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1.^ 



THE 

KANSAS CITY REVIEW 



OF 



SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY. 



EDITED BY 



THEO. S. OA.8E. 



VOLUME IV.— 1 880-8 1. 




KANSAS CITY, MO. 
Press of Ramsey, Millett & Hudson. 



50 3.7 3 






INDEX TO VOLUME FOUR. 



Abstinence from Fluids, Experiments in . 286 

Admiralty Surveys .... 229 

^tna, A View of 234 

African Exploration, 120, 138, 140, 141, 
142, 144, 145, 146, 147, 366, 371, 469, 470 

Agassiz 766 

Ague a Poison . . 313 

Alexander, W. W., Planetary Phenome- 
na . .287, 348, 427, 488, 574, 625, 692, 742 

Almacantar, The . . . • • 644 

America's River System developed . . . 506 

American Science Association 321 

American Pottery 663 

Ancient Eclipses . . ; . . 622 

Ancient Man in Missouri 327 

Ancient Works in New Mexico 605 

Anglo-American Cattle Company 311 

Antiquity of Man 530, 595 

Antiquity of Man, Evidence regarding 

the, 19 

Applied Science 480 

Aurora Borealis, 216 

Anthropology, 84, 326 

Archaeology, 149, 235, 419, 602, 659 

Arctic Expeditions, i, 3, 58, 118, 143, 
228, 372, 414, 416, 417, 418, 460, 464, 

467. 470, 558 

Artesian Wells in Colorado 536 

Astronomical Discovery, A new, • • . 350 
Astronomy, . 4, 67, 289, 348, 427, 488, 

573> 574, 576, 622, 692, 742 

Asphalt Pavements 97 

Automatic Mental Action 23 

Award of the Royal Medals 119 

Award of the School Medals . . . . 120, 231 

Balm of Gilead 122 

Barometer, The 275 

Beneficial Effects of Smoke 699 

Berthoud, Capt. E. L., Tertiary Man. 84, 236 
Berthoud, Capt. E. L., Artesian Wells in 

Colorado 536 

Biography 351 

Book Notices, 61, 127, 188, 244, 306, 377, 

448, 511, 636, 574, 699 764 

Botany 615, 667 

British Science Asssociation 322 

British Science Association, Annual Ad- 
dress before the 364 

Bowers, Rev. Stephen, Engraved Stone 

from Ohio 149 

Broadhead, Prof. G. C, Review of <' Con- 
tributions to Palaeontology," 448 



Broadhead, Prof. G. C, The Mastodon . 519 
Broadhead, Prof. J. C, Extricts from an 

old Book of Travels 663 

Bromide of Ethyl .-....' 184 

Brown, Dr. R. W., Bromide of Ethyl . . 184 
Building with tempered Glass. .... 312 

Buried Race in Kansas, A , . 35 

Care of Trees and Shrubs '. 21:3 

Case, Ermine, Jr., Sewerage and Street 

Paving ._ ^^^ 

Case, Ermine, Jr., Thermometer readings 
in Italy . . ^ 



Case, Theo. S., A Visit to the Birthplace 
of Montezuma 

Case, Theo. S., Kansas City Electric Time 
Ball 



Case, Theo. S., The Old in New M 
Celluloid Veneer . . . • • 



697 
419 
610 



exico. 512 
S8i 



Chemistry . j^^; ^^^ 

Child, Dr. A. L., Railroad Bridge at 

Plattsmouth .»j 

Child, Dr. S. L,, Loess of the Western 
Plains, Subasrial or Subaqueous ? . . .293 

Chimborazo, Ascent of 412 

Chloral Hydrate, Test for . . . . .* .' .* 188 

Choice and Chance ' nj 

Clarke, Prof. F. W., A Talk about Light- 

ning 28 

Clouds 403, 626, 694 678 

Comet, The Great Southern 71 

Congressional Appropriations for scien- 
tific purposes 7^5 

Correspondence . ,74, 240, 302, 498,' 502* 542 

Corwin, Cruise of the 260 

Crosby, Prof. E. C, The Principles of In- 
structions 102, 158 

Crozet Islands, Position of . 266 

Dakota Group, The 675 

Dawson, Wm., The Sun and Phenomena 

of its surface 67 

Deceased of 1880, The 509 

Decorative Art, The Bane of 581 

Deep Sea Researches ....... 362, 704 

Delicate Scientific Instruments 743 

Determination of Mars, A New 4 

Diphtheria, Remedy for 115 

Discoveries, Interesting, in Clinton Co., 

Ohio 236, 237 

Drowned, Perseverance with the .... 188 
Dunbar, Prof. John B,, Decrease of the 
North American Indians 295 



INDEX. 



Earache, Chloroform vapor in 115 

Editorial Notes, 64, 129, 193, 254, 317, 

383, 45i> 575. 582, 646, 713, 779 

Education 102, 158 

Electric Eccentricities 279 

Electric Light, Effect upon vegetation . 57 

Electric Railway • . 220 

Electric Time Ball 219, 610, 72o 

Electricity, Seeing by 122 

Engineering 6, 97. 333, 471 

Engineering progress in the U. S 335 

Engraved Stone from Ohio 149 

Epidemic, A strange 187 

Ethnology 295 

Evolution, Geology and . . 90, 162, 195. 289 

Expansion of clay 295 

Exploration 491 

Fee, Dr. John, Good Eyes and Free 

Schools.. 441 

Fire resisting qualities of Building Ma- 
terials 447 

Forests, Preservation of 342 

Forests, Destruction of 723 

Fossil Forest, A 207 

Fossils in Colorado 176 

Fossils in Southwest Missouri 207 

Franklin's Place in Science . 156 

Freshet in Missouri River, July, 1880. . 359 

Genesis and Modern Thought 170 

Geographical Societies 264, 265 

Geography, i, 115, 131, 221, 257,364,409, 

460, 551, 685, 736 

Geological Climates 734 

Geology, 19, 90, 162, 195, 205, 289, 519, 

595, 672, 729 
Geology and Evolution ... 90, 162, 195, 289 

Good Eyes and Free Schools 441 

Gour, A Last City . 706 

Gulf Stream, New Views of the 589 

Gulnare, Accident to the ... . . 259 

Gulnare, Log of the 491 

Hair and Beard as Racial Characteristics.. 149 
Haldeman, S. S., Obituary Notice of . . 359 

Haloes, Solar 635 

Hazen, Gen. W. B,, Notice of 577 

Heath, Dr. I.D., Personal Recollections of 

Orton and Peru 132, 221 

Heath, Dr. E. R., Discoveries in South 

America 736 

Hermeneutics 373 

Historical Notes 724 

Howgate Expedition, The Second, 58, 115, 

257, 418, SSI, 5S2, 685, 688 
Howgate, Miss Ida, The Telegraph as ap- 
plied to Norwegian Fisheries 429 

Hudson River Tunnel ...••.. 99, 249 
Hydrophobia, Curare and other cures for. 185 

Hypothesis, The New S^S 

Ice, Breaking up the, in rivers 36 

Improvement of the Missouri River . . . 643 

India Rubber producing Insect S^ 

Indians, Decrease of the North American 295 



Indians, Traditions Respecting their Ori- 
gin . . 66s 

Insects, Plants and Animals, Relation Be- 
tween 000 

Instruction, The Principles of . . . 102, 158 
Iron, A New Process for Protecting . 382 

Ischia, Earthquake at 767 

Isthmian Routes, The Three (Illustrated). 712 
Jews ; May they eat Oysters ?...., . 124 
Jones, J. P., The Spanish Expedition to 

Missouri in 1719 724 

Judith River Group 729 

tCansas Academy of Science, Proceedings 

of ...... . • 453 

Kansas City Electric Time Ball 720 

Kansas, Scientific Survey of . 640 

Kansas University, Scientific work of. . . 64S 
Kansas Weather Service . S76, 634, 698, 762 
Kansas Weather Summary for 1880 ... .631 

Larkin, Prof. E. L., Motion 177 

Larkin, Prof. E. L., Delicate Scientific 

Instruments 743 

Lawns, Making and Preserving 121 

Leavenworth Academy of Science .... 460 
Lewis, Rev. T. L., Indian Traditions . . 665 
Le«is, Rev. T. L., Destruction of Forests. 723 
Lick Observatory, Telescope for .... 694 

Life within the Arctic Circle 776 

Light of Jupiter, The ......... 350 

Light, Transmission of Speech by . ... 578 

Lightning, A Talk About 28 

Linen, The Manufacture of . 308 

Loess of the Western Plains, Subaerial or 

Subaqueous? 293 

Long, Prof. J. M., Automatic Mental Ac- 
tion ..... 23 

Long, Prof. J. M., The Synthetic Phi- 
losophy 649 

Lovewell, Prof. J. T. Kansas Weather 

Service . S76, 634, 698. 755 

Lykins, W. H. R., Rambles of a Natural- 
ist 54, 444 

Lykins, W. H. R., Parhelion in Kansas 

City ... 636 

Magnetic Survey of Missouri . , . . . .718 

Malaria, Dr. W. B. Sawyer 614 

Mars, A new determination of the diame- 
ter of 4 

Maxwell, S. A., Meteoric Shower of Aug. 

loth, 1880 281 

Maxwell, S. A., Clouds .... 403,626, 694 

Maxwell, S. A., Solar Haloes 63s 

Mastodon, The 519 

Medicine and Hygiene . . . 109, 184, 313, 

441, 614, 677 
Medicine, Taking away the taste of . . .111 
Meteoric Shower Aug. loth, 1880. . . . 281 
Meteorological Stations in Behring's Sea . 741 
Meteorology . . .52, 20S, 268, 385, 576, 

626, 694, 750 
Meteorology and the Signal Service . . . 385 
Mexico, Explorations in 369, 496 



INDEX. 



Mexico, the Mammoth Cave of 176 

Miller, W. H., the Synthetic Philosophy 

of Herbert Spencer 328, 431, 566 

Mining for Precious Metals in the U. S. . 95 
Miocene Beds of the John Day river . . 540 

Mining in Arkansas 251 

Missouri Water Power 770 

Montezuma, a Visit to the Birthplace of . 419 

Moquis, the 729 

Mosaiculture ... 59 

Motion 177 

Mudge, Prof. B. F., Geology and Evolu- 
tion 90, 162, 195, 289 

Myer, Gen'l Albert J., Obituary notice of 315 

Myer, Gen'l the Successor of 508 

Natural Sciences, their Newness and Value 480 

National Academy of Science 546 

Necrology 233, 267, 315, 359, 509 

Nelson, Prof. E. T., Experiments in Ab- 
stinence from fluids 286 

New Mexico, The Old in . 502 

New Mexico, Oriental Resemblance in . 602 
New Mexico, Ancient Works in . . 605 

Nipher, Prof. F. E. , Choice and Chance, 37 
Nipher, Prof. F. E., Magnetic Survey of 

Missouri 718 

Nordenskjold, Honors to. ...... . 2 

Nordenskjold, The Afloat 3 

Nordenskjold and his Labors 351 

Northern Pacific Coal Fields 497 

Notes and Queries 765 

Noyes, Isaac P., Tornadoes 208 

Noyes, Isaac P., Prophecy of the Weather 

.... 268, 627 

Noyes, Isaac P., The Storm Center and 

Weather Prophets. 750 

Obelisk, Removal of the, from Egypt to 

New York 11 

Obelisks, List of the Notable 19 

Obelisk, A Short Story of the 708 

Obituary Notice of Prof. W. K. Kedzie . 60 
Ore Deposits, Origin and Classification 

of 165, 200 

Original Settlers of America . . . 239 

Orton and Peru, Personal Recollections 

of 132, 221 

Oysters, May Jews eat them? 124 

Oysters, Propagation of 311 

Pacific Railway of Canada 346 

Palestine, Survey of Western 409 

Paper Car Wheels, How made 711 

Parhelion in Kansas City 636 

Parker, Prof. [. D., Proceedings of Kan- 
sas Academy of Science 453 

Parker, Prof. J. D., The Tornadoes of 

April, 18, 1880 52 

Parker, Prof. J. D., Heath's Discoveries 

in South America 736 

Patagonia, Exploration of .... 267 
Pavements, Comparative Merits of differ- 
ent . 6 

Pavements, Asphalt 97 

Peirce, Prof. Benjamin 510 



Perihelia . 250 

Peterson, Carl, Death of 267, 316 

Philosophy - • • 37> 328, i, 43» 566, 585 

Photophone, An Account of 361 

Physics 28, 151, 219, 359, 610, 718 

Physiology . 246, 281 

Pipe-ore Limonites 251 

Planetarium, A New 288 

Planetary Phenomena, 287, 348, 427, 488, 

574, 625, 692, 742 
Pliocene Beds of Southern Oregon . . 600 
Polar Sea, Is there an open ? . . . . . 262 
Population of the Globe . ... . . 579 

Pompeian House, A 235 

Practical Formulas .... 581 

Preservations of Foods by Salicylic Acid 253 

Prehistoric Cat 581 

Pritchett, Prof. C. W., The Electric Time 

Ball 219 

Pritchett, Prof. li. S., A new Determina- 
tion of the Diameter of Mars 4 

Pritchett, Prof. H. S , Electric Time Ball 

at Kansas City . 720 

Project, Engineering, for the year 2000 . 774 

P/ ophecy of the Weather 268, 626 

Psychology 23, 78 

Pueblo Indians, The . 758 

Quatenary of Washington Territory . . . 601 
Rae, Prof. John, Schwatkas Sledge Jour- 
ney . . ... . . 498 

Rae, Prof. John, Geological Climates . 726 
Railroad Ballasting, Burnt clay for . . .711 

Rambles of a Naturalist 54, 444 

Railroad Bridge at Plattsmouth .... 471 
Railroad Building in the Rocky Moun- 
tains ... 474 

Railroad and Telegraph Land Grants . , 769 
Relation between Insects, Plants and Ani- 
mals 123 

Remedies for Chilblains 684 

Russia in Greece 312 

Sanitray Work, Commercial value of. 112 

San Juan Region 190 

Sawyer, Dr, W. B., Malaria . . .614 

Schlieman's Discoveries at Troy .... 659 

Science of the Bible 373 

Science in the Schools of France .... 772 

Science and Spiritualism 82 

Science Letter from Paris 74, 240, 302, 542, 760 
Scientific Miscellany, 54, 121, 190, 246 

308, 381, 444, 506, 577, 640, 765 

Schwatka's Arctic Search 414 

Separation of Metals by Electrolysis . . 770 

Shaw, C. A., the Barometer 275 

Ships on Wheels 338 

Siberian Commerce 740 

Silver Cliff, Geological Notes on ... . 205 

Sewerage and Street Paving 333 

Six Days of Creation 252 

Sixth Sense, The 305 

Smith, Prof. T. B., Undulatory Move- 
ments as affecting our senses . .151 
Smith, Prof. T. B., The Natural Sciences, 480 



INDEX. 



Smith, Prof. T. B., Agassiz 766 

Smokeless Fuel from Coal 775 

Snow, Prof. F. H., Meteorological Sum- 
mary for 1880 631 

Societies Proceedings of . 321, 322, 453. 546 

Soul, The, What is it? 78 

South America, Exploration in . . 147, 736 
Spanish Expedition to Missouri in 1719 . 724 

St. Louis Academy of Science 459 

Steam Engine, History of the 486 

Storm Center and Weather Prophets . . 750 

Stoves, care of loi 

Summer Work, Advice respecting . . 301 
Sun and Phenomena of its surface ... 67 
Sternberg, Chas. H., Miocene Beds of 

the John Day River 540 

Sternberg, Chas. H., Pliocene Beds of 

Southern Oregon . . 600 

Sternberg, Chas. H., The Quaternary of 

Washington Territory 601 

Sternberg, Chas. H., The Dakota Group, 675 
Sternberg, Chas. H., The Judith River 

Group 729 

Steam Heating for Cities 709 

Synthetic Philosophy, The, as a Philoso- 
phy 328, 431, 566, 649. 

Tanner's Fast 246, 281 

Telegraph applied to Norwegian Fisher- 
ies 429 

Telephone, Recent Experiments with the, 125 
Templin, Rev. L.J., History of the Vegeta- 
ble Kingdom 615, 667 



Tertiary Man 84, 326 

The Thermograph ; Its Evolution and 

Destiny (Illustrated) 677 

Tornadoes 208 

Tornadoes of April, 18, 1880, ..... 52 
Travels, Extracts from an Old Book of. . 563 

Trichinse in Man 771 

Trowridge, Prof. S. H., Science of the 

Bible •. • ■ • • 373 

Undulatory Movements, as affecting our 

senses . .....151 

United States Signal Service, Credit to . 773 
Van Horn, Hon. R. T., The New Hy- 
pothesis . . 585 

Vegetable Kingdom, History of the, 615, 667 
Vegetation, Influence of Electric Light 

upon 57 

Velocity of Shot . 477 

Vesuvius Railway, The • • 192 

Wallace, Samuel J., Notes on Silver Cliff 

region 205 

Waterproof Cement ... 447 

Waterspouts off Kauai 59 

Weather Prophecies of Vennor ..... 627 
West,! Judge E. P., A Buried Race in [.■ 

Kansas 86 

What"to do in Emergencies 313 

Women, Healthful and Dangerous Occu- 
tions for 109 



K^lSrtS^S CITY 

Review of Science and Industry, 

A MONTHLY RECORD OP PROGRESS IN 

SCIENCE, MECHANIC ARTS AND LITERATURE. 



VOL. IV. MAY, 1880. NO. 1. 



GEOGRAPHY. 



EXPEDITIONS TO THE ARCTIC SEA. 

We gladly give place to the following letter from Prof. John Rae, of London, 
correcting a few errors of statement in a former article on this subject. — [Ed. 

The Editor of the Kansas City Review : — "• 

Sir, — In looking over your Review of March, kindly sent me by a friend, I 
find a list — chronologically given — of the various national expeditions to the Polar 
Seas. 

In this list there is one entry that was not a National expedition, one error of 
date, and three omissions, which perhaps you would allow me to point out — 

The expedition under Captain [not Lieutenant) Back, in 1833, was got up by 
private subscription, aided by the government to the extent of not a third of the 
money required. 

No expeditions were sent in 1847 by the British government to search for 
Sir John Franklin. 

Sir John Richardson and Dr. Rae were sent by the British government over- 
land in 1848 to the Arctic Sea, via. McKenzie River, and searched the coast 
eastward to the Coppermine River for Franklin. This was a costly expedition, 
as boats and men were sent from England via. Hudson's Bay. 

In 1849 the British government sent Dr. Rae to the Arctic coast, by the 
Coppermine River, to search for Franklin. 

In 1 85 1 Dr. Rae was again employed by the British government to search 
for Franklin by the Coppermine River, during which a sledge journey of over 
iv-i 



2 ^ KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

a thousand miles was made at the average rate of about twenty-five miles a day; 
the fastest time on record, considering that both officer and men were hauling 
sledges or carrying loads all the time. On this journey and the subsequent boat 
voyage, about seven hundred miles of unknown coast line of WoUaston and 
Victoria lands were traced, and Vidoria Strait discovered and named, remarkable 
for being the channel in which the crews of the Franklin Expedition abandoned 
their ships in 1848. Rae's boats coming from the South, having reached a point 
on the west shore of the strait in a higher latitude than that where the ships were 
left, formed a last link in the Northwest passage. 

These three expeditions were wholly paid for by the British government, and 
therefore should be included in the chronological list referred to. 

Yours, &c. , 

John Rae. 

HONORS TO NORDENSKJOLD. 

The Swedish government has resolved to award a national testimonial to the 
members of the Expedition under Professor Nordenskj old's direction. The testi- 
monial is not intended for the officers and scientists of the Expedition alone, but 
for all the men who shared in its dangers and discoveries. King Oscar gives to 
ea<Dh man a medal bearing on one side the head of the Sovereign with the 
inscription, ''Oscar II, King of Sweden and Noi'way," and on the other the 
insignia of the order of the Northern Star, with the legend "For having opened 
a route in the Glacial Arctic Ocean, 1878-1879. " Fifty copies of this medal will 
be struck off — four of them in gold and the remainder in silver. 

Ndrdenskjold reached Paris April 2, accompanied by Captain Pallander, the 
sharer of his adventures in the North. They were received at the railway station 
by delegates of the various scientific societies — M. Grandidier, president, and M. 
Maunoir, secretary of the Geographical society; M. Siebbern, Swedish Ambassa- 
dor, with several attaches; M. Rabaud, representing the Societe de Marseilles; 
M. Meyners d'Estreye, President of the Societe Indo-Chinoise ; Dr. Crevaux, the 
young explorer of French Guiana ; a deputation of Swedish residents and a few 
journalists, including your correspondent Nordenskjold looked the very picture 
of health and seemed vigorous enough for a dozen Arctic expeditions. He was 
dressed with the utmost simplicity in a light travehng suit. Captain Pallander 
appeared to be very much embarrassed in the attire of a private gentleman, being 
so long accustomed to his naval uniform. M. Grandidier said that he was happy 
to meet such a distinguished visitor and bade him welcome in the name of the 
geographical societies of Paris and the Departments and of the scientific societies of 
France. A banquet was given them on the night of April 4th, by the members 
of the Swedish Colony in Paris. Upward of two hundred gentlemen and ladies 
of Swedish nationality were present. But few invitations to foreigners were 
issued, and these merely to the press. The grand saloon of the Continental Hotel 
was tastefully arranged for the occasion, one of the decorations being a carved 



THE NORDENSKJOLD AFLOAT. 3 

prow of the Vega, surmounted by a bust of Nordenskjold, by Runeberg, son of 
the great Swedish poet. This was projected in the center of the hall. On the 
columns of the room were escutcheons bearing the names of great Swedish 
explorers of old as well of those who had taken part in the Nordenskjold Expedi- 
tion. At the central table was seated Prince Oscar, and among the principal 
persons present were the Swedish Ambassador, die Swedish Consul General 
Moltke, the Danish Ambassador, the Consul General of Spain, Colonel Staafe, 
military attache; Christine Nilsson, the singer, and M. Rouzeaud, her husband. 
The Swedish Minister proposed Nordenskj old's health, and the explorer replied 
in Swedish, but with a strong Finnish accent. He modestly said that the greatest 
pleasure which he derived from his success was that it all redounded to the honor 
of his country. 

On the 5th of April Nordenskjold was formally received by the Municipal 
Council of Paris, at the Pavilion de Flore, in the Tuilleries. Neat complimentary 
addresses of welcome having been read by the President of the Council and M. 
Ferdinand Herold, Prefet of the Seine, who represented the government, Nor- 
denskjold was then presented with a handsome gold medal commemorative of his 
expedition and of his visit to Paris. Its value was some $300.00. The explorer 
acknowledged the compliment in modest phrase, and the ceremony was ended by 
the President gracefully thanking the French and foreign press for their attend- 
ance. The hall was tastefully decorated with flags. The Municipal Guards, in 
full uniform, lined the staircase. 



A NEW POLAR EXPEDITION. 

The Fresse, of Vienna, announces that Capt. Weyprecht, of the Austrian 
Navy, in concert with Count Wilczek, is completing arrangements for another 
expedition toward the North Pole at an early date. This time Capt. Weyprecht 
will not be accompanied by any of the intrepid companions of his former voyages, 
as it appears they prefer rest at home to the adventures and dangers of the hyper- 
borean seas. 



THE NORDENSKJOLD AFLOAT. 

The Calcutta Englishman reports that the Swedish steamer A. E. Nordenskjold, 
which was sent out in June last in search of Nordenskjold's Expedition and went 
ashore two months later on the Japanese island, Jesso, has been got off safely. 
M. Sibiriakoff, who commanded her, will attempt to return home westward round 
the north coast of Asia, from Behring's Strait to Spitzbergen, on the route which 
Nordenskjold took when going eastward in the Vega. [The rescued craft, though 
small, being 340 tons burden and sixty horse-power, is admirably calculated to 
resist the rigors of Arctic navigation, a resistance that has been proved by her 
successful weathering of a severe winter in the inhospitable region of Jesso.] Her 
small size will be rather an advantage than otherwise in the difficult route M. 



4 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

Sibiriakoff has proposed to follow. The Nordenskjold was built at Malmo, 
Sweden, for the express purpose of going to the assistance of the explorer, whose 
whereabouts were then unknown. She was launched on April 23, 1879, ^^^ ^^^^ 
Malta on June 3 for Behring's Strait by way of the Suez Canal. She was to pass 
through Behring's Strait and thence direct her course to the mouth of the Lena. 
On August 4 the vessel left Yokohama and proceeded on her way north. At the 
time the Nordenskjold started it was considered that the Vega was beset in the ice 
some forty miles northwestward of East Cape at Behring's Strait, and at a consid- 
erable distance from any settlement. The Nordenskjold was to seek the missing 
vessel there. When the fate of Professor Nordenskjold and his expedition were 
still undecided and grave fears were entertained for his safety, M. Sibiriakoff, a 
warm friend and supporter of the explorer, was the first to take practical measures 
for his relief and his steamer was the first fitted out for the purpose, he bearing all 
the expenses of the expedition. Not content with fitting out a steamer of his own, 
he made earnest appeals for assistance in all quarters where it was likely to be 
given. 



ASTRONOMY. 



A NEW DETERMINATION OF THE DIAMETER OF MARS. 

H. S. PRITCHETT, ASTRONOMER MORRISON OBSERVATORY. 

During the near approach of the planet Mars, in the recent opposition of 
1879, the following careful observations of its diameter were made with the large 
Equatorial of the Morrison Observatory, partly with the purpose of testing the 
figure of the apparent disc, and partly to furnish an accurate measure with a filar 
micrometer for comparison with those obtained from the heliometer. I have just 
finished a reduction and discussion of these measures, and the results given below 
represent an abstract of a more complete paper forwarded to the ' ' Astronomische 
Nachrkhten." The observations were made by Prof. C. W. Pritchett. 

While the measures of such an object as the disc of Mars with a filar micro- 
meter, will never be entirely free from the effect of irradiation, and therefore will 
never give the true value of the diameter quite as accurately as the heliometer, 
still, in a telescope of such good definition as the one used, this effect would be 
very small. Filar micrometer determinations of the diameter are still further use- 
ful from the fact that they are to be used in the reduction of incomplete observa- 
tions made with similar instruments, and for other common astronomical opera- 
tions. For this reason the values of the diameters of planets used in computing 
their apparent discs for the Nautical Almanac, Berli?ier Yahrbuch and American 
Ephemeris, are derived from observations with a filar micrometer. 



A NEW DETERMINATION OF THE DIAMETER OF MARS. 



The discrepancy between these and the value obtamed from the heliometer 
is shown in the following table. In the eolumn "Diameter " the angular value of 
the diameter for distance unity is given : 

Value used in the Nautical Almanac and Berliner Yahrbuch, ii". loo 

Value used in the American Ephemeris 10.108 

Bessel's value from the Heliometer, 9-328 

Hartwig's value from Heliometer observations of Bessel, 

Kaiser, Main and himself • • • 9-352 

The difference here shown between the largest and smallest values amounted 
to 4" at the time of opposition. The value used in the Aniei'ican Ephemeris was 
derived from observations with the Mural Circle (aperture 4.1 in.) of the Naval 
Observatory during 1845-46, and is subject to the large probable error -|-o". 203. 
In the observations made at this observatory the diameter of the disc was meas- 
ured in four different directions : 

1. From position angle 143° to 323°, corresponding to the polar diameter. 

2. From position angle 8° to 188°. 

3. From position angle 98° to 278°. 

4. From position angle 53° to 233°, corresponding to the equatorial diameter. 
The observations extended from October 27 to November 24, the opposition 

occurring on November 12, and the nearest approach of the planet to the earth 
on November 4. After correcting the separate observations for incomplete illu- 
mination and reducing to distance unity, the results of the measures are shown in 
the following table : 

DIRECTION. NO. OBSER'TION. DIAMETER. PROBABLE ERROR. 



143^ 



S3 



—323 

'—188' 

—278^ 

-233= 



17 

9 
8 

17 



.422 
,489 

■517 
,638 



-f o .024 

+ o -043 
+ o .032 
+ o .044 



If these separate results are considered as independent measures of the same 
■diameter, and combined according to the method of least squares, there will result 
finally, Diameterrr^p". 4864-0". 033, which, combined with Newcomb's value of the 
solar parallax, gives for a mean value of the diameter of the planet 4248 miles, 
with a probable error of 15 miles. This value, as will be seen, agrees quite closely 
with the determinations of the heliometer, and shows conclusively that the values 
in use in the Ephemerides are much larger than would be given by any good in- 
strument of good definition and moderate size. 

The difference between the polar and equatorial diameters being so much 
greater than the probable error would indicate, seems to show an eUipticity of the 
apparent disc. This systematic difference was noted in the individual observa- 
tions from day to day, and is confirmed by the measures of the intermediate di- 
ameter^. The observations would then assign to the planet the form of an elHp- 
soid of revolution, with a polar diameter of 4220 miles and an equatorial diame- 
ter 4317, the aniount of compression being 1-45. Very varying results have been 
arrived at for the amount of compression of Mars. Sir Wm. Herschel gives it 
1-16; Schroeter less than 1-80; Arago, from Paris observations extending over 36 



6 KANSA ? CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

years, 1-30; Hind gives it 1-5 1 ; and Main 1-62. Bessel merely decided that it 
was too small for measurement with his heliometer. This discordance shows 
quite clearly the difficulty of measuring such a bright glowing disc as that of the 
planet Mars. 



ENGINEERING. 



COMPARATIVE MERITS OF WOOD, STONE AND ASPHALT 

PAVEMENTS. 

GEN. Q. A. GILMORE, U. S. A. 

Assuming the foundation to be firm and solid, so that ruts and depressions 
cannot form upon the surface except from actual wear, a pavement of stone 
blocks, of first quality as regards hardness and toughness, will possess the long- 
est Hfe of the three, and one of wood blocks the shortest ; asphalt lies between the 
two and very near to the stone, and will fluctuate from this position with the 
amount and kind of traffic, and the influences of the climate. As a rule wood 
must be regarded as the least durable. When it begins to go — at the end of two 
or three years, under heavy traffic — it wears rapidly into deep and numerous ruts, 
by the crushing of the blocks to their entire depth. Unless the stone be of ex- 
cellent quahty for pavements, it takes the second place in the order of durability, 
and asphalt the first. 

The absolute cost of constructing the different pavements will of course vary 
very considerably with the locality. It is believed, however that with few excep- 
tions, the following order of cheapness will obtain throughout the United States : 
viz., first, wooden blocks; second, asphalt, on a solid cobble stone foundation;, 
third, asphalt on a concrete foundation ; fourth, stone blocks on a concrete found- 
ation. 

Under the head of cost and maintenance of repairs, the life or endurance is 
to be considered, and the total expense must extend over and cover a period of 
time representing that endurance, under the assumption that at the end of that 
period, the pavement is in as good a condition as at the beginning when it was 
new. The repairs for the first two or three years will be comparatively trifling, 
and in some cities, more especially in England, it is customary for the constructor 
to maintain the pavements in a good sound condition without charge for one, 
two and sometimes three years, and subsequently for a longer period, seldom ex- 
ceeding fifteen years, for a specified sum per square yard per year. 

With regard to wood and asphalt, the recorded observations make it certain 
that although a pavement of wooden blocks is less costly to construct than one of 
asphalt, not only is its annual cost for repairs greater, but its mean annual cost 
during its life, inclusive of the first cost, is also greater than that of asphalt. With 



COMPARATIVE MERITS OF PAVEMENTS. 7 

regard to stone, there is a vast difference in the endurance of hard and tough ba- 
salt and trap, and the average granite and gneiss. 

In economy of maintenance per year during the lifetime of a pavement, in- 
cluding its first cost, the hard basaltic trap rocks should be placed first, asphalt 
second and wood third, except in localities where wood is very cheap and suita- 
ble stone cannot be procured, or is subject to heavy charge for transportation. 
Under such circumstances stone would take the third place and wood would rise 
to the first. Where wood and stone are both expensive, or the latter is not of the 
best quahty with respect to toughness, asphalt would take the first position. 

Both mud and dust adhere with more, tenacity to wood than to asphalt or 
stone, more especially after the fibers of the former begin to crush and abrade, 
and the order of merit in respect of faciHty of cleansing, will be first, asphalt, sec- 
ond, stone, and third, wood, whether the cleansing be done by sweeping or by 
washing. It stands to reason that a smooth, even surface can be cleansed more 
rapidly than one cut up with numerous joints. 

Mr. William Haywood, C. E., of London, in his report '* as to the relative 
advantages of wood and asphalt for paving purposes," made to the Commissioners 
of sewers of the city of London, March 17th, 1874, says that "asphalt is the 
smoothest, dryest, cleanest, most pleasing to the eye, and most agreeable for gen- 
eral purposes, but wood is the most quiet." It might perhaps be better to say 
that the noise produced by wood is of a different kind, which may be more disa- 
greeable to some persons and less so to others. Stone is the noisiest of all pave- 
ments. 

The noise produced by wood is a constant rumble, that by asphalt an inces- 
sant clicking of the horses' feet upon the street surface, with scarcely any noise 
from the carriage wheels, while stone gives out a deafening din and rattle from 
feet and vehicle combined. 

On the supposition that the surface is kept clean by either sweeping or wash- 
ing, the difference in slipperiness between wood, stone that does not polish under 
wear, and asphalt, is not great, although enough, perhaps to place asphalt last ; 
while a horse not only falls more frequently, but recovers himself less often and less 
easily upon it than upon the others, by reason of the joints in the latter, which give 
a foothold. When the surface is covered with mud, asphalt is the most slippery of 
the three, and very little mud makes it slippery. It cannot be said to be slip- 
pery when very dry, or, if free from mud, when very wet. 

In times of snow there appears to be little if any difference in this respect be- 
tween wood, asphalt and stone, but under a sharp dry frost, asphalt and stone 
are generally quite dry and safe, while wood retains moisture and is very slippery. 

In the condition in which they are usually maintained, a slight rain adds to 
the slipperiness of each of these pavements, with this difference, that on asphalt 
and stone this state begins with the rain or very soon thereafter, while the worst 
condition of wood ensues later. It however lasts longer than upon the others on 
account of its absorbent nature. With regard, therefore, to the convenience and 
comfort of those using the street, as well as those living adjacent thereto, the 



8 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

weight of opinion appears to place asphalt first, wood second and stone third, for 
all streets except those habitually crowded with heavy traffic, in which case stone 
would rise to the first place and asphalt drop to the third. 

A practical and general recognition of the fact — so well known in the medi- 
cal profession, and indeed among all ranks of cultured people — that the pave- 
ments of a city exert a direct and powerful influence upon the health of its inhab- 
itants, has never been secured. Most people claim simply that a street surface 
should be hard and smooth without being slippery, and, as a measure of economy, 
that it shall be durable and easily cleansed; but they go no further. 

The advantages of noiselessness are recognized by many upon various 
grounds ; by the large majority as simply conducive to comfort, but by few as 
conducive to health; while the kind of material used, provided it satisfies the 
foregoing conditions, and the character of the surface is satisfactory with regard 
to continuity and impermeability, is far too generally considered to be a matter of 
small moment. 

The hygienic objections to granite, are first, its constant noise and din, and 
second its open joints which collect and retain the surface liquids, and throw off 
noxious vapors and filthy dust. 

Dr. A. McLane Hamilton; Assistant Sanitary Inspector of the city of New 
York, in an official report dated October 19, 1874, says, " a quiet and noiseless 
street pavement would advance the health of the population to a great extent. 
The sufferer from nervous diseases would find relief from the noise of empty om- 
nibuses and wagons rumbling or rattling on the rough stones, in the event of a 
removal of this nuisance. In fact there would be many more sanitary benefits 
resulting from a change than I can here detail." 

It is not deemed necessary to enlarge further upon this point. The writings 
of eminent medical practitioners are full of testimony to the pernicious influence 
of street noise and din upon the health of the population, particularly upon inva- 
lids and persons with sensitive nerves. 

The noisome and noxious exhalations emanating from the putrescent matter, 
such as horse dung and urine, collected and held in the joints of stone pave- 
ments, constitutes another sanitary objection to their use in populous towns. Ex- 
ceptions to wood may be taken upon the same, and even upon stronger grounds, 
for the material is self undergoes inevitable, and, sometimes, even early and rapid 
decay, in the process of which the poisonous gases resulting from vegetable de- 
composition are thrown off. 

The joints of a block pavement, whether of wood or stone, constitute, after 
enlargement by wear, fully one-third of its area, and under the average care, the 
surface of filth exposed to evaporation, covers fully three-fourths of the entire 
street. This foul organic matter, composed largely of the urine and excrement 
of different animals, is retained in the joints, ruts and gutters, where it undergoes 
putrefactive fermentation in warm, damp weather, and becomes the fruitful source 
of noxious effluvium. In dry weather this street soil floats in the atmosphere and 
penetrates the dweUings in the form of unwholesome dust, irritating to the eyes 



COMPARATIVE MERITS OF PAVEMENTS. 9 

and poisonous to the organs of respiration. Its damage to furniture, though se- 
rious, is unimportant in this connection. In the side gutters and underlying soil 
the foul matter exists in a more concentrated form, the supply being constantly 
renewed from the crown of the street, and in many districts, from the filthy sur- 
face drainage of backways and alleys peopled by the poorer classes. Is it too 
much to say that under such circumstances the infant population, and especially 
the children of poor people, in large towns, can only be reared under such pre- 
dispositions to disease as will constitutionally render them an easy prey to epi- 
demics in maturer years ? 

The foregoing are some of the leading hygienic objections to pavements laid 
in blocks, whether of stone, wood or other material. There are others peculiar 
to wood alone, arising from its decay, its natural porosity, and the spongy charac- 
ter conferred upon it by wear and crushing. 

" Impregnation of wood with mineral matters, to preserve it from decay, 
may diminish these evils, but nothing as yet tried prevents the fibers being sepa- 
rated, and the absorption of dung and putrescent matter by the wood being con- 
tintied. The condition of absorbing mere moisture is of itself bad, but when the 
surface absorbs and retains putrescent matters it is highly noxious. The blocks 
of pavement with this material are separated by concussion, and are thus render- 
ed permeable to the surface moisture. Mr. Sharp, who examined some blocks 
taken up for re-pavement, states that he found them perfectly stained and satu- 
rated with wet and urine at the lower portions, while the upper portions were dry. 
Mr. Elliott, a member of the society, and for many years a deputy of the Com- 
mon Council of the city of London, has carefully observed the trials of new modes 
of pavement there, and objects to wood that it is continuously wet and damp. 
Wood is wet or damp, more or less, except during coatinued very dry weather. 
Its structure is admirably adapted to receive and hold, and then give off" in evap- 
oration, very foul matters, which taint the atmosphere and so far injure health." 
(Report of P. Le Neve Foster, Secretary Society for the Encouragement of Arts, 
Manufactures and Commerce : London, 1873. 

Prof. Fonssagrives, of France, says : , " The hygienist cannot, moreover, 
look favorably upon a street covering consisting of a porous substance capable of 
absorbing organic matter, and by its own decomposition giving rise to noxious 
miasma, which, proceeding from so large a surface, cannot be regarded as insig- 
nificant. I am convinced that a city with a damp climate, paved entirely with 
wood, would become a city of marsh fevers." 

The dust produced by the abrasion and wear of a wooden pavement is re- 
garded by physicians as extremely irritating to the organs of respiration and to 
the eyes, and being light in weight it floats longer in the atmosphere and is car- 
ried to a greater distance, than that from any other suitable material in use for 
street pavements. 

The evidence from a sanitarian point of view, against the use of wood for 
paving purposes in populous towns, is very strong, but the evils are not developed 
to the same extent in all localities. Decomposition begins in two or three years 



10 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

in clayey and retentive soils, while it is very considerably retarded and the wood 
remains habitually drier and emits less effluvia where the subsoil is sandy and 
porous. 

The most characteristic features and properties of asphalt pavements have 
been briefly summarized and it is not deemed necessary to repeat or enlarge upon 
them here. Professor Fonssagrives remarks that, "The absence of dust, the 
abatement of noise, the omission of joints— permitting a complete impermeabi ity 
and thus preventing the putrid infection of the subsoil — are among the precious 
benefits realized by asphalt streets." 

Upon hygienic grounds, therefore, asphalt conspicuously stands first, stone 
second, and wood third in order of merit. 

The correct inference from the foregoing discussion is that no one pavement 
combines all the qualities most desirable in a street surface. It cannot be suffi- 
ciently rough, or sufficiently soft, to give the animals a secure foothold, and at the 
same time possess that smoothness and hardness which is so essential to easy 
draught. The advantages of open joints and entire freedom from street filth can- 
not exist together, under any reasonably cheap method of cleansing the surface. 

A pavement of impermeable bl .'cks, if laid upon a solid foundation, may be 
constructed and maintained in a water tight condition, by thoroughly caulking the 
joints with suitable material, leaving the surface sufficiently rough and open to 
obviate the objection to a continuous monolithic covering, but roughness, com- 
bined with the requisite hardness, is incompatible with the freedom from noise 
attainable with some kinds of acceptable street surface. 

In order, therefore, to obtain the best pavement for any given locality a judi- 
cious balancing of characteristic merits is generally necessary. The best pave- 
ment so far as we now know, for all the busiest streets of a populous city, where 
the traffic is dense, heavy and crowded, is one of rectangular stone blocks set on 
a foundation as good as concrete, or as rubble stone filled in with concrete ; and 
the next best is one of Belgian blocks set in the same manner. 

The best pavement for streets of ample width, upon which the daily traffic is 
not crowded, or for streets largely devoted to light traffic or pleasure driving, or 
lined on either side with residences, is continuous asphalt for all grades not steeper 
than I in 48 or 50. 

If the blocks of compressed asphalt fulfill their present promise, they may be 
able to replace those of stone upon streets where the latter are now preferable to 
a sheet of asphalt on account of the steepness of the grade. 

It has been urged, as an objection to a concrete foundation, that it is diffi- 
cult to take up in order to reach the gas and water pipes. This is true only in 
the sense that good work is not easily taken to pieces. But such a foundation 
when torn up or deranged from any cause, can readily be restored to its former 
condition, and the pavement relaid upon it with all its original smoothness, firm- 
ness, and stabiHty, conditions which do not obtain with any kind of pavement 
laid upon a bed of sand or gravel. — Roads, Streets and Pavements. 



REMOVAL OF CLEOPATRA'S NEEDLE TO NEW YORK. 11 



REMOVAL OF CLEOPATRA'S NEEDLE FROM EGYPT 
TO NEW YORK. 

Through the skill of Lieutenant Commander Gorringe, of the United States 
Navy, backed by the splendid liberality of one of New York's citizens, Mr. W. 
H. Vanderbilt, who has borne the entire expense of the undertaking, the remain- 
ing "Cleopatra's Needle," which was presented some time ago by the Khedive of 
Egypt to the United States, has been finally safely lowered from its pedestal to the 
ground ; and if no unforeseen accident should occur, may be expected to reach 
our shores in the early part of the coming summer. 

Obelisks are the most simple monuments of Egyptian architecture, and among 
the most interesting that antiquity has transmitted to us, from the remoteness of 
their origin, and the doubt in which we still remain as to the period when set up. 
The oldest which now remains to us is still standing at Heliopohs, near Cairo — 
the On Ramses or Beth-Shemesh of the Hebrew Scriptures. Abraham was unborn, 
and the Pentateuch of Moses was unwritten when the inhabitant of Hehopohs 
adored his gods in the Temple of the Sun and read upon the obehsk, still in its 
place, the name of Harmachis and that of King Osortisen, who then reigned and 
reared it, and to whom Mariette Bey assigns the date of 2,851 years B. C. Pliny 
says that the Egyptian term for an obelisk conveyed the idea of a sun's ray, which 
its form was supposed to symbolize. The term obelisk is derived from the Greek 
obelos, which meant a "spit" — a term which the witty epigrammatics gave them, 
with the view, Hke all wits in such cases, to cover with an air of ridicule what 
they could not controvert by reason. Obelisks have, from the earliest periods of 
antiquity, been regarded as remarkable monuments of the skill and perseverance 
of remote ages. They must ever be considered as valuable records of the ancient 
history of the Egyptians, and of the skill of those periods; monumental evidences 
of their sovereigns and their warhke exploits. Extracted with vast labor from their 
quarries as monoliths, conveyed six or seven hundreds of miles down the Nile and 
erected with difficulty in front of their temples by kings to commemorate their 
victories and record their various names and titles, they are emblems of both the 
perseverance and love of glory of the Egyptians and their rulers. The very fact 
of their being transported to Europe by the ancient Romans under their emperors 
shows the high value in v^hich they were held by that people, as witnesses of their 
own world-wide victories in remote regions. 

The Egyptians set great value upon the size of their monoliths, and if a large 
block was extracted from a quarry not quite corresponding in all its sides, whether 
as to size or form, they would without scruple use it for their immediate purpose, 
or shape it as near as possible to the object they had in view, without diminishing 
its size. The consequence is that many of thir obelisks, pedestals, and sarcophagi, 
where one would have supposed the most scrupulous attention to uniformity would 
have existed, are irregular in shape. The sides of an obelisk rarely corresponded 



12 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

exactly with the breadth of its face, or the height of the shaft to any fixed relation 
with the width at the base; and there is a like disregard in the height of the pyra- 
midion (the pyramid-like apex), which, however, was high-peaked and never 
stunted. Nevertheless we may assume that the shaft varied from eight to nine 
diameters high up to the pyramidion^ which itself was from sixty to seventy-five 
hundredths of the breadth at the base. The four sides or faces of the obelisk were 
usually square, but occasionally they were convex; a fact proving the nice per- 
ception for effect which prevailed in the minds of the Egyptians, as thus the light 
was much softer upon the surface, the shades less crude, and the angles less cut- 
ting. Some of the huge blocks intended for obelisks came from the quarry mis- 
shapen at the smaller end, and to remedy such a defect they covered it with a 
metal capping of the required shape rather than reduce its length by cutting off 
the rugged portion. The summit of the Luxor obelisk, now in Paris, was irregu- 
lar in shape and quite rough, and must originally have been capped with metal. 
Usually, obelisks had one, two, or three vertical hieroglyphs. It may be assumed 
that only one series was intended by the original Pharaoh ; but it appears that his 
son, successor, or successors, added a line on each side; and it is remarkable that 
earlier hieroglyphs were much deeper cut than the more recent ones. Mariette 
Bey, the Egyptologist, mentions the fact that the faces of obelisks were sometimes 
gilded, the hieroglyphs themselves retaining their original color and actual surface 
of the granite. On the subject of the dies, pedestals, and steps upon which the 
monoliths were anciently raised we have little information, for the bottom portions 
of those now left standing are encumbered and surrounded by huge fallen blocks 
of stone, preventing their full size from being seen. 

All of the large monoliths were of pink granite taken from the quarries of 
Syene. The position of these quarries must have been of the utmost importance 
m facilitating the application of that fine material. Situated below the cataracts, 
when once the masses were extracted from their beds, no obstruction presented 
itself in their course down the river to their destination, whether to Memphis, 
Heliopolis, or the delta. Twenty-seven of the forty-two obelisks now known 
were from Syene, and they are doubtless the largest. An unextracted block still 
remains at Syene, 95 feet long by 11 feet in diameter, with the quarrymen's marks 
on it. Sir Gardner Wilkinson states that the final operation of extraction, when 
three sides of a mass had been worked around, was by cutting a groove or channel 
about a couple of inches in depth, and kindhng a fire along its whole extent. 
When the stone was intensely heated, cold water was poured into the groove, and 
the block detached itself with a clear fracture. Wedges of wood were also inserted, 
saturated with water, then exposed to heat, and the expansion rent the mass asun- 
der. Thus detached it was drawn down to the river, where it was incased, or upon 
a galley or raft floated down the Nile to near the spot where it was ultimately to 
be set up. From the river bank it was then hauled up to the Propylea in front 
of which it was to, stand. There are no hieroglyphics or paintings extant to show 
us how the obelisk was raised and placed in its final position. That this was a 



REMOVAL OF CLEOPATRA'S NEEDLE TO NEW YORK. 13 

most critical operation is obvious, and its difficulty is illustrated by an anecdote 
related by Pliny : Rameses erected one obelisk 140 cubits high and of prodigious 
thickness. It is said 12,000 men were employed on the work. To insure the 
safety of the operation by the extremest skill of the architect, he had his own son 
fastened to the summit while it was raised. 

As to the tools used in carving the granite we know nothing. Hardly any 
iron tools have been preserved among the relics of the tombs. With what mate- 
rial did the Egyptians sculpture with such refineddelicacy and exquisite sharpness 
the mouth, eyes, ears, and other features of their statues, and the sharp contours 
of their hieroglyphs ? We are possessed of no process by which brass may be 
sufficiently hardened for the purpose. Could they have softened the surface by 
some chemical operation on the harder elements of the stones? No one has as 
yet been able to inform us, and the secret mystery of the execution of the Egypt- 
ian sculpture still excites our wonder and admiration. 

The positions of obelisks were before the gigantic pylons which formed the 
entrance gateways to the fore courts of their temples, and they were without 
exception always in pairs. At Karnac the situation of the two lofty ones erected 
by Queen Hatsou {one of which still stands, and is 108 feet 6 inches high, the 
tallest known) was between two lofty pylons only forty to fifty feet apart. Those 
in front of the outer pylon are not so distant in advance of it. Consequently the 
Egyptians disregarded the immediate proximity of a high wall backing them up, 
and none are known situated in wide open spaces. The sacred way led up from 
the river, flanked on each side with variously headed sphinxes. At Karnac the 
dromos is one mile and one-third long, with a line of sphinxes on each side. Ap- 
proaching nearer, the worshipper finds two obelisks on the right and left, not 
necessarily of the. same height. At Luxor one is seven or eight feet higher than 
the other, and to diminish the disparity in size, the shorter one is raised on a lofty 
pedestal and brought some feet in advance of its companion. Attached to the 
face of the pylon are six gigantic sitting statues of kings, majestic in size, and 
seated in the hieratic posture. The pylon itself, perhaps 200 feet wide and 100 
feet high, forms the background of the whole, crowned by its cavetto cornice, and 
its surface covered with the colored sculptures of the victorious Rameses in his 
chariot, with upraised arm, slaying his enemies, trampling them under his horses' 
hoofs, and alone dispersing them in flight. In the center of the structure is the 
portal, 56 feet high, through which. the sacred or triumphal procession passe 
all its gorgeousness to within the sacred precincts, there to observe the ritual 
ceremonies of the mysterious Egyptian cult of one or more of their eight great 
divinities or animal gods. Erasmus Wilson, in his book entitled "Cleopatra's 
Needle" (p. 178), enumerates the existing obelisks as follows: Rome, 12; Italy, 
in addition, 4; Egypt, 6; Constantinople, 2; France, 2; England, 6; Germany, i. 

For nearly 2,000 years there have stood on the shores of the Levant, 
near Alexandria, two obelisks of rose-colored granite known as " Cleopatra's Nee 
dies." We are told by Egyptologists that they were taken from the quarries at 



14 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

Syene, and thence conveyed to Heliopolis, where by Sesostris they were set up 
before the entrance to the temple of' the god Turn, or the Setting Sun. Pliny 
states that they were transported to the Nile with the aid of fiat-bottomed boats, 
floating in canals specially prepared for that purpose. Sharpe says that they were 
placed in an erect position by cutting a groove in the pedestal, in which the 
lower edge of the monolith might turn as if it were a hinge, the top of the shaft 
being elevated by means of a mound of earth, the size of which was continually 
increased till the stone stood securely erect. The obelisks were brought to Alex- 
.andria during the reign of Tiberius, but bear their present popular name because 
of a tradition that they were taken to Alexandria in the time of Cleopatra. Their 
age is estimated to be about 3,300 years. One of the obelisks has until recently 
been standing where it was originally placed when brought to Alexandria, but the 
other, which is the less perfect of the two, has for many years been lying prostrate 
on the sand. In 181 9, Mehemet Ali offered the fallen monolith to the Prince 
Regent of England, and the British Government accepted the gift, but afterward 
declined to act in the matter because of the expense attending removal. In 1851, 
the subject was again brought up; but, as before, no action was taken. Finally, 
in 1876, Dr. Erasmus Wilson concluded to pay the expenses himself of transport- 
ing the great monohth, and bargained with Mr. John Dixon, a well-known 
engineer and contractor, to bring it to England and erect it on the Thames Em- 
bankment for $50,000. Both of these "Needles" — the one transported to England, 
and its more perfect companion recently presented to the United States by the 
Khedive of Egypt — possess great historical value, aside from that sentimental 
estimation which enlightened nations place upon all monuments of antiquity. As 
far as known the hieroglyphs on the obelisk which is coming to this country have 
never been deciphered, but as both obelisks are of the same age, and came origi- 
nally from the same city and temple, it is not unlikely that the inscriptions refer 
to the same, or, at least, to similar subjects. When the London obelisk was 
unearthed, it was found to be just 6^ feet long, and its weight about two hundred 
tons. The hieroglyphics which covered each of its four faces were washed, and 
then deciphered by Brugsch Bey, the eminent Egyptologist. He found that they 
referred to the Hves of .the two Kings, Thothmes III. and Rameses II. Subse- 
quently a correct translation of the whole has been made by Dr. Samuel Birch, 
of the British museum, and is as follows : 

"First Side, Central Line, toward east when erected on Embankment. — 
The Horus, lord of the upper and lower country, the powerful bull ; crowned in 
Uas or Thebes, the King of the North and South Ramen Cheper has made his 
monument to his father, Haremachu (Horus in the horizons), he has set up to him 
two great obehsks, capped with gold, at the first time of the festivals of thirty 
years, according to his wish he did it the son of the Sun Thothmes (HI. ) type of 
types did it beloved of Haremachu (Horus of the horizons) ever living. 

"First Side — Left Line. — The Horus of the upper and lower country, the pow- 
erful bull, beloved of the Sun, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Ra-user-ma, 



REMOVAL OF CLEOPATRA'S NEEDLE TO NEW YORK. 15 

approved of the Sun, lord of the festivals, like Ptah-Tanen, son of the Sun, Ra- 
meses beloved of Amen, a strong bull, like the son of Nu (Osiris), whom none 
can withstand, the lord of the two countries, Ra-user-ma, approved of the Sun, 
son of the Sun, Ramessu (11.), beloved of Amen, giver of life, like the Sun. 

" First Side — Right Line. — The Horus of the upper and lower country, the 
powerful bull, son of Tum, King of the South and North, lord of diadems, guar- 
dian of Egypt, chastiser of foreign countries, son of the Sun Ramessu (II.), be- 
loved of Amen, dragging the South to the Mediterranean Sea, the North to the 
Poles of Heaven, lord of the two countries, Ra-user-ma, approved of the Sun, son 
of the Sun Ramessu (II.), giver of life, like the Sun. 

"Second Side— Central Line, toward river /south), as erected on Embank- 
ment. — The Horus of the upper and lower country, the powerful bull, crowned 
by Truth, the King of the North and South, Cheper. The lord of the gods has 
multiplied to him festivals on the great Persea tree in the midst of the place of the 
Phoenix (Heliopolis). He is recognized as his son, a divine chief, his limbs come 
forth daily as he wishes, the son of the Sun Thothmes (III.), ruler of An (HeHo- 
polis), beloved of Haremachu (Horus in horizons). 

"Second Side — Left Line. — The Horus of the Upper and Lower country, 
the powerful bull, beloved of Truth, King of the North and South Ra-user-ma, 
approved of the Sun, born of the gods, holding the two lands (of Egypt), as the 
son of the Sun, Ramessu (II.), beloved of Amen, making his frontier wherever 
he wished, who is at rest through his power, the lord of the two countries, Ra- 
user-ma, approved of the Sun, Ramessu beloved of Amen, the luster of the Sun. 

"Second Side — Right Line. — The Horus of the upper and lower country, 
the powerful bull, son of the god Chepera, the King of the North and South, Ra- 
user-ma, approved of the Sun. The golden trait, rich in years, the most power, 
ful, the eyes of mankind behold what he has done, nothing has been said in 
•opposition to the lord of the two countries. Ra-user-ma approved of the Sun, 
the son of the Sun, Ramessu (II.), beloved of Amen, giver of life, like the Sun. 

"Third Side — Central Line, west side as erected on Embankment. — The 
Horus, lord of the upper and lower country, the powerful bull, beloved of Truth, 
the King of the South and North Ramen Cheper, his father Tum has set up to 
him his great name, placing it in the temple belonging to An (Heliopohs), giving 
him the throne of Seb, the dignity of Cheper, the son of the Sun, Thothmes 
{HI.), good and true, beloved of the Spirits of An (Heliopohs), ever living. 

"Third Side — Right Line. — The Horus of the upper and lower country, the 
powerful bull, well beloved of Ra, the King of the South and North Ra-urser-ma, 
approved of the Sun, lord of festivals of thirty years, like his father Ptah, son of 
the Sun, Ramessu (II.), beloved of men, son of Tum, beloved of his loins; Athor, 
the goddess, directing the two countries, has given him birth, the lord of the two 
countries, Ra-user-ma, approved of the Sun, the son of the Sun, Ramessu, (II.), 
beloved of men, giver of life, like the Sun. 

"Third Side — Left Line. — The Horus, lord of the two countries, the power- 



16 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

ful bull, son of the Shu, the King of the South and North, Ra-user-ma, approved 
of the Ra, the lord of diadems, director of Egypt, chastiser of foreign lands, son 
of the Sun, Ramessu (II.), beloved of Amen, bringing his offering daily in the 
house of his father Turn, not has been done as he did in the house of his father, 
the lord of the two countries, Ra-user-ma, approved of the Sun, the son of the 
Sun, Ramessu (II.), beloved of Amen, giver of life, like the Sun. 

"Fourth Side — Central Line, toward Road (north), as erected on Embank- 
ment. — The Horus of the upper and lower country, beloved of the god of the tall, 
upper crown, the King of the South and North, Ramen Cheper, making offer- 
ings, beloved of the gods, supplying the altar of the Spirits of An (Heliopolis), 
welcoming their persons at the two times of the year, that he might repose through 
them with a sound life of hundreds of thousands of years with very numerous fes- 
tivals of thirty years, the son of the Sun Thothmes (HI.), the divine ruler, beloved 
of Haremachu (Horus of the horizons), ever living. 

"Fourth Side — Right Side. — The Horus, lord of the upper and lower coun- 
try, the powerful bull, beloved of Ra, the King of the South and North, Ra-user- 
ma, approved of the Sun, the Sun born of the gods, holding the countries, the 
son of the Sun Ramessu (II.), beloved of Amen, the strong hand, the powerful 
victor, bull of rulers, king of kings, lord of the two countries, Ra-user-ma, 
approved of the Sun, son of the Sun, Ramessu (II.), beloved of Amen, beloved 
of Turn, lord of An (Heliopolis), giver of life. 

"Fourth Side — Left Line. — The Horns, the powerful bull, son of Ptah-Tanen, 
lord of the upper and lower country, the King of the South and North, Ra-user- 
ma, approved of the Sun, the hawk of gold, rich in years, the greatest of victors, 
the son of the Sun Ramessu (II.), beloved of Amen, leading captive the Rutennu 
(Syrians) and Petit (Libyans) out of their countries to the seat of the house of his 
father, lord of the two countries, Ra-user-ma, approved of the Sun, son of the 
Sun, Ramessu (II.), beloved of Amen, beloved of Shu, the great god, like the 
Sun. 

" The scenes on the pyramidion represent the monarch Thothmes III., under 
the form of a sphinx, with hands offering to the Gods Ra and Atum, the two 
principal deities of Heliopolis. The offerings are water, wine, milk, and incense. 
The inscriptions are the names and titles of the deities, the title of Thothmes III., 
and the announcement of each of his special gifts. 

As before stated, the obeHsk which is coming to this country is the more 
perfect of the two, and is the one usually referred to in the books as the "Cleopa- 
tra's Needle." The fact that the Khedive should have presented this noble mon- 
ument to America has excited considerable ill-natured comment in England, and 
has been regarded with considerable jealousy. The temple at HeHopolis, where 
these two monoliths originally stood, is of interest to biblical students, as it is sup- 
posed to be one in which Moses became learned in all the wisdom of Egypt. 
When the inscription on our " Needle" shall have been deciphered, further light 
may be shed upon the history of the remote past in Egypt, which is so profoundly 



REMOVAL OF CLEOPATRA'S NEEDLE TO NEW YORIC. 17 

connected with the whole rise and progress of the rehgions, the philosophies, and 
the arts of our own race and our own times. 

The method of lowering and transporting the obeHsk to this country is 
entirely original with Lieutenant Commander Gorringe, who has been intrusted 
with the entire matter. The gigantic framework to be used in lowering the mon- 
olith was shipped for Liverpool, October 7th, 18 79, on board the Guion steamer 
Nevada. 

From Liverpool it was transhipped to Alexandria, where it arrived safely, 
and the work of erection immediately began. The machinery was constructed 
at the works of Messrs. Roebling's Sons Company, at Trenton, after plans made 
by Lieutenant Commander Gorringe, its total weight being 128,000 pounds. The 
first operation after arriving at Alexandria was, after erecting the proper scaffold- 
ing, to incase the monohth with 2-inch oak planking, bound at intervals of 3 feet 
with strong iron bands. Then the obelisk was guyed at the top from four points, 
like the mast of a vessel, so that there could be no possibility of its falling over. 
The center of gravity had been calculated at a point of twenty-six feet above the 
base, and here trunnions were placed on either side and bolted across the sides by 
eight i^-inch iron and four 2-inch steel bolts. The trunnions were cast from 
cannon metal only, and that of the best quality. The trunnion plates were four 
inches thick, nine feet wide, and six feet high. At the center was the turned 
trunnion, 33 inches long, and 18 inches in diameter. The weight of each trun- 
nion and plate was 1,250 pounds, making together i^^ tons. The next operation 
was to quarry out four 6-inch channel ways through the base of the obelisk, and 
insert I beams to assist in raising the foundations. Next the foundations were 
constructed. These consisted of two platforms, one on each side, of 3-inch oak 
planking, each 6 feet wide and 24 feet long; On top of these were set four oak 
sticks, 12 by 18, firmly bolted together. The iron work of the towers was then 
built on top of the preliminary foundation. Each tower was constructed of six 
12-inch heavy wrought iron I beams, spreading out at the base to a distance of 21 
feet, and converging at the top to within 5 feet. The beams at their base rested 
on four heavy I beams, and were securely riveted to the platform by means of 
plates and knees. Placed on top of these posts were caps, each five feet long 
and thirty inches wide, which also were secured by means of plates and knees. 
The posts were braced from top to bottom by angle and channnel irons, 
making the towers perfectly rigid. Placed on top of the caps, and securely 
bolted to the tower proper, were cast iron journals weighing 3,700 pounds, 
each forming the grooves for the trunnions to work in. A 6-inch rib had 
been cast in the bottom of each of the trunnions, and in these ribs were four 
2-inch holes. Through each of these holes i^-inch iron rods were inserted, con- 
nected with similar from the 6-inch I beams running through the base, by means 
of right and left thread turn buckles, which were used to raise the obelisk from its 
foundation and throw the weight on the trunnions. On the 6th of December, 
everything being ready, the monolith was successfully raised in the presence of 
IV— 2 



18 KANSAS CITY REVIEV/ OF SCIENCE. 

5,000 people who had come to witness the operation; the foundation was then 
removed, and the obeHsk left hanging free. The obelisk having been turned over 
to a horizontal position, Captain Gorringe next proceeded to build two piles of 
beams placed crosswise ; and, as soon as they reached the height of the stone, 
jacks were used to lift the latter out of its trunnion bearings and block it up. All 
the construction was then removed, and, foot by foot, the obelisk was lowered to 
the ground by reducing the piles, first from one side and then the other. On the 
ground the obelisk was incased in an iron cradle, consisting of a parabolic truss 
on each side, connected by means of heavy channel flow beams and braces. To 
the flow beams two heavy channel bars were riveted, and corresponding channels 
were laid on the ground to form the track for the obelisk to move on, the move- 
ment being efl'ected by inserting 8-inch cannon balls into the grooves formed by 
the channel bars, and the track being laid sixty feet ahead of the cradles, so that 
as the stone was pushed along, the track behind was taken up and placed in front. 
From the base of the obelisk to the sea a trench had been dug, which, at the end 
near the sea, is 95 feet long by 40 feet broad, and 16 feet deep; in this portion a 
float, constructed for the purpose, will be used to transport the obelisk to the port 
of Alexandria, a distance of about a mile in a straight line. In digging the pit 
around the base of the monolith, Captain Gorringe discovered that the shaft stood 
on a pedestal, the existence of which was before unknown. It was 9 feet square, 
7 feet in height, and rested upon three well-preserved marble steps with a base of 
masonry. From the lower surface of the lower step the obelisk rises 81 feet 2^ 
inches to its summit, and its estimated weight is about 196 tons. At the port of 
Alexandria the obelisk will be placed on a large ship selected for the purpose, and 
so brought to this country. [This plan is very different from that adopted by the 
English engineer, which, it will be remembered, was to inclose the obelisk in a 
cylindrical vessel formed of wrought iron plates, and provided with water-tight 
compartments. This, after being rolled into the sea, and towed to the harbor, 
was ballasted and provided with a keel, deck, sail, and rudder. The vessel was 
then placed in charge of two or three skilled mariners, for whom a small cabin on 
deck was provided, and towed to England by a steam tug, the sail being simply 
for steadying the cylinder.] Should our obelisk reach port in safety the same 
machinery, with very slight modification, will be used to place it in an erect posi- 
tion, after a proper site has been selected for it. 

There can be no doubt that our citizens, as they pass by this obelisk after its 
erection, will have their curiosity excited by the sight of hieroglyphs which have 
probably been seen and read by the Jews at the time of Moses, or when the Sav- 
ior was taken by his parents to Egypt as a place of refuge from Herod's rage. 

The following is a hst of the more notable obelisks, with their present sites, 
sizes, etc. : 



THE ANTIQUITY OF MAN QUESTIONED. 
OBELISKS. 



19 



Present Site. 



Heliopolis .... 
Biggeg-Crocodopolis 
Karnak . . . 
Ditto .... 
Lateran, Rome 
"Vatican, Rome 
Alexandria * , 
London . . . 
Constantinople 
Sion House . . 
Thebaid, Alnwick 
Porta del Popolo, Rome 
Trinitadel Monti, Rome 

Luxor 

Paris 

San, or Tanis .... 
Monte-Citorio, Rome . 
Piazza Navona, Rome 
Pantheon, Rom^e . . . 
Villa Mattei, Rome . 
Piazza Minerva, Rome 
British Museum, 2 . . 
Constantinople . . . 
Corfe Castle, Philse . 

Benevento 

Monte Pincio, Rome . 



Size. 



ft. in. ft. in. 

6 I X6 3 
69X40 



Mariette. 
9 8 X9 10 
8 10 
7 7 X8 2 

7 10^X7 8 
Broken. 

o 10^ 

o 9^X0 9 

8 5 X8 5 
4 3 



0X80 



4 5 
Fragment. 

8 3 

Fragment. 

1 6 Xi 5 
6 o X6 o 

2 2 



Height. 



By or to whom Dedicated. 



ft. in ft. in. 
68 2 or 66 6 

43 ft. o in. 

90 6 
108 

105 
82 
70 
68 

50 

7 

7 
78 

43 
82 
76 



17 
8 

35 
22 

9 
30 



10 
6 

9 
o 

^% 
o 

6 

3 
6 
6 

o 
4 



71 5 
54 3 
50 o 



Osortisen, 2,851 B. C. 

Ditto. 

Thothmes I. 

HatasoUj 1,660 B. C. 

Thothmes IIL 

No hieroglyphs. 

Thothmes III. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Amenotep II. 

Seti Menepthah I. 

Ditto. 

.Rameses II. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Sesostris. 

Ditto. 



Amyrtseus I. 
Nectancho I. 
Ptolemy Evergetes 11. 

Hadrianus. 



150 B.C. 



^Presented to the United States. 



-Scientific American Supplement. 



GEOLOGY. 



THE PRESENT STATE OF THE EVIDENCE REGARDING THE 
ANTIQUITY OF MAN.* 

BY T. MCK. HUGHES, M. A., WOODWARDIAN PROFESSOR OF GEOLOGY, CAMBRIDGE, 

[The following paragraphs, discussing the evidence as to Man's existence 
in or before the Glacial era in Europe, and the remarks succeeding, by Professor 
Dawkins, are cited from a paper bearing the above title.] 

We may dismiss at once the case [of supposed human remains], reported 

*Read before the Victoria Institute, 1879. 



20 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

from the Dardanelles, of works of art found in deposits said to be of Miocene age.. 
The descriptions* prove that it was not given on the authority of one competent 
to judge in such a case, and it never has been confirmed. 

In beds said to be Miocene, at Thenay, near Pontleroy, the Abbe Bourgeois 
found flints which he supposed were dressed by man. These flints are now 
exhibited in the Museum at St. Germain, where I saw them with Sir Charles 
Lyell several years ago, and again with others since. Some of them seemed 
entirely natural, common forms, such as we find over the surface everywhere, 
broken by all the various accidents of heat and frost and blows. A few seemed 
as if they might have been man's handiwork — cores from which he had struck 
off flakes such as we know were used by early man, of which I show examples. 
Yet this is not quite clear, for, had the evidence been good that they were found 
in place, there still would have been a doubt whether they were man's work. But 
when we came to inquire about the evidence that they occurred in beds of Mio- 
cene age, we learned that only those that we put down as natural were found by 
the Abbe himself; the others were brought in by workmen, picked up, we may 
suppose, upon the heaps turned over by their spades, and so perhaps, just dropped 
down from the surface. 

Next in the Crag the teeth of sharks, bored through, as if for wear, were 
found, t part of a string of ornaments such as are commonly worn by savages. Of 
these I give examples : one a boar's tusk, from the lake dwellings of Switzerland; 
another, a tooth from a deposit of palaeolithic age, in a cave just above the mirac- 
alous grotto of Lourdes in the Pyrenees. I have examined fragments of bone and 
teeth [from the Crag] of various sizes and shapes, and found them marked over 
the surface with many a pit or deeper hole, or even perforation irregularly placed, 
not as if by design, but by accident. There they were in every stage, all over, 
yet of one type. One sawn across explains the whole. The chamber of a shell 
which bores its way into the solid rock or softer shale was clearly shown. When 
the mass lay embedded in the mud it was but touched here and there. If it was 
thin the animal bored through into the sand or clay below, piercing the tooth 
quite through — a perfectly well-turned and finished work, so good it was thought 
to be man's. But if the mass was thick and near the surface, the little mollusk 
made a home entirely within it, and its shell often remains there, and reveals the 
history and manner of formation of the holes. 

An account has also been given by the Abbe Bourgeois of flints from Pliocene 
beds at St. Brest, near to Chartres, said to be worked by man, but this we may 
dismiss on the same ground as those before referred to given on the same 
authority. J 

Another case brought forward from abroad but recently, has found as much 
favor here as there. § Around the Lake of Zurich there are left traces of ancient 
lakes at somewhat higher levels, A bed of clay below with glacial stones, a bed 

*Journ. Anthrop Inst., vol. iii, p. 127, April, 1873. 

tJourn. Anthrop. Inst., vol. ii, p. 91 April, 1872. 

IBourgeois, Congr. Inter, d' Anthrop., 1867, p. 67. 

JRutimeyer, Archiv. fur Anthropologie, 1875; Heer, Primeval World of Switzerland. 



THE ANTIQUITY OF MAN QUESTIONED. 21 

of plants between, half-turned to coal, a mass of clay, moraine-like on the top, tell 
of the time when Alpine ice crept farther down the hills, and touched upon the 
lake, now more, now less encroaching. In these beds the peaty mass of lignite, 
known as Diirnten coal, was largely dug for fuel. I have worked a long time 
down below to see the evidence myself. The sequence of the beds is clear. But 
recently two Swiss professors have proclaimed that they have obtained proofs 
incontestable that man was there, and wove a basket, fragments of which were 
found among the drifted plants which formed the coal. These fragments, it is 
said, consist of pointed sticks, sharpened across the grain, not tapering naturally, 
and a cross set of binding withes, all now pressed and changed, but by such char- 
acters referred to work of man. Now I have found myself along the shore frag- 
ments of wood and twigs half decomposed and waveworn till they were cut to a 
point obhquely to the grain, as they describe the Diirnten sticks. Across such 
fragments often others fell, and when the whole was then compressed what won- 
der if tliey left a mark of wattle or of basket-work? and the whole mass has suf- 
fered such great pressure from the superincumbent weight of clay that all the 
round twigs and. stems are squeezed quite flat, as in the specimens before you. 
These Diirnten pointed sticks, however, I have not seen, and, therefore, speak 
with caution, showing only how I think the thing might be otherwise explained. 

Widespread beds of loam and sand, and gravel, cover the lower levels of 
East Anglia ; and, probably ranging over a vast period, have been collectively 
described as "middle-glacial," for below are glacial beds, and in the middle series 
bowlder clay, and over them, whether in part remanie or not, another bowlder 
clay. Lying in hollows and on the flanks of valleys, cut through this ancient loam 
and other beds, are river terraces of later date; and these, because in great part 
made up of the older beds, are like them, and require experience to distinguish. 
In these, old terrace-deposits implements of man's undoubted work have long been 
found ; but recently it has been said that some of these beds belong to the older 
series. J This, then, becomes a matter of opinion. For my part, being well 
acquainted with the deposits in question, and having listened to the evidence, I 
give my testimony quite against the Glacial or inter-Glacial age of any of the beds 
from which the hatchets came. It is, however, said that other evidence has since 
been found, conclusive as to this. I can but criticise that which has been adduced ; 
but I will say that if such has been found and been so long withheld, while there 
are so many deeply interested, and so many who would like to verify at once and 
on the ground, the statements made, then I do hold that there has not been shown 
that love of full investigation which is the soul of science. 

In many countries where rocks of limestone tower in cliffs and crags above 
the valleys, and are tapped below by undermining streams, the rain which falls 
upon the higher ground is lost in cracks and joints, and carries off" the rock dis- 
solved in water, which contains a little acid caught by the falling rain or drawn 
from decomposing plants. The fissures thus enlarged into the gaping chasms 
called "swallows' holes," the "katabothra" of the Greeks, admit a copious tor- 

JMem. Geol. Surv. Geology of Fenland. 



22 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

rent, carrying stones and sand which grind and bruise and open out the jointed 
rocks into great caves and subterranean courses. These, when tapped at lower 
levels, are soon left dry, and offer to prowling beasts of prey a safe retreat, and 
often man availed himself of them, as testify the AduUamites and Troglodytes of 
every age. 

From such a cave up in the crags of Craven some evidence is adduced tha 
man existed far back into Glacial times, and this, perhaps, is the best case that 
has been urged* There a large group of animals, such as occur elsewhere along 
with man, and more doubtfully, traces of man himself, were found in beds over 
lapped by Glacial clay which had sealed up the mouth of the vast den in which 
these relics lay. This excavation I have watched myself at intervals from the 
commencement, and I hold that as the cliff fell back by wet or frost, and limestone 
fragments fell over the cave mouth, with- them also came masses of clay, which, 
since the Glacial times, had lain in hollows in the rock above. We dug and found 
such there, and, more, I observed that the clay lay across the mouth as though it 
had thus fallen, and not as if it came direct from Glacial ice that pushed its way 
athwart the crag in which the cave occurs. It seemed to have fallen obliquely 
from the side where the fissured rock more readily yielded to the atmospheric 
waste, so that it somewhat underlay the part immediately above the cave. On 
the inside the muddy water which collected after flood, held back by all this clay^ 
filled every crevice and the intervals between the fallen limestone rock, while stilL 
outside was the open talus of angular fragments known as ".screes." 

These are the most important cases that I know Avhere man has been referred 
to Glacial or inter-Glacial times; but, all, it seems to me, quite inconclusive. On, 
the contrary, there is much in them, and much besides, pointing the other way. 
In support of which opinion I will now offer some independent evidence, showing, 
that some similar beds with man and the beasts that are found with him in earli- 
est times can be proved to be post-Glacial. >!<>!<* 

{^Remarks 011 the foregoing paper by Professor W. Boyd Daivkins, F.R.S?^ 

I entirely hold with Professor Hughes in the view which he takes relating to 
the antiquity of man, and the necessity of looking narrowly into facts bearing on 
the question. All the alleged cases of the existence of man before the Palseo- 
Hthic age, on the Continent, seem to me on a careful inquiry to be unsatisfactory. 
If the flints found at Thenay, and supposed to prove the existence of Miocene 
man, be artificial, and be derived from a Miocene stratum, there is, to my mind, 
an insuperable difficulty in holding them to be the handiwork of man. Seeing 
that no existing species of quadruped was then alive, it is to me perfectly incredi- 
ble that man, the most highly specialized of all, should have been living at that 
time. The flints shown in Paris by Professor Gaudry appear to be artificial ; 
while those in the Museum of St. Germain appear to be partly artificial and 
partly natural, some of the former, from their condition, having been obviously 
picked up on the surface of the ground. The cuts on the Miocene fossil bones 

*Tiddeman, Brit. Assoc. Reports, 1870-8. 



AUTOMATIC MENTAL ACTION. 23 

discovered in several other localities in France may have been produ ed by other 
agencies than the hand of man. 

Nor in the succeeding Pliocene age is the evidence more convincing. The 
human skull found in a railway cutting at Olmo, in Northern Italy, and supposed 
to be of Pliocene age, was associated with an implement, according to Dr. John 
Evans, of Neolithic age. Some of the cut fossil bones discovered in various parts 
of Lombardy, and considered by Professor Capellini to be Pliocene, were undoubt- 
edly produced by a cutting implement before they became mineralized, a point on 
which the examination of the specimens leaves me no reason for doubt. I do not, 
however, feel satisfied that the bones became mineralized in the Pliocene age \ 
and the fact, that only two species of quadrupeds now alive then dwelt in Europe, 
renders it highly improbable that man was living at this time. This zoological 
difficulty seems to me insuperable. 

The only other case which demands notice is that which is taken to establish 
the fact that man was living in the inter-Glacial age, in Switzerland. The speci- 
mens supposed to offer ground for this hypothesis consist of a few pointed sticks 
in Professor Riitimeyer's collection at Basle, of the shape and size of a rather thin 
cigar, crossed by a series of fibers running at right angles. They appear to me 
after a careful examination to present no mark of the hand of man, and to be 
merely the resinous knots which have dropped out of a rotten pine trunk, and 
survived the destruction of the rest of the tree. As the evidence stands at present, 
there is no proof, on the Continent or in this country, of man having lived in this 
part of the world before the middle stage of the Pleistocene age, when most of the 
existing mammalia were alive, and when mammoths, rhinoceroses, bisons, horses 
and Irish elks, lions, hyenas, and bears haunted the neighborhood of London, 
and were swept down by the floods of the Thames as far as Erith and Crayford. 
— American Journal of Science. 



PSYCHOLOGY. 



AUTOMATIC MENTAL ACTION. 

BY PROF. J. M. LONG. 

The development of the life of man depends upon the dynamic arrangements 
in his constitution for action. Those who study man from both the physiological 
and the psychological point of view, should, therefore, take into the account all 
those springs of action with which the Creator has endowed him. That part of 
the physical nature of man directly concerned in action is the nervous system, the 
functions of which are the generation, transmission and distribution of motion. 
That part of the nervous organism known as the Cerebro-Spinal system may be 
properly termed the Physical Mechanism of Mind, because psychical phenomena 



24 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

are conditioned by its action. Psychical, or mental action, assumes three distinct 
forms, namely, Reflex, Latent, and Conscious. 

We have two kinds of reflex mental action — one natural and instinctive ; the 
other artificial and acquired. Reflex mental action is that form of psychical phe- 
nomena which occur without the intervention of consciousness, and which, though 
unconscious, accompHsh ends analogous to those which take place under the 
direction of thought and volition. 

We have what is termed a reflex psychical action when impulse is sent along 
an afferent nerve from the suaface of the body, and which, on reaching the sensory 
gangha, is reflected or thrown back along an efferent nerve, in the form of muscu- 
lar motion. In this case an ingoing movement, resulting in a sensation, is con- 
verted into an outgoing movement without an intervention of consciousness. 
Such movements are called Automatic, because they are effected through the 
medium of the nervous mechanism mechanically, like the movements of automata. 
Illustrations of this class of psychic actions are furnished in the batting of the eyes 
when some object is suddenly thrust before them; in the unconscious throwing 
out of the hands to stay the body when about to fall ; in the drawing up of the feet 
of a sleeping person when the soles are tickled. 

To ascertain the seat of reflex psychical action, has been one of the interest- 
ing and important questions of modern psychology. The study of psychical 
phenomena from the objective point of view has proved that the brain is not the 
sole seat of mind. The seat of consciousness is in the brain ; but the other forms 
of mental action cannot be restricted to that organ, but are developed, with more 
or less intensity, in the other parts of the nervous system. Consciousness is the 
eye of the soul, and is, therefore, a faculty. But it does not thence follow that 
the mind is active only when this faculty is active. The mind has other sources 
and springs of action. Descartes, followed by many philosophers, identified con- 
sciousness with mind, as though one should confound seeing with perceiving. 
Unconscious mental action we regard as the basis and condition of conscious 
mental action. In pure reflex actions, the brain, or cerebrum, takes no part. 
They are effected through the medium of the spinal cord and the other motor 
centers, of which the cord is a prolongation into the base of the brain. Hence, 
animals of a low order, being more tenacious of life than those highly developed, 
when deprived of their brains will still perform reflex movements. Brain- 
less pigeons will smooth down their feathers ; brainless frogs will rub off sulphuric 
acid which has been dropped upon them, or adjust themselves on a board as it is 
inclined at different angles. Infants, born without brains, have been known to 
perform the usual operation of sucking. There is said to be a man in a French 
hospital who, in consequence of a wound received in the late war with Germany, 
passes out from his normal conscious life once in each month, and lives, for a day 
or two, a life of unconscious reflex action, like a decapitated frog or pigeon. He 
neither sees, hears nor tastes, nor smells, having only one sense organ in a state 
of activity, namely, that of touch, which is exalted into a state of preternatural 



AUTOMATIC MENTAL ACTION. 25 

acuteness. Yet, without consciousness, he is said to go through his daily routine 
of movements with automatic regularity. All those accustomed actions he per- 
forms through the medium of the spinal cord and the other motor centers, inde- 
pendently of the brain. 

Primary reflex mental action constitutes the innate and fundamental provision 
in the human organism for the maintenance of life. The conditions of life require 
that there shall be something from which to start at the time that the animal sets 
up an independent existence, in order that the organism shall be, to a certain ex- 
tent, in harmony with environing relations. This primitive and innate provision 
for action is called Instinctive, because it is original and unacquired, and exists in 
its full power previous to experience and instruction. . Man, at birth, begins a 
life without knowledge and experience. In this condition, his only guide is in- 
stinctive reflex action, until intelligence and volition become developed. Hence, 
instinctive reflex action forms the basis upon which all subsequent mental develop- 
ment and education take plaee. 

The organism of man is arranged in harmony with a fixed and preestablished 
system of nature. To render the development of the organic and mental life pos- 
sible, the rudimentary psychical nature must begin in unconsciousness, or reflex 
action, in harmony with the conditions imposed by external relations. As intel- 
ligence and will become developed, the mind rises into a consciousness of this 
preestablished harmony which from the beginning has rendered the development 
of life, both mental and organic, possible. Thus the mind grows and develops from 
simple reflex action-^which presents psychical phenomena in their lowest typical 
form — into conscious volition, in which the intelligence adjusts itself to the com- 
plex relations of space and time. We thus recognize simple reflex action as the 
germ out of which will is developed. Hence, to understand the nature of will, we 
must study it in its genesis as related to reflex action. It is also by studying 
primary reflex action that we become prepared to understand the nature of sec- 
ondary reflex, or automatic action. 

Secondary automatic mental action is one of the important contributions of 
modern p^chology to mental science. Even after this doctrine had been stated 
and received as the only theory which could explain a certain class of mental 
phenomena, it was stoutly opposed by the metaphysical school of thinkers. Sec- 
ondary automatic mental action belongs to that class of psychical activities which 
have, by the force of habit, assumed the form of aptitudes, and which go on with- 
out an effort of the will. Actions which, at first, require all one's attention, may, 
after many repetitions, become automatic, and go on, of their own accord, through 
the operation of the lower nerve centers, without a conscious effort of mind. The 
larger part of our daily mental actions which constitute the efficient machinery of 
life, is of this character, such as walking and reading aloud while the mind 
follows the thoughts of the author. If all the actions and mental processes which 
the necessities of our daily life impose upon us had to be brought under the review 
of consciousness, it would be burdened down with the weight of complex details. 



2 6 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

The use and value of consciousness as a mental element in running the machinery 
of mind do not lie in what it is in itself, but in what its separate and successive 
states may become. By continual repetition, these separate states may become 
organized into a consolidated whole, which, ^like the individual cells in the animal 
organism, finally develops into a complex form of automatic mental action. 
Hence, the mental machinery does not consist in separate conscious states, but in 
organized forms of action into which the mind has grown by the force of repeti- 
tion. 

The fact of mental automatism finds its explanation on the physical side of 
being in the relation which the cerebrum sustains to the lower sensory and motor 
centers. Impressions are made on the cerebrum by being propagated upward 
through the sensorium. These impressions, after being combined and co-ordinated, 
are reflected downward to the motor centers which execute the mandates of the . 
will in the form of muscular movements. By constant repetition, these motor cen- 
ters grow into the modes of action which have been consciously and artificially 
imposed upon them, so that the only conscious effort required to set them going 
is a mere initiative impulse of the will. In this way the mental and the physical 
organism may be made to take on themselves an artificial and secondary auto- 
matic action, as distinguished from that which is natural and primary. 

We should not pass over this part of the subject without caUing attention to- 
the important office which this form of action performs in the economy of human 
life. We should regard the spinal cord, together with the motor and sensory 
ganglia, in which it terminates, as charged with spontaneous force, and as conse- 
quently the seat from which emanate "the lightning gleams of power" exerted 
for the well being of the organism. Man must have some provision in his consti- 
tution which shall serve as a guide and protection, before he can rise into the dig- 
nity of an intelligent and conscious being. Such are the dangers to which life is 
often exposed, that action must come before thought to save the organism, or some 
part of it, from destruction. 

Automatic mental action has a most important bearing on education, whether 
this looks to physical, intellectual, or moral and religious training. It is that, in 
fact, which makes man an educable being. It is only the new school of psychol- 
ogists who, as yet, fully recognize the great value of this form of action as one of 
the capacities of our physical and mental being. "It is," says Huxley, "because 
the body is a machine that education is possible. Education is the formation of 
habits, a superinducing of an artificial organization upon the natural organization 
of the body; so that acts, which at first required a conscious effort, eventually be- 
come unconscious and mechanical. If the act which primarily requires a dis- 
tinct consciousness and volition of its details, always needed the same effort, 
education would be an impossibility." "The acquired functions of the spinal 
cord," says Dr. Maudsley, "and of the sensory ganglia, obviously imply the ex- 
istence of memory, which is indispensable to their formation and exercise. How 
else could these centers be educated ? The impressions made upon them, and the 



AUTOMATIC MENTAL ACTION. 27 

answering movements, both leave their traces behind them, which are capable of 
being revived on the occasion of similar impressions. A ganglionic center, whether 
of mind, sensation, or movement, which was without memory, would be an idiotic 
center, incapable of being taught its functions." 

The educators of youth should never lose sight of the fact that their work is 
well done only when both mind and body have been trained to act with automatic 
readiness and precision. This high degree of mental and physical power and 
specialization can be attained only by incessant repetition. Practice, and practice 
alone, makes perfect. 

All beginnings are diflficult ; but, by virtue of this capacity for automatic 
mental action, they become easy and pleasant, so as to lequire little or no effort of 
the will to spur the mind on to its accustomed work. After this form of mental 
action has once been acquired, the mind is no longer perplexed with the routine 
of petty details, but is left free to attend to the few unaccustomed matters which 
turn up during its regular work, and which require a distinct consciousness. 

The educator of youth, in avaiUng himself of this spring of action, must take 
into the account the question of vital dynamics. Unless he does this, he is liable 
to err in two particulars : first, as to the extent to which this form of mental action 
should be carried ; second, as to the class of mental operations to which it should 
be confined. Automatism requiring long and laborious repetition must make a 
heavy draft upon the plastic energies of the brain. The consumption of all the 
nervous energy in organizing automatic forms of action would result in a deaden- 
ing of consciousness, and tend to reduce the mind to the level of a machine. 
Prof Huxley says that he would not object to being thus reduced, provided that 
when wound up in the morning, like a clock, he would run on with automatic 
precision, and never go wrong. But such a result, if possible, would not be de- 
sirable, for the reason that it would put an end to all further mental progress in 
making new acquisitions. Mental operations by repetition tend to wear for them- 
selves a channel. The nervous mechanism embodies in its structure the im- 
pressions made upon it as a part of its organic growth. But this mechanism of 
nerves is truly a machine, governed by mechanical laws, and is hence capable of 
performing only a limited amount of work. If a certain amount of the brain force 
be consumed in impressing upon the organism a particular form of action, just so 
much less will be left as a stimulus for exciting the mind to other acquisitions. 
Hence, if automatism has been carried to excess, the effect upon the young and 
growing organism must be injurious. The rigid and automatic condition of the 
nervous mechanism produced by habit, brings on a corresponding rigidity and 
deadness of consciousness itself, thus rendering the mind incapable of further 
progress. Automatic action gives efficiency and ease of execution \ but, if carried 
too far, renders it difficult and even impossible to make new acquisitions. 

It is also evident that automatic action should be confined to those mental 
and physical movements which will be of daily use, which look to the practical 
side of hfe, and which, from their nature, must be largely automatic to fulfill their 



28 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

ends. Learning to play on the piano, or other musical instrument, must attain to 
automatic quickness, to give that ease and readiness of execution which the natifre 
of the process demands. The fundamental operations of arithmetic should be 
so thoroughly learned as to be largely automatic. When these fundamental pro- 
cesses of numbers have become organized, as it were, in the mental organism, the 
mind is then left free to attend to the logical processes involved in the mathemat- 
ical operations. But, for the reason that automatism is an expensive acquisition, 
it should be limited to such mental operations as necessarily demand it. Those 
operations which can be well performed by deliberate thought, should be left to the 
conscious control of the will. 

1. The education of the mental organism into automatic action should begin 
early, while the nervous system is plastic and impressible. 

2. One of the practical problems of education is to duly antagonize con- 
sciousness and automatism. 

3. The energies of childhood should not be utilized in the automatic de- 
mands of business, for this would bring on an arrested development of mind and 
body. 

4. The mental life of the school demands that provision should be made for 
the exercise of both these forms of mental action, the automatic and the con- 
scious. 



PHYSICS. 



A TALK ABOUT LIGHTNING. 

F. W. CLARKE, PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTY, UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI. 

A year or two ago a house not far from Cincinnati was struck by lightning, 
and its inmates were pretty well scared. Among them was quite an intelligent 
young lady, recently from school, who had studied a little about electricity, and 
knew that metals would attract the spark. The flash had fallen, the danger was 
over, but her panic rernained ; and in her fright she rushed eagerly down stairs in 
search of a pair of scissors with which to cut the steel buckles from her shoes. 
This act, comical as it seems in all its bearings, was yet based upon rational 
grounds. To be sure it was like closing the stable door after the horse had been 
stolen ; of course the young lady might simply have removed her shoes ; and we 
all know, moreover, that lightning does not generally attack its victims' feet first, 
unless, indeed, they happen to be sitting in what might be termed the bar-room 
attitude. Yet the fact remains that the wearing of metals during a thunder storm 
slightly increases the danger of the wearer. The metallic object has a determining 
influence upon the course of the flash. In one instance a lady's bonnet, because 



A TALK ABOUT LIGHTNING. 29^ 

of its wire framework, was entirely consumed by lightning, although the lady 
herself escaped serious injury. Another lady inadvertently thrust her arm out of 
a window during a thunder shower, and her gold bracelet was dissipated in vapor. 
Still another flash of lightning found a gentleman seated on the top of a stage 
coach and rifled his pocket of a valuable watch, leaving only a few links of the 
chain. The general fact which our heroine had in mind is, then, quite clear. 
Only her peculiar application of it serves v.ery well to illus"trate the crudity of pop- 
ular notions about lightning. Many people are so bewildered and dazzled by the 
flash, and so stunned by the explosion which follows, that they become unable 
either to appreciate the beauty of the display, or to reason correctly concern- 
ing its nature. Indeed, very few persons realize how varied are the phenomena 
presented by the lightning in its color, its form, and its effects, and still fewer 
understand in more than a vague, general way, the principles involved in the 
erection of conductors. Every summer the country is scoured by lightning-rod 
agents, each with some eccentric contrivance to sell, who not only take advantage 
of the popular ignorance, but even make it deeper still. Spiral rods, patent tips, 
novel insulators, and goodness knows what else, are carried from house to house 
and forced upon the attention of puzzled listeners with an assiduity worthy of 
better employment. In consequence, a great many of the rods put up are not 
only unsuitable and inefficient, but also much more costly than thoroughly good, 
substantial and adequate conductors even need to be. 

Lightning, by the best observers, has been divided into three kinds. First,, 
there is the common zigzag line of light, sometimes as much as ten miles long,, 
which seems to shoot from point to point with great velocity, and which lasts, it 
has been estimated, only about the thousandth part of a second. Secondly, there 
is what is known as ''sheet lightning," in which vast masses of clouds are sud- 
denly illuminated, as if from behind, no line being seen. This flash is also of 
inconceivably short duration, and varies much in color. White, blue, purple, 
violet, and rose-color are common tints for it to have. With it may be classed 
the so-called ''heat lightning" of hot summer nights, which is probably but the 
reflection of active lightning at a distance. It is worth noting in this connection 
that thunder is rarely heard more than ten miles away, so that the flashes are 
often visible when no sound can be detected. The roar of artillery, as at Water- 
loo, has been audible at a distance of over eighty miles from the scene of battle. 
The third kind is called "globular lightning," and is comparatively rare. It 
appears like a ball of bluish fire, roHing with relative slowness on or near the 
surface of the ground or of the sea. When it reaches certain obstacles the ball 
explodes with a loud noise and works much mischief. When two young ladies 
were killed by lightning on the Malvern Hills, England, in June, 1826, the dis- 
charge was described as a globe of fire which rolled slowly along the ground 
toward the building in which they had taken shelter. Such a globe has been 
known to remain in sight for at least ten seconds. Another remarkable case of 
this kind of hghtning is mentioned by Mr. Chalmers, who saw it from on board 



30 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

ship in 1749. His attention was called to a ball of blue fire, as big as a millstone, 
which was rolling along the surface of the water three miles away. Very soon it 
reached to within forty yards of the main chains, when it rose perpendicularly 
with a fearful explosion, and shattered the maintopmast to pieces. Still another 
instance of a sort of globular lightning was furnished by the great storm in Brit- 
tany in 1 7 18, during which twenty-four church towers were damaged. Three 
globes of fire, each more than a yard in apparent diameter, fell at once upon a 
spire near Brest, destroying the church completely. 

I need say little of the nature of lightning, since everybody is familiar with 
the story of Franklin and his kite. Every child knows that the flash is produced 
by the discharge of electricity accumulated in the clouds. But atmospheric elec- 
tricity may become manifested in either of two different ways. When lightning 
is seen we observe what is called a ^^ disruptive discharge;" while in the phenom- 
enon best known as "St. Elmo's Fire" a '^ glow discharge" takes place. The 
latter is harmless, and rather rare. Occasionally its peculiar brushes or balls of fire 
tip the ends of masts and spars during storms at sea, as many as thirty of these 
flames having been seen on one vessel at the same time. Once in a while, too, 
it is produced on land. Troops of soldiers have been terrified at finding the tips 
of their lances or bayonets adorned with mysterious fires. Similar flames have 
decorated the hair and the finger ends of travelers caught in a storm above the 
snow line in the Alps. A wagon loaded with straw has been so electrified that 
every straw seemed to be in a light blaze. And at Plauzet in France the three 
points of the cross upon the church were seen surrounded by flame during every 
thunder-shower for twenty-seven consecutive years. But with these glow dis- 
charges we have little to do. The disruptive discharge concerns us, especially 
with regard to its effects. 

These effects may be conveniently studied under two heads; first, the effect 
of the lightning upon the air through which it passes ; secondly, its effect upon 
the object struck. The first of these heads needs to occupy our attention but very 
briefly. Often after a thunderstorm, especially near articles which have received 
the flash, a peculiar odor is perceived. This odor is commonly described as a 
"brimstone smell," and, taken in connection with the bluish, sulphurous color 
of the spark, has led people to imagine the actual presence of sulphur in the 
storm. But the odor really belongs to ozone, a modification of oxygen produced 
by the passage of an electric spark through that gas. Three volumes of oxygen 
have been condensed to two, and the product has the pungent perfume so well 
known. 

But it is when we come to consider the effects produced by lightning upon 
the objects which it strikes that we reach the most interesting ground. Some of 
these eff'ects have already been described or hinted at, and most of them are so 
familiar to everyone that they seem hardly to need extended notice. Yet the 
material is so abundant and so varied that it becomes easy to select many interest- 
ing illustrations of our subject. Take for instance the formation of ^^fulguriies" 



A TALK ABOUT LIGHTNING. 31 

in the soil. When a flash of lightning strikes a bed of sand it penetrates down- 
ward with great force for many feet, partially melting the sand on the way. Deep 
vitrified tubes are thus formed, fragments of which can easily be preserved as 
curiosities. These are known as '■'■fulgurites." 

The mechanical effects produced by lightning are often of the most stupen- 
dous character. In June, 1764, the steeple of St. Bride's in London was struck 
and damaged. A stone weighing seventy pounds was flung fifty yards, and an 
iron bar two feet long was broken in two, one piece of it being bent back upon 
itself at an angle of forty-five degrees. When the ship Le Patriote was struck in 
1852, a block of wood weighing about one hundred and sixty pounds was torn out 
from the mast, and flung with its thicker end against a massive plank partition, a 
hundred paces away, so violently as to become firmly imbedded in the obstacle. 
A still more remarkable effect was produced when the ship Desiree was struck in 
Port Antonio harbor, Jamaica, in 1803. The maintopmast was broken in two, 
and the next morning one-half of it was found sticking in the mud on one side of 
the harbor, while the other half lay in a lumber yard upon the opposite shore. 
Again, the ship Rodney was struck by lightning in December, 1838. The top 
gallant and royal masts, fifty-three feet long and weighing about eight hundred 
pounds, entirely disappeared from the vessel, with the exception of the end of the 
royal mast. The sea was covered with chips and splinters, and the water along- 
side looked as if it had received all the refuse of a carpenter's shop. The main- 
mast was bound by twenty-six great iron hoops, and of these thirteen were burst 
.asunder and thrown down upon the deck. Each hoop was half an inch thick and 
;five inches wide. 

These instances serve not only to illustrate the power of the stroke, but also 
the special liability of ships to receive it. Their long, slender masts, rising amid 
an almost level wa te, offer the best possible work for the celestial fires. Indeed, 
a ship has been known to receive seven distinct flashes of lightning in the course 
of a few minutes. But the mechanical injury which a ship receives is not always 
its greatest damage. The electricity is apt to derange the compass, and play 
strange freaks with the chronometer. In consequence of these disturbances many 
3l ship has been lost long after the danger seemed quite over. The packet ship 
New York, which was struck twice during a storm in the Gulf Stream in April, 
1827, although it came safely to port, had particularly severe experiences. The 
■ waves ran very high, the vessel was surrounded by waterspouts, the rain was 
mingled with hailstones as large as filberts, and the lightning was flashing in all 
"directions with simultaneous reports. The main discharge, which made the ship 
lurch so violently as to throw down people standing upon deck, fell on a pointed 
iron rod about four feet long, melting a few inches of its point. From this rod 
an iron chain one-fourth of an inch in diameter, a wholly inadequate conductor, 
descended to the water. This chain was knocked in pieces, and some of its Unks 
made to burn like a taper ; while drops of melted iron fell to the deck setting fire 
to the woodwork wherever they touched. When the ship reached Liverpool it 



32 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

was found that the compass had been completely demagnetized ; while on the 
other hand the steel work of the chronometer had been affected in the opposite 
manner, and the instrument accelerated over half an hour. 

Powder magazines have also been made the particular favorites of hghtning 
stroke. Many of them have been exploded by lightning, and thousands of lives 
lost. But no magazine protected by a suitable rod? has ever been thus damaged. 
Such have been struck, but the shock has always been carried off harmlessly into 
the ground. The greatest disaster ever worked by hghtning was doubtless that 
which happened at Brescia in 1769. The tower of St. Wazaire, having 207,600 
pounds of gunpowder stowed beneath it, was struck and the powder fired. The 
tower rose bodily into the air, to return in a shower of stone; three thousand 
persons were killed, and about one-sixth of the city destroyed. Thirteen years 
later Fort Marlborough in Sumatra was struck, and four hundred barrels of pow- 
der exploded. 

When living beings become the subjects of a flash of lightning the effects may 
vary quite considerably. In one case which happened about a year ago, a man's 
boots were torn from his feet by Hghtning, while he himself was only stunned. In 
another instance a lady was lying in bed, and the flash entered her window and 
singed away her hair without doing much other mischief. Other freaks of light- 
ning were mentioned at the beginning of this article. When death results from 
such a stroke the body may present any one of a great number of appearances. 
It may be almost unmarked, or covered with burns. Livid welts sometimes 
appear upon it, as if the flesh had been bruised by a blow. Sometimes impres- 
sions, we might almost say photographs, of near objects are imprinted upon the 
skin. A man was killed by lightning at Zante in 1836, and marks of coins which 
he had carried in his pocket were found stamped upon his person. Yet the coins 
themselves were at a considerable distance from the marks ! Such a death is 
probably painless. The electric shock moves so much more rapidly than the 
nervous impression that the victim dies before he has time to become conscious of 
injury. The lower animals seem to be in special danger from lightning. Instance 
after instance could be cited in which animals have been killed in close proximity 
to men while the latter remained unharmed. A ploughman was once, ploughing 
with four oxen. Being struck by lightning, both man and beasts were over- 
thrown. The man, however, was but slightly stunned, while two of the oxen 
were killed outright, and a third paralyzed. According to D'Abbadie, a single 
flash of lightning in Ethiopia destroyed two thousand sheep. Even the fish are 
not exempt from the paralyzing influence. When lightning falls upon the water 
many of its inmates are killed. 

Fortunately the danger from lightning can be diminished by certain precau- 
tions. Some of these are quite generally known. For instance, one should 
always keep away from all large masses of metal, and from isolated trees. But 
although isolated trees are such dangerous companions during a thunderstorm, a 
man is but little exposed to risk in a dense forest. Trees may be struck in the 



A TALK ABOUT LIGHTNING. 33 

latter, but they are less likely to be than when standing alone in the midst of a 
level plain. Safety is also found in deep narrow valleys or ravines. Lightning 
rarely reaches to the bottom of such places, but is scattered against their sides. 
The wearing of silk is said to be a safeguard against lightning, and the case of the 
church at Chateauneny les Moutiers in the Lower Alps has been cited to confirm 
jhis view. The church was struck during divine service on the nth of July, 
1819. Nine persons were killed outright, and eighty-two wounded. Two of the 
three officiating priests were injured, while the third, who wore a silken robe, 
escaped. One more fact is worth noticing in this connection. Whenever any 
number of men or animals standing in line are struck by lightning, the individuals 
at the ends of the line always suffer the most severely. Many examples of this 
are on record, but one will suffice for us. Thirty-two horses standing in line in 
their stalls were once struck by lightning, and thirty of them were knocked down. 
But only two were killed, and they formed the extremities of the line. 

Although at first sight lightning seems to act so capriciously, leaping from 
point to point in the most irregular manner, and playing tricks more freakish 
than those of Puck, it yet moves in accordance with rigid, definite laws. Certain 
substances are better conductors of electricity than others, and even the same 
substance varies in its conducting power according to conditions. Differences of 
temperature, of internal structure, of form, and of surroundings, will cause two 
samples of copper or iron to conduct electricity very differently. And the light- 
ning in its course, fickle and irresponsible as it seems, invariably follows that path 
in which conduction is the best. In other words, it moves in the line of least 
resistance, and never leaves that line under any provocation. A river would as 
soon leave its bed and flow along the tops of the hills. Upon this general princi- 
ple the construction of hghtning-rods is based. A line of least resistance is artifi. 
cially furnished,- through which the flash may pass harmlessly into the ground. 
Occasionally, however, buildings which were apparently protected by suitable 
conductors have been seriously damaged by lightning. Hence many intelligent 
persons have been led into a distrust of lightning-rods. Some have even asserted 
that the rods not only failed to protect buildings from the effects of a stroke, but 
actually attracted the danger. But the difficulty always has been that the offend- 
ing conductors were not properly arranged, or, in short, did not ccnstitute the 
desired line of least resistanee. Many precautions have to be observed in the 
■erection of lightning-rods, and to these we shall recur presently. Let us first see, 
however, whether there is evidence to warrant faith in good rods, and whether 
there is any truth in the notion that they increase the danger which they claim to 
avert. 

Now a vast number of facts go to prove the efficacy of suitably arranged rods. 
The church at Antrasmes, for instance, was twice struck by lightning, the flash 
following both times in precisely the same track. Certain picture frames were 
ungilded, certain bars of metal destroyed, and the portraits of the saints black- 
ened. A lightning conductor was finally applied to the building and it has not 
iv-3 



34 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

been struck since. The chapel of Count Orsini in Carinthia, standing in an 
exposed situation, was so frequently struck and injured that divine service was no' 
longer celebrated within its walls. But in the year 1778 a conductor was applied. 
Since then the edifice has been struck less frequently than before, and every 
stroke has been carried harmlessly away. A similar instance is furnished by the 
tower of St. Mark at Venice, 340 feet high. This tower was repeatedly and 
seriously damaged by lightning until in 1766 a conductor was put on. Since that 
time no harm has been done. The tower has passed unscathed through every 
storm. Still another example is offered by the cathedral at Sienna, which was a 
favorite victim of the lightning. After a while, about the year 1777, a rod was 
attached to the building, causing much anxiety among the ignorant neighbors, 
who called it the "heretic rod." Soon, however, another stroke fell upon the 
cathedral and was rendered harmless by the dreaded conductor. The 
natives began to respectt the "heretic," and have since had no cause to 
alter this feeling. I will cite one n\ore instance, in which a fksh of light-, 
ning, after working serious mischief, was caught up and tamed by a metallic 
chain. The ship Hyacinth was struck in the Indian Ocean in 1833. The top 
gallant and topmasts, forty feet long and weighing nearly eight hundred pounds, 
were knocked into bundles of laths which scarcely held together. At the base of 
these masts the electricity encountered an iron chain, fifty feet in length and made 
of half inch metal, which communicated with a copper pipe running through the 
vessel. By these conductors the flash was carried off safely. After reaching them 
the flash could do no more harm. 

The question whether buildings armed with lightning-rods are more likely 
than others to be struck, is partly answered by some of the foregoing examples. 
But, had I space, I might cite evidence of a more convincing character. The 
matter has been many times tested by houses standing closely together, one pro- 
tected by a rod, and the other without defense. Time and time again the unpro- 
tected edifice has been struck and damaged, while its neighbor, which should^ 
according to the popular theory, have attracted the lightning, escaped altogether. 
The same thing has also been observed at sea. Two ships, the one equipped 
with conductors and the other not, have been exposed to a storm scarcely half a 
cable's length apart. And the flash has fallen, not upon the attracting conduc- 
tor, but upon the masts of the unarmed vessel. In fact, nothing is more certain 
than that lightning rods do not increase the danger from lightning. 

That a lightning conductor may be adequate to its purpose several things are 
needful. The rod must be made of proper material. It must be large enough 
to carry off any stroke which may fall upon it. It must be continuous through- 
out, it must terminate in a proper locaUty, and it must be in part at least pro- 
tected against rust. Negligence on one of these points might render the whole 
affair worthless. 

First, of what material should the rod be made ? Of course, the better the 
conducting power "of the material, the more efficient the rod. Now, but two 



A TALK ABOUT LIGHTNING, 35 

metals are practically available, namely copper and iron, the first of these" con- 
ducting electricity about eight times as well as the other. Copper, then, is the 
best material. Next to copper ranks the so-called "galvanized iron," iron coated 
with zinc. The latter metal not only conducts better than iron, but protects the 
iron from rust. Common iron is the worst material of the three. The size of the 
rod is the next consideration. If copper alone is used, a half-inch bar will carry 
off any stroke which is ever likely to fall in our latitudes. Of galvanized iron a 
three-fourths inch rod should be used, biit of common iron nothing less than an 
inch in diameter is a perfect protection. 

