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The Jains are now well known to the learned in 
Europe as the only representatives in Hindustan of 
the adherents to the tenets of Buddhism, a religious 
community once so numerous in India Proper, and 
still embracing so many of the inhabitants of the 
Deighbouring countries of Ceylon, Tibet, Burma, 
China,, and its adjacent territories. Without the 
least disparagement to the learned dissertations 
that have been published on the Jains, I trust that 
the follow in-' translations, the one, that of their 
most sacred religious work, and the other, that of 
their most popular philosophical essay, will not he 
unacceptable to those who take an interest in the 
history of the religious opinions and philosophy ol 

< >f the eight dayH in the middle of the rains 
which are devoted to the reading of those works 
esteemed peculiarly sacred, no l»» than five are 


allotted to the Kalpa Sutra, the first of the works 
here presented to the English reader. It com- 
mences, and is chiefly occupied, with the legendary 
history of Mahavira, the last of those deified spi- 
ritual legislators, called by the Jains, Tirthankaras. 
To this are appended the lives of other four sages 
of the same class, and in some copies those of the 
whole twenty-four, though it is nearly certain that 
all of these are by a later hand, and that none 
except the first, or at any rate the five to whom 
the precedence is given, are genuine productions of 
the reputed author. Mahavira, by the Jains of the 
Carnatic, is said to have died B.C. 663, by those of 
Bengal, according to Mr. Colebrooke, in B.C. 637, 
by those in Gujarath, in B.C. 527, or as they state 
it, 470 years before the commencement of the era 
of Vikrama. Mr. Prinsep in his Useful Tables, 
Part II. , p. 33, makes this event to have happened 
in B.C. 569, at the age of seventy. This I am 
inclined to believe is the correct date, not only on 
account of Mr. Prinsep's great accuracy and tact in 
all these matters, but also because it agrees best 
with the statement of the Jains, that Mahavira was 
the preceptor of the great Gautama Buddha. The 


Ceylonese date of the death of Buddha is b.c. 543, 
and the death of the Tirthankara having taken 
place in B.G 569, we obtain the reasonable period 
of twent \ -i\ years, for the demise of the preceptoi 
before bis pupil The Kalpa Sutra, according to 
a date embodied in the work itself, was composed 
980 years after the demise of Mahavira, that is to 
Bay, a.d. ill. The public reading of the work took 
place twelve years afterwards, as narrated in the 
Introduction. The author's name was Bhadra Bahu, 
and the sovereign who then reigned in Gujarath, 
was Dhruva Sena The four commentators who, 
between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
have commented on the work, are Yasovijaya, 
whose Sanskrit work, called Sakhabadha, has 
been used in making the annexed translation, 
D richandra, the Gujarathi translator chiefly fol- 
lowed, and Jnanavimala, and Samayasundara. 

There is bo little of Eastern extravagance exhi- 
bited in tin- age and date of the death ofMahavira, 
that one is -I'd for once t" escape exposure to the 
spirit of Bcepticism which bo generally haunts the 
European in his antiquarian researches in India. 
and t.. grant the author all he demands. The name 


of the sovereign reigning in Gujarath at the time, 
is an important element here, for there are two 
Dhruva Senas among the Balabhi monarchs, who, 
at the period above specified, swayed the sceptre in 
that part of India. The first, indeed, is too early 
for our purpose, but allowing the second of that 
name to be in the last year of his reign, as he well 
might, having lost a grown-up son, then on an 
average of twenty-one years to him, and his four 
predecessors, there will be an exact coincidence 
between our date of the first public reading of the 
Kalpa Sutra, and that found on the Gujarath 
copper-plate grants of the first Sridhava Sena* In 
accordance with this early date, the state of civili- 
zation described in this work is higher than we have 
any reason to believe has existed among the Hindus, 
since the first centuries of our era, and the state of 
Brahmanical literature, as here depicted, without 
any mention of the Purans, tends to the same con- 
clusion. The commentator, indeed, in this latter 

* Dated Samvat 375, i.e., a.d. 318, i.e., 5 x 21 = 105, which, 
added to 318, gives 423=411 x 12. There is no such name, 
Ave may remark, as Dhrava Sena in the modern or restored 
Ballnira dynasty 


point, supplies the omission of the author, and 
clubs in those modern records of traditions along 
with tin* more ancient [tihasa. showing the altered 
state of things when he wrote* 1 of course take 
it for granted that the author describes the man- 
ners of his own time and place, and not those of 
the sixth century before our era at Kundagrama 
and Rajagriha, in Berar, where the scene of his 
hero's piety and labours is Laid. It is a pity the 
work is so entirely confined to its subject, and thai 
we have none of those historical notices which 
render the Ceylonese MahaVanso so interesting to 

I was at first inclined to stop my remarks on 

the history of the Jain religion at this point, and 
to concede that through the natural change to 
which all systems of opinion are liable, it had 
arisen at the period in question from a corruption 
of the Buddhistical religion, bu1 a close attention 
to the list of Theros (Sans. Sthlravara) or head 
teachers from Mahavira to the author's time, which 
forms a pari of the work, especially the unbroken- 
of i he chain, and t lie reasonable Dumber of 
ich, has made me hesitate about 


the correctness of such an assumption. From 
Mahavira upwards, indeed, to the preceding Tir- 
thankara Parsvan&th, we have no list of head 
teachers, but we have only an interval of 250 
vears, while the term of Parsva's sublunary exis- 
tence is still bounded by the possible number of 
a hundred years. So far the Jains are reasonable, 
and measured in their eras, compared with Brah- 
mans and Buddhists ; for even the latter throw 
Sakya's predecessor back to an immense period 
before the advent of the present Buddha. The 
moderation of the Jains, up to the time of Piirs- 
vanatha, is the more remarkable, as after that they 
far outstrip all their compeers in the race of absur- 
ditv, making the lives of their Tirthankars extend 
to thousands of years, and interposing between 
them countless ages, thus enabling us to trace 
with some confidence the boundary between the 
historical and the fabulous. There are, however, 
yet one or two other points in the accounts the 
Jains give us, which seem to have a historic bear- 
ing. The first is the relation said to have sub- 
sisted between the last Buddha and the last Tir- 
thankara, the Jains making Mahavira, Gautama's 


preceptor, and him the first and favourite pupil of 
bis master. Yet they tell us that not be, but 
Sridharma, became bead of the community after 
tlif Tirthankara's death. When pressed for the 
reason they are silent and mysterious, evidently 
averse to disclose the Pact that be became the 

founder of a new and rival sect, which for a long 

time wholly eclipsed their own. Nor are we to 
look for any hint of this kind in the writings of 
the Buddhists, as nothing could be said upon the 
subject without leading to an avowal that thegreai 
Sage himself had had an instructor. In favour of 
the Jain theory, however, it may lie noticed, that 
Buddha is said to have seen twenty-four of his 
predecessors* while in the present Kappo he had 
but four. The Jains, consistently with their 
theory, make Mahavlra to have scon twenty-three 
of bis pred< •< — re, all thai existed before him 
in the presenl age. This pari of Buddhism then 
evidently implies the knowledge of the twenty- 
four Tirthankars of the Jains. Gautama, bow- 
ever, by the force of natural genius, threw their 

• M;ili;iviiiiMi, lxiok I., c. i. 


system entirely into the shade, till the waning 
light of Buddhism permitted its fainter radiance to 
reappear on the Western horizon""*. 

Mahavira then, the great hero, as the name 
implies, of the Jain religion, was a Digambara, and 
went about in -a state of perfect nudity. Parsva- 
nath, and all his predecessors, if he had any, were 
clothed in decent apparel, with the single exception 
of BAshabha, of whom we shall immediately speak. 
Mahavira, no doubt, considered the innovation he 
had made in the established system, a reformation, 
and necessary to show the perfect sage's entire 
superiority to all worldly feelings and passions. 
The common sense of Gautama led him to see that 
the natural and universal sentiments of mankind 
cannot be set at nought, or opposed with impunity, 
and, therefore, he moved about clothed in yellow 
garments. It was not unlikely, on this very point, 
that the split took place between him and the 
other chief men of the Jain community. In 
modern times, however, the great majority of them 

* After writing the above, I found my conclusion antici- 
pated by Mr. Colebrooke, and am happy therefore that it now 
goes abroad with the suffrage of so learned an Orientalist. — 
Trims. E.A.S., vol. i., p. 522. 

rRANSL ITORS l'l.Ti m I \v 

\\u\r virtually confessed the superior wisdom of 
Buddha, by baking a lesson from his [nstitute, and 
wearing plain white garments, (on which accounl 
they are called Svetambaras), clothing themselves 
without Bervilely copying the yellow robes of the 
Buddhist priesthood, leaving such mimicry to 
Hindu Bairagfs and Gosains, sectaries who endea- 
vour to combine the Buddhistical monkery wit h I he 
Brahmanical theology. The rc\ i\ :il of the Digam- 
bara practice is said by the other party to have 
taken place through the efforts of Sahasra Mallika, 
about a century before the commencement of our 
era, since which time the Beets have kept entirely 
separate from one another. It is much more likely 
ver, from what is said above, that theSvetam- 
party originated about that time, and not the 
I tigambara. 

The second point in the Jain traditions which I 
imagine has a historical basis, is the account they 
give of the religious practice of Rishabha, the first 
of their Tirthankara He, too, like Mahavfra, is 
Baid to have been a Digambara. In the Brahma- 
nical Puranic records, he is placed Becond on the 
■ :' kings, in one of the regal families, and said 


to have been father to that Bharat from whom India 
took its name. He is also said, in the end of his 
life, to have abandoned the world, going about 
everywhere as a naked ascetic. It is so seldom 
that Jains and Brahmans agree, that I do not see 
how we can refuse them credit in this instance 
where they do so, the only point of difference 
between the two parties being, that while the 
Jams maintain that Bishabha followed an insti- 
tute worthy of being adopted by sages in every 
age, the Brahmans stoutly maintain that no 
one is authorized to follow his example. How- 
ever this may be, it is certain that even accord- 
ing to the traditions preserved by the Brah- 
mans themselves, Bishabha, Kapila, Gautama, and 
other sages, maintained opinions, and followed 
practices, which vary much from the present 
orthodox standard, and if in these early ages there 
was no regular Jain or Buddhistical organization 
as little was there an exclusive Brahmanism. The 
truth seems to be, that at the period referred to 
there was no regular division of caste among the 
people, of schools among the philosophers, nor of 
sects among religionists. All shades of opinion 


and practice were tolerated ; the broachers of new 
theories, and the introducers of new rites did not 
revile the established religion, and the adherents 
of the old Vedic system of elemental worship 
Looked on the new notions as speculations they 
could not comprehend, and the new austerities as 
the exercise of a self-denial they could not reach, 
rather than as the introduction of heresy and 
schism. And such, it may be remarked in pass- 
ing, is the vcrv view taken of the opinions and 
practices of Bairagfs and Gosdins by nine-tenths 
of tin' Hindus of tin* present day. After a time 
however, either sectarian zeal became too strong 
for its possessors to abstain from taunting the 
followers of the old system with their obtuseness, 
or the others, alarmed at the prevalence of these 
novelties, ran with tire and sword to the rescue of 
the old superstitions, and thus a schism was perpe- 
trated, which, at one particular era at least, that 
in which Buddhism fell and the modem Saiva 
in of Hinduism was established, made India 
h field of contention to opposing religious - 
and with the extermination of that religion which 
had been dominant during the period of i ; ~ great* 


est glory, occasioned the loss of those historical 
documents, which recorded the largesses and ex- 
ploits of the sovereigns of a hostile faith. Daring 
the early ages, the religious warfare in India was 
carried on, as far as we can learn, chiefly by the 
legitimate weapons of discussion and argument, 
though the edicts of Asoka, no doubt, had argu- 
ments founded on the logic of the Emperor, as 
well as on that of the Dialectician. The open 
practice of sacrifice, and other Brahmanical rites, 
was prohibited ; but there was no reason for sup- 
posing that, while the Buddhists had the supe- 
riority, they ever so far contradicted the precepts 
of their religion as to shed the blood of their fel- 
low creatures in a holy war. The same cannot be 
said of the Brahmans, who themselves admit that, 
under the direction of Kumarilla Bhatta, about 
the eighth century of our era, carnal weapons were 
employed to put down the Buddhistical and exalt 
the Saiva faith. 

The last division of the Kalpa Sutra is a digest 
of monkish rules, to guide the sages during the 
Paryushana, or Lenten period, a section of the book 
which requires no remark. It may be useful, how- 


ever, to exhibit in a few articles the Jain belief 
on those points which to a European (though not 
always to an Indian) Beem of first importance. 

1. The Jains then believe that the world, con- 
sisting of intellectual as well as material principles, 
has existed from all etemitv, under"-<.iir>- an infi- 
oite number of revolutions, produced -imply by the 
inherent physical and intellectual powers of nature. 
without the intervention of any eternal Deity, Q0 
such Being, distinct from the world, having any 
existence, though certain of the world's elements, 
when properly developed, obtain deilieat ion. 

■1. That in every great cycle of years twenty- 
four Tirthankars are manifested in the Bharat 
Khanda of Jambu Dvipa, our India. These are 
not only S&dhus, rising from manhood to deity. 
by the force of meditation, but are also Divine 
dators, each laying down a particular institute 
for the purification of mankind : whence they derive 
their name". Though at present there are do 
Tirthankars in India, in other terrestrial districts 
there are no Less than twenty. 

* ^n^t?j ^r^rfrT *{ <ft*T#* : The Jain Tirtha 
moral one. 


3. That the country of Bharat, our India, and 
an equal portion on the other side of the globe 
called Airavartta, are alone subject to a depopu- 
lating catastrophe at the end of a great cycle of 
years. The rest of the terrestrial circle, either 
inhabited by Mlechchhas, Barbarians, or by 
Yugalas, hermaphrodites not exposed to toil, or 
the subjects of virtue and vice, remains unchanged. 

4. That shortly after the desolation of the 
abode of man, above mentioned, colonies of Yugalas 
came from their own proper continent to repeople 
the waste territories, and from change of situation 
and manner of living become men, and give rise 
to a new race of human beings. The Jains, how- 
ever, leave unexplained how these Yugalas began 
to exist, and hide themselves amid the darkness of 
their prime absurdity — an infinite succession of 
finite beings. 

5. They maintain, like the Brahmans, that there 
is a number of heavens and hells, for temporary 
rewards and punishments. The gods whom they 
allow to possess several of these heavens are but 
beings, who were once men or animals, enjoying 
the reward of inferior kinds of merit, and who must 


descend again to earth, and be born anew, mid - 
tinue ever in the world of transmigrations, unless 
they heroin. The chief of these gods is 

named S;ikra. or in Magadhi, Sakke, the Sakk 
the Buddhists, and the Indra of the Brahmans. The 
modern Jains have made of the one, sixty- four 
Sakras, and surname the lord of heaven, Sudharma. 

G. The sage, who by meditation frees his mind 
from all worldly attachments, obtains at d 
Nirvana, a state of perfect bliss, perfect know! 
and freedom from all pain and mutation, ascends 
to the highest heavens, called Siddha Sila (the 
Rock of the Perfect), and exalted far above the 
gods, becomes a special object of adoration to gods 
and men. 

7. The Jain community consists of two 
sections, somewhat analogous to our clergy and 
Laity, each section embracing both males and 
finales. The clerical males are named S&dhus, 
i.e., S All profess celibacy, live in mom 

or houses, in communities of from four or five to a 
hundred, in subjection to an abbot, and perform all 
the pri< bs of the Jain religion. The Sad- 

hwinisj or Nuns, live also in separate communities, 


but these now are very few in number. The Jain 
laity are called Sravakas, i.e., Hearers ; the females 
being termed properly Sravakis. They have among 
them a modified form of caste ; and what wonder, 
since in Southern India Mohammedans and Chris- 
tians have the same ? They practise also a number 
of aboriginal and Brahmanical superstitions, at 
which the priesthood wink, though they disapprove 
of them. 

8. The practical part of the Jain religion con- 
sists in the performance of five duties, and the 
avoidance of five sins. The duties are, 1st, mercy 
to all animated beings ; 2nd, almsgiving ; 3rd, 
venerating the sages while living, and worshipping 
their images when deceased ; 4th, confession of 
faults ; 5th, religious fasting. The sins are, 1st, 
killing ; 2nd, lying ; 3rd, stealing ; 4th, adultery ; 
5th, w 7 orldly-mindedness. 

9. A striking feature of the Jain religion is, 
the keeping of the season of religious meditation, 
reading, and fasting, called the Paryiishana, or, 
popularly, Pajjusan. It corresponds to the Buddhist 
Wasso, and is divided into two parts, the fifty 
days that precede, and the seventy that succeed 


the iii'th of Bhadra, Sukla Paksha. The Svetam- 
baras fast during the former period, and the 
Digambaraa during the Latter. The Paryushana 
this year (1847) will commence about the 26th of 
July, but by the neglect of t! >n of the 

equinoxes it Lb too late by three weeks, like ;ill 
other Hindu festivals that have reference to the 
solar revolution, and therefore does not so well 
correspond to the four months of the rainy season 
in ( rujarath and Upper India as it otherwise would 
have done. 

10. Tin- last thing I shall advert to is the 
existence anion-- the Jains of the confessional, 
and the necessity that exists of confessing at least 
once a year to a priest, and obtaining from him 
ghostly absolution. Burdened consciences confess 
at all times, and have various kinds of fasts im- 
posed on them as penances. It is, however, onlj 
at the eoimnencement of the holy season that it is 
considered imperative upon every good Jain t.> 
confess to a priest. I must own that I was at first 
a little startled at the discovery of this article in 
the Jain creed, and thought I must have made 
some mistake in interpreting the word Padikaman 

6 2 


(Sans. Pratikramana), by which term the duty is 
technically expressed ; but abundant oral and 
written explanations, as well as the context of 
several passages where the word occurs, have re- 
moved every doubt. The Gujarathi word that 
expresses the priestly absolution, is Alavan. Al- 
though the rite of confession does not, as far as I 
can learn, exist among the Buddhists, it most 
likely had its origin in India in an early age, and 
along with other opinions and practices, travelled 
westward in the early centuries of Christianity, 
and obtained incorporation with a purer faith. 

For an "account of the Jain uranography and 
geography, I must refer the reader to the Asiatic 
Researches, vol. ix. Their system seems to have 
been formed before that of the Brahmans, as they 
have but three terrestrial continents and two seas. 
It contains, however, numberless absurdities, and 
has not the slightest title to the name of science. 
An arc of a circle, whose diameter is a hundred 
thousand yojanas, is made to represent the coast 
of India from the Ganges to the Indus, shewing an 
utter ignorance of the existence even of the Penin- 
sula. No wonder Ptolemy erred, when natives 


blundered so egregiously. The same absurdity is 
embodied in the system of the Brahmans. A word 
of explanation is required relative to the two Jain 
cycles, called Avasarpini and Utsarpini, whose 
lengths are exactly the same. The reader is to 
fancy a serpent in infinite space, coiled up, so thai 
the tail shall touch tlir head. The earth is now 
moving down this serpent from the head to the 
tail, therefore this is an Avasarpini (going down 
the serpent). When it arrives at the extremity 
of the tail it cannot go on, but must return, and 
its progress upwards is called an Utsarpini (going 
up the serpent). Each of these periods is divided 
into six aras or eras, comprehending ten crores 
(100,000,000) of Bagaras of years. A sagara or 
ocean of years, my Jain informant assures me, 
(though Air. O'lehruokes explanation of this 
knotty point is a little different), is the number of 
the small points of tin- excessively lino hair of 
Yugalas, which a pit of the dimensions of ;i cubic 
yojana would contain, the hairs being bo closely 
packed together that a river of water running over 
them would nol dislodge one of them. 

In the prefixed scheme <•! tin' emblems of tin- 


different Tirthankars, it may strike the reader that 
there is no vestige of anything like the Buddhist 
Chaitya in any of them. This arises from one 
remarkable feature of dissimilarity between the 
Jains and Buddhists. The Dagoba, or Buddhist 
Chaitya, was a place originally appropriated to the 
preservation of relics, a practice as abhorrent to 
the feelings of the Jains as it is to those of the 
Brahmans. The word Chaitya, when used by the 
Jains, means any image or temple dedicated to 
the memory of a Tirthankar. 

The Philosophical Tract at the end of the 
book, as well as the Kalpa Siitra, has already 
been analyzed by Mr. Colebrooke, yet I trust 
the learned reader will be glad also to see 
it entire. I have enjoyed advantages in the 
study of the Jain literature on this side of 
India, which are unattainable in Bengal ; yet, 
wherever I have had occasion to differ in the sense 
of any passage from that learned Orientalist, the 
reader may rest assured that I have first of all well 
weighed the comments of the Annotator, as well as 
carefully studied the context, before I have come 
to a decision. The Jams, while well acquainted 


with, and frequently referring to, the Sankliya, 
Nyaya, ( !harvaka, and Yaishesika systems of 
Hindu philosophy, do not acknowledge the 
Vedanta. This is one of several reasons which 
makes me suspect that the whole of the Upa- 
nishads, as well as the Purans, have been composed 
since the fall of Buddhism, the latter, no doubt, to 
till up the blank left in history by the destruction 
or neglect of Buddhist works, and the former to 
till up a similar chasm in the systems of philo- 

I have considered it expedient to write the 
proper names and technical terms, generally ac- 
cording to the Sanskrit form, rather than accord- 
ing to the original orthography. The modern 
Jains themselves have substituted the Sanskrit for 
the Magadhi in their religious writings, and the 
sight of an ugly mark of interrogation, stuck to 
the end of such a word as Pajushan, even in the 
Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society^ would 
have Beared a stouter heart thai] mine from the use 
of .the Magadhi orthography. On the nature of the 
language Itself, and the form it assumes in the Jain 
literature, .->ome remarks are made in the Appendix 


With all the attention I have been able to be- 
stow, and the care I have exercised to avoid error, 
I am not sanguine enough to supjDOse that future 
inquirers will not detect blemishes and mistakes 
in my translation and remarks ; yet, if I shall have 
succeeded in any degree in throwing light on the 
workings of the human mind, and on the history of 
a sect interesting in itself, but especially so in its 
relation to Buddhism, I shall not consider my 
labour lost. 




Bishabha Yellow Bull. 

Ajita Ditto Elephant. 

Sambhava Ditto Horse. 

Abhinandana Ditto \|>e. 

Sumati (a female) Ditto Curlew. 

Padmaprabha Bed Bed Lotus. 

Supaxsra Yellow The figure Svastica. 

Chandraprabha White The Mi or Crescent. 

Pusbpadanta Ditto Crocodile. 

Sitala Fellow The figure Srivatea. 

Sreyansa Ditto Rhinoceros. 

\ pujya Bed Buffalo. 

Vimala fellow Boar. 

Ananta Ditto Falcon. 

Dharma Ditto Spike-headed club. 

Santi Ditto Antelope. 

Kuntliu I >itto < •• 

An Ditto The figure Nandayartta. 

Malli Blue A Water Jar. 

Surrata Black Tortoise. 

Nam Yellow Blue Lotus. 

Nemi Black Cotieli. 

i Blue i Serpent. 

Vardham&na Yellow Lion. 










A Cm-land. 





Heap of P< ark. 

Flame!, I 





~ - 







= = 





Km. ( >m." Adoration to the propitious Pdrsvandtha. 

Having prostrated myself before the glorious 
Mahavfra, and brought before the mind Gautama, 
the Religious Instructor, I proceed to expound 
the Kalpa Sutra in the comment called the Kal- 

Eleligion is the vital principlet of the world, 

* Em means the female energy or cause of the world, and 
(hi the male, answering to our material and efficieni causes. 
This line is merely prefixed by the scribe, and does nol b 
ti> the work. 

t I have rendered IJT'^' by these two phrases, as the I I 

could think of. 

The v. hole sentence which holds here bo important a place is 

as follows : — 

fT^Trqf^rT^^T: I VIX fl»N W^ II 



since it is the first cause of all felicity. It pro- 
ceeds from man, and it is by it also that man 
attains the chief good*. From religion, birth in 
a good family is obtained, bodily health, good 
fortune, long life, and prowess. From religion 
also spring pure renown, a thirst for knowledge, 
and increase of wealth. From the darkest gloom, 
and every dreaded ill, religion will ever prove a 
saviour. Religion when duly practised bestows 
heaven, and final emancipationt. 

