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Kansas Historical 

NYLE H. MILLER, Managing Editor 

JAMES C. MALIN, Associate Editor 

Volume XXVII 

(Kansas Historical Collections) 

Published by 

The Kansas State Historical Society 
Topeka, Kansas 

Contents of Volume XXVII 

Number 1 Spring, 1961 



KANSAS: A Centennial Portrait Emory Lindquist, 22 

KANSAS BEFORE 1854: A Revised Annals Compiled by Louise Barry, 67 

With reproductions of portions of the Guillaume Delisle maps of 1703 and 
1718, between pp. 80, 81. 


Continued Nyle H. Miller and Joseph W. Snell, 94 

THE ANNUAL MEETING: Containing Reports of the Secretary, Treasurer, 
Executive and Nominating Committees; Election of Officers; Address 
Edward R. Sloan; Presentation of Painting of Philip Pitt Campbell; 
Memorials to John S. Dawson and Jerome C. Berryman; List of Di- 
rectors of the Society 124 




Number 2 Summer, 1961 


ELLSWORTH, 1869-1875: The Rise and Fall of a Kansas 

Cowtown Robert Dykstra, 161 

With map of Ellsworth county, 1875, p. 187. 

THE EARLY CAREER OF C. K. HOLLIDAY: A Founder of Topeka and of 

the Santa Fe Railroad Frederick F. Seely, 193 

With portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Cyrus Kurtz Holliday, facing p. 192. 

KANSAS BEFORE 1854: A Revised Annals, Part Two, 

1763-1803 Compiled by Louise Barry, 201 

With a George Catlin sketch of Kansa Indians, about 1831, facing p. 208, 
and the reproduction of a portion of Francois M. Pen-in du Lac's Carte 
du Missouri, 1802, facing p. 209. 


Continued Nyle H. Miller and Joseph W. Snell, 220 

With portraits of Rowdy Joe Lowe, and William B., Edward J., and James P. 
Masterson, facing p. 240; reproduction of a portion of a page of the 
Delmonico Hotel register, Dodge City, and a photograph of Mr. and Mrs. 
Thomas Masterson, parents of the Masterson trio of lawmen, facing p. 241. 


Compiled by Alberta Pantle, Librarian, 277 





Number 3 Autumn, 1961 



First Installment, 1854-1861, 

Edited by Donald M. Murray and Robert M. Rodney, 320 

KANSAS BEFORE 1854: A Revised Annals, Part Three, 

1804-1818 Compiled by Louise Barry, 353 

With portrait of Capt. Zebulon M. Pike and sketch of his probable route, 
facing p. 360; portrait of George C. Sibley, with sketch of his route, and 
reproduction of a Pawnee pictograph of a Pawnee-Kansa battle, between 
pp. 360, 361; and portrait of Auguste P. Chouteau, facing p. 361. 

Continued Nyle H. Miller and Joseph W. Snell, 383 

With bird's eye sketch of Dodge City, 1882, facing p. 408, and a photograph 
of seven Cheyenne survivors of the last Indian raid in Kansas, facing 
p. 409. 




Number 4 Winter, 1961 



With a photograph of Sen. John A. Logan, Gov. John A. Martin, and B. F. 
Flenniken, and a sketch and photograph of Forest park, 1886, frontis- 
piece, and cenes on the grounds in 1897, facing p. 457. 

Final Installment, 1862-1906, 

Edited by Donald M. Murray and Robert M. Rodney, 469 
With portrait of Peter Bryant, facing p. 488, and a sketch of his farm build- 
ings ( 1881 ), facing p. 489. 

KANSAS BEFORE 1854: A Revised Annals, Part Four, 

1819-1825 Compiled by Louise Barry, 497 

With sketches, arrival of a caravan at Santa Fe, and three Osage Indians; 
portrait of Duke Paul Wilhelm of Wuerttemberg, and portion of the Fre- 
mont-Gibbs-Smith map, between pp. 520, 521. 

Continued Nyle H. Miller and Joseph W. Snell, 544 

With portrait of Mysterious Dave Mather, facing p. 568, and reproduction 
of the reward poster for the killers of Mike Meagher, facing p. 569. 













Managing Editor Editor Associate Editor 




KANSAS: A Centennial Portrait Emory Lindquist, 22 

KANSAS BEFORE 1854: A Revised Annals Compiled by Louise Barry, 67 

With reproductions of portions of the Guillaume Delisle maps of 1703 
and 1718, between pp. 80, 81. 


Continued Nyle H. Miller and Joseph W. Snell, 94 

THE ANNUAL MEETING: Containing Reports of the Secretary, Treasurer, 
Executive and Nominating Committees; Election of Officers; Address 
Edward R. Sloan; Presentation of Painting of Philip Pitt Campbell; 
Memorials to John S. Dawson and Jerome C. Berryman; List of Di- 
rectors of the Society 124 




The Kansas Historical Quarterly is published four times a year by the Kansas 
State Historical Society, 120 W. Tenth St., Topeka, Kan. It is distributed 
without charge to members of the Society; nonmembers may purchase single 
issues, when available, for 75 cents each. Membership dues are: annual, $3; 
annual sustaining, $10; life, $20. Membership applications and dues should be 
sent to Mrs. Lela Barnes, treasurer. 

Correspondence concerning articles for the Quarterly should be addressed to 
the managing editor. The Society assumes no responsibility for statements made 
by contributors. 

Second-class postage has been paid at Topeka, Kan. 


Samuel J. Reader's water color of his first log 
cabin at Indianola (Shawnee county), in June, 
1855. The picture represents the typical "Home, 
Sweet Home" of many who were settling in Kansas 
about the time statehood was achieved 100 years 

1861 Kansas Centennial of Statehood 1961 



Volume XXVII Spring, 1961 Number 1 

When Kansas Became a State 

/CLOUDS were looming ominously over the not so United States 
^^ in January, 1861. After 85 years the Union seemed on the 
verge of dissolution over the vexing question of slavery. Saber rat- 
tling Southern senators did nothing to alleviate the situation and 
men with nerves frayed raw continued to jump at one another in 
the halls of congress over this ideological problem which had existed 
longer than the nation itself. 

In Kansas the immediate future seemed likely to be as gloomy 
as the past. Not only had the territory been the scene of a six- 
year struggle identical to the one which would soon inflame the 
whole country, but hunger, poverty, and disaster still confronted 
her pioneers. The territory was in the midst of a severe drought 
which brought carload after carload of supplies from sympathetic 
and more fortunate friends and relatives in the East. The drought 
caused tight money and low employment. Despair was the lot 
of many a hardy soul. 

Then, in the darkness of a cold January morning, came news that 
gladdened the heart of nearly every Kansan; the future seemed less 
dreary, spirits soared, and hopes were revived. Kansas had been 
admitted as the 34th state of the Union. 

Joyful as the news was, it was not unexpected. For four years 
Kansans had been attempting to write a constitution under which 
the territory might be admitted as a state. Instruments drawn at 
Topeka, Lecompton, and Leavenworth had failed for various rea- 
sons but the basic one, of course, was slavery versus freedom. A 
fourth constitution had been written at Wyandotte in 1859 and an 
admission bill introduced in congress the next year. Though the 
bill had passed the house of representatives, the senate's Southern 
bloc was able to keep it buried. In December the Kansas bill was 
brought up in the second session and in January, 1861, after the 
senators of seceding states had begun to withdraw, it finally was 
passed by both houses. President James Buchanan signed the 
bill into law on January 29. 

Overanxious Topeka editors began to announce admission after 



the bill passed the senate on January 21. The Topeka Tribune, 
January 26, 1861, stated: 


From the following dispatch to the Leavenworth Times, it will [be] seen that 
our hopes have at last been realized, and Kansas admitted, a bright, new ^r, to 

adorn the glorious constellation: 

ST. Louis, Jan. 21, 11 P.M. 

J. K. BARTLETT: The Kansas Bill passed the Senate with Fitch's amend- 
ment, relating to Judiciary, by a vote of 36 to 16. 


There is no doubt at all as to the success of the Bill in the House. 
Gov. Robinson can now call together our State law-makers, lubricate the 
wheels of government and "we'll all take a ride." 
"In Dixie Land we'll take our stand " 
Further rejoicing deferred until next week. 

The Topeka State Record carried the news on the same date in 
a column headlined "Kansas Admitted." 

A second and more general round of rejoicing was had within 
the territory after the Kansas bill passed the house on January 28. 
The first to announce the news this time was the Leavenworth 
Conservative, established only two days before. A telegram an- 
nouncing house passage was sent by Kansas Congressional Dele- 
gate Marcus J. Parrott to Abel Carter Wilder, chairman of the 
Republican central committee for Kansas whose brother, Daniel 
Webster Wilder, was editor of the Conservative. So it was that 
within an hour, by four o'clock in the morning of January 29, 1861, 
this newcomer to the Kansas journalistic scene had scooped all its 
established contemporaries. Unfortunately no copies of that fa- 
mous Conservative extra are known to exist. The next regular edi- 
tion of the paper, however, perpetuated its feat: 


The news of the admission of Kansas, announced by THE CONSERVATIVE 
yesterday and only by THE CONSERVATIVE, no other paper in Kansas having 
the news was the most important that ever reached our borders. . . . 



Yesterday morning, THE CONSERVATIVE, in an extra, announced to the 
people of Leavenworth the long-wished for and glorious tidings of the passage 
of the Kansas Bill. The news flew like wild-fire. Men seemed to forget all 
other considerations, and to unite heart and hand in giving expression to the 
universal joy. At every corner might be seen throngs of enthusiastic people 
giving vent in cheers to the general gladness. At an early hour a large number 
of the members of the bar waited on Chief Justice [Thomas] Ewing and Judge 
[William C.] McDowell, with their congratulations, and spent with them an 
hour of unwonted hilarity. About noon, old Kickapoo [historic cannon now 
in the museum of the Kansas State Historical Society], in the presence of a 
joyous crowd, sent forth, in thunder tones, a greeting to the now sister State 
of Missouri. The day was given up to general rejoicing. Those who entertain 
the singular notion that the people of Kansas didn't want to be admitted, would 
have been startled by the demonstrations of yesterday. Then hurra for the 
STATE OF KANSAS! Our days of probation have been long and tedious, but we 
believe the future, upon which we are about entering, will amply compensate 
for the dangers and toils of the past. . . . 

Col. Slough, Lieut. Gov. Slough, (if he had been elected), was seen yes- 
terday in company with one of the Democratic candidates for the Supreme 
Court, consulting in regard to the possible chance of getting a new count of 
the votes for State officers under the Wyandot Constitution. It is needless to 
remark that the quasi Judge was one Stinson. 


The State Treasurer elect was seen shortly after the admission news was 
received, seated on the ammunition chest of the Kickapoo cannon. An impres- 
sion having gained credit that the State treasure (and some Territorial bonds) 
was contained in the chest, a demonstration was made by certain State officers 
elect to capture the cannon, chest and treasure, with a view of distributing the 
contents as advance salaries. The timely rescue of the Treasurer and cannon 
by the Shields' Guards, headed by their valiant Captain, prevented the im- 
proper use of the public funds. This illustrates the necessity of an efficient 
military organization. 


An eminent member of the Judiciary of this State, and a General (?) under 
the Territorial military organization, were seen on the Upper Esplanade within 
fifteen minutes after the news was received, in the act of standing on their 
heads. What does this mean? Is there a secret organization among us? 

We have great respect for the proverb, "There is a time for all things," &c~ 
We were pained to notice yesterday, several gentlemen in high social standing,, 
gentlemen who do or will hold, by the suffrages of their countrymen, high* 
official positions under the new State, walking (or attempting to) the streets, 
of our city in a state of inebriety. This is sad indeed. 


Now that Kansas is admitted, let us all take heart hope on and hope ever.. 
Let us forget border wars, drouth, and hard times. A new era is to be in- 
augurated, and those who have undergone the privations of the pioneer, may 


date from this a cessation of terrors, uncertainties and privations, and look con- 
fidently for the time when they shall reap their reward. 

With the fairest land and sky in (what we hope may yet prove) our united 
and glorious Union, who can predict the future wealth, prosperity and grandeur 
of this, our free State of Kansas? 


In the troubles of Kansas was created that great party which, at the last 
national election, gave to the nation a President. Our position, as the battle 
ground upon which the new slavery issue was fought, gave us a prominence 
for which subsequent events developed our fitness. Upon us a new people 
emigrants, and soldiers of fortune all, was precipitated the most momentous 
question which has ever yet agitated the American people. We met the issue. 
The history of Kansas, even now, stands prominent in the annals of the nation. 
To rehearse the story of the struggle between slavery and freedom in this 
Territory, would be but to recount a story familiar to the whole civilized world. 
Now is not the time or place for such a history. 

The election of Lincoln, glorious as was the triumph, was, in our estimation, 
far less important and decisive than the admission of Kansas. Against our 
devoted people have been arrayed the whole force of the slavery power. The 
ingenuity of the pro slavery partisans has been exerted to its utmost to prevent 
the recognized expression of the will of the Free State people of Kansas. Every 
resource having been exhausted, the persistent, manly efforts, and the godlike 
courage of our people have at last prevailed, and the glorious reward, so 
gallantly earned, has been doled out to us with an unwilling hand. Yet we 
accept the boon accept it gratefully, and hasten to take our place as a free 
State in the glorious Confederacy. Knowing, as we do, the resources of our 
State, and the courage and endurance of our people, we feel that this accession 
-will go far to fill the gap made by the seceding States. 

Our people have an abiding love for, and a loving faith and confidence in, 
the Union. This love and faith has been bred in the bone it has stood the 
test of desertion, and even oppression; but is as strong and confident as ever. 
For them, we send greeting to the sister States, and if ever the time should 
come when the Union and the Constitution should call for defenders, we pledge 
the faith and the strong arm of that gallant people, who, for the institutions 
they loved, have heretofore trod the wine-press of oppression, and come out 
unscathed in honor from the trial. 

Then, to our Republican brethren of Kansas we send one joyous greeting 
to Republicans everywhere we extend the same joyous greeting. The grand 
culminating triumph [of] Republicanism has been achieved. Kansas has been 
admitted. 1 

A sister Leavenworth paper, the Herald, took a momentarily real- 
istic view of admission in its issue of January 30, 1861: 

The rejoicing over the momentous event was quite boisterous, but by no 
means general. The principal participants were State officers elect and indi- 
viduals who are not burthened with taxes. Could the citizens of Kansas be 
divested of political bias on the subject, they would soon realize that our ad- 
mission places us in a situation similar to the man who bought the elephant, 
and impoverished himself in satisfying the capacious maw of the monster 

1. The Leavenworth Conservative, January 30, 1861. 


beast. A State government adds about four hundred thousand dollars, the 
first year, to our expenses, and of course must be raised in the form of addi- 
tional taxes. But, the thing is done, and "it is useless to worry over spilled 

The editor of the Leavenworth Daily Times, January 30, 1861, 
began majestically: 

The long agony is over. The dream of years is realized. Justice, tardy but 
ever-certain, has been meted out to this people, and this soil which [they] 
have chosen as their heritage is embraced within the charmed circle of a 
State Sovereignty, distinct and yet reciprocal. The field of blue upon our 
national flag is to be embellished with another star, the luster of whose orb, 
we predict, will vie with the fairest of the constellation. The last act of the 
drama which opened in blood and was continued in violence, has been enacted, 
and the curtain has fallen upon a happy consummation, long desired and long 

We trust that our history as a State may be as brilliant as the struggles and 
trials of our Territorial condition have been severe and aggravated. If such 
shall be the case, Kansas will stand in the records of the future without a peer. 

We suppose that, when official information of the admission of the State 
reaches the proper authorities, the functions of our Territorial officers and the 
present Legislature, will cease. Wishing all a safe and speedy return to their 
homes and hearths, we join them in toasting the youngest of the thirty-four. 

The reference to the territorial legislature, then in session at 
Lawrence, was a two-pronged jibe. Kansans not only wished to see 
the end of that territorial body so that it could be replaced by a 
state legislature but also because it was charged with being pe- 
culiarly engrossed with the passage of unimportant private bills to 
the detriment of more substantial public needs. A Lawrence cor- 
respondent of the Atchison Freedoms Champion, February 2, 1861, 
summed things up: 

The Legislature has done but very little business thus far, chiefly because 
there is nothing to do. Everybody has been incorporated and divorced. Every 
stream has its chartered bridge, every creek its ferry, every town its College 
and University, granted by some previous assembly; the real interests of the 
country have been so confounded by absurd and impertinent legislation that 
all hope of extrication under the present system of things is vain. 

On January 30 the Lawrence correspondent of the Topeka 
Tribune wrote that the "Territorial Legislature, in point of ability, 
are an able body. . . . [There is] a good deal of fun in these 
same Honorables. Dixie is heard at all hours." 2 

But the most revealing description of that last territorial legis- 
lature came from the pen of the Leavenworth Conservative's cor- 

2. Topeka Tribune, February 2, 1861. 



LAWRENCE, KANSAS, Jan. 29th, 1861. 

The appearance of the messenger, bearing the "CONSERVATIVE" extra, con- 
taining the intelligence of the admission of Kansas, created a fury of excitement 
which can hardly be imagined, much less described. The powder mongers of 
Lawrence immediately started a subscription to procure the necessary materials 
wherewith to fulminate the long suppressed joy of the people, and as I write, 
the deep reverberations of the dogs of war resound from the regions beyond 
the turbid Kaw. 

Gentlemen with no axes to grind, greeted members and officers with the 
broad grin of delight, making jocular pantomine with the hand to the throat, 
to indicate that the head was about to fall in obedience to the inevitable law 
of mutability. They of the third house, whose little matters were yet in sus- 
pense, shook their heads dubiously, and hoped the best was yet to come; 
they thought of oyster suppers and champagne, and the non superfluous expen- 
ditures to grease the ways of legislation, and grieved at empty exchequers, 
pockets depleted, and desire unattained. Unhappy husbands, hoping for re- 
lease from hymen's hateful bonds, suffered immense facial elongation: in- 
corporators of towns and ferries, future professors in literary and scientific in- 
stitutions, grew despondent and morose. The whole social scene ranged from 
grave to gay, from lively to severe. 

The Governor [Territorial Gov. George M. Beebe], long depressed with 
cares of State, seemed to greet with pleasure his prospective release from the 
gaudy but lonely pleasures of his high position, and to contemplate his descent 
to the ranks of common men, with unfeigned satisfaction. 

The Exchange of the Eldridge House was vocal with a strange combination 
of sounds; grave and reverend Seignors adjourned to the bar and took a drink; 
the rooms above and below resounded with bursts of laughter and congratula- 
tion, and the throng seemed festive and jubilant, save where some forlorn 
Democratic officials wandered through the crowd like condemned ghosts upon 
the banks of the Stygian stream gazing at the fields from which they are forever 

The Council unfortunately adjourned at noon until 10 o'clock to-morrow, 
but the House had provided for an afternoon session. With a punctuality un- 
paralleled this session, the members were in their places at the hour, and went 
to work with an ardor which attested the sincerity of their convictions that their 
time was short. No provision had been made for the pay of the Clerks or 
Assistants, and the airy rhetoric of the past week had congested the calendar 
with the unfinished business of weeks. Behind the "Bond Swindle" as behind 
a dam the bills had accumulated till the pressure threatened to bear every- 
thing before it, if the obstruction once gave way. 

The lobby was crowded to its utmost capacity. On the stove, on the benches, 
on the ledges of the windows, looking over shoulders and under arms and 
between heads, peered a dense mass of eager and painfully expectant faces, 
each hoping that by some lucky accident his pet scheme might even now be 
reached. The room was as tight as a bottle; not a breath of fresh air or an 
ounce of oxygen enlivened the horrible atmosphere; the heat was stifling, the 
stench overpowering; the windows reeked with a dark typhoidal moisture, and 
when the Speaker had called the House to order, and announced that a quorum 
was present, at least one hah the members sprang to their feet with one hideous 


yell of "MR. SPEAKER," with an unanimity as astonishing as it was deafening. 
Twenty hands, outstretched with sheets of rustling paper, menaced that inno- 
cent but undisturbed functionary. With smiling composure and commendable 
firmness, he held the reigns of control, amid what seemed to be the wreck of 
matter and the crash of worlds, on a small scale. . . . 

LATER. The House adjourned for an evening session, after a protracted 

The indications are that the night will not be very favorable for meditation 
or reflection. The symptoms are unusually violent. There is to be a "hop" 
at the Eldridge, and a gay time is anticipated. 

"D n it," said a Democratic office-holder to me to-night, with a melancholy 
countenance and a series of exclamations more forcible than polite, "Kansas 
ought not to have been admitted for ten years." B. 3 

The citizens of Lawrence, Kansas' Free-State headquarters, were 
jubilant over the victory. The Lawrence Republican, January 31, 
1861, almost shouted: 



We have received the glorious news that Kansas is admitted into the Union! 
The Kansas bill passed the House with Fitch's amendment in regard to the 
Judiciary, yesterday. The following dispatch was sent to the Leavenworth 

WASHINGTON, Jan. 28, 1861. 

A. C. WILDER: The State bill, with Fitch's Judicial Amendment, has passed 
the House. 


Somebody gave us a copy of the Conservative, and, without waiting to in- 
quire to whom we were indebted, we hurried to the office and placed it in the 
hands of our printers. It was sent here by the proprietors of that paper, by ex- 
press, some five hours in advance of the mail. 

We hear the jubilant news vocally heralded in the streets, and the sounds 
of the "spirit-stirring drum" admonish us that the "immortal Stubbs" are glori- 
fying the event. All hail! We are citizens of the United States once more 
partners in "Hail Columbia," "Yankee Doodle," the stars and stripes, the 
Declaration of Independence, and the Fourth of July! 

Yesterday, when the news arrived of the admission of Kansas, our whole 
town was elated. Men ran from place to place proclaiming the glad tidings. 
Cheering and music and all manner of exultation was heard everywhere through 
our streets. A deputation was immediately sent to Capt. [Thomas] Bicker- 
ton's for that celebrated old piece, the Sacramento [historic cannon now pre- 
served at the University of Kansas], and it was brought to town after dark 
and thirty-four guns fired at about twelve o'clock, and renewed at sunrise this 
morning. The long hoped for event, the final triumph of Freedom, was 
achieved, and never in the history of Kansas was such exultation known amongst 
our people. . . . 

3. Leavenworth Conservative, January 31, 1861. 



Two days ago Lawrence was electrified by the announcement of the ad- 
mission of Kansas to the Union. She had been a virgin Territory so long, we 
feared the fate of all over-ripe maidens; but as some women, like fruit, are 
sweetest just before they begin to decay, Kansas, in her maturity, was more 
attractive than in her youth. After a long candidacy, she has formed a union 
a union, too, for weal or woe with discordant and beligerent States. She will 
take her stand by the side of those sisters who are loyal to the Constitution, 
and join in their appeal to those who are disaffected, first in the gentle tones 
of love, and then, if need be, in the stern voice of war. 

But it is not meet for us to conjure visions of terror to the bridal feast to 
mingle strains of sorrow with your joyous epithalamium. Let men shout till the 
welkin rings; let women smile till the prairies blossom and the birds sing as 
though it were not winter. 

A little while, and Charles Robinson assumes his official robes, with more 
prestige than Governor ever had since the days when Isaiah sang his pean 
over young Hezekiah's accession. He goes into office elevated by the suffrages 
of "the wisest and the bravest and the purest people under the sun." He 
stands at the head of, we trust, the never ending column of Kansas Governors. 
After long years of suffering, under the despotism of a Democratic administra- 
tion; after a long series of insults and abuses from delegated Governors, Kansas 
is free, and has a Chief Magistrate of her own choosing. May he be unto us 
all as a pillar of fire by night, and as a pillar of cloud by day. 

Although Kansas is the youngest, she is by no means the weakest of the 
States. She has grown strong from defending herself, and from long wrestling 
with the Lord in prayer. She has taught Slavery to more dread her hug than 
the Spanish Protestant did the Maid's of the Inquisition; and when she speaks 
her sovereign voice, at home and in the National Senate, treason will be sicklied 
o'er with the pale cast of fear. 

The men of Kansas are conservative, but if any people under our broad 
aegis have cause of irritation, they are the members of the new State. They 
are those whose rights have been violated, whose interests neglected, whose 
humanity outraged, yet they are those who most love the Union and the Con- 
stitution. If, then, we are devoted to the federal government if, after all our 
abuses, we love it still, can we submit to its overthrow by men who have never 
felt a wrong or knew an injury? Nol a hundred thousand times, no! for such 
is the answer of every human being in Kansas. 

One year of peace and plenty will relieve our personal wants, and supply the 
exchequer of the State. When this is done, we go out into life under more 
favorable auspices than any of our sister States have ever emerged into existence 
with a more beautiful country, a more prolific soil, a clearer empyrean, and 
a more intelligent, patriotic and courageous people. 

Our State: Length of days be in her right hand, and in her left riches and 
honor; may her ways be ways of pleasantness, and all her paths be peace. 

At Lecompton, the territorial capital and unofficial headquarters 
of the Proslavery faction, the news was received with resignation. 
On January 31, 1861, the Lecompton Kansas National Democrat 



It is reported, with apparent good authority, that the Senate amendment 
to the Kansas bill, was agreed to in the House on Monday last. When the 
President signs the bill, which he undoubtedly will do, we become one of 
the States of the Union. Kansas comes into the Union at a critical time, but 
it is all well if an end should thereby come to the political capital manufactory 
called Suffering Kansas, versus the present Administration. We hope for other 
good, also. . . . 

In another center of Free-State activity, John A. Martin, editor 
of the Atchison Freedom's Champion, wrote the territory's obituary 
on February 2, 1861: 


Of Chronic Worthlessness, on the 28th ult., at his father's house in Washing- 
ton, the child "K. T.," aged six years. His father was the notorious Squatter 
Sovereignty, and his mother the infamous Slavery Extension. The child had 
been an orphan for some time past, his father having been killed at the election 
of 1857, and his mother murdered in November last by the people headed by 
one A. Lincoln. Peace to his manes. 

The above announcement will be read with satisfaction by the people of 
this particular section, but with no particular surprise, because as "K. T." had 
been a hopeless invalid for some time past, his sudden demise was expected. 
"K. T." lived a nuisance and died a pauper. He was noted for Missouri Raids 
and Divorce Bills; thrived on Montgomery Scares and the Drought; his jewels 
were the frights and furor of Williams and the frowns and foolishness of Be- 
bee; he lived on Governors, whom he masticated without salt or pepper, and 
Federal Judges, whom he swallowed without a gulph; he sent Pierce into 
obscure retirement and Buchanan into notorious infamy; his cause murdered 
his god father Douglas, and quartered his god-mother, Democracy; he was 
the pet of Missouri and the hatred of Massachusetts; like Ishmael his hand was 
against every one and every one's hand was against him; he sprang into being 
despised and went out of life disgraced. 

His place is filled by the youth, KANSAS. It is a general opinion that his 
successor is a good egg; keeps his nose clean; isn't ashamed to work for a living; 
spells colored individual with one "g;" is clothed in the Stars and Stripes and 
crowned with the American Bird; wears his heart on his sleeve for a friend 
and carries his Colt cocked for an enemy; can read the Declaration without 
stopping to spell the hard words and believes the Constitution doesn't mean 
Slavery when it says Justice; goes his pile on Major Anderson and Capt. Mont- 
gomery, and thinks Seward and Old Abe are the brains and the hub of the 
universe; imagines that the Pacific Railroad is a good idea and that Barnum 
is proprietor of the "What Is It;" would like to apply the toe of his boot to 
the coattails of Secession, but wouldn't disgrace himself by kicking Bigler and 
Pugl; thinks the Dis-unionists are fools, but knows the dough-faces are; believes 
New York might have continued the Empire State if Kansas hadn't been ad- 
mitted; likes manliness and dispises skulking and shirking; supposes Mt. Oread 
to be just as sound on the goose as Bunker Hill, and Old Constitution Hall as 
much pumpkins as Fanieul; wears his trowsers in his boots without osten- 
tation and sustains the rights of Humanity without fear; smokes a pipe and 
believes in Tom Jefferson; likes Garabaldi and hates men who believe that 


government has to pay God's bill for national sins; snuffeth the battle afar 
off when Old Ben Wade rings out his fun words, and curls his lip with scorn 
when Joe Lane blows his penny whistle; never gives an insult nor takes one; 
has John Hickman's pluck and Potter's bowie-knife; and don't know anything 
that will keep him from being as big as any of 'em. That's KANSAS. 

The first news of the decease of "K. T." was received on Tuesday morning 
from Hon. ROBERT GRAHAM, of this city, who is now in Washington. But a 
short time afterwards we received the following dispatch from Col. A. C. 


JOHN A. MARTIN, Esq: Kansas was admitted yesterday with Fitch's amend- 
ment. We fire 50 guns here to day. 


The news spread quickly, and every face brightened with joy. Except 
here and there an old pro slavery Lecompton English Bill Secessionist, we 
did not see a man who was not rejoiced at this welcome intelligence. 

One enthusiastic youth wanted us to lend him an X to get on a big drunk 
and treat all his friends. We had no distinct or vivid recollection of having 
been blessed with that amount of U. S. Currency since the Drouth set in, and 
so were compelled to entreat him not to treat. Another gentle but somewhat 
impetuous boy wanted to know whether he hadn't better cut a hole in the ice 
and duck a Missourian in the Missouri, and it took all our powers of persuasion 
to convince him that it wouldn't be right to hole a friend, but better to leave 
him whole. A third youth who stated that he felt as if he had been appointed 
Minister to Breat Grittain or the Isewich Sandlands, he didn't know which, 
wanted us to buy a barrel of Eager leer, so that he could get tightually slight, 
and hollow loud for the Conandot Wystitution, Kree Fansas, Sill Beward and 
Labe Linkum. We gently hinted to our enthusiastic friend that he was a 
barrel of Lager Beer himself, when he immediately wanted us to take a drink 
of him. We were forced to decline acceeding to his polite request, whereupon 
he was suddenly seized with an exceeding decline, and informed us that he 
cidn't dare schether whool nept or kot, and talked in various other dead and 
Hottentot languages. A fourth individual wanted us to tell him whether 
Kansas couldn't whip Russia and throw in two or three or a dozen second 
rate powers to boot. We looked incredulous, whereupon he informed us that 
he'd take the contract at five days notice, when we came down. And so they 
went round. Everybody was seized with a bad attack of shake hands, and the 
pump handle motion was decidedly handled for two or three hours. 

Truly the people of Kansas have cause for rejoicing. With them it is the 
realization of a six year's anxious hope; the termination of a struggle for the 
Freedom of Kansas commencing with the passage of the Nebraska Bill in 
1854, and ending by the triumph of Free Labor in our admission as a SOV- 
EREIGN STATE on the 28th day of January, 1861. Who, of the friends of Free 
Kansas; who, of the men who have helped to make her Free; who, of the 
people who have stood by her cause through gloom and darkness until it 
emerged into light and victory, could help rejoicing? Who could help huz- 
zahing for the FREE STATE OF KANSAS? 

In Emporia, then a small frontier town which had played little 
part in the Free-State-Proslavery struggle, the news was received 
in this manner: 



The latest intelligence from Washington leaves no room for doubt that noth- 
ing but the signature of the President is wanting, to give Kansas her long- 
deferred rights as an independent member of the Confederacy of States, even 
if she has not already taken her place in the constellation, like 

"Another morn, 
Risen on mid-noon." 

Amid the distractions of treason and rebellion, the doubts of the good, the 
omens of the fearful, and the mistaken concessions of the timid and wavering, 
this last act in our great political drama is full of consolation and hope, and has 
a peculiar and inspiring significance. By it the founders of the Republic have 
received a new vindication; their principles have been reasserted in a degenerate 
age, and the great constitutional fabric which they constructed has been conse- 
crated anew to universal freedom and the progress of the race. Particularly at 
this period, when traitors' hands are raised against the sacred altars of the 
fathers; when dangerous doctrines are born in a day, and even the endeavors 
of the faithful are overborne in the demoralizing rush of unusual and unex- 
pected dangers, is the spectacle presented by the people of Kansas worthy of 
the highest commendation. Exposed to all the seductions of tyranny to the 
blandishments of power to the threats and the arms of the despotism of 
Slavery, through a period the most depressing to the hopes of Freedom, the 
people of Kansas exhibit the heroic qualities of an adherence to the common 
rights of man, and the support of those rights by a resort to the peaceful de- 
fenses secured by the Constitution. If the imaginary wrongs of the South 
justify a resort to robbery and treason, and all the horrors of civil and fratricidal 
war, how much more the repeated and protracted outrages perpetrated upon 
the long-suffering people of this unhappy land. For this endurance of wrong, 
and this resistance of wrong, the world is our debtor, and history will vindicate 
our claims to a successful inculcation of the lesson that no force that Tyranny 
can employ can ever subjugate the faithful lovers of Liberty, protected by law. 

Speculations for the future are premature, but not in vain. With an extent 
of territory larger than that of some of the most powerful governments of the 
ancient world; a soil whose fertility and kindness has no superior from sea to 
sea; a climate that gives vigor to the healthy, strength to the diseased, and 
affords scope for all the products of the temperate zone; a surface that gives 
ready access for railroads, and a frontier upon one of the great natural high- 
ways of the earth, it is not unreasonable to expect that Kansas will soon assume 
a prominence which every augury of the hearts of her sons fortells. She hands 
the torch of Freedom to the Pacific slope, and hails the day 

"When not an altar can be found 
Whereon her glories shall not burn!" 4 

In White Cloud, Sol. Miller, whose acid pen almost continually 
cauterized the Democratic party (and anything else that invoked 
his ire), saw admission as an opportunity to stomp the Democrats 
with the Republican heel of justice. In his Kansas Chief, January 
31, 1861, he said: 

OVERREACHING. It would be a good joke, if the Democrats in the United 
States Senate, in displaying their spite toward Kansas, had overreached them- 

4. Emporia News, February 2, 1861. 


selves. They kept postponing the bill week after week, from the commence- 
ment of the session; and when they did pass it, they stuck on an amendment, 
the object of which was to impose Judge Pettit on her citizens for life. But a 
number of Southern States seceded, reducing the Democratic majority in the 
Senate; and about the time the House accepted the Senate amendment, Louisi- 
ana went out. Her Senators have probably withdrawn ere this, leaving the 
Senate Republican. Now, if Buchanan signs the Kansas bill, the next move 
will probably be to send in the appointment of Pettit. But the Republicans will 
have it in their power (and should exercise the power, just by way of retalia- 
tion for the meanness of Democracy toward Kansas) to reject the appoint- 
ment. When Lincoln goes into the White House, he can appoint a Judge who 
is acceptable to the people of Kansas, and the Senate, in special session, can 
confirm the appointment. What a good joke it would be, besides being a justi- 
fiable procedure! 

Editor Miller explained the Fitch amendment: 

THE KANSAS AMENDMENT. Senator Fitch's amendment to the Kansas bill, 
about which we have heard so much, simply makes Kansas a Judicial District. 
It is supposed by many that this will insure its rejection by the House. If Re- 
publicans delay the admission of Kansas on that account, it will be in violation 
of the wishes of a large majority of her citizens. The amendment is by no 
means sufficient cause for Republicans to oppose our admission, although it 
would be far more agreeable without the amendment. The objection arises 
from the probability that John Pettit will be appointed Judge, which office he 
will hold for life, or during good behavior. As a politician, the people of Kansas 
despise Pettit; but as a jurist, members of the bar say he has but few superiors. 
Kansas has been kept waiting so long, that she will rejoice to get into the Union, 
even if the pleasure must be seasoned with Judge Pettit. 

Downstream on the Missouri river from White Cloud but still in 
Doniphan county the editor of the Elwood Free Press shared the 
anti-Democrat sentiments of Sol. Miller. On February 2, 1861, he 


We are pleased at being able to announce to our readers that the FREE PRESS 
is published in the State of Kansas we have moved to America. 

The House of Representatives concurred in the amendment of the Senate, 
and Kansas has ceased to be a Territory. We pity, from the bottom of our 
heart, the poor devils living in Territories! We lived in one once for four years 
don't do it again. 

The history of Kansas Territory, and the complications arising therefrom, 
will fill a large space in the history of the United States, for the years from 
1854 to 1861. 

Citizens of Kansas! the Democratic party opposed your admission to the 
last Douglas being the only one voting for it. The South just now prating of 
the fulfillment of constitutional guarantees and new guarantees, voted solid, 
save Crittenden, against our admission. Suppose Kansas was slave instead of 
free, and the Republicans had so voted, or one-fourth of them, wouldn't there 
have been a howl from the traitors and their sympathisers North and South 


how holy would have been the horror of every "patriot" south of Mason and 
Dixon's line, and all Democrats and conservatives north of said line. 
But we are in, and we can afford to forget and forgive. .,/>, -,t ' 

In Jefferson county the news barely made the January 30, 1861, 
edition of the Oskaloosa Independent: 


ALMOST IN THE UNION. The Kansas admission Bill passed the Senate on 
the 21st inst. The vote was such as to secure our early admission, even in the 
event of a Presidential veto. . . . 

LATEST We learn from a private source, that a telegram was received in 
Leavenworth at three o'clock yesterday, (Tuesday) announcing that Kansas 
is admitted into the Union as a sovereign State. We have no particulars, and 
neither time nor space for a more extended notice this week. 

The Fort Scott Democrat, February 2, 1861, felt that the new 
all-Republican state government would at least erase the excuse 
for more violence in Kansas: 


The Senate amendment to the Kansas admission bill passed the House on 
the 28th ult., and Kansas is now a State. As soon as the President's procla- 
mation announcing the same officially, is received by Gov. Robinson, the State 
Government will be inaugurated; but we understand that the Legislature will 
not be called together before the 1st of May. 

Now that we have a State Government entirely in the hands of the Re- 
publican party; our county organization under their control; and our Federal 
office-holders about to be appointed from their ranks, there can be no possible 
excuse for future outbreaks, on the ground that their enemies control the 
courts of justice. We have faith in the firmness and intelligence of Gov. 
Robinson to believe that acts of lawlessness will receive a sterner rebuke at 
his hands than has ever been administered by the Federal authorities. 

The expenses of the State Government during the first two or three years, 
will be very burdensome on our people; but in the present disordered condi- 
tion of our national affairs, we believe it will be for the best. 

In the East the New York Tribune had this to say about Kansas: 

The House yesterday passed the Senate bill for the admission of Kansas, 
which thus becomes the thirty fourth State of the Union, and the nineteenth 
Free State. This act not only opportunely adds to the Confederation a sound 
and loyal member, untainted by the pestiferous blight of Slavery, but does 
rightful though tardy justice to a State which has suffered for five years 
greater wrongs and outrages from Federal authority than all the slave States 
together have endured since the beginning of the Government, even if their 
own clamor about imaginary oppression be admitted as well founded. The 
present generation is too near to these events to see them in their true propor- 
tions, but in the future, in impartial history, the attempt to force slavery upon 
Kansas, and the violations of law, of order, and of personal and political rights, 


that were perpetrated in that attempt, will rank among the most outrageous 
and flagrant acts of tyranny in the annals of mankind. 5 

A third series of celebrations and editorials followed President 
Buchanan's signing of the bill. The Leavenworth Conservative^ 
however, apparently had spent its force on the second celebration 
for now, January 31, it merely stated: 


The following special dispatch came to THE CONSERVATIVE at a late hour 
last night: 


The Kansas Bill has received the President's signature. Mr. Conway ap~ 
peared on the floor of the House and was sworn in. 

The Leavenworth Herald was somewhat more elated than it 
had been during the previous round. On February 1, 1861, it said: 


The President signed his name to the Admission Bill, and we are now the 
State of Kansas. We are proud, not to say jubilant! The only question now 
remaining to be considered is when shall we secede? Looking out upon the 
landscape this morning, we found the view very much the same as when Kansas 
was a Territory. The same old ice-blocked river the same rolling prairies 
the Fort in the distance Pilot Knob, and South Leavenworth, all were there 
just as though we had not been admitted. But it was upon the people that 
the change was most susceptible. Some had been suddenly converted from, 
pigmy citizens into the ponderous proportions of State Dignitaries. Judges 
were thick as fleas, Secretaries were visible to the naked eye. Probate Judges, 
prevailed to some extent, and Legislators were a drug in the market. Every 
body is "clothed in the panoply" of freshly formed resolve no more tobacca 
is to be used no more whisky will be consumed vice and immorality are at. 
a heavy discount. Hurrah for the State of Kansas! 

In Lawrence the territorial legislature was in a quandary. Was 
it still a legally constituted body? Would the laws it was passing, 
be binding upon the state of Kansas? And perhaps more important, 
would the legislators be paid? A correspondent of the Emporia 
News, February 2, 1861, wrote this dispatch: 


LAWRENCE, Jan. 31, 1861. 

The Leavenworth Daily Conservative of to-day has a special dispatch from 
Washington, informing us that the President has signed the bill admitting. 
Kansas. This news creates great excitement here. Everybody's in high glee, 
and hurrahing for the State of Kansas. 

Since the receipt of the news two days ago that the Kansas Bill, with the 
Senate amendment, had passed the House of Representatives, the two branches, 
of the Territorial Legislature have been holding three sessions per day, and 
have rushed through a great many bills. Nearly every one of these bills, how- 
ever, is of a private nature. . . . 

The great question now, is whether any of the acts passed by the Territorial 

5. White Cloud Kansas Chief, February 14, 1861. 


Legislature after the President signed the Kansas bill are of any force. Beebe 
has said that they would receive no pay from the time we were admitted. The 
members generally maintain that their body is a legal one until the Governor 
receives official information of the fact of our admission. Both branches of the 
Legislature will probably adjourn to-morrow or next day. 

Beebe, as an institution, is no more. May the day soon arrive when as 
much can be said of all Democratic appointees. 

Hurrah for the State of Kansas! Long may she wave! She has come up 
through much tribulation, and may kind Providence grant her and her noble 
and freedom-loving people a prosperous future. . .'..-., 

A correspondent of the Leavenworth Conservative, February 2, 

LAWRENCE, Jan. 31, 1861. 

The Legislature dies hard. Its action to-day has been spasmodic and 
convulsive; it writhes under the last telegraphic announcement in THE CON- 
SERVATIVE, that the President had signed the Kansas Bill. An agony of un- 
certain desperation has pervaded both departments, and bills have been put 
through under suspension of rules with very remarkable celerity. The legisla- 
tion has been mostly of a private character, and by some mysterious process, 
the lower House has become demoralized to such an extent that about a dozen 
divorce bills were granted without debate. 

The Lawrence Republican, February 7, 1861, in reporting the 
proceedings of the legislature said: "A message was received from 
the Governor, with various bills which he returned without his sig- 
nature, on the ground that he was unwilling to recognize them 
longer as a legal body/' This occurred on February 1. 

Kansas' last territorial legislature gasped its final breath on Feb- 
ruary 2, leaving behind a physical record of 35 pages of general 
laws and 68 pages of private laws. Included in the latter were 20 
divorces granted. Sol. Miller wrote that the representatives of his 
district had reached home "looking remarkably respectable con- 
sidering the crowd they associated with, and the business they 
were engaged in/' 6 while the Fort Scott Democrat declared that 
the "principal object of the session seems to have [been] that of 
securing their per diem and milage. . . ." 7 

Regarding admission, the Lecompton Kansas National Democrat, 
February 7, changed from its previous air of resignation to one of 

KANSAS A STATE. No one can fail to notice that the admission of Kansas 
as a State is producing much interest among the people of the country. Our 
brethren of the Republican school including editors of Kansas journals are 
all at the height of glorification. "We did it!" "we conquered!" "glory to 

6. Ibid., February 7, 1861. 

7. February 9, 1861. 


us! to us!" is sent through the host in an excellent manner. We like to see our 
friends happy, if the snow is deep. Our Free State Democratic friends, too, 
claim a share in the universal rejoicing, and are glad with a right good will. 
We say cheer up! right good cheer! Kansas is a state!! But we, of the leading 
Pro-slavery party journals as the enthusiastic little Atchison Champion calls 
us in a late issue, are left in the background entirely. Lecompton has failed! 
The Territorial Government has failed and we, too, join in the chorus! We 
are glad Kansas is a State, and we want to see this young progeny of the Union 
wash her face, comb her hair and put on clean clothes, so that we won't be 
ashamed of our little State when she goes to meeting with her large, intelligent 
and well-dressed sisters. 

And what did John Martin of the "little" Atchison Freedoms 
Champion have to say? 


How does that look? Doesn't every one like it? Won't every one feel better 
when he writes it, instead of that small, petty, mean, dispicable sneaking, crawl- 
ing "K. T.P" Hurrah for us, we, ourselves! Hurrah for the new Star! And 
three times three again for the NEW STATE OF KANSAS!! 8 

In Oskaloosa the Independent, which had previously mentioned 
admission only in a fleeting manner, developed its thought to such 
length that it required two issues to say all it believed necessary. 
The first of the articles appeared on February 6, 1861: 


The admission bill has received the signature of the President, and Kansas 
is a sovereign State, and stands on an equal footing with her sisters in the 
Confederacy. . . . 

Kansas, though the youngest, is by no means the least important of the 
sisterhood of States. Her central geographical position will give her at once an 
influence in the councils of the nation that no other new State has ever had; 
and the rapid development of her natural resources, a steady and increasing 
growth in population, the inauguration of an efficient system of free schools, 
the establishment of manufactories, and the proper and judicious encourage- 
ment of internal improvements, will in a few years give her a place among the 
first States in the Union. 

Very soon the guardians of the vital interests of the young State will be 
called upon to enter upon the duties assigned to their several positions. Not 
many weeks hence the legislature will convene to whom is entrusted weighty 
responsibilities. Among the first and most important business that will come 
before them, will be the election of two Senators to represent the people of this 
commonwealth in the United States Senate. It is needless to say that the 
wisest, most sagacious, and yet the most prudent of the prominent men of Kan- 
sas should be selected to fill these high stations of honor and trust; the good of 
the nation and the State alike demand that our Senators should be the best 
statesmen we have. We will not now suggest our preference for any individuals 
for the position of Senators, for we believe the combined wisdom of the State 
Senate and House of Representatives will elect those men who are the best 
qualified to fill those stations. 

8. February 2, 1881. 


After the election of the Senators, it devolves upon the Legislature to enact 
and inaugurate a thorough, liberal, yet economical system of statutory laws. 
While high taxation and a heavy State debt should be studiously avoided, free 
schools, agricultural, mechanical and manufacturing interests, and a judicious 
system of railroads and other internal improvements, should receive liberal en- 
couragement from the State government. A proper disposition of the public 
lands should be made, for the benefit of the State, and not be disposed of in 
a way that will line the coffers of individuals with the gold that ought to fill 
the public treasury. 

Possessing the advantage of the history and experience of other States that 
have preceded Kansas, our legislators ought to devise a system of State govern- 
ment, and enact a code of laws, far in advance of any of her predecessors; thus 
giving her an impetus to future greatness and influence unparalleled in the 
history of the nation. 

The second Independent article appeared on February 13, 1861: 

Long before this reaches our readers they will have heard the glad intelli- 
gence that Kansas is a State in the Union. Long and unjustly kept out by the 
machinations of political demagogues, she has at last triumphed, and today 
makes the thirty-fourth State in the Confederacy, and will add the thirty-fourth 
star to our national banner, on and after the Fourth of July next. 

Hereafter our people will have no federal governors, judges or other officers 
to interfere with their local affairs or throw impediments in the way of the 
prosperity of our State. 

It is not our intention to rehearse the past grievances of Kansas; they are now 
matters of history, and we hope will prove a salutary lesson to generations 
coming after us and that their parallel will never be known in the future de- 
velopment of our progress as a nation. Let the past be past, and remembered 
only as a warning and a guide for the time to come. 

We hope our Legislature will elect two good men to represent us in the 
United States Senate not mere partisans, but men of understanding and states- 
man like capacities and views. They must be MEN if they can stand up with 
the giant intellects of that body; and we would not have our young State low- 
ered in character by the men who stand for her good name and rights in the 
highest deliberative body known under the constitution. Give us two good 
men. Doubtless we have them yes, a score of them. 

Kansas now has her own future to make. Her destiny is in her own hands. 
If she is governed by wise counsels, she will soon rank among the first in the 
sisterhood of States, for her natural advantages are manifold, her resources un- 
bounded, her climate one that will attract settlers and her soil inexhaustible. 

Let her people be wise in the selection of rulers and discreet in the manage- 
ment of internal policy. 

Emporia fired a salute to Kansas and the Union when the news 
came around the third time. The News, February 2, 1861, stated: 

We have received the welcome intelligence, that Kansas is admitted. The 
House concurred in the Senate amendment on the 28th. The President has 
signed the bill, and we are now citizens of the United States. The joyful 
news was received here on Thursday afternoon, and soon was communicated 



to all within hearing, by the booming of the "big gun." A national salute of 
thirty-four guns was fired one for each State, and a "tiger" for Kansas. We 
have not room for extended remarks at this time, and will leave our readers 
to glorify over the result "in their own way." 

At Manhattan the Western Kansas Express, February 2, 1861, 





The following dispatch was sent to THE DAILY CONSERVATIVE of Leaven- 
worth, dated Washington Jan. 30. 

"The Kansas Bill has received the President's signature. Mr. Conway ap- 
peared on the floor of the House and was sworn in." 

At last the great victory, for which the people of Kansas have fought so 
many hard battles against the slave power, suffered so many acts of injustice, 
at the hands of a corrupt and vindictive Administration, and submitted to so 
many sacrifices and privations, is won! We are a FREE and Sovereign State!! 
A member of the great American Union!!! A new Star in the glorious Banner 
of the noblest, most free and best Government in the world, the treason of 
Southern fire eaters, and their State Secession Ordinances to the contrary not 

Citizens of Kansas! Let us rejoice at the auspicious event! If the Union 
and the Constitution of our Country are now menaced with distruction by a 
powerful conspiracy, let us be thankful unto God, that we have been admitted 
into the UNION in time to co-operate in the vindication of the sanctity of its 
laws, by enforcing them, of the honor of its flag, by punishing those traitors, 
who trampled upon it, and of the inviolability of its Federal Constitution, by 
proclaiming it over again, if necessary, in all parts of the United States, and 
defending it at all hazards as the Supreme Law of the Land!! To deserve 
prosperity and success as a State, let us solemnly vow on the altar of our virgin 
Commonwealth, that we shall always be faithful to the CONSTITUTION and the 
UNION of our beloved Country! 

The citizens of Manhattan celebrated the admission of Kansas 
in a quiet and orderly manner. The Express, February 2, 1861, 
described their meeting: 


At an early hour on Friday evening Feb. 1st, the Citizens of Manhattan 
assembled at the City Hall, which was brilliantly illuminated, to greet the 
intelligence of our admission into the Federal Union as a Sovereign State, with 
feelings of rejoicing. The meeting was called to order by Mr. C. F. de Vivaldi 
[editor of the Express], and on motion Judge Pipher was called to the Chair, 
and James Humphrey appointed Secretary. 

After announcing the object of the meeting, the Chair introduced the Hon. 
S. D. Houston, senator elect from the 4th District. Mr. Houston, enumerated 
a few of the advantages which we should derive from our admission, and 
pointed through the present gloom to a prosperous future. On retiring, Rev. 
Mr. Paulson was loudly called for, and on coming forward, remarked, that the 
long conflict between freedom and Slavery in Kansas was now forever settled. 


The foul conspiracy inaugurated by the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, 
and the enactment of the Kansas Nebraska dodge, to fasten on this beautiful 
State the dark repulsive features of Slavery had signally failed. Mr. Paulson 
entered into a becoming and manly vindication of the right and duty of 
ministers to lift up their voice against political iniquity, and severely rebuked 
that snivillmg class of politicians, who conceive that the ministerial function 
and patriotism are incompatible. 

The meeting was subsequently addressed by Mr. C. F. de Vivaldi, Mr. Fox, 
Rev. C. E. Blood and others. Three rousing cheers were then given for the 
new State of Kansas, after which the meeting was dismissed. 

The Topeka State Record, one of the papers which inaugurated 
the first round of statehood celebrations by announcing admission 
after passage of the bill by the senate, seemed to be remembering 
that fact when on February 2, 1861, it reported: 

We are at last enabled to announce to our readers, the gratifying intelli- 
gence that Kansas is really admitted. . . . 


As the Wyandotte Constitution is now a living instrument the fundamental 
law of the State of Kansas, which all will feel a new interest in reading, we 
surrender much of our space this week to its re-publication. In it are embodied 
the hopes and aspirations of the people of Kansas. It has become their rep- 
resentative the embodiment of their wisdom, and their capacity for self-gov- 
ernment upon the National Record. Born of strife and oppression, it stands 
forth to vindicate its people from the aspersions of venality, of which States- 
men have accused them through a rival but hated instrument, and to demon- 
strate their unswerving devotion, under temptations which seldom fall to the 
lot of man, to the enduring principles of Free Soil, Free Labor, and Free 
Speech. It will stand for future time as a proud monument of the first sub- 
stantial victory of the Nineteenth Century, of Freedom over Slavery, in aa 
equal race, and will be revered by the millions who are destined, at no distant 
day, to people this great valley of the North American continent, as the in- 
auguration of a new and brilliant era in American politics, when Freedom 
instead of Slavery will be the presiding genius of our institutions Democracy 
enthroned, and man in the abstract be clothed with equality, and his higher 
nature acknowledged and vindicated. 

The Topeka Tribune, February 2, 1861, followed the general line 
of Free-State thought but added paragraphs extolling the virtues 
and glorious history of the new, though supposedly temporary, capi- 
tal of Kansas: 










There is no longer any doubts to be entertained with regard to our admis- 
sion. The nail is clinched. Kansas is to-day a Sovereign State of the American 

At last, our prayer has been answered. Kansas is no longer a foot-ball for 
partizan demagogues and unscrupulous politicians a bait to the whale and 
no longer will her people be made to dance and fiddle to advance the cause of 
a corrupt, ambitious and designing class of political aspirants. We are in the 
Union, of the Union, for the Union; and what is more, have no thanks to return 
to any source for political influence or favor, without our own borders. The 
boon has been nobly fought for, and obtained by the merest exercise of justice 
dearly paid for. Let us give praise unto-ourselves, take hope, courage, and 
renew our vows of devotion to our glorious country, to our adopted State and 
our cherished homes and hearthstones. May our dreams of coming prosperity 
and greatness be realized, and our future prove as glorious and peaceful as our 
past has been gloomy and beclouded with sorrow. 

We, of TOPEKA, hail the news with a peculiar feeling of interest and pride. 
TOPEKA is CAPITAL OF KANSAS. Her history is coeval with that of the Terri- 
tory with the cause of political freedom under the unhappy culminations of 
long continued and bitterly waged intestine partisan conflict; her name in time 
past has been associated with the history and struggle of the Free State cause of 
Kansas, and through which it has gained a celebrity second only to the name 
<of Kansas herself. Here it was that was held, commencing upon the 19th day 
>of September, 1855, the first Convention of the freemen of Kansas, having 
under consideration the question of adopting effective measures in behalf of 
K)ur sovereign liberty and freedom as a people, and from whose deliberations 
arose majestically that fair yet formidable structure that monument to right 
and justice around which so determinedly rallied the sovereigns of the soil 
of these beautiful prairies the first State organization of Kansas. Here it was 
that was held, convening upon the 2d day of October, 1855, the Convention 
for the purpose of drafting a Constitution for the embryo State, and here it was 
that assembled, in the March following, the Legislature under its provisions, 
and enacted a code of laws for the government of its people. Here it was that 
upon the 4th day of July, '56, the same Legislature assembled pursuant to 
adjournment, and where, at the exact time of noon-day, in the presence of three 
thousand people, at the roll-calling of the members, it was dispersed at the 
point of the bayonet by Col. Sumner, at the head of government troops, acting 
under authority of President Pierce. 

Topeka is to Kansas what Philadelphia, with her Continental Congress, was 
to the Colonies. Her name was the watchword in "times that tried men's 
souls," and to-day her influence, aside from considerations of policy or profit, 
is felt in every quiet nook and corner of the Territory. Yet she can exert an 
influence based upon more substantial reasons. The superiority of her natural 
and acquired advantages, the great and most important consideration being 
her nearly exact central location, secured to her the seat of government under 
the Wyandotte Constitution, an act of justice and wisdom not to be called in 
question by her veriest enemies. The town was founded in December, '54, 
and to-day, in point of beauty of location, of population, building, public and 
private, postal, express and stage arrangements, printing facilities, mercantile 
and manufacturing prosperity, artistic and mechanical development, general 
industrial pursuits, religious and educational privileges, wealth, refinement and 
intelligence, will compare with any city in the West. So much for Topeka. 


Her civil honors can only be lost when by vote of the people of the State, a 
majority of all the votes cast are for another locality. 

The news of admission was received by our citizens in a becoming manner. 
The old cannon echoed the joyful tidings to the people of the country, the 
whole town rejoiced and general conviviality prevailed. 

Marcus Parrott arrived in Lawrence on February 8 bearing official 
notification to Gov.-elect Charles Robinson that Kansas had been 
admitted. On February 9 Caleb S. Pratt, county clerk of Douglas 
county, administered the oath of office to the state's first governor. 
Robinson's first official act was to call the legislature to meet March 
26 at Topeka. 

Rumors soon filtered into Kansas' new capital that the new gov- 
ernor would visit there on February 12 to obtain a residence for 
himself and to arrange for the inauguration of a state government. 
In a flurry of activity the residents of Topeka prepared to meet their 
leader with disheartening results. The Topeka Tribune, February 
16, 1861, told the humorous story: 


The news having reached our city of his Excellency, Governor ROBINSON'S 
intention to visit the Capital on Tuesday last, preparations were hastily made 
to welcome him in a manner becoming the occasion. The band was called into 
requisition and mounted in a carriage, and, attended by an escort of cavalry, 
some twenty-five or thirty strong, took their line of march out eastward, upon 
the Lawrence road, with the intention of proceeding until they met the Gov- 
ernor, when they would formally escort him into the city. They passed out of 
town in fine order, the band playing a national air, (the Southern Confederacy 
to the contrary notwithstanding,) and our citizens commenced gathering, for 
the purpose of being on hand and taking part in the public demonstration when 
the Governor should arrive. Long and patiently they waited to welcome the 
gallant and brave old soldier he who stood foremost in the free State ranks 
of '56, and who preferred a long incarceration in the "great political prison," 
at Lecompton, rather than deviate from his cause or compromise his honor 
long they waited we say; twilight came, the cavalcade was seen or heard 
approaching, expectation was upon tip-toe, there was a fluttering of hearts a 
few moments more and all would have the pleasure of saluting of welcoming 
the first Governor of the State of Kansas! the cannon belched forth in "thunder 
tones" three rounds had been fired, when the party came in, BUT NO GOV- 
ERNOR! Though great the disappointment, with philosophical cheerfulness it 
was borne by those upon the ground, and three rousing cheers were sent up for 
GOVERNOR ROBINSON, when the people dispersed. We were gratified to see 
persons who, but a few months since, were foremost in maligning Mr. ROBIN- 
SON'S character and motives, make themselves particularly active in rendering 
homage to the official of to-day. 

The Governor, however, did visit us on the next day [February 13], . . . 

On March 26 the first state legislature convened at Topeka. Thus, 
after a long and sometimes bloody struggle, the state of Kansas was 
born and launched on its voyage into history. 

Kansas: A Centennial Portrait 


A VARIETY of answers can be given to the question, "What is 
Kansas?" Kansas is the 34th of 50 commonwealths that form 
the United States, having gained its cherished place in a time of 
national tension in January, 1861, and having contributed from its 
birth to the future of the national destiny, geographically and po- 
litically. Kansas is an almost perfect parallelogram, except for the 
jagged corner in the northeast, fashioned by the Missouri river. It 
has an area of slightly more than 82,000 square miles, rising from an 
elevation of less than 700 feet above sea level near the southeastern 
corner, to more than 4,100 feet in the northwest. Its border is 400 
miles long, running east and west along Nebraska and Oklahoma, 
and 200 miles, north and south adjoining Missouri and Colorado, 
lying within 37 to 40 north latitude and 95 to 102 west longitude. 
Kansas has known the proprietorship of Indians, some native, others 
having migrated there at various times; and at least two foreign 
flags, Spanish and French, actually waved in the Kansas breeze, 
symbols of authority over the sparsely settled peoples prior to the 
Louisiana Purchase in 1803, when the Stars and Stripes replaced 
the banner of Napoleon's consulate. When Mexico gained inde- 
pendence from Spain in 1821, the southwestern one-sixteenth of 
Kansas, south of the Arkansas river and west of the 100th meridian, 
was Mexican territory, a claim that Texas sought to enforce when 
independence was gained from Mexico in 1836. All of Kansas came 
under United States jurisdiction when Texas was annexed in 1845. 
Originally, and for many decades, overwhelmingly agrarian, but 
now increasingly industrial and urban, Kansas has at times helped 
to shape the course of national developments, but more often has 
responded to such developments with varying degrees of acceptance, 
rejection, or indifference. 

Kansas in the dimension of time, like every populated geographic 
area, has a history which casts long shadows into the future some 
good, some evil a history not always fully understood nor inter- 
preted in accordance with the facts, but creating, nevertheless, 
that indefinable quality called a "tradition," to inspire or to console, 

DH. EMORY KEMPTON LINDQUIST, Rhodes scholar and former president of Bethany 
College, has been at the University of Wichita since 1953. He is author of Smoky Valley 
People: A History of Lindsborg, Kansas (1953), and numerous magazine articles relating 
to the history of this area. 



as circumstances called for inspiration or consolation. That tra- 
dition, from its earliest foundation, includes "Bleeding Kansas," 
Puritanism, individualism, extremism, dogmatism, idealism, agrar- 
ianism, and other less dramatic but nonetheless real elements in 
fashioning the mind of a state. That is, if a state can be de- 
scribed as having a mind. 

Kansas has shared in the diversified company of other states 
that have joined to form the great symphony of American life. 
Some states are older, others younger, and all are different in 
origin, culture, and spirit. Dorothy Canfield Fisher sought to de- 
scribe a few of them by dramatic word portraiture in an article, 
a part of a series described as "the new literature of self -appraisal," 
which appeared in The Nation in 1922. "Everybody knows/' wrote 
Mrs. Fisher, "that New York State is a glowing, queenly creature, 
with a gold crown on her head and a flowing purple velvet cloak. 
The face of Louisiana is as familiar dark eyed, fascinating, tem- 
peramental. Virginia is a white-haired, dignified grande dame 
with ancient, well-mended fine lace and thin old silver spoons. 
Massachusetts is a man, a serious, middle-aged man, with a hard 
conscientious intelligent face, and hair thinned by intellectual ap- 
plication." Then Mrs. Fisher concluded: "These State counte- 
nances are familiar to all of us." . . - 1 

The countenance of Kansas is not readily portrayed. The artist, 
using brush and paint, often finds the creation of a personal portrait 
difficult because of the changing moods of his subject day by day. 
How much more difficult it is to create the portrait of a state across 
a century of change, from the pioneer world of an isolated rural 
community to the jet-driven international era of today! There 
must be several partial portraits before there can be a composite 
one, if that should ever be attempted. Before we speak of the 
countenance of Kansas there is still the prior question "What is 


Kansas is a place of irregular wooded hills in northeastern coun- 
ties, where streams of varying sizes wend their way hesitatingly 
toward the inevitable destiny of a far-away ocean, but it is also 
the High Plains of the western reaches, where prairie land stretches 
undisturbed farther than unaided eye can see. It is the silence 
of early November twilight in Brookville amidst the vestiges of 
the Old West, but it is also the hustle and bustle of Broadway and 

1. Dorothy Canfield Fisher, "These United States. IV. Vermont: Our Rich Little 
Poor State," The Nation, New fork, v. 114 (May 31, 1922), p. 643. 


Douglas in urban Wichita, once known as the "Peerless Princess 
of the Plains/' at five P. M. on weekdays. It is the solitude of the 
unheard song of a meadowlark in the shadows of a great cathedral- 
like wheat elevator near Grinnell, singing because it is the nature 
of a meadowlark to sing, but it is also the piercing shriek of a 
man-made Navy jet fighter stationed at Olathe, symbol of a time 
of troubles, off on a mission of rehearsal in a world that knows not 
if it can survive. It is the blistering heat of August on the good 
earth, now parched, the roaring blizzard of January, reminiscent 
of that fateful January, 1886, when storm gods unleashed their 
mighty power, and the sodden soil of mid-April, with promise of 
new life in nature. But it is more than that. 

Kansas is the village of Victoria, with its English name and re- 
membrances of the adventurous people from behind the white cliffs 
of Dover, who in the early 1870's wished to honor Her Majesty, 
Victoria, Queen of all Britain, Defender of the Faith, soon to be 
designated Empress of India, by giving her name to a yet to be 
inhabited Kansas village, and it is Victoria's great twin-spired 
"Cathedral of the Plains/' St. Fidelis, built by a later generation of 
German-Russian immigrants from the steppes of Czarist Russia, 
affirming faith in the City of God, which traced its origin to events 
almost two thousand years before there was a Kansas. It is Linds- 
borg, lying serenely in the shadows of Coronado Heights, named 
after the famous Spaniard and his conquistadores, who came to the 
future Kansas in search of fame and fortune eight decades before 
the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock, a town which is a tribute to 
the Swedish pioneers who later fashioned the "Messiah" tradition 
during Holy Week and gave hospitality to Birger Sandzen, son of 
the Northland, who caught so magnificently the Kansas spirit with 
bold strokes and elegant colors on hundreds of canvases. 

Kansas is Lecompton, now primarily an historic reference on the 
map of memory, but in 1857 a place bustling with a constitutional 
convention pointing up the national debate over slavery between 
North and South, but it is also Kansas City, across the Missouri river 
from a dominant big brother, recalling that its predecessor, Wyan- 
dotte, housed the convention which gave Kansas its constitution 100 
years ago. It also is Topeka, the middle section of the trio of towns 
designating the name of a railroad, later set to rhythmic song, "The 
Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe," which was identified so intimately 
with the lurch toward the Pacific; Topeka, proud of its green-domed 
capitol building, an imitation of the larger one at Washington, D. C., 


where a great struggle had been launched to decide the fate of 
Kansas, or Kanzas, or Kanza, or any of the 80 variations associated 
in the early days with the name of the state. It is a place where 
hardy sunflowers grow in abundance and its people acknowledge 
somewhat reluctantly, at times, that they are Jayhawkers. Kansas 
is Abilene, famous in early days as a shipping point for Texas cattle, 
but now known world- wide as the boyhood home of D wight D. 
Eisenhower, Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Powers in Europe 
during World War II and the 34th President of the United States, 
with its Eisenhower home and Eisenhower center, the latter por- 
traying the distinguished career of the most famous Kansan and a 
great American in a splendid museum and library. 

Kansas is the rolling area of the southeast, with Shaw and the 
first Christian mission in Kansas founded in 1824 by Protestants, 
and Pittsburg, named after that older industrial metropolis in the 
East, with coal mine shafts and shale piles in the surrounding area, 
symbols of the search for the hidden bounty of nature, whether it 
be the burrowing miles of salt veins stretching from Hutchinson to 
Lyons and Kanopolis, or the rhythmic beat of thousands of Kansas 
oil-well pumps, bringing black gold to the surface to drive the 
swept-winged vehicles of jaunty men in the name of the 20th cen- 
tury goddess, Speed. Kansas is the Flint Hills, a scenic belt of 
intriguing beauty, stretching two counties wide north and south 
across the entire state, dotted with villages bearing quaint names 
like Matfield Green and Bazaar, Beaumont and Grenola, its western 
edge forming the boundary of the eastern third of Kansas, charac- 
terized by outcropping rocks of the Permian age, formed 200 million 
years ago, with its cattle grazing peacefully in the luscious bluestem 
grass. In the High Plains, it is Dodge City, "Cowboy Capital of the 
World," with its streets named after Wyatt Earp, Bat Masterson, 
and other famed police officers of the West, some real, some leg- 
endary, with its Boot Hill and its replica of Front street, with 
shadowy remembrances of Doc Holliday and Dora Hand, and now 
a modern city of modest size with fine schools, homes, and churches, 
and a new college, St. Mary of the Plains, founded to honor the 
Virgin through the ministry of teaching and learning as the 20th 
century rushed jet-driven into its turbulent and fleeting second half. 
But Kansas is more than that. 

Kansas is John Brown, Charles Robinson, James H. Lane, John J. 
Ingalls, Isaac T. Goodnow, W. A. Phillips, Edmund G. Ross, Jerry 
Simpson, Mary Elizabeth Lease, Victor Murdock, Carry A. Nation, 
Joseph Bristow, Charles Curtis, Arthur Capper, Dr. John R. Brink- 


ley, Gen. Frederick Funston, Walter Chrysler, Earl Browder, Alf M. 
Landon all names, the mere mention of which reveals no lack of 
variety in the annals of the state's history. But Kansas is also D. W. 
Wilder, William Allen White, Ed Howe, Eugene F. Ware, E. Halde- 
man-Julius, Margaret Hill McCarter, Charles M. Sheldon, William 
A. Quayle, Snowden D. Flora, J. C. Mohler, Birger Sandzen, Dr. 
Samuel J. Crumbine, Dr. Arthur Hertzler, F. H. Snow, the Doctors 
Menninger, father and sons, each one of which is representative of 
the varied talent that Kansas has shared with the world. Kansas is 
Amelia Earhart, Walter Johnson, and Jess Willard, all heroes in 
their time, and A. K. Longren, E. M. Laird, Clyde Cessna, Lloyd 
Stearman, Glenn Martin, and Walter H. Beech, pioneers in the air 
lanes above the prairie trails, and also Pres. D wight D. Eisenhower 
of Abilene. 


Kansas is more than those who would be included in a Hall of 
Fame, if Kansas chose to honor thus her great. Kansas is the com- 
posite of the dreams and hopes of all the people, some by choice, 
others by birth or circumstance, who have shared the vibrancy of 
life, or answered the claims of death, in that piece of God's creation, 
once described as the "Great American Desert," but later to become 
a cherished place called home, with friends and work and a share 
in the great promise of American life. They came, these future 
Kansans, for a variety of reasons from older states with familiar 
names, from Massachusetts and New York, from Ohio and Illinois, 
from Missouri and Kentucky, and from distant European places 
with unfamiliar names, from Sunnemo and Volhynia, Molotschna 
and Neuchatel. The number of foreign born increased at an irreg- 
ular tempo, reflecting factors in the old country and in the new, and 
reaching a maximum of 147,630, for a total of 10.3 per cent of the 
state's population in 1890, with the Germans forming almost one- 
third of this total. 2 In 1895, when the population was one and a 
third million, there were 188,000 Kansans using a language other 
than English. Moreover, as Prof. J. Neal Carman has pointed out, 
at the mid-point of the 20th century, probably one-half of the people 
of Kansas had grandparents or great grandparents born in Europe. 8 

The sound of native Indian tongues yielded to the new linguistic 
cosmopolitanism of the Kansas plains as English, Welsh, French, 
Bohemian, Russian, German, Italian, Spanish, Swedish, Norwegian, 
and Danish were spoken, sung, and written. The language of the 

2. Carroll D. Clark and Roy L. Roberts, People of Kansas (Topeka, 1936), pp. 50, 51. 

3. J. Neal Carman, "Babel in Kansas," Your Government. Bulletin of the Bureau of 
Government Research, Lawrence, v. 6 (March 15, 1951), No. 7. n. p. 


Old World became immersed in the language of the New World, 
but as late as 1911, the Kansas City (Mo.) Star described Aurora, 
Cloud county, as a French-speaking village, with the names of 
business houses "as French as frog legs/' and "farmers who loafed 
on drygoods boxes in front of the stores reminisced of the Franco- 
Prussian War in the language of Moliere." 4 The spoken language 
of the homeland, somewhat corrupted in the new milieu, continued 
to be used quite widely among immigrant groups until the first 
World War, in the second decade of the 20th century, served a 
warning that non-English speaking peoples should embrace the 
language of the land in full fervor. The language of the immi- 
grants is now spoken only rarely and then only by the older genera- 
tion. Although the pattern of language and culture has yielded 
to the new forces, a generation twice removed from the pioneer im- 
migrants shares the sincere feelings of the Swede in central Kansas, 
who wrote in 1869 to friends in far away Varmland that America 
was "framtidslandet" "the land of the future." And so it was for 
him and his generation, and so it is for their children, and for their 
children's children. 

Although people from distant places, speaking strange languages, 
came to Kansas in goodly numbers, future growth depended upon 
the westward movement from older states toward the ever-expand- 
ing frontier. When federal census takers completed their rolls 
in 1860, Kansas, on the threshhold of statehood, numbered 107,206. 
The six New England states furnished only 4,208 of these people. 
New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, and 
Kentucky each provided more names in the census year of 1860 
than all of the New England states together. The largest number 
from New England was 19,338 in 1880, but in that year, Illinois 
had sent 106,922, and Ohio 93,396, in a total population of 996,096. 
At the turn of the century there were 1,470,495 people in Kansas, 
and three decades later, the number had increased moderately to 
1,880,999. At the mid-point of the 20th century, the census enumera- 
tors accounted for 1,905,299, and in 1960 as Kansas prepared to enter 
the second century of statehood, there were 2,178,611 people in the 
Jayhawker region, an increase of 14.3 per cent during the decade. 5 

After 1890 restless Kansans reversed the trend of interstate mi- 
gration as increasingly large numbers left Kansas at an accelerated 
pace, and in the decade from 1920 to 1930, the state experienced 

4. Kirke Mechem, ed., Annals of Kansas (Topeka, 1956), v. 2, p. 19, refers to the 
Kansas City Star, December 10, 1911. 

5. Clark and Roberts, op. cit., pp. 31, 208; United States bureau of the census, 
Statistical Abstract of the United States (Washington, D. C., 1955), p. 16; Wichita 
Evening Eagle and Beacon, November 25, 1960. 


for the first time a net loss from interstate migration. 6 By 1930 r 
39.2 per cent of native Kansans lived elsewhere in the United States, 
while the Kansas population included 36.3 per cent born in states 
other than Kansas. Not until the census of 1920 did the population 
include more native born Kansas sons and daughters than persons 
from other states and nations. The census for that year showed 
54.7 per cent born in Kansas, 38.5 per cent in other states, and 
6.8 per cent in foreign countries and places not identified. 7 

A decisive factor in Kansas is the trend towards urbanization. 
In 1900, 22.5 per cent of the population lived in incorporated places 
of 2,500, or more, in 1950, the figure was 49 per cent, and in 
1959, it had risen to 55 per cent. Cities with 10,000 or more people 
had 12.8 per cent of the population in 1900, 28.8 per cent of the 
population in 1930, and 42.5 per cent of the total population in 
1959. Incorporated cities of all classes provided the residence 
for 69.4 per cent of all Kansans in 1959. The population of Wichita 
increased from 114,966 in 1940, to 168,279 in 1950. In 1960 the 
population of Wichita was 254,059, an increase of 121 per cent in 
the last two decades. 8 

Although the population of Kansas exceeded the 2,000,000 mark 
in its centennial year, Horace Greeley's prophetic declaration in 
the New York Tribune in October, 1870, following a visit to Kansas, 
was far too optimistic when he affirmed that the child was born 
who would see Kansas fifth, if not fourth, in population and pro- 
duction among the states of the Union. 9 The rate of population 
growth has not kept pace with that of the United States. For 
instance, since the turn of the century to 1960, the increase in 
Kansas was 47 per cent, compared with almost three times that 
growth, 135.7 per cent for the entire nation. 10 


Many factors enter into shaping the character of a state as the 
decades pass to form a century. The physical facts of an area 
climate, geography, topography, location, natural resources play 
significant roles, especially in the formative period. Certainly these 

6. Clark and Roberts, op. cit., p. 199. 

7. Ibid., pp. 66, 68. 

8. Comprehensive Educational Survey of Kansas (Topeka, March, 1960), v. 1, p. 
20. The Survey consists of five volumes prepared by Otto E. Domian and Robert J. Keller 
on the basis of action taken by the Kansas legislature in 1957 and 1958 authorizing the 
legislative council to provide for the study of education in Kansas. Clark and Roberts, 
op. cit., pp. 74, 79; Wichita Evening Eagle, June 20, 1960; 17. S. Department of Commerce, 
"census," August 31, 1960, CB 60-60, p. 17. 

9. D. W. Wilder, Annals of Kansas (Topeka, 1886), p. 529. 

10. Census Reports. Vol. I. Twelfth Census of the United States. 1900. Population. 
Part I (Washington, D. C., 1901), p. 2; Wichita Eagle, August 2, 1960. 


factors are important, and occasionally decisive, but the pattern of 
Kansas history does not depend upon "environmental determin- 
ism." New crop varieties and improved methods of tilling the soil 
created some measure of control, although uncertain and sporadic, 
over the forces of nature. The windmill, barbed wire, sulky and 
gang plows, tractors, and other inventions were important elements 
in changing the manner of work and life. Improvements in trans- 
portation and communication steadily eliminated the feeling of iso- 
lation. The coming of increasingly large numbers of people pro- 
vided the possibility of co-operative community life. These factors, 
and others, combined to challenge the impact of environmental 

More important than environmental factors are elements of a 
spiritual character, broadly speaking, that create the ethos, the 
distinguishing character, or tone, of a group, or region, or state, or 
nation. History, and remembrances and interpretations of that his- 
tory, some true, some false, provide a large and productive reservoir 
of meaning for the ethos, the spirit, the tone of Kansas. 

Looming large in the creation of the image of Kansas were the 
violent and complex developments that preceded the Civil War, 
Teaching a climax in the course of that conflict. Kansas was the 
center of the national crisis: freedom and righteousness were the 
issues. Various factors, political and economic, were obviously im- 
portant, but the idealism and emotion generated by the magic word 
"freedom," in contrast to the dreadful word "slavery," must not be 
underestimated. The forces were clearly joined: the declared ideal- 
ism of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, the Beecher Bible 
and Rifle colony, the Andover band, representing the forces of law, 
order, and decency, confronted the depravity of the border ruffians, 
Quantrill and his raiders, and the cruel slaveholders portrayed sym- 
bolically in Uncle Toms Cabin. This was the understanding of the 
background for the birth and early history of Kansas, a mounting 
conviction that entered into the life of the state. John Greenleaf 
Whittier expressed it in "The Kansas Emigrant's Song": 
"We cross the prairies as of old 

The pilgrims crossed the sea, 
To make the West, as they the East, 
The homestead of the free." 

Kansas was considered as belonging to the great tradition of the 
Pilgrims and Plymouth Rock. This provided symbolical and sub- 
stantive meaning for the future. 


Moreover, it seemed appropriate that Kansans should not only 
enshrine these facts in the temple of memory, but blessings would 
accrue across the years because of them. In 1879, when William 
Lloyd Garrison reviewed in glowing terms the progress of Kansas 
since 1861, he declared that this was "her fitting recompence for 
having gone through a baptism of blood, and an ordeal of fire, with 
such firmness and devotion to the sacred cause of human freedom/' n 
In September, 1879, J. W. Forney affirmed confidently, as reported 
in the Commonwealth that "Kansas was the field on which the first 
modern battle was fought in favor of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence." 12 

The Kansas spirit was fashioned by the zeal of the crusader, the 
crusader against slavery and oppression, and he was equipped with 
the effective weapons of righteousness, moral indignation, and a 
deep-seated belief that the wrong could be made right and the 
rough places plain by organized social action. William Allen White 
wrote in The American Magazine, January, 1916, that "All our 
traditions [in Kansas] are fighting traditions fighting established 
orders, fighting for better orders." Kansas had responded whole- 
heartedly in the national crisis of freedom during the Civil War; 
no state had as high a percentage of eligible men in the Union army 
as did Kansas. This was a battle for more than home and fireside; 
this was a greater conflict of principles and ideals. 

The momentum of this early start influenced greatly the later 
history of Kansas. It was a prologue to the future, written with 
sacrifice and faith. Belief in righteousness is a mighty force, and a 
twin, Puritanism, was present in the founding period. William 
Allen White, writing in the World s Work, June, 1904, declared that 
"as a State, Kansas has inherited a Puritan conscience, but time and 
again she has allied herself with Black George because he preached 
more noble things and promised much." The heritage of Puritanism, 
a persistent element in the image of Kansas, was emphasized in the 
London Spectator as late as June, 1936, when it was observed that 
"Kansas is the inheritor of the old Puritan morality which once 
dominated New England. It is indeed, in a very literal sense, the 
last refuge of the Puritan, for Kansas was settled from the old stock 
of Massachusetts Bay." Moreover, the correspondent in the Spec- 
tator continued: "Its physical descent from Bradford and Winthrop 

11. Letter from William Lloyd Garrison to the Kansas State Historical Society, March 
25, 1879, quoted in Wilder, op. cit., p. 847. 

12. Quoted from the Commonwealth, Topeka, September 14, 1879, in Wilder, op. cit., 
p. 857. 


and Williams is only one degree less certain than its spiritual herit- 
age from the same men. Kansas, even among farming States, is the 
most zealous upholder of Prohibition and the Sabbath. 13 

The statement relative to physical descent from Bradford, Win- 
throp, Williams, and New England generally is obviously inaccurate 
as already indicated. 14 The spiritual heritage from New England is 
a factor, however, of far greater importance. The leaders in early 
Kansas clergymen, writers, teachers, lawyers, editors, physicians 
were often New England in origin and spirit. From 1854 to 1861, 
51 Congregational ministers came to serve in Kansas, 36 arriving 
before the end of 1860. In April, 1857, the General Association of 
Congregational Ministers and Churches in Kansas declared in an 
address to other Congregational bodies that "it shall be our aim 
. . . to transplant the principles and institutions of the Puritans 
to these fertile plains, and to lay foundations which shall be an 
honour to us, when in the grave, and blessing to all coming genera- 
tions." 15 This high resolve was symbolic of the expectations of 
New England Congregationalism. The church sought to challenge 
the frontier world by example and through the ministry of preach- 
ing. Special attempts were made to leaven the satanic elements. 
One response was the organization of the Band of Hope by the 
Rev. Peter Me Vicar in Topeka, in 1861, in which members took a 
pledge to totally abstain from the use of intoxicating drink, tobacco, 
and profane language. 16 

The religious future of Kansas belonged, however, not to the New 
England Congregationalists, but to Methodists, Baptists, Disciples 
of Christ, Presbyterians, and to immigrant Churches, such as the 
Lutheran, Mennonite, and Evangelical. The principal emphasis of 
these groups was, in regard to morals and conduct, definitely Puri- 
tan. In 1861, for instance, the Methodist conference passed a strong 
resolution on alcoholism, and declared that "Whereas, Intemperance 
with all its accumulation of moral and social evils is still destroying 
the souls and bodies of many in our state, Be it Resolved, that 
Methodist Preachers should not cease to 'cry aloud and spare not* 
before all people." 17 The dominant forces of Protestantism in Kan- 
sas were essentially pietistic, building upon the earlier foundations 

13. The Spectator, London, v. 156 (June 26, 1936), p. 1170. 

14. Vide, p. 27. 

15. Emory Lindquist, "Religion in Kansas During the Era of the Civil War," Kansas 
Historical Quarterly, v. 25 (Winter, 1959), pp. 433, 434. 

16. Ibid., v. 25 (Autumn, 1959), p. 323. 

17. Emory Lindquist, "The Protestant and Jewish Religions in Kansas," in Kansas: 
The First Century, J. D. Bright, ed. (New York, 1956), v. 2, p. 374. 


of New England Puritanism. This pattern furnished important 
sources for further developments. 

Manifestations of the Puritan conscience are a part of the annals 
of Kansas. The most dramatic aspect is related to the prohibition 
amendment. The temperance movement gained in momentum 
after 1870 through the work of the Independent Order of Good 
Templars, the "Woman's Crusade/' which used the contrasting 
weapons of prayers for the saloonkeepers at their places of busi- 
ness and "spilling parties," great camp meetings of the "cold water" 
faithful at Bismarck Grove and elsewhere, the "blue ribbon" work- 
ers, the W. C. T. U., and the churches. J. R. Detwiler, who advised 
the introduction of a bold constitutional amendment outlawing 
the liquor traffic, established the Temperance Banner in October, 
1878. Detwiler also arranged with Judge N. C. McFarland to 
draft a resolution, known later as Senate Resolution 3, on the sub- 
ject. The proposed prohibition amendment carried the senate 
without effort. One vote was lacking for the required two-thirds 
majority in the house of representatives, but in a dramatic gesture 
of loyalty to his new wife, George W. Greever, a Democrat from 
Wyandotte county, on March 5, 1879, changed his vote, and the 
issue was now in the hands of the people of Kansas. 18 

The campaign for the amendment was carried on intensively. 
Frances Willard, Frank Murphy, Drusilla Wilson, and other famous 
enemies of "daemun rum" spoke to large audiences. Mrs. Wilson 
affirmed that "this crusade was an inspiration from the Holy Ghost, 
sent from heaven to arouse action in this great work." The opposi- 
tion, although not equally active because of overconfidence, 
charged, however, that the amendment was unconstitutional and 
an attack upon public liberty, a "sumptuary and gustatory" pro- 
ceeding which would curtail immigration and delay economic 
advance. The people spoke, although not too convincingly, when 
the final tabulation showed 92,302 for and 84,304 against the 
amendment, producing a majority of 7,998 in favor of prohibition. 
Although Kansas was the first state to pass a prohibition amend- 
ment, Tennessee had a prohibition law in 1838 and Maine in 1846. 
The Kansas amendment was not repealed until 1948, and then by a 
majority of more than 60,000 votes, following a failure to obtain 
repeal in 1934, when 89 of 105 counties supported prohibition. 19 

18. Clara Francis, "The Coming of Prohibition to Kansas," Kansas Historical Collec- 
tions, v. 15 (1919-1922), pp. 204-227; Grant W. Harrington, "The Genesis of Prohibition," 
Kansas Historical Collections, v. 15 (1919-1922), pp. 228-231; Agnes D. Hays, The White 
Ribbon in the Sunflower State (Topeka, 1953), pp. 20-23. 

19. Francis, loc. cit., pp. 221-227; Proceedings and Debates of the Wyandotte Con- 
stitutional Convention. July, 1859 (Topeka, 1920), p. 593; The legislative act is found 
in Laws of Kansas, 1881 (Topeka, 1881), ch. 128, sec. 1-24, pp. 233-244; Hays, op. ctt., 
pp. 60, 67. 


Carry Nation's home town of Medicine Lodge voted to repeal the 
amendment in 1948. A later generation may not fully understand 
the fact that idealism joined with Puritanism in 1880 to pass the 
prohibition amendment. A study of contemporary sources indi- 
cates convincingly the real social and economic evils of liquor on 
the Kansas frontier. The groggery shops and saloons were scarcely 
compatible with the ideals of Kansas. 

The conditions in Kansas after the effective date of prohibition, 
May, 1881, dramatized clearly the problems relating to the attempt 
to legislate reform. The drugstores became prosperous with brisk 
sales of liquor for which a physician's prescription was not re- 
quired. The New York Tribune pointed out in November, 1886, 
that in Osage county, 215 different reasons had been cited by 
patrons for purchasing alcohol including "a bilious headache," 
"dry stomach," "congestion of the lungs," and "for making a mix- 
ture to wash apples against rabbits." 20 The saloons soon reap- 
peared in large numbers as did also the patrons. 

The prohibition issue produced the unusual career of Carry A. 
Nation of Medicine Lodge. She started her campaign at Kiowa 
in June, 1899, after a voice had told her: "Take something in 
your hand, and throw at those places in Kiowa and smash them." 
She cast her carefully collected stones with great skill in three 
Kiowa saloons. At Wichita, early on the morning of December 
27, 1900, she went to the Carey Hotel saloon, where she threw 
two stones with unfailing accuracy at the nude picture, "Cleo- 
patra at the Bath," and smashed with a billiard ball (alas! not a 
hatchet) the mirror that covered almost one entire side of the large 
room. By 8:30 A. M. that day she was arrested, telling her jailor 
as the gate closed on her cell: "Never mind, you put me in here 
a cub, but I will go out a roaring lion and I will make all hell 
howl." 21 When released from the Wichita jail, she went to Enter- 
prise to continue her solo performance of good works. 

The activities of Carry A. Nation dramatized an important con- 
tradiction in Kansas: a prohibition state with wide open saloons. 
William Allen White, in an editorial in the Emporia Gazette on 
February 11, 1901, "Hurrah for Carrie," described this contradic- 
tion effectively: "At first the Gazette was against Carrie Nation. 
She seemed to be going at it wrong end to. But events justify her. 

20. New York Tribune, November 3, 1886. 

21. Carry A. Nation, The Use and Need of the Life of Carry A. Nation (Topeka, 
1908), pp. 133, 134, 143-145, 148, 159. 



She is all right. . . . She has aroused the law-abiding people 
of Kansas to the disgrace of lawbreaking partly by the example 
of her own lawlessness. . . . Hurrah for Carrie Nation! She's 
all right." 22 

The Kansas mind had developed a type of pharisaical legalism 
blended with genuine idealism. It was, perhaps, a manifestation 
of what Ernest Hamlin Abbott called "moral dogmatism" in Kan- 
sas. 23 Puritanism and the prairie joined with pietism and per- 
sistence to initiate a noble experiment. Kansas had resolved upon 
a course of action in an overwhelmingly agrarian culture: he who 
sets his hand to the plow must move straight ahead. There were, 
and are, real evils associated with liquor and the liquor traffic. The 
Kansas approach was to legislate reform. In addition to the Kansas 
amendment of 1880, the so-called "Bone-Dry" law of February, 
1917, was an attempt in the 20th century to achieve certain avowed 
goals. 24 However, after the repeal of the 18th amendment to the 
constitution of the United States in 1933, an uneasy conscience 
harried observant persons who saw the dire results of bootlegging 
and wide spread violation of Kansas liquor laws. The idealism of 
the Puritan and pietistic tradition was forced to yield in the face 
of new forces. This is Kansas, intent upon the conviction that the 
shortest distance between two points is a straight line, unmindful 
of the pitfalls along the way, or refusing to recognize them. Com- 
promise has not always been a decisive characteristic of Kansas; 
compromise may be the quality of a less courageous, or a more 
mature civilization. Compromise may sometimes be the part of 
wisdom or practical policy; it is often less interesting. Kansas has 
sometimes been interesting. 

A significant comparison between Kansas and other states was 
made by Ernest Hamlin Abbott in an article in Outlook magazine, 
April, 1902, when he declared that the difference could be identified 
as doctrinal dogmatism elsewhere and moral dogmatism in Kansas. 
He observed: "In the Southwest religious dogmatism is a choppy 
sea; for doctrines of one sect conflict with the doctrines of another. 
In Kansas religious dogmatism is a strong current, for church people 
of all names are practically agreed as to what moral courses are 
unquestionably Christian." He observed, moreover, that "in the 
main the *Higher Criticism* is the representative heresy of the 

22. Quoted in Helen Ogden Mahin, The Editor and His People (New York, 1924), pp. 
178, 179. 

23. Ernest Hamlin Abbott, "Religious Life in America, VIII. Kansas," The Outlook, 
New York, v. 70 (April, 1902), p. 970. 

24. Laws of Kansas, 1917 (Topeka, 1917), ch. 215, sec. 1-9, pp. 283-286. 


Southwest, while that of Kansas is Beer/' Abbott described the 
Kansas mentality by recourse to the traditional explanation since 
he "was more than ever impressed with the truth that the present 
[1902] religious and moral character was only the persistence of 
the temper that was wrought into the people during the days of 
Eli Thayer's Emigrant Aid Company/' He found that the most 
articulate Kansas idealist "can always be found to have his idealism 
firmly fastened to a peg driven deep in the earth. The Beecher 
Bible and Rifle Company still in the spirit hovers over Kansas like 
the horses and chariots of fire around about Elisha/' 25 

Although prohibition is the most dramatic manifestation of moral 
dogmatism in Kansas, official policy relative to cigarettes is also 
a part of that pattern. As early as 1862 the Methodist conference 
declared "that it is the duty of Christians to put off all 'filthiness 
of the flesh' especially that which is involved in the use of to- 
bacco." 2G Ordinances were passed by various cities governing the 
sale of cigarettes and cigarette paper. The agitation mounted in 
the second decade of the 20th century. The Kansas Civil Service 
Commission, which had declared that habitual users of liquor could 
not receive state jobs, announced on August 16, 1915, that the 
habitual use of cigarettes might also be the reason for refusing 
to certify an applicant for a position. 27 The W. C. T. U., the Kan- 
sas Federation of Women's Clubs, and other groups joined in the 
crusade to ban the "coffin nails/' In the legislative session of 1917, 
a law was passed "prohibiting the sale, giving away, or advertise- 
ment of cigarettes or cigarette paper." 28 The cigarette law was 
not repealed until 1927. 29 Another attempt, for a decade, to legis- 
late reform in Kansas had resulted in an unrealistic situation as far 
as enforcement and public acceptance was concerned. 

Many Kansans in the centennial year view the past as having 
been quaint and wrong. There is pride in the new emancipation. 
However, the present generation should understand that many 
citizens who had opposed liquor and cigarettes did so earnestly 
and with genuine idealism. It was the manifestation of Puritanism 
and moral dogmatism; it did at least have some distinct principles 
for guidance and belief in matters of conduct. 

25. Abbott, loc. cit., pp. 970-972. 

26. Minutes of the Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1862, p. 21. 

27. Topeka Daily Capital, August 17, 1915. 

28. Laws of Kansas, 1917 (Topeka, 1917), ch. 116, sec. 1-5, pp. 212-214. 

29. Laws of Kansas, 1927 (Topeka, 1927), ch. 171, sec. 1-24, pp. 219-223. 



On August 9, 1922, the New York Times, in editoralizing on a 
bulletin of the census bureau stating that Kansans lived longer 
than other Americans, declared that this was understandable be- 
cause in addition to the salubrity of the climate, "Kansans are power- 
ful sleepers, thanks not only to their climate and quiet nights, but 
to self-complacency/' William Allen White countered this obser- 
vation effectively by an appraisal of Kansas history in the Emporia 
Gazette on August 25: "The reason is plain. We are never bored. 
Always something is going on and we like the show. . . . Kan- 
sans have the box seats of the world's theaters and can always see 
the figures, issues, events, causes and cataclysms waiting in the 
wings for the cue from fate. For things start in Kansas that finish 
in history. . . . Kansas is hardly a state. It is a kind of 
prophecy!" 30 

Box seats for the great drama of Populism were fashioned early 
in Kansas. Before the curtain raised with the organization of the 
Kansas People's Party at Topeka in June, 1890, there had been 
preliminary scenes of preparation in the economic and social life of 
the state. Prof. Raymond Curtis Miller has made excellent studies 
of the background and the development of Populism in Kansas. 31 
His studies chronicle effectively the frenzied speculation, over ex- 
pansion, inflation of land values, railroad and town booms, spiraling 
private and public indebtedness, and the many other factors that 
furnished the theme for the unfolding drama. 

The response to the promise of great opportunities in Kansas 
produced a 37 per cent rise in population between 1880 and 1885, 
increasing from 900,000 to 1,200,000. Property doubled in value 
during those years. In central Kansas, the number of residents 
increased about 100 per cent between 1881 and 1887, and the 32 
western counties grew from 41,000 to 148,000 in the two years 
1885 to 1887. In Wichita, the population increased threefold be- 
tween 1884 and 1887. Eastern financiers, like Charles M. Hawkes, 
Jabez B. Watkins, and others poured money into Kansas as prices 
soared and values boomed. By 1887 the mortgage debt per capita 
was three times as high as that of 1880. The public debt climbed 
from $15,000,000 in 1880 to $41,000,000 in 1890, the largest increase 
in the nation. Mortgages were held on 60 per cent of the taxable 
land in 1890, the highest percentage of all the states, with one 

30. Quoted in Mahin, op. cit., p. 175. 

31. Raymond Curtis Miller, "The Background of Populism in Kansas," Mississippi 
Valley Historical Review, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, v. 11 (March, 1925), pp. 487-489. 


mortgage for every two adults. The private per capita debt was 
$347, a figure four times as high as that of the entire nation. 32 

Charles M. Harger, the distinguished editor and publisher of the 
Abilene Reflector wrote in June, 1898, that the business history of 
the Western Mississippi valley could be divided into three periods 
"settlement, extravagance, and depression/' 33 The last two, ex- 
travagance and depression, were twins, whose combined results set 
the stage for the great drama of Populism. The peak of Kansas 
prosperity was reached in 1887, to be followed by several years of 
depression. Inadequate rainfall, poor crops, low prices for items 
sold and high prices for goods purchased, foreclosures, high inter- 
est rates, bank failures, bankruptcy, restrictions on credit, loss of 
confidence, unemployment, and the flight of large numbers of peo- 
ple completely disillusioned with Kansas, created times of stress and 
strain. For instance, between 1887 and 1892, the population of 
western Kansas decreased by one-half and that of central Kansas by 
one-fourth. 34 

The response of Kansans to the desperate conditions was collec- 
tive action. Representatives of Farmers' Alliance and Industrial 
Union, Patrons of Husbandry, Knights of Labor, Mutual Benefit As- 
sociation, and Single Tax clubs merged to form the Kansas People's 
party at Topeka in June, 1890. When a national convention met in 
Cincinnati in May, 1891, adopting resolutions to form a new party, 
nearly one-third of the 1,418 delegates were from Kansas. 35 The 
People's party of the U. S. A. was organized at St. Louis in Febru- 
ary, 1892. 

In the Kansas election of 1890, the Populists, supported by the 
Democrats, elected five congressmen, including Jerry Simpson. Al- 
though the Republicans retained control of the Kansas senate, the 
Populists had a margin of 92 to 26 in the Kansas lower house. 
Judge W. A. Peffer, a Populist, described as having "a gruffy, hoarse, 
but low-toned voice issuing from a sea of long, dark beard flowing 
nearly to his waist," succeeded J. J. Ingalls, the "silver-tongued ora- 
tor/' in the United States senate. 36 In 1892 Lorenzo D. Lewelling 
was elected the first Populist governor and the entire Populist state 
ticket was victorious. Four Populists were elected to the congress 

32. Ibid., pp. 470, 478, 481, 485; Richard Sheridan, Economic Development in South 
Central Kansas. An Economic History 1500-1900 (Lawrence, March, 1956), p. 183. 

33. Charles M. Harger, "New Era in the Middle West," Harper's New Monthly Maga- 
zine, New York, v. 97 (July, 1898), p. 276. 

34. Miller, loc. cit., pp. 484, 487. 

&TuSfS^: p Hi 43? * *" (Chicago - 1928) - v - 2 - p - 1164 < Th 

36. The Nation, v. 52 (February 5, 1891), p. 104. 


of the United States. The Kansas senate had a substantial Populist 
majority, but in the house, disputed elections resulted in the "legisla- 
tive war" with eventual control by the Republicans. In 1894, be- 
cause of the defection of the Democrats and internal dissension, 
Populism suffered a severe setback. The year 1896 witnessed the 
final triumph for the Kansas Populists. John W. Leedy was elected 
governor, and the majority of both houses of the Kansas legislature, 
state officers, and members of the supreme court were Populists. 

One of the most eloquent of the critics of the old order was Mary 
Elizabeth Lease, who had come to Kansas from Pennsylvania to 
teach school, but married Charles Lease, later a Wichita druggist, 
studied law, and was admitted to the Kansas bar in 1885. Like John 
Wesley whose chance entrance into a religious meeting in Alders- 
gate one night changed the course of his life, it has been reported 
that Mary Elizabeth Lease rushed by chance one night into a labor 
union meeting in Wichita to get out of the rain, and soon she in- 
spired the group with her fiery speech, and was launched on her 
great career. Editing the Wichita Independent, a reform paper, 
and giving hundreds of speeches, this remarkable woman, whom 
Victor Murdock described as having "the dignity of an abbess" and 
who "knew her lines in Shakespeare like Ellen Terry," was irresisti- 
ble before great crowds of Kansas farmers, urging them convincingly 
"to raise less corn and more hell." 37 

Another important actor in the drama of Populism was Jerry Simp- 
son. Canadian born, and for more than 20 years a sailor on the 
Great Lakes with the final rank of captain, he came to Kansas in 
1878. Simpson had been a Greenbacker, a Union Labor party sup- 
porter, and a follower of Henry George's single tax program before 
he became a Populist. After bad luck in cattle raising and farming 
in Barber county, where he lost a small fortune, he became city 
marshal in Medicine Lodge at $40 a month. His next position was 
in the congress of the United States, where he represented the big 
seventh district for six years during the 1890's. 

Simpson was an entertaining and powerful figure on the platform. 
He urged his hearers to "put on your goggles and watch the buc- 
caneers of Wall Street; the brigands of tariff; and the whole shootin' 
match of grain gamblers, land grabbers, and Government sneak 
thieves, before they steal you blind." The usually staid and safely 
Republican Kansans applauded and sent him to congress. "Sockless 
Jerry," a name given to him by Victor Murdock of the Wichita Eagle 

37. Victor Murdock, "Folks" (New York, 1921), pp. 97-100. 


in reporting Simpson's attack upon a debonair opponent, James R. 
Hallowell, because the latter supposedly wore silk stockings, while 
the former had none because of the high tariff, was a dramatic and 
effective evangelist for the cause of Populism. 38 

What had happened that such a debacle should occur in Kansas? 
Eastern critics lamented these developments, and one spokesman, 
Godkin of The Nation, wrote in 1890: "We do not want any more 
States until we can civilize Kansas/' 39 On August 15, 1896, William 
Allen White published his famous editorial, "What's the Matter 
With Kansas?" in the Emporia Gazette, a scathing attack upon the 
Populists. White argued that "If there had been a high brick wall 
around the state eight years ago and not a soul had been admitted 
or permitted to leave, Kansas would be a half million souls better 
off than she is today. And yet the Nation has increased in popula- 
tion." He continued his great lament: "Go East and you hear them 
laugh at Kansas, go West and they sneer at her, go South and they 
'cuss* her, go North and they have forgotten her. . . . She has 
traded places with Arkansas and Timbuctoo." 40 

Populism was an explosion, an uprising, and it had about it the 
quality of a religious crusade. Elizabeth N. Barr has described it 
dramatically: "The upheaval that took place in Kansas in the sum- 
mer and fall of 1890, can hardly be diagnosed as a political cam- 
paign. It was a religious revival, a crusade, a pentecost of politics 
in which a tongue of flame sat upon every man, and each spake 
as the spirit gave him utterance." 41 The "New Jacobins" as they 
were called by some, created a great stirring in the normally quiet 
political prairie. Victor Murdock wrote that as David Leahy and 
he watched a great Alliance parade, passing before them mile after 
mile, the latter turned to him and said: "This is no parade; it is a 
revolution." 42 Over at El Dorado, Thomas Benton Murdock, pub- 
lisher of the Republican, and a keen observer of events associated 
with the new stirring among the farmers, told young William Allen 
White one Saturday afternoon: "By Godfrey's diamonds, some- 
thing's happening, young feller. These damn farmers are prepar- 
ing to tear down the Courthouse." 43 

Although agrarian discontent produced angry men and women, 
it did not result in revolutions. Populism aroused the nation to 

38. Annie L. Diggs, The Story of Jerry Simpson (Wichita, 1908), pp. 108, 109; Mur- 
dock, op. tit., p. 103. 

39. Quoted in Matthew Josephson, The Politicos, 1865-1896 (New York, 1938), p. 480. 

40. Mahin, op. cit., pp. 244-246. 

41. Connelley, op. cit., v. 2, pp. 1164, 1165. 

42. Murdock, op. cit., p. 101. 

43. William Allen White, Autobiography (New York, 1946), p. 184. 


the need of change. Prof. Allan Nevins has pointed out that "What 
Kansas Populism did do was to help throw a bridge from Jefferson- 
ian liberalism to the Progressivism of Theodore Roosevelt and 
Woodrow Wilson." 44 On the large canvas of national development, 
Prof. John D. Hicks observed correctly that "a backward glance at 
the history of Populism shows that many of the reforms that the 
Populists demanded, while despised and rejected for a season, won 
triumphantly in the end." 45 Such planks in the Populist platform 
as woman's suffrage, direct elections of United States senators, direct 
primary elections, income tax, initiative, referendum, and recall, 
have become a part of the American tradition. Populist agitation 
for banking and fiscal reform, improved farm credit and loan facil- 
ities, regulation of railroads and trusts, conservation of natural re- 
sources, have been translated into legislation and policy, evidences 
of a prophetic insight into America's needs. Max Lerner has ob- 
served that "the sweep of Populism set new sights for Americans." 46 

Kansas has not deviated appreciably from the party of Lincoln 
which owed its origin to issues related intimately to the birth of 
the state. The Kansas Republican party was organized at Osa- 
watomie in 1859, with Horace Greeley as the distinguished guest 
speaker. In 25 Presidential elections in Kansas, all went Republican 
except in 1892 and 1896, when the Populists, joining with the Demo- 
crats, were victorious; in 1912 and 1916, when the Democratic 
standard bearer, Woodrow Wilson, and the New Freedom tri- 
umphed; and in 1932 and 1936, the year of victory for Democrat 
Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the New Deal. Ellis county is the 
only Kansas county which has voted more times for the Democratic 
candidate for the Presidency than his Republican opponent; Doni- 
phan county has an unsullied record of loyalty to the Grand Old 
Party. 47 

The pattern of loyalty to the Republican party is demonstrated by 
the fact that of the 33 elected Kansas governors all have been Re- 
publicans except for six Democrats and two Populists. The Demo- 
crats and Populists were granted only one term except for George 
Docking, conservative Democrat, who was re-elected for a second 
term in 1958. In 1924 William Allen White polled approximately 
150,000 votes as an independent, basing his candidacy on the desire 
"to offer Kansans afraid of the Klan and ashamed of that disgrace, 

44. Allan Nevins, Kansas and the Stream of American Destiny (Lawrence, 1954), p. 13. 

45. John D. Hicks, The Populist Revolt (Minneapolis, 1931), p. 404. 

46. Max Lerner, America As a Civilization (New York, 1957), p. 49. 

47. Walter Butcher, Presidential Election Returns for Kansas, 1864-1952, The Em- 
poria State Research Studies, Emporia, v. 5 (September, 1956), p. 3. 


a candidate who shares their fear and disgrace. . . . And the 
thought that Kansas should have a government beholden to this 
hooded gang of masked fanatics, ignorant and tyrannical in their 
ruthless oppression, is what calls me out of the pleasant ways of my 
life into this disgraceful but necessary task." 48 White's frontal at- 
tack upon the Ku Klux Klan in the Gazette and in public speeches 
was a decisive factor in eliminating a disgraceful chapter in Kansas 
history when bands of sheet-covered men burned crosses in cow pas- 
tures. In 1930 John R. Brinkley, described as the "goat gland 
doctor" of Milford, won 183,278 votes that could be counted as a 
late write-in candidate for governor. The winner, Harry H. Wood- 
ring, Democrat, won over his Republican opponent, Frank Haucke, 
by a plurality of only 251 votes. W. G. Clugston, the most articulate 
commentator on Kansas politics and an outspoken critic of the power 
structure in the state, has observed, and many have agreed with him, 
that "There wasn't an experienced political observer in the state who 
didn't admit that if the ballots of all who had tried to vote for 
Brinkley had been counted . . . the goat gland rejuvenator 
would have been elected by a smashing plurality." 49 

Third party movements, exclusive of Populism, have not gained 
victories in Kansas. Theodore Roosevelt, running as the Progressive 
candidate for President in 1912, and Robert La Follette, a candidate 
for the same office on the Progressive ticket in 1924, gained a sub- 
stantial number of votes. The largest number of votes cast for a 
Socialist candidate for President was 26,807 for Eugene V. Debs in 
1912. Jules A. Wayland moved the place of publication of the 
Socialist paper, Appeal To Reason, to Girard in 1897. By 1912 this 
paper had a circulation approaching 500,000, with editions running 
as high as 4,000,000 copies for special issues. From February, 1907, 
through 1912, Eugene V. Debs served actively as a contributing 
editor, commuting between Terre Haute, Ind., and Girard. The im- 
pact of the Appeal To Reason was not significant in Kansas except 
for a brief time in Crawford county. 50 

The decisive trend toward urbanization is beginning to produce 
changes in the political life of Kansas, but the pattern has some 
confusing aspects as Kansas celebrates the centennial of her birth. 
For instance, in 1958, Gov. George Docking, a Democrat, was 
elected to an unprecedented second term for a member of his party, 
on a platform which condemned "right to work" legislation, al- 

48. White, Autobiography, pp. 630, 631. 

49. W. G. Clugston, Rascals in a Democracy (New York, 1940), p. 158. 

50. Charles L. Scott, "Appeal To Reason, A Study of the 'Largest Political Newspaper 
in the World,' " M. A. thesis, University of Kansas, 1957, pp. 25, 37, 38, 41, 49. 


though, at the same time, the voters of Kansas endorsed an amend- 
ment making "right to work" a new addition to the century old 
Wyandotte constitution. 

Kansas gave recognition to the rights of women as voters prior to 
action on a nation-wide basis. 51 The struggle for the right to vote 
began in 1859 when Mrs. Clarina I. H. Nichols, Mary Tenney Gray, 
and Mother Armstrong attended the Wyandotte constitutional con- 
vention as uninvited guests to plead the cause of woman's suffrage. 
An amendment providing full suffrage for women lost in 1867 by a 
vote of 19,856 to 9,070. The second attempt to gain enfranchise- 
ment by amendment lost in 1894 by a vote of 130,139 to 95,302. In 
September, 1894, the New York Tribune reported that the suffragist 
women of Topeka appeared on the streets in shifts with reform dress 
to identify their cause, their garb consisting of "Turkish trousers 
covered by a skirt reaching to the fold, a close or loose waist, as 
the wearer may prefer, and cloth leggings to match the trousers." 52 
The goal of woman's suffrage was achieved in 1912 by a vote of 
175,246 to 159,197, eight years prior to the 19th amendment to the 
United States constitution. 

The triumph was achieved after a long struggle which had small 
beginnings when the Equal Suffrage Association was formed by 
three women at Lincoln in 1879; it became a state organization in 
June, 1884. The state was thoroughly organized county by county 
for the election of 1912. The movement was supported by women's 
clubs with 60,000 members, and a variety of organizations including 
the Kansas State Teachers Association, the Kansas Federation of La- 
bor, the Kansas Grange, the Kansas State Board of Agriculture, 
the Kansas G. A. R., the Kansas Editorial Association, the Kansas 
W. C. T. U., Kansas church groups, and others. Kansas suffragists 
put their objectives in words designed for familiar tunes. The 
following verse to the tune of "Auld Lang Syne," appeared in the 
Burlingame Enterprise on October 3, 1912: 
"If a body pays the taxes, 

Surely you'll agree 
That a body earns the franchise, 

Whether he or she." 

Jane Addams of Hull House, Chicago, conducted a successful speak- 
ing campaign in May, 1912, and Dr. Anna Howard Shaw, president 

51. Full descriptions of the woman's suffrage movement are found in Martha B. Cald- 
well, "The Woman's Suffrage Campaign of 1912," Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 12 
(August, 1943), pp. 300-318, and in Wilda Marine Smith, "The Struggle for Woman's 
Suffrage in Kansas, M. S. thesis, Fort Hays Kansas State College, 1957, 161 pages. 

52. New York Tribune, September 25, 1894. 


of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, rendered 
effective service in the ten-day period preceding the election. 

The victory of 1912 had been preceded by legislation as early as 
1861 when qualified women could vote in school elections. This 
action was prior to that of every other state except Kentucky, which 
passed a limited school suffrage law in 1838, and Wyoming which 
gave women equal suffrage in 1869. In 1887 women received the 
right to vote in cities of the first, second, and third class for any city 
or school official, and in school bond elections. This legislation 
made Kansas a leader of all the states in woman's rights. In 1903 
women became eligible to vote in elections for public bond im- 
provements in addition to those for schools. 