Now, how shall the rod be constructed ? Here we come into collision with 
certain popular whims. It is common to see rods carefully separated from the 
buildings they are intended to protect by neat little insulators of glass. These are 
utterly useless. An electrical spark which could break through the thousand or 
more feet of air intervening between the earth and the clouds would pay but little 
respect to the inch or so of space occupied by the insulator. Besides, if the path 
of least resistance lies in the lightning-rod the flash will not leave it for any more 
difficult channel. Another popular whim concerns the shape of the rod, many 
people having an idea that a spiral form is the best. This is a matter of no im- 
portance, and need be considered no farther. Let us begin at the tip of our rod. 
This needs to be protected from rust, and also to some extent against fusion. The 
latter difficulty may be gotten over by forking the tips, so that a flash falling upon 
it shall be divided into several parts. The other object is to be attained in several 
ways. The tip may be made either of platinum or aluminum, or it may be plated 
with nickel, or simply gilded. The last-named plan is the best and cheapest. The 
gilding costs but little, does not tarnish, and affords a surface of actually higher 
conducting power than either iron, aluminum, platinum, nickel, or zinc. Gold 
ranks next to copper in the scale of conductivity, silver standing at the head of 
the list. A silver tip, however, would be bad, for many reasons which need not 
be given here. As regards the body of the rod, this should be perfectly continu. 
ous throughout. No breaks should occur in it. Wherever joints are necessary 
the continuity of the conductor should be preserved by soldering. The lower 
extremity of the rod must be arranged with great care, and ought to extend sev- 
eral feet beyond where it leaves the building. If possible, it should terminate in 
a spring, well, or sheet of water, by means of which the electric shock may be 
scattered and lost. But by no means ought it to dip into a closed cistern or cesspool. 
A discharge of lightning, prisoned in such a place between stone walls, will send 
them asunder in order to escape. Ordinarily it is well enough to divide the lower 
extremity of a rod into several branches, and allow them to run about four feet 
deep into moist earth. By making the rod terminate directly under the water- 
spout, the earth into which it plunges may be thoroughly drenched at every 
shower. Another good plan is to fill a pit with several bushels of charcoal, 
which, previously heated to redness, has been suddenly quenched. The forked 
termination of the conductor is then buried in this pit. But such precaution is 
. needed only where there is but very little moisture in the soil. 



36 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

One more thing is needed. If several rods are placed upon an edifice, they 
should be connected with one another by horizontal rods like themselves. And 
they should also be connected directly with all large masses of metal upon the 
exterior of the building, such as gutters, spouts, cornices, crestings, balconies, or 
metallic roofings. Thus the line of least resistance may be made to communicate 
with nearly all parts of a wooden house, and the protection rendered more sure 
and complete. 

Let me sum up these directions, fitting them for an ordinary dwelling house 
of moderate expense. I will not give a description of an absolutely perfect light- 
ning-rod, but simply of one which will serve all common purposes. Make it of 
three-quarter inch galvanized iron, and let the gilded tip project as much as two 
feet above the ridge-pole or chimney top. See that it connects with the proper 
metallic masses, render it continuous to the ground, and conduct its termination, 
divided into three branches, either into a body of water, or else let it plunge four 
feet below the surface beneath your water-spout. With two such rods any dwell- 
ing of common size may be considered proof against the lightning. 



Some trials were made lately on the Seine, at Paris, to determine the best 
way of breaking up river ice with dynamite. Bernard and Lay, assisted by two 
specialists, Flegy and Streits, of the Nobel Dynamite Company, directed the 
operations and recorded the results. The best effect was obtained by placing 
three cartridges of 406 grammes of dynamite beneath the ice, each connected 
with an electric machine on the bank of the river. When the cartridges were 
exploded it was found that the ice was shattered a distance of about eighty me- 
ters and through a width of from five to six meters. The pieces of the fractured 
ice were, moreover, found to be very small, and easily carried down stream 
past obstructions such as bridge piers. 



The amphioxus, a fish-shaped animal of a very low grade of development 
which affords Haeckel one of his firmest stepping-stones in the lively work on 
evolution, has been the subject of very interesting observations on the part of 
Henry J. Rice, at Fort Wool, on the Chesapeake. He had the good fortune to 
find two males, a ripe female and twenty young. The animal stands on de- 
batable ground between the vertebrates and invertebrates, and received its name 
from its shape. Amphioxus is the Greek of Mr. Yarrel for '' sharp at both 
ends." Descriptions of the habits, structure and development of this curious 
primitive animal are being issued in the America?! Naturalist by Mr. Rice. 



CHOICE AND CHANCE. 37 



PHILOSOPHY. 



CHOICE AND CHANCE. 

:BY FRANCIS E. NIPHER, 
PROFESSOR OF PHYSICS IN WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY.* 

In a lecture delivered in this city during last winter, and entitled " Thoughts 
on our Conceptions of Physical Law," some points were lightly touched which it 
seems desirable to develop more at length. For the sake of brevity, some of the 
statements which will be made have assumed a slightly dogmatic form. They 
are not so intended. Be kind enough to regard them as thoughts of the truth of 
which we are in some cases all more or less uncertain, which are submitted to the 
judgment of sober minds. It does not make a statement true if the whole world 
affirms it ; the world has often blundered. This consideration suggests the frame 
of mind in which we should approach difficult subjects where men are likely to 
differ in opinion. He who comes to debate — to defend previously formed ideas 
— is at a disadvantage. It is difficult for such persons to place a proper value on 
the thoughts of others. In this manner the chances for error are increased. The 
method of the scientific man should be different. If he investigates phenomena, 
he seeks to use methods of experiment Avhich eliminate from his results the per- 
sonal bias of his own mind. He must learn to have no preference for one fact 
over another. He must learn to have no anxiety about the result. He must learn 
to be stringently honest with himself — a most difficult thing. If he works induc- 
tively, he should try to find out what all of the facts teach. If he has occasion 
to frame an hypothesis, and wishes to work deductively, then his work is, not to 
demonstraie, but to test the truth of his hypothesis. In the debating school, young 
men are taught to defend assumed positions. In the Academy of Science it 
should be our only object to search for truth. When we differ it is better to 
think^ rather than to dispute. 

In the transaction of business we are constantly estimating chances, or prob- 
abilities. All our predictions for the future, even when based on the experience 
of centuries, are simply more or less probable — in no case certain. We cannot 
be absolutely certain that the sun will rise at its accustomed time to-morrow. It 
is wholly in accord with human experience and with the theory of probability, 
that very unexpected things will occasionally happen. 

If we were to learn the contents of an urn, containing a million balls, by 
drawing the balls one by one, replacing them each time, we might, in course of 
time, gain a general idea of the contents; thus if 100,000 draws gave each a 



* Delivered before the Kansas City Academy of Science, Feb. 18th, '. 



38 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

white ball, we would properly decide that white balls are greatly in the majority, 
but we might continue for a century without drawing the single black ball that the 
urn might contain. 

So it is with all human experience in this world. If we could range at will 
through space and time, we might well be surprised, as Tolver Preston has sug- 
gested, by the greatly varying conditions which we might find in other and un- 
known parts, of the all-embracing universe ; just as a minute being, inhabiting for 
a brief moment a single atom of a gas, and who might imagine that he had be- 
come quite familiar with his httle world, would find much to learn, could he ex- 
tend his observations over a longer time, or over a wider space. He would then 
find the greatest variety in the motions of neighboring molecules of the gas. 
Some moving with extreme slowness — others with extreme velocity — the same 
differences being observed in the velocities of their rotations. Moreover these 
velocities are being constantly changed, by collision of neighboring molecules — 
collisions which must often result in the separation of the molecules into their 
constituent atoms. 

It may well be, as Preston ingeniously suggests, that all this is repeated on 
an immensely grander scale. Perhaps our solar system is rushing through space, 
with a motion compared with which the relative motions of its various parts are 
utterly insignificant. Collisions, instead of happening to each atom many 
millions of times per second, as in the case of gases, are here separated by im- 
mensely long intervals, and it is a minute portion of one of these intervals 
which represents the life-time of our humanity upon one of the atoms of the uni- 
verse. Possibly we are not yet acquainted with the average conditions of the 
universe, our attention being confined, for a comparatively brief interval, to a 
few of the atoms which for the present are nearest to us. 

We are able to predict \he. probable history of our earth, in the comparatively 
near future, but we know almost nothing of what the remote future may bring. 
Here we have fairly entered the domain of chance, which is the domain of human 
ignorance. 

It is essential to bear in mind that probability is a thing which belongs, not 
to the events which are probable, but to the mind, depending as stated upon our 
knowledge, or rather upon what we think we know. 

This is clearly shown by the fact that different persons may regard the same 
event with very different degrees of probability ; for example : A thinks he saw 
a ball dropped into a box, and thinks he knows that it is yet there. B is certain 
that it was a juggler's trick, and that the box is empty. C did not see the act and 
has no opinion in the matter. The conclusions which these men will form will 
depend upon their previous experiences, their opportunities for observation and 
their native abiUty. Their confidence in their conclusions is not necessarily de- 
pendent upon the real facts. Or, to take another case cited by Jevons : "A 
steamer is missing, and certain workmen in a dock-yard, knowing that she is 
poorly built, believe she is lost. The public is informed that she is well built. 



:vf ; 




6 BUck 



Xu 




io u IX li ut 90 ji fO0 

XS S ^;6 





A.aAST S- CO-LITHStL O'jlS. 



If '6 'S IQ Zl Af Zi if JO 3X 3i- 36 3i 



9-e 



CHOICE AND CHANCE. 39 

and is probably safe, although delayed. In the event itself there is no uncertainty. 
The vessel has either sunk or not. Nevertheless the probabilities will vary with 
different persons, and in the same person from day to day, as information is re- 
ceived in regard to storms at sea, signs of wreck picked up, the trustworthiness 
of her officers, etc." Finally after all have united in believing the vessel lost, she 
sails into port. While the general opinion is still the same, a few on land know 
that she is safe. Those on the vessel have never been in doubt about it. 

In order to understand more clearly the application and importance of the 
Theory of Probability, let us take a single example : 

Let us suppose that we have an urn, containing a large number of equal 
balls, and for simplicity, let us suppose that half are white, the others black. 
Draw from the urn any number of balls at once, say six, (of course without 
choosing) and repeat this drawing a large number of times (say i,ooo) replacing 
the balls and shaking them up each time. Set down each time the. number of 
white balls drawn. There are seven possible chances, viz: 



6 wh] 


te and 


O 


5 ' 




I 


4 " 




2 


3 ' 




3 


2 ' 


i i 


4 


I ' 


( ( 


5 


O ' 


C ( i 


6 



We all know something in regard to the probability in each of these cases. 
We should meet least frequently with the two extreme cases — all white and all 
black — and in the long run we should meet with one as many times as with the 
other, since there is nothing in color or lack of color which could affect the 
chances in drawing. 

The following table gives the distribution of the number of draws out of loo 
for each of the possible cases. The greater the number of draws, the more nearly 
these values would be obtained : 

Chances. No. of Times. 

6 White. o Black. 2 

5 " I " 3 

4 " 2 ' ' 27 

3 • " 3 " 36 

2 " 4 ' ' 27 

'' 5 " 3 

o " 6 ' ' 2 



That is, we should draw 6 white balls twice out of each hundred draws, etc. 
These numbers can be quite accurately determined by 1,000 draws, if the urn 
contain several hundred balls * 



*These numbers represent the successive terms of the expanded binomial (J^ plus .J^)6 where the sum 
of the terms is taken as 100, and where the exponent represents the number of balls drawn at once. 



40 KANSAi CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

In order to represent these chances to the eye, divide the horizontal line 
of Fig. I into six equal parts, laying off at right angles to it, and at the points of 
division, the vertical lines whose lengths are proportional to the number of draws 
for the various cases. The fact that the continuous curve passed through the 
extremities of these vertical lines, is symmetric on each side of the middle, means 
that white balls and black balls stand an equal chance of being drawn. If the 
black balls were less in number or were smaller, and had a tendency to sink to 
the bottom, then the curve would be unsymmetric, the probabiUty being in favor 
of the white balls.* 

We come now to the application of what we have here learned. 

If any dimension — for instance the length of an iron rod — be measured with 
the greatest attainable accuracy, the successive measurements will, in general, all 
disagree. Taking a great many such measurements, all differing from each other, 
which shall we adopt as the true value ? We may assume that all the observations 
are made with equal care ; one can have no preference over another. The fact 
that they all disagree, and that the tendency to disagree increases with the deli- 
cacy of the determination, is sufficient to show that no one observation can be 
adopted as the true value; and further, that it is impossible for us ever to deter- 
mine the true value. The best that we can do is to take the mean of all determi- 
nations. To this mean we give greater or less weight, according as the separate 
determination more or less nearly approximates to the mean. 

In order to illustrate this point we may take the 470 determinations of the 
right ascension of the star Sirius, as made by the astronomer Bradley. In the 
following table d represents the difference between the observation and the mean 
of all observations (in tenths of a second) ; n represents the number of times the 
respective differences were found to occur. 

The positive and negative distances are thrown together without regard to 
sign : 

d. n. 

I 94 

2 88 

3 78 

4 58 

5 51 

6 36 

7 26 

8 14 

9 10 

10 7 

II and over . . 8 

/. e., out of 470 observations, 94 showed differences of less than i-io second, 88 
fell between i-io and 2-10, etc. As was to have been expected, the greater 

*ln this case the terms of the binomial would be no longer equal. 



CHOICE AND CHANCE. 41 

"errors" are met less frequently than the smaller ones. The results are repre- 
sented in Fig. 2 of the plate where the values (d) are laid off on the horizontal 
Hne and estimated from the point marked zero (o). 

The line o 2 represents a certain positive "error," and the distance from 2 
to the curve represents the number of times it is met in 100 observations. 02m 
in the opposite direction represents an equal negative "error," while the vertical 
line at the point 2 represents its frequency. It can here be observed how the 
frequency diminishes, as the magnitude of the error increases, until finally the 
curve intersects the base line, indicating that larger "errors" do not occur.* 

The law expressing the divergence of these values from the mean is the same 
as that which expresses the probability in drawing balls from an urn containing an 
equal number of white and black balls. 

In the case supposed, the differences are due to imperfections in the instru- 
ments and in the observer, to unknown variations in temperature, etc. 

Let us consider another case, which will perhaps aid us in gaining a clear idea 
of the subject. Let us suppose that we have a rifle mounted like a swivel-gun, so 
that it can turn only in a horizontal plane. In the same plane let a thin, hard board 
be placed with its edge turned toward the gun If we fire at a certain point in the 
edge of the board, a sufficient number of times, we should cut into the board a 
gap which would be bounded by a curve precisely like the one before given. In 
case of a good marksman, the gap would be narrow and deep. (Fig. 3.) With 
an equal number of shots a very bad marksman would cut out a wide and shallow 
curve, while if all kinds of people were allowed to try their skill, we should get the 
curve of average human marksmanship. The errors of the former case are here re- 
presented by deviations from the mark, small deviations being most common. It 
might be said that these deviations are caused by chance. They are in fact the 
result of unknown but purely mechanical causes, such as gusts of wind, irregularities 
of the balls, fouling of the gun, or deviations caused by puUing the trigger. Chance 
is neither a thing nor a cause; it is simply a name to cover over ignorance of the 
real causes ; it is a matter of experience, that a great number of simultaneously 
acting and constantly varying causes, affect the result in such a regular way that 
we can predict in a statistical way, the frequency of different errors or deviations. 
When these causes are unknown, we say that it is a matter of chance. 

A curve of this kind would at once exhibit the success of any person in 
shooting at a mark, and it seems probable that the success with which we accom- 
plish any other thing involving a great number of acts, would be represented by 
a similar curve. 

We have a large class of people in this world who aim to be as good as other 
people. Some of them resemble the good marksman. Their deeds all lie very 
close to the mark. They are never very good and never very bad ; but always 
"indifferent honest." Others are Hke wild shooters. If we could grade their 
acts, we should find some decidedly bad, others far above the average of good. 

»As the mean value is not the true value, it is not strictly correct to call these differences " errors." 



42 



KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



iiess, while a greater number would be ranked about average. The shallow curve 
of the bad marksman is suggested. The two cases are, however, not exactly 
alike, for a good shot is one which lies nearest to the mark, while the virtue of an 
act is judged by a higher standard than the supposed mark. Hence the marksman 
would always aim at the mark, while the man who wishes to be as good as other 
people, usually tries to make sure of having enough of good deeds by putting in 
a few extra good ones toward the last — that is, he changes his aim somewhat in 
order to polish up his curve into satisfactory shape. 

That this same law of probability applies to the distribution of mental ability 
in a mass of people is well known. Comparatively few people are brilliant and 
comparatively few are stupid (the opportunities being supposed equal). The great 
majority of people rank near the average. Among others. Professor Hinrichs has 
investigated this subject, by a comparison of class markings at the State Univer- 
sity of Iowa. The results here given are from the markings of the Freshman class 
' in Physics. 

The results are obtained by combining independent markings for recita- 
tion, notes on lectures, and laboratory work, as determined by three differ- 
ent instructors. The greatest pains were taken to secure just markings, the valu- 
ations being repeated several times. The best students were marked loo, and 
below 65 was counted a failure 

In the following table the numbers are grouped in fives, 90 per cent, including 
88 to 92, inclusive, etc. 

The total number of students in the class was 287, and the results agree as 
closely with the theoretical values as would those obtained by making 287 draws 
from an urn containing black and white balls in equal number : 





Standing 


100 
13 

4-5 


96 


90 


84 


78 


72 


66 


60 


Total. 






Number of Students 


53 


57 


80 


45 


24 
8.4 


12 


3 


287 






No. per TOO .... 


18.5 


19.9 


28.0 


15-7 


4.2 


I.O 


100 





This shows that the chances that the standing of a student will fall in the 
group marked 84, is 80-287 or 28-100, or a little less than one-third. This is the 
grade of the average student, and here the greater number are ranked. For higher 
or lower markings, the number of students is less, the fewest numbers being at 
the extremes of excellence. It will be observed that in this case the numbers are 
not quite the same for grades equally removed from 80 per cent., the probability 
being somewhat in favor of the higher markings. This might possibly be differ, 
ent if a greater number of cases were examined. It is also to be remembered that 
such students are a selected class of society, and if all of the young people of a 
state were to be thus examined, the grade would probably be somewhat lower, 
and the numbers would perhaps show a more symmetrical arrangement. 

We have previously discussed the mental divergence of men from the norma 
or average man. As might be expected, the same law holds in regard to physi- 
cal dimensions, as was first shown by Quetelet. 



CHOICE AND CHANCE. • 43 

For any given nation at any given time, there is a certain typical or average 
man, whose dimensions could be obtained by taking the average dimensions of 
all the men of the nation. Mr. Galton has even shown us how to obtain his pho- 
tograph.* This is done by taking photographs of a large number of men, mak- 
ing the photographs of the proper size relatively, and taken in similar positions, 
although no great exactness is necessary. 

Each photograph is then exposed to the camera in such a way that all the 
faces are re-photographed successively on a common plate. The best method of 
doing this, is to pin the first photograph to a block which can be set up in front 
of the camera. Its position there is fixed by nails driven into the base board, so 
that the block may be removed andreplaced in exactly the same position. In 
order that the next picture may be exposed in the same way, an ivory or wooden 
scale, with a beveled edge, is placed with its edge tangent to the iris of the eyes, 
and with any division of the scale bisecting the nose. The position of the ruler 
is then fixed by guide nails or pins, driven into the block. This enables each 
photograph to be placed in the same position on the block, and the block to be 
always placed in the same position before the camera. 

Each portrait is then exposed for a few seconds to the same plate, so that 
when it is finally developed a generalized picture is obtained. 

It is not a portrait of any one person ; it represents a type, in which those 
points which are common, are emphasized, and the purely individual peculiari- 
ties are almost wholly suppressed. The greater the number of component pic- 
tures the more truly will the resulting composite picture represent a type. We 
present here a composite picture from three criminals. It is from a wood cut in 
Mr. Galton's paper. As Mr. Galton remarks, " the villainous irregularities of 
the originals have, disappeared, and the common humanity that underlies them 
has prevailed. This picture represents then, not so much the criminal, as the 
man who is liable to commit crime." [Portraits of nine members of the univer- 
sity faculty were also shown, together with the results obtained, by combining 
them in various groups.] It is evident that this work of Mr. Galton is an im- 
mense step in the study of race characteristics, and as has been suggested by him, 
it will be of immense service to art in enabling artists to study various types of 
beauty. 

These portraits are shown here to aid you in forming a definite idea of what 
is meant by an average or typical man. 

If, however, we wish to get the dimensions of the average man, we must re- 
sort to physical measurements. In this way it was determined that the height of 
the American soldier is 68 inches ; his chest measurement is 35 inches, etc. 
These determinations were derived from the measurements of 26,000 soldiers of 
the Union army. The greater number of the men approximate the mean height, 
the number taller and shorter diminishing with great regularity to the dwarfs of 
5 feet, and the giants of 6 feet 4 inches. 

*Nature, Vol. 13, p. 95. 



44 



KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



The number of persons in each looo, of the various intermediate heights, is 
given in the following table :* 



H 


60 


61 

I 


62 


(^l 


64 

48 


65 

75 


117 


67 
134 


68 

157 


N 


I 


2 


20 




















69 


70 


71 

80 


72 

57 


73 
26 


74 
13 


75 
5 


76 




140 


121 


2 





The numbers here are the same as we should get in the various chances in 
drawing 30 balls from an urn, containing an equal number of white and black. 

The curve (See Fig, 4) representing the above observations, is the same as 
that which might be made by a marksman in shooting at a mark. If we were to 
determine the heights of all the men in a nation for each year of life, we should 
get a very interesting series of curves. Take all male children of one year of 
age ; they differ comparatively little in height, or in mental power. They aU 
approximate closely to the average. If we were to calculate the divergence from 
the average for 1000 cases, we should get a curve resembling the curve of an ac- 
curate marksman. It would be deep and narrow. Examining children of 
greater ages, say 10 years, we should find that they have begun to diverge from 
each other. Circumstances have arrested the development of some, and have 
caused others to surpass the average. In 1000 cases we shall therefore have a 
less number of persons of average dimensions. 

The curve for this case would be like that formed by a poor marksman, the 
curve becoming more and more shallow, as we come to higher ages. 

If we could grade the various members of society according to their opinions 
upon any subject which agitates the whole of society, we should find some such 
distribution as the one just examined. We should find two extreme parties, (cor- 
responding to the dwarfs and giants of the previous case) comparatively few in 
numbers, but active, resolute, aggressive. Between, we have the great mass of 
respectable society, interested in other things, and giving little real thought to the 
matter ; anxious to hold proper views, and therefore holding average views as the 
safest ; pulled upon by the opposing workers, and yielding slowly to the resultant 
force, and thus, by reason of its immense mass, securing comparative stability and 
order against the rough jostlings of the more active, but less ponderous extremes. 

According to the investigations of Horstman, Hinrichs and others, the 
velocity of chemical reactions in time, is represented by this law. It has been 
proved theoretically in some cases, and experiment has confirmed the conclusion. 

If we throw small fragments of zinc into sulphuric acid, we get an evolution 
of hydrogen gas. At first the velocity of evolution is very small; it increases, 
however, and finally reaches a maximum. Thereafter the velocity diminishes 

*Quetelet — Anthopoimetrie, p. 252. 



CHOICE AND CHANCE. 45 

until it finally ceases. Fig. 5 represents an actual experiment. The time in min- 
utes is laid off on the horizontal line, while the velocity of evolution of the gas at 
various moments is represented by the distances from the base line to the curve. 
Hinrichs has shown from the experiments of Guldberg and Wage, that the proba- 
bility curve represents this case very closely. Operations based upon heat con- 
form more closely to this law, as there all the particles have a more equal chance 
of being acted upon — an essential condition. In society there are manifold oper- 
ations which closely resemble this. Almost every year society is agitated by some 
idea, which at first interests very few people, but the interest gradually grows, 
and apparently with considerable regularity, reaching finally a culminating point, 
and then gradually dying out. The base-ball and blue-glass fever and the zig-zag 
puzzle may be mentioned as cases of this kind, and other cases will readily suggest 
themselves. Movements in society which are properly classed as reforms, usually 
make slow progress at first. The case is, however, advocated by a few tireless 
■enthusiasts, like Wm. Lloyd Garrison, and after dragging along for years, the 
matter suddenly makes rapid progress, and is abruptly settled. 

In other movements of less momen, tlike the adoption of some fashion in 
dress, the matter makes great headway at first, rapidly receiving the assent and 
adoption of the great mass of people, a few laggards bringing up the rear. 

These cases, which are symmetrically related to each other, would be repre- 
sented by the chances in drawing balls from ^ urn containing unequal numbers 
of white and black balls. 

Another well-known case lies at the base of all life insurance. We can pre- 
dict with great confidence how many persons out of 1000 who are 10, 20, 30 or 
.40 years of age will live through the next year. This case is so well known, that 
we will discuss a somewhat more interesting one, which has been investigated by 
Dr. Granville. I refer to the probability of marriage. Dr. Granville determined 
in some manner the age at which 876 English women were married. The 
values thus determined are given in the following table, where the number marry- 
ing at the various ages from 13 to 40 is given : 



Age. 


1 13 1 14 1 15 1 16 1 


17 1 18 1 19 1 20 1 21 1 22 1 23 1 


24 1 


25 


:no. 


1 3 1 II 1 16 1 43 1 


45 1 76 1 115 1 118 1 86 1 85 1 59 1 


53 1 


36 




Age. 


1 26 1 27 1 28 1 29 1 30 


1 31 1 32 1 33 1 34 1 35 1 36 1 37 1 38 1 39 


1 40 


. . 


No. 


1 24 1 28 1 22 1 17 1 9 1 


1 7 1 5 1 7 1 5 1 2 1 1 2 i 1 I 


1 


. • 



From such values, extended to a greater number of cases, we might easily 
deduce the probability of marriage at various ages. In this table, those who do 
not marry at all, are not included. These facts are represented in Fig. 6 of the 
plate. 

This operation reminds us very strongly of the chemical re-action. The 
hydrogen is liberated, at first slowly, the velocity increasing for a time, and grad- 
ually diminishing to zero. If we consider the velocity of marriage, the same 



46 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

general relation exists. Starting with looo young ladies at 13 years of age, 
three of the young ladies marry during this year. The velocity of marriage 
increases until during the 19th year the number is 131, the maximum velocity of 
134 per year being reached at 20. Half of them are now married, and from this 
time these interesting creatures drop off much less rapidly. At the age of 30, 
only 10 out of 1000 marry, while at the age of 40, the chances for a yfr^/ marriage 
are practically gone. Those who have had previous experiences of this kind might 
perhaps manage to make some arrangement even then. 

It will be observed that the chances do not diminish symmetrically on oppo- 
site sides of the maximum. In the operation of drawing balls, this would be rep- 
resented by the case where the number of white balls was say greater than the 
number of black, making the probabilities less in drawing black. 

We are thus able to calculate how many times out of 100 draws we shall 
draw all white balls from an urn, but we cannot predict what will be the result of 
any particular draw. We can predict how many times in 100 measurements a 
person will make an error of a thousandth of an inch, but we cannot predict what 
the error will be in any particular case. We can predict how many shots a 
certain marksman will put into a circle two inches in diameter, but we cannot 
predict where any one shot will strike. In a class of sufficient dimensions we may 
be able to predict how many will have mental ability enough to reach a mark of 
90 per cent. , but we cannot discuss the infinite number of subtile influences that 
have been acting on any one person, giving to each its proper weight ; we cannot 
repeat the same thing for his ancestors, tracing back from him through the centu- 
ries the numberless divergent threads of inherited tendencies, and thus give a 
complete reason for the ability and inclination to learn, which any given student 
manifests. We cannot tell why any person varies an inch in heigtit from the 
average of his kind ; nor can we give a complete reason for similar divergencies 
in moral stature. Quetelet has shown that we can predict how many men will 
commit murder or suicide in Paris during a year, but we cannot discuss the matter 
in such a way as to enable us to predict who the unfortunates will be, at what 
moment they will decide to commit the fatal act, and exactly what they severally 
lacked, mentally or physically, the possession of which would have changed their 
decision. 

But we can imagine a being, who shall be mentally able to do all this; to 
give a complete solution of any problem that the human mind can propose. The 
causes for the breaking down of a railroad bridge can be given by a competent 
engineer, and he may be able to detect the weak points in the theory of its con- 
struction : he may be able to guard in part against flaws in the material. In the 
same way, and in a much more perfect manner, an infinite mind could discuss the 
breaking down of a human resolution, under the strain of temptation, and could 
give a precise reason for the physical, mental, or moral divergence of any given 
man, from the average man. 



CHOICE AND CHANCE. 47 

The equations involved in this discussion must be sufficiently comprehensive 
to include the surroundings of each man, as well as the man himself. The decis 
ion a man will reach, by reason of all influences brought to bear on him, 
depends upon the man, and upon the intensity of the influence, just as the inter- 
action between two planets depends upon both of the acting bodies. That is to 
say, in the equations there will appear certain constants the values of which will 
differ with different men, just as in building a bridge, the values of certain con- 
stants in the formulae depend upon the kind of material used. In thp former 
case the value of these constants will be determined by the previous experiences 
of the man upon his inherited ability, tendencies, etc. We recognize all this in 
the popular saying, that different men under the same influences act differently, 
just as different beams of wood under a given tension^ would act differently. Some 
would safely carry a load under which others would break down at once. The 
values of these constants may change for the same man, as when experience in 
any emergency causes him to resolve to do differently next time. 

Our equations must then enable an infinite mind to trace out, in such a man- 
ner that they could be predicted, all such events in the life history of a man as 
these : On a certain day and hour he will decide to take a pleasure walk, influ- 
enced by motives which we need not consider. Passing near the river bank, he 
sees a fellow-man struggling in the water. At once various mental forces are 
brought into action. He has, during his whole life, found pleasure in deeds 
of benevolence. For this trait in his character there is an adequate cause, but 
we need not consider it. His first impulse is to rush in and save the drowning 
man. The fact that he is an expert swimmer tends to influence him in the same 
direction. But he also knows that his lungs are in feeble condition, and, more- 
over, he is overheated by vigorous walking, he is far from help, and the water 
and air are cold. The drowning man is strong, and thoroughly frightened. The 
events press for an immediate decision, and this may also have its influence in 
determining what the final decision will be. Some of us think- that a higher power 
may also influence him in some way. All these influences, brought to bear on 
this man's mind, resemble a system of parallel and. opposing forces acting upon a 
particle of matter, only, the relative magnitude of these forces will be different, for 
different men. As in the one case there will be a certain resultant, in the direction 
of which the mass will move, so in the other case, there will be a resultant — a decis- 
ion, which will bring about a corresponding line of action. For a time, his judg- 
ment may hold him in equilibrium, as previous experience causes him to act with 
prudence. The discovery that the drowning man is his son, would probably 
determine his decision at once, and the discovery of a rope upon the bank, would 
attach upon his mind another intensely acting force. During his moments of sus- 
pense, the intensity of these forces would be constantly varying, as one after 
another consideration presents itself for the moment prominently in his mind. 
The infinite mind, fully learned in mathematics and mental philosophy, could 
predict at what moment the man would decide to rush in, and by continuing the 



48 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

calculation, might find that as a result, his respiration and circulation would be 
affected in a certain way, a large secretion would form in his lungs, and that at a 
certain moment, in a fit of coughing, it is calculated that a certain point in one of 
the large blood vessels would be strained a few grains more than it would be able 
to endure, resulting in its rupture. 

In the region over which we have now been traveling, all questions of prob- 
ability have vanished. Everything has become certain. In a world full of such 
minds, many kinds of business — as life insurance — could not be carried on, as 
the individual risks would be perfectly known. 

Our reasoning is all based on the assumption, that all events, whether in the 
world of matter or of mind, are preceded by events which may be taken as 
direct and adequate causes. Even when a man willfully decides to do an unwise 
and an unreasonable thing, there is a cause for it, and the existence of the effect 
is of itself sufficient evidence of the sufficiency of the cause. That is, there must 
be some reason why a man decides against reason. A rule whicji seems to be 
quite general i'', that in any given case (so far as reasonable motives enter into 
consideration) we decide to do that which we then think will give us on the whole 
most pleasure or least pain, often deciding, however, to give up a greater pleas- 
ure, to be enjoyed only in the future, for a lesser one, to be enjoyed immediately, 
precisely as we sometimes allow a note to be discounted, in order that we may 
realize upon it at once. The actions may in many cases be unaccompanied with 
any elaborate reasoning, and may be without special reference to consequences, 
as when in consequence of previous reasoning of himself, or his ancestors, a man 
may form the habit of doing certain things. In such cases the action seems to be 
largely automatic. A man's ideas of pleasure may be very low and vulgar, he 
may possess very poor judgment, and foolishly discount his happiness for too high 
a per cent., and the question arises then, why is he so? We cannot answer, ex- 
cept in general terms. He has inherited certain peculiarities, certain tendencies. 
He may have been placed in surroundings not favorable to mental and moral 
growth, and one of these inherited peculiarities may be the lack of a desire to cul. 
tivate his finer feelings, just as others may evince a lack of desire to cultivate 
mathematics, or music, or chemistry. Even when placed under the most 
favorable auspices, the mathematician, the musician, the chemist or the moralist, 
fail to arouse in him the least sign of appreciation. The lack of appreciation is 
fatal to success in mathematics ; why should it not be equally fatal in morals ? 
Precisely what it is that such men lack, whether it be merely a matter of nerve 
tissue, or whether something infinitely deeper is involved, is a problem, the com- 
plete solution of which is merely a matter of ability. 

The fact that our most earnest thinkers on such subjects come to such widely 
different conclusions, makes it probable that we are all incapable of dealing with 
the subject in any exact manner. Whatever we may think of ourselves, and our 
reasonings, we are probably all one-sided, and take altogether narrow and incom- 
plete views of the subject. 



CHOICE AND CHANCE. 49 

The difficulty of reaching precise results is increased by the impossibiUty of 
our making precise measurements of the influences about which we are talking. 

A person of rather limited information, who might happen to observe that 
his butcher is sending him less and less beef for a quarter of a dollar, and who 
might incidentally learn that the earth's mass is being constantly increased by the 
fall of meteoric matter upon its surface, might possibly argue that this apparent 
rise in beef is due to the fact that it requires less beef to pull the index of the 
spring-balance down to the one pound mark. The reasoning is perfectly correct, 
but when we come to measure the intensity of the influence it is found entirely in- 
significant. Such a person would need to learn that there are many other potent 
influences that affect the price of beef. 

So in the difficult subjects which we have been discussing. 

There may be secret springs in the human mechanism of which we are all 
wholly ignorant, and we may attach undue importance to many influences. 
However this may be, it seems to me possible to imagine beings of a higher order 
of intelligence, having perfect knowledge of men physically, mentally, morally 
and spiritually, and capable of predicting all our future surroundings, and all oar 
future decisions. Of course this has nothing whatever to do with the nature of 
mental or spiritual operations. We may agree that they are as unlike " merely 
mechanical " operations as we please. The infinite Being, particularly if He be 
assumed to b% a Creator, can trace out the future of a man with much gieater 
precision than a "mere" manufacturer can trace out the future of a watch. Al- 
though the latter may be able to predict approximately what his watch will do, if 
properly treated, he cannot know how it will be treated. With infinitely greater 
precision an infinite mind could trace out the totally different class of phenomena, 
known as spiritual and mental operations. He would know that at a certain mo- 
ment some one of us will be surrounded with peculiar dangers and temptation ; 
he would know whether the man will be able to deliver himself without external 
aid, (from either a human or a superhuman source) and he would know whether 
or not this aid will be given, and the precise effect which it will produce. If 
there are beings who know the future orbits of men, as astromomers know approx- 
irhately the future orbits of planets, the question at once arises, in what sense are 
men free to decide, as distinguished from the freedom of a planet to move ? If 
any being knows absolutely that an event will happen, seeing clearly all of the 
acting causes, is there a single possibility that it may not happen ? Would not its 
failure to happen be taken as proof positive that there was no such knowledge as 
was assumed ? 

It is of course possible for me to decide to do a thing, and to decide not to 
■do it, but it is not possbile to do these things simultaneously. They must come 
successively, and each decision would be determined by the mental forces before 
discussed. Each decision could be predicted. One of these forces might arise 
from a desire to avoid the conclusions which here seem to force themselves upon 
«s, and lead to an attempt to exert the mind in a purely arbitrary manner. 

IV— 4 



50 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

This view of the matter is from the standpoint of perfect knowledge. From 
our standpoint we can only observe that men differ from each other in height, in 
weight, in mental or physical strength, in moral worth, and that they appear to 
group themselves in a definite way about the average man. 

If we now attempt to grade men according to the wisdom which they exhibit 
in their choices, we should find comparatively few people exhibiting the highest 
forms of wisdom ; the representatives of extreme foolishness would probably be 
more numerous. Between these extremes we should have all possible grades, in 
which the mass of society would be represented. It is hardly probable that the 
resulting curve would be symmetric. The greater chances wotild probably be in 
favor^ of foolishness, corresponding in the drawing of balls from an urn, to the 
case where the number of white balls is greater or less than the number of black. 
That is, from the human standpoint, the wisdom of human choice, in the aggre- 
gate, appears to be a matter of chance, in the same sense in which it is a matter 
of chance where shots will strike a target. 

From the higher standpoint of perfect knowledge no element of chance can 
enter. Each choice, whether wise or foolish, whether the reasoning which has 
led to it be logical or not, is determined by perfectly definite causes, admitting of 
precise mathematical discussion. 

In what wl,y can we then justify the enforcement of law ? The stability of 
society is here involved. Society has the right to protect itself against attack, 
and the greatest good to the greatest number demands that this right be exercised. 

Some of us act as missionaries in elevating the aims and tastes of less fortu- 
nate men, in placing before them motives for a better life, because, all things con- 
sidered, we prefer to do so. Many of us admire fine paintings, grand music, and 
generous, self-sacrificing deeds. This will ensure their perpetuation. 

Those who, as a result of pre-existing causes, find themselves in the possess- 
ion of a high appreciation of all that is pure and noble, will strive, more or less 
wisely, to surround others with influences which will draw (or push) them towards 
a higher life. A being sufficiently wise and powerful might at once solve our 
problem by at once removing all tendency to evil. Society must, however, settle 
the matter by a slower process — the process of education of head and heart — a 
process necessarily slow, and accomplished with infinite pain. 

Even in so small a matter as the preparation of our food we have reached 
our present knowledge by painful degrees. Our rules for cooking, yet imperfect, 
have been reached through centuries of experiment, and at the expense of a count- 
less number of sour stomachs and aching heads. So it has ever been in morals. 
Here we are all doubtless blundering experimenters, but we are gradually learning 
that some things are better than others, and the tendency is, slowly but irresisti- , 
bly, toward a morality which is not only practiced but appreciated. In the mean- 
time criminal law is the rude and only partially effective means for repressing 
those evil spirits, upon whom better influences have not chanced to act sufficiently. 



\ CHOICE AND CHANCE. 51 

If we add sulphuric acid to zinc the hydrogen does not all pass off at once ; 
the process which follows requires titne for its completion. So it is with the good 
leaven in society. The individuals are not all changed at once; those who chance 
to be most favorably situated are first changed. The whole process requires time, 
and in the meantime, urged on by our necessities, we have taken the responsibility 
of hanging some individuals, just as we kill obnoxious wolves and bears. So 
that for the present, notwithstanding all our efforts to better the condition of the 
poor, a large number of them will never have the opportunity to learn the instincts 
of gentlemen, and their senses will remain so blunted that they will not be able to 
realize, as we can realize, the utter wretchedness of their situation — a situation 
into which they are born, and from which, experience shows, the greater part of 
them cannot escape, even when they chance to possess the desire to escape. The 
misery of their condition is made yet deeper by the successful struggles of stronger 
and better men after their ideals of happiness. 

It is difficult to see how an all-wise and an all-powerful Creator could have 
been the author of so much misery. But the other hypothesis that there has 
.been no creation, that the universe is but the sporting-ground of irresponsible 
force, and that finite intelligence has been self-evolved from inanimate matter, 
seems equally incredible. In whatever way we view the matter this difficulty 
seems to me logically insurmountable, and I do not wonder that in the great poem 
of Milton, he describes the fallen spirits as deeply engaged in a hopeless contro- 
versy upon 

" Fixed fate, free-will foreknowledge absolute, 
And found no end, in wandering mazes lost." 

—Book II. (560-561.) 

Happily for the business of life the irrepressible love and admiration of 
humanity for the pure and good saves rational men from practical error, or from 
rebelling against the eternal law, in which science and faith agree that although 
time and chance happen to all, yet that whatsoever a man soweth that shall he 
also reap; and in this fact that we believe that we shall be held responsible, the 
feehng of responsibility appears to find, at once, its explanation and its justification. 



An insect which produces a species of India rubber has been recently dis- 
covered in the district of Yucatan, Central America, by an American explorer. 
It is called neeti, and belongs to the Coccus family ; feeds on the mango tree, 
and swarms in these regions. It is of considerable size, yellowish brown in 
color, and emits a peculiar oily odor. The body of the insect contains a large 
proportion of grease which is highly prized by the natives for applying to the 
skin, on account of its medicinal properties. When exposed to a great heat the 
lighter oils of the grease volatilize, leaving a tough wax, which resembles shellac, 
and may be used for making varnish or lacquer. When burned, this wax, it is 
said, produces a thick semi-fluid mass, like a solution of India rubber. 



52 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



METEOROLOGY. 



THE TORNADOES OF APRIL i8, 1880. 

BY PROF. J. D. PARKER, KANSAS CITY. 

Again the state of Missouri has been visited by a devastating tornado, which 
occurred April i8th, and again the phenomena and calamities of St. Charles in 
1877 and Richmond in 1878 have been repeated. We observe sudden high tem- 
perature and low barometer, intense electrical activity and displays of enormous 
atmospheric force, with heavy loss of life and destruction of property. The 
aerial disturbance seems to have been very general over the western portion of 
the continent, from the Ohio valley to the Pacific coast and from the Lakes to 
the Gulf, but,- so far as can be now ascertained, the most direct and well-marked 
line of destructive force extended from the Indian Territory, near the Arkansas 
River, northeastwardly, by way of Fort Smith and Fayetteville, Arkansas, 
Springfield, Marshfield, Russellville, Jefferson City, New Bloomfield, and Fulton, 
Mo., toward and to Jacksonville, Ills. Whether the other disturbances were from 
independent causes, or were offshoots of the same storm, is uncertain. 

Besides the destruction of property and Joss of hundreds of lives on this line 
at Marshfield, which is the county seat of Webster county, 215 miles southwest of 
St. Louis, on a plateau of the Ozark Mountains, though not particularly exposed by 
its elevation, great damage was done at Fayetteville, Arkansas, (though by an 
error, probably, the tornado is reported to have struck Marshfield and other 
points north and east of it several hours before it reached Fayetteville) ; also at 
Oak Bower, Ark., near the line between Arkansas and the Indian Territory, New 
Bloomfield, etc., all of which has been fully detailed by the daily papers. 

On the same day, but in the morning, a fierce storm was raging in Kansas, 
the velocity of the wind at Lawrence reaching 80 miles an hour, the greatest ever 
recorded there. At Leavenworth the U. S. signal officer recorded 60 miles an 
hour, while at all neighboring points the fury of the storm was almost unprece. 
dented. The barometer at the U. S. signal station at Leavenworth marked the 
greatest depression ever noted there, viz.: 29.04, corrected to sea level. The 
amount of sheet or "heat" lightning was so great in the western sky that many 
of the people of Leavenworth thought that Lawrence was on fire. 

At this city the storm of Sunday morning was light compared with that of the 
evening, though throughout the whole day there was an alternation of wind, hail 
and rain storms, culminating in a gale at night which did some damage to roofs 
and fences. The maximum temperature was 82° and the minimum depression of 
the barometer 29.20. 



THE TORNADOES OF APRIL i8, 1880. 53 

It is almost impossible to indicate the paths of these storms from the data at 
hand, but the Signal service charts and reports, when fully made up, will doubtless 
give to the meteorologists some very remarkable information and suggestions. 

The early appearance of tornadoes this year in this latitude seems to be 
exceptional. The equatorial wave of high temperature appears to have drawn 
them forward nearly a month. Tornadoes will occur whenever the conditions 
are supplied, and will of course appear earlier with premature heat. 

I wish simply to call attention to the fact that the Marshfield tornado con- 
forms as far as known to the physical laws as explained by the thermal theory.. 
Prof. Tice, who holds to another theory, in his report of the tornado, says : 

'■'■ Everywhere along the track of the tornado there is evidence of a wave of 
water flowing in the rear of the cloud spots. At some places there are only faint 
traces of such a wave; at others the debris is carried up and over obstructions 
of from two to three feet high. These waves or currents flowed in greatest volume 
up hill. There are places where the entire top soil is washed away by the cur- 
rents. Fibrous roots and tufts of grass show their direction to have been up hill, 
and what is significant, from all points of the compass to the top of the hill where 
the tornado was raging at the time and expending its force. No trace can be 
found at any point where they flowed down hill. Many level places are swept 
clean of soil. Leaves, grass and debris of the wrecked buildings, fragments of 
plants carried along by the current and left in its track had arranged themselves 
longitudinally to the current." 

This reported wave is evidently only the great condensation of vapor rushing 
from all directions into the core of the tornado. 

Colonel R. T. Van Horn, in discussing the fact that tornadoes follow the 
isothermals, says : 

" The cause is the meeting of two waves of air at different temperatures^ and 
where should that meeting be more marked or the effects produced of as great 
intensity, as on the line that marks the mean between the two conditions? If 
there is a general law that governs in their origin and formation, there must be 
one that controls in their movements. And we have traced enough of them on 
the isothermal maps to be satisfied of the fact that their movement does corre- 
spond to these lines of mean temperature." 1 

If tornadoes follow the lines of mean temperature must there not be some vital 
relation between them and heat ? This is what is claimed by the thermal theory. 

Electricity seems inadequate as the cause of the tornado or for the produc- 
tion of the fundamental movements. Why does electricity revolve the tornado 
north of the equator in the direction contrary to the hands of a watch, and south 
of the equator in an opposite direction ? Why does electricity cause tornadoes 
to move along the hnes of the isothermals northeasterly? Why do not some 
of them, even if only for variety, move in an opposite direction ? True, light 
substances under a charged receiver will be attracted toward it to restore the 
equilibrium. But will electricity, as in a tornado in Georgia, carry up a tree, 



54 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

sixty feet in length and two and a half feet in diameter, half a mile high, and 
then fling it out of the tornado to come crashing to the earth ? Why did the tree 
ascend in a spiral path ? And in the Camanche tornado of i860, why did a man, 
and two horses in a reversed position, sail around on the opposite sides of a cir- 
cle? Can electricity under its known laws produce such results ? Possibly some 
one may yet discover a spiral kind of electricity, and show that zigzag lightning 
is only the transverse section of spiral electricity blazoned on the sky. 

Forests present the most efficient safeguards against tornadoes. As long as 
cyclones can sweep unobstructed over our prairies we shall see the sudden 
destruction of villages and cities and the terrible loss of life and property. But 
forest countries present such obstacles to the translation of tornadoes on the sur- 
face that when one touches the earth it is soon driven into the upper air where it 
passes off comparatively harmless. Tornadoes are one of Nature's voices telling 
us in unmistakable tones to plant forests. Indeed abundant forests would free us 
from destructive winds, drouth and locusts, our three most serious physical evils. 
With abundant forests, inhabited by an enlightened people observing the moral 
law, our prairie world would become almost a paradise. 



SCIENTIFIC MISCELLANY. 



A NATURALIST'S RAMBLES ABOUT KANSAS CITY. 

NO. I. 

WM. H. R. LYKINS. 

For the lover of Nature in all her forms there are few better localities for a 
ramble than the hills around our city. The botanist, the entomologist and the 
geologist can here find much to interest them, and add many good and not a few 
rare specimens to their several collections. And for the fortunate possessor of a 
good microscope there is a never-ending fund of instruction and arriusement in the 
thousand forms of fresh water infusoria inhabiting the many mossy springs oozing 
out on the hill-sides. The Diatomacise are especially abundant, encrusting the 
rocks with their peculiar brown hue in places where the water streams over the 
chffs. As we stand upon the top of the bluff fronting westward and look down 
at our feet Ave find the rocks strewn with fossil shells ; and we can easily imagine 
the time when this was a wave washed shore and the vast expanse spread out 
before us was a region of shallow seas dotted with reefs and islets; once the 
homes of myriads of Mollusca, from the tiny Cythere, no bigger than a pin's 
head, to the great coiled and chambered shell of the Nautilus, thirty inches in 
diameter, whose fossilized remains go to make up these rocks. In these waters 
also roamed a great shark, the Petalodus destructor, doubtless the terror of these 



A NATURALIST'S RAMBLES ABOUT KANSAS CITY. 55 

seas, whose sharp triangular teeth we occasionally find here, being all that is left 
of their cartilaginous bodies. 

Descending the hill, we come to the base of a cliff thirty feet in height. The 
rock is solid and close-grained, barren of fossils except here and there a crinoid 
stem or stray shell of an Athyris, showing that it was formed in a still, quiet sea 
too deep for animal Hfe, and we pause to think how many thousands of years it 
took to form this one bed, if it is true, as geologists suppose, that these rocks 
were formed by the slow deposition of sediment washed from the ancient shores, 
settling down at the rate of a few inches in a century. Yet this one bed is no 
more in the carboniferous formation alone than a single leaf in Webster's Great 
Unabridged, compared with the whole volume. This cUff rests upon another bed 
of limestone formed under different conditions. It is an impure shaly Umestone, 
bedded in irregular wave-like layers,, showing that it was deposited in a shallow, 
muddy sea under the influence of a strong current. It has but few fossils except 
in the upper part, where there are many of the lace-like skeletons of a species of 
coral {Fenestella). And so each stratum of rock or shale tells its own history to 
the experienced eye of the geologist as he passes along. 

Next below this is a bed of shale about fifteen feet in thickness. It is entirely 
destitute of fossils except a thin seam about two inches in thickness near the cen- 
ter, which is one mass of the stems and plates of crinoids (stone lilies) and other 
fossils peculiar to the carboniferous. Here, under favorable conditions, an anima\ 
life suddenly sprang into existence, grew and flourished for a while, and as sudden, 
ly perished. This place has yielded many beautiful fossils to the collector, crinoids, 
Edmondia, Euomphalos, Heniipronites, Bellerophon percarinafa, &c., all in a fine 
state of preservation. Here was found an almost perfect specimen of the head of 
Zeacrinus Mucrospinus, a crinoid, and the only perfect one ever found anyvi^here, 
so far as we know. In a little pool of water at the bottom of this bed of shale we 
found our first Rotifer Vulgaris, or wheel animalcule, after having long sought for 
it in vain in other localities. Marvelous tales have been told of the tenacity of 
life in this little animal, especially by the Abbe Fontana, who wrote a celebrated 
work on the Poison of the Viper. It was claimed that it could be boiled, baked 
and dried for an indefinite time, and then resuscitated with a drop of water. The 
savants fought long and bitterly with their accustomed acrimony and tenacity 
over this question, and finally left off where they began, neither side being con- 
vinced. All that we ever found perished on the slide as suddenly as any of their 
species, when deprived of moisture. They are, however, a most beautiful and 
wonderful object under the microscope at all times, and well worth the trouble it 
sometimes takes to find them. Their brilliant and crystalline structure allows the 
inspection of their inner formation, and they will kindly feed on indigo, vermilion 
or any other coloring matter and make curious and interesting spectacles of them- 
selves. Often they can be found in almost any puddle of water, and again we 
may hunt a whole season for them and not find one — at least such has been our 
experience. 



56 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

A little farther' down we come upon a clump of Asclepia tuberosa, their scarlet 
blossoms blazing like torches set upon the hill-side. The root of this plant is much 
sought after by old-fashioned country doctors, who consider it a "powerful rem- 
edy" for coughs, colds and diseases of the lungs. It has many common names^ 
such as Canada root, white root, pleurisy root, &c. It is naturally an inhabitant 
of the prairies, but is often found growing in the woods, the only difference being in 
the stalks, which here rise more tall and slender owing to the more confined space 
in which they grow. The root is essentially the same. Many plants which grow 
almost exclusively on the prairies are found in the open places on the west side of 
these hills, such as the prairie sunflower and compass plant. The seeds, no doubt, 
having been brought by the prevailing west winds, lodge here and flourish, con- 
tented exiles from their native homes. There is often an interesting mixture of 
wild and cultivated plants, the latter being probably from stray seed from the old 
gardens of the early French settlers. 

At the foot of a little ledge of rocks we find a pile of the dismembered limbs 
. of the red-legge*d grasshopper (that bandit from Colorado, famous for its ravages 
in Kansas), which looks curiously like the remains of a miniature cannibal feast. 
We have not far to go to find the Ogre ; he is at home in his cave, or crevice in 
the rock, a great bloated, black spider, so gorged with the juices of his victims 
that he can scarcely move, and we easily transfer him to a bottle and send him 
on a long journey to a scientific gentleman in Massachusetts. These warm, sunny 
slopes are favorite places for spiders, and collectors of the arachnidae can find 
many different species. There is also found here a most gorgeous beetle, whose 
name we do not know. It is about half an inch in length, of a slender shape, 
beautifully striped in green and gold, with purple legs. It is not plentiful, but 
can occasionally be found in bare sandy places, running about in the warm sun- 
shine. 

One of the most interesting stratum of rocks in our hills is the Oolite, a 
granular limestone formed of small round grains, having the appearance of petri- 
fied fish roe, and takes its name from Oon, a Greek word for egg. It is a fine 
building stone, easily dressed, and was much used in early times in our city. In 
places it yields beautiful fossils, especially a large Fleurotomaria, a coiled conicaj 
shell. Its striated surface, of a rich chestnut brown, having the appearance of 
being newly varnished, wiU vie in beauty with many a recent shell fresh from the 
sea-shore, and make a collector's eyes turn green with envy. The fish remains 
found in our rocks are principally teeth, of many species, in excellent condition. 
The bed, however, which has afforded the greatest variety of fossils to our col - 
lectors is found at the extreme foot of the hills. Its upper part is a layer of shale, 
passing into a black, flinty stone, which rests upon a fine-grained, dark gray lime- 
stone. In many places this layer of shale is one mass of fern-leaves, of several 
species, but principally a species of Fecopteris. In other places the jointed stems of 
an aquatic plant of the rush family, takes the place of the ferns. A curious and 
interesting object is the fossil shells of several species of animals, which lived on 



INFLUENCE OF ELECTRIC LIGHT UPON VEGETATION. 57 

these water plants, still adhering to the stems. This bed from top to bottom is 
the richest field for the collector, and has furnished our cabinets with many splen- 
did specimens of Nautilus, Orthoceras, Goniatiles, Euoniphalos, Allorisma, Pinna, 
Phillipsia — in fact, nearly everything that is usually found in the Upper Carbonif- 
erous of Missouri. It is particularly rich in Nautili, and some of the cabinets in 
our city contain magnificent specimens of a half a dozen different varieties, some 
not described or figured by any of our Paleontologists. In the different collections 
made in this city are to be found many fossils from our hills not named or de- 
scribed in any of the State Reports or books on this subject, and we believe it 
would well repay some good Paleontologist, like the late Prof. Meek, to visit this 
city and examine the fossils of this locality. 

We have arrived at the foot of the hill, but have glanced at ouly a few of the 
many objects of interest to be found as we strayed alou^. But, alas, these pleas- 
ant "rambles" are fast disappearing under the "building hand of man." Soon 
stately piles of brick and marble and busy streets will cover the places where we 
once held pleasant converse with nature, studied the pages of her book and pried, 
into her secrets, and those who have a love for such things should improve the 
present opportunity to enjoy that most healthful and instructive of recreations — a 
ramble on the hills. 

{^To be Continued.) 



THE CURIOUS INFLUENCE OF ELECTRIC LIGHT UPON 
VEGETATION. 

At the meeting of the Royal Society last evening (March 4th) Dr. C. W. Sie- 
mens, F. R. S. , gave a detailed description of some experiments upon the above 
subject which have been conducted during the last two months at his house at 
Sherwood, and exhibited specimens. The method pursued was to plant quick- 
growing seeds and plants, such as mustard, carrots, swedes, beans, cucumbers, 
and melons, in pots, and these pots were divided into four groups, one of which 
was kept entirely in the dark, one was exposed to the electric Hght only, one to 
the influence of daylight only, and one to dayhght and electric light in succession. 
The electric light was applied for six hours each evening — from 5 to 11 — and the 
plants were then left in darkness during the remainder of the night. The general 
result was that the plants kept entirely in the dark soon died ; those exposed to 
electric hght only or to daylight only throve about equally ; and those exposed to 
both day and electric Hght throve far better than either, the specimens of mustard 
and of carrots exhibited to the society showing this difference in a very remarka- 
ble way. 

Dr. Siemens only considers himself as yet on the threshold of the investiga- 
tion, but thinks the experiments already made are sufficient to justify the following 
conclusions : i. That electric light is efficacious in producing chlorophyl in the 



58 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

leaves of plants and in promoting growth. 2. That an electric center of light 
equal to 1,400 candles placed at a distance of two meters from growing plants 
appeared to be equal in effect to average daylight at this season of the year; but 
that more economical effects can be obtained by more powerful light centers. 3. 
That the carbonic acid and nitrogenous compounds generated in diminutive quan- 
tities in the electric arc produce no sensible deleterious effects upon plants inclosed 
in the same space. 4. That plants do not appear to require a period of rest dur- 
ing the twenty-four hours of the day, but make increased and vigorous progress if 
subjected during daytime to sunlight and during the night to electric light. 5. 
That the radiation of heat from powerful electric'arcs can be made available to 
counteract the effect of night frost, and is likely to promote the setting and ripen- 
ing of fruit in the open air. 6. That while under the influence of electric Hght 
plants can sustain increased stove heat without collapsing, a circumstance favora- 
ble to forcing by electric light. 7. That the expense of electric horticulture 
depends mainly upon the cost of mechanical energy, and is very moderate where 
natural sources of such energy, such as waterfalls, can be made available. 

Before concluding his observations. Dr. Siemens placed a pot of budding 
tulips in the full brightness of an electric lamp in the meeting-room, and in about 
forty minutes the buds had expanded into full bloom. 



THE SECOND HOWGATE EXPEDITION. 

Captain Howgate's bill having passed the House, active preparations are being 
made for the start of the expedition, which is fixed for the 15th of May. The 
Gulnare, a steamer of about 200 tons, is lying at Alexandria, Va., being strength- 
ened and thoroughly refitted for the voyage under the experienced direction of 
Captain Chester. It is expected that the vessel will be ready in a fortnight. She 
will start from Washington, fully manned and equipped, with two years' supplies. 
The members of the expedition number about twenty-five, including a corps of 
scientific observers. Touching at various points on the coasts of Labrador and 
Greenland, the expedition will proceed to the west coast of Smith's Sound at lati- 
tude 81 degrees and 40 minutes, where the first permanent depot will be made. 
Landing the men and supplies, the vessel will return in the fall. The general 
features of Captain Howgate's plan of operations are too well known to require 
explanation. He proposes to reach the Pole, if possible, by a system of slow but 
continuous advances, made during several successive seasons, pushing his camps 
farther and farther northward as rapidly as may be found practicable, establishing 
a secure basis of supplies and replacing men, who may become disabled or dis- 
heartened, with fresh recruits each year. Though this necessarily involves a large 
outlay of means and may perhaps cost some sacrifice of life, it will prove in the 
event of success the least expensive and most humane method of accomplishing 
the result. To lay siege to the desired goal in this systematic and persistent man- 



WATERSPOUTS OFF KAUAI. 59 

ner is to put a stop to the desultory and ineffectual attempts thus far made by the 
several nations which have so earnestly striven to carry off the prize. The Captain 
finds no difficulty in securing men to undertake the enterprise ; his funds are 
ample, and he is sanguine of the success which he certainly deserves after so 
many years of constant effort. 

The Hon. J. R. McPherson, chairman of the Senate Committee on Naval 
affairs and Hon. W. C. Whitthorne, chairman of the House Committee on Naval 
affairs are entitled to the thanks of all friends of science and exploration through- 
out the world for their persistent and successful advocacy of this measure. — [Ed. 



■ WATER-SPOUTS OFF KAUAI. 

On Monday, the pth of March, there was a fine exhibition of water-spouts 
off the eastern coast of Kauai. When first seen just after light in the morning 
there were two in company. They were tall, straight and symmetrical, and as 
alike as two peas, extending like pillars from the ocean to the sharply-defined 
lower edge of a black cloud, from which was precipitated at quite a distance in 
the rear of the water-spouts a heavy shower of rain. To the rear again of the 
shower there was at frequent intervals seen the quick flash of electricity as it 
leaped from the cloud to the briny abyss. The whole procession was passing 
majestically toward the south, some ten miles out to sea, in a direction nearly 
parallel with the coast. One peculiarity which added to the interest of the spec- 
tacle was the slow revolution of one of the water-spouts around its mate, describ- 
ing an orbit perhaps two thousand feet, or even more, in diameter. After a time 
the two water-spouts faded away and disappeared, and presently after a lapse of 
several minutes a third one was seen to be forming. The whirling base of mist 
on the sea and a descending cone of cloud appeared simultaneously, and soon 
became connected and developed into a perfect column. — Haivaiian Gazette. 



MOSAICULTURE. 

M. Chretian (writes our Lyons contemporary) has this year given us in the 
Pare de la Tete d'Or, some pretty examples of what he terms " mosaiculture," in 
the shape of beds containing mottoes and devices set out with colored foliage 
plants. Our Scottish neighbors seem to have carried the idea farther, with an eye 
to business as well as ornament. On a hillside not far from Glasgow may be read 
the words Glasgow News in gigantic letters, each forty feet long and six feet 
broad, formed of colored foliage plants. This inscription occupies a length of one 
hundred yards, and covers a space just 1,450 times the size of the Journal it ad- 
vertises. — Garden. 



60 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



OBITUARY. 



SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF PROF. W. K. KEDZIE. 

Prof. William K. Kedzie, who was known to many of our readers as former 
Professor of Chemistry at the Kansas Agricultural College, and who will be re- 
membered by hundreds of the citizens of this city as having delivered a memora- 
ble address at the Commencement Exercises of the Kansas City College of Physi" 
cians and Surgeons in 1877, died* at Lansing, Michigan, of typhoid fever, on the 
14th of April. He was skilled, in his profession, an excellent teacher, a ready and 
perspicuous writer, and a fluent and attractive pubhc speaker. In addition to 
these qualifications, few men possessed finer social qualities. We condense the 
following items from the Industrialist : 

He was born at Kalamazoo, Michigan, July 5th, 1851. He graduated from 
the Michigan State Agricultural College at the age of 19, and at once entered 
upon his duties as assistant to his father, the esteemed Professor of Chemistry in 
the same Institution. The two winters succeeding his graduation were spent at 
Yale College, in study, under Profs. Johnson and Brush, who testified to his great 
skill in manipulation and proficiency in his favorite branch — chemistry. 

In the summer of 1873, Prof. Kedzie received a call to the chair of Chemis- 
try and Physics, in the Kansas State Agricultural College. Commencing with 
an almost entire absence of the most ordinary essentials in imparting chemical 
knowledge — without a course of study, without a lecture-room, and without stu- 
dents even — he succeeded within three years in making chemistry the most 
attractive study taught in the Institution, and his department, in point of equip- 
ment and laboratory conveniences, superior to anything of the kind in the West. 

In January, 1874, Professor Kedzie was elected chemist to the State Board 
of Agriculture, and at once he commenced and carried through a vast amount of 
work in the line of chemical analysis. All the principal sorts of Kansas soils, 
minerals, grains, and even fungi, were subjected by him to rigid chemical exami- 
nation, and the results have been accounted among the most valuable in the 
records of our State B ard. 

In the summer of 1875, the Professor spent four months in Europe, during 
which time he made a careful examination of the principal laboratories of the 
Continent and England. The ideas there obtained he was enabled, the following 
year, to embody in the magnificent laboratory of the Kansas Agricultural College. 
In July, 1876, he was united in marriage to Miss Ella Gale, of Manhattan, who 
is left with two small children to mourn his loss. In 1878 he received an urgent 
call to the chair of Chemistry and Physiology, in Oberlin, Ohio, of which his 
uncle was president, which he finally accepted, and entered upon the duties of 



SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF PROF. W. K. KEDZIE. 61 

his new position at the beginning of the college year. His success in that 
institution was fully commensurate with his ability, and the assiduity with which 
he pursued his studies doubtless led to the disease of whch he died. 

Major Hudson, editor of the Capital, says of him : 

No young man ever came to Kansas who made more or warmer friends than 
Prof. Kedzie. Old and young prized his friendship, and admired his briUiant 
scholarly attainments. It was our privilege to know him well and to honor his 
many manly traits of character. He was a pure, honorable man in his daily 
walk, not offensively prudish, but one of the cleanest minded men we have ever 
known. His idea of honor was chivalric, and his decease is a loss not only to his 
native state of Michigan, and to his many friends in other states, but to science. 

The Lansing (Michigan) Republican speaks thus of him : 

"During his whole life Prof. Kedzie has been an untiring worker, and although 
not enjoying good, health, has accomplished very much. Even before he gradu. 
ated, he made a fine collection of birds and birds' eggs which he donated to the 
college museum. He was the principal originator of the Natural History Society 
of the Michigan Agricultural College and has done much to make the Society 
prosperous." 

His loss is a calamity not only to his friends, but to his Alma Mater and to 
the college with which he was connected. His chief published writings, so far as 
we can ascertain, were a work on the Geology of Kansas, and a number of Scien- 
tific articles contributed to the Kansas Academy of Science and preserved in its 
annual reports. 

His- character was most exemplary in every respect, and his life one to be 
emulated by all young men. 



BOOK NOTICES. 



Eyesight— Good AND Bad. By Robert Brudenell Carter, F.R.G.S. Philadel- 
phia, 1880; Presley Blakiston ; $1.50. 

This is a comprehensive popular treatise on the exercise and preservation of 
vision, with numerous illustrations, and is well calculated to educate the public in 
regard to the construction of the eyes in health, their changes and defects in dis- 
ease or old age, and the manner of caring for them in infancy and childhood, as 
well as in later life. The chapters upon Natural and Artificial Illumination and 
upon Practical hints on Spectacles are especially valuable to those persons who 
are compelled to use their eyes constantly in writing or vpon fine work, and are 
full of useful information to all. 

The author is Ophthalmic Surgeon to St. George's Hospital, London, and 
has had a vast field of experience in the treatment of diseased and defective eyes, 
and this little work bears evidence of his entire familiarity with his subject. 



62 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

The Spell-Bound Fiddler. By Kristofer Janson. i2mo., pp. i6i; S. C. 

Griggs & Co., Chicago, 1880; $1.00. 

For the past year or two this enterprising firm has been publishing, princi- 
pally under the editorship of Professor Rasmus B. Anderson, of the University of 
Wisconsin, a series of books illustrating the literature of the Norse-Land. Among 
these have been put forth in handsome style The Norse Mythology, The Viking 
Tales of the North, Echoes from Mist-Land, The Younger Edda, &c. 

The Spell-Bound Fiddler is a tale by Kristofer Janson, relating in narrative 
form the events of the life of the wonderful musician of Norway, Torgeir Au- 
dunson, and evidently intended as an effort to break down the puritanism of the 
country, which fosters a prejudice against all other than church music and pre- 
sents an obstacle to the progress of the Orphic art among that gifted people. 

The introduction, by Prof. Anderson, contains among other interesting facts, 
some passages in the life of Ole Bull not hitherto published. 



Sea Air and Sea Bathing. By John H. Packard, M. D. i2mo., pp. 121 j 

Presley Blakiston, Phila. , 1880; 50c. 

With felicitous appropriateness Health Primer number XI, bearing the above 
title, makes its appearance, containing just the proper directions upon sea bath- 
ing, sea-side resorts, accidents in bathing, sea bathing for invalids, amusements at 
the sea-shore, cottage life at the sea-shore, sanitary matters, the sea-shore as a 
winter resort, excursions to the sea-shore, &c. With the mercury in the eighties, 
as during last week here, such a book will be sought for with avidity and read 
with profit by all who contemplate summering at the sea-side. 



A Series of Questions in English and American Literature. By Mary F. 

Hendrick. i2mo., pp. 76; Davis, Bardeen & Co., Syracuse, N. Y., 1880; 

35c- 

The writer of this little work is Teacher of Reading and English Literature 
in the State Normal and Training School, Cortland, N. Y., and necessarily brings 
to the task a large experience. Her object is to present to her pupils the subject 
of literature in connection with prominent historical epochs and to suggest, by a 
series of questions, noted authors of each and their best known works ; and the 
volume closes with a list of reference books and a course of reading embracing 
only the most prominent and standard authors. 

Such a book properly studied cannot fail to be of great value to such readers. 



BOOK NOTICES. 63 

Realities of Irish Life. By W. Steuart Trench. Boston, Roberts Brothers, 

1880; i2mo., pp. 297; $1.00. 

The object of the author seems to be to give a clear and truthful account of 
the occurrences which violent party spirit or local prejudices have placed before 
the pubhc distorted, and also to give to the EngHsh public, in particular, some 
idea of the difficulties in the way of progress or improvement in Ireland, as well 
as to show that in spite of these difficulties such progress and improvement are 
really practicable. The author writes from the vantage ground of long experience 
among the people he describes, and his stories bear the marks of truthfulnes and 
candor. 

Among the titles of chapters or tales may be given The Ribbon Code, The 
Potato Rot, The Revival, The School, The Battle of Magheracloon, &c. 



Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis. Volume IV, No. i ; 

Octavo, pp. 190; R. P. Studley & Co., St. Louis, 1880; $2.00. 

We are indebted to Professor Nipher for the above-named work, which con- 
tains two Reports by himself of his Magnetic Observations and Determinations in 
Missouri ; a very interesting article by Judge Nathaniel Holmes, upon The Geo- 
logical and Geographical Distribution of the Human Race ; one by Dr. G. Seyf. 
farth, upon Egyptian Theology, which displays a great familiarity with the lan- 
guage and the history of Ancient Egypt ; a very practical paper upon The 
Improvement of Western Rivers, by C. M'. Scott ; besides several others worthy 
of our future perusal. 

This Academy is of long standing and has done much good work, especially 
that of Dr. Engelman and Profs. Nipher and Wadsworth in Meteorology and 
Physics. 



OTHER PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 

The Report of the Board of Trade of Golden, Colorado, for 1879 ^^'d 1880 • 
Learning and Health, by Benjamin Ward Richardson; Davis, Bardeen & Co., 
Syracuse, N. Y., 150 ; "Egyptian Antiquities" found in America, Prof. F. W. 
Putnam; College Libraries as Aids to Instruction, U. S. Bureau of Education, 
No. I, 1880 ; The Effects of Civilization on the Climate and Rain Supply of Kan- 
sas, by H. R. Hilton, Topeka, Kansas; Report on the Interests and Condition 
of Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, by W. G. Elliot, President, 
March, 1880; Report of the State Engineer of California, 1880. 



64 



KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



The regular meeting of the Academy of Sci- 
ence was held at its rooms on Tuesday eve" 
ning, April 27th. A paper upon the Theory 
of Probabilities, considered from a mathemat- 
ical standpoint, was read by Professor J. M- 
Greenwood, which was followed by one from 
V. W. Coddington, Esq., upon the Construc- 
tion of School Houses. Both papers were 
interesting and comprehensive, and received 
the close attention of the audience. They 
will probably appear in these columns within 
a short time. 



On May 21st Rev. Dr. S. S. Laws, Presi- 
dent of the University of Missouri, and one of 
the best thinkers and speakers of the West, 
will deliver the seventh lecture of the Extra 
Winter Course before the Kansas City Acade- 
my of Science, upon the fruitful subject of 
"The Categories of Kant." 

This subject was proposed by the Kant 
Club of this city, and all who desire to hear 
this difficult metaphysical topic discussed in 
a popular, yet comprehensive and learned 
manner should by all means be present. Dr. 
Laws possesses in an unusual degree the 
power of popularizing and enlivening an ab- 
struse su,bject, and no one need apprehend a 
heavy or prosy discourse on this occasion. 
No charge for admittance. 



Mrs. Mary F. Mudge, widow of the late 
esteemed Professor B. F. Mudge, offers to 
place at our disposal, for publication in the 
Review, portions of an unfinished work upon 
which he was engaged at the time of his 
death, several chapters of which we published 
last year. 

Aside from the associations connected with 
them, these articles have the merit of accu- 
racy, soundness, vigor and attractiveness 
of style, and they are in large proportion the 
result of personal investigation. 



Prof. H. S. Pritchett, who furnishes an 
article for this number of the Review, has 
recently resigned the position of Assistant 
Astronomer at the U. S. Naval Observatory 
to take permanent charge of the Morrison 
Observatory at Glasgow, Missouri, in connec- 
tion with his father, the well-known Professor 
C. W. Pritchett. Such an accession to the 
astronomical observers of our state tends to 
place it in the foreground in this branch of 
science at least. 



A CARD. 

The fourth volume of the Kansas City Re- 
view of Science and Industry commences with 
this number. My time is so fully occupied 
with my official duties that I find it impossi- 
ble to call upon my friends in person, and 
take this means of asking them to patronize 
it. 

I may say, without boasting, that the Re- 
view has met with a very flattering reception 
as the exponent of the scientific and literary 
culture of the West, but as it is not yet on a 
paying basis, I am 'compelled to ask addi- 
tional aid in maintaining it as a home enter- 
prise, creditable to the community and worthy 
of a generous support. To those who take 
no special interest in scientific subjects it is 
suggested that the articles on Domestic Econ- 
omy and Hygiene alone are worth more than 
the subscription price, while those who desire 
to subscribe for any of the magazines of the 
country or purchase any kind of miscellane- ■ 
ous or scientific books, can save enough on 
one or two such transactions, made through 
my agency, to pay for the Review one year. 

Sample copies of this number will be sent to 
some persons who are not subscribers, in the 
hope that they will become such. Any re- 
ceiving it who feel that they cannot subscribe 
will please return it by the carrier. 

Theo. S. Case, 

Editor. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



65 



Dr. G. F. Needham, Washington, D. C, 
sends us his Pamphlet (third edition), "Fig 
Culture at the North," in which he seems to 
show conclusively, that the people of the 
Middle and Northern States, by using the 
proper means, can grow figs of as good qual- 
ity, and in abundance,at the North, as at the 
South, that is, as fine as the imported. 



We have received of Dr. A. L. Child, of 
Plattsmouth, Nebraska, a copy of an elabo- 
rate report upon the Progress of the Seasons, 
Rainfall, Meteorology, &c., of that portion of 
the state, consisting of observations made and 
recorded by himself. 



Rev, S. B. Bell, of this city, has recently 
commenced the publication of a religious 
newspaper called \\i^ Mid- Continent Presbyte- 
rian^ into which he has introduced the novel 
feature of printing the communications of 
skeptics, infidels, and atheists, for reply. It 
is a liberal move and one which, if managed 
prudently and skillfully, will be productive 
of good. Dr. Bell is an earnest and zealous 
worker, and we wish him a full measure of 
success. 



Captain Howgate is having built at 
Washington a house, with double walls, win- 
dows and roof, for the use of the men to be 
colonized in the Arctic Regions. It is de- 
scribed as "a long one- story building that 
looks like a large livery stable, with a shed- 
like addendum at each gabled end. When 
finished it is to be taken to pieces, conveyed 
aboard ship and re-constructed when the 
home of the polar bear is reached."' 



The cranium of Descartes is often adduced 
as an exception to the general rule that a 
great mind requires a large brain. This state- 
ment seems to have rested on no exacfr meas- 
urement, and Dr, de Bon resolved to test its 
accuracy. The result is that he finds the 
cubic capacity of Descartes' skull to be 1,700 
centimeters, or 150 centimeters above the 
mean of Parisian skulls of the present time. 



It is now ascertained that nearly two hun- 
dred years ago a Mr. Benjamin Allen discov- 
ered and reported to the Royal Society of 
England that eggs had been found by him in 
eels, a fact supposed to have been shown only 
within the past year. 



The Quarterly Report of the Kansas State 
Board of Agriculture for the first quarter of 
1880 is filled with the most useful statistics 
relative to industries, taxes, values, popula- 
tion, condition of crops, farm animals, mete- 
orology, &c., and shows that in their choice 
of Major'Hudson,as successor to Alfred Gray, 
for Secretary, the action of the Board was re 
markably well taken. 



It is impossible for us to thank ecch maga- 
zine and newspaper separately for kind, en- 
couraging worcs spoken in regard to the 
Review, so we tender them our thanks en 
masse, and hope to reciprocate on all fitting 
occasions. 



At the Ministers' Convention, held here 
last week. Rev. A. C. Williams, of Lincoln, 
Nebraska, read an essay entitled, Do the 
Revealments of Science Contradict the Re- 
vealments of the Bible? and Rev. C. C. Kim- 
ball, of this city, one upon The Influence of 
Modern Science upon Belief in Miracles, 
which latter was followed by one upon the 
same subject by Rev. R. M. Tunnell, of Wy- 
andotte. These papers were ably written, 
and we hope to present them to our readers 
soon. Several other papers, more strictly 
clerical in their character, were read by other 
ministers. 



The Boston Journal of Commtrce, which is 
one of our best commercial exchanges, com- 
menced its fifteenth volume in April. It is 
edited by Thomas Fray, Jun., under whose 
management it is rapidly gaining popularity 
as a reliable price current, an authority on 
mines and stocks, and a gazette of manufac- 
turing progress and business intelligence. 



66 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



Prof. C. W. Pritchett of the Morrsion 
Observatory, at Glasgow, informs us by letter, 
that he has completed the telegraphic con- 
nection between that institution and our Union 
depot, and is now in readiness to commence 
sending the time signals' mentioned in the 
Revinv some months since. 



The investigation by Prof. Barker and other 
experts, of Edison's method of producing and 
maintaining the electric light at Menlo Park, 
does not seem to have settled the question in 
his favor, as, notwithstanging the favorable 
report, several of our best known electricians 
still insist that there is nothing new in his 
experiments, and that the electric light can- 
not be made practically and economically 
successful from his standpoint. In this con- 
nection, it is quite significant that in the 
competitive test in London of electric lights, 
the palm was awarded to the patent of 
Brush, of Cleveland, Ohio, and the British 
Government has given an order to the Cleve- 
land Telegraph Supply Company for over 
^30,000 worth of apparatus, including twen- 
ty-four of the largest machines and four hun- 
dred and twenty-four lamps. 

Judge E. P. West has just returned from a 
trip to Marion county, Kansas, where he has 
been exploring some pre-historic mounds and 
burial places. He brings some very striking 



relics, and his report, which will be published 
in the June Review^ will be read by archaeolo- 
gists with decided interest. 



The American Naturalist says that Pierre 
Lorillard of New York is reported to be prepar- 
ing to defray the expenses of an exploration 
and spoliation of the ruins of Mexico and Cen- 
tral America for the benefit and enrichment 
of some institution in Paris, under the name 
of the Musee Lorillard. Does not such for- 
eign spoliation come within the purview of 
Monroe doctrine ? 



The Vega, escorted by a large fleet of steam- 
ers, arrived at Stockholm April 25th. The 
city and adjacent coasts for many miles were 
splendidly illuminated. Prof. Nordenskjold 
proceeded to the Castle, where they were 
welcomed by the King and vociferously 
cheered by the people. 



Rev, Washington Gladden, who has 
hitherto had sole charge of the departments, 
Editor's Table and Literature, in Good Com- 
pany, has relinquished his connection with 
the magazine, all of which will now be under 
the supervision of Edward F. Merriam, who 
has had exclusive management of the Con- 
tributor's department. This arrangement 
begins with Number Eight. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

It seems to have become altogether a fixed thing for T. M. James & Sons, to 
put their latest importations of rich China and Queensware goods and artistic 
novehies on exhibition at the opening of each week and upon arrival of new- 
invoices, and the frequency of such receipts affords our citizens many oppor- 
tunities to examine choice handiwork from abroad and emanating from the most 
celebrated patterns and embellished by the hands of eminent artists. To-day 
may be seen in the show windows of T, M. James & Sons a late importation of 
admirable quaUties, and splendid display of hand painted vases of Ionic and 
Grecian shape's and decorated in the most pleasing manner in landscapes, sport- 
ing scenes and classic groups. These goods are very seasonable and their price 
is very low, considering their elegance, and will repay a close inspection and 
ought to find a place in a great number of households in our city and suburbs, 
Messrs. James & Sons are still in almost daily receipt of rich Chinaware elegant 
Glassware and a great variety of other goods requisite in their large trade. A 
visit to this great importing house is time profitably spent both in pleasure and 
economy of prices. 



k^ns^^lS city 

Review of Science and Industry, 

A MONTHLY RECORD OF PROGRESS IN 

SCIENCE, MECHANIC ARTS AND LITERATURE. 
VOL IV. JUNE, 1880. NO. 2. 

ASTRONOMY. 



THE SUN AND PHENOMENA OF ITS SURFACE. 

BY WM. DAWSON, SPICELAND, IND. 

I have no doubt that the sun contributes much more to all the comforts and 
happiness that we enjoy in life than people generally think. It is very large and 
very distant. Our earth is a great body, and to travel round it — 25,000 miles — 
is a long journey. And yet this, more than three times 8,000 miles, is only one- 
ninth of the distance to the moon. Now if the sun were a hollow sphere and 
the earth placed in its center, the moon might be at its present distance from the 
earth and still be but slightly more than half way from the sun's center to its sur- 
face. 

The diameter of this vast source of light and heat is given at 860,000 miles, 
and its distance at about 92,000,000. 

Presuming that readers of the Review already have a general knowledge of 
the spots on the sun, from an article on this subject in the Number for May, 
1879, I will now briefly recite the more important solar phenomena as presented 
in my six-feet telescope during last year ; and then allude to the causes of sun 
spots, and other matters with which they are supposed to be connected. 

During 1879, I observed the sun about every clear day the year through; 
generally using a magnifying power of 100, furnished with a reflecting prism 
which admits the full aperture of the object-glass, 4y^^ inches. This arrangement 
gives a more interesting view of the varied phenomena of the solar surface than 
the direct view with a common eye-piece, which requires a cap or diaphragm over 
the object-glass to prevent too much light and heat entering through the object- 

IV-5 



68 KANSAS C/Ti REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

ive. The reflecting prism is a piece of glass of such form as to allow a great 
portion of the sun's light to pass entirely through and out of the telescope, and 
still reflect enough to form a good image, and give a fine view of the solar sur- 
face. Examined in this way when the air is very clear and calm, (which, though, 
is rather seldom, even when no clouds are visible,) the disk presents a delicate 
mottled or granular appearance as though there existed many thousands of fine 
freckles all over the fair face of the sun. Sometimes, indeed, it seems rather 
difficult to distinguish between the largest of these minute forms and the least of 
the solar spots. Besides these freckles I sometimes notice a very white curdled 
or brain-like appearance — possibly masses of "rice grains," etc. — to be described 
further on. 

In January two spots were observed in the fore part of the month ; and I 
saw only two others — on the 30th; from which we may infer that the sun was 
nearly clear of spots all the month. I saw none in February till the 14th, 
when a small group appeared, and vanished in a few days. Except a small spot 
March 14th, no more were seen till the nth of April, when a group of five little 
spots and bright faculae appeared at the eastern edge of the sun. Next day the 
group contained sixteen spots. On the 13th . nine. In one part of the group, 
several little spots had united into one, which was surrounded by bright penum- 
bra. By the i6th a group of twenty-five spots had formed, seven of which were 
large. On 20th they were mostly gone — only one remaining. It was near 5,000 
miles in diameter, and could be seen with a small spy-glass. It grew smaller, 
and disappeared at the western edge of the sun on the 23d. On 24th no spots, 
but the mottled appearance was very prominent — like innnmerable little specks 
over the sun's face. No more spots this month. May 6th, bright facula at east 
edge. Next day a group of spots appeared there. On 8th and 9th, about a 
dozen were seen — one of them pretty large. By 13th the group had dwindled 
to one little spot. No more till June 4th, and very few till 27th, when a group 
of fourteen spots was visible, and in three days it numbered thirty-seven. It 
fell off to one by July 5th. In six days a group of twenty had formed. On 13th 
one of them was near 8,000 miles in diameter — nearly large enough to be seen 
without a telescope. It was surrounded with a wide penumbra. On 14th the 
sky was uncommonly clear and fine, and the general surface of the sun appeared 
of a whitish, curdled, or brain-like appearance. By 18th the cluster had vanished. 

It may be noted that the ordinary black spots never, or but very seldom, 
appear near \kit poles of the sun; but now one or two white spots were visible in 
the region of the north pole. On 26th the mottled and fine brain-like appear- 
ance were very prominent. August 9th, several white spots were seen at inter- 
vals all round the sun's margin. 

It will be understood that these white spots are entirely different from the 
common sun spots, which are always black or nearly so. Quite a showing of 
solar spots occurred on the 8th to 14th of August. On 12th a large group broke 
out near the west edge and soon disappeared. Another spot show occurred in 



THE SUN AND PHENOMENA OF ITS SURFACE. 69 

the last of August. Between 8 o'clock of 28th and the same hour of 29th, a 
very large spot broke up and formed three smaller ones. In three or four dajs 
after this wreck in the sun, a great rain fell in our country. Very few spots in 
September. But a large cluster was very prominent from October 7th to nth. 
In a few days other spots broke out in different places, making a speckled ap- 
pearance on the sun's face. About the 21st they had all disappeared, leaving 
the sun clear for two weeks, and nearly so for three weeks. Toward the middle 
of November a large group formed and passed over the western side of the sun. 
A few small spots on several days in December closed the exhibition for 1879. A 
show of fifty-five spots in three groups occurred in the middle of January, 1880 ; 
and since that time but few days have passed without spots being present on the 
sun. So it is evident that they are now on the increase. And I am not sure 
but that it is more rapid than it was in the early part of the period which com- 
menced in 1867. I consider that the minimum this time occurred in the early 
part of 1879; making the period twelve years long. 

About eleven years is the average length of several former periods from one 
minimum to the next. The extremes are about ten and thirteen years. 

Greater activity seems to prevail during the first half of the period than 
during the last half, so that the maximum, or greatest show of spots, occurs 
about two years before the middle of the period. But I am satisfied from my 
own observations that the maximum of the last period was near three years be- 
fore the middle, particularly as regards the number. However, spots of large 
size continued two or three years after their number began to grow less. 

In attempting to explain the freckly or mottled appearance, I would offer 
the one theory of its being the interstices of the darker or gray portion of the 
sun's surface in which a very large telescope, furnished with a polarizing eye- 
piece, shows "hundreds of thousands of small intensely brilliant bodies, that 
seem to be floating in the gray medium, which, though itself no doubt very 
bright, appears dark by comparison. What these little things are, is still uncer- 
tain ; whatever they are, they are the immediate principal source of the sun's 
light and heat." They bear a certain resemblance to rice grains of different 
size and shape. Although these litde bodies appear quite small when they are 
magnified even many hundred times, yet they are really hundreds of miles in ex- 
tent. It is believed that these little fiery bodies collect in dense masses and form 
the cloud-hke faculae which often appear near the edge of the sun, and are apt to 
precede the formation of large spots, though not in every case. These faculae 
are often so large and prominent as to be visible through a telescope of ij^ or 2 
inches aperture. Huyghens said of them near two centuries ago, that they seem 
to be "something in the sun brighter than the sun itself." 

It is now a settled belief among those who have given the subject most at- 
tention, that iron, magnesium, and other metals exist in the sun, and particularly 
in the region of the spots ; though not in the solid state in which we know them, 
nor even in the melted or liquid condition, but in the form of gas, or vapor — 



70 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

the result of most intense heat. Great masses, or clouds of vapor charged with 
these gases exhibit the most fitful and ever-changing forms which it is possible for 
us to conceive. Realize if you can, the effects of one of our most violent hur- 
ricane storms in which the wind travels two or two-and-a-half miles in a minute, 
and smashes the largest buildings and trees it meets. Then picture in the 
mind a raging storm as much more violent than the hurricane as the hurricane 
exceeds a gentle breeze, and you may approach a faint idea of the wonderful 
commotion that sometimes pervades the surface of the sun. 

When a mountain mass many hundred miles in extent, or a vast whirlpool 
of equal area, is actually seen to form and then scatter and disappear in less 
than one hour, we have strong proof of the great activity just alluded to. Moun- 
tain forms of burning hydrogen make up the rose colored prominences which 
nearly always exist along the edges of the sun. Before the invention 
of the spectroscope, these " red flames" were seen only during total eclipses of 
the sun. But now, this wonderful instrument shows them any time when they 
are large enough to be seen. 

A solar outburst of much interest was observed by Prof. C. A. Young, of 
Dartmouth College, in 187 1, September 7th. On that occasion he saw what 
seemed to be tongues or filaments of burning hydrogen shoot up from a great 
prominence whose height was already 100,000 miles, to an elevation of 200,000 
jjiileg — having made the hundred thousand miles in ten minutes — ^^denoting a 
velocity of 167 miles per second. 

I understand the Professor, as well as R. A. Proctor, of England, to entertain 
the idea that the internal forces of the sun are sufficient to, and possibly do, eject 
solid matter from the sun's interior never to return; and that "it is by no means im- 
possible that some of the specimens of meteoric iron in our cabinets are really 
pieces of the sun." Whether or not this theory is tenable, there is no want of 
evidence that most astonishing forces do exist in the sun. 

The general theory of sun spots, as I understand it, is, that amid the mighty 
rush of torrent vapors great rents or openings are made in the photosphere 
(outer visible surface of the sun) extending deep in the sun's interior; and that 
a spot is simply a black and vacant space — the "central darkness " of a solar 
whirlpool. In regard to the cause of solar spots, etc. , I wish to introduce an- 
other paragraph from C. A. Young : " What are the causes of such eruptions it 
is impossible to state as yet with any certainty; still, knowing what we do of 
the enormous amount of energy which the sun is continually pouring out in the 
form of heat, it is nothing strange that such things should occur, and that on a 
solar scale." 

A feature of much interest in connection with sun spot periods is their cor- 
respondence with similar periods of Aurora BoreaHs, and magnetic force of the 
earth; the greatest prevalence or maximum of each one accompanying that of 
the other. A noticeable instance of this occurred in 1859, September ist. Two 
observers in England were examining a large group of sun spots at the same 



THE GREAT SOUTHERN COMET. 71 

time, when they noticed an amazing outbreak of ''two patches of intensely 
bright white light in front of the spots." These dazzling patches continued visi- 
ble near five minutes, during which time they passed over a space of 33,000 miles. 
At the same moment {as was afterward learned) a noted disturbance occurred 
among the magnetic instruments at the Kew Observatory ; and in sixteen hours 
a magnetic storm set in, which not only impeded communication by telegraph, 
but set fire to some of the offices. I well remember seeing brilliant Auroras on 
several nights at and near that time. 

The following points, I think, are less entitled to acceptance than the one 
just mentioned. The theory that Jupiter and Venus exert an influence in the 
production of sun spots and their periodical occurrence, seems to me very much 
like that of the moon exerting an influence on the weather, the growth of vege- 
tables, etc., — one in which I have but little confidence. Looking at the very face 
of the matter it seems much more probable to me that the gigantic powers of 
the sun would produce the comparatively feeble magnetic and electric phenom- 
ena of the earth, than that Venus and Jupiter in any position they can have, 
would produce the raging forces in the sun, or even change their directions. A. 
Elvins, an observer of Canada, gives the opinion that years of sun spot maxima 
and minima are generally more cloudy than the intervening years. My own ob- 
servations hardly confirm this view. So with his conclusion that greatest and 
least show of sun spots have less rain and more cold than other years. Mr. El- 
vins, with one or two other investigators of these subjects, decide that cylones 
and heavy storms generally occur in about two years after a sun spot maximum. 
This is doubtless correct. But our cylones occur so frequently in other years, 
and even during sun spot minima, that I fail to see the foundation of a law in 
this point. But their idea that both the maxima and minima of spot frequency are 
immediately preceded by very wet years, or season, I find to be true in most 
cases that I have examined. 

And yet, as regards nearly all the above subjects, I heartily endorse the fol- 
lowing sentiment put forth by Arago : "In these matters we must be careful not 
to generalize till we have amassed a large number of observations." 

The sun is a great body, and I am sure that the hidden source of its won- 
derful energies is the Almighty Hand which created and governs the whole uni- 
verse. 



THE GREAT SOUTHERN COMET. 

The interest of the astronomical world was suddenly awakened early in Feb- 
ruary by a telegram from Dr. B. A. Gould, at Cordoba, to Prof. Peters, of Kiel, stat- 
ing simply that there was a great comet passing the sun northward. This, together 
with the announcement of Dr. Gill, of Cape Town, a few days later, which, from 
the lack of unity in the system of signalling astronomical discoveries, could not be 
determined to be the same one, caused an amount of excitement among amateur 
astronomers that is quite unusual. Sufficient facts have not been as yet determin- 



72 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

ed to render a thorough discussion of the comet possible, but nevertheless it is 
none too early to begin the accumulation of such facts, as this may at a later time 
be a much more serious undertaking. The story of the discovery of Comet I. 
1 880, is given in an extract from a letter from Dr. Gould to Prof. Peters, which is 
in the Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 2303. 

On the evening of February 2, Dr. Gould saw, during twilight, a bright streak 
of light in the southwest, which he immediately supposed to be the tail of a huge 
comet. An attempt to sketch the object was made, but, owing to the murkiness 
of the sky, it was unsuccessful. The approximate position of this streak of light 
was from R. A. 22h. 40m. — 45° to less than R. A. 23h. cm. — 50°. On the 
3d of February, the object appeared somewhat brighter, and had moved north- 
wards throughout its entire length, and was evidently the tail of a comet which 
seemed to be approaching perihelion. All attempts to detect a nucleus were un- 
availing, and the equality in the brightness of the tail throughout its visible length 
of fully 40° and the remarkably small decrease of its breadth toward the horizon 
prevented any safe conjecture as to the position of the nucleus. On the 4th, the 
comet seemed to be a little brighter, and the tail preserved the same peculiarities 
as before, and in brilliancy was in no part equal to the milky way. This evening, 
Dr. Gould observed what he considered to be the head of the comet, which 
through the haze and twiHght appeared to be a coarse,' ill-defined mass of dull 
light, some 2' or 3' in diameter and without any visible nucleus. 

Observations made by Mr. Gill, at the same time, are noted in the Observ- 
atory for March, although not fully. Among the early newspaper items may be 
quoted that of Prof. Peirce, who lost no time in comparing the data of Gould's 
comet with those of the comet of 1843, ^^d announced himself as fully persuaded 
that it was a return of the earlier comet. 

Quite early in the field was the Observatory of Rio Janeiro, the Director of 
which, Prof. Liais, in the Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 2304, under the date of 
February 20, makes a report of the same. At Rio, the weather was unfavorable, 
and, save the 4th and 8th of February, the comet was not observed In other 
parts of the Empire, however, observations had been made sufficiently numerous 
to justify the statement of an approximate orbit, which, in view of later data, it is 
not necessary to give in detail. 

According to Natnre, No. 540, Mr. Gill saw the tail of the comet even as 
early as February i. No. 541 of the same periodical contains an extract from a 
letter by Mr. Gill, specifying his observations up to the 9th of February. As 
Table Mountain interfered with the view of the comet from the Royal Observa- 
tory at Cape Town, Mr. Gill went over to Seapoint, on the west side of the 
mountain, and sketched the position of the tail, on several evenings. The next 
issue of Nature contains elements of the comet, by Mr. Gill, which, however, 
may be considered as in error, in consideration of the elements given in No. 544 
of the same periodical. These elements were computed by Mr. Hind from the 



THE GREAT SOUTHERN COMET. 73 

observation of Dr. Gould on February 4, and from rough places communicated 
by Mr. Gill. These elements are as follows : — 

Comet I. 1880. Gould. 

Perihelion Passage, January 27. 6027. 

G. M. T. 

Long. Perihelion, 279° 6'. 8. 

Long. Node 4° I'.p, 

Inclination 35° 39'.8. 

Per. Distance 0.0059390. 

Motion, Retrograde. 

According to the same periodical, the comet was observed from H, M. S. 
" Triumph, " while at sea, between Payta, in Peru, and Manta, in Equador, on 
the night of February 7. The nucleus was seen at this date, and the comet was 
again observed on the 8th and 9th. 

According to the Observatory for April, the comet was so faint on the 23d of 
February that Mr. Gill conld not discern the least trace of it, there being strong 
moonlight, however. 

As has been stated, 'Prof. Peirce was very early in the field with an assertion 
that this comet was a return of that of 1843. and in this his judgment has not been 
at fault, for, taking either the elements of Mr. Hind or those which may be con- 
sidered as the next most authoritative, the resemblance is altogether too close to be 
the result of accident. The elements of the comet of 1843, ^.s computed by 
Hubbard, were — 

Long. Perihelion 278° 35'.! 

Long. Node 1° 20'. 6 

Inclination 35° 38\2 

Per. Distance 0.0055 11. 

Motion, Retrograde. 

In view of the relationship, a few notes on this great comet — which, says 
Cooper, in his Cometic Orbits, has been considered the most interesting of any on 
record — may be acceptable. 

Prof. Peirce, in the note to the Boston Advertiser, ' already referred to, gave 
as his opinion that Dr. Gould's comet is that of 1843, ^.nd has been seen before 
inB. C. 1770, 370, 252, 183, and A. D. 336, 422, 533, 582, 708, 729, 882, 
1077, 1106, 1208, 1313, 1362, 1382, 1402, 1454, 1491, 1511, 1528, 1668, 1689, 
and 1702. 

" In 1843," says Prof. Peirce, in a lecture on comets and meteors, "at about 
noon on the 28th of February, people in New England were able to see a brill- 
iant object close to the sun. Such a marvelous spectacle had never before been 
seen. Accurate and reliable observations of its position with regard to the same 
were made. A week later, a wonderfully briUiant tail of a comet was seen skirt- 



74 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

ing the horizon just after sunset, reaching one-third of the way around. At per- 
ihehon, it was nearer to the surface of the sun than any known comet, save that 
of 1680, and both of them swept in nearer than the solar corona." 

It was estimated by Newton that the comet of 1680 was subjected at perihel- 
ion to a heat equal to 2,000 times that of red-hot iron. 

The discussion of this comet made by Prof. J. S. Hubbard, and published in 
Dr. Gould's Astronomical Journal, Vol. i., is pre-eminently the authority concern- 
ing it. Much difficulty was encountered in an attempt to fix its orbits, owing to 
the shortness of time for observation, proximity to the horizon, and the slowness 
of its motion. The peculiarity producing the mOrit remark was the smallness of 
its perihelion distance, resembling the comet of 1680, while its physical character- 
istics resembled the comet of 1668. In concluding his discussion (Vol. ii.), Prof. 
Hubbard states as follows: — "So far as the data employed and the calculations 
based upon them can be relied upon, the hypothesis of the identity of this comet 
with that of 1688 is not sustained.'* The probable error of a single observation 
of his computed orbit was determined by Hubbard to be = + 10". 62, and con- 
sidering also the probable error belonging to an orbit of 175 years, the difficulty 
stated by Nicholai shows itself, viz.: that " the transition from a period of 175 
years to one of infinity, makes almost no difference in the representation of ob- 
servations." So small a portion of the orbit is it within our power to observe, 
that the differences in the observations upon a long orbit and those on an infinite 
curve are extremely difficult of determination. In the consideration of the comet 
of 1880 and its discussion, the observations made in 1843 "^^^7 be of the gr eat e 
importance. — Science Observer. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



SCIENCE LETTER FROM FRANCE. 

ATMOSPHERIC DUST KLEPTOMANIA HUMAN HEAT — PHOSPHORESCENCE. 

Paris, April 13, 1880. 

The Scientific Association of France has resumed its instructive Saturday 
Evening Conferences at the Sorbonne, our Royal Institution, under the presi- 
dency of the celebrated and indefatigable M. Milne Edwards. The subjects 
selected are of every day, living interest, are the specialty of each lecturer, and 
are handled in a popular manner and illustrated with every suitable apparatus. 
M. Jamin has expounded the latest discoveries in telephones and phonographs; 
M. Egger has deciphered the recent papyrus finds in Memphis ; M. Bouley has 
examined the question of rabies, and M. Gaston Tissandier, of elevated balloon- 
ing notoriety, has revealed many interesting facts on atmospheric dust, its con- 
nection with cosmical matter, and the important role it plays in fermentation and 



SCIENCE LETTER FROM FRANCE. 75 

decomposition. As the air is purer after being washed by rain, so in dry weath- 
er and especially in cities, the atmosphere is a veritable dust-bin ; we are sensi- 
ble to the existence of these particles of attenuated matter; in breathing them 
they disgust us, and in faUing and remaining on clothing and furniture they 
demonstrate not only their presence but their plenitude. Admit a sunbeam into 
a -darkened room and the molecules will be revealed like nebulae; yet the num- 
bers we perceive, are perhaps but the minimum of what exists, for after the naked 
eye and the microscope there are minutise vs hich dance still. Much of this atomic 
debris is of inorganic origin, and a great deal is derived from animal and vegeta- 
ble sources; the renowned experiments of M. Pasteur have demonstrated, that among 
these atomies which live, move, and have their being in the air, are germs or 
spores of fermentation and decomposition, that is to say, the seeds of disease and 
death. Showers of dust impalpable as flour, and sometimes red as blood, have 
fallen in several parts of the world, astonishing or frightening, as the populations 
are superstitious or cultivated; these showers are simply silicious particles whipped 
up to the superior regions of the atmosphere, and driven along by aerial currents; 
such particles have been lifted in Guiana and showered on New York, the Azores 
and France, as Ehrenberg detected therein animalculse and shells, peculiar to 
South America. Over the summits of the high mountains of the latter country, 
the' atmospheric currents are ever charged with silicious powder, and in parts of 
Mexico, the crests of mountains act as veritable bars, and compel the deposition from 
these air streams of the dust, and which accumulate in the valleys to the depth of 
ninety yards. Geology recognizes these atmospheric deltas. The foam of waves 
as they dash against the coast, is pulverized into feathery pellicles, Avhich float 
sky-ward with a trace of saline matter and that a sea breeze carries far inland. 
Space contributes, as well as earth and ocean to the production of aerial dust; 
when meteorites and falling stars are rendered luminous and incandescent by their 
rubbing against strata of air in their vertiginous flight, they part with quaatities 
of their metallic elements in the form of powder, iron, nickel, and cobalt, sub- 
stances that Nordenski'old has gathered on the virgin snow of the Polar regions. 
When atmospheric dust, whether collected directly on a sheet of paper, or from 
the sediment of snow and rain, is probed by a magnet, the tiny particles of iron 
attracted, have all a spheroid family likeness, resembling furthermore iron filings 
if melted in a flame of hydrogen or the extinguished sparks that fall on striking 
an ordinary flint and steel. Nay more, similar atoms of meteoric iron have been 
traced in the Lower Lias formation, geology thus affording evidence, that as now, 
so before the appearance of man on earth, atmospheric dust existed. The air is 
a vast store house of animalcules ; expose a solution of some organic substance to 
the atmosphere for twenty-four hours, it will be speedily inhabited by myriads of 
infusoria, rolling and tumbling, yet so small that hundreds of them if placed in a 
row would not form a line in length. These worms resemble little eels An- 
alogous animalcules induce decomposition and fermentation, for the latter cannot 
take place unless the organic matters be in contact with the air, to receive the 



76 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

seed of the leaven, which by cellule propagation leavens the whole mass. It has 
lately been shown that the process of nitrification in certain soils is due to a pe- 
culiar ferment, .that is to say, to a spore floating in the atmosphere, and finding 
its conditions for action, stops and operates. Marsh fever is due to cellules or 
spores existing in a bog neighborhood ; the same spores have been detected by 
the microscope in the expectorations of the patient, in the dew that was examined, 
and on the surface of the peaty soil where they were generated. This is simply 
poisoning; to a like cause is due the fell disease known as hospital gangrene, the 
germs in the polluted ward-atmosphere, enter the wounds, induce putrifaction, 
and death. Hence the importance of washing the affected part with carbolic 
acid or other anti-septic ; then dressing it with a wadding that will intercept, by 
acting as a filter, the germs to be deposited, from being sown. In many factories 
workmen become victims to the dust, generated by their special industry, enter- 
ing and saturating the lungs ; on dissecting old colliers, their lungs after forty years 
respiration of dust, instead of being rose-colored as in health, were as black as the 
coal itself; the dust in this impalpable form is often the cause of accidents; it can 
take fire and blaze like alcohol. Witness the catastrophe at the Minneapolis 
flouring mills; the confined air highly charged with the flour, became on a par 
with ether or alcohol, awaiting only ignition from the heated millstone to burst 
into flame and explode. 

The Society of Legal Medicine has discussed the question of shop lifting ; 
no very clear results have been arrived at; it was maintained that in the case 
where the accused female's family was liable to hereditary cerebral irregularities, 
the court ought to accept such as an extenuating circumstance. It seemed to be 
the opinion, that too much importance was attached to the abnormal inclinations 
and fancies of women enceinte, and also, that the interests of justice were not 
served by the numerous classifications that alienists indulge in. Dr. Lassegue 
repudiates all the doctrines about monomanias ; a woman shop-lifts because she 
has not the strength to resist, and if any obstacle rises up to baulk her thieving,- 
that chance will save her, as reason does in the case of others. He disbelieves 
in the theory of excitement ; the seduction is not greater than what other females 
experience at the view of articles of toilet ; it is transitory, and the thief speedi- 
ly forgets not only the pleasure she anticipated from possessing an object easily 
obtained, but the fault itself. He concludes, the less the impulsion of the weak- 
minded will be imperious, the more she will be encouraged by every attraction — 
that of impunity included. 

M. Hirn has devoted a good deal of attention to the subject of human heat, 
and in his experiments has been assisted by Professor Herzen, of Florence. Heat, 
or caloric, is synonymous with force, and there ought to be a gain or loss of heat, 
following the nature of the work. For example : the exertion to raise our own 
weight in ascending a stair-case, or a mountain, must represent a loss as compared 
with descending either. Now, M. Herzen affirms in both cases the contraction 
of the muscle is almost the same ; there is only a slight difference in the intensity 



SCIENCE LETTER FROM FRANCE. 11 

of the contraction executed, but none in point of view physiological. From the 
moment there is no external work, there is no consumption of heat ; when a 
muscle contracts, there is a diminution of temperature, and deoxidation. Fol- 
lowing the contraction or expansion of the muscles, the physiological actions will 
vary : a Swiss guide will ascend a mountain, carrying a burden, without mani- 
festing fatigue; but perspiration will be more or less intense; the pulse and 
respiration will be accelerated ; the panting will be more or less sensible, following 
the robustness of the individual. These phenomena will be less during the descent. 
Does intellectual work consume or produce heat? No, according to M. Hirn, 
the course of our thoughts modify at each moment the march of the organic 
functions; each feeling of joy, of sadness, of pain, of fear, or of agony, determines 
special modifications in the rythms of the pulse, of respiration, etc. ; nervous 
persons know how each emotion may create muscular tremblings, and active 
heart-beatings ; intense and sustained intellectual work often produces cutaneous 
transpiration, amounting to positive perspiration. Is there no loss of heat in this 
case? None, because the labor is internal, and has nothing in common with 
external manual work ; but the intellectual exertion can influence the nature of 
tV,e materials that oxygen burns, during the process of respiration; it can modify 
the employment of oxygen, and thus change the conditions of combustion. 

M. de Bellesme has been studying the phosphoresence of the glow-worm, 
from the physiological side; he substituted for the will of the insect, an electric 
current, and was thus enabled to produce the luminousness desired. He ascer- 
tained, and so corroborates Matteucci, that the presence of oxygen is indispensable 
to the production of phosphoresence, hence, there is in the luminous organ the 
production of a matter, which, in combination with the oxygen of the air, produces 
light ; the structure of that organ excludes the possibility of all secretion, liquid 
or solid, for the matter is gaseous, and only phosphuretted hydrogen is glowing 
Under ordinary conditions. Not only is there no phosphorus accumulated in the 
organ, but there is no provision of matter at all. M. de Bellesme has demon- 
strated conclusively, that the luminous substance is produced in proportion as 
it is required — never accumulated ; that phosphorescence is a general property of 
the protoplasma, the result of phosphuretted hydrogen produced therein by chem- 
ical decompositions in connection with the cellules of the organ ; the decomposi- 
tion in the case of the glow-worm, being under the nervous influence of the insect, 
and which is essential for setting free the phosphorescence. 