The Sages who, maintaining the regular suc- 
cession of spiritual authority, sit four months 
yearly at Anandapura|, the sacred place appointed 
by our ancient Teachers, for the purpose of read- 
ing to the select congregated multitude our 
religious books, read also to obtain merit, for five 
days and nine kshafias, before a public assembly 
the propitious Kalj)a Sutra§. 

Kalpa here means the religious practice of the 
Sagesll; and in it there are ten varieties : 1st, 

* Vide preceding note. 

t <si4mc|4?&i{: 

X This city is now called in Gujarathi, Badnagar. 
§ The former of these two assemblies is composed of the 
priesthood alone. The reason of the difference is given further 


Achelakka; 2nd, CJdesla; 3rd, Siyyayara; 4th, 
Rayapitha; 5th, Kiikamme; 6th, Vaya; 7th, 
Jetha; s th, Padikamane; 9th, Masam; LOth, 

1. What, then, is meant by Achelakka? lie 
who is without chela, that is to say, clothing, is 
Achelakka, and the abstract muni formed from that 
it is Achailakyat (unclothedness). Achailakya is 
the attribute of Rishabha and MahavfraJ alone of 
all the principal Yatis, they having no other cloth- 
ing than some coveriai;- of old white cloth. Ajita 
and the rest of the twenty-two Tirthankara being 
dressed in clothes, valuable and of a variety of 
colours, though still with holy dispositions, are 
said to he in the state of Suchelakatwa (well- 
clothedness). Wliether any one else who dresses 
in coarse white clothes may be considered as in 
the state of Achailakya is not determined. To 

those then belongs especially the 6rst Kalpa. 
* Tin- original M&gadhi words are its follows: — 

^T%^T^ IT^t^T fa^T^ TT^fT? fat^ 

The Sanskrit equivalents will booh appear in their pn per 
places in tlir b 

t This is now the Sanskrit form introduced 1>\ the author, 
and continued during the whole paragraph, t«> tin- ei 
the Magadhi. 

I Thai is to say, the firs! and last Tirtl &i 

i; 2 


2. The second Kalpa is the Uddesika, or the 
accepting of necessaries without asking for them ; 
since such is the meaning of the word. It is an 
Institute intended for sages. Rice with split pulse, 
water, sweetmeats, betel-leaf with betel-nut, cloth- 
ing, vessels, a house and necessary furniture, may 
be received by such. This Institute belongs to 
the first and last of the Tirthankars. It may have 
reference to one, or to a company, or to a whole 
college of sages. It is not applicable to all the 
sages. To the twenty-two Tirthankars, and others 
who enjoy a superior regimen, it is inapplicable ; 
to the rest, however, it applies. 

3. The Sidhyatara Kalpa"" has reference to a 
householder. To him belongs a superior regimen 
to that above mentioned ; viz., bread with rice and 
pulset, water, sweetmeats, betel-nut and leaf, 
clothes, vessels, blankets, a broom, a needle, 
pincers, a nail-parer, and ear-cleaner, these twelve 
different articles. This Institute is not applicable 
to the whole of the Jina Tirthankar Sages. Fur- 
ther, when there is a want of proper food in the 
place where a sage resides, or difficulty in procur- 

* In the Marathi language, f%%|T means prepared but 
uncooked victuals, as cleaned rice, &c. 

f The original here is "3T"3$«T the same as above. The 
diil'erence of translation is owing to a difference in the comment. 


big a residence, or danger of Hilling into sin*, the 
Sidhydtara may take from a disciple receiving reli- 
gious instructions, and freely giving them, grass, 
hardened eartht, ashes, an earthen panj, a high 
stool, a low stool, a couch, bedding, ointment, and 
so forth. 

4. The fourth Kalpa is the Rajapinda, or royal 
establishment. Its constituent parts are — a com- 
mander-in-chief, a chief priest, a chief banker§, a 
prime cabinet minister, a master of the chariots, 
and, together with the protection of the realm. 
the before-mentioned twelve articles of regimen. 
Those things then belong only to an anointed 
king, and hence do not accord with the religious 
practice of the first and last Tirthankars. But 
the Rajapinda was possessed by the other twenty- 
two, ;it the same time that there was no imper- 
fection in their wisdom, and they were free from 
all sin. 

* The thing chiefly contemplated by Yatia lure is the 
prevalence of insects, and tin- consequenl danger of commit- 
ting sin by treading <>n them. 

t Probably bricks hardened in the sun, so commonly used 
in [ndia for building. 

+ To I"' used :i- :i pol de chambre. 

§ A kind (if Rothschild, to supply the sovereign with 

funds on emergencies Be is called lure ^jjjgt (whence the 
Gujarathi, S I holds to the State ;i relation Bomewhai 

like that nC the Governor of the Hank of England. 


5. The fifth Kalpa is Kritikarma. It consists of 
two parts ; first, the rising and standing upright ; 
and next, the performing of the twelve forms of 
salutation. This was incumbent upon all the 
Tirthankars, as w r ell as on other sages, and is to 
be performed by all to all mutually in the order of 
their initiation — the newly initiated sage is to be 
saluted with religious reverence, even by those 
who have been the longest time initiated ; for it 
is religion that gives man pre-eminence*. 

6. The sixth is the Vrita Kalpa. Vrita here 
means the highest kind of religious observances. 
These, in reference to the twenty-two Jina Sages, 
are four, since they are permitted to marry. But 
from the absence of all defect in wisdom, to the 
first and last Jina Sages they are fivet. 

7. The seventh is called the Jyeshtha Kalpa. 
Here Jyeshtha means the chief or initiatory rite, 
and it is to this, as the commencement of a series 
of observances, that the Institute applies. The 
performance of the initiatory rite by the first and 
last Jinas, is to be counted from the time they 

* ^W^I^HTf "OT^ So are the words which I 
translate as above; the last word in another copy is omitted, 
and the meaning seems simply to be, that all sages are ren- 
dered equal by the possession of the religious character. 

f These f oar principal virtues are the following: — Dana, 
Sila, Japa, Bhava. ■ See Part I., Book I., chap. 8. 


performed the Samayaka Charitra, and in relation 
to the intermediate Yatis, from the day of their 

performing the Atichara Charitra. 

8. The eighth is called the PratikramaAa 
Kalpa. The Atichara ceremony might be per- 
formed or not by Saint Rishabha and MahaVira, 
but the Pratikramana (going to confess to a 
spiritual guide) they were required to perform 
twice. On other Munis the Pratikramana is im- 
perative whenever they commit a fault, — otherwise 
it is not required. 

9. The ninth is the Masakalpa. The Masa- 
kalpa, which is limited to the first and last Jinas, 
requires that no one stay longer at a place than a 
month. This was not imperative on the inter- 
mediate Jinas. On the contrary, some of them 
stayed in the same place for ten millions of years. 
The Institute does not require any one to stay in 
the same place for a month ; if he have a proper 
reason, he may leave during its currency. 

10. The tenth is the Paryushana Kalpa. By 
Paryushana is meant the religious session of 
the Sages during the rains. This is a yearly 
festival, and it is positively enjoined that such 
a session of the Assembly <>f Sages should com- 
mence "ii the fifth day after the new moon of 

* We hare here - ther trivial anecdotes introduced, 


I now proceed to mention the qualities of the 
place where the Institute of the Paryushana is to 
be performed. The Sages remain seventy days in 
the same place, unless there be a good reason for 
removing. Proper reasons for so doing are the 
following : Not being able to find a proper place 
to sleep on ; the difficulty of procuring provisions ; 
the occurrence of any disaster ; the fear of hostile 
sovereigns, disease, or bodily pain. In such cases 
it is lawful to remove to another place. A place 
is unfit, if it swarm with insects, if it be otherwise 
unclean, if there one is kept in dread of musqui- 
toes, fire, or serpents. In such cases it is proper 
to remove. Again, the Sages should remain after 
the four months are completed, if the rains con- 
tinue so as to make the roads impassable on ac- 
count of the mud. Then only, however, should the 
Sages remain beyond the month of Kartik. Places 
suitable for carrying on the religious exercises 
of the season are places where there is not much 
mud, where there are not many creeping insects, 
where there are no impurities, at a distance from 
women, where the produce of the cow abounds, 
where the body of the people is large and respect- 
able, where there are good physicians and medi- 

to shew the benefit of different forms of religious practice, all 
tending to prove that different dispositions require different 


cines easily procurable, where there are the habit- 
ations of householders who are living with their 
families, where cattle and grain are abundant] 
where the king is a just ruler, where the Brahmans 
and those o\' their party do not treat our Munis 
with contempt, where food is easily procured, 
where reading of the sacred books can be purely 
performed, and where there is open and level 
ground to walk about. Such a place, then, is to 
be esteemed liavourable, and there the festival 
of the sacred rest is to be performed". When, 
thru, the Sages are met to keep the Paryushana, 
this Kalpa Sutra is to be read for the attainment 
of merit during five days. This Institute is like 
India among the gods, the Moon among the 
heavenly bodies, Rama among just rulers, Kama- 
deva among veil-proportioned men, Ilambha 
among beautiful women, Bhambha among musi- 
cians, Airavat among elephants, Havana among 
daring adventurers, Abhaya among wise men, 
Satrunjaya among holy placest, humility among 
virtuous qualities, gold among metals, the nine- 
Lettered among charms|, the strawberry mango-1 ree 
among trees, Sita among faithful wives, the Gita 

* Here again an Qlnstrative anecdote ia omitted. 

f This is :i Tirtlia of tin- .l:iins, tliirty-linir miles from 

Bnownagur in ( hizarai h. 

* Probably Sriman Biahaviraya Namab.. 


among inspired writings, musk among perfumes, 
gold sand* among articles of commerce, the pea- 
cock among dancers t, the five-marked colt^ among 
horses, the water of immortality among liquids, 
melted butter among gravies, the dutiful son 
Salabhadra among enjoyments, Santinath among 
the givers of gifts, Neminath among chaste reli- 
gious students, Nandana among forests, the Chan- 
dana among woods, friendship among virtues, and 
the Jain religion among; religions. In fine, the 
Kalpa Sutra is the gem in the crown of all reli- 
gious institutes. There is no god superior to the 
Arhat (Jam Sage§), no future bliss superior to 
Mukti (liberation), no holy place superior to Sri 
Satrunjaya, and no inspired book superior to the 
Sri Kalpa Sutra. This Kalpa is an ever-present 
Kalpa Druma (tree yielding whatever is desired), 
since, to speak of its several parts, the Sri Vira 
Charitra is the seed, the Sri Parswa Charitra is the 
sprout, the Sri Nemi Charitra is the stem, the Sri 
BAshabha Charitra is the branchy top, Sthaviravali 

* fT"5[TTrrTt is the original, a word I neither ever heard 

or saw elsewhere. 


t •T72JW i- e - those who strut about in a theatre. 
J A white horse with black feet and face, or a brown or 
black horse with white feet and face. 

§ The original here is important, and I therefore give it : — 


IS the blossoms, the knowledge of the Samachari 
is the scent, and the obtaining of liberation is the 
fruit. And why should I add more \ since from 
reading or giving aid at the lecture, or from listen- 
ing to all the letters of this Kalpa, along with the 
proper reverential ceremonies, emancipation is ob- 
tained alter the eighth transmigration, according 
to the following text: "0 Gautama, they who 
hear twenty-one times with an attentive mind the 
Institute of the Jain Religion, performing the 
proper reverence, and bringing the proper gifts to 
the venerable sages, are saved from this world's 
abyss." This treatise, then, is to be read on the 
fifth day after the new moon of Bhadra pad, accord- 
ing to our Institutions. Among the Digambara 
community, it is read during the eight days of the 
great festival of Jamah, when they continue tast- 
ing, and make the figure of Nandidrlpa under the 
inline of Yasodhara Charitra. It forms also part 
of tli-' Institute for the Kislii Panchami, the origin 
of which I now relate'". There was a certain 
Brahman in the city of Pushpavati, whose father 
and mother were dead. In process of time they 

* A?> tin- is one I'i' the ln-.t of our author's Btories, and 
tends td show in what light the Jains view Brahmanism, I have 
given it a place in the text, ttis indeed a severe satire on those 
who entertain their friends from tin- proceeds <>t' oppression, 
exercised towards their inferiors ami the brute creation. 


were born anew in this their son's house, the 
former as a bull, and the latter as a bitch. By 
and bye also, the day of the festival for the manes 
came round. On it the son hired out the bullock 
to an oilman to labour at his oil-press, and having 
procured a sufficient quantity of milk, prepared 
rice and milk for the dinner of those Brahmans 
who came to the festival. At that juncture the 
bitch, in which was the soul of his mother, by a 
certain wonderful knowledge, saw the poison of a 
snake fall into the rice and milk""", and knowing- it 
would be the cause of great misfortune, went and 
took it out with her mouth. The Brahman flew 
at her in a passion, and almost broke her back for 
her pains, and went and tied her up in the cow- 
house, and afterwards prepared more rice and milk, 
and feasted his Brahman guests. In the evening 
the oilman bound up the bull in the cow-house, 
without giving him au article to eat or drink after 
his day's toil. There, looking at the suifering 
bitch, the bullock exclaimed, " What have I suf- 
fered to-day through this sinful son of mine ! " 
The bitch then also began to tell about the pain 
in her back ; when the son, who was lying down 
at no great distance, overheard their discourse, and 
understood that these were his father and mother. 

* t§)"5(" iii the original, a common dish on festive occasions. 


Immediately he got up, and fed them witli the 
remains of the rice and milk, and, leaving home, 
weni to the Rishis*, to inquire bow his father and 
mother could be liberated from their present state. 
They, after informing him that the reason of their 
having been bora in these bestial forms, was their 
having devoted themselves to pleasure at improper 
seasons, commanded him, in order to obtain their 
liberation, to eat aothing procured by labour on 
that fifth day of the month, lie followed their 
directions, and the holiday afterwards became 
celebrated among the people as the Rishi Pan- 

I am dow to mention the author of the Kalpa 
Sii; . He was Sri Bhadra Bahu Svami, an 
accomplished scholar, who was well acquainted with 
the fourteen branches of his subjectt, and a dis- 
tinguished teacher. Taking for his guide the 
work named — the Da^alrutaskandha, Ash- 

tamadhyayana, and the discourse called IVatva- 
khyana, in which he found nine branches — he 
composed the Kalpa Sutra. He wrote the first 

* This La the name given t<> the images ol the Baddhisl 

:ii BlloTS, K:ir!i, &0., im; by Jains Only, 1 »u t by Hindus 

and Brahman b. It was to Jain Sages, then, thai this Brahman 
and waa by them tanghl to change the mosl imperative 
feasi of hia religion into a fast. 
+ In t be original U^f 


branch with a solid piece of ink as large as an 
elephant, the second with a piece as large as two 
elephants, the third with one the size of eight, 
the fifth of sixteen, the sixth of thirty-two, the 
seventh of sixty-four, the eighth of one hundred 
and twenty-eight, the ninth of two hundred and 
fifty-six, the tenth of five hundred and twelve, the 
eleventh of one thousand and twenty-four, the 
twelfth of two thousand and forty-eight, the thir- 
teenth of four thousand and ninety-six, the four- 
teenth of eight thousand one hundred and ninety- 
two. So that the whole was written with sixteen 
thousand three hundred and eighty- three pieces of 
ink, each the size of an elephant"" ; and is there- 
fore called the Mahapurush (the great male)t. 
Its essence is most profound ; and therefore, 
though a man had a thousand tongues in one 
mouth, and in one breast perfect knowledge, still 
he would be unable duly to -celebrate the majesty 
of the Kalpa Sutra. 

On the evening of the fifth day of the new moon 
of Bhadrapad, the reading of the sections of the 
Kalpa Siltra commenced. It was read, after mak- 

* This ridiculous story, with its geometrical progression, 
will serve to initiate the reader a little into the extravagant 
system of modern Jain exaggeration. 

t This is a Brahmanical word for the Deity, and on that 
account here used. 

INTKnlXi TION. I. r > 

tonfession, by some one appointed for the 
purpose, while all the rest of the Sages sal in the 
atiit tide of devout listeners*. This was the ancient 
practice, but it lias been superseded by a some- 
what different ritual since the nine hundred and 
eightieth year of the era of Mahavirat. At that 
time, at Anandapura, now called Badnagar, lived 
Kin-- DhruvasenaJ. He had a dearly beloved son 
named Senagaja, who by divine decree died that 
year at the commencement of the Paryiishana. 
The kin-- was overwhelmed with grief) and no more 
came«to the place where the Sages lived to pay his 
respects; and, according to the saying, "As is 
the king so are the subjects§," the bankers and 
merchants, and others, failed in their attendance, 
and occasioned great detriment to religion. Per- 
ceiving this, the Religious Director went to the 
Kin-- Dhruvasena, and said, "0 King, through 
your indulgence in grief the whole city and all the 
country around is overwhelmed with sorrow. Re- 
member, however, (> king, that life is fleeting, and 
the world insipid. It is not proper for a king like 
you, instruct, d in the Jain religion, to indulge any 

* Tin- original is 3TRJTf5R?T ;> technical word among the 

t I!. C. L53 or 111. Bee Prefece. 

J See Preface. This city \b probably the Bame as Balubhi. 

§ trm ij7\j mn wr: 


more in grief. We are at present going on with 
the religious Institute called the Kalpa Sutra, 
which produces much profit to the hearers by 
breaking the bonds of action". If your majesty 
will come to the place of the religious meeting, it 
is in the course of being read." The king con- 
sented, and the whole was read before him and 
his followers at nine sittingst, while at the same 
time they brought presents to the Sages. Ever 
after this the custom prevailed of reading the Kalpa 
Sutra before the people generally ; and therefore, 
according to former practice, I read it to you. It 
is an Institute venerated by Sura (gods), Seura 
(demons), by men and women ; and whosoever 
three times listens to it, performing also the reli- 
gious duties that are suitable to the occasion, 
obtains the highest bliss. The meanings of the 
Kalpa Sutra are infinite, as numerous as the grains 
of sand on the brink of all the rivers on the earth, 
or the drops of water in the sea. How then can 
one of limited intelligence, like me, explain them ? 
Nevertheless, incapable as I am, I shall make at 

f Five days were occupied morning and evening in reading 
the original and hearing its exposition. Formerly the first day 
seems to have been a broken day, an evening lesson only being 
read. Now the time is filled up by reading at the last sitting 
all the original a second time, without comment, 


least the attempt to read the Institute before this 
propitious assembly. 

The five follow ing duties are Lhos e, \\ bich, with- 
out fail, musl be performed during the reading 
of the work. The reverencing of the images of 

ted saints venerating the Sages the yearly 
confession — mutual forgiveness of faults — tlu* liiilit 
kind of austerity (i.e. fasting one whole day, and 
eating but one meal on the precedingand succeed- 
ing day)*. Besides these, the following religious 
nets are incumbent upon the Sravakast. The 
writing of the Kalpa Sritra, text and comment, 
which is a special duty, since the hearing alone 
may become the means of liberation after the 
third transmigration. They should perform the 
fasts as far as their ability permits. Everywhere 
in the city proclamation is to be made by sound 
of trumpet, forbidding to kill any living creaturej. 

fan: *rafifof tt*p*t *rs*irTTrg 

+ Auditors, '.• . i be Jain laity. 

* Thia is called the "^fJfTT^m'TT^" Aaoka'sfamous ediota 
bo have been Bucb a proclamation committed to writing, 
and engraved on Btone t<> render them more permanent. Prom 
this and other plac •> ii appears thai on the Jain laity the fol- 
lowing five dnl all times incumbent : — Mercy t" all 
living -. the giving the cherishing of pious 

< ' 


Gifts are also to be made in a proper vessel, such 
as betel-nut, cocoa-nuts, and so forth ; pious dis- 
positions are to be cherished ; all worldly plans 
for the time abandoned ; the images of those 
divine beings who have overcome the passions are 
to be worshipped, and the auspicious Assembly of 
Sages venerated. The body is to be placed in a 
devotional position for the destruction of works. 
Continence also is to be preserved ; all show and 
parade are to be rejected, and money expended 
according to every one's means, and a religious 
festival observed. The book of the Kalpa Sutra 
should then be presented with religious reverence, 
that is to say, after having brought the book into 
the house, and the people there having continued 
watching all night, in the morning, having called 
the inhabitants of the city, and having cast on 
them saffron powder, and given them betel-nut, 
the book is to be put into the hands of a youth 
mounted on an elephant. The whole multitude 
are now to accompany it with music and singing, 
and to place it in the hands of the spiritual guide, 
for the purpose of being read, while a suitable pre- 
sent to procure necessaries for the reader is also 
to be made. He who presents the volume of the 
Kalpa Sutra with all these ceremonies, and corn- 
dispositions, worship of the images of the Tirthankars, and 
veneration and support of the priesthood. 


plete iii all its letters, listening also to it when 
read, obtains emancipation at least after the eighth 
i ransmigralion*. 

The Kalpa Siitra has three subjects :— The his- 
tory of the first and last Jina; the SthiraVali (list 
of 3ages); and the Samachari (rules of conduct). 

* The story of N£gaketu, who, in virtue of these ceremonies, 
revived after being Beemingly dead, is here tol<l before the com. 
mencemenl of the Sutras ; 1 >n t as i\ adds nothing to the infor- 
mation previously given, I have ao\ though! it accessary to 
insert it. 


BOOK r. 

Chapter I. 


[deration to the sages who have risen to be 
worthy of divine honour. Adoration to those who 
have attained perfection. Adoration to those who 
regulate our religious services. Adoration to our 

* Tin' proper name of the las! Tirthankar in Vardhamana, 
imt both in this wui-k and in common usage tin- above epithet, 

meaning (he II' ro, has bo completely usurped the pla« f the 

other, thai it would \>r affectation to make the required Hubsti- 
t ut ion in t be translation. 


spiritual instructors. Adoration to the sages in 
every part of the world*. 

Such is the fivefold adoration, the destroyer of 
all sin, and of all bringers of good fortune, the most 

The venerable ascetic Mahavira, in the age and 
time of which we speak, met with five propitious 
conjunctions under the constellation (Kathuttarai) 
Uttaraphalguni, which were as follows ; he de- 
scended from above in Uttaraphalguni, and entered 
on the foetal state ; in Uttaraphalguni he was 
removed from one womb to another ; he was born 
also ; he was shaved likewise, and from being a 
householder became a houseless wanderer, and, 
lastly, in Uttaraphalgunit, he obtained that real 

* The original of this Jain Gayatri is as follows : — 

1 In explanation of what is • meant by being under a con- 
stellation, take the following example : — 

Charitra Dvitiya, S. P., the second day of the Hindu year 
of Saka 1768, corresponding to March 29, 1846, was under the 
constellation Asvini, the first in the series; the next day, March 
30, was under Bbarani, the second of the series ; and so on till 
all the twenty-seven constellations were completed, when the 
series began anew with the 28th day, or April 25. Each of 
these constellations is now divided into four parts, called feet, 

LIFE OF maiia\ii;a. J.'i 

and Bupreme wisdom and perception, which is 
infinite in its subjects, incomparable in its kind, 

imperturbable, free tV all obscurity, a touchstone 

for all other things, and perfect in all its parts. 
It was under Svati, however, that the lord obtained 
Nirvan (cessation from action, and freedom from 

In this age, and at that time, the adorable 
ascetic Mahavfra, in the summer season, in the 
fourth month, in the right demi-lunation, during 
the increasing moon of Ashddha, and on its sixth 
day, descended from the all-joyous 
abode* called Pushpottara, which, like the lotus 
among flowers, is the chief of all the super-celestial 
abodes. There having remained twenty oceans of 
years, and expended the life destined for him in 
thai place, having finished the actions of that 
State, and laid aside his eelrstial form, without the 
smallest interval of time, he descended to this 
earth in the continent of Janibudvipa, in the 
country of Bharata Varsha, that Bharata Varsha 
which lies to the south (of Meru), during the 
currency of this A-vasarpini (age), after the Happy 

viz , ;i golden, :i >il\ cr. ;i brass, and an Iron fool ; each leas lucky 
than tin' preceding. 