The history of the attainment of woman's suffrage is full of heroic 
struggle by individuals and groups, and, in contrast, there was 
frustrating indecisiveness and delay by the political parties, except 
the Populists who supported the movement, and several members of 
the press. Kansas responded to the natural rights theory of woman's 
suffrage with some reluctance, but with enough enthusiasm to lead 
the nation in certain aspects, and to be among the leaders in the full 
embrace of complete voting rights for women. 

The record of voting in Kansas shows a higher percentage in years 
in which a President is elected. For instance, in 1952, almost 70 
per cent of potential voters in Kansas went to the polls in contrast 
to 54 per cent in 1954. In 1952 Kansas held the rank of 22d among 
the 48 states in the percentage of eligible voters using the franchise. 
In both Presidential elections of 1948 and 1952, Kansans voted 
in greater numbers on a percentage basis than the rest of the 
United States. Prof. Rhoten A. Smith concludes, on the basis of a 
study of voting in the United States, that "Kansas' voting record 
in recent years is better than most of the other states in the Union 
and better than the United States as a whole." 53 

A century ago the dominant factor in Kansas was the potentialities 
for agricultural production. Kansas has lived up to those expecta- 
tions beyond all reasonable hopes; the achievement has reached 
magnificant proportions. The year 1958 witnessed an all time rec- 
ord in volume, though not in income, of farm production; the total 
exceeded the previous record year of 1952 by 29 per cent. Record 
receipts for farm products in 1947 are expected to be exceeded by 

53. Rhoten A. Smith, "Voter Participation in Kansas and the United States," Your 
Government, bulletin of the Governmental Research Center, University of Kansas, v. 10 
(February 15, 1955), p. 3. 


the 1960 total. 54 Kansas continues as the number one wheat state. 
The biggest wheat crop was harvested in 1952, the "Bin-Buster" 
year, when 14,649,000 acres produced 307,629,000 bushels for an 
average of 21.0 bushels per acre. It was harvested by 85,000 com- 
bines, and would have filled 180,958 box cars, reaching 1,508 miles. 
The 1960 wheat crop of 281,848,000 bushels was 60 per cent above 
average, and the state's fourth largest crop, exceeded only in the 
years 1947, 1952, and 1958. The average of 28 bushels per acre 
tied with that of 1958 for the record high yield. A great trans- 
formation has taken place since the Mennonites brought small 
amounts of hard winter wheat in trunks and sea chests to Kansas 
from Russia in 1874 to be planted in small allotments. 55 

Kansas has shared in the trend toward larger farms and fewer 
farmers. In 1930 there were 166,000 Kansas farms, but the num- 
ber had dropped to 115,000 in 1959. The average size of a farm 
had increased in the three decades from 238.6 acres to approximately 
440 acres. 56 In the period from 1920 to 1950, the population on 
Kansas farms decreased from 735,884 to 443,739, or from 41.6 per 
cent of the total population to 23.3 per cent. It is now about 365,000 
or 20 per cent of the state population. In the half century from 
1909-1959, the labor force on Kansas farms has decreased by more 
than 40 per cent from 282,000 to 165,000. The amount of land in 
farms has remained fairly constant at about 50,000,000 acres. Farm- 
ers have $6,000,000,000 invested in land, machinery, and other facili- 
ties. 57 Kansas is more than "the wheat state." In 1960 Kansas 
reached an all-time high with 4,700,000 head of cattle within its 
boundaries, ranking fourth among all the states. The value of 
livestock and poultry on Kansas farms on January 1, 1959, was more 
than $735,000,000. The high national rating of Kansas agriculture 
is recounted in part by the following, in addition to its first rank 
in wheat production: first in silage production, second in brome 
grass seed and dehydrated alfalfa, third in rye, fourth in wild hay, 
fifth in alfalfa seed and broomcorn. 58 

54. Kansas State Board of Agriculture, 42nd Report, July 1958-June 1959 (Topeka), 
p. 24. 

55. Kansas State Board of Agriculture, Thirty-Eighth Biennial Report, 1951-1952 
(Topeka, 1952), pp. 11-22; "Summary of the 1960 Wheat Quality Survey," Kansas Crop 
and Livestock Reporting Service, Kansas State Board of Agriculture, August 11, 1960; 
"Kansas Crop Report, August 1, 1960," Kansas Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, 
Kansas State Board of Agriculture. August 10, 1960. An interesting study on the de- 
velopment of wheat in Kansas is found in James C. Malin, Winter Wheat in the Golden 
Belt in Kansas (Lawrence. 1944). 

56. Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1959, p. 616; Comprehensive Educational 
Survey, v. 1, p. 15; Farm Facts, 1959-60, Kansas State Board of Agriculture (Topeka), 
p. 12. 

57. Comprehensive Educational Survey, v. 1, p. 17; Kansas State Board of Agriculture, 
42nd Report 1958-59, pp. 27, 24f Farm Facts, 1959-60, p. 90. 

58. Farm Facts, 1959-60, pp. 13-15. Excellent information about Kansas agriculture 
is available in the publications of the Kansas State Board of Agriculture. 


The cycles of change have been a part of the pattern of agricul- 
tural developments. Times of prosperity have yielded to times of 
depression. The dominant emphasis upon agriculture until recent 
years has made Kansas subject to the vagaries of nature and of the 
price structure. Periods of drought produced great hardships. The 
variations in prices were equally disastrous. For instance, using 
the index of 100, based on the years 1910-1914, the price of all farm 
commodities has varied in less than two decades from a low of 55 
in 1932 to a high of 313 in 1951. The season average price of wheat 
has ranged from 33 cents per bushel in 1931 and 1932 to $2.25 per 
bushel in 1947. 59 

Agriculture was not replaced as the largest source of income in 
Kansas until 1953, when the production from manufacturing ex- 
ceeded that of agriculture. Kansas has a larger percentage of her 
people engaged in manufacturing than any of the surrounding states 
with the exception of Missouri. Nonfarm employment has been 
steadily increasing, reaching 553,000 in 1959, a 24.1 per cent gain 
in the last decade. The largest nonfarm employment was 557,900 
in 1956. The industrial growth of Kansas is shown in a striking 
manner by the following index comparison with national growth: 
value added by manufacture, 1947-1957, Kansas, 167, U. S., 95; pay- 
rolls, 1948-1958, Kansas, 142, U. S., 65; capital expenditures, 1948- 
1958, Kansas, 115, U. S., 90; employment, 1949-1959, Kansas, 37, 
U. S., 11. The $623,000,000 Kansas payroll in 1957 was a record 
high for all manufacturing. Employment in manufacturing reached 
a high of 137,900 in 1953. The most outstanding manufacturing 
development in the last two decades has been in the aircraft industry 
in Wichita. Since 1939 the Kansas Industrial Development Com- 
mission estimates that 1,500 new industries have been developed 
or have moved to Kansas. The 1960-1961 edition of the Directory 
of Kansas Manufacturers lists 3,677 manufacturing and processing 
plants in Kansas. 60 Kansas has the greatest capacity for grain stor- 
age in the nation with space in 1960 for more than 746,000,000 
bushels. The 40 flour mills in Kansas produced 35,000,000 sacks of 
wheat flour in 1958, most of any state in the nation. 61 

Mineral production in Kansas has exceeded $500,000,000 annually 
since 1956. Twenty-two minerals are produced commercially. The 

59. Price Patterns. Prices Received by Kansas Farmers 1910-1955, Kansas State Board 
of Agriculture (Topeka, June, 1957), pp. 20, 31. 

60. Kansas! Kansas Industrial Development Commission, v. 15 (January-February, 
1960), pp. 13, 14; Kansas Department of Labor, Biennial Report, July 1. 1956-June 30 
1958 (Topeka, 1958), p. 43; Comprehensive Educational Survey, v. 1, p. 14: Kansas De- 
partment of Labor, Monthly Bulletin, v. 30 (July, 1960), p. 8. 

61. Farm Facts, 1959-60, p. 8. 


largest percentage of income is from crude oil, which in 1959 had a 
value of $345,000,000. The 120,000,000 barrels produced in 195& 
placed Kansas fifth in the nation in crude oil production. Oil is 
produced in 76 counties. Facilities in Kansas process 87.6 per cent 
of the total crude oil production in the form of motor oil, gasoline, 
grease, and other petroleum products. 62 

The Santa Fe, Oregon, Chisholm, and other important trails 
crossed Kansas in early days as thousands of people moved west to 
share in the promise of a new life. Railroads came later to cany 
the heavy traffic of passengers and goods. Kansas today ranks sixth 
among the 50 states in total railway mileage, carrying 15,000,000,000 
ton miles of freight. Only Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Iowa, and 
Texas have more miles of railways. A network of highways, totaling; 
nearly 125,000 miles, including federal, state, and county, create 
second place for Kansas among all the states in total rural mileage. 
One hundred and seventy-one airports serve military, commercial,, 
and private planes. 63 

The greater diversification in economic activity in recent years 
may bring greater stability. The United States Department of 
Commerce reported that the total personal income of Kansans for 
1958 had reached $4,234,000,000. A new record of $2,001 per capita 
was achieved that year, ranking Kansas 19th among the states on 
the American continent. 64 Kansas has not equaled the average 
nationally in per capita income since 1921, although it has regularly 
been close to the average. 65 

The development of organized labor in Kansas depended upon 
the growth of industry. The Lecompton and Leavenworth Typo- 
graphical unions were organized in 1859, the earliest in the state. 
In the 1880's the Knights of Labor, who included skilled, unskilled^ 
and agricultural workers, gained a substantial following, but a 
decline set in after 1886. The United Mine Workers came to the 
coal fields of southeastern Kansas in 1890. This organization later 
produced considerable gains for the miners under the leadership 
of Alex Howat from 1906-1921. The Kansas State Federation of 
Labor, organized in 1890, survived only to 1896. It was reorganized 
in 1907 and served as an effective agency for organized workers. 
The C. I. O. came to Kansas in 1937, and established its own state 
organization in 1940. The impact of industrialization, and especially 
the tremendous expansion during World War II increased deci- 

62. Kansas! (January-February, 1960), p. 5. 

63. Ibid., p. 7. 

64. Ibid., p. 3. 

65. Comprehensive Educational Survey, v. 1, p. 36. 


sively the role of the unions. The report of the state department 
of labor for the biennium ending June 30, 1956, showed the follow- 
ing pattern of labor unions in Kansas: international unions, 90; 
state organizations, 29; district organizations, 17; city organizations, 
30; local unions, 952. At the time of the merger of the C. I. O. 
and A. F. of L. in 1957, the membership in Kansas was 125,000. 
The membership in 1960 was approximately 115,000. The statistics 
for 1959 show that only five hundreths of one per cent of "the 
estimated working time" of all employed persons was lost by 
strikes or lockouts in contrast to sixty-one hundreths of one per 
cent nationally. There were only 15 work stoppages in manu- 
facturing and 11 in nonmanufacturing in 1959 lasting a day or a 
shift or a longer period in situations involving six or more workers. 
The 26 work stoppages actually involved only 6,440 persons. 66 

The most controversial labor issue in Kansas history is associated 
with the Kansas industrial relations act of 1920, which resulted in 
the court of industrial relations from 1921-1925. Gov. Henry J. 
Allen was the principal figure in this contest. The court received 
extraordinary power to deal with labor and industry. William 
Allen White took issue with Allen and was arrested for placing a 
placard favorable to the railroad workers in the Gazette office at 
Emporia. On July 27, 1922, White's editorial in the Emporia Ga- 
zette, "To An Anxious Friend," written in acknowledgment of a 
letter from a friend who was critical of White's position, described 
in convincing language the nature of freedom: "You tell me that 
law is above freedom of utterance. And I reply that you can have 
no wise laws nor free enforcement of wise laws unless there is free 
expression of the wisdom of the people and, alas, their folly with 
it. But if there is freedom, folly will die of its own poison, and the 
wisdom will survive. That is the history of the race." This editorial 
won the Pulitzer prize in 1922. The court was bitterly opposed 
by the unions, and by some employers. The experiment was 
abolished by the legislature in 1925. The Kansas attempt to legis- 
late reform had met with failure. 67 

The "Right to Work" legislation provoked much discussion and 
action in the 1950's. Designed to eliminate the closed shop, unions 
opposed it strenuously, while many employers marshalled their 

66. The basic facts for this paragraph up to 1940 are taken from Marc Karson, "Trade 
Unions in Kansas," Bright, op. cit., v. 2, pp. 286-299; Kansas Department of Labor Bien- 
nial Report, July 1, 1954-June 30, 1956 (Topeka, 1956), p. 17; Kansas Department of 
Labor, Monthly Bulletin, v. 30 (July, 1960), pp. 6, 7. 

67. Quoted in Mahin, op. cit., pp. 348, 349. The legal provisions for the court of 
industrial relations and its abolition are found in Laws of Kansas, 1920 (Topeka 1920) 
ch. 29, sec. 1-30, pp. 35-47, and Laws of Kansas, 1925 (Topeka, 1925), ch. 258 sec. 
1-11, pp. 337-339. 


resources for its achievement. Vetoed by Gov. Fred Hall, a liberal 
Republican in 1955, it was added to the constitution by a vote in 


One of man's ceaseless quests across the centuries has been to 
preserve, create, and transmit knowledge. The annals of Kansas 
contain many interesting chapters in the history of education from 
the first Protestant Indian Mission school founded west of Shaw 
in Neosho County in 1824, under the auspices of the United Foreign 
Missionary Society, and the first free school for Indian and white 
children established in present Wyandotte county in July, 1844, to 
today's system of elementary, secondary, and higher education. In 
the earliest era of Kansas, education was a private affair as families 
organized schools on a voluntary subscription basis. The Wyan- 
dotte constitution of 1859 authorized the legislature to "encourage 
the promotion of intellectual, moral, scientific, and agricultural im- 
provement, by establishing a uniform system of common schools, 
and schools of higher grade, embracing normal, preparatory, col- 
legiate, and university departments." 68 

Education was viewed essentially as a matter of local concern 
in the early years. Territorial Kansas included more than 200 dis- 
tricts. This number grew to 6,134 by 1880, reaching a peak of 
9,284 in 1896. Voluntary reorganization, and developments re- 
lated to the reorganization law of 1945, reduced that number to 
2,800 by 1958-1959. 69 The state board of education was created 
in 1873, to issue teaching certificates. In 1905 it was given power 
to prescribe the curriculum and accredit schools, and in 1915, addi- 
tional authority was given to the board. The state department of 
education was organized more effectively in that year. A lay board 
of education was provided in 1945. 70 

The story of education in Kansas reflects the struggle of local 
authority and sentiment with the need for providing adequate edu- 
cational opportunity for all children. State Supt. Isaac T. Goodnow 
observed in 1863, that it was "far better for a scholar to walk three 
or four miles to a first-rate school than 40 rods to a poor one." 71 
The developments in transportation and the decrease of rural popu- 
lation has established convincingly the need for further consolida- 

68. Proceedings and Debates of the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July, 1859, 
art. 6, sec. 2, p. 583. 

69. Comprehensive Educational Survey, v. 1, p. 49. 

70. "The Schools of Tomorrow for Kansas," educational planning commission, Kansas 
State Teachers Association (Topeka, May, 1960), pp. 8. 9. 

71. Quoted in George Frey, "A Century of Education in Kansas," Bright, op. cit., 
v. 2, p. 216. 


tion as recommended in the comprehensive survey of education in 
1960. The red or white one-room schoolhouse, which served Kan- 
sas so magnificently for most of her history, a symbol of a local, 
grass-roots culture with many sources of strength, will soon be en- 
shrined only in the temple of memory as Kansas parents send their 
children with pride to modern schools with rich curricula taught by 
well-educated teachers. 

Kansas has depended heavily upon supporting education by 
property taxes. In 1957-1958, only five states had greater support 
from this source than the 77.7 per cent received in Kansas. Kansas 
ranked 44th in revenue derived for school purposes from state 
sources. Moreover, expenditures for education have not kept up 
with gains in personal income. In 1929, for instance, when the 
Kansas per capita income was $535, the expenditure for elementary 
and secondary schools was 4.03 per cent. In 1958, with a Kansas 
per capita income of $2,001, the expenditure was 3.12 per cent, 
lower than the national average of 3.6 per cent. 72 Kansas ranked 
33d among the 48 states in 1958-1959, in expenditures for teachers' 
salaries. On the basis of personal income per child of school age, 
Kansas ranked 24th. An increase of 15.3 per cent would be re- 
quired to place teachers' salaries at the average for the entire 
nation. Moreover, although substantial gains have been made in 
the qualifications for teaching in Kansas, in 1958-1959, 39 per cent 
of the state's elementary teachers, 5,129 out of 13,370, did not have 
a baccalaureate degree. 73 

Kansas ranked llth in 1950 in median years of schooling com- 
pleted by persons 25 years of age and older. Utah was highest 
with 12.0 years; Kansas had 10.2 years; the national average was 
9.3 years. Kansas ranked tenth in 1950 in the percentage of popu- 
lation of 25 years and older with at least four years of high school, 
39.5 per cent of the population having that achievement. Kansas 
ranked 22d, however, in the percentage of the adult population 
with four or more years of college, with the neighboring states of 
Colorado and Oklahoma rating higher. The statistics on education 
show a great disparity in media years of schooling for urban resi- 
dents at 11.2 years, rural nonfarm residents at 9.4 years; and rural 
farm residents at 8.9 years. The range in counties in 1950 was from 
12.4 years in Johnson county to 8.8 years in 13 Kansas counties. 74 

72. "The Schools of Tomorrow for Kansas," p. 57, 63. 

73. Comprehensive Educational Survey, v. 2, pp. 69, 75, 76. 

74. Ibid., v. 1, pp. 25-27. 



A critical factor in education for the future is the rapid increase 
in the population. The greatest increase since 1900 was between 
1950-1958, when it amounted to 11 per cent, 80 per cent of which 
were persons under 18. 75 In 1920 the birth rate for Kansas was 
22.7 per thousand; in 1940 it was only 16.1. In 1956 it was 26.9, the 
highest level in the history of the state. The 55,862 births in 1956 
set a new record for the number of births in a year. In September, 
1958, there were 486,596 pupils in the elementary and secondary 
schools of Kansas, 441,883 (90.7 per cent) in public schools and 
45,763 (9.3 per cent) in parochial and private schools. The pro- 
jected enrollment in elementary and secondary schools for 1969-1970 
is 523,286. This will represent an increase of 15.5 per cent in the 
first eight grades and 34.6 per cent in grades nine to twelve. 76 

Kansans early demonstrated an interest in higher education. 
Highland College and Baker University, founded in 1858, and St. 
Benedict's College in 1859, are the three oldest colleges in Kansas. 
Kansas State University of Agriculture and Applied Science traces 
its origin to Bluemont College, founded by the Methodists in 1859. 
It became Kansas State Agricultural College in 1863, the first land 
grant college in the United States under the Morrill act. Provision 
was made for a state university in the Wyandotte constitution of 
1859. The University of Kansas was authorized in 1864 by legis- 
lative action. Classes began in 1866. The pattern of development 
has included not only state supported and privately controlled col- 
leges, but also public junior colleges and municipal universities. 
Junior colleges were established at Fort Scott, Garden City, Holton, 
and Marysville in 1919. Only the first two maintain colleges pres- 
ently. The University of Wichita, a municipal institution, was the 
first of the universities of this type in Kansas, established by refer- 
endum vote in 1926, on the foundation built by Fairmount College, 
a Congregational institution established in 1895. In the centennial 
year, Kansas makes available a variety of undergraduate, graduate, 
and professional programs through five state, two municipal, 21 
private church-related, and 14 public junior colleges and universi- 
ties accredited by the Kansas State Board of Education. The ratio 
of enrollments to college-age population was 45.1 per cent in Kan- 
sas as compared to 34.6 per cent for the entire United States in 1957. 
In 1960-1961 the actual enrollment in colleges and universities was 
51,329. The projected enrollment of 1975 is in excess of 70,000. 77 

75. Ibid., v. 1, p. 46. 

76. "The Schools of Tomorrow for Kansas," p. 23; Comprehensive Educational Sur- 
vey, v. 2, pp. 14, 60. 

77. Comprehensive Educational Survey, v. 1, pp. 66-71; ibid., v. 3, pp. 67, 72, 73. 


Excellent leadership for education in Kansas is provided by sev- 
eral organizations. The oldest is the Kansas State Teachers Asso- 
ciation, founded at Leavenworth in 1863. The permanent staff and 
committees provide fine sources of information and support for 
members and the citizens generally. The Kansas Congress of Par- 
ents and Teachers and the Kansas Association of School Boards also 
have fine records of achievement. Other lay groups and committees 
cf various organizations share effectively in interpreting the possi- 
bilities and problems of education in Kansas. There is much un- 
finished business for education in Kansas. The greatest problems 
are related to the equalization and elevation of educational oppor- 
tunity and better financial support for education on all levels. 

The life of man includes the abiding resources which come from 
religious faith. Heroic men and women of Kansas bore witness to 
their faith long before statehood was achieved. In September, 1824, 
the Rev. Benton Pixley established a mission among the Osage In- 
dians under the auspices of the United Foreign Missionary Society 
in present Neosho county west of Shaw. Thus was initiated a 
widespread missionary endeavor which was developed among the 
Indians throughout the future Kansas area by Roman Catholic and 
Protestant groups. Father Padilla, a Franciscan accompanied Coro- 
nado to Kansas in 1541, and returned later to become a Christian 
martyr. The first Jesuit Indian mission was established at Kickapoo 
in June, 1836. 78 

The available evidence indicates that W. H. Goode preached the 
first Methodist sermon to white settlers in Kansas at Palmyra ( Bald- 
win) in July, 1854. On October 15, 1854, the Rev. Samuel Young 
Lum organized the Plymouth Congregational Church at Law- 
rence. 79 Soon the American Home Missionary Society established 
permanent work on the Kansas frontier with real energy and plan- 
ning. The pluralistic pattern of American religious life was soon 
manifested in the diversity of the Christian witness in Kansas in 
liturgy, polity, doctrine, and faith. 

The Christian witness manifested itself beyond worship services, 
Sunday School classes, and specific church activities. The religious 
forces sought to strengthen the moral fiber of the people. There 
were great problems on the frontier as indicated by the Rev. S. Y. 
Lum when he wrote to the American Home Missionary Society 
in April, 1855: "The circumstances under which mind is thrown 

78. Peter Beckman, The Catholic Church on the Kansas Frontier, 1850-1877 (Wash- 
ington, D. C., 1943), pp. 1, 4. 

79. Lindquist, "Religion in Kansas During the Era of the Civil War," loc. cit., p. 409; 
Lindquist, "The Letters of the Rev. Samuel Young Lum, Pioneer Kansas Missionary, 1854- 
1858," Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 25 (Spring, 1959), p. 39. 


in this wild frontier life . . . engenders a recklessness, & free- 
dom from restraint, that too often, prove fatal to the principles, 
as well as the practices of a home society & it is not too much to 
say, that we have the material, for either the worst, or the best, 
state of society in our country." 80 The gains in membership were 
modest, but the foundations were laid as the frontier church called 
men to abandon their reliance on secularism and materialism. The 
churches, except the Methodist church South, identified themselves 
with the Union cause in the slavery conflict. As indicated earlier, 
churches shared in the crusade against King Alcohol. 

Kansas churches, Protestant and Catholic alike, have rendered 
distinguished service to the state through a wide variety of in- 
stitutions. Academies, colleges, hospitals, homes for the aged, 
children's homes, and other agencies devoted to the ministry of 
mercy have brought great blessings across the years. The churches 
have a continuous record of constructive service to humanitarian 
causes in various relief and aid programs. In recent years, the 
churches have distinguished themselves by service to stricken peo- 
ples abroad through the Catholic Relief Services, Church World 
Service, C. R. O. P. (Christian Rural Overseas Program), settle- 
ment of refugees from political tyranny, and other works for the 
family of man. 

Protestantism in Kansas has largely been related to the conserva- 
tive position. The state is usually identified with the "Bible Belt/' 
so called because of its literal acceptance of the Holy Scriptures. 
Only rarely has Kansas been affected by any violent controversies 
related to the issues of modernism and fundamentalism. There 
has been generally a clearly identifiable strain of moral and theologi- 
cal dogmatism. The rural character, historically, of Kansas may 
be an important factor in the generally conservative position of 
Kansas church people. 

Although the Congregationalists had the advantage of the mo- 
mentum of an early start, the position of leadership soon passed 
to the Methodists. The Methodist church has the first rank in 
numbers among all denominations in Kansas. According to a study 
made by the National Council of Churches of Christ in the U. S. A., 
based on 1952 yearbooks, the Methodist church not only outranked 
all other denominations in Kansas but was also the largest Protestant 
denomination in 97 out of the state's 105 counties. The same study 
showed a surprising result for many Kansans, namely that 23 states 

80. Lindquist, "Religion in Kansas During the Era of the Civil War," loc. cit. (Autumn, 
1959). p. 315. 


had a higher ratio of church members to the entire population 
than Kansas. 81 In 1958 Prof. Donald O. Cowgill and LaVerna F. 
Wadsworth published a study of the religious preferences of Wich- 
ita families based upon a survey by 5,500 volunteers of 65,000 house- 
holds under the auspices of the Wichita Council of Churches. The 
findings indicated the following: Methodist, 21.0 per cent; Baptist, 
18.6 per cent; Roman Catholic, 11.8 per cent; Disciples of Christ, 
11.0 per cent; Presbyterian, 7.9 per cent; Lutheran, 3.8 per cent; 
and a variety of other groups with smaller percentages. The total 
Protestant was 81.5 in 1958 in contrast to 66.2 per cent in the United 
States, based on statistics for 1957, one year earlier than the Wichita 
study. 82 According to the National Catholic Almanac, there were 
267,850 Catholics in Kansas in 1959, or 12.77 per cent of the popula- 
tion. There were 353 parishes and 42 missions. The first Jewish 
congregation was organized in Leavenworth in 1859. The es- 
timated Jewish population in Kansas in 1959, according to the 
American Jewish Year Book, was 3,400 or 0.13 per cent of the total 
population. 83 

Co-operative efforts among Protestants were given official recog- 
nition when the Kansas Sunday School organization was formed in 
1865 at Bismarck Grove near Lawrence. In 1921 the Kansas Council 
of Christian Education was formed. Six years later denominational 
executives formed the Kansas Council of Churches for the purpose 
of fellowship and the exchange of ideas. This organization and the 
Kansas Council of Religious Education merged into the Kansas 
Council of Churches in 1942. The council consists of hundreds of 
churches in ecumenical fellowship. When the Rev. F. S. McCabe 
addressed the quarter-centennial celebration of Kansas in Topeka 
on January 29, 1886, he declared: "If we should ever inscribe a 
supplementary motto on our coat-of-arms and if the clergy should 
be allowed to select the legend, I believe that it would be the 
golden phrase that has come down to us from the seventeenth 
century: 7n necessariis unitas, in dubiis libertas, in omnibus, cari- 
tas' In things essential, unity; in things doubtful, liberty; in all 
things, charity." 84 Although there are many exceptions to this 

81. Churches and Church Memberships in the United States, National Council of 
Churches of Christ in the U.S.A. (New York, 1957), Series C, No. 29, n. p., and Series 
C, No. 30, n. p. 

82. Donald O. Cowgill and LaVerna F. Wadsworth, Religious Preferences of the 
Families of Wichita (Wichita, 1958), p. 2. 

83. Felician A. Foy, ed., The 1960 National Catholic Almanac (Paterson, N. J.), pp. 
432, 436. American Jewish Year Book, 1960 (Philadelphia), pp. 5, 9. 

84. Lindquist, "The Protestant and Jewish Religions in Kansas," loc. cit., pp. 376, 
377; F. S. McCabe, "The Churches of Kansas," Kansas Historical Collections, v. 3 (1883- 
1885), pp. 422-426. 


admirable declaration, the relationship of the churches of Kansas 
is quite well described, at least theoretically, by these words. 

The resources of music came with the earliest settlers. The be- 
ginnings were humble but important as the pioneer mother hushed 
the fear of the infant on her knee by the tune of a favorite lullaby. 
Old and familiar hymns were sung, some in English, others in the 
language of the homeland, in cabin, dugout, and sod house. Church 
choirs were organized to enrich the service of worship. As early 
as the autumn of 1854, Forest Savage, a member of the second 
party of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, organized a 
small band at Lawrence. In September, 1869, the Kansas State Mu- 
sical Convention met at Leavenworth. There was a growing interest 
in music as clubs were organized in various communities including 
the Topeka Musical Association which was formed in January, 
1869. 85 

Colleges and universities have furnished fine leadership in this 
phase of the humanities. Lessons on the melodeon and piano were 
given at Baker University from the date of its founding in 1858. The 
most distinctive musical development in Kansas is related to the 
founding of the Bethany College Oratorio Society at Lindsborg by 
Dr. Carl A. Swensson, president of Bethany College, and Mrs. 
Swensson, in 1881. In March, 1882, the strains of Handel's "Mes- 
siah" were first heard in the Smoky valley of central Kansas. A tra- 
dition of excellence has characterized this organization which has 
rendered the "Messiah" more than 200 times in the great Holy Week 
tradition on Palm Sunday and Easter, and Bach's "The Passion of 
Our Lord According to St. Matthew" on Good Friday. Thousands 
of people make an annual pilgrimage to Lindsborg to share in what 
the New York Times has described as "an expression in song from 
voices schooled to near perfection through years of training. But it 
is more than that. In Lindsborg, the 'Messiah' is religion as much 
a part of the people's worship as the church services which they at- 
tend every Sunday." 86 The Lindsborg "Messiah" has also fur- 
nished leadership for the organization of other groups and festivals 
in the state. 

Many forces have been joined in promoting an interest in music. 
The Welsh influence in the Emporia area resulted in the traditional 
music festival, the eisteddfod, brought from native Wales, and main- 
tained enthusiastically almost until the end of the last century. 
The Kansas Federation of Music Clubs has conducted auditions 

85. Edna Reinbach, Music and Musicians in Kansas (Topeka, 1930), pp. 2, 3. 

86. Emory Lindquist, Smoky Valley People (Lindsborg, 1953), p. 123. 


leading to scholarships for Kansas youth since 1927. The early 
leadership given to high school music festivals by the Kansas State 
Teachers College, Emporia, has resulted in a statewide program 
which brings thousands of students together for solo and ensemble 
participation under the sponsorship of the Kansas State High School 
Activities Association. The colleges and universities present effec- 
tive curricula, artists, and ensemble groups. Many private teachers 
join with the public and parochial school programs to provide a fine 
opportunity for musical development. The Wichita Symphony 
Society has gained considerable praise for its civic orchestra. Topeka 
and other cities also support commendable orchestral and choral 

The achievement in the field of composition has been modest 
among Kansans across the years. The Indian theme was developed 
effectively by Thtirlow Lieurance while he was teaching at the 
University of Wichita. Included in his works are a symphonic 
sketch "Minisa." His best known work is entitled "By the Waters 
of Minnetonka." Arthur Finley Nevin wrote an Indian opera called 
Paia and another opera The Daughter of the Forest. Charles San- 
ford Shelton, associated with the University of Kansas, also used 
Indian themes in his compositions. 87 

The most famous Kansas musical composition is "Home on the 
Range," originally known as "Western Home," adopted by the 
Kansas legislature as the official state song in 1947. The background 
factors related to the writing of the words and music are described 
in a fascinating account by Kirke Mechem. 88 The words were com- 
posed by Dr. Brewster Higley in his one-room cabin on Beaver 
creek about 20 miles from Smith Center. Higley, born at Rutland, 
Ohio, had a good education, being a graduate of a medical college 
at La Porte, Ind., and had practiced medicine for many years when 
he moved to Smith county in 1871, at the age of 48. The melody 
was composed by Daniel E. Kelley, who was bora at North Kingston, 
R. I., in February, 1843. He came to Kansas in 1872 at the age of 
29, settling at Gaylord, in Smith county. He was a member of an 
orchestra in which his wife and his two brothers-in-law participated. 
Kirke Mechem points out that there is no reason to believe that 
the notes which form the melody were ever transcribed by Kelley. 
Both Higley and Kelley lived in Kansas many years after "Home 
on the Range" was created. They never knew how famous their 
composition was destined to become. 

87. Reinbach, Music and Musicians in Kansas, pp. 39-41. 

88. Kirke Mechem, "Home on the Range," Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 17 (Novem- 
ber, 1949), pp. 313-339. 


The frontier world did not generally prove hospitable to the arts, 
but it did offer much subject matter. Prof. Robert A. Taft of the 
University of Kansas, a distinguished Kansas writer and educator, 
has portrayed effectively the frontier sources for artists in his 
splendid volume, Artists and Illustrators of the Old West (1953). 
The author points out that the first setting for a Kansas drawing 
was "War Dance in the Interior of a Konza Lodge," sketched by 
Samuel Seymour near present Manhattan in August, 1819. This 
was the beginning of the Kansas locale in art which included the 
work of the famous early Western artist, Frederic Remington, who 
spent the period from March, 1883, to May, 1884, on a sheep ranch 
in Butler county. Henry Worrall, who created many illustrations 
for Harpers Weekly and Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, has 
been described by Professor Taft as "the only Kansas artist and 
illustrator in the period under consideration [1850-1900] to achieve 
recognition on anything approaching a national scale for his por- 
trayal of Kansas life." 89 In more recent times the theme of Kansas 
history resulted in the distinctive and controversial murals in the 
Kansas capitol, painted by John Steuart Curry who was born in 
Jefferson county, but lived out of the state during his distinguished 
professional career. 

The most famous Kansas artist was Swedish-born Birger Sandzen 
who joined the faculty of Bethany College, Lindsborg, in 1893, and 
for more than half a century served the college and Kansas with 
distinction. Sandzen was an enthusiastic Kansan who loved the 
West and transmitted his response in hundreds of paintings and 
prints. William Allen White has written: "Birger Sandzen knows 
that mood of nature. He goes to it unafraid, and comes back trium- 
phant, capturing it, subduing it, translating it into human terms. He 
grapples with its joy. He translates its terror and dread without 
compromise, without understatement. He has come from the plains 
where things grew rank and strong, from Kansas where he has in- 
terpreted ugliness, disharmony, monotony in terms of beauty and 
yet faithfully with affectionate wisdom." Sandzen enriched the life 
of Kansas immensely by his promotion of interest in art. He was 
an apostle of beauty, who insisted upon no artistic creed except 
integrity. He organized the Smoky Hill Art Club and the Prairie 
Water Color Painters, and shared in founding the Prairie Print 
Makers. It is true as Leila Macklin has said of him: "Birger Sand- 
zen has lit little candles of art knowledge and appreciation all 

89. Robert Taft, Artists and Illustrators of the Old West, 1850-1900 (New York, 
1953), pp. 118, 201. 211, 324. 


through the Middle West." 90 The Graphic Work of Birger Sandzen 
(1952), prepared and edited by Charles Pelham Greenough, III, 
presents valuable information on the career of the great Kansas 
artist. Kansas has produced many other artists who have gained 
considerable recognition in various artistic media. 91 

Colleges and universities have played leading roles in art ever 
since the first instruction in that subject at Baker University in 1858. 
The Kansas State Art Association was organized in 1883. The Uni- 
versity of Kansas with its Thayer collection and other sources has 
been a center for the study and appreciation of art The Mulvane 
museum at Washburn University and the Birger Sandzen Memorial 
Gallery at Lindsborg provide fine opportunities for developing art 
appreciation. The Murdock collection at the Wichita Museum, 
made possible by a grant from Mrs. Louise Caldwell Murdock, has 
a distinguished collection of masterpieces inadequately housed. The 
Kansas Federation of Art, founded in 1932, and the Kansas Maga- 
zine, edited and published at Kansas State University, have fine 
records of achievements in promoting interest in art. 

Kansas has produced a variety of writers who have dealt with a 
wide range of subjects in many literary forms. 92 The Civil War era 
furnished the source for several books by leading participants such 
as Gov. Charles Robinson, Sara T. D. Robinson, W. A. Phillips, and 
others. The Kansas locale has furnished the theme for novels rang- 
ing from Margaret Hill McCarter's portrayal of life in Kansas during 
the Civil War era in The Price of the Prairies (1910) to Kenneth S. 
Davis' realistic portrayal of life in a rural Kansas town in the Flint 
Hills in The Years of the Pilgrimage (1948). Ed Howe, editor of 
the Atchison Globe, became nationally famous for his first novel, 
The Story of a Country Town ( 1883), describing the sombre aspects 
of life in Kansas. In contrast is Charles M. Sheldon's religious 
theme, In His Steps (1896), a portrayal of the response of Jesus to 
everyday living which was published in millions of copies and in 
several languages. Frank Harris, an interesting and controversial 
literary figure, attended the University of Kansas in the 1880's. He 
later worked on a Flint Hills ranch, an experience which he de- 
scribed in his book, My Reminiscences as a Cowboy (1930). 

90. Lindquist, Smoky Valley People, pp. 211, 212. 

91. Sources for material on Kansas artists include the following: Edna Reinbach, 
"Kansas Art and Artists," Kansas Historical Collections, v. 17 (1926-1928), pp. 571-585; 
Faye Davison, "What I Know About Kansas Artists," Kansas Magazine, Manhattan, 1933, 
pp. 43-48; Margaret Whittemore, "Notes on Some Kansas Artists," Kansas Magazine, 1935, 
pp. 41-45; Kansas, A Guide to the Sunflower State (New York, 1939), pp. 137-145. 

92. Maynard Fox, Book-Length Fiction by Kansas Writers, 1915-1938, Fort Hays 
Kansas State College Studies (Topeka, 1943); Elizabeth D. Van Schaack, "The Arts in 
Kansas," Bright, op. cit., v. 2, pp. 248-263; Kansas, A Guide to the Sunflower State, pp. 


Many Kansas poets have turned to the great Muse from earliest 
times to the present. Several anthologies of Kansas poetry have 
appeared including the volumes edited by the following: Hattie 
Homer, Kansas Poetry ( 1891 ) ; Thomas W. Herringshaw, Poets and 
Poetry of Kansas (1894); Willard Wattles, Sunflowers, A Book of 
Kansas Poems ( 1914 ) , which included the well-known poems, "Op- 
portunity," by J. J. Ingalls, and "Each in His Own Tongue," by 
W. H. Carruth; Helen Rhoda Hoopes, Contemporary Kansas Poetry 
(1927); and May Williams Ward, Kansas Poets (1953). William 
Herbert Carruth edited a two-volume anthology entitled Kansas in 
Literature (1900). William Inge, who was born at Independence 
and graduated from the University of Kansas, has gained national 
recognition for his plays, Come Back Little Sheba (1949), Picnic 
(1953), and Bus Stop (1955). Inge often uses the Kansas locale 
for his writing. Picnic won the Pulitzer prize for drama in 1953. 

The greatest name in Kansas literary circles is William Allen 
White. As editor of the Emporia Gazette, he became an effective 
ambassador-at-large for Kansas. Friendly critic, devoted enthusiast, 
and Pulitzer prize winner he interpreted Kansas and America by 
novels, essays, poems, special articles, and editorials in a magnificent 
manner. One bibliography of his works includes almost 500 
items. 93 His Autobiography (1946) contains an intimate and in- 
teresting portrayal of the life of a great and famous Kansan from his 
birth in 1868 to 1923. William L. White, the son of the great Em- 
poria editor, has written a number of well-known books including 
What People Said (1938), Journey for Margaret (1941), and They 
Were Expendable (1942). 

The career of Dr. Arthur Hertzler, M. D., famous Halstead sur- 
geon, received a dramatic portrayal in the interesting autobiographi- 
cal work Horse and Buggy Doctor (1938), a striking success na- 
tionally. Dr. Hertzler was the author of many books on surgery. 
Dr. Karl Menninger, M. D., Topeka, is the author of such well- 
known books as The Human Mind (1930), Man Against Himself 
(1938), and Love Against Hate (1942), in collaboration with 
Jeanetta Lyle Menninger. Frank W. Blackmar, Frank H. Hodder, 
William E. Connelley, and James C. Malin have made extensive 
contributions to the knowledge of Kansas history. 

The Kansas Magazine, a periodical devoted to literature and 
art, was published intermittently until 1933. The first series, 1872- 
1873, was in four volumes, and was referred to as "The Kansas 

93. Walter Johnson and Alberta Pantle, "A Bibliography of the Published Works of 
William Allen White," Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 15 (February, 1947), pp. 22-41. 


Magazine of blessed memory. ... Its flight was brief but 
glorious, and the light of it still lingers in the western sky." The 
new series appeared in two volumes, 1886-1888, and the third series 
in six volumes, 1909-1912. The Kansas Magazine was re-established 
in 1933, this time under the leadership of faculty members at 
Kansas State University. The magazine has maintained since that 
time a splendid pattern of achievement for literature and art in 
Kansas. The Agora was published in five volumes, 1891-1896; it 
contains interesting material for that period. 94 

Kansas has been singularly fortunate in its editors and news- 
papers across the century. It is true as D. W. Wilder, a pioneer 
Kansas editor, pointed out at the quarter-centennial celebration 
of statehood that Kansas, in a sense, is the child of newspapers. 
Editors Horace Greeley, Joseph Medill, Chas. A. Dana, and many 
others served the cause of future Kansas in pre-statehood days. 
William A. Phillips of the New York Tribune and James Redpath 
of the St. Louis Democrat and the Boston press were also closely 
identified with territorial Kansas. The press came early to Kansas. 
The Kansas Weekly Herald, the first regular newspaper, appeared 
at Leavenworth, under the date line of September 15, 1854. 95 

In 1860 there were 27 newspapers in Kansas. 96 A century later 
there were 346, including 53 dailies, 13 semiweeklies and 272 
weeklies. The editors have generally been Kansas enthusiasts. 
Closely identified with the political life, they have constituted a 
fraternity of ability and dedication. There have been real indi- 
vidualists among them. The encroachment of business demands 
have made the newspaper editor less colorful in recent decades 
than were his predecessors in early Kansas years. There have been 
conflicts within the ranks as should be expected when men of in- 
dependence clash. The Kansas Editorial Association code of ethics, 
dating from 1910, was a pioneer statement in that field. Many 
great names are found in the Editor's Hall of Fame established 
in 1931 at the University of Kansas, and a large number could 
be added. Kansas has been served well across the century by edi- 
tors and the press. 

An unusual literary and publishing venture was established in 
Kansas in 1919 when E. Haldeman-Julius pioneered in inexpensive 

94. A List of Books Indispensable to a Knowledge of Kansas History and Literature, 
Kansas State Historical Society (Topeka, 1916), p. 16. 

95. D. W. Wilder, "The Newspapers of Kansas," Kansas Historical Collections, v. 3 
(1883-1885), pp. 405, 406; A. T. Andreas and W. G. Cutler, History of the State of 
Kansas (Chicago, 1883), p. 278. 

96. Wilder, "The Newspapers of Kansas," loc. cit., p. 405. 


paper-back books, known as the "Little Blue Books/' which sold 
for five cents each. Millions of copies of hundreds of titles, includ- 
ing well-known classics, came from the presses at Girard. National 
advertising and promotion boosted sales. The publication of the 
"Blue Books" continues in the family tradition at Girard. 

The Kansas State Historical Society owes its origin to a meeting 
of newspaper editors and publishers in Manhattan in 1875. As 
early as 1855 the first charter for a historical society was granted, 
and attempts were made again in 1859 and 1867 to establish such 
an organization. The editors pledged at the meeting in 1875 to 
provide the historical society with copies of papers published in 
the state. This pledge has been maintained. The Society has 
been the official archives for the state since 1905. 97 The excellent 
library, newspaper collection, publications, museum, and services 
of the staff provide rich resources for the study of Kansas history. 


A quaint contradiction prevails in the view of Kansas first drama- 
tized by William Allen White in his famous editorial, "What's the 
Matter With Kansas?" in the Emporia Gazette in 1896, circulated 
in a million copies by Mark Hanna in the campaign to elect William 
McKinley, and its contemporary expression in a feature article by 
the same title in the New York Times Magazine in 1954 by Kenneth 
S. Davis, distinguished Kansas novelist and biographer. 98 The latter 
lamented the conformity and drabness of Kansas in our time in con- 
trast with the colorful individualism and dynamic radicalism of the 
Populists which White attacked so scathingly in his editorial. Re- 
gardless of the background factors, our generation seems enthralled 
to repeat the old question, "What's the Matter With Kansas?" 

The question, with its chafing tone of despair, repeated in our 
time, demonstrates inadequate understanding of history and of the 
forces over which Clio's Muse presides. Kansas has had times of 
distinctiveness, periods characterized by a kind of "momentous 
now/' and it may have such times again, when men and events join 
to provide a forward thrust that a later generation applauds. Other 
states have also had those all too fleeting times of distinctiveness. 
Virginia once had a great dynasty of talent George Washington, 
Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, and others. Gov. J. Lindsay Al- 
mond, Jr., and Sen. Harry Byrd are scarcely leaders of equal stature. 

97. Your Kansas State Historical Society (Topeka, n. d.), a brochure. 

98. Kenneth S. Davis, "What's the Matter With Kansas?" the New York Times Maga- 
zine, June 27, 1954, sec. 6, pp. 12, 39, 41. 


Do Virginians join in a lugubrious lament, "What's the Matter With 
Virginia?" There was once a time in the northeastern states, when 
greatness flourished, and the "flowering of New England" was iden- 
tified with the genius of Emerson, Lowell, the Adams family, and 
other celebrities. The memory of that era looms large in contrast 
with contemporary achievement. Should a national chorus swell 
with a great crescendo, "What's the Matter With New England?" 

When Carl Becker wrote his famous essay on Kansas 50 years ago, 
emphasizing the idealism and individualism of the people, he con- 
cluded with this observation: "The Kansas spirit is the American 
spirit double distilled." " Perhaps this interpretation, placed in the 
context of our time, is still valid. The faults of Kansas are the faults 
of America. Alexis De Tocqueville observed about America in the 
third decade of the last century that the American passion for 
equality would result in conformity. 100 Kansas, like America, is 
characterized by conformity, and, at times, there seems to be no 
plurality of paths. The citadel of conservative Republicanism in 
Kansas had some breaches recently, but strenuous efforts were 
made to repair them. Protestantism, the dominant religion of 
Kansas, which is not now characterized by any distinctiveness, both 
Teflects and promotes a traditional pattern of value. Moreover, an 
aggressive right-wing fundamentalist emphasis seems to be gaining 
strength in some quarters. The schools faithfully transmit the pre- 
vailing image of America. The colleges and universities struggle 
long and learnedly with internal business, and generally respond on 
controversial issues with the considerate restraint the people expect. 
In 1958, when a group of professors, largely in the fields of eco- 
nomics and political science, from a few of the institutions, publicly 
proclaimed their opposition to "Right to Work" legislation, there 
were protests from influential people and groups that the professors 
were out of bounds. However, the knowledge and skill of the pro- 
fessors are gladly sought in the promotion of scientific, engineering, 
and business enterprises. 

Kansas has abandoned largely the extreme isolationist position 
that characterized its citizens prior to World War I, although the 
vestiges remain. Two World Wars, in which Kansas made dis- 
tinguished contributions through her sons and daughters on far 
flung battlefields and in agricultural and industrial production at 
home, have created new world horizons. Towards the middle of 

99. Carl Becker, "Kansas," in Essays in American History Dedicated to Frederick 
Jackson Turner (New York, 1910), p. 110. 

100. Alexis De Tocqueville, Democracy in America (London) was published in two 
volumes, the first in 1835 and the second in 1840. Many editions have been published. 


the century, under the leadership of Milton Eisenhower, president 
of Kansas State University, and chairman of the National Com- 
mission of U. N. E. S. C. O., there was heartening interest and sup- 
port for this important international approach to life and learning. 
Kansas State University recently sent a large team of experts under 
the auspices of the Department of State to aid in strengthening the 
agricultural production of India. Alf M. Landon, two-term governor 
of Kansas and the Republican candidate for President of the United 
States in 1936, has provided enlightened leadership for Kansans in 
international affairs during the last decade. 

Kansas was the center of the national controversy over slavery, 
but the commitment to freedom for the Negro was not inclusive. 
The Wyandotte constitution of 1859 restricted the franchise to 
"white male persons/* by a vote of 37 to 3, after W. Hutchinson had 
pled with the convention that unless the franchise was granted, 
"We must go back to the work of this morning, and revise and 
change our declaration of rights." 101 The Negro received the right 
to vote in Kansas as a result of the Fourteenth amendment to the 
constitution of the United States. School segregation was the policy 
in several cities in Kansas. It was somewhat ironical that Kansas 
should furnish the occasion for Brown et. al. v. Board of Education 
of Topeka et. al., which resulted in the famous United States su- 
preme court desegregation case in May, 1954. Approximately a 
century after Kansas had been the focal point in the struggle 
for freedom, the elementary schools in the capital city were 
desegregated by court order; the other levels of instruction were 
not segregated. In 1953 legislation became effective designed 
to prohibit discriminatory practices in employment based upon 
race, color, religion, or country of ancestral origin. Kansas joined 
11 other states in establishing a commission to carry out the intent 
of the legislation, although Kansas was one of four states which 
provided no regulatory or enforcing power. In 1959 a law became 
effective making it a misdemeanor to discriminate because of race, 
color, religion, or country of ancestral origin in hotels and restau- 
rants, in places of public amusement or entertainment, and on trans- 
portation facilities. The legislature in 1959, however, failed to pass 
an act based upon legislation in 17 other states, which, if passed, 
would have given Kansas excellent fair employment legislation. 102 

101. Proceedings and Debates of the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July, 1859, 
p. 30. 

102. Laws of Kansas, 1953 (Topeka, 1953), ch. 249, sec. 1-9, pp. 469-472; Topeka 
State Journal, August 14, 1954; Kansas Anti-Discrimination Commission, 1959 Report of 
Progress (Topeka, 1959), p. 8. 


The Kansas mind is generally conservative. This an under- 
standable response by a generation that has listened to graphic 
descriptions, or witnessed directly the hard won conquest over 
nature and circumstances. There have been times of great adversity 
when man or nature seemed to conspire against the present and en- 
danger the future. The annals of Kansas include the great drouth 
of 1860, the great grasshopper invasion of 1874, the great economic 
collapse after 1887, and the great depression of the 1930's. But the 
Kansas spirit has shown unusual capacity to triumph over what 
seemed to be insuperable odds. Times of hardship yielded to times 
of rejoicing, and the good years far outnumbered the bad years. 
The state's motto, Ad Astra Per Aspera, suggests the true facts of 
struggle, and, if the stars have not been reached, in certain areas of 
life, more than flickering glimpses have been seen. Kansas has 
arrived at a point of stability and progress. Less friendly observers 
might contend that it is on dead center. If so, it need not stay there. 

Kansans have not really expected very much from their state, 
and some of them are almost unbelieving about her achievements. 
The net result has been a kind of quaint conservatism. A symbol 
of it is found in a well-established bank in a Flint Hills town. The 
new building is beautifully designed and effectively equipped 
with central air conditioning, central heating, a strong vault, and 
electric machines for efficient maintenance of records. However, on 
an attractive turquoise wall is a circular tin plate, covering a hole 
that leads into the chimney. The board of directors insisted upon 
this item, based on the consideration that possibly some time in 
the years ahead it would be necessary to install an old-fashioned 
stove with pipes. This alternative was taken into account in the 
midst of all the other modernity. Possibly this kind of conserva- 
tism has made the bank a sound financial institution, and sym- 
bolically, it may be written large in Kansas life and thought. This 
conservatism, however, is brought to the straining point in con- 
templating the century old constitution of Kansas which needs 
drastic revision demanded by the onward rush of change. 

The rugged spirit of independence, which characterized the 
pioneer era, has yielded generally to the inroads made by changes 
chronicled across the years. Although often professing personal 
opposition to the role of centralized government, Kansans have 
been recently as eager as residents of neighboring states in the 
quest for federal funds for highways, flood control, government 
contracts, and support for social agencies. Kansas has shared 


annually, and rightly so, in the multibillion dollar federal agri- 
cultural program which, although piling up huge surpluses, has 
also built up the physical resources of Kansas soil and enabled the 
vital role of agriculture to be maintained. The good earth of Kansas 
will also be needed to feed the far flung members of the family of 
man. The need will be greater in the decades that belong to the 

Kansas is generally slow to respond, but when aroused, the re- 
sults are sometimes gratifying. A leading example is found in the 
substantial progress which has been made in recent times in the 
field of mental health. 103 The great Menninger clinic in Topeka 
has furnished inspiring leadership in this great area of concern. In 
Wichita the Institute of Logopedics, founded in 1934 by Dr. Martin 
F. Palmer, and directed by him, with its splendid program in re- 
building people through speech and language habilitation, is an- 
other example of the response of Kansans to the needs of man. 
Recent gains in several phases of education are encouraging por- 
tents for the future. 

Kansas has a full quota of organizations. Optimists, Rotarians, 
Kiwanians, and Lions meet with unfailing regularity, and the "tail 
twisters," or their counterparts, must be about equal, on a per 
capita basis in Kansas, with those of neighboring states. Youth 
find opportunities for sharing in Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, Camp 
Fire groups, 4-H Clubs, Boys' State, Girls' State, Y-Teen, Hi-Y, 
and many other fine organizations with impressive records of 
achievement. Kansas has an unusually large number of excellent 
community, county, and district fairs, climaxed by two great state- 
wide fairs, which appropriately emphasize the outstanding role of 
agriculture in the state. Patriotic, fraternal, and women's organi- 
zations are numerous, and make an appropriate contribution to the 
life of the state. In the cities, country clubs multiply, and new 
and smaller replicas are organized to give the middle class men- 
tality a glimpse in part of what that kind of life is supposed to be 

The tastes of Kansas are fashioned in part by the forest of tele- 
vision antennas and, to a lesser degree, by radio receiving sets. The 
TV listener can relive, if he chooses, and many so choose, the ex- 
ploits in Kansas of Wyatt Earp and his contemporaries, some real, 
some fictitious. The culture of old Dodge City and Wichita town 

103. A report on the Kansas situation by the National Institute for Mental Health 
is found in Kansas State Board of Health News Letter, Topeka, v. 26 (August, 1958), p. 6. 


are transmitted weekly to millions of eager viewers in the nation. 
In a few places in Kansas, Great Books discussion groups rival the 
heroes of the Old West for attention. The Puritan emphasis on 
thrift and hard work has yielded somewhat to the new leisure of the 
40-hour week. Although libraries report a flourishing business and 
book and record clubs have their patrons, golf courses, bowling 
alleys, and boating docks also have their faithful disciples. 

Things do change in Kansas. Cocktail parties and drinking in 
homes and clubs are fairly common practices in the state of Carry 
Nation. It is somewhat ironical that the monument which was 
raised with great ceremony in Wichita in September, 1918, to honor 
Carry Nation was knocked over accidentally and unceremoniously 
years later by a beer truck. It now rests undisturbed and unappre- 
ciated in a warehouse. 

The physical countenance of Kansas has changed, too. Winding 
trails and, later, inadequately drained dirt roads with narrow bridges 
have yielded to the magic of macadam and cement, and a system of 
county, state, and federal roads has been climaxed by a four-lane 
turnpike running southwest 236 miles from Kansas City through 
Wichita to the Oklahoma state line. Even the hurried traveler sees 
many vacant farm houses, or the area of the former farmstead out- 
lined by old cedar trees, the only memorial of earlier years to mark 
the place where children played and their parents dreamed dreams 
about the future. There are towns, almost deserted, and bulging 
cities, with great problems, symbols of the end and the beginning 
of an era whose secrets have not yet been revealed to mortal man. 

Thousands of miles of transmission lines crisscross the Kansas 
landscape, thanks to an effective Rural Electrification Administra- 
tion program, and private and public sources of power, so that over 
95 per cent of Kansas farms are electrified. 104 The country side 
shows a heartening response to sensible conservation practices, as 
the erosion of soil is stopped by terracing and contour farming. 
Ponds and lakes dot the landscape in all parts of Kansas, and west 
of Marquette is the Kanopolis reservoir, one of six federal reservoirs 
in the state designed effectively for flood control and recreation, 
with additional resources for irrigation to improve upon the bounty 
of nature. Kansas, like many other states, joins in the quest for 
more adequate water resources. In some areas of the state, giant 
power plants loom on the horizon, generating the energy to move 

104. Kenneth E. Merrill, Kansas Rural Electric Cooperatives Twenty Years With thf 
R.E.A. (Lawrence, 1960), p. 53. 



the wheels of industry, symbols of the changing nature of the Kan- 
sas economy. 

Kansas can scarcely be described as Dorothy Canfield Fisher de- 
scribed New York, "a glowing queenly creature," or like Virginia, 
"a dignified grande dame with ancient, well-mended fine lace and 
thin old silver spoons/' or like Massachusetts, a man with "hair 
thinned by intellectual applications/' 105 Kansas is like a man re- 
turned from a long journey that has covered vast stretches of time. 
He has witnessed the conflict of the real and the ideal, the extremes 
of poverty and affluence, the ebbing tide of despair and the rising 
tide of hope. He is glad he made the journey, but he isn't sure what 
it really meant, nor does he know how to profit fully from it. He 
wasn't the most brilliant in the company of travelers, but he was 
respectable, and generally, quite a decent fellow. He had always 
worked hard, and he could be justly proud of the labor of his hands. 
He would do things differently if he could go again, but really not 
too differently. He was glad to be back home, and reflect on what 
he had seen. And what he saw looked good to him. 

105. Vide, p. 23. 

Kansas Before 1854: A Revised Annals 

Compiled by LOUISE BARRY 

QEVENTY-FIVE years have elapsed since the 1886 (and final) 
^ edition of Daniel Webster Wilder's Annals of Kansas. For the 
territorial and statehood years the compiler had ample source ma- 
terials at hand for the preparation of a work of lasting historical 
value. It is still, for the 1854-1886 period, a storehouse of informa- 
tion and basic reference data. 

But for the pre-Kansas era (before 1854), this was not true. Of 
necessity, Wilder had to quote the historians of his day and rely 
on their works. Of the now-available records (documents, manu- 
scripts, maps, archaeological findings) pertaining to pre-Kansas 
history, only a fraction were known to the writers of the 1880's. 
In the perspective of present-day knowledge, the Annals entries for 
the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries are a curious mixture of fact, er- 
ror, fiction (Penalosa's 1662 expedition), misinterpretation (Kale's 
account of Du Tisne's 1719 expedition), and obsolescent material. 
For the pre-Kansas era the Annals is now of little value. 

To take Coronado's expedition as an illustration: Wilder quoted,, 
among others, the historian H. H. Bancroft who (in an 1884 work) 
stated that the explorer of 1541 u . . . found only wigwam 
towns in the province of Quivira, possibly in the Kansas of to-day 
. . ."; and Bradford Prince who (in an 1883 history) wrote 
that Coronado ". . . traversed parts of the Indian Territory 
and Kansas, and finally stopped on the borders of Missouri. . . ." 
Today it is known that the "wigwam towns" were grass house vil- 
lages; and the Quiviras have been identified as the Wichita Indians- 
of modern times, who in 1541 had their settlements in present central 
Kansas (the province of Quivira). 

Among the controversial issues which have been less successfully 
resolved to the entire satisfaction of historians, archaeologists, and 
others concerned, are these: the site of the Pawnee Republic vil- 
lage visited by Pike in 1806 (Kansas, or Nebraska?); the location 
of El Cuartelejo (Kansas, or Colorado, or both?); the identity of 
the populous Indian people known to the French in the 18th cen- 
tury as the Padoucas (were they Plains Apaches, or Comanches?); 
the location of the Paniouassa villages Du Tisne visited in 1719' 
(Kansas, or Oklahoma?); the extent of Bourgmont's travels in 

LOUISE BAHRY is a member of the staff of the Kansas State Historical Society. 



1724 to the great village of the Padoucas (Saline, or Ellsworth, or 
Rice counties or elsewhere?). 

The centennial year of Kansas statehood has seemed an appro- 
priate time to collect and summarize the currently-known facts of 
pre-Kansas history into a new annals. Perhaps the bringing to- 
gether of this widely-scattered information into a chronology will 
provide both a review, and a new view, of the now-distant past. 

II. PART ONE, 1540-1762 


Francisco Vasquez de Coronado (governor of a Mexican prov- 
ince) headed a large Spanish expedition (200 horsemen and 70 
foot soldiers, well-armed; nearly 1,000 Indians and servants; perhaps 
1,200 horses; pack mules; some light artillery; droves of cattle, 
sheep, goats, and swine) which set out from Compostela [in north- 
western Mexico] late in February to search for the reportedly large 
and wealthy Seven Cities of Cibola. In July this great company 
came to the first of the Cities a Zufii village [on the western border 
of present New Mexico]. Greatly disappointed, but still hopeful 
of finding riches, Coronado made his headquarters among the Zuni 
and sent out exploring parties. One, led by Cardenas, discovered 
the Grand Canyon of the Colorado. Another, under Alvarado, 
traveled eastward to the Rio Grande and found Indian pueblos 
[north of present Albuquerque] where there were food supplies. 
Coronado then moved to the Rio Grande valley for the winter. 
His next objective was the kingdom of Quivira a land of enormous 
wealth, according to an Indian slave known as 'Turk." 

Ref: See next entry. 


In search of fabled rich Quivira, Coronado and a small, selected 
party (30 mounted men; six foot soldiers; the Franciscan father, 
Juan de Padilla; some attendants; extra horses and pack animals) 
apparently entered present Kansas in June [possibly near present 
Liberal], having come from the southwest across the Texas and 
Oklahoma Panhandles of today. On June 29 these explorers reached 
and crossed the Arkansas [in present Ford county?]. A week later, 
east and north of the river's great bend, they came to a Quivira 
settlement. The friendly Indians were tall (some over six and a 
half feet), dark-skinned, tattooed, nearly-naked people [identified 
as the Wichitas], who lived in round, grass-covered houses and 
raised crops of corn, beans, and melons. 

For 25 days Coronado and his men ranged the land of the 


Quiviras [particularly, it is thought, in present Rice and McPherson 
counties], visiting the scattered Indian villages (some of which 
had as many as 200 houses ) . Nowhere did they find the sought-for 
wealth and civilization, and they were bitterly disappointed. But 
the surroundings pleased them. Quivira's "rich and black" soil 
was "well watered by arroyos, springs and rivers." Wrote Coro- 
nado's lieutenant Juan Jaramillo: "It is not a hilly country, but has 
table-lands, plains, and charming rivers with fine waters. . . . 
I am of the belief that it will be very productive of all sorts of 
commodities." They found plums, grapes, mulberries, nuts; and 
there were the bison (the principal source of food) in numbers 
"as large as any one could imagine." 

In mid-August, accompanied by six young Quivira guides, the 
expedition returned to the Arkansas crossing. By a route more 
direct than on the outward journey they marched to the Rio Grande 
where Coronado's main army awaited him. 

Ref: H. E. Bolton's Coronado on the Turquoise Trail (Albuquerque, c!949); Geo. P. 
Hammond and Agapito Rey's Narratives of the Coronado Expedition (Albuquerque, 1940); 
Geo. P. Winship's The Coronado Expedition (in 14th Annual Report, Bureau of Ethnology); 
Paul A. Jones' Coronado and Quivira (Lyons, 1937); W. R. Wedel's An Introduction to 
Kansas Archeology (Washington, 1959). A Kansas historical marker, "Coronado and 
Quivira," is west of Lyons, Rice county. 

Though the Spanish supposed it a part of the Mississippi (which 
Hernando De Soto discovered in May, 1541), Coronado had learned 
of the existence of the Missouri river during his 1541 visit among 
the Quiviras. Pedro de Castaneda's account of Coronado's expe- 
dition (written some time after the event) stated: 

The great Spiritu Santo river [the Mississippi] that had been discovered 
by Don Fernando de Soto in the knd of Florida flows from this region 
[Quivira]. It runs through a province called Arache [Harahey north of Qui- 
vira], according to information which was considered reliable, though its 
sources were not seen, because it was said that they come from very far, from 
the land of the southern cordillera, where it empties into the plains and, cross- 
ing the flat lands, cuts through the northern cordillera and comes out at the 
place where it was sailed by Don Fernando de Soto's men. . . j 

Thus the Spanish knew about the Missouri some 130 years before 
the first known white explorers the French saw its waters. (See 

Ref: Hammond and Rey, Narratives of the Coronado Expedition, p. 263. 


Father Juan de Padilla (outfitted by Coronado whose expedition 
he had accompanied), returned to the Quivira Indians in the spring 
of 1542 as a missionary. With him were Andres do Campo (a 
Portuguese), two Indian lay assistants (Lucas and Sebastian), some 


servants, and six Quiviras who had guided Coronado. Their equip- 
ment included mules, one horse, a flock of sheep, and they took 
church ornaments and "other trifles." After some time among the 
friendly Quiviras [Wichitas], at the village where Coronado had 
planted a cross in 1541 [said to have been near present Lyons, on 
Cow creek], Father Padilla determined to visit a country (the Guas) 
toward the east. He set out with his companions, but had not gone 
far when hostile Indians approached. Campo (on the horse), 
Lucas, and Sebastian escaped, but Father Padilla was slain by 
many arrows. The Indian lay assistants returned, "buried him with 
the consent of the murderers," and then fled with Campo. The 
place where Kansas* first Christian martyr met his death is not 
known; nor is the year certain. The event probably occurred in 
1542 but may have been as late as 1544. 

Ref: Castaneda, in ibid.; Bolton's Coronado . . . pp. 335-341. In Herington's 
city park is a monument to Father Padilla which was dedicated in 1904; ceremonies were 
held for a monument at Council Grove in 1931; near Lyons is a 26-foot granite cross 
erected to his memory in 1950; and a Kansas historical marker, "Father Juan de Padilla 
and Quivira," is south of Herington. 

7593 or 7594 

Captained by Francisco de Leyva y Bonilla and Antonio Gutierrez 
de Humana, an unauthorized expedition of Spaniards left San 
Ildefonso [in New Mexico] in 1593 or 1594 and entered present 
southern Kansas after a journey which took them east and then on 
a northward course in search of the "gold mines of Tindan." Along 
a river [the Arkansas?] they found the friendly Quiviras in a "very 
large settlement in a great plain 10 leagues long" and some two 
leagues wide where there were grass houses and fine crops of corn, 
beans, and melons. Continuing northward across a plain, three 
days later the explorers came to a buffalo herd of amazing size. 
Then there occurred a quarrel between the leaders and Leyva was 
murdered by Humana who took command. When the Spaniards 
had gone some ten days' travel beyond the Quivira settlements they 
reached a large river [possibly the Smoky Hill, or the Kansas; or 
the Platte?] which was about a quarter of a league wide, deep, and 
sluggish. At this place Jusepe and five other Indians deserted. 
(Jusepe, the only one to make his way back and to give an ac- 
count of the expedition was held prisoner by Apaches for a year. ) 

As was later learned ( by Onate, in 1601 ) the Spaniards were all 
murdered (except one?) when Indians of the region fired the grass 
on all sides of them as they slept one night. (The Quiviras, in 1601, 


said that the massacre had occurred 18 days' travel beyond their 
settlements. ) 

fThe "wide, deep and sluggish" river (which Jusepe in his account said the 
party had been afraid to cross) may well have been the Smoky Hill or Kansas, 
in flood stage.] 

Ret": Hammond and Key, Narratives of the Coronado Expedition, pp. 416-419, 755, 838, 
940; Wedel, op. cit., p. 21 (who suggests the river was the Smoky Hill or Kansas); H. E. 
Bolton in his Spanish Exploration in the Southwest . . . (New York, 1916), pp. 200, 
201, decided the river was the Platte. 


Don Juan de Onate, governor (and colonizer, in 1598) of New 
Mexico, with a large force (upwards of 70 well-equipped men; two 
Franciscan friars, attendants; over 700 horses and mules; carts, arms, 
and artillery) set out late in June (from San Gabriel) for the coun- 
try to the northeast where the Leyva-Humana expedition of the 
1590's had gone. Their guide was the Indian Jusepe. After more 
than 200 leagues of travel they came upon a large camp of Escan- 
jaques (a roving, buffalo-hunting people). Accompanied by these 
Indians (who numbered 5,000 or more), Onate's party traveled 
three(?) days more towards the settlement where (according to the 
Escanjaques) the Spaniards they sought had been slain. They 
crossed an east-flowing river [the Arkansas?] with "marvelous level 
banks ... so wooded that the trees formed very dense and 
extensive forests," which had good fords but was very deep in places. 
A little farther on they came to a large Indian settlement of more 
than 1,200 grass houses, located on the banks of another fairly large 
river [the little Arkansas at present Wichita?] which flowed into the 
larger one. 

These grass-house people (unnamed by Onate) also grew crops, 
and in other ways fitted the description of the Quiviras [Wichitas]. 
Their chief was called Catarax [the Wichitas' word for chief is 
Tatarrax]. The arrival of the large force of Escanjaques, their ene- 
mies, ended any possibility for friendly relations between the Qui- 
viras and the Spaniards. Prudently deciding to turn back, Onate 
and his men first had to fight and defeat the Escanjaques who had 
turned hostile when restrained from firing the Quiviras' abandoned 

Except for learning that the Leyva-Humana expedition had been 
massacred by people who lived beyond the Quiviras; and that there 
were, in the region northward, very large settlements, Onate's ex- 
pedition accomplished nothing. He penetrated no farther than the 
other Spaniards before him and discovered nothing new. He and 


his men returned safely to New Mexico, reaching San Gabriel on 
November 24. 

Ref : George P. Hammond and Agapito Rey's Don Juan de Onate, Colonizer of New 
Mexico . . . (Albuquerque, 1953); Bolton's Spanish Exploration, pp. 250-265; Wedel, 
op. cit., pp. 21, 22, who discusses Onate's route in Kansas in relation to streams. 


A Quivira chief, with 600 warriors, journeyed to Santa Fe follow- 
ing the defeat of the Escanjaques by Onate. He offered friendship 
and lands to the Spanish in return for aid against the Quiviras' ene- 
mies, the Ayjaos [who may have been the Indians Onate had called 

Ref: Alfred B. Thomas' After Coronado, Spanish Exploration Northeast of New Mexico 
(Norman, Okla., 1935), p. 8; G. E. Hyde's Indians of the High Plains . . . (Norman, 
Okla., c!959), p. 13. 


Father Jacques Marquette, writing from his mission among the 
Ottawas, told of the Missouri river, as reported to the French by 
the Indians: "Six or seven days below the Hois [Illinois] is another 
great river [Missouri], on which are prodigious nations, who use 
wooden canoes. . . ." 

Ref: J. G. Shea's Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi Valley (New York, 1853), 
p. Ivi. 


In mid-June, 1673, Louis Jolliet, Father Jacques Marquette, and 
five other Frenchmen, started down the Mississippi river in two 
canoes. At the end of June they passed by the mouth of the 
Pekitanoui (Missouri), and became the first known white men to 
see the river. 

Three of the earliest existing maps based on discoveries by this 
expedition are noted below. They were, also, the first known which 
showed the Kansa Indians. 

(1) A map drawn by Jolliet in 1673-1674(?) which accompanied the 
Narrative of the expedition published in M. Thevenot's Recueil de Voyages 
(Paris, 1681). Shown as dwelling some distance up the Missouri (unnamed 
on the map) were the Missouris ( Oumissouri ) ; above them were the Osages 
(Autrechaha) and the Kansa (Kamissi) living in the same general area; 
and well beyond were the Paniassa. On the Arkansas river (unnamed on the 
map) were also the Paniassa well upstream, with other tribes living above 
and below them. 

(2) The so-called "Marquette" manuscript map of 1673-1674(?). The 
"R. Pekittanoui" was drawn as a large, but short river, ending abruptly. The 
same Indian tribes were noted, but under variant spellings for three: Ouchage, 
Oucmessourit, Kansa, and the Paniassa. 

(3) The "Joliet map of 1674" (not drawn by Jolliet). The Messouris, 
Kansa, Ouchage, Pani, and Minengio(P) tribes (in that order ascending) 


were shown on the south bank of a large, east-flowing stream (unnamed) 
emptying into the Mississippi. Far to the south, on the "Riviere Basire" (the 
Arkansas), the Paniassa were shown as the farthest west of eight tribes dwell- 
ing on its south bank. 

Ref: F. B. Steck's Marquette Legends (New York, c!960) discusses the authorship 
und date of the "Marquette" map, and presents the author's theory that Marquette did 
not accompany Jolliet on the 1673 expedition; Tucker, op. cit.; Wedel, op. cit. 

Before 1680 

Between 1664 and 1680 Juan de Archuleta and some soldiers 
were sent by the New Mexican governor to bring back several 
Taos Indian families which had fled Spanish rule in the middle 
17th century. They found them to the northeast in the "plains of 
Cibola" in a fortified place to which the Spanish gave the name 
El Cuartelejo. The Taos Indians had copper and tin articles which 
they said were "from the Quivira pueblos" to which they had made 
a journey. The Spaniards also learned that the route to the Paw- 
nees lay by way of Quivira; and were told ( or perhaps concluded ) 
that the French already were trading with the Pawnees. 

[The Pawnees referred to were probably the Southern Pawnees the 
Paniouassa (or, Black Pawnees) of the area that is now northern Oklahoma 
and southern Kansas. No direct trade was likely between the Pawnees and 
the French at this early date.] 

Ref: Thomas, After Coronado, p. 53. 


Rene Robert Cavalier, Sieur de La Salle, and party, descending 
the Mississippi in 1682, arrived at the mouth of the Missouri on 
February 14, camped there, and proceeded next day. Father Ze- 
nobe Membre (chaplain of the small French expedition) wrote: 

The Indians assure us that this river is formed by many others, and that 
they ascend it for ten or twelve days to a mountain where it rises; that 
beyond this mountain is the sea where they see great ships; that on the river 
are a great number of large villages, of many different nations; that there 
are arable and prairie-lands, and abundance of cattle and beaver. . . . 

La Salle, from information received, estimated the "grand riviere 
des Emisourites" to be navigable for 400 leagues or more. 

Ref: G. J. Garraghan's Chapters in Frontier History (Milwaukee, 1933), pp. 54, 55; 
A. P. Nasatir's Before Lewis and Clark (St. Louis, 1952), v. 1, p. 4; Shea's Mississippi 
Valley, p. 167 (for quotation). 


Jean-Baptiste Louis Franquelin's Carte de la Louisiane, based 
on La Salle's map and data, was first published in 1684. La Salle's 
misconception of the present Platte river's eastward course as that 
of the Missouri a mistake perpetuated in Franquelin's and some 
later maps of the French period thus showed "La Grande Riviere 


des Emissourittes" flowing almost due east, and influenced a long- 
held French belief that the route to the mines of New Mexico lay 
up the Missouri river. Franquelin's 1688 map showed the same 
confused network of rivers sketched in his earlier work, but gave 
more detailed information on the Indian tribes of the West. On 
the Missouri he showed the Missourits and Zages (Osages); then 
the Cansa well above them; and on westward, two villages of 
Pana, and the Panososo. On northwest branches were located the 
Panimaha (19 villages) and the Panetoca (four villages). South- 
west of the Osages were 20 villages of Paneassa. 

Ref: The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, Cleveland, v. 63, frontispiece; Sara 
J. Tucker, Indian Villages of the Illinois Country (Springfield, 111., 1942); Wedel, op. cit.; 
American Historical Review, New York, v. 39, pp. 647, 650. 


In mid-May, 1693, two French traders and some Kaskaskia In- 
dians visited the Missouris and Osages, to make an alliance with 
them. Two chiefs from each village and "some elders and women" 
accompanied them back to Kaskaskia for a visit, and annual trade 
relations were established. From this contact, and others in the 
later 1690's, the French began to learn about other Missouri river 
Indians. They heard that the Pawnees traded with the Spanish 
"from whom they get horses of which they make use sometimes to 
pursue the buffalo in the hunt. . . ." 

[The Pawnees acquired the Spanish horses in raids on the Padoucas ( Plains 
Apaches), who got them from the Indians of the New Mexican frontiers. There 
is no record of direct trade between New Mexico and the Pawnees at this 

Ref: Garraghan, op. cit., p. 57; The Jesuit Relations, v. 64, pp. 161, 169, 171; Nasa- 
tir, op. cit., v. 1, p. 5. 


Dr. Daniel Coxe outfitted two ships commanded by Captain Barr, 
which he sent some distance up the Mississippi river in 1698. From 
notes and journals of expedition members, Daniel Coxe, Jr., com- 
piled A Description of the English Province of Carolana, by the 
Spaniards Called Florida, and by the French La Louisiane, in which 
the following appeared: 

It will be one great conveniency of this country, if ever it comes to be 
settled, that there is an easy communication therewith and the South Sea, 
which lies between America and China ... by the north branch of 
the great Yellow River, by the natives called the River of the Massorites 
[Missouri], which hath a course of 500 miles, navigable to its heads or springs, 
and which proceeds from a ridge of hills somewhat north of New Mexico, 
passable by horse, foot, or wagon in less than half a day. On the other side 


are rivers which run into a great lake, that empties itself by another great 
navigable river into the South Sea. . . . 

Ref: B. F. French's Historical Collections of Louisiana (Philadelphia, 1850), pt. 2, 
p. 253. 


Pierre Lemoyne, Sieur dlberville, with some 200 soldiers and 
colonists in four vessels, arrived from France in February, at a point 
a little east of the Mississippi's mouth, and founded Biloxi [Miss.]. 

About 1700 

In present Scott county ( 12 miles north of Scott City, and about 
50 miles east of the Colorado line ) on a small knoll in Ladder creek 
valley, are ruins of ancient stone buildings, the principal one having 
t>een a seven-room, 53 x 35-foot structure with walls 18 to 24 inches 
thick. Archaeologists at the turn of the 20th century identified the 
ruins as of Pueblo origin and suggested they represented the place 
named El Cuartelejo (by the Spanish some 200 years earlier). More 
recently (1959) Dr. Waldo R. Wedel (of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion) has stated that the Scott county ruins represent "... a 
Plains Apache community of circa A. D. 1700 that included a multi- 
roomed stone structure, irrigation works, and other features clearly 
inspired by, if not the actual handiwork of, Pueblo Indians. . . ." 

On at least two occasions in the latter half of the 17th century, 
Pueblo Indians fled from Spanish rule into the plains northeast of 
New Mexico. Sometime before 1680 when the Spaniards went 
after the earliest of these refugees ( a group of Taos Indians ) they 
found them among the Plains Apaches, living in structures which led 
the white men to call the place El Cuartelejo. ( The term was also 
applied to the Indians in the vicinity.) In 1706 Ulibarri and a 
Spanish-Indian force went to El Cuartelejo to get some Picurie In- 
dians and return them to New Mexico. ( See, also, Before 1680, and 
1706 in this chronology. ) 

Ulibarri's diary and accounts of an expedition by Valverde in 
1719 (published in 1935 in A. B. Thomas' After Coronado and else- 
where noted in this chronology), seem to indicate that El Cuartelejo 
was in present eastern Colorado. (Thomas expressed the opinion 
that El Cuartelejo was either in Otero or Kiowa county, Colorado. ) 

Discussing El Cuartelejo's location in his An Introduction to Kan- 
sas Archeology (1959), Dr. Wedel commented on the fact that no 
archaeological remains have been found in eastern Colorado to sub- 
stantiate the Thomas claim, and summed up his own conclusions 
(p. 468) as follows: 


As I see it, then, the case for El Cuartelejo in eastern Colorado rests solely 
on the testimony of certain historical documents. That for Cuartelejo in Scott 
County rests on archeological evidence, including particularly the unique 
association of a pueblo ruin with Plains Apache cultural remains. If Scott 
County pueblo and its associated archeological materials is not the very 
Cuartelejo rancheria from which Ulibarri rescued Don Lorenzo and his Picuris 
compatriots . . ., then we must conclude that it was a simultaneously 
occupied community (Sanasesli?) [for explanation of "Sanasesli" see this 
chronology under 1706] in which pueblo Indians from the upper Rio Grande 
and Plains Apaches were residing together in the late 17th and early 18th 

Ref: Kansas Historical Collections, v. 6, pp. 124-130; Thomas' After Coronado, see 
index under El Cuartelejo; Wedel, op. cit., see index under El Cuartelejo, and Scott county 
pueblo site. 


Father Gabriel Marest, of the Kaskaskia mission ( on the Illinois ) 
dispatched a report (dated July 10) to Iberville (at Biloxi), sum- 
ming up the information he had gathered about the Missouri river 
and its people. For the first time, though indirectly, the Kansas 
river was mentioned. Marest wrote, in part: 

As to the Missouri, it is a very beautiful and large-sized river extending as 
far as the Mississippi. It is entirely covered with different nations of Indians. 
. . . Its real name is the Peldtanoui and the French call it the Missouri 
because this people is the first you meet there. Then come the Arkansas 
[Kansa], who are on a little river of their own name. Then the Pana, Pani- 
assa or rather Panis. These nations are very numerous and by way of their 
river, which discharges into the Pekitanoui, they carry on commerce with 
the Spaniards. Our warriors have brought us horses and bridles, which 
these nations took from the Spaniards. . . . 

Ref: Marc de Villiers du Terrage, La Decouverte du Missouri . . . (Paris, 1925), 
p. 33; Garraghan, op. cit., pp. 58, 59; Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, p. 6. 

Pierre Le Sueur (who had lived on the Upper Mississippi since 
the 1680's) made the voyage from France to Louisiana in 1699 
with Iberville's colony. In 1700 he traveled up the Mississippi (to 
the mining country of present Minnesota ) and passed by the mouth 
of the Missouri on July 13. He described the river's mouth; stated 
(mistakenly) that Emissourita meant "peoples of the canoe"; wrote 
of a tin mine 30 leagues up the river of the Osages [tributary of 
the Missouri]; and noted that the Aiaouez [lowas] were enemies 
of the Panis [Pawnees] who lived along the Missouri. (His in- 
formation on the mine came from Indians, and on the Pawnees 
from a Frenchman who had gone to the lowas by way of the Des 
Moines river and married a woman of that nation.) 

Ref: Villiers du Terrage, op. cit., pp. 31, 32. 



Seventeen Frenchmen set out in March from Tamaroa [opposite 
present St. Louis] to ascend the Missouri, build a trading fort in 
the Pawnee-Iowa country, and explore from there towards New 
Mexico. This earliest(P) organized trading expedition up the 
Missouri failed when hostile Indians, at some place not recorded, 
forced the French to take refuge on an island. They apparently 
returned safely to Tamaroa. 

Ref: Garraghan, op. cit., p. 62. 

In a memoire of June 20, the Louisiana colony's Iberville listed 
some Indian nations who lived on the Missouri and estimated their 
population in families. The Kansa were given as 1,500, the Pani- 
mahas as 1,200, and the Panas near Arkansas as 2,000. The Mis- 
souris were numbered at 1,500 families, but the Osages were not 
mentioned. Other upper river Indians in the tabulation were the 
Otoes, lowas, and the Sioux. 

On August 6 another Frenchman (Remonville) wrote that 14 
large Indian tribes lived along the Missouri, which was a larger 
river than the [upper?] Mississippi. 

Ref: Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, p. 8; Pierre Margry, Decouvertes et Etablissements des 
Francois, v. 6 (1888), p. 179. 


Guillaume Delisle's Carte du Mexique et de la Floride, published 
in 1703, contained data on the Missouri river country incorporated 
from his manuscript maps (1701 and 1702) of the Mississippi valley 
data gained from Iberville and Le Sueur. Notably, the Missouri's 
course was sketched as from the northwest. (See 1684-1688.) 
The Osages were shown as living on the Osage river ("R. des 
Osages"), a tributary of the Missouri; and the Kansa ("Cansa") 
were placed on another branch of the Missouri some distance 
above, which Delisle designated as the "Metchigamiki" [the Kan- 
sas]. Farther up the Missouri, and on east-flowing tributaries, were 
the Pawnees ("Apana," "Panis," "Panimaha" ) . On the headwaters 
of a river north of, and paralleling the Kansas, he showed the 
Paniassa. Far to the south, on a tributary of the Arkansas river 
("R. des Acansa") were also "2 grands Villages" of Panis ; and on 
another branch downstream, the Paniassa. 

See reproduction of a portion of Delisle's 1703 map between pp. 80, 81. 

Ref: Tucker, op. cit.; American Historical Review, v. 39, pp. 652-654; Wedel, op. cit., 
p. 28. 



Juan de Ulibarri with a force of Spaniards and Indian allies set 
out from Santa Fe in mid-July to ransom some Picuries who, flee- 
ing Spanish rule in 1696, had become slaves of the Apaches of El 
Cuartelejo. On July 29 they reached the river "which all the tribes 
call the Napestle" [the Arkansas]. (Ulibarri named it the Rio 
Grande de San Francisco.) Crossing, and turning eastward they 
arrived in the El Cuartelejo settlements on August 4. Ulibarri 
claimed the new country traversed for Spain. Among these friendly 
Apaches, he found the Picuries chief and some of his people. Next 
day, he dispatched men to three other Apache rancherias. In the 
one named Sanasesli (described as "forty leagues distant from the 
other two") were the son of a former chief, and 18 other Picuries. 
They were turned over to Ulibarrf s scout, Jose de Naranjo, after 
he and his men had been entertained and given "excellent quar- 
ters" by the Sanasesli (a numerous and friendly people). 

Meantime Ulibarri established relations with his Apache hosts, 
and gathered information. The El Cuartelejo Indians said that 
their enemies were the Pawnees and Jumanos. These Pawnees 
[i. e., the Paniouassa ( Black Pawnees ) of present southern Kansas 
or northern Oklahoma] lived in two large villages on the "Sita- 
scahe" river "seven days' journey across level land with sufficient 
water." The Apaches had a gun of French make and told of 
killing a white man and woman (but later said the gun had been 
taken from a Pawnee). Ulibarri got it in exchange for a Spanish 
gun. The Apaches said that all the tribes on the five large rivers 
they knew about were hostile to each other, but had trade with 
white people to the east. Asked about the "seas" to the north and 
east, they said they had heard that the one on the north was three 
long days' journey beyond a tribe called the Pelones [Palomas? See 
1719 under Valverde] over a road which was all sand dunes of 
very fine sand without grass. 

On August 11, having gathered together all the Picuries, Ulibarri's 
expedition left El Cuartelejo for New Mexico. The Arkansas river 
was reached on the 18th; and the company arrived in Santa Fe on 
September 2. 

Ref: Thomas, After Coronado, pp. 16-22, 59-80, 262-265. 

7706 or 7707 

A party of Frenchmen under Derbanne went up the Missouri 
"nearly 400 leagues" from its mouth in 1706 or 1707. They were 
(according to Derbanne's 1724 report) "the first of the French to 


have been so far into the interior," and they met Indians who di- 
rectly, or indirectly, had been in contact with the Spaniards. 

Ref: Garraghan, op. cit., p. 63; Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, p. 9. 


Antoine Crozat, a wealthy French merchant, was given a 15-year 
monopoly of trade in the country south of the Illinois river and 
between the colonies of Spain and England, in exchange for his 
agreement to bring two shiploads of immigrants into the Louisiana 
colony each year. (In 1717, the venture having been unsuccessful 
financially, Crozat gave up his patent. ) 


Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont ( a young French officer, ex-com- 
mandant at Detroit) accompanied some Missouris (who had gone 
north to aid the French against the Fox Indians) to their village in 
1712, and lived among them for several years. He made at least 
two trips far up the Missouri. In 1714 he ascended to the mouth 
of the Pawnee [Platte] river and kept an accurate log of the "Route 
to Follow to Mount the Missouri/' On another journey he went 
beyond the mouth of the Niobrara, to the Aricara villages farther, 
perhaps, than any white man had ascended before him. 

In an account ( 1717? ) of the Missouri and its people, Bourgmont 

There are the Missouris, a nation of savages, bearing the name of the 
river, who are allies of the French. There are also the Auzages [Osages], 
another savage nation, allies and friends of the French. Their entire com- 
merce is in furs; they are not numerous; they are a splendid race, and more 
alert than any other nation. All Missouri furnishes fine skins of all kinds, the 
climate there being very cold. Upstream is a smaller river which flows into 
the Missouri, called the "Riviere d'Ecanze [Kansas] and a nation of the same 
name, ally and friend of the French; their trade is in furs. This is the finest 
country and the most beautiful land in the world; the prairies are like the 
seas, and filled with wild animals; especially oxen, cattle, hind and stag, in 
such quantities as to surpass the imagination. They hunt almost entirely with 
the arrow; they have splendid horses and are fine riders. Farther up is the 
Riviere Large, called by the French and the Indians Nibraskier [i.e., the 
Platte?]. . . . 

Ref: Ibid, pp. 60, 61; Missouri Historical Review, Columbia, v. 35, p. 374; v. 36, 
pp. 282-284; Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, pp. 12, 13. (Some sources spell the name "Bourg- 
mond." ) 


Indians reported in Santa Fe that the Jumanos and some allied 
French traders had attacked El Cuartelejo. 

Ref: Thomas, After Coronado, p. 264. 



The Company of the West (or, the Mississippi Company) secured 
control of Louisiana and its trade for 25 years. Though the specula- 
tive^ schemes of John Law, its head, quickly failed, the company 
continued in power for 14 years. ( In 1732 it failed and surrendered 
its charter. ) Upper Louisiana (the Illinois country) came under the 
supervision of lower Louisiana's government in 1717. 


New Orleans was founded by Jean Baptiste Lemoyne, Sieur de 
Bienville, who had recently become governor of Louisiana. (In 
1723 New Orleans became the seat of government. ) 

Guillaume Delisle's Carte de la Louisiane et du Cours du Missis- 
sipi ( 1718 ) was much more detailed in its information on the Mis- 
souri, the tributaries, and the Indians, than his map of 15 years 
earlier. The new data had come from Bourgmont. 

For the first time, so far as known, the Kansas river ("Grande 
Riviere des Cansez") appeared by that name on a map; and some 
tributaries ( unnamed ) were indicated. In the forks of two branches 
[the present Junction City area?], Delisle placed a large village of 
the Kansas ("Cansez"). To the west, on headwaters of the Kansas, 
he showed villages of Padoucas. The Padoucas (indicated in four 
other locations to the north and south ) , together with the Apaches, 
were shown as forming a barrier to all the region west and south- 

On the Missouri river, some distance above the mouth of the Kan- 
sas, was shown another village of the "Cansez" Indians, below a 
tributary labeled "Petite Riv. des Cansez" [the village in the present 
Doniphan area presumably]. 

Delisle located villages of Paniassa (Black Pawnees) on south- 
flowing tributaries of the Arkansas ( "Riviere des Akansas" ) . 

See reproduction of a portion of Delisle's 1718 map between pp. 80, 81. 

Ref: Carl I. Wheat, "Mapping the American West, 1540-1857," in Proceedings of 
the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass., v. 64, p. 50; Tucker, op. cit.; Ameri- 
can Historical Review, v. 39, p. 656; Wedel, op. cit., pp. 28, 29, and (for discussion of 
the identity of the Padoucas) 77, 78; Villiers du Terrage, op. eft., p. 57 (who identified the 
"Petite Riv. des Cansez" as the Big Nemaha of today). 


In an attempt to reach the Padoucas by an overland route, French 
officer Claude Charles Du Tisne set out in the spring from Kaskaskia 
[on the Mississippi]. His first objective was a visit to the Big Osages 
[in present Vernon county, Missouri]. He was well treated in their 

' 1 * 


Above (enlarged from Delisle's map of 1703) is a scale of distances showing compara- 
tive lengths of (1) the French land league, (2) the French marine league and Spanish 
land league [same], (3) the Spanish marine league, and (4) the English mile. 

The league as a measure of distance has varied for different times and countries from 
2.4 to 4.6 miles. Historians, tracing routes of the pre-1 9th century Spanish and French 
explorers, have estimated the league, generally, as between 2.5 and 3 miles; and seldom 
as more than 2.6 miles for the land league. 

(On verso) A section of Guillaume Delisle's Carfe du Mex/que ef c/e la 
Floride . . . 1703. The Cansa Indians are shown as living on the 
Metchigamiki river, a name apparently applied but briefly to the Kansas. 
It does not appear in later records. 

**. . . Upstream is a smaller river which flows into the 
Missouri, called the 'Riviere d'Ecanze [Kansas], . . . This 
is the finest country and the most beautiful land in the world; 
the prairies are like the seas, and filled with wild animals; 
especially oxen, cattle, hind and stag, in such quantities as to 
surpass the imagination. . . ." 

Quoted from the 1717 account of De Bourgmont, whose explorations up the 
Missouri supplied much new information for Delisle's 1718 map. 

(On verso) A portion of Guillaume Delisle's Carfe de la Louisiane et 
du Cours du Mississipi . . . 1718. Here, the Kansas river ("Grande 
Riviere des Cansez") appeared by that name for the first time on a map, 
so far as is known. As located by Delisle, the Kansa Indians were living 
in the early 18th century in two, far-apart villages, one, between the 
forks of a Kansas tributary, the other, on the Missouri, at the mouth of a 
stream labeled "Petite Riv. des Cansez/ 7 


villages, and spent some time trading among them. ( Du Tisne was 
their first official French visitor. ) Though they opposed his continu- 
ing onward to the Paniouassa (Black Pawnees), he was able to 
obtain a few horses from the Osages. But he left all his trading 
goods except three guns and a few other articles when he started 
southwest (accompanied by a guide-interpreter and perhaps one 
other person ) . He traveled over prairies and hills [in present south- 
east Kansas] where there were many buffalo. The country was fine 
and well wooded. He crossed four rivers, the largest, a branch of 
the Arkansas [the Neosho or Grand?] flowed from the northwest 
and had rapids. ( The others were Osage tributaries. ) 

After four days and 40 leagues of travel Du Tisne came to a stream 
(12 leagues west of the large Arkansas branch) where there were 
two large villages of Paniouassa (a few miles apart), totaling at 
least 250 lodges and 500 warriors. [Whether they were in southeast 
Kansas or in northeast Oklahoma has not been determined.] There, 
Osage meddling nearly cost him his life, but Du Tisne was saved 
by his own daring and boldness. He was able to secure a peace 
and trade alliance with the Paniouassa, but they refused to let him 
proceed to the country of their mortal enemies, the Padoucas, whose 
great village they said was 15 days journey beyond. The Paniouassa 
said Spaniards had visited them, but the Padoucas were a barrier 
to intercourse. Du Tisne traded three guns, powder, pickaxes, and 
knives to the Paniouassa (who had many horses) for two horses 
and a mule marked with the Spanish brand. 

On September 27, after placing a French flag among these In- 
dians, Du Tisne began the homeward trip. The Osages refused him 
guides, and he relied on a compass to make his way back to Kas- 
kaskia. Of his 14 horses (and a mule), six (and a colt) were lost 
during the journey. 

Ref: Benard de La Harpe's Journal Historique de L'Etdblissement des Francois a la 
Louisiane (New Orleans, 1831), pp. 168-172, in which it is specifically stated that the 
largest stream Du Tisne crossed en route to the Paniouassa was a branch of the Arkansas 
(not the Arkansas itself, as given in Margry's work); Margry, op. cit., v. 6, pp. 309-315; 
Villiers du Terrage, op. cit., pp. 68, 69; Missouri Historical Review, v. 39, pp. 505-512; 
Nasatir, op. cit., pp. 18, 19; Kansas Historical Collections, v. 9, pp. 252-254; Wedel, op. 
cit., pp. 32, 65, 66, 533. See, particularly, Wedel, p. 533, for possible location of the 
Paniouassa villages sites in the Neodesha area. 

Antonio de Valverde, governor of New Mexico, led an expedition 
against the Utes and Comanches in the fall of 1719. Unsuccessful 
in finding them, he was ready to return home in late October when 
he learned that several bands of El Cuartelejo Apaches were coming 



to meet him. The gathering place was on the Rio Napestle [Arkan- 
sas], in southeastern Colorado of today. From the Palomas (a band 
never visited by the Spanish) who came from "the most remote 
borderlands" of the Apaches "farther in from El Cuartelejo," Val- 
verde heard disquieting news of white men [the French] who had 
made recent alliance with the Cancer [Kansa], and with the Paw- 
nees and Jumanos, to whom they had given firearms. [Presumably 
these were references to Bourgmont's and Du Tisne's activities.] 
The Palomas told of an attack made on them earlier in the year by 
the Pawnees and Jumanos and said they had been forced to leave 
their lands. (A Paloma Indian, wounded by a bullet in the fight, 
in one version of his story said they had fought the Kansa Indians. ) 
Elaborating the facts, they told of two French settlements among 
the Pawnees and Jumanos. [The Palomas apparently lived in pres- 
ent Kansas neighbors to the Kansa and to the Black Pawnees of 
southern Kansas or northern Oklahoma. To the French the Paloma 
Apaches very likely represented a part of the people they called 

The Palomas spoke only of the Kansa, the Pawnees and Jumanos, 
and the Cadodachos Indians. When they described French settle- 
ments on a large river they were talking about lower Louisiana, but 
the Spaniards misinterpreted what the Apaches were telling them. 
Valverde's scout Naranjo, who had previously traveled as far as a 
large river which he named the Rio Jesus Maria [i. e., the South 
Platte], where there were Pawnees, decided it was the river the 
Palomas meant. 

The Spanish expedition returned to New Mexico in November. 
Valverde's report (of November 30) specifically stated: ". . . the 
French have their settlement on a very large river which here [Santa 
Fe] is known as the Jesus Maria. . . ." 

Ref: Thomas, After Coronado, pp. 129-133, 143, 144. 


From lower Louisiana Benard de La Harpe made explora- 
tions by way of the Red river and the Arkansas in the 1719-1722 
period explorations which first brought him to the Arkansas river 
in present Oklahoma in 1719. He met representatives of nine allied 
Indian nations most of whom lived on a tributary (probably the 
Canadian of today). These people raised crops, spent their winters 
hunting buffalo, bred fine horses. They were allied with the Pani- 
ouassa (the Black Pawnees) who were 40 leagues to the north. 
With the Osages (40 leagues to the northeast) they were at peace, 


but there was mutual mistrust. Other allies were some nomadic 
nations on the upper Red river. Their enemies were the Canecey 
(to the south on the Red river), the Padoucas (who had villages 
15 days journey to the west-northwest), and a few villages of 
Panis. The "nine-nations" people ate their captives. 

They told La Harpe that a white nation [the Spaniards] traded 
with the Padoucas, but that they seldom went far in that direction 
because of their enemies. They said they knew that the Aricaras 
[meaning the northern Pawnees] lived in the direction of the 
Cances [Kansa] on the Missouri. 

Knowledge gained by La Harpe's explorations was depicted on 
the Sieur de Beauvilliers' map of 1720 (manuscript). The "nine- 
nations" Indians were shown well to the west on the stream labeled 
"Atcanka R." [the Canadian]. The Arkansas above the junction 
of the Canadian was designated only as "R. decouverte en 1720." 
Between the two rivers and north of the nine nations were "Villages 
Ascanis et Ousita." (These were, actually, two of the nine nations 
as listed by La Harpe.) 

[The Ousita may well have been the Wichita Indians of today, and if so, 
La Harpe provided an early reference to the Wichitas by the name which 
was later to be applied to them.] 

Ref: La Harpe, op. cit., pp. 206-209, 316-325; Wheat, loc. cit., p. 50. 


Alarmed by reports of French settlements which, as the Spanish 
understood, were among the Pawnees on the present Platte river, 
Governor Valverde of New Mexico, sent Pedro de Villasur with a 
small but well-equipped force to reconnoiter the French position. 
Villasur, with 45 Spaniards, 60 Indian allies, a priest, a French 
interpreter, and attendants, set out from Santa Fe in mid-June. 
Arriving at the El Cuartelejo settlements they stopped to rest. 
There some Apaches joined them, to act as guides. 

On August 6 the Spaniards and their Indian cohorts crossed the 
Rio Jesus Maria [South Platte]. At what point, and by what route 
they arrived at the river cannot be determined. (Their course had 
been generally northeastward.) Four days later they came to a 
large Pawnee village at the junction of another river with the 
Platte, and made a camp opposite. Though aware that the Pawnees 
were up to some trickery, after unsuccessful attempts to negotiate 
and to get news of the French, the Spaniards were ill-prepared 
for the surprise attack which occurred at daybreak of August 13. 
(The only precautions they had taken were to move their camp, 


and place guards, but the El Cuartelejo Apaches had realized the 
danger, and departed. ) The Pawnees, aided by some Otoes, mas- 
sacred a large part of the Spanish force. Villasur, more than two- 
thirds of his soldiers, and many of the Indian allies were slain. 
Survivors of the disastrous defeat made their way to the El Cuarte- 
lejo settlements, and then to New Mexico. Governor Valverde 
heard the bad news on September 6. 

[There is disagreement as to where the massacre took place. It may have 
occurred, as some maintain, on the south side of the North Platte, near pres- 
ent North Platte, Neb.; others contend the Spaniards were killed near the 
mouth of the Loup Fork. If the Villasur massacre was in the Loup Fork vi- 
cinity, the Spanish expedition may have crossed northwestern Kansas to 
arrive at that locality. The French reported that the attackers were Otoes and 

Ref: Thomas, After Coronado, pp. 36-39, 133-137, 171-175, 182-187, 226-256 
passim; Hyde, op. cit., pp. 74-80; Nebraska History, Lincoln, v. 6, pp. 13-19; v. 7, pp. 
68-87; Garraghan, op. cit., p. 64; Villiers du Terrage, op. cit., p. 72. 


Discussing possible sites for a Missouri river fort which Bourg- 
mont had been ordered to establish, French engineer La Renaudiere 
wrote (on August 23): 

. . . At thirty leagues in ascending [the Missouri, above Grand river] 
is the river of Quans [the Kansas] a beautiful river. . . . Thirty leagues 
higher up is a little river which runs to the north, where there is a large 
village of Quans, it is composed of 150 huts which border the Missouri. One 
finds there, on the south side, many beautiful prairies, and on the west side 
many mountains. . . . 

[Despite the variation in distance, this was presumably the later-designated 
""Village of 24" that is, the Kansa village on the Missouri said to be 24 
leagues above the mouth of the Kansas in the present Doniphan area.] 

Ref: Margry, op. cit., v. 6, pp. 393, 394. 

Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont and a party of 40 Frenchmen, 
journeyed up the Missouri from Kaskaskia in the fall of 1723, ar- 
riving at the Missouri Indians' village [on the south bank, in present 
Saline county, Missouri] on November 9. Crossing to the north 
side, a few miles up from the mouth of the Grand [in present Car- 
roll county, Missouri] they erected, during the winter, a small post 
called Fort Orleans the first French fortification on the Missouri. 
There, Bourgmont planned and prepared for his proposed expedi- 
tion to the Padoucas. 

Kansa chiefs apparently visited Fort Orleans either in the win- 
ter, or spring of 1724, and were given a French flag which was 
displayed in the Kansa village when Bourgmont arrived there the 
following July. 


Fort Orleans was used for only five years. It was probably 
abandoned in 1728. 

Ref : Garraghan, op. cit., pp. 65, 67, 93; Missouri Historical Review, v. 35, pp. 373-384; 
v. 39, p. 525; Margry, op. cit., v. 6, p. 404. 


Bourgmont (at Fort Orleans) in June organized his expedition 
to the Padoucas. It was to proceed by way of the Kansa village 
on the Missouri. He sent a small party under Saint-Ange upriver 
in canoes on June 25; and set out with seven other Frenchmen, 
some 100 Missouris and 64 Osages on July 3, traveling overland 
across present Missouri. Bourgmont's party camped, on July 7, 
on the Missouri opposite the Kansa village, crossing the next day. 
Illness among Saint-Ange's men kept the expedition in camp for over 
two weeks. (The Osages returned home because of the prevalent 
fever.) Meantime Bourgmont traded with the Kansa, obtained 
furs, and bought from them two Padouca slaves. 

On July 24 a great throng of people set out westward across 
present Kansas. Accompanying the 19 Frenchmen were the two 
Great Chiefs, 14 war chiefs and 300 Kansa and Missouri warriors, 
about 300 women and 500 young people. And there were at least 
300 dogs (drawing baggage). (The Kansa villagers were headed 
west on a buffalo hunt. ) 

A week later, when about three leagues from the Kansas river, 
Bourgmont became so ill he had to be carried back to the Kansa 
village on a litter (and then was taken by boat to recuperate at 
Fort Orleans). Before turning eastward on July 31, he delegated 
one of his men, Gaillard, to conduct the Padouca slaves to their 
people. Fifty Kansa Indians went with Gaillard. Traveling south- 
west and west they reached the Grand Village of the Padoucas 
[perhaps in Saline county?, or Ellsworth county?] on August 25. 
The Padoucas treated the party well, as Bourgmont was notified 
on September 6. 

Ref: Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, pp. 20, 21; Villiers du Terrage, op. cit., pp. 109-112; 
Margry, op. cit., v. 6, pp. 398-449; Wedel, op. cit., pp. 28-33; The Colorado Magazine, 
Denver, v. 14, pp. 121-128; Missouri Historical Review, v. 36, pp. 279-298; v. 39, pp. 
521-528; A. T. Andreas and W. G. Cutler, History of the State of Kansas (Chicago, 1883), 
pp. 48, 49 (which has a translation of Le Page du Pratz's account of the Bourgmont ex- 

Bourgmont left Fort Orleans again on September 20 (by way of 
the Missouri ) , arriving at the Kansa village on the 27th. On Octo- 
ber 5 and 6 he held councils with assembled Indian chiefs and head 
men. Five Padoucas had returned with Gaillard to the Kansa 
village (and encamped not far away were great numbers of Pa- 


doucas with their families who had followed them eastward ) . The 
Missouri river Indians (Kansa, Missouris, Otoes, lowas, and Pani- 
mahas) reluctantly agreed to make peace with the Padoucas. 

On October 8, Bourgmont, with a party totaling 40, set out across 
present Kansas to visit the Great Chief of the Grand Village of the 
Padoucas. Accompanying Bourgmont were his ten-year-old son 
(by a Missouri woman); 14 Frenchmen; the five Padouca envoys; 
seven Missouris; five Kansa chiefs; four Otoe; and three Iowa 
chiefs. They had ten baggage-carrying horses. Proceeding west 
and southwest they crossed the Kansas river [near present Ross- 
ville?] on October 11; then traveled some 48 leagues farther (first 
southwest, and then west) during the next seven days. 

On October 18 they met the Padoucas [in present Saline? or Ells- 
worth? county]. At the Grand Village, not far from a little river 
with brackish water [the Saline presumably], they were welcomed 
warmly. There were some 500 lodges, 800 warriors, 1,500 women, 
and more than 2,000 children in that village. The Padoucas had 
some horses, and lots of dogs. On October 19 Bourgmont presented 
many gifts to the Indians; then, before the assembled chiefs and 
head men (some 200 persons) he made a speech exhorting the 
Padoucas to cease warfare with the Missouri river Indians. A peace 
treaty was agreed to, and the Great Chief (who had been given a 
French flag ) promised the allegiance of more than 2,000 warriors, as 
well as aid to Frenchmen who wished to cross to New Mexico. ( The 
Spaniards were 12 days' travel from the village he said.) Bourg- 
mont was presented with seven horses as a gift. 

On October 22 the Frenchmen and Missouri river Indians started 
homeward. They took a route northeast, and east to the Kansas 
river (which they reached and crossed on the 27th). From that 
place they followed eastwardly down the river valley till they came 
to the Missouri, near the mouth of the Kansas. On November 1 
Bourgmont embarked in a canoe with some of his men (sending 
the rest overland with the horses) and reached Fort Orleans on 
November 5. 

Ref: See preceding entry. Wed el discusses Bourgmont's route and the conclusions 
others have reached as to the locale of the Grand Village of the Padoucas. 


Bourgmont, returning to France in the summer of 1725, escorted 
a delegation of Indians including a Missouri, an Otoe, an Osage, 
and a young "Princess of the Missouri" to France. They arrived 
in Paris on September 20, were presented at court, and entertained 


by royalty. The "Princess" was baptized in Notre Dame cathedral, 
and married one of Bourgmont's lieutenants. After more than a 
year abroad these Indian "ambassadors" were returned to their own 

Ref: Garraghan, op. cit., p. 69; Missouri Historical Review, v. 36, p. 295; Nebraska 
History, v. 6, pp. 33-38; Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, pp. 21, 22. 


Bound for New Mexico on a trading expedition, the brothers 
Paul and Peter Mallet, and six other Frenchmen, ascended the 
Missouri river in the late spring, at least as far as the Panimaha 
village [on the Niobrara? river in Nebraska] before learning they 
had gone far out of their way. From that place they set out over- 
land, with pack horses, on May 29, on a route which would take 
them back where they could set a course for the Spanish settlements. 
The river which they came to on June 2 they named the "Plate" 
[Platte]. Following up this stream beyond the river of the Pa- 
doucas [the Loup Fork?], they crossed the Platte on June 13 and 
set out toward the southwest. As they proceeded through present 
Kansas they crossed several large streams. On the 20th they lost 
seven merchandise-laden horses in the waters [swollen by rain?] 
of a river they thought was the "Cances" [possibly the south fork 
of the Solomon]. On June 30 they reached the bank of the Arkansas 
[perhaps in Ford county], where they found stones with Spanish 
inscriptions. Following upstream, on July 5 they came to a camp 
of Laitan [Comanche] Indians [perhaps in the vicinity of Lamar, 
Colo.]. From there, an Aricara slave guided them to the Spanish 
settlements. They reached Santa Fe on July 22; received good treat- 
ment in friendly custody; and remained for nine months. The 
Mallet party was the first (of record) to reach New Mexico from 
the Missouri country. 

Ref: Margry, op. cit., v. 6, pp. 455-465; The Colorado Magazine, v. 16, pp. 161-173; 
Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, p. 28. 


Seven of the eight Frenchmen of the Mallet party left Santa Fe 
on May 1, intending to go to New Orleans. Arriving at the Cana- 
dian river on May 10, they followed downstream for three days 
[reaching a point probably a little east of the New Mexico-Texas 
boundary]. There the party split, three men deciding to "take the 
route of the Pani Indians" to the Illinois country. They reached 
their destination safely, probably more or less retracing their route 
of 1739 across present Kansas. No record of their journey exists. 


The Mallet brothers and two companions proceeded down the 
Canadian [through present Oklahoma], abandoned their horses 
for canoes made of bark, and continued to the Arkansas river. Not 
long afterwards they came to a French hunting camp. From there 
they proceeded to the French post on the Arkansas about 45(?) 
miles upstream from the river's mouth, and eventually made their 
way to New Orleans. 

An attempt by the Mallet brothers, in 1741, to guide an expedi- 
tion to Santa Fe by way of the Canadian river ended in failure. 

Ref : Same as preceding entry. 


At some time between 1724 and 1744 (apparently) the Kansa 
Indians moved from the "Village of 24" [present Doniphan] down- 
stream to the site later known as the 'Village of 12" [12 leagues up 
the Missouri from the mouth of the Kansas, in the present Salt Creek 
valley, Leavenworth county]. Near the new town, in 1743-1744, a 
Canadian named Deruisseau built a trading post, and a small forti- 
fication (Fort Cavagnolle), in return for a five-year (1745-1750) 
monopoly of the Missouri river trade. This second French post 
on the Missouri (see Fort Orleans, 1723-1728) was in use as late 
as 1758 when Fort Cavagnolle was described as a circular palisade 
enclosing some poor cabins and huts, where an officer, seven or 
eight soldiers, and some traders lived. One commandant was the 
Chevalier de Villiers ( described as a capable officer of good intellect 
and conduct). The trading post annually furnished 100 packs of 
furs (chiefly beaver, deer, and bear). When the Sieur de Portneuf 
(successor to Deruisseau) asked French authorities about renovat- 
ing the post in 1752, repairs were approved only after it was ascer- 
tained that the Kansa Indians had returned to their village near by. 
(Portneuf had earlier complained that the post was three days 
march from any Indians; that voyageurs went up the Kansas river 
without his permission; and for both reasons wished to build the 
fort at a better site.) It seems likely Fort Cavagnolle was aban- 
doned before the Spanish came into control of the area in the 1760's. 

