strainer of guilt; the solicitor- 
general. 
ukuti-Hluzu, V. i. Of skin or bark, to peel 
off ; of corn, to be sifted out. 
uku-Hluzula, v. t. To tear off (a branch); 
cf. uku-Xuziila. 
uku-Hlwa, pass, of uku-Hln. To decline: 
kuya kusihlwa, the day is declining; to grow 
late, become evening: sekuhlwile, it is 
already late in the day, i.e. it is evening; 
akukahlwi, it is not yet late in the day. 
n. 8. The decline of the day, the evening: 
siya kufika ngokuhlwa, we shall arrive in the 
evening; woza ngokuhlwa, you must come 
in the evening. 

Hlwelwa, v. To be benighted : rf/A/w^- 
night has overtaken me. 



163 



HL 

Hlwi^a, V. Woba yinqamhi ah/wise, he 
shall be unclean until the even. 
um-Hlwa, . 6. Rust; any corroding matter ; 
fig. a moth. 

-HlwaTusa'." } " ' To smack .he Hps or 

mouth after eating; to relish; to have a 

taste for and want more of: atnazwi 

alcswa ?igokufilwabusayo, words which are 

read with relish ; to crave for something, 

(stronger than ukii-Kanuka) ; to chew in 

haste in order to get more; to chew the 

cud. 
i-Hlwantsi, //. 2. A splinter of heated iron 

or stone when hammered : amahlwantsi 

etigqde, snowflakes. 
u-Hlwati, H. 5. An edible plant resembling 

parsley ; fig. sweetness, a sweet taste. 
uku-HIwatiza, v. i. (a) To blow through 

(wind), (b) To speak in a loud manner; 

to make a row: mtis'ukuhlwatiza uktiteta 

kivnko, do not talk so loud. 
u-Hlwaya, n. 5. Small shot. 
uku-HLWAYELA, v. t. To sow : bahlwaycia 

imhcwu yabo, they sow their seed. 

um-HlwayelJ, . I. A sower of grain. 

in-Tlwayelo, v. 3. Seed-corn. 

um-HIwayelo, . 6. A small present for a 
doctor. 

uku-HIwayelela, v. To sow to or for. 

in-Tlwayelelo, w. 3. A bag made of rushes 
for preseiving seed. 
um-Hlwazi, n. 6. (a) Bushman's tea, a species 

of Phylica; (the green leaves are chewed 

on a journey to give strength), (b) A green, 

harmless water-snake, also a small green 

tree-snake. 
isi-Hlwele, w. 4. The retinue or suite of a 

chief; a company of soldiers under one 

officer; a town council, parliament, choir 

(it never means a promiscuous number nor 

a very great one). 
i-Hlwempu, . 2. A poor, destitute, or 

despicable person; fem. ihlwcnipukasi ; 

dimin. ihhvcntshana. 

ubu-HIwempu, n. ? Poverty; dimin. 
ubuhlwcntshana. 

uku-HIwempuza, v. i. To become poor. 

Hlwempuzeka, v. To have become 
poor: sikiibonile ukuhlwempuzeka kwaki, 
we have seen his becoming poor. 

HlwempuzJsa, v. pass, hlwentslmsisiva. 
To cause poverty, to make poor. 
um-Hlwenga, n. 6. The mane or bristles 

of an animal. 



HL 

i-HIwili, and i-HJwilihlwiU, n. 2. Coag- 
ulated blood; a clot of blood; that which 
is red like clotted blood. 

isi-Hlwita, . 4. Sing. only. Bushy hair; 
the crest of a bird. 

Ho! inter j. denoting the act of striking: 
wandilsho lid! he struck me \ = Hele ! 

Ho ! intcrj. of lamentation, aversion: lite-ho 
ilanga, what unbearable heat ! 
Ho oyi! /^;/ of sorrow and reproof; h6 
oyi, wenza-ni ! what are you doing, 
wretch ! 

ama-Ho, n. 2. pi. Big words of no import. 

i-Hobe, n. 2. (a) Generic name for doves; 
a tame pigeon, (b) A piece of a corn field 
left uncut for the reapers. 

um-Hobe, n. 6. (a) The exulting song after 
war : babeta umhobe, they sang the song of 
triumph, (b) A joyous song sung at a 
circumcision, in-Tonjane, or marriage dance. 

i-Hobohobo, n. 2. A weaverbird, with special 
reference to the Spotted-backed weaver 
bird, Ploceus spilonotus Vig. The native 
children, listening to the uproar of this 
species at its nesting-haunts, sing: ngama- 
hobohobo cndele fidawonye, the weaverbirds 
are married at one place. 

i-Hodi, n. 2. The antbear, Orycteropus afer 
(Pallas). 

isi-Hogo, . 4. A deep pit, with spikes 
inserted in it, made to catch game and 
wild animals; isihogo somlilo, lit. a pit of 
fire, i.e. hell. 

i-Hogu, M. 2. The payment for a woman who 
is to be used as a concubine. It is dis- 
tinguished from i-Kazi, not only because it 
is never given for a wife, but also because 
it never exceeds one animal or article; its 
verb is not lobola, but rola. 

Hoha, interj. Leave off! (in fighting and 
disputing); slop! (in wagondriving). 

u-Hoha, . 5. An armistic, truce. 

i-Hokoha, n. 2. A deep hole nearly but not 
quite filled with corn; fig. ulihokoha, it is 
insatiable, said of the ocean. 

um-Hokwane, . 6. Beads worn round the 
neck by lying-in women. 

uku-HOLA. V. i. To run away wildly, as a 
horse in bolting, or as people in a panic; to 
be panic stricken, (from Du. hollen?). 

u-Hola, n. I. A way that is broad, high and 
long: uhola wendlela, a main road, high- 
way. 

i-Hola, . 2. A wandering, unstable person: 
ulihola, he is not stable in locality or in 
thought, he is a vagrant. 



Ho 

isi-HoIo, n. 4. A person with no under- 
standing, a fool. 
i-HoIohoIo, n. 2. A hollow thing: izwi laki 
lihololwlo, his voice is hollow (after sick- 
ness). 
ubu-Holoholo, . 7. Hollowness. 
u Holweni, n. l. A small, swift hare which 

runs in a straight line. 
uku-HOMB'A, (long'o'), v. i. pass, honjwa. 
To dress in fine apparel ; to deck oneself 
out ; of the sky, to be beautifully adorned 
with spotted or streaky clouds: kuko u?ntitu 
obiibileyo kuba isibakabaka sihdmbile, some 
one is dead, for the sky is decked out (if 
the spots are small, atnfakavifaka, they 
show that a short-haired person i.e. a 
Native is dead; if the clouds are long and 
streaky, they show that a long-haired 
person i.e. a European is dead.) 
i-Homba, n. 2. A person who likes to 

adorn himself. 
isa-Homba and isa-Hombe, ??. 4. (a) The 
Lesser Cape Bishop bird, Euplectes 
capensis approximans/'Caft.y. (b) A tufted 
ornament, (c) A special arrangement of 
clouds, described under uku-Homba. 
isi-Homb6, w. 4. Fine ornaments on a 

garment, or on the person. 

ubu-Homba, n. 7. Adornment. 

uku-Hombela, v. To dress for: ulio- 

tnhel'umtshato, he is dressed for a 

marriage ; to attract attention to oneself. 

Hombisa, v. To beautify by apparel 

and ornaments; to deck out. 
^Hombisela, v. To deck out for: njengo- 
intshakazi ehonjisdwc indoda yoke, like a 
bride adorned for her husband. 
isi-Homo, w. 4, (a) A large meeting of 
people who unanimously give a shout of 
praise to one whom they wish to honour: 
benza isihomo, they shouted praise, (b) The 
prevailing subject of talk. 
u-Hongohongo, w. 5. A person who speaks 

long without a break. 
isi-Honqa, n. 4. A Zulu word, used by Kafirs 

for in-Te?idelezo. 
u Honyo, . 5. A place which is bottomless. 
Ho oyi ! intcrj, see under Ho. 
uku-tiopala, v. i. To trot, gallop: hopala 
kuhle, lendawo iyehla, trot nicely, this place 
is steep (said by the umtakatt to his 
baboon). 
ukutl-HOR'o, V. i. To boast: uzenze horo, he 
boasts, is proud. (Probably from Du. hoog). I 



HO 

uku-HOT'A, V. i. To seclude oneself, as a 
bride does for some time after her 
marriage, during which time she performs 
such offices as cooking, drawing water, 
bringing firewood, sweeping, kindling the 
fire for her parents-in-law. 
isi-Hota, n. 4. A secluded spot. 

ukuti-Hoto, V. i. To take and follow a road 
without turning out of it. 

i-Hotyazana, n. 2. Dimin. of i-Hobe. The 
Namaqua dove, Oena capensis (L.). The 
name may also be applied to the Laughing 
Dove, Turtur senegalensis (L.). 

uku Hoya, v. i. To be concerned for or on 
account of; to trouble about; to pay 
regard to : lomfo akayihoyi iiniyalelo ka-yise, 
this fellow pays no regard to his father's 
commands. 

isi-Hoyo, n. 2. Concern, care for one, 
sympathy, pity; dimin. usisihoyana, Yie \^ 
to be pitied. 

Hoyo! \\oy\ni\ interj. Halloo! 

Hukul /f^r/. Used in hunting and setting 
on : go at it ! to the army : advance ! 

uku- H Ola, V. i. To run off the road ; to 
wander off the way; cf. uku-Hola. 
isi-Hula, . 4. A person going out of the 
road : a hare turning off the path when 
being coursed. 

i-HULE, . 2. A prostitute (Du. hoer). 
uku-HULA, V. i. To play the harlot. 

isi-Huluhulu, n. 2. Probably Woodford's 
owl, Syrnium woodfordi A. Sni. Its cry is 
rendered as zva gxebe, wa gxebe, wa ndlebe 
zenja. This is the takata-ing owl, that goes 
in for witchcraft ; uftibesi doesn't. A care- 
less, thoughtless, stupid, senseless fellow. 

isi-Humba, . 4, Smut in corn. 

Humhutn 1 interj. The sound made by the 
amagqwira. 

um-Hungane, n. 6. Kind of bead-work. See 
um-Hokwane. 

i-Hunge, n. 2. A vagrant, vagabond. 

uku-Hunguza, To go about aimlessly from 
place to place ; = ukti-Hiliza. 

Huntshu I interj. of exultation, used in 
crowing over a vanquished foe. Victory ! 
on to victory I 

isi Hunuha, n. 4. A daring, fierce-looking 
person. 

Hush! interj. The sound made to the 

accompaniment of the tiku-Hushiza, = Wush. 

uku-Hushiza, and Hushuza, v. t. To 

wave a new-born child to and fro. when 

the custom of uku-Pehlelela is performed. 



165 



T has two sounds; it is (a) short, like y ii 
English city, in unaccented syllables, as: 
waheka ktit't, he turned to us; and in accented 
syllables where the / precedes m or in a 
singular noun of more than one syllable, as 
inkoino, a cow; 

(b) long, like / in routine, in all other 
accented syllables : thia, we ; and before m 
and n when it is a contraction of the 
plural izim and izin: inio = izinto, things; 
and when it is a contraction of ///, 2 cl. : 
ihashe from tlihashe, a horse. 

1. I changes before vowels into the semi- 
vowel y; (a) in the Poss. particle: indlu tan, 
into yam, my house; imasi iabantu into 
yabantu, the cow of the people ; 

(b) in the Pron. emphat. of 3 cl. sing, and 
6 cl. plur. : iona into yona, it or they; kuio 
into kiiyo, to or from it or them ; 

(c) in the Aorist: imali yam yalahleka, my 
money was lost ; 

(d) in the Condit. future: indoda iotanda 
into yotanda, the man shall love ; 

(e) in vowel verbs: intsimi iomile into 
yomile, the garden is dry. 

2. It is the Neg. verb, termination (a) of 
the pres., imperf. and future tenses: andi- 
tandi, I do not love ; bendingahambi, I was 
not walking ; andiyl kudla, I shall not eat ; 

(b) of the Potent, and Condit. mood : ndi- 
ngeteti, I may not speak ; tigcndingahambi, I 
would or should not walk; see A. 2. 

With some verbs, when adverbially used, 
this neg. / changes into e : titando aluze 
lupalale, love never faileth ; nize ningabuye 
nibanjwe, be ye not entangled again; cf. uku- 
Fumana, 

3. It terminates nouns of I cl. derived 
from verbs: umhatnbi, a traveller, from 
ukuhamba, to walk; umlimX, a ploughman, 
from ukulima, to plough. 

4. It forms (a) the Prefix of some words 
belonging to 3 cl., especially those taken 
from other languages: i-festile, window, 
iq'tya, handkerchief; cf. Im and In. 

(b) Pron. svbj. of 3 cl. sing.: imazi xsengi- 
we, the cow has been milked; and 6 cl. pi.: 
imilambo \zele, the rivers are full; and 
before adjectives: lento imndndi, this thing 
is pleasant; lento imnandi, this pleasant 
thing. It may sometimes be preceded by v 
to avoid hiatus : mayitande or maitande, let 
it love. 

(c) when preceded by y, Pron. obj. of 3 cl. 
sing. : ndiyisengile imazi, I have milked the 

166 



cow; and of 6cl. plur.: ndayhvela imilambd, 
I passed over the rivers. 

I (long) 1 ititerj. Expressing contempt of that 
which is threatened or given. 

I (short)! interj. { = ina!) i, nanga amasi ! take, 
here is some milk! 

ukw-Iba, V. t. To steal; see ukU-Ba IV. 
ul-Ibo, n. 5. The first maize and first-ripe 
pumpkins taken and eaten secretly by 
the women, hence used for the first- fruit 
of the garden; cf. in-Tlahlela. 

Ibe, Aux. in forming the imperf., pluperf., and 
fut. imperf. tenses of 3 cl. sing.: intombl ibe 
itanda, contrac. ibitanda, the girl was or has 
been loving; and of 6 cl. plur.: imiti ibe 
ingayi kuhluma, the trees were not going to 
grow ; see uku-Ba, I, 2. (a). 

Ibi, Aux. contrac. from ibe i, see Ibe. 

Ihi I interj. I told you so! Just as I thought! 

ukw-lhia, V. i. To descend, happen; see 
ukii-Hla. 

-ile, Verb, termination of the perf. and pluperf. 
tenses, (a) Positive: ndimbonWe, I have seen 
him. When the emphasis is to be on the 
object or some adjunct of the action and not 
on the action itself, it is contracted into 
?: ndimbone ehamba, I have seen him walk- 
ing; ndimbone apa, I have seen him here; 
ndimbone ndamtanda, I have seen him and 
loved him ; not to be confounded with the 
pres. conj. ndimbon^, and see him. 

(b) Negative: ile is used when the perf. 
expresses a state or is equivalent to an 
adjective: akafile, he is not dead; but when 
it expresses an act, it is changed into anga: 
akatetanga, he did not speak. 

Hi, Pref. of 2 cl. sing.: ili-zwi, word; in the 
case of stems with two or more syllables 
contrac. into i : i-hashe, horse. 

Im, Pre/, of some nouns of 3 cl.: im-vti, a 
sheep. Before words whose stems com- 
mence with m, the m of the prefix is omitted 
in writing: i-Mfama from im-Mfama. 

ukw-Ima, v. To stand; see uku-Ma. 

I mi, Pref. of 6 cl. plur.: imihla, days. 

In, Pref. of words belonging (a) to 3 cl. sing.: 
in-dawo, place ; (b) to 3 cl. and 5 cl. plur. of 
nouns of two or more syllables where it is 
a contraction for izin-: inkomo, indonga. 
Before nouns, the stems of which commence 
with n, the n of the prefix is elided : i-Nqwelo, 
for in-Nqwelo, wagon. 

Ina, interj. calling a person's attention: Here, 
take this! 



IN 

ukw-lndia, . 8. The time when the har- 
vest is brought in; autumn; loc. ekwindla, 
at the harvest time ; kusekwindla, it is at the 
harvest time; eyokwindla (inyanga), the 
month of March. 

Inga, I. (a) Verb. pref. of Potent, mood, 3 cl. 
sing, and 6 cl. plur.: lendawo in^SL-tetwa, this 
matter may be conversed about ; imil'i inga- 
gaulwa, the trees may be cut down. 

(b) Aux. of Condit. mood : irikabi ingayi- 
botshwa or ingeyibotshwa , the bullock would 
be yoked ; imitandazo ingaiviwa or ingeyiviwa 
or ngeyiviwa, the prayers would be heard. 

2. Pres. tense of the same classes of iiku- 
Nga, (a) and (b). 

3. Neg. verb. pref. of 3 cl. sing, and 6 cl. 
plur. (a) in dependent sentences: yibambe 
inkabi vigabaleki, hold fast the bullock that 
it may not run away ; tidincede ukuze imiza- 
mo yam ingabi luto, help me that my efforts 
may not be in vain. 

(b) In Conditional sentences: imbewu yam 
ngeyingapuini, my seed should not come up ; 
imisebenzi yam Jigey'ingaviizwanga, my 
labours would not have been rewarded. 

(c) In relative sentences: nditeta lento 
ingdiziwayo nini, I speak of this thing which 
you do not know; ndayiwelalomilamboinga- 
tshiyo, I crossed those rivers which do not 
dry up. 

(d) In the imperative mood : letnazi may- 
ingasengwa, this cow must not be milked; 
lemigibe maylngapatwa, these traps must not 
be touched. 

Before ka, ko, na, and some adjectives 
inga is changed into inge: ndafika mgeka- 
pekwa inyama, I arrived before the meat 
was cooked; ndawela ingekazali imilambo, 
I forded the rivers before they were full; 
funa lenkabi IngQkdyo, look for the ox which 
is not here ; usenga lenkomo ingenainasi, you 
milk this cow which is without, i.e. has no 
milk. 

Ingabi, conj. Lest it be that. 

Inge, I. Aux. of condit. mood, see Inga i. (b). 

2. Neg. verb. pref. of 3 cl. sing, and 6 cl. 

plur. of Potent, mood: londoda ingefiiki 



IN 

(contrac. from ay'ingefiki), that man may 
not arrive; lemisesane inge fakwe nini, these 
rings may not be put on by you. 

4. It is used impersonally (neutral) in the 
sense of "save," i.e. besides: andibatandi 
ingenguwe wediva, I dislike them, with the 
exception of you only; akuko t'lxo ingendim, 
there is no God besides me. 

Ini ? interrog. prori. What ? see Nina. 

ukw-Ipa, V. t. To pluck, gather: see uku- 
Pa, II. 

ukw- 1 sa, V. t. To take ; see uku-Sa, II. 

ukw-Isaba, w. To flee; see uku-Saba. 

Ish 1 ishi 1 interj. of surprise and prohibition. 
Go away I you tire me out I 

Isi, Pref. of 4 cl. sing: isitya, vessel. 

ukw-Isuka, v. i. To start up and get out of 
the way ; see iikuSuka. 

ukw-lta, V i. Em.=:Kaf. uku-Wuta, con- 
trac. uku-Ta. To sink down, subside, 
decrease ; amanzi atile or awutile, Em. etile, 
the water subsided; fig. to lose hope or 
heart; to be dispirited, depressed, cast 
down: ndite amandla, lit. my strength is 
gone, i.e. I despair; uknba batandaze bangeti 
amandla, that they should pray and not faint. 
The following forms are to be dis- 
tinguished: abbrev. rel. 2 cl. pi. atd or eta, 
who or which subside ; absol. past, ata or 
eta, they subsided; conj. past, ata or eta, 
and they subsided ; short, pres. dta or eta, 
they subside. 

Itisa, V. To cause to sink down; to 
dispirit, make despondent. 

ukw-Iva, t;. /. To hear, feel; see iiku-Va. 

-iwe, Termination of perf. and pluperf. of 
passive voice : ndiqtityiwe lutando, I have 
been urged by love, whereas ndiqutywe 
lutando lays stress on titando. 

Iwul interj. of exciting to hunt; warcry 
calling to arms. 

Ize, conj. That, in order that, to the intent 
that; see uku-Za. 

Izi, Pref. of 4. cl. plur. : izitshetshc, knives. 

!r;crrVn'"l/'-/-<>f3ad5c,.plur.: 

izimvu, sheep ; iziiit'i, laths. 
ukw-Iza, V. i. To come; see uku-Za. 



J 



J has the soft sound of the English y in 
James and Jane. 
ukuli-Ja, V. i. To have the hair or skin 
ruffled by disease or anger : lenkomo iyafa, 
ite-ja uboya, this cow is ill, it has its hair 



167 



standing up; inja ite-ja umnyele, the dog 
has the hair on its neck raised, has put up 
its back ; lovuitu ute-ja ubuso, this man is 
frowning, displeased, or angry, = uku-Jala. 
n-Ja, n. 3. A dog: inj' induna, a male dog, 



JA 

as distinguished from a bitch; inja yomoya, 
lit. a wind dog, i.e. a hound, fig. a ne'er-do 
well, a tramp, a vagabond ; inja yamangcsi 
or elingesi, a greyhound ; inja yakomkulu, lit. 
a dog of government, i.e. a police con- 
stable ; fig. an utterly despicable person : 
ndiyinja yako, I am your humble servant. 
Fem. injakazi, a bitch; see in-Tlangu. 
Dimin. injana. Phr. ixcsha lidliwe yinja, 
time has been eaten by the dog, i.e. time is 
scarce, shewn e.g. by a person sewing 
while eating. 
ubun-Ja, n. 7. Rudeness. 
in-Jabavii, n. 3. A wild, fierce-looking 

person, reddish from anger ; fig. brandy. 
uku Jabula, i;. {. To be glad, joyful, merry: 
amahashc ayajabula, the horses jump about 
playfully; siyajabula ngokufika kwenu opa, 
we are much pleased at your coming here. 
in-Jabulo, w. 3. Gladness, cheerfulness, joy. 
uku Jabulisa, v. To gladden; to make 
merry. 

ukutl-JACE, t'. /. To break asunder: intambo 
zat'i-jace, the thongs broke suddenly; to be 
tattered, become ragged; fig. to expire, die 
suddenly. 

uku Jaca, v. t. To break or cut asunder 
(a thong or rope) : uyijacile intambo, he 
has broken the thong in two. Some- 
times ukujaca is used without an object : 
kade ndijaca lemini andiftimananga nto, I 
have been on the go all day, and found 
nothing. 
Jaceka, v. To be broken: imHya yaja- 
ceka, the thongs were broken ; to be in a 
tattered state; ingubo seyijacekile, the 
garment is already tattered. 
Jacisa, v. To tatter; to make ragged. 
i-Jacu, n. 2. A rag, tatter. 
ubu-Jacu, n. 7. A state of raggedness or 
poverty; dimin. ubtijacivana. 
uku-Jacula, v. t. To go without anything 

on, or clothed in rags. 
Jaculela, v. To wait or expect to 

receive, as a needy one. 
Jacuzela, v. To go about in rags; to go 
without knowing whither one is going. 
isi-Jadu, n. 4. An assemblage of boys who 

go to the umtshotsho dance. 
ukuti-JADU, V. i. To break out in eruptions 
on the skin. 

uku-Jaduka, = uhiti Jadu. 
Jadukisa, v. To cause pustules to 

appear on the body. 
uku-Jadula, v. To excite an eruption. 



168 



JA 

in-Jadula. n. 3. A kind of eruption on the 
body. 

i Jaja, . 2. A person all blood-stained, e.g. 
after having received a terrible beating: 
uUjaja ligazi, he is covered with blood. 

ukuti-Jaju, V. i. To jump backward, as sheep 
when frightened ; fig. to depart displeased 
and in haste when addressed. 

uku-Jajula, v. i. To jump away, as a cow 
does, when refusing to be milked, or as a 
person does when unwilling to do some- 
thing ; to be impatient and restless, as an 
untrained animal, when caught. 

i-Jaka, n. 3. A company of people attending 
the in-Tlombe; a party of young females 
who assemble at the in-Tonjane dance. 

uku-Jakatya, v. i. To leap from branch to 
branch, as a monkey. 

Jakatyeka, v. To walk in a jerky 
manner, flinging or tossing the arms; to 
fling away despitefully that which has 
been given. 

i-Jako, n. 2. A rafter; the beam which lies on 
the intsika in a house, to bear the thatch, 
etc. 

uku-Jakuba, v. i. To speak earnestly or 
boldly; to be spirited, as a horse ; = ititw- 
Jtikutya. 

uku-Jakuja, v. i. To dance as boys do, 
throwing the upper part of their bodies 
into contortions, while moving forward on 
their huiiocks; iiku-Tshotsha. 

uku Jakutya, v. i. To be spirited, as a horse 
which throws its head up and down. 

u-Jakutya, . l. The name of a Kafir song. 

uku-JALA, V. i. (a) To seem displeased; to 
be peevish; to frown from anger; to be 
excited, passionate, angry, said of a bull 
when his hairs bristle; fig. amasi ajalile, 
the thick milk is bad, has too much water 
in it. (b) To appear to be sickly. 
um-Jalo, n. I. One who is displeased; who 

appears or seems to be displeased. 
in-Jalane, . 3. An ill-natured, peevish, 

malicious person. 
uku-Jalela, v. To frown upon one. 
Jalisa, V. To excite bad temper or a 
peevish disposition; to cause to frown; 
to provoke, make angry. 

i-jALlMAN, n. 2. (a) A German, (b) A 
florin (which as a new coin is said to have 
been habitually passed off by a German 
trader for a half-crown). 

uku-JAMA, V. i. To stare, gape; to look 
longingly at the articles in a shop-window, 



Sternness of counten- 



JA 

When a man stands in a shop, not buying, 
but simply watching the customers, they 
say: lamntu uyajama, that man is staring at 
us. 

isi-Jama, n. 4. A person ready to fight: 

isijama 7thingwini, one ready to fight for 

the mist, i.e. for nothing. 

u-Jamo, M. 5. I 

ubu-Jamo, n. 7, J 

ance, severity. 
uku-Jamela, v. pass, janyelwa. (a) To look 
fiercej standing in a stern, defiant 
position with stiff neck, as enraged dogs, 
or bulls about to fight, (b) To look 
sternly, angrily, defiantly on or at a 
. person; to defy, reprove by look; to look 
frowning: undijamela-iiina? why do you 
frown so at me ? 
Jamelana, v. To look sternly, etc., at 
each other. 
uku-Jamba, v. i. To look or to be angry. 

Jambisa, v. To cause anger. 
u-Jamjam, n. 5. }^\inger, = n-Dyamdyam. 
u-Jangajanga, n. 5. A restless, active person. 
uku-Jangaza, v. i. To wander about or be 
working during several successive days 
without accomplishing the object in view, 
or effecting one's purpose. 
Jangazisa, v. To cause to wander 
about, etc. 
in-Janjalafa, n. 3. A furious one; a strong 

brave man ; a hero. 
uku-Janqela, v. i. To lag behind, tarry. 
i-Janqela, n. 2. One left behind: indoda 
ilijanqela, the man is unable to walk, 
lags behind; intvula ilijanqela, the rain 
comes later than expected, or has not 
the desired effect, being dried up by the 
sun. 
i-Jafa, n. 2. (a) A gang of robbers, murderers. 
With the Fecanes it meant young uncir- 
cumcised men. (b) Calves which are still 
sucking. 
i-Javele, . 2. That which is insipid. 
i-Javujavu, n. 2. Anything which is insipid 
or vapid, as watery pumpkins; foolish talk, 
that no one listens to ; = isi-Maka. 
uku-Jeca, v. t. (a) To cut off or through with 
one cut. (b) To put things into a variety of 
forms, (c) To do a thing quickly and finish 
it at once. v. i.- To have griping in the 
bowels. 

Jecana, v. To provoke one another to 
quarrel. 
in-Jece, n. 3. Idle gossip: injece yahantu 



JE 

ababini, a love-letter. Phr. yinjece yabantu 

ababini, don't interfere in other people's 

quarrels. 
u-Jejane, . l. (a) The Paradise Flycatcher, 

Tchitrea perspicillata {Sw.), with a long 

red tail; fig. a long-tailed red coat, (b) 

Chlorophytum comosum Baker, a medicine 

given to a child as a purgative on the day 

of its birth. 
isi-Jejane, n. 4. Crying continuously: usi^ 

jejane, he remains crying (from fear, anger 

or compassion). 
i-Jeke, n. 2. A poor, lean calf; pi. poor, 

exhausted, scattered people, = int-Sali. 
in-Jeke, n. 3. The lowest stomach of rumina- 
ting animals, the perquisite of the women 

in a slaughtered animal. 
i-JekezI, . 2. The evacuation of an infant 

or of a calf during the first few days after 

birth. 
um-Jeku, n. 6. A motion of the arm extended 

and raised in harangue. 

uku-Jekula, v. i. To gesticulate in speak- 
ing; to toss the head, get angry and go 
away. 
uku-Jela, v. t. (a) To make a mark or raise 

a weal by a blow : wamjela induma, he beat 

him so as to cause a weal, (b) To blow 

water and tobacco-smoke from the mouth 

through a reed, tube, or pipe ; fig. to make 

a water-furrow ; fig. to drink Kafirbeer. 

i-Jelo, n. 2. A tube to spurt water through, 
used when smoking the impeko; a tele- 
scope; pi. guttering and down piping. 

um-Jela, n. 6. The so-called Quinine tree, 
Rauwolfia natalensis Sond., branches of 
which are used for making dagga whistles 
by removing the pith. 

um-Jelo, n. 6. (a) A waterfurrow. (b) A 
highway, wagonroad (obsolete). 
Jembenxa, n. 2. A splay foot. See in- 

Tshembenxa. 
isi-Jengejenge, n. 4. Crying continuously: 

usi-Jengejenge, he remains crying ; = /5/- 

Jejane. 
in-Jengele, n. 3. (a) A courageous man; a 

hero ; a wrathful person who does not care 

for anybody, (b) The severe dysentery 

which raged in 1802. 

ubun-Jengele, n. 7. Heroism, bravery, 
fury, rage. 
uku-Jengqa, v. t. To cut (a tight rope) ; to 

cut meat across the fibre ; of a dog, to bite ; 

of the stomach, to pain. 

in-Jengqane, n. 3. A griping colic. 



W 



169 



JE 

uku-Jengqajengqa, v. To cut or chop into 
small pieces. 
i-Jengqe]engqe, . 2. One who transgresses 

frequently. 
ubu-Jengqejengqe, n. 7. Frequent trans- 
gression. 
i-Jengxeba, . 2. The spur of a fowl; the 

inner toe on the forefoot of a dog, sheep, 

cow, buck, etc. 
i-jENTlMAN, . 2. (a) A gentleman, (b) A name 

given to the Pied Crow, from his showy 

black and white plumage , = t-Gwangwa. 
uku-Jeqa, v. t. To cut off i^uku-Jeca. 
in Jezu, . 3. A sidelong glance, a word 

used by children mainly in the phrase ucd' 

or /' injezu, she wants to draw our 

attention (by her gaudy dress or by her 

walk) ; laqiya yeyeujczu, that qiya makes 

people stare at the wearer. 

uku-Jezula, v. To look askance; to give a 
glance at and then look away. 

um-Jezulo, n. 6. Looking askance. 
isi- Ji, n. 4. That which is not apparent and is 

sought for by investigation; a business 

carried on slowly and secretly; a secret. 

Pulling in diverse directions; being at 

variance, not coming to terms. 
um-Jl, n. 6. Variance. 
ukuti-JIBILILI, V. i. To change in mind; to 

be inconstant in purpose ; to be a turncoat ; 

to depart from an understood agreement ; 

to be unfaithful to an engagement ; to break 

a promise: manditi nina ukuti-jibilili hiyel 

how could I be unfaithful to him? 

in-Jibilill, . 3. A person whose face is 
bleared with tears or sweat; hence an 
ugly, dirtv person ; (used offensively). 

uku-Jibilika, v. i. To go back on one's 
word, fail to keep one's promise, be un- 
faithful to one's engagement. 

Jibiliza, V. t. To rub the eyes when 
filled with tears and leave ugly marks on 
the face; to cover one's face with red 
clay, mud, etc.: ubuso bam ndibujibilize 
ngembola, I smeared my face with red 
clay ; also = ukuti-jibilili. 

um-Jibilizi, w. i. A perverse person; a 
turncoat. 

uku- Jibilizela, v. = ukut'tjibilili. 
uku-Jica, V. t. To work well, to do a thing 

efficiently, as when building or plaiting. 

i-Jica, . 2. A person building or plaiting 
nicely. 

in-Jica, n. 3. A stalk of grass ; an armlet 
plaited from it. 

170 



JI 

u-Jidana, w. l. A person with a narrow 

waist. 
u-JidinI, ;;. I. A white person. 
uku-JIJA, V. t. Em. To twist in a general 
sense ; to wring (a hen's neck) ; to wring 
out wet clothes ; to wind (a watch) ; iyawa- 
jija amatumbu, it (strong tea or coffee) 
twists the inside ; fig. to twist words ; to 
change or turn, e.g. love into hate, pleasure 
into pain, water into the appearance of 
blood ; pass, ukujijwa, to be subject to un- 
remitting pain or unceasing desire. 
in-Jiji, ?/. 3. A person or animal blind in 

one eye. Em. A twister, ropemaker. 
um-Jl Jo, n. 6. That which has undergone 

an essentiiil change. 
uku-Jijana, v. To intertwist, weave. 
Jijeka, v. To be twisted as a string or 
rope; fig. to long and wish for things 
better than those possessed. 
uku-JijiJa, r. t. To bore as with an awl. 
uku-Jijiteka, *. /. To wince or quiver with 
pain, as might be caused by a spicule in 
the eye, or a thorn deep in the foot ; to 
quiver with rage; to be exceedingly trou- 
bled in mind in consequence of having 
received some stabbijig news ; to have an 
unceasing desire forcing itself on one's 
attention. 

Jijitekisa, v. To excite unceasing pain 
or desire. 
in-JiJivane, n. 3. A tall tree without big 

branches, as a cypress; a tall person. 
ukuti-JIKE, and uku-Jika, /-. i. To turn 
round ; to turn the person from one point 
to another ; fig. to turn in mind ; to be un- 
faithful. V. t. To turn round : jika isiteiide, 
turn your heels, i.e. go back ; jika ilitye lo- 
kulola, turn the grindstone; to revolve; 
fig. to twist the meaning of words. 
i-Jikazi, n. 2. An earring (fi^ora being 

turned round). 
i-Jlki, n. 2. Kafir beer, (denoting the in- 
toxicating effect). 
u-Jiko, n. 5. Anything twisted, (a) A 
twisted horn, (b) A plant with bulbous 
root, (c) An anklet of beads; a twisted 
ornament worn round the neck, (d) A 
screw, cork-screw, (e) A thin wire, (f) 
Corn of any kind when about to come 
into ear : amaziinha alujiko, the Kafir- 
corn is forming stalks (third stage of 
growth). Used as adji Curled. 
uku-Jikajika, v. To turn or move fre- 
quently round or about in a ciixle, or 
hither and thither; to compass: nijika- 
jika iilwandle nomhlaba, ye compass sea 



Jl 

and land ; iiele elijikajikayo, a sword 
which turns every way ; to bend out and 
in, as a crooked fence; to revolve un- 
interruptedly ; fig. to talk incoherently. 

i-Jikajika, . 2. One on whose word no 
dependence can be placed. 

in-Jikanjika, n. 3. Used as adj. Crooked. 

in-Jskenjike, n, 3. A frequent and con- 
stant turning, materially or mentally ; 
the action of one who denies what he 
formerly affirmed. 

uku-Jikeka, v. To be turned round or to 
be capable of being turned round, to be 
twisted : ohisesikweni hipuma hijikekile, 
judgment goeth forth perverted. 

Jikela, r. To turn to: inliomo zajikela 
kulomzi, the cattle turned round towards 
that place; to turn round about an 
object : jikela indlii, go round the house ; 
to go round a corner ; to put on the q'tya 
wrapping it round the head. 

u-Jikelo, 11. 5. The style of putting on the 
qiya : ujikelo hvamadlebe ekaii, doing up 
the q'lya with two ears. Other styles 
are ibaku, isisila senkuhi, inkonjane. 

um-Jikelo, w. 6. Anything, as a handker- 
chief, turned round the head, like a 
turban; fig. a race course, circuit: umji- 
keh wc-jaji, the circuit-court. 

Jikelele, arfy. Round, all round: abanxibi- 
jikelcle, all round clothiers ; jikclele vgqu, 
round and round and down, i.e. a dog 
lying down to sleep ; ftgombuliso omkulu 
kiiiii noiike jikclele, with great greetings 
to you all round. 

uku-Jikeleza, v. To go round in a circle 
wujikelezeni umzi, compass the city. 

um-Jikelezi, . l. One who goes round 
(to preach the gospel). 

in-Jikelezi, . 3. Going round and round, 
e.g. a discussion that comes to no 
decision. 

um-Jikelezo, ?/. 6. A circle. 

uku-Jikajikeleza, v. To turn round and 
round about : umoya iihamba ujikajikeleza, 
the wind turneth about continually in 
its course. 

in-Jikanjikeleza, . 3. A round-about 
way ; a winding course. 

uku-Jikelezela, v. To turn round about 
an object, as a wheel round the axle. 

Jikelezisa, v. To make to go round: 
ulitshize igazi esibingelelweni ujikelezise, 
sprinkle the blood round about upon the 
altar. 



JI 

Jikelisa, v. To cause to turn round 

an object ; to wind or turn round upon ; 

to turn round the corner ; to wrap round. 

um-Jikeliso, w. 6. A circle. 

uku-Jikelisela, v. To cause to turn 

round toward. 
Jikisa, V. To cause to turn about or 
round an object from one position to 
another; to assist in turning, etc. 
Jikisela, v. To cause to turn round 
toward. 
uku-Jikica, v. i. To consult carefully 
respecting a thing which has to be done, as 
when a punishment is to be inflicted ; to 
abuse by words. 
uku-Jikija, v. i. To pierce a hole in hard 
wood with a blunt instrument ; fig. to go 
through a small opening with difficulty. 
Jikijisa, v. To cause to go through a 
strait, or to pierce hard wood. 
in-Jikljane, n. 3. (a) A short, large knobbed 

stick, (a) Large posteriors. 
um-Jikolo, . 6. Extraordinary exertions, 
such as the ploughing before an impending 
epidemic of cattle-disease. 
in-Jikwe, n. 3. (a) The bow of the u-Hadi. 

(b) Speaking promiscuously. 
uku-JILA, II. /. To interweave bushes in a 
hedge or kraal fence; to weave small wood 
on sticks in making wicker baskets, v. i. To 
go about searching ; to quiver with pain. 
u-Jilo, ?i. 5. (a) A fence made of wattles, 
woven on stakes standing about one 
foot apart, (b) The right half of an ox's 
or bull's skin, formed into a shield, (c) 
A kind of bamboo. 
uku-Jilajila, v. To quiver, to be distorted 
by pain or anger ; not to have the means 
by which to obtain that for which one 
longs. 
i-Jila, . 2. A speaker in a public assembly : 
esuke amajila ngamajila, speaker after 
speaker rose. 
um-Jila, . 6. Anything that is long in 
comparison with other things of the same 
kind, e.g. a long feather in a cock's tail, a 
dress that droops behind, a long scratch on 
the face. 
u-Jilana, n. i. A person or party com- 
missioned to execute an order ; an official. 
in-Jilatya, n. 3. A wild, stubborn, obstinate 

person who cannot be managed. 
in Jimbilili, . 3. An aged, toothless person, 
with the muscles of the face flabby and 
hanging, and the mouth when shut drawn 
171 



down at the corners ; one with bleared 

eyes; one, whether old or young, who is 

often weeping; fig. sullenness. 

in-Jinana, k. 3. Itch in persons; an itching 

rash ; a derisive name for refugees. 
uku-Jinda, v. t. To back-bite, slander. 

um-Jindl, ;;. I. A slanderer, back-biter. 
in-Jinga, . 3. One well versed in a cer- 
tain branch of science ; a wealthy person, a 
principal man, a leading citizen. 
uku-JIN(jA, V. i. To hang, depend; to be 
suspended; to swing forwards and back- 
wards in the air; to dangle; to wave to and 
fro; to hesitate, be in doubt as to how to 
act ; to be in suspense. 
um-Jingo, n. 6. (a) A rope suspended 
between poles for hanging clothes on; a 
swing; fig. St. Vitus' dance, (b) That 
which is the only one of its kind in 
possession. 
uku-Jingajinga, v. To swing often, con- 
stantly: kujingajinga eziugqondivcni zam, it 
is in my mind. 
isi-Jingijane, ) . -ru * u- u 

isi-Jinfijingi,] " 4. That which is m 

constant motion (watch, clock) but 
without progress ; that which twists, or 
moves round a certain point; fig. any 
affection in continual exercise: a 
hindrance, impediment, obstacle. 

u-Jingijingana, . I. One going about the 
country with no definite or apparent 
object in view ; a tall, slender person. 

isi-Jingilizane, n. 4. Wavering as to 
whether to accompany a person or not. 

uku-Jinglsa. v. To cause to swing (a 

rope); to hang, suspend; to toss; to 

follow closely that which one is 

attempting to catch. 

ama-Jingiqiwu, n. 2. pi. Unsuccessful 

efforts; rambling, pointless speech. 
ama-Jingqela, v. 2. pi. People who have 

been left behind, who got tired in war, or 

were left when others removed from their 

residence. 
isi-Jingqi, n. 4. A species of aloe. 
i-Jingqi-mabala, n. I. One who wishes to 

serve everybody. 
ukuti-Jingxe, v. i. To hop on one leg. 

uku-Jingxela, v. i. To hop o.\ one leg, as 
the ama-Zim of the Kafir stories do; to 
halt, to be lame. 
uku-Jiwula, v. i. To swing, as the hands or 

arms by the sides in walking, or a broken 

branch in the wind. v. t. Of an elephant, to 

swing its trunk to drive away the flies; to 



Jl 

wield a sword, hatchet or sling with the 
hand; to vault; to throw oneself on a horse 
or ox. 

uku-Jiya, v. i. To become stiff or thick, as 
milk or porridge passing out of the liquid 
state : ubisi lujiyile, the milk has become 
thick; fig. to fall lame ; to be crippled, to 
be stiff in the limbs: izito zake zijtyile, his 
legs are quite stiff, i.e. he walks lame; 
ihashe lijiye ngomkono, the horse is lame in 
the foreleg. 