* These are the abodes by the Jaina called V a term 

used by the Brohmans for ;i celestial car, or any other kind <■)' 


Happy age (consisting of four hundred billions of 
oceans of years) had passed, and the Happy age 
also (of three hundred billions), and the Happy 
mixed with Misery likewise (of two hundred bil- 
lions), and the Miserable tinged with Happiness 
(of one hundred billions of oceans of years) was also 
spent, except forty-two thousand and seventy -four 
years, and eight months and a half, after twenty- 
one Tirthankars had been born, of the tribe of 
Ikshvdku, and family of Kasyapa, and two in the 
Harivansa tribe, and family of Gautama. Twenty- 
three Tirthankars had then passed away, when the 
adorable ascetic Mahavira'*, the last of the Tirthank- 
ars, and pointed out as about to obtain this dignity 
by those who preceded him, took up his abode as a 
foetus in the womb of the Brahmani Devanandi, of 
the family of Jalandhara, wife of Kishabha Datta 
Brdhman, of the family of Kodala, of the city of 
Kundag&m, at the middle of the night, at a fortu- 
nate conjunction of the moon and planets, having 
left his heavenly banquet, quitted his celestial 
abode, and laid aside his former body. In refer- 

* The original of these epithets of Mahiivira so often used is 
TFTflXJT "HT^'T They might perhaps he equally well rendered 
the Ascetic Lord. The Sanskrit translation is, 7PJ3«ft 


ence fco this transaction there arc three kinds oi 
knowledge the adorable ascetic Mahavfra may be 
Bupposed tn have had ; that he was to descend, thai 
he had ; that he was descending, that he had not ; 
and that lie had descended, that he had. 

On that very night en which the adorable 
tic Mahavfra took the form of an embryo in 
the womb of Devanandi, of the family of Jalan- 
dhara, the same Devanandi was lying on her couch, 
and after sleeping a short time wakened up after 
seeing the following most excellent, prosperity- 
foreboding, evil -destroying, wealth-conferring, for- 
tunate, delight some objects in a dream. The objects 
were as follows : an elephant, a bull, a lion, the 
goddess Lakshmi, a garland of flowers, the moon, 
the sun, a military ensign, a large jar, the lotus 
lake, the sea (of milk), the celestial residence of the 
-.a collection of pearls, a smokeless flame of lire'-'. 
Such were the fourteen most excellent, prosperity- 
foreboding, evil-destroying, wealth-conferring, for- 
tunate, delightsomet dreams which Devanandi 

* The original is as follows: — 

t This and similar repel itions, with which the original abounds, 
I Bhall in future generally omit. 


saw. Glad and delighted, and with a heart filled 
with joy, pleased and placid, while a sensation of 
pleasure stole through all her soul, like that which 
affects the kadamba blossoms when moistened by 
a shower of rain, with all the hairs of her body 
standing upright in their pores with delight, and 
keeping the dream firmly fixed in her mind, she 
got up from her couch. Then without hurry or 
precipitation, or perturbation of mind, and yet 
without delay, with the stately gait of a swan, she 
went to the place where Rishabha Datta Brahman 
was, and saluting him by wishing him all joy*, sat 
down at her ease on a large comfortable seat, and 
then joining her hands, so as to bring the ten nails 
together, and having placed her joined hands on 
her forehead, she thus addressed him ; "O beloved 
of the gods, to-night I was lying, slumbering on 
my couch, and after sleeping a very short time, I 
awoke after seeing fourteen remarkable dreams ; 
they were an elephant, &c. ; beloved of the godst, 
tell me what good fortune these visions portend." 
Thereon Rishabha Datta Brahman, having care- 

* ^TnST fip3T€mr cf^TTcJT is the original of this ancient 

form of salutation. 

t This is the famous ancient title, Devanupiya, so common in 
Asoka's edicts, but which now by the Brahmans is applied to 
a silly or a crazy person, as if in contempt of the holders of the 
doctrine of Nirvan. 

1.1 IT. OF maii.w ii;a. 27 

fully apprehended the matter sin- had laid before 
him, glad and delighted ; placing the dream rally 
before bia mind, engaged in deep reflection, taxing 
all his powers till by an intellect that could look 
into all times, ami a reason that comprehended all 
relations, he came to a full comprehension of the 
meaning of the dream, when he thus addressed 
Devanandi : "0 beloved of the gods, you have 
seen a dream foreboding prosperity ; beloved of 
the g<«\*. a must fortunate dream ; beloved of the 
gods, ,-i pleasure-giving dream ; a dream the source 
of felicity. This much is most certain, yes at the 
end of nine full months and -seven and a-half 
nights* a child shall be born with well-shaped 
hands and. feet, perfect in every member of his b< >dy, 
with every lucky mark, mole, and characteristict, 

* lake as in our fortnight ami se'ennight, we have here 
time reckoned by nights. 

t The commentator -ays thai a Tirthankar has a hundred 

and eight marks, hut other lucky persons have some or all of 
the following thirty-two on the palms of the hauls or soles 

of the feet: — A large umbrella, a lotus, a bow, chariot, club, 
tortou well, (ho mark Svastica, a garland, tank, lion, 

■h, an elephant, the sea, a temple, fish, grain of 
barley, plough, post, pitcher, k i n lt. leather-dresser, mirror, hull. 
flag, ih'' goddess Lakshmi, a string of flowers, a peacock. Red 
nails, feet, hands, tongue, lips, palate, and eyes, be also tells as 

arc unlucky. A man who has the forehead, breast, ami mouth 

all large, will be a king. Such are Borne of the elements "i~ 
the .Iain palmistry and occult Bcienct 


proportioned in height, weight, and thickness"", with 
every limb fully developed, and perfect in beauty, 
with a form resembling the moon, graceful and 
pleasing to the eye ; to such an entirely lovely 
child will you give birth. On leaving the state of 
childhoodt, he will be perfect in all the inferior 
branches of knowledge, and after entering on the 
state of youth, he will soon become able to repeat, 
defend, and uphold the four Vedas, the Rig Veda, 
Yajur Veda, Sama Veda, and the Atharvana Veda, 
and the Itihasa (Legendary History), which is con- 
sidered a fifth Veda, and the Nighantu (Lexicon), 
which may be termed a sixth ; the body of divinity 
with all its members, and know also their hidden 
meaning. He will be acquainted with the six 
subsidiary members of the Veda, and the sixth 
philosophical system (the Sankhya), with the Ma- 
thematics, the Institute which directs in rites and 
ceremonies, Grammar, Prosody, Analysis of words, 
Astronomy, and other Brahmanical Scriptures, es- 
pecially that relating to the state of an ascetic ; in 
all of these he will become a proncient|. Thou, 

* So Man a, Unmana, and Pramana, are interpreted by the 

t That is, till the age of eight. 

J In this curious passage, giving an account of Brahmanical 
sacred literature in the fifth century of our era, it is remarkable 
that the agreement with the present state of that literature is 
perfect, with the striking discrepancy of omitting allnoticeof the 

I. mi: OF mah a \ 1 1; \ 29 

beloved of the gods, hast indeed Been a dream thai 
forebodes prosperity." And so Baying he again 

Purine. It' the [tahasa be the Purdue, as the commentator Beema 
to think, and nut the Mahabharat, which, however, is frequently 
by the Brahmans, as here, called the 6fth Veda, then there 
was but one Purana at the time, according to Professor Wilson's 
conjecture, Gram which all the rest, by subtractions and addi- 
tions, have been manufactured. As the whole passage is an 
interesting one, I put down the original here, along with the 
Sanskrit translation ; — 

si si 

^TXV: I VTT^ I ^^ I ^fTrPrT ft^R^ I 

fffTfT^ i fwn*w i ^r^TW i ^"^ i pRHT i 

•s» s» ^s» 

s» vj 

s» c\ si ^ 



and again gave expression to his sympathetic joy. 
The Bnihrnani Devanandi, on the other hand, 
having thus received the interpretation of her 
dream confidently believed it, and with a heart 
filled with gladness and delight, again joining her 
hands, and raising them to her forehead, thus 
addressed her husband : " So be it, O beloved of 
the gods, be it as thou hast said. No word of 
thine shall fail ; all shall be established. My 
desire shall be accomplished. I embrace the words 
that have fallen from your lips. O beloved of the 
gods, I confide in the truth of the joyful announce- 
ment." Here then the matter rested, but while 
she was delightfully engaged in inquiring of Risha- 
bha Datta into the meaning of these fortunate, 
pleasure-inspiring dreams, at the same time and 
season Sakra (Sakko), the chief and king of the 
gods, who holds in his hand the thunderbolt, is 
the destroyer of cities, the performer of a hundred 
sacrifices, has a thousand eyes, possesses all the 
materials for sacrifices, is the destroyer of the 
Daitya, lord of that half of the world that lies to the 
south (of Mem), who rides on Airavat, is prince of 
the Suras, and possessor of three hundred and twenty 

C\ vj s» \9 v« 


thousand celestial abodes, is clothed in pure ethe- 
rial robes, whose head is encircled with a tiara, on 
whose cheeks Pall down the circular ear-rings made 
of new gold, and delighting the beholder, pos- 
sessed of great wealth, of great splendour, of great 
strength, of great fame, of great majesty, and 
enjoying great felicity, whose body slums with its 
OWli radiance, who has a garland of five kinds of 
flowers falling down on his breast, rightful Bove- 
reign of the heavenly mansions, rightful sovereign 
of otlu-r celestial abodes, rightful president of the 
divine council, who sits on the fl none called (Sakra) 
"• the mighty,' who is lord of the i^'ds who inhahit 
the three hundred and twenty thousand celestial 
mansions, of the eighty-four thousand equal gods, 
of the thirty-three superior, and those whom they 
receive into their company of the guardian divini- 
ties of the four worlds*, of the eight principal 
queenst, with their domestics, of the three councils, 
of the seven branches of the army} of the ^"^^- 
who proted the lives of the eighty-four thousand 
divinities, and multitudes of gods and goddesses 
besides, to whom I Bay belongs the sovereignty, 

* The Lunar, the Infernal, and those of Varuna and Knwra. 
t Padma, Siva, Sachi, Anj.i, Anrala, Navanrika, Rohini. 

* Musicians, actors, horses, elephants, chariots, Foot-sold 
and baggage-bnllocl - the Comment. Tin's is different 
From the Brahmanical description of an army; but this, and 
many other curious points, must be left to the reflections of 
the reader acquainted with Brahmanical literature. 


priority, chieftainship, presidency, and -absolute 
command of all this vast army, directing and pro- 
tecting all; while then he was enjoying vocal music, 
the dance and the song, the sound of the pipe, the 
violin, the cymbal, the timbrel, the tambourine, 
and the loud-sounding drum, partaking of divine 
delight, he with a knowledge next to infinite" 55 ' cast 
his eyes with an all-embracing view down on the 
continent of Jambudvipa, permitting them to roam 
all abroad till they lighted on the place where the 
adorable ascetic Mahavira had just become incar- 
nate, in the continent of Jambudvipa, in the region 
of Bharata Varsha; that part of Bharata which lies 
to the south (of Meru), in the city of Kundagrama, 
the Brahmanical division, in the womb of the 
Brahmani Devanandi, of the tribe of Jalandhara, the 
wife of the Brahman Bishabha Datta, of the tribe 
of Kodala. On beholding this, glad and delighted, 
and with a heart full of joy, elated and filled with 
pleasure, in a state of the most enchanting ecstacy, 
and with his whole soul absorbed in a transport 
of delight, and like the sweet-smelling kadamba 
blossoms after a shower of rain, having all the 
hairs of his body erect, like so many flowery fila- 
ments, blossoming in their pores, and with face and 
eyes resembling a full-blown lotus, the beautiful 
bracelets and carved armlets, which he wore shak- 

* In the original, like infinite. It is only Tirthankars who 
have infinite knowledge. 


ing on him, his tiara, his long ear-rings, and the 
garland which adorned his breast, and nil the 
jewels with which he was ornamented thrown into 
commotion, he descends in haste from his throne, 
steps down from the footstool, and advancing 
several paces, [ndra, lord of the celestials, clad in 
his robes of honour, and adorned with all his 
jewels, loosed from his feet the shoes ornamented 
with dark shining lapis-lazuli stones, and other 
jewels, set in them by a divine artist, and throwing 
his seamless robe* over his left shoulder, and join- 
bis hands so as to bring the nails together, he 
advanced i till seven or eight steps in the direction 
of the Tirthankar, when kneeling so as to keep his 
left knee up, while his right was on the ground, lie 
1 his head three times to tin; earth, keeping 
it each time for a short period in the posture 01 
adoration, and afterwards raising his arms with 
the hands bo united as to bring the nails together, 
and thus carrying them up to his forehead, lie 
spoke a- follows : "Adoration to the venerablet, 
worshipfulj performer of all previous works§, who 

+ Axihant. 

.1 Bhagavan. 

Ldhikara, n uarne given t<> Brahma I 
by Brahmans, but here to be undi 
given by the c ■ • > • i r i *_•- 


procures the means of salvation"", the self-in- 
structedt, the best of men, the lion among men|, 
the chief lotus among men§, the leading elephant 
among men, the best of mortals, the leader of 
mortals, like a lamp hung up among mortals, the 
irradiator of mortals, the bestower of perfect secu- 
rity, who bestows intellectual vision, the establisher 
of the way of life, the giver of easy access, the 
giver of life, the great teacher, the establisher of 
religion, the giver of religious instruction, the lord 
of religion, the charioteer of religion, the emperor 
of those who have entered on the four religious 
states, the saviour of a continent, the asylum of 
those who apply to him, the receiver of those who 
seek indestructible wisdom, who is free from all 
fraud and violence, the conqueror of himself, and 
teaching others to conquer themselves, the saviour 
of himself, and the saviour of others, himself per- 
fect in wisdom, and imparting wisdom to others, 
the emancipator of himself, and the emancipator of 
others, possessed of omniscience, seeing all existent 
beings, free from pain and instability, from disease 
and decay, and not liable to injuries, possessed of 

* Tirthankara, which I explain as above, 
t Sayamsambuddhanam 'CT^'T'^T'Sr f%«TT 

X To tear mercilessly the passions. 

§ To cover them with his protection, as the lotus does the 
water with its leaves. 


infinitude, and who does not return again to (lie 
world, who is named the obtainer of perfection, 
and has highest place of dignity. 

mi to the victor, who lias in his breast the 
nee of victory, I adore the worshipful, vener- 
hdvira, who has performed all the prelimi- 
virtuous a> I is the last of the Tirthan- 

. pointed out by all the former Tirthankars, 
and who has at last obtained the Biipreme i 
of desire. 1 pr< myself before the all- v 

able, who now seems to me hither, and 

■ ; O Lord, both here and there, I adore 
thee."' So Baying, be returned and took his Beat 
on his throne. After a little while, refltv 
within him. ell' on the subject before him, the fol- 
lowing thoughts occurred to the mind of Sakra* 
prince and king of the gods; I uch a thing 

as this has never happened in past, happens not in 
will happen in future time, that an 
lakravarti, a Baladeva, or a Vasudeva 
Id be born in a low caste family, a servile 
family, a degraded family, a poor family, a mean 
family, a beggar's family, or a Brahman's family ; 
but, on the contrary, in .ill time pai mt, and 

* In Magadhi 8akko, the 

The word La mm 
same i ." used as a na 


to come, an Arhat*, a Chakravartit, a Vasudevaj, 
receives birth in a noble family, an honorable 
family, a royal family, a Kshatriya family, as in 
* the family of Ikshvaku, or the Harivansha family, 
or some such of pure descent. Now truly there 
threatens to take place a wonder which has never 
happened, nor does happen, nor will happen in the 
world throughout the course of infinite Utsarpinis§, 
and Avasarpinis. His first origin, the act of 
giving him a family name, must be such as to 
consort with an undecaying, indescribable, inde- 
structible renown. I say, then, that the birth of 
an Arhat, a Chakravarti, a Baladeva, or a Vasudeva 
has not taKen place, nor does, nor will take place 
in a low caste, servile, contemptible, poor, beggarly, 
miserly, or Brahman family, such a thing neither 
was, is, nor shall be, and yet the venerable ascetic 
Mahavira has just now descended to the continent 
of Jambudvipa, the country of Bharata, to the 
Brahman division of the town of Kundagrama, and 

* The highest class of sages among the Jains, are worthy 
of divine honours. 

t In Mdgadhi, Chakkavatti, an emperor, a king who has 
other kings under him. 

J The Jains make Krishna and others belong to the class 
of demigods styled Vasudevas ; Bala Rama they make a 
Baladeva, a still inferior kind of demigod. 
§ Immense cycle of ages. See Preface. 

LIFE OF .vaiiavii: \ 

mceived in the womb of Devannndi, the wife 
of Elishabha Datta ; wherefore he is dow about 
doing a thing that never happened, ndr does, 
Qor will happen, during the presidency of any 
[ndra, prince and king of the gods, thai an Arhat 
should be born in a low caste, or Brahman family, 
and do! on the contrary in a noble family. The 

thing then that can be done is to withdraw 
tlie venerable ascetic Mahavira, last of the- Tir- 
tliankars, and pointed out by his predecessors, 
from the womb of Devanandi, and place him in 
that of Trisald, the Kshatrayin, of the family of 
Vasishta, wife of Siddhartha, the Kshatriya, of the 
family of Kasyapa, both of pure Kshatriya descent . 
After these thoughts had passed through his mind, 
called Ilarinegamesi, the chief of his messen- 

and thus addressed him : "0 beloved of the 
gods, a thing now threatens to take place, which 
never happened lief ire, hor now happens, nor evei 
will happen, that the birth of an Arhat should 

* It is difficult bo >;iv what could have Induced the author t.. 

invent this ridiculous story (unless it were to venl liis s])itr 

• I the Brahmans),so like t he Puranic legend of I lalarama's 

In tliis fable ELarinegamesi acts the part that 

trahmans assign to Ybganidra. The commentator antici- 

tory, and brings forward the Brahman- 

ipport the credil of the author. 


take place in a low caste, or Brahmanical family. 
Therefore go you, O beloved of the gods, to 
the worshipful ascetic Mahavira, who is now con- 
ceived in the womb of Devanandi, in the Brahman 
division of the city of Kundagrama, and withdraw 
him from thence, and place him in the womb of 
Trisala, the wife of Siddhartha, and return quickly, 
and report your diligence in this affair." Haii- 
negamesi"*, chief of the heavenly messengers, hav- 
ing received the commands of Sakra, king and 
chief of the gods, delighted, and with a heart filled 
with joy, bringing his hands together (in token of 
obedience), immediately addressed himself to the 
execution of the orders which he had received from 
the mouth of the god. Having accordingly gone 
to the north-east quarter, he, at the commencement 
of his journey, changed his appearance, exhibiting 
himself in the form of a pillar of innumerable 
leagues in length, combining the lustre of the 
diamond, the ruby, the emerald, the opal, the 
pulakat, Sugandha, Jyotivanta,Anjana, Anjanapula, 
Jyotiresa, Subhaga, Anka, rock crystal, amethyst, 
and other brilliant gems, and of the consistency of 
muslin. After thus proceeding a certain space, he 

* The Sanskrit given here is Harinaigamaishi. I suppose 
the name means "swifter than a cleer." 

t I give here the Sanskrit names of those gems of which 
I cannot ascertain any thing certain. 


again changed his appearance, and assuming an 
atomic body, he darted with a motion graceful, 
rapid, willing, exultant, fleet, elegant, in a word, 
entirely perfect and divine, through seas and con- 
tinents till he arrived at Jambudrfpa, at the house 
of Rishabha Datta. On entering, he at once Baw 
the worshipful, ascetic Mahavira, and prostrated 
himself before him. Then having cast Devanandi, 
with all her attendants and family, into a deep 
p* having removed all impure matter, he took 
out what was pure, and without injuring or paining 
the adorable ascetic Mahavira, he placed him sur- 
rounded with a divine lustre, in the palm of one 
hand, and covering him with the other, carried him 
off to the Kshatriya division of Kundagrama, to 
the house of the Kshatriya Siddhartha, where was 
his wife Trisala ; having then cast her and hei 
attendants into a deep sleep, without injury or p;i in, 
he introduced the adorable ascetic Mahavira in the 

wombofthe Kshatrayin. When he had performed 
this service, he returned with a graceful, divine 
motion through seas and continents, thousands of 
lies, till he reached the abodes of the bl< 

and entered the heaven of the religioust, where 

* This by the Jains is called Asvapani Nidra, and it is the 
tin' three kind- of sleep whieh they reckon op, patting 
one in mind of :i m 

f ( . larmavantaraloka Viman " 


is the throne of Sakra, the .chief and king of the 
gods, and reported to his lord that he had per- 
formed what he was commanded to do. In refer- 
ence to this transaction, the adorable ascetic may 
be supposed to have had three kinds of knowledge, 
but in reality he knew that he was to be with- 
drawn, and that he was withdrawn, but he did not 
know when he was in the act of being withdrawn. 

! !!■!: OF MA1I.W n:.\ 4 1 



In tin 1 same night that the adorable ascetic Ma- 
havira waa removed to the womb of Tris'ala, she 
\v;ts lying in her splendid mansion, ornamented 
inside with numerous paintings, and outside with 
smooth white stucco, having a ceiling adorned 
underneath with various colours, and with clusters 
of darkness-dispelling pearls, and a floor perfectly 
smooth, and. marked with lucky figures, in which 
were bouquets of fresh and sweet-smelling flowers 
of all the five different colours, along with black 
aloe wood, and the finest frankincense and am- 
bergris, burning and sending up curling scented 
names, inspiring delight, and making the house 
emit an odour like a grove of frankincense trees ; 
in such a splendid mansion, on a couch large 
enough to allow the body to be stretched at lull 
Length, with pillows at head and foot, and raised 
at the sides, while flat in the middle, with a foot- 
stool to mount it, soft as the sand on the banks of 
the Ganges, with sheets of the finest materials, 


thrown over if", with a handkerchief lying on it of 
the richest colours, covered with mosquito curtains, 
in a word, altogether delightsome, soft to the 
touch as fur, silk, cotton, or butter, and scented 
with sandal -wood, and other sweet-smelling woods, 
altogether a couch to be coveted, there, while 
lying, and having fallen asleep but a short time, 
about the middle of the night, she saw the same 
fourteen propitious dreams that the Brahmani 
Devanandi saw, after which she wakened up. The 
objects seen by her in her dreams were, first, an 
elephant with four tusks, looking like radiant drops 
of dew, or a heap of pearls, or the sea of milk, 
possessing a radiance like the moon, huge as the 
silvery mountain Vaitadhyat, while from his tem- 
ples oozed out the sweet liquid that attracts the 
swarms of bees. Such was the incomparably 
stately elephant, equal to Airavat himself, which 
Queen Tris'ala saw, while uttering a fine deep sound, 
with his trunk filled with water, like the sound of 
thunder ; hi every respect an incomparable ele- 

She next saw a bull shedding a flood of radi- 
ance, like to that which proceeds from a bunch 

* Sans. ^n^T ^rf^nftei' which should be linen or silk ; 
but the Gujarathi makes the covering of cotton stuff. 

f A fabulous mountain, which the Jains suppose first to 

receive and then reflect the sun's rays. 

LIFE OF MAll.Wii; \ 43 

of white Lotus flowers, shining and darting out rays 
on every side. A yery fine ornamental attractive 
hump adorned his shoulders. His skin was clear. 
his hair sleek, his form graceful, and his body in 
good condition, and altogether beautiful to look 
on ; his horns were circular, smooth, and elevated ; 
his to i!i were harmless and clean. Such was the 
_■■•■ "f excellent qualities the bull possessed. 

She next s;iw a lion of ;i dazzling white colour, 
like a bunch of pearls, or the sea of milk, or the 
lunar radiance, or the drops of dew, whiter than the 
great mountain Vaitadhya, pleasing and delightful 
to the sight, si rong, muscular, and fat, with his mem- 
bers all properly rounded in the most elegant w&] . 
having a sharp well-formed jaw, a mouth beautiful 
as tlu' periphery of a lotus, a fine muscular lip, with 
a palate like the red water lily, and the tip of his 
tongue hanging out of his mouth like fine gold 
being poured out arucible, while his bright eye 

seemed like a hall of lightning falling upon you. 
His chest was broad, and his large well-made 
shoulders were adorned with a soft, bright, (inc. 
sleek, Long-haired mane, while his tail was raised 

aloft with a circle in the (•''litre'-", bounding like a 

lull, and po y the good qualities as well as 

form «»f the moon. Ho seemed bounding play- 

This is t!ic form intended *^"^ > 


fully along, and descending from heaven with open 
mouth, as if he were coming directly down upon 
you ; a lion with sharp strong claws, yet pleasing 
to the sight, and with a tongue hanging out of his 
mouth, beautiful as the petal of a lotus. 

