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50 5.1; 


Kansas University 



VOL. 1. 

July, 1892 to April, 1893 











Kansas Pterodactyls, I S. W. Williston i 

Kansas Mosasaurs, 1 5. W. Williston and E. C. Case 15 

Notes and Descriptions of Syrphid^e W. A. Snow t^t^ 

Notes on Melitera dentata Grote V. L. Kellogg 39 

Diptera Brasiliana, II S. W. Williston 43 


Unicursal Curves by Method of Inversion. ..H. B. Nezvson 47 

Foreign Settlements in Kansas W. H. Carruth 71 

The Great Spirit Spring Mound E. H. S. Bailey 85 

On Pascal's Limacon and the Cardioid H. C. Biggs 89 

Dialect Word-List W. H. Carrt/th 95 


On THE Apiocerid^ and their Allies ^. W. Williston ror 

Diptera Brasiliana, III S. W. Williston 119 

Notes on Soi\ie Diseases of Grasses W. C. Stevens 123 

Modern Higher Algebra E. Miller 133 

Dialect Word List, II W. B. Carruth 133 

Maximum Bending Moments for Moving 

Loads in a Parabolic Arch-Rib Hinged 

at the Ends E. C. Murphy 143 


Penology in Kansas F. W. Blackmar 155 

Bibliography of Municipal Government 

IN the United States F. H. Hoddcr 1 79 


p. 29, line 20, for "Fox Hills" read Ft. Pierre. 

p. 43, line 15, for '■'■argentifacies''^ read nobilis. 

p. 109, line iS, for "beyond" read before. 

p. 125, line 21, for "Panicufn sanguinaW^ read Setaria ger7nanica. 

The plates illustrating Prof. Blackmar's article "Penology in Kan- 
sas" numbered "i. 2, 3, 4" and "5," should be numbered 14, 15, 16, 
17 and 18. 



Allograpla obliqua 37 

American cities, government of, bibliograpliy 184 

American Dialect Society 73, 137 

Analysis, rocks of Great Spirit Spring 85 

Andropogon furcatus 123 

Apiocera 110 

brevicornis 102 

Apioceridae lUl 

literature of 11(5 

Asilidae, mouth parts of , 114 

Asteronella 87 

Auburn, penitential' at 161 

Avena sativa 120- 


Bailey, E. H. S. , article by 85- 

]]asal points of a system of cubics 52, 50- 

Basal points of a system of quartics G6, GO- 

Baur, Greo., classification of Mosasauridae. 15- 

Berlin, municipal government of, bibliography 183 

Bertillon system of registry' of criminals 173 

l^ibliograph}-, a brief, of municipal government in the United States 170 

Biographical statistics of reformatory inmates 16(> 

Blackmar, F. W, , article by 155 

Blepharoceridae, a new genus of 110 

Booth, Charles, investigations of 104 

Boston, municipal government of, bibliography 195 

Bouteloua racemosa 123 

Brefeld, experiments of 127 

Brockway, Z. R., superintendent Elmira reformatory 165, lOG 


Caley's method for unicursal quartics 58 

Callicera, generic characters of 33 

Callicera montensis 34 

Canadian Entomologist 30 

Canadian Naturalist 41 

Cardioid, articles on the 80 

as a cuspidal quartic .63 

Carruth, W. H., articles by 71, 05, 137 

Case, E. C. and Williston, S. W., article by 15 

Geo. H., 150 

T. S., 137 

Charleston, municipal government of, bibliography I0() 

Cherry Hill prison 160 

Chicago, municipal government of, bibliography 19G 

Chrysotoxum dei'ivatum 34 

11 INDEX. 

Cissoid of Diodes, properties of 50, 51, 70 

■Claviceps, diseased ovaries of 123 

•Claviceps purpurea 123, 130 

effect of 131 

hosts of ■ ■ ■ ■ 131 

€iidastes 16 

Westii, description of 29 

velox, description of 17 

species of 17 

Confervae 87 

■Conops angustif rons 44 

grandis 44 

inornatus 45 

magnus 43 

nobilis 45 

ornatus 46 

rufus 44 

parvus 46 

Copestylum marginatum 37, 41 

Corn, number of parasites of 1-3 

Critic centres of a system of quartics 66, 68 

Criorrhina umbratilis 38 

Oubics, basal points of a s^'stem of 52, 56 

critic centres of a system of 52, 53 

cuspidal . 50, 51 

nodal 49, 50 


Dialect Study, a contribution to 71 

word-list 95, 137 

T)iptera Brasiliana 43, 11 9 

Dissosteira longipennis ~. .... 39 


Eacles imperialis 39 

Economic fungi, Seymour and Earle's 129 

Edestosaurus, synonymy of 26 

Elmira reformatory. 165, 169, 176, 177 

El3-mus Canadensis 123 

Virgin icus 123 

Entomological News 41 

Eriophorum Virginicum 124 

Erysiphe graminis, hosts of 131 

Eupeodes volucris 36 

European cities, governraent of, bibliography 181 

Eristalis brousi 3S 

latifrons 38 


Finance of American cities, bibliography 186 

Foreign Settlements in Kansas 71 

French system of registry of criminals 1 73 

Fusisporium 123, 130 



Gleed, C. S 137 

Government of American cities, general discussions on bibliograph}^ 187 

Graminese, parasites of 131 

Grandgent, C. H., Treasurer American Dialect Society 73 

Grass family, number of parasites of 123 

Grasses, notes on some diseases of, 123 

Great Spirit Spring 85 


Helophilus latifrons 38 

Hodder, Franli: H. article by 179 

Holosaurus 26 

Host Index, Farlow and Seymour's 123, 131 

Hulst, G. D., 40 

Hutchinson reformatory^ 177 


Injury, mechanical, done by parasite 126 

Inversion, method of 47, 89 


Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions of 85 

Kansas, Penology in 155 

Kellogg, V. L., article by 39 


Lamm, Oscar F., engineer of Kansas Penitentiary 171 

Legal status of American cities, bibliography 184 

Limacon, article on the 89 

as a nodal bicuspidal quartic 62 

Pascal's .' 60, 89 

Livingston, Edward, quotation from IGl 

Local government, bibliography 1 80 

London, government of, bibliograph}- 181 


Map, Preliminary, of foreign settlements in Kansas (facing) 84 

Melanostoma mellinum 35 

stegnum 35 

Melitera dentata Grote, Notes on, 39 

prodenialis Walker 39, 40 

Mesogramma marginatum 37 

Microdon megalogaster .34 

Miller E., article by 133 

Mosasaurs, Kansas 15 

Modern higher algebra, 133 

Moments, Maximum bending, for moving loads, etc., 143 

Municipal government in the United States, A brief bibliography of 179 

Municipal industries of American cities, bibliography 191 

Murphy, E. C, article by ]-l3 

Mycelium, methods of entering host 127 

Mydaidffi, mouth-parts of 113 

Navicula 87 

Nemistrinidie, mouth-parts of 11-1 

Newson, H. B. , article by 47 

New York system of classifying prisoners 1(50 

municipal government of, bibliography 194 

Nitzschia 87 

N^'ctodactylus 5 

species of 2 


Oats, number of parasites of 12S 

Oospores, obliteration of parenclwma hj 129 

Opuntia missouriensis 39-40 

Oscillaria 87 


Panicum sanguinalo l'2d 

variagatum 125 

Paragus bicolor 35 

Parasites, effects of, on hosts 130 

Paris, government of, bibliographj- 182 

Pascal's Limacon 60, 89 

Patrick, G. E.., 89 

Pedal of a circle 89 

Penitentiary, Kansas State 155 

Pennsylvania system of classifying prisoners 160 

Penolog}^ in Kansas 155 

Peronospora graminicola 1 29 

Philadelphia, municipal government of, bibliography 106 

Piricularia grisea 129 

effect of 130 

hosts of 131 

Plioplatecarpus , 28 

Pomacera - 102 

Prentis, Noble 71 

Providence, municipal government of, bibliograph}' . 196 

Pteranodon, species of 1 

skull of 3 

pubis of 4 

Pteranodontinte 12 

Pterodact3ds, Kansas 1 

Pterodactyl us 8, 11 

Pterosauria, classification of 12 

Puccinia coronata 126 

graminis, hosts of 132 

number of species on grasses 124 

phragmitis 125 

rubig'o-vera, hosts of 132 

Puccinias,, eifects of 130 



Quarterly, Kansas University 137 

Quartics, basal points of a system of 6G, GO 

critic centres of a system of CG, G8 

nodal bicusi:)idal 59, 02 

tricuspidal G2, G5 

trinodal 5G, 59 

with a triple point , G5, G6 


Registry of criminals, system of 173 

Reformatory at Elmira, N. Y 160 

Reformatory at Hutchinson IGO 

Reformatory inmates, biographical statistics of. IGG 

Reform School at Topeka IGO 

Riggs, H. C. , article by 89 

Riley, C. V 39 

Rhaphiomidas, mouth-parts of Ill 

Acton Ill, 112 

Rhingia nasica 37 

Roulette, instantaneous center of 90 

Roulette, limacon as a 89 


Salmon, reference to Higher Plane Curve of 48, 58, GO, 70, 89 

reference to Conic Sections of 50 

Sericomyia militaris 37 

Setaria glauca 123 

viridis 129 

Settlements, Foreign, in Kansas 71 

Sheldon, E, S 137 

Slosson, E. E., 137 

Smith, J. B 39, 40 

Smut, on corn 1 2G 

Snow, F. H. , 39 

W. A., article by 33 

Snowia 119 

rufescens 120 

Soderstrom, E. E. , 137 

Spartina cynosuroides 125 

stricta 1 25 

Sphasrophoria cylindrica 37 

Spilomyia quadrifasciata 38 

Statistics of American cities, bibliography 185 

Statistics, biographical, of reformatory inmates IGG 

Steiner, a theorem due to 70 

Stevens, W. C, article by 123 

Stylogaster, the American species of 120 

Syritta pipiens 3S 

Syrphus americanus 37 


S yrphus arcuatus 3G 

disjectus 30 

Notes and descriptions of 33 

pauxillus 37 

ribesii 37 

ruficauda 36 

unibellatarum 37 


Tapinocera ■ 102 

Transactions, American Entomological Society 40 

Kansas Academy of Science 85 

Tricloninffi 105 

Triclonus 104, lOG 

bispinifer, mouth-parts of 113 

Tripsacum dactyloides 133 

TherevidEe, mouth-parts of 114 

Townsend, reference to modern geometry of : 47 


Unicursal curves by methods of inversion, 47 

quartics, Cayley's method for 57 

TJromyces graminicola 125 

spartinas 125 

Ustilago Zeae-Mays, effects of 130 

hosts of 133 

mycelium of, in tissues of Zeae-Mays, figures ' 124 


Yolucella fasciata 41 

"Waconda Spring 85 

Williamson, reference to calculus of 89, 90 

Williston, S. W., 41. 87 

articles by 1, 43, 101, 119 

and E. C. Case, article bj' 15 

AVheat, number of i^arasites of 123 

NVolff, C. reference to article by 47 

Word-list, Dialect !)5, 137 


X3'lota flavitibia 38 




The first American species of the singular group of extinct Mesozoic 
reptiles variously know as Ornithosaurs, Pterosaurs or Pterodactyls 
was described by Marsh from a fragmentary specimen obtained in 1870, 
by the Yale College Expedition in Wallace County, Kansas. About 
a dozen other specimens were obtained by a similar expedition the 
following year in charge of Professor Marsh, or by Professor Cope, 
and were described by these authors shortly afterward. By far the 
largest number of known specimens, however, other than those in the 
Kansas University Museum, were obtained during the years 1874, '75, 
'76 and '77 by parties of which Professor Mudge, Dr. H. A. Brous, 
E. W. Guild, George Cooper and myself were the members, and it 
was from these specimens that most of the published characters were 
derived. Many of these specimens are necessarily fragmentary ones, 
still the material now in the Yale College Museum is ample to eluci- 
date everything of interest concerning these animals. 

During the past few years, the Museum of Kansas University has 
been enriched by a series of excellent specimens of these animals, ob- 
tained from the same regions, specimens that permit the solution of 
most of the doubtful characters and throw not a little light on the 
affinities of the Kansas forms. 

The species hitherto named are as follows: 


Plcraiiodon Marsli, Amcr. .loiirii. Sui. xi, \). ."iOS, .liinc l.S7(l; and xii. p. 179' 

Dec 1870; xxiii, p. 253, April, 1882; xxvii, p. 12:5, May, 1881; AVillisldii, 

Am(!r. Naturalist, xxv, p. 1171, Dec. 1891. 
Pteranodon occidentalis. 

PLcroihK'iijhis Oireid 'S\;i\'>\\, AiinT. Jnurii. Sci. i, p. 172, Juiu' 1871, Sc|). p. 

]() (num. prcoc). 
Pierodficti/luii ocridentdlii ^ihiViih, .\iiiri-. .luiirn. Sci. iil, ji. 212. .\\iy\\ 1S72. 

Sep. p. 1; Cope, Crctac. Ycrt. p. lis, p|. \ ii. il'. .">. (i. 
OrnilhocheiriJ.s Jiarpyid. Co\)i', l*i-oc. Aimr. Phil. Sue. 1S72, p. 171 (Cdpi). 

This species was originally based upon the distal end oi two wing- 
metacarpals, and teeth. In the following year, a fuller description 

(l) KA.N. UNI\'. qiAK., VOL, I, NO. I,JILV, 1S92 


was given of additional remains referred to the same species and 
renamed P. occidentalis. 

Pteranodon ingens. 

Pterodactylus incjents Marsh, Amer. Jourii Sci. iii, p. '246, April 1872, Si-p. p. 0. 
Pteranodon ingens Marsh, Amer. Journ. Sci. xi, p. o08, June 187(5. 

This species is based upon various bones of the wing-finger of 
several individuals, and three teeth. 

Pteranodon umbrosus. 

Ornithocheirus umbrosus Cope, Proc. Aiiicr. Pliil. Soc. 1872, p. 471. 
Pterodactylus umbrosus Cope, Cret. Vert. p. (55, pi. vii, If. 1-4. 

Marsh (Amer. Journ. Sci. xii, p. 480, Dec. 1876) says this name 
is a synonym of F. ingc/is, published two days earlier. As this 
synonymy is not certain, and as Cope's species has been figured, I am 
not ready to accept his views. 

Pteranodon velox. 

Pterodactylus velox Marsh, Amer. Journ. Sci. iii, p. 247, April 1872, Sep. p. 8. 

Based upon the distal end of the right metacarpal of the wing-finger, 
and the proximal extremity of the adjoining first phalanx, two unchar- 
acteristic parts of the skeleton, Marsh to the contrary notwithstanding. 
It is doubtful whether the direct comparison of the types will suffice 
to determine the species with certainty. "Both of the bones are 
somewhat distorted by pressure." 

Pteranodon longiceps. 

Pteranodon longicc^hs Marsh, Amer Journ. Sci. xi, p. 508, June 1875; xxvii, 
p. 424, pi. XV, May 1884. 

Based upon a somewhat defective skull, without other bones. 
There is no evidence whatever that the species is distinct from the 

Pteranodon comptus. 

Pteranodon cowptus Marsh, Amer. Journ. Sci. xi, p. 509, June 187(5. 

Based upon wing-bones of three individuals. The description is 

Pteranodon nanus. 

Pteranodon nanus Marsh, Amer. Journ. Sci. xxi, p. H43, April 1881. 
Based upon various remains of one individual; the humerus, alone, 
is recognizably described. 


JSfyctosaurus Marsh, Amer. Journ. Sci. xii, p 480, Dec 1876. (nomen preoc.*). 
Nyctodactyliis Marsh, Amer. Journ. Sci. xxi, p. 348, April 1881; ibid, xxvii, 
p. 423, May 1884. 

* This preoccupation rests, so far as I am aware, upon Marsh's statement, I 
can find no evidence of the name having been pre\-iously used. 

williston: kansas pterodactyls. 

Nyctodactylus gracilis. 

Pieranoilon f/rurilis, Mursh, Amcr. Journ. Sci. xi, p. 508, June 187G. 
NyctosKunis (/ruciUs'K'dx^h, Amer. Joiu-n. Sci. xii, p. 480, Dec. 1876. 
Nyct<i(hidi/hifi gruciUs Marsh, Amer. Jour. Sci. xxi, p. 343, April 1881. 



Fragmentary portions of the skull of Pteranodon are not at all rare 
in the Kansas chalk; but it is exceedingly seldom that a complete, or 
even approximately complete specimen is found. Their great length 
and slenderness, together with the extensive pneumaticity of the bones, 
render their preservation, as a whole, a thing of great rarity. Prob- 
ably the most nearly perfect one yet known is now in the Museum of 
Kansas University. It was discovered the past summer by Mr. E. C. 
Case, a member of the University Geological Expedition. The spec- 
imen was carefully cleaned on its upper surface, as it lay in the chalk, 
and then imbedded in plaster before removal. The surface now ex- 
posed was the under one, which surface is, almost invariably, better 
preserved and less distorted than the upper one in these animals. A 
figure of this specimen is given in Plate I. The only portion restored 
is that indicated by the line in the lower jaw; it is possible that this 
part of the symphysis may not be exactly as it is drawn. Other, 
incomplete, specimens in the Museum confirm the outlines, except 
in the occipital crest, which is not present. As stated by me in the 
American Naturalist (/. c), the type specimen of Pteranodon, also 
collected by myself, was incomplete, and the figures of it, as given by 
Marsh, are faulty. 

The elements of the skull are all so firmly united that they can not 
be distinguished. There are no indications whatever of a horny 
sheath enclosing the jaw, and it is improbable that the covering of 
these parts was essentially different from that in the slender jawed 
Ptcrodactylid(C. In texture, the maxillaries are fine-grained, and 
wholly without the vascular foramina found in the corresponding 
bones of birds. The bones are composed of two thin and firm plates, 
separated by cavities which are bounded by irregular walls of bony 
tissue. In the compression from which all the Pterodactyl bones have 
suffered more or less, the greater resistance of these walls has caused 
irregularities upon both the outer and the inner surfaces. At the 
borders of the bones, where the thickness has been greater, the rough- 
ening is not observed. 

Seen from above, the skull is narrow, as stated by Marsh ; but, con- 
trary to his statement, there is not a sharp ridge extending along the 
upper border. This border is obtuse and rounded, and in the frontal 


region, flattened. The sagittal crest is large, but not nearly so large 
as it is figured by Marsh, the restored outline of whose figure is un- 
doubtedly wrong. The texture of the bone forming the crest is 
materially different from ihat of the remaining bones of the skull. 
The bone is more roughened, and less firm. There is a well-developed 
ring of sclerotic ossifications. In the specimen figured, the separate 
plates measure from six to eight millimeters in diameter. They were 
not imbricated, as in the Pythonomorpha, but have a similar dense 
texture. There is a superior temporal arch, bridging over a small 
opening leading downward to the inferior temporal fossa. The fol- 
lowing measurements will give the principal dimensions of this 

Length from tip of premaxillary to occipital condyle . . 680 millim. 

Extreme length of skull 780 

Extent of crest beyond orbit 145 

Greatest diameter of orbit 65 

Antero-posterior diameter of nasal opening 135 

Length of quadrate 120 

Width of lower jaw at articulation 22 


In a previous paper on the anatomy of Pteranodou,'^ I stated that I 
had never seen the so-called "prepubic bones." Since that time, how- 
ever, an excellent specimen of them has been discovered among our 
material. The specimen of which they are a part consists of the larger 
portion of the skeleton, and is perhaps conspecific with the one to 
which the described pelvis belongs. The figure given herewith will 
convey a good idea of their shape. The bones of the two sides are 
firmly co-ossified, and have been pressed nearly flat; the figure repre- 


FIG. I. 

*Amei'. Naturalist, Uec. 1891, p. 1124. In this article the descripfiou of the 
foot-phalanges should read: "All are slender, excejit tlie second one in the third 
toe, and tlie second and third in the firmlli toe, wiiere they are scarcely longer 
than wide." 

williston: Kansas pterodactyls. 5 

sents them as they are spread out in one plane. The bone is ver}- 
thin throughout, with a slight thickening at the ischial {a) attachment 
only. Ikying contiguous with the anterior projection, is a slender 
ventral rib (//). It is possible that the curvature of this bone may be 
inward, rather than outward. 

This peculiar structure of the pubis (I belive it represents the 
pubis, and not the prepubis) seems to be quite similar to that which 
obtains in the genus Rliaiiipliorliyiicliits, and, perhaps also, in Pfero- 
dactyhis sucviciis {Cycuorliaiiipliits Seeley), and very different from that 
found in other species of Picrodactyliis. 

The principal measurements of the above described specimen are as 

Antero-posterior expansion 40 millim. 

Length of symphysis 14 

Expanse of the united bones, as flattened 90 

Width of ischial process 11 


The type species of this genus was described as follows by its 
author (loc. cit. supra) : 

"One of the smallest American species yet found is represented in 
the Yale Museum by several bones of the wing, a number of vertebrae 
and the nearly complete pelvis. The wing-bones preserved are elong- 
ated and very slender. The pelvis is unusually small, and there are 
five vertebrae in the sacrum. The last of the series indicates that the 
tail was short. The following are the principal measurements of this 
specimen : 

Length of ulna 1S7 millim. 

Length of metacarpal of wing- finger 300 

Antero-posterior diameter of outer condyle at distal 

end 15 

Transverse diameter of shaft, above condyles 1.3 

Length of first phalanx of wing-finger 347 

Extent of five vertebrae of sacrum 57 

This species, which may be called ]^trraiuul()ii orati/is, was about 
two-thirds the size of P. 7<r/(>x Marsh. It iirobal)!}' measured al)out 
ten feet between the tips of the expanded wings." 

In the December number of the same volume of the American Jour- 
nal of Science, he described the genus as follows : 

"A second genus of American Pterodactyls is represented in the 
Yale museum by several well preserved specimens. This genus is 
nearly related to Plcraiunloii, but niay be readil}' dislingnishcd from it 


by the scapular arch, in which the coracoid is not co-ossified with the 
scapula. The latter bone, moreover, has no articulation at its distal 
end, which is comparatively thin and expanded. The type of this 
species is Pteranodon gracilis Marsh, which may now be called Nycto- 
sauriis gracilis. It was a Pterodactyl of medium size, measuring about 
eight to ten feet between the tips of the expanded wings." 

The specific description of this species rests solely upon the meas- 
urements ; the other characters given are not only vague, but are also 
common to all the known species. The generic description, as it is 
seen, is based upon the structure of the coraco-scapula. It will also 
be observed that the characters are not drawn from the type speci- 
men, as that did not include this part of the skeleton, according to 
the author's statement. Of these two characters, the non-ossification 
of the coracoid and scapula is a somewhat doubtful one, as the same 
character may or may not occur in allied species, as, for example, in 
the species oi RiiampJiorhynctis {R. Mi/e?/sicri Goldi.) described by the 
author himself. So incomplete and unsatisfactory are the characters 
thus given that Zittel, in his Handbuch, dismisses the genus with the 
brief remark, "noch unbeschrieben." 

Nevertheless, from the peculiar form of the scapula, and from my 
recollection of the specimens upon which the genus was based, I believe 
I have determined with certainty an excellent specimen in the Snow 
Museum of Kansas University as a member of it, and here give a suf- 
ficiently complete description to place the genus on a more secure 

This specimen was collected by Professor E. E. Slosson, of 
Wyoming University, while a member of my party in western Kansas 
the past season. It was partly exposed upon a gently sloping surface 
of firm yellow chalk on the Smoky Hill river, in the vicinity of Mon- 
ument Rocks. Originally, the nearly complete skeleton must have 
been preserved, but a number of the bones had been either wholly or 
partially washed away, in some cases leaving their imprint in the 
chalk. The bones uncovered, and now lying upon the chalk slab 
nearly in their natural relations, are a humerus, both radii and ulnae, 
a pteroid, the two carpals of one wrist, both wing metacarpals, a first 
and a last wing phalanx, both coraco-scapulae, the posterior part of 
the lower jaws, ilium, femur, sternum, numerous ribs and vertebrae. 
The two coraco-scapulae lie with their scapular ends nearly touching, 
and their coracoid ends separated by a space equivalent to the width 
of the sternal articulation. The two elements appear to have been 
imperfectly united and were probably not co-ossified. The inferior 
border of the coracoid, near the humeral articulation, has a greater 

williston: Kansas pterodactyls. 7 

expansion than is found in Ptcranodon ; its shaft is more rounded and 
less rugose, lacking especially the strong muscular markings upon the 
external surface. The articular surface does not appear to differ 
materially from that in Pteraiiodon. The scapula is of nearly the 
same length as the coracoid, but is much less stout. It is a thin, 
spatulate bone, slightly expanded at the distal extremity, where the 
margin is rounded, and without the characteristic oblique articular 
facet. It has no supra-glenoid expansion or process on the posterior 
proximal border, but has its margin nearly straight or gently concave 
from the articulation to its extremity. The space included between 
the bones of the two sides as they lie is a nearly regular, oval one, 
measuring ninety-five millimeters in its greater, forty-five in its lesser 

The sternum lies at a little distance from the coraco-scapulae. It 
is an extremely thin bone, with a stout anterior, styliform projection, 
at the base of which, on either side, looking upward and outward, is 
the articular, trochlea-like surface for the sternal end of the coracoid. 
The width between these articular surfaces measures fifteen milli- 
meters; the length of the process in front of the articulations is 
twenty-five millimeters. Immediately posterior to the articular sur- 
faces, the bone expands nearly at right angles to the longitudinal axis 
to a width of about sixty millimeters. The thin lateral margins 
are nearly parallel with the longitudinal axis, and show three shallow 
emarginations between the four costal articular projections. The 
hind angles are nearly rectangular. The bone, as preserved, is only 
shallowly concave, and shows no true keel, though a more pro- 
nounced median convexity towards the front doubtless subserved the 
function of a carina in part. 

The left humerus lies in position, and is especially characterized by 
its enormous deltoid crest (radial crest of Marsh), thougli otherwise 
slender. This crest is. further removed from the head of the bone than 
is the case in species of Ptcraiiodoii. It is directed somewhat down- 
ward, and has its distal, gently convex, border about twenty-five 
millimeters in extent, while the width of the process midway between 
the extremity and the base measures but sixteen millimeters. The 
bicipital crest is also prominent. The bone is relatively shorter than 
in Ptcranodon. 

The humerus, as will be seen from the above description, and from 
the measurements given below, is remarkably like the same bone in 
Ptcranodon nanus, as described by Marsh (/. c. supra), and but a little 
larger. In /-". nanus, however, the coracoid and scapula are said to 
be firmly co-ossified, and the scapula has of course a different 


The skull has been, unfortunately, almost wholly washed away, a 
fragment of the cranial wall and the posterior part of the lower jaws 
alone remaining. It is impossible, hence, to say much concerning this 
part of the anatomy. The lower jaws show a different structure from 
that in Pteranodon. As they lie in their natural position, the width at 
the condyles is about twenty-four millimeters. The angular is less 
produced posterior to the articulation than in Pteranodon., indicating 
a less elongated and less powerful mandibular portion, an indication 
further borne out by the slenderness of the rami. The impression in 
the chalk shows the symphysis to begin ninety millimeters from the 
articulation. The width at this place could not have exceeded sixteen 
millimeters; and the entire length of the lower jaws could hardly have 
been more than one hundred and twenty-five millimeters. In the 
parts preserved, measuring seventy-five millimeters, there are no indi- 
cations of teeth ; yet it is not impossible that there may have been 
teeth in the anterior portion of the dentary, as in some species of 
Ptcrodactyliis,. I hardly think it probable, however. 

There are seven cervical vertebrae preserved, apparently the full 
complement, as in Pteranodon and other members of the order. They 
differ in no especial respect from the corresponding vertebrae of Pter- 
anodon, and, apparently, of Pterodactylits. The imperfectly anchylosed, 
possibly free, atlas shows three pieces, the odontoid process and the 
two slender lateral pieces. The lateral pieces are entirely free, with a 
thickened base and a slender, curved upper portion. The odontoid is 
gently concave in front, and seems to be imperfectly ossified with the 
axis; it occupies, the lower part of the articulation, corresponding to 
the hypapophysis of the Pythonomorpha. The axis is the shortest of 
the remaining vertebrae, and has a well developed spine. The centrum 
is strongly convex behind, as are the remaining centra of the 
series. The following five vertebrae decrease gradually in length. 
The anterior ones have only a thin ridge or plate for the neural spine ; 
the seventh, however, has a neurapophysis of some length. They are 
all, as is usually the case, somewhat distorted from pressure. The 
under side is flattened, apparently gently concave longitudinally, and 
with a lateral ridge terminating in an obtuse hypapophysis at each 
inferior hind angle. 

In his discussion of the Pterosauria, Zittel says concerning the 
vertebrae: "zwischen oberen P)0gen und Centrum ist keine Sutur zu 
bemerken." Handbuch, iii, p. 776. In this he is in error, so far as the 
American forms are concerned. It is usually the case in the Kansas 
specimens of both genera that the neural arch of the post-cervical verte- 
brae is wholly or in part detached from the centrum, showing a sutural, 

williston: Kansas pterodactyls. 9 

and not anchy- losed union in life. The centra of twelve vertebrae are 
preserved, in the present specimen, from the region back of the neck ; in 
only five of them are the neural arches in any way attached. Three of 
these are evidently anterior thoracic, judging from their structure and the 
position in which they lie. The shortest of them, to which was 
attached a very large rib, and which was lying in front of the scapulae, 
may represent the first thoracic vertebra (a). Its centrum is fully as 
wide as long, is flat on the under surface, and has a large, stout, hori- 
zontal parapophysis near the anterior end. Just above this process 
for the attachment of the head of the rib, and separated by a deep 
notch, is a much more elongated, horizontal diapophysis for the 
tuberculum. The cup of the centrum is shallowly concave ; the 
transverse, shallowly U-shaped ball is only a little convex. 

Two other vertebrae (d), found close by the one just described, and 
possibly one or the other contiguous with it, differ remarkably in hav- 
ing no, or a rudimentary, parapophysial process, and in having the 
diapophyses much shorter. It is not impossible that a slight expan- 
sion at the lateral margins of the ball may represent small parapo- 
physes. In Fteranodon there are at least four vertebrae with dia- and 
parapophyses. In the other vertebrae from this region the diapo- 
physes are yet shorter and the neural spine stouter and broader. 
The other centra preserved are all shaped somewhat like the half 
of a cylinder, and are a little longer than broad. They have no 
distinct cup or ball. In two of them there is a very long, recurved 
parapophysial process, as though formed by an anchylosed rib, on 
each side ; they are probably lumbar vertebrae. 