The estimation of the quantity of cream contained in milk can now be made 
very accurately and rapidly, by means of centrifugal force. Attach the handle 
of a can, filled with milk, to a cord; hold the other extremity of the latter in 
the hand, and twirl as if for a sling; the cream, lighter than the rest of the milk, 
will accumulate on the surface free from all liquid, and more quickly than if in a 
state of repose ; the time will even be lessened in proportion as the revolutions 
are rapid. When the milk has a temperature of 59 to 68 degrees F., the separa- 
tion of the cream takes place in fifteen minutes, at the rate of 600 revolutions per 



78 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

minute. At the same time the quantity of water added to the milk for adulterating 
purposes can be ascertained. M. Gembloux having tested that pure milk contains 
lo per cent, of cream, added one, then a second tenth, of water, and when 
whisked, the cream represented but nine and eight per cent, of the volume of 
milk. Further, when whirled in the cylindrical churn, the contents formed three 
distinct layers — cream, water, and skim-milk. The same centrifugal test was 
applied to butter, maintained in the liquid state by means of hot water; the 
matter separated into three states toward the circumference of the churn — fatty 
butter, caseine, and salt water; it was in the latter all the mineral adulterations 
lodged. It was at the Exhibition of Vienna that an apparatus for separating cream 
from milk by centrifugal action, was first made known : it is to M. Lefeldt that 
the honor reverts for applying the system on a vast scale by means of a turbine 
cylinder making 800 rotations per minute, when the cream is formed round the 
axle of the machine, after which comes the skim-milk, and then the impurities, 
forming, as it were, three rings or zones. Other skim-milk is introduced, which 
forces up the cream to run over, and thus out of, the cylinder. M. Lawal's 
Swedish skimmer is so constructed, that in proportion as the cream and skim-milk 
are separated, they pass off by the entrance of fresh milk. In the co-operative 
dairy at Kiel, 4,000 quarts of milk the produce of 550 cows, are centrifugally 
skimmed per day. 

M. Forei's experiments on Swiss Lakes prove that cold can penetrate therein 
to the depth of 120 yards. 

M. Nordenskjold has stated, in a letter to M. Daubree, that judging from his 
dredgings in the Siberian Sea, the fauna most rich in individuals, at a depth of 
from 33 to no yards, does not exist between the tropics, but in the Glacial Ocean 
and the Behring Sea, where the temperature, too, remains at the bottom, from 30 
to 28 degrees F. The municipality of Paris intends receiving and honoring M. 
Nordenskjold in the name of French Science. F. C. 



PSYCHOLOGY. 



THE SOUL— WHAT IS IT? 

Concerning the constitution of man there are three distinct theories. The 
first regards him as composed simply of a body, actuated for a time either by the 
ordinary forms of energy or by some modification thereof not yet recognized, and 
as losing at death his personal individuality. The second and more popular view 
acknowledges in him a double nature, comprising, in addition to the palpable, 
ponderable, and visible part or body, an invisible and immaterial principle, known 
promiscuously as " soul " or " spirit." But there is yet a third theory, which con- 



THE SOUL— WHAT IS IT? 79 

siders man as a threefold being, made up of body, soul, and spirit. It is no part 
of our present purpose to define the exact sense in which these last two terms are 
used. It may suffice to say that by the ordinary advocates of the triplicity of 
human nature the " soul " is supposed to be the purely immaterial element, whilst 
the " spirit " forms a connecting link between the two, and, if not purely incor- 
poreal, possesses none of the ordinarily recognized properties of matter. 

An author* whose speculations we are about to examine, exactly reverses these 
two terms, and looks upon spirit as a something absolutely immaterial and trans- 
cendent, whilst the soul, the seat of the will, the passions and emotions, is per- 
ceptible by one, at least, of our senses, and is even capable of being experimen- 
tally isolated and obtained in solution. 

We find ourselves confronted by a number of facts, hitherto without explan- 
ation and without connection. Among these must rank the phenomena of sym- 
pathy and antipathy as between different individuals, human or brute. On first 
meeting with some person of whom we have no previous knowledge, we often 
experience a strong liking or a violent dislike, for neither of which we can render 
any definite reason. As a rule women and children are more frequently impressed 
ia this manner than are adult men. It very often happens, too, that if we sup- 
press and overcome these sudden prepossessions, we find in the end that they 
were justifiable, and that second thoughts were not best. 

Further, the emotions and passions of men assembled together are infectious, 
passing from one to another more rapidly than bodily diseases. From one or 
from a few energetic individuals enthusiasm may be diffiised through a senate, a 
regiment, or a ship's crew. On the other hand, a few terrified or bewildered 
persons may spread a panic among thousands. It is commonly said that emo- 
tions propagate themselves, but we wish to know in what manner and by what 
means this is effected. -^ -^ -^ -^ -^ -^ ^ -^ -^ -^ 

We find, again, sympathies, and especially antipathies, which may be traced 
between entire species of animals, and which some of us seek to explain by the 
indefinite and long-suffering word "instinctive." If a dog has been stroked 
with a gloved hand, and if the glove is then held to the nose of a young kitten, 
still blind, the little creature begins to spit in anger. How is this fact to be ex- 
plained ? The kitten has never yet seen a dog, but in the mere odor it recog- 
nizes a hostile element. Heredity ? True, but how is the antipathy handed 
down from generation to generation ? By what sign does the blind animal detect 
the presence of an enemy ? 

There is still a further phenomenon which may be looked on as a heightened 
antipathy — fascination. We all know that very intense fear, instead of prompting 
to flight, may paralyse. >k >!= >fc * >!< * * 

Taking a general view of all these phenomena, in so far as they are actually 

. established, it would seem that animals, including man, must throw off from their 

surfaces some emanation capable of acting upon other animals and men with whom 

they come in contact or in near proximity. This supposed emanation may vary 

''Professor Jager. 



80 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

in its character in one and the same individual, according to its psychical condi- 
tion. If the vapors or gases thus emitted by two animated beings are in harmony, 
the result is sympathy or attraction. If they disagree, the consequence is antipa- 
thy, showing itself as hatred in the strong and as fear in the weak. This, it will 
be doubtless admitted, is a possible explanation of some of the phenomena above 
noticed ; but is it the true or the only one ? Do such emanations really exist ? 
It is, we think, certain that many animals become aware of the presence either 
of their prey, of an enemy, or of a friend, by the sense of smell, even at very con- 
siderable distances. Our lamented friend Thomas Belt was led to the conclusion 
that ants are able to communicate with each other by means of this sense, and have 
in fact a smell-language. Unfortunately the sense of smell is so weak in man that 
it becomes very difficult for us to decide. 

Prof. Jager holds that certain decompositions take place in the animal system 
in strict accord with psychic changes. All observers, he tells us, agree that mus- 
cular exertion effects but a very trifling increase of the nitrogenous compounds 
present in the urine. On the other hand, Dr. Boecker and Dr. Benecke* have 
proved that intense pleasurable excitement effects a very notable increase of the 
nitrogenous products in the urine, derived, as a matter of course, from the de- 
composition of the albuminoid matter in the system. Prout and Haughton have 
made a similar observation concerning the effects of alarm and anxiety. Hence, 
therefore, it would appear that strong emotion involves an extensive decomposi- 
tion of nitrogenous matter, and in particular of its least stable portion, the al- 
buminous compounds. But does the whole of the matter thus split up reappear 
in the urine ? Prof. Jager thinks that a portion escapes in a volatile state, form- 
ing the odorous emanations above mentioned. This portion he considers is the soul, 
which exists in a state of combination in the molecule of the albumen, and is lib- 
erated under the influence of psychic activity. Hence his soul, like the body, is 
not a unitary entity, called once for all into existence, but is a something perpet- 
ually secreted, and as perpetually given off. It pervades the entire system. Each 
organ has its distinct psychogen, all of which, however, are merely differentiations 
of the one prirnary ovum-psychogen. Further modifications take place from time 
to time, in accordance with the mental condition of the man or other animal. It 
will here be remembered that, according to Haeckel ('^ Die Heutige Entwickel- 
ungslehre in Verhaltnis zur Gesammt-wissenschaft"), all organic matter, if not 
matter altogether, is be-souled. Even the " plastidules " — the molecules of 
protoplasm — possess souls. 

In support of the assumption that a volatile something is given off from albu- 
men. Prof. Jager gives the following delicate experiment : — If we prepare, from 
the blood or the flesh of any animal, albumen as pure as possible, and free from 
smell and taste, and treat it with an acid, there appears a volatile matter which is 
perfectly specific, differing in the case of each animal species. But this odor 
varies according to the intensity of the chemical action. If this is slight we per- 
ceive the specific "bouillon odor" which the flesh of the animal in question gives 

•Pathologie des Stoffwechsels ; 



THE SOUL— WHAT IS IT? 81 

off on boiling. On the contrary, if the reaction is violent, the odor given off is 
that of the excrement of the species. Here, then, we have the two main modifica- 
tions of psychogen, the sympathetic and the antipathetic form. 

Dr. O. Schmidt, Professor of Chemistry and Physics at the Veterinary Col- 
lege of Stuttgart, has repeated these experiments upon the brains of animals. The 
odoriferous principle is here evolved much more easily than from egg albumen. 
Immediately on the addition of an acid an offensive odor appears, which vanishes 
as rapidly, and cannot be caused to reappear. Nor has it been found possible to 
elicit from brain the more agreeable odor. 

It will doubtless be granted that certain yet unexamined specific odors are 
given off by living animals ; that these odors may be repulsive or attractive to 
other species • that they may be liberated more abundantly under mental excite- 
ment. But where is the proof that these odors are the soul in any condition ? 
May they not be regarded merely as an effect which psychic emotion, along with 
other agencies, produces in and upon the body? 

We will, therefore, though not without misgivings, quote an experiment to 
which Duntsmaier attaches much importance. He placed in a large wire-work 
cage a number of hares, and allowed a dog to run around this prison, snuffing at 
the inmates, and attempting to get at them for about two hours. It need scarcely 
be said that the hares were in a state of great terror. At the end of that time the 
dog was killed ; his olfactory nerves and the interior membranes of the nose were 
taken out with the least possible loss of time, and ground up in glycerin. The 
clear liquid thus obtained contained the souls of the hares, or at least portions of 
them, in an intense state of painful excitement. Every animal to whom it was 
administered, *either by the mouth, or by injection under the skin, seemed to lose 
all courage. A cat after taking a dose did not venture to spring upon some mice. 
A mastiff similarly treated slunk away from the cat. Now we are here confronted 
by a serious difficulty : if a second dog was rendered timid by merely a small por- 
tion of this extract of fear, how is it that the first dog, after snuffing up the whole, 
did not suffer the same change and become afraid of the hares ? 

Other experiments, we are told, were tried with analogous results. Thus a 
glyceric extract of courage was obtained from a young hon, the olfactory nerves 
of a dog being again used as the collecting medium. 

A difficulty which must make us hesitate before ascribing animal antipathies 
to some disagreement in their souls, making itself known by their specific eman- 
ations, is the following : the animals of uninhabited islands when they first come 
in contact with man entertain no antipathy for him, until his propensity for indis- 
criminate slaughter is learnt by experience. Can we assume that his emanations 
have changed in the meantime ? Again, a colony of mice had estabhshed them- 
selves at the bottom of a deep mine, doubtless to prey upon the provisions, can- 
dles, etc., of the workmen, and had flourished there for many generations. One 
of them, being captured, was brought up, placed in a cage, and shown to a cat. 
The cat prowled around and tried to get at its prey, but the mouse gave not the 



82 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

least sign of alarm. Why should the emanations of a cat be less alarming to this 
mouse than to any other? Is the tiger, our natural enemy — which, according to 
Prof. Jager, bears the same relation to us which a cat does to a mouse, — any more 
offensive to us than certain animals which never p^ey upon man at all, such as the 
polecat or the skunk? If the timid man tempts the dog or the ox to attack him, 
on what principle does he diffuse panic among his feliow-men ? 

In short, Prof. Jager's theory is beset with many and serious difficulties. 
Nevertheless, or, rather the more, we consider it entitled to a careful examin- 
ation, both as regards its conclusion and the phenomena upon which it is based y 
the science of odors has yet to be constituted, and we are convinced that it will 
amply repay the needful trouble. — l^owdon Journal of Science. 



SCIENCE AND SPIRITUALISM. 

The recent publication of Professor Zollner's work in Germany, the death of 
Serjeant Cox, a distinguished lawyer and spiritualist in England, and the extend- 
ed publication of Mr. Joseph Cook's lectures in this country have manifestly 
awakened a new interest in the alleged phenomena of what is called " spiritual- 
ism." So many communications have come to us from all parts of the country, 
the writers earnestly inquiring "why scientific men do not investigate the subject 
fully, and set/le it once for all," that we are led to allude to the matter briefly. 

In the first place, we will say that scientific men have investigated it, and 
published the results of their labors. In England, three representative men of 
the highest distinction, Wallace, the' naturalist, Varley, the electrician, and 
Crookes, the chemist, have given the subject thorough experimental examination. 
Crookes devoted four years to the labor, Varley seven, and Wallace ten, and they 
state in the most decided manner that the alleged phenomena are actual and real. 
All these scientists are P'ellows of the Royal Society, and they represent three of 
the most important departments of physical and natural science, chemistry, elec- 
tricity, and biology. In Germany, five of the renowned professors in the univers- 
ities, with Zollner at the head, have laboriously investigated the problem , and 
they also avow belief in the verity of the phenomena. In Russia, Wagner and 
Butleroff, professors in the University at St. Petersburg, after years of patient in- 
vestigation, have reached similar conclusions. In addition to those named above, 
Dr. Franz Hoffman, of Wurtzburg University, Camille Flammarion and Hermann 
Goldschmidt, distinguished astronomers, and a large number of other scientific 
men in Europe, noted for accuracy of research and great acquirements, render 
the same affirmative verdict. In this country, the late venerable Dr. Robert 
Hare, of the University of Pennsylvania, gave five years of experimental labor to 
the subject, and he also became a convert. With him may be counted, perhaps, 
twenty other students in science, of less note, who coincide in his views. 

Let us look at the other side. In England, three distinguished representative 



SCIENCE AND SPIRITUALISM. 



83 



scientific men, Tyndall, Huxley, and Carpenter, entirely dissent from the con- 
clusions and views of the three others named. Tyndall speaks of the ' ' intellect- 
ual whoredoms of spiritualism." Huxley asserts that he "should have no in- 
terest in it if it was true." Carpenter, in a spiteful way, designates as " fools" 
all who take the trouble to look into the matter; and oracularly declares that '' the 
whole thing is nothing but unconscious cefebratwn." All of these gentlemen like 
the others, are Fellows of the Royal Society. 

In Germany, ZoUner meets with a strong adversary in a distinguished professor 
in another university, who has written a "counterblast " to Zollner's book. The, 
great naturaUst, Carl Vogt, dissents, and so do Haeckel, Buchner, and Rolle. In 
this country, Agassiz was incredulous of the whole thing, and so, it would appear, 
are a large majority of the notable men connected with our colleges and universi- 
ties. But it is quite impossible to learn the truth in this regard. A considerable 
number, as we personally know, express views in private which they are careful 
not to make known in public. 

From the above brief review it will be seen that "spiritualism" in this 
country and Europe is regarded, among scholars and investigators, with about the 
same diversity of views as^ "Darwinism." On this continent the great names of 
Dana and Dawson, with numerous others, are counted as disbehevers in Mr. Dar- 
win's theories ; on the other hand, the young naturalists, with America's distinguish- 
ed botanist, Professor Gray, at their head, incline to adopt his conclusions. In 
Europe about the same remarkable diversity in opinion is found among the great 
scholars and experimenters. 

There is hardly any theory or doctrine in science upon which learned men 
are perfectly agreed, and it is not probable that this conflict of opinion will end 
very soon in regard t :) spiritualism or Darwinism. Whilst it is true that in inves- 
tigations which so completely baffle the ordinary observer the thorough scientific 
man has a great advantage, he is still warped by prejudice, and there cling to him 
certain weaknesses common to humanity under all conditions. He is apt to 
adopt Faraday's views : "Before we proceed to consider any question involving 
principles, we should set out with clear ideas of the naturally possible and im- 
possible." If we are to investigate nothing till we know it to h& possible, the 
boundaries of the field of investigation become narrowed almost to a point. The 
notion is absurd. Nature is chary of her secrets, and we are not permitted to 
have any very clear ideas of what is impossible. Doubtless those who have in- 
vestigated the subject under consideration have entered upon the work with all 
the prejudices and doubts natural to labor in such a field of mist and darkn ess, 
where tricks and fraud may be presumed to hold sway. The conclusions reach ed 
m the aggregate have been so conflicting that, so far as the world goes, nothing 
has been settled, and we do not see how it can become a clear matter of belief or 
disbelief among all classes from any investigations that may be undertaken, no 
matter how learned or exalted the individuals may be who enter upon the labor. 
To be sure, spiritualism rests upon alleged physical occurrences and facts, and 

IV-6 



84 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

so does Christianity, but science is incompetent to convince the world of the 
truthfulness or falsity of the later as well as of the former. Seeing is not always 
believing, and the most obstinate disbelievers in experimental results are among 
the co-laborers and associates of those who bring forward alleged results for con- 
sideration. Especially is this the case among those whose prejudices run counter 
to facts sought to be established. — Boston Journal of Chemistry. 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 



TERTIARY MAN. 

TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH OF ZABOROWSKI, BY E. L. BERTHOUD, A. M. 

" How far in past geological ages can we demonstrate the existence of man? 

We have to-day all'necessary elements to give a satisfactory answer to this 
question. 

Already in the beginning of 1864, M. Garrigou beheved that he had proofs 
of the contemporaneity of man and miocene mammifers. 

These proofs were bones of Dicrocerus Elegans, broken exactly like those 
from the quaternary caverns of France. Those bones came from the hill at 
Sansan, Department of Gers. Submitted to scientific discussion in 1868, this proof 
made no sensible impression. Nor did the so-called notches on a rhinoceros' 
jaw observed by Col. Saussedat from miocene strata at Billy, in France, obtain 
any greater credence. 

M. Deiaunay reported his discovery of incisions observed by him on the 
fossil ribs of a Haliterium obtained from the miocene cliffs of Pouance, These, 
for a long time, were attributed to the action of man. But in 1873, this posi- 
tion was abandoned by Deiaunay and his follower, L'Abbe Bourgeois, and the 
incisions, on the advice and proof M. Hebert, were attributed to a shark, the 
carchorodon megalodon, that had probably once gnawed them when yet fresh. 
These fossils can to-day be seen in the museum of St. Germain. 

Generally, the only objects incontestably of the miocene epoch, which bear 
traces of marks actually formed by the intervention of human agency, are the 
chipped flints of Thenay in the Department (Loire et cher.) These have been 
gathered by M. Bourgeois at a great depth in the ground, under a more recent 
deposit that yielded polished implements of flint. All these being in a much 
more recent quaternary stratum, while under them were miocene layers con- 
taining abundant fragments of haliterium, mastodon, acerotherium, etc. 

The rough flint tools consist of scrapers, reamers, and small flint points, but 
all so roughly fashioned that everybody hesitated for a long time to take them for 
flint chippings, designedly so chipped. 



TERTIARY MAN. 85 

M. Bourgeois presented the first ones found, to the congress of 1867. A 
few scrapers were then admitted to have been fashioned by human design, among 
those so agreeing being Messrs. Mortillet and Hamy. But when in 1873, M. 
Bourgeois presented some more new specimens found by him, to the same congress, 
opinions of their being the work of human hands, were much divided. But the 
scrapers were, however, recognized as genuine, some of them even presenting 
not only marks of fire, but have been shaped by aid of fire, the chipping having 
been employed only to correct the action of heat, and to modify the rough burnt 
forms. 

M. Mortillet, after this, formed of this epoch of the first recognized human 
labor, the epoch of the " astonished stone" — in French, "Pierre etonnee," — i.e. 
astonished or split up. Some of the flint tools are deeply altered and seamed by 
this action, nevertheless we can not admit, except with repugnance that the 
beings who constructed these flint chippings, were masters of fire, and capable 
of lighting it, if even of using it. 

Were these beings in fact what we might call men ? This question has been 
examined and discussed in all its different bearings by Messrs. Mortillet, Hove- 
lacque and Gaudry, the Paleontologist, and decided by them in the negative. 

It is known that animated beings on earth have followed a regular ascending 
scale, their most perfect developed forms, appearing in the order of succession 
as a development of former inferior types. 

In all paleontological series, we do not see one group of highly organized 
beings appear on the arena before the appearance of an inferior ancestral group. 

Hence, this law by no means would prevent us from considering the makers 
of the flint tools of Thenay, to be considered "a priori" as human beings. 

The principal types of monkeys were already in existence in the middle 
miocene epoch ; the single species of which numerous remains are now known 
is the " Mesopithecus Pentelici," from Greece. This simian was highly devel- 
oped, and comes from the upper miocene. 

M. Lartet has discovered two anthropomorphous monkeys in the middle 
miocene. Hence, an ancestrial form nearly human, could very well have ap- 
peared in this same miocene epoch without interfering with the laws of evolu- 
tion. But there is not in the whole middle miocene, one species of mammifer 
identical with present species. 

All species of animals and plants have been changed on earth since that 
period, and there is nothing starthng in this when we reflect on the enormous 
period of time that has elapsed since the middle miocene period. 

The Thenay flints occurred below strata that are middle miocene, that is 
the " Calcaire de Beance," then after this we have the upper miocene of Pikermi 
and of Vancleve; then we have the lower Pliocene; then follows the submerged 
forest bed of Cromer, in England ; then above that the period of glacial boulder 
clays, of Norfolk ; this to be followed by diluvium ; then follows the Reindeer 
period; lastly our present age, " (Gaudry.)" 



86 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

Since the end of the lower miocene, the mammahan fauna has been re- 
newed at least three times, and between middle miocene and our present period 
there have been not only specific differences, but also generic differences. 

{To be continued.^ 



A BURIED RACE IN KANSAS.* 

BY JUDGE E. P. WEST, KANSAS CITY, MO. 

Mr President, Ladies and Gentlemen : 

I have the honor this evening of presenting to the Academy some additional 
facts hastily gleaned, upon a subject heretofore partially considered, and which 
tend further to strengthen the growing belief that a field, until recently considered 
barren in archaeological remains, promises now, from developments of almost daily 
occurrence, to become second to none in interest in this respect. The appliances 
of our civilization are bringing to notice, in Kansas, a race unknown to history or 
tradition, and whose very existence, from any monument or vestige appearing upon 
the surface, might have remained unsuspected and unmarked forever, but for 
those appliances. 

The district of country explored is in Marion county, Kansas, and extends 
from Florence, on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R. , to four miles north • 
of Marion Centre, situated on a branch of that road. This entire area, extending 
along the Cottonwood Valley and border of the low hills bounding it on either 
side, to use the language of my young friend Melvin Billings, to whose indefat- 
igable researches we are indebted for most of the facts I lay before you, "is 
covered and underlaid with human remains." My own observations sustain the 
justice of this statement. 

In the environment of the confluence of Clear Creek, Mud Creek, and the 
Cottonwood, in the vicinity of Marion Centre, there is evidence of three distinct 
races, which preceded our present civilization. Evidence of the most recent is to 
be found in the burial places of our modern Indians; next a hundred or more of 
low mounds or borrows containing human remams, such as fragments of pottery, 
stone and bone implements, ashes, charcoal, burnt clay, stone pipes, and human 
bones, testify to a greater antiquity; and evidence of the remaining, and most 
ancient race, is to be found in human remains without anything whatever upon 
the surface to indicate their presence. 

These last are encountered in excavations for cellars, in well-digging, and in the 
cuts of the M. & M. P. R. R., a branch of the A., T. & S. F. R. R., before 
alluded to. The latter class of remains, especially on the low hills fringing the 
valley, are all, so far as I had an opportunity to observe them, found in a Lacus- 
trine deposit, under a deep, black vegetable mold, and rest on the Glacial drift. 
This was the case at the cellars of Mr. Baylis and Mr. Case, at Marion Centre, 

♦Read before the Kansas City Academy of Science, May 25, 1880. 



A BURIED RACE IN KANSAS. 87 

where human remains were found. At each place I observed the Drift cropping 
out on the hill-slope at a short distance from the cellars. I also observed drift 
pebbles, which had been thrown out from the bottom of each cellar. In digging 
a trench from Mr. BayHs' cellar a stone mortar was found at about the same 
depth of the cellar, and was covered over in filling the ditch and left remaining 
where found. But it must not be inferred that these two cellars are the only 
places where these mysterious remains are encountered. 

Mr. Billings, in a former letter to me, says : "In the excavation of nearly 
every cellar and well in town some reHc of aboriginal inhabitancy has been 
found." His residence is with his father, a short distance out of town, and, in 
the same letter, he says : "In digging a cistern at my home, one of these peculiar 
graves was struck, from which charcoal, burnt bones, flint chips, etc. , were taken. 
In excavating the basement of our barn, 38 by 40 feet, seven of these graves were 
discovered." The M. & M. P. R. R. crosses Mud Creek some two or three 
hundred yards south of Marion Centre, and, in the same letter, Mr. Billings con- 
tinues : "In, grading the approaches to the bridges a large amount of pre-historic 
debris was discovered, among which are broken bone implements, stone arrow 
• and spear points, stone axes, grooved mallets, rub stones, broken pottery, etc." 
But the best observed graves of this kind, if graves they are, were found at 
the brick-yard of Mr. W. S. Moulton, one and a half miles north of Marion 
Centre. These were well examined by Mr. Billings and Mr. Moulton, and 
possess some very remarkable features independent of their evident great antiq- 
uity. The clay used by Mr. Moulton is a Lacustrine deposit containing Hme 
connections, and is very similar to the Loess or brick clay in this city. It is three 
to four feet in thickness, only, covered by two feet of black vegetable mold, and 
rests on the Glacial drift. Mr. Moulton has removed the clay, in his brick-making, 
over a space of less than fifty feet, but in this small area he has found eleven of 
these buried repositories of the dead. They are cone-shaped, covered over with 
two feet or more of undisturbed vegetable mold, and all rest on the Drift. From 
a careful measurement of some of these, by Mr. Billings and Mr. Moulton, they 
were found to be fifty-four inches in diameter at the base, eighteen inches at the 
top, and thirty-six inches high ; i. e. there is found in the clay, of these dimen- 
sions, a black cone-shaped mass of mixed ashes, charcoal, fragments of shells, 
intermingled, perhaps, with clay and containing hum-an remains. 

What is very remarkable, the base of the cone, at equal distances, sends out 
three triangular projections of about twelve inches in extent; and, still more 
remarkable, is the correspondence with this configuration of an ornamentation, or 
carved figure, on a fragment of the pottery found. The ornamentation seems to 
have been sculptured after the vessel was partially dried, and before burning. 
There is but a part of the figure or emblem on the fragment obtained, but there 
is enough of it remaining to associate it with the peculiar shape of the receptacles 
found imbedded in the clay, without any great stretch of the imagination. The 
part of the figure remaining forms an arc of a circle, with one of the triangular 



88 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

shaped projections based in it. All this will be better understood by the engraved 
representations in Figs, i, 2 and 3. 

The dark lines in Fig. i represent the fragment of pottery and segment of 
the figure remaining on it, and the dotted lines the lost segment, or the figure 
restored as supposed to have been sculptured on the vessel. Fig. 2 represents 
the base of the repositories as outHned in the clay. Fig. 3 represents a side view 
of the repositories. 




Fig 1— Full Size. 

What is the peculiar shape of these repositories and figures emblematic of? 
Possibly of the sun. The people who conceived and fashioned them must have 
had some knowledge of geometrical lines and a considerable degree of intelligence. 

All who have examined the repositories, without exception, with whom I 
have conversed, agree that the vegetable mold must have formed over them since 
they were made. They rest on Glacial drift, and must have been formed since 
that deposit. But the questions remain to be answered — were they excavated in 
the Lacustrine clay, or were they erected before its deposit and covered in by it ? 
It seems difficult for a primitive people to plan and make an excavation of such 
shape; and these repositories may have been formed of some kind of cement 
upon the surface, before the Lacustrine time and covered by its deposits, and 
since undergone disintegration. 

Marion Centre lies on the southeastern slope of the summit dividing the 



A BURIED RACE IN KANSAS. 



89 




Fig. 2. 




water-shed of the Arkansas river on the south, and the Smoky Hill river on the 

north, and is more elevated than the valleys of those streams on either side. 

What connection, if any, these remains have with those I formerly described, 



90 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

found at a greater depth in those deeper valleys, remains to be determined by 
farther developments. If, however, they rest upon the Drift, as those here 
described do, and it is most likely that such is the case, the only difference would 
seem to be in the thickness of the covering over them, which would naturally fol- 
low from the differences in elevation when the deposit was accumulating, i. e. , if the 
lake water was four feet at the Moulton brick-yard and thirty feet at Ellsworth, 
supposing remains on the surface at each place when the deposit began, those at 
Ellsworth might be covered to a depth of thirty feet, while those at the Moulton 
brick-yard would only be covered four feet. Such remains might belong to the 
same race, if we suppose an occupancy prior to the submergence of the country. 

It would require months of patient investigation to bring into order the facts 
connected with this very interesting and mysterious race, and I regret that I have 
not the means to prosecute the work ; but hope some one more fortunate will 
do so. 

The Glacial drift underlying the clay at the Moulton brick-yard is well 
marked and not to be mistaken. 

The day devoted to these investigations proved to be tempestuous and rainy, 
but, by the kindness of my young friend's father, who placed a splendid team and 
wagon at our disposal, we braved the "tempest and the storm" and accom- 
plished a good day's work. We visited several cellars, the Moulton brick-yard, 
some cuts on the M. & M. P. R. R. , and took in mounds by the score. 

The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad deserves great credit for the 
interest it has manifested in developing the beautiful country lying along its line, 
and the facilities it has generously afforded scientific explorations in Kansas, and 
merits the thanks of this Academy. 



. GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 



GEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION.* 

BY THE LATE PROF. B. F. MUDGE. 
CHAPTER I.— LAWS OF EVOLUTION. SILURIAN FOSSILS. 

The doctrine of evolution is by means new. It is found in the oldest writ- 
ings of antiquity, and appears to have secured a few believers in all ages. But it 
is only within the last hundred years that it has assumed a scientific garb. La- 

* Note. — We present in this number of the Review the introductory chapter of a series of articles written 
by the late Prof. Mudge on Geology and Evolution. Chapters IV and V of this series have already appeared in 
the Review under the head of Botany and Evolution While it is to be expected that many of the conclusions 
and deductions from his train of argument will be denied and objected to by the opponents of Evolution, these 
are nevertheless a valuable contribution to the literature of the subject, by one of the best observers of our 
day, and one who has had many opportunities of investigating this theory in connection with his favorite 
sciences — Geology and Paleontology. The articles are just as they came from his pen, with the exception of 
the necessary correction of a few obvious errors. — L. 



GEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 91 

marck, and, a little later, the author of Vestiges of the Natural History of Crea- 
tion, and quite recently, Darwin and his followers, have given it a prominent 
position in the scientific world. 

The strongest arguments and facts presented in support of their theory, have 
been based on living organisms. Our position on this question is, that the pres- 
ent period, or even the whole of the historic time, is far too short to settle the 
question of the evolution of the higher orders or genera, from the lower; and it 
is only in the long, long ages of geology that such changes can be studied with 
accurate results. To us it appears that geology must be the final arbiter in this 
great problem. We now propose to see how far this science can furnish evidence 
upon the subject of evolution. 

In advance we state three laws which will guide us in the investigation, viz : 

First. If evolution be true, it must be the ruling law, more or less apparent 
through all animated nature ; or at least be seen in a majo?'ity of all species and genera 
of organic beings. 

Second. That it should be most clearly observable in those species, whose fossil 
remains are most numerous and most widely disseminated. 

Third. That the development from the lo7iier to the higher type, should be symmet- 
rical and harmonious. 

By the third law we mean that when animals are claimed to be derived from 
a lower form, advancement should be seen in all parts of the body, both internal 
and external, in the same degree. Prof. E D. Cope, an advocate of evolution, 
has expressed the idea in the following terms: "The natural deduction is, that 
if a portion of an animal exhibits a form intermediate between two known forms 
or types, the remainder of the animal structure possesses the same kind of inter- 
mediacy."* He has endeavored to show a modification of this rule in some 
cases, but the main principle stands unchanged. 

We think these three laws may be fairly and candidly deduced from what 
we. already know of the operations of nature : and are not inconsistent with the 
principles laid down in the writings of Prof. Darwin and his associates. 

Now if the student in fossil remains finds forty-nine out of fifty of the most 
abundantly preserved species, showing no marked change, over large areas and 
during long geological periods, even if the remainder should present some appar- 
ent development, in a slow degree, he has a right to conclude, that evolution is 
not a law of nature, and that no high type has arisen or can arise from the lowest. 

There are about 50,000 known species of fossil plants and animals. Some 
of these are represented by very few specimens, others by hundreds or thous- 
ands, and not a few by millions. We consider ourselves justified in saying, 
that at least one-tenth part (5,000) are sufiiciently numerous and well preserved 
to show the changes of evolution, if it. exists. 

It is apparent that in all animated nature, there is a great diversity in the ap- 
pearance of different individuals of the same species. But we take the position, 

* Cretaceous Vertebrata, p. 8. 



92 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

which we beheve we can prove, in the following pages, that this constant, ever 
present variation is always within a narrow hmit. Thus, no two oysters, horses 
or men are j ust aUke, but their varied appearance is within a narrow circle. No two 
members of the human family are just alike, yet we easily detect the German, 
French or Irish element, yea, even family traits, in the men we daily meet. This* 
constant variation, is accompanied by an equally constant adherence to the 
normal type. No two sharks are just alike, and different genera and species have 
a regular variance from each other, but the microscopic cell-form of the shark's 
tooth, as given by Owen in his Odontography, is the same in the earliest tooth of 
the Devonian and in all later geological strata, as well as in the living sharks of 
our ocean. No two pine trees have the same shape, yet the cell-form of the 
wood, so small as to require a strong magnifier to see it, is always of the same 
elongated shape and with the same marking, whether from the Devonian age or 
from the living Auricarian pine. This unyielding persistence wUl be brought in 
view in the examination of the varied phases of organic fife. 

In looking at the facts of geology the great rule is apparent that in a very 
general way the oldest fossiliferous strata contain only low types of animal and 
vegetable life, while the later formations contain higher forms, in proportion as 
they become more modern. This general rule, however fails in detail, as we 
shall endeavor to show. The oldest Silurian does not begin with the lowest 
forms of the five great sub-kingdoms of animals, as it should according to the 
laws of evolution, but has numerous representations of four sub-kingdoms, viz : 
Protozoans, Radiates, Mollusks and Articulates. The Protozoans, which are 
the lowest, and consequently according to the theory of evolution, should be the 
earhest and most abundant, are not found at the first ; and when found are the 
least abundant of the Primoidal found. The representatives of the Radiates, Mol- 
lusks and Articulates, are not the lowest of their kinds. This fact was thus 
strongly and clearly stated at a recent meeting of the British Association by Dr. 
Thomas Wright, President of Section C. " Instead of a gradation upward in 
certain groups and classes of fossil animals, we find on the contrary, that their 
first representatives are not the lowest, but often highly organized types of the 
class to which they belong. This is well illustrated in the Corals, Crinoids, As- 
teridse, Mollusca and Crustacea of the Silurian Age, and which make up the 
beginnings of Hfe in the Palaeozoic period. The fishes of the Old Red Sandstone, 
we have already seen occupy a respectable position among the Pisces ; and the 
Reptiles of the Trias are not the lowest form of their class, but higHy organized 
Dinosauria." 

Dana* also says, " If we may trust the records, Echinoderms, or the highest 
type of Radiates, were represented by species (Cystids and Crinids) long before 
the inferior type of Polyps existed, f" 

The examination of the Silurian fossils in detail are instructive on this point. 
Barande in his valuable publications on the Silurian, has given us the results of 
his studies on this system from twelve district regions. Dividing it into three 

* Nature, Aug. 2s, 1875, p. 357. t Mammal, p. 598. 



GEOLOGY AND E VOL UTION. • 9S 

periods he tabulates the fossils of the first division. From this he reports from 
the four sub-kingdoms above named, 366 species. Of these, 264 or seventy-two 
per cent belong to Crustacea, the highest of these 'sub-kingdoms. So while on 
theoretic grounds only the lowest sub-kingdom should have been represented, 
the highest outnumbers all the others by nearly three-fold. In abundance of in- 
dividual specimens, the trilobites, the most common crustaceans, outnumber by 
a hundred-fold all other fossils in the first division of the Bohemian Primordial. 
Barande further states that the famiUes and orders are entirely without transitional 
forms. 

If we examine all the fossils of the Silurian Age, we shall find a somewhat 
similar result. Barande gives 10,074 as the number of Silurian Species known 
and described up to 1872. Of these only 153, or less than two per cent, are Pro- 
tozoans— 1,306 or thirteen per cent are Radiates, while 2,112 or twenty-one per 
cent are Crustaceans. It will be seen that the highest, though not as numerous 
as the next lowest -sub-kingdom, contains more than both of the lowest two. 
This proportion in favor of the Crustaceans is greater than exists in the living 
species. 

If we examine the number in the classes of the MoUusks we shall find results,, 
though not as strong, still in favor of the highest. Cephalopods, the most com- 
plete in organization, are the most numerous. It will also be seen that there is- 
no order or harmony in the number of each class. Placing them in the order of 
their rank we have in number of species and percentage ; 

Cephalopods 1,622 . . . .27 

Pteropods and Heteropods . . . 390 ... .06 

Gasteropods 1,316 .. . .22 

Acephala 1,086 ... .18 

Brachiopods Ij567 ... .26 

The EXTREMES are most strongly represented. 

Much has been said about the possibility, that all animal life has been de- 
rived from the Ascidian. If so, it should appear among the earliest fossils. But 
it has never been thus found. It has been asserted that because it has no soHd 
parts it could not have been preserved if it had existed. It has a tough leathery 
exterior, far more firm than many an animal found fossilized. We have the im- 
pressions of the soft bodies of spiders preserved in the Carboniferous rocks ; and 
185 species of worms have been described from the Silurian. Our marine plants 
found in all geological ages, are of softer texture, yet we find their outHnes well 
preserved. Besides,- the living Ascidians are frequently covered by the calca- 
reous material of Bryozoans, which would aid in the preservation of the leathery 
sack. No intermediate form between the Ascidians and the vertebrates exist 
among fossils. The size of many species, eight inches and over, would enable 
them to be easily seen, if only the outline had been preserved. 

To any one who has studied the character and relations of the fossils of the 
various geological formations, it is very clearly discernible, that while the first 
forms are not like the animal life of the present day; they are very far from being 



KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



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PRECIOUS METAL MINING IN THE UNITED STATES. 95 

in harmony with any system of development. To show this the more plainly to 
the eye, we have given two Figs. — i and 2, exhibiting the times of the appear- 
ance geologically of the various forms, and also the relative periods at which they 
should have appeared according to the system of evolution. 

Fig. 1 is condensed from Dana.* It will be seen from this that four of the 
five sub-kingdoms of animal life — all but the vertebrates — came in together at the 
beginning of the Silurian, when if there was in nature a systematic plan of de- 
velopment, the Protozoans should have appeared first, and the others followed in 
the order of their organic rank. The latter idea we have endeavored to show in 
Fig. 2. We have divided the time nearly equally between the fine sub-kingdoms. 
This may be giving the lower forms more importance than they deserve for they 
are not equally dissimilar in the degree of their organization. But it is usually 
stated by evolutionists, that the lower the type the more slowly is the change of 
advancement. This we think justifies the statement that the time required for 
the Protozoan to become a Radiate would be as long as for the highest Crustacean 
t > become a Vertebrate. Our tables in Fig. 2 may not be entirely accurate, but 
they are certainly so approximately. It is enough to show how entirely antago- 
nistic are the facts of the earth's early history to the theory of development. The 
great difference of life rank, between the different sub-kingdoms, is admitted by 
all Zoologists. 

Similar tables (see Figs. 1 1 and 1 2) in relation to the geological and theoretic 
appearance of vegetration, gives nearly the same results. 

Note — We have commenced, in our geological history and observations, with the fossils of the Lower Si- 
lurian. The fossils below that age are so few and obscure that they throw little, if any, light on the subject 
under discussion. Whether Eozon Canadense is organic, is an unsettled question in the scientific world. 

Dana in referring to the oldest Silurian fossils has stated that they were not less than fifty millions of years 
old. We shall use that standard of time, in the following pages, though most European geologists assume a 
much longer period. [See appendix for the Geological Ages and Periods.] 



PRECIOUS METAL MINING IN THE UNITED STATES. 

BY N. S. SHALER. 

The fields of the precious metals in the United States may be generally di- 
vided into two principal areas, that of the Appalachian and that of the Cordil- 
leran ranges. Besides these there are the smaller regions, which may be termed 
in a similar fashion, from their neighboring mountains, the Laurentian, including 
the region about Lake Superior, and the Ozark region about the mountains of 
that name in Arkansas and Missouri. There are lead ores in several of the 
States of the Mississippi Valley, at great distances from these mountain ranges, 
that contain a small proportion of silver, but in few cases does this silver exceed 
about the four or five thousandth part of the ore; nor is there any chance that 
they will ever produce this metal in quantities of the least commercial importance. 

* Manual, pps. 386 and 589. 



^6 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

The whole of the rich agricultural region of the Mississippi ; the whole of the 
Western plains, through all their extent to the one hundred and second meridian 
west from Greenwich, and on their northern section to the one hundred and tenth 
meridian ; the whole of the low-lying plains of the Southern States, in all con- 
taining a little over one half the total area of the United States, but at least nine 
tenths of its arable land, is sure never to prove productive of any the metals 
now known to the arts, save iron, lead, and aluminium ; and of these lead will 
never be again economically produced there^ until the mining industry of the 
Cordilleran region begins to wane. 

This rejection of the larger part of national area from the list of regions 
where gold and silver may be found in profitable quantities is based upon actual 
experience of the generations grown up within the area, as well as the general 
fact that the experience of other countries shows us that such rocks as underlie 
this region are always marked by the absence of gold and silver in profitable 
quantities. 

Of late years there has been a great advance toward a learc understanding 
of the natural processes by which metallic deposits are brought into the shape in 
which the miner finds them. All the old notions about the outburst of mineral veins, 
by fiery ejection from the deep interior of the earth, have been cast aside. Geol- 
ogists now pretty generally recognize the fact that all our metals are deposited in 
our stratified rocks as they are laid down on the sea-floor, having been sepa- 
rated from the sea-water, as a great part of all the rocks are, by the action of 
sea-weeds and marine animals. ***>!< * * 

Whoever looks over the whole field of American precious metal mining will 
be convinced that this industry is certain to make a very rapid growth in what is 
left of this century. He will also come to the conclusion that the production of 
silver is destined to increase very rapidly for a score or so of years to come, pro- 
vided the demand for this much slandered metal does not fall too far short of the 
supply. Beyond a brief term this yield of silver will surely diminish, especially 
if there is any considerable lowering in its price. The observant eye can also 
see that the production of gold is likely to extend to many new fields, and that 
the yield of this metal is in the future likely to be rather more steady than that 
of its bulkier sharer in the greed of men. North America and the twin con- 
tinent on the south are doubtless to be the great producers of precious metals in 
the future ; their store of silver must be of greater value at the present price of 
this metal than their store of gold. If the world continues to use silver in the 
coming century as it has in the past thirty centuries, there is a fair prospect that 
our continent will win some thousands of millions from its silver-bearing lodes. 
Even if we make what seems to me the mistake of using gold alone as a basis of 
exchange, the production of this metal will no doubt give us a larger mining in- 
dustry than any other country can expect to gain. — June Ailatitic. 



ASPHAL T PA VEMENTS. 97 



ENGINEERING. 



ASPHALT PAVEMENTS. 

GEN. Q. A. GILLMORE, U. S. A. 

Within the last twenty-five years bitumen, in some of its many forms, has 
been employed to a considerable extent, as the binding material or matrix for 
road and street coverings laid in continuous sheets without joints. They are all 
comprised under the general head of asphalt pavements. The city of Paris 
took the lead in this innovation upon the former methods of paving with stone, 
the reasons assigned for the change being, (i) the want of connection and homo- 
geneity, in the elements of which the stone paving is composed, (2) the incess- 
ant noise produced by them, (3) the imperfect surface drainage which they se- 
cure, by reason of which the foul waters are not carried off but filter into the 
joints, and (4) the ease with which they can be displaced, and used for the con- 
struction of barricades, breastworks and rifle pits in time of civil war. 

The forms of bitumen most extensively employed for pavements are mineral 
tar ; asphalt rock, which is an amorphous carbonate of lime impregnated with 
mineral tar, and known in commerce as bituminous limestone ; asphaltuiu ; heavy 
petroleum oils like those from West Virginia, or others not volatile under 212 Fah. , 
or the residuum of refined petroleum containing no water, and so refined as not 
to be volatile at 212 Fah. 

The principal sources of the natural mineral tar of commerce are in France, 
at Bastenne (Landes) and at Pyrimont Seyssel (Ain), and in Switzerland at Val 
de Travers, in the canton of Neuchatel. At Bastenne as well as at Gaujac, in 
the south of France, it flows frome ^evral springs mixed withwater. 

Asphaltum is a variety of bitumen generally found in a solid state. At ro- 
dinary temperature it is brittle, and too hard to be impressed with the finger nail. 
It is black or brownish in color, opaque, slightly translucent at the edge of a 
new fracture, of smooth fracture, and has little odor unless rubbed or heated. It 
melts easily, burns with very little if any residue, and is very inflammable. 

It is found floating on the Dead Sea, and in many places in Europe. Many 
localities in Mexico supply it, and it abounds in the islands of Barbadoes, Trini- 
dad and Cuba, and in Ritchie county, West Virginia, and in New Brunswick, 
Dominion of Canada. 

A capital distinction must be made between pavements of asphalt hereafter 
described, made either with natural asphalt rock, or with the refined asphaltum 
as a cement, combined with suitable calcareous powder, and all or nearly all 
of those attempted imitations of it, produced by mixing crude mineral tar, or 
manufactured tar, with one or more pulverized minerals or earths. And more 
especially must we exclude from the category of asphalt pavements, all those 



98 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

patent street coverings composed of wood-tar, • coal-tar, pitch, rosin, etc., mixed with 
either sand, gravel, ashes, scoria, sulphur, lime, etc. , or with two or more or all 
of them. Some of them will produce a tolerably fair sidewalk, but they are to- 
tally unfit for the surface of a carriage way. Some of the best of them will an- 
swer for carriage way foundations. 

The rock should be of the fine grained variety, of tolerably close texture, 
and composed of pure carbonate of lime so uniformly and homogeneously im- 
pregnated with the bitumen, that a cut made with a sharp knife will show neither 
pure white nor jet black spots, but be of a brownish liver color, mottled with 
gray. 

When asphalt rock of this character is heated to a temperature of 200° to 
212° Fah., the bitumen becomes soft, the grains of limestone separate from each 
other, and the mass crumbles into a partially coherent powder. If this powder 
while still hot, be powerfully compressed by ramming, tamping, or rolling, the 
molecules will again unite, and the mass when cold will assume all the essential 
qualities of the original rock, but in a superior degree, as regards toughness, 
hardness, and incompressibility. This is the whole theory of asphalt road cover- 
ings, as applied to the street pavements in Paris and elsewhere. 

Mention has been made of the superior toughness, hardness and incom- 
pressibility, conferred on bituminous limestone by compressing it while hot. This 
property characterizes any genuine asphalt mixture suitable for paving purposes, 
and advantage has been taken of it, in first, forming the material into 
rectangular blocks under a heavy pressure, and then laying them in 
courses across the street, substantially after the manner followed in constructing 
the best stone block pavement. It is, perhaps, needless to say that a pavement 
of this kind, composed of good materials, properly prepared, and laid upon a 
firm and unyielding foundation, should be a good one. Specimens of it have 
been on trial for some years in San Francisco, Cal. The blocks are made with 
Trinidad asphaltum, softened with 7 to 9 per cent, of the heavy oils or still bot- 
toms, used in preparing the asphaltic cement. This preparation is mixed with 
hot powdered limestone, or powdered furnace slag, and then compressed with a 
force of about fifty tons into blocks measuring 4 inches by 5 inches by 1 2 inches. 
The pressure, which is applied to the narrowest face of the block, exceeds one 
ton to the square inch. The limestone or slag is not required to be of the fine- 
ness of impalpable powder, but is composed of grains of all sizes from dust up to 
the size of a small pea. 

Tne blocks are laid close together on their longest edges, in courses across 
the street, breaking joints lengthwise of the street, the joints being filled with 
suitable asphaltic cement so as to render the pavement water tight. The foun- 
dation should be firm and stable, such as the best of those described on pages 
143 to 149. This pavement while new would be nearly as smooth as that of the 
continuous sheet of asphalt heretofore described, but the wear of heavy trafiic 
would, in a short time, crumble off the edges of the blocks and open the joints 



THE HUDSON RIVER TUNNEL. 99 

at the surface sufficiently to give the horses a foothold, without impairing the im- 
perviousness of the covering. It is suggested that it would be better to form the 
blocks with slightly truncated or rounded edges, so as to give the requisite foot- 
hold when the pavement is laid, rather than to secure the same end by the irreg- 
ular and ragged abrasion caused by use. As they are homogeneous in tough- 
ness and hardness, the blocks can be taken up, and their surfaces become un- 
even from unequal wear, and relaid in mortar, bottom side up, with all smooth- 
ness of a new pavement. It may be added that the process of refining and care- 
ful manipulation, is equally necessary whether the material be appHed as a mon- 
olithic sheet, or as blocks, and any mixture that is suitable for the former is also 
suitable for the latter ; also, that a form of sand is not a proper foundation in 
either ca-e. — Roads, Streets and Fave?nents. 



THE HUDSON RIVER TUNNEL. 

The work of tunneling the Hudson River is pushing steadily on, and it is 
expected that in three years from now trains arriving in Jersey City will run di- 
rectly through to New York, and land their passengers in Broadway, somewhere 
near the Metropohtan hotel, in six minutes' time. The company says that more 
than (roo trains of cars could be passed through in twenty-four hours on the 
double track. 

Freight trains will use the tunnel exclusively at night, and market trains in 
the early morning. All will be drawn by engines made especially for the pur- 
pose. These will consume their own steam and smoke. A powerful engine will 
be always at work forcing air into the tunnel. The entire length of the tunnel 
will be 12,000 feet; that is, about one mile under water and three-quarters of a 
mile on each side. Thus far only the New Jersey end has been bored, but the 
work on this side will soon be begun and excavations will proceed from both 
banks until they meet. As many men will be kept constantly engaged day and 
night, as can be successfully employed at once, in making the hole and building 
the lining wall. The gangs will be changed every eight hours, thus doing three 
days labor every twenty-four hours. All the work will be done by electric light. 
The tunnel will be lined throughout with iron plates, and these in turn will be 
faced all over with the best hardened brick and hydraulic cement, three feet 
thick. The brick will be made from the refuse taken from the tunnel. This, it 
is said, will effect a saving of $2.25 on every thousand used. As there will be 
2,013 brick in each running foot of wall, it will be seen that the saving is consid- 
erable. The interior will be painted white and lighted with gas. The entrance 
in Jersey City will be from Jersey avenue in Fifteenth street. The tunnel will be 
a single one, twenty-six feet wide and twenty-four feet high in the clear down to 
within a few feet of the river on both sides, and a double one all of the way un- 
der the water where the two tunnels will run side by side, each eighteen feet 
high and sixteen feet wide in the clear. It is to extend from Jersey avenue to 

IV-7 



100 KANSA ? CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

Hudson street and the river, about 3,400 feet; thence under the river, curving 
five degrees northward to the New York bulkhead line at or near the foot of Mor- 
ton street, about 5,400 feet, then curving slightly southward in New York, about 
3,000 feet, to a point to be selected by the city authorities. The extension grade 
of the tunnel is two in 100 feet descending from Jersey City, then ascending on 
the New York side three in 100 feet for 1,500. From that point the ascent will 
be on a grade of two in 100 feet to the New York end. The greatest depth of 
water in the river is about sixty feet. Most of the bottom of the river bed is 
composed of tenacious silt, underlaid by hard sand. Near the New York shore 
a small extent of rock is encountered and some gravel. — St. Louis Journal of 
Commerce. 



CHEMISTRY. 



BOG BUTTER, FROM COUNTY GALWAY, IRELAND. 

Mr. John Plant, F. G. S., exhibited at a meeting of the Manchester, Eng- 
land, Philosophical society, January 19, 1880, a piece of mineral resin, familiar- 
ly known in the west of Ireland as Bog Butter, (Butyrellite). The lump weighed 
exactly 14 ozs. It came from a good depth in a bog in County Galway. A few 
years ago, when in that part of Ireland, he had been unsuccessful in meeting 
with a sample of this curious substance, although he was informed that it was 
not unfrequently met with by the turf cutters during each summer. He heard of 
its origin and some of the uses to which it was said to be put by the poor people, 
if they got any of it, from a farmer at Killkee, but he could hardly credit the 
statement that in hard times it was melted down and actually used as a dripping 
to the potatoes ; he rather concluded that the greasing was limited to the axles of 
the potato cart. The Irish have a widespread belief that bog butter was hidden 
by the fairies in the bogs long ages ago ; and it is affirmed that the butter is some- 
times found in small wooden kegs in bogs along the coast. These kegs they say 
have been hastily buried by smugglers running a cargo of contraband, though 
when bog butter was declared an illegal article of trade in Ireland they are un- 
able to say. Unfortunately, Mr. Plant was not shown a keg, or even a staver 
of a keg, but he was informed that specimens of veritable kegs of bog butter are to 
be seen in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy and in the museums at Ed- 
inburgh. The fairy origin of the bog butter he thought might be ascribed to the 
active imagination of the Celtic brain, many of the inexplicable things in nature 
being readily put down to the good or evil doings of the indigenous fairies of 
Erin. 

By the aid of scientific analysis the substance called bog butter can be shown 
to be a perfectly natural production arising from the decomposition of the veget- 
able matters forming the peat or bog, and to belong to the numerous family of 



CARE OF STO VES. 101 

mineral resins, or hydrocarbon compounds, of which Dana describes the compo- 
sition of seventy species. 

Many of these are very well known under the names of marsh gas, petrole- 
um, ozocerite, asphaltum, naphtha, paraffin, bitumen, amber, torbanite, coal, 
and its varieties. 

Some of these singular minerals are obtained only from bog and peat beds 
Some time ago Mr. Plant showed to the Section a quantity of one of these 
resinous minerals, which occurred under the bark of pine logs found in a moss 
at Handforth by Mr. P. G. CunHffe. It proved to be known in Germany as 
Fichtelite, but had not before been known to occur in Great Britain. After- 
ward it was found in pine logs in the peat on Lindow Common. A waxy, 
greasy, or butter-like character is distinctive of these bog products. The one 
now exhibited was described first by Brazier in 1825, and was analyzed by Will- 
amson in 1845, its composition being given as 

Carbon 73-78 

Hydrogen 12.50 

Oxygen ' 13-72 

When fresh from the bog it is soft and like butter, but hardens in drying. 
The mass is dirty and bogstained on the outside, but inside pure white and free 
from impurities. It melts at 50° C, and becomes a yellow greasy resin; dissolves 
in alcohol or in ether, and then crystallizes in beautiful needles. When heated 
it gives off a peculiar odor like acroline. By saponification with potash it yields 
an acid which Brazier proves to have a composition similar to palmetic acid. 

There is a mineral waxy resin called Guyaquillite, which is found in extensive 
deposits in the marshy plains near Guyaquil, in South America, which has a sim- 
ilar composition to bog butter. 
Johnson gives it as 

Carbon 76.67 

Hydrogen 8.17 

Oxygen 15.16 

It has been proved that the slow decomposition or change in the vegetable 
peat or moss will produce elements of which these hydrocarbons are made. — 
Chemical News. 



CARE OF STOVES. 

The season is at hand for removing stoves from the rooms they have warmed 
during the winter. A few words of caution may not be amiss. Iron is more 
sensitive to the hygrometric changes in the atmosphere than any other commonly 
used metal ; at least it is more susceptible of permanent injury from dampness. 
The planished surface sheet iron, known as the Russia iron, resists these insidious 
•approaches of the foe of metals much better than our common iron ; but there is 



102 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

no mechanical means known of so thoroughly compacting the outer fibers of sheet 
iron as to prevent the action of moisture. Unused and uncared-for Russia sheet 
iron, unless kept in a place of equable dry temperature soon shows pin spots and 
blotches, hke mold, and these are the beginnings of disintegration. Those 
stoves which use wood or charcoal as a fuel, or for kindling, are particularly lia- 
ble to decay. The inside of the stove and the pipe are attacked by the pyrolig- 
neous acid contained in the soot and soon show the effects after being taken 
down. So long as a fire is kept up the heat counteracts, in some measure, the 
attacks of the acid ; but when put away for the summer the soot has opportunity 
to act, especially if it is aided by the damp atmosphere of a cellar, or the varia- 
ble draughts of an outhouse. The garret, or a room above the living rooms, is 
the best place for unused stoves and funnel. Perhaps the time will come when 
the superior advantages of sheet brass to sheet iron will be conceded, and our sheet 
metal stoves and pipe last a generation and grow handsomer as they grow older. 
Brass — any of the alloys of copper — is preserved from decay by its atmospheric 
oxide. The rust of brass preserves the metal and ornaments the surface. 
The oxide of iron disintegrates and "kills" the metal and disfigures the surface. 
Cast iron is worse in its objectionable features. A cast iron stove once rusted is 
a deformity and an eyesore. No amount of " Rising Sun" or "Carburet of 
Iron " can restore its pristine beauty or conceal the ravages of rust. The 
only way to preserve for the summer our red hot winter friends is to keep them 
in an equable atmosphere as to humidity; don't let them dry up through negli- 
gence nor weep out by carelessness. — Boston journal of Commerce. 



EDUCATION. 



SOME THOUGHTS ON THE PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUCTION. 

BY PROF. E. C. CROSBY, KANSAS CITY, MO. 

Thoughtful comparison of our best common schools with schools of an 
earlier time, suggests the conclusion that, although we are struggling in the dawn 
of a better age, we have hardly escaped from the traditional empiricism which 
forms the literature of the past. Probably, one of the greatest obstacles to pro- 
gress is the paradoxical aversion of teachers themselves to scrutinizing their own 
methods with the same interest and persistence manifested by them in pursuing 
light literature, society, fashions and gain. 

A child of six years must attain some proficiency in many subjects, if he 
would leave the school room, at the age of seventeen, respectably inteUigent. 
Hence, arises the question, "What subjects should be pursued during these few 
years?" But this question is inappropriate to the case at hand. Let us see. 



SOME THOUGHTS ON THE PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUCTION. 



103 



It is autumn, and the fruitful farm groans under its splendid burden; but last 
night a destructive fire swept away every tool and instrument, save one, with 
which to gather the crops. Suppose the farm is sold to a foreigner who is unac- 
quainted with our farm implements. There are the fruits to be gathered and 
shipped, the wheat to be stored, the corn to be husked, the field to be plowed, 
&c., and there is but one instrument with which to do the work. His first 
inquiry evidently is, " What kind of work will this instrument perform ?" and not 
''Which crop shall I gather first with this instrument?" Now, mind is the sole 
instrument with which the educator deals, and, evidently, his first question must 
be, ' ' What kind of work will this young mind perform ?" and not the question, 
" Whicn branch of study must first be mastered?" The profounder educational 
questions, then, underlying all others, are : What are the principles of mental 
action ? What are the elemental acts in the process called "knowing " ? These 
questions carry with them not the tacit but the living assumption that mind, m its 
several departments of intellect, sensibilities and will, is an indication, an express- 
ion of law ; and it matters not to the present view whether that law be surmised 
or wholly unknown. This point settled, then, let us proceed to consider the 
questions : How do we acquire? What mystery lies concealed in the dawning of 
intelligence ? How are mental faculties aroused to discharge their several func- 
tions, and in what order of succession ? To answer these questions, we need to 
consult only our own experiences as simulated in the daily activities of a child. 
A simple illustration: A book falls to the floor; the floor trembles; the air 
quivers ; the drums of the tympanum vibrate, and the internal ear transmits the 
vibrations to the nerve which carries them to the brain ; terminating this series is 
consciousness of sound. An idea of sound is subsequent to these physical move- 
ments, which it could never precede. Without the former, the latter could have 
no existence. Likewise, the child can never have the thought of heat until its 
nervous organism has been affected by heat. In these acts of knowing, it would 
be difficult to determine whether the sentiens is more important than the sensum, 
but it is quite unimDortant, since neither is dispensable. An object must be per- 
ceived before it can be conceived. It must become to us an object of sense 
before it can become an object of thought. It must first be presented before it 
can be represented. Ideas of roughness, area, elasticity, form, attraction, law, 
are based upon, are awakened by or arise from perceptions, and never precede 
them. And, generally, Froebel's system is the only practical philosophy of edu- 
cation extant. 

The class in Physics recites— no apparatus to illustrate the subject. The 
pupil answers : "A body is in stable equilibrium when it will return to its for- 
mer position after it has been shghtly disturbed." Well recited, but what does 
that mean? Illustrate. Here is a cone— explain your definition. Several 
attempts, failing to clear up the definition, succeed in showing a total want of 
comprehension of stable and unstable equilibrium. Success is reached only after 
many questions and failures. Here it is clearly shown that a definition is the 



104 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

result of purposed investigation, and the result illustrates the truth that the mind 
is not a crib for storing away forms of finished knowledge, like the above defini- 
tion, unless those forms have become the child's possession by tentative and expe- 
riential efforts. The mind, rather, is an instrument fitted for hewing out or mod- 
eling the knowledge products which it will possess. To begin with a definition is 
to begin at the wrong end of the educating process. It is much like getting a 
warranty deed to real estate before ascertaining its location, desirability and value. 
A definition, a generalization, a rule, a law, is a product of numerous observations 
and comparisons — a conclusion, the finale of a thousand experiences. The same 
truth is even more strikingly illustrated in the student's attempt to know the 
meaning of chromatic aberration, if presented to him in the form of a definition, 
clearly stated, with not mgre than fifteen words. Correct instruction requires 
the teacher to take his pupils to the glad fountain of experience, where the ele- 
ments of knowledge and their symbols are severally known ; where they may be 
individually studied in their relations to each other ; where they may personally 
encounter obstacles and feel the glorious enjoyment of surmounting them; 
where, individually evolving the finished forms of knowledge for themselves, 
their exact contents will be known rather than solely the aesthetics of expression. 

The necessity of perceiving completely and the trained ability of interpreting 
sensations are not outranked by any other department of educational science. A 
single illustration : A child sees a rock-salt prism for the first time. Vision alone 
is concerned. The child's conception of the prism consists of color, form, trans- 
parency and position. On the following day it handles the instrument. Now, 
the child's conception embraces, besides color, form and position, smoothness, 
temperature, resistance, sohdity, weight, etc. Upon the third day, the senses of 
sight, touch and hearing are applied to the study of the prism. Now, its concep- 
tion becomes far more complex. At the close of the fifth day, when the experi- 
mental process has been tolerably complete, let the question be asked, "Upon 
what day does the child possess the most perfect idea of the prism ?" The answer 
is self-evident, likewise the reason. The greater the number of sensual experi- 
ences, both in number and in kind, brought to bear upon an object, the more 
accurate, positive and considerable is our knowledge of it. The mind has been 
reached by different avenues of sensation, the soul has been awakened to new 
life, true conceptions have been formed, and these have been correlated and har- 
monized by the individual activities of the mind to be improved, while they pos- 
sess all the force, weight and power which it is possible for those conceptions to 
possess. Here is the practical question which more deeply concerns every parent : 
Should the schools possess the apparatus which will furnish the opportunity for 
these experiences ? There can be but one answer. 

I know it is a great mistake to think that when pupils arrive at their "teens '> 
they have passed the period which makes experimental work a necessity. This 
common belief might have some probability in it, did they receive the proper 
training before arriving at that age. Prof. Cook, our American chemist, in a lee- 



SOME THOUGHTS ON THE PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUCTION. 105 

ture delivered before the summer school of chemistry, (1879,) declared that 
"students coming to the university can neither observe with any accuracy nor 
are they able to draw tolerably correct inferences from what they imperfectly 
observe;" that "the student should be brought into personal and original contact 
with facts, and, by practice, become able to draw correct conclusions from them ; 
for these reasons, I find it necessary to take personal charge of the elementary 
classes, leaving the more advanced ones to the tutors." The same notes of warn- 
ing and complaint have long been uttered by such educators as Porter, Bain, 
Agassiz, McCosh, Gore, Spencer and others who stand among the best teachers 
of our time, and still we continue in the grooves deep-worn far back in the Mid- 
dle Ages — grooves so deep that he who attempts a statement of the principles 
which underlie acquisition is charged with being a "theorist," and his work is 
denounced as " not suited to the wants of the teacher," or as "shooting over our 
heads." Similar is the history of every move forward. 

From whatever quarter we approach the fundamental principles of the educa- 
ting process, there should be : 

In Childhood. — Perceptive work, with few symbols. 

In Youth. — Perceptive work, with many symbols. 

In Manhood. — Symbols, not exclusively. 

All theories of intellectual and moral discipline, devised by ingenious per- 
sons, disregarding the truth that law reigns among mental phenomena no less than 
among physical ones, must pass into forgetfulness, supplanted by one which rests 
upon the unalterable and eternal truth, so unmistakably illustrated in every human 
experience, and so concisely formulated in another century, that all our knowl- 
edge begins with experience. 

It is well known that our educational system fails to cultivate and develop 
practical judgment, and this failure demands an explanation which will stand 
adverse criticism. I believe it a truth that is almost axiomatic, that every prob- 
lem in mental. economy and mental discipline must find its solution, ultimately, 
in the nature of mind itself. Education begins with sensual experiences, but it 
does not end \^th them. When these experiences have been made the child's 
possession by an exercise of the senses, then, and then only, should those experi - 
ences receive a name, which name — elasticity, for example — can be made no 
clearer by , reference to a lexicon. Henceforth this word or symbol, whether 
thought, spoken or written, recalls the experience and takes its rightful place in 
the language of the child. Henceforth educational advancement is concerned 
with new experiences and their symbols, together with re-combinations, applica- 
tions and rearrangements of the old ones, and this complex mental activity we 
designate as an enlargement of the boundary of mental vision. Again I assert 
that unless the child experiences, by the sense of sight or touch, the rebound of 
elasticity, as seen in rubber, glass or other substance, this quality of matter can 
never become' a concept of his brain, and, consequently, it must remain as 
unknown to him as if it had no existence whatever. This real and individual 



106 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

contact with other objects is clearly implied in Dr. Porter's analysis of the know- 
ing process : "To know always involves two comprehensive acts, each of which 
corresponds to the other — the act of separating or revolving objects as wholes 
into their parts, and the act of uniting or combining these parts into their 
wholes." 

Concepts are founded upon percepts, but the former are rarely permanent, 
complete and triumphant. Perfect conceptions require experiences rendered per- 
fect by varied, like and similar conditions. Such symbolic knowledge, saving us 
the necessity of returning to sensual experiences, supplies every want and answers 
every purpose which symbols can provide, and with these the future progress of 
the pupil is mainly concerned. These truths must be granted; then, have we 
not a clear necessity for emphasizing the duty of making the child's perceptions 
not only complete but systematic? Every primary school should be provided 
with abundant apparatus, for instance, the units of length, weight and capacity. 
With these the pupil should be allowed to make the measurements for himself, 
whereby he practically determines the gills and gallons, the inches and yards, the 
ounces and tons. Thus do the gills, inches and ounces, as perceived facts, 
become the gills, inches and ounces of truly conceived facts. "True perceptions 
form the basis of intellect."! It can not be too strongly insisted that personal 
experience is the sole requirement for personal acquisition, and this knowledge, at 
first intuitively gained, becomes knowledge symboHcally known. Knowing the 
full force of these psychological truths, an eminent educator* has well said that 
"in regard to science, our schools are not above those of the Middle Ages — then, 
the students repeated the obscure statements of Aristotle, while now students 
repeat the statements of their text-books, without obtaining any valid ground for 
the conviction they are required to express," It is not difficult to compare some 
traits in the character of two individuals, one of whom has made science the 
usual literary study, as witnessed in most of the schools throughout the country, 
the other of whom has been drilled in the practical methods which a correct study 
of natural phenomena demands. The first 

Has learned how useful are devices, % 

And gives all honor to inventors ; 

"Promptness," he terms a business virtue, 

Historic, importance, he says, it hath not, 

Ampere, he calls the mightiest intellect. 

Familiarly quotes from works of Bacon. 

Adroitly speaks of heed and caution. 

Cites stunning things that have existed — 

Whose nebulous causes are historic, 

(Is sure he read it in the text-book). 

Dilates upon the accidental, 

Declares the causes supernatural. 



The second 



Clears the way with new devices; 
Execution nerves his sinews, 
Judgment, prompt and vigorous action 
Make many blessings fly about him. 



X The Art of Scientific Discovery. — -Gore. 
* Prof. Hinrichs, University of Iowa. 



SOME THOUGHTS ON THE PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUCTION. 107 

.Anticipating, calculating, 
(Has met neither Ampere nor Bacon,) 
Returns, persistent, to the details. 
Explaining all conflicting portions. 
Feels not too strong in his conclusions. 
Here, "accidentals" claim attention, 
(Has heard not of the early Fathers). 
"Investigate it!" is the watchword — 
Demands to know the hidden causes. 

In the domain of morals, the same principles obtain. There are two kinds 
of government— one exerted by the teacher, parent or society, the other by the 
individual who is to be restrained. The most perfect restraint is seen in individ- 
ual control, where the fountain of discipline is in an enlightened judgment coupled 
with nobility of purpose. The most abominable restraint is the purely external 
one, as seen in the school-room only when the teacher is present, or in a domes- 
tic circle in which the proprieties of deportment are compulsory. Commonly, 
discipline at home, in the school and in society exists by a union of these two 
kinds of restraints. In Sicily, there is much of the external restraint — the arm 
of the civil and ecclesiastical power ; in the United States, there is more of the 
" internal" restraint. The quality of society and the school varies with the pro- 
portions of these two kinds of restraints. Sad is the moral condition of that 
school governed largely by external influences, since, upon their withdrawal, the 
individual revels among his accidental changes of feeling and fancy without con- 
trol. These truths render it possible to account for the bad order not infrequently 
seen at the lecture room, at church, and in most public gatherings. Thus is gen. 
eral lawlessness accounted for — defacing public property, indecencies of speech, 
and want in self-respect. Too little attention is given to the fundamental princi. 
pies of true discipline, and too much to the mere education of intellect. There is 
no honor in graduating an intellectual rascal. It is of but little consequence to 
require a student to memorize and repeat, at stated times, sickly formulas of self- 
government, and to frequently remind him of duty to himself and his fellows. 
But the student must be assisted to govern himself at that moment when desire 
would entice him from the path Qf rectitude, at the instant when emotion wars 
against the weakened will. Mighty is the chasm which separates the languid, 
non-effective knowledge that we should do right, from the trained ability to be 
upright, when temptation's hour approaches. All know that we should not 
embezzle the property of another, but the virtue implied in this statement becomes 
effective and useful to the individual only after he has resisted temptation (of one 
kind or another) time and time again. The simple knowing that we should rea- 
son confers no ability to reason — the intellect must engage oft and deeply in the 
reasoning process, to acquire that ability; likewise, the simple knowing that we 
should do right confers no ability to do right — the moral powers must engage oft 
and deeply in those processes which constitute a moral act, before the mind 
acquires that desired ability. It is almost unnecessary to say that the simple 
learning of moral truths is an education of intellect and not a training of the 
moral powers of a human being. In the correlation of feeling and intellect, I am 



lOS KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

sure there is opportunity for research that will yield rich returns to an industrious 
explorer. 

To return again to the intellect ; an illustration : The eye falls upon a fruit- 
dish, and observations are made. After a lapse of a few minutes the word, 
"fruit-dish," suggests its peculiar form, its leaf designs, its fruit reliefs, its soft 
color, its position, its majolica material, its use, its grace and beauty and its slight 
defect. A week hence, its name suggests distinctly its form, its color less dis- 
tincdy, and the details of its ornamentation with increasing faintness. A year 
hence, these scanty details have lapsed into no htde obscurity, the name "fruit- 
dish" being as powerless to awaken original conceptions, in the fullness of their 
details, as Xenocrates' definition of soul: "A number moving itself." But what 
must be the significance of this term to a child who has even never observed one 
especially designed for the double purpose of ornament and for holding fruit ? 
To strengthen this position, let me quote from an eminent educator, (Dr. Porter,) 
since teachers as well as other people rely more upon authority than upon their 
own common sense : "The impressions received from words, by one who has 
never witnessed the reality, are but as thin and pallid shadows, when contrasted 
with full and glowing intuitions." It must be admitted, then, that while the 
teacher's work remains among symbols, he handles a currency whose value is as 
shifting or changeable as the diversity of minds to which he appeals. These sym- 
bols form a redeemable currency, but not a currency that is oft redeemed. There 
is but one way for our educational systems to act in this matter, and that is to 
insist upon the evident necessity of the pupils first knowing the thing itself, then 
learning its name, followed up by a frequent reference of the symbol to the real 
object which that symbol represents. Only by this method can the increasing 
faintness of symbols be counteracted. Again, we teach by the use of symbols. 
Symbols of what? Symbols of former perceptions. Where have those experi- 
ences taken place ? At the indulgent and perhaps wrangling home and upon the 
noisy, distracting street. Under what circumstances ? By the merest accident 
and without careful examination ; occurring among scenes of confusion or in 
moments of excitement; in hours of despondency, when emotion silenced the 
intellect; in a hap-hazard manner, when experiences are neither analyzed nor 
respectably put together and were forborne because unavoidable. Now, the 
question arises, ' ' If the original experiences have been so imperfectly mastered, 
how can their symbols possess a high value ? And if these symbols are the com- 
mon currency of teacher and pupil who can longer wonder that the child's prog- 
gress is not only plodding but very discouraging ? In view of these unrefuted 
facts, I fearlessly assert that no attempt at instruction is entitled to the name of 
system, or, is even tolerable, which does not provide for the systematizing and 
perfecting of experiences throughout the course of instruction. The corollary is 
sufficiently obvious ; our schools must be provided with apparatus and specimens 
with which to reinforce the symbols, and, primarily, to furnish new experiences. 
Until those almost meaningless symbols, the sole possession of the average child 



HEALTHFUL AND DANGEROUS OCCUPATIONS FOR WOMEN. 109 

at its entrance into the public school, have a freshness and force which, in our 
teaching we constantly assume, we may expect a continuance of the parrot work 
of the school-room and the difficulties of comprehension. Sensation, perception 
and symbolization, both in logical sequence and mental development, are the 
successive phases which constitute the Archean principles of mental development 
and human progress. 

If the above be taken for granted, how can our partial success in the school 
room be accounted for ? There is but one answer. This partial success is mathe- 
matically co-ordinated with, and is strictly dependent upon, those incomplete ex- 
periences which the child already possesses. Furthermore, those new forms of 
knowledge imparted to the pupil in the school room are comprehended by him, 
or as yet remain obscure, according as their elemental symbols are significant or 
meaningless. If the experiences whose symbols we divide, combine and vari- 
ously use, are fresh by repetition or late in time, the new knowledge product 
will stand out in bold relief; but if — as is more commonly the case — the original 
intuitions were incomplete for any reason, the new knowledge-product will be 
unreal, unsatisfactory, and nebulous. It should be added here that although the 
the pupil may recite text-book statements in well rounded periods, it is still far 
from being a test that he understands what he so beautifully says. Thus do we reach 
the conclusion, by the consideration of a few points in mental growth thjit " ob- 
ject teaching " is the only rational method of primary instruction. By " object 
teaching," I mean teaching from the objects and the phenomena themselves by 
allowing the pupil to handle and otherwise examine these objects, and not from 
drawings, nor pictures, nor verbal descriptions, nor enchanting stories about 
them. 

( To be continued. ) 



MEDICINE AND HYGIENE. 



HEALTHFUL AND DANGEROUS OCCUPATIONS FOR WOMEN. 

In the city of New York or surburbs we find women employed in staining 
and enameling glass; in making glass signs; in cutting ivory, pearl, and tortoise- 
shell; working in gutta-percha, gum-elastic, and hair; making willow-ware and 
cane chairs; feeding printers' presses and setting type; making and packing can- 
dles; molding tablets of water-colors; assisting in the manufacture of chemicals 
and fire-works; making clocks, enameling dials, and painting the cases; finishing 
backgammon boards ; making and dressing dolls and toys; stitching the cloths 
and making the pockets of billiard tables; painting the handles of brooms, and 
weaving twine into netting; making paper collars and twine; burnishing jewelry 
and making buttons. There are about five hundred millinerys houses in the city, 



110 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

employing over two thousand millinisrs, and the manufacture of straw hats engages 
several thousand women in weaving the braid, sewing, and bleaching. The arti- 
ficial-flower trade employs about four thousand women, many of them French, 
and it is as lucrative to adept hands as any other. The manufacture of hoop" 
skirts is said to engage over ten thousand women, who spool the cotton, weave 
the tape and cover the steel ; and the cap trade gives employment to many more 
thousands, whose earnings vary from three to five dollars a week. The weaving 
of hair cloth is also done by women, the packing of confectionery, and the mak- 
ing of shoe "uppers." 

Some of these occupations, and others to which we have not referred, are 
dangerous to the operatives, not merely from the long hours of toil, the insufficient 
food, and the lack of proper ventilation in the workshops, but from the nature of 
the materials and the manner of fabrication. The artificial-flower makers, the 
gold-leaf workers, the button-gilders, the cigar makers, and the lucifer-match 
makers also suffer from the nature of their occupation. 

In large manufactories of artificial flowers the ventilation is usually sufficient, 
and precautions are taken to prevent the inhalation of poisonous colors. But 
nearly all the brilliant leaves are made in the artisans' own home, a back room 
■or an attic devoted to all the purposes of existence, and- the arsenic that produces 
the spring-like vividness of color is diffused in the atmosphere and absorbed by 
the system. The fabric from which the leaves are cut is colored in the piece, 
Paris green, cold water, and starch or gum-arabic being used for the purpose. 
This liquid is spread by the fingers over lengths of fine calico or muslin, which 
are afterward beaten or kneaded by hand until they have an even tint. They are 
then spread out in frames to dry, and are next cut and shaded, the final process 
being their immersion in warm wax, and the removal of any loose color upon 
them. The detached particles float in the air, and are inevitably inhaled by the 
workers, whose handkerchiefs are speckled with dots of green blown out through 
the nose. Another operation, technically known as "grass-work," consists in the 
fastening of small glass beads or "dew-drop" to the artificial blades, which dis- 
lodges portions of the color, and leads to its inhalation. The consequences are 
variable. When the persons employed are cleanly in their habits, and keep their 
windows open, an occasional headache or an attack of dyspepsia is the most they 
suffer; but in other cases, all the symptoms of arsenical poisoning and revealed in 
eruptions of the skin, nausea, colic, and general debility. 

In gilding metal buttons, mercury and nitric acid are used, producing their 
characteristic diseases; and in making lucifer-matches the work- women sometimes 
contract the terrible disease which is technically described as necrosis of the max- 
illary bones, many cases of which have been treated at Bellevue Hospital. In 
the preparation of gold-leaf the substance is so fragile and bouyant that the doors 
and windows are necessarily kept closed, and the air of the work-rooms becomes 
very impure. But the women who suffer most from the character of their oc- 
cupation are the cigar-makers, who, mingling with men, boys, and children, toil 



TAKING THE TASTE OUT. Ill 

many hours a day for five or six dollars a week, living in an atmosphere surcharg- 
ed with dust and fumes that would make the most inveterate smoker sick. Part 
of the work is done in factories, but most of it is done in the dwellings of the op- 
eratives, and in neither is any attention paid to ventilation or cleanliness. Grow- 
ing girls at the verge of womanhood suffer in many ways, and'are as much under 
the influence of tobacco as a constant smoker. Their faces are pale, and their 
eyes are dead ; a stupor comes over them ; their nerves are unsettled, and their 
lungs are diseased in nearly every case. — Harper'' s Magazine for June. 



"TAKING THE TASTj: OUT." ■ 

Almost everybody knows that a globule of castor oil may be so folded by a 
deft and quick hand between two tea-spoonfuls of lemon juice that only the acid 
is recognized in the taking, and that where acids may not be used, the same 
effect may be secured by wine or spirit. But everyone does not know that any 
powerfully pungent substance, masticated for a moment and rejected, will pre- 
vent the necessity of acid or of spirit, neither of which, of course, it is always 
best to give. Thus, a bit of lemon peel or of orange peel, if chewed half a min- 
ute, will render castor oil as innocent as water, and it will do the same for the 
quite as vile taste of balsam copaiba. A little bitter almond, too, has the same 
power, if not more of it ; and a peach kernel is not quite useless in that way. 
Indeed, one drop of the essential oil of almonds will neutralize the disgusting 
quality of a whole ounce of castor oil, we are told, without detracting from its 
virtues, and less than a tea-spoonful of the oil of orange will work the same 
magic on an ounce of balsam copaiba. If, however, not any of these articles is 
at hand, some strong peppermint is very effectual. Even licorice will prevent 
the taste of anything that is very bitter from being perceived, and, strange to 
say, is the only sweet substance known that is capable of doing that. A pinch 
of the leaves of sage, either dried or green, of pennyroyal, and even of catnip,, 
if not quite so strong, is yet very efficient. Something as good as all the rest, 
although to the child probably not quite as agreeable, is the scattering of a few 
grains of Cayenne pepper on the tongue, after whose biting sting neither aloes, 
nor salts and senna, nor colchicum, nor thoroughwort, nor soda, nor bromide of 
ammonia, nor anything else, in fact, however disgusting otherwise, will make 
the slightest impression. If children, as it is very likely, should prefer the taste 
of the medicine pure and unadulterated to the smarting of the Cayenne, there 
are some grown people, and among them especially those gentlemen who, sel- 
dom needing to take medicine, make a great fuss about it when they do, and to 
whom Cayenne is so pleasant and necessary that some of them always carry it 
about them, may be glad to avail themselves of the knowledge in any case of 
need. — Harper' s Bazar. 



112 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

COMMERCIAL VALUE OF SANITARY WORK. 

In a recent lecture in New Haven on the value of sanitary work, I^rofessor 
Brewer, of Yale College, reviewed at great length the causes and effects of 
plagues and pestilences that did so much to darken the history of Europe during 
the Dark Ages. He then traced briefly the origin of sanitary science and its 
benefits, as shown in a largely diminished death rate. And after pointing out 
the four great obstacles to sanitation — ignorance, filthy habits, selfishness, and 
indifference — he proceeded to show how sickness, especially avoidable sickness, 
tends to impoverish communities as well as individuals. In this connection he 
said : ' «■ 

" Every student of history and of political economy notices the wonderfully 
rapid accumulation of wealth and capital in modern times compared with what it 
has been in previous ages. The material wealth and working capital of the civ- 
ilized world has more than trebled in less than a lifetime. The accumulation of 
wealth and property (and it is this which represents the aggregate savings from 
labor) during the last few years more than equals all that had been saved in all 
the thousands of years that had gone before, and that, too, while there has been 
a more general enjoyment of the comforts of life and a- much greater indulgence 
in its luxuries. The nature and sources of this rapid growth have been the sub- 
ject of much discussion by the statesmen and political economists. The causes 
generally assigned are the invention of modern machinery, the use of steam as a 
motor, the growth of modern means of transportation by sea and land, the ap. 
plication of the natural sciences to the arts and industries, the spread of popular 
education, the diminution of wars, and the production of the precious metals. 
There is no doubt that each and all of these have had their influence ; but there 
is one still greater cause which is too often overlooked, simply because it is not 
so conspicuous. The greatest of all causes is to be found in the better average 
health of civilized countries, and the longer average term of life which is now se- 
cured to workingmen. 

" It was not merely war, nor because they did not have steam, nor did not 
know about greenbacks, that kept the masses in poverty all through the Middle 
Ages — it was disease, and the death that came from disease that kept the nations 
poor. The history of the Middle Ages is a sad succession of plagues, of cities 
devastated, of States impoverished, of laborers swept away in millions, by suc- 
cessive waves of pestilence that followed each other as often as cities grew popu- 
lous. Between the common sickness which was ever present and the pestilences 
which swept off their milhons at a swoop, the average period available for actual 
labor in man was perhaps not more than half what it is now. Meanwhile, it 
took just as long to rear children to a working age as now, and sickness was just 
as expensive; so, between the diminished power of production, the waste by 
sickness, the panics and checks to commerce caused by plagues which were 
raging somewhere all the time, it is no wonder that wealthy people were compar- 



COMMERCIAL VALUE OF SANITARY WORK. 113 

atively few and the masses sunk in abject poverty. If we are tempted to think 
that we are saved from this by steam or machinery or increased production of the 
precious metals, let us look at any pestilence-stricken city of modern times. A 
single pestilence of but a few months came near bankrupting Savannah, and laid 
a check on her progress and a burden on her resources which it will take many 
long years to overcome. Worse still is the case of Memphis, with its two pesti- 
lences; and such may be the loss to any American city if it neglects sanitary 
laws. Our modern civilization is one of intense competition. Each producing 
community is now in a struggle with all the rest of the world as it never was be- 
fore. If it have any special advantage, it may prosper ; if it have any special 
disadvantage, .t either lags behind in the swift race, or, by standing still, rela- 
tively declines, or else it goes under in the hard struggle of productive or com- 
mercial competition. And what heavier burden to bear than sickness ! And 
yet this fact is liable to be overlooked or forgotten. The healthy man hopes that 
sickness will never come, and may be careless of his health, and the healthy com- 
munity rarely awakens to danger until epidemic sickness sets in, and the loss is 
actually begun. 

"It is the part of sanitary science to point out the dangers and suggest 
means of prevention, and when epidemics actually set in to suggest remedies; it 
is the part of sanitary legislation to provide means to apply these remedies; it is 
the function of health boards to administer them. But, from the nature of the 
of the case, the better they do their work the less obvious are their labors. The 
officer who heroically stands at his post during the time of pestilence, labors to 
stay its dread work, helps the suffering, and comforts the dying is a hero, and 
the heroism is of a kind that can be seen ; no praise is too high. But the other 
officer who, by his labors, prevents the pestilence and keeps it so far off that the 
danger is scarcely seen, receives no such praise — too often in its stead criticism, 
opposition and indifference. It is because of the nature of sanitary work that its 
value in increasing the prosperity of a city is so often overlooked. In the ordin- 
ary pursuits of business, the clang of machinery, the brillianc)'' of the applications 
of science to the arts, the bustle of business, the romantic ways in which the 
precious metals have been discovered and won, are more conspicuously in the 
eyes of the public than the quiet, persistent, unromantic, but heroic fight with 
unseen but unwholesome influences which lurk in the air of our towns. These 
malicious influences, mostly growing out of our modes of life, are ever present 
in all our cities, ever growing unless checked, always producing disease, and 
from time to time especially inviting pestilence, as persistent as sin, as tireless as 
nature, and as pitiless as death. The rapid growth of town and city popula- 
tions, as compared with the country during the last forty or fifty years has been 
made possible only by the power which modern sanitary science gives us to pre- 
vent, to check, and to combat epidemics. As matters were before, a pestilence 
of but a few weeks or months would put back the growth of a city for years. 
This city has had but one visitation of yellow fever; it lasted scarcely two months, 



114 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

and, from all I can ascertain by a careful investigation of the matter, it took 
from eight to ten years to recover from the shock. Indeed, can we say that it 
ever recovered ? . What New Haven might have been, had it not been for that 
check, just at a time of rapidly growing commercial importance, we can never 
know, but that citizens left, with their capital, to go into business elsewhere, and 
never came back, and that trade left the place and never returned, is certain. 
What 'might have been' had this pestilence not fallen on us eighty-six years ago 
we can never know. What may be, if another pestilence comes, we know 
too well. Too many cities have had such a bitter experience, even in modern 
times, for us to be ignorant of the effects. 

' ' We insure our manufactories from loss by fire to insure their being rebuilt 
if once burned. Even with this, the temporary suspension of work may drive 
trade elsewhere. Hence premiums are cheerfully paid to guard against the pos- 
sible contingency, and before the conflagration comes we cheerfully purchase fire- 
engines and apparatus, and organize bodies of skilled men to use them when the 
emergency comes. Here it is recognized that all this, though expensive in the 
beginning, is cheap in the end, and yet how reluctantly any such means are ta 
ken to guard against a worse destroyer of our wealth and prosperity. The ar- 
guments used even by official bodies against adequate support of public health 
administration in many, if not most cities, are curiosities of inconsistency, and 
will be cited as such by the next generation. It must not be forgotten that 
health boards are now more strongly demanded and called for because of their 
pecuniary importance than because of their function in allaying human suffering 
or saving human life. So long as merely men died, and health was lost, and sor- 
row fell on thousands of homes, Memphis went on as of old, dug her cesspools 
deeper and more of them, and did without sewers, but when the loud voice of 
trade cried out, ' We can not afford to allow Memphis to longer stand as a men- 
ace to the commercial prosperity of the great Mississippi valley,' then, and not 
till then was a system of sewering begun. A high death rate means loosened 
vigor, lessened powers of production, a check on prosperity, a burden on in- 
dustry. A low death rate in modern cities can only be secured by public sanita- 
tion, and by an intelhgent and efficient co-operation of the public with an active 
board of health. A single epidemic but one-fourth as bad as that in Memphis 
last year would cost this city more, and leave us with higher taxes, that the most 
expensive system of sewers and of garbage collection than was ever dreamed of 
here. And there is nothing to prevent it but public sanitation. We had that 
very disease here once, and the city did not recover its prosperity for ten years, 
and it lost some phases of prestige which it never regained. An epidemic of 
small-pox a few years since lost to the city of Philadelphia, in ways which could 
be estimated, above $20,000,000. This city a little later was seriously threaten- 
ed with a- similar epidemic, which was effectually stayed, and the health officers 
were, perhaps, more severely criticised for their work than for any other thing 
they have ever done. The results, however, have amply demonstated the wis- 
dom of their action. 



FOR DIPHTHERIA. j^g 

"The fact wants to be kept before the public, that as production and com- 
merce and trade are now carried on, few cities can afford to allow a pestilence to 
invade them. And if it comes to a city, with the natural advantages of soil and 
climate we have, it is due either to official ignorance or public neglect. There 
is, perhaps, not a single kind of pestilence which has afflicted any civilized city 
of temperate climate during the Dark Ages or since, over which we have not 
now control, if the community act up to the light and knowledge we have ; and 
on the other hand, as business is now carried on, no city can now be afflicted as 
many then were, and not be bankrupted and financially xmn^^.— Scientific 
American Sup. 

FOR DIPHTHERIA. 

A physician in Illinois writes: I have used successfully the following for some 
years for diphtheria: R sulphite soda gr. x., dissolved in ^i. warm water. Then 
add ten gr. salicylic acid. Dose, teaspoonful every fifteen to thirty minutes (or 
oftener) to a child of two years. At the same time use beef tea," wine, eggs, 
quinine, etc. I find this an effective anti-zymotic. In bad cases it must be used 
for some days. 

Chloroform Vapor in Earache.— At a recent meeting of the Medical So- 
ciety in the District of Columbia, Dr. James E. Morgan stated, during a discussion 
on otitis, that he had often promptly relieved the distressing earache of children 
by filling the bowl of a common new clay pipe with cottonwool, upon which he 
dropped a few drops of chloroform, and inserting the stem carefully into the ex- 
ternal canal, and adjusting his Hps over the bowl, blew through the pipe, —forcing 
the chloroform vapor upon the tympanum. Dr. J. Ford Thompson has also ac- 
complished the same relief upon similar principles. 



GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 



THE HOWGATE EXPEDITION. 

The vessel selected and furnished for this expedition is a Clyde built iron 
frame propeller, 200 tons burden, 140 feet in length, 21 feet 6 inches breadth. 
The engine has two 30-inch cylinders, each 24 inches stroke, jet condensers, and 
one boiler. The engine is estimated to be of about 200-horse power. 'The 
works have been overhauled and put in complete order by Petitt & Dripps, ma 
chinists, Washington, D. C. 

IV— 8 



116 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

It has been greatly strengthened by filHng in 2^ inches oaken plank be- 
tween the iron frames, sheathing inside and outside with stout oaken planks, so 
as to make the hull uniformly 15 inches thick. To guard effectually against the 
nip or pinch of the ice, which sometimes crushes in the sides of a vessel as easi- 
ly as an egg shell, the inside of the hull has been braced with extra heavy white 
oak timbers placed horizontally, and from side to side in the various compart- 
ments of the ship, directly on the water line. Inside the prow three heavy 
white oak breast hooks have been placed, and on the outside of the bow, over 
all, is a sheathing yk of an inch iron armor, extending 10 feet deep and 14 feet 
aft from the stern. 

Capt. H. C. Chester, formerly of the Polaris expedition, who is an experi- 
enced and intelligent Arctic explorer, has superintendence of the work of fitting 
the Gulnare for service in frozen seas. He has placed on the sides of the vessel 
extending above the water line, wedge-shaped oak timbers, which are calculated 
to ease the vessel upward when pressed by heavy ice. This is an idea resulting 
from the experience of the Polaris, which, when caught in the pinch of the ice, 
was forced downward and crushed. A new main deck has been put on, the 
planks being bolted to the iron frame of the ship, and secured on the inside by 
nuts screwed to the bolts. A new smoke-stack and an extra propeller have been 
provided, and amidships will be placed a new bridge 21 feet long. 

As the Gulnare will be used primarily to found an arctic colony of observ- 
ers to be recruited by other explorers hereafter, one of the chief designs in pre- 
paring the vessel for service has been to secure all the storage room possible for 
provisions, materials, instruments, arms and munitions. On the deck will be 
carried the frame work and other parts of a complete house sixty feet long by 
twenty feet wide, built on the plan of the houses so long employed by the Hud- 
son Bay Company. This house has been put up temporarily in Washington on 
the vacant lot on Fourteenth street, near New York avenue. It is a complete 
double frame house, with 12 or 14 inches space between, so as to afford the pro- 
tection of an inner wall of caloric. All the pieces are marked and numbered, 
and when taken apart may be stowed in a small space, and afterward put to- 
gether readily by the arctic colonists. Window frames and glass to give light, 
stoves for heating, lamps and other necessaries will be carried sufficient for a com- 
pany of men at the polar station, as well as for the ship's company on the voy- 
age. 

In the forward part of -the Gulnare is the forecastle, or berth deck for the 
seamen. There are accommodations for twenty-five men in this part of the ship, 
but the quarters will be very close. Under the berth deck is a fresh-water tank 
and storage room. Between this compartment and the coal bunkers, near the 
engine, the hold is entirely given up for storing supplies. The engine, boiler 
and coal of course occupy the center of the ship. Aft of these is the cabin, 
which is a neat and cosy little apartment, with state-rooms on each side, with 
accommodations for 18 officers and scientists. In the hold beneath the cabin is 



GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 117 

room for storage. When completely fitted out the little vessel will be closely packed 
with material and subsistence stores, and it is expected her complement of offi- 
cers and crew will aggregate upward of 40 souls. 

In addition to steam power the Gulnare carries main and foremasts, which 
have been put in new, with new spars, cordage, etc. The rigger is J. W. Will- 
ams, 106 Thames street, Baltimore. Pollard & Padgett, sailmakers, Alexandria, 
Va., have made duplicate sets of new sails entire. The vessel is square-rigged 
forward, square foresail, topsail and gallantsail, lug 4j^ foresail; the main is 
schooner-rigged and gaff topsail. No pains or expenditure has been spared to in- 
sure the best outfit and the most serviceable material. 

The station to be established in the Arctic region will be on the north side 
of Lady Franklin bay, in 81° north latitude, near a coal deposit found by Nares' 
expedition. The landing party will be in charge of an officer of the United 
States Army. The expedition will be commanded by United States navy officers, 
and the crew will be selected also from this branch of the public service. Capt. 
Howgate, whose idea is being put in practice, will remain here at the base of sup- 
ply to look after the sinews of war and to direct operations in the advance on 
the heretofore sealed region of the north pole, which will be made with a steady 
and systematic persistency which must win in the end, and finally gain for our 
countrymen the renown of having overcome the frozen barriers with which na- 
ture has hemmed in this interesting and forbidden region. 

When the men and material which the Gulnare now carries out have been 
landed and their house has been put up and supplied this summer, the steamer 
will return to the temperate zone for more supplies and men to replace those who 
may have become disheartened or disabled. From the colony first planted, ex- 
peditions will be sent out and a series of continuous advances made by planting 
camps further and further northward, until at last the main object is attained. 
But the glory of reaching the north pole over all obstacles, and over all other 
peoples who have striven for many years in this fascinating adventure, is not 
alone the object of the Howgate expedition. There are other and higher aims in 
the interests of science and knowledge, the fruition of which will be developed in 
the future of that intelligent corps of public servants, whose ceaseless watch and 
scientific industry already enable us to protect some of the most important pur. 
suits in life, as well as the individual health and comforts. While the struggle to 
advance further over the frozen steppes and icebergs of the north will never 
cease, the time consumed will not be lost otherwise. Each day will have its du- 
ties peculiar to the region, in the fight to live as well as in the observation and 
recording of natural phenomena, and in practical siege of the north pole, which is 
to be instituted in this system of steady and gradual approaches. — Baltimore Sun. 



118 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. . 

ARCTIC RELIEF. 

The following instructions to the commander of the Revenue Cutter Corwin, 
explain themselves : 

Treasury Department, 
Office of the Secretary, 
Washington, D. C, May 15, 188' 
Captain C. L. Hooper, Commanding Revenue Steamer Corwin, San Francisco, 
Cal.: 

Sir — The department having determined to dispatch the revenue steamer 
Corwin, under your command, to cruise in the waters of Alaska for the enforce- 
ment of the provisions of law and protection of the interests of the government 
on the seal islands and sea otter hunting grounds and of Alaska generally, you 
are directed to take on board that vessel, without delay, supplies of provisions 
for a six months' cruise and sufficient quantities of fuel and water and leave San 
Francisco with your command not later than the 2 2d inst, for the waters named 
and make the best of your way to the places hereinafter designated. 

It is desirable that you should be in Behring Sea and the Arctic Ocean as 
early in the season as the opening of navigation will permit. You will accord- 
ingly proceed from San Francisco direct to Ounalaska, and on arrival there will 
take in a fresh supply of coal. From this point you will proceed to Norton 
Sound, touching at the seal islands on your way. You will leave an officer and 
two men on Otter Island for the purpose of protecting the seals there, unless 
you should deem it necessary to take all your command with you in your further 
cruise to the northward. 

It is expected that you will time the movements of your vessel so as to ar- 
rive m Norton Sound before Behring Strait is open for the passage of vessels,^ 
and that you will avail yourself of the first opportunity to push into the Arctic 
Ocean. Arrangements have been made by which the Alaska Commercial Com- 
pany will place about fifty tons of coal at a convenient point on this sound, from 
which you may replenish your supply, if found necessary, at any time during the 
season. 

By reference to the report of Captain George W. Bailey, United States Rev- 
enue Marine, who commanded the revenue steamer Rush, in her cruise last year 
in Alaska waters, you will observe that Kotzebue Sound, in the Arctic Ocean, 
is reported as the rendezvous of a number of vessels engaged in ilHcit traffic with 
the natives of Alaska in rum and fire-arms. You will use your utmost endeavor 
to apprehend any such vessels as you may find thus engaged and break up their 
illegal trade. 

It has been reported that two whaling barks, the Mount Wollaston and Vigi- 
lant, were probably caught in the ice within the Arctic Ocean last Autumn while 
endeavoring to return through Behring Strait from their season's whaling, and 
fears are entertained for their safety. You will make diligent search for said ves- 
sels, and should you fall in with either of them or with any of their officers or 



GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 119 

crews, you will afford such succor or assistance within your power as may be re- 
quired. Should any persons desire to send contributions of provisions, etc., for 
the relief of those whalers, you will receive the same and dispose of them in 
such manner as circumstances may require. 

You are further instructed while in the Arctic to make careful inquiries re- 
garding the progress and whereabouts of the steamer Jeannette, engaged in mak- 
ing explorations under the command of Lieutenant Commander De Long, 
United States Navy, and you will, if practicable, communicate with and extend 
any needed assistance to that vessel. 

Should you be able to accomplish your mission in the Arctic Ocean early in 
the season, or find it necessary in carrying out these instructions to return to the 
seal islands before the usual time (say October lo) for the return of the revenue 
steamer from those waters, you will make a cruise to the westward from Ouna- 
laska as far as Atton, with the general object of protecting the seal otter hunting 
grounds and breaking up the business of illicit traders who frequent those waters. 
You are, however, permitted in your discretion to remain in the Arctic Ocean as 
late in the season as may be, necessary to accomplish the object of your voyage 
without encountering undue hazard to your command. 

A rumor of the wholesale starvation of the inhabitants of St. Lawrence 
Island, in Behring Sea, is noticed by Captain Bailey in his report of last year. 
You will investigate the facts regarding the matter if opportunity offers, and 
will, if practicable, land upon that island and ascertain the number and real con- 
dition of said people. 

While cruising in the Arctic Sea you will make careful observations as to 
currents, tides, etc. , and will keep an accurate record of such soundings, sur- 
veys, etc., as you may be able to make, and you will obtain such information as 
may be practicable regarding the numbers, character, occupations and general 
condition of the inhabitants of the adjacent coasts. 

Previous to sailing from San Francisco you will forward to the department 
a muster and descriptive roll of the officers and men of your command. 

You will whenever opportunity presents transmit to the department reports 
of the progress of your cruise. 

In conclusion, the department, having defined the general objects of your 
voyage and relying upon your skill and good judgment, confides to your discre- 
tion the details of your cruising within the Arctic Ocean, and takes pleasure in 
wishing you a prosperous voyage and a safe return. Very respectfully, 

JOHN SHERMAN, Secretary. 



AWARD OF THE ROYAL MEDALS OF THIS YEAR. 

The Royal medals or premiums intrusted to the Society by the Crown "for 
the encouragement and promotion of geographical science and discovery," have 
this year been awarded as follows : 



120 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

The Founder's (King William IV.) medal, to Lieut. A. Louis Palander, in 
recognition of the services rendered by him to geography, as commander of the 
Vega in the late Swedish Arctic expedition, during which he safely navigated 
the vessel along the unsurveyed shore of the Asiatic continent for nearly 3,000 
miles. The Patron's, or Victoria medal, to Mr Ernest Gills, for leading four 
great expeditions through the interior of Western Australia in the years 1872-6, 
during which 6,000 miles of routes were surveyed, and 20,000 square miles of 
new country discovered. 



PUBLIC SCHOOL PRIZE MEDALS. 

The medals for geographical proficiency annually offered by the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society to the leading public schools have this year been awarded as 
follows : 

Physical geography gold medal, to David Bowie (Dulwich College). Silver 
medal to Albert Lewis Humphries (Liverpool College). Honorably Mentioned, 
G. I. Schorstein (City of London School,) S. Edkin^, (City of London School), 
P. J. Hartey, (University College School), H. McMasters (Liverpool College), 
R. G. Reid, (Dulwich College). 

Political geography, gold medal, Frederick James Naylor (Dulwich College). 
Silver medal, Theodore Brooks, (London International College). Honorably 
Mentioned, C. F. Knaus, (Dulwich College), C. E. Mallett, (Harrow School), 
W. H. D. Boyle (Eaton College), A. D. Rigby (Liverpool College), M. G. 
Grant (Liverpool College), C. J. Casher (Brighton College). The special sub- 
ject this year was Western Africa, between the Sahara, the territory of Egypt, 
and the 6th parallel of south latitude. The examiners were, for Physical Geog- 
raphy, Commander V. L. Cameron, R. N.; for Political Geography, Admiral 
Sir Erasmus Ommanney, C. B. , F. R. S. The examinations were held on the 
15th of March. 



ITALIAN EXPLORERS IN AFRICA. 

Dr. P. Matteucci, who has not long returned from Abyssinia, has already, 
as we learn from Cora's ' Casinos,' started on a third expedition into Africa, 
with the object of exploring the little known State of Wadai, our present knowl- 
edge of which depends almost wholly on the information collected by Dr. Nach- 
tigal. Dr. Matteucci is accompanied by Don Giovanni Borghese, son of Prince 
Borghese, at whose cost mainly the expedition has been fitted out, and Lieuten- 
ant A. Massari, as scientific coadjutors The travelers visited Cairo in Febru- 
ary last and were furnished with copies of the surveys executed by Egyptian 
staff officers in Darfur, and on the part of the Khedive with letters of recom- 
mendation to the Sultan of Wadai. The routes to be taken by the expedition is 
via Suakin, Berber, and Khartum; and they started from Sully on the 24th of 



MAKING AND PRESERVING LAWNS. 121 

February last. Respecting the fate of the travelers Chiarini and Cecchi, who 
left the kingdom of Shoa, two years ago with the intention of proceeding through 
Kaffa to the African equatorial lake region, the Itahan authorities are still in 
some uncertainty. The last intelligence respecting them was to the effect that 
they had both reached the town of Kaffa in February, 1879 i^ good health, had 
been well received by the king, and were on the point of continuing their jour- 
ney to the lakes. Since then no further news has been received, and considera- 
ble uneasiness prevails, owing to the hostile attitude of the Mohammedans in 
those parts. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



MAKING AND PRESERVING LAWNS. 

BY WALTER ELDER. 

To properly make a lasting lawn, and keep it in good order, taxes the highest 
skill of the horticulturist, and when well executed, is the masterpiece of orna- 
mental gardening. Without it all other improvements look insignificant. It 
forms the green carpet upon which all ornaments are to be placed, and its bright 
verdant hue imparts beauty to all. 

Instructors upon lawn making, generally advise subsoiling the ground. If 
this be done, it should be a year previous to laying down the lawn. It is not 
always best to do it, as the subsoil may be a stiff clay, or barren sand. I have 
seen subsoil brought to the surface so poor that not even beans, peas or corn 
would grow — the germs rusting and decaying away. The seeds of grasses are 
small and succeed best in mellow and fertile soil. Several species of grasses 
should be sown, and very thickly, to make a close, green turf. Red top or herd 
grass, blue grass, orchard grass and a little white Dutch clover. The land should 
be manured the the previous year to sowing the grasses. After digging or plow- 
ing, harrow or rake fine, level up all hollows, and roll firmly down. Then sow 
the grasses, rake fine or harrow, then roll again. The sowing time will be 
according to chmate and latitude. Between New York and Baltimore, say from 
early March to middle of May, and from early September to early in October, and 
all the Fall after that. When grasses and weeds are well up, roll well, and let 
them all grow until the earliest weeds shoot up flower stalks, then mow down 
with the scythe or horse-mower, and scatter the cuttings evenly over the surface. 
When they wither, roll again, and then rake all off. On sandy lands the summer 
mowings should be seldom. On sloping lands and terraces or banks, the grass 
should be let grow long in hot, dry weather, unless artificial watering is at hand. 
The lawn should not be weeded the first year, but cut down all weeds when they 



122 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

bloom to prevent them bearing seeds. Weeds may be all taken out in late fall, 
and more grass seeds sown. Men with table knives can get out a vast number of 
weeds in a short time. A thorough digging out of weeds, with table knives,, will 
keep the lawn nearly clean. Do it in late fall or early spring. The lawn should 
be firmly rolled down every spring. It is good to sow some more grass seeds in 
late fall or early spring, so as to insure a close turf the next summer. 

Barnyard manure, so fermented and rotted as to kill all seeds of weeds in it, is 
the best fertihzer. It should be spread equally over the surface in fall or winter, 
as it is a most excellent fertilizer, when applied at the rate of five to ten bushels 
to the acre. Marl mixed with plaster of Paris is beneficial on sandy lands. Guano, 
and all the concentrated fertilizers are good, but their effects are different upon 
different lands. Lime, wood ashes and stone coal ashes should all be compounded 
with soil a year before using, and spread over the lawn in the fall. — Gardener's 
Monthly. 



BALM OF GILEAD. 