Jiyela, v. To become stiff for: bajiyelwe 
kukudla, the food turned stiff for them, i.e. 
the food stood long, and consequently 
became stiff. 
Jiyisa, contrac. jisa, v. To make thick; 
to stiffen by boiling; fig. to cause 
lameness. 

u-Jiza, n. 5. The Saffron-breasted Wren- 
warbler, Prinia hypoxantha (Sharpe). 

ukuti-Jize, ) , , s ^ ^ ^- j 

uku-Jiza, 1 ^- ' (^) T P"*' tie round 
the head a handkerchief, wreath or crown : 
batnti-jize ngesitsaba satneva entloko, they put 
a crown of thorns on his head. 

ukuti-Jo, V. i. To go beyond, out of sight, as 
a horse disappearing over a ridge, or in a 
valley. 

u-Jobela, . l. The male Red-collared 
Widowbird, Coliuspasser ardens (Bodd.J, 
in nuptial plumage. In some districts the 
male Pin-tailed Widow-bird, Vidua serena 
(L.), in nuptial plumage is also so called. 
Males in eclipse plumage and females of 
these species are called intakakazi; fig. a 
dark-coloured long-tail coat. 

ukuti-Jobodo, 7 t- . , 

uku-Joboda, r- ' To struggle, as as im- 
patient animal when caught, or a person 
when one is attempting to bind him. 
in-Jobodo, . 3. A long thing; also one 
that strugglej. 

uku-JOJA, V. i. To sniff; to smell at or out, 

as a bull a cow which is not in calf; fig. to 

find, as a judge, the true state of a case. 

Jojisa, V. To cause to sniff; to lead a 

dog on the scent of game ; fig. to bring 

out by mental application the required 

idea. 

in-Joje, and in-Jojeli, n. 3. That which 
excels, distinguishes itself; one who is well 
versed in a certain branch of science (a 
doctor or artist), in shooting and hitting 
well. 

Jojo, . 2. A sour-grass pasture ; a locality 
with moist, damp climate : ilizwe lijojo, the 
country is damp. 



172 



JO 

u-Jojo, n. 5. A thin, long stick carried in the 

hand. 
u-Jojo, n. 5. A considerable number of 
people or cattle in a row, one after 
another. 
um-Jojo, . 6, Bad luck ; misfortune 
repeatedly happening, e.g. getting often 
into prison, etc. ; a groundless insinuation. 
This word has some connection with 
tiku-Nuka. 
uku-Jojomeza, v. i. To run hard with a 

message. 
u-Jojosi, n. 2. A rafter smaller than um-Qadi. 
u-Jo|ozana, n. l. A person at a distance, in 

view and approaching. 
um-Jojozi, w. I. A big lad, from 1 5 to 17 

years of age. 
uku-JOKA, V. t. ' To keep running after 
persistently, as one player may another in 
the game icekwa, or as dogs sticking close 
to a buck: mus'ukundijoka, don't keep 
running after me all the time ; izinja ziyi- 
joka inyamakazi zingayiyeki, the dogs keep 
chasing the buck without leaving off; 
to keep at a person with importunity, 
seeking a favour of some kind; to strive 
hard to induce a person to consent to the 
views of another: wabajoka kunene, he 
pressed them hard. 
Jokana, v. To constrain, etc., one 

another. 

Jokisa, V. To persist, persevere in doing 

a thing: kwaba kukona bajokisayo, but 

they were the more urgent. 

uku-Jokoca, v. i. To beg in vain. 

Jokocela, v. To go on in a journey, or 

with work, as one who is weak or almost 

worn out. 

uku-Jokomeza, v. i. To scold vehemently ; 

to speak violently. 
in-Jokwe, . 3. A number of very red or 

dark things. 
uku JOLA, V. t. To taste and serve out for 
a company, as the master of a feast serves 
out the food set before him by the 
servants. 

in-JoIi, n. 3. (a) One who carves meat, 

etc. ; the steward, ruler or master of the 

feast, (b) The recorder of a tribe's 

history. 

uku-JoHsa, V. To take a level with the 

eye ; to take aim at a thing, as with a 

gun. 

uku-Jola, V. t. To steal. A Pondomisi word 

used by the Kafirs. 



JO 

in-Jombe, ;/. 3. The stick with a lion's, 
monkey's, or leopard's tail which is placed 
in a conspicuous position at the kraal, or 
over the house-door of one who is sum- 
moned by a chief ; a summons. 

During the continuance of the practice 
of u-Pundlo, if a young woman refused on 
being called to go to the chief's place and 
there become the play-thing of the men, a 
messenger was sent by the chief to fix the 
injombe on her hut or on a hut of her 
village. On seeing the dreaded sign, her 
friends, in order to save their property, 
compelled her to carry it to the chief's 
place and become a prostitute. Some of 
the girls thus summoned were in the end 
married. 
i-Jomo, n. 2. A vessel for holding beer. 
uku-JONQA, V. i. To stare; to look at 
fixedly, threateningly, fiercely, or with 
boldness. 

in-Jongo, . 3. Aim, purpose, object. 
u-Jongwa lipela, n. 5. Kafir beer. 
uku-Jongana, v. To stare at each other: 
selejongene nokufa, he is already staring 
death in the face. 
Jongela, u. To stare at a person: undi- 
jongela-ninaf why are you staring at me ? 
in-JongoIo, . 3. Something red; a herd of 
reddish cattle; a field of ripe corn; red 
eyes. 
i-JONi, . 2. A soldier, fr. Eng. Johnny, 
alluding to the name by which the soldiers 
familiarly addressed the Kafirs : singmnkosi 
waniajoni, siniken' indawo sitigene, singumtyi- 
no wamajoni, we are an army of soldiers, 
give us a place that we may come in, we 
are a company of soldiers (i.e. we have 
come to compete in a singing-competition.) 
ubu-JONi, n. 7. Soldiership. 
uku-Jonjoloza, v. i. To brawl, especially at 

drinking bouts. 
uku-Jonjota, v, t. To ask in vain for that 
which lawfully belongs to one, but which 
is unjustly in the possession of another. 
uku-Jonuluka, v. i. To exert oneself in 

walking. 
uku-Jofa, V. i. To manifest a wilful design ; 
to use angry provocative words. 

i;i'-Jo?k"'4. 1 ^ passionate, violent, 
irascible, furious, or wild person. 

ubu-Jofa, n. 7. Angriness of disposition, 
violent commotion of the mind, passion, 
fury, rage, savageness. 



173 



JO 



in-Jovane, n. 3. A hotheaded, fiery- 
tempered, furious person. 
uku-Jozela, v. i. To wend towards a hamlet 
where a beast is being slaughtered, or 
towards a place where it is hoped some- 
thing may be obtained. 
i-JOYlNI, n. 3. A gang of labourers for the 

mines, fr. Eng. join. 
i-Jozl, . 2. A great assegai. 
ukutl-Ju, V. i. To go straight towards with- 
out turning aside, e.g. to run quickly with 
a message ; = ukuti-Dzii. 
uku-JUBA, 1). /. To rebound; to strike or 
start back to its natural position, as an 
elastic thing (stick, branch) when bent, or 
a snake ; to spring with a sudden jerk, as a 
trap for birds or animals, in closing: isigii 
sijiibile, the trap has sprung; to jump up 
and run away ; to hold fast to a branch or 
rope and kick or swing with the feet; to be 
struck : iidajutywa yiminga, the thorn trees 
rebounded on me and scratched me ; to go 
faraway: ndizakujaba le, I am going far; 
ndizakuyibcta ibola ijube le, I am going to 
drive the ball far. 

in-Jube, n. 3. Lifting a baby by the armpits 
and inducing it to kick about playfully in 
the air, as a mother does with her child. 
uku-Jubajuba, v. To struggle violently, 
as one suffering from convulsions; fig. to 
make a long journey, occupying more 
than one day. 
Jubela, V. Ujubele kude, he made a long 
journey in one day, owing to his longing 
to see those who were far away. 
Jubisa, V To cause a trap to spring ; to 
let fly a ball or assegai; to let a stick or 
branch start back to its natural position; 
to pull a trigger. 
uku-Jubalaza, v. i. To struggle as an animal, 
whose head has been severed from the 
body, as a snake which has been struck on 
the head, or as a person held fast by the 
arms. 
in-Jubaqa, n. 3. A headstrong, uncontroll- 
able person; a cow which refuses to be 
milked ; an ox or horse which refuses to be 
ridden; fig. a heathen. 
ubun-Jubaqa, . 7. A state of stubbornness. 
ukutlJUCE, V. i. To be in a state of 
exhaustion, from walking or working or 
exposure to the sun or from hunger. 
uku-Juca, V. i. (a) To endeavour to continue 
a journey or work, though greatly fatigued; 
to fall behind through fatigue or 

174 



jU 

exhaustion, but still to struggle on. 

(b) Of chains or bonds, to fall off a 

prisoner and so set him free. 
Juceka, v. To be quite exhausted from 

work or after a journey : andidhnve tigako, 

tidijucekile, I am dead tired. 
ukuti-JUCU, V. i. To be exhausted from 
walking, etc.; to be cast down on the receipt 
of bad news ; = tikuti-Juce. 
uku Jucula, V. t. To take away a bit of the 

skin in pinching a person; to pluck (a 

fowl) , = uku-Yucula. 
Jucuka, V. i. Of skin, to be taken off, torn 

away ; of a person, to fall off in flesh. 
Juculuzela, v. i. To keep following on, 

though lagging through fatigue ; to be 

always behind, in the rear. 

ukuti-Juju, V. i. To have pain; cf. Tshu-tshu. 

Jujuju 1 interj. describing the sound made 

by the engine of a train; cf. Gugugti. Also 

used as adv. Quickly. 

uku-Jujumeza, v. To go quickly as a 

train or a horse : bahatnbe ngokujttjumeza, 

they went quickly. 
in Jujujuju, . 3. A thing put together, 
composed of different parts ; iV/^-Xm^^ 
ka-Xaka. 
um Jukuja, . 6. Something hanging down 

like the wattles of a cock or turkey. 
uku-Jukujela, v. t. To throw at an object 
which is almost out of range; to bring 
down (a bird) by throwing a stick or stone 
at it: yijuhijele intaka, throw a stick at 
the bird though it is distant. 
Jukujeleka, v. To fall down suddenly; 

to be thrown or brought down by a blow; 

to fall fainting: kivakaucinane ukuba 

angajukujelcki pantsi, it wanted little and 

he would have fallen down. 
ama-Jukujuku, n. 2. Used only in loc. ema- 
jukujiikwini. Far up, in a tree-top, in the sky, 
or in heaven; far 'up' country, e.g. at the 
goldfields, because, in going from Kafraria, 
one rises to reach that district : iidiyaktijuba 
emajukujukwini, I am going far up country. 
uku-Jukutya, v. t. To cast away. 
Jukutyeka, v. To turn round and 

round ; to fall helplessly over an object ; 

to tumble over suddenly. 
uku-Jula, V. t. To drive a number of cattle 
from the pasture to a hamlet where one of 
them is to be slaughtered for the celebra- 
tion of any ceremony: yw/' inkabi, catch the 
ox which is to be slaughtered. 
Julela, V. To cast into: undijulele elii- 

dakcni, he hath cast me into the mire. 



JU 

Julisa, V. To assist one in driving an ox 
to a hamlet for slaughter. 
i-JULI, n. 2. A jury. 

isi-Jungqe, /;. 4. A small portion of any 
thing remaining after the larger portion 
has been removed; as a short length or 
piece of a thong or rope bi-oken off from a 
longer length ; a short distance remaining of 
a long journey; dimin. a trifle, not worth 
much : wasebcnza isijutigqana, his work was 
not worth speaking of; he did a little work 
or wrought for a little; cf. isi-Shiuiqe. 
uku-JUQA, V. i. To walk slowly and weakly, 
as an old man; to continue at one's work, 
though exhausted ; to keep on doing one's 
best in spite of fatigue, v. t. To cause pain : 
isisu sam siyandijuqa, my stomach pains me, 
I have very bad stomach-ache. 
Juqajuqa, v. To be powerless, as one 
thrown down and pressed upon by an 
adversary. 
Juqeka, v. To be overcome by passion; 

to desire unavailingly. 
Juqela, v. To persevere. 
in-Juze, n. 3. An expert; one who excels in 
any accomplishment, as a person dis- 
tinguished for running or fighting. 
u-Juze, n. S- = u-Ji2a. 
in-J wabavu, Tribal, = in-Jahavu. 
i-Jwabu, n. 2. The foreskin, prepuce remov- 
ed in circumcision; amajwabu, shreds of 
flesh left on the skin of an animal after 
skinning. 

uku-Jwapiliza, v. t. To try to lay hold of an 
object, which is either not reached, or slips 
again from the grasp; fig. to strive un- 
availingly to get; to make an ineffectual 
attempt to accomplish a purpose ; to speak 
ineffectually; iv'ih^X, Jwapuluza. 
uku-Jwaqa, v. t. To suck or milk a cow 
which is nearly dry ; to suck a breast which 
contains no milk ; to take a piece of lean 
meat between the teeth and jerk at it with 
the hand. v. i. To express displeasure, as 
a parent when teased by a child, or as a 
child on finding the mother's breast dry, or 
as a bitch when followed by a dog. 
u-Jwaqo, n. 5. Leanness; displeasure. 
um-Jwaqu, n. 6. A very lean animal ; a 
piece of lean beef. 



JW 

uku-Jwaqeka, v. To feel overcome by 

sorrow, as on seeing the young orphans 

of departed friends ; to be overcome by 

anger. 

Jwaqelela, v. To be displeased with 

one who teases. 
Jwaqisa, v. To excite displeasure by 

teasing. 
uku-Jwaqulula, v. t. To continue to milk 
a cow daily though she gives little. 
uku-Jwatyula, v. i. Of cows, to begin to 

make udder. 
ukuti-Jwaxa, v. t. To give out quickly what 
is asked; to throw in a little, or give the 
little one has. Used ironically, or spoken in 
contempt of the thing given. 
um-Jwaxaxa, w. 6. Thin, watery soup, milk 

or food ; insipid or vapid liquid. 
u-Jwejwane, . I. = it-Jejane. 
uku-Jwejweza, v. t. To put off, protract 
strife; to take on alone unheeded and 
unanswered. 
u-Jwejwezana, w. 5. A long, narrow, pretty 

garment. 
ama-Jwete, //. 2. pi. The loose wrinkles on 

the skin of old people. 
ukuti-JWI. V. t. and /. To throw down 
suddenly; to throw oneself down suddenly; 
to fall down suddenly : ndite-jwi pantsi, I 
fell down suddenly. 

ukutela-Jwi, v. To throw suddenly to or 
towards or at: wanditela-jwi ngomhlaba, 
he threw earth at me. 
uku-Jwila, V. To pitch, to throw by rais- 
ing or hoisting from the ground, as earth 
from a spade ; = uku-Gibisela. 
in-jwila,. 3. Hitting accidentally; knock- 
ing down suddenly ; an accident, such as 
firing on each other by mistake. 
uku-Jwilela, v. To throw into a certain 
place: amadoda ajwilclwa czikweni, the 
men were cast into the furnace. 
um-Jwila, n. b. Something which is alone, 
separated from others of its kind, e.g. a 
single hair on the chin, a single white hair 
on the head ; akin to um-Jila. 
isi-Jwili, n. 4. A loud lamentation or great 
wailing of many people espec. over the 
dead, or after punishment by confiscation 
of property; a bleating, bellowing. 



K 



Khas (a) an inspirated sound as in the 
English keep: ukut'i, to say; and (b) 
an expirated (explosive) sound somewhat 
sharper than the English baker: ukukumbula, 



175 



to remember. K is inserted before a and ti 
in the negatives of verbs to avoid hiatus: 
ak-utandi, thou lovest not; akasebenzi, he 
does not work; and also before the pron. 



KA 



KA 



object 2 pers. sing, for the same purpose : 
itdikubonile, I liave seen you. 
Ka, (a) Atix, verb, particle, used in the nega- 
tive forms of the present, the imperfect and 
the future tenses, to express "not yet": 
anikaqondi-na? do you not yet understand? 
ubttngekasebenzi-nto, you had not yet done 
anything; safika lingekatshoni ilanga, we 
arrived before sunset, lit. the sun not yet 
setting; lingek&bikd ixesha,hciorQ the time; 
andikayi kubona, I have not yet gone to see. 

(b) prep. Of: expressing the possessive 
relation before proper names and names of 
things personified : unyana ka-Faku, the son 
of Faku; indlu ka-bawo, the house of my 
father, i.e. belonging to him; igama //ka- 
Ttxo (more definite than igama lo-Tixo) the 
name of God. 

(c) Adverbial prefix to nouns, adjectives 
and numerals : kabukali, sharply, from the 
noun ubiikali, sharpness; kakidn, greatly, 
from the adj. kulu, great ; kane, four times, 
from the numeral ne, four; kalikiiln, a 
hundred times, from ikulu, hundred; ka- 
ngaka, from tigaka, so great. Prefixed to 
adverbs it gives them an intensive force: 
kakaloku, immediately, from kaloku, now. 

Ka 1 Ka 1 iiiterj. used when being suffocated 
by smoke: ka, safa ngiwisi! we die from 
smoke, we cannot bear it 1 

uku-Ka, I. V. aux. defective and irregular; 
perf. ke; abbrev. rel. 2 cl. pi., akd; absol. 
past, aka; conj. past, aka; short pres. dka 
or dke ; the neg. has e instead of /. 

(a) It implies that an action happens only 
occasionally or but seldom, and is equivalent 
to "sometimes, a little," or with a negative 
to "not at all," and may or may not be 
preceded by the pronominal subjects: wA'ke 
nditete or kenditeti, I do speak a little or 
sometimes ; ndike ndabona, I have once seen 
or did once see ; iwzka wako, he was once 
there; ukQ wambona-naf have you perhaps 
seen, or have you ever happened to see 
him? ngubani-na oke aswele amandlaf v/ho 
was ever weak? andikange ndimbone, or 
andaka ndambona, I have not come so far 
as to see him, i.e. I never saw him ; ndiya 
kukk ndisele, I shall drink a little ; andikuke 
ndibone, I shall not see even a little, i.e. I 
shall see nothing ; ukulamba asinto akQ wa- 
yiva kowabo, hunger was a thing he never 
felt at home ; musa ukuka iiyikankanye lento, 
you must not mention this matter at all; 
sekh ndabona, I have already seen a little; 
singekh sikubone-naf may we not see you 
at least ? 

176 



(b) It is used in prayer and in polite 
requests, forming a kind of supplicatory 
imperative, and is in this sense more polite 
than zc (cf. uku-Za) ; kenditke, just let me 
speak; kauhlale apa, just sit here a little; 
kawenze,\\x'sX do it, commence, if you please, 
uku-K'A, II. vA. (a) To draw Or fetch water : 
hamba iiye like avianzi, go and draw water. 

(b) To pull off, pluck: yika intyantyambo 
Icyo, pluck off that flower. Abbrev. rel. 2 
cl. pi., akd, who or which draw; absol. past 
aka, they drew; conj. past aka, and they 
drew; short pres. dka, they draw. Phr. 
ilizive ulika aniakinke, he never gets tired of 
walking about, tonday he is here, to-morrow 
there. 

um-Ki, . I. A drawer of water. 
uku-Kela, v. To draw water into: uwakel' 
aminzi esilyeni, he drew water into a 
vessel. 
Ke?ela, v. To draw water for or pluck 
for: ndikeleV amanzi, get me some water ; 
wasikelela ingcongolo zambini, he plucked 
two reeds for us. 
Kelelela, v. To dip water from a foun- 
tain or river with a small vessel and pour 
it into a larger one; to dip from one 
vessel into another. 
Kelelana, v. To pick fruit or maize 
from another man's garden and give it 
to a third party ; to dip water one for 
another. 
ama-Kelelana, n. 2. pi. Those who work 

or harvest in each other's gardens, 
uku Kisa, v. To cause to help to draw, 
fetch, pluck: n,k\se amanzi nmntwana, 
make the child help to fetch water. 
ubu-Ka, n. 7. A creeper resembling ivy, 

used in making wicker-work of doors, 
uku- K' ABA, r. t. pass, katyiva. To kick, 
strike with the foot; to be vicious: inkomo 
iyakdba yakusengwa, the cow kicks during 
milking; fig. to shoot, sprout. 
i-Kaba, n. 2. (a) A shoot at the point of 
growth; a green stalk of Kafircorn or 
maize showing leaves prior to fruiting: 
amazimba akaba or alikaba, the Kafircorn 
forms leaves (the second stage of growth), 
(b) Young plants collectively; a, num- 
ber of young men; the youth, the flower 
of the army. 
isi-Kaba, n. 4. A shoot or sprout standing 
forth or out; fig. aspiration, ambition, 
exertion, striving for a high degree or 
station. 



uku-Kabakaba, 
i Kabakaba, w. 



To kick often. | Kafuti, adv. Often ; see Full 

A number of young I ukuti-K'AHLA, v. t. To cast down, push 



men playing with shields. 

uku-Kabalaza, v. t. To kick out violently, 

as an animal in pain from hunger and 

thirst; to kick or roll about (in sleep). 

Kabaleka, v. i. To be fatigued, weak, 

consumed from hunger and thirst. 
Kabana, t'. To kick each other. 
Kabela, r. To kick designedly, for a 
purpose: undikabela-nina? why do you 
kick me ? 
Kabisa, v. To cause or make to kick: 
iiyandikahisa ngehashe, you make the horse 
kick me. 
ama-Kaba, n. 2. pi. The ankles of the foot. 
in-Kaba, n. 3. The navel. Phr. Kwatshona 
nenkaba, or ze-gongqo nenkaba, even the 
navel sank, i.e, he put all his strength into 
arguing; he felt pain. 
isi-Kaba, and isi-Kababa, n. 4. The navel of 

calves. 
um-Kaba, n. 6. Rupture of the navel; 

u-Gqongo. 
uku-Kabalaza, x^. See under iiku-Kaba. 
in Kabankaba, . 3. A long thing suspended, 

hanging down. 
um-Kabenu, n. I. Mr. So and-So, used in 

contempt or irony. 
in-Kabi, n. 3. A castrated animal, with special 
reference to the ox; inkabi yehashe, a 
gelding; inkabi yegusha, a wether; dimin. 
inkatyana. 
Kabini, adv. Twice, see Btni. 
um-Kaboti, ^- tim-Kovoti. 
Kabukali, adv. Sharply, see ubu-Kali. 
ukuti-Kaca, used as adv. Entirely: iqtya 
imnyama kaca, the handkerchief is entirely 
black. 
Kade, ama-Kade, Long ago, see De. 
isi-KADE, K. 4. Damage, trouble; fr. Du. 

schade. 
i-KAFU, n. 3. The refuse after winnowing; 

from Du. kaf. 
i-Kafu, 11. 2. The naked posteriors; (used as 

a nickname). 
uku-Kafula, v. t. To render warriors in- 
vulnerable (and thieves undetectable) by 
making them pass through the smoke of 
certain herbs and sprinkling them with the 
gall of 'certain animals given as offerings 
to the doctor. 
um-KafuIi, n. l. One who practices uku- 

kafula ; a sorcerer ; fem. iimkafulikazi. 
isi-Kafulo, m. 4. The process of making in- 
vulnerable. 
X 



against, tread or stamp upon, v. i. Wat'i- 
kahla ngenyawo, he fell on his feet, as a cat 
does; to produce a sudden noise by falling 
heavily; fig. to behave rudely. 
isi-KahIa, n. 4. Anything thrown down in 
a heap, as books, etc. ; fig. a poor creature 
of miserable appearance. 
uku-Kahlela, v. To throw, cast, strike, 
push, kick down ; to set down vehemently, 
forcibly, noisily; to floor, as in wrestling: 
wamkahlela emhlabeni, he threw him to 
the ground; fig. to salute with the hand. 
Kahleleka, v. To throw oneself to the 
ground; to fall down heavily and help- 
lessly. 
Kahlelisa, v. To cause to fall helplessly. 
i-Kahlangube, n. 2. The Cape Bristle- 
necked Bulbul, Phyllastrephus capensis Sw. 
Kahlanu, adv. Five times; see Hlatiu. 
uku-Kahlaza, v. t. To glean. 
Kahle, adv. Well; see Hie. 
in-Kahlela, . 3. A corpulent person; one 

with a protuberant belly. 
in-Kahlukazi, . 3- A great deal, a lump; 
fig. the chief point in a speech ; a splendid 
orator or oration. 
i-Kaka, n. 2. A shield. Phr. tikaka kampetu, 
one who is a shield turned the wrong way, 
i.e. one who reverses his attitude, turns a 
somersault, one who goes over from one 
party to another, one who turns evidence 
against an accomplice in crime ; treachery, 
falsehood, deceit ; rebellion ; also = into enge- 
nambulelo, a thankless person, one who turns 
on his benefactor; pi. okaka kampetu, rebels, 
turncoats. 

isi-Kaka, n. 4. A short skirt made of skin ; 
a petticoat. 
um-Kaka, n. 6. Muscle of the chest. 
Kakade, and Ukakade, adv. Used in ex- 
pressing affirmation, or in swearing; the 
idea being " it has long been so, and there- 
fore is not to be disputed" : certainly, to be 
sure, of course; kakadeshe, to be sure, is 
often used in jocular language ; see De. 
i-Kakakaka, n. 2. A large kind of thistle. 
ukuti-Kakalaia, v. i. Tp be killed in heaps: 

bati-kakalala, they are all dead. 
u-Kakalala, //. 5. An overseer, inspector. 
i-Kakalo, n. 2. A species of bird. 
Kakaloku, adv. Immediately, at once; see 
Oku, I. 
177 



KA 

uku-Kakamela, v. i. To arrogate, etc. = Ga- 
gaiiiclij. 
isi-Kakamela, . 4. A person of high rank, 

etc. ; see isi-Gagamehi. 
ubu-Kakamela, n. 7. Greatness, stateli- 
ness, majesty. 
Kakamsinya, adv. Quickly, etc., see Msinya- 
i-Kakasholo, n. 2. One who blows or puffs 
himself up like a turkey-cock: uzenz' ika- 
kasholo, he boasts. 
u-Kakayi, n. 5. The human skull. 
in-KakayezI, n. 2. A place where in Kafir 
belief there is no natural light, but only 
imaginary illumination. 
uku-Kakaza, or Kakaza, v. i. To gargle. 
in-Kakazana, 71. 3. An honourable term for 

a damsel, a little girl; see i-Nkazana. 
Kakubi, adv. Badly; fig. basebenza kakubi, 

they work very hard ; see Bi. 
Kakuconga, adv. Sparingly; see uku-Conga. 
Kakudlwana, adv. A little more; see 

Kiidhvana. 
Kakuhle, adv. Finely, gently, well ; see ///^. 
Kakulu, ) J Tr 

Kakulukazi, j '"^''- V^''^' ^^''^ "^h' 
used superlatively, denoting absolute great- 
ness of quantity or quality: hiUingile kakulu 
or kakulukazi, it is very good ; see Kulu. 
i-Kala, w. 2. The Cape aloe, whose leaves are 
burnt to make smoke for driving away 
insects; the dried leaves are ground and 
mixed with snuff to make it pungent. Eye- 
kala, the month of July, when aloes com- 
mence blossoming. 
i-KALA, n. 2. A collar, fr. Eng. 
ama-Kala. n. 2. pi. The inward parts of the 

nostril. 
in-Kala, n. 3. A crab, = u-Nonkala. 
izi-Kala, n. 4. pi. Piles. 
um-Kala, . 6. A cord or thong drawn 
through the cartilage of the nostrils, or a 
small stick fixed in the same way, to keep 
a calf from sucking, or to guide a pack-ox 
in riding; hence, a bit, bridle; dimin. um- 
kalana, a. small bit. 
uku-K'ALA, V. i. To cry out vehemently, 
scream : abantu bakala kum, the people cried 
to me ; fig. to complain : bakala ngant, they 
complained of me. 
u-Kala, n. l. A vedette in war. 
isi-Kaio, n. 4. A loud cry, lamentation. 
uku-Kalela, v. To cry to; masikalele ku- 
Tixo, let us cry to the Lord ; lomfazi uka- 
lelwa ngutnntwana wake, lit. that woman is 
cried after by her child, i.e. her child 
cries after her. 

1/8 



KA 

Kalelana, v. To cry out against each 

other; to take offence at each other. 
Kalisa, v. To cause or make to cry: 
wandikalisa vgokungapulapuli, you dis- 
satisfied me by not obeying. 
Kalisela, v. To make cry for : wandikali- 
sela ukudla, he made me cry for food. 
in-KalakahIa, k. 3. The roof of the mouth. 
i-KaiakandIa, . 2. (a) A species of bird 
(? the Cape Bristle-necked Bulbul, Phyl- 
lastrephus capensis Sw.) (b) A big dog. 
ukuti-Kalakata.) -r^ .^u ^- ^ 
uku-Kalakata, ] '" '' ^^ ^^^^^^ '"^o : watt- 
kalakata ngerele esifubeni sake, he thrust the 
sword into his breast. 

Kalakatela, v. To fall suddenly, un- 
awares into a hole : ndikalakatele eweni, 
I fell down the rock. 
uku-Kalala, v. i. To be offended : wayikalala 
impatb, he was offended by the treatment ; 
akusikalalanga, thou hast not forsaken us 
in a huff. 

um-Kalalo, n. 6. The continual refusing of 
what one really wants; the return of a 
married woman to her parents' place. 
uku-Kalalisa, v. To give offence. 
Kalaza, v. To complain, murmur, express 
discontent; to find fault: ukalaza nganto- 
tiina J why or of what are you com- 
plaining ? 
in-Kalazo, n. 3. Complaint, dissatisfaction. 
isi-Kalazo, n. 4. That of which a person 
complains in the conduct of another, a 
complaint. 
uku-Kalazeka, v. To be reprehensible; to 

be found fault with. 
Kalazela, v. To complain for or of: 
ukalazela-nina? why or wherefore do you 
complain ? 
Kalazeleka, To be reproachable : ukuze 
bangahi tiakukalazeleka, that they may be 
without reproach. 
Kalazisa, v. To cause to complain, etc. 
i-Kalamsha, n. 2. A big round thing of its 
kind, as a large bead or a big eyeball ; used 
offensively for a big round head. 
i Kalana, n. 2. Aloe tenuior Haw., the small 

aloe used for tapeworm. 
i-Kalane, n. 2. A large, baglike tick ; a 
bush-tick which infests cattle ; a "tick in 
general. 
isi-KALl, n. 4. (a) A scale, weight: fr. Du. 
schaal. (b) A ploughshare, fr. Du. schoar. 
isi-Kaii, n. 4. An assegai; plur. assegais, 
weapons, arms; fig. danger. 



KA 

ubu-Kali, M. 7. Sharpness: isitshetshe sinobu- 
kali, the knife is sharp; used as adj. 
sharp, clever, energetic: lendoda ibukali, 
this man is sharp, i.e. acute, energetic; 
igqira elibukali, a clever doctor; severe, 
harsh in manner or speech : amazwi abukali, 
sharp words, adv. kabukali, sharply, 
harshly, severely : wateta kabukali, he spoke 
severely, earnestly; walila kabukali, he 
wept shriekingly. 

uku-Kalipa, v. i. To be active, bold, 

energetic, courageous, brave, daring: 

indoda ekalip'ileyo, an active, bold, 

energetic man. 

i-Kalipa, n. 2. A brave person; a sharp or 

keen warrior ; a hero. 
in-Kalip6, . 3, u-KaHp6, n. 5, and ubu- 
Kalipo, n. 7. Activity, energy, cour- 
age, manliness, stoutheartedness, bold- 
ness; recently used in the sense of 
frankness: zvaieta ngenkalipo, he spoke 
with frankness and courage. 
uku-Kaiip^la, v. To be courageous for: 
undibtnqise ukukalipela imfazwe, Thou 
hast girded me with strength unto the 
battle. 
Kalipisa, v. pass, kalitshiswa. To make 
brave or frank ; to animate, encourage, 
stimulate, embolden, sharpen; to set dogs 
or cocks upon each other. 
i-KALlKA, n. 3. Lime, fr. Du. kalk. 
Kalikulu, adv. A hundred times, see i-Kiilu. 
uku-Kalima, v. i. To speak earnestly, to 
reprove, rebuke : niya kubaleka niliwaka 
ekalime emnye, a thousand of you shall 
flee at the rebuke of one; to growl, 
grumble. 
um-Kalimi, n. i. One who reproves or 

rebukes. 
u-Kalimo, n. 5 Reproof, rebuke. 
uku-Kalimela, v. To call out for : yikali- 
mele inkomo ibuye, call to the cow, that she 
may come back; to put one right by 
earnest words ; to check, rebuke, reprove) 
reprimand, blame ; to give a charge, 
prohibit : yinina iingamkalimeli? why dost 
thou not reprove him ? 
uku-Kalipa, see under ubuKali. 
Kaliwaka, adv. A thousand times, see 1- 

Waka. 
in-Kalo, n. 3. A gap, neck, or opening in a 
mountain ridge ; the upper part of a long, I 
rising land, elevation or eminence of j 
ground ; a ridge : inkalo yentaba apb inyanga | 
itshona kona, a neck or opening in the t 
mountain, where the moon is visible at I 
179 



KA 

setting; the hollow in the crescent-shaped 
moon. Dimin. inkalwana. 
u-Kalo, n. 5. A chasm. 
Kaloku, adv. Now then, at present ; see 

Oku, I. 
Kafoku-nje, rt.'/ti. At this present time; see 

Oku, I. and Nje. 
u-Kalonci, n. 5. The colon. 
i-Kalukalu, . 2. A bustard, Du. koraan. 
Kalukuni, adv. Strictly, sternly; see u-Kuni. 
Kalula, adv. Lightly, easily, see Lida. 
uku-KAMA, I. V. t. To comb, fr. Du. kammen. 
uku-K'AMA, n. V. t. To squeeze out, to 
wring out wet clothes ; fig. to throttle, 
strangle, as dogs do game : wamkaina ngom- 
qala, he held him by the throat ; ukukama 
inkedama, to make demands on orphans who 
have nothing, or to deprive them of their 
rights. 

Kamakama, v. Not to work steadily 

but to run about, intruding into other 

people's time and work; not to mind 

one's own business. 

Kamana, v. To trouble, disquiet another 

person by one's own uneasiness. 
Kamela, v. pass, kanyelwa. To squeeze 
out any liquid from a rag or sponge into 
something ; to drop into : kamela iyeza 
etnehlweni, squeeze medicine into the 
eyes. 
uku-Kama, IH. v. i. Em. To open the mouth 
wide ; to gape, ydiV}n; = ukw-Akama. 
Kamisa, v. To open the mouth ; = ukw- 
Akamisa. 
in-Katnamasane, n. 3. Euphorbia pug- 
niformis Boiss., used as an aperient and 
also for cancer. 
i-Kamandela, n. 2. A fetter, a chain for a 

captive. 
uku-Kamanga, v. pass, ukukanyattgwa, (used 
more than uku-Kama, II.). To press out by 
force (juice) ; to press together (the eyes) ; 
fig. to find out by inquiry, pump out. 
um-Kamangi, n. I. An extortioner. 
uku-Kamangeka, v. To be pressed, 
wrung out; fig. to have grief, affliction, 



i-Kamanga, n. 2. Strelitzia reginae Ait. 

u-Kamba, n. 5. An old pan or pot, a pot- 
sherd; dimin. ukanjana. 

K&mhh, adv., always expressing doubt : ittgaba 
kambe, of course it may be; ironically: 
hamba kambe, go by all means, you will see 
or find how it is; ndiya kuyenza kambe, I 
may do it; akukwazi kambe oku, you do not 
know this of course ; hayi kambe, thank you. 



KA 

i-Kambi, n. 2. A spider's moult; used 
mainly in plur. amakambh A husk, shell 
sediment left after cooking; an empty 
honeycomb, honeybread ; the refuse, as of 
sugarcane after the juice has been pressed 
out, or after it has been chewed. 
i-KAMBlLl, n. 3. A chamber, from Du. kamer. 
uku-Kambula, v.i. To understand thoroughly. 
in-KAMELA, . 3. A camel ; fr. Eng. 
in-Kamela, n. 3. A red species of snake. 
ukuti-Kamfu, v. t. To seize with the whole 
hand, or with the mouth and teeth, without 
biting: inja indite-kamfu engalweni, the dog 
seized my arm ; = iikuti-Xmnfu. 
uku-Kamf ula, v. i. To walk with difficulty 

in a sandy place ; to wade in the mud. 
uku-Kamluka, r. i. To be in the position of 

lifting up the hand to beat. 
Kamnandi, adv. Sweetly, etc., see Mnandi. 
ukuti-Kamnqa, v. i. To look serious, aston- 
ished, amazed, (which is indicated by 
putting the hand on the mouth). 
ukuti-Kamnte, v. i. To have nothing what- 
ever. 

i-Kamnte, //. 2. One who has nothing at all. 
um-Kamo, . 6. A gap, blank, space. 
in-Kamolula, . 3. A long thing. 
i-KAMPU, . 3. An enclosure for ostriches or 
for stock ; a camp for soldiers; fr. Du. kamp. 
i-Kamsholo, . 2. An empty fellow, or any 

worthless thing. 
Kamsinya, and Kamsinyane, adv. Quickly, 

etc., see Msinya. 
Kamva, adv. Afterwards, etc., see um-Va. 
i- Kamva, n. 2. The consequence or result ; 
= i-ka-m- Va. 
u-Kanana, n. 5. (a) A drawn-out speech; a 
person who cannot end his speech, or does 
not speak what is proper. (b) Great 
greediness: unokanana, he is very greedy. 
(c) = i-Nqala and inZondo. 
i-Kanasi, n. 2. A great thing. 
Kancinane, adv. A little, etc., see Ncinane. 
uku-K'ANDA, v. t. To beat out by hammer- 
ing, as iron on an anvil ; to forge : lakanda 
atnagaba, they made or forged hoes; to 
mend (a wagon, etc.); to pound in a 
mortar; to break up stones on a road; fig. 
to tread hard with the feet on the ground. 
um-Kandi, w. I. A smith. 
in-Kanda, n. 3. Glans penis. 
isi-Kanda, . 4. The thick end of any 
ing: isikanda settduku, the knob of a 
stick, so called because it is used to strike 
with ; dim. isikandana, a small knob. 