Most of the ribs are very slender ; a few are moderately thickened ; 
one only is very stout ; its measurements are given below. 

Length of lateral pieces of the atlas 7 millim. 

Diameter of lateral pieces at the base 3^2 

Width of odontoid 4}^ 

Height of odontoid 3 

Length of axis 8 

Height of axis 15 

Length of third cervical vertebra 21 

Length of fourth cervical vertebra 20 

Length of fifth cervical vertebra 19 

Length of sixth cervical vertebra 18 

Length of seventh cervical vertebra 17 

Height of seventh cervical (about) 15 

Length of centrum, anterior thoracic vertebra {a). ... 6 
Width of ball {a) 8 


Expanse of parapophyses (a) 14 millim. 

Expanse of diapophyses («) 26 

Width of neural canal (a) 3 

Length of centrum, anterior thoracic vertebra ((^) . . . . 8 

Width of ball (/;) 10 

Expanse of diapophyses {/>) 17 

Height of neural spine (^) 20 

Width of neural spine (<5) 5 

Length of rib (^) 45 

Width of shaft (c) 5 

Distance from center of capitulum to center of tubercle 

(0 • 10 

Length of coracoid 50 

Antero-posterior diameter, sternal extremity 9 

Length of scapula 45 

Width of scapula at distal end 15 

Length of humerus 80 

Width through deltoid crest 24 

Least diameter of shaft of humerus 13 

Length of ulna 133 

Width of ulna at distal extremity 22 

Length of radius 130 

Width of radius distally 15 

Length of wing-finger metacarpal 220 

Width of same metacarpal at proximal end 20 

Diameter through condyles 15 

Transverse diameter of shaft above condyles 10 

Length of first phalanx, wing-finger 263 

Width of same phalanx at proximal end 24 

Width of same phalanx at distal end 15 

Width of sternum 67 

Length of rib borders 25 

Length of femur 75 

Diameter of head of femur . 5 

Diameter of femur through condyles 12 

Length of pteroid bone 88 

The principal dimensions of this species can be got at with con- 
siderable certainty. Although two of the wing-phalanges and the 
bones of the foot are wanting, yet the relative proportions of those 
present agree so closely with those of the corresponding bones in 
Pteranodo7i, that there can be but little possibility of error in assum- 
ing the same proportions for the missing ones. The position of the 

williston: Kansas pterodactyls. ii 

ilium and femur, as also the ribs, show that they hold their natural 
relations to the pectoral arch. The tail, alone, can not be got at. 

Extreme expanse of wing-bones 2400 mm 7 ft. 10 in. 

Expanse of wings in life, approximated. 2000 6 6 

Length of head, estimated 150 6 

Length of neck 128 ^j4 

Length of trunk 165 6^4 

Length of leg and foot, outstretched ....275 11 

But one species has been described from the American Cretaceous 
smaller than the present one, Pteranodon tiamis Marsh, in which the 
expanse of wings is given as not more than three or four feet. In 
this estimate the author is certainly in error. The size of the hum- 
erus, as given, is rather more than three-fourths that of the present 
species, and the expanse, hence, must be nearly five feet in life, or six 
feet as the bones lie outstretched. 

As regards the specific determination of the present specimen, there 
must necessarily be some doubt until the species already named have 
been recognizably described. But three of the existing species can be 
taken into account, JV. gracilis, P. comptus and P. nanus. That it can 
not be the last, has already been shown. In size, it agrees well with 
P. comptus, but the other characters throw no light upon the identity. 
The measurements given of the type specimen of N. gracilis show 
the size to be materially greater, — a character, however, of subordinate 
value — greater slenderness, and a relatively shorter first wing-phalanx. 
The relative lengths of wing-metacarpals, wing-phalanx and ulna in 
N. gracilis and the present specimen may be expressed as follows : 

Length of wing-metacarpal 100 .... 100 

Length of first wing-phalanx 115. 6. ...11 9. 5 

Length of ulna 62.3 .... 60. 4 

It will be seen that not a single character has yet been given to dis- 
dinguish the genus from Pterodactylus, and it is not at all impossible 
that it may prove to be the same ; its location among the Pteranodon- 
tidae rests solely on the assumed absence of teeth, and that is a 
character yet wholly unknown. 

The material now in the museum permits a fuller discussion of the 
relations and characters of this group of reptiles than has been hither- 
to attempted. Originally, they were described as constituting a new 
order, a view still held by its author and no one else. Lydekker, in 
his Paleontology and Catalogue gives them a subordinal value; Zittel 
only a family value, though expressing doubt as to their subordinal 

It seems very probable that the genus Nyctodaciylus has no teeth in 


the jaws; it agrees in every other respect with the genus Pterodactylus, 
so far as known. If the genus has teeth it must be united with 
Pterodactylus. Now, in not a few species of this genus, the teeth 
are confined to the anterior end of the jaws, and their entire 
absence, unaccompanied by other structural differences, will hardly 
constitute an order, or even family. 

But, leaving aside Nyctodactylus, it is very much of a question 
whether the differences between Pterodactylus and Pteranodon are 
sufficient to locate them in different families, let alone different 

The two genera have the following in common : Tail short. Skull 
with more or less elongated, pointed jaws, and very small upper and 
lower temporal fossae. Narial opening large, confluent with the pre- 
orbital foramen. Cervical vertebrae elongated, with rudimentary 
spinous processes. Fore and hind extremities, quite alike. 

Pteranodon differs from Pterodactylus, so far as that genus is known, 
in the united coracoscapulae and pubes, both of vv^hich characters are 
found in Rhaniphorhynchus. 

The sole family characters remaining then, for Pteranodon, are, 
absence of teeth, a supra-occipital crest, and the articulation of the 
upper end of the scapula. Now it seems evident that to place the 
pteranodonts in a group equivalent to all the other pterosaurs is 
unwarranted, and any classification that will not show the more pro- 
nounced relationships with Pterodactylus is faulty. I would, therefore, 
propose the following: 

Order Pterosauria. 

Family Pterodactylidae, subfamilies Pteranodontinae, Pterodac- 

Family Rhamphorhynchidae. 
Family Ornithocheiridae. 

As regards the geographical distribution of the Pteranodonts, they 
have hitherto been recognized only from Kansas, but I am firmly of 
the opinion that they occur in Europe, and, if so, it is very probable 
that the name Pteranodon must be eventually given up. In fact, a 
toothless form of Pterodactyl was described by Seeley as long ago as 
187 1, under the name of Ornithostonta. I cannot refer to his descrip- 
tion at present, and can, therefore, give no opinion as to their identity. 
It seems certain that the peculiar form of the scapulae and their 
vertebral articulation * occur among some of the European forms, 

* The specimens in wliich I ha\'e seen tlie vertebral articulation show no 
co-ossification of the vertebrae: the facet for articulation being placed above the 
spines, and apparently formed by ossified ligaments. 


which would strengthen the belief that Pteranodon is also an European 

In view of the above, the practice of the American text-books in 
(ieology in introducing generic names of characteristic fossils as 
names of the geological horizons whence they come, is very repre- 
hensible, in my opinion. Even the late edition of Leconte's Elements 
contains a long list of such names, the greater portion of which have 
been relegated to the limbo of synonymy by paleontologists. It is 
greatly to be desired that the name "Pteranodon Beds" shall not 
become established, so long -as there is the least doubt of the validity 
of the name itself. 




The group of extinct Cretaceous reptiles known as the Mosasaurs 
or Pyihonomorpha was defined by Cope, "to whom Science is so 
largely indebted for its present knowledge of this interesting order of 
reptiles" (Marsh), in 1869. * Although some of the characters 
assigned by him to the order have since been shown to be inapplic- 
able, and the group to have less value, yet his name, Pythonomorpha, 
has been generally retained. Lydekker and Zittel have assigned to 
the group a subordinal value, as has also Marsh, though under a dif- 
ferent name. Owen rejected it entirely, and Baur, more recently, f 
has united it with the Varanidae to form a super-family, as follows : 

Suborder Platynota. 

Super-family Varanoidea. 
Families Mosasauridae, Varanidae. 

Super-family Helodermatoidea. 
Family Helodermatidae. 

The group, whatever may be its rank or position, includes, so far, 
the following genera : Mosasaiirus Conyb., Liodon Owen, Platccarpus 
Cope, Clidastes Cope, Baptosaurus Marsh, Sironectes Cope, Plioplate- 
carpus Dollo and Hainosaurus Dollo. Ptcrycollasaurus Dollo, found- 
ed upon Mosasauriis niaxiviilianus Goldf. , is omitted as doubtful. All 
of these genera, save Plioplatecarpus and Hainosaurus, have been 
recorded from North America, Clidastes, Baptosaurus and Siro7iectes 
being peculiar to this country. Of these latter three genera, however, 
Clidastes alone is well known ; but this genus is suspected by Lydekker 
of being the same as the imperfectly known European Geosaurus 
Cuvier. Thus it seems that the genera, or at least the most of them, 
have a wide distribution; Platecarpus, in fact, is said to occur in New 

In America, members of the group have been discovered in the 
Cretaceous deposits of New Jersey, Alabama, North Carolina, the 

*Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., p. 253. 
f Science, xvi, p. 202, Nov. 7, 18'JO. 

(ij) KA.N, UNIV. m'AK., VOL. I, .NO. I,JLLV, lSy2, 


upper Missouri region, Nebraska, Kansas and New Mexico. Prob- 
ably nineteen-twentieths of all the known specimens, however, have 
been obtained in western Kansas. The material now in the Univer- 
sity Museum, all from Kansas, comprises several hundred specimens 
of these animals, including, probably, the best ones known. It is 
upon this material that the following preliminary studies are chiefly 

The genus Clidastes, as first described by Cope, was based upon 
two dorsal vertebrae of C. igiiajiavus, the type species, from New 
Jersey. Shortly afterward, however, he gave a full and careful 
generic description, as derived from an unusually good specimen of an 
allied species, C. propython, from Alabama. Only a little later. Marsh 
described a genus, which he called Edestosaurus, from Kansas, but 
without giving any real, distinctive differences from Clidastes, following 
the very reprehensible practice of naming supposed new forms in 
the hopes that future distinctive characters might be found. The 
genus Edestosaurus has been rejected by nearly all save the authors 
of the American text-books in Geology. It seems hardly necessary 
to point out the identity. The only distinctive character the author 
gave for his genus was the insertion of the pterygoid teeth, and even 
this character he modified later — "Palatine (sic) teeth more or less 
pleurodont. " * 

This character, even were it real, is of very slight value; indeed it 
cannot be used to distinguish the species even. 

Clidastes is, without doubt, one of the most highly specialized 
genera in the group, and, what is very interesting, is one of the latest. 
It occurs in Kansas in the uppermost part of the Niobrara beds, 
in the horizon so markedly characterized by the toothed birds. Both 
Platecarpus and Liodon occur, though in diminished numbers, almost 
to the very lowest portion, but Clidastes has never been found except 
towards the top. From measurements made the past season, the 
thickness of the beds in which these saurians occur cannot be less than 
six hundred feet. 

The following species have been found in Kansas : none of them 
are known to occur elsewhere. 


MoiMnauridae QjVi\\\\)^-ax(\ in Cuvier, Ossem. Foss., 2nded., p. 338, 1834. 
Clidastidae Cope, Extinct Batr. Rept. and Aves of N. Amer., Trans. Amer. 

Phil. See. xiv, p. 59, J 870. 
Udestosauridae Marsh, Amer. Journ Sci. xxi, p. 50, July 1S78. 

""Amer. Joura. Sci. iii, June 1872. 



? Oeosaurus Cuvier, Ossein. Foss. 2iid ed., 328, 1824, {fide Lydekker.) 
Clidastes Cope, Proc Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 18()8, p. 233; Ext. Batv. etc, p. 21, 

Edestosaurus Marsh, Amer. Journ. Sci. i, j). 4(7, June, 1871. 
O. cineriarum. 

Clidastes cineriarum Gope, Proc. .Amer. PhiL Soc, 1870, p. 583; Cret. Yert. 

etc. pp. 137, 2GG, pi. xxi, ff. 14-17; Bullet. U. S. Geol. Surv. Hayden, 

iii, p. 583. 
O. dispar. 

Edestosaurus disparM-Avah, o\). c\i. i, ]). 447, June 1871; iii, pi. xi., June, 


O. velox. 

Edestosaurus velox Marsh, Amer. Journ Sci. i. p. 450, June, 1871. 

Edestosaurus 2nimihis Mdi'sh, ibid. p. 452. 

V Clidastes afflnis Leidy, Proc. Acad. ISIat Sci., 1870, p. 4; Rep. U. S. Geol. 

Surv., Hayden, vol. i, p. 283, 1873. 
1 Edestosaurus dispar Marsh, op. cit. xix. pi. i, f. 1, Jan., 1880. 

O. ■Wym.ani. 

Clidastes l^^?«fl?^^■ Marsh, Amer. Journ. Sci. i, p. 451, June, 1871: iii, p. 2'J2, 

April, 1872. 
Edestosaurus Vymani Marsh, op. cit. iii, p. 4G4, .June, 1872. 
C. tortor. 

Edestosaurus tortor Co-pe, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. Dec, 1871; Marsh, op. cit. 

iii, p. 464, June, 1872. 
Clidastes tortor Cope, Cret. "\'ert. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv., Hayden, vol. ii, 
pp. 48, 131, 265, pis. iv, f i: xiv, f. i: xvi, If. 2, 3; xvii, f. 1; xix, ff. 1- 
10; xxxvi, f. 3; xxxvii, f. 2; Bullet. U. S. Geol. Surv. Hayden, vol. iii. 
p. 583. " 
C. stenops. 

Edestosaurus stenops Cope, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. p. 330, 1871 ; Marsh, Amer. 

Journ. Sci. iii, p. 464, June, 1872. 
Clidastes stenops Cope, Cret. Yert. etc. pp. 133, 266, pis. xiv, ft'. 4, 5; xvii, !■ 
7, 8; xviii, ff. 1-5; xxxvi, f. 4; xxxvii, f. 3; xxxviii, f. 3. 
O. rex. 

Edostosaurus re.v Marsh, op. cit. iii, p. 462, pi. xxii, f. 1, June, 1872. 
O. planifrons. 

Clidastes pla?iifrons Cope, Bullet. V. S. Geol. Surw No. 2, p. 31, 1874: Cret. 
Yert. etc. pp. 135, 265, pis. xxii, xxiii. 
O. Westii. 

C. Westii Williston, n. sp. infra. 


A remarkably complete specimen, referred with considerable cer- 
tainty to this species, was obtained by ourselves in western Kansas, 
(Butte Creek) in the summer of 1891. A brief preliminary description 
of the specimen was given by the senior author in Science, December 


8, 189 1. A more complete description is here given, which, it is 
believed, will be of service. The specimen is an unusually perfect 
one, being very nearly complete, and, as now mounted, shows the 
bones nearly all in the position in which they were found. The ver- 
tebral column is continuous, except in one place, where the tail had 
been bent up over the back ; and complete, save at the very tip of the 
tail. The skull is complete, or very nearly complete, and has been 
restored nearly to the condition in life. Figures have been made of 
this portion of the skeleton, and will be given in a future communica- 
tion. At present, it may be mentioned that the lacrymals are small, 
roughly irregular bones, and pointed at either extremity. There are 
no indications of transverse bones, as there are none in any other skull 
in the collection. 

Cervical vertebrae. 

Atlas. The intercentrum is a small bone with three sides of nearly 
equal extent. The two upper, articular surfaces are gently concave, and 
meet in a rounded margin ; the inferior surface is convex, both an- 
tero-posteriorly and transversely, with a roughened prominence in the 
middle. The lateral pieces have indistinctly separated facets for 
articulation with the odontoid, the intercentrum and the occipital 
condyle. The rather short, flattened lamina extends upward, back- 
ward and inward, approaching, but not reaching its fellow of the 
opposite side; it is somewhat dilated distally. Directed outwards and 
forwards, there is a stout styliform process. 

Axis. The neural spine of the axis is elongated antero-posteriorly. 
It is thin on the anterior portion, but stouter and longer at the 
posterior part. The large, stout odontoid process is united suturally, 
as is also the well-developed atlantar hypapophysis, which forms the 
anterior, inferior portion of the bone. The diapophyses are the 
smallest of the costiferous series, with only a small articular facet for 
the rib. The ball is strongly and evenly convex, with its greater 
diameter transversely. The hypapophysis is the largest of the series; 
it is suturally united with the stout, exogenous process of the centrum, 
and projects downward and backward ; its distal extremity is rough- 
ened for ligamentous attachments. 

The third cervical vertebra shows a well-developed zygosphenal 
articulation, and stout articular processes. The transverse process is 
small, only a little larger than that of the axis, though, unlike that, it 
is strengthened by a ridge continued from the anterior zygapophyses. 
The hypapophysis is smaller than that of the axis, but, like that, is 
directed downward and backward. The spine may be distinguished 
from that of any other vertebra by its stout, trihedral shape; it is 


directed rather more obliquely backward than in the following 

The fourth cervical vertebra differs from the third in having stout- 
er transverse processes ; in the hypapophysis being directed more 
nearly downward, and in its smaller size; and in the spine being flat- 
tened antero-posteriorly toward the base. 

The fifth cervical vertebra differs from the fourth in the broader 
spine, in the stouter transverse processes, and the smaller hypapophysis. 

In the sixth cervical vertebra, the hypapophysis is reduced to a 
small ossification, scarcely longer than broad, directed downward. 
The spine has reached nearly the full width of those of the following 
vertebrae, though somewhat stouter above. The transverse processes 
are yet stouter. 

In the seventh, or last, cervical vertebra the hypapophysis is want- 
ing, or very rudimentary. The under part of the centrum shows a 
rounded ridge or carina, with a slight projection corresponding to the 


1. Antero-posterior diameter of intercentrum of atlas. ... 14 millim. 

Transverse diameter of intercentrum 25 

Antero-posterior diameter of lateral piece 20 

Vertical extent of articular surface 17 

Extent of lateral piece 35 

Width of lamina above 16 

2. Length of axis 43 

Transverse diameter of ball 18 

Vertical diameter of ball 17 

Expanse of transverse processes 28 

Elevation of spine above floor of neural canal 34 

Antero-posterior extent of spine 50 

3. Length of third cervical vertebra 37 

Height of spine above floor of neural canal 36 

Depth of hypapophysis below floor of neural canal. • • • 34 

4. Length of fourth cervical vertebra 37 

Height of spine above floor of neural canal 39 

Depth of hypapophysis below floor of neural canal. . • .35 

5. Length of fifth cervical vertebra 37 

Height of spine above floor of neural canal 42 

Depth of hypapophysis below floor of neural canal • • ■ -33 

Transverse diameter of ball 17 

Vertical diameter of ball 18 

6. Length of sixth cervical vertebra 37 


Height of spine above floor of neural canal 42 millim. 

Depth of hypapophysis below floor of neural canal. . . . 30 

Width of spinous process 26 

7. Length of seventh cervical vertebra 37 

Height of spine above floor of neural canal 46 

Transverse diameter of ball 19 

Vertical diameter of ball 20 

Width of spinous process 27 

Dorsal vertebrae. 

There are thirty-five vertebrae between the cervicals and the first 
non-rib-bearing vertebra, to which the pelvis was, evidently, attached. 
The distinction between the cervicals and thoracics cannot be made 
from any characters they possess, as the seventh vertebra does not 
bear a distinct hypapophysis. Neither can it be said with certainty 
from this specimen which is the first thoracic vertebra, as the cervical 
ribs had, unfortunately, been displaced in the collection and prepara- 
tion of the specimen. In another specimen, referred to C. pumilus, 
and which, as will be seen later, cannot be specifically distinguished 
from the present species, short cervical ribs were found attached to six 
vertebrae posterior to the atlas. That the eighth vertebra is a thoracic 
one is shown by the relation of the ribs in this specimen. Posteriorly 
there is no distinction, also, between the true thoracic vertebrae and 
those of the lumbar region. All the vertebrae anterior to the pelvis 
bear ribs, and will all be considered as dorsal vertebrae, the true 
thoracic vertebrae being restricted to those of which the ribs are 
elongated, and, probably, connected with the sternum. 

In the anterior vertebrae of the series, the centra are subcarinate 
below, the obtuse, rounded ridge becoming less and less apparent until 
no indications of the keel can be seen, before the middle of the series. 
The transverse processes are stoutest, with a more elongated, sigmoid 
articular surface, with little or no constriction, and projecting only 
slightly beyond the stout articulating processes, in the anterior verte- 
brae. In the tenth or eleventh, the articular surface has become 
markedly smaller, more vertical, and less sigmoid in outline. Thence 
to the last, the articular surface for the ribs remains nearly the same. 
The process itself, however, becomes gradually more prominent and 
constricted, as the zygapophyses becomes smaller. The spinous pro- 
cesses increase slightly in length and breadth, and are only slightly 
oblique throughout. In length, the centra increase gradually. The 
vertical diameter of the ball increases gradually, while the transverse 
diameter remains more nearly the same. 



I. Length of centrum to rim of ball 38 millim. 

Transverse diameter of ball 20 

Vertical diameter of ball 19 

Height of spine above floor of neural canal 48 

Extent of articular surface of transverse process 30 

Width of spine 28 

4. Length of centrum to rim of ball. . 41 

Transverse diameter of ball 20 

Vertical diameter of ball 20 

Height of spine above floor of neural canal 48 

II. Length of centrum to rim of ball 4.1 

Vertical diameter of ball 22 

Extent of articular surface of transverse process 16 

Width of spine 32 

15. Length of centrum to rim of ball 41 

Transverse diameter of ball 21 

Vertical diameter of ball 24 

20. Length of centrum to rim of ball 42 

Vertical diameter of ball 25 

Height of spine above floor of neural canal 58 

24. Length to rim of ball 41 

Transverse diameter of ball 22 

Vertical diameter of ball 23 

Height of spine 4g 

28. Length to rim of ball 40 

Vertical diameter of ball 24 

Transverse diameter of ball . . . , 23 

Height of spine 54 

32. Length to rim of ball 38 

Vertical diameter of ball 25 

Transverse diameter of ball 24 

35. Length to rim of ball 37 

Caudal vertebrae. 

Immediately following the thirty-fifth rib-bearing vertebra there is 
an abrupt change, the tubercular process for the rib giving place to an 
elongated transverse process. From the position of the pelvis, it is 
evident that the ilia were attached to the first pair of these. Precisely 
this relation of pelvis to the vertebrae is found in such lizards as the 
Monitor and Iguana, and it is probable that such is the relation in all 
the Pythonomorpha. It will thus be seen that there are no distinct- 
ively lumbar vertebrae, if by such are meant free, non-costiferous, 


pre-sacral vertebrae. The vertebrae of these animals that have been 
so designated by writers are in reality basal caudal. A distinctive 
term for them — those with transverse, non-costiferous processes and 
without chevrons — is needed, and we propose, provisionally, the term 
pygial. There are seven in the present series, all characterized by 
elongated transverse processes, and not differing much from each 
other. The vertebrae lie in the matrix with the ventral aspect upper- 
most, concealing the spine and upper parts. The under surface is 
somewhat flattened, and, as in the preceding vertebrae, is gently 
concave antero-posteriorly. The transverse processes are elongate, 
stout towards the base, apparently all of nearly equal length, and 
directed gently backwards and downwards. In the anterior vertebrae 
the processes spring from near the front part : as the centra become 
shorter they arise from near the middle. In the last one of the series 
there are minute indications of chevrons. 


1. Length to rim of ball 36 millim. 

Width of ball 25 

Expanse of transverse processes 130 

Width of transverse process near base 17 

2. Length to rim of ball 33 

3. Length to rim of ball 31 

4. Length to rim of ball 29 

5. Length to rim of ball 28 

6. Length to rim of ball 27 

Expanse of transverse processes 130 

Width of ball 24 

7. Length to rim of ball 27 

The centra of those caudal vertebrae which have chevrons do not 
differ much in shape. They become less constricted, and, back of 
the middle of the series, are smoothly cylindrical in shape. The 
transverse processes decrease gradually in length, disappearing en- 
tirely in the twenty-fifth or twenty-sixth. The spinous processes are 
more or less incompletely preserved in the anterior vertebrae. They 
increase only gradually in length for the first twenty of the series, and 
are markedly oblique, with the posterior border stout, and the anterior 
border alate. With the twenty-sixth they begin to increase more 
rapidly in length, and have become more nearly vertical in position, 
and are thinner at each margin. In the thirty-fifth or thirty-sixth they 
attain their greatest length, and are here directed slightly forwards. 
Thence to the end of the tail, the length decreases gradually, and, in 
position, they are directed more and more obliquely backward. The 


chevrons are strongly oblique throughout the series and are firmly 
co-ossified with the centrum. 

The tail, it is thus seen, has a broad, vertical, fin-like extremity, 
which, doubtless, aided much in the propulsion of the animal through 
the water. 

There are sixty-seven vertebrae with chevrons present in the speci- 
men, all continuous, except in one place. The last one is less than 
one-fourth of an inch in diameter, and shows that there had been yet 
another, possibly several more. Toward the base of the series the 
tail has been bent forwards over the back, and it is possible that, 
where the break occurs, there has been a vertebra lost. The measur- 
ments, however, do not seem to indicate any loss. The entire series 
of vertebrae was not less than sixty-eight, and probably not more than 
seventy, making for the entire vertebral series one hundred and 
seventeen to twenty. 


I. Length to rim of ball 26 millim. 

5. Length to rim of ball 24 

Vertical diameter of ball 21 

Transverse diameter of ball 24 

10. Length to rim of ball 24 

15. Length to rim of ball 24 

Height of spine above floor of neural canal 40 

Length of chevron 45 

20. Length to rim of ball 23 

Vertical diameter of ball 21 

Transverse diameter of ball 22 

25. Length to rim of ball 20 

Height of spine 44 

Width of spine at base 19 

Width of spine at distal end 10 

Length of chevron 85 

Altitude of tail 112 

30. Length to rim of ball 18 

Vertical diameter of ball 17 

Height of spine 57 

Width of spine at base 19 

Width of spine at distal end 9 

Length of chevron 99 

Altitude of tail 120 

35. Length to rim of ball 16 

Vertical diameter of ball 16 


Height of spine. ." 6i millim. 

Length of chevron 97 

Altitude of tail 122 

40. Length to rim of ball 15 

Vertical diameter of ball 15 

Height of spine 54 

Length of chevron 70 

Altitude of tail no 

45. Length to rim of ball 14 

Vertical diameter of ball 14 

Height of spine 40 

Length of spine 50 

Length of chevron 58 

Altitude of tail 93 

50. Length to rim of ball 13 

Length of spine 43 

Length of chevron 55 

Altitude of tail 73 

55. Length to rim of ball 12 

Length of spine 38 

Length of chevron 42 

Alti tude of tail 63 

60. Length to rim of ball 9 

Length of spine 46 

Length of chevron 25 

Altitude of tail 50 

66. Length to rim of ball 7 ~ 

Length of chevron 10 

Altitude of tail 20 

67. Length 6 


As has already been stated, the cervical ribs were displaced in the 
present specimen, and measurements of them cannot be given. In a 
smaller specimen, specifically indistinguishable from the present one, 
the entire cervical series is preserved with the ribs attached. The 
first, that articulating with the axis, is very short. The following ones 
are stouter, but increase only moderately in length, that of the sixth 
measuring only thirty-five millimeters, while that of the seventh is 
but a little longer. In the specimen of C. velox described, there is a 
detached cervical rib sixty-five millimeters in length ; it probably 
belongs with the seventh. 

The thoracic ribs are simple, somewhat flattened rods, moderately 


expanded at the proximal end. The greatest convexity is shown about 
the middle of the series, where the versedsine of the curvature is forty 
millimeters, the chord being one hundred and sixty. Posteriorly, the 
short ribs are only gently curved. 

Lying by the side of the vertebral column, and between the ribs, as 
they have been pressed down, are a number of flattened, soft, punctu- 
late bones, which are evidently the costal cartilages. Posteriorly four 
rows of them are seen, lying closely side by side, some of them eight 
or ten inches in length. The sternum, composed of the same material, 
has been so crushed and crumpled that its shape cannot be made out. 
The whole structure here, whether of ribs, cartilages or sternum, 
reminds one very strongly of such lizards as the Iguana or Monitor. 
There is no indication, however, in any specimen, of an episternum. 


Length, first thoracic rib, (chord) 200 millim. 

Length, eleventh thoracic rib, (chord) 145 

Length, thirteenth dorsal rib 68 

Length, eighteenth dorsal rib 64 

Length, thirty-fourth dorsal rib 52 

The lengths of the different regions, as they lie in their natural 

relations, are as follows : 

Skull 0.420 meters. 

Neck 0.225 

Trunk , 1-360 

Tail 1 . 460 

Total 3-465 1 1 ft. 7 in. 

The measurements of an excellent specimen of C. tortor are as 

follows : 

Skull o. 630 meters. 

Neck o. 360 

Trunk, (thirty-three vertebrae preserved) 2.370 

A very complete specimen of a Liodon in the Museum, in which the 

complete vertebral column is present, numbering one hundred and 

seventeen vertebrae, gives the following measurements. The skull is 

complete, save the most anterior portion. 

Skull (approximated within narrow limits)'. . . o. 700 meters. 

Neck o. 430 

Trunk i. 760 

Tail „ 3.420 

Total 6.310. ... 20 ft. 8 in. 

The vertebral series in this specimen is composed of seven cervicals, 
twenty-three dorsals, seven pygials, and eighty chevron-caudals. 


The relative proportions of the different regions in the two genera, 
as shown by the two specimens of Clidastcs and Liodou, may be repre- 
sented as follows. The first column is for Clidaitcs. 

Skull 12. 1 II. I 

Neck 6.5 6.8 

Trunk 39. 2 28.0 

Tail 42.3 54. 1 


The figures in plates II and III will give a sufficiently good idea of 
the limbs in this specimen. They are figured as they were lying, show- 
ing the outer sides of the coracoid, scapula and pelvic bones, and 
the palmar or plantar surface of the remaining bones. 