The fourth dream seen by her whose face was 
like the full moon, was a vision of the goddess 
Lakshmi, sitting on her lofty lotus throne. Her 
form was altogether excellent ; one foot was firmly 
planted on the ground, and seemed like a pillar of 
o'old. It was elevated in the centre like the back of 
a tortoise, while the nails partly hid by the muscles 
of the toes, were stained with a brilliant red dye. 
Her fingers and toes were soft and tapering like 
the leaves of a lotus ; her well-formed legs were 
adorned with circular ornaments ; her knee-bones 
were hid in the muscles, and her thighs tapering 
upward like the trunk of an elephant. Encircling 
her loins was an elegant zone of gold, whi]e the 
circle of the navel resembled a cloud of black bees, 
being continuous, fine, ever-moving, soft, downy, 
large, and elegant. The other three circles which 
are in the middle of the palms of the hands, were 
also elegantly formed. Her whole body was 
adorned with various kinds of jewels, wholly fault- 
less, and highly brilliant. In particular, she had 
a pearl necklace, intermingling with garlands of 
sweet-scented flowers. A circular pendant fell 
down between her breasts, and adorned her chest, 


on which it rested. She had also around her neck 
a string of grains and golden dinars*. Two large 
ear-rings hung down from her oars, and illumined 
the shoulders with which they came in contact. 
Everything about her was beautiful ; her face 
had a noble aspect; her eyes were large and 
lovely, like lotus (lowers; she hold a water lily, 
still dripping with water, in her hand, and she was 

fanned by an agreeable wind, which set in motion 
her tine black braided hair. Such was the goddess 
the queen saw residing in her lotus house, called 
Padmadraha, on the top of Mount Himavat, and 
by win mi stood the guardian elephant of that 
quarter of the heavens, bathing her with water 
from his trunk. 

The fifth dream was a vision of a garland of 
flowers altogether delightsome, and worthy a place 
in the heaven of delights. It was composed of the 
following flowers — champaka, asoka, punnaga, pri- 
yangu, sarisava, magarat, malatit, jd.tit, juhit, kolla, 
koshta, and bakula, intermingled with amaranth 

* The original word is here retained ^j^fPC The custom 
of stringing coins together, and adorning with then children 
especially, is Btill very common in India. 

t 'It '1 varieties of Jasmine. The scientific i 

of tl. irs will generally !><• found in Wii 


leaves, and southern-wood, besides jasmine of 
other rare varieties ; and sesame flowers, and 
other flowers of spring, with red, blue, and white 
water lilies, with beautiful sweet-smelling mango 
blossoms — producing altogether an unequalled, 
delightsome, sweet-smelling garland of flowers, 
imparting pleasure to the inhabitants of the ten 
regions of the world, shining and waving, and 
pleasing the eye, and of every variety of colour, 
while a swarm of six-footed* honey-bees were seen 
buzzing and flying around it as it descended from 

The queen next saw the moon white as the 
froth of milk, the drops of dewt, or a silver spire, 
rejoicing the heart, delighting the eyes, a perfect 
circle, destroying thick conglomerated, impene- 
trable darkness, a full moon, at the exact point 
between the two halves of the month, bringing 
out the radiance of the wild lotus flowers, adorn- 
ing night, sliming like a polished mirror, and 
brilliant as the white swan, sharpening the arrows 

* The Jains are fond of four-tusked elephants and six- 
footed bees, and other such preter-natnral animals. 

t <5 4{ <^ <4 literally water-pearls, both Sanskrit and Gujaratlri 

give ^pSTcfrmT' The Sanskrit from which the Magadhi is 

changed may be \3s^"eJ\^5i| as well as \3"*T3r^7i5r 


I 'upid, and raising the oceanic tides*, no1 to be 
Looked on by disconsolate wives temporarily sepa- 
rated from their husbands, lest they suffer a 
greater calamity ; a moon altogether lovely, like 
the mark on the forehead, the pride of all the 
circling starry host, especially beloved of Etohini 
in soul and heart. Such was the glorious lovely 
full moon which Trisala saw. 

■ next in her dream saw the sun, rending 
the curtain of night, all glorious "with his encircling 

radiance, like a hunch of red asoka or p.ilasa 
flowers, like a bill of a parrot, or the red side of 
the retti seed, adorning the beds of wild lotuses, 
occupying his proper station in the beginning of 
the ecliptic, like a lamp hung down from heaven, 
destroying the influence of cold; the prince of 
planets, the conqueror of night, who at his rising 
and setting comes near us, but afterwards removes 
far from us. who disperses the evil doers that 

stroll about in the dark, who stops the influence 
of the cold winds, who circles round Mem the 

* The original here is *nT?"<£J|lH J| The Sanskrit trans- 

lution is TT?7 j^"3p*r3 »*i [ cj ,£ cf» I mention this in case of any 

doubting whether the author knew the true cause of tl 
of the tides, especially as I donol recoiled 
anywhere, thai the Hindus m 


prince of mountains, the mighty Surya, darting 
forth his thousand rays, the glory of the Aditya. 

Next she saw a standard, with its golden staff 
firmly fixed, and its flag, consisting of a pro- 
fusion of blue, red, yellow, and white cloth, raised 
and spread out to the wind, while the extremity 
was adorned with a bunch of peacock's feathers. 
It was brilliant as crystal, a pure conch, the flowers 
of jasmine, the drops of dew, or a silver jar. Its 
head was in the shape of a lion's, exceedingly 
splendid, while it pierced the sky with its extremity. 
It was lucky to behold, and had its soft flag 
moved backward and forward by a gentle wind, 
and, though vast in size, yet of a form attractive 
to the beholder. 

She next saw ajar shining like burnished gold, 
full of the purest and best water, brilliant and 
ornamental, and placed upon a lotus made of 
pearls, delighting the eyes, and shedding a brilliant 
lustre, which diffused itself on all sides ; a habita- 
tion of the mild Lakshmi herself, wholly free of 
defect, fortunate, and resplendent, a very type of 
prosperity, having the beautiful and sweet-smell- 
ing flowers of all seasons arranged in it like a 
necklace : altogether, a perfect and brilliant flower- 

She next saw the Lotus Lake, irradiated by 
the first beams of the rising sun, which tinged 
its waters with an orange hue, producing innu- 

LIFE OF MAil.W m;a. !'.» 

merable thousand-leaved water lilies, filled with 
aquatic animals, and exhibiting shoals of happy 

fishes, sporting ami shining" as it' the water were Oil 
fire. There sprung up lotuses of the solar radiance 
and of the lunar radiance, the blue lotus, the rose- 
coloured, and the pale, all growing together in one 
Inartificial, splendid, delightful assemblage. Large 
black ltees, and Bwarms of gadflies, were luxuriat- 
ing among the leaves. Black swans, and white 
swans, cranes, geese, and Indian cranes, in all 
their pride, males and females, were fluttering 
Over the water, while the lot its Leaves, besprinkled 
with drops of dew, reflected every variety* of colour, 
a Bight wholly pleasing to the eve : a piece of water 
inspiring the highest delight. 

She next saw the sea of milk shining like 
the moon, when she shines with her utmost bril- 
liance, propitious as the divine curl", the fluid 
rushing together from the four quarters of the 
heavens, the lofty waves incapable of measure- 
mentt, utterly devoid of stability, agitated by the 
tempestuous winds"; in one place rushing against 
each ether, while in another they dash against the 
shore, sending forth a brilliant spray, inspiring the 

* Srivatea, considered lucky among Jains and Brahmana 

f So I ] •■ ^TTTJT'^IT^'T ! a fine idea, "that can 

be compared only to the] • 



soul with delight. Enormous whales, crocodiles, 
and sea-serpents""", darting through the fluid, form 
rivers of foam, white as camphor ; and again diving 
into the depths, occasion a whirlpool, like that of 
the Ganges when she bursts through her mountain 
barriers. Such was the mighty effervescence of 
waters seen by the queen, whose countenance was 
radiant as the moon. 

After this she saw a celestial mansiont, re- 
splendent and shining with a radiance like that 
of the newly-risen sun, or a large heap of pearls, 
with a hundred and eight pillars, each shedding a 
flood of light from the gold and jewels with which 
they were adorned. It seemed a lamp let down 
from heaven, or some radiant celestial garland. 
Upon it were painted lionsj, oxen, horses, men, 
alligators, fishes, serpents, heavenly choristers, 
celestial roebucks, and eight-legged deer§, Tibetan 
cows, elephants, and many other animals. It was 
ornamented also with the finest flowers, and great 

* Timingala, Nirudha, Tilira. 

t The original is Viniana, but the Jains use this word for a 
mansion, and not for a car. 

% TJ7T fur TJTT! the Commentator has strangely ^nifT* 

the Guj. is ^'faTW 

§ ^^ The Jains consider these to have eight legs. 

LIFE OF maii.w ii;a. ;") I 

variety of Lotuses. The heavenly band of singers 
sent forth a Bound, articulate and harmonious, yei 
so loud thai the thunder which issues from some 
immense lightning-charged watery cloud could 
not equal it : while the celestial bass drum sends 
forth a Bound qo! inferior to thai which all the men 
and animals in the world could raise. The linest 
aloe-wood, and License, and ignited ambergris, 
send up a fragrant smoke, which, rising in curling 
wreaths, delimits by its sweet perfumes, eve)- con- 
tinuing radiant and bright, and diffusing abroad 
streams of delight; a mansion in every respect 
desirable for the gods. Such was the splendid 
lotus habitation seen by the queen. 

The next thing seen was a heap of jewels. 
It contained diamonds, adamants* sapphires, chal- 
cedonies, rubies, emeralds, corals, rock crystals, 
fragrant stones, swan-egg stones, black jewels, 
moon stones, and other precious stones, piled to- 
gether in an immense heap, and illuminating 
heaven with their radiance, a heap of jewels high 
even as Mem, prince of mountains. 

Last of all she saw the smokeless lire, large, 
bright, and of an orange colour, fed by fresh 

* These are respectively U^tt mid ^fTZ" Some of the 
following arc mere translations of names' without imparting any 
knowledge of what Btonea tbey refer to, ri thing I am unable 

t>> do. 

E 2 


melted butter, blazing away without producing any 
smoke. The flame was most pleasant to the sight, 
rising and falling alternately, a mass of fire com- 
ing out of itself and again returning into itself; 
a swift ever-flitting fire, with a flame rising aloft, 
extending itself on all sides, seeming as if it were 
about to bake the firmament"''. 

^fa^ gr^j^rr that is ^TcTrTmr^rc*ro 

LIFE OF .MAHAYll; \. 53 

Chapter III. 


Sucb were the prosperity-foreboding dreams which 
when the lotus-eyed queen, mother of the Tir- 
thankar, bad seen, she wakened up ; and, fixing 
the dreams firmly in her memory, and descending 
from her couch hy means of the footstool, wenl bo 
the place where the Kshasi riya Siddhartha was Lying 
in his bed asleep. There serenading him with her 
gentle and sweet voice, in these words: — "Thou 
art most noble, most amiable, most beloved, most 
worthy of being thought on and delighted in. most 
mighty, prosperous, gentle, wealthy, bounteous, 
fortunate, and worthy of all the affection of the 
heart, the disperser of hostile armies*," — she 

* In the original these are all epithets of f*]^if% thai is, 
'Mm'; '"'' ' ;iIn informed thai the meaning is ;i> given, and 
such an enumeration of the qualities of ;i greal man bj .... 
officer who goes before, is still a necessary part of Hindu 
ceremonial on public occasions. 


awaked him out of his sleep. Thereon King 
Siddhartha graciously receiving her, commanded 
her to sit down on an elegant easy seat, adorned 
with gold and jewels ; whence she, after being 
seated, thus in sweet accents addressed him : — ■ 
" O my lord, while I was this evening sleeping in 
my splendidly furnished apartments, I saw the 
following objects in a dream, viz., an elephant, a 
bull, &c. Tell me then, my lord, what good for- 
tune and future happiness these fuurteen dreams 
forebode." King Siddhartha, glad and delighted, 
after fully grasping with his mind, and reflecting 
again and again on the dreams, while he sum- 
moned up all his powers of intellect and reason, 
having comprehended their meaning, thus ex- 
plained it to Tris'ala : — " beloved of the gods, 
thou hast seen a prospering, propitious, blessed 
dream, a dream that portends good fortune, and 
happiness that forebodes the birth of a royal son. 
In nine months and seven and a half days, thou 
wilt give birth to a heaven-descended son, who 
will become an ensign to our family, the lamp 
of our family, the family crown, the family frontal 
ornament""", the enricher of the family, the stay of 
the family, the sun of the family, the glory of the 

* Tilaka, a lucky ornamental round mark Hindus make with 
a paste on their forehead. 

LIFE OF maii \\ ii;a. 55 

family, the family foundation, and the family ex- 
alter. His hands and feel will be perfect In beauty, 
his five senses perfect, and all his qualities, pro- 
perties, and marks-', complete, of proper height, 
weight, and proportions, ami all the Limbs properly 
developed, and agreeable to the sight as the moon. 
Such shall In.- thy son ; and when he passes from 
the Btate of childhood to thai of youth, he will be 
perfect in all the common branches of knowledge, 
and as a youth will be brave, heroicj powerful, well 
built, capable of leading armies; in a word, a king 
<»t* kings. Thou hast soon, therefore, a most pro 
pitious dream;"— and this he repeated two or 
three times. 

When then Trisala had heard the interpreta- 
tion of the dream from Kiag Siddhartha, laying it 
up in her heart, and bringing her joined hands to 
her forehead, she thus spoke: — "I accept of the 
interpretation you have given as wholly free from 
error and doubt, and as altogether excellent and 
according to my wishes." So saying, Bhe rose 
from her seat, and departed; hut, on reflection, 
Bhe -.lid in her own mind. " Now, i musl take 
care that no wicked dream follow, to destroy the 
virtue of this on,'. Dreams concerning the gods, 

* Thai i-. moles and marks on the body, which are considered 

,:r;i! i 1 11 1 n irl ;u ;■ 


religious teachers, and things good, lucky, chari- 
table and desirable, require that a person should 
afterwards continue watching." She thus accord- 
ingly acted. 

In the morning, at the first dawning of the day, 
Siddhartha called some of the royal messengers 4 ', 
and spoke to them as follows : — " beloved of the 
gods, go now quickly without the palace, and pre- 
pare the hall of audiencet, for holding a court to- 
day. Let the place be sprinkled with scented 
water, and the floor newly smeared!, let the hall 
be adorned with sweet-smellino; flowers of the five 
different colours, let the best aloe-wood and am- 
bergris and incense, send up in curling wreaths 
their sweet delight-inspiring perfumes. After the 
whole has been properly perfumed, let my throne 
be set down in the midst of it : and when you, 
by yourselve3 and others 5 have performed all these 
my commands, come back quickly and so report to 

* Mag. c£Y^fir?mf^ Sans. cfft^f^TTW^ 

t ^^sF^T^WTtjf a temporary building, or one of slight 
materials, large and spacious, such as the Hindus now construct, 
or deck out, on great occasions, a pavilion. 

% That is, with cow-dung, as the Hindus do constantly to 
earthen floors, which, when dried and swept, are far from 
offensive, even to a European. 

LIFE OF MA11.W ii;a. 57 

nit'.' Tile 1 1 iess< ■liters having thus received the 
commands of King Siddh&rtha, and laid up his 
words in their joyful hearts, joining their hands, 
said, "We haw with all humility heard your com- 
mands, O our lord, and will yield implicit obe- 
dience." Immediately they departed, and going 
to the hall of audience without the palace, prepared 
it as the king had ordered, and returning, so 
reported to his Majesty. Siddhartha arose, and by 
the help of his footstool descended from his couch, 
while it was yet the season of blooming early morn, 
and the brilliant aurora-like beds of full-blown 
flowers and lotuses appear in all their beauty, 
diffusing a radiance resembling red asoka flowers, 
rottleria blossoms, or the red phoenisia ; and soon 
the rising sun, like the crimson side of the retti 
seed, the eyes and feet of the wild pigeon, or the 
scarlet-coloured eye-balls of the India cuckoo, 
emulating a bouquet of red China roses, deep as the 
colour of red lead, or that of a bunch of red lotuses, 
with liis thousand rays, introducing day. and dis- 
pelling night and all its gloom, shines forth, and, 
like the red mark that adorns the forehead of 
children and women, irradiates the world of living 
creatures. Having got up, he went into the 
gymnasium", where there was a profusion of instru- 


ments for exercising the body, and weights for 
stretching the arms. There, after exercising him- 
self till he was tired and tired again, he took 
various kinds of oris, some with a hundred and 
others with a thousand drugs and medicaments 
dissolved in them, sweet-smelling, nourishing, 
irradiating, exhilarating, fattening, strengthening, 
and quickening all the senses ; he anointed him- 
self all over with these ; he was then well rubbed 
and shampoed by men skilled in the art, and who 
could impart a softness and tenderness even to 
the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, who 
could perform their work with quickness and dex- 
terity, the first and cleverest of their profession, 
and who had studied well the art, and were in- 
capable of fatigue, kneading the body till the bones 
were invigorated, the muscles refreshed, the skin 
relaxed, and the hair made to shine, all the four 
tissues of the body refreshed, and all langour and 
fatigue banished. He then left the gymnasium, 
and went into the bathing room'". The room was 
hung round with strings of pearls, and various 
kinds of jewels, the floor of the smoothest stucco- 
work ; a delightful bathing place it was. Sid- 
dhartha sat down upon the jewelled easy bathing 
seat, and then performed his ablutions, so con- 



dttcive to health and comfort, with tepid water, 

scented with flowers and sweet perfumes, pure 
water from a holy place. At the end of this ope- 
ration, attended with so lnueli pleasure, he dried 
himself with a towel made of soft, valuable, and 
finely coloured cloth. After this, he put on his 
robes, made of the most expensive materials, and 
fringed with jewels, entirely new, and adorned 
with wreaths of flowers, sprinkled with saffron, 
and Bcented with sandal-wood. He then threw 
around his neck, so as to fall down on his breast, 
a oecklace, in which pearls and jewels and gold 
medals were intermingled with one another, con- 
sisting of eighteen, nine, or three strings, as the 
case might be. He next fitted his jewelled collar 
close to his neck"", put the rings on his ringers, and 
the armlet s ;md bracelets on his muscular arms, 
while the long circular ear-rings hung down and 
adorned his cheeks, and a tiara his head. Thus 
arrayed, with the necklace adorning his breast, 
jewelled rings of the best gold his fingers, with an 
ele"\Mit scarf falling down on the left side, and 
with what is called the hero's ornamenl on his arm, 
made of the finest gold, and set with the most ex- 

* These arc two completely different pieces of drees; the 
former hangs loose like a garland, the latter Gte close like ;> 


pensive jewels by the most skilful workmen, shin- 
ing, glittering incomparable, in a word, like the 
tree that yields all that is desired, covered with 
ornaments, with a state umbrella held over his 
head, resembling a canopy of amaranth blossoms, 
and fanned with a chowrie, while the people raised 
an auspicious shout of triumph, attended by the 
commanders of the troops, and heads of depart- 
ments, the vice-regent""', the heads of the policet, 
chief of the royal messengers^, counsellors, infe- 
rior and superior, astrologers, warders, cabinet 
ministers, slaves, and personal attendants, citizens, 
with the lawyers and bankers, commanders of the 
forces, commanders of the chariots, couriers, and 
sealers§, issued forth the king and lord of men, 

* This is the Yuva raja, called in the text simply TJT^T" 

f In India usually called the Kotwal ; perhaps under the 
native governments, a commander of the city-guard would 
give a truer notion of his dignity. 

J The Kodambia again; the Sanscrit is ^fZ'^^Tm'T! the 
word cR"^"J5f is not in the Dictionary, and it occurs too fre- 
quently to be erroneously written. Their dignity seems to have 
been much higher than that of the TTrl mentioned afterwards. 

§ ^f^T^T^T whose duty it was, according to the king's 
commaud, to affix the royal signet to public documents. Such 
an officer, I believe, exists at the East India House. 

LIFE OF MA1I.W 1KA. lil 

the bull and lioD among men, lovely to behold* as 
the moon after emerging from a large white cloud, 
shining among the surrounding stars and planets, 

and came outside to the place where the hall of 
audience was, and sat down upon his throne, which 
was place 1 BO as to face the east. In the north- 
east quarter were placed eight seats of honour, 
covered with cloth, white as the flowers of the 
white mustard plant. Beyond these again, at 
a respectful distance, there was drawn a curtain 
fringed with jewels, and of the finest city manu- 
facture, embroidered with images of stags, bulls, 
horses, men, crocodiles, birds, serpents, heavenly 
choristers, eightr-legged deer, Tibetan cows, and 
elephants, with forest flowers and water lilies, 
forming a perfect screen from the multitude. 
Within this was set a throne, covered with the 
purest white cloth, and fringed with gold and 
jewels, f"r Queen Trisald, soft and easy to sit on. 
Having then called the royal messengers, King 
Siddhartha thus addressed them : — "O beloved of 

the gods, gO quickly and call a sage skilled in the 

[nstitute of the eight kinds of prognosticst, Learned 

* This i< the famous epithet ftTtEJ'^'^JUT that occurs so 
Frequently in the ancient inscriptions, ami which we have here 
nut u ith Beveral t imes I" Pore. 

f According to the Annotator, the eight kinds of prognostics 
are. those derived from the body, dreams, Bounds, the earth, 


in all the Sastras, and especially skilled in the 
interpretation of dreams." Having received the 
royal commands with reverence, the messengers, 
pleased and delighted, and having raised their 
hands to their foreheads in token of obedience, 
took their departure, and went into the middle of 
the city of Kundagrama, where lived the skilful 
interpreters of dreams. 

moles and marks, congenital qualities and marks, meteoric por- 
tents, and heavenly portents. An example given is, that the 
twitching of the right eye, or the throbhing in the right side, is 
lucky to a man, and in the left to a woman, and the contrary. 
In the play of the Toy Cart it is singular that Arya's right arm 
throbbed when he escaped from danger, and Vasantsena's right 
eye twinkled when she fell into danger. Twitching in the 
throat he tells us portends finding a wife, in the legs fetters, in 
the head a kingdom, &c. The falling of a star betokens dis- 
tress to subjects, and the occurrence of a hurricane causes 
disasters to kings. Laughing in a dream portends grief, and 
dancing bonds ; with the exception of a cow, horse, elephant, 
or image everything black seen in a dream is unlucky, and 
everything white lucky, except cotton and wool. Such are 
some specimens of this precious Sastra. 

LIFE OF M aii.w ii; \. f,:; 

( Ihafteb I V. 


I >\ entering the houses of the interpreters of 
dreams, the royal messengers delivered to them 
the King's message. On being thus summoned 
by the messengers of the noble Siddhartha, glad 
and delighted in heart, they first bathed, and per- 
formed the worship of the gods'", then, to prevent 
any prodigy or misfortune, put the lucky mark on 
their foreheads (Tilaka), put on clean, fortunate, 
courtly garments, good, light, and valuable ; 
adorned their persons with jewels, and put on 
their heads the sesame seed and kusa grass, the 
insurers of good fortune. Thereon they left their 
houses, and went to the place, in the middle of 
Kundagrama, where King Siddhartha's palace 
was \ there they stopped at the principal gate, 
distinguished by a crest in the shape of a crown, 
and having waited till all were collected, they 

* Tins is omitted in one copy; btri these men were probably 
by religion Br&hmans. 


went together to the splendid hall of audience, 
where King Siddhartha was, and made obeisance 
to him, wishing him a continuance of prosperity 
and victory*". The King returned their salutations 
with all manner of respect, and ordered them to 
be seated on the aforementioned eight seats. 
Having also made Tris'ala sit down with her maids 
of honour in the place prepared for her, with a 
sweet-smelling flower in his hand, in pleasing and 
gentle accents, he thus addressed the interpreters 
of dreams : — " O beloved of the gods, the noble 
Tris'ala, to-night, after having slept a short time, 
saw, in her own splendid apartments, the following 
fourteen dreams : An elephant, a bull [as before]. 
Tell me what particular good fortune, and special 
felicity, these dreams portend." Thereupon the 
interpreters of dreams, with glad and joyous 
hearts, having heard the request of the noble 
Siddhartha, took the subject into consideration, 
reflected upon it, conversed on it with one another, 
and asked one another questions, till they had 
made out satisfactorily its hidden meaning ; when 
in the presence of King Siddhartha, one of them, 

* "5TTT""<Tfic"'IT"2IW^"""$[T3fc"" Instead of this simple form of 
blessing, the Commentator gives the following : " May you be 
happy, safe, rich, long-lived, have a numerous offspring, and 
always victorious, and may the Jain religion be always in your 
family." Also he gives another, which concludes thus : " May 
you live for ever, — live as long as the world lasts." 