180 



KA 

isi-Kando, n. 4. A smith's shop. 
u-Kanda, n. 5. The top of the head, the 
skull of quadrupeds. Em. ukanda Iwe- 
mpisi, a hyena's head; fig. stubbornness; 
obstinacy ; lomntn luwkanda, this person is 
stubborn, headstrong ; amazimba anokanda, 
the corn swells when boiled. 
um Kando, n. 6. Smith-work, beaten work ; 

fig. the female menses. 
uku-Kandakanda, v. To pound repeatedly. 
Kandanisa, v. To bring close together; 
to press in or down with force ; to force 
in by heaps; to drive into (the kraal) 
furiously; to overpower, overcome. 
um Kandanisi, n. I. An oppressor. 
uku-Kandanisana, v. To squeeze, press, 
crowd upon one another : inkomo zikanda- 
nisana ebuhlanti, the cattle crowd into the 
kraal, pressing on one another. 
Kandanisela, 1: To subdue for: uzika- 
ndanisela pantsi kwetu izizwe, He subdueth 
the peoples under us. 
Kaiideka, v. To be fit for hammering: 
isaiido asikandeki, the hammer does not 
beat well ; to be thoroughly beaten out. 
Kandela, v. To forge or mend for. 
isi-Kandelo, n. 4. An anvil. 
uku-Kandisa, v. To cause or help to 
forge; intaka ikandisiwe, the bird is 
squeezed together in the trap. 
u-Kande, . 5. A wooden spear, = ti-Kwili; 
fig. dispute, strife; trying one's strength 
with another. 
ama-Kandilili, n. 2. Attempts with hardly 
any hope of success ; sad, oppressive feelings. 
um-KandIo, . 6. A place where a concourse 
of people gather, e.g. round a chief; a 
surrounding company; a well-trodden road 
with many tracks of wild animals; fig. 
something that is too plain to be mistaken. 
Kane, adv. Four times, see Ne. 
Kanene, ititerj. used in calling to mind 
something that had slipped the memory, or 
in making certain regarding something 
that had been said or done : kanene ndiwali- 
bele lanianzi bekuttwe zendiwake, really, I 
quite forgot about that water I was told to 
draw; kanene, wetu, lanto yade yati-nina? hy 
the way, friend, how did that affair end ? 
see i-Nene. 
in-Kanga, . 3. The Kafir ragwort, Senecio 
juniperinus L. Eyenkanga, the month of 
November, when it is in blossom. Phr. 
undibek' hikanga emehlweni, he is putting a 
bush in front of my eyes, i.e. he is deceiving 



kA 

me ; see uku-Bopelela and uku-Dubula. 
uku-KANQA, v. i. obsolete. To look. 
Kangela, v. To look at, behold. It is 
used to excite attention or admiration: 
kangela enkosini, look at or towards the 
chief; kangela-ke! see now! be attentive! 
behold! To look, in expectation of help 
or assistance: ndakangela ku-Tixo, I 
looked to God for help. Phr. WakangeV 
ezulwini, i.e. he wished or asked to die. 

n. 8. Look, appearance: ukukangela 
kwake bekukubi, his look was bad. 
um-Kangeli, k. i. A beholder who looks 
attentively at an object; an overseer, 
inspector, guardian. 
in-Kangeli, n. 3. A seer, a prophet. 
in-Kangelo, . 3- A way of looking at a 

thing: inkangelo yarn, my view. 
uku-Kangakangela, v. To look often or 

constantly on an object. 
Kangelana, v. To look towards one 
another; fig. to be or lie opposite each 
other: imizi ikangelene, the villages are 
opposite each other; masikangelane, let 
us care for one another, i.e. try our 
strength. 
Kangeleka, v. To be an object of 
attention; to be looked upon; to appear 
to be. n. 8. Appearance: ukukangeleka 
kwake kuhle, his appearance is good. 
Kangeleta, v. To look to or for : zika- 
ngelele, see to thyself; ukukangelela pantsi, 
to look upon with contempt. 
Kangelelela, v. To look for : zeningasi- 
kangeleleli izinto ezite-gca, prophesy not 
unto us right things. 
Kangelisa, v. To make one look at, to 

show. 
Kangisa, v. i. To possess attraction. 
Kangaka, '\ 

Kangakanana, > adv. So great; how 

Kangakana-nina? ) 
great? very much, etc., see Ngaka and 
Nina. 
in Kangala, n. 3. A desolate waste, a wilder- 
ness ; used mainly in the locative enkangala. 
Kangapina, adv. How often? see Pina. 
um-Kangazi, n. 6. Buffelsbal, Gardenia 

thunbergia L. 
um-Kangele, . 6. Cape Teak, Strychnos 

atherstonei Harv. 
um-Kango, n. 6. Anything new (a pot, 
wagon) ; a natural black spot on the body of 
a person ; also = um-Kaba. 
uku-Kangubeka, v. t. To encourage. 



kA 

uku-Kangumeza, v. t. To warm or heat up 

anything again, as cold food. 
uku-Kangwa, v. t. To find out, discover. 
in-Kani, . 3. Stubbornness; see i-Nkani. 
Kaninzi, adv. Often, see Ninzi. 
Kanjako, adv. Again, in the same way, also. 
Kanjalo, adv. Likewise, etc., see Njalo. 
u-Kanjana, n. 5. dimin. of u-Kamha. A 

small pot or potsherd. 
Kanjani, adv. How, etc., see Niria, II. (h). 
Kanjaqo, Em. = Kanjako. 
in-Kankane, n. 3. plur. atna-Kankane. The 
front bone of a beast's head; the skull of an 
animal ; anything hard, esp. ama-Qashu. 
uku-Kankanya, v. t. To mention, refer to : 
andiinkankanyanga, I did not mention him, 
i.e. speak of him. 

Kankanyeka, v. To be mentioned. 
uku-Kankata, v. t. To beat often. 

i-Kankata, n. 2. The guardian of circum- 
cised boys during their seclusion from 
general society; the guardian of a chief's 
daughter during an intonjane; the 
guardian of a chief's wife when suckling; 
he milks the cow for her. 
in-Kankatela, n. 3. That which is enormous, 

immense, huge, extraordinary. 
in-Kankulu, n. 3. A great difficulty, adv. 
koba ngenkankulu, it will be hard; ngenka- 
nkiilii, with great difficulty. 
uku-Kanqakanqa, v. i. To travel a road 
which has ama-Lindi, = Gongqagongqa enia- 
lindini. 
Kanti, (u-Kanti) conj. And yet, while at the 
same time, whereas on the contrary, 
notwithstanding: bayalikanyela ityala labo, 
kanti bayazi ukuba banalo, they deny their 
guilt, while at the same time they know 
they are guilty ; utt, uyanditanda, kanti umana 
ukulwa nam, you say you love me, and yet 
you are always opposing me. 
isi-Kanti, n. 4. A number of people or things 

together, = isi-Kinindi. 
in-KANTINl, n. 3. A liquor-shop, canteen. 
um-KantoIo, n. 6. The Cape Robin Chat, = u- 

Gaga. 
in-Kantsi, n. 3. Cramp; the pricking sen- 
sation (pins and needles) caused by a kind 
of numbness. 
in-Kantsu, 71. 3. An objection or exception 

taken against a witness's declaration. 
u-Kanukanu, n. 1. (a) Tantalising: unguka- 
nukantt, he tantalises. (Done by children 
when eating nice things, pretending to offer 
but not giving them.) (b) Breathing 
hard (used of horses). 
181 



KA 

uku-Kanuka, v. t. To long for; to greatly 
desire (food) : ukanuka inyama, he has a 
craving appetite for meat ; to lust, have 
carnal desires after (women) ; zvensa oku 
kanuktva yeyake iiitliziyo, he did what his 
heart desired. 
ama-Kanuko, ) ^ , t- , 
ama-Kanukelo.j " ^- P^' E"Phem. for 

effusion of semen maris. 
in-Kanuko, n. 3. Appetite, desire, lust. 
uku-Kanukana, v. To desire, lust after, 

long for, one another. 
Kanukeka, v. To be desirable: umti 
ityakanukeka emehlweni, the tree is 
desirable to the eyes. 
Kanukela, v. To desire strongly (food). 
Kanukisa, v. To cause to lust, etc.; 
to tantalise. 
in-KANUNU, n. 3. A cannon; fr. Du. kanon. 
ukuti-K'ANYl, v. i. Of a fire or light, to 
glimmer faintly once. 
Kanyikanyi, v. To keep on glimmering. 
uku-Kanya, v. i. To be light, bright, white; 
to shine, emit light: iwini isakanya, the 
day is still shining, i.e. it is still light; 
ilitye eli liyakaiiya, this stone is trans- 
parent, shining; fig. lendmvo uyitetayo iya- 
kanya, the subject you speak of is 
manifest, clear. Phr. iikukanya kivempo- 
tido, lit. the shining of horns, i.e. that 
very early time in the morning when 
only the points of the horns of cattle can 
be seen. 
um-Kanya, n. 6. Eyescreen, made by 
holding the hands or twigs over the eyes, 
in such a way that one can still see. 
in-Kanyezi, n. 3. A firefly. 
uku-Kany isa, v. To cause to shine ; to make 
light, illumine ; fig. likanyise ilizwi lako, 
illustrate what you have said. 
in Kanyiso, n. 3.^ 

isi-Kanyiso, 7/. 4. V A light, lamp, candle; 
u-Kanyiso, n. 5. ) 
fig. enlightening. 
uku-Kanyiseka, /. To be shining: isibane 
nsikanyiseki, the candle is not shining 
brightly. 
Kanyisela, v. To enlighten for, on or 
in a certain place : ndikanyisele lendawo, 
give me light upon this matter; fig. to 
civilize. 
um-Kanyiseli, ?/. I. An enlightener: ngu- 
Yehovn unika/iyiscli warn Jiomsindisi warn, 
the Lord gives nie light and salvation. 
isi-Kanyiselo, ;/. 4. ) ^ ,. , , . 
u-Kanyiselo, . 5. j Enlightenmg. 
uku Kanyiseleka, To be enlightened. 

182 



3. A person bent 



KA 

Kanyisisa, To enlighten thoroughly, 
properly, particularly. 
in-Kanya, . 3. Walking slowly, not keeping 
up with others, from being destitute of 
swiftness, exhausted, dried up. 
in-Kanyamba, 1 
in-Kanyavu, ] 
from age. 
Kanye, adv. Once; see Nye, I. 
uku-K'ANYELA, v. i. To deny any know- 
ledge of a matter : wakanyela pambi kwabo 
bonke, he denied before them all ; to deny a 
fact, with the idea of self-defence against a 
charge. Phr. wakanyela, walala ngombke or 
ngopbte or ngomhlana, he denied point blank. 
Kanyelana, v. To deny among one 

another. 
Kanyeleka, v. To be deniable. 
Kanyelisa, v. To cause to deny. 
Kanyeza, v. To contradict: into engaka- 
nyezwanga, a thing which has not been 
contradicted; wazikanyeza, he con- 
tradicted himself. 
Kanyezisa, v. To cause to contradict. 
um-Kanzi, . 6. The Cape bulrush, Typha 
latifolia L., of which rough mats are made. 
uku-K'AP'A, V. t. pass, katshwa. To take 
goats or other stock to the pasturage and 
leave them there ; to accompany a distance; 
to guide or direct some distance on the way: 
siyabuya ngokiimkapa lotnniu, we are just 
returning from accompanying this man a 
distance; to act as bestman or bridesmaid 
to; fig. to bring one over the border, i.e. to 
death. Temhu = uku-Gaba, II. 
um-Kkpl, n. I. A guide; a bestman at a 

marriage. 
uku-Kapela, v. To accompany a distance 
to or for: inkomo wazikapela edlelweni, 
he brought the cattle to the pasturage. 
um-Kapeli, n. I. Used as translation of 
paidagogos, Gal. 3,25. 
i-Kapela, ti. 2. Empty honeycomb. 
ubu-Kapela, n. 7. That which is thrown 

away after being chewed; refuse. 
um Kapelelo, . 6. The portion of food 
which is given to children, when the adults 
are still eating. 
i-Kapoyi, n. 2. A distended thing. 
i-Kapu, n. 2. A single head of cattle which a 
father gives to his married daughter, when 
she visits his place ; = u-Nomnkonko. 
Kapukapu, adj. Light, soft (sponge, foam, 
froth, etc.); into elikapukapu, alight thing. 
ubu- Kapukapu, ;/. 7. Lightness; fig. the state 
of being in poor circumstances. 



KA 

uku-K'ASA, V. i. To creep, crawl, go on 
hands and knees: umntwana uyakasa, the 
child creeps. 

in-Kasankasa, n. 3. The creeping (of an 
old man) ; applied to one so weary, as 
not to be able to walk, and to an animal 
heavy with young ; fig. obstruction, hind- 
rance to proper movement. 
uku-Kasela, v. To creep for or to. Phr. uka- 
sela eziko or emlilweni, lit. you are 
creeping to the fireplace, or into the fire, 
i.e. like a child, and will be burnt; (a 
warning to one who is rushing into 
danger or is following a course which 
must lead to ruin.) 
in-KASAYlYA, n. 3. Large irons for making 
rails; heavy, bulky weight; a railway 
removal ; fr. Eng. cast-iron. 
ama-Kashukashu, n. 2. Leaves of inferior 
plants used for mixing with tobacco and 
adulterating it. 
i-Kasi, n. 2. usually in plur. An ensheathing 

leaf of a mealie cob ; chaff. 
Kasib6zo, adv. Eight times, see isi-Bozo. 
Kasisa, adv. Freely, etc., see isi-Sa. 
Kasixenxe, adv. Seven times, see tsi-Xenxe. 

ukuIllKl&ata, ] ^ ' To pass into : .a<.-- 

kata apa, he passed in here ; to come to pass, 

happen, enter unexpectedly, suddenly: 

lenkumbulo yati-kata entliziyweni yam, this 

thought came suddenly into my mind. v. t. 

To encircle with a loop or,noose : yiti-kata 

intambo entanyeni yehashe, throw the reins 

over the horse's neck. 

in-KatB, n. 3. A coil of anything twisted 

together, especially the grass-ring used 

by women as a pad for the head, when 

carrying a load : yipa utyani ndenze inkata 

yokutwala, get me grass to make a pad 

for carrying a load; fig. the cans of 

Kafir-beer carried on the head by women 

who start from the bride's place for that 

of the bridegroom, when he arrives with 

his bestman at the bride's kraal : intomb'i 

zitata utywala, zibuzisa ekaya, yinkata, the 

girls take a quantity of beer and bring it 

home as a supply (an Em, custom). 

isi-Kata, n. 4. A shesXh: lifake irele lako 

esikateni, put up your ^word into the 

sheath ; fig. a case of guilt arising from 

reprehensible carelessness ; difficulty, 

complication, trouble, distress : ndazifaka 

ezikateni, I brought myself into difficulties. 

ama-Katakata, n. 2. pi. Useless things, as 

torn, dirty garments ; rubbish, sweepings. 



KA 

ubu-Katakata, . 7. A number of things 

hanging about, distracting attention. 

uku-K"AT'ALA, I. v. i. To be concerned 

about ; to trouble about ; to care for : ndi- 

katala yinina koko? what is that to me? 

what share have I in that ? andikatali tiguwe, 

I care nothing about you ; andikatali yiyo 

landawo, I am wholly indifferent about that 

matter. 

Katalela, v. To be concerned, troubled 
for or on account of; in the negative, to 
neglect; to care nothing: akamkatalele 
umntwana ivake, he utterly neglects his 
child; engnsabakatalele abanye, he no 
longer cares for others; andimkatalele lam- 
iittvana, I do not care about that child. 

Katalelana, v. To be concerned or 
careful about each other. 

Kataza, v. To trouble, vex, annoy, 
plague, disturb, irritate, agitate, distress: 
uyandikataza ngokucela, he plagues me 
with asking. 

in-Katazo, n. 3. Trouble, annoyance, dis- 
tress, vexation ; the preliminary sickness 
that warns a person that he is about to 
become a witch-doctor. 

in-Katankatazo, n. 3. Continued distress; 
prolonged vexation or annoyance. 

uku-Katazana, v. To trouble, annoy, 
etc., each other. 

Katazeka, v. To be concerned, trou- 
bled: maningakatazeU intliziyo, let not 
your hearts be troubled. 

in-Katazeko, n. 3. Trouble, distress. 

uku-Katakatazeka, v. To be in a prolong- 
ed state of distress or vexation, 

Katazela, v. To trouble for (an object) : 
usamkatazela-nina umfundisif why trou- 
blest thou the Teacher any further? 
uku-Katala, II. v. i. To be old, worn out, 

tired, fatigued, exhausted: sendikatele ngo- 

kusebenza, I am quite tired from working; 

amadoda abekatele, men who were faint. 

in Katavu, K. 3. That which is old : ndiyi- 
nkatavu, I am very old, bent with age. 
Katanadtu, adr. Six times, see Tandatu. 
Katatu, adv. Thrice, see Tatu. 
i-KATi, n. 3. A cat, fr. Du. kat. 
uku-KATSA, V. t. To flog with the cat-o'- 

nine-tails, to whip severely; from the Dutch. 

i-KATSi, n. 3. The cat-o'-ninetails, 
uku-Katsa, v. i. Em. to be tired: ndikatsele, 

I am tired, done up, undone. 
i-Katshakowa, n. 2. A layer of scab: ibo- 

kwe yangamakatshakowa, the goats were full 



183 



KA 

of scab; fig. a mean, vile, worthless fellow 
or thing. 

ama-Katshu, n. 2. pi. Hops. 

in-Katshu, . 3. Dishonesty, falsehood. 

in-Katshunkatshu, n. 3. (1) Dry leaves, 
leaves of inferior tobacco used for adul- 
terating. (2) = iibn-Kapukapu. 

uku-Katula, v. i. To spread an operation 
over a large extent, e.g. to walk the greatest 
part of the road ; to do the greatest part of 
the work (reaping a field) ; to take the most 
of a thing (food). 

isi-Katula, n. 4. The greater part (of 
work, a road, etc.). 

ukuti-Kdtya, v. i.-uhiti-Ratya. 

in-Katyana, . 3. Dimin. of inkabi. A young 
or small ox. 

isi-Katyanga, n. 4. One with deep set eyes: 
amehlo azikatyanga, the eyes are drawn in- 
ward, are wide open, running with tears. 

i-Kau, n. 2. A small shield, = in GiveletsJietshe. 

in-Kau, . 3. The Vervet monkey, 
Cercopithecus pygerythrus Cuv. Phr. 
ukaulcla inkau, ziya kuscla, lit. you go to 
meet, i.e. disturb, monkeys on their way to 
drink, expressing uncalled for inter- 
ference ; you are anxious to speak, but you 
are not invited. Fig. an albino native. 

isi-Kau, w. 4. That which is little, insigni- 
ficant, unimportant. 

ukuK'AULA, V. i. To reach to a certain 
height or place : avianzi atidikaula esifubeni, 
the water reached to my chest ; to reach or 
stop at a certain place : ndakatda e-Kubusi, 
ndabiiya, I reached the Kubusi, and returned ; 
to be bounded by : intsimi yake yakaula e/nla- 
fijeiit, his garden was bounded by the river; 
to stop, interrupt a speech ; fig. to feel the 
first movements of the foetus; to conceive, 
become pregnant. 

isi-Kaulo, //. 4. ") r> j u j r 

um-Kaulo, n. 6. j boundary, border of a 

field; bottom of a thing; fig. convincing 
proof. 
uku-Kauka, v. i. To terminate, end, break 
off (of a speech) : imviila ikaiikile, the rain 
is over. 

Kaulela, v. Togo to meet or receive 
a person (in a friendly sense) : ndaya kii- 
mkaulela e-Bcde, I went to meet him at 
Shiloh. 

Kaulelana, 11. To meet from both sides ; 
to unite; to help each other. 

uku-Kauleza, u 2. To make haste; to be 
quick or swift of foot. 
11. 8. Haste, speed, 

184 



KA 

isi-Kauleza, n. 4. A runner, one who 

makes haste. 
uku-Kaulezeld, To make haste to; to 

be in a hurry for: njengentaka ikaulezela 

esibateni, like a bird hurrying to the snare. 
- KaulezJsa, 7^. To hasten; to quicken in 

going: kaulezisa ukuhamba, go quickly or 

more quickly; to rouse to activity, to 

accelerate progress. 
Kauti, interj. from uku-Ti. Wait a moment, 
"hold on!" often with kendibone, wait and 
let me see. 
i-Kaya, n. 2. Place of residence, home; 
ikaya labantsundu, a Native hotel; loc. 
ekaya, at home ; akanakaya, he is a stranger. 
Phr. singamakaya, we are neighbours, con- 
sorts, friends. 
um-Kaya, n. I. A neighbour: ndingumka- 

ya kuye, I am his neighbour. 
um-Kaya, n. 6. The afterbirth of women ; 

it is buried inside the hut. 
ubu-Kdya, n. 7. The living together in 

one place ; friendship. 
in-Kayoyo, . 3. Hunger: ndinenkayoyo, I 

am hungry. 
um-Kaza, . 6. (a) A name given to Black- 
bark, Royena lucida Z,., and other species 
of trees. 

(b) A species of red or spotted grass-tick 
infesting cattle and horses; dimin. um- 
Kazana, a small tick. 
in-Kazane, n. 3., A very small species of 

tick. 
in-Kazana, n. 3. A woman living at her 

father's place ; see i-Nkazana. 
Kazil interj. pronounced by some Ngazi, 
Kazi ndite-nina! I wonder what I d\d\ = Azi! 
-kazi, Suffix (a) for forming feminine nouns 
from masculine: inkosi a chief, inkosikazi a 
chieftainess or female ruler; iwifi a de- 
ceased man, umfikazi a deceased woman; 
ihashe a horse, ihashekazi a mare. 

(b) denoting relationship, degree of 
family connection ; ubawokazi, my paternal 
uncle ; nmakazi, my maternal aunt. 

(c) adding a kind of superlative or 
augmentative meaning to the noun, 
adjective or adverb to which it is affixed : 
inyama meat, inyamakazi lit. meat greatly 
liked, i.e. game; imiti trees, imittkazi great, 
large trees; umsinga stream, umsingakazi 
omkiilu a very large, strong stream; itafa- 
kazi, a great plain ; ihashe Itkiilu, the horse 
is great; ihashe elikulukazi, a very great 
horse; ilityekazi elikulu, a very large stone. 



KA 

i-Kazi, n. 2. The compensation or dowry 
given by the bridegroom to the bride's 
father; see uku-Lohola, 
i-Kazikazi, n. 2. Glory; generally used in 
the plural amakazikazi: beautiful, fine, shin- 
ing, brilliant things (clothes, etc.), worthy 
to be desired. 

ubu-Kazikdzi, n. 7. Beauty. 
uku-Kazitnla, v. i. To shine, glitter, gleam, 
sparkle: inkwenkwezi ziyakazitnla kakulu, 
the stars are very bright. 
in-Kazimlo, n. 3. Shining, brightness, 

glory. 
uku-Kazimllsa, v. pass, kazinyuliswa. To 
cause to shine; to brighten, polish, burn- 
ish : kaziitilisa izihlangu, polish the shoes. 
Kaz'uba, contrac. from kazi ukiiba, interj. 
Kaz'uba kut^-ni ! I wonder what happened ! 
see Kazi! 
Ke, perf. of uku-Ka I., wjiich see. 
Ke, Poss. pron. 3. p. sing. His : umntwana 
wake, his or her child; ihashe laU6, his 
horse; into yke, his thing, and so on 
through all classes ; emphat. oivake umntwa- 
na, his child; eyake intsimi, his garden, etc. 
K^, I. conj. And, now, but, then, (a) It is 
used to indicate sequence in time, a 
progression in the chain of events, some- 
times with an adversative meaning: keka- 
loku amadoda abefimgile, and now the men 
had sworn ; ke ntna ndift kimi, but I say unto 
you ; ke ngoko, now therefore ; ke, nbutshilo- 
na? did you really say so ? ke, sesifikHe kuye, 
saqala ukuncokola, well, having come to 
him, we commenced to converse. 

(b) It is sometimes used in a deprecatory 
and precatory sense : ke Nkosi ! O, Sir, or. 
My dear Sir! ke Nkosi scndiyakuti-naf and 
now. Lord, what shall I say .? 

2. Enclitic, (a) It is affirmative, con- 
secutive and inferential, referring to what 
has previously taken place, or been 
asserted, and often answers to the English 
" then": hctmba-ke, go then; meaning, after 
what has been said, I consent to your 
going; utshilo-ke, he said so then; wii'i, 
lomntti makeze kuye, weza-k.e, he said the 
man must come, and so he came ; ndabona 
ityala ukuba liya kundidla, ttdasendililahla-ke, 
I saw that the case would ruin me, so I 
readily rejected it ; watl, tnabayeke iikumbeta, 
bayeka-ke, he said they should stop beating 
him, and so they stopped. 

(b) It makes the verb, adjective or pro- 
noun more emphatic : kukiclu-ke, it is really 



KE 

great; andazi-ke, I do not know, I am sure; 
ngumntu-ke loivo, it is a man, i.e. a person. 
i-Kebe, n. 2. (a) A short dagger ; cf. i-Jozi, a 
broad spear, (b) The price paid for the 
temporary use of a woman or concubine. 
isi-Kebelele; n. 4. That which is broad and 

wide. 
in-Kebenge, . 3. A helpless, destitute 

person. 
uku-Kebetlsa, v. t. To bring a greeting : wake- 

bctisa kum, he brought a greeting to me. 
ukuti-Kebevu, v- i. To sit down and take a 

rest ; to sit helplessly tired after running. 
uku-Kedama, v. i. Orig. to be cast away 
from ; to sit and fix one's thoughts on the 
position from which one was removed or 
kidnapped in time of war; hence, to hold 
the head to one side ; to be sad, downcast, 
sorrowful ; to be deserted ; to be an orphan ; 
to fret at not having got what one wishes. 
in-Kedama, n. 3. An orphan, who has lost 
one or both parents ; an indigent person. 
ubun-Kedaitia, n. 7. Orphanhood. 
uku-Kedamela, v. To be sad or sorry on 
account of another's grief or trouble ; to 
commiserate: tikedamele nto-nina? for 
what are you sorry ? ndikedamele umntwa- 
na warn, I am grieving for my child. 
Kedamisa, v. To cause sadness; to 
make oneself sad ; to cause one to become 
an orphan, 
ukuti Kefu, v. i. To sit down a while; to rest. 
uku-Kef uza, v. i. To be out of breath : = uku- 

Befuza. 
ukuti-Kehle, v. i. To be quite done up; to be 
useless. 

i-Kehle, n. 2. Em. That which is useless, 
worn out, mean, vile; a very old man, 
husband, or father. 
um-Kehlekehle, n. 6. That which is dry, 
worn out, falling to pieces (a wagon); 
anything lean, lank, withered. 
uku-Keka, v. t. To turn a big thing through a 
small opening; fig. to try to justify or 
vindicate oneself by turnings and twistings. 
Kekela, v. To enter sideways : inkabi iya- 
kekela ebuhlanti, the ox (with stretched 
out horns) enters the narrow opening of 
the cattlefold by turning its horns side- 
ways. 
Kekaloku, conj., see Oku, l. and Ke, I. (a). 
uku-KELA, V. t. To clear, as by cutting 
down, = uku-Hlahla ; fig. to open, reveal, 
in Keleiikele, . 3. (a) A thing cleared out. 
(b) A long, tall person; a giant, (c) A bad 
cut. 



KE 

ama-K6ielana, n. 2. pi. See uku-Ka, II. 
uku-Keleleka, v. i. To run, as a dog after 
game, to reach the game without catching 



KE 



it 
isi-KELEM, n. 4. A mischievous, bad, crafty 

person: one who is always in a fighting 

mood ; fr. Du. schelm. 
ukuti-K6me, v. i. To sigh. 

isi-K^mekeme, n. 4. One who is tired, 
weary, faint: bazizikhnekeme, they are 
tired with running. 

uku-K6mezeIa, v. To be out of breath 
from running. 
in-Kemfu, w. 3. (a) A high perpendicular 

rock, (b) Very thick milk, = i-Nqaka. 
um-Kence, . 6. Ice. 
i-K^ncekSnce, n. 2. A small, tinkling bell, 

uku-K^nceza, v. i. To tinkle, jingle, ring 
like a small bell. 

isi-K6ncezelo, n. 4. A small tinkling bell, 
um-Kenekene, n. 6. A refusing to act for 

a person who has no share in a matter. 
ubu-K^nekene, w. 7. A shaking. 
in-Kenenkene, n. 3. A child who is always 

crying or who cries without reason; see 

i-Nkenenkene. 
Kengoko, conj. Therefore, see Ke and Oko5. 
i-K^nke, n. 2. A thrust, stab: wamhlaba ama- 

khtke, he stabbed him ; cf . uku-Ka II. 
in-Kenkebe, n. 3. A clever person who 

understands and can perform all kinds of 

work; a good, shrewd man; nkenkebe! my 

good fellow ! 
um-KSnkenene, . 6. A gulf, abyss. 
isi-Kinket^, . 4. That which is short and 

stout; one who opens his jaws wide: usiki- 

nkete ukuhleka, he laughs hard or loud. 
uku-K^nqa, v. i. To wait, expecting to get 

something. 
uku-K^nqeza, v. i. To make a rattling noise, 

as a piece of wood or tin struck with a 

stick. 
um-K^ntane, n. 6. Sympathy, compassion. 
uku-K^nteka, v. t. To have sympathy for, 

compassionate. 
ukuti-Kdnu, V. i.-ukutl-Kebevu. 
isi-KEPE, n. 4. A ship, boat ; from Du. schip. 

Dimin. isikitshane. 
i-Kepek^pe, n. 2., = i-Kapukapu. 
i-K6pek6pe, w. 7. = ubii-Kapukapu. 
uku-Kep^lezela, v. i. To walk smartly, 

especially in carrying a thing. 
i-KSpl!i, n. 2. Snow; ik^pu liyawa, or Em. 

liyakitika, the snow falls in flakes. 
ukuti-K^pu, V. t. To cut off a large slice, as 

opposed to ukuti-Cwe. 



ukutdla-Kipu, V. To cut off a large slice 
(e.g. of bread) for one. 

Kepukepu, adj. Soft, loose: umhlaba 
ukepukipti, the earth is loose, easy to hoe. 

ubu-K^pukdpu, n. 7. Softness or looseness 
(e.g. of earth). 

uku-Kepula, v. t. (a) To cause the fall of 
anything loosened by moisture, etc., as 
plaster from a wall, (b) = tiku-Capula. 

K^puka, V. To shake, totter, as a falling 
wall or tree. 

K^puza, V. Tembu. To put forth the 
silken filaments of the maize cob, when 
the grain is forming; fig. to froth from 
the mouth: inkomo iyakipuza, the cow 
lets froth fall from its mouth ; uyakipuza 
amagwebu, he foams at the mouth. 
uku-Kesa, v. t. Not to mind or attend to ; to 

depreciate, decry, undervalue. 

ubu-K^swa, . 7. Used as adj. : into ebuki^ 
swa, a thing not valued, not cared for. 
i-KESI, n. 3. A box or chest, from Du. kas. 
uku-K'ET'A, V. t. To choose, pick out, select ; 

to give the preference to ; keta kwezinkomo, 

pick out, choose from among these cattle ; 

to be partial: akuketi mntu, thou dost not 

pick and choose, art impartial. 

um-K^ti, n. I. One who chooses, picks 
out, shows partiality. 

uKifc ] Partiality. 
in-Kete, n. 3. Corn after it has been clean- 
ed ; a kind of bead. 
u-Kete, n. 5. Gravel. 

uku-K6tak6t^, u To show partiality to : 
ukuketakka abantti, to be a respecter of 
persons. 
Keteka, v. To be preferable. 
Ketela, v. To make a selection or choice 
for or on behalf of: timkeiele ihashe, choose 
a horse for him. 
i-K^telele, n. 2. A very fat bullock, which 
has been picked out for slaughtering. 
u-K^t5ha, and u-Ketshe, n. I. General 
name for falcons, most usually applied to 
the Lanner, Falco biarmicus Teinm., and 
the South African Kestrel, Cerchneis rupi- 
cola (Baud. J 
uku-K6tya, v. t. To steal, plunder. 
i-Ketya, n. 2. A thief, robber. 
in-Ketyemba, n. 3. That which is very 

hungry. 
uku-K^va, V. i. To ramble about. 
in-Kewu, . 3. A rascal, fellow. See 
-Nkewu. 
186 



kE 

isi-Kewu, . 4. The indentations in the cut- 
ting edge of a saw ; a nick in the blade of a 
knife ; a narrow gap in a mountain range ; 
uttintu onesikewu, a person who has lost the 
front or other teeth. 

uku-Kewuka, v. To have the edge broken 
out. 

um-Kewu, , 6. A species of tree. 

i-Kewukewu, n. 2. That which is white like 
snow ; = ama-Newunewu. 

isi-Keya, . 4. A cage for birds. 

isi-KEYI, n. 4. A piece of wood fastened per- 
pendicularly in a bullock yoke; the animal 
when yoked has its head fastened by an 
understrap between two of these ; from Du. 
schei. 

u-Kezo, . 5. A wooden spoon. 

isi-Kibi, w. 4. A woman's apron. 

in-Kibitsholo, n. 3. A big, strong person or 
thing; a rogue, vagabond who does not 
care for anything. 

uku-KihIika, v. i. To fall off, as plaster 
slips from a wall. 

Kihiiza, v. To let out what is in the 
heart ; to expectorate. 

uku-Kikiteka, v. i. To laugh, giggle very 
much ; = Gigiteka. 

i-Kikizela, n. 2. A shoot from an old corn 
root ; the first-ripe fruit or the last left. 

uku-Kila, v. t. To accuse secretly; to tell 
tales of, betray. (This word is commonly, 
but not exclusively, used by children). 

i-Kilako, n. 2. Brandy. 

isi-Kilongo, . 4. One with deep set eyes. 

i-Kina, n. 2. Meat roasted on hot embers. 

isi-Kina, . 4. Group, company, division, 
class. 

ukuti-Kincl, v. i. Of the throat or chest, to 
be closed up. v. t. To tie up anything. 

ama-Kindilili, n. 2. pi. Pains, cramps; 
constant crying over a dead person. 

in-Kinga, n. 3. Something which perplexes 
one ; = in-Kohla. 

in-Kinge, n. 3. A bow-like stringed instru- 
ment, held by the wooden portion in the 
mouth and played upon with the fingers. 
The string is made of thread (itsinga). 

ama-Kinindane, n. 2. pi. Stiffness of the 
limbs after riding, working or dancing. 

isi-Kinindi, . 4. (a) Central part of a 
village, or heart of the people, (b) A great 
number of people meeting at a marriage 
or other feast. 

i-Kinqa, n. 2. Luck : likinqa lam eli, it is my 
good luck (e.g. when one finds a three- 
penny-piece on the ground). 



Kt 

in-Kinqa, n. 3. Food or tobacco purchased 
or received in a time of dearth, = i-Nkinqa. 

in-Kinqane, n. 3. That which is hard, stiff: 
umhlaba uyinkinqane, the ground is hard; 
fig. difficult to work from compactness. 

um-Kinqi, n. 6. Stiffness in the joints after 
a journey, or after having been in a con- 
fined position. 

in-Kinqila, . 3. A catching of the breath; 
hiccough. 

uku-Kintsa, v. i. To jump in dancing; cf. 
uku-Xentsa. 
in-Kintsane, n. 3. A jump. 

in Kintseia, n. 3. A person out of whom it 
is exceedingly difficult to draw any in- 
formation; a case that cannot be finished 
because of the difficulty in obtaining in- 
formation. 

ukuti-Kinxi, v. i. To stick, as a wagon in 
mud ; to stick or hesitate in speaking, etc. ; 
to stop in doing anything. 

uku-Kiqiza, v. i. To snow. 

um-Kisiso, n. 6. The Cabbage-tree, Cus- 
sonia umbellifera Sond. 

um-Kita, n. 6. A winning, pleasant ex- 
pression of countenance or appearance; 
gracefulness, comeliness: ndimnyama ndi- 
nomk'ita noko, I am black, but comely ; to be 
lovable, interesting, attractive, though not 
beautiful. 

ukuti-Kita, v. t. To cut, as a stone or axe 
does. 

in:K!tlnklta, ] 3- A great number 
of men, cattle, etc.; a mob, a swarm; 
impukane ziyinkitankita, the flies are 
numerous; uteta inkita, he speaks much 
that is of no use. 

uku-Kitaza, v. To cut down what is 
plentiful (corn), so that it may fall in 
heaps. 

Kitazela, v. To cut down for some 
purpose. 

Kitazeka, v. To nod from drowsiness. 
isi-KlTI, n. 4. A pound for strayed stock, 

from Du. schut. 
uku-Kitika, v. i. To get loose and fall 

down: ilitye likttikile ewent, the stone got 

loose and fell down from the rock; to 

fall down in a heap: isulu likitikile, lit. 

the sky has fallen, i.e. is covered with dark 

clouds, and snow or sleet is falling. 

Kitikela, v. To fall down into: ilitye 
laktttkda apa emnxunyeni, a stone fell 
right down here into the hole. 



187 



KI 

Kitiza, V. Of sleet or fine rain, to shoot 
down. 

Kitizela, v. To fell: k'litzela pantsi 
yonke imiti, fell all the trees. 
in Kitinkiti, w. 3. Beads. 
isi Kitshane, n. 4. Dimin. of isi-Kepe. A 

little boat. 
i-Klwane, n. 2. A fig. 
um-Kiwane, . 6. The Bush fig-tree, Ficus 

capensis Thiin. ; hence used for a fig-tree in 

general. 
K6, I. Pron. pass. 2 p. sing. Thy: imali yakb, 

thy money; pantsi kivakd, before thee. 

2. Pron. of 8 cl. (from the emphatic 
k6na). It: Used (a) after poss. particles of 
all classes: ndifiin' iikudla isongo sakb 
simnandi, I want food of a pleasant taste ; 
itninzuftzH vflkd (iikufa), the pangs of it 
(death); emphatic, eydVib itninzunzii, its 
pangs. 

(b) in an indefinite sense: ndinikela 
izishiuni zakb konke endihizuzayo, I give 
tithes of all that I get. 

(c) with prep.: pambi kzvalib (ukuta- 
ndaza), before it (prayer) ; to be dis- 
tinguished from pambi kwako, before thee ; 
uboini abuiigapezulu-na kitkb ukudla? is not 
the life more than the food ? 

(d) with prep, na, followed by the infin. 
considered as a noun, to express possession 
or power: ndinakb ukudla, I have food; 
andiitakb ukuieta (contrac. andinakuteta) I 
am not able to speak. 

(e) following the copula: ^;<kd, it is it, 
(not to be confounded with kukb, it is 
present) ; and expressing causal relation- 
ship: ndiruqukile kukb (ukuiya), I am dis- 
gusted with it, I loathe it (food). 

3. adv. Used (a) with the Pron. subj. or 
uku-BS I., it expresses presence or existence: 
ndikb, I am present; kukb ukutya, the food 
is there; abantu abakbyo, the people who 
are present ; ndiya kubakb kusasa, I shall be 
present in the morning; akakb yena, he is 
not present; amadoda ebengekb, the men 
were not present. (The relative form kolo 
is seldom used : lento ikolo tnna, this thing is 
or exists for me). 

(b) With the impersonal Pron. subj. ku 
it has an indefinite meaainj- : kukb ujuntu, 
there are people, or people are present. 
In the negative it denotes that there is not 
one of the things spoken of, or there does 
not exist: sitl isidenge, akukb T'lxo, the fool 
says. There is no God. 



KO 

Ko, Pron. subj. of the condit. future of 8 cl. : 

ukufa kofika, death will come; also used 

indefinitely: kobako indlala, there will be 

dearth. 

ubu-K6, n. 7. Presence, existence: baboyika 

tibuko bam, they fear my presence. 
in-Ko, n. 3. = the open anus ; see in-Kolo. Ndiyi- 
nko, I am surprised, disappointed (staring 
with open mouth). Phr. nse-Nko nase-Bakuba, 
he is in Nomansland or in the land of 
Nowhere. 
ama-Kdba, n. 2. pi. The refuse of corn left 
after thrashing and winnowing; husks, 
chaff, empty pods. 
isi-K6ba, n. 4. A forest or clump of yellow- 
wood trees. 
um-Koba, n. 6. Bastard yellowwood, Podo- 

carpus elongata L. Her. ; fig. a coffin. 
u-K6ba, 71. 5. Ripening corn which the birds 

have cast down. 
uku-K6ba, v. i. To beckon with the hand; to 
call by beckoning. 

K6bela, v. To beckon to a person to 

approach: ndamkobela kum, I beckoned 

him to approach. 

in-Kobe, . 3. Kafir-corn or maize boiled 

whole (i.e. without being first crushed or 

husked). 

um-K6beza, . 6. Bogwood, Nuxia congesta, 

R. Br. 
i Kobe, n. 2. An empty cornpit. 
u-Kobo, ti. 5. (a) Appendage to the Kafir 
isidla, the long part on which brasswire is 
strung, (b) The plant called utywala bentaka. 
in-Kobonkobo, n. 3. Anything long; a tall, 
wiry man; a long nose on a European; a 
long nozzle on a horse ; the long beak of 
um Kolwane] also used in a bad sense for 
swearing. 
i Koboka, n. 2. A slave; one under bondage 
to another ; fem. ikobokakazi and ikobokazana. 
ubu-Kdboka, h. 7. Slavery. 
uku-K6bolela, v. i. To hasten or run after a 
thing; to be covetous, ravenous in the 
extreme. 

u-K6boIoIo, n. 5. Great desire; often re- 
turning greediness; one who eats or 
drinks to excess. 
in-Kobolokonde, . 3- An insatiable person 
or thing: uyinkobolokonde, he eats much, 
but does not become satisfied ; isitya siyi- 
nkobolokonde, the vessel is of large capa- 
city, able to hold still more; wenza 
inkobolokonde, he called a large meeting, but 
is dissatisfied with a few people. 



i-K6bonga, n. 2. Greedy: lonmtu idikobonga, 

that person is greedy, voracious. 
in-Kobongiyane, n. 3. A railway siding. 
i-K6bongwana, . 2. An imported heifer. 
in Koboiikobo, k. 3. See under u Kobo. 
isi-Kdbozi, n. 4. An old hat or cap. 
Kodwa, (a) adj. ref. to 8 cl.: Only, alone: 

tabata ukutya kodwa, take the food only; 

kiikodwa oku, this is alone, separate ; a thing 

by itself, or quite another thing; see Dwa. 

(b) adv. Merely: uteta kodwa, you merely 
talk ; ulele kodwa, he merely sleeps. 