It will be observed in plates II and IV that there are two very 
different types of coracoid, one with a deep emargination, the other 
without the slightest indication of such. The same non-emarginate 
form occurs in C. tortor, as specimens in our Museum show, in C. 
propython Cope (Ext. Batr. etc. pi. xii, f. 16,) and in C. dispar, as 
figured by Marsh*, and as stated by him in the same paper ("There 
is certainly no emargination in the coracoid of Clidastes, Edestosaurus 
and Baptosaurus, as specimens in the Yale Museum conclusively 
prove.") It is true that Marsh in a later paper f figured a specimen 
with emarginate coracoi_,d under the name of Edestosaurus dispar, but 
it is certain that his identification of his own species was wrong, as 
will be seen by comparing his figures. From the senior author's 
memory of the specimen with the emarginate coracoid figured, and 
from the figure itself he feels confident that the second specimen is C. 

That the emargination was overlooked by the author seems strange, 
as in the same paper in which this figure is given occurs the descrip- 
tion oi Holosaurus, founded upon that very eharaeter. If the emargi- 
nation is sufficiently important to base a genus in the one case, then 
it should be in the other, and the character could not be applied to 
Edestosaurus, based upon characters which it hardly seems possible 
that the author himself could seriously consider, for E. dispar was the 
type of Edestosaurus. 

It will be observed, further, that the figured coracoids differ very 
materially in size, those with the emargination pertaining to a small 
species, while C. dispar is one of the largest. In our Museum there 
are three specimens with the emarginate coracoid, all of them small or 
very small, the described specimen of C. velox being the largest. 

*Amer. Journ. t^ci. iii, pi. xi, f. 1, June, 1872. 
f Amer. Journ. Sci. xix, pi. i, fig, 1, Jan., 1880. 



The point of chief interest in this relation is the value that can be 
given to this character. Is it individual, specific or generic? Marsh 
has called it generic, but we think ati examination of the two very 
complete specimens of C. tortor and C. velox in our Museum will con- 
vince any unprejudiced student that he is in error. 

A comparison of the figures herewith given of the paddles will show 
their great resemblance, and these two forms of paddles have been 
figured because the species are the most unlike of any that we know in 
the genus. As all the small specimens seem to possess this character, 
and as they cannot be called immature specimens, we believe the 
character is a specific one. As Marsh says, typically both Clidastes 
and Edestosaurus have a non-emarginate coracoid, so that neither 
name could apply to the emarginate form, were it generically distinct. 

Our Museum also contains both forms of the coracoid pertaining to 
the genus Platecarpus, of which Holosaurns is a synonym. 

While studying the specimen above described, a striking similarity 
was observed to several other specimens already determined with con- 
fidence as C. puniilus Marsh. A more careful comparison failed to 
bring out any real differences beyond size, and even this was shown to 
be very inconstant. 

The following comparison of the descriptions given by Marsh will 
be of interest. 

C. piimiliis. 

Teeth. Nearly round at base, 
somewhat curved and with smooth 

Quadrate. The rugose knob 
near the distal end of the quad- 
rate is similar to that in C. Wy- 
mani (just below the posterior 
superior process is a prominent 
rugose knob with a deep pit un- 
der it), but has no articular pit 
under it. The hook is compara- 
tively short and has a free com- 
pressed extremity. The articular 
margin is not deflected toward 
the meatus. 

Cervical Vertebrae. Artic- 
ular face nearly vertical, and 
having a broad transverse outline 
with faint superior emargination. 
The hypapophysis stout and trans- 
versely triangular. 

C. velox. 

Premaxillary and maxillary 
teeth smooth and subcompressed. 

The great ala less curved than 
in E. dispar, concave transversely 
on both surfaces. The alar pro- 
cess has its articular process very 
narrow in its extension over the 
great ala. No notch in posterior 
margin of external angle. On 
the ridge below the angle and 
nearly opposite the meatal pit is 
a strong rugosity which is rudi- 
mentary or wanting in C. dispar. 
The posterior margin of the hook 
is only a narrow tongue projecting 
towards the meatal pit, instead of 
a broad articular surface. 

Articular face transverse. 


The description, otherwise, shows no discrepancies of importance. 
The chief difference given by the author is the size, and this character 
we think our specimens show to be of little specific value. "It is a 
question of some importance how far difference in size among the 
Mosasauroids may be a test of difference in species. Among the 
numerous remains of these animals which have been discovered I have 
never yet observed any which presented any evidence relative to age. 
* * * In this view of the case, some of the many described species of 
Mosasauroids may have been founded on different sizes of the same."* 

The length of the cervical vertebrae in the specimen above de- 
scribed is thirty-seven or thirty-eight millimeters. The cervical verte- 
brae in two specimens referred to C. pitinilus have lengths respectively 
of twenty-two and thirty millimeters. In the type speciriien of C. 
velox they must have had a length of at least forty-two millimeters. 

It thus appears that, between the smallest specimen, which, in life, 
could have hardly exceeded eight feet in length, our specimens, 
indistinguishable anatomically, represent forms of ten and twelve feet, 
while the type itself was about fifteen feet in length. 

Of the material originally referred to C pumilus, there are in the 
collection five or more specimens, which, altogether, furnish nearly 
every part of the skeleton. They present no tangible differences from 
the skeleton of C- vclox described above. There can be, hence, little 
or no doubt but that the name C. pumihis is a synonym. 

It is hardly possible to say with certainty that C. affiiiis Leidy is or 
is not the same as C. velox, but, so far as the description goes, we can 
find few differences. The type is of about the same size as the type 
of C. velox, and the figures agree well with the bones of the skeleton 
described. Although the description was not published till 1873, the 
author makes no mention of the species of Marsh's. Leidy de- 
scribes the back teeth as having the enamel strongly striated, with the 
surface presenting evidences of subdivision into narrow planes. In 
this respect, only, it disagrees with the specimen. 

Plioplatccarpiis Dollo is described by its author as having a sacrum 
of two conjoined vertebrae, f by reason of which it is placed in a sep- 
arate family from the rest of the PythonomorpJia. It may be pre- 
sumptious to express a doubt of the genuineness of the sacrum, and 
yet, save from the fact that the author found two specimens quite 
alike, one might doubt it strongly. It is not very rare that two, or 
even three vertebrae are found united from injury in these animals, 
and Such would readily account for the consolidation as figured and 
described by Dollo, except for the coincidence of the second speci- 

* Leidy, Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Havden, vol. i, p. 284. 
fBull." Su. Mus. Roy. S. Hist. Nat.^'d. Belg. i, p. 8, 1882. 


men. A stronger reason for doubt is the statement that the consoli- 
dated vertebrae belong to the posterior "lumbar" region, and that 
the last vertebrae had small tubercles indicative of chevrons. In the 
reptiles which we have examined, the chevrons do not begin immediately 
behind the pelvis, but are separated by a longer or shorter region in 
which the vertebrae bear elongated diapophyses alone. If the 
conjoined vertebrae figured by DoUo are in reality sacral, it would 
appear that the animal is an exception to Clidastcs and such lizards as 
we have examined. Furthermore, the pelvis must have been of a 
different structure from that in the Kansas genera of the Pythonomor- 
pha, for, in these, it is evident that the ilium had an oblique position, 
and could have been attached to but a single diapophysis. 


A specimen of much interest in the University collection differs so 
markedly from the other forms represented by specimens, as also from 
the descriptions of the known species, that we are constrained to 
regard it as new. It was collected by Mr. C. H. Sternberg from the 
uppermost of the Niobrara beds, in the vicinity of the old town of 
Sheridan. The character of the associated invertebrate fossils seems 
to indicate a different geological horizon, either the Fox Hills group, 
or transition beds to that group. The specimen consists of a complete 
lower jaw, quadrate, portions of the skull, the larger part of the verte- 
bral column, and the incomplete hind and fore paddles. The 
vertebrae preserved are in two series, the one, numbering thirty-three, 
continuous with the skull; the other, sixty-three in number, all chev- 
ron caudals. The terminal caudals preserved indicate that there were 
several more in life, perhaps five or ten ; the first of the series was 
evidently among the first of those which bore chevrons. Altogether 
the tail may have had seventy-five chevron caudals. The lengths of 
the two series are respectively seventy-one and seventy-two inches. 
Assuming that there was the same number of precaudal vertebrae as 
in C. 7'elox, the entire vertebral column would have measured in life 
fifteen feet and four inches. The lower jaw shows the skull to have 
been very nearly twenty-four inches in length, making, for the animal 
when alive, a length of seventeen and one-half feet. This is one of 
the largest species, and it is interesting to observe that the real 
size here, as usually elsewhere among fossil vertebrates, is less than 
supposed. It is doubtful whether there is a Cliifasfrs known that 
exceeded twenty feet in length. 

While the skeleton was only about one half longer than the speci- 
men of C. 7'c/ox described in the foregoing pages, or of about the 


same length as a very complete specimen of C. tortor in the museum, 
the proportions of the animal were very much stouter. The figures 
given in plate VI of the twenty-fifth, or eighteenth dorsal, vertebra will 
show the relations between length and breadth : it is upon these re- 
markably stout proportions, and the shape of the articular faces, as 
indicated by the figures and by the measurements appended, that the 
species is chiefly based. The articular surfaces of the basal caudal 
vertebrae are remarkably triangular in shape, with the angles rounded, 
and the sides of nearly equal length. This triangular shape is persis- 
tent for the first twenty of the series as they are preserved. The 
paddles, as shown in plates IV and V, show much stouter proportions 
than in either C. velox or C. tortor. 

The species comes nearest to C. stcnops Cope, but it seems hardly 
the same. It is, also, evidently allied to C. dispar Marsh. From 
these and other described species, the following, extracted from the 
original descriptions, will serve to show the differences, in comparison 
with the specimen of C. Westii. 

C. dispar. 

The articular faces in the cervicals are a broad transverse oval, 
faintly emarginated above for the neural canal. In the dorsals and 
lumbars the cup continues transverse, and the emargination is deeper, 
but in the anterior caudals the outline becomes a vertical oval. There 
appears to have been thirteen mandibular teeth. 

Length of axis with odontoid process 32 lines. . . . 100 

Width between diapophyses 26.8 .... 103 

Length from edge of cup to end of ball in 

eleventh vertebra 25 .... 100 

Width of ball 14 56 

Depth of ball 12 .... 43 

O. "Wymani. 

In the cervical vertebrae, the outline of the articular faces is trans- 
versely cordate. The centra of the anterior dorsals are elongate, and 
much constricted behind the diapophyses. In the anterior caudals, 
the articular faces are a broad vertical oval. 

Length of axis with odontoid process 19 lines .... 100 

Width between diapophyses 17 .... 89.4 

Width of ball 8 42. i 

Depth of ball 7 .... 36. 7 

Length of sixth cervical, without ball 13 .... 100 

Width of cup 9 .... 69. 1 

C rex. 

The cervical vertebrae have very broad, transversely oval faces, 



with indications of emargination. The dorsals are elongated, with 
transverse faces, and a distinct superior excavation for neural canal. 
The articular ends of the anterior caudals are vertically oval. 

Length of posterior cervical vertebrae 44 mm. . . . 100 

Vertical diameter of ball 24 .... 54.5 

Transverse diameter 29.5 .... 67 

Length of a dorsal vertebra 52 .... 

O. stenops. 

The anterior caudals possess wide diapophyses. Their articular 
faces are a vertical oval, a little contracted above, sometimes a 
straight outline. They present a peculiarly elongate form. 

Length of axis (alone) 60 mm . . . . 100 

Vertical diameter of ball 27 .... 45 

Transverse diameter of ball 27 .... 45 

Length of the mandible 720 .... 100 

Depth at coronoid process 150 .... 20.9 


Length of dentary 400 millim. 

Depth opposite the first tooth 20 

Depth opposite last tooth 62 

Entire extent of mandible 630 

Greatest depth at coronoid process 95 

2. Length of axis with odontoid process 80 

Length of axis without odontoid process 70 

Vertical diameter of ball 24 

Transverse diameter of ball ;^^ 

4. Length of fourth cervical vertebra to rim of ball 49 

Expanse of diapophyses 82 

5. Length of fifth cervical to rim of ball 49 

Transverse diameter of ball 35 

Vertical diameter of ball 28 

Expanse of diapophyses 90 

8. Length of eighth vertebra to rim of ball 53 

Expanse of diapophyses 90 

14. Length to rim of ball 54 

Transverse diameter of ball 40 

Vertical diameter of ball 33 

Expanse of diapophyses 100 

18. Length to rim of ball 50 

Transverse diameter of ball 40 

Vertical diameter of ball 36 

Expanse of diapophyses 100 


23. Length to rim of ball 50 

Transverse diameter of ball 41 

Expanse of diapophyses 100 

25. Length to rim of ball 52 

Transverse diameter of ball 43 

Vertical diameter of ball 43 

Expanse of diapophyses 100 

30. Length to rim of ball 54 

Transverse diameter of ball 46 

This species is named in memory of Judge E. P. West, lately de- 
ceased, to whom our Museum owes so much for his long, diligent and 
faithful labors in the collection and preparation of the geological 

Erratum: P. 17, line 15, for '' Edcstosa7iri/s,'" read Clidastes, and 
in next line, strike out "Proc. Acad." etc. 

Notes and Descriptions of Syrphidae. 



Among the insects obtained by Prof. F. H. Snow in a recent trip to 
Colorado, is an excellent representative collection of the Diptera. 
The material for the following notes on Syrphidae is chiefly drawn 
from this collection. That such a collection affords so many points 
of interest in this, one of the best studied families of North American 
Diptera, is an evidence of the rich field that is presented by this im- 
portant and little-studied order of insects. 


Gallicera Panzer, Fauna Germanica, 1800. 

Callicera is a small genus hitherto supposed to be peculiar to 
Europe. The species are found in the high mountains, where the 
males are often taken while hovering in the air. The present collec- 
tion includes numerous specimens of a species taken near the summit 
of Mt. Deception, in Manitou Park, Colorado, at an altitude of nine 
thousand feet. 

The occurrence of members of this genus in the western part of the 
United States is a fact of especial interest and further substantiates 
the rule that American forms common to Europe are more apt to 
occur in the western regions. Arctophila flagrans Osten Sacken, is a 
case precisely similar to the present one, belonging as it does to a 
small European genus of mountain flies, and described from Colorado. 

As the genus is a new one to our fauna, I here give an amended 
transcription of the generic characters from Schiner's Fauna Austriaca, 
to include the new species, which differs only in unimportant details. 

Rather large, stout, green or black species with metallic lustre and 
abundant, long pile. Head hemispherical, somewhat broader than 
the thorax. Antennae porrect, longer than the head, somewhat re- 
mote at their base, inserted upon a protuberance of the front; first 
joint sometimes elongate; second joint shorter than, or as long as, the 
first joint; third joint one to three times the length of the first two 
joints taken together, with a short, terminal style. Face broad, under 

(12,) KAN. UNIV. UUAK., VOL. I, NO. I, JULY, lSy2. 


the antennae concave in profile ; an obtuse tubercle below the middle; 
on the sides thickly covered witli pile. Proboscis rather prominent, 
with broad labella. Eyes hairy, holoptic in the male. Abdomen 
elliptical, as long or longer than the thorax. Legs moderately strong. 
Third longitudinal vein straight, first posterior cell distally short 
petiolate ; marginal cell open ; cross-vein situated near the middle 
of the discal cell, oblique. 

Oallicera montensis, n. sp., Plate vii, f. 4. 

Male. Black, densely golden red pilose. Frontal triangle, face 
and cheeks deep black, shining, covered thickly with black pile, save a 
median facial stripe. Antennae black, basal third of third joint on 
the under side red; first joint short; second joint not more than half 
as long as the first; third joint three times as long as the first and 
second joints taken together; gradually broadened for a third of its 
length, and then attenuated; style white. Eyes thickly clothed with 
golden pile. Thorax and abdomen covered everywhere with long 
golden red pile. Legs black ; tarsal joints below and at their articu- 
lations reddish. Wings nearly hyaline, brownish on the anterior basal 
portion ; stigma yellow. 

Length ii millimeters. Three specimens, Colorado. 

The genus may be distinguished from Felecocera, in Williston's 
dichotomic table of the genera of North American Syrphidae, by the 
pilose eyes. 

Microdon meg'alog'aster, n. sp., Plate vii, f. 1. 

Male. Large, yellowish pilose species, in shape globose. Anten- 
nae reddish black, the first joint about as long as the following two 
together; second jf)int not one-third as long as the third. Face dark 
metallic green, shining, thickly covered with golden yellow pile. 
Front black, with similar pile, narrowed in the middle. Eyes bare. 
Thorax and scutellum deep metallic green, with long, thick, golden 
pile ; scutellum gently emarginate, the small obtuse tubercles ap- 
proximate. Abdomen short and broad, black, moderately shining; 
first two segments and the hypopygium somewhat green ; pile at base 
yellow, elsewhere short, black. Legs black, with black pile; front 
tibiae and their metatarsi, on the inner side, with short golden pile ; 
hind metatarsi incrassate and longer than the three following joints 
taken together. Wings uniformly subinfuscate ; veins at the outer 
part of the first posterior and discal cells sinuous and rounded. 

Length 12 millimeters. One specimen. 

Ohrysotoxum derivatum Walker. 

Eight specimens from Colorado, which vary not a little from each 
other and from Williston's description, They seem to belong here, 

snow: syrphidae. 35 

however, better than elsewhere. In one specimen, the second joint of 
the antennae is shorter than the fir^t, and only one-fourth the length 
of the third. In five examples the second abdominal cross-band is not 
interrupted ; in the others it is distinctly parted. In two, the: third 
band does not reach the yellow of the broad hind margin ; in two 
others it barely touches it; in five, the two bands broadly coalesce. 
The yellow of the fifth segment, in four specimens, incloses a black, 
inverted V; in two others an inverted Y. 
Paragus bicolor Fabr. 

Three specimens, Colorado. These may be located under Schiner's 
variety taeniatus. 

Melanostoma stegnura Say. 

Si/rphus stegnu.s Say, Journ. Acad. Phil, vi, p. KiH. 

Melanostoma tigrina Ostpu Sacken, AVcsLern Diptera, p. 323. 

Melanostoma stegnum/\N\\V\?,%on, Biol. Centr.-Amer. Diptera, iii, p. 10. 
Eleven specimens, Colorado, which answer well to the descriptions. 
The metallic band of the fourth abdominal segment is sometimes in- 
terrupted, and there is usually a triangular opaque black spot near the 
anterior border of the fifth segment. "The female, hitherto unknown, 
has the front broad above, pollinose, except on the upper part, and 
with black pile; the thorax more shining metallic blue; the tibiae 
yellow, and on the third and fourth abdominal segments there is a 
narrow shining stripe, bisecting the black, as in the fourth segment of 
the male. The male has some long black hairs on the outer side of 
the front and middle tibiae, which are inconspicuous in the female. 
It is evident, from the lighter color of the tibiae, that Say's specimens 
were females." Williston, 1. c. 

Melanostoma mellinum Linnc 

A single female specimen from Manitou Park. 

Melanostoraa, n. sp. ? 

Male. Face and front dark metallic blue, shining, thinly covered 
with light-colored pollen; tubercle and epistoma black, shining, the 
former small. Antennae black, third joint yellowish red below, 
oblong. Pile of frontal and vertical triangles dusky. Thorax bronze- 
black, shining, sometimes bluish black, the pubescence white. Hal- 
teres yellowish. Abdomen long and narrow, with almost parallel 
sides; first segment metallic blue, shining; second segment opaque, 
or subopaque, black, with a light metallescent scallop on the sides, 
reaching to the distal third bf the segment ; third and fourth segments 
similar, marked anteriorly by a wide, interrupted, or subinterrupted 
blue fascia, deeply and widely emarginated, or concave behind ; hind 
border of the third, and sometimes of the second segment, narrowly 
brown; fifth segment and the hypopygium metallic bluish green ; sides 


of the abdomen with silvery white pile, longest and thickest at the 
base ; the blue marking are whitish pruinose. Femora, except the 
tip, a broad ring on the tibiae, and the four posterior tarsi, black ; else- 
where brownish or yellowish. Wings hyaline, stigma yellowish. 

Length 7-8 millimeters. 
Eupeodes volucris, Osten Sacken. 

Numerous specimens, Colorado. 
Syrphus arcuatus Fallen. 

Four specimens, Colorado. These specimens vary not a little from 
each other, and somewhat from the descriptions. One female is very 
small, not over seven millimeters in length, and with the spots on the 
third and fourth abdominal segments hardly oblique. One male has 
the hind femora black as far as the tip, while in three females the 
black does not extend beyond the middle. 

Syrphus disjectus Williston. 

A single female specimen, from Colorado, agrees well with the de- 
scription drawn from males. The pile of the thorax is more whitish 
than orange-yellow, and there are light colored lateral margins on the 
anterior part of the thorax. 

Syrphus ruflcauda, n. sp., Plate vii, t 3. 

Male. Eyes bare. Face greenish yellow on the sides, yellow in the 
middle; a rather broad black line marks the border of the mouth and 
is lost in the black of the cheeks. Frontal triangle yellow, with long 
black pile. Antennae dark brown, more or less reddish below. Pile 
of occiput light yellow. Dorsum of thorax deep metallic green, the 
scutellum olivaceous yellow; both with light yellow pile. First seg- 
ment of the abdomen shining black ; second segment opaque black, 
with the lateral margins and hind border shining, and with a broad, 
yellow, interrupted band, not reaching the lateral margins ; third seg- 
ment similar, but with the yellow band somewhat wider, interrupted 
or subinterrupted and slightly bilaterally oblique ; fourth and fifth 
segments orange-red, the sides narrowly black ; the fourth segment 
shows indistinctly a broad interrupted band of a somewhat lighter 
color, corresponding to the yellow bands of the preceding segments. 
Legs light brown ; basal third of the front and middle femora and 
basal half of the hind femora black. Wings hyaline, stigma yellowish. 

Female. Head wanting. Thorax purplish brown. The yellow 
band on the second abdominal segment narrower, the second band 
straight, narrower and interrupted. Legs light brown, except the 
proximal end of the femora, which is black. 

Length 9 millimeters. Three males and one female, Colorado. 

snow: syrphidae. 37 

Syrphus pauxillus Williston. 

Two specimens from Colorado undoubtedly come here. The species 
was described from a single male specimen. A female specimen offers 
the following differences or additions: Length nine millimeters, meso- 
notum more greenish black or bronze, the pile obscure whitish; fifth 
abdominal segment without yellow spots on the anterior angles ; legs 
yellow, with the basal half of the front and middle femora, the hind 
femora except the tip, a broad band on the hind tibiae, and the hind 
tarsi, black. 

Syrphus ribesii Limie. 
'Five specimens, Colorado. 

Syrphus aniericanus Wiedemann. 
Numerous specimens, Colorado. 

Syrphus umbellatarum Schiner. 

Five female specimens, Colorado. The only western locality here- 
tofore given is Arizona (Williston). 

Allograpta obliqua Say. 
Five specimens, Colorado. 

Mesogramma marg-inatum Say. 

Numerous specimens from Colorado, showing very great variation. 

Sphaerophoria cylindrica Say. 

Twenty specimens, Colorado. I think the specimens belong here, 
though a positive identification is hardly possible at present. 

Rhing'ia nasica Say. 

One specimen, Colorado. This is the first time that this species 
has been recorded from beyond the Mississippi. 
Copestylum marginatum Say. 

Two specimens, Colorado, representing the extremes of variation in 
the species. The male corresponds to C. Iciiiiiin Williston. Speci- 
mens of this species were bred from Opiintia viissouricnsis, in company 
with others of Volucella fasciata Macq. 
Sericomyia militaris AValker. 

Sixteen specimens from Minnesota and Colorado vary in the mark- 
ings of the second abdominal segment, and in the color of the legs. 
Some have no spots at all on the second segment; in others the two 
yellow dots are conspicuous, approaching, in size and shape, the 
markings of the third segment. The tibiae vary from light yellow to 
reddish brown. 
Brachyopa cynops, n. sp., plate vii, f. 2. 

Head light yellowish brown, largely concealed beneath light glisten- 
ing pollen ; the shining ground color shows just above the antennae 


and in a stripe on the cheeks, extending from the eye to the mouth 
opening. Antennae wanting. Dorsum of thorax brown, covered 
with grayish pollen ; anteriorly with two approximated, linear, black- 
ish stripes ; laterally with a broad, interrupted stripe. Scutellum light 
brown, with yellowish pollen. Abdomen but little longer than broad ; 
yellowish gray poUinose ; second segment with a circular brown spot 
in the anterior corners ; the two following segments are marked with 
corresponding elliptical spots, and, in the middle of the anterior bor- 
der with a triangular spot ; on the fifth segment are two small round 
spots. Legs uniformly reddish brown, with light colored pollen and 
short whitish pile. Wing hyaline, distinctly clouded at anterior cross- 
vein, on the veins at the anterior outer corner of the discal cell and on 
the ultimate section of the fourth vein; posterior cross-vein about as 
long as the penultimate section of the fourth vein, the included angle 

Length 5 millimeters. One specimen, Colorado. 

Eristalis latifrons Loew. 

Numerous specimens, Colorado. The commonest Syrphid of the 
mountain meadows. Some specimens have very indistinct brownish 
spots on the second abdominal segment, and, when this is the case, 
the middle of the wing generally shows a brown spot, and brown 
clouds along the anterior veins between the spot and the base of the 
Eristalis brousi Williston. 

One male specimen, Colorado. 
Helophilus latifrons Loew. 

Numerous specimens, Colorado. 
Xylota flavitjbia Bigot. 

Eight specimens, Colorado. The glistening pile of the face and 
front varies from white to a golden yellow. On the dorsum of the 
thorax purplish stripes are distinctly visible. The fourth segment of 
the male abdomen is often red, as in the female abdomen. 

Syritta pipiens Liiinc 

Eight specimens, Colorado. 
Oriorrhina umbratilis Williston. 

A single, male specimen, collected by Mr. W. J. Coleman, at Law- 
rence, and agreeing exactly with the description. The only other 
known specimen of this species is the type, at Washington, from 
Spilomyia quadrifasciata Say. 

Seven specimens, Lawrence, Kansas, (F. H. Snow and E. S. 
Tucker). The species has not hitherto been recorded west of New 

Notes on Melitera Dentata Grote. 



At the meeting of the Entomological Club of the A. A. A. S., held 
in August, 1891, at Washington, Dr. Rile)' called attention to the 
habits of Melitei-a prodenialis Walker. The larvae burrow into and 
feed upon the fleshy leaves of the prickly pear, Opuntia. Dr. Riley's 
specimens came from Florida. Prof. J. B. Smith has recently bred 
the moth from the prickly pear in New Jersey. His notes were pre- 
sented at the same meeting of the Club, and the brief references to the 
interesting notes of Doctors Riley and Smith, made in the Canadian 
Entomologist (v. xxiii, num. 11, pp. 242 and 256), suggest the pre- 
sentation of the following notes on Melitera dentata Grote, the western 
species of this Phycitid genus. 

Chancellor F. H. Snow, of this University, while investigating a 
grasshopper "outbreak" {Dissosteira longipennis') in eastern Colorado 
in July, 1891, noted the withered and dying condition of many leaves 
of the common prickly pear cactus {Opuntia missouriensis'), and on ex- 
amining the leaves found in them certain large, naked, bluish larvae. 
The larvae were imbedded in the fleshy leaves, eating away the soft 
inner tissue. The hollowed-out spaces were nearly filled with irreg- 
ularly spherical, yellowish, translucent casts. The attacked leaves 
were withered and brown without. Prof. Snow took a few leaves and 
larvae on July 16, near Arriba, Colorado, and brought them to the 

The larvae were put into breeding-cage on July 18. On July 28 
one larva had spun up and pupated in a corner of the cage behind a 
small porcelain dish. Another had made a cocoon in a broken, empty 
pupa-case of Eacles inperialis, but died before pupating. On August 
the adults appeared, and have been determined by Prof. J. B. 
Smith as M. dentata, (irote. As I am aware of no description of the 
earlier stages of this species, I record the following notes of descri])tion : 

Egg. About 1-1.2 millimeters in diameter, surface with broad, 
meridian-like furrows from one pole for about one-third of the dis- 
tance to the other pole. Color, creamy white. 

(3y) KAN. U.NIV. (JUAR., VOL. I, NO. I, JULY, lSy3. 


Larva. Food plant, Opiiutia missouriensis, prickly pear cactus, 
burrowing into the fleshy leaves and eating the soft, succulent, inner 
tissues. Length, 40 millimeters. Five pairs of prolegs. Color, one 
specimen, ultramarine blue; skin, semi-transparent and shining anter- 
iorly, dead blue on dorsum ; second specimen, buffy with a bluish 
suffusion, blue between segments, prolegs bluish, and last abdominal 
segment blue, especially below; skin more opaque than in first speci- 
men. No pronounced markings of skin ; spiracles shining black and 
present on first thoracic and first to tenth abdominal segments. Head 
flattened, slightly narrower than first thoracic segment, umber. Pro- 
thoracic shield well marked, brownish black; anal shield, smoky 
brownish. Clothing, limited to tubercled hairs sparsely distributed as 
follows : a subdorsal line of small tubercles, two tubercles to a seg- 
ment, each tubercle bearing three short, fine hairs ; a supra-stigmatic 
line, one tubercle to each segment, each tubercle bearing three to four 
fine hairs; a similar infra-stigmatic line; a sub-ventral line of 
tubercles, bearing usually four fine hairs, the tubercles of the three 
thoracic segments in this line situated at base of legs outside, and 
similarly as to the prolegs on the third to sixth abdominal segments. 
The tubercles in all the lines are faintly smoky. The larva is rather 
heavy, and rotund in form, tapering toward both head and posterior 
segment. It moves with a lumbering gait, but rather rapidly. 

Chrysalis. Length, 20 millimeters; in cocoon of silk, loosely 
covered with small dirt-masses, As made in the breeding cage the 
cocoons were above ground, but concealed under or in available 

Adult. The adults obtained from the breeding cage, (there are no 
others in our collection), are easily distinguished from prodenialis 
Wlk., by the much stronger dentations of the outer line of the pri- 
maries. Prof. Smith kindly sent a specimen of prodenialis taken at 
Ocean Grove, New Jersey, for comparison. The row of marginal 
black spots on the primaries which Hulst (Tran. Am. Ent. Soc, v. 
xvii, p. 172) mentions as distinctive of dentata is as pronounced in 
Prof. Smith's specimen of prodenialis as in our dentata. The much 
lighter color of the primaries, head and thorax in dentata as mentioned 
by Hulst is characteristic. An interesting feature in the venation of 
the hind wings in our bred specimens of dentata is the considerable 
coalescence of the sub-costal and costal veins. Vein five is wanting, 
as mentioned by Hulst. In addition, there is further departure from 
a normal venation, in that vein seven after rising with six from its 
stem, (Hulst says: "Six short stemmed with seven"), coalesces for a 
short distance with eight and then runs free to the margin. Behind 


the forking of seven and six the stem (remnant of sub-costal) unites 
with the costal, and its basal portion is wholly merged with the forward 
vein. This partial disappearance of the sub-costal seems to be shared 
by prodenialis and is probably characteristic of the genus. 