Dr. De Hass gives the following particulars as to this far-famed specific for all 
diseases : The name of Gilead was sometimes applied to all trans-Jordanic Pales- 
tine; properly, however, it included only the country east of the Jordan from the 
head of the Dead Sea to the foot of the Lake Genesareth, of which Mizpeh Gilead 
was the crowning point. It was here, along the Jordan and about Jericho, the 
balsam or balm once so highly prized, was procured from an aromatic tree, sup- 
posed still to be found in this region, and known as Spina Christi, or tree from 
which the Savior's crown of thorns was woven. This most precious gum was 
obtained by making an incision in the bark of the tree ; it also oozed from the 
leaves, and sometimes hung in drops like honey from the branches. The tree 
which originally was found in Palestine, was transplanted to Egypt by Cleopatra, 
to whom the groves near Jericho were presented by Mark Antony. The shrub 
was afterward taken to Arabia and grown in the neihgborhood of Mecca, whence 
the balsam is now exported to Europe and America, not as balm from Gilead, but 
balsam from Mecca. The gardens around Heliopolis and the " Fountain of the 
Sun," in Egypt, no longer produce this rare plant, and it has long since ceased to 
be an article of export from the ancient Gilead. — -Journal of Chemistry. 



SEEING BY ELECTRICITY. 

As regards the general question of seeing by electricity, the principles in- 
volved are somewhat different from those which have entered into other electro- 
telegraphic problems ; the element of time, which plays such an important part 
in all telegraphic inventions hitherto brought out, is almost wholly absent when 
the question of sight is involved. In the transmission of sound, or of telegraphic 
signals by electrictlty, we have to cause a succession of signals to follow one 



RELATION BETWEEN INSECTS, PLANTS AND MAMMALS. 123 

after the other, and hence it follows that a single telegraphic wire is able to effect 
all that is required. In the case of seeifig, in order to enable the form and color 
of an object to be rendered evident to the senses, it is necessary that a series of 
impressions, infinite in variety, be produced upon the retina in almost immeas- 
urably short space of time, and, practically, all at the same instant ; we must 
have, in fact, an infinite series of waves transmitted at the same, or nearly the 
same moment. To do this through a single wire by electrical means is a difficult 
problem ; but that it will eventually be done by means of a single wire, is, we 
think, an undoubted fact. How it is to be done is another question ; but we 
feel certain that no arrangement involving a multiplicity of wires will ever enable 
success in the direction aimed at to be attained. It is not because a multiplicity 
of wires is objectionable for practical telegraphic purposes that we say this ; but, 
because, almost without exception, all complete solutions of problems, like that 
of the telephone, for exannple, have been most completely and thoroughly effect- 
ed by the simplest means. — Telegraphic Journal. 



THE RELATION BETWEEN INSECTS, PLANTS AND MAMMALS. 

BY LESTER F. WARD, A. M. , WASHINGTON, D. C. 

It is a fact of profound significance that the higher flowering plants made 
their first appearance on the globe simultaneously with the Hymenoptera and Dip- 
tera in the Jurassic and Cretaceous formations, while they did not reach their 
highest perfection until the Lepidoptera had appeared in the early Tertiary. The 
Neuroptera and Orthoptera which are found in the Carboniferous could have con- 
tributed nothing to the demand for cross-fertilization, and the Coleoptera, 'sparingly 
met with below the Trias, were doubtless then equally ineff"ectual in this respect ; 
as even at present they only supplement to a sUght degree the work of the bees, 
flies, moths and butterflies. And we accordingly find that the vegetation prior to 
the Jurassic and Cretaceous epochs consisted almost wholly of Cryptogams and 
Gymnosperms, with only a few amentaceous and monochlamydeous Angiosperms 
in the highest of these strata. 

These facts justify the assumption that most of the higher flowering plants 
would speedily perish were insect aid withdrawn, and also that but for such aid m 
the past we should now see, instead of our gorgeous flora of Orchids, Lilies, 
Magnolias, and Roses, one consisting chiefly of Ferns. Cycads, and Conifers, 
mingled with willows, oak, and alders, and plain grasses and rushes. 

But when we consider how poorly adapted Cryptogamous and Coniferous 
vegetation is to the support of animal life, we may also declare with perhaps 
equal certainty, that but for the Phanogamia there could have been no Mammalia. 
A picture that should represent herds of buffaloes and antelopes roaming amid 
the Feirns, Lepidophytes, and Calamites of the Carboniferous epoch would be an. 



124 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

anarhronism whose realization it would be impossible to conceive. And thus we 
have, only on a grand scale, one of those singular chains of cause and effect of 
which naturalists have pointed out several (that of the dependence of clover upon 
cats, being perhaps the most familiar), but which, apart from that grotesqueness 
which they sometimes possess on a superficial view, are among the best illustra- 
tions of that intimate and far-reaching consensus which prevades all departments 
of hfe. 

Considering to what extent man is dependent upon the Palmacece, Rosacea, 
and other fruit and nut-bearing trees and plants, which, at least on the theory of 
man's simian origin, must have been far greater if not absolute in the early period 
of his existence ; considering, too, in connection with this, that it is the Hymenop- 
tera that have contributed most to render the existence of this class of vegetation 
possible, it ceases to be a mere poetic fancy to claim for the bee and the ant the 
high merit of having literally prepared the way for the advent of man, whose 
prototype they are to so great an extent, both in their psychic and their social 
attributes. >ic * >!< >K * * — American Entomologist. 



MAY JEWS EAT OYSTERS? 

A certain elder of the Hebrew Church in America recently propounded the 
doctrine^that oysters are " plants," and are not, therefore, included among any of 
the articles prohibited as food under the Mosaic law. He probably based his re- 
markable discovery on the difficulty which modern research has thrown in the way 
of accurately determining the line which divides animals from plants. Some of 
the members of his church appear to accept the doctrine, and have become 
habitual eaters of oysters; while others maintain that these bivalves are " unclean," 
and avoid them accordingly. A question of extraordinary delicacy is thus open- 
ed up. The different views on the subject of those who do not accept the 
''plant" theory, maybe expressed in the following manner. Among the various 
' ' unclean " animals enumerated in the Levitical law, those creatures of the water 
"that have neither fins nor scales," are specifically mentioned, and it may be 
argued that oysters do not come within this category, for do we not speak of 
green -finned oysters? and are not the shells virtually "scales"? On the other 
hand snails are specifically forbidden, and it is claimed that oysters are 
really snails ? but then snails might be said to be covered by the prohibition of 
" creeping things," and those that "go upon the belly," so that the mention of 
snails ought not to be taken as including more than those particular creatures. 

Altogether the problem is as delicate as it is curious and interesting. It ought, 
however, to be met fairly, and settled authoritively. To call an oyster a "plant," 
for the purpose of evading the generally accepted rendering of the Mosaic law is 
begging the question altogether. — The Caterer. 



RECENT TELEPHONE EXPERIMENTS. 125 

RECENT TELEPHONE EXPERIMENTS. 

At the suggestion of one of the proprietors of this Journal — Mr. A. E. 
Beach — a series of interesting experiments relating to the electrical transmission 
of sounds has lately been commenced in this vicinity, which seems likely to lead 
to a variety of useful results. In the introductory experiment the Scientific 
American office and Mr. Beach's dwelling, in the upper part of this city, were 
connected by wire with the auditorium of Plymouth Church — Rev. Henry Ward 
Beecher's — in Brooklyn, N. Y., and these points were also telegraphically joined! 
by the wires of the Bell Telephone Company and those of the Gold Stock Com 
pany, the electrical circuit being thus enlarged and ramified in all directions, 
communicating with offices and dwelhngs in New York, Brooklyn, Jersey City, 
Newark, Orange, Elizabeth, Yonkers, and other adjacent places. One object of 
the experiment was to determine approximately through how many united cir- 
cuits and lines the voice of a public speaker might be simultaneously trans- 
mitted. 

At Plymouth Church, in Brooklyn, the wire passed under the floor to the plat- 
form or pulpit, where it connected with two of the well known Blake transmitters 
arranged upon a shelf under the speaker's desk. The general arrangements for 
the experiments were under the charge of Mr. Fredrick C. Beach, Ph. B., of the 
Scientific American office. 

When it became known at the Bell telephone office in Brooklyn that experi- 
ments were to be tried, the interesting news soon spread to all other telephone offi- 
ces, and the various operators not only called into their offices parties of their 
friends to enjoy the treat, but gave notice to numbers of private persons having 
communicating wires, who in turn invited friends to their dwellings. Thus at 
many points on the great ramification of connecting wires were groups of per- 
sons waiting, with telephones at their ears, to hear the words of the distinguished 
speaker. At one of the stations fifteen telephones were in this way connected, 
the instruments being joined by wires, just as a circle of people join hands ia 
sharing an electrical shock. 

The first experiment was made on Sunday, April, 1 8, and was on the whole 
perhaps more successful than could have been expected. The telephone listen- 
ers stationed in Brooklyn, and nearest the church, were enabled to hear the ser- 
vice with much satisfaction ; but those in New York, Yonkers, and Orange, N. 
J., only heard the music and portions of Mr. Beecher's sermon. It was con- 
cluded on the whole that there were too many telephones in circuit; and it was- 
subsequently ascertained that the wire leading to the church had been surrepti- 
tiously tapped where it passed over a dwelling, a ground made on the tin-roof, 
and a considerable number of telephones smuggled in. 

On the following Sunday, April 25, another trial was had, precautions hav- 
ing been taken not to allow so many tapping lines or instruments in circuit. 
Special care was also taken by Mr. Adee, the adjuster of the Bell Telephone. 



126 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

Company, to give the most delicate adjustment to the transmitting instruments at 
the church. The result was most successful and marvelous. * 

From the opening note of the organ prelude to the last word of the preach- 
er's voice, at the close of the service, everything was delivered to the ears of the 
listening telephoners in the most perfect manner, the tones that came over the 
wires being so full, round, and clear, and distinct, it almost seemed to the hearers 
in New York, Yonkers and Elizabeth as if they were stationed within the church 
itself directly in front of the speaker. 

The delivery of the music was equally perfect, every note of the organ and 
of the individuals of the choir being fully brought out. The majority of the 
participators in this experiment were persons accustomed to the use of the tele- 
phone, and their unanimous verdict was that the results obtained far surpassed 
anything of the kind within their previous experience. 

These experiments proving successful, several new improvements have been 
suggested for trial, and there seems to be every probability that in a short time 
some new and very effective instruments will be in use, by which all who desire 
may carry the sounds of church services into their dwellings, and may also en- 
joy the best lectures, musical and other entertainments with the utmost satisfac- 
tion in their homes. Heretofore, in listening to the telephone, it has required 
effort and strain of the ear on the part of the listener. But this experiment 
shows that all sounds may be delivered in full and easy tones, readily heard, 
with all the natural characteristics, modulations, and inflections of the human 
voice. — Scientific American. 



BLACK INK FOR STENCILS. 
The following is commended for the preparation of a black ink or paste for 
use with stencils : Bone black i pound, molasses 8 ounces, sulphuric acid 4 
ounces, dextrine 2 ounces, water sufficient. Mix the acid with about two ounces 
of water, and add it to the other ingredients previously mixed together. When 
the effervescence has subsided, enough water is to be added to form a paste of 
convenient consistence. 



BOOK NOTICES. 127 



BOOK NOTICES. 



Water Analysis for Sanitary Purposes. By E. Frankland, Ph. D., D. C. 

L., F. R. S. Philadelphia, Presley Blakiston, pp. 149. $1. 

In view of the rapidly increasing population of our cities, and the corre- 
sponding increase of the contaminating materials, formed in factories, chemical 
works and households, which flow into our streams or filter through the soil into 
our springs and wells, it is of the utmost importance that the people should be 
informed how they can test their drinking water for unwholesome ingredients. 
This is the object of Dr. Frankland's little work, which, while strictly scientific 
and technical, is at the same time written in such a style as to be readily under 
stood by ordinary readers. Part I, is devoted to water analysis without gas ap- 
paratus, including the preliminary examination of samples, solid matter in solu- 
tion, ammonia, chlorine, hardness, nitrogen, poisonous metals, organic impuri- 
ties, etc. Part II, is devoted to water analysis requiring gas apparatus, includ- 
ing the determination of carbon and nitrogen in organic matter by the combus- 
tion process, the eudiometrical determinations, interpretation of the results of com- 
bustion, sewage or animal contamination. The appendix (40 pages) contains 
lists of reagents, tables, typical analyses, etc., closing with the conclusions and 
recommendations of the Rivers Pollution Commissioners of England. 

Physicians, sanitary commissioners and boards of health will find it a 
"handy volume" in their work. 



Missouri University Lectures. By Members of the Faculty, 1878-9; Course 

II, Vol. I, pp. 504. Statesman print, Columbia, Mo. 

In 1877-8, the Faculty of the Missouri University inaugurated the deliver- 
ing of a series of lectures illustrative of the various special departments, which 
was found to be a decidedly popular move. During the past winter a second 
course was delivered with similar favorable reception by both students and the 
public, to whom they were made free. They were afterward brought together 
and published in a neat volume for general distribution. 

The table of contents is as follows: Petroleum, by Prof. Schweitzer; Evolu- 
tion and Creation, by Prof. Swallow; Insect Ways, Prof. Tracy; Mathematics, 
Prof. Ficklin; Three Pronunciations of Latin, Prof. Fisher; Mosaic Cosmog- 
ony, Prof. Meyrowitz ; Linguistic Curiosities, Prof. McAnally; Arnold of Rug- 
by, Prof. Bibb ; The Professional school. Prof. Lowry , The Ideal of Art, Prof. 
Bingham; Metaphysics, Presr. Laws; Advantages of Classical Study, Prof. 
Fleet ; Study of Language, Prof. Blackwell ; Art, Prof. Diehl. 



128 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

Some of these have been published in the Review, others have been quoted 
from or commented upon; all are excellent and the work is worthy of the wide cir- 
culation that it has received. 



Dwelling Houses. Their Sanitary Construction and Arrangement. By Prof. 

W. H. Corfield, M. A., M. D. (Oxon.) D. Van Nostrand, New York. 

i8 mo. pp. 156, 50 cents. 

This is Number 50 of Van Nostrand's Science Series, reprinted from Van 
Nostrand's Engineering Magazine, and is a very valuable, practical essay, by a 
distinguished architect and professor of the University College, London, upon a 
subject of absorbing interest to all classes of society. 

Situation and construction of houses from foundation to roof, including 
drainage, ventilation, heating and all other points, are fully considered and dis- 
cussed from a scientific and common sense standpoint, and the little volume pre- 
sents a competent guide to the builder and owner of dwelling houses. A few 
pages from it were published in the Review last year and attracted marked at- 
tention. 



OTHER PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 

Twelfth and Thirteenth Annual report of the Peabody Museum of Ameri- 
can Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. II. Nos. 3, 4 ; Proceedings of the Daven- 
port Academy of Sciences, Vol. II. Part II. July 1877 to December 1878, and 
Vol. III. Parti. January i, 1879; Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Session 
of the Missouri Press Association, held at Columbia, Mo., May 1879, To The 
Rockies and Beyond, being an account of the health, pleasure and hunting re- 
sorts of the mountain regions of the West, by Robt. E. Strahorn, 50 cents; The 
California Architect and Building Review, Vol. I. No. 5, monthly, $1.50 per an- 
num; The William Jewell College Student, Vol. I. No. i, $1 per annum ; An 
account of the Tornado of Marshfield, Mo., April 18, by Prof. F. E. Nipher. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



129 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



On Tuesday evening, May 25th, the Kan- 
sas City Academy of Science held its fourth 
annual meeting. A very interesting paper 
was read by Dr. Heath, of Wyandotte, Kan- 
sas, upon Orton and Peru, which will appear 
in the Reviev\^ next month. Judge West fol- 
lowed with his report of an exploration of 
ancient barrows in Kansas, which appears in 
the present issue of the Review. A resolu- 
tion was passed, thanking the various lectur" 
ers of the extra Winter Course for their aid 
and the pastors of the churches used for their 
courtesy, and the railroads furnishing free 
transportation; after which an election of 
officers for the ensuing year was held. 



The extra winter course of lectures fur- 
nished by the Kansas City Academy of 
Science was closed on the 22d ult. by that of 
Rev. Dr. Laws ; and in most respects it has 
proved a success. The lecturers have been 
selected from among the best teachers and 
writers of Missouri and Kansas, and the 
topics treated by them have been of pop- 
ular interest and suited to the most diverse 
tastes. The audiences have been in most in- 
stances quite large, and in all from among 
our most intelligent people. 

The Academy has been at great trouble 
and some expense to secure the services of 
these gentlemen, to obtain the use of various 
churches in the city and other necessary mat- 
ters, but if our people have been entertained 
and benefited enough to ask for a similar 
course next winter it will be forthcoming. 



Among the later inventions few present 
points more worthy of consideration among 
metallurgists than that of employing the 
electrolytical process of refining the precious 
metals. It has been patented by E. Andre 
both in the United States and Europe, and is 
in practical use among some of the largest 



works in Great Britain and on the Continent. 
This process is said completely and eco- 
nomically to extract the gold and silver from 
their alloys, leaving the former in the dia- 
phragms at the anodes and depositing the 
baser metals in a pure metallic state on the 
cathodes. 



As an evidence of the importance and value 
of the U. S. Signal Service observations and 
predictions, it may be stated that the verifica- 
tions of the latter, based upon the former, 
for the month of March, 1880, amounted to 
82.3 of the whole number of predictions 
made. 



SiGNOR N. Perrini, an Italian teacher of 
astronomy in London, has invented a new 
planetarium which is free from most of the 
objections to the old fashioned orreries, 
whose multiplicity of conspicuous wires and 
other machinery was liable to confuse the 
observer. Signor Perrini has his planetarium 
in a large circular room with a concave dome 
upon which the movements of the sun, moon 
and stars, &c., are distinctly and correctly 
shown by means of motive power which is 
out of sight above the ceiling. 



An important law suit now pending in the 
courts of Wisconsin involves the exact and 
probably speedy solution of the vexed ques- 
tion of the agency of wind or electricity 
in cyclones. The plaintiff sues an insurance 
company to collect pay for damages done to 
his property by a noted storm in 1878; basing 
his claim on the allegation that the storm 
was of electrical origin and therefore that 
the company is liable under the "lightning 
clause " of his policy. Of course the com- 
pany resists payment on the ground that the 
property was destroyed by wind alone, re- 
gardless of the agency of electricity. 



130 



KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



The lecture of President Laws on the eve- 
ning of the 22d, upon the Categories of 
Kant, was a clear, thoughtful and complete 
account of the philosophy of that wonderful 
metaphysician, with appropriate comments 
and just criticisms. It occupied the atten- 
tion of the audience for over an hour and a 
half without any evidence of weariness, and 
when the speaker closed his remarks he was 
warmly congratulated by numbers of those 
present. As a lecture proper it was one of 
the most instructive and valuable of the 
course which it ended. 



The Review for July will contain, among 
other original articles, the paper, by Dr. I. 
D. Heath, upon " Orton and Peru;" also 
one on the Ancient Mounds and Remains at 
Madisonville, Indiana, by the well known 
Archaeologist of the Smithsonian Institution, 
Stephen Bowers, Esq., both of which will be 
especially attractive and interesting to all 
readers. 

Through inadvertence, we failed to notice 
the lecture of Rev. Richard Cordley, D. D., 
before the Kansas City Academy of Science, 
on April 13. It was upon the subject of 
Patience in Culture and Investigation, which 
, was discussed in an able, discriminative and 
eloquent manner, worthy of the man and the 
occasion. It was expected that an abstract 
of the essay would be furnished for publica- 
tion, but we suppose Dr. Cordley 'swell known 
modesty deterred him from doing this. 



We are indebted to Rev. James Marvin, 
Chancellor of the University of Kansas, for 
an invitation to attend the examinations and 
Commencement exercises of that institution, 
between May 31st and June 9th. Railroad 
fares have been reduced, and everything will 
be done to render the occasion especially in- 
teresting to visitors. 



Columbia College has conferred upon Gen- 
eral Di Cesnola the honorary degree of LL. 
D., in token of appreciation of his eminent 
services in the cause of art. 



The closing and. Commencement exercises 
of the Missouri State University occupy the 
time from May 25th to June 3d. On Tues- 
day evening, June ist, Gardiner Lathrop, A. 
M , LL. B , of this city, will deliver the 
annual address before the literary societies. 
This, as well as the other exercises, will be of 
a most interesting character. 

ITEMS FROM THE PERIODICALS. 

The June number of The North American 
Revietv contains "Popular Fallacies about 
Russia," by E. W. Stoughton, ex-Minister to 
Russia; "Divorces in New England," by 
Dr. Nathan Allen; "McClellan's Last Ser- 
vice to the Republic," by George Ticknor 
Curtis; " Has the Southern Pulpit Failed?" 
by Rev. Dr. F. A. Shoup ; "Caste at West 
Point, by P. S. Michie, Professor of Philoso- 
phy at West Point ; and " Some Interesting 
Publications," by M. W. Hazeltine. This 
number closes the CXXXth volume and six- 
ty-fifth year of the Review. During the last 
few years, this magazine has made a most re- 
markable advance in popular favor. Many 
of its numbers have passed through several 
editions, and its permanent circulation has 
increased more than six-fold. All the best 
papers of the country speak of it in the 
highest terms. 



According to the astronomical notes from 
Vassar College observatory in the Scientific 
American, a large and densely black spot sur- 
rounded by the usual gray bordering and ac- 
companied by others of smaller size, may be 
looked for early in June upon the eastern 
limb of the sun. 



Good Company, for June, has its usual quo- 
ta of good things, and in addition a very 
readable article by S. J. Douglass, on Science 
in High Latitudes, which, in view of the 
present interest felt in the second Howgate 
expedition, is very appropriate. 



The American Bookseller says Winchell's 
Preadamites (S. C. Griggs & Co.) " is an 
elaborate and deeply interesting study of 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



131 



ethnology, demonstrating the existence of 
men before Ada'o and making careful exam- 
ination of their antiquity, conditions, peculiar- 
ities of race and distribution over the earth. 
While written in popular style, it is based 
upon scientific facts which are everywhere 
quoted to support the conclusions drawn, 
and history and literature as well are made 
to contribute to the writer's theories." 



every respect to any similar institution in the 
country. 



On looking over the Proceedings of the 
Academy of Science of Davenport, Iowa, 
now one of the most flourishing and notable 
societies in the west, we came across an ac- 
count of the tenth anniversary of its estab- 
lishment, at which "twenty-five persons were 
present," Quite encouraging to some of our 
own young Academy who feel discouraged 
when at an ordinary monthly meeting no 
more than fifty or sixty persons attend. The 
Davenport Academy is now nearly thirteen 
years old ; it has its own building, a fine 
library and an extensive cabinet. Its publi- 
cations, finely printed and illustrated in the 
best style of the art, would be creditable in 



The New York Daily Graphic says : The 
Kansas City Review of Science and In- 
dustry (Kansas City, Mo., press of Ramsey, 
Millett & Hudson) for May is in several re- 
spects an advance upon many of its prede- 
cessors. The articles are all short and of 
unusual simplicity and readableness for a 
periodical of this kind. The table of con- 
tents includes hve articles on geographical 
subjects, the two most important of them 
written for the Review, viz : that on "Ex- 
peditions to the Arctic Sea," by Dr. John 
Rae, of Lonf^on, and that on "The Second 
Howgate Expedition." The departments of 
Psychology, Physics, Philosophy and Meteor- 
ology contain original articles on appropri- 
ate topics. Professor F. W. Clarke's "Talk 
Anout Lightning" should be largely read, 
containing as it does kno^* ledge needed by 
everybody. The "Scientific Miscellany " de- 
partment is filled with carefully selected and 
interesting matter. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 



It seems to have become altogether a fixed thing for T. M. James & Sons, to 
put their latest importations of rich China and Queensware goods and artistic 
novelties on exhibition at the opening of each week and upon arrival of new 
invoices, and the frequency of such receipts affords our citizens many oppor- 
tunities to examine choice handiwork from abroad and emanating from the most 
celebrated patterns and embellished by the hands of eminent artists. To-day 
may be seen in the show windows of T. M. James & Sons a late importation of 
admirable quaUties, and splendid display of hand painted vases of Ionic and 
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KA.NSA,8 CITY 

Review of Science and Industry, 

A MONTHLY RECORD OF PROGRESS IN 

SCIENCE, MECHANIC ARTS AND LITERATURE. 
VOL IV. JULY, 1880. NO. 3. 

GEOGRAPHY. 



PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS OF ORTON AND PERU. 

BY DR. I. D. HEATH, WYANDOTT, KANSAS. 

James Orton, fresh from Andover, spent two years in European travel. In 
3866, while occupying the chair in Natural History in Vassar College, Pough- 
keepsie, he traveled the continent of South America from west to east, through 
Equador, by way of Guayaquil, Quito, the river Napo, and down the Amazon. 
He brought home a large and rare collection of objects in Natural History and 
from his note book wrote out, in glowing words, the story of his adventures un- 
der the title of "The Andes and the Amazon." 

Seven years later, in 1873, while the end of the Pacasmayo railroad track in 
northern Peru was near the 50th mile post, your speaker was standing on the 
tender of the locomotive which was drawing a train of flat cars loaded with rail- 
road iron to the track layers, when he saw on one of the loads of iron a long- 
haired, red shirted stranger, in conversation with a civil engineer — quite likely an 
Irishman asking for employment. " Mr. Cartlan called and gave an introduction 
to Professor Orton. He had just arrived at the end of the track on his 
second trans-continental journey across South America. This acquaintance was 
most pleasant, and only ended with his untimely death on lake Titicaca, five years 
later. The notes of his second expedition were added to the revised edition of 
" The Andes and the Amazons. 

In the northeastern division of Bohvia — the Department of the Beni — there 
is a province embracing four times the area of the state of Kansas through which 

IV-9 



132 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

no white man has ever passed ; through this unknown region flow two rivers — 
the Beni and the Madre de Dios — of the size of the Mississippi and Missouri. 
To a scientific traveler who had already seen so much of South America as had 
Prof. Orton, this unexplored country was of peculiar interest. After four years 
of careful preparation he sailed for the west coast of South America from New 
York, in Oct., 1876, to explore the Beni River and country — and the brief story 
of this expedition is the subject of this address. 

Steaming out of Guayaquil Bay, latitude 2° south, the ship passes Tumbez, 
where Pizzaro effected his first landing for the conquest of Peru, and then out of 
the tropical heats, out of the great forests, out of the rains to the pleasant lands of 
the Children of the Sun, Now enjoy a temperate climate, cool breezes and 
fall clothing. From the ship's deck one can see at the same time the wet forests 
of Equador and dry, rainless Peru. 

The officers of the English steamers which run along the South Pacific coast 
are very social and delight in making passengers their guests, from the very mo- 
ment of stepping on board to the hearty "good bye." Captain Hall, of the 
Oroya, adroitly finds out what one knows of Peru ; and, if it is the first voyage, 
kindly warns the ladies not to step upon the grass and the gentlemen from picking 
flowers, or stems off the trees if they go on shore at Payta. He assures them 
of speedy arrest by the police. The captain's joke is quickly understood when 
they see not a shrub, not a leaf, not a blade of grass — the paved street of a great 
city is not more dry and barren than the country about Payta. Even the water 
they drink is brought seventeen miles by rail. 

Although the country at first sight so barren and uninteresting, the coast 
cities are the sea ports of interior valleys of surprising fertility, and even the 
desert pampas of the Peruvian coast have some time been cultivated, are to-day 
very fertile, and only need water to produce abundant harvests. Sugar, cotton, 
hides, sheep and alpaca wool, tobacco, Peruvian bark, freight many a ship. 
From the coast and plains .below, lightning and fierce storms may be seen up in 
the mountains. A multitude of streams running down from the rains and snows 
of the Cordillera, supply water for irrigation. 

Frequently divided by mountain spurs, the rainless portion of Peru, Boliv- 
ia, and part of Chile, consists of long narrow plains more than 2000 miles in 
length and twenty to sixty in breadth, beginning with a perpendicular ascent of 
eighty feet from the surf of the ocean and gradually rising up to the mountains. 
The explanation of the present rainless condition of this Pacific coast seems to be 
the strong trade winds and cold ocean current coming from the ice fields of the 
Antarctic Ocean, compressed against the lofty Andean chain of mountains into a 
chute or arch of moving cold, in which are wanting the atmospheric conditions 
for condensing of moisture and consequent rain fall. In Brazil, in eastern Peru 
and Bolivia, and upon the summits of the mountains, the rain fall is abundant. 

Many thousands of years ago, the atmospheric conditions of this Pacific coast 
were probably quite different — a fact indicated by numerous grooves and chan- 



PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS OF OR TON AND PERU. 133 

nels in the dry barren rock of the mountains nearest the coast. There are places 
in these rocks where water has worn ten, twenty and thirty feet deep, where in 
these days it does not rain in a lifetime. Besides this, these same mountains, 
dry, barren and without soil, have a series of stone terraces for hundreds and 
even thousands of feet up their sides. These terraces must have been constructed 
thousands of years ago when there was soil upon these rocks and when the rain 
fall was sufficient to produce vegetation. It is of course plain that in this present 
climate of no rain nor frost, monuments of man's industry endure almost without 
change for long ages. When did the rain cease and what was the cause ? I will 
offer that 40,000 years ago this vast mountain chain was 10,000 feet lower than it 
now is — that then there were soil, vegetation, trees, springs and abundant rain — 
that the inhabitants during succeeding ages cut down the forests — that the soil 
was worn off by cultivation and rains — that as the country gradually rose out of 
the ocean the people built terraces lower doAvn until now the terraces are wanting 
in soil, in rain, in vegetation, and abandoned by man. 

Ruins of a very ancient civihzation, probably much older than the Inca 
monarchy, abound all over Peru. — ruins of temples, roads, walls, acqueducts, 
foundations of extensive cities and hundreds of square miles of cemeteries. 
Near Pacasmayo, Trujillo and Lima, there are ruins of temples of adobe still 
eighty feet high and covering acres of ground, which from their very size and 
massiveness have defied the vandalic hand of the conqueror. There seems to 
have been various methods of burial, perhaps indicating the customs of different 
ages— some dead were buried in structures of adobe, others in the level lands of 
the plains without wrappings or casings, and others were carefully wrapped and 
embalmed. In the mouth of the dead is often found a peice of copper , and 
buried with them bits of gold and silver, and vessels of pottery of infinite variety 
of shape and design. The vessels probably contained some sacred liquid. Rel- 
ic hunters have exposed and scattered many miles of human bones. 

Our route to La Paz, the capital of Bolivia, was eastward from Mollendo 
latitude 17° south. Here is one of Mr. Meigg's "railroads in the clouds." Mollen- 
do to Areguipa 107 miles; fare $8.00; daily trains. The track runs along the 
ocean beach nine miles with the salt spray of the surf dashing against the morn- 
ing train, and then begins its wonderful zig-zag course up the ravines and around 
the mountain spurs from whence are magnificent views of the ocean, of the sugar 
cane and alfalfa fields in the Tambo valley and of the many windings of the rail- 
road track over which we've passed. 

From Cachendo across the desert pampa of Islay — desert only from want of 
water — the snow-clad mountains of Pichupichu, Chachani and Misti, impress one 
by their massiveness and cold grandeur. At the stations of La Joya and Vitor, 
oranges, pears, grapes, watermelons and generous baskets of most delicious fresh 
figs were offered for sale. Here end tropical fruits. From Uchumayu, 7,000 
feet elevation, there is laid at a contract price of $3,000,000, a seven inch iron 
pipe, eighty-four miles to Mollendo, giving water to all the stations, and from this 



134 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

abundant supply every station yard has become a beautiful oasis in the desert. 
From Vitor to Arequipa the railway train is but a child's toy in the midst of these 
volcanic mountains and gorges. Arequipa, 7560 feet elevation, is the second 
city of Peru — population, 60,000. Converging to this point descend the numer- 
merous herds of llamas laden with alpaca and sheep wool, gold, silver, copper and 
Peruvian bark. The city is built of a white volcanic stone and situated upon the 
side of the volcano Misti, in the midst of extensive fields of corn and alfalfa, 
wheat and barley and gardens of vegetables, and surrounded by barren hills 
powdered with volcanic dust. From the railway station American street cars 
convey passengers up to the hotels in the city. Streets are paved and well kept.' 
Streams of clear cold water flow freely along side many streets, and plazas are or- 
namented with fountains and flowers. 

But Arequipa is only half way up. The ride from the ocean to this point, 
and thence to Vincocaya, ninety-six miles further, is well worth a voyage to South 
America if one would enjoy extremes in nature ; a ride by rail from the tropics 
into the sleets and snows of the Andean heights. By the kindness of Col. Flint, 
manager, your speaker enjoyed the privilege of making this ascent on one of 
Roger's locomotives, the Huallata. Standmg on the locomotive we, in the after- 
noon, ran into clouds, then rain, then hail, and then into a blinding snow storm. 
The road cHmbs around to opposite side of Misti by a series of " developments" 
wrought in the hard lava and dejecta from the volcano. Two other trains fol- 
lowed fifteen minutes apart and from different curves and elevations it was won- 
derful to see the other trains — mere toy trains— hundreds of feet below, worming 
their way over the same route we had just passed. At 10,000 feet elevation 
some few of the passengers began to feel the effects of rarefaction of the air of 
high altitudes — at 12,000 feet many bound cloths tightly about the head — at 14,- 
000 feet many suffered intense headache and sickness, while one or two bled 
from nose and ears. 

At Vincocaya, ninety-six miles from Arequipa and 203 from the ocean, in a 
sort of broad valley green with Alpine grasses and partly surrounded by moun- 
tains of snow, all trains pass the night. The air is thin, cold, frosty ; breathing 
is laborious, head and stomach suffer, sleep is broken ; and oh, for one good, sat- 
isfying inhalation of air ! The highest elevation of the road is 14667 feet above 
the ocean — more elevated than the highest of the peaks of Colorado. Now we've 
arrived where there are abundant rains and the surface of the country is grassy and 
green up to the base of the eternal glaciers. Upon these bleak mountain pampas, 
great herds of alpacas and llamas feed, guarded by their keepers the Quichua 
Indians. A thousand feet lov/er sheep flourish and neat cattle graze. 

From the summit the train descends by easy grades over a comparatively level 
country ninety-eight miles to the city of Puno, on lake Titicaca, 326 miles from 
the ocean. Puno, capital of the Department, is a city of 4500 ; building mate- 
rial stone, roofs of tile and straw thatch, streets paved. There are two public 
plazas graced with iron fountains; one weekly newspaper ; " El Ciudadano." 



PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS OF ORTON AND PERU. 135 

The merchants buy from the surrounding country, sheep and alpaca wool, hides 
and gold dust. Puno is the centre of a rich mineral region. Near by are the sil- 
ver mines of Maravillas, Santa Lucia, Manta, and the oil wells of Pusi. There are 
no trees nor wo. d for fuel within two hundred miles. Bosta — dried excrement of 
the alpaca and llama — supplies the place of wood and coal. Agriculture produces 
potatoes, onions, quinua (mountain rice), oca and papaliz, (similar to the pota- 
toe), and barley. Upon the lake there are two elegant iron screw steamers, the 
Yapura and Yavar — fuel bosta. Fare to Chililaya, a Bolivian port, $16.40; 
ninetv-six miles. 

It is said that the great Andes have, at three different epochs, been sub- 
merged beneath the ocean wave ; that since the conques in 1533, the rise has 
been eighty feet. Lake Titicaca, now shrunken to a trifle less than Lake Onta- 
rio, has been carried up to the enormous altitude of 12,548 feet. Ages 
ago it covered about seven times its present area. A great number of clear 
mountain streams from every side add to it volumes of fresh water, while the 
river Desaguadero empties its surplus waters into the salt marshes of Lake Aullaga. 
There is no other outlet. The cakes of salt from the dry beds of this lake sup- 
ply all Bolivia. The waters of the great lake are somewhat brackish near the 
shore, but away from land are remarkably clear, sweet and pure. Water birds 
and fish are abundant. 

Chililaya to La Paz, fifteen leagues by a Concord coach, drawn by six mules. 
All day long we enjoyed glorious views of the snow-covered peaks lUampu, Sora- 
ta, Huainapotosi, Illimani. The road passes through a well peopled country, and 
well cultivated fields, gradually rising out out of the Titicaca basin toward the 
base of the i-^^ze/-///-?^ (r^«/?-rt:^ Cordillera of the Andes, until suddenly we gazed 
down upon the red tiled roofs, paved streets, and lovely gardens of the city of 
La Paz, 1500 feet below. We could hear the busy hum of industry and the 
striking of the city clocks. 

La Paz contains a population of 80,000, and is 12,000 feet above the ocean. 
There are two daily newspapers. Her merchants trade in wool, Peruvian bark, 
coffee, and do business with the gold mines of Tipuhuani and Carabaya, the 
silver mines of Oruro and Potosi, and with the agricultural districts of interior 
valleys. 

March 27, 1877, we set out on mules from La Paz for Cochabamba, 84 
leagues, by way of Oruro, stO[.ping each night at government tambos. Each 
morning we found the roofs and surroundings white with frost. These tambos 
afford free shelter for man and beast. All travelers carry their own bedding, 
and buy food and forage when needed. No wagon has ever passed, except on 
pack-mules, to La Paz nor to Cochabamba. We met numerous trains of mules 
and thousands of llamas loaded with flour and metals. In this route we crossed 
the second Cordillera. 

Cochabamba, latitude 17)^° south, is a city of forty thousand inhabitants, in 
the midst of a valley of wondrous fertility; too elevated for any of the tropical 



136 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

fruits, but producing plentiful crops of wheat, corn, apples, grapes, peaches and 
pears. Cochabamba flour supplies the entire Republic. It is not so white as the 
celebrated Chile flour, but we pronounced it the richest flavored we had ever 
eaten in any country. In Cochabamba we spent ten days making collections and 
gathering information upon the character and productions of the country. Never 
will be forgotten the delightful climate, the warm hearted generous friends, and 
the pleasant days we spent in this charming city. 

Mules again for the port of C' imore, on the Chimore River. The hire of 
each mule for a journey of fifty leagues was equal to $9.60. We left Cochabam- 
ba April i2t^, and passing through magnificent fields of ripening wheat, ascended 
the third and last cordillera. Amid cloud and storm and sleet we passed over 
the suQimit. Nothing could exceed the exquisite pleasure and absorbing interest 
of this descent — first shrubs, then trees, new and strange and of great variety, 
each mile becoming larger.. With the Aneroid barometer in hand, we noted each 
elevatio 1 as we passed down to the potatoe, barley, corn, yucca, fern palm, plan- 
tain, orange, coffee, coca, rice, sugar cane and cacao, (chocolate). The professor 
had been eager to press forward, so that in spite of the advice of friends, wef<-und 
ourselves in the great forests of he lower mountains at least three weeks too early 
in the season. We encountered floods of rain and torrents of water. Our pack 
mules fell in the mud or rolled over down the slippery rocks. Professor Orton, 
mule and all, fell into the deep torrent of a river. Gnats surrounded us in clouds. 
We were bitten by them until it was not possible to close the swelled hands. We 
wore masks to protect the face. 

At Pachimoco, a place of a half dozen Indian cabins, on the river Chapare, 
we first met the Indian of the forests; painted, wearing feathers of the macaw and 
armed with bow and arrows of extraordinary size. Their only covering a shirt 
prepared from the inner bark of a tree. The material is abundant, easily washed, 
and wears well. The Indians live upon plantains and yucca, fish and game of the 
forest. We were now in the great Madeira platte — the mountains were behind 
us. Elevation above the ocean by boiling point of water, 875 feet. 

It was necessary to travel ten leagues along the base of the mountains to 
reach the river Chimore where we would find canoes. In the middle of the af- 
ternoon Ave arrived at the Coni River, but finding it too deep to ford on account 
of rains of previous night, we camped in the dry bed of the river a mile from shore 
on a high sand bank near which grew a clump of willows and wild cane. Some 
Yuracare Indians whom the Cacique had sent with us from Pachimoco, with sur- 
prising skill constructed for us a perfect shelter out of the wild cane. They then 
swam the river, promising to return early next morning with canoes to ferry us 
over. The night closed in dark and stormy. There were with us the two mule- 
eteers from Cochabamba. They built bonfires to protect ourselves and mules 
from tigers. By ten o'clock the rain poured in torrents, the thunder was 'deafen- 
ing. The lightning was continuous and of intense brilliancy. The river began 
to rise. In an hour it had risen fifteen feet ; it was within a few inches of our 



PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS OF OR TON AND PERU. 137 

shelter and still rising. There was danger. The water invaded our hut ; it was 
eighteen inches deep. We were alarmed. It was time. We drew on our boots 
and stepped down into the water. We piled our eight trunks together and held 
them down with poles to keep them from floating away. Only two trunks were 
above water. The storm ceased — the darkness was intense. We stood in three 
feet of water. We looked death squarely in the face. We talked of home, fam- 
ily, friends. We gave up all for lost. Huge trees swept by us. The tigers 
growled, the tapirs bellowed, the monkies chattered, the birds uttered notes of 
alarm. From the opposite bank masses of earth with portions of the forest went 
down in the flood. After flve hours daylight came. We could see no land. A 
shout was heard, another and another, but in what direction we could not tell. 
We answered at random. Two hours later shouts were again heard, and this time 
from up the river, and in the distance among the floating debris could be seen the 
heads of swimming men. They touched bottom and waded to us — a score of 
Yuracare Indians, great powerful fellows. Never were happier men than ourselves. 
They were friends; we were saved. 

From the Coni to the Chimore, Indian women carried our trunks, each loo 
pounds — nine miles for 20c each. 

May 3rd, 1877, We embarked on the Chimore River in two canoes, paddled 
by thirteen Indians. Here the current was swift, with many rapids; banks four 
feet high and crowded to the very edge with the dense tropical forest, so that the 
river seemed hemmed in by two immense walls of living green. Silently each In- 
dian bid " good bye" with a pressure of the hand, and took his seat in the ca- 
noe, placing his bow and bundle of arrows by his side. The tears coursed down 
the cheek of more than one Indian wife ; we pushed out into the stream ; the 
paddlers bent to their work; the canoe rose and fell in rythmic response to each 
united pressure of the paddles ; we moved almost with the speed of the arrow, 
and began our voyage of 300 miles. By two o'clock, not a mountain nor a hill 
was visible. Time down to Trinidad six days — time back up stream, twenty 
days. In four days we found the river as large as the Missouri, with soundings 
of thirty to seventy feet. We camped each night upon a sand bar to be safe from 
night attack of hostile indians — Los Salvajes, as our Yuracare captain told us in 
Spanish. 

[To be continued.) 



138 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 



AFRICAN EXPLORATION. 

The English expedition sent out by the Royal Geographical Society has so 
far been very successful. This expedition, it will be remembered, left the coast 
near Zanzibar in May, 1879, under the leadership of Keith Johnstone, Jr., after 
whose sad death his companion, Joseph Thomson, took command. After a 
march of 131 days he reached the north end of Lake Nyassa September 22. The 
highest point passed by the expedition between the coast and the lake had 8,116 
feet elevation above the sea. After five days' rest Thomson continued his march 
to the west, and in thirty-five days succeeded in accomplishing the chief object 
of his expedition by crossing the hitherto entirely unknown region between 
Nyassa and Tanganyika, which he found to be 250 miles broad between the two 
lakes, with mountain ranges 6,000 to 9,000 feet high and inhabited by numerous- 
peaceable and friendly tribes. Having reached Pambete, near the southern end 
of Tanganyika, on the 5th of November, he then went on to Ujiji on the eastern 
shore, where he stayed till January 16, when he started on his return journey tO' 
the coast. He first crossed the lake to the western side, intending to explore the 
Lukuga Creek, passing down the river about thirty miles, in order to finally solve 
the questions raised by Cameron and Stanley regarding its character as to the 
lake's outlet. He would then march south through the still unexplored region 
west of Tanganyika, and passing its southern end return to Kilwa on the east 
coast, which he hopes to reach in six months. Mr. Stewart, with the Livingstonia 
Mission, expedition also succeeded in crossing the country between Nyassa and 
Tanganyika, reaching the latter one day after Thomson and by a different road. 
Thus another of the many white spots on the map of Africa has at last been 
filled in. 



THE ROYAL BELGIAN EXPEDITIONS. 

The expedition which was sent out from Zanzibar by the International African 
Association, founded by the King of Belgium, has also attained some real suc- 
cesses after all its misfortunes. The first expedition, commanded by Lieutenant 
Cambier, reached the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika in July last, being over 
one year on the march which Stanley, in 1871, accomplished in less than eight 
months. At Karema, in Ufipa, in latitude 7 degrees south, Cambier purchased 
a piece of land of 1,000 hectares from Masikamby, the chief of the district, and 
there established the first scientific and commercial station of the association in 
Africa. It was Stanley who pointed out this spot as the most suitable for the 



THE ROYAL BELGIAN EXPEDITIONS. 139 

purpose. The station, which consists of several wooden houses, numerous huts 
for the negro followers and a magazine for the goods, is situated on a deep bay 
near the village of Karema, which lies some ten to twelve days by boat south of 
Ujiji, on a small promontory, elevated twenty feet above the lake. Ufipa is a 
fertile, well watered country, inhabited by quiet and friendly natives. It contains 
some coal beds, and seems fit for raising grain and wild rice. The Arabs also 
have a station near Karema, which consists of 150 grass huts, with 250 inhabit- 
ants. The second expedition, under Captain Popelin, after combining with No. 
3, commanded by M. Cartier, at Mpwapwa last August, pushed on to the west, 
passed through the Arab capital, Tabora, in October, and by the last accounts 
had just arrived at Karema. Of the eight Belgian explorers who originally 
started for Tanganyika only three have thus succeeded in reaching the lake — 
three died on the road and two were forced to return as invalids. Of the four 
Indian elephants with which Cartier left the coast two have died on the way, but 
the other two reached Karema in good condition. They are now entirely 
acclimated, and have proved of immense service to the expedition. When cross- 
ing the Mgunda-Mkali desert, carrying a load of twelve hundred weight each, 
they traveled consecutively for forty-two hours without food and thirty-five hours 
without water. In passing through the villages they naturally created great 
wonder and excitement among the natives, who only know the animal in its wild 
state. It is now proposed to establish a station near the lake for catching, taming 
and training the African elephant for transport service. For this purpose Mr. 
Sanderson, the noted elephant tamer, with a staff of experienced elephant catch- 
ers, will come from India to Zanzibar. While the expeditions now at Karema 
are solidly establishing themselves in that station, the basis of all future opera- 
tions, a fourth expedition has organized at Zanzibar and started for the interior on 
January 25. Its leaders are two Belgians — Burdo, who has already 'traveled on 
the Niger, and Roger, and an Englishman, Cathneade. Their caravan is 150 
men strong, in light marching order, and takes along a number of donkeys as a 
new experiment in transport service, but the tsetse fly will probably prove fatal to 
these animals. The expedition, wlrch is expected to reach Karema in May, will 
pick up Dr. von Hemoel at Tabora, where he was left behind by the second 
expedition on account of ill health. After all these expeditions have assembled 
at Karema a fresh start will be made with a new expedition under Popelin, Cam- 
bier and Burdo, who will follow Cameron's and Stanley's road through Mamyu- 
ema to Nyangwe, the westernmost Arab trading post on the Lualaba Congo, 
where the second fixed station is to be estabfished. Here they will await the 
arrival of Stanley's expedition, which is at present engaged in pushing up the 
Congo from the west coast, as described further on. Ultimately a complete chain 
of stations is to be stretched across Africa from ocean to ocean. 



140 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

FRANCE AND GERMANY. 

This grand project of the International Association at Brussels is, however, 
not to be executed solely by its own expedition, but the necessary funds have 
been assigned to the sub-committees in France and Germany for establishing 
their share of the explorers' stations in Africa. The French committee, with a 
fund of $20,000, including a government grant, has appointed the noted traveler 
Count Savorgnan de Brazza as chief of the station which is to be formed near 
the French Gaboon colony on the west cost, while the eastern station will be 
established at Tabora, in Unyamwezi. The chief of the latter, who will also 
be a naval officer, has not yet been appointed. Count Brazza started for his 
post last December with his former companion, Dr. Ballay, with whom, after 
founding the station on the Gaboon, he will continue the exploration of the 
Ogoway river. The German Committee, having received a donation of $10,000 
from Brussels, has organized a new expedition, which started from Berlin a few 
days ago for Zanzibar. It consists of Captain von Schoeler, the chief of the 
station; Dr. Boehm, as naturalist; the Engineer Reichert and Dr. Fischer, who 
explored the Dana River with Denhardt in 1878 and has since resided at Zanzi- 
bar. They are instructed to go to the Tanganyika and establish the first German 
station near the southern end of that lake, as the above described expedition of 
Thomson has demonstrated the importance of the high road leading thence to 
Lake Nyassa, the Zambesi River and the coast. 

Three other German explorers, sent out previously by the Berlin society, 
have meanwhile continued their work. When Gerhard Rohlfs returned to Berlin 
after the complete failure of his expedition to Wadai and the Congo, having been 
robbed and nearly murdered by the fanatic inhabitants of the Kufarah oasis, he 
resigned the* command, which was then transferred to his companion. Dr. Anton 
Stecker, who was instructed to make a new start for the interior by another road. 
Dr. Stecker left Tripolis last February, and now follows the great caravan route, 
due south, by way of Fezzan, to Kuka, the capitol of Bornu, on Lake Tsad. 
From there he will attempt to pass either south through Baghirmi or southeast 
through Adamowa, in order to reach the original goal of the expedition — the 
great unexplored region between the head waters of the Shary, Welle, Binne, 
Ogoway and the north bend of the Congo. Dr. Oscar Lenz, the second envoy 
of the society, arrived at Tangiers, in Morocco, November 13, and went on five 
days later by way of Tetuan to Fez, in the interior. In December last he started 
for the south, intending to cross the high Atlas range and reach the oasis of 
Tafilet, from where, if possible, he will push on to Timbuctoo, on the Niger. 
The third German explorer, Dr. Max Buchner, who started from Loanda, on the 
west coast, reached Malange, in the interior, July 22, with 130 followers, passed 
through Mutua Ngengo August 10, and was near the Lui River, north of Quim- 
bundu, in Sangoland, September 22, from where he dates his last letters. After 
crossing the Kwango he will follow the northern road to Quizimene, the 
Mwato Yanvo's present capital, as the southern road is at present closed by a war 



OTHER NEW EXPEDITIONS. 141 

among the natives. Having delivered the German Emperor's presents to the 
Central African monarch he will attempt to penetrate north to the mysterious 
Sankowa Lake and thence to Nyangwe and the east coast. 



PORTUGUESE, SPANISH, ITALIAN. 

The Portuguese explorers Ivens and Capello returned to Loanda last Decem- 
ber, ill with fever, nearly destitute of clothing and deserted by nearly all their 
followers. During their two years' expedition in Angola they have pretty thor- 
oughly explored the interior of that colonial province, and especially the 
highlands of Bihe with its river sources. They also surveyed the regions of the 
Kwango and Kwanga rivers, and col ected many geographical, topographical and 
meteorological details. They descended the Kwango as far north as the bush of 
laca, which is avast region south of the Congo between latitude 5° and 7° south, 
but were prevented from going on to the great river by the hostility of the 
natives. After recuperating their health for some months at Mossamedes they 
returned to Lisbon on the ist of March. Senor Albergnes de Sosten, the leader 
of the first Spanish expedition in Africa, is now at Alexandria. After completing 
his outfit he will start for Massowah, on the Red Sea, and thence to Adowah, irt 
Northern Abyssinia, from where he intends proceeding southward through 
Amhara ani Shoa and by way of Gurrtgwe, south of the Blue Nile basin, through 
the wild Galla and Somali countries as far as the Juba River, on which he will 
descend to the Indian Ocean, where he expects to arrive in twelve months, if 
not detained by the hostile tribes, as is but too probable. The Itahans are also 
taking an active share in African exploration. Their Commercial and Explora- 
tory Society has recently established stations at Massowah, Odeida and in the 
Abyssinian interior for the purpose of trade with the natives, and the dispatch 
boat Exploratore has hois.ed the Italian flag at Assab Bay, near the Straits of 
Babelmandel, and landed mechanics and artisans there to build a settlement, 
which is to serve as a starting point for Italian expeditions into the interior. In 
February last Prince Borghese and Dr. Matteucei began their new expedition. 
They intend to go from Chartiim on the Upper Nile westward through Darfour 
and Wadaii to Bornu, and thence, according to circumstances, to the Guinea 
coast or northward to Tripolis. 



OTHER NEW EXPEDITIONS. 

The Russian explorer. Dr. Junker, has again started for Central Africa. He 
left Cairo December i, and goes by way of Suez and Snakin on the Red Sea to 
Chartum, his goal being the Monbuttu country beyond the Welle River, where 
he intends completing Schweinfurth's researches among the Acka dwarfs and 
Niamniam cannibals, and if possible descend the river either to Lake Tsad or the 



142 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

Conyer, and thus establish its identity with either the Shary or Stanley's Aruwimi. 
He is accompanied by Bohndorf, Gordon Pacha's ex-valet, whose adventurous 
journey to Darbanda was described in the last letter. The Austrian traveller, R. 
Slatin, reached Dara, in Darfour, last September, and intends to go south to 
Kalakka end explore the unknown regions as far as the copper mines of Hafrat- 
el-Nahas and the Upper white Nile. Baron Muller-Oskon-Capitany has also 
started for the Egyptian Soudan and proposes to go by way of Kaffa, south of 
Abyssinia, to the sources of the Juba. Captain Revoil, formerly of the French 
army, has made a successful trip in the land of the Midjurten Somalis, south of 
Cape Guardafni, where he was well received. He did not, however, go far into 
the interior, but succeeded in collecting much valuable information about the 
caravan routes, and also ascended several of the high mountains, as the Karomo 
(i 1,480 feet) and the Aisemat (7,080 feet). The German Baron Holzhausen and Dr. 
Moak have made an expedition into the country of the Dabanja-Bedouins, on 
the Upper Atbara River, visiting Kassala and Tomad, the chiefs winter camp, 
last February. They report that complete anarchy prevails in that part of the 
Egyptian Soudan, robber bands infesting the whole country. The blame for 
this state of affairs is attributed to Gordon Pacha's constantly changing policy 
and shifting projects, with spasmodic attempts at suppression of slavery, but 
without any definite plan for the security and pacification of the country. 



EXPLORATION IN THE SOUTH. 

In South x\frica the conclusion of the Zulu and other Kaffir wars has per- 
mitted the resumption of explorations. F. C. Selous, who has lived many years 
on the Upper Zambesi and its tributaries, and has before attempted to reach 
Lake Bangwealo, the source of the Lualaba-Congo, is about to start from the 
Transvaal on another expedition with the same object, and thus span what has 
been called "the unconnected link between the Cape of Good Hope and the 
Mediterranean." At Cape Tower two young Englishmen, Bagot and Beaver, 
are preparing an expedition at their own expense, with which they propose to 
explore and survey for four years the region between the Zambesi and the great 
lakes, traveling with two ox carts and native drivers and guides. Donald 
McKenzie has again returned to the settlement, which he has found near Cape 
Juby, on the west coast, and named Port Victoria. He will first replace the 
wooden houses of the colony by stone buildings, for which some quarries close 
at hand furnish good material, and then explore the neighboring country, especi- 
ally the ruins of a Portuguese fort of the fourteenth century not far distant. His 
chief object, however, remains to open up trading connections with the native 
chiefs in the interior as far as Timbuctoo. The Governor of the British colony 
at Sierra Leone also intends sending out an expedition to go from Bathurst, on 
the Gambia, by way of Segu, on the Upper Niger, to Timbuctoo by invitation 
of the Sultan. 



ARCTIC EX PL OR A TION. 143 

ARCTIC EXPLORATION. 

At the regular meeting of the Geographical Society of Berlin, April loth, 
1880, the President, Dr. Nachtigal, read a letter received from St. Petersbrug 
giving an account of the various attempts made in the course of the year 1879 
to establish regular intercourse by sea between the ports of Europe and the estu- 
aries of the great rivers of Siberia. In 1879 seven ships attempted to reach 
Siberia from Europe by the North Cape, but of these only one, the steamer 
Luise, was successful. With two barges in tow, this vessel left Bremen on the 
8th July, arrived in the Yenissei on the 15th September, and returned in good 
condition to Bremerhaven on the 30th October. The cargo consisted of petro- 
leum, sugar, butter and tobacco, and the return freight of about 20,000 pounds 
,of wheat which had been brought from the interior of Siberia to the mouth of the 
Yenisei in boats specially built for this purpose. All the other ventures were 
complete failures. The two Swedish vessels, the Samuel Owen and the Express, 
freighted by the well-known Moscow merchant, Sibiriakoff, endeavored in vain 
to force a passage through the masses of ice accumulated at the entrance of the 
Kara Sea, and were compelled to return. Still more unfortunate were the two 
steamers. Amy and Mizpah, bound for the Obi and chartered by the merchant 
Fund, as also he Danish steamer Neptun, dispatched on account of the same 
firm, and which, as well as Mr. Ketley's English steamer Brighton, came to 
grief in Baidarak Bav. A similar fate was in store for three sailing vessels which 
after having been built in the dockyard of Trapesinkow at Tjumen (Government 
of Tobolsk), were laden with grain, tallow and spirits, and sailed for Europe. 
The Nadeshda and the Ok were shut in by the ice in Baidarak Bay, near 
the Tambata Rives, and lost their tackle as well as part of the cargo; the Tjumen 
and the steamer Luise (the latter had wintered in the Obi) ran on sand banks in 
the Gulf of Obi and were thus prevented from continuing their voyage. These 
shipping disasters have caused great surprise at St. Petersburg, where Professor 
Nordenskiold's voyage had been hailed as the commencement of a new epoch in 
the Siberian trade. The advocates of communication by sea with Siberia point 
out that 1879 has been an exceptionally unfavorable year, and that most of the 
accidents were due not so much to the state of the ice in the Kara Sea, as to the 
want of charts, buoys, beacons, etc. It is also suggested that while there must 
have been in that year a great accumulation of ice in the Kara Sea, the sea 
round Novaya Zemlya just about the same time was free from ice, and we may 
conclude that in each year, according to the direction of the prevaiHng wind, 
one of these two routes will be open to navigation; an opinion to some extent 
confirmed by the voyage of the EngUsh Captain Markham, who at the end of 
September, having found the Kara Sea encumbered with ice, sailed without 
obstacle round the northern extremity of Novaya Zemlya. Unfortunately our 
experience does not date further back than the year 1875. It is possible that the 
year 1879 "^^7 have been exceptionally unfavorable, and its immediate prede- 
cessors exceptionally favorable to Arctic exploration, and as observation alone, 



144 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

extended over a number of years, can prove the correctness of this assumption, 
it is recommended that scientific observing stations be established on the northern 
coasts of Europe. Matotschkin Schar in Novaya Zemlya and the island of Waaigat 
offer themselves as meteorological stations where exact observations might be 
made as to the direction of the wind which renders Kara Strait, or Jugor Strait, 
or the Matotschkin entrance, free from ice, and the results thus obtained might 
be communicated to approaching vessels. The letter went on to say that an 
examination of the difficult navigation of the Obi, and the discovery of a suitable 
harbor in the Gulf of Obi were also urgently required, as the conditions of the 
latter were much more unfavorable than those at the mouth of the Yenissei. As 
a matter of curiosity the suggestion was alluded to that the difficulties of navi 
gating the Obi might be altogether avoided by the construction of a railway 
connecting the Charua-Juga, a tributary of the Obi, with Khaipudirskaia Bay- 
(60° east long, of Greenwich). The President further announced that the expe- 
dition which purposes to found a station in East Central Africa, and which is 
composed of Captain von Schloer, the zoologist, Dr. Boehm, Dr. Kayser, for 
geodesy, and the civil engineer Mr. Reichard (the latter accompanying the expe- 
dition at his own expense) was about to start from Berlin, and would probably 
establish a station at the southeast end of Lake Tanganyika. H. M., the King of 
the Belgians, had contributed for this purpose 40,000 francs, and the German- 
African Society their subscriptions for the year 1880, which amount to 16,000 
marks. Dr. Boehm next addressed the meeting on the discovery of the sources 
of the Niger; and Dr. Stolze gave a description, based upon his own observa- 
tions, of Faristan, the cradle of the old Persian nation. 



THE FRENCH IN THE SAHARA. 

The French project for building a railway from Algiers across the Sahara des- 
ert to the Niger and thence to their colony on the Senegal has caused the sending 
out of several expeditions for determining the most suitable line, for which pur- 
pose the Ministry of Public Works has received a grant of $120,000. A though 
the railroad may never be built, geographical science is sure to profit by these ex. 
plorations. Three separate expeditions have been organized in Algeria, of which 
the first will operate only in the colony, while the secjnd explores the Algerian 
Sahara not beyond the oasis of El Golea. Their leaders are M. M. Pouyanne 
and de Choisy. The third and chief expedition, which is under the command of 
Colonel Flatters, started from Ouargla oasis on the 5th of March. It consists of 
the leader, nine scientific companions, including Dr. Guyard, of the Anthropo- 
logical Society, and some engineers, surveyors, etc., an escort of twelve French 
and sixteen native soldiers, the later being frontier Arabs, and sixty-eight camel 
drivers and servants of the Chambaas tribe, a total of 106 persons. The mate- 
rials and supphes are transported by fifteen horses and 220 camels. Colonel Flat- 
ters intends reaching Temassauin, nearly three hundred miles due south of 



RELIGIOUS MISSIONS. 145 

Ouargla, in seventeen to eighteen days; then cross the Ahaggar plateau and push 
on through the desert to the Soudan. Meanwhile the noted traveler, Paul Soleil- 
let, has gone back again to Senegambia to make a survey for the Trans-Saharan 
Railroad in that direction. He feels confident of not only reaching Timbuctoo 
this time, but also of crossing the desert to Algeria. At the same time M. Le- 
carte has been sent out by the government to explore the regions between the 
Senegal and the Niger. In October last two Frenchmen, MM. Zweifel, and 
Moustier, starting from Treetown in Sierra Leone, succeeded in crossing the coast 
range and discovering the ultimate sources of the Djoliba branch of the upper 
Niger, near the village of Kulako. Many travelers, including Caillie Mage, 
Win wood Reade, Solleillet, etc., had previously attempted this feat, but all failed. 
The French also intend to explore the Gamba River thoroughly and open it for 
trade. For this purpose a river steamer is now being built in England, which is 
to be 105 feet long, sixteen broad and eight deep, with engines of thirty horse 
power and a speed of nine knots. As this boat is intended to carry sixty tons 
weight on five and one-half feet of water it will be able to ascend the river for 
nearly 200 miles from its mouth and open up the hitherto unexplored regions near 
its sources. 



RELIGIOUS MISSIONS. 

The French and English missions in the lake regions must not be omitted in 
an account of African exploration. Advices received by the Archbishop of 
Algiers state that the Catholic mission under Father Livinhac, in Uganda, on the 
north shore of the Victoria Nyanza, still enjoys the protection of King Mtesa, 
but that the Church Missionary Society's station at Rubaga, the capital, has been 
abandoned by the Rev. Mr. Wilson and his assistants on account of difficulties 
with the king. Two members of the second expedition of the London Mission- 
ary Society to Lake Tanganyika have reached the station at Ujiji, but the third 
had died en route. They traveled on a new road from Mpwapwa to Urambo, the 
capital of King Miramboo, Stanley's friend and the foe of the Arabs, whose death 
has been positively asserted recently. The Enghsh missionaries at Ujiji have ex- 
plored parts of the lake, and Mr. Hore, the scientific member, asserts that the 
Lukuga is the real outlet. The Jesuit missionaries to the Tanganyika have also 
arrived at Ujiji, where they were well received by the English and Arabs ; their 
leader, M. P. Pascal, ^however, died on the way. Their new superior, P. Deniand, 
has since circumnavigated the lake, and they have now gone on to Ulundi, 
on the north east shore, where the chief of Bikari has offered them land for a 
station. The reinforcements for this mission, comprising twelve missionaries 
from Algeirs and six former Papal Zouaves, have passed through Ugogo. 



146 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



STANLEY ON THE CONGO. 

Stanley's new expedition on the Congo, promises to become the greatest un- 
dertaking ever attempted in African exploration. Since his arrival at Banana, 
the Dutch station at the mouth of the Congo, Stanley has taken the entire expe- 
dition, with his fleet of five small steamers and several small boats, up the river 
as far as the first Yellala falls. At Vivi, opposite the second rapids, and 130 
miles from the coast, he has erected his first station on the right bank of the river. 
His camp, consisting of movable wooden houses, magazines, sheds, etc., stands 
on a small plateau surrounded by precipices, 200 feet above the river level. The 
expedition is very numerous, comprising about one hundred negroes from Zanzi- 
bar, Sierra Leone and the Congo, and some twenty whites of different nations — 
Belgians, Americans, English, Italians, Danes — and including a superintendent, a 
captain for the boats, engineers, surveyors, mechanics, carpenters, sailors, etc. 
Stanley and all his men are now hard at work building the road through the wild 
coast range of mountains to transport the boats and supplies overland past the 
terrible series of the thirty-two Livingstone Falls. As soon as Stanley Pool, which 
is above the last fall and 200 miles distant, has been reached, the second station 
will be established on its shores as a basis of supplies, and the fleet of steamers 
will be launched on the river. Nothing will then prevent Stanley from ascending 
the great river and its powerful tributaries and penetrating to the very heart of 
Africa. 



AFRICAN EXPLORATION, 

The German African Society, in the last number of its Mittheilungen, pub- 
lishes a list of all the scientific expeditions sent out by the (former) German So- 
ciety for the investigation of Equatorial Africa, and by the new society (under its 
present title) during the years from 1873 to 1879. All together there were no less 
than eight expeditions, viz : — 

1. The Loango Expedition, and to the Chinchoxo Station, 1873-1876; cost, 
10,532 1. less 1,133 1- realized from sale of specimens : leader, Dr. Paul Giissfeldt, 
not Prof. A. Bastian, (who took j5art at his own expense in the preparatory steps 
for the establishment of the Chinchoxo Station). 

2. The Ogowe Expedition of Dr. Oscar Lenz, 1874-187 6; cost, 1,563 1. 

3. Cassange Expedition, 1874-1876; cost, 4457 1. Members: Capt. A. 
Von Homeyer, Dr. Paul Pogge, Herm. Loyaux, Lieut. A. Lux. 

4. Eduard Mohr's Expedition, 1876; cost, 692 1. 

5. Engineer Schiitt's Expedition, 1877-1879; cost, 2,5901. 



AN UNKNOWN REGION IN SOUTH AMERICA. 147 

6. Dr. Max Buchner's Expedition, since 1878 j cost, (till October, 1879,) 

1.523 1- 

7. Rohlfs' Expedition, since 1878; cost, (till October, 1879,) 2,225!. 
Members : Dr. Gerhard Rohlfs, Dr. Anton Stacker. 

8. Dr. Oscar Lenz's Expedition to Warrocco, since the end of 1879. 



SAFETY OF COL. PREJEVALSKY. 

A letter has been received at St. Petersburg through Pekin from Col. Pre- 
jevalsky, dated from the town of Si-Ning, March 20th, announcing that the 
expedition under his command is safe. He left the Nan Shian mountains in 
July, and entered Thibet through Shaidash. His party was attacked by Tanguts, 
of whom they killed four and put the remainder to flight. The Thibetian troops 
stopped the progress of the expedition 250 versts from Hlassa, and a messenger 
from the Grand Lama of Thibet brought the refusal of the Thibetian authorities 
to allow the Russians to proceed. The latter were therefore obliged to return, 
which they did with some difficulty through Northern Thibet, wintering at a 
height of 16,000 feet above the level of the sea. Col. Prejevalsky expects to 
reach Kiakhta in August by v/ay of Alashan Urgu. 



ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

The bulletin of the ItaHan Geographical Society for April contains full 
details of the proposed Antarctic Expedition under Lieut. Bove, with a carefully 
compiled map of the south polar regions so far as these have been hitherto 
explored. 



AN UNKNOWN REGION IN SOUTH AMERICA. 

The work of exploration has been carried forward to such an extent that few 
portions of our globe remain unknown to men In this work geographical socie- 
ties have vied with each other, and the various governments have been lavish in 
expenditure. The poles are still a terra incognita, but under the plan of Capt. 
Howgate the North Pole will probably very soon give up its secrets. He is pre- 
paring to establish with his present expedition a colony, at a high latitude, at a 
point where they have recently discovered an immense bed of coal. This colony 
can be recruited with men, and supplied with provisions, and expeditions con. 
ducted with sledges over the ice, starting at such a latitude and taking advantage 
of the season, will have everything in their favor for reaching the pole. 

In South America there is also an unknown region. Much has been done 
on that portion of the American continent by Humboldt, Orton and others by the 

IV— 10 



148 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

way of exploration ; still, on the upper waters of the Amazon, there is a va:st re- 
gion of which our maps of that country are mere guesswork. The best informed 
are in dispute in regard to the course of some of the large affluents of the Ama- 
zon, the animals and plants are entirely unknown, and the mineral resources of 
the country are unexplored. It was the cherished plan of Prof. Orton, in his 
last expedition to South America, to explore this unknown region so much 
dreaded by the natives, and open its secrets to the world. But, when he was on 
the very point of accomphshing his purpose, his guard, composed of native 
soldiers, suddenly, by concerted action, placed their bayonets at his breast, and 
marched back whence they came. Baffled in his plans, worn out by travel and 
weakened by exposure and the rarified air of the elevated plateaux of South Amer- 
ica, he died without a struggle, a martyr to science, on the magical waters of lake 
Titicaca. 

Since his death, Dr. I. D. Heath, who was his assistant during his entire ex- 
pedition, and his brother. Dr. Edwin R. Heath, who has resided in South Amer- 
ica for many years, have proposed to complete Prof. Orton's unfinished work. 
Recently a letter has been received from Dr. Edwin R. Heath, who, it will be re- 
membered, read a paper before the Kansas City Academy of Science two years 
ago, on Peruvian Antiquities, which was republished in Europe. Dr. Heath is at 
present located at Los Reyes, in eastern Bolivia. He is engaged in studies and in 
making collections in the interest of science, and in organizing his contemplated 
expedition to complete the work so suddenly terminated by the death of Prof. 
Ort n. His object is to explore the unknown countries drained by the waters of 
the Beni and Madre de Dios, an undertaking full of difficulty and danger, but for 
which he possesses the personal qualifications, many years of experience, and a 
thorough knowledge of the Spanish language and character. South America is a 
paradise for scientific explorers, being rich in every possibility. Dr. Heath is full 
of enthusiasm in his work, and is confident in being successful in making known 
these unexplored regions. He hopes to achieve results adequate to the importance 
of the field in which he operates. He pays the expenses of this great work out 
of his own private funds, which are wholly inadequate to the scientific and com- 
mercial value of such an undertaking. If some geographical or scientific society, 
or well endowed institution of learning would unite with and assist him in bear- 
ing a portion of the expense of the expedition, and send two or three experts, 
perhaps post-graduate students, for a division of labor, it is believed that this por- 
tion of the world, now absolutely unknown, would furnish results in geographical 
knowledge, and scientific collections, of such great interest and value as many 
times to repay the expenditure. — Kansas City Daily Journal. 



ENGRAVED STONE FROM OHIO. 149 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



ENGRAVED STONE FROM OHIO. 



BY REV. STEPHEN BOWERS, PH. D. 



During a recent visit to Cincinnati the writer, in connection with several arch- 
«ologists, had the pleasure of examining an engraved stone, taken from a mound 
in Brush Creek Township, Muskingum County, Ohio, by Dr. J. F. Everhart, of 
Zanesville. The mound in which the stone was found measures sixty-four by 
thirty-five feet at the summit, gradually sloping in every direction, and is eight 
feet in height. The stone was found leaning against the head of a sort of clay 
coffin inclosing the skeleton of a woman measuring eight feet in length. Withm 
this coffin was found the skeleton of a child about three and a half feet in length, 
and an image that crumbled when exposed to the atmosphere. In another grave 
was found the skeleton of a man and woman, the male skeleton measuring nme 
feet in length and the female eight. In a third grave occured two other skeletons, 
male and female, measuring respectively nine feet four inches and eight feet. 
Seven other skeletons were found in the mound, the smallest of which measured 
eight feet, while others reached the enormous length of ten feet. They were 
buried singly, or each in separate graves. At one end of the mound was found 
a stone altar about twelve by four feet, containing portions of what seemed to 
be charred human bones. 

This mound was opened by the Brush Creek Township Historical Society, 
and under the immediate supervision of Dr. Everhart, who was present when 
the tablet was found, and who measured the skeletons in situ. The Tablet is of 
unfinished sandstone, not quite square, the greater length being twelve and one- 
half inches and breadth eleven inches; thickness four inches. The stone has not 
been squared, nor the surface upon which the characters are engraved so much as 
leveled, nor is there any sign of tools having been used upon the stone except in 
cutting the hieroglyphics. There are two rows of these characters with a straight 
line about one eighth of an inch deep and wide, cut above and below each row, 
or parallel thereto. The characters are clearly and carefully engraved and are 
from one sixteenth to an eighth of an inch in depth and width, indicating no little 
skill in their execution. Between the rows of characters is a circular depression 
one and three-fourth inches in diameter and about five-eighths of an inch deep, 
with other but smaller depressions in the stone. 

It is not the purpose of the writer to speculate concerning this find nor even 
to attempt a description of the characters themselves, further than to say, that 
while two or three of these inscriptions indicate an acquaintance with the old 



150 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

Greek alphabet, others may probably be referred to Egyptian and Hetruscan. 
But while we found fair representations of Egyptian, Greek, Punic, and other char- 
acters, we risk no general interpretation of their writing. Mr. Everhart believes 
that the circular depressions refer to the heavenly bodies, and concludes that this 
giant race were sun worshipers, a not improbable conclusion. 

Were the writer to risk an opinion concerning the design of these inscriptions,, 
he would suggest that they refer solely to those buried in this mound. The tablet 
contains three V shaped characters similar to those found in the Great Pyramid, 
and which Prof. Piazzi Smith, and others, refer to as symbols of power or distinc- 
tion. In this case they may refer to the three important graves found in this 
mound. 

As to the genuineness of the find there seems to be no room for doubt, as- 
Dr. Everhart, an intelligent explorer, took it out in the presence of a number of 
witnesses. As to age, it bears the marks of antiquity. It is doubtless as old as 
the mound from which it was exhumed. 

Messrs. Robert Clark, Charles L. Low and Dr. H. H. Hill, gentlemen of 
more than local celebrity in archaeological science, to whom, with the writer, is 
was submitted for examination, gave Mr. Everhart a written statement of our 
views concerning this tablet, concluding as follows : ' ' We have examined this stone 
very carefully after hearing Mr. Everhart's statement concerning it, and we are 
satisfied that it is not of recent procuction, but has every appearance of being a 
veritable Mound Builder's relic, and is well worthy a serious effort to unravel its 
mysteries." 



THE HAIR AND BEARD AS RACIAL CHARACTERISTICS. 

Prof. Otis T. Mason in the American Naturalist for June, in commenting on 
various anthropological papers in the Revue d' Anthropologie says : The article of 
Mme Royer is designed to show that the human race is descended from a species 
of animal that never had any hair, in opposition to the generally received theory 
that our race has lost its hair in time. Following close after this domes Mr. 
Wake's paper upon the beard, and on pages 170-175, a review, by M. Vars, upon 
Ecker's " Systeme pileux et ses anomalies chez I'homme," so that three-fourths of 
the original communications of the number relate to this external characteristic. 
After a very extended collation of authorities who have remarked upon the abun- 
dance or scarcity of hair upon tribes in all parts of the world, Mr. Wake con- 
cludes with Peschel that the beard is a good racial characteristic, and "that there 
are races upon whom it is developed in all its exhuberances, while there are oth- 
ers in which this distinction appears to be incompletely produced." The author 
then goes on to seek the causes of this difference. The growth of hair upon the 
face cannot be attributed to such causes as alimentation and climate. Doubtless 
these have had their effects ; but the true cause must be sought in the sum total 
of all the influences, moral as well as physical, to which the organism has been 



UNDULATORY MOVEMENTS AS AFFECTING OUR SENSES. 151 

subjected. According to this theory, the most general and complete develop- 
ment of the beard should be sought among the races which have been most favor- 
ably situated or the longest exposed to the conditions favorable to its production. 
Beardless races, in this sense, may be compared to children, and those that are 
bearded to adults. If the beard be a social mark, we seem to be authorized to 
afifirm that bearded races are more nearly related to one another than to those 
that are beardless. 

He also refers as follows to the " Essay on the Bible narrative of Creation," 
by Prof. A. R. Grote, of Buffalo, N. Y. : "Whatever opinion our readers may 
have as to the weight of authority quoted, or concerning Prof. Grote's ability to 
guide us in this most intricate problem, no one will question his scientific attain- 
ments or his disposition to treat the subject fairly and his opponents kindly. The 
gist of the treatis is best given in the author's own words." If there is one sub- 
ject which now seems to me more important than another, it is the bearing of our 
recognition of the process of evolution upon the existing state of our religious 
creed. It is not that the teachings of Christ are to be rejected, or the morality 
of the Hebrew Bible to be condemned, but that we are to correct our views as to 
the way in which existing plants and animals (including man) came to be what 
they are to-day. For Astronomy and Geology the struggle is nearly over. Out 
of this struggle has sprung the fatal error of believing that our knowledge in these 
branches does not contradict Genesis, or that a reconciliation is possible. But 
with biology the struggle is now going on. It is imagined that the six days 
mean really periods, although from the context the meaning is shown to 
clearly agree with the words, since the morning and evening are given to limit 
the term and decide the intention. It cannot, indeed, be too often remembered 
that people did not write in early times what they did not mean. The study of 
Genesis, or the origin of things, religion must surrender to the sciences. 



PHYSICS. 



UNDULATORY MOVEMENTS AS AFFECTING OUR SENSES. 

PROF. T. BERRY SMITH, NORTHFIELD, MINN. 

Let US inquire into the nature of undulatory movement. 

You have all seen the waving of grain fields when the wind was sweeping 
across them. 

Did you ever think of the steps necessary for the production of the waves 
which you saw ? 

Let us follow one head of wheat in its movements and find out what it does. 
Now it is standing still and erect. In a moment the wind comes in a gust and 



152 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

the head is bent far forward ; then by reaction hke a penduhim it rises, swings 
back and passes beyond its original position to a point about as low as when bent 
farthest forward. The movement may be repeated many times, but we have 
seen all that that particular head does. When erect it is at its highest point and 
when bent farthest forward it is at its lowest point. We learn from this that the 
heads of grain are performing movements which are transverse to the line along 
which the wave is moving. In like manner do the particles of a rope move 
when you catch hold of one end of the rope and cause a wave motion along its 
entire length. And water waves are caused in the same way. 

Again, take an elastic wire, coil it into a spiral, support one end firmly, to 
the other end fasten a weight, and cause the weight to vibrate up and down by 
pulling it downward and then freeing it. Evidently the coils of the spiral are at 
one time stretched apart and at another tiine crowded together, as the weight 
vibrates up and down. That is, the particles instead of moving transverse to the 
line of wave motion are moving /ar*?//^/ with it. 

To sum up, then, there are two classes of undulatory movements : 

I — Those in which the elements of the wave move transverse to the line of 
direction of the wave ; and 

2 — Those in which the elements of the wave move parallel with the line of 
direction of the wave, i. e. there is alternate cond. nsation and rarefaction among 
the elements of the wave. 

Now there are four classes of material substance with which we have to deal : 

I — Masses. 

2 — Molecules. 

3 — Atoms. 

4 — Radiant matter, called "Ether." 

We look up to those great masses we call stars and- learn that they are for- 
ever in motion. We explain the solid, the liquid and the gaseous conditions of 
matter by saying that the molecules are in motion and are only closer together in 
the solid than in the fluid. By analogy and by the researches of such men as 
Crookes and others, v/e reason that atoms and ether particles. are likewise in con- 
tinual motion. Thus we are led to conclude that in matter nowhere " can rest 
be found." 

The constituent particles of all matter are forever unstilled. 

If I have made myself understood thus far, I shall how proceed to use 
these facts in explanation of the actions of our various organs of sense. I shall 
try to demonstrate that these various organs of sense are so endowed that each 
takes cognizance of certain rates of undulatory motion and transmits its impres- 
sions to the brain. How these impressions are transmitted to the brain, I shall 
not pretend to say — that is beyond the scope of material science; but I do want 
to show that the nerves of these organs are. affected by and receptive of undula- 
tory movements within limits ordained tor each particular organ. In the cases 
of the ear and the eye, this is already an accepted theory. Let us state the 
reasoning in the cases of these briefly. 



UND ULA TOR Y MO VEMENTS AS AFFECTING UR SENSES. 153 

In the case of the ear it is generally agreed that two things are 
necessary for the production of physical sound, viz.: A vibrating mass of matter, 
and an elastic medium to transmit the vibrations to the organ of hearing. There 
can be no physical sound in a vacuum. The undulatory motion in this case is 
composed of to-and-fro elements, i. e. there is alternate condensation and rare- 
faction among the particles of the transmitting medium. The limits of rate of 
vibration are about i6 per second for lowest and about ao,ooo for highest. Below 
1 6 per second the rate is so slow that the ear is not affected, and above 40,000 so 
fast that the ear fails to take cognizance of them. The ear is the only one of the 
organs of sense that is a^ected by aerial vibrations. 

It is well known that the earUest theory of vision was the cor- 
puscular. It was said that exceedingly small particles shot from the .luminous 
body fell upon the eye and produced vision. Sir Isaac Newton and others were 
apostles of this theory. Nowadays we laugh at such an idea. Let us think of a 
particle sent from the sun. No matter how small it would be, it might acquire 
velocity enough to give it a momentum that would destroy the eye when it fell 
upon it. M dern science has adopted another theory known as the undulatory. 
This presupposes an exceedingly rare medium pervading all space and occupying 
the interstices between molecules and atoms. This medium is called " Ether." 
In the case of sound, the wave motion was the result of mass vibration upon the 
air ; but in case of light, the wave motion is the result of molecular vibration upon 
this so-called ether. The elements of the undulatory motion have a transverse 
movement just as in the case of water waves or the waving of a field of gram. 
The effect produced upon the eye will vary with the number of waves entering 
it in a given time. It has been found by calculations based on observations 
made on soap bubbles, etc., that to produce the sensation we call red, over 400 
trillions of waves must enter the eye in one second. Then as the numbers 
increase the impression experienced by the eye varies through all the colors of 
the rainbow until about 700 trillions per second are reached. Beyond that the 
eye fails to be affected and darkness reigns, just as it did before reaching the 400 
trillions just now mentioned. Now it is well known that light is usually the 
result of great heat. Hence we may naturally conclude that below 400 trillions 
and down to an unknown limit the effect of molecular movement is to produce 
waves in "ether" which affect the papillae of the skin and make the sensation 
we call heat. When two bodies are brought near each other, if we keep in mmd 
that the molecules of each are in motion, then that will be the hot one whose 
molecules are moving the faster and producing the greater number of ethereal 
undulations in a second. But what shall we say of the effects of rates of vibra- 
tion beyond the highest extreme of impressions named Hght? We know not 
unless they are such as affect the motor nerves and the muscles and produce the 
sensations we ascribe to electricity. And were we inclined to materialism we 
might say that certain rates of inconceivable rapidity give rise to thought, spirit, 
life, etc. Be that as it may, let us now come back to our special organs of sense 



154 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

and see if we can explain the sensations of smell, taste and touch by use of 
molecular movements. 

The story is oft recited in our books of Natural Philosophy, under the head 
of the wonderful divisibility of matter, how a grain of musk was kept in a room 
scenting it for twenty years and yet at the end of that time had lost no weight. 
Now this is marvelous if we suppose infinitesimal particles to be continually pass- 
ing off, which falling upon the nerves of smell produce the sensation we call odor. 
Yes, very marvelous, that particles can be taken from a body through so many 
years and yet not affect the weight of that body; as much as to say that innumer- 
able infinitesimal particles weigh nothing. We must confess we do not like to be- 
ieve such a story. Surely it is more reasonable to think that certain rates of 
motion among the molecules of the musk impart like rates of undulation to the 
"ether" and these ethereal waves reaching our nostrils produce the sensation 
called smell. As in the case of the eye, the senation is various according as the 
rate is various. Such a theory explains how the vulture scents its prey from afar. 
The molecules of the carrion impress their motion on the " ether " and the undula- 
tions go out and on until they fall upon and affect the keen nostrils of the bird 
quietly floating in the blue empyrean. Would a particle of the dead matter ever 
reach it, think you? 

If you ask how is it the vulture and the dog and other animals can scent 
things imperceptible to man, we reply because they are endowed with keener sen- 
sibilities in this respect. If you ask why so many vibrations do not get mixed up 
and produce confusion, we ask how is it in the great orchestra that you catch the 
peculiar tones of each particular instrument ? In music we name the quality 
thus distinguishing instruments timbre ; and so there may be timbre in all kinds of 
vibrations or undulations. An odorous object loses its odor as soon as its pe- 
culiar rate of vibration is varied or lost. As in sound waves and light waves, 
there may be inter erence, i. e. , waves which puteach other out, so to speak, so in odo^ 
waves there may be interference ; thus we might explain the action of disinfectants 
and deodorizers. As to the limits of the rates of vibration, we know nothing. 
Taste and touch are said to be produced by contact of substances with the 
nerves of the tongue and the skin. Yet perhaps the various peculiarities in taste 
and touch may be ascribed to peculiarities in rate of molecular motion. A thing 
is sour or sweet, bitter or nauseous or acid, occording as its molecular vibrations 
affect the nerves of the different parts of the tongue adapted for the reception of 
rates producing such sensations. We have however no arguments in favor of 
this. As for touch, that requires contact also, just as does taste. 

Let us see how we would explain the various peculiarities of surface of bodies 
as learned by touch. 

As the finger is brought in contact with the fine point of a needle, for in- 
stance, the molecules of the papillse in the finger end come in contact in their 
little oscillation with the oscillating molecules of the needle. Of course there is 
resistance; but as this resistance occurs at but one point, we say the needle is 



UNDULATORY MOVEMENTS AS AFFECTING OUR SENSES. 155 

sharp. It is like a single man meeting a phalanx. But if the finger comes in con- 
tact with a surface and finds even resistance at all points then we say it is smooth. 
That is like phalanx meeting phalanx. In like manner we may explain dullness, 
keenness, roughness, hardness, etc. — all properties which are learned by the 
sense of touch. 

Now, having gone thus far, let us tablulate our conclusions. Matter exists 
as masses, molecules, atoms and ether. These are all continually in motion. 
Matter which produces wave motion must move in one or other of two phases — 
(i) parallel to or (2) transverse to the line of direction of wave. This much es- 
tablished, let us say : 

I. Masses vibrate : 

(a) There is undulatory movement in air ; 

(b) Elements move parallel to line of direction of wave; 

(c) Rate of vibration extending, for aught we know, from o to 00 per 
second; 

(d) Within the limits 16-40000 per second the ear is affected and we hear 
sound ; 

(e) Either side of these limits is silence so far as man is concerned. 

II. Molecules Yihxdite: 

(a) There is undulatory movement in ether; 

(b) Elements move transverse to line of direction of wave ; 

(c) Rate of vibration extending from o to 00 per second. 

(d) Within the limits 400 trillions to 700 triUions per second the eye is 
affected and we can see light. 

(e) Either side of these limits is darkness so far as man is concerned. 

(f) Other senses affected in the same way are the nose, the skin and prob- 
ably the muscles, but by what rates of motion we do not know. 

Molecules vibrate : 

(a) In contact with the tongue — Taste ; 

(b) In contact with the hand — Touch. 

Now we hinted just now that possibly molecular vibration may result in 
thought. If this be true, and there is such a thing as sympathetic vibration 
among molecules as there is between musical strings, pendulums, etc., then is it 
strange that two persons should think the same thought at the same moment ? 
Doubtless you have all had such experience. You have been surprised to hear a 
friend in your company speak of something which at the same moment was occu- 
pying your personal thought. Be it understood we do not say that thought can 
thus be explained, but the theory seems plausible to say the least of it. 

To go a little further in this theorizing, if the so-called ether does pervade all 
space, and if vibrations or undulations once started in this ether never cease, and 
if the human organs of us limited beings take cognizance of occurrences around 
us when undulations within certain limits fall upon our senses, then an omnipo- 
tent, omnipresent being with unlimited powers could experience absolutely and 



156 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

really any and every occurrence that ever took place. The wide realm of ether 
becomes God's book of remembrance, and " the book shall be opened " tons 
when these limits that now enthrall us are laid aside and power and liberty is ours 
to go in space wheresoever we wish. 



FRANKLIN'S PLACE IN SCIENCE. 

Franklin's contributions to science are not limited to his electric discoveries 
and inventions. Out of many such that might be mentioned there are two that 
deserve especial attention. They are (i) the course of storms over the North 
American continent ; (2) the effects of the Gulf Stream. 

He relates the circumstances of his meteorological discovery in a letter dated 
February, 1749. " You desire to know my thoughts concerning the northeast 
storms beginning to leeward. Some years ago there was an eclipse of the moon 
at nine o'clock in the evening, which I intended to observe, but before night a 
storm blew up at northeast, and continued violent all night and all the next day, the 
sky thick-clouded, dark, and rainy, so that neither moon nor stars could be seen. 
The storm did a great deal of damage all along the coast, for we had accounts of 
it in the newspapers from Boston, Newport, New York, Maryland, and Virginia. 
But what surprised n e was to find in the Boston newspaper an account of an ob- 
servation of that eclipse made there, for I thought as the storm came from the 
northeast it must have begun sooner in Boston than with us, and consequently 
prevented such an observation. I wrote to my brother about it, and he informed 
me that the echpse was over there an hour before the storm began. Since which 
I have made inquiries from time to time of travelers and of my correspondents 
northeastward and southwestward, and observed in the accounts in the newspapers 
from New England, New York, Maryland, A'^irginia, and South Carolina, and I 
find it to be a constant fact that northeast storms begin to leeward, and are often 
more violent there than to windward. Thus the last October storm, which was 
with you on the 8th, began on the 7th in Virginia and North Carolina, and was 
most violent there." 

Of late years this observation of Franklin's has been greatly extended. It 
now appears that almost all the chief atmospheric disturbances of this continent 
pass in an easterly or northeasterly direction toward the Atlantic Ocean. Nor do 
they stop on gaining the sea coast. Why should they ? In making their way 
over the ocean, though some may disappear, many reach Europe. It follows, 
then, that the approach of these storms, may be foretold by telegraph, and that not 
only in the case of the more intense atmospheric disturbances, but the coming of 
minor ones, such as are popularly designated waves of heat and cold, and varia- 
tions of atmospheric pressure, may be predicted. The introduction of the land 
and ocean telegraphs for this purpose constitutes an epoch in the science of 
meteorology. Ships about to cross the Atlantic may be forewarned as to the 
weather they may expect. An exhaustive examination of the whole subject was 



FRANKLIN'S PLACE IN SCIENCE. 15T 

made by Daniel Draper, director of the New York Meteorological Observatory 
in the Central Park, and published in his reports of that observatory for the years 
1872-73. 

2d. Of the Gulf Stream. The existence of this current was long ago de- 
tected by the New England fishermen, but they had no idea of its magnificent 
proportions, its great geographical and climatological importance. These were 
first brought into view by Franklin. In a memoir read at a meeting of the 
American Philosophical Society, December, 1785, he states that while he was con- 
cerned in the management of the American Post-office an investigation was had 
respecting the cause of the long voyages made by the packet ships from England. 
The merchant ships made much shorter ones. "There happened to be then in 
London a Nantucket sea-captain of my acquaintance, Captain Folger, to whom I 
communicated the affair. He told me that the difference was owing to this, 
that the Rhode Island captains were acquainted with the Gulf Stream, while those 
of the English packets were not. ' In crossing it we have sometimes met and 
spoken with those packets, who were in the middle of it, and stemming it. We 
have informed them that they were stemming a current that was against them to 
the value of three miles an hour, and advised them to cross it and get out of it' 
I then observed it was a pity no notice was taken of this current upjon the charts, 
and requested him to mark it out for me, which he readily complied with. I pro- 
cured it to be engraved, by order from the General Post-office on the old chart of 
the Atlantic, and copies were sent down to Falmouth for the captains of the pack- 
ets. Having since crossed the stream several times in passing between America 
and Europe, I have been attentive to sundry circumstances relating to it by which 
to know when one is in it. I annex hereto observations made with the thermom- 
eter in two voyages. It will appear from them that a thermometer may be a use- 
ful instrument to a navigator, since currents coming from the northward into 
southern seas will probably be found colder than the waters of those seas, as the 
currents from southern seas into northern are found warmer." 

Though Franklin was not the discoverer of the Gulf Stream, he was the first 
to bring it prominently into notice, to cause a chart of it to be published, to de- 
tect its most important characteristic — its high temperature — to introduce the use 
of the thermometer, and to point out the importance of that instrument in navi- 
gation. 

In the short compass of this article I have not space to relate many of his 
minor experiments and observations. There is, however, one that deserves to be 
referred to, from the influence it has had in optical science. " I took," says 
Franklin, "a number of httle square pieces of broadcloth from a tailors pattern 
card, of various colors. They were black, deep blue, lighter blue, green, pur- 
ple, red, yellow, white, and other colors or shades of colors. I laid them all out 
upon the snow on a b'ight sunshiny morning. In a few hours (I can not now 
be exact as to the time) the black, being most warmed by the sun, was sunk so 
low as to be below the stroke of the sun's rays; the dark blue almost as low; the 



158 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

lighter blue not quite so much as the dark; the other colors less as they were 
lighter; and the quite white remained on the surface of the snow, not having en- 
tered at all. What signifies philosophy that does not apply to some use ? May 
we not learn from hence that black clothes are not so fit to wear in a hot, sunny 
climate as white ones ?" 

"What signifies philosophy that does not apply to some use ?" That is a 
sentiment characteristic of Franklin, characteristic of the age in which he lived. 
In truth, the entire scientific and industrial progress of that century is an example 
of it. — Dr. John W. Draper, in Harper's Magazine for July. 



EDUCATION. 



SOME THOUGHTS ON THE PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUCTION. 

BY PROF. E. C. CROSBY, KANSAS CITY, MO. 
{Concluded.) 

Says the Assistant Superintendent of the N. Y. schools (1874): "Telling 
pupils facts about an object without the necessary observation on their part to 
clearly comprehend those facts, may possibly be called teaching science, but it is 
neither scientific teaching nor object teaching." I do not understand how one 
can overlook the truth that the memorization of names of natural objects or the 
names of their qualities, or formulae which express their relations, without an in- 
dividual appeal first of all to their perceptive faculties, carries with it neither 
science nor scientific method. As the educating process simulates original in- 
vestigation acquisition becomes more rapid, secure and intelligent. Strange it is 
that, at this late date, these principles, but little less than axiomatic, should be so 
■disregarded, and demand explicit statement ! The truth is, too many are en- 
gaged in this professional business of teaching without attempting to make it 
professional. A few give attention to the science of teaching ; the many engage 
in fiction, or other diverting literature, popular science, philosophy and society. 
The teacher's preparation of a lesson which he is to hear recited to-morrow, has 
two phases; one, as to its contents and application; the other as to the exact 
method best calculated to arouse the mind, reach the understanding and adapt 
the subject at hand to the inherent and unchangeable laws of unfolding thought. 
This second phase of preparation is so rarely studied that he who would venture 
to present it at the usual teachers' institute, would suddenly find himself accused 
of taking up valuable time with " pet theories." May we not hope that the time 
is not far distant wheu a simple statement of the elemental principles of teach- 
ing, daily witnessed in the school room, will be distinguished from those base|ess. 



SOME THOUGHTS ON THE PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUCTION. 159 

ill-defined and whimsical notions which too often find vent from superheated im- 
aginations ? A single illustration : A teacher writes me concerning these views : 
" How can a child get an idea of an isthmus and such things without learning 
the definition first and then applying them ? " Evidently this teacher can not 
understand how knowledge can be gained without beginning with a definition, 
mastering it, then producing an example Suppose a pail of water be carefully 
poured out upon the school yard. Let the pupil see the little handful of dirt 
surrounded by water, then give it a name. All the other geographical facts may 
thus be beautifully experienced and made known to the pupil, after which the 
separate parts may receive their several names Thus do we advance from per- 
ceptions to abstract ideas. Then follows the question, " How can children get 
an idea of the extent of land and water without learning the definition first ? " 
After what has been said, this question is evidently an absurd one. Still, the 
question is a natural one, since the most of our school text-books, beginning as 
they do with definitions followed by illustrations (which are occasional), thus to- 
tally reversing the order of mental growth, are but splendid examples of human 
folly, which the next century will not tolerate. 

The character of so-called knowledge depends largely upon the condition of 
mind — whether active or passive — in its acquisition. The passive state receives 
information from the teacher or text-book carefully cut out and clearly sepa- 
rated from the many things with which it was in irregular and mixed contact. 
The child's mental faculties, in committing this formulated knowledge to memory 
have been inactive save the effort to refer the several symbols back to former ex- 
periences. For a moment think of the obscurities, the opposing facts, the thread- 
like hints, the vague confirmations, the tentative efforts, the sudden checks, and 
the great discouragements, out of which have grown the finished educational 
products he so listlessly receives. The pupil knows nothing of those uniting, 
conflicting and jostling facts, but these very facts are the first things with which 
he will meet when he finally passes the threshhold of the school room, and in 
manhood's prime, he sees and feels that the school has wholly failed in teaching 
him the process of knowing and the methods used, by which the finished forms 
of knowledge became known. 

In the active state of mind the pupil takes hold of the object, be it material 
or spiritual, and personally examines it, /. e. he determines (if the object be for- 
mulated knowledge) whether the relations among his experiences are like those 
relations asserted in the text. If material objects are under examination he feels 
the spring of their substance then names it '• elasticity"; he breaks it then calls 
it brittle ; his hand passes over it and he calls it rough ; he lifts it, then calls it 
light ; and generally, he first experiences, then names those experiences. Names 
appear after experiences, numerous illustrations after the names, and definition 
after those illustrations — the definition being the finished product, the sign of 
previous investigation. In primary instruction, at least, knowing should ante- 
date the naming. In the active state the mind is not only discovering, but it is 



160 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

originally producing something, and this something is expressed in language from 
the securest date known to humanity. The mind is on the alert, inquisitive and 
determined, this active state securing many things entirely lost to the passive 
state. Not only does the mind fully realize the difficulties, individually knowing 
their exact character, but it is nerved to the effort which overcomes them. Ap- 
pearance are separated from reahties, and reality-relations are sworn foes to a 
hazy, mental sky. Orders of dependence, fallacies of position and errors in ver- 
bal statement, are originally discovered by the faculties which are necessarily 
sharpened and made reliant by use. In this active, investigating state of mind, 
comparison goes on involuntarily, the judgment is exercised in a practical way 
that developes it, the discriminating faculty is engaged as it must work in future 
years, and when the investigation is completed, the thing known is thoroughly 
distinguishable from every other. While presenting this Hne of truth (of the last 
half page) I am certain that its full force will be appreciated only by those per- 
sons who have, during some period of their lives, actively and persistently en- 
gaged in some experimental investigations, or made some conquests in natural 
history, which enables them to know that it is to have the soul tried in its search 
for truth. He who has never had these experiences — but which lie within the 
reach of every person — need not hope for the possession of an opinion upon any 
educational, scientific or philosophic subject deserving the respect of others. 

Another phase of mental action, to which Leibnitz first drew attention, is 
not a little important to the teacher. Those who observe their ©wn mental proc- 
esses know that the mind frequently arrives at conclusions, and. among other 
.things, determines duties, which challenge conscious effort. "Just wait a mo- 
ment, let me see," is often followed by a total inability to fix upon anything def- 
inite for the purpose. After a time the desired date, the wanted name, or the 
quoted sentence, flashes into the mind unbidden and unforewarned. How of- 
ten we struggle to decide upon some course of action when the pros balance the 
cons, when the difficulties vie with the favoring circumstances, and all to no pur- 
pose. Now, throw away all care, turn the attention wholly to other subjects, 
and how frequently the dawn of morning brings the solution which we unhesi- 
tatingly adopt, although we are not conscious: of having studied the matter at all. 
In his " Psychological Inquiries," Sir Benj. Brodie says : "It has often happened 
to me to have been occupied by a particular subject of inquiry; to have accu- 
mulated a store of facts connected with it; but to have been able to proceed no 
further. Then, after an interval of time, without any addition to my stock of 
knowledge, I found the obscurity and confusion in which the subject was origin- 
ally enveloped, to have cleared away ; the facts have seemed all to settle them- 
selves in their right places, and their mutual relations to have become apparent, 
although I have not been sensible of having made any distinct effort for that 
purpose." There is no question but that much of our thinking is automatic, and 
it is but little less certain that no small amount is unconscious except as seen in 
results. It matters not whether " unconscious thinking" or "unconscious cere- 



SOME THOUGHTS ON THE PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUCTION 161 

bration " be its technical expression, there still remains the striking fact that we 
are constantly using unpremeditated inferences and other like conclusions in 
practical hfe, the processes for deriving which we are profoundly ignorant. More 
than this, their certainty we do not for a moment call in question since all matters 
to which this conclusion appHes, stand out in an orderly and bold relief. There 
is but one explanation of these phenomena possible; our minds are evolving the 
materials of former perceptions, balancing arguments, comparing data, and study- 
ing relations, when we do not know it, and in a similar manner to that employed 
when we voluntarily effect a solution of difficulties. Here, then, is the evident 
necessity of making all our experiences and their symbols, clear, concise and sev- 
erally distinguished, since we are wholly unable, at the time in question, to sup- 
plement any deficiency by improving the perception or otherwise increasing the 
quantity of materials for the mind's use. 

By such training, wherein the pupil knows from personal observation where- 
of he speaks, instead of relying upon his memory as to what some ' ' authority " 
has said about it, the student is not only better enabled to encounter the prob- 
lems of life and to perform its common offices not meanly but well. 

" A great problem, ever pressing upon mankind, 
Is how to discover and apply 
The immense universe of Truth unknown: 

« « * * * » -:::- -* # ij; 

The final end of all original research 

Is the improvement and 'perfection of mankind."* 

"We are all blockheads in something " f has reference more to special de- 
fects and special aptitudes in the mental constitution, but beneath this striking 
statement there lies the peculiarity, but little less than universal, commonly called 
•duUnes. It is clear that, to the extent that original intuitions of the pupil have 
been confined within narrow limits, were incomplete from any cause. Or are re- 
mote in time, their symbols will possess but a scanty meaning, and be unman, 
ageable through all the contrivances and ingenious methods which the teacher 
can devise, i. e. the pupil is dull ; but, if the original experiences were ample 
and conclusive, were oft repeated and not distant in time while the native adhe- 
siveness of mind is fair or good, then the symbols as used in new relations, will 
possess a power which makes the eye twinkle, fills the face with enthusiasm, and 
begets a desire for continued progress, i. e. the child is apt. "The new state- 
ment principle, or truth is comprehended " means, that the pupil has marshaled 
the symbols into intelligible order by readily supporting them with original ex- 
periences. "He does not understand" means, the pupil can not refer the sym- 
bols to their fundamental correlates, which, if they ever existed, have now 
faded away. We fail to reach this mind, because this mind fails to perform that 
act essential to every knowing. It must be noticed that these facts are not in- 
vaUdated by that exceedingly important truth, that a good inheritance has every- 
thing to do with intellectual progress — "one must be well born " — as the same 

* Gore. 

t Senses and Intellect. — Bain. 



162 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

laws of mental development obtain whether one's capacity be remarkable or in- 
ferior. 

Such are the fundamental principles of mental development as I conceive 
them, and as such are they slowly coming into favor among those who strive to 
know the kind and direction of that current which forms the substratum of all 
our mental process. In conclusion, I know of no better instruction which will 
induce students to continue in improvement after graduation ; none which will 
so much inspire the teacher to grow, after being well seated in his professional 
chair. Such teaching will best enable a person to withhold the expression of an 
opinion when he has none worth expressing; to rely somewhat upon his own obr 
servation and judgment of men and things rather than upon some "authority,'* 
to form proportionate judgments when complete ones are impossible ; to reserve 
judgments wholly when we have not heard both sides of a controversy; to stand 
aloof from the acceptation of any views whose details, bearings and history have 
not been faithfully examined ; to feel security in honest convictions when formed 
upon the broadest foundation within the range of the individual; to rise and re- 
solve anew when misfortunes beset us, instead of weakening under a flood of 
tears ; to unconditionally defend his right to reject or reserve judgment upon 
any beliefs which may be presented for his consideration if their data contradict 
the experiences of his short life time. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 



GEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 

BY THE LATE PROF. B. F. MUDGE. 

CHAPTER II.— RADIATES. 

The radiates are the lowest (excepting Protozoa), of the five great sub- 
kingdoms of animals. They do not appear with the first traces of hfe in the 
Lower Silurian, though they are found soon afterwards. Two of the higher 
sub-kingdoms, the Mollusks and Articulates, appear in the Acadian and 
the Radiates not till the Potsdam. It is also a well setded fact that the lowest of 
the Radiates are not the first representatives of that sub-kingdom. Acalephs and 
Echinoderms appear at the opening of the Primoid, or first division of the Lower 
Silurian and Polyps, at the close of the Trenton, or after a period of one-fifteenth 
of the earth's geological history. Dana says: " If we may trust the records, 
Echinoderms or the highest type of Radiates were represented by species 
(Crystids and Crinids) long before the inferior type of Polyps existed ; this can 
hardly be accounted for satisfactorily on the supposition that the earliest Polyps 



GEOLOGY AND E VOL UTLON. 163 

made no calcareous secretions, seeing that the ocean's waters were then eminently 
calcareous."* 

Even the star-fishes are found nearly as early (in the Trenton) as the lowest 
forms. The Radiates then continue to the present time, running a parallel line 
of life with the Mollusks and Articulates, without ever crossing the lines of 
demarcation of these sub-kingdoms. The Oculinaf (in Eocene) and Astreae (in 
Mesozoic) Tribes did not make their appearance till long after the Polaeozoic Age. 
So low forms of Radiates should, on all principles of development, have been 
seen at the dawn of life. 

Though there has been a great diversity in the various phases of the Radiates, 
in species, genera and even orders ; yet so very slight has been the advancement, 
that if all the changes were proved to be an outgrowth by evolution, it would not 
prove that a high type of animal life could be derived from a low one. 

But there is one aspect of this question which appears to prove an insur- 
mountable objection to the passage of one type into another. It relates to the 
mathematical structure of tlie Radiates. On the first appearance of the Radiates 
they had the parts in multiples of four; but in the Mesozoic Age the Astr« type 
came in with a multiple of parts in sixes. This is a mathematical change. 
Now, there can be no development of a triangle into a quadrilateral. When 
the figure ceases to have three sides it must have four. There can be no inter- 
mediate form. So of the earlier and later corals. The moment it ceases to be 
a radiation of fours, it becomes a radiation of sixes. The difference in structure 
is simply the crossing of two lines; in the one case, and of three lines, 
in the other. As each increases in age and maturity there is an additional 
cross line between each two of the first, crossing at the center, as before, and 
the four rays of the two lines become eight rays from the four fines in the first 
multiple of the old corals ; and the six rays rays from the three lines 
become twelve rays ; from the six lines in the multiples of the newer corals. 

There can be, from the mathematical construction, no intermediate 
(evolutionary) form. The geometrical structure forbids it. 

There is another plan of structure in some of the Radiates (Star-fish and 
Crinoids§) in which the rays are five in number or multiples of five. These are 
constructed on another plan, differing more from those above described than 
they from each other. The five rays are formed, not from lines crossing, but 
from five lines radiating from a common point, at equal angles. This is also a 
mathematical structure, and cannot be derived from either of the others any 
easier than a pentagon can be derived from a square or from a hexagon. 

All these forms have flourished in the same waters from the Mesozoic, and 
most of them from the Lower Silurian Age. 

The Star-fishes (Palaeaster, etc.), having five rays, possess fittle constructive 
resemblance to the five-armed Pentacrinus with its thousands of plates, though 

*Manual, p. 598. 

fTwo low forms of Corals. 

§Crinoids are sometimes called "Stone Lillies," though they are not vegetable organisms. 

IV-U 



164 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

both are of the same mathematical rank. Nor Is there, among our earhst fossils, 
the slightest trace that one has been derived from the other, or both from a com- 
mon parentage. Both appear in the Trenton epoch with the same distinctive 
characteristics which they possess in any later period. 