UFE OF MAll.W IKA. 65 

citing tin- texts from the Institute of Dreams, 
spoke as follows: — "O beloved of the gods, we 
bave diligently searched fche Institute of Dreams, 
ami find that there are forty-two common dreams, 
and thirty extraordinary dreams, in all seventy 
two. And it is further said, that the mother of 
an A (highest order of Jain saint), 01 Cha- 
kravarti (emperor), sees fourteen of the thirty 
extraordinary dreams at the period of Buch child's 
conception. It is further stated that the mother 
oi a Vasudeva, on such an occasion, sees seven, 
and then awakes : and the mother of a Baladeva, 
four ; while the mother of a Mandalika Raja (de- 
pendent king), sees one. Since, then, O beloved 
of the gods, the noble Trisala has seen the whole 
of the fourteen propitious dreams; this portends 
the obtaining of wealth, the obtaining of felicity, 
the obtaining of a son, the obtaining of joy, the 
obtaining of sovereignty, and all this, O beloved 
of the gods, without any sort of doubt. Accord- 
ingly, after nine months and seven and a half 
the uoble Trisala' will bring forth a son, who 
sli.'dl be a royal standard to his family, .... 
o.s- in the last chapter], an emperor of the four 
regions of the world, a conqueror of the passions, 
and also emperor of the four virtues*. Such, 

* These virtues are Dana, Sfla, Tapa, and Bhava ; or alms- 
giving, the exercise of compassion, the practice of fasting and 



beloved of the gods, is the purport of the propi- 
tious dreams the noble Trisala saw." 

When King Siddhartha had heard these things 
from the interpreters of dreams, laying them up 
in his joyful and delighted heart, and bringing 
together and raising his hands to them in token of 
respect, he thus spoke : — " beloved of the gods, 
be it even so as you have said — let all you have 
predicted happen without fail. The interpretation 
you have given is just such as one could desire, 
equal to their highest aspirations, and, I have no' 
doubt, in accordance with perfect veracity." Hav- 
ing: then loaded them with sweetmeats, sweet- 
smelling garlands, garments, ornaments, and such 
gifts as were due to them, King Siddhartha, with 
the highest reverence and honour, dismissed the 
interpreters of dreams."" 

other austerities, the entire subjugation of the mind. In the 
works of the Buddhists the chief virtues are reckoned three, the 
third of these beiug omitted. This is a different thing, however,, 
from the three principles of Buddhism. 

* The Annotator here takes occasion to introduce a story, so 
good in itself, and so like one told of a debate that happened in 
the presence of King James, between a canny Scot and a Spanish 
doctor, that 1 here give a literal translation of it. There lived 
in the city of Paithan a learned man, who after expending 
thirty years in the study of the sciences became so puffed up 
with pride, that he stuck into his head-dress an elephant's hook 
as a flag of defiance, bound a belt round his stomach lesl b< 


At'tci- he had done this, he weni to the place 
within the curtain, where Queen Trisald sat, and 

should bars! from the knowledge he contained, had ;t servant 
carrying a Ladder, to bring down from heaven the vanquished 
disputant, who might there try to conceal hifl defeat, had with 
him also a to dig onl the disputant who should skulk 

away to II . and a bundle of grass for the man to eat after 
his discomfiture, who should venture to throw at him the garland 
of defiance. Thus accoutred he travelled through theDeccan, 
Gujarath, and Marwar, vanquishing all who entered the 
with him. Be went even as tar as the 1 tanks of the Sarasvati, 
where hearing of the fame of Bhoja's Court he determined to 
proceed to Ougein. Bang Bhoja treated him with all respect, 
ami called an assembly of all his five hundred learned men, 
Kali das, Kridachandra, Bhavabhuti, and the rest, to dispute 
with him. They were entirely defeated by the Southern Pandit. 
day King Bhoja, greatly chagrined, went out t<> take 
exercise, and on his way he saw a certain oilman, called Ganga, 
blind of an eye, throwing the oil-seed into the oil-press. "What 
a wise man must tins be," said he to himself, " if the saying be 
true, 'that a dwarf and a man with yellow eyes have sixty 
tricks, a man born without a leg of an arm has a hundred, but 
the number that he has who is blind of an eye no one can tell.' " 
Going up thereft re to tin' oilman, the Kin-- asked him, if he 
would try his skill in disputing with the Learned foreigner. The 
oilman replied, "What can I do, or what reputation for learning 
have I ry may through haphazard decide in my 

favour; L will make tin- experiment." On Sunday next, the 
King having called the Southern Pandit said to him, ••< ) Bhatta 
Ad.nrya, you have vanquished .all my Learned men. it is true, 
but you have not yet come in oontact with their instructor: I 
vrish yon to-daj to enter the Lists with him." " Verj well." the 



spoke to her as follows : — " O beloved of the gods, 
it is declared in the Institute of Dreams, that there 

other replied. Seats were then set for all the wise men of 
Bhoja's Court, one for the Bhatta Acharya, and a special seat 
reserved for Ganga, the oilman. After the whole assembly of 
learned men and courtiers were met, the King ordered Ganga, 
who had been dressed in the most splendid style, to be introduced. 
On his entering the King rose up to receive him, and the whole 
of his Pandits and courtiers followed his example ; and now the 
debate, at the King's order, commenced. The Southern Pandit, 
on observing Ganga narrowly, said to himself, "This is a fat stout 
fellow, whereas I am spare and feeble, — possibly he may over- 
power me by sheer noise and wordy declamation; let me therefore 
keep to first principles." Accordingly he began by holding up 
one finger — Bhoja Raja's new Pandit held up two. After re- 
flecting a little, the Southern Pandit stretched out his arm with 
his five fingers expanded. — Bhoja Raja's Pandit immediately 
stretched out his arm with his fist clenched. Instantly the 
Southern Bhatta Acharya came down from his seat, and fell at 
Ganga's feet, took out the elephant's hook from his turban, 
loosed the band which was around his loins, burned his bunch of 
grass, broke his ladder, knocked the head off the pickaxe, and 
prepared to return defeated to his own country. " What is all 
this," said the King, "will you explain it to us?" "0," said the 
Southern Pandit, " this Pandit of yours is a learned man indeed, 
a perfect sage ; I held up one finger, intimating that there is 
one Siva (Spirit), he held up two, signifying that Siva was 
nothing without Sakti (Matter). Next I held out my five 
fingers, to intimate that there are five senses ; he clenched his 
fist, as much as to say, these five senses must be restrained." 
Thus crest-fallen he left the assembly. When he was gone, the 
Kinsc asked the oilman what sense he attached to the dumb 

LIFE <>F \i.\iia\ n;.\. 69 

are Forty common dreams," &c. [just as the Brah- 
man before had said]. After this announcement 
had been made to her, the noble Tris'ald unhesi- 

agrj received what had been declared to her, 
and, having ]»;ii<l the King <lu<> reverence with 
joined hands, toot her departure, and went to her 
own apartments. 

Prom the daj thai the venerable ascetic Malm- 
took up hia abode in the royaJ family, Kuvera, 
with all tin* Imsts of earth's inhabiting gods, called 
Trimbaka, under his command, had orders from 
Sakra to search every place where treasure was 
likely to be, and, when they had found any, to 
carry it to the house of Siddhartha ; namely, to 
search out treasures of which the owners or guar- 
dians were dead, and the families to which they be- 
longed had b< me ext inct . or of which the owners 

or '4-11.-1r1li.1i1s and families to which they belonged 
had emigrated, and been Ion from the 

debate carried on between him and the Southern Pandit. "0," 

said Ganga, "he fire! held tip one finger, twitting me with having 

only one eye; I held np two, as ranch . You have two 

now, but take care thai I do not knock oul one of them; i\c 

then - out hia hand, as 1 understood it. threatening to 

me a slap <ni tl I then in a rage clenched my fist, 

bidding I [ did not knock out his teeth." 

Tin' King and his courtiers, after enjoying o hearty langh, 

m \i ith many pr< sents 


country, whether the treasure were in villages, or 
cities, or hamlets, clumps of cottages, or sheds, 
camps, market-towns, hermitages, threshing-floors, 
islands, places where three roads meet in a point, or 
where three or four roads cross each other, stands 
for carriages, spaces before temples, king's high- 
ways, waste villages, waste cities, common sewers 
of villages or cities, in the streets of towns, in 
temples, in court-houses, in places for drawing 
water, in pleasure-gardens, parks, forests of one 
kind, and forests of different kinds of trees, plan- 
tations, clumps of trees on mountains, places on 
mountains for propitiating demons, ruined houses, 
and every other place where treasure is to be found. 
Accordingly, from the day that the venerable ascetic 
Mahavira entered the family of King Siddhartha, 
the royal treasures and ornaments of gold greatly 
increased, coin and grain increased in the country, 
the inhabitants increased, the strength of the army 
increased, the infantry, elephants, and chariots, the 
number of his treasuries and store-rooms, the 
members of the royal household, the citizens and 
men of distinction, all increased. In fine, golden 
ornaments, jewels, pearls, sacred conchs, crystals, 
corals, rubies, and other precious stones, all in- 
creased a hundredfold. The parents of Mahavira, 
considering that they had now obtained the boon 
they had so long wished for, and so long prayed 
for, determined that, in consideration of the great 


increase that had taken place in ever) species of 
wealth, he should be called The [ncreaser (Var- 

* This then ia the proper name of the lasi Jain Tirthaukar, 
though Mali.ivira (the Hero) has almost entirely supplanted it, 
in popular usage, like the AJricanus and Germanicus of the 


Chapter V. 


Some time after this the mother of the adorable 
ascetic MahaVira was greatly distressed, at finding 
that since the time of his conception he had never 
moved, but continued perfectly still, gathering 
together all his members, " This babe," said she, 
"must be dead or torpid, or dissolving, that it 
continues thus motionless ;" and cherishing such 
reflections, she sat down with her cheek leaning on 
her hand, looking to the ground, and utterly dis- 
consolate. On learning the state of the Queen, a 
stop was put to singing, playing on the tabour, 
violin, and tambourine, and to dancing, in the 
palace of Siddhartha, and all the courtiers went 
about idle with downcast countenances. Thereon 
the adorable ascetic Mahavira having, by an act of 
intelligence, brought before him what was passing 
iii his mother's mind, moved a little to one side, 
when Trisala again resumed her wonted cheerful- 
ness, and all gloom was dissipated. On account 
of this incident Mahavira resolved, that in this 


Institute IIO one should he permitted to lie shaved, 

leave his bouse, and abandon his family, as long 
as bis father and mother were alive. 

The ooble TrisaM having bathed, and made her 
offerings to the inferior divinities*, partook daily 
of articles of food, which were neither cold, nor 
hot, pungent, bitter, nor astringent, neither sour 
nor sweet, oily, harsh, unripe, nor parched, eating 
always what was proper for the season of the year, 
and not only in food, bnt also in clothing, scents, 
and ointments, Btudying to use such things as 
should prevent disease, grief, and longings, while 
at the same time she was on her guard against 
frights and fatigues. In such circumstances a 
mother should be careful to use a healthy diet, 
Buited to the country and season. She should 
sleep on a firm and easy couch, in pleasant apart- 
ments, suited to exhilarate the mind, have a place 
where she can' take exercise, and, as a general rule, 

* We have here in al] the copies 3r5Jsjf%3P?fT performed 
the I >:i 1 i worship; and as this was done by the mother of a 
Tirthankar, it i> perplexing n> th J dns, who condemn 

this worship. The Brahmans, too, discourage these ceremonies ; 
but among Hindus, Jains, and Buddhists, no rites are more care- 
fully practised than these, which all their pri »tho ids condemn, 
Bhewing thai they musl b< Long to an aboriginal form of worship, 
which prevailed am people before the introducl 

those new religions from the North. 


her longings should be gratified. Thus spending 
her time happily, in sitting, standing, sleeping, 
reclining, and taking exercise, the period of her 
confinement arrived, and the child was born. It 
was in the summer season, in the first month, in 
the second demi-lunation, during the bright half 
of the moon of Chaitra, on the thirteenth day, after 
a gestation of nine months and seven and a half 
days, that the venerable ascetic Mahavira was born, 
a faultless child, when the planets were at their 
greatest elongation, and when they were in a 
fortunate conjunction witli the moon"", while all 
the regions were in a state of placidity, whi ] e 
there was no darkness, but all luminous, without 
any louring redness, and nightingalest singing 

* This fortunate conjunction of the moon with the planets, 
so often mentioned, is as follows : — 

vsi wa t?*- ^wrafr^Y: irtfrfwrfH 

That is to say, the fortunate conjunction is, when Mars and the 
Moon meet in the 6th, 7th, or 9th Lunar Asterism. As to what 
is said above about the planets being all in their places of 
greatest elongation, it is probably a mere rhetorical flourish, the 
planets, according to the Hindu astronomers, having never been 
in that position since the commencement of the Kali Yuga, B.C. 
3102, and the Author had no intention, as will afterwards 
appear, of throwing back the birth of Mahavira to that remote 

t The Syama (Tardus macrourus). The original is ^"^f^TH 


songs of triumph, and the purifying wind moving 
titly along, and circling around the place where 
lay the Lord and bis mother. The joyous multi- 
tude were engaged in celebrating the vernal fes- 
tival*, and even the earth seemed to share in the 
delight. It was at midnight, under the constella- 
tion of Uttara Phalguni, at a lucky conjunction of 
the moon and planets, that the event took plare. 
On the ni'dit in which the adorable ascetic was 
born, many gods and goddesses continued going 

and coming to and from this world with a divine 
splendour, manifesting, by laughter and other 
signs, the intensity of their joy. On the night in 
which the adorable ascetic Mahavira was born 
many divinities, dwellers in the world under the 
command of Kuvera, rained down showers of pre- 
cious ores, gold, diamonds, garments, jewels, sweet - 
Bmelling Leaves, of flowers, fruits, -rods, garlands, 
ambergris, sandal- w >od, and strings of pearls. The 
four classes of 'j:-^--, those who dwell in subter- 
ranean places, tl ose of the aerial regions, those of 
the starry firmament, and those from the highesl 

heavens, all flocked to the abode of the noble 

* In the 1 leccan there ia the Maruti Jayanti held at this time, 
l»ut the great vernal festival is celebrated a month earlier. 
These festivals are n<>t Brahmnnical, bnl belong to the ancient 
ritual ol ilie Hindus. 


Siddhartha, to hold the high festival of the inau- 
guration of the Tirthankar* 

Early in the morning, the King having called 
his messengers-at-arms, said to them : "0 beloved 
of the gods, go quickly through the city of Kun- 
dagrama, and liberate all the prisoners!, and order 
all the dealers to increase their weights and mea- 
sures for the day. Take care also that all the 
city, both inside and outside, and the gates, be 
sprinkled with water, and smeared with cow-dungj, 
that places of resort, where three or four ways 
meet, and spaces around temples, be similarly 
purified, as also the highways and lanes ; also erect 
a large pavilion, adorned with parti-coloured cloth, 
hung around with flags, attaching festoons to the 
ceilings, and put finger-marks on§ it of the finest 
white and red Cashmerian sandal- wood, and put 
down on the floor a jar of sandal-wood, and round 
it a number of smaller pots. Hang up also gar- 
lands over all the doors of sweet-smelling fresh 
flowers, of all the five different colours, gracefully 

* This is the Ablhsheka ; none but gods were present on the 
occasion, or took part in the festival. 

t The original phrase for this is, ^TT^^^^SJ^RTW that is, 

^TTTTTTTT^^^^fT as explained ^(^TW^rf 

J A common practice now on festive occasions. 
§ This is also a common practice. 


Btrung together, and with the garlands Galling 
down in the form of a necklace. Take then black 
aloe-wood, and other kinds of sweet-smelling 
incense, and light them, so as to produce wreaths 
of delightful perfumes, filling the whole place with 
sweet odours. Order dancers, and pole danoers, 
wrestlers, boxers, jesters, story tellers, reciters of 
poetry, ballad singers, players on cymbals, on 
tambourines, and on wind and stringed instru- 
ments, along with these who toss up pules, and 
double balls, all to be present, and aid in the re 
joicings." Saving received the King's commands, 
the royal messengers"*, glad and rejoicing, and 
making suitable obeisance, went through the city 
executing the King's orders, and then returned to 

1 that they had fulfilled all his commands. 
This morning King Siddhartha went to the gym- 
nasium, exercised himself, bathed, and dressed 

bove narrated. Then, arrayed in his royal 

robes, accompanied by his guards, and players on 
all kinds of musical instruments, he stepped into 
his palanquin of state, and ordered proclamations 
to be mad'', as he went through the city, by sound 
of conchs, drums, tabours, cymbals, and tambou- 
. that there Bhould be a release of all presents 

* These are the Kadambiya we before met with, and who 
at the oommenoemenl of tliis paragraph are in the original mi n- 
fcioned l>y words thai mean ae translated M< ssengers-at-Anns. 


of cloth, and of all customs, of taxes on cattle, and 
husbandry, and other taxes, that no arrests should 
be made, that small fines should be remitted, and 
larger reduced one-half, and debts cancelled, and 
that dances, plays, and all kinds of music should be 
provided for the people, and the city gave itself to 
joy and festivity for ten days. During these ten 
days of festivity Siddhartha received hundreds and 
thousands, and tens of thousands of gifts, and gave 
and ordered to be distributed among his servants, 
hundreds, and thousands, and tens of thousands of 
donations. The first day there was performed the 
feast of special rejoicing for the birth of a son*, 
the third day was the shewing him the moon, and 
the sunt ; on the sixth day was observed the reli- 
gious wake! ; the eleventh day put an end to the 

* In Sanskrit called f%ff?TE7?t^T 

f The Commentator says, that instead of shewing the child 
the actual sun and moon, they form a golden or brass image of 
the former, and a silver one of the latter, and shew it these. 

J The mother and her attendants keep awake all this night 
from respect, my informants say, to the Goddess Sati, or as the 
Marathas call her, Satvai, who comes to write the child's fate in 
its forehead. The lines formed for the blood-vessels inside the 
skull, and especially the serrated lines of the junction of the 
frontal and parietal bones', are supposed by the Hindus to be the 
work of a deity, and to contain a record of a man's fate. 
Accordingly, in the Deccan, for "fated," theyuse the expression, 
" written on the forehead." 

1.1 1'l: OF MA II A VI 11 A. 70 

tmcleanness incident to the mother on the birth of 
a son ; ami accordingly, on the twelfth day, all 
kinds of articles for eating and drinking, along 
with sweetmeats and digestives, were prepared for 
friends, relatives, fathers and mothers-in-law de 
pendants, and multitudes <>f tin- Kshatriya caste, 
who were invited to the feast. Trisala, therefore, 
having bathed, and worshipped the inferior gods, 
and performed those ceremonies required t<> pre 
vent misfortune ; clothed the child in pure, auspi- 
cious, fine, light, valuable raiment, and adorned ii 
with jewels : Bhe then gave it rice to eat, and pui 
it into an easy eradle. After whieli, the ahove- 
mentioned parties sat down to enjoy the feast pre- 
pared for them. Ailer dinner was finished, ami 
the mouth ablution was performed, ami the place 
made perfectly clean, — the guests were adorned 
with flowers, ami garlands, and scented robes, and 
jewels, when the noble Siddhartha tints addressed 
them : "0 beloved of the gods, shortly after the 

time ..f my child's conception, on account of the 
increase that took place in my treasures, and every 
thin 1 '- relating to the kingdom, I resolved, that as 

BOOH as the ehild Was bom, he should he ended 

Vardhamana (The [ncreaser) the desire of my 
heart having horn accomplished, I now impose 
upon him thai name. He also is called Sramana, 
Bhagavan, Mahavira (The Aseetic, Adorahle, Hero). 
The name Sramana is given because he is devoid 


of fear and terror, and insensible to all the ills of 
life, both natural and incidental, possessed of a 
mind calm and patient under injuries, imbued with 
true wisdom, and insensible to pain or pleasure. 
He is called Mahavira because he conquers the 
passions, and thus shews himself possessed of true 
heroism ; and he is named Bhagavan because he is 
worthy of divine honours." The father of the 
Ascetic Lord had also three names, Siddhartha, 
Sriyansa, Yasasvi ; and his mother also, who was 
called Tris'ala, Videhadinna, Pritikarani. His eldest 
paternal uncle was named Suparsva, and his eldest 
brother Nandivarddhana, and his sister Sudarsani. 
His wife was named Yasoda. He had a daughter 
who had two names, Seshavati and Yusovati. 


( Jhapteb VI. 


The venerable ascetic Mahavira was Learned and 
intent on the acquisition of knowledge, perfecl in 

his form, and free from all defects, benevolent and 
affable in disposition, of distinguished rank, the 
son of a man distinguished in rank, and himself 
like the moon (among the stars) in his illustrious 
family; his body was perfectly symmetrical, the 
,>«>n of ;i symmetrica] mother, and the most sym- 
metrica] of his family*. Thirty years he lived as 
a householder, hut after the departure to the abode 
of the gods <>f his father and mother, he deter- 
mined to carry out his purpose, and obtained the 
consenl of bis brother, who had now become king. 
At that time, also, the gods who attend on Jina 

saluted him. and announced to him that the period 
for becoming an ascetic had arrived, in these 
words: "Victory, victory to thee' Chief of the 

* 1" play on the word Videbi here used. 


Kshatriyas, lay to heart our words ; Lord, ruler 
of the people, promote the world's happiness, be- 
come the sanctuary of religion"'*, and in the whole 
world, to every living creature become the author 
of prosperity, felicity, and future bliss." On 
finishing, they made the sound of victory to re- 
sound through the atmosphere. While the vene- 
rable ascetic Mahavira was yet living in the society 
of men, and following the religious practice of a 
householder, he had obtained incomparable, all- 
manifesting, indestructible intelligence and per- 
ceptiont. Therefore, by this incomparable, all- 
manifesting intelligence and perception, clearly 
seeing that the time of his initiation had arrived, 
he abandoned in fixed resolve all his silver, aban- 
doned all his gold, his wealth, kingdom, country, 
army, chariots, treasury, store-houses, city, private 
apartments, and society ; and taking his money, 
golden ornaments, jewels, precious stones, pearls, 
conchs, corals, rubies, and other precious stones, 
he distributed them in charity, and divided them 
among his relations. All this happened in the 
winter season, the first month, the first half of the 

* VflrTT^I in allusion probably to (f^cfi""^' 

t WtTT ^TTft ^TOf%3Tt ^ TW^WTT^T This 

was not yet, however, the highest grade, as will afterwards 


month, that is to say. after the full inoon of Mar- 
gashirsha, the tenth day, when the shadow was 
turned to the east, and but one watch of the day 
remained, on the day called Obeisance (Sannati), 
and the hour (Muhiirta) called Victory (Vijaye- 
aam). Then in the palanquin of state, called Lunar 
Radiance (Chandra Prabha), he proceeded, accom- 
panied l>y gods, men. and Titans, bearing, sonic 
conchs, some quoits, and some golden plough- 
shares : some acted the part of heralds, some rai ! 
the weak to see the show, some personated bards*, 
some sounded gongs, and all, in melodious accents, 
spoke as follows: — "Victory, victory, and prospe- 
rity] Victory, victory to thee! O Lord, possi 
of indestructible intelligence and perception, con- 
queror of the unconquered passions, protector of 
;ir Eleligiont! O thou, who hast for ever 
overcome every obstacle, O divine sage, who art 
now united bo perfection, hind the two giants. 