Prof. Smith, as recorded in the Canadian Naturalist, v. viii, p. 
242, (1891), bred several specimens of Voliicella fasciata, a Syrphid 
fly, from the same prickly pear leaves in which the Melitera larvae 
were living. It is interesting to note that pupariae and later, adults 
of Voliicella fasciata and Copestyliim marginatum, a closely allied 
Syrphid, were noted in the Opuntia leaves from which Af. dentata was 
bred. (See note by Dr. Williston, Entomological News, v. ii, p. 
165, 1891). 

Diptera Brasiliana. 





1. First basal cell hyaline 2 

First basal cell clouded throughout 6 

2. Third joint of the antennae as long as the first two together: 

small* species parvus, n. sp. 

Third joint of the antennae but little if any longer than the 

second joint 3 

3. First posterior cell hyaline 4 

First posterior cell more or less clouded 5 

4. Cheeks yellow angustifrons, n. sp. 

Cheeks black ornatus, n. sp. 

5. Face black in ground-color argentifacies, n. sp. 

Face yellow, large species grandis, n. sp. 

6. Red species ; front red riifn^, n. sp. 

Black species ; front black 7 

7. Face and cheeks black in ground-color magnus, n. sp. 

Face and cheeks yellow ijiornatus, n. sp. 

1. Conops magnus, n. sp. 

Female. Front black, shining, the vertical callosity somewhat 
reddish. Face and cheeks yellowish brown, the orbits silvery pollin- 
ose. Antennae brownish black; second and third joints subequal, 
first joint about two-thirds the length of the second ; third joint of the 
style with a long bristly extremity. Thorax shining black \ pleurae 
lightly whitish pollinose. Abdomen deep black, opaque ; lightly 
whitish pollinose posteriorly ; ventral process of the fifth segment 
large. Wings deep brown in front, extending through the two basal 
cells, and the basal part of the discal cell ; outer part of the first pos- 
terior cell subhyaline, as also behind the streak corresponding to the 
spurious vein of the Syrphidae. Legs black ; base of the femora, of 
the tibiae, and of the tarsi, somewhat yellowish. 

Length 21-24 millimeters. Six specimens, Chapada, H. H. Smith. 

*See Trans. Amer. Entom. Soc. xv, p. 243, for Part T. 

(13) KAN. UNIV. QVAH., VOL. I, NO. I.JULY, 1S92. 


2. Oonops grandis, n. sp. 

Female. Front black, the lower margin of the vertical callosity 
reddish; just below the callosity opaque, elsewhere shining. Anten- 
nae black; the second and third joints of nearly equal length; the 
first joint about two-thirds the length of the second joint; style with a 
long bristly extremity. Face and cheeks light yellow, the orbital 
margins of the former silvery or light golden pollinose. Thorax 
black, the mesonotum shining, the pleurae lightly whitish pollinose. 
Abdomen deep black ; posteriorly lightly pollinose. Wings brown in 
front; first posterior cell and the space behind the streak correspond- 
ing to the spurious vein of the Syrphidae in the first posterior cell, 
pure hyaline ; outer part of the first posterior cell subhyaline ; a brown 
streak in front of the fifth vein. Legs black ; the tibiae and basal 
joints of the tarsi in large part reddish or yellowish; pulvilli light 
yellow; ventral process of the fifth segment extraordinarily large; 
seventh segment as long as the three preceding together. 

Male. Abdomen in ground-color black, either wholly so, or more 
or less, or rarely entirely, red ; the ground color, save at the base, 
however, is almost wholly obscured by reddish brown pollen. 

Length 19-23 millimeters. Six specimens, Chapada, H. H. Smith. 

3. Oonops rufus, n. sp. 

Male, female. Head red ; face in the depression yellow, on the 
sides with a silvery sheen. Antennae black ; first joint red, more than 
half of the length of the second joint; second joint sometimes reddish 
at the base; third joint about as long as the second joint, stout; third 
joint of the style suddenly attenuated into a moderately long bristly 
extremity. Thorax red ; mesonotum with a median black stripe, and 
an oval, more or less distinct spot on either side; a golden pollinose 
spot on the inner side of each humerus. Abdomen red, lightly pollin- 
ose, the median segments more or less black ; ventral process in the 
female large ; the sixth segment in the same sex about as long as the 
two preceding together. Legs red. the tarsi a little darker, the pulvilli 
and the ungues, save their black tip, yellow. Wings brown in front, 
the brown extending to the fifth vein in the basal part of the discal 
cell ; the space behind the spurious vein in the first posterior cell 
hyaline; the outer part of the same cell subhyaline. 

Length 16-17 millimeters. Two specimens, Chapada, H. H. Smith. 

4. Oonops angustifrons, n. sp. 

Male. Front much longer than wide ; black, shining at the vertex 
and below; an opaque band below the vertical callosity. Antennae 
black, the third joint somewhat reddish below towards the base; the 
first joint about half of the length of the third joint; third joint dis- 

williston: Brazilian diptera. 45 

tinctly shorter than the second, rather broad at the base; style small, 
attenuate. Face, cheeks and the lower part of the occiput wholly 
light yellow. Thorax opaque black ; a whitish poUinose spot on the 
inner side of each humerus ; vertical pleural pollinose spot not dis- 
tinctly limited above ; a row of dorso-pleural, at least two prescutellar, 
and four scutellar, well-developed bristles. Abdomen subopaque 
black; second segment yellow at the base; sixth segment opaque 
golden yellow pollinose. Wings brownish before the third longitudi- 
nal vein, the first basal and the first posterior cells wholly hyaline ; a 
streak before the fifth vein. Legs deep brown ; the base of all the 
tibiae, the large pulvilli, and the claws (except their tips) yellow. 

Length 12 millimeters. One specimen, Chapada, H. H. Smith. 
This species is peculiar in its narrow front, bristles of the thorax, and 
hyaline first posterior cell. 

5. Oonops nobilis, n. sp. 

Female. Head black ; front, below the vertical callosity, except a 
crescentic space above the base of the antennae, opaque ; face, on the 
sides and in the depression, with a conspicuous, light yellowish silvery 
reflection ; in an oblique light from above the ground-color wholly 
concealed. Antennae black; the reddish first joint about two-thirds 
the length of the third joint; the third joint about two-thirds of the 
length of the slender second joint ; third joint of the style with a short 
bristly extremity. Thorax black, lightly pollinose, opaque ; on the 
front margin, and near the humeri, velvety ; in the middle in front 
distinctly whitish when seen from behind. Abdomen black, subshin- 
ing ; second segment deep opaque black, save on the anterior part, 
where it is whitish pollinose; ventral process of the fifth segment 
small. Legs black ; the tarsi and claws (save their extreme tips) light 
yellow; pulvilli very large, yellow; the tarsi dilated. Wings unequal- 
ly brown in front, scarcely extending beyond the third vein, save in the 
first posterior cell; the costal cell and the outer part of the wing in 
front of the third vein of a lighter color. 

Length 12 millimeters. One specimen, Chapada, H. H. Smith. 

G. Conops inornatus, n. sp. 

Male. Front black, shining, the vertical callosity reddish. Face 
yellow, with golden pollen on the sides extending up on the lower part 
of the front. Cheeks wholly yellow. Thorax black, shining, lightly 
pollinose ; margins of the thorax and of the scutellum with moderately 
large bristles. Abdomen slender, black, shining; the narrow hind 
margins of the third and fourth segments, the fifth on the sides and 
behind, and the sixth nearly wholly, light golden pollinose. Legs 
brown; base of tibiae yellow; basal joints of the tarsi yellowish. 


Wings subhyaline, without distinct picture, though the color is more 
intense in front ; yellow in the costal cell. 

Female. Wings distinctly brown before the third vein and in the 
basal cells and proximal portion of the discal cell. Abdomen diffusely 
whitish poUinose behind ; the second segment largely reddish ; ventral 
process of the fifth segment small. 

Length 10 millimeters. Two specimens, Chapada, H. H. Smith. 

7. Oonops ornatus, n. sp. 

Male. Vertical callosity reddish ; below it an opaque black band, 
connected in the middle with a V-shaped spot about the base of the 
antennae ; the front elsewhere, and the face for the greater part, light 
yellow, the sides of the latter with a broad silvery sheen. Cheeks 
black. Antennae red; the first joint a little shorter than the third 
joint; second joint about twice the length of the first; style short, 
thick. Thorax black, opaque; near the humeri and behind, as also 
on the scutellum, thickly golden pollinose ; pleurae diffusely pollinose; 
Abdomen opaque black ; the hind margin of the first three segments, 
and the remainder of the abdomen, save spots on the sides of the 
fourth and fifth segments, thickly light golden pollinose. Legs reddish 
brown, the base of the tibiae and the basal joints of the tarsi yellow- 
ish. The brown of the wings extends to the third vein and through 
the middle of the first posterior cell ; costal and subcostal cells lighter 

Length 11 millimeters. Two specimens, Chapada, H. H. Smith. 

8. Oonops parvus, n. sp. 

Female. Closely allied to C. sylvosiis Williston, but' differs in the 
lighter colored antennae and their more elongated third joint, which is 
as long as the first two joints together; in the wings being wholly 
grayish hyaline, save a quadrate brown spot in front a little beyond 
the middle ; and in the lighter colored legs and abdomen. The pro- 
boscis is as long as the antennae; the legs are brown or brownish 

Length 8 millimeters. Two specimens, Chapada, H. H. Smith. 

Kansas University Quarterly. 

Vol. I. OCTOBER, 1892. No. 2. 

Unicursal Curves by Method of Inversion. 


This paper contains a summary of the work done during the last 
school year by my class in Modern Geometry. Since many of the 
results were suggested or entirely wrought out by class-room discussion, 
it becomes practically impossible to assign to each member of the 
class his separate portion. Many of the results were contributed by 
Messrs. M. E. Rice, A. L. Candy, H. C. Riggs, and Miss Annie L. 

The reader who is not familiar with the method of Geometric 
Inversion should read Townsend's Modern Geometry, chapters IX. 
and XXIV; or a recent monograph entitled, "Das Princep der 
Reziproken Radien," by C. Wolff, of Erlangen. 

When a conic is inverted from a point on the curve, the inverse 
curve is a nodal, circular cubic. 

This is shown analytically as follows: let the equation of the conic 

be written 


which shows that the origin is a point on the curve. Substituting for 

X and y and ~ — — , we have as the equation of the 

x2-j-y2 x^-fy- 

inverse curve 

ax3 + 2hxy+by2 + 2(gx+fy)(x2+y2)=o. 
The terms of the second degree show that the origin is a double 
point on the cubic; and is a crunode, acnode, or cusp, according as 
the conic is a hyperbola, ellipse, or parabola. The terms of the 
third degree break up into three linear factors, viz: gx + fy, x-fiy, and 
X— iy, which are the equations of the three lines joining the origin to 
the three points where the line at infinity cuts the cubic; thus showing 
that the cubic passes through the imaginary circular points at infinity. 

(47) KAN. UNIV. QUAR., VOL. I., NO. i, OCT., 1S92. 


Since the above transformation is rational, it follows that there is a 
(i, i) correspondence between the conic and the cubic. Tliis fact is 
also evident from the nature of the method of inversion. The cubic 
has its maximum number of double points, viz: one; and hence is 
unicursal. This unicursal circular cubic may be projected into the 
most general form of unicursal cubic; the cuspidal variety, however, 
always remaining cuspidal. 

By applying the method of inversion to many of the well known 
theorems of conies, new theorems are obtained for unicursal, circular 
cubics. If one of these new theorems states a projective property, it 
may at once by the method of projection be extended to all unicursal 
cubics. Examples will be given below. 

The following method of generating a unicursal cubic is often useful. 
Given two projective pencils of rays having their vertices at A and B; 
the locus of the intersection of corresponding rays is a conic through 
A and B. Invert the whole system from A. The pencil through A 
remains as a whole unchanged, while the pencil through B inverts into 
a system of co-axial circles through A and B, and the generated conic 
becomes a circular cubic through A and B, having a node at A. Now 
project the whole figure and we have the following: — given a system of 
conies through four fixed points and a pencil of rays projective with it 
and having its vertex at one of the fixed points, the locus of the inter- 
section of corresponding elements of the two systems is a unicursal 
cubic, having its node at the vertex of the pencil, and passing through 
the three other fixed points. 

Unicursal cubics are divisible into two distinct varieties, nodal and 
cuspidal. The nodal variety is a curve of the fourth class and has 
three points of inflection, one of which is always real. The cuspidal 
variety is of the third class and has one point of inflection (Salmon, 
H. P. C, Art. 147). Each of these varieties forms a group projective 
within itself; that is to say, any nodal cubic may be projected into 
every other possible nodal cubic, and the same is true with regard to 
the cuspidal. But a nodal cubic can not be projected into a cuspidal 
and vice versa. 

In applying this method of investigation to the various forms of 
unicursal cubics and quartics, only a limited number of theorems are 
given in each case. It will be at once evident that many more theorems 
might be added, but enough are given in each case to illustrate the 
method and show the range of its application. It is not necessary to 
work out all the details, as this paper is intended to be suggestive 
rather than exhaustive. 

newson: unicursal curves by method of inversion. 49 

nodal curics. 

If an ellipse be inverted from one of its vertices, the inverse curve 
is symmetrical with respect to the axis; it has one point of inflection 
at infinity and the asymptote is an inflectional tangent. This asymp- 
tote is the inverse of the circle of curvature at the vertex. The cubic 
has two other points of inflection situated symmetrically with respect 
to the axis. Hence the three points of inflection lie on a right line, 
a projective U^eore-m which is consequently true of all nodal cubics. 
The axis is evidently the harmonic polar of the point of inflection at 
infinity. Since the axis bisects the angle between the tangents at the 
node, it follows that the line joining a point of inflection to the node, 
the two tangents at the node, and the harmonic polar of the point of 
inflection, form a harmonic pencil. There are three such lines, one to 
each node, and three harmonic polars; these form a pencil in involution, 
the tangents at the node being the foci. 

Since the asymptote is perpendicular to the axis, we have by projec- 
tion the following theorem: — through a point of inflection I, draw any 
line cutting the cubic in B and C. Through P the point of intersection 
of the harmonic polar and inflectional tangent of I, draw two lines to 
B and C. The four lines meeting in P form a harmonic pencil. The 
point of contact of the tangent from I to the cubic is on the harmonic 
polar of L Any two inflectional tangents meet on the harmonic polar 
of the third point of inflection. 

The locus of the foot of the perpendicular from the focus of a conic 
on a tangent is the auxiliary circle. Inverting from the vertex, there 
are two points, A and B, on the axis of the curve, such that if a circle 
be drawn through one of them and the node, cutting at right angles a 
tangent circle through the node, their point of intersection will be on 
the tangent to the curve where it is cut by the axis. Projecting: — 
through a point of inflection I of a nodal cubic draw a line cutting the 
cubic in P and Q ; there are two determinate points on the harmonic 
polar of I, which have the following property: — draw a conic through 
P, Q, and the node touching the cubic; draw another conic through 
one of these points, P, Q, and the node cutting the former, so that 
their tangents at their point of intersection, together with the lines 
from it to P and Q form a harmonic pencil; the locus of such a point 
of intersection is the tangent from I to the cubic. 

If three conies circumscribe the same quadrilateral, the common 
tangent to any two is cut harmonically by the third. Inverting from 
one of the vertices of the quadrilateral: if three nodal, circular cubics 
have a common double point and pass through three other fixed 
points, the common tangent circle through the common node to any 
two of the cubics is cut harmonically by the third; /. c, so that the 


pencil from the node to the two points of intersection and the points 
of contact is harmonic. Projecting this: — given three nodal cubics 
having a common node and passing through five other fixed points; let 
a conic be passed through the common node and two of the fixed 
points, touching two of the cubics. The pencil from the common 
node to the points of contact and the point where the conic cuts the 
third cubic is harmonic. 

The following theorem may be proved in similar manner: — given a 
system of cubics having a common node and passing through five other 
fixed points; let a conic be drawn through the common node and two 
of the fixed points; the lines drawn from the points where it cuts the 
cubics to the common node form a pencil in involution. 

A variable chord drawn through a fixed point P to a conic subtends 
a pencil in involution at any point O on the conic. Inverting from 
O: — a system of circles through the double point of a nodal circular 
cubic and any other fixed point P, is cut by the cubic in pairs of points 
which determine at the node a pencil in involution. Projecting: — a 
system of conies through the node of a unicursal cubic, two fixed 
points on the curve, and any fourth fixed point, is cut by the cubic in 
pairs of points which determine at the node a pencil in involution. 

We give another proof of the theorem that the three points of inflec- 
tion of a nodal cubic lie on a right line. This is easily shown by 
inversion and is a beautiful example of the method. 

There are three points on a conic whose osculating circles pass 
through a given point on the conic; these three points lie on a circle 
passing through the given point. * (Salmon's Conies, Art. 244, Ex. 5.) 
By inverting from the given point and then projecting, we readily see 
that there are three points of inflection on a nodal cubic which lie on 
a right line. If the above conic be an ellipse, the three osculating 
circles are all real; but if it be a hyperbola, one only is real. Hence 
an acnodal cubic has three real points of inflection, while a crunodal 
one has one real and two imaginary. 

The reciprocals of many of the theorems of this section are of 
interest and will be given under Quartics. 


Inverting the parabola from its vertex we obtain the Cissoid of 
Diodes. The focus of the parabola inverts into a point on the cus- 
pidal tangent which I shall call the focus of the cissoid. The circle 
of curvature at the vertex of the parabola inverts into the asymptote 
of the cissoid. This asymptote is also plainly the inflectional tangent, 

*See note A. 

tA few of the results of this section are due to the late Mr. H. B. Hall. 

newson: unicursal curves bv method of inversion. 51 

and the point at infinity is the point of inflection. The directrix of 
the parabola inverts into a circle through the cusp of the cissoid 
having the cuspidal tangent for a diameter. Hall calls this the 
directrix circle. The double ordinate of the parabola which is tangent 
to the circle of curvature of the vertex inverts into the circle usually 
■'called the base circle of the cissoid.* 

The cissoid may fairly be called the simplest form of the cuspidal 
cubic. Its projection and polar reciprocal are both cuspidal cubics. 
I shall now deduce from the parabola a few simple propositions for 
the cissoid, and then extend them to all cuspidal cubics. 

(i) It is known that the locus of the intersection of tangents to the 
parabola which are at right angles to one another, is the directrix. 
Inverting: — the locus of the intersection of tangent circles to the 
cissoid through the cusp and at right angles to each other is the 
directrix circle. 

(2) For the parabola, two right lines O P and O Q, are drawn 
through the vertex of the parabola at right angles to one another, 
meeting the curve in P and Q; the line P Q cuts the axis at a fixed 
point, whose abscissa is equal to its ordinate. Inverting: — two right 
lines, O P and O Q, are drawn at right angles to one another 
through the cusp of the cissoid, meeting the curve in P and Q; the 
circle O P Q passes through the intersection of the axis and asymptote. 

(3) If the normals at the points P, O, R, of a parabola meet at a 
point, the circle through P O R will pass through the vertex Invert- 
ing: — -through a fixed point and the cusp of a cissoid, three and only 
three circles can be passed, cutting the cissoid at right angles; these 
three points of intersection are collinear. 

From the geometry of the cissoid we see that if any line be drawn 
parallel to the asymptote, cutting the curve in two points, B and C, 
the segment B C is bisected by the axis. Hence, projecting the curve 
we have the following theorem: — any line drawn through the point of 
inflection is cut harmonically by the point of inflection, the curve, and 
the cuspidal tangent. Thus the cuspidal tangent is the harmonic 
polar of the point of inflection. The polar reciprocal of this last 
theorem reads as follows: — if from any point on the cuspidal tangent 
the two other tangent lines be drawn to the curve, and a line to the 
point of inflection, these four lines form a harmonic pencil. These 
are fundamental propositions in the theory of cuspidal cubics. 

(4) Projecting proposition (i) above, we have the generalized theo- 
rem: — through the point of inflection draw any line cutting the cubic 
in B and C; through B, C, and the cusp draAv two conies tangent to 

*See note B. 


the cubic, and intersecting in a fourth point such that the two tangents 
to the conies at their point of intersection, together with the two lines 
from it to B and C, form a harmonic pencil; the locus of all such 
intersections is a conic through B, C, and the cusp having the point of 
inflection and the cuspidal tangent for pole and polar. 

(5) Reciprocating (4) we have: — through any point on the cuspidal 
tangent draw the two other tangents, B and C, to the cubic. Touch- 
ing B; C, and the inflectional tangent draw two conies, such that the 
points of contact of their common tangent, together with the points 
where their common tangent cuts the tangents B and C, form a har- 
monic range; the envelope of such common tangents is a conic having 
the cuspidal tangent and the point of inflection for polar and pole. 

(6) Projecting (2) we obtain the following: — through the point of 
inflection draw any line cutting the curve in B and C; take any other 
two points on the cubic such that the pencil from the cusp, O, O (B 
P C Q) is harmonic; the conic passing through O B P C Q will pass 
through the intersection of the cuspidal and inflectional tangents. 

(7) Reciprocating (6): — from any point on the cuspidal tangent 
draw two other tangents, B and C, to the cubic; take any two other 
tangents, P and Q, such that the range cut from the inflectional tangent 
by B, C, P, Q, is harmonic; the conic touching B, C, P, Q, and the 
inflectional tangent will also touch the line joining the point of inflec- 
tion and the cusp. 

(8) Projecting (3): — through the point of inflection draw any line 
cutting the cubic in B and C; through the cusp O and the points B 
and C on the cubic and any other fixed point P, three^ and only three, 
conies can be passed, such that the tangent to the conic and cubic at 
their remaining point of intersection, together with the lines from it to 
B and C, form a harmonic pencil; these three points of intersection 
are collinear. 


Let U and V be the equations of, two given cubics, then U + kV is 
the equation of a system of cubics through their nine points of inter- 
section. Twelve cubics of this system are unicursal, and the twelve 
nodes are called the twelve critic centres of the system. (See Salmon's 
H. P. C, Art. 190.) 

Let the equation of the system be written briefly 

a + ka^ + (b+kbi) x + (c+kCj) y + u^+Ug^o; 
one, and only one, value of k makes the absolute term vanish; hence 
one, and only one, curve of the system passes through the origin, 
which may be any point in the plane. Make the equation of the 
system homogeneous by means of z, and differentiate twice with 


respect to z; we obtain thus the equations of the polar conies and polar 
lines of the origin with respect to the system. 

The polar conies of the origin are given by 

3(a+kaO+2J (b + kbjx + (c+kci)y [ +U3=o: 
thus showing that the polar conies of any point, with respect to the 
system of cubics, form a system through four points. The polar lines 
of the origin are given by 

3(a+kaO +(b+kbOx + (c+kcOy=o, 
which represents a pencil of lines through a point. 

Suppose now the origin to be at one of the critic centres; then for 

a particular value, kj, all terms lower than the second degree must 

lla b c II 
vanish, so that , r^o- The factors of the terms of u„, 

11^1 b^ cjl 

which involves kj, represent the tangents at the double point to the 
nodal cubic, and also the polar conic of the origin with respect to this 
nodal cubic. Hence a critic centre is at one of the vertices of the 
self-polar triangle of its system of polar conies. The opposite side 
of this triangle is the common polar line of the critic centre with 
respect to its system of polar conies, and hence it is also the common 
polar line of the critic centre with respect to the system of cubics. 
The four basal points of the system of polar conies lie two and two 
upon the tangents at the double point of the nodal cubic. 

When the origin is taken at one of the nine basal points of the system 
of cubics, a and a^ both vanish. Hence it is readily seen that a 
basal point of a system of cubics is also a basal point of its system of 
polar conies and the vertex of its pencil of polar lines. 

Suppose two of the basal points of the system of cubics to coincide, 
then every cubic of the system, in order to pass through two coincident 
points, must touch a common tangent at a fixed point. The common 
tangent is the common polar of its point of contact, both with respect 
to the system of cubics and to its system of polar conies. Hence the 
union of two basal points gives rise to a critic centre. The self-polar 
triangle of its system of polar conies here reduces to a limited portion 
of the common tangent. This line is not a tangent to the nodal cubic, 
but only passes through its double point. 

Suppose three of the basal points of a system of cubics to coincide, 
such a point will then be a point of inflection on each cubic of the 
system. For, in the last case, if a line be drawn from the point of 
contact of the common tangent to a third basal point of the system, 
such a line will be a common chord of the system of cubics. Suppose, 
now, this third basal point be moved along the curves until it coincides 
with the other two; then the common chord becomes a common tang- 


ent, which cuts every cubic of the system in three coincident points, 
and hence is a common inflectional tangent. 

Since the polar conic of a point of inflection on a cubic consists of 
the inflectional tangent and the harmonic polar of the point, and since 
the polar conies of a fixed point with respect to a system of cubics 
pass through four fixed points, it follows that in a system of cubics 
having a common point of inflection and a common inflectional tangent 
the harmonic polars of the common point of inflection meet in a point. 

Since the common inflectional tangent is the common polar line of 
the common point of inflection, it follows that such a point is a critic 
centre of the system of cubics. One cubic of the system then has a 
node at the common point of inflection of the system, and forms an 
exception. The line which is the common inflectional tangent to the 
other cubics of the system cuts this also in three points, but is one of 
the tangents at the double point; the other tangent at the double point 
goes through the vertex of the pencil of harmonic polars. 

It is evident that the nine basal points of a system of conies may 
unite into three groups of three each. The cubics will then all have 
three common points of inflection, and at these points three common 
inflectional tangents. These three points all lie on a line. 

When four basal points of the system of cubics coincide, such a 
point is a double point on every cubic of the system. This is easily 
shown as follows, using the method of inversion. Let a system of 
conies Through four points be inverted from one of the four points. 
The system of conies inverts into a system of cubics, having a common 
node and passing through three other finite fixed points and the two 
circular points at infinity. Since the common node counts as foiir 
points of intersection, it follows that any two cubics of the system, and 
hence all of them, intersect in nine points. This system can be pro- 
jected into a system having a common double point and passing 
through any five other fixed points. 

A number of theorems concerning the system of cubics can easily 
be inferred from known theorems concerning the system of conies. 
Since two conies of the system are parabolas, it follows that two cubics 
of the system are cuspidal. Since three conies of the system break up 
into pairs of right lines, it follows that three cubics of the system 
break up into a right line and a conic. Each right line and its corres- 
ponding conic intersect in the common double point. The line at 
infinity cuts the system of conies in pairs of points in involution, the 
points of contact of the two parabolas of the system being the foci; it 
follows on inversion that the pairs of tangents to the cubics at their 

newson: unicursal curves by method of inversion. 55 

common node form a pencil in involution, the two cuspidal tangents 
being the foci. 

If the four basal points of the system of conies lie on a circle, this 
circle inverts into a right line, and one cubic then consists of this right 
line and the lines joining the centre of inversion to the circular points 
at infinity. This theorem may be stated for the system of cubics as 
follows: if the conic determined by the five basal points of the system 
of cubics (not counting the common double points), break up into right 
lines, the line passing through three of the five points, together with 
the lines joining the other two points to the common node, constitute a 
cubic of the system. 

If three of the four basal points of the system of conies lie on a line, 
the conies consist of this line and a pencil of lines through the fourth 
basal point. Inverting from this fourth point and then projecting, we 
have a system of cubics consisting of a pencil of lines and a conic 
through the vertex and the four other fixed points. Hence, when the 
five fixed points of such a system of cubics lie on a conic through the 
common node, this conic is a part of every cubic of the system. If 
we invert the above system of conies from one of the three points on 
the right line, and then project, we obtain a system of cubics which 
consists of a system of conies through four fixed points, and a fixed 
right line through one of these four points. Hence, if two of the five 
basal points of such a system of cubics be on a line through the com- 
mon node, this line is a part of every cubic of the system. 

If a system of conies having one basal point at infinity be inverted 
from one of the remaining basal points, this point at infinity inverts 
to the center of inversion, and we obtain a system of cubics having 
five coincident basal points and hence passing through only four others. 
The system of cubics is now so arranged that one tangent at their 
common double point is common to all. Only one cubic of the system 
is cuspidal. As before three cubics break up into a right line and 

If two of three basal points of the system of conies be at infinity, the 
system of cubics obtained by projection and inversion has six coinci- 
dent basal points and hence only three others. This system has both tan- 
gents at the common node common to all cubics of the system. If the 
two basal points at infinity in the system of conies be coincident, all the 
conies are parabolas, and hence all the cubics of the system are cus- 
pidal and have a common cuspidal tangent. 

If three of the basal points of the system of conies be at infinity, the 
conies consist of the line at infinity and a pencil of lines through the 
finite basal point. Inverting from the latter, we obtain a system of cu- 


bics with seven coincident basal points. This system is made up of a 
pencil of lines meeting in the seven coincident basal points together 
with the two lines joining this to the other two basal points of the 
system. These two lines are part of every cubic of the system. 

If one of the remaining basal points be moved up to join the seven 
coincident ones, one of these fixed lines becomes indeterminate, and 
the system of cubics through eight coincident points consists of a fixed 
line through the eight coincident points and the ninth fixed point to- 
gether with any two lines of the pencil through the eight points. If the 
nine basal points coincide, any three lines through it form a cubic of 
the system. 


The inverse of a conic from any point not on the curve is a nodal 
bicircular quartic. This is shown by inverting the general equation of 
the conic 


-^ and -^— , 

by substituting for x and y, — ^— ^ — ^ and —^^ — - , we get the equation 

ax^ -(- 2hxy-j-by 2 -)- 2 (gx-|-fy) (x 2 -^y 2) _|_c(x2 -|-y 2) 2 ^o. 