It is a principle of evolution, that the influence of climate, food and other 
circumstances are largely, and, in the lower forms of organism, the entire cause 
of the variance of structure. In these low, radiate forms "natural selection" 
can have no influence. With this principle before us, we would draw attention 
to the extremely monotonous surroundings in which the Radiates, particularly 
the Corals, have always existed. This can be clearly seen in the living species 
and genera. They are nearly all confined within the twentieth degrees of latitude 
on both sides of the Equator. They are most abundant in the Pacific ocean. 
That body of water, even more than the other tropical oceans, is noted for its 
uniform temperature and the uniform proportion of saline elements held in 
solution. Many of the Pacific islands have a maximum range of less than 
15° Fahrenheit of extreme temperature in the year, and the adjoiniiig waters 
have far less, at the depth of which most of the corals live. The zone of coral 
life is limited to one hundred feet in depth, and most genera are confined to a 
belt of twenty vertical feet. The variation of temperature in the year for the 
lower portion of this zone, is probable not over five degrees. This portion of 
the ocean, in which the corals live, is more uniform in its clearness and saltness 
than in its temporature, as when these vary the animals die. The food which 
most if not ah of them eat is the same. Their chemical, coral, calcite structures 
are identical. 

Now with all these extremely monotonous conditions of the coral Polyps and 
other Radiates, why do we find so great a variety of species, genera and even 
orders flourishing on the same reef? If diversified conditions, according to Prof. 
Darwin and his associates, give new forms, why should circumstances, such as 
we have described, present us with such varied ones ? Or if they owe their 
origin to diversified conditions which are lost to our knowledge by the "imper- 
fection of the geological records," why should not our monotonous and very 
uniform conditions of the age of man have reduced these numerous genera and 
sptcies to a few forms? 

Geologists and palaeontologists have clearly settled the question that in all ages 
of the globe, wherever corals have existed, the conditions of the ocean, in all 
respects, have been the same as that in which they now exist. In collecting our 
fossil Radiates from the oldest strata, though in certain localities some species 
may predominate, we always find associated others of very different generic 
affinities. Yet they must, Hke those of the present tropics, have lived in the 
same water under the same climatic conditions. 

Barrande classifies over thirteen hundred species of Radiates of the utmost 
extremes of genera from Star-fishes and Crinoids to Polyps, all gathered from 



ORIGIN AND CLASSIFICATION OF ORE DEPOSITS. 165 

the Silurian deposits. These present a close resemblance to those now living. 
Prof. Huxley tells us* that only one order of the corals has become extinct. 

Any one looking over the beautiful volume of Zoophiles, by Prof. J. D. Dana, 
compiled from his researches while connected with the Wilkes exploring expedi- 
tion in the Pacific, will be struck even more by the diversity of conformation than 
by the beauty of colors in this branch of animated nature. He describes over 
five hundred species (we quote from memory) and saw as many more which he 
had not time to classify. Agassiz in 1850 estimated that there were ten thousand 
living species of Radiates. 



THE ORIGIN AND CLASSIFICATION OF ORE DEPOSITS.f 

BY PROF. J. S. NEWBERRY. 

The mineral matters which have proved useful to man form three categories : 
first, the earthy, as gypsum, clay, marble; second, carbonaceous, as coal, 
lignite, petroleum ; third, metallic, as iron, gold, silver. 

The metals occur rarely native, oftener as ores, that is, combined with sul- 
phur, silica, carbonic acid, etc. These form a series of deposits, of which the 
physical and chemical characters and history differ widely. They may be grouped 
into three classes, as follows : 

1. Superficial Deposits. 

2. Stratified Deposits. 

3. Unsiratified Deposits. 

SUPERFICIAL DEPOSITS. 

These include the accumulations of gold, stream-tin, platinum, gems, etc., 
which are obtained from the surface material, gravel, sand and clay, derived 
from the mechanical decomposition of rock masses through which metals or ores 
were sparsely distributed. Thus, gold usually occurs in small quantity in the 
quartz-veins of metamorphic rocks. By the erosion of these rocks, having been 
freed from its matrix, and that more or less perfectly removed, this gold is con- 
centrated by a natural washing process similar to that employed by man, but on 
a grander scale. In the same manner, the oxide of tin, which is hard, heavy 
and very resistant to chemical agents, is distributed sparsely through granitic 
rocks or vein-stones ; and where these have been eroded, the cassiterite remains 
in the alluvial deposits of streams, where it can be cheaply and easily collected. 

Superficial deposits have probably furnished nine-tenths of all the gold that 
has been obtained by man, the greater part of the tin, all the platinum and its 
associated metals (iridium, osmium, etc.), and all the gems except the emerald, 
which in South America is obtained by mining. Thus, it will be seen that the 
surface deposits are scarcely less important, economically, than the others. The 

*Lay Sermons, etc., X p. 216. 

fKromthe School c>/ Mines Quarterly ior March, 1880. 



166 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

superficial deposits of gold are for the most part confined to the foot-hills of 
mountain ranges, and are the products of the erosion effected by ages of frost, 
sun, rain and ice, which are continually wearing down all the more elevated por- 
tions of the earth's surface. Shore-waves also, in some instances, have worn 
away the rocks against which they have beaten, and have produced accumulations 
oi debris that contain gold, platinum, gems, etc., in sufficient quantity to be 
economically worked. When a beach deposit of this kind has been raised above 
the sea-level, it sometimes becomes convenient and profitable mining ground. 
On the coast of Oregon, at and above Port Orford, the beaches now yield gold, 
iridium and osmium in sufficient quantity to afford profitable employment ta 
quite a mining population ; and in the Black Hills, the old Potsdam sandstone 
beach, formed by the beating of the Silurian sea upon cliffs of Laurentian and 
Huronian rocks traversed by auriferous quartz-veins, now constitutes what is 
there known as the "cement deposits," from which a considerable portion of the 
gold of this region is obtained. As has been mentioned, however, the chief 
supply of gold in all ages has come from the debris that have accumulated at the 
foot of mountain slopes. All mountain chai?is are composed of metamorphic 
rocks, and nearly all the mountain ranges of the globe are traversed by quartz- 
veins, in which are concentrated much of the gold that was originally finely 
disseminated through the sedimentary strata — conglomerates, sandstones, shales, 
etc. — now granites, schists and slates. 

By the lateral pressure that has metamorphosed the sedimentary rocks, 
and produces the segregation of the quartz-veins, great folds and ridges were 
formed, which, rising high above the general surface, act as condensers of mois- 
ture and receive the most copious precipitation from the clouds. Hence on 
these mountain sides an enormous system of water-power is developed, which is 
spent in grinding up the rocks and transporting the debris to the bottom of the 
slope. Here it is further washed, stored, and the gold locally concentrated to 
form the rich ' ' placer " diggings. As no great skill or expensive mining machin- 
ery is required to work placer deposits, every man with good health, a pick, 
shovel, pan and stock of provisions may go into the business. Gold washing is 
the simplest, as it was probably the earliest, of all mining enterprises, and has 
at different times employed nearly the entire population of a district or country. 
It is not surprising, therefore, that it has resulted in the production of an enor- 
mous quantity of gold. It is evident, however, that most of the placers of the 
world have been already exhausted, and while the little-known continent of 
Africa promises to furnish a large amount of the precious metal from its "golden 
sands," we can hardly expect that the production of California, Australia and 
New Zealand will ever be repeated in the world's history. 

STRATIFIED DEPOSITS. 

These may be subdivided into several groups, such as : 

I. Ore forming entire strata; for example beds of iron ore. 



ORIGIN AND CLASSIFICATION OF ORE DEPOSITS. 167 

2. Ore disseminated through strata; as copper in the schists of Mansfeldt 
and in the sandstones of Lake Superior. 

I. Segregated masses in strata; as sheets of copper in the Lake Superior 
sandstones; balls, kidneys and sheets of clay ironstone in the shales of the Coal 
measures, etc. 

UNSTRATIFIED DEPOSITS. 

These have been divided into : 

1. Eruptive masses. 

2. Disseminated through eruptive rocks. 

3. Contact deposits. 

4. Stockworks. 

5. Fahlbands. 

6. Impregnations. 

7. Chambers. 

8. Mineral veins. 

Of Eruptive masses of metalliferous matter I must confess myself incredu- 
lous. Examples of these are cited in the crystalline iron ores of the island of 
Elba, those of Nijni, Tagilsk in Russia, and in Sweden, and even the iron ore- 
beds of Lake Superior and Missouri. As late as 1854, this was the view taken 
of our crystalline iron ores by Whitney in his Metallic Wealth; but great advances 
have since been made in our knowledge of these deposits, and it is now generally 
conceded that all our crystalline iron ores are simply metamorphosed sedimentary 
beds. The evidence is accumulating that those of the old world have the same 
character. Professor Otto Torell, the Director of the Geological Survey of 
Sweden, recently told me that he had visited all but one of the iron districts of 
Sweden, had found that in all these the iron ores were metamorphic, and he had 
no doubt that those yet unexamined were of similar nature. Where metamorphic 
action has been peculiarly violent, the beds of iron ore have been more or less 
dismembered, and perhaps in some instances have been actually fused ; but that 
any bed of iron ore' is the result of an eruption from the interior of the earth, 
is scarcely to be credited. 

The examples of the occurrence of metalliferous matter disseminated through 
eruptive rocks are by no means uncommon, and the amygdaloid traps of Lake 
Superior, in which the cavities formed by gases have been more or less perfectly 
filled with copper, suggest themselves at once. Pyrites, magnetic iron, and 
platinum are found sparsely diflFused through trap-rocks, and are sometimes con- 
centrated in such a way as to form valuable deposits when the trap decomposes. 

Contact deposits are usually understood to be accumulations of metal or ore 
along the planes of contact between two strata; and the sheets and strings of 
copper which are concentrated at the junction of the trap and sandstone in some 
parts of the south shore of Lake Superior constitute illustrative examples of this 
class of mineral deposits. There is, however, considerable diversity in character 
among the deposits grouped under this head; the chief distinction being that 



168 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

in some cases the ore or metal has been segregated from one or the other of the 
strata at the time of their deposition, and in others it has come from a foreign 
source, and has been deposited in a more or less continuous sheet in cavities 
formed between the surfaces of the adjacent rock-beds. To the second of these 
classes would seem to belong the argentiferous ores of Leadville, Colorado. 
These are deposited along the plane of junction between an underlying limestone 
and overlying porphyry, and undoubtedly accumulated in vacant spaces formed 
by the solution of the limestone. These ore bodies have apparently much in 
common with the pockets and chambers .excavated in certain limestone beds, 
and subsequently filled with ore, to be described farther on. The true structure 
of these Leadville ore bodies can, however, only be accurately learned when 
they shall be penetrated below the zone of unchanged sulphurets into which they 
will undoubtedly merge in depth. 

The term Stockwork is applied in the old world to a mass of rock or vein- 
stone penetrated in all directions by small intersecting sheets or veins in such a 
way that the whole mass is mined out. Some examples of this kind of deposit 
may be found in most of our mining districts ; but the most important which have 
come under my observation are in the Oquirrh Mountains, in Utah, and at Silver 
Cliff, Colorado. In the first of these localities, beds of quartzite — in the second, 
of porphyry, have been shattered, and the crevices between the fragments have 
been filled with ore deposited from solution. 

The name Fahlband, or rotten layer, originated in the silver mine of Kongs 
berg, in Norway, where there are parallel beds of rock impregnated with the 
sulphides of iron, copper, zinc, etc., which, by their decomposition, have rendered 
these beds so soft as easily to be removed. We occasionally meet with pyritous- 
rock in this country, which decomposes in the same way, but none yet known to 
me has any considerable importance as a metalliferous deposit. 

Impregnations may be defined to be saturations of porous rock with a 
mineral solution or vapor from which ore has been deposited. The cinnabar 
which is sometimes found impregnating unchanged or metamorphosed sandstone 
is generally cited as affording typical examples of impregnations. In such cases, 
which occur in California and South America, the deposit of ore has been 
ascribed by some writers to vapors, by others to solution, and it would seem that 
the latter is the more credible theory, although the vaporization of mercury is 
easily effected, and, like other metals, it may be transported by steam, as we 
have proof at the geysers in California. More familiar and satisfactory exhibi- 
tions of impregnation are, however, afforded by the copper-bearing sandstones of 
Lake Superior, New Jersey and Nesv Mexico, and the silver-bearing sandstones 
of Silver Reef, in Southern Utah. In all these cases, it is evident that a porous 
rock was once saturated with a metalliferous solution, from which, in the Lake 
Superior region, metallic copper was precipitated; in New Jersey and New 
Mexico, sulphides of copper and iron; at Silver Reef, sulphide of silver. As 
such repositories of the metals are easily penetrated by surface water and air, we 



ORIGIN AND CLASSIFICATION OF ORE DEPOSITS. 169 

usually find the sulphides decomposed to a considerable depth; the copper ores 
converted into carbonate and silicate, the sulphide of silver into the chloride. 

Chambers ox pockets in limestone form the receptacles of ore in many coun- 
tries; but nowhere else are such striking examples of this class of deposit as 
those found in our Western mining districts. From a study of these, I have been 
led to add them to the catalogue of forms of ore-deposit as a distinct and 
important addition to those given by other writers. The distinctive characters 
of these accumulations of ore in chambers and galleries has not been heretofore 
generally recognized, and a want of information in regard to their true nature 
has led to much litigation and heavy losses in mining. The best examples of 
chamber-mines are the Eureka Consolidated, Richmond, etc., of Eureka, 
Nevada; the Emma, Flagstaff, Kessler, etc., in little Cottonwood District; and 
the Cave Mine, near Frisco, Utah. All these mines are alike in this, that the 
ore is found more or less completely filling irregular chambers in limestone. 
Some of these ore-bodies are of great size, and the aggregate product of these 
chamber-mines is so great as to make it necessary to record this as one of the 
most important forms of metalliferous deposit. From the Potts chamber in the 
Eureka Consolidated mine, it is said that ore of the value of a million dollars 
was taken, while a still larger amount was produced from the great chamber of 
the Emma. The origin of these chamber-deposits is, in my judgirent, simply 
this : A stratum of limestone, more than usually soluble in atmospheric water, 
carrying carbonic acid — which dissolves all limestones — has at some time been 
honey-combed by chambers and galleries such as those which traverse the lime- 
stone plateau of Central Kentucky, of which the Mammoth Cave is an example. 
Subsequently this rock has been broken through and upheaved by the subterra- 
nean forces which have disturbed all our important mining districts ; and through 
the fissures then formed mineral solutions ascended, flowing into any receptacle 
opened to them. Where these fissures cut an insoluble rock, they became, when 
filled, simply fissure-veins; but where a cavernous limestone was broken into, 
such caverns and galleries as were opened were more or less filled with ore. It 
has been suggested that the caves now holding ore were excavated by the 
metalliferous solution ; but we find some of them entirely empty, with their sides 
incrusted with spar, and having all the characters of ordinary limestone caves, 
and even where the ore occurs, the walls of the cavity have the same character, 
are hard and unimpregnated with ore. Hence we must conclude that the cham- 
bers were formed, like modern caves, by surface water ; and when the country 
was upheaved and the rock shattered, only part of them were opened, and that 
these received the solution and ore, while the unopened ones remained empty. 
The character of the ore contained in the chambers varies much, as it does in 
the fissure-veins of our mining districts; and the solution from which they were 
filled must have been different in the different localities where they occur. 
Argentiferous galena was evidently the most abundant ore deposited in the 
chambers, as it is elsewhere ; but in some cases, this is associated with a large 



170 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

amount of iron sulphide, in others very Httle ; while the ratio of gold to silver 
is inconstant, and the aggregate of both varies from nothing to several hundred 
dollars to the ton. The ores of Eureka run high in lead, contain much iron, 
and about seventy dollars in the precious metals, half gold, half silver. The 
ores of the Emma mine carried less iron, more lead, much more silver, less gold? 
and a little copper; while those of the Cave mine, at Frisco, contain no lead, 
much iron, a little copper, and are sometimes exceedingly rich in both silver and 
gold. In all the chamber, mines yet worked in this country, the ore taken out 
is thoroughly oxidized ; but in the deeper workings of some neighboring fissure- 
veins, the soft, ochery ores of the chambers are found changed below into com- 
pact masses of galena and iron pyrites ; the galena carrying the silver — the 
pyrites, the gold. Hence we may conclude that the ore originally deposited in 
the caves consisted of sulphides, and that, whenever these mines shall be worked 
below the water-level, ore of this character will be found. It should be said, 
however, that if the theory I have suggested of the formation of the limestone 
galleries and chambers is true, they will not be found to extend to so great a 
depth as the ore-bodies of fissure-veins, since the excavation of the limestone, if 
produced by atmospheric water, must be confined to the zone traversed by 
surface drainage. In a very dry and broken country, the line of permanent 
water-level may be very deep, as at Eureka, where the ore-bodies extend and are 
oxidized to a depth of at least 1400 feet. Such a condition of things could only 
exist in a very dry climate ; but we have evidence that there have been great 
climatic changes in our western mining districts; according to King and Gilbert, 
two wet periods having been succeeded by two dry ones, the last prevailing now. 
We may therefore find chambers wrought in the limestone in a dry period below 
the present or normal water-level. The enormous production of gold and silver 
from the chamber-mines already worked proves the great importance and value 
of this class of deposits; and while we may predict that they will be found to be 
more superficial than true fissure-veins, no limit can be fixed to the future yield 
of mines of this character, even though they should not be profitably worked 
below 1500 feet from the surface. 

{To be continued.) 



GENESIS AND MODERN THOUGHT. 

BY PRINCIPAL J. W. DAWSON, LL. D. , MCGILL COLLEGE, MONTREAL. 

Every age of the word has its own mental habits, part of which are transient, 
passing away with the time that gave them birth ; part are permanent, and are 
handed down to succeeding ages. It thus happens that every great permanent 
monument in the world, be it a mountain, a pyramid, or a divinely inspired book, 
is regarded with somewhat different eyes by the successive generations of men. 

The Book of Genesis is such a monument, reaching unchanged from the 



GENESIS AND MODERN THOUGHT. 171 

dawn of literature, teaching to each successive generation nearly all that it knows 
of the early history of the world and man. It has lasted through ages of primi- 
tive simplicity, of early civiHzation, of mediseval barbarism, of modern revival ; 
and each as it passed away has glanced reverently at the old book which tells of 
the generations of the heavens and the earth What have the thought and the 
science of our age done with the old record? One thing is certain: that the 
present is a singular and special period, in its manner of treating ancient things. 
We have a way of keeping out side of us everything which went to the hearts of 
our fathers, of cutting everything to pieces to find what is within it, of coldly 
criticising objects of faith and veneration ; and Genesis has received so much of 
this treatment that it is questionable if all even of those who have the firmest 
faith in revelation regard it exactly as they once did, or as their predecessors did. 
Perhaps it may be well to refresh our souls a little, in this matter, by a more 
kindly and loving glance at the Book of Genesis and its relations to our modern 
science and our modern lives. 

Modern historical research has given us new impressions as to the great an- 
tiquity of Genesis. A book which was translated into Greek three hundred 
years before Christ, which was accepted alike by Samaritans and Jews as a vener- 
able and sacred record at the time of their separation, about a thousand years be- 
fore Christ, the acceptance of which can be proved from the history of Israel to 
have extended almost as far back as the time of the reputed author, say 1400 or 
1500 years before Christ, is a very old book, if not the oldest of books. Nor has 
any success attended the efforts of modern criticism to show that this venerable 
record has been tampered with or re-edited at any later date. But the date of 
Moses, say 3300 years ago, does not really measure the actual antiquity of the 
contents of Genesis. If we were to pick out of the book all the passages that 
are either explicitly or by implication stated to have been revealed to or spoken 
by Adam, Noah, Abraham, and the other patriarchs, we should find that accord- 
ing to the showing of Moses himself, very much of the matter, and this of the 
most important, must have existed long before his time, and was merely collected 
and edited by him. This is the common sense aspect of that " document hy- 
pothesis " on which so much learning has been expended, and which has per- 
plexed so many. But there are other passages, not thus indicated, which must 
have existed long before the time of Moses. Take, for example, the first chap- 
ter of Genesis. The contents of this chapter, relating as they do to matters which 
precede the advent of man, must have been just as much the result of direct in- 
spiration as if they had contained a prophecy of the distant future. But to whom 
were thry revealed? It may have been to Moses; but there were inspired men 
before Moses, and it would seem strange that this initial part of revelation should 
have been withheld from the generations between Adam and Moses, and more es- 
pecially as the keeping of the Sabbath, which is directly based on it, was a lead- 
ing institute of pre-Mosaic religion. 

Recent researcJies in the monuments of Assyria now assure us that the an- 



172 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

cient Chaldeans possessed this revelation. It existed among them, it is true, in a 
corrupt form, mixed up with idolatrous ideas ; but it can be traced back as far as 
to the time of Abraham. The Father of the faithful may indeed, when he left 
Chaldea, have possessed in a written form all that part of Genesis which relates 
to the creation and the deluge. Thus the substance of the first chapter of Gene- 
sis probably belongs to antediluvian times, was a very old book in the days of 
Moses, may have been taught to him by his mother in the same form in which we 
now have it, and was a revelation to some antediluvian patriarch, perhaps to 
Adam himself. 

The questions raised by the first chapter of Genesis are, however, so many 
and complicated that they can not profitably be entered into in a short article. 
The more important of them may be included in the answers to two qestions : 
How was this revelation given ? and why was it given ? 

The first of these questions — the how of the revelation of creation — is an- 
swered by the form of the record. Its condensed, repetitive and rythmical form 
is evidently intended to facilitate remembrance and oral transmission. Its picto- 
rial character and division into days suggest a succession of visions granted to 
the seer, and in which he saw, day by day, the work of creation proceeding 
from its beginning to its close. This is perhaps the most intelligible conception 
we can form of the nature of the revelation ; and since it is the mode in which 
the future was presented to inspired prophets in later Biblical times, there can be 
no impropriety in supposing it to have been the means of communicating the 
knowledge of the unknown past. We may thus imagine the seer, wrapped in 
ecstatic vision, having his senses closed to all the impressions of the present world, 
and looking with inward eye at a moving procession of the events of the earth's 
past history, presented to him in a succession of apparent days and nights. This 
view may relieve us from the difficulties which have arisen from what has been 
called the "literal day" theory of the creative week. Just as, in the visions of 
later prophets, a day may stand for a year, so in this ancient prophecy, the day 
of the seer may be an emblematic day of vision representing one of the long 
days of God's creative working. 

This idea of long creative periods as represented by the days of creation is, 
however, too important, both in its relation to science and religion, to be lightly 
passed over. Three affirmations may be made respecting it. 

I. The doctrine of long creative periods is in harmony with the general tes- 
timony of Scripture. Many proofs of this might be given. The word "day" is 
used in Genesis 2 to denote the whole period of the creative work "in the day 
when Jehovah created the heavens and the earth." In Psalm 90, which is "a 
psalm of Moses," one day is said to be with the Lord as a thousand years, in ref- 
erence to the period of human history, and the expression "from everlasting to 
everlasting," literally from " age to age," refers to the great length of the crea- 
tive days. In Psalm 104, which is a poetical version of the account of creation, 
the tone of the references shows that the writer understood the creative work to 



GENESIS AND MODERN THOUGHT. 173 

"have occupied a long time. While the six days are said to have had an evening 
and morning, this is not affirmed of the seventh day, which may, therefore, in the 
view of the writer, be still in progress. Our Lord in his reply to the Pharisees, 
who accused him of working on the Sabbath — " My Father worketh hitherto? 
and I work" — affirms his beUef that God's Sabbath lasted up to his time ; and 
the Jews seem to have held the same opinion, since they did not object. The ar- 
gument relating to the Sabbatism of God's people, in Hebrews 4, depends for its 
force on the idea that God's creative Sabbath is still in progress, and that Christ's 
Sabbatism, on which he has entered after finishing his work, is also an indefinite 
period. When, in Hebrews i, Christ is said to have "made the worlds," the lit- 
eral meaning is " constituted or determined the long ages of the worlds' making," 
— that is, of the creative days, and the expression "eternal purpose," used of 
Christ in Ephesians 3:11, with reference to the creation, has the same reference. 
It means the purpose or design of the creative ages. The above are merely a few 
evidences which show that the doctrine of long creative periods was that held by 
Moses himself, by our Lord, and by the apostles ; and after this it will be scarcely 
necessary to add that Augustine and other early fathers of the church understood 
the matter in the same way, and that many good and eminent men in later times 
have arrived at the same conclusion. The days of the first chapter of Genesis 
may be literal days of vision to the seer ; but they are working days of God, and 
not of man ; and we live in the seventh of them, which was intended to be a 
Sabbath of rest, but has failed of this, for the present, on account of the fall of 
man. 

2. It may be affirmed that this doctrine of long creative days gives the only 
full and complete explanation of the institution and obligation of the Sabbath. 
If God made the world in six natural days, and rested on the seventh, then his 
example would have no force, unless it could be shown that, in some sense, he 
continues to work on six days, and rest on the seventh ; but nature shows that this 
is not a fact, and our Lord's expression, "My Father worketh hitherto," agrees 
with this. Thus on the literal day theory, there would be a hidden fallacy imphed 
in the reason annexed to the fourth commandment. But if Cod made the world 
in six long periods ; if the seventh was not only this rest but that blessed Sabba- 
tism in which innocent man was to enjoy perpetual happiness; if this Sabbatism 
was lost by the fall, and if the weekly Sabbath is a memorial of this rest lost by 
the fall and the hopeful sign that it is to be restored by the Savior, then we have 
a substantial reason for the Sabbath day, a warrant for its being placed where it 
is in the ten commandments, and for the great importance attached to it through- 
out the Old Testament. The Sabbath then becomes to us an emblem at once of 
the paradise lost by the fall, and of the paradise to be regained in Christ. In- 
stead of appearing as piece of ritual misplaced in the moral law, it becomes that 
which gives life and significance to the whole decalogue. We have here also the 
true explanation of the change from the Jewish Sabbath to the Lord's day ; for if 
the one was the reminder of the Sabbatism lost by the fall and to be restored, 



174 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

the day of its restoration necessarily becomes the true Sabbath, and it needed no 
argument or explanation to show to the first Christians their duty in this matter. 
This consideration is also inplied in the argument to Hebrews 4, already referred 
to. 

3. The long creative periods are in harmony with the records preserved i^ 
the rocks of the earth by the Creator himself. It is now generally admitted that 
the order of creation in the long geological epochs revealed by scientific investi- 
gation corresponds very closely with that in Genesis. Absolute agreement in de- 
tails is not to be expected in the present state of knowledge; but the general se- 
quence, in the primitive formless state, the development of the atmosphere, 
ocean, and dry land, the introduction first of swarms of lower marine animals, 
then of great reptiles (mistranslated " whales" in our version), then of mamma- 
lia, and finally of man, is the same with that in the geological record. There are, 
besides, many other points of coincidence which cannot be detailed here, and 
which give the impression that the series of pictures presented to the inspired 
seer must have strikingly resembled those which might be devised to illustrate our 
geological chronology. It is certainly a remarkable fact that the old record of 
Genesis should thus give us a sequence similar to that arrived at independently 
by science in these last days. 

The second question above proposed, why this detailed revelation of creation 
should have been given, brings us to some practical appHcations. 

1. The first great object of that " book of origins" which we have in Gen- 
esis, is to assure us of the reality of the creation, and of God as the great First 
Cause. The one utterance "in the beginning God created the heavens and the 
earth," if received in faith, is subversive of atheism, materialism, pantheism, ag- 
nosticism, and a hundred other false doctrines which have afiiicted humanity. 
The author of Genesis does not attempt to prove this great truth, but a moment's 
consideration suffices to show that it needs no proof The universe exists with all 
its numerous and complex machinery. Either it must have existed eternally, 
which is inconceivable, or it must have been produced. If produced, then it 
had a beginning, and could not have produced itself. But before it began there 
must have been a power capable of planning and producing it, and that power 
must have been God. The Hebrew writer calls him Elohim, a plural name — not 
merely a plural of dignity, but implying that plurality of person and action which 
he himself recognizes in the word of God and the Spirit of God, and implying 
also, that all true godhead, by whatever names recognized in different tongues, is 
the one God, the Creator. 

2. The next object of the record of creation is to show us that all the details 
of nature are the work of one God, and parts of one plan. The heathen nations 
recognized many local and partial gods, and they deified heavenly bodies, moun- 
tains, rivers, trees, and animals. The writer of Genesis grasps the whole of this 
material of ancient idolatry, and shows that it is the work of one God. Thus no 
room is left for polytheistic views of nature, nor for that superstition which re- 



GENESIS AND MODERN THOUGHT 175 

gards natural phenomena as the work of mahgnant beings. Here, again, he lays 
down a principle which commends itself at once to common sense, and which all 
science tends to support. Nothing can be a more assured result of scientific 
study than the unity of plan and operation in all nature, and the folly of these 
superstitions which refer natural events either to chance or to the conflict of sub- 
ordiaate deities or demons. Thus the first chapter of Genesis, wherever re- 
ceived and believed, gives the death-blow to idolatry, and superstition. 

3. Another great use of the record of creation is the assertion 
of the truth that man is the child of God, created in his image and likeness. 
The first question in some of our catechisms for children, " Who made you ?" 
points to this first and primitive doctrine of religion, on which the whole relation 
of man to God as a moral and responsible being is built. Here, again. Genesis 
is in accord with the best science and philosophy. It is true that there are theo- 
rists in our time who profess to believe that the human will and reason have in 
some way developed themselves from the instincts of lower animals. But these 
men can not but feel that they are maintaining a most improbable conclusion, 
for it is not in accordance with natural analogy that anything should rise above 
its own level, that any motive-power can put forth more or other than the energy 
that is in it. Thus an intelligence like man can not flow upward from lower 
sources, but must have relation to some higher creative intelligence. 

These thoughts carry us no farther than the first chapter of Genesis. The 
history of Eden and the Fall carry with them other truths. But I may now ask, 
are the truths above referred to of no practical value? They may appear too fa- 
miliar to us to need to be insisted on; but the practical, and even the open de- 
nial of them by so much of the infidelity of our time, shows that they still need 
to be enforced, and that they really he at the foundations of our faith. The edi- 
fice of Christianity, as it now stands forth in all the grandeur of its New Testa- 
ment development, with Jesus Christ as its chief corner-stone, may well by its 
magnificent superstructure call our attention away from the rough stones laid 
down for its foundation in the old patriarchal days. But these were great and 
costly stones, and had they not been bedded on the rock in those primitive times, 
we could not now enjoy that which is built upon them. 

It is well that children should be taught the noble, though child-Hke theology 
of Genesis ; and well also that it should be taught in its simplicity, and without 
the misconceptions which have been allowed to cling around it from those darker 
days when the Bible was a sealed book, and when its place was taken by stories 
based on it, but mixed with much of superstition and misapprehension. I have 
found by experience that many of the objections to the truth of Genesis held as 
valid even by educated men, are not founded on the book itself, but on interpre- 
tations or distortions of it which have a nearer affinity with mere nursery tales 
than with the letter or spirit of God's word. — Sunday School Times. 



176 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



FOSSILS IN COLORADO. 



In the " Bad Lands" of Colorado over seventy new species of fossils have 
been discovered. They range in size from a mole to nearly that of an elephant. 
One of the largest species had a huge horn over each eye, while another had one 
on each side of the nose, and more than a foot in length resembHng those on the 
back part of the head of the ox. A third one, a larger size than the last, had 
rudimental horns on the nose. Still another was about as large as the elephant. 
Its cheek bones were enormously expanded, and its horns were flat. A fifth 
species had triangular horns, turned upward. The most remarkable monsters 
of the past, whose existence has been disclosed by the present survey, are a 
series of horned species related to the rhinoceros, but possessing some features 
in which, according to Prof. Cope, they resembled the elephant. They stood 
high on the legs and had feet, but possessed osseous horns in pairs on different 
parts of the head. 



THE MAMMOTH CAVE OF MEXICO. 

REV. F. L. LEWIS, BOLIVAR, MO. 

On the authority of the Scientific American the cave of Cacahuamilpa in 
Mexico is the largest in the world. P. C. Bliss, who has twice explored it, 
describes it as being covered with a volcanic mountain, with an extinct crater. 
He, with a large party provided with the best lights and scientific implements 
the country afforded, made a partial exploration of this wonderful cave. After 
descending about fifty feet they reached the floor and proceeded nearly four 
miles. "The roof was so high — a succession of halls — that rockets often 
exploded before striking it. Labyrinthine passages leave the main hall in every 
direction. Stalagmites and stalactites are abundant. Below this cave, at its 
greatest depth, are two immense caves, from each of which issues a branch of a 
great river. This is in many respects the most wonderful cave in the world. 
About the only living creature mentioned by any explorers of this cave is the 
bat, which is numerous. 



As a striking instance of the vast beneficial results which sometimes spring 
from the working of one capable and active brain, it is stated that by the Bes- 
semer steel invention, the saving to England alone in the wear of rails has been 
$5,500,000 per annum. The saving is expected to be $20,000,000 annually 
when all iron rails are changed for steel. 



MOTION. 177 



PHILOSOPHY. 



MOTION. 



BY EDGAR L. LARKIN, NEW WINDSOR, ILL. 

"In the beginning there arose 

The source of golden Hght . . . 

There was then neither nonentity nor entity ; 

Neither atmosphere nor sky beyond . . . 
. . The covered germ burst forth 

By mental heat. 

The ray shot across them . . . 
, . There were mighty productive powers, 

Nature beneath and energy above." 

From Hindu Rig Veda, Ch. X, I2i-i2g, Muller's Trans. 
"All things which exist, are invisible in their primeval state; visible in 
their intermediate state, and again invisible in their final state." From Hindu 
Bhagavad Gita, Ch. I. Thomson^ s Trans. 

Motion is the second mode of force displayed by matter, gravity being the 
first. Attraction is the only force really inherent in matter, because all other 
modes of energy are drawn from it by conservation. Gravity is the only force 
which acts when matter rests, all others being evolved from motion. Attraction 
is the sole motive power in nature. Gravity cannot exist separate from matter ; 
neither can matter cease attracting, but obeys this law : Every particle of matter 
in existence attracts every other particle, directly as to their combined masses, 
and inversely as their distance squared. The first conservation of gravity is 
motion. Bodies attract and exert energy, but no work is performed unless the 
bodies move. Repulsion moves matter, but gravity brought atoms within its 
range. Matter in motion of necessity evolves all other modes of force. Atomic 
motion causes heat, electricity and hght and cannot do otherwise. Matter at 
rest would not be endowed with any force but gravity, and other forms of energy 
would never develop unless it began to move. The only case in which matter 
would be unable to move, would be if the entire universe should be condensed 
into one absolutely solid globe. Molecules being as near as possible could not 
further approach, and gravity acting from the centre to periphery would not 
conserve energy, being unable to first cause motion. Matter will be eternally 
inert, unless separated by space sufficient to allow atoms to move. Motion 
once begun, all succeeding energies of nature follow, for by late philosophy all 
modes of force are forms of motion, heat, light, electricity and chemism are 
states of motion ; but heat acts as repulsion, and as the only conservation of 



178 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

gravity is motion, and heat is motion, repulsion itself has origin in remote 
gravity. 

Since space is necessary to matter for its evolution of power, it follows that 
all matter has never been solidified, else it would be solid now, being unable to 
separate by heat as heat is motion of atoms, and cannot begin unless molecules 
can move. All atoms in existence must have been once dissociated, else matter 
would not have full "potency" for labor in building a universe. Mathematicians 
say that dissociated matter is many times less dense than hydrogen, and in this 
condition is subject to no force save its inherent gravity. Cosmic matter destined 
to become a universe obeyed attraction and moved. Cosmogony must begin 
with gaseous matter filling infinity. Cosmical evolution cannot open with matter 
solid for that would not be a beginning, as condensed matter is structural and 
shows itself to have been wrought by force. A fluid is also complex and implies 
work in formation. Gas is the simplest state of matter, it is without organization, 
and nature begins in simplicity and proceeds to complex conditions. Gravity 
began motion in the gaseous mass ; but motion of atoms cannot long obtain 
without evolving heat, and heat soon allows chemism to appear. Chemical 
reactions in turn augment heat, electricity develops, and the delicate motion, 
light, awakens from the turmoil of infinitesimal oscillation. All these, however, 
are modes of motion, and all derive from gravity, the primordial store of cosmic 
energy. 

Atoms coalesced into molecules, and these into countless millions of nuclei, 
each one a gravitation centre. These nuclei augmented in size by drawing in 
adjacent matter, thus clearing space. This process went on until fluid balls 
separated by enormous distances condensed from the primitive cosmical mass of 
gas. These liquid globes were intensely hot, and all radiated light. As heat is 
a mode of motion, and cannot appear until motion of material atoms first begins, 
it is clear that primeval matter was absolutely cold; "fire-mist" never had a 
place in nature, for when matter is condensed by gravity and chemism, sufficient 
to become heated, it is no longer gas, but fluid. If heat increases from conser- 
vation of accelerated motion, the Uquid reverts to gas, and at the same instant 
loses all its heat, only to regain it on re-condensation. 

When after the lapse of vast cosmic periods, all matter had condensed into 
celestial spheres, some cooled to soHds, others still Hquid, a rigid analysis based 
on physics as at present understood, cannot detect the traces of action of any 
modes of force than these : gravity, motion, heat, chemism, electricity, mag- 
netism and light, all modes of motion save gravity their cause. Gravity made 
successive conservations, erected the universe from gaseity, performed all labor, 
yet lost none of its vigor and still wrought with unabated energy. Motion wanes 
and disappears, only to reappear in other forms, as heat, light and electricity, 
while gravity performs all work, but does not wane and fail. Then it is 
inherent. 

Molecular vibrations on all cosmic spheres were intense ; chemism wrought 



MOTION. 179 

with inconceivable power, evolving vast quantities of heat and light. But these 
atomic oscillations in time weakened, the elements locked in compounds, affinity 
died away, heat waned, and light vanished from smaller orbs. Indeed, waning 
forces must harmonize, cosmic upheavals cease, quiet ensue, heat lose its 
intensity, crusts solidify, air appear and water form, that two refined and inscruta- 
ble modes of motion — life and mind, might develop by undisturbed processes of 
evolution from inorganic atoms. Cosmical motion on each planet must nearly 
stop; coarse chemical reactions cease agitating and jarring the elements with 
unrest, before the laboratory of nature can evolve life and mind from material 
elements. Mind only develops in a mature state matter ; material structure is 
most complex before it produces its most refined property. Then mind is of 
short duration on cosmic globes; as heat has nearly vanished before thought 
appears. Polar frigidity has already set in when mind awakens from unconsci- 
ous atoms ; molecular vibratory motion is much less rapid when mind evolves 
than in previous cosmical history. Coarse movement in molecules must termin- 
ate ; or that excessively delicate atomic vibration causing mind could not begin. 
Motion is of two kinds atomic and massive. Atomic motion is known in diifer- 
ent modes, as heat, light, electricity, chemical affinity, life and mind, and 
constitutes the vitahty of nature. They begin in gravity, pass many mutations, 
culminate in the evolution of mind, wane, become quiescent, leaving lifeless and 
frigid worlds to roll without use in Arctic voids. All these will be dismissed and 
the remainder of this essay be devoted to massive motion or the movement of 
worlds themselves. 

Massive Motion. — All cosmical bodies are in rapid motion. 

Arcturus moves fifty- four, 6i Cygni, forty, and Capella, thirty miles per 
second. Late sidereal astronomy is rich in results relating to binary systems of 
revolving suns. In 1823 one component of Delta Cygni occulted the other; and 
in 1836, 221 Ophiuchi hid its companion. In 1839 and again in 1873 ^i Ursae 
Majoris were seen as one star, between these dates, double. In 1873 the double 
star Omega Leonis appeared as one ; they are now separating. By an astonish- 
ing generalization of modern research made possible by the spectroscope, it can 
be said, the universe is a Unit. All suns within range of telescopes are composed 
of like material, as is shown by their spectra. Then they are dominated by the 
same laws. Gravity and motion are omnipresent. The motion of sidereal 
systems is observed with the telescope ; and the existence of gravity is demon- 
strated, for suns revolve on ellipses. When the primordial gas condensed into 
innumerable liquid balls, destined to be planets and suns, then to become soHd, 
cold and dead, they moved by mutual gravity in all directions. They were of 
all sizes from asteroids to suns like Sirius. They had not assumed orbits, neither 
did the balls rotate on axes, because rotation is complex motion and cannot begin 
until planets commence orbital circuits. The spheres necessary to make up the 
universe were on hand, but the vast machine had not begun revolution. The 
sole motor to do the work was gravity, and its task was to project the smaller 

globes into orbits about the large ones. 
IV— 12 



180 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

Before seeking the processes by which wandering orbs became reduced to 
orderly revolution in solar systems, the laws of motion will be given. 

First law. A mass of matter in space will move eternally in a straight line 
with uniform velocity, unless gravity turns it aside. 

Second. If a mass in space be attracted by another mass, its deviation from 
a right line will be in the direction of the attracting body, and proportional to 
the mutual gravity of the two masses. 

Third. Gravity and reaction caused by motion are equal and opposite. 

Fourth. If a mass in space be attracted by two or more bodies simultane- 
ously, it will not move towards either, but towards a vacant point between them, 
called their centre of gravity, and the motion is resultant. 

Fifth. All cosmical motion is resultant, and all paths traversed are 
curvilinear. 

The fourth and fifth are results of the three basic laws, and in a close 
train of reasoning might not be termed laws, but results. Their action is uni- 
versal and through them orbits of planets are formed. If the primeval gas. had 
solidified into one rigid ball, nature would have suffered eternal death, no power 
bemg able to separate the atoms. If into two balls separated by space they would 
have fallen on a straight line to collision and nature would have expired. If into 
three spheres of exactly equal mass and distance, they would have crushed 
together destroying all potency of matter save gravity, and nature would have 
terminated. But if into three globes of unequal mass, or equal in mass and 
separated by unequal distances, then they would inevitably form a solar 
system in regular revolutions. And the same results would follow with any 
number of spheres greater than three, lying in space within the attraction of an 
adjacent sun. 

Centre of Gravity. — When two bodies are joined by a rigid bar, there is 
always a point between them where they would balance if placed on a fulcrum. 
In space these are removed ; but an imaginary bar and fulcrum have the same 
property, and the point is the centre of gravity. This vacant place has the 
remarkable attribute, that it attracts the third body with the same force as it 
would if the masses of both spheres were combined there. Therefore, if two 
globes attract another, the latter cannot fall toward either, but will move at once 
toward their centre of gravity by the law of resultant motion. 

Formation of Heliocentric Systems. — To begin a solar system of three 
members, a sun and two planets, the globe wandering in space and destined to 
become a sun, will be designated A, and the smaller spheres to be made planets, 
B and C. They form a triangle in space, and obeying the only force to which 
they are subject — gravity, begin draw nearer one another. Instead of moving 
precisely towards each other, however, each globe journeys towards the centre 
of gravity of the two others. C moves toward the weight centre between A and 
B ; B falls towards the attracting point somewhere between A and C, while the 
great sphere A moves slowly in the direction of the gravitation centre between C. 



MOTION. 181 

and B. But the three balls start on straight lines; how shall they be deflected 
aside into curves in order to traverse orbits ? The reason why seems to be the 
arcanum of celestial dynanics, the secret of cosmic motion, and law upon which 
rests the structure of the universe. The great fact is this : The centres of 
gravity themselves are in motion ! Thus, when B moves towards the centre of 
attraction between A and C, this centre of gravity is all the while approaching 
A, because A and C are nearer together. And B started originally towards this 
moving point. But when B first began to move, the objective point was station- 
ary, and afterwards began its motion. The effect on B is the key to the structure 
of all sidereal systems. The result is that B is turned aside from its straight path 
and follows a curve. Gravity has performed its most difficult task of causing 
worlds to move on curves, for once in motion on curved lines, orbits are 
inevitable. The intricate process is this : B started towards the centre of gravity 
of A and C on a right line, but in a unit of time this attracting centre moved a 
unit of space, which tended to project B on a new straight line towards it. B 
cannot take up this new rectilinear path, however, because it has acquired inertia 
of motion, tending to keep it on its original track by the first law of movement. 
B desires to move in two right lines at once, it can do neither, but obeying the 
law of resultant motion falls into a curve midway between the two straight lines. 
And the reason of B moving on a curve is because its objective point is moving 
and this deflection being a constant force, perpetually seeks to turn B into a 
new straight line, each infinitesimal interval of time, and a curve is made up of 
an infinite number of excessively short straight lines. If A and C were immov- 
able, their centre of gravity would be stationary, and B would move towards 
it on a right line, but being in motion, B must traverse a curve. Finally all 
becomes ready for the crowning act which will instantly convert B into a planet, 
when it will no more wander in frigid voids, but make regular circuits in the 
genial rays of A. During the long journey of B a time arrives when B seeks to 
pass A, ignore it entirely and fly away forever by reason of inertia gained in its 
flight from remote space, where it first condensed. It cannot pass because at 
the precise moment when the radius vector of A and B or the straight line 
joining their centres, forms a right angle with the direction of motion of B, then 
B loses its relative weight, becomes balanced between the opposing forces, solar 
attraction and inertia of motion, and at once becomes a planet. B can neither 
pass by on its original path nor fall to A, but deflects into a curve, a mean 
between both directions, and its future motion is resultant. The orbit is a curve 
at the proper distance between the paths sought to be traversed under the influ- 
ence of two energies, centripetal and tangential. While B was being made a 
planet C was passing through the same routine, and countless other heliocentric 
systems were in formation by the same laws. But B and C had set the sun A in 
new motion, hence it will continue in motion by its inertia on a curve having as a 
radius the distance to the nearest attracting centre, giving rise to the proper 
motion of the " fixed " stars daily seem from observatories. If when C approached 



182 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

A and B, B in its revolution happened to lie near its line of motion so that the 
attraction of B on C was stronger than that of A on C, then C would fall into 
an orbit about B and become a satellite. 

If when B sought to pass A, the inertia of B had somewhat exceeded the 
attraction of A, then B would move on a little further than it would have 
moved had its inertia been less, and the effect will be to project the planet B into 
an ellipse. If its inertia was considerably in excess, the ellipse would be very- 
eccentric like the orbits of Mercury and Mars, or of the binary sun Gamma 
Virginis. If inertia and attraction were equal, then orbits would be circles; 
and as circular orbits are unknown, all suns drew in planets from space, and the 
greater the distance, of course the more rapid the flight of planets, the greater 
their inertia of motion, and the greater the eccentricity of their elliptical orbits. 
The corollary is that the cosmogony wherein rotating cosmical spheres, whether 
gaseous, plastic or fluid, cast off from time to time concentric rings afterwards 
becoming planets, has no known law of nature in its support. 

Rotary motion is the most complex of massive movement. It is probable 
that for a long time after planets began orbital circuits, they did not turn on 
axes. There is a difference between the attraction of suns on the sides of 
planets nearest them, and on opposite sides. The excess is slight, yet in a thous- 
and revolutions, could not fail making its power felt. The effect is to retard 
somewhat the progressive orbital motion of the sides next suns ; and permit the 
external sides to move with the same velocity they had when they fell from space, 
and had their paths changed from tangental lines to orbital curves. This differ- 
ence then in time would cause all planets to assume axial rotation. The rate of 
this rotary motion would not be retarded at aphelion; nor accelerated in perihe- 
lion, because the difference of solar attraction on opposite sides of planets is a 
constant quantity depending solely on their diameters which are invariable. 
When all the primordial mass of dissociated matter shall have been formed into 
large and small globes ; and when all the great spheres shall have converted all 
the smaller ones into planets, and when these flying orbs shall have drawn in all 
stray particles of matter as meteors, then the universe will be complete, and the 
cosmos finished. Massive motion will be at its maximum, while atomic motion 
will be on the decline. Molecular activity on all suns and planets will pass cul- 
mination and run down. Light will vanish first, then heat. Elements will be 
locked in cold compounds and affinity cease. Electricity will be no longer dy- 
namic but statical. Ages before this however, the vibrations life and mind will 
have disappeared, and at this epoch the only modes of force displayed by matter 
will be gravity and massive motion. Frigid globes will roll as perfectly on orbits 
as when mind existed to contemplate the scene. Nature will be as inert as it 
would have been if the cosmic gas had solidified into one inanimate ball, unless 
gravity can put a stop to the circuits of dead worlds. By the first law, all spheres 
must move forever on orbits by inertia, unless some resisting medium in space 
retards their motion. Gravity at this stage of the universe has one opponent, — 



MOTION. 183 

motion, a power derived from itself. Unless gravity can regain dominion over 
matter by destroying massive motion, and conserve it into atomic oscillations, 
lifeless worlds chained to darkened suns by attraction and inertia, will eternally 
make melancholy rounds, and count off useless years. A resisting medium, what- 
ever it may be is the "potency and promise" of a new universe. Nothing else 
can stop stellar motion, and allow gravity to secure complete control. Gravity 
however regaining mastery, then planets will run down in spirals, and fall on 
suns; and suns will crush in ruin. Motion from being orbital and rotary, will 
become direct, and tumbling globes will collide with enormous momentum. 
Massive motion ends, when by the well-known law of conservation of force, 
wherein when one mode of energy vanishes, another takes its place of equal in- 
tensity, the falling motion terminates in collision, and atomic vibrations at once 
begin in that familiar mode of motion heat. The heat becomes most intense, 
acts as repulsion, separates matter into molecules and then atoms, and vanishes. 
Universal cold sets in at the moment when that repulsive motion — heat, ends, 
and gravity again begins its work, in the slow formation of another universe. 
Repulsion ends and gravity begins, but repulsion is motion, caused by another 
motion, heat, and gravity caused the heat, forming a never-ending series of muta- 
tions through which matter must pass. And in the midst of all the turbulence 
only one energy wrought — gravity ; and all that gravity did was to cause matter 
to move. Then there was at the basis of all only one power, the omnipotent 
attraction of gravitation. The universe then is matter and motion. And the 
postulate of the resisting etherial medium itself is motion. All ideas derived 
from researches into the transmission of light, heat and chemical rays, cannot be 
dissociated from thoughts of motion. And the whole series of motions from the 
breaking up of primeval cosmic gas, is but one cycle of matter. During the en- 
tire turbulence it only assumed three forms, gaseous fluid and solid. These are 
deductions based upon the laws of nature as now known, but they do not seem 
to be ver\ far in advance of the wisdom of our primitive Aryan ancestors at the 
base of the Hindu Kush, when they elaborated the remarkable sentence in the 
Bhagavad Gita, quoted at the beginning of this paper. In this it is said the 
structural or visible universe is but an intermediate state of matter, or a period 
during which it is in active motion. 



At near 12 o'clock, June 29, a meteor, as large as a barrel, starting from the 
zenith, plunged down north the eastern sky and exploded with a report that re- 
verberated for thirty seconds and shook the earth at Macon, Ga. The meteor 
•was about five seconds falling, during which time the city was lit up as if by the 
electric light. The time between the disappearance of the meteor and the report, 
was about three minutes. 



184 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



MEDICINE AND HYGIENE. 



BROMIDE OF ETHYL. 

R. WOOD BROWN, M. D. , D. D. S. , KANSAS CITY, MO. 

It has long been known that certam drugs would produce insensibility, also 
that these drugs were often uncertain and unsafe in their action, amongst which 
are the poppy, mandragora, henbane, hemp, etc. Ice bags were used to produce 
local anaesthesia by its intense refrigerant effect while small operations were per- 
formed, such as opening felons, abcesses, etc. In China, haschisch was used to 
produce insensibility during operations, as far back as the year 220, the patient 
recovering after several days. Prior to 1846, opium was sometimes used to pro- 
duce insensibility to pain, but this agent was not safe and was uncertain in its de- 
sired results; certainty and safety being essential to the successful administration 
of anaesthetics. The year 1846 opened a new era in the surgical world, and gave 
to man the priceless boon of anaesthesia. On Dec. nth, 1846, Dr. Horace 
Wells, of Conn., demonstrated the practicabiHty of anaesthesia by having a sound 
tooth extracted while under the influence of Nitrous Oxide Gas. Then followed 
the discovery of Ether anaesthesia by Dr. Morton, of Mass, Simpson of Edin- 
burgh discovering Chloroform anaesthesia soon after. With these three anaesthet- 
ics we are all familiar, and their respective merits need not be discussed here. 

The substance, Bromide of Ethyl, is a new anaesthetic, and one that bids fair 
to take its place amongst the others. Dr. R. J. Leois, of Phila., has used this 
new agent more than any one else, and with such success as to warrant its being 
subjected to a thorough trial. Dr. Laurence Turnbull, of Phila., has also used 
this agent, and he advises its use. This Bromide of Ethyl or Hydrobromic Ether, 
has an agreeable odor, and does not irritate the respiratory apparatus, a fact 
which is greatly in its favor. The nausea and vomiting which is associated with 
chloroform and ether, is not met with during Bromide of Ethyl anaesthesia. It is 
administered by the same method as chloroform and ether, but has the advantage 
over the latter of being non-inflammable. According to TurnbuU the first 
drachm must be crowded upon the patient; if not, it is apt to act slowly. Every 
new agent in medicine should, at first, be used with care and after close study. 
With Bromide of Ethyl, we have a comparatively new anaesthetic, but the many 
successful operations under it, upon both animals and man, by men of known 
ability, will certainly commend it to the professions of medicine and dentistry. 
From its rapidity of action, and the short time in which consciousness returns ; 
Bromide of Ethyl becomes pecuHarly adapted to operations in the dental chair. 
Dr. J. Marion Sims narrated a case before the New York Academy of Medi- 



CURARE AND OTHER CURES EOR HYDROPHOBIA. 185 

icine, in which Bromide of Ethyl was used with fatal results which he lays at the 
door of this anaesthetic, and he expressed an opinion that Bromide of Ethyl was 
adapted to long operations, where there is renal disease. Dr. Sims not having 
investigated the matter, speaks very cautiously about this new agent. Dr. J. Ott, 
of New York says ' ' that the results of his experiments with Bromide of Ethyl, 
show that its action is upon the gray matter of the nerves, also that it decreases 
the frequency of respiration by acting upon the central nervous system while 
increasing the pulse rate and augmenting the blood by direct influence upon the 
heart. Out of several hundred administrations only one case was fatal, and that 
occurred during an operation of great magnitude. This and the fact that the 
Bromide of Ethyl appears to be free from some of the objectionable characteristics 
of chloroform and ether, renders it worthy of thorough investigation. 



CURARE AND OTHER CURES FOR HYDROPHOBIA. 

There was published in The World a little while ago an interesting communi- 
cation from Dr. John W. Green on the subject of " Hydrophobia and Woorara" 
— curare^ in which he said that experiments had led him to the belief that the 
proper dose of the substances used hypodermically was about the thirteenth of a 
grain, a dose that was to be repeated often till the proper effects were produced. 
The woorara, he said, quieted spasms and reduced all nervous irritability, thus 
giving the system time to eliminate the hydrophobic virus, and as to its use, he 
added : 

During the past three years some of the physicians connected with the 
German hospitals have reported a few cases where this remedy has been tried. 
In all but one case complete recovery ensued, and in the case that ended fatally 
I imagme from the report of it that the woorara was not used faithfully and 
understandingly. If it will, however, save 50 per cent, of those attacked, it is 
better than losing all of the affected. In taking account of the cases reported 
which I have seen, making altogether four, there has been one death. This is a 
percentage of 75 in favor of woorara. 

More recently, an article in the same paper states that Dr. Etheridge, of 
Chicago, has been experimenting with curare — the secret of manufacturing which, 
by the way, Jovert bought last year from the Amazonas Indians — upon a hydro- 
phobic patient, with what success we are unable to say as yet. According to the 
German papers. Dr. Offenberg, of Dusseldorf, has cured a woman bitten by a 
mad dog by a hypodermic injection of twenty centigrammes of the agent ; on 
the other hand a Russian experiment has failed almost signally. Nine persons 
were bitten by a rabid wolf in the hamlet of Bogoljubow, in the Wladimir dis- 
trict, and were taken to the hospital, where five of them died in dreadful agony 
soon after their admission. The doctors resolved to try curare in the other 
cases. This was administered at Wladimir to the remaining four persons who 
had been bitten by the wolf, and they all died, but without experiencing the 



186 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

preliminary torture of hydrophobia. This was, of course, something gained' 
though not much; in the absence of any details it is impossible to say to what 
cause the startling result was fairly to be attributed. Two other Russian physi- 
cians, Schmudt and Ledeben, are said to have cured the case of a little girl of 
twelve by causing her to inhale oxygen. Our old friend, the elecampane cure — 
a third of an ounce stewed in a third of a pint of milk and taken fasting every 
other day for eighteen days — has been going the round of the press, in company 
with the Russian broom-seed tea cure, and the madstone, which. last proved con- 
spicuously ueless in the case of the Hon. O. F. West, of Senatobia, Miss. 
Another treatment that has been recommended is bathing with warm vinegar and 
water, and then pouring a few drops of muriatic acid on the wound; still another 
is the application for from six to ten minutes of a sponge dipped in equal parts 
of chloroform and concentrated ammonia. The case of Crosse has been revived, 
who, having been bitten severely by a cat that died the same day from hydro- 
phobia, cured himself by mere mental resolution after pains had reached his 
shoulder and spasms had shot through his throat at sight of water. The specific 
preventive of the pious peasants of the Ardennes is — for the dog a piece of 
bread blessed at mass on St. Hubert's Day ; for the man wearing a ring or medal 
consecrated at St. Hubert's shrine. It was to this same shrine of St. Hubert in 
Ardennes that, as Chapella tells us, the Princess of Vandemont, having been 
bitten by a mad dog, did make a pilgrimage in a green carriage, dressed all in 
green. At the spring, having put on a green stole and listened to a chapter of 
the Gospel according to St. John, she drank a glass of water and returned home 
to live fourteen years, while two less pious friends, bitten by the same dog, died 
of hydrophobia. Perhaps, however, the virus was still lurking undeveloped in 
her system, for in June last Mr. Samuel J. Culver died at New Haven, Conn., 
of a bite received twenty years before, a case even more terrible in some respects 
than that of Frank Shields, of Bloomington, Ind., who, on the ist of November, 
was put in jail to prevent him from doing violence to himself and friends. He 
had been roaming the woods, yelping like a hound in the chase ; and on meeting 
teams on the road would seize the horses and bite them like a dog. He was 
said to have been bitten by a dog ten years ago. 

M. Galtier has recently made some valuable experiments from which he 
draws the conclusion that the saliva of a mad dog obtained from the living 
animal and kept in water, continues virulent five, fourteen, and even twenty-four 
hours; and as the saliva of a mad dog which has succumbed to the malady or 
has been killed does not lose its properties through mere cooling of the body, it 
is important in examining the cavities of the mouth and throat after death, to 
guard against the possible danger of inoculation. M. Galtier tested rabbits with 
regard to rabies, and found it transmissible to them from the dog ; also, the 
rabbits' rabies from them to animals of the same species. The chief symptoms 
are paralysis and convulsions. The animal may live from a few hours to four 
days after the disease has declared itself. M. Galtier found salicylic acid, injected 



A STRANGE EPIDEMIC. 187 

■daily under the skin, powerless to prevent the development of the disorder in 
rabbits. 

M. Ra5maud, experimenting in the same direction, ascertained the eifects 
of inoculation of the rabbit from man in the hydrophobic state. A man in that 
state was brought to the Lariboisiere Hospital, having been bitten in the upper 
lip by a dog forty days previously. He had had the wound cauterized two hours 
after the accident, and had thought himself quite safe till some of the usual 
hydrophobic symptoms appeared. The day before his death, in a quiet interval, 
he yielded himself with the best grace to the experiments in inoculation which 
were made with his blood and his saliva. The result of inoculating the rabbit 
with the blood was negative (as in the great majority of previous cases of inocu- 
lation with blood of animals under rabies.) But with the saliva it was otherwise. 
A rabbit inoculated in the ear and abdomen, on October ii, began to show 
symptoms of rabies on the 15th, being much excited and damaging the walls of 
its cage, while it uttered loud cries and slavered at the mouth. Then it fell into 
collapse and died the following night. The rabbit's body was not dissected till 
thirty-six hours after death, and further experiment was made by taking fragments 
of the right and left submaxillary glands, and introducing them under the skin of 
two other rabbits respectively. These two rapidly succumbed, one on the fifth, 
the other on the sixth day (becoming visibly ill on the third) ; neither passed 
through a furious stage, however, and the predominant feature was paraplegia 
(a form of paralysis). The important practical result is that human saliva, such 
as caused rabies in the rabbit, is necessarily virulent, and would probably have 
corresponding effects on man • so that it should be dealt with cautiously, and 
that not only during the life of the person furnishing it, but in post-mortem 
examinations. 



A STRANGE EPIDEMIC. 

On the night of Tuesday, June 15, a remarkable epidemic fell upon several 
towns in western Massachusetts, the town of Adams suffering most severely. 
Out of a population of 6,000, several hundred — variously estimated from 600 to 
over 1,000 — were prostrated by a disease resembling cholera morbus. The symp- 
toms were first dizziness, then great nausea, followed by vomiting and prolonged 
purging, and in some cases delirium. A belt of country two or three miles in 
width and several miles long was thus afflicted, beginning at the west, the whole 
number of victims being estimated at from 1,200 to 1,500. No deaths are repor- 
ted. 

The cause of the epidemic is not known, but seems most likely to have been 
atmospheric. For some time the weather had been dry and hot. A heavy local 
rain fell during the evening, and was followed by or attended with a sudden and 
great lowering of the temperature. A chilly fog hung over the belt of country 
invaded by the disease, and a heavy " swampy" odor and taste were in the air. 



188 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

The malady reached its climax in about twenty four hours. It was first sus- 
suspected that the water supply had been somehow poisoned, but many people 
who had not used the water were prostrated, while others who used it freely escaped. 
Adams has hitherto been regarded as an exceptionally healthy town, and the sur- 
rounding country is high and wholesome. — Scientific American. 



PERSEVERANCE WITH THE DROWNED. 

In a recent communication to the French Academy, Professor Fort asserts 
that he was enabled to restore to life a child three years old, by practicing artifi- 
cial respiration on it four hours, commencing three hours and half after apparent 
death. He mentions also a case in which Dr. Fournol, of Billancourt, reanima- 
ted, in July, 1878, an apparently drowned person by four hours of artificial respi- 
ration begun one hour after the patient was taken from the water. At this season, 
when cases of drowning are apt to be frequent, the possible benefit that may 
come from a persevering effort to revive victims of drowning, should encourage 
friends not to despair of their resuscitation, even after several hours of seemingly 
fruitless labor. — Scientific American. 



SIMPLE TEST FOR CHLORAL HYDRATE. 

A new test for chloral hydrate has been devised by Frank Ogston, namely, 
yellow sulphide of ammonia. On adding this reagent to a solution of chloral of 
moderate strength there is at first no change noticed, but in a short time the color- 
less solution acquires an orange yellow color, and on longer standing turns brown 
and evolves a gas of a very disagreeable odor. Ogston's experiments show that 
a solution containing ten milligrammes turns brown in six hours, and gives the 
peculiar odor. With one milligramme the orange yellow color appears in twelve 
hours, but no odor. Croton chloral gives the same reaction, but chloroform, 
chloric ether, and formic acid do not. 



BOOK NOTICES. 



Preadamites, or a Demonstration of the Existence of Man Before Adam, to- 
gether with a study of their condition, antiquity, racial affinities and pro- 
gressive dispersion over the earth. By Alexander Winchell, LL. D., etc., 
I Vol., 8 Vo., 1880. S. C. Griggs & Co., Chicago. $3. 
The origin of the human race, lost as it is in the night of antiquity, is a sub- 
ject of fascinating interest, and has been a theme of speculation from the earUest 
ages of history. When and where did man make his first appearance on earth is 
an oft recurring question. From the wild inhospitable wastes of the Polar re- 



BOOK NOTICES. 189 

gions to the tropical luxuriance of the equator traces of the occupation of ancient 
inhabitants are found, from the simple flint instrument of the savage barbarian to 
the stately palace and temple of hewn stone of the civiUzed and cultivated man 
—their name and history ahke lost and unknown. And it is not only on the 
surface these relics are found, but deep down in the bowels of the earth in mines 
and caves, and under "cubic miles of basalt," his remains have been exhumed, 
showing that vast geological changes have taken place on the earth since his first 
appearance. The difficulty of reconciling the Biblical history of man's origin 
with the facts of geology and the diversities of the human race has induced the 
theory of a preadamite race or races. Prof. Winchell, the author of several pop- 
ular works on geology and kindred subjects, has collated the most trustworthy 
and authentic evidence on this subject and laid it before his readers in his usual 
pleasing and practical style, and produced a work of great interest and value to 
the student. The general reader will find much curious information in regard to 
the human race not generally accessible, but hidden away in great libraries and 
under a mass of Society transactions. The illustrations are good and useful, but 
one or two cases illustrated, we think, have been rather strained and exaggerated 
to make a point. L. 



The Conservation of Energy. Balfour Stewart, LL. D., F. R. S. Quarto 

pp. 27. J. Fitzgerald & Co., New York. 15c. For sale by the Kansas 

City Book & News Co. 

''Cheap literature" has up to a very recent period been synonymous with the 
trash written by Ned Buntline and other writers of that ilk, but within the past 
two or three years the expression has been applicable to scientific, historical, and, 
in fact, all classes of the best works of the best authors by the best known pub- 
lishers of the country. 

As an example we have before us the above named work, with an appendix 
by Professor Alexander Bain, on the Correlation of Nervous and Mutual Forces, 
complete, for fifteen cents, being the seventh number of the Humboldt Library 
of Science. It is well printed and has all the illustrations of the original work, 
which could not be bought for less than about ten times as much. 

Of the work itself it is unnecessary to say anything, as it is widely known as 
an eminently popular standard treatise by one of the most able scientific writers 
of the time. 



Wright's New Map and Guide for Kansas City, Mo., Kansas City and Wy- 
andotte, Kansas. Pocket size, folded, 50c. Published by the Kansas City 
Book & News Co. 

This is an exceedingly complete and convenient map, one which all persons 
interested in the city will find quite useful, though it would have been an excel- 
lent idea to include the suburbs of Harlem, Rosedale, Armourville and River- 



190 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

view. It is folded and bound in paper so that it can readily be sent by mail or 
carried in the pocket. Mr. Wright is the pioneer in the kind of thing here for 
which he deserves credit. 



OTHER PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 

Programme of the International Congress to be held at Brussels, Belgium, 
August 22-29, translated by M. Maurice Defosse for Bureau of Education, De- 
partment of the Interior ; Lists of Volumes and parts of volumes of educational 
periodicals wanted to complete the files in the library of the Bureau of Education, 
by Hon. Jno. Eaton, Commissioner; Seventh Annual Catalogue of Officers and 
Students of Hardin College, Mexico, Mo., 1880; Report of the Board of Com- 
missioners of the Seventh Cincinnati Industrial Exposition, 1879, pp. 400, octavo; 
Prospectus of the Monte Christo Gold Mining Co. , of Chicago, wilh charter and 
by-laws, 1879; The Campaign in Missouri and the Battle of Wilson's Creek, 1861, 
a paper read before the Missouri Historical Society of St. Louis, March, 1880, 
by Col. Wm. M. Wherry, U. S. A., pp. 18, 8vo.; Annual Report and Statistics 
of the Meteorology and Mortality of the City of Oakland, Cal., for the year 

1879, J. B. Trembley, M. D., pp. 14, 8vo.; The School Bulletin Year Book, for 

1880, an Educational Directory of the State of New York, compiled by C. W. 
Bardeen, with map of the State. Davis, Bardeen & Co., Syracuse, New York, 
$1 ; The Graphic, Eureka, Kansas, weekly, H. H. Clark, editor, $1.50 per an- 
num; Tho. Jewell County Review, Mankato, Kansas, weekly, L. D. Reynolds, $1 
per annum; The Cotton Planters' a7id Manufacturer^ s Journal, Little Rock, Ark., 
monthly, Coleman & Co., $1 ; The Wilmington, Ohio, Journal, weekly, Vernon 
& Tudor, $1.50 per annum. 



SCIENTIFIC MISCELLANY. 



THE SAN JUAN REGION. 

Leaving the Narrow Gauge at Alamosa, the terminus of the main line of the 
Denver and Rio Grande road, the tourist or miner can mount a "burro" or 
take a stage to the various camps of Silver San Juan — to Lake City, 115 miles, 
or to Silverton, 140 miles, visiting Rio Grande, sixty-nine miles distant, by the 
way, and thence pursue his way across the Range to the Dolores River country, 
fifty or more miles beyond Silverton, and northward to Ouray. 

These names are all famifiar to Colorado miners, and they have proved very 
attractive. A little less than a year ago, carbonate ore was discovered on the 
Dolores River, and that section has ever since been the goal of numerous pros- 
pectors. Poughkeepsie Gulch, Rico, the San Miguel, Animas Forks, and 
Mineral Point are also more or less famous ; and the outlook for the coming year 



THE SAN JUAN REGION. 191 

is that the narrow-gauge coaches of the Denver & Rio Grande will be taxed to 
their utmost in carrying prospectors and capitalists to the prospectively rich 
regions of southwestern Colorado. 

" The formation containing the lodes, and holding the greatest portion of 
the mineral belt," says the Denver Akws, "is in and around San Juan County, 
and the formation, generally speaking, is eruptive or volcanic porphyry, with 
granite and occasionally sandstone and trachyte, as the country rock and vein 
walls. Silver predominates as a galena ore, carrying from ten to twenty per 
cent, of lead, and ranging from iifty ounces upward to the ton. Gray copper, 
ruby silver, wire and native silver, carbonates, sulphurets, chlorides and free gold 
are the other ores found throughout the district." 

The Summit district, in Rio Grande County, is exclusively gold, free and in 
decomposed quartz, with stamps as the only process of treatment. Henson 
Creek and Sheffer's Basin, in Hinsdale County, Uncompahgre and Poughkeepsie 
districts, with Mount Snefifies and a portion of the Upper Miguel and Silver Moun-^ 
tain, in Ouray County, forming a regular belt of mineral, have a high-grade gray 
copper ore, with ruby, wire, native and brittle silver, carrying little lead, and 
hence suitable for the leaching, or lixiviation process. The veins on Mounts 
Galena, Tower, Hazelton, Aulton, King Solomon and Kendall, in San Juan 
County, surrounding Silverton, are essentially galena ore bearing, averaging as 
much as fifty per cent, in lead. These ores are treated by reverberatory roasters, 
and cupola blast furnaces. The main stream of the San Miguel, in Ouray 
County, and the La Plata River, in La Plata County, are altogether placer and 
gulch diggings, mined by sluice booming and hydraulics. The latest discovery 
on the Dolores, in Ouray County, properly called the Pioneer district, for it was 
worked years before the most of the San Juan Region was known, is now exclu- 
sively a carbonate camp, with the same formation and general characteristics as. 
Leadvilie, except, perhaps, less lead, more iron, and an altitude 3,000 feet lower. 
The notable districts now are comparatively scattered, and there are forty miles, 
square webbed with mineral veins, all, as yet, barely prospected. 

As nearly as can be estimated, the ore product of the mines in this district, 
last year, amounted to 9,075 tons, or $1,400,000. The present year a very great 
increase is confidently predicted. Smelting furnaces and reduction and sampHng 
works will be erected at many points. The hundred or more mines discovered 
last year will be developed and worked this year. Capital is already seeking 
investment here, and the outlook for activity all along the line could not be 
better. 

SILVER CLIFF AND ROSITA. 

The tourist will do well to make a visit to the famous mining camps, Rosita 
and Silver Cliff, before leaving this section of Colorado. Stages from Canon 
City make daily trips to these points and enable sight-seers to see the two most 
populous as well as richest mining camps of southern Colorado. Rosita is eight 
miles beyond Silver Cliff and two years ago was the scene of a great rush. It. 



192 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

holds its way with most Colorado camps still, but is left behind in the race by its 
more prosperous neighbor. Silver Cliff is a city of 5,000 people now, and con- 
fidently anticipates a population of double that number within six months. 

The most famous mines of this section are the Bull Domingo, Bassick, 
Silver CUff, West Mountain, Plata Verde and Racine Boy. The first named is 
a Rosita mine and experts estimate the quantity of ore now in sight at $1,249,- 
440. The Bassick mine has been shipping $2,000 worth of ore daily to the 
Silver Cliff sampling works, and continues to show up fine bodies of high grade 
ore. The Bassick is believed by many miners to be one of the big bonanzas of 
the world. The Racine Boy, at Silver Cliff, is operating two tunnels, and its 
development promises to show better bodies of ore as the work continues. The 
company has taken more than $100,000 from the big tunnel. What is true of 
the above mines, is true of a hundred others in a limited degree. Some rich 
gold discovered have been recently made in several mining camps adjacent to 
Silver Chff, and the little county of Custer, in which these mines are located, 
bids fair to become a rival even to Lake County. 



THE VESUVIUS RAILWAY. 

The first public trial of this remarkable line took place on the 6th inst. The 
time of ascent requires only eight minutes, on foot it takes an hour and a half, 
A correspondent of The Times, who was present on the occasion, says:^" Itmust 
be admitted that on this, the first public experiment, the boldest among the many 
present confessed the necessity of screwing their courage up to the sticking po nt 
before making the railway journey along a road steep as a ladder or a fire-escape 
and 860 metres in length ; but as regards danger, it is reduced to a minimum. It 
is not a train in which one travels, but a single carriage, carrying ten persons only, 
and as the ascending carriage starts, another, counterbalancing it, comes down 
from the summit, the weight of each being five tons. The carriages are so con- 
structed that, rising or descending, the passenger sits on a level plane, and what- 
ever emotion or hesitation may be felt on starting, changes, before one has risen 
twenty metres, into a feeHng of perfect security. The motion also is very gentle, 
and the effect is magnificent, if not, indeed, grandly awful, as, when hanging 
midway against the side of the cone, one looks, from the window directly upwards! 
•or downwards along the line, which, its slight incline alone excepted, is perfectly 
perpendicular. Dismounting at a little station at the summit, one can scarcely 
be said to clamber to the edge of the crater, for the company have cut a conveni- 
ent winding path, up which all, except the aged, heavy or feeble, can walk with 
ease. The upper station was gaily decked with a trophy of flags. Flags of all 
nations waved along each side of the fine, and, after descending again to the base 
of the cone, we sat down, 120 in number, to a splendid banquet, spread in a spa- 
cious and well-appointed restaurant, established in a kind of Pompeian villa." — 
Iron. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



193 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



During a brief visit to Chicago we availed 
oUrself of a long-standing invitation to visit 
the University and especially Dearborn Ob- 
servatory, where we found Professor Hughes 
and Mr. S. W. Burnham, the former teacher 
of Natural Science, and the latter so well 
known among astronomers as the discoverer 
of a great number of double stars. 

The University of Chicago is a handsome 
building, with ample grounds, well arranged 
and equipped for educational purposes and 
possessed of a faculty of finely educated and 
liberal minded men who are doing excellent 
work in their respective departments. 

The observatory is a model structure and 
has the good fortune to own one of the largest 
telescopes in the world, one originally con- 
structed for the State of Mississippi, which, 
owing to the outbreak of the late war was 
unable to take it. Mr. Burnham has the use 
of this instrument and is pushing his observa- 
tions and studies with great zeal and indus- 
try. 

He paid a handsome compliment to Profes- 
sor Pritchett of Glasgow, Mo., and was en- 
thusiastic in his praises of the atmosphere of 
our western or central region for astronomi- 
cal purposes. 



The steamer Dessouk, with the obelisk on 
board, which was presented to the city of New 
York by the Egyptian Government, sailed 
from Alexandria June I2th, and from Gibral- 
tar, June 26th, for the United States. 



The heat of the past few days has been 
quite universal. 

At Albany, at seven o'clock on the 26th ult. 
the thermometer recorded 79 degrees in the 
shade. At Washington it recorded 80, and at 
New Orleans, where one would^' naturally ex. 
pect the temperature to be excessively warm. 



it registered but 77 degrees in the shade. At 
Duluth it was 60, at Philadelphia it reached 
71, and at San Francisco it only mounted 
among the fifties, while the city and bay were 
veiled by a fog. At St. Louis it was 75°, at 
Yankton 78°, at Chicago 77° and at Kansas 
City 70°. 

The Lancet says it would be difficult to 
point to a more probable source of infection 
in the search for causes of disease in private 
families than the houses where the practical 
work of dress-making is performed. It re- 
commends, therefore, the erection of public 
work-rooms, well-arranged and under proper 
supervision, to which the poor might bring 
their work and finish it in cleanliness, comfort 
and peace. 



The Signal Service Department at Wash 
ington has established a central meteorolog' 
ical station at Washburne College, near To- 
peka, with auxiliary stations in each county 
in Kansas. The instruments are in place and 
the observations begin July ist. Professor J, 
Lovewell will have charge of the work. 



The question of dispelling or illuminating 
fogs requires the attention of physicists and 
meteorologists at once. The number of ter- 
rible accidents occuring lately from collisions 
in fog-banks ts discreditable to modern sci- 
ence. 



Diphtheria is raging with fearful fatality 
in Russia. Out of 46,136 persons attacked 
18,698 deaths ensued. 



A report upon the paper carbon horseshoe 
lamp constructed by Mr. Edison, prepared 
and contributed to Van Nostrand's Engineer- 



194 



KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



ing Magazine for July 1880, closes as follows: 
" It is evident Mr. Edison's lamp, as now 
made, does not escape the enormous loss 
which has heretofore been encountered by all 
forms of incandescent electric lamps." 



Professors Edward M. Shepard, of Drury 
College, Springfield, Mo., and Charles H. 
Ford, of the State Normal School, Kirks- 
ville, Mo., have decided to hold a Summer 
School of Biology at Springfield, Mo., be- 
ginning the first day of July, and continuing; 
not less than six weeks. 

Two Lectures will be given each day, 
accompanied by laboratory work in dissec- 
tion, use of microscope, etc. Occasional 
excursions will be made into the surrounding 
country and on the James River, which will 
afford fine opportunities for scientific re- 
search. 

By the kindness of the authorities of 
Drury College, the College building — includ- 
ing lecture rooms, laboratory and boarding 
hall, as well as the library, apparatus and 
collections — will be at the service of the 
students. Access will also be given to the 
collections of the Packard Natural History 
Society, and to the private libraries of the 
instructors. 

Mr. Shepard will instruct in the depart- 
ments of Invertebrate Zoology and Crypto- 
gamic Botany. 

Mr. Ford will have charge of Vetebrate 
and Phsenogamic Botany. 



Professors S. H. Trowbridge, H. S. 
Pritchett and T. Berry Smith have inaugu- 
rated a Summer School of Science in Pritchett 
Institute, Glasgow, Mo. The object of this 
School is to afford students of the State an 
opportunity of studying science by observing 
some of the facts and phenomena on which 
it rests, and by a free use of illustrative 
specimens and apparatus. The school com- 
menced on Monday, June 28th, and continues 
six weeks. It will embrace three depart- 
ments, viz: I, Geology and Natural His- 
tory ; 2, Astronomy ; 3, Chemistry and 
Physics. 



The reader who is curious to obtain an 
inside viev/ of Prince Bismarck's character as 
the genius of Statecraft, will find much to 
interest him in a paper contributed to the 
North Afnerican Review for July, by the 
great Chancellor's Boswell, Moritz Busch, 
entitled, " Bismarck as a Friend of America 
and as a Statesman." Other articles in the 
same number of the Review are "Canada 
and the United States," by Prof. Gold win 
Smith : " The Exodus of Israel," by Presi- 
dent S. C. Bartlett, — a defense of the Penta- 
teuchal account in the light of modern 
research; "The Ei^glish House of Lords," 
by J. E. Thorold Rogers, M. P.; "The 
Ethics of Sex," by Miss M. A. Hardaker, — 
a calm, philosophical study of the woman 
question ; '' The Panama Canal," by Count 
de Lesseps; and "Profligacy in Fiction," by 
A. K. Fiske. 

The leading article in the Boston Journal 
of Chemistry iox June is entitled "Shall we 
bolt our food," and is a digest of the views of 
several physiologists, who argue in favor of 
swallowing our food whole, and in opposi- 
tion to the long-trusted theory of eating slow- 
ly and chewing the food thoroughly ; on the 
ground that the finely masticated food passes 
out of the stomach before it is fully prepared 
for the next process in digestion. 



The " Studies in Comparative Phrenolo- 
gy," found in the Phrenological Journal for 
July are very interesting and will repay care- 
ful reading. 



An elaborate article in the London Tele- 
graphic Journal upon the value and impor- 
tance of " Varley's Electric Time Ball" on 
the dome of the West Strand telegraph office 
prompts the enquiry what has become of the 
project of establishing a similar signal at the 
Kansas City Union Depot, as proposed by 
Prof. C. W. Pritchett, of the Morrison 
Observatory, last spring. 



The Gardeners^ Monthly, edited by the 
well-known scientist, Thomas Meehan, is a 
periodical that every professional gardener 
and agriculturist needs, and all amateurs 
will find it of the greatest value. 



K^jSrS^S CITY 

Review of Scieince and Industry, 

A MONTHLY RECORD OF PROGRESS IN 

SCIENCE, MECHANIC ARTS AND LITERATURE. 



VOL. IV. AUGUST, 1880. NO. 4- 



GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 



GEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 

BY THE LATE PROF. B. F. MUDGE. 
CHAPTER III.—MOLLUSKS. 

In the examination of the sub-kingdom of Mollusks, we find at the begin- 
ning nearly all ranks of groups fully represented. In the address of Vice-Presi- 
dent J. W. Dawson, before the American Association, in 1875, he says: "Here then 
meets us at the outset the fact that in as far as the groups of annulose and mol- 
luscous animals are concerned, we can trace these back no farther than in a period 
in which they appear already very highly advanced, much specialized and repre- 
sented by many diverse forms." Development or evolution, if a law of nature, 
should begin with the lowest of each sub-kingdom, and symmetrically advance 
to the highest. But the first Mollusks of even below the Silurian, are associated 
with Pteropods, which are (next to the Cephalopods) the highest order; and the 
latter soon appear. In addition, some of the lowest forms are late in coming 
forward on the stage of life. Some genera come and retire in a short period of 
time; others, like the Lingula, are seen early in the Lower Silurian, both in 
Europe and America, and are in existence in our present seas. 

The most noticeable feature of this question of development is, that in 
nearly all cases where a definite progression is claimed, either in this sub- king- 
dom or any other, the species are represented by few specimens. Where numer- 
ous fossils of one species are found, either no evolution is seen, or the progress 

IV— 13 



196 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

is so slow and slight that it proves so little as to have scarcely any weight in the 
discussion. Let us notice a few in detail. 

Take one of the lowest, Fusulina Cylindrica, a small Rhizopod, in appear- 
ance like a grain of barley. It has a wide geographical as well as geological 
range. It is found in Europe, Asia and America, and from the Sub-carboniferous 
through the Permian, or in one-eighth of the fossiliferous age of the globe. It 
has a series of coils, like the Nautilus, with septa, or partitions, extending part 
way across the chamber, instead of wholly, as in the Nautilus and Ammonite.* 
These chambered shells are far higher in rank than this little half chambered 
shell. Yet during all its long geological life of six million years, f it never extend- 
ed its partition entirely from coil to coil, to take the first step toward a higher 
form. 

Take another characteristic species of the Carboniferous Age, of a higher 
order — Athyfis Subtilita. It is exceedingly abundant in America, as well as in 
Europe, in all the carboniferous deposits. It also, unlike the Fusulina, has a 
tendency to sport under a variety of forms (hence its name), but always keeps 
within a prescribed boundary. Thus a quantity of specimens from the same 
locality, say the lowest, will vary so much, that the extremes being taken, without 
reference to the intermediate forms, two species would be recognized. Another 
quantity from a different region, and entirely different horizon, perhaps the 
highest, will disclose a like variable appearance, but in no greater degree. If the 
two collections are then placed side by side, one cannot be distinguished from the 
other. No two will be found aHke, but all are Athyris SubtilUa. Though varia- 
bility is always a feature of this shell, it constantly retains its specific character, 
istics, within a narrow circle of vitality, from the lowest Carboniferous through 
the Permian. 

In contrast, as far as versatility is concerned, and of persistence in details, 
we may take another common carboniferous species, viz., Produdus se7ni-Retic- 
ulatus. It, like the others, runs through that entire geological age. It derives its 
name from the reticulation, or crossing lines, of the outer surface of the upper 
half of the ventral valve of the shell. J So little change occurs in its structure, 
during all its existence, one-eighth of the geological history, that the simple small 
furrows did not disappear from one half, or extend over the other half, in millions 
of generations. Is evolution a law of natural history when it is so persistent in 
small things ? 

Passing to another order of MoUusks, let us examine the Ostrea, or oysters. 
They date from the Paleozoic§ Age. Like the Athy?is Subtilita, the whole genus 
is noted for its sporting variation of outline, and for an equal adherence to its 
original characteristic phases. Its peculiar foliated texture of shell, too well known 
to need description, the irregularity in shape and curvature of the valves, and the 

*See note on page 21. 

JSee Fig. Dana's Manual. 

*Paleozoic includes the three divisions, Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous. 

gSee Fig. Dana's Manual. 



GEOLOGY AND E VOL UTLON. 197 

simple muscle which binds them together, are the characteristics. They are 
found now living in nearly all parts of shoal ocean, outside of the Frigid Zones. 
But a short notice of a simple species will better illustrate the stable nature of this 
genus. Take Ostrea Congesta. It lived through nearly the whole of the Creta- 
ceous Age. It occurs on both sides of the Rocky Mountains over wide areas. 
It is collected in Kansas over ten thousand square miles, and I have seen fifty thou- 
sand on a square acre. While there is in shape as great a variety in any one 
thousand, as in the hving Virginia oyster, still no greater variance can be traced 
in specimens from the lowest to the highest geological horizon, or from the beds 
in Texas, New Mexico, or Nebraska. Where so little change occurs, and such 
constancy of species is seen, what support is there for Lamarck's conjecture that 
man may have sprung from an oyster ? Yet oysters have been known to vary, at 
least in size, by varying circumstances. A most interesting and remarkable illus- 
tration, on a large scale, of the effect of a change of circum.stances, in controlling 
the vitality of MoUusks, has taken place in the north of Europe. 

When man in the old stone age first dwelt on the shores of the Baltic Sea, it 
was a large open bay of the ocean, covering nearly twice as many square miles 
as at present. It opened into the Arctic ocean on the north, Norway and 
Sweden being an island. Denmark was then represented by a few low islands, 
and the salt waters of the ocean had free access. The Baltic was then in reality 
a part of the ocean, and animals which could live in one, existed in the 
other. But early in man's history this part of Europe began very slowly to rise, 
till its pre ent position is about two hundred feet higher than when it began to 
ascend. This elevation united the islands of Denmark, forming that peninsula, 
and joined it to the continent. The southern shores of Norway and Sweden 
encroached on the outlet, and the Baltic became a land-locked sea, smaller and 
less deep than before. Formerly, as now, it received the drainage of that por- 
tion of Europe ; and those large rivers, Oder, Vistula, Duna, and others, carried 
so much fresh water into it, that animals which required water of the full ocean 
saltness, suffered, and finally disappeared. As the geographical change was very 
gradual, so also was the change in the Mollusks. The common oyster {ostrea 
■edidis), now so abundant in the ocean on the shores of the North Sea, flourished 
equally well, before this elevation, on what is now the shores of the Baltic. By 
the quantity of fresh water poured into this inland sea, these oysters became 
stunted and dwarfed to one-third of their natural size, then diminished in num- 
bers and became locally extinct. The whole history of this interesting change in 
animal life can be studied in the remains of the "kitchen middens," or "refuse 
heaps," on the coast of Sweden. There the old pre-historic inhabitants at first 
ate the full sized oyster, and continued to use it as an article of food till it disap- 
peared, near the close of the elevation, and then were obliged to procure a sub- 
stitute. This process of local extermination occupied many thousands of years. 
During all this dwarfing in the oyster, it lost none of its characteristics as a 
species, and showed no tendency to diverge into any other variety, but simply 



198 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

died out. As degradation to a lower character is a part of the theory of evolu- 
tion, here is just the change of surroundings which should have given us a lower 
species. 

The same modification and local extinction took place in the eatable cockle, 
mussel and periwinkle {Cardiufn edule, Mytilus edulis, and Littorina Littoria), 
which are also found in the " refuse heaps." They, as well as many species not 
eaten by man, and now flourishing in the adjacent North Sea, became stunted 
and disappeared in the same gradual manner, without any specific change. Others- 
more hardy are now living in both seas, but are much smaller in the Baltic than 
in the North sea, yet showing no loss of characteristic traits. 

If we examine the Ammonites, we shall find a tribe which varies in its 
characteristics more, probably, than any other mollusk. They appear in the 
Devonian, and continue to the Eocene Tertiary, or during one-half of the whole 
geological period. They are represented by more than one thousand species. 
This great number presents quite a diversity, showing that the family possessed what 
is called a protean tendency in size and shape. It is claimed by some paleontol- 
ogists, with some show of facts, that many of these species run into, or are 
derived from others. It is even contended that genera of the family can be 
traced from one to another by gradual variation. This is not yet admitted by our 
leading authorities in paleontology. Notwithstanding the marked variance of 
different species, they are all distinguished by common characteristics, viz., a 
chambered shell with sutural or interlacing partitions, and a siphuncle passing, 
not near the center, but along the side of the chamber, through the partition. 
The variations of structure are always confined within the circle of these condi- 
tions. The thousand species are during this long range of time not only Ceph- 
alopods, but restricted to the narrow limits of their family features without 
crossing its boundaries. There is no proof that they were derived from a lower 
type or passed to a higher. 

Now if we allow the utmost claim of the evolutionists, that all these species 
and genera sprang from one common stock, even then we may say, the change 
is too small relatively, to show that any truly low type evolves to a higher. Had 
they continued to live to the present age, would they, at the same rate of prog- 
ress, have attained the structure of a low crustacean ? The great variety of forms 
are in most cases no increase in rank, but simply in diversity from those asso- 
ciated in the same seas. 

The firm continuance of general features, from the Devonian to the Tertiary, 
is much stronger against a general system of evolution than the variance of form 
is in its favor. Is it not more remarkable that during so long a geological term, 
in all parts of the world, under so great a diversity of circumstances, that there 
should have been so little change rather than so much. 

The Nautilus family presents another somev^hat similar history. It appears 
in the Lower Silurian Age and continues to the present day, through almost the 
whole of earth's geological history. The Nautilus resembles the Ammonite, but 



GEOLOGY AND E VOL UTION. 1 99 

is distinguished from it by the smooth curved line of its partitions (not interlac- 
ing) with the siphon passing through them in the center, or nearly so. These char- 
acteristics the Nautilus retains during its geological Ufe. It is claimed that the 
early species are more embryonic than the later, yet the normal plan is followed 
so closely in the five hundred species, that the real advance in organic structure 
is very slight. Most of the species show merely a diverse relation of parts with- 
out any relative advance in rank. Notwithstanding the range of earth's condi- 
tions has been so extreme that nearly the whole of the Nautili have disappeared, 
and only three or four species are preserved in our oceans, yet the strange adher- 
ence to the normal structure has been such that they have never diverged to the 
Pteropods or Acephals on the one hand, or developed into a crustacean on the 
other. 

We might multiply facts to show the essential uniformity of Mollusks, but it 
is enough to state that Murchison, in his " Siluria," gives the following existing 
genera, viz, : Avicula, Mytilis, Chiton, Natica, Patella, Trochus, Discina, Orbic- 
ula, Lingula, Rhynchonella, and Nautilus, as Silurian, which have continued 
through all geological formations, and are now living in our oceans. The expres- 
sion of " all-time genus "* Nautilus, which Dana has given to one, may be con- 
sidered as applicable to all. 

The examples frequently quoted, of change of species, without considering 
that the genera to which they belong is permanently inflexible, is a strong argu- 
ment against evolution. Thus, Shaler, in the " Geological Report of Kentucky 
for 1876," has given a very careful and critical memoir on the question of the 
variation of the more flexible or protean species, with tables of measurements 
and illustrations by plates, in addition to detailed remarks. One of his examples 
{Orthis accide7italis) shows a variation in the proportion of length to width of 
forty-five per cent. This would be a strong proof of a tendency to outgrow the 
normal characters of the shell, did we not know that the genus Orthis began at 
the opening of the Silurian and ended with the close of the Carboniferous, cov- 
ering three-fourths of our geological time. This shows that while a species may 
be quite variable within its circle of vitality, that variability may be clearly 
restricted in generic features. 

A similar instance is seen in the fresh water Planorbis. Hilgendorf has 
described a case, where he collected ten graduated varieties of Planorbis miuti- 
J^ormis, from the beds of a deposit in Switzerland. Yet the genus Planorbis has 
lived from the Jurassic to the present time. The multiform variations of this 
species, like Orthis occidentalis and many others, did not extend to the generic 
features. 

These cases of a tendency to vary in structure (protean species) are frequently 
quoted in proof of evolution. Although a species is variable, but the genus to 
which it belongs is unchanged during long geological eras, the real evidence must 
be considered as bearing against evolution. 

*Manual, p. 598. 



200 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

THE ORIGIN AND CLASSIFICATION OF ORE DEPOSITS.* 

BY PROF. J. S. NEWBERRY. 
( Concluded. ) 

Mineral Veins. Some writers on economic geology — Werner, Von Cotta and; 
Von Groddeck, for example — enumerate many different kinds of mineral veins ; 
but disregarding the local characters which all ore-deposits exhibit and the hy- 
brids which are formed by the blending of two distinct forms, not of uncom- 
mon occurrence, I agree with Whitney in recognizing but three dis'inct classes, 
namely : 

z. Gash-veins. 

2. Segregated veins. 

J. Fissure-veins. 

Gash-veins may be defined to be those which occur only in limestone, are 
confined to a single stratum formation, and hence are limited in extent, both 
laterally and vertically. Typical examples of gash-veins are furnished by our lead 
deposits of the Mississippi valley. These occur at three horizons, namely, about 
Galena, in the Galena limestone, belonging to the Trenton group ; in Southeast- 
ern Missouri, where the Mine La Motte is located, in the equivalent of the Cal- 
ciferous sand-rock ; and in Southwestern Missouri, where the mines of lead and 
zinc occur in the Lower Carboniferous limestone. The origin of deposits of this, 
character is apparently quite simple. The cavities which form the repositories of 
the ore are generally the cleavage-planes or joints of a soluble limestone rock that 
become channels through which surface-water charged with carbonic acid flows 
in a system of subterranean drainage. We usually find two sets of joints approx- 
imately at right angles to each other, and vertical if the rocks are horizontal. To 
form gash-veins, one or both of these sets of vertical joints are locally enlarged 
into lenticular cavities or " gashes," whence the name; but sometimes caves of 
considerable size, irregular pockets, and vertical or horizontal galleries are formed. 
These are subsequently lined or filled with ore, sulphides of lead, zinc, and iron, 
originally disseminated through the limestone, and leached out of it by water, 
which saturates and traverses all rocks in a humid climate. The solution thus 
formed reaching a cavity has, by evaporation, deposited the ore as a hning to 
that cavity; narrow fissures being perhaps filled, walls of larger cavities coated 
with stalactites depending from the roof, etc. Subsequent solution has sometimes 
widened a fissure once filled with ore, leaving the ore-body as a ceniral partition, 
a curtain more or less complete hanging from the roof, or a mass of fragments 
mingled with infiltrated sand and clay in the floor of the cave. In Southwestern 
Missouri, the Carboniferous limestone contains layers of chert, which are insolu- 
ble, and which sometimes form horizontal floors or ceilings of caverns. These,. 

*From the School of Mines Quarterly, March, 1880. 



THE ORIGIN AND CLASSIFICATION OF ORE DEPOSITS. 201 

breaking down by their own weight, have formed masses of debris, cemented 
together by the ore, which has thus acquired its pecuHar brecciated character. 

From the description of gash- veins given above, it will be seen that they have 
much in common with the pockets and chambers previously described ; but there 
is this important diiference, that the ore filling the gashes and irregular chambers 
of the lead-bearing limestones is indigenous, having been derived from the leach- 
ing of the adjacent rock, while in the chamber-mines of the West the ore is ex- 
otic, having been brought up through fissur..s from a remote source below ; so 
that, while in physical characters the western gold and silver-bearing ore-cham- 
bers resemble gash-veins, they are really but appendages to true fissure-veins, and 
only occur in a country that has been much broken by subterranean forces. 

Segregated veins are confined to metamorphic rocks, are conformable with 
their bedding, and are limited in extent both laterally and vertically. Their ore- 
bodies form lenticular masses of greater or less dimensions, of which the materi- 
al is chiefly quartz, which has segregated (that is, separated) from the surround- 
ing rock. The quartz-veins so abundant in the gneisses and schists of Canada, 
New England and the Alleghany belt are all examples of this class of ore-de- 
posits. The most important constituent of segregated veins is gold, which here 
seems to have been mechanically dispersed throughout sedimentary rocks, and to 
have been concentrated with the quartz in the process of metamorphism to which 
they have been subjected. With the gold we always find iron pyrites, sometimes 
chalco-pyrite, and the latter occasionally in sufficient quantity to be worth work- 
ing. From these remarks it may be inferred that segregated veins have no deep- 
seated origin, are less continuous in depth and laterally than fissure-veins, and 
therefore constitute a less permanent foundation for mining enterprises. It may 
be said, however, that some of ihem are of enormous dimensions, and that they 
not unfrequently occur in succession, or so approximate that they are equivalent to 
a continuous mineral deposit. 

Fissure-veins occupy crevices which have been formed by subterranean forces 
and have been filled from a foreign source. They traverse indiscriminately all 
kinds of rock, and are withoat definite limits laterally or vertically. They have 
as characteristic features smooth, striated, sometimes polished, walls (slickensides) 
clay gouges or selvages on one or both sides, and a banded or ribboned structure 
throughout. The veinstone is usually quartz, and the constituents include the 
ores of all the metals. The mode of formation of fissure-veins is apparently this : 
In the regions where the earth's crust is broken up in the adjustment of the cold 
and hard exterior to the cooling and shrinking nucleus, cracks are formed, often 
miles in extent, along which the rocks suffer displacement, sliding on each other 
to form what are known as " faults." As the planes of these faults are more or 
less undulated, with displacement the bearing is upon the projecting bosses of 
each side. Between these, open fissures are left of greater or less dimensions. 
These reach down to a heated zone, and form the conduits through which ther- 
mal waters flow to the surface. Such waters coming in different localities 



202 KAN'S AS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

from different depths, and leaching rocks of various composition under great 
pressure and high temperature, having great solvent power, become loaded with 
various mineral matters. As they rise to the surface, the pressure and tempera- 
ture are reduced, and the materials held in solution are deposited to line and per- 
haps ultimately fill the channels through which they flow. This theory of the fill- 
ing of mineral veins — that is, by precipitation from heated chemical solutions 
coming from below — is supported by such an array of facts that it must be ac- 
cepted by all who will make a careful and unprejudiced study of the subject. It 
is true, however, that various other theories have been, at one time or another, 
put forth for the explanation of the phenomena. Among these, a few deserve a 
passing notice. They are : 

1. The theory of igfieous ejection, according to which the matter filling mineral 
veins has been erupted like that of trap dikes, and such veins as those of Lake 
Superior containing metallic copper have been suggested as affording good exam- 
ples. But here we find metallic copper and silver associated, and each chemically 
pure; whereas if they had ever been fused, they certainly would have formed an 
alloy. The copper is also found in crystals of calc-spar and other minerals, where 
it must have been deposited v/ith the other constituents of the crystal, and that 
crystal formed from solution. Other opposing facts might be cited; butit will be 
sufficient to say that not one sound argument can be advanced in favor of this 
theory. 

2. Aqueous deposition from above. This theory, first advanced by Werner, 
but since generally abandoned, supposes the contents of mineral veins to have 
been deposited from a solution which flowed into the fissures from above ; but in 
that case the vein-matter should be horizontally stratified, limited in extent down- 
ward, and spread over the surface adjacent to the fissure ; whereas no one has yet 
reached the limits in depth of the ore in a true fissure-vein, and the characteristic 
banded structure can only have resulted from succe-sive depositions of a long- 
continued flow of a hot solution. This theory has been recently advocated in this 
city, by Prof. Stewart of Nevada; but it is not only not sustained, but is really 
disproved by all the facts observed by the writer in some years devoted to the 
study of our western ore-deposits. 

3. Lateral secretion. According to this theory, the material filling all miner- 
al veins has leached into the cavity from the wall-rocks. While this is true of 
gash-veins, it can have played but a very subordinate part in the deposition 
of ore in fissure-veins. This is proved by the facts that different sets of fissures 
which cut the same formation frequently contain very different ores ; and where 
the rocks of totally different character are, by faulting, brought to form opposite 
walls of a fissure, the ore may be symmetrically deposited in corresponding lay- 
ers. It may also be said that the same fissure frequently traverses several forma- 
tions, and yet its character may be essentially the same throughout. 

4. Sublimation. The facility with which certain metals are volatilized, and 
the fact that various minerals have been deposited from vapor, have formed the 



THE ORIGIN AND CLASSIFICATION OF ORE DEPOSITS. 203 

basis of this theory ; yet it is difificult to see how any one can ascribe more than 
a local and insignificant effect to this cause. It is true that the action of water, 
as steam, is much the same as when fluid and highly heated, in the solution and 
transport of minerals ; and the depjsit of mercury ; sulphide of iron, and even 
gold, from the mingled water and steam of the Cahfornia geysers proves this. So 
we may concede that steam has been an agent in the chemical solution and pre- 
cipitation of ores ; but this is a very different thing from the sublimation of the 
metals represented by these ores, and all knowledge and. analogy indicate that 
the silica which forms so large a part of vein-stones, and is so often seen in combs 
of interlocking crystals, has been deposited from an aqueous solution. But ar- 
gument is really wasted in a discussion of the filling of fissure-veins, since we 
have examples that seem to settle the question in favor of chemical precipitation 
from ascending hot water and steam. In the Steamboat Springs of Western Ne- 
vada, for example, we in fact catch mineral veins in the process of formation. 
These springs issue from extensive fissures which have been or are fillmg with sili- 
cious vein-stone that carries, according to M. Laur, oxide of iron, oxide of man- 
ganese, sulphide of iron, sulphide of copper, and metallic gold, and exhibits the 
banded structure so frequently observed in mineral veins.* 

In regard to the precise chemical reactions which take place in the deposi- 
tion of ores in veins, there is much yet to be learned, and this constitutes an in- 
teresting subject for original investigation, which I earnestly commend to those 
who are so situated that they can pursue it. 

It may be noticed, however, that the thermal springs which are now forming 
deposits like those in fissure-veins, contain alkaline carbonates and sulphides, 
and we have every reason to believe that highly carbonate alkaline waters contain- 
ing sulphureted hydrogen under varying conditions of temperature and pressure 
are capable of taking into solution and depositing all the metals and minerals with 
which we meet in mineral veins. 

To these necessarily brief notes on the filling of mineral veins should be ad- 
ded some interesting examples of the mechanical filling of fissures which have 
been recently brought to light in western mining. These are furnished by the 
remarkable deposits of gold and silver ore in the Bassick and Bull Domingo, near 
Rosita, Colorado, and the carbonate mine at Frisco, Utah. All these are appar- 
ently true fissure-veins, filled to as great a depth as they have yet been penetrated, by 
well-rounded pebbles and boulders which have fallen or been washed in from 
above. The porous mass thus formed has been subsequently saturated with a hot 
ascending mineral solution, which has cemented the pebbles and boulders to- 
gether into a conglomerate ore. In the Bassick, this ore consists of rich telluride 
of silver and gold, free gold, and the argentiferous sulphides of lead, zinc, cop- 
per and iron. In the Bull-Domingo and Carbonate mines, the cementing matter 
is argentiferous galena. That the pebbles and boulders have come from above 
is distinctly shown by the variety in their composition and the organic matters as- 
sociated with them. In the Bull-Domingo and the Bassick, the pebbles consist 

*Annales des Mines, Sixth Series, vol. iii, p. 421. 



204 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

of various kinds of igneous rock, mingled with which in the latter are masses of 
siUcified wood and charcoal ; while in the Carbonate mine, the pebbles are mainly 
trachyte ; but with these are others of limestone and quartzite. 

Fossils and other foreign bodies have before this been found in mineral veins, 
and Von Cotta mentions the occurrence of quartz pebbles extending to the depth 
of 155 fathoms in the Griiner Lode at Schemnitz, Saxony; but no conglomerate 
veins like those mentioned above are known to exist elsewhere, and they consti- 
tute another of the many new forms of ore deposit which the exploration of the 
rich and varied mineral resources of the United States has brought to Iii;ht. To 
enumerate and classify these, has been the chief object of this article. 

In regard to the ultimate source of the metallic matters which give value to 
our ore deposits, but little can be said with certainty. The oldest rocks of which we 
have any knowledge, the Laurentian, contain gold and copper, which are indig- 
en ous, hence as old as the rocks that contain them, and have been simply con- 
centrated and made conspicuous in the process of their metamorphism. These 
rocks are all sediments and the ruins of pre-existing continents. By their ero- 
sion, they have in turn furnished gold, copper, iron, etc., to later sediments by 
mechanical dispersion and chemical solution. We now find gold everywhere in 
the Drift from the Canadian Highlands, and we have every reason to believe that 
all the sedimentary strata more recent than the Laurentian have acquired a slight 
impregnation of several metals from them in addition to what they have obtained 
from other sources, and we may conclude that the distribution of many of the 
metals is almost universal. Sea-water has been proved to contain gold, silver, 
copper, lead, zinc, cobalt, nickel, iron, manganese and arsenic ; and there is lit- 
tle doubt that all the other metals would be found there if the search were suffi- 
ciently thorough. Hence, sedimentary rocks of every age must have received 
from the ocean in which they were deposited some portion of all the metals, and 
for the formation of metalliferous deposits some method of concentrating these 
would alone be required. A pretty theory to explain such concentration through 
the agency of marine plants and animals has been suggested by some German 
mineralogists and amplified by Professors Pumpelly andT. S. Hunt. Plants have 
been credited with the most active agency in this concentration ; but evidence is 
still wanting that either plants or animals have played any important part in the 
formation of our mineral deposits. The remains of sea-weeds are found in the 
greatest abundance in a number of our Palaeozoic rocks, and it is almost certain 
that the carbonaceous ingredient in our great beds of bituminous shale has been 
derived from this source; yet we find there no unusual concentration of metallic 
matter, and none of the precious metals has ever been detected in them. 

The metallic solutions which have formed our ore-deposits have been ascribed 
to two sources. One theory supposes that they have drained highly metalliferous 
zones deep in the interior of the earth; the other, that they have leached diffused 
metals from rocks of different kinds comparatively near the surface. The latter 
view is the one that commends itself to the judgment of the writer. However 



GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON THE REGION OF SILVER CLIFF, COL. 205- 

probable such a thing might seem, no evidence of the existence of distinct metal- 
lic or metalliferous zones in the interior of the earth has been gathered. On the 
contrary, volcanic emissions, which may be supposed to draw from a lower level 
than water could reach, are not specially rich in metallic matters, and the ther- 
mal waters which have by their deposit filled our mineral veins must have derived 
their metallic salts from a zone not many thousand feet from the surface. The 
mineral springs, which are now doing a similar work, are but part of a round of 
circulation of surface-water, which, falling from the clouds, penetrates the earth 
to a point where the temperature is such as to drive it back in steam. This, with 
fluid water under pressure and highly heated, possessing great solvent power,, 
may be forced through vast beds of rock, and these be effectually leached by the 
process. Should such rocks contain the minutest imaginary quantity of the met- 
als, these must inevitably be taken into solution, and thus flow toward or to the 
surface, to be deposited when, by diminished temperature and pressure, the sol- 
vent power of the menstruum is diminished. It is evident from these facts that we can 
not trace the history of the metals back beyond the Laurentian age. And since 
we find them diffused in greater or less quantity through the sedimentary rocks of 
all ages, and also find processes in action which are removing and re depositing 
them in the form of the ore deposits we mine, it is not necessary to look farther 
than this for a sufficient theory of their formation. 



GEOLOGICAL NOTES ON THE REGION OF SILVER CLIFF, COL. 

BY SAMUEL J. WALLACE. 