* Here we have first the ^TirTfTTp«nT probably tbe ofli 
win) precede greal men to proclaim their titles, as is still the 
to; next we have eT3T'jfri(TT which, in the 8 trans- 

lation is ^^VT^TlMriM^cn '. and which in the Gujarathi is 
■ be men lifted <>n the shoulders ofoth< rs; next we have 
%"fl*JWT translated UTqrrpTT : or ?mTVT: bards. 

t TT^nryqj the Jain sil'iV religion 


Anger and Malice, by thy austerities, and, like a 
hero, girding up thy loins, overcome the eight 
enemies whose power lies in works, and performing 
the purest and chief kind of meditation, devoid of 
passion, like a warrior seize the flag of victory 
erected in the battle-field of the three worlds, and 
obtain a knowledge cloudless, incomparable, per- 
fect and supreme, rise to emancipation, the highest 
state of bliss"'', by that most excellent of roads 
pointed out by the Jinas, a road free from all per- 
plexing deviousness, and slay all the foes that 
oppose thy progress. Victory ! victory to the 
Chief of the Kshatriyas, for many days, many fort- 
nights, many months, many seasons, many holy 
years, many years ; having vanquished all natural 
evils, and accidental diseases, may he obtain per- 
fect patience and equanimity, subduing fear and 
grief, and performing without obstruction every 
required religious act." So saying, they again 
made the air resound with the shout of " Victory ! 
victory !" Thereon the adorable ascetic Mahavira, 
gazed on by a circle of thousands of eyes, praised 
by a circle of thousands of mouths, venerated by a 
circle of a thousand of hearts, surrounded by a circle 

* It is worthy of notice here that the highest state of bliss 
VT^R W% is said to b° *?*§T (Moksha), shewing that the 
Jains consider Nirvana and Moksha the same. 


LIFE OF MAiiAvn: \ B5 

of thousands whose hearts were won to religion by 
his oonduct, pointed out with admiratioD by the 
right hand fore-fingers of a circle of thousands of 
men and women, with a circle of thousands ofjoined 
hands raised in reverence, with a circle of thousands 
of friends and relations taking leave of him, and 
with the sound of violins, drums, cymbals, tam- 
bourines, and other instruments of music, and a 
chorus of voices, shouting "Victory, victory!" accom- 
panied also with all his wealth, all his glory, all his 
troops, all his chariots, all his attendants, all his 
oificence, all his ornaments, all his grandeur, all 
his wealth, all his subjects, all his dancers, all his 
musicians, all the members of the female apart- 
ments, in the midst of all these attendants, and 
while all those musical instruments were sounding, 

li ■ proceeded through the midst of Kunda- 
r, to the garden called the Prince's Park, 
where the Asoka (Free from Sorrow) tree grew ; 
under it he alighted from his palanquin of state, 
• ripped himself of all his garlands, jewels, and 
ornaments ; he then pel-formed the fast of abstin- 
ence from six meals without drinking water*, and 
having torn out live locks of' his hair, he then. 

* The Jains bake two meals daily like <>: her Hindus , tl 
then, is a fast continued through two 'wl and during tho 

afternoon of the preceding and forenoon of the tmccecdin 


under the constellation Uttara Phalguna, at a 
fortunate conjunction of the moon, assumed the 
garment of the gods*, and all alone, without a 
companion, and having been shaved, from a house- 
holder he became a houseless pilgrim. The ador- 
able ascetic hero for one year and a month wore 
clothing, afterwards he went robelesst, and had no 
vessel but his hand. The adorable ascetic Maha- 
vira, for twelve years and full six months, entirely 
neglected his body, and laid aside all care of his 
person, and with whatever things he was brought 
in contact, whether gods, men, or other animals, 
whether pleasing or displeasing, he conducted 
himself with perfect patience and equanimity, and 
felt nothing dispirited by the wretchedness of his 
condition. The adorable ascetic Mahavira was 

* The Commentator says this was a robe given him by Indra ; 
perhaps it was the small piece of cloth the Hindus never take 
off, called a Limguti, but it is clear that the Jains do not under- 
stand properly what it means, or do not wish to explain it. It 
might have meant be became a Digambara, had this not been 
opposed to what follows. 

f Achelae. The Commentator introduces a ridiculous story 
about a Brahman begging his garment, and Mahavira's giving it 
him, as the cause of his being naked ; he forgets also that he had 
explained Achelaka to mean with little clothing, instead of 
having none, so contrary to nature is this practice of the two 
chief Tirthankars, intended no doubt to shew their entire 
superiority to all passion. 

LIFE OF M All AVI i; \ 87 

iM»\v houseless, a wanderer, a s\ taker of the truth, 
eating only whal had no fault, having no v< 
either to receive presents, or to make oblations, 
(to tin.' gods or manes)*, regardless of the rales 
prescribed about natural evacuations, phlegm, and 
Hi-' scurf of tin-' skin, indifferent about gratifica- 
tion from his mind, his speech, or his body, re- 
straining the mind, the speech, and the body, 
sensual appetite, anger, courtesy, affection, and 
desire; altogether free from pride, perturbation, 
sin, and selfishness, having no gold, plate, nor 
c<>iii : and as water does not enter the substance of 
tin- brazen vessel that is dipped into it, nor sound 
into that of the conch which emits it, so his soul 
was not subject to the accidents of mortality, but 
like the firmament, raised above the world, un- 
restrained like air and fire, and pure as the 

rers in spring. He was perfect in beauty like 
the lotus Leaves, like the tortoise he had restrained 
;ill his corporeal organs, he was single and alum-, 
like the horn of the rhinoceros, like a bird not 
easily caught, like the eagle, never oil' his guard, 

og as an elephant, pal Lent as a bullock under his 

• The original i.s ^ I ^ I U] *T3Ht1 f^WW^f^T?; 

the lasi word in Sanskrit is JJ^tt^IkT a1 "' properly means 
indifferent, though the force <>f it oomea I ' 
afterwards once translal 


load, like the lion difficult to be restrained, stable 
as Mount Mandara, deep as the ocean, mild as the 
moon, and refulgent as the sun. His person re- 
sembled pure gold, and was of the colour of pure 
honey or fire ; and yet he was patient as the earth, 
trodden on by the feet of all the world — he had no 
attachment or tie binding him to the world. These 
ties are of four kinds : articles of possession, place, 
time, affections. The first consists partly of ani- 
mate, partly of inanimate objects. Place is either 
villages, cities, forests, fields, threshing-floors, 
houses, courts, or heavenly mansions. Times are 
instants (avali), moments (anu), breathings (prana), 
thavas (stoka), kohanas, lavas, muhurtas, days, 
fortnights, months, seasons, half-years, years, and 
ages'". Affections are anger, humility, deceit, 
desire, fear, joy, love, hatred, sorrow, slandering, 
misjudging, anxiety, doting affections, falsehood, 
false alarms. None of these things affected the 
Lord Mahavira. 

On finishing the rest of the rainy season, the 
venerable ascetic Mahavira travelled eight months, 
during hot and cold weather, remaining a night at 
a village, and five in a city, esteeming the dust of 

* 167 77, 216 moments = 1 prana, 7 breathings = 1 
tliava, 6 thavas = 1 muhuxta, 77 lavas = ditto. The muhurta 
is, as among the Brahmans, the ^ of a day and night. 

I. in OF mah.w n;.\. 89 

Ill-flavoured wood and of sandal-wood the same; 
looking on grass and pearls, gold and a clod of 
earth, pleasure and pain as all alike, bound neither 
to this world Qor to the world to come, desiring 
neither life nor death, wholly superior to worldly 
attachments, setting himself to slay the enemy, 
Works. Thus did lie labour for twelve years in 
the road that leads to absolute repose (Nirvana), 
to attain perfect wisdom and perception, religious 
practice, abstraction from the love of home and 
country, power, Indifference to every object, readi- 
to obey, patience, freedom from desire, sell- 
restraint, joy, truth, mercy and perfection in aus- 
terity. In the second half of the thirteenth year, 
when half a month had elapsed in the summer 
on, in the second month of summer, the month 
Vaisakha. in the fourth demilunation, the tenth 
day after the full moon, when the shadow was 
going eastward, and one watch remained on the 
day called Savita, and the Muhtirta called Vijaya, 
at the town of Trfmbhikagrama, outside the town, 
at a river called Etituvalika, at a moderate distance 

from a Yaksas temple, called Yairyavartta, in the 

field «»f a husbandman named Sama, under a Sala- 
tree, sitting in a crouching posture as one docs in 
milking a cow, while inflaming his mind with devo- 
tion on the heated earth, and after the feal of six 
meals without the use of water, under the coi 
lation I t\ ira PhdJguni, :it the time "i a fortunate 


lunar conjunction, while he was engaged in abstract 
meditation, he obtained infinite, incomparable, 
indestructible, unclouded, universal, perfect, cer- 
tain, supreme intelligence and perception'"".' 
Thereupon the adorable ascetic hero having be- 
come an Arhat (worthy of divine honours), a 
Jina (a conqueror of the passions), a man of 
established wisdom, omniscient, all-percipient, he 
knew and saw all the qualities of the three worlds 
inhabited by gods, men, and demons, being per- 
fectly acquainted with all the comings and goings, 
standings and movements of all living creatures, 
in all worlds, as well as with their mental cogita- 
tions, lawful and unlawful enjoymentst, and their 
open and concealed actions ; being an Araha, 
(one from whom nothing is concealed), and the 
undisguised object of worship to all beings. At 
that time, then, having obtained a perfect know- 
ledge and perception of all the qualities and con- 
ditions of all living creatures, in all the world, 
characterized by mental, vocal, or bodily attri- 
butes, he continued ever after to enjoy the same. 

* The original here is "^'WTT ^S^tTT ft^T^TTJ 

f^TT^T^ 3>fW ^W^T^TW^WT ^*TO% describ- 
ing an omniscience the most complete, and nothing short of 
perfect deification. 

t A paraphrase of ^Tfftng^f^rf^T 

LIFT 01 \IA1IA\IK\. 91 

A I this time bhe adorable ascetic MahaVfra came 
to the town of A.sthigrama, and spent there the 
first reel of the rainy season. Proceeding then to 
Champa and Prishtachampa he there spenl three, 
at Vaiiijyagrama nearVais&li he spenl twelve, and 
in the village of Nalinda near Rajagriha fourteen, 
Bix at Mitliila, two at BhadrLka, one at Aiambhika, 
one at SraVasti, one at Panitabhumi, ami the last 

of tin- rainy season lie spent ;*t Papa, where 
reigned King ShastipaMa. There having >|>nit the 

■ II of rest at the royal court, in the fourth 
month, in the seventh demilunation, on the night 
immediately preceding the new moon, was the 
time of the adorable ascetic hero completed, his 
earthly career 6 I, the hands of decay and 

death loosed, and he entered on a state of perfect 
bliss, wisdom, liberty, freedom from care and 

ion, and .-ihsence of all pain*. This took place 
in the second year named Chandra, in the month 
Pritivardhana, in the demilunation Nandivardhana, 
in the dav named Agnivesha^ and siirnannd I pa- 

* These attributes of the state of Nirvan are surely incon- 

' with annihilation; pR - ^ W~g W t\ -*A d *\~? 

qf^f»T"5^"5 *f5^<r?3uf%TJT the tit'tli translated "freedom 

from passion; wSane. JT^WrrrTTW^TrT ^ ,1 "' " ,lr ,llHt 
N irvan properlj. 


sama, in the night named Devananda, and sur- 
named Nirati, at the Lava named Archa, the 
Muhiirta called Prana, the Stoka named Siddhi, 
the Karana called Naga, at the astrological period 
named Sarvartha-siddhi, in the constellation Svati, 
at the time of its conjunction with the moon. At 
that time many gods and goddesses were seen in 
heavenly splendour, ascending and descending 
through the aerial regions, and manifesting them- 
selves by the whispering sounds they uttered. On 
the night on which the adorable ascetic hero was 
delivered from all pain, Gotama Indrabhuti, the 
chief of his perfectly initiated disciples, had the 
bonds of affection by which he was tied to his 
preceptor cut asunder, and attained infinite, 
certain, and supreme intelligence and perception. 
On the same night the Navamallika and Nava- 
lechhiki, kings who reigned at Kasi and Kosala, 
after performing the fast of the new moon, and 
sitting awhile motionless, said, " Since the light of 
intelligence is gone, let us make an illumination 
of material substances." On the same night the 
planet Kshudra Bhasmaka""", destined to continue 
two thousand years, ascending the natal constellation 

* Mag. Khnddae Ahasarasi. Sans. Kriirasvabhavabhasma 
rasi. The test is the Gujarathi paraphrase, and probably refers 
to the appearance at the time of a comet, called here 3J1J 


of tin- Lord Mahavira, and as Long as it continues 
there, there will be a great waning of piety and 
religious worship, among male and female ascetics 
and religious persons, but when the planet descends 
from that constellation, ascetism and piety will 
blaze forth with new brilliance. On the same 
night an animal called the Irryprehensible, was pro- 
duced, and continued fixed in one place, producing 
in ascetics a want of distinct vision. On seeing 
this many male and female ascetics performed 
the fast of abstinence from food and water. 

(The disciple inquires) Why was the animal 
produced, my Lord? It was to shew that the 
observance of the religious institute would now be 

At the time and season mentioned the adorable 

tic Mahavira had, with Gotama Indrabhtiti at 

their head, an excellent select hand of fourteeo 

thousand male ties; and with Chandrabald at 

their head, an excellent select hand of thirty-six 

thousand female ascetics ; with Sankhasataka at 
their head an excellent select band of one h mdred 
and fifty-nine thousand male lay adherents ; and 
with -revatiat their head, an excellent e 

hand of three hundred and eighteen thousand 
female lay adhei ; dorable ascetic hero 

had three hundred and fourteen advanced disci- 
ples, possessed of a wisdom next to perfect, and 
knowing theoretically all that a Jina knows, with- 


out being perfect Jinas*, and of these fourteen 
were superior to the rest. He had a band of 
thirteen hundred disciples, possessed of inductive 
knowledge, seven hundred possessed of certain 
knowledge, seven hundred possessed of the power 
of assuming a different form, and though not gods 
had the power of gods ; five hundred of large 
intellect, acquainted with all the thoughts and 
feelings of all sentient beings, in two and a half 
continents and two seast; a company of. four 
hundred disputants that had never been overcome 
in any assembly of gods, asurs, or men. He had 
seven hundred male disciples, who on dying ob- 
tained perfect liberation, and fourteen female. 
He had two hundred and fifty who obtained that 
super-celestial mansion, from which beings only 
once descend to mortal birth before obtaining 
liberation. The venerable ascetic hero instituted 
two peculiar world- vanquishing periods, one unli- 
mited except by the Yuga, and the other embrac- 
ing a limited time. The former extended to three 
disciples in succession, and the latter continued 

* The original is ^f^fT^T^T f^HSF^NrTO M «N I T=R> 

w%nTW in Sanskrit ^tf^rrfa f^ra-fin: w^t- 

t Namely in Jambudvipa, Dhatuki Kkanda and Urdlia 
Pushkar, and the salt and fresh -water sea, all our earth. 


only tour years . The venerable ascetic Maha- 
\ - 1 1 -; i Lived thirty years as a householder, and then 
twelve years and sis months and a lull half month 
more a sage only in outward guisetj thirty 3 
1 ux and a holy month in the exercise of perfed 
wisdom, altogether having lived seventy-two years. 
At that time the Pour rlarans of this Avasarpini, 

Vedani, Avu, Nama, and Gotra, were finished, 
and the fourth Ara, called Dukhamasukhama, had 
all expired except three years, and eight and a 
half months, in the city of Papa (Mag. Pawa), 
alone without a companion, performing the fast in 
which abstinence is kepi up for three In II days and 
nights, without even tasting water, under the con- 
stellation Svati, at a fortunate conjunction of the 

':. in the morning, the lord sat down upon his 
lot us scat, while the public reading of the fifty-fifth 

a, which speaks of the fruits of righteousness 
and of Bin, was going on. At that time repeating 
without a prompter the sixty-sixth, called the chief 
btained emancipation, and entered od 
a state of freedom from passion, and absence of 
pain. After nine hundred years from bis depar 
inre had elapsed, and in the eightieth year of the 

* These refer to peculiar spiritual privileges 1 by 

certain disciples for this period. 

+ Chhadmastha, thai is, an ascetic, doI \> : ed of 

•' knowledge 


currency of the tenth hundred, this book was 
written, and was publicly read in the currency of 
the ninety-third year*. 

* It is added in the Gujarathi, at the time of a famine in the 
city of Mathura. The era is that of Mahavira, preceding the 
Samvat of Vikrama, according to the Jains of Gujarath, by 
470 years, consequently for the time before the Christian era by 
adding 56, we get 526, and for the date of the book a.d. 454, 
and the public reading a.d. 466. The era given as that of 
Mahavira in Prinsep's Useful Tables, Indian Chronology, p. 33, 
is 42 years earlier, corresponding to the time here given for 
Mahavira's becoming an ascetic. See Preface, where reasons are 
given for preferring Mr. Prinsep's date. The date here given is 
one founded on the mistake of the abandonment of the world 
for death. 


Chapter VII. 


PabsvAj the chief of Arhats, was son of King 
Asvasena, and of his queen Vania, and waa born 
at Varanaai (Benares), in the second month of 
winter, the tenth day of Pausha. JIc adopted 
.•in ascetic life with three hundred others, when he 
was thirty years of age, and for eighty days he 
practised austerities, before arriving at perfect wis- 
dom. He lived after this seventy years, Less 
eighty days, his whole term of life being our hun- 
dred years, after which he obtained liberation from 
passion, and freedom from pain. He wore one 
garment, and had under his direction a large 

* These histories are given with a greai deal <>f prolixity, 
generally in fchevery words in which Mahavira's b'fe is detailed. 
I have there fo re confined myself to the few particulars in which 
they really differ, and in ihis I have but carried oul a little 
further the plan of the original; For after a few details, ~s\J^ 
is usually added t * » denote thai the other particulars arc to be 
taken from tho previous bist< 



number of male and female ascetics, and lay dis- 
ciples. His death took place twelve hundred and 
thirty years before the composition of this work 
(i.e. B.C. 828). He died while with thirty others 
performing a fast on the top of Mount Sameta 
(Sikhar). He is also called Parsvanatha. 

The Arhat Nemi was son of King Samudravi- 
jaya and his queen Siva, and was born in the city 
of Sori (Agra). He was born in Sravan the first 
month of the rainy season, under the constellation 
Chitra. He became an ascetic at the age of three 
hundred at Dvaraka {Mag. Baravavae). He died 
on Mount Girnar, after living seven hundred years 
as an ascetic, in all a thousand years. He was only 
fifty-five days an imperfect ascetic. This book 
was composed eighty-four thousand nine hundred 
and fifty years after his death"". He is also called 
Arishta Nemi, and Neminatha. 

Bishabha, the Arhat of Kosala, was the son of 
Nabhi, and his queen Marudevi. He was born on 
the eighth day of the waning moon of Chaitra ; 
his mother dreamt of his birth as in the case of 
other Tirthankars, but saw the bull (Vrishabha) 
first, and instead of calling a Brahman to interpret 
particularly her dreams, Nabhi performed that 

* Whatever may be said of the date of Mahavira's life, the 
author now undoubtedly runs wild. His dates are purely ima- 
ginary henceforward, and some are not found in all the copies. 


office himself. Rishabha *waa the first king, the 
first mendicant, the firsi Jina, and the first Tir- 
thankar. He spent two hundred thousand years, 
in the State of youth, reigned six huiulivd and 
thirty thousand; tor one thousand years he 
remained an ascetic Imperfectly enlightened ; in all 
he lived eight hundred and forty thousand years*. 

* In some copies there are similar eztravaganl histories of nil 
the Tirthankars, but not in the best manuscripts. I am inclined 
to think that the original work ended with the life <>t" Mahavira. 
The Annotator in his Preface speaks only of the times of Maha- 
vim. and Rishabha; and even the latter would seem added by a 
modern hand, nnless it be that unrestrained by traditions trans- 
mitted to posterity, of the age and actions of the first Tirthankar, 
the anthor indulged his fancy in a way that he durst not do 
with the more recent Bage. The few particulars wc have of the 
other Tirthankars are most likely mere fictions, founded <>n no 
Bolid traditions. The only three historical characters 1 conceive 
to be, Rishabha, who practised austerities in very ancient t inn b, 
which the Jains in after ages imitated; Parsvanath, the real 
founder of the Sect, and Mahavira, who carried its principles 
out to their utmost limits. 

11 2 




Name. Family. Death after Mahavira. 

1 Sudhamia Vaisya 20 years. 

2 Jamba Kasyapa 64 „ 

3 Prabhava Katyayana ... 75 „ 

4 Sishvambhava Vatsya 98 „ 

5 Yasobhadra Tungiyayana . 146 „ 

, (Sambhutivijaya ... Madara 156 ,, 

CBhadrabahu Prachina 

7 Sthulabhadra Gautama 170 „ 

CSuhasti Vasishta 

^Mahagiri Elavarchasa . . . 215 ,, 

CSusthita Kotika 

(Supritibhadra Vyaghrapadya 

1 Indradinna Kausika 

1 1 Diima Gautama 

1 2 Sinhagiri Kausika 

1 3 Jiitlsvara Kausika 

14 Vajrasena Kausika 







Elach of win mi was the 

Pad mi la. 

founder of a Sakha, or 


branch called by his 


own name. 

The BuccessioD from the second Teacher <<f No. 8, 
the other list being the succession from the 
first of the same number. (The dads heing 
contained only in the MS. which gives this 
succession, were n<>t appended to the succeed- 
ing numbers above, but are here resumed) : — 

9 Balisaha 241 

10 Santi 280 

I l Sornacharya... 232 

12 Skandila 378 

Jinadhara ... 454 

Samudrasvami 508 

Mangu Svami 59 1 

N;idila Svami 68 I 

diasti ... 719 


1 1 



1 9 Sinhasvarni ... 814 

20 Silndilasvami 848 

21 Hemavanta ... 875 

22 Nagaguna ... 887 

23 Govind.isvanii 914 

24 Pliuiidiniia ... 942 

25 Lohitasvarni 975 

26 Duppajana ... 

27 Ksliaiiiiisvami 993 

l; . at va 790 

N.B. — The above list proceeds a generation 

lower down than the time of the composition of 

vork, but the author might have added the 

■ one before his death. We bave now nume- 
rous lists, according to the different branches of 
the Beet, continued till near the present time. 
i >ne of these is here idded : 









Samanta Bhadra. 


































Laksh misaVara. 














Vibudhaprabh a. 






Hira — lived in Ak- 



bar's time, a.d 















































Vij ayamaliendra. 




Vij ay asamudra. 



1st Samdchdri. At that time and season the 
adorable ascetic Mah&vfra commanded that, reck- 
oning from the rull moon of A.shadb a month and 
twenty days, a period of rest and fasting should 
be observed yearly in the four months of the rainy 
3eason*. When the reason of this was asked, lie 
replied that it was intended, first to lead the house- 
holder to whiten and thatch his house, smear and 
clean the walls inside, repair his fence, level and 
clean his floors, perfume his house, char the pipes 
and gutters, that the house might be fitted for the 
true enjoyments of life; and next that such a 

' This divides the i on into two periods, one of fifty, 

and one < ■: days ; the Svetambara Jains fast, daring the 

former, and the Digambara daring the latter of these periods, a - 
the text is considered ambignoos. The term for this fasl is 
Paryushana. [te nature will immediately appear, permil I 
a East, varying from thai in which 1 al one meal daily is taken, 
to thai in 'a hich al two, three, or more da 


season had always been observed by the leaders of 
the sacred bands of disciples, by the established 
sages, and by the ascetics of past and present 
times, and that therefore it was incumbent upon 
us, and all our teachers and priests, to keep this 
season of rest and abstinence. The calculation is 
to be made so as to come within the night of the 
fifth of the increase of the moon of Bhadrapad, 
and not to go beyond it, 

2. It is commanded that all males and females, 
keeping the annual fast, should limit their peregri- 
nations to a circuit of live miles, proceeding beyond 
that no farther than the time the perspiration takes 
to dry on the hand. 