The origin is evidently a double point on the curve, and is a crunode, 
acnode, or cusp according as the conic is a hyperbola, ellipse, or par- 
abola. The factors of the terms of the fourth degree, viz: (x-fiy)(x-|-iy) 
(x — iy) (x — iy), show that the two imaginary circular points at infinity 
are double points on the quartic, which is thus trinodal. Hence this 
nodal, bicircular quartic can be projected into the most general form 
of the trinodal quartic. Trinodal quartics are unicursal. 

If the conic which we invert be a parbola, the quartic has two nodes 
and one cusp. If the conic be inverted from a focus, the quartic has 
the two circular points at infinity for cusps. This is best shown analyt- 
ically as follows: let the equation of the conic, origin being at the fo- 
cus, be written 

x^ y2 2aex b^ 
7i"+ "bi + ^T" — ^ = o- 

Inverting this we have 

X2 y2 2aex(x2-^y2) b2(x2+y2)2 

a2 ' b2 ' a2 a2 

Now transform this equation so that the lines joining the origin to the 
circular points at infinity shall be the axes of reference. To do this 

let x-f-iy=Xj and x — iy=yj ; < ' < x=: \ and y= -^—. — -. 


Making these substitutions and reducing we have (dropping the sub- 

x2-j-2xy-|-y2 x2 — 2xy-|-y2 4aexy (x-j-y) b^x^yS 

a2 ~ b2 ~ a2 ~ ^^ ^ ° 

Making this equation homogeneous by means of z, we have 

( (x2-|-2xy-j--y^) (x^ — 2xy-(-y2) ) 4aexyz(x-|-y) b^x^yS 

{ a3 b2 


which is the equation of the quartic referred to the triangle formed by 
the three nodes. We are now able to determine the nature of the 
node at the vertex (y, z). Factor x^ out of all the terms which contain 
it; and arrange thus: 

4aeyz b^y^ ) C yz^ yz^ 2aey2z ) 

+ 2X^ -— -+— ^__ ^^— KJ^ 


( a2 b2 a2 a2 \ ' ) a^ ' b^ 

a2 b2 —^ 

The quantity which multr'plies x^ represents the two tangents at the 
double point (y, z); but this quantity is a perfect square and hence we 
have a cusp. In this way the point (x, z) may be shown to be a cusp. 
Lastly, when a parabola is inverted from the focus, we obtain a tri- 
cuspidal quartic. 

The trinodal quartic can be generated in a manner analogous to that 
shown for the nodal cubic. Let two projective pencils of rays have 
their vertices at A and B, the locus of intersection of corresponding 
rays is a conic through A and B. Invert from any point O in the plane, 
and we obtain two systems of coaxial circles, O A being the axis of one 
and O B of the other. The locus of intersection of corresponding 
circles is a bicircular quartic having a node at O. Projecting the whole 
figure we have the following theorem: — two projective systems of conies 
through O P Q A and O P Q B generate by their corresponding inter- 
sections a trinodal quartic having its nodes at O, P, and Q, and pass- 
ing through A and B. 

It is evident that the quartic generated in this way may 
have three nodes, one node and two cusps, two nodes and one cusp, 
or three cusps, dependingup on the nature of the conic inverted and 
the centre of inversion. Making this the basis of classification we thus 
distinguish four varieties of unicursal quartics. To these must be add- 
ed a fifth variety, viz: the quartic with a triple point. Each of these 
varieties will be consided separately. 

The method of treating unicursal quartics given in this and the next 
four sections is in some respects similar to that suggested by Cayley 


in Salmon's Higher Plane Curves. But the method here sketched out 
is very different in its point of view and much wider in its application, 
yielding a multitude of new theorems not suggested by Cayley's meth- 


The quartic with three double points is a curve of the sixth class 
having four double tangents and six cusps (Salmon's H. P. C. Art. 
243). Hence its reciprocal is of the sixth degree with four double 
points, six cusps, three double tangents, and no points of inflection. 

The locus of intersection of tangents to a conic at right angles to 
one another is a circle. Inverting: — the locus of intersection of circles 
through the node and tangent a nodal, bicircular quartic and at right 
angles to one another is a circle. Projecting: — through the three nodes 
of a quartic draw two conies, each touching the quartic and intersect- 
ing so that the two tangents to the conies at their point of intersection, 
together with the lines from it to two of the nodes, form a harmonic 
pencil; the locus of all such intersctions is a conic through these two 
nodes. Whenever the two tangents to the quartic from the third node, 
together with the lines from it to the other two nodes, form a harmon- 
ic pencil, this last conic breaks up into two right lines. 

Any chord of a conic through O is cut harmonically by the conic 
and the polar of O. Inverting from O and projecting: — from one of the 
nodes of a trinodal quartic draw the two tangents to the quartic (not 
tangents at the node); draw the conic through these two points of con- 
tact and the three nodes; any line through the first mentioned node is 
cut harmonically by this conic, the quartic and the line joining the 
other two nodes. 

If a triangle circumscribe a conic, the three lines from the angular 
points of the triangle to the points of contact of the opposite sides in- 
tersect in a point. Inverting and projecting: — through the three nodes 
of a quartic draw three conies touching the quartic; through the point 
of intersection of two of these conies, the point of contact of the 
third, and the three nodes draw a conic; three such conies can be 
drawn and they pass through a fixed point. 

The eight points of contact of two conies with their four common 
tangents lie on a conic, which is the locus of a point, the pairs of tan- 
gents from which to the two given conies form a harmonic pencil. In- 
verting and projecting: — two connodal trinodal quartics have four com- 
mon tangent conies through the three nodes; their eight points of con- 
tact lie on another connodal trinodal quartic; if from any point on the 
last quartic four conies be drawn through the nodes and tangent in 
pairs to the first quartics, any line through a node is cut harmonically 
by these four conies. 


The eight common tangents to two conies at their common points 
all touch a conic. Inverting and projecting: — two connodal trinodal 
quartics intersect in four other points; eight conies can be drawn through 
the three nodes tangent to the quartics at these points of intersection; 
these eight conies all touch another connodal trinodal quartic. 

A series of conies through four fixed points is cut by any transver- 
sal in a range of points in involution. Inverting and projecting: — a series 
of connodal trinodal quartics can be passed through four other fixed 
points; any conic through the three nodes cuts the series of quartics in 
pairs of points which determine at a node a pencil in involution. The 
conic touches two of the quartics and the lines to the points of contact 
are the foci of the pencil. 

If the sides of two triangles touch a given conic, their six angular 
points will lie on another conic. Inverting and projecting: — if two 
groups of three conies each be passed through three nodes and tangent 
to the quartic, their six points of intersection (three of each group) 
lie on another connodal trinodal quartic. 

If the two triangles are inscribed in a conic, their six sides touch 
another conic. Inverting and projecting: — if two groups of three con- 
ies each be passed through the three nodes of a quartic so that the three 
points of intersection of each group lie on the quartic, these six conies 
all touch another connodal trinodal quartic. 

A triangle is circumscribed about one conic, and two of its angular 
points are on a second conic; the locus of its third angular point is a 
conic. — Inverting and projecting: — if three conies be drawn through 
the three nodes of two connodal trinodal quartics so that they all touch 
one of the quartics and two of their points of intersection are on the 
other quartic, the locus of their third point of intersection is a conno- 
dal trinodal quartic. 

A triangle is inscribed in one conic and two of its sides touch a sec- 
ond conic; the envelope of its third side is a conic. Inverting and pro- 
jecting: — if three conies be drawn through the three nodes of two con- 
nodal trinodal quartics so that their three points of intersection lie on 
one of the quartics and two of them touch the other quartic, the envel- 
ope of the third conic is another connodal trinodal quartic. 

The theorems of this section are stated in the most general terms and 
are still true when one or more of the nodes are changed into cusps. 
It is therefore not necessary to give separate theorems for the case of 
one cusp and two nodes. 


A quartic with one node and two cusps is a curve of the fourth 
class, having one double tangent and two points of inflection (see 


Salmon). Hence its reciprocal is also a nodal bicuspidal quartic, a 
fact of which frequent note will be made in this section. 

The inverse of a conic with respect to a focus is a curve called 
Pascal's Limacon. From the polar equation of a conic, the focus 
being the pole, it is evident that the polar equation of the limacon 
may be written in the form: 

r= — cos,x -\ : 

P P 

where e and p are constants, being respectively the eccentricity and 
semi-latus rectum of the conic. 

From the above equation it is readily seen that the curve may be 
traced by drawing from a fixed point O on a circle any number of 
chords and laying off a constant length on each of these lines, meas- 
ured from the circumference of the circle. The point O is the node 
of the limacon; and the fixed circle, which I shall call the base circle, 
is the inverse of the directrix of the conic. This is readily shown as 

follows: — the polar equation of the directrix is r= — - — . Hence the 



equation of its inverse is r= , which is the equation of the base 

circle of the lima9on. 

The envelope of circles on the focal radii of a conic as diameters is 
the auxiliary circle. Inverting: — the envelope of perpendiculars at the 
extremities of the nodal radii of a limacon is a circle with its centre 
on the axis and having double contact with the limacon. Projecting: — 
from any point on a nodal bicuspidal quartic draw lines to the three 
nodes and a fourth line forming with them a harmonic pencil; the en- 
velope of all such lines is a conic through the two cusps and having 
double contact with the quartic; the chord of contact passes through 
the node and cuts the line joining the cusps so that this point of inter- 
section, the two cusps, and intersection of the double tangent with the 
cuspidal line form a harmonic range. Reciprocating: — on any tan- 
gent to a nodal bicircular quartic take the three points where it cuts 
the two inflectional tangents and the double tangent, and a fourth point 
forming with these a harmonic range; the locus of all such points is a 
conic touching the two inflectional tangents and having double contact 
with the quartic; the pole of the chord of contact is on the double 
tangent; join this last point to the intersection of the inflectional tan- 
gents and join the node with the same intersection; these four lines 
form a harmonious pencil. 

If the tangent at any point P of a conic meet the directrix in Q, the 
line P Q will subtend a right angle at the focus O; the circle P O Q has 

newson: unicursal curves by method of inversion. 6i 

PQfor a diameter and hence cuts the conic at P at right angles. 
Inverting: — from any point P on the limacon draw O P to the node O; 
draw O Q perpendicular to O P meeting the base circle in Q; P Q is 
normal to the limacon at P. Projecting: — from any point P on a 
nodal bicuspidal quartic draw lines to the three nodes and a fourth 
harmonic to these three; from O draw lines to the two cusps and a 
fourth harmonic to these two and the line O P; the locus of the inter- 
section of the fourth line of each pencil is a conic through the three 
nodes. Call this the basal conic of the quartic. Reciprocating: — on 
any given tangent to a nodal bicuspidal quartic take its points of 
intersection with the double tangent and the inflectional tangents, and 
a fourth point harmonic with these; on the double tangent take its 
points of intersection with the given tangent and the inflectional tan- 
gents, and a fourth point harmonic with these; the envelope of the 
lines joining the fourth point of these two ranges is a conic touching 
the double and inflectional tangents. 

The locus of the foot of the perpendicular from the focus on the 
tangent to a conic is the auxiliary circle. Inverting: — draw a circle 
through the node tangent to a lima9on; draw the diameter O P of this 
circle; the locus of P is a circle having double contact with the lima- 
9on, the axis being the chord of contact. Cor.; the locus of the 
centre of the tangent circle is also a circle. Projecting:— through the 
three nodes of a nodal bicuspidal quartic draw any conic touching the 
quartic; the locus of the pole with respect to this conic of the line 
joining the two cusps is a conic; draw the chord O P of the first conic 
through the node O and the pole of the line joining the two cusps; 
the locus of P is a conic through the cusps, having double contact 
with the quartic. 

If chords of a conic subtend a constant angle at the focus, the 
tangents at the ends of the chords will meet on a fixed conic, and the 
chords will envelope another fixed conic; both these conies will have 
the same focus and directrix as the given conic. Inverting: — draw 
two nodal radii of a lima9on O P and O Q, making a given angle at O; 
the envelope of the circle P O Q is another limacon; the locus of the 
intersection of circles through O tangent to the limacon at P and Q is 
another limacon. These two limacons have the same node and base 
circle as the given one. Projecting: — through the node O of a nodal 
bicuspidal quartic draw a pencil of radii in involution; let O P and O Q 
be a conjugate pair of these nodal radii; the envelope of the conic 
through P, Q, and the three nodes, is another quartic of the same 
kind: also draw conies through the three nodes tangent to the quartic 
at P and Q; the locus of their point of intersection is another quartic 


of the same kind. These three quartics all have the same node, 
cusps, and base conic. 

Every focal chord of a conic is cut harmonically by the curve, 
the focus, and directrix. Inverting: — every nodal chord of a limacon 
is bisected by the base circle. Projecting: — every nodal chord of a 
nodal bicuspidal quartic is cut harmonically by the quartic, the base 
conic, and the line joining the two cusps. Reciprocating: — from any 
point on the double tangent of a nodal bicuspidal quartic draw the 
other two tangents to the quartic and a line to the intersection of the 
inflectional tangents; the fourth harmonic to these lines envelopes a 

Since the limacon is symmetrical with respect to the axis, it follows 
that the two points of inflection are situated symmetrically with 
respect to the axis. Hence the line joining the two points of inflec- 
tion is parallel to the double tangent. Therefore by projection we 
infer the following general theorem for the nodal bicuspidal quartic: 
the line joining the two cusps, the line joining the two points of inflec- 
tion, and the double tangent meet in a point. Also the fourth har- 
monic points on each of these lines lie on a line through the node. 
Reciprocating: — the point of intersection of the cuspidal tangents, the 
the point of intersection of inflectional tangents, and the node all lie 
on a right line. From the node draw a fourth harmonic to this right 
line and the tangents at the node; draw a fourth line harmonic to this 
right line and the inflectional tangents; draw a fourth harmonic to the 
cuspidal tangents and this right line; these three lines all meet in a 
point on the double tangent. 


A tricuspidal quartic is a curve of the third class with one double 
tangent and no inflection. Its reciprocal is therefore a nodal cubic. 

We shall begin by reciprocating some of the simpler properties of 
nodal cubics. Since the three points of inflection of a nodal cubic 
lie on a right line, it follows that the three cuspidal tangents of a 
tr-icuspidal quartic meet in a point. The reciprocal of the harmonic 
polar of a point of inflection is a point on the double tangent, found 
by drawing through the point of intersection of the three cuspidal 
tangents a line forming with them a harmonic pencil. Three such 
lines can be drawn and it is not difficult to distinguish them. All six 
lines form a pencil in involution, the lines to the points of con- 
tact of the double tangent being the foci. I shall call such a 
point on the double tangent the harmonic point of the cuspidal tan- 
gent. Since any two inflectional tangents of a nodal cubic meet on 
the harmonic polar of the third point of inflection, it follows that any 

newson: unicursal curves by method of inversion. 63 

two cusps of a trinodal quartic and the harmonic point of the third 
cuspidal tangent lie on a right line. Since the point of contact of the 
tangents from a point of inflection of a nodal cubic is on the harmonic 
polar of the point, it follows that the tangent to the tricuspidal quartic 
at the point where it is cut by a cuspidal tangent passes through the 
harmonic point of that cuspidal tangent. 

The inverse of the parabola from a focus is the cardioid ; and the 
inverse of the corresponding directrix is the base circle of the cardioid. 
The cardioid projects into a tricuspidal quartic and its base circle 
projects into a conic through the three cusps which has the same 
general properties as the base conic of the nodal bicuspidal quartic. 

The circle circumscribing the triangle formed by the three tangents 
to a parabola passes through the focus. Inverting : — three circles 
through the cusp, and tangent to a cardioid, intersect in three collinear 
points. Projecting: — three conies through the three cusps of a tricus- 
pidal quartic and touching the quartic intersect in three collinear 
points. Reciprocating: — if three conies touch the three inflectional 
tangents of a nodal cubic and the cubic itself, their three other com- 
mon tangents intersect in a point. 

Circles described on the focal radii of a parabola as diameters 
touch the tangent through the vertex. Inverting and projecting: — 
from a point on a tricuspidal quartic lines are drawn to the three 
cusps and a fourth line forming a harmonic pencil^ the envelope of 
this fourth line is a conic through the three cusps and touching the 
quartic at the point where the latter is cut by one of the cuspidal 
tangents. There are three such conies, one corresponding to each 
cusp. At any cusp the tangent to its corresponding base conic, the 
cuspidal tangent, and the lines to the other two cusps form a harmonic 
pencil. Reciprocating : — on any tangent to a nodal cubic take the 
three points of intersection with the inflectional tangents and a fourth 
point forming with these a harmonic range; the locus of this fourth point 
is a conic touching the three inflectional tangents and the cubic. The 
tangent to the cubic where it is touched by the conic goes through a 
point of inflection. On any inflectional tangent the point of contact 
of this conic, the point of inflection, and the points of intersection 
of the other two inflectional tangents form a harmonic range. 

The circle described on any focal chord of a parabola as diameter 
will touch the directrix. Inverting : — the circle described on any 
cuspidal chord of a cardioid will touch the base circle. Projecting : — 
through a cusp C draw any chord of a tricuspidal quartic meeting the 
quartic in P and O ; draw a conic through P, O, and the other two 
cusps so that the pencil at P formed by the tangent to the conic and 


the lines to the cusps is harmonic ; all such conies will touch the base 
conic of the cusp C. Reciprocating: — from O, on any inflectional 
tangent of a nodal cubic, draw two tangents P and Q to the cubic ; 
draw a conic touching the tangents P and Q and the other two inflec- 
tional tangents so that the range on one of these tangents formed by 
the point of contact of the conic and the intersection of the three 
inflectional tangent is harmonic; the envelope of all such conies is a 
conic touching the three inflectional tangents. 

The directrix of a parabola is the locus of the intersection of tan- 
gents at right angles to one another. Inverting and projecting : — 
through any point P on the base conic of a cusp C of the tricuspidal 
quartic, two conies can be drawn through the three cusps and touching 
the quartic ; their two tangents at P and the lines to the other two 
cusps form a harmonic pencil ; their two points of contact lie on a 
line through C. Reciprocating: — from any point on one of the inflec- 
tional tangents to a nodal cubic draw the two tangents P and Q ; draw 
two conies each touching the cubic and the three inflectional tangents, 
one touching P and the other Q ; the envelope of their other common 
tangent is a conic touching the three inflectional tangents ; the two 
points of contact of any one of these common tangents and the points 
where it cuts the other two inflectional tangents form a harmonic 

Any two parabolas which have a common focus and their axes in 
opposite directions cut at right angles. Inverting : — any two cardioids 
having a common cusp and their axes in opposite directions cut at right 
angles. Projecting : — two tricuspidal quartics having c )mmon cusps 
and at one of the cusps the same 'cuspidal tangent, but the cusps 
pointed in opposite directions, cut at such an angle that the tangents 
at a point of intersection and the lines to the other two cusps form a 
harmonic pencil. Reciprocating : — two nodal cubics have common 
inflectional tangents and on one of them the points of inflection 
common, but the branches of the curve on opposite sides of the line ; 
any common tangent to the two curves is cut harmonically by the 
points of contact and the other two inflectional tangents. 

Circles are described on any two focal chords of a parabola as 
diameters ; their common chord goes through the vertex of the para- 
bola. Inverting : — circles are described on any two cuspidal chords 
of a cardioid ; the circle through their points of intersection and the 
cusp goes also through the vertex of the cardioid. Projecting : — 
through one of the cusps of a tricuspidal quartic draw two chords ; 
draw conies through the other two cusps and the extremities of each 
of these chords so that the pole of the line joining the other two 

newson: unicursal curves by method of inversion. 65 

cusps with respect to each of these conies is on the corresponding 
chord ; the conic through the points of intersection of these two 
conies and the cusps passes also through the point where the 
cuspidal tangent of the first mentioned cusp cuts the quartic. Recip- 
rocating: — on one of the inflectional tangents, of a nodal cubic take 
two points P and Q; draw a pair of tangents from each of these points 
to the cubic; draw two conies each touching a pair of these tangents 
and the other two inflectional tangents, so that the polars of the point 
of intersection of the other two inflectional tangents with respect to 
each of those conies pass respectively through P and Q; the conic 
touching the common tangents to these two conies and the three 
inflectional tangents touches also the tangent from the first mentioned 
point of inflection to the cubic. 


Since a triple point is analytically equivalent to three double points, 
a quartic with a triple point is unicursal. Such a quartic is obtained 
by inverting a unicursal cubic from its node. The equation of such a 
cubic may be written U3-]-U3=o, where Ug and U3 are homogeneous 
functions of the second and third degree respectively in x and y. Hence 
the equation of the inverse curve isu3-f-U3(x2-|-y^), which shows that 
the origin is a triple point and the quartic circular. By projecting this 
all other forms maybe obtained. 

The nature of the triple point depends upon the relation of the line 
at infinity to the cubic before inversion. Thus the line at infinity may 
cut the cubic in three distinct points all real, or one real and two imag- 
inary, in one real and two coincident points (an ordinary tangent), or 
in three coincident points (an inflectional tangent). Hence the quartic 
may have at the triple point three distinct tangents all real, or one real 
and two imaginary, one real and two coincident, or all coincident. 

This quartic may be generated in a manner similar to that used for 
the curves already discussed. We showed in the section on nodal cubics 
that a system of conies through A, B, C, D, and a projective pencil of 
rays with its vertex at A generate by the intersection of corresponding 
elements a cubic with a node at A. Invert the whole figure from A and 
then project: — the pencil of rays remains a pencil; the system of con- 
ies becomes a system of unicursal cubics having a common node at A 
and passing through five other common points; the cubic inverts and 
projects into a quartic with a triple point at A, passing through the 
five other common points of the system of cubics. 

The three points of inflection of a nodal cubic lie on a right line. 
Inverting: — there are three points on a circular quartic with a triple 
point whose osculating circles pass through the triple point, and these 


three points lie on a circle through the triple point. Let these three 
points be designated by A, B, and C. The lines from the triple point 
O to the points A, B, C, and the common chord of the osculating cir- 
cles at two of them form a harmonic pencil. Through one of these 
points, A, and the triple point draw a circle touching the quartic; the 
point of contact is on the common chord of the osculating circles at B 

From theorems which we have already proved for a system of cubics 
having a common node and passing through five others fixed points, 
we can infer other theorems for a system of quartics having a common 
triple point and passing through seven other fixed points. For example, 
any conic through the common double point and two of the fixed 
points is cut by the cubics in pairs of points which determine at the 
node a pencil in involution. Hence any cubic having its node at the 
common triple point and passing through any four of the fixed points 
is cut by the quartics in pairs of points which determine at the com- 
mon triple point a pencil in involution. Again, the pairs of tangents 
to the cubics at the common double point form a pencil in involution, 
the two cuspidal tangents being the foci of the pencil. Inverting: — the 
line at infinity (which passes through two of the fixed points, i. e. 
the circular points) cuts the system of circular quartics in pairs of 
points in involution. Projecting: — a line through any two of the seven 
fixed points cuts the system of quartics in pairs of points in involution. 
Since the line at infinity touches the inverse of a cuspidal cubic, it 
follows that any line through two of the fixed points will touch two of 
the quartics of the system; these points of contact are therefore the 
foci of the involution. 

Other theorems on such a system of quartics will be given in the 
next section. 


Let U and V represent a system of quartics through sixteen points. 
Since the discriminant of quartic is of the 27th degree in the coefficients 
it follows that there are 27 values of k for which the discriminant 
vanishes, and hence 2 7 quartics of the system which have double points. 
As in case of cubics these 27 points are called the critic centres of the 
system. Let the equation of the system of quartics be written 


In a manner similar to that employed for cubics, we find the equa- 
tion of the polar cubics of the origin with respect to the system to be 


The polar conies of the origin are given by 

newson: unicursal curves by method of inversion. 67 

and the polar lines of the origin, by Uj-f-4UQ=o. 

The origin may be any point in the plane and hence we conclude 
that only one quartic of the system passes through a given point and 
that the polar cubics of any point form a system through nine points. 
The polar conies of any point form a system through four points and 
the polar lines meet in a point. 

If one of the critic centres be taken for origin, we can readily see 
that such a point is also a critic centre on each of its systems of polar 
curves. It is thus at a vertex of the self-polar triangle of its system of 
polar conies and the opposite side of the triangle is the common polar 
line of the critic centre with respect to each of the systems of curves. 
The tangents at the node of the nodal quartic coincide with those of 
its polar cubic and these we know coincide with the lines which con- 
stitute its polar conic. 

If two of the sixteen basal points coincide, such a point is a critic 
centre. The argument is the same as for a system of cubics. We can 
also see that two of the basal points of each of its systems of polar 
curves coincide at the critic centre. The sixteen basal points of the 
system of quartics may unite two and two so that it is possible to draw 
a system of quartics touching eight given lines each at a fixed point. 

,If three of the basal points of our system of quartics coincide, all 
the quartics have at such a point a common point of inflection and a 
common inflectional tangent. The demonstration is the same as that 
already given for cubics. The system of polar cubics of such a point 
also have this point for a common point if inflection and the same 
tangent for a common inflectional tangent. I prefer to show this 
analytically for the sake of the method. The equation of the system 
of quartics having the origin for a common point of inflection and the 
axis of y for a common inflectional tangent may be written 

u,+U3+^ (B+kB0xy+(C+kCJy2 ^+(A+kAJy=o. 
The equation of the polar cubics of the origin is therefore, 

U3 + 2^ (B+kBJxy+(C+kCOy^ [^+3(A+kAJy=o, 
which proves the proposition. The properties of the system of polar 
conies of such a point are therefore the same as those already proved 
for cubics. One quartic of the system has a double point at the 
common point of inflection of the others. 

When four basal points coincide they give rise either to a common 
point of undulation or a common double point on all the quartics of 
the system. The equation of the system having a common point of 
undulation may be written 


u, + (A+kA,)x2y+(B+kB0xy2 + (C+kC0y3 + (D+kD0xy+ 

There is one value of k for which the last term vanishes, and hence 
the origin is a critic centre. The polar cubics of the point of undula- 
tion break up into a system of conic& through four points and the 
common tangent at the common point of undulation. For the equa- 
of the polar cubics is 

y^ (A+kA0x2 + (B+kK0xy+(C+kC,)y^ + 2(D+kD,)x+ 
2(E+kEJy+(F-fkF0 ^=o 

The system of polar conies of the origin consequently breaks up into 
the line y=o and a pencil meeting in a point. The common tangent 
at the common point of undulation is also the common polar line of 
the point of undulation. 

When the four coincident basal points form a common double 
point on the quartic, it is not difficult to show that two of the quartics 
are cuspidal at this point. The polar cubics of the common double 
point form a system having the same point for common double point. 
The tangents to the quartics at the common node constitute the sys- 
tem of polar conies and form a pencil in involution. Twelve of the 
sixteen basal points may unite in three groups of four each and the 
system of quartics is then trinodal and passes through four other fixed 
points. This is the system obtained by inverting a system of conies 
through four points and then projecting. 

A few special cases should be noticed here. If the four fixed points 
and two of the nodes lie on a conic, this conic together with the two 
lines from the third node to the first two constitute a quartic of the 
system. If the four fixed points lie on a line, the quartic then consists 
of this line and the sides of the triangle formed by the nodes. If the 
three nodes and three of the fixed points lie on a conic, the system of 
quartics then consists of this conic and a system of conies through the 
three nodes and the fourth fixed point. A special case of a system of 
quartics with three nodes is a system of cubics having a common node 
and passing through five other fixed points together with a line through 
two of them. 

If a fifth basal point be moved up to join the four at the common 
node, the quartics have one tangent at the common node common to 
all. If six basal points coincide they have both tangents at the node 
common to all. In this case one of the quartics has a triple point at 
the common node of the others. If seven basal points coincide, one of 
these tangents is an inflectional tangent as well. If eight points coincide, 
both are inflectional tangents. 

newson: unicursal curves by method of inversion. 69 

When nine of the basal points of a system of quartics coincide, the 
quartics have a common triple point. This is nicely shown by invert- 
ing a system of nodal cubics from the common node. The inverse 
curves form a system of quartics having a triple point and passing 
through seven other fixed points. The common triple point on two 
quartics counts for nine points of intersection and the seven others 
make the requisite sixteen. From our knowledge of a system of cubics 
having a common node it is readily inferred that three of the quartics 
must each break up into a nodal cubic and a right line through the 
node. If the seven fixed points of the system of quartics lie on a cubic 
having a node at the common triple point, the system of quartics then 
consists of this cubic and a pencil of lines through the node. If two 
of the seven fixed points lie on a line through the common triple point, 
the system of quartics then consists of this right line and a system of 
cubics through the other five points and having a common node at the 
common triple point. 

The system of cubics having a common node may have one, two, or 
three of the other basal points at infinity; and these may be all dis- 
tinct or two or three of them coincident. Whence we infer that if the 
system of quartics have ten coincident basal points, one of the tan- 
gents at the triple point is common to all the quartics of the system. 
If eleven basal points coincide, two of the triple-point tangents are 
common to all the quartics. If twelve coincide, all three triple-point 
tangents are common. These triple-point tangents may be all distinct, 
two coincident, or all three coincident. 

If thirteen basal points coincide, the system of quartics then consists 
of the three fixed lines joining the multiple point to the other three, to- 
gether with a pencil of lines through the multiple point. If fourteen 
points coincide, two lines are fixed and these with any two lines of the 
pencil form a quartic of the system. If fifteen points coincide, only 
one line is fixed and each quartic consists of this line and any other 
three of the pencil. When all sixteen points coincide, any four lines 
through it form a quartic of the system. 

In this paper cubic and quartic curves only are considered. I expect 
in a future paper to extend the methods herein developed to curves of 
still higher degrees. Many of the present results can be generalized 
and stated for a unicursal curve of the nth degree. I have purposely 
omitted all consideration of focal properties of these curves. There 
are also many special forms of interest which do not properly belong 
to a general treatment of the subject. 



The theorem concerning the three points on a conic A, B, and C, 
whose osculating circles pass through a fourth point O on the conic, 
is due to Steiner. From the properties of the harmonic polars of the 
points of inflection on a nodal cubic we may infer many other theor- 
ems concerning the points A, B, and C on a conic. Let the cubic be 
projected into a circular cubic and then inverted from the node. Its 
points of inflection Aj, Bj, Cj invert into the points A, B, and C. 
The harmonic polar of A^ inverts into the common chord O P of the 
circles osculating the conic at B and C; and similarly for the other 
harmonic polars. 