(c) conj. But, however: uyasebenza, kodwa 
akaqinisi, he works, but not hard; 

ngokukodwa, especially : ndimvelisile 
pambi kweuu, ngokukodwa pamb'i kwako, nkosi, 
I have brought him forth before you, but 
especially before thee, chief. 
i-KOFU, n. 3. Coffee, from the Du. koffie. 
u-K6fuk6fu, ti. 5. Hard breathing. 
i-Kogina, n. 3. Lead. 

uku-K'OHLA, V. t. To puzzle; to place in a 
difficulty: lamkohla, it (the word) put him 
in a difficulty; to confuse, disconcert, 
obstruct ; to put out of countenance : leiidlela 
indikohlile, this road puzzles me; lendaba 
indikohlile, this report puzzles me; ndiya- 
mkohla, I obstruct him (in speaking^ is of 
very recent use. The passive form is used 
more frequently : ndakohhva, I was in a fix 
ndikohlkve, I am embarrassed; I am at a 
loss what to say ; tidikohliwe yinto endingaye- 
nzayo, I am at a loss what to do; to be 
unable, powerless ; kubizwe irafu, kanti ndi 
kohliwe, kuba ndiitge tiamali, the taxes are 
demanded, but I am in a difficulty, i.e. 
unable to pay, for I have no money ; akuko- 
hliwe ngtwwtu, you are not embarrassed by 
any man, i.e. you are not in need of any 
man's help; ndikohlkve ligatna lako, I have 
forgotten your name. 
i-K6hle-kdhle, . 2. A striking right and 

left with an assegai. 
u-K6hlo, n. I. and i-Kdhlo, n. 2. The left 
side. Used as adverb in the locative case 
ekoltlo and ngasekohlo, at or on the left 
side: ati-ke zona ibokwe azimise ngasekohlo, 
but the goats he shall set on the left; 
ngasekohlo kwake or kuye, at his left hand ; 
isandla sokohlo or csokdhlo,\\he left hand. 
in-Kohla, n. 3. A puzzle, difficulty, impos- 
sibility; a person with whom one can do 
nothing. The camp of the Zulu king 
Tshaka was called inkohla. See uku 
Hlangana. 



ko 

isi-K6hlo, n. 4. A message, Sisikohlo sam 
is said by a messenger delivering his 
message, and denotes: This is all that I 
have to say. 
ukuK6hlakaIa, v. To be useless, unfit; 
good for nothing; to be wicked, evil, 
cruel : tinintu okohlakeleyo, a useless, wick- 
ed or cruel person. 
in-Kohlakalo, n. 3. Uselessness, wicked- 
ness, cruelty, ungodliness: ungalipati nge- 
nkohlakalo igama lika-Yehova, thou shalt 
not take the name of the Lord in vain. 
isi-K6hIakali, n. 4. A useless, wicked, 

godless person of evil designs. 
uku-K6hlakalisa, v. To render useless, to 

handle deceitfully. 
K6hleka, v. To be difficult, impossible : 
kwakohleka ukuziguqula kwake, it was im- 
possible for him to change his mind, his 
conversion was impossible. 
K6hlisa, V. To cause one to be at a 
loss ; to mislead, cause to err ; to deceive, 
cheat, beguile, defraud, wrong: wandiko- 
hlisa ngenkomo yake, he deceived me with 
his cow. Adv. ngokungakohlisiyo, lit. by 
not deceiving, i.e. in truth. 
um-K6hlisi, . I. A deceiver, defrauder. 
in-Kohllso, n. 3. Deceit, deception, de- 
lusion. 
uku-K6hlisana, v. To deceive, cheat, etc., 

each other. 
K6hliseka, v. To be deceived. 
u-K6hlok6hIo, n. 5. A chronic cough. 
uku-K6hIela, v. i. To cough. 
izi-Kdhlela, n. 4. pi. Matter, phlegm, 
expectorated by coughing; sputum. 
i-K6hlonibe, n. 2. The case or sheath in 
which assegais are carried ; a reserve party. 
uku-Kdhloza, v. t. To break off many maize- 
cobs; to cut off much wood; = Qoroza. 
uku-K'OKA, V. i. To take the lead, said 
specially of animals; to wander away, go 
astray. 

um-K6ko, n. 6. A travelling company: 
usemkokweni wabahambi, he is in the 
company of travellers; a number of men 
going to war, etc. 
uku-K6kela, v. To go before; to lead. 
um-Kokeli, n. I and in-Kokeli, n. 3. One 
who goes before, the boy who leads a 
span of oxen; a leader; iratshi ngumkokeli 
wesiwo, pride leads to a fall. 
in-Kokelo, n. 3. Leading; fig. a programme. 
uku-K6kelela, v. To lead into or towards : 
ufanele ukukokelela abanye enyanisweni, 
you should lead others into the truth. 



KO 

K6kisa, V. To cause to go away, (used 

of cattle). 

u-Koko, n. I. An ancestor. 

isi-K6ko, w. 4. Food that has been left in a 

pot ; = im-Batu. 

u-K6ko, . 5. A crust: ukoko Iwesonka, a 

crust of bread ; scab, scurf, incrustation on 

a partially healed wound. Dimin. tikokwana, 

a little crust, used sometimes as = is-Onka. 

Koko, conj. But that, etc., see Oko, I. 

uku-Kdk6ba, v. i. To go bent from old age ; 

to creep or go bent as a beggar: abanye 

sebenazo impahla zabo, ke-mna ndisakokoba, 

others are already quite comfortable, but I 

am still as poor as a beggar. 

ukuti-Ko-ko-ko and uku-Kokozela, v. i. 

To run hard, out of breath, to or towards 

a place where anything has happened. 

Kokokuba, Intens. of Kukuba, By that, 

from ukii-Bd, I. 
i-K6k6sholo, n. 2. A useless, slovenly 

person ; a henpecked man. 
uku-Kokot&, V. t. To bring forth, produce 

all the prepared food ; also = Qoqoda. 
uku-Kokozela, = ukutlKd-kd-ko. 
Kokuk6na, conj. Lit. it is the more; the 

more, see Kona. 
uku-K'OLA, V. t. (This radical form is now 
generally displaced by uku-Kolisa.) To 
give satisfaction: lento indikdlile, this thing 
has satisfied me ; ayikoli, it does not please 
me. Phr. indaba yetyela ayikoli, lit. the 
news of the teller does not satisfy, i.e. one 
can hardly believe what one is told, unless 
one sees for oneself. 
i-K6la, . 2. obselete = \-Kb\'wa: singama- 

kola, = sigqobokile. 
i-K6lo, . 2. That which one has pleasure 
in, or loves very much; satisfaction, 
good pleasure : ikolo ebantwini, satisfaction 
with men; ikolo leyant intliziyo lelokuba 
basindiswe, my heart's good pleasure is 
that they may be saved. 
in-Kolo, n. 3. That which is believed, 

creed, (objective). 
in-Kolo-nkolo, . 3. pi. Religious deno 

minations; different beliefs. 
U-K6I0, n. 5. Satisfaction, confidence, 

trust, belief, faith, (subjective). 
uku-K6lwa, pass, of uku-K6la. (a) Liter- 
ally and primarily it means " to be satis- 
fied with, pleased with," and was used 
orig. with the causal forms of nouns: 
ndikoliwe liyeza awandinikayo, I am 
pleased with the medicine he gave me ; 
ndikdliwe yilendawo, this is the place I 

190 



K6 

like, it answers my desires and purposes. 
Phr. wokolwa yeyokosa, lit. you will be 
glad to take roasted meat; (applied to 
any one who is boasting immoderately, 
to warn him that, if he does not take 
care, he will get into trouble, when he 
will be glad to take whatever comes to 
hand. He will take roast meat, as it is 
easily done, and as he will have neither 
time nor means to boil it. It is also 
used as a threat, as if one said, I will 
punish you thoroughly). 

(b) To approve of; to trust in; to 
believe in: ndiyakolwa ngu-Tixo, I believe 
in God ; ndikdliwe ngumsebenzi wakk, I am 
satisfied with his work; andikolwa ngu- 
lomntu, I do not trust this man ; abantu 
abakolwayo, believing people. 

Latterly the prep, ku has taken the 
place of the causal forms: ndiyakolwa 
ku-Yesu, I believe in Jesus; but this des- 
troys the idiomatic sense, which implies, 
that the faith of the individual is pro- 
duced in his mind by the trustworthiness, 
excellency and all sufficiency of Him 
towards whom the faith is exercised. 

i-K6lwa, . 2. A believer. 

ubu-K6lwa, . 7. Belief, trust. 

uku-K6lana, v. To be satisfied with: 
bakolene naye, they are pleased, familiar 
or prepossessed with him; they agree 
with him. 

Kdlw^ana, v. To reciprocate trust; to 
be satisfied with each other ; to exercise 
mutual confidence. 

i-KdIwane, n. 2. A confident, intimate, 
bosom friend; a colleague; fem. ikolwane- 
kazi. 

ubu-K6lwane, n. 7. Mutual confidence, 
companionship, fellowship. 

uku-K6leka, v. To be satisfactory, ac- 
ceptable, trustworthy, pleasant: amazwi 
ake akolekile kum, his words are satis- 
factory or acceptable to me. 

in-Koleko, n. 3. Good will, pleasure. 

uku-K6lekisa, v. To cause or make 
acceptable, etc. 

K6lela, v. To have pleasure in respect 
to; to like: inkosi eniyikolelayo yiyiptnaf 
which is the chief whom you like so 
much? Of recent use instead of inkosi 
enikolwa yiyo yiyiptnaf 

in-KoIelo, n. 3. Good will towards one. 
This word and in-Koleko are both of 
recent use for i-Kolo. 

uku-K6Hsa, V. (a) To satisfy; to give 
sufficient or enough: wathiga inkabi yam 



KO 

wandikdlisa, he bought my bullock and 
satisfied me, i.e. paid me well; to please; 
to inspire with confidence : ukolisile, you 
have done well, that is enough; undikoli 
sile, you have satisfied me; I have con- 
fidence in you ; ukolisile akwenje njalo, he 
has given full satisfaction by so doing; 
uyikolisile inkewu ngercle lake, he has 
satisfied the fellow with his sword, he 
has given him more than enough, (b) 
As aux. it has the adverbial meaning of 
often, usually, effectually: bakolisa uku- 
lima, they ploughed to satisfaction i.e. 
much, thoroughly, effectually; bakolisa 
ngokona, they are accustomed to trans- 
gress, do it often ; bakolisa ngokutt batande, 
they love to satisfaction, i e. enough, 
very much; zikolisa ngokuba ziqiti, the 
most of them are islands; ilizwe likolisa 
ngokuba nentlabati, most of the land is 
sandy; likolisa ngokuba Hde, the greater 
part of it is long ; amazive akakoUsi kuba 
nabantu, the countries are mostly without 
people, i.e. have not many or enough 
people; abakolisi ngakuzazi, they do not 
satisfy with their knowledge, i.e. do not 
know much. 

um-K6lisi, n. I. One who pleases: um- 
kdlisi-bantu, a man-pleaser. 

in-KoIiso, n. 3. The larger portion of the 
whole: inkoliso yabantu yafika kusasa, 
most of the people arrived in the 
morning. 

u-K6liso, n. 5. That which gives satisfac- 
tion. 

uku-K6Usana, v. To please, satisfy each 
other. 

in-KoIisano, n. 3. Mutual pleasure, satis- 
faction ; harmony, unity. 

uku-K6liseka, v. To have so much as to 
feel satisfied : ndikolisekile, I am satisfied ; 
I have nothing to complain of. 

in-KoHseko, n. 3. 

u-K6liseko, n. 5. 

satisfaction, contentment. 

uku-K6lisisa, v. To make oneself often 
pleasant, acceptable. 
um-KoIeya, . 6. Bastard yellowwood, = Mw- 

Koba. 
in-Kol6, n. 3. The opening of the anus; 

a gaping; a hole (in a pair of trousers or in 

a tin vessel); dimin. inkolwana, a small, 

long or tubular hole. 
isi-KOLO, , 4. School, a Mission Station, 

from the Du. school. Phr. isikolo liliwa 

lamagqwira, a mission station is a hiding 

place for scoundrels. 



Fulness which is felt. 



KO 

uku-KoLOBA and KOROBA, v. t. To scrub; to 
do a little job, ; fr. Du. schrobben. 
isi-KOLOBO, n. 4. Menial work, as scrub- 
bing, brushing ; hence a job : ndiya kuziju- 
tiela izikolobo e-Monti, I am going to look 
for work at East London. 
i-K6lokdlo, . 2. A very lean animal or 
thing: inkomo zingainakolokolo, lean cattle, 
recovering from lungsickness, or after a 
drought. 
isi-K6lokot6, n. 4. The tuberous root with 
broad leaves of Sanseviera thyrsiflora 
Thun., used as medicine for worms and 
piles. The larger kind is called isikolokotd 
sehlati; cf. uku-Gciintsa. 
in-Kololwane, n. 3. The bulb of the um- 

Muncwane. 
um-KdIonjane, . 6. (a) The Crowned 
Hornbill, Lophoceros melanoleucos (A 
Licht.) ; = tim-Kohvatie. 

(b) The ghost of a person who according 
to Kafir superstition was killed, and had 
his tongue cut out, but who rose again and 
rambles about at night. (It is also used as 
a term of reproach.) 
um-KdIo-ny ama, n. 6. The passage between 
two rows of people sitting opposite each 
other. 
in-Kolontyo, k. 3. A deep, dark place or 

corner ; = in-Kontyiba and in-Kontyo. 
uku-K6losa, V. i. Orig. to lean with the 
back against a thing; fig. to be safe, secure : 
wnvihlangula nahlala nikolosile, he delivered 
you and ye dwelt in safety; to lean on, i.e. 
to confide in: ndikolosa ngo-Tixo, I lean on, 
i.e. I confide in God. 

K6loseka, v. To feel safe, secure, firm. 
in-KoIoseko, . 3. A feeling of safety, 
security, confidence : yeyanina lenkoloseko 
nikolose ttgayo? what confidence is this 
wherein you trust ? 
uku-K6losisa, v. To cause or make to 
confide: ndizikolosisa kuye, I entrust 
myself to him. 
in-Kolosisi, n. 3. One who inspires trust 
or confidence. 
in-Kolovane, n. 3. (a) Scab on the skin, (b) 

Very sharp hoarfrost. 
uku-K61wa, pass, of uku-Kola. 
um-K6lwane, n. 6. The Crowned Horn- 
bill, Lophoceros melanoleucos (A. Licht. J. 
in-Komana, n. 3. Dimin. of in-Komo, see 

i-Nkomo. 
i-K6niane lomkdba, n. 2. A large barrel. 



191 



KO 

in-Komankoma, . 3. A species of fern, 
Nephrodium athamanticum Hook., whose 
root is used as a vermifuge. 

in-Komba, . 3. A species of palm-tree grow- 
ing on the Egossa coast in East Pondoland. 

uku-K6mba, v. i. Em. To point out; to make 
a sign to another with the finger; to point 
out or towards a place or object with the 
finger: wakomba ngapa, he pointed thither; 
= tikw-Alaia. 
u-K6mbe. n. 5. Em. The forefinger of the 

right hand ; = um-Gubelo. 
uku-K6mbisa, v. To cause to point out; 
to double up. 

ura-Kdmbe, n. 6. (short 'o') The rhinoceros. 

um-K6mbe, w.6. (long'o') A wooden trough, 
hollowed out longitudinally on the upper 
side of a log of wood, used for various 
domestic purposes; a kneading-trough^ 
canoe, boat, ship ; dim. umkmjatta. 

in-Komb6zembe, n. 3. Em. An herb called 
by boys u-Tywala bentaka, = Ksif\.r ii-Kobo. 

in-KOMFA, w. 3. The annual conference of 
the Wesleyan church; a conference; from 
Eng. conference. 

um-Komiso, n. 6. A large evergreen tree, 
Rhus longifolia Sovd., common in the 
Eastern portion of Cape Colony. 

i-KOMITYl, . 3. A cup, bowl; from Du, 
kommetje. 

Komkulu, adv. At the great place. 

i-Komkulu, n. 2. The great place; that 
kraal of a king or chief, at which the great 
wife lives ; hence, court, kingdom ; igosa 
lakomkulu, the king's officer or courtier 
see um-Kulu. 

in-Komo, n. 3. A cow; See i-Nkomo. 

u-K6mokaz3, n. 5. Cows without oxen 
a crowd without a head or helper; common 
people without a chief. 

K6na, (a) Pron. etnpliat. subj. and object. 8 
cl. It, itself, the same one: sikurile kdna, 
we have heard it, i.e. the same thing; ke 
kdna ukutya sikugqibilc, as regards the food, 
we have finished it; okona kittya kumnatidi^ 
the nicest food. 

(b) adi: (Em. here: zikona, they are here.) 
There, in that place : apo umi kdna, where 
you stand ; kdn' apo kiiya kubakd ukuiila, 
where there shall be weeping; ivafi'^a vtnntu 
wakona, there arrived a man of that place ; 
makiingcibi kdna ngomtendeleko, let it not be 
during, at the time of, the feast. 

Kwakdna, In the very same place, or the 
very same thing, once more, again : ycnza 
kwakana, do it again, repeat it. 



KO 

Nga-k6na, In that direction: sisinga 
ngakdna, we are proceeding in that direction. 
(c) It is used in the sense of, " in case, 
in fact," and in repeating an action, or in 
attempting to accomplish an operation: 
kdna! do it again! hayi kdna! depend 
upon it! 

Ku-k6na, okii-k6na, koku-k6na, conj. 
The more, consequently : wandibiza olcid'o- 
na ndizayo, you called me, and therefore 
I am coming; kodiva o!cukdna wabayalayo, 
kokukdna bakuvakalisa ngakumbi, but the 
more he charged them, the more they 
published it; asikokukdna ndiya kuntya, 
O, how much more shall I be glad! 

uku-K6nica, v. i. To sit or lie in a nice safe 
place ; to live retired in the house. 

i-K6nco, /). 2. A link of a chain ; a buckle 
(of harness) for fastening. 

uku-Kdncoza, v. i. To make a sound as the 
clinking iogeth&r of meti\\; = ukn-Kenceza. 

in-Konde, n. 2. (a) A large brown bird 
with red beak, probably the Bald Ibis, 
Geronticus calvus (Bodd.). 
(b) A narrative, tale. 

isi-K6nde, n. 4. A species of plant, like a 
carrot, eaten by boys. 

u-Kondla, n. 5. That which grows up 
quickly. 

in-Kondlo, n. 3. The dance which closes 
the ill-Ton jane. 

uku-Kdndloza, v. t. To continue speaking or 
asking about a thing after being warned to 
desist; to make i.^iuiry into something not 
yet understood; to inquire eagerly; to 
suspect ; to warn, admonish with hard 
words. 

in-Kondlozo, n. 3. Continued speaking 
after repeated warnings. 

i-K6ndo, n. 2. (a) That which is last, behind, 
at the end, (b) ^ um-Kondo. 

isi-K6ndo, n. 4. The part next to the root ; 
stubble: isikdndo sombdna, the lower part of 
the maize stalk; isikdndo soin!'i, the stem, 
trunk, stock, thick end of a tree ; isHcdndo 
soboya, the root of the hair; isikdndo sentsi- 
mbt, a long piece of iron, crowbar. 

um-Kdndo, n. 6. Track, trace, trail made 
by a vehicle; the footmarks of man or 
beast: yawa einkdndweni indoda, the man 
followed their track; row, order, class, step. 

in-Kone, n. 3. See i-Nkone. 

in-Kongo. n. 3. (a) A mat put up length- 
wise in a doorway to form a draught or to 
screen from the smoke of a fire, (b) The 
umtshotsho, or Saturday night dance of boj's ; 
fig. sham, deceit; ambush. 



192 



KO 



in-Kongolo, . 3. Anything ugly, as an oblong 
face; a baboon; that which looks hollow, 
as an old horse; cf. in Kobonkobo. 
ukutl-Kongololo, v. i. To be lean, withered. 
uku.K6ngoza, v. i. To hold up the hands to 
receive something; to beg indirectly; said 
of a grandmother who begs something for 
her grandchild, and eats it with the child: 
ndiyamkongoza, I am bringing up the child. 
K6ngozeIa, v. To hold out the hands or 
a vessel for the purpose of receiving 
anything from another person : kongozela 
ngesandla ndikupe, hold up your hand that 
I may give you ; to place a bucket under 
a spout to catch the raindrops : kongozela 
Imvula, collect the rain, i.e. plough al- 
though the ground is hard; to take a 
collection, in church or elsewhere. 
in-Kdngozelo, n. 3. A collection. 
um-K6njana, n. 6. Dimin. of urn-Komhe. 
in-K6njane, n. 3. A swallow (generically) ; 
a swallow-tail mark (of ownership) in the 
ear of a sheep or other domestic animal ; a 
method of doing up the qiya sometimes 
adopted by girls; a spear with a barbed 
head. 
uku-K6nka, v. i. To feast intemperately ; to 

gormandise. 
Konke, adj. 8. cl. Whole, all: ndipe konke 

ukutya, give me all the food; see Onke. 
uku-K6nkela, v. t. Em. To close, bar; to 
catch one in his speech ; = Gogela and Goqa. 
isi-K6nkosi, n. 4. The poll of the neck. 
uku-K6nkota, v. i. Of a dog, to bark. 
n. 8. Barking. 
um-Kdnkot6, n. 6. Barking. 
uku-K6nkoteIa, v. To bark at. 
in-Konkotela, n. 3. One who is well 
acquainted with anything, conversant 
with, clever in everything. 
uku-K6nkotisa, v. To rouse, stir, excite to 

bark. 
K6nkotiseIa, v. To cause to bark at. 
in-Konkowane, n. 3. used as adj. (a) Very 

cold, (b) Dry (of maize). 
isi-K6nkwane, n. 4. A wooden pin or peg 
for fastening down an expanded skin; a 
nail, bolt ; an iron pin under a beacon ; a 
beacon of a building lot; the building lot 
itself. Phr. ndibetelelwe ngesikonkwane, I am 
fastened by a nail, i.e. T am a fixture here 
(in this place or at this work, although I 
believed I was finished with it). 
si-K6no, n. 4. The whole arm: unesikono, 
he uses his arms well, he is dexterous; he 
understands his business, e.g. milking. 

z 193 



KO 

isa-K6no, n. 4. Dexterity. It is used in 
reference to any individual who has the 
power of throwing any thing very far, or 
of drawing more milk out of a cow than 
another: u-Mxamli-lo unesakono kuno-Putu, 
Mxamli is a better milker than Putu. 

um-K6no, n. 6. The forearm from the elbow 
to the wrist; the foreleg of an animal with 
the shoulder; fig. the front wheels of a 
wagon; the sleeves of a garment. 

in-Kononkono, n. 3. A long thing, such as a 
long mealie-cob or a long face. 

in-Konqa, n. 3. A short-faced person with a 
projecting forehead ; fern, inkonqazana. 

ukuti-K6nqo, v. i. Of the ground, to become 
hard from drought. 

ukuti-K6nqoloIo, v. i. To have fits, convul- 
sions. 

um-K6nto, n. 6. A spear, assegai: lento ndiyi- 
zuze ngomkonto may mean, I got this by 
force of arms; or, I got this in exchange 
for a spear ; fig. the money to be paid to a 
doctor before he leaves his home, earnest 
money, a pledge; ukubeka umkonto = uku- 
Hloma usiba. 

uku-K6ntoza, v. i. To speak incessantly. 

uku-K6ntsa, v. t. To look thoroughly into a 
matter; to examine in a court before a 
judge. 

in-Kontsoba, n. 3. That which is difficult, 
impossible. 

um-Kdntwana, . l. The man who carries 
the medicines of a doctor, = Em. i-Hlakani. 

uku-K6ntya, v. i. To retire ; to seek seclusion. 

in-Kontyiba, n. 3. A hiding-place among 
rocks and stones. 

in-Kontyo, n. 3. A deep hole, pit, cavity in 
a rock; amanzi asenkontyweni, the water is 
deep. 

uku-Kdnxa, v. t. To fasten with a chain or 
buckle ; to bind, fetter ; to drag the wheel 
of a wagon. 
i-K6nxa, . 2. One who fastens with 

chains; a jailer. 
i-K6nxwa, n. 2. A prisoner. 
in-Konxa, n. 3. Case or tin in which 
preserves are kept ; fig. used contempt- 
uously, a camp or encampment of soldiers 
or loyals, who have no room, but are 
pressed, narrowed in ; a place of safety, 
refuge. 

Phr. ukuzifaka enkonxeni, to put oneself 

in a tin, i.e. to put oneself in a fix : lento 

yokufuna ukucetyiswa ngumntu iisuke ubone 

uzifake enkonxeni, by seeking 



KO 

advice, you will put yourself at last in a 
box, 
uku-K6nxeka, v. To become fastened, 
kept back ; to be restrained ; to be tied to 
a place as if by chains, not to leave a 
place at all. 
Konxo, adv. Fast: waltima konxo entloko 
Hgamazinyo, he bit him in the head with his 
teeth. 
uku-Kdnya. i;. /. To bellow as a bull, neigh 
as a stallion, roar as a male lion at break 
of day ; fig. to be dissatisfied. 
i-Kdnye, n. 2. Bellowing, roaring; fig. 
dissatisfaction: ndinekdnye,! am dissatis- 
fied. 
um-Kdnyo, n. 6. A kind of grasshopper 
which makes a loud shrill noise in 
summer nights, like kdnyo! konyo! 
uku-K6nyela, f. To neigh after. 
in-Konyana, n. 3. See i-Nkonyana. 
uku-K6nyuluka, v. i. To retch violently; 
to make violent efforts to vomit. 
in-KonyuIuko, n. 3. Vomiting, 
uku-K'ONZA, V. t. Of councillors, to attend 
at the chief's kraal but not to do such 
menial service as milking. To serve: 
ndiya kukdnza enkosini yatn, I am going to 
serve my master; to work for reward and 
livelihood. 
um-K6nzi, n. i. ") 
i-K6nza, n. 2. ] 

zaiia, a female servant, a maid servant. 
in-Konzo, n. 3. Service in general; a 

religious service. 
uku-K6nzana, v. To serve one another. 
K6nzela, v. To serve, attend for. Old 
phr. : wondikdnzcla ktiye, do me a service 
with him, i.e. give my regards, compli- 
ments or greetings to him. 
K6nzelana, v. To serve for one 

another. 
K6nzisa, v. To cause or make one to 

serve ; to exact service from another. 

Kdnzisana, v. To serve each other. 

uku-Kopa, V. i. To get squeamish; to clean 

oneself of spittle. 
u-K6pe, n. 5. The eyelash.- 
ama-K6p6k6p6, 11. 2. pi. Changes. 
i-K6poIo, n. 2. (a) An animal with horns 
bent towards the front, (b) The brass 
ring or armlet worn by Kafir women. 
in-Kosana, n. 3. Dimin. of in-Kosi. A petty 

prince or chief. 
in-Kosazana, n. 3. (a) A chief's daughter, 
a princess; a young lady. One of the 
names for Queen Victoria ; cf. UmtHwana 
omUe for the same. 

194 



A servant; i 



i-konza- 



KO 

(b) Euphemistic term of respect for 
Nocebcyi, the Donder-padde or Jan Blom, a 
little frog that lives in the ground. Should 
one of these frogs be turned up by the 
hoers, it is carefully covered up again, lest 
it be killed and rain come in consequence. 

(c) Euphemistic term of respect for the 
porcupine. It is so addressed that it may 
not carry on depredations in the gardens. 

in-Ko5i, n. 3. from uku-Koka, to lead. A 
term denoting respect and authority, res- 
tricted formerly to chiefs of royal blood. 
Nowadays, when chiefs have lost their 
authority, every man is inkosi. A husband, 
when spoken of by his wife, is her inkosi. 
The vocative nkosi! is equal to the English 
Sir! E, nkosi! or the simple vocative nkosi! 
is used either as the English "thanks," to 
express gratitude to a giver by saying 
uyinkosi, you are a lord, or it is used to 
entreat another to show an act of kindness 
or mercy by reminding him that he is a 
lord ; vocat. pi. zinkosi ! Fem. inkosikazi, plur. 
amakosikazi, a queen or chieftainess. Nowa- 
days a husband calls his wife inkosikazi; 
this was introduced by missionaries. 

in-Kosi enkulu and in-Kosi encinane, n. 3. 
The highest rooms or 'beds' in the girls 
game, Notwayisi. 

um-K6si, ". 6. A military force or army: 
inkosi inomkosi omkiilu, the chief has a large 
army. Phr. ukuhlaba umkdsi, to sound the 
war-cry, to call out the army for war. 

ubu-K6si, n. 7. Chieftainship, kingship 
authority, rule, sway, reign. 

i-K6sl, n. 2. The depressed part of the nape 
of the neck: bamnikela ikosi, they turned 
their back on him. 

i-KoSTINA, n. 3. A chimney, fr. Du. 
schoorsteen. 

uku-K'OT'A, V. i. To lick with the tongue : 
inja ikota isitya, the dog licks the dish. Phr. 
wazikota inxeba, lit. he licked himself a 
wound or he licked his wounds (it may 
refer to a dog irritating a wound by licking 
it) i.e. he caused himself pain; or uzidla 
inxeba kwayena, he wounds himself. Akukd 
qili linokiizikota, no one is so smart as to be 
able to lick his back, i.e. a cunning man may 
try to achieve something beyond his power; 
ing' iyayikota, kanti iyayixatuia, he blesses 
with the one hand and curses with the other; 
koia mbola = qaba mbola ; inja ikota oyikotayo, 
zhigaba mbini ziyakotana, i.e. he returns good 
for good, friendship for friendship; 'one 
hand washes the other'. 



ko 



in-Kota, n. 3. (a) Long dry grass for 

thatching, (b) A species of snake. 
isi-Kdta, n. 4. Grass grown long and ripe 
in a place where it has not been burnt: 
yisa inkotno esikoteni ziHute, bring the cattle 
to the long grass, (which they can lick 
into the mouth,) that they may be full ; 
dry grass ; hay. 
uku-K6tana, v. To lick each other ; hence, 

to be on friendly terms. 
K6tela, v. To lick for, at or away ; to join 
another in eating his food ; to touch the 
pen when not able to sign one's name ; fig. 
iikotela emazwini ake, she licks at his words, 
i.e. takes from them only what she likes. 
K6telisa, v. To share with another, as 
e.g. to sit down together to eat a portion 
of food which is too small to be divided, 
or to wash together with the same small 
piece of soap. 
Kdtisa, v, To cause or ht Ip to lick. 
uku K6tama, v. i. To stoop, bow down: 
wakotama ukutata lento emhlabeni, he stooped 
down to take up this thing from the ground 
to hide ; to sit or lie down doing nothing 
ukukotanta emsebenzini, to shirk work. 
K6tamela, v. To stoop, etc. before, 
upon or towards ; fig. submit : kdtamela 
endodeni yakd, humble yourself before 
your husband. 
K6taniisa, v. To cause or make to bow 
down ; to humble. 
ukuti- Kdte, v. i. Of the mouth, to become 

dry. 
isi-KOTI, . 4. A cartridge ; Du. schot, a shot. 
isi-KOTlLE, n. 4. A scuttle, dish; Du. schotel. 
isi-K6t6, n. 4. What remains of food after 

a meal. 
U-K6t6k6t6, n. 5. One who denies that he 
can give food. 

uku-K6t6za, v. t. To refuse food asked 

for. 

ukuti-K6tso, V. i. To be very small, scarcely 

visible, v. t. To render difficult, make 

impossible ; to hide. 

u-Kotso, n. 5. The waistband of beads worn 

by Reds. 
jku-K6tuluIa, V. t. To n^ake loose, scrape 
off with the finger: kotulula ukudla ohi- 
tsheleyo embizeni, scrape the food loose 
which is burnt to the pot ; to scrape out 
the cornpit; to eat up wholly, leaving 
nothing ; to brush off with the hand, e. g. 
from a table. 

195 



KO 

um-K6tuIuli, n. I. One who scrapes 

everything out of the mealie-pit; one 

that eats everything up, e.g. a swarm 

of locusts. 

in-Kotyeni, n. 3. The female Buff-streaked 

Chat ; see isi-Xaxabesha. 
uku-Kdva, v. i. (a) To sit on the haunches; 
to squat, cower, (b) As aux. verb it 
denotes that an action took place just 
previously to some other occurrence spoken 
of or referred to: safika zisakov' ukupuma 
inkomo, we arrived just as the cattle had 
gone out; lakukova ukupima ilanga, just 
after the sun had risen. 
isi-Kdva, n. 4. The barn owl, Strix flammea 
maculata Brehtn ; also general name for an 
owl. 
um-Kovoti, . 6. A thorny tree, Chaetachme 

aristata Planch. 
in Kovu, . 3. The juice or remnants of a 

cooked pumpkin; clear matter, serum. 
um-K6vu, . b. Vegetable soup, especially 

that made from pumpkins. 
i-Kdwa, . 2. The St. George's or horse 
mushroom, white on the under part, eaten 
as a luxury by Kafirs. 

in-Kowane, n. 3. Generic name for 
medium-sized fungi; a toadstool, mush- 
room. 
i-Kowabo, ) n. 2. Their ^ 
i-Kowenu, > Your > family or tribal 

i-Kowetu, ) Our ) 

connection, home, citizenship: abakowetii, 
people belonging to our family or 
tribe; amndoda akowabo, men belonging 
to their tribe ; ilizwe lakowenu, the country 
occupied by your tribe; ndiya koiveiu, I go 
to our family connection ; lomfana ube nalo 
ikowabo, this young man had a home. 
i-KOYI, n. 3. A frame, or crib for storing 
maize - i-Qonga ; bedstead, bed, fr. Du. kooi. 
in-Koyi-yanko, n. 3. Great shouting; 

pleasure, joy, merriment. 
uku-K6zela, v. t. Tribal ; ~ uku-Kwezela. 
u-K6zi, n. 5. A hawk; used generically for 

the larger diurnal birds of prey. 
um-Kdzi, n. I. Em. A term of politeness 

used between parents-in-law. 
ubu-K6zi, n. 7. Relationship by marriage. 
u-K6zo, n. 5. A kernel, seed, bead, foetus : 
ukozo hveliso, the eyeball ; fig. money, etc., 
taken as earnest to a doctor for consulta- 
tion; also money earned by labour: ndipi 
ukozo Iwam, give me my wages. Plur. 
inkozo, the beads dropped at a sacrifice and 
afterwards worn by the sick person for 
whom the sacrifice was made. 



KO 

Phr. intomht ilukozo lomya, the girl is a 
seed of wild hemp (which is jet black), i.e. 
she is beautiful ; also applied to beautiful 
things. Dimin. ukozwana. 

ubu-K6zo, . 7. The pith, heart, essence of 
a thing. 

Ku, I. (a) Pers. pron. obj. 2. p. sing, (where 
however the k is really inserted to avoid 
hiatus) : ndiyakudumisa, I praise thee. 

(b) Pron. subj. of 8 cl.: ukutya kupdlile, 
the food is cool. 

(c) Pron. ebj. 8 cl. : kupolise ukutya, cool 
the food. 

(d) Copula and cause 8 cl. : kukutya, it is 
the food; zityebile kukubtidla utyani, they 
are fat from eating fodder. 

2. Indefinite and impersonal pron. " it " : 
kumnandi, it is pleasant ; kuko, it is present; 
kusile, it is light; kuyahanjwa namhla, 
there is a moving or walking to-day ; kU5^- 
ntsimini, it is in the garden ; akukonto ukuba 
akuko umoya, it does not matter as long as 
there is no wind. 

The impersonal form of the verb may be 
used with any person for the sake of laying 
special emphasis on the subject: kuteta 
mna, it is I who am speaking ; kuhiliza tiina, 
it is you who are idling; kufeketa bona, it is 
they who are trifling. 

3. Prep. From, to, in, at, with, among 
(the meaning of the verb serving to show 
whether motion to, motion from, or rest in 
a place is denoted): ndize kuwe, I have 
come to you ; tabata lento kuye, take this 
thing from him ; hlala kwn, remain with 
me ; nditembele kuye, I hope in him. When 
joined to nouns it displaces the initial a : 
tidateta kubantu, I spoke to the people; 
becomes kw before e and /: ndahlala kw/- 
nJlu yaki or kweyake indlu, I remained at 
his house ; 7iditni kwelama-Xosa, I live in 
Kafirland ; its vowel coalesces with and u : 
ndivela kuyise, I come from his father; 
siyaya kobawo, we go to our fathers. It 
remains ku before demonstratives com- 
mencing with a consonant : iihleli kulendlu, 
he lives in this house. It thus takes the 
place of the locatives of such nouns. 

4. As such prep, (a) it denotes com. 
parison: ndimkulu kuye or kunayc, I an 
great to him, compared with him, i.e. I am 
greater than he ; unamandla kulo (ihashe), 
he is stronger than it (the horse); bangaba- 
tandi beziyolo kunokuba batande u-Tixo, 
they are lovers of pleasures rather than 
lovers of God. 



m 

(b) it is used with the possessive partiel^S 
in a partitive sense : akubangakd nanyeyaku- 
madoda, there was not one of the men 
present ; omnye wakVLt\ akaseko, one of us is 
no longer here ; {tabata kumbona-lowo, take 
some of the maize, is of recent use, but not 
idiomatic). 
ukuti-Ku, V. t. To poke with a pole, etc.* 
uttwe-ku lihlaba, lit. he is stuck with pain; 
he has a stitch. 
Kuba, conj. For; see ukuBH, I. B. 
uku-K'UBA, V. t. To dig with a pick or hoe, 
to plough ; fig. to offend, displease, annoy. 
i-Kuba, n. 2. Em. Orig. an iron pick or 

hoe the pointed end of which was put 

through a wooden handle ; now it means 

an ordinary Kafir hoe; a plough. Phr. 

ikiiba litengwa ngokubonwa, a hoe is 

bought on sight, i.e. seeing is believing. 
in Kuba-bulongo, n. 3. Lit. one who 

digs manure; a large beetle which 

burrows and lives in manure. 
isi-Kuba, n. 4. An old hoe or spade. 
um-Kuba, n. 6. A strong stick or staff, 
uku-Kilibela, v. To break up new ground; 

to re-plough ground where the seed has 

not come up properly. 
um-Kubelo, n. 6. The breaking up of new 

ground ; a piece of new ground so broken 

up. 
uku-Kikbelela, v. To break up ground 

for : zikubeleleni umkubelo, break up your 

fallow ground. 
i-Kt!iba, n. 2. A good position or sheltered 
place: uhleli ekiibeni, he is in a sheltered 
place. 
i-Kubalo, n. 2. Generic term for various 
roots used as ornaments and charms, 
which were tied up in a blanket or strung 
up as a necklace, to ward off evil or secure 
good; plur. ornaments, jewels. Ikubalo 
lika-Mlanjcni, is the root of Pelargonium 
pulverulentum Colv., which the false 
prophet Umlanjeni in the war of 1850 
persuaded the Kafirs simply to point 
against the English to ward off their bullets. 
Kube, aux. used in forming the compound 
tenses, 8 cl. : ukutya kube kupekwa, (contrac. 
bekupekwa), the food was or has been cook- 
ing; ukufa kube kungayi kupila, death was 
not going to end; see uku-Ba I. 2. (a). 
uku-Kubeka, v. i. To push, strike, knock 
against something: wakiibeka etyeni ngonya- 
wo, he knocked his foot against a stone; to 
stumble, so as to fall or nearly fall : ndiku- 
bekile endleleni, I stumbled over something 



KU 

in the road; fig. to err, blunder; to slide 
into an error or crime. 
um-KiibekJ, n. I. One who stumbles. 
uku-Kubekisa, v. pass, kuiyekiswa. To 
cause to stumble, trip or fall by putting 
something in the way; to obstruct; fig. 
to give offence ; to obstruct in progress, 
isi-Kikbekiso, . 4. A stumbling-block. 

in-Kubele, n. 3. One who is helpless, unfor- 
tunate, unhappy, e.g. in losing all his 
children : ndiyinkuhele, I am poor, helpless ; 
I am an orphan; bayinkubele, they were 
rendered helpless in being wounded; aku- 
salanga nenkubele, not one was left, all 
perished in the disaster. 

uku-Kubesa, v, i. To eat in haste. 

Kubi, adj. It is bad, see Bi, 

Kubini, adv. Into two, see Bini. 

in-Kubiso, . 3. Hiccough. 

uku-Kubula, v. t. (a) To replough ground 
where the first crop has failed, = uku-Kiibela. 
(b) To reproduce or repeat what one has 
done or stated before: kiibula inteto yako, 
repeat what you have been saying or what 
you first said ; to review, (c) To cause to 
peel off in cakes, as clay ground when 
ploughed peels off and cleaves to the foot 
of a person walking thereon. 
Kubusa, V. To commence or cause a 
i?i\k; = vusa inteto; to question with 
determination and stubbornness; to cross- 
examine. 

ukuti-Kucu, V. i. used as adv. Wholly, 
entirely, altogether, without exception: 
ndasela iyeza ndaliti-kiicu, I drank the 
medicine to the last drop; bemkile abantu 
batt-kiicu, the people all left together. 

Kudala, adv. Of old ; see Data. 

Kude, adj. It is far; adv. Far. conj. Till, to: 
kude kube ngunapakade, to eternity ; see De. 

Kudlwana, adj. dimin. of Kulii. Somewhat 
large, middle-sized, applied e.g. to children 
about ten years of age : bakudlwana kunaba, 
they are a little bigger than those there. 
adv. Kakudlwana, to a fair amount but not 
too much. 

um-Kudlwana, . 6. A set or section of 
young children of middle size or age. 