3. Should a deep constantly-flowing river 
intervene, within that circuit, they are not per- 
mitted to cross it, for the purpose of collecting 
alms, but where there is a river like Airdvati at 
the town of Kunala, where the water is so shallow 
that while the one foot is in the water the other 
can be lifted up above it, permission is given to 
cross it. 

4. Any particular member can only partake of 
refreshment when permitted by the. Abbot, or 
head of the community. The sick should first 
be fed, and the rest should then eat, giving to 
others, as well as partaking themselves. 

5. During this lenten period, male and female 
ascetics in health should by no means partake of 


the following articles rice and milk, curds, fresh 
butter, melted butter, oil, sugar, honey, spirits, 

and flesh*. 

6. Certain Bages having asked for direction in 
the matter, it was laid down as a rule, thai in 
feeding a Bick man, you are only to take what 
food he may Dot require, if you have the Supe 
rior'a permission. 

7. It was also ruled, that though lawful to 

of a householder what you Bee in his house for a 
sick person, you arc not to ask what you do not 
see. And when the reason of this was asked, the 
reply given was. that it' the householder he ;i man 
of --feat devotedness, he may he induced to go 
and buy what you want, or if not able to do this, 
even to steal it. 

8. It is permitted those who eat only once a 
dav to go out to collect alms only once a daw 
This, however, does not forbid them to go out 
again for a teacher, ;i superior, a sick person, or a 
novice under age. The following rules are also to 
In observed. The person who fasts one day and on 
the preceding and succeeding partakes only of one 

* I' at tlic.M' two lasl Bhould at other 

lie permitted than imw prohibited, and shews that in those 
ancient times .Iain priests, ae well as Brahmans, had different 
priii' . those th< atertain. 


meal, should take whatever thing to eat or drink 
he may have received, and wiping clean the outside 
of the vessel, go home, and put it down on his 
mat, and partake of it. He who fasts two days at 
a time, may on the other days leave the convent 
twice to enter the abodes of householders in quest 
of provisions""". He who fasts three days at a time 
may thrice on the intervening days leave home to 
seek provisions, and he who fasts more than three 
days may go as often as he pleases. 

9. He who eats one day is permitted to use 
any kind of water ; he who fasts wholly one day, 
and eats one meal on the preceding and succeed- 
ing is permitted only to use three kinds of water, 
that in which a man's hands have been washed, 
in which flour has been washed, or in which rice 
has been washed. He who fasts two days at a time 
must drink only of the three following kinds of water, 
that in which oil seed, rice, or barley, has been 
washed. He who abstains three days from all food 
must also drink only of three kinds of water, viz., 
that in which grain has been boiled, water skimmed 
from butter-milk, and hot water. And he who 
abstains more days, must drink only hot water ; 
cold water is prohibited. At the same time the 

* The general rule in all these cases is, that the provisions 
are cooked, ready for eating, and that the ascetic asks nothing, 
but takes what is given. 


i must be strained : unstrained water is en- 
tirely prohibited It is to be used according to 
measure also, and taken in limited quantities, even 
although thirst is not thereby quenched. 

10. The ascetic may receive from householders 
to tin' extent of four solid and five Liquid arti- 
cles of diet, or five solid and tour liquid, and 
among these as much salt as will season his provi- 
sions. But lif Is only to take for thai day's con- 
sumption, he is not to go out in Bearch <>t' provi- 
sions a second time. 

11. Ascetics during the lenten season are not 
permitted to enter a house till they have pa : 
sewn from that of their usual abode. Opinions 

vary as to whether cottages and such like are to 

he reckoned among the seven or not. 

12. Ascetics who receive cooked food in the 
hand, are prohibits d from going out in quest of alms 
while it rains, whether the rain ho heavy or light. 
An ascetic who has received food, and consumed a 
part of it abroad, is not permitted to continue his 
mod if it begins to rain, hut lie must cover up 

with his one hand the food he holds in the other. 

and retire to a shed or cave* or the root of a tree, 

* The original here is Lena; the Sans, is ^RPI :i1 "' JMI^JT^J 
3 the name still given to the eaves in which Buddhist and 
other sacred n re found. Perhaps thi 

translation here won ■ '■ ■ Hermit 


where there is no dropping or drizzling of rain, 
and there finish his meal. 

13. An ascetic who receives cooked food in a 
vessel must not go out in heavy rain'", but if it 
rains lightly he may take a cloak and go. If after 
departure it begins to thunder and lighten, or rain 
heavily, he should take refuge in a house or con- 
vent, or at the root of a tree. He is to take only 
a share of the cooked victuals removed from the 
fire before his entrance. If the pulse alone were 
removed, he is to take only of that. If the rice 
alone he is to take a share only of the rice ; he is 
prohibited from taking anything that is in a vessel 
removed from the fire after his entrance. If 
overtaken in a storm, after receiving a supply of 
provisions, he may take shelter as aforesaid, but 
he is not there to eat his meal, only if it is getting 
late may he eat it, and then clean his vessel, and 
return home, for he is absolutely prohibited from 
remaining abroad during the night. Again in re- 
tiring for shelter during a storm, one male and 
one female may not stay in the same place, nor 
two males and one female, nor two males and two 
females, nor less than five be together. Nor must 
a male ascetic who has gone into a house to pro- 

* Heavy is what will penetrate through a cloak, a country 
blanket, or kambali. 

RULES FOB VA'I'ls. 109 

curt' a meal Btay there, it' there is l>ut our female 
in the house, or in any of the above-mentioned 
; only when there are five persons together 
may he remain ; b\x\ these may be either house- 
holders or ascetics. It' the place where he stands 
is open to the street, and to public inspection, he 


14. AjBcetica are oot to dine or take any article 

nf food without first obtaining leave of the su- 
perior. The reason is that he knows their consti- 
tution, and what they require best They are to 
address him respectfully, saying, " We wish to dine 
it' it be your pleasure, otherwise we will abstain 
tron i doing so." 

15. No one is to dine while the body is be- 
dewed with water. Water is apt to lodge in the 
lines of the hands, about the points of the nails, 
the eyebrows, and the upper and lower lips; the 
body to he perfectly dried before partaking of a 


16. The imperfectly enlightened ascetic* must 

he on his guard, and carefully look that he do not 
come in contact with any of the eight small things 

small animals, small flowers of mosses and 

* Chhadmastha, he who lias not jei arrived at perfect 
knowledge; t<> the omniscient Bage Mich attention is quite 
unnecessary- II-' know- withonl being on the watch. 


grasses, small weeds, small vegetables, small 
blossoms of shrubs and trees, small eggs, small 
places, small liquid productions. 

Small animals are caterpillars, and the larvae of 
animals of blue, black, red, yellow, and white colours. 
Small flowers and vegetables and blossoms are 
those respectively of all the five original colours as 
above. Small eggs are those of the bug and flea 
kind, the spider kind, the ant kind, the wasp kind, 
and the lizard kind. Small places are lairs, dens, 
ant-holes, white ant-hills, and bee-hives. Small 
liquid productions are dew, hoar-frost, fogs, hail, 
flakes of snow*. Of all these the imperfectly- 
enlightened sage must constantly be on his 

17. The ascetics are prohibited from going out 
to collect alms, without first asking the abbot, 
teacher, established sage, the head of their class, or 
the person under whose charge they may be. They 
are thus to address him — " If it be your pleasure 
we wish to go abroad and obtain articles for eating 
and drinking, but if you disapprove we will remain 
at home." The reason of this is, that the superior 

* The original is, ^^rfTJT and the Sanskrit paraphrase is 

Wftf^rre^TClf^^n" I am not sure I have hit the 
exact idea. 


best knows the state of the place, the constitutions 
of the persons, and what other matters require 
attention After he lias collected his dinner he is 
also i" ask Leave before he partake of it. in like 
manner he is bo ask permission before taking 
medicine. Be should also ask before performing 
any religious or entering on any coure 

X<»r especially is the ascetic who 
keeps the Lenten rest permitted without leave of 
the superior to enter on the performance of the 
Sauleshana rite, in which, while a lis. .rind in medi- 
tation, and neither eating nor drinking, he comes 
• • last stage of his earthly pilgrimage, like a 
tree dropping its loaves in the proper season, 
wholly unconscious of the fact. It is also prohi- 
bited without such leave, to go out for sweetmeats 
and digi or to read the sirred books, or to 

watch during the night for the performance of 
religious duties. 

18. It is not permitted any one, whether sin 
or in company with another, to go out to 
clothes, a vessel, a blanket, shoo, or any article of 

clothing, to protect him from the sun or weather, 
without first obtaining leave to do so, nor ; 
out, whether to ask alms of householders, oi for 

btion, or to \ . temples of the si 

or for the necessities of nature, or for meditation. 
Ajb th uperior alone knows the prop. a for 

all thing '<at first respecl fully address 


him, and having obtained his leave, then go 

19. It is prohibited to any male or female 
ascetic to be without a couch to sleep on. If they 
have no bed to sleep on, or if it be too high or too 
low, if not rightly put together, if not of proper 
dimensions, if heavy and difficult to move, if not 
frequently wiped and kept clean, it will be difficult 
to keep from killing small insects, and so violating 
the duties of humanity. On the contrary, if pos- 
sessed of the opposite qualities, it will be easy to 
perform the duties of humanity. 

20. Ascetics are ordered to clean and prepare 
three different places at a distance from their usual 
abode, for the three natural excretions. This is 
not needed in the hot and cold season, but it is 
required in the rainy season, on account of the 
multitude of insects, seeds, flowers, &c, which are 
there produced. 

21. Ascetics are ordered to restrain emitting 
phlegm, or voiding either of the other two natural 
excretions""", (except in the above-mentioned 

* These, of course, are Tp^f and JT^ mMagadhi, ^J^"p£ 

and THJcTW an( l delicately expressed in Gujaratlri by 

^^fcf and ^Rtf?* 

RULES FOB V \ lis. 1 13 

22. It is prohibited to an ascetic to wear hair 
Longer than that which covers a cow. The night 
of the commencement of the fast must nol pass 
before the ascetic has shaved his head. It should 
afterwards be .-haven monthly, otherwise cut with 
scissors every fortnight, and shaved at the end of 
six months, or at any rate, at the end of a year. 

-A. It is prohibited during the last to use any 
angry or provoking language. Be or she who 
50 is not to be allowed to remain in the 

24. It' <>n account of words that have passed 
between parties, a quarrel arise, mutual forgiv< oess 
is to be asked and granted, the elder disciple is to 
ask forgiveness of the younger, and the younger of 
the eider. Self- rest mint is also to be exercised 
by each individually, and the exercise pressed upon 
others. Those who practise self-control are to be 

venerated, those who do not are not to be vene- 
rated. Self-control is the chief of all religious 

25. Three different cleanings are enjoined of 

the morning picking up of impurities, 
the midday sweeping, and the evening washirj 

26. Ascetics when going in quest of provisi >ns 

* This transl ccording to the letter, [t may perhaps 

only mean thai there are t" be three daily cleanings of rtie 
three kinds. 


are enjoined to ask the superior whether they are 
to go to a distance or remain near. The reason 
of this being-, that certain sages on account of the 
practice of austerities are not fit to go far, and 
therefore the superior is the proper person to 
determine who shall remain near and who go to a 
distance. A sage is not permitted, after wander- 
ing about four or five leagues, to stay at the place 
at which he has arrived, but must return before 
night. If unable to do so he must return a cer- 
tain part of the way and lodge there. 

27. Those who observe the aforesaid yearly 
Institute of the Sages, according to the rules laid 
down for this Institute, with a sincere purpose fol- 
lowing the established ritual, performing the wor- 
ship directed, and obeying the commands given, 
will some of them, those especially who have 
already abandoned the world, become perfect in 
knowledge, and after the termination of their 
present lives obtain liberation, and freedom from 
all pain. Others will obtain the same, after two 
or three transmigrations, and none will exceed the 
seventh or eighth. 

This Institute was ordained by the adorable 
ascetic Mahavira at Rajgriha, in the sacred garden 
(Chaitya) of Gimasila, while surrounded by multi- 
tudes of male and female ascetics and lay disci- 
ples, as well as gods and goddesses. 

N A\ \ TATV V. 110 




Tin: following ;iiv t lie Nine Principles of Things : 
(1) Animation; (2) Inanimate Matter; (3) Meril ; 
(4) Demerit; (5) Appetite and Passion, and other 
provocatives to sin ; (6) Self-Denial, and other 
helps to virtue; (7) Means to free the Mind from 
worldly attachments; (8) Worldly Attachments; 
(9) Final Deliverance*. 

Of the first and second of these there are four- 
varieties; of the third, forty-two; of the 

• The original is as foUoTO:~^ft3TS^itaT TO TRTS^R 

*T?T"RT f^"55fTmT ^<ft *T**TT*J The Sanskrit equi- 
valents are offa ^^ TO Tjm ^F5R V^T f^^TT 


fourth, eighty-two ; of the fifth, forty-two ; of the 
sixth, fifty-seven ; of the seventh, twelve ; of the 
eighth, four ; and of the ninth, nine. 

I. Animated beings may be considered under 
one, two, three, four, five, or six aspects ; simply 
as possessed of life ; as vegetables and animals ; 
as male, female, and of neither sex ; as men, brutes, 
demons, and gods ; as possessed of one, two, three, 
four, or five senses ; and as having a body of earth, 
water, fire, wind, wood, or flesh. 

The fourteen kinds of animate beings are as 
follows : First, objects with one sense ; which are 
of two kinds, those that are invisible or seen with 
difficulty, and those that are easily seen, [these are 
fire, air, earth, and vegetables]. Secondly, beings 
with five senses ; some of which have a mind, [as 
men, gods, demons, fowls, and all animals and 
fishes that are produced, in the Jain estimation, 
from parents], and others have no mind, [as beings 
in the embryo state, and those generated, as the 
Jains think, by equivocal generation, from phlegm, 
slime, &c, as some kinds of fishes and serpents]. 
There are then beings possessed of two senses, 
(viz., touch and taste, as shell-fish), and others hav- 
ing three, (viz., touch, taste and smell, as ants 
and fleas) ; and still a third class, with four senses, 
(wanting only hearing, as flies, bees and scorpions). 
Each of these seven classes of animals may be 
complete in all their powers or parts, or ineom- 

\ W A IAT\ \. 117 

plete, forming the fourteen distinctions among 
animated beings . 

The mosi exalted properties of animated beings 
are, knowledge, perception, initiation into a reli- 
gious life, the practice of self-denial, the posses- 
sion of power, and the employment "I" humus to 
obtain an end. 

The following things sustain life : food, a body, 
tin.' senses, the power of breathing, the power of 
Bpeech, and mental power. The first four belong 
to creatures that have but one sense, the first five 
to creatures having two, three, and four senses, or 
five without a mind, — and all the six to the crea- 
tures have a mind. There arc ten vital airs 
concerned in the sustaining of life, one for each of 
the five senses, one that supports the breathing, 
one on which the* term of life depends, and the 
invigorating airs, one for the mind, a second 
for the Bpeech, and a third for the hodily frame j. 
Beings with one, two, three, and four Benses; 
have the first four, six, Beven, and eight of these 

* The original word translated, witli a mind, is *rf^ 
Sanskril J\^'. *T?r^n.' The word for comi lete is q 331T rTT 


Sanskrit u^T^T* The additions within brackets are all from 
•1 future, except one or two from, oral 


respectively. Those with five senses, and without 
a mind, have only nine vital airs*. 

The union of these with a body constitutes the 
state of life, and their disjunction the state of 
death. Fire, air, earth, and water, are called 
elementst. Trees and flowers of all kinds are 
called existentsj. Beings with less than five senses 
are called respirers§, and the four classes of beings 
with five senses, (viz., gods, men, brutes, and 
demons), are called properly animated beings [|. 

II. The fourteen distinctions of things without 
life are : solids, fluids, and airsT, each of which 
has three aspects. The whole, a territory, and a 
district""". Add to these time, and the four dis- 
tinctions of a bodytt, the whole body, a region, a 
member, and an atom, and the number is com- 
pleted. Inanimate objects are then divisible into 
four classes, solids, fluids, bodies, and air. Fluids 

* tttwt: t *tTT s. ^t. 

t *£srsiT s. vgm § ^twt s. ttt^t: 

II ^faT f WTSWTSTT^T San. 

*RTf%3rpq: ^wf^i^rre?: ^^mfi^T^: 

** ^hiR[^n^T Sans. ^^^3T3?^3X: 
tt TO^T S. T7^Tf%3TP3: 

N \\ \ T.\ I ' \ L19 

form a medium in which motion can be performed, 
solids are stable, air forma the atmosphere, and 
body is matter formed for the habitation of a liv- 
ing principle, and has the lour divisions named 

The divisions of time are, samaya, avali, mu- 
hiirtta, days, demi-lunations, months, years, ages 
(palyas), oceans (sagara), atsarpini, and avasar- 
pani [The first is an infinitesimal part of time], 
and there are sixteen millions, seven hundred and 
Beventy-seven thousand, two hundred and sixteen 
(16,777,216) avali in a muhurtta (forty-eight 
minutes). The two last are the Jain eras, measur- 
ing the time between the creation and destruction 
of the world, as elsewhere explained]. 

1 1 1. The rewards of merit, and themselves pro- 
ductive of merit, are, birth in a good family, in one 
of the two conditions of manhood, [manhood 
directly, or indirectly by being removed to a 
human womb in the embryo state, as narrated of 
Mahavfra], the two conditions of godhead [as 
. the possession of the five senses, and of 
one of the five bodies. These are, a natural 
body, (udarika) ; a supernatural assumed tempo- 
rarily, (vaikriya) ; one a cubit Long, to go to Ma- 
havidehi, a particular terrestrial continent, to 
obtain of the Tirthankaras there a solution of 
doubts, (aharika) ; a Luminous body (tejasvi) like 
of tli" gods : and any body obtained as the 


fruit of merit, (karmika) ; to possess also the bones 
like adamant, and the perfect form of a Tirthan- 
kare, a good colour, smell, taste, touch, and the 
proper proportion of heaviness, and lightness, in- 
ofTensiveness, moderate breathing, a brilliant coun- 
tenance, elegant motion, and members all properly 
balanced, the state of a god, that of a man, that of 
the highest classes of animals, and that of a Tir- 
thankar. These, in addition to the following ten 
modes of action, form the forty-two meritorious 
states. The modes of action are, voluntary motion, 
right use of the senses, of all the other organs, a 
separate body for the soul to act on, firmness in 
action, pleasantness in deportment, elegant ges- 
ture, speaking with a sweet voice, in a persuasive 
manner, and so as to elicit praise. 

IV. The effects and causes of sin are the follow- 
ing : — The ten divisions of want of knowledge, 
[first of things mental, then of words, then a want 
of perfect knowledge of sensible objects, the want 
of knowledge of what is doing in all the forty-five 
divisions of the world, then in the fifteen the abode 
of man, next, want of omniscience ; besides there 
is incapacity of giving, inability to obtain the ob- 
ject of desire, incapacity of securing delight, and 
inability to enjoy]. There are also nine natural 
infirmities, [imperfection of sight and sleep ; of the 
former four, and of the latter five, viz., total want 
of sight, incapability of seeing what is not before 

\ \\ A TATVA. I 2 1 

the eyes, incapability of Boeing .-ill thai is dune on 
earth, incapability of Beeing all things; and Bleep, 
deep Bleep, Bleep in which one can Bit or Btand, 
Bleep in which a person can walk about, mesmeric 
Bleep, in which a booth might be pulled out or a 
Limb cm off without the patient's knowledge, and 
in which he can exert supernatural strength in 
accomplishing plans thought of during the day*]. 

Next there is. birth in a low family, any act 
that gives pain, false worship, the state of any of 
the ten kinds of living beings destitute of motion, 
any <>\' the thre< in bell, descending nat ur 

ally there, being drawn away to it, ami living iii 
it] ; being under the influence of any of the twenty- 
five passions, [sixteen proper, as. anger, pride, love, 
ccvetousness, each of four kinds; and things con- 
nected with passion, as laughter, &c., six things, 
and the three sexual Btates of animals]; the four 

es "t" living beings with one, two, three, and 
Pour senses; bad gait ; natural defects, [as, a buck- 
tooth, &c.]; also disagreeable colour, smell, taste, 
or feel ; anyone of the five conditions of the bones 
or form of the body other than that above des- 
cribed, under the opposite head ; all these are con- 

* This is railed by the .lains A>\ .ipani Nldnt, : 1 1 * 1 1 ■ > 1 1 ■_■ 1 1 I 

cannot learn tint they are acquainted with any process by 
which it is induced. 


nected with the principle of sin. Besides, there 
are want of proper motion in any member of the 
body, extreme minuteness, improper develop- 
ment, excessive hairiness, want of firmness ; and 
the following acts, indelicate contact, [touching 
any part of the body below the navel], causing 
distress to any being, inharmonious sound, dis- 
obedience, disrespect. 

V. Appetites and passions, and other incite- 
ments to sin. These are the five senses and the 
four passions, [anger, pride, love, covetousness] ; 
the five sinful acts, [killing, stealing, lying, adul- 
tery, devotedness to the world] ; the three yogas, 
[applications of the mind, speech, and body, to 
worldly objects] ; besides the twenty following 
acts : walking carelessly, [and so endangering the 
life of insects], lending a weapon, wishing ill to 
any being, teazing any being or injuring them, 
beginning any work, [as ploughing], the reception 
of a gift, the exercise of cunning, accusing the 
Jain sacred books of falsehood, acting without any 
rule, seeing stage plays, touching things forbidden, 
[as horses, bulls, and women, which are prohibited 
to ascetics] ; hearing one's own praises proclaimed, 
bearing weapons, beating animals, purchasing ar- 
ticles to sell them at a profit, piercing any animal 
with a weapon, doing things with carelessness, dis- 
regard of the good opinion of gods and men, 
ordering others to do what you should do yourself, 

N \\ \ TA TVA. 1 23 

mingling in a crowd of people, currying favour 
with others, cherishing malicious purposes, and 
travelling, [in which, from Liability bo tread on 
small insects, the danger of Binning is incurred.]. 