[In 1804 the Lewis and Clark expedition camped opposite Salt Creek 
valley on the night of July 2. They saw no traces of the village but "About 
a mile in the rear . . . was a small fort, built by the French on an eleva- 
tion. . . . the situation of the fort may be recognized by some remains of 
chimneys, and the general outline of the fortification, as well as by the fine 
spring which supplied it with water. . . ." Of the fort's one-time occu- 
pants they had no information.] 

Ref: Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, pp. 28, 35, 36, 40-42, 46-48, 50, 52; Collections of the 
Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield, v. 29, p. 9; Elliott Coues' History of the Ex- 
pedition . . . of Lewis and Clark (New York, 1893), v. 1, p. 37. 



Pierre Satren, Luis Febre, and Joseph Riballo, deserters from the 
French post on the Arkansas, were members of a party of 12 which 
set out from a village of Zarca Indians [in eastern Arkansas] in the 
fall of 1748, for New Mexico. They went up the Rio de Napestle 
[the Arkansas] to the two villages of the Jumano or Panipiquet In- 
dians [the Wichitas, possibly in present Kansas]; and were con- 
ducted by those Indians to a Comanche settlement of three villages. 
After remaining for a time, hunting, Satren, Febre, and Riballo ac- 
companied some Comanches to Taos, and from there were taken by 
the Spanish to Santa Fe, arriving six months after leaving the Zarca 
Indians. They were allowed to remain as residents. 

Ref: H. E. Bolton's French Intrusions Into New Mexico 1749-1752 (reprinted from 
Stephens and Bolton's The Pacific Ocean in History (c!917), pp. 400-404; A. B. Thomas' 
The Plains Indians and New Mexico, 1751-1778 (Albuquerque, 1940). 


Felipe de Sandoval ( native of Spain ) who had been at the French 
post on the Arkansas, and who left that place some time in 1749 with 
six other persons, arrived in Santa Fe, N. M., with two Frenchmen 
in February, 1750. Sandoval related that he and his companions 
had traveled up the Rio de Napestle [Arkansas] in canoes. After 
50 days they reached the Jumano [Wichita] settlements where they 
found a French flag flying. These settled people lived along the 
river [possibly in the Wichita area of today] in grass houses, in two 
adjoining villages surrounded by stockades and ditches. They raised 
crops of corn, beans, and melons. The French, with whom they 
carried on an extensive trade, had recently paid them a visit and 
left gifts and the flag. The Jumanos, who numbered about 500 
warriors, were at war with the Pananas [Apaches?] and they were 
"fierce cannibals" according to Sandoval, who had seen them eat 
two captives. They had a few horses, secured from the Comanches. 

Sandoval's party spent 20 days in the Jumano settlement, then set 
out with Indian guides, to find the Comanches. Unsuccessful, San- 
doval and his companions separated, and he, after returning to the 
Jumanos for a few days, set out once more, this time following up 
the Arkansas with a Comanche guide. After 40 days of travel he 
reached a Comanche village, and remained among those Indians 
for some time. Then with two Frenchmen who had come there, 
and an Indian guide, he proceeded by way of Taos to Santa Fe. 
Sandoval thought the Jumanos were 20 to 25 days travel to the 
northeast and east of Taos; and that from the Jumanos, traveling 


down the Arkansas to the French post would require about nine 

Ref: Bolton's French Intrusions, pp. 396-398. 


Governor Velez of Santa Fe, in a report to his superiors, noted 
that on the northwest New Mexican frontier there were the Co- 
manches, and the Jumanes ( whom the French called Panipiquees ) . 
The alliance ( in the latter 1740's ) of the Comanches and Jumanes, 
he wrote, had resulted in their waging war against the Carlanes and 
other Apache bands of New Mexico; and had also made it easier 
for their allies, the French, to advance towards the southwest. 

Velez described the Rio deNapestle [the Arkansas] which had 
its source in a rugged mountain range about 80 leagues from Taos. 
In its upper reaches the river was shallow, he wrote, but Frenchmen 
had told him that it was large at the Jumano [Wichita?] village, and 
farther down where the Colorado [Canadian] joined it, was still 
larger. Velez further reported that New Mexican soldiers under 
Lt. Gen. Bernardo de Bustamante y Tagle, pursuing some Co- 
manches, had followed down the Rio de Napestle to the vicinity of 
the Jumano villages "on which expedition were acquired adequate 
reports of those regions, in the summer very delectable and pleasing, 
and inhabited by innumerable buffalo, which the Divine Providence 
created for the support of the barbarians and the greed of French- 
men." (Presumably this expedition had occurred in the late 1740's. ) 

Ref: Ibid., p. 398; H. E. Bolton's Athanese de Mtzieres and the Louisiana Texas Fron- 
tier, 1768-1780 (Cleveland, 1914), v. 1, p. 48. 


La Jonquiere (commandant at Illinois) reported (September 
25) that the Great Osages had been making continual warfare on 
"Les Panis noirs et picquees" [the black and tattooed Pawnees 
i. e., the Wichitas?] and "have completed the destruction of one of 
their villages, which was begun by the measles and smallpox." 
They [the Wichitas?] had "begged help of the Laytannes [Co- 
manches], a tribe close to the Spaniards. This tribe . . . joined 
them, and they went together against the village of the Great Osages 
when a party of their people were at the Cerne [surround] kill- 
ing animals. + ,; . the Great Osages lost twenty-two of their 
chiefs, and the others left twenty-seven of their people on the 
field of battle. . . ." The Osages had then come to get the 
Illinois Indians to help them avenge the defeat, but the French 


reminded the Illinois that "Les Panis noirs et picquees" and the 
Laytannes were, like themselves, allied with the French, and in- 
duced them not to go with the Osages. La Jonquiere noted that 
the "Laytannes are armed with the lance like the Spaniards. They 
all are mounted on saddle horses, and the women go to war with 

Ref : Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library, v. 29, pp. 357-359, 678; Nasa- 
tir, op. cit., v. 1, pp. 44, 45. 


After a winter at Fort Cavagnolle [on the Missouri, in what is 
now Leavenworth county] Jean Chapuis and Luis Feuilli ( ? ) , joined 
by eight other Frenchmen, set out about the middle of March on a 
trading expedition to New Mexico a trip for which Chapuis had 
secured a license from French authorities. They first went upriver 
to the Panimaha village to obtain horses. There, or later, when 
in the Comanche country, eight men turned back. Chapuis and 
Feuilli, after paying a heavy toll to the Comanches were given 
directions to New Mexico. [Of their route across present Kansas 
there is no record.] 

Forty days later, and four and a half months after setting out 
from Fort Cavagnolle, the two men reached Pecos mission, on 
August 6. They came from the north, guided by an Ae woman 
(a slave fleeing New Mexico) whom they had met north of the 
Arkansas, and persuaded to show them the way. Chapuis and 
Feuilli were taken into custody and sent to Mexico (and from 
there to Spain). The merchandise on their nine pack horses was 
confiscated and sold at auction. 

Ref: Bolton's French Intrusions, pp. 400-404; Thomas, The Plains Indians, pp. 21, 24, 
82, 85, 93, 94, 103-106; Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, p. 42. 


Macarty (the commandant at Illinois) reported, on May 20, 
these items from the Western country: 

"Four men who deserted from the Missouri post [Fort Cavagnolle] were 
killed by 'Les panis noire' [Black Pawnees]. . . . 

"The Laitannes [Comanches], numerous and wandering tribes between 
our posts and the Spaniards, have asked . . . permission to come and 
see me; they said they wished to have a father. . . . 

"The Spaniards have been in convoys as far as the places where they were 
defeated some years ago. . . ." [A reference to the Villasur massacre of 

Ref: Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library, v. 29, pp. 820, 821. 



Ste. Genevieve was settled by the French. (When, in 1763, the 
French territory west of the Mississippi came under Spanish con- 
trol, it was the only organized community in present Missouri.) 


Antoine S. Le Page du Pratz's Histoire de la Louisiane was pub- 
lished in Paris in 1758 (and later in English translation, in London). 
The author (resident in the Natchez-New Orleans area from 1718 
to 1734), wrote extensively, and from personal observation, of the 
lower Mississippi country. For upper Louisiana he had to rely on 
others. He devoted one chapter to an abridged version of Bourg- 
mont's 1724 journey to the Padouca village; and he related a story 
[fabrication?] supposedly obtained in an interview, of a Yazoo In- 
dian named Moncacht-ape who was said to have gone far up the 
Missouri before 1734.) But he apparently knew nothing of La 
Harpe's 1719-1721 discoveries, or of the Mallet brothers* 1739 jour- 
ney to Santa Fe, or even of the existence of the great Platte river. In 
short, both Le Page du Pratz's writings and his map of Louisiana 
(dated 1757, and published in the Histoire) were more than 20 years 
out-of-date in presenting French geographical knowledge of the 
1750's. (Delisle's map of 1718 contained more, and better data on 
the country of the Arkansas and the Missouri. ) Of these rivers Le 
Page du Pratz wrote: 

[The Arkansas] . . . takes its rise in the mountains adjoining to the 
east of Santa Fe. It afterwards goes up a little to the north [the great bend 
in south-central Kansas] from whence it comes down to the south, a little 
lower than its source. . . . 

[The Missouri] . . . takes its rise at eight hundred leagues distance, 
as is alleged, from the place where it discharges itself into the Mississippi 
. . . though the Missouri comes out of a mountain, which lies to the 
northwest of New Mexico, we are told that all the lands it passes through 
are generally rich. . . . The French [have] . . . penetrated up the 
Missouri only for about three hundred leagues at most. . . . According 
to what I have been able to learn about the course of this great river, from 
its source to the Canzas, it runs from west to east; and from that nation it 
falls down to the southward, where it receives the river of the Canzas, which 
comes from the west; there it forms a great elbow, which terminates in the 
neighborhood of the Missouris. . . . The largest known river which 
falls into the Missouri is that of the Canzas which runs for near two hundred 
leagues in a very fine country. . . . 

[Of the Indian tribes of the Missouri country] The principal nations who 
inhabit upon the banks, or in the neighborhood of the Missouri, are, besides 
. i . [the Missouris and Osages], the Canzas, the Othoues, the White 


Panis, the Black Panis, the Panimachas, the Aiouez, and the Padoucas. The 
most numerous of all those nations are the Padoucas, the smallest are the 
Aiouez, the Othoues, and the Osages; the others are pretty considerable. 

Ref: Antoine S. Le Page du Pratz, Histoire de la Louisiana (Paris, 1758); Bernard 
De Veto's The Course of Empire (Boston, 1952), pp. 566-568 (for discussion of Mon- 


Describing the Missouri river Indians with whom the French had 
dealings, the governor of Louisiana (Louis Billouart de Kerlerec), 
reported that the Kansa had only 250 to 300 warriors. They had 
once been very numerous, he wrote, but wars with the Pawnees, 
and smallpox had greatly weakened them. He mentioned their 
great friendship for the French, and noted that Fort Cavagnolle was 
located at their village. He stated that the Great Osages numbered 
700 warriors; the Little Osages 250; the Missouris about 150; the 
Otoes 100; the lowas 200; the Pani-Mahas on the Platte 600; the 
Mahas on the Missouri 800; and the Arikaras were thought to be 
more numerous than the Mahas. 

Ref: Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, pp. 51-53. 


On November 3, by the secret treaty of San Ildefonso, France 
ceded Louisiana west of the Mississippi, plus the Isle d'Orleans, to 
her ally Spain. 

(To Be Continued in the Summer, 1961, Issue.) 

Some Notes on Kansas Cowtown Police Officers 
and Gun Fighters Continued 



(1846?- ) 

/^ALDWELL was incorporated on July 22, 1879, and the city 
^S government was formed following the election of August 7. 
One week later city ordinance No. 3, providing for a marshal and 
policeman, was passed. Appointed under this ordinance were 
George W. Flatt, marshal, and Dan W. Jones, deputy. 

That Deputy Marshal Jones was a courageous man there can be 
little doubt, for he had exhibited considerable fortitude after being 
thrown from a horse, December 31, 1878. The Caldwell Post of 
January 2, 1879, described the misfortune: 





Dan Jones, who is well known to the people in these parts, met with a very 
painful accident last Tuesday, the particulars of which are as follows: In the 
morning of the day named, he started on horseback from the Red Fork ranch, 
I. T., intending to look at a herd of cattle some distance below. After part of 
the distance had been accomplished, and when Dan was little thinking of dan- 
ger, his horse fell and threw him, breaking his leg. Unable to remount, and 
too far away from any human being to make himself heard by shouting, he 
began to think of some means whereby assistance might be obtained. Al- 
though suffering terribly with the broken limb, the brave man strapped it to 
the other and commenced crawling toward a high ridge overlooking Red Fork 
ranch. All Tuesday night the plucky fellow was out, without any covering 
save the clothing he wore. How many of our readers, under similar circum- 
stances suffering to the intensest degree the agony of a broken leg, and almost 
freezing to death from the severity of the cold, would have displayed the grit 
that he did. Nor has all been told. 

Daylight came at last, and with it the hopes of the brave man rose, for the 
worst, he thought, had been passed. Slowly creeping on his painful journey, 
Dan at length saw the much-wished-for ridge. At last it was reached, and 
taking his hat he waved it feebly for his strength was fast leaving him. Geo. 
Haines, the keeper of the ranch, saw it, and thinking it was a hunter who had 

NYLE H. MILLER and JOSEPH W. SNELL are members of the staff of the Kansas State 
Historical Society. 

NOTE: These articles on Kansas cowtown officers and gun fighters, with additional 
information and an index, are expected to be reprinted and offered for sale under one 
cover, upon completion of the series in the Quarterly. 



killed a deer, and that he was signaling for help, went to his assistance. 
Imagine his surprise when, instead of finding the hunter and the slain deer, he 
saw the man who had the day before started from his house, in such a pitiable 
condition. Mr. Jones was taken to the ranch, and word sent to Dr. Hodge, at 
Fort Reno, who came up and attended to the needs of the sufferer. 

It was Tuesday morning when the accident happened, and three o'clock 
P. M., Wednesday, when the man was found. It shows the stuff of which the 
man is made, when he crawled three miles with a broken leg, while almost 
freezing, and being without food for nearly thirty-six hours. At last accounts 
the wounded man was improving, and we hope it may not be long before he will 
be able to "go it alone" again. 

Caldwell's police court docket, the initial entry being dated Sep- 
tember 6, 1879, recorded Jones' first arrest on September 22. On 
that same day this embarrassing incident occurred, and was re- 
corded in the Post, September 25: 

That "mistakes occur in the best of regulated families'* was only verrified 
by the singular and unexpected incarceration and disarming of Deputy City 
Marshal Dan Jones last Monday night, the circumstances of which are very 
difficult to detail so that a modest public might clearly and unmistakably com- 
prehend the situation, but the trials and tribulations of the news-monger can 
only be surmised by those who were so unfortunate as to read of Mr. Beecher 
in his balmy days, however, we will proceed by saying that Dan is a very 
efficient officer, and where Dan can't be found, you can't find any one, as the 
sequel will show. 

It happened at one of Caldwell's fashionable hotels, and, like all other 
fashionable hotels, has two small rooms over each door is an inscription by 
which a person may know whether he is to be admitted or not, but it being 
dark, and Dan's "business" qualifications not allowing him to stop and read 
everything that is hung up entered. About this time a lady attempted to enter 
but was foiled by Dan turning an inside latch the lady hastened away, but 
soon returned with the key (this is not a romance) locked, unlocked and 
relocked and finally left to return no more. 

Now as Dan's occupation calls him on the street he concluded that he might 
depart with safety, but imagine his feelings when he discovered that he had 
been locked in, but, as will be seen, Dan is equal to all emergencies, and 
began trying to extricate himself from his odorous prison. There is a seat in 
the room just opposite the door upon which Dan sat himself down, put his 
feet against the door, and with Heenan like strength pushed the door asunder, 
and at the same instant back went Dan's revolver down, down to the bottom- 
less after which a light was brought into requisition it was fished up, a 
tub of water, barrel of soft soap and scrubbing-brush were readily used up 
and the pistol looks as natural as ever, and if the street gossip don't mention 
this we will never a say a word about it to Dan. 

On October 29, 1879, Marshal Flatt and Deputy Jones failed to 
catch John Dean who was firing his pistol within the city limits. 
The Post article describing this escape was included in the section 
on Flatt. 


Under his first appointment, Jones' final arrests, recorded in the 
police court docket, were made November 3, 1879, when he brought 
in four alleged violators of the law. 

On April 12, 1880, Dan Jones was nominated assistant city 
marshal by the newly elected mayor of Caldwell, Mike Meagher. 
The city council confirmed his appointment as well as those of 
William Horseman, marshal, and James Johnson, policeman, re- 
ported the Post, April 15, 1880. 

Jones' first arrest under this new appointment was made April 
19. The Caldwell police court docket stated: 

One Jersey Defendant arrested on the complaint of D. W. Jones, Assist 
Marshall charging that on the 19 day of April A. D. 1880, at the said City 
of Caldwell the said Defendant Riding his horse at Full Speed Through the 
streets of Caldwell. 
Deft Pleads Guilty. 
Fine $3.00 + cost. 

Police Judge 
Fine and cost paid. 


Acting Police Judge 

Paid to treasure by J. M. Thomas 

Jersey's arrest was recorded in the Caldwell Post, April 22, 1880: 

One day in the early part of the week one of our noble defenders, holding 
the exalted rank of corporal in Uncle Sam's army, was vainly attempting to 
get up a race with some one. At last he made up his mind he would try 
to beat his own shadow, so putting spurs to his horse, he went down Main 
street like a thousand of brick. Dan Jones, our assistant marshal con- 
sidered himself capable of being referee in the matter and declared "a foul." 
The corporal goodnaturedly paid the city $7 for the use of the race course. 

Jones and Policeman Johnson arrested another soldier on April 
24. The article reporting this arrest was reprinted in the section 
on James Johnson. 

Soldiers were also the cause of a fight which took place in the 
"Keno room" on May 11, 1880. This article was reprinted in the 
section on William Horseman. 

There is some confusion on the terminal date of Jones' second 
appointment. The Caldwell police court docket did not list him 
as a complaining officer after May 8, 1880, but the United States 
census, enumerated as of June 5, recorded him as assistant marshal. 
Apparently he was not on the city force when George Flatt was 
killed, June 19. He was at that time, however, a township con- 
stable and the first man to whom Flatt spoke after he had been 


Jones was among those arrested for suspected complicity in the 
crime. The Caldwell Commercial, July 1, 1880, labeled him "con- 
stable" in its report of the arrests while the Post of the same date 
merely identified him as "Mister" Jones. When the Flatt murder 
case was tried at the April, 1881, term of the district court, Jones 
was released because his name had been omitted from the in- 
formation. The sections on Flatt, Horseman, Johnson, and Meagher 
contain more material on the arrest and trial of the city authorities. 

Constable Jones arrested a horse thief on July 21, 1880. The 
Caldwell Commercial of July 22, reported: 

There was quite a little flurry of excitement at the Eldorado stables yes- 
terday morning, caused by the arrest of a horse thief. The thief's name is 
D. Waterman, and the horse was stolen on Monday night from a man named 
J. C. Brain, living between Winfield and Arkansas City. Brain discovered 
the loss of the animal some time during the night, and at once sent parties 
out to catch the thief and recover the property. Among those who started 
out were C. McKerlie and D. W. Ramage. They struck Waterman's trail 
at Arkansas City, followed him from there to Caldwell, reaching here about 
dark, some three or four hours after Waterman had arrived and put up his 
horse at the Eldorado stables. Finding the man and horse both here, and 
not likely to get away, they waited until yesterday morning before taking in 
the outfit. 

At daylight Waterman concluded it was about time for him to start out, 
and mounting his horse, put out for the north. Ramage and McKerlie im- 
mediately went in search of a policeman, and finding Dan Jones, pursuit was 
given and the thief overhauled before he had time to get any distance from 
town. Waterman owns up to the theft and says he stole the horse because 
he was broke and wanted to raise a stake. And he succeeded beyond his 
most sanguine expectations. He will be staked to a few years grub and hard 
work under the fostering care of the State institution near Leavenworth. 

Jones was reappointed several times for short periods of service 
as a special policeman. Arrests made by him were docketed on 
September 13 and October 14, 1880. On October 9 it was in that 
capacity that Jones aided Marshal Johnson in the fruitless pursuit 
of Frank Hunt's killer. The article reporting Hunt's death and the 
actions of the marshal and his special assistant has been printed in 
the section on Hunt. 

Red Bill Jones, a name given Dan Jones by the Caldwell Post, 
October 30, 1879, reappeared in the Post and the Caldwell Com- 
mercial, October 27, 1881. Said the Commercial: 

Bill Jones, better known as "Red Bill," turned himself loose for a little racket 
on Tuesday night. Bill was taken in and locked up in the cooler, but upon 
going to that institution yesterday morning, Marshal [John] Rowen found the 



door broken open and the bird gone. A states warrant has been issued against 
William and the next time he puts in an appearance he will be arrested again 
and trotted through on high pressure. 

It seems unlikely that Dan "Red Bill" Jones and William "Red 
Bill" Jones were one and the same. Only a few days after the above 
event Dan Jones was offered the marshalship of Caldwell, a proposi- 
tion hardly to be tendered an escapee with a state warrant on his 
head. Dan Jones, as well as Mike Meagher and George Brown, 
refused the position and with that Jones disappeared from the annals 
of the Caldwell police force. 



Joseph "Rowdy Joe" Lowe, and his wife Rowdy Kate, were two 
of the early characters in Wichita's tough district, Delano. The team 
operated what was ostensibly a dance hall and saloon but which was 
actually a house of prostitution. Delano, or West Wichita as it was 
more often called, was not a part of the city of Wichita but was a 
separate community across the Arkansas river. City authority did 
not extend beyond the river and West Wichita had no law of its 
own. When things would get too "hot" for trouble makers in 
Wichita they merely had to cross the bridge at the foot of Douglas 
avenue to find refuge in West Wichita. From the earliest days there 
were some persons who felt that West Wichita should be annexed 
and law extended over its bounds but others saw the place as a 
safety valve, a necessary adjunct to house the lively element at- 
tendant to any cowtown. 

In June, 1872, after a visit to Wichita, the editor of the Emporia 
Ledger had this to say about West Wichita: 


of Wichita is not of such a terrible nature after all. The city is governed by 
an excellent body of officers, due strictness and enforcement being paid to law. 
We saw nothing while there to induce us to encourage the report for crime and 
wickedness which has already gone forth. "Over the river" may be called the 
red-hot place of Wichita, where everything originates and culminates to give 
a hard name to this youthful city. Some are agitating the addition of West 
Wichita to the city, but we believe that in doing so the city proper will be 
injured more than benefitted, because authority will be required to cover too 
much ground, and in leaving it out the city has now some point for a vent to 
everything bordering upon crime. If West Wichita should become a part of the 
city there would be just as much freedom to transcend the decencies of civiliza- 
tion in one portion of the city as any, but leaving it out, all such parties will 
go over the bridge to be buried. With the present condition of things we ask 
no better protection than Wichita now offers. 1 


Rowdy Joe was his own policeman. When a customer became 
too rambunctious after a night of swill and gaiety, Joe would calm 
him down with a pistol whipping. Such an incident occurred on 
July 19, 1872, and was reported in the Wichita Eagle on July 26: 

A fracas occurred at the dance house of Joseph Lowe, in West Wichita, 
on last Friday evening, in which a man by the name of Joseph Walters, who 
was at the time drunk, was badly bruised and cut about the face and head, 
by a revolver in the hands of the keeper of the house. Dr. [W. T.] Hendrick- 
son dressed the man's wounds. From what we can learn Walters invited the 
attack by very disorderly conduct. At this writing the wounded man lies in 
a very critical condition. 

A correspondent (perhaps S. S. Prouty, general manager) of the 
Topeka Daily Kansas Commonwealth described Rowdy Joe's on 
October 15, 1872: 

A description of Wichita would be incomplete without a notice of the 
notorious dance house on the west side of the river, kept by that singular 


or Joseph Lowe, his real name. Joe has been a frontiersman for many years, 
and has experienced about as much roughness as any other man. His dance 
house is patronized mainly by cattle herders, though all classes visit it; the re- 
spectable mostly from curiosity. I understand that the receipts over his bar 
average over one hundred dollars per night for months. The receipts are for 
drinks. No tax is levied for dancing, but it is expected that the males will 
purchase drinks for themselves and female partners at the conclusion of each 
dance. Joe is his own policeman, and maintains the best of order. No one is 
disposed to pick a quarrel with him, or infringe upon the rules of his house. 
A dancing party at this place is unique, as well as interesting. The Texan, 
with mammoth spurs on his boots, which are all exposed, and a broad brimmed 
sombrero on his head, is seen dancing by the side of a well-dressed, gentle- 
manly-appearing stranger from some eastern city; both having painted and 
jeweled courtezans for partners. In the corner of the hall are seen gamblers 
playing at their favorite game of poker. Jests and conversation suitable to 
the place and oc[ca]sion are heard. I would not recommend the establishment 
as one adapted for the schooling of the rising generation, but to those of mature 
years, who should become acquainted with all phases of society, Rowdy Joe's 
is a good place to get familiarized with one peculiar phase. While I would not 
recommend Rowdy Joe as a model for Sunday school scholars, yet I am con- 
strained to say that there are many men passing in society as gentlemen whose 
hearts are black in comparison with his. 

Possibly the correspondent did not know that the person whose 
heart he so charitably described had been involved in several early 
day escapades which obviously had no connection with Sunday 
school. For instance, on July 16, 1869, Joe and a companion 
drugged and robbed a man in Ellsworth. The Junction City Weekly 
Union, July 24, 1869, reported the act: 


Friday night of last week a man was found drugged and robbed in Ellsworth 
by fellows known as Jim Bush and Rowdy Joe, the people got after them and 
in a few days secured the robbers and about seven hundred and fifty dollars 
of the money. They turned the money over to a pal named Howe who was also 
secured. The parties were permitted to leave the country. . . . 

In November, 1870, Lowe was accused of stealing a mule. The 
case was recorded in the docket of the Wichita township justice 
of the peace: 

The State of Kansas 

against Criminal Action 35 

Joseph Low 

Comes now T. I. McAdams this day of November 1870, and after 

being swom according to Law deposes and Says that one Joseph Low on or 
about the 12th day of October A. D. 1870 at and in Said County of Sedgwick 
and State of Kansas, then and there being, did feloniously Steal take and 
carry away One Slate Colored Mule of the Value of One Hundred and Seventy 
five Dollars the personal property of Thos J. McAdams 

November 1870 State Warrant issued returnable forthwith 
Served this warrant by arresting Joseph Low alias Rody [sic] Joe at Ells- 
worth City Ellsworth County Kans and bringing him to Wichita Sedgwick 
County Kansas before Justice Van Trees Wichita J. P. Kans This 17th day of 
March 1871. 

Fees Serving Warrant 75 

Milage 200 miles 20.00 

Board 5 00 

Jailor 1000 

Expenses 5 00 


W. N. WALKER Sheriff 
J. C. SEIBER Deputy 

And now towit on this 17th day of March 1871 this Cause Comes on for 
hearing, the Prosecuting Witness not appearing, the County Atty Dismissed this 
action at the Costs of the Prosecuting Witness T. I. McAdams. 

Costs taxed at $49.40. VAN TREES J. P. 

In Ellsworth, too, Rowdy Joe and Kate kept a saloon but the 
United States census enumerator for the county forever branded 
their real occupation on his tally sheet when in scarlet letters he 
wrote before their names "house of ill fame." Kate, by the way, 
was only 19 years old when the census was taken on July 1, 1870, 
while Joe was 24. Both were born in Illinois. 

In May, 1873, sportsman Lowe was injured in an accident on his 
way home from the races. The Eagle, May 22, 1873, said: 

On returning from the races last Saturday, Joseph Lowe's familiarly known 
as Rowdy Joe horse fell, throwing Mr. L. under him. He was picked up 
insensible and carried into the house of Ida May and a doctor sent for. At 


this writing (Monday) we have not heard further, but several who saw the 
accident thought him badly hurt. 

Next door to Rowdy Joe's place in West Wichita a similar house 
was operated by E. T. "Red" Beard. On June 3 a shooting occurred 
there which eventually caused the destruction of Red's and threat- 
ened the existence of Rowdy Joe's. The Eagle, June 5, 1873, re- 

A shooting affray occurred on the west bank of the river, opposite Wichita, 
on Tuesday morning, between a party of rowdies and some soldiers, in which 
a "girl of the period" named Emma Stanley received a severe wound, two 
soldiers also being seriously injured. Doley, a private, was shot through the 
neck, the ball being extracted from the throat. Another soldier, named Boyle, 
had his right shin bone splintered by another ball. Neither of the parties were 
implicated in the origin of the affray. The balls were extracted by Dr. [C. C.] 
Furley, and the parties are all doing well. 

The Topeka Commonwealth, June 4, 1873, went into more detail: 





Wichita, Kansas, June 3. A shooting scrape occurred at Red's dance house 
in West Wichita, in which two soldiers of company A 6th cavalry, and Emma 
Stanley, an inmate of the house, were badly wounded. The shooting originated 
in a quarrel which one of the soldiers had with the woman. He claims that 
she was attempting to beat him out of five dollars, and that he threatened to 
shoot her unless she complied with his demands, which she treated with con- 
tempt. He then drew his revolver and shot her through the fleshy part of the 
thigh, six inches below the hip joint. As soon as the shot was fired Red instantly 
drew his self -cocking revolver and commenced an indiscriminate fusilade, shoot- 
ing two soldiers. One soldier was shot an inch below the angle of the lower 
jaw, in the neck, the ball lodging in the throat at the base of the tongue, and 
nearly severing it in its passage. It was extracted by Dr. Finley [C. C. Furley], 
of this city. His comrade received a ball through the middle of the calf of the 
leg, severely splintering the shin bone. The soldiers who were shot were not 
engaged in the quarrel, and are spoken of by their comrades as being very quiet 
and gentlemanly. The soldier who commenced the affray escaped unhurt and 
deserted last night. The dance house was closed this morning when your re- 
porter called, and no admittance could be obtained. Rumor has it that Red 
has disappeared and will not be seen until the soldiers leave, who are en route 
for Ft. Hays. They are terribly indignant and threaten to raze the house to the 

Lively times are expected to-night. . . , . 

Not long after, the indignant soldiers returned. The Eagle, June 
5, 1873, reported: 

The soldiers have carried out their threat. This morning about 2 o'clock 


we were aroused from sleep by the rapid discharge of firearms across the river. 
Hurrying on our clothes we ran down to the bridge, by which time the lurid 
flames were bursting forth from "Red's" dance house, accompanied by a yell 
from a squad of some thirty soldiers, whom we met on the bridge, marching 
by fours. They appeared to be perfectly possessed, and after the order to 
"shoulder arms," asked us "how is that for high?" pointing to the burning build- 
ing. Being the first upon the ground, we found a man lying some fifty yards 
in front of the burning building, who gave his name as Chas. Leshhart, wounded 
through the body. We saw no one else that was hurt, but we heard that one 
of the girls was wounded, and that the girl wounded in the melee on Monday 
night had received a fresh shot. In a few minutes hundreds of citizens were 
upon the ground, and by prompt action and considerable exertion the house 
of Joseph Lowe was saved. The soldiers went off up Water street. We have 
no room for comments, but upon the whole the affairs of Monday and last 
night are no credit to our neighbor town. 

The avenging troopers had been well organized. The Eagle, June 
12, 1873, mentioned their precautions: "Before the soldiers made 
their raid upon Red's dance house, on last Wednesday night, they 
stationed a guard around the sheriffs [John Meagher's] house, an- 
other at the end of the bridge, and another with the horses on a 
back street." 

Rowdy Joe and his neighbor, Red, were fighting again the night 
of October 27, 1873, but this time they chose each other. The after- 
math of the combat included Red's death and Rowdy Joe's hasty 
departure from Sedgwick county. The Eagle, October 30, 1873, 

The dance houses on the west side of the river were again the scene of a 
terrible and fearful onset, on Monday night last. We have heard the versions 
of the principal actors, as also that of outsiders and the officers, with little 
satisfaction. Suffice it to say that the proprietors of the two dance houses in 
West Wichita, which stand in close proximity, "Rowdy Joe" and "Red," both 
being mad from the effects of distilled poison, and armed with revolvers and 
shot guns, waltzed into a deadly melee. Rowdy Joe was shot in the back of the 
neck with a pistol ball. The wound is not dangerous. Red was wounded in 
the arm and hip by buck shot from a shot gun. The chances are that he will 
lose the lower part of his arm. A poor dance girl, Annie Franklin, sick at the 
time, received a shot in the abdomen, which the doctors think must prove fatal. 
Bill Anderson, who through mistake killed a man last spring, was shot in the 
head, the ball passing just back of the eyes. Was alive at last accounts. Rowdy 
Joe gave himself up, and is now out on $2,000 bail. No other arrests have been 
made, we believe. Comment is unnecessary, and a further dilation worse than 

Red died on November 11. The Wichita Eagle, November 13, 
1873, said: 

E. T. Beard, better known as "Red," the proprietor of one of the dance 
houses across the river, paid the penalty of his misdeeds with his life, on Tues- 


day morning at 3 o'clock a. m. It will be remembered that he was shot in a 
row at his dance house some two weeks since. A post mortem examination was 
made upon the body day before yesterday by Dr. [H.] Owens, the coroner. In 
company with Mr. [Fred A.] Sowers, of the Beacon, we proceeded to the Eagle 
Hotel, where we found seven doctors and a coroner's jury. The examination 
disclosed that his right arm at the elbow had been shattered fearfully and was 
in a state of decay. The wound in the hip was also in the same state. In the 
latter wound a bullet was found imbedded in the bone. Traces of pus were 
discovered, we believe, about the wound and in the lungs. The examination 
was very thorough, but we withdrew before the entire process was gone through 
with. At the hotel were several frail women, who had been inmates of his 
house, who seemed much affected. We noticed also Rowdy Joe, who is charged 
with shooting Red, who wore a solemn countenance. 

The post mortem examination, technically and properly stated, revealed the 
fact of death by infiltration of pus in the blood, the result of gun shot wounds. 

E. T. Beard was formerly from Beardstown, 111., which place was laid out 
and named after his father, who was wealthy. He was well educated, and had 
Christian training. He has three children, two daughters and a son, nearly 
grown, who are now attending school somewhere in the east, and know nothing 
of their father's wild life in the west. He was about forty-five years of age, 
straight as an arrow, red hair, which fell in a profusion of curls upon his shoul- 
ders, and from which he took his name of "Red," an enormous moustache and 
large nose. He knew no such thing as fear and was counted one of the best 
shots on the border. At the time of the burning of his house last summer by 
U. S. soldiers, and at which time, in a desperate encounter against great odds, 
he shot and wounded several, he remarked to some of our citizens that he 
would not live the summer through. He told Dr. Furley last week that he 
followed the disreputable business only in the hopes of getting a start in the 
world again, but if he got over his wounds he would never go inside of a dance 
house again. 

"Oh, what a sign it is of evil life 

When death's approach is seen so terrible." 

Beard left some property and money in the hands of parties here for the use 
and benefit of his children, in the shape of a regular bequest. 

A Winfield editor, who had known Red in days before, gave some 
additional information: 

"Red." James Kelley, the editor of the Windfield Courier, who was in 
Wichita the day "Red" was burned, was acquainted with the desperado in his 
early life, and in his paper makes the following interesting note: 

"Red was none other than Ed. Beard, whose father gave to Beardstown, Cass 
county, Illinois, his name. We remember Ed. Beard as a jolly, rollicking young 
man, without a single bad trait in his make up. He married an estimable young 
lady near Virginia, Cass county. The writer of this article met "Red" last July, 
at Wichita, for the first time since he left Illinois, ten or twelve years ago. He 
then gave us his solemn promise that so soon as the Texas "season" was over 
he would abandon forever his wild, infamous life. The next time we saw him 
was in his coffin, and while we stood and gazed on that lifeless clay, going back 
in thought to his wild reckless life for the last twelve years, in California, Ore- 


gon and Arizonia, where his name was a terror to everybody, we could hardly 
convince ourselves that this was the handsome, jovial gifted Ed. Beard. Verily, 
the way of the transgressor is hard. Peace to his ashes." 2 

On November 20, 1873, the Eagle reported: 

Joseph Lowe, charged with killing Beard, had his examination before Esquire 
[E. B.] Jewett this week, [H. C.] Sluss upon the part of the state, [S. M.] 
Tucker for the defendant, the result of which was, bound over in the sum of 
$2,000 for his appearance at the December term of court. The evidence is very 
voluminous, and, although we procured much of it, we cannot spare the space 
for its insertion. 

Rowdy Joe's case came up before the Sedgwick county district 
court on December 9, 1873. The Eagle, December 11, reported: 

The district court opened Monday noon, with Judge W. P. Campbell on 
the bench. . . . 

Tuesday morning the case, state of Kansas vs. Joseph Lowe, alias, Rowdy 
Joe, was called. The court room filled with curious and interested people. In 
securing a jury the usual number of preemptory challenges were exhausted by 
the defense, but an unobjectionable jury was empannelled within an hour or 
two. H. C. Sluss for the state, [B. H.] Fisher, Tucker and [J. Smith] Deveny 
for the defense. Much interest has been evinced by court, bar and jury in the 
evidence given by the witnesses for the state, who, at this writing, Wednesday 
morning, we give in their testimony, and the prosecuting attorney will, in a 
few moments, rest his case. We understand that a large number of witnesses 
will be examined for the defense, and when the case will be given to the jury 
it is impossible to say, although a verdict may be reached before tomorrow 
morning. To give an opinion, or even to hazard a guess, as to what the verdict 
will be, would be impossible, of course, in this connection, but should one be 
rendered before going to press to-night we shall append it to this article. 

The trial went to the jury on December 10 and the next morning 
Rowdy Joe was pronounced not guilty. New warrants were then 
issued against him for wounding Anderson and for destruction of 
property, but Lowe had skipped out. The Wichita Eagle, Decem- 
ber 18, 1873, said: 

In the culmination of the trial of Rowdy Joe on last Wednesday evening, for 
the killing of Red, more than ordinary interest was evinced by the people of 
the city. The court room was crowded, the stage in the rear of the hall even 
being filled. The judge charged the jury at great length on what constituted 
murder in the second degree, including five lesser crimes, either of which the 
prisoner might be found guilty under the charge. There were four speeches 
made by counsel, of the average duration of an hour each. H. C. Sluss, for the 
state, opened with a review of the entire testimony, giving his constructions 
and conclusions. After supper he was followed by S. M. Tucker for the de- 
fense, who not only in a clever but able manner reviewed the case in all its 
legal bearings. He in turn was followed by Smith Deveny, of Olathe, in an 
appeal to the jury, in which was recited the redeeming traits of Rowdy Joe, and 
in which was pictured in not very enviable colors the vagabond and desperado, 


Red. By this time the interest of the spectators was visible to court and jury. 

Mr. Sluss rose to close. His earnest manner told that he appreciated his 
surroundings. Embarrassed by his own witnesses, who were composed of men 
and women in full sympathy with the accused, whose sense of modesty and 
appreciation of right had long since been sacrificed with their virtue, and who 
cared little for the obligations of an oath, and less for the penalty that is 
attached to its violation, he had been conducting the case through almost hope- 
less surroundings. But unawed by menaces and undismayed in the absence of 
sympathy, with all the earnestness of his nature, he stood up to defend the 
sacred right to life, and the majesty of the law. 

Despite the fact of being in a court of justice, upon closing his speech the 
spectators gave way to an uproarous applauding. It was a spontaneous ac- 
knowledgment by the better class of citizens of the able and conscientious 
manner in which the attorney for the people had discharged his duty. The 
jury retired at about 10 o'clock. A verdict of "not guilty" was rendered next 

Immediately another writ was issued for his arrest for shooting Anderson, 
also an action was commenced against him for damages. The pressure was too 
great, and Rowdy Joe came up missing last Sunday morning. He had eluded 
the vigilance of the officer, Mr. [John] Nugent, who had him in charge, and 
at this writing nothing has been heard of him. Sheriff [William] Smith with a 
posse followed all Saturday night, but returned disappointed. On Monday 
Smith had several parties arrested for participating or criminality in his escape, 
among them Rowdie Kate, the result of which we will inform our readers all 
in good season. 

Sedgwick County Sheriff William Smith offered $100 for Rowdy 
Joe's return. The Eagle, December 18, 1873, published a description 
of the wanted man: 

I will give $100.00 reward for the apprehension of one Joseph Lowe, alias 
Rowdy Joe, a fugitive from justice from Sedgwick county, Kansas. He is about 
28 years old, 5 feet 9 inches tall, heavy set, dark complexion, black hair, and 
heavy black moustache, gruff manners, formerly proprietor of a dance house. 
Had a scar on right side of neck from a pistol ball. Had on, when last seen, 
black pants, brown frock coat, and a brown overcoat, trimmed with fur; rode a 
bay horse with California saddle. The foregoing is the matter of a notice sent 
to all sheriffs in the western states by Wm. Smith. 

A few days after the trial, Rowdy Joe showed up in Osage Mission, 
a Neosho county town now known as St. Paul. William D. Walker, 
editor of the Osage Mission Transcript, did not know another war- 
rant was hanging over Joe's head when, on December 19, 1873, he 
wrote: "ROWDY JOE the famous Wichitan is in town, and not much 
rowdy about him after all/' 

The same day, however, Editor Walker learned of the second 
charge against Lowe, but the culprit had flown "GTT" (gone to 
Texas ) as the frontiersmen called it. The editor immediately noti- 
fied the Wichita Eagle, which reported: 


Rowdy Joe, it seems from the following card, went direct east instead of 
south or southwest, as nearly every one supposed he had. Mr. Walker, who 
writes us, is the editor of the Transcript and knows Rowdy Joe, so there is no 

OSAGE MISSION, Dec. 19th, 1873. 

BROS MURDOCK: Had your EAGLE reached here one day sooner, Rowdy Joe 
would have been taken. He has been here for several days, but left here yester- 
day morning for Texas. The horse is still in a stable. He watched the papers 
regularly in my office. Yours, WALKER. 3 

In spite of the fact that Lowe could not be caught, the Wichita 
Eagle seemed satisfied with the results of the trial: 

Wichita is fast getting rid of that element which has proved such a curse to 
her prosperity, thanks to the county attorney and the improved sentiment of the 
place which is backing him up. Rowdy Joe made a telling shot that night. It 
shot "Red" into eternity; himself out of the country; Anderson through the head; 
[Walter] Beebe, Red's bar tender, into the penitentiary [for assisting Joe to 
escape]; Joe De Merritt, Red's mistress, into the penitentiary; Rowdy Kate to 
parts unknown; and Smith, Omet and another into jail for perjury. "The mills 
of the gods grind slowly but they grind exceedingly small." Patten was sen- 
tenced for a year, Beebe for three years, and Josephine De Merritt for ten 
years. 4 

Rowdy Joe was finally arrested in St. Louis, Mo., on January 3, 
1874. A dispatch from St. Louis, reprinted in the Wichita Eagle, 
January 8, notified the town of his capture and subsequent release: 


ST. Louis, Mo., Jan. 5. Joseph Lowe, alias A. A. Becker, was arrested here 
on Saturday by orders received from Kansas, and was released to-day on a writ 
of habeas corpus, and after it was known that Sheriff Smith, of Sedgwick county, 
would arrive here on the first train to take him back to Kansas. Over $8,000 
were found on Lowe. 

Ex-Sheriff Smith arrived home yesterday. The facts above given, he says, 
are correct. After he was notified that Joe was under arrest he telegraphed to 
the officers of St. Louis three times to hold him, as he would procure a requisi- 
tion and be down on the next train. Just as he got ready to start he was notified 
by telegraph that Joe had escaped upon a writ of habeas corpus. It is evident 
that somebody in St. Louis was bought up. 

The St. Louis Democrat evidently felt the same way but in addi- 
tion to the charge of bribery the Democrat included internal bicker- 
ing within the St. Louis police department as a factor in Lowe's 



For some time past the chief of police and the detectives have not been on 
the most friendly terms. There were various causes for this, but the matter was 
kept very quiet, and few knew of it, save those whose daily duty brings them 


in contact with the police department. Yesterday this trouble rose to the sur- 
face, and there is a prospect that in a few days it will result in something 
.serious. The cause of yesterday's rupture is as follows: 

On Saturday last a noted character from Nevada named Joseph Low, fa- 
miliarly known by the elegant cognomen of "Rowdy Joe," was arrested at the 
Laclede hotel by Detective Duckworth, one of the shrewdest men on the force. 
Low had been in the city some time and was under the surveillance of the 
detectives, who knew his reputation and suspected that his visit was not for any 
good. They were not aware that he was needed anywhere else until the receipt 
of the following telegram: 

LEAVENWORTH, January 2nd. 

Arrest and hold A. A. Becker for breaking jail; about five feet ten inches; 
thirty years old; square shoulders; heavy built; very full face; black moustache, 
eyes and hair; fresh scar across the back of his neck. He is to meet Kate Low 
to-morrow morning on arrival of one of the trains from Kansas City. Kate left 
here at 3 p. m. Kate is slender built; light brown hair; waterproof suit lined 
with red; has with her one large bull-dog in express car; also one small yellow 
lap dog; she will probably arrive by Missouri Pacific. A. A. Becker is an as- 
sumed name; is stopping at the Laclede hotel. C. H. HALLETT, 

Deputy United States Marshal. 

Two days afterward another dispatch was received from Wm. Smith, sheriff 
-of Sedgwick county, Kansas [Smith had been defeated for sheriff on November 
4, 1873, and on January 1, 1874, turned the office over to the successful candi- 
date, Pleasant H. Massey], asking if Low had been arrested, and on January 5th, 
still another came, as follows: 

LEAVENWORTH, January 5th. 

Is Low still in your custody? Answer quick. If so, I will be down on the 
next train. WM. SMITH, Sheriff. 

And yesterday morning, in answer to the telegram announcing the arrest of 
Lowe, a dispatch was received from Smith, stating that he would be down on 
the next train, and asking the Chief to hold the prisoner until his arrival. 

When Low was arrested, the snug sum of $8,295 was found on him. He 
passed under the assumed name of A. A. Becker, and was having a gay time 
with the boys. 

Yesterday morning Mr. R. S. MacDonald and Kate Low, the prisoner's wife, 
called on Chief McDonough and had a conference, which resulted in the chief 
sending a note to Mr. A. W. Mead, the attorney of the board, asking whether the 
money found in Low's possession could be turned over to his wife. Mr. Mead 
answered that if he was not arrested on a charge which involved the money, 
such as larceny, it could be turned over on an order from Low. The money 
was accordingly given to Mrs. Low. The next step was to secure Low's release 
before the arrival of the sheriff, and MacDonald proceeded at once to the court 
of criminal correction and took advantage of the "great writ of habeas corpus." 

In the petition it was claimed that Low "is now unlawfully and illegally 
restrained of his liberty by one Capt. James McDonough, chief of police; that 
no warrant or criminal process has been issued against him; that he is [not] 
guilty of the violation of any law of the state; that he was arrested by order of 
said McDonough, illegally, and is in the custody and control of said Mc- 
Donough, and is held by said McDonough in confinement against his will and 


consent; that there are no papers or process against him, and that his imprison- 
ment was unlawful and unjust. 

Judge Colvin ordered the writ issued, and it was immediately delivered to 
the Chief, who made the following return thereon: 

"Executed the within writ, by delivering the within mentioned Joseph Low 
to the St. Louis court of criminal correction, this 5th day of January, 1874. 

"Chief of Police." 

Low was then taken before Judge Colvin by Detective Duckworth and 
Tracy. The Judge asked Duckworth if that was all the return there was to 
be made, and was answered that there were some telegrams. The chief how- 
ever, was willing to have the man released, but the detectives wanted him held 
until the sheriff arrived. Judge Colvin said he would recognize only the Chief, 
and told Duckworth to go and ascertain if that was all the returns to be made. 
"Duck" soon returned with a note to the judge, saying that the only authority 
he had for holding the man was the above telegrams, which he forwarded for 
the judge's inspection and enlightenment. Judge Colvin was in a quandery after 
reading them, and in a very hasty manner told the detective that he might 
have kept the writ back twenty-four hours if he wanted to, and knew the sheriff 
was coming for his prisoner. "Duck" replied that he did not answer the writ. 

Mr. McDonald moved that the prisoner be discharged, which was accordingly 
done, and Low, with several friends, rapidly disappeared from the court, entered 
a carriage and drove swiftly away. 

There were many comments on the case made, and several parties were so 
rash as to hint that some one in authority received a portion of the small change 
that Mrs. Low received a most preposterous idea! 

Low is said to have escaped from jail, where he was confined on a charge 
of murder. 5 

Later in the year Rowdy Joe was one of the early gold hunters 
in the Black Hills region of Dakota territory, and it was reported 
that he had been killed by Indians. The Eagle published the story 
October 29, 1874: 


Mayor [James G.] Hope received a letter from J. W. Brockett, now at 
Yankton, containing the information that Rowdy Joe, alias Joseph Lowe, so 
well known at Wichita, was with the party which was enroute for the Black 
Hills, and which was attacked by Indians and a portion of its number killed. 
The notorious Rowdy Joe fell first mortally wounded. We last week published 
an account of the attack, but the dispatches had his name John Lowe, instead 
of Joe. Thus this violent man met a violent death. Several of his victims 
are taking their last long sleep beneath the prairie sod of this border. Anderson, 
another, is here in Wichita, totally blind; Walter Beebe, who helped Lowe to 
escape the officers of the law at this place, is in the penitentiary, and Josephine 
Demerit keeps Beebe company. What a list of crimes Joe has gone to answer 

Mayor Hope handed us an account of the attack clipped from a Yankton 
paper, from which we make the following extract: 


"Of the Yankton company, Lowe was instantly killed three bullets piercing 
his body from a volley fired at the tent; Chas. Allen was wounded in the leg 
by an arrow; Baden was shot through the chest, probably fatally, while Orton 
received a flesh wound in the arm. The Indians then retreated from the field, 
when the Yanktonians put the body of Lowe, together with wounded man, 
Baden, into their wagon, and turning their faces homeward, traveled all night, 
leaving Mr. Baden at the Bohemian settlement and burying Mr. Lowe a few 
miles further east near a soldier camp, occupied by a detachment sent out 
from Randall to guard the settlers. The survivors arrived at Yankton on Thurs- 
day night. Their wagon bears unmistakable evidences of the bloody fight the 
party had with the Indians, being completely riddled with bullets and covered 
with the gore of their wounded and dead comrades, for it acted the part of a 
fortification behind which the boys concealed themselves as best they could 
during the time they were besieged. The survivors of this expedition will most 
likely give up opening a stock farm in that portion of Nebraska lately visited 
by them." 

In 1899 the Wichita Eagle again reported that Rowdy Joe Lowe 
had been killed, this time in a Denver saloon. Lowe, then 72 ac- 
cording to the paper, insulted the Denver police department and 
was shot by a former policeman. 8 

Thus the reader has a choice of endings for the character known 
as Rowdy Joe. 

1. Wichita City Eagle, June 28, 1872. 2. Ibid., November 27, 1873. 3. Ibid., De- 
cember 25, 1873. 4. Ibid., January 8, 1874. 5. Ibid., January 15, 1874. 6. February 
15, 1899. 


( -1878) 

Harry T. McCarty, surveyor and draftsman, was appointed deputy 
United States marshal for Ford county (Dodge City) in April, 1878. 
The Ford County Globe, April 30, reported his commission: 


Our active, energetic fellow-citizen, H. T. McCarty, who is known to every 
man, woman and child in Ford County, has received his commission as Deputy 
U. S. Marshal, under U. S. Marshal [Benjamin F.] Simpson. 

When we say that the appointment gives good satisfaction to our farmers 
and a large majority of our business men, we simply tell the truth. There are, 
of course, some who may not like his appointment, but by inquiry they will be 
found to be, either violaters of the U. S. laws themselves, or personal enemies 
of Mr. McCarty. 

We know that no other man in the County is so well fitted and qualified for 
the position as he is; because of his unlimited information concerning the viola- 
tions of laws which take place in this county, and his desire to stop them. 

We are greatly pleased that such a judicious choice has been made by Mr. 
Simpson, and predict a faithful performance of duty, "according to Hoyle," by 
Deputy Marshal McCarty. 


Harry McCarty served less than three months. On July 13, 1878,. 
he was shot and killed. His tragic murder was first described in the 
Dodge City Times, July 13: 


H. T. McCarty, a well-known citizen of Dodge City, was shot this morning: 
about 4 o'clock, at the Long Branch saloon. The shot took effect in the right 
groin, severing the femoral artery; and the unfortunate man, after profusely- 
bleeding for about an hour, expired. 

The circumstances of the shooting are about as follows: A party of men 
were ridiculing one of their number, one Thomas Roach, a half-witted, rattle- 
brained and quarrelsome wretch, who, becoming incensed at the jibes and 
jeers of the crowd, rushed to where McCarty stood at the bar, and drawing 
McCarty 's pistol from the latter 's side, flourished it once or twice and fired one 
shot, which took effect as we have stated. McCarty was quietly standing at 
the bar drinking, and was in no manner connected with the hilarious crowd- 
A pistol shot was fired at the murderer, Tom Roach, which grazed him, though 
he fell to the floor, pretending to be dead, which prevented a bystander from 
repeating the shot upon being informed that the murderer of McCarty was; 
already dead. 

McCarty was removed to the house of Chas. Ronan, where in about an hour 
he died, having bled to death. The murderer was arrested and placed in jail. 

A coroner's inquest was held this morning and the facts were elicited about 
as we have stated. 

There is a good deal of indignation manifested over this brutal, unwarranted 
murder; and while it may appear in the present temper of a large class of 
people that law's delays and uncertainties are dangerous to the peace, life and 
protection of the community, we hope the sober, second thought will prevail 
and justice take its course. 

Limping Tom, the prisoner, as he is familiarly known, was a cook in the 
camp of Shiner Bros. He was once led out of town last night and bid his way 
to camp, the party knowing Tom's querulous nature when under the influence 
of liquor. He has been living in this section of Kansas since last fall, and is 
generally unknown. 

The deceased, H. T. McCarty, was an old resident of the border and for 
several years a resident of Dodge City. He was well-known in this section of 

He held the office of Surveyor of Ford county for two years, and followed 
the occupation of surveying and painting. The deceased was a man of warm, 
genial nature, and though he made strong friends he had bitter enemies. He 
was a man of excellent attainments, though of rude culture; a forcible writer, 
and an artist and painter of no mean merit. While possessing virtues he had 
faults; but the kindlier nature takes hold of these people as the soul of the 
deceased is wafted to another sphere. His faults are buried with the body, and 
the virtues only hold in the affections and sympathy of the kind and generous 
people of Dodge City. 

The funeral of the deceased McCarty takes place this afternoon at 4 o'clock 
under the auspices of the Dodge City Fire Company, of which company the 
deceased was a member. 


The Ford County Globe reported the shooting in its issue of 
July 16: 



Saturday at 3:30 A. M., two pistol shots fired in quick succession were heard 
issuing from the "Long Branch" saloon, the first of which it was soon found had 
summoned the genial, warm-hearted Harry T. McCarty, ex-county surveyor and 
Deputy U. S. Marshal for Ford county, from this world to another. The cir- 
cumstances seem as follows: "Mack" had just came up the street and stepped 
into the "Long Branch;" while leaning on the counter talking to Mr. Jackson, 
a half drunken desperado named Thomas Roach snatched "Mack's" pistol (a 45 
caliber Colt) from the scabbard, and as "Mack" turned to see who had so 
nimbly disarmed him, the assassin, giving the weapon a flourish or two, fired the 
fatal shot. The ball penetrated the right groin severing the femoral artery, 
thence passing through the thigh lodged in the floor. The deceased staggered 
toward the door where he fell another shot was almost instantaneously fired 
at Roach by a bystander, the ball grazing his right side. Roach falling called 
out "I am shot," and dropped to the floor, thus saving himself from the im- 
mediate penalty of his crime from the leveled revolvers about him. In the 
meantime medical assistance had been promptly summoned to the aid of his 
unfortunate victim, but it was soon found that he had passed that point when 
human aid however skilled could be of assistance. He was removed to the 
rooms of Charles Ronan to breath his last in a few minutes, recovering con- 
sciousness but for a brief period of time. 

Even a stranger, unfamiliar with the circumstances, would have known as 
he passed up the streets an hour later that some sad tragedy had been enacted, 
by the air of gloom that pervaded every countenance, and the groups gathered 
upon the corners, some with minds too much occupied with the calamity to 
indulge in conversation, others in whispers that portended mischief, discussing 
the propriety of obviating the delays attendant upon legal process, and giving 
immediate illustration to the saying of our Savior, "Whoever sheds man's blood 
by man shall his blood be shed." But to the credit of Dodge City be it spoken, 
that the better counsel prevailed and even in the moment of excitement she 
determined to put herself on record as willing to submit to the law. 

An inquest was held in the forenoon and a verdict rendered in accordance 
with the facts, and in the afternoon as quietly as possible (it being the desire 
of the officers to prevent anything that could tend to excite the already agitated 
crowd) an examination was held before R. G. Cook, Esq., at which time the 
prisoner was charged with murder in the first degree. Upon being brought up 
the charge was read to him, and he was fully instructed as to his rights, etc., 
by M. W. Sutton, County Attorney, and upon expressing it as his wish to waive 
an examination, he was recommitted to await trial at the next term of court. 

Early in the forenoon the Dodge City fire company, of which deceased had 
been an active member since its organization, began to take the necessary steps 
to show their respect for the deceased. The hall was tastefully draped in 
mourning and the flag hung suspended at half mast. After services by Rev. 
O. W. Wright, at 4 P. M., the procession left the hall headed by the band, with 
Judge H. E. Gryden, M. W. Sutton, Dr. S. Galland, J. J. Webb, G. F. Jones 
and Marshal C. E. Bassett as pall bearers, followed by the entire company in 


uniform and a large concourse of citizens in carriages. The procession moved 
through the principal streets, the pavements being thronged with spectators 
gazing at the solemn cortege. 

At the grave a short address was delivered by the Rev. Mr. Wright, and all 
that was mortal of Harry T. McCarty was mingled with the dust. 

Immediately on the return of the fire company they assembled at their hall 
when a short address was delivered by Marshal [P. L.] Beatty followed by 
Judge H. E. Gryden who spoke in eulogistic terms of the deceased and offered 
the following resolutions which were passed and ordered to be printed in the 
"GLOBE" and "Times" and the secretary ordered to furnish copies of proceed- 
ings to relatives of deceased. 

WHEREAS, In His mercy it has pleased the Father of all to, by the hands of 
an assassin, take from us our fellow citizen and brother fireman, HARRY T. 


Resolved, That we deeply feel the loss, not only of an efficient fireman and 
true brother, but of one whose superior qualities of head and heart have ever 
commanded our love and esteem. 

Resolved, That we tender our heartfelt sympathies to the relatives of the 
deceased, and especially to his aged mother, assuring her and them that the 
sudden and unjustifiable assassination of the deceased has cast a shadow and 
gloom over our entire community, and that, though many winters' snow may 
spread its cold covering over the place where his ashes lie mingled with the dust, 
and though the green grass of his prairie grave be as often sered by the frosts of 
autumn, while life lasts the memory of HARRY T. MCCARTY will be ever fresh 
and green in our hearts ef affection. 

Resolved, That in honor of our dead brother the members of the Dodge City 
Fire Company will wear the usual badge of mourning for thirty days. 

Thus all that was mortal of the third of the gallant little band of Dodge City 
Firemen, killed by the hand of the assassin, was consigned to Mother Earth. 
Let us hope that it will be the last. In the years to come when the silvery hairs 
of the few remaining charter members will be warning them of the grave, they 
will ever remember with love and respect their early companions, Master son 
[City Marshal Edward J. Masterson, killed by drunken cowboys on April 9, 
1878] and McCarty, and as the blossoms of spring peep from the prairies they 
will, we doubt not, long to strew garlands, bedecked with tears, upon their 
untimely graves. 

Thomas O'Haran, alias Thomas Roach, was tried at the January, 
1879, term of the Ford county district court, Judge S. R. Peters pre- 
siding. O'Haran plead guilty to manslaughter in the first degree 
and was sentenced to 12 years and three months in the state peni- 
tentiary, the Dodge City Times reported, February 1, 1879. 


(1842?- ) 

Joe Mason, a former scout and one of the "old timers" of Dodge 
City, was appointed policeman on the Dodge force May 9, 1877. 
Lawrence E. Deger was marshal and in June Ed Masterson became 
assistant. All three officers earned $75 a month salary. 1 


The Dodge City Times, May 12, 1877, said of the new officer: 
"Joe Mason was appointed policeman by Mayor [James H.] Kelley 
and confirmed by the Council this week. Joe is a quiet young 
man who attends strictly to his own business, but will not fail to 
'go to the joint* in case of a row. He will make a good officer." 

Two days after he was appointed Joe Mason stopped a cruel and 
bloody game of 'lap jacket/' The Times, May 12, 1877, reported: 

We yesterday witnessed an exhibition of the African national game of "lap 
jacket," in front of Shulz* harness shop. The game is played by two colored 
men, who each toe a mark and whip each other with bullwhips. In the contest 
yesterday Henry Rodgers, called Eph for short, contended with another darkey 
for the championship and fifty cents prize money. They took heavy new whips 
from the harness shop and poured in the strokes pretty lively. Blood flowed 
and dust flew and the crowd cheered until Policeman Joe Mason came along 
and suspended the cheerful exercise. 

In Africa, where this pleasant pastime is indulged in to perfection, the 
contestants strip to the skin, and frequently cut each other's flesh open to the 

On June 6, 1877, Policeman Mason helped subdue Bat Masterson 
who had "wound his arm affectionately around the Marshal's 
[Deger's] neck and let ... [his] prisoner escape." Bat had 
objected to Deger's manner of taking Bobby Gill to jail. The article 
reporting this will appear in the section on Masterson. 

"The new policemen, Ed Masterson and Joe Mason, are covering 
themselves with glory, and their prompt and efficient action cannot 
be too highly commended," said the Dodge City Times, June 16, 

Joe Mason stopped another fight a few days later, this time be- 
tween "ladies," according to the Times of June 23, 1877: 


Presto Change! Josie Armstrong wears the belt. Now you wouldn't think 
to look at Miss Josie a very pink of feminine symetry and grace that she 
would buckle on her armor and go into the shoulder hitting business. But there 
are times when occasion demands great effort, and such a time always arrives 
with a woman when she falls in with the evidences of an intruding rival. 

Last monday Josie happened upon evidence of this kind. She didn't seize 
the weapon of her sex broomstick but she rolled up her delicate sleeves, 
and hand in hand with the green eyed monster, marched on to victory. ( Here, 
were it not for the clamours of a curious public, we would gladly drop the 
curtain, for there is something about human carnage and the flow of human 
blood that harrows up our soul.) 

In the fight that ensued there was a display of the most remarkable activity. 
The combatants unanimously waived the established rules of the London P. R. 



and fell to pulling hair and kicking shins in a way that will live in the minds 
of the bystanders long after the noble piles of architecture that surrounded the 
battle field have fallen into decay. 

Just as the combat deepened and the prospect for two bald-headed maidens 
was bright, the irrepressible Joe Mason, regardless of the fact that 
"Those who in quarrels interpose 
Must often wipe a bloody nose," 

sallied in and restored the peace and dignity of the city. A similar display of 
muscular activity has never before been known in this community. 

Such is the brief story of the combat, and thus is added to immortality two 
more Maids of Orleans. 

On September 8, 1877, the Times stated that "Policeman Mason 
made six arrests this week." And on September 15: "Policeman 
Mason was this week presented with a magnificent air gun which 
opens with a padlock. Mr. Mix has it on exhibition at the Long 

Policeman Mason tried to arrest the sheriff of Edwards county, 
not recognizing that gentleman when he arrived in Dodge on 
September 17 and unwittingly thinking him to be a member of a 
gang of swindlers who had been operating in Dodge. The Times 
article reporting this will be presented in the section on W. B. 

The city council of Dodge City discharged Mason from the police 
force on October 2, by reason "that his services would no longer 
be required/' 2 By October 13 Joe had become bartender of the 
Long Branch saloon. He left the Long Branch before November 
24 and started working for one Russell; by December 1 he was again 
a police officer, this time a deputy sheriff under Charles E. Bassett. 
A week later, however, Mason was on his way to Sweetwater, Tex., 
with several other Dodgeites intending to open a saloon there. 3 

It was in Sweetwater that Mason shot and killed Ed Ryan. The 
Dodge City Times, January 12, 1878, reported: 


Last evening about dusk the overland stage from the south brought a letter 
from Sweetwater, Texas, in which the following paragraph appeared: 

"Jo. Mason shot Ed. Ryan yesterday. He will be buried to-day. Jo. is 
willing to give himself up. Ed. was here three days before he was killed." 
Mr. Reynolds, the mail contractor, confirms the news. 

Jo. Mason is well known here, having served on the police force nearly all 

last summer. He never bore the reputation of being a "killer/' and we believe 

this is the first time the click of his revolver has been the signal for a fatal shot. 

Ed. Ryan was in Dodge City nearly all last Summer, and like many others in 


the wild frontier, followed that artistic and exciting profession, of which four 
aces is the highest accomplishment. Ed. Ryan was a very large, stout man, 
not over thirty years of age, and seemed to be of a good natured disposition 
when sober. 

At one time last summer, while Mason was on the police force, the two men 
had a very bitter quarrel, which would have probably resulted seriously had 
not third parties interfered. 

In the next edition, January 19, the Times gave some additional 


CAMP SUPPLY, I. T., Jan. 13, 1878. 

. . . News reached us this evening from Fort Elliott that Joe Mason 
formerly of Dodge City shot and killed a man at that post a week ago. Joe 
it seems is connected with a free-and-easy kind of a house at Sweetwater City, 
and at the time one of his old friends, a hunter, who it seems Joe had arrested 
while an official at Dodge, came up to him and commenced abusing him, and 
threatened that he would some day square accounts with him. Joe stood it for 
awhile and then gave the fellow the alternative of lighting out or a ball through 
his skull. It seems the fellow chose the latter for Joe fired and the bold hunter 
fell. Joe went out dug a hole six by two and placed his victim therein. Joe 
with his girl is on his way to Dodge City. 


Joe Mason arrived in Dodge City yesterday. The following is a copy of the 
proceedings of a court of inquiry, which exonerates Mason, held at Sweetwater: 
Proceedings of a Board of Officers convened at Fort Elliott, Texas, by virtue 
of the following order. 

January 5, 1878. 

A Board of Officers to consist of Capt C Mauck 4th Cav, Capt E H Liscum, 
19th Inf, and 2d Lt G K Hunter, 4th Cav, will convene at once to inquire into 
and report upon the killing of one Ed Ryan by Jos Mason, in the town of 
Sweetwater, last evening the 4th inst. The Board will make a report in writing 
on the merits of the case. 

By order of Lt Col J P Hatch. 


2d Lt 19th Inf, Post Adjutant. 

FORT ELLIOTT, TEXAS, Jan 5, 1878. 

The Board met pursuant to the foregoing order at 2.30 o'clock P M. Present, 
Capt C Mauck, 4th Cav, Capt E H Liscum, 19th Inf, and 2d Lt G K Hunter, 
4th Cav. 

The Board then proceeded to the examination of the following named wit- 
nesses. Tim Leavy, Harry Fleming, Granger Dyer, W H Weed, David Rem- 
ington, Arrington, Norton and Dr. LaGarde. The Board after mature delibera- 
tion arrived at the following conclusion. That Ed Ryan came to his death 


from a gun shot wound at the hands of Jos Mason, and that the said Jos Mason 
was justifiable in the premises. There being no further business before it the 
board then adjourned sine die. 

C MAUCK, Capt 4th Cav, 

E H LISCUM, Capt 19th Inf. 

GEO K HUNTEY, 2d Lt 4th Cav, Recorder. 

HD QTS, FORT ELLIOTT, Jan 10, 1878. 

The foregoing proceedings are approved. 

Lt Col 4th Cav, Commanding. 

Apparently feeling that his Dodge City friends would not think 
well of him, Mason wrote this note to the Times which was pub- 
lished on January 26: 


In your issue of January 19th I find among the items from your correspondent 
at Camp Supply, a description of the unfortunate shooting at Ft. Elliott some 
days ago. I only wish to say that your correspondent has misrepresented me. 
I was in no way connected with a "free-and-easy" at Sweetwater, nor did I 
"dig a hole and place the victim therein." 


The Ford County Globe, January 22, 1878, merely stated: "J oe 
Mason has returned from Elliott, he looks well and says he intends 
remaining in the city." 

This epilogue appeared in the Globe, February 12, 1878: "J oe 
Mason received a letter yesterday morning, from Sioux city, Ne- 
braska, containing a photograph of Ed Ryan, telling him that if the 
photo represented the man he killed he is entitled to the thanks of 
Sioux city." 

Mason was temporarily reappointed to the Dodge City police 
force in April, 1878, 4 but no record was found of the length or 
effectiveness of his service. 

In June he assisted Sheriff Bat Masterson in guarding some pris- 
oners and on July 1 the board of county commissioners allowed 
him $18 for his services. 5 

The last mention found of Joe Mason in the Dodge City papers 
appeared in the Ford County Globe, May 17, 1881: "J ose P n Mason, 
an old frontiersman and former police officer of Dodge City, after 
an absence from this place for over a year returned to the city 
Saturday last with a view of making this his permanent home." 

1. "Kansas State Census," 1875, Ford county, p. 11; Dodge City Times, May 12, June 
9, July 7, August 11, September 8, October 6, 1877. 2. Dodge City Times, October 6, 
1877. 3. Ibid., October 13, November 24, December 1, 8, 1877. 4. Ibid., April 13, 1878. 
5. Ibid., June 15, July 6. 1878. 


(1823- ) 

The Republicans of Sedgwick county, at a convention held in 
Wichita October 4, 1873, nominated P. H. Massey for sheriff. Mas- 
sey, then a 50-year-old farmer, received the support of the Wichita 
Eagle editor Marsh Murdock who said of him: 


the nominee for sheriff, is an old resident of South Bend, Indiana, a Colfax 
Republican of many years standing. He has never voted any other ticket since 
the organization of the party. He served three years as deputy sheriff in that 
populous county. He is a farmer living in Ninesha township was brought up 
a Whig. Mr. Massey is a pleasant gentleman, full of earnestness and life. 
From letters that we have been permitted to read we know that he must have 
stood well at his old home. He has been a resident of this county for three 
years and commands the respect of all who know him and will be elected 
without a doubt. 1 

Massey's chief opponent was incumbent William Smith, a former 
Wichita city marshal and deputy sheriff who had been appointed in 
September, 1873, to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of 
Sheriff John Meagher. 2 

At the November 4 election Massey won handily over Smith and 
one D. L. Green, a third candidate. The sheriff-elect received 665 
votes, Smith 599, and Green 167. 3 

When the district court was scheduled to open in December, 1873, 
Massey, being the sheriff-elect, felt it was his duty rather than the 
duty of appointee Smith to announce the opening of the session. 
The Eagle, December 11, 1873, reported this interesting controversy: 

The district court opened Monday noon, with Judge W. P. Campbell on the 
bench. Preceeding the formal command for the sheriff to announce the open- 
ing, Mr. Stanley submitted the matter of difference between Sheriff Smith, the 
appointee, and Sheriff Massey, elect. Mr. Balderston appeared on behalf of 
Sheriff Smith. It appeared that Mr. Massey had duly qualified, and his bonds 
having been approved by the commissioners, he claimed that under the law 
he was entitled to and that it became incumbent upon to assume the active 
duties of the office. The judge said that in chambers he had no power to 
adjudicate any such matter; that he should recognize as the officer of his court 
the individual who had the possession of the books and papers pertaining to 
said office of sheriff, and that after the court had regularly opened he would 
be ready to hear any matter brought before him in proper form in the regular 
practice. Mr. Smith opened the court, and so the matter stands at present. 

The office was officially turned over to Massey on January 1, 1874. 
Said the Eagle, January 8: "Sheriff Smith delivered, on New Year's 
day, to Sheriff P. H. Massey the books and papers pertaining to the 


office of sheriff, and now friend Pleasant may be heard crying from 
an upper window, liear ye! hear ye!' etc." 

Shortly before Massey was sworn into office, Wichita was shocked 
by an incendiary murder which the Eagle termed the "Christmas 
Cremation." Since Massey, as sheriff, was only indirectly involved 
the complete story of the murder and the subsequent activity in 
capturing and trying the perpetrators will be presented in the section 
on Mike Meagher who was city marshal at the time. 

Massey's primary concern with the case was in holding the pris- 
oners before the trial and in acting as an officer of the court during 
the hearing. On March 5, 1874, the Eagle had reported that "Sheriff 
Massey took McNutt and his wife [two of the accused murderers] 
to Topeka for safe keeping." Arthur Winner, the third accused 
killer, was being kept in Cottonwood Falls. 

By May 17, 1874, the McNutts and Winner were brought back to 
Wichita for their trial. The two male defendants were placed in 
the sheriff's office, next door to the Eagle printing plant, and were 
not only chained to each other but also at night were chained to iron 
rings bolted to the sheriff's floor. 4 In spite of this security, Winner 
was able to give the sheriff some anxious moments. The Wichita 
Eagle, May 21, 1874, reported one incident: 

Winner, who is chained to McNutt, both of whom have been for some days 
confined in the sheriff's office, adjoining that of our own, is as nochalant, gay 
and independent as he was during the preliminary examination last Christmas. 
Nothing appears to depress his spirits. On Sunday he constructed a key out of 
a pen point with which he unlocked his shackles, and laughingly exhibited the 
result of his feat to the sheriff, which officer then riveted his shackles. 

On Monday one of the guards discovered him trying to part the rivets with 
a pocket knife. The fact being reported to Sheriff Massey, that officer attempted 
to search him and take away the knife, whereupon the wiry little fellow took 
it into his head to kick up a resistance. The noise and confusion made by the 
sheriff in taking the young man down startled us, and we rushed around to the 
door to find it locked. Treasurer Johnson came rushing up the hall with a 
cocked revolver in his hand, and Kellogg, Little and Phillips came puffing out 
of their offices, and for a moment the tableau was at least interesting, if not 

A call from us, asking if help was desired, elicited no answer, but Nessley 
opened the door, when we found the sheriff holding in his iron grip the pros- 
trate prisoner; who was wagging his tongue at a lively rate, declaring that it 
would take three such men to handle him if he had a show. He was mancled 
still more closely, when he cooled down and all was again serene. The rest of 
the prisoners sat around, appearing to enjoy the excitement. Winner asked us 
before we left to give the facts, and we guess we have. He is rather an odd 
boy, aggressive and fearless, and withal of a light and cheerful disposition. 

Sheriff Massey opened the district court, May 18, and the trial of 


the murderers commenced May 21. 5 Apparently such a crowd was 
expected that certain alterations had to be made in the court room. 
The Eagle, May 21, 1874, reported: "Sheriff Massey has had a tem- 
porary railing put up in the court room, the court, its officers, jury- 
men and witnesses occupying one side and the spectators the other. 
Good idea." 

Finding unprejudiced jurors was a task for the sheriff. Editor 
Murdock felt it was the result of the Eagles popularity in Sedgwick 

Sheriff Massey and deputies, are out hunting fifty more men, qualified to sit 
on the trial of McNutt. The sheriff says when he finds a man in a lonely out 
of the way place, he asks the question, "do you read the EAGLE?" when if the 
answer is in the negative, he draws his papers on him, in the full assurance that 
another juryman has been found. He says he found one such man within four 
miles of the city the fellow couldn't read at all. 6 

While the Christmas cremation trial was in progress, a Texas cow- 
boy named Ramsey shot and killed a Negro hod carrier, Charley 
Sanders. The article reporting this, May 28, 1874, will be included 
in the section on William Smith. Ramsey had not been captured 
by July 23, 1874, when the Eagle reported a false lead: 

Sheriff Massey is bound to catch the desperado that shot the colored man 
last spring. He heard that the outlaw was at Coffeyville last week and the 
next train of cars found him en route to trap the bird, which he successfully did, 
and in spite of a partial issued habeas corpus, brought him in irons to Wichita, 
but it proved to be a different rooster and he was released. We hope our 
officers will leave no stone unturned to bring the murderer to trial. 

In August a man by the name of James Long stole a horse from 
a Wichita stable and headed east. Massey, learning that he had 
been in Fort Scott, left for that place. The Eagle, August 13, 1874, 
said: "Sheriff Massey has gone to Ft. Scott to accompany a man 
by the name of Long back to this place, Long having borrowed a 
horse at the diamond front stable which he forgot to return." 

Long hoodwinked the citizens of Fort Scott and journeyed on into 
Missouri where he was finally caught. The Fort Scott Daily Moni- 
tor, August 18, 1874, reported Long's abilities as a confidence man: 


About three weeks ago a man giving his name as Long, from Sumner county, 
arrived in our city and asked Mr. Tannehill to lend him some money, stating 
that he was after a horse thief, had run out of money and wished to proceed. 
Mr. T., having heard of the horses being stolen, took it for granted that it was 
all right and advanced the amount desired. It turned out, however, that Long 
was the horse thief and took this method of avoiding suspicion. Mr. Tannehill 
and Constable Avery started in pursuit and overtook him at Springfield, Mo., 


with three horses, and they are now awaiting a requisition from the Governor 
to bring him here. 

Horse stealing is getting to be a dangerous business. In most every instance 
the thief is caught, and in many cases the punishment is swift and terrible. 

While Massey chased Long over two states, his son acted as 
sheriff in his father's absence: "Sheriff Massey is still absent, and 
Tence, his son and deputy sheriff, has his hands full. He was de- 
tained in Jefferson City by a telegram from the Governor." 7 

On August 27, 1874, the Eagle reported that Sheriff Massey had 
returned with a prisoner. It is apparent that the captive was not 
the horse thief so eagerly sought but was rather someone who un- 
fortunately remains unknown: "Sheriff Massey returned Saturday 
night with one prisoner, but he took the next eastern bound train 
for Springfield, Missouri, after Long, the man who hired a horse 
at the livery stable and forgot to come back." 

The Fort Scott Monitor, August 28, 1874, reported that "Constable 
Avery has returned from Springfield, Mo., bringing with him the 
horse thieves which he arrested at that place a week or more ago. 
They are in durance vile to await their trial at the next term of 

Perhaps the Sedgwick county charge of horse stealing carried 
more weight than the Bourbon county charge of monetary theft 
for the sheriff soon showed up in Wichita with the two horse 
thieves: "Sheriff Massey came home from Springfield, Mo., last 
week with two prisoners charged with horse stealing," said the 
Wichita Weekly Beacon, September 2, 1874. The identity of the 
second thief is not definitely known but he may have been young 
Bill Wright who was convicted for pony stealing in October, 1874. 

The next day, September 3, 1874, the Eagle complimented the 
sheriff and his son: 

Sheriff Massey seldom if ever fails to get his man when he goes for him. 
He returned a few days since with Long, who will have justice meeted out to 
him we trust. 

Sheriff Massey, who for the past three weeks has been continuously on the 
track of criminals in this and other states is again at home. Our boy, Tence, 
as deputy makes a splendid officer. He is prompt, affective and makes no 

The travels of Pleasant H. Massey were not yet over. On Septem- 
ber 4, 1874, the sheriff headed back for Missouri: 

Sheriff Massey, George Fessenden, D. M. V. Stewart and Jackson Bolend, 
will start to Jefferson City, Mo., on Friday to testify in the case of Dr. W. F. 


Bowie, before the United States District Court. Bowie was merchandising at 
Sedalia, Mo., went into bankruptcy, forfeited a bond of $15,000, and is now 
charged with perjury. His trial is set for the 7th of this month. 8 

Later in the month he visited the state penitentiary: 
Sheriff Massey returned yesterday from the state penitentiary, where he had 
delivered three prisoners convicted at the last term of court, viz: J. H. Hill, for 
two years for shooting Stewart, on the Ninnescah, last spring; James Long, for 
three years, for stealing a horse; Wm. Wright, a boy, for one year, for stealing 
a pony. The criminal docket was not entirely cleared up for want of time. Two 
prisoners yet remain in the sheriffs custody. 9 

About the beginning of Massey's second year as sheriff, the new 
Sedgwick county jail was finished. The jail was designed to house 
not only county prisoners but also the sheriff. The living section of 
the building was one of the most modern in town for it boasted a 
furnace and running water. Massey moved into his new quarters 
about the end of January, 1875. The Eagle, January 28, reported: 

Sheriff Massey has moved his family into the city. His new home, the 
resident portion of the new jail, is one of the most complete and comfortable 
establishments, heated, as it is, by a furnace and supplied with soft water from 
an up-stairs tank. 

A month later the sheriff celebrated his 52d birthday in his new 
home. The Eagle, February 25, 1875, reported the success of the 
surprise party: 

Sheriff Massey 's fifty-second birthday, the 22d, was the occasion of a feast 
and old fashioned frolic tendered him by his good wife, who made all the 
arrangements and done the inviting. In the evening the house of sheriff Mas- 
sey was invaded by a hilarious surprise party consisting of young folks, who 
kept things lively until well nigh unto morning, with feasting dancing and 
merry-making. By a coincidence, Geo. Washington, the father of his country, 
was born on the same day that sheriff Massey was. But the sheriff gets away 
with George in the item of birthday celebrations. 

Things were pretty quiet in the sheriff's office the first few months 
of 1875. On March 31 the Beacon reported: "Sheriff Massey re- 
turned from Leavenworth last week having delivered his 'fresh fish* 
Becker and Hoss, sent up for horse-stealing, at the penitentiary. He 
says that McNutt is cutting leather in the shoe shop, while Winner 
works in the paint shop." On June 16 the paper stated: "Al Thomas 
was put in jail Sunday, by Sheriff Massey, but was allowed to go 
out on parole after a short imprisonment," and on June 23 it men- 
tioned another trip east: 

Sheriff Massey left yesterday morning for Topeka in charge of county com- 
missioners York, Carpenter and Hobbs, who will invoke the aid of the supreme 
court through the instrumentality of a writ of habeas corpus to wrest them 


from the clutches of Judge Campbell who now holds them in contempt, with a 
fine of $100 each and "conditional" imprisonment in the county jail staring 
them in the face. 

Sheriff Massey lost three prisoners from his jail on July 10. The 
"Beacon, July 14, 1875, reported the escape: 


On Saturday afternoon the prisoners were allowed to promenade along 
the corridor of the jail which incloses the narrow space in front of the cells. 
This was only being partly restored to liberty, and the three prisoners took 
advantage of their position by cutting through an eighteen-inch thick brick 
wall with a knife and hatchet, while Sheriff Massey and family were at supper. 
How they obtained their instruments to work with, is not known. The work 
was done in a short time, and as the brick were taken out, they were placed 
in a blanket and carried to a cell, by which means a hole eighteen inches in 
diameter was soon made under one of the outer windows, through which the 
three men escaped. 

When Mr. Massey returned from supper and called the prisoners to their 
cells no response was made and their absence was soon made conspicuous. 
Now in the first place these men were allowed too wide latitude, and in the 
second place it is a piece of stupidity to construct the outer walls of a jail 
with strong wrought-iron windows (through which it would be extremely 
difficult to effect an escape with a crow bar) in walls of brick, which can be 
dug through with a jack knife in twenty minutes. The heat in the cells is 
terribly oppressive, and, under the circumstances, Mr. Massey can hardly be 
censured for permitting the prisoners to breathe half-pure air for so short 
a time. 

Wallace Bennett, the notorious thief and desperado who was recently cap- 
tured in the territory, was one of the party. The other two, Geo. Houstin 
and W. W. Chamberlain, were awaiting trial for stealing in this city. No 
clue has yet been heard of them. 

The Eagle, July 15, 1875, suggested that outside aid had been 

"Last Saturday evening, just before being locked up for the night, 
three prisoners dug their way out of the jail. They had been as- 
sisted by outside confederates. Sheriff Massey has taken steps for 
their recovery." 

The Beacon, July 28, 1875, published a description of two of the 
escapees and reported a $50 reward offered for their return: 

Sheriff Massey has offered a reward of fifty dollars for Geo. Houston and 
W. W. Chamberlain who escaped from the jail on the 10th of July. They 
are described as follows: 

Houston is about twenty-eight or thirty years old, dark complexion, dark 
hair, dark chin whiskers and moustaches; hight, about five feet eight inches; 
weighs about 145 pounds; had coarse shoes on, nearly new, and dark colored 
pants. Chamberlain is about twenty-seven years old, light complexion, light 


hair, short chin whiskers and moustaches; had on light colored pants, badly 

In July Massey failed to flush a horse thief from a corn field but 
a private citizen, coming upon the man later, put the outlaw per- 
manently out of business. The Eagle, August 5, 1875, reported 
the incidents: 

A week or two ago a telegram was received from Gamett giving the de- 
scription of a man named Waterman who had stolen a horse. Sheriff Massey 
found the horse in the course of a few days near Eldorado. The thief was 
afterwards discovered near the depot where he ran into a corn field. The 
field was surrounded by the Sheriff, police and a posse but the bird had flown. 
The same night of his escape he stole a horse from a Mr. Allen, living between 
here and Douglas. Mr. Allen gave pursuit, and some time during the day 
came upon both man and horse, the former lying on the bank of a creek 
asleep, with a revolver in each hand. Mr. Allen aroused him up and told 
him to surrender or he would kill him. The thief said he would never sur- 
render when Mr. Allen carried out his threat leaving the miscreant lying upon 
the prairie and he returning with his property home. This is as we got it 
and comment is unnecessary. 

Pleasant H. Massey did not run for re-election in November, 
1875. His successor was H. W. Dunning, who had been elected 
over two other candidates. 10 In December Dunning was deputized 
by Sheriff Massey in order that he might become acquainted with 
the duties and routine of the office. The Wichita Eagle, December 
9, 1875, reported: 

Maj. Dunning becomes Sheriff sooner than the law or the people con- 
templated. Sheriff Massey was compelled to leave on Monday for Topeka, 
where he had been summoned as a witness before the United States District 
Court, so to get the Major well started in, he just deputized the newly elected 
Sheriff. Yank Owens and Major Dunning appear to hold everything level, 
even the heels and heads of the lawyers, which are generally on a level with 
the tables. 

The last official act performed by Sheriff Massey which was 
mentioned in the Wichita press was reported in the Eagle, Decem- 
ber 23, 1875: "Sheriff Massey left yesterday morning for the State 
Penitentiary in charge of Henry Lee, whom Judge Campbell had 
sentenced to two years for pleading guilty to a charge of stealing a 
horse from a colored man by the name of Stevens/' 

From that point Pleasant H. Massey returned to the obscurity of 
private life. 

1. Wichita City Eagle, October 9, 1873. 2. Ibid., September 18, 1873. 3. Ibid., 
November 6, 1873. 4. Ibid., May 14, 1874. 5. Ibid., May 21, 1874. 6. Ibid., June 18, 
1874. 7. Ibid., August 20, 1874. 8. Wichita Weekly Beacon, September 2, 1874. 
9. Wichita City Eagle, October 1, 1874. 10. Ibid., November 4, 1875. 

(To Be Continued in the Summer, 1961, Issue.) 

The Annual Meeting 

85th annual meeting of the Kansas State Historical Society 
and board of directors was held in Topeka on October 18, 

Following a plan inaugurated in 1958, a session was held for 
persons interested in county and local historical societies, and 
museums. The meeting was called for 10 A. M. in the museum. 
Edgar Langsdorf, assistant secretary, presided. Roger Kirkwood, 
director of the Kansas Centennial Commission, talked on centen- 
nial programs and activities for local groups, and on the major 
activities of the state commission. Stanley Sohl, director of the 
State Historical Society's museum, also participated. Organizations 
in many parts of the state were represented. 

The session for the Society's board of directors was held con- 
currently in the newspaper reading room. Pres. Edward R. Sloan 
was not present because of illness and George L. Anderson, second 
vice-president presided. First business was the report of the sec- 


At the conclusion of last year's meeting the newly elected president, Ed- 
ward R. Sloan, reappointed Charles M. Correll and Frank Haucke to the execu- 
tive committee. Members holding over were Will T. Beck, John S. Dawson, 
and T. M. Lillard. 

The death of Judge Dawson on February 19, 1960, at the age of 90, meant 
the loss of one of the Society's oldest and most devoted friends. President in 
1931-1932, a member of the board of directors for more than 50 years and of 
the executive committee since 1935, Judge Dawson's advice and counsel were 
of great benefit to the Society. Throughout his long life he was deeply in- 
volved in the making of Kansas history, and he was equally interested in its 

Judge Dawson's place on the executive committee was filled by the appoint- 
ment of Wilford Reigle of Emporia. 

The Society suffered another blow in the loss of Jerome C. Berryman of 
Ashland, who died May 23, 1960. At the time of his death Mr. Berryman was 
first vice-president of the Society. He had been a life member since 1927 
and a member of the board of directors since 1940. His widespread business 
and political interests did not prevent his taking part in the work of the Society, 
and his loss, like that of Judge Dawson, is sincerely regretted. 

Three other members of the board of directors also passed away during 
the year. Lloyd W. Chambers, Clearwater farmer-stockman and member of 
the board since 1944, died January 15; W. W. Davis, former professor of his- 
tory at the University of Kansas and member of the board since 1937, died 
April 5, and Clyde K. Rodkey, Manhattan attorney, member of the board 



since 1947, died August 11. All were good friends whose absence will be 
keenly felt. 


Most worthy of note in the current budget is an appropriation for the 
long-desired remodeling of the G. A. R. auditorium and adjacent areas. This 
work is now in noisy and dusty progress, with completion expected perhaps 
it would be better to say hoped for in December. The mammoth G. A. R. 
hall, which has been used so seldom in recent years that there was no longer 
any reason for keeping it, is being divided to make a smaller and more usable 
auditorium, two new museum display areas, a microfilm reading room, and 
three levels of storage stacks. In addition, the former G. A. R. museum area 
in the west wing of the second floor is being altered to make a new military 
display area, three new period rooms will be installed in the small rooms ad- 
joining, and other modernizations are in process that will make the entire sec- 
tion more pleasant and more efficiently utilized. Last but far from least, all 
museum areas, offices, and reading rooms throughout the Society's quarters 
will enjoy air conditioning next summer. 

Another major appropriation of the 1960 legislature is for installation of a 
new elevator at the east end of the lobby. The existing shaft, empty since the 
Memorial building was completed in 1914, will be used, and the present nearly 
50-year-old elevator which Governor Docking once remarked should be made 
a part of the Society's collection of antiques will be relegated to stand-by and 
emergency service. 

Two new staff positions have been established since the last report. On the 
professional staff, the Society now has an archaeologist; although archaeological 
work has been a part of the program for two years, the archaeologist officially 
was the assistant museum director until this new position was created. On 
the custodial staff, a watchman-guide has been appointed. Upon completion 
of the current remodeling, he will be stationed in the new museum areas on 
the second and third floors. 

The memorial to Kansans who participated in the campaigns before Vicks- 
t>urg, mentioned in last year's report, was erected on June 13. Designed by 
.State Architect John Brink, it is a monument of bronze symbolizing the broken 
and subsequently reunited Union. 

Budget requests for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1962, were filed with 
the state budget director in September. Permission was asked to employ a 
maintenance and equipment supervisor, and a director of field services, who 
would work with school groups in what has been called in other states a junior 
historian program, and who would also be given responsibility for searching 
out and acquiring for the Society manuscript and other material which too 
often is lost because its existence is learned of too late. 

Capital improvement requests repeated from last year's budget include 
installation of a suspended ceiling in the museum, replacing the old glass 
floors with steel in the main stack area, and sandblasting and tuckpointing the 
exterior of the Memorial building. 

Other operating expenses are expected to remain at about the same level 
as in recent years both for the Society itself and the historical properties it 



With the Spring issue of 1960, The Kansas Historical Quarterly began pub- 
lication of "Some Notes on Kansas Cowtown Police Officers and Gun Fighters," 
a series which has been received with wide interest. 

The compilers, Nyle H. Miller and Joseph W. Snell, have sufficient note- 
worthy police officers and gunslingers in their lineup to run the series well into 
1962. So you fans of the Real West have much in store for the immediate 
future. The Spring Quarterly also included Thomas H. O'Connor's story of 
Boston's "Cotton Whigs" who spent time and fortune to save Kansas from 
slavery. The Summer and Autumn numbers of 1960 included letters by 
Charles M. Chase, a Vermonter, written during visits to Kansas in 1863 and 
1873, edited by Mrs. Lela Barnes, treasurer of the Society. Dr. James C. 
Malin gave an interesting insight into early Fort Scott politics in an article 
entitled "Eugene Ware and Dr. Sanger: The Code of Political Ethics, 1872- 
1892," published in the Autumn Quarterly. A timely article by Mrs. George 
T. Hawley of the Society's staff, "Kansas Congressmen and Reapportionment," 
including a list of all U. S. representatives who have served Kansas, was fea- 
tured in the Winter number. 

Over 2,500 copies of each issue of the Quarterly are distributed to mem- 
bers of the Society, schools, and libraries. Volume 26, comprising the four 
1960 issues, will be bound and ready for distribution soon. 

The Historical Society Mirror, now in its sixth year, has been since its in- 
ception a markedly successful means of keeping members informed of their 
Society's activities. It has been well received, and has proved its worth in 
the large number of valuable donations submitted in response to specific re- 
quests of the various departments. 

Hundred-year-ago items from the Kansas press are still being compiled and 
sent out each month to the newspapers of the state. The number of publishers 
who use all or part of this material is gratifying, and it may not be unreasonable 
to anticipate that even more will find use for this material during the centen- 
nial year. 

Work is continuing on the second volume of the Comprehensive Index, this 
one expected to cover the published volumes of The Kansas Historical Quarterly. 
Louise Barry, a member of the staff, although occupied with other Society 
projects, has completed the indexing of the first three volumes of the Quarterly. 
Pressure of centennial activities has meant slower than normal progress, but by 
the middle of next year it is hoped this work can be resumed at the same pace 
as formerly. 

Texts for three more historical markers were prepared this year. One, 
covering the history of the statehouse, is expected to be erected on the capitol 
grounds in time for the centennial. The others, dealing with the cattle business 
and the bluestem pasture region, are to be located in turnout areas in Chase 
and Greenwood counties. 

Mention was made in last year's report that work was underway on a pic- 
torial history of Kansas, to be published jointly with the Kansas Centennial 
Commission if the necessary financial assistance could be obtained from the 
legislature. It is a pleasure to announce that this was accomplished, that all 
editorial work except final proofreading and indexing has been completed, 
and that the book is scheduled for official publication on January 10, 1961. 


All members will receive order blanks in ample time to take advantage of a 
special prepublication price of $7.95, a dollar less than the regular price. The 
book will run some 300 pages, will have more than 800 illustrations, with five 
maps and a Samuel Reader painting of the "Battle of the Blue" reproduced 
in color, and will be indexed. It should be a handsome as well as a useful 
and it is hoped readable volume, one that all members of the Society and 
other Kansans interested in the story of their state will want to make a part 
of their libraries. 

Another publication of special note is now in the hands of the printer and 
is expected to be available early in December. This unique work, Kansas in 
Maps, by Robert W. Baughman of Liberal, one of the Society's directors, is 
being published by the Society through the generosity of the Baughman Foun- 
dation. The 90 maps reproduced, including 20 pages in color, cover 400 years 
of this space called Kansas. The maps are accompanied by a well-researched, 
inspired textual commentary, and the book will give a fascinating, out-of-the- 
ordinary view of the Jayhawk state. 

The major phase of another Baughman project, a compilation of Kansas 
postal beginnings of which mention was made in last year's report, is scheduled 
for publication in 1961. 

The Historical Society staff continues to co-operate fully with the Kansas 
Centennial Commission and with individuals, newspapers, and others who have 
need for historical information for use in centennial projects of various kinds. 

The centennial commission has authorized the equipping of art and historical 
trailers to travel the state during much of 1961, the state centennial year. 
Stanley Sohl, the Society's museum director, will supervise the planning and 
installation of the materials from the Historical Society which will be displayed 
in the historical trailer. 


The Society's major archaeological work during the summer was the ex- 
cavation of four prehistoric Indian sites in the proposed Wilson reservoir area, 
in Russell and Lincoln counties. The work was managed in the field by Tom 
Witty, the Society's new archaeologist, in co-operation with the National Park 
Service. It was designed to salvage information on some of the sites expected 
to be destroyed when the reservoir is flooded. 

The first excavation on Hell creek was the remains of a rectangular earth 
lodge and its associated storage pits. The next site was a small cave which had 
on the floor about four feet of fill resulting from camps, one on top of another, 
over a period of some 300 years. This site provided an excellent record of 
the sequence of various cultures which moved through the valley. The last 
two digs were open camp sites along the edge of the Saline river valley. The 
sites worked this season represent a time period from 450 to 800 years ago. 
Material and data collected will be processed, studied, and written up during 
the coming winter. 

An archaeological survey of the John Redmond reservoir area meanwhile 
was carried on by Roscoe Wilmeth, who has since left the employment of the 
Society to work on his doctorate in anthropology. Some 40 sites have thus 
far been located in the Redmond area. The report and analysis of the excava- 
tions carried on in the summer of 1959 in the Pomona reservoir is now in 
manuscript and copies should soon be available. 



Public records from the following state departments have been transferred 
during the year to the archives division: 

Source Title Dates Quantity 

Agriculture, Board of . . *Statistical Rolls of Counties, 1953 1,710 vols. 

Population Schedules of 

Cities and Townships . . 1960 4,241 vols. 

Engineering Examiners, 

Board of Engineer License Application 

Folders 1956-1959 9 reels mi- 
Labor Department .... Correspondence and 

Papers 1942-1955 28 bxs. 

( * Have been microfilmed. Originals will be destroyed. ) 

Annual reports were received from the Director of Alcoholic Beverage Con- 
trol, Board of Healing Arts, Board of Podiatry Examiners, Fort Hays Kansas 
State College, Real Estate Commission, and the Traveling Libraries Commission 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1959. The state auditor's office transferred 
to the Society two volumes recording the municipal indebtedness of the state, 
1878 and 1880, and samples of World War I state soldiers' bonus bonds and 

Two large archival microfilming projects were completed this year. Records 
of the insurance department received in 1958 and 1959 were put on film and 
the originals destroyed. Agents' licenses, 1927-1928, 1945-1952; applications 
for agents' licenses, prior to 1951, and annual statements, 1949-1952, are now 
contained on 114 rolls of film. 

The second project, begun in 1959, resulted in the placing on microfilm of 
county statistical rolls, 1919, 1937-1953; abstracts of statistical rolls, 1905-1957; 
and population schedules for cities and townships, 1919, 1937-1954. These 
records, coming originally from the Board of Agriculture, are now contained 
on 635 rolls of film. The completion of this job, and the subsequent disposal 
of original records, will free valuable shelf space for other storage. 


A gratifying change in the interests of library patrons has become evident 
in the past few years. While in 1955 only about 35 per cent worked on Kansas 
subjects, in 1960 almost 50 per cent, or 2,336, devoted their time to state and 
local topics. Some of this increased interest is due, no doubt, to the coming 
state centennial, but much of it can be accounted for by the growing familiarity 
of the public with the materials available in the Historical Society. More 
students also take advantage of the library's resources each year. For the 
past two years a Topeka high school history teacher has brought all sections 
of his classes to tour the library. A surprising number of these students return, 
bringing others with them, seeking a wide range of information for their classes. 

The approaching Civil War centennial has also made itself felt. While the 
number of patrons working on general subjects ordinarily stays much the same, 
this year it rose over 22 per cent to a total of 1,071. Interest in genealogy, in 
contrast, decreased slightly to a total of 1,364. Library patrons totaled 4,771, 
an increase of almost six per cent over last year. 


More than half of the 800 inquiries by mail were from out-of-state patrons. 
Forty-six states were represented as well as Canada, England, Australia, and 
Germany. The English and German correspondents were members of West- 
erners' associations in those countries and were interested in various phases of 
frontier life in Kansas. There are over 1,000 German Westerners who hope, 
through research, to improve the quality of the American frontier tales so 
eagerly read by both teen-agers and adults in that country. Numerous free 
pamphlets were sent out, principally to students, and 252 packages of loan 
file material were mailed during the year. 

In the clipping department 7,680 copies of newspapers were read. These 
issues included seven regular dailies and over 5,000 miscellaneous papers. 
Nearly 500 clippings were mounted on cards for the biographical file and 
4,638 were pasted on sheets to be bound into volumes. With part-time help 
during the summer it was possible to remount the clippings in ten badly worn 
volumes. Many more of these older clipping books are in need of repair. 

Microfilm accessions included a file of the Indian Advocate, Sacred Heart 
Mission, Indian territory, 1889-1910; The Soule Genealogy, a two-volume family 
history lent by A. L. Soule, Topeka; "History of Dodge City," a thesis on loan 
from the author, Owen D. Wiggins; The Claghorn Family, donated by Mrs. 
Guy D. Josserand; and Strangeman Hutchins, a genealogical pamphlet given 
by Mrs. Nancy Hineman. The Virginia Gazette, of Williamsburg, Va., 1736- 
1780, was purchased with money given by the National Society of Colonial 
Dames in the State of Kansas. Louise Barry donated a reel of the 1810 
federal census of Virginia, and Mr. and Mrs. Frank Helm gave two reels of 
the 1850 New York census and one reel of the 1880 census of Texas. The 
Polly Ogden chapter, D. A. R., Manhattan, sent money to be applied on the 
purchase of additional reels of the 1850 New York census. Through the 
courtesy of the probate judges of Anderson, Linn, and Shawnee counties early 
marriage records of those counties were microfilmed. These records preceded 
the marriage license law of 1867 and were recorded from slips sent in by the 
persons performing the marriages. Early marriage records are important for 
biographical and genealogical purposes and all such Kansas records should 
be microfilmed for safe keeping. 

Several theses were received during the year. Col. and Mrs. Harrie S. 
Mueller gave a copy of "Elam Bartholomew, Pioneer, Farmer, Botanist," by 
Leonard E. Muir; Ralph E. Herrick sent a copy of his thesis, History of the 
First Baptist Church, Emporia, Kansas, and Mrs. Vera E. Fletcher gave a 
copy of her "History of Smith County." 

Collections of books were received from Grace E. Derby, Arthur Bridwell, 
Mrs. Edward Carl Johnson, the U. S. Veterans Administration, Fort Leaven- 
worth, Louise Wolcott, and the family of Dr. Charles H. Lerrigo. A number 
of persons donated single volumes, pamphlets, and other material to the li- 
brary. Kenneth Davis, a former Kansan, now of Seattle, Wash., sent a generous 
check to be used for the purchase of books. 

Centennial booklets from the First Presbyterian church, Salina; First Pres- 
byterian church, Topeka; First Baptist church, Wathena; and the city of Wash- 
ington, were added to the Kansas collection. 

Heritage of Kansas, by Everett Rich, and One Way Ticket to Kansas, by 
Frank M. Stahl, as told by Margaret Whittemore, were significant Kansas books 



published recently. An important contribution to the early history of the state 
was the reprinting of three older books which have become scarce. Thirty 
Years in Topeka, 1854-1884, by F. W. Giles, was issued in an attractive format 
as a Stauffer Publication centennial contribution; History of Jewell County, 
Kansas, by M. Winsor and J. A. Scarbrough, originally published in 1878, was 
reprinted by the Excelsior Study Club, Burr Oak; and The Heart of the New 
Kansas, a Pamphlet Historical and Descriptive of Southwestern Kansas, by 
Bernard Bryan Smyth, was reproduced in facsimile by Ray S. Schulz, Great 

Library accessions, October 1, 1959-September 30, 1960, were: 
Bound volumes 

Kansas 343 

General 871 

Genealogy and local history 180 

Indians and the West 61 

Kansas state publications 47 

Total 1,502 

Clippings 8 

Periodicals 134 

Total, bound volumes 1,644 

Microcards (titles) 1 

Microfilm (reels) 48 


Kansas 1,127 

General '..' 564 

Genealogy and local history 37 

Indians and the West 17 

Kansas state publications 359 

Total, pamphlets 2,104 


Both manuscripts and microfilm acquired during the year have added to 
information on the towns and surrounding areas which played a part in the 
era of the cattle drives. Mrs. Merritt L. Beeson, Dodge City, gave five volumes 
of justices' dockets for Dodge township, Ford county, 1891-1908. These are 
records of civil and criminal actions. Mrs. Robert M. Rath, Dodge City, gave 
records of the Wright and Beverley Mercantile company which operated in 
Dodge City and Mobeetie, Tex. Included are cash books, invoices, cor- 
respondence, and account books dated in the 1880's. 

Gerald Carson, author of The Roguish World of Doctor Brinkley, presented 
material gathered by him for use in preparation of the book. It consists largely 
of photostats and reproductions of newspaper and magazine articles. There 
are some letters. Mr. Carson also gave the typescript of his book. 

Papers of the late Robert Stone, prominent Topeka attorney, were given by 
his daughter, Mrs. Beryl Johnson. The collection includes correspondence, 
speeches and articles, files on the Charles Boswell estate, a sketch of the life 
of his brother, George Melville Stone, and an incomplete autobiography. 

The family of the late Charles Henry Lerrigo, M. D., gave papers relating 


to Red Cross Ambulance company No. 44, organized by Dr. Lerrigo at Wash- 
burn College in 1917. It subsequently became Ambulance company 347, 312th 
Sanitary train, 87th division, and was commanded by Dr. Lerrigo. 

Medical records of Horace G. Slavens, M. D., Neosho Falls, were given by 
Lawrence E. Diver of that city. The 13 volumes include records of visits to 
patients and medicine dispensed, accounts, and two stubs of returns of births, 

Elmo R. Richardson, coauthor with Alan Farley of John Palmer Usher, 
Lincoln's Secretary of the Interior, presented a small group of letters from 
members of the Usher family, written in response to inquiries by Mr. Richardson. 

The Records Center of the General Services Administration at Kansas City, 
Mo., gave negative photostats of 11 documents relating to the massacre of 
the Jordan family in Ness county, 1872. 

Bonnie Bailey Vaughn, Topeka, has given a 300-page manuscript, "Taming 
the Kansas Prairie." This is a story of western Kansas, 1885-1902, dedicated to 
the memory of her parents, Nathan Hunt and Ida King Bailey, who pre-empted 
land in the Whitewoman creek basin, Scott county, in 1885. The manuscript 
contains three books: "Boom and Bust 80's"; the "Gray 90's"; and "Turn of 
the Century." 

Received during the year were two single items of more than usual interest: 
Order book of the band and noncommissioned officers of the Seventh regiment, 
U. S. cavalry, 1889-1891, given by Judge Arthur J. Stanley, Kansas City; and a 
record of licenses issued by the city of Topeka, 1907-1909, gift of Frank J. 
Warren. Among those paying fees were hucksters, fortune tellers, bicycle 
riders, hack operators, circuses, a minstrel show, and the Buffalo Bill Wild West 

Microfilm copies of the following have been acquired: 

Dodge City police court dockets, September 3, 1888-September 20, 1894, 
April 15, 1901-August 31, 1906; records of Wright, Beverley & Co. (subse- 
quently R. M. Wright & Co.), Dodge City, 1879-1887; papers of Maj. George 
W. Baird, 1874-1878, with references to the fight at Adobe Walls, the Indian 
territory expedition, and the Yellowstone command. The originals were lent 
by Mrs. Merritt L. Beeson, Dodge City. 

Records of the city of Caldwell. These include city council proceedings, 
1884-1904; city ordinances, 1885-1920; cemetery records, 1880's-1930's; and 
police dockets, 1879-1896. Originals were lent by the city clerk of Caldwell. 

Records of Dodge City. The 69 original volumes, 1875-1928, included 
ordinance books, city council minutes, a warrant register, police court dockets, 
voters' registration books, lot register for Maple Grove cemetery, and a single 
volume of Ford county vital statistics, 1905-1911. Lent by Dodge City 
through Merle Smith, city clerk. 

Ford county commissioners' journals, 1873-1904. Lent by Ford county 

Papers of Cyrus K. Holliday. This film, a gift from the Henry E. Hunt- 
ington library, San Marino, Cal., is largely a duplication of film already in the 
Society's holdings. 

Records of Fort Wallace. Purchase of two microfilm reels of War Depart- 
ment records from the National Archives, was made possible through a gift 
from Mrs. Raymond Millbrook, Detroit. Included are letters sent, 1866-1882; 
and orders, 1877-1882. 


Records of Fort Dodge. The six reels of records in the National Archives 
contain the following: Letters sent, 1866-1882; telegrams received, 1874; 
orders, 1866-1882; and reports of scouts and marches, 1868-1869, 1875-1879. 
As in the case of the Fort Wallace records, purchase was also made possible 
through a generous gift from Mrs. Raymond Millbrook. 

Records of the court martial of Lt. Col. Owen A. Bassett, Second Kansas 
cavalry. Originals are in the office of the judge advocate general, War Depart- 
ment. This was a gift from Mark Plummer, Normal, 111. 

Sedgwick county district court records, 1870-1886. Originals were lent by 
Mrs. Harriet Graham, clerk of the Sedgwick county district court. Mrs. Graham 
also lent justice of the peace dockets, 1870-1873, of Wichita township, Sedg- 
wick county. 

Records of the city of Wichita, miscellaneous papers, 1871-1881, including 
reports of city marshals, city clerks, city treasurers, police judges, and papers 
relating to the cattle trade. Originals lent by the city of Wichita through 
Frank Backstrom, city manager. 

Other donors included: Robert W. Baughman, Liberal; W. T. Bishop, 
Winona; Mrs. S. J. Brandenburg, Worcester, Mass.; George H. Browne, St. 
Petersburg, Fla.; Mrs. W. H. Bullock, Topeka; Madge E. Busch, East Lansing, 
Mich.; C. C. Calnan, Troy; Capper Publications, Topeka; Berlin B. Chapman, 
Stillwater, Okla.; George W. Cook, Topeka; Dudley Cornish, Pittsburg; Mrs. 
C. E. Coulter, Kansas City, Mo.; Mrs. L. A. Delp, Topeka; Robert S. Drenner, 
Culp Creek, Ore.; Alan Farley, Kansas City; Mrs. Lolita T. Fetter, Washing- 
ton, D. C.; Clarence S. Gee, Lockport, N. Y.; Arthur Grosbeck, Topeka; Mrs. 
R. M. Hartzler, Kansas City, Mo.; Paul Henderson, Bridgeport, Neb.; Katharine 
Hobson, Fort Smith, Ark.; Donald W. Janes, Topeka; H. R. Landis, Topeka; 
Mrs. E. W. McNeill, Syracuse; Mrs. Grace Fox Metzler, Carbondale; Ottawa 
County Historical Society; Jennie Small Owen, Topeka; G. P. Putnam's Sons, 
New York, N. Y.; Floyd E. Risvold, Minneapolis, Minn.; Mrs. J. C. Ruppenthal, 
Russell; Mrs. B. C. Sander, Topeka; Frederick F. Seely, Meadville, Pa.; Mrs. 
Barton L. Simpson, Windber, Pa.; Clare A. Sprool, New York, N. Y.; Mrs. E. T. 
Stallard, Topeka; Mrs. Mildred Steinmeyer, Topeka; Mrs. Fred M. Thompson, 
Topeka; Mrs. Nellie E. Thorpe, Topeka; M. W. Tuttle, Topeka; Caroline K. 
Walbridge, Topeka; Dick Walker, Topeka; Louise Wolcott, Topeka; Mrs. Max 
Wolf, Manhattan; Woman's Kansas Day Club; E. V. Wood, Baldwin; Mrs. 
James York, Junction City. 


Since the last report the microfilm division has produced nearly 246,000 
photographs, more than 200,000 of newspapers, 30,000 of archival materials, 
and the balance for the library and the manuscript division. 