Kufupi, adj. It is near; adv. Near; see Fupi. 

uku-K'UHLA, V. t. To rub a skin with aloe 
leaves to make it fibrous, soft; to rub 
against : inkomo ziyazikuhla cmttni, the cattle 
rub against the tree; to rub a hard place or 
any painful part of the body : yikuhle kakulu 
lendawo iqinileyo, rub this hard place well ; 
= uku-Gudla. 



. 6. The Cape Mahogany, 



KU 

isi-Kikhlane, .4. ' ] Any indisposition, 

um-Kuhlane, n. 6. i ^ 
common sickness: ndiza kulunguza umkii- 
hlane, I am going to see the disease in a 
person who is ill, i.e. to visit and enquire 
for the sick person. 

ama-Kuhlanguba, n. 2. pi. The roof of the 
mouth; the palate. 

Kuhle, adj. It is gentle, beautiful, nice, fine. 
adv. Well, etc., see Hie. 

ukuti-Kuhlu, V. t. To drop or flap: inkomo 
yati-kuhlu iqeba, the cow flapped her 
dewlap; to become angry. 

um-Kuhlu, 

um-Kuhlwa, 

Trichilia emetica Vahl. ; a raw, unwrought 
stick. 

in-Kuk'amanzi, n. 3. The King reed-hen, 
Porphyrio porphyrio (L.) 

Kuk6, It is it; it is there, etc., see Ku, I. (d) 
and Kd I, e. 

u-Kuko, . 5. A sleeping-mat; a bed. Phr. 
ukiiko Iwabahambt oluzandlalayo, lit. a mat 
for travellers which spreads itself, i.e. an 
i-Dikazi. 

in-Kuku, n. 3. A domestic fowl, a hen in 
general; dimin. inkukwana, a young fowl. 
The cry of the cock is variously rendered: 
ndikmnbuV e-Nxuba, I come from the Fish 
River; gxot' ama-Mfengu, drive out the 
Fingos; ulahlekile, he is lost (with a 
reference to the story of Peter) ; kauncazele 
ntloyiya, give me tobacco, you chicken- 
hawk (to which another cock responds: 
yitsho kulou'o ngakuwe, ask it from that one 
near you.) Phr. inkuku ziyalila, the fowls 
are calling; (if the cocks call before mid- 
night, the ground will be covered with dew 
in the morning) ; tnhlaumbi akungeyiboni 
inkuku apb izalela kbna amaqanda ayo, kodwa 
ngenye intini iyakuza namantshontsho, one 
may not see where the hen lays, but one 
day she will come with her chickens: inkuku 
yasikwa umlomo, the hen's mouth has been 
cut, i.e. he has been made speechless, he is 
in a fix. 

Unyawo Iwenkuku 'the hen's foot ' is a child's 
game played with string, so called from the 
'hen's-foot' pattern which is formed with 
the string. 
in-Kukukazi, n. 3. A hen, as distinguished 

from a cock. 
isi-Kukukazi, . 4. An old hen; dimin. 
isikukwazana, a young hen, a pullet. 

Kukuba, conj. intens. Kokokuba, By being, 
by that : sisindiswa kukuba wasifelayo, we are 



197 



KU 

saved by his dying for us ; cf. ngokuba under 
uku-Ba, B. 
uku-K'UKULA, v. i. To wash or sweep 
away or along, as a river or storm in full 
force, carrying all before it : amanzi akuku- 
lile entsimtni, the water swept over the 
garden. 

in-Kukula, . 3. A great number without 

order, as of locusts, or the footsteps, 

tracks of a flock of sheep, etc. 

isi-Kukula, n. 4. A torrent or very strong 

stream, sweeping all before it ; a freshet. 

um-Kukula, . 6. A stream in the road 

or in a cattle-kraal, caused by rain. 
uku-Kukulisa, v. To sweep, drive, carry 
away by force, as a torrent: ama- 
nzi akukulisile amaziviba entsimini, the 
water swept away the Kafir-corn from 
the garden; to take away clandestinely 
that which belongs to another, e.g. by 
mixing other people's cattle in a drove 
and driving them away: wazikukulisa 
inkotno zam nezaki, he drove my cattle 
away with his own; fig. to cause to err; 
to lead forcibly astray, away from the 
path of rectitude; passive: to be help- 
lessly carried away by the sudden rising 
of a stream or flood. 
KukuUseka, v. To be carried awav by 
a flood or press of people; fig. to be 
carried away by evil influences or forces, 
so as to lose self-control. 
Kukulisela, v. To lead away to. 
Kukulukugu! interj. The cry of the cock: 

Cock-a-doodle-doo I Cock-a-leerie-law! 
uku-Kukumala, v. i. To rise, swell: ama- 
zimba akiikumele embizeni, the Kafir-corn is 
risen or swollen in the pot; to blow up, 
dilate, expand: inyoka iyakukumala, xa 
isukela umntu, the snake blows itself up, 
when attacking a person; fig. to be inflated, 
puffed up with pride, anger or passion: 
ukukumele futt ngobiilumko bake, he is very 
much puffed up on account of his wisdom ; 
abakukumeleyo, the proud. 
um-Kukumali, . i. A proud man, 
isi-Kukumali, . 4. Arrogance. 
uku-Kukumalela, v. To deal proudly 

towards others. 
Kukumalisa, v. To cause to swell up; 
to puff up; to make proud and conceited: 
musan' ukuteta oku kuye, niya kumkukuma- 
lisa, you must not say that to him, you 
will make him proud. 
Kukutneza, v. Seldom iised; = Kuku- 
malisa. 



in-Kuk' umlanib6, . 3. = in-Kuk' amanzi. 
uku-Kukunyala, ) u l^^w , 

-Kukiinyeka, ] ^^^^^'^-Kukumala. 

uku-Kukuza, v. t. To suck (fruit); to tear or 

gnaw the flesh from a bone. 

ubu-Kukuzo, . 7. Sucking, tearing or 
gnawing off. 
in-Kukwana, w. 3. and isi-Kukwazana, n. 4. 

See in-Kuku. 
isi-KULA, M. 4. = isi-Kolo. 
uku-K'ULA, V. i. To grow, grow up, 

increase; to become great: umntwana uya- 

kula, the child grows; inkonyana iseV ikulile, 

the little calf is already grown to a certain 

size. Phr. ukukula kukiibona izinto, growth is 

experience. 

u-Kula, n. 5. What grows by itself ; weeds 
on cultivated land : intsimi inokula oluninzi, 
there are many weeds in the field. 

in-Kulanak6, n. 3, That which has taken 
root, grown in ; which is firm in nature. 

uku-Kulela, v. To grow up in a certain 
place ; to grow up or become large for: 
ukulele phtaf where were you brought 
up ? ndikiilele pakatt kwenu, I have grown 
up amongst you; indlu ibakiilele abantu, 
the house is too big for the people; 
lendawo imkiilele, the matter is too strong 
for him; impi imkulele, the enemy was 
too sore for him; uyazikulela, he grows 
or improves for himself, for his own 
benefit. In the passive it means to be 
full: uselekulelwe, she was great with 
child; ndikiilelwe ngumnqweno, I am 
filled with or full of desire. 

Kulelana. v. To grow up together. 

in-KuIelane, ") ^ r\ \. y^ 

inKulelwane,] "' 3- 0"^ who has 
grown up with another in the same 
place or country; a countryman, citizen, 
native. 

uku-Kulisa, v. To cause to grow : imvula 
ikulisa ukudla, the rain makes the corn 
grow ; fig. to bring up or rear a child : 
lomntwana ukuliswe ndim, this child was 
brought up by me; to make great, 
magnify, extol : balikulisa igama le-Nkosi, 
they magnified the name of the Lord; 
indoda yamkiilisa umfazi wayo kakulu, the 
man extolled his wife very much. 

Kulisela, v. To increase for; to 
magnify against: nizikiilisele ngam, ye 
have magnified yourselves against me. 
in-Kulati, n. 3. A strong, fearless man. 
uku-Ktiileka, v. t. To tie fast a little calf in 

the house by one foot until it has acquired 



KU 

a certain degree of strength : kuleka inko- 
nyana, tie fast the calf; to tie up any 
animal to a manger. 

Kulekela, v. To \.\e up ior : uyikulehele 
ingwenya atnantombazana ako? wilt thou 
bind the crocodile for thy maidens ? 
Kulekisa, v. To cause or help to tie 
fast, etc. 
Kuloko, conj. But, however; see Oko, 2. 
Ax\\x,adj. Great, big, much, large: umntu 
omkulu, a full-grown person or a great 
person (in figure or in worth or in 
respectability); isitya esikiilu, a large 
vessel ; ngemali enkulu, for much money ; 
amahashe amakulu, great horses; itilo leyo 
inkiilu, this great thing ; into leyo enkulu 
(long 't'). this thing which is great ; ndivile 
ukuba zinkulu kwazo izinto ezimb't azenzileyo^ 
I have heard what great evil he did. adv. 
Very, rather, much, more. 
Kakulu, greatly, very ; indoda inkulu 

kakulu, the man is very great. 
Ikakulu, Mostly. 
Ngokukulu, Very much ; kufuneka ngo- 

kukulu. it is very necessary. 
Kakulukazi, Very greatly: inkosi yaqu- 
mba kakulukazi, the chief was very angry ; 
{%&Q-kazi) 
i-Kulu, n. 2. One hundred as an abstract 
number: amakulu amabini, two hundred ; 
iminyaka elikulu, a hundred years. 
adv. kalikulu, a hundred times. 
in-Kuiu, n. 3. The great one, i.e. the 

greatest in rank, hence, the eldest son. 
isi-Kulu, . 4. The great, respectable, 
honourable man of rank or nobility: 
isikulu sezikulu, the greatest of the great. 
u-Kulu, n. 5. The great; the many. 
ubu-Kulu, . 7. Greatness, largeness, bulk, 
size, quantity, amount, extent; highness, 
honour, nobility, excellency : ubukulu 
bobukumkani bake, the greatness of his 
kingdom; lento ibukiilura, this thing is 
moderately great; dimin. ubuktilwana, 
a lower status of greatness, etc. 
in Kuluko, n. 3. A species of white beads. 
uku-Kulukuta, v. i. To be useless though 
great, or on account of one's greatness ; to 
go sideways, e.g. not to bore straight but 
to one side : fig. to speak without 
producing any impression; to deviate from 
a straight course. 
uku-Kulula, V. t. To loosen, untie, unhar- 
ness ; to free from restraint : kulula ihashe, 
untie or offsaddle the horse; to unfasten 
one's garments, to undress ; fig. to release 



KU 

from bondage, give liberty to one in 

captivity, hence, to deliver from, redeem, 

save: sakululwa esonweni, or etyaleni, we 

were delivered from sin, or from guilt. 

um-Kululi, n. I. Deliverer, redeemer ; one 
who gives liberty to another. 

in-KuIulo, n. 3. ^ 

isi-Kululo, n. 4. V Deliverance from bond- 

u-Kuiulo, n. 5. ) 
age, restoration to liberty, emancipation. 

uku-KuluIana, v. To relieve one another : 
ndakululana nonyana watn, I was relieved 
by, i.e. succeeded by my son. 

Kululeka, v. To become loose, free, 
liberated, etc. : intambo ikululekile, the 
thong has become loose ; ndingumntu 
okululekileyo, I am a freed, redeemed man. 

in-Kululeko, n. 3. The state of being 
delivered; deliverance. 

uku-Kululekisa, v. To cause to become 
free ; to release. 

Kululela,!;. To deliverup (a prisoner) to. 
uku-Kuluma, v. t. In Zulu, to speak the 

high court dialect ; in Kafir. HI. for to 

speak. Neg. to be surprised, astonished: 

andikulumi yilonto, I am dumb with 

astonishment at that thing. 

isi-Kulumo,n. 4.\ 

u-Kulumo, . 5. 3 

the Zulus; manner of speaking. 

uku-KuIumeka, v. kuba kube kunga ktdu- 
meki kunene kuye, for it was very sur- 
prising to him. 
uku-KtJilumba, v. i. To leave or commit a 

thing, etc., to the pleasure of another. 
in-KuIunde, n. 3. A giant. 
uku-Kulunga, v. t. Em. To scrape with the 

finger and lick off ; = Gulula. 
um-Kulunga, . 6. The short-tailed wood 

hoopoe, Irrisor erythrorynchos viridis 

(Lichi.J ; = in-Tlek' abafazi. 
uku-Kuluta, V. t. To polish, adorn ; to clean 

a window ; uyasikt'lnta, he dresses himself 

finely. 
i-KULUTSI, n. 2. Recruit, immigrant ; from 

Du. rekruut. 



um Kuluwa, ) 
um Kuluwe, j 

brother. 

um-Kuluwakazi, 
wife. 
um-Kulvv'ana, . 

authority. 
in-KUMK'UM, h. 3. 



The eldest or an elder 



. I. The eldest brother's 



I. A person of some 



Anything of a brittle 
or friable nature, such as shale ; used as adj. 
Brittle, fragile: into enkumkum, a brittle 
thing. 



KU 

isi-Kumkum, n. 4. A simpleton. 

uku-Kuma, v. t. To eat dry bread without 

tea or amasi; to eat dry sugar: u-Nobi 

ubcyikum' iswckilc, Nobi was stealing and 

eating the sugar; to gnaw or bite off 

meat from bones ; cf. uku-Guma. 

um-Kuma, . 6. A vegetable, such as 

potatoes or an occasional pumpkin, 

which is dry and mealy when cooked. 

uku-Kumatela, v. i. To bite close with 

the teeth; to stick close to an object 

bitten without leaving it. 

in-Kumenkume, w. 3. A crumbling stone; 

used as adj. Brittle, fragile. 
uku-Kumeka, v. To be gnawed off; to be 

broken to pieces. 
Kumka, v. Of a tooth, to become 
loose; to lose one's teeth: iimntwana 
ukumkile, the child has lost his teeth. 
Kumla, V. pass, kunyuhva. (a) To 
remove, extract, or knock out teeth, (b) 
To remove a calf from the udder when 
sucking; (seldom used of weaning 
children ; see uku-Lumla.) 
Kutnlana, v. To relieve each other. 
Kumleka, v. To become loose, as a 
stone on a steep hillside, and fall away 
from : ilitye likiimlekile, the stone has got 
loose. 
Kumlela, v. To wean from the udder 

(ebeleni). 
Kumza. v. Of calves, to suck. 
um-Kumaia, n. 6. Thornbush. 
in-KUMANDA, n. 3. A large camp; a village; 
a very great multitude ; fr. Du. kommando. 
ukuti-Kumanqa, v. i. To be amazed, filled 

with wonder ; cf. tikuti-Nqa. 
uku-Kumatela, v. See under in-Kumkum 

above. 
in-Kumba, . 3. A snail. 
isi-Kumbd, n. 4. Formerly used for the 
skin or hide of a large animal (horse or ox) 
as n-Gaga for that of a small one (sheep or 
goat), but now used for any hide; fig. 
parchment, certificate. 
in-Kumbankwane, . 3. A great number. 
uku-Kumbaza, v. t. To break down (a wall). 
Kumbi, adj. It is another, of a different 

kind; see Mbi. 
i-Kumbi, n. 2. A hollow place at the side 
of a mountain ; a ridge covered with grass 
near a forest. 
in-Kumbi, n. 3. Generic term for locust. 
um-Kutnbi, n. 6. A wooden trough, a 
manger; um-Kdmbe. Also used for the 
dock, the prisoner's box in court. 

200 



KU 

uku-K'UMB'ULA, v. t. pass, kiinjuhua. To 
call to memory, recollect, remember : /lii- 
kumbule, Nkosi, xa ute weza usebukumkaninl 
bako, remember me, Lord, when thou 
comest in thy kingdom; ndisakumbula 
ukutdta ku)akd, I still remember thy speech ; 
kwakunjulwa incebd ydkot thy kindness wag 
remembered; ahihikiimbilli-na ukwgtina kwd' 
ko? do you not think of, i.e. consider, your 
conduct ? ukumbule pi t where do you think 
of going to? nali iliswe akumbMa kulo, 
this is the land he thinks of going to ; ndi' 
kitmbuV ekaya, I am homesick; wakiimbiila 
kiiye or esiqivini, he went for him, i.e. he 
attacked him. 

um-Kumbuii, . I. One who remembers. 
in-Kumbulo, n. 3. Remembrance, mem- 
ory ; idea, thought. 
isi-Kumbulo, n. 4. (a) The act of re- 
collecting, remembering, thinking, (b) 
Anything remembered ; a sign of remem- 
brance, keepsake. 
um-Kumbulo, n. 6. Remembrance: siya- 
wugcina umkumbulo wake, we preserve a 
remembrance of him, i.e. we remember 
him very well. 
uku-Kumbulana, v. To recollect, re- 
member one another; to attack one 
another. 
Kumbuleka, v. To be remembered. 
Kumbulela, v. To imagine, think 
about, call to remembrance a certain 
thing or event: bakumbulela okubi kodwa, 
they think about nothing but evil ; kumbu- 
lelani oku, fix your thoughts on this; 
uyazikumbulela, he thinks of himself. 
in-Kumbulela, n. 3. Reflection, medita- 
tion. 
uku-Kumbuza, v. pass, kunjuzwa. To 
bring to remembrance, to remind: nda- 
mkumbuza amazwi aki, I reminded him of 
his words; ndakunjuzwa ngawo, I was 
reminded of them (words). 
um-Kumbuzi, n. I. A remembrancer, re- 
corder. 
in-Kumbuzo, n. 3. Remembrance, thought, 

idea. 
isi-Kumbuzo, w. 4. A memento, keepsake, 
memorial : isikumbuzo sika-Ntsikana, Ntsi- 
kana's day. 
uku-Kumbuzana, v. To remind each 
other of; to assist each other's memory, 
Kumbuzela, v. To make remembrance 
ot; to commemorate: kwenzwa oku kube 
kukukunjuzelwa kwake, this is done for a, 
commemoration of him, 



KU 



isi-Kumbuziso, . 4- A remembrance, 
memorial, souvenir. 
in-Kumbulakashe, . 3- Em. A great 

number. 
in-Kume, and in-Kumi, n. 3. A centipede. 
in-Kumenkume, . 3. A crumbling stone ; 

used as adj. Brittle, fragile; see in-Kumkum 

above. 
uku-Kumeze!a, v. i. To rain softly, to 

drizzle. 

um-Kumezeio, n. 6, A soft, drizzling 
rain. 
um-Kumiso. n. 6. A kind of plant. 
uku-Kumka, v. See under in-Kumkum above. 

u-Kumkani, . I.] ^ j^j^g prince. Fem. 
i-Kumkani, ti. 2. j 

ukumkanikazi, a queen. 
isi-Kumkani, n. 4. and ubu-Kumkani, n. 7. 

A kingdom ; kingship, dominion. 
uku-Kumla, v. See under in-Kumkum above. 
in-Kumnya, n. 3. That which is toothless, 
uku-Kumsha, v. t. pass, kunyushwa. To 
repeat to another person what has been 
said, as a councillor repeats the words of a 
complainant to his chief, and the words 
of his chief to the complainant; to speak 
in a language not understood or unintel- 
ligible, or in a foreign language; hence to 
interpret; to show a certain degree of 
civilisation by not painting the body, etc. 
Phr. tihdumsha nenkabi, to talk to the 
oxen, i.e. to shout their names one after 
the other, as some wagon-drivers do. 
um Kikmshi, . i. and i-Kumsha, n. 3 A 
good speaker of English. Applied to 
town natives by the natives of the 
country, meaning a cunning man. 
uku-Kumshela, v. To speak for another. I 
uku-Kumza, v. i. Of calves, to suck; see | 
under in-Kumkum. \ 

um-Kuna, n. 6. The curdled milk which j 

sticks on the calabash. 
uku-Kundla, v. i. To sit or lie on the isi- 
Kundla. 

in-Kundla, n. 3. The clean, well trodden 
place before a cattle fold, where coun- 
cillors gather to judge; hence used for 
High Court ; an even, open place ; a yard. 
Dimin. inkudlwana. 
isi-KundIa, n. 4. The impression on the 
ground or among the grass where a 
person has been lying : akanasikundla, he 
is a restless roving fellow ; the form or 
lair of an animal ; fig. a vacant place^ 
office or situation, occupied by a person 
habitually : uttyana usesikundleni soyisc, 
AA 201 



KU 

the son occupies the position of his 
father. Instead : usesikundleni sum, he is 
in my place, instead of me; kwabekwa 
omnye esikiindleni sake, another has been 
appointed in his place. 
u-KundIa, n. 5. Mark, token, sign. 
ukuti-Kiindululu, v. i. To sufifer from itch or 

pimples. 
Kunene, adv. Very, very much, strongly, 
exactly (a kind of superlative) ; see i-Nene. 
Kunga, I. V. pref. of Potent, mood, (a) 8 cL: 
ukudla kiingadliwa, the food may be eaten; 
(b) used indefinitely : kungabako, it may be 
there. 

2. Pres. tense of uku-Nga (a) and {b). 

3. Aux. of condit. mood: kungakvtanda, 
it would love ; see Kunge 2. 

4. Neg. verb. pref. 8 cl. (a) in dependent 
sentences: kangela ukutya ukuze kungapalali, 
look to the food that it may not get spilt; 

(b) in relat. sentences : ukona okungaxolelwa- 
nga, sinning which has not been forgiven ; 

(c) of condit. mood: ukufa (ku) ngeku- 
ngafiki, death would not arrive. Before ka, 
ko, and na, kunga becomes kunge: ungadli 
ukudla kttngekapekwa kakuhle, do not eat 
the food before it is properly cooked; 
kungeko mntu, there is no man present; 
wandibeta kungeko nto, he beat me without 
cause ; ukukonza okunge namvuzo, serving 
without remuneration. 

uku-K'UNGA, V. t. (a) Orig. To call on, 
invoke, implore the spirits of departed an- 
cestors ; to join in prayer ; to pray, beseech, 
worship, (b) To join through affection: 
to associate with: abantu bakunge lomfazi, 
the people like to stay, associate with this 
woman. 



in Kungo, . 3. ] 
isi-Kutigo, n. 4.] 



Prayer, worship. 



isi-Kungu, n. 4. The place where hunts- 
men assemble before and after the hunt, 
a rendezvous; a company, an assembly: 
indlu yesikwigu, a synagogue ; the Lord's 
prayer: biz' isikungu, say the Lord's 
prayer. 

uku-Kungeka, v. To be entreated. 

Kungela, v. To entreat for another; to 
meet, assemble for prayer or worship in 
a certain place; fig. to do anything 
unitedly : bamkungela ngeminquma, they 
all fell upon him with their sticks, attack- 
ed him together. 

Kungeleka, v. To be entreated; to be 
propitious towards; to relent in the 



KU 

infliction of punishment in consequence 
of intercession. 

Kungaba, and Kungabi, It seems as if, it 
may be so, etc., see uku-Ba I. A. 

Kungasenini, contrac. Kungaseni, adv. 
Long afterwards. 

Kungati, Probably, etc., see uku-Ti. 

Kunge, I. Ncg. verb. pref. (a) of Potent, 
mood, 8 cL: ttkudla kuTigedliwa, (contrac. 
from akuiigedlhva,) the food may not be 
eaten; (b) indefinite: huigengako uhitauda 
kwam, it is not according to my will. 

2. Aux. of condit. mood. : kunge (kunga) 
kudliwa, it should or would be eaten. 

in-Kungu, n. 3. Mist, fog. Phr. isijatna 
vkungwini, lit. one who stares at the mist, 
used as a term of reproach when one man 
stares at another to overawe him and the 
other defies him; yinkungu nelanga, (lit. 
the mist and the sun are together,) denotes 
a great number. 

ubu Kungu, (tribal ubun-Kungu), , 7. 
Mistiness; darkness, blindness. 

um- Kungu, n. 6. Fine, misty, rain : litefatsha 
7igomkungu, the sky was drizzling. 

uku Kungwangcaza, v. i. To hasten to 
meet the enemy. 

isi-Kuni, ji. 4. A firebrand. 

u-Kuni, ti. 5. A single piece of firewood, a 
log : ndinike ukiini, give me a piece of wood ; 
wood in general : loniti unenkuni, this tree 
contains a good deal of wood; used as adj. 
hard, difficult: into ehikuni, a hard or diffi 
cult thing; kuliikuni nkulima, it is difficult 
to plough; fig. unfeeling: intliziyo yake ilu- 
kuni, his heart is hard, i.e. not easily moved 
by pity, etc.; umntu olitkuni, a hard, severe, 
stubborn person; of animals: enduring, 
not easily tired; tough, unyielding. 
Kalukuni, adv. Strictly, sternly. 
ubu-Kuni, ubu-lu-Kuni, ubun-Kuni, n. 7. 
Hardness. 

uku-Kunka, v. t. To cut a long thing in 
pieces. 

i-Kunka, n. 2. A very old man who has out- 
lived all the friends of his youth; a very 
old thing: ikunkakazi, a very old woman. 

ukutl-Kunke, v. i. To strike (a knife) against 
a stone so that it breaks off. 

uku-Kunkula, v. t. To carry everything off 
or away ; cf. uku-Kukula. 

in-Kunkuma, n. 3. Sweepings, rubbish. 

uku-Kunkuta, 'v. t. To punish by corporal 
chastisement, beat severely one who is 
lying down ; cf. iiku-Gunguta and see n-Dwa- 
mba. 

202 



KU 

in-Kunkuti, n. 3. A species of woodpecker. 
uku-Kiinkutana, v. To beat each other 
severely; fig. to vex, try severely the 
temper of each other by argument or 
contention : besikunkutana namhla ngokutkh 
ityala, we tried or vexed each other to- 
day in a law case. 

uku-Kunkuteka, v. i. To smile, smirk; to 
laugh in one's sleeve. 

in-Kunkutela, n. 3. used an adj. Omnipotent. 

Kunokuba, conj. Rather; see Ku, 4. and 
Nokuba (c) under uku-Ba, I. B. 

uku-Kunqa, v. i. To scent, smell, get an 
inkling of. 
Kunqisa, v. To cause to scent. 

in-Kunqele, . 3. An expert; one skilful in 
anything, especially in speaking. 

adj. Energetic, skilful, able, clever, 
dexterous, eager for something. 
ubun-Kunqele, . 7. Experience, skill: 
etwbunkunqele ekwetizeni nasekutethii, being 
mighty in deed and word. 

in-Kuntsi, = in-Gontsi. 

uku-Kuntya, v. i. To be dissatisfied, dis- 
contented; to cry, weep aloud. 

ukuti-Kunu, v. t. To cut off the point of a 
thing. 

u-Kunu, n. l. = utn-Luttgu. 

ukuti-Kunubembe, v. i. To have a sullen 
appearance, a sour face; to be cast down 
from disappointment. 

uku-Kunyalala, v. i. To rise, (said of meat 
when in cooking it raises the pot-lid); fig. 
to increase in strength; to get courage; to 
be displeased, making no answer. 

Kunye, adv. Together; see Nye, 3. 

um-Kunye, n. 6. Milettia sutherlandi Harv., 
stated by Sim to be one of the largest, 
most abundant and most useless trees in 
the Egossa forest, its only known haunt 
in Cape Colony. 

um-Kunyu, n. 6. Mucus from the nostrils. 

in-Kunzana, w. 3. Dimin. of in-Kunzi. 

in-Kunzane, . 3. Em. in-Kunzana, Lit. 
little bull. Two species of plants, Tribulus 
terrestris L., and Emex spinosa Camp, share 
this name. Both have their seeds enclosed 
in thorny capsules, which lie in such a 
position that they always have a thorn 
pointing upwards; Dutch, angels or duivel- 
tjes doom. Used medicinally for stomach 
disorders and thread worms in horses. 

in-Kunzi, n, 3. A bull; a male of other live 
stock, game, fowls: inkunzi yehashe, a 
stallion; inkunzi yegusha, a ram; inkunzi 
yenkuku, a domestic cock; fig. formerly an 



KU 



KU 



honourable term applied to a chief only, Kupela, adj. Only; see ukw 



but at present to other men who are re- 
nowned for their power, strength, wealth. 
Dimin. inkunzana, a small bull ; any half- 
grown male animal; also applied to the 
spanner that used to be sold with Cape 
ploughs, because it stood up like the horns 
of a young bull on the beam of the plough. 
ubun-Kunzi, n. 7. State of a bull; bull nature; 

bull kind or quality. 
uku-K'UP'A, V. t. pass, kutshwa. To take, 
bring, put or throw out: kupa amatizi esi- 
tyeni, throw the water out of the vessel; 
namhla lempahla yakutshwa nguye ngokwake, 
to-day he gave out the thing of his own 
accord; to draw out, extract: walikupa 
izinyo, he drew out the tooth; wakiitshwa 
ebandleni, he was cast out from the con- 
gregation, i.e. he was excommunicated; to 
send a representative (e.g. to parliament) ; 
to give lobola cattle : iikupe nto-nina ? how 
many cattle has he given ? to surpass, excel : 
lenja iyakupa ezitiye, this dog surpasses 
others. Phr. umntwana uyandikiipa, the 
child is beyond me, is disobedient ; wakiipa 
onke (amandla), or wazikupa umoya, he 
strained every nerve; fig. to vomit. Phr. 
mus' itkuzikupa inyongo, do not vent secrets, 
esp. to strangers; wamkupa ngentonga, he 
thrashed him. See uku-Kapa. 

n. 8. The flowing out of water at a birth. 
Em. To pay : mandikupe nlo-ni ? what must 
I pay? 

um-Kupi, n. I. One who brings out, etc. 
i-Kupa, n. 2. Superfluity, overflow, riches: 

ikiipa lemali, a lot of money. 
um-Kupa, n. 6. A mixture of maize and 
beans; porridge cooked till almost all the 
water dries up; fig. bread. 
uku-Kup^la, V. To throw out for; to empty 
into; pay for: lomhlaba waukiitshelwe 
xabiso lininaf how much was paid for this 
land? 
Kupisa, V. To help or cause to throw 
out or vomit; to crowd out, dispossess, 
remove : indlu ikupisile, the people of the 
house do not understand each other, are 
at strife ; intomhi ikupisile, the girl is dis- 
obedient. 
in-Kupisa, n. 3. A notorious person: in- 

kiipisa yesela, a notorious thief. 
uku-Kupisana, v. To outbid each other in 

ikazi. 
Kupisela, v. To surpass, excel. 
uku-Kupazeka, v. i. To be overcome by 
sleep ; to slumber. 



Kupina, interrog. pron. Where is it ? see PJfl. 
ukuti-K'UP'U, V. t.-^nhi-Kupiilula; v. t.= 

ukuti-KupuMu. 

i-Kupu, n. 2. An eruption of many little 
pimples on the forehead or on the face. 

uku-Kupuka, v. i. Of an eruption, to 
come out on the body; used reproachfully, 
= uku-Suka : kiipuka ! clear out ! begone ! 

Kupula, V. Of a nettle, etc. to cause an 
eruption on the body. 

Kupuluka, V. i. = iikuti-KupuluIu. 

Kupulula, V. t. To bring or clear out 
scraped particles; throw out any sub- 
stance (scrapings) with a jerk : yikupulule 
intlanzi emanzitn, throw the fish out of 
the water ; to throw out earth by scraping, 
as a dog; to bring to view what is hidden 
in a hole or hiding place; to throw the 
hidden things out of a house; fig. sayi- 
ktipiilula inyamakazi ehlatini, we caused 
the game to spring forth from the 
thicket; also used of speaking, to bring 
out everything, leaving nothing unsaid. 

ukuti-KupuluIu, V. i. To get up at once 
on being wakened; to rise, come forth, 
jump up suddenly from lying down or 
from a hiding place : saku^ka eldaihii yatt- 
kupululu ingwe, when we arrived at the 
thicket, suddenly a leopard sprang out; 
of a skin-eruption, to break out on the 
forehead. 

Kupupu, v.^ukiiti-Kupululu. 
Kuqala, adv. First; see uku-Qala. 
ukuti-Kuru, v. i. To be angrJ^ 
uku-K'USA, V. i. To screen from (rain or 

wind) ; to shelter ; fig. to protect from 

violence ; to keep safe. 

i-Kusi, M. 2. A screen of wickerwork, 
fixed or movable, placed inside the 
entrance to a Kafir-hut to keep out the 
draught ; partition ; fig. shelter, protection. 

um-Kusane, 7i. 6. A screen, partition; fig. 
cloak, pretence, pretext: asizajiga sibe 
7iamkusnne wokubawa, we were never 
found using a cloak of covetousness. 

uku-Kusela, v. To draw a curtain before 
anything; to shelter, screen from (the 
wind or rain) ; to protect by hiding 
behind a curtain or partition in a house ; 
to shield from danger: watidikiisela engo- 
zini or kwingozi, he protected me from 
accident or danger. 

um-Kuseli, n. I. A protector. 

i-Kuselo, . 2. \ 

isi-Kiiselo, w. 4. J 



A screen, curtain, 



203 



KU 

which shelters or hides from view ; fig. 

an excuse : ngoku abunasikiiselo sesono sabo, 

now they have no excuse for their sin. 

Kusasa, adv. Early; see tikn-Sa. 

Kuseloko and Kuselokoko, conj. From the 

time that ; see Oko, 3. 
Kusini-na, interrog. pron. Which .' or ? see 

Sini-na. 
Kusoloko, adv. See Oko, 4. 
i-Kuta, . 2. The parings from an animal's 
skin ; a crust of bread ; boiled meat which 
has been afterwards dried. 
uku-K'UT'ALA, v. i. perf. kutele. To be 
active, busy, diligent, industrious, zealous, 
energetic, assiduous in^any work or under- 
taking: isicaka esikutelcyo, an industrious 
servant. 

. 8. Industry. 
um-Kutali //. I. and isi-Kutali, ;/. 4. A 
careful, diligent, industrious, sedulous 
person. 

'::^S^^::t ] Industry, a.,e,io.o 

duty. 
ubu-Kutali, . 7. Industry, diligence, 

assiduity in performing any enterprise. 
uku-Kutalela, v. To be eager for, to 

strive diligently for. 
Kutalisa, v. To stir up to diligence, 

etc. ; to make industrious. 
Kutaza, v. To animate, encourage 

excite, rouse. 
in-Kutazo, //. 3. Encouragement. 
uku-Kutazeka, v. To be stirred up to 
activity: bakutazcka ngokukutazeka eku- 
Iweni, they waxed valiant in fight. 
Kutazela, v. To encourage for: ilizwi 
lake alindikutazeli kaba ndikohve, his word 
gives me no encouragement to believe. 
Kutanzi, adv. Em. Two days before yester- 
day. 
KutI, -) 

Kutiwa, f 

Kute-ni ? C 

Kuteka-nina? ) 
i-Kutshu, n. 2. A kaross or small garment 

made of leopard skins. 
in-KUT'U, . 3. The thin external covering 
of plants; the thin pellucid membrane 
covering the pith of trees, v.hi.h Lc/ore 
it becomes this membrane, is often secreted 
as sap ; hence applied also to the cuticle or 
external skin of the human body ; offscour- 
ing, refuse. 
ukutl-Kutukutu, v. i. To be bruised. 



See nkn-T't. 



KU 

uku-Kutula, and uku-Kutuza, v. t. To 

abrade the outer skin or cuticle of any 
part of the body, by rubbing, beating Or 
coming into collision with an object: 
iiiqwelo imkiitule, the wagon has hurt him 
a little, i.e. taken off a piece of skin by 
passing over him; to remove hair from 
an animal ; to remove grass from a path 
with a spade. 
uku-Kutuka, v. Of the skin, to be abraded 
from rubbing, kicking, beating: ukutukile 
emlenzeni, his leg is slightly abraded ; of the 
hair of an animal, to fall off: kukutukile 
uboya kulenkomo, the hair has fallen off 
from this animal; to be bald or bare; 
of a blanket, to become threadbare; 
of a coin, to be so worn down through 
use as to lose its inscription: letiki ikutu- 
kile, this threepenny-bit is worn. 
um-Kutuka, ;/. 6. That which has had its 
surface covering rubbed off, as a blanket 
that has lost its fluff, a garden without 
crops, a hillside without grass, a head 
without hair: intaba ifngu) mkiituka, the 
mountain is bare ; used as adj. ezintabeni 
ezimkutuka, on the bare mountains. 
uku-Kutuza, v.=2ikaKulula. 
uku-Kiitywa, v. i. To hiccough. 
uku-Kuxa, V. t. (tribal). To peel, etc., = ;&- 

Guxa. 
uku-K'UZA, V. t. (a) To express sympathetic 
surprise at any occurrence ; hence, to cry 
out, exclaim from astonishment or sym- 
pathy; to express condolence with another 
by uttering a suppressed groan au! on 
entering the house of a sick person; to 
speak words of comfort: abantn beze hum- 
kiiza, the people came to console him. 

(b) To murmur, by uttering a sarcastic 
groan or a complaining exclamation (hoyi! 
or oyi!) in the presence of a chief, when 
any case has been adjudicated on by him. 
This is considered a high offence, a con- 
tempt of court, and is very severely 
punished. 

(c) To pv2iis,Q; = uku-Ncoma: asinto eku- 
zwayo, it is not to be praised. 

um-Kuzi, n. I. One who goes to condole 
or sympathise with a bereaved family. 

isi-Kuzo, H. 4. A loud cry, outcry. 

u-Kuzo, n. 5. Consolation. 

ubu-Kuzo, n. 7. A sickness of cattle 
caused by their eating some unhealthy 
bush and shewn by the yellowness of 
their skin. 
KuzQ, conj. That ; see ^H-Zfl. 



kW 

Kwa, I. Prep. Used before proper nouns in 
the sense o! " at the place of " or " in the 
tribe of": ndivela kwa-Pato, I come from 
Pato's place, (to be distinguished from ndi- 
vela kn-Pato, I come from the person Pato); 
umfana wakwaw/, a young man of my 
place, (whereas umfana want means, my 
young man). 

2. Poss. particle; (a) 8 cl.: ukulya kwa.7W- 
simi, the food of the gardens; iikutanda 
kwa;, my will; (b) used with locatives 
to express the source or origin: uhutya 
liwasemasmim, food from the garden; 
indefinite : ndatandwa kw&sepakadeni, I was 
loved from eternity, (c) After Prep.: 
pambi kwa^^, before him ; emva k.wendlu = 
kyva-indlii, behind the house; pezu ko- 
mlambd, = 'k'wa-umlambd, above the river; 
(w before nouns of I. 5 and 6 classes is 
elided.) 

3. adv. Very, even, just, indeed, likewise, 
used in repetitions: ^w^2/wfl k.wangaloniini, 
it was done on that very, i.e. the same day 
kukwanjalo, it is even so ; ikwayiyo, it ii 
the very same; tikw anguye lomntti ubelapa 
kusasa, he is the very same person, who 
was here this morning; ky/&yena, just he; 
k-wakona, in the same place, once more, 
again; ndikwatsho, I say just so; kyv&bona 
nabantwana habo, even they and their child- 
ren ; k^anabantu, together with the people ; 
kwapezulu, just above; kwakaloku, kwa- 
ngoku, just now, this moment. 

4. verb. pref. of conj. past 8 cl.: nkuiya 
kwapekwa, kwadliwa, the food was cooked 
and eaten. 

Kwa, Pron. subj. of indie, past of 8 cl.: ttkntya 
kwapekwa, the food was cooked; (b) the 
impersonal form of the same tense : kwa- 
ko, there was; kwa^^a inkomo, there arrived 
cattle ; kwasekuqaleni, it was in, or from, 
the beginning. 

Kwa ! interjec. of praise. 

ukuti-Kwa, v. t. To tie up; to carry on the 
back. 

um-Kwa, n. 6, Custom usage, habit. The 
pi. imikwa, is generally used: imikwa yemi 
mibi, your customs are bad. Phr. yenza 
umkwa, do the usual, choose the one among 
us whom you like ; (an evil salutation of 
girls, when meeting a young man ; cf. ukw- 
Enzisa). 

isi-Kwa, n. 4. Habit, manner, usage, fashion: 
isikwa sllima, a thing that looks nice, but 
still has a spot or blemish in it: isikwa sofn- 
lotno, a bad, bitter taste in the mouth. 



A man who has lost his 



2. The African rook, 
capensis (Licht.). Tribal, 



i-Kwaba, n. 2. 

character. 
i-Kwababa, n. 
Heterocorax 
= u-Nomyayi. 
isi-Kwabakazi, n. 4. An old widow; an 

old unmarried woman. 
in-Kwabalala, n. 3. People without a chief; 

orphans. 
ubu-Kwabasa, n. 7. Stealth, used adv.: weza 
bukwabasa, he came stealthily, clandestinely, 
and slowly; wamdla bnkivabasa, he fined or 
punished him while pretending to let him 
off. 

uku-Kwabasha, r. t. To press anything to 
the person by folding the hands, arms, etc., 
over it, as if to secure or hide it : wayikwa- 
basha ekwapeni, he concealed it under his 
armpit; way' ehleli, izandla czikwabashile, 
he sat with his arms folded together. 

ama-Kwibe, 11.2. pi. Tobacco leaves pluck- 
ed off dry from the plant. 