The pencil 0-|ABPC [- is harmonic. Any circle through A and O 
meets the conic in S and T so that the pencil 0-jASPT[- is har- 
monic. The two circles through O and tangent to the conic at S and T 
intersecton O P. If two circles be drawn through O and A intersecting the 
conic one in S and T and the other in and U V, the circles O S U and 
O T V intersect on O P; so also the cirles O S V and O T U. But one 
circle can be drawn through O and A and tangent to the conic; its point 
of contact is on O P. Let 1, m, and n be three points on the conic on 
a circle through O. Draw the circles O A 1, O A m, 

and OA n intersecting the conic again in 1^, m^, n^; 1^, m^, n^, are 
also on a circle through O, and the. circles through 1, m, n and 
Ij, m^, n^ intersect on O P. 


From the fundamental property of the Cissoid of Diodes we can ob- 
tain by inversion an interesting theorem concerning the parabola. In 
the figure of the Cissoid given in Salmon's H. P. C. Art. 214, 
AMj=MR, whence AMj=A R — AM;orAR = A M+A Mj. In- 
verting from the cusp and representing the inverse points by the same 
letters, we have for the parabola 


A R ~ A M ' AMj 

This result is interpreted as follows: — draw the circle of curvature 
at the vertex of a parabola; this circle is tangent to the ordinate B D 
which is equal to the abscissa A D; draw a line through A cutting the 
circle in R, the ordinate B D in M, and the parabola in M^; then 



AR AM ' AMj 

Draw the circle with centre at D and radius A D; any chord of the 
parabola through the vertex is cut harmonically by the parabola, the 
circle, and the double ordinate through D. 

Foreign Settlements in Kansas. 


Explanatory. — Some years ago when the subject of dialect study in 
Kansas, or rather of Kansas dialect, was mentioned, Mr. Noble Pren- 
tis, a gentleman who is warranted in speaking with authority on Kansas, 
was inclined to think that he settled the question in short order by de- 
claring that there is no Kansas dialect. Probably the majority of 
intelligent citizens of the state would turn off the subject with the same 
reply. In the sense of a mode of speech common to the inhabitants 
of Kansas and peculiar to them, Mr. Prentis was indeed right. There 
is no vocabulary, at least no extensive vocabulary, by which the native 
of Kansas may be recognized in the American Babel. We have no 
distinctive pronunciation by which we may be known from the inhabi- 
tants of Nebraska or set apart from the citizens of Missouri. The 
verb fails to agree with its subject and the participle is deprived of its 
final 'g' with about equal frequency in Western Kansas and Eastern 

But in the same sense it is true that there is no Kansas flora, no 
Kansas fauna; that is, there is no plant and there is no animal found 
quite generally in Kansas and found nowhere outside of Kansas. The 
remark that there is no such thing as a Kansas dialect rests upon a 
misapprehension of what is meant by the term. In just the same way 
that we speak of the flora and the fauna of Kansas we may speak of 
the dialect of Kansas. Yet to avoid popular misapprehension it may 
be better to speak of dialect in Kansas, rather than of Kansas dialect. 

Dialect study involves the observation and description of all facts 
concerning the natural living speech of men, and especially those 
points in which the speech of individuals or groups differs from that 
of the standard literary language as represented in classic writers and 
classic speakers. Standard literary English is always a little behind 
the times. It is the stuffed and mounted specimen in the museum. 
Dialect is the live animal on its native heath. Most people, indeed, 
will think that their speech does not differ materially from standard 
English. They say. We speak near enough alike "for practical pur- 
poses," But a thousand years hence the pronunciation of our country 

(71) KAN. VNIV. qiJAK., vol.. 1., NO. 2, OCT., 1S92. 


may have changed so much that it will seem like another language, 
and our descendants will write learned theses to prove that we pro- 
nounced 'cough' like cow or like cuff. A new language will have grown 
out of an old one, but no one know how it came about. Careful dia- 
lect study will help explain it. 

Kansas is a peculiarly favorable field for dialect study. We have 
here side by side representatives from nearly every state in the Union, 
and from a dozen foreign countries. The observer has here what else- 
where he must travel over half the world to find. In a district where 
the people are all natives, the speech is so nearly homogeneous that it 
is difficult to find any one who recognizes the peculiarities of his own 
language, but here the contrast of strange tongues strikes us immedi- 
ately and we become conscious early of the fact that all men do not 
speak alike. 

Study of dialect may be classified under the heads of pronunciation, 
grammar and vocabulary. Of these the last two are the easiest, and 
may be carried on by almost any one with pleasure and valuable re- 
sults. Pronunciation is the most difficult of these matters to study, as 
competent observation and reports can be made only by one who has 
made a thorough study of Phonetics. To those who might wish to 
take up the study of this branch of the subject. Sweet's Primer of 
Phonetics, and Grandgent's "Vowel Measurements" and "German and 
English Sounds" are recommended. 

In the study of dialect vocabularies it may become of the greatest 
importance to establish the exact locality of a word and the origin of 
the persons by whom it is used. For instance, in a family of my 
acquaintance the word 'slandering':^sauntering was familiar. It was a 
great puzzle to me until I learned that some of the children had been 
in the care of a German maid. The German word 'schlendern' sug- 
gested the unquestionable source of the peculiar word. As a 
source of information regarding the origin of the foreign elements 
of our population when their native speech shall have been for- 
gotten, but when the influence of it will be left in vocabulary and 
pronunciation I have thought that a map of the state with the 
location of all the foreign settlements of even quite small size would 
be of interest and in time of great value. In the following pages I 
transmit the results of my inquiries so far as received. It is my inten- 
tion to make the report complete and to publish the map, when as com- 
plete as it can be made, in colors. Unexpected difficulties have 
delayed the work and prevented its being complete. I depended for my 
information upon the County Superintendents of the State, a class of 
unusually intelligent and well-informed men and women. But in not 
a few cases there seems to have been a suspicion in the mind of my 

CARRUTH: foreign settlements in KANSAS. 73 

correspondent that I might be a special officer of the state trying to 
locate violations of the law requiring district schools to be conducted 
in English, and hence information regarding schools in foreign tongue 
was withheld or given but partially. And in some cases my in- 
formants were not well posted. A superintendent by the name of 
Schauermann in a county containing a town called Suabia, tells me 
that there are no foreigners in his county. In such cases time must 
be taken to secure a correct result. 

The questions asked were: Locate, and give origin, date and ap- 
proximate numbers of any settlements — six or more families — of for- 
eigners in your county. Do they still use their language to any extent? 
Do they have church service and schools conducted in their native 
tongue? In many replies one or more of these points was neglected 
so that the information is not yet by any means what I desire to make 
it. However, for the purpose of dialect study approximate correct- 
ness in location is of chief importance, and accuracy as. to numbers 
quite secondary. 

Through the aid of ministers and others to whom I have been re- 
ferred by the superintendents I hope to make this report complete in 
the following respects: The more exact limits of the settlement; the 
numbers of those foreign-born; the province as well as land from which 
they came; the number of churches; the number of schools and the 
length of time the same are conducted. I solicit the co-operation of 
everyone interested in this work, and also in the whole subject of dia- 
lect study. As intimated above, interested observers can without 
especial training do a service to science and at the same time find a 
fascinating pastime for themselves by making collections of words and 
constructions which they believe to be unusual or new. If any such 
are sent to the writer they will be duly acknowledged. They shoul.l 
in every case be accompanied by a statement of the age, condition and 
birth-place of the person using them. 

I wish here to call attention to the work of the American Dialect 
Society which exists to promote this study. It desires as wide a 
membership as possible, and membership is open to all interested in 
the subject. The publication of the Society, Dialect Notes, contains 
reports of word-lists and other studies, and will be an aid to any who 
wish to undertake similar work. Subscriptions and membership fees 
should be sent to Mr. C. H. Grandgent, Treas., Cambridge, Mass. 


Atchison. — Reports no foreigners, by John Klopfenstein, Supt. 
Allen. — Swedes and Danes, from 600 to 700, settled from 1873 to 
1880. Have church service, and four to five months school 


in Swedish. Grove and Elsmore townships. Germans in 
and around Humboldt. 

Anderson. — Irish in Reeder township, i860 and 1874. Germans, 
i860 in Putman township, 1880 in Westphalia township. 
Have both church and schools in German. 

Barber. — Reports "no foreigners worth making account of, by J. O. 
Hahn, Sup't. 

Barton. — No report. 

Bourbon. — Reports no foreigners. 

Brown. — No report. 

Butler. — Germans (Prussians), speaking Low German, in Fairmount 
and Milton townships. Hold church services but no schools 
in German. 

Chase. — Russian Mennonites, speaking both Russian and German, in 
Diamond Creek township, no church, but a portion of school- 
ing in German. Germans at Strong City, with both church 
and schools in their native tongue. 

Chatauqua. — Some Norwegians and Swedes, 1870, no location given. 
Neither schools nor churches in native tongue. One colony 
of 'Russians' (Mennonites?), who have also given up their 

Cherokee. — Weir City, French and Italians, number considerable. 
Scammon, Scotch, also in large numbers. The French and 
Italians have neither schools nor church in the native 
tongue. Germans in Ross, twenty families; with church origi- 
nally Lutheran, now Mennonite; school irregularly during past 
ten years. Swedes, a few families in Cherokee township, have 
entirely given up Swedish language. The Scotch, French 
and Italians in mines or mining industries. 

Cheyenne. -^Germans settled in 1885-86 on Hackberry Creek, 160 
persons; in the northeast corner of the county, 100; on west 
border of county, north of Republican river, 120; all with 
churches and the last two with occasional schools. Swedes 
are across the Republican adjoining last named German 
settlement, 120, entered 1886, having neither church nor 
school in Swedish. 

Clarke. — Reports no foreigners. 

Clay. — No report. 

Cloud. — Canadian French are scattered over much of the county, 
with considerable settlements in and around the towns of Con- 
cordia, Clyde, St. Joseph and Aurora. In all there are 
churches, in the first three schools also conducted in French. 


Norwegians occupy portions of Sibley and Lincoln townships 
with two churches in their own tongue. They number about 
three hundred. Irish occupy portions of Solomon and Lyon, 
the south part of Meredith and the southeast corner of Grant 

Coffey. — Germans in Liberty and on border of Leroy and Avon 
township. Have church service in German. 

Comanche. — Germans. A few scattered families. 

Cowley. — A few Swedes and Germans, widely scattered. 

Crawford. — Irish and French in Grant township; Swedes in west part 
of Sherman township, have all given up their language. Ital- 
ians, Austrians and other nationalities in south part of Wash- 
ington, southeast part of Sheridan and all over Baker town- 
ship, especially in Pittsburg, employed in mining and smelt- 

Decatur. — Swedes in Oberlin township; Mennonites in Prairie Dog 
township; Germans in and around Dresden, with Catholic 
church; Bohemians in Jennings and Garfield townships. 

Dickinson. — Germans, 500 in number settled in i860 in Liberty, 
Union and Lyon townships. Have three churches and two 
schools in German. Also in Wheatland, Jefferson, Bonner and 
Ridge townships, one church and a school. Swedes, 100 
settled in i860 in Center and Hayes township, with two 
churches and one school in Swedish. Irish, several hundred 
in south part of Banner township. 

Doniphan. — Germans in Wayne, Marion and southern part of Center. 
Burr Oak and Washington townships, with church service in 
native tongue. Norwegians in eastern part of Wolf River 

Douglas. — There are German settlements in Eudora township (300), 
Marion township (600), and Big Springs township (100), 
with churches in all and school in the first.' There are about 
five hundred Germans in Lawrence, with three German 
churches. There are smaller settlements of Germans and 
Scandinavians at several points in the county. 

Edwards. — Germans and Swedes in Kinsley, Jackson and Trenton 
townships, have church service in their mother tongue. 

Elk. — Swedes in Painter and Hood townships; Irish in Falls township; 
Germans on the border of I^lk and Wild Cat townships. 
None of these have ehurch or scliool in the native tongue, 
but all use it at home. 

Ellis. — Germans from Russia, settled about 1876 in Catherine, Hart- 


sook, Lookout, Wheatland and Freedom townships, about 
3000 in number — one third of the population of the county 
in 1 89 1. They are Catholics, and have both churches and 
parochial schools conducted in German. They are large 

Ellsworth. — Germans, (Methodists) in south part of Valley town- 
ship; Germans (Lutherans) in north part of Columbia and 
' Ellsworth townships; Germans (Baptists) from Prussia, in 
Green Garden and south wfest corner of Empire townships. 
These all have church service, and the Lutherans schools in 
their own tongue. Bohemians in Valley and Noble town- 

Finney. — Reports no foreigners. 

Ford. — Germans in Wheatland and Speareville townships. Have 
church, and one school conducted in German. 

Franklin. — No report. 

Garfield. — A few scattered families of Germans. 

Geary. — Irish (Connaught) came into Jackson, Jefferson and Liberty 
townships 1855, about 1500 in number. Germans (Anhalt) 
about 1500 came into Jefferson, Milford and Lyon townships 
in 1862. About 300 English from Sussex settled in Lyon 
township in 1870. The Germans maintain both churches and 
schools in German. 

Gove. — Swedes in Lewis and south part of Grinnell and south west 
corner of Gove townships. 

Graham. — A settlement of Canadian French (600) was made in adja- 
cent parts of Wild Horse and Morelan townships about 1880. 
They conduct church service but no schools in French. 

Grant. — Reports no foreigners. 

Gray. — Reports no foreigners. 

Greeley. — Swedes in the north west part of the county, have church 
service and summer school in Swedish. 

Greenwood. — Norwegians, about 200, in south part of Salem town- 
ship, have church in their own tongue. Germans in Shell 
Rock township, about 300, also have church in their own 

Hamilton. — Reports no foreigners. 

Harper. — Germans about the town of Harper. Hungarians south of 
Bluff City. Both have church service in German. About 
100 French in Odell and Stohrville townships. 

Harvey. — Germans (Russian Mennonites) from Odessa, a few from 
Prussia, the latter speaking Low German. They settled from 
1874 to 1876 in Alta and Garden townships, in Pleasant and 

CARRUTH: foreign settlements in KANSAS. 77 

the eastern part of Newton townships, and about Halstead. 
They have church and school in German, but speak Russian 
also. French in north part of Emina township, engaged in 
raising silk worms. 

Haskell. — Reports no foreigners. 

HoDGMAN. — Germans, about 30 families, settled about 1884 in south 
east corner of Sterling township; have preaching in German. 
Swedes in north west corner of Marena township. 

Jackson. — Danes in Netawaca and Whiting townships; Irish in Wash- 
ington township ; neither continue to use their native tongue. 

Jefferson. — Germans (Swiss) in Delaware, Jefferson and Kentucky- 
townships, maintaining church but no schools in German. 

Jewell. — Swedes, widely scattered in Sinclair, Allen, Ewing and 
Ezbon townships. 

Johnson. — No report. 

Kearney. — No report. 

Kingman. — A small settlement of Germans in Peters township, not 
using German to any extent. A few Irish in Union town- 

Kiowa. — No report. 

Labette. — Swedes and Norwegians settled in Valley and Canada 
townships about 1869. Still speak their language, but have 
neither church nor school in it. 

Lane.^ — Reports no foreigners. 

Leavenworth. — German, in 1873 ^^ Easton township; in Fair 
township in 1876; about 600 in each place. They have 
church service and schools in German. 

Lincoln. — Danes settled in Grant township in 1869 and since, 400 
in number. Germans settled in Pleasant township in 1872, 
with 300, and in Indiana township in 1869 and later with 
about 375. Danes and Germans have good schools and 
churches in native tongue. Bohemians in Highland town- 
ship in 1878 with thirty families. They speak their native 
tongue, but have no schools or churches. 

Linn. — Reports no foreigners. 

Logan. — Swedes, about 200, about Page City, in north part of 
county. Have church and school both in Swedish. 

Lyon. — AVelsh, between 1000 and 1500 are located in and about 
Emporia, with three churches conducted in Welsh. There 
is a settlement of Skandinavians near Olpe in Centre town- 

Marion. — Germans (Russian Mennonites), settled in Logan, Durham, 
Lehigh, Risley, Menno, West Branch and Liberty town- 


ships, from 1870 to 1875, some 5000 in number. They 
speak both Russian and German, and have church service 
and schools in the latter tongue. Bohemians, about 500 in 
number are settled in Clark township. They speak Czech 
and have church service in that language. French to the 
number of 200 settled soon after 1870 on the border of 
Grant and Doyle townships. They speak French still, but 
have no schools or church service in the language. 

Marshall. — Germans (Pommeranians, Hanoverians, Frisians) to the 
number of 2000, settled in the west part of Marysville town- 
ship from before i860 to 1870. They have both church and 
school in their own tongue. In the north part of Murray and 
the south half of Vermillion townships are 1200 Irish, who 
use only English in church and school. They came before 
1870. Bohemians in small numbers occupy the north part 
of Guittard, the north west corner of Waterville and the south 
part of Blue Rapids townships; Swedes a portion of the 
south part of Waterville township. No report as to their 

Meade. — No report. 

Miami. — Germans occupy the north part of Wea and the west part of 
Valley townships, about 200 in each settlement; the first has 
a Catholic, the second a Lutheran church. Irish occupy the 
north part of Osage township, also about 200 in number. 

Mitchell — Germans to the number of 1200 occupy Pittsburg, 
Blue Hill, and Carr Creek townships. In the first there is a 
church, and a well-attended school (Catholic) at Tipton. 

Montgomery. — Germans to the number of 100 are settled in and 
about Independence. They have church service in German 

Morris. — Swedes occupy Diamond Valley, the west part of Creek, 
and the north part of Parker townships. They have several 
churches and occasionally a school conducted in Swedish. 

Morton. — Reports no foreigners. 

McPherson. — Swedes settled, about 1870, in Union, Smoky Hill, 
Harper, New Gottland, Delmore, and portions of other 
townships, in large numbers, several thousand. They have 
several churches and excellent schools conducted in Swedish. 
Germans (Russian Mennonites) occupy Superior, Turkey 
Creek, Mound, Lone Tree, King City, and portions of 
McPherson and other southern townships, with several 
churches and schools. The Mennonites number about 5000 
and settled after 1876. 

CARRUTH: foreign settlements in KANSAS. 79 

Nemaha. — Germans (Swiss) occupy Nemaha and Washington, and 
a portion of Richmond townships, with German churches 
and schools. Irish are in Clear Creek and north east corner 
of Neuchatel townships. Most of Neuchatel township is 
occuppied by French (Swiss). 

Neosho. — Germans have a considerable settlement in the south east 
corner of Tioga township, with church service (Lutheran) in 
German; another in the east part of Lincoln township, where 
the language is spoken, but without church or school. 
Swedes have settlements in the north west part of Tioga and 
the east part of Big Creek townships; church in the first 
only, though in both Swedish is spoken almost exclusively. 

Ness. — No report. 

Norton. — Germans to the number of loo settled about 1880 in Grant 
township. They have church service in German. 

Osage. — Swedes, (700 in number,) settled in Grant township in 1871, 
where they have four churches conducted in Swedish. Welsh 
settled in 1869 in Arvonia township, and others in the north 
part of Superior township, 700 in number. They have six 
churches with services in Welsh. Germans are in the north 
part of Scranton and Ridgway townships, 200 in number; 
French in the central part of Superior township, 200 strong; 
Danes, 200, in north part of Melvern and Olivet townships; 
a considerable number of Scotch and Irish in and near Scran- 
ton. Most of these latter are engaged in coal mining. None 
of the foreigners have schools — except Sunday schools — in 
their native tongue. 

Osborne — Germans settled in Bloom township, where they have both 
church and school in their mother tongue. 

Ottawa. — Bohemians are located about the border of Sheridan and 
Fountain townships; Danes in the south part of Buckeye 
township; Irish, arrived about 1885, in the south part of 
Chapman township. None of these have church or school 
in a foreign tongue. 

Pawnee. — Swedes settled about 1877 in the west part of Garfield and 
the north part of Walnut townships, about 500 in all. They 
speak their native languge at home almost exclusively, and 
have preaching in it. 

Phillips. — Germans occupy Mound and south part of Dayton town- 
shijjs, with preaching and ])arochial school in German. 
Dutch occupy east part of Prairie View with adjacent portions 
of Long Island, Dayton, and Beaver townships, with preach- 


ing in Dutch. Some Danes and Swedes in Crystal township, 
and some scattered Poles. 

Pottawatomie. — Germans, about 2500, in west half of Mill Creek and 
adjacent portions of Sherman and Vienna townships, also in 
Pottawatomie and adjacent portions of Union, Douisville, 
and St. George townships. There are a few families in Wa- 
mego and St. Mary's Mission. They have several schools 
and churches conducted in German. Swedes occupy the 
whole of Blue Valley and the west border of Greene town- 
.ships, and have a small settlement in St. Mary township, 
numbering in all 1200. They have churce service and a pa- 
rochial school conducted in Swedish. Irish, to the number 
of 2000 occupy Clear Creek, Emmet, St. Mary and the border 
of St. Clere townships. French (Canadian), numbering 200, 
are found in the north part of Mill Creek and in Union town- 
ships, also a few about St. Mary's Mission. 

Pratt. — Reports no foreigners. 

Rawlins. — Germans in north east part of county with church and 
school in German. Swedes in east part of county, Bohemi- 
ans and Hungarians in north and north east portion. 

Reno. — Germans, about 300, came in 1880 to north east corner of 
Little River township, and about 200 to south east corner of 
Sumner township; alo a settlement in the west part of Hayes 
township; Dutch, about 350, came 1878 into Haven town- 
ship; Russians are settled in Salt Creek and Medford town- 
ships. All have church service and schools in their native 
tongue. There are also a few French and Danes in the 

Republic. — No report. 

Rice. — There is a considerable settlement of Germans in Valley town- 
ship, also Pennsylvania Germans in tne west part of Sterling 
township, with German churches in both. There are also 
some Germans in the town of Lyons, with a German church. 

Riley. — Swedes, about 2500, occupy Jackson, Swede Creek and ad- 
jacent portions of Mayday, Center, Fancy Creek and Sher- 
man townships. They have church services and summer 
schools in their own tongue. Bohemians and Germans, 
about 500 together, occupy the north east part of Swede 
Creek township. 

Rooks. — Germans, 10 families, settled 1880 in north part of North- 
hampton township. Bohemians, 10 families, located in north 
part of Logan township in 1879. French, about 30 families, 
south west corner of Logan, and same number in Twin 


Mound township, settled in 1878, speak French and have 
preaching in that tongue. The Germans have church service 
in German. 

Rush. — Germans (Russian Mennonites) are located as follows: in 
Big Timber township 75 families, in Illinois township 25 
families, in Pioneer township 50 families, in Lone Star town- 
ship 50 families, in Banner township 25 families, in Garfield 
township 25 families, in Belle Prairie township 30 families. 
In each township there is one church or more, but no Ger- 
man schools (?j. Bohemians are found in Banner and Gar- 
field townships, about 25 families in each. 

Russell. — No report. 

Saline. — Germans, (Bavarians and Swabians) about 200, in- Gypsum 
and south part of Ohio townships; Swedes, 3000 to 4000, 
in Washington, Smolan, Falun, Liberty and Smoky View, 
and adjacent parts of Spring Creek, Summit and Walnut 
townships, also in Salina. The Swedes came in 1868. Both 
Germans and Swedes have preaching and the latter have 
schools in their tongue. 

Scott. — No report. 

Sedgwick. — Germans, 3000 to 4000, settled from 1874-82 in Sher- 
man, Grand River, Garden Plain, Attica and LTnion town- 
ships. Also about 2000 Germans in the ciy of Wichita. In 
both places schools and churches in German. Russians, 
Italians, French and Scandinavians are represented, a few 
hundred each, in Wichita. In the country townships a few 
Dutch and Swedes. 

Seward. — Reports no foreigners. 

Shawnee. — Germans (Moravians) in Rossville township, speak their 
native tongue almost exclusively, but have neither school 
nor preaching in German. 

Sheridan. — No reports. 

Sherman. — Germans, 20 families about the center of the county. 
Swedes, 10 families in north east corner and 25 families in 
south west corner. Both Geimans and Swedes have schools 
and preaching in their native tongue 

Smith. — Germans in west part of Swan and Cedar townships, and on 
border of Harvey and Banner townships, in both churches, 
and in the first schools, in German. Dutch, in the south half 
of Lincoln township, have church but no schools. 

Stafford. — Germans in Hayes and Cooper townshijjs, three hundred 
in number, with two churches having service in German. 

Stanton. — A few scattered Cxermans. 


Stevens. — No report. 

Sumner. — No report. 

Thomas. — A few foreigners scattered about the country; all anglicised. 

Trego. — No report. 

Wabaunsee. — Germans and some Swedes in Kaw, Newbury, Mill, 
Farmer, Alma and Washington townships, with both preach- 
ing and schools in the mother tongue. 

Wallace. — Swedes, to the number of 300, have settled since 1888 in 
the south west corner of the county. They have church and 
and schools in Swedish. 

Washington. — Germans in Franklin, Charleston, Hanover and north 
part of Sherman townships, have both church and schools (6) 
conducted in German. Bohemians are numerous in Little 
Blue township; French about midway in Sherman township; 
Irish in Barnes, south part of Sherman and Koloko town- 

Wichita. — No report. 

Wilson. ^Swedes have settled since 1870 in Colfax township. They 
have preaching but no schools in Swedish. 

Woodson. — No report. 

Wyandotte. — Germans, 150, in north west corner of Prairie town- 
ship; Swedes, 350, in Kansas City, Kas. ; both have church 
service in the native language. Welsh, 200, in Rosedale, 
and Irish about midway in Wyandotte township. 


There are German settlements of thirty or more persons in the fol- 
lowing counties: Allen, Anderson, Butler, Chase, Chautauqua, Chero- 
kee, Cheyenne, Coffey, Comanche, Cowley, Crawford, Decatur, Dick- 
inson, Doniphan, Douglas, Edwards, Elk, Ellis, Ellsworth, Ford, 
Garfield, Geary, Greenwood, Harper, Harvey, Hodgeman, Jefferson, 
Kingman, Leavenworth, Lincoln, Marion, Marshall, Miami, Mitchell, 
Montgomery, McPherson, Nemaha, Neosho, Norton, Osage, Osborne, 
Phillips, Pottawatomie, Rawlins, Reno, Rice, Riley, Rooks, Rush, 
Saline, Sedgwick, Shawnee, Sherman, Smith, Stafford, Stanton, 
Thomas, Wabaunsee, Washington, Wyandotte. Total, 60. 

Skandinavians in settlements of thirty or over are found in: Allen, 
Chautauqua, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Cloud, Cowley, Crawford, Decatur, 
Dickinson, Doniphan, Edwards, Elk, Gove, Greeley, Greenwood, 
Hodgeman, Jackson, Jewell, Labette, Lincoln, Logan, Lyon, Marshall, 
Morris, McPherson, Neosho, Osage, Ottawa, Pawnee, Phillips, Potta- 
watomie, Rawlins, Riley, Saline, Sedgwick, Sherman, Wabaunsee, 
Wallace, Wilson, Wyandotte. Total, 40. 


Settlements of Slavonic peoples, Bohemians, Poles, Russians, or 
Hungarians, in: Decatur, Ellsworth, Harper, Lincoln, Marshall, 
Ottawa, Phillips, Rawlins, Reno, Riley, Rooks, Rush, Sedgwick, 
Washington. Total, 14. 

Settlements of Irish have been made in: Anderson, Cloud, Craw- 
ford, Dickinson, Doniphan, Elk, Geary, Jackson, Kingman, Marshall, 
Miami, Nemaha, Osage, Ottawa, Pottawatomie, Washington, Wyan- 
dotte. Total, 17. 

French are found in settlements of thirty or more in: Cherokee, 
Cloud, Crawford, Doniphan, Graham, Harper, Harvey, Nemaha, 
Osage, Pottawatomie, Rooks, Sedgwick, Washington. Total, 13. 

Italians are in Cherokee, Crawford, Sedgwick. Total, 3. 

Welsh in Lyon, Osage and Wyandotte. Total, 3. 

Dutch in Phillips, Reno, Sedgwick. Total, 3. 

Scotch are reported from Cherokee and Osage. Total, 2. 

English in Geary and Doniphan. Total, 2. 

The following counties report that there are no settlements of people 
of foreign birth within their borders: Atchison, Barber, Bourbon, 
Clarke, Finney, Grant, Gray, Hamilton, Haskell, Lane, Linn, Morton, 
Pratt, Seward. Total, 14. 

No reports have been secured from the following counties : Barton, 
Brown, Clay, Franklin, Johnson, Kearney, Kiowa, Meade, Ness, 
Republic, Russell, Scott, Sheridan, Stevens, Sumner, Trego, Wichita, 
Woodson. Total, 18. 

Seventy-four of our Kansas counties report settlements of citizens 
of foreign birth in numbers above 30. In so many cases there is no 
report or estimate of numbers that it is not worth while to give sum- 
maries. Probably there are not actually ten counties that have not 
such settlements. 

Church services in a foreign tongue are held as follows: Allen S.,* 
Anderson G., Butler G., Chase G., Cheyenne G., Cherokee G., 
Cloud F. S., Coffey G., Decatur G., Dickinson G. S., Doniphan G., 
Douglas G., Edwards G. S., Ellis G., Ellsworth G., Ford G., Geary 
G. , Graham F., Greeley S., Greenwood G. S., Harper G. Hung., 
Harvey G. , Hodgeman G., Jefferson G., Leavenworth G., Lincoln G. 
Du., Logan S., Lyon W. G., Marion G. Boh., Marshall G., Miami 
G, Mitchell G., Montgomery G., Morris S., McPherson S. G., 
Nemaha G., Neosho G. S., Norton G. Osage S. Welsh, Osborne G., 
Pawnee S., Phillips G. Du., Pottawatomie G. S., Rawlins G., Reno 
G. Du. Rus., Rice G., Riley S., Rooks F. G., Rush G., Saline G. S., 

*G==Gerinan, S=Skandinavian, F=Franch, W=Welsh, Du«=Dutch. 


Sedgwick G., Sherman G. S.. Smith G. Du., Stafford G., Wabaunsee 
G., Wallace S., Washington G. Wilson S., Wyandotte G. S. 

Total, 58. 

This total of fifty-eight counties in which church service is held in 
a foreign tongue does not at all indicate the number of such churches. 
In many of the reports received the number is not given, or merely 
in the plural. These very incomplete reports indicate one hundred 
thirty-eight such churches; it is safe to say that the number is nearly 
double this. 