Larger newspaper microfilming projects included the Coffeyville Daily 
Journal, 1921-1930; Wyandotte and Kansas City Daily Gazette, March 15, 
1887-April 12, 1909, and its continuation, the Gazette-Globe, April 13, 1909- 
May 27, 1917; Brown County World, Hiawatha, March 16, 1882-December 29, 
1916; Wellington Daily News, January 1, 1920-September 30, 1927; Holton 
Recorder, April 12, 1872-December 27, 1900; Fort Scott Weekly Monitor, 
July 6, 1876-April 13, 1904; and the Kearny County Advocate, Lakin, May 23, 
1885-December31, 1920. 

Other newspapers microfilmed included the Olathe Mirror, October 5, 1905- 
December 30, 1920; Wyandotte Weekly Gazette, June 4, 1859-July 6, 1888; 


Kansas City Weekly Gazette, July 13, 1888-April 29, 1909; Kansas City Daily 
Globe, June 19, 1905-April 12, 1909, May 28, 1917-September 1, 1918; Hays 
City Sentinel, January 26, 1876-October 15, 1895; and 14 other newspapers 
requiring four rolls of film or less. 

Filming of the statistical rolls of counties mentioned in the archives report 
has been completed. 


The continuing expansion and modernization program of the museum has 
again attracted a large number of visitors. Total attendance for the year 
ending September 30 was 64,277, with 419 school and scout groups taking 
advantage of the guided tours conducted as part of the educational program. 
Frank Walsh, who joined the staff as assistant museum director on September 
1, is in charge of the educational program. 

For the third straight year the Society had a display at the Mid-America 
Fair. Attendance was a record 16,177, an increase of 7,233 over last year. The 
Society was given a larger exhibit area this year which provided space for a 
display of farm implements dating from the late 1800's, in addition to various 
household items of pioneer days, Indian clothing, and an old-time general store. 

A blacksmith and harness shop, ninth in the series of period rooms, was 
completed last winter. Items on display include a stone and brick forge, a 
large hand-operated bellows, an anvil mounted on a tree stump, and numerous 
hand tools. 

Newest addition to the period rooms, and largest and most ornate in this 
series of displays, is a Victorian parlor. Construction of the room was made 
possible largely because of a generous gift from the Woman's Kansas Day 
Club. A fireplace with intricately designed mantle and ceramic tile work, once 
in the governor's mansion, is an outstanding feature of the room. Other items 
lending to the atmosphere of Victorian elegance are a brass chandelier, grand- 
father clock, marble-topped tables, and heavy velvet drapes. 

The Woman's Kansas Day Club also provided funds for purchase of a 
display case for the silver service used on the Battleship Kansas. A gift from 
the Kansas Dental Association helped to complete the period room depicting 
a dentist's office, while donations from the Dillon estate and the P. E. O. were 
used to purchase two cases for displaying old-time medical and dental instru- 

There were 166 accessions during the year. Among them are a switchboard 
used since 1912 in the Watson community, presented by the Southwestern 
Bell Telephone Company; a "G. W. Brown Imperial corn planter" donated by 
Joe Campbell; and a scale model of the Jayhawk hay stacker given by the 
F. Wyatt Manufacturing Company of Salina. The museum's collection of 
clothing and household items was expanded by gifts from the Laing estate of 
Topeka and from Lawrence E. Diver, Neosho Falls, which included 234 items. 

Other donors were: Mrs. Rosella Aitken, Topeka; Clarence Althof, Topeka; 
Mrs. L. N. Annen, Topeka; Mrs. W. J. Ash, Wichita; Creola-Charles Baker; 
Pratt; George Baker, Wamego; Mrs. Lela Barnes, Topeka; Mrs. Lita Battey, 
Yakima, Wash.; Joseph Bidwell, Baldwin; Mrs. Henry Blake, Topeka; Austin 
Bolyard, Topeka; Dr. M. M. Booth, St. Helena, Gal.; Tom and Kate Bottom 
estate, Topeka; Glenn L. Boydston, Denison; Richard D. Branum, Houston, 
Tex.; Ray Brooks, Topeka; Mrs. George Brownson, Kansas City; Mrs. Juanita 
Bullock, Topeka; Mrs. Madge E. Busch, East Lansing, Mich.; Joe Campbell, 


Rossville; O. F. Canterbury, Kansas City, Mo.; Mrs. Howard Carvin, Inde- 
pendence; Mrs. Eileen Charbo, Topeka; Howard Claycamp, Strawn; Herman 
M. Coffman, Topeka; Mrs. Arthur Coil, Kansas City, Mo.; George W. Cook, 
Topeka; Copies Inc., by James Olive, Topeka; Ross Cornwell, Haddam; Mrs. 
C. M. Correll, Manhattan; Mrs. R. R. Cross, Council Grove; Daughters of the 
American Revolution, by Mrs. C. E. Niven, Topeka; Mrs. H. E. Davidson, 
California; Larry Davis, Topeka; Lyndon R. Day, Springfield, Va.; Mrs. Loren 
A. Delp, Topeka; Gov. and Mrs. George Docking, Topeka; Billy Eberting, To- 
peka; Mrs. Martha Engert, Manhattan; D. D. Ensley, Hepler; Dr. T. A. Evans, 
Baldwin; Ethelynn Fortescue, Topeka; Roy and Clyde Gibbons, Lecompton; 
Mrs. Roy S. Gibson, Chanute; Robert Gorman family, Topeka; Art Groesbeck, 
Topeka; Larry Hahn, Topeka; Standish Hall, Wichita; David E. Hamilton, 
Moline; Mrs. Laura H. Hamilton, Topeka; Mrs. Samuel Hanna, Howard; 
Vance Henderson, Topeka; Mrs. Joe R. Henning, Ottawa; Fern F. Henry es- 
tate, Topeka; Mrs. H. L. Hiebert, Topeka; Otis Hofman, Burlington; Mrs. S. W. 
Holt, Topeka; Mrs. Ora Hurst, Marysville; Emma and Louis T. Jacoby, Nap- 
onee, Neb.; Danny Janes, Topeka; A. M. Jarboe, Topeka; Mrs. Edward C. 
Johnson, Topeka; Dr. Fred Johnson, Topeka; Mrs. Lou V. Johnson, Hutchinson; 
Kansas state senate; Frank Klicker, Topeka; William Koch, Manhattan; Ladies 
of the G. A. R., Topeka; Mrs. Henry Lautz, Topeka; Dr. Charles Lerrigo family, 
Topeka; Helen D. Little, La Crosse; Mrs. Clarence M. Locke, Topeka; Avery 
McClain, Topeka; Mrs. Muriel McClary, Independence; Mrs. C. H. McElroy, 
Merriam; Charlotte McLellan, Topeka; Mrs. C. C. McMillen, Topeka; Mark 
Marling, Topeka; Regina Matson, Topeka; Mr. and Mrs. J. E. Merriam, Topeka; 
Mrs. J. J. Milbauer, Los Angeles, Cal.; Harlan W. Miller, Lawrence; Max 
Miller, Topeka; Mrs. Nyle Miller, Topeka; Harry Nelson, Topeka; Mildred 
Otis, Agra; T. L. Pattison, Topeka; Frank Paulson, Topeka; Mrs. Jane B. 
Pearson, Denver, Colo.; Jim Petterson, Topeka; John F. and Ben O. Pickering, 
Olathe; Mrs. Roy Platt, Medicine Lodge; Mrs. H. W. Ragsdale, Silver Spring, 
Md.; Mrs. Victor A. Rankin, Mission; Jerry Reiman, Topeka; Frank Rezac, 
Topeka; Mrs. Robert W. Richmond, Topeka; A. W. Roberts, Herington; Mrs. 
George D. Royer, Jr., Kansas City, Mo.; Gordon Sailors, Topeka; R. Schellenger, 
Ottumwa; Mr. and Mrs. Clyde Schenck, Topeka; Mrs. Ted Scott, Topeka; 
Mrs. Harriet Shaffer, Moline; Stanley Sohl, Topeka; Mrs. Ruth Sollner, Burdick; 
Mrs. Ulin Sondlin, Greenleaf; Southwestern Bell Telephone Co., by Bob Hil- 
gardner, Topeka; Mrs. Harry Stanton, Washington; George M. Stone, Jr., Kan- 
sas City; Mrs. S. A. Stover, McPherson; Ron and Rick Strickland, Topeka; Miss 
E. E. Terry, Olathe; Mrs. Luther Tillotson, Topeka; John Turnbull estate, 
Maple Hill; H. C. Vangampolard, Topeka; Mr. and Mrs. Owen Ward, Law- 
rence; Mrs. William Ward, Marysville; Dr. William L. Warriner, Topeka; John 
E. Wible, Long Beach, Cal.; Edgar Williamson, Strawn; Roscoe Wilmeth, 
Topeka; Louise Wolcott, Topeka; Woman's Kansas Day Club; Mr. and Mrs. 
L. A. Womer, Agra; Emily Wood, Munson, Mass.; Otto Wullschleger, Frank- 
fort; Mary A. Zimmerman, Valley Falls; Phil Zimmerman, Topeka. 


During the year 5,254 patrons were served in person by the newspaper and 
census division, and 4,706 mail requests were answered. Over 10,700 searches 
were made by members of the staff in census and newspaper volumes, an in- 
crease of more than 700 over the previous year. Certified copies of records fur- 
nished totaled 3,898. 


Materials used by patrons and the staff during the year included: 14,649 
census volumes; 8,299 bound newspaper volumes; 4,825 single issues of news- 
papers; and 3,243 microfilm reels. This is an increase of 1,700 bound volumes 
of newspapers and 900 microfilm reels over the previous year. 

The Society continues to receive nearly all Kansas newspapers for filing. In 
addition the publishers of 14 newspapers donate microfilm copies of their 
current issues. Publications currently received include 57 dailies, 15 semi- 
weeklies, 306 weeklies, and 102 published less frequently. Of the total of 
481 publications received by the newspaper division, 342 are regular news- 
papers, and 139 are school, religious, fraternal, labor, industrial, trade, and 
miscellaneous periodicals. Ten out-of -state newspapers are received. 

Five hundred and ninety-six bound volumes of Kansas newspapers were 
added to the files during the year, making the total 58,683. The Society also 
has 12,024 bound volumes of out-of-state newspapers. The collection of 
newspapers on microfilm was increased by 474 reels during the year, bringing 
the total to 7,916. 

Among older newspapers received by the Society this year were copies of 
the Kansas Tribune, Lawrence, March 7, 1855, donated by the University of 
Minnesota library, Minneapolis; White City Whig, August 29, 1885 (Vol. 1, 
No. 1), and the Dwight Wasp, March 31, 1887 (Vol. 1, No. 1), donated by 
R. R. Dodderidge, Council Grove; and the Continental Journal and Weekly 
Advertiser, Boston, February 20, 1777, donated by Nelson A. Crawford, To- 
peka. Other donors of newspapers included: Mrs. L. N. Armen, Topeka; 
Lucinda Casey, Topeka; B. B. Chapman, Stillwater, Okla.; Lawrence E. Diver, 
Neosho Falls; Mrs. L. H. W. HaU, Dodge City; Mrs. Laura Hall Hamilton, 
Topeka; Lowell Hogue, Russell; Alf M. Landon, Topeka; Norman Niccum, 
Tecumseh; Jennie S. Owen, Topeka; University of Kansas library, Lawrence; 
Dick Walker, Topeka; Fe Waters, Topeka; and Mary Zimmerman, Valley Falls. 


The collection of photographs has been increased by the addition of 2,015 
new pictures, while 393 duplicate, damaged, or otherwise valueless prints have 
been removed, making a net increase of 1,622. Of these, 1,263 were gifts, 341 
were lent to the Society for copying, and 411 were taken by the Society staff. 
There are now 516 items in the color slide collection. 

In addition to the still photographs accessioned, one 400-foot reel of 16 mm. 
motion picture film, taken at the Society's 1959 archaeological dig, was do- 
nated by WIBW-TV, Topeka. 

Several large groups of pictures were given to the Society this year. Among 
the more important were 62 views of aircraft, Air Force personnel, and activities 
from Forbes Air Force Base, Topeka; 28 pictures of the Hutchinson Naval 
Air Station from the Hutchinson Chamber of Commerce; 65 views of Topeka 
businesses, churches, and schools in the 1920's from the Topeka Chamber of 
Commerce; 24 photographs of modern Kansas industry and agriculture from 
the Kansas Industrial Development Commission; and 279 views of the 1951 
flood and the 1954 Topeka centennial celebration from Wolfe's Camera Shops, 

Excellent collections of Kansas pictures were lent for copying by Mrs. 
Merritt Beeson, Dodge City; Otto Epp and Owen Sleigh, Tribune; Lawson 
May, Hutchinson; Floyd Souders, Cheney; Merle Miller, Belleville; Mrs. Ray 
Garrett, Neodesha; Caroline Walbridge and John Ripley, Topeka. 


Demands for copies of pictures in the Society's collection have increased 
markedly, in large part due to preparations underway for the state centennial 
in 1961. Many recent books on the West have used pictures from the Society's 
files as illustrations, and national magazines continue to draw on Kansas 
sources. The National Broadcasting Company, in preparing programs for the 
Project 20 television series, has also made extensive use of the Society's pictures, 
as have the Universities of Kansas and Nebraska, also for television purposes. 

One hundred and eight new maps and atlases have been accessioned this 
year, 42 of which are recent issues of the United States Geological Survey. 
The Kansas Highway Commission has deposited with the Society 32 county 
highway maps in the current series and the United States Coast and Geodetic 
Survey has begun to send aeronautical charts for the Kansas area on a regular 

Other map gifts of particular interest include an 1886 plat of Girard from 
George F. Beezley, Girard; two Pawnee county atlases from E. E. Glasscock, 
Wellesley, Mass.; a Finney county atlas from O. W. Terhune, Garden City; and 
several different Pony Express maps from L. C. Bishop, Cheyenne, Wyo.; the 
Wyoming Pony Express Centennial Commission; Edith Givens, Parsons; and 
Sherrill Halbert, Sacramento, Cal. Other donors included Benjamin Powers, 
Kansas City, Mo.; George Rion, Junction City; Gen. R. M. Montgomery, Wash- 
ington, D. C.; St. Mary's College, St. Marys; Hearne Bros. Co., Detroit, Mich.; 
Ida Freels, Oxnard, Cal.; Eugene Stotts, Mrs. Robert Kingman, and Art Groes- 
beck, Topeka. 

Mrs. Ray Garrett, Neodesha, lent a lithograph of the town of Neodesha, 
1883, for copying. 


Subjects for extended research included: land policy of the Kansas Pacific 
railroad in Wallace county, the open range, early history of Smith county, 
history of the grange in Kansas, involvement of immigrants in Farmers' 
Alliance and Populism in Kansas, Charles M. Sheldon and some aspects of the 
social gospel movement, attitude of the farmer toward the New Deal farm 
program in Kansas, history of Stevens county, 1885-1900, recent political 
issues in Kansas, history of Alton, Atchison in the 1880's, history of Sterling 
College, the Kansas Power and Light Company, banks of Jewell and Finney 
counties, the German press in Kansas, rural health in Kansas, prohibition in 
Topeka, forts of New Mexico, the Donner party, Samuel J. Crawford, E. 
Haldeman- Julius, Arthur Capper, and John P. St. John. 


Bound volumes 

Kansas 10,537 

General 58,898 

Genealogy and local history 10,397 

Indians and the West 1,637 

Kansas state publications 3,302 

Total 84,771 

Clippings 1,306 

Periodicals 17,657 

Total, bound volumes 103,734 



Manuscripts ( archives and private papers, 

cubic feet) 5,707 

Maps, atlases, and lithographs 5,553 

Microcards (titles) 106 

Microfilm (reels) 

Books and other library materials 371 

Public archives and private papers 2,293 

Newspapers 7,916 

Total 10,580 

Newspapers ( bound volumes ) 

Kansas 58,683 

Out-of-state 12,024 

Total 70,707 

Paintings and drawings 1,093 


Kansas 97,083 

General 39,600 

Genealogy and local history 3,822 

Indians and the West 1,106 

Kansas state publications 6,357 

Total, pamphlets 147,968 


Black and white 36,518 

Color slides 516 

Total 37,034 


Total visitors at the First Territorial Capitol on the Fort Riley military 
reservation during the year, were 6,994, representing 48 states, the District of 
Columbia, and 18 foreign countries. The property is in good condition except 
for a small amount of water seepage through the walls. Funds have been 
requested for repairing these defective areas. 


Registration this year at the Funston Home, north of lola, totaled 713. 
Visitors represented 17 states. 

Except for a termite infestation which has caused some damage, the property 
is in good physical condition, and presents the best appearance since it was 
taken over by the state. 


An unusual number of Indian visitors were reported at the Kaw Mission, 
at Council Grove, during the year. Tribes represented were the Kaw, Navajo, 
Cherokee, Apache, Pottawatomie, Osage, and Pawnee. Total number of visi- 
tors was 6,038, with 45 states and 13 foreign countries represented. As in past 
years, the Society is happy to express appreciation for the co-operation of the 
Council Grove Republican, the Chamber of Commerce, and the Nautilus Club, 
all of which have taken an active interest in the progess of the Mission. 

Donors of museum items included Mrs. Mabel Amrine, the C. H. Chitty 
family, Mrs. C. C. Krause, Mrs. Ethel Marks, the P. E. O. Club, Mrs. A. J. 
Tatlow, Ida Treels, W. T. Turnbull, and Mrs. Albert Ullrich. 



Number of visitors at the Shawnee Mission jumped substantially this year 
to a total of 11,193, of whom 6,603 were Kansans, 4,573 came from 43 other 
states, and 17 represented ten foreign countries. Among the visitors were 
Ray F. and David E. Bluejacket, great-great-grandsons of Shawnee Chief 
Charles Bluejacket, and Mrs. Florence Brown of Illinois, a great-great-niece 
of Moses Silverheel. 

The Colonial Dames, Daughters of American Colonists, Daughters of 1812, 
Daughters of the American Revolution, and the Shawnee Mission Indian 
Historical Society are again to be thanked for their continued interest and 


As in past years it is a privilege to make public acknowledgment of the 
fine work of the Society's staff. This has been perhaps the busiest and most 
productive year in the past decade, and each department has carried its full 
share of the load. Expressions of appreciation from persons who have re- 
ceived assistance indicate real satisfaction with the Society's service. A public 
official in another state wrote that "it was very unusual to receive such a re- 
sponse from a historical society. . . . The response from your office is the 
best and most gratifying of any from any State in the Union." Another corre- 
spondent said, "You have done the impossible. . . . You . . . have 
provided the one thing that nobody else has." We do take pride in the 
quality of our research and the lengths to which we go in order to provide 
satisfactory information. May we always be able to furnish prompt and 
quality service to the public! 

Respectfully submitted, 

NYLE H. MILLER, Secretary. 

At the conclusion of the reading of the secretary's report, James 
Malone moved that it be accepted. The motion was seconded by 
Will T. Beck and the report was accepted. 

Mr. Anderson then called for the report of the treasurer, Mrs. 
Lela Barnes: 


Based on the post-audit by the State Division of Auditing and Accounting 
for the period August 9, 1959, to August 20, 1960. 

Balance, August 8, 1959: 

Cash $4,732.10 

U. S. bonds, Series K 5,000.00 



Receipts : 

Membership fees $1,671.99 

Interest on bonds 138.00 

Interest on savings 79.45 

Gifts 1,650.46 

Interest, Thomas H. Bowlus gift 27.60 



Disbursements $2,274.94 

Balance, August 20, 1960: 

Cash $6,024.66 

U. S. bonds, Series K 5,000.00 



Balance, August 8, 1959: 

Cash $113.31 

U. S. bond, Series K 1,000.00 



Interest on bond $27^60 

Interest on savings account 3.81 



Balance, August 20, 1960: 

Cash $144.72 

U. S. bond, Series K 1,000.00 


Balance, August 8, 1959: 

Cash $163.48 

U. S. bond, Series K . . 500.00 



Interest on bond $13.80 

Interest on savings account 5.09 




Balance, August 20, 1960: 

Cash $182.37 

U. S. bond, Series K 500.00 



This donation is substantiated by a U. S. bond, Series K, in the amount of 
$1,000. The interest is credited to the membership fee fund. 

Balance, August 8, 1959: 

Cash (deposited in membership fee fund) $614.44 

U. S. bonds, Series K 5,500.00 



Interest on bonds ( deposited in membership 

fee fund) 151.80 


Disbursements: books, prints, mss 430.29 

Balance, August 20, 1960: 

Cash (deposited in membership fee fund) $335.95 

U. S. bonds, Series K 5,500.00 




This report covers only the membership fee fund and other custodial funds. 
Appropriations made to the Historical Society by the legislature are disbursed 
through the State Department of Administration. For the year ending June 
30, 1960, these appropriations were: Kansas State Historical Society, including 
the Memorial building, $525,332; First Capitol of Kansas, $3,425; Kaw Mission, 
$4,047; Funston Home, $3,491; Pike Pawnee Village, $150; Old Shawnee Mis- 
sion, $9,307. 

Respectfully submitted, 
MRS. LELA BARNES, Treasurer. 

Kirke Mechem moved that the report be adopted. Alan W. 
Farley seconded the motion and the report was accepted. 

Will T. Beck presented the report of the executive committee on 
the post-audit of the Society's funds by the State Division of Audit- 
ing and Accounting: 


October 14, 1960. 
To the Board of Directors, Kansas State Historical Society: 

The executive committee being directed under the bylaws to check the 
accounts of the treasurer, states that the State Department of Post-Audit has 
audited the funds of the State Historical Society, the Old Shawnee Mission, 


the First Capitol of Kansas, the Old Kaw Mission, the Funston Home, and 
Pike's Pawnee Village, for the period August 9, 1959, to August 20, 1960, and 
that they are hereby approved. 

WILL T. BECK, Chairman, 

On a motion by Will T. Beck, seconded by Mrs. Jesse C. Harper, 
the report was accepted. 

The report of the nominating committee for officers of the 
Society was read by Will T. Beck: 


October 14, 1960. 
To the Board of Directors, Kansas State Historical Society: 

Your committee on nominations submits the following report for officers 
of the Kansas State Historical Society: 

For a one-year term: George L. Anderson, Lawrence, president; Emory 
K. Lindquist, Wichita, first vice-president; and James E. Taylor, Sharon Springs, 
second vice-president. 

For a two-year term: Mrs. Lela Barnes, Topeka, treasurer. 

Respectfully submitted, 
WILL T. BECK, Chairman, 

Will T. Beck moved that the report be accepted. A. Bower 
Sageser seconded the motion and the officers were unanimously 

There being no further business, the meeting adjourned. 

Annual Meeting of the Society 

The annual meeting of the Kansas State Historical Society opened 
with a luncheon at noon in the roof garden of the Jayhawk Hotel. 
About 180 members and guests attended. 

The invocation was given by Emory K. Lindquist, dean of the 
faculties at the University of Wichita and the newly elected first 

Following the luncheon, President-elect Anderson introduced the 
guests at the speakers' table. These included Gov. and Mrs. George 
Docking and officers of the Society and their wives. 

Governor Docking spoke briefly and presented to the Society 
restorations in facsimile of the original Declaration of Independence 
and the Constitution of the United States of America. These were 


painstakingly produced by Theodore William Ohman of Memphis, 
Tenn., whose work in documentary restorations is nationally known. 
Mr. Ohman was a guest at the meeting. 

President Edward R. Sloan, whose convalescence from an illness 
prevented his attendance at the meeting, was represented by his son, 
Eldon. Before reading the presidential address, Eldon Sloan read 
the following statement which is printed here at President Sloan's 

Kansas is indeed fortunate in having the services of Nyle Miller as executive 
secretary of its State Historical Society. Under Nyle's leadership we have 
a society unmatched in the entire country. 

Our state has made great progress in its struggle to the stars. In order to 
build higher we must know the underlying structure. Through Nyle's efforts 
an excellent record of every facet of Kansas life and growth is being assembled 
and made available. 

Our leaders of the future will certainly know where we have been and with 
this knowledge they will be able to lead us ever higher. 

Being your president is a highly cherished honor. Your greatest gift, how- 
ever, was to afford me the opportunity to become better acquainted with Nyle 



TT is an established custom for the president of the Kansas State 
A Historical Society to deliver an address at the close of his term 
of office on some subject relating to the history and development 
of the state. 

When I began to think about a subject for this address my mind 
went back to the scenes of my boyhood. This may be a symptom 
of childishness. 

My parents brought me to Sheridan county in April, 1886, and 
settled on a homestead where they built a sod house in which I 
grew to adulthood. The state was then 25 years old. If I live to 
celebrate the centennial, I will have lived through 75 years of 
Kansas history, most of which has been in eastern Kansas. 

Kansas came into being during a bitter struggle between the 
North and South. The first settlements were in the eastern part 
of the state, prompted by the desire not only to establish homes but 
also to make Kansas a free or Proslavery state. It was in the east 
therefore that this momentous issue was joined and was finally de- 
cided for freedom. 


The western part of Kansas was not settled until years after 
the war between the states. The enactment of the federal home- 
stead law, which permitted the acquisition of 160 acres of land 
by establishing a home thereon was the inducement for the settle- 
ment of western Kansas. Many of the western Kansas home- 
steaders were veterans of the Civil War, endearingly referred to 
as "old soldiers." Their purpose was to own land and establish 

The problems of the western homesteader differed from those of 
the eastern settlers. The eastern settlers had living water in the 
rivers and small streams, together with timber. This gave him the 
first essentials, water, building material, and fuel. The homesteader 
had none of these. He had only the broad prairies covered with 
buffalo grass, without water, building material, or fuel, except as 
it was provided by the buffalo grass. 

It was necessary for the homesteader to have water, so he dug 
a well. This was not new to pioneering. Abraham dug a well and 
so did Jacob, but the wells in the prairie country were from 75 
to 150 feet deep. These wells were dug with pick and shovel and 
the dirt carried to the surface by bucket with rope and pulley. The 
well digger, when he reached sand, curbed it. Otherwise, the well 
was simply a hole in the ground without curbing. When he found 
water, it was good and plentiful, slightly on the hard side, but it 
was fresh and cool and had a much better flavor than some of the 
cities' purified water. At first the water was drawn by bucket, but 
the pump and windmill soon became the instrument of producing 
water from the well. When a well was once established, water was 
hauled in barrels on sleds for miles across the prairie, skidding 
gently on the buffalo grass. 

The prairie country is sometimes referred to as the short-grass 
country. It was a sea of buffalo grass, probably the most useful 
grass on God's footstool. It provided food for animals, building 
material, and fuel, with the help of the animals. It was feed for 
the buffalo and afterwards for cattle and other domestic animals. 
It ripened in the fall on the ground and cured into hay so that it 
was feed through the year. The snow was sometimes dragged off 
the grass so that cattle could feed on it. Horses learned to paw 
off the snow and feed on good hay. In addition to this, its sturdy 
roots bound together the top soil so that it could be cut into brick 
sod out of which the sod house was built. 


The sod house was a direct product of the buffalo grass. The 
undisturbed grass made the better sod. The sod was first cut by 
an ordinary breaking plow and then cut with a spade into the 
length desired. The block of sod was from 18 inches to two feet 
in length, about ten inches wide and two and one-half inches thick. 
The sod was laid much the same as brick, but without mortar or 
cement. The walls were from eight to ten feet high and of course 
provided for doors and windows. Rafters were run from wall to 
wall to support the roof. The roof of the early house was con- 
structed of willows covered with sod. When lumber became avail- 
able the roofs were made of lumber covered with sod. The inside 
of the wall was carefully smoothed with a sharp spade and plas- 
tered with magnesium and sand found along the dry river. Win- 
dows and doors in the early homes consisted of canvas. After the 
railroad came through glass doors and windows could be had. 
The floor, until lumber was available, was the ground. Most of 
the homes had two rooms, some had five or six. The walls were 
whitewashed and sometimes the floors were carpeted with rag 
carpet. There were no oriental rugs. The rooms were light and 
airy, warm in winter and cool in summer. They had only the 
furniture the homesteader brought with him, until the railroads 
made furniture available. Some were then quite well furnished, 
including musical instruments. They were homes with all the 
tender emotions of family life. 

The homesteader was not troubled with plumbers or electricians. 
The problem was fuel, and again he went to the prairie and gathered 
cow chips, which were the direct product of the buffalo grass. They 
dried on the prairie and were easily handled and served the pur- 
pose of fuel. 

The homesteader came to the prairie in covered wagons and 
brought with him his horses and cattle and a few pigs and chickens. 
He lived in his wagon or tent until he could build a house. It was 
not uncommon for one neighbor to lend to another a cow to milk, 
or a home cured ham, or a sack of flour or cornmeal. 

When the Rock Island came through on its way from Omaha to 
Colorado Springs, it was about three miles from our homestead. 
The railroad established a coal chute in our town. The engine 
tenders were filled with coal at this station and for some distance 
out of town coal would fall from the tender. It was a common 
practice for people to go along the railroad and pick up the coal. 
I have heard that firemen on the engines sometimes threw off a few 


shovelfuls for people who were searching for coal. The dis- 
carded ties of the railroad were in demand for fuel. My only ex- 
perience in chopping wood was on a discarded railroad tie. 

Thus, the pioneer with the use of the material nature provided 
established a dwelling place and became the owner of land. Most 
of these were homes in the true sense of the word. Homes are not 
built with material but out of the loving hearts and hands of parents, 
especially the mother whose tender touch heals the hurts of her 
children. Homes are developed in log cabins, sod shanties, and 
mansions, and they sometimes fail in each. 

Buffalo sod as building material went out of use in the early 
part of the 20th century and frame dwellings and schoolhouses 
took its place. This was not due so much to the inconvenience of 
the sod buildings, but to the fact that the buffalo grass was heavily 
pastured and plowed into wheat fields and sod became useless as 
building material. At about the same time dug wells were replaced 
with drilled wells. The cow chips fell into disuse when the cattle 
had other feed than buffalo grass. 

During the last two decades of the 19th century school districts 
were organized and sod schoolhouses dotted the prairie. They 
were not only schoolhouses but also churches and community 
centers. The builders of these temples of sod were acting under 
no compulsion save the desire to educate their children. The 
compulsory school law did not come until after the turn of the 
century. Were it not for the desire of the parents to educate their 
children my generation could have easily grown up in illiteracy. 

The schools were taught by local teachers. There were usually 
not more than a dozen children in the school. They were graded 
only in the sense that they read the first, second, third, or fourth 
reader. One of my teachers is still living. Her name is Winona 
Douglas, now Mellick. She drove a horse and cart seven miles 
across the prairie to the schoolhouse and did her own janitor work. 
She was in my mind a great teacher and I have often said that 
she had more influence on my life than any teacher I have ever had. 

The prairie homesteader has had his ups and downs. He has 
met droughts, hot winds, and crop failures, but as spring follows 
the winter, rains have followed droughts and crop failures have 
been followed by good crops. A little success soon heals the 
wounds of hardship and disappointment. The western farmer 
came to his own in the first World War when he produced the 



bread that was necessary to win the war. Since then he had to 
cope with dust storms, but he had learned how to meet the ob- 
stacles of the country and to turn the prairie into wheat fields. 
Some of those who saw the open prairies and withstood its hard- 
ships have lived to see its prosperity. The prairie country could 
furnish bread to the hungry of the world if our statesmen were 
wise enough to get it to them. 

The differences between eastern and western Kansas still exist, 
but it is very much tempered to what it was many years ago. The 
constitution provides for a representative from each county and 
the sparsely settled counties have influenced legislation. Among 
the last legislative controversies between the east and the west was 
the constitutional amendment authorizing the state highway system. 
The west opposed it because they were afraid that the roads would 
be built in the eastern part of the state. They did not realize that 
the aristocracy of the east would have to have good roads across 
the prairie to get to the playgrounds of the Rocky Mountains. The 
state highway system has probably done more to harmonize the 
people of Kansas than anything that has happened in my generation. 

We are sometimes asked why would one live his life in Kansas 
with its hot summers and cold winters. The beautiful springs and 
magnificent falls cause us to forget the inclement weather. We 
have tornadoes, hail, and dust storms, but we do not have tidal 
waves or earthquakes. Wherever we are, life is struggle. Where 
there is no struggle, life ceases to exist. The Creator seems to 
have ordained it so. The greater the struggle, the more per- 
manent are the footprints on the sands of time. Kansas has been 
generous to most of us. It has been good to me. I thank my 
parents, who had the courage to bring me here. I expect to spend 
my remaining years a Kansan with my boyhood sweetheart from 
the prairie country. 

At the close of the reading of retiring President Sloan's address, 
a small plaque was presented to Eldon Sloan to be transmitted to 
his father in recognition of his service to the Society. 

A portrait of Philip Pitt Campbell, prominent resident of south- 
eastern Kansas and congressman from the third district for 20 
years, was presented to the Society in the name of his daughter, 


Mrs. Helen Campbell Kleberg of Kingsville, Tex. In the absence 
of Fred W. Brinkerhoff who was to have made the presentation, 
the secretary, Nyle Miller, introduced Mrs. Jessie Munn Noel of 
Pittsburg, niece of Philip Campbell, who unveiled the portrait. 
Mr. Brinkerhoff 's prepared statement follows: 

Philip Pitt Campbell was born in Nova Scotia, April 25, 1862. Five years 
later the parents, Mr. and Mrs. Daniel A. Campbell, and family, four sons 
and a daughter, traveled to Boston where a covered wagon was purchased 
and outfitted. In it the Campbell family came to Kansas, stopping for a few 
months in Illinois. The Campbells settled on a farm in Walnut Grove town- 
ship in Neosho county, not far from the town of Walnut. Phil Campbell spent 
his boyhood and young manhood on this farm. He attended the common 
schools and later went to Baker University from which he was graduated in 
1888. In 1889 he was admitted to the bar. And two years later he began 
the practice of law in Pittsburg. He became active in Republican politics 
and gained an early reputation for his oratory. He was one of the speakers 
at the first dinner of the Kansas Day club in Topeka in 1893. In 1902 he 
was nominated for congress at the third district Republican convention at 
Winfield where 105 ballots were taken before he won. He served the next 
20 years in the house of representatives, rising to the top rank of Republican 
leaders. He was chairman of the rules committee in the closing years of his 
service. In 1922 he was defeated for renomination by one of the three men 
he defeated in the convention in 1902. Retiring from congress, Campbell 
established a law practice in Washington which he continued until his death 
in Washington, May 26, 1941. 

This portrait, by the artist, Boris B. Gordon, was presented to the Kansas 
State Historical Society by Campbell's daughter, Helen, now Mrs. Robert J. 
Kleberg of Kingsville, Tex. During his long service in congress Campbell 
was a picturesque figure in a stock which he wore in preference to a collar and 
necktie. It was said of him that he closely resembled the poet, Robert Burns,, 
and the statement did not displease Campbell, who was proud of his Scotch 
ancestory. But after his retirement from congress he discarded the stock and 
resumed the conventional neckwear. The artist painted the portrait in this 
later period of Campbell's life. 

Bob Brooks and Bill Walker, graduate students of the University 
of Kansas, gave the premiere showing of their interesting motion 
picture, "Six Gun to Sixty-One," which narrates the story of Kansas 
through 100 years of statehood. 

The report of the committee on nominations for directors was. 
called for and was read by Will T. Beck: 




October 14, 1960. 
To the Kansas State Historical Society: 

Your committee on nominations submits the following report and recom- 
mendations for directors of the Society for the term of three years ending in 
October, 1963: 

Bailey, Roy F., Salina. 
Baughman, Robert W., Liberal. 
Beezley, George F., Girard. 
Beougher, Edward M., Grinnell. 
Bowlus, Thomas H., lola. 
Brinkerhoff, Fred W., Pittsburg. 
Cron, F. H., El Dorado. 
Docking, George, Lawrence. 
Ebright, Homer K., Baldwin. 
Farrell, F. D., Manhattan. 
Hamilton, R. L., Beloit. 
Harper, Mrs. Jesse C., Ashland. 
Harvey, Mrs. A. M., Topeka. 
Haucke, Frank, Council Grove. 
Hodges, Frank, Olathe. 
Lingenfelser, Angelus, Atchison. 
Long, Richard M., Wichita. 

McArthur, Mrs. Vernon E., 

McCain, James A., Manhattan. 

McFarland, Helen M., Topeka. 

McGrew, Mrs. Wm. E., Kansas City. 

Malone, James, Gem. 

Mechem, Kirke, Lindsborg. 

Mueller, Harrie S., Wichita. 

Ripley, John, Topeka. 

Rogler, Wayne, Matfield Green. 

Ruppenthal, J. C., Russell. 

Simons, Dolph, Lawrence. 

Slagg, Mrs. C. M., Manhattan. 

Templar, George, Arkansas City. 

Thomas, Sister M. Evangeline, Salina. 

Townsley, Will, Great Bend. 

Woodring, Harry H., Topeka. 
Respectfully submitted, 

WILL T. BECK, Chairman, 



Motion for acceptance of the report was made by Standish Hall, 
seconded by Ivan N. Hewitt. The report was adopted and directors 
for the term ending in October, 1963, were elected. 

The following memorial to John S. Dawson was read by C. M. 


John S. Dawson, outstanding Kansas jurist and public servant for over half 
a century, died in Topeka on February 19, 1960. He had served on the board 
of directors of this Society for over 50 years, on the executive committee since 
1935, and as president in 1931-1932. 

John Dawson was born in Spey Bridge, Scotland, June 10, 1869, and came 
to the United States in 1884. After spending three years on an Illinois farm 
he moved to Graham county, Kansas, where he became a teacher in the public 
schools. While serving as principal of the Hill City grade school he read law 
and in 1898 was admitted to the bar. 

In 1899 he became bond clerk in the state treasurer's office and five years 
later, although he was already a full-fledged attorney, he enrolled in the Wash- 
burn law school. In 1906 he received the bachelor of laws degree but while 
he was still a student he became an assistant attorney general, a job he held 
until 1908. 


Dawson's career in state service was a distinguished one. He served as 
private secretary to Governor Stubbs, was an attorney for the board of railroad 
commissioners, and in 1910 was elected to the first of two terms as attorney 
general. From 1915 to 1937 he was a justice of the state supreme court and 
then served as chief justice until 1945, during which time he wrote more than 
1,600 opinions. His retirement was short-lived for he soon returned to the 
statehouse for another decade as pardon attorney in the governor's office. 

Judge Dawson, who won an enviable reputation as a vigorous enforcer of 
liquor and antitrust laws in Kansas, was active in the affairs of the state bar 
association and received well-deserved honors and recognition from that 
organization at the time of his retirement from the court. In 1927 he was 
given an honorary doctor of laws degree by Washburn University, and in 1951 
was awarded the 33d degree in Masonry. 

John Dawson was a staunch friend of this Society. He gave generously of 
his time and talent and was greatly interested in the history of his adopted 
state and nation. 

A memorial to Jerome C. Berryman was read by Frank Haucke: 

The Society lost a valued member and friend when Jerome C. Berryman 
died on May 23, 1960. He had been a life member of the Society since 1927, 
a member of the board of directors since 1940, and was first vice-president at 
the time of his death. 

Jerome Berryman, a native of Kansas, was born in Ashland, May 22, 1902, 
and spent most of his life there. He graduated from Centre College in Ken- 
tucky in 1925 and after a brief residence in Oklahoma returned to Ashland 
where he entered the banking business. His business and financial interests 
were extensive, and as a banker, lumber company executive, and rancher he was 
an active promoter of the agricultural and economic development of Kansas. 

As a young man Berryman became interested in politics and his interest 
remained strong. He was a Republican member of the Kansas legislature for 
four terms beginning in 1949 and he served as a member of the state office 
building commission, state board of abstractors, and as sixth district com- 
missioner of the Kansas state highway commission. 

In 1943 he entered the United States navy and was discharged as a lieu- 
tenant commander at the end of the war, having served on the staff of Adm. 
William Halsey in the Pacific. He was a member of the American Legion, 
Veterans of Foreign Wars, Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity, Sons of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, and Masonic bodies. 

The Berryman family's interest in history stems from the earliest days of 
white settlement in present Kansas. Mr. Berryman's great grandfather came 
as a Methodist missionary to the Kickapoo and Shawnee Indians in the early 
1830's. Therefore, it was natural for Berryman to have a deep concern for 
the history of his state, and as a member of the Clark County Historical Society 
and this Society he worked at preserving the story of Kansas. 

Jerome Berryman's death was a loss to his family, his community, and to his 
state which he served so well. 

Members of several local historical societies reported briefly on 
the activities of their organizations. 

There being no further business, the meeting was adjourned. 



Directors of the Kansas State Historical Society as of 
October, 1960 


Barr, Frank, Wichita. 
Charlson, Sam C., Manhattan. 
Correll, Charles M., Manhattan. 
Denious, Jess C., Jr., Dodge City. 
Hall, Standish, Wichita. 
Hegler, Ben F., Wichita. 
Humphrey, Arthur S., Junction City. 
Jameson, Henry, Abilene. 
Jones, Horace, Lyons. 
Kampschroeder, Mrs. Jean Norris, 

Garden City. 

Kaul, Robert H., Wamego. 
Lauterbach, August W., Colby. 
Lillard, T. M., Topeka. 
Lindquist, Emory K., Wichita. 
Maranville, Lea, Ness City. 
Means, Hugh, Lawrence. 

Montgomery, John D., Junction City. 
Owen, Mrs. E. M., Lawrence. 
Payne, Mrs. L. F., Manhattan. 
Richards, Walter M., Emporia. 
Riegle, Wilford, Emporia. 
Robbins, Richard W., Pratt. 
Roberts, Larry W., Wichita. 
Scott, Angelo, lola. 
Shrewder, Mrs. Roy V., Ashland. 
Sloan, E. R., Topeka. 
Smelser, Mary M., Lawrence. 
Socolofsky, Homer E., Manhattan. 
Stewart, Mrs. James G., Topeka. 
Taylor, James E., Sharon Springs. 
Van De Mark, M. V. B., Concordia. 
Wark, George H., Caney. 
Williams, Charles A., Bentley. 


Aitchison, R. T., Wichita. 
Anderson, George L., Lawrence. 
Anthony, D. R., Leavenworth. 
Baugher, Charles A., Ellis. 
Beck, Will T., Holton. 
Bray, Mrs. Easton C., Syracuse. 
Chandler, C. J., Wichita. 
Clymer, Rolla, El Dorado. 
Cochran, Elizabeth, Pittsburg. 
Cotton, Corlett J., Lawrence. 
Eckdall, Frank F., Emporia. 
Euwer, Elmer E., Goodland. 
Farley, Alan W., Kansas City. 
Card, Spencer A., lola. 
Harvey, Perce, Topeka. 
Jelinek, George J., Ellsworth. 
Knapp, Dallas W., Coffeyville. 

Landon, Alf M., Topeka. 
Lilleston, W. F., Wichita. 
Lose, Harry F., Topeka. 
Malin, James C., Lawrence. 
Mayhew, Mrs. Patricia Solander, 


Menninger, Karl, Topeka. 
Moore, Russell, Wichita. 
Rankin, Charles C., Lawrence. 
Raynesford, H. C., Ellis. 
Reed, Clyde M., Jr., Parsons. 
Sageser, A. Bower, Manhattan. 
Shaw, Joseph C., Topeka. 
Stewart, Donald, Independence. 
Thomas, E. A., Topeka. 
von der Heiden, Mrs. W. H., Newton. 
Walker, Mrs. Ida M., Norton. 


Bailey, Roy F., Salina. 
Baughman, Robert W., Liberal. 
Beezley, George F., Girard. 
Beougher, Edward M., Grinnell. 
Bowlus, Thomas H., lola. 
Brinkerhoff, Fred W., Pittsburg. 
Cron, F. H., El Dorado. 
Docking, George, Lawrence. 
Ebright, Homer K., Baldwin. 
Farrell, F. D., Manhattan. 
Hamilton, R. L., Beloit. 
Harper, Mrs. Jesse C., Ashland. 
Harvey, Mrs. A. M., Topeka. 
Haucke, Frank, Council Grove. 
Hodges, Frank, Olathe. 
Lingenfelser, Angelus, Atchison. 
Long, Richard M., Wichita. 

McArthur, Mrs. Vernon E., 


McCain, James A., Manhattan. 
McFarland, Helen M., Topeka. 
McGrew, Mrs. Wm. E., Kansas City. 
Malone, James, Gem. 
Mechem, Kirke, Lindsborg. 
Mueller, Harrie S., Wichita. 
Ripley, John, Topeka. 
Rogler, Wayne, Matfield Green. 
Ruppenthal, J. C., Russell. 
Simons, Dolph, Lawrence. 
Slagg, Mrs. C. M., Manhattan. 
Templar, George, Arkansas City. 
Thomas, Sister M. Evangeline, Salina. 
Townsley, Will, Great Bend. 
Woodring, Harry H., Topeka. 

Bypaths of Kansas History 


Mrs. Lynn R. Brodrick and her sister, Iowa Jones, of Marysville, 
recently presented to the State Historical Society what seems to be 
the subscription list of the old Palmetto Kansan, a newspaper pub- 
lished in the latter 1850*8 in a town next door to Marysville. 

The town didn't last and the newspaper didn't publish long, but 
the reason offered for the demise of the latter was intriguing. 
Scrawled across one of the pages was the following candid state- 
ment: "Palmetto Kansan Suspended for want of Brain to Edit it." 

If newspapers must suspend it probably can't be denied that this 
reason is as good as any. 

From The Daily Times, Leavenworth, December 29, 1860. 

There were an innumerable number of snow-storms on the streets yesterday 
and the day before, not exactly after the manner in which they usually come, 
but improvised and gotten up for the occasion by an army of about forty boys. 
They arranged themselves, in military style, on one side of the street, and dis- 
patched a shower of snow-balls after every team and pedestrian that passed 
along. Wo to the unlucky wight who stopped and resented the sudden and 
unexpected pelting which he was sure to encounter, if he came within snow- 
shot of the boys. A perfect tornado of white bullets would greet him, in re- 
sponse to his expostulations. We even saw some cutters containing ladies that 
were assaulted by the youngsters. This was an exhibition of a want of gallantry 
which a few days training in the callaboose would probably remedy. It may be 
fine sport for the boys to throw snow-balls, but they should learn to be a little 
more discriminating in their attacks. 


From the Dodge City Times, January 19, 1878. 

A special train consisting of an engine and Pullman car, left the Santa Fe 
depot, Topeka, Thursday, with the right of the road to Pueblo. It carried a 
gentleman who had received a dispatch that his wife was very sick and likely 
to die in Colorado Springs. $350 it is said was paid for this ride. 

From the Times, January 26, 1878. 

Last week we referred to the charter of a special train by a gentleman 
who wished to make all possible haste to the bedside of his dying wife. The 
Commonwealth gives the following particulars: 

Mr. Dunn, of the firm of H. B. Clafflin & Co., the heavy New York dry 



goods merchants, whose wife was lying at the point of death from quick con- 
sumption, at Manitou, Colorado, telegraphed Colonel Morse on Thursday, 
chartering a special train from Topeka to Pueblo ahead of the regular train. 
As it was a matter of life and death it was desirable to reach his destination 
as soon as possible, which occasioned a very rapid run, as the figures below 
indicate. The train consisted of a sleeping car drawn by engine 23, built by 
the Taunton locomotive works, with 62 inch drivers and cylinders 14x24. 
J. W. Griffith run the engine the entire distance, 568 miles, with John Flem- 
ming to assist him as fireman. 


The train left Topeka at 3:05 p. m. 

Left Emporia Junction 4:51 60 

Arrived at Newton 7:20 135 

(Coaled and supper) 

Left Newton 7:38 

Left Great Bend 9:54 219 

Arrived at Dodge (Coaled) 12:15 a. m. 302 

Left Dodge 12:30 

Left Lakin 2:26 374 

Left Granada 4:00 421 

Left West Las Animas (Coaled) 5:35 476 

Arrived at Pueblo 7:30 568 

This run was made in sixteen hours and twenty-five minutes, including all 
stops. Actual running time, about fifteen hours and forty minutes. Average 
speed, including all stops, thirty-four and a half miles per hour. Maximum 
between stations, forty-three miles per hour; minimum, twenty-seven. 

For a new western road, this is rather an extraordinary run and would in- 
dicate excellent condition of the track and rolling stock. 

At Pueblo, the Denver & Rio Grande railroad had a special train in waiting 
which conveyed Mr. Dunn to Colorado Springs, where he took a team to 
Manitou, five miles distant, reaching the bedside of his wife only twenty 
minutes before her death. The thoughts of the husband can be better imag- 
ined than described as he dashed up the valley the long night through, at a 
maximum speed of 43 miles per hour to reach the side of his dying 


From the Dodge City Times, July 13, 1878. 

The other day a wild Texan boarded the train at Ellis for Kansas City. 
It was his first ride on the cars, and as the conductor reached in his pocket 
for his punch, the sharp eye of the Texan caught a glimpse of its polished 
handle and quick as thought he leveled a big six shooter on the conductor, 
saying: "Put 'er up, or I'll blow daylight through you. No man can get 
the drop on me." Hays Sentinel. 



Under "General Remarks by Assessors" in the 1885 state census 
of Kansas (v. 119), one assessor took the suggestion to mean what 
it said, and thereupon reported the situation in Burr Oak town- 
ship, Jewell county, as of March 1, 1885: 

Wheat not in good condition Acreage Small it is not A Success in this 
locality Oats can be raised in Abundance Average crop about 50 bu per 
Acre corn in good condition Acreage large average crop 30 to 60 per 
Acre the Chintz Bug is here this Season damageing Wheat allready 

Peach Trees nearly all Winter Killed apples do Well all Small fruits do 

all Kinds of forrest trees do Well except cotonwood dont pay to Set them 
out Box elder and in fact all other Kinds do Well 

their is a Small Bug eating the leves of the young Cotonwood this Season 
looks Somthing like Colorado Beatle 

their has bin little Rheumatism or Something like it among the Horses 
this Winter they get down cant get up Some dies others get Well 


From the Kansas City Gazette, July 29, 1895. 

Saturday afternoon two young ladies from Kansas City, Mo. came across 
the line on bicycles. They attracted especial attention on account of their 
costume. One was dressed in bloomers and the other in tights. Their ap- 
pearance was so strikingly unusual to the staid population of this city that 
the town suspended business for a while to take a look at them. The young 
ladies had gone but a little way along Minnesota avenue when a troop of 
dudes on wheels took their trail. Finally one of the girls punctured a pneu- 
matic tire on the fragment of a whisky bottle and when she alighted to examine 
the damage she was heard to remark: "I thought this was a prohibition town." 
As the transportation of bicycles on the cable cars is forbidden she was obliged 
to walk home, pushing her wheel, with a crowd at her heels like that which 
usually follows a Bohemian and his trained bear. Kansas City, Kansas, never 
had so much fun since the day of the Lewelling administration. But it must 
not be understood that Kansas City, Kansas, was shocked. She never gets 


From The Brown County World, Hiawatha, June 30, 1899. 
It is a good thing for the merchants of Hiawatha to have Indian prisoners 
in the jail. They draw Indian trade. There have been more Indians in 
Hiawatha since the Indians have been in the jail than there ever were before. 

Kansas History as Published in the Press 

Articles by Harry E. Chrisman in the Southwest Daily Times, 
Liberal, in recent months included: "Liberalites Participated in 
[George] Mulligan's Gold Rush [to Alaska in 1901]," April 30, I960; 
"Phones Here Preceded by Telegraph in Early Days/' May 6; "John 
E. George, Early Day Cowboy, Later Banker and Financier, Had 
Part in Last SW Kansas Indian Fight," July 2; "All That Is Left of 
Fargo Springs, Ghost Town, Is School Bell Now on 1st Christian 
Church Patio Here," August 17; "Cattle Rustling on the Cimarron 
River Harassed Pioneer Ranchmen in This Area," September 17; 
and "Coyotes Once Seward Co. Official Melon Testers," September 
30, October 1, 4, 5. 

Among historical articles printed in the Hays Daily News recently 
were: "Pleasant Old Soldier 'Cap' Craig Haunts G. A. R. Holiday 
Memories," by Mollie Madden, May 15, I960; "Dodge City Points 
Up Hays Mistake in Failing to Fence in Its Boot Hill," June 12; 
"Agricultural Life in [Ellis] County Changed by Arrival of First 
Header in 1881," June 21; "Recently Sold 'Golden Valley Farm* 
[in Ellis County] a Picturesque and Historical Place," June 26; "St. 
Joe [Reno County] Used To Be Ost," by Alvin Dumler, and "Stir- 
ring Account of Civil War Days in Kansas by Late Resident [Mrs. 
Anne Mclntosh Gilkeson] of Hays," July 24; "The Story of Jenny 
Martin Records Rugged Living of Pioneers at Ellis," by Kittie Dale, 
August 7; "Druggist [Terry Foltz] Recalls When Carry Nation 
Wrecked Business," by Ted Blankenship, August 28; "Kansas Oil 
First Sought in 1860 by Energetic Editor [G. W. Brown] at [of] 
Lawrence," October 9; and "Insurance Firms Took Chance on Any 
Hazard of Old West," October 23. 

Hosea C. Holdredge's 35-year career as constable of Caldwell was 
reviewed in an article published in the Topeka Capital- Journal, 
July 10, and the Caldwell Messenger, July 18, 1960. 

Beginning July 13, 1960, the Kiowa County Signal, Greensburg, 
has been publishing Dr. Irven L. Corder's "A History of Kiowa 
County," in serial form. 

G. M. Weeks is the author of the "Story of El Dorado's First 
Water Mill Replete With Other Early Day Data," which appeared 
in the Butler County News, El Dorado, July 14 and 21, 1960. A 
biographical sketch of Edward E. Snyder, retired El Dorado teacher, 
was printed in the News, August 18 and 25. 



Featured in the August, 1960, number of Thomas County . . . 
Yesterday and Today, Colby, was a biographical sketch of Mrs. 
Emily Thiel Stover who settled in Thomas county in 1887. Other 
articles included: "Issac Flood Plants Many Trees Here in Early 
Days/' "Measles Strike in '99, Claiming Four Member of the Eli 
Anderson Family Within One Week/' and "History of Levant Cen- 
ters Around Church, Schools, and Business Places/' Among articles 
in the September issue were: "J. W. Hutchinson Family Makes 
Home in Thomas County in 1885," "Kansas Farmers Union First 
Organized in Thomas County in 1916/' "L. C. Howard Describes 
Early Times," "Clyde Chelf Reminisces About Settlement Years in 
County; Includes Many Interesting Facts," and an article on the 
building of good roads in the area. 

Early Lindsborg history and a biographical sketch of W. B. O'Con- 
nor, early city marshal of Lindsborg, were included in an article by 
Anton Peterson, printed in the Lindsborg News-Record, August 
4, 1960. 

One hundred-year-old Mrs. H. M. Halloway, Larned, was the sub- 
ject of a biographical sketch published in the Tiller and Toiler, 
Larned, August 12, 1960. On September 2 a biographical sketch of 
Michael Sweeny, Pawnee county pioneer, appeared in the Tiller 
and Toiler. 

In 1885 the Rev. C. R. Robinson started the Wellsford Methodist 
church. A history of the church has been appearing serially in the 
Haviland Journal, beginning August 18, 1960. The early part of 
the history was written by Mrs. C. E. Anderson in 1935, the re- 
mainder by Mrs. Frank Meisel and Mrs. John Powell. 

" 'Ballad of Nicodemus' Kansas Town's Theme," by Kittie Dale, 
a history of Kansas' only all-Negro settlement, was published in the 
Wichita Eagle Magazine, August 21, 1960. 

Articles of historical note in recent issues of the Courtland Journal 
Included: "Eight Months in Western Kansas in 1907," August 25, 
1960; "The Glasgow Family Prominent in Early History," Septem- 
ber 1; "Sorghum Mill an Early Industry in Courtland Township/' 
September 8; "Fort Nonsense," a building erected by the Excelsior 
oolony in north central Kansas for protection from the Indians, Sep- 
tember 15; and "Courtland School Reaches 72nd Anniversary," by 
Nina Engwall and Anona Blackburn, September 22. 

On August 25, 1960, the Harper Advocate published an eight-page 
liistorical supplement under the title Harper Headache. The sup- 


plement is comprised largely of historical and humorous articles 
from early issues of Harper newspapers. 

The Arkansas Daily Traveler, September 16, 1960, printed a short 
sketch of the opening of the Cherokee Strip, September 16, 1893, 
by Walter Hutchison. 

A history of Meade, by Lura Smith, appeared in the Meade Globe- 
Press, September 15, 1960. The town was incorporated in 1885. 

On September 18, 1960, the Atchison Daily Globe printed a his- 
tory of St. Benedict's church, near Bendena. The church recently 
celebrated its centennial. 

The Weir Spectator on September 22, 1960, printed the first in a 
series of articles on the history of Weir by Mrs. Ralph O'Malley. 

A history of the Marysville Methodist church appeared in the 
Marshall County News, Marysville, September 22, 1960. The city's 
first Methodist services were held in 1857. 

Histories of the Hope Methodist church were published in the 
Hope Dispatch and the Herington Advertiser-Times, September 29, 
1960. Although a Sunday school had existed for several years 
previous, the church was not organized and chartered until 1885. 

Early in 1885 the Baptist church of Simpson was organized, ac- 
cording to a history of the church printed in the Beloit Gazette, 
September 29, 1960. 

In observance of the 75th anniversary of the Norwich Methodist 
church, the Kingman Countian, Kingman, September 29, 1960, pub- 
lished a history of the church. 

Histories of Herndon and Ludell, 1902-1909, by Alfaretta Court- 
right, were published in the Citizen-Patriot, Atwood, September 
29, 1960. 

William C. QuantrilTs activities in the Kansas-Missouri border 
area during the Civil War are reviewed by Albert Castel in "The 
Bloodiest Man in American History," which appeared in American 
Heritage, New York, October, 1960. Accompanying the article 
were the reminiscences of Sophia L. Bissell who was living in Law- 
rence at the time of QuantruTs raid there. 

"Alfred M. Landon and the Presidential Campaign of 1936," by 
Donald R. McCoy, was published in the October, 1960, issue of 
Mid-America An Historical Review, Chicago. 

Kansas Historical Notes 

A charter-member meeting of the newly formed Mitchell County 
Historical Society was held July 28, 1960, in Beloit. It was an- 
nounced that 82 persons had become charter members. Nyle H. 
Miller, secretary of the Kansas State Historical Society, spoke to 
the gathering. Alan Houghton is president of the Mitchell county 

Chase county's historical museum in Cottonwood Falls, a gift of 
Frank and George Roniger, was formally opened to the public Au- 
gust 20, 1960. The display consists largely of the Roniger brothers' 
Indian relics, and the historical collections of George Miser and 
the Chase County Historical Society. Miser is the museum curator. 

All officers of the Chase County Historical Society were re-elected 
at the annual meeting of the society in Cottonwood Falls, Septem- 
ber 10, 1960. They are: Charles Gaines, president; Paul Wood, 
vice-president; Whitt Laughridge, secretary; George T. Dawson, 
treasurer; and Mrs. Ruth Conner, librarian. The group heard Stan- 
ley Sohl, director of the Kansas State Historical Society museum, 
discuss procedures in starting a museum. 

U. S. cavalry and Cheyenne Indians (both portrayed by local 
citizens) met again on the battlefield at Squaw's Den near Scott 
City, when the last major Indian battle in Kansas was re-enacted 
September 11, 1960. The original battle was fought September 
27, 1878. 

The first meeting of the Reno County Historical Society was held 
in Hutchinson, September 22, 1960. Mrs. Vern Maupin was elected 
president; Don Wyman, vice-president; and Kenneth Collins, secre- 
tary-treasurer. I. N. "Jibo" Hewitt, special representative of the 
Kansas Centennial Commission, was the principal speaker. 

Luncheon speaker at the conference of teachers of history at the 
University of Kansas, Lawrence, September 23 and 24, 1960, was 
Nyle H. Miller, secretary of the Kansas State Historical Society, 
whose subject was "When Kansas Became a State." Other parts 
of the program relating to Kansas history included a discussion ses- 
sion led by Drs. George L. Anderson and James C. Malin of the 
University of Kansas, on Kansas history, and a discussion of the 
Kansas centennial in the classroom by Miller, Edgar Langsdorf, and 
Robert Richmond of the Kansas State Historical Society. 



Officers elected for the coming year at the annual homecoming at 
Glenloch, Anderson county, September 25, 1960, were: Mrs. Effie 
Pierce, president; Frank Bennett, vice-president; and Mrs. Libby 
Dockstader, secretary-treasurer. 

Harold O. Taylor was re-elected president of the Crawford 
County Historical Society at the society's annual meeting, Septem- 
ber 29, 1960, in Pittsburg. Robert O. Karr, vice-president, and Mrs. 
J. W. Black, treasurer, were also re-elected. Mrs. A. N. Ligon was 
named secretary, and Dr. Garfield W. Weede, Dr. Elizabeth Coch- 
ran, and Dr. Theodore Sperry were chosen directors for three-year 
terms. Henry E. Carey addressed the group on "The Crawford 
County Story/' 

The Norton County Historical Society was organized at Norton, 
October 3, 1960. Raymond D. Bower was elected president and 
Mrs. Melvin OToole secretary. 

At a meeting, October 8, 1960, at Minneapolis, the Ottawa County 
Historical Society elected the following officers: Paul Wilkins, 
president; Fred Miller, vice-president; Mrs. Ray Halberstadt, secre- 
tary; Mrs. Ethel Jagger, treasurer; Mrs. Zella Heald, reporter; and 
Louis Ballou, Ray Halberstadt, and Mrs. Thomas Swart, directors. 
After the business session members present inspected Ralph Fuller's 
collection of antique engines and farm machinery at his home near 

A. R. Bentley, Dighton, was elected president of the Lane County 
Historical Society at a meeting in Dighton, October 10, 1960. Other 
officers chosen include: Mrs. John Hagaman, vice-president; Mrs. 
Joe Hanna, secretary; Mrs. Dale Jewett, treasurer; and Robert Jen- 
nison, Mrs. H. S. Edmundson, and R. J. Tillotson, directors. Bill 
Pike was the retiring president. It was reported that 886 persons 
visited the society's sod house during the summer. 

Mrs. Ray Livingston, Abilene, second vice-president, and Mrs. 
Walter Wilkins, Chapman, treasurer, were re-elected at the annual 
meeting of the Dickinson County Historical Society at the Ebenezer 
Baptist church near Navarre, October 13, 1960. The program fea- 
tured histories of the Ebenezer community. B. H. Oesterreich, 
Woodbine, is president of the society. 

Featured event of Valley Center's recent diamond jubilee anni- 
versary celebration was the historical pageant presented October 13 
and 14, 1960. The Valley Center Index printed a four-page special 


souvenir edition, featuring historical articles and pictures, Octo- 
ber 13. 

Officers elected at the annual meeting of the Comanche County 
Historical Society in Coldwater, October 15, 1960, were: D. Jay 
Overocker, president; Ward H. Butcher, vice-president; Mrs. Cliff 
Sibbitt, secretary; and F. H. Moberley, treasurer. Mrs. Donald 
Booth was the retiring president. 

Miltonvale history was the subject of a Cloud County Historical 
Society program in Concordia, October 18, 1960. At the business 
session George Button was elected vice-president, and George Cald- 
well a director. Robert Hanson is president of the society. 

The fourth annual meeting of the Missouri Valley Conference of 
Collegiate Teachers of History will be held March 24, 25, 1961, at 
Omaha under the auspices of the Department of History of the Uni- 
versity of Omaha. Prof. Bell I. Wiley of Emory University will be 
the featured speaker of the opening session commemorating the 
centennial of the Civil War. The Saturday session will give especial 
attention to the subject of local history. 

Included in a 70-page booklet by Fannie Palmer, entitled Mil- 
tonvale, published in 1959, are histories of the town, its schools, 
churches, business institutions, and biographies and reminiscences 
of many of its residents and former residents. 

Freedom Has a Happy Ring is the tide of a 71-page booklet, edited 
by Mrs. Anna Manley Gait, and compiled and published by Irma 
Doster in 1960, containing excerpts from winning essays in contests 
on our constitutional freedoms. The publication was dedicated to 
Miss Doster's father, Frank Doster, a former chief justice of the 
Kansas supreme court. 

Eugene F. Ware's The Indian War of 1864, published in 1911, 
has been republished by St. Martin's Press, New York, in 1960. An 
introduction and notes by Clyde C. Walton are included in the new 
483-page volume. Ware was an officer in the Seventh Iowa cavalry 
which in 1864 was engaged in fighting the Indians in Kansas, Ne- 
braska, the Dakotas, Colorado, and Wyoming. The book is Ware's 
account of the campaign. 

F. W. Giles' Thirty 'Years in Topeka, 1854-1884, originally pub- 
lished in 1886, has been reprinted by Stauffer Publications, Topeka, 
in 1960, with illustrations, maps, and a foreword by Zula Benning- 
ton Greene added. 



James H. Kyner's End of Track, first published in 1937, was re- 
printed in 1960 in a 280-page paper-bound volume by the Univer- 
sity of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. The book is a history of railroad 
building in the Nebraska-Idaho-Colorado-Wyoming area, based on 
Kyner's memoirs as a railroad construction contractor. 

A 191-page biography of William Barclay "Bat" Masterson, by 
Dale White, entitled Bat Masterson, was published by Julian Mess- 
ner, Inc., New York, in 1960. 

Many a Voyage, a 309-page historical novel based on the life of 
Fannie Ross, wife of Edmund G. Ross, by Loula Grace Erdman, 
was recently published by Dodd, Mead & Co., New York. 

Paul W. Gates is the author of a 460-page recently published work 
entitled The Farmer's Age: Agriculture, 1815-1860. Of special in- 
terest to Jayhawkers is Gates' discussion of the relation of public 
land policies to the settlement and development of new agricultural 
areas which included Kansas. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New 
York, were the publishers. 






SUMMER 1961 




Managing Editor Editor Associate Editor 



ELLSWORTH, 1869-1875: The Rise and Fall of a Kansas 

Cowtown Robert Dykstra, 161 

With map of Ellsworth county, 1875, p. 187. 

THE EARLY CAREER OF C. K. HOLLIDAY: A Founder of Topeka and of 
the Santa Fe Railroad Frederick F. Seely, 193 

With portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Cyrus Kurtz Holliday, facing p. 192. 

KANSAS BEFORE 1854: A Revised Annals, Part Two, 

1763-1803 Compiled by Louise Barry, 201 

With a George Catlin sketch of Kansa Indians, about 1831, facing p. 208, 
and the reproduction of a portion of Francois M. Perrin du Lac's Carte 
du Missouri, 1802, facing p. 209. 


Continued Nyle H. Miller and Joseph W. Snell, 220 

With portraits of Rowdy Joe Lowe, and William B., Edward J., and James P. 
Masterson, facing p. 240; reproduction of a portion of a page of the 
Delmonico Hotel register, Dodge City, and a photograph of Mr. and Mrs. 
Thomas Masterson, parents of the Masterson trio of lawmen, facing p. 241. 


Compiled by Alberta Pantle, Librarian, 277 




The Kansas Historical Quarterly is published four times a year by the Kansas 
State Historical Society, 120 W. Tenth St., Topeka, Kan. It is distributed 
without charge to members of the Society; nonmembers may purchase single 
issues, when available, for 75 cents each. Membership dues are: annual, $3; 
annual sustaining, $10; life, $20. Membership applications and dues should be 
sent to Mrs. Lela Barnes, treasurer. 

Correspondence concerning articles for the Quarterly should be addressed to 
the managing editor. The Society assumes no responsibility for statements made 
by contributors. 

Second-class postage has been paid at Topeka, Kan. 


Manhattan street scene of the early 1860's. A black and 
white print was hand-tinted in Germany about 1910 to make 
a color post card. John Ripley, Topeka, provided the copy 
reproduced here. 

1861 Kansas Centennial of Statehood 1961 


Volume XXVII Summer, 1961 Number 2 

Ellsworth, 1869-1875: 
The Rise and Fall of a Kansas Cowtown 


Kansas cattle-market community or "cowtown" of the 1870's 
JL and 1880's has long enjoyed a reputation larger than life. For 
90 years the popular imagination both in this country and abroad has 
fed on the image of townfuls of taut, hard-drinking men hung with 
Colt's six-shooters. The cowtown homicide rate is now a legendary 
statistic, and the combat in the cowtown street a classic component 
of the tradition of a primitive, violent American past. 1 Yet here 
and there an important cattle town has failed to receive individual 
attention either in folklore or popular history. Comparatively little, 
for example, has been written of Ellsworth. It remains known simply 
as one of the temporary centers suspended in the cattle-trade chron- 
ology between Abilene, first of the major Kansas cowtowns, and 
Caldwell, the last. 

Possibly one of the reasons for this lack of attention is that early 
local historians declined to perpetuate the memory of Ellsworth as 
a great Texas cattle center. In fact, the first writers dismissed the 
cattle trade in the most derogatory terms. As an early Ellsworth 
county historian summarized for the Andreas-Cutler history of 

. . . the cattle trade commenced coming to Ellsworth, and with it came a 
new element into society, which, while making business somewhat lucrative, 

ROBERT DYKSTRA, native of Iowa, is currently a research assistant at the State Uni- 
versity of Iowa, Iowa City, while working toward his Ph. D. 

1. Most serious historians dealing with the cattle-market community, unfortunately, 
have blandly fallen in step with this portrayal, offering social and economic facts only as a 
backdrop for picturesque crime and punishment. The present-day concept of the Kansas 
cowtown, therefore, generally remains a crude hybrid of overdone folklore and underdone 
history. For examples of historians' quite uncritical acceptance of cowtown folklore see 
C. C. Rister, "Outlaws and Vigilantes of the Southern Plains, 1865-1885," The Mississippi 
Valley Historical Review, Lincoln, Neb., v. 19 (March, 1933), pp. 548, 549, and Ray Allen 
Billington, Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier (2d ed.; New York, 
1960), p. 678. 



was rather detrimental to morality. . . . One season of such characters 
satisfied the people of Ellsworth that the evils of the cattle trade, or rather 
those that followed it, were more detrimental to the real interests of the place 
than it was benefitted by any advantages derived from it in point of increased 
trade, and when, in the following year the cattle men took their trade farther 
west, the citizens of Ellsworth were very much relieved, and felt greatly re- 

Besides asserting that Ellsworth came to abhor the cattle trade, 
this writer implicitly denies that Ellsworth citizens were at all 
divided on the cattle-trade question that is, that while many op- 
posed the trade others favored it, giving rise to the kind of split of 
community opinion, for example, that plagued the cattle-trading 
years of nearby Abilene. 3 Recent writers have reinforced this 
picture of a somewhat bland, solely corporate response by Ellsworth 
to the trade. 4 But in reality the story of Ellsworth as a cowtown 
is a dramatic study in the dynamics of frontier economic and social 
antagonisms, as expressed in the bitter, complex politics of com- 
munity conflict. 5 

The earliest white inhabitants of Ellsworth county settled in the 
east-central and southeast portions of the county just prior to the 
Civil War. The war retarded additional immigration at that period, 
and in 1863 Indian raids caused the evacuation of existing settlers. 
At the war's end, however, settlement resumed under the protection 
of Fort Ellsworth and then of Fort Harker, both located on the 
Smoky Hill river in the center of the county. 6 

Along the Smoky Hill southeast of Fort Harker, several rural 
enterprisers of note settled in the rich bottomlands. In July of 1866 
the Rev. Levi Sternberg arrived in Ellsworth county. Steinberg, 
who was to become one of the county's most respected citizens, was 

2. A. T. Andreas and W. G. Cutler, History of the State of Kansas (Chicago, 1883), 
p. 1277. 

3. For a comprehensive treatment of cattle-trade conflict in Abilene and Dickinson 
county see Robert Dykstra, "Abilene and Ellsworth: Conflict and Community Power in 
Two Kansas Cowtowns" (master's thesis, State University of Iowa, 1959), pp. 10-81, and 
Robert Dykstra, "The Last Days of 'Texan' Abilene: A Study in Community Conflict on 
the Farmer's Frontier," Agricultural History, Champaign, HI., v. 34 (July, 1960), pp. 

4. See, for examples, George Jelinek, Ellsworth, Kansas, 1867-1947 (Salina [1947]), 
and Floyd Benjamin Streeter, "Ellsworth as a Texas Cattle Market," The Kansas Historical 
Quarterly, Topeka, v. 4 (November, 1935), pp. 388-398, passim. 

Although Streeter, the only professional historian to deal specifically with Ellsworth, 
seems at first glance to have written a great deal about the community's cattle-trade years, 
most of his work with the exception of the cited article deals with the Whitney-Pierce- 
Crawford killings of 1873 and their aftermath (see Footnote 96 below). A work of 
broader scope done under Streeter's direction is John F. Choitz, "Ellsworth, Kansas: The 
History of a Frontier Town, 1854-1885" (masters thesis, Fort Hays Kansas State College, 
1941); this does not focus primarily on the cattle-trade period, however. 

5. The term "community" is here used as synonymous with the sociologists' definition 
of "rural community," i. e., a village and its rural service area. Dwight Sanderson and 
Robert A. Poison, Rural Community Organization (New York, 1939), p. 8. 

6. Andreas-Cutler, op. cit., p. 1274; [Charles J. Lyon,] Compendious History of Ells- 
worth County, Kansas (Ellsworth, 1879), pp. 24-30. 

ELLSWORTH, 1869-1875 163 

a native of upstate New York, now in his early 50's. A Lutheran 
minister and principal of a Lutheran college in Iowa, Sternberg was 
induced to emigrate to Ellsworth county by his eldest son, George, 
who as an officer stationed at Fort Harker was so impressed by the 
region that he filed on a quarter section of Smoky Hill bottomland 
south of the fort. Sternberg apparently had engaged in part-time 
farming along with his ministerial duties. He noted the agricul- 
tural possibilities of Ellsworth county, and took over his son's claim 
when the latter was transferred elsewhere. Sternberg's other sons 
soon joined him in the venture, filing adjoining claims, and the 
family got its start by dairying and gardening to supply the nearby 
fort. By 1869 Sternberg controlled a large acreage lying on both 
sides of the river, and his "Smoky Hill Dairy" was about to begin 
the production of butter on a large scale. By 1870 he estimated the 
value of his real estate at $7,500 the third largest evaluation in 
the county with his son Theodore, a lawyer, claiming another 
$2,000 worth. Sternberg's local prestige no doubt culminated with 
his appointment as pastor of the First Presbyterian church of Ells- 
worth, but his state-wide reputation was as an agriculturist, and 
he served on one of the early boards of regents for Kansas State 
College. 7 

Sternberg's neighbor, David B. Long, also came to Ellsworth 
county in 1866. A native of Ohio, Long grew up on a farm, attended 
Oberlin College, taught school, and just before the war went into 
part-time business as a cheese merchandiser. A noncommissioned 
officer during the war, he re-enlisted at its close. While waiting 
at Fort Harker with his family for transportation to a new assign- 
ment at Fort Wallace, Long was urged by George Sternberg to file 
on a section of bottomland. Before moving on, therefore, he en- 
tered a claim, and when his enlistment expired in the spring of 1868 
he returned to Ellsworth county. In June of that year he began to 
manufacture cheese, soon developing a thriving business. By 1869 
his "Springdale Cheese Factory" was turning out 500 pounds of 
cheese per week. In 1873 he completed a two-story stone cheese 
factory operated by water power, and a year later was filling orders 
from as far away as Hutchinson. By 1874 his 800-acre establishment 
was exclusively a livestock and dairy farm. His 100 acres under 
cultivation provided feed for his 40-head dairy herd and 200 head 

7. Andreas-Cutler, op. cit., pp. 1274, 1278; Lyon, op. ctt. t pp. 36-37; Charles H. 
Sternberg, The Life of a Fossil Hunter (New York, 1909), pp. 2-6; Times and Conserva- 
tive, Leavenworth, June 5, 1869; Ellsworth Reporter, June 20, 1872, May 1, 1873; "U. S 
Census, 1870," Ellsworth county, [second section,] p. 5, archives division, Kansas State 
Historical Society, Topeka. 


of beef cattle. Fencing protected 70 acres, and in winter Long 
carefully fed his livestock instead of turning it loose to forage as 
most did. 8 

Adjoining Long's and Steinberg's claims was the farm of Jacob 
C. Howard, who arrived in approximately 1868. A native of 
Massachusetts now in his early 50's, Howard came to Ellsworth 
county from Michigan. In 1869 he was reported buying dairy 
cattle and "fine horses and horned stock, and will soon have one 
of the best stock farms in the State." Two years later the local 
newspaper termed him a "country gentleman" with "one of the best 
locations for a stock and dairy farm in the country and a larger 
herd of short horns than we expected to find in the county." By 
1873 Howard owned a herd of 500 head, and was crossing thorough- 
bred Durham bulls and longhorned Texas heifers. Unlike Long, 
Howard let most of his stock run at large each winter. 9 

The last of the large Ellsworth county establishments of the 
period was the Powers ranch on the Smoky Hill in the southeast 
corner of the county, laid out in 1869 by three related Leavenworth 
businessmen, D. W., J. W., and D. B. Powers. By 1875 their ranch, 
grown to 2,540 acres, was one of the largest in the county, with 
over $8,000 in improvements, including board and wire fencing of 
over 1,000 acres of pasture for blooded stock. Although probably 
most of the 600 acres of the establishment under cultivation was 
for raising forage, the owners in the winter did not feed the majority 
of their stock, Texas cattle, but turned them loose. The Powers 
brothers later established the first permanent bank in Ellsworth. 10 

In the meantime, Ellsworth itself was born. In the fall of 1866 
several businessmen of eastern Kansas conceived the idea of 
founding a town west of Salina at a point near Fort Harker where 
it was expected the tracks of the railroad would come to a halt for 
a time, making the spot a shipping point for goods between the 
States and New Mexico. 11 In January, 1867, the townsite was 
platted just west of Fort Harker in roughly the center of the county 
on the north bank of the Smoky Hill. The tracks of the railroad 

8. Adolph Roenigk, ed., Pioneer History of Kansas ([Lincoln, Kansas,] 1933), pp. 63, 
64, 67; A Biographical History of Central Kansas (2 vols., New York, 1902), v. 2, 

for Mr. Long, that he provides _ 

Long's philosophy on wintering see, also, "D. B. L. in ibid., May 16, 1872. 

9. Times and Conservative, Leavenworth, June 5, 1869; Ellsworth Reporter, December 
14, 1871, March 27, April 24, May 1, 1873; "U. S. Census, 1870," Ellsworth county, 
[second section,] p. 4. 

10. Andreas-Cutler, op. cit., p. 1280; Ellsworth Reporter, November 7, 1872, May 8, 
1873, April 16, 30, 1874, June 3, 1875. 

11. John H. Edwards in Kansas Daily Commonwealth, Topeka, February 18, 1872. 

ELLSWORTH, 1869-1875 165 

pushed through to Ellsworth early in May, and the town began 
to boom. Fort Harker became the supply point for more westerly 
military posts, and Ellsworth became a vital link in the Santa Fe 
trade. 12 

Several who later became leaders in Ellsworth's economic and 
political life were charter members of the town's business com- 
munity. Perry Hodgden, a native of Ohio, opened a dry goods 
store, took on a partner three years later, and afterwards opened 
a branch store outside the county. In addition to his store he held 
$4,000 worth of real estate in 1870, most of it evidently townsite 
holdings. 13 Ira W. Phelps, a native of New York who already had 
spent some years in the West, opened as a grocery jobber with 
$2,000 worth of goods. In 1872 he was paying $1,500 per month 
railroad freight alone, and two years later could boast of sales 
averaging $100,000 per year. 14 

Arthur Larkin, also locating in Ellsworth in 1867, was the son 
of a Dublin coal merchant. Immigrating at the age of 16, he served 
over ten years in the army but spent the war in Leavenworth as a 
restaurant proprietor and freighter. He subsequently established 
the first hotel in Ellsworth, and in 1868 opened a general mer- 
chandising business. From 1871 to 1873 he and Z. Jackson were 
partners in this venture, first at Fort Harker and then in Ellsworth 
proper. In 1870 he held $4,000 worth of real estate. With his 
extensive and various commercial enterprises and his real estate 
holdings, Larkin remained possibly the wealthiest member of the 
community throughout the 1870's. 15 The last figure of note locat- 
ing in this period was Z. Jackson. Jackson arrived in Ellsworth 
county after many years on the frontier as a businessman, politician, 
and soldier. In 1867 he began to supply Fort Harker with fresh 
produce, and farmed a claim until 1871, in the latter year going 
into a business in partnership with Larkin. After breaking with 
Larkin he obtained appointment as postmaster and opened his own 
general merchandising store in Ellsworth. He probably never 
attained an economic position to match that of Hodgden, Phelps, 

12. Daniel W. Wilder, The Annals of Kansas (Topeka, 1886), p. 452; Andreas-Cutler, 
op. cit., p. 1276; Lyon, op. cit., p. 37. 

13. "U. S. Census, 1870," Ellsworth county, [first section,] p. 11; Ellsworth Reporter, 
December 14, 1871 ff. (advertisements of Ellsworth Town Company, P. Hodgden & Com- 
pany, and T. J. Buckbee & Company), December 28, 1871, January 25, 1872, September 

14. Andreas-Cutler, op. cit., p. 1280; "U. S. Census, 1870," Ellsworth county, [first 
section,] p. 9; Ellsworth Reporter, January 25, 1872, June 4, 1874. 

15. Andreas-Cutler, op. cit., p. 1279; A Biographical History of Central Kansas, v. 2, 
pp. 791, 792; "U. S. Census, 1870," Ellsworth county, [first section,] p. 10; Ellsworth 
Reporter, February 29, April 11, May 9, December 26, 1872, May 15, June 12, 1873. 


or Larkin; however, he remained an articulate opinion leader 
throughout the county. 16 

Following the initial rush of settlers to Ellsworth in 1867 the 
new town and its rural hinterlands suffered a series of sharp 
setbacks in the space of a few months. First the Smoky Hill flooded 
the new townsite with four feet of water, forcing the community 
to relocate on higher ground and requiring a special act of the 
legislature to legalize transfer of titles from the old site to the 
new. Next hostile Cheyennes raided into the county. When most 
of the county's settlers were camped close about Fort Harker for 
protection from the Indians, Asiatic cholera broke out. Many died 
within and without the fort, and many of Ellsworth's citizens fled 
the area. 17 

The railroad then prepared to build west, and in a desperate 
move to retain the value of their town Ellsworth promoters ob- 
tained a charter for the "Ellsworth & Pacific Railroad Company" 
in January, 1868, then petitioned congress and the army to abandon 
support of the proposed extension of the Kansas Pacific tracks to 
Denver in favor of a route from Ellsworth to Santa Fe. Even with 
the signature of Gov. Samuel J. Crawford on its articles of incor- 
poration, the E. & P. R. R. never got rolling. The tracks moved 
west from Ellsworth in 1868, toward Denver, not toward Santa Fe, 
and with them went Ellsworth's dreams of becoming a great rail- 
road hub. 18 

A correspondent for the Lawrence Tribune, accompanying an 
excursion train over the newly laid track in June of that year, sent 
back a discouraging report: 

One of the Agents of the [National] Land Company had already been sent 
up to Pond creek, or Fort Wallace, to lay out a town near that point. Thither- 
ward the people of Hays and Ellsworth, also, are already looking, and many 
are making arrangements to move to that point, whenever the line of the 
road is defintely settled and the town laid out. It is their only hope. There 
will continue to be some little business at Ellsworth and Hays, as long as the 
forts remain there, but not enough to support over one fourth the present 
number of business houses. Business has been over done in these frontier 
towns, and a reaction, painful, but undoubtedly healthful, is taking place. At 
both places a few [wagon] trains are waiting for freight, and have been for 
several weeks. The contract for shipping a large number of pounds of Gov- 
ernment freight has been let, but the freight does not arrivef.] 

Ellsworth is the county seat of Ellsworth county, and although in a little 

16. Andreas-Cutler, op. cit., p. 1279; "U. S. Census, 1870," Ellsworth county, [second 
section,] p. 11; Ellsworth Reporter, February 29, 1872, April 17, June 26, 1873. 

17. Andreas-Cutler, op. cit., pp. 1276, 1277; Wilder, op. cit., pp. 457, 459; Laws 
of the State of Kansas, 1869, pp. 261, 262. 

18. The Ellsworth <tr Pacific Railroad ( Leavenworth, [1868]), passim. 

ELLSWORTH, 1869-1875 167 

better looking country than farther west, it is by no means a farming coun[tr]y. 
A little land has been cultivated along the creeks, but with indifferent success, 
there not being enough rain to produce good crops, and there being not enough 
water for irrigation. 

The railroad company have an engine house here, with four stalls, and also 
have a blacksmith shop. The trade of the fort, together with a share of the New 
Mexican trade, constitute about all the business, which is by no means large. 
Persons wishing to invest in real estate can do so in Ellsworth just now at 
greatly reduced rates. Houses which cost twelve and fifteen hundred dollars 
are awaiting purchasers at less than half those sums. 19 

In Ellsworth county that year crops were miserably poor, and in 
the fall the Indians returned, forcing settlers to congregate for de- 
fense at Fort Marker and beg army rations. Many rural settlers 
took their cue from the desertion of Ellsworth by its newspaper and 
many of its merchants, and simply left the county. 20 

Not surprisingly, those who remained saw their salvation in the 
acquisition of the Texas cattle trade. 

As early as 1867 a plan was afoot to establish a route from Indian 
territory to the vicinity of Ellsworth over which Texas cattle might 
be driven to the railroad; however, nothing came of this venture. 21 
In 1868, in the depths of the Ellsworth bust, the town's promoters 
and businessmen decided to make their influence felt where it would 
do the most good at the next session of the state legislature. On 
March 2, 1869, therefore, a new legislative act was approved estab- 
lishing a state highway from Fort Cobb, Indian territory, to Ells- 
worth for driving livestock. Texas herds brought in over this road 
were specifically exempted from the regulations and penalties of 
the 1867 "Spanish fever" statute. 22 Ellsworth, it appeared, was soon 
to be in business as a cowtown. 

The expected coming of the cattle trade spurred Ellsworth citizens 
to purge their town of lawlessness. On May 12, 1869, a mob lynched 
one Fitzpatrick, who was being held for murder. That night some- 
one took a shot at Judge Westover, apparently in retaliation, and 
respectable tempers flared. "Having an assurance of the cattle 
trade," wrote Ira Phelps to the Junction City Weekly Union, "we are 

JL*J* ixuitouo j-xuttc/ *nvwwj Ajawnjiiuc-, j Uiic JLCJ, J.OUQ. 

20. Roenigk, op. cit., pp. 86, 87. In April, 1868, P. H. 
paper named the Ellsworth Advocate, which lasted for onlj 
Board of Agriculture, Firs* Biennial Report . . ., 1877-1878 

19. Kansas Daily Tribune, Lawrence, June 19, 1868. 

P. H. Hubbell established a news- 
ily six months. Kansas State 
78, p. 212. 

21. Ralph P. Beiber, "Introduction" to Joseph G. McCoy's Historic Sketches of the 
Cattle Trade of the West and Southwest (Glendale, Calif., 1940), pp. 52, 53. 

22. Laws of the State of Kansas, 1869, pp. 217, 218. The act of 1867 allowed 
summer driving of Texas cattle only into the underpopulated southwest quarter of Kansas; 
anyone bringing longhorns from the free zone northeastward had to guarantee that owners 
of domestic stock lost nearby as a result of contracting Spanish fever, commonly carried 
by Texas cattle, would be reimbursed. Ibid, 1867, pp. 263-267. This statute, of course, 
was universally ignored by drovers and buyers. 


determined to have peace and order instead of rowdyism and blood- 
shed, if we have to 'fight it on this line all summer/ " 23 

Whether the cattle trade would contribute much to peace and 
order remained to be seen, but William Sigerson & Company of St. 
Louis began constructing a stockyard with a capacity for 5,000 head 
and provided banking facilities to handle the finances of the trade. 
Circulars and posters were dispatched to all corners of Texas, and 
on May 31 agents left for that state to guide herds up the new state 
road. Businessmen's spirits soared. "It was supposed," wrote a 
correspondent, "that when the railroad was extended west of the 
town, Ellsworth would die, but instead of that she prospered." 
The town then contained several merchandising firms, four hotels, a 
drugstore, four taverns, a schoolhouse, and an Episcopal church. 24 

But the cattle-shipping season was a failure, perhaps due in part 
to Indian raids early in the season which may have kept most Texans 
from driving that far west. 25 By September, in any event, when it 
should have been enjoying the height of its shipping activity, a 
passing correspondent described an Ellsworth once again in the 

It does not present a favorable appearance, but on the contrary it affords evi- 
dence of being in advance of the settlements of the country. Two or three years 
ago it had some importance as the temporary terminus of the railroad. When 
the road was built beyond it, it ceased to be of any consequence. Its old con- 
sequence will not be regained until the settlements have reached and passed 
it. . . .26 

Perhaps a few herds were lured to Ellsworth; at least William 
"Apache Bill" Semans, county sheriff, was shot and killed that fall 
by a Texas cowboy while trying to quell a disturbance in an Ells- 
worth dancehall. 27 

Apparently not until the overflow season of 1871 did Ellsworth 
receive any substantial numbers of Texas cattle. It was 104 degrees 
in the shade on July 14, 1871, and citizens were angry because the 
new jail was located between the church and the schoolhouse. But 
on the uplands surrounding the town cattle to the extent of 30,000 
head grazed, with more arriving every day. 28 Things were looking 
up at last. By the end of the year 35,000 head had been shipped 
over the rails of the Kansas Pacific, in spite of low prices, and great 

23. Junction City Weekly Union, May 15. 1869. 

24. Times and Conservative, Leavenworth, June 5, 1869. 

25. "I. P." telegraphed from Ellsworth on June 4 that "The citizens here are ready 
for war to the knife." Ibid, June 6, 1869. Such reports may have frightened off many 

26. Junction City Weekly Union, September 25. 1869. 

27. Kansas Daily Commonwealth, Topeka, November 24. 1869. 

28. Ibid., July 16, 1871. 

ELLSWORTH, 1869-1875 169 

numbers were wintered in the county. 29 Early in 1872 Dickinson 
and Saline counties legally rejected the cattle trade, and as the next 
major village to their west, Ellsworth prepared to receive the bulk 
of the trade and its swarms of free-spending transients. 80 

The year 1872 promised great things to many Ellsworth mer- 
chants. Mayer Goldsoll, for example, a Russian immigrant who had 
operated a general outfitting store in Ellsworth since 1867, already 
had tapped some of the cattlemen's trade in Abilene. Goldsoll 
boasted in the spring of 1872 the "largest stock in Western Kansas, 
of Fancy and Staple Groceries and Provisions, also Liquors, Cigars 
and Tobacco." In addition Goldsoll advertised clothing, footwear, 
blankets, luggage, jewelry, gold and silver watches, clocks, chains, 
solid and plated silverware, pistols, cutlery, accordians and other 
musical instruments, and toys. The tastes of the transients were 
not inexpensive. In two years the newspaper could say of Goldsoll 
that "jewelry makes but a small part of his business, and yet it is 
nothing unusual for him to sell $1,000 worth after business hours/' 
In the three summer months of 1873 Goldsoll had sales averaging 
$30,000 per month, and his take for the entire year totaled $150,000. 
By 1874 his "Old Reliable House" required five full-time employees, 
one for each department ( jewelry, groceries, clothing and accounts ) 
plus a general floorwalker. Goldsoll also maintained branch stores 
in Russell and Great Bend, Kan., and Denison, Tex., further to tap 
the cattle trade. 31 

Not only merchants benefited from the trade. A visitor of 1873 
noted that "the popular sign 'Saloon,' was over nearly every other 
door." 32 Although everyone in town was enjoying a heavy volume 
of sales, asserted another, "Whiskey selling seems to be the most 
profitable business." 33 The brothel district, located on an addition 
to the city a half-mile east of town, also did a brisk business, as did 
Ellsworth's gamblers. It was easy to rationalize the presence of 
organized sin in the town, since it more than paid its way. As a 
Topeka correspondent observed in 1873: 

The liquor saloons are licensed and gambling houses and houses of prostitu- 
tion are virtually licensed. Prostitutes and gamblers are made to pay monthly 
fines. The city realizes three hundred dollars per month from prostitution fines 
alone. The entire municipal expenses of the city are paid from licenses and 

29. Streeter, "Ellsworth as a Texas Cattle Market," loc. cit., p. 389; Streeter, The 
Raw: The Heart of a Nation (New York, 1941), p. 135. 

30. Abilene Chronicle, March 14, April 4, 1872. 

31. Andreas-Cutler, op. cit., p. 1277; "U. S. Census, 1870," Ellsworth county, [first 
section,] p. 5; Kansas Daily Commonwealth, Topeka, July 1, 1873; Ellsworth Reporter, 
January 25, 1872 ff. (advertisement), July 17, 1873, May 21. 1874. 

32. Toledo [Ohio?] Blade, quoted in ibid., September 18, 1873. 

33. "F. A. P." in ibid., July 25, 1872. 


fines; the authorities consider that as long as mankind is depraved and Texas 
cattle herders exist there will be a demand and necessity for prostitutes, and 
that as long as prostitutes are bound to dwell at Ellsworth it is better for the 
respectable portion of society to hold the prostitutes under the restraints of law. 
All of the vicious vocations are made to contribute to the maintenance of law 
and order, and better order than is enforced at Ellsworth cannot be found in 
any town of its size anywhere. 34 

Toward the end of 1871 the eastern demand for Texas cattle 
slumped. As winter approached many Texas drovers sold out at 
low prices to resident farmers and stockmen, who then wintered 
the cattle. It was an ideal investment for someone desiring profit 
at little outlay, and it remained an Ellsworth county enterprise 
until 1875. The cattle were bought cheaply, then usually were 
marked and merely turned loose on the unsettled public domain to 
shift for themselves until spring, when they were rounded up and 
sold in town. More than 40,000 head were wintered in the county 
that season. 35 No doubt many of these were simply abandoned 
by Texans who could find no sale for them. 

Unfortunately it was a very severe winter. Snow and sleet 
buried the grass and streams froze over. Droves of longhorns 
invaded settlers' claims to consume hay, strip fruit and forest trees, 
and drink from waterholes. On Ash creek, for example, a herd of 
2,000 head began committing depredations in the middle of No- 
vember, and settlers desiring damages had a hard time identifying 
the owners. In December two settlers, writing to the editor of the 
newly established Ellsworth Reporter, demanded that something 
be done to protect homesteaders. 36 At the same time a number 
of local stock raisers and those with interests in wintered stock 
met to organize the "Stock Men's Protective Association." Many 
harassed settlers apparently were harming the hungry longhorns. 
The association's purpose was to prosecute as a co-operative effort 
"all offenders against the property of the members of this as- 
sociation." D. W. Powers was elected president of the group, and 
Arthur Larkin vice-president. By December 22 its membership 
stood at around 30, each of whom paid a $2 initiation fee and was 
taxed one penny per head owned. 37 When spring arrived most 
of the wintered stock were dead from hunger, thirst, and exposure, 
and great quantities of cowhides, horns, hooves, and bones were 
shipped east from the county. 38 With nothing left to protect, the 
stockmen's association also died. 

34. Kansas Daily Commonwealth, Topeka, July 1, 1873. 

35. Streeter, The Raw: The Heart of a Nation, p. 135. 

36. "D. B." and "Cow Creek" in Ellsworth Reporter, December 28. 1871. 

37. Ibid., December 21. 1871. January 11, 25. 1872. 

38. Ibid., May 6, 1872. 

ELLSWORTH, 1869-1875 171 

The winter situation only aggravated many homesteaders' aver- 
sion to Texas cattle. Grazing about Ellsworth the previous summer, 
herds trampled standing crops on settlers' claims, most of which 
were unfenced because of the scarcity of wood and the expense 
of wire, and transmitted the dreaded Spanish fever to domestic 
stock. As early as February 29, an open letter from "Citizen" urged 
homesteaders to start organizing to protect themselves in the 1872 
Texas cattle season. "Citizen" noted the previous summer's 
"disaster to our native stock." "Are we," he asked, "going to be 
perfectly passive, or if we have any feeling at all, simply vent it 
in words, without action, and let the ... Texas cattle men 
have it all their own way?" He proposed a homesteaders' con- 
vention within two weeks "to adopt means to enforce drovers to 
observe the laws." 39 

Five days earlier the governor of Kansas signed into law the 
1872 "herd law" act which forced drovers to herd their cattle in 
place of requiring settlers to fence their claims for protection from 
loose stock. The new law gave county commissioners the power 
to impose herd laws at will. 40 

In each county of less than 30,000, as was Ellsworth, the statutes 
provided for three governing commissioners elected to two-year 
terms. On meeting days these received $3 per day, portal-to-portal. 
Upon any commissioner's resignation, the remaining commissioners 
and the county clerk appointed a replacement. The most demand- 
ing qualification was that "No person holding any state, county, 
township or city office . . . shall be eligible to the office of 
county commissioner." 41 

The powers given these boards in February, 1872, meant in 
effect that two commissioners sympathetic to the interests of their 
county's homesteaders even though the latter should be a minority 
was the only requirement for the passage of a county herd law, 
with its discouraging implications for resident livestock raisers and 
Texas cattlemen. Ellsworth county's three commissioners in the 
spring of 1872 had been elected the previous fall and were sched- 
uled to serve through December, 1873. The board consisted of 
J. C. Howard, a stock raiser who let his cattle range free each 
winter, Leo Hertzig, a young immigrant tavernkeeper whose trade 
flourished during the cattle season, and Z. Jackson. 42 The latter's 

39. See, also, "J. W. I." in ibid., March 7, 1872. 

40. Laws of the State of Kansas, 1872, pp. 384, 385. 

41. Compiled Laws of Kansas, 1879, pp. 273, 274. 

42. For data on Hertzig see "U. S. Census, 1870," Ellsworth county, [first section,] 
p. 1; Ellsworth Reporter, December 14, 1871, May 21, 1874. 


sympathies on the question were vague. On one hand, he was a 
partner with Arthur Larkin in a general merchandising business 
that gained by the presence of the cattle trade. On the other hand, 
Jackson retained his farm even after going into business with 
Larkin. Many homesteaders possibly identified him as one of 
themselves. But whatever Jackson's sympathies, the other two 
commissioners were definitely anti-protection, and a herd law was 
not forthcoming. 

On March 9, as called for by "Citizen," a large, enthusiastic con- 
vention of settlers met on Thompson creek and formed the "Farmers 
Mutual Protection Society of Empire Township." The Rev. Levi 
Steinberg and D. B. Long were chosen officers, and a subscription 
of about $100 was raised. Sternberg gave the major address. He 
noted the incompatibility between farming and stock raising. One 
must go, he said, for the cattle interests required, as the newspaper 
paraphrased his words, 

that farmers must leave their vocation, which is the life blood of every country 
or community, and the germ of civilization, and give this county into the 
hands of the herdsman, and make it a half civilized or barberous [sic] country 
without schools or churches and controlled by a few large stock men having 
many poor illiterate men dependent upon them for support. 43 

A week later the group met again, with County Commissioners 
Howard and Jackson in attendance. The former gave the meeting 
an anti-urban flavor by commenting on unequal tax assessments and 
observing that "the farmers are generally termed 'country clod- 
hoppers' by the Ellsworthites." In the spirit of compromise, how- 
ever, Jackson declared that the Texas cattle trade would be accept- 
able in the county if not conflicting with the farming interests, but 
that "a balance sheet would show a greater loss to the community 
than gain." As for domestic stock raisers, he offered a resolution 
"that it is not the purpose of this society to oppose the Ellsworth 
Stock Association, but on the contrary to confer with them, and 
if possible so to harmonize the conflicting interests of both in such 
a manner as to be mutually beneficial." The motion carried and 
Jackson, Long, and one other were appointed to meet with the 
stockmen. 44 

The members of both farmers' meetings shied away from any 
serious consideration of a county herd law, probably due much to 
the intervention of Howard and Jackson, assisted by such protec- 

43. Ibid., March 14, 1872. The organization originally was named the "Ellsworth 
County Fanners Protective Society." At the second meeting its name was changed as 
given, but it continued to be termed the "Fanners Protective Sociey of Empire Township" 
(as in ibid., May 9, 1872). 

44. Ibid., April 4, 1872. The outcome of the liaison activity is not given in the 

ELLSWORTH, 1869-1875 173 

tionist "moderates" as D. B. Long. Settler support for organized 
political action waned as the planting season arrived. On May 10 
the membership finally gave major consideration to a herd law, but 
that was apparently its last meeting until fall. 45 The winter's agita- 
tion resulted in no herd law to disrupt stock-raising practices or 
discourage the urban trade in Texas cattle. Early in June the paper 
carried a letter by Theodore Sternberg, son of the man who had 
spoken so eloquently against cattle three months before. If the 
Texans were careful, cautioned the younger Sternberg, there could 
be no objection to their presence in Ellsworth county. Perry Hodg- 
den, apparently speaking for the entire business community, curtly 
endorsed the note. "I concur in the above," he wrote. "It expresses 
my views to the letter." 46 

Not until the end of August did the Ellsworth Reporter, com- 
mitted as it was to a promotional policy, admit the presence of 
conflicting interests within the town. Although these conflicts 
appear at first to have little relation to the cattle trade, their signifi- 
cance appears in the development of broader rural-urban antag- 
onisms which increasingly served as a basic ingredient of the 
cattle-trade controversy. 

By 1872 two Illinois capitalists, Alfred Southwick and John Kuney, 
who were also the proprietors of Abilene, held the proprietorship 
of the Ellsworth townsite. Although these gentlemen were non- 
residents, many of the original businessmen of Ellsworth, such as 
Ira Phelps and Perry Hodgden, either were involved financially in 
the Ellsworth Town Company or had bought holdings from them. 17 
For some time the town proprietors had reserved a block amid their 
holdings on which a permanent courthouse eventually would be 
erected. This block became informally known as the "courthouse 
square." Those holding properties adjacent to the square happily 
awaited the day when the new courthouse elevated surrounding 
land values. 48 

On April 20, 1872, citizens voted bonds in the amount of $12,000 
for constructing a permanent courthouse. In a rare burst of criticism 
the previous December the Reporter had urged the town proprietors 
to sell "to laboring men who desire to build homes" and "refuse to 
sell to those who only buy to hold for a rise." This criticism ap- 
parently reflected a broad public sentiment adverse to the town 

45. Only the intended meeting is noted. Ibid., May 9, 1872. 

46. Ibid., June 6, 1872. 

47. See advertisement for Ellsworth Town Company in ibid., December 14, 1871 ff. 

48. See A. Larkin in ibid., June 20. 1872. 


company. After some confidential negotiations between the county 
commissioners and Arthur Larkin, the board on June 7 accepted 
Larkin's donation of two lots adjacent to his own properties as a site 
for the courthouse. 49 

Repercussions followed. On June 10 a public protest meeting 
was staged, probably instigated by those with property interests 
adjacent to the now defunct "courthouse square" but attended by 
many, such as M. C. Davis, mayor and editor of the paper, who no 
doubt thought the old location more acceptable from a community- 
development viewpoint than the new downtown location. The 
meeting resulted in a petition signed by 50 persons protesting the 
commissioners' decision, which was presented to the board the 
following morning. At second gathering of citizens Jackson and 
Hertzig were on hand. Jackson defended the board's action, no 
doubt citing the board's resolution that a downtown courthouse 
could be sold as a business site when the time came to build a larger 
courthouse. 60 

At the next meeting of the commissioners the board received five 
petitions carrying a total of 139 names which supported its decision. 
These names included those of M. Goldsoll, Jerome Beebe, George 
Relfe, Nick Lentz, Thomas Thomas, David Nagle, A. Schmidt, and 
other Ellsworth businessmen. D. B. Long, A. Essick, W. M. King, 
and other rural enterprisers also signed; in fact, the petitioners 
were perhaps 90 per cent rural residents. The board declared an 
intention to stick by its decision. 51 In the newspaper spokesmen 
of each side labelled the other a selfish interest group. 52 Since the 
board refused to reconsider, Ira Phelps, Perry Hodgden, Mayor 
Davis, and John L. Bell, another businessman, sued out a writ of 
injunction to keep the board from issuing bonds. The suit was 
dismissed, however, and the board retaliated with a suit to recover 
$1,500 damages for wrongful suing of the injunction. Apparently 
this action subsequently was dropped, but may well have motivated 
Mayor Davis' resignation and return to Iowa soon after. 53 

Group conflict entered the political sphere on August 24 at the 
Ellsworth precinct Republican convention called to select eight 

49. Andreas-Cutler, op. cit., p. 1275; Ellsworth Reporter, December 28, 1871. 

50. Ibid., June 13, 20, 1872. 

51. Ibid., June 20. 1872. In its minutes, printed in this issue, the board recognized 
petitions with a total of 139 names attached; for the same issue, however, Larkin submitted 
to the editor one petition with 160 names attached. Presumably the latter included all 
the signatures on the board's petitions. A systematic check of the 160 names against the 
1870 census revealed only 40 probable correlations; however, the structure of Larkin's list 
indicates that only the first 15 to 18 were Ellsworth residents with the remaining 142 to 
145 apparently rural residents. 

52. A. Larkin and E. G. Minnick in ibid. 

53. Ibid., June 27, August 1, 29. 1872. 

ELLSWORTH, 1869-1875 175 

delegates to the G. O. P. county convention. A nominations com- 
mittee appointed by the chair returned with eight nominees, in- 
cluding Perry Hodgden. A group of insurgents led by County 
Commissioner Jackson and S. Atwood, a lawyer only lately resi- 
dent in Ellsworth, proposed an alternate slate of nominees. This 
slate included Atwood and four other comparative newcomers to 
Ellsworth and four who had signed petitions supporting the court- 
house decision, as well as Commissioner Hertzig. In the voting 
the insurgent slate defeated the slate of "regulars," as they termed 
themselves, by a slight margin in each case. A second meeting was 
held that night by the defeated group, which denounced the insur- 
gents as "Greeleyites" and approved much the same slate of dele- 
gates as they formerly proposed. The new editor of the Reporter 
observed that both factions were for Grant, and ascribed the fuss 
to petty jealousies. 54 

The county convention four days later revealed the formation 
of a coalition between the insurgents and the rural wing of the local 
Republican party. The coalition resembled somewhat the rural- 
urban combination supporting the courthouse decision. D. B. Long, 
rural leader, was called to the chair, while an insurgent became 
secretary. The insurgent delegates from Ellsworth were accepted 
by the committee on credentials. Four pairs of delegates and alter- 
nates were selected to attend the state conventions in Topeka and 
Lawrence, each pair consisting of one insurgent and one rural 
member. 55 

The insurgents struck again on October 5 at Ellsworth precinct's 
G. O. P. meeting to select delegates to the second county conven- 
tion. Judging from the votes cast, about 150 persons attended the 
meeting, which adjourned to a restaurant for more room. Again 
an insurgent slate of nominees, including Hertzig and three other 
August 24 insurgent nominees, opposed a "regular" slate which 
included Hodgden. The insurgents won again, this time by a two- 
to-one margin. "The election last Saturday," observed the Reporter, 
"was the most exciting we ever witnessed. . . . The spirits of 
the successful party were high and it took a good many 'straights' 
and a good deal of water with extract of hop in it, to cool off the 
enthusiasm of the victors." The paper deplored, however, the 
expression of "so much bitterness between parties." 56 

Three days later the insurgent-rural coalition dominated the 

54. Ibid., August 29. 1872. 

55. Ibid., September 5. 1872. 

56. Ibid., October 10, 1872. 


the county convention called to select a slate of Republican candi- 
dates for county office and to select delegates to the district sena- 
torial convention. In both cases, selections were balanced between 
rural members and insurgents. 67 

On October 10 the district senatorial convention was held in 
Ellsworth. John H. Edwards, the strongest candidate, had two 
strikes against him in Ellsworth county. Edwards was until re- 
cently a resident of Ellsworth. One of the original promoters of 
the Ellsworth townsite, an early commissioner of the county, and 
the town's first provisional mayor, he also had been an important 
Ellsworth businessman. In 1870 he became the district's state 
representative, and now resided in Ellis county. He was vigorously 
supported by the older businessmen of Ellsworth, and hardly could 
be identified with the insurgents. On September 26 he spoke in 
Ellsworth, praising the Texas cattle trade as the county's greatest 
asset. 58 He thereby gained the opposition of the rural wing. In 
the convention the Ellsworth county delegation, led by D. B. Long, 
proposed the name of County Commissioner Jackson, both a rural- 
ist of sorts and something of an insurgent, to oppose Edwards. But 
in the balloting Edwards gained the nomination. 59 

Election day a month later held a surprise. Senatorial candi- 
date Edwards, anathema to both farmers and insurgents, lost over- 
whelmingly in Ellsworth county, carrying only one precinct. But 
not one member of the insurgent-rural Republican ticket gained 
office. The reason is clear. Urban voters failed to support rural 
members of the slate and the country dwellers refused to vote for 
the urban insurgent candidates. For example, ruralist Paul Curlett, 
Republican candidate for state representative, carried nearly every 
rural precinct but captured a mere seven votes in Ellsworth. On 
the other hand, insurgent Thomas Thomas, G. O. P. candidate for 
clerk of the district court, carried Ellsworth but lost every single 
rural precinct. Opposed by a badly split Republican vote, a slate 
of Greeley Republicans carried the day. 60 

The parties to this experiment in rural-urban co-operation had 
distrusted one another in the showdown. The fundamental, ap- 
parently unreconcilable rural-urban split was soon to achieve a 
profound expression in the politics of the cattle-trade controversy. 

In August, 1872, at the height of Ellsworth's second great cattle- 

57. Ibid. 

58. Andreas -Cutler, op. cit., pp. 1275, 1277; "U. S. Census, 1870," Ellsworth county, 
[first section,] p. 1; Ellsworth Reporter, August 8, 1872 ff. (card supporting Edwards' 
candidacy signed by Ellsworth businessmen), October 3, 1872, August 28, 1873. 

59. Ibid., October 17, 1872. 

60. See election statistics in ibid., November 14, 1872. 

ELLSWORTH, 1869-1875 177 

shipping season, the Ellsworth Reporter noted that "Some of our 
farmers have been run over by herds of Texas cattle." Rural anger 
was building up, but the paper observed that Ellsworth county 
farmers were still "acting fairly" toward the cattlemen. 61 

The old protection movement began rolling again the following 
month. Just two days after John H. Edwards' speech praising the 
cattle trade, settlers held a convention in Ellsworth to organize a 
county-wide protective association. This time the movement was 
initiated by a newcomer to Ellsworth county, W. M. King. King, 
an lowan, first appeared the previous February, when he bought 
1,440 acres of rural real estate and talked about building a sawmill. 
By the end of March he was settled in the county as a livestock 
breeder and agitator for sundry community projects. He soon made 
himself obnoxious to many other stockmen. In May he ran a sar- 
castic notice in the paper which criticized domestic cattlemen as 
being worse than the Texans in letting their stock run free to commit 
depredations and then disclaiming ownership when they did. 62 
A. Essick, a Presbyterian minister and like King a prosperous stock- 
raising farmer only recently come to the county, was another organ- 
izer of the group. 63 A resolution was adopted that the group peti- 
tion the county commissioners for a herd law. The flavor of the 
meeting was reflected in the motto concluding the secretary's report: 
"Protection we want. Protection we must have!" 64 

On October 12 the group, still an informal one, met again. The 
presentation of herd law petitions to the board of commissioners 
was postponed, and a third meeting was scheduled to consider 
forming a county agricultural association. This may have been a 
subtle attempt to redirect the group into less radical channels. The 
October 26 meeting apparently was postponed, or else broke up 
over the question of whether the group was to be a protective 
society or a neutral agricultural association. 65 In December the 
paper noted that Essick now believed in wintering Texas cattle, 
evidently in the standard way of turning it loose to forage, and the 
next spring he was specifically branded as an anti-protectionist. In 
1873 Essick continued to call for an agricultural association, and 
was joined by the anti-protection stock raiser Commissioner Howard, 

61. Ibid., August 1, 1872. 

62. Ibid., February 22, 29, March 28, April 18, May 2, 1872. For examples of 
King's subsequent commercial ventures see ibid., June 27, October 17, 1872. 