The rough country for twenty miles east of Silver Cliff has been dry land 
through nearly all the known geologic ages. It is the southern part of an old land 
which reaches north through the state, and against which the great ocean beat to 
east, west, and south. This may be termed the Madre land, from the Sierra Madre 
mountain system, along which it lies, and as being the mother-land of this region- 
It was a mountain region, of stratified metamorphic granites, or granitoid 
rocks. These are traversed by numerous barren leads, and some which bear val- 
uable minerals, iron, lead, gold and silver. 

The great Sangre de Cristo range, ten miles westward, is capped by a thou- 
sand feet of conglomerate of granitoid boulders, which were washed down from 
these older mountains, when that was the bed of the sea, since upheaved into the 
great range of the continent. The core and west side of that range, here, are 
eruptive granites, and also bear leads with gold, silver, copper and iron. The 
range bears other sedimentary strata, including limestones, on its flanks north 
and south, on each side, probably of the same age as those extending south far 
into New Mexico, and north beyond Leadville, and attributed variously to the Si- 
lurian, Devonian, or Subcarboniferous ages. These probably originally covered 
the whole range. Fossils have been brought from Hayden's Pass, north, but I 
do not know of what age they were. 



206 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

About Silver Cliff and Rosita are extensive Trachyte, or light colored lava 
rocks, bearing mineral. These extend for ten miles nearly east and west; and 
evidently consist of various outpours differing in their appearance and minerals. 
Their geology and relations are an interesting field of study. 

Perhaps the latest is that on which Silver CUff is built, which bears a pecul- 
iar manganese ore carrying free milling chloride of silver, of the Racine Boy type : 
this appears over an area of two miles east to west, and a mile and-a-half north to 
south. It has a black and glossy pitchstone core exposed at various places under it. 

North-west of this is another body, rather larger, and to the south-east about 
Rosita another still larger, which are probably older, different in appearance and 
with different minerals, iron, lead, zinc, copper, sulphurets, and manganese, with 
silver diffused through the rocks, and in more or less defined leads. All these 
carry silver in small quantities, making a wonderful field for future mining, from 
the immense quantity of the rock and its accessibility. After the melted trachyte 
was outpoured and by cooling left fissures and deep cavities, no doubt water 
penetrating the deep recesses of the earth was heated and caused to take up mine- 
rals in solution and bring them to the surface, where on cooling they were deposi- 
ted in various forms in the passages and through the broken and porous trachyte. 

The Bassick and Bull-Domingo mines are of this type distinctly, while no 
doubt lesser and more diffused outruns have produced the minerals throughout the 
trachyte beds. This trachyte is very old, as shown by hundreds of feet of denu- 
dation and ravines cut in it, especially toward Rosita. There is a sedimentary 
formation, which I have named the Eositon, five miles north-east of Silver Chff, 
formed from washings of these old trachyte beds and the granite east. This extends 
for- miles in a line from Dora to Bassick's, in the bed of an old stream, half mile 
wide. Modern streams have cut down showing nearly a hundred feet in thickness. 
The strata are mostly soft, some fine grained and some coarse with gravel ; often 
of soft talc-like nature. At one place, west of Canon road it is capped with a lo- 
cal deposit of limestone, containing granite boulders, valuable for lime. 

Half mile west of Apperson's mill the upper strata contain quantities of fos- 
sil wood, of many familiar kinds, apparently showing the grain finely. No ani- 
mal remains have yet been found in it, but it may contain wonders of the time 
when the monsters roamed this land, whose bones were found by Profs. Marsh, 
Cope and Mudge, twenty-five miles north, at Prospect Park. There is a stratified 
sand formation overlying the trachyte north and west, which shows the presence 
of a body of water at a late age nearly as high as the city, at least. Animal re- 
mains, with huge teeth, have been found in this, in the shaft of the St. John claim 
two-and-a-half miles north-west. There is a deposit of coarse and fine worn gra- 
vel for twenty-five miles south and ten miles wide sloping into Grape creek valley, 
which may be known as the Wet Mountain Gravels. 

There are indications of Glacial action extensively in this region, and no 
doubt these gravels owe much to it. Debris of the Racine Boy type of ores is 
scattered over the hills for miles north-east. 



FOSSIL REMAINS IN SOUTHWEST MISSOURI. 207 

FOSSIL REMAINS IN SOUTHWEST MISSOURI. 

J. L. LEWIS, BOLIVAR, MO. 

Southwest Missouri is rich in minerals, abounds in wonderful caves and 
springs, and her fossils are worthy of scientific notice. The Missouri School of 
Mines at RoUa is arousing a new interest in our scientific circles, and is doing 
much to develop our natural resources. 

A few years ago Mr. G. C. Broadhead read a paper before the St. Louis 
Academy of Science, in which he refers to the late discovery of the remains of a 
horse at Papinville, Bates county. Mo. Mr. O. P. Ohlinger, in digging a well, 
cut through a bed of thirty feet and ten inches of yellowish clay. Here he 
found a four-inch stratum of bluish clay and gravel, beneath which was a bed of 
sand in which the tooth was found. Under this sand bed was a gravel bed five 
feet deep filled with rounded pebbles, generally hornstone, many of which 
adhered firmly together. Some of the pebbles taken from this bed were of iron 
ore, coal and micaceous sandstone. Some remains of fluviatile shells were also 
found in this gravel bed nearly thirty-two feet below the surface. I have thus 
described this bed for the observation of others in this district. 

The tooth was sent to Prof Joseph Leidy, of Philadelphia, who, after a most 
critical examination pronounced it to be the last upper molar of a horse, and he 
thought of some extinct species. From a similar gravel bed on the bank of the 
river Marais des Cygnes the fragment of a tusk was found closely resembling that 
of a mammoth. The full length of this tusk was about seven feet and four 
inches. 

Ten miles from Papinville on the bank of the river Marais des Cygnes there 
appears to be the same formation as the one above described. Mr. Broadhead 
considers them to be altered drift, but older than the bluff or Loess. As these 
gravel beds are abundant on the Osage river and its tributaries, it would be well 
for those living in this vicinity to be on the lookout for fossil remains, and care- 
fully preserve all such for scientific investigation. 



A FOSSIL FOREST. 



An interesting discovery has been made at Edgelane Quarry, Oldham, Eng- 
land. The quarrymen, in the course of their excavations, have come upon what 
has been described as a fossil forest. The trees number about twelve, and some 
of them are two feet in diameter. They are in good preservation. The roots 
can be seen interlacing the rock, and the fronds of the ferns are to be found im- 
printed on every piece of stone. The trees belong to the middle coal measure 
period, although it has been regarded as somewhat remarkable that no coal has 
been discovered near them. The coal is found 250 yards beneath. 



:208 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



METEOROLOGY. 



TORNADOES. 

ISAAC P. NOYES, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

By the study of details we learn principles, and only by a proper study of 
details can we comprehend principles. Principles, however, once grasped and 
understood, minute details, though still of as much importance in themselves, 
become a secondary matter to him who has mastered the principles that form the 
sum total of those details. We have the alphabet, then words, clauses, senten- 
ces, etc. The child learns the alphabet, then to form words, and finally ad- 
vances to sentences and from sentences to composition in general. He who has 
made himself master of composition, although he heeds the correct juxtaposition 
of the minor details of letters and words, in one sense ignores them, or betterper- 
haps, let them take care of themselves. 

When we advance to science he who thoroughly understands the principles 
of his department can the better comprehend and explain all its little variations and 
is not all the while at a loss to explain trifling details or troubled with them as one 
who has not yet mastered these details. 

How difficult it is to understand the situation of objects when viewed from a 
wrong point, and how easy to comprehend them when the right point of view is 
obtained. How difficult to understand the interpretations of nature through some 
wrong theory or false hypothesis, but how plain they become when viewed with 
the full knowledge of the natural laws that govern them. As for example, how 
difficult centuries ago to understand and to be able satisfactorily to explain the 
physical condition of the planets of the universe before the Copernican theory 
became an established fact, or to explain the properties and full purpose of the 
blood before the circulation of the blood was established as a fact; surely it has al- 
ways been a fact, but like many other scientific facts it was for ages unknown to 
man. Only within the past few years, as has heretofore been stated, have we 
had sufficient data in the department of the weather whereby we may satisfacto- 
rily explain its ever varied changes. The daily weather map has become the in- 
strument whereby we may understand these changes and readily comprehend the 
principles that govern all our weather, from the warm, quiet, sunny days that 
predominate in mid-summer to the cold tempestuous weather of winter and spring. 
Before we had these data we were greatly in the dark on this subject as a 
whole. Certainly we understood certain minor details, but we were at the foot of 
the mountain. Through the weather map we ascend to the very highest peak and 
with a bird's eye view survey the whole broad landscape. We are lifted above 



TORNADOES. 209 

the earth and its commotions of whirlwind and storm, and quietly survey the scene 
and note its peculiarities with the combined indifference and intense interest of a 
•commanding general surveying a battle or a surgeon performing some difficult 
operation. Let the elements be ever so quiet or rave so terribly, the weather 
map lifts us above them and we quietly note the effect and trace up the cause. 
And the cause of the terrible commotions that so frequently visit us are as readi- 
ly traced and explained as the most balmy days of " Indian Summer." 

One cause produces all the effects and all the effects proceed from one and 
the same cause, notwithstanding their variety, and whether wet or dry, and the 
various names given to them. In the past, prior to 1870, it is not surprising that 
from the minor and disconnected details we should have had queer notions 
of the weather, and that such names as typhoon, tornado, cyclone, hurricane 
and simoon should have been coined to represent the wind commotions of the 
■elements in different parts of the earth, and that people should think that there 
must be as much difference in the things known by these various names as in the 
spelling and sound of the names themselves. 

According to Webster, and others will not essentially differ from this au- 
thority, a 

Typhoon is "a violent whirlwind that rushes upward from the earth, whirling 
clouds of dust ; probably so called because it was held to be the work of Typhon 
or Typhos, a giant struck with lightning by Jupiter and buried under Mt. ^tna." 

1. A violent tornado or hurricane occurring in the Chinese seas. 

2. Sometimes the simoon. 

Tornado — "A violent gust of wind, or a tempest distinguished by a whirling, 
progressive motion, usually accompanied with thunder, lightning and torrents of 
rain, and commonly of short duration and small breadth; a hurricane." 

Cyclone — " A rotatory storm or whirlwind of extended circuit." 

Hurricane — "A violent storm characterized by the extreme fury of the wind 
and its sudden changes; in the East and West Indies often accompanied by thun- 
der and lightning." 

Simoon — "A hot, dry wind, that blows occasionally in Arabia, Syria, and 
the neighboring countries, generated by the extreme heat of the parched deserts 
or sandy plains. Its approach is indicated by a redness in the air." 

Here we have the five principal varieties of storms. At the first glance at 
the definitions, together with the past ideas in regard to them, it may seem ab- 
surd to some to say that they are all one and the same thing, yet nevertheless on 
general principles one and the same thing they are — effects from one cause and 
only varying in minor details as affected by local surroundings. All are caused by 
the rush of air toward the center of low barometer, or by the ever contending 
forces, heat and cold. The sun shining on some certain spot and at that point 
creating an intense heat, and this spot or area of heat from the motion of the 
earth on its axis ever moving toward the east. The intense heat following the 
law of physics causes the heated and rarified air to ascend and the cooler air from 



210 KANSAS CITY REVIEW 0I< SCIENCE. 

around and about to rush in to fill the vacuum, or better, to prevent a vacuum, 
for we can never have a vacuum in open nature, as in order to secure that we 
must have some artificial barrier whereby the air may be prevented from entering 
the would-be vacuum. The vulgar phrase "just before she does she doesn't," 
well represents nature in her struggle to create a vacuum. With her, to attain 
the object that she is ever striving for is an impossibiUty, and through this impos- 
sibility she accomplishes other and greater physical phenomena that keep her ever 
fresh and impart renewed vigor to her numerous and varied subjects. 

The " Typhoon" is the center of the area of low-barometer, or the center of 
the storm, for it is only at this place that the direction of the wind may be upward 
from the earth, whirling clouds of dust, the center being the point where the 
"whirling," if any, takes place as well as the "upward-motion." For at the center 
is where the winds from all points of the compass on all sides of the storm must 
meet. I was once in the center of an area of low-barometer in the Gulf of Mex- 
ico. The wind was from every quarter and had this whirling motion here spoken 
of— the upper part of the main-mast of the ship was instantly, in the twinkling of 
an eye — twisted from its place, where it had been so firmly held by the strong 
shrouds. 

Could we have an ample number of stations in a country where these ' ' Ty- 
phoons " are said to occur, we would not only see this effect at its very center, but 
at a great distance, from all sides, see a rush of air toward the spot where this 
commotion takes place. The " Typhoon" is more apt to represent the peculiar 
and intense features of an area of low-barometer in hot or equatorial countries. 
Still the cause and principles that govern it are not different from the " Tornado" 
which is the name universally given to severe storms that are liable to occur every- 
where, and in the United States occur most frequently in our western territory, al- 
though not confined there, as such storms occasionally visit New York and New 
England. To fully understand the Tornado, one must bear in mind the fact that 
wind under the pressure of a hundred miles an hour or more, will become quite 
soUdified and will bear along with it objects of great specific gravity. In this re 
spect it much resembles water in great and forcible commotion, as in a storm or 
freshet. We well know that stone is not buoyant in water when the water is in its 
normal condition, yet when great storms occur along our Atlantic coasts large 
stones of three and four tons weight are borne from their places in sea-walls and 
transported quite a distance. When that dam gave away in Connecticut, some 
few years ago, stones of immense weight were transported upon the condensed 
floods for a number of miles. 

When a Tornado takes place, the air rushing along a narrow way and being 
condensed by its great speed becomes, as it were, a thing of life and may even, and 
does frequently represent an immense serpent going over the ground— dirt, stones 
and loose materials generally, that lie along its path being swept along with the 
mighty current. But we are told, that the Tornado has a whirhng processive and 
even bounding motion. This is not at all strange. Unimpeded air, or what may 



TORNADOES. 211 

be practically termed such for the time, becomes solidified in proportion to its 
speed — the greater the speed the more solidity. Then the greater the solidity the 
more it becomes a thing of life and acts like a living thing. If then in its course 
it meets with any stationary object it is more or less twisted and turned by that 
contact, which will readily account for those gyratory motions that belong to this 
degree of storm and are so often characteristic of it. 

How account for the water that so often forms a part of it ? may be asked 
by some. The response to this is, that being wet or dry is merely accidental. 
But I will pass on to the Cyclone, and take up this point again further on Avhen 
I come to speak of the late Tornado (of April i8th) iu Missouri. 

The Cyclone as defined by Webster as being "a rotatory storm or whirlwind 
of extended circuit" is nothing more nor less than the center of the area of low- 
barometer. The size of the circle makes no particular difference — the lower the 
barometric pressure the more severe the storm will be, and as the winds meet at 
a common and moving center, from equatorial and polar regions or directions, a 
rotary or circular motion will be imparted to the winds at this point, and their 
twirling or tvvistiug power will be in proportion to the power of low. 

The Hurricane seems to be recognized as something peculiar to hot countries. 
It occurs from the same cause — concentrated heat—and the greater ihe heat the 
more powerful the generated force. That it should be accompanied with thunder 
and lightning is not at all remarkable; indeed it would be more remarkable if it 
were not thus accompanied. 

Wherever there is heat and moisture there will be hghtning and thunder. I 
place lightning first for this is the order in which it should come, the reverse order 
is the universal practice in using these words simply for euphony, but if we speak 
of them in the order in which they take place, the lightning must take the prece- 
dence over the thunder. Wherever there is sufficient heat and moisture to form 
clouds, lightning will be sure to follow, for it is nothing more nor less than a sub- 
tile form of heat. This will readily account for the fact that lightning is more the 
product of warm countries than of temperate ones, and that we in temperate cli- 
mates have it, with some exceptions only in the warmer months of the year and 
when it occurs in the winter it is only when we have a remarkably warm spell of 
weather for the season. So it is not surprising that the Hurricanes of the East and 
West Indies should be accompanied with thunder and lightning, but rather it would 
be more surprising if such were not the case. 

The Simoon is sinnply what may be termed a dry-storm. It occurs in dry 
countries where there is little water to generate clouds, and by the way, rain is 
purely accidental. On all satellite bodies, such as our moon, all the storms that 
occur there must be after the order of Simoons. If large bodies of water, in the 
form of lakes and streams, together with extensive woods, could be interspersed 
throughout Arabia and Sahara there would be no more Simoons there, but they 
would have just such storms as occur in countries that are well watered. 

It is said that the approach of the Simoon is indicated by a redness in the air. 



212 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

It is very natural that such should be the fact, for in such countries there is al- 
ways an abundance of loose sand to be taken up by the wind. A friend tells me 
that he has seen these clouds of fine sand three hundred miles at sea, off the 
coast of Africa and that the steamer which he was in, was fully a day in passing 
through this immense mass of fine dust that had been forced by the winds out to 
sea. 

Always when such storms as the late one in Missouri occur, far more com- 
ment is made over the mere auxiliary and accidental things than over the ger- 
mane cause itself. "This storm took up trees by the roots — another demolished 
houses, fences, killed animals and people — another filled the air with debris — men 
and horses were taken up in the air — it rained frogs and toads, ashes, dirt, stones 
etc., etc. — The tornado moved like a huge serpent — a blackened mass — moved 
in a very narrow path, destroyed this house and just grazed or bounded over that 
one. The tornado of such a date moved along the earth, carrying everything with 
it. One of another date took things heavenward and terrible thunder and light 
ning followed in its, course. " 

We see the same diversity in storms at sea or in great freshets, and yet storms 
and freshets are not much unlike each other. The same cause that produced them 
five thousand years ago produces them now, and will continue to produce them so 
long as our physical condition shall be under the laws which governed the earth at 
creation and that govern it now. — Though the principles are the same and uni- 
versal, the details may and will vary with the localities and surroundings. And so 
with storms in general, whether on sea or land, and whatever lies in the path of 
the storm will be demolished, unless it be strong enough to resist it. 

' Wind moving at the rate of a hundred miles an hour will have an immense 
force and will not permit things, whether they be trees, toads or stones, to lie 
around loose. If in the way, they will be taken up on the wings of the wind and 
be borne along until the force of the wind so abates as to be unable longer to carry 
them, and if perchance it be near the center of the area of low-barometer, they 
may be carried upward with the ascending waves of the meeting of the currents. 

In this country hardly a summer passes, but that we have from one to 
three or four severe storms, here generally called " Tornadoes." The term or 
name matters little. 

The papers on the 19th of April, 1880, reported a severe storm of this kind 
the day previous centering mostly in the south-western part of Missouri, but quite 
extensive throughout the state of Missouri and parts of Kansas. One of the re- 
ports of the storm states, that everywhere along the track of the tornado was evi- 
dence of a wave of water flowing in the rear of the clouds, and that these waves 
or currents flowed in greatest volume up-hill, as though there was something very 
surprising in this fact. Water will naturally run down hill, but if there be suflfi- 
cient lorce behind it, it may be forced up to the top of the highest elevation that 
the earth can produce. When a hill lies in the path of a tremendous wind-storm, 
it is similar to a rock or fixed object in a stream where there is an immense and rapid 



TORNADOES. 213 

current. The water will play about the obstacle if it is unable to carry it along with 
its force. And so with a hill in a terrific storm of wind and rain. Clouds as well 
as other things will be swept along with the current and where there are clouds 
there will be moisture, and the more clouds the more moisture, for clouds are noth- 
ing more nor less than suspended moisture, and the denser they become by the 
powerful squeezing process of the winds, the more apt are they to deposit that 
moisture and that moisture itself to be carried along as a river in the air. 

Another party in discussing this tornado of the i8th of April, repeats the old 
idea about the cause being the meeting of two waves of air at different tempera- 
tures. Notwithstanding the firm belief in this idea, I pronounce it as ridiculous as 
the absurd notion that the moon affects and causes changes in the weather of our 
globe, and assert that a more false scientific idea never existed. — And more, I 
■challenge proof in support of either this idea or that the moon has the least pos- 
sible effect upon our weather system. What gave rise to this idea was evidently 
the condition of the air at the center of the area of low-barometer. Here such 
-currents must necessarily meet, as cold and warm water might meet in a valley 
where one stream came from some boiling spring and the other from the melting 
of ice and snow on the mountain top, but the meeting of these warm and cold cur- 
rents of air or water would not be the cause of any destruction that they might 
cause on their passage thither. The cause of the destruction would rather be 
owing to the rapidity with which they rushed to meet each other in this common 
center, on the steepness of the hill whereby the force of gravity is accelerated, 
or the rapid displacement of air by the power of heat at the center of the area of 
low-barometer. 

Then there are people who somehow or other believe that " electricity " is 
and must some way be the cause of these severe storms, and indeed they go so far 
as to hold that some are elechical and that others are not, but are due to some 
other cause — but tvhat, they do not know. Now the presence of electricity in 
these storms is purely accidental. The hotter it is the more heat will be taken up 
with the water that forms the clouds, so the more heat taken thus up into the air, 
the more electricity will there be in the air to generate the flash and light we call 
lightning and the noise we call thunder; which are, as I will repeat, merely auxil- 
iary to the storm and not even essential to it, much less being the cause of it. 

In all the comrnents in the papers thus far I have not seen the slightest allu- 
sion to the real and simple cause of this storm of the i8th of April, and the only 
cause of all storms of whatever nature and local pecuharities and wherever they 
may occur, whether at the equator or at the poles, or in Asia, Africa, Europe or 
America. 

According to the daily weather map, published by the U. S. Signal office at 
Washington, at half-past seven on the morning of the i8th of April, 1880, the 
area of low barometer centered at about Omaha, Nebraska, nearly due north of 
.the place where the storm of the afternoon of the i8th is noted as first starting. 



214 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

Twenty-four hours later the center of the storm was at Lake Michigan, near 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin. According to laws heretofore referred to in these arti- 
cles, the area of low barometer starts in the United States in the West, at least 
there is where we at present first get track of it in its passage across our continent, 
and as it travels east trends more or less to the north. This area of low barome- 
ter of 1 8th of April, 1880, traveled in a line very nearly east-north-east. The first 
starting of the storm on the afternoon of the i8th of April, is reported to have 
been near Fort Smith, on the Arkansas river, in the western part of Arkansas, 
and that it moved in a northeasterly direction. The next place of importance 
where it struck is reported to have been Marshfield, Missouri, while the storm, 
though with less force, also raged in and about Kansas City, Missouri. 

Now, if one will study the map, he or she will see that the course of the 
storm was from the places and localities injured by the storm toward the path of 
the area of low barometer. Here is the simple and universal cause of all storms of 
this nature — a cause and effect that any one of ordinary intelligence may readily 
understand if he will only heed the signs. If the intelligent will not heed the 
signs, why, then they will be as much in the dark as the ignorant, and if any- 
thing more so. And so it is not surprising that we see published in respectable 
papers such ideas as that there was a similarity between the storm in Kansas and 
one in the Island of Sicily, in the Mediterranean, two days afterward, and that 
therefore both were of meteoric origin. "The Kansas dust was composed of 
brown and black impalpable matter, and so abundant that on the next day traces 
of the deposits could be seen on the surface of the ground, and on a north porch 
sufficient to receive the imprints of a cat's feet " * * ^< The near coinci- 
dence of dates between the phenomenon in Sicily and here (Kansas), with an 
apparent similarity in the physical properties of the dust, might suggest a com- 
mon origin." 

In the first place, I would like for the author of the above to publish to the 
world what a "meteoric" storm is; how it is to be distinguished from other 
storms; what are its peculiarities; what its general nature, and whether it is de- 
pendent upon the influence of the properties of high or low barometer, or quite 
independent of them. In the next place, if he knew any thing about the rapid- 
ity of storm centres, or the speed at which the areas of low barometer, which 
causes the storm, travels, he would have seen that it could not possibly pass 
over such a distance in two days, as from Kansas to Sicily, and more than this, 
that it is very doubtful about an area of low barometer which passes over Kansas 
traveling in such a direction as to pass over Sicily, or take any such like of lati- 
tude as Sicily in its course. 

The area of low barometer travels with greater or less speed, probably any- 
where^from three hundred and fifty miles to even double this distance a day. The 
force or rapidity of the wind toward the center of the area of low barometer has 
nothing directly to do with the rapidity of the area of low barometer, but with 
its intensity. Relatively to the storm the area of low is stationary. Then as to 



TORNADOES. 216 

the direction of the winds in such storms this is purely accidental, though in 
America these winds are mostly toward the east. I say toward the east rather 
than from the tvest, for the reason that winds are pulled and not pushed — the 
force that creates them is always in advance and not behind. These storms, 
though generally toward the east are not always so ; it depends on the location 
of the area of low. When the area of low barometer is on the land, the storm 
almost always follows this course, for it is natural that the greater force of the 
wind must be in the track of low as it advances toward the east from the west. 
For in this case we have not only the force of the wind in proportion to the in- 
tensity of this area of low barometer, but we undoubtedly have added to this the 
progressive force of low as it advances toward the east. So our tornadoes are 
mosdy in the track of a storm toward the east — most, but not always, for some, 
times, more especially when the area of low barometer is on a high line of lati- 
tude, the storm takes place or begins with a southeast wind. This at first may 
seem contradictory to previous statements, and so also may the statement that, 
relatively to the storm the area of low is stationary, but with a little study of the 
weather maps in connection with storms it will be seen that the wind is ever 
changing as the area of low is passing over the country. In the east first the 
wind will be toward the west and to the south or north of due west as the area of 
the advancing low is on a low or high line of latitude — then, after the passing of 
low more or less reversed, or toward the east. 'I o understand this better, let 
any one take a sheet of paper and mark its four sides — North, East, South and 
West. Over the paper sprinkle some iron filings. Then, near enough to attract 
the iron, slowly draw a magnet from the west toward the east. It will be seen 
that the magnet will attract the particles of iron as it advances, and from all 
quarters, and that as it advances it will take up particles of iron with it, and that 
relatively to the iron the magnet is for the time being stationary, though the par- 
ticles of iron will follow the movements of the magnet. This, so far as iron will 
permit, is a fair illustration of the attraction or pulling power of low over air, 
though iron being a far more inert substance than air, is not so readily or ex- 
tensively affected by the magnet as the air is by the attractive force of low. 

Then, as to the direction of the wind in a tornado, instead of being toward 
the northeast, or toward the northwest, it may in some localities be from the 
northwest, as in Washington, July 4, 1874, and yet in the track of low. A south 
west wind had been blowing all day — or in other words toward the northeast. 
Suddenly the wind changed to the northwest and blew a terrific storm that up- 
rooted trees and unroofed houses in this locality. 

In the early part of November, 1877, we had a similar storm on Long 
Island Sound, when the steamer Massachusetts, being caught by it on a lee 
shore, came near being a total wreck. In these instances the cause was the same 
as created the late tornado in Kansas and Missouri, only the area of low barom- 
eter was in another locality, and, therefore, the wind that caused it must be from a 
different quarter. It was in the track of the area of low barometer. 



216 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

After all this comment on what a tornado is, the question arises, is there nO' 
preventive? There would seem not^ at least at this present state and power of 
understanding. We may, however, ameliorate the force and concentration of 
the storm by the abundant planting of trees, which will have a tendency to break 
the force of the storm. 

In conclusion, I would remark, or perhaps better, repeat, that the area of 
low barometer is the center and generating influence of the storm — the center 
toward which the winds from all quarters will blow, and the force of these winds 
will be in proportion to the intensity or lowness of pressure at this center of low. 
This area of low barometer is ever on the move toward the east or toward the 
advancing sun, and its motion, at least so far as we know on land, is never re- 
versed, although there is some probability of its changing its course on the ocean 
after passing off the land, as discussed in former papers. But its course on the 
sea, at least after passing off our coasts, is at present unknown to us. We only 
know that the wind is always toward low, and that in passing off the coast, more 
frequently than otherwise, the wind after just having been from the south west, 
comes out from the northwest. 

In order to fully explain this, we must have some stations out on the ocean;; 
either stationary, as a light-ship, or movable, as a steam vessel might be. When 
this can be accomplished, we can study the direction of low after passing off the- 
coast; until then we can not be certain as to its location beyond what inference 
we may draw as to the direction of the wind. We do know that the wind is al- 
ways toward low, and furthermore, that tornadoes, hurricanes, or by whatever 
name we may call a storm, it always will be in the wake or track toward this cen- 
ter or area of low barometer, wherever it may be, and that a tornado is always in 
order after the passing of loiv. Fortunately for us, the conditions of nature are 
not always favorable to it; if they were, we should have them at least once a week,, 
and sometimes oftener. 

What becomes us now is to carefully study out the course of low every time 
it passes over the country, note the conditions when a tornado occurs and when 
not. By careful noting of data, by and by we may be able at least to say when 
one will occur and when not, and as we advance in knowledge, we may, by the 
judicious planting of trees, or by other means not now plain to us, in a measure 
prevent their occurrence, or at least diminish their severity or intensity. 



AURORA BOREALIS. 



PROF. E. R. PAIGE. 



The cause of this singular phenomena has been a prolific subject of both sci- 
entific and unscientific discussion for many years. 

To the mind educated in cause and effect the canopy of night, lighted up by 
the dancing specter, presents a most alluring sight : while the unenlightened are 



AURORA BOREALIS. 217 

filled with dark forebodings of a visitation of God's wrath, the scientist sees only 
the grand workings of the immediate laws of nature. 

The heavens illuminated with red light is to the superstitious a sure harbinger 
of impending wars : while the careful observer looks with delight upon the scene, 
and is impressed only with the sublimity of nature, poor unreasoning man is tor- 
tured with fears of coming evil. 

In the slow development of scientific knowledge, many and varied have 
been the theories put forth as to the origin of the Northern Lights, as we in this 
hemisphere call them. It is the reflection of sunlight by the ice at the pole, says 
one, while another contends that it is produced by great and internal fires whose 
chimney occupies the space devoted by Dr. Kane to an open polar sea ; but the 
more patient observers have pronounced it electric light. It is my present pur- 
pose to look out through the light of a few known facts in search of the origin of 
this great wonder. Not that any direct good will follow a successful inquiry in 
the matter of utilizing the light for street purposes or for private illumination, 
but if we can find the cause to be natural, and not supernatural, then one more 
old superstition that has haunted the memory and made life unhappy is gone — one 
more bugbear of tormenting fear is consigned to the shades of past ignorance. 
Newton discovered the law that controls the universe, and every child should be 
taught this law, for without it we can comprehend nothing in nature. How life 
is produced, how worlds, how suns, and planets formed and held in their orbits, 
is known only through this law. 

" Each atom has an attraction for each other atom in the universe, and the 
attraction is proportionate to their size, and is lessened as the square of the dis- 
tance which separates them increases." Late developments in scientific research 
lead to the conclusion that all the varied original elements in nature, so-called, are 
resolvable back to one, and that one to energy. Also that light, heat, electricity 
and sound are only different phases of motion. 

Heat is the arrest of motion, and all the warmth we get from the sun is pro- 
duced by the stoppage of the heat waves sent out by its throbbing power. Chem- 
ical heat is created by the clash of little worlds of gas beating together, and no 
exception is known to the rule, that heat is the arrest of motion. 

All the heat and all the energy we get on the earth come from the sun. The 
rainclouds are lifted from the ocean ; the winds sweep over the mountains and 
across the moors, the blood of life, the sap of vegetation, all propelled by the pow- 
er of the sun. The visible power expended on our little globe passes all efforts of 
comprehension, but it is naught compared with the latent hidden energy. The 
decomposition of one drop of water produces a power equal to the most terrific 
thunder storm ever witnessed, while the decomposition of one grain of water 
produces a force equal to the discharge of 800,000 Leyden jars. All this but 
shadows the vast amount of energy that comes to us from the sun. Our earth is 
but a speck in space, and not a two thousand-millionth part of the energy thrown 
off by the sun strikes us, but is expended out in dark, empty space. This in- 



218 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

volves a vast waste by the sun, and experiment shows that the sun would be ex- 
hausted and cooled down in 5,000 years if not replenished from some source. 
The earth is passing around the sun once a year over a path 555,000,000 miles 
long, travehng at the rate of 68,000 miles an hour. The speed of our flight is 
eighty times more rapid than the swiftest flying cannon ball. If the globe should 
strike a dead wall passing at this great speed, the concussion, we are told, would 
burn it instantly, creating a heat of which we have no comprehension ; and yet 
the heat produced by such a catastrophe would not be sufficient to last the sun's 
waste for a period of thirty days. 

We are taught, however, that if the earth should let go its place in space 
and be attracted into the sun, that body, being 325,000 times more than the 
earth, and, therefore, possessing 325,000 times more power of attraction, its 
immense pull would draw us in with such a velocity that the kinetic force gath- 
ered m the passage would produce an imp.>ct in striking that would give off" heat 
sufficient to last the sun's waste for a period of ninety-one years. 

In any hour of a clear night that we watch we shall see at least six or eight 
stars fall. These stars are simply small pieces of iron gathered and formed in 
space that have fallen into our atmosphere in our flight around the sun ; that is, 
have been attracted into the orbit of the world and picked up. Coming into our at- 
mosphere when it is passing with such velocity creates a friction — a concussion — 
an arrest of motion, that immediately burns the iron. We see the explosion and 
call it a falling star. If an unaided eye can see six fall in one hour of the night, 
then what a vast shower must be constantly' attracted by the whole earth. If the 
little earth with its slight power of attraction brings in sach a constant shower of 
cosmic matter, how much more would be attracted by the sun, possessing 325,- 
000 times more power of attraction than the earth. Such is the case, we are 
told, and our grand constant shower of cosmic matter is constandy falling into 
that body, forming a vast corona extending out from the sun 800,000 miles, by 
the clashing and impinging of particles aad resultant burning. Thus, by virtue 
of the law of attraction, one constant stream of matter, which is energy, is 
pouring into the sun to replenish its waste. This matter must be formed in space, 
and is simply an aggregation of energy, or fire-mist, that pervades the atmos- 
phere. 

The cosmic matter that falls on the earth, that is meteoric matter, is about 
85 per cent, iron, and is merely an aggregation of iron-dust, which is itself an 
aggregation of invisible fire-mist. Great clouds of this fine iron-dust gather in the 
heavens, and are occasionally attracted into our orbit. On striking our atmos- 
phere, flying with such great speed, the concussion, the arrest of motion, in- 
stantly burns the iron-dust and produces light colored according to the surround- 
ing conditions that produce the refraction. This theory is not without its objec- 
tions, and the chief one is perhaps the fact of these lights occurring toward the 
poles. This objection, I think, can be met, however, in the conditions that produce 
refractions of light, but our article affords no space to enter upon that field. 



THE MANNER OF WORKING THE ELECRTIC TIME BALL. 219 

The facts I have alluded to as a basis for reasoning are, of course, not my 
own, and I shall not be deemed immodest, I hope, in saying that they are all 
well established and may be accepted as true grounds of reasoning. 

This being so, it does seem that the wonderful aurora borealis may be fully ac- 
counted for in the burning of iron-dust that gathers into great clouds, and floats 
into our flying atmosphere to be burned by the concussion. — Inter-Ocean. 



PHYSICS. 



THE MANNER OF WORKING THE ELECTRIC TIME BALL. 

PROF. C. W. PRITCHETT. 

Dr. Case : — In an editorial note in the last number of the Kansas City 
Review, attention is again called to an electric time ball for the Union Depot, 
Kansas City. 

Since June 3, we have transmitted to the Union Depot, by the Western 
Union telegraph, a daily time signal, at 4 P. M. The manner of sending it is as 
follows : At about five minutes before four o'clock we call Union Depot and 
advise the operator of the nearness of the signal. This is also a monition to all 
other operators to keep off till the signals are sent and acknowledged ; and by 
special instructions from the Superintendent, they are under obligation to heed 
this monition. At the proper moment, one of the brake-circuit clocks of the 
Observatory is instantaneously switched into the line through a relay, and begins 
to record each of its seconds, on every sounder between Mexico and Kansas 
City. 

The first second marks 3 h., 59 m., Kansas City mean time. 

The sixtieth second marks 4 h., Kansas City mean time. 

The 1 20th second marks 4 h., i m. , Kansas City mean time. 

The sixtieth second is specially distinguished from all others by an extra 
break, interpolated by hand before it and also by a like extra break immediately 
after it. There are thus three chances for the operator to get the exact sec- 
ond, if any interruption occurs. I am glad to say that, generally, the signals 
are allowed to pass uninterrupted. Sometimes, however, they are marred by 
operators either through forgetfulness of instructions, or through ignorance 
of them. I am reluctant to believe that they are sometimes interrupted through 
mischief. On several occasions keys have been left open, or the line has been 
down or grounded, and hence the signals have failed. 

A word as to the accuracy of these signals. In sending them the difference 
of time between the Meridian Pier, of Morrison Observatory, and the Union 



220 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

Depot, has been assumed to be 7 m. 5s. This difference is probably correct to 
within one or two seconds. It has been deduced from actual measures, in which 
the effect of convergency of meridians, and the spheroidal figure of the earth has 
been duly computed. It is desirable, as early as possible, to determine the exact 
difference of time, to within a small fraction of a second, by time determina- 
tions made on the ground and by exchange of clock signals by telegraph. 

The signals themselves are always correct to the nearest half-second of the 
clock. The error of the standard clock is daily ascertained by standard stars. 
Fractions of a second cannot be sent out by the clock itself, unless a Hack-clock 
be used, and set to the fraction of each transmission. 

Now, a word as to the proposed time-ball. It might be a public convenience^ 
and at little expense; and by a little adjustment and punctuality it could be made 
a visible indicator of correct time for thousands. It is entirely practicable ta 
drop it from the Observatory; but in view of liability to interruption it would be 
safer for the operator at the Union Depot to do so by touching a spring at the 
first extra-break of the four o'clock signal. A light elastic hollow ball, several 
feet in diameter, and having the figure 4 conspicuously painted round the 
the margin of a great circle, could be easily run up a staff by a cord a few minutes 
before the time, and could be made to descend instantaneously at four o'clock, by 
the simple touch of a spring. I simply suggest this. We send the signals and 
leave it to others to make them as useful as possible. 

Very truly yours, 

C. W. Pi<ITCHETT, 

Morrison Observatory, July 15, 1880. 

Note. — The time-ball at New York is dropped by the first break of the Washington clock. To prevent 
interruption from operators, the operator at New York presses against the armature of his relay, until a fevr 
seconds before the signal. 



THE ELECTRIC RAILWAY. 

Now that the possibiHty of an electric railway has been fairly put before the 
public by Dr. Siemens, we may expect to hear more about it before many years. 

The commercial advantages of the system must, of course, determine whether 
the Electric Railway will be extensively used or not. The question is not entirely 
one of economy of fuel; safety and convenience are elements which greatly affect 
the commercial profitableness of any undertaking, and these must be taken into 
consideration in making an estimate. 

As yet, the new means of locomotion has only been experimented upon on a 
comparatively small scale, but the results have been quite sufficient to justify a 
favorable conclusion being drawn. 

The idea of an electric railway is by no means new ; little model engines, 
which ran backward and forward on a pair of rails, or round and round in a 
circle, were often to be seen in the windows of the shops of scientific instrument 
makers in the early days of electrical science, and the suggestion to apply the 



PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS OF OR TON AND PERU. 221 

principle on a large scale was such a natural one that it is necessary to go back to 
a somewhat early date in the records of the Patent Ofifice to find the first patent 
for an electrical railway. So long as the motive power was dependent upon gal- 
vanic batteries but little success could be obtained, but the introduction of dynamO' 
machines altered the question entirely and brought the idea within the range of 
economical possibility. 

For underground railways the system is specially suitable, nnd those who 
travel on the Metropolitan railway during the dog days must often devoutly hope 
that some change in this direction will be made at no distant date. Already it is 
contemplated to work the traffic through the new St. Gothard tunnel by electric- 
ity, and plans and designs for the purpose have been in hand. 

Railways worked by electricity will, however, have to compete with a for- 
midable rival in the shape of railways worked by compressed air locomotives.. 
This latter means of producing locomotion appears to have waked up again and 
is likely to nave considerable employment. 

For very short distances, where the traffic is heavy and irregular, as for in- 
stance, on the small branch lines used so frequently in mining districts, the elec- 
trical railway could be used with great advantage, especially if natural sources of 
power were available. — Telegraphic Journal. 



GEOGRAPHY. 



PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS OF ORTON AND PERU. 

BY DR. I. D. HEATH, WYANDOTT, KANSAS. 

{Concluded.) 

The mosquitoes are excessively numerous and annoying. Sleep is absolutely 
impossible without netting. Each Indian and traveler carries with him a toldeta 
or small cotton tent, three feet high, three feet wide and seven feet long which 
he sets up by means of small sticks. The Indians brought to us gums, resins, 
dye woods, medicines, barks and herbs and textile plants. 

Trinidad, a place of 5,000 in a beautiful grove of tamarind trees, is the cap- 
ital of the Department of the Beni, and a place of considerable trade and busi- 
ness. It is on the margin of the immense grassy pampas of South America 
where graze countless herds of fat cattle. Imports consist of every class of man- 
ufactured American and English goods. All goods into Peru and Bolivia by way 
of the Amazon enter duty free. Exports are hides, coffee, chocolate, beans, 
tobacco and, from down the Yacuma river,rubber and Peruvian bark. Rice, corn,. 



222 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

sweet potatoes, sugar, rum and all tropical fruits are produced in abundance. 
Fresh beef retailed in the market at 2^ cents per pound. During the month of 
May, we found the temperature to range from 61 to 86°. The cathedral here is said 
to be 180 years old. One of the bells had cast in it the date 1729. During our stay 
in Trinidad the feast of the Holy Trinity was celebrated — the patron saint of the 
■city. Three days and three nights Indians, dressed in magnificent feather robes 
of brilliant colors, danced in front of the cathedral. Their heads were covered 
with a cap supporting long feathers of the macaw, feathers three feet long which 
were arranged to represent the rays of the sun, the object of their former wor- 
ship. A few made music from drums and from thigh bones of large birds pierced 
with holes for flutes. Other Indians were armed with knives, tomahawks and 
war clubs. The Indians kept step to the music, brandishing their weapons and 
slowly advancing to the open door of the sacred building from whence they would 
suddenly and quickly retreat to the plaza and then again slowly advance. On the 
third day hundreds of men and women dressed in long white robes marched in 
procession from the church bearing the life-size images of the virgin and saints. 
As soon as the image of the virgin appeared outside, those representing the an- 
cient religious rites fled in fear and dismay. 

The birds here are very plenty and extremely beautiful. Fifty were shot and 
their skins preserved. Little groves of the fan palm are a pretty feature of the 
pampas. In places are numerous ant-hills four to six feet high. There is little 
industry ; the ruling classes are Spaniards, gentlemen, and must not work. The 
Indians perform the labor and receive $3 to $4 per month. 

Here the Professor bought and paid for two barges of three and four tons 
each, equipped and provisioned them for three months. The provisions were 
charque, a kind of dried beef, farina de yuca (our tapioca), rice, sugar, coffee, 
chocolate, sugar, molasses, yuca and plantains. He hired a crew of eleven 
Canichana Indians and another crew of nine Machupos. For the protection of 
all he engaged ten Bolivian soldiers, paying their salaries. He disbursed $1,200. 

On the I St of June we set out and once more voyaged down the Mamore 
river — our general course due north. We passed by pampa and forest, by cattle 
and sugar estates, by plantain, orange and chocolate orchards and groves of 
tamarind trees. 

We stopped a day each at San Pedro, Santa Ana and Exaltacion, where the 
Professor made observations for the determination of altitude, latitude and longi- 
tude, as was also his practice at every important point. We hunted the ostrich 
and tiger, wild turkeys and water birds and made collections of everything inter- 
esting to science. Wild turkeys and fish are in great abundance. We were en- 
joying a delightful climate, floating or paddling down this great river, one and 
two miles wide and at this season of the year of unknown depth. Everything 
was new, strange and interesting. There were more than fifty varieties of palms, 
more than fifty of beautiful cabinet woods. What destiny would steam and mod- 
ern civilization work out for this country ? What new resources might not science 
-discover ? 



PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS OF OR TON AND PERU. 22S 

Why may not benevolent societies be organized in every Christian nation of 
the world for the purpose of transporting the starving millions of Persia, India 
and China to the fertile plains and Italian skies of the great Madiera plateau of 
South America ? a country that could never be wanting in beef, rice, plantains, 
corn and fish. 

After fourteen days of paddling we reached the rapids of Guajaramerim in 
Brazil, only eight leagues distant from those unexplored lands, the object of our 
long and expensive journey. Here the soldiers mutinied, and, with charged mus- 
kets leveled at the Professor's breast, deserted us, taking away with them one-half 
our outfit. Slowly we made our way back up stream to Santa Ana and there 
changed to ox carts and saddle horses for a journey of 200 miles west through the 
cattle estates of the pampas. The country is nearly level and its general appear- 
ance much like of the prairies of Illinois previous to their settlement. Our route 
was not distant from the timbered line of the river Yacuma. Other pieces of tim- 
ber were seen and clusters of the graceful fan palm. It is a beautiful, quiet, pas- 
toral country. Each of the carts were drawn by two pairs of oxen yoked to- 
gether after the Spanish method by straight sticks fastened with thongs back of 
the horns. The carts were entirely of wood, well made, without one particle of 
iron in their construction. Upon the carts were placed boxes of rawhide for the 
reception of the baggage so that while crossing the many streams that drain the 
pampas, the Indians, oxen and carts were all swimming at the same time. 

At the time of our visit cattle were reckoned scarce and high-priced. A few 
years previous they existed in such vast numbers that the government at La Paz 
sold permits for their slaughter at $1 per head of those not branded. Millions of 
cattle were killed for their hides and tallow. In 1877 ^ cattle estate, land and all, 
was valued at eight pesos ($6.40) per head for all those over one year of age. 
Tigers are gready feared and are destructive to young stock. Each estate keeps 
twelve to fifteen powerful dogs to watch and fight the tiger whose skin will cover 
as much ground as that of a cow. 

In the latter part of July we arrived once more in sight of the mountains at 
Los Reyes. At this point is he who addressed you two years ago on " Peruvian 
Antiquities" — Dr. Edwin R. Heath. He arrived in Los Reyes last September 
by way of the rivers Amazon, Madeira and Mamore. He is engaged in studies 
and making collections in the interests of science and getting ready an expedi- 
tion to work out the unfinished task of Prof. Orton — an undertaking full of diffi- 
culty and danger — but for the accomplishment of which he possesses the experi- 
ence of those who have gone before him, a long and intimate acquaintance with 
the Spanish character, language and of their country, and an indomitable ener- 
gy ; and if he fails in the task before him it will only be from want of sufficient 
funds. 

But to return to the expedition of 1877. Arrived at the foot of the moun- 
tains the next two stages must be made on foot — 180 miles. Engaged sixteen In- 
dians for the baggage, each one carrying sixty pounds besides his own food and 



224 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

tlankets, and traveling six to eight leagues per day. The Professor bought a sad- 
dle mule which on the third day, while being led around a dangerous place, 
slipped and rolled down out of sight, dead. Out of 170 head of fat cattle that 
started for Apolobamba over the same road at the same time with ourselves 130 
were lost by accidents on the way. 

Both ascending and descending this eastern cordillera we saw the Cascarilla 
and Peruvian bark tree newly stripped. One species with leaf as broad as the hand 
is found up to 5,000 and 6,000 feet, and another having leaf the size of an apple 
leaf grows only at greater elevations. The gathering of the bark is a destructive 
one, and the tree has almost entirely disappeared from lines of travel. We met 
many Indians loaded with bark. The Indians constantly use coca leaves with 
which in the act of chewing they mix ashes of a palm nut. They claim that it al- 
lays hunger and fatigue. Professor Orton, sick and almost utterly exhausted, 
drank hot infusions of coca two or three times daily and declared for it marvel- 
ous power to restore his strength. The mountain scenery over this route is mag. 
nificent, and is called the Switzerland of America. Mountains 6,000, 8,000 and 
10,000 feet in height with intervening valleys all densely wooded, and rich with 
the deep green of the tropical forest. Of one view the following was written on 
the spot : Not far from Mamacuna we have our first clear unobstructed view 
in the west of the central cordillera stretching away from north to south as far as 
the eye can reach. In the foreground and all about are mountains 7,000 to 10,- 
000 feet in height, but high up above for a magnificent background stands this 
dark barrier with its white crest of snow and ice reaching 18,000 to 20,000 feet 
up in the sky. No mortal ever saw a grander sight. Professor Orton declared 
k the most splendid view he had ever seen. We could stand here all day, but 
the silent Indians were moving on. 

Apolobamba, 2500 inhabitants, in valley of same name. Coffee, corn, 
yuca, potato, plantain, oranges, pineapple and sugar cane. Sixteen days in 
Apolo. Last of August and first of September. This valley is noted for its coffee. 
The bushes stand six feet in the row and rows eight feet apart. We saw them 
in full bloom. There is nothing of the kind prettier — long, slender stems, leaves 
opposite and drooping, and at the axiles of the leaves long rows of erect clusters 
of pearly white flowers. Near Pachimoco there were three coffee trees as large 
as apple trees, said to produce annual crops of seventy-five pounds to each tree. 

Throughout Peru and Bolivia there are many commercially educated Ger- 
mans, who almost invariably speak four languages. At Apolo, we dined with 
Don Carlos Frank, a German dealer in Peruvian bark, who spoke correct English, 
Spanish, French and German, to his guests at the table, and Quichua to his ser- 
vants. He was paying $32 per 100 pounds for poorer qualities, and $80 for best 
qualities of bark. 

Mules again to Pelechuco, 41 leagues. Pelechuco, 10,500 feet elevation, 
in the Quichua, signifies "Corner of the mist," because from its pecuhar posi- 
ition at the head of the valley and just under the snow peaks, the town is much 



PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS OF OR TON AND PERU. 225 

of the time enveloped in cloud and mist. Temperature at mid-day 48° Fahrenheit. 
Mules and llamas do the freighting. Llamas are driven very slowly, sometimes 
in great herds. They carry seventy-five to one hundred pounds, and are valued 
at $4 to $5 each. September i8th, we crossed the summit in the midst of moun- 
tains of snow — temperature 24° — and thence by easy roads descended the valley 
of the Escoma to Lake Titicaca. Along this valley at an elevation of 13,000 to 
15,000 feet, saw, millions it might be, of alpacas grazing — prevailing color black. 
At last, after six months of out-door life, we embarked in the schooner Aurora 
for the city of Puno. The Professor dropped down on a heap of sail cloth, ex- 
claiming, " I am so glad ! so glad! We'll have no more mules, muleteers nor In- 
dians, no more annoyance, trouble or disappointment. I am so tired! so tired!" 
and quickly fell asleep. Just before daylight of September 25, after a night of 
unusual storm, he became conscious that he was dying, and there, among stran- 
gers, whom, twenty-four hours before, we had never seen, on the highest navi- 
gated lake in the world, 13,000 feet above the ocean, far away from wife, chil- 
dren and friends, calmly, quietly, without a struggle or a word of complaint, he 
died. 

But his final resting place is a glorious one, eminently befitting his life 
and career. It is upon the summit of a rocky island in Lake Titicaca, many 
thousands of feet nearer the sky than are most sepulchers. There he lies in sight 
of the scenes of his last explorations; upon one side is discerned the last mile of 
iron rail and telegraph, and on the other, that mysterious lake and island from 
whence issued the great Inca monarchy. 

As he himself wrote in memoriam of Col. Stanton, a companion in a for- 
mer expedition, who was buried in Quito : " He was buried without parade, and 
in solemn silence — just as we believe his unobtrusive spirit would have desired. 
No splendid hearse nor nodding plumes ; no long procession save the unheard 
tread of angels; no requiem save the unheard harps of seraphs. Snow-white 
pinnacles standing around him on every side, we left him in this corner of na- 
ture's vast cathedral; secluded shrine of grandeur and beauty, not found in 
Westminster Abbey." 

At this time, with Professor Orton, died Mr. Henry Meiggs. Every station, 
engine and car, was draped in the deepest mourning — engine drivers vying with 
each other in decorations of respect. 

They relate many anecdotes of Don Enrique Meiggs, as railroad men call 
him. Many years ago a civil engineer of rare ability and training, was at work 
on railroad surveys in Georgia at a salary of $80 per month, when an agent of 
Mr. Meiggs offered him $125 per month, gold, and free ticket down and back, 
to go to Chili and make surveys on the railroad to Santiago. He went. Month 
after month he received his $125, while the other civil engineers received $333 
per month. He was advised to break his contract and demand higher salary, 
but his high sense of honor would not submit to a violation of his pledged word, 
and so he toiled on month after month and year after year, to the end of his 



226 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

term — one of the best engineers in Don Enrique's employ. Just before sailing 
for home he was among invited guests to Mr. Meiggs' residence, and, seated at 
the table he found under his plate a check for $40,000. Subsequently Mr. May- 
nadier was chief engineer and superintendent of the Pacasmayo railroad at a sal- 
ary of $10,000 per year. 

Immediately after having taken the contract at $28,000,000, to build the 
Oroya railroad from Lima over the mountain to the Jauca valley, Mr. Meiggs 
sought to obtain special freight rates from an Enghsh company operating a hne 
from Callao to Lima ; this company having obtained the concession from the Pe- 
ruvian government of exclusive rights for the term of twenty-five years, the new 
road must, necessarily, commence at Lima, and every pound of the immense 
material must come over the English road from the sea port. Mr. Meiggs was 
referred to the printed schedule figures. On no account would reduced rates be 
granted. They rather enjoyed their advantage over the successful American 
contractor. Soon the railroad material began to arrive ; it went over the Eng- 
lish road and freights were promptly paid. The new road had many miles 
graded up the valley of the Rimac — several miles of track laid and supply trains 
running, when suddenly, to the astonishment of all, 1,500 men began to throw 
up road bed and lay track down the Rimac toward the ocean. Of course the 
English company notified Mr. Meiggs that this enterprise must cease, that it was 
a direct infringement of their exclusive rghts. Mr. Meiggs said nothing, but his 
men worked right on, laying a mile of track per day. The Englishmen were 
amazed and appealed to the government, which formally warned Mr. Meiggs to 
desist ; but still the work went on. Troops were ordered out to suppress this 
mob of Yankee enterprise, till the matter could receive a judicial investigation, 
when, at the last moment, Mr. Meiggs quietly informed them that he was build- 
ing a private road on private land, and that there was no law in Peru that could 
stop him. Mr. Meiggs had quietly, unknown to the pubHc, bought three haci- 
endas, extending from the Monserrate station, in Lima, to the Guadalupe station 
in Callao, and in the center of this princely estate, at Villegas station, the tomb 
of the dead contractor is in plain sight from the passing trains of the Oroya 
railway. 

The mountains are peopled by the Quichua and Aimara Indians, relics of 
the once powerful monarchy of the Incas. They were skilled in the art of spin- 
ning, weaving and dyeing, both woolen and cotten, centuries before the coming 
of the Spaniards. Even to-day, as they tend their flocks of sheep and alpaca, 
their hands are busy twirling the distaff and forming balls of yarn, while hum- 
ming some gentle melody in the ancient Quichua tongue. They wrought in gold, 
silver and copper. They retain the Quichua language in the faiaiily circle — 
many of them never speaking the Spanish. They publicly profess the Catholic 
religion, but still have not forgotten their ancient religious rites. They cultivate 
potatoes, barley, wheat, rear cattle, horses and flocks, and toil in the mines. 

In every city there are Italians, Germans, and of course, on the railroads, 



PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS OF OR TON AND PERU. 227 

Americans and English. One hundred thousand Chinese have been introduced 
into Peru under a contract for eight and six years of labor. There are now 
nearly 80,000 free Chinamen who speak the Spanish language, have adopted the 
western dress and, marrying native women, have settled down as permanent citi- 
zens of Peru. As slaves, they are worked in sugar cane and rice fields — and free 
they are keepers of shops and eating houses, and toil upon railroads and in mines. 
Outside the large cities, the only public eating houses are the Chinese fondas 
and these are patronized by all classes. * 

The material resources of Peru and BoHvia, are enormous. The fertilizer 
guano, is found on the rocky promontories and islands along the entire Peruvian 
coast. The government receives $36 per ton. It is the revenue from guano, 
without one cent of tax from the people, that has enabled Peru, under the 
direction of Henry Meiggs, to perform those gigantic feats of railway construc- 
tion. Millions of tons have been exported, and many millions of tons remain. 

From the earliest date, Peru and Bolivia have been famed for their mineral 
wealth. Gold has been found in many provinces. In the districts of Carabaya 
and Tipuhuani, mines have been worked ever since the Conquest. Silver is most 
abundant — probably not wanting in any one of 1,500 miles of mountain range. 
The silver mines of Hualguayoc, Chilete, Cerro de Pasco, of Puno and others 
were worked before the Conquest, are still worked, but in the most primitive 
manner, without machinery — the metal bearing rock being carried to the surface 
in rawhides on the backs of Indians; each vein being abandoned when covered 
with water. Quicksilver, copper, lead, zinc, are also mined. 

Sugar cane comes to maturity in sixteen months, producing eight to ten an- 
nual crops without replanting. For the production of sugar on the coast of 
Peru, there are no seasons — the sugar mill never stops. During 365 days of the 
year the cane is cut, when the field first harvested, is again ready for the knife. 
The mille produce many tons of sugar each day — there are two of the capacity 
of sixty tons each twenty-four hours. The profits on sugar production are no- 
where so large as in Peru. 

It is claimed that Peruvian cotton commands a higher price in the London 
markets than the American, and that the climate, soil and system of irrigation 
produce fine crops of Sea Island cotton. 

Near Pacasmayo, in northern Peru, grows a variety of coffee of such de- 
licious aroma that the entire yield was sold at $1 per pound from the haciendas. 

If there is any specific for pulmonary consumption, it is the climate of Peru. 
A carefully kept record of the temperature four times each day for four years at 
our hospital in Pacasmayo, gave us 86° for the hottest, and 58^° Fahrenheit for 
the coldest day — a variation of only 28° in four years. In many confined val- 
leys from middle of December till middle of March — the three months of their 
summer — the mercury rises to a hundred and over, but all enjoy nine months of 
our May and September. I beheve that every consumptive who possesses 
strength sufficient to travel, can find somewhere, within one hundred miles be- 

IV— 15 



228 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

tween the sea bathing of the coast and elevated mountain valleys, a climate ex- 
actly suited to his physical condition, in which, among fruits and flowers, with 
doors and windows ever open, he will enjoy sound health and long life. While 
in Cajamarca, fourteen persons were pointed out whose baptismal records dated 
back 1 20 years and more. 

Sugar, tobacco, cotton, hides, wool, bark, and minerals have been offered 
in such ciuantities that the P. S. N. Co., commencing with two small wooden 
steamers, have had built eighty iron steamships varymg in size up to 40C0 tons 
each. The greater ponion of the immense freight goes to Europe by the Strait 
steamers. With a ship canal across the Isthmus of Panama, the United States 
would be able to send a much larger merchant marine to the west coast of South 
America. 

I have read that at the time of the Conquest, the Incas were ruling over a 
population of 30.000,000 of people. With the American school book, engineer 
and telegraph, with an exhaustless supply of mineral wealth, a fertile soil and a 
perfect climate, with swift running steamers connecting her ports with all the 
world, to what degree of population and wealth may not the Republic of Peru 
again attain ? 



ARCTIC RESEARCH. 



FROM THE ANNUAL ADDRESS OF THE EARL OF NORTHBROOK, PRESIDENT OF THE 
ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

>!< ;i< >i< >f: :^ >i< >;< ;j« ^ ijc :^ j|< >fc 

The examination of any part of the vast unknown region surrounding the 
North Pole is interesting to geographers, and discovery in this direction seems to 
have a pecuUar fascination for maritime explorers. A year seldom passes without 
some effort being made to add to our knowledge in the far north. During the 
last summer two voyages of reconnoissance were undertaken in this direction, one 
by the Dutch under Captain deBruyne, and the other by our associates, Sir Henry 
Gore Booth and Captain A. H. Markham, R. N. The Dutch officers actually 
sighted Franz-Joseph Land, while our countrymen attained a remarkably high 
latitude at a very late period of the navigable season. I understand that in the 
coming season, Mr. Leigh Smith, whose name is already honorably associated 
with Arctic yachting, will make a voyage of reconnoissance, which, if circumstan- 
ces prove favorable, may become a voyage of discovery. The American expedi- 
tion, which sailed from San Francisco last year for Behring Strait, is believed to 
have wintered in the pack, and tidings of it may soon be expected. 

I have quite recently received information that the Government of the United 
States have decided upon sending out another Arctic Expedition, via Smith Sound, 
under Captain Howgate. This is a project which has been some time under con- 



ADMIRALTY SURVEYS FOR THE PAST YEAR. 229 

sideration, but has only now been matured. It is intended to make a temporary- 
station for Arctic observation and discovery in the latitude of 8i° 40^ on or near 
the shore of Lady Franklin Bay. The expedition will consist of twenty-five peo- 
ple, who are to go up there in the Gulnare, a steamer of two hundred tons. The 
proposal is that they should endeavor to push on to the North Pole by slow de- 
grees during several seasons. The Board of Admiralty have placed at the dis- 
posal of this expedition the depots of provisions left by Sir George Nares in Smith 
Sound in the years 1875 and 1876, and we shall feel an interest in seeing what our 
cousins on the other side of the Atlantic may succeed in doing in this matter. 



ADMIRALTY SURVEYS FOR THE PAST YEAR. 

BY THE HYDROGRAPHER, CAPF. F. J. O. EVANS, R. N. , C. B. , F. R. S. 

On the seaboard of China, Captain Napier and his staff in the Magpie, visit- 
ing the Gulf of Tong King and Hainan Island, have surveyed the Treaty-ports of 
Pak-hoi and Hoi-how ; determined the position of Gmi Chan Island and Cape 
Cami, including a partial examination of the shoal ground off this headland. Pro- 
ceeding northward, an extended search for the Actseon shoal was instituted ; this 
reported danger in the neighborhood of the Shantung promontory, and lying in the 
highway of navigation for ships proceeding to the Gulf of Pechili, having long per- 
plexed seamen ; the search, however, was not successful. A comprehensive sur- 
vey of the entrance of the Yang-tsze kiang, extending from Shaweishan Island and 
the Tungsha banks as a seaward boundary upward to Buch Island above the 
Wusung River, including enlarged plans of the outer and inner bars of this river, 
is also nearly completed. 

In Japan, Commander Aldrich and Staff in the Sylvia have completed the 
Goto Islands ; also the west coast of Kinsin from Da Sima to Odimari Bay, in- 
cluding the Kosiki group and the off-lying islands from the western part of Van 
Diemen Strait. A preparatory triangulation of the coast from Odimari Bay to 
Cape Cochrane on the east coast of Kinsin has also been made. The charts of 
the seaward approaches to Western Japan from the ports of China are thus ap- 
proaching a satisfactory completion. 

After six years service on the coasts of Japan, the Sylvia will return to Eng- 
land in the autumn of this year. H. M. S. Flying Fish, an armed sloop, of mo- 
dern type, will take her place, under command of Lieutenant R. F. Hoskyn, this 
officer having taken an active part in the surveying duties on which the Sylvia 
was engaged during the whole of her foreign service. 

On the western coast of South America, H. M. S. Alert, with an efficient 
staff of surveyors, in the early part of the year under Sir George Nares, and sub- 



230 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

sequently under Captain Maclear, has been employed on arduous service, chiefly 
in a critical examination of the ship channels adjacent to the fiftieth parallel of 
latitude. Trinidad channel — directly opening into the Pacific Ocean — with Con- 
ception channel leading from the inner waters north of Magellan Strait into Trini- 
dad channel, have all been surveyed, together with their numerous ports and tem- 
porary anchorages likely to be useful to passing shipping. Innocentes channel, 
leading to Conception channel from the now well known Guia narrows, has alsO' 
been examined and charted. 

Trinidad channel opens out a clear passage to the Pacific Ocean, i6o miles- 
to the north of Magellan Strait; and although not so secure of approach fro7n 
the Pacific as the well known entrance into that strait by Cape Pillar and the 
Evangelists, it will be found a valuable addition to our knowledge of these waters, 
as enabling shijDS passing into the Pacific to avoid the heavy sea. frequently ex- 
perienced in the higher south latitude. Similar in feature to Magellan Strait, the 
ocean entrace of Trinidad channel is shoal, having only forty fathoms of water itl 
the deepest part, the depths gradually increasing to 300 fathoms in the inner 
channels. The southern shores are bounded by bold, rugged mountains, rising 
abruptly from the sea; whilst on the northern side a low wooded country lies be- 
tween the sea and the rugged spurs of distant snow-clad mountains ; both shores 
are cut up into numerous bays and inlets. In the latter months of the year very 
few natives were seen ; it is understood that at this season the Fuegians leave the 
inner waters for the outer seaboard, in pursuit of seals. 

During the winter months, the Alert, having refitted at Coquimbo, then visited 
St. Felix and St. Ambrose islands, and obtained a series of ocean soundings in an 
area unexplored by the Challenger in 1875 These islands appear to be uncon- 
nected with the South American continent, for soundings obtained midway gave a 
depth of 2250 fathoms (rad. ooze), with a bottom temperature of 33°. 5 F , both 
depth and temperature thus corresponding to the general bed of the South Pacific 
Ocean. Neither do they join the Juan Fernandez group, for the depths between 
reached 2000 fathoms. These several scattered lands thus appear to rise from 
a submarine plateau as isolated mountains. Captain Maclear describes St. Am- 
brose Island as volcanic, composed entirely of lava arranged in horizontal strata 
very marked, intersected vertically by dikes of basalt; vegetation is scanty, and 
the island is without water ; though frequented by sea birds, the sides are too steep 
and rugged for guano to collect. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS' PRIZE MEDALS. -231 

. PUBLIC SCHOOLS' PRIZE MEDALS. 

FROM THE REPORT OF THE ANNIVERSARY MEETING OF THE ROYAL 
GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

The medals have been awarded this year as follows by the Examiners, who 
were for Physical Geography, Commander V. L. Lameron,. R. N., and for Po- 
litical Geography, Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommanney, F. R. S. ; the special subject 
for the year being " Western Africa, between the Sahara, the territory of Egypt, 
the Equatorial Lakes, and the sixth parallel of south latitude." 

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Gold Medal— David Bowie, Dulwich College. Silver Medal— Albert Lewis 
Humphries, Liverpool College. Honorably Mentioned — Gustave Isadore Schor- 
stein, City of London School ; Sydney Edkins, City of London School ; PhiUipe 
Joseph Hartog, University College School; Henderson McMaster, Liverpool 
College ; Robert Galbraith Reid, Dulwich College. 

POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Gold Medal— Frederick James Naylor, Dulwich College. Silver Medal- 
Theodore Brooks, London International College. Honorably Mentioned — 
Charles Theodore Knaws, Dulwich College; Charles E. Mallet, Harrow School; 
William H David Boyle, Eaton College ; Allan Danson Rigby, Liverpool Col- 
lege; Matthew George Grant, Liverpool College; Charles James Casher, Brigh- 
ton College. 

Mr. Douglas Treshfield, said that, in the absence of Mr. F. Gation, the 
Chairman of the Public School's Prizes Committee, it fell to him, as a member of 
the Committee, to announce the result of the recent examinations. Before doing 
so he wished to make some remarks suggested by a tabular statement before him, 
showing the number of candidates who had submitted themselves for examina- 
tion in each year, since the prizes were founded in 1869. Such a comparison 
-showed rapid oscillation rather than any steady advance. In 1869 we began 
with 81 candidates, the number falling, in 1871 to 23. In 1876 the num- 
ber rose again to 54, and this year stood at 32, which was somewhat below the 
average. This result must not, he thought, be looked on as discouraging. The 
large numbers at commencement were doubtless due to ignorance of the nature 
of the examination, which was not confined to the old-fashioned school topog- 
raphy, a mere hst of names to be learned by rote, but aimed at testing the 
knowledge of boys in scientific geography. To prepare boys for the Society's 
examinations required considerable attainments in the teacher, and it is not every 
school, not even every public school, which is fortunate in the possession of ad- 
equate instructors. One of the results of the examinations would probably be to 
supply the first requisite of sound teaching — a number of competent teachers — 
under whom many schools might rival the successes won for Dulwich and Liver- 



232 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

pool Colleges, under Dr. Carver and the Rev. George Buder. There was, he 
beheved, no doubt that the importance of geography as a branch of education, 
was more generally recognized. Indirectly it fulfilled the first requisites of an 
educational subject, by inculcating at the same time accuracy in details and the 
habit of drawing from them broad conclusions. Whatever branch of science the 
student might follow up, he would find a knowledge of the conditions of the 
earth's surface, such as is supplied by physical geography, a staff in his hand. 
In the more prominent, but perhaps lower walks of life, such a knowledge was 
of great service. In the future, those soldiers who know best their maps, would 
win most battles. The merchants who best understood physical conditions 
would make most money, and the nation whose statesmen were scientific geogra- 
phers would have the most scientific of all possible scientific frontiers. Turning 
to the detailed results of the last examination, he would point out that of the 
fifty-two schools which had been invited to compete, ten only had sent candi- 
dates. The examiners, in their report to the committee, speak very highly of 
the work done. Dulwich College had been most successful, securing both the 
gold medals, the gold medalist in physical geography having last year obtained 
the same position in political geography. Liverpool College was again success- 
ful, and the London International College had carried off a prize, and the City 
London School had obtained a creditable position. 

Commander Cameron introduced the medaUst in physical geography, and 
Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommanney, those in political geography. 

The President, in presenting the medals, said with regard to Dulwich Col- 
lege, which had carried off both the gold medals, he would by permission of the 
meeting, make one or two observations regarding that institution. Having had 
the honor two years ago of presenting the prizes to the boys of Dulwich College, 
and thus becoming acquainted with the head-master. Dr. Carver had written a 
letter to him containing some remarks on the study of geography in schools 
which he thought would be of interest to the meeting. He inclosed a copy of 
the school list, and at the same time said: "You will see from these lists that 
Bowie, the gold medalist in physical geography, obtained the prize of his form 
in ' Form Work,' and was bracketed for the prize in 'Greek and Higher Classics'' 
with Naylor, the gold medalist in political geography. Your Lordships will, I 
am sure, regard these facts as not altogether immaterial. They show at any 
rate that the proficiency of these boys in geography has not been attained by 
any special 'cramming' or by the sacrifice of their general culture to one con- 
spicuous but passing success. To me the success of the College in the compe- 
tition of the Royal Geographical Society has been gratifying, and just for this 
reason, because it has been obtained, not by boys making modern subjects their 
specialty, but by boys who were prepared to bring well trained and cultivated- 
minds to bear upon any subject to which their attention might be directed." 

To David Bowie, the gold medalist in physical geography, the President 
said: "I have great satisfaction in handing you this medal. A strong proof how 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 233 

well it is deserved is furnished by your having gained, as Mr. Freshfield has told 
us, last year the gold medal in the other branch of the science, political geogra- 
phy, and were honorably mentioned in the examination of the year previous." 

To the silver medalist, A. L. Humphries, the President said : "This is the fif- 
teenth medal gained by the school to which you belong, Liverpool College, a 
striking testimony to the skill and success with which geography is studied in 
that institution, and to the pains taken by its eminent head-master, the Rev. 
George Butler." 

Mr. R. N. Cust, at the invitation of the President, announced the special 
subject of next year's examination as being "Polynesia, including New Zea- 
land." 



Argentine Republic. — An importatioa of loi African ostriches has succeed- 
ed at Buenos Ayres. Their owner is an Englishman, who proposes to establish a 
farm for ostriches in that province ; the climacteric conditions, according to his 
opinion, favoring his project. 



Expeditions. — Dr. E. Pieroth, an Italian traveller and savant, is now or- 
ganizing an Exploring Expedition to Egypt, Palestine and neighboring countries. 
He intends to leave Marseilles, on the second of September, and hopes to return 
by November first. 



Captain Bove, of the royal Italian navy, who was associated with Prof. Nor- 
denskjold, in his late excursion to the glacial seas of the North, has projected an 
Antarctic Expedition He will leave next May and be absent two years among 
the glaciers of the South Pole His crew and steamer will be furnished by the 
Italian Government, from the royal navy — at an expense of about 600,000 francs. 



Necrological. — By sad concidence geology has lost two savants, W. H. 
Wilier and M. Ansted,both having died on the same day. The former was eighty 
years of age and author of several classic works, of which, a treatise on crystallo- 
graphy was the most notable. Mr. Ansted was only sixty- six years of age, and 
was professor of geology at King's College, London, and Examiner on geography 
and physics, in the department of science and art. He was an author of numer- 
ous works. Both of these individuals were educated at Cambridge and belonged 
to the Royal Society. 



Father Horner, the celebrated Catholic Missionary, is dead. He had been 
a resident missionary on the island of Zanzibar for many years, and was conspicu- 
ous for his labors in behalf of the suppression of the slave trade, for his African 
travels, and for the sympathy and assistance he was always ready to give to ex- 
plorers and scientists on the Eastern African coast. He died last May, at Can- 
nes, France. — U Exploration. 



234 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

A VIEW OF ^TNA. 

BY S. P. LANGLEY. 



It was now December, but in spite of my haste to get on the mountain before 
the snows covered it, I stopped at Taormina, half-way to Catania (whence the 
ascent was to be made), to view ^tna from the north. Taormina is built on the 
southern slope of a spur projecting into the Mediterranean, whose northern ridge, 
rising a thousand feet above the sea, is crowned by the ruins of a Grecian theatre. 
The stream of pleasure-travel seems to pass by this wonderful coast, so that com- 
paratively few tourists see the shores of Sicily, except from the steamer which takes 
them to Athens or Alexandria ; but if the reader is among those few, he may re- 
member the view from these ruins at sunrise as one of which the earth cannot 
furnish many. He will remember, perhaps, rising long before daybreak for a 
solitary climb through steep lanes, half seeing, half groping, his way between high 
walls, over which started into dim sight spectral figures with outstretched arms, 
resolved, as he drew nearer, into some overleaning cactus, vaguely outhned over- 
head against the starry sky. Mounting higher, one comes out from between the 
overshadowing walls into the moonlight, the waning moon, a crescent in the east, 
*' holding the old moon in her arms," while, when higher yet, the columns of the 
ancient proscenium stand out against a faint glow that shows where the sun is 
yet to rise ; till, passing by these, climbing and groping up the stone benches 
which once held tiers of spectators, one takes a soHtary seat at the summit. Be- 
low, the last lights are still twinkling on the coast, but beyond and over the 
columns, all along the south, rises a dark something, which might be a hundred 
yards away, but is ^tna, and twenty miles distant. As the dawn grows brighter 
the outlook extends north and east to Italy, and as the sun makes ready to come 
out of the pcean the gray mass in the south moves further away, and takes on dis- 
tinctness as it recedes, until we make out the whole form of ^tna, with the out- 
line of the crater and of the snow fields about its summit. These distant snows 
suddenly changed their gray to a rose pink as they caught the light of the sun be- 
fore it had risen to me ; but of all that was seen when it came out of the ocean I 
was most concerned with the mountain itself, which can be viewed better here, as 
a whole, than from any nearer point. 

The coast line on the leit preserves the level to the eye, but except for this, so 
wide is the base of yEtna that it fills the whole southern landscape, which seems 
to be tilted upward till its horizon ends in the sky. I could see from here how 
almost incomparably larger the immense volcano appears than Vesuvius; and the 
actual difference is in fact enormous, the height of ^tna being (if we disregard the 
. terminal cone of each) nearly three times, and its mass probably twenty times, 
that of Its Italian neighbor. The entire mountain in all its substance is lava, 
which has built itself up in eruptions ; but from this point the successive zones of 
vegetation are visible which in the course of ages have in part occupied its sur- 



A POMPEIAN HOUSE. 235 

face. Extending to perhaps a fifth of the whole actual height before me (but 
covering a great deal more of the foreground in appearance), is the cultivated re- 
gion, dotted with villages, which shine out from a background of what we know 
must be vineyards and olives. The second zone is barren, and in sharp contrast 
with the former. It rises to perhaps two-thirds of the whole height, and its broad 
masses of gray are patched with moss-like spots hardly distinguishable in color 
but which are really forests of oak and chestnut. All above this rose what even 
from my distant station could be recognized as naked black deserts, streaked here 
and there with snow, while above this was the terminal cone, snow-covered at the 
time I saw it, and with a depression at the summit from which slowly drifted a 
thin vapor. The railway south of Taormina runs along the coast (and is carried 
through cuttings on old lava streams, which here flowed down to the sea) until it 
reaches Catania, a city which, as every one knows, is not only built on lava, but 
which has been cut through and through by lava streams, and shaken down by 
earthquakes in recent times, and which hves from day to day at the mercy of its 
terrible neighbor. — July Atlantic. 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



A POMPEIAN HOUSE. 

" The house which was begun to be excavated at the celebration of the cen- 
tenary of Pompeii, and is, therefore called 'Caso delCentenario,' and from which 
I then saw three skeletons dug out, has proved to be the largest hitherto discov- 
ered, and is of pecuHar interest. It contains two atria, two trielmia, four alaee or 
wings, a calidarium, frigidarium, and tepidarium. It occupies the entire space 
between three streets, and most likely a fourth, which has yet to be excavated. 
The vestibule is elegantly decorated, and its mosaic pavement ornamented with 
the figure of a dolphin pursued by a sea horse. In the first atrium, the walls of 
which are adorned with small theatrical scenes, the pavement is sunk and broken, 
as if by an earthquake, and there is a large hole through which one sees the cel- 
lar. The second atrium is very spacious with a handsome perisytle, the columns 
— white and red stucco — being twenty-six in number. In the center is a large 
marble basin, within the edge of which runs a narrow step. On the pedestal at 
one side was found the statuette of the Faun which we lately described. The 
most interesting place in the house is an inner court or room, on one side of which 
is the niche, with tiny marble steps, often to be seen in Pompeian houses. The 
fiescoes on the walls are very beautiful. Close to the floor runs a wreath of leaves 
about a quarter of a yard wide, with alternately a lizard and a stork. Above it, 
about a yard distant, droop, as if from over a wall, large branches of vine or ivy 



236 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

and broad leaves like those of the tiger-Hly— all freely, naturally and gracefully 
drawn. At each corner of the room a bird clings to one of these branches. Then 
comes a space — bordered at the top by another row of leaves — in which is repre- 
sented a whole aquarium, as if the room were hned with tanks. There are differ- 
ent sorts of shells and aquatic plants lying at the bottom of the water, and swim- 
ming in or on it all kinds of fish, jelly-fish, ducks and swans, admirably sketched 
with a light yet firm touch. The ripples made by the swimming ducks are indi- 
cated, and one duck is just flying into the water with a splash. On each side of 
the niche this amusing aquarium is enlivened by a special incident. To the left a 
large octopus has caught a monstrous murccnal (lamprey) — which turns around to 
bite — in its tentacles ; to the right fine lobster has pierced another murasnal through 
and through with its long hard feelers or horns. These creatures are p.iinted in 
the natural colors very truthfully. On the left wall above the fishes, are two 
sphinxes, supporting on their heads square marble vases, on the brim of each of 
which sits a dove. Behind the niche, and on the left side of the room, runs a 
little gallery with a corridor underneath, lighted by small square holes in the bor- 
der of hanging branches. The wall of this gallery behind the niche is decorated 
with a woodland landscape, in which, on one side, is represented a bull running 
frantically away with a lion clinging to his haunches ; on the other, a horse lying 
struggling on his back, attacked by a leopard ; all nearly the size of life. On each 
side of the doorway is painted respectively, a graceful doe and a bear. The other 
rooms are also very beautiful ; one with a splendidly elegant design on a black 
ground ; in another a small frescoe representing a man pouring wine out of an 
amphora into a large vessel. The bathrooms are large and elegant, the cold bath 
spacious and of marble. In one room a corner is dedicoted to the lares and 
penates, and in the fresco decoration, among the usual serpents, etc., I noticed 
the singular figure of a Bacchus or bacchante, entirely clothed with large grapes. 
In one of the mosaic pavements is a head of Medusa, the colors very bright and 
well preserved. As some of the ruins are only excavated to within two or three 
feet of the floor, it is possible that many valuable ornaments or statuettes may yet 
be found, as everything indicates that this splendid house belonged to some rich 
citizen." — London News. 



INTERESTING DISCOVERIES IN CLINTON COUNTY, OHIO. 

Ever since archaeologists began the study of the origin, habits, mode of liv- 
ing and cause of the mysteriously complete disappearance of that strange race 
of people which we moderns call "Mound Builders," the absence of any pic- 
tured or written record from their hands has proved the rock in the way which 
stopped all further inquiry, almost at the entrance door to their charmed history. 
Thoroughly scientific and able men have studied the subject carefully and closely 
from the basis of the discoveries made of earthworks, utensils, weapons and or- 



INTERESTING DISCOVERIES IN CLINTON COUNTY, OHIO. 2:dJ 

naments, and after years of patient work have published their theory of the mat- 
ter to the world. Other men, with as great learning and ability, have followed 
in their footsteps and evolved other and contrary conclusions from the investiga- 
tion of similar facts; they, in turn, to be followed, year after year, by still others 
with constantly varying opinions, until the manifold theories put forth in regard 
to the ''entrance" and the "exit" of this extinct race have become a maze 
which leads in every direction, but centers upon no one point. All these theor- 
ists, however, are agreed that were any written characters or hieroglyphics of the 
Mound Builders to be discovered it would contribute in a marvelous degree to- 
ward the clearing up of the mystery. Short's "North Americans of Antiquity,"' 
a work published as late as the present year, says: "No well authenticated 
Mound Builder hieroglyphics have yet come to light." Clinton county is rich 
in remains of the Mound Builders, and our archseologists believe that they will 
yet supply the hiatus necessary to establish the identity and trace the race origin 
of the early rulers of America. More than a year ago Mr. Jonathan Richard- 
son discovered in a mound in this county an engraved tablet-stone and a "but- 
terfly relic" bearing hieroglypics, both of which were first noticed and described 
in the Cincinnati Commercial. They were afterward photo-lithographed and de- 
scription and engravings issued in pamphlet form. 

Now comes another discovery which is as important as any yet made. Mr. 
Jonah Frazier, a farmer, residing some four miles north of Wilmington, and in 
the vicinity of an old deer "lick," while spading in his garden on Friday even- 
ing last, unearthed a stone pipe of curious construction, which he yesterday 
brought in for inspection by your correspondent. The pipe is fashioned from the 
the stone known as CHnton rock, two or three specks of iron pyrites being visi- 
ble, hard as flint and shaped like a rubber ball flattened by compression, its great- 
est diameter being 2^ inches and its thickest i^ inches. It is elaborately and 
.artistically carved, being really a fine piece of workmanship. In a circular de- 
pression, fining the space of one of its sides, is a bas-relief (front view) of a hu- 
man face with high cheek bones, wide, straight mouth, flat nose, full lips, low, 
broad forehead, and the entire facial features, indicative of the presence of craft, 
cunning and intelligence struggling for the mastery. It is not the face of an In- 
dian, nor such a one as an Indian could have imagined. On the opposite side 
of the pipe is a hollow, fitted to the ball of the thumb when in position for hold- 
ing the pipe. Through one side, and just above where the stem should be in- 
serted, is drilled a hole, evidently intended for the reception of a string by means 
of which the pipe could be suspended around the neck of its owner, or upon ihe 
wall of his dwelling. On the front of the bowl — being the side farthest from 'he 
smoker when the pipe is in use — is an oblong sunken space in which is carved 
the outline of a beaver, its head toward the upper part of the bowl. But the 
main point of interest in this relic, and that which gives it its greatest value, con- 
sists in a series of hieroglyphics beginning just below the face and extending 
around the under side of the bowl. A quarter of an inch below the circle which 



238 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

incloses the face is a character fashioned like the figure 8 laid upon its side, with 
the two inclosed spaces filled with curious characters, and its right end adorned 
with a cresent shaped mark with the horns turned outward. Beneath this are 
other characters in some respects bearing resemblance to those of the Maya lan- 
guage. One is shaped like a wheel with four spokes; another like the letter G, 
with three dots inclosed, and a branch with twigs, shooting from its upper side, 
while others take on shapes the like of which we have never seen before. 

May not these little figures prove to be the lever that shall unravel the mys- 
tery which surrounds the history of that race whose footprints on this continent 
are so strongly outlined and yet so inexplicable, and set at rest the floating the- 
ories in regard to their origin which have been so contradictory and unsatisfac- 
tory? Mr. F. has been offered a considerable sum of money for his "relic," 
but refuses to sell. It is now temporarily in the possession of Dr. L. B. Welch, 
of Wilmington, a well known experienced archaeologist. *= 

* Referring to this discovery vve call attention to the following note by a well known writer who sends 
us the article —[Ed. 



THE ANTIQUE PIPE FOUND IN CLINTON COUNTY. 

To the Editor of the Review : 

I notice an account in the Commercial of a pipe recently found in Clinton Coun- 
ty, and compare the figures you engrave as fac similes of those on the pipe with 
those in the third and fourth volumes of Lord Kingsborough's " Antiquities of 
Mexico." Is there any good reason why the theory may not be sustained that all 
the specimens of sculpture so numerous in the Mississippi Valleys may not have 
been the product of the people inhabiting Mexico at the time of the conquest of 
that country by Cortez? The Indians made none of them, but received them all 
in the way of trade from the far more cultivated race of Mexicans. The speci. 
mens of pottery found on the banks of the Ohio are all of a nature similar to those 
found in Kingsborough's great work, and were received by the Indians. That 
many of them were deposited in mounds was, of course, natural, as they are also 
found all over Eorope in similar mounds, constructed by the Scythians and otherj 
barbarous people. See Martin's History of France and Thierry. Similar speci-j! 
mens of sculpture are also found now in the Canary Islands. Why do not the' 
facts properly suggest that the artists belonged in all cases to the same race, and 
that this race found its way to the American Continent, by way of the Canaryl 
Islands and the East Atlantic Islands that once stood where now is found the Sar-j 
gosso Sea ? That portion of the race that had reached Mexico before the sinkingj 
of the lost Atlantis became isolated from Europe and was in the plenitude of itsl 
civilization when Cortez discovered it and ended its career by conquest. This| 
race naturally spread all over the American continent, taking full possession of 
South America, where Peru was the center of power. In advancing to the North 
it met the Indians, who had come from the north of Europe by way of Greenland 



THE ORIGINAL SETTLERS OF AMERICA. 239 

and from Asia by way of Behring Straits. The Indians remained masters of the 
North, while the Mexicans perfected their civilization in the South. Had Cortez 
worked as hard to discover history as he did to plunder the people of Montezuma, 
he was in a condition to have had his labor rewarded with some of the most as- 
tounding developments of all antiquity. But the old scoundrel b rned, destroy- 
ed, exterminated every link he found, as far as possible, and we now have a few 
relics with nothing but guess work as to their meaning. Everything found now 
should be preserved with "religious" care, until the key to the meaning of hiero- 
glyphical characters is at last found, and the mystery of the Aztecs and the Indian 
race cleared up. Antiquitas. 



• THE ORIGINAL SETTLERS OF AMERICA. 

A deep interest is taken in the explorations about to be made in Mexico and 
Central America, in order to bring to light the lost history, skill, inventions, arts, 
genius and science of the unknown races who lived, died and passed into obli- 
vion on this continent. Many -remains have been discovered, but much still re- 
mains to reward the antiquarian, the historian, and the friend of humanity. 

One link needs perfecting. The Aztec antiquities now on exhibition in the 
Metropolitan Museum of art are nearly similar in design to those discovered re- 
cently in the Isle of Cyprus. It may possibly be shown by further discoveries 
that the same race of men who inhabited Cyprus struck America 1400 or 1500 
years before the Christian era. This discovery will show that the Phoenicians, 
Carthaginians, or Egyptians colonized America. 

America is an old country. It is an error to say it was discovered by Colum- 
bus. That was only a restoration of the knowledge lost by a certain portion of 
the world, through timidity, fear, and a want of skill in navigation. What had 
been known to millions was no discovery. People talk of the discovery of glass 
and the circulation of the blood as something new. The Phoenicans and Plato 
knew of them thousands of years ago. There is a strong probabiHty that America 
was partly colonized by the Phoenicans, Carthaginians, and Egyptians. 

In the elaborate article in the Sun on this subject you are right in speaking 
of American civiHzation as dating back to the beginning of Assyrian history. If 
it can be shown that American antiquities are similar to those of the Phoenicians 
and Carthaginians, then the race of Cham and not of Sem originally peopled 
America. The same race colonized Spain, Ireland, France, Italy, Sardinia, 
Sicily, and the Balearic Isles in the Mediterranean. 

In calculating the increase of population after the deluge, we may recall the 
fact that seventy souls among the Jews went down to Egypt; in the course of 215 
years they numbered nearly 3,000,000. Still further, the Phoenicians having 
planted small colonies in various countries, these grew into nations. — Cor. N. Y. 
Sun. 



240 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



FOREIGN CORRESPONDENCE. 



SCIENCE LETTER FROM PARIS. 

June i8, 1880. 
French alienists consider "hallucination" as a perception without an object, 
and "illusion" as a real perception falsely interpreted. In both cases the result 
is due to united physical and mental causes, that is, the commencement is a 
physical sensation. An ancient and famous philosopher maintained that the en- 
tire universe was only a gigantic hallucination. People are not necessarily ill or 
mad because laboring under an illusion ; at a distance a square tower may ap- 
pear round, owing to perspective modifying the apparent forms of objects. In 
the eyes of a maniac, linen suspended from a line becomes hanging corpses; im- 
ages floating in the air, appear balloons directed by aeronauts. Laseque defined, 
that illusion is to hallucination, what slander is to calumny. With lunatics at 
least, it is the ear which occupies the first role in cerebral troubles; they hear the 
sound of footsteps as of a person walking in another room; or some musical 
notes, musketry fire, or the reports of cannons. But there is an abyss between 
the pa' lent who hears only sounds, and him who listens to words, the latter at first 
in monosyllables, then becoming phrases, and finally sentences, till the afflicted 
indulges in replies, and terminates by believing he is in presence of a distinct 
personality who encroaches on his existence. Such is the meaning of the "pos- 
sessed" of the Middle Ages, and later of the seventeenth century. It is thus 
that the exorcists charged to deliver the Ursulines of London from the diaboli- 
cal spirits of which they were possessed, became in several instances themselves 
the victims of the epidemic. Sight also plays a conspicuous role in hallucina- 
tions, producing alcoholic night-mares, and unceasing terrifying visions. The 
sensitive apparatus is composed of extremities which receive the impression; the 
tube which transmits it, the ganglions which receive and condense it, then those 
cellules of the hemisphere of the brain which perceive it, and that represent 
matter in its highest expression of relationship with intellectual fuctions — and 
where alone phenomena can be judged. The deaf, strange to say, suffer from 
hallucinations of hearing, as well as the blind from those of seeing. Certain 
physiologists maintain, that we ought never to forget anything, because the cere- 
bal cells always remain filled with impressions, though in a latent state, and that ■ 
there is a mystical power, independent of our will, at work, ready to call up these 
forgotten sentences. During a conversation, we may suddenly forget a name or 
■date; next day when the circumstance has passed away, the wanted name or 
date will surge up. What is that automatic, mysterious secretary that has been 
working for us independent of our will? J. J. Rousseau, when conversing, 
was heavy and embarrassed, and it was only on arriving at the foot of the stair- 
case that he discovered the witty reply that he ought to have made in the draw- 



SCIENCE LETTER FROM PARIS. 241 

ing room. Often when at school, the lesson imperfectly learned during the even- 
ing, becomes well engraved in the memory on our awakening. The mind has 
worked for us during sleep, but we were imconscious of its acts. In antiquity, 
visionaries saw appear the black Eumenides or the divine Apollo; mythology is 
now replaced by the Virgin and the saints, and it is a fact well known to alienists, 
that the delirium and hallucinations of Catholics differ essentially from those of Prot- 
estants. Van der Kalk remarks, that it is by the left ear that patients who are 
possessed, assert they hear Satan speaking to them, while another patient claim- 
ing to be in relations without a good and bad spirit, at once invariably received 
whispers of vice by the left, and counsels of virtue by the right, ear. 

The sun has become a subject of \ery popular study; naturally we ought to 
be interested in the rays of a star on which life hangs. The sun is the heart of 
the planetary organism : each of its pulsations spreads vital force not only to our 
earth, some thirty-seven millions of leagues distant, but to Neptune t,ioo millions 
of leagues away, also to the pale comets abandoned to an eternal winter, and still 
farther, to stars millions of milliards more distant still. This force emanates in- 
cessantly from the sun's energy, and is distributed around into space with marvel- 
lous rapidity; eight minutes suffice for light to bound to us from the sun, at the 
rate of 75,000 leagues per second. The sun is 108 times larger in diameter than 
our earth; 1,279,000 times more voluminous, and 324,000 times more dense. The 
highest dome in the world is that at Florence erected by the genius of Brunelles- 
■chi ; it is about forty-nine yards in diameter, the dome of the Pantheon of Paris 
is but twenty-three yards, yet the latter and a bullet eight inches in diameter, 
would reprtsent the relative magnitudes of the sun and our planet. In other 
words, suppose the sun placed in a scales, it would require 324,000 earths to make 
the scales turn. The planets that revolve 'round the sun resemble so many toys, 
yet sun and stars themselves are only atoms of the infinite. The moon gravitates 
around the eardi, and the earth around the sun, while the sun whirls the planets 
and tneir satellites toward the constellation Hercules, and these movements are 
•executed with a rythm and exactitude, following determined laws, as the hands of 
a watch turn on the pivot or the concentric circles that ebb away on the surface 
•of a pond when a stone is thrown therein. All is movement, vibration, harmony. 
In violet light the atoms of ether oscillate at the rate of 740 milliards of vibrations 
per second ; red light is slower, its vibrations in the same time are about 380 mil- 
liards ; the color violet, is in the order of colors, what the highest note is in the 
order of sound ; red represents the lowest color, or base note. An object floating 
on the water obeys the ripples or waves which arrive from various sides, so the 
atom of ether undulates under the influence of heat and light, the atom of air un- 
der the influence of sound, and the planet and the satellite under the influence of 
gravitation. To comprehend the distance of the Earth from the Sun, wereacan- 
-non ball to travel at the rate of 550 yards a second, it would require nine years 
and eight months to reach the sun. Again the Sun is the center of most astound- 
ing conflagrations and explosions. If the space between our planet and the Sun 



242 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

could transmit the noise at the usual rapidity of 374 yards per second, the sound 
would necessitate some fourteen years to arrive to us. A train traveling at the 
rate of thirty-eight miles an hour, would require 266 years to reach the Sun. A 
vogager who left at that rate of traveling during the reign of James I., would on- 
ly be due at his destination to-day. 

The Sun is the source from which flows all the forces that put the earth and 
its hfe in motion, it is the Sun's heat which causes the wind to blow, the clouds 
to rise, rivers to flow, forests to grow, fruit to ripen, and man himself to exist. 
This united force, constantly and silently, exercised to raise the resevoirs of rain 
to their mean atmospheric height, to fix carbon in plants, to give to terrestrial 
nature her vigor and her beauty, is estimated in a mechanical point of view, to 
be equal to 543 milliards of steam engines, of 400-horse power each, working day 
and night incessantly. It is the Sun's heat which maintains matter in its three 
states, solid, liquid and gaseous. Examined through a powerful instrument, the 
surface of the sun appears to be covered with small grains of different forms, but 
where the oval predominates, the interstices which are very free, form a kind of 
gray net-work, the knots of this net-work enlarge sometimes as to form pores, 
which increasing still, give birth to a " spot." The luminous surface of the Sun 
has been C2^tdi photosphere; it is not uniform but composed of a multitude of 
luminous points, disseminated on the somber net-work. These points or grains, 
produce the heat and light that we receive from the Sun, and occupy about one- 
fifth part of the surface of that star ; if they approach closer to each other, multi- 
plying and condensing, the dark netting would disappear, the light would be 
increased from two to five fold, and the heat in proportion ; were they on the 
contrary to diminish, light and heat would disappear, and the world expire from 
cold. We call flame and fire all that which burns, but the gases in the Sun's 
atmosphere possess such an elevated degree of temperature that it is impossible 
for them to burn. Occasionally protuberances are visible round the sun ; these 
are due to explosions of hydrogen, which shoot that gas upward at the rate of 
244,000 yards in a second; these eruptions continue during several hours, often 
days, motionless as immense luminous clouds, when they fall down in showers of 
liquid fire. These phenomena are hurricanes ; now a hurricane of the greatest 
intensity on our planet, does not travel at a greater rate than 100 miles an hour, 
the fire-hurricane travels that space in a second Vesuvius has entombed Pompeii 
and Herculaneum beneath its lavas. A solar eruption shooting up flames to the 
height of 63,000 miles in a few seconds, would bury our earth under its shower of 
fire, reducing terrestrial life to ashes in a shorter space of time than is required to 
read these lines. 

Messrs. Richet and Mourrut have conducted a series of experiments at Havre 
on digestion with fishes ; with the latter, as in the case of other classes of vertebrata, 
there is a very great diversity in point of intensity of digestion ; pending the pro- 
cess of digestion, the stomach is very acid, and the contrary when the stomach is 
empty; the gastric liquid acts more powerfully the less it is pure; temperature 



SCIENCE LETTER FROM PARIS. 243 

augments the digestive process, and while the gastric juices do not at all affect 
starch, they rapidly transform fibrine. 

Messrs. de Fonvielle and Lontin have produced a new and elegant form of 
electro-magnetic rotation, very ingenious, and that will be an addition to lessons 
in physics. The apparatus consists of a gal vano -metric frame, in the center is a 
piece of iron on a pivot, which is polarised by a magnet, fixed on the exterior of 
the frame. When the electric current traverses the galvano-metric spirals, the 
piece of iron revolves with a grand rapidity. The principle is not novel and de- 
pends on the difference in intensity of the alternative currents. The latter if 
produced by a Gramme machine, and made intermittent, will serve equally well. 

M. Lichtenstein has placed the insects, which produce the gall nut, in some 
tubes, in time they deposited young insects, which perished, as he did not know 
their peculiar food. He observed that during August other insects replaced those 
that had left the gall nut, and produced young, the latter disappearing in the 
tender twigs of the (poplar) tree, forming thereon a kind of pad. 

Asparagus, the variety white stems and purple heads, is a favorite spring 
dish in France, and the Italians in their love for that comestible are surpassed 
by the French. The market gardens of Argenteuil eclipse those of Ravenna, 
Does asparagus exercise a nutritive action ? It is doubtful; it contains a little 
phosphate of lime and potash. However, it is a very light and agreeable aliment, 
admirable for convalescents, on condition that the sauce suits their stomach. 
Asparagus excites the appetite and has a diuretic action. The root of the plant 
is employed against jaundice and affections of the bladder, it relieves, according 
to some hypertrophy of the heart. It is employed as a calmant by others, as it 
does not irritate the stomach, like digitalis ; it is bad for those recovering from 
articulated rheumatism ; there are authorities who profess asparagus will cure 
hydrophobia. Asa curative agent it may be safely concluded to have no effect. 

Dr. Delpech demands that rearing bees on the outskirts of the city be pro- 
hibited. Several fatal cases of stinging have occured, especially in the face, the 
neighborhood of the nervous centers, where the blood, changed by the venom of 
the sting, rapidly decreases the activity of the nervous system, thus suspending 
the functions essential to the maintenance of life. 

In the Cevennes, sheep are largely reared for their milk, which is made into 
cheese, the Roquefort being the most celebrated ; even in the time of Pliny the 
sheep cheese of Lozere (Luzara) was famous, and was sent from Nismes to Rome. 
Two curious facts to note in connection with this breed of sheep, reared for milk- 
ing purposes ; many have four nipple=i, cases occurring of yielding milk by each 
and the ordinary two teats are very voluminous. 

M. Toussaint has studied the subject of phthisis in pigs, and finds that it is 
hereditary, and can be contracted by the progeny while sucking, by inocculation 
or co-habitation. The disease resembles galloping consumption in human beings 
and brings about death in a few weeks. In sheep the malady takes a chronic 
form. 

IV— 16 



. 244 KANSAS CITY RE VIE W OF SCIENCE. 



BOOK NOTICES. 



Lippincott's Pronouncing Gazetteer of the World: pp. 2478 large Octavo: 

J. B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia 1880. For sale by H. H. Shepard. 

$10.00. 

It is difficult adequately to conceive of the vast strides made in geographical 
knowledge within a few years, except by comparison of old works with new ones, 
and this will be found an especially truthful statement by the student who com- 
pares any Gazetteer more than five years old with that recently published by J. B. 
Lippincott & Co. He will find that it now takes nearly 2500 pages, double column, 
fine print, to describe what was fully described a few years since in far less space- 
He will also be surprised to learn not only that many new and important places 
have sprung into existence and become important commercial centers, but 
that so many which were in former editions mentioned as thriving cities and towns, 
even in our own country are now utterly abandoned and unknown. It is astonish- 
ing to see how perfectly the work under consideration has been made up. It not 
only contains recent and authentic information respecting the countries, islands, 
rivers, mountains, cities, towns, &c., in all portions of the globe, but it actually 
gives an account of more than one hundred and twenty-five thousand places, with 
correct spelling and pronunciation indicated in all instances. We have been surpris- 
ed and have quite surprised several friends, by the extreme minuteness of the infor- 
mation contained in this work as well as by its extent. Of course, to secure such 
perfection a vast amount of labor has been expended in consulting similar works 
in all languages, books of history and travel, official documents, and by a most 
extensive private correspondence all over the globe. 

In addition to the vastly increased number of places noticed, such particular 
attention has been paid to orthography, pronounciation, ancient and modern 
names of places and signification of geographical names as to render them charac- 
teristics of the work. 

For public libraries, schools, teachers, and all persons requiring books of 
reference, this is a book of sterling value and of the most reliable character. 



First Annual Report of the Department of Statistics and Geology of the 

State of Indiana. 1879, PP- 5^4' Octavo : Indianapolis, Douglass & Car- 

Im, 1880. 

It is a little singular that at this late day the State of Indiana is publishing 
her first Report of this kind. With her exhaustless resources of almost every kind 
it would naturally be supposed that they would have been long years sincej made 
known to the world in every practicable way. 

But though late in beginning, the work has been well done, and no one can 



BOOK NO TICES. 245 

read this Report without acknowledging that the facts compiled have been judi- 
ciously and forcibly set forth and that great credit is due Professor Collet and his 
assistants for industry in collecting and skill in preparing them. The general de- 
scription of the State with which the volume commences, and the statistical tables 
which follow, furnish the most complete and satisfactory account of the progress 
of the State in agriculture, manufactures, trade, finances, education, reHgion, 
population and hygiene that could be desired and just such information as the im- 
migrant needs. 



Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, for 
March, April and May, 1880: pp. 152 Octavo, illustrated. 
This Society, which has been in existence since 1817, still keeps up its active 
work and this volume contains the results of the original researches and investi- 
gations of some of the best known naturalists in the country ; such as Leidy, Mee- 
han, Lockington, Heilprin, Kingsley, Allen, Bergh, Redfield and Kelly, and is 
illustrated copiously. 

Dr. Ruschenberger is President, Prof. Thomas Meehan, Vice President, and 
Prof. Jos. Leidy, M. D., is Chairman of the Publication Committee and Edward 
J. Nolan, M. D., Editor. 



Engineering Progress in the United States : By Octave Chanute, C. E : pp. 

40, Octavo. 

This is the annual address for 1880, read by Vice-President Chanute (for- 
merly our fellow citizen) at the twelfth Annual Convention of the American Society 
of Civil Engineers, held at St. Louis, May 25th, 1880 

The paper is a condensed and at the same time comprehensive review of en- 
gineering and engineering inventions in this country ; taking up consecutively the 
principal points of interest in connection with Water Works, Hydraulics, Canals, 
Street Railways, Bridges, Preservation of Timber, River Improvements, Light 
Houses, Marine Engineering, Telegraphic Engineering, Gas Engineering, Metal- 
lurgy and Mining, Agricultural Engineering, Transportation of meats and the En- 
gineering Future. 

It is concisely written, but possesses great interest, and will doubtless furnish 
to future numbers of the Review some valuable chapters. 



The Study Of Languages Brought back to its True Principles : By C. Marcel, 
pp. 27, Quarto: J. Fitzgerald & Co., N. Y. For sale by the K. C. Book & 
News Co. ; 15 cents. 

This is number eight of the Humboldt Library, and like its predecessors is a 
shining example of a good thing in cheap literature. M. Marcel is the author of 
" Languages as a Means of Mental Culture " etc., and has had large experience 
as a teacher. This work is a brief summary of a larger work not yet published, 
but in it are given special directions for the acquisition of ancient and modern Ian- 



246 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

guages by learners of all classes. It is divided into chapters upon Subdivision 
and order of study, The Art of Reading, The Art of Hearing, The Art of Speak- 
ing, The Art of Writing, Mental Culture and Routine, and covers the ground full^ 
in each instance. 



OTHER PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 

A Record of the Progress of Astronomy during the year 1879, by J. L. E> 
Dreyer, M. A., of the Observatory of Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland; 47 pp. 
Octavo : — No II. and III. of the Publications of the Missouri Historical Society of 
St. Louis, being the Recollections of a Septuagenarian, by Wm. Waldo Esq., 22 
pp. Octavo : — The Eleventh Annual Report of the American Museum of Nation- 
al History, Central Park, N. Y. : 33 pp. Octavo :— Annual Report of the Board 
of Directors of the Chicago Astronomical Society and Dearborn Observatory, 1880 
(illustrated) 16 pp. Octavo: — Circular of the Horological and Thermometrical 
Bureaus of the Winchester Observatory of Yale College, New Haven, June 1880^ 
8 pp. Octavo. 



SCIENTIFIC MISCELLANY. 



DOCTOR TANNER'S FAST. 

At noon on June 28th, Dr. S. H. Tanner, of MinneapoHs, Minn., com- 
menced at Clarendon Hall, New York City, an attempt to abstain from all food 
for a period of forty days. It appears that there had been some controversy be- 
tween Dr. Tanner and Professor W. A. Hammond and other members of the 
New York Neurological Society, upon the subject of the length of time that the 
human system could endure total abstinence from food, and that the Professor 
had made Dr. Tanner an offer of one thousand dollars if he succeeded in living 
without food for forty days. This proposition, in consequence of a mutual mis- 
understanding, was subsequently withdrawn and the Doctor has been conducting 
the experiment at his own cost and risk. 

E>r. Tanner is about forty-nine years of age, weighed at the commencement 
of his fast, 157^ pounds, and is of a rather nervous temperament. He has been 
vigilantly watched at all times, but especially so since the ninth day, when a de- 
tail of members of the Neurological Society was made for the purpose. 

For the first few days, owing to the newspapers being filled with exciting 
political news, the dispatches were very meager, but as the time has progressed, 
and the termination of the experiment has approached, the public interest in the 
case has been very marked and is daily growing in intensity. At the end of the 



DOCTOR TANNER'S FAST. 247 

fifth day he had lost in weight about ten pounds, or an average of two pounds a 
day. 

On the seventh day his temperature was 9S)4° Fahr., and his pulse 96, soft 
and compressible. The skin was moist and healthy, the countenance pleasant, and 
without the usual appearance of anxiety that follows long fasting, and the eye 
clear and unwavering, with normal dilatation of the pupil. The tongue was moist 
and slightly furred, but not more so than would naturally follow twenty-four 
hours' privation of food. His conversation was deliberate and coherent, but a 
little languid. The dimunition in the excretion of urea was surprising, as deter- 
mined daily by Dr. Van Der Weyde. 

On the ninth day his temperature was 9^^-^° and his pulse 96. On the loth 
day some interesting experiments were made by his watchers about 9 o'clock to 
determine whether or not his sensibility was diminished. The sesthesiometer 
was employed, an instrument consisting of two sharp points which are arranged 
at right angles to a graduated scale, upon which they can be moved backward 
and forward. This was applied to Dr. Tanner's feet, legs, hands and arms. He 
was almost invariably able to tell whether one point or two had been applied, 
even when they were very near together. He distinguished distance as small as 
three-eighths of an inch, and the opinion of the physicians was that his sensibil- 
ity was not diminished. 

On the eleventh day he succeeded in regaining some of his lost sleep, and his 
face looked a little less pinched and haggard, and his voice was clearer and 
stronger. At noon Dr. Harwood made a careful examination. The tongue was 
found slightly coated; pulse 88; temperature, 98|-°; respirations, 14. The 
weight as taken that day was 139^ pounds, showing a loss of about seventeen 
pounds. His legs and arms appeared comparatively plump and full. About 
eight o'clock Dr. Gunn tested his strength and sensibility with the dynamometer 
and sesthesiometer and detected nothing abnormal. 