Kwabo, Poss. pron. (a) I. cl. pi. ref. to 8 cl. 
Their: ukukdlwa kwabo (abantu), their 
(people's) believing; (b) 7. cl. ref. to 8 cl. 
Its : ukufika kwabo (ubukumkani), its (the 
kingdom's) coming. 

uku-Kwabusha, v. i. To fold the hands; to 
be slow, indolent, slothful. See uku-Kwa- 
basha. 

uku-Kwacaza, v. i. To hasten to meet the 
enemy. 

ukuti-KwahIa, v. i. Used of kraal-bushes, to 
be dry ; of land, to be bare, uninhabitable. 

u-Kwahlamba, w. 5. Dryness, aridity, 
barrenness, leanness: itafa lilukwahlamba, 
the plain is barren ; inkomo ziziiikwahlamba, 
the cattle are lean, lank. 

uku-Kwahlaza, v. t. Tribal. To glean, 
= uku-Kahlaza. 

Kwakamsinya, adv. ; see Kwa 3 and Msinya, 

Kwake, Poss pron. 3 p. sing. ref. to 8 cl. His: 
ukutya kwake, his food. 

Kwak6, Poss. pron. (a) 2 p. sing. ref. to 8 cL 
Thy : ukutanda hwako, thy will, (b) 8 cl. ref. to 
8 cl. Its: ukutya nokupekwa kwako bekukubi, 
the food and its cooking was bad. 

Kwakokukona, and Kwak6na, conj.; see 
Kwa 3 and Kona. 

Kwaku, (a) aux. contrac. from kwaye hi, 
8. cl.: kwakutanda, it was loving, (b) Temp, 
conjunctive: kwahifika, when there arrived; 
kwakuba lixesha or kwakuba ngujnzuzu, after 
a while or time. 

Kwakubeni, conj. Though; see ukn-Ba, I. B, 

Kwakudala, adv. Of old; see Dala. 



in-Kwakwa, tt. 3. A very long, venomous 
species of brown snake, commonly called 
the cobra. 
i-KWAKWiNi, /;. 2. The domestic turkey, Du. 
kalkoen. The hen calls: bap't abantu balomzi? 
where are the people of this place ? and the 
cock replies: bemkile kusele iihwrnivu, gone, 
only the remnants i.e. the children, are left. 
in-Kwali, n. 3. (a) The southern Red-necked 
pheasant, Pternistes nudicoUis (Bodd.J. (b) 
The outer edge of the hand and foot : tola 
inkwali, clean the hand and foot by 
rubbing them on a stone. Phr. uikwali 
yambesa, a covering of the footsole, i.e. a 
sham, a subterfuge. 

isi-Kwali, . 4. A blue flower blossoming in 
January. 

i-Kwalihobe, n. 2. The Red-eyed Turtle- 
dove, Turtur semitorquatus Riipp. 

u-Kwali-manzi, n. l. The Black-headed 
heron, Ardea melanocephala Vig. atid 
Childr. Other species may be loosely 
referred to under this name. 

Kwalo, Poss. pron. Its. (a) 2. cl. ref. to 8. cl.: 
nkuhamba kwalo (ihashe), its (the horse's) 
walking; (b) 5 cl. ref. to 8 cl. : ukwanya 
kwalo (usana), its (the baby's) sucking. 

u-Kwalukwalu, . 5- A Bustard ; = !-/<:/- 
kalu. 

in-Kwalutete, n. 3. Stiffness of limbs. 

Kwam, Poss. pron. I p. sing. ref. to 8 cl. My: 
ukidala kwam, my sleep; emphat. okwam 
ukulala, my sleep. 

in-Kwamba, n. 3. A person dying from 
hunger. 

in-Kwana, . 3. Dimin. of i-Kwe(dini). A 
little boy. 

in-Kwanca, n. 3. The remainder, residue. 
Tobacco leaves plucked off before they 
are ripe and dried over a fire. 

in-Kwandlankwandlana, n. 3. A kind of 
plant. 

in-Kwane, n. 3. (a) A dry, scaly skin; scurf 
on the head; that which decays and dies 
off. (b) The muscle above the elbow, (c) 
The sole of the foot. 

Kwanga, Past tense of %iku-Nga (a) and (b); 
and of ukw-Anga. 

i-Kwange, n. 2. An animal castrated when 
fullgrown; dimin. ikwangana, a young 
castrated bull, bull-stag. 
Kwa-ngoko, adv. Immediately, just then; 
see Oko 6 and Kwa 3. 

Kwa-ngoku, adv. Just now; see Oku 3 and 
Kwa3- 



kw 

Kwa-nini, adv. Formerly, heretofore, of old, 

in former times ; see Kwa 3 and Mini 2. 
Kwa-njalo, adv. Even so; see Kwa 3 and 

Njalo. 
Kwa-nje, adv. Just so ; see Kwa 3 and Nje (b). 
uku-Kwanqa, v. i. To be astonished, terrified, 
shocked, n. 8. Astonishment, terror. 
Kwanqisa, v. To astonish, terrify: 
baboyikisa babakwanqisa, they affrighted 
them and troubled them. 
isi-Kwanqiso, n. 4. and u-Kwanqiso, n. 
5. Terror. 
Kwanti, adv. A place where there is no 
dwelling and no shelter of any kind ; =kwa- 
Badakazi. 
Kwa-oko, adv. Immediately, see Oko (b) 

and Kwa 3. 
i-Kwipa, n. 2. The armpit. Phr. wamfaka 
ekwapHi, lit. he put him in the armpit, i.e. 
he made him escape, concealed him, for- 
gave him, did not allow him to be accused; 
waxoma amakwapa, he lifted his arms i.e. 
he engaged in combat; wabamb' amakwapa, 
he drew in his arms, he was not active. 
Kwapela, adj. Only ; see uku-Pela. 
ukuti-Kwapu, and Kwapupu, v. i. To be 
quick, swift, speedy, sudden: wekwapuwema, 
he jumped up and stood. 
uku-Kwafa,, v. i. To go to stool; to purge, 
(used of little children) : umntwana akakwari 
kakiihle, the child does not purge properly. 
Kwase, Poss. patt. 8 cl. used with locatives: 
ukiidla kivasentsimini, food from the garden. 
in-Kwashu, n. 3. Numbness of feeling; 

cramp. 
Kwaso, Poss. pron. Its. 4 cl. ref. to 8 cl. : isitya 

nokutya kwaso, the vessel and its food. 
ukuti-Kwasu, V. i. To rise quickly; to stand 

up at once with ease. 
uku-Kwataza, v. t. To try to get something ; 

to pick up, gledin;^ Kahlaza. 
isi-KWATI, n. 4. A mining compound; fr. 

Eng. squad. 
ukuti-Kwatsha, v. i. To be astonished. 
isi Kwatsha, n. 4. The Cape redwing 
francolin, Francolinus levaillanti (Val.), 
and the Grey-winged francolin, F. afer 
(Latham). 
Kwawo, Poss. pron. (a) of 6 cl. sing. ref. to 8 
cl. Its: ukuhluma kwawo (umtl), its (the 
tree's) growing, (b) of 2 cl. plur. ref. to 8 
cl. Their: amahashe anokudla kwawo, the 
horses have their food. 
Kwaye, aux. used in forming compound 
tenses 8 cl. : kwayg kupekwa, contrae. kwahu- 
206 



KW 

pekwa, the food was cooking or used to 
cook; kwafye) kuya kubanjwa, it should 
have been caught, or it will be caught 
(sometimes kwahe is used instead). 

i-Kwayi, v. 2. A commoner, a person of 
low rank; a chief who has been deposed. 

ubu-Kwayi, n. 7. Degradation, meanness of 
position. 

Kwayo, Poss. pron. (a) 3 cl. sing. ref. to 8 cl. 
Its : ul-utsala kwayo (inkabi), its (the bullock's) 
pulling, (b) 6 cl. plur. ref. to 8 cl. Their: 
ukugaulwa kwayo (imiti), their (the trees') 
being cut down. 

Kwaza, 8 cl. past tense of uku Za, used idio- 
matically to introduce a further statement. 
Then; see uhi-Za, 2 (b). 

uku-Kwaza, v. i. To call a person from a 
distance by shouting, so as to arrest his 
attention; to give one a hint. 

i,tS?lzi.-A.|s'>ou.ing. 

uku-Kwazana, v. To shout to one another. 

in-Kwazi, n. 3. Contempt, disregard. 

Kwazo, Poss. pron. Their, (a) 3 cl. pi. ref. to 
8 cl. : kaugela iutaka nokwaka kwazo, look to 
the birds and their building ; (b) 4 cl. pi. 
ref. to 8 cl.: izikali zibukali ngokulolwa kwazo, 
the weapons are sharp by being sharpened 
(c) 5 cl. pi. ref. to 8 cl.: ukuhlaba kwazo 
(unpondo), their (the horns') goring. 

Kwe, see Ku, 3. 

um-Kwe, n. I. A married man is unyana to 
his wife's parents, and umkwe to his wife's 
brothers and sisters; his wife's brothers are 
abakwe to him. The people of the place 
from which the wife came are abantu base- 
bukweni to the people of her husband's 
place, and her own children are batshana 
to the family residing at her father's place. 
um-Kwekazi, . 4. A man's mother-in- 
law; =Mza ivomfazi; one's wife's mother. 
Phr. zezakwamkwekazi too sacred to be 
mentioned. 

ubu-Kwe, . 7. Parentage-in-law ; the place 
where a man's father-in-law lives; ndtya 
ebukweni, I go to mj' parents-in-law ; ngowa- 
sebukweni, that is a relation on my wife's 
side. Phr. Use lasa tiasebukweni bezinja, the 
sky cleared even at the dogs' mother-in law, 
i.e. the sky is perfectly clear, without any 
trace of a cloud. 

i-Kweba, n. 2. Roasted co?n. 

uku-Kweba, v. t. = uku-Koba. 

in-Kwebete, n. 3. Strong coffee. 

isi-Kwebu, . 4. An ear of corn; a bunch 
of grapes; isikwebu sombona, a maize cob 
with the grain on it. 



KW 

uku-KwebuIa, v. t. To remove out of the 
way; to separate a person from his com- 
panions or compan}', to make him join 
another ; to induce a person to come over 
to another party or to enter on another 
course of conduct. 

Kwebuka, v. To move, get away from 
a place; to move out of the way (of a 
snake); to make way for another. 
i-KwebuIa, n. 2. The black-cap bulbul, 
Pycnonotus barbatus layardi Gum. The 
name is an attempt to reproduce the bird's 
song. 
Kwedinil Boy! (This is a vocative form 
pure and simple, which is found reduplicated 
in iit-Kwenkwe, and has a diminutive form 
m-Kwana). 
Kwekul interj. O! move away a little! 
uku-Kwekwa, v. i. To conceal one's mean- 
ing by speaking figuratively or in a secret 
dialect; to speak, hum or sing something 
so that it cannot be understood by others; 
to mystify, obscure. 

Children kwekwa by adding to each 
syllable of every word a rhyming syllable 
beginning with the English consonant r, e.g. 
ndit't kuwe, appears as ndiri tiri kuru were. 
Such a word as zam can appear either as 
zaram or as zara tntiru. Similar customs 
occur in widely separated parts of the world. 
isi-Kweko, n. 4. Obscure speaking. 
uku-Kwekwela, v. To talk figuratively 
or tauntingly about one, or to talk to 
another person in such a way that a 
listener cannot understand what is being 
said. 
Kwekweleza, v. To take a circuitous 
route ; to mystify a matter designedly ; to 
mislead in speaking , = GwegweIeza. 
u-Kwekwe, . 5. Itch, mange, scab. Phr. 
ukwekwe Iwexwili, the mange of a wild dog 
(which is never cured), is applied to a 
person who sticks close to another without 
ever leaving him, esp. to a person who, 
after receiving one favour, hangs on for 
more and cannot be got rid of; isifo silu- 
kwekwe Iwexwili, the sickness is incurable; 
lukwekwe luka-Ntshwcza, it is Ntshweza's 
scab, applied to a man who continually 
pesters others with trifles. 
uku-Kwela, v. i. To hiss or whistle by draw- 
ing in the air. 

i-Kwelo, n. 2. A shrill, whistling sound, 
made to incite cattle to run, or to induce 
cows to give their milk, or to encourage 
people to attack : bazintyontyela amakwelo, 



207 



they praise (the cattle) with shrill sounds; 
encouraging theiil to race ; uyabcta ikwelo, 
he sounds the whistle, he pretends 
innocence or indifference. 
uku-KW'ELA, V. t. To get up, climb on, 

mount, ride: kwela ihashe, mount the horse; 

kwela emlini, climb into the tree; sakwela 

enqwelwejii, we rode in a wagon; tig. to fall 

upon, attack: ndakweliva sisifo, I was attack- 
ed by sickness. Phr, wavikwela amahlanza, 

he stabbed him. 

um-Kweli, . I A rider. 

in-Kweli, w. 3. A good horseman. 

isi-Kwdlo, n. 4. A pulpit. 

um-Kwelo, n. 6. The racing of young 
men on the day befoi-e a marriage. 

uku-Kwelakwela, v. (a) To continue 
beating or attacking a fallen foe, or one 
who is too disabled to offer any resist- 
ance, (b) To speak rapidly ; to chattel", 
so as to prevent another from joining in 
a conversation or discussion: yeka iikundi- 
kwelakwela, stop preventing me from 
speaking by your chatter. 

Kwelela, v. To climb or mount for a 
purpose : iikwelda-nina emtinif wherefore 
are you climbing the tree ? fig. to move 
out of the way, to make room for: kwelela 
endldeni, move out of the way; to be far: 
indlu ikwelele kum, the house is far from 
me. 

Phr. Sikweleleiti zinyoka, nani masele, 
nani nonkala, make way for us, ye snakes 
and frogs and crabs, said by the children, 
to the accompaniment of stone-throwing 
into the river, when they are preparing 
to bathe. 

Kwelelana, v. To make room for one 
another. 

KwelelJsa, v. To cause to go out of the 
way: kwelelisa kancinane emhlaheii, put 
out a little from the land; to remove an 
object or obstruction out of the way of 
another; to make (a place) wider and 
wider. 

Kweleli-sela, v. To cause room to be 
made for: wondikwelelisela bona, you will 
let them make room for me; kivcldisclani 
cnzulwhii, put out into the deep. 

Kwelisa, v. To cause or make to mount 
or climb: bamkivelisa enqwclweni, they 
made him ride in a wagon. 
i-KW'ELE, n. 2, ubu-Kwele, n. 7. Jealousy. 

uk'i-Kweleta, v. i. To be envious, jealous. 
n. 8. Jealousy. 



KW 

Kw^letela, v. To be jealous of: indoda 
yamkweletela iimkayo, the man was jealous 
of his wifd. 

Kweletelana, t'. To be jealous Of each 
other. 

Kweletisa, and Kweletelisa, v>. Td 
cause jealousy; to make jealous. 
-K welezela, = uku-Kweletela. 
-Kwelezelisa, == uku-Ktveletelisa. 
si-KWELlTl, . 4. Debt; taking goods on 
credit ; from Du. schuld. 
i-Kwelo, //. 4. Em. A boy's stick for 
digging up roots ; = isi-Kwtli. 
in-Kwembezi, n. 3. Fatty matter on water. 
uku-Kwenca, v. t. To speak indirectly, 
sarcastically; to hint; to nip, cavil, criticise. 
um-Kwenci, . i. A caviller, ciiticiser, 
one who nips. 
i-Kwencu, n. 2. That which is light. 
ukuti-Kwenekwene, v. t. To excite by 
expectations or fears which will not be 
realized ; to tantalise. 
is!-Kwenene, w. 4. The Red-shouldered 
parrot, Poicephalus robustus (Gm.). Phr. 
ivampa amatumhu esikwhtene, lit. he gave 
him the entrails of a parrot, i.e. a vain 
promise, he promised a nice thing, but did 
not give it ; at present sweets of the 
Europeans are called amatumhu esikwenene; 
amaqanda esikwenene, lit. the eggs of a 
parrot, i.e. a nice and pretty thing. 
-kweni, Loc. form, ofoko, used with locatives 
of nouns, denoting time, giving them an 
adverbial force: xenikiveni, at the time 
when ; tnhlenikweni, on the day when. 
in-Kwenkwe, . 3. Plur. amakwenkwe. A 
boy, lad; itikivenkwe yamatole, a kind of 
coarse grass (Andropogon). 
um-Kwenkvve, n. 6. Pittosporum viridi- 
florum Sims., a forest tree with reddish 
purple flowers ; the bark is used for black 
gall-sickness and glanders. 
in-Kwenkwezi, . 3. A star. See ama- 

Kwezikwezi. 
Kwenu, Poss. pron. of 2. p. pi. ref. to 8 cl. 

Your: ukuianda kwenu, your will. 
um-Kwenya, n. I. Em. Brother-in-law. 
Polite expression by which tiie full brothers 
and sisters of a married woman call her 
husband, but not used by the other children 
of a polygamist; see um-Kwe. The dimin. 
twikwenyana is used reproachfully. 
um-Kwenyetu, n. l. contracted from um-. 
Kwenya wetu, Em. = umKwenya. 



KW 

uku-Kwenya and uku-Kwenyela, v. i. To 
gather the body up, and put the tail 
between the legs, as a horse when about to 
kick ; inja ikwenyele umsila, the dog has put 
its tail between its legs from fear. 
um-Kwepa, n. 6. Something; neg. nothing. 
i-KWEPlLE, n. 2. A quince, fr. Du. kweeper. 
isi-Kwerana, n. 4. A false leaf, not the 
proper leaf, espec. the very small leaves of 
a tobacco plant, adj. something small, 
little. 
uku-Kweta, v. i. Not to speak what others 
wish to hear. 

um-Kw^ta, . I. A lad who is under- 
going the rite of circumcision with other 
lads; he is considered unclean, and lives 
for the time apart from the community ; 
voc. kiveta is used to one of the same age, 
circumcised at the same time, = chum, 
mate. 
isi-Kweta, . 4. The language used by 
the abakweta during their period of 
seclusion. 
ubu-Kweta, n. 7. The state of the circum- 
cised lads. 
Kwetu, Poss. pron. of I p. pi. ref. to 8 cl. 

Our: ukufa kwetu, our death. 
in- Kwetu, n. 3. Scabs on the skin, scurf; 
the thin exterior skin or epidermis of the 
human body which falls off in dry scales : 
tinenkwetu, his skin falls off in scales; the 
scales of fishes. 
u-Kwetu, n. 5. The fat remaining on the 

skin after slaughtering. 
uku-Kweza, v. t. To ascend a river along 
its banks: kweza umlambo, go up the river. 
uku-Kwezela, v. t. To put in order, i.e. 
rake together the embers of a fire: kwezela 
uinlilo, make the fire right by putting the 
fuel in order ; to watch the pots. 
um-Kwezeli, n. I. One who puts the fire 

right ; see uku-Biiya. 
uku-Kwezelela, v. To make up the fire for. 
i-Kwezi, n. 2. The planet Venus as the 

morning star. 
ama-Kwezikwezi, . 2. pi. Starry, glis- 
tening : isitsaba esimakwezikwezi, a glistening 
crown. 
in-Kwili, n. 3. (a) The Sombre bulbul, 
Andropadus importunus (Vieill.). Its cry is 
rendered as: Will jikela ngapa kwetyolo, 
'please', Willie, go round about the bush, 
please. 

(b) A small water-insect which darts 
about rapidly on the surface : amakwenkwe 
alumisa inkwili ehilwimini ukuze akwazi 
BB 



KW 



ukwenza ikwelo, the boys make the inkxvili 
bite their tongues that they may be able to 
whistle ; see uku-Gqoboka. 
isi-Kwili, n. 4. and u-Kwill, n. 5. A sharp- 
pointed stick, shaped like an assegai, used 
by boys. 
uku-Kwina, v. i. To whine as a child ; to 
lament ; to utter a low moan from pain or 
fear ; more generally applied to the whining 
of a dog from fear, or the whistling 
of sticks through the air in a fight. 
isi-Kwino, n. 4. and um-Kwino, . 6. A 
whine, moan, plaintive cry. 
uku-Kwinela, v. i. To strive, endeavouf, 

(used -with, pambili). 
i-Kwiniba, n. 2. A corn on the toes; a 
spavin or splint on the legs of horses or 
cattle ; an uneven, injured or sore place on 
the body; fig. pi. bitter, unkind thoughts. 
um-Kwinti, n. 6. (a) The Boter-bloem, 
Gazania pinnata Less., a species of fibrous 
plant used for plaiting and as threads. 
Goats, feeding upon it, give much and rich 
milk. It is used medicinally to prevent 
miscarriage. See i-Cacawe. 
in- K wintshi, n. 3. Headgear or badge worn by 
chief councillors, warriors or awa-Gtfffl only. 
isi-Kwintshi, n. 3. One who is in wrath, does 
not care for anyone, does not look on one. 
uku-Kwiriza, v. i. To speak Sesuto. 
isi-KwiTI, 71. 4. The caretaker of a pound ; 

also tbe pound itself ; from the Du. schut. 
uku-Kwitsa, v. t. To blow or squirt out 
fluid, e.g. on an army to make it in- 
vulnerable, or to ban or drive away bad 
spirits ; to chew and spit out leaves, in order 
to gain a favourable decision in a law-case, 
etc. 

um-Kwitsi, m. i. An enchanter, as 
described under uku-Kwitsa. 
uku-Kwitsha, v. t. To beat on the body 

with a switch. 
ukuti-Kwitshi, v. i. To turn round and get 
out of sight ; to turn away sharply from a 
person or thing (espec. a bad thing) so as 
to leave it; to remove, pass away from. 
in-Kwitshi, n. 3. A sling, made of a 
stripped maizecob fastened on a switch 
and hurled away. Harm from contact 
with a wicked person : akanyali lomfo apb 
ahamba kona ukushiya inkwitshi, wherever 
this man goes, he always leaves some 
mischief. Phr. washiya nenkwitshi, he left be- 
hind an unpaid debt or an unatoned crime. 
Kwowu ! interj. Of astonishment and of 
praise and consolation. O ! Indeed I really I 
209 



T has the same liquid sound as in English. 
For the combinations dl, hi and tl see 
under D, H and T. 

L is inserted after a particle before the words 
apa, apd, okd, to avoid hiatus, e.g. ndiXapa, I 
am here; kuseXoko, from that time. 

La, (a) Dem. pron. 2 cl. pi. These: lamahashe 
or amahashe la, these horses, (b) Pass, 
particle 2 cl. sing: ilizwi la/H. (c) Conj.past. 2 
cl.: ihashe lapuma \abaleka, the horse came 
out and ran. 

La, I. Pron. subj. aor. 2 cl. sing.: iliswe l&fa 
ngendlala, the country was destroyed by 
famine. 

2. (a) Contrac. from laiva, I and 6 classes 
sing.: lamntu, that person yonder; lamt't, 
that tree yonder, (b) Contrac. from leya, 
3 cl. sing, and 6 cl. pi.: latito, that thing 
yonder; la.miti,- those trees yonder, (c) 
Contrac. from lawa, 2 cl. pi.: latnahashe, 
those horses yonder. 

uku-Labalaba, v. i. To try unavailingly to 
grasp a thing which is out of reach ; not to 
meet the point. 

Labo, Poss. pron. I. cl. pi. ref. to 2 cl. sing. 
Their: ihashe labo (abantu), their horse; and 
of 7 cl. ref. to 2 cl. sing. Its: ubukumkani 
biinetshawe labo, the kingdom has its prince. 

Laelo, Distrib. pron. of 2 cl. sing. Every, 
each : laelo ihashe, each horse ; see Elo. 

Laf ulaf u, adj. Blown-up, swollen, as a dead 
body ; soft, spongy as bread that has risen 
well. 

uku-Lafuza, v, i. To talk nonsense: )&- 
ko nto uyitetayo, vfuman' idafuze njekodwa, 
what you say is of no use, you simply 
talk nonsense. 

uku-LAHLA, v. t. To throw or cast 
away or off; to abandon, forsake, reject: 
lahla lentonga, throw this stick away; 
fig. lahla lendlela, abandon this path; 
indoda yalahla umfazi wayo, the man for- 
sook his wife; walahla uhomi bake, he laid 
down his life; ndalahlwa ngunantsi, I 
incurred the displeasure of So-and-so; 
ilyala libalahlilc, lit. the case has thrown 
them, i.e. they have lost their case ; ukulahla 
timntu, to bury a person. Phr. ungalahli 
imbo yakb ngopbyiyana, lit, do not cast away 
your own for that which you are not sure 
of, i.e. a bird in the hand is better than two 
in the bush; a change is not always for the 
better, do not cast away your friends for a 
stranger who will leave you again. 

210 



u-Lahlo, . 5. A falling away. 

um-LahIa, n. 6. Lamentation; a dirge 
sung during the process of smelling out for 
witchcraft. 

uku-Lahlana, v. To reject or abandon 
each other. 

Lahleka, v. To be inastateofbeinglost; 
to lose oneself, to wander, err from the 
right path; to be lost: inkomo yam 
ilahltkde, my cow has strayed; igusha 
zilahlekde, the sheep are lost ; ndilahlekile 
apa, here I have erred; indilahlekHe lanto, 
I have lost that thing ; fig. to be confused ; 
bewildered: ilizwi Undilahlekile, the word 
has slipped out of my memory. 
n, 8. Error. 

i-Lahleko, n. 2. 'Loss: ilahleho lam likulu, 
my loss is great. 

uku-Lahlekana, v. To be cast away from ; 
to wander from: ukona ngokulahlekana 
nomteto, to sin unwittingly. 

Lahlekanisa, v. To make to lose, i.e- 
to rob, deprive of: makungabiko namnye 
unilahlekanisa nomvuzo wenu, let no man 
rob you of your prize. 

Lahlekela, v. To suffer loss of: ndila^ 
hlckelwe yilonto, I have lost that thing; 
londawo wayitetayo yasilahlekela, what you 
said went quite out of our mind ; timla- 
hlekele umpefumlo wakk, he suffered the 
loss of his soul. 

i-Lahlekelo, n. 2. = i-Lahleko. 

uku-Lahlekisa, v. To cause to be lost; 
to lead astray; to cause to wander from; 
to bring or lead into error, mistake or 
difficulty: ulahlekiswe ngokusela utywala, 
he was brought to ruin by drinking brandy. 

um-Lahlekisi, n. I. A deceiver. 

u-Lahlekiso, . 5. An error. 

uku-Lahlekisana, v. To lead one another 
astray; to bring each other into diffi- 
culties, ruin, etc.: aboni kiipela ngabalahle- 
kisanayo, sinners are only people who 
lead one another astray. 

Lahlela, v. To throw or cast in ^ 
certain place: iitiitu malulahlclwe pandle,, 
the ashes must be thrown outside. 
Lahle, n. 2. A live ember from a wood 

fire; fig. a bullet. Plur. charcoal; amalahle 

aninyama, mineral coal; enialahleni, a 

colliery. 
-Laka, . 5. Em. Officiousness: uttolaka, an 

officious person, one who causes trouble or 

strife. 



La 

uku Lakdta, v. To trouble a person, 
by insisting on his appearing as a witness 
in a case. 

u-Lakanye, ;/. 5. The back part of the 
mouth, especially the epiglottis. 

ukuti-Lakatyu, v. i. To jump as a monkey. 

Lake, Poss. pron. 3 p. sing. ref. to 2. cl. sing. 
His, her: ilifa lake, his or her inheritance. 

Lak6, Poss. pron. (a) 2 p. sing. ref. to 2 cl. 
sing. Thy: ihashe lako, thy horse, to be 
distinguished from ihashe lako, the horse 
was there, (b) 8 cl. ref. to 2. cl. sing. Its; 
ukufa akunagqira lako, death has no doctor. 

Laku, Temp, conjunctive (a) 2 cl. sing: laku- 
baleka ihashe, when the horse ran. 

(b) 5 cl. sing. : lakugqitywa ubisi, when the 
milk was finished; lakuba liimkile uvalo, 
when the anguish had died away. 

i-Lala, n. 2. (a) A smelter of ore, a smith, 
(b) A plaited thing. 

um-Lala, n. 6. Em. (a) A fibrous plant, (b) 
A beer-strainer made from it. 

uku-LALA, V. t. and /. perf. lele. To lie down; 
to rest, sleep: walala tibutongo, he lay 
asleep; ulele, he is asleep; nilele njani f how 
did you sleep? ndalala ngendlala, I slept 
without food; intaba zilele ikepii, the 
mountains are covered with snow ; euphem. 
to know carnally : walala nentombt or wayi- 
lala intombi, he was with the girl at night; 
fig. to be abundant: balele iminyani, they 
(the dead; lay in heaps ; itiqolowa iyalala, 
the wheat is a grand crop; impahla zilele, 
the goods are on hand, unsold. 

Phr. ulele ngendhi, lit. he lies at or by the 
house, i.e. he is confined to the house by 
sickness, he lies prostrate; usalele pantsi, 
he is still very ill, or confined to bed ; lento 
irnlele, this thing escaped his mind or 
attention; ukulala isiduli, to faint away, to 
lie unconscious; ulele pantsi ukubaleka, 
he ran away at full speed ; xa silele buhlala, 
when we lie awake ; wakanyela ivalala ngom- 
beie, he denied it entirely; Ulele umbete 
itshoba, lit. the tail is damp with dew, i.e. 
he is dead. (As long as an animal lives it 
moves its tail, and dew cannot rest upon 
it; when it is dead, the dew lies on its tail.) 
Bangamaqotyazana angalaliyo etnzini, they 
are people who don't sleep at villages (on the 
way), i.e. who are smart in going a 
message or performing a duty at a distance. 
um-Lali, n. I. One who has long been 

laid up through sickness. 
um-Lala-kanye, n. 1. One who does not 
get up again. 

211 



LA 



Those who have gone 



ama-Lala, n. 2. pi. 

to their rest. 

ama-Lalo, n. 2. pi. Thoughts: ndixelele 
amalnlo ako, tell me what you think in 
your heart. 

isi-Lalo. n. 4. An old, chronic sickness; a 
long sickbed ; = ubu-Lwelwe. 

u-Lalo, H. 5. A sleep: kolulalo Iwabo, in 
this sleep of theirs; ulalo Iwendoda, a 
man's sleeping with a woman. 

uku-Lalana, v. To lie together, next to 
each other. In a bad sense, to live in 
uncleanness, to commit adultery. 

Lalanisa, v. To make one sleepy, i.e. to 
put him off his guard, draw his attention 
away; to dissuade one from a purpose; 
fig. to cheat by dissembling and hypocrisy. 

Lalela, v. To lie in wait for, in ambush; 
sometimes used for lindela: ndoba ndisa- 
lalele, I shall still be waiting. 

um-Laleli, n. I. A lier-in-wait. 

um-Lalela, . 6. A place where one lies in 
wait for another ; an ambush. 

uku-Lalisa. u. To cause to lie down; to 
put to sleep: lalisa timntwana, put the 
child to sleep; iikulalisa inkuku, to put 
a troublesome chicken to sleep. (A child 
catches the chicken, puts its head under 
one wing, then dangles the chicken up 
and down, singing, lala, abanye balele 
ehlatini, sleep, the others are asleep in the 
forest. He then lays it down quietly, 
and it sleeps for a short time, then gets 
up and runs away.) 

To pass the night ; to encamp for the 
night: ndalalisa e-Dikeni, I lodged at 
Alice for a night ; umvunio uyakulalisa- 
na ? is the concert to go on all night ? 
halalisa emva kwentaka, they ran after the 
bird, keeping closely to its track 
wherever it went. 

Lalisana, v. To lie down together; to 
afford each other company by sleeping 
together. 

Lalisela, v. To wait for; to be ready 
for. 
uku-Lalaza v. i. Em. To pretend that one 

has done his work well, while he has either 

not done it at all, or else has only half-done 

it ; = uku-Paya. 
i-Lali, n. 2. A quiet, meek person ; one who 

does not assert his right. 
ubu-Lali, n, 7. Gentleness, mildness, meek- 
ness. 
Lali, n. 3. An encampment, village, ward, 

location, from Du. laager. 



Lali, aux. contrac. from laye li, 2. cl. sing, 

ilizwi laliviwe, the word had been heard. 
Lalo, Poss. pron. 2 and 5 classes sing. ref. to 

2 cl. sing. Its : ilizive linesiko lalo, a country 

has its custom ; lunike tisapo ilifa lalo, give 

the family its inheritance. 
Lam, Poss. pron. I p. sing. ref. to 2 cl. sing. 

My : Uiso lam, my eye ; see M. 
um-Lam, . l. A brother-in-law (wife's 

brother). Fem. iimlamkazi, a sister-in-law. 
ukuti-LAMB'U, and uku-Lamba, v. t. To 

become hungry; ndilamhile, I am hungry. 

uku-Lamba, n. 8. Appetite. 

um-Lamb6, K. 6. A river; wemka nomla- 
mbo or wabizwa ngumlambo, he was 
drowned; anaemia, poverty of blood, 
supposed to be caused by being bitten 
by the river ; dimin. umlanjana, a small 
river. Phr. akuko mlanjana ongagquiniyo, 
every streamlet has its own sound. 

ubu-Lanzi, n. 7. State of loneliness and 
need. 

uku-Lambela, f. To hunger for or after: 
ndilambele ukudla, I am hungering for 
food. 

Lambisa, i;. To cause hunger in 
another ; fig. to contract the muscles of 
the stomach. 

ukuti-Lambalala, v. To get empty, as a 
milksack; fig. to be gone and not to be 
seen: walatnbalala ehlatini, he disappeared, 
went hastily into the forest. 

uku-Lambata, v. To be empty, bare, 
destitute, miserably poor. 

Lambatisa, v. To make destitute, poor. 
i-LAMU! with the 'u' almost inarticulate. 

inter j. Em. Stop that 1 Give it up! used as 

a strong appeal to make two fighters desist 

from their fighting ; = Lamia, 

uku-Lamla, v. t. pass, lanyulwa. To inter- 
pose between contending and fighting 
parties, with the object of making peace ; 
to mediate: abantu balwa, ndafika mna 
ndalamla, the people were fighting, I came 
and separated them ; to interfere, oppose, 
restrain : ndayilamla inja iugalidli iqanda, 
I prevented the dog from eating the egg. 

um-Lamli, n. i. An arbiter, umpire, me- 
diator. 

uku-Lamlela, v. To interpose, intercede, 
plead in favour of or Oii acjouat of 
others. 

um-Lamleli, . 1 = um-Lamli. 
u-Lamnyani, n. 5. Em. A bundle of Kafir- 
corn ears. (The root is nyani: cf. um- 

Nyani, a thrashed-out head of Kafir-corn.) 



LA 

u-Lamtsasa, . 5. Em. Beer. (The root is 
apparently sasa ; cf. u-Sasa, a kind of sick- 
ness caused by beer-drinking.) 
um-Lamu, . l.= um-Lam. 
i-LAMUNI, n. 3. An orange, fr. Du. lamoen. 
uku-LANDA, v. /. To follow on the scent 
like a dog, or on the track, trace or mark 
of a thing or animal lost to sight : silanda 
inkomo elahlekileyo, we are following the 
track of a lost cow ; balanda inyamakazi 
ehlatini, they chased game in the forest ; cf. 
um-Kondo. 

Landeka, v. To be traceable: azila- 
ndeki nendlela zake, and his ways are not 
traceable. 
Landela, v. To follow after, pursue that 
which is still in open sight or in sight 
mentally ; fig. to imitate : ukuba kuko onga 
angandilandela, if anyone wishes to come 
after me. 
um-Landeli, n. i. A follower. 
i-Landela, n. 2. Sequence, sequel. 
uku-Landelana, v. To follow one after 
another, as persons walking in a narrow 
footpath. 
Landeleiana, v. To go or follow in 

procession. 

Landelisa, v. To cause or make to follow 

any direction or order ; fig. to prove or 

show forth by reasoning, argument or 

testimony : ndamlandelisa ukukohlisa 

kwake, I made him repeat what was said 

about his cheating. 

Landisa, v. To cause or try to follow; 

fig. to give an account ; to tell or narrate 

just as the circumstances happened ; to 

bring to a confession: walandisa ityala 

lake, he made a confession of his guilt ; 

ndilandise, give me a circumstantial 

account. 

Landisisana, r. To follow on the scent ; 

to trace for one another. 

isi-Ldnda, . 4. A Kafir needle, about 4 to 

6 inches long, and eyeless, used for making 

holes through which the thread made 

from the sinews of the shoulders of an ox 

is run with the fingers. This needle is 

now used for taking out thorns from the 

foot, etc., or for loosening tobacco in a 

pipe. 

ubu-Landa, n. 7. Em. The place where a 

man's parents-in-law \vfe', = ubu-Kwe. 
ema-Landalahle, n. 2. loc. pi. Out of reach, 
e.g. too high up; far away: isemalanda- 
lahle, it is far away, i.e. nowhere. 



212 



LA 

4. An old moral debt i-LAPl, and i-LAPU, n. 2. A piece of cloth, a 



isi-Landu, 

(subjective) : izUandu zetu, our trespasses 
a grudge : uncsilandu, he has ill feeling in his 
heart against another. 
um-Landu, n.6. A debt (object. ) contracted 
by using the aid of a doctor for divina- 
tion ; hence, account, bill, wages: 
rola iitnlaiidu, pay what is due. 
uku-Landula, v. t. To refuse a request, 
make an excuse from disinclination to 
comply ; to deny, disown ; to withhold 
from ; to disallow : waya kticela inkomo, 
yalandulwa, he went to ask for a head of 
cattle, but it was refused. 
Landulela, v. To plead inability for, in 
regard to ; to excuse oneself, or make 
excuses for another : baqala bonke 
ngakunye uhizilandulela, they all with one 
consent began to make excuse ; to refuse 
to, or withhold from one. 
Langa, Past tense, 2 cl, sing, of uku-Nga (a) 

and (b) and of ukw-Anga, which see. 
i-Langa, w. 2. The sun; fig. a solar day: 
wabuya ngelilanga, you will return then 
during this sun, i.e. this very day ; //czw^a- 
nye, one day; umzi welanga, a village or 
place where a drinking bout is going on; 
emalanga, in the afternoon; asint' ilanga, it 
is extremely dry ; ilatiga Hyadliwa, there is 
an eclipse of the sun. 
isi-Langa, n. 4. A burning glass. 
um-Langa, n. 6. A blemish, a cataract or 

film on the eye. 
i-Langatye, 71. 2. A flame, flash of fire; cf. 

i-Dangatye. 
uku-Langazelela, v. i. To hanker after; 
to long for ; to desire earnestly : umpcfumlo 
warn iiyalangazelela iritendelezo zika-Yehova, 
my soul longeth for the courts of the Lord ; 
ndalangazelela ukunga ndingakubona, I long- 
ed to see you. 

isi-Langazelelo, . 4, and u-Langazelelo, 
n. 5. Intense longing, desire, longing 
expectation. 
uku-Lantsha, v. t. To throw into: wazi- 
lantsha enianzini, he threw himself into the 
water. 
um-Lanya, n. I. Em. My wife's brother. 
um-Lanyakazi, n. l. Em. My wife's sister, 
The brothers and sisters of a wife are called 
abalanya by her husband; cf. um-Alamafie. 
ukutl-Lanzl, v. i. To insert a few words 

between others (in a newspaper). 
ubu-Lanzi, n. 7. State of loneliness and 

need ; from tiku-Lamba. 
Lapa, Here, see apa. 



rag; a tablecloth, napkin; plur. amalapu, 
old clothes; fr. Du. lap. 

Lap6, There, see Apo. 

isi-Laqa and isi-Laqalaqa, w. 4. One who is 
restless, conscience-stricken. 
uku-Laqazela, v. i. To be restless from a 
stricken conscience. 

Lase, Poss. pari. 2 cl. sing, used with loca- 
tives: ihashe lase-Qonce, a horse belonging 
to King William's Town. 

Laso, Poss. pron. 4 cl. sing. ref. to 2 cl. sing. 
Its : isifo ngcsifo sincyeza laso, every sickness 
has its remedy. 

uku-Lata, = ukw-Alata. 

isi-Lata and isi-Latalata, n. 4. A foolish 
person. 

uku-Latazela, v. To be or to act 
foolishly. 

ukuti-Latya, v. t. To throw a thong round 
a thief's neck ; to put beads or chains round 
the neck. 

uku-Latyuza, v. t. Of the wind or waves, 
to toss the sea or a ship. 

n. 8. Raging (of the waves). 
um-Latyuzisi, . I. One who stirs up 
(the sea): ndmgu-Yehova, undatyuzisi wo- 
hvandle, I am the Lord who stirreth up 
the sea. 

i-Lau, n. 2. A Hottentot, applied also 
jokingly to an ufnkweid; fern, ilaukazi. 

ubu-Lau, n. 7. A fragrant powder made 
of the dry leaves of um-Toinbott, in-Tombo- 
tshatie, i-Gusawa, um-To, mn-Diza, um-Xobo, 
isi-Fikane, i-Tyeleba, i-Gqoqina or of the 
root of i-Ngqawane, and used as a perfume 
for the body; a lotion secretly used by 
chiefs for evil purposes; a lotion with 
which a girl is washed on the day when 
she is sent to be married. 

uku-LAULA, V. t. (a) To give orders to; to 
arrange (a hunt); to perform incantations 
before going to war or to a hunt or to any 
important affair, in order to ensure success ; 
to reign, rule over, govern : balaula imfazwe, 
they designed a plan of war ; balaula impi, 
they gave orders to the army how it should 
attack, (b) To narrate a dream. 
um-Lauli, . I. One who reigns, a gover- 
nor; one who foretells events and uses 
enchantments; one who tells dreams. 
isi-Lauli, n. 4. Reign, government. 
isi-LauIo, n. 4. A ruler. 
u-Laulo, n. 5. Rule : batnnikele elulaulweni 
Iwerulmieli, they gave him up to the rule 
of the governor. 