63. Essick is not listed in the 1870 census. 

64. Ellsworth Reporter, October 10, 1872. 

65. Ibid., October 17, 1872. The outcome of the October 26 meeting is not noted 
in the paper. 



as well as Levi Steinberg. The latter, who had spoken so harshly 
of cattlemen less than a year previously, now was state president 
of the "Stock Growers Association of Kansas" and a big cattleman 
himself. 66 

While the herd law agitation apparently was being redirected 
by the most influential of the county's stockmen, a rural-urban 
ideological tournament was fought in the columns of the 
newspaper. This clash was present in J. C. Howard's observation 
about "country clod-hoppers" in the spring of 1872 and in the 
mutual rural-urban distrust leading to the downfall of the Repub- 
lican coalition the next fall. In January, 1873, the newspaper 
carried a letter from a farmer with the pseudonym "Home Interests" 
who called upon the county to obtain a flour mill, a project more 
important than the second railroad for which many Ellsworth 
businessmen were agitating. The writer especially complained 
about money fleeing the county through Ellsworth merchants who 
imported flour for urban consumers. In the next issue a writer 
disguised as "Go to Work" defended Ellsworth merchants, assert- 
ing in addition that the county's farmers, with few exceptions, 
were simply indolent complainers. "Home Interests" replied that 
"Go to Work" and his fellows were "dry goods loafers" who should 
get busy and do something about the shabby appearance of Ells- 
worth. His urban opponent replied immediately, abusing "Home 
Interests" and "his legions of thriftless, shiftless, do-nothing neigh- 
bors. . . ." "Home Interests" struck back in a long letter very 
critical of Ellsworth males, two-thirds of whom were described as 
loafing for a living or "just carrying on a little business as a cloak for 
their idleness." In a March issue "Go to Work," possibly at the 
editor's insistence, tried to placate his rural opponent, but the 
other's concluding argument in the same issue still pointed to the 
number of loafers on Ellsworth's Main street. 67 

At the same time D. B. Long, rural leader, voiced objections 
of a different sort to Ellsworth's railroad project. He argued that 
the county's big landowning stockmen, like himself, would bear 
the tax burden for such public-subsidized projects. "This county," 
he asserted in the Reporter, "is a stock county, and not an Agri- 
cultural county. When you cripple the stock interest, you cripple 
the true interest and wealth of the county. . . ." Commissioner 
Jackson, spokesman for the proposed railroad, replied to Long that 

66. Ibid., December 19, 1872, February 13, March 6, May 1, June 12, 1873. 

67. Ibid., January 16, 23, 30, February 6, 13, March 6, 1873. 

ELLSWORTH, 1869-1875 179 

a second railroad would bring more settlers into the county, pro- 
viding a broader tax base. He agreed that stock raising was the 
primary interest of the area but claimed that a second railroad 
would favor this interest by bringing "cheap fencing here to stop 
the clamor in the mouths of a few for the herd law. . . ." In 
March, however, Commissioner Howard proclaimed himself im- 
placably against the project, and declared that as chairman of the 
board of commissioners he would block all efforts to bring the rail- 
road to a public vote. 68 Thus the urban project was killed by the 
county's big rural landowners. 

Prior to 1873 most anti-cattle agitation came from southeast of 
Ellsworth, where rural settlement was thickest. The year 1872, 
however, saw considerable settlement in the northwest corner 
of the county around the town of Wilson, laid out in the fall of 
1871. In the elections of November, 1872, Wilson was the only 
precinct giving a majority to Edwards, the pro-cattle candidate for 
the state senate, the reason perhaps being that the town's promoters 
had temporary aspirations of the community's becoming a great 
cattle-trading center. 69 By 1873, however, the Wilson area was 
clearly a seat of an anti-cattle movement that sought not just herd 
law protection but total exclusion of the trade from Ellsworth 

The 1867 Spanish fever act of the Kansas legislature fixed quaran- 
tine boundaries that legally excluded Texas cattle from the more 
settled portions of the state. The basis was fear by resident live- 
stock raisers of Spanish fever. In 1872 the legislature, acquiescing 
to the wishes of inhabitants, moved the line farther west to close 
more territory to the cattle trade. Successive legislatures, meeting 
in January and February of each year, threatened to shove the 
quarantine line or "dead line," as it was termed farther west. 70 
Now, early in 1873, a combined meeting of residents of the Wilson 
area and homesteaders from nearby RusseU county resolved to 
petition their representatives in the legislature "to so amend the 
act regulating the driving and grazing of Texas cattle in this State 
as to exclude from Ellsworth and Russell counties, through Texas 
herds or those liable to impart the Spanish fever." 71 Although 
nothing came of this action, the region remained a center of ex- 
clusionist agitation. 

68. Ibid., January 23, 30, March 20, 1873. 

69. Andreas-Cutler, op. cit., p. 1280. 

70. See summary of the quarantine-line legislation in Streeter, The Kaw: The Heart 
of a Nation, pp. 202-207. 

71. Ellsworth Reporter, February 20, 1873. 


In May, 1873, the newspaper predicted another great cattle season 
for Ellsworth, with prospects of 300,000 head proclaimed "a low 
estimate." A kind of slogan was tucked in among the news items 
"Ellsworth county farmers will not fight the Texas Cattle." 72 Varia- 
tions on this theme seemed to promise that repetition would make 
it so. 

The very next edition, however, brought a letter from a farmer 
who demanded a herd law and accused the county commissioners 
of deliberately favoring the big stockmen in not passing such a 
law. 73 At the same time, a few of the domestic cattle raisers were 
joining the farmers to view Texas cattle with disfavor. Among 
these was D. B. Long, a stockman who did not fear a protection 
law because he herded and fed his own stock each winter. Not so 
stockmen like Commissioner Howard, who feared Spanish fever 
each summer but who turned his stock loose each winter. A writer 
to the Reporter suggested that the commissioners impose a herd 
law in the spring, then lift it again in the fall, but the act of 1872 
made no provision for repeal after a herd law declaration. 74 So 
Howard and his stock-raising constituents preferred no herd law 
at all. 

At least one homesteader tried to do something that spring be- 
sides just protesting. Late in May he swore out a complaint on 
two Texas trail drivers who allowed their cattle to invade his claim. 
But without a herd law in force there were no grounds for prosecu- 
tion. The case was dismissed at the request of County Attorney 
P. T. Pendleton. 75 

In June a letter from J. W. Ingersoll bitterly attacked what he 
termed the county's anti-protection "rich men," those like the Rev. 
A. Essick who owned from 75 to 400 head. These stockmen, as- 
serted Ingersoll, "care no more for the success of the poor man than 
for the life of a troublesome flea, . . . and it is just such men 
that make a herd law necessary." He observed that farmers should 
not have to trust the honor of cattlemen to reimburse damages 
committed by stock, but rather should have the protection of a herd 
law wherein the stockmen could trust the farmers to assess damages 
fairly. "The poor man," noted Ingersoll, "may not have as many 
dollars or cattle as the rich man, but on the average I am certain 
he has as much honor and is governed by as generous principles." 

72. Ibid., May 8, 1873. 

73. "Farmer" in ibid., May 15, 1873. 

74. Edward P. Paris in ibid., July 3, 1873. 

75. Kansas Daily Commonwealth, Topeka, June 4, 1873. 

ELLSWORTH, 1869-1875 181 

"The rights of the laboring men," he concluded, "must be protected 
by our laws and respected by capital. . . ." 76 

John S. Barnum, however, spoke the minds of those farmers like 
himself who had been converted from protectionism to an anti- 
protection view. His principal arguments were that a herd law 
would frighten away the trade in Texas cattle, leaving local farmers 
with greatly reduced numbers of consumers to supply. A herd law 
would also frighten away the big domestic stockmen who paid 
most of the taxes in the county. Anyway, claimed Barnum, Ells- 
worth county farmers would do better to become stock raisers 
themselves. 77 

Many new arrivals to the county agreed with Barnum's conclu- 
sion and dropped plans for homesteading in favor of stock raising. 
Winfield S. Faris and his brother William, for example, arrived in 
1872 and took up claims on Clear creek. Soon, however, they be- 
came so involved in managing their small but growing herds, which 
they grazed on the public domain, that they allowed their claims 
to revert back to the government. 78 

Although the newspaper supplies no details, two apparently con- 
flicting farmers' organizations were now operating, evidently repre- 
senting this dichotomy of opinion regarding protection. One was 
the old "Farmers Protective Association of Empire Township/' in 
which D. B. Long was active, which met as late as May 31 "to ar- 
range for better protection from the ravages of Texas cattle." 79 The 
other, the "Ellsworth Farmers' Independent Association," was active 
near Ellsworth and met June 14 and October 17 at the home of 
Thomas Thomas. 80 This Republican insurgent of the previous year 
owned an 80-acre farm, but he was primarily a contractor. In 1873 
Thomas was building the new Ellsworth schoolhouse, and it is un- 
likely he would have antagonized the city's residents by frightening 
the cattle trade away with talk of a county herd law. 81 The only 
other member of the group mentioned by the paper was W. E. Fos- 
not, a one-legged war veteran who came to Ellsworth county as a 

76. Ellsworth Reporter, June 12, 1873. IngersolTs rural class consciousness perhaps 
makes his personal data of interest. In 1870 he gave his age as 28, his birthplace as 
New York, his occupation as farmer, his dependents as a wife and two children. He es- 
timated the value of his real estate holdings as $200. He gave no estimate of his personal 
estate. "U. S. Census, 1870," Ellsworth county, [second section,] p. 4. 

77. Ellsworth Reporter, June 26, 1873. 

78. A Biographical History of Central Kansas, v. 1, p. 630; Ellsworth Messenger, 
September 15, 1955. 

79. Ellsworth Reporter, May 29, 1873. 

80. Ibid., June 12, October 9, 1873. 

81. Ibid., December 14, 1871 ff. (advertisement), August 7, September 18, 1873. 


farmer about 1870 but who opened a watch-repair shop in Ellsworth 
in 1874. 82 He also was an unlikely protectionist agitator. 

As the cattle-buying season wore on, the Ellsworth Reporter 
attempted to protect the Texas cattle trade by offering local farmers 
advice, much of it condescending. "Farming or Stock-Raising?" 
asked one editorial, and the answer was both. For best returns, 
said the paper, farmers should raise crops, feed them to livestock, 
then sell the animals. The Reporter also urged settlers to raise 
truck produce for Ellsworth's consumer market. Another item ob- 
served that if the farmer used sound commercial practices "just as 
his careful brother merchants do, he would find a spirit of business 
working into all his habits, and progress and push would follow." 
In September the paper reprinted from the Milwaukee (Wis.) 
Commercial a long article emphasizing the lucrative returns from 
stock raising with Texas longhorns. 83 

The same month the board of county commissioners made prep- 
arations for the election of new members. Z. Jackson had resigned 
in June to become the Ellsworth postmaster and his chair was 
temporarily filled by William Armstrong, a big stockman. 84 For 
the coming election the county was divided three ways by popula- 
tion to give one commissioner to the eastern half of the county, one 
to the west, and one to Ellsworth. 85 Since 1872 the question of a 
herd law had rested on the makeup of the board of commissioners. 
On October 11, 1873, 33 farmers of the eastern district met to select 
a candidate for commissioner who was favorable to a herd law. 
D. B. Long tried to inject a note of compromise into the meeting 
by proposing that the group ask for a herd law only for the sum- 
mer months, but only one other besides himself was in a mood to 
compromise. Henry V. Faris, one of the county's original settlers, 
was selected as candidate to run against the anti-protection incum- 
bent, J. C. Howard. On the same day the protectionists of the 
western district selected "Captain" L. Knox as their candidate. 
Knox had no opponent in that region. 

Within the Ellsworth district voters were faced with a more 
complex situation. Not only did Ellsworth businessmen need an 
anti-protectionist to shield the cattle trade, but most also desired 
someone who would continue to oppose the old landed business- 
men like Hodgden. The latter person was evidently behind the 

82. Ibid., October 9, 1873, November 19, 1874. 

83. Ibid., August 14, 28, September 18, 1873. 

84. Ibid., June 26, July 10, 1873. For a brief description of Armstrong see ibid., 
December 11, 1873. 

85. See description of districts in ibid., October 2, 1873. 

ELLSWORTH, 1869-1875 183 

candidature of J. C. Veatch, a hotel proprietor who had been a 
vocal "regular" Republican the year before. Therefore, Leo Hert- 
zig, although he had not intended to be a candidate, let it be known 
that "circumstances compel him to run for another term." 86 

The newspaper meanwhile observed that "There are many 
farmers who have no stock but who hope to have some, that oppose 
a herd law, and there are some farmers who own good sized herds 
who favor the law/* 87 The editor himself opposed protection, and 
almost the entire front page of an October issue was taken up by 
an anti-protection article composed by Henry Inman, an influential 
Ellsworth citizen, which was a masterpiece of deductive reasoning 
from the premise that the act of 1872 was "obnoxious to the very 
principles of justice and of right." 88 Then a week before the cru- 
cial election the paper carried a letter from "Anti-Herd Law" rem- 
iniscent of the views of "Go to Work" the previous winter. The 
writer, a stockman, wasted no compliments on protectionists. As 
he saw it, 

We have all the wealth and respectability of the county on our side, and what 
does their side consist of? A few sore heads who couldn't get office on our 
side and have gone over so as to be first in position and honors, even if it is 
among vagabonds and paupers, and the majority are composed of poor worth- 
less grubber [s] of the ground, who have a little truck patch, or a few acres of 
corn and no fence, or a mere pretense for a fence, so as to collect damages from 
their neighbors. ... All that is necessary for the cattle men to do, is to 
hire all their poor neighbors a few days before election, and keep them away 
from the hungry office seekers, who try to make them believe that the herd 
law will benefit them, in order to get their votes. 89 

The election itself was quiet. Anti-protectionist J. C. Howard 
defeated the herd law candidate in the eastern district to retain 
his position on the board. Captain Knox, the western district's 
herd law candidate, was unopposed. In Ellsworth, Hertzig retained 
his seat. 90 With the board still two-to-one against protection, the 
1873 campaign for an Ellsworth county herd law ended. 

The year 1872 had seen a great cattle-buying season in Ellsworth. 
By the late summer of 1873 it was apparent that the current season 

86. Ibid., October 16, 23, 30, 1873. 

87. Ibid., October 9, 1873. See in the same issue the rather intelligent protection 
arguments of "H. A." 

88. Ibid., October 16, 1873. Inman, a former army officer who prior to retirement 
had been stationed at Fort Harker, later became a nationally-known writer of popular 
Western nonfiction. Probably his best-known works were The Old Santa Fe Trail (New 
York, 1897), illustrated by Frederic Remington, and The Great Salt Lake Trail (New 
York, 1898), written in collaboration with William F. Cody. A Biographical History of 
Central Kansas, v. 1, pp. 506, 507. 

89. Ellsworth Reporter, October 30, 1873. 

90. Ibid., November 6, 13, 1873. Only preliminary election statistics were carried 
by the paper. Also losing in the elections was Perry Hodgden, candidate for state rep- 


was far less successful. "There are a large number of cattle about 
Ellsworth, but as yet shipments are light/' the Reporter admitted 
in September. "Drovers who can afford to, will hold their cattle 
until the market is better. Many cattle will probably be wintered 
here unless there should be a change in eastern prices for the 
better." 91 

There were those who, remembering the economic doldrums of 
the pre-cowtown Ellsworth, already were becoming fearful for the 
town's future as a cattle market. In mid-September the newspaper 
gave the prophets of doom a talking-to: 

There are some people that need to be assured daily of the good prospect 
ahead. Some of these people live in Ellsworth, and we must say to them 
again this week, that "all is well." Ellsworth is all right and will keep right. 
It is more favorably located for becoming an important town than any other 
station on the [railjroad for a distance of four hundred miles. All that is 
necessary is for our citizens to keep on working, and building up the city. It 
is certain that Ellsworth will retain the Texas cattle trade as long as this 
county possesses such superior advantages and the drovers are welcome to 
come and are well treated while here. Ellsworth has been the busiest town 
in the State this summer, and now that the hurrying season is drawing to a 
close it does not look well to "get sick" as Alexander is said to have been, 
once upon a time, because there was not another world to conquer: after our 
business men have had an immense trade for six months they can afford to be 
satisfied during the other six months if they make no more than the business 
men in other towns are making. 92 

Unfortunately, the day this brave article went to press the 1873 
financial crisis struck Wall street. By the following week its reper- 
cussions were felt by Ellsworth as panic-stricken drovers threw 
the cattle they had been holding all summer onto the market. A 
total of 117 carloads of livestock left town September 25, and the 
current loading rate at the stockyard was estimated at 800 cars per 
week. "Long trains" of cattle still were being loaded daily a 
month later, but by the middle of November most of the excite- 
ment was over. 93 The season ended dismally. Ellsworth was the 
main reception point for Texas cattle in 1872; in 1873 she received 
only about 30 per cent of the cattle driven into Kansas. Only 
30,540 of these were shipped east. 94 About 25,000 therefore were 
wintered in Ellsworth county, Commissioner Howard alone win- 
tering 1,700 head. 95 Again settlers prepared for a season of stock 

91. Ibid., September 11, 1873. 

92. Ibid., September 18, 1873. 

93. Ibid., September 25, October 2, 16, 1873. 

94. Streeter, "Ellsworth as a Texas Cattle Market," loc. cit., pp. 395, 397. 

95. Ellsworth Reporter, December 11, 1873. March 5, 1874. 

ELLSWORTH, 1869-1875 185 

By mid-November only a handful of Texans remained in town. 
Citizens no doubt saw them leave with mixed feelings this year. 
An unusual increase in violence in July and August had culminated 
in the fatal shooting by a Texan of Chauncey B. Whitney, business- 
man and county sheriff. A few days later the police retaliated by 
shooting Cad Pierce, a Texan. In September a troublesome ex- 
policeman had to be shot, and two months later a Texan avenged 
Cad Pierce by gunning Ed Crawford, his killer. The publicity 
resulting from this activity gave Ellsworth state-wide notoriety. 96 
In addition, it diverted business to rival cowtowns. "The recent 
killings of Sheriff Whitney and Cad Pierce, at Ellsworth," wrote a 
correspondent from Great Bend, "has caused a large influx of cattle 
herders, buyers and others from that point, and business is much 
stimulated thereby." 97 It was a trying summer all around. 

By the middle of February, 1874, the Ellsworth Reporter already 
was claiming optimistically that Ellsworth would obtain the bulk 
of the cattle trade in the state the coming season. 98 In the same 
month a farmer wrote to plead with the editor to cease inviting 
the Texans to return. He urged rural-urban co-operation in the 
matter. "Help us to build up the county," he implored, "and we 
will not let the town go down by any means/' 99 

The continuing separation of rural and urban interests was high- 
lighted by the invasion of Ellsworth county by the Granger move- 
ment. On March 17, 1874, the county's first Grange was organized, 
with Captain Knox, the new county commissioner, as its master. 
The founding of the chapter was possibly inspired by the presence 
in the county of Edward P. Paris, who had been a charter member 
of the national organization. 100 With a certain uneasiness the 
Reporter claimed in June that Ellsworth county Grangers were 
happy, and mentioned pointedly that local farmers failed to get re- 
duced rates for grain shipments only because of the small quantity 

No doubt it was not coincidence that six of Ellsworth's business- 
men including Arthur Larkin and Perry Hodgden buried their 

96. Ibid., August 21, September 11, November 13, 1873. The September 4 issue of 
the Reporter was particularly critical of the Leavenworth Commercial, which had asserted 
that martial law was proclaimed in Ellsworth, that the Texans threatened to "burn and sack 
the town," and that citizens and police threatened to "shoot on sight" all Texans. "People 
who behave themselves are [as] safe here as in Leavenworth," replied the Reporter. 

For the results of Floyd Benjamin Streeter*s exhaustive research on this period of violence 
see his "Tragedies of a Cow Town," The Aerend: A Kansas Quarterly, Hays, v. 5 (Spring, 
Summer, 1934), pp. 81-96, 145-162; Prairie Trails and Cow Towns (Boston, 1936), pp. 
115-142; The Raw: The Heart of a Nation, pp. 138-148. 

97. "Alpha" in Kansas Daily Commonwealth, Topeka, August 27, 1873. 

98. Ellsworth Reporter, February 19, 1874. 

99. "In Earnest" in ibid., February 12, 1874. 

100. Ibid., February 12, 19, March 19, June 11, 1874. 


differences and tried to promote a county agricultural society five 
days before a similar convention met to organize a county-wide 
Grange. 101 But a drought that lasted from early June through July, 
which was followed by grasshoppers, claimed the Grangers' atten- 
tion. Accompanying these catastrophes were prairie fires, with a 
particularly severe fire near Wilson the night of July 25, aggravated 
by an intense windstorm, which devastated the area. 102 Faced with 
natural crises, local Grangers were preoccupied with planning co- 
operative firebreaks rather than co-operative merchandising, and 
proposing railroad legislation only to the extent of requiring loco- 
motives to be equipped with spark-traps. A Grange leader like 
E. P. Paris might complain individually about "the politicians of 
the county who have personal ambition or purposes to serve," but 
no Grange-inspired radicalism seemed to threaten the status quo. 
By fall the county contained seven regional Granges and a county 
Grange, but the movement appeared solidly in control of prosperous 
stockmen like D. B. Long, John S. Barnum, and Levi Sternberg. 103 

Yet the herd law question was bound to arise again, especially 
as 1874 saw a new influx of homesteaders. The eastern half of the 
county, noted the paper early in the year, was "settling up quite 
fast. . . ." 104 In a letter of the same month D. B. Long pointed 
to the county's southern tier of townships, into which wheat farmers 
from adjacent Rice county were overflowing. Although a stockman 
himself, Long noted that the county badly needed a flour mill to 
accommodate these immigrants. He observed matter-of-factly that 
Ellsworth had only one or two seasons left as a cowtown, and that 
urban businessmen might as well admit it. "It is high time our at- 
tention was turned to something," he concluded, "that will be of 
permanent and lasting benefit to the county." 105 

In 1870 the population of Ellsworth county was 1,185. In 1873 
the population stood at 2,868. In 1874 it was still only 3,273. 106 The 
county did not experience an immigration boom till after 1875. By 
that year the majority of its lands still lay vacant ( see map p. 187 ) . 
Ellsworth county homesteaders only slowly gained enough numbers 
to translate their desires into effective political action. 

101. Ibid., June 11, 18, July 30, 1874. 

102. Lyon, op. eft., p. 41; Francis J. Swehla, "Bohemians in Central Kansas," Collec- 
tions of the Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, v. 13 (1913-1914), pp. 476-478; Ells- 
worth Reporter, July 30, August 6, 1874. 

103. Ibid., October 29, December 10, 1874, January 7, 1875. For Grange leadership 
see the Grange directory in ibid., November 19, 1874 ff., and article on the Grange anni- 
versary celebration in ibid., December 10, 1874. 

104. Ibid., February 5, 1874. 

105. Ibid., February 19, 1874. 

106. Kansas State Board of Agriculture, [Second Annual] Report, 1873, p. 67; Third 
Annual Report, 1874, p. 142. 

ELLSWORTH, 1869-1875 



The shaded areas represent remaining lands unsettled. From the Fourth 
Annual Report (1875) of the Kansas State Board of Agriculture. 

The state legislature in the meantime forced upon Ellsworth 
county yet another variable in the cattle-trade question. On March 
7 an act was approved which seemed tailor-made for local protec- 
tionists. In counties like Ellsworth, where the commissioners re- 
fused to exercise their power to impose herd laws, two-thirds of 
the legal voters now could require them to do so by petition. 107 

Encouraged, but uncertain whether they could obtain enough 
signatures for a county herd law, a group of homesteaders began 
drumming up support for a "night herd law" in Empire township. 
Such a law, which required all stock in a given township to be 
herded or penned during the hours of darkness, needed only a peti- 
tion from three-fifths of the electors of that township. 108 Probably 
the reason why such measures had not been attempted previously 
in Ellsworth county was that many officials considered the 1868 

107. Laws of the State of Kansas, 1874, pp. 203, 204. 

108. General Statutes of the State of Kansas, 1868, pp. 1001, 1002. 


act on which such action was based to be voided through the 
passage of the 1872 herd law act. 109 Empire farmers, however, 
were desperate. The group presented its petition, only to have it 
declared five or six names short of the requisite number. 110 

Undaunted, Empire farmers met again on April 25 to consider a 
county herd law under the new provisions. Near Wilson, at the 
opposite end of the county, homesteaders also spoke emphatically 
of a herd law. From that area came an effort to organize a county- 
wide protection movement. 111 

Ellsworth businessmen ignored all rural agitation and went 
ahead with plans to make Ellsworth the leading cattle market of 
the 1874 season, raising money to employ an agent to descend the 
trail and divert herds from Wichita and other cowtown competitors. 
By the end of May 42,572 longhorns were in the county, with an- 
other 17,800 getting close. John Mueller already had sold 100 
pairs of cowboy boots and Ira Phelps put on four employees in his 
grocery store. 112 

West of Ellsworth a group of settlers led by wealthy W. M. King 
met and resolved to prosecute any drover bringing his herd across 
the Smoky Hill river in their vicinity. 113 But the really bad news 
came in June when the Reporters editor talked at length with vari- 
ous Texans. These informed him that Ellsworth might expect only 
about 60,000 head that season, or just two-fifths the total driven. 
Thereafter the trade would peter out anyway as railroads pushed 
into Texas itself and the state was finally drained of surplus 
cattle. 114 On top of this, cattle were selling at depression prices. 
Drover Sol West, for example, remained in Ellsworth all summer 
in an effort to make profitable sales, but returned to Texas in the 
fall with a net gain of just $1.50. 115 Only 18,500 head were shipped 
east from Ellsworth, 12,000 less than the year before. 116 The cattle 
season of 1874 was a depressing failure. 

109. Apparently the act of 1868 in part providing for night herd laws was in practice 
repealed although still on the books as late as 1879. Compiled Laws of Kansas, 1879, 
p. 921, Footnote 1, states: "On examination of this chapter ["Stock"], it will be found 
that many of the provisions of the general statutes have been superseded by subsequent 
legislation, for which see 82 et seq. [herd law act of 1872], this chapter. The law of 
1868 is nowhere repealed specifically, and parts of it only by implication; hence, we print the 
whole, calling attention to this fact." Appearing opposite the first section of Article 1 
(night herd law act of 1868), p. 921, is the following marginal gloss: "See 82 et seq. 
this chapter; also see 91 et seq. [herd law act of 1874] this chapter; wherever there 
is any conflict or where they cover the same ground, these sections supersede the provisions 
of this and following sections of the general statutes." 

110. Ellsworth Reporter, March 19, 26, April 16, 1874. 

111. Ibid., March 12, April 16, 1874; A. O. Gibbs in ibid., March 26, 1874. 

112. Ibid., April 23, May 28, 1874. 

113. Ibid., May 14, 1874. 

114. Ibid., June 11, 1874. 

115. J. Marvin Hunter, ed., The Trail Driven of Texas (2d ed. rev.; Nashville, 1925), 
pp. 128, 129. 

116. Streeter, "Ellsworth as a Texas Cattle Market," loc. cit., p. 398. 

ELLSWORTH, 1869-1875 189 

Fall saw the anti-cattle movement regain momentum. Late in 
the summer Captain Knox, the protectionist county commissioner 
from the western district, resigned from office. His successor was 
to be picked in the November elections. The Rev. John Jellison 
of Wilson, a protectionist, was put forth by the homesteaders of that 
area. Jellison faced no opposition. "We all know what we want," 
wrote a spokesman, "and let us be in earnest to get it. We want a 
herd law twelve months in the year; we want the dead line moved 
from where it now is far enough west so that we shall not be 
troubled with Texas cattle crossing our country." m 

Elsewhere farmers' sentiments were becoming more and more 
protectionist, if not exclusionist, as continuing poor prices for long- 
horns negated the profits in wintering. G. A. Atwood, formerly 
editor of the Ellsworth Reporter, was now candidate for state repre- 
sentative, and had to explain away his previous anti-protection 
stand. To accomplish this he declared himself for a herd law, but 
a better one than provided in the act of 1874. "Let the impracti- 
cable law of last winter be remodeled," he wrote, "so that the two 
great interests, farming and stock-raising, may both prosper, and our 
county will increase in wealth and population." Having neatly 
straddled the issue, Atwood was elected. 118 

The new editor of the Reporter, Henry Inman, also tried to be 
accommodating. In October, 1873, Inman had composed anti- 
protection propaganda for the Reporter. Now, in December of 
1874, he noted that the herd law movement "is assuming a shape 
in this county that promises protection to our much abused farmers, 
at last." 119 Even the Ellsworth business community, doubtless 
frightened by the growing exclusion sentiment in the county, were 
giving way on the herd law. As Inman exclaimed: 

At last a majority of the people of Ellsworth county, including our leading 
merchants, have opened their eyes to the fact, that the basis of our wealth, and 
prosperity, lies in the proper advancement of our agricultural interests. . . . 
In a word, a new era is to dawn upon Ellsworth county, we are to become 
revolutionized in a measure, and the grandest feature in the changes that are to 
take place, is that, town and country fanner and merchant, are firmly support- 
ing each other in this matter. . . . The Bete Noir that has been the means 
of estranging the two classes in advancing the real interests of the county is the 
"Herd Law" question. . . . With a judicious herd law there need be no 
conflict of interests. . . . Let us have a herd law by all meansl 12 

On January 28, 1875, the protectionists publicly warned the 

117. W. T. Levitt and A. A. Jellison in Ellsworth Reporter, October 29, 1874. 

118. Ibid., October 29, November 9, 1874. 

119. Ibid., December 3, 1874. 

120. Ibid., December 10, 1874. 


board of county commissioners they were petitioning for a herd 
law. The board received the petitions on March 10, but postponed 
consideration. On March 23 the board finally imposed a herd law 
to go into effect May I. 121 The protectionists had triumphed. 

Conflict in Ellsworth county was far from over, however. De- 
spite the crippling herd law Ellsworth's businessmen intended to 
promote the town as a Texas cattle market for yet another season. 
The Reporter protested that homesteaders should not bite the urban 
hands that signed their herd law petitions, but farmers in the Wil- 
son area prepared to continue agitating for total exclusion of the 
trade. On February 15 the settlers of Wilson township met with 
counterparts from Russell county to resolve that their representa- 
tives in the legislature be "formally instructed" to press for removal 
of the quarantine line farther west. A week later they met again 
to form the "Farmer's Protective Union/' "to enforce the laws, and 
protect ourselves against the encroachments of herds of stock of 
every kind." 122 

In the meantime Ellsworth prepared for the cattle drive. Perry 
Hodgden and T. J. Buckbee took over management of the stockyard, 
and the Reporter published the entire 1874 herd law act so that 
incoming drovers would be careful to comply with its every pro- 
vision. By the middle of May herds were arriving in the county 
and J. C. Brown, especially hired as a guide, was attempting to 
steer them clear of the Wilson vicinity. Late in May the Reporter 
revealed that T. J. Buckbee owned the only land on the Arkansas 
river over which the herds could pass on their way to Ellsworth 
county, all other property owners along the stream refusing to let 
them cross. 123 

This observation was virtually a notice that the Ellsworth cattle 
trade was dying hard, but dying all the same. Thereafter the 
Reporters optimism dwindled to a pathetic silence on the matter. 
Finally, in August, a rather obscurely placed editorial formally an- 
nounced the end of Ellsworth as a cowtown: 


We predict an excellent trade in Ellsworth this fall, and the logic of the 
thing is, that all the money to be spent will remain among ourselves. We are 
happy in the fact that the days of the Texas trade is [sic] numbered among the 
things that were. Of all the hundreds of thousands of dollars that changed 
hands during the years of that erratic traffic, we fail to see where it has bene- 
fited one man in the county whose determination it was to make his home 

121. Ibid., January 28, February 11, 18, 25, March 25, 1875. 

122. Ibid., January 28, February 25, March 11, 1875. 

123. Ibid., April 8, 15, 22, May 20, 27, 1875. 

ELLSWORTH, 1869-1875 191 

among us. We have a herd law, and we have proved the richness of our soil, 
and our wonderful pastoral possibilities beyond a peradventure, and all that 
remains for us to do is to encourage a healthful immigration, devote our ener- 
gies to wool growing, graded stock, and small grain, and we shall soon find 
ourselves second to no county in the state in wealth and importance. 124 

The four years' conflict in Ellsworth county had been essentially 
a clash between an alliance of urban businessmen and a portion of 
the rural settlers against the rest of the rural settlers. A serious 
division thus was apparent in the latter group, between those who 
primarily farmed and those who undertook stock raising. Many of 
the stock raisers were not much removed from homesteaders, but 
most seem to have been comparatively wealthy. Homesteaders 
wanted a county herd law to protect their unfenced crops from 
loose Texan and domestic cattle; the stockmen, large or small, 
opposed a herd law because it would seriously cripple their mode of 
operation. In the countryside, therefore, the herd law was the 
issue rather than the Texas cattle trade as such. The split in the 
rural settler group was finally reflected in a kind of class conscious- 
ness that identified "poor" farmers and "rich" stockmen, as best ex- 
pressed in the letter of J. W. Ingersoll. 

An outstanding feature of Ellsworth county conflict was the 
emergence of a mutual distrust and contempt between rural and 
urban residents. This seemed to burst out at the least provocation. 
Obviously aggravating this rural-urban split was the excessive 
"urban-ness" of Ellsworth, with its economy oriented toward a 
highly cosmopolitan cattle industry rather than local agriculture. 
To a ruralist, all the distasteful accouterments of urban society were 
present in Ellsworth drunkenness, gambling, prostitution, exces- 
sive crime, and idleness. The failure of the rural-urban political 
coalition in the 1872 elections exposed the depths of this cleavage. 
The Reporter in late 1874 saw the healing of this as the most valu- 
able benefit of resolving the herd law question. 

Other sources of conflict in Ellsworth county apparently had 
little or nothing to do with the existence of the Texas cattle trade. 
Two cliques of businessmen fought over the location of the court- 
house, and even though one clique captured a good deal of rural 
support in this conflict it apparently was isolated from the cattle 
issue. A certain amount of anti-cattle agitation also had other 
origins perhaps. The opposition to Texas cattle in Wilson may 
really have been a challenge by that community of Ellsworth's 
dominance within the county. The brother and spokesman of John 
Jellison, exclusionist county commissioner from Wilson, for example, 

124. Ibid., August 5, 1875. 


was Acy A. Jellison, soon to be the leading businessman, largest 
landowner, and dominant civic leader of Wilson. 125 In addition, 
many of the homesteaders of the Wilson area possibly turned to 
the exclusion movement in frustration after being hit peculiarly 
hard with drought, grasshoppers, and prairie fires. 126 

Did leaders play significant parts in the movement to restrict 
the cattle trade? Although Arthur Larkin and other Ellsworth 
merchants might be termed leaders, no urban businessman appar- 
ently ever became a vocal anti-cattle agitator. D. B. Long, a big 
stockman who herded and fed his cattle each winter, might have 
proved an effective leader for the movement in Ellsworth county. 
But he remained only a critic of the status quo, never an agitator. 
His own economic interests were never threatened by either the 
existence of the cattle trade or the proposed herd laws, and his 
criticisms were based mainly on principles rather than on felt needs. 
W. M. King provided some leadership, but this wealthy newcomer 
probably was too indiscriminately contentious to be an effective 
organizer of the opposition. The Jellison brothers undoubtedly 
provided leadership in the Wilson area by 1874, but a county-wide 
leader never appeared. 

In the final analysis, the anti-cattle homesteaders won without 
significant leadership for two reasons. First, the Kansas legislature 
finally provided an easy means for obtaining a herd law against 
the wishes of entrenched interests. Second, urban businessmen 
realized by late 1874 that the cattle trade was inevitably to leave 
Ellsworth. They grasped the necessity of winning back the rural 
settlers on whom their businesses would depend in the not-too- 
distant future. They also hoped to eke out at least one more 
cattle season by stifling the exclusion movement. They saw the 
herd law as a compromise measure giving the majority of rural 
elements satisfaction and yet keeping the cattle trade in the county. 

But Ellsworth's cattle trade died in the summer of 1875. It was 
already being attracted to more convenient points by that year, and 
was no doubt as discouraged by the settling up of the country south 
of Ellsworth county as by the latter's new herd law. In any event, 
if the birth of Ellsworth's cattle trade is a study in corporate com- 
munity effort, its death was at least partially the result of vicious 
community conflict. In such terms can be described in short the 
rise and fall of Ellsworth as a cowtown. 

125. Lyon, op. cit., p. 52; Ellsworth Times, June 14, 1879; Ellsworth Reporter, March 
18, 1880; Wilson World, July 15, 1948. 

rity of the state aid recei\ 
the agricultural disasters 
Reporter, January 7, 1875. 

126. The majority of the state aid received by Ellsworth county for the relief of its 
destitute following the agricultural disasters of 1874 went to settlers in the vicinity of 
Wilson. Ellsworth Reporter, January 7. 1875. 


Quotations from letters which newly arrived Cyrus K. 
Holliday, one of the founders of Topeka and of the Santa 
Fe railroad, wrote his young wife Mary, whom he tem- 
porarily left back East while he sought new opportunities 
in the West 

From Lawrence, November 18, 1854: 

/ am perfectly delighted with the Country. You may 
tell those who inquire that my idea of the country is 
simply this that God might have made a better coun- 
try than Kansas but so far as my knowledge extends he 
certainly never did. I am bound to make it my home 
if I can at all succeed in making suitable business ar- 
rangements. . . . 

From Topeka (" 'Up the River/ K. T.," he wrote, for the 
five-day-old city had not yet been named), December 10, 

A more lovely country I certainly never saw and 
yet it looks worse now than at any other season. I am 
told by those who know that in the spring and early 
summer when the grass and shrubbery and flowers 
appear it is beautiful beyond conception. So I think 
it must be. And in a few years when civilization by its 
magic influence shall have transformed this glorious 
country from what it now is to the brilliant destiny 
awaiting it, the sun in all his course will visit no land 
more truly lovely and desirable than this. Here, Mary, 
with God's kind permission, we will make our 

The Early Career of C. K. Holliday 


KURTZ HOLLIDAY'S roots lay deep in Pennsylvania. 

The Holliday family, early pioneers of Scotch-Irish Presby- 
terian stock, about 1760 had settled the area of Blair county now 
called Hollidaysburg and had had a rugged time doing it, for several 
members of the family had been killed in Indian raids. 1 It was here 
that Holliday's father, David, was born. In 1809 David Holliday 
went east to Franklin county and married a Mary Kennedy; soon 
thereafter he took a post as accountant in the great Carlisle Iron 
Works, located at Boiling Springs five miles south of town. 2 

Here, near Carlisle, Cyrus Kurtz Holliday was born April 3, 1826, 
the youngest of seven children. After the death of David Holliday 
about 1830, his widow followed a married daughter to Massillon, 
Ohio, about 1837, taking her three youngest children with her, and 
she remained in Ohio until she joined C. K. Holliday and his brother 
George in Topeka, where she died in 1859. 

Young Holliday's early years in Ohio remain obscure; it is likely 
that he was living in the vicinity of Wooster, where his brother 
David Hayes Holliday had settled, 3 and he gave Wooster, Ohio, as 
his home address when he registered at Allegheny College in the 
fall of 1848. 

Holliday's choice of Allegheny College, 140 miles northeast of 
Wooster, may have been determined by several factors. The Col- 
lege of Wooster was not then in existence, and in the late 1840's 
Allegheny was enjoying a fresh burst of vitality and expansion. In 
1847 Pres. Homer J. Clark had retired in ill health, and a former 
professor had been called back as president, John W. Barker. Bar- 
ker's qualities as a great teacher and his inspiring energy seemed to 
fire the college into new life. Furthermore, the Methodist church 
had strengthened its support of the institution and Allegheny was 
being recommended by preachers, circuit riders, and teachers 
through the states lying to the south and west. The new "perpetual 
scholarships" had yielded $60,000 in cash and were already bring- 

DR. FBEDERICK F. SEELY, native of Iowa, is a professor and chairman of the English de- 
partment at Allegheny College, Meadville, Pa. 

1. A History of Blair County, Pennsylvania, eds., Tarring S. Davis and Lucile Shenk 
(2 vols., Harrisburg, 1931), v. 1, p. 32. 

2. C. K. Holliday, "Family Memoranda," ms., 1897. 

3. "Wayne County Deed Record," v. 62, p. 143. 



ing scores of new students to the campus. The college was ready 
to advance into one of the greatest decades in its history, the 1850's. 4 

A total of 226 new students entered Allegheny that year of 1848, 
though the majority of these were enrolled in the preparatory de- 
partment. The total enrollment in the four college classes was 
slightly over 100, and a faculty of five was responsible for their 

In those years Allegheny's entrance requirements included a read- 
ing knowledge of Latin and basic groundwork in Greek. If a boy 
lacked these important tools to a classical education, he might obtain 
them by attending what was then called the preparatory depart- 
ment before he was formally admitted to college. Holliday entered 
college directly, so obviously he had already begun his classical 
education before coming to Meadville. Although records are not 
to be found, there were several small academies or preparatory 
schools in the Wooster area in the decade of the 1840's; one or two 
were in the town of Wooster itself, and two or three others were 
located in nearby settlements. Undoubtedly at one of these Holli- 
day prepared for college, possibly teaching at intervals in the com- 
mon schools in order to save enough money for college, for he was 
22 years old when he registered as a freshman at Allegheny. 

When he made the journey from Wooster to Meadville in the fall 
of 1848, young Holliday was evidently accompanied by a young 
man named William B. Allison, later a distinguished senator from 
Iowa, coauthor of the Bland- Allison act, and in 1896 a candidate for 
the Republican nomination for president, which ultimately fell to 
his fellow-Alleghenian, William McKinley. Allison gave his home 
address as Ashland county (formerly a part of Wayne county), 
Ohio, and during their freshman year the two young men roomed 
and boarded themselves together. 5 

The college at that time, located in a community of 2,500, was 
situated on a sparsely wooded hill a little distance from the town, 
with fields enclosing it, and a rail fence surrounding the college 
property itself. In 1850 a new plank walk was extended up the hill 
to the college. Bentley Hall, erected in 1822, was the only college 
building, but by the late 1840's it was proving inadequate for the 
rapidly growing student body, and in 1851, Holliday's junior year, 
President Barker undertook the erection of Ruter Hall, which was 
used for a chapel, library, and recitation hall. 

4. Ernest Ashton Smith. Allegheny A Century of Education, 1815-1915 (Meadville, 
Pa., 1916), pp. 131, 139, 140. 

5. Leland L. Sage, William Boyd Allison (State Historical Society of Iowa, Iowa City, 
1956), p. 6. 


The geographical distribution of students at this time is worthy 
of note. Of the 22 men in Holliday's class, 1852, 11 came from 
Pennsylvania, five from Ohio, four from New York state, one from 
Vermont, and one from Mississippi. Many of these classmates, as 
well as others of his college contemporaries, were later to make 
distinguished names for themselves, and their achievements are 
testimony of the kind of education which the college then furnished, 
as well as a measure of the intellectual climate which helped to 
mature and develop men like Holliday. A few were: Judge N. E. 
Worthington '54, of the U. S. Labor Commission; Ben F. Martin '54, 
congressman from West Virginia; Albert Long '52, missionary to 
Bulgaria and vice-president of Robert College; Judge Christopher 
Heydrick '52, of the superior court of Pennsylvania; Thomas Wilson 
'52, chief justice of Minnesota; Ephraim Miller '55, dean of the Uni- 
versity of Kansas; James Marvin '51, chancellor of the University of 
Kansas; and James A. Gary '55, postmaster general under McKinley. 

Holliday's undergraduate life seems to have been divided between 
his academic work and his activities with the Allegheny Literary 
Society, one of the two active organizations which flourished on the 
campus before they were displaced by Greek letter fraternities. The 
minute books of the society reveal that Holliday joined the Alle- 
gheny Literary Society in April, 1849, and remained an active mem- 
ber until his graduation. 6 His Ohio friend and roommate, Allison, 
was admitted to membership at the same time, although he left 
college the following summer. In the fall of his senior year Holliday 
was elected speaker (the equivalent of president) of the group, and 
toward the end of that year he was active in its financial affairs, for 
he served as chairman of at least three committees, one of which was 
formed in 1852 to consider the practicability of establishing a literary 
paper in Meadville, a project which apparently did not materialize. 

But if he handled the society's funds, he also contributed to them 
in the form of fines, which were promptly imposed upon members 
for any impropriety of conduct. On various occasions he was fined 
6/4 cents for leaning his head against the wall, one shilling for leaving 
the hall without permission, one shilling for wearing boots in the hall 
instead of the required slippers, and 6M cents for improper posture 
during the meeting. He seems not to have been guilty of one of the 
most common offenses: spitting on the carpet. 

At this time Allegheny was operating on a three-term plan with 
a six-weeks' vacation during the summer. 7 The curriculum, char- 

6. College archives, Reis library, Allegheny College, Meadville, Pa. 

7. Smith, op. cit., p. 139. 


acteristic of almost all colleges in this era, was based solidly upon 
the classics, and Latin and Greek were studied during all four years. 
Mathematics and logic accompanied the classics, and during one's 
senior year the fare was varied somewhat by the inclusion of some 
astronomy, mineralogy, political economy, and international law. 
This was the course of study, with little flexibility permitted, which 
Holliday pursued. 

All five men who presided over the curriculum were Methodist 
clergymen, but many religious denominations were represented in 
the student body. Although the college took pride in being non- 
sectarian, it was quick to defend orthodoxy when under attack by 
the Unitarian forces of the Meadville Theological School, recently 
founded on the town's opposite hill. Probably to bait the faculty, 
in the spring of 1851 the Allegheny Literary Society extended an 
invitation to the president of the Unitarian school to give the annual 
commencement address at the college. It was C. K. Holliday who 
introduced the resolution. The Allegheny faculty and trustees 
swung into action at once, not only blocking the plan, but tem- 
porarily closing down the impudent society. Holliday and a fellow 
member offered to resign from the society, but their resignations 
were rejected. 8 

Although there may have been split feelings on the matter of 
religion, the Meadville area was vigorous in its antislavery senti- 
ment. Sparked by the New England Abolitionist connections of the 
Unitarian Theological School and supported by the strong Whig and 
Free-Soil sentiment in the northwestern corner of the state, as well 
as the religious attitude of the college, Meadville had long been 
ranked as an implacable foe of slavery. Undoubtedly the years 
which Holliday spent in this atmosphere confirmed him in the strong 
Free-State position which he was later to take in Kansas. 

Holliday's graduation exercises, of a class numbering 22 men, 
were held on June 30, 1852, in the Methodist Episcopal church in 
Meadville. The ceremonies began soon after nine in the morning 
and, with a brief intermission for lunch, concluded shortly before 
five that afternoon. 9 Holliday's standing in his class is not revealed, 
but in one of the obituaries published in a Topeka paper at his death, 
usually a time for superlatives, we find the statement, lie was grad- 
uated with highest honors." The minute books of the Allegheny 
Literary Society reveal that he was elected valedictorian of that 
group. 10 

8. Allegheny Literary Society minute book, June 12, 1851. 

9. Crawford Democrat, Meadville, Pa., July 13, 1852. 

10. February 28, 1852. 


At the age of 26 then, Holliday had won his A. B. degree, and 
possessed a sound foundation not only in the classics, but in par- 
liamentary procedure and debate, gained from the exacting formal 
exercises of the literary society. 

Sometime in the months following his graduation from college 
Holliday became associated with the George W. Howard Company, 
a firm of contractors engaged in grading railroad rights of way. 
George Howard was then a resident of Meadville and was allied in 
this business with his brothers Sebra and William. Charles Howard, 
a Detroit broker, was also involved in their activities. The exact 
nature of Holliday's association with these men is not clear, but it is 
evident that he was a copartner in their enterprises, for he is so 
described in the testimony of a hearing in which the Howard com- 
pany brought action against Crawford county in the controversy 
concerning payment for work done for the Pittsburgh and Erie 
Branch railroad. 11 It was this alliance with the Howard brothers 
which introduced Holliday into railroad building and initiated him 
into the difficulties with which he was later to be faced when organ- 
izing the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe railroad in Kansas. 

It appears that his acquaintance with George W. Howard began 
soon after his graduation from college. This is established by a 
photostated scrap of paper in a collection of Holliday letters and 
papers preserved by the Kansas State Historical Society in Topeka. 
It is a signed agreement, framed in impressively legal language, 
between George W. Howard and C. K. Holliday, dated November 
25, 1852. By its terms Holliday agreed to tutor the two eldest 
Howard children and to hear a certain number of recitations each 
day, in return for which he would be boarded at the Howard home 
for the reduced rate of 87/2 cents per week. It was stipulated, how- 
ever, that this amount did not include lights or fuel. 

The undertaking upon which the Howard firm now embarked, 
though promising at first, proved ill-fated. 

The Pittsburgh & Erie Railroad Company had been chartered in 
1845 to run a line from the port of Erie to Pittsburgh, but the com- 
pany had been unable to obtain adequate stock subscriptions and 
little work had been done. In the summer of 1852, while Holliday 
was graduating from college, the company made an overture to the 
people of Meadville to build a connecting line between New York 
state and Ohio under the branch powers of its charter, but little 
action was taken until the following summer. In August, 1853, the 

11. Plaintiff's testimony in G. W. Howard v. Crawford county before D. M. Farrelly, 
commissioner (August, 1857, n. d., n. p.), p. 62. 


commissioners of Crawford county and the grand jury recom- 
mended, subject to an expression of public opinion, a subscription 
of $200,000, to be issued in bonds, toward the construction of 
the road. 12 The proposal was overwhelmingly approved, and the 
Howard company's estimate for the construction work was ac- 
cepted. 13 Ground was officially broken August 20, 1853, for a line 
which would run southwest of Meadville toward the Ohio border. 

It is certain that Holliday was working with the Howards before 
this date, as the testimony of one of Howard's laborers, a Philip 
Mulligan, in the action against Crawford county referred to above, 
states that in July, 1853, Holliday was with Howard in Ohio, where 
the firm had contracted for another railroad construction job. 14 

Opposition to the project arose, however; money was scarce, and 
work faltered, although the Howard brothers and Holliday con- 
tinued the task of grading, and constructing the embankments. In 
the summer of 1854 a dispute arose concerning the amount of pay- 
ment due for the work. The Howards had received $12,000 of 
county bonds, $1,500 in cash, and $2,150 in stock, but claimed that 
much more was due. 15 The funds of the Pittsburgh and Erie branch 
company had been exhausted, so the Howards ceased work on 
September 24, 1854, and the contract was formally declared aban- 
doned on November I. 16 

As compensation for his work with the Howards, Holliday seems 
to have been paid in part by stock in the railroad and perhaps in 
Crawford county bonds. James Marshall in his history of the Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe railroad states that at the termination of the 
contract he possessed the sum of $20,000, which he used to finance 
his ventures in Kansas. 17 Writing from Topeka in September, 1855, 
to his wife in Meadville, he instructed her to sell "one of those 
Bonds." 18 If he was here referring to the Crawford county bonds, 
he was either fortunate or shrewd in disposing of them before they 
were annulled by the Pennsylvania supreme court in 1858. 

Later in Topeka, Holliday was admitted to the Kansas bar on 

12. William Reynolds, History of the Atlantic 6- Great Western Railway (unpublished 
ms., Reis library, Allegheny College, Meadville, Pa.), pp. 3-5. 

13. Crawford Democrat, August 9, 1853. 

14. Plaintiff's testimony, p. 71. 

15. Reynolds, op. eft., p. 304. 

16. There ensued a long and tangled series of suits and countersuits involving the 
Howard company, the Pittsburgh and Erie Railroad Company, and Crawford county. The 
county's bonds were eventually declared invalid. The controversy was not settled until 
May, 1891, when the Howards obtained a judgment of $15,000 after 36 years in the Penn- 
sylvania courts. Ibid. 

17. James Marshall, Santo Fe, the Railroad That Built an Empire (N. Y., 1945), p. 24. 

18. Lela Barnes, ed., "Letters of Cyrus Kurtz Holliday, 1854-1859," The Kansas His- 
torical Quarterly, v. 6, p. 267. 


January 18, 1862, 19 and he was engaged in law practice with Thomas 
G. Thornton. It is possible that he read law while still in Meadville, 
but no positive evidence of this appears, and the Prothonotary's 
records do not show that he was ever a member of the Crawford 
county bar. 

During Holliday's senior year in college, on January 7, 1852, he 
was initiated into Crawford Lodge No. 234 of the Masonic Order, 20 
and soon after his establishment in Kansas he was instrumental in 
instituting Topeka Lodge No. 17. 21 

Holliday's marriage occurred on June 11, 1854, immediately fol- 
lowing the Sunday evening service in the Methodist Episcopal 
church, with the Rev. Dr. John Barker, president of the college, 
officiating. 22 The bride was Mary Jones, age 20, fourth child of 
James and Susan Jones, long-time residents of Meadville. If the 
faint handwriting in the U. S. census records of 1850 may be read 
correctly, her father was a dairyman. 23 

It was soon after his marriage that affairs between the Howard 
company and the Pittsburgh & Erie Branch railroad reached a criti- 
cal point. The unlikelihood that the road would be completed and 
the difficulty of obtaining payment from the railroad company un- 
doubtedly moved Holliday to consider other opportunities, and 
Kansas, in that summer of 1854, promised to be an exciting and 
profitable adventure. 

The Kansas-Nebraska bill was finally passed by congress in May, 
1854, and President Pierce signed it on May 30. Throughout the 
nation debate ran high as to whether Kansas would be eventually 
listed in the column of the free or the slave states. A month after 
Holliday's marriage, the Crawford Democrat 24 printed the full text 
of the bill and editorially urged that every reader familiarize himself 
with the provisions of this vital act. Excitement in Meadville was 
intense. Throughout the summer each issue of both local news- 
papers carried news about Kansas, and in August a mass convention 
was called in Meadville to oppose the extension of slavery and to 
resist the encroachments made on free territory. 25 In the village of 

19. Kansas Reports, v. 140, p. Lri. 

20. For this information I am indebted to John H. Pendleton, secretary of Crawford 
Lodge No. 234. 

21. Topeka Daily Capital, March 31, 1900. 

22. Crawford Democrat, June 13, 1854. 

23. The certainty of identification of her father could be questioned when examining 
William Reynolds' manuscript, "Reminiscences of Early Citizens," written in 1900, p. 26, 
where Reynolds states that a Peter Jones, who died in November, 1857, had a daughter who 
married C. K. Holliday. When Reynolds wrote this, however, he was at an advanced age 
and it is likely that he confused Peter Jones with James Jones. The census records reveal 
that Peter Jones' family could not have been that of which Mary was a member. 

24. July 18, 1854. 

25. Crawford Journal, Meadville, Pa., August 22, 1854. 


Conneautville, 20 miles northwest, a company of emigrants known 
as the Western Pennsylvania Kansas Company was organizing and 
departed by canal and riverboat for Kansas in October. 26 Holliday 
determined to investigate the opportunities in the new land. 

The journey from Meadville out to Kansas territory in 1854 was 
still a long and trying adventure. Holliday's letters to his wife 27 
and one long letter directed to and published January 30, 1855, in 
the Crawford Democrat furnish rather complete information con- 
cerning his journey out to Kansas and his early efforts to establish 
himself in the new territory. 

Mary accompanied him to Erie on October 30, 1854; there the 
farewell took place, probably a very anxious one, for she was preg- 
nant with their first child, Lillie, who was to be born the following 
March. Holliday traveled by train to Cleveland, then to Chicago, 
to St. Louis, and finally by riverboat to Kansas City, a crude frontier 
town of 500, where he arrived on November 7 after nine days of 
travel, though he broke the journey at Cleveland and again at 
Chicago. It was 1,219 miles as Holliday reckoned it; the total cost 
of his transportation he reported as $31.25. He was accompanied 
by his brother-in-law, A. P. Ingraham, husband of Matilda Jones, 
but Ingraham remained only two weeks in the new country and re- 
turned to Meadville to conduct a stationery and "Yankee notions" 

In Kansas City, Holliday rested a few days and was perhaps im- 
peded by the weather, for he wrote that rain, snow, and cold made 
his stay there very disagreeable. Next he moved west about 40 miles 
by stagecoach to the frontier village of Lawrence. From here, on 
Christmas day, he composed a long letter to his Meadville friend, 
James E. McFarland, editor of the Crawford Democrat, and which 
was duly published at the end of January. Two weeks later he wrote 
a second letter which almost glows with his enthusiasm for Kansas. 28 
The mild climate, the richness of the soil, the abundance of water, 
and the great variety of crops which could easily be raised in the 
new land were the aspects which most inspired him. 

"The Creator/' he declared, "might have made a better country 
than the Kansas; but so far as my knowledge extends, he certainly 
never did" 

Here was to be his future home! 

26. Crawford Democrat, November 7, 1854. 

27. Barnes, ed., loc. cit., pp. 241-244. 

28. Crawford Democrat, February 20, 1855. 

Kansas Before 1854: A Revised Annals 

Compiled by LOUISE BARRY 
PART Two, 1763-1803 


By the treaty of Paris, February 10, France ceded to Great Britain 
her territory east of the Mississippi (except the Isle d'Orleans); and 
confirmed the 1762 cession of Louisiana west of the Mississippi 
( and the Isle d'Orleans ) to Spain. 


St. Louis was founded in February. Auguste Chouteau (then 14) 
headed the work party which began the settlement ( on a site chosen 
in 1763 by Pierre LaClede Liguest, on behalf of Maxent, LaClede 
and Company of New Orleans, operating under a French grant of 



Antonio de Ulloa arrived in New Orleans on March 5 as the first 
Spanish governor of Louisiana. 


Louis Saint-Ange de Bellerive, commandant at St. Louis, report- 
ing (May 2) to the Spanish on the Indian tribes who came to re- 
ceive presents in the District of Illinois, named the Missouris, Little 
Osages, Big Osages, Kansa, Otoes, and Panimahas from the district 
of the Missouri river. 

Ref: Louis Houck's The Spanish Regime in Missouri (Chicago, 1909), v. 1, pp. 44, 
45; A. P. Nasatir, Before Lewis and Clark (St. Louis, 1952), v. 1, p. 70. 

Capt. Francisco Riu's report ( October 29 ) revealed what knowl- 
edge the Spanish, from their St. Louis headquarters, had been able 
to gather about their recently acquired Missouri country. He 

. . . From the mouth of the Misuri to that of the River of the Big 
Osages, there is a distance of 80 leagues. The latter river goes to the tribe 
called by the same name, which is some 70 leagues from the mouth. 

From the mouth of the above-named river to the tribe of the Panimahas, 
is a distance, as is asserted by the voyageurs, of 170 leagues. That is the 
most distant tribe to which the traders penetrate. From the above-mentioned 
tribe to that of the Ayetan [Comanche], one goes overland, and it is estimated 

LOUISE BARRY is a member of the staff of the Kansas State Historical Society. 



to be a voyage of 6 or 8 days. From the tribe of the Ayetan to Nuevo Mejico, 
the same ones calculate 6 or 8 days. 

Captain Riu particularly noted the large contribution of the 
Kansa Indians to the fur trade. Their country, he stated, "abounds 
in castors [beaver]." 

Ref: Houck's Spanish Regime . . ., v. 1, pp. 62-64; Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, p. 70. 


Pedro Piernas, arriving at St. Louis on May 20, took formal charge 
as the first Spanish (lieutenant) governor of upper Louisiana. 
( From 1770 to 1804 the Spanish controlled the Missouri river trade. ) 

Ref: Louis Houck's A History of Missouri (Chicago, 1908), v. 1, p. 298. 

The Comanches (successors on the Plains to the power and pres- 
tige formerly held by the Padoucas), were described by Athanase 
de Mezieres (lieutenant governor at Natchitoches ) in a report 
dated October 29: 

The Comanche are scattered from the great Missuris River to the neighbor- 
hood of the frontier presidios of New Spain. They are a people so numerous 
and so haughty that when asked their number, they make no difficulty of 
comparing it to that of the stars. They are so skillful in horsemanship that 
they have no equal; so daring that they never ask for or grant truces; and in 
the possession of such a territory that, finding in it an abundance of pasturage 
for their horses and an incredible number of cattle [buffalo] which furnish 
them raiment, food, and shelter, they only just fall short of possessing all of 
the conveniences of the earth, and have no need to covet the trade pursued 
by the rest of the Indians whom they call, on this account, slaves of the 
Europeans, and whom they despise. 

[They] . . . are obliged to follow [the buffalo herds] . . . into 
the more temperate country of the south [when winter arrives], whence the 
extreme heat of the summer again drives them along with the herds towards 
the cold regions. From these perpetual comings and goings it arises that 
the Comanches, relying upon one another, made proud by their great num- 
ber, and led by their propensity to steal, let few seasons pass without com- 
mitting the most bloody outrages against the inhabitants of New and Old 

De Mezieres concluded that "since their reduction will be one 
of the most costly and difficult that may be planned in this Amer- 
ica" it would be good policy to encourage "to some extent, those 
who are interested in the destruction of so proud and cruel an 

Ref: H. E. Bolton's Athanase de Mtzteres . . . (Cleveland, 1914), v. 1, pp. 218, 



Writing from the Great Osage village [in present Vernon county, 
Mo.], Rouquiere (one of several traders there), in a June 14 letter, 
described Osage depredations on the lower Arkansas and Red 
rivers (three Frenchmen killed and two young men taken captive). 
He also stated that a band of Osages had left the village in early 
April to make war on the Black Pawnees, and returned with two 
French scalps. The victims, slain near the Paniouassa village, had 
been mistaken for the enemy (so the Indians claimed). But Rou- 
quiere added: "As for us, not a single trader up to now has any 
cause for complaint in the village. We have traded at our will and 
without any difficulty." 

Ref : Lawrence Kinnaird, ed., Annual Report . . . American Historical Association, 
1945, v. 2, pp. 202, 203. 


Pedro Piernas (lieutenant governor of Upper Louisiana) re- 
ported (from St. Louis, May 19) on the "... nations with 
which we are accustomed to trade in pelts in the dependency of 
the Missouri River." He listed the Mahas, Panis Maha, Panis, 
Hotos, Cance [Kansa], Little Osages, Missouris, Republic, and 
Great Osages. (Notable is the reference to the Pawnee Republic 
Indians, of whom no earlier specific mention has been found.) 
Giving values of goods traded in pounds of furs, he estimated the 
Kansa trade at 7,500 pounds; that of the Pawnee Republic at 3,000; 
the Panis at 1,200; the Panis Maha at 1,800; the Little Osages at 
7,200; the Great Osages at 15,000. In 1775 trade with the latter 
two nations was "forbidden" ( evidently to punish them for depreda- 
tions committed); and after both the Kansa and Pawnee Republic 
entries Piernas wrote "not able to enter," but gave no explanation. 

Ref: Ibid., p. 228. 


In June, or early July, five of a reconnoitering party of seven 
Osages were killed by a large band of Panis Piquies [Wichitas] 
somewhere near the Arkansas river [in present Oklahoma?]. To 
avenge the murders, the Osages in force returned to that area, and 
on the Arkansas river bank met "the man named Layones with two 
trappers" whom they killed and robbed. This occurred between 
July 15 and 18. Later in the year it was reported that the Osages 
were continuing "their thefts and murders along that river." 

Ref: Houck's Spanish Regime . . ., v. 1, pp. 149, 150. 


Francisco Cruzat (lieutenant governor of Upper Louisiana) in a 
report (St. Louis, November 1) on the year's fur trade on the 
Missouri, indicated that the official traders among the Kansa had 
been Antonio Hubert and Luis Lacroix, who obtained 150 packs 
of tanned deerskin, one of otter, seven of beaver, and three of 
buckskin. The trade of the Republica [Pawnee Republic] Indians 
had gone to Eugenio Pouree, but "the fur of the Republica tribe 
has not been able to be brought down, as the river of the Canzes 
has no water." 

Cruzat stated that Auguste Chouteau, Sylvestre Labbadie, and 
three others had traded among the Big Osages. (Also listed were 
the traders among the Little Osages, Missouris, Mahas, Panis, and 
Otoes; and the fur statistics for each.) He commented that "the 
Panis Mahas tribe, where a trader is usually sent, has again become 
incorporated with the tribe of the Panis Piques [Wichitas], who are 
settled in the territory of Nachitoches, who [the Panis Mahas] are 
threatened by the Sioux tribe, who are situated on the banks of 
Misisipy. . . ." 

Ref: Ibid., pp. 139, 140, 183; Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, p. 70. 

In a comprehensive report on the upper Missouri river Indians 
with whom the Spanish traded, Francisco Cruzat (from St. Louis, 
on November 15) wrote of the "Cances" Indians: 

This tribe is composed of 350 warriors. The name of the principal chief 
. . . is El Corny [perhaps Le Cornmis? in French the earliest-located 
name of a Kansa chief]. They are 150 leagues from this village, and are 
located on the banks of the Misury river itself, at a distance of some 50 leagues 
from the tribe of the Misuris. Their occupation has always been, and is, that 
of the hunt; for although they generally plant a small quantity of maize, it 
does not, as a general rule, suffice for their necessary support. As a general 
thing, this tribe is hostile to the tribes of the said Misury river, named the 
Panis and La Republica [Pawnees]. For this reason they generally cause a 
great deal of harm to the traders who are sent to those tribes, for they do not 
allow those traders to ascend the river in order that those tribes may be sup- 
plied with guns and ammunition. This is the only harm experienced from this 
tribe. However, we have heard that they were thinking this year of making 
peace. This tribe has always been hostile to all those of the Misisipy. From 
the work of the hunt in which they are engaged, there results the profits of the 
trade which are made in the furs; for every year that trade produces 180 or 200 

Cruzat stated that "La Republica" Pawnees numbered 350 to 400 
warriors. Their principal chief was Escatape. They were located 
about 110 leagues up the Kansas (from its mouth), and were dis- 
tant 40 or 50 leagues by land from the Kansa village. Their occupa- 


tion was hunting. They were hostile to the Kansa and the Big 

The Big Osages numbered 800 warriors. Their principal chief was 
Cleromon [Clermont]. They lived on a Missouri tributary [*. e., the 
Osage] 180 leagues from St. Louis by water, and about 110 overland 
[in present Vernon county, Mo.]. They were hostile to the tribes 
of "La Republica, the Hotos [Otoes], the Alkanzos [Arkansas], the 
Panis, the Piquies [Wichitas], and the tribes living on the Misisipy 
in the English district." They were hunters and accumulated from 
500 to 550 packs of deerskins annually. 

Cruzat's report also covered the Little Osages, the Missouris, the 
Otoes, the Pawnees, the Mahas, the lowas, and the Sioux. The 
latter two tribes, he stated, traded with persons from "the English 
district." The Otoes, Pawnees, and Mahas were all enemies of 
the Kansa; and the lowas were "hostile to the tribes of the Misury 

Ref: Houck's Spanish Regime . . ., v. 1, pp. 141-145; Bolton in his Athanase de 
Mezi&res . . ., v. 2, p. 26, noted that Houck "supplied punctuation and made two 
tribes out of the Panis Piquies, or Wichita." 


In November Lieutenant Governor Cruzat (writing from St. 
Louis to his superior officer), referred to "the necessity which I 
have of using the Little Osages, with our other allied nations, to 
repress and punish the Kansas nation. As your Lordship knows, 
the last mentioned has already committed some murders on the 
Missouri River, assassinating and burning seven hunters who were 
hunting on that river. . . ." 

Ref: Kinnaird, op. cit., v. 2, pp. 394, 395. 


In New Orleans Esteban Rodriguez Miro (governor-general of 
Louisiana) made a report (dated December 12) which included 
the following statements: 

The Cances is 108 leagues from the mouth of the Missouri, on Its right 
bank. In high water one can ascend it to the village of the Republic or Panis 
[Pawnee Republic]. . . . 

The Cances have their villages about 140 leagues from the mouth of the 
Missouri on a very high cliff about two avanzadas from the shore of that river. 
They must have 200 warriors and are unquestionably the best hunters on the 
Missouri. They maintain peace with the Little Osages and with the Missouris, 
and make war on the Panis in order to obtain horses. Their hunting land is 
up the River de Cancel as far as the River de Nimaha. . . . 


The Panis are found about 27 leagues from the Chato [Platte] River, and 
consist of 400 men capable of bearing arms. Their hunting grounds are on 
the tongue of land between their river and the Chato and extend from their 
village to the River of San Francisco de Arcanzas [the Arkansas]. 

The Indians of the Panis Republic, called Paniguaccy or Eyes of the Par- 
tridge, live on the River Cances about 130 leagues from its mouth, and consist 
of 220 men capable of bearing arms. . . . 

The Pad6s [Padoucas Plains Apaches] were in former times the most nu- 
merous nation on the continent, but the wars which other nations have made 
against them have destroyed them to such an extent that at present they form 
only four small groups, who go wandering from place to place continually which 
saves them from the fury of the other nations. They number about 350 
men, very skillful with the arrow and in running. . . . 

The Laytanes or wandering Apaches [i. e., Comanches, not Apaches] 
. . . inhabit the borders of New Mexico. . . . They dominate all the 
neighboring tribes, and although divided into several war parties . . . 
they all live in perfect friendship. 

Of the Arkansas river Miro wrote: 

. . . we find the river of San Francisco de Arkanzas on the western 
bank [of the Mississippi]. . . . Twelve leagues up this river is the fort 
of Carlos III [Arkansas Post], between which and the Mississippi at various 
distances is found the nation of the Arkansas divided into three villages. 
. . . about 100 leagues above, live the Little Osages, who are the only 
nation I know in this place bordering on the Kingdom of New Spain. [In mid- 
1785, a band of the Little Osages had left the Missouri and settled on the 
upper St. Francis river.] 

Ref: Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, pp. 120, 121, 123, 125-127; Kinnaird, op. cit., v. 3, pp. 
160, 162, 164, 165, 166, 170-173. Miro's report quoted from Nasatir, with a few changes 
supplied from Kinnaird. 


Writing from New Orleans, August 1, Governor Miro told of 
steps taken to punish the Osage Indians for an outbreak of de- 
predations. "My prohibition against carrying goods farther than 
the fort of Arkansas [Arkansas Post]," he stated, "may cause the 
Osages to molest the white hunters who are established on the 
upper part of the said river [in present Oklahoma, and possibly 
some in Kansas] to the number of some 200." 

Ref: Kinnaird, op. cit., v. 3, pp. 182-184. 

Jacobo Du Breuil (brevet lieutenant colonel of infantry), com- 
mandant at Arkansas Post [or, fort of Carlos III], in a report (De- 
cember 16) on the rivers of his district, wrote of the Arkansas: 

. . . its source [is] near the kingdom of New Mexico, according to the 
report of the hunters who have navigated it for more than 400 leagues, and 
it empties into the Mississippi at a point 250 leagues from the capital [New 


Orleans]. It abounds in fish such as the catfish, the par go y seatrout, carp, 
armado, herring, eel, and turtle of two varieties. The Arkansas has several 
branches in which there are salt beds that give in summer a slightly salty taste 
to the water. The territory watered by this river has a natural growth of 
poplars, willows, oaks, cypress, walnut, pecans, elms, etc. 

Ref: Kinnaird, op. cit., v. 3, p. 193. 


Auguste Chouteau was granted part of the trade of the Kansa 
in 1790. In pursuit of that commerce Cadet [Pierre] Chouteau 
spent the winter of 1790-1791 among the Kansa, and reported in 
St. Louis in the spring that they had not traded all their furs with 
him because Mississippi river Indians (representing English trad- 
ers ) had taken part of the pelts despite all he could do. Chouteau 
also stated that about the first of March some 90 Big Osages with 
all their chiefs and head men had come where he was camping on 
the Kansas river to ask why traders had been prohibited from visit- 
ing their villages. Angered when told it was punishment for de- 
predations on the Arkansas (where they had been killing and 
plundering), some of the Osages began to blame the trader, and 
had to be restrained by chiefs of both nations from taking his 

[In 1785 the Kansa were reported as still living on the Missouri river; but 
in 1790-1791 Chouteau spent the winter with them on the Kansas; and in 1792 
Pierre Vial was in the Kansa village on the Kansas. The evidence is persuasive, 
but not conclusive, that these Indians left their Missouri river village between 
1785 and 1790. Referring to this move, but not dating it, U. S. Commr. H. L. 
Ellsworth, in 1833, wrote: ". . . the evidence is satisfactory that the 
Otoes attacked the Kansas at their old village on the Missouri near Indepen- 
dence creek drove them from their village and took possession. The Kansas 
never afterward occupied that ground but pitched their tents 60 or 80 miles 
distant on the Kansas River. . . ." 

[The village which Chouteau and Vial visited was, presumably, the site 
about two miles east of present Manhattan in what is now Pottawatomie 
county; or, as it could have been described in 1794: on the Kansas river, 
two miles east of the mouth of the Big Blue. (During the 1903 flood, the 
Big Blue cut a new channel near its mouth and since then has flowed into the 
Kansas some four miles east of Manhattan rather than at the town site.)] 

Ref: Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, pp. 135, 143, 144; Ellsworth's letter quoted from Off. of 
Ind. Aff. Records, Gr. 75, Treaty File in Nat. Archives, as given in Waldo R. Wedel's 
An Introduction to Kansas Archeology (Washington, 1959), pp. 37, 38. 


Pierre Vial, a Frenchman in the employ of the New Mexican 
governor, set out from Santa Fe on May 21, with two young Span- 
iards, and some pack horses, under orders to open a line of com- 



munication between the Spanish settlements of New Mexico and 
those of upper Louisiana. 

They went by way of Pecos; then set a course first eastward and 
later to the northeast. On May 29 they reached the Colorado 
[Canadian] river and followed down it into present Oklahoma. 
On June 22 they turned northeast to look for the Napeste [Arkan- 
sas]. Vial's diary entry of June 27 stated: "We journeyed through 
spacious lands and reached the above-mentioned Napeste River. 
We camped for the night on its shore. . . ." [They were in 
present Kansas still to the southwest of the great bend of the 
Arkansas]. Vial thought they had traveled about 140 leagues up 
to that point. 

On June 29 they followed down the river "which flowed east 
northeast." In the late afternoon [perhaps near Great Bend] they 
found a hunting camp of Kansa Indians on the opposite bank. The 
Kansa gave them ill treatment stripped them of clothing, and took 
possession of their horses and belongings. The Vial party remained 
in the Indians' Arkansas river camp till mid-August when the Kansa 
started back to their village. Vial estimated they traveled "about 
50 leagues going through level plains" in the ten days it took to 
reach their destination. The village, he wrote, "is located on the 
River of the Kances" [presumably the site two miles east of present 
Manhattan See preceding entry]. 

On September 11 a licensed French trader who came to the 
village in a pirogue loaded with goods, supplied Vial and his com- 
panions with clothes, a gun, and other items. On September 16 
the explorers went down the Kansas in a boat with three traders 
who were returning to St. Louis, and reached that place on 
October 6. 

Ref: Houck's Spanish Regime . . ., v. 1, pp. 350-358; Chronicles of Oklahoma, 
Oklahoma City, v. 6 (June, 1928), p. 212; A. B. Hulberfs Southwest on ihe Turquoise 
Trail (c!933), pp. 43-54. 


In the spring a band of Iowa Indians went to a camp of the 
Kansa to buy horses. While the Kansa warriors were out hunting 
(in order to feed their guests) the lowas "killed, and took prisoner 
forty-eight women and children, and carried off all the horses." 
The result was renewed warfare between two nations which had 
long been enemies. 

Ref: Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, p. 185. 








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No traders were permitted to go up the Missouri during the year 
"on account of the war which was ordered declared on the Osages" 
(to punish them for depredations in Spanish Louisiana). 

Ref: Ibid., v. 2, p. 530. 

In the summer Pierre Vial, his two companions of 1792, and four 
other young men left St. Louis bound for Santa Fe. Abandoning 
the plan to try a direct overland route (because of hostile Osages) 
they went up the Missouri in the pirogue of some traders as far as 
the mouth of the "Chico Nimaha" (near present Nemaha, Neb., 
apparently), reaching that place on August 24. There they re- 
mained through September 11 until expected Pawnee guides ar- 

On September 12 they set out with the Indians (who were of the 
Republic band). From Vial's journal their route across present 
Kansas can be fairly well determined. 'We took the road through 
a large plain, route to the southwest," he wrote on the first day. 
Proceeding in the same direction and then turning more to the west 
on September 15, they came on the evening of the 17th to "a little 
stream [the Big Blue?] which enters the River of the Cances." Next 
day their route again lay "through good prairie land," and they 
camped on "an arm [the Republican, evidently] of the River of the 
Cances." On the 19th they noted as they traveled, a "hill of great 
height which the Indians call Blue Hill." Their camp that night 
was on "a little stream [Chapman creek?] which enters into that of 
the Cances." Still crossing good land and on the same course as for 
several days past, they arrived in mid-afternoon of September 20 
at the Pawnee Republic village. (They had been met around 
noon and escorted by the chief "Sarisere" and several of his war- 
riors.) According to Vial's calculations, during the nine days' 
journey from the "Chico Nimaha" they had traveled 49 leagues 
(about 125? miles). The village, on a river [the Smoky Hill, prob- 
ably in the vicinity of present Abilene], contained some 300 war- 

These Pawnees maintained friendly relations with the Spanish, 
but were at war with the Osages, the "Tahuagases" [Taouaiazes 
Pani Piques Wichitas] and the Comanches. Their allies were 
three other Pawnee villages on the River Chato [the Platte], also 
the "Majalos" and the Kansa. 



Vial and his companions remained in the Pawnee Republic 
village till October 3. They bought ten horses. On October 4, 
after presenting gifts to their hosts, they started for Santa Fe with 
seven Pawnee guides. Ten days later the party reached the Rio 
Napeste [Arkansas], apparently west of present Dodge City. (By 
Vial's calculations they traveled 68/2 leagues [about 175? miles] from 
the Indian village before reaching the Arkansas.) Continuing on 
a southwesterly course to the Canadian, their homeward route took 
them by way of Pecos to Santa Fe on November 15. 

[Early references to the Pawnee Republic Indians (see 1777 and 1785) did 
not specify on which fork of the Kansas they lived. A study of Vial's journal 
leaves little doubt that in 1793 they were, at least temporarily, on the Smoky 
Hill somewhat east of the Solomon's mouth. Jean B. Truteau (see 1794) 
indicated the Indians' presence in that area when he wrote (in 1796) that the 
Republican nation was on the southwestern branch of the Kansas river, near 
its source. But Antoine Soulard (see 1795) located them on his map on the 
Kansas tributary which we call the Republican and which he plainly labeled 
"R. de la Republica Pani." Victor Collot (see 1796) in the text of his book 
stated they were on the southwest branch of the Kansas; but on his map placed 
them on the Republican fork (though he did not give it a name).] 

Ref: Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 9 (June, 1931), pp. 195-208 (for Van's journal); 
Nasatir, op. cit., v. 2, pp. 383-385 (for Truteau); Bolton's Athanase de Mezieres, v. 1, 
pp. 246, 250, 294-296 (for the Taouaiazes); Wedel's . . . Kansas Archeology, pp. 
59, 60 (for additional data on Pawnee Republic villages). 


Early in May, at a meeting in St. Louis, arrangements were 
made for the year's Missouri fur trade. Four persons (Benito 
Vasquez, Bernal Sarpy, Laurent Durocher, and the lieutenant gov- 
ernor, Zenon Trudeau) were to have equal shares of the Kansa 
trade. Auguste Chouteau was allotted the Pawnee Republic In- 
dians. The Grand Osages' trade was divided into 12 shares ( Cerre, 
Robidoux, Pierre Chouteau, Papin, and Glamorgan were five of the 
allottees), and the Little Osages* traders (of whom there were four) 
included Roy and Pratte. 

Ref: Nasatir, op. cU. t v. 1, pp. 210, 211; Kinnaird, op. cU. t v. 4, p. 279. 

At St. Louis, on May 12, an organization "La Compagnie de Com- 
merce pour la Decouverte des Nations du haut du Missouri" (bet- 
ter known as the "Missouri Company") was formed for the pur- 
pose of exploring and trading on the upper Missouri. Among its 
members were Auguste and Pierre Chouteau, Jean Papin, Benito 
Vasquez, Gregoire Sarpy, Jacinto St. Cyr, Joseph Robidoux, Gabriel 


Cerre, Antoine Roy, and Jacques Glamorgan (who was director of 
the company). 

Ref: Houck's Spanish Regime . . ., v. 2, pp. 173-178; Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, pp. 
217, 218. 

The "Missouri Company" sent Jean Baptiste Truteau (a 45-year- 
old, Montreal-born, St. Louis school teacher) as head of its first 
upper-Missouri expedition. Truteau, in a well-loaded pirogue, 
manned by eight oarsmen, set out from St. Louis on June 7, and 
reached the mouth of the Kansas on July 12, stopping briefly there 
(it appears) to see a trader named Quenneville. "La riviere des 
cansas," he noted in his journal, was navigable for about 100 leagues 
in the springtime; it abounded in beavers, otters, and other fur- 
bearing animals. The village of the Kansa, whose men were good 
hunters and warriors, was 80 leagues [by water?] upstream; and 
ten leagues beyond began the country of the Pawnee Republic. 

On July 14 Truteau and party camped on the Isles des Parques 
[about opposite present Leavenworth] . Next day, at 12 leagues 
above the mouth of the Kansas, they came to the first old village 
of the Kansas [Salt creek valley, Leavenworth co.]. On July 21 
(after being delayed by a prolonged rainstorm) they reached the 
second old Kansa village [the "Village of 24" at present Doniphan] 
at 12 leagues above the first. By the following evening they had 
ascended as far as the great bend of the Missouri, near present St. 
Joseph, Mo. Between the Kansas and the Platte, wrote Truteau, 
there were three rivers (the Great Nemaha, Little Nemaha, and the 
Nishnabotna) which were navigable for a short distance and only in 
the springtime. 

(Truteau's intended destination was the Mandan villages where he was to 
establish a fort and trading agency, but he got only as far as the Aricara coun- 
try. His description (dated 1796) and information on the upper Missouri was 
used by French travelers Collot ( 1796) and Perrin du Lac ( 1802). ) 

Ref: Truteau's journal in American Historical Review, Lancaster, Pa., v. 19 (January, 
1914), pp. 299-333; Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, pp. 86-93, 257-263, and pp. 262, 267, for item 
on "Quenneville" whose name suggests a connection with the French-Canadian A. B. 
Canville who established a trading post for the Osages in present Neosho county in 1844. 
But Annie H. Abel in her Tabeau's Narrative of Loisel's Expedition . . . (Norman, 
Okla., 1939), p. 60, offers other identifications for the name. See, also, Stella M. Drumm's 
editorial note on Francois Quenneville in John C. Luttig's Journal of a Fur-Trading Expedi- 
tion ... (St. Louis, 1920), p. 60. 


Osage-Spanish relations improved greatly following the establish- 
ment in 1794-1795 of a small fort in the Osages' country. Short-lived 
Fort Carondelet [in Blue Mound? tp., Vernon co., Mo.] was built 


by the Chouteaus (Auguste and Pierre) in return for a six-year 
monopoly (1794-1800) of the Big and Little Osages' trade. Com- 
mandant Pierre Chouteau took his family there in 1795; and a few 
other persons, in addition to militia troops were residents for a 
time. Osage depredations dwindled due to the influence of the 
Chouteaus, who enjoyed the complete confidence of the Indians. 

(But in 1802 the Chouteaus lost the Osage trading rights to Manuel Lisa 
and others, and all trace of Fort Carondelet quickly disappeared. Pike and 
Wilkinson found only a "superior growth of vegetation" at the site in 1806.) 

Ref: Houck's Spanish Regime . . ., v. 2, pp. 100-110; Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, 
pp. 214, 320, 321, 326, v. 2, pp. 530, 584; Missouri Historical Review, Columbia, Mo., v. 
35, pp. 92-95; Louis Houck's A History of Missouri (Chicago, 1908), v. 2, p. 252; Z. M. 
Pike's August 17, 1806, entry in the various editions of his An Account of Expeditions to 
the Sources of the Mississippi. . . '. 

Antoine Soulard's maps were, so far as known, the first to show 
the Big Blue (tributary of the Kansas) by name; and to indicate 
the location of Fort Carondelet [in present Vernon co., Mo.]. 
There was, originally, a 1794 map, sketched expressly for Truteau's 
use on his "Missouri Company" expedition. But the 1795 versions 
( French and Spanish ) are the only ones now known to exist. 

On the French map, entitled "Idee Topographique des Hauts 
du Mississipi et du Missouri," the Big Blue was labeled "R. Eau 
bleue" ("R. Agua azuT on the Spanish map) meaning "Blue wa- 
ter." The Kansas appeared as "R. de les Cans," and the Repub- 
lican fork as "R. de la Republica Pani." The Kansa village (repre- 
sented by four "dots" perhaps to indicate 400 warriors?) was 
shown as on the north bank of the Kansas, east of the junction of 
the Big Blue. The Republican Pawnees' village (represented by 
three "dots") was on the north bank of the branch of the Kansas 
named for them, at some distance upstream. 

( Soulard, surveyor of Upper Louisiana and St. Louis resident, according to 
his own statement, had once ascended the Missouri about 500 leagues. ) 

Ref: Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, between pp. 46, 47 (for French map), v. 2, p. 760; Carl I. 
Wheat, Mapping the Transmississippi West (San Francisco, 1957), v. 1, pp. 157, 158, and 
facing p. 158 (for Spanish map, which, curiously, was misdated "1785"). 


Benito and Quenache de Rouin, traders returning from the Kansa 
village, were robbed and "soundly thrashed with blows of sticks" 
by a party of some 160 lowas, who carried off two of their hired 
men. Zenon Trudeau's report of the incident (St. Louis, March 4) 
stated: "They left Benito, as well as the other on the seventh of 
the month of January at the entrance of the Kansas river, without 


arms, food, or clothing. . . ." The two captives were ran- 
somed by English traders and returned to St. Louis. 

Ref: Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, pp. 316, 318. 

In April the "Missouri Company" sent a man named Lecuyer with 
a large, well-loaded pirogue, and oarsmen, on a journey to the 
upper Missouri. This second expedition of the St. Louis company 
was pillaged by the Ponca Indians. Few details of its fate are 
known. Lecuyer was later blamed for the disaster. 

Ref: Houck's Spanish Regime . . ., v. 2, pp. 176, 178, 187, 190. 

When a distribution of medals to chiefs of the Missouri river 
tribes was proposed, Zenon Trudeau (lieutenant-governor of Span- 
ish Illinois) suggested (May 30) that large medals should go to 
Kansa chiefs Kayguechinga (or Le Petit Chef) and Jhahoangage 
(or Les grands Chevaux); and small ones to Kueehagachin (or Le 
Batard ) and Whachanguia ( or Le Geur qui brule ) . 

Ref: Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, pp. 326, 327. 

Zenon Trudeau reported (from St. Louis, July 4) that Pedro 
[Pierre] Vial and four companions, earlier in the year had traveled 
from Santa Fe to the Pawnee Republic village "on the bank of the 
Kansas River" and spent 15 days there. He was on an official 
mission for the Spanish to effect peace between the Pawnee Re- 
public Indians and the Laytanes [Comanches]. Traders from the 
St. Louis area who were in the village at the time said that he 
accomplished his purpose (and delivered a medal, a complete 
suit of clothes, and other gifts to the Pawnee chief). Vial had 
taken the traders to meet the Comanches, and wished to take them 
on to New Mexico, but they refused. He was reported to have 
made the journey from Santa Fe to the Pawnees in eight days. 

Ref: Nasatir, op. cit., v. 1, pp. 329, 330. 

The "Missouri Company's" third expedition was headed by Span- 
ish citizen (but Scottish-born) James MacKay. With 33 men and 
four merchandise-laden pirogues he set out from St. Louis in late 
August on a journey which was intended to open up commerce 
in the unknown parts of the upper Missouri, and to attempt ex- 
plorations as far as the Pacific. The boats, making slow progress, 
probably passed along the Kansas bank of the Missouri in the latter 
part of September. By October 14 (on which date MacKay began 
to keep a journal) the expedition had reached only as far as the 
Otoe village ( about a mile below the Platte's mouth ) . Continuing 


to the Maha village some distance above, MacKay built a trading 
fort where he spent the winter. But he sent his lieutenant, the 
Welshman John Evans, to explore farther upstream. 

MacKay compiled a table of distances "ascending from the Mis- 
souri's mouth" (dated 1797) which included the following informa- 

The "beautiful" Kansas river ( at 100 leagues ) was "navigable for 
canoes for more than 60 leagues at all times; but not for more than 
20 leagues for large boats" in times of low waters. The Kansa 
lived 80 leagues up their river. On the Missouri, the "First old 
village of the Kansas nation" ( at 112%2 leagues ) was "situated upon 
the bare hills"; and the "Second old village of the Kansas" (at 119 
leagues) was "upon the south bank," and "about a league lower 
and on the same side" was an iron mine. 

Wolf river (at 136%2 leagues) was a small river. The "River of 
the Great Nemahas" ( at 141& leagues ) was "navigable some leagues 
for pirogues." On that river the boats passed that carried on com- 
merce with the Pawnee Republic nation, whose village was on a 
branch of the Kansas river. The "River of the Little Nemahas" ( at 
150912 leagues ) was a small river. The Platte ( at 171M leagues ) was 
"as large as the Missouri but so shallow and the course so rapid" 
that navigation was very difficult for any boat, except during spring- 
time high waters. 

Ref: Houck's Spanish Regime . . ., v. 2, pp. 181-192; and for MacKay's table: 
Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, v. 10 (March, 1924), pp. 432- 
441, or Nasatir, op cit., v. 2, pp. 485-489. 


Victor Collot (former French general) toured Louisiana in 1796 
on an information-collecting expedition for his government. The 
data he gathered on die Missouri river (beyond the Osage tribu- 
tary) however, was derived, not from personal observation, but 
from traders (Truteau principally) whom he met at St. Louis. 
Collot died in Paris in 1805. His manuscript, together with maps 
and sketches ( including a "Map of the Missouri" probably drawn in 
1796), was not published until 1826. An English edition of Voy- 
age in Amerique Septentrionale appeared in the same year. Collot 
wrote of the Kansas: 

The river des Cans ... is navigable an hundred leagues for barks and 
barges of every kind; it runs through very fertile lands, flat, well wooded, and 
intersected by rich meadows; but the country, such as we have already de- 
scribed, does not extend farther than one or two leagues from the banks. In 


ascending this river fifty leagues, we find a fortified point, on which is situated 
the great village of the Cans. The branch which runs to the West is called 
the River of White Water; on that of the south-west the Indian nation called 
Republican is established [a statement contradictory to his map location, as 
noted below]. 

Elsewhere in his work the "Cans" Indians were said to be "On the 
river Cans, where it divides, 60 leagues from its mouth/' On his 
"Map of the Missouri" (1796?) Collot showed the "Can" just below 
the junction of the "Blue Water" with the "R. Cans." Farther up- 
stream, on the upper of two forks (neither named) of the Kansas 
was the Republican village. The lower fork was shown to have 
a "S. W. Branch." But the "River of White Water" (referred to 
above ) did not appear on the map. 

Ref: Victor Collet's A Journey in North America (1924 reprint), v. 1, pp. 279, 310, 
and Plate 29 (in volume of maps and sketches); Wheat, op. cit., v. 1, p. 160, and map 
facing p. 160; Abel's Tabeau's Narrative, pp. 14, 15. 


Fur trader Francisco Derouin [Francis Dorion?], arriving from 
the Platte, reported at St. Louis (on May 14, 1797) that the Kansa 
and Otoe Indians had spent the winter sending war parties against 
each other, and several had been killed. (The Otoe village was 
at the mouth of the Platte. ) 

Ref: Nasatir, op. cit., v. 2, pp. 516, 517. 


Zenon Trudeau, the lieutenant governor of Upper Louisiana, 
reported (from St. Louis, January 15) : 

The Kance tribe has its village located on the banks of the river of that 
name. They number about 400 men, and are all better hunters than the 
Osages, and at the least as great rogues as they. This tribe would have an 
easy entrance to the river of Akanzas [the Arkansas] if it were not for the 
Osages who prevent them, and certainly they would commit more acts of piracy 
and roguery than these latter. This is the only tribe whose trade is not ex- 
clusive. It is usually divided into six equal parts, each one valued at the sum 
of eight hundred pesos. These six parts are distributed by lot among all the 
merchants of San Luis and Santa Genoveva. Those which have drawn the 
lot one year are excluded from it the next year, and until all have shared in this 
advantage. From this tribe 180 packs of furs are obtained annually. 

Ref: Houck's Spanish Regime . . ., v. 2, p. 252. 


Gregoire Sarpy and [J. P.?] Cabanne, who had been traders 
among the Kansa for two years, suggested (in a letter, April 26) to 
Spanish authorities that if they were given the trade of the neighbor- 


ing Panis also, they could probably mediate a peace treaty between 
the two nations "for a long time enemies and always at war. . . ." 
The conflict affected the hunting and trade of both. (Sarpy was 
among the Kansa again in 1801. ) 

Ref: Nasatir, op. cit., v. 2, pp. 592, 614-616. 

On October 1, by the secret treaty of San Ildefonso, Napoleon 
secured Louisiana from Spain. The territory ceded was to be the 
same which Spain had received from France 37 years earlier. 


Francois Marie Perrin du Lac (young French writer) came to the 
United States in 1801 with a particular desire to visit the upper Mis- 
souri and its Indians. Chapter 24 of his Voyages dans les Deux Lou- 
isianes (published in Paris, 1805) described that part of his travels. 
(He supplemented his own observations of the region by using ma- 
terial from Truteau's 1796 description.) Also in the volume was his 
Carte du Missouri (1802) a map more accurate for that country 
than any published earlier. 

Perrin du Lac and ten others (one perhaps Truteau), set out from 
St. Louis on May 18, 1802, to trade up the Missouri. When they 
reached the mouth of the Kansas they turned their boat up its chan- 
nel to the Kansa village [presumably the site two miles east of 
present Manhattan see 1790-1791]. For 12 days [in June?] they 
traded and feasted among the Kansa, who, wrote Perrin du Lac, 
"are tall, handsome, vigorous, and brave . . . active and good 
hunters, and trade is carried on with them by the Whites without 
danger. . . ." 

On returning to the mouth of the Kansas (navigable, he stated, 
at all seasons for 500 miles ) , the traders cached their furs, and pro- 
ceeded once again up the Missouri. They found the first old village 
of the Kansa 35 miles upstream, and the second old village 22 miles 

Continuing to the Platte they ascended it to the Great Panis vil- 
lage where they spent eight days. "We were better received by the 
Great Panis than we had been by the Kanses," wrote Perrin du Lac. 
"They were at war with the nation called Republicans, and had only 
a small number of fire-arms, without any powder. We supplied 
them with some in exchange for . . . skins. . ,, . . The 
Great Panis are not so tall as the Kanses. They are active, and good 


hunters. . . . Their manners very closely resemble those of 
the Kanses." 

After visiting the Mahas and Poncas, the traders continued as far 
up the Missouri as the White river (where there was a Cheyenne 
village ) . On August 26 they started downstream. Stopping at the 
mouth of the Kansas to pick up their cached furs, they saw a party 
of Sioux approaching and re-embarked hastily, leaving the less valu- 
able pelts behind. They had "hardly gained the opposite shore" 
when they were "saluted with a discharge of musketry; but night 
coming on, the savages abandoned their pursuit." On September 
20 they reached St. Louis. 

Perrin du Lac's map of the Missouri showed the "R. des Kances" 
(with the "Village des Kances"); its tributary the Blue ("R. de 1'Eau 
bleue"); and its Republican fork ("Fourche des Repubh'ques") with 
the "Village des Republiques" located well above the 39th parallel. 
Also shown were the two "Ancien" villages of the Kansa on the Mis- 

[An enlarged section of Perrin du Lac's map is reproduced facing p. 209.] 

Ref: Nasatir, op. cit., v. 2, pp. 706-712; F. M. Perrin du Lac's Travels . . . 
(1807 English ed.); Wheat, op. cit., v. 1, map facing p. 159. 

About 1802 

As the Lewis and Clark expedition traveled up the Missouri in the 
summer of 1804, a site several miles below the mouth of Wolf river 
[in present Doniphan county] was pointed out to the explorers as 
the former location of a French "settlement." William Clark's jour- 
nal entry on July 9 stated: 

. . . at Six Miles passed the mouth of Creek on the L. S. [leeward, or 
Kansas side] called Monter's [Montains] Creek, about two miles above is some 
Cabins where our Bowman & Several frenchmen Camp d . two years ago. . ;" . 

And Sgt. Charles Floyd wrote in his journal on July 9: 

. Passed a prarie on the South Side whare several French famileys 
had setled and made Corn Some Years ago Stayed two years the Indians 
Came Freckentley to See them and was verry frendley. . . . 

Ref: Reuben G. Thwaites' Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (New 
York, 1904), v.l, p. 72. 


The Great and Little Osage trade, in 1802, was granted for five 
years to Manuel Lisa and his partners Gregoire Sarpy, Charles 
Sanguinet, and Francois M. Benoit. (The new four-year contract 


Auguste Chouteau had received from the Spanish in 1801 for the ex- 
clusive Osage trade was thus cancelled.) In 1803 Lisa acquired 
Sarpy's and Sanguinet's shares. 

Ref: Nasatir, op. cit. t v. 2, pp. 591, 592. 

Cashesegra's band of Great Osages and some of the Little Osages 
(including many of the best hunters) removed from the Osage river 
[in present Vernon co., Mo.] in 1802 or 1803, to the lower Verdigris 
[in northern Oklahoma, some 60 miles above the Arkansas-Verdigris 
junction]. Pierre Chouteau induced them to move in order to re- 
gain part of the trade he had lost to Manuel Lisa. 

[Lt. James B. Wilkinson, of Pike's 1806 expedition, reported that Cashesegra 
(Big Track) was the nominal leader, but Clermont was the "greatest warrior 
and most influential man" among them.] 

Ref: Ibid., pp. 539, 592, 680, 688; Lt. J. B. Wilkinson's report, April 6, 1807, Ap- 
pendix to the various editions of Z. M. Pike's Expeditions . . .; Stella M. Drumm's 
editorial note in John C. Luttig*s Journal . . ., p. 50. 

With two companions, James Purcell (once of Bardstown, Ky.) 
trapped on the Osage headwaters in 1802. They were perhaps in 
what is now east central Kansas when some Kansa stole their horses. 
Purcell and his friends cached their furs and pursued the thieves 
into the Kansa village. The "mad Americans" (so called by the 
Indians ) got all but one horse back, only to lose the animals again, 
when near the Osage river, to unknown robbers. Later their make- 
shift canoe overturned and the trappers' furs were lost near the 
mouth of the Osage. His companions then continued homeward, 
but Purcell joined a trader going up the Missouri to the Mandan 
country. After trapping and trading with the Padoucas and Kiowas, 
he arrived in the upper South Platte area. (While in present Colo- 
rado he made perhaps the first gold discovery by the whites there. ) 
In June, 1805, he reached Santa Fe and remained for 19 years. 
Capt. Z. M. Pike who met "Pursley" there in 1807 recorded some of 
his adventures. 

Ref: Z. M. Pike's . . . Expeditions . . ., Appendix to pt. m, pp. 18, 17; 
H. M. Chittenden's The American Fur Trade of the Far West (New York, 1935), v. 2, 
pp. 492, 493. 


In January President Jefferson sent a confidential message to 
congress urging the establishment of Indian trading houses on the 
United States frontier. Also, he proposed that an exploring party 
be sent "to trace the Missouri to its source, to cross the Highlands, 


and follow the best water communication which offered itself from 
thence to the Pacific Ocean." Congress approved and voted $2,500 
"for the purpose of extending the external commerce of the United 
States/' Jefferson chose Meri wether Lewis to head the expedition, 
and Lewis suggested William Clark as coleader. 

Ref: W. P. Webb's The Great Plains (Boston and New York, 1936), p. 143; L. R. 
Hafen and C. C. Rister's Western America (New York, 1941), pp. 174, 175. 

Napoleon sold Louisiana (acquired just three years earlier from 
Spain) to the United States on April 30. Formal transfer cere- 
monies took place on December 20, at New Orleans. 

(Part Three Will Appear in the Autumn, 1961, Issue.) 

Some Notes on Kansas Cowtown Police Officers 
and Gun Fighters Continued 




ED MASTERSON, the oldest of the famous Masterson brothers, 
became a member of the Dodge City police force June 5, 1877. 
He made his first arrest, that of Bobby Gill, on June 6. 1 

It is not certain whether Ed Masterson was originally appointed 
assistant marshal or merely policeman. On June 9, 1877, the Dodge 
City Times said: "Ed. Masterson has been appointed Assistant 
Marshal of this city. He is not very large, but there are not many 
men who would be anxious to tackle him a second time. He makes 
a good officer." Elsewhere in that same issue and again on June 
16, the paper referred to him as policeman. On the latter date the 
Times said: "The new policemen, Ed Masterson and Joe Mason, 
are covering themselves with glory, and their prompt and efficient 
action cannot be too highly commended." 

By July 3, at least, Ed Masterson had been named assistant mar- 
shal to serve under Marshal L. E. Deger and over Policeman Joe 
Mason. Deger, Masterson, and Mason each earned $75.00 a 
month. 2 

Ed Masterson was instrumental in easing the trouble between 
Marshal Deger and Mayor James H. Kelley when the two broke 
into open conflict on July 20. This story was reported in the sec- 
tion on Deger. 

By this time followers of these sketches doubtless have become ac- 
customed to the frequent eruptions of lurid journalese so charac- 
teristic of several of the cowtown editors. Therefore, this account 
of a session of the Dodge City police court, as described by the 
Times, August 11, 1877, should measure up to the expectations of 
even the most sanguine: 


"The Marshal will preserve strict order," said the Judge. "Any person 
caught throwing turnips, cigar stumps, beets, or old quids of tobacco at this 
Court, will be immediately arranged before this bar of Justice." Then Joe 
[Policeman J. W. Mason] looked savagely at the mob in attendance, hitched 

NYLE H. MILLER and JOSEPH W. SNELL are members of the staff of the Kansas State 
Historical Society. 

NOTE: These articles on Kansas cowtown officers and gun fighters, with additional 
information and an index, are expected to be reprinted and offered for sale under one 
cover, upon completion of the series in the Quarterly. 



his ivory handle a little to the left and adjusted his moustache. "Trot out the 
wicked and unfortunate, and let the cotillion commence," said his Honor. 

City vs. James Martin. But just then a complaint not on file had to be 
attended to, and Reverent John Walsh, of Las Animas, took the Throne of 
Justice, while the Judge stepped over to Hoover's [George M. Hoover, pur- 
veyor of wines, liquors and cigars!]. "You are here for horse stealing," says 
Walsh. "I can clean out the d d court," says Martin. Then the City 
Attorney [E. F. Colborn] was banged into a pigeon hole in the desk, the table 
upset, the windows kicked out and the railing broke down. When order 
was restored Joe's thumb was "some chawed," Assistant Marshal Masterson's 
nose sliced a trifle, and the rantankerous originator of all this, James Martin, 
Esq., was bleeding from a half dozen cuts on the head, inflicted by Master- 
son's revolver. Then Walsh was deposed and Judge [D. M.] Frost took his 
seat, chewing burnt coffee, as his habit, for his complexion. The evidence was 
brief and pointed. "Again," said the Judge, as he rested his alabaster brow 
on his left paw, "do you appear within this sacred realm, of which I, and 
only I, am high muck-i-muck. You have disturbed the quiet of our lovely 
village. Why, instead of letting the demon of passion fever your brain into 
this fray, did you not shake hands and call it all a mistake. Then the lion 
and the lamb would have lain down together and white-robed peace would 
have fanned you with her silvery wings and elevated your thoughts to the 
good and pure by her smiles of approbation; but no, you went to chawing 
and clawing and pulling hair. It is $10.00 and costs, Mr. Martin." 

"Make way for the witnesses," says Joe, as he winks at the two c s that 
comes to the front, and plants one on each side of Mr. [W. N.] Morphy, who 
appears for defendant "A thorn between two roses." It was the City vs. 
Monroe Henderson, all being "n s" except the City Attorney and Mr. 
Morphy. The prosecuting witness, Miss Carrie, looked "the last rose of sum- 
mer all faded and gone" to . Her best heart's blood (pumped from her 
nose) was freely bespattering the light folds which but feebly hid her pal- 
pitating bosom. Her starboard eye was closed, and a lump like a burnt bisquit 
ornamented her forehead. The evidence showed that the idol of her affections, 
a certain moke named Baris, had first busted her eye, loosened her ribs and 
kicked the stuffing generally out of Miss Carrie. That Carrie then got on the 
war path, procured a hollow ground razor, flung tin cans at defendant, and 
used such naughty, naughty language as made the Judge breathe a silent 
prayer, and caused Walsh to take the open air in horror. But the fact still 
remained that defendant had "pasted" her one on the nose. The City Attorney 
dwelt upon the heinousness of a strong giant man smiting a frail woman. Mr. 
Morphy, for defendant, told two or three good stories, bragged on the Court, 
winked at the witnesses and thought he had a good case, but the marble jaws 
of justice snapped with adamantine firmness, and it was $5.00 and costs. 
Appeal taken. 

It was Carrie's turn next to taste the bitter draughts brewed in our Police 
Court. She plead "Guilty, your Honor, just to carrying that razor in my 
hand. 'Deed, 'deed, your Honor, I never had it under my clothes at all." 
Carrie received an eighteen dollar moral lecture and a fine of $5.00 and costs, 
and Court stood adjourned. 

In all of the above excentricities, and during the exciting scenes that broke 


into the stillness of "that hour of nights black arch the key stane" at divers 
evenings of the week, the city was not wanting in an efficient peace officer, 
and as a coincidence worthy of mention, assistant marshal Edward Masterson 
seemed to be always on time to quell the disturbance, and to bear away to that 
home of the friendless ( the dog house ) the noisy disturbers of the peace. Mr. 
Masterson has made a remarkable record during the month as the docket of 
the Police Court will bear testimony. 

The Times editor was still in a playful mood when, on August 18, 
1877, he reported: 

Mr. Evans, of Quindaro, Mr. Webster, of Wyandotte, Mr. Evarts, of Ann 
Arbor, and Messrs. [M. W.] Sutton, [D. M.] Frost and Ed. Masterson, of 
this city, held a moonlight picnic at Fort Dodge Thursday evening. Their 
conveyance was a four horse ambulance, decked with bunting and drawn by 
four horses. They sang songs, acted charades, held moot court, the evening's 
exercises closing with prayer by the deacon and a song called "put me in my 
little bed," all the musicians joining in the chorus. 

On September 3, 1877, Masterson, with Marshal Deger and a 
citizen named Anderson pursued and captured a horse thief. This 
Times article was included in the section on L. E. Deger. 

About September 15, Ed Masterson was reported to have dis- 
couraged a couple of the boys from fisticuffs: 

Stonewall Jackson and Kinch Riley disagreed this week as to the proper 
mode of dividing certain "winnins," amounting to the enormous sum of $2.00. 
After discussing the matter fully they concluded to resort to the dog method 
of deciding quarrels, and prepared to fight. But just as they were about to 
begin Ed. Masterson informed them that the most peaceable place to fight 
was down on the reservation, owing to the stringency of the city laws. The 
rightists went down to the reservation, followed by a large crowd, but when 
they got face to face on the battle field their courage weakened and neither 
would strike the first blow. Thus a good item was spoiled. 8 

Ed's younger brother, Bat, who had been under sheriff during 
the summer and who was now also on the city police force, helped 
the assistant marshal attempt to arrest A. C. Jackson, a fun-loving 
Texas cowboy, on September 25. The story of Jackson's escape 
may be found in the section on Bat Masterson. 

Late in September Ed Masterson was involved in another unsuc- 
cessful pursuit. This time the lawman was after the culprits who 
had robbed the Union Pacific at Big Springs, Neb., on September 
18, 1877. The article reporting the attempt was included in the 
section on C. E. Bassett. 

On October 2, 1877, the police force was reduced so that only 
Marshal Deger and Assistant Marshal Ed Masterson remained. 4 
On November 5 half of the police force was put out of commission 


when the assistant marshal was shot by Bob Shaw. This gun play 
was described in the Dodge City Times of November 10: 



Last Monday afternoon one of those little episodes which serve to vary the 
monotony of frontier existence occurred at the Lone Star dance hall, during 
which four men came out some the worse for wear; but none, with one ex- 
ception, being seriously hurt. 

Bob Shaw, the man who started the amusement, accused Texas Dick, alias 
Moore, of having robbed him of forty dollars, and when the two met in the 
Lone Star the ball was opened. 

Somebody, foreseeing possible trouble, and probable gore, started out in 
search of Assistant City Marshal Ed. Masterson, and finding him hurried the 
officer to the scene of the impending conflict. 

When Masterson entered the door he descried Shaw by the bar with a 
huge pistol in his hand and a hogshead of blood in his eye, ready to relieve 
Texas Dick of his existence in this world and send him to those shades where 
troubles come not and six shooters are not known. 

Not wishing to hurt Shaw, but anxious to quiet matters and quell the dis- 
turbance officer Masterson first ordered him to give up his gun. Shaw re- 
fused to deliver and told Masterson to keep away from him, and after saying 
this he again proceeded to try to kill Texas Dick. Officer Masterson then 
gently tapped the belligerent Shaw upon the back of the head with the butt of 
his shooting iron, merely to convince him of the vanities of this frail world 
and to teach him that all isn't lovely even when the goose does hang anti- 
tudilum. The aforesaid reminder upon the back of the head, however, failed 
to have the desired effect, and instead of dropping, as any man of fine sensi- 
bilities would have done, Shaw turned his battery upon the officer and let 
him have it in the right breast, the ball striking a rib and passing around 
came out under the right shoulder blade, paralyzing his right arm so that it 
was useless, so far as handling a pistol was concerned. Masterson fell, but 
grasping his pistol in his left hand he returned the fire giving it to Shaw in 
the left arm and the left leg, rendering him hors du combat. 

During the melee Texas Dick was shot in the right groin, making a painful 
and dangerous, though not necessarily a fatal wound, while Frank Buskirk, 
who, impelled by a curiosity he could not control, was looking in at the door 
upon the matinee, received a reminiscence in the left arm, which had the 
effect of starting him out to hunt a surgeon. Nobody was killed, but for a 
time it looked as though the undertaker and the coroner would have something 
to do. The nerve and pluck displayed by officer Masterson reflects credit 
both upon himself and the city, which has reason to congratulate itself upon 
the fact that it has a guardian who shirks no responsibility and who hesitates 
not to place himself in danger when duty requires. 

On another page the paper reported: "Assistant City Marshal 
Ed. Masterson, who was shot last Monday while attempting to 
make an arrest, has so far recovered as to be up and around. To- 


morrow evening he will start to Wichita to spend a week or two 
visiting his parents." 

The shootout caused Bob Shaw to forsake the West for his 
native Georgia: 

Mr. Bob Shaw, whom we noticed last week in connection with the shoot- 
ing scrape, in which Officer Masterson was wounded, had so far recovered 
as to be able to start for his home in Georgia a few days ago. Shaw is not 
a desperado as would seem from this incident. Parties who have known him 
say he never was known to make a six-shooter play before this. Dr. Galland, 
under whose medical treatment he so rapidly recovered, has a high regard 
for him. Mr. Shaw's family are highly respectable people, and he has con- 
cluded to quit the far west and go back to live under the parental roof. 5 

Masterson made a rapid recovery from his wound and about 
November 19 returned to Dodge City. The Times, November 24, 
1877, reported: "Assistant Marshal Masterson returned from Wich- 
ita the first of the week. He is recovering from the wound received 
in the recent shooting affray, and will soon be able to resume his 
duties as an officer." On page four the Times said: "Ed. Master- 
son's wife has returned, she came from Hays on a horse." 