Dr. Maurice N. Miller, of the University Medical School, watched Dr. 
Tanner during three days as a scientific observer. He made a number of anal- 
yses in the college laboratory which convinced him that Dr. Tanner had taken 
no food. After carefully ascertaining the amount of urea in Dr. Tanner's bodily 
fluids, he pronounced him to be really fasting. On the 13th day he said: " To- 
day has tended to increase my conviction that the Doctor can not last another 
week. To me he seems unquestionably more feeble to-day than yesterday. His 
temperature is very high and the back of his neck and head is exceedingly hot 
and feverish. This indicates an excessive amount of nervous wear and tear, 
which, of course, results in exhaustion of the nervous system." 

On the thirteenth day his temperature was 97^° and his pulse 90 at 8 a. m. 
At 6 p. m. his pulse was 96, temperature 9S^g°, respiration 14. By the dyna- 
mometer test it was shown that he had not yet lost any muscular strength. 

On the fifteenth day the temperature was 98°, respiration 15, pulse 107, weight 
133 pounds. Much of his time is spent in dozing and rinsing his mouth with 



248 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

water, which he ejects at once. He complained of cold and seemed drowsy and 
sluggish. 

Entering on the eighteenth day of the fast, Dr. Tanner exhibited a marked 
improvement. From nine o'clock last night until noon the Doctor swallowed be- 
tween thirty and forty ounces of water. His weight this morning was 137^ 
pounds. Allowing one pound for the weight of the coat, he has gained four 
pounds since Wednesday. He took a drive to Central Park in the morning, and 
forced the dynamometer up to 151, against 80 yesterday. His pulse when last 
taken was 80, temperature 98|°, and respiration 16. 

His condition was unchanged in the afternoon. He went out for a drive to- 
night. His pulse was 76 and temperature 98f°. He forced the indicator of the 
dynamometer up to 166 pounds, showing a slight increase in strength. During, 
the past twenty-four hours he drank seventy ounces of water and felt better for it. 

Dr. Chas. S. Tuttle stated that during the experiment up to the eighteenth day 
one of the attending doctors and himself had both made five chemical analyses, and 
both had failed to discover the least indication of any nourishment having been 
taken. 

On the nineteenth day his pulse registered 82, respiration 16, temperature 
981°, weight increased to 136^ pounds, although he had taken but twenty-eight 
and one-half ounces of water in the twenty-four hours. 

Dr. Tanner entered upon the twentieth day of his fasting in good condition,, 
pulse recorded at 84, temperature 99°, and respiration 16; weight 135^ pounds, 
showing a loss of half-a-pound m the twenty-four hours, although he had taken 
twenty-two ounces of water. 

On the twenty-first day his weight was 135 pounds, pulse 82, temperature 
99/^°j respiration [6, while the watching physicians agreed that his physical and 
mental condition indicated a decided improvement over that of a few days before 
and that he did not have the air of one whose vital forces had suffered much loss. 

On the twenty-second day his weight was 134 pounds, pulse 72, temperature 
99°, respiration 15. 

On the twenty-fourth day, pulse 75, temperature 98°, weight 132, respiration 
15. Manner bright and lively. 

On the twenty-fifth day he complained of vertigo and nausea in the morning,, 
but at noon was feeling better. Pulse 72, rather weak and more compressible,, 
temperature 98^°, respiration 16. 

On the twenty-sixth day his watchers agreed that his appearance was worse 
than at any time before and his manner of walking was heavy and languid though 
he made a strong effort to appear vigorous. The pulse was found to be 80, tem- 
perature 98|-°, respiration 16 ; weight 131^ pounds. He expressed the opinion 
that water was distressing him and declared his intention to drink less of it for the 
future. 

On the twenty-seventh day his symptoms remained much the same ; nausea 
and heartburn, with great thirst. His pulse was 76, temperature gSf ° and weight 
130^ pounds. 



THE HUDSON RIVER TUNNEL. 249 

Dr. Miller said : " I form my ideas in regard to the Doctor more on my pri- 
vate chemical analysis than on anything else. I have found that for the last few 
days the waste of poisonous matter from the system has been steadily decreasing, 
hence this poison must be accumulating in the body and will inevitably lead to 
blood poisoning." 

On the twenty-eighth day the evidences of nervous and muscular prostration 
were more apparrent than on the day before and his stomach was too irritable to 
retain water. Pulse 74, temperature 98|°, respiration 16, weight 1293^ pounds. 

On the twenty-ninth day all his symptoms were more favorable. Pulse 84, 
temperature 98^%°, respiration 14, weight 130 pounds. 

On the thirtieth day everything favorable. 

On the thirty-first day the symptoms were decidedly alarming and indicative 
of speedy collapse. 

On the thirty-second day, however, there was some improvement. Pulse 
72, temperature 98f°, respiration 15, weight 127. 

The history of this case is very remarkable, for while other cases are upon 
record where the fasters are reported to have abstained from food as long as Dr. 
Tanner, and some even longer, this is perhaps the one in which the greatest pains 
have been taken by really scientific men to prevent imposition and to note all the 
conditions, at regular intervals. And it must be admitted that most of the symp- 
toms in this case have been quite different from those expected and predicted by 
the skillful physicians in attendance, as well as those taught by our best physiological 
authors. The temperature of the body in particular, instead of being materially 
lowered, in accordance with medical teaching and experience, has remained near- 
ly normal ; while the pulse and nervous system, since the first ten days have been 
regular and healthful in action. The weight too has been far less reduced than 
any one could have expected. 

Of course there is room for suspicion that food has been supplied in some un- 
known manner, but the probabilities in favor of this manner of solving the problem 
are very few indeed, and we must turn to some other source for an explanation 
of the facts. 

^ THE HUDSON RIVER TUNNEL. 

This is one of the greatest undertakings of modern engineering science- 
The tunnel has been carried a little more than 300 feet from the great well at the 
foot of Fifteenth street, Jersey City, or about 200 feet out under the river. The 
work of sinking the well on the New York side is soon to be begun near the foot 
of Morton street, whence the laborers will bore westward under the river and 
eastward to a point near Broadway, where the New York entrance will be. The 
rate of progress on the New Jersey side will soon be about eight feet a day, bu 
on the New York side, where they must penetrate about a thousand feet of rock, 
the progress must necessarily be slower. Operations are continuous, night and 
day, seven days a week, there being three sets of laborers, relieved every eight 
hours. Only one tunnel has been begun. There are to be two. Originally it 
was planned to bore one enormous tunnel, and on both sides of the river there 



250 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

will be one tunnel down within 200 or 300 feet of the banks of the river. Thence 
under the river there will be two tunnels — one for trains into the city, and one 
for trains from the city. Each tunnel will be about twenty-two feet in height by 
twenty feet in width in the clear, and circular in form. The outer shell of the 
tunnels is boiler iron, breaking joints and firmly riveted together, and within 
this iron tube will be a two foot wall of hard burnt brick, laid in cement, and ex- 
tending completely around the interior, presenting the form of an arch against 
any outside pressure, whether vertical or lateral. The track for railroad trains 
will lie about forty feet below the bed of the river, and near the New York side, 
where the depth of water is about sixty feet; the traveler in a car under the Hud- 
son will be about 100 feet below the vessel overhead. The company's officers 
say that they can dispatch 400 trains through the tunnel every twenty-four hours. 
The engineers vary very widely in their estimates of the cost of the enterprise, 
some fancying that the $10,000,000 capital will complete the work, and others 
that it will cost as much as $17,000,000. The company expect to complete the 
work about three years hence. — K. C. Times. 



PERIHELIA. 

People will discuss the wonders of the universe, and just in proportion as the 
phenomena are mysterious will the} see signs and believe in the occult influences 
of the stars. And just now the perihelion of the four great planets, Jupiter, Sa- 
turn, Neptune and Uranus, is a source of vague dread to millions of people. It 
is true they are approaching their nearest position to the sun, and what is to be in 
that regard has not happened in eighteen hundred years. But history furnishes 
nothing coincident with similar occurrences to cause any dread now, though we 
must conclude that the influence which must be exerted between sun and planets 
to keep them in their places and govern their movements, will be more intense in 
action when nearest together, than when separated by the tremendous distances 
of the outer boundaries of their orbits. Neptune, the most distant of all the 
planets from the sun, requires 164 years to complete its circuit, while Jupiter re- 
quires less than one-twelfth of that time. 

But, then, similar stellar perihelia as to other planets have occurred, the last 
one of any note being in 1708, and following years. But this was not marked by 
any unusual phenomena, and there is no reason to suppose it will be so in the case 
of these four. The distances of Uranus and Neptune and in fact both the others 
are so great as to preclude the supposition that the influences from them will be 
any m re marked than in like positions of inferior but nearer planets. 

There is, in fact, nothing upon which to ground apprehension or to find cause 
for any baneful results from these planetary conjunctions, or that they even exer- 
cise a sway upon the meteorological conditions of our earth, Their perturbing 
force seems limited to a slight alteration of the eUiptical orbit of the earth, and 
beyond this they do not appear to affect our little world, but, like all large 
bodies toward small ones, are complacent and kindly disposed. — K. C. Journal. 



MINING AFFAIRS IN ARKANSAS. 251 

MINING AFFAIRS IN ARKANSAS. 

The traveling correspondent of the New York Mining Record has been in- 
vestigating mining affairs in Pima county, Arkansas, and arrived at the conclu- 
sion that mines there are well worth owning, both gold and silver being found in 
goodly quantity. Writing from Dos Cabesas, he says : I went on top of the main 
mountain that I believe is as full of gold as a mountain can well be, and it was 
no fool of a job. It was a mountain " as is a mountain," so steep that I left my 
mule at various points, and when I did attempt to ride him the same was of short 
duration, and it was harder to lead him than it was to do the walking. Prior to 
my ascension, I visited the Greenhorn, depth ten feet, with $70 gold assay ; 
Bear Core, depth seventy feet, silver, $90 per ton ; Ewell Springs, sixty feet, 
average, silver, $30 per ton ; Jumper, eighty feet, silver, with remarkable assays. 
On the top of this mountain, I found lead after lead pointing to and reaching the 
top; they are well defined and wide. Blind Tom could almost see them. Float 
matter could be picked up almost anywhere near the summit. By my guide I 
was told to select a piece, and he would "horn spoon" it for me. I did, and did 
my level best to make the worst selection I possibly could ; I took a piece of 
rock that looked bad in every particular ; in fact, the average man would not 
think it worth while to turn it over anywhere in a gold region, but when it was 
crushed and "horned" out, I saw a different feature in the case. By applying 
an eye-glass to the same, I found gold staring me in the face beyond the ques- 
tion of a doubt. I look upon this mountain as one containing wealth in gold al- 
most beyond computation. I do not give the opinion as an expert, but as one 
who has a pair of eyes in his head and sees in an unprejudiced manner. On 
both sides of the mountain, silver leads are thick and miners with plenty of "sand 
in their craw " are hard at Vi^ork developing the same. On the other side of the 
mountain, and nearer to Tombstone, other miners are at work developing the 
many leads they have discovered. — St. Louis Journal of Commerce. 



PIPE-ORE LIMONITES. 

We can not pass without notice, the beautiful hypothesis offered by Professor 
Lesley (p. 17, QQ, Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania) to explain the 
genesis of the "pipe-ore limonites." These are not to be confounded with the 
"pipe-veins" of Derbyshire, for instance, which are merely tubular bodies of 
lead ore occurring in fissure-veins. The "pipes" of limonite are "singular 
steeples of botryoidal and radiated iron ore," which "rise from the solid ore at 
the bottom of some of our great mines to heights of fifty and even 100 feet, 
through deposits of ore-bearing clays which fill vast pots in the limestone coun- 
try." 

Professor Lesley says he has long held that these deposits are made in cav- 
erns, the roofs of which were subsequently carried away by erosion. But there 



252 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

was difficulty in accounting for the support of the vast roofs which the size of 
some of the deposits required. He now suggests that these roofs were supported 
by "stalagmite steeples, rising to meet stalactites pendent from above" — a phe- 
nomenon common in large limestone caves. " If such a cavern, with all its 
piers finished, were to have its outlet choked, and to be filled with water through 
which insensible currents moved, it would become filled with ferruginous clays, 
and in the end all its piers of calcite would be metasomatized into limonite of the 
variety known as pipe-ore." Subsequent erosion removing the roof would ex- 
pose the clay as the country surface, and leave the metamorphosed stalagmites 
as pipes of ore standing in the clay and "descending with broadening bases to 
the floor." This explanation seems to us to fit the observed facts perfectly. — 

Engineering and Mining Journal. 



With respect to the six days of creation corresponding to six geologic periods, 
let me repeat that no such six periods are known to geology. No geologist rec- 
ognizes just six periods in creation. Lyell treats of four eras, thirteen forma- 
tions and thirty-eight strata; Dana mentions seven ages of rock, five divisions, 
or ages, of geologic time (and very different, indeed, from the six days of Gen- 
esis), subdivided into twenty-three periods. Gray and Adams describe five 
classes, eight orders, and fourteen systems of rocks; Page's "Geology" has five 
classes and twelve systems; Steele's "Fourteen Weeks in Geology" has four eras 
or times, seven ages, and twenty-one periods ; Figuier and Bristow have five 
epochs and thirteen periods; Denton has eight ages, or eras, and eleven periods; 
Taylor has three eras and nine periods ; Dawson has four periods and sixteen 
minor periods; Gunning has ten great periods; Nicholson has three periods 
and thirteen systems or formations; and Newberry has four eras, seven ages, and 
twenty-two periods. Nowhere do we find a trace of any six geologic periods. 

— W. E. Coleman in Western Boinestead. 



RAG SUGAR. 



It is said that a German manufactory produces, per day, five hundred kilo- 
grammes of glucose, taken from old linen rags. These rags, composed of fibers 
of almost pure cellulose, are first carefully washed, then treated with sulphuric 
acid (oil of vitrol) which converts them into dextrine. The dextrine so obtained 
is submitted to a wash of lime water, then treated with a new quantity of sul- 
phuric acid, stronger than the preceding. Next the mass is transformed and 
crystallized into glucose, chemically identical with that which constitutes natural 
sugar, called grape sugar, the same which is found in honey and ripe fruits. 
With this glucoe they make, in a manner as fraudulent as it is economical, rich 
confections, gooseberry jelly and others, according to the choice of the con- 
sumer. — Le Technolosiste. 



PRESERVATION OF FOODS BY SALICYLIC ACID. 253; 

PRESERVATION OF FOODS BY SALICYLIC ACID. 

TRANSLATED BY MISS MAY FEE FROM " LE TECHNOLOGISTE." 

The author has had in particular view, in the following, the household exi- 
gencies during the summer season — the time when we see all kinds of meat and 
fish rapidly spoiling. Who can calculate the amount of meat spoiled during an 
exceedingly warm day? Among the methods used to prevent ai d stop fermen- 
tation, ice and cold occupy a front rank 3 but neither of these is always at every- 
body's command. 

With Salicylic Acid, it is easy to accomplish the purpose by two different 
methods : either by dipping the substances to be preserved into a solution of 
SalicyHc Acid (three s^rammes to a litre of warm water) ; or better still, prepar- 
ing a preserving salt by an intimate mixture of cooking salt pounded fine, in the 
proportion of fifty grammes to one gramme of salicylic acid. In order to pre- 
serve meat for eight or ten days, in summer, carefully rub all its surface with this^ 
mixture. At the moment of cooking wash the meat in a little fresh water. The 
salicylic acid will leave no taste or smell. 

In a pavilion of the fish hall in London, there is a reservoir filled with a 
.strong solution of salicylic acid, in which the merchants, for a small recompense. 
dip their fish to keep them perfectly fresh for a long time. Moreover, this prac- 
tice has the great advantage of purifying the surrounding air. The antiseptic 
properties of salicylic acid have been happily utilized by the owners of cod-fish 
ships; its regular employment has saved whole cargoes of cod-fish from the 
decomposition which menace them during the warm weather. We shall also say 
a few words about the use of salicylic acid for maintaining, in a good state for 
consumption, the canned substances of all natures, after they have been opened. 



CARE OF TREES AND SHRUBS. 

In view of the drouth which prevailes in many parts of the country and its 
unusual severity over large districts, the Rural ^ew Yorker suggests to those who 
have planted trees or shrubs the past spring that there is one method, and so far 
as we know, says the writer, only one by which they may be protected against 
injury or death from that cause. Surface watering has been shown to do more 
harm than good. The ground is made hard and compact, thus becoming a bet- 
ter conductor of heat while it becomes less pervious to air and moisture. A por- 
tion of the surface soil should be removed, and then pailful after pailful of water 
thrown in until the ground, to a depth of two feet and to a width about the stem 
of not less than three feet in diameter, has become saturated. Then as soon as 
the water has disappeared from the surface, the removed soil should be well pul- 
verized and returned. A covering of boards, straw, or hay, or even of sand or 
gravel, may then be applied, and the tree or shrub, thus treated, will pass through 
ten days of additional drouth in safety. — Scientific Avierican. 



254 



KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



In our next number we shall have an arti- 
cle from the pen of Mr. C. A. Shaw, U. S. 
Signal Observer, at Madison, Wisconsin, on 
a Variable Scale for Barometric Pressures, 
presenting some original ideas based upon 
hi-; experience as an observer. 



Professor Oren Root, Jr., formerly Pro- 
fessor in the Missouri State University, re- 
cently Superintendent of the Public Schools 
at CarroUton, Mo., and now supplying the 
place of Rev. Dr. Kimball, at the Second 
Presbyterian Church in this city, has lately 
been appointed Professor of Mathematics at 
Himilton College, New York. This is a 
very fitting appointment, though it is rare 
for an Eastern College to seek any portion of 
its Faculty in the West. 



July was an unusually pleasant month, 
there having been but three days when the 
heat at 2 P. M. exceeded 90° in the shade, 
while there were none when the heat at 10 
p. M. exceeded 81°, and very few where it ex- 
ceeded 75°, The highest joint reached by 
the mercury at 7 A. M., was on the 9th, when 
it marked 78°. The highest point reached 
in the middle of the day, was on the 13th, 
96°, and the highest at 10 P. M. was on the 
same day, 81°, wiih pleasant breezes nearly 
every night. It showed the lowest average 
heat since July, 1876, when there was not a 
day whose maximum heat exceeded 90°, and 
only two above 88°. 

Dr. John Fee, of this city, will hereafter 
regularly contribute to the Review transla- 
tions of popular articles from its German, 
French and Italian exchanges. This will be 



a decided advantage to our readers, not only 
from the freshness of the foreign matter thus 
furnished, but also from Dr. Fee's well 
known skill as a translator and transcriber of 
these languages. 



Since our last issue we have made arrange- 
ments with Dr. E. A. Frimont of Ozuluama, 
Mexico, to correspond regularly with the 
Review upon archaeological, anthropological 
and other similar subjects. From what we 
know of him we anticipate very valuable and 
entertaining letters. 



University of Kansas, ") 
Lawrence, Kansas, July 26, 1880. / 

" Allow me to congratulate you upon the 
success of the Review, both popularly and 
scientifically considered. It fills a gap in 
our scientific literature and is an essential to 
every lover of science in our new America. 
"Very truly yours, 

F. H. Snow." 



The 29th meeting of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, will 
commence on Wednesday, August 25th, at 
the Massachusets Institute of Technology, 
in Boston, and the general sessions will be 
held in Huntington Hall. Lewis H. Mor- 
gan of Rochester, New York, is President. 
Prof. F. W. Putnam of Salem, Mass., is per- 
manent Secretary. A very large attendance 
is expected and the meeting will undoubtedly 
be of the greatest interest. 

The office of the Ca{erer\vas been removed 
to 141 Queen Victoria St., London, C. E. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



255 



Recently a well equipped expedition has 
been dispatched to Central America, charged 
with the work of systematically searching 
for everything that may tend to place within 
the domain of history the facts connected 
with a people whose career must have been 
one of the most interesting in the general 
development of the world's civilization. The 
founders of these cities were our precessors 
on this continent ; their peculiar civilization 
and their aesthetic development are of the 
highest interest as regards the question of 
the origin of man himself; their history is, 
in fact, the first chapter of the general his- 
tory of the American continent. Though 
we are not the lineal descendants of these 
builders of the citie-. that must have rivaled 
even Babylon and Nineveh in some of their 
architectural features, the results of their 
culture have been left to our safe keeping, 
and from these results it is evidently our 
duty, as far as possible, to gather the mate- 
rials for filling up the unwritten first chapter 
of our history. A full account of the ex- 
plorations of the party comprising the expe- 
dition is to be published from mon h to 
month in the North American Review, with 
illustrations of the most important objects 
discovered. The August number of the 
Review contains an article by the editor in- 
troductory to the series, entitled "Ruined 
Cities of Central America." Other articles 
in the same number of the Review ard "The 
Law of Newspaper Libel," by John Prof- 
fatt ; "The Census Laws," by Charles F. 
Johnson; "Nullity of the Emancipation 
Edict," by Richard H. Dana; "Principles 
of Taxation," by Prof. Simon Newcomb; 
"Prince Bismarck as a Friend of America 
and as a Statesman," by Moritz Busch ; and 
"Recent Literature," by Charles T. Cong- 
don. 

Mr. Henry Shaw, whose name has been 
rendered illustrious in connection with the 
botanical horticultural history of St. Louis, 
by the establishment of the new world-fa- 
mous Botanical Garden bearing his name, 
and of Tower Grove Park, which he so 
munificently donated to the city of St. Louis, 



celebrated on July 24th, the eightie'h anni- 
versary of his birthday. 



Professor F. E. Nipher, of the Washing 
ton University, St. Louis, Mo., who has been 
spending part of his vacation in verifying his 
magnetic observations, writes : " Our results 
are wholly in accord with the work of the 
two years before, and show that the conduct- 
ing power of the soil, is what determines 
the larger abnormal deviations of the mag- 
netic needle. Before I leave it I mean to 
settl- the matter so that it will be evident 
enough. We start this evening lor another 
tour from Salem southward to the Arkansas 
line " 

The sixty first volume of Harper's Maga- 
zine began with the June Number. In the 
July Number was begun a new serial novel 
by Henry James, Jr., entitled " Washing- 
ton Suqare" — an American story of unusual 
interest. The September Number will con- 
tain the continuation of William Black's 
" White Wings ; " the third part of " Wash- 
ington Square," by Henry James, Jr.; " The 
American Graces," a biographical sketch of 
the three Misses Caton of Baltimore — Eliza- 
beth, Mary and Louisa, who married respect- 
ively Baron Stafford, the Marquis of Welles- 
ley, and the Dake of Leeds — with beautiful 
portraits of each ; the second part of W. H. 
Bishop's "Men and Fish in the Maine Is- 
lands," illustrated by Burns; "The Family 
of George III.," with twenty-one portraits — 
fac-similes of old engravings from paintings 
by the best English artists of the latter part 
of the eighteenth and the first quarter of the 
nineteenth centuries ; the third part of Re- 
becca Harding Davis' "By-Paths in the 
Mountains," illustrated Ly Graham; "The 
Seven Sleepers' Paradise Beside the Loire," 
an illustrated paper by M. D. Conway; a 
beautiful poem by William M. Briggs, en- 
titled " Amid the Grasse-%" illustrated by 
William Hamilton Gibson ; " Squatter Life 
in New York," by William H. Rideing, 
with characteristic illustrations by Shultz 
and Kelley ; and the usual variety of short 
stories, timely articles, etc. 



256 



KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



The American Bookseller, whicli is itself an 
almost indispensable aid to librarians and 
otber book buyers, commenced the publica- 
tion on July 1st, 1880, of the Monthly Index 
to current periodical literature, proceedings 
of learned societies and government publica- 
tions. It consists of the titles of the best 
articles in all the leading periodicals of the 
United States, whether scientific, professional 
or literary, and is well worth its price to the 
student in almost any branch of education 
who can not afford or has not the time to 
read all the current literature of the day. 
$\ per annum. 10, Spruce St., New York. 

The Industrial World and National Econo- 
mist, Vol. I, No I, presents itself as an ad- 
vocate and gazetteer of Home industries,Com- 
merce. Finance, Insurance, Railroads and 
Mining. It is published weekly at Montreal. 
$3 per annum. 

The American Naturalist for August, says 
that Mr. J. Walter Fewkes, of Boston,hasbeen 
engaged to deliver a course of lectures on 
natural history to the public schools of New- 
ton, Mass., and handsomely endorses both 
the scheme and the teacher engaged. 



A critic in the Atlantic Monthly speaks of 
Mr. S. S. Cox's Search for Winter Sun Beams 
as "depressing reading, from the fact that 
that the author seems to have labored con- 
tinually under the feeling that it was incum- 
bent upon him to be funny, and in obedience 
to this sense of duty he frequently indulges 
in jests by the side of which grinning through 
a horse collar is a serious and dignified occu- 
pation." 



Science is a new illustrated weekly record of 
Scientific Progress, edited by John Michels, 
and published at 229 Broadway, New York. 
It is intended to be a medium for presenting 
immediate information of scientific events,and 
each department is to be under the super- 
vision of a specialist in that department. 
The first number made its appearance July 
3d, in quarto form, 12 pages, 10 cents per 
number. 



We have received Nos. 126 and 127 of 
Le Technologiste, Louis Lockert, Rue Ober- 
kampf, Paris. This is a weekly publication 
devoted to the application of science to the 
industrial arts. Its eminently useful and 
practical character can be readily understood 
from a summary of contents : Bleaching of 
Cotton in Skeins ; On the Method of Stamp- 
ing Gold and Silver Colors on Woven Goods ; 
On Decorative Weaving ; The Preservation 
of Foods by Salicylic Acid ; The Adultera- 
tion of Tobacco ; Defibrating of Sugar Cane ; 
On Rag Sugar; A New Compound Cement 
for Pavements; The Coloring and Decorating 
of Porcelain and Chinaware. We cheerfully 
commend this journal to the manufacturers 
of the United States. 

" L'ExPLORATiON." Revue Des Con- 
quetes de la Civilization Sur Tours les Points 
du Globe: M. Paul Tournafond, 35 Rue De- 
Grenelle, Paris. This handsome weekly of 
sixty pages, large octavo, is now before us. 
It is devoted to the collection and diffusion 
of geographical knowledge. Its editor as- 
sures us that it is the single tie that binds 
together the only sixty-five geographical so- 
cieties that are scattered over the five great 
divisions of the globe. In the present num- 
ber we observe a lengthy extract from Hall's 
second Arctic voyage, by James Jackson, a 
long and original letter from Soudan from 
the pen of Dr. Matteucci, who is nowdiiect- 
ing the Italian Scientific expedition to Cen- 
tral Africa. Shorter articles from various 
parts of the Globe, civilized and uncivilized, 
some necrological announcements and a new 
map of Cochin China complete the issue. 
We are happy to say that no one, who in- 
tends to be abreast of the latest geographical 
researches, can afford to be without V Ex- 
ploration. 

Mr. Aldrich's "Stillwater Tragedy" in 
the August Atlantic grows in interest. Dr. 
Holmes in a characteristic poem, entitled 
" The Archbishop and Gil Bias," sings with a 
pathetic felicitousness of growing old. John 
Burroughs, one of the most charming of out- 
y door writers, contributes " Pepacton: A Sum- 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



257 



mer Voyage down the Delaware." Mark 
Twain has a very pungent tale entitled " Ed- 
ward Mills and George Benton," which sa- 
tirizes keenly certain forms of pseudo-phi- 
lanthropy. Mrs. Wallace, wife of General 
Lew. Wallace, Governor of New Mexico, 
writes "Among the Pueblos;" Richard 
Grant White's English article this time is 
^'Taurus Centaurus." The political article 
discusses " The Republicans and their Can- 
didate" whom it regards as wholly worthy of 
confidence and enthusiastic support. Col. 
Higginson and Susan Coolidge furnish poems ; 
and reviews of new books and an attractive 
variety in the ''Contributors' Club " com- 
plete a capital Summer number. The Atlan- 
tic for September will contain two important 
political papers : one on Candidates and Par- 
ties, and the other relating to the duties of 
independent voters at the present juncture ; 
also, a brilliant society story by the author 
of "One too Many " ; a study of the intimate 
life of a noble German family ; a study of the 
people of a New England factory village; an 
article on women in social and charitable or- 
ganizations ; a paper on socialistic assassina- 
tions; and a full variety of essays, reviews 
and poems. 

From the Catalogue of students at the Uni- 
versity of Kansas for this year, we glean the 
following items: The number of students is 
438 — being an increase over last year of 38. 
Missouri sends seventeen, of whom six are 
from this city, viz.: Miss Ethel B. Allen, R. 
W. E. Twitchell, Wm.j^G. Raymond, Orais 
E. Smith, A. M. Finney and H. M. Lewers. 
Eighteen different states are represented. 
The prospects are good for 500 students next 
■session. 



Prof. E. T. Nelson of the Ohio Wesleyan 
University, in writing for back numbers of 
the first and second volumes of the Review, 
takes occasion to speak thus most flatteringly 
of it : "I feel it to be the best journal for the 
general student that is published in our 
country. It is for this reason that I wish to 
■complete my set." 



The Popular Science Monthly for July and 
August, reached us about the same time, 
the former too late for serviceable notice. 
The contents of the latter are varied and val- 
uable, comprising articles on The Kearney 
Agitation in California, by Henry George, 
in which an attempt is made to show that 
"law" governs human actions as it does the 
conditions of the material universe, and that 
social phenomena may be attributed to gen- 
eral rather than special causes ; the second 
chapter of Radeau's Interior of the Earth, 
translated from the Revue des Deux Monde s : 
The Method of Zadig, by Prof. T. H, Hux- 
ley, which is a very attractive account of the 
manner of scientists in the interpretation of 
fossil remains and the method of reasoning 
which enables them from a fragment of an 
extinct animal to prophesy,not only the char- 
acter of the whole organism, but its past and 
future conditions ; The Medicinal Leech; 
Recent Original Work at Harvard College ; 
Geology and History; The Cinchona For- 
ests of South America, and many others 
equally valuable. As usual, the Editor's 
Table and Literary Notes constitute a very 
attractive feature. 

Our space is too limited to say more of 
Good Cotnpany for August, than that it con- 
tinues to maintain a literary character which 
fully justifies it in assuming so self appreci- 
ative a title. It is a society magazine of just 
the kind to suit the best families all over the 
land. 



The American Antiquarian for April, May 
and June, being No. 4, of Volume II, is de- 
cidedly the best number yet issued, and de- 
serves an extensive sale. In our opinion, no 
magazine of its class, either in the United 
States or across the water, equals it. Rev. 
Stephen D. Peet, is editor, but he has as as- 
sociates, Prof. E. A. Barber of Philadelphia, 
Prof. R. B. Anderson, Madison, Wis., A. S. 
Gatschet, Washington, D. C, and Rev. 
Selah Merrill, Andover, Mass.; while he has 
as contributors apparently nearly all of the 
archaeologists of the country. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

It seems to have become altogether a fixed thing for T. M. James & Sons, to 
put their latest importations of rich China and Queensware goods and artistic 
novelties on exhibition at the opening of each week and upon arrival of new- 
invoices, and the frequency of such receipts affords our citizens many oppor- 
tunities to examine choice handiwork from abroad and emanating from the most 
celebrated patterns and embellished by the hands of eminent artists. To-day 
may be seen in the show windows of T. M. James & Sons a late importation of 
admirable qualities, and splendid display of hand painted vases of Ionic and 
Grecian shapes and decorated in the most pleasing manner in landscapes, sport- 
ing scenes and classic groups. These goods are very seasonable and their price 
is very low, considering their elegance, and will repay a close inspection and 
ought to find a place in a great number of households in our city and suburbs. 
Messrs. James & Sons are still in almost daily receipt of rich Chinaware elegant 
Glassware and a great variety of other goods requisite in their large trade. A 
visit to this great importing house is time profitably spent both in pleasure and 
economy of prices. 

Established 1865. 



ED. IS. l^TEKSTESl, 

Eeal Estate I Loan Broker 

FARMS, Unimproved and Mineral Lands Bought and Sold, Capital Invested, Rents Collected, Taxes Paid, 
Titles Examined, Deeds, Leases and General Conveyancing and Notarial Business promptly attended to. 

Ojifice, No, 603 Main Street, 

^A^M. E. THORNE, 

728 Main Street, Corner 8tli, KAJfSAS CITY, MO. 

ICTURE FRAMES, PICTURE MOULDINGS, 

ARTISTS' AND WAX FLOWER MATERIALS, 

irrors and Mirror Plates, Stationery, A New Line, Cheap. 

FAIVCV GOODS OF MANY KINDS. 



RAMSEY, MILLETT & HUDSON, 



The 




224 and 226 W. Fifth St., KANSAS CITY, MO. 



Review of Science and Industry, 

A MONTHLY RECORD OF PROC-RESS IN 

SCIENCE, MECHANIC ARTS AND LITERATURE. 



VOL IV. SEPTEMBER, 1880. NO. 5. 



GEOGRAPHY. 



THE HOWGATE EXPEDITION. 

The following extracts from the private journal kept by Dr. Rohe, surgeon 
of the Howgate Expedition, furnish a brief record of the voyage of the Gulnare 
from Washington to St. John's, N. F.: 

Weighed anchor at 9:20 p. m., on June 21st, and reached Hampton Roads 
June 22d at 11:00 p. m. Steamed out of the Roads in the afternoon of the 24th 
and passed through the capes about 5:00 p. m. On the 25th there was consider- 
able swell but the weather was pleasant. On the 26th hourly meteorological ob- 
servations were begun by Mr. Sherman, Mr. Jewell and myself assisting, each 
taking a watch of 6ight hours. 

June 27th was cool and pleasant. The ship behaves very well, both under 
steam and sail. About 9:00 p. m. it became very foggy, and at 11:00 p. m. the 
fog was so dense that objects could not be distinguished at a very short distance. 

June 28th. A rather monotonous day. About half-past eight at night, how- 
ever, the engineer startled the whole party by the announcement that two of the 
fire-boxes had collapsed, rendering the engine unserviceable. He made no ex- 
planation of the cause of the trouble. The accident is a great disappointment to 
all of us. 

June 29th. The breeze was fresh and the weather cool, damp and foggy. 

June 30th. The weather was pleasant. We are north of the latitude of 
Halifax, as the coast of Nova Scotia is in sight. Capt. Palmer thought it im- 

IV— 17 



258 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

prudent to make for Halifax harbor during the fog yesterday, and has determined 
to proceed directly to St. Johns. 

July ist. The weather was cool and foggy, and the wind fresh during the 
day. 

July 2d. Nearly calm throughout the day. 

July 3d. Brisk head wind and considerable swell. 

July 4th. At 7:00 a. m. the temperature was 51°, The wind and sea-swell 
of yesterday continued during the day, at night it was very rough and stormy. 
Foggy at intervals yesterday and to-day. 

July 5th. Heavy swell still continues. The vessel is making fair progress- 
under sail, although the cargo is not properly trimmed, there being a decided list 
to port. 

July 6th. Almost calm to-day. Sighted a number of small icebergs yester- 
day and to-day. 

July 7th. At daylight Cape Spear, just south of the entrance to the harbor 
of St. Johns, N. F. , was seen about five miles off, and soon after we signaled to a. 
tug to take us into the harbor. At 9:00 a. m. dropped anchor opposite the 
Queen's wharf. 

On the eighth day of July Mr. Sherman, Mr. Jewell and I began a series of 
observations on shore, with the magnetometer, dip-circle and pendulum. 

During our three weeks stay in St. Johns the observations were continued 
every day except Sunday, and a good series of results obtained. Hon. John 
Delany, Postmaster General of the province of New Foundland, placed his well- 
appointed private observations entirely at the disposal of Mr. Sherman and rend- 
ered all the aid possible in order to make our work pleasant and satisfactory. 
For many personal favors, I am under obligations to him. 

As soon as the vessel arrived, a board of survey inspected the damaged 
boiler, and steps were taken to have the damage repaired. I do not know what 
the official report of the board is, but I gathered from conversations with mem- 
bers of the board and other engineers, that the accident could only have resulted 
through the carelessness or incompetence of the engineers in charge of the vessel. 
The same impression is, I believe, current among the gentlemen composing the 
scientific party and the officers of the ship. 

The engineers left the vessel at St. Johns and returned to the United States- 
on the St. Alhambra of the Cromwell Line. 

Of the present engineers, nothing but the best reports can be heard in St. 
Johns, where they are both well known. Mr. Stein, the chief, is a German and 
has a certificate of competence from the German government. He is also a. 
practical machinist, and the business-like manner in which he attends to his work 
inspires every one with confidence in his ability and prudence. The assistant, 
Mr. McRobbie, appears to be equally proficient in the practical work of his 
department. Both of these gentlemen have been in charge of the engines of 
steamers plying along the northern coast either in the seal fishery or in the La- 



ACCIDENT TO THE G ULNA RE. 259 

brador coast trade. They are, therefore, thoroughly familiar with the manage- 
ment of a steam engine in the midst of the ice. They may, I think, both be 
relied on to do their duty as well as it can be done. 

So far as I am able to judge, Capt. Palmer and his first officer, Mr. Bailey, 
are thorough seamen, whose prudence will take the ship wherever it can be done 
with safety. 

In conclusion, permit me to state that my confidence in the sea-going qual- 
ities and entire safety of the " Gulnare " is not in the slightest degree impaired 
by the accident which has, it appears, caused no little uneasiness among the 
friends of those on board. 



ACCIDENT TO THE GULNARE. 

The following report of the Board of Survey upon the Gulnare on her arri- 
val at St. Johns, gives officially the nature and cause of the accident to her boilers 
referred to by Dr. Rohe. 

REPORT OF THE BOARD OF SURVEY. 

We, George A. Pitts, mechanical engineer, associate of Kings College Lon- 
don, and member of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers of Great Britain; 
Robert Stein and Alexander Murray, sea-going Engineers-in-Chief, having been 
called upon by T. N. Malloy Esq., American consul in this port, and Captain 
Palmer, master of the S. S. Gulnare, to survey the boiler of said steamer, do 
declare that we have made a careful examination of the said boiler, and found the 
crowns of the three furnaces collapsed, and we consider the accident was due to 
carelessness. We base our opinion on the fact that during our examination we 
found deposits of salt on the crown of the furnaces to a thickness of about ^ 
inch. Further, the crown of the combustion chamber is in a good condition. We 
also certify that the damage done to said boiler can be repaired in St. Johns, and 
the boiler placed in good and efficient condition to enable the steamer to prose- 
cute her present or any voyage. We also suggest that a stop-valve be placed on 
the boiler to supplement the ordinary butter-fly valve at present in use on the 
engine. 

St. Johns, Newfoundland, (Signed) George A. Pitts. 

July 7th, 1880. (Signed) R. Stein. 

(Signed) A. Murray. 

THE GULNARE AGAIN AT SEA. 

The Gulnare left St. Johns July 30th, for Lady Franklin Bay, which locality 
it was proposed to attempt reaching without stopping at Disco, as originally con- 
templated. 



260 ARANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

THE CRUISE OF THE CORWIN. 

The official report of Captain Hooper, commanding the revenue steamer 
Corwin, now in the Arctic in search of the missing whale vessels and m^der orders 
to communicate with the Jeannette, was received at the treasury department 
August 6th. The report is dated Norton Sound, June 19th. Captain Hooper 

says : — 

We left Ounalaska on the 8th inst. and visited St. George and St. Paul's on 
the 9th inst. After communicating with the special agents on these islands and 
taking on board a quantity of pup seal skins for Arctic clothing for the officers 
and crew and putting the ice breaker in place we proceeded north the same 

evening. 

On the nth we encountered ice a few miles north of Nounivak Island, m 
latitude 60 deg. 45 min. north, longitude 167 deg. 50 min. west. A fresh south- 
west gale was blowing at the time, so we did not enter the ice until it moderated 
on the 13th inst., after which we worked our way along to the northward, taking 
advantage of every opening or lead which showed itself. We worked along in 
this way'', sometimes making a few miles a day and at others drifting helplessly in 
the pack until the 17th inst., when a sharp northeast gale broke up and opened 
the ice and started it off shore, allowing us to proceed on our way the following 
day. We arrived here this afternoon and found the sound filled with ice. We 
are now at anchor sixteen miles from St. Michael's. We shall endeavor to get a 
boat ashore to reach there overland to-morrow and deliver the mail which we 
have on board for that place, and continue northward as fast as the ice will 

permit. 

All hands are in good health and everything satisfactory. The Corwm has 
proved herself a very able vessel. Although forced through heavy ice for nearly 
a week, and at times hfted bodily up by the pack she seems none the worse for it. 
I hope to be in Kotzebue Sound ahead of the whisky traders and break up their 
ilhcit trade for the summer. I shall endeavor to get some tidings from the miss- 
ing whalers from the natives in Kotzebue Sound, and also from those on the 
Asiatic side, either in Plover Bay or in the vicinity of East Cape, whichever the 
ice will permit us to visit first. 

While in the ice, off Romanzoff, some natives visited the vessel and reported 
the past winter as the most severe ever known, and some sealers from Norton 
Sound, who have just come on board, confirm the report. They say the ice in 
the sound only broke up yesterday. 

A day later than the report Captain Hooper wrote to Major Clarke, chief 
of the Revenue Marine service, giving an account of the hardships already 
experienced on the voyage northward. In this letter he says : — 

This will be the last chance to report, I suppose, until we return to San 
Francisco. We had a hard passage through the ice. We entered it on the 13th, 
after trying in vain to get around it, and were six days getting here. The first 



THE CRUISE OF THE COR WIN. 261 

day we only made about forty miles, and the second day about twenty. The 
third and fourth days we did not make any distance at all and had as much as 
we could do to save the vessel. The ice set us in off the lower mouth of the 
Youkon ia five fathoms of water. At this depth about half the ice was aground 
and the floating ice was carried by it by the current at least three knots an hour. 
The crashing and warring of the ice on all sides as the drift ice struck that 
aground was demoralizing to weak nerves. Of course we were carried along 
with it and several times were caught in the "nrp-" 

Our engines had no more effect on the vessel than a toy engine would have 
had. We came near losing our rudder, and at times our boats were in daiiger, 
the ice was so high. The screw steering gear was carried away and the wheel 
chains parted. After realizing the effect of a " nip " I saw the necessity of hav- 
ing the rudder so it could be unshipped at short notice. So I went to work, 
fitted a piece of oak plank over the rudder head so that it could not unship itself, 
but can be removed readily if necessary, cut a piece out of the apron the size of 
the rudder casing and cleared the rudder head of the patent steering gear and 
everything that would not go down through the cashing, made a band and put in 
to keep it from cracking, rigged a pair of shears over the stern and made a pur- 
chase, then put all hands at work and carried coal in sacks forward until her stern 
was raised out of water sufficiently to get at the woodlock and split it out. We 
can now unship the rudder and land it on deck in three minutes, and after a litde 
practice can do it in two. I think I have no fears of losing it now. 

This is tough business on revenue cutters, I can assure you. If we had not 
forced her through the ice we would not have been able to get far along for three 
weeks yet. I thought it was all up with her on the morning of the i8th. We 
had been at anchor close in under the Cape Romanzoff during a northeast gale 
and snow storm nearly all day of the lyth, and on the i8th it backed to northwest 
right on shore and blew harder yet. The ice had been broken and started off 
shore by the northwest wind, and, of course, as soon as the wind changed it came 
back. We got under way and tried to work out into the pack to keep from going 
ashore, but for a while it showed such a sohd front that we could not penetrate 
it The ice kept driving us in shore until we had only two and three-quarter 
fathoms of water, when an opening showed itself and we shot into it and suc- 
ceeded in getting fast to a piece that was aground in five and a half fathoms and 
rode comfortably until the gale broke and the ice started off shore again. The 
piece we made fast to probably covered a surface of four acres, drew thirty-three 
feet of water and was about twenty-five feet high above the water, so you can 
form an idea of what the Behring Sea ice is like. Our pilot says he never saw 
anything like it outside of the Arctic. 

A native has just arrived from the shore with a note from the Alaska Com- 
mercial Company, who reports the winter as having been terrible — very cold, 
with an unusual amount of snow and heavy storms. None of the traders have 
arrived from up the river yet. The wild geese, which usually have their young 



262 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

hatched out by this time, have just commenced to arrive and lay their eggs. We 
vi'ill start north to-morrow, or perhaps this evening if the ice shows a break. I 
don't expect to get further than Kotzebue Sound for a month. We won't spare 
her, but will push on as fast as possible. I have no fears but we can go as far as 
any one. The Corwin has good power and is very strong. 



IS THERE AN OPEN POLAR SEA? 

CONCLUSIONS AGAINST THE POPULAR THEORY DRAWN FROM THE RESULTS OF MANY 
BOLD AND ENERGETIC EXPLORATIONS. 

Dr. I. I. Hayes, the Arctic Explorer, in a recent letter to the New York 
Herald, expressed his well known views in reference to the existence of an open 
polar sea; to which a Springfield, Mass., correspondent takes exception as 
follows : — 

In Dr. Hayes' letter on the prospects of the Jeannette there is one paragraph 
which is of so much importance in view of the history of opinion in regard to the 
open polar sea, that I wish to advance some considerations weighing against the 
opinion there expressed, in the hope that Dr. Hayes may see fit to publish his 
views more at length in the Herald. 

In speaking of the intention of Captain DeLong he says : — " Of course no 
one imagines that there can be any such thing as a sea about the Pole wholly free 
from ice, but it is equally inconceivable that so large a body of water, embracing 
an area of more than three millions of square miles, could be at any time firmly 
and completely frozen over." And he infers that should captain DeLong reach 
the northern termination of Wrangell Land he would encounter large areas of 
open navigable water. The opinion here expressed by Dr. Hayes that there is 
in the extreme north a virtually open sea, is the same as he advances at the close 
of his account of his attempt to reach the open polar sea in i860 — 61 ; and the 
argument is also the same — viz : that within the encircling shores of the northern 
continents, that is, roughly, within the parallel of eighty degrees north latitude, 
there is a vast expanse of sea where the ice cannot fasten itself to the land and wilj 
therefore of necessity be broken to pieces by wave action. Now, if it were an 
ascertained fact that there is this vast polar Avater, this conclusion might seem to 
be necessary ; but what support is there to the opinion that we have this great un- 
broken expanse of water at all ? 

The progress of northern exploration, great as it has been, has never yet ad- 
vanced beyond the boundaries of land. Parry, to be sure, in his remarkable at- 
tempt to reach the Pole from Spitzbergen, penetrated to 82° 45' without finding 
land, but his journey proves nothing as to its existence or absence within a com- 
paratively small distance of his furthest point, for traveling on the ice, he could 
not possibly have distinguished a low Arctic coast at a few miles distance. The 
memorable experience of the Austrian expedition of 1872 is well known. After 



IS THERE AN OPEN POLAR SEA ? 263 

■drifting north of Nova Zembla for months, fast in the ice, over an unknown sea, 
they came at last (about latitude 79°) on a new land, which was traced by Payer 
above 82°, and the extreme vision of the Austrians was bounded on the north not 
by water, but by land, whose nothern limit and dimensions no one knows. Again, 
it is well known that Arctic explorers of experience find in the reports of the 
English expedition of 1875 — 7^ reason for belief in the existence of land beyond 
the eighty-fourth parallel. The tremendous character of ice of the so-called 
palseocrystic sea, and the great hummocks which baffled Markham's sledge party, 
together with shallowness of the sea at the extreme point reached by Markham, are 
regarded as very strong proofs of the existence of land very much further north 
than any yet known. It is to this land to which Howgate's colony scheme looks in 
large measure for success, since it may offer a coast line trending north and reach- 
ing to or near the Pole. No one also yet knows the extreme northerly extent of 
Greenland and adjacent lands. The extreme vision of the English saw only the west 
Greenland coast losing itself in the mystery of the Arctic snows and ice north of 83°. 
And finally DeLong's expedition itself is proof of land in the extreme north in yet 
another quarter than those named. That Wrangell Land exists north of Siberia 
is known. How great it may be and how far north, no one knows. Dr. Hayes 
himself admits it may reach to the Pole. 

It then remains true that whithersoever men have gone in the far north they 
■have found not sea only, but land also. It seems a fair deduction from the past 
history of exploration that wherever they may hereafter go, there they will still 
find land. If, now, this is so, until we know accurately the amount and disposi- 
tion of these Arctic lands all conjectures based on their presence or absence must 
be idle. Suppose these lands to be grouped anywhere about the course of the 
Jeannette, will we not have then just the conditions of coasts approaching one 
another sufficiently near to allow the ice to form and accumulate and pile itself 
up in the enormous masses of Nares' palaiocrystic sea or of those whose tumult 
seemed pandemonium let loose around the Tegethoff, while her navigators were 
yet, as they supposed, in the midst of a boundless sea? 

In the introductory chapters of his book. Payer, reviewing the history of Arc- 
tic explorations through three centuries, remarks on the doctrine of the open po- 
lar sea and demonstrates, it seems to me, the groundlessness of that opinion by 
showing how, as men have approached, as they supposed, the northern boundary 
of that ice belt which they believed to girdle the open sea, that boundary has 
■ever receded and the ice has ever grown heavier, the climate more severe, the 
nearer they have drawn to the Pole. If, then, there is virtue in the consistency of 
reasoning we must assume that beyond where man has reached, the same law 
holds true — that the further north we go, the thicker the ice becomes and the se- 
verer the climate. Any other conclusion is contrary to the known facts, and the 
belief in the open polar sea would seem to be born solely of splendid enthusiasms, 
Mgh courage and desire to pierce the fascinating mystery of the far north. 

D. W. B. 



264 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF FRANCE. 

(from ' ' l'exploration. ") 

Sitting of July i8th. — M. A. Grandidier in the chair. Meeting opened at 
eight o'clock. After reading of the official minutes, the president signaled the 
attendance of M. Pinard, the young explorer from Arizona, who will return to- 
his explorations as soon as the state of his vision, considerably weakened, will 
permit — also the presence of Dr. F. M. Moreno, director of the Anthropological 
and Archaeological Museum, at Buenos Ayres. This learned South American, 
continued the resume of his explorations, in the as yet scarcely known country 
of Patagonia, as follows : In 1873 I made my first voyage to Patagonia, in order 
to dig into the Indian burying grounds along the Rio Negro. After two months 
of excursions, I returned with forty-two skulls and some hundreds of stone imple- 
ments. In 1874, I returned to the Rio Negro. My excavations gave me eighty 
crania, some incomplete skeletons and three hundred stone objects. From the 
Rio Negro, I passed to the Rio Santa Cruz ■ in order to ascend it, but some ob- 
stacles preventing me, I was only able to make some ethnological collections, in 
the environs of the sea. — In 1875, I left overland, from Buenos Ayres, for the 
purpose of passing over Patagonia until I reached ChiH. — Arriving at the Rio 
Colorado, I continued my anthropological researches, and at the Rio Negro, for 
the third time, I was able to augment my collection of skulls. Leaving this place^ 
with a domestic and five Indians, I followed the banks of the river and arrived on 
the slope of the Andes. There the Araucaniens or Manpuches impeded the con- 
tinuance of my voyage. Condemned by a council of war, I obtained permission 
to visit lake ]S'ahuel-Napi. After some weeks of hunting, of reHgious feasts and 
orgies, I was given leave to return to Buenos Ayres, where I arrived after having 
had a battle with some Indian cattle thieves. I left immediately for the northern 
part of the Argentine Republic, with the object of excavating the ancient forts- 
and cities of the Colchuguis. In October, I left for the fourth time, for the pur- 
pose of traversing Patagonia. After roaking some collections at Chuburt and 
Port-Desire, I commenced the exploration of the Rio Santa Cruz. There, with 
my canoe, I penetrated as far as the lake from which it takes its origin. I could 
see two other lakes to the north, alive with Indians, also a volcano in activity,, 
which I baptized with the name of Fitz-Roy. I reached afterward, by land, the 
strait of Magellan and returned to Buenos Ayres. On my return, I donated all 
my collections, anthropological, zoological and palseontological, to the government 
which has established the museum of which I am the conservator. To augment 
this collection, I left in October, 1879, for a voyage of two years in Patagonia.. 
After ascending the Rio Negro, in my little steamer, 400 kilometers, I directed 
myself to the South, on horse-back, to the distance of 100 kilometers, thence ta 
the west-south west, traversing a region as yet unexplored. In the place of plains 
and table-lands, I saw mountains from 1000 to 2000 meters in height. Here I 
discovered some ancient volcanoes, and some basaltic grottoes, which had served 



THE KHEDIVE'S GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 265' 

as human habitations; also some human skulls. Arriving at 43° 30' south, at 
the foot of the Andes, I found some Indians, and some days afterward, I contin- 
ued my course to the North. I explored the banks of the lake Nahuel-Napi, 
where I found some grottoes containing bones. Here, at the western part of the 
lake, some Araucanien Indians took me prisoner — brought into the presence of 
the principal chief, whom I had known in my voyage of 1875, ^ was passed to a^ 
council of war, and after three days of feasting, I was condemned to death. — 
" God was angry, and the heart of a Christian must be sacrificed to Him." TwO' 
days afterward, I escaped in the night, with my domestic and interpreter. We 
constructed a raft, and after two nights and seven days of travel, through the ra- 
pids, we reached the Argentine encampment. My companions, whom I had left 
in a hospitable Patagonian village, informed by a friendly Indian, had saved ray 
anthropologieal collection and my botanical gatherings — I was able to save on my 
person a part of my journal and some astronomical observations made at twelve 
different places. Arrived at Buenos Ayres, I was sent, on recommendation of 
physicians, to Europe. :^ * * * Session closed at 10.30. 

J. F. 



THE KHEDIVE'S GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 
(from l' exploration.) 

The session of June nth was well attended, considering the terribly hot 
weather. It was devoted, as announced by the order of the day, to a conference 
with Dr. Zucchinetti, who left Cairo in the month of January, to make an excur- 
sion to the provinces of Bahar-el-Gazar and Bahar-el-Arab, thence to a part of 
Darfur, and of Kordofan, and also to that region of Nubia situated to the south 
of Obeida, a country as yet scarcely known. 

He commenced his discourse by exposing the vast project he had conceived 
of traversing Africa as far as its southern extremity, for the purpose of studying 
it from a statistical and scientific standpoint, and for placing it in condition to 
contribute to that grand activity, in which intelligent Europe desires to place this 
part of the globe, heretofore so much neglected. 

He then traced briefly, the hne followed from Cairo to Khartoom, skirting 
the Nile, from Khartoom to Chiri along the White Nile as far as the third degree 
of latitude, where he was stopped by unexpected difficulties ; also sketched the 
route of his return from Chiri to Gaba-Sciambia, thence to the West, to the Ma- 
cracasj the Niam Niams, the Gouro-Gouras on the Bahar-el-Arab, to Sciacca, to 
Fasher, to Obeida in Nubia, to Khartoom, to Djeddah and to Suez. 

He interrupted the recital by quoting some notes, made in the course of his 
voyage, which excited the nfcst lively interest. The Doctor spoke lengthily of 
Khartoom, Lake Noo and of the Leds (falls) which arrest the navigation of the 
river, and of the way to avoid them. He then gave a description of the Egyp- 



266 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

tian military posts and their organization. Gen. Stone, who was occupying the 
presidents' chair with Mr. Bonola, then took the floor to announce that among 
the new members of the Society were counted the engineers Lafitte and Bangabe. 
He also stated that the Society had recently established relations and exchanges 
with the Geographical Society of New York, with the Typographic Society of 
■Geneva, and with the journal L' Exploration at Paris. He pointed out the favor 
with which the publications of the Society had been received abroad, and 
cited as an example the Bulletin of the London Geographical Society, which had 
reproduced with praise, some articles from the Bulletin of the Khedival Society, 
He proposed the name of Rev. Mr. Wilson, for honorary membership, who had 
but a short time before returned from the land of King M'tesa. 

Doctor Zucchinetti then resumed his narrative. He expatiated on the cus- 
toms of the savage tribes, on the fauna dj\d flora of the countries he had explor- 
ed, and on the resources which this country could offer to European activity. He 
continued with the details of his voyage to Darfur, Kordofan, and to Nubia. This 
last country is rich in gold; and he indicated the manner in which the natives 
gather the precious metal. Finally, he exposed his views on the measures he 
judged most opportune for ameliorating these countries, both morally and materi- 
ally ; and after having defined the character of the negroes, he closed with the 
opinion, that penetrating the country with roads and colonies would be the most 
powerful means of initiating civilization. The ideas of the speaker gave place to 
interesting discussions, and were judged, on the declaration of competent men, 
like Gen. Stone, Purdi Pacha, Col. Saddek Bey, and Dr. Rossi Bey, to be 
worthy of a profound examination. J. F. 



THE POSITION OF THE CROZET ISLANDS. 

The admiralty have received from Captain J. N. East, R. N., of H. M. S. 
Comus, a report of his visit to the Crozet Islands, early in March, in order to 
ascertain if any shipwrecked people were there, and to endeavor to establish a 
depot of provisions. No trace of any shipwrecked crew was discovered, but the 
stores of provisions and shelter-huts were successfully landed. The most im- 
portant information which Captain East communicates with regard to this group 
is, that Hog Island should be placed thirteen miles north and west of its present 
position on the admiralty chart. The position of the other islands with regard to 
it appears to be laid down with tolerable accuracy, excepting that East Island is 
not more than seven miles distant from the southeast point of Possession Island. 
The Heroine breakers are reported to consist of one breaker very similar to the 
Bellows off the cape, and to be only one and a half miles to the eastward of a 
■straight line drawn from the south end of Hog Island to Penguin Island, and 
nearer the former island. • 



EXPL OR A TION OF PAT AG ONI A. 267 



MURDERED EXPLORERS. 



A telegram from Zanzibar states that Mr. F. Falkner Carter and Mr. Caden- 
liead, of the Royal Belgian Exploring Expidition, have been murdered by Chief 
Urambo in Central Africa. Chief Urambo is believed to be the celebrated robber 
chief, Mercambo. 



EXPLORATION OF PATAGONIA. 

Don Ramon Lista has lately returned to Buenos Ayres after a further journey 
in Patagonia, in the course of which he has examined in detail the whole of the 
coast region between Bahia Rosas and Punta Villarino. From the outset he was 
unable to find any water, notwithstanding that careful search was made in all 
directions, and the expedition would have been compelled to retrace its steps had 
it not been for the opportune arrival off the coast of a small vessel with supplies. 
The region explored is reported to be extremely sterile; and the soil, which is 
burned up by a tropical sun, is mostly covered with prickly and stunted plants. 



Carl Petersen, the warm-hearted and faithful assistant to so many Arctic 
■expeditions, in which he served chiefly as interpreter, died at Copenhagen, on the 
24th of June, at the age of sixty-seven years. He was with Penny, driving his 
dog-sledge, in igSo-'Sij when Penny wintered in Assistance Bay with the two 
brigs (Lady Franklin and Sophia) and explored part of Wellington Channel. 
Next he was with Kane in Smith Sound, then with McClintock in the Fox, and 
lastly on a voyage with Torell and Nordenskiold, to Spitzbergen, in 186 1. He 
was a fine old fellow, resolute and warm-hearted. Sir Allen Young introduced 
him to the Prince of Wales the last time he was at Copenhagen. Petersen had 
charge of a lighthouse until 1875, when he retired, owing to faiUng sight, on a 
pension of 600 kronen. The Enghsh government had recently granted him a 
pension of £12 a year, and last year a number of Arctic friends in this country 
subscribed together and presented him with a small sum. These acts of kindness 
were deeply felt by the grateful old man, but he lived only a short time to enjoy 
the increased comfort they afforded him. He lived with his sister, whose husband 
Icept a restaurant at Copenhagen. In early life he was long stationed at Upernavik, 
and married there. He leaves a son, who is a surveyor, and a daughter who 
married well. 



268 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



METEOROLOGY. 



PROPHECY OF THE WEATHER. 

BY ISAAC P. NOYES, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The weather has ever been a favorite theme for the prophets, and most mis- 
erably have they failed. All are familiar with the prophecies or stateiaients of 
our almanac makers. For years they have pretended to foretell the weather for 
months in advance. 

The statements of the old almanac makers though "gospel truth" to the 
many, were not regarded as wisdom by the few who were more advanced in in- 
tellectual culture, yet even those of the highest culture could simply say "they 
did not believe;" no positive evidence had yet developed by which they could 
successfully controvert what their intellects could not accept. They must await 
future developments and see what they would bring forth. 

In 1870 they brought forth the United States Signal service, whereby we 
were no longer confined to the accumulation of a few isolated facts gathered by 
merf having no facilities for immediate communication with each other, or any 
means of conveying inteUigence to one central head where it could be digested 
and made to serve the world as kindred facts in other departments have done. 

It was not even possible for the Signal service to grasp the full idea at once; 
time was needed to advance the practical work necessary for so great an under- 
taking, and as facts were accumulated, they suggested new fields for the intel- 
lect to revel in, until now we have a very complete system, though not perfect 
as yet, for time is still necessary to complete and to suggest other steps in the line 
of this advancing science. 

The weather map has proved beyond controversy that the area of low barom- 
eter is the center and motive power of the storm, and that this area of low ba- 
rometer travels, as heretofore stated, in an easterly direction, and that back of 
this power of low barometer, lies the generating heat force of the sun, the crea- 
tor of this power. The sun is our great physical first cause in this as in other 
things connected with and essential to our well-being on this earth. 

The negative part of the weather system is the area of high barometer, which 
plays quite as important a part in the weather of our globe as the area of low ba- 
rometer itself. The details and influence of high barometer will be deferred for 
some future paper, simply remarking here that it is an important power and is 
ever on the move and in the same general direction as the area of low barometer, 
and that we can not have the one without the other — that the area of high ba- 
rometer is as essential and natural in the lighter body air as the hill or mountain 
in the physical contour of our earth. 



PROPHECY OF THE WEATHER. 269 

It is not pleasant to controvert such a venerable notion as that the moon af- 
fects the weather and that by studying its various "quarters" and conditions, 
we may be able to prophesy the weather months in advance. The moon, it 
must be remembered, is continually on the move and ever progressing with the 
■earth and the while moving around it. It therefore must necessarily, and does 
in turn, shine on all parts of the earth. Wherever the sun shines the moon shines 
also. The sun being a powerful heating body, generates the conditions we term 
low barometer. The moon, being a mere reflector of light, has no such power 
— at least its heat power is infinitesimal, and therefore has no power to produce or 
affect the area of low barometer. But it is often claimed that it has power over 
the clouds to collect or disperse them, as the case may be. On the same night 
with the same moon, new, first quarter, half, full, last quarter or old, the same 
moon is shining over territories where there is all sorts of weather from hot to 
cold, and from clear, cloudless skies to extents of territory covered with the 
most dense snow or rain-producing clouds. In one place it may be clear, bright 
moonlight, in another not a ray of light to be seen even with a full moon. Then 
these places may be and are distributed over the earth at intervals of from 500 to 
1,000 miles, and sometimes more. This being the actual condition of things, it 
seems most absurd to claim or believe at this day that the moon at all affects our 
weather, or that it may be relied upon as a basis on which to found prophecies of 
the weather. When the new moon is upright so that its two ends or horns are 
level with each other, it is claimed that throughout this moon, we will have lit- 
tle or no rain, because the moon holds its water. Then when the crescent tips a 
little, one side being higher than the other, according to the universal idea, we will 
have plenty of rain during that moon. As though the rain which waters our 
earth, must be held in this little basin up in the sky. It must be remembered 
that the moon is 240,000 miles away from our earth, and at the best calculation 
our atmosphere is not more than forty-five miles high, and more than this that 
the clouds from whence comes our rain, are not over two or three miles high 
and often much less, probably less even than a mile high. Our rain comes from 
the clouds that are temporarily suspended in the air generated through the heat 
force of the sun from the waters of the earth. 

The sun is ever forming these clouds. The power of the moon in this par- 
ticular is not worth considering even for a moment — might as well claim that 
the moon causes plants to grow, and is an agent for the generation and mainten- 
ance of life on this globe. As it rotates about the earth it happens that it goes 
through certain phases which western new moon, quarter, full, etc. and that at 
times the horns of the new moon will be level with each other and at other times 
not — all depending, as any one familiar with astronomy will know, on the rela- 
tive positions of the sun, earth and moon. The sun will always shine on that 
side of the moon that faces the sun. This is a most natural effect and needs no 
proof. Relatively to the earth the moon must change, for the simple reason that 
these three bodies are ever changing their relation to each other, and this readily 



270 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

accounts for the different appearances of what we call the "new moon." The light 
of the sun shining on it, relatively to us, underneath, at other times a little to one 
side. That these merely accidental changes of the moon that have no signifi- 
cance as a motive power, positive or negative, that they should be a power to af- 
fect the conditions that produce or prevent rain that comes, and can only come- 
by the generating force or heat of the sun, is most absurd, or that it should have 
any power over the motion of the clouds which are concentrated or dispersed 
only by that power generated by the sun which we term "low barometer." The 
prophecy of the weather based upon any such ideas as that the moon has any in- 
fluence in producing such results, is most absurd and can not be maintained by 
facts or the least show of reason. We may have evenings where the sky over 
our particular locality becomes clouded when the moon is visible, or it may be 
cloudy and after awhile the clouds pass away, but not through any agency of the 
moon. If the moon had any such power as this, it would produce the same re- 
sults every time, but we see that it does not, but rather with all sorts of moons 
we have all sorts of weather and changes which may readily be traced to a far 
more reasonable cause — that of the relative conditions of low and high barome- 
ter as effected by the great source of heat and light — the sun. 

Another source of prophecy of the weather, is something which belongs 
rather to a season than to any extended time of years— a sort of sub-prophecy 
depending upon a prophecy of cold winter and warm summer, especially at the 
poles, is that of cold in summer developed from melting icebergs as they float 
down from the Arctic seas. This summer of 1880 there are a remarkable num- 
ber of these icebergs. So the iceberg prophets are prophesying cold weather, 
especially off the Atlantic coasts. 

When it becomes better understood that the heat of certain localities de- 
pends upon the concentrated power of the sun, making what we term the area of 
low barometer, and that this concentration is ever on the move, sometimes on a 
lower line of latitude the whole year through — when this beautiful law of nature 
is understood, it will be seen that the melting or non-melting of icebergs out in 
the Atlantic ocean, will have little or no effect upon our temperature, not one- 
tenth part as much as the melting of the ice in our ice-carts as they pass along 
the streets, or the melting of the ice in the refrigerators and water coolers of our 
houses. 

Although the sun shines more directly over the equator than over the poles, 
and it is therefore warmer at the equator than at the poles, still the heat of the 
sun is not wholly concentrated there, and it is oftentimes warmer in the temperate 
zones than in the tropics, as discussed in a former paper, "Evidence From the 
Weather Map of 1879." 

The melting of icebergs cools the immediate surrounding water and atmos- 
phere, but its influence, like the melting of the ice in our ice houses, ice carts, 
refrigerators, or water coolers, is purely local. 

In this connection the idea suggests itself that we make a better study of 



PROPHECY OF THE WEATHER. 271 

icebergs than we have heretofore done, and that one or more of our idle navy 
vessels be authorized to follow them, keeping as near them as safety will permit, 
and study them day by day and trace them up until the largest ' berg disappears 
under the heat of southern latitudes. 

Then there is another, though fortunately a smaller class, who make some 
pretensions to scientific wisdom who have notions that the weather of our planet 
must be more or less affected by the relative position of our earth and her sister 
planets in the universe. For this year, these prophets have predicted all sorts of 
commotions in the elements because some four of the principal planets of our 
system come together nearer to the sun than for some eighteen hundred years or 
more. Indeed they are already out with their extravagant claims that (up ta 
July) we have already had the fulfillment of the prophecy. 

Now, the weather of this year has not been remarkable for its peculiarity 
thus far. We have had some severe storms, but what season do we not have them ? 
They occur more or less frequently every year. This year, thus far, (July,) has 
not been greatly different from the average year. But when this class of prophets- 
have prophesied, like Jonah, they want their prophecies fulfilled even though it 
bring great distress upon the nations. They do not like the mortification of be- 
ing false prophets, or to see their scientific pretensions laughed at by the world. 

Probably the most remarkable sensation as a weather prophet at present, is 
Mr. Henry G. Vennor, of Montreal. The name of this gentleman has been 
very conspicuous in the papers the past season as a weather prophet. Many 
people have faith in him and verily believe that he is reliable, and are willing to 
swear by him and contend that he predicted this and that storm, or spell of hot 
or cold weather. 

When men claim to be prophets we want them to come out with plain and 
unequivocal statements. We want no "if" or "and," or general statements of 
uncertain sound, but the plain statement in black and white, just what will and 
will not occur. 

According to the St. Louis Republican, in a letter dated Montreal, May i8, 
1880, he says: "I believe that June will be an intensely hot month, and proba- 
bly the first of June will be fall-like, with frost again. July, will be a terrible 
month for storms, with terms of intense heat, but another fall-like relapse with 
frosts, will, in all likehood, occur a few days before the twentieth. I fear the 
storms of thunder and hail will be of unusual severity during July. I must 
claim the verification of my prediction relative to a cold wave, with frosts, over 
a large portion of the United States between the loth and 15th of May. The 
relapse toward the close of the present month (May) will be more severe than 
that just past." 

This is probably a fair sample of Mr. Vennor's predictions. We see that 
they are very general and non-committal as to exact dates and localities. 

Mr. Vennor's first statement in this short article is that "June will be an in- 
tensely hot month" Where will it be hot — in Canada, or North or South of Ma- 



272 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

son and Dixon's line? It might be very hot in Pennsylvania or even in New York 
state, and yet very cold in Montreal. Over what territory must it be hot or cold 
to fulfill Mr. Vennor's predictions — in the Atlantic states, out West, or at the 
North or South ? He claims the verification of predictions relative to a cold 
wave over the United States between the loth and 15th of May. 

As to the month of Juue, it was not unlike June weather in general, unless 
perhaps a little colder, as a whole. In the vicinity of Washington it was rather a 
cool month, though we had a few very hot days, still not as hot on a whole for 
the season as was the month of May. The greater part of May in this vicinity 
was very hot and oppressive, and that too for a very good reason — and it is never 
hot or cold relatively to the season, without this good reason. 

May loth and nth it was very warm here. On the nth, about 4.30 P. M. 
we (in Washington) had a summer shower with thunder and hghtning, which las- 
ted about an hour and then became cooler, as it generally does, though not al- 
ways after such a storm. From the 12th to the 1 8th of May it was cool and 
pleasant, very seasonable weather for the time of the year. On the 14th of May 
it might have been intensely cold throughout the United States, East of the Miss- 
issippi but for a rather unusual relative location of the area of high barometer. 
On the 14th of May Loiv was on a line with the south-end of Florida, while High 
was to the north of Washington, thereby preventing Mr. Vennor's prediction fall- 
ing true in force, or at least ameliorating it much. The latter part of May was 
•extremely hot notwithstanding Mr. Vs. prediction that we then would have a 
■severe relapse. 

July, Mr. Vennor says, will be intensely hot with terrible storms with anoth- 
er fall-like relapse. Now we all know that July is very apt to be hot and there- 
fore to be accompanied with severe storms, and it is not an unusual occurrence 
to have a cold spell or two during the summer and that we are as liable to have it 
in July as in June or August. 

In all these statements Mr. Vennor is no nearer, and gets as far from the 
mark as any other man who will study the Smithsonian or other reliable reports 
■of the weather of the United States from year to year and verture a guess in ac- 
cordance therewith. Fortunately for such prophets, the people, and even the 
people of high mental rank, are still quite ignorant of this weather question. It 
is a new subject. Many may disbelieve but at the same time they are unable to 
refute, so are very charitable to pretensions of this kind, coming from what they 
think or regard as commendable authority. 

These changes of weather which Mr. Vennor speaks of never occur without 
a good and sufficient cause — a cause that may readily be understood by any in- 
telligent person who will simply read the weather map — for it is there daily recor- 
ded in legible characters that never deceive. For example, it cannot possibly be 
hot in the nothern part of the United States or Canada, unless there is an area of 
low-barometer in that locality. It cannot be cold throughout the United States 
unless the area of low-barometer is on a low line of latitude. There is an end- 



PROPHECY OF THE WEATHER. 273 

less variety of changes which the movements of low and high-barometer may 
make — more endless than the strains that could be played upon the " harp of a 
thousand strings." Sometimes by the peculiar location of the area of low bar- 
ometer it may be warmer in the extreme north-eastern part of the United States, 
than in Virginia. For example, let the area of low-barometer be located off on 
the Atlantic Ocean and in the immediate vicinity of Calais, Me., as it was some 
two or three years ago this spring. Being on a high line of latitude, it caused the 
warm winds from the South to concentrate there, while it being so far to the East 
■of Washington, and reaching down into the ocean, caused a severe West wind 
slightly to the North of West which made Washington one of, if not the coldest 
(recorded) place in the United States and much colder than Calais, Me. , notwith- 
standing the fact of lower latitude. 

Now when a cause is so well known, how much better would it be for these 
weather-prophets to say, that on such a date of such a month the area of low- 
barometer will be in such and such a locality— then those who know what ought 
to follow— what would be the result of such a location of Low, will know just what 
to expect. We will know whether it is to be cold or hot, in New England and 
the North-east generally or in Kansas and Missouri and the North-west. If these 
prophets will only tell us where low will be they will far surpass their present 
prophecies and the world, at least the mtelligent world, will truly wonder at their 
knowledge of the works and ways of the great mysteries of nature. But until 
they can do this they had better not attempt any more of their present " prophe- 
cies," which are merely guesses which may be equaled by any number of persons 
who will study well the compiled weather reports of the past years and venture 
guesses in accordance therewith. Prophets should be men of superior and not 
inferior knowledge in the department in which they propose to prophesy. For 
such a course will only make them contemptible in the eyes of the world, when 
it comes to fully understand the cause that effects these matters. 

In reading these comments on the prophecy of the weather, it may be asked 
if there is any method by which we may know or prophesy the weather for any 
great period in advance. For one I do not believe there is any such method, for 
the reason that these changes depend, as repeated over and over again in these 
papers, that all depends upon the location of low and high-barometer and that 
these relations are ever changing, and the changes seem to be an endless surprise 
that cannot, so far as we know at present, be determined upon, even from one 
change to another, much less of changes that may follow each other, weeks and 
months in advance. Though if any law in this movement of low and high bar- 
ometer is ever discovered it will only be by the careful study of the weather as re- 
corded on the weather map. 

This may sometimes be the case, but the Signal office has advanced in its line of 
mdications until they have made a record for a year of ninety-five per cent, in ac- 
curacy, and this must be acknowledged is not far from perfection. Why not have 
the indications right every time? Let one become familiar with this subject and 
he will readily see why. 

IV— 18 



274 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

There are many reasons why. There are many people of exacting nature in 
the world, who always want positive statements that such and such will be or will 
not be the case, and their natures cannot conceive any circumstances but what the 
human mind can control; and when "circumstances " is mentioned to them, they 
have no place for the word in their lexicons, and with Napoleon I. when in suc- 
cess, they exclaim, "I make circumstances;" by and by a Waterloo comes and 
they'see perhaps when too late, that there are circumstances which even the strong- 
est man^cannot control. If in the affairs of men there are " circumstances" be- 
yond the control of these strong men, much more are there circumstances in na- 
ture that man must abide by. Nature is endless in her varieties, and man is- 
powerless to prevent or at all times even to foretell her exact course. Probably 
nothing better illustrates this than to pour some water down a slightly inclined plane 
and note its course. We know that water will run down hill, but it does not take 
what appears to be the most direct course. We know and can readily predict 
that it will take, if left to itself, a certain general course, but when the practical 
reality takes place, we not only discover that it takes a course of its own, but that 
it passes over certain lines and circumvents spots, even in so small a surface as a 
few yards in length, that it was and would be impossible for human knowledge to 
specify or indicate before-hand. This being the case in nature when confined to 
a few yards square, what must be the effect of an area of low-barometer passing. 
over variable territory of more than a hundred miles square. 

The Signal Office can tell the course of all regular storms, but occasionally 
there happens an irregular change, which is analagous to this running of water 
down hill, as seen in the course of almost every river large or small in the world. 

In conclusion, I repeat there is no other reliable process than that of the Sig- 
nal Service system, whereby we may foretell the weather. All other known systems, 
if I may so designate or honor them, whether founded on the conditions of the 
moon, the habits of animals, the relation of the other planets to the planet on. 
which we live, or the guess-work founded or unfounded on the weather of pre- 
vious years — all these I hereby pronounce the merest nonsense, if not something 
worse — and that all these things are unworthy of any man who makes any pretense 
to scientific knowledge or claims any standing in advanced society. 



From Kansas City Medical and Surgical Review, No. 5, May, i860: The amount 
of rain which has fallen since the first of January, i860, is 6.60 inches, a smaller 
amount than has fallen here, in the same length of time, in any year since 1854, 
when there was absolutely no rain from June until October. 

From a clipping of a Kansas City paper, September, i860: August 21st,. 
i860, at the chemical works, Waltham, Mass., the rain gauge showed a fall of 
5 y^ inches of water in a little over an hour. 



THE BAROMETER. 
THE BAROMETER. 



275 



SOME CONSIDERATIONS IN REGARD TO A VARIABLE SCALE OF PRESSURE PER SQUARE 
INCH FOR THE BAROMETER AT DIFFERENT HEIGHTS. 

BY C. A. SHAW, U. S. SIGNAL OBSERVER, MADISON, WIS. 



LOCAL SUMMARY FOR JUNE, 1880, MADISON, WIS. 



I 

2 , 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 

10 
II 
12 

13 
14 

15 
16 

17 
18 

19 

20 
21 
22 

23 
24 

25 
26 

27 
28 
29 
30 



DATE, 



Sums . . . . 
Monthly Mean 



30-095 
29.992 
29.958 
29.687 
29.370 
29.419 
29.888 
29.880 
29.656 

29-793 
29.850 
29.782 
29.800 

29-751 
30.018 
30.189 
30.177 
30.194 
30.186 
30.094 
29.972 
29.859 
29.816 

29-752 
29.750 
29.812 
29.699 
29.736 
29.805 
29-873 

29.861 



.^s S 



58.7 
60.5 
67.0 
65-7 
69-5 

59-5 
63.2 

64.7 

71.7 

76.5 
80.0 

79-0 
72.2 

53-0 
61.2 
68.0 
71.7 
71.0 

72.5 
76.0 

76.7 

77-2 
78.7 
74.0 
74.0 

75-7 
71.7 

65-5 
65.0 
68.7 

69.6" 



^ 



1.20 

1.03 

1 .22 

.46 



•57 



•47 

3-47 

. 20 



.14 
•03 

.19 
.14 
.19 

9-31 






nw 

sw 

s 

se 

s 

w 

w 

s 

se 

se 

s 

sw 

nw 

ne 

ne 

nw 

se 

sw 

n 

w 

sw 

sw 

s 

s 

w 

e 

s 

nw 

w 

sw 



Fair. 

Cloudy. 

Fair. 

Cloudy. 

Cloudy. 

Cloudy. 

Fair. 

Cloudy. 

Cloudy. 

Fair. 

Fair. 

Fair. 

Fair. 

Cloudy. 

Fair. 

Fair. 

Fair. 

Fair. 

Fair. 

Fair. 

Fair. 

Fair. 

Fair. 

Cloudy. 

Fair. 

Fair. 

Cloudy. 

Fair. 

Fair. 

Fair. 



276 



KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



TEMPERATURE, BAROMETER AND WIND. 






69 

72 

75 
72 

74 
72 
70 
74 
79 
84 
87 

87 
71 
78 
70 

77 
81 

78 
83 
84 
84 



82 
84 
84 
81 

72 
74 
79 



<i -^ 



50 
53 
55 
59 
(>Z 
58 
51 
56 
61 

71 
7^ 

74 

50 
52 
56 
62 

64 

63 
67 
68 
68 
69 
69 
67 
67 
68 
62 

59 
56 






19 
19 

20 

13 

II 

14 
19 
18 
18 

13 
16 

13 

12 

21 
18 
21 
19 
14 
20 

17 
16 
18 
19 
13 
17 
17 
13 
10 

15 
23 



M'n 78.4 61.8 16.6 



Bafotneter — Rising or Falling. 



High 
. F. 



Low 
. R. 



. F 
R. 



FR 

High 

. F. 

. R. 

High 
. F. 



R, 



. F. 
.R. 
F R 



MILES WIND. 



R SO 



100 

49 
79 
80 

86 

115 
182 
28 
67 
56 
59 
67 
66 

52 
102 

83 

23 
20 

19 
19 

2 1 
40 

55 

55 
42 

19 
60 
81 

54 



1845 



61 






62 

47 

65 

37 

90 

140 

118 

25 
89 
58 
43 
45 
41 
16 

97 

40 

6 

20 
24 

15 
18 

30 
38 
39 
44 
37 
25 
32 
48 
33 



•^ 



35 
43 
49 
^Z 
125 
116 

36 
17 
78 

44 
28 

58 
57 
68 

75 
40 

15 
19 
18 

14 

5 

48 

52 

47 
28 

32 

43 

40 

Z(> 

24 



^■^" 



1422 1353 



47 



28 

74 
69 

89 
91 
90 
22 

31 
eg 

47 
41 
51 
49 
80 

78 
29 

15 
12 

13 
18 

25 
49 
78 
40 
28 
22 
48 
98 
39 
32 



1457 



225 

213 
262 
269 

394 
461 

358 

lOI 

303 
205 
171 
221 
213 
216 

352 
192 

59 

71 

74 

66 

69 

167 

223 

192 

155 

133 

135 

230 

204 

143 

6077 



45 49 203 17-6 



Mean daily barometer, 29.861.' Humidity, 71.4. 
Highest barometer, 30.251 (19th). 
Lowest barometer, 28.986 (6th). 
Monthly range of barometer, 1.265. 
Highest temperature, 87 (11 and 12th). 
Lowest temperature, 50 (ist and 14th). 
Monthly range of temperature, 37. 



THE BAROMETER. 277 

Greatest daily range of temperature, 23 (30th). 

Least daily range of temperature, 10 (28th). 

Mean of maximum temperature, 78.4. 

Mean of minimum temperature, 61.8. 

Mean daily range of temperature, 16.6. 

Total rainfall or melted snow, 9.31 inches. 

Prevailing winds, southwest. 

Maximum velocity and direction, 50, south (1:15 a. m., 5th). 

Total movement of wind, 6,077 miles. 

Number of cloudy days on which rain fell, 9. 

Number of cloudy days on which no rain fell, o. 

Number of days on which rain or snow fell, 16. 

Rain or snow preceded by wind from southwest, 4 times. 

Rain or snow preceded by wind from south, 3 times. 

Rain or snow preceded by wind from southeast, 3 times. 

Rain or snow preceded by wind from east, north and west, each once. 

Clear days, o; fair, 21; cloudy, 9. 

Mean of barometer, corrected for temperature only, 28.938. 

THE BAROMETER. 

During the past month, the steadiness of the barometer was most noticeable. 
From the i6th to the 21st it was almost motionless with the least possible wind 
during that time. Even during the excessive rainfall of the 14th the barometer 
was of nearly normal height, and stationary. But then it is to be noticed that 
the wind was moderate in force and amount, while during the heavy wind storms 
of the fifth and sixth the variation was very great. 

The barometer is a most valuable instrument, but the usual legends affixed, 
of wet and dry, and changeable, are mostly hypothetical. It merely measures the 
pressure of the air at the moment of reading. These, compared with other 
readings, may give data for deducing probable changes, but alone they are ex- 
ceedingly vague. Consider that the amount of rain which fell in this vicinity upon 
the 14th would have made a solid block of ice with a square base the size of the 
park, three feet thick for every mile. What sustained this tremendous weight 
before the storm it is difficult to conceive. If the air rushed in to fill the space 
before occupied by vapor tension, destructive winds might have been expected. 
If the elastic force of the vapor exactly compensated for diminished pressure 
before, while the solid air compensated afterward, this implies two elements 
whose action upon the barometer are so similar as to make the real cause undis- 
coverable. There is certainly in most cases a great loss of power which, by cal- 
culation, should be expended. 

For example. The force required to sustain a column of mercury 27.97 
inches in height is 14.73 pounds. This is about half a pound per square inch of 
mercury. If during twenty-four hours the barometer should change an inch, 
this would give a total variation in pressure equal to about seventy-two pounds 



278 



KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



per square foot. The pressure of wind at different velocities is something like 
this : Two pounds per square foot for a velocity of twenty miles per hour, eight 
pounds for fort'y miles, eighteen pounds for sixty, thirty-two for eighty, etc. Sev- 
enty-two pounds for twenty-four hours would be three pounds per hour, equal to 
about twenty-five miles. Now, although twenty-five miles is accounted a fairly 
strong wind, it cannot be doubted that above the earth and free from obstruc- 
tions, the velocity is greatly above this with a change of barometer of an inch. 
It seems hardly too much to calculate it as three or even four times as great. A 
scale might be constructed something like this : 

Pressure of the wind above a place, free of obstructions, when the barometer 
at the surface was between 

29.00 and 30.00 inches — 2 pounds to the square inch. 



28.00 


' 29.00 


' -1-75 ' 


27.00 


' 28.00 


'• —1-57 ' 


26.00 


' 27.00 


' —1.31 ' 


25.00 


• 26.00 


' — 1.20 ' 


24.00 


' 25.00 


' — 1. 10 ' 


23.00 


' 24.00 


' — 1. 00 ' 


22.00 


' 23.00 


' — 90 ' 


21.00 


" 22.00 


' —0.81 ' 


20.00 


' 19.00 


' —0.73 ' 



etc. 

This may be an exaggerated scale but, the principle seems to be correct. 
That the pressure of an elastic medium like the atmosphere would be very ex- 
cessive in the high regions of the scale and of much diminished power in the 
lower, seems natural to conclude. Imagine how weak the force of the wind that 
corresponded to a pressure of mercury one inch in height, for while one inch of 
mercury weighs as much as another the wind producing power of the air at dif- 
ferent pressures must vary. 

Seemingly opposed to such a scale is the fact that the measure of the wind 
does actually correspond nearly with the barometric change. Take an actual 
case: At 6:00 a. m., June 6th, the barometer read 28.986, equal, we will say, to 
a pressure of 2086.56 pounds per square foot. At 6:00 a. m. , June 7th, the 
barometer read 29.882, equal to a pressure of 2151.36 pounds per square foot, a 
difference of 64.8 pounds; about 2.6 pounds to the hour for twenty-four hours, 
about twenty-three miles. Though variable, of course the wind record from 6:00 
a. m., June 6th to 6 a. m., June 7th, was 426 miles or about eighteen miles per 
hour, equal to a pressure of 162, a loss of five miles per hour, though as the wind 
was variable, running up at one time to thirty-eight miles, this loss may be excused 
or laid to natural obstructions at the place of observation. But it will be seen 
by looking at the scale of pressure and velocity that a running up of the force to 
forty or fifty miles quickly exhausts the pressure which the change of an inch im- 
plied. Besides which, this would not explain variations in force which occur at 
different portions of a storm's progress, while the barometer change remains 
nearly uniform. 



ELECTRIC ECCENTRICITIES. 279 

It may easily be imagined that some compensatory phenomena transpire to 
prevent the very destructive winds which this implies ; perhaps by opposing pres- 
sure, as, in mechanics, the exhaust of a low pressure engine is made to add to 
its working force. The means of determining vapor tension by the hygrometer 
are imperfect ; but if it is this influence which affects the barometer it shows why 
local observations are so unreliable, for after all, to one dependent upon his own 
weather-glass, the following are about all the rules that have been given to guide 
him. 

1. If, after a continuance of dry weather, the barometer begins to fall 
slowly and steadily, rain will ensue; but if the fine weather has been of long dur- 
ation, the mercury may fall for two or three days before any preceptible change 
takes place, and the more time that elapses before the rain comes the longer the 
wet weather is likely to last. 

2. Conversely with regard to a rising barometer and fair weather. 

3. If the change ensues immediately it will not be permanent. 

4. If, though rising steadily for two days together or more, it rains, yet 
•fine weather may be expected; though if it begin to fall upon its appearance, the 
fair weather will not be permanent, and conversely. 

5. Sudden falls of the mercury in spring or autumn, indicate wind; in the 
-summer, during hot weather, a thunder storm ; in winter, a change of wind with 
a thaw and rain, but in a continued frost, a rise indicates approaching snow. 

The difference in value of these indefinite rules to a system of actual meas- 
urement of atmospheric phenomena, embracing a large extent of the earth's sur- 
face, can be readily perceived. Yet additional instruments are certainly desired ; 
self-registers, delicate and rehable, and with the barometer, an associated instru- 
ment to define these disturbing elements which compensate, disadvantageously 
for scientific purposes, the actual changes of pressure which we know are contin- 
ually taking place. 



ELECTRIC ECCENTRICITIES. 

Mr. James Johnstone sends to the Edinburgh Daily Review the following in 
teresting account of the effects of a thunder-storm observed on the 7th ult. He 
says : — " On the 7th ult., about 4:15 p. m. the lightning struck the craig which is 
named on the plan of Edinburgh 'The Dasses,' which overhangs the Hunter's 
Bog on the east. The results are so extraordinary that they are worthy of notice 
in your columns. The rock struck is of the hardest basalt, commonly called 
whinstone, The lightning did not strike the sharp, serrated, front edge of the 
craig, as might have been expected ; but, on the contrary, it struck the flat top 
covered with sod at a distance of three feet from the present edge, and that must 
have been between six and eight feet from the edge before the accident ; for the 
lightning detached several tons of the rock from the front of the craig, and sent 
six large masses of rock down into the Hunter's Bog. The largest of these meas- 



280 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

Tires four feet long by three feet broad and one foot thick, but of irregular shape^ 
On the edge of the craig the lightning detached a mass of rock, which now stands- 
in a very precarious position. This large mass measures four feet nine inches 
long by three feet broad and one foot four inches thick. The top of the craig, a 
short distance from the front of it, is covered with a coating of angular pieces of 
basalt, and on the top of these a covering of sod. It was on the sod the light- 
ning struck, and made a hole two feet six inches long by one foot six inches- 
broad. The largest diameter of the hole is in a direction from N. W. to S. E. 
and the lightning continued its course in this direction, ploughing a furrow in the 
sod for a distance of nineteen yards, the furrow diminishing in width as it receded 
from the original hole, where it measures five inches wide. These facts establish 
the direction in which the lightning came, and correspond with the observations 
of three gentlemen who were m a house on the west side of the Hunter's Bog,, 
and saw the lightning pass across the Bog to the rock on the east side, namely 
from N. W. to S. E. In the Times of the 14th of October last, notice was given 
that a committee of scientific gentlemen had been appointed by insurance and 
other companies to investigate the effects of lightning with a view to providing; 
the best means for protecting buildings, and a request was made that all persons 
who could furnish information on this subject would do so. In consequence of 
this notice I wrote a letter to the Times on the 25th of October, containing the 
following information, which it is important persons should know who wish to- 
watch thunder-storms, and give the information asked. There are three kinds of 
thunder-storms. First, those that take place between clouds, the lightning 
flashing from cloud to cloud ; second, storms in which the lightning comes from 
the clouds down to the earth ; third, storms in which the lightning passes from the 
earth to the clouds. It is the two latter kinds of thunder-storms which affect the 
question of the protection of buildings. The damage done to them and to trees. 
by lightning varies in a remarkable manner, according to whether the lightning, 
went from the earth to the cloud or from the cloud to the earth. 

"The lightning which struck the Dasses Craig has an important bearing 
with reference to the protection of buildings from lightning. The common theory 
is that lightning will always be attracted to strike the highest or most prominent 
point in its vicinity. The Dasses Craig is near the bottom of the valley, bounded 
by Salisbury Craigs on the W. and S., and Arthur's Seat on the E. High land 
and prominent rocks surrounded this craig on all sides, and yet the lightning 
passed all these and descended into the valley to strike it. 

"Another interesting fact. On placing a compass near the hole made by 
the Hghtning I found that the needle deviated from N. to E., and when the com- 
pass was in the hole, the needle stood at E. S. E. , instead of N. , proving that 
the rock was still powerfully electrical at the spot where the lightning struck it. 
But, except in the vicinity of the hole, the craig did not affect the needle." — The- 
Telegraphic Journal. 



DR. TANNER'S FAST. 28E 

THE METEORIC SHOWER OF AUGUST i8, 1880. 

PROF. S. A. MAXWELL, MORRISON, ILL. 

On the night of the loth of August the earth in its orbital revolution passed; 
through the "meteoric zone." Observers throughout the country were on the 
lookout, and when twilight came had everything ready for conveniently noting 
each phase of the anticipated phenomena. From personal observations of this 
and several other meteoric showers of corresponding date, I am prepared to say 
this was one of the most interesting that has occured for several years. From 
9.30 until 10.00 P. M., the number of meteors, according to the best estimate I 
could make, was six per minute. 

For a time after ten o'clock the numbers preceptibly diminished and near 
rhidnight again became more numerous. I regret that I could not observe this 
interesting phenomenon after midnight, for without doubt the finest part of the 
display took place at that time. 

In point of numbers, the display of 1880 as I observed it was not inferior to 
that of 1875 ; but in brilliancy it fell far below it. The larger number of meteors 
on this occasion, seemed to be in the direction of Ursa Major. I saw nothing 
unusual in regard to their apparent velocity or the direction of their flight. Very 
few of them were either marked by any red color or left any visible train of light. 

Quite a large number of meteors were visible on the evening of the nth, 
also on the 9th, some of which surpassed in brilliancy any that appeared on the 
night of the loth. 

I have neither the ability nor the disposition to enter into any speculations 
concerning these erratic bodies. Although much has been learned and satisfac- 
torily explained regarding their composition, a definite knowledge of their origia 
has not yet been obtained. 



PHYSIOLOGY. 



DR. TANNER'S FAST. 
(concluded.) 

In our last number we gave the details of Dr. Tanner's fast up to the thirty- 
second day, at which time he had lost 30^2 pounds in weight, but was in other 
respects in fairly normal condition. During the remaining eight days his condi- 
tion, in brief, was as follows; Thirty-third day— weight 126^^, pulse 78, tem- 
peratue ^^'^ , respiration 9}^; thirty-fourth day — weight 126;^, pulse 78, temper- 
ature 99^°, respiration 14; thirty-fifth day — weight 126, pulse 78, temperature 
98°, respiration 14; thirty-sixth day — weight 126, pulse 74, temperature 98°, respi- 



.282 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

ration 14; thirty-seventh day — weight 125^, pulse 74, temperature 98^°, res- 
piration 14; thirty-eighth day — weight 123^, pulse 78, temperature 99^°, 
respiration 15 ; thirty-ninth day — weight 122^, pulse 91, temperature 97°, res- 
piration 13; fortieth day — weight 122, pulse 92, temperature 99°, respiration 17. 

Thus terminated one of the most complete and satisfactory tests of human 
endurance ever witnessed, for though many cases have been reported in which 
abstinence from food has been protracted even beyond this, still there have been 
in none of them so strict a watch kept or so accurate tests made. As has b.en said 
by a well known writer: "The question of fasting is one of physiology. It is 
best explained by an examination into the nature of those animals that indulge in 
hibernation, as it is termed, almost, as it would seem, by instinct. The term 
means ' wintering,' but hibernation is practiced by certain creatures as much in 
summer as in winter. It would appear to be a plan devised by nature to enable 
animals that cannot change their locale readily with the changing seasons, to exist 
without food during the periods unpropitious to their obtaining it. Bears, bats, 
hedgehogs, the dormouse, water rats and certain insects are all addicted to this 
practice, but not alone in winter. The bat hibernates once every twenty-four 
hours, exhibiting all the customary phenomena of the condition. Not to be too 
scientific, it may be said that these include respiration and augmented irritability 
as attendant factors. Birds have high respiration and little irritability; reptiles are 
the reverse in this. In structural changes — as from the egg to the bird, the tad- 
pole to the batrachian and the larva to the chrysalis and insect — respiration is aug- 
mented ; in physiological changes, as in sleep and hibernation, it is lessened. 

In winter the swallow and bat migrate to warm regions, while the insects — 
their natural prey — sink into a deep sleep through the season of cold and famine. 
With those animals that hibernate the question of fasting is necessarily involved 
with that of sleep. Yet there have been instances in which the latter condition 
was not certainly prominent. The capacity for existing without food would ap- 
pear to depend on the ability of the heart to carry on the circulation of the blood 
without regard to the arteries. The blood in that case is venous and not oxygen- 
ated. In hibernation disintegration and waste of the tissues progress very slowly, 
and the animal is enabled to live on the slow consumption of its own tissues. 
Bears that come out after hibernation are found to be wasted greatly from this 
•cause, and it is considered a positive evidence against the faster in cases of long 
abstinence from food being pretended, if he do not display this waste of his su- 
perabundant fat. It is, therefore, obvious that this condition of inactivity and 
that of a high temperature are of advantage to the voluntary faster. The con- 
sumption of tissue goes on less rapidly under those circumstances, and he is ena- 
bled to utilize the waste for the sustenance of his own life." 

The period of forty days seems to have been regarded in Biblical times as 
within the possibilities, although evidently far beyond any custom or requirement 
of the Mosaic law. Moses, on Mt. Sinai, and after his descent therefrom, Elijah 
on Mt. Horeb, Jesus in the Wilderness, are marked instances of fasts of this du- 



DR. TANNER'S FAST. 283 

ration. In modern times numerous cases are on record where religious enthusiasts 
have imitated the example of those sacred personages, but success has been rare. 

The experience of physiologists, derived from the most careful and accurate 
experiments carried on for centuries by the most scientific men of succeeding pe- 
riods, proves beyond question that the average man cannot Hve without food more 
than about ten days, and those persons and those editors of newspapers who 
think and say that this feat of Dr. Tanner's upsets the theories and reverses the 
teachings of physiologists and medical men, merely show their ignorance of the 
amount of labor, time and skill bestowed upon by such men their researches. 

To the question cut bono ? so often propounded during Dr. Tanner's fast, 
there have been many answers offered, the principal of which amount to this : 
ist, We all eat and drink too much; 2nd, Fasting may be employed as a thera- 
peutic agent. To the first of these it may be replied that to eat too little is at 
least as direct a violation of the laws of nature as to eat too much, and to the 
second it may be said that from the days of Esculapius until now, the best physi- 
cians have prescribed fasting in all diseases or injuries of the stomach or intestines, 
as well as in many other diseases of an inflammatory character. 

Among the best articles that we have seen on this subject is one in the Scien- 
tific American, which we copy : 

"That his experiment is not altogether useless, as is maintained by some, we 
will try to elucidate, notwithstanding we agree that the sacrifice and danger he 
exposes himself to appear so great that it is doubtful if they will be compensated 
for by the physiological and pathological lessons to be learned by it. 

His fast has, in the first place, proved the mistake of those who judged all 
men alike, and reasoned that, because a weak, hysteric, and ill fed girl of 18, 
perhaps consumptive besides, died within two weeks from starvation, as soon as 
she was carefully watched, therefore nobody could be without food for a period 
of forty days, forgetting that the case is quite different where we have a man of 
between 40 and 50, the age of maximum resistance, a man well fed, of whom the 
weight is far above the average for his size, and who was provided with a copious 
layer of adipose tissue around his body, a man who had practiced fasting for 
sanitary purposes, finding it the best way for him to cure gastric derangements, 
for which he had a liability, and who had gradually increased the time of fasting 
until, at his last fast in Minneapolis, he had extended it to forty-two days. This 
was not believed, and deception suspected, hence a challenge of $1,000 if he 
succeeded when carefully watched. Dr. Tanner accepted, but the challenger 
backed out under some pretext, and Dr. Tanner, to save his reputation and prove 
his theory, came on and submitted for nothing to the task under the eye of care- 
ful watchers. 

It must be conceded that few persons would possess such a strong will and 
determination to persist in subduing all appetite, and disregard the no doubt 
exceedingly disagreeable and perhaps distressing feelings consequent to total 
abstinence from food ; but Dr. Tanner possesses this determination in the highest 



284 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

degree, and he never thought of cutting the fast short, whatever may sometimes 
have been the opinion of his watchers. 

In order to^ understand what may be learned from this experiment we will, 
for the benefit of the non-professional reader, remind him of a few physiological 
principles. 

The chemical constituents of the human body have to be constantly renewed, 
and the waste has to be supplied by the food. Some of these constituents are 
wasted rapidly, others slowly, and in case of starvation the elements rapidly 
wasting away must be present in the body in sufficient quantity to keep the func- 
tions of life in operation. These rapidly wasting constituents may be divided into 
three classes, those in which carbon prevails, those in which nitrogen, and those 
in which phosphorus is the prevailing element. 

The carbonaceous compounds are wasted in keeping up the animal heat. 
This is accomplished by a slow combustion, that is, a combination of the carbon 
with the atmospheric oxygen, which is continually going on in the capillaries 
through the whole body, the oxygen being furnished by the blood, which absorbs 
it into the lungs, and which by the arteries is sent thro jgh the body. The product 
of this combustion, the carbonic acid, still absorbed in the blood, is by the veins 
sent to the lungs, where it is given off and escapes in the act of respiration. 
After having stripped Dr. Tanner, when he commenced his fast, for the double 
purpose of ascertaining his physical condition and leave no doubt that he had no 
food about him, it was seen that he had plenty of fat in and around his body to 
furnish carbon enough to last him more than forty days. 

The second element of rapid consumption is nitrogen ; it proceeds from the 
waste of the muscular tissue, which is always going on, even during sleep, as the 
heart is a muscle continually contracting, and respiration is kept up by muscular 
action. The blood takes up this waste in the form of a compound, of which the 
chemical name is cyanate of ammonia, but which by physiologists is called urea. 
It is the function of the kidneys to secrete this from the blood, and numerous 
experiments have settled the nature and amount of this secretion, which in healthy 
persons consuming food, varies from 25 to 35 grammes every twenty-four hours. 
When Dr. Tanner began his fast it was secreted at the rate of 29 grammes, and 
as the nitrogen in any excess of nutrition is similarly changed and secreted, it 
was expected that a large reduction would be observed as soon as the fast began 
to have effect on the system. This expectation was realized, and the amount 
soon fell off to 23, 20, 17, 16 and finally 13 grammes, at which it remained sta- 
tionary, with slight oscillations beyond. This amount of nitrogenous substance 
represents, therefore, the waste necessary to sustain the functions of life, and 
would at once be increased in case food was taken by the experimenter, at least 
nitrogenized food, such as beef extract or its equivalent, albumen, casein, milk, 
etc., the only substances which would be of benefit to him. Analytical chem- 
istry, therefore, acts here as a reliable detective, and to the credit of all concerned 
it must be said that never the least suspicious increase of urea was observed, it 



DR. TANNER'S FAST. 285 

remaining very nearly constant, and will no doubt become double and more as 
soon as after the fast food is again taken. 

The third element of rapid waste is the phosphorus ; it proceeds chiefly from 
the waste of the brain and nervous tissues. It is so important in these functions 
that a great German chemist has formulated the expression, " without phosphorus, 
no thought." Every mental act and every nervous excitement is accomplished 
by a consumption of phosphorus, which, combined with different bases in the 
body, especially soda, magnesia, aiid lime, is secreted by the kidneys as a soluble 
:salt, not only easily detected as crystals by the microscope in the sediment, but 
even an approximate estimate may be had of its reduction or increase by the 
number of crystals seen in the field under the same circumstances. 

This third element did not at first show any reduction in quantity, but, to 
the contrary, for a few days some increase. It was at the occasion that Dr. 
Tanner had been unjustly accused by a physician present that he had surrepti- 
tiously accepted food from one of the watchers 5 this appears to have preyed upon 
his mind. Attention was therefore called to the danger in this direction, a dan- 
.ger proceeding from the more rapid waste of the nervous system. Relaxation 
was therefore devised, and daily carriage rides, which eased his mind and were 
followed by a more sound sleep, soon reduced the phosphates secreted, and at 
the same time reduced the irritability and temper of the experimentor. 

The observation tallies perfectly with what has been observed in the case of 
such clergymen who have every week the periodical labor of preparing and 
delivering two sermons on Sunday. Chemical analysis has proved that at that 
time they secrete more phosphates than in the middle part of the week, after the 
rest of Monday and Tuesday. 

Looking the whole case over, including the feasting as well as the fasting, we 
are inclined to regard the Doctor's individual stomach as the most remarkable 
organ on record. That he could, by mere force of will, compel it to do without 
food for forty days, is, in our judgment, far less remarkable than that he could, at the 
end of that time, when it had, ostensibly, become so sensitive as not to be able 
to endure even a few spoonfuls of water, with impunity stuff it with an incon- 
gruous and incompatible mass of milk, watermelon, peaches, oysters, bananas, 
beef, etc., etc., and that, too, without a sign of resentment from it. 

The principal lessons, if any, to be learned from this feat are, that occasional men 
can do like the prophet Elijah, who, before his fast on Horeb, " did eat and drink, 
and went in the strength of that meat forty days and forty nights •" i. e. , they can fill 
up like sponges and live upon their own gradual waste, like bears and ground- 
hogs, or like an old log slowly rotting in a forest ; that some men have a vast 
■deal more control of their wills than others ; and finally, that some men have 
stomachs and absorbents that can withstand treatment which would prove fatal to 
most human beings. Taking this view of the case, it is very clear that had Dr, 
Tanner remained quiet, instead of taking his walks and rides, he could have easily 
have extended his fast for another ten days by living on the tissues wasted by this 
muscular action. 



286 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

EXPERIMENTS IN ABSTINENCE FROM FLUIDS. 

PROF. E. T. NELSON, OHIO WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY. 

Dr. Tanner has well-earned the title of the "Fast-Male," by his remarkable 
experiment and its successful termination. As illustrating the power of the will 
over the physical nature of man, the experiment is the most important ever re- 
corded. The Doctor seems to have gained nourishment as well as consolation 
from a sip of ice water. 

The details of an experiment of an exactly opposite character may not be 
without interest. In 1878 Mr. Charles King, a student of this university, had 
his attention called to the subject of water as an article of diet and to the writings 
of our leading physiologists on this subject. He found Dalton saying, "Water 
is probably the most important substance to be supplied with constancy and reg- 
ularity, and the system suffers more rapidly when entirely deprived of fluids than 
when the supply of solid food only is withdrawn." 

Flint claims, " the body only requires not less than three pints of water to 
two and a half pounds of meat, bread and other solid food daily" 

Mr. King resolved to avoid the use of all fluids in his diet in order to test 
the effect upon his system. The experiment began on the first day of September. 
The weather was very warm and sultry. The diet consisted of bread with a 
little butter, meat and potatoes, but no tea, coffee, milk, water, gravy or other 
fluid. His appetite, only moderate at first, increased regularly during the whole 
time of the experiment. His pulse was low but very regular, and the general 
tone of the system good. At the end of thirty days he gave up the investigation 
because informed by his friends and physicians that it must prove injurious. 
During the first week in October he drank very moderately of water, consuming 
during the seven days exactly one quart. He then resumed his experiment for 
another thirty days, only under a more complete supervision of his diet, so as to 
avoid the use of any article that contained much water. During this month he 
took no fruit, nor vegetables of any kind except potatoes. No special change in 
his symptoms or feelings was observed during the second experiment. After 
the first few days all sensation of thirst disappeared, and as Mr. King expressed 
it, "I never felt better in my life." 

During the whole period of two months he took much exercise and was a 
close faithful student. It should be stated that just before entering upon these 
investigations Mr. King had used milk and water very freely, perhaps to the 
extent of two quarts per day. 

August 7, 1880. 



PLANETARY PHENOMENA POP SEPTEMBER, 1880. 287 



ASTRONOMY. 



PLANETARY PHENOMENA FOR SEPTEMBER, 1880. 

BY W. W. ALEXANDER, KANSAS CITY. 

Mercury, during this month, is in an unfavorable position for observation,, 
except in the beginning, when it may be seen before sunrise in the morning.. It 
rises on the ist at 4 hours and 18 minutes a. m., Kansas City mean time; sets on 
the 30th at 6 hours 4 minutes p. m. , and is in superior conjunction with the sun 
on the 17 th 3 hours a. m. 

Venus may be seen in the evening twihght during the entire month. It 
sets on the ist at 7 hours and .05 minutes p. m., 30th at 6 hours 33 minutes p. 
m. On the 7th it is in close conjunction with Mars, being only 31 minutes of arc 
north of that planet (or about the diameter of the moon). 

Mars being too near the sun and nearly at its maximum distance from the 
earth shows to a poor advantage. It sets on the ist at 7 hours 11 minutes p.m., 
on the 30th at 6 hours 00 minutes p. m., and is in close conjunction with Mer- 
cury on the 28th; distance 6 minutes of arc north. 