LA 

ubu-LauIi, . 7. Principality, government, 
uku-Lau!ela, v. (a) To rule for. (b) To 
narrate a dream to others: nda- 
bahndela ipupa, ke abandazisanga ukutyilwa 
kwalo, I told them the dream, but they 
did not make known unto me the inter- 
pretation thereof. 

uku-Lavuza, v. t. To speak stupid things, 
to talk nonsense. 

Lawa, Dem. pron. 2 cl. pi. Yonder ; see La, 2. 
(c) : amahashe-hiwa, the horses yonder. 

Lawo, contrac. 16, Dem. pron. 2 cl. pi.: 
Those : amahashe-lawo, those horses. 

Lawo, Pass. pron. 'a) 6 cl. sing. ref. to 2 cl. 
sing. Its: biza lomlambo ngegama lawo, call 
this river by its name. 

(b) 2 cl. pi. ref. to 2 cl. sing. Their: 
lamadoda alitanda ilizwe lawo, these men 
love their country. 

Lave, aux. of compound tenses, 2 cl. sing.: 
ilifa lake lave lidliwa tiguye (contrac. lalidli- 
wa), he enjoyed his inheritance; la(ye) liya 
kufiinwi, it would have been desired, see 
uku-Ya,3. 

uku-LAYlSHA, V. t. To load up, fr. Du. 
laden. 

u-Layita, . I. plur. ama-Layita. A Native 
desperado or highway-robber (a word in- 
troduced from the mines) ; from Eng. light. 

Layo, Poss. pron. (a) 3 cl. sing. ref. to 2 cl. 
sing. Its: intsimbt yakupa izwi layo, the bell 
gave forth its sound, (b) 6. cl. pi. ref. to 2 
cl. sing. Their: iminxuma inelishwa layo, 
holes have their danger. 

Laza, 2. cl. sing, past tense of tiku-Za, used 
idiomatically to introduce a further state- 
ment. Then: laza labaleka ihasJie, then the 
horse ran; see tihi-Za. 

isi-Laza, n, 4. Em. Old food that has last 
its freshness, esp. old Kafir-beer, which 
when drunk causes u-Sasa. 

ama-Lazinge, n. 2. pi. Single seeds: wafaka 
umbona wangamalazinge ngamanye, he put 
single seeds of maize here and there. 

Lazo, Poss. pron. Their, (a) 3. cl. pi. ref. to 2 
cl. sing. : intaka zinelizwi lazo, the birds have 
their voice, (b) 4 cl. pi. ref. to 2 cl. sing. : 
izitunywa zezulu zinekaya lazo, the angels 
have their home, (c) 5 cl. pi. ref. to 2 cl. 
sing,: uyazazi-na intlanga nesiko lazo? do you 
know the peoples and their custom ? 

Le, Dem. pron. (a 3. cl. sing. This: lento, this 

thing; indlela elungileyo y/le, the good way 

is this one. (b) 6 cl. pi. These : lemilambo, 

these rivers. | 

214 



LE 

Le, adv. Far, far away: bavela U, they come 
from far ; makube U kum, may it be far from 
me; sendile, I am already far away; zikd 
intaba ezibeta le kwezinye ngobnpakamo, there 
are mountains which are far higher than 
others. 
um-Le, . 6. Soot: indlu izele ngumle, or yimile, 

the house is black with or full of soot. 
i-Lebe, n. 2. Pudenda feminae. 
isi-Lebe, n. 4. The underlip of animals; the 

chin. 
um-Lebe, n. 6. Orig. large lip; at present 
simply lip; pi. imilebe yomlomo, the lips of 
the mouth. 
i-LEFELE, n. 3. A rifle, from Eng. 
isi-Lekehlana, . 4. A short person; fig. a 
poor, destitute person, or an article worth 
nothing. 
Lekeleke, adj. Hanging loosely, as the dew- 
lap or udder of a cow, or the tongue of a 
bell. 

uku-Lekezela, v. i. To hang loosely, swing- 
ing to and fro. 
uku-Lekenya, v. t. To lick with the tongue, 
as food from a dish or off the fingers, or 
inkstains off one's hand or off a book. 
uku-Lekuza, v. t. To toss the head up and 
down ; to nod with the head ; to swing the 
body in a haughty manner; to prance, as 
horses; to move forward, threaten; to 
feign, as if about to attack or strike; to try 
to steal but without success. 
Lekuzeka, v. To bow, make bows in 
dancing. 
um-Lelemba, . i. Em. A very lazy person 
who does his work without showing any 
interest in it. 
uku-Lelesa, v. t. To injure in a stealthy 
manner: isela lindilelesile, the thief stole 
during my absence from home; to do 
wrong, cheat; of lightning, to do damage. 
uku-Leleza, v. t. To comfort, quieten one 

after having upbraided him. 
i-LELI, n. 3. A ladder, fr. Du. ladder. 
um-Lembelele, n. 6. Prolixity, diffusiveness, 
circumlocution, verbosity in speech ; a long, 
prosy address which causes delay. 
ubu-Lembu, . 7. (a) Moss, (b) The green, 
shiny substance on stagnant water, (c) 
The soft part of a pumpkin or gourd, (d) 
The female filaments of a ripening maize- 
cob. 

ubu-Lembui belitye, n. 7. A lichen found 
on stones, used for snakebites and 
syphilis. 



LE 



isi-LENQA, n. 4. = isi-Lengalenga. 

um-Lenga, . 6, A hanging, dangling shred 
or rag. 

uku-Lengalenga, v. i. To hang; to be 
suspended ; to dangle in the air. 

i-Lengalenga, n. 2. ^ 

isi-Lengalenga, . 4. [ A curtain, hang- 

um-Lengalenga, n. 6,) 

ing; anything hung up in an extended 
form and dangling; a waving curtain, 
band, scarf, sash. 

ama-Lengalenga, n.2.pl. An inaccessible 
high place, a precipice. 

ama-Lengelenge, . 2. pi The air, the 
void, the firmament: wayiposa intonga 
emalengelengeni, he threw the stick into 
the air. 

uku-Lengalengisa, v. To hang up, sus- 
pend, as a curtain. 
Lento, Lit. this thing. Used as adv. Because, 

why : niyahiliza, kuko lento nitt, masiye sibinge- 

lele ku-Yehova, ye are idle, this is why ye 

say, let us go and sacrifice to the Lord. 
Lenu, Poss. pron. 2. p. pi. ref. to 2 cl. sing. 

Your: iltso lenu, your eye. 
um-Lenya, . 6. A plant grown on the grave 

of a chief. 
ukuti-LENYE, v. t. To lick up: inja ikute- 

lenye konke uktidla kwam, the dog has licked 

up all my food; ilokweyam ite-lenye ngumlilo, 

my dress has been licked up and burnt by the 

fire. 

uku-Lenya, v. i. To lick; to dart out, as 
fire ; to wave about towards a person ; to 
stretch out the tongue towards a person, 
as a snake when threatening an attack; 
to wag the tail, as a dog. 

Lenyela, v. Of fire, to dart at: umntwana 
walenyelwa lilangatye, the child was 
caught by the flame. 

Lenyeza, v. To dart the tongue to and 
fro, as a snake. 

Lenyisa, v. To cause to dart out; to 
flare out: ukutsha kwehlati bekulenyisa 
amalangatye ngamacaV onke, at the burn- 
ing of the forest the flames leaped out 
in all directions. 
Lenye ! intcrj. Save the mark ! 
um-Lenze, . 6. A leg; the right hind-leg of 

a slaughtered animal, >vhereas the left is 

called i-Dikazi; a hind wheel of a wagon; a 

wheel of a cart ; dimin. umlenzana. 
ukuti-Lepu. v, i. Of the snow, to fall in 

flakes. 

uku-Lepuza, v. i. To show the female fila- 
ments : unibona uyalepuza, the maize shows 

215 



LE 

its filaments; to froth up, as yeast or 
beer or soap-suds; to bubble up as water 
from stagnant mud; to froth at the 
mouth. Em. = ukuti-Lepu. 

uku-Leqa, v. i. To leap; to run with a 
leaping motion, v. t. To drive fast, to race 
cattle. 

i-Leqe, n. 2. Dowry (ox, cow, sheep or goat), 
given to the woman by her father on or 
after the day of marriage. 

uku-LESA and uku-LESESHA, v. t. To read, 
from Du. lezen. 

uku-Leta, x;. t. To take or lift up and bring 
near: leta umntwana apa, bring the child 
here; to put into: wazileta emanzini, he 
threw himself into the water; wazileta phu 
kwendoda, he threw himself upon the man 
(infighting). 

isi-LETI, n. 4. A slate, fr. Eng. 

uku-Letsheza, v. t. To run about the place. 

Letu, Poss. pron. I p. pi. ref. to 2 cl. sing. 
Our: ilite letu, our desire. 

isi-Levu, n. 4. (a) The chin; the beard of a 
goat ; cf. in-Devu. (b) A small kind of rush 
(Ficinia) that grows in tufts. 

Leya, (contrac. La), Bern. pron. 3 cl. sing and 
6 cl. pi. Yonder: intaba-leya, the mountain 
yonder; imhnaugo-leya, the ridges yonder. 

isi-LEYl, n. 4. A sleigh, from Du. slee. 

Leyo, contrac. L6, Detn. pron. 3 cl. sing, and 
6 cl. pi. : That, those : leyonto or Idnto, that 
thing; leyomili or lotniti, those trees; yaleyo, 
everyone. 

Li, (a) Pron. subj. 2 cl.: ihashe liyabaleka, the 
horse runs, (b) Pron. obj. : ndalitenga elihashe, 
I bought this horse, (c) Copula and Cause: 
lihashe, it is a horse ; ndakatywa lihashe or 
lilo, I was kicked by the horse, or by it. 

uku-Libala, v. i. To idle away; to spend, 
waste or consume time : ndalibalakukufeketa, 
I wasted my time with playing; ndalibala 
ekaya, I idled away my time at home; 
hence, to neglect, forget; to be careless: 
ulibele ukuza, he forgot to come; walibala 
ukugqiba umsebenzi wak^, he neglected to 
finish his work. 

Libaleka, v. To be forgotten. 
Libalisa, v. To cause a person to while 
away his time; to divert attention to- 
wards an object; to amuse, interest, 
entertain another, so as to hinder him 
from his proper employment. (The 
following form is more frequently used). 
Libazisa, v. pass, lityaziswa. To sit 
beside a prospective bride during the 
period of her seclusion immediately be- 



LI 

fore marriage and to pass the time 

talking and singing, so as to make her 

forget her loneliness; to make or cause 

to be careless, forgetful ; to delay, detain, 

keep back: wandiUbazisa ngokuteta kwake 

nomnye ttmntu, he let me wait while he 

spoke with another person; ndazilibazisa, 

I passed my time waiting ; bendibalibazisa 

abantu basemzini, I was entertaining the 

strangers. 

Libe, aiix. in forming compound tenses, 2 cl. 

sing. : ilizwi libe litetwa, (contract, belitetwa), 

the word was spoken ; libe lingalityahvanga, 

(contract, belingalityalwanga), it had not 

been forgotten, see uku-Ba I. 2. (a). 

u-Libo, = id-Ibo. 

um-Libo, n. 6. The first tender shoots of 
pumpkins and melons; uvilibo wokiizalwa, 
pedigree, genealogy, kindred, stock. 
Likiliki, adj. Shaky or wobbly, as jelly, soft 
watery meat, or a distended abdomen. 
uku-Likizela, v. i. Of any wobbly thing, 
such as the distended abdomen of a fat 
person as he walks, to move or shake 
about. 
uku-Lila, v. i. To weep, cry, lament, mourn, 
wail; to crow: inkunzi yenktiku iyalila, the 
cock crows ; to give a sound : intsimbt iyalila, 
the bell sounds ; zalila intonga is said in fight- 
ing, when the sticks come cracking down 
on the heads; wnti uyalila, the tree dis- 
charges, exudes sap; ndali/a imvukazana, I 
wept bitterly. Phr. uya kulila ngaso nye, 
uxcle inkau, lit. you will shed tears with 
one eye like a monkey; crocodile tears. 
The proverb is used to deter people from 
being led into a snare. (A monkey caught 
in a trap, is said to shed tears with one eye 
only). Ulile wazonda, he made himself ill 
with weeping. 

A weeper, crier; one who 



um-Lili, n. I 

cries. 
isi-Lilo, /). 4. 1 
u-Lilo, 71. 5. J 

mourning. 
uku-Lilela, v 



Weeping, lamentation, 



To weep, mourn, etc., for 
or on account of: imyana zvamlilcla uyise, 
the son mourned for his father. 
-Lilelana, v. To weep, etc., over one 
another, as on unexpectedly meeting 
after a long parting. 

Lilisa, V. To cause weeping: ziyakumli- 
lisa inkuni, the firewood will make her 
weep (i.e. when it is wet and will not 
burn) ; to ring a bell : lilisa intsimbt, ring 
the bell; to play on an instrument: 
uyalilisa uhadi, he played the uhadi (piano). 
216 



LI 

um-Lilisi-xilongo, w. i. A trumpeter. 

uku-Lilisela, v. Of a hen, to cackle: 
iyaliliscla inktihi, the hen is cackling after 
laying an egg; to keep harping on a 
thing, like a cackling hen ; to toll a bell 
for one who is dead. 
isi-Lili, n. 4. A part of a hut set apart for 

the use of individuals, for sitting or 

sleeping in; a bedroom. 
Lilo, Copula and Cause, 2 cl. sing. It is it, or 

by it, see Li, (c) and Ij), i. (c). 
uni-LHo, n. 6. Fire, burning, conflagration: 

uinlilo awunamateli, the fire does not catch; 

iiidoda ingumlHo, the man is full of wrath ; 

a match: ndip'umlilo, give me a match. 
uku-Lima, v. t. To hoe in seed, to dig, 

plough, cultivate. 

um-LJmJ, n. I. A cultivator, husbandman; 
a peasant. 

i-Lima, n. 2. Orig. a number of people 
who came to help a lately-married woman, 
at her invitation, to hoe her garden and 
who were entertained bj'- her husband by 
having an ox killed for them; now, a 
gathering of men each with his own oxen 
coming to plough a field, or a gathering 
of people to weed a garden ; these people 
are fed by the owner of the garden, but 
often they are entertained with Kafir-beer 
only. 

isi-Limo, n. 4. The produce of ploughing; 
crop. 

um-Lima-ndlela, . 6. The boundary of a 
garden or cultivated land. 

uku-Limalima, v. To plough in a hurry. 

Limeka, v. To be fit for digging or being 
dug, etc. : umhlaba awulimeki, the ground 
does not plough well ; igaba lam liyalime- 
ka, my hoe digs well. 

Limela, v. To plough for another: 
ndilimele ititsimi yam, plough my garden 
for me. 

isi-Limela, n. 4. The Pleiades, which 
announce the ploughing time: isilimela 
sesitwasile, the Pleiades have appeared 
i e. springtime has come ; eyesilimela, the 
month of June, the time for ploughing 
wheat. 
isi-LlMA, n. 4. Anything, whether person, 

animal or fruit, that is misshapen or 

deformed ; a cripple, especially one whose 

fingers or toes cleave together by nature, 

or from an accident or burn; anything 

defective, imperfect, faulty, as a broken 

piece of furniture: umutu osikwasilima, 

an abject persjon, one not pleasing; intq 



LI 

esikwasilitna, a thing not liked. Girls 
will not eat any deformed fruit, lest, they 
bear deformed children. 
uku-Limala, v. i. To be hurt, injured, 
wounded by contusion, pressure or any 
other violence done to the body : ulUnele 
elunyaweni, he is hurt in his foot. 
Limaza, v, pass, linyazwa. To hurt, 
contuse, injure, wound, bruise ; to wound 
in battle: walimaza isandla sake, he 
injured his hand. 
Limazisa, v. To cause to hurt; to hurt 
purposely. 

uku-Linda, v. t. To keep watch in the 
gardens, in order to drive away birds or 
animals from the crops: intaka mazilindwe, 
ukuba zingadli amazimha eiu, the birds must 
be kept from eating our Kafir-corn ; siyali 
nda incanda entsimini, we keep watch for 
the porcupines in the garden; to be on 
guard, watchful, awake: yiba ulindile, 
watch! to wait ior: ndiya kumlinda endhvi- 
ni, I shall wait for him in the house ; iindi- 
lindile, he waited for me. 
um-Lindl, . l. A watchman, guard. 
isi-Lindo, . 4. Waiting, watching, vigi- 
lance. 
um-Lindo, 71. 6. The period of watching, 
a watch: umlindo ivobusukti, a watch of 
the night. 
uku-Lindana, v. To wait, watch for each 

other. 
Lindela, v. To wait for; to expect: 
umpefumlo warn ulindele ku-Yehova, my 
soul waiteth for the Lord. 
Lindisa, v. To cause to wait. 
i-Lindi, n. 2. A cup-shaped depression, 
varying from a few feet to a few yards 
across, on the surface of the ground. Plur. 
ama-Lindi, a strip of country characterized 
by having numerous depressions on its 
surface; such tracts are found at King 
Williamstown and near East London. 
um-Lindi, n. 6. A deep furrow, hole, pit, 

grave. 
u-LlNDlPASi, n. I. Rinderpest, from the Eng. 
Linga, l. verb. pref. of Potent, mood, 2 cl. 
sing.: ihashe Vingabaleka, the horse may 
run. 

2. aux. of Condit. mood, see Linge, 2. 

3. Short Pres. 2 cl. sing, of nku-Nga (a) 
and (b). 

4. Neg. verb. pref. (a) of depend., rel. 
and conjunct, sentences: liimka ukuze ixoki 
\\nzdd}uyi, take care that the liar does not 
come back ; uteta ilizwi eiin^aviwanga 



CC 



LI 

nguwe, you speak a word which you have 

not heard ; elikaka ngeWngapatwa, this 

shield would not be taken or ought not to 

be taken. 

(b) Before ka, ko and na, linga becomes 

linge: badla Mngekafiki ixesha, they ate 

before the time; ndafika Iinge*<5 ibandla, 

I arrived but no congregation was there; 

andilifuni elihaslie lingenarnendti, I do not 

like this horse which is not swift. 
Linge, Neg. verb. pref. 2 cl. sing, (a) of Potent. 

mood, con trac. from aZzK^^: ilizwilakdlinge- 

pendidwa, thy word may not be answered. 
2. aux. of the condit. mood: Wnge-fli 

nga-) or ngelipaiwa kakiihle elikoboka, this 

slave should be treated kindly, 
ukuti- L I N G I , x;. /. = iiku-Lmgisa. 

uku-Linga, v. t. (a) To try, attempt, 
venture ; to make an effort : andiyi kuli- 
nga ukuwuivela uinlambo, I shall not 
attempt to cross the river; to tempt by 
reason or argument: wandilinga ngengubo, 
he tempted me with a dress (which he 
promised to givel,' to try by experiment; 
to examine: walilinga izembe ngokugaula 
umtt olukuni, he tried the hatchet by fell- 
ing a tree of hard wood with it. (b) To 
test, try; hence to taste anything cooked, 
so as to find out whether it is properly 
cooked : ulinga imb'iza, he has taken out 
food from the boiling pot. 

um-Lingi, n. i. A tempter. 

um-Lingwa, 71. I. A probationer. 

i-Linga, and i-Lingo, n. 2. Attempt, 
effort, endeavour, exertion. 

i-Linge, n. 2. An experiment. 

isi-Lingo, . 4, and u-Lingo, . 5. Test, 
trial, temptation. Phr. wagcaka7nela isili- 
ngo, he faced temptation. 

um-Lingo, . 6. Trial, temptation, ex- 
periment; pi. magical arts. 

uku-Lingalinga, v. To tempt, etc., 
thoroughly. 

Lingana, v. To be equal to, either in 
weight, strength, measure or quality; to 
be adequate, equitable: a7nazwi abo ali- 
7igene, their words are of the same import, 
i.e. agree ; inkabi zilingene ngamandla, the 
bullocks are equal in strength; ukudla 
oku kiiyalingana nabantu bonke, the food is 
sufficient for all people; ina7ti la/nadoda 
lilitige/ie na77iakulu amabini, the number 
of men is about 200; U7iibdna ult/tgette 
nenxowa ezintatu, the maize measured 
about three bags; andlkiiliiige7te ukuba 
U7tgene pantsi kopahla lwa77i, I am not 



217 



LI 

worthy that thou shouldest come under 
my roof; inguho ayindilingene, the blanket 
does not fit me ; abalingenwe ngabafundisi, 
they have not enough teachers; yaye 
fiendimbane eliugeneyo yomzi inaye, and 
much people of the city was with him. 
um-Lingane, n. I, A companion, comrade. 
u-Lingano, n. 5. Symmetry. 

ubu-Lingane, . 7. Companionship, com- 
radeship, partnership. 

uku-Linganisa, v. To compare one thing 
with another; to measure: linganisani 
ezotito zombini, yiyiplna enkulu, compare 
both these things, which is the greater 
of the two ; sikidu isitya olitiganisa vgaso, 
the vessel you measure with is big ; fig. 
to equalize; to imitate: ndilingajiise, 
imitate me; tikuze simlinganise ngokuti, 
that we may imitate him by doing so ; 
to try; to venture, undertake: masili- 
itganise amandla etu, let us try our com- 
parative strength; to make a feint, as if 
to strike another ; cf. uku-Lekuza and uku- 
Lingisa. 

um-Linganisi, w. I. One who measures. 

isi-Linganiso, n. 4. A tape-line, yard- 
stick, dimension, weight, measure, pat- 
tern : isilinganiso sam, my measure. 

um-Linganiso, n. 6. Measurement: itni- 
Iwganiso etnitatu, three yards (of stuff). 

uku-Linganisela, v. To proportion one 
thing to another: nditenga ftgokulivganisela 
tigemali endinayo, I purchase according 
to the money I have ; to apportion, dis- 
tribute by measure : wnndilinganisela tige- 
sitya esincinane, he measured out to me 
with a small vessel; to try to equal, 
imitate, figure, form, draw a copy: ndi- 
lifiganisele, take an example or a lesson 
from me. 

um-Linganiseli, n. I. One who dis- 
tributes by measure. 

isi-Linganiselo, n. 4. ] Measure nrn 

um-Llnganiselo, n. 6. j ^^^sure, pro- 
portion to other things. 

uku-Llngela v. To tempt for: imdilingela- 
nitia ? why do you tempt me ? 

u-Lingelwano, n. 5. Symmetry, evenness. 

uku-L!ngisa, v. To try, attempt to do a 
thing; to make a feint as if about to 
strike another; to point a sword or lance 
at a person : walingisa vgomkonto, he lifted 
up the spear, as if he was going to stab. 

um-Lingisi, . I. One who makes a feint 
of striking another. 

isi-Lingiso, n. 4. A feint. 



LI 

um-Lisela, w. 6. The young men in their 
prime and vigour ; the flower of the army. 

u-Liwo, n. 5. Attack, fight, from uku-Lwa. 

uku-Liza, v. t. To help, support or assist a 

chief or poor people with presents. 

i-Lizo, . 2. ") T> t 4. u- f 
um-Lizo, . 6. ] P'-esents given to a chief, 

or to a man whose cattle have been 
confiscated or have died; contribution, 
assistance, help; pi. amalizo, alms. 
um-Liza, n. 6. Em. An ornament worn 

round the ankles, consisting of horsehair 

overcast with brass wire. 
Lo, (contrac. form of pron. emphat. lona) 

I. Poss.pro.'!. 2 and 5 classes. Its. (a) After 

poss. particles of all classes: ukubaleka 

kwaXo (ihashe), its (the horse's) running; 

emphat. okwaio ukubaleka, its running; 

amandla a\o (ukolo), its (faith's) power; 

emphat. awaXo amandla, its power. 

(b) It is used with prepositions: bahlaba 
ngaXo irele, they stabbed with the sword ; 
impiikane zikuXo (ubisi), flies are in it (milk). 

(c) It follows the Copula, expressing 
causal relationship : ndakatywa liXo (ihashe), 
I was kicked by it (the horse); ndibetwe 
luXo {iisizi), I felt it (sympathy). 

2. Deyn. pron. I and 6 classes. This: 
Xomntu, this person ; Xomti, this tree. 

3. Pron. subj. of condit. future, 2 and 5 
classes sing.: ilizwe Xoba yintlango, the 
country will become a wilderness; ubisi 
Xopalala, the milk will spill. 

L6, Dent. pron. contrac. (a) from lowo, I and 
6 classes. That: lomntu, that man; lomti, 
that tree, (b) From Icyo, 3. cl. sing. That : 
lonkabi, that ox. (c) From lawo, 2 cl. pi. 
Those : lomadoda, those men. 

isi-Lo, n. 4. Any animal, wild or of a per- 
nicious, injurious nature, including those 
which are not used for food, hence, unclean 
animals, as the lion, etc.; isilo somntu, the 
tapeworm of the intestines; isilo sika- 
Mhlola, a very destructive person or 
thing, esp. beer or brandy, named from the 
effects. 

Plur. izilo. The things by means of which 
one is said to have been bewitched and 
which the doctor professes to have extracted 
from the bewitched person. Dimin. isilwana, 
a small wild animal; a dangerous insect; 
also a tapeworm. Also isHwanyana, col- 
lective name for all sorts of very small 
wild animals, vermin, reptiles, insects ; see 
ukuGaqela. 

ubu-Lo, . 7. State of wildness. 

uIu-Lo, = M-Z,/wo. See under uku-Lwa. 



218 



L6 

uku-Loba, v. t. To draw water out of a 

well with a rope and bucket or to catch fish 

with a line and hook ; to cut open an abscess ; 

to vaccinate; fig. to explain, disentangle. 

um-Lobi, ?/. l. A fisherman; a surgeon. 

u-Lobo, ;/. 5. An angling line. 

um-Loboti, n. 6. An angle or hook for 
fishing. 
uku-Lobola, v. t. pass, lotyolwa. (a) Primarily 

to compensate, indemnify; to give dowry 

for a wife, see i-Kazi. 

The idea lying at the root of this custom is that the 
father suffers loss by the marriage of a daughter. He 
is deprived of her assistance, and has a just claim for 
compensation. This custom furnished also a guaran- 
tee that the woman would be kindly treated after 
marriage. If she had just cause for complaint, she 
could return to her friends, who demanded one or 
more head of cattle, before she was allowed to go 
back to her husband. To make payment of this kind 
is also called ukulobola; but the payment is not 
called i-Kazi. 

It should be noted that the word dowry has acquired 
in South Africa a meaning different from its strict 
signification. 

Phr. unyoko walotyolwa ngamatokazi, your 
mother was paid for with heifers, i.e. you 
are a lucky fellow ; unyoko walotyolwa nga- 
makuba, your mother was paid for with 
hoes, i.e. you are unlucky. 

(b) To release a child from the people 
who brought it up ; to give cattle for the 
purpose of bringing it home. 
Loboleia, v. To give dowry for a wife 

to the father or guardian: uya kundilobo- 

lela intombi yam, you will give me dowry 

for my daughter. 
Lobolelana, v. To exchange: balobole- 

lana ngamazwi, they exchanged words. 
Lobolisa, v. To demand dowry; to 

cause dowry to be given. 
u-Lobuza, n. 5. The external, transparent 

skin of all hairless creatures. 
Lodwa, adj. Alone, only, 2 cl. sing. : ihashe 
lodwa, the only horse; 5 cl. sing: tiswazi 
lodwa, the only switch. 
uku-Lokohleka, v. i. To fall headlong over 

a precipice ; to fall into (sin). 
i-LOKWE, n. 3. A dress, fr. Du. rok. 
uku-LoIa, V. t. To sharpen on a stone (an axe, 
knife, etc.); fig. to rub the feet on a wet 
stone, cf. in-Kwali; tola ukuteta, speak gently 
and politely ; uyalola knbdla, he grinds red 
clay. 
Lolana, v. To sharpen one another: 

masilolane elutandweni, let us provoke one 

another to love. 
Loleka, v. To be sharpened. 



L6 

u-LOLIWE, n. I. (a) A railway, railway train, 
locomotive, (Kafirised from the English), 
(b) A small tin, as a condensed milk tin. 
(Probably at first a tin with preserved meat 
used by the workers on railway con- 
struction). 

i-Lolo, n. 2. The ventricle of the heart; fig. 
one who separates himself from others 
and lives a recluse; one who cannot pull 
with others ; pi. amalolo, a hoarse voice, or 
that of an old man ; ilizwi lake linamalolo, 
his voice is hoarse. 

ubu-Lolo, n. 7. State of loneliness: into ebulolo, 
a lonely, solitary thing. 

uku-LoIonga, v. t. To look at the various 
parts of a thing; to observe; to look out 
for one. 
Lolongeka, v. To be observed. 

n. 8. The state of being observed, 
observation. 

um-Lolwa, n. 6. Hibiscus tiliaceus L. 

ama-Lomb6 and ama-LombdIomb6, n. 2. 
pi. Em. Many days occupied in a long 
journey. 

i-Lomo, n. 2. A mouth with very large lips. 

um-Lomo, n. 6. Mouth, beak, the opening 
of any receptacle (sack, bottle, cave). Phr. 
unomlomo omde, he lives luxuriously; or, he 
can be heard all over the country; ukunga- 
zvuhlanganisi timlomo, lit. not to join the 
mouth, i.e. to gape, to be amazed; ndinom- 
lomo onzima, I have a swollen mouth. See 
also uku-Beta and isi-Ziba. Fig. the 
utnkonto etc, which is used at the iikuhlo- 
lelwa kwentombu Dimin, utnlonyana. 

Lona, Pron. emphat., subj. and obj. of 2 and 5 
cl. It, itself: ihashe lake andilazi lona, his 
horse I do not know it ; lona utando alupeli, 
it, love ceases not; a kind of superlative: 
elona lizwi lihle, the nice word, or the nicest 
word ; olona lufefe lukulu, the great feeling ; 
wateta elona lizwi limfaneleyo, he spoke the 
word which was fit for him. 

isi Londa, . 4. A sore, running wound, ulcer. 

uku-LONDA, V. t. To keep long or in good 
condition; to preserve, keep safe; cf. uku- 
Londoloza, which is more generally used. 
um-Lond6, n. 6. The ancestral spirit which 
preserves and protects; pi. imilonde, the 
household gods. 
um-Londe-kaya, n. 6. Lit. the protector 
of the home, i.e. the chief, the king. The 
reigning chief is addressed by this name, 
pi. imilondekaya, the household gods, lares 
et penates. 



LO 

uku-LondoIoza, v. t. To keep, tend very 
carefully; to preserve with care; to 
protect from evil : londoloza hnpahla zam 
ziugebiwa, keep my things safely lest they 
be stolen; londoJoza umntivann esilwaneni, 
protect the child against the wild animal; 
ahalondoloziva baka-Simyeli, the preserved 
of Israel. 

um-LondoIozi, w. l. Preserver, keeper, 
caretaker, protector. 

u-Londolozo, v. 5. Preservation, pro- 
tection. 

uku-LondoIozana, v. To take care, etc., 
of one another. 

Londolozela, v. To take care, etc., of or 
for: ndilondolozeleni iyeza, take good care 
of the medicine for me. 

Londolozisa, v. To cause or let care be 
taken of. 
um-Londe, m. 6. A small shrub which grows 

wild ; its carrot-shaped root is dug up and 

eaten by children. 
uku-Londla, v. t. To spy out. 
uku-Longalonga, To look at ; - uku-Loloiiga. 
i-Longo, and i-Longwe, n. 2. A cake of dry 

cowdung, used for fuel ; the inside wall of 

a hut after it has been plastered. 
ubu-Longo, and ubu-Longwe, w. 7. Fresh 

cowdung. 
isi-LongoIongo, n. 4. used as adv. Very: 

amanzi asisUongolongo, the water is very 

deep ; very (hot weather) ; very (sore heart). 

Z:!:S"|r']''-'^- The Cape caa,y, 

Serinus canicollis (Sw.). 
ukuti-Lonji, v. i. To go into; to enter. 
Lonke, adj. ref. to 2 and 5 cl. sing. All, 

whole: lonlie ilizwe, the whole country; 

ttgotando lonke, with all love. 
um-Lonyana, . 6. dimin. of iim-Lomo. 
u-Lopu, = ;<^0/'K. 
uku-Loqa, v. i. To talk incoherently. 

um-Loqi, n. I. One who talks for 
talking's sake, who rambles on in his 
speech. 
i-LOTE, n. 3. Lead; fr. Du. lood. 
ukuti-Lote, v. i. To burn to ashes. 

um-Lota, n. 6. A house which has become a 
heap of ashes thro'igh being entirely 
burnt down. 
i-Lotyane, n. 2. Sagewood, Buddleia salviae- 

folia Lam. 
u-Lovane, n. 5. plur. ama-Lovanc. A chame- 
leon. 
um-Lovulovu, h. i. One who talks at random. 

uku-Lovuza, t;. /. To talk at random. 



LO 

um-LovuIovu. n. 6. Septee, Cordia caffra 
Sond., a medium-sized tree. 

Lowa, Detn. pron. (contrac. la), I and 6 cl. 
sing. Yonder: umfana lowa, that youth 
yonder ; wnda lowa, that boundary yonder. 

i-Lowe, M. 2. The Egyptian goose, Chena- 
lopex aegyptiacus (L.). 

Lowo, (contrac. lo,) Dem. pron. I and 6 
classes sing. That: timntii lowo, that man; 
umlambo lozvo, that river; ^lowo, I cl. : every 
one : beza elowo nendlii yake, they come every 
one with his household; 6 cl. waXosvo, 
every one. 

um-Lowo, n. 6. One of the same family, a 
blood-relation, such as a son or daughter ; = 
iim-Zalwane. Phr. yindaba yemilowo, it is an 
affair between relatives, i.e. outsiders must 
not interfere. 

ukuti-Loxe, v. i. To be hoarse: ilizwi lam 
lisate-loxe, my voice was still hoarse. 

uku-Loza, V. i. Em. To whistle. 

um-Lozi, n. 6. (a) A whistle: tidenza 
umlozi, I whistled ; a flute, (b) A certain 
kind of witch-doctor or rain-doctor who 
employed the whistle in his proceedings; 
so, in general, a diviner. 
uku-Lozela, v. To whistle for; to call (a 
dog) by a whistle. 

ukutl-Lozilozi, V. i. Of a distant fire, to 
glimmer. 

Lu, (a) Pron. subj. and obj. 5 cl. sing. It: uluti 
lugobile, the switch is bent; ndalugoba uluti, 
I bent the switch, (b) Copula and Cause of 
the same class: lulo or kwenziwa Xvdo (ufefe) 
it is it or it is done by it (heartiness). 

um-Lu, n. 6. A heap of any loose substance, 
(corn, gravel, meat cut up in native fashion). 
Phr. ukuzalwa wedwa ngumlu wenyama, to 
be born alone is a dead carcass (which one 
cannot skin by oneself), i.e. to have no 
brothers is a great disadvantage ; the outcry 
of a man wlio has been left by his com- 
panions in a dangerous position, because 
he is not of their clan or family. 

Lube, aux. of compound tenses, 5 cl. sing : u- 
kblo lube lututuzela, (contrac. belututuzela), the 
belief was comforting ; {lu)be lungayi 
kuhlaziswa, it (the belief) will not come 
to shame ; see uku Ba I. 2. (a). 

uku-LUKA, V. t. To plait, weave, braid : luka 
intambo, braid a rope or string. 
um-Luki, n. I. One who plaits ; a weaver, 
u-Luko, . 5. A plaiting; a thing plaited 

or weaved. 
uku-Lukeka, v. To be fit for plaiting: 
ititambo ayilukeki, the string is not flexible 
enough for plaiting. 



LU 

Lukela, v. To weave for. 
Lukisa, v. To make or help one to plait. 
isi-Lukiso, K. 4. Any instrument for 
weaving, as a shuttle or loom. 
uku-Lukuh!a, v. t. To cast down, i.e. from 
one's steadfastness or principles ; to involve 
in guilt by concealing the true nature of 
an action; to mislead, allure, beguile: 
inyoka yamlukuhla u-Eva, the serpent 
beguiled Eve. 

n. 8. Deceitfulness. 
Lula, adj. Light in weight, easy to carry, 
of little importance : idyokwe Hula, the yoke 
is light; indawo elula, a little matter; fig. 
indlu Hula, the house is empty, not furnished. 
Dimin. lulana, very light, slight: indawo 
ilulana, the matter is of slight consequence. 
adv. lula, kalula, ngokulula, lightly: iyesa 
lisehenza lula, the medicine works easily. 
ubu-Lula, n. 7. Lightness, smallness. 
uku-Lulama, v. i. To submit; to be 
obedient with meekness : ndilulamile, I am 
very gentle, submissive. 
u-LuIamo, n. 5. Meekness, submission, 

patient obedience. 
uku-Lulameka, v. To become submissive, 

meek. 
Lulatnela, v. To submit to; to be 
obedient to another: wayebalulamela, he 
was subject to them. 
Lulamelana, v. To submit to one 

another. 
Luiamisa, v. To make obedient, sub- 
missive. 
Lulamisela, v. To make subject to. 
uku-LuIeka, v. t. To straighten a bent rod; 
fig. to set one right in speaking ; to bring 
right (cattle which are on the wrong pas- 
ture) ; hence, to instruct, guide, correct by 
instruction; to set right by counsel or 
advice; to enliven, animate, give spirit to, 
cheer up ; fig. to heave up, weigh anchor. 
um-Luleki, n. l. A correcter, instructor. 
u-Luleko, n. 5. Instruction, guidance, 
(objective) : ululeko Iwam, the instruction 
I receive. 
uku-Lulekana, v. To admonish one an- 
other. 
Lulekeka, v. To become straightened ; 
admonished, instructed, etc. 
Lulo, It is it, 5 cl., see Lu (i) and Lo I. (c). 
isi-Lulu, n. 4. A light but very large 
basket used for storing corn, made of 
coarse grass, with a narrow mouth. 
i-Lulusi, n. 2. A poor, wretched, dispicable 
creature. 

221 



LU 

^-Lulwane, n. 2. A bat; fig. levity, 

thoughtlessness. 
uku-LUMA, V. t. pass, lunywa. To bite: 
ndilunywa yinja, I am bitten by a dog; 
fig. isisu siyandiluma, lit. my stomach 
bites, gripes me, i.e. I have pain in my 
stomach; iqaiaka iyaluma, the hoarfrost 
bites, i.e. pains, destroys. 

Phr. ndifuiia ukukuluma indlebe, I wish to 
bite your ear, i.e. I wish to whisper to you, 
to tell you something. 
Lumana, v. To bite each other. 
Lumeka, v. To be painful: isisu 
silumekile, the stomach is in pain ; to let 
blood by cupping. 
Lumela, v. To bite off for; to give 
(bread): ukumluinela kwisonka sake, to 
give him of his bread. 
Lumisa, v. To make to bite. See 
in-Kwili (b). 
uku-Lumeka, v. (a) To set on fire; to light: 
lumeka isihane, light a candle, (b) See 
under uku-Luma. 

Lumekeka, v. To take fire: isibane 

asHumekeki, the candle will not take 

light; iviti lilutnekekile, the tinder has 

taken fire. 

uku-Lumeza, v. i. To be disagreeable to look 

at (bad behaviour; a severe accident or 

wound) ; to be unbearable, disgusting, nasty : 

ukutya kuyalumeza, the food is gritty (setting 

the teeth on edge). 

Lumezisa, v. To inspire fear, disgust, 
aversion, horror: inyoka iyandilumezisa, 
the snake horrifies me. 
uku-LUMKA, V. i. To be careful, circum- 
spect, prudent, wise; to be wary: lumka! 
take care! look out! ndilumkile, I have 
experience, I am wise. 
i-Lumko, w. 2. 
isi-Lumko, n. 4. 
dent, cute person; amalumko has a bad 
meaning. 
ubu-Lumko, n. 4. Caution, experience, 

wisdom ; prudence. 
uku-Lumkela, v. pass, lunyukelwa. To 
care for; to beware of a person or thing; 
to be wise for, unto, etc. : zilumkele unga- 
tet'i nto imbl, take heed that you speak no 
evil; ulowo ebezilumkele ngokwake, every- 
one looked out for himself; nditanda indlu 
apo ulunyukelwe kbna umpefumlo watn, 
I like the house where my soul is taken 
care of. 