At the December 4, 1877, meeting of the city council of Dodge 
City Larry Deger was discharged as city marshal and Ed Mas- 
terson promoted to the position. The Times, December 8, re- 
ported the council's actions: 

On motion of John Newton the office of City Marshal was declared vacant, 
the Mayor thereupon appointed Edward J. Masterson to the said Marshal- 
ship, which appointment the Council confirmed. 

The petition of D. M. Frost, F. C. Zimmermann, S. Keller, P. G. Reynolds 
and others protesting against the removal of L. E. Deger was upon motion 
laid upon the table. . . . 

The following bills were presented and allowed: Edward J. Masterson 
salery as asistant Marshal and medical treatment of wounds received in the 
arrest of Shaw, $93.00. . . . 

Editorially the Times had this to say of the change: 

City Marshal Edward Masterson receives the congratulations of his many 
friends without a show of exhultation. Notwithstanding the fact that con- 
siderable feeling was manifested against the removal of Mr. Deger, no one 
accuses Mr. Masterson of seeking the position. In fact he preferred to retain 
his old position as Assistant, which gave him the same salary and engendered 
less responsibilities. As an officer his reputation is made, and it is a good 
one. . . . 

Charles E. Bassett, sheriff of Ford county, was named assistant 
to Masterson. 6 

The arrest of an army deserter netted the marshal spending money 
in January. The Times, January 19, 1878, reported: "Marshal 


Masterson, Monday last, arrested a deserter by the name of A. J. 
Brusten, who was delivered to the commanding officer at the Fort. 
Ed. will receive $30 for this neat work/' 

Horse thieves, deserters, and drunken cowboys were not the 
only trouble makers with whom the city marshal had to contend. 
The Ford County Globe, January 29, 1878, reported a less exciting 
type of delinquency: 

Several of our over grown-babies emulated themselves, at the theatre last 
week, by throwing beans at some of the colored people present. If they have 
no respect for the colored population, they ought to have for themselves. 

Marshal Masterson stopped some nonsense at the theater, Saturday night, 
by calling out the names of the participants, and telling them to stop. Correct 
Edward, repeat the dose. 

In February "Marshal Masterson and Adam Jackson attended a 
court-martial at the Fort this week," and "Marshal Masterson took 
advantage of the pleasant weather and dried his lime kiln [city 
jail] blankets last Tuesday/' 7 

As an opposition paper the recently established Ford County 
Globe felt constrained to criticize the police force: 


Some of the "boys" in direct violation of City Ordinances, carry firearms 
on our streets, without being called to account for the same. They do it in 
such an open manner, that it don't seem possible that our City officers are 
ignorant of this fact. 

There must be some reason for it. What is it? Is it because they belong 
to the "gang," or because they intend to harm none but anti-gang men? An 
honest man attending to his own business, doesn't require the constant com- 
panionship of a six-shooter, to make him feel easy and safe. We think there 
is something rotten with a man's conscience when he parades the streets with 
an exposed six-shooter, knowing that he is violating law with impunity, simply 
because he is a friend of the marshal or policeman. We understand that 
Mayor Kelley has instructed the police force to rigidly enforce the ordinance 
against the carrying of firearms, for which he deserves great credit. 8 

However, the Globe was capable of encouragement as well as 
criticism. On March 12, 1878, it said: "Some of our officers dis- 
played great courage, and justice, in raising h-11 in the south side 
dance hall, last Sunday/' But criticism still received more type 

We have heard more complaint during the past few days about parties 
being "held up" and robbed, on our streets, than ever before. How long 
is this thing to continue? We have one more policeman on the force now 
than ever before at this season of the year. It therefore seems strange that 
midnight robberies should be more prevalent than ever before. There is 



something wrong somewhere, and the people are beginning to feel that there 
is no legal remedy. We would like to see the town smell worse of dead 
highway robbers than hell does of sinners. 

If there is any place in this country that needs the attention of our officers 
of the law, its the robbers roost across the dead line. 

Also on March 12 the Globe printed this pathetic story: 

Thursday last, a poor bare-footed girl, came tramping into Dodge; with a 
year-old babe in her arms. Her garments were tattered and torn, her babe 
naked; and her story such as would ring tears from the heart of a stone, it 
ran thus: "I have since I was five years old, been living with my uncle Mr. 
Smith, who now resides on the Pawnee, about thirty-five miles north of 
Dodge. My uncle has since my earliest recollections ill treated and abused 
me, he has always kept me isolated from other society than that of himself 
and family. About nine months ago I gave birth to a child, my uncle was the 
father of the child; he having by coercion seduced me; on the day before my 
arrival in Dodge, my uncle was absent from home, I took my babe in my 
arms; and started for Dodge. I am afraid of my uncle, because he threatened 
to kill me if I ever ran away from him." 

On Saturday morning, the uncle arrived in Dodge searching for the girl. 
He says that the girl's story from beginning to end is false, and stated that 
she stole from him when leaving his house, $180, which was done up in a 
newspaper, and placed under the floor for safe keeping. 

The Police arrested Mr. Smith, on a charge of disturbing the peace, but 
on promise of his leaving the girl alone in her glory, and departing from 
Dodge at once, he was permitted to go. 

The sympathy of our people are decidedly with the girl, who is a buxom 
young woman, aged seventeen. Strong talk was made on the streets against 
Smith, "tar and feathers," "black-snake whips" and "cold water baths," were 
among the remedies advocated for his application. He, however, made good 
his departure, and all is now quiet on the "Rackensack," so far as the Smith 
family is concerned. 

On March 15, 1878, Ed Masterson teamed with Bassett and 
brother Bat, who by then was sheriff of Ford county, to capture 
two train robbers. The articles reporting this will be found in 
the section on W. B. Masterson. Ed went along with the prison- 
ers to Emporia where they were taken for safety's sake. He re- 
turned on March 17: "City Marshal Masterson returned home last 
Sunday morning, after conducting the two train robbers to Em- 
poria, where they were safely lodged in jail. At all the stations 
along the road crowds assembled to see the robbers." 9 

Things began to get lively as spring came on. "Our police force 
were kept jumping till three o'clock yesterday morning, corraling 
disturbers of the peace. The result was a full calaboose of soldiers 
for Police court yesterday," said the Globe, March 26, 1878. The 


Times, March 30, reported: "A prize fight was indulged in by two 
pugilists in the outskirts of the city this week. Three rounds were 
fought when both pugilists weakened and fled at sight of the City 
Marshal. The one-armed slugger received a slight scratch under 
his left blinker. Victory, in dispute." And on April 6 the Times 
stated: "A tall man with a hooked nose was placed in the calaboose 
yesterday by Marshal Masterson. Having nothing else to do he 
amused himself cremating the blankets/' 

Masterson wanted to put Dodge's vagrants to work on the city 
streets. The Dodge City Times, March 30, 1878, reported his in- 
tentions : 


City Marshal Masterson contemplates organizing a tramp brigade for the 
purpose of clearing the streets and alleys of the filth and rubbish that has 
been accumulating for a year or so. There are about thirty tramps now so- 
journing among us, all of whom have no visible means of support and are 
liable to arrest under the vagrant act. 

On April 9, 1878, calamity struck the cowtown. Twenty-six- 
year-old Marshal Edward J. Masterson was shot and killed while 
trying to disarm a cowboy in accordance with city ordinance. The 
Ford County Globe, in its somberly black-lined edition of April 16, 
1878, reported: 



On the evening of the 9th inst, at 10 o'clock P. M., six pistol shots "rang 
out/' on the night, on the south side of the R. R. track in Dodge City. Hur- 
rying to the spot to ascertain the cause and result of the shooting, we found 
them to be as follows: A party of six "cow-boys" who had arrived in town 
in the evening, had been enjoying themselves with dancing and drinking, 
some of them evidently getting too much liquor for their own and the City's 
good. Marshal Masterson and Policeman [Nat] Haywood, being the cus- 
todians of the public peace of the City, were present, prepared to prevent 
any disturbance or trouble among the boys. One of the boys named Jack 
Wagner, becoming more intoxicated than the others, got to be very noisy. 
About this time the City Marshal observed that he was carrying a six-shooter, 
contrary to a City Ordinance, and proceeded to disarm him, which he ac- 
complished without much trouble, and turned the pistol over to Wagner's 
Boss, A. M. Walker. 

The dance went on and all appeared to be peace and harmony. The Mar- 
shal stepped out the front door to the side-walk where he again met Wagner, 
and saw that Wagner was again in possession of his pistol. He at once 
attempted to take it from him, a scuffle ensued, a general rush was made from 
inside the Hall to the sidewalk; Policeman Haywood stepped forward to 
assist the Marshal, but just as he did so, two other "cow men" drew their 


pistols upon him and held him in position. One of them snapped a pistol in 
his face, which fortunately missed fire. 

About this time a pistol was discharged, and Marshal Masterson was shot 
through the abdomen. 

Five shots followed in quick succession. A general rush was made from 
the scene, and all was over. 

Wagner being shot ran into [A. J.] Peacock's saloon and fell upon the 
floor, where he remained until carried away by his friends. He was fatally 
shot through the abdomen. He died on the evening of the 10th, and was 
burned on the hill near town at 4 P. M., on the eleventh. 

Walker, the Boss herder, ran through Peacock's Saloon, and fell some dis- 
tance in the rear of the saloon, from whence he was carried by his friends to 
a room over Wright, Beverly & Go's store, where he now lies in a very pre- 
carious condition, shot once through the left lung and twice through the 
right arm. 

Marshal Masterson walked across the street and entering [George M.] 
Hoover's saloon, in the agonies of death he said to George Hinkle, "George, 
I'm shot;" and sank on the floor. His clothes were still on fire from the dis- 
charge of the pistol, which had been placed against the right side of his ab- 
domen and "turned loose." Making a hole large enough for the introduction 
of the whole pistol. The ball passed completely through him, leaving him 
no possible chance for life. He was carried to his brother's room, where 
in half an hour he died. 

Everyone in the City knew Ed. Masterson and liked him. They liked 
him as a boy, they liked him as a man, and they liked him as an officer. 

Promptly at 10 o'clock on the morning of the 10th every business house in 
the City closed its doors which remained so until 6 o'clock, P. M. Crape 
draped almost every door in the City. Never before was such honor shown 
in Dodge, either to the living or dead. 

The Dodge City Fire Company, of which Edward J. Masterson was a 
much respected member, took charge of the remains, and refused to permit 
any of the friends or relations of deceased to sustain any of the funeral ex- 
penses. Every vehicle in the City was employed for the use of the funeral 
attendants. Funeral services were had at the Fireman's Parlor, where the 
ladies discoursed appropriate music, and the Rev. O. W. Wright delivered 
a sermon. The funeral procession started from town at 3 o'clock P. M. and 
was formed as follows: The City Council in a body; next, came the hearse 
containing deceased; next Sheriff [Bat] Masterson, the only living relative 
of the deceased who could be present at the funeral, because of the family 
residing in the Southern part of the State and not having time to get here to 
attend; next, came the Fire Company, sixty strong, uniformed and in mourn- 
ing; next, came buggies and wagons containing ladies and gentlemen; then 
came many horsemen. The procession marched to the Military Cemetery, at 
Fort Dodge, where the last sad rites were performed to one of the best and 
most generous men that God ever fashioned. Rev. O. W. Wright performing 
the burial services. 

Four "cow boys" were arrested as accessories to the murder of our Mar- 
shal, but all were after the fullest and most complete investigation discharged 
by Judge R. G. Cook, as it was established that they were to blame only for 
being in bad company. 


Wagner when dying said that he shot Marshal Masterson, and there is 
now but little doubt in the minds of any but that it was he who killed our 

Our Fire Company met in their new parlor, on the evening of the 12th 
inst., for the purpose of paying their respects in an appropriate manner to 
the memory of their deceased brother. After due consideration, the following 
preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted, and spread upon the 

WHEREAS, One of the most beloved of our number, Brother Edward J. Mas- 
terson, has been called from us by the voice of Death. Sadly, and with hearts 
filled with deep sorrow do we mourn the loss of our brother. Now that he is 
no more we vividly call to mind his many noble and generous qualities. In 
the bosom of man the Creator never caused a more true and brotherly heart 
to beat; ever ready to perform a kind act, he bore malice toward none and 
held the firm friendship of all. We feel that his death is a calamity that can 
never be repaired. His place among us cannot be filled. Long will we 
cherish him in memory as one who was near and dear to us all. And be it 

RESOLVED, That as a mark of our high esteem and universal respect for 
our deceased brother, our place of meeting and our fire implements be draped 
in mourning, and that we wear a badge of crape for thirty days from the date 
of his death. This we do in honor of the dead. Also 

RESOLVED, That we extend our heart felt sympathy to the afflicted relatives 
of our deceased brother and instruct the Secretary of this Company to forward 
copies of the foregoing preamble and resolution to their address. And to 
furnish both City papers with a copy thereof for publication. 

The Dodge City Times, April 13, 1878, also carried a story and 
an editorial about the murder on its front page: 





On Tuesday evening, about 10 o'clock, Edward J. Masterson, Marshal of 
Dodge City, was murdered by Jack Wagner and Alf Walker, two cattle 
drivers from near Hays City. The two cow boys were under the influence of 
bad whisky and were carrying revolvers. Early in the evening Marshal Mas- 
terson disarmed Wagner; later Marshal Masterson and Deputy Marshal Nat 
Haywood tried the second time to disarm Wagner. While in die act Master- 
son was shot in the abdomen. Walker in the meantime snapped a pistol in 
the face of Officer Haywood. Masterson fired four shots, one of them striking 
Wagner in the bowels from the left side. Walker was struck three times, one 
shot in the lungs and his right arm horribly shattered with the other shots. 

The shooting occurred on the south side of the Railroad track. Marshal 
Masterson cooly walked over to the business side of the street, a distance of 
about 200 yards, and upon reaching the sidewalk he fell exhausted. He was 
taken to his room where he died about 40 minutes afterwards. 

Wagner and Walker were removed to Mr. Lane's room, where the former 
died at about 7 o'clock Wednesday evening. Walker is lying dangerously 
wounded, with no hopes of his recovery. 


Some of the flying shots grazed the faces of one of our citizens and a 
cattle man. The shots were fired almost simultaneously, and the wonder is 
expressed that more death and destruction did not ensue, as a large crowd 
surrounded the scene of the shooting. 

The officers were brave and cool though both were at a disadvantage, as 
neither desired to kill the whisky crazed assailants. 

The death of Marshal Masterson caused great feeling in Dodge City. The 
business houses were draped in mourning, and business on Wednesday gen- 
erally suspended. 

Elsewhere we give the expression of sympathy and ceremonies following 
this terrible tragedy. 


An Officer has been stricken down in the discharge of his duty. The deep 
feeling of gloom that pervades this community over this sad affair, leaves us 
opportunities for calm reflection and judgment. A life that periled itself, 
that others might enjoy safety from the assassin's bludgeon, while in the dis- 
charge of duty, has been slain in cold blood. The avenging hand though 
too struck back that the penalty might be swift and unerring. 

The loss of Edward J. Masterson, the late murdered City Marshal, has 
cast a gloom through which is felt the realizing sense of buckling on the armor 
unto death. The general sympathy and respect for the deceased is deep and 
heartfelt. As an officer he was vigilant, courageous and conscientious of the 
important trust in his hands. As we knew him he was land, civil and stead- 
fast combined with those qualities that make a brave man, the true friend 
and good citizen. 

While we commend the good qualities that possessed our deceased friend, 
and deplore the tragic end that so summarily disposed him and through our 
sorrows and reverence for the departed, let us go forth girdled with common 
fraternity for our bodily protection; armed with resoluteness and courage; 
and guided solely in the axiom: Self-preservation is the first law of human 

A frontier life stimulates all the qualities of manhood the true, the good 
and the bad. The reckless denizen of the plains is at the mercy of an out- 
raged people. As we see the draped doors, the solemn faces, and the cold, 
quiet air of remorse, we see depicted that steady determination to give no 
quarter to the ruthless invader of our lives, peace and prosperity. While we 
give utterance to our feelings in kindly sentiment, we shall find no mawkish 
sentimentality in guarding the future conduct of those whose utter disregard 
of their own lives jeopardize those whose lives are worth living for. 

We can forget the animosities engendered through the ordinary courses 
of Me, that we may doubly arm ourselves, by strengthening the picket lines, 
and filling to the maximum the ranks of the reserves. 

There will be no slow work in protecting the lives of this people against 
cold-blooded assassination. 

On an inside page of the same issue the Times ran Masterson's 



DIED In this city, on Tuesday, April 9th, in the 26th year of his age, Ed- 
ward J. Masterson, City Marshal. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Henryville, Canada East, on Sep- 
tember 22d, 1852, and removed to Wichita, Kansas with his parents in 1869, 
where he continued to reside until attaining his majority when he left his 
home and became one of the first inhabitants of this city. 

In May 1876 [June 5, 1877] he accepted the appointment of Assistant 
Marshal, and in the December following [December 4, 1877], having dis- 
played marked adaptability for the position, he was promoted to the Mar- 
shalship, in the discharge of the duties of which he continued until his un- 
fortunate death. 

Possessed of a geniality of temperament, a kindness of heart and a richness 
of personal bravery, he had many warm friends and admirers. 

As an officer he followed the dictation of duty, striving at all times for its 
honest and complete discharge and gaining for himself the dignity and respect 
that of necessity followed from his determined intrepidity. 

He died in the service he performed so well, and has added one other to 
the list of those who, living, were so many representatives, each of his day 
and generation, but who dead, belong to all time, and whose voices ring down 
the ages in solemn protest against the reign of violence and blood. 

The city council passed a resolution of respect and sympathy: 

Now on this 10th day of April, 1878, at the City of Dodge City comes 
D. D. Colley, C. M. Beeson, James Anderson, Walter Straeter and John New- 
ton Councilmen thereof, and, whereas the Mayor of said city being absent, 
and there being no President of the Council; on motion of John Newton D. D. 
Colley was chosen acting President of the Council; and on motion of James 
Anderson D. D. Colley was elected President of the Council. 

The following resolutions were presented by C. M. Beeson and unanimously 

WHEREAS, Edward J. Masterson, Marshal of the City of Dodge City, was on 
the night of April 9th, 1878, killed in the lawful discharge of his duties, be it 

RESOLVED by the Council of the City of Dodge City, that in his death the 
city has lost an officer who was not afraid to do his duty, and who never shrank 
from its faithful performance; a worthy servant and an upright citizen. 

RESOLVED that we offer our heartfelt sympathy to his many friends both here 
and abroad; and that these resolutions be spread upon the journal of these 
proceedings; and that the Clerk be directed to forward a copy of the same 
when printed to his parents at Wichita. 

D. D. COLLEY, Pres't. of the Council. 
E. F. Colborn, City Clerk. 10 

The April 13, 1878, edition of the Times was filled with items of 
interest concerning the shooting: 

Marshal Masterson lived about forty minutes after he was shot and died 
surrounded by many of his warmest friends. He remained conscious to the 
last and passed away apparently without pain or dread. 


When prepared for burial his remains were visited by many of our most 
worthy ladies. His face was that of one who had been called away in the 
midst of his slumber. 

The parents of Marshal Masterson reside near Wichita. 


After Wagner was shot he rushed into the saloon and fell to the floor in an 
almost senseless condition. Walker, upon receiving his wound, ran out back 
of the saloon and fell to the ground. The excitement was so great and the place 
where the shooting occurred (out on the sidewalk) being dark, no one hardly 
knew what was the matter until after the firing ceased. Marshal Masterson 
talked but very little after he was shot. 


An hour after the shooting warrants were issued and Sheriff Masterson 
arrested the four associates who accompanied Walker and Wagner into the city. 
They were examined Wednesday and Thursday before Justice Cook, a large 
number of witnesses were sworn but no evidence was brought out of sufficient 
strength to convict them as accomplices in the killing of Marshal Masterson, 
and they were released. Their names were John Hungate, Thomas High- 
lander, Thomas Roads and John Reece. The examination was ably and 
thoroughly conducted by County Attorney Sutton, assisted by his partner Mr. 
Colborn. Messrs. [H. E.] Gryden, [D. M.] Frost and [W. N.] Morphy de- 
fended the prisoners. Although there was a crowd of people standing within 
a few feet of the shooting when it occurred, not one of them saw the affair 
from beginning to end. 


Mr. John Wagner, who received his death wound at the time Masterson was 
killed, died on Wednesday evening about sundown. He was 27 years old and 
about the average size, blue eyes and light complexion. Before he arrived in 
town he informed some of the men with him that he had been lost from his 
mother for eight years. Some time ago he received a fall from his horse, which 
it is thought rendered him partially insane. He was buried Thursday evening 
on the hill west of the city. 

ALFRED WALKER, who was shot at the time of the killing of Marshal Master- 
son, is still lying very low at Mr. Lane's rooms. There is a prospect of his 

Bat Masterson and his friend, Attorney M. W. Sutton, spent sev- 
eral days with the Masterson family in Sedgwick county. The Times, 
April 20, 1878, said: 

County Attorney Sutton and Sheriff Masterson arrived home from Wichita 
last Wednesday morning. The Sheriff spent several days with his parents and 
brothers and sisters, who received the news of the death of Edward who was 


the eldest son, and greatly beloved with great grief; they have the sympathy 
of this entire community. 

The Dodge City Times kept the town informed of Walker's prog- 
ress. On April 20, 1878, it reported: "Alfred Walker, who was 
wounded at the time of the shooting of Marshal Masterson, is still 
in a critical condition, but will probably recover if mortification can 
be prevented," and on June 1: 

Alfred Walker, who has been confined to his bed ever since the unfortunate 
shooting scrape last April, was removed to Kansas City last Friday, where he is 
still under medical treatment. We learn that his father, who accompanied him, 
took suddenly ill this week and died at Fort Scott. He had left his son at Kan- 
sas City and started for his home in Texas when something like cramp seized 
him and the result was fatal. He was a highly respectable old gentleman and 
had many friends among those who knew him. 

A year after Ed Masterson was killed Dodge City had obtained a 
respectable cemetery of its own and the body of the slain marshal 
was brought back "home." The Times, April 19, 1879, reported: 

The body of Ed. Masterson, the city marshal, who was murdered in this city 
a year ago, was removed from the Fort Dodge Cemetery, Monday, and placed 
in Prairie Grove Cemetery. A monument will be erected over his grave. The 
disinterment was conducted by P. L. Beatty, the Dodge City Fire Department 
foreman. 11 

1. Dodge City Times, June 9, 1877. 2. Ibid., July 7, August 11, September 8, October 
6, November 10, December 8, 1877; January 5, February 9, March 9, April 6, May 11, 
1878. 3. Ibid., September 15, 1877. 4. Ibid., October 6, 1877. 5. Ibid., November 17, 
1877. 6. Ibid., December 15, 1877. 7. Ibid., February 9, 23, 1878. 8. March 5, 1878. 
9. Dodge City Times, March 23, 1878. 10. Ibid., April 13, 1878. 11. Prairie Grove 
cemetery later was converted into a residential section and the bodies were for the most 
part removed to Maple Grove cemetery. Local residents of Dodge City say (1960) that 
the body of Edward J. Masterson was not identified when the move was made, and 
further that Bat Masterson, then a New York newspaperman, had tried to locate Ed's 
grave so that a monument could be erected but it could not be found. 



James Masterson, third in age of the Masterson brothers, was also 
the third member of the family to serve on the Dodge City police 
force. Jim was not a newcomer to Dodge when he was appointed. 
He had been in the town at least as early as October, 1877. In Feb- 
ruary, 1878, he was in Dodge again, back from a long buffalo hunt. 
The Dodge City Times, February 23, 1878, mentioned his return: 
"Jim Masterson, brother of Bat and Ed, returned from a buffalo hunt 
this week. He had been absent nearly four months." 

The younger Masterson was hired as a policeman in early June, 
1878; his first salary payment indicating June 1 to be the exact date 
of his appointment. 1 The local newspapers, however, did not report 


his employment until June 11, when the Ford County Globe stated 
that "Policeman Trask has resigned and Jim Masterson has taken 
his place on the force." In any event, within two months of the 
death of Jim's brother Ed, city marshal of Dodge, another Masterson 
was wearing a badge. 

The Dodge City police department in the summer of 1878 con- 
sisted of Marshal Charles E. Bassett, Assistant Marshal Wyatt Earp, 
Policeman John Brown, and Policeman Jim Masterson. The mar- 
shal's salary was $100 while all the others earned $75 a month. 2 

The first activity in which Jim Masterson is reported to have par- 
ticipated occurred in the early morning of July 26, 1878. There is 
an even chance that it was Jim Masterson and not Wyatt Earp who 
shot George Hoy that night. Both of the officers emptied their 
pistols at the fleeing cowboy making it impossible to state posi- 
tively which fired the bullet that dropped the herder. The Times 
article reporting the scrape has been reprinted in the section on 
Wyatt Earp. The Globe, July 30, 1878, said: 


On Friday morning about three o'clock two Texas boys, having saddled their 
horses and started for camp, passed down Bridge street by the Comique Hall. 
As they arrived at the rear end they commenced shooting into the hall, firing 
about five or six shots, all of which passed across the stage or into the ceiling 
of the room. At the time the shooting commenced there were at least 150 
people in the house all enjoying themselves immensely. Fortunately no one 
was, as usual, in the boxes of the Theater, everybody being down on the dancing 
floor, and owing to this fact no person inside the house was hurt, because the 
balls all passed too high to hit anyone on this floor. A general scamper was 
made by the crowd, some getting under the stage, others running out the front 
door, and behind the bar; in the language of the bard, "such a gittin up stairs 
never was seed." 

Our police force was promptly on hand, and they, together with several 
citizens, turned their pistols loose in the direction of the flying horsemen, who 
by this time had nearly reached the bridge. 

In the morning the fruit was gathered in and consisted of Geo. Hoyt [most 
newspaper articles reported his name as Hoy] with his arm broken in two 
places. He, it appears, was one of the horsemen who did the first shooting, and 
was wounded by one of the many bullets fired after him, while fleeing from 
the disturbed peace of the community which at that time was "up on its ear." 
He claims not to have done any shooting; be that as it may he was in bad com- 
pany and has learned a lesson "he wont forget soon." We learn from Dr. T. L. 
McCarty, his physician, that amputation will not be necessary. 

Hoy died from his wound on August 21, 1878. 3 

John Brown was relieved from the police force on August 6, 1878, 
leaving Bassett, Earp, and Masterson, 4 all of whom may have been 
involved in this Dodge City episode: 


Another shooting affair occurred on the "south side" Saturday night. It ap- 
pears that one of the cow boys, becoming intoxicated and quarrelsome, under- 
took to take possession of the bar in the Comique. To this the bar keeper 
objected and a row ensued. Our policemen interfered and had some difficulty 
in handling their man. Several cattle men then engaged in the broil and in the 
excitement some of them were bruised on the head with six shooters. Several 
shots were accidentally fired which created general confusion among the crowd 
of persons present. We are glad to chronicle the fact that none were seriously 
hurt and nobody shot. We however cannot help but regret the too ready use 
of pistols in all rows of such character and would like to see a greater spirit of 
harmony exist between our officers and cattle men so that snarling cayotes and 
killers could make their own fights without interesting or draging good men into 
them. 5 

Officer Jim Masterson, along with Assistant Marshal Earp, was 
on duty the night Dora Hand was shot. Though the two were soon 
at the scene the killer escaped. The story of Dora Hand's death is 
included in the section on Bat Masterson. 

On December 3, 1878, the city council of Dodge City, probably 
in keeping with the fact that the end of the year's cattle season had 
arrived, reduced the expenses of the police force from $250 to $200 
a month. The salaries of Earp and Jim Masterson were cut to $50 
while Bassett's remained at $100. 6 

Jim Masterson was concurrently a deputy sheriff of Ford county, 
serving under his brother Sheriff Bat Masterson. A Times article, 
January 11, 1879, which commended his efficiency in that position, 
was printed in the section on C. E. Bassett. 

As a deputy sheriff Jim aided Bat in guarding seven Cheyenne 
prisoners which the sheriff brought from Fort Leavenworth to stand 
trial for certain atrocities they were alleged to have committed in 
September, 1878, during the last Indian raid in Kansas. The com- 
plete story of the Cheyenne prisoners will be covered in the section 
on Bat Masterson. 

During Jim Masterson's absence at Leavenworth J. J. Webb filled 
his position on the police force. 7 

On April 9, 1879, the city council, in anticipation of the coming 
cattle season, raised the salaries of the assistant marshal and the 
policeman, effective April 12, to $100 a month each. In addition an 
officer was allowed $2 for each arrest he made. 8 

Jim took a week's vacation in May. The Times, May 10, 1879, 
reported: "Officer James Masterson spent a week at his home, near 

One day in May Masterson and Earp faced down seven drovers 
in order to collect a bill for a colored man. The Times article cover- 


ing this has been included in the section on Wyatt Earp. 

Another shooting scrape between cowboys and police rent the air 
on the night of June 9, 1879: 


Last night the police undertook to disarm a squad of cow boys who had 
neglected to lay aside their six-shooters upon arriving in the city. The cow 
boys protested and war was declared. Several shots were fired, and one of the 
cow boys was wounded in the leg. The balance of the cow boys made their 
escape. 9 

Much of the wild life in Dodge had its locale in that portion of 
the city south of the Santa Fe tracks. The editor of the Ford County 
Globe, June 24, 1879, described a typical "good time" in that place: 


The boys and girls across the dead line had a high old time last Friday. They 
sang and danced, and fought and bit, and cut and had a good time generally, 
making music for the entire settlement. Our reporter summed up five knock 
downs, three broken heads, two cuts and several incidental bruises. Unfor- 
tunately none of the injuries will prove fatal. 

Apparently the police often considered such goings on routine and 
did not interfere. 

Although a Las Vegas, N. M., correspondent of the Globe, Octo- 
ber 28, 1879, reported that Jim Masterson was in that town on Octo- 
ber 16 the salary record of the policeman did not indicate an absence 
from duty in Dodge City. 10 

Wyatt Earp left Dodge City early in September, 1879, and about 
the first of November Marshal Bassett also resigned. On November 
4 Policeman Jim Masterson was promoted to the chief marshalship. 
Neil Brown was named assistant marshal and the two earned $100 
a month each. 11 

Dodge City police activities did not make die newspapers during 
the winter of 1879-1880. On May 8, 1880, the Dodge City Times 
mentioned that both Masterson and Brown had been reappointed 
to their respective positions by the newly elected council at a 
meeting held on May 4. Their salaries remained at $100. 

The tenth United States census was enumerated in Dodge as of 
June 22, 1880. Jim Masterson's name appeared on page 19 of the 
Dodge City section. He was listed as being 24 years old, employed 
as city marshal, and living with one Minnie Roberts, a 16-year-old 

Things remained quiet in Dodge all during the cattle season of 
1880. Not one incident involving the city marshal was reported 
by the papers for the remainder of the year. Apparently the town 


was so tranquil that the city fathers thought $100 a month was too 
much salary for services received so on October 5, 1880, a reduction 
was ordered. From November 1, 1880, Marshal Masterson and 
Assistant Marshal Neil Brown each received $50 a month salary. 12 
At last, on January 4, 1881, the quiet of Dodge was broken, not 
by drunken cowboys, hot headed gamblers or vociferous dance- 
hall girls but rather, because of a home triangle situation. The 
Times, January 8, 1881, reported: 


The still air of Tuesday evening, about 8 o'clock, was broken by the report 
of pistol shots; and it is well to add the affair created little or no excitement. 
J. Q. Stultz is a painter by trade, and eighteen months ago, with his wife, 
domiciled under the same roof with A. H. Snyder, a carpenter. There was a 
family rupture, Stultz leaving for Nebraska, and Mrs. Stultz for Illinois. They 
both returned to this county some weeks ago, Mrs. Stultz instituting suit for 
divorce. The wife came into town Tuesday, and her appearance brought both 
Snyder and Stultz to her stopping place. Words brought out pistols, both men 
firing, when the injured and enraged Stultz chased Snyder up the street east of 
the signal office; and while the trembling form of Snyder lay prostrate on the 
ground the outraged and indignant Stultz fired several shots over the disturber 
of his family relations. No shot took effect but Snyder had a close call, the 
powder blackened his face. Both men were arrested. 

As the causes which led to this trouble wiU probably be shown at the present 
term of the District Court we forbear making further comment. 

The police and Mayor Kelley staged their own show on March 
30, according to the Globe of April 5, 1881: 

The agent of the Adams Express Co., at this place, Mr. Ruby, was taken out 
to the railroad water tank last Wednesday, and drenched with water by Mayor 
[James H.] Kelley and his policemen, for writing an article to an Iowa news- 
paper reflecting discreditably upon said officials. 

Mayor Kelley and the entire city council (W. C. Shinn, W. H. 
Harris, C. S. Hungerford, Mike Sutton, and T. J. Draper) were de- 
feated for re-election on April 4, 1881. The defeat cost Masterson 
and Brown their jobs for within two days the new administration 
declared their positions vacant and proceeded to appoint new 
police officers. 13 

A few days after he had been discharged from the police force 
Jim Masterson became involved in a slight shooting scrape with 
bartender Al Updegraff. Masterson, along with A. J. Peacock, 
owned the Lady Gay saloon where Updegraff plied his trade. Pea- 
cock had sided with Updegraff in a controversy concerning one of 
Jim's friends and ultimately Al and Jim took ineffective pot shots 
at each other. 


Either Jim or a friend is said to have telegraphed Bat Masterson, 
who was then in the Southwest, to come to his brother's aid. The 
former sheriff of Ford county arrived in Dodge City a few minutes 
before noon, April 16, 1881, and immediately went gunning for 
Peacock and Updegraff. A lively Front street battle ensued in 
which Updegraff and several noted buildings were perforated. 
Bat was arrested and fined $8 for disturbing the peace. He was 
told, however, to leave the town and and return no more. The 
complete story will be told in the section on Bat Masterson. 

As a postscript to the affair the Dodge City Times, April 21, 1881, 
said: "Jim Masterson and Charley Ronan [who was also involved 
in the incident] have gone west to grow up with the country." 

Jim Masterson returned to Dodge sometime later. In January, 
1889, he was one of the Dodgeites involved in the Gray county 
seat war. This action will be included in the section on William M. 

1. Dodge City Times, July 6, 1878. 2. Ibid., July 6, August 10, September 7, October 

5, December 7, 1878. 3. Ibid., August 24, 1878; Ford County Globe, August 27, 1878. 
4. Dodge City Times, August 10, 1878. 5. Ford County Globe, August 20, 1878. 

6. Dodge City Times, December 7, 1878; January 11, April 12, 1879; Ford County Globe, 
April 15, 1879. 7. Ford County Globe, February 17, 1879. 8. Ibid., April 15; Dodge 
City Times, April 12, May 10, June 7, July 12, August 9, September 6, October 11, No- 
vember 15, 1879. 9. Ford County Globe, June 10, 1879. 10. Dodge City Times, No- 
vember 15, 1879. 11. Ibid., November 15, 1879; January 17, February 14, March 6, 
April 10, May 8, July 10, August 7, September 11, October 9, 1880; Ford County Glcb*, 
November 18, 1879. 12. Dodge City Times, October 9, December 11, 1880; April 14, 
1881. 13. Ibid., April 7, 1881. 



Available Dodge City history of William Barclay "Bat" Masterson 
begins with his enumeration in the second Kansas state census. On 
March 1, 1875, Bat was listed as being 24 years old, a teamster who 
had been born in Kansas but who had moved to this state from 
Illinois. Obviously the census was in error. Most historians agree 
that Bat was born on November 24, 1853, and in Illinois, not Kansas. 
The family moved to Sedgwick county about 1870. 

What Bat did between March, 1875, and April, 1877, cannot be 
traced because of the lack of contemporary information. On April 
28, 1877, however, the Dodge City Times reported a Masterson 
(who was probably Bat but who could have been brothers Ed or 
Jim) as owning a saloon: 

Dodge City is bracing herself up for the cattle trade. Places of refreshment 
are being gorgeously arrayed in new coats of paint and other ornaments to 
beguile the festive cow boy. Masterson & Springer's place can scarcely be 


recognized since the bar has been moved and operated upon by Mr. Weaver's 
brush. The graining is finely executed. Charley Lawson's orchestra are 
mounted on a platform enclosed by and tastefully ornamented with bunting. 

On M ay 6, 1877, the Times reported that the city council had, on 
May 1, approved certain saloon licenses. Master/son's name ap- 
peared again: 

Petitions properly signed and recommending the following parties as suitable 
persons to engage in the keeping of dram shops were presented and accepted: 
Garis & Tilghman, McGinty & Deger, Dunham & Dawson, Beeson & Harris, 
Springer & Masterson, A. J. Peacock, Beatty & Kelley, G. M. Hoover, Rule & 
Smith, Cox & Boyd, Langton & Newton, H. J. Fringer, H. B. Bell, Colley & 
Manion, Chambers & Foster, Henry Sturm. 

The first definite identification of Bat Masterson in available local 
newspapers concerned some trouble he had with the Dodge City 
police force. On June 6, 1877, he tried to prevent the arrest of 
Bobby Gill (Robert Gilmore), a persistent and ubiquitous cowtown 
character. The Times, June 9, described Bat's attempt: 


Bobby GiD done it again. Last Wednesday was a lively day for Dodge. 
Two hundred cattle men in the city; the gang in good shape for business; 
merchants happy, and money flooding the city, is a condition of affairs that 
could not continiie in Dodge very long without an eruption, and that is the 
way it was last Wednesday. Robert Gilmore was making a talk for himself 
in a rather emphatic manner, to which Marshal Deger took exceptions, and 
started for the dog house with him. Bobby walked very leisurely so much 
so that Larry felt it necessary to administer a few paternal kicks in the rear. 
This act was soon interrupted by Bat Masterson, who wound his arm affec- 
tionately around the Marshal's neck and let the prisoner escape. Deger then 
grappled with Bat, at the same time calling upon the bystanders to take the 
offender's gun and assist in the arrest. Joe Mason appeared upon the scene at 
this critical moment and took the gun. But Masterson would not surrender yet, 
and came near getting hold of a pistol from among several which were strewed 
around over the sidewalk, but half a dozen Texas men came to the Marshal's 
aid and gave him a chance to draw his gun and beat Bat over the head until 
blood flew upon Joe Mason so that he kicked, and warded off the blows with his 
arm. Bat Masterson seemed possessed of extraordinary strength, and even" 
inch of the way was closely contested, but the dry dungeon was reached at 
last, and in he went. If he had got hold of his gun before going in there 
would have been a general killing. . . . 

Ed. Masterson accomplished his first official act in the arrest of Bobby 
Gilmore the same afternoon. 

Next day Judge [D. M.] Frost administered the penalty of the law by 
assessing twenty-five and costs to Bat ... and five to Bobby. 

The boys are aD at liberty now. 


James H. Kelley, then mayor of the town, returned some of Bat's 
money. The Times, July 7, 1877, said: "The Mayor, with the con- 
sent of the Council, remitted the fine of $10.00 assessed against the 
defendant in the case of city vs. W. B. Masterson." 

During the summer of 1877 Bat served as under sheriff of Ford 
county, his superior being Charles E. Bassett, sheriff. On August 2 
the county officers pursued one William Samples who had just 
killed Enos Mosley up on the Saw Log. The Times, August 4, 
1877, reported their failure: 

Sheriff Bassett, Under-sheriff Masterson, Al. Updegraff [with whom Bat 
was to have a near fatal altercation in just four years] and one of the herders 
started out soon after the news came to town, and spent two days scouring 
the country in search of Samples but failed to get trace of him. 

Samples, however, was finished off next day by cowboy friends of 

There is little doubt that a degree of enmity existed between Bat 
and Larry Deger, especially since the affair in June when Deger 
had given Bat a pistol whipping. It seems probable, then, that this 
was the reason Bat used his authority as under sheriff to force 
Deger to resign as deputy sheriff, a job he held concurrently with 
the position of city marshal. The Times, August 4, 1877, simply 
stated: "Marshal Deger resigned his position of Deputy Sheriff 
this week, at the request of Under Sheriff Masterson/' 

In early August Bat visited John "Red" Clarke at his ranch on 
the Cimarron river. 1 In September he arrested a horse thief. The 
Times, September 8, 1877, stated: "Under Sheriff Masterson ar- 
rested a man this evening who had stole a horse near Granada last 
week and sold him to a man near Offerle. The prisoner 'put up* 
and was released." 

Nine days later, September 17, Bat was instrumental in prevent- 
ing bloodshed which might have resulted through mistaken identity. 
The protagonists, of all people, were a Dodge City policeman and 
the sheriff of Edwards county, neither of whom recognized the 
other. Let the Dodge City Times, September 22, 1877, tell the 
involved story: 



Last Monday three men came up from near Kinsley with a wagon and team. 
They stopped at Rath & Go's, store and ordered a supply of provisions, saying 
they were going out hunting. Having no gun, they wanted to trade a gold 
watch and chain to Mr. Wright for a gun in his store. Mr. Wright, in the 
goodness of his nature, told them all right, he would take the watch just to 

William B. "Bat" Masterson, sheriff of Edward J. Masterson, Bat's older brother 

Ford county, 1878-1880, as he appeared who, as a Dodge City marshal, was killed 
during his Dodge City days. by drunken cowboys on April 9, 1878. 

James P. Masterson, city marshal of 
Dodge, 1879-1881, and a principal in the 
Peacock -Updegraff- Masterson difficulty of 
April, 1881. 

Rowdy Joe Lowe, the notorious Wichita 
dance hall proprietor (see pp. 98-109). 
Photo courtesy Frontier Book Co., Ruidoso, 
N. Mex. 



Portion of a page from the Delmonico Hotel register, Dodge City, bearing the signature of 
Bat Masterson. Note also the signature of Ed. Prather, a victim of Bill Tilghman's six-gun 
accuracy on July 4, 1888. 


Thomas and Catherine Masterson, parents of Bat, Ed, and Jim Masterson. The Masterson 
family settled in Sedgwick county about 1870, and in 1875 the parents bought a farm in 
Garden Plain township, west of Wichita. 

All Masterson photos, except that of Bat, courfesy of Mrs. Cora Land, Fort Scott, and C. B. 
Masterson, Rockaway Beach, Mo. 


accommodate diem and help them get outfitted. They took the goods and 
gun and loaded them in the wagon, the whole purchase amounting to about 
$120. But instead of calling around at the office to settle and turn over the 
watch, they silently drove out of town taking a southerly direction. As soon 
as their absence was discovered at the store, and that they had really skipped 
out, one of the employees Mr. Strauss, was sent to overtake and remind them 
of the little bill they had left behind unpaid. He overtook them several miles 
south of here and asked them to come back or give him the amount due. They 
asked him if he was an officer, and he said he was not. They were not very 
obedient; did not like to come back and would not give up any money. After 
fooling for some time they said they would give him the watch, which they 
did, and he returned home. 

Being positive that they did have money, and being convinced that they 
had not done exactly the square thing, Mr. Wright sent Under-Sheriff Master- 
son out to overhaul them again. Masterson overtook them, and in his amiable 
manner bulldozed them out of all the money they had, amounting to about 
$25. The watch and chain being worth about $75, the $25 in cash added 
left Rath & Co. out only $20, which they concluded to look out for when the 
hunters returned. They could have taken the gun, but this would have left 
the hunters without means of hunting, so they were allowed to keep it. 

But the joke of this transaction if joke it be was the fact that on this 
same evening Sheriff McCanse, of Edwards county, arrived with two deputies, 
after this same party of hunters, charging them with having taken the watch 
and chain and the wagon in about the same manner as they took the goods 
from Rath & Co. As McCanse and his men came riding up the road on their 
way here, they passed the residence of Mr. J. E. Van Voorhis, who has been 
searching for some horse thieves of late. Mr. Van Voorhis saw the sheriff and 
his men riding rapidly, and it being about dark he immediately took them to 
be the thieves he was looking for, and hitching his horse to his buggy gave 
chase, following close at their heels until he reached this city, where he im- 
mediately informed our sheriff and police, and pointed out the supposed thieves, 
who were then putting up their horses at Anderson's livery stable. Under 
Sheriff Masterson and Policeman Mason immediately rushed over to the stable. 
Masterson met one of the men, took his pistol and made him a prisoner. Mason 
pointed two ivory-handled guns at another, and completely covered him. The 
last man they met was Sheriff McCanse. Mason seized his revolver, but Mc- 
Canse did not like the idea of losing his gun, and held on to it. It was very 
opportune that Masterson came up just then and recognized McCanse, as our 
Joe might have had trouble in arresting him. But we firmly believe that if 
McCanse had not been identified, our Dodge City "braves" would have cap- 
tured the Edwards county crowd without losing a man. It was all a mistake, 
and the principal part of the joke is on Mr. Van Voorhis. 

That same evening McCanse and his men went on south after the hunters, 
whom they captured without any resistance a few days drive south of here, and 
took them back to Kinsley. 

One of the hunters gave him name here as Samuel Miller, but other parties 
say his name is Gooddale. There were two others with him. 

In spite of the not too amiable feelings between the under sheriff 
and City Marshal Deger the former was appointed a special police- 



man on the city force on September 17. The Dodge City police 
department then consisted of Marshal L. E. Deger, Assistant Mar- 
shal Edward J. Masterson, and Policemen Joseph W. Mason, and 
William Barclay Masterson. The terminal date of Bat's employment 
as a city officer is not known, although on October 2, 1877, he was 
paid $25 for his services. At the rate of $2.50 per day, based on 
Mason's salary, this would mean that Bat served ten days or from 
September 17 to September 27. 2 

The only recorded action in which Bat participated as a city 
policeman was the attempted arrest of A. C. Jackson, a "gay and 
festive" cowboy. The Dodge City Times, September 29, 1877, re- 
ported the gunplay as follows: 


Mr. A. C. Jackson is a gay and festive Texas boy, and like all true sons of 
the Lone Star State, he loves to fondle and practice with his revolver in the 
open air. It pleases his ear to hear the sound of this deadly weapon. Aside 
from the general pleasure derived from shooting, the Texas boy makes shooting 
inside the corporate limits of any town or city a specialty. He loves to see 
the inhabitants rushing wildly around to "see what all this shooting is about;" 
and it tickles his heart to the very core to see the City Marshal coming towards 
him at a distance, while he is safe and securely mounted on his pony and 
ready to skip out of town and away from the officer. 

The programme of the Texas boy, then, is to come to town and bum around 
until he gets disgusted with himself, then to mount his pony and ride out 
through the main street, shooting his revolver at every jump. Not shooting 
to hurt any one, but shooting in the air, just to raise a little excitement and 
let people know he is in town. 

In order to put a stop to this, the carrying of concealed weapons within the 
city limits has been prohibited, but this has only partially stopped the practice. 
Several times this summer the town has been thrown into excitement by the 
firing of revolvers in the middle of the streets, and the marshals have become 
very much aggravated over the matter, and determined to put a stop to it if 

Last Tuesday [September 25] the sound of the revolver was heard several 
times in quick succession. The police were on the alert in a moment, and 
everybody rushed toward where the sound came from. Men hatless and 
women with their back hair down hastened to see whether their absent friends 
were safe. But all this excitement was caused by Jackson indulging in his 
favorite amusement of shooting. However, he came out loser, and that 
is some consolation. He was riding down Front street, and about opposite 
Beatty & Kelley's he commenced to shoot. He had shot two or three times, 
when the police got their eyes on him. Bat Masterson ordered him to halt, 
but nary a halt would he. He says, 'I am going to skip out for camp," and 
bang! bang! went his gun. Bat had a gun too, and he immediately brought 
it to bear on the festive cow-boy's horse. Instantly after Bat shot Ed. got in 
a shot. The horse seemed to scringe, but being spurred on dashed out of 
town and off toward camp. Two more shots were fired after him, but without 


effect. Bat then mounted a horse and gave chase, but when he was about to 
hail the shootist again, he found that his own revolver had not a load in its 
chambers. So what else could he do but return? Jackson's horse proved to 
be mortally wounded, but the noble animal carried its rider a mile or two 
from the city at a rapid gait, and then fell to the ground and rose no more. 
Jackson "hoofed it" the balance of the way to the camp. This will probably 
serve as a slight check to the practice of shooting "just for fun" inside the 
city limits. 

On September 27, Bat, as under sheriff, accompanied Bassett and 
J. J. Webb in a futile search for Sam Bass and his Union Pacific 
train robbers. The Dodge City Times story of this chase was in- 
cluded in the section on Bassett. 

With the approach of election time Bat became interested in the 
office of sheriff of Ford county. His friend and the current 
holder of the position, Charley Bassett, was prohibited by the 
state constitution from succeeding himself for a third term. His 
enemy (or at least not a friend), Larry Deger was also interested 
in the job. What better chance, then, not only to add to his already 
impressive laurels as a peace officer but also to humble his Dodge 
City foe by winning the race for sheriff? 

So it was that in the Dodge City Times, October 13, 1877 (the 
same issue in which Deger announced himself as a candidate), Bat 
placed this announcement: 

At the earnest request of many citizens of Ford county, I have consented to 
run for the office of Sheriff at the coming election in this county. While 
earnestly soliciting the suffrages of the people, I have no pledges to make, 
as pledges are usually considered before election to be mere clap-trap. I 
desire to say to the voting public that I am no politician, and shall make no 
combinations that would be likely to in anywise hamper me in the discharge 
of the duties of the office, and should I be elected will put forth my best 
efforts to so discharge the duties of the office that those voting for me shall 
have no occasion to regret having done so. 



The Shinn brothers, W. C. and Lloyd, who owned and edited 
the Dodge City Times, threw Bat a plug in that same issue. October 
13, 1877: 

Mr. W. B. Masterson is on the track for Sheriff, and so announces himself 
in this paper. "Bat" is well known as a young man of nerve and coolness in 
cases of danger. He has served on the police force of this city, and also as 
under-sheriff, and knows just how to gather in the sinners. He is qualified to 
fill the office, and if elected will never shrink from danger. 

On October 27 the Lady Gay Saloon was the scene of a "Peoples' 
Mass Convention." The purpose was to nominate candidates for 


the coining election. Both Larry Deger and Bat were suggested 
for sheriff, but when the vote was taken, Masterson was the choice. 
This, however, did not discourage Deger and he ran anyway. When 
the ballots were counted after the polls closed on November 6, 

1877, Bat had beaten his opponent by three votes. 3 (For more 
information on this election see the section on Lawrence E. Deger. ) 

D. M. Frost, a political opponent of Bat's, was at that time police 
judge of Dodge City. On December 4, 1877, Bat, R. M. Wright, 
P. L. Beatty, H. M. Beverley and others presented a petition to the 
city council asking that Frost's office be declared vacant since the 
judge no longer resided in the city and consequently was not eligible 
for the position. The Times, December 8, noted: 

At the last meeting of the Council a petition was presented asking that the 
office of Police Judge be declared vacant, by reason of the fact that Judge 
Frost resided on his claim and not in the city, but the Judge informed the 
council that he had ceased to reside on his claim and was a resident of the 
city, whereupon the petition was laid upon the table. 

It was at this same council meeting that Bat's brother, Ed, was 
appointed city marshal. 

Though Bat did not assume the duties of his office officially until 
January 14, 1878, he did act as sheriff of Ford county in opening the 
January term of the district court on January 2. 4 After Masterson 
was sworn the Times January 19, 1878, reported: 


W. B. Masterson on the 14th assumed the duties of the office of Sheriff, to 
which he was elected last November, succeeding Chas. E. Bassett who has 
held the office for a period of four years, and who has made many friends. Mr. 
Masterson, on assuming the duties of his office appointed Chas. E. Bassett 
under-Sheriff, Simeon Woodruff, a respectable and trustworthy citizen and 
formerly of the East End, Deputy Sheriff, also our old friend Col. John W. 
Straughn for Jailor. These appointments will meet with the approbation of 
our people, and indicates that Bat intends to do his duty and that to with a 
view to the best interests of the county. 

Within two weeks fate gave the young sheriff an opportunity to 
rise toward glory, and resourceful Bat Masterson was not found 
wanting. It all started at four o'clock, Sunday morning, January 27, 

1878, at the Santa Fe railroad station in Kinsley, 37 miles up the 
line from Dodge. Five men, with faces blackened to avoid recogni- 
tion, stepped out of the darkness and confronted young Andy Kin- 
kade, the night operator, ordering him to throw up his hands. But 
let the Kinsley Valley Republican tell the story: 

At a few minutes before 4 o'clock this (Sunday) morning, five desperadoes 
having faces blackened entered the office of the R. R. depot at this place, sa- 
luting the night operator, Andrew Kinkade, who was at his post, with a "good 


morning," at the same instant "covering" him with revolvers, and demanding 
the money in the office. Mr. Kinkade with a remarkable presence of mind 
replied that there was no funds at his command, at the same time opening an 
empty money drawer. The leader of the gang ordered Mr. K. to "open that 
safe, d d quick, too," at the same time shoving two cocked revolvers in 
his face. Mr. Kinkade informed the party that he did not have the key 
Gardner had charge of it and they could go to him at the hotel adding that 
the funds had gone east on the train a few hours before. Mr. Kinkade bravely 
stood at his post defending two thousand dollars in hard cash of the company's 
funds, which had he faltered would have been taken. The west bound Pueblo 
express was approaching, and something must be done. The five well armed 
highwaymen, confronted by a boy, were foiled. They threatened to blow his 
brains out if he did not open the safe. Kinkade had a small derringer in his 
hip pocket, and cocking it attempted to draw it, when one of the highwaymen, 
noticing his move said: "No, you don't hand that over," and he laid it down 
on the counter. Kinkade knew the hotel men would be there to meet the 
train in a few moments, but when he was ordered outside and marched down 
the platform his only fear was that he could not inform the conductor of the 
danger. Shouting to Blanchard, of the Eureka [hotel], to "go back, these 
men are armed," one of them attempted to strike him. As the train drew up 
Mr. Kinkade escaped, crossing the track in front of the engine, followed by a 
shot. Running down the train he informed conductor Mallory of the danger. 
Blanchard was taken in charge, but made his escape and armed himself. A 
dozen shots were fired into the train, which the robbers stopped after it had 
pulled out 100 yards. Again the train started and was stopped two miles up 
the track, where it was detained 20 minutes and 20 shots exchanged. The 
town was aroused. In company with eight or ten others we boarded a hand 
car and started to the rescue. The train moved off before we reached it, and 
we saw the mounted robbers, six or eight in number, well mounted, approach- 
ing. They crossed the track toward the river, and three or four shots were 
fired at them. A large party well mounted started in pursuit at once. A tele- 
gram from Dodge City at 6 a. m. states that conductor Mallory, engineer 
Anderson and expressman Brown held the fort and lost nothing. 5 

Monday, January 28, the Republican issued a second extra in 
which this appeared: 

Monday, 5 p. m., Jan. 28. ) 

Supt. Pettibone, who arrived this morning from the east, received a tele- 
gram from Dodge City stating that Lieut. Gardner with a detactment of U. S. 
troops from the Fort, captured six of the train robbers on Mule creek yesterday, 
killing one. We present the report for what it is worth, and will add that we 
believe it to be sensational. It was ascertained yesterday that the robbers 
crossed the river 12 miles above Kinsley, and went south through the hills. 
C. L. Hubbs, ex sheriff McCanse, E. A. Noble and N. Billings have just 
returned from the pursuit. They crossed the river at daylight yesterday 
morning, after which they saw no trail, riding to the head of the Kiowa. The 
fog was so dense this morning they returned after riding 115 miles. Sheriff 
Fuller, Clute, Welles and "Calamity Bill" were in Dodge City at 3:30, con- 
sulting with Pettibone. A party of eight well mounted and armed left here 


at 4 o'clock this morning, determined to follow the trail. It has transpired 
that the robbers left the train near the depot, and conductor Mallory stopped 
two miles out to ascertain if the messenger was safe and examine the train. 
The firing was signals of rejoicing over the escape. The robbers had left their 
horses near the tank at midnight, intending to rob the 1:30 express east, 
when it stopped for water. It did not stop. Thus foiled they planned the 
robbery of the Company's safe at the depot, and as a forlorn hope attacked 
the express car of the train west. Then in the darkness they ran two miles 
to their horses, closely pursued by the hand car party, when they mounted 
and escaped. We received orders this morning from Supt. Morse to strike 
posters offering $100 reward each for the capture of the masked robbers 
"dead or alive." 

LATER. Sheriff Fuller just returned on a special train from Dodge. Lieut. 
Gardner with a detactment of U. S. troops in hot pursuit of robbers south of 
the river. 6 

The Republican issued a third extra on Tuesday, January 29: 

At this writing the highwaymen have not been captured, neither do we 
harbor faith equal to a grain of mustard seed that they will be taken in. There 
was perhaps a blunder on the part of our officials and posse in not mounting 
in hot haste and pursuing the disappointed night riders immediately. Yet we 
cannot censure, for the surroundings offer a broad margin of justification. The 
attack was unexpected as an earthquake. The excitement ran high. It 
required time for men of nerve to realize the situation and act intelligently. 
Sheriff Fuller started in pursuit with a well armed party as early as possible. 
The blunder in not crossing the river was perhaps excusable, as no trail could 
then be traced. The failure of the sheriff of Ford County to co-operate with the 
Kinsley party was as it appears to us inexcusable, and the excuse assigned is 
"too thin." The attempt feeble indeed on the part of certain parties to 
implicate citizens of Edwards county in the diabolical plot is contemptable, 
and we hurl it back. The deliberate and well planned scheme of the foiled 
robbers signally failed, and our officials and citizens including the brave 
boy who firmly stood at his post at the depot did nobly. Without the hope 
of reward further than the performance of duty, a score of our best citizens 
have for three days and nights been in pursuit, exposed to the wintry storm. 
We congratulate the Santa Fe Company on the result of the raid, and that 
the masked marauders failed in their efforts is due in the main to the 
excellent discipline and moral courage of the employees and the fact that the 
company has wisely prepared for emergencies. If these frontier night 
marauders have any ambition to raise a stake in the future, they are advised 
to give the Santa Fe a wide berth if they don't want to get hurt. 7 

Referring to the Republican's censure of Sheriff Masterson the 
Ford County Globe, February 5, 1878, had this to say: 

The Kinsley Republican extra of Jan. 29th, says that the failure of our 
Sheriff to co operate with the Kinsley posse, in hunting the train robbers, was 
inexcusable; and the excuse he assigned is a little "too thin." Now Mr. 
Republican, we don't know what you mean by his excuse, but have this to 
say: Our Sheriff is not in circumstances that will warrant him in incurring 
the expense necessary to hire horses, employ a posse of men, and pay their 


expenses, even to hunt train robbers whose crime was committed in a neigh- 
boring county; unless, those expenses are guaranteed by somebody. We are 
personly not on squeezing terms with our sheriff, but when as an officer he 
is unjustly assailed, we feel it our duty to defend him, as well as any other 
officer in our county. We know that he has the stuff in his make up to be a 
good officer, and when he does right we will be found telling him so with the 
same spirit of justice that will guide us to tell him he is wrong, when we con- 
sider him so. We think that our Sheriff's hunt for the train robbers has ac- 
complished more than the hunt of all the other possees, even if his departure 
was not heralded with blasts of trumpets, news paper extras, &tc. 

The Globes last sentence referred to Bat's successful pursuit of 
two of the robbers. The Dodge City Times, February 2, 1878, first 
told of his achievement: 





There was a slight ripple which disturbed the usual quiet of Dodge City 
yesterday evening about 6 o'clock, and increased in volume as the startling 
announcement spread over the city bearing the gratifying intelligence that 
W. B. Masterson, Sheriff of Ford county, and posse had returned from a four 
days hunt, bringing with them two of the gang that made the raid on the 
town of Kinsley and attempted the robbery of the railroad agent and the 
western bound express train. The programme for this successful capture 
was well laid, and what may have appeared as indifference and tardiness has 
since shown to be a matured and well devised effort to follow a successful 
capture. The prudence and strategy is highly commendable. The nerve 
skill and energy of Sheriff Masterson and gallant posse is recorded as a brilliant 
achievement and is receiving just tribute for so daring a venture accomplished 
so adroitly and maneuvered with the skill of a warrior. 

Sheriff Masterson started on this trail Tuesday afternoon from Dodge City, 
and went as far as Crooked creek, 27 miles, the first day. The party was 
snowed in and had to lay over one day. Next day went 35 miles further to 
LovelTs cattle camp, on mouth of Crooked creek, 55 miles from Dodge City, 
arriving there at sundown, and remained there next day until afternoon. The 
storm was terrible about 5 p. m. when four men approached the camp, two 
of them being the subsequently arrested parties. When within a few hundred 
yards of the camp they discovered the Sheriff's buggy and horses, and asked 
the other two, who were cattle men, what strange outfit that was. One of the 
cattlemen recognized a horse from Anderson's stable, and told them so. They 
hesitated, the boss herder telling them to come on, which they finally did, 
when [John J.] Webb, one of the Sheriff's men, went out to meet them, 
and told them he was on his way to Geo. Anderson's. They came in with 
Webb, and were decoyed to a dug out where the Sheriff and his party were 
concealed. Bat stood up behind a post, and came out from his concealment 


and presenting his pistols told the two outlaws to throw up their hands, 
which they did, when Kinch Riley, one of the Sheriff's posse, searched them, 
and took away a Colt's 45, Smith & Wesson's improved. After Riley had 
taken a pistol from each and supposed that was all, Sheriff Bat Masterson saw 
that one of the men had another, and when he went to take it the prisoner 
tried to hold on to it. They also had guns, one a 40 Sharp's sporting rifle and 
the other a 45 calibre Government carbine. 

The prisoners wanted to know what was the matter. The Sheriff replied that 
they were arrested on a charge of attempting to rob the train. They made 
no answer nor did they deny what was charged. 

The arrested parties are two well known desperadoes, but quailed under 
the intrepid, cool and daring movements of Sheriff Bat Masterson. Ed. West, 
the older of the two, is about twenty-six years old, and is a notorious thieving 
character; Dave Ruddebaugh is about twenty-three years of age, and has 
lead a wild career in crime. They may have to answer to a catalogue of 
crimes. The prisoners are safely secured in the Ford county jail, but will 
be placed to the charge of the authorities of Edwards county. 

The sheriffs party composed himself, J. J. Webb, Dave Morrow and Kinch 
Riley. They were under the direction of the Adams Express Company, by 
whom the pursuit was arranged, and the well devised and executed capture 
reflects credit, good judgment and bravery upon all who engaged in it. 

There are four others who were engaged in the train robbery. Their capture 
is only a question of time. 

Harry Lovell had three good horses stolen Wednesday night, and his 
cattle men were on the return of a search for them, accompanied by those 
two robbers whom they met on the way, when they were apprised by the 
Sheriff and his posse. 

The prisoners will be conveyed to Kinsley tonight, and a preliminary trial 
had immediately. 

Bat's "intrepid" posse was composed of an interesting group. 
John Joshua Webb served as a Dodge City policeman, as a Ford 
county deputy sheriff, and as a leader in the struggle between the 
Santa Fe and the Denver & Rio Grande for control of the right of 
way through the Grand Canyon of the Arkansas. In 1880 he was 
made marshal of Las Vegas, N. M., and in that capacity shot and 
killed a man for which act he was arrested, tried, and sentenced to 
die. Peculiarly enough one of the several attempts Webb made to 
escape was abetted by Dave Rudabaugh, the man he had helped 
Bat Masterson capture. 

Dave Morrow, or "Prairie Dog Dave," as he was known, was an 
old timer in Dodge. He also served as a Dodge City policeman as 
well as a Dodge township constable. Prairie Dog Dave and Bat 
Masterson continued their Dodge City friendship for many years. 

Kinch Riley had been a companion of Bat's in the Adobe Walls 
fight in June, 1874. The Dodge City Times, September 20, 1879, 
said of him: "He had been wounded and bruised in a 


number of personal encounters. He has undergone many severe 
trials and exposures, and made many narrow escapes. . , ". 
He was brave and kind. . . ." 

The Ford County Globe, February 5, 1878, gave some more par- 
ticulars of the capture: 




The attempted train robbers spoken of in our last issue, caused a number 
of parties to start in pursuit. Sheriff Masterson of our county, with J. J. Webb, 
David Morrow and Riley having struck a "scent" ambushed themselves on 
last Thursday at Mr. Lovells cattle camp, some 65 miles south of Dodge City. 
After some hours waiting two horsemen cautiously approached from the north 
east. Their motions indicating their fear of coming up. Mr. Webb with con- 
cealed revolver went out to meet them, after some talk they came within shoot- 
ing distance when Masterson springing out with leveled rifle sang out his well 
known "throw up your hands." West at once complied, but Reudebaugh 
reached for his revolver; the click of Webb's gun at close quarters changed 
his mind, however, and both surrendered and were disarmed. Each carried a 
rifle and two revolvers, all best quality. The party arrived in Dodge City about 
6 o'clock P. M. Friday evening, having stopped all night during the storm in 
camp. Capt. J. M. Thatcher, the general agent of Adams Express Company, 
and who has been managing the pursuits, with his attorney, interviewed them 
the same night. The result we are not at liberty to divulge but it was conclusive 
to Messrs. Thatcher and Gryden. A special train at once went to Kinsley re- 
turning at 11 A. M. on Saturday with necessary documents and the prisoners 
were at 3 P. M. in charge of a large posse conveyed to Kinsley by special train. 
Kinsley was reached at 4:30 P. M., the town having turned out en mass to re- 
ceive them. We have forgotten to mention that Wm. Tilghman was also ar- 
rested just before the train left. The three prisoners were brought into the 
spacious court room, which was densely filled with the curious. Reudebaugh 
and West being shackled together. Justice Willey presided. The prisoners 
having been promptly turned over to the court, Mr. Gryden opened by explain- 
ing his connection with the case, and asked that Reudebaugh be first put on 
trial. Reudebaugh (who is positively identified by Mr. Kingkade the operator, 
as the man who disarmed him and who conversed with him over five minutes, ) 
was perfectly cool, and with the tact of an old hand waived a preliminary ex- 
amination, and was held in $4,000 bail for his appearance at the June Term of 
Dist. Court. Reudebaugh is a good looking specimen of the border ruffian, and 
was cool and collected throughout the arguments of the attorneys on the ques- 
tion of amount of bail. 

Edgar West was next brought in, he is tall, and low browed, with black 
mustache and hair and "looks the villain" he too waived an examination and 
was held in $4,000 bail. 

Wm. Tilghman who is we believe, merely held on suspicion of being a "wire 
puller" for the party, declared himself ready for trial. The State not being 
ready his case was continued ten days, and his bail fixed at $4,000. The prison- 


ers were all remanded to the jail of Ford County where they were safely lodged 
in charge of jailor Strong [Straughn] at 10:30 P. M. 

Sunday afternoon Messrs. Gryden and Phillips, took a special for Kinsley 
and returned during the night with warrants for three more of the party, but 
whose names we are unable to obtain. There are no new developments up to 
the hour of going to press. 8 

On February 5, 1878, Sheriff Masterson arrested one James Mc- 
Duff accused of horse thievery. The Times, February 9, stated: 

The successful efforts of Sheriff W. B. Masterson, in his recent capture, has 
been followed by another arrest remarkable in skill and judgment. The unan- 
imous accord of praise, in speaking of Sheriff Masterson, as being the right 
man in the right place, evinces also the hope that the career of crime will not 
stalk naked hereafter in this section of the Arkansas Valley. The feeling is 
indulged in a better security of life and property through the vigilance of our 
officers. The spell has been broken and the heretofore difficult task of appre- 
hending outlaws regarded out of the question, since the band of outlaws has 
been shattered. 

We mentioned a few days ago that Mr. Miles Mix had lost a span of horses. 
Obtaining clue, Sheriff Masterson boarded the train Tuesday morning for Las 
Animas, where he found one James McDuff, a notorious character, and promptly 
arrested him, having searched for his man under the bed in a dance house. To 
accomplish this purpose Sheriff Masterson took in tow another well known char- 
acter, who, to avoid incarceration, disclosed the hiding place of McDuff. 

The stolen horses were disposed of by McDuff for small sums of money. The 
recovery of only one of the horses seems probable, the other have been run off. 

Sheriff Masterson and Mr. Mix returned Wednesday night with the prisoner, 
who has been furnished accommodations in the Hotel de Straughn. 

This is but the prelude of the interesting drama on the boards, and the 
sequel will develop some startling characters in the clutches of the officers. 9 

The Kinsley Valley Republican thought McDuff was connected 
with the attempted train robbery. On February 9, 1878, it said: 

The notorious MacDuff, known as "Duffy/* was arrested by Sheriff Master- 
son's party in a cellar at West Las Animas Tuesday evening, and brought to 
Dodge yesterday. The network of evidence has been so ingeniously thrown 
around the entire gang that they can't escape. Important developments are 
pending which will be made public at the earliest moment consistent. 

The Dodge City Times, February 9, 1878, reported: 


James McDuff, arrested on a charge of horse stealing, was bound over in 
the sum of $2,000, in default of which he was returned to jail. The prisoner 
is charged only with horse stealing, but an attempt was made to take him to 
Kinsley, and Sheriff Masterson, acting under advice of the County Attorney 
M W Sutton, refused to give up the prisoner. The "interview" was had as well 
in Ford county, inasmuch as the prisoner was arrested on a warrant issued in 
this county, and his detention here frustrates any cheap notoriety, as the law 
will take its course, thieves ferreted, and justice prevail. 


Receiving a lead that more of the robbers were holed up on the 
Llano Estacado, Bat recruited another posse and rode south on 
February 10. The Ford County Globe, February 12, 1878, said: 

Sheriff Masterson, Chas. E. Bassett, J. J. Webb, John Clark and H. Lovell, 
started Sunday morning, for the prairie in quest of more of the gang of train 
robbers. We don't know that our boys will be successful in capturing any more 
of the gang, but we do say that no better posse ever undertook such a duty. 
We know that every man in the party has the sand and nerve to go where any 
other man on earth dares to go. If the robbers are not captured it will not be 
for want of bravery, coolness or strategy, on the part of Sheriff Masterson or his 
posse. Wishing them success, we await further developments. 

In reply to the Ford County Globe's February 5 defense of Bat's 
actions, the Kinsley Republican merely stated: "We give Sheriff 
Masterson of Ford due credit for his activity in pursuing and captur- 
ing the brigands. He did his duty finally and no more." The Globe, 
which reprinted the item February 12, 1878, merely appended a 
polite "thank you." 

By February 9 the Republican appeared ready to bury the hatchet 
with the Dodge City newspapers. On February 16 it said: 

Sheriff Masterson of Ford county started for the staked plains last Sunday 
with a well armed posse for the purpose of capturing the raiders yet at large, 
where it is reported they are fortified in a "dug out" determined to resist arrest. 
Masterson can and we believe he will bring them back dead or alive it matters 
little which. Reudebaugh and West, two of the brigands, are now behind the 
bars of the Emporia dungeon, thanks to the efficiency of Ford county officials. 
Much light has been thrown on the diabolical scheme of the raiders which will 
yet be ventilated. Let every official or agent do his whole duty until the end 
is reached. The question is not whether the officials or attorneys of Edwards 
or Ford counties shall receive the major part of credit for their efforts, but 
rather shall any guilty man escape? We confess that we were disposed to think 
ten days ago that justice would be cheated but the raiders have been hunted 
to their dens, and if they are gathered in as we now have reasons for believing 
they will be, faithful officials will receive due credit no less than our brave 
citizens who generously went forth in pursuit, and we shall not stop to inquire 
what the means used to accomplish the end. It is enough for us to know that 
the guilty are to be brought to justice and the good name of our own county 
vindicated from aspersions from sources of questionable reliability. . . . 

On February 15 G. H. Syburt came into Dodge with news of Mas- 
terson's progress. The Times, February 16, 1878, reported: 





G. H. Syburt came in yesterday evening from LovelTs camp, having left there 
two days ago. Sheriff Masterson and posse arrived there on the 12th. Three 


of the attempted train robbers, Mike Roarke, a fellow named Mack, and one 
name unknown, had left the vicinity of Lovell's camp only two hours before the 
arrival of the Sheriff. The Sheriff and party immediately followed [in] pursuit, 
trailing the robbers to Beaver creek, Sybert went with the Sheriff twelve miles 
out from Lovell's, where the Sheriff and party intended staying all night, when 
Syburt returned yesterday as we have stated. 

The Sheriff and posse had kept in advance of their provision wagon, and so 
closely were they on the trail of the robbers that they were 30 hours without 

Roarke said at the camp that he understood he was charged with the at- 
tempted train robbery, and that officers were in search of him, but he was ready 
for them at any time. Would meet them at any place. They might send the 
whole city of Dodge and he would fight them anywhere. 

Beaver river is about 80 miles south of Dodge City in the stock range, in a 
strip between Kansas and Texas, the neck of the Indian Territory. 

Sheriff Masterson and party, C. E. Bassett, J. J. Webb and Miles Mix, left 
here Sunday. They were well armed and equipped. 

Roarke is a desperate character, and may give Sheriff Masterson a severe 
struggle. A capture without a bloody encounter, seems almost improbable. 10 

The sheriff and his posse returned home on February 22. Next 
day the Dodge City Times described their unsuccessful chase: 


The party started from Dodge City on the J Oth, consisting of Sheriff Master- 
son, C. E. Bassett, J. J. Webb and Red Clarke; went to Walker's Timber, on 
Crooked creek, the first day, then to Lovell's camp. On the way to Lovell's 
they met one of Lovell's men, who told them that Mike Roark and Dan Web- 
ster had been at the camp that morning, and had only left three or four hours 
before, for Shepherd's camp, fifteen miles further south. The posse at once 
started for Shepherd's camp, and when they arrived there found that Roark 
and Webster had left a few hours before for their own camp, on a tributary of 
the Beaver, about thirty-five miles further. The boys took a hasty dinner and 
hurried after the robbers, their trail being plainly visible. Night overtook the 
party on the Cimaron river, and it was impossible to see the trail, but they still 
traveled in the direction the robbers had taken until they reached a branch of 
Beaver creek, about midnight. Here they expected to find the robbers en- 
camped and alighting from their horses they cautiously made their way down 
the stream to Beaver, about five or six miles further, but failed to discover any 
sign of the robbers. 

Keeping on down the Beaver they soon struck the robber's trail again, and 
followed it in a southeasterly direction for about fifteen miles; here they 
found a deserted camp in a plumb thicket. From this camp the robbers had 
taken a wagon and more stock, making a much plainer trail. The trail 
seemed to indicate that two more men had joined the gang here. Following 
this trail they went through the head breaks of the Kiawa or Medicine Lodge 
creek, then west to Jones & Plummer's ranche on Wolf creek, where the 
robbers, feeling themselves too closely pursued, had left their wagon, harness 
and camp equipage and struck out on horseback. The robbers had left this 


camp about fifteen hours before our party arrived. They had gained one night's 
travel owing to the fact that the Sheriff and party could not follow their trail 
at night, while the robbers traveled both day and night. After leaving Jones 
and Plummer's ranche, the robbers were trailed some distance to where they 
entered the breaks of the Canadian river, in Texas, and here they seemed to 
have seperated as their trail was lost. The Sheriff and his men after a fruitless 
search had to give up their game. The place where the robbers have taken 
refuge is one of the wildest and most broken countries in the world, and affords 
a perfectly safe retreat for the robbers. They can here find hiding places 
where all the advantage is on their side in such a search. The Sheriff and his 
posse were absent thirteen days and did some hard riding, traveling between 
five and six hundred miles. 11 

As luck would have it Bat was soon able to capture two more of 
the robbers. The arrests were made right in Dodge City, March 15, 
the Times reported on March 16, 1878: 







Tom Gott alias Dugan, and Green, two of the gang who attempted the 
robbery of the train at Kinsley some weeks ago, were arrested at about nine 
o'clock last night, on the bottom just on the outskirts southwest of Dodge City, 
by Sheriff Masterson, Under Sheriff Bassett and City Marshal Ed. Masterson. 

At about nine o'clock, Officer Nat Haywood, returning from his rounds on 
the south side of the railroad track, reported to Sheriff Masterson that he had 
seen Tom Gott alias Dugan, at one of the dance houses, the officer not then 
knowing that Dugan was charged with the attempted railroad robbery. 
Sheriff Masterson immediately summoned Under Sheriff Bassett and Marshal 
Masterson, who were at his side, and the three officers started in quest of the 
two fugitives. Arriving at Anderson's stable the officers were informed that 
two men had just passed by on the south side of the stable and were making 
their way up the bottom. The officers proceeded in haste and were soon within 
sight of the robbers, who, observing they were being tracked, put out on a 
brisk run. The clear moonlight night afforded an easy chase, and the officers 
soon pounced upon their victims and which proved to be a desired catch. The 
robbers showed some resistance, but one of them found his revolver entangled 
in his clothing. 

The prisoners were taken to the jail and locked up. Dugan stated that they 
had left three horses hitched to a tree about a mile west of the city. Subse- 
quently the three officers above named made a scour of the country and found 
two horses and a mule, all saddled, and strapped to each was a carbine, and 
a Creedmore rifle. 

There were evidently four in the party, the other two being the notorious 
characters Mike Roarke and one Lafeu. It is said that all four were in town 
during the evening, and they came to ascertain the condition of affairs, having 
so long been uninformed, and little fearing a capture they boldly ventured to 


a less frequented part of the city. But the officers of this city and county are 
vigilant and quick to do their duty. They know no fear and will beard the 
lion in his den. 

The officers scoured the surrounding country for Mike Roarke and Lafeu, 
but these worthies with their well known sagacity eluded the pursuit, having 
made a dash in and out of the environs of Dodge City in their stealth, and 
stillness of the night. 

Marshal Masterson took the two prisoners Gott and Green to Kinsley this 
afternoon, where they will have a preliminary examination. Gott or Dugan is 
about 22 years of age and Green is 25 years old. Last year they were engaged 
in driving on the plains, and are well known to the citizens of the city. 

A party under charge of Sheriff W. B. Masterson, consisting of himself, 
Under Sheriff C. E. Bassett, J. J. Webb and Jas. Masterson, left this city to-day 
and will follow the supposed trail of Roarke and Lafeu. Their capture is 
highly probable. These two are the remaining ones of the gang of six who 
attempted the train robbery. In all events their capture is but a question 
of time. 12 

Unfortunately "the Sheriffs posse, that went out last Saturday, 
hunting for Mike Roarke, who was supposed to be in the neighbor- 
hood, returned without success/' 13 

On March 23, 1878, the Dodge City Times described the trip to 
Kinsley and the disposition of the prisoners: 


Last Saturday afternoon a special car, with Superintendent W. H. Pettibone 
as conductor, and Frank B. Lowe as engineer, left the Dodge City depot for 
Kinsley carrying Greene and Gott, the two train robbers, and James Duffy, a 
prisoner bound over on the charge of horse stealing. The officers in charge 
of the prisoners were City Marshal Edward J. Masterson, Col. D. D. Colley 
and Ben Springer, special deputies. Accompanying the officers and prisoners 
were M. W. Sutton, County Attorney and attorney for the railroad company, 
Major Dick Evans, Ex-Mayor Hoover and Lloyd Shinn of the TIMES. 

Duffy was taken along more on account of the opportunity the trip afforded 
for giving him a good airing than anything else, his confinement being very 
close and dark in the county jail. 

As the people at Spearville had not yet learned of the capture of the rob- 
bers, and did not know what the special car contained, no demonstration was 
made. At Offerle the train was compelled to wait half an hour to allow the 
west bound freight to pass, during which time several parties visited the car 
and took a look at the prisoners this being the first news they had received of 
the capture. 

Arriving at Kinsley everything was quiet about the depot, the Agent having 
apprized no one of the expected arrival. But as the prisoners were being 
marched up to the Justice's office, handcuffed together, a crowd gathered 
round to "see what they could see." The Justice's office being very small but 
few spectators were allowed inside. 

Justice Willy read the complaint to the prisoners and they both waived an 


examination and plead not guilty. We understand they agreed to do this 
before the hearing came on, so as not to make any trouble on the part of 
the prosecution. 

County Attorney McArthur, and Sheriff Fuller of Edwards county were 
there promptly to attend to their duties, and both seem to be good, honest 

The two prisoners, Greene and Gott, are men of more than ordinary natural 
intelligence especially Greene. It is said that he ranks next to Mike Roarke 
as a leader of the organized gang. He has an intellectual countenance, eyes 
rather sunken, protruding forehead and rather a stupid disposition. Gott is 
more boyish and talkative. 

Not a particle of doubt exists as to their guilt, as Sheriff Masterson, from 
descriptions &c., has had them spotted ever since the robbery. 

To prove the daring of their character we give the following: 

Immediately after their examination they were placed in an upstairs room 
and a Deputy Sheriff left to guard them; Duffy was also in this room, but was 
not handcuffed as the other two were. One of the robbers seeing the Deputy 
Sheriff near the window, ordered Duffy to slip up and pitch him out, thus 
giving them a chance to escape. Duffy refused, whereupon the two men who 
were handcuffed to-gether by one arm approached the officer to perform the 
act themselves, but he was on the alert and foiled the attempt. 

The Dodge City party remained in Kinsley only about an hour just long 
enough to see what a busy, growing, beautiful town it is, and to greet a few 
old friends, such as Flick, Brewer Clute, Hubbs' Milner and others. We re- 
turned by moonlight all roosting on Frank B. Lowe's engine, and had a jolly 

Marshal Masterson and Sheriff Fuller took Green and Gott on down to the 
Emporia jail the same evening. 

On March 28 "Sheriff Masterson of Ford county, was in the city 
[Kinsley] . . . consulting with Mr. Herrington, attorney of 
the alleged train robbers, in reference to disposition of property that 
he captured with them." 14 

The trial of the four accused prisoners was to be held in Kinsley 

on June 17, 1878. But first they had to be brought from Emporia 

where they had been taken for safety's sake. Bat left Dodge on 

June 14 to perform that deed. The Times, June 15, 1878, reported: 


Sheriff W. B. Masterson left last night for Emporia. He will be followed by 
Jos. Mason, Al. Updegraff, Thomas Campbell and Frank Richards, who will 
act as guard in conveying the attempted train robbers from the Emporia jail 
to Kinsley. The District Court meets at Kinsley Monday. Dave Ruddebaugh, 
Ed. West, Tom Gott and J. D. Green, charged with the attempted train rob- 
bery at Kinsley, on the night of January 27th, 1878, will be tried at this term 
of the court in Kinsley. The prisoners have been confined in the Emporia 
jail since their preliminary examination. 


Because of flooding in the Arkansas valley the trial was not com- 
menced until June 19. The Kinsley Graphic, successor to the Re- 
publican, reported the proceedings on June 22, 1878: 




By reason of the floods down the Valley Judge [S. R.] Peters did not arrive 
until late Tuesday evening. . . . 

State of Kansas vs. David Rudabaugh et al. Issue robbery first degree. The 
following motions were made: By defendants for State to elect which of two 
counts they would go to trial on. Stood on first, Robbery of Kingkade of pistol. 
Motion by defendants to strike information from files on account of there having 
been no preliminary examination for offence charged in information. Overruled, 
Def ts excepted. Defendants motion that information be stricken from files 
because it had not been sworn to. Overruled and exceptions noted. 

Thomas Gott brought into Court. Affidavit for continuance filed on account 
of the absence of material witnesses. Affidavit adjudged sufficient and admitted 
as deposition. Separate trial demanded as to Thomas Gott, who was arraigned 
and plead not guilty. After some delay a jury was secured composed of the fol- 
lowing citizens: J. E. Crane, A. L. Kendall, G. W. Wilson, J. F. White, W. L. 
Hunter, Walter Robley, J. T. Carter, S. S. Hart, J. D. Verney, Geo. N. Wear, 
S. T. Reed, N. L. Mills. The prosecution was ably conducted by County At- 
torney MacArthur, assisted by Capt. J. G. Waters, and M. W. Sutton of Ford 
county, and the defense well managed by B. F. Herrington of the Edwards 
county bar, and A. A. Hurd of Great Bend. The following witnesses were 
called to the stand and testified: Andrew Kingkade, David Rudabaugh, W. 
H. Pettibone, J. W. Mallory, James Duffy, Charles Palmer, J. M. Anderson, H. 
A. Brown, W. F. Blanchard, Thomas Palmer, John Slatterly and James Ham- 
mond. The story of the 'raid/ as related by the several witnesses was the same 
that we published through 'extras' at the time, but there was a sensation when 
Dave Rudabaugh's confession was given in testimony, and the confessed outlaw 
related the story of how the brigands deliberately planned their diabolical 
scheme on Wolf Creek, in the Pan Handle country, to come to Kinsley and 
rob the Santa Fe train. The preparations made to carry out their plans; the 
route they came; the places assigned each man by their leader Rourke; how they 
were foiled in their original plan of robbing the east bound train; their attack 
on the night operator and attempt to rob the express car, their escape, wander- 
ings and final capture, as told, would make an interesting chapter of crime on 
the frontier. 


On the convening of Court yesterday morning, it was whispered that the 
prisoners West, Green and Gott had been advised to plead guilty. They were 
brought into Court, the charge read, and each of them responded "guilty." The 
Judge then interrogated each of them regarding their past lives, their families, 
etc., after which he addressed them directly for half an hour upon the lives 


they had led, the laws they had violated, and the sentence it was his duty to 
pass upon them. The Judge stated that the most unpleasant duty he as an 
officer had to perform was that of passing sentence upon young men. The 
punishment though severe would cause other hearts to suffer. That mother 
whose love could not be fathomed, which could not be expressed in words; 
those loving sisters and brothers they would be disgraced. The disposition 
in our society to encourage crime among our young men who are thrown on 
their own resources here in the West, and from whom a kind word is with- 
held ofttimes, was severely condemned by the Judge. After speaking words 
of encouragement, importuning the prisoners to despair not but then to resolve 
to lead different lives and be men, each of them was sentenced to five years at 
hard labor in the State penitentiary at Leavenworth. At 1 p. m. Sheriff Fuller, 
assisted by A. Menny, W. Barkman and V. D. Billings, started for Leavenworth 
with the prisoners on a special train. Rudabaugh was taken as far as Newton, 
where he was released. Thus endeth the first chapter. 

In the same issue of the Graphic some incidentals of the trial were 

The handsome young Sheriff of Pawnee, Mr. Christy, and Sheriff Masterson 
of Ford, the brave and popular young official of the frontier, have been with 
us this week. 

Kingkade's story of the 'raid' implicated Rudabaugh as the ringleader. 

Rudabaugh testified that he was promised entire immunity from punishment 
if he would 'squeal/ therefore he squole. 

Some one has said there is a kind of honor among thieves. Rudabaugh 
don't think so. 

There was less difficulty in securing a jury in the robbery case than was 

Rudabaugh explained that he did not pursue Kingkade and 'the other man/ 
as they seemed to be needing no help to get out of the way. 

While the three prisoners sentenced were doubtless the least guilty of the 
six engaged in the raid, yet their punishment was just. 

In answer to the question of the Judge, 'Had you a pleasant home?* two 
answered 'yes/ one 'no/ two have mothers living, one a father who was present, 
and all had brothers and sisters. 

Mike Rourke and two companions, one of whom was named 
Tilman (which might have been the cause for the arrest of Dodge 
City's William M. Tilghman) were discovered 11 miles south of 
Ellsworth in October, 1878. Rourke was promptly captured and 
placed in jail at Junction City but no record was found of his ulti- 
mate fate. 15 

Rudabaugh, who by turning state's evidence against his former 
comrades, secured his own release, turned up in Dodge City in 
March, 1879. The Ford County Globe, March 18, reported: 

Dave Rudebaugh, who was arrested as one of the Kinsley train robbers, 
but turned state's evidence and was discharged, arrived in this city last week 



from Butler county, where he was a witness against Mike Roarke. Rudebaugh 
is looking for a job of work and intends to earn his living on the square. 

In April, 1880, Rudabaugh attempted the rescue of J. J. Webb 
from a Las Vegas, N. M., jail and then turned to riding witb Wil- 
liam "Billy the Kid" Bonney. The year 1882 saw him ambushing 
Wyatt Earp in Arizona. By 1885 he was in Mexico, soon to die, 
beheaded, at Parral. For more information see the sections on J. J. 
Webb and Wyatt Earp. 

If one may judge from notices in the newspapers, the Kinsley 
train robbery crowded nearly everything else out of Sheriff Master- 
son's schedule. However, the Dodge City Times, March 2, 1878, 
hinted that Bat and his friend, County Attorney Mike Sutton, would 
shortly make a number of other arrests: 


Recent developments indicate that Sheriff Masterson and County Attorney 
Sutton will soon fasten the clutches of the law upon a band of unsuspecting 
horse thieves. "Let no guilty man escape." 

If the arrests were made they were not reported in either of the 
town's newspapers. 

On March 16, 1878, the Times reported that "Sheriff Masterson 
returned last Sunday from a trip to Topeka and other points East." 
The Topeka Commonwealth, March 6, 1878, merely stated that 
"W. B. Masterson, sheriff of Ford county, and Harry E. Gryden, of 
Dodge City, are at the Tefft." The reason of the visit remains 

The sheriff found a stolen horse on March 23. The Times, March 
30, 1878, reported: 


Mr. H. Spangler, of Lake City, Comanche county, arrived in the city 
last Saturday in search of two horses that had been stolen from him last 
December. He described the stolen stock to Sheriff Masterson who im- 
mediately instituted search. On Monday he found one of the horses, a 
very valuable animal, at Mueller's cattle camp on Saw Log, it having been 
traded to Mr. Wolf. The horse was turned over to its owner. The Sheriff 
has trace of the other horse and will endeavor to recover it. 

The Ford county board of commissioners awarded Bat $78.25 
travel fees on April 8, 1878, possibly reimbursing him for expenses 
incurred chasing the train robbers. 16 

Death threw a punch which left Bat Masterson reeling on the 
night of April 9 when his brother Ed, city marshal of Dodge, was 
shot by drunken cowboys. Though contemporary sources do not 
state that Bat avenged his brother by firing the shot that killed 
John Wagner or the one which wounded Alfred Walker he did 


respond promptly by arresting four supposed accomplices of the 
cowboys. For the story of Ed Masterson see the section devoted 
to him. 

Griefstricken, the young sheriff, accompanied by his friend 
Mike Sutton, headed for Sedgwick county to visit the Masterson 
parents. Within five days the peace officer was back at his post 
in Dodge City, 17 and within hours of his arrival was on the 
prowl for some stolen horses. The Dodge City Times, April 20, 
1878, reported: 


Last Wednesday Mr. M. A. Couch and three other gentlemen arrived in 
this city from Walnut creek, forty miles north of here, in search of four 
horses that had been stolen from them on the day previous. They immediately 
applied to the County Attorney for information and assistance, stating that 
they had tracked the horses to this city. Sheriff Masterson was sent for, and 
in company with Couch and party instituted search for the stock, which, 
luckily, they succeeded in recovering. Two of the horses were found in the 
river bottom southwest of the city and the other two were found in Mr. Bell's 
livery stable, where they had been placed the night before. The owners of the 
horses were very much pleased upon recovering their stock, and proposed 
starting immediately for home without making any search for the thief; 
but the Sheriff with an eye to giving his thief ship punishment for his wrongs, 
made search and discovered men whom he supposed to be guilty. Swearing out 
a complaint himself he arrested Henry Martin and William Tilghman. Henry 
Martin was brought before Justice Cook on Wednesday and examined. There 
being strong evidence against him he was bound over in the sum of $2,000, 
in default of which he was sent to jail. Mr. Tilghman's examination took 
place Thursday before Justice Cook. It was generally supposed he would 
be bound over also, but he was released by the court. He was defended by 
Mr. Gryden, assisted by Mr. Frost. Both prisoners were ably prosecuted by 
County Attorney Sutton, and we are glad to observe the interest manifested 
by both the County Attorney and Sheriff in bringing horse thieves to justice. 18 

Thursday, May 16, was a busy day for Bat. First he and John 
Straughn prevented a proposed jail break by discovering and 
confiscating the tools of escape. The Times, May 18, 1878, re- 


Sheriff Masterson and Jailor Straughn have been unearthing some imple- 
ments of jail delivery. Thursday a brace, a rod of iron and some small 
wedges were found in one of the cells of the jail supposed to have been 
passed in the night previous. There is a poor chance to make a break under 
the present official management. The officers have argus eyes. 

Thursday night Bat captured a horse thief. The same issue of 
the Times (May 18, 1878) reported: 



Sheriff Bat Masterson Thursday night arrested one Geo. Foster, charged 
with stealing a horse belonging to J. W. Duncan, living on Smoky river, 
at Hays crossing, on the 29th of April. The horse was not recovered. The 
prisoner has been placed in charge of a couple of officers and taken to Ellis 
county for examination. Horse thieves find hospitable reception at the hands 
of Sheriff Masterson. He is an excellent "catch" and is earning a State 

Law enforcement did not occupy all of Sheriff Masterson's time. 
For instance he was active in the Dodge City Fire Company and at 
one time served as a member of that organization's finance com- 
mittee along with Chalk Beeson and Deputy U. S. Marshal H. T. 
McCarty. Bat's under sheriff, Charles E. Bassett, was first assistant 
marshal of the volunteer fire fighting unit. 19 Other and more 
frivilous social activities attracted the young sheriff also. On June 
8, 1878, the Dodge City Times recorded that Bat and a local belle 
had attended a grand ball at Spearville along with several other 
well known Dodgeites: 


Our Spearville neighbors gave a grand entertainment last night, it being 
the occasion of the formal "warming" of the magnificent hotel at that place, 
the Summit House, J. McCollister, proprietor. There was gayety and beauty 
there, the staid bachelor and the festive young man, the buxom lassie, the 
comely maid and the village belles. A sumptuous board was spread to which 
the guests responded with alacrity and avidity especially those from Dodge 
City. Major McCollister demonstrated his ability to keep hotel. 

The merry dance was kept up until a late hour. Music was furnished by 
Beeson's Orchestra, and was pronounced excellent by the Spearvillians. The 
following Dodge City people were present and tipped their light and heavy 

Mayor [James H.] Kelley and lady; Mr. and Mrs. M. Collar; Mr. and Mrs. 
[Chalkly E.] Beeson; Mr. and Mrs. [S. E.?] Isaacson; Mr. and Mrs. J. Collar; 
Sheriff Masterson and lady; D. M. Frost and Miss Lutie Chambliss; Mr. and 
Mrs. C. S. Hungerford; John B. Means and lady. Our home folks arrived this 
morning much elated from the night's revelry. 

But where news of Bat's activities was concerned business pre- 
dominated. On June 15, 1878, the Times reported that he had cap- 
tured two more suspected horse thieves: 

Two suspicious characters named Andy Payne and E. W. Qilleur [sic], 
charged with stealing stock from the estate of Sanders & Couch in the Pan 
Handle, were arrested this week by Sheriff Masterson. They will have their 
preliminary trial next week. Col. Straughn entertains them. 

Being an "opposition" paper, the Ford County Globe often cen- 
sured Bat and County Attorney Sutton for alleged misuse of their 


positions. Such an opportunity knocked with the arrest of Quillin 
[?] and Payne [?]: 

W. E. Quillin and Henry Pagne who have been held here since the 12th 
inst., by the arbitrary exercise of power by our county officers, were turned loose 
yesterday because there never existed any cause for holding them. They were 
compelled to pay $18 livery bill on their stock before they got it from the 
custody of the Sheriff who had taken possession of the same at the time they 
were arrested. We are surprised that the boys were not retained in custody 
till they paid their board during the time of their incarceration. 20 

To its credit, the Globe also noticed the good work. In the same 
issue, June 25, 1878, it reported: 

Messrs Sutton and Masterson compelled two of the show case institutions 
to disgorge some of their ill gotten gains last week, and recovered the same 
to the parties who had been robbed. We cannot understand how any of our 
county farmers can be so green as to come to Dodge and go up against those 
cut throat games, yet they do it nearly every day. 

The Dodge City Times, being pro-Sutton and Masterson, was 
quite outspoken in its praise of the two county officers: "We quite 
agree with the generally expressed opinion that 'Judge Sutton and 
Bat Masterson are the right men in the right place/" "County 
Attorney Sutton and Sheriff Masterson are using all fair and hon- 
orable means as officers to bring criminals to justice. All law abid- 
ing people commend them for the honest discharge of their 
duties." 21 

In July Bat used a slick ruse to capture another wanted man. The 
Times, July 27, 1878, reported: 

Sheriff Masterson captured a fugitive from justice from Ft. Lyon this week 
after the most approved style. He received a telegram from the authorities 
asking him to look out for a man named Davis on the eastward bound train. 
Masterson went down to the train, and among the crowd of passengers singled 
out a suspicious looking man, and approaching him said: "Hello, Davis; how 
do you do?*' The stranger was completely off his guard, and answered to the 
name at once, thinking he had met an old friend. The Sheriff immediately 
gave him lodging in jail until he could be sent back to Lyon, where he had 
been sentenced to the penitentiary for three years. 

The furnace-like weather of southwest Kansas began to have a 
telling effect on Bat as the summer dragged on. Finally he de- 
cided to visit the spa at Hot Springs for relief. The Times, August 
3, 1878, told of his going: 

Sheriff Masterson, who has not had good health during the late hot weather, 
having at times been confined to his bed with attacks of something like vertigo, 
started last Thursday morning for a visit to Hot Springs, Arkansas, where he 
will remain three or four weeks. We hope he will have a pleasant time and 
return restored to perfect health. 


Bat was back on the job by August 12. The Times, August 17, 
1878, told of his capturing a horse thief that day. For a reprint of 
the item and of another Masterson commendation see the section on 
William Duffey. 

During the whole of its career as a cowtown, Dodge was bothered 
with confidence men whose numbers must have been legion. The 
year 1878 was no exception and as fast as one group was run out of 
town another was there to take its place. Toward the end of sum- 
mer Sheriff Masterson arrested two such operators on complaint of 
a man named E. Markel. As luck would have it, a deputy allowed 
the two to escape which prompted this long statement in the Dodge 
City Times, September 14, 1878: 





For sometime past Dodge City has been cursed with a class of confidence 
operators, who have plied all the arts of deceit in gulling the unsophisticated 
and unwary. A batch of these bold operators fled the town during the sum- 
mer, but their places were occupied by another class who resorted to other 
means to fleece the unsuspecting stranger. The class who have lately been 
carrying on their nefarious schemes in Dodge suddenly came to grief Tuesday 

Their manner had been to represent themselves as land agents. To pursue 
this purpose they were present upon the arrival of all railroad trains. By 
graceful and winning ways and tolerably fair representations they gained the 
confidence of the credulous stranger. Once in their toils the poor deluded 
victim was at their mercy. The straw that broke the camel's back was laid 
Tuesday evening. The confidence men succeeded in roping in one E. Markel, 
an illiterate gentleman from some backwoods, and inducing him to exchange 
greenbacks for what purported to be $20 gold pieces. Upon discovering the 
cheat, Markel caused the arrest of one Harry Bell, the leader of the gang, and 
a bold and successful guy that sailed under the sobriquet of "Kid." The war- 
rant was placed in the hands of Sheriff Masterson, who arrested the men and 
placed them under charge of Deputy [William] Duffy. Duffy had been on 
service the night previous, and feeling the need of rest turned the prisoners 
over to an incompetent guard. The guard was not vigilant, and while in- 
dulging in nature's sweet restorer, the prisoners saw the opportunity to escape 
justice, and boldly "lit out," taking the 5 o'clock morning train for the west. 

The citizens of Dodge City naturally felt indignant Wednesday morning 
when they learned that the birds had flown, and were free to express feelings 
of censure against the Sheriff for a direlection of duty, in either not placing 
the prisoners in jail or else putting them under a proper and sufficient guard 
until a preliminary trial should be had. Bell made the most solemn protesta- 
tions against the charge of guilt, and assured the Sheriff that he would make 
no attempt at escape if not placed in jail. 
The pieces purporting to be gold were made of some base metal, plated, 


and did not resemble gold or the device of gold coin. A person with ordinary 
intelligence would not have been gulled with such a trick. It matters not, 
the pieces were represented to be gold, and a charge of obtaining money 
under false pretenses could have been sustained. 

The people of Dodge City have borne with these outrages long enough. 
There has been an under current of sentiment working and the climax had 
been reached when no mild measures would have been used to rid the com- 
munity of this intolerable nuisance. By these operations it had become known 
abroad that 'land agents" and "business men" of Dodge City were robbing 
the innocent straggler in the modern Nineveh. It was in this manner, by 
falsely representing themselves as "land agents" and "business men" that 
these robbers succeeded in gaining the confidence of their victims. Various 
swindling operations have occurred lately, but the parties victimized rarely 
"squealed," and hence the operators have gone on unmolested. 

We haven't much sympathy for the man who permits himself to be duped 
by a stranger; but we presume it is a misfortune not to know all the wiles and 
tricks in human ingenuity. Again, the unsophisticated and probably better 
knowing ones, tempt the hidden hand to feather their own nests. 

But these swindling operations were bringing the town into greater dis- 
credit, and forebearance was ceasing to be a virtue. It is therefore necessary 
for the honor, credit and character of Dodge City that a solemn protest be 
entered against such practices. We hasten the conclusion by stating that cir- 
cumstances have probably done the best thing to further the riddance of these 
men, and cannot regret the course of the bold confidence operator in his flight 
west if he will only stay away, and we believe he will. It would be "warm" 
to return. 

The Ford County Globe, September 17, 1878, used the escape as 
an opportunity to chastise not only the sheriff and his men but also 
the Dodge City Times: 


On Tuesday evening last, two of those notorious and well known confidence 
men, Bill Bell and "The handsome Kid," who have been for the past few 
months working the unsophisticated land seekers who visited Dodge, were cap- 
tured upon the complaint of E. Markel ( a respectable and honest man who had 
come here for the purpose of securing a home), charging them with passing 
off upon him something purporting to be a $20 gold piece, which in reality was 
a gilded "spiel marke." The evidence was so conclusive, and witnesses so nu- 
merous to the transaction, that Bell and "The Kid" were "booked" for the 
Penitentiary if they stood trial. They tried to compromise, but without avail; 
then they tried to talk Judge Cook into a small bail bond, but the Judge, seeing 
his duty in the premises, said, "$2,000 each with the best of security." A com- 
mitment was made out and placed in the hands of the Sheriff, who, instead of 
listening to the commands of the commitment, or the mandates of the law, "to 
put his prisoners in jail," placed them in care of his Deputy, Duffey, who per- 
mitted them to walk the streets in his charge. Next morning the prisoners 
were gone! without any explanation except that they had escaped from "Red," 
who had been employed to guard them. Who is "Red?" Does anybody know 
him? The only information that we can get concerning him is that he is one of 


the "confidence gang." If this is true he was evidently the right kind of a 
man to guard his pals from justice. We have now told the facts as they 
are understood, by us, we do not wish or desire to censure anybody unjustly, 
our aim in the premises is to lay bare the facts as they exist, knowing well that 
our readers are competent to form their own opinions, arrive at their own con- 
clusions and censure those who deserve it. The GLOBE has and will always be 
found, commending an officer when he does his duty, but it will not praise an 
officer for not doing his duty, it is not that kind of an institution. Dodge City 
is already cursed with an institution of that character, which, in its existence of 
two and a half years, has never dared to question the correctness of the doings 
of any officer in Ford county, and God knows it has had many an opportunity 
to do so. We know it is the duty of any journal, that expects the people's 
patronage, to labor for the best interests of the community wherein it exists, 
by exulting over the good deeds of its officers and condeming their official faults, 
and we believe that a journal that will not do so, is tainted with a hankering 
after the "flesh pots" of office, or is controlled and managed by cowardice. 

A meeting of the citizens was held in the school house, on Thursday evening, 
for the purpose of discussing the confidence question, at which there was not 
a very general attendance of citizens, but confidence men and their sympathizers 
were on hand in full force. Messrs [F. C.] Zimmerman and Collar being called 
upon, said, that the officers had not and were not doing their duty in relation 
to the confidence men. W. N. Morphy [editor of the Ford County Globe] said 
that the officers could stop the nuisance if they desired to do so. Messrs. [Ed- 
ward F.] Colborn (City Attorney), Bobby Gill [Robert Gilmore] and E. O. 
Parish defended the officers by saying that they were the best officers whom God 
in His wisdom had ever created, (for which, oh, Lord, make us truly thank- 
ful). The meeting very nearly broke up in a row but didn't, and finally a 
peaceable adjournment was had. The citizens of the town at present feel that 
legally they are helpless, because they cannot have the law enforced; they also 
feel that they ought to take the law in their own hands and drive confidence 
men from the town. What will be done we cannot tell but we hope that the 
question will soon solve itself. The officers claim that they have always lacked 
the support of the citizens. We cannot understand how they can expect the 
support of the citizens unless they show themselves more worthy of it than 
they have heretofore done. What Ford county needs is a complete change 
in judicial officers and the ballot box is the place to get it. Remember this, 
voters of Ford county, and vote against any and every man who has not done 
his duty in driving out the confidence curse from our midst. 

Perhaps to escape from it all temporarily, Bat took in the fair at 
Kansas City. With him were A. B. Webster, W. H. Harris, A. J. 
Anthony, Robert M. Wright, and Charley Bassett. They were gone 
during the week ending September 24, 1878. 22 

In its 14 years as a rough frontier town Dodge never had a better 
year in the accepted TV Western tradition than it did in 1878. First 
there was the success of Sheriff Bat Masterson and his posse in cap- 
turing two of the Kinsley train robbers. Then two others were ar- 
rested right in town. The shooting and death of City Marshal Ed- 


ward J. Masterson quickly followed in April. Deputy United States 
Marshal H. T. McCarty was shot and killed in the Long Branch 
saloon in July and Cowboy George Hoy died at the hands of Police- 
men Wyatt Earp and Jim Masterson a few days later. In September 
the flight of Dull Knife and his small band of Cheyennes across 
western Kansas toward their former home in the north threw Dodge 
City into a panic. It was all there plenty of cowboys, Indians, train 
robbers, killers, sheriffs, and marshals. The climax, or perhaps the 
anticlimax, of it all came early in the morning of October 4, 1878. 
On that day Actress Fannie Keenan, or Dora Hand as she was some- 
times called, was mistakenly shot and killed by an unknown per- 

Fannie's Dodge City story begins with this item from the Ford 
County Globe, July 30, 1878: 


This favorite place of resort is at present giving to its patrons the best show 
or entertainment ever given in Dodge. They have Billy and Nola Forrest, Dick 
Brown and Fannie Garretson, May Gaylor, Belle Lament, Fannie Keenan, 
Jennie Morton, and that unequalled and splendidly matched team [Eddie] Foye 
and [Jimmie] Thompson. All the members of this troupe are up in their parts 
and considerable above the average in ability. . . . 

Two weeks later Fannie was at Ham Bell's. The Dodge City 
Times, August 10, 1878, reported: "Hattie Smith and Fannie 
Keenan take a benefit at Ham Bell's Varieties next Wednesday night. 
They are general favorites and will be sure to draw a crowded 

Miss Keenan apparently did not rejoin the troupe at the Comique 
as her name did not appear in the almost weekly notices given the 
theater by the Globe. If she remained at Bell's that fact is not in- 
dicated by the papers. After the August mention in the Times, Miss 
Keenan's name did not reappear in the local papers until October 
5, 1878, when the Times reported her death: 




At about half past four o'clock this (Friday) morning, two pistol shots 
were fired into the building occupied by Dora Hand, alias Fannie Keenan. 
The person who did the firing stood on horseback at the front door of the little 
frame [house] south of the railroad track. The house has two rooms, the back 
room being occupied by Fannie Keenan. A plastered partition wall divides 
the two rooms. The first shot went through the front door and struck the 
facing of the partition. The remarkable penetration of a pistol ball was in the 
second shot. It passed through the door, several thicknesses of bed clothing 


on the bed in the front room occupied by a female lodger; through the 
plastered partition wall, and the bed clothing on the second bed, and striking 
Fannie Keenen on the right side under the arm, killing her instantly. The 
pistol was of 44 calibre, nearly a half inch ball. 

The deceased came to Dodge City this summer and was engaged as 
vocalist in the Varieties and Comique shows. She was a prepossessing woman 
and her artful winning ways brought many admirers within her smiles and 
blandishments. If we mistake not, Dora Hand has an eventful history. She 
had applied for a divorce from Theodore Hand. After a varied life the 
unexpected death messenger cuts her down in the full bloom of gayety and 
womanhood. She was the innocent victim. 

The pistol shot was intended for the male occupant of the bed in the 
front room, but who has been absent for several days. The bed however 
was occupied by the female lodger at the time of the shooting, and narrowly 
escaped the ball that went through the bed covering. The cause for the 
shooting is supposed to be for an old grudge. The officers are in pursuit of the 
supposed murderer, to whom circumstances point very directly. 

Three days later, October 8, 1878, the Ford County Globe 
printed its version of Fannie's death: 






On Friday morning, about 4 o'clock, two shots were fired in a small frame 
building, situated south of the railroad track and back of the Western 
House, occupied by Miss Fannie Garretson and Miss Fannie Keenan. The 
building was divided into two rooms by a plastered partition, Miss Keenan 
occupying the back room. The first shot, after passing through the front 
door, struck the floor, passed through the carpet and facing of the partition 
and lodged in the next room. The second shot also passed through the door, 
but apparently more elevated, striking the first bed, passing over Miss Garret- 
son, who occupied the bed, through two quilts, through the plastered partition, 
and after passing through the bed clothing of the second bed, struck Fannie 
Keenan in the right side, under the arm, killing her instantly. 

The party who committed this cowardly act must have been on horseback 
and close to the door when the two shots were fired. From what we can 
learn the shots were intended for another party who has been absent for a 
week and who formerly occupied the first room. Thus the assassin misses 
his intended victim and kills another while fast asleep who never spoke a 
word after she was shot. 

James Kennedy, who it is supposed did the shooting made good his 
escape, and the following morning the officers went in pursuit of him, returning 
Saturday night with their prisoner, whom they met and on refusal to surrender 
shot him through the shoulder and with another shot killing the horse he was 
riding, thus capturing him. What evidence the authorities have that Kennedy 
is the man who did the shooting we are unable to learn. Below we give the 
verdict of the coroner's inquest: 



An inquisition holden at Dodge City, in said county, on the 4th day of 
October, A. D. 1878, before me, a justice of the peace for Dodge township, 
said county (acting as coroner) on the body of Fannie Keenan, there lying 
dead, by the jurors, whose names are hereunto subscribed. The said jurors, 
upon their oath, do say: That Fannie Keenan came to her death by a gunshot 
wound, and that in their opinion the said gunshot wound was produced by a 
bullet discharged from a gun in the hands of one James Kennedy. 

In testimony whereof, the said jurors have hereunto set their hands the 
day and year aforesaid. 

P. L. BEATTY, Foreman. 



ATTEST: R. G. Cook, justice of the peace, acting coroner, for Dodge 
township, said county. 

Fannie Garrettson, Miss Keenan's housemate the night of her 
death, also had performed in St. Louis. Knowing their Missouri 
friends would want to hear the details, Miss Garrettson almost 
immediately wrote J. E. Esher, their former employer. Her letter, 
and some explanatory material, were published in the St. Louis 
Daily Journal, October 11, 1878: 





On Saturday morning last the telegraph brought the news of the accidental 
killing at Dodge City, Kan., of Fannie Keenan, a variety actress, well known 
in this city. For the past two years she had been employed at Esher's 
varieties, on Fifth street, at various times, and her last engagement in St. 
Louis was at the Tivoli varieties. About two weeks ago she left for Dodge 
City for the purpose of making arrangements for her approaching marriage. 
She was formerly married to a musician named Theodore Hand, but ob- 
tained a divorce from him in Indiana. Hand arrived in St. Louis on Tuesday 
morning, and for the first time heard of the death of his former wife. Fannie 
Keenan was thirty-four years of age at the time of her death, and was well- 
known to the variety profession throughout the country. She had appeared 
in every variety theater in the south, and came to this city two years ago 
from Memphis. She was universally popular among her associates, and, 
as one of her acquaintances remarked, "had not an enemy in the world/' 
When she arrived in Dodge City she went to live with Fannie Garrettson, also 
a variety performer, who recently appeared in Esher's varieties, and met her 
death as stated in the following article taken from the Dodge City Times 
[the article printed on pp. 265, 266 of this section, from the Times of October 5, 
1878, was here reprinted by the Journal] : 


The following letter was received on Tuesday by J. E. Esher, from Fannie 
Garrettson, who is referred to in the above report as the "female lodger:" 

DODGE CITY, KAS., October 5, 1878. 