More interesting is the number of schools conducted in a foreign 
tongue. The counties having them are: Allen S., Anderson G., 
Chase G., Cheyenne G., Cherokee, G., Cloud F., Dickinson G. S., 
Douglas G., Ellis G., Ellsworth G., Ford G., Geary G., Greeley S , 
Harvey G., Leavenworth G., Lincoln G. S., Logan S., Marion G., 
Marshall G., Mitchell G., Morris S., McPherson S. G. Nemaha G., 
Osborne G., Phillips G., Pottawatomie G. S., Rawlins G., Reno G. 
Du. Rus., Riley S., Rush G., Saline S., Sedgwick G., Sherman G. S., 
Smith G. Du., Wabaunsee G., Wallace S., Washington G. 

Total, 37. 

The number of separate schools in a foreign language so far as 
reported is seventy-four, and here, too, it is safe to say that the actual 
number is much larger. 


The spaces indicating settlements are in many cases too small to 
admit a complete description of the inhabitants, and accordingly they 
have been marked' by races rather than by nationalities and tribes. 
"German" is made to do duty for all inhabitants of Germany whether 
Low or High, as well as for Austrians, German Swiss, and Russo-Ger- 
man Mennonites. The last are reported simply as Mennonites, but 
are, I believe, in all cases of German origin. "Skandinavian" is used 
instead of Swede, Norwegian and Dane, because in some cases the 
distinction was not made in the reports, and in order to limit the 
number of colors on the map which is to come. In the case of 
Scotch I have been unable to secure information whether they are 
Highlanders or Lowlanders, and in case of Irish, to what extent, if at 
all, they speak the old Irish language. 

W. H. Carruth. 



ni, l-lrlsh. W-Welsh. It-Italians. F-Frenc,. H-Hungarlans 

The Great Spirit Spring Mound. 


The "Waconda" or Great Spirit Spring, which is situated in Mitch- 
ell County, Kansas, about two miles east of Cawker City, has been 
described in detail by G. E. Patrick in vol. vii, p. 22, Trans- 
actions of the Kansas Academy of Science. An analysis of the water, 
and of the rock forming the mound on which the spring is located, is 
also given. 

The spring is upon a conical, limestone mound 42 feet in height, and 
150 feet in diameter at the top. The pool itself is a nearly circular 
lake about 50 feet in diamter, 35 feet deep, and the water rises to 
within a few inches of the top of the basin. There is a level space on 
all sides of the spring so wide that a carriage can be readily driven 
around it. 

There is but little indication of organic matter in the water of the 
large spring, though there is a slimy white deposit adhering to the bot- 
tom and sides, but the water is colorless, clear, and transparent. 
The excess of water, instead of overflowing the bank, 
escapes by numerous small fissures, from 10 to 20 feet 
down on the sides, especially on the side away from the bluff. 
In these lateral springs there is an abundance of green algse, and 
a whitish scum, which seems to be detached from the bottom and 
to float to the surface. This has a slimy, granular feeling suggesting in a 
very marked manner hydrated silica. 

The mound is situated within about 200 feet of a limestone bluff, 
which rises perhaps 20 feet above the level of the spring. The natur- 
al inference would be that the harder material of the mound protected 
it from the erosion which carried away the rock in the valley of the 
Solomon on the south, and the rock between the spring and the bluff. 

Is it not possible however that tlie mound has been really made by 
the successive deposits from the spring? Although the mound is plain- 
ly stratified, this need not interfere with the theory, fen- the water may 
have been intermittent in its flow. The rock is very ])orous, and on 
being ground to a thin section is shown to be concretionary in structure. 

{S5] K.'\.V. UNIV. QIMU., vol.. I., .\0. 2, OCT., 1S92. 


An analysis of the water of the spring (loc. cit.) showed that it con- 
tained over 1 1 20 grains of mineral matter per gallon, of which 775 
grains were sodium chloride and 206 grains sodium sulphate, with 66 
grains of magnesium sulphate, 41 grains of magnesium carbonate, and 
31 grains of calcium carbonate. An analysis by the author shows that 
there are 0.874 grains of silica. 

Samples of the rock composing the mound, and of the adjoining 
bluff were secured, and comparative analyses made, with the following 


Silica and insoluble residue 2.14 4.10 

Oxides of Iron and Alumina 3.22 *2.66 

Sulphuric Anhydride 00 o-34 

Carbon Dioxide 40. 90 39. 10 

Calcium Oxide 5i-9° 49.28 

Magnesium Oxide o. 63 1.15 

Water and organic matter, undeter- 
mined 1. 21 t3-37 

100.00 100.00 

Specific gravity 2.52 2.79 

The rocks are entirely different in appearance and structure, that 
of the mound being twice as hard as that of the bluff. The former 
contains much organic matter as is shown by blackening when it is 
heated in a tube and giving off the characteristic odor. The iron is 
practically of the ferrous variety, probably combined with carbonic 
acid, and the rock contains traces of chlorides. The particular sam- 
ple taken was at some distance from the spring, and had been thorough- 
ly exposed to the weather. 

The rock of the mound is of just such a character as might have 
been built up by deposition from the water, as it contains the least 
soluble constituents of the water. The process of solidification would 
have been assisted by the silica in the water, forming insoluble ce- 
menting silicates, as noticed by Prof. Patrick. The analysis given 
above shows that there is abundant silica in the water for this purpose. 

Mention has been made of the organic growth in the adjacent 
springs. The mixed scum on being heated changes from a dull green 
to a vivid grass-green, and if ignited it swells up and emits an ill-smell- 
ing vapor, which is evidently nitrogenous in its character. A grayish 
white ash is left, which contains much carbonate of lime. This is ev- 
idently freshly deposited, as it is entangled in the algae in granular 

♦Mostly FeO. and so calculateci. 
tWith alkalies, 

bailey: the great spirit spring mound. 87 

A specimen of the white scum, noticed above, only slightly mixed 
with the green algse, was analyzed. The. acid solution of the ash con- 
tains 1.26 per cent of soluble silica. This was of course a combined 
silica, probably calcium silicate, which becomes the cementing mate- 
rial in the rock. In another sample of ash, after removing all the sub- 
stances soluble in hot water, the residue was found to contain 76.46 
per cent of silica. 

The siliceous residue from the scum was examined by Dr. S. W. 
Williston. It consists mostly of diatoms. He recognized 
Navicula — 2 species 
Nitzschia — 2 species 
Asteronella — i species. 
All three genera are found both in fresh and salt or brackish water. 

The green material consists essentially of Oscillaria and Confervae. 
If the scum is allowed to stand for a short time a very strong sulphuret- 
ted odor is developed, strangely suggestive of salt Avater marshes or mud 
flats; and indeed the same odor is noticed in the vicinity of the spring. 
No characteristic salt water organisms, that should occasion this peculiar 
odor have, however, yet been observed here. A more extended and 
special study of the organic life of these interior salt water marshes and 
springs would be of great interest. 

On Pascal's Limacon and the Cardioid. 


The inverse of a conic with respect to a focus is a curve called 
Pascal's Limacon. From the polar equation of a conic, the focus 
being the pole, it is evident that the polar equation of the lima9on 
may be written in the form: 

r=: — cos:c H : 

P P 

where e and p are constants, being respectively the eccentricity and 
semi-latus rectum of the conic. 

From the above equation it is readily seen that the curve may be 
traced by drawing from a fixed point O on a circle any number of 
chords and laying off a constant length on each of these lines, meas- 
ured from the circumference of the circle. The point O is the node 
of the limacon; and the fixed circle, which I shall call the base circle, 
is the inverse of the directrix of the conic. This is readily shown as 

follows: — the polar equation of the directrix is r= . Hence the 


equation of its inverse is r= , which is the equation of the base 

. . P 

circle of the limacon. 

If the conic which we invert be an ellipse, the point O will be an 
acnode on the Limacon; if the conic be a hyperbola, the point O is 
a crunode. If the conic be a parabola, O is then a cusp and the in- 
verse curve is called the Cardioid. 

The lima9on may also be traced as a roulette. 

Let the circle A C have a diameter just twice that of the circle A B. 
Then a given diameter of A C will always pass through a fixed point 
Q on the circle A B, (Williamson's Diff. Cal. Art. 286) and will have its 
middle point on the circle A B. Now any point P on the diameter of 
A C will always be at a fixed distance from C and will therefore de- 
scribe a limacon of which A B will be the base circle. 

The pedal of a circle with respect to any point is a limacon. This 
may be inferred from the general theorem that the pedal of a curve is 
the inverse of its polar reciprocal, (Salmon's H. P. C. Art. 122). For 
the polar reciprocal of a conic from its focus is a circle and hence its 
pedal is a lima9on. 

(89) KAN, UNIV. QIJAK., VOL. I., NO. 2, OCT., lS9i. 



The base circle is the locus of the instantaneous centre for all points 
on the limacon. Let B O P be a line cutting a circle in B and Q. 
Let the line revolve about B, Q following the circle; the point P will 
trace a limacon. 

Now, for any instant, the instantaneous center will be the same wheth- 
er Q be following the circle or the tangent at the point where the line 
cuts the circle. Therefore the instantaneous center for the point P is 
found by erecting a perpendicular to the line P B, through B, and a 
normal to the circle at Q. (Williamson's Diff. Cal. Art. 294). The 
intersection (C) of these two lines is the instantaneous center for the 
curve at the point P. But by elementary geometry C is on the circle. 
Now as the line P B revolves through 360 *> around B, the line B C 
which is always perpendicular to it also makes a complete revolution 
and the instantaneous center C moves once round the base circle. 

Below we give a list of theorems obtained by inverting the corre- 
sponding theorems respecting a conic. In these theorems any circle 
through the pole is called a nodal circle, any chord through the pole is 
called a nodal chord, and the line through the pole perpendicular to 
the axis of the curve is called the latus rectum. The letters e and / 
signify respectively the eccentricity and half the latus rectum of the in- 
verted conic. 

The locus of the point of inter- 
section of two tangents to a para- 
bola which cut one another at a 
constant angle is a hyperbola hav- 
ing the same focus and directrix 
as the original parabola. 

The sum of the reciprocals of 
two focal chords of a conic at 
right angles to each other is con- 

P Q is a chord of a conic which 
subtends a right angle at the fo- 
cus. The locus of the pole of 
P Q and the locus enveloped by 
P Q are each conies whose latera 
recta are to that of the orignal 
conic as ^ 2:1 and i : y 2 re- 

The locus of the point of inter- 
section of two nodal tangent cir- 
cles to a cardioid which cut each 
other at a constant angle is a lim- 
acon having the same double point 
and director circle. 

The sum of any two nodal 
chords of a limacon at right angles 
to each other is constant. 

If P and Q be two points on a 
limacon such that they intercept 
a right angle at the node, then the 
locus of the point of intersection 
of the two nodal circles tangent 
at P and Q respectively, is a lim- 
acon whose latus rectum is to that 
of the original limacon as 
}4^ 2 : I. And the envelope of 
the circle described on P Q as a 
diameter is a limacon, whose lat- 
us rectum is to that of the original 
lima9on as i : ^| 2 



If two conies have a common 
focus, two of their common chords 
will pass through the point of in- 
tersection of their directrices. 

Two conies have a common fo- 
cus about which one of them is 
turned; two of their common 
chords will touch conies having 
the fixed focus for focus. 

Two conies are described hav- 
ing the same focus, and the dis- 
tance of this focus from the cor- 
responding directrix of each is 
the same; if the conies touch one 
another, then twice the sine of half 
the angle between the transverse 
axes is equal to the difference of 
the reciprocals of the eccentrici- 

If a circle of a given radius pass 
through the focus (S) of a given 
conic and cut the conic in the 
points A, B, C, and D; then 
SA. SB. SC. SD is constant. 

A circle passes through the fo- 
cus of a conic whose latus rectum 
is 2 1 and meets the conic in four 
points whose distance from the 
focus are r^, r.-,, r^, r^, then 

r, ^ r, ^ r3 ^ r, 1 

Two points P and Q are taken, 
one on each of two conies which 
have a common focus and their 
axes in the same direction, such 
that P S and Q S are at right 

If two limacons have a common 
node, two nodal circles passing 
each through two points of inter- 
section of the limacons, will pass 
through the point of intersection 
of their base circles. 

Two limacons have a common 
node about which one of them is 
turned; two of the nodal circles 
through two of their points of in- 
tersection will envelope limagons 
having fixed node for node. 

If two limacons are described 
having the same node and base 
circles of the same diameter, and 
if the limacons touch each other, 
then twice the sine of half the an- 
gle between the axes of the lima- 
cons is equal to the difference of 
the eccentricities. 

If a circle of a given radius 
pass through the node (S) of a 
given limacon and cut it in A, 
B, C, and D; then 

is constant. 

A circle passes through the node 
of a limacon whose latus rectum 
is 2 1, meeting the curve in four 
points whose distances from the 
node are r^, r„, r.^, r^, then 


Two points P and Q are taken 
one on each of two limacons which 
have a common node and their 
axes in the same direction, such 
that P S and Q S are at right an- 



angles, S being the common focus. gles, S being the common node. 

Then the tangents at P and Q meet Then the nodal tangent circles at 

on a conic the square of whose P and Q intersect on a limacon 

eccentricity is equal to the sum of the square of whose eccentricity 

the squares of the eccentricities of is equal to the sum of the squares 

the original conies. of the eccentricities of the origi- 
nal limacons. 

A series of conies are described 
with a common latus rectum; the 
locus of points upon them at 
which the perpendicular from the 
focus on the tangent is equal to 
the semi-latus rectum is given by 
the equation 

p^ — r cos 2X 

If POPj be a chord of a conic 
through a fixed point O, then will 
tan 1/2 Pj SO tan >^PSO be a 
constant, S being the focus of the 

Conies are described with equal 
latera recta and a common focus. 
Also the corresponding directrices 
envelop a fixed confocal conic. 
Then these conies all touch two 
fixed conies, the reciprocals of 
whose latera recta are the sum and 
difference respectively of those of 
the variable conic and their fixed 
confocal, and which have the same 
directrix as the fixed confocal. 

Every focal chord of a conic 
is cut harmonically by the curve, 
the focus, and the directrix. 

The envelope of circles on the 
focal radii of a conic as diameters 
is the auxiliary circle. 

If a series of limacons are de- 
scribed with the same latus rectum, 
the locus of points upon them at 
which the diameter of the nodal 
tangent circle is equal to the 
semi-latus rectum, is given by the 

pr = — cos 2JC 

If P O Pj be a nodal circle of a 
limacon passing through a fixed 
point O, then will tan. J/2 P^ S O 
tan. }4 P S O be a constant, S be- 
ing the node. 

Limacons are described with 
equal latera recta and a common 
node. Also the director circles 
envelop a fixed limacon having a 
common node. Then these lima- 
cons all touch two fixed limacons 
whose latera recta are the sum and 
difference respectively of the re- 
ciprocals of the variable limacon 
and of the fixed limacon, and 
which have the same base circle 
as the fixed limacon. 

Every nodal chord of a lima- 
con is bisected by the base circle. 

The envelope of the perpendic- 
culars at the extremities of the 
nodal radii of a limacon is a circle 
having for the diameter the axis of 
the limacon. 



Below we give a number of theorems respecting the cardioid ob- 
tained by inverting the corresponding theorems concerning the parabola. 

The straight line which bisects The nodal circle which bisects 

the angle contained by two lines the angle between the line drawn 

drawn from the same point in a from any point on a cardioid to 

parabola, the one to the focus, the the cusp and the nodal circle 

the other perpendicular to the through the point which cuts the 

directrix, is a tangent to the para- 
bola at that point. 

The latus rectum of a parabola 
is equal to four times the distance 
from the focus to the vertex. 

If a tangent to a parabola cut 
the axis produced, the points of 

director circle orthogonally, is a 
tangent circle at that point. 

The latus rectum of a cardioid 
is equal to its length on the axis. 

If a nodal tangent circle cut the 
axis of a cardioid, the points 

contact and of intersection are of intersection and of tangency 

are equally distant from the cusp. 

equally distant from the focus. 

If a perpendicular be drawn 
from the focus to any tangent to 
a parabola, the point of intersec- 
tion will be on the vertical tangent. 

The directrix of a parabola is 
the locus of the intersection of 
tangents that cut at right angles. 

The circle described on any 
focal chord of a parabola as 
diameter will touch the directrix. 

The locus of a point from which 
two normals to a parabola can be 
drawn making complementary 
angles with the axis, is a parabola. 

Two tangents to a parabola 
which make equla angles with the 
9.xis and directrix respectively, 

If a nodal circle be drawn tan- 
gent to a cardioid, the diameter 
of such circle passing through the 
cusp will be a common chord of 
this circle and another described 
on the axis of the cardioid as 

The base circle is the locus 
of the intersection of nodal circles 
tangent to a cardioid, which cut 

The circle described an any 
nodal chord of a cardioid as diam- 
eter will be tangent to the base 

The locus of the point through 
which two nodal circles, cutting 
a cardioid orthogonally, and mak- 
ing complementai y angles with the 
axis, can be drawn is a cardioid. 

Two nodal circles tangent to a 
cardioid which make equal angles 
with the axis and latug rectum, 



but are not at right angles, meet respectively but do not cut ortho- 

on the latus rectum. gonally intersect on the latus 


The circle which circumscribes If three nodal circles be drawn 

the triangle formed by three tan- tangent to a cardioid, the three 

gents to a parabola passes through points of intersection of these three 

the focus. circles are on a straight line. 

If the two normals drawn to a If the two nodal circles cutting 

parabola from a point P make a cardioid orthogonally and pass- 

equal angles with a straight line, 
the focus of P is a parabola. 

Any two parabolas which have 
a common focus and their axes 

through the point P, make equal 
angles with a fixed nodal circle, 
the locus of P is a cardiod. 

Any two cardioids which have 
a common cusp and their axes in 
in opposite directions intersect at opposite directions intersect at 
right angles. right angles. 

A number of other theorems on the limacon and cardioid are 
given in Professor Newson's article in this number of the Quarterly, 
and these need not be repeated here. 

Dialect Word-List. 


The following are some of the dialect words that have come to one 
observer's ears within the past triennium. They are all from Kansas, 
unless otherwise noted. They are printed here to interest others, and 
to secure a basis for observation. The writer will be under obliga- 
tions to any one who will note his familiarity with any of these words, 
insert others, or other meanings, and send them, with a statement of 
his place of birth and childhood, to him at Lawrence: 

among': all of, as, Where are you going among you? 

all: all gone, as. The corn is all. (Indiana, Penn.) Comp. 

bat: a 'hard case.' 

bid, in, to bid the time of day. (Indiana.) 

beeslings: preparation of artificially curdled milk. (Indiana and 

become: to look well in, as. He becomes that coat. 

bad: desperate, as in, A bad citizen=:a desperate fellow. 

behave: to behave well, as in. Do behave now! 

bump on a log: something lifeless, as, He sat there like a bump 
on a log. 

bier: sham, as in pillow-bier. (Vermont.) 

branch: a small stream. 

breeze: a torrent of talk, as in. He gave me a breeze. 

boo: dried mucous. 

buckle down: to work persistently. 

conniptions: a fit, also 'conniption fit.' 

caba: an old valise. (Penn.) 

craps: a game with dice; playing, it is called, 'shooting craps.' 

crawl: to try to escape from an embarrassing situation without 
admitting one's mistake. 

crawfish: same as 'crawl.' 

crock: an earthenware vessel, a large bowl. 

chuck: lunch. 

^95) KAN. V'NIV. qi.-AR., vol.. I., NO. 2, OCT., 1S92. 


chuck-a-luck: loaded (of dice). 

COddy: odd, out of fashion. 

chug: to strike a blow, as in. Chug him one. 

could: to be able, as in, He used to could. 

cod: a bit of deceit, as in. He gave the teacher a cod. 

Ohenuk: a Canadian. (Note the pronunciation.) 

dast: to dare, as in, He don't dast to do it. 

dew-claws: hands and knees (?\ as in, Get down on your d.,= 
apply yourself intensely. 

Dick's hatband, in the phrase, As contrary as Dick's hatband. 
What is the origin of this? 

dick-nailer: anything quite satisfactory, as in. He (it) is a dick- 

drop: advantage, as in, to get the drop on a person (allusion to 
dexterity in drawing a revolver). Comp. also: bulge, inside-track, 
whip handle, dead-wood, all used in the same way and with same 

diven, past participle of dive. 

drug, pret. of drag. 

east: yeast. 

emptings: bread dough set to ferment. Note the expression "It 
will come out all right in the emptings," i. e. after it has had a chance 
to stand. 

fat up: to increase a stake at cards. 

find: to supply with board, as in, Pay five dollars a week and find 
him; I get five dollars and found. 

fresh: impudent, (due to greenness). 

fog: to filch. 

fluke: to steal. (Indiana). 

flat: plug tobacco. (Arkansas). 

gallery: church, as in. He's in the gallery. 

gag: an improbable story intended to deceive, as in, He tried to 
give me a gag. 

go with: to become of, as in. What has gone with my hat? Ohio; 
also in Pall Mall Gazette. 

grub-stake: to give board. 

girling: a 'girl-boy,' in contempt. 

gaumy; not neat. (Arkansas.) 

gob, or gaub; a shapeless mass, as, a gob of mud, then sportively, 
gaubs of wisdom. 

gray; an awkward fellow. 

get to: to get an opportunity to, as in, He didn't get to do it. 

go to; to intend to, as in, I didn't go (for) to do it. 


gumbo: a peculiar, putty-like dark soil. (Kansas.) 

hen: feminine, as in, hen-party; comp. stag-party, a gathering of 
men only. 

honey: a fine fellow, generally ironically. 

hump: to bestir, as, Hump yourself. 

hole: bad condition financially; as. He is in the hole, i. e. he has lost. 

huckleberry: indifferent, in, a huckleberry Christian. 

huckleberry: the right person, as in. You're my huckleberry. 

hornswoggle: to discomfit, as in, I'll be hornswoggled if I'll do it. 

in it: on the successful side, as. He is not in it, i. e., He has no 
prospect of success. This phrase is universal in 1891. 

infare: the reception after a wedding. 

in: on the credit side, as, I was in five dollars. 

jay: a green, conceited fellow. 

jag: a bit of anything; a spree, a brief drunk. 

jack mosquito, a large insect of the mosquito family, three times 
the size of the pestiferous kind; this one does not bite. 

jimmy: to meddle, as, to jimmy with a thing or person, to 'fool 
with.' Comp., to 'monkey with.' 

jump: to leave without notice, as to jump the town, to jump bail; 
to jump a board-bill is to leave it unpaid. 

joint: an illegal saloon. What is the origin of it? 

jigger or chigger: a minute red mite, which frequents weeds 
and lawns, burrows beneath the human skin and causes excruciating 

keep: board and lodgings, as. He works for his keep. 

lay over: to surpass, as, That lays over anything I know. 

larofamedlers, a phrase used generally as equivalent to. It's 
none of your business. (Maryland, Penn., Ohio, Arkansas.) The 
word is a corruption of Lay-over for medlers, a lay-over being a bear- 
trap consisting of a pit covered with boughs. 

light out: to start on the run, as. He 'lit' out for home. 

lagniap: the extra in a bargain, as, Five dollars, and a hat for 
lagniap. (Louisiana.) 

lush: to drink heavily, to 'swill.' 

mog: to move, as, Mog along with you. 

mogle: the same. 

main: very, as. It's main strange. (Worcester county, Mass.) 

mosey, to move along with a strut. 

move: motion, as in, Get a move on you. ' 

mealer: one who takes only meals at a boarding-house. 

mind off: to ward off (flies, etc.). 

meet up with: to meet. (Tennessee.) 


peter out: to dwindle. 

pail: to milk, as, to pail the cow. (Penn.) 

possessed: anything, as, He acted like 'all possessed.' • ' 

quill: to write. {^The Writey-.') 

quill-wheel: a 'rattle-trap' wagon. 

ruther: choice, as, If I had my ruther; also, druther. 

ride and tie, verbal phrase, describing a mode of travel in which 
one vehicle is used by two sets of people, one riding ahead ^ given 
distance and tying the team where the others who have walked will 
come up to it, the first walking on ahead until overtaken and passed 
by the second, and so on. (Colorado.) 

red up: to make tidy. 

ring off: to desist or cease talking, technical phrase from the tele- 
phone, but passed into common usage. Comp., "saw off. " ■ : 

rUCUS: quarrel, rumpus. 

Saddy: thanks, thank you. (Penn.) 

saw off: 'ring off;' a short person is said to look 'sawed off.* 

Shet, shut, shed: rid, as, to get shut of anything. 

shear off: to pour off (water from settlings). (Ohio.) 

shapin's: young peas and beans — the unfilled pod. (Arkansas.) 

should have said: said, as, He should have said yes, i. e,, 
indeed he said yes. • 

shin: to climb, as, to shin up a tree. 

shut off: to make to stop talking, as. Do shut him off. 

shebang: anything run-down, as house, carriage, affairs. •• 

SCrOOCh or SCrOOge: to cringe. 

skin-away: a small boy. (Civilized Sac Indians.) ■ 

skin: to run, as. Skin out, i. e., run away. 

skid: to sneak through examinations. (Yale.) 

skid: a sharp-pointed instrument. 

skit: a mild lie. 

skads: great quantities, as, Skads of money, of books, etc.; 
also = money, as. He hasn't the skads. 

singed cat: a shrewd 'rustler,' of unpretentious appearance. 

skulduggery: knavery. - 

skip: to run away, as. Now skip, i. e.. Go away from here. 

skip: to leave hastily, as. He skipped the town. 

slouch: a gawky fellow; then anything imperfect, as, in the phrase. 
He's no slouch, i. e., He is an expert; no slouch of a horse, i. e., a 
first-rate horse. 

sloomiky: not neat 

slander: to saunter. 

slump: to fail to meet requirements, as, in examinatioas. 


slumps: great quantities. (Clark's Second Hand Catalogue, N. Y.) 

sleep: to give lodgings. I have heard, We can eat and sleep him. 

smoodle: a sycophant. (Kansas University.) Comp., 'swipe.' 

smokewood: dried water-soaked wood used by small boys as 
substitute for cigars. 

smearcase: a preparation of clabber, often called 'Dutch cheese.' 

snake: to snatch stealthily. 

snum: to vow, as in, Well, I snum. Reported as common among 

snouge: unfair, as, a snouge game. 

snide: inferior, unfair, as, a snide game, a snide watch, etc. 

SO fashion: thus, as, Do it so fashion. 

soap: bribe money in elections. 

sugar: same as soap. 

sugar, (explet): pshaw 1 

split: anything, as. He ran like split, also, lickety split. 

spunky: pouting, incensed. 

sprmKie ( . ^ small number; also a considerable number, 
sprinkling \ 

stag: masculine, as, A stag-party. 

stag: to go to an entertainment without a lady companion, as, to 
stag it. 

Stoughton-bottls : an unimpressionable fellow. (From Stough- 
ton's Bitters, common in the 50's.) 

streak: rapid rate, as. He talked a streak, or more commonly, a 
blue streak. 

streak: to run, as. He streaked it for home. 

steer: to manage (votes), as, A steering committee, the same as 
'whips' in Parliament. 

strifiBn, or Strifning: the membrane surrounding the abdominal 
viscera. (Missouri.) 

swan: to vow, as, in exclamation, I swan! 

swat: to slap or strike, as. Swat him in the eye. 

SUZ, (excl.): me, as in. Dear suz, and Law suz. 

swipe: a sycophant. (Harvard.) 

tacky: not fashionably dressed. 

tewed: harrassed, as, I'm tewed and fretted. 

that; so, as in. Not that far. 

throw over: to 'cut' (an acquaintance). 

throw over: to stop, as, I threw her over, i. e., stopped talking. 
Common among railroad men; derived from the use of the reverse 

tear-down: to thrash, as. He gave the boy a good tearing down. 


toad on a tussock: anything dull or lifeless. He sat there like 
a toad on a tussock. 

tousle: to disarrange (hair). 

tousey: frowsy. 
' topside: on top of, as in, The best man topside o' God's green 

trade-lash: an exchange of compliments. (Wellesley.) 

trottin'-riggin's: best suit of clothes. 

two sticks: anything, as, He's as cross as two sticks. 

up above: up, as in. Up above stairs. 

Whootle-dasher: a 'rustler.' 

waat: for was not, were not, etc. 

wamus, wampus, warmus; a close, generally knit jacket. 
(Illinois, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Wisconsin, New England.) 

Kansas University Quarterly. 

Vol. I. JANUARY, 1893. No. 3. 

On the Apioceridse and their Allies. 


With Plates IX and X. 

Since the appearance of Baron Osten Sacken's papers (22, 23) on 
the Apiocerinae the past year, in which he iterates his former opinions 
concerning this group, and in which he criticises papers by me, I 
have, as opportunity has presented itself, subjected my material to a 
careful study. The conclusions reached at this time are wholly in 
consonance with those previously held by me — conclusions agreeing 
well with those sustained by the eminent entomologists Mile and Brauer. 
The material which I have had for study has been, I think, more 
varied than any that has been previously studied, and offers new and 
pertinent facts bearing upon the discussion. I have spent much time 
in the careful dissection of the mouth-parts of this and allied groups — 
parts to which previously almost no attention has been paid by sys- 
tematists, but which, I am sure, offer a rich and almost unutilized field 
for systematic research. My attention to their importance was first 
directed by the able and suggestive paper published by J. B. Smith 
on the mouth-parts of diptera (26), and I shall follow up the subject 
in other groups as opportunity permits. The conclusions reached 
from their study bear out in an ofttimes striking way the relationships 
indicated by more external characters. I am aware that objections 
have been made to the use of characters which can only be ascertained 
by the sacrifice of specimens ; but I have always held that facts are 
more valuable than specimens, and do not hesitate to destroy those 
which will reveal their secrets in no other way. I regret that my 
material has not been ample enough to permit sectioning, but I believe 
that the dissections will be sufficient for the present purpose. 

I have to thank Mr. D. W. Coquillett for kindly furnishing me with 
two of the very few specimen? that he possessed of RhapJiiomidas, a 

(101) KAN. UNIV. QUA«., VOL. J., N0.3, JAK., 1893, 


form of the greatest rarity, as well as of the greatest value in the 
present discussion. 

The group, whether it be a family or subfamily, includes about 
twelve known species, all from Australia and America. It is a group, 
moreover, of great interest to the systematist, and additional discov- 
eries will be looked for with eagerness. 