A wise, cautious pru- 



LU 

Lumkisa, v. pass, lunyiikisiva. (a) To 
make wise; to improve in understanding; 
to teach wisdom, to instruct: lomntii 
iiliinyukiswe ndim, that person is instructed 
by me. (b) To warn of danger ; to put 
one upon his guard, (c) To make wise 
by (bitter) experience, i.e. to cheat, 
outwit, overreach, by giving one less 
than his share or by keeping back what 
another has a right to; to put to dis- 
advantage by deceiving : iikuze singalunyii- 
kim'a iiguye, lest he should get an advan- 
tage over us. (d) To ill-use, ill-treat. 
isi-Lumkiso, n. 4. Warning. 
uku-Lumkisela, v. To make wise for a 
purpose: izibalo ezingcwele zinako ukitkit- 
limikisela elusindisweni, the Holy Scrip- 
tures are able to make thee wise unto 
salvation. 

uku-Lumla, v. t. pass, lunyulwa. To wean: 

lunila iimntwana ebeleni, remove the child 

from the breast; refl. to deny oneself of 

any indulgence: uyasiluinla kwizono, he 

weans himself from, i.e. withdraws from, sin. 

i-Lunda, //. 2. The hump on the neck of an 

ox by which it pulls in the yoke, and which 

is brought to the chief when the ox is 

slaughtered; fig. ambition, covetousness of 

honour: utweswe ilunda, he is proud. PI. 

amahmda, impertinence. 

um-Lunda, n. 6. = i-Luttda. 

Lunga, 7. verb. prcf. of potent, mood 5 cl. 

sing. : ufefe liuigafika, sympathy may come. 

2. Aux. of condit. mood, see Lunge (2). 

3. Pres. tense, etc., of uku-Nga (a) and fbj. 

4. Neg. verb. pre/. 5. cl. sing, (a) of 
dependent sentences: tandaza tiknze titando 
Iwake lungapeli, pray that his love may 
not have an end. (b) in relative sentences: 
usizi olungateiekiyo, unspeakable sympathy, 
(c) Before ka, ko and 71a, lunga becomes 
Imige: kuko iibumnyama xa \ungekdyo iitando, 
there is darkness when no love is present; 
abakanga \\xn%Qkabxkb udaka, they did not 
build before the mortar was there; ukolo 
olungenamandla, powerless faith. 

Lunge, I. Neg. verb. pre/. 5 cl. sing. Potent, 
mood, contrac. from alunge: ukolo lunge- 
ciityiva, faith may not be quenched. 

2. aux. of condit. mood: lunge-(Iunga-) 
or ngelubonis^va ufefe, sympathetic feeling 
should or ought to be shown. 

uku-Lunga, v. i. (a) To be good, right, be- 
coming, with a wide range of meaning: 
kuluugile, it is right; amadoda alungileyo, 
good men; abantu abalunge kakulu, very 

222 



LU 

good men; iziinvu zilunga ukutl zibe no- 
tnalusi, sheep must have a shepherd. 
n. 8. Goodness, good quality. 

(b) To be parallel or alongside of: indlu 
ilunge naleyo, the house is parallel with that 
one; tilunge nam, he stands right with me, 
he is on my side, of my party. 

(c) To belong to: lento ilunge kum, this 
thing belongs to me ; ndinike intpahla ezilunge 
nam, give me the things which belong to 
me ; ilizive lilunge pantsi kwelanga kanye, the 
land lies just under the sun. 

(d) To be prepared or ready: sendilungile, 
I am prepared or ready; ayikalungi, it is 
not yet ready. 

i-Lunga, n. 2. A just person. 

isi- Lunga, n. 4. The share or portion which 
belongs to one by family right. 

ubu-Lunga, n 7. A small portion of hair 
plucked from the tail-brush of cattle, 
(signifying a state of right, property, or 
owner-ship in these cattle). It is fastened 
round the necks or arms of young people, 
especially of a girl suffering from heart- 
sickness and baffling the efforts of her 
friends to cure her. The ubulunga is 
intended to cheer her by making her an 
owner of cattle, and it is believed to 
ward off calamity from the wearer. 
Inkomo yohulunga, the cow or heifer given 
to a woman by her people as a kind of 
dowry ; it is held sacred, and may not be 
taken, nor even confiscated by the chief; 
into yobulunga, something with which a 
man decides to part, on being asked for it. 

uku-Lungeka, v. To become right, use- 
ful ; to come into the right state or con- 
dition; (this form is seldom used). 

Lungela, v. (a) To be right, good, 
fit, ready, etc., for: useulungele-na uku- 
Ai3;&a.? are you ready to go? into indilu- 
ngele, the thing is good for me, i.e. 
pleases me ; ayisalimgele nto, it is good for 
nothing; balungelwe ukubulawa, it is their 
due, i.e. they deserve to, or should be 
killed; wakuhmgelwa, when it shall be 
well with thee ; 7igeku7nlungele ukuba ebe- 
ngazalwanga lomntwana, good were it for 
that child, if it had never been born. 

(b) To be better: ubulungele ukuza, 
it would have been better for you to 
come; ukulungelwa kwako, you are better 
off, i.e. you have an advantage. 

i-Lungelo, n. 2. A good-for, advantage, 
claim, privilege: amalungelo am, my 
privileges; w^xjHSrt lungelo linjanina? what 
advantage did he have ? 



LU 

uku-Lungelana, v. To reciprocate good 
and kind acts towards eacli other; 
correspond with; to be congruous; to 
agree: hwgelana nokumangalelayo, agree 
with thine adversary; haluvgelene naye, 
they agree with him, unite with him; 
nmazwi abo alungeletie, their words agree 
together. 

isi-Lungelano, n. 4. Accord, agreement, 
harmony. 

uku-Lungelela, v. To be good or fit for: 
lento iya kuhmgeleJa kwa tina, this shall be 
for our good. 

Lungelelana, v. To be parallel to each 
other; to be abreast or side by side with 
each other; to correspond to each other; 
to be equally straight, right, good, etc.: 
imisebenzi yabo ilungelelene, their work is 
equally good; ayilungelelene iniloko yoke, 
his head was not right, i.e. he was out of 
his mind. 

u-Lungelelwano, w. 5. Equity, sincerity, 
uprightness. 

uku-LungelelanJsa. v. To make even; 
to make straight with each other. 

Lungelelanisela, v. To make level for. 

Lungelelisa, v. To make equal, 
parallel, even, level, smooth; to give an 
account of: kutula u?tihlaba apa uluvgeleli- 
se indawo leyo, take away the soil from 
here, and make that place even. 

Lungisa, v. To do good, right, justice ; 
to rectify, mend, repair, arrange; to 
make ready; to equip, reward: ndilungise, 
give me what is my right or due, i.e. 
reward me, give me my payment. 

um-Lungisi, n. I. One who mends or 
makes right. 

i-Lungisa, n. 2. A righteous person. 

isi-Lungisa, n. 4. A right action; right- 
eousness, (very seldom used.) 

u-Lungiso, n. 5. Putting right, refoi-ming. 

ubu-Lungisa, n. 7. Goodness, rectitude, 
straightforwardness, righteousness. 

uku-Lungisana, v. To do right to each 
other; to reform each other; to settle 
an affair amicably by mutual consent. 

Lungiseia, v. To do right for, prepare 
for: sisalungisela ukuhamba, we are still 
preparing for a journey. ^ 

u-Lungiselo, n. 5. Gain, profit. 

uku-Lungiselela, v. To transact or per- 
form a business properly for another; 
to be ready to serve others : wolilungise- 
lela kuyc ilizwi lam, you must carry my 
word over to him correctly ; uyazilungi- 



LU 

selela, he makes himself ready to serve 
others. 
um-Luiigiseleli, n. I. Lit. One who 
arranges or prepares, one ready to serve 
others; a deacon. 

(It must not be confounded with timkonzi. 
Jacob was an umk-onzi to Laban, but Martha an 
iimlungitehli to Jesus.) 

isi-LungJselelo, n. 4 andu-Lungiselelo, 

n. 5. Preparation. 
ubu-Lungiseleli, n. 7. Ministry. 
uku-Lungiselelana v. To minister to one 
another. 
i-Lunga, n. 2. An animal with large white 
spots or patches on a black skin, or black 
spots on a white body: inkabi elunga, a 
black and white ox ; fem. ilungakazi, a black 
and white cow. 

i-Lunga-!egwaba, n. 2. The Black-crested 
cuckoo, Clamator s&xxa.X.us(Sparr}n.). The 
name is also applied to the Black-and- 
grey cuckoo, CI. jacobinus hypopinarus 
(Cab. and Heine) and to the Lesser Puff- 
back Shrike, Dryoscopus cubla (Shaw). 
Kafirs say that v/here the Black-and-grey 
Cuckoo is plentiful, there is always 
milk, i.e. because of goodpasturage. 
Lunge, see under Lunga. 
um-Lungu, n. I. plur. abelungu. A white 
European; fem. umliingiikazi contracted 
into umlnmkazi. Owing to the awe 
which the white man once inspired, the 
mlungu became and still remains the 
'bogey-man' of Kafir children. Mothers 
frighten their children and enforce obedi- 
ence by such phrases as nank' umhingii esiza 
or wafa ttgtnnlungn, or by looking out of 
the hut and calling yiza mlungu. The 
primary meaning is very doubtful; the 
derivation attributed to Ntsikana (ugumntu 
onwele zifana nobulunga) refers to the long, 
fine hair so different from that of the 
natives; another derivation (from uku~ 
Lunga) would make the word equivalent 
to ' a good person.' It is doubtful if there is 
any ground for either of these derivations. 
isi-Lungu, n. 4. White, civilized people. 
um-Lungu onendevu, n. I. A bearded 
fish, a barbel. 
i-Lungu, n. 2. A knot or joint of reed, cane 
or grass; a joint, limb, member of the 
body: ilungu lomnwe, a fingerjoint; fig. a 
member of a society: ilungu lebandla, a 
member of the church or congregation. 
Dimin. ilungwana, a small joint; ilungwana 
lenyama, a small piece of meat; fig. a 
part of a speech. 
ubu-Lungu, n. 7. Membership. 
223 



LU 

isi-Lungulela, . 4. Acidity in the stomach 

heart-burn, indigestion. 
um-Lungu-mabele, . 6. Knob wood, = mw- 

Nungu-mabcle. 

uku-Lunguza, v. t. To stretch or bend the 
head towards some object; to peep, look 
out closely, sharply, anxiously for some- 
thing; fig. to visit a sick person in order to 
show him sympathy. 

Lunguzisa v. To cause to look, etc. 
indlala yamlutigiizisa ubutyakala baki, 
dearth made him look to his ignorance. 

um-Luvuluvu, n. 6. The wild peach or 
Natal mahogany, Kiggelaria africana Z-.; = 
um-Veti. 

Lwa, (a) Poss. particle 5 cl. sing. : utando 
Iwe-ttdoda-utando Iiva-iiidoda, the love of 
the man. (b) Pron. suhj. of the aorist 5 cl. 
sing: tiliiti Iwagotyiva, the switch was bent. 

uku-Lwa, V. t. pass. liwa. To contend in 
conflict; to make a disturbance; to fight : 
ndize tikulwa nawe, I have come to fight 
with you ; to struggle, resist : walwa noyise, 
he struggled against, resisted his father ; to 
be angry or in wrath ; to make war, fight a 
battle: kwaliira, fighting took place; kube 
ktiliwe, there had been a battle. Phr. 
Balwa ngezinto zendlu yabo, euphem. they 
quarrel about conjugal rights. 
um-Lwi, . I. A quarreller, fighter. 
u-Liwo and ulu-Lo, n. 5. Attack, fight. 
uku-Lwana, v. To fight with one another, 
or together with others for a common 
cause. 
Lwela, V. To fight for: uzilwela yena, 

he fights for himself. 
Lwelana, v. To fight for each other; 

to be confederate in war. 
Lwisa, V. To put one up for fighting; 

to help to fight. 
um-Lwisi, ;/. i. One who assists in fight- 
ing; a fellow-soldier. 

ukuti-Lwa, Lwe and Lwi, v. t. (a) To 
drop a little thing into the water, or into a 
pot; or to throw it into the mouth, (b) 
To catch one running; to snatch, stop, 
hinder in passing. 

i-Lwabi, . 2. A robber; one who takes and 
swallows up everything. 

Lwabo, Poss. pron. (a) I cl. pi. ref. to 5 cl. 
sing. Their: utando livabo fabantu), their 
(the people's) love, (b) 7 cl. ref. to 5 cl. sing. 
Its: tihamho lwabo inbukumkani), its (the 
kingdom's) progress. 

Lwake, Poss. pron. 3 p. sing. ref. to 5 cl. sing. 
His: iifefe lwake, his sympathetic feeling, 
224 



LW 

Lwak6, Poss. pron. (a) 2 p. sing. ref. to 5 cl. sing. 

Thy: ukolo Iwako, thy faith, (b) 8 cl. ref. to 5 

cl. sing. Its: ulwamvila Iwako, (ukufa), its 

(death's) sting. 
Lwaku, Temp, conjunctive 5 cl. sing.: Iwaku- 

feketa usapo, when the children make sport. 
ukuti-Lwale, v. t. To surround, detain un- 
avoidably (fog, smoke); fig. abatiwe-lwale 

liratshi, who are surrounded by a fog of 

haughtiness, i.e. are puffed up. 
Lwalo, Poss. pron. Its. (a) 2 cl. sing. ref. to 5 

cl. sing. : ududumo lwalo (izulu), its (heaven's) 

thunder, (b) 5 cl. sing. ref. to 5 cl. sing.: 

ulilo lwalo (usana), its (the baby's) crying. 
Lwalu, aux. 5 cl.sing. (contrac. homhvayelu) ; 

see Lwaye. 
uku Lwalwa, v. i. To lie or to stand next 

to each other. 

u-Lwalwa, n. 5. A flat, low rock in a 
river bed or on a mountain, usually with 
shallow indentations or holes in which 
water gathers. 

ubu-Lwalwa, . 7. The flatness of a low, 
thin rock. 

uku-Lwalwisa, v. To join or place next to 
each other, as the planks of a door or 
table-top. 
Lwam, Poss. pron. I p. sing. ref. to 5 cl. sing. 

My : ukolo lwam, my belief. 
ukuti-Lwambiilwambu, v. i. To eat very 

quickly and greedily. 
isi-Lwana, 71. 4. Dimin. of isi-Lo. 
i-Lwandle, in-egular pi. of ulw-Andle. Sevis: 

abclwandle, sailors. 
Lwanga, Aorist of 5 cl. sing, of ukn-Nga (a) 

and (b) and of ukw-Anga, which see. 
u-Lwangulwangu, n. 5. A small army. 
ubu-LwanguIvk'angu, n. 7. The remnant 

of an army. 
isi-Lwanyana, n. 4. Dimin. of isi-Lo. 
Lwa-olo, Distrib. pron. 5 cl. sing. Everyone, 

each. 
Lwase, Poss. part. 5 cl. sing, used with 

locatives: uhlanga Iwascmzini, a foreign 

nation. 
Lwaso, Poss. pron. 4 cl. sing., ref. to 5 cl. sing. 

Its: ujuduko lwaso (isizwe), its (the tribe's) 

removal. 
ukuti-Lwasu, v. i. To get up, rise quickly 

to go away. 
i-LwasuIwasu, n. 2. That which is soft, 

light, worn out, thread-bare. 
Lwawo, Poss. pron. 'a) 6 cl. sing. ref. to 5 

cl. sing. Its: uhlaza lwawo (utnti), its (the 

tree's) greenness, (b) 2 cl. pi. ref. to 5 cl. 

sing. Their: ukozo lwawo (amehlo), their 

(the eyes') ball. 



LW 

Lwaye, aux. of compound tenses, 5 cl. sing. : 
utando lwaye lungapeli, (contrac. into Iwalu), 
love was not ending, or did not end. 

Lwayo, Pass. pron. (a) 3 cl. sing. ref. to 5 
cl. sing. Its: iitango lwayo (intsimi), its (the 
garden's) fence, (b) 6 cl. pi. ref. to 5 cl. 
sing. Their: udonga lwayo (imizi), their 
(the villages') wall. 

Lwaza, 5 cl. sing, past tense of uku-Za, 
used idiomatically to introduce a further 
statement. Then: hvaza Iwapila utando 
Iwake, then his love came to an end; see 
uku-Za. 

Lwazo, Poss. pron. Their, (a) 3 cl. pi. ref. 
to 5 cl. sing.: utando lwazo (intomhi), 
their (the girls') love, (b) 4 cl. pi. ref. to 5 
cl. sing.: udinilwazo (izitya), their (the vessels') 
rim. (c) 5 cl. pi. ref. to 5 cl. sing.: ukolo 
lwazo (intlanga) their (the nations') belief. 

u-Lwelwe, n. 5. Infirmity, weakness. 

um-Lwelwe, n. 6. An infirm, weak person j 
one who continues in a state of sickness. 



LW 

ubu-Lweiwe, n. 7. A long-standing illness, 
a chronic disease. 

Lwenu, Poss. pron. 2. p. pi. ref. to 5 cl, 
sing. Your: usapo lwenu, your family. 

Lwetu, Poss. pron. I p. pi. ref. to 5 cl. sing. 
Our: ufcfe lwetu, our sympathetic feeling. 

u-Lwezi, n. I. Em, October or November; 
from Zulu ulw-Ezi, = ama-T'enyoka, 'Snake- 
spittle', the frothy patches on grass-stems 
caused by the larva of a frog-hopper. 

ukuti-Lwi, V. i. To come out a little (smoke) ; 
see ukutt-Lwa. 

uku-Lwilwiza, v. i. To move, as gelatine 
moves ; = uku-Likizela. 

u-Lwimi, . 5- pl- ilwimi. The tongue; fig. 
language: siyabeva bona beteta ngezakowetu 
ilwimi, we hear them speaking in our 
own tongues. Phr. utet' ulwimi, you speak 
lies ; you wilfully violate the truth ; you 
intend criminally to deceive ; unolwimi, lit. 
you have a tongue, i.e. a lying one, you 
tell lies ; lulwimi Iwam ! my tongue I I 
nearly told a lie! 



M 



ly /fin Kafir, has the same labial sound as 

^^^ in English. Before b, except when m 

is preceded by u, it gives the b its expirated 

sound; before a stem beginning with m, it 

is sometimes elided in the prefix im -. 

In the middle or at the end of stems of 
nouns or verbs, it is subject to certain 
euphonic changes in the locative case and 
in the diminutive form of nouns and in the 
passive voice of verbs, the labial consonant 
being changed to a corresponding palatal, 
(a) m becomes ny: umlomo, the mouth; 
emloiiyeni, in the mouth; ndiyatuma, I am 
sending ; ndiyaiunywa, I am sent. Some 
nouns which do not take this change in the 
locative case, as igama a name {egameni in 
the name), take it in their diminutive form, 
iganyana a little name ; inkomo a cow, inko- 
nyana a calf. 

When the m is followed in the active 
voice by a suppressed u, a^ in verbs ending 
in -nila or -mza, the u is restored in the 
passive voice: ?idinqumla (contracted for 
ndinqumula) I cut off; ndinqunyulwa I am cut 
off; watyumza (for watyumaza) he crushed; 
watyunyuzwa he was crushed. 
DD 



(b) mb' becomes nj: umlambo a river, 
emlanjeni at the river and umlanjana a little 
river; wabamba he caught, wabanjwa he 
v/as caught. 

(c) ntp becomes 7itsh : ubuhlwempu poverty, 
ebuhhventshwini in poverty; ihlwempu a 
poor person, ihlwentshana (dimin.) a poor 
little thing. 

M, I. Contracted form of the pers. pron. I. 
p. sing, mna, I. It is (a) governed by 
prepositions. Me : wateta hum, he spoke to 
me ; wateta ngam, he spoke about me. 

(b) used with the poss. particle. My: 
amahashe am, my horses; ijitsimi yam, my 
garden. 

(c) used in forming the copula and to 
express causal relationship: ndim, it is I; 
lomntwana wabetwa nditn, this child was 
beaten by me. 

2. Pron. ohj. of I cl. sing : ndamtiima, I sent 
him ; watnpeka lombona, he cooked this maize. 
uku-MA, (ukw-Ima), v. t. and i. pass, miwa; 
perf. tni with pres. signification, ndimi, I 
am standing ; abbrev. rel. 2 cl. pi. amd or 
emd, who or which stand ; absol. past atna 
or ema, they stood; conjunc. past ama or 
ema, and they stood ; short present dma or 
hna, they stand ; imperat. yima. 
225 



MA 

(a) To stand in an erect position; to 
stand still, to stop: siik'ume, pi. suk'umani, 
or more idiomatically, sukani nime, rise 
and stand erect; yim'apo, remain where 
you are ; wema njengentaha, he stood fixed, 
unmoved, as a mountain ; 7idi>ni emnyango, 

1 am standing at the door; valiseza ixego- 
kazi amasi hUslio lahliita laza kuina vgomlomo, 
he made the old woman drink sour milk 
till she was full up to the mouth; iimhlahi 
waki tide uyokuma nge-Ncibn, his ground 
goes as far as the Kei. Phr. umhhibu nmi 
kwangopote, the earth stands just the same 
as ever; uknma tigobontsi, to stand on the 
big toe, i.e. to deny point blank. 

(b) To be stationed; to dv/ell, live, exist: 
umi p'lnaf where do you live or dwell.'' to 
inhabit, possess: ilizwe limiire vgaba-Tim, 
the country is inhabited by Bushmen; ha- 
yawumd lomzi, they inhabit, occupy, possess 
this place; balimd ilizn-e, they possess the 
land, (to be distinguished from balimd ilizwe, 
they plough the land); balimd ngo-Daliwe, 
they live on the Thorn river ; elilizwe limd 
ngasehuandle, this country lies near or 
borders on the sea ; fig. to be dependent on ; 
to rely on: simi iigamaudla ako, we depend 
upon or are upheld by thy strength. 

. 8. State, existence, condition, quality, 
duration: nkuma kwehlabati, the state of the 
world. 

The short imperative form 7na is used as 
aux. prefixed to the subjunctive, with 
hortative or imperative meaning, the idea 
being, 'stand aside and do not prevent': 
mandibale, let me write; mautdiide. do thou 
love ; masihambe, let us go ; nditeta lomsebenzi 
emasiwusebenze, I speak of this work which 
we must work ; mnyibe iyaziwa lento, surely 
this thing is known. In the I cl. sing, and 

2 cl. pi. k is usually inserted: makahambe, 
shortened mahambe, let him go; makoyike 
or moyike, let him fear. Personified nouns 
are sometimes formed from these hortative 
forms, e.g. u-Masipumle. 

um-Mi, w. I. pi. libemi. An inhabitant. 
i-Mo, M. 3. Abode, state, condition, habit, 

humour, temper: tikuhdileka kwemo, lost 

state, loss of status. 
isi-Mo, . 4. Standing, rank, relative 

position: isimo snke yinkosi, his rank is 

that of a chief; form, shape; quality, 

disposition. 
ubu-Me, n. 7. Condition; state, form; 

standing, relative position to anothsr, 

rank: iisebumini amdale kubo, he is in the 



MA 

condition in which he created him; wath- 
hata ubume bomkonzi, he took the form of 
a servant. 

ubu-Mo, n. 7. Dwelling. 

isi- Ma-kade, n. 4. A fixed object, such 
as an antheap, a rock, or a large bush; a 
fixture. 

isi-Ma-mhlaba, n. 4. A landowner. 

u-Ma-mlanib6, n. l. A snake which is 
said to eat the intestines of people, but 
whic!; leaves those who are hollow. 

isi-Ma-n-.zi, n. 4. A citizen. 

isi-Ma-ylls, ?/. 4. One standing alone, 
deserted. 

uku-Mana, v, To stand next to each 
other. Used as an aux., followed by inf. 
or participle, in the sense of continuing 
to do a thing: iman' isiti, it keeps on 
doing this; ndinian' ukuteta, I continue 
speaking, or I often speak; bebemana be- 
tanda, they continued to love. 

It is also used as a kind of optative: 
vgamana (contrac. from ivanga iingamana) 
ivasinceda! O that thou wouldst (continue 
to) help us! ngamana kwaba ttjalo! O 
that it may (continue to) be sol 

Manamana, v. To be able to bear 
comparison with any other of the same 
kind. 

Meka, . 8. The being or substance of 
a person or thing: ukiimeka kuka-Tixo, the 
being of God. 

i-Meko, H. 2. ") / ^ Essential quality, con- 

isi-Meko, M. 4.J ^ 
stitution of any person or thing: izimeko 
zika-Tixo, the attributes of God. (b) A 
condition under which anything is done 
or held. 

uku-Mela, v. fa) To stand at a place or 
for a purpose, or instead of another 
person as witness, godfather, surety: 
nimele-7tina nondele eziilwini? why stand 
ye looking into heaven ? wnmela ukuteta, 
he stood for the purpose of speaking; 
tmele mgama, he stood far off; wena usa- 
limele mgama ilizwi lika-Tixo, thou who 
art still standing far from the word of 
God; ehemele kttfnp'i, he stood near; 
ndimele em dyaJeni, be security for me in 
the court ; kaumele iimntwana wam, kindly 
be godfather to my child ; to test : ufuim 
uhmcla utando Iwabo, he is seeking to 
test their love; fig. to bear, endure: 
timele inxano, he endured thirst; yimele! 
wait for it ! ndizimcla, I stand for myself, 
defend myself; of the after birth, to 



MA 

delay; pass, to be represented, as in 
Parliament. 

(b) To stand against, withstand, oppose, 
defy, importune, urge: undunele nga- 
ni-na ? why do you importune me ? 
Idiomatic in passive : leqiya imelwe yinto- 
nina f lit. this handkerchief is stood for 
by what 1 i.e. what is wanted for it ? what 
is the price of it .? isono simelwa kukiifa, 
sin is worthy of, i.e. paid or punished 
by, death. 

(c) As aux. expressing "must": zonke 
ezonto zimele ukuhla, these things must 
needs come to pass; ndhnelwe knkuba or 
kukutt ndizenze ezonto, I must do these 
things. 

ura-Meli, n. I. A representative : ummeli 
woxolo, a surety for keeping the peace ; a 
godfather ; an opposer. 

u-Melo, n. 5. Surety. 

uku-Melana, v. (a) To stand next or near 
to each other, i.e. to be neighbours : sime- 
lene nabo, we dwell, live next to them ; 
elalizwe limelene neli, that country lies near 
to this, (b) To stand in a defiant posture, 
to be against or opposed to each other: 
ndimelene naye, I am opposed to him. 

um-Melani, n. I. An opponent. 

u-Meleni, n. I. A rogue, marauder, robber, 

um-y>Jelwane, n. I. A neighbour ; j<;;^- 
Iwanekazi, a female neighbour. 

u-Melwane, n. 5. Neighbourhood. 

ubu-Melwane, ;/. 7. Neighbourliness. 

uku-Mlsa, V. To cause to stand; to set, 
plant, fix, put in an erect posture : yimise 
ibokisi, put the box on its bottom, with 
the opening uppermost; kwamisiva ama- 
tye emideni yomhlaba wake, beacons were 
erected on the boundaries of his farm; 
rnisa udonga, set or build up a wall; 
mis' apa, stop or stand firm here; to 
make to stand, i.e. to stop: misa inqwelo 
apa, make the wagon stand here; Em. 
vmtshato wmniswa, the wedding was stop- 
ped or delayed (owing to some difficulty) ; 
wazimisa enyameni, he aimed at the mark 
(bull's-eye); fig. to institute, appoint, 
ordain: ukumisa inkosi, to institute a 
chief; ngomhla omisiweyo, on the appoint- 
ed day ; to establish, confirm : ilizwi lam 
ndiya kuUmtsa, I will establish my word ; 
misa inkabi yam, lit. make my bullock 
stand i.e. alive; restore, redeem my 
bullock, (said to a man, to whom an ox 
has been lent and through whose negli- 
gence it has been lost or injured). 

227 



MA 

Phr. misa inyaivo, set your feet firm, 
stand to what you have said. 

um-Misi, n. I. One who decrees. 

isi-Miso, n. 4. A pillar; statute, institution. 

um-Miso, H. 6. Base, foot, stand ; an ordi- 
nance. 

uku-Mlsela, v. To set, fix, put, etc. for: 
kwamiselwa ama-Xosa inkosi, a chief was 
appointed for the Kafirs; wazimisela 
lonkoiizo, he offered himself for that 
service; fig, to allot a child of a prolific 
woman to one who has no children; to 
restore, compensate, redeem, ransom: 
makayimisele inkomo ngenkomo, he shall pay 
ox for ox; mukazimiscle (izita) oivupembi- 
leyo umlilo, let him that kindled the fire 
make restitution (for the burnt sheaves) ; 
to edify by preaching ; to give a barren 
woman medicine. 

iSSi?o,V6.1 That which is ordained 
or instituted; ordinance, statute, com- 
mand. 
uku-Miselana, v. followed by na. To 
stand up to one another, to match: 
akanakb ukmniselana nawe, he is no 
match for you (e.g. in working or in 
speaking); amazwi ake amiselene, his 
words are substantiated. 
Miseleka, v. Ilizwi elimiselekileyo, a 

word that has stood the test. 
Ma, compound prefix of cl, I, formed by 
prefixing the short form of the prefix of 
cl, I sing, to the prefix of cl. 2 pi. Nouns so 
formed have a collective meaning and 
may be regarded as personified nouns. 
The question may well be raised regarding 
the advisability of distributing the nouns 
beginning with this compound prefix 
according to the first letter following the 
compound prefix, e.g. uma-Qungqu 
instead of u-Magungqu. Meantime these 
words are gathered together here; cf. u- 
No and u-So. 

The cl. 2 pi. prefix is also used in its 

contracted form ma in forming a number 

of adverbs, e.g. jfialunga, matanci, maxa. 

u-Mabonwabulawe, n. i. lit. things seen 

that they may be destroyed (Baca). 

Burrweed, Xanthium spinosum L. 

u Mabope, n. l. from ama-Bope. (a) Any 

climbing plant, such as a vine that 

holds fast by intertwining, (b) Acridocar- 

pus natalitius A. fuss, (c) State of being 

mixed up pell-mell with the enemy in 



MA 

war. (d) A magical knot ; a charm by 
v/hich one is bound and rendered incap- 
able of carrying out his plans: siyaktikiizela 
ebuninzini bomabope bakd, they shall come 
upon thee in the abundance of thy 
enchantments; zekiingafiuiyanwa kutii 
obopa ngomabop^, there shall not be found 
among you a charmer. 
u-Mabulwane, n. I. Worth, value: ishito 
ezingumabuhmne, things which every one 
values and speaks of. 
u-Madikazi, n. I. Em. lit. widows. The 

month of August. 
u-MadoIwana, n. I. lit. little knees. A 
kind of grass, Chloris compressa B.C., 
whose roots are boiled and used as 
medicine for cold, cough and rheumatism. 
u-Mafungwashe, n. l. from uku-Fuitga. 
The elder sister by whom one swears. 
u-Magungqu, w. l. = i-Gungqu. A small 
vole-like mammal of the genus Otomys. 
u-Magxa, ;/. I. lit. shoulders. A gin bottle, 
so called from its high, square shoulders. 
u-Magxwa!a, ?/. l. see ama-Gxirala. Maize 
turning reddish-brown and ready to be 
reaped. 
u Mahamba-ngendlwana, n. I. Safety 
matches, because they must go with the 
box. 
u-Majajana, . I. from i-Jaja. One be- 
spattered with blood. 
u-Mangange, n. i . The Almighty. 
u-Manqindi, w. l. from uku-Nqinda. Satan. 
u-Maiitebentebana, . i. lit. the little 
hoverer. The name for the kestrel in 
Griqualand East. 
u-Mafau, w. i. lit. nettles. The African 

hedgehog, Erinaceus frontalis A. Sm. 
u-MasasauIi, n. l. = ama-Sasauli. Spread- 
ing branches (either green or dry) : lomt'i 
umasebe amasasaiili, this tree whose 
branches spread ; brushwood. 
u-Mashwilishwili. n. I. Plumbago, Plum- 
bago capensis Thun.; = umti wamadoda. 
u-Masibele, n. I. A kind of tree, Sapindus 

oblongifolius Sond. 
u-Masinana, n. I. lit. gums. A bull-dog. 
u-Maswana, n. l.lit. AWtXlehloh of amasi. 
The Lesser puffback shrike, Dryoscopus 
cubia (Shaw), so called in allusion to the 
white rump-feathers which the bird can 
puff up at will. 
u-Matunga, w. i. Generic name for plants 
used for inserting in cuts (see Qapula\ 
and in cases of broken limbs, sprains, etc. 
u-Matupa, . I. lit. buds. The month of 
August. 



MA 

u-Mazantsana, n. i. lit. small lower parts. 

A person whose legs appear too short 

for his body ; fig. incorrect words put by 

children between the words of songs; 

a parody. 

u-Ma, . I. Em. u-Ma. My or our mother; hw.' 

exclamation of wonder or grief, used also 

in swearing by the mother or sister: bateta 

ngezakomaimbo inteto, they spoke in their 

own mother tongue. 

u-Makazi, v. i. My aunt, my mother's 

sister. 
u-Makulu, n. I. My grandmother. In old 
Kafir, used also for grandfather; if a 
distinction had to be made, he was called 
vmakulu osidoda. 
u-Malume, ?i. l. My maternal uncle, my 
mother's elder brother, who becomes 
after the death of my mother's father 
the possessor of his married sister's 
dowry and protector of her children. 
The children only call him by this name. 
Mawo 1 ixterj. of astonishment. Wonder- 
ful! prodigious! strange! of sorrow: 
iiiawo, nmntivanain ! alas, my child ! or of 
depreciation: "is that all you can do?" 
u-Mawokulu, ;/. I. My grandfather; pi. 

omawokulu, ancestors. 
u-Mawolume, n. l. My maternal uncle = 
li-Malume: u-Dyosi vgtanawolum or ngii- 
viahime, Dyosi is my mother's brother. 
u-Maham, n. I. A weed with a yellow flower. 
isi-Mahla, w. 4. used as adv. Gratis, without 
payment : tidihleli isimahla apa, I live here 
without being charged anything; ndikunika 
Icnlo ngcshnahla, I am giving you this freely ; 
ngowesine umnyaka isimahla, during the 
fourth year (e.g. at school), without cost. 
i-Maka, . 3. The women's portion of meat. 
isi-Maka, n. 4. Food that is tasteless ; foolish 
talk : iputnile isimak , she talks without 
caring what she says, she is exceedingly 
rude ; = i-Jav:ijavu. 
isi-Ma-kade, see under uku-Ma. 
u-Makakaka, n. I. A professor. 
ukuti-Makata, v. i. To be astonished. 
isi-Makata, n. 4. Wonder, astonishment. 
uku-Makatisa, v. To astonish. 
i-MALI, n. 3. Money, price, value; dimin. 
imalanana, a little piece of money; from 
Eng. money. 
u Malume, n. i. See under u-Ma. 
Malunga, prep, and adv. In reference to, in 
respect of, about: malunga pakatt, just in- 
side; ngokumalimga e-Node, about or in the 
North; cf. uku-Lunga and its derivatives. 



228 



MA 

Malungana, and Malungela, prep. Parallel 
with: malungana tiendlu yam, opposite my 
house; malungana nelixa, about this hour; 
indlu yam imalungela nentaba, my house is 
in a line with the mountain. 

uku-Mamaniseka, v. i. To be in consterna- 
tion, n. 8. Consternation. (Perhaps contract- 
ed from mangamanganiseka, from ukut'i- 
Mangu), 

i-Mamba, n. 3. The deadly mamba, Den- 
draspis angusticeps (Smith). 

i-Mambane, n. 2. Jokingly used for in- 
Dodana. 
' Mamel interj. (a) of surprise. Hallo! (b) of 
grief. O mother! (Zulu). 

uku-Mameka, v. t. To carry a child or a 
grownup person on one's hdiCk; = uku- 
Memeka. 

uku-Mamela, ^. i. To listen secretly; to 
listen to a sound heard indistinctly: zimame- 
leni intnka, listen to the birds (singing). 

isi Ma-mhlaba and u Ma mlambd, see 
under uku-Ma. 

ukiiti-Mamnge, v. i. To be forsaken, desert- 
ed; to be an orphan. 

Mamol interj. = Mame! 

isi-Ma mzi, see under nku-Ma. 

u-Mana, n. I. Em. A son: umana ka-Mtili, 
Mtili's son ; cf. u-Nyana, with interchange 
of m and ny. 

Mandi, Em. =Mnandt. 

ubu-Mandi, 'Eva.. ubu-Miiandi. 

um-MandIa, n. 6. The environs, surrounding 
district ; a region, tract of land, division, 

Mandundu, adj. expressing a stronger de- 
gree; worse (of sickness), more violent (of 
the wind) ; umnla ofayo umandundu, -the sick 
person is worse; itmoya umandundu, the 
wind is getting stronger. 

u-Maneli, n. I. A term of respect for a 
missionary, fr. Du. mijnheer. 

ukuti-MANQA, v. i.=uku-Mangala. 

ffilKHiamanga, } 4- Something 

causing wonder, as out of the ordinary 
course of events, or unusual in a person's 
conduct: ndinesimangamanga, I am sur- 
prised; phenomenon, omen of ill luck; cf. 
isi-Helegu and um-Mangaliso. 
uku-Mangala, v. i. To be startled, amazed ; 
to start back : ihashe liyamangala, the 
horse is startled ; fig. umangele ngenduba, 
he wondered at the news; to object, 
contradict, oppose; to be obstinate, not 
yielding to reason : wamangula nalanto, he 
refused to give up that thing ; to lodge a 
complaint, or bring an action at law. 



Objection, contra- 



Ma 

isi-Mangalo, n. 4. 

um-Mangalo, n. 6. 
diction, complaint. 

uku-Mangaleia, v. To stand before a 
chief and exclaim ndimangele ! I am sur- 
prised or taken aback by So-and-so's 
conduct ! To complain of the conduct of 
another; to accuse a person of a crime 
or misdemeanour: mnangalehoe ngubani? 
who accuses you? to commence a law- 
suit against another: ndiya kiikumangale- 
la e-ofisini, I shall bring you into court. 

um-Mangaleli, n. l. A litigant, complain- 
ant, plaintiff; one who lays information 
or institutes proceedings at law against 
another ; = u-Ndimangele. 

um-Mangalelwa, n. i. The defendant or 
accused. 

uku-Mangalelana, v. To accuse mutually. 

isi-Mangalelwano, n. 4. Mutual lawsuit. 

uku-Mangaleleka, v. To be reprovable, 
accusable : ukme ningabi nakamangaleleka, 
that ye may be irreprovable. 

Mangalisa, v. To startle, astonish; to 
cause wonder and astonishment: into 
emangalisayo, a wonderful thing. 

um-Mangaliso, n. 6. That which causes 
amazement, surprise, wonder; a miracle; 
anything which astonishes or is beyond 
comprehension. 

bu-Mangalisofa, adj. Wonderful. 

uku-Mangallsana, v. To astonish one 
another. 

Mangaliseka, v. To be an astonishment, 
to be wondered at, 

Mangalislsa, v. To make astonished. 
isi-.Mangala, n. 4. A hired manslayer. 
um-Mango, n. 6. A ridge of land, a hillside 

or mountain-slope; loc. emmangweni. Phr. 

azidli mmangweni mnye, they do not eat on 

the same ridge, i.e. they have no dealings 
, with each other. 
u-Manka, n. l. A difficult matter ; something 

too hard to be answered. 
Manqanci andManqanji, adv. Before, first, 

sooner than others: wafika manqanci, he 

was the first to arrive. 
isi-Mantshlyane, n. 4. from ama-Ntshiyane. 

Lamentation: walila esimantshiyane, he 

made a great lamentation ; = isijwili. 
u-Mantyi, n. I. and i-MANTYI, n. 3. A 

magistrate, fr. Du. magistraat or Eng. 

magistrate. 
uku-MANYA, v. t. To unite in one; to splice 

two pieces of wood; to weld two pieces of 

iron; to unite ii couple in marriage: **# 



MA 

uT'ixo akiimanyileyo maknngahlulwa mntu, 
what God has joined together, let no man 
put asunder. 

Manyana, v. To unite with one another: 
b'lmanyami bohabini, they joined together 
with one another. 
u-Manyano, n. 5. Union, combination, 

association. 
uku-Manyanisa, v. To cause to join. 
isi-Manyaniso, n. 4. A joint. 
u-Manyeko, n. 5. Union (in a passive 

sense). 
uku-Manyela, v. To bind one thing to 
another. 
uku-Manyalaza, v. i. To writhe with pain. 
uku-Manyanga, v. t. To roll up (a mat, 

carpet) and tie fast. 
Manzi, adj. Wet, damp: inyawo zam zimanzi, 
my feet are damp; cf. am-Anzi. 
ubu-Manzi, n. 7. Wetness, dampness, 
moisture. 
ukutl-Masi, v. i. To be mentally deficient, 
shewing no interest in current events; to be 
forgetful : ndisuke ndat'i-rrmsi, I was forgetful. 
i-Masi, n. 3. A beclouded understanding, 
mental deficiency; forgetfulness of mind, 
indifference : ndiyenze lento ngemasi, I did 
this unthinkingly: nnemasi, one who is 
sent to do or say something, or one who 
intends to steal, and forgets to do so. 
(perhaps fr. Eng. mistake). 
u -Masipumie, . i. lit. let us rest. The 
third room or bed in the girls' game u-No- 
cweba (or Notu-ayisi); u-Masipiimle pezulu 
is the name of another bed in the same 
game. 
i-MASISI, n. 3. Measles ; Du. maselen. 
uku-MAT'A, V. i. To be stupid, silly, spirit- 
less: umntu oiitliziyo imatileyo, an indolent, 
spiritless person, n. 8. Foolishness. 
i-Mata, n. 2, isi Mata, n