DEAR FRIENDS: No doubt ere this you have heard of the very sad and 
fatal end [of Fannie Keenan, one of the most] fiendish assassinations on record. 
Although the bullet was not intended for poor Fannie, yet she was the innocent 
victim, and so it is invariably. Any one gets it but the one for whom it is 
intended, and particularly in this wretched city. This is now the third or fourth 
instance and still nothing is done. But the man who perpetrated this deed will 
never exist for a judge or a jury, as the officers have sworn never to take him 
alive. They were offered a big reward to get him but they declined to 
accept it, for they were only too well pleased to get the order to start after 
him. He is either a half breed or half Mexican; but let him be what he may 
I know him to be a fiend in human form or some one else who will go at such 
an hour, and attempt to take the life [of] any individual, and knowing at 
the same time there were other occupants in the same house and occupying the 
same bed. It shows what a fiend he must be and that he regarded no one's 
life. The party he was after is the mayor of Dodge City [James H. Kelley] I 
have written to you about. My room was the front one and Fannie occupied 
the one back of me. Both our beds stood in the same positions, mine being a 
higher bedstead than hers. There were four shots fired, two in the air and 
two penetrating through the door leading into my room. One was fired very 
low, hitting the floor and cutting two places in the carpet. It then glanced up 
striking the inside side piece of the bedstead, the one I occupied. It penetrated 
through these and through the plastering and lath and part of the bullet was 
found on the floor. They said it was a forty-five caliber. The one that did 
the horrible work was fired directly lining for my bed and had the one whom 
they were after been there, the probability is there would have been three or 
four assassinated. Certain there would have been two, probably Fannie and my- 
self. But I was alone. The mayor has been very sick for two or three weeks, 
and last Monday he was obliged to go to the hospital to the post [Fort Dodge] 
where he could be under the best of treatment. 

There is no very good doctor in town, and consequently people who have 
any means go to the post, as the doctor there [W. S. Tremain] is considered 
the best. But these parties who were in search of the mayor were not aware 
of that, as they had been away from town, and only came in that evening. Of 
course he did not dare to make any inquiries, as they all knew he held a grudge 
towards the mayor. But you can rest assured his aim was a good one. The 
death-dealing messenger penetrated through the bed clothes that covered 
me, and so close to me that it went through the spread, then the heavy 
comforter that covered me, and the sheet that was next to me, cutting 
a hole through all, and again passing through the clothes the same way only 
nearer to the wall, and then penetrating through the wall and passed between 
Fannie's fifth and sixth ribs. I suppose tearing her heart into atoms. 

Poor Fannie, she never realized what was the matter with her. She never 
spoke but died unconscious. She was so when she was struck and so she died. 
She closed her eyes as though she was going to sleep. The only indication 
of any pain were the moving of the head once or twice on the pillow, a few 
gasps and her sufferings were over in this world. Peace to her soul. I think 


she died happy, as her look was such; but what a horrible death! To go to 
one's bed well and hearty and not dream of anything and be cut down in such 
a manner, without a chance to breathe a word. She was killed between the 
hours of 4 and 5 and was buried yesterday between the same hours, everything 
being done that could be, and every respect and honor shown her to the last, 
the leading gentlemen of the city officiating at her funeral and following to 
her lonely grave. 

They have gone in search of the fellows who committed the deed and 
yesterday evening were within five or six miles of them, but I am afraid the 
trouble has not ended, as some twenty of the Texas men went out after the 
officers and there were only six of them. This man has been allowed more 
privileges than the rest of them because he has plenty of money, and now he 
has repaid their liberality. Well, I want to leave here now, while my life 
is safe; I think I have had enough of Dodge City. 

With kindest wishes and rembrance to all, I will close, hoping you will 
write on receipt. 

Very respectfully, 


The posse that captured Jim Kennedy consisted of some of the 
West's most famous lawmen. The Dodge City Times, October 12, 
1878, told of the chase in detail: 



In last week's TIMES we detailed the circumstances of the killing of Dora 
Hand alias Fannie Keenan, at about half past four o'clock Friday morning. 
There were few persons up at this unseasonable hour, though all night walkers 
and loungers are not uncommon in this city, and the somber hours of that 
morning found one James Kennedy and another person gyrating in the dim 
shadows of the flickering light of the solitary opened saloon. Four pistol shots 
awakened the echoes in that dull misty morning, and aroused the police force 
and others. Pistol shots are of common occurrence, but this firing betokened 
something fatal. Assistant Marshal [Wyatt] Earp and Officer Jim Masterson 
were soon at their wits' end, but promptly surmised the upshot of the shoot- 
ing. Shortly after the firing Kennedy and his companion were seen in the 
opened saloon. The arrival of the officers and the movements of the two morn- 
ing loungers threw suspicions in their direction. Kennedy mounted his horse 
[and] was soon galloping down the road in the direction of the Fort. 

It was believed the other person knew something of the firing though he had 
no connection with it. He was arrested and placed in jail; in the meantime 
expressing his belief to the officers that Kennedy did the shooting. There 
were some other reasons why the officers believed that Kennedy did the shoot- 
ing, and accordingly a plan for his capture was commenced, though the officers 
did not start in pursuit until 2 o'clock in the afternoon. The party consisted 
of Sheriff Masterson, Marshal Basssett, Assistant [Marshal] Wyatt Earp, Deputy 
[Sheriff] Duffy and Wm. Tilghman, as intrepid a posse as ever pulled a trigger. 
They started down the river road, halting at a ranch below the Fort, thence 
going south, traveling 75 miles that day. A heavy storm Friday night delayed 


the pursued and pursuers; but Saturday afternoon found the officers at a ranch 
near Meade City, 35 miles south west of Dodge City, one hour in advance of 
Kennedy who said he was delayed by the storm in his proposed hasty exit to his 
cattle ranch at Tuscosa, Texas. The officers were lying in wait at Meade City, 
their horses unsaddled and grazing on the plain, the party avoiding the appear- 
ance of a Sheriff's posse in full feather, believing that they were in advance 
of the object of their search, but prepared to catch any stray straggler that 
exhibited signs of distress. 

Their patient waiting was rewarded about 4 o'clock Saturday afternoon, 
when a solitary horseman appeared on the distant plain approaching the camp. 
The officers had apprised certain parties to give no heed of their presence, and 
from them it was afterwards learned that Kennedy had made diligent inquiries 
concerning the whereabouts of supposed horsemen. To these inquiries Ken- 
nedy received negative replies. The cautious manner in which he approached 
the camp led the officers to believe that he snuffed the danger from every 
movement forward. He halted when within a few hundred yards of the camp, 
apparently dreading to proceed further. Seeing that he would approach no 
nearer, the officers thrice commanded Kennedy to throw up his hands. He 
raised his arm as though to strike his horse with a quirt he held in his hand, 
when several shots were fired by the officers, one shot striking Kennedy in the 
left shoulder, making a dangerous wound; three shots struck the horse killing 
him instantly. Kennedy was armed with a carbine, two revolvers and a knife. 
He was brought in Sunday and placed in jail, where he is receiving medical 
treatment, though he lies in a low and critical condition. 

A preliminary examination will be had as soon as the prisoner is able to ap- 
pear in court. 

Kennedy's examination was held about two weeks later. The 
Globe, October 29, 1878, reported the results: 


Kennedy, the man who was arrested for the murder of Fannie Keenan, was 
examined last week before Judge [R. G.] Cook, and acquitted. His trial took 
place in the sheriff's office, which was too small to admit spectators. We do not 
know what the evidence was, or upon what grounds he was acquitted. But 
he is free to go on his way rejoicing whenever he gets ready. 

On December 9 Jim Kennedy's father arrived in Dodge to take 
his boy back home. The Globe, December 10, 1878, said: 

Yesterday morning's train brought to our city Capt. M. Kennedy, of Corpus 
Christi, Texas, father of J. W. Kennedy, who received a severe wound at the 
hands of our officers some time ago, and has since that time been confined to 
his room at the Dodge House. Mr. Kennedy came here with a view of taking 
his son back home with him should he be able to endure such a long journey. 

Before he was able to return to Texas Kennedy had to undergo a 
serious operation which the Globe described on December 17, 1878: 


On yesterday quite a difficult as well as a dangerous surgical operation was 
performed on J. W. Kennedy, who had been shot through the shoulder some 
two months ago, which necessitated the taking out of a piece of bone some four 


or five inches in length before the wound could be successfully healed. Mr. 
Kennedy was taken to Fort Dodge about a week ago, at which place he would 
have better attention. Dr. B. E. Fryer of Fort Leavenworth was brought here 
to assist in this operation, and on last Saturday he, assisted by Drs. Tremaine 
and T. L. McCarty, took from the left shoulder of Mr. Kennedy several shat- 
tered bones, one being nearly five inches in length. The doctors experienced 
considerable difficulty in stopping the blood but finally succeeded. Though 
considerably exhausted from the slight loss of blood as well as from the shock 
experienced, Mr. Kennedy showed remarkable fortitude and nerve and said 
afterward that he would not die from the effects of the operation. Just how 
the case will result is hard to conjecture, but life is hanging on a very slender 
cord. But as he is receiving the best of medical attention we predict for him 
a speedy recovery. 23 

Jim Kennedy undoubtedly lived for in November, 1880, it was 
rumored that he had shot and killed Wyatt Earp on Sand creek, in 
Colorado. The Times' notice of this rumor was reprinted in the 
section on Earp. 

While Kennedy was still in jail the Dodge City Times, October 
12, 1878, listed the prisoners which the sheriff was then holding as 
evidence that he and Mike Sutton were more than doing their duty: 


Sheriff Masterson, Deputy Sheriff Duffy and County Attorney Sutton, and 
the officers "everybody" "damns" are assisting Jailor Straughn in keeping a 
boarding house. There are six prisoners boarding at public expense. They are 
charged, as follows: 

Thos. O'Hara, charged with murder in the first degree; the killing of H. T. 

H. Gould, alias Skunk Curley, assault with intent to kill; on Cogan, of Great 

Dan Woodward, the same charge, made on Frank Trask. 

James Skelly, robbery. 

James Kennedy, murder in the first degree; killing of Fannie Keenan. 

Arthur Baldwin, in default of a fine. 

On October 15, 1878, the Ford County Globe mentioned that 
"Sheriff W. B. Masterson has taken up quarters in the front room of 
the GLOBE building" on the corner of Bridge avenue and Chestnut 

Bat was quite interested in Republican politics and on several 
occasions attended local conventions as a delegate. On November 
5, 1878, the Globe, a political opponent of Bat's, noticed that he 
and several other Dodgeites had been campaigning in eastern Ford 

Messrs. Wright Sutton, Masterson, Duffey, Mueller, Straeter and a half 
dozen others, returned Sunday morning from an electioneering tour through 
the east end of the county. We presume they told the dear people exactly how 
to vote. 


A state, county, and township election was held on November 5, 
1878, an election at which a sheriff was not to be elected since that 
officer was chosen in odd numbered years. The "gang" to which 
Bat belonged walked off with most of the local offices. The Globe, 
November 12, 1878, summarized: 


On Tuesday a "gang" took possession of the good ship "Ford" at a well- 
known landing on the Arkansas river, with the intention of going upon a piratical 
voyage of two years. The victory of the pirates was an easy one. Some of the 
owners had been chloriformed, some were bought, some were scared; the true 
men were overpowered. Amid "lashins" of free whisky the following officers 
were unanimously elected: 

Pirate Captain Mike Sutton [re-elected county attorney]. 

Sutler and paymaster Bob Wright [elected state representative]. 

Chaplain "Old Nick" Klaine [elected probate judge]. 

The crew was then sworn in as follows : John O'Haran, James Scully, Kinch 
Riley, James Dalton, under the charge of Boatswain Bat Masterson. 

The ceremonies were celebrated by a grand Cyprian ball. After which 
Chaplain "Old Nick" Klaine [editor of the Dodge City Times] closed the exer- 
cises by giving out the following from the "Gospels Hymns,": 

"Free from the law, O happy condition." 

Bat arrested another horse thief on November 22 at Pierceville, a 
small town in present Finney county near the Gray county line. The 
Times, November 30, 1878, reported the capture: 


Sheriff Masterson, on Friday last, at Pierceville, 40 miles west, arrested one 
W. H. Brown, having in his possession a horse stolen from John N. Stevenson, 
six miles north of Speareville, on the 19th. The prisoner had a preliminary 
examination Saturday and was bound over in jail. There are seven prisoners in 
jail charged with various offenses. This looks like business on the part of the 

Bat's career as a peace officer soon suffered a setback, through no 
fault of his own, when four county prisoners escaped from jail on 
December 6. The Ford County Globe, December 10, 1878, told of 
the flight: 



For the first time in over a year we are called upon to chronicle the escape 
of prisoners from our county jail. The particulars of the manner in which 
the escape was effected are as follows: At the last meeting of the Board of 
County Commissioners the jailor was authorized to alter the door of the jail, 
by cutting one of the bars and making a small hole that food and water could 
be handed in to the prisoners, without making it necessary to unlock and 
open the jail. This the jailor undertook to do last Friday. 

The work of sawing the iron bar was commenced, and one of the prisoners, 


on the inside, was allowed to assist, which is a very common thing when work 
is to be done about the jail. After the sawing had been partially completed, 
the jailor found something lacking in the completion of the work which neces- 
sitated his visiting the blacksmith shop. He took the saw away from the 
prisoners, and examined the bar that had been partially sawed, striking it with 
his hammer to see that it was not too weak to be safe. It seemed to be only 
sawed about a third off, and confident that all was secure, the jailor went to 
the blacksmith shop, where he was detained some time. This gave the cun- 
ning prisoners the opportunity they desired, for instead of sawing the bar as 
the jailor supposed, and as it appeared from the outside, they had, when- 
ever opportunity offered, drawn the saw across the inside of the bar, cutting it 
more than half into from the inside. 

As soon as the jailor had gone one of the prisoners procured a heavy piece 
of board, which he had managed to get hold of, and using this as a lever, suc- 
ceeded in breaking the bar where it had been sawed. This done, it was only 
the work of a moment to bend the bar and break it at the other end. Thus a 
means was afforded of escape, and four of the prisoners silently and cautiously 
availed themselves of the opportunity. Their names were H. Gould, awaiting 
trial for murder, and W. H. Brown, Frank Jennings and James Bailey, charged 
with horse-stealing. They immediately "struck out for tall timber," each 
taking the course that suited him best. The alarm was, however, given in a 
short time, strange to say, by one of the prisoners in jail, who with his com- 
panion, John O'Haran, made no attempt to escape, both being lame, and 
not very good roadsters. 

On hearing the disastrous news the sheriff and his deputy immediately 
mounted horses and scoured the country around town in search of the fugi- 
tives. Their prompt search proved partially fruitful in the capture of Gould, 
about a mile from town, hid in a buffalo wallow on the prairie. Had it not 
been for the approach of darkness, the escape being in the afternoon, the 
officers would probably have secured all the prisoners. They, however, con- 
tinued their search through the night and the next day, but the prisoners hav- 
ing taken to the prairies and hills, no trace could be found. The search is still 
in progress and we hope for success. 

The officers feel the misfortune keenly. The sheriff, whose conduct in the 
capture and detention of horse-thieves, has been so frequently complimented of 
late, was greatly exercised over the news of the escape and made every effort 
to regain the prisoners. The feelings of the jailor can be better imagined than 
described, as this is the first misfortune he has had since he has held the office. 
He blames himself for not having used more care or left some one to guard 
the door during his absence. While every citizen deplores this occurrence, 
no suspicion of complicity rests upon the officers. 

The jailor, Col. Straughn, who was immediately in charge of the prisoners 
at the time of the escape is a man of undoubted honesty and fidelity to his 
office, and although this outbreak might have been avoided by greater care, 
yet a thousand other men in a like position would probably have thought 
and acted just as he did. It will be a warning for the future. 

LATER. Another of the prisoners, Frank Jennings, was captured this morn- 
ing at Kinsley, and sheriff Masterson has gone down to secure the baffled 



The Dodge City Times, December 14, 1878, gave the credit for 
recapture of Gould to Bat's brother Jim: 


Notwithstanding the caution used in guarding the jail, through a careless 
and unguarded moment last Friday afternoon, four prisoners made their 
escape, one of them, Skunk Curley, being captured that evening by Officer 
James Masterson. 

Jailor Straughn had sawed one of the iron bars of the jail door, intending 
to arrange an aperture through which to hand the prisoners their food. While 
absent "down town" for a bolt to complete his job, the prisoners slipped the 
sawed bar and made their escape, though there were several parties in the 
jail building. The remaining prisoners gave the alarm which was not heeded 
in time. As soon as Sheriff Masterson was informed of the jail delivery he 
and a large party started in pursuit and search, which was keep [sic] up that 
night and until Sunday; but without success, excepting the early capture we 
have above stated. 

The three prisoners evidently concealed themselves in some of the breaks 
nearby, for that night two men attempted to raid the corral of Nichols & Cul- 
bertson. A mare belonging to C. S. Hungerford was stolen from Wolfs camp 
several miles north of the city. The mare was probably stolen by W. H. 
Brown, one of the escaped prisoners, as a person answering his description 
was seen in that vicinity early in the evening. 

The names of the escaped prisoners are: W. H. Brown who was charged 
with stealing Mr. Stevenson's horse near Speareville; Frank Jennings and 
James A. Bailey were charged with stealing horses from Hardesty and Smith, 
and were arrested by Geo. Pease at Fort Elliott. 

Two more of the escapees were captured by the sheriff of Ed- 
wards county. On December 11 Bat journeyed to Kinsley and 
brought them back to Dodge. The Times, December 14, 1878, said: 


Frank Jennings and James A. Bailey, two of the prisoners who escaped from 
the jail on Friday last, were captured at Kinsley by Officer Cronk, and brought 
to this city Wednesday by Sheriff Masterson, and placed in the Ford county jail. 

W. H. Brown is the only fugitive. 

Our officers felt considerably hurt over the jail escapade. We believe no 
one censures them; and we trust that double caution will be used on the part 
of the jailor. 24 

Wednesday night, the same day he brought Jennings and Bailey 
back to Dodge, Bat embarked on another man hunt. This time, 
accompanied by a few soldiers from Fort Dodge, he was after 
brigands who had stolen eight mules from a government supply 
train. The Times, December 14, 1878, reported: 


A Government train of two wagons and eight mules was "raided" Tuesday 
night at their camp on Bluff creek, 37 miles south, and eight mules stolen. 
The train was en route to Camp Supply, and was in charge of soldiers. 
Sheriff Masterson and Lt. Guard, of Fort Dodge, with a couple of men, left 


Wednesday night in search of the stolen property and the capture of the thieves. 
Horse thieving is a little too bold and frequent to be longer endured without 
more stringent measures than a short term in the penitentiary. Some of these 
bold operators will some fine evening be taken in the most approved and 
summary style. 

"Some of these bold operators" did not include the men Bat and 
the lieutenant were chasing, for the next week the Times, Decem- 
ber 21, 1878, told of their unsuccessful pursuit: 

Sheriff Masterson and posse returned this week from a fruitless search after 
the thieves who raided the government train. The snow storm caught them 
the next day after they were out. 

Lieutenant Guard, with whose detachment Bat traveled in search 
of the thieves, made this detailed report upon his return to Fort 

Dec 24" 1878 



In compliance with Special Orders No 156 dated Fort Dodge, Ks. Dec 11" 
1878, 1 in charge of a detachment of one Non Com Officer and six privates, Co. 
"G," 19" Inf and one private Co. "F," 19" Inf, mounted and with three pack 
mules, left this post at sunset on the 11" instant in pursuit of horse thieves. 
We proceeded up the Arkansas river to a point about twelve miles from this 
post, then crossed the river and travelled in a southerly direction to near the 
head of Mulberry Creek, where a dry camp was made at 2 oclock A. M. on 
the 12" instant, distance travelled 25 miles. At day break on the 12" inst. we 
marched to Gantz Ranch on Crooked Creek, a distance of fifteen miles from 
the Camp, a halt was made for the purpose of cooking breakfast, after break- 
fast every thing was prepared for a start, when a severe wind and snow storm 
prevented our leaving, as there was no timber or shelter on the course I wished 
to take, within thirty miles, of the place where we then were. I thought it 
unsafe to start until the storm had ceased. 

The storm continued all the remainder of the 12" inst and until 11 P. M. on 
the 13" inst. On the morning of the 14" inst we started for Lovells Cattle 
camp on Crooked creek a distance of thirty miles from Gantz, in a southeasterly 
direction. We found the country covered with snowdrifts which made it almost 
impossible to search ravines on the way. Camped at Lovells that night. The 
next day the 15" marched to a point on Beaver Creek, I. T. about forty five 
miles west of Camp Supply. 

Ravines, on Crooked Creek, Cimmaron River, and Beaver Creek were 
searched as well as the snow drifts would permit. Distance traveled on the 
15" thirty miles, direction West of South. 

On account of rations and forage giving out, I was compelled to go into 
Camp Supply. We arrived at that Post on the night of the 16" inst. having 
travelled forty five miles. 

The horses being tired and stiff with cold and the long march, a rest of two 
days became necessary. Left Camp Supply for Fort Dodge on the 19" inst 


Marched to Cimmaron River, distance travelled thirty seven miles. On the 20" 
inst marched to Bluff Creek, distance twenty eight miles. On the 21" inst 
arrived at Fort Dodge Distance travelled twenty two miles. 
The weather was intensely cold throughout the march. 
Distance travelled two hundred and thirty two miles. 

Very respectfully 
Your obedient servant 
2" Lieut 19" Inf.25 

The Dodge City Times, December 21, 1878, reported that Bat had 
appointed another deputy sheriff: 


County Attorney Sutton has appointed L. W. B. Johnson Deputy County 
Attorney. Sheriff Masterson has appointed A. S. Tracy Deputy Sheriff of Ford 
County. The new appointees are residents of Foote township, Foote county 
[now Gray county], attached to Ford county for municipal and judicial pur- 
poses. These gentlemen are well qualified to fill the responsible positions. 

Bat attended a gay social event on Christmas day. The Ford 
County Globe, January 1, 1879, described the festivities: 

The first masquerade ball of this season was given on Christmas night by the 
Dodge City Social Club. The grotesque masquers assembled at the Dodge 
House, where the ball was given, and participated in the amusements laid out 
for them, unknown to each other, until 12 o'clock, when the order was given 
to "show up" which occasioned a considerable amusement, as many had so com- 
pletely disguised themselves that even their most intimate friends failed to rec- 
ognize them. This was one of the most real enjoyable dances given for a 
long time, and was attended by a very harmonious class of our society. Messrs. 
Webster, Marshall, Connor and Willett were the committee on management 
and the music was under the superintendence of Mr. Geo. Hinkle. Messrs. 
Cox & Boyd, the proprietors of the Dodge House, made themselves particularly 
agreeable and their guests correspondingly comfortable. Champagne and wine 
flowed freely, but not to excess, and a merrier Christmas night was never en- 
joyed in Dodge. As near as our reporter could distinguish the following is 
a list of those who were present and participated: . . . W. B. Masterson 
and Miss Brown. . . . 

(This Section on William Barclay "Bat" Masterson Will Be 
Continued in the Autumn, 1961, Issue. ) 


Recent Additions to the Library 

Compiled by ALBERTA PANTLE, Librarian 

N ORDER that members of the Kansas State Historical Society 
and others interested in historical study may know the class of 
books the Society's library is receiving, a list is printed annually of 
the books accessioned in its specialized fields. 

These books come from three sources, purchase, gift, and ex- 
change, and fall into the following classes: Books by Kansans and 
about Kansas; books on American Indians and the West, including 
explorations, overland journeys, and personal narratives; genealogy 
and local history; and books on United States history, biography, 
and allied subjects which are classified as general. The out-of -state 
city directories received by the Historical Society are not included 
in this compilation. 

The library also receives regularly the publications of many his- 
torical societies by exchange, and subscribes to other historical and 
genealogical publications which are needed in reference work. 

The following is a partial list of books which were received from 
October 1, 1959, through September 30, 1960. Federal and state 
official publications and some books of a general nature are not in- 
cluded. The total number of books accessioned appears in the re- 
port of the Society's secretary printed in the Spring, 1961, issue of 
The Kansas Historical Quarterly. 


ACKERMAN, SPENCER C., I Remember. [Lamed, Tiller and Toiler Print} c!958. 

AGRA, METHODIST CHURCH, A Short History of the Agra Methodist Church, by 

Mrs. Leonard Womer. N. p., 1960. Mimeographed. 6p. 
ANDERSON, GEORGE L., ed., Issues and Conflicts, Studies in Twentieth Century 

American Diplomacy. Lawrence, University of Kansas Press, 1959. 374p. 
ARGONIA, FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, History of the First Baptist Church, Argonia, 

Kansas, May 20, 1883, to May 25, 1958. No impr. [12]p. 
ARKANSAS CITY, FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, First Baptist Church, Arkansas City, 

Kansas, 1928-1948. Twenty 'Years of Progress. No impr. [12]p. 
ATCHISON, METHODIST CHURCH, 100 Years of Methodism in Atchison, Kansas 

. . . 1857-1957. No impr. 19p. 
BAUER, EVELYN, Through Sunlight and Shadow. Scottdale, Pa., Herald Press 

[c!959]. 221p. 
BAXTER SPRINGS CENTENNIAL, INC., The Baxter Springs Story . . . 100 

Years, 1858-1958 [Compiled by Claude H. Nichok]. N. p. [1958?]. Un- 
BEATTY, MARION, Labor-Management Arbitration Manual. New York, E. E. 

Eppler and Son [c!960]. 186p. 



odist Church, Prepared by Carldon H. Broadbent . . . [Salina, Arrow 
Print] 1959? 32p. 

BERGER, WILHELMTNA, Beginnings of Catholicity in Kansas City. A Thesis Sub- 
mitted to the Faculty of the Creighton University in Partial Fulfillment of 
the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in the Department of 
History. Omaha, 1934. Typed. 63p. 

BIBLE, N. T., MATTHEW, SHAWNEE, The Gospel According to Saint Matthew. 
Translated Into the Shawanoe Language by Johnston Lykins . . . 
Aided in Revising and Comparing With the Greek by James Andrew Chute, 
M.D. Shawanoe Baptist Mission, Shawanoe Baptist Mission Press, J. G. 
Pratt, Printer, 1842. 116p. 

BLOSS, ROY S., Pony Express the Great Gamble. Berkeley, Gal., Howell- 
North, 1959. 159p. 

., . . Brantford, n. d. 28p. 

BROME, VINCENT, Frank Harris, the Life and Loves of a Scoundrel. New York, 
Thomas Yoseloff [c!959]. 246p. 

BROOKS, GWENDOLYN, The Bean Eaters. New York, Harper & Brothers [c!960]. 

BURBRIDGE, CLARENCE BENJAMIN, The Fountain of Strength, a Practical Plan 
for Everyday Thought and Action. New York, Exposition Press [c!959]. 

BURLINGTON, METHODIST CHURCH, History Burlington Methodist Church, Bur- 
lington, Kansas, 1857-1957 . . . Arranged by Mrs. A. N. Gray . . . 
Burlington, Daily Republican, n. d. 47p. 

BYRON, NEB., ST. PAUL LUTHERAN CHURCH, Fiftieth Anniversary, St. Paul Luth- 
eran Church, Byron, Nebraska, April 7, 1957. [Bruning, Neb., Bruning Ban- 
ner] n. d. [19]p. 

CARSON, GERALD, The Roguish World of Doctor Brinkley. New York, Rinehart 
& Company [c!960]. 280p. 

CARSON, L. B., Introduction to Our Bird Friends, Illustrations by Orvttle O. 
Rice. [Topeka, Capper Publications, c!960.] [54]p. 

CHAMBERLAIN, MARY L., History of the Lowman Memorial Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, Topeka, Kansas, 1886-1926. No impr. 35p. 

COBBLE, ALICE D., Wembi, the Singer of Stories. St. Louis, Bethany Press 
[c!959]. 128p. 

COWAN, CHARLES H., Piquant Poems. First Edition. Emporia [Gazette Print- 
ers], c!960. 64p. 

CROSS REFERENCE DIRECTORY, Greater Topeka, July, 1960. Independence, 
Kan., City Publishing Company, c!960. Unpaged. 

CUTLER, BRUCE, The Year of the Green Wave. Lincoln, University of Ne- 
braska Press, 1960. 64p. 

Notes on the Amos West (1766-1819) of Sumner County, Tennessee, and 
Logan County, Kentucky, Compiled by Isabel Stebbins Giulvezan. St. 
Louis, 1960. Mimeographed. [31]p. 


. . . Marriage License Record Book 1, Pages 1-387. No impr. [25]p. 


, KANSAS SOCIETY, Proceedings of the Sixty-Second Annual State Con- 
ference, March 8, 9, 10, 1960, Hutchinson, Kansas. No impr. 160p. 

tions, Greenwood County, Kansas ... No impr. Unpaged. 

DAVIS, KENNETH SYDNEY, Flight to Glory; the Story of Charles A. Lindbergh 
and the Spirit of St. Louis. Garden City, N. Y., Garden City Books [c!960]. 

, The Hero; Charles A. Lindbergh and the American Dream. Garden 

City, N. Y., Doubleday & Company, 1959. 527p. 

DAVIS, MABLE EIGHMY, A Kansas Schoolmaam (1898-1951). Chicago, Adams 
Press, c!960. 153p. 

Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church, State Line Road, Diller, Nebraska, 
Sunday, May 1, 1960. N. p., 1960. Unpaged. 

DOUGLAS, Louis H., and others, Readings and Projects in American Govern- 
ment. New York, American Book Company [c!960]. 196p. 

EDWARDS, RALPH W., A History of the Western Dental College. (Reprinted 
from Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Vol. 33, No. 2, March-April, 
1959.) [8]p. 

EL DORADO, FIRST METHODIST CHURCH, Diamond Jubilee, 1869-1944, Our 
75th Anniversary. El Dorado, n. d. 39p. 

ENGLISH, E. Lois, Golden Stairway. New York, Exposition Press [c!959]. 

ERDMAN, LOULA GRACE, Many a Voyage. New York, Dodd, Mead & Com- 
pany [c!960]. 309p. 

90th Anniversary, 1870-1960. N. p., 1960. Unpaged. 

FAIRVIEW, ST. PAUL'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, Seventy-Fifth Anniversary, 1882- 
1957, St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Fairview, Kansas. [Hiawatha, Hiawatha 
World Print] n. d. 20p. 

FAST, HENRY A., Jesus and the Human Conflict. Scottdale, Pa., Herald Press 
[c!959]. 209p. 

FIELDER, MILDRED, Wandering Foot in the West. Boston, Bruce Humphries 
Publishers [c!955]. 114p. 

FLORA, FLETCHER, Killing Cousins. New York, Macmillan Company, 1960. 

FOSTER, JAMES R., ed., Lovers, Mates, and Strange Bedfellows; Old World 
Folktales. New York, Harper & Brothers [c!960]. 208p. 

FREDONIA, FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, First Baptist Church, 75th Anniversary, 
1882-1957. Fredonia, n. d. 28p. 

FREEMASONS, A. F. & A., MANHATTAN, LODGE No. 16 ... Centennial An- 
niversary Observance, October, 1959. N. p. [1959]. 112p. 

CARD, WAYNE, Great Buffalo Hunt. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1959. 

GAYLORD, CHRIST LUTHERAN CHURCH, 75th Anniversary of Christ Lutheran 
Church, Gaylord, Kansas, 1883-1955. N. p., 1958. [ll]p. 

GENESEO, FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, Seventy-Fifth Anniversary, 1885-1960. 
N. p. [I960?]. 31p. 


GILES, F. W., Thirty Years in Topeka, a Historical Sketch. [Topeka, Capper 
Special Services] 1960. 167p. 

GOENEY, WILLIAM M., Moment of Truth. New York, Henry Holt and Com- 
pany [c!959]. 279p. 

GRANT, JOSEPH PETTIE, Jotham Meeker, Orthographer, Pioneer Printer and 
Missionary. A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Central Baptist 
Theological Seminary, Kansas City, Kansas, in Partial Fulfillment of the 
Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Theology. N. p., 1952. Typed. 
109p. Microfilm. 1 Vol. on 1 Reel. 

GRAVES, ALFRED M., Form, Field, Fireside. Grand Island, Neb., Poole's Litho 
Service, c!959. 55p. 

HARRIS, FRANK, Oscar Wilde . . . [East Lansing] Michigan State Univer- 
sity Press, 1959. 358p. 

HARTFORD, METHODIST CHURCH, Hartford Centennial, 1857-1957. Hartford, 
n. d. [7]p. 

HARTMAN, EMILY L., The F. B. and Rena G. Boss Natural History Reservation. 
Emporia, Kansas State Teachers College, 1960. 40p. (The Emporia State 
Research Studies, Vol. 8, No. 4.) 

HAZELET, JOHN C., Police Report Writing. Springfield, III., Charles C. Thomas 
[c!960]. 238p. 

HETDERSTADT, DOROTHY, Knights and Champions. New York, Thomas Nelson 
& Sons [c!960]. 166p. 

HENNON, HELEN, History of Washington. N. p. [Washington Centennial, Inc., 
I960]. 58p. 

HERRICK, RALPH EARL, History of the First Baptist Church of Emporia, Kansas. 
A Thesis Submitted to the Department of Social Science and the Graduate 
Council of the Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia in Partial Fulfill- 
ment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science. [Emporia, 
Emporia Times Print] 1959. [54]p. 

HIBBARD, CLAUDE W., and DWIGHT W. TAYLOR, Two Late Pleistocene Faunas 
From Southwestern Kansas. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan, 1960. 
223p. (Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, Vol. 16, No. 1.) 

hannestal Mennonite Church, 1882-1942. Hillsboro, n. d. 32p. 

HOEHLING, MARY, Girl Soldier and Spy, Sarah Emma Edmundson. New York, 
Julian Messner [c!959]. 192p. 

HOFFMAN, HENRY A., Weaving on Paper; or, Draw-Down Made Easy . . . 
Shawnee, c!959. 16p. 

In Memoriam and Dedication to Charles Trescott Ripley, the Citizen. No 
impr. 41p. 

IRVING, BLANCHE M., So Long. New York, Pageant Press [c!959L 63p. 

Jesse James; the Life and Daring Adventures of This Bold Highwayman and 
Bank Robber . . . Philadelphia, Barclay & Company [1882]. [96]p. 

JOHNSON, KEN, The Hystery of Kansas, Bennie Bullflower as Told to Ken John- 
son. Norton, Author, c!960. [43] p. 

JONES, HORACE, Story of Early Rice County. [Lyons, Paul E. Jones] 1959. 

[KANSAS AUTHORS CLUB], Freedom Has a Happy Ring, a Kansas Bulletin for 
Kansas Schools [Edited by Mrs. Anna Manley Gait]. Topeka, Burge Print- 
ing Company, c!960. Tip. 



May, 1882 May, 1957. No impr. [4]p. 
, ST. MARY'S CATHOLIC CHURCH, A Glorious Century of Faith. Kansas 

City, 1958. Unpaged. 
KANSAS CITY Kansan, Kansas City, Kansas, Profiles, Vol. 2. [Kansas City, 

Kansas City Kansan] n. d. 232p. 
Kansas Magazine, 1960. [Manhattan, Kansas Magazine Publishing Association, 

c!959.] 104p. 
KEATON, BUSTER, with CHARLES SAMUELS, My Wonderful World of Slapstick. 

New York, Doubleday & Company, 1960. 282p. 

KELLEAM, JOSEPH E., The Little Men. New York, Avalon Books [c!960]. 226p. 
KLAUDT, BETTY GRABER, Candle Flickers; Sayings for Savants; Sez Liz. No 

impr. 40p. 
KLIEWER, WARREN, Red Rose and Gray Cowl. Washington, D. C. [c!960]. 

KNIGHT, EDWARD, Wild Bill Hickok, the Contemporary Portrait of a Civil War 

Hero. Franklin, N. H., Hillside Press, 1959. 61p. 

KRAUSS, BOB, Here's Hawaii. New York, Coward-McCann [c!960]. 288o. 
KRUEGER, KARL, The Way of the Conductor, His Origins, Purpose and Pro- 
cedures. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons [c!958]. 250p. 
LANE, NEOLA TRACY, Grasshopper Year. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Com- 
pany [c!960]. 149p. 
[LANE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY], Pioneer Days in Lane County. N. p. 

[Society, 1959]. Unpaged. 
LAWLESS, RAY M., Folksingers and Folksongs in America . . . New York, 

Duell, Sloan and Pearce [c!960]. 662p. 

1858-1958. Lawrence [1958?]. 32p. 
LINDGREN, IDA (NIBELIUS), Beskrifning Ofver Var Resa till Amerika, 1870. 

Stockholm, 1958. 49p. 
, Brev Fran Nybyggarhemmet i Kansas, 1870-1881. [Goteborg, Elanders 

Boktryckeri Aktiebolag, I960.] 86p. 
LUCIA, ELLIS, Saga of Ben Holladay, Giant of the Old West. New York, 

Hastings House [c!959]. 374p. 
MCCALLUM, JOHN, Six Roads From Abilene; Some Personal Recollections of 

Edgar Eisenhower. Seattle, Wood & Reber, 1960. 132p. 
MCCLINTOCK, MIKE, David and the Giant. New York, Harper & Brothers 

[c!960]. Unpaged. 
McCLURE, MICHAEL, Hymns to St. Geryon and Other Poems. San Francisco, 

Auerhahn Press, 1959. 54p. 
MCNEILL, Lois JOHNSON, The Great Ngee, the Story of a Jungle Doctor. N. p. 

[Commission on Ecumenical Mission Relations of the United Presbyterian 

Church in the United States of America, c!959]. 189p. 
MANNING, JACK W., John Gitt Pratt, Missionary Printer f Physician, Teacher and 

Statesman. A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Central Baptist 

Theological Seminary, Kansas City, Kansas, in Partial Fulfillment of the 

Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Theology. N. p., 1951. Typed. 

144p. Microfilm. 1 Vol. on 1 Reel. 
MARTIN, DOUGLAS D., Earps of Tombstone. Tombstone, Ariz., Tombstone 

Epitaph [c!959]. 65p. 


MAYO, ELIZABETH (HALL), A Missionary Outlook, and Other Poems. [Leaven- 
worth, Ketcheson & Burbank, 1889.] 47p. 
MENNINGER, KARL, A Psychiatrist's World . . . New York, Viking Press, 

1959. 931p. 

, Theory of Psychoanalytic Technique. New York, Basic Books [c!958]. 


MILLER, HELEN MARKLEY, Benjamin Bonneville, Soldier-Explorer, 1796-1878. 
New York, Julian Messner [c!957]. 192p. 

MILLER, MARY, A Pillar of Cloud, the Story of Hesston College, 1909-1959. 
North Newton, Mennonite Press, 1959. 260p. 

MITCHELL, GRANT, comp., Mitchell Map of Harvey County, Kansas. Newton 
n. d. 15p. 

MITCHNER, STUART, Let Me Be Awake. New York, Thomas Y. Crowell Com- 
pany [c!959]. 305p. 

Mix, KATHERINE LYON, A Study in Yellow, the Yellow Book and Its Contribu- 
tors. Lawrence, University of Kansas Press, 1960. 325p. 

MOHL, EVANGELINE LOUISE, Lyrics of the Night, Poems; and, The Moonlight 
Sonata, a Play in Two Acts. New York, Pageant Press [c!959]. [205]p. 

MONAGHAN, JAY, Custer; the Life of George Armstrong Custer. Boston, Little, 
Brown and Company [c!959]. 469p. 

MOORE, JOHN HENRY, Horizon and Zenith of the Great Rebellion; or, The 
Kansas Troubles, and the Taking of Vicksburg . . . Cincinnati, Elm 
Street Printing Company, 1870. 409p. 

MORDELL, ALBERT, comp., World of Haldeman-Julius. New York, Twayne 
Publishers [c!960]. 288p. 

MOSER, INEZ, Remember; Meditations Based Upon Communion Services in Six 
Different Countries. New York, United Presbyterian Church in the United 
States of America, 1959. 50p. 

Mum, LEONARD ERLE, Elam Bartholomew, Pioneer, Farmer, Botanist. A Thesis 
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master 
of Science, Department of History, Government, and Philosophy, Kansas 
State University of Agriculture and Applied Science. N. p., 1959. Typed. 

NELSON, TRUMAN, The Surveyor. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday & Company, 

1960. 667p. 

NICHOLS, LOUISE ELLEN (BENSON), The Life of Mrs. Louise E. Nichols. N. p. 

[I960?]. Mimeographed. [8]p. 

NORTHWEST PUBLISHING COMPANY, Plat Book of Pawnee County, Kansas. Min- 
neapolis, Minn., Northwest Publishing Company, 1902. 49p. 
NORVELL, FLORENCE GAIL, Little Store in Sandtown. Boston, Christopher 

Publishing House [c!960]. 79p. 
[OBERLIN DIAMOND JUBILEE, INC.], Decatur County Then and Now . . . 

1885-1960. Oberlin, 1960. Unpaged. 
OLATHE, FIRST METHODIST CHURCH, Our New Home for the Second Century ; 

First Methodist Church, Olathe, Kansas, Founded 1858. [Olathe, Burns 

Publishing Company] n. d. [12]p. 
OVERTON, RICHARD K., Thought and Action, a Physiological Approach. New 

York, Random House [c!959]. 117p. 


PEASA & COLE, CHICAGO, Complete Guide to the Gold Districts of Kansas 6- 
Nebraska Containing Valuable Information With Regard to Routes, Dis- 
tances, etc. etc. Chicago, Wm. H. Rand, 1859. 20p. (Mumey Reprint, 

PERRTNGS, MYRA, Music in December. Dallas, Triangle Publishing Company 
[c!959]. 40p. 

PETERSEN, SIGURD D., Retarded Children: GocTs Children. Philadelphia, West- 
minster Press [c!960]. 156p. 

PLACE, MARIAN (TEMPLETON), Fast-Draw Tilghman. New York, Julian Mess- 
ner [c!959]. 191p. 

PLETCHER, VERA EDITH (CROSBY), A History of Smith County, Kansas, to 
1960. A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fiilfillment of the Requirements for 
the Degree Master of Arts, Department of History, Political Science, and 
Philosophy, Kansas State University of Agriculture and Applied Science. 
Manhattan, 1960. Typed. [267]p. 

Folk's Topeka (Shawnee County, Kansas) City Directory, 1960, Including 
Shawnee County Taxpayers . . . Kansas City, Mo., R. L. Polk and 
Company, c!960. [1570]p. 

Saved? New York, Macmillan Company [c!960]. 299p. 

PRATT, LAURENCE, New American Legends. Mill Valley, Cal., Wings Press, 

1958. 79p. 

REED, J. W., Map of and Guide to the Kansas Gold Region . . . New 
York, J. H. Colton, 1859. 24p. (Mumey Reprint, 1959.) 

RICH, EVERETT, Heritage of Kansas, Selected Commentaries on Past Times. 
Lawrence, University of Kansas Press, 1960. 359p. 

RICHARDSON, ELMO R., and ALAN W. FARLEY, John Palmer Usher, Lincoln's 
Secretary of the Interior. Lawrence, University of Kansas Press, 1960. 

RILEY, JAMES FRANCIS, Recollections . . . Independence, Mo., John R. 
James, c!959. 82p. 

RISSER, EMMA KING, History of the Pennsylvania Mennonite Church in Kan- 
sas. Hesston, Pennsylvania Mennonite Church, 1958. 95p. 

RUCHAMES, Louis, ed., A John Brown Reader . . . Edited With Intro- 
duction and Commentary . . . London, Abelard-Schuman [c!959]. 

RUGGLES, ELEANOR, The West-Going Heart, a Life of Vachel Lindsay. New 
York, W. W. Norton & Company [c!959]. 448p. 

Salemsborg, 1869-1959. N. p., 1959. Unpaged. 

SALINA, FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, Centennial, 1860-1960. Salina [Con- 
solidated], 1960. Unpaged. 

SHOEMAKER, RALPH J., The Presidents Words, an Index. Vol. 6, Eisenhower, 

1959. Louisville, Elsie DeGraff Shoemaker and Ralph J. Shoemaker 
[c!960]. 162p. 

SLUSSER, DOROTHY MALLETT, Bible Stories Retold for Adults. Philadelphia, 

Westminster Press [c!960]. 128p. 
SMITH COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY, Banner Township History. N. p. [1959]. 

Typed. Unpaged. 
, Historical Notes of Smith County; Lebanon-Salem, by Judge C. Clyde 

Myers ... No impr. Typed. 123p. 


[ ], History of Lebanon 6- Oak Townships, 1959. N. p., 1959. Various 


, History of Salem Methodist Church. N. p., 1959. Typed. Unpaged. 

[ ], History of White Rock Township, 1959, Volume 1. N. p., 1959. 

Various paging. 

, Logan Township [by] Elmer Spurrier. No impr. Typed. Unpaged. 

SNOW, DONALD CLIFFORD, The Justicer. New York, Rinehart & Company 

[c!959]. 255p. 
[SNYDER, JOHN W.], The Scrap-Book of Monrovia, Kansas. [Pasadena, Cal.] 

1959. Unpaged. 

August, 1959. No impr. Mimeographed. [62]p. 
STAHL, FRANK M., One-Way Ticket to Kansas . . . as Told to Margaret 

Whittemore. Lawrence, University of Kansas Press, 1959. 146p. 
STERNBERG, MARTHA L., George Mitter Sternberg. Chicago, American Medical 

Association, 1920. 331p. 

Dodge City Greeter 6- Guide . . . [Dodge City, c!958.] 7Qp. 
THOMPSON, HARLAN, We Were There With the California Forty-Niners. New 

York, Grosset & Dunlap [c!956]. 175p. 
TILGHMAN, ZOE A., Spotlight; Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp as U. S. Deputy 

Marshals. San Antonio, Tex., Naylor Company [c!960]. 21p. 
TILLER AND TOILER, pub., Atlas and Plat Book of Pawnee County . . . 

Lamed, 1916. 49p. 
TOLBERT, AGNES, Log Cabin Days Along Salt Creek. Chicago, Adams Press, 

1959. 60p. 
TOPEKA, FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, Centennial, 1860-1960. Topeka, 1960. 

UNRUH, OTTO D., How To Coach Winning Football. Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 

Prentice-Hall [c!960]. 179p. 
WATERS, FRANK, The Earp Brothers of Tombstone; the Story of Mrs. Virgil 

Earp. New York, Clarkson N. Potter [c!960]. 247p. 
WATHENA, FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, The Future Is Now; Centennial Yearbook 

of First Baptist Church, Wathena, Kansas . . . [Wathena, Wathena 

Times, 1958.] [21]p. 
WEAVER, JOHN D., As I Live and Breathe. New York, Rinehart & Company 

[c!959]. 247p. 
WEDDLE, ETHEL H., Walter Chrysler, Boy Machinist. Indianapolis, Bobbs- 

Merrill Company [c!960]. 192p. 
WELLINGTON, FmsT METHODIST CHURCH, Seventy-Five Years of Methodism in 

Wellington, Kansas, . . . 1873-1948. [Wellington, Daily News, 1948.] 

WELLMAN, MANLY WADE, Candle of the Wicked. New York, G. P. Putnam's 

Sons [c!960]. 317p. 
, Rebel Songster, Songs the Confederates Sang . . . Music Scores 

by Francis Wettman. Charlotte, N. C., Heritage House [c!959]. 53p. 
, They Took Their Stand, the Founders of the Confederacy. New York, 

G. P. Putnam's Sons [c!959]. 258p. 
WELLMAN, PAUL ISELJN, The Fiery Flower. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday 

& Company, 1959. 285p. 


, Stuart Symington, Portrait of a Man With a Mission. Garden City, 

N. Y., Doubleday fit Company, 1960. 283p. 
WERSTEIN, IRVING, Marshal Without a Gun, Tom Smith. New York, Julian 

Messner [c!959]. 192p. 
WESTERN PUBLISHING COMPANY, Plat Book of Finney County, Kansas . . . 

Ashland, Western Publishing Company, c!910. [101]p. 
WESTERNERS, KANSAS CITY POSSE, Good Bye, Jesse! Kansas City, Mo., 1959. 


WESTWOOD, ETHEL PAGE, Footloose. New York, Vantage Press [c!958]. 210p. 
WHITE, ALTA BAKER, The Pageant of the History of Clifton, Kansas, 1859-1944. 

[Clifton, News Print] n. d. Unpaged. 
WICHITA, COMMUNITY PLANNING COUNCIL, Directory of Social Services of 

Wichita and Sedgwick County. Wichita, Community Planning Council, 

n. d. Mimeographed. lOOp. 
WIEBE, DAVID V., They Seek a Country, a Survey of Mennonite Migrations 

With Special Reference to Kansas and Gnadenau. Hillsboro, Mennonite 

Brethren Publishing House, 1959. 222p. 
WILLIAMS, JOHN, Butchers Crossing. New York, Macmillan Company, 1960. 


WINFIELD, FIRST METHODIST CHURCH, Eightieth Anniversary of the First Meth- 
odist Church, Winfield, Kansas, June 11, 1950. No impr. Unpaged. 
WOMAN'S KANSAS DAY CLUB, History of Early Banks in Kansas . . . 

Presented 29 January, 1960 . . . N. p., 1960. Unpaged. 
YOUNGS, ROBERT W., What It Means To Be a Christian. New York, Farrar, 

Straus & Cudahy [c!960]. 192p. 


ADAMS, RAMON F., A Fitting Death for Bitty the Kid. Norman, University of 
Oklahoma Press [c!960]. 310p. 

, The Rampaging Herd, a Bibliography of Books and Pamphlets on Men 

and Events in the Cattle Industry. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press 
[c!959]. 463p. 

AMERICAN HERITAGE, Book of the Pioneer Spirit. New York, American Herit- 
age Publishing Company [c!959]. [400]p. 

ARMTTAGE, MERLE, Pagans, Conquistador es, Heroes and Martyrs. N. p., Man- 
zanita Press [c!960]. 99p. 

ATHEARN, ROBERT G., High Country Empire, the High Plains and Rockies. 
New York, McGraw-Hill [c!960]. 358p. 

BELL, ROBERT E., Guide to the Identification of Certain American Indian Pro- 
jectile Points. N. p., Oklahoma Anthropological Society, 1958. 104p. 

BERG, W. A., Mysterious Horses of Western North America. New York., 
Pageant Press [c!960]. 298p. 

BISHOP, ISABELLA LUCY (BIRD), A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains. 
Norman, University of Oklahoma Press [c!960]. 252p. 

[BowE, RICHARD J., ed.], Historical Album of Colorado; an Official Souvenir 
Rush to the Rockies Centennial, 1859-1959. [Denver, Editor, c!959.] 

BRISBIN, JAMES S., Beef Bonanza; or, How to Get Rich on the Plains . . 
Norman, University of Oklahoma Press [c!959]. 208p. 


BRYAN, JERRY, An Illinois Gold Hunter in the Black Hills. The Diary of Jerry 
Bryan, March 13 to August 20, 1876, With an Introduction and Notes by 
Clyde C. Walton. Springfield, Illinois State Historical Society, 1960. 40p. 

CARTER, KATE B., Utah and the Pony Express. [Salt Lake City] Utah Pony Ex- 
press Centennial Commission [c!960]. 88p. 

CATLIN, GEORGE, Episodes From Life Among the Indians, and Last Rambles 
:.;.' ..; '. Edited by Marvin C. Ross. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press 
[c!959]. 357p. 

CHANDLER, MELBOURNE C., Of Garry Owen in Glory; the History of the Seventh 
United States Cavalry Regiment. N. p. [cl960]. 458p. 

CHASE, DON M., He Opened the West and Led the First White Explorers 
Through Northwest California, May-June, 1828. Crescent City, Cal, Del 
Norte Triplicate Press, c!958. [40]p. 

CHISHOLM, JAMES, South Pass, 1868; James Chisholm's Journal of the Wyo- 
ming Gold Rush . . . Edited by Lola M. Homsher. N. p., University 
of Nebraska Press, 1960. 244p. 

CLAIRMONTE, GLENN, Calamity Was the Name for Jane. Denver, Sage Books 
[c!959]. 215p. 

CLARK, THOMAS D., Frontier America, the Story of the Westward Movement. 
New York, Charles Scribner's Sons [c!959j. 832p. 

CRAIG, REGINALD S., Fighting Parson, the Biography of Colonel John M. Chiv- 
ington. Los Angeles, Westernlore Press, 1959. 284p. 

CROCCHIOLA, STANLEY FRANCIS Louis, The Alma (New Mexico) Story, F. Stan- 
ley. No impr. 18p. 

, The Civil War in New Mexico, by F. Stanley. N. p. [c!960]. 508p. 

, The San Marcial (New Mexico) Story, by F. Stanley. N. p. [I960]. 


DALE, EDWARD EVERETT, Frontier Ways, Sketches of Life in the Old West. 
Austin, University of Texas Press [c!959]. 265p. 

, Range Cattle Industry, Ranching on the Great Plains From 1865 to 

1925. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press [c!960]. 207p. 

EBERHART, PERRY, Guide to the Colorado Ghost Towns and Mining Camps. 
[Denver] Sage Books, 1959. 479p. 

ELLIS, H. HOLMES, Flint-Working Techniques of the American Indians: an 
Experimental Study. Columbus, Ohio Historical Society, 1957. 78p. 

EVARTS, HAL G., Jedediah Smith, Trail Blazer of the West. New York, G. P. 
Putnam's Sons [c!958]. 192p. 

FERGUSSON, ERNA, Murder and Mystery in New Mexico. Albuquerque, Merle 
Armitage [c!948]. [198]p. 

FIELD, MATTHEW C., Matt Field on the Santa Fe Trail, Collected by Clyde and 
Mae Reed Porter .".<*. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press [I960]. 

FURNISS, NORMAN F., The Mormon Conflict, 1850-1859. New Haven, Yale 
University Press, 1960. Slip. 

GOETZMANN, WILLIAM H., Army Exploration in the American West, 1803-1863. 
New Haven, Yale University Press, 1959. 509p. 

HAFEN, LEROY R., and ANN W. HAFEN, eds., Fremont's Fourth Expedition; a 
Documentary Account of the Disaster of 1848-1849 . . . Glendale, 
Cal., Arthur H. Clark Company, 1960. 319p. (The Far West and the 
Rockies Historical Series, 1820-1875, Vol. 11.) 


, Handcarts to Zion, the Story of a Unique Western Migration, 1856- 

1860 . . . Glendale, Gal., Arthur H. Clark Company, 1960. 328p. 
(The Far West and the Rockies Historical Series, 1820-1875, Vol. 14.) 

HALL, MARTIN HARDWICK, Sibley's New Mexico Campaign. Austin, University 
of Texas Press [c!960]. 366p. 

HANSON, CHARLES E., JR., The Plains Rife. Harrisburg, Pa., Stackpole Com- 
pany [c!960]. 171p. 

HARRINGTON, M. R., Ozark Bluff-Dwellers. New York, Museum of the Ameri- 
can Indian Heye Foundation, 1960. 185p. 

HOLIDAY MAGAZINE, American Panorama, West of the Mississippi . 
Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday & Company [c!960]. 405p. 

HORAN, JAMES D., Desperate Men; Revelations From the Sealed Pinkerton 
Files. New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons [c!949]. 296p. 

HOWBERT, IRVING, Indians of the Pike's Peak Region . . . New York, 
Knickerbocker Press, 1914. 230p. 

HUNGERFORD, JOHN B., Narrow Gauge to Silverton, Centennial Edition. [Re- 
seda, Cal., Hungerford Press, c!959.] 36p. 

KURD, C. W., Bents' Stockade, Hidden in the Hills. [N. p., Bent County Demo- 
crat, c!960.] [92]p. 

HYDE, GEORGE E., Indians of the High Plains, From the Prehistoric Period to 
the Coming of Europeans. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press [c!959]. 

KNIGHT, OLIVER, Following the Indian Wars . . . Norman, University of 
Oklahoma Press [c!960j. 348p. 

KNOBLOCK, BYRON W., Banner-Stones of the North American Indian. La- 
Grange, 111., Author, 1939. 596p. 

KYNER, JAMES H., End of the Track, as Told to Hawthorne Daniel. [Lincoln] 
University of Nebraska Press, 1960. 280p. 

MCCRACKEN, HAROLD, George Catlin and the Old Frontier. New York, Dial 
Press, 1959. 216, 

MCDERMOTT, JOHN FRANCIS, George Caleb Bingham, River Portraitist. Nor- 
man, University of Oklahoma Press [c!959], 454p. 

MACDONALD, RANALD, Narrative of His Early Life on the Columbia . . . 
With a Sketch of His Later Life on the Western Frontier, 1824-1894. Edited 
. . . by William S. Lewis and Naojiro Murakami. Spokane, Eastern 
Washington State Historical Society, 1923. 333p. 

MADSEN, BRIGHAM D., The Bannock of Idaho. Caldwell, Idaho, Caxton Print- 
ers, 1958. 382p. 

MARCY, RANDOLPH B., The Prairie Traveler, a Hand-Book for Overland Expedi- 
tions . . . New York, Harper & Brothers, 1859. 340p. (Mumey Re- 
print, 1959.) 

MILLER, JAMES KNOX POLK, Road to Virginia City . . . Edited by An- 
drew F. Rotte. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press [c!960]. 143p. 

MITCHELL, S. H., The Indian Chief, Journeycake. Philadelphia, American 
Baptist Publication Society, 1895. 108p. Microfilm. 1 Vol. on 1 Reel. 

MORGAN, LEWIS HENRY, Indian Journals, 1859-62, Edited With an Introduc- 
tion, by Leslie A. White . . . Ann Arbor, University of Michigan 
[c!959j. [231]p. 


O'CONNOR, RICHARD, Pat Garrett; a Biography of the Famous Marshal and the 

Killer of Billy the Kid. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday & Company, 1960. 

O'KEEFFE, CHARLEY, Western Story; the Recollections of Charley O'Kieffe, 

1884-1898. N. p., University of Nebraska Press, 1960. 224p. 
POTAWATOMI MUSEUM, ANGOLA, IND., Ancient American Indian Projectile 

Point Flint Type Bulletin . . . Angola, 1958. [7]p. 
REA, RALPH R., Sterling Price, the Lee of the West. Little Rock, Ark., Pioneer 

Press [c!959]. 229p. 
REID, MAYNE, Scalp Hunters: or, Adventures Among the Trappers. New York, 

Carleton, 1874. 358p. 
ROUSTIO, EDWARD, A History of the Life of Isaac McCoy in Relationship to 

Early Indian Migrations and Missions as Revealed in His Unpublished Manu- 
scripts. A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Central Baptist 

Theological Seminary, Kansas City, Kansas, in Partial Fulfillment of the 

Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Theology. N. p., 1954. Typed. 

234p. Microfilm. 1 Vol. on 1 Reel. 
RUSSELL, VIRGIL Y., Indian Artifacts, Completely Revised and Enlarged. 

[Boulder, Colo., Johnson Publishing Company, 1957.] 170p. 
SANDOZ, MARI, Son of the Gamblin' Man, the Youth of an Artist. New York, 

Clarkson N. Potter [c!960]. 333p. 
SANFORD, MOLLIE DORSEY, Mottie; the Journal of Mollie Dorsey Sanford in 

Nebraska and Colorado Territories, 1857-1866 . . . Notes by Donald 

F. Danker. [Lincoln] University of Nebraska Press, 1959. 201p. 
SETTLE, RAYMOND W., Pony Express, Heroic Effort Tragic End. (Reprinted 

from Utah Historical Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 2, April, 1959.) [23]p. 
SHIELDS, G. O., Hunting in the Great West . . . Chicago, Belford, Clarke 

& Company, 1884. 306p. 
SONNICHSEN, C. L., Tularosa, Last Frontier of the West. New York, Devin- 

Adair Company, 1960. 336p. 
Southwestern Historical Quarterly Cumulative Index, Vols. 41-60, July, 1987 

April, 1957. Austin, Texas State Historical Association, 1960. 574p. 
SPELL, LESLIE DOYLE, and HAZEL M. SPELL, Forgotten Men of Cripple Creek. 

Denver, Big Mountain Press, 1959. 160p. 
STOUTENBURGH, JOHN L., JR., Dictionary of the American Indian. New York, 

Philosophical Library [c!960]. 462p. 
SUNDER, JOHN EDWARD, Bill Sublette, Mountain Man. Norman, University of 

Oklahoma Press [c!959]. 279p. 
TINKLE, LON, and ALLEN MAXWELL, eds., The Cowboy Reader. New York, 

Longmans, Green and Company, 1959. 307p. 
U. S. BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, Final Roll Wyandotte Tribe of Oklahoma, 

Prepared Pursuant to the Act of August 1, 1956. No impr. 65p. 
WARD, HARRIET SHERRTLL, Prairie Schooner Lady, the Journal of Harriet Sherrill 

Ward, 1853, as Presented by Ward G. De Witt and Florence Stark De Witt. 

Los Angeles, Westernlore Press, 1959. 180p. 
WESTERNERS, DENVER, 1958 Brand Book of the Denver Westerners, Edited by 

Nolie Mumey. Boulder, Johnson Publishing Company, 1959. 361p. 
, Los ANGELES, Brand Book, Book Eight. [Los Angeles] Los Angeles 

Corral [c!959]. 229p. 


WHEAT, CARL I., 1540-1861 Mapping the Transmississippi West. Volume 3, 
From the Mexican War to the Boundary Surveys, 1846-1854. San Francisco, 
Institute of Historical Cartography, 1959. 349p. 


[ABELS, MARIE (ROBINSON)], Heraldic Art of a Few of Our Families . . . 
No impr. 59p. 

AMERICAN CLAN GREGOR SOCIETY, Year Book Containing the Proceedings of 
the 1958 Annual Gathering. Washington, D. C., The American Clan Gregor 
Society [c!959]. 61p. 

American Genealogical-Biographical Index . . . Vols. 29-32. Middle- 
town, Conn., Published Under the Auspices of an Advisory Committee 
Representing the Cooperating Subscribing Libraries . . . 1959-1960. 
4 Vols. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF GENEALOGISTS, Genealogical Research Methods and 
Sources, Edited by Milton Rubincam. Washington, D. C., 1960. 456p. 

ARTHUR, GLENN DORA (FOWLER), Annals of the Fowler Family . . . Aus- 
tin, Tex., Ben C. Jones & Company, 1901. 327p. 

BRANCH, GLOUCESTER, Epitaphs of Gloucester and Mathews Counties in 
Tidewater, Virginia, Through 1865. Richmond, Virginia State Library, 1959. 
168p. ( Virginia State Library Publications, No. 9. ) 

BABER, ADIN, Nancy Hanks of Undistinguished Families, a Genealogical, Bio- 
graphical and Historical Study of the Ancestry of the Mother of Abraham 
Lincoln. Kansas, 111., Privately Printed, 1960. [386]p. 

BALL, ROY HUTTON, Pioneer Heritage, Geneology of One Branch of the Hutton 
Family. Oklahoma City, 1960. 33p. 

BANKS, WAYNE, History of fell County, Arkansas. [Van Buren, Ark., Press- 
Argus, 1959.] 298p. 

BASS, CORA, Abstracts of Sampson County, North Carolina, Witts, 1784-1895. 
Clinton, N. C., Bass Publishing Company, c!958. 175p. 

, Marriage Bonds of Duplin County, North Carolina, 1749-1868. [Clin- 
ton, N. C., Bass Publishing Company, c!959.J 144p. 

Biographical and Genealogical History of Cass, Miami, Howard and Tipton 
Counties, Indiana. Chicago, Lewis Publishing Company, 1898. 2 Vols. 

Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon Counties, Iowa . . . Chicago, 
W. S. Dunbar & Company, 1889. 826p. 

BLAKE, WILLIAM P., ed., History of the Town of Hamden, Connecticut, With an 
Account of the Centennial Celebration, June 15, 1886 . . . New Haven, 
Price, Lee & Company, 1888. 350p. 

BLAKEMORE, MARY STEWART, A Narrative Genealogy of the Stewarts of Sequat- 
chie Valley, Tennessee, and Allied Families. Richmond, Dietz Press, 1960. 

BLOSS, RICHARD R., Bloss Genealogy; Edmund and Mary Bloss and Their Des- 
cendants in North America. Beaumont, Tex., 1959. 89p. 

BODDIE, JOHN BENNETT, Historical Southern Families. Redwood City, Cal., 
Pacific Coast Publishers [c!958]. 3 Vols. 

BRADSBY, H. C., History of Bradford County, Pennsylvania, With Biographical 
Sketches. Chicago, S. B. Nelson & Company, 1891. 1320p. 



CAMERON, VIOLA ROOT, Emigrants From Scotland to America, 1774-1775, 

Copied From a Loose Bundle of Treasury Papers in the Public Record Office, 

London, England . . . Baltimore, Southern Book Company, 1959. 

CAPPON, LESTER J., and STELLA F. DUFF, Virginia Gazette Index, 1736-1780. 

Williamsburg, Va., Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1950. 

2 Vols. 
CARTER, ETHELMAE EYLAR, Our family History, Descendants and Ancestors 

of Our Great Grandparents . . . Minneapolis, Burgess Publishing 

Company, 1958. 459p. 

CARTER, W. C., and A. J. GLOSSBRENNER, History of York County [Pennsyl- 
vania] From Its Erection to the Present Time (1729-1834). New Edition. 

With Additions Edited by A. Monroe Aurand, Jr. Harrisburg, Pa., Privately 

Printed, 1930. 221p. 
CHAMBERLAIN, GEORGE WALTER, The Spragues of Maiden, Massachusetts. 

Boston, Privately Printed, 1923. 317p. 
CHAPPELEAR, GEORGE WARREN, Families of Virginia, Volume 2; Chappelear. 

Dayton, Va., Shenandoah Press, 1932. 23cm. 
CLAGHORN, WILLIAM CRUMBY, comp., The Barony of Cleghorne, A. D. 1203, 

Lanarkshire, Scotland, to the Family of Claghorn, A. D. 1912, United States 

of America. [Philadelphia, Lyon & Armor Printers, 1912.] Microfilm. 

132p. on 1 Reel. 
CLENDENING, A. ELIZABETH, Dunaways of Virginia. Ogunquit, Me., S. Judson 

Dunaway, 1959. 156p. 
COFFMAN, FLOYD WILMER, The Conrad Clan; Family of John Stephen Conrad, 

Sr., and Attied Lines. Harrisonburg, Va., Joseph K. Ruebush, 1939. 355p. 
COLKET, MEREDITH B., comp., Jenks Family of England, Compiled Under the 

Terms of the Will of Harlan W. Jenks, Deceased. (Reprinted from New 

England Historical and Genealogical Register, Vol. 110, Nos. 437-440, 1956.) 

COLLINS, CARR P., Jr., Royal Ancestors of Magna Charta Barons . ; . 

the Collins Genealogy . . . Dallas, Tex., c!959. 297p. 
Combined History of Randolph, Monroe and Perry Counties, Illinois . * . 

Philadelphia, J. L. McDonough & Company, 1883. 510p. 
Commemorative Biographical Encyclopedia of the Juniata Valley, Comprising 

the Counties of Huntingdon, Mifflin, Juniata and Perry, Pennsylvania 

. . . Chambersburg, J. M. Runk & Company, 1897. 2 Vols. 
Commemorative Biographical Record of the Counties of Sandusky and Ottawa, 

Ohio . . . Chicago, J. H. Beers & Company, 1896. 854p. 
CORN, SILAS ANDREW, and SHIRLEY CORN, Our Family Tree. Beaverton, Ore., 

1959. Various paging. 

CORNWALL, EDWARD E., William Cornwall and His Descendants, a Genea- 
logical History . . . New Haven, Turtle, Morehouse and Taylor, 1901. 

CROSSON, FRANK E., History of Taylor County, Iowa, From the Earliest Historic 

Times to 1910. Chicago, S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1910. 699p. 

RECORDS RESEARCH COMMITTEE, comp., Kentucky Cemetery Records, 

Volume 1. N. p., 1960. 471p. 


, OHIO SOCIETY, Official Roster III, Soldiers of the American Revolution 

Who Lived in the State of Ohio. N. p., 1959. 448p. 

, OKLAHOMA SOCIETY, Roster, 1909-1959, and Register of Ancestors 

. . . N. p., Oklahoma Society Daughters of the American Revolution 
[c!959]. 199p. 

DAVIS, BAILEY FULTON, comp., Amherst County, Virginia, Courthouse Minia- 
tures; an Abstract of All Items in Deed Book A, 1761-1765, Amherst County, 
Virginia. Amherst Courthouse, Va., Compiler [c!960]. 50p. 

DES COGNETS, ANNA (RUSSELL), William Russell and His Descendants. 
[Princeton, N. J., c!960.] 152p. 

DICKORE, MARIE, Hessian Soldiers in the American Revolution; Records of 
Their Marriages and Baptisms of Their Children in America . . . 
Cincinnati, 1959. 25p. 

DICKSON, LURA M., Ancestry and Descendants of David Carton of New Jer- 
sey and Ohio. Montezuma, Iowa, n. p., 1952. Mimeographed. 67p. 

, Descendants of Joseph Francis of Maryland and Virginia. Monte- 
zuma, Iowa, 1949. Various paging. 

DUTCH SETTLERS SOCIETY OF ALBANY, Yearbook, Vols. 34 and 85, 1958-1960. 
Albany, N. Y. [Society I960]. 70p. 

1958. N.p. [c!960]. 59p. 

EAST TENNESSEE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, Publications, No. 31, 1959. Knoxville, 
Society, 1959. 157p. 

EISENBERG, WILLIAM EDWARD, This Heritage; the Story of Lutheran Beginnings 
in the Lower Shenandoah Valley, and of Grace Church, Winchester. Win- 
chester, Va., Trustees of Grace Evangelical Lutheran Church, 1954. 395p. 

ELLSBERRY, ELIZABETH PRATHER, comp., Macon County, Missouri, Will Records 
1838-1880 ... and Marriage Records . . . Chillicothe, Mo., 
Compiler, n. d. 72p. 

, comp., Marriage Records, 1820-1850, and Will Records, 1824-1849, 

of Ray County, Missouri. Chillicothe, Mo., Compiler, n. d. 74p. 

EVANS, CHARLES W., comp., Biographical and Historical Accounts of the Fox, 
Ellicott, and Evans Families . . . Buffalo, Baker, Jones and Company, 
1882. [310]p. 

EVANS, MRS. MABLE E. ADAMS, Kimble and Elvina (Smith) Adams and Some 
of Their Descendants. Manhattan, 1958. [18]p. 

Virginia, 1759-1959. Warrenton, Va., Committee [c!959]. 335p. 

FISHER, GEORGE D., History and Reminiscences of the Monumental Church, 
Richmond, Virginia, From 1814 to 1878. Richmond, Whittet & Shepper- 
son, 1880. 508p. 

[FORD, JAMES EVERETT], A History of Grundy County . . . Trenton, Mo., 
News Publishing Company, 1908. 875p. 

[FREEMAN, IRA S.], History of Montezuma County, Colorado, Land of Promise 
and Fulfilment . . . [Boulder, Johnson Publishing Company, c!958.] 

OHIO, History . . . 1807-1957. No impr. 74p. 


Receipts for Georgia Bounty Grants. Atlanta, Foote and Davies Company, 
1928. 85p. 

GIULVEZAN, ISABEL STEBBENS, Collection of Letters Written by the Schott 
Family and Their Kin (1836-1897). St. Louis, n. p., 1959. Mimeo- 
graphed. 54p. 
GOTT, JOHN K., A History of Marshall (Formerly Salem), Fauquier County, 

Virginia. N. p., Denlinger's [1959?]. 94p. 

GRABOWSKH, BESSIE BERRY, DuVal Family of Virginia, 1701; Descendants of 
Daniel DuVal, Huguenot and Allied Families. Richmond, Va., Dietz 
Printing Company, 1931. 253p. 

sary of the First Congregational Church of Haddam, Connecticut . . . 
Haddam, 1902. 360p. 

HADLER, MABEL JACQUES, Towner County North Dakota Families, Volume 2. 
Long Beach, CaL, 1959. Mimeographed. [506]p. 

, Towner County, North Dakota, Families, Volume S. Long Beach, 

Cal., 1959. Mimeographed. Various Paging. 

HANES, B. E., Doak Family History and Genealogy. [Clarksburg, W. Va., Ex- 
ponent Job Shop] n. d. lOOp. 

[HARRIS, VERA SPEER], comp., History of Pulaski and Bleckley Counties, Geor- 
gia, 1808-1956. [Hawkinsville, Ga.] Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, Hawkinsville Chapter [c!957, c!958]. 2 Vols. 

HARTLEY, RACHEL M., The History of Camden, Connecticut, 1786-1959. Ham- 
den, Shoe String Press, 1959. 506p. 
HATCH, VERNELLE A., ed., Illustrated History of Jamestown, Chautauqua 

County, N. Y. . . . Jamestown, C. E. Burke, 1900. 297p. 
HEALD, EDWARD THORNTON, The Stark County Story, Volume 4, Part 3, the 
American Way of Life, 1917-1959. Canton, Ohio, Stark County Historical 
Society, c!959. 1065p. 

HECK, EARL LEON, History of the Heck Family of America With Special At- 
tention Given to Those Families Who Originated in Indiana, Kentucky, 
Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Virginia. Englewood, Ohio, c!959. 50p. 
HEISS, WILLARD, comp., Indiana Quaker Records, Milford Monthly Meeting, 

1823, Wayne County, Indiana. Indianapolis, Compiler, 1960. 92p. 
History of Clayton County, Iowa . . . Chicago, Inter-State Publishing 

Company, 1882. 1144p. 
History of Johnson County, Iowa . . . 1836-1882 . . . Iowa City, 

1883. 966p. 
History of Menard and Mason Counties, Illinois . . . Chicago, O. L. 

Baskin & Company, 1879. 871p. 
History of Poweshiek County, Iowa . . . Des Moines, Union Historical 

Company, 1880. 975p. 
History of Tama County, Iowa . . . Springfield, HI., Union Publishing 

Company, 1883. 1081p. 

History of the Counties of Woodbury and Plymouth, Iowa, Including an Ex- 
tended Sketch of Sioux City . . . Chicago, A. Warner & Company, 
1890-91. 1022p. 

History of the First Presbyterian Church of Belle fontaine, Ohio . . . 
Bellefontaine, Index Printing & Publishing Company, 1900. 278p. 


History of the Upper Ohio Valley . . . Madison, Wis., Brant & Fuller, 

1891. 826p. 
History of Waukesha County, Wisconsin . . . Chicago, Western Historical 

Company, 1880. 1006p. 
History of Wyandot County, Ohio . . . Chicago, Leggett, Conaway & 

Company, 1884. 1065p. 
HITZ, ALEX M., comp., Authentic List of All Land Lottery Grants Made to 

Veterans of the Revolutionary War by the State of Georgia ... At- 

lanta, By Authority of Ben W. Fortson, Jr., Secretary of State, 1955. 78p. 
HOES, ROSWELL RANDALL, Index to the Baptismal and Marriage Registers of 

the Old Dutch Church of Kingston, N. Y. New York, Privately Printed, 

1890. 475p. 
HOLLON, CLAY, comp., Genealogy of Hollon and Related Families, Early 

Settlers of Eastern Kentucky, and Their Descendants. Chicago, Compiler, 

1958. 108p. 
HOLM, JAMES B., ed., Portage Heritage, a History of Portage County, Ohio 

. . . Sesqui-Centennial Edition, 1957. N. p., Portage County Historical 

Society, 1957. 824p. 
HUGUENOT SOCIETY OF SOUTH CAROLINA, Transactions, No. 64. Charleston, 

Society, 1959. 45p. 

Hunter and Related Families . . . of Southeast Missouri . . . 

Edited by Felix Eugene Snider. Cape Girardeau, Mo., Ramfre Press, 1959. 

HUXFORD, FOLKS, History of Brooks County, Georgia. Quitman, Ga., Daughters 

of the American Revolution, Hannah Clarke Chapter, 1948. 607p. 
JUDY, E. L., History of Grant and Hardy Counties, West Virginia. Charleston, 

W. Va., Charleston Printing Company [c!951]. 466p. 
KANE, JOSEPH NATHAN, American Counties . . . New York, Scarecrow 

Press, 1960. 500p. 
Kenton County, Kentucky, Cemeteries and Bible Records, 1753-1957. Cov- 

ington, Ky., Christopher Gist Historical Society, 1958. Mimeographed. 

[KNAPP, ALFRED AVERELL, comp.], A Knapp Line Back to Adam With Hugue- 

not, Crusade and Magna Charta Connections. [Winter Park, Fla., Compiler, 

I960.] Mimeographed. lOp. 
KNAPP, SHEPHERD, Personal Records of the Brick Presbyterian Church in the 

City of New York, 1809-1908 . . . New York, Published by the Trus- 

tees of the Brick Presbyterian Church, 1909. 262p. 
KNISKERN, WALTER HAMLIN, comp., Some of the Descendants of Johann Peter 

Kniskern of Schoharie County, New York .>>.>; Petersburg, Va., Plum- 

mer Printing Company, 1960. 470p. 
KNORR, CATHERINE LINDSAY, comp., Marriage Bonds and Ministers' Returns 

of Chesterfield County, Virginia, 1771-1815. N. p., Compiler, 1958. 159p. 
_ , comp., Marriages of Orange County, Virginia, 1747-1810. N. p., Com- 

piler [c!959]. 122p. 
LADD, HORATIO OLIVER, Origin and History of Grace Church, Jamaica, New 

York. New York, Shakespeare Press, 1914. 441p. 
LEA, REBA FITZPATRICK, The Lea Family in Nelson County, Virginia . ;. . 

[Lovingston, Va., 1946.] 245p. 


LEATHAM, Louis S., Letham or Leatham Family Book of Remembrance . . . 
Ann Arbor, Mich., Edwards Brothers, 1955. 1072p. 

LEBANON, ME., Vital Records of Lebanon, Maine, to the Year 1892. N. p., Pub- 
lished Under the Authority of the Maine Historical Society, 1923. 149p. 

Lineage and the Descendants of Tarpley Early Taylor, Prepared by His Chil- 
dren and Grandchildren. N. p. [1959?]. 15p. 

LINES, ELIZA J., Marks-Platt Ancestry. Sound Beach, Conn., 1902. 98p. 

[LuziER, ATHLYN LUCILLE, comp.], As the Conard Family Tree Grows, Volume 
1. Colorado Springs, Rose Printing Company, n. d. 345p. 

Brassfield Genealogies. [Cranford, N. J., Compilers, c!959.] 720p. 

MCMAHON, HELEN G., Chautauqua County, a History. Buffalo, N. Y., Henry 
Stewart [c!958]. 339p. 

MACON, ALETHEA JANE, Gideon Macon of Virginia and Some of His Descend- 
ants . . . Macon, Ga., J. W. Burke Company [c!956]. 267p. 

Mayflower Descendant, 1620-1937, Index of Persons, Volumes 1-34, A-G. Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts Society of Mayflower Descendants, 1959. 275p. 

MILLER, BESS TOMPKTNS, comp., Our Folks, a Genealogy of the Ancestors and 
Descendants of Reuben Tompkins. Corvallis, Ore., Compiler [c!953]. Un- 

MILLER, EDWARD THOMSON, Richard Brown, One Line of Descendants. Plym- 
outh, Mich., Miller Publishers, 1959. 80p. 

[MILLSPAUGH, FRANCIS C.], MiUspaugh Milspaw. [Swampscott, Mass., 1959.] 

MISSISSIPPI GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY, comp., Cemetery and Bible Records, Vol. 
6. Jackson, Society, 1959. 223p. 

MOORE, ADELLA BRECKENRIDGE, History of the Bettevue Presbyterian Cemetery 
at Caledonia, Missouri. Farmington, Elmwood Press Print, n. d. 55p. 

Steinmeyer, 1857-1957; One Hundred fears in Kansas and the Neighboring 
States. No impr. Unpaged. 

MORROW, J. D. A., and MARY MORROW HAYS, Family and Descendants of Wil- 
liam Barnes Adams and Martha Larimore Adams of Laurel, Indiana . . . 
N.p. [c!958]. 180p. 

Register of Ancestors Accepted Since 1944, Compiled by Marion Charlotte 
Reed. Boston, 1959. 15p. 

VJLLE CHAPTER, Bible Records of Families of East Tennessee and Their Con- 
nections From Other Areas, Vols. 1-2. N. p., Daughters of the American 
Colonists, Knoxville Chapter, and Daughters of the American Revolution, 
James White Chapter, 1959-1960. 2 Vols. 

NEFF, LEWIS EDWIN, comp., Lineages of the Society of Mayflower Descendants 
in the State of Oklahoma. [Tulsa, Oklahoma Society of Mayflower Descend- 
ants, c!959.] 174p. 

SIONS, New Hanover County Court Minutes, 1788-1769. Abstracted, Com- 
piled and Edited by Alexander McDonald Walker . . . Bethesda, Md., 
A. M. Walker, 1958. 123p. 


PANCAKE, FRANK ROBBINS, Historical Sketch of the First Presbyterian Church 
[Staunton, Virginia]. Richmond, Va., Whittet & Shepperson [1954?]. 92p. 

Panhandle-Plains Historical Review, Vol. 32. Canyon, Tex., Panhandle-Plains 
Historical Society, 1959. 120p. 

PARSONS, MARGARET WELLINGTON, Index (Abridged) to the New England His- 
torical and Genealogical Register, Volumes 51 Through 112 . . . [Marl- 
borough, Mass.] Privately Printed, 1959. 406p. 

PECK, DARIUS, A Genealogical Account of the Descendants in the Male Line 
of William Peek, One of the Founders in 1688 of the Colony of New Haven, 
Conn. Hudson, Bryan & Goeltz, 1877. 253p. 

PETERSON, CLARENCE STEWART, Known Military Dead During the American 
Revolutionary War, 1775-1783. Baltimore, Md., c!959. Mimeographed. 

PHELPS, RICHARD H., History of Newgate of Connecticut, at Simsbury, Now 
East Granby . . . Albany, J. Munsell, 1860. I51p. 

PORTER, WILL, Annals of Polk County, Iowa, and City of Des Moines. Des 
Moines, George A. Miller Printing Company, 1898. 1064p. 

Portrait and Biographical Album of Jo Daviess County, Illinois . . . 
Chicago, Chapman Brothers, 1889. [802]p. 

Portrait and Biographical Record of Allen and Putnam Counties, Ohio . . . 
Chicago, A. W. Bowen & Company, 1896. [1181]p. 

Portrait and Biographical Record of Berrien and Cass Counties, Michigan 
. . . Chicago, Biographical Publishing Company, 1893. 922p. 

RAPHAEL, EVELYN HUBER, History of the Haslett-Lake Lansing Area, Meridian 
Township, Ingham County, Michigan. [Haslett, Mich., c!958.] 94p. 

ROY, NANCY REBA, Descendants of William Duncan, the Elder. San Diego, 
Cal., Citizen Printing and Publishing Company, 1959. 267p. 

SCARBOROUGH, JEWEL DAVIS, Southern Kith and Kin. Volume 4, Family Pot- 
pourri. [Abilene, Tex.] n. p. [c!958]. 421p. 

SEYMOUR, NADA, comp., Marriage Records, Perry County, Ohio, 1818-1878. 
Washington, D. C., n. d. 535p. 

SHARPLES, STEPHEN PASCHALL, Records of the Church of Christ at Cambridge 
in New England, 1632-1830 . . . Boston, Eben Putnam, 1906. 578p. 

Short History of the Moon Family With Records of the Family of James and 
Sarah Moon. N. p. [I960]. 55p. 

SHRINER, CHARLES A., Paterson, New Jersey, Its Advantages for Manufactur- 
ing and Residence . . . Paterson, Press Printing and Publishing Com- 
pany, 1890. 326p. 

SHULTS, CHARLES J., ed., Historical and Biographical Sketch of Cherry Creek, 
Chautauqua County, New York . . . N. p., Charles J. Shults, 1900. 

SLOAN, MARY RAHN, History of Camp Dennison [Ohio], 1796-1956. N. p. 
[Camp Dennison Historical Committee, c!956]. 175p. 

[SMALLEY, MATTHEW F.], John Smalley and His Descendants in America, 
June 5, 1632 January 1, 1960. N. p., 1960? 122p. 

SMITH, JAMES H History of Duchess County, New York, With 

Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Some of Its Prominent Men and 
Pioneers. Syracuse, D. Mason & Company, 1882. [592]p. 


SMITH, SARAH QUINN, Early Georgia Wills and Settlements of Estates, Wilkes 
County. [Washington, Ga., 1959.] Mimeographed. 81p. 

SOCIETY OF COLONIAL WARS, Publications Nos. 3-5, 8-9, 1897-1899, 1906- 
1908. Boston, Printed for the Society, 1897-1908. 5 Vols. 

SOCIETY OF INDIANA PIONEERS, Year Book, 1959. Published by Order of the 
Board of Governors, 1959. 146p. 

SOCIETY OF THE CINCINNATI, Roster [Washington, D. C.] Society, 1959. 

STONE, CHARLES H., comp., Stones of Surry, Revised Edition 1955. Char- 
lotte, N. C., Observer Printing House [c!955]. 499p. 

Stroebe Story; the Descendants in America of Wilhelm Wolfgang Gerhardt 
Strobe and Anna Catherina Shubelin . . . N. p. [1959]. 42p. 

SUMNER, EDITH BARTLETT, comp., Ancestry and Descendants of Amaziah Hall 
and Betsey Baldwin. Los Angeles, 1954. 255p. 

SWEENY, LENORA HIGGINBOTHAM, Captain Alexander Fleming and Joyce, His 
Wife, of Westfalia, Rappahannock County, Virginia. (Reprinted from 
Americana, the Quarterly Historical Magazine, Vol. 33, No. 3, July, 1939.) 

TAINTOR, CHARLES M., Genealogy and History of the Taintor Family, From 
the Period of Their Emigration From Wales . . . Greenfield, Merriam 
and Mirick, 1847. 82p. 

TEG, WILLIAM, History of Porter. Kezar Falls, Me., Parsonsfield-Porter His- 
torical Society [c!957]. 315p. 

TOOLE, K. Ross, Montana, an Uncommon Land. Norman, University of Okla- 
homa Press [c!959]. 278p. 

Town of Hertford Bi-Centennial, 1758-1958, and Historic Data of Perquimans 
County, North Carolina. No impr. 63p. 

TRAYLOR, JACOB L., Past and Present of Montgomery County, Illinois. Chicago, 
S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1904. 770p. 

TRIGGS, J. H., History and Directory of Laramie City, Wyoming Territory 
. . . Laramie City, Daily Sentinel Print, 1875. 91p. [Facsimile Copy, 

, History of Cheyenne and Northern Wyoming, Embracing tlie Gold 

Fields of the Black Hills . . . Omaha, Herald Steam Book and Job 
Printing House, 1876. 132p. [Facsimile Copy, 1955.] 

TUCKER, E., History of Randolph County Indiana . . . Chicago, A. L. 
Kingman, 1882. 512p. 

TULLJDGE, EDWARD W., History of Salt Lake City and Its Founders . . . 
Salt Lake City, Author, n. d. [1275]p. 

U. S. CENSUS, 1800, 1800 Census of Kent County, Delaware, Transcribed and 
Edited by Ellen Stanley Rogers and Louise E. Easter. Bladensburg, Md., 
Genealogical Recorders, 1959. 104p. 

, 1810, Virginia, 1810 Census Population Schedules, Accomack-Buck- 

ingham Counties. Microfilm. 1 Reel. 

, 1850, Jackson County, Missouri, Census of 1850, Abstracted by Hattie 

E. Poppino. Kansas City, Mo., Hattie E. Poppino [1959]. Mimeographed. 

VANDERVELDE, CONRAD, comp., Saape Van der Velde Wopkje Dykstra De- 
scendants. Emporia [I960]. 33p. 


VANDERVELDE, KATE AMELIA CROSS, comp., Cross-Howell, Glover-Stoddert and 

Related Families. Emporia, 1959 [125]p. 
VAN WINKLE, DANIEL, Old Bergen [New Jersey], History and Reminiscences 

. . . Jersey City, N. J., John W. Harrison [c!902]. 319p. 
VOTH, MARICHA BALZER, comp., The Heinrich Baltzer Genealogy, 1775-1959. 

North Newton, Kan., n. d. 180p. 
WALLACE, GEORGE SELDEN, Carters of Blenheim, a Genealogy of Edward and 

Sarah Champe Carter of "Blenheim" Albemarle County, Virginia. [Hunt- 

ington, W. Va.] George Selden Wallace, 1955. 139p. 
WALLER, ALEXANDER H., History of Randolph County, Missouri. Topeka, 

Historical Publishing Company, 1920. 852p. 

County, Colorado. Akron, Colo., Washington County Museum Association 

[c!959]. 392p. 
WELLMAN, MANLY WADE, The County of Warren, North Carolina, 1586-1917. 

Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press [c!959]. 282p. 
WHITTEMORE, HENRY, History of Montclair Township, State of New Jersey 
,n*vi.-'i New York, Suburban Publishing Company, 1894. 320p. 
WILLIAMS, KATHLEEN BOOTH, comp., Marriages of Louisa County, Virginia, 

1766-1815. [Alexandria, Va.] Compiler [c!959]. 143p. 

Early Edgecombe. Rocky Mount, N. C., Dixie Letter Service, 1958. 364p. 
, Marriages of Early Edgecombe County, North Carolina, 1733-1868. 

Rocky Mount, N. C., Dixie Letter Service, 1958. 320p. 
, Tombstone and Census Records of Early Edgecombe. Rocky Mount, 

N. C., Dixie Letter Service, 1959. 353p. 
WILLSON, RICHARD EUGENE, comp., The Willson Family, 1672-1959. Kent, 

Ohio, 1959. 324p. 
WINSLER, FRANCES (WOOLVERTON), comp., Woolverton History, 1660-1959, 

Inclusive. Lawrence, Kan., 1959. 56p. 
WINSLOW, ME., Vital Records of Winslow, Maine, to the "fear 1892; Births, 

Marriages and Deaths. N. p., Published Under the Authority of the Maine 

Historical Society, 1937. 325p. 


ADDINGTON, HENRY UNWIN, Youthful America; Selections From Henry Unwin 
Addingtons Residence in the United States of America, 1822, 23, 24, 25, 
Edited With Introduction and Notes by Bradford Perkins. Berkeley, Uni- 
versity of California Press, 1960. 115p. (University of California Publica- 
tions in History, Vol. 65. ) 

Association, 1959. 165p. 

AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY, Proceedings at the Annual Meeting Held in 
in Worcester, October 21, 1959. Worcester, Mass., Society, 1960. [305]p. 

Americana Annual, an Encyclopedia of the Events of 1959. New York, Ameri- 
cana Corporation [c!960]. 912p. 

ARNADE, CHARLES W., The Siege of St. Augustine in 1702. Gainesville, Uni- 
versity of Florida Press, 1959. 67p. 


ASCHMANN, HOMER, Central Desert of Baja California: Demography and 

Ecology. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1959. 315p. (Ibero- 

Americana: 42.) 

AYER, N. W., and SON'S, Directory of Newspapers and Periodicals, 1960. Phila- 
delphia, N. W. Ayer & Son [c!960]. 1571p. 
BARROW, W. J., Deterioration of Book Stock; Causes and Remedies . . . 

Edited by Randolph W. Church. Richmond, Virginia State Library, 1959. 

70p. (Virginia State Library Publications, No. 3.) 
BELL, JACK, Splendid Misery, the Story of the Presidency and Power Politics at 

Close Range. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday & Company, 1960. 474p. 
BLAIR, GEORGE S., Cumulative Voting, an Effective Electoral Device in Illinois 

Politics. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1960. 145p. (Illinois Studies 

in the Social Sciences, Vol. 45.) 
BOATNER, MARK MAYO, III, Civil War Dictionary. New York, David McKay 

Company [c!959]. 974p. 
, Military Customs and Traditions. New York, David McKay Company 

[c!956l. 176p. 
BOGUE, MARGARET BEATTIE, Patterns From the Sod; Land Use and Tenure 

in the Grand Prairie, 1850-1900. Springfield, Illinois State Historical Li- 
brary, 1959. 327p. (Collections, Vol. 34, Land Series, Vol. 1.) 
BORAH, WOODROW, and S. F. COOK, Population of Central Mexico in 1548 

. . . Berkeley, University of California Press, 1960. 215p. (Ibero- 

Americana: 43.) 
BORHEGYI, STEPHAN F., and ELBA A. DODSON, comps., A Bibliography of 

Museums and Museum Work, 1900-1960. Milwaukee, Milwaukee Public 

Museum, 1960. 72p. 
BOWEN, ELBERT R., Theatrical Entertainment in Rural Missouri Before the 

Civil War. Columbia, University of Missouri Press [c!959]. 141p. 
BREBNER, J. BARTLET, Canada, A Modern History. Ann Arbor, University of 

Michigan Press [c!960]. [571]p. 
BRODERICK, ROBERT C., Historic Churches of the United States. New York, 

Wilfred Funk [c!958]. 262p. 
BROOKS, EMERSON M., Growth of a Nation . . . New York, E. P. Dutton 

& Company, 1956. 320p. 
BROWN, DEE ALEXANDER, Bold Cavaliers; Morgan's 2nd Kentucky Cavalry 

Raiders. New York, J. B. Lippincott Company [c!959]. 353p. 
CALHOUN, JOHN C., Papers, Volume 1, 1801-1817; Edited by Robert L. Meri- 

wether. N. p., University of South Carolina Press, 1959. 469p. 
CAMPBELL, JOSEPH COOKE, Methodism in Bronson. [Marceline, Mo., Wals- 

worth, 1959?] 53p. 
CAPERS, GERALD M., Stephen A. Douglas, Defender of the Union. Boston, 

Little, Brown and Company [c!959]. 239p. 
CARPENTER, FRANK G., Carp's Washington, Arranged and Edited by Frances 

Carpenter. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company [c!960]. 314p. 
CATTON, BRUCE, Grant Moves South. Boston, Little, Brown and Company 

[c!960]. 564p. 
CAUGHEY, JOHN W., Their Majesties the Mob. [Chicago] University of Chicago 

Press [c!960]. 214p. 
CLEMENT, ARTHUR W., Our Pioneer Potters. New York, 1947. 94p. 


COLTON, RAY C., Civil War in the Western Territories . . . Norman, Uni- 
versity of Oklahoma Press [c!959]. 230p. 

CONNOISSEUR, THE, Concise Encyclopedia of Antiques, Vols. 1, 3-4. New York, 
Hawthorn Books [1954]. 3 Vols. 

, Handbook of Antique Collecting, a Dictionary of Furniture, Silver, 

Ceramics, Glass, Fine Art, Etc., Edited by Helena Hayward. New York, 
Hawthorn Books [c!960]. 320p. 

COOK, SHERBURNE F., and WOODROW BORAH, The Indian Population of Central 
Mexico, 1531-1610. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1960. 109p. 
( Ibero-Americana: 44. ) 

CRAVEN, AVERY O., Civil War in the Making, 1815-1860. Baton Rouge, Louisi- 
ana State University Press [c!959]. 115p. 

CROCKER, GEORGE N., Roosevelt's Road to Russia. Chicago, Henry Regnery 
Company, 1959. 312p. 

DAVIS, FRANK, A Picture History of Furniture. London, Edward Hulton 
[1958]. 160p. 

DEGRAFF, HERRELL, Beef Production and Distribution. Norman, University 
of Oklahoma Press [c!960]. 252p. 

DORSON, RICHARD M., American Folklore. [Chicago] University of Chicago 
Press [c!959]. 328p. 

Dos PASSOS, JOHN, Prospects of a Golden Age. Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Pren- 
tice-Hall [c!959]. 271p. 

Downs, JAMES IVERNE, Prairie Grass Dividing. Rock Island, 111., Augustana 
Historical Society, 1959. 262p. (Augustana Historical Society Publications, 

DUFF, JOHN J., A. Lincoln, Prairie Lawyer. New York, Rinehart & Company 
[c!960]. 433p. 

DULLES, FOSTER RHEA, United States Since 1865. Ann Arbor, University of 
Michigan Press [c!959]. [565]p. 

ELVTLLE, E. M., Paperweights and Other Glass Curiosities. London, Country 
Life Limited [1954]. 116p. 

Encyclopedia of American Biography. New Series, Vol. 30. New York, Amer- 
ican Historical Company, 1960. 407p. 

EVANS, CHARLES, The American Bibliography, Vol. 14 Index. Worcester, 
Mass., American Antiquarian Society, 1959. 450p. 

EVANS, MARY, Costume Throughout the Ages. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott 
Company [c!950]. 360p. 

FERM, VERcrLius, Brief Dictionary of American Superstitions. New York, 
Philosophical Library [c!959]. 259p. 

FURNAS, J. C., Road to Harpers Ferry. New York, William Sloane Associates, 
1959. 477p. 

GERHARD, PETER, Pirates on the West Coast of New Spain, 1575-1742. Glen- 
dale, Gal., Arthur H. Clark Company, 1960. 274p. 

GLAD, PAUL W., The Trumpet Soundeth; William Jennings Bryan and His 
Democracy, 1896-1912. N. p., University of Nebraska Press, 1960. 242p. 

GRANT, ULYSSES S., Mr. Lincoln's General, U. S. Grant, Edited by Roy Mere- 
dith. New York, E. P. Dutton and Company, 1959. 252p. 

GRIFFIN, JAMES B., ed., Archeology of the Eastern United States. [Chicago] 
University of Chicago Press [1958], 392p. 


GYLES, MARY FRANCIS, Pharaonic Policies and Administration, 663 to 323 B. C. 

Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1959. 120p. 
[HALL, MRS. EMILY A.], History of the Fan, an Offering for the Benefit of 

Charitable Organizations. Providence, Sidney S. Rider, 1886. 18p. 
HAMMOND, JOHN HAYS, Autobiography. New York, Farrar & Rinehart [c!935]. 

HEAPS, WILLARD A., and PORTER W. HEAPS, Singing Sixties, the Spirit of the 

Civil War Days Drawn From the Music of the Times. Norman, University 

of Oklahoma Press [c!960]. 423p. 
HEIMANN, ROBERT K., Tobacco and Americans. New York, McGraw-Hill Book 

Company [c!960]. [278]p. 
HERRICK, RUTH, Greentown Glass; the Indiana Tumbler and Goblet Company 

and Allied Manufacturers. [Grand Rapids, Mich.] Author [c!959]. 40p. 
HERTZ, Louis H., Handbook of Old American Toys. Wethersfield, Conn., 

Mark Haber & Company [c!947]. 119p. 
, Messrs. Ives of Bridgeport, the Saga of America's Greatest Toymakers. 

Wethersfield, Conn., Mark Haber & Company, 1950. 159p. 
HEYERDAHL, THOR, Aku-Aku, the Secret of Easter Island. Chicago, Rand Mc- 

Nally & Company [c!958]. 384p. 
HILSCHER, HERB, and MIRIAM HILSCHER, Alaska, U. S. A. Boston, Little, Brown 

and Company [c!959j. 243p. 

HILTON, GEORGE W., and JOHN F. DUE, Electric Interurban Railways in Amer- 
ica. Stanford, Cal., Stanford University Press, 1960. 463p. 
HOKE, HELEN, and JOHN HOKE, Music Boxes, Their Lore and Lure . . . 

New York, Hawthorn Books [c!957]. 94p. 
HUMMEL, RAY O., ed., A List of Places Included in 19th Century Directories. 

Richmond, Virginia State Library, 1960. 153p. (Virginia State Library 

Publications, No. 11.) 
JACOBS, CARL, Guide to American Pewter. New York, McBride Company 

[c!957]. 216p. 
JOHNSON, DONALD BRUCE, The Republican Party and Wendell Wtllkie. 

Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1960. 354p. (Illinois Studies in the 

Social Sciences, Vol. 46.) 
JOHNSON, JAMES RALPH, and ALFRED HOYT BILL, Horsemen Blue and Gray, 

a Pictorial History. Pictures by Hirst Dillon Milhotten. New York, Oxford 

University Press, 1960. 236p. 
JOSEPHSON, MATTHEW, Edison. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company 

[c!959]. Slip. 

KANE, JOSEPH NATHAN, Facts About the Presidents, a Compilation of Bio- 
graphical and Historical Data. New York, H. W. Wilson Company, 1959. 

KELLEY, ROBERT L., Gold vs. Grain, the Hydraulic Mining Controversy in 

California's Sacramento Valley . . . Glendale, Cal., Arthur H. Clark, 

1959. 327p. 

KNOWLES, RUTH SHELDON, Greatest Gamblers . . . New York, McGraw- 
Hill Book Company [c!959]. 346p. 
KRANZ, HENRY B., ed., Abraham Lincoln, a New Portrait. New York, G. P. 

Putnam's Sons [c!959l. 252p. 


KRATVILLE, W. W., and HAROLD E. RANKS, Union Pacific Locomotives, Vol- 
ume 1. [Omaha, Barnhart Press, I960.] Unpaged. 

KRAUS, MICHAEL, United States to 1865. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan 
Press [c!959]. [540]p. 

LASKI, VERA, Seeking Life. Philadelphia, American Folklore Society, 1958. 

LINCOLN, ABRAHAM, In the Name of the People; Speeches and Writings of 
Lincoln and Douglas in the Ohio Campaign of 1859, Edited by Harry V. 
Jaffa and Robert W. Johannsen. Columbus, Ohio State University Press 
[c!959]. 307p. 

LORANT, STEFAN, Life and Times of Theodore Roosevelt. New York, Double- 
day & Company [c!959J. 640p. 

MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY, Proceedings, Vol. 71, October, 1953 
May, 1957. Boston, Society, 1959. 557p. 

MAXWELL, ROBERT S., Emanuel L. Philipp, Wisconsin Stalwart. Madison, 
State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1959. 272p. 

MAZO, EARL, Richard Nixon: a Political and Personal Portrait. New York, 
Harper & Brothers [c!959]. 309p. 

Mennonite Encyclopedia, a Comprehensive Reference Work on the Anabaptist- 
Mennonite Movement, Vol. 4, O-Z, Supplement. Scottdale, Pa., Mennonite 
Publishing House, 1959. [1179]p. 

script Maps in the William L. Clements Library, Compiled by Christian 
Brun. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan, 1959. 209p. 

MILLER, FRANCESCA FALK, "1812" the Story of the War of 1812 in Song and 
Story. Chicago, Walter D. Bauman, 1935. 153p. 

MITCHELL, JAMES L., Colt, a Collection of Letters and Photographs About the 
Man the Arms the Company. Harrisburg, Pa., Stackpole Company 
[c!959]. [269]p. 

MOORE, GLOVER, The Missouri Controversy, 1819-1821. [Lexington] Univer- 
sity of Kentucky Press [c!953]. 383p. 

MOORE, POWELL A., The Calumet Region, Indiana's Last Frontier. [Indian- 
apolis] Indiana Historical Bureau, 1959. 654p. (Indiana Historical Col- 
lections, Vol. 39. ) 

NASH, HOWARD P., Third Parties in American Politics. Washington, D. C., 
Public Affairs Press [c!959]. 326p. 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, America's Wonderlands, the Scenic National 
Parks and Monuments of the United States. Washington, D. C., Society 
[c!959]. [512]p. 

NORTH, HENRY RTNGLING, and ALDEN HATCH, The Circus Kings, Our Ringling 
Family Story. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday & Company, 1960. 383p. 

NUTTING, WALLACE, Furniture Treasury (Mostly of American Origin) . . . 
New York, Macmillan Company, 1948. 2 Vols. 

NYVALL, CARL JOHAN, Travel Memories From America, Translated From the 
Swedish by E. Gustav Johnson. Chicago, Covenant Press [c!959]. 126p. 

PATAI, RAPHAEL, and others, ed., Studies in Biblical and Jewish Folklore. 
Bloomington, Indiana University Press [c!960]. 374p. (Memoirs of the 
American Folklore Society, Vol. 51.) 


Patterson's American Education, Vol. 56. North Chicago, Educational Direcx 
tones [c!959]. [705]p. 

PATTON, JAMES G., The Case for the Fanners. Washington, D. C., Public 
Affairs Press [c!959]. 62p. 

PETERSON, HAJROLD L., American Knives, the First History and Collector's 
Guide. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons [c!958]. 178p. 

PLAUT, W. GUNTHER, Jews in Minnesota, the First Seventy-Five Years. New 
York, American Jewish Historical Society, 1959. 347p. 

POETRY SOCIETY OF AMERICA, The Golden Year; the Poetry Society of America 
Anthology (1910-1960), Edited by Melville Cane . . . New York, Fine 
Editions Press, 1960. 368p. 

PRATT, FLETCHER, Civil War in Pictures. Garden City, N. Y., Garden City 
Books [c!955]. 256p. 

RAYBACK, ROBERT J., Millard Fittmore, Biography of a President. Buffalo, 
Buffalo Historical Society, 1959. 470p. 

READ, OLIVER, and WALTER L. WELCH, From Tin Foil to Stereo, Evolution of 
the Phonograph. Indianapolis, Howard W. Sams & Company [c!959]. 524p. 

REINFELD, FRED, The Story of Civil War Money. New York, Sterling Publish- 
ing Company [c!959]. 93p. 

ROSCOE, THEODORE, Web of Conspiracy, the Complete Story of the Men Who 
Murdered Abraham Lincoln. Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice-Hall [c!959]. 

Ross, ISHBEL, Generals Wife; the Life of Mrs. Ulysses S. Grant. New York, 
Dodd, Mead & Company, 1959. 371p. 

SALOUTOS, THEODORE, Farmer Movements in the South, 1865-1933. Berkeley, 
University of California Press, 1960. 354p. ( University of California Publi- 
cations in History, Vol. 64. ) 

ductory List, Helen Faye, Editor. New York, Association [c!959]. 115p. 

SPRING, AGNES WRIGHT, First National Bank of Denver; the Formative Years, 
1860-1865. Denver, n. p., n. d. [48]p. 

STAGEY, C. P., ed., Records of the Nile Voyageurs, 1884-1885; the Canadian 
Voyageur Contingent in the Gordon Relief Expedition. Toronto, Champlain 
Society, 1959. 285p. (Publications of the Champlain Society, Vol. 37.) 

STECK, FRANCIS BORGIA, Marquette Legends, Edited by August Reyling. New 
York, Pageant Press [c!960]. 350p. 

SULLIVAN, WILLIAM GEORGE, English's Opera House . . . Indianapolis, 
Indiana Historical Society, 1960. [45]p. (Indiana Historical Society Pub- 
lications, Vol. 20, No. 3.) 

TAYLOR, ARCHER, Dictionary of American Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases, 
1820-1880. Cambridge, Mass., Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 
1958. 418p. 

THURBER, JAMES, Years With Ross. Boston, Little, Brown and Company 
[c!959]. 310p. 

TYRRELL, WILLIAM G., Champlain and the French in New York. Albany, 
University of the State of New York, 1959. 56p. 

VILLIERS, MARC DE, La Decouverte du Missouri et THistoire du Fort ^Orleans 
(1673-1728). Paris, Librairie Ancienne Honore Champion, 1925. 138p. 


VOGT, EVON Z., and RAY HYMAN, Water Witching, 17. S. A. [Chicago] Univer- 
sity of Chicago Press [c!959]. 248p. 

WALKER, THOMAS CALHOUN, Honey-Pod Tree, the Life Story of Thomas Cal- 
houn Walker. New York, John Day Company [c!958]. 320p. 

WARNER, EZRA J., Generals in Gray; Lives of the Confederate Commanders. 
[Baton Rouge] Louisiana State University [c!959]. 420p. 

Who Was Who in America . . . Volume 3. Chicago, Marquis Who's 
Who, 1960. 959p. 

Who's Who in America, Vol. 31, 1960-1961. Chicago, Marquis Who's Who 
[c!960]. 3356p. 

WILLEM, JOHN M., JR., The United States Trade Dollar, America's Only Un- 
wanted, Unhonored Coin. New York, Privately Printed, 1959. 194p. 

WILLIAMS, KENNETH P., Lincoln Finds a General, Volume 5, Prelude to Chat- 
tanooga. New York, Macmillan Company, 1959. 395p. 

Bypaths of Kansas History 


From the Inland Tribune, Great Bend, July 13, 1878. 

No one but an experienced granger would attempt to raise a crop of wheat 
and corn on the same piece of ground at the same time. Mr. R. T. Ewalt, 
Deputy Grand Master of the Grange in this county, thought the thing feasible. 
He sowed a spring crop of wheat, and believing it a failure, planted the ground 
in com. About the time the corn needed plowing, the wheat had concluded 
to grow and was overshadowing the corn. Right here Mr. Ewalt began to 
scratch his head, whether to wait developments, or plow the corn. To culti- 
vate one would destroy the other. He however waited a few days. The wet 
weather was bringing both crops right along; first the wheat and then the 
corn being ahead. The result is that he has a fine crop of both, but his wheat 
is ready for the sickle, and how to cut it without injuring the corn is the ques- 
tion. This point was not considered till it was too late. The last we saw of 
Dick he was sitting on a stump and chewing his quid mighty fast, racking 
his brain to invent a Corn Row Header. 

How's THAT? 

From the Elk Falls Signal, October 22, 1880. 

Some low-down, vile, sneaking son of an unvirtuous canine of the female 
persuasion cut the flag rope on the Garfield and Arthur liberty pole last Friday 
night, and as it is about a hundred feet up to the pulley and as no one could 
be found who would attempt the feat of climbing the pole, it was feared for a 
while that the Republicans would have to forego the pleasure of seeing the 
stars and stripes fly from their handsome flag pole during the rest of this cam- 
paign. But it happened that Mr. Truby had an eye to something of this kind 
when the pole was being raised, so he had a little iron hook fastened on the 
side of the pole a few feet from the top, and last Monday, by the aid of a kite, 
a string was carried over the hook and a new rope drawn into position in less 
than no time. And now wonder if the sneak who cut the rope don't feel a 
little mean. 


From the Columbus Courier, February 28, 1884. 

The city marshal complains that after every fire we have had in the city 
that the council have had to pay for a lot of buckets given out by the merchants 
and carried away by some one during the fire. Anyone that would steal a 
bucket under such circumstances would purloin the coppers from a dead man's 
eyes. It is surprising that we have such miserable contemptible thieves 
around us. 


Kansas History as Published in the Press 

"Pioneer Remedies From Western Kansas," an article by Amy 
Lathrop, was published in the July, 1961, issue of Western Folklore, 
Berkeley, Cal. It was based upon some of the folk cures found by 
the author, a doctor's wife, over a period of 55 years in the Norton 
county area. 

Articles included in the July, 1960, Bulletin of the Shawnee 
County Historical Society, Topeka, were: "Miss Karolyn B. Whit- 
tlesey and Her School of Music," by Nancy Veale Galloway; an- 
other installment of George Root's "Chronology of Shawnee County"; 
"Grange Wedding," from The Commonwealth, Topeka, March 8, 
1882; part three of Russell K. Hickman's "Early Elections in Shaw- 
nee County"; "That's What Mr. [Thomas A.] Edison Said," by John 
Ripley; "How Did They Travel?" by Lois Johnson Cone; "Who 
Were They? Incidents From the Old Days," by Edna Becker; 
"Origin of Mission Township," by Mary Davis Sander; "One Hun- 
dred Years Ago Drouth in Kansas," by Lois Johnson Cone; "The 
Ice Business [in the 1880's]," excerpts from the memoirs of C. C. 
Nicholson; and "First Passenger Train to Reach Topeka," by Nancy 
Veale Galloway. 

Alfaretta Courtright's articles on Rawlins county history have 
continued in the Atwood Citizen-Patriot during recent months. 