VI. Self-denial, religious restraint, and other 
helps t<> a course of virtuous action. These are, 
tin- five cares about externals, the five cares about 
internals : twenty kinds of patient endurance, and 
ten kinds of virtuous actions. Ofthefirsi earned, 
attention to the road on which you walk, [that 
there be no insects od it to sustain injury], atten- 
tion to what you -ay. and what you eat, care about 
what you receive, that you do do< put it down on 
the ground, and allow ants t<> mingle with it, &c], 
and care about excretions. < >f the .second named, 
or care about internals, there is one care to ex- 
clude improper and to introduce religious subjects 
of meditation, fare to cover your mouth when you 
Bpeak, lest BOme fly or animal enter it], and to 
avoid ;,U kind- of sin. The following things are 
to be patiently borne: hunger, thirst, cold, heat, 

the bite of any animal, while you are engaged in 

religious worship, dirty and ragged clothes, the 
solicitations of passion, the absence of female 
society, the inconveniences of travel, the appear- 
ance of ghosts, an uncomfortable couch, railing, 
murderous blows, begging, disappointment in ob- 
taining what we desire, disease, a straw pallet, 
dirt, honour, the praise of knowledge, the disgrace 


of ignorance, and religious doubts. The ten acts 
are as follows : the milduess that restrains wrath, 
the humility which subdues pride, the simplicity 
which is opposed to cunning, the spirituality which 
is opposed to worldly-mindedness, fasting and auste- 
rities, self-restraint, speaking the truth, tender 
regard for the life of all creatures, abandonment 
of all worldly possessions, celibacy and chastity. 
These things contain the principles of the Jam 

VII. Raising the mind from worldly attach- 
ments. To effect this the following* nine reflec- 
tions are to be kept before the mind : that all 
things are unstable, that death and the ills of life 
cannot be prevented, that man is driven through 
a succession of states in different worlds, that the 
same life is frequently passing through births and 
deaths, that the body is but a receptacle for filth, 
that man is through the actions he is called on to 
perform exposed to innumerable temptations to 
sin, that these may be resisted, and that works of 
all kinds should be abstained from- In addition 
to these the following three reflections should be 
made : that man is by his form fitted for religious 
exercises, that to obtain such a body is difficult, 
and therefore, that he who has obtained it should 
give his whole attention to the subject of religion. 
These are the twelve spiritual reflections. Besides 
these there are the five sacraments. The first is, 


introduction bo t In - Jain religion, t. e., a vow to 
abstain from .-ill injury, and to exercise compassion 
towards all living creatures; the second is, initia- 
tion into an ascetic life, by which, all former sins 
are obliterated ; next, the sacrament of the greater 
penance, [being eighteen months fasting and read 
ing for an ascetic who threatens to leave the com- 
munity]; and the lesser penance, [of shorter 
periods, for ebullitions of passion and slight faults] ; 
an<l lastly, there is tin- Sacrament of Renown, 
when the true disciple, breaking through all the 
entanglements of the world, attains to the state 
where there is immortality and freedom from 
decay. There are six kinds of external austerity : 
entire abstinence for a limited time, taking a 
mouthful less and loss every day ; the resolution 
t" fat only if the article, place, time, and disposi- 
tion, arc in accordance with a previously formed 
conception in the mind: the refusing all Bavoury 
articlesof die! ; afflicting the body, [as tearing 'out 
the hair]; restraining the senses; nol looking &i 
objects of temptation. There are also six internal 
austerities: repentance, humility, resolution to 
l'<-*>\ holy men, reading of holy books and instruct- 
ing others in tin- same, religious meditation, ami 

ly, raising the mind above all worldly desires. 
Such are the restraints that prepare the mind for 

VIII. Worldly attachments. These are lour 


kinds, and have reference to the nature, time, sen- 
sible qualities, and place of the objects which affect 
the mind. The first refers to their essence, the 
second to the time of their continuance, the third 
to their flavour, smell, &c, and the fourth to the 
places in which they are found. Restraints and 
attachments are of the following kinds : covering, 
[as the restraint of sight by a bandage over the 
eyes] ; foreign agency, [as that of a porter stop- 
ing one at a door] ; terror, [as the restraint from 
eating honey on the edge of a sharp sword] ; the 
fascination of affection ; confinement in the stocks ; 
the attraction of beautiful objects, and paintings*; 
considerations of rank, [like a potter examining the 
different grades of the vessels he lias made] ; and 
delays [as those experienced at the treasury when 
money is wanted]. So much for the subject of 
worldly attractions. 

IX. Relative to the state of final emancipation 
there are six things stated : that there is really 
such a state, the size of the emancipated lives, and 
of the place where they live, their tangible quali- 
ties, the duration of their existence, the distance 
at which they are from one another, their parts, 

* The original here is f^TT simply, and the explanation is 
"after the manner of a painter;" but I am not sure I have 
hit the exact idea. 

\ \\ \ tatva. 1-7 

their natures, their numbers. Although, liuwever, 
these things may he predicated of it. nevertheless, 
as emancipation La a simple term, bo it is expres- 
sive of a aimple object, and not like Bky-flower, 
which is a compound term embodying more than 
ciic idea. Of this thing emancipation, we are now 
to declare the means of attainment. The road to 
emancipation lies through particular states, viz., 
the possession of senses and a body, also the 
condition of possibility or impossibility, the pos- 
bi bsj 'ii of passions, and of knowledge and vision, 
through the sacraments, through minute obstacles, 
the paths of rectitude, the possession of a mind 
or the contrary, and abstinence or the contrary. 
By these, then, emancipation is only obtained in 
the state of manhood, [not in that of a good demon 
or brute], while in possession of five senses, while 
possessing a body capable of voluntary motion, in 
a condition of possibility, while possessing a mind, 
through the Bacrament of the highest asceticism, 
in that path of rectitude in which there is no re- 
trogression, through the possession of perfect 
knowledge and vision, and in the practice of 
abstinence. It is not obtainable through any 
other path. The space occupied by each of the 
perfect is boundless, and increases accordii s 
any one's desire. The term in which tiny remain 
in th is also infinite. Their parts arc Lnnu- 

i'lc. There is qo returning again to a worldly 


state, and no interruption to their bliss. They 
have perfect vision and knowledge, they have no 
dependence on works, but exercise themselves ac- 
cording to the highest philosophy. Such is the 
life of the Perfect. 

Few neuters, [not more than ten at a time], and 
a small proportion of females, [not more than 
twenty at a time], obtain perfection ; the perfect 
consist chiefly of males, [of which one hundred and 
eight may be emancipated at once]. Such is the 
doctrine of emancipation, and the conclusion of the 
Tract, or the Nine Principles of Things. He who 
is acquainted with these nine principles, and lays 
hold of them by faith, is perfect in knowledge. 
He who is ignorant of them cannot be perfect in 
knowledge. The words and doctrine of all the 
Jain Lords is here, and nowhere else to be found ; 
therefore, he whose mind is instructed in these, 
possesses true and stable knowledge. He who has 
had this knowledge impressed on his mind for only 
an hour, is detained only by half the mental and 
bodily attraction that he was before. 

In time there are infinite cycles, of which an 
infinite number have passed, and an infinite num- 
ber are to come. Among sages there are the fol- 
lowing distinctions : Jinas, and those not Jinas ; 
Tirthankaras, and those who are not ; Householders 
and Mendicants, and Regular Ascetics ; Men, 
Women, and Eunuchs ; those instructed by a 

S \\ A I'ATVA. L29 

private individual, the Belf-taught, and those 
broughl up under regular teachers ; those who are 
emancipated singly, and those emancipated in a 



The relations and affinities of the ancient and modern 
languages of India is a subject which lias lately eng 
the attention of learned Europeans. It is one, however, 
attended with no common difficulties. The ancient 
grammarian, Vararuchi, mentions aot only a general 
Prakrit Language, tin- relation of which to the Sanskril 
he defines in BeveraJ books of aphorisms, bu1 distin- 
guishes it also from the Suraseni, Magadhi, and other 
dialects. His rules have bees commented on by 

Colebrooke and Lassen, especially the latter; and the 

reader who wants information on the general subjecl 

is referred to those authorities. The following remarks 

reference solely to the language in which the 
Kalpa Sutra, here translated, and the other ancienl 

sacred Looks of the .Iain community, are written ; for 

although in comments on the ancienl hooks, and in 
mod. rn works, the Jains, as in the Introduction to the 
Kalpa Sutra, employ the Sanskrit, or one of the ver- 

K 2 


nacular tongues, all their really ancient and standard 
works are written in the Magadhi. It is a curious fact, 
that the Ceylonese Buddhists term their sacred tongue, 
usually called Pali, also Magadhi ; though on comparing 
the Mahavanso, one of their sacred books, with the Jain 
writings, I find considerable dissimilarity between the 
two dialects ; the Pali approaching much nearer to the 
standard of the general Prakrit, and having few, if 
any, of the peculiarities of the Magadhi dialect, while 
the Jain works exhibit them by no means in a slight 
degree. The Mahavanso probably exhibits, pretty 
nearly, the court language of India three hundred 
years before our era, when Buddhism was first firmly 
established in Ceylon, while the language of the Kalpa 
Sutra was the court language of the Balabhi monarchs 
of Gujarath seven centuries later; for although the 
two works were probably composed about the same 
period, the language all the while in Ceylon being a 
dead language, and its use confined to the priesthood, 
it would remain unaffected by those changes to which 
in India, as a spoken tongue, it would be continually 
subjected. In reference to the meaning of the word 
Prakrit, it may be observed that, among the Marathi 
Brahmans, the term is often taken in its widest sense 
to signify the natural or vernacular language of any 
province in India. In a more restricted sense, it means 
any of the ancient dialects of the different provinces, 
and which, as most of their books used till lately to 
be written in it, obtains, in the south of India, the 
appellation Grantha. The Sanskrit is not at present 


< vernacular tongue, l»m a language polished and 
refined, as it- name implies, for the purposes of litera- 
ture; yet it seems highly probable thai the ruder 
dialed from which the present Sanskril has b en 
formed was the spoken tongue of the tribe, who. under 
Bharat, as they themselves relate, settled in Upper 
India, and afterwards gave the name of their Boven ign 
to the whole country, which extends from Cape 
Comorin to the Himalaya Mountains. These Bharatans 
thru possessed, according to their own accounts, con- 
tained in the works called Purans, and other records 
of their traditions, at their first emerging from 
obscurity, but a small portion of India, while at that 

time the country was peopled in every direction by 
tribes of a race entirely distinct, and in different stages 
of civilization, whom they at first denominated Daitya, 
Danava, and Rakahas, and still later Mlechhas; just as 

till very lately, it' they have even now ceased to do SO, 

the Chinese ased to call all foreigners devils, ami the 
1 i ika men of every other race, barbarians. 

Urn- of the most striking features in the institutions 
of those northern immigrants was tin- distinction of 
. which they cither brought along with them, or 
introduced Boon after their arrival in India. Vet at the 
first the military and priestly castes were one, and 
many instances can he pointed out in tin- Purans where 
tic- second bou of a military sovereign entered the 

priesth 1, while his elder brother Bwayed the Bceptre. 

Another Btriking characteristic of this tribe was, that 
it belonged to that grand central Asian family which 


has acted by far the most prominent part on the 
political arena of the world, sending off colonies, which 
became the germs of mighty monarchies in Persia, 
Greece, Italy, and modern Europe, as well as in India ; 
and in all those different localities retaining the rudi- 
ments of a dialect which has formed the basis of most 
of those languages which contain the treasures of 
literature and science, as has been fully manifested by 
the learned labours of Schlegel, Kennedy, and Bopp. 
It is evident that on the spreading abroad of this 
northern family, and their mingling with the aborigines, 
a mixture of the language of the two people must 
have resulted. The same process, then, that took place 
in Spain, the north of Italy, France, and Britain, on the 
conquest of those countries by the Romans, took place, 
we rnust believe, in India, when the followers of Brah- 
manism, at different periods, took possession of its 
different kingdoms and principalities. The language 
of the aboriginal inhabitants of India, if we may judge 
from the Tamil, that of the people most to the south, 
and farthest removed from Brahmanical influence, and 
from the dialects spoken by the hill tribes, which have 
never embraced the Brahmanical customs and religion, 
and which dialects have all much in common with the 
Tamil, belonged to a family of languages entirely 
distinct from that of the northern invaders, and had a 
nearer resemblance to the Turkish and Siberian dialects 
than to any of the Indo-Germanic tongues. 

It was not the policy of the Brahmans, any more 
than <>f the Romans, to dispense with the use of their 


own language, the record of their religion, traditions, 
and laws, hut it required m> Blight modification before 
it could become the vernacular tongue of men whose 
organs <>l" Bpeech were utterly incapable <>f enunciating 
severaJ of its elements, and most of its combine 1 
consonants. The old Sanskrit of the Veda, which 
we may suppose to have been the language of the 
follower) of Bharat, is a harsh language compared with 
the musical Tamil, dialects allied to which we must 
suppose the languages of the Indian aborigines to 
have ' en. Indeed it is admitted that the Telinga, 
Canareee, and other languages of the Peninsula, are 
closely allied to that tongue; but this is far from the 
whole truth ; for though the languages of northern and 
central India borrow most of their vocables from the 
Brahn anical Sanskrit, yet in their grammatical construc- 
tion, and the pronunciation of the letters, they more 
nearly resemble the Tamil. Thus, for example, the letters 
■^ (ri) and ^ (sh) along with the Visarga, are unpro- 
Dounceable by the great body of the population in every 
part of India. Ami as to the combinations ^J (ksh) 

"g (slit ) ?Ji (kt) ami a host of others, no Indian hut a 

Brahman ever attempts to enunciate them. In regard 
to the inflexions of nouns in the vernacular Indian 
tongues, wo have first the letter *T (n) a verycnmmon 
characteristic mark of the genitive, appearing in the 
Tamil "^cf (ina) the f«T ("i) of the first declension in 

Telinga, the "^J^ (ana) ami ~z*n (ina) of the first and 

fourth declensions in Canarese, the ^TT (naj pi (nf) 


c< (num) of the Gujarathi, and the "^^ (cheni) of the 
old Marathi. To find anything like a parallel to this 
we must pass the Sanskrit, and seek it in the Turkish 
S In regard to the dative, the letter 3J (k) is the 
prevailing characteristic in the vernacular languages of 
India ; thus in the Tamil we have ^ (ku), in the Cana- 

rese ^ (kke) of the second declension, in the Telinga 

^ (ku), in the Hindostani 3n" ^ko), and in the Bengali 

^f (ke). How could there be such an analogy in respect 
of these the two most common and important of all 
the cases among languages whose vocables are so 
different, unless we ascribe it to the influence of an 
aboriginal Indian language, which obtained throughout 
the country, though doubtless with dialectic varieties, 
before the Brahmanical tongue had prevailed in nearly 
supplanting it everywhere, except in the Peninsula. 
On this, however, and on the allied subject of the 
affinity between the languages spoken by the moun- 
taineers and the Tamil, additional information will be 
found in the first volume of the " Journal of the 
Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society." 

The Prakrit and other dialects, then, mentioned by 
Vararuchi had then origin in the necessity which had 
arisen of adapting the Brahmanical speech to the 
organs of the Indian aborigines, and may either be 
considered as corruptions or refinements, according to 
the standard which is used to try the qualities of 
languages. Having for my own part first studied the 
Sanskrit, and admired the accuracy with which it 


enables a writer to express all the varied Bhades of his 
ideas, and the niceties of its structure, 1 confess I fell 
disappointed in turning to the Prakrit ; bul after 
advancing a Little in the knowledge of the language, 
f feel bound to concede that, by its greater simplicity 
of construction, and superior facility of enunciation, 
the Prakrit may easily bear away the palm from its 
rival as a simple, yel polished and harmonious vehicle 
of human thought, admirably fitted to be the spoken 
tongue of a greal ami refined nation; and il the reader 
will look back to the "explanation of Trisala's dream," 
he will readily conceive that the language in which 
thoughts bo varied and beautiful can he conveyed with 
nid -race, musl he something more than a jargon. 
In the peculiar dialed of Prakrit termed Blagadhf, the 
first point mentioned by Yararuchi is the substitution of 
11 (s) for ^ (s), and ^ (sh) (tot: I[) # In the com- 
mon dialect, on the contrary, H (s) and ^ (sh) become 

*y (s). Now it is a strong confirmation of this rule of 
tin- grammarian to find, that on the Ganges, whence we 
may suppose the model of the common Prakrit t<> have 
been taken, in all the different dialects of Hindi and 1 1 in 
dustani. the jf (s) is the only sibilant used, while in the 

Marathi country, which anciently fell within the limits 

of the kingdom ofMagadha, the if (s) is the favourite 
sibilant, being by the common people always substituted 
for ?J (s) before the palatine vowels ^ (i) and T3[ (e), 

and the semi-vowel ^ST (y); thus, ftm (seva) becomes 


imT (seva), and f*n? (sinha) is changed to ft[l> (siha). 
In the Gujarathi cursive character, although both these 
sibilants are pronounced, the ?J (s) is seldom written, "3J 
(s') being put in its place, and the proper pronunciation 
left to the skill of the reader. 

In the Jain Magadhi manuscrijDts, which are written 
in a form of the Nagari, varying in several letters a 
good deal from the Pevanagari, the two letters in 
question seem used almost promiscuously at the pleasure 
of the scribe. In most of the Jain manuscripts in the 

Library of the Bombay Society, ?J (s) alone is used. 
In the two manuscripts of the Kalpa Sutra, from which 
the translation was made, "3J (s) is liberally used, except 
in the terminations ^f (ssa) and ^T (su) ; but then the 
scribes seem, in the choice of one or other, to have 
acted quite at random, for at one time we have 

^11! (vasaha), and then again 3"3Jt[ (vasaha) for 3^^f 
(vrishabha). The Yati who assisted me, maintained 
that the two letters should be pronounced in the same 
way, which, but for the authority of the grammarian, 
and the modern usage above referred to, I should have 
no solid reasons for refusing to grant. As to the proper 
pronunciation of the three sibilants, a Maharashtra 

Brahman pronounces ?J (s) as the common liissing s ; 

"3[ (s) he pronounces as a very soft sh, similar to these 

two letters in our word sheep ; and ^ (sh) as a very 
harsh sh, in which the tongue is raised towards Ihe 


palate, as in pronouncing the ~Z (tf) class. <>n the 

whole. I am inclined to think that If (s) was originally 

more frequently written, and always pronounced by 
the Jains; but as far as I have had an opportunity 
of examining their works, any attempt now at the 

restoration of If (d) to its proper place would be 
perfectly hopeless. 

The next mark of the MagadhJ mentioned by the 

grammarian, is the conversion of ~5\ (j) t<» Tf (y), the 
reverse "I" which takes place in the common Prakrit. 
Both changes can be instanced in our honks ; ami as to 
the peculiar Magadhi form, we have examples of it in 
77^ fraya) for "^ (raja), ami t\th (gaye) for -JToT: 

(gaja);also in ^znr (vayara) for ^W (vajra). and ^ 1 «i | 

(raya) tor ^\ m <^\ (raja); "^Tf^ (raf)inMarathi,and ^T"3\ 

(rail) in (nijarathi, are more modem forms of the same 

In the Ma-adhi, the x| (eh) elass of letters keep their 
places, while in the common dialect they are elided. 

This answers very well as a general rule for the dialect 

of the Jains, hnt it has its exceptions, as "^fr^lV^T^ 

(ayariyanam) meaning '^fT'^T'^r^l! (acharyebhya), and 
probably also ^m^ (vayasf) he said; if. as I suppose, 
it is from the root ^"^ (vach). In reference to of (j) 

it can only keep its place when not changi d to Jj (\). 

The change t" ^J (v) instead of "^ .1 , i- v. ry common 


in our manuscripts, even in other case's : thus we have 
TfJ^J (seya) for ^Jrf (seta) where ^J (y) is used for rf (t). 

I have not seen the change of ^J (rj) to TSf (yy), 

but the reverse, as for TramSFT (paryushana) we have 

tJ^f^njTJTT (pajjausaua) according to the common 

Prakrit. Again WqT (bharyya) becomes ^TTf^TT 

(bhariya) instead of the common Prakrit 'JTTfT^T 
(bharia). From this word, by the application of the 
grammarian's rules, we shall get something nearer the 
Marathi cfT^t (bayi) or ^it; (bai). 

The word 1[<^q^ (hridayasya) has not the peculiar 

form with us, the grammarian mentions. Nor is ^ (r) 

changed to tjf (1), except perhaps in the doubtful 

instances of ^^f^"?? (veruliya) for ^<*"q" (vaidurya), 

and vjHJ<fT (urala) for ^3T<^"n^ (udara). 

I do not know how the change of ^J (ksh) to "^3f 

(sk) which takes place in Magadhi, according to Vara- 
ruchi, is to be explained. In the Jain manuscripts 

?§" (kli) is usually written ^3f (rak), like ^ (r) and 3T (k). 
Was this what the grammarian meant, and was it a mere 
form of writing, or is the peculiar sound intended 

utterly lost in the modern vernacular tongue I ^ (chh) 

is often substituted for ^J (ksh) as in the common 


In passing, 1 may mention that ^ (v) seldom Or 

Qevei becomes ^ (b). 

In reference to one of the principal peculiarities of 
the Magadhi dialect, the substitution of tj (e)foi "3ft 
(o) in the nominative singular of words, which in 

Sanskrit have ^I (ah) or ^ (am), in that case the 

rule of the grammarian is constantly followed in the 

Kaljia Sutra: thus we have f"*T^ (gihe) for Tr? 

(griham), *nrr€tT (mahavire) for *nfT3tT« (" 1;l ' l;l - 

vi'rah) ; ami even in feminines in ^T (a) and ^ (i) the 

rule holds, as ffT^JfTTr (Tisalae) for f^niWT (Trisala), 

•'•'id ^rrf^TT (mahanie) for sM^^jft (brahmanf) 
This characteristic alone is sufficient to vindicate the 
correctness of the title Magadhi, as applied to the 
language in which the Jain hooks are written: and 

the want of it in the Pali, shows that it has no proper 
claim to this peculiar epithet. 

The fifth case, which should end in <? (du) or T^j 

(do) in the writings of the Jains, as far as I have 
observed, always terminates simply in "3? (ti) dropping 

the ^" (d> according to a rule which is qo1 commonly 
applied to such combinations; thus we have "3r*jrTT"3? 
(abhantaraii) for the Sanskrit "JfwjrT'^cn (abhyan- 
taratah). In the modern Marathi this termination 
bei'oni ~3\*T (uri . There is a peculiarity also in the 


seventh case, the T{ (m) and *J (s) of the Sanskrit 
changing places; thus we have e|f^P5" (kuchhamsi) 
and IT^Wf^r (samanamsi) while in Prakrit the termi- 
nation is f^T or "f| 

The use of the 1[ (h) in the sixth case is unexampled, 
as far as I have observed, as well as % (hu) in the 

nominative plural. The long ^3?T (a) of the vocative 
is constantly used ; and the Kalpa Sutra is in this 
point quite comformable to the rule laid down for the 
Magadhi by the grammarian ; thus we have always 

^"^TWfoj^TT (Devanuppiii). The feminine, however, is 

<^gfTTJTfnrtr (Devanuppie). The rule above mentioned 
holds universally in modern Marathi. The pronouns 
conform to the standard of the common dialect, with- 
out having any of the peculiarities mentioned by the 
grammarian, which probably, like some of the other 
things he notices, were only prevalent vulgarisms. I 
have not met the exceptional word f?5"g! (chhisht'a) 
which he mentions. The rule is the very opposite of 
what this word would imply ; thus we have Iff 

(hat't'ha) for Tg (hrishta) and TTJ (tut't'ha) for ?Tg 
(tushta) as in common Prakrit. 

Besides the substitution of TO" (n) for «T (n) common 
to all the dialects of Prakrit, Vararuchi notes the 
change of the other dentals to palatine letters, as a 
characteristic of the Magadhi. In accordance with 


this rale we have f^R"? (nibu&e) for fa^fTl (nivrita) 

and *JT¥ (Samvu'de) for WZri: (Samvrita) and ^^ 

(he'da) for 1?7T: hata). This also is one of the striking 
peculiarities of the modem Marat hi language, as com- 
pared with tin- other vernacular dialects <>f [ndia : thus 
we have VJ"S (ganth) for Tjfa (granthi) and ^TWt 

(hani) for ^f«f (dhwani) and ^^ (dankha) for ^"3j; 

(dansa)and ^TH (Hambha) for <£"H (dambha) and a 
hundred others, in the common vernacular dialects. 

The peculiar preter-pasl participle in ^Tfrj (dafli) 
has not fallen under my observation. There are two 
forms of this participle in common use, one in f (t't'u) 

as 3f? (kat't'u) and the other in T^TT (itta) as 
3ff^-r1I (karitta) both meaning 3ff^T (kritva). The 

nearest to ^Tf^T (dani ) is the form T<TTW (itaiiani) 

which occurs not anfirequently as in the word mfirrTTW 

(parfitanam) used for mfalTTT (pasitta) from the root 

tjtt (pa&a) in the sense of f^T (drish'tva). 

In the third person singular present indicative of the 
verb, the contracted form 3T^^ (karei) is always used, 
contrary to the Pali practice, which mostly keeps the 
?f (t) of the Sanskrit in the termination, while the 

Prakrit Bubstituti ■ :l\ ^" (d). 


Enough, then, has been said to show that the Jain 
books are not written entirely in the peculiar Magadhi 
of Vararuchi. The language will correspond more 
nearly to his Ardhamagadhika, though not to that 
entirely either. It is a peculiar dialect, having a 
decidedly Magadhi leaning, but differing in several 
respects from all the specimens of Prakrit found in the 
Hindu dramatic works, from which the grammarian's 
rules seem originally to have been derived. Probably 
a closer and more critical study of Jain works in their 
relation to the Sanskrit, Prakrit, Pali, and other dialects, 
might bring to light other points of difference ; but 
these remarks, it is hoped, will give the reader a 
tolerably correct notion of the general character of 
the language of the original works from which the 
foregoing translations were made. I must observe, 
however, that there are differences in these works 
themselves, and that my remarks in this Appendix 
have almost sole reference to the language of the 
Kalpa Sutra, the other tract approaching much nearer 
to the common Prakrit, and the untranslated manuscripts 
in the Library having been only occasionally consulted. 





IAR 861947 

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