Jupiter, together with its four moons, forms a superb object for the telescope 
during this month, rising as follows : On the ist at 8 hours and 4 minutes p. m., 
on the 30th at 6 hours and 5 minutes p. m. 

The moons, as they course round the primary in their orbits, present some 
interesting phenomena, of which the following are the most important to be 
observed at Kansas City. On the evening of the 3d at 10 hours and 34 minutes, 
the 3d satellite may be seen to emerge from behind the body of Jupiter or re-ap- 
pear after occultation. 

On the 5th at II hours 27 minutes p. m. the 2d satelhte may be seen to 
enter on the planets' disk, preceded by its shadow, i hour and 36 minutes, both 
of which can be seen on the disk of the planet at the same time. 

On the 7th at 00 hours 28 minutes 11 seconds a. m. the ist satellite will 
suddenly disappear by entering the shadow of Jupiter, and will reappear, coming 
from behind the planet at 3 hours 24 minutes a. m. 

The same occurs again on the 8th, the reappearance being at 9 hours and 50 
minutes p. m. 

On the loth the 3d satellite enters the shadow of Jupiter and disappears at 
9 hours GO minutes 32 seconds p. m., and reappears at 11 hours 28 minutes 51 
seconds p. m., and remains visible 23 minutes and disappears behind the planet's 
disk for more than two hours. 

On the 1 2th the 2d satellite again makes a transit together with its shadow 



288 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

as on the 5th. On the morning of the 14th the ist is again edipsed. And on 
the evening of the 14th the 2d satellite reappears after occultation, at 11 hours, 
II minutes. 

On the 15th, 8 hours, 51 minutes, 32 seconds, the ist satellite is eclipsed as 
on the 7th. Similar phenomena to the above happens on the i6th, 17th, 19th, 
2 ist, 23d, 28th, 29th and 30th. 

Saturn forms another imposing object for examination this month. Rising 
as follows: On the ist, at 8 hours, 36 minutes, p. m. ; on the 30th, 6 hour, 36 
minutes, p. m. The southern surface of its rings being now presented to the 
earth, we look down, as it were, from an elevation of 15 degrees above the 
,plane of the rings. 

Uranus is badly situated for observation, being in conjunction with the sun; 
it rises on the ist with the sun ; on the 30th at 3 hours 47 minutes, a. m. 

Neptune rises on the ist, 9 hours, 15 minutes, p. m., and on the 30th at 7 
hours, 19 minutes, p. m., and is nearly at its maximum brightness, but needs only 
be looked for with a telescope. 

Our Moon is in conjunction with Mercury on the 3d, Uranus and the sun on 
the 4th, Venus and Mars on the 5th, and passes 6 degrees, 57 minutes north of 
Jupiter on the morning of the 20th, 3 hours, 6 minutes, and reaches Saturn 11 
hours, 17 minutes in the evening of the same day, passing to the north 7 degrees, 
41 minutes, and on the morning of the 21st at 4 hours, 34 minutes. Neptune lies 
to the south 5 degrees, 43 minutes of arc. 



A NEW PLANETARIUM. 

The old-fashioned orreries, which were constructed to show the arrangement 
of the solar system and the motions of the planets around the sun, were some- 
what rude in their mechanism, and were apt to mislead from the conspicuousness 
of the rods and wires by which the astronomical movements were imitated. 

Signor N. Perini, an Italian long domiciled in London, and whose name is 
well-known as a successful teacher for the civil service and the army, has invented 
a new planetarium which is free from most of the defects of its predecessors. 

A high circular chamber or box, standing on twelve wooden pillars, is 
erected in the midst of an ordinary-sized room, with a ceiling higher than usual. 
On entering underneath this chamber, and looking up, a dome is seen, deep 
blue, and sprinkled with stars. The chief northern constellations are in their 
proper places, and round the base of the dome are the names of the signs of the 
zodiac. 

Suspended from the top of the dome by a narrow tube is an opal globe, lit 
inside with gas, and representing the sun. From wires almost invisible' the 
planets are suspended around the sun, of sizes and at distances approximately 
proportionate to the real sizes and distances, and each having the proper inclina- 



GEOLOGY AND EVOL UTION. 289 

tion to the plane of its orbit. The various moons are in their places, and Saturn 
has his rings. 

Thus far, however, all these miniature celestial bodies have been in a state 
•of quiescence. Presently Signor Perini, by simply turning a key, sets the solar 
system in motion, slowly or swiftly, as he pleases. The sun turns on his axis, 
and the planets revolve around the sun in proper elliptical orbits, which are 
traced around the inside of the dome, which is 14 feet in diameter at its base 
and 14 feet high. By an ingenious watch-work arrangement inside the earth, 
which is the size of a walnut, our world is made to revolve on its axis, which 
latter always points to the same quarter of the heaven. In like manner the moon 
goes round the earth. 

The machinery is arranged in the chamber above the dome, clock-work 
being the motive power, the originahty in the arrangement being the method by 
which the inventor effects the elliptical motion of the planets. Not a sound is 
heard ; the machinery works, like its great prototype, in solemn silence. 

Signor Perini, who has been prompted to this work solely from the enthusi- 
asm of a mechanician, has devoted his nights and mornings to this structure for 
seven years, and has spent on it about ^700. The earth alone cost ;^4o. The 
planetarium can be made of any size, from the dome of St. Paul's to a little 
thing that might be used for school instruction. It is now standing at 77 New- 
man Street, Oxford Street. — London Graphic. 



GEOLOGY. 



GEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 

BY THE LATE PROF. B. F. MUDGE. 
CHAPTER VI.— ARTICULATES. 
I . CRUSTACEANS. — TRILOBITES. — DEFECTIVE RECORDS. 

The fourth sub-kingdom of animated nature, the Articulates, appears with 
the first fossils of the lower sub-kingdoms, at the opening of the Silurian Age. 
By the symmetrical laws of evolution, these should have made their appearance 
only after time had allowed them to become developed from the lower sub-king- 
doms. It is also not a little remarkable that with the first evidence of any of 
this division we find distinct traces of a class of animals whose bodies had no 
-sohd substance. The trails of worms (Annelids) with casts of their burrows re- 
main to show their existence, and 185 different species have been described from 
the Silurians. Their existence affords us another significant fact, that animal life 
.however soft or frail, may show its character, even from the oldest geological 

IV-19 



290 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

Strata. It tells us that we have a right to expect, in some way, the trace of any- 
class of animals that has been an inhabitant of our planet. 

Ostracoids appeared with the worms, and with their minute, frail shells have 
existed through all geological periods. 

Let us now examine a single form of Crustacean through a long geological 
period, and see the progress or want of progress, which it may make in the scale 
of being. Taking one of the earliest and most common, in species and individ- 
uals and most widely disseminated, we will examine its history. This is the 
Trilobite. It is seen in all the twelve distinct regions of the Silurian, represented 
by hundreds of thousands of well preserved specimens. It is found in the lowest 
beds of the Cambrian and abounds till the close of the Permian. There are 
about two thousand known species, but all are characterized by three lobes in. 
the body — a buckler, also divided into three lobes and compound eyes. They 
are equally well characterized by an absence of any fossilized organs of locomo- 
tion, though from their known relations to other Crustaceans they must have had 
them. 

These traits they retain in all the varied species throughout their long geo- 
logical life, ending with the highest strata of the carboniferous age; or covering 
nearly three fourths of the whole of the earth's geological history. 

The Trilobites are not the lowest of Crustaceans, but of " highly complex and 
specialized types, and remote from the embryonic stages of the group to which 
they belong."* They border on the Tetradecapods or middle rank of the sub- 
kingdom, but in all this long period of existence they never became Tetradeca- 
pods, or, in short, anything but Trilobites. There was time enough, and change 
in the earth's condition sufficient to have shown evolution, if it had been a law 
of nature. The Trilobites, according to Dana's time ratios then existed 37,500,- 
000 years without losing their characteristic forms. 

It is a cardinal principle of evolution that " the use of an organ developed 
it."f The Trilobites in common with all other Crustaceans must have had organs 
of locomotion, and some faint impressions on sand are supposed to have 
been made by their feet ; but these organs were so thin or foliaceous that they 
have never been found fossilized, and this, too, at a time when rain-drops were 
imprinted on the rocks, and are seen to-day so delicately outlined that even the 
direction of the wind is known that attended the shower. Now if use of legs 
develops them, surely during 37,000,000 of years or as many generations, they 
should have become sufficiently firm to have left their shelly structure, or at least 
the impress of their feet beside the rain-drops. 

The arm of the blacksmith is indeed stronger for its use, but a hfe-long 
hammering adds no new muscle to it, and leaves so slight a mark on the bone 
that the anatomist cannot enter the catecombs and select a humerus, and say, "This 
is from a blacksmith," even though, as in Europe, father and son for many gen- 
erations follow that employment. 

■'■•Dawson. 
fXhomsson. 



GEOLOGY AND E VOL UTION. 291 

It is claimed that the later Trilobites are somewhat more highly organized 
than the earlier ; but Barrande on the other hand says, that those of the first or 
oldest Trilobite fauna, of the Silurian, rank above those of the second or more 
recent fauna. No proof exists, according to the same authority, that one genus 
has been derived from another. 

Against this strong array of geological facts, which we have given in the 
preceding pages, so adverse to the doctrine of evolution, it is urged and objected 
that the geological record is exceedingly imperfect, and if no fossils were missino- 
we should have evolution in all its phases. That this record, as we now know 
it is opposed to their theories, Prof. Darwin and his associates freely admit. 
He candidly says: " But I do not pretend that I should ever have suspected 
how poor was the record in the best preserved geological sections, had not the 
absence of innumerable transitional links between the species which lived at the 
commencement and close of each formation, pressed so hardly on my theory."! 
We admire the free, frank honesty of Prof. Darwin, that in his estimation, the 
strongest proof of the defectiveness of the record, consists in the fact that it 
does not agree with, but is antagonistic to his theory. If it is so defective, should 
not evolutionists and anti-evolutionists both wait till a better knowledge of these 
records shall be obtained from the rocks of the unexplored portions of the earth ? 
If we had supposed this record were as deficient as Prof. Darwin concludes, we 
certainly should not have written this brief essay, endeavoring to show that its 
facts did not accord with evolution. 

But is the record of the rocks so deficient? We have now 50,000 known 
and described species of fossils. Deducting the plants (6,000) and the articulates 
and we have about 40,000, representing the four sub-kingdoms of Protozoans 
Radiates, MoUusks and Vertebrates. Agassiz,* a few years ago estimated the 
living representatives of these four sub-kingdoms at 45,000, of which less than 
30,000 had been described. Here, then, we have a fossil representation ot 
species even larger than the living which have been described. But as there 
were, during the long geological ages, many more species than those living at 
any single period, we may estimate the total extinct of these four sub-kingdoms 
at 200,000, or at most 300,000 species. Are not the 40,000 species, scattered 
from the Archaean to the recent, likely to give us a fair representation of the 
varied life which covered that whole lapse of time ? Does not our knowledge ot 
the living fauna teach the same fact? We certainly had a correct knowledge ol 
the zoological features of South America when our naturalists had described 
one-tenth of its fauna. The first explorers of Australia reported a fair synopsis 
of the peculiarities of the zoology of that region, ere they had penetrated fifty 
miles from the sea coasts. 

So, while we have a meager Hst of the animal life of the carboniferous age, 
no one doubts that we possess a correct idea of its peculiar fauna. A perfect 
list of all its mollusks, insects and reptiles Avould not be likely to enlarge our 

tOrigin of Species, Chap. X, p. 282, Amer. Ed. 
*Principles of Zoology, p. 27, Edition of 1871. 



292 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

knowledge of the true feature of the animals, which pervaded its oceans, 
swamps and forests. We have probably a small list of its plants, but no one 
supposed that dicotyledons flourished in that era. The labors of the past thirty 
years have tended to push back in geological strata some forms, but has not 
shown a change of type. Reptiles are now known to be older than when our 
list was half as numerous, but the forms are no lower. The pines are now 
gathered from the upper Silurian, when not long ago we had found them no lower 
than the Upper Devonian. But the normal trunk, fruit and cell form do not 
differ from the two horizons. 

While in every locality some breaks are found in the geological deposits, 
yet the missing portions, to a very great extent, are seen in other countries. In 
Russia there is a blank between the upper Carboniferous and Permian, but in 
Kansas and Nebraska no such imperfection occurs, and the fossils pass from the 
lower of the one to the higher strata of the other. The great divisions of the 
geological formations in Europe are not tne same as those in America. The 
three epochs of the Tertiary in the former, become four in the latter, thus help- 
ing the defective record. Some of the American are fresh water deposits, 
synchronous with those of the salt water of Europe. According to Cope and 
Hayden, there is an unbroken continuation of the deposits of the Cretaceous 
and Tertiary ages, "establishing an uninterrupted succession of life across what 
is generally regarded as one of the greatest breaks of geologic time." -^ % -^ 
Types of lizards and tortoises continue, like the crocodiles, from the Mesozoic to 
Tertiary time without extraordinary modification of structure, "f 

But this "uninterrupted succession of life," connecting these two ages, 
covers the spot where we should find the missing links, which should, according 
to the theory of evolution, show the ancestry of all our extremely diversified 
mamal life of the early Eocene ; yet, not a trace of any has been found. The 
great variety from Lemur to Marsupial, in the latter formation, demanded nearly 
as much variance of form in the connecting deposits, and thence shading back- 
ward to the primitive type as low as the Ornithorynchus. 

Those who contend that our mammals are derived from a more simple 
quadruped should produce the facts which show it. Should true mammals or a 
high connecting form of marsupials be hereafter discovered below the Eocene 
it will then be soon enough to consider what theory they will sustain. We 
apprehend that they will be more likely to show forms as diverse from each 
other as the members of the Tertiary fanna. 

The Wealden epoch in England and similar deposits in the " Foot-Hills " of 
Colorado very nearly cover the chasm which exists in other parts of the world 
betvveen the Jurassic and Cretaceous. Thus we have a continuous succession of 
land through that portion of the earth's history in which are the records of all 
the highest members of the animal and vegetable world. 

Our American fourteen divisions of the Silurian and nine of the Devonian 



fU. S. Geological Survey of Colorado^ 1873, p. 442, Hayden. 



THE LOESS OF THE WESTERN PLAINS. 293 

do not cover the exact divisions of those formations in the Old world, as given by 
Lyell. Even in the United States, what is wanting in one section, is, in part, 
supplied in another. 

Had not the 10,000 species described from the Silurian failed to show the 
missing links to sustain the theory of Prof. Darwin, neither he nor any of his 
followers would have supposed that they were not a fair and full representation 
of all the types that existed in that geological age. Nearly 1,000 species of 
plants are known from the Carboniferous, and there is no probabiUty that any 
new type of vegetation will be found in it. With all the numerous and extremely 
diversified genera and species of reptiles from the Mesozoic, more varied than 
all the living, does any one expect that a more perfect list will change the char- 
acteristic feature of the age of reptiles? If the reader will look at tables one 
and two, page 19, or tables eleven and twelve, page 60, he will see the extreme 
difference between theory and known fact. The most sanguine evolutionist and 
most earnest pleader in favor of the imperfection of the geological records must 
admit that there can be little if any possibility that nature has made so imperfect 
a record of her doings as to leave us a history so entirely different from her true 
operations. The discrepancy is too broad and too deep to admit a probability 
that all the fossils showing evolution have been destroyed, while such a large 
number, covering the same periods, have been preserved as a record against it. 



THE LOESS OF THE WESTERN PLAINS— SUBAERIAL OR 
SUBAQUEOUS ? 

BY A. L. CHILD, M. D., PLATTESMOUTH, NEB. 

The geologists of the day are divided in opinion as to the method of deposit, 
of the Loess formation of the western plains. From the earlier observations of 
this formation by geologists till quite recently, the idea seemed generally, at 
least tacitly, to prevail, that like the large portions of the earth's crust, it was de- 
posited under water, or was subaqueous in its formation. 

Nevertheless it was frequently noticed and recorded, that wherever the form- 
ation was exposed the evidences of stratification were very obscure, if not entirely 
wanting. 

The position taken by Baron Richthofen, that it was a product of the winds 
brought in from surrounding lands, or of subaeriai formation, induced more active 
thought and inquiry on the subject. 

Positive evidence of stratification, although earnestly sought for, eluded ob- 
servation; and yet a deposit of the depth of the Loess from 150 to 200 feet, or in 
fact of any depth, distributed over such an immense surface, so nearly approach- 
ing a water level, indicated no hitherto observed or known action of wind. 

In the great cutting for an approach to the west end of the C, B. & Q. R. 
R. bridge, over the Missouri, at Plattesmouth, this question is most conclusively 



294 KAN'S AS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

solved. This cut, of upward of 2,000 yards in length and ranging from ten to 
ninety feet in depth, is entirely in the Loess formation. A portion of the excava- 
tion was made during the months of November and December of 1879, under 
very unusual circumstances. It was very dry, and yet there was a succession of 
a number of long mist-like rains. And during this period of these rainfalls there 
was hardly any perceptible wind. 

The rainfalls were simply sufficient to moisten the smooth sides of the cut, 
without any wash, or disintegration of the surface. The result was an oxydized 
effloresence of minerals unequally distributed, at different horizons. This oxyda- 
tion produced distinct color lines, clearly revealing stratified deposits of from 
three to twenty inches in depth. 

Subsequent heavier rains, with winds, largely mixed and removed these 
colors ; yet some still remain quite distinct after an exposure of from three to six 
months. 

Since reaching the grade level (some sixty days), several rather severe storms 
have fallen. The line of the cut, somewhat tortuous, offers faces, on the one 
side or the other, to any and all points of the compass. And those portions of the 
walls which have been subjected to a certain kind and amoimt of wear from these 
storms, exhibit clear and distinct lines of stratification ; their lines of softer mate- 
rial being removed from between the different strata of from three to fifteen inches 
in depth. 

Portions which have exhibited these lines clearly, are now by further action 
so far broken down and disintegrated that they yield no evidence of stratification, 
thus exhibiting the method by which all lines in exposure of this formation have 
been obscured. Many of these strata, under the peculiar action of the storms, 
are again subdivided into deeply cleft paper-like thicknesses. 

Near the east end of the cut is a very interesting exhibition of the debris of 
an ancient iceberg. This debris so far as exposed (the cut passing through one 
side of it), is in a conical heap of ten feet in height, and about eighty feet in 
diameter. The material is of such a diversified character as could only be obtained 
by a very long travel as a glacier, till it reached the shores of the great lake which 
then covered these Loess plains; into which it fell, after the manner now fre- 
quently seen, on the coasts of Greenland, of the glacier breaking from the 
mass and floating off on the ocean as an iceberg. So this glacier became an ice- 
berg and floated southwardly, till it was stranded at this point; and here in time dis- 
solved and deposited this as yet unknown amount of debris. 

The remains of this iceberg give us both indirect and direct evidence of our 
theory of subaqueous deposit. Indirect— by this proof of an extensive inland 
water, on which alone this berg could be transported. And direct, by the dis- 
tinct lines of stratification, both in colors and weathered lines, passing conform- 
ably over this mound of debris. 

Any honest doubter of the subaqueous theory can drop his doubts into the 
debris of the past on a brief examination of the evidence which this cut now 
exhibits. 



THE DECREASE OF THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. 295 

EXPANSION OF CLAY. 

From proceedings of the Institution of English Civil Engineers, March 26th, 
1879 : 

In railroad tunneling, timbers were frequently broken by the expansion 
of clay, although it appeared quite dry. — Hawkshaw. 

In Primrose Hill and the Kilsby tunnels, if the cutting was left a few days 
without completing the brick arching, the timbers were broken. The expansion 
seemed to be nearly the same, whether caused by the air as in the former case, 
or by the water as in the latter instance. — Mr. Foster. 

That in the Box tunnel it was usual to leave six inches for expansion between 
the face of the work and the timbers, and that space was scarcely sufficient. — Mr. 
Thompson. 

Had seen, at Richmond, a well of four feet in diameter, completely closed 
in one night by the swelling up of the bottom, although there was not any water 
in it. — Mr. J. Simpson. 



The first stone bridge ever constructed in England was that of Bow, near 
.Stratford, in 1087 : the next oldest was London bridge, constructed in 11 76. — 
English Paper. 



ETHNOLOGY. 



THE DECREASE OF THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. 

It is an almost universally received statement that, ever since the first contact 
of the whites and Indians, the latter have been steadily diminishing or disappear- 
ing. The matter has elicited repeated comment on the part of thinking men and 
philanthropists in this and other countries. It has furthermore formed no uncom- 
mon theme of earnest debate and somber prevision among the Indians themselves. 
And yet to ascertain the exact truth in the case is no easy task. Ignorance of 
the real facts has given rise to much of general assertion and idle sentimentation, 
and with the unthinking, careless or unmeaning generalities have come at last to 
be accepted as definite and indubitable data. A few additional words, therefore, 
upon this subject may not be altogether inappropriate. 

That there has been in case of perhaps every one of the best and longest 
known Indian tribes a decrease, in many instances startling in its apparent 
rapidity, no one attempts to deny. Still the true rate of decrease is generally 
greatly exaggerated. The number of the aboriginal population in earlier days 
has been almost universally overstated. In the mind of the European explorers 
the vast expanse of the country seemed naturally to corrpborate the boastful 



296 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

claims made by the Indians as to their numbers. Hence the comparison of tneir 
numbers as reported by these explorers, and subsequently by those who have 
simply repeated their estimates, with their now more accurately ascertained num- 
bers makes the rate of decrease appear much greater than it actually is. In close 
connection also with this fact it must be remembered that the Indians {as Indians) 
are not a prolific race. To one at all familiar with Indian life and history this is 
a most obtrusive characteristic. With the normal birth rate continued it is 
that under the most favorable circumstances in their mode of life the numerical 
increase of a tribe from generation to generation would be very perceptibly belo\ir 
the ordinary rate of increase among the whites. Notwithstanding their constitu- 
tional vigor and permitted polygamous life, the children of an Indian family that 
survive infancy rarely number five, and quite usually are only two or three. And 
the statement admits of demonstration that at times tribes in a state of ordinary 
prosperity scarcely more than hold their own from year to year in point of 
numbers. 

Again, in some cases small tribes and remnants of tribes, instead of perishing 
utterly, as is often stated of them, are merely incorporated into the larger con- 
tiguous tribes and so disappear only in name, In frequent individual instances, 
too, Indian blood is simply absorbed by the whites. Whoever is conversant with 
the older and more recent Indian history and border annals meets constant evi- 
dence of such incorporation of Indian blood into white stock. Personal obser- 
vation in all parts of the country presents not infrequent illustrations of the same 
fact. The degree to which this silent transference has occurred is far higher than 
is usually supposed. 

But after all, the considerations just adduced do not invalidate the fact of a 
significant decrease among the Indians; they only call for an abatement in the 
rate. And this brings us to the real question, why is this decrease ? What are 
the active causes that have borne part in producing it ? 

Undoubtedly the most noticeable agency has been war among themselves 
and more especially with the whites. Warfare is the Indians' inspiration, his 
chief avenue to tribal position and influence. In his view, life and warfare are 
quite interchangable terms. Their wars with each other, however, though inces- 
sant, are seldom bloody or to any considerable extent destructive of life. The 
Indians' proverbial fear of death is generally a sufficient motive to him to forego 
the shedding of the blood of an enemy wherever it seems likely to involve too 
great a peril of his own life. Intertribal warfare, therefore, consists mainly 
of petty forays, made by small parties or single individuals, and entailing com- 
paratively unimportant destruction of life. To be sure there are instances where 
entire tribes are reported to have been annihilated, but these are exceptions. 
Such destruction has had place, if at all, only where combined action on the part 
of many, a rare event among Indians, has been made against the few ; or where 
both sides have been encouraged or supported by outside influences. It is rather 
their wars with the whites that have proven disastrously destructive. The com- 



THE DECREASE OF THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. 297 

bined and long continued operations of the latter are at once impossible to them 
and altogether disconcerting. Statistics show that they have been fearfully 
reduced by this means. Their diminution in battle and indirectly by consequent 
famine and exposure has been enormous. The habitual secretiveness of the 
Indian renders it extremely difficult to carefully estimate these losses ; but the 
lapse of time displays their magnitude only too distinctly. It must be borne in 
mind, moreover, that the losses of declared hostilities, great as they are, consti- 
tute but a small part or the actual losses inflicted upon them by the whites. The 
quiet taking-off of an Indian here and there by the irresponsible frontiersman has 
in the aggregate reached an almost incredible figure.'!^ 

To such a degree has this unreported decimation of Indians prevailed that 
universally they are now become extremely reluctant to place themselves in 
immediate, constant contact with the whites, even under the most solemn assur- 
ance of amity and protection. 

The crowding of the Indians in the advancing occupancy of their domain 
by the whites has been another important cause of decrease to them. The 
restriction of their wanted limits rendered their former active life a self support 
by the chase impracticable, while as yet no adequate encouragement or assistance 
in the adoption of new modes of life, made necessary by their changed circum- 
stances, was afforded. Hence was engendered a life of idleness, mendicancy 
and dissoluteness — a most fertile source of decay. Almost constantly during 
the past one hundred years our frontier has been beset with a pale of degraded, 
diseased and perishing red men of this description. Pressed back by the 
encroachments of civilization from their original homes, and not able successfully 
to maintain their new ground against wary assaults from its former occupant they 
are surely (and not slowly) borne onward toward extermination. Disregarded by 
the whites and despised by the adjacent wild tribes they have realized but too 
clearly that there was no place for them, and with perhaps fitful remonstrances 
have submitted hopelessly and aimlessly to the inevitable. Experience seems to 
indicate that when once the Indian has reached this state there is scarcel)'' any 
help — his doom is set as he is consciously and almost willingly hastening toward 
it. The census of such tribes, as annually taken, is sufficient witness to their 
decline. A single illustration of this assertion, afforded within the last half dozen 
years, may be cited. One of the most robust and spirited tribes of the West has 
decreased 40 per cent, since 1874, in consequence mainly (if not entirely), of the 
limited and almost helpless conditions of life that have been forced upon them 
by the government. 

*To learn what is the prevalent an'mus of the borderer toward the Indian one has but to refer to the dis- 
cussions of the vexed Indian question constantly appearing in the journals of the frontier States. The general 
tone of feeling there evinced is decidedly inimical to them. Witness the following from the California corres- 
pondenee of the New York Tribune, September, 1859: " The federal government committed a great mistake 
ten years ago in not ordering a large military force to this State, with orders to hunt and shoot down all the 
Indians from the Colorado to the Klamath. This would have been the cheapest method of managing the 

Indian affairs of California ; and perhaps the most humane . The fact is that every wild Indian in the 

State must die . It is supposed that ten years ago there were 60,000 Indians in the State ; to-day there 

are not 10,000." Compare Harpers Monthly, vol. 23, pp. 312-13. Unfortunately the press of the older States 
too often lends its sanction (perhaps unintentionally) to teaching of this character. 



:298 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

Cognate and suggested by the foregoing has been a more subtile but very 
powerful influence, — discouragement. The lack of organizing and recuperative 
faculty in the Indian has been frequently remarked. He seems incapable of 
unintermitted activity and complex combinations. Even periods of success are 
with him, inevitably followed by long lapses of relaxation and almost demoraliza- 
tion, when all his energies of both mind and body seem unstrung and insuscepti- 
ble of reanimation. Much more is this the case in the presence of a long series 
of disasters and discouragements. More or less this fact of a general dispirited- 
ness is become prevalent among all the Indians of our present territory. It may 
not at first acquaintance be noticeable, for as occasion requires the Indian can be 
a diplomat of no mean order; but to one long famiHar with them in their daily 
life and thought it is a most impressive and unavoidable conviction that they are 
disheartened. Their ambition as a race is fast disappearing and their hope almost 
perished. In intimate intercourse they make no secret of acknowledging it. 
The first chief of one of the most important of the tribes dwelt with a peculiar 
earnestness upon this fact in a final interview between himself and the writer 
two years since, and his mind was the mind of the many. It is exactly this 
unfortunate mental status that is working lamentable results upon many of the 
Indian tribes, while in this attitude a quite ordinary ailment frequently proves 
fatal. A slight epidemic will carry off great numbers. Children that grow up 
receive as their most direct inheritance this incubus of hopelessness and are 
thereby quite incapacitated for aught of successful effort toward their own 
improvement or the amelioration of the condition of their posterity. The tem- 
perament of the Indians has become uniformly melancholic, and those among 
them, who possess the most of native abihty and from whom we should naturally 
expect the best and largest efforts for good, are the very ones in whom this type 
of temperament is most emphatically present. I do not remember to have seen 
this phase of Indian character particularly noticed; but it deserves careful con- 
sideration from all who are sincerely interested in their welfare and advancement. 
Perhaps it would be as well not to inquire too curiously into the course of events 
that has brought about this special mental attitude in them. The exact truth 
might not be entirely flattering to our humanitarianism. 

Of the deleterious efforts of strong drink and of certain forms of disease 
communicated to the Indians by the whites it seems scarcely necessary to speak. 
Their victims are to be numbered by thousands. The sale of liquors to the 
Indians is now by the wise, but inefficiently administered policy of the govern- 
ment somewhat checked; but it is by no means stopped. One of the most 
frequent cases before the federal courts, sitting in the vicinity of any Indian 
reservation is that of the United States vs. A B for selHng liquor to Indians. By 
various avenues considerable quantities continue to reach them and its use still 
operates to their no small detriment. No doubt it is only a very broad euphe- 
mism that the stuff thus illegitimately bartered to the Indians may be dignified by 
the name of Uquor ; for in more than one instance it has been found by actual 



THE DECREASE OF THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. 299 

test to be a vilest concoction of nauseous and most deadly drugs. The unwhole- 
some effects of such beverage may be readily imagined. Of disease the scrofu- 
lous taint has been the most malign. Some medical authorities claim that there 
is scarcely an Indian within the confines of the United States whose system is 
not to some extent infected with it. This is certainly an extravagant generaliza- 
tion ; but the bare fact of its being ventured is evidence of the general prevalence 
and insidious virulence of this type of disease. The frequency of various 
strumous symptoms, and the development of the V-shaped jaw in some tribes ; 
and the alarming mortality among all Indians, of such diseases as affect particu- 
larly the glandular system, are momentous indications in the same direction. 

Obviously this is a catalogue of adverse influences that might well break the 
most buoyant and elastic constitution. The Indians have borne up against them 
with a surprising persistency, but the struggle has been unequal. The magnitude 
of the Iliad of their woes may be inadequately determined by the fact that in 
nearly every instance they have lost ground. In the greater number of cases 
they are still losing ground. The only question now before the friend of the 
Indian is whether this state of things shall continue ; whether the decay shall be 
suffered to go on practically unhindered till most of the present tribes pass 
out of existence and become matters of interest solely to the philologist and 
inquisitive historian.* 

Nominally the question was decided years ago. Philanthropists have devised 
and appHed not a few schemes for the saving and civilization of the Indian. But 
in practice, with here and there a remote exception, the choicest schemes have 
proven altogether nugatory, if, indeed, not prejudicial. The Indian, as a class, 
remains still hopeless and helpless. To him, as also to his would-be benefactor, 
the experience of the past is not remarkably encouraging. 

Now, of means possible for the correction of the abuses under which the 
Indian is losing ground, as I have endeavored to show, there appear to be but 
two. I. The official, which involves a complete reconstruction of our adminis- 
trative policy with regard to them. The radical defect of the administration of 
Indian affairs hitherto >has been that in their direction the goverenment has in 
fact, if not in principle, acted toward them as though they were a temporary 
burden incident to the acquisition of our newer territory, and its duty was simply 
to render easy their passage out of existence and not rather to elevate them into 
the only true existence — that of a man among fellow men. A pupilage, such as 
their present condition is sometimes complacently termed, lacks the one essential 
element of a true pupilage : it is not a state of preparation for better things. It 
is, so far as concerns the Indian, a perpetuity, ending only with his existence. 

*I am aware that the statement here offered will receive a prompt rejection from a considerable number of 
those who have made Indian history and affairs a topic of long and critical investigation. Quite recently there 
has sprung up a strenuous tendency to go to the other extreme and claim that ihe Indians are in the main 
steadily increasing. I believe the truth lies between. There are noteworthy instances of increase ; but there 
are undoubtedly more that show a decrease. I have in this paper purposely refrained from giving lists of 
statistics, that I might not trespass necessary limits; but I have also carefully refrained from stating aught that 
might not be verified by copious data. 



300 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

The control of his interests is erected into a separate bureau which has no organic 
union nor necessary interdependence with the life and general civil interests of 
the country. On the contrary, its dealings with the Indians have in not a few 
instances been so conducted as to bring their interests into apparently direct 
conflict with the general interests of the community. In fine, the Indian bureau 
has come to be spoken of and is systematically treated as a most undesirable 
public burden Instead of there being any well organized and sustained effort 
to identify the Indian with, or to prepare him for entrance into the body politic 
as a useful vital force, the general tendency of our present system is to keep him 
distinctly and emphatically debarred from most of its special privileges and 
immunities. And not only is this true as related to the direct work of the 
government with the Indians, but in practice the spirit of its policy has paralyzed 
nearly every effort from other sources (as charitable societies) in their behalf. 
The material surroundings and conditions in which they are kept by the govern- 
ment will not admit of nor sustain the Indians' essential moral elevation. 

Whether a reorganization of our Indian policy is practicable, as public affairs, 
are now administered, is a grave question; if not, it is a vital weakness. What 
is required is a system which shall have as its only aim the fitting of the Indian 
for an early investiture with the full rights of citizenship, and the moment he 
becomes such, that he comes to realize that he has a rightful place as part of the 
State, it is not consonant with the laws of human nature that he should continue 
to decline. To fully discuss this phase of the Indian question would require a 
volume. My only desire here is to mark it as having been an element in hasten- 
ing the Indians' decay. 

II. This is a most important factor in the consideration of our subject ; yet 
it is one that is difficult of a proper presentation. I do not flatter myself, more- 
over, that it will at first blush secure any very extended acceptation. The 
measure here suggested is to be gathered from the last cause assigned for their 
decay. If it is undeniable that Indian blood has become corrupt by the admix- 
ture of a vitiated blood from whatever source, then it is physiologically a most 
natural method that it might be reinvigorated by the infusion of a new, untainted 
element, and the problem becomes much simpler if the strain thus engrafted is 
from a superior stock. Historically it may be accepted as demonstrated that the 
sturdiest and most persistent types of the human family have often sprung from 
the union of two differehtiated stocks, the one of which presents the highly 
organized, intense element, while the other affords the heavier physical stamina. 
Fortunately we have afforded, us excellent and abundant iflustration of this very 
phenomenon in Indian history. The old voyageurs, the courieurs des bois, and 
even the more unadventurous of the French pioneers of Canada, who chose the 
prosaic life of farmers, in considerable numbers formed alliances with native 
women. From this diverse parentage has sprung a large portion of the present 
population of Canada. Even in the older and more densely settled districts of 
the Dominion the greater part of the population (excluding recent immigration) 



THE DECREASE OF THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. 301 

Still shows evidence of Indian blood ; while in the vast Manitoba region the 
entire body of the inhabitants, farmers and hunters, is of this mixed descent. As 
to the physical powers and development of the hybrid stock (except where the 
offspring of vagrant intercourse) the testimony of experience is uniformly favora- 
ble. They are a robust, enduring people among their neighbors of pure white 
blood, with the Indians on the other hand they stand deservedly high. Alexan- 
der Henry, in his travels of 120 years ago, reports a Knistenaux chief as saying 
that the half breeds excelled the pure Indians, both as hunters and warriors. 
Among the Indian tribes of the West and Northwest it is no unusual thing to-day 
to meet chieftains and distinguished braves in whom white blood is easily dis- 
cernible. The excellent characteristics derived from the healthful intermingling 
of the races are so marked as to warrant the designation of the descendants by 
eminent authorities as a new and persistent variety of man. 

It is just herein, I am persuaded, that we shall find a real and possible solu- 
tion of the somber problem of the steady diminution of the Indians. The policy 
of the Canadian government, while the French regime continued, at least 
indirectly encouraged this blending of the white and red races. Peter Kalm, a 
most extensive and critical observer, in his narrative does not scruple to commend 
the system. No doubt it would meet much earlier and ready application with 
the facile Frenchman than with the more unyielding Saxon ; but it evidently is 
not impossible. That it has occurred, and with beneficial results in case of some 
of the southern tribes, was sufficiently presented in a paper in a previous numbe^ 
of this journal (November, 1879). In these tribes the preponderance of white 
blood is more manifest with each succeeding generation, and ultimately it will 
completely absorb or assimilate the Indian element. The same event would 
occur with our entire Indian population were the blending once to begin under 
favorable circumstances. The Indian would disappear, but only in name. 
Whatever of vital force or quality in him is worthy of conservation would sur- 
vive and enure to -the advantage of the dominant race. 

It seems, therefore, that it were become a fit question whether it may not be 
made a matter of governmental consideration or policy with us to encourage 
some such system. Certainly the conviction is gaining strength in the minds of 
most intelligent men who have longest been intimate with the Indian's condition 
and needs, that such a blending, under suitable limitations, is desirable and for 
the Indian necessary; without it our Indian policy must remain an anomalous 
iniperium in imperio, a prison-house system alien and repugnant to our national 
instinct and finally ruinous to the Indian. 

John B. Dunbar, Deposit, N. Y. - 



302 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



SCIENCE LETTER FROM PARIS. 

July 30, 1880. 

Professor Vogt has drawn the attention of the National institute of Genevay 
to the physiology of writing. It has been demonstrated that certain parts of the 
brain, situated in the region of the temples, have a predominating influence on 
the formation of articulated language. It is also well known that the nervous 
fibers inter-cross in the brain, and in such a manner, that the movements of the 
left arm are commanded by the right hemisphere, while the movements of the 
right arm are ordered by the left hemisphere of the brain. Apoplectic attacks 
and extravasations of blood, are more frequent in the left, than in the right side of 
the brain. Hence, when the left hemisphere is affected, paralysis and the impossi- 
bility to speak result for the members of the right side, while any lesion in the right 
hemisphere, resulting in paralyzing the left members, generally leaves language 
intact. Now since a center existsf or language, does one also exist for writing? and 
since we are accustomed invariably to write Vv'ith the right hand, the power to- 
do so ought to be paralyzed when the left lobe of the brain becomes attacked. 
But we can learn not the less to write with the left hand; this raises a general 
question: Does the manner in which we write depend on physiological necessities 
created by the structure even of the brain itself? All peoples write with the right 
hand; how then comes it that the arrangement of the lines and letters be different? 

The nations of Eastern Asia write from top downward, and in lines from 
right to left; Semitics and Europeans place the lines one below the other, but the 
former shape the letters from right to left centripetally, while the latter do so 
from left to right and centrifugally. The arrangement of the lines and letters 
and their formation, are independent of each other ; it is the form and size of the 
letters that constitute individuality. The representation of an object by an im- 
age was the origin of writing; the knotted strings in use with the Aztecs was 
rather an aid-memory than a form of writing; besides, to make a knot on a 
handkerchief to sharpen the memory, is not uncommon among moderns. The 
Mexicans have a combination of image and phonetic writing, suggestive of a re- 
bus; the Red Indians when they paint images on skins, differ in litde from the 
races that did the same on rocks. The style of primitive writing depended on 
the material; on a cornice, the lines were horizontal; vertical on a pillar; circular 
round a column. Naturally on a pillar the writing would commence from the 
top downward. 

The Arabs and Mussulmans when writing, keep the hand fixed to the same 
spot, while the other — the left — gently pushes or spins the paper forward, from 
left to right. The Arabs also prefer to write while standing up, besides^ the 



SCIENcd^LETTER FROM PARIS. SOS- 

Koran enjoins that the right hand ought to remain motionless when writing. 
Easterns could never have written with the left hand, for that hand has ever- 
ranked as impure. No Turk strokes his beard with the left hand, or employs it to 
receive food, and to present that to be shaken, ranks in the eyes of westerns as 
an insult. With a Semitic, every religious action is accomplished with the face 
turned toward the east; his prayer would be worthless if uttered in any other 
position; he observes the same rule in writing, so that the light arrives from the 
south, and he writes from that point to shadeward. Westerns receive the light 
on the left side, and curiously enough, write also toward the shade. Both are 
physiologically correct in not writing in full light. A singular fact to note : an 
individual struck with paralysis, experiences ever afterward an inability to pro- 
nounce certain letters,/, /, r, for example; the correlation will extend to the in- 
capacity to write these letters, a simple crook is at most all that can represent 
them. Naturally, as observed, the right hand predominates; this was the case 
in the time of Homer's heroes, and was so with their ancestors; and modern 
man writes easily, and as rapidly, as a musician's fingers move unconsciously, be- 
cause the images or letters are stored in the left hemisphere of the brain. Left- 
handed penmanship is only right-hand writing topsy-turvy; this explains the ec- 
centricity of Leonard de Vinci's explanations of his designs, and that puzzle so 
many persons; he wrote upside down at an early age, and continued the freak 
when residing in France. Many lithographers at present write on the stone with 
the left hand and draw with the right. 

Professor Vogt concludes, that the position of the hues in writing and recip- 
rocal arrangement of the letters, depend on no physiological necessity. 

M. Hebert has been studying what was formerly the geologic condition of 
the Straits of Dover, and concludes that during the first phase the tertiary pe- 
riod, a part of the Straits was covered by the German ocean, which communi- 
cated with the basin of Paris by the plains of Artois, while it also extended to 
Belgium, Westphalia and Hanover. He fixes the opening of the Straits, during 
the quaternary period. 

Professor Daubree claims for Descartes, the honor of being one of the cre- 
ators of cosmology and geology, he had been replaced by Newton and Voltaire. 
Before Laplace, Descartes cousidered all celestial phenomena as simple deduc- 
tions from the laws of the mechanics; he proclaimed the physical unity of the 
universe, before the spectroscope had revealed the chemical composition of the 
most distant worlds, and that the earth and the heavens are made of the same 
matter. Heat, accordmg to Descartes, played a role capital in the formation of 
our globe, which was at one time a star, differing in nothing from the sun, save 
in beino- smaller, and that the dislocations in celestial vault have been produced 
by coolings and contractions. The idea that igneous, or crystallized rocks were at 
one time stratified till coming in contact with the internal heat of the globe, they 
became volcanic, has been abandoned since the explorations of Humboldt in the 
Andes, and of De Buch in Norway; the latter found crystaUine rocks lying over 



304 KANSAS CITY REVIEW &F SCIENCE. 

Stratifications, the same in the Tyrol and in the Canaries — proofs of the subter- 
ranean activity of the earth. Cordier, also concluded from the increasing tem- 
perature of mines with their depths that the mass of the globe was still in a fluid 
state. M. Elie de Baumont has based his vast system on this crust of the globe 
contracting by cooling. He astonished scientists also by asserting that the oldest 
mountains, were not the highest, and that little hills in Britany and Wales, were 
older than the Alps and the Andes. The classification zoologic and the clas- 
sification by systems of dislocations and upheavings, to-day march side by side. 
Professor Daubree points out that by no means can feldspar or analogous silicate 
rocks be formed independent of heat, that the fissures in the rocks filled with 
metals, have been in intimate relationship with the internal regions of the globe 

M. Perroncioto has made some further researches as to the cause of the 
anemia which affects the workmen in the St. Gothard tunnel. He found the 
patients were invariably suffering from quantities of worms, like small eels, 
whose presence sufficiently explained the malady. The same diagnosis was ob- 
served in the case of the men who bored the Frejus tunnel. 

Teeth have a very intimate connection with health; bad teeth imply a bad 
stomach, and a stomach which functions badly contributes to caries and the loss 
of the teeth. From the very earliest history, the preservation of the teeth occu- 
pied attention. Homer, Hesiod, Euripides, etc., constantly allude to the sub- 
ject. In the law of the Twelve Tables, it was prohibited to bury the dead with 
gold, except when, that metal served to bind the teeth. Cascellius, the famous 
dentist at Rome, left, when dying, a fortune greater than that of a pro-consul. 
Tooth preservatives or powders, were also in great request in ancient Greece. 
Young ladies ever had a portion of myrtle, the shrub sacred to Venus, in their 
mouths, and St. Clement blamed the ladies of his day for their coming to the 
temple with their mouths full of the drug mastic. The adult has sixteen teeth in 
each jaw, the child but ten, till seven years of age. A tooth consists of the crown 
which extends outside the gum, the neck, which is covered by the gum, and the 
root, which occupies the socket. The tooth is hollow, and filled with a pulp; 
■closed toward the crown, but open at the roots to allow the nerves and blood 
vessels to ramify. Three different tissues compose the teeth: the ivory or dent- 
ine, which exists at the root, as well as at the crown, and forms the principal 
part, it is not bone, as many think, though it has the same chemical composition, 
no vessel penetrates it, and it has neither medullar sap, nor pores, it consists of 
of layers, one over the other, and hardened even at the moment of formation. 
Next, the enamel, which covers the crown of the tooth, and that resembles not 
a little porcelain, the shade varying with the temperament of each individual. 
It is so hard as to resemble blue steel, it marks the best files, and will strike fire 
with steel, like a flint; third, the cement, which covers the tooth, and thicker at 
the root than at the neck. The teeth live and grow by means of their pulp, a 
matter extremely sensitive, and when inflamed, very painful, in consequence of 
the impossibihty to augment its volume, being narrowed in on all sides by the 



SCIENCE LETTER FROM PARIS. 305 

ivory. It is to the sensibility of this pulp, that we immediately feel the least 
differences between heat and cold, and the slightest shades in the food masticated. 
The incisors have only a crown and a root, and constantly grow, as in the case 
of rabbits and other gnawing animals; they cut the food, while the canine teeth 
tear it. The "wisdom tooth" has roots and a crown less developed; its form 
varies, and it appears at no fixed age; when it has no room to develop, grave re- 
sults may ensue. When, through age, the teeth disappear, the form of the jaw 
bones alter, and impart a change to the physiognomy, the lower jaw bone in- 
clines backward, as with infants, and the chin becomes pointed. Teeth grow ir- 
regularly from various causes, and the best period to correct the defect is be- 
tween ten and fifteen years of age. For persons who have acid stomachs, and 
which thus favor the destruction of the enamel, alkaline drinks ought to be pat- 
ronized, and alkaline powder, containing a little magnesia, employed. Caries 
can be either dry or humid — the former, often suddenly stops of its own accord, 
but commences by a black spot, and marked sensibility to heat and cold. When 
the disease eats into the pulp, the tooth ache appears in a most violent form. 
When caries appears, food should not be partaken of when too hot or too cold; 
brushes rather soft than hard, ought to be employed; alkaline powders are excel- 
lent for combating the acid of the saliva — one of the chief causes of caries — as 
stringent preparations fortify the gums. When the teeth are lost, they ought to'' 
be replaced, not only in the interest of pronunciation, but in that of digestion, 
for on the efficacy of the latter a prolongation of our days depends. 

There are numerous thermal stations, spas in Europe : England has eight, Ger- 
many seventy-two and France ii6. What is chiefly to be kept in view, is not 
the quantity of mineral matters in solution, but their quality. There is no classi- 
fication for natural mineral waters. Their production is one of the most inter- 
esting problems of geology; the mineralization is effected under the influence of 
heat and pressure; is in connection with the nature of the soil, and is associated 
with chemical reactions as complicated as they are obscure. There is much dif. 
ference in composition of springs in point of yield, temperature and richness of 
solution, and they have a relationship with barometrical oscillations and earth- 
quakes. The Lisbon earthquake affected all the thermal springs of Europe. How- 
ever, the best known mineral waters have a very stable and ancient origin. 



THE SIXTH SENSE. 



Dr. Hughes Bennett, Professor in Edinburgh University, lately read a paper 
before the British Association of Science, wherein he announced that the tendency 
of modern physiology was to ascribe to man a sixth sense. If there be placed 
before a man two smaU tubes, the one of lead, the other of wood, both gilded 
over so as to look exactly alike, and both of the same temperature, not one of the 
five senses could tell the man which is lead and which is wood. He could tel 
this only by lifting them, and this sense of weight was likely to be recognized as 
the sixth sense. — Scientific American. 

IV— 20 



306 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



BOOK NOTICES 



The Skin in Health and Disease: By L. D. Bulkley, M. D., Philadelphia r 

Presley Blakiston, 1880: p. 148, 12 mo., 50 cents. 

This is number ten of the American Health Primers, which have proved sa 
timely and so successful. The author, who is attending physician at the New 
York hospital, writes with experience and consequently with a ready pen; 
dividing his subject into but four chapters, which, however, cover the whole 
ground as fully and completely as could be asked in a merely popular treatise. 
In the first chapter he undertakes to combat certain popular prejudices in regard 
to diseases of the skin by briefly describing the anatomy and physiology of the 
skin. The second is devoted to directions in regard to the care of the skin in 
health and for the prevention of disease, and this is the most important of the- 
whole. The third takes up the diseases to which the skin is liable, their recogni- 
tion and home treatment. The last furnishes directions for diet, hygiene and 
mode of life, which will aid the physicians in their cure. The author's remarks 
upon soaps will certainly surprise most readers and should serve to put them 
upon their guard against the numerous " medicated," " soothing " and "curative " 
nostrums, which are usually manufactured of the cheapest and most objectiona- 
ble ingredients and are far more likely to communicate disease than to remove 
it. It is abundantly illustrated and handsomely printed. 



Felter's Elements of Arithmetic: By S. A. Felter, A. M., and S. A. Far- 
rand, Ph. D., New York. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1880, p. 154, 12 mo. 
Cloth, 30 cents. 

Felter's Arithmetics have been used for years in the New York schools and. 
have received the highest commendations from the principals of many of them.. 
Their advantages seem to be the ignoring of theoretical discussions, technical 
definitions and rules, and the furnishing of a larger variety of practical examples 
and a closer and improved grading, while the illustrations are marvelously fine 
for a school book. The charm of the illustrations and the easy and simple steps 
of the ascent, from the notation one book, two boys, three ducks, four hens and 
five birds, all depicted in the most artistic manner, to the handling of fractions- 
also illustrated in an equally attractive way, must necessarily beguile the most 
wary boy into an interested examination and study of the subject before he 
knows it. The series comprises the above and The New Intermediate, The 
Advanced and the Complete Arithmetics, all by the same authors and all spoken 
of, by those who have used them, in the highest terms. 



BOOK NOTICES. 307 

Record of the Progress of Astronomy for 1879: By J. L. E. Dreyer, M. 

A., Dublin, Ireland. 

This is a sketch of the principal astronomical events of the year 1879, ^.nd 
an account of the more important and interesting investigations that were 
made in that year. It is intended as a continuation of the work of Professor 
Holden, of the U. S. Naval Observatory, who has for several years 
prepared such a paper for the Annual Record of Science and Industry 
(now discontinued). In this account of the world's progress in astronomical 
work it is gratifying to notice that the labors and investigations of the 
observers of the United States occupy a prominent position, and that the names 
of such western observers as Pritchett, of Missouri, Stone, of Cincinnati, 
Burnham, of Chicago, and Watson, of Ann Arbor, are mentioned in connection 
with services of a most valuable character to astronomical science. 



The Data of Ethics: By Herbert Spencer : J. Fitzgerald & Co., 18S0, Paper, 

15 cents. 

This is number 9, volume I, of the Humboldt Library, those preceding it 
being Light Science for Leisure Hours, by Prof. R. A. Proctor ; Forms of 
•Water, by Prof. Jno. Tyndall; Physics and PoHtics, by Walter Bagehot; Man's 
Place in Nature, by Prof. T. H. Huxley; Education: Intellectual, Moral and 
Physical, by Herbert Spencer; Town Geology, by Rev. Chas. Kingsley; Conser- 
vation of Energy, by Prof. Balfour Stewart; The Study of Languages, by C. 
Marcel 

Thus it will be seen that for $1.35 one can procure nine first class, standard 
works by the best writers of the present day, printed in fair type on good paper, 
while, by subscribing by the year, twenty-four such works can be had for $3.00 
per annum. 



Quarterly Report of the Kansas State Board of Agriculture, June 30, 

1880: J. K. Hudson, Secretary: pp. 119 Octavo. 

This valuable work contains, as usual, statistics relative to population 
acreage of important crops, railroads, public lands, condition of crops, farm 
animals, meteorology data, etc., together with the Summer and Fall treatment of 
orchards and vineyards, the Growing of sorghum cane, and the Habits and trans- 
formations of the web worm, the last by Prof. E. A. Popenoe, of the State 
Agricultural College. This Report is an excellent number, creditable alike to the 
State and to Major Hudson, the new Secretary of the Board of Agriculture. 



Circulars of Information of the Bureau of Education, No. 2, 1880 : Hon. 

John Eaton, Commissioner: Govt. Printing Office, 1880. 

This so-called circular comprises 1 1 1 pages and is a Report of the proceed- 
ings of the Department of Superintendence of the National Education Associa. 
tion, at the meeting at Washington, Feb. 18-20, 1880. 



308 KANSAS CITY J? E VIEW OF SCIENCE. 

This meeting was attended by about sixty-five of the Superintendents of 
State Boards of Education, PubHc Schools, Boards and Principals of Seminaries, 
etc., from all portions of the United States. 

Papers upon appropriate subjects were read by Prof. S. A. Butterfield, 
President Gilman, of Johns Hopkins Union ; Hon. C. D. Randall, W. T. Har- 
ris, LL. D., and several others, besides discussions of kindred topics, in 
which most of the members joined. 

These circulars contain valuable matter for teachers at all times, and this 
particular nuniber is especially rich in useful and entertaining articles and 
suggestions. 



SCIENTIFIC MISCELLANY. 



MANUFACTURE OF LINEN. 

Although the natural appearance of wool might first have suggested its use 
as a textile and woven material, there is no historic evidence that woolen cloth 
antedated that of linen. The manufacture of linen dates from the earliest written 
records. It was well known in the time of Herodotus, and the Egyptian 
mummies are swathed in linen cloth. With the Egyptians, linen appears to have 
borne a sacred character, as their priests were forbidden to enter the temples 
clothed in other than linen garments and their dead were always shrouded in it. 
In later times linen cloth appears to have been a manufacture very generally 
practiced among civilized peoples. 

Probably because of the superior facility with which cotton fiber can be pre- 
pared for spinning and weaving, the manufacture of linen in this country does not 
seem to have attained the proportions to which its actual value entitles it. The 
extensive application of machinery to the manufacture of linen is of a compara- 
tively recent date, and even now much of the Irish linen is of hand make, from 
the pulling of the flax to the finish of the cloth. Massachusetts appears to have 
led in the linen manufacture in this country. Previons to 1640 the people of this 
colony imported from England most of their clothing and all of the finer sort ; 
but in that year the Assembly decreed that : 

"The Court taking into serious Consideration the absolute Necessity for the 
Raising of the Manufacture of Linnen cloths, doth declare that it is the Intent of 
this Court that there shall be an Order settled about it, and therefore doth require 
the Magistrates and Deputies of the several Towns to acquaint the townsmen 
therewith, and to make Enquiry what seed is in every town, what Men and 
Wimmen are skillful in the braking, spinning and weaving, what means for the 
providing of Wheels ; and to consider with those skillful in that manufacture, and 
what course may be taken for teaching the boys and girls in all towns the spinning 



AD VICE FOR SUMMER WORK. 309 

of the yarn, and to return to the next Court their several and joint advice about 
this thing. The Hke consideration to be had for the spinning and weaving of 
Cotton Wool." 

The description of cloth to which this order applies appears to have been a 
mixture of cotton and linen, or Hnen and wool, known as "linsey-woolsey." A 
subsequent order offered "a bounty of three-pence on every shilling's worth of 
linen, woolen and cotton cloth, according to its valation, for incouragement of 
the manufacture." New England is also entitled to the honor of the first linen 
factory, which was estabhshed in the year 1737 in "Long Acre," — Tremont 
street, Boston. In 1662 the Assembly of Virginia enacted laws for the promo- 
tion of the industry of cloth making. Two pounds of tobacco were offered as a 
bounty for every pound of flax, or hemp, prepared for the spindle, three pounds 
for every yard of linen cloth a yard wide, and five pounds for every yard of 
woolen cloth. Every titheable person was required, under a penalty of fifty 
pounds of tobacco, to produce yearly two pounds of dressed flax or hemp. Flax 
seed was imported from England and distributed to each county. Denton, in 
1670, says of the women of New Netherlands: " Every one make their own 
linen and a great part of their woolen cloth for their ordinary wearing." In New 
Jersey, in 1867, Quakers from Yorkshire and London made hnen cloth, and in 
Pennsylvania, in 1693, and in Delaware, at about the same time, one of the 
principal employments of women was the spinning and weaving of hnen, and in 
New Hampshire, in 1719, Scotch-Irish carried on the business quite extensively. 

The manufacture is growing in this country, but not with such rapidity as 
many other industries. The census of 1870 reports 90 establishments for the man- 
factures of flax, but how many are devoted to the making of linen cloth does not 
appear. Of these 90 no less than 46 are in New York. (The census of i860 
showed only ten in New York and Massachusetts.) Ohio, in 1870, had 27 es- 
tablishments, and the remainder were scattered in five or six other States. The 
entire number of hands employed in 1870 was 765, the capital invested $524, 701, 
and the annual value of products $815,010. Some interesting facts will be added 
to the above by the results of the pending census, and it is quite certain they will 
be much more reliable as data than some which have heretofore been published 
under sanction of the government. — Boston Journal of Commerce. 



ADVICE FOR SUMMER WORK. 

BY PROFESSOR BURT G. WILDER, M. D. 

Notwithstanding the number of "Summer Schools of Science" to be in 
operation this season, many teachers are likely to pass the vacation at a distance 
from the facilities afforded by organized laboratories. How shall they employ 
their time ? 

Doubtless they all need rest, and in most cases at least a fortnight should 



310 ICA NSAS CITY RE VIE W OF SCIENCE. 

elapse before any intellectual labor is undertaken. An equal period of repose 
may well occur just before the renewal of teaching in the Fall. But the teacher 
who hopes to make his instruction each year more thorough and successful than 
the last, will be pretty sure to spend the remaining month or two in the search 
of help from books, and, while regretting the vagueness of the information thus 
obtained, may seldom think o^' making it more real by personal observation. 

Now it is true that in some branches of science this may require appliances 
not readily obtained. This is the case with Chemistry and Physics, and some 
parts of Natural History. But Botany and Entomology may be pursued under 
almost any circumstances, and I venture to suggest that at least one kind of 
anatomical work may be carried on with but a slight amount of apparatus. 

Obviously, the summer is not the most favorable time for study of the 
viscera, while anatomical details respecting the muscles, vessels and nerves are 
not especially required for ordinary instruction. But the brain is not only the 
organ least satisfactorily treated in the text books, but at the same time the one 
concerning which the most should be known, from the double standpoint of 
physiology and psychology. 

But how can the teacher procure brains, and how shall he preserve them 
when obtained? 

The question is a perfectly natural one in view of the prevailing impression that 
the cerebral structure is to be learned from the human brain alone. So far from 
correct is this idea, that from a single animal brain, perfectly fresh or well pre- 
served, more may be gained than the average medical student learns from the 
human brains usually examined in the dissecting-room. 

This is due to the fact that, excepting the absence of the occipital lobes of 
the hemispheres, the brains of the cat, the dog, the rabbit and the sheep present 
nearly all of the structural features of the human brain, while their smaller size 
and greater accessibility better adapt them for manipulation and for the preser- 
vation of the numerous specimens which are needed to display all parts of the 
organ. 

Of the animals above named the cat seems to be the most favorable subject. 
It is always and everywhere obtainable; the brain is larger than that of the 
rabbit, and more easily extracted than those of the sheep and most dogs. 

Some features of the brain, as the coloration of different parts, and especially 
the relation of the gray and white substances, are better seen upon fresh speci- 
mens ; but the beginner will do well to examine hardened brains first, so as to 
become familiar with the form and relative position of the parts, and with their 
names. 

Among the instruments needed for the removal and dissection of the brain 
the most essential are a very sharp knife, and a pair of " wire-nippers" with the 
blades set at a slight angle with the handles. 

As an aid to the study of the brain any work upon Human Anatomy will 
be found useful. The best are those of " Quain " and " Gray." Descriptions, 



THE ANGLO-AMERICAN CATTLE COMPANY. 311 

without figures, of the brains of the sheep, and of the dog and rabbit, are given 
in the little works of Morrell and Foster and Langley. With some modification 
these apply to the brain of the cat. 

Finally, it is hardly necessary to urge that outline drawings be made of the 
brain as a whole, and of its parts as exposed by dissection. If this is done, by 
the end of the summer the teacher will have become better able to appreciate the 
peculiarities of the human brain when one comes in his way, and will have laid 
a substantial foundation for the physiological and psychological instruction which 
he may be called upon to impart. — Science. 



THE PROPAGATION OF OYSTERS. 

At the recent meeting in this city of the American Fish Cultural Association, 
a paper was read on the propagation of the oyster, by Dr. W. J. Brook, of the 
Johns Hopkins University. The manner in which this propagation takes place 
had never before, he said, been thoroughly understood. Through studies made 
by him last summer, however, great hght was thrown on the subject. He found 
that the American oysters do not breed their young in the shell, as had been sup- 
posed, and consequently the eggs can be impregnated artificially. An average 
oyster contains from six to nine million eggs, and one of large size may contain 
fifty milHons. The plan pursued by him in fertilizing these eggs was to chop the 
male and female oysters up together; thus the fluids are mixed and the impreg- 
nation is made complete. The process of development immediately begins, and 
goes on so rapidly that a change may be noted every fifteen seconds. In a very 
few hours the embryo is sufficiently formed to swim in the water. The shells at 
first are very small, and are not adjacent to each other. They grow very rapidly, 
closing down over the sides, and finally unite and form the hinge. In the short 
space of twenty-four hours the young oyster is able to take food, and from three 
days to a week it attains perfect form. During its early life it is a swimming ani- 
mal. Tne oyster is able to reproduce its species at the end of a year's growth, 
and it is marketable at the age of three years. — Scientific American. 



THE ANGLO-AMERICAN CATTLE COMPANY. 

Notwithstanding the rapid development of the trade in dead meat and cattle 
between this country and America it is probable that the traffic is only in its in- 
fancy. To carry on the breeding and rearing of stock in the plains of the far 
West, in a systematic manner, the Anglo-American Company was estabHshed 
abont a year ago, and it has been working with much energy in thus utilizing the 
resources of that great expanse of magnificent grazing country. Already the com- 
pany's manager, Mr. Groom, has secured about 9000 head of fine cattle in Texas 
at an average of 27s. or say 30s. each ; and these are being steadily driven in three 
great herds, containing something over 3000 heads apiece, towards a point on the 



312 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

great railway system stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific, where they will 
be worth at a moderate computation twenty dollars or £^i^ per head. According 
to last reports all three herds had safely passed through the more enclosed and 
most difficult part of their long journey, and for the rest of the way there was- 
abundance of pasture and water. The land upon which the company's cattle are 
and will be fed belongs to the United States Government, who allow and encour- 
age it to be occupied in the manner proposed by the company, rent free. The 
rich 'prairie on either side of Goose Creek in Wyoming, which is at a convenient 
distance from the Union Pacific Railroad, has been selected as being the most 
suitable for the purpose. It is in the heart of the country upon which the buffalo 
has thriven from time immemorial, and produces sufficient feed to keep cattle fat 
all the year round. In these districts cattle breeding has up to the present time 
been conducted by individuals of very limited means, who have nevertheless often 
secured ample fortunes. The capital of the company, which is incorporated under 
the Limited LiabiUty Act, is fixed at ^70,000 in shares of ^^20 each, and the un-- 
alloted balance is now for a limited time offered at par. — Iro7i. 



RUSSIA IN GREECE. 

The Russian government recognizing the opportunities presented by the ex- 
cavations and explorations, now taking place in Greece, has resolved to send 
some speciahsts to the very spot of these discoveries. It is also proposed to or- 
ganize, in a short time, in Greece, a Russian Archaeological Institute, in imitation 
of those of Germany and France. For this purpose. Prof. Skolow has been sent 
to Athens for four months, and Mr. Ernstaedt, licentiate of the University of St. 
Petersburg, and Mr. Latyschew, master of the gymnasium at Vilna, have been 
sent for two years. 



BUILDING WITH TEMPERED GLASS. 

We have lately entertained our readers about ties of tempered glass for rail- 
roads, obtained by Siemen's method. A new application of this method has 
been pointed out to us which would have appeared incredible at the time, when 
glass was only known in its primitive condition, as a crystalline product, with 
sharp, broken edges, yet fragile and unresisting to shocks and pressure. Tem- 
pered glass can be obtained in great pieces, gifted with a power of resistance, 
which its specific lightness, compared with heavy metals, would not have given 
the least presumption. It can now be employed, notably in carpentry, for posts, 
joists, ties and buttresses. It combines the advantages of strength and of incor- 
ruptibility in contact with all atmospheric agents, as well as with chemical factors, 
and consequently, is of perpetual duration, and join to these advantages the 
smallness of the price of acquisition. This material is now as cheap as iron of 
the same weight, and as a large sale is counted on, it will not be long until the 



WHAT TO DO IN EMERGENCIES. 313, 

reduction of price will be below the cost of wood. No doubt many industries 
will profit from this new progress in the fabrication of glass, and it will be 
greatly appreciated in the household. One will see the time when the metals 
and wood will be replaced by glass, in a great number of implements, utensils,, 
and objects of diverse nature, such as stop-cocks, gutter spouts, buckets, and 
even barrels. — Z' Technologiste. J. F. 



AGUE A POISON. 

T. L. LEWIS, BOLIVAR, MO. 

A French chemist, M. P. Bolestra, in a communication to the French Acad- 
my, some time ago, offered the following theory in regard to ague. In water 
undergoing putrefaction he found a granular microphyte, resembhng the Cactus 
Peruvianus. It grows on the surface of the water, and in its young state looks 
like oil, and is ornamented with rainbow tints. In water of low temperature, or 
that containing but little vegetable matter, it grows but slowly, but under the 
the direct solar rays, mixed with decomposing vegetation, it develops rapidly 
and continually disengages small gas bubbles. It is always accompanied with 
great numbers of small spores, y^V^ ^^ ^ millimetre in diameter, and sporangia or 
vesicles containing spores from ^\-^ to y|^ of a milUmetre in diameter, and of a 
very peculiar form. These spores are of a greenish yellow, quite transparent, 
and are often detected in marshy atmosphere. He claims to have contracted 
ague three times from these spores, which he claims to constitute ague poison. 
He says that "a few drops of arsenious acid, sulphate of soda, or, still better, 
neutral sulphate of quinine, stops its vegetation at the surface of the water, the 
spores become thin and transparent, and the sporangia alter so that they would 
not be recognized. These changes may be seen under the microscope." 



HYGIENE. 



WHAT TO DO IN EMERGENCIES. 

From two of the valuable papers on " Domestic Nursing," by Miss E. R. 
Scovil, of the Massachusetts General Hospital in this city, we cull and condense 
the following extracts for the benefit of our non-professional readers : — 

In very severe cases of burns or scalds the nervous system is so prostrated by 
the shock that there is often less suffering felt than when the injury is slighter. 
The pulse will be small and quick, and a stimulant should be administered with- 
out waiting for the doctor. A teaspoonful of raw brandy, or a tablespoonfu 1 
in an equal quantity of water, rnay be given. 



•314 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

The whole theory of dressing is to exclude the air. The more effectually 
this is done the greater will be the relief afforded. When only a small surface is 
injured, an artificial skin may by formed with flexible collodion ; or if that is not 
at hand common mucilage or gum arable dissolved in warm water will answer. 
As one layer dries another should be painted over it. 

An excellent remedy for burns and scalds is a mixture of lime-water and sweet 
or linseed oil in equal parts. Another excellent one is bicarbonate of soda. The 
common kind used for cooking purposes may be employed. A thick layer should 
be spread over the part and cover with a light wet bandage, keeping it moist and 
renewing it when necessary. 

When the clothing takes fire it is well if the victim have presence of mind to 
stand perfectly still. Motion fans the flames and causes it to burn more quickly. 
He may throw himself on the floor and roll over and over, but never move from 
place to place seeking help. A woolen shawl, piece of carpet, or rug may be 
wrapped tightly around the person, not covering the face, and if there is time to 
wet it so much the better, but there is not an instant to lose, particularly if the 
clothes is of cotton. The great object is to prevent the flames from getting down 
the throat and the chest from being burned. 

In a severe cut on the finger, when the flow of blood renders dressing it a 
matter of difficulty, it may be checked by tying a string tightly around the base 
of the finger. It must then be washed in cold water, and the cut can be dressed 
at leisure with diachylon or court plaster, and the string removed. 

Bleeding from the nose may be stopped by lying flat on the back, with the 
head raised and the hands held above it. The nose must be covered with a cloth 
filled with pounded ice, or wrung out of ice water. The head should never be 
held over a basin, as the position encourages bleeding. The blood may be re- 
ceived in a wet sponge. 

When any one coughs or spits up blood the first thought is that it must be 
from the lungs. A slight knowledge of the characteristics of the bood from dif" 
ferent parts that may come through the mouth will sometimes save much needless 
anxiety. Blood from the lungs is always brighter red in color, because it has just 
been purified by contact with the air. It is frothy, mixed with mucus, in small 
quantity, and is usually coughed up. Blood from the stomach is dark red, almost 
black, it is mixed with particles of food, comes in large quantities, and is vomited. 
Blood from the mouth and gums is of a red color, and usually mixed with saUva. 
Unless it has first been swallowed, it is not vomited or coughed up. 

In haemorrhage from the lungs the head and shoulders must be raised. 
Some physicians recommend a tablespoonful of table salt to be given in a tum- 
bler of water. It is always safe to give cracked ice. Bleeding from the stomach 
may be checked by the application of a mustard plaster over the stomach. Crack- 
ed ice should be given and the doctor sent for. 

In bleeding from wounds or recent amputation there are three things that 
>may be done : — 

First, press the finger or hand over the bleeding point : 



GENERAL ALBERT J. MYER, U. S. A. 315 

Second, press on the main artery supplying the wound; or, if this cannot be 
found, apply a bandage as tightly as possible above the wound. An excellent 
tourinquet may be improvised by knotting a handkerchief closely around the 
limb, thrusting a short stick through it, and twisting it tight. The blood from 
an artery is bright red and comes in spurts with each beat of the heart, while that 
from the veins is a dark purplish color and flows in a steady stream. When the 
bleeding is from an artery the pressure should be applied between the wound 
and the heart, when from a vein the limb must be compressed beyond the 
wound. 

Third, raise the part above the rest of the body, that the blood may drain out 
of it, and support it on pillows. It should be bathed in ice water and have ice 
wrapped in cotton cloths laid on it. If faintness ensues the sufferer should not 
be immediately roused, as this is nature's remedy and acts by lessening the force 
and activity of the circulation. A physician should be called in as soon as 
possible. 

When poison has been swallowed the first thing to be dcme is to get it out of the 
stomach as soon as possible, before it has been absorbed into the system. As a 
stomach-pump does not form part of the furniture of an ordinary house, this 
must be effected by means of an emetic. Should none other be accessible, stir a 
tablespoonful of mustard into a tumbler of warm water, and give one-fourth of 
it at a time, following each dose with a cup of warm water ; table salt will do as 
well, using as much as the water will dissolve. When vomiting is over, the 
whites of two eggs stirred in a tumbler of water may be given, and as much 
warm milk as can be taken. — Boston Journal of Chemistry. 



NECROLOGY. 



GENERAL ALBERT J. MYER, U. S. A. 

General Albert J. Myer, Chief Signal Officer U. S. A., died of heart disease 
at Buffalo, N. Y., on the 24th ult. leaving a wife and six children. 

He was best known as a meterologist and the organizer of the United States 
and International Storm Signal Service ; but this was by no means his only 
public work. He entered the army as an assistant surgeon, September 18, 1854, 
having but three years before gratuated in medicine, at the University of Buffalo, 
N. Y. From 1858 to i860 he was on special duty in the signal service. Under 
the act of Congress passed March 3d, 1863, he was made Colonel and Chief 
Signal Officer, after having served with distinction under Generals McClellan, 
Butler and others, and was subsequently brevetted as Brigadier General for 
^'distinguished services in organizing, instructing and commanding the signal 
corps of the army, and for its especial service October 5th, 1864." In 1864 the 
signal corps of the army comprised over 1,500 officers and men, under his com- 
mand, which force, at the close of the war, was reduced to about 150 members. 



316 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

Early in 1870 Hon. H. E. Paine, of Wisconsin, introduced a bill in Con- 
gress' providing for the establishment of a system of storm signals, based uport 
meteorological observations by the signal corps and officers of the army, and 
General Myer was placed in charge of the work. To this genial task he devoted 
himself with great ardor and success, establishing for the first time in meteorology 
a broad system of simultaneous reports of the weather, founded upon simulta- 
neous observations taken all over the country at the same moment of actual 
(not local) time, and embodied upon weather maps issued thrice daily from the 
Signal office at Washington, as well as telegraphed to all prominent points for 
the information and warning of navigators, farmers and others. 

The importance of this service was recognized by his being assigned to dut}r 
according to his commission as Brevet Brigadier-General in June, 187 1. In 
March, 1873, Congress made it the further duty of the signal corps to establish, 
signal sections at light-houses, life-saving stations, etc., and to connect them 
by telegraph with such points as were necessary to accomplish the objects in 
view, thus enabhng General Myer still further to extend his system of simulta- 
neous observations of the weather. The last Congress made him a full Brigadier 
General 

In September, 1873, ^^ the International Meteorological Congress, at 
Vienna^ he was the representative of the United States and there proposed a 
system of uniform observations, with a view to their daily exchange, to be takea 
and recorded simultaneously at as many stations as practicable all over the world. 
This proposition was adopted and the observations were commenced at once 
with semi-monthly exchanges. In 1875 the publication of a daily International 
Bulletin was commenced, and in 1878 that of a daily International Weather 
Map, with the most valuable results. The gradual extension of this system of 
International observations to every portion of the globe, so as to permit the 
announcement of approaching storms and changes for periods longer in advance 
than have been heretofore practicable, was the cherished desire of General 
Myer's heart; but it was not to be so. He died at the early age of fifty-two 
years; fortunately leaving his work in the hands of experienced and zealous 
followers, who will undoubtedly carry out in full his intentions and aims. 



CARL PETERSON. 



The death, at the age of sixty-seven years, of the Danish explorer, Carl 
Peterson who had made so many voyages to the North Pole, has been announced 
at Copenhagen. From 1850 to 185 1 he took part in the English expedition of 
Capt. Parry, in seach of the survivors of the Franklin Expedition. From 1853 to 
1855 he accompanied Dr. Kane's Expedition, of which, he was one of the few 
survivors. From 1857 to 1859 he was with Sir Leopold McCHntock, whose ex- 
pedition brought back many relics of the Franklin Expedition. Finally, he took 
part in the voyage of Spitzberg on the Jrnite, during which, he was accompanied 
by Dr. Nordenskjold. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



317 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



The first meeting of the fall and winter 
session of the Kansas City Academy of 
Science, will be held at its rooms on Tuesday 
evening, September 28th, and on the last 
Tuesday of each month thereafter, until the 
Text summer vacation. 



The rainstorm of Sunday, Aug. 15, would 
have passed for a very respectable "cloud- 
burst " or " water spout " if it had occurred 
in the Rocky Mountains. Between 3:15 and 
4:50 p. m. two inches of water fell, as ob- 
served by Mr. Kenmuir ; which, if it had 
fallen upon precipitous mountain sides, 
would have filled any ordinary valley or 
canon in a brief space of time, and to a depth 
that would have done a great deal of damage. 

There was frost in the interior river 
counties of New York on Aug. 15th. At 
Stamford, Delaware county, ice formed. 
The temperature there at 6 a. m. was thirty- 
two degrees. A dispatch from Rondoutsays 
tender vegetation was killed by the frost on 
that night. The growing crops of corn and 
buckwheat are somewhat injured. A stage 
driver reported light snow in Stony Cleave, 
Ulster county. At the same time the mer- 
cury here and in this vicinity stood at 80° at 7 
a. m., 93° at 2 p. m. and 75° at 10 p. m. 

A society has been formed in England 
with the object of making systematic exca- 
vations in ancient Egypt. Many learned 
Egyptologists have promised it their sup- 
port. Miss Edwards proposes to deliver a 
series of lectures, in this country, for the 
purpose of procuring funds for the enter- 
prise. 

Professor Von Geert, already distin- 
guished for his scientific explorations in 
Peru and other countries of South America, 
left Panama June loth, for Guatemala, 
where he proposes to study the botany of 



that country, and to make collections of new- 
specimens, which he hopes to find in the 
northeast part of that Republic, which is, as 
yet, scarcely known from a practical stand- 
point. 

On the evening of August 12th at about 9 
o'clock we witnessed a very fine auroral dis- 
play, which was also observed throughout 
the northern and eastern States. 



We are indebted to Dr. John Rae, of Lon- 
don, England, for a copy of his sketch of the 
life and labors of the great Arctic navigator, 
Nordenskjold. We have read nothing so in- 
teresting and complete, and hope to give it 
to our readers at an early date. 



The number of meteors observed here in 
the nights of August loth and nth, was 
quite as large as usual, in some parts of the 
heavens numbering five or six to the minute 
for several hours on both nights. 



ITEMS FROM THE PERIODICALS. 

Prominent among the articles in the 
London Monthly Journal of Science, is a series 
of letters by Dr. C. K. Akin, pointing out 
the proper course for the Royal Society and 
other scientific associations to pursue, to 
render their work more effective and valuable ; 
on the changes needed in the system of 
teaching at the British Universities to cause 
them to become more successful in fostering 
and advancing the growth of science in Eng- 
land; and on the kind of scientific literature, 
periodic and nonperiodic, that is required to 
place before the students of science the re- 
sults of experiments by their leaders and 
teachers. It also contains an article on The 
Constitution of the Earth, by Robert Ward, 
a Defense of Vivisection and a continuation 
of Prof. TyndalPs Lecture on Water and Air, 
etc. 



318 



KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



The Mining Record gives an interesting 
statement of an excursion made to Santa Fe 
by Mr. Vandermeer. In the course of his 
trip, he visited the Indian village of Tosoque, 
the inhabitants of which claim to have de- 
scended directly from the Aztecs. They are 
more industrious and intelligent than the 
Red Skins. They inhabit houses of two 
stories, and have no communication with 
the ground floor except by ladders. In case 
of alarm or surprise the ladder is drawn up 
into the second story, and the house thereby 
converted into a fortress. Each house has 
three or four rooms, and the village has al- 
together about 200 inhabitants. 

The Columbia Sentinel reports that Mr. R. 
B. Gans, a farmer of B jone county, has con- 
structed several small telescopes, wh'ch are 
excellent instruments, and that he is now 
working upon one of seven inches aperture. 
He has also invented and constructed a ma- 
chine for grinding the glasses which is supe- 
rior to any now in use. One of his telescopes 
is now on exhibition at the Missouri Univer- 
sity, and is pronounced by Prof. Ficklin and 
others to be a perfect instrument. His next 
effort will be upon one of l6j^ inches diam- 
eter and 20 feet focal length. The wonder 
in this case is that Mr. Gans has never had 
any training whatever in this direction, but 
is an amateur in the strictest sense. 



Boston has at least two good periodicals 
in their respective departments, the Journal 
of Commerce and the Journal of Chemistry. 
Both are ably edited, widely read and per- 
fectly reliable. We frequently take occasion 
to borrow articles from them and always feel 
when we do so that we are giving our read- 
ers valuable and readable matter. 



Judging from accounts in the Engineering 
and Mitiing Journal, the absence of all of the 
precious metals in any one of the States or 
Territories would seem to be the exception 
to a general rule. Gold mines in New Eng- 
land, New York and New Jersey, Virginia 
and North Carolina are announced, (also in 
Nova Scotia,) while silver mines are spoken 



of in Missouri and Arkansas, as well as both 
kinds all through the western mountains, 
California and Arizona. Truly, the outlook 
for the prosperity of the United States never 
was so promising. 

Th^ Jou7'nal of the Franklin Institute has 
its usual quota of interesting scientific 
articles. Among others we note one on the 
Limitations of the Steam Engine, by Prof. 
Wm. Dennis Marks, of the University of 
Pennsylvania, in which the author remarks- 
that so far as evaporation is concerned the 
perfect boiler has probably been attained, and 
that the utilization of the steam after it 
reaches the engine is the principal point to 
be looked after. Next come concentration 
of power in a small space and economy of 
steam. Then the prevention of condensation 
by cooling, which he proposes to accomplish 
by diminishing the condensation surface and 
increasing the number of the strokes of the 
piston; also the reduction of the diameters 
of the frictional bearings to their lowest prac- 
tical size and the attainment of high and reg- 
ular speed. The article is an interesting one 
but it cannot be condensed and we only give 
the above points, to stimulate the reader of 
mechanical turn to procure and read it in 
full. 

The Phrenological Journal, for September, 
contains analytical articles up -n Hancock 
and English ; Studies in Comparative Phre- 
nology; Notes on the Psychology and Pa- 
tholo of the brain ; Relation of food to 
morals ; Notes on science, agriculture, Edito- 
rial items, etc. 

The essay upon the History of the word 
Chemistry, by Dr. R. Angus Smith, F. R. S., 
before the Manchester Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society, March 23d, an abstract of 
which is given in the Chemical News, contains 
a good deal of new matter, showing a vast 
deal of research and study into the history of 
the Hebrews, Assyrians, Egyptians and 
Greeks, and furnishing results interesting 
not only to the chemist but also to the stu- 
dent of ancient languages. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



319^ 



In the September Atlantic we find the con- 
cluding chapters of " The Stillwater Trage- 
dy," one of the most vigorous, ingenious 
and delightful novels Mr. Aldrich has yet 
written. Richard Grant White describes a 
visit to Oxford and Cambridge, which will 
have great interest for many readers. The 
Washington Reminiscences this time relate 
to the short-lived Harrison Administration. 
There are two good political articles — 
one oa the " Progress of the Presidential 
Canvass," the other on the important subject 
of the "Political Responsibility of the Indi- 
vidual," by R, R. Bowker. Mark Twain 
contributes a characteristic story of " Mrs. 
McWilliams and the Lightning." T. S. Per- 
ry writes instructively of Sir Walter Scott. 
Mrs Kate Gannett Wells discusser " Women 
in Organizations." Other stories, poems, 
essays, criticisms of new books, and a bright 
"Contributors' Club" complete a thorough- 
ly enjoyable number of this magazine. 

We have made arrangements with J. Fitz- 
gerald & Co., of New York to furnish the 
Humboldt Library in connection with the Re- 
view, or to old subscribers of the Review, at 
a discount of 20 per cent. For particulars 
regarding the Humboldt Library see Book 
Notices on page 307 in this issue of the Re- 
view. 

Harper''s Magazine for September is a 
bright, strong number, rich in illustration, 
and piquant with several novel features. 
Especially novel in magazine literature is 
such an article as that by K. M. Rowland, 
on the Family of George III., illustrated 
with twenty-one portraits. A briefer article, 
entitled "The American Graces," is a bio- 
graphical sketch, with beautiful portraits of the 
three Misses Caton, of Baltimore, who were 
respectively. Lady Staflford, Marchioness of 
Wellesley, and Duchess of Leeds. Mr. Con- 
way contributes "The Seven Sleepers' Para- 
dise beside the Loire." Mrs. Rebecca Hard- 
ing Davis concludes her "By-paths in the 
Mountains" with a description of the North 
Carolina Mountains. Mr. Bishop also con- 
cludes his "Fish and Men in the Maine Is- 
lands," full of entertaining marine studies, 



effectively illustrated by Mr. Burn's sketches. 
Contrasting with all this beauty, but emi- 
nently picturesque in manner and illustra- 
tion, is Mr. Rideing's article, "Squatter-life 
in New York." Miss Anna C. Brackett con- 
tributes asuggestive article, entitled " Indian 
and Negro," apropos of a recent visit to the 
Hampton school. In fiction the Number is. 
very strong. The " Editor's Easy Chair " 
gossips in its best vein concerning old New- 
port, and the women of England and Amer- 
ica, and gives some interesting reminiscences 
of the late George Ripley. 

The September Popular Science Monthly 
well sustains its character as a magazine of 
valuable reading. It is the only periodical 
we have which reports progress in the higher 
and broader applications of science that cou" 
cern everybody. Its contents for September 
are as follows : The Science of Compara- 
tive Jurisprudence, by William M. Ivins ; 
State Educations: A Help or Hindrance? by 
the Hon. Auberon Herbert ; How Animals 
Digest, by Herman L. Fairchild, (illustrated) ; 
The Solar System and its Neighbors, by C. 
B. Warring, Ph. D.; Legal Prosecutions of 
Animals, by William Jones, F, S. A.; Psy- 
chogenesis in the Human Infant, by Prof. W. 
Preyer ; Climbing plants, by Francis Darwin, 
F. L. S., (illustrated) ; /Esthetic Feeling in 
Birds, by Prof. Grant Allen ; Electricity and 
Agriculture, by Dr. Paget Higgs; ZoSlogical 
Education, by Prof. W. S. Barnard ; The 
English Precursors of Newton; Night-Schools 
in New York and Paris, by Alice H. Rhine; 
Sketch of Joseph Leidy, M. D., (with por- 
trait); Correspondence; Editor's Table; Lit- 
erary Notices; Popular Miscellany, and Notes. 

We observe that Captain H. W. Howgate 
is very favorably spoken of as the successor 
of General Myer, late chief Signal Officer of 
the Army. His long experience (since 1863), 
and his devotion to meteorological studies 
render him peculiarly fitted for the place, but 
it is hardly to be hoped that the claims of 
other and ranking officers will be overlooked. 
Should the Signal Service proper and the 
Meteorological Service be dissociated, no one- 
could fill the latter named place better. 



320 



KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



U Exploration. This valuable weekly con- 
itinues to reach our sanctum regularly. Each 
mumber has inclosed a valuable map, which, 
in the copy before us, is a delineation of the 
new frontiers of Greece. The two former 
gave sections of Africa and are to be fol- 
lowed by additional sections, until a map of 
the whole of Africa, comprising the latest 
explorations, shall have been furnished. We 
translate the summary of contents as follows: 
The New Frontiers of Greece — Col. Prjeval- 
;ski's Expedition to Thibet — Learned Socie- 
ties — The Commercial Geographical Society 
of Bordeaux — The Normand Geographical So- 
ciety — News from all Parts of the Globe — 
Europe — The Archseological Exploration in 
Ancient Lydia — Mourmain Exploration — 
Petroleum in Russia — Explorations in Sibe- 
ria — Lake Onega — The Caucasus — The Dis- 
covery of a Necropolis — Asia — The King- 
dom of Israel — Fucus gummiflua — Explora- 
tions in Indo-China — Mineral Riches of Ja- 
pan — Africa — Oriental Africa — New Bel- 
giaa Expedition to Africa — The Eastern 
Cape — France and Western Africa — America 
Arctic Expeditions — Hudson River Tunnel 
— Niagara — Mouths of the Mississippi — 
Wild Lands of the United States — Oceanic 
— The Port-Breton Colony — Earthquake in 
the Phillipine Islands, et. J. F. 

The September Number of the North Amer- 
ican Review contains the initial paper by M. 
D. Charnay on "The Ruins of Central 
America." This article is illustrated by 
photographs, which aid materially in the 
study of the text. An expedition under the 
auspices of the American and French govern- 
ments, of which M. Charnay is in charge, 
is now operating in Central America, and 
the explorations are likely to create an inter- 
est more profound, and to be attended with 



more valuable archeological results, even 
than came from the researches of Champol- 
lion in Egypt. They promise a new chapter 
in American history that shall establish the 
origin of the remarkable race of which noth- 
ing but splendid ruins were left when Colum- 
bus discovered the new world. Following 
this article is one on "The Perpetuity of 
Chinese Institutions," from the pen of S. 
Wells Williams. Gen. John W. Clampitt, 
the surviving member of Mrs. Surratt's coun- 
sel, writes upon " The Trial of Mrs. Surratt." 
"The Personality of God" is discussed by 
W. T. Harris, LL. D R. B. Forbes gives 
some valuable suggestions in reference to 
"Steamboat Disasters." The Rev. Edward 
Everett Hale follows with a paper upon " In- 
sincerity in the Pulpit." The number closes 
with a review of several recent works on the 
Brain and Nerves, by Dr. George M. Beard. 

The American Naturalist for September 
presents the following named original articles : 
The Syphonophores, by J. Walter Fewkes ; 
Destruction of Obnoxious Insects by means 
of Fungoid Growths,by A. N. Prentiss ; List 
of Birds of the Willamette Valley, Oregon, 
by O. B, Johnson, and Do Flyiag-Fish Fly ? 
by C. O. Whitman. The Editor's Table is 
devoted to reasons why the Government 
should foster scientific research, and these 
reasons are set forth both forcibly and unan- 
swerably. The General Notes, as usual, com- 
prise a brief abstract of progress in Botany, 
Zoology, Anthropology, Geology, Paleontol- 
ogy, Geography and Microscopy, These ab- 
stracts are furnished by such scientists as Dr. 
Coues, Prof. O. T. Mason, Prof. Yarnall and 
Dr. R. H. Ward. The Book Reviews are 
written in a vigorous and comprehensive 
style, yet with fairness and liberality, and 
constitute a valuable feature of the magazine. 



KA-lsrSJ^S CITY 

Review of Science and Industry, 

A MONTHLY RECORD OF PROGRESS IN 

SCIENCE, MECHANIC ARTS AND LITERATURE. 



VOL IV. OCTOBER, 1880. NO. 6. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 



THE AMERICAN SCIENCE ASSOCIATION. 

The twenty-ninth meeting of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science began in Boston, August 25. The meeting was called to order by the 
retiring President, Prof. George F. Barker, of Philadelphia, who immediately 
resigned the chair to the President-elect, the Hon. Lewis H. Morgan, of Roches- 
ter. President Rogers, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, delivered 
an introductory address, which was followed by addresses of welcome by Mayor 
Prince and Governor Long. 

The secretary reported the deaths for the past year as follows : George W. 
Abbe, New York; E. B. Andrews, Lancaster, Ohio; Homer C. Blake, New 
York ; Caleb Cooke, Salem, Mass. ; Benjamin F. Mudge, Manhattan, Kansas ; 
Thomas Nicholson, New Orleans; Louis Francis de Pourtelas, Cambridge, 
Mass. 

A committee was appointed to draft resolutions on the death of Gen. Albert 
J. Myer, and another to send by cable the cordial greetings of the Association to 
the British Association at Swansea, on the occaaion of its fiftieth meeting. 

The general session was then adjourned, and the various sections and sub- 
sections organized. In the afternoon, Section A was addressed by Prof. Asaph 
Hall, of Washington, who reviewed the recent advances in the science of astron- 
■omy, and the services rendered by men who, like Fraunhofer, have aided the 
work by optical and mechanical skill. 

In the sub-section of chemistry. Prof. John M. Ordway reviewed the recent 
IV— 21 



322 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

achievements of practical chemistry, and discussed its methods. The sub section 
of anthropology was addressed by Major J. W. Powell, on the social organization 
and government of the Wyandotte Indians. In the evening, the retiring Presi- 
dent, Prof. Barker, delivered the customary address, his subject being, "Some 
Modern Aspects of the Life Question." He took the ground that every action 
of the living body is, sooner or later, to be recognized as purely chemical or 
physical, the hfe that science has to deal with having no existence apart from 
matter. 

The second day's meetings were held in Harvard College, Cambridge. The 
appointed eulogy on the late Prof. Henry was delivered by Prof. Alfred M. 
Thayer, who dwelt especially on Prof. Henry's work as a discoverer in science. 
The practical side of that work was touched in connection with the experiments 
which proved so beneficial to the Hght-house and fog-signal service. One discov- 
ery — that lard oil, when subjected to a heat of 280° Fahr., is superior to sperm 
oil in fluidity and illuminating power — saves the government $100,000 a year. 

Prof. Alexander Agassiz, Vice-President of Section B., followed with an 
address on " Paleontological and Embryological Development," choosing his 
illustrations from a limited group of marine animals — zaurchms — having less than 
300 living species, and more than 2,000 known fossil species. 

The rest of the day was spent in the museums, laboratories, Hbraries, the 
observatory, and other buildings of Harvard College. 

The reading of the 218 papers comprised in the programme was to begin on 
the third day, Friday, and continues until the final adjournment on Wednesday, 
September i. Nearly 600 members were registered the first day, and fully 500 
new members have been elected during the two days completed at this writing. — r 
Scientific American. 



THE BRITISH SCIENCE ASSOCIATION. 

The fiftieth meeting of the British Assosiation, commenced on Wednesday 
at Swansea, and is likely to be a very successful gathering, the number of tickets 
issued up to that evening being 790, whilst the list of visitors is likely to be con- 
siderably increased. There was a large attendance in the Music Hall to hear the 
address of the President-elect, Professor Andrew Crombie Ramsay, Director- 
General of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. Upon the platform 
were professor AUman, the retiring President, Mr. Hussey Vivian, M. P., and 
many other well-known scientific gentlemen. The Mayor of Swansea having 
given the Association a hearty welcome to the greatest tin manufacturing county 
in the world. Prof. Allman resigned the chair, and introduced Prof. Ramsay as 
his successor. 

Professor Ramsay having assumed the chair, proceeded to deliver his in- 
augural address. He said the chief object of this address was to attempt to show 
that whatever might have been the state of the world long before geological his- 



THE BRITISH SCIENCE ASSOCIATION. 323 

tory began as now written in the rocks, all known formations were comparatively 
so recent in geological time that there was no reason to believe that they were 
produced under physical circumstances differing either in kind or degree from 
those with which we were now more or less familiar. All, or nearly all stratified 
formations had been in a sense metamorphosed, excepting certain limestone : the 
fact of loose, incoherent sediments having been by pressure and other agencies 
turned into solid rocks, constituted a kind of metamorphism. Common stratified 
rocks chiefly consist of marls, shales, slates, sandstones, conglomerates and lime- 
stones, generally distinct and definite ; but not unfrequently a stratum or strata 
might partake of the characters in varied proportions of two or more of the above 
named species. 

He would not discuss the theory of the causes which produced the metamor- 
phism of stratified rocks ; but he might say that under the influence of deep un- 
derground heat, aided by moisture, sandstones had been converted into quartzites, 
limestones had become crystalline, and in shaly, slaty and schistose rocks under 
like circumstances there was little or no development of new material, but rather 
in the main a rearrangement of constituencies according to their chemical affini- 
ties in rudely crystalline layers, which had been very often more or less devel- 
oped in pre-existing planes of bedding. In Cornwall, Devonshire and Ireland it 
was now well known that metamorphic rocks were common, and the cases of 
metamorphism of Silurian rocks on the Continent could be easily multipHed. The 
same kind of phenomena were common in Canada, the United States and India. 
Turning to the Devonian and old red sandstone strata of England and Scotland, 
he found that metamorphic action had also been at work, but in a much smaller 
degree. These rocks were of the same geological age, though they were depos- 
ited under different conditions, the first being of marine and the latter of fresh- 
water origin. With regard to the carboniferous strata, he knew of no case 
where there had been a thorough metamorphism in Britain except that in South 
Wales, beds of coal in the west of Carmarthenshire and in South Pembrokeshire 
gradually passed from so-called bituminous coal into anthracite. He knew of no 
other strata that had suffered from metamorphic action, and he had never seen or 
heard of metamorphic rocks of later date than those that belonged to the Eocene 
series. 

Enough, however had been said to prove that from the Laurentian epoch 
onward, the phenomenon of extreme metamorphism of strata had been of fre- 
quent recurrence, and extended partly to the Eocene series, equivalent to the 
soft, unaltered strata of the formations of the London and Paris basins, which, 
excepting for their fossil contents and sometimes highly inclined positions, looked 
as if they had only been recently deposited. Referring to the subject of volca- 
noes, the President said that the oldest volcanic products he knew of were of low- 
er Silurian age, and they were to be found in Wales and other parts of England, 
but he knew of no true volcanic rock in the Upper Silurian series. In the Old 
Red Sandstone of Scotland lavas and volcanic ashes were of frequent occurrence, 



324 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

and they were also to be found throughout nearly the whole of the carboniferous 
sub-formations, as well as being associated with Permian strata in that country. 
Volcanic rocks also existed in the Devonian strata of Devonshire, but he knew 
of none in America or on the Continent, and the only instance of a volcano of 
Eocene age known to him was that near Verona. There were, however, well pre- 
served relics of Miocene volcanoes over many parts of Europe, and the evidence 
was clear that in nearly all geological ages they had played an important part, now 
i n one region and now in another; and so far as his knowledge extended, at no 
period of geological history was there any sign of their having played a more im- 
portant part than they did in the present epoch. The mountain chains of the 
world were of different geological ages, some of them being of great antiquity, 
and some of them comparatively modern. It was well known that in North 
America the Lower Silurian rocks lay unconformably upon the Laurentian strata, 
and the disturbances which had taken place implied beyond a doubt that the 
Laurentian rocks formed a high mountain chain of pre-Silurian date, which had 
since constantly been worn away and degraded by sub-serial denudation. It 
would not be difficult to add other cases of recurrences of the upheaval and 
origin of special mountain chains, some of which he could speak of from per- 
sonal knowledge ; but enough had been said to show the bearing of this question 
on the argument he had in view, namely, that of repetition of the same kind of 
events throughout all known geological time. The recurrence of rock and other 
salts strengthened his view. To give anything like a detailed account of all the 
fresh-water formations deposited in estuaries and lakes from the close of the Old 
Red Sandstone times down to late Tertiary epochs would be impossible in 
that address, but it might safely be inferred that something far more than 
the rudiments of our present continents existed long before Miocene times, 
and this accounted for the large areas of those continents, which were fre- 
quently occupied by Miocene fresh-water strata. With the main formations of 
Miocene age he was not now concerned, nor was it essential to his argument to 
deal with those later Tertiary phenomena, which in their upper stages so easily 
merged into the existing state of the world. The last special subject for discus- 
sion' was the recurrence of glacial epochs, a subject still considered to be heretical 
by many, and which was generally looked upon as an absurd crotchet when in 
1855 he first described to the Geological Society boulder beds containing ice- 
scratched stones and erratic blocks in the Permian strata of England. The same 
dea he afterward applied to some of the old red sandstone conglomerates, and 
of late years it had becom.e so familiar, that the effect of glaciers had at length 
been noted by geologists from older paleozoic epochs down to the present day. 
The conclusions he arrived at were these. In opening his address he began 
with the subject of the oldest metaphoric rocks that he had seen, the Laurentian 
strata, the deposition of which took place far from the beginning of recognized 
geological time, for there must have been older rocks by the degradation of 
which they were formed. Starting with the Laurentian rocks, he had shown 



THE BRITISH SCIENCE ASSOCIATION. 325 

that the phenomena of metamorphism of strata had been continued from that 
date all through the later formations or groups of formations down to and 
including part of the Eocene strata in some parts of the world. He had 
also shown that ordinary volcanic rocks had been ejected in Silurian, De- 
vonian and other times, and from all that he had seen and read of these 
ancient volcanoes he had no reason to believe that volcanic forces played 
a more important part in any period of geological time than they did in 
this modern epoch. So also mountain chains existed before the deposition 
of the Silurian rocks, other of later date before the old red sandstone 
strata were formed, and the chain of the Ural before the deposition of the 
Permian beds. The deposition of salts from aqueous solutions in inland lakes 
and lagoons appeared to have taken place through all time and was still going on, 
and in like manner fresh water and estuarine conditions were found now in one 
region, now in another, throughout all the formations, or groups of formations, 
possibly from Silurian times onward, whilst what was termed the glacial epoch 
was now boldly declared to have occurred at intervals from almost the earliest 
Paleozoic times down to our last post-Pliocene "glacial epoch." 

If the nebular hypothesis of astronomers be true — and he had no reason to 
doubt it — the earth was at one time in a purely gaseous state and afterward in a 
fluid condition, attended by intense heat. By and by consolidation, due to par- 
tial cooling, took place on the surface, and as radiation of heat went on the outer 
shell thickened. Radiation still going on, the interior fluid matter decreased in 
bulk, and by force of gravitation the outer shell, being drawn toward the interior, 
gave way, and in parts got crinkled up, and this, according to cosmogonists, 
was the origin of the earliest mountain-chains. This looked highly probable. 
But assuming that it was true, these hypothetical events took place so long before 
authentic geological history began, as written in the rocks, that the earliest of 
the physical events to which he had drawn their attention was to all human ap- 
prehension of time so enormously removed from these early assumed cosmical 
phenomena that they appeared to him to have been of comparatively quite 
modern occurence, and to indicate that from the Laurentian epoch down to the 
present day all the physical events in the history of the earth had varied neither 
in kind nor in intensity from those of which we now had experience. Perhaps 
many British geologists held similar opinions, but if that were so, it might not 
be altogether useless to consider the various subjects separately on which he de- 
pended to prove the point he had in view. — Iron. 



526 KAJNSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 



TERTIARY MAN. 

TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH OF ZABOROWSKI, BY E. L. BERTHOUD, A. M. 

( Continued from June Number, ) 

We do not believe it is possible to claim or admit that in this continued suc- 
cession of changes, physical as well as organic, that man alone has remained 
unchanged, especially when we reflect that changes in living beings are more 
rapid in direct proportion to their more complicated organization. 

Hence to suppose that the flint tools of Thenay may have been fashioned 
by a human being as far advanced, or rather we might better say, as highly de. 
veloped as our present human races, is absolutely contrary to the fundamental 
laws of development, or the best recognized facts of palseontology. 

In view of this consideration, and its incontestable force, the formation of 
these flint tools has first been by M. de Mortillet, attributed to a being whom 
he calls the "precursor of man," in its widest sense ; that is to say, not only in 
the category of individual or species, but in that of a genus preceding man, 
from which could have sprung at least two types of human races. 

M. Hovelacque has attempted an anatomical restoration of this presumed 
precursor to man after a comparison of anthropomorphous apes and the most 
ancient races of men, on the assumed explanation of their derivation from a com- 
mon ancestor. We have no space now for a detailed account ,or analysis of this 
attempt; but suffice it to say it is well worthy of our attention, although hazard- 
ous from the present state of our knowledge on these points. But this compari- 
son in itself is based on facts rigorously exact, and to-day admitted by Science. 

When in 1874 we noticed and proclaimed this precursor of man as the 
author of the chipped flint tools of Thenay; we then admitted that our present 
knowledge of facts bearing on this question did not allow us to affirm that the 
human and simian branches were or were not separated in the Miocene epoch : 
and that with this being the true precursor of the human race, we indicated or 
mentioned the hypothesis of a varied being, a species not yet fully established, that 
we called then " Anthropiskes," (future men) among whom could have been 
operated a return to a type purely Simian. 

Agreeing in this with Schleicher, who supposed that a certain number, or 
certain species of Anthropiskes had acquired under circumstances more or less 
favorable, the power of articulation, and had thus become men, while other 
branches of this genus less favored, had remained unchanged, had retrograded, 



ANCIENT MAN IN MISSOURI. 327 

even thus constituting in time the four present species of anthropomorphous apes. 

We can also here remark that the flints of Th6nay do not seem to have been 
fashioned for any special service or destination ; they, perhaps, may have been 
split out by the action of fire, or accidentally, but thanks to this accidental 
formation, those who used them in their rough state were led little by little to 
fashion them into shape intentionally. 

There are numerous instances that prove that monkeys nowadays know how 
to use pebbles and sticks. The most curious trait that we know, is related by 
Darwin of a monkey who used the same stone to break filberts constantly ; and 
that he kept it hid in the straw. 

After that we have not been at all surprised when we saw that M. Gaudry 
in a recent work declared that the most natural idea that presented itself to his 
mind was, that the flint tools of Th^nay had been fashioned (tailles) or chipped, 
by the ancient Dryopithecus, this being exactly the big anthropomorphous 
ape discovered by Foutan, at St. Gaudens in France, and described by Mr. Ed. 
Lartet. 

Unhappily we, as yet, possess only a lower jaw and a humerus. From an 
examination of these fragments, M. Gaudry concluded that he resembled man by 
several peculiarities. First by its size, which is very important, then by its in- 
cisors, and also by the rounded form of the rear molar protuberances, very simi- 
lar to the molar teeth of Australians. But the size of the pre-molars and canines 
naturally produced extreme prognathism, or large advance of the face. This 
mark of inferiority, however, does not appear very striking, but we are much 
impressed with the general human aspect of the jaw, which M. Gaudry gives in 
a full sketch, which appearance is due not only to the broken canine, but to the 
contour of the chin, which, instead of giving a re-entering angle like apes, is 
almost straight, or like the human jaw from La Nanlette. M. Gaudry, however, 
does not notice this peculiarity. 

We think it is sufiicient at this time to pronounce it as certain that the human 
species, properly so called, did not exist in the Miocene epoch. Did it then exist 
in the Pliocene epoch ? We can doubt this at least for the older Pliocene. 



ANCIENT MAN IN MISSOURI. 

The finding of numerous relics of a buried race, on an ancient horizon, from 
twenty to thirty feet below the present level of country in Missouri and Kansas, 
was noted in this paper a few months ago. The St. Louis Republican gives par- 
ticulars of another find of an unmistakable character made last spring in Franklin 
county, Missouri, by Dr. R. W. Booth, who was engaged in iron mining about 
three miles from Dry Branch, a station on the St. Louis and Santa Fe railroad. 
At a depth of eighteen feet below the surface the miners uncovered a human 
skull, with portions of the ribs, vertebral column, and collar bone. With them 



328 KANSAS CITY REVIEW OF SCIENCE. 

were found two flint arrow heads of the most primitive type, imperfect in shape 
and barbed. A few pieces of charcoal were also found at the same time and 
place. Dr. Booth was fully aware of the importance of the discovery and tried 
to preserve everything found, but upon touching the skull it crumbled to dust, 
and some of the other bones broke into small pieces and partly crumbled away, 
but enough was preserved to fully establish the fact that they are human bones. 

Some fifteen or twenty days subsequent to the first finding, at a depth of 
twenty-four feet below the surface, other bones were found — a thigh bone and a 
portion of the vertebra, and several pieces of charred wood, the bones apparently 
belonging to the first found skeelton. In both cases the bones rested upon a. 
fibrous stratum, suspected at the time to be a fragment of coarse matting. This- 
lay upon a floor of soft but solid iron ore, which retained the imprint of the 
fibers. 

Overlying the last found bones was a stratum of what appeared to be loam 
or sod, from two and a half to three inches thick, below which was a deposit of 
soft red hematite iron ore, lying upon two large boulders of hard ore standing on 
edge, standing at an angle of about forty-five degreel, the upper ends leaning, 
against each other, thus forming a considerable cavity which was filled with blue 
specular and hard red ore and clay, lying upon a floor of solid red hematite. It 
was in this cavity that the bones, matting and charred wood were found, inter- 
mixed with ore. 

The indications are that the filled cavity had originally been a sort of cave, 
and that the supposed matting was more probably a layer of twigs, rushes, or 
weeds, which the inhabitants of the cave had used as a bed, as the fiber marks 
cross each other irregularly. The ore bed in which the remains were found, and 
part of which seems to have formed after the period of human occupation of the 
cave, lies in the second (or saccharoidal) sandstone of the Lower Silurian. — Scien^ 
tific American. 



THE SYNTHETIC PHILOSOPHY. 



ITS ASPECTS AS A PHILOSOPHY. 

W. H. MILLER, KANSAS CITY. 

Nature, as man finds himself situated in it, presents the aspects of infinite 
extension, infinite multiplicity of forms, infinite activity and changeableness, 
infinite constancy of continuance and of laws of continual change. It enters 
into his conceptions as absolute in itself, or as containing a principle that is 
absolute from whence it proceeds and by which its activity is governed by infinite- 
constant and immutable laws. Thus environed, man finds himself endowed with 



SYNTHETIC PHILOSOPHY AS A PHILOSOPHY. 329' 

an insatiable longing to resolve the mystery of the environment, to know what it 
is, from whence it came, what its destiny, and what the purpose of its being. 

The record man has preserved of himself in history recounts his efforts to 
resolve it and their results in mythology, theology and philosophy, each system 
of which has been partly accepted by one generation only to be rejected by 
another. Even anterior to the historic period, we find man had addressed him- 
self to the same profound problem, for at the beginning of history he had his. 
beliefs in gods to whose agency he attributed it. These beliefs stand for the net 
results of the efforts of pre-historic man ; for mythology, as well as theology, are 
of the same nature as philosophy in so far as they attempt to account for the 
phenomena of things. Mythology and theology, however, in all the innumera- 
ble forms in which they have been presented, have been found inadequate to 
command universal acceptance, and to satisfy human longings. They begi