Elizabeth Barnes* column "Historic Johnson County," continues 
to appear regularly in the Johnson County Herald, Overland Park. 
"Highlights of Johnson County History," appeared in the issues 
of July 14 and 21, 1960; a biographical sketch of Vernon Campbell, 
Merriam postmaster, September 1; a history of Johnson county 
schools, September 8; Overland Park history, September 15; a bio- 
graphical sketch of the Nail family of Johnson county, September 
22 and 29; and the story of George W. Franklin, I, and the home 
he built in 1861, November 17, 24, and December 1. 

"It's Worth Repeating," Heinie Schmidt's weekly column in the 
High Plains Journal, Dodge City, included the following articles 
in recent months: "Western Kansas Tools Included Cattle and 
Oxen," July 14, 1960; "Modern Dodge City a Credit to Pioneer 
Marshals," July 21; "Pioneer Woman [Gladys Putt] Tells Story of 
Prairie Fire," July 28; "Sleeping Lawyer [Colonel Kowalsky] De- 
feats Guns of Wyatt Earp," August 4; biographical sketch of Her- 
cules Juneau, pioneer Kansas businessman, August 18 and 25; 



Town Rises and Falls in Story of Achilles [Rawlins County],** 
excerpts from a story by Lois Erickson, September 1; "Death, De- 
spair Left in Path of Prairie Fire/' by Mrs. E. E. Beck, September 
8; " 'The Run* Took Kansans to Oklahoma Territory," September 17; 
"Early Day Newspaper [Stanton Telegram] Tells of Town of 
Goguac [Stanton County]/' October 1; "Dodge City Named for Ft. 
Dodge Colonel," October 8; "Fighting Frontier Dentist Was Doc 
Holliday," October 15; "Heroine of the Prairie Was Pioneer Mother," 
October 22; "Ford County Ghost Town Was City of Ryansville," 
November 5, 12, and 19; "Early Meade County History in the X-I 
Ranch," November 26; "Fist Fight [Between James 'Dog' Kelley 
and Tom Riley] Was Talk of Old Dodge City," December 3; "Early 
Dodge City Character Was Horse Thief Ben [Benjamin F. Hodges]/' 
December 17; "Early West Tradition Was Old 'Hoss Trader/" 
January 7, 1961; "Mystery of Early West Was the Prairie Circles," 
January 14; "Pioneer [Archie Keech] Captures Last Herd of Wild 
Horses," January 21; and "Dodge City Makes History With the 
Bull Fight," January 28. 

Zoe Myers Siler is the author of an article on early Cherryvale 
history printed in the Cherryvale Republican, August 3, 1960. In 
the issue of August 30 a story of Cherryvale as a rough and lawless 
town in 1880, by the Rev. and Mrs. M. Q. Stevenson, was published. 
Historical notes on Grant school, District 16, Montgomery county, 
appeared in the Republican, October 18. 

On August 5, 1960, the Hanover News began publication of a 
series of articles on the life of G. H. Hollenberg, builder of the 
Hollenberg Ranch Pony Express station and founder of Hanover. 

"Law on the Frontier," by Paul E. Wilson, was the feature of 
the September, 1960, number of The Trail Guide, published by the 
Kansas City Posse of the Westerners. 

Great Bend's Morrison Hotel, now being razed, was opened 
March 15, 1888. An article on the history of the hotel was pub- 
lished in the Great Bend Tribune, October 9, 1960. 

The Friedens Lutheran church, Home, which recently celebrated 
its 75th anniversary, was the subject of a historical article in the 
Marysville Advocate, October 13, 1960. 

In observance of Valley Center's 75th anniversary, the Valley 
Center Index printed a four-page special souvenir section in its 
issue of October 13, 1960. 


Homer Singley is the author of a history of Plains and Meade 
county published in the Plains Journal, October 20, 1960. Accord- 
ing to Singley, Plains was started in 1884 and Meade county was 
organized in 1885. 

Histories of Kansas churches published recently in the news- 
papers included: First Methodist, Winfield, Winfield Daily Courier, 
October 26, 1960; Mary Queen of Angels, Fort Scott, Fort Scott 
Tribune, October 28; Hamilton Methodist, Eureka Herald, Novem- 
ber 3; Wakefield Methodist, Clay Center Dispatch, November 4, 
and Times, November 10; Phillipsburg Methodist, Phillipsburg 
Review, November 10; Burns Methodist, Burns News, November 
11; Faith Mission, Clay Center, Clay Center Dispatch, November 
12; Frankfort Presbyterian, Frankfort Index, November 17; Memo- 
rial Covenant, Courtland, Courtland Journal, November 17; St. 
Paul's Lutheran, Valley Falls, Valley Falls Vindicator, November 23; 
Luctor Reformed, near Prairie View, Phillipsburg Review, Novem- 
ber 24, and the Downs News, December 1; and Sts. Peter and Paul 
Catholic, near Ellinwood, Great Bend Daily Tribune, January 22, 

The Harper Advocate, October 27, 1960, printed a special Nor- 
wich Herald historical supplement on the occasion of Norwich's 
75th anniversary. 

The Martin Van Buren Parker family and home in Olathe were 
the subjects of an article by Mrs. Ruth Ann Hackler in the News, 
Olathe, October 28, 1960. The house was built 100 years ago. 

"Some Place Names of Kansas/' by Anniejane H. Cover, com- 
prised the November, 1960, issue of Heritage of Kansas, published 
by the Department of English, Kansas State Teachers College, 
Emporia. The February, 1961, issue featured "Some Ghost Towns 
of Kansas," by W. M. Richards. 

Archaeology in Kansas was reviewed in an article entitled "The 
Plains Indians Left Records of Their Being Written in Stone," in 
The Kansas Teacher, Topeka, November, 1960. 

A history of Otter Creek Grange No. 1493, Coffey county, by 
Otto Bowman, was printed in the Burlington Daily Republican, 
November 1, 1960. The grange recently celebrated its 50th anni- 
versary. On December 14 the Republican published a history of 

Kansas Historical Notes 

Current officers of the Southwest Kansas Historical Society, with 
headquarters at Dodge City, are: Mrs. Ida Ellen Rath, president; 
R. Roy Taylor, vice-president; Mrs. C. R. Harner, secretary; and 
Fred Swart, treasurer. Plans have been made to change the name 
of the organization to the Ford County Historical Society. 

Citizens of Scandia are constructing a replica of the old Colony 
House, the town's first house, erected in 1868, in observance of the 
state's centennial. Early day furnishings for the building are in- 
cluded in the project. 

A log cabin built in 1859 near Princeton by Jacob Dietrich has 
been moved to the Ottawa city park. Donated by Mrs. Robert 
Gault, Richmond, a granddaughter of Dietrich, the old building will 
be reconditioned and used for a museum by the Franklin County 
Historical Society. 

Mementos of the Osage (Black Dog) trail and related areas are 
on display in the Black Dog Trail Museum recently opened at the 
Parker grocery and service station in Chautauqua. The items were 
largely collected and arranged by the Joe Parker family. 

A. W. Schlagle, Mankato, has donated a two-story brick building 
in the business district of Mankato to the Jewell County Historical 
Society. The gift was in memory of Mr. Schlagle's wife, the late 
Anna Colson Schlagle. The building will house the historical 
society's museum. 

A re-enactment of the Pony Express mail service, between St. 
Joseph and Sacramento, was staged July 19-29, 1960, with about 
1,000 riders participating. The run was planned and directed by 
the national Pony Express Centennial Association. 

Valley Center observed its 75th anniversary with a celebration 
October 12-15, 1960. Events included a parade, a barbecue, and 
a historical pageant. 

Organization of the Argonia and Western Sumner County His- 
torical Society was started and temporary officers chosen at a meet- 
ing in Argonia, October 18, 1960. The society again met in Argonia, 
January 16, 1961, adopted a constitution and elected the following 
officers for 1961: Mrs. Esther Wulf, president; Orie Cleous, first 
vice-president; Leon Ammann, second vice-president; Mrs. Carl 



Earles, third vice-president; Mrs. Grace Handy, recording secretary; 
Mrs. James Hart, treasurer; Verna Lee Coleman, publicity chair- 
man; Etta Le Ford, co-ordinator; Mrs. Ira Harper, historian; Harley 
Pearce, photographer; and Kenneth Briggs, Carl Earles, and N. C. 
Muhlenbruch, directors. 

Dr. George L. Anderson, chairman of the history department at 
the University of Kansas and president of the Kansas State His- 
torical Society, addressed the newspapermen attending editors' day 
at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, November 5, 1961. Dis- 
torted concepts of history are too often recreated by centennial 
observers Dr. Anderson pointed out in speaking of the approaching 
Kansas centennial. 

Mrs. L. H. Rumsey, Council Grove, was elected president of the 
Morris County Historical Society at its organizational meeting in 
Council Grove, November 14, 1960. Other officers chosen were: 
R. W. Hunter, White City, vice-president; Mrs. Lester Payne, White 
City, secretary; Mrs. Bob Oleen, Dwight, treasurer; and Mrs. L. E. 
Mahon, White City, public relations. Neosho Fredenburg, who 
served as chairman of the group before the election, announced that 
memberships totaled 951, plus 75 junior memberships. 

Homer Cardwell was named president of the Republic County 
Historical Society at a meeting in Belleville, December 5, 1960. 
Other officers elected included: Mrs. Annona Blackburn, first vice- 
president; Mrs. Agnes Tolbert, second vice-president; Mis. Madge 
Dickerhoof, third vice-president; and Mrs. Victor Berggren, secre- 

Purchase of the former Carnegie library building in El Dorado by 
the Butler County Historical Society was completed at ceremonies 
attending the signing of the contract December 20, 1960. The 
building will be used for museum purposes. 

An organizational meeting of the Rawlins County Historical 
Society was held in Atwood, January 14, 1961. Officers elected 
were: Mrs. Irven Hayden, Jr., president; Mrs. Alfaretta Court- 
right, vice-president; Mrs. Robert Creighton, secretary; Mrs. Ivy 
Yoos, treasurer; and Anselm Sramek, historian. 

Officers of the Arkansas City Historical Society, elected at a 
meeting January 17, 1961, are: Guy Ecroyd, president; Glenn 
Wheat, vice-president; Mrs. Kenneth Hill, secretary; and Mahlon 
Force, treasurer. 


Wilford Riegle was elected president of the Lyon County His- 
torical Society at its annual meeting January 26, 1961, in Emporia. 
John Atherton was elected first vice-president; Walter Butcher, 
second vice-president; Myrtle Buck, secretary; Earl Lord, treasurer; 
Lucina Jones, historian; and F. L. Gilson, Mabel Jones, Mrs. J. C. 
McKinney, W. W. Parker, Warren Morris, Mrs. Jay Sullivan, Mrs. 
Arthur Childears, Maude Jackson, Dr. Thomas Butcher, F. J. South, 
Edward H. Rees, Conrad Vandervelde, Ernest Fowler, Frank Lo- 
stutter, and Elmer Siedhoff, directors. Dr. O. W. Mosher was the 
retiring president, having held the office for 12 years. He continues 
as curator of the museum. 

Early day education was the theme of the 54th annual meeting 
of the Woman's Kansas Day Club in Topeka, January 27, 1961. 
The president, Mrs. Marion Beatty, Topeka, presided at the meet- 
ing and luncheon. New officers elected at the business session in- 
clude: Mrs. Claude R. Stutzman, Kansas City, president; Mrs. 
Frank A. Huffman, Topeka, first vice-president; Mrs. Roy S. Gibson, 
Chanute, second vice-president; Mrs. Paul Wedin, Wichita, record- 
ing secretary; Mrs. F. Sharon Foster, Ellsworth, treasurer; Mrs. 
Roscoe Mendenhall, Emporia, historian; Mrs. Russell Dary, Man- 
hattan, auditor; and Mrs. Joe Henkle, Great Bend, registrar. Dis- 
trict directors are: Mrs. Ray Schirkofsky, Topeka; Mrs. Thomas H. 
Finigan, Kansas City; Mrs. Albert Siler, Cherryvale; Mrs. Harold 
Trusler, Emporia; Mrs. J. Arthur Kevins, Dodge City; and Mrs. 
John O'Leary, Luray. Historical data and objects relating to 
pioneer education, collected by the historian and district directors, 
were presented at the meeting and later given to the Kansas State 
Historical Society. 

The annual dinner of the Native Sons and Daughters of Kansas 
was held in Topeka, January 28, 1961. The meeting was enlarged 
this year to provide the opening for Kansas' centennial festivities, 
and several notable out-of-state native Kansans were present as 
special guests. The Kansan-of-the-Year award was presented to 
Maurice Fager of Topeka. The Olive Ann Beech award in the 
pioneer factual story contest went to Joan Jewell of Lawrence. 
The Haucke oratorical contest was won by Marilyn Snell of St. 
John, a student at Fort Hays State College. Floyd R. Souders, 
Cheney, was elected president of the Native Sons, and Mrs. Chester 
Dunn, Oxford, of the Native Daughters. Other officers chosen by 
the Native Sons were: Emery E. Fager, Topeka, vice-president; 


Marshall G. Gardiner, Leavenworth, secretary; and Glenn E. Cogs- 
well, Topeka, treasurer. Other officers of the Native Daughters 
are: Lela Hough, Topeka, vice-president; May E. Oliver, Topeka, 
secretary; and Mrs. Glenn Henry, Oskaloosa, treasurer. 

On February 22, 1861, President Abraham Lincoln spoke at 
Independence Hall, Philadelphia, and raised a new 34-star flag, 
symbol of Kansas' admission to the Union. This ceremony was 
re-enacted February 22, 1961, as a part of Kansas' centennial cele- 
bration. Alan Farley, Kansas City, was chairman of the project, 
with Rolla Clymer, El Dorado, in the Lincoln role. 

Current officers of the Shawnee Mission Indian Historical Society 
of northeast Johnson county, include: Mrs. Tom Davis, president; 
Mrs. George Cox, first vice-president; Mrs. O. N. Eggleson, second 
vice-president; Mrs. C. L. Curry, corresponding secretary; Mrs. 
Ethyl M. Satterfield, recording secretary; Mrs. Sarah A. Lewis, 
treasurer; Mrs. G. W. McAbee, historian; and Mrs. Roy Boxmeyer, 

Decade of Decision is the title of a 57-page booklet published 
by the Kansas City Life Insurance Co. in 1960, describing persons 
and events in Kansas and Missouri history during the 1855-1865 

South Haven's early history as compiled by Ann Jacobs Failing 
and Maurice Robinson, was recently published by the Oxford 
Register in a 109-page booklet entitled Shoo Fly City. The town 
was founded in 1871 as Shoo Fly City. 

The Rev. A. H. Jacobson has related his experiences as a minister 
in Kansas and neighboring states for almost 50 years, in a 115- 
page, paper-bound volume entitled The Adventures of a Prairie 
Preacher, published recently by the Covenant Press, Chicago. 

Nebraska Place-Names by Lilian L. Fitzpatrick, including portions 
of J. T. Link's The Origin of the Place-Names of Nebraska, edited 
and with an introduction by G. Thomas Fairclough, has recently 
been republished in a 227-page, paper-bound volume by the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. 

Indians, Infants and Infantry, by Merrill J. Mattes, the story of 
Andrew and Elizabeth Burt, is a 304-page volume published in 1960 
by the Old West Publishing Co., Denver. After service in the Civil 
War, Andrew Burt served at such frontier forts as Bridger, C. F. 


Smith, Laramie, Omaha, D. A. Russell, Bidwell, McDowell, Robin- 
son, Washakie, and Missoula. Elizabeth followed her husband and 
shared the hardships and hazards. Also she recorded the story 
of their lives in a manuscript entitled "An Army Wife's Forty Years 
in the Service," which, with data from official records, forms the 
"documentary vertebrae" of the book. 

Free Grass to Fences, the story of the Montana cattle industry 
from the beginning to the present, by Robert H. Fletcher and with 
illustrations by Charles M. Russell, was recently published for the 
Historical Society of Montana by the University Publishers, Inc., 
New York, in a 236-page volume. 

A 214-page biography of Luke Short, the Dodge City gambler 
whose celebrated argument with city officials in 1883 brought on 
the Dodge City war and its resultant peace commission, was a recent 
publication of Doubleday & Co., Garden City, N. Y., under the title, 
Luke Short and His Era. William R. Cox, the author, based his 
account almost entirely on contemporary documents and newspaper 
stories and for the first time this interesting Dodge City episode 
has reached the printed page in what may be considered its true 

The World of Witta Gather, by Mildred R. Bennett, originally 
published in 1951, has been reissued in 1961 by the University of 
Nebraska Press, Lincoln, in a 286-page, paper-bound volume. 

Kansas in Maps, by Robert W. Baughman, a 104-page volume in- 
cluding more than 90 maps and 16 pages of color, was published by 
the Kansas State Historical Society through the Baughman Founda- 
tion in February, 1961. The book presents this space called Kansas 
in selected maps dating from 1674. Words, maps, and pictures, 
especially pictures, tell the Kansas story in another book also pub- 
lished in February. It is the 320-page Kansas: A Pictorial History, 
by Nyle H. Miller, Edgar Langsdorf, and Robert W. Richmond. 
This book was copublished by the Kansas Centennial Commission 
and the State Historical Society. Both volumes were printed by 
the McCormick-Armstrong Co., Wichita. 



Managing Editor Editor Associate Editor 




First Installment, 1854-1861, 

Edited by Donald M. Murray and Robert M. Rodney, 320 

KANSAS BEFORE 1854: A Revised Annals, Part Three, 

1804-1818 Compiled by Louise Barry, 353 

With portrait of Capt. Zebulon M. Pike and sketch of his probable route, 
facing p. 360; portrait of George C. Sibley, with sketch of his route, and 
reproduction of a Pawnee pictograph of a Pawnee-Kansa battle', between 
pp. 360-361; and portrait of Auguste P. Chouteau, facing p. 361. 

Continued Nyle H. Miller and Joseph W. Snell, 383 

With bird's eye sketch of Dodge City, 1882, facing p. 408, and a photograph 
of seven Cheyenne survivors of the last Indian raid in Kansas, facing 
p. 409. 




The Kansas Historical Quarterly is published four times a year by the Kansas 
State Historical Society, 120 W. Tenth St., Topeka, Kan. It is distributed 
without charge to members of the Society; nonmembers may purchase single 
issues, when available, for 75 cents each. Membership dues are: annual, $3; 
annual sustaining, $10; life, $20. Membership applications and dues should be 
sent to Mrs. Lela Barnes, treasurer. 

Correspondence concerning articles for the Quarterly should be addressed to 
the managing editor. The Society assumes no responsibility for statements made 
by contributors. 

Second-class postage has been paid at Topeka, Kan. 


Confederate charge on Col. G. W. Veale's Union battery, 
Second Kansas militia, at the Battle of the Big Blue, east of 
Kansas City, Mo., October 22, 1864. Pastel by Samuel J. Reader, 
Topeka, 1895. 

1861 Kansas Centennial of Statehood 1961 


Volume XXVII Autumn, 1961 Number 3 

Enlistment and Conscription in Civil War Kansas 


NORTHERN victory seemed assured as the fourth year of the 
war drew to a close. It was not, however, to be won without 
a final determined exertion of will and power. Lee's ever-dangerous 
Army of Northern Virginia still stood steadfast in the trenches about 
Richmond and the forces of Johnston in the Carolinas and of 
Kirby-Smith in Texas remained intact. Furthermore, the enlist- 
ments of thousands of Grant's and Sherman's veterans were expiring, 
and they had to be replaced if the Union armies were to maintain 
their superiority. Accordingly, on December 19, 1864, President 
Lincoln issued his last call of the war for troops, this time for 
300,000. 1 

Sen. Samuel C. Pomeroy of Kansas, always glad to be of service to 
his constituents, sent word from Washington that the War Depart- 
ment had informed him that Kansas "is found to owe no troops" 
under the new call. 2 Kansans welcomed this news with great re- 
lief. Already they had provided a larger number of soldiers than 
any other Northern state in proportion to population. Therefore 
they felt that it would be unfair of the government to require still 
more. Besides, they knew that if additional troops were raised 
in the state, it would have to be by means of the dreaded and un- 
popular draft, for there remained very few men of military age who 
were both willing and able to volunteer. 

Then, less than two weeks after Pomeroy 's message, there came 
a startling announcement from the federal provost marshal of Kan- 
sas, Sidney Clarke, to the effect that the "revised quota" of the state 

DR. ALBERT CASTEL, native Kansan, is author of the Beveridge Award Honorable Men- 
tion book, A Frontier State at War: Kansas, 1861-1865 (Ithaca, N. Y., Cornell University 
Press, 1958). He now teaches at Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

1. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and 
Confederate Annies (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1881-1901), Ser. HI, v. 
5, pp. 639, 640. Hereafter this source shall be cited as Official Records. 

2. Leavenworth Daily Times, January 14, 1865. 



under Lincoln's call was 1,222! 8 The press at once indignantly 
criticized both the federal and state authorities, the first for assign- 
ing a quota to Kansas, the other for not preventing the assignment. 
Col. John Martin, editor of the Atchison Freedoms Champion and 
veteran of three years' active service with the army, objected es- 
pecially to the War Department saying that Kansas "owed" troops: 
"If the Government wants them without regard to credits and 
deficits, let the Provost Marshal General say so, and our State can 
fill his demands. But it is an insult and an outrage to proclaim 
that we owe troops, or ever did." 4 

Gov. Samuel J. Crawford agreed with Martin and perhaps feared 
the political repercussions of a draft. He therefore had State Adj. 
Gen. Cyrus K. Holliday prepare a report on the number of men 
who so far had enlisted in Kansas. The report showed that the 
state had exceeded its general quota of enlistments based on popu- 
lation by about 10,000, and that it had oversubscribed all specific 
requisitions by large margins, with the exception of the July 18, 
1864, call, from which it had been excused because of surplus cred- 

Crawford communicated these figures on January 31 to Federal 
Provost Marshal Gen. James B. Fry in Washington and requested 
that an "unjust and oppressive" draft not be imposed on the state. 5 
Shortly thereafter he asked Sen. James H. Lane and Clarke to 
"demand credit for all troops furnished," as it was "a great in- 
justice to be disgraced by a draft after having furnished more 
troops in proportion to our population than any other state in the 
union." 6 Lane, however, replied that Fry refused to cancel the 
call on Kansas or to suspend the draft, which went into operation 
on February 20. 7 

On that day the state legislature adjourned and Crawford im- 
mediately started for Washington. Upon arriving there he showed 
the state's enlistment records to the adjutant general's office. After 
much delay and haggling he obtained credit for 3,039 more men 
than had been previously allowed Kansas. This additional credit 
placed the state about 2,000 in excess of all calls, including that of 
December 19, 1864. 

Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, however, refused to suspend 

3. Ibid., January 25. 1865. 

4. Freedom's Champion, Atchison, February 9, 1865. 

5. Senate Journal of the Legislative Assembly of the State of Kansas, 1865, pp. 54-57; 
ibid., 1866, pp. 20-23. 

6. Crawford to Clarke, February 9, 1865, "Governor's Correspondence (Samuel J. 
Crawford)," 1865. Kansas state archives, Memorial building. 

7. Leavenworth Daily Times, February 19, 1865; Kansas Weekly Tribune, Lawrence, 
February 23. 1865. 


the draft in Kansas or to order drafted Kansans released from 
service. He maintained that to do so would create dissatisfaction 
in other states which were likewise claiming surpluses of recruits. 
Crawford then went to Fry, who as an "act of justice" ordered the 
draft halted in Kansas and telegraphed the assistant provost mar- 
shal at Leavenworth to discharge all conscripts and allow them to 
return home. 

But when Crawford arrived back in Leavenworth in April he 
was astonished to find that a portion of the drafted men were still 
being retained in service. He immediately telegraphed Fry re- 
questing that they be released. Fry complied, but before his order 
reached Leavenworth the draftees were sent to St. Louis, then as- 
signed to the Eighth and Tenth Kansas regiments in Tennessee. 
Political enemies accused Crawford of having made no real effort 
to stop the draft and of having caused the draftees to be imprisoned 
by the army at Fort Leavenworth. Nettled by these charges he re- 
turned to Washington in June and procured an order from Stanton 
discharging all conscripts from Kansas. 8 

Probably most of the difficulty and misunderstanding as to Kan- 
sas' quota under the President's December 19 call stemmed from 
the fact that Fry adopted a new and somewhat complicated formula 
for assigning state quotas under the call, and from the fact that the 
War Department records originally credited Kansas with only 15,563 
troops instead of the nearly 18,000 to which it was entitled. 9 The 
War Department's inaccurate records, in turn, were probably a 
reflection of the poor condition of enlistment records in Kansas. 
During 1863 and early 1864 Provost Marshal Clarke engaged in a 
heated controversy with the then state governor, Thomas Carney, 
over the accuracy of these records. Clarke charged that the state 
adjutant general's office was a "jumble of confusion." Carney and 
his defenders replied that if the office lacked an accurate record of 
the number of troops enlisted in Kansas it was because Clarke's 
political friends, Senator Lane and Maj. Gen. James G. Blunt, had 
failed to report the number of enlistments made by them while 
acting as federal recruiting agents in the state. 10 

8. Kansas Senate Journal, 1866, pp. 22-24; Crawford to Lt. Col. Charles S. Wills (?), 
June 14, 1865, "Governor's Correspondence (Samuel J. Crawford)," 1865-1867, Kansas 
state archives; Leavenworth Daily Times, March 16. 1865; Kansas Weekly Tribune, Law- 
rence, April 27, 1865. Crawford, in his memoirs, Kansas in the Sixties (Chicago, 1911), 
pp. 208-210, gives a vague account of his efforts to prevent a draft which is at variance 
with the contemporary records on many points. 

9. See Official Records, Ser. Ill, v. 4, pp. 1002, 1003, 1264-1269; ibid., v. 5, pp. 
640-645, 719, 720; and draft of letter from Crawford to Fry, February 10, 1865, "Gov- 
ernor's Correspondence (Samuel J. Crawford)," 1865-1867, Kansas state archives. 

10. See Official Records, Ser. Ill, v. 3, pp. 569, 570, 1098, 1156-1158; Kansas Senate 
Journal, 1864, pp. 280-286; The Kansas State Journal, Lawrence, August 6, 1863; White 
Cloud Kansas Chief, January 7, 1864; Leavenworth Daily Conservative, April 9, 10, 1864. 


As a result of Crawford's efforts the draft was in actual operation 
in Kansas only a few weeks. During that period 1,420 men had 
their numbers drawn, 419 of these failed to report, 616 were ex- 
amined, 208 furnished substitutes, two paid commutation money, 
and 119 were actually conscripted. 11 These last were the only men 
to be drafted in the state throughout the war. In the spring of 
1864 Fry had proposed to draft men from deficient subdistricts 
in the state, but Governor Carney convinced him that there were 
no such districts. 12 

For the most part Kansans cheerfully submitted to the draft, al- 
though they felt it to be unjust. But in some areas at least the 
state had reached the bottom of the manpower barrel by the spring 
of 1865. Sol Miller, editor of the White Cloud Kansas Chief, re- 
ported that many of the men assigned draft numbers were elderly, 
blind, cripples, idiots, or invalids. 13 Elsewhere, especially in the 
Leavenworth region, the provost marshal's agents had little trouble 
finding plenty of eligible young men. 14 Some communities raised 
bounty money to induce men to enlist, thus avoiding the "disgrace" 
of a draft. The average bounty was about $200, and a total of 
$57,405 in bounties was paid, $53,207 of it in the northern district, 
which included Leavenworth and Atchison, the state's two most 
populous cities. 15 According to the official records these were the 
only bounties to be paid in Kansas during the war, but the Leaven- 
worth Daily Conservative of February 6, 1864, reported that a 
$402 bounty was being offered to recruits in Leavenworth at that 

While the 1865 draft was in progress a "Kansas Draft Exemption 
and Substitute Company" issued insurance policies to prospective 
draftees, who if drafted were furnished by the company with a 
substitute. 16 In Leavenworth some of the draftees allegedly even 
shanghaied or bullied Negroes into serving in their stead, and a 
Negro "protege" of the radical abolitionist newspaper correspondent 
Richard Josiah Hinton was stated to have engaged in the business 
of furnishing his fellows as substitutes. 17 The heads of the draft 

11. Official Records, Ser. Ill, v. 5, p. 737. Under the Civil War draft legislation 
men whose numbers had been drawn could avoid being conscripted by furnishing substitutes 
to serve in their place, or by paying a sum of money to the government "commutation 

12. See correspondence between Carney and Fry, White Cloud Kansas Chief, July 28, 

13. Ibid., March 2, 9. 1865. 

14. Leavenworth Dotty Conservative, February 21, 22, 1865. 

15. Official Records, Ser. HI. v. 5, p. 749. 

18. Leavenworth Daily Times, February 24, 1865. When a draft threatened in the 
spring of 1863 a number of men left Kansas to avoid it. going to Colorado, Nebraska, and 
other territories. Kansas State Journal, Lawrence. July 30, 1863. 

17. White Cloud Kansas Chief, March 23. 1865. 


insurance company and the "substitute brokers" were the sole ones 
not to rejoice when the draft came to an end. Nevertheless, charged 
Sol Miller in the Kansas Chief, they made "fortunes" from their ac- 
tivities, and there was a demand in the legislature that they be 
investigated. 18 

Counting conscripts, Kansas raised 829 men under the December 
19 call. This gave the state a grand total of 20,097 troops furnished 
in the course of the war. A portion of these men, however, en- 
listed for only three months. 19 Moreover, a high percentage of 
them were in fact from other states, principally Missouri. Exactly 
how many is unknown, owing to the Civil War practice of crediting 
recruits to the locality where they enlisted, not to the place of their 
actual residence. Immediately after the war the Kansas adjutant 
general reported that there were 3,190 men in Kansas regiments who 
were from outside the state, 20 but there is good reason to suspect 
that this figure is much too low. 

In 1863 Brig. Gen. Thomas Ewing, Jr., commander of the District 
of the Border, expressed the opinion that 1,000 was a "very low 
estimate" of the number of men who had entered Kansas regiments 
from western Missouri alone. Most of these men, he added, were 
from Kansas City, and had joined Kansas units at Wyandotte (now 
a part of Kansas City, Kan. ) . 21 That this was the case is borne out 
by the fact that Wyandotte county which had a population of only 
2,609 at the beginning of the war, was credited with 1,127 recruits 
by the summer of 1863. 22 

According to its historian, the majority of the Union men of 
Vernon county, Missouri, served in Kansas regiments, mainly the 
Sixth and 14th. 23 The 15th and 16th Kansas regiments consisted 
almost entirely of Missourians. Indeed, these regiments, which 
were raised late in the war, could not have been formed at all had it 
not been for Missouri recruits. 24 Most of the Missourians in Kansas 
regiments were of course Unionists, but a large proportion were 
former Confederate troops who preferred to serve in the Union 

18. Leavenworth Daily Conservative, March 16, 1865; White Cloud Kansas Chief, 
March 30, 1865. 

19. Reduced to a three-year standard the number was 18,706. Official Records, Ser. 
Ill, v. 4, pp. 1264-1269. The Kansas adjutant general's report of 1866, in Kansas Senate 
Journal, 1866, pp. 20, 21, claimed a grand total of 22,774. 

20. Ibid. 

21. Ewing to Col. J. B. Fry, December 28, 1863, Official Records, Ser. I, v. 22, pt. 2, 
p. 753. 

22. Freedom's Champion, Atchison, August 15, 1863, quoting the Wyandotte Gazette. 

23. R. I. Holcombe, History of Vernon County, Missouri (St. Louis, 1887), p. 342. 

24. Official Records, Ser. I, v. 34, pt. 2, p. 759. See, also, Governor Carney to Brig. 
Gen. Thomas J. Bartholow, August 5, 1863, "Kansas Adjutant General's Correspondence: 
15th Kansas Volunteer Cavalry," Kansas state archives. In this letter Carney declared 
that "our State has been pretty well drained. . . ." 


army rather than rot in a Yankee prison. These last were usually 
"faithful, good soldiers/' 25 The 14th Kansas, in addition to Mis- 
sourians, contained a whole company of Indians and perhaps one of 
Texans. Other Kansas regiments also had unspecified numbers of 
Indians. 26 The Seventh Kansas obtained several companies from 
Illinois and Ohio. 27 Two Colored regiments, which were credited 
to Kansas, were recruited from refugee Missouri slaves and Negroes 
in Arkansas. They alone gave the state some 2,000 soldiers who 
could not be truthfully called Kansans on the basis of the 1860 
census. 28 

All in all, probably not more than two-thirds of the Kansas 
troops were Kansans. 

But if Kansas received credit for a greater number of soldiers 
than actually derived from its population, the same was equally true 
of other Northern states, many of which offered rich bounties, im- 
ported Europeans, and recruited Negroes in the South. 29 More- 
over, quite a few Kansans joined Missouri regiments, although not 
to the extent that Missourians enlisted in Kansas. 30 

Neither should it be overlooked that the actual population of 
Kansas in 1861, as the result of emigration occasioned by the drought 
of 1860, was probably considerably lower than the official census 
figure of 107,206. 81 Therefore, if the state contributed even half 
as many men as it was supposed to have done, it did exceedingly 
well. Thus it would seem that the favorite boast of Kansans after 
the Civil War, that their state furnished a higher percentage of 
troops to the Union army than any other state, was well-founded. 

Kansas troops suffered 8,498 casualties from all causes, of which 
1,000 were battle fatalities and 2,106 deaths resulting from disease 
and exposure. Kansas led all other Northern states in the number 
of mortalities per 1,000 among its troops, 61.01, and the ratio of 
desertions, 117.54 per 1,000. The first record the provost marshal 

25. Gen. J. M. Schofleld to Lincoln, November 9, 1863, Official Records, Set. I, v. 
22, pt. 2, p. 698. Many of the Confederates captured at the Battle of Prairie Grove joined 
the llth Kansas regiment. Leavenworth Daily Conservative, January 15. 1863. 

26. H. M. Moore to James L. McDowell, October 9, 1863. "Adjutant General's Cor- 
respondence: 14th Kansas Volunteer Cavalry," Kansas state archives; Mai. Gen. James G. 
Blunt to Maj. H. Z. Curtis, August 10, 1863, "Thomas Moonlight Papers," Kansas State 
Historical Society; Kansas Senate Journal, 1865, pp. 55-57. 

27. Simon M. Fox, "The Story of the Seventh Kansas," Kansas Historical Collections, 
v. 8 (1903-1904). pp. 21-26. 

28. See Dudley T. Cornish, "Kansas Negro Regiments in the Civil War," Kansas 
Historical Quarterly, v. 20 (May. 1953), pp. 417-429. 

29. Fred A. Shannon, The Organization and Administration of the Union Army, 1861- 
1865 (Cleveland, Ohio, i928), v. 2, pp. 67. 68. 76-79. 

30. White Cloud Kansas Chief, January 7, 1864; Kansas State Journal, Lawrence. 
February 25. 1864. 

31. Leavenworth Daily Times, February 2, 1861: George W. Click, "The Drought of 
1860," Kansas Historical Collections, v. 9 (1905-1906), p. 481; A. T. Andreas and W. G. 
Cutler, History of the State of Kansas (Chicago. 1883). p. 178. 


general of the United States in his post-war report attributed to the 
"peculiarly pugnacious" nature of Kansans, which "increased their 
exposure to the casualties of battle"; the second to there being "an 
unusually large percentage of men" in the state's regiments "whose 
presence was necessary to the subsistence and protection of their 
families," and to the "lax state of discipline natural in border regi- 
ments serving ... in a somewhat irregular defense of their 
own frontiers." 32 

Nearly three-fourths of the Kansans who served in the Union 
army joined during the first two and one-half years of the war. 33 
The heavy enlistments of this period reflected the fervent patriotism 
of most Kansans, their fear of being invaded by the Missouri Con- 
federates, the presence of a large number of "foot-loose young 
men" in the state, and the efforts of various political leaders whose 
military ambitions and patronage rivalries led them in some in- 
stances to raise regiments which the War Department did not even 
want. 84 

After 1862 the readily available military manpower was practically 
exhausted, and the citizens felt that their state had furnished more 
volunteers than "in reality she was able to spare." 35 This attitude, 
a general waning of martial enthusiasm, and the belief prevalent 
by the end of 1864 that the war was about over, caused Kansas 
to respond far differently to Lincoln's last call for troops than it 
did to his first. 

32. Official Records, Ser. Ill, v. 5, pp. 667-669; Report of the Adjutant General of the 
State of Kansas, 1861-1865 (Topeka, 1896), pp. 17. 18. 

33. Ibid., p. 11. 

34. See Albert Castel, A Frontier State at War: Kansas, 1861-1865 (Ithaca, N. Y., 
1958), pp. 47-49, 86-94, 114, 115, 117-121, 151, 175, 176. 



5. "Report of the Quarter-Master General of Kansas," Kansas Public Documents, 
, p. 161. 

The Letters of Peter Bryant, 
Jackson County Pioneer 



TJETER BRYANT, an original settler of Kansas territory and a citi- 
* zen of Kansas during its first half century of statehood, lived from 
1837 to 1912. The son of Cyrus and Julia Everett Bryant, who had 
left Cummington, Mass., in the early 1830's to pioneer in northern 
Illinois, Peter himself caught the "westering" fever in 1859. After 
a brief army career during the Civil War, he returned to his land 
claim near Holton, where he became a struggling pioneer and then, 
finally, a prosperous farmer and civic leader in northeastern Kansas. 

Through his entire life Peter Bryant took a keen interest in the 
economic and political problems of his times, both local and na- 
tional. In many ways an average man, he was gifted with a great 
curiosity about the new land and its people, the tenacity to endure 
the adversities of its pioneer stage, and a strong, healthy enthusiasm 
for life itself. Happily for us, he also had a flair for interesting and 
informative letter writing, and in consequence his vigorous letters 
and several occasional poems make a very readable contribution 
to the history of the Civil War and the settlement of the Trans- 
Mississippi West. Here we may read about "sod-busting," and 
"jayhawking," about crops and battles and elections, as well as 
domestic problems. Throughout this personal record, we are made 
aware of the Bryant family 1 as a whole: its roots in Massachusetts 
as deep as the founding of the nation; its firm transplantation to 
Illinois; and its sturdy offshoot in Kansas. Peter Bryant's life is a 
part of the Bryant family chronicle, and that chronicle is part of the 
westward movement. 

The correspondence here brought together 2 consists of 54 letters, 

DONALD M. MURRAY and ROBERT M. RODNEY are professors of English at Northern 
Illinois University, DeKalb, 111. 

1. Peter's paternal grandfather, after whom he was named, was Dr. Peter Bryant ( 1767- 
1820) of Cummington, Mass., who in 1792 married Sarah Snell (1768-1847) of Cumming- 
ton. Their children were Austin (1793-1866); William Cullen, the famous poet (1794- 
1879); Cyrus, Peter's father (1799-1865); Sarah Snell (1802-? ); Peter Rush, later called 
Arthur (1803-1883); Louisa Charity (1807-1868); and John Howard (1807-1902). Austin, 
Cyrus, Arthur, Louisa, John Howard, and Sarah Snell, the matriarch of the family, emi- 
grated to Illinois in the early 1830's with the Hampshire colony from Cummington. See 
Frank T. Heinl, "The Bryants at Jacksonville," Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, 
Springfield, v. 18 (1925), pp. 218-227, and George V. Bohman, "A Poet's Mother: Sarah 
Snell Bryant in Illinois," in ibid., v. 31 (1933), pp. 166-189. 

2. The present editors are indebted to Mrs. Frank L. Davis of Holton, the granddaughter 
of Peter Bryant, for permission to publish this correspondence, and to Mrs. Christian G. Heck, 
chairman, and Mrs. F. R. Bryant of the Bureau County (Illinois) Historical Society Museum 
committee for their indispensable aid in reproducing the correspondence. The letters used are 
preserved in the Bureau County (Illinois) Historical Society Museum at Princeton, 111., and 
in the New York Public Library, both of which institutions have given valuable assistance as 
well as permission to publish. 



written between the years 1854, when Peter completed his formal 
schooling in Princeton, 111., and 1906, a few years before his death 
in Holton. The present editors have divided the letters into groups 
representing three distinct periods of his life: 

1854-1861: Illinois boyhood, migration west, pioneering in northeastern 
Kansas, jayhawking in Missouri. 

1862-1864: Return to Illinois, service in the Vicksburg campaign, conva- 

1865-1906: Farming and civic leadership in Jackson county, Kansas. 

Born on June 2, 1837, Peter Bryant grew up on his father's farm 
in Princeton, Bureau county, 111. The few early letters and school 
compositions that have been preserved from this period show that 
he enjoyed an active, outdoor boyhood. "I like to hunt first rate," 
he wrote at the age of 14. "Sometimes I have seen wild turkies 
[sic] 3 and deer while hunting cattle, and very often when I chased 
them they would lead me to the cattle, and if I had a gun with me, 
I would have shot at them." 4 

He attended a private school in Princeton, the "Smith Institute," 
from which he graduated in the spring of 1854 at the age of 16. 
It was perhaps from his teacher here, as well as from his very 
literate father and uncles, 5 that he first acquired a taste for writing. 
Naturally enough, boys who were in school during the years just 
following the Compromise of 1850 wrote essays on the slavery issue. 
Peter wrote at least two conservative pieces on the effects of emanci- 
pation in the British West Indies 6 and participated in a lively dis- 
cussion of slavery with his abolitionist Aunt Melissa of Massachu- 

3. As an adult, Peter wrote with very creditable accuracy in spelling and grammar, 
generally speaking. In all the subsequent letters, however, the present editors have found it 
advisable to regularize his spelling (except in proper names), to provide minimum and 
modern punctuation whenever necessary, and to make certain paragraph divisions for the 
sake of clarity. 

4. "The Pleasure of Hunting," a school composition dated Princeton, HI., January 2, 
1851, in the Manuscript room of the New York Public Library, hereafter referred to as 

5. Peter's father Cyrus (1799-1865) was educated at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 
( Rensselaer Academy ) at Troy, N. Y., and lectured for a time at Round Hill school at 
Northampton, Mass. According to a Bureau county historian, he was well versed in the 
sciences and "natural philosophy": "Probably no one in Illinois at the time of his arrival 
here had as broad a knowledge of those subjects as Cyrus Bryant." He was also something 
of a musician and a writer of verse. George B. Harrington, Past and Present of Bureau 
County, Illinois (Chicago, 1906). His 700-volume library at Princeton, HI., which was 
inspected by the present editors, was remarkably extensive, in both science and belles-lettres. 

The literary work of William Cullen Bryant needs no explanation, but it should be men- 
tioned that other members of the family did some writing. John Howard Bryant was the 
author of three books of verse. Arthur Bryant wrote an authoritative book on tree culture 
and a long poem entitled "Emigration." Other Bryants wrote various pieces of occasional 
verse and prose which may be seen in The Bryant Record (Princeton, 111., 1898). Peter's 
own literary efforts consist of the letters here published, certain pieces in The Bryant Record, 
and a long poem entitled The Old Oak's Story (Holton, 1897), which is mentioned in con- 
nection with his letter of September 13, 1906. 

6. "The Effects of the Emancipation of Slavery in the British West Indies," undated; 
and another untitled, undated essay on the same subject, both in N. Y. P, L. Peter appar- 
ently depended on Henry Nelson Coleridge's Six Months in the West Indies in 1825 (Lon- 
don, 1826) for information and opinion. 


Naturally enough, too, he dreamed of adventure on the frontier. 
A composition written in 1850 mentioned the wildcat killer, Davy 
Crockett, and the charms of Oregon and the Indian territory. "It 
is very mountains [sic] and abounds in horse thieves and catfish." 
The composition began with these verses, entitled "The Far Off 

Away, Away to the far off West 

To the land of the prairie all so blest, 

There lives the wolf and the grizzly bear 

That will a man in pieces tear. 

Of white men only a few, 

Only the brave and the true 

Have ventured to the far off West, 

To the land of the prairie all so blest. [N. Y. P. L.] 

Although these lines did not presage a poetic career like that of 
Peter's famous uncle, William Cullen Bryant, they are evidence of 
literary stirrings within the boy and a certain indication of his ro- 
mantic interest in the West. 

From the Smith school, Peter went to Knox College, in Gales- 
burg, 111. There are only two letters, both of 1854, written from 
the college, and how long he was a student there is not certain. 
There is no doubt, however, that the far-off West continued to lure 

On April 6 or 7, 1859, Peter Bryant set off for Pike's Peak, prob- 
ably accompanied by his Princeton friends Frank Pomeroy and 
Henry and Frank Dee. 7 He at first intended to become a miner 
in the gold "diggings," located in what was then western Kansas 
territory, but shortly after the end of May he and Frank found 
themselves no further on their journey than eastern Kansas terri- 
tory, where the two young Illinoisans decided to file claims in Jack- 
son county. For many months Peter labored on the land with his 
friend Frank, meanwhile feeling keenly the excitement of the 
times and sharing his Kansas friends' animosity toward the Mis- 
sourians. Then, in May, 1861, just over two years after he had 
said goodby to his brother Cullen in Bulbona Grove west of 
Princeton, Peter joined a volunteer rifle company in Holton, and 
was off "jayhawking." 

The first letter of this period of Peter's life (1854-1861) is ad- 
dressed to a cousin, presumably Emily Maria Everett, who was two 

7. J. Frank Pomeroy's son is living in Holton at the present time (1958). Frank and 
Henrv Dee (see letters of Mav 25, 1859, and April 13, 1882) may be among the seven sons 
of Elijah Dee, a prominent Princeton, 111., citizen mentioned in H. C. Bradsby, History of 
Bureau County, Illinois (Chicago, 1885), p. 706, and in Harrington, op. cit., p. 104. 


years Peter's junior and the daughter of Dr. Oliver and Emily 
Everett, of Dixon, 111. "Em" was to write to Peter frequently, in 
later years, until her death, of consumption, in 1863. The two other 
cousins mentioned are Elijah (1836-1892), son of John Howard and 
Harriet Wiswall Bryant, and Julian, son of Austin and Adeline 
Plummer Bryant. Born November 9, 1836, less than a year before 
Peter, Julian was to have a brilliant career as an officer in the 33d 
regiment, Illinois volunteers, and afterward as a colonel of a colored 
regiment. He was drowned in the Brazos river, Texas, May 14, 

II. THE LETTERS, 1854-1861 

PRINCETON, March 20th, 1854 

I received your letter in due time and was well pleased with it. There is but 
little news here. Our school was out last week on Friday afternoon. We had 
the "grand finale." We had two papers or written pamphlets containing the 
compositions of the scholars, one edited by the ladies called the "Guiding Star," 
and the other by the gentlemen named "Echo from Luckesdom." I thought 
they were pretty good. We also had several declamations all of which were 
very well spoken. For my part, I spoke "Mazzini's 8 proclamation to the Italian 

I believe the examination proved satisfactory both to teacher, scholars, and 
parents; at any rate, all seemed well pleased. We gave one teacher a present 
of Shakespeare's works & Byron's Poems with two or three other large books 
all of which cost about ten dollars. Julian Bryant 9 made a farewell speech; a 
large part of the school was affected to tears. The school had on badges; the 
girls wore a boro knot on the side of their heads, and the boys a triangle on 
the left breast. You say in your letter that you take Harper's Magazine; Cullen 
and I also take it; I think the best story is about the fellow setting down in the 
paint: the "Sword of Mauley" 10 in the January number. Father takes Putnam's 
Monthly, but I think I had rather have Harper's. 

As for shooting, there is not much game around now but geese and ducks, 
and we have to go five or six miles out on the prairie; then they are sometimes 
very shy, and we can't tell when we are going to get any. It is pretty near time 
for pigeons if they come around this spring. I saw a deer yesterday, and Cousin 
Elijah shot at one the other day. The blackbirds have just begun to come 
around. We will have glorious fun popping them over. 

The weather is and has been very fine for the past two weeks. The man that 
we have on the farm is one of the laziest fellows that ever was. He has run in 

8. The Italian patriot Guiseppi Mazzini (1805-1873). Peter probably used the popular 
treatise entitled "An Essay on the Duties of Man, Addressed to Workingmen," of which parts 
1-4 were available in translation by 1854. William Cullen Bryant's last public address, de- 
livered just before his death in 1878, was a tribute to Mazzini, at the unveiling of the Italian's 
statue in Central Park, New York City. 

9. Julian, Peter's classmate, later reveals his eloquence in several forthright and moving 
letters to the boys' uncle William Cullen Bryant, editor of the New York Evening Post, in a 
denunciation of the debasement of Colored troops by Northern officers during the Civil War. 

10. "The Sword of Mauley," Harper's New Monthly Magazine, New York, v. 8 (Janu- 
ary, 1854), pp. 239-248. It is a rather gothic tale, reminiscent of Hawthorne's The House 
of Seven Gables. The incident that caught Peter's fancy is a minor one: a young man inad- 
vertently sits down on a painter's palette and gets paint all over his "pantaloons." 


debt to a merchant in town and has got mad at him and will not pay him. 
He has taken advantage of the law, which allows him $60, and has nothing 
that the merchant can get hold of. Father has turned him off and got another 
man by the name of Davis. I guess he is rather smarter than the other one, 
for he has got his wheat in, and Hinres did not get his oats in until the 12th 
of April, and he had no wheat. I had quite a tumble yesterday. I went to 
take a colt over to a Mr. Clapps, 11 who lives about 3 miles. I rode the colt 
and led another horse which I was going to ride home. When I had got about 
a mile, the horse which I led broke the halter and got away. I could not catch 
her, so I thought I would take the colt along down there, but it would not go 
& I had no switch and could do nothing but cluck. Finally he reared up and 
fell over backwards on to me, which stunned me, and the first thing I knew 
there I was flying along rail road speed, heels upwards. One of my feet had 
stuck in the stirrup, and the colt dragged me about 10 rods when the girth band 
broke and I felt him kick me twice. I tried to get up and saw the colt about 
% of a mile off "homeward bound" going at "pretty big licks." I picked up the 
saddle and started off towards home. Pretty soon a boy who had seen my 
performance came up with a buggy and took me home. I am not very badly 
hurt and intend to go to work again tomorrow if it don't rain, though there 
are pretty strong signs of it now. 

[Letter unsigned, remainder presumably lost.] 

The letter by Peter which follows is to his aunt, Melissa Everett 
Dawes, sister of Peter's mother, Julia Everett, and wife of Francis H. 
Dawes, of Cummington, Mass. Aunt Melissa took a great deal of 
interest in Peter and his younger brother Marcus, and made at least 
one visit to Princeton, 111. In a letter of April 28, 1854, she had pro- 
vided Peter with an extensive and ardent lecture on abolition. "You 
probably know, Peter, that I have from my childhood been an out 
and out Abolitionist, and I glory in the name, for I know it is the 
cause of Christ. It is a cause allied hard on to the bleeding Calvary. 
Every bone and sinew of my body is anti-slavery, and I wax stronger 
and stronger in the cause every hour I live/' Judging from Peter's 
school compositions on emancipation and from this letter by Melissa, 
the boy was at this time no radical. Melissa's letter had continued: 
"You said some things in your letter which you probably did not 
mean. Now I would not allow myself ever to speak a word favor- 
ing that corrupt system, be it said ever so thoughtlessly." 

In his answering letter, given below, Peter stated his position on 
slavery as of the year 1854 and then gave the news on Princeton's 
latest participation in the great debate of the time. The Joshua R. 
Giddings whom he referred to was the prominent antislavery 
leader from Ohio. A biographer of Greeley, speaking of the year 
1860, calls Giddings "the messiah of the abolitionists . . . ven- 

11. H. C. Bradsby, op. cit., pp. 482, 483, mentions a Seth C. Clapp (1812-1871) and 
a John Clapp (1814-1880), both of whom were farmers in Bureau county. 


erable with age." "Little Dug" was, of course, Stephen A. Douglas. 
Owen Lovejoy (1811-1864) was the brother of Elijah P. Lovejoy, the 
abolitionist martyr of Alton, 111. Owen, who shared his brother's 
principles, was a free-soil statesman, Congregational minister, and 
"underground railroad" operator in Princeton. He was much ad- 
mired by the Bryants. 

PRINCETON [!LL.], Nov. 10th, '54 
[Presumably to AUNT MELISSA DA WES] 

It has been some time since I wrote to you, and I sometimes think you have 
got angry "because forsooth I tossed not on high my ready cap" upon hear- 
ing your glorious sentiments on the subject of slavery, but I believe you prom- 
ised to not get angry if I would not. I don't think I am much more cross- 
grained than usual about it. As I wrote in my last that I was not in favor 
of slavery, I suppose you thought that I was well enough off, that there was 
no need of writing to me any more. If that is the case, I think I shall have 
to turn pro-slavery again. There are some good things in the Whig party 
and some in the Democratic, but if the fugitive slave bill is a test of the Whig 
party and the Nebraska Bill a test of the Democratic party, I belong to neither. 
They call all that are not Democrats, abolitionists, out here, but I am not an 
abolitionist not because I don't like the name, but because I am not in favor 
of the abolition of slavery, neither am I in favor of the extension. If the 
masters can be paid for their slaves, then let them go; if not, work God's own 
good time to overthrow it. 

Our town has got to be "considerable pumpkins." It has got a rail road 
and has lately been honored with the visits of two great and mighty men; 
namely, Old Josh Giddings and Little Dug. Mr. Giddings made a very able 
speech, denouncing, of course, the Nebraska Bill, Giant, and all of his followers. 
Little Dug came here escorted by his half dozen worshipers (all there is in 
Princeton). They had arranged seats in front of the court house, where 
Giddings spoke (probably to deceive the people) as if they were going to 
have great times. As soon as the little fellow got here from the cars, he went 
into an office and held a short consultation while one or two of his party 
went and drummed up all the rowdies they could find. They then rushed 
up into the court room and filled up as much space as they could. Then 
Col. Thompson, 12 the main prop, stuck his head out of the window and gave 
notice that the Giant was too unwell to speak out of doors. Before beginning 
his speech, he offered to let the "black Republicans" send out their David to 
battle with him. 

First he would speak % of an hour, then our man (Lovejoy) might speak 
%, of an hour. After that he would answer him. The first speech he talked 
pretty decent with as good argument as might be expected. L[ovejoy] then 
commenced and knocked over all opposition and was going on at a great rate 
when tap, tap, went the chairman's hammer and he must stop. Then up 
jumped our little man, and such a volume of billingsgate as issued from his 
mouth for two hours and a half I never heard before. When he had got 

12. J. V. Thompson, a Bureau county farmer who was at one time sheriff and who was 
quite prominent in civic affairs. Douglas was his political idol. Bradsby, op. cit., pp. 297, 


through, his friends set up a demoniacal howl of triumph which I never wish 
to hear again. I think the Anti-Nebraska army is stronger than before. They 
will certainly elect all the officers on that side. But I must stop writing poli- 
tics, or like you I won't get in any news. 

Uncle Arthur's house was burnt down lately. They are fitting it up again. 
They stay at Uncle Austin's now. They saved most of their furniture. There 
is considerable sickness about here now. 

Our folks are all well. [Unsigned] 

This particular correspondence between Peter and Aunt Melissa 
ended inconclusively with a letter from Melissa dated November 
24, 1854. She was still attempting to convert her young nephew to 
the righteous cause: 

You say you think you will have to turn pro-slavery again in order to get a 
letter from me. What does that mean? That you have once been pro-slavery? 
From present appearances I should judge that you were not very thoroughly 
converted from it yet. Rather a curious jumble one is in, to be denouncing the 
old parties that are all festered and rotten in the corruption of slavery. You 
denounce these parties . . . and then you say you are not abolitionist. 

Peter's conversion to the abolitionist cause was to await his arrival 
in "bleeding Kansas" five years later. 

In the meantime Peter was corresponding with various school 
friends in a lighter vein and on subjects of more immediate and 
probably of more emotional interest than slavery. One of these 
letters was to his "Smithsonian" classmate, Z. S. Hills, who later be- 
came a teacher, then a school principal, and finally a lawyer. At 
the time, Hills was probably working as a store clerk in Lamoille, 
Bureau county, 111. 

PRINCETON [ILL.] Aug. 6th '54 

I wrote to you about four or five weeks ago and have received no answer, so 
I concluded that my letter must have been miscarried. I have not got any news 
to tell you as there is no school, so I certainly can't tell you about the girls. 
There is no blackberries down to the lake. If there was, I don't know but we 
might possibly drum up a load to go a blackberrying. 

By the way, I am coming up there one of these days to see you and those 
pretty girls that you write of, probably this week or next. But I have some 
news yet. I understand that some of our Princeton girls are counterfeit. They 
paint themselves and daub on rouge. I hope there are not many such, for I 
know that you don't like to kiss cheeks that are more bitter than sweet, if they 
are redder, than I do. 

This is a short letter, but my time is up and I must stop. Please write as 
soon as you secure this so as to let me know if you are alive and "stomping." 

Your truly 
[On left-hand margin, in Peter's hand: "Not Sent."] 


Although existing college records do not list his name, the follow- 
ing two letters indicate that Peter Bryant was enrolled at Knox Col- 
lege, in Galesburg, 111., for at least a part of the academic year 
1854-1855. Founded a year after Peter's birth, the college was lo- 
cated about 70 miles southwest of his Princeton home. Inasmuch 
as this distance would entail a two- to three-day journey by horse- 
back in those days, Peter was effectively isolated from home and 
friends from the beginning to the end of a school term, even at 
Christmas. As noted in his first letter, the westward extension of 
the railroad from Chicago had just reached Galesburg during his 
fall term via the Central Military Tract railroad, which extended 
from Galesburg to Mendota, 111., where it connected with the Au- 
rora extension of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. 

The Charles Bryant mentioned in the first letter was Peter's first 
cousin, the son of Peter's Uncle Austin and Aunt Adeline Plummer 
Bryant, of Princeton. The college records show that Charles gradu- 
ated from Knox, with a degree of bachelor of arts, in 1858. The 
cosigner of the two letters, who appears to have been Peter's col- 
lege roommate, probably was Calvin E. Winship of Princeton, who 
later served in the 33d regiment of Illinois volunteers during the 
Civil War and died at Memphis in 1862. 


I received your letter last evening. Was gkd to hear from you. I have re- 
ceived two letters from Henry Martin since I have been here. They laid the 
C M T RR into town today. It was fun to see some of the people here who 
never saw a locomotive before scatter when the old gentleman whistled. The 
school is very full this winter, nearly three hundred in it. There are about 
twenty in my class, Charles Bryant among them. Ch wanted me to tell you 
to write to him and tell Cullen 13 to write, too. Tell him I want him to write 
to me, too. I like the company here very well. There is not so much rowdy- 
ism going on here as there is in Princeton. But I do not like the situation near 
so well. It is so far from the woods. I like to have a place near the woods 
where we can take a walk once in a while in the shade. Write soon and tell 
me how all the folks are getting along. For instance, Elijah 14 and Sylesta, 
Henry 15 and Pauline. When their weddings are coming off, for I want to 

13. Peter's younger brother Cullen Bryant (1839-1909). Cullen entered West Point 
Military Academy in 1860, where he graduated in 1864. He served in the Ordnance de- 
partment of the United States army during the last year of the Civil War and for some time 
thereafter, was promoted to major in 1891, retired in 1894, and died in Alameda, Calif 
Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, v. 35 (1942), pp. 344, 346. Peter cor- 
responded regularly with Cullen in later years. 

14. Presumably Peter's cousin Elijah Bryant, son of John Howard and Harriet Wiswall 

15. The Henry Martin referred to in the letter of Christmas, 1854, below. Henry Martin 
and the girls here mentioned have so far proved unidentifiable. Henry apparently put off 
matrimony until 1862 (see letter of April 13, 1862, below), and Elijah married Laura Smith 
not "Sylesta." 


be [sic] to them. Tell Elijah I want him to write and tell me all about it. Give 
my love to all inquiring friends. 

Yours truly 


P. S. I will insert the following lines for Henry's benefit: 
Lest Henry think he is supreme 
There is a stage line runs between 
And many a line may o'er it fly 
And turn his gladness into woe 


I wish you a Merry Christmas. I received your letter of the 15th inst. last 
Saturday eve. I am well and hope you are the same. I received a letter from 
Henry Martin the same day I received yours. He said he had a first-rate time 
on Thanksgiving day; spent the evening with Dear Paulina. I have just 
answered his letter. Gave him a lecture on using tobacco. Did not let him 
know that I had heard that he had commenced chewing tobacco. Told him 
that no lady would admire a tobacco chewer and smoker, and I knew Paulina 
did not. Told him I hoped he would prove worthy of her company. 

I hope your Princeton Institute will prosper and become a great and flourish- 
ing institute and send out men to fill the seats of the legislature and Congress 
and also to fill the President's chair. Tell Lucien Smith that I am beginning 
to think he don't care anything about me. I wrote a letter to him when I first 
came down here, and he has not answered it yet, or if he has the letter did not 
come here. I am not going to write till he answers that, but think as much of 
him as ever. Tell H. Elliott w to write and all others of my old friends. Mr. 
Goodrich (that went to school there last winter) is down here, is going to 
commence with the Prep class next term. 

Write soon 

Yours with much respect 

For approximately three years following his Knox College ex- 
perience, Peter remained in Princeton, 111., working on his father's 
farm. Letters written to him by his cousin Emily Everett and 
various friends 1T indicate that he was enjoying an active social life, 
particularly in exchange visits with his Everett cousins of Dixon, 
111. These letters, moreover, show that he had a continuing desire 
to go west. 

16. Presumably Isaac H. Elliott, one of Peter's more illustrious friends. Elliott was bom 
in 1837, graduated from the University of Michigan in 1861, was made captain of Princeton's 
E Company of the 33d Illinois volunteers (in which Julian Bryant enlisted), and was pro- 
moted Brevet Brigadier General in 1865. After the war Elliott was elected treasurer of 
Bureau county, ran for congress in 1872, was a Garfield elector in 1880, and was adjutant 
general of Illinois, 1881-1884. In 1884 he went into the cattle business in New Mexico. 
He married Elizabeth Denham, stepdaughter of Owen Lovejoy, referred to above. See Isaac 
H. Elliott, History of the Thirty-Third Regiment Illinois Veteran Volunteer Infantry (Gibson 
City, 111., 1902), pp. 11, 12, and Bradsby, op. cit., p. 513. Peter kept in close touch with 
Elliott's war career. See his letters of January 3, and March 2, 1862, below. 

17. N. Y. P. L. has letters covering the period January 1, 1855, to July 25, 1858, ad- 
dressed to Peter by the following persons: Melissa E. Dawes, Z. S. Hills, Emily Everett, E. T. 
Carpenter, Elijah Bryant, Robert H. Davis, and Bentley GUI. 


As early as the fall of 1856, Peter apparently planned to seek his 
future in the Western territories, with an inclination particularly 
toward the strife-torn but promising region west of Missouri. On 
October 23, 1856, his cousin Emily wrote: "Do you expect to go to 
Kanzas soon? You seem to be so anxious to go." The reasons for 
his delay can only be supposition, but the fact that he was only 19 
and still a minor might have prevented him from taking such a bold 
step at that time. A romantic reader might detect a wistful note 
in Emily's letter, and even unsentimental readers must allow for 
the strong emotional ties of home, family, and the many Princeton 

Whatever his reasons, Peter waited three more years, correspond- 
ing meanwhile with friends like Robert H. Davis, who wrote to 
Peter on April 20, 1857, about plowing and hunting on a Minnesota 
claim. Then, in the spring of 1859, Peter's plans finally took shape. 
On April 6, just two months before his 22d birthday, he started out 
with three friends for Pike's Peak in western Kansas territory. The 
many letters that he wrote home, especially those to his two 
brothers, provide his own first-hand narrative of experiences that 
were crucial not only in his own life but in the development of the 
Trans-Mississippi region and in the national history. 

The following group of 22 letters, written between May 26, 1859, 
and October 13, 1861, forms a fairly coherent and self-explanatory 
account. In these letters, Peter describes vividly the hazards and 
frustrations of homesteading on the Middle Border, and the eco- 
nomic and political conditions under which he strove. Of particular 
interest to the student of national and regional history are his ex- 
uberant outburst on the election of Lincoln in his letter of November 
11, 1860; his ironic account of the political machinations of James H. 
Lane and Samuel C. Pomeroy in the letters of March 10, 1861, ff.; his 
observations on the gathering of volunteer troops in Kansas, in his 
letters of April 21, 1861, #.; and the fast-paced little narrative of his 
"jayhawking" experiences in his letters of September 1, 1861, ff. 

This first phase of Peter's new life in the West ends with his reali- 
zation that border-state guerrilla excursions were not going to decide 
the national issue, and his resolution to return to Illinois and join the 
volunteer forces being recruited from his old home county. By 
January 3, 1862, he was back in Princeton, preparing for the second 
phase of his life as a Northern soldier in Grant's Western campaign. 

The first letter finds Peter Bryant in one of the new settlements 
beyond the Missouri: 




Our Pikes Peak operation has "gin out." We traveled about 80 miles west 
of St. Jo. During this travel we met about a thousand teams returning towards 
the diggings 18 with very unfavorable reports, so we concluded to go south 
and have got thus far. We are trying to get a job of breaking now. We can 
find a great plenty if we will take land or stock 19 for pay. 

Cash money is very scarce here, and if we can find a job, we can get 
$3.00 per acre for it or $7.00 in trade. 

There are some splendid prairie claims 20 to be had about here, but no 
timber. The best timber that I have seen is not half as good as that of 
Bureau Co. It sells from $5.00 to $20 per acre. 

I want to take a claim but have not money enough to pay for it. I have 
$36 in cash and my cattle and provisions and want to make all I can. 

If you will buy me a land warrant for a quarter section, I will pay you up 
with ten per cent interest as soon as I can. Land is to be sold here on the 
15th of August at auction, and they will not take warrants for pay, so if [I] 
get one I will have to preempt. They are worth $165 here. I am going to 
look around a little as soon as we get the teams to work. I think I shall go 
to Emporia and see what the Judge 21 can tell me. 

We are all well. Henry Dee talks of going home if we will buy him out, 
and I think we will. Greeley 22 spoke here last night. I did not hear him. 

I am writing this in the Post Office and must stop for the mail is going out. 


Direct to Topeka K T 


I received your letter of June 12th some time ago and was so confounded 
glad to hear from home again. Yours and fathers were the first letters that I 
had after I came here, and it was so long that I didn't know but you had all 
forgotten me. I have been laying up for ten or twelve days with the typhus 
fever, but am about well now. We are having some pretty warm weather 
here nowadays. I believe this country is a little ahead of 111. in that line. 
Corn about here looks pretty well. There is a field in sight of my window 

18. Probably an error for "from the diggings," i. e., the mining camps along Cherry 
Creek, Colo., where gold had been discovered in 1858. See another reference by Peter to his 
original intention of going to Pike's Peak, in his first letter dated April 7, 1861. 

19. In his Information for Kanzas Immigrants (Boston, 1856), p. 8, Thomas H. Webb, 
of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, informed prospective settlers in 1856 that 
"the price of good working cattle, horses, cows, &c., is nearly the same in Kanzas and its 
vicinity as in New England; perhaps rather cheaper. The price of cows has heretofore ranged 
from $25 to $35; oxen per yoke from $50 to $100; horses from $75 to $100 each; common 
sheep from $1.50 to $2.50 each." 

20. Methods by which Kansas land could be acquired during this period included: pub- 
lic land sales, pre-emption under the act of 1841, the sale of Indian lands, and land 
warrants issued under military bounty acts. 

21. The "Judge" is C. F. Eichaker (often translated to "Oakfield"), a German immi- 
grant befriended and financially aided by Peter's father. Eichaker settled on the Neosho 
near Emporia, at the same time, approximately, that Peter settled in Jackson county. Six 
letters (1862-1864) by Eichaker are preserved in N. Y. P. L. and one in the museum of the 
Bureau County Historical Society, at Princeton, 111. 

22. In 1859 Horace Greeley took a long-contemplated trip to California, making po- 
litical speeches as he went west. In Kansas he aired one of his favorite ideas the abolition 
of a standing army. Glyndon G. VanDeusen, Horace Greeley: Nineteenth-Century Crusader 
(Philadelphia, 1953), p. 230. Greeley is reported to have said, after his visit to Kansas, 
"The twin curses of Kansas, now that Border Ruffians have stopped ravaging her, are Land 
Speculators and One Horse Politicians." Alice Nichols, Bleeding Kansas (New York, 1954), 
p. 258. For Peter's views on Greeley as a politician, see letter of August 28, 1872. 


where it is as high as a man's shoulders just as it stands without stretching 
the leaves. Wheat is about all ripe, and some of the farmers have got done 
cutting. They have not got to raising such thundering fields yet as they do 
in the old country, but they generally have 15 or 20 acres. Farming is not 
carried on very largely yet, but I think it will be some time. At any rate, 
they have got a mighty soil to back them. All the objection I see is that there 
is not half timber enough, although what there is, is pretty well scattered and 
generally not of the best quality. 

Game is very scarce right about here with the exception of rabbits, prairie 
chickens, and quails. They are plenty as any one could wish. There are some 
wolves, but we can hardly ever get a sight of them. The Pottawattamie Indian 
Reservation bounds the town on the north and west, and we see considerable of 
the Indians. They lounge around town a good deal, and most of them are will- 
ing to drink all the whiskey they can get. The Squaws are just as fierce as any 
of them for it. I met a drove of Squaws the other day. Three of them were 
girls and tolerable good looking, and they hailed me with "How." I said "how," 
then "Where goin?" "Up creek." "Where from?" "Topeka. Any tobac?" 
"No." "Any Whisk?" "No." "Ugh, ugh," and they went on. 

I suppose if I had had the "whisk" I could have lit on their fections like a 
hot pancake, but as it was I was "no good," and they didn't care anything 
about me. There is going to be a circus in town this week, and they say 
the whole tribe will turn out then. If they do, I will bet we will see some fun. 
Every Indian has his pony, and some of the old coves have thirty or forty. 
The Squaws ride straddle, but with short stirrups so as to bring their knees 
nearly up to their chins. The little Indians can shoot the bow and arrow pretty 
well. I have seen the whites split a stick and put in the edge of a five-cent 
piece and stick it up four or five rods off, and they would generally knock it 
out within five shots. The one that shot it had it. 

You ask if there are any strawberries here. Well, I only lit on two or three 
good patches, but the Squaws bring in lots of them. You can buy a six-quart 
pailful for 15 cents. I saw more mulberries when I went down on the Cotton- 
wood than I ever saw in my life before, but they have all gone long ago. 
Blackberries are getting ripe now. Strawberries are about gone on the 1st of 
June. We are going buffalo hunting this fall. We would like to have some of 
you fellows along, for instance Lige and Kit and the rest of you 


Tell Lige to kick Helen's starn and bid her good bye [insertion at top of 
last pagel 

Give us all the news and girl affairs when you write. Your last was first- 
rate in that respect Frank sends his respects and Chet 23 his. Tell Lige to 
write to Peter [insertion at top of first page] 


Your letter of July 24th has been on hand a good while, but I have only 
just got on hand to answer it. It is awful hot weather just now, and we work 
about as hard as we "darn please," but that takes all the time, so I cen't get 
much to write. 

23. "Chet," Chet's sister, and his girl are mentioned frequently in subsequent letters. 
See below, letters of February 12, 1860, and March 2, 1862. Possibly this is Chester Tracy, 
who was wounded in the battle of Yazoo Pass. See letter of April 19, 1863, and note. 


We are cutting hay now-a-days. I tell you, when it comes to swinging an 
old grass-hook all day and then to rake it up with a hand rake, it is as old 
Mother Eaton said about the sage, "tryin* to one's soul," especially in this 
frying weather, and Lord knows my embryo farm can't begin to sport a mower 
yet. There have lots of other things got to come first. Yet, far away in the 
dim vista of the future methinks I see the scarcely visible outlines of a mower 
hard at work sawing down the prairie grass, and and and me a-driving 
but hold on, who is that out there breaking his back over that crooked stick 
ah, that is different, that is Pete today. 

Now say that "you should think one claim would be rather small for two of 
us.*' It is, but I had rather have fifty acres and thirty of timber in one lot 
than a whole quarter of prairie without a stick within three or four miles of 
it. 80 acres will be as much as I want to farm at present, and when I want 
more there is lots of it close by. There is always somebody willing to sell. 

Things must look pretty sleek about home, now that you have got a new 
fence, if you keep the weeds down, which of course you do. Mother will see 
to that. 

About that school Instead of getting Green meyered [?] myself, I have 
performed the operation on them. 

I afterwards found out that it was a real Missouri border ruffian den, and 
they have fusses there every little while, so I told them I didn't want it. 

Their wages at present are $25 per month and board. I am going to try 
to get a school about here if I can. The one I spoke of is down by the river. 
I am well acquainted with the school commissioner for this county, and he will 
want my vote for circuit clerk, so I think there is a pretty good chance if I 
am in time, and 111 see to that. 24 

Buffaloes can be found 100 miles west of here on the Republican Fork. 
I was talking about it with an Indian the other day, and here is what he said 
"Ugh, heap, heap Ingen kill heap one, two, tree, hunner heap white man 
no Pawnee." That means that he saw lots, his party killed 300, he saw a 
great many white hunters, but no Pawnees. It looks mighty "jubus" about 
our getting off this fall, there is so much work to do. Still, I am in hopes we 
may. A hundred miles probably looks a good ways to you, but it is noth- 
ing after you get out here. You can see 25 of it at one stretch. When a 
man has got 30 or 40 miles to go, he makes nothing of trotting it out on shanks 
hosses. Still, I think it is considerable easier to ride. 

I wish you would send me some receipts for making different lands of 
sauce, or tell the girls to We haven't had any in all summer, and to go all 
winter without is most too hard. We can get tomatoes and grapes and cu- 
cumbers and I don't know what all. We have the darndest kind of living 
here. Sometimes it is all pancakes, sometimes all something else. Once we 
lived for three weeks on nothing but mush and milk. We have tried most 
everything, codfish not excepted, and I can go it as well as anybody. I think 
it would do you good in the feed line to come out here. They have the 
nastiest women here that I ever saw, and I can beat half of them cooking. 
Not all the women are nasty, but a "heap." 


24. Peter did eventually do some school teaching, for a time at least. See Frank Pome- 
roy's letter of February 11, 1861, and Peter's letter of March 10, 1861. 




I received your letter of Sept. llth. I was very glad to hear from home 
again. It seemed almost an age since I had a letter. I was thinking about go- 
ing to meeting today, but as it was a wet, misty kind of a day and the preaching 
is a mile and a half off, I think I won't go. We don't have any regular preach- 
ing here, but once in a while a Methodist comes along, and now and then a 
"local" will get up and spout. It would be a good place for a smart young 
man to get a start. The preachers here are generally rather poor, dry concerns 
and, like Charles, would do well to "go and leave their bones" somewhere. 

I am glad you have got the work so well along. It certainly is something 
strange to get done haying before the 1st of Sept. We have got about 16 tons 
cut, and I think we will cut a little more. We are engaged in building a log- 
cabin now, and it is awful on breeches. Frank has filed a prairie claim one 
mile west of us, and by paying half I can have the benefit of his preemption 
right, as he did of mine, and we have a year's time to pay it in, and I hope by 
that time to be able to pay up all I owe on this claim. I wish you would ask 
father if he wants my note for the amount of that land warrant, or does he 
think I am trustable without it. I should think it would be better to have it, 
so if I should happen to "go by Davy" he would be all right. 

Our new claim has got a stone quarry on one corner, has plenty of stock 
water, and is on the whole a very good claim. 

There are several claims taken in this neighborhood after the sales, though 
there was only one lost by an actual settler, and that was through carelessness. 

We are having fine weather, no frost yet. We have had some little of the 
ague. 25 At one time all three of us were shaking. I suspect it would kind 
o' tickle you to see us shake some of these hot days, but come to the stern 
reality of the thing and it ain't quite so funny. 

However, we took a dose of quinine each and got a bottle of Ayers Ague 
Cure 26 and have got bravely over it now, and you may bet we ain't sorry. Our 
"Sass" 27 operation I think are done for. We have nothing to keep it in, and 
we can't get jars this side of Leavenworth. 

We live pretty high now. We have taters, beans, tomatoes, corn dodgers, 
and all the melons we want to roll in. We have got about 1& bushels of shucked 
hazel nuts (the benefits of ague). And on our claim there are more than fifty 
bushels of black walnuts. Then besides we have got a lot of dried grapes and 
about a bushel of pickled cucumbers. I think we will manage to get through 
the winter. Frank and I have a fair prospect of boarding out. I think we will 
burn a lime kiln this fall. We can get plenty of rock, and if we can engage a 
hundred bushels beforehand, we will go at it. It is worth 25tf. Perhaps we can 
get some dimes in that way. We can get lots of work, but no money. They've 
all got something to trade. Our cattle are all "hog fat." They play now-a- 
days. Write soon. 


25. The ague, which produced chills with "the shakes," burning fever, yellowing of the 
skin, and sometimes loss of hair, began in this region about August 1 and lasted until October. 
Newcomers feared it, with reason, and its terrors sometimes prevented immigrants from 
moving into new territories. A good account of how this malarial fever plague affected the 
Illinois immigrants appears in Earl Wiley Hayter, "Social and Economic Conditions in Illinois, 
1800-1824" (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of History, Northwestern Univer- 
sity, 1834), pp. 200, 201. 

26. A patent medicine manufactured by Dr. J. C. Ayer and Company, of Lowell, Mass. 

27. Presumably a home-made preparation from sassafras bark. 



I received your letter of the 29th ult. I dated one the same day which I 
presume you must have got before this. I have been washing today. Perhaps 
you may think it is big business for Sunday, but we have had a little fall of 
snow, and it was thawing very fast today, so I had to pitch in and get some or 
else use hard water. 

Frank is trying to have the ague again. He had quite a shake today. We 
are making rails in old Rays timber for half. Some of it is pretty tough. We 
have taken a job of making 700 for another man for town property in Holton. 
We get six lots for the job and have our choice of three. I think we will do 
some fencing this spring, though I can't tell whether we will stay here or not. 
We are going where we can make the most. Merchants in Leavenworth offer 
S10 per cwt. for hauling goods to Pikes Peak. We think we could make $300 
at that. Then two of us could get a job of driving team for Uncle Sam to some 
of the forts on the frontier. 

We have had the finest weather this winter that I ever saw, but very little 
snow and no rain since the first of Sept. and not much cold weather. Wolves 
are pretty thick, but so wild that we cannot get a shot at them. 

Chet and I went out the other morning after it snowed and caught 7 rabbits 
in about an hour. Rackley 28 is boarding with us and has his law office in our 
cabin, so you may imagine justice is duly meted out. He is going to Holton 
tomorrow to pettifog a case before a justice of the peace. 

He takes the Princeton Republican, so I did not get any news in the one 
Cullen sent me. We have a pretty good stock of papers now. We take the 
Leavenworth Times and N. Y. Tribune, and Rackley has the Topeka Record 
and Princeton paper, and we get along a good deal better than we did last 
summer without any. 

There is any amount of land here that can be bought for the taxes, principally 
what is called Delaware Trust land, that is land that was sold in trust for the 
Delaware Indians in 1857, and it is mostly very fine land. 

There is some talk of sectionizing the Pottawatomie Reserve and letting the 
Indians sell it themselves if they choose. If this is done, I think there can be 
farms bought very cheap, and they have some of the best land in the territory. 
In fact, all of the reserves made by the Indians throughout the territory are of 
the best land. 

Chet's sister writes him of lots of chaps being spliced back there, amongst 
them being Jim Vanatta. There has been but one case of the land about here 
since I have been here. 



Feby 20th 1860 

I received your letter of Feby 9th, enclosing a ten dollar bill. I am always 
very thankful for such letters and would not object to their coming every day. 
I think the bill is current here, for almost everything that bears the form of 
money is; but not having had occasion to use it, I have not enquired. In re- 

28. David Rackley (1834-1863), son of F. D. and Dorothy Kenny Rackley, of Bureau 
county, Illinois. Bradsby, op. cit., p. 625. Rackley is frequently referred to in subsequent 
letters. He died of disease contracted during the Civil War. See Peter's letter of March 
1, 1863. 


gard to the farm trade, Frank offered to sell to me for the same that he paid, 
with 12 per cent [interest] added. We have looked over the books and find that 
each of us have paid on the claim, and for improvements, the sum of $211.35; 
and 12 per cent on that for six months would be a trifle less than $225. It is 
true I would like the land very well, and it would make a very fine farm 
altogether, but I do not want you to run yourself short nor hire any money for 
me. I can do that out here by paying interest enough, but I am unwilling to 
run into debt without seeing some way to get out again; and if you let me 
have the money and I stay here on my place, as you and Mother seem to want 
I should, you will have to lay out of it for some time, three or four or perhaps 
five years; for I suppose you know by experience that in opening up a new 
farm, it is all outgo and no income. 

In regard to your never calling on me for it, I do not want it on those terms, 
for if I cannot get along in the world now at my age [22], the sooner I am out 
of it the better. There is still one payment of $75.00 to make on the land, 
for which the man is bound by contract to take 25 acres of prairie-breaking. 
It is due by the first of August. This I will have to pay myself in case I buy 
out Frank. It will be about two weeks' work with team. If you should con- 
clude to send me money, I think I can make $175.00 do. I can manage to pay 
the other fifty without much trouble by next fall, and perhaps have enough left 
to get me some hogs and a cow. As to the transmission of the money of 
which you speak, I think the best way will be to send it to Leavenworth City 
by express. Dee had a land warrant sent in that way and got it without any 
trouble. Frank intends to improve the claim that he filed on after the sales. 
It is all prairie and a medium claim. If I should buy here, I will sell him my 
interest, in that our quarters would then lay in a body, and not one 80-a-mile 
from the other as now. 

I will send you a rough map that I have drawn up, by which you can 
perhaps get some idea of how the land lays. Since I got your letter, I have 
about given up the idea of going across the plains, though it does seem as 
though I had [not] seen half enough yet. 

Frank and Dee have been having a little touch of the ague lately. My health 
is excellent, and by feeding on corn dodger beef and potatoes I have got quite 
fat and now only lack a few ounces of weighing 180 Ibs. 

We are having very fine weather now and have had all winter. There was 
a shower the other day and the first rain that has fallen for five months. I am 
glad to hear that Cullen is going to West Point, though it seems to me that it 
will be a pretty tight squeeze if he gets in. I received a "Republican" a day 
cr two since. Young Rackley is boarding with us at $2.00 per week. I don't 
know whether he will settle here or not. 



March 4th 1860 

I have received your letter of Feb. 16th. I had gone to Atchison when 
it came and didn't get back till day before yesterday and don't suppose I can 
get anything there on time for your paper which comes off in four days, so 
I guess I had better drop it. But if you get into such a snap again, just let 
me know in time and I will try to do what I can for you, if unless like this 


time I happen to be away from home. I went down to Atchison to help haul 
up a saw mill to Holton and made $20 in five days, but have to take my pay 
in sawing when they get in operation. Lumber is very high here. Oak and 
walnut lumber sells for $25 per thousand. 

So you have got a lyceum going again, have you? What has become of 
the reading circle? We have a mock legislature in our neighborhood, and 
Frank is speaker. We bring in bills and discuss them, and make laws with 
all the dignity imaginable. 29 I have been to meeting today, the third time 
since I have been here. The Methodists are going in largely just now. They 
have about as brilliant a preacher as the hard shell Baptist of the "Harp of 
A Thousand Strings" notoriety. He said that when his hearers shuffled off 
this Mortal Coil, he wanted them to die "Revered with glory," and again that 
his motto was that he had "always had a kind heart/' and in a prayer he 
said, "Lord, thou knowest we are great sinners, the chief among ten thou- 
sand and the one altogether lovely." The Methodist are quite numerous in 
the territory, and they say that before three years they are going to rule Kansas. 

I got a letter from Cullen yesterday. I wrote to Sarah Olds 30 a while ago, 
but have got no answer yet. It is getting dark, and I must wind up. I am 
sorry that I didn't get your letter in time to write a piece for your paper. 



May 1st 1860 

Yours of April 6th came to hand today. It has been on the road a good 
while. I dated one the same day to Marcus and Father and have received an 
answer from Father. I expect to go down to Topeka in the course of a week 
or fortnight. We are breaking [ground] some about now, at present for De- 
cember. We have bought a cow and paid for her in breaking. I traded for a 
pony yesterday. It will cost me about $50 when I get it paid for. I pay $15 
down, $5 when the chap gets back from off the plains where he is going this 
summer, and ten acres of breaking to be done by the middle of May 1861. 

It is a pretty good price for a pony, but it is the best that I can do, and I 
had rather pay it for horse-flesh than for quinine or "Ayers," which I certainly 
would have to do if I "toted" around in the wet grass after the bulls every 
morning. It is very easy catching the ague here. If a fellow is a little unwell, 
it is mighty apt to turn into shakes. It is pretty easily cured now, but won't be 
after it gets to be hot weather. I have had one chill since last fall, and Frank 
and Chet have it every little while. 

It is very dry here. We have had but one or two slight sprinkles this spring. 
Prairie breaks pretty hard, but we have got a thundering team, and the old sod 
has to roll, dry or not. 

Rackley has left our shanty and is now stopping in Holton, waiting for a 
chance to go to Leavenworth. He was admitted to the bar last week. He is 
going to leave his books with us and see a little of Kansas. 

The grass here is first rate, notwithstanding the dry weather. Cattle fat on 
it the quickest here of any place that I ever saw. Bully was sick this spring 

29. This training in practical politics anticipates Peter's service, six years later, in the 
Kansas legislature of 1867. Information from Mrs. F. L. Davis of Holton. 

30. Daughter of Justin Olds and Louisa Bryant Olds, the sister of Cyrus Bryant. Sarah 
lived 1839-1860. 


and got quite poor, so that I began to think he would visit "San hedrin" and I 
would have to buy another ox, but he has got fat again and my fears have 

In regard to snakes, they don't bother anyone here but Chet. Jove! you 
ought to see him jump when a "garter" gets into the furrow. I think I have 
seen him leap 8 feet right straight up in the air at sight of one's tail. Rattle- 
snakes are about as thick here as in Illinois. I don't think we killed over twenty 
last summer. 

John Ritchie, 31 one of the "Topeka Boys," has just killed a U. S. Marshal 
who was trying to arrest him on some of the old scores of '56, and Old Buck's 
men 32 were all around the territory trying to find him. He is probably stowed 
away somewhere near home. The Governor has offered $300 reward for him, 
and the people of Shawnee County have held a meeting and resolved that Mr. 
Governor could not have him. He has got the "get up and git" to him a good 
deal like Lovejoy. By the way, Lovejoy has acquitted himself nobly. We could 
not have asked more of him. I hope he carries his "iron" so as to be ready if 
any of those Southern scamps jumps on him. 83 


I have not received that money yet. I wrote to the Express agent and told 
him where I lived and to let me know when the package arrived. The river is 
very low. It takes a good while for boats to come from St. Louis. [Inserted 
at top of first page.] 


May 13th 1860 

I have received your note of April 13th and also a letter of April 17th in- 
forming me that you had forwarded the money. I have received it and just 
returned from Leavenworth. The agent did not like to let me have it on the 
strength of that duplicate, but when I showed your letter and an answer that he 
wrote to my inquiry, I got it without any further trouble. They are very par- 
ticular who they let have packages. This man was civil, but the agent here 
last summer was far from it. 

I enclose my note for the amount. It will probably be three or four years 
before I can pay it all up, but I will try and get it off my hands as soon as 

We came here yesterday and are going to work for the same man that we 
did last year. He told us a while ago that he wanted us to break 75 acres for 
him, but I do not know whether we will do it or not. There is no grass here 
for the cattle. Everything in that line is dried up. The grass at Holton is 
very good, and I was surprised at the difference that there is in thirty miles. 

II is very dry in Holton, so much so that the winter wheat will not amount to 
anything. Here it is not three inches high. Spring wheat will be in the same 
fix if it does not rain soon. There was wheat enough sown in the territory to 

31. John Ritchie of Topeka who was mustered in July 16, 1861, as captain of Company 
A, Fifth regiment, Kansas cavalry; was promoted to lieutenant colonel September 10, 1861, 
in the same regiment; and was promoted to colonel, Second Indian home guards, March 
28, 1862. 

32. The federal officers of President Buchanan. 

33. Both Peter and F. H. Dawes (the husband of Peter's aunt, Melissa) comment on 
Loveioy's sturdy defense of abolitionist principles in congress. See Dawes* letter of May 18, 
1862, inN.Y.P.L. 


supply the home demand if it had come to anything. But very few have 
planted any corn here. They are mostly done at Holton. 34 

I do not know how long we will stay here. We bought a yoke of cattle, for 
which we break 23 acres. If we do any more, we get the money for it. We 
get $3.00 per acre and board ourselves. That is as cheap as anyone can afford 
to do it and pay Kansas prices for provisions. 

When I was down to the river, I went to the Land Office and found that 
Frank's claim had been entered by a speculator. He intends to contest it. 
Gen. Whitfield 35 says there is no doubt but what he can get it. It will make 
him some cost. There are one or two others about there in the same way. 
Henry Dee entered one that had been filed on but no improvements made. 
He need not be alarmed about it. He can hold it without any trouble. 

If you come out here this summer, as Marcus told me you anticipated, I 
wish you would bring out my riding bridle and martingale. I can't get one here 
without paying two prices. I should be very glad to see you out here, and 
would take great pleasure in showing you the "elephant" and my place. 

The Missouri River is very low. Steamboats do not run any higher up than 
Atchison, and they all wear "grasshoppers" to lift them off from the sand bars. 36 
I waded the Kaw yesterday and drove across four yoke of cattle. Deepest spot 
3& feet. 

Yours affectionately 



May 20th 1860 

I received your letter of several dates (the latest of which was May 10th) 
yesterday, and today I feel in about the same fix that you say that you did; 
i. e, darned lazy. I went to town today and got the papers and found that 
"Old Abe" was the nominee, and I was awfully tickled. I thought that Seward 
would be nominated. Didn't think that Abe had a ghost of a chance, but I 
am glad that he has got it. I believe that he will be President. At any rate, 
if we are admitted you may bet the last hat that you have got in the world that 
"Bleeding Kansas" will roll up 10,000 majority for him, and if you don't win 
every time, I will give you two for each one you lose. 

I don't know as there is much home news here. We are tearing along as 
usual with our old breaking plow and five yoke of cattle. We make things 
come, but it is awful hard work. It is very dry. There comes a shower once 
in a while, but not enough to do any good. The old chaps around here shake 
their heads and say they are afraid that they are not going to make any crop, 
and I tell you it looks mighty billions and very much as though those that had 
been in the habit of living on hog and dodger would have to take the hog clear 
this time. 

34. This was the year of a disastrous drought. Leverett Spring wrote: "For more than 
a year little or no rain fell, and crops failed everywhere. Probably fifteen or twenty thousand 
people were thrown upon public charity. Again Kansas put out signals of distress, to which 
the public made a quick and generous response." Kansas: The Prelude to the War for the 
Union (Boston, 1899), p. 271. See Peter's further comments on the drought, in letters of 
May 20, July 22, November 11, and November 14, 1860; and March 10, 1861. 

35. John W. Whitfleld, delegate to congress from Kansas territory. 

36. In Roughing It (New York, 1913), p. 17, Mark Twain described a difficult six-day 
trip by steamboat from St. Louis to St. Joe. There were sandbars "which we roosted on 
occasionally, and rested, and then got out our crutches and sparred over." 


Topeka goes on with her improvements as fast or faster than ever, and how 
they do it I don't see, for there is very little money afloat. I suppose they trade 
around and everybody makes something. There is hardly a man here but is 
ready to trade anything that he has got, from a jack-knife to a quarter section 
of land. 

It seems to me that there has been an awful smashing up of things in Prince- 
ton lately: seven weddings right straight along. By jove, I will have to hurry 
back if I am going to get a woman there. There is, however, some consolation 
in Lige's old saying that "there are as good fish in the sea as ever were caught 
out," and you may have a mortgage on my hat if I bach' much longer. 

I am sorry that the apples are all killed, for I was in hopes that I would have 
a chance to get some next winter. How do you work it about the farm now 
that Cullen has gone? Do you keep a hired man, or do all the work yourself? 
I suppose you double bossee now, ain't you 

As to your shaking while on a buffalo hunt, there is no danger of that. You 
could not get the hang of it in so short a time. It will be worth quite a pile to 
go, for you can wear home your moccasins and greasy overshirt and be a pretty 
big man when you get back. 

You may send along all the papers that you have a mind to now. I don't 
get any except what I buy at the news office. We take one apiece in Holton, 
and Frank has all the benefit now. Why don't you and Chat [Charity] write 
once in a while. 



July 22nd 1860 

I have received your letter of June 25th. We left Topeka about four weeks 
ago, but I have been there since and happened to come across your letter or 
else I should still be in the dark in regard to your operations. I should think 
from your description that you must have some tall old times there. 

I suppose there is about as much fun in lugging a musket as there is in 
"bullwhacking" 37 all day with a prairie team. As to "yanking out," 38 I 
should think your class would get the hang of it after a while, so that you 
could come it over some of the older chaps. 

There is not much going on here. Since Congress adjourned without ad- 
mitting us [i. e., Kansas territory as a new state], everybody gets mad if a 
word is said about politics, and they fall to cursing Old Buck [President James 
Buchanan] and the democracy generally, in a manner that would make a 
Christian's hair stand on end. There are some Douglas democrats here. There 
are to be three county commissioners and an assessor to be elected this fall, 
but they won't make much of a hurrah. 

We have broken up about 90 acres of prairie this summer. We broke 50 
at Topeka. We quarrelled with the boss down there, and he won't pay us. 
I am going to build a house this fall, dig a well, and fix up generally; that is, 
get ready for the woman. We are having an awful drouth here. Everything 

37. Peter here refers to the Western practice of driving a team of oxen with a short- 
handled, long, heavy whip. 

38. It is uncertain what Peter is alluding to here, but it is possible that "yanking put" 
might have been a contemporary expression for taking unauthorized leave from the military 
academy. The term "Yankee leave" was used by the American military services in the 19th 
century as an equivalent to "French leave." 


is drying up. The prairie got afire yesterday in sight of my cabin and burnt 
over more than a thousand acres. You can get some idea by that of how dry 
it is. The old settlers say that they are in the habit of having such seasons 
here every three or four years. If that is the case, there is no use of trying 
to raise grain for a living. 

You must have had some great times running around to Conventions, 
visiting, &c. Did you find any pretty girls in your travels? What kind of a 
looking piece is Amanda Towers? I have heard great boasts concerning her 
beauty. I would be devilish glad to learn that I had one good-looking cousin. 
Do you know why Sarah Olds never answered my letter? Did she ever get 
wind of my shooting her parting sermon at the ducks? I feel a little curious 
in regard to it, but as to the feelings that they bear towards me, I don't care 
a d n what they are. If they don't like me, they are not under the least 
necessity of "putting." 

I suppose that none of the teachers or professors ever get hold of your 
letters, do they? If not, I can tell you some yarns once in a while that I didn't 
like to write home where the women would see them. I don't know whether 
I will get back home this winter or not, but if I do, you may bet your hat 
that I won't come back here again without a "frow," for I have a notion of 
having some "bark" a little different from squaw. Write me soon. 


I have been trying to get Mark and Lige out here on a buffalo hunt this 
fall, but hardly think I will succeed. Cyrus did not come out as he talked. 
The Judge has got a "darter." [Insertion on side of first page.] 


I have received the land warrant and located it. It came by express to 
Topeka, and I left there with it on Wednesday morning. I have traveled 
about 80 miles since and 50 of it with an ox team. 

It kept me dodging to get around here in time, but "the deed is did," and 
I feel a good deal better now. Tomorrow the Land Office is closed to pre- 

Here they don't seem to think there will be much sold, but after the sales 
they will lay warrants to a large extent. Warrants are worth today $157.00. 

I will write again when I get home. 



November llth, 1860 

I have just received your letter of the 21st ult. First and foremost, I con- 
gratulate you on the election of "Honest Old Abe." It makes me feel good 
all over. Tis true I've been expecting it for some time, but when I heard the 
news from New York and Penn. and right from home, from the "Old Sucker 
State," I just "hollered" loud as I could put in for two hours and a half, away 
out here by myself on the prairie with nobody but "Deacon" and "Bully" 
to hear me, and I have not got over it yet. The fit comes on occasionally, 
and I yell out Hurrah for Old Abel in a way that makes the heavens ring, 


and the echo from the hills on either side catches it up and sends back, Hur- 
rah for Old Abel Old Abel Abe! All nature rejoices. The sun shines clearer 
and warmer, and I actually believe on this occasion the grass will sprout. 
Evening before last the northern lights gave a grand display, and last night 
during the shower, lightning played strange antics across the sky, and old 
thunder bellowed Hurrah for Abel 

I tell you, if Kansas isn't glad nobody is. But this is not the end of good 
news. Last spring Jackson County went Democratic by 17 majority. Last 
Tuesday our side had 23 majority. I say, Hurrah for old Jackson! Altogether 
we will have a tearing up of tilings before this time next year. No more Land 
sales. Lots of money, and lots of grub. Hurrah for Old Abe! 

Times are very hard, to use the words of the "Judge," hard as the lime- 
stone that underlies our real estate. And I think down on the Neosho, where 
"His Honor" lives, they are still worse. They are sending provisions and 
money here from the States. The headquarters are at Atchison. Gen. Pom- 
eroy [is] commander, and if he does not make a good thing of it, you may 
have my hat. He was agent for the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Society 
and made $20,000 out of that, and you may bet that he has not forgotten 
how it was done. 39 Still, I hope for the best. I do not ask any thing for 
myself. I can get along well enough, but there are many poor men with large 
families that will have to have some help some way or other, and I do not 
think it is fair that speculators should pocket what the good people of Illinois 
give, as they think, to relieve the poor. 

I have been digging a well lately. I had to go 50 feet. It was no small 
job. I have not got my house done yet. Money is so scarce that building is 
very slow work. I have made but $15 in cash for the last three months, 
though I have been at work principally for myself. As to going home, that is 
out of the question. And when the woman that I used to talk about so much 
will be forthcoming, God only knows. We did not go on our buffalo hunt 
as we anticipated. This fall we had too much business to attend to. A great 
many went from here and brought in large quantities of meat. Buffaloes 
came in quite close to the Settlement this fall within 80 miles of here. There 
was one killed about five miles from here the other day, but he had got 
strayed away and lost. 

Rackley is still in Holton and says that he will not leave until he makes 
enough to take him off. How did you dispose of your stock at home, or did 
you just leave it to take care of itself? They write me that they are still riding 
"Sal." We are all well. 



Yesterday I received from you two papers and a letter. One had been on 
the road five days, another eight, and the letter nearly three weeks. Therefore, 
I don't see as it will be of any use for me to write anything for your paper. 
Besides, I am cross as a bear tonight and couldn't write anything pleasant if I 
should try. 

I suppose Old Abe is elected and I am very glad of it. I hope we will have 

39. Pomeroy was the model for the unscrupulous Senator Dilworthy in the novel The 
Gilded Age (1873), by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner. 


better times now. Jackson County gave 17 Democratic majority last spring. 
This fall our side had 23 majority. Last night they had a great jollification in 
Holton. They made some big speeches and devoured quite a number of apples. 
The Democrats are a good deal down in the mouth. 

You say that the folks talk of sending me some provision and other things. 
Well, if they send along a barrel or two of flour, they need not be afraid but 
what it will be accepted, and you say that you "have no doubt but what they 
would send along a little "Spondulix" if needed." I am very much afraid that 
it will be needed, though I had almost as soon be hung as ask father for any 
more. I owe Frank $50 on that land yet, and he has finally got his arrange- 
ments made so that he has got to pay for his right off, and he wants the money. 
I have got $25 salted down that I calculated to go home with along towards 
spring, but that plan will be knocked on the head. But what troubles me most 
is where I am going to get the rest. I have tried to sell a yoke of cattle, but I 
cannot do it for money. Then I tried to borrow. One man offered to lend me 
$50 and take a mortgage on my place and 20 per cent interest. 

I tell you I am devilish sick of this buying land on tick, and if I ever do it 
again, I want you to take your gun and shoot me. My place has cost me nearly 
$600 besides the work I have done on it, and if anybody should offer me $500 
for it tonight, they would not have to offer but once. Here I am paying 10 
per cent for money to buy land with that won't pay 2 per cent. Almost as good 
a bank to put money in as Binghams Mill dam. But if I get out once, see if I 
get in again, and if I don't have better luck, tell father he may expect another 
begging letter in the course of a week. 

As to that grub, if they take a notion to send any, tell them to send it as 
Kansas Relief, directed to Gen. H. C. Pomeroy, Agent Atchison, K. T. Put on 
a private mark, and direct a letter to him stating the facts. By this means I 
will get it for 12& cents per cwt. freightage. Otherwise it will be $1.25 per cwt. 
I believe Dee has sent for some, and it would be well to have it come together. 
We did not go to Iowa. A man went from Holton and found it didn't pay. 

I see by the papers that folks are giving money quite liberally in the eastern 
cities. I wish they would send some to a poor boy in this neck-o'-woods. I got 
a letter from Cullen a few days ago. He talks as though he had to work. I 
want you to get me four bushels of seed wheat, and I will try and get the money 
to pay you before you send it. I will send you the sermon in a day or two. 
All well. 


During early February of 1861 Peter Bryant made a trip from 
Holton to some place unknown. This may have been one of his 
frequent business trips to one of the Kansas "settlements," but it 
appears that he combined business with social pleasures, and it is 
possible that he was on a courting mission at this time. As indicated 
by previous letters, the need of a wife to establish a real home on 
the Kansas prairies was much on his mind during these days. In 
his absence, his friend and farming partner Frank Pomeroy took 
care of the farm and looked after Peter's livestock. Frank wrote 
to Peter as follows: 


HOLTON [KANSAS]^ Feb. llth, 1861 

Your letter I have neglected to answer until the present time. I am at the 
old cabin, but there has a decided change come over things here. As they are 
for the better, I have no fault to find. Chet, with his better part, arrived today. 
The "thing was did" one week ago today. The past week he has been around 
among the bretheren. The boys have followed him faithfully with their Band, 
but have not succeeded in bringing him out. They are expected here tonight. 
If they come, I suppose Brother Dee will invite them in. If he don't, they swear 
they (darn the word, I can't spell it) 41 him two weeks. 

You are undoubtedly having fine times with your little woman, if the sleigh- 
ing is as good there as it is here. It has been fine sleighing for five weeks. Yes- 
terday and today has been warmer. If it does not change before tomorrow, 
there will not be much snow left. Your money I sent all right the next day 
after I sent the note to Lewis. He refused to take it. I took it to Holton and 
got the gold but have not paid him yet. Consequently I can't send the note 
but presume I can next time I write. I have not received any money yet, but 
I presume I shall before long, as the boys have been paid and Eph. Parks has 
gone after the money. Gov has not been home, nor will he at present for the 
reason that they can't get a furlough. The Blacksmith's bill is paid, and Gordon 
says nothing, so I guess there will be no trouble with any bills outstanding. 
The school goes along all right. 

Dave is almost the best friend I have on the Creek. He will pay his tax 
without any fuss now. Your rail maker I have not heard from. He has not 
made any rails, and I presume will not. Your stock does pretty well, though 
I think it does not do as well as it did last year. The reason, I think, is that 
the hay was cut too late. Rachel looks well. She will not calve before March, 
perhaps not before middle of that month. Large Jake had the diarrhea after 
you left, which made him very weak, but he recovered and is doing well. The 
rest of your stock is all right. I think we will feed them all corn before long. 
I have two weeks longer to teach. Thrashed my wheat today. Had 48 bushels. 
Chet says that he has not received his paper yet. He wishes me to tell you to 
send for it right away, if you have not. Write again to me. Tell all the news, 
not forgetting the girls. 



March 10th 1861 

I received your letter of February 17th several days ago, and I believe I 
had one before that was not answered, although I cannot find it now. My 
reason for not answering that is that I was so full of business that I could not 
find time. While I taught school I was at home only a little while Sunday, 
and then I generally had something else to attend to. My school is out now, 
and nobody is more glad of it than I. I am now engaged in the exciting 
game of a race for the Presidency; i. e., mauling rails, and you may take my 

40. Although neither Frank nor Peter takes note of the event in these letters, Kansas was 
now no longer a territory, having been admitted to the Union on January 29, 1861. 

41. Frank probably intends the word "charivari," the old custom of a noisy mock sere- 
nade on a couple's wedding night. Peter later refers to this same matter in his comments on 
Chet and his bride. 


word for it, it is a "heap" more satisfactory than mauling sense into young 
ones' heads. 

Judge Oakfield was here to see me last week. He got here Monday night 
about nine o'clock. He was pretty well fagged out and hungry as a bear. 
He had footed it from Grasshopper Falls [later, Valley Falls] ( about 20 miles ) 
that afternoon. He stayed until Wednesday morning. He could not reconcile 
himself to bachelordom and advised me to quit it as soon as possible His 
talk about the apples and cider made me wish I was back home again He 
thinks Emporia is a long ways ahead of Holton in every point of view and 
wanted I should sell out and go down there. I told him that I was far enough 
off from civilization now, and didn't care about shaking all the year round. 
He however made me promise to come down there on a visit next winter if 
I didn't marry before. I do not see as famine makes any alteration in him. 
He is the same jolly fellow that he always was. 

We are having very fine weather now. Farmers that can get seed are very 
busy putting in their wheat. I never saw winter wheat look better than at 
present. Our cattle live on the prairie without hay. Some have not fed any 
for three weeks. I predict a smashing crop this year, and if you of Suckerdom 
are likely to starve, send to us for aid Perhaps, though, it will be well 
enough not to count chickens until they are hatched. 

There is considerable excitement just now in regard to who will be our 
U. S. Senators. There are a good many applicants, and it is very hard telling 
who is ahead. Jim Lane 42 stock was very high, but it seems to be falling. 
Pomeroy, I think, is gaining slowly. There is only one reason why I should 
like to see him senator. That is that he would work for our interest in regard 
to the Pacific R. R. I believe the old cove is a good deal of a knave. Our 
Representative favors Lane and Delehay. 43 I rather prefer Lane and Judge 
Ewing 44 or Col. Phillips. 45 However I have no favorite that I wish to 
bet on. 

We have just received Old Abe's inaugural address. Its high tone and firm 
resolve smell strong of war. 

Have you seen Thadeus Hyatt's letters to Gov. Andrews, Greeley, Sumner 
Conway, and others? 46 They are a pack of lies. Thadeus ought to be put 
in jail again, or sent to the Lunatic Asylum. The State is bad enough without 
lying about it. The scamp has kept thousands of emigrants from coming in 
here this spring. 

Ten to one if we have a drouth again in twenty years. 


42. James Henry Lane, the "grim chieftain/' who came to Kansas in the spring of 1855 
and played a spectacular role in territorial, state, and even national politics. He committed 
suicide in July, 1866. 

43. Mark W. Delahay, whose political stock was high during this period because of a 
distant family connection with President Lincoln. 

44. Thomas Ewing, Jr., who was on the Republican state ticket as chief justice. 

45. Col. William A. Phillips, who came to Kansas in 1855 as correspondent for Greeley's 
New York Tribune. He was an ardent free-soilcr. 

46. Thaddeus Hyatt was head of the Kansas Territorial Relief Committee set up to aid 
needy Kansans during the famine of 1860-1861. Andrews was Gov. John A. Andrew of 
Massachusetts; Sumner was Charles Sumner, Massachusetts senator; Conway was Moncure 
Daniel Conway, Massachusetts clergyman and emancipationist. 



April 7th, 1861 

I received your letter of March 26th yesterday. I am not in the habit of 
answering letters quite so soon after their arrival, but I got my hand in today 
and concluded that I would clean up the whole list, hence it is [remainder 

I am just as full of work as I can stick nowadays, and it keeps coming 
thicker and faster and more of it all the time. I have no idea that I will 
ever get through. 

We are having fine spring weather now. It was quite dry until about a 
week ago, when it commenced raining and has rained every other day since. 
My wheat is up and looks first-rate. I got two bushels of Club wheat and 
sowed it last week. I think it was the handsomest wheat that I ever saw. 
There is any amount of wheat in the country now; every farmer has some. I 
think Kansas will be fully tested this year in regard to her wheat-raising quali- 
ties. I am going to put in ten acres of corn and some potatoes. This, with 
the wheat, will be the extent of my farming this year. We are going to run 
a Company breaking team as heretofore, but will probably break mostly for 
ourselves. We have contracted for about fifty acres don't get any cash and 
unless someone should happen to come full of dollars, the prospect is rather 

It was just two years ago yesterday that I left Princeton to go to Pikes Peak 
and have not got there yet, but for the past month I have had the greatest 
notion in the world of going; but driving team 47 is a dog's life, and God knows 
I have lived hard enough as it is. If I could only get the pay, I would be 
perfectly satisfied to let them go to Satan with the work. 

You have probably heard of the election of our U. S. Senators. Jim Lane 
was ahead, and old tub-of-guts Pomeroy followed, as I was afraid he would. 
I don't know of any way except to grin and bear it, but there is one consola- 
tion: that is that Jackson County did not help elect him. The old cove hired 
a big house in Topeka and fitted it up in grand style and lived like a king, 
and those representatives who voted for him went there and boarded free 
gratis for nothing without paying a cent until election was over. Then 
S. C.(amp) vamosed and left the unfortunate reps to hunt other lodgings. 

There has been a change in our post office affairs, and it is said that we 
will get our mail directly from Atchison after 1st of June. 

It is rumored that there is a wild man in this neighborhood. Those who 
have seen him say that he is a heavy, thick-set man with red hair and whiskers 
and can run like a cuss. He sometimes gets after women and makes them 
scratch gravel as though they were running for a wager. The other day a 
couple of girls were out in a field driving up some cows. The chap saw them 
and made a break and caught one, and in a scuffle she bit off one of his fingers. 
The next day the girl's father hunted all day for the fellow without success. 

47. After the Atchison and St. Joseph railroad was finished, in 1860, the freighting busi- 
ness from Atchison (the westernmost point of railroad connections with the East) enjoyed a 
definite boom. In 1865 "vacant ground around the town was dotted with the encampments 
of emigrants and freighters, and the levee was crowded with goods for the mines/' Peter 
Beckman, "The Overland Trade and Atchison's Beginnings," Territorial Kansas, p. 156. By 
"driving team," Peter apparently means working in this freighting business. 



He don't wear any clothes except a coat. This is the yarn, and it is current 
here. However, you may do as you please about believing it. 

Now in regard to your question about Chet's "gal." Well, in the first 
place, she is a Methodist and chock full of Jesus just like himself, fair com- 
plexion, medium size, shows her teeth a good deal, dresses pretty neat, tolerably 
good looking, and has a good-sized ankle, higher, deponent knoweth not. 


April 7th 1861 

I have not had a letter from you for a long time, but that matters not. I 
have got time to write today, and the devil only knows when I will have again. 

I am chock full of work now, and every day it comes thicker and faster and 
more of it. I had an idea token I was a boy that after I got to be twenty-one 
I wouldn't work so devilish hard as I did at that time, but I find that I was sadly 
mistaken. I believe that I have done more work since I left home than I ever 
did all put together on Cyrus's farm, and yet when I look around I can hardly 
see where I have made a mark. If a fellow comes here without anything and 
expects to make a farm without doing a good deal of hard work, he slips up 
on it like thunder. 

In regard to my matrimonial prospects, they are not half as bright as they 
were three years ago. Gods! I thought then that I should certainly have some 
bark long ere this, but as Burns says, "The best laid plans of mice and men, 
gang aft agley." And now I don't know as I shall have any for three years to 
come. By the bye, 'tis just two years ago today since we bid each other 
good-by at Bill Bony Grove. 48 It seems to me as though it was but yesterday. 
Still, when I look back, what a h 1 of a mess I have waded through: some 
of the toughest times and hardest grub that ever I saw However, 'Grin & 
Bear It' is the firm I deal with, and I wouldn't flunk out and go home a poor 
devil as