The first species described was by Wiedemann (31), under the name 
Laphria brevicor^iis. His description was meagre, and may not suffice 
for the recognition of the species. Nor can Wiedemann be credited 
with especial acumen in referring the form to the Asilidae ; he accepted 
both genera and families in a much wider sense than is now done. 
Macquart was sufficiently acute to perceive from the description that 
the species could not be a Laphria, and, as Osten Sacken has shown, 
after the fashion that was not at all rare with him, described a new 
genus from the data contained in the description, actually figuring the 
species without having seen a specimen or any figure (10)! He did 
not do very badly, a la Macquart, in the figure, except that he put on 
an ordinary Asilid palpus. Meanwhile, however, Westwood had 
described and accurately figured species under the generic name 
Apiocera (29, 30). I regret that Westwood's papers are inaccessible 
to me ; all that I know concerning them has been derived from 
Osten Sacken (17). "As to the place of the genus, he hesitated 
between the Midaidee and the Nemistrinidse." Later (11), Macquart 
described from specimens the genus Pomacera, not recognizing in 
them his own genus Tapiiiocera, and erected a new family for it, 
located near the Therevid^. Bigot, following Macquart, accepted the 
family, but rejected Macquart's name for Apioceridae (i). This is 
the first place that I find the word Apioceridse, though used rather in 
the sense of Apiocerinae, as a subdivision of his "Asilides," which 
included the " Mydaidaj, " " Apioceridae, " " Laphridse," "Asilidse" 
and "Dasypogonidae." " Ce genre \_Apiocera\ me parait mieux place 
parmi mes Asilidii.''' 

In 1865, Philippi described the "hoechst ausgezeichnete Gattung" 
Anypenus as an Asilid, not recognizing the form in any previous 
description (24, p. 702). His genus has had a rather peculiar history, 
misleading both Brauer and Osten Sacken, its identity with Apiocera 
not being discovered till the type was examined. 

Gerstaecker, in 1868, in his review of the Mydaidte (7), refused the 
genus admittance to that family. "Die systematische Stellung dieser 
Gattung \_Apiocera'\ naeher zu fixiren, muss einer spaeteren, ihren 
naechsten Verwandten vielleicht zu Tage fordernden Zeit vorbehalten 
bleiben ; so wenig die sich im Augenblick einer der iibrigen Familien 
iiberzeugend zuertheilen laesst, so wenig gehoertsie auch den Mydaiden 


an." In the same year, Schiner, though recognizing the discrepant 
characters, referred Apiocera to the Mydaidae. "Sie gleichen im 
Habitus schon ganz den Asiliden, und bilden zu diesen hin ein ganz 
natiirliches Bindeglied." (25) 

In 1877, Osten Sacken described the sixth or seventh known species, 
from California (16) placing it under the Mydaidse, though with certain 
reservations. The next reference to the subject was in 1883, when 
Osten Sacken, who had meanwhile skilfully worked out his chaetotac- 
tic system, brought arguments to show that Apiocera is an Asilid 
(17, 18), and a member of the Asilinse. 

Brauer accepted Macquart's view that the genus should constitute a 
family related to the Therevidae. "Ich halte die Apioceriden fiir 
zunaechst verwandt mit The/-eva und Xestomyza, durch die Riissel- 
bildung, Beine, und andere bereits friiher hervorgehobene Momente. 
Bei Apiocera ist die ^nlichkeit mit den verwandten, aber durch ihre 
Rijsselbildung einer anderen Linie der heterodactylen Orthorrhaphen 
augehoerenden Asiliden ein verfiihrendes Irrlicht gewesen (2). 

Osten Sacken, more recently (21), admitted some doubt of its mem- 
bership among the Asilidce, as follows : "Since I have shown that 
Apiocera is not a Midaid, the only debatable question is whether it is 
an Asilid or an aberrant form allied to the Asilidse." 

Mik, in several papers, has expressed the opinion strongly that the 
genus should constitute a family : " Macquart war der Erste, welcher 
den Apioceriden die richtige Stellung in Systeme angewiesen hat; er 
brachte sie in die naechste Verwandtschaft zu den Thereviden" (12, 


Coquillett has expressed himself in favor of the relationship to the 
Therevidse (4). I have held the opinion that the genus represents a 
family most nearly related to the Mydaidae and the Asilidse, and have 
so defined it {^^2, ^t^^. Finally, Osten Sacken, after learning more of 
Rhaphiomidas, has so far receded from his first position as to admit 
the subfamily "Apiocerina" under the Asilidae (23). 

The question then is : Should Apiocera and R/iaphio?nidas'-^- be located 
under the Mydaidae, following Schiner; under the Asilidae, following 
Osten Sacken; or regarded as an independent family, in accordance 
with Macquart's, Brauer's, Mik's, Coquillett's, or my own views? 

As regards the relationship to the Therevidae, I accept Osten 
Sacken's argument; and yet I believe the relationship is as great to 
that family as to the Asilidae. As is well known, structural differences 
in the wings are, almost always, of more importance the nearer they 

* Since this was written, Coquillett has published (Canadian Entomologist, vol. xxlv, 
p. 314, Dec, 1892) a new genus, Apomidax, allied to Rhaphiomidas, but differing in the open 
anal cell. 


approach the base. As is seen in the figure of the wing of Psilocephala 
(see plate), the first longitudinal vein is very short, terminating only 
a little beyond the middle of the wing, while in Apiocera, as well as 
the Asilidae, it terminates far beyond the middle. This difference is, 
I believe, of more importance than the resemblances in the structure 
of the head. The Nemistrinidae need not detain us. Any arguments 
in favor of relationship with this family will apply more forcibly to 
the Mydaidae. 

Does Apiocera belong with the Mydaidae? Osten Sacken says 
not, for the following reasons : 

"To sum up, Apiocera differs from the Midaidae : i. In the pres- 
ence of ocelli; 2. In the presence of macrochaetae on head and 
thorax ; 3. In the structure of the scutellum ; 4. In the structure 
of the legs ; 5. In the presence of palpi : 6. In the venation ; 7. In 
the structure of the male forceps ; 8. In the usual character of the 
coloring" (17). 

1. Hardly a family character. Among the Tabanidae, for instance, 
the presence or absence of well-developed ocelli is recognized as 
having a specific valuation only. 

2. In all my ioMv ST^ecies oi Apiocera dirv(\m Rhaphio??iidas, are 
no bristles on the front ; the same is the case with the species described 
by Philippi (24). In Rhaphiomidas they are weak on the thorax. 

3. There is a well-marked difference in the structure of the scutel- 
lum, but it is quite as much in the direction of the Nemistrinidae as 
of the Asilidae. 

4. In my opinion, the weakness of the legs allies Apiocera more 
closely to the Mydaidae than to the Asilidae. 

5. Well developed palpi, quite like those of Rliaphiotnidas, occur 
in at least one genus of the true Mydaidae. Thomson describes the 
palpi of his genus Harrnophana as biarticulate, but in this he is 
undoubtedly in error r2 7). Jaennicke recognized the palpi in Tricloniis 
bispifiifer (S), and Macquart in both T. bispinifer and T, luripennis. 
It is strange that Gerstaecker entirely overlooked this character. 

6. The venation agrees closely with that of the Mydaidae, save in 
the shorter discal cell, a Nemistrinid character. 

7. Apiocera differs noticeably from the Mydaidae in the general 
coloration, agreeing in this respect best with the Therevidae. 

Had Osten Sacken been able to study Triclonus and Rhaphiomidas, 
I feel sure that he would have modified some of his views. In the first 
place, the neuration is remarkably alike, as will be seen by the ex- 
aminations of the figures here given, and Thomson's figure of Har- 
rnophana. (27 pi. IX, fig. 5.) This marked neurational resemblance was 
observed by Osten Sacken in his original description of Rhaphiomidas, 


as follows: ■'•'Closely allied to Miirodetiis Gerstaecker, as there are 
three cells interveaing between the forked cell and the margin of the 
wing, and as the structure of the proboscis is the same, long and linear, 
directed forwards, with very narrow lips at the end; differing, however, 
from that genus in the structure of the antenna, in some minor 
charactersof the neuration * * ; and in the presence of two [three] 
distinct ocelli" (i6). The only difference in the neuration that can be 
expressed lies in the shorter discalcell, and it is on the strength of this 
that Osten Sacken traces a relationship with the Asilidse. By com- 
paring the figures it will be seen that the Xemistrinid neuration 
offers the same peculiarity. 

"I believe that a natural arrangement [of families] must be the 
result of the study of those organs of the imago which are necessary 
for the functions of external life, principally, therefore, of the organs 
of orientation connected with the head (eyes and antennge), and in the 
second line, of the organs of locomotion (legs and wings)."* To this 
Osten Sacken should have added, as among the most important, 
the mouth-parts. Certainly there can be nothing which affects the 
habits of the adult insect more intimately than do the organs by which 
food is taken into the body. Xow, if we admit that the neurational 
resemblance between Trie/onus and Rhaphioviidas is of secondary 
value only, we must find Asilid resemblances in the head to counter- 
balance it. The actual fact is, however, that the mouth-parts of the 
TriclonincE, if I may use that term to indicate the three genera, 
Diochlistus, Mitrodetus and Triclomis, are, if Tricloniis can be 
taken as a type, quite like those of Rhaphiomidas and Apiocera, and 
fundamentally different from the Asilid type. We have then left 
from among the important characters, according to Osten 
Sacken, only the antennae, which are Asilid and not Mydaid, and the 
ocelli. But, the difference in the antennse is not so radical as that 
which occurs between Lepiis and Arthroceras, for example, and 
Osten Sacken has expressed the opinion more than once that these 
forms belong together, an opinion with which I coincide. 

Another Asilid argument is left, one on which Doctor Osten Sacken 
places great weight, — I mean the presence of thoracic bristles in 
the Apioceridae and their entire absence in x\it Mydaidce. Although 
fully admitting that too little attention has been given to the chae- 
totaxy of diptera, I cannot accept the argument as one outweighing 
those derived from the important differential characters in head and 
neuration. As Mik has pertinently said (12), the presence or en- 
tire absence of well-developed bristles among the Syrphidae is of less 
than generic value. 

*Eutom, Monthly Mag. [3] p. 35, 18 Jl, 


There is yet another point of resemblance between Rhaphiomidas 
and Triclonus which appears to me to be a very remarkable coinci- 
dence, if we assume the forms to be unrelated. In his original 
description of the former genus Osten Sacken refers to a singular and 
remarkable metapleural process situated in front of the halteres, which 
he could not understand: "In front of the halteres there is a singular 
conical body, a little shorter than the halteres, the homology of which 
I do not attempt to explain." Precisely the same process ocQMx?,'va. 
Triclonus, as my specimens show, and as Thomson described and 
figured in Harmophana {Triclonus^. 

Taking all these facts into consideration, is it not rather forced to 
assume that the relationship to a form like Triclo?ius, possessing 
almost identical neuration, mouth-parts, metapleural process and 
habits, is less intimate than to the Asilidse, where the neuration is 
very different, the mouth-parts and habits are entirely dissimilar, and 
the trichostical bristles replace the metapleural process, because the 
antennae, ocelli and thoracic bristles agree! 

Brauer is of the opinion that Triclo?ius is not a true Mydaid 
(2). With this view I cannot agree. But, even should we ac- 
cept it as distinct from this family, it would weaken rather than 
strengthen Osten Sacken's position, for it is an eremochaetous form, 
and could not by any possibility be placed among the Asilidse. 

However, leaving Triclonus and Rhaphiomidas entirely out of 
account, there remain arguments against the union of Apiocera and 
the Asilidse which seem to me insuperable. In the first place, the 
Asilidse are pre-eminently a family of predaceous insects; not a spe- 
cies is known but what feeds upon the juices of insects. Apiocera is 
a flower-fly, as the mouth-parts, the legs,and Coquillett's observations 
show. This difference in habits might be overlooked in the presence 
of striking resemblances, as Osten Sacken justly says. But, aside 
from what has already been spoken of, there are fundamental differ- 
ences in the structure of the mouth-parts, indicating a remote genetic 
identity of the two groups. I do not mean the differences as seen in 
the labella alone ; Brauer and Mik have both used this argument with 
force. By referring to the figures and descriptions herewith given, it 
will be seen there is a radical difference in the sucking parts, the 
Therevidae, Nemistrinidae, Mydaidae, Apioceridae, and, I may also 
add, the Bombyliidae (6), agreeing closely on the one side, and the 
Asilidae presenting a markedly different and constant type on the 
other side. 

Again, arguments drawn from the neuration are to me very strong. 
It is well known that the neuration of the Asilidae, and especially of 
the Asilinae, is very constant. In a large proportion of the species, 

williston: apioceridvE. 107 

the variation does not offer even specific differences. This means, if it 
means anything, that the family is comparatively recent geologically ; 
the type is not in its decadence. On the other hand, let one compare 
the wings of the four species of Apiocera figured herewith. Every 
one would be placed in a different subfamily were they normal types 
of the Asilidae ! One of the species (sp. ^.) even violates a promi- 
nent family character ! That the absence of the anterior branch of 
the third vein is not an accident, is evident from the fact that there 
are two specimens before me quite alike. That such a remarkable 
neurational character is not even generic in its value is shown by the 
figure of another species (sp. c.'), likewise from Australia. In both 
of these species the veins of the outer wing are very thin and weak. 
The characters otherwise clearly prove that the two species are dis- 
tinct. Here we have as a specific character a constant family charac- 
ter of the Asilidae ! It is possible that these two species, differing as 
they do from the stronger-veined forms, may eventually require generic 
separation, but it is quite certain that the generic division cannot be 
placed between the two species. 

What conclusions are we to deduce from such variations ? Quite 
clearly to me they seem to show, as Brauer and I have already said, 
that the Apioceridae represent a geologically decaying type, — a con-, 
elusion borne out by their geographical distribution. I would repeat 
the statement, with some changes, previously made by me, to which 
Osten Sacken takes exception. The Apioceridae are most nearly re- 
lated, genetically, to the Mydaidae and Nemistrinidae, less intimately 
to the Asilidae and Therevidae. 

Mik has pointed out (13) that in none of the Apioceridae do we 
find enlarged facets on the anterior portion of the eyes, so common 
in the Asilidae. Osten Sacken will not admit that this character is of 
much, if any, importance (23), but it seems to me to be entitled to 
consideration, even though of minor value. Again, another character 
that seems never to have been noticed, is the difference in the width 
of the front in the two sexes, which is very marked in Apiocera, but is 
not found in the Asilidae. It must mean that, genetically, Apiocera 
is less remote from the holoptic type of male than are the Asilidae. 
It is possible that there are true bristles on the front of some 
species of Apiocera, but such are not present in the four species 
known to me, and do not occur in the Chilian species, according to 
Philippi; I believe that Osten Sacken is in error concerning this. 

Upon the whole, it seems plain to me, that to unite the Apioceridae 
with the Asilidae is to do violence to real and distinctive structural 
characters, which, carried but a little further, would require the union 
of family after family, — that the step is retrogressive rather than 



To sum up, the differences between Apiocera and the Asilidae may 
be expressed as follows: 


Front narrowed in the male. 

Front not excavated. 

Front without bristles. 

Face very short, without mystax. 

Eye-facets never enlarged in 

Paraglossae longer than ligula, 
deeply channeled. 


Front of equal width in both 

Front excavated between the 

Front with bristles. 

Face descending below the 
eyes, usually with mystax. 

Eye-facets usually enlarged in 

Paraglossae very short, much 
shorter than the ligula, gently 

Ligula a slender semi-cylindri- 
cal channel, fitting for its whole 

Ligula stout, covered at base 

by the paraglossae, elsewhere 

length in the paraglossae, wholly fo,n,ing a closed tube, uncovered 

without hairs. -u ..i, i j -u i i 

by the paraglossae, and withback- 

wardly directed short bristly hairs 
along its upper margin. 

Palpifers stout, lanceolate. 

Labella horny, immovable, 
wholly without pseudo-tracheae. 

Neuration very constant in re- 
lated species. 

The presence of the anterior 
branch of the third vein hitherto 
recognized as a family character. 

The fourth vein always ter- 
minates beyond the tip of the 

Palpifers slender, cylindrical. 

Labella broad, movable, with 

Neuration very variable in re- 
lated species. 

Anterior branch of the third vein 
sometimes wanting. 

The fourth vein always termi- 
nates before the tip of the wing. 

Legs not strong. 

Trichostical bristles wanting. 

Legs strong, adapted for grasp- 


Trichostical bristles present. 
Predaceous flies. 

In nearly all these respects Apiocera agrees with the Mydaidae. 
Apiocera differs from the Mydaidae as follows: 

williston: apiocerid^. 109 

apiocera. mydaidae. 

Ocelli present. Ocelli wanting. 

Thorax with bristles. Thorax without bristles. 

Scutellum large, projecting be- Scutellura small, not projecting 

yond the metanotum. beyond the metanotura. 

Legs with numerous bristles. Legs with few or no bristles. 

Antennae with a short simple Antennae with a lamellate, 

style. jointed style. 

Discal cell short. Discal cell more elongate. 

Male forceps enlarged. Male forceps small. 

In all these respects Apiocera agrees with the Asilidae. I would 
therefore propose the following as the definition of the Apioceridae: 

Rather large, elongate, chaetophorous flower-flies. Ocelli present. 
Front not excavated; antennae with a simple short style. 
Face short. Proboscis with pseudo-tracheate labella; the paraglossae 
elongate; with one- or two-jointed palpi. Third longitudinal vein 
of the wing furcate or not; one or both of the veins from the discal 
cell terminatingbeyond the tip of the wing; five posterior cells. Em- 
podia wanting. Male forceps enlarged. 

Apiocerinae. Palpi two-jointed, large; the second vein from the 
discal cell terminates beyond the tip of the wing. 

Rhaphiomidainae. Palpi one-jointed, small; the second vein from 
the discal cell terminates before the tip of the wing. 


In the following pages, I give a rather brief description of the mouth- 
parts in the Apioceridae and the allied families. It will be observed 
that I make use of the terms proposed by Smith, as the result of his 
comparative study of the mouth-organs. I believe that his studies 
show a real advance in the knowledge of the homologies of these parts, 
though in some instances his views may require modification or 
change. The corresponding terms used by Smith and Dimmock, so 
far as they affect our present purpose, are as follows: 

Smith. Dimmock. 

Paraglossae Labrum-epipharynx 

Ligula Hypopharynx 

Palpifer Maxilla 

Maxillary palpus Maxillary palpus 

Galea Labium 

Labellum t . Labellum 

no kansas university quarterly. 


The palpi are large, two-jointed in each of the four 
species examined, and very hairy. The first joint is nearly cylindri- 
cal, and is continuous with the basal plate, to which the membranous 
portion of the galea is attached. The second joint is large, sub-cres- 
centic in outline, though somewhat variable in the different species, 
and flattened. It seems to be larger in those species with shorter 
proboscis. The palpifer takes its origin from the inner, upper side of 
the basal, palpal plate, or at the base of what may be called the first 
palpal joint. There is no joint in this place, though more or less 
mobility is permitted by the partially membranous connection. The 
palpifers are in all cases very slender, straight or gently curved, and 
are as long as the chitinous portion of the galea. They are pointed, 
with but little if any thin expansion, and are wholly without hairs or 
pubescence. They are, of course, enclosed within the groove formed 
by the galea, and lie by the side of the ligula. 

The paraglossae and ligula are very similar to the same organs in 
Rhaphiomidas, though each fornis a less perfect tube. The upper 
organ is deeply channeled, and nearly cylindrical, but the borders are 
widely separated below throughout their length. The ligula is a 
slender, smooth, chitinous channel, forming something more than half 
a cylinder, and with a sharply pointed extremity. The two organs 
together form a complete tube. The united paraglossae is rather 
longer than the firm portion of the galea, and, in some, seems to pre- 
sent an indication of a median separation into two parts. 

The galea has a variable membranous portion at its base, propor- 
tionally longer in those species with an elongate proboscis, thus 
permitting greater freedom in its use. A rather peculiar membranous 
process is seen at the base in one species; it may possibly occur in 
others. The chitinous portion is only moderately firm, and is 
nearly cylindrical in life. Its upper margins are more or less widely 
separated, especially in the species with short proboscis. On either" 
side, is plainly seen the ribbon-like band of longitudinal fibres, 
indicated in the plate. The labella are especially large in A. 
hartispex, where they occupy the larger part of the galea. In other 
species they are smaller, but are in all adapted for attrition, 
having about twenty curved ridges on the inner side, very much as 
they are in the Nemistrinidae, though less numerous. On the outer 
side of each labellum, in the Australian species, there are numerous 
short, firm, bristly hairs, very much as in the Asilidae; they are wholly 
wanting, however, in A. haruspex. They are probably sense-organs. 

While, of course, this structure of the labella does not preclude the 


possibility of the insect feeding upon animal juices, yet it certainly 
shows that such juices do not form the only food, as in the Asilidae. 


In Rhaphioinidas the palpi are short and rather stout, a projection 
of the basal plate, without joint. The palpifers are elongate, but 
much less so than the paraglossae and ligula. They taper gradually 
from the pointed, slightly curved extremity, and are inserted into the 
basal, palpal plate by a sharp curve. On their distal portion, there is 
a very delicate, narrow expansion. Just outside, or rather above, the 
insertion, there is an elongate pit, with a sharp border, extending over 
about one-half of the palpal portion. I have not seen this depression 
in any other species. There is no indication of segmentation any- 
where on the palpus or palpifer. 


Mouth-parts of Rhaphioinidas Acton Coq. 
a, paraglosstE, from below; b, ligula, from above; c, palpifer; d, palpus; 
e, galea, from above; f, labella. 



The basal fourth, or a little more, of the galea is membranous, and 
is very flexible, evidently permitting retraction of the firmer portion. 
Under a moderately high magnification, it shows both longitudinal 
and transverse striation. The flaps or edges approach each other 
above, though perhaps not as regularly as indicated in the drawing. 
The opaque, firm portion is about the three-fourths of the entire length, 
and is scarcely longer than the sucking parts above. The upper 
margins touch each other before the middle, and thence to the end 
are not easily distinguishable, forming a closed, cylindrical, some- 
what irregular tube, for the reception of the palpifers, paraglossae 
and ligula. The tube is, of course, not united above, and the enclosed 
parts may be easily lifted out of it by the divergence of the flaps. At 
the tip, the elongate, spoon-shaped labella lie normally parallel, but 
are easily divaricate. They have each, on the inner approximated 
side, about twenty transverse, double rows of fimbriae. The outer 
side has each about fifty small, rounded transparent spots, more 
numerous near the tip. They are evidently sense-organs, though 
entirely destitute of bristles. 

Male forceps of BhapMomidas Acton Coq. 

The paraglossae form a smooth, slender, nearly cylindrical, tapering 
tube, the infolded margins below coming in contact throughout nearly 
the entire length, diverging at the base and tip. The tip is smooth 
and thin, like the half of a cylinder, and obtuse. There is no indica- 
tion whatever of a median division. The ligula is a little shorter than 
the paraglossae, united with .the upper organ by suture at the base. 
The distal extremity is sharply pointed and delicate, and, throughout 
its length, on the upper side, there is a slender, deep groove, forming, 
when inclosed within the paraglossae, a nearly perfect tube. The 
palpifers are evidently more functional here than in Apiocera, though 
it is difficult to say what that function is, as they are much shorter 
than the paraglossae. They may serve as a support for the basal 
membranous portion of the galea. 




In Mydas, and probably in all those species with but two posterior 
cells between the forked cell and the posterior margin of the wing, the 
mouth-parts are relatively small, the proboscis short, and the palpi 
extremely rudimentary. On the other hand, in the three known gen- 
era with three posterior cells behind the forked cell, Diochlistus, 
Triclonus {Hamnophand) and Mitrodetus, the proboscis is more or 
less elongate, and, in one form at least, has well-developed palpi. In 
Mydas, there is a slight, wart-like protuberance from the basal plate, 
which probably represents the palpus. From its base, the short, 

m /• 

Mouth-parts of Triclonus bispinifer Westw. 

a, paraglossEB, from below; b, ligula, from above; c, palpifer; d, palpus; 

e, galea; f, labellum. 

•dagger-shaped palpifer arises. The united paraglossae is longer than 
the ligula, and nearly twice the length of the palpifers. It is slender, 
nearly cylindrical, nearly truncate at the tip, and has its lower borders 
nearly contiguous. The slender, obtuse ligula fits within this tube, 
and itself forms nearly a complete tube. The short galea terminates 
in broad labella. 

In Triclonus, the palpi are elongate and well developed, though 
unjointed. The paraglossae and ligula are slender, the palpifers only 
a little longer than the palpi, the galea more elongate, and freely 
open above; and the pseudo-tracheate labella very large and turned 



1 have examined the mouth-parts in but two genera of this family. 
The structure, except the galea, is so nearly identical in these, how- 
ever, that I believe it to be the family type. The paraglossae and 
ligula present only minor differences from those parts in Apiocera and 
Rhaphiomidas . Neither organ forms a complete tube. The para- 
glossae have a more thin, pointed extremity than in the other men- 
tioned species, and the ligula is more rounded at the extremity. The 
palpifers are extremely slender, especially in the long-proboscid form. 
They are cylindrical, firm, without expansion distally, and bare. The 
palpi seem merely appendages of the palpifers. They arise at a con- 
siderable angle from the flattened, slightly expanded base, and, though 
apparently two-jointed, are long and whiplash-like. The galea is 
fully open on the upper side in the broadly labiate species, more 
closed, and more slender and firm in the long-proboscid species. The 
suctorial flaps in Hlrmoneura are very large, with numerous curved 
ridges, and small, irregularly distributed, round, translucent spots. 
The outer side is covered with short hairs. The labella differ from 
those of Apiocera in the greater number and smaller size of the pseudo- 
tracheal ridges, and in their relatively larger size. In Megistorliynchus, 
the labella are terminal, long, narrow and divaricable — very much 
like the same organs in Rhaphiomidas. 


In Thereva and Psilocephala, the forms examined, the structure is 
essentially the same as in those already described. The paraglossae 
are longer than the ligula, both of which organs are deeply channeled, 
forming, in apposition, a closed canal. The palpi are one-jointed, 
elongate, irregular in outline, and very hairy. The palpifers are very 
slender, straight, and firm, arising from the base of the palpal projec- 
tion. They are considerably shorter than the sucking parts above, 
and not as long as the palpi. In Thereva, the paraglossae and ligula 
are more elongate and slender than in Psilocephala. The galea is- 
open above, and terminates in the large labella, which are provided 
with irregular ridges, as in Apiocera. 


A uniform structure seems to prevail throughout the Asilidae, but 
with minor differences characteristic of species, genera and, appar- 
ently, subfamilies. I have been able to examine only a comparatively 
small number of the genera, but I feel sure that conclusions drawn 
from these will be applicable to the whole family. In Mallophora, 
Promachus, Proctacanthus, and Asilus, the palpi are large and but 
one-jointed. In Stetiopogon, Scleropogon, Deromyia, Cyrtopogon, Ospri- 


oc-erus, Laphria, Lampria, 2^x1^ Dasyllis, the palpi are distinctly two- 
jointed. In Leptogaster, there is but a single joint. This character 
may be expressed as follows : 

A. Palpi one-jointed. 

B. Marginal cell of the wing open — Leptogastrin^. 
BB. Marginal cell closed — Asilin^. 

AA. Palpi two-jointed. 

C. Marginal cell of the wings open — DasypogoninjE. 
CC. Marginal cell closed — Laphrin^e. 

The diminution of the number of palpal joints has been produced, 
evidently, by a greater specialization, and the general tendency in 
diptera is toward their entire loss. It may be safely assumed that the 
Asilinae and Leptogastrinae represent a more specialized type than do 
the Dasypogoninae and Laphrinae ; a specialization further seen in 
the change from styliferous to the aristoid antennae. On this ground 
alone, it seems to me, the relationship of Apiocera with the Dasypo- 
goninae is more intimate than with the Asilinae. It is true that we 
find the palpi sometimes wanting in families of lower type, even as 
they may be wanting in Saundersia, a genus closely related to Dejaenia, 
where they are very large. On the other hand, I predict that two- 
jointed palpi will be found very seldom in those genera having a well- 
developed arista. 

In MallopJiora, the palpi are very stout, cylindrical and hairy, and 
nearly as long as the palpifers. In the other genera of the Asilinae 
they are smaller. In Laphria and Lampria they are small, one might 
almost say sometimes rudimentary in the latter. Everywhere in the 
family their size seems to have some relation with the hirsuteness of 
the species. In many of the Dasypogoninae they are strongly devel- 
oped, though perhaps nowhere so much as in MallopJiora. In all 
cases they seem to be appendages of the palpifers, to which they are 
attached without articulation. The palpifers are in all cases stout, 
chitinous rods, much larger and stouter than in any of the forms pre- 
viously described.. Generic, and even specific, differences are shown 
in their shape, sometimes slender on the distal extremity, sometimes 
hooked or barbed, or with angular projections like a Roman battle- 
axe. They indicate a more distinct function than appears in the more 
simple forms occurring in the families already mentioned. The galea 
is strongly chitinous, with its base only, membranous. The terminal 
portion, corresponding to the labella, is variable in shape, sometimes 
extending far back on the upper side, and separated from the portion 
behind it by a more translucent line, as indicated in the section shown 
in the plate. The labella, however, are always horny, not at all 


dilated, wholly without pseudo-tracheae, and are covered on the out- 
side with small pointed spines springing from a small eminence. This 
part seems almost functionless, so far as independent action is con- 

It is in the suctorial organs that the characteristic Asilid structure 
is observed, and one which is remarkably constant in the family, and 
very different from that found in any of the related families."^ The 
paraglossae are partly aborted, and serve simply to cover over the 
basal portion of the ligula. They present a shallow concavity, with 
the lateral margins turned down, and the anterior extremity rounded. 
Their paired origin seems to be indicated in the elongated chitinous 
plate on each side; no other indication is present, however. The 
ligula is peculiar, and it was not till after repeated sections and dis- 
sections that I felt sure of the identity. Lateral and top views of this 
organ, together with distal and proximal cross-sections, are given in 
the accompanying plates. The basal portion is dilated and concave, 
and widely open above, and is exactly covered in life by the short 
paraglossae. Immediately beyond this portion, the organ contracts, 
and the folded margins above come in contact, or nearly so, to the 
extremity. The canal thus formed is large, as is seen in the figure. 
The upper margins of the tube bear a row of rather firm, short, back- 
wardly directed hairs. It will be seen in the figures that the palpifers 
lie close by the side of the ligula, and in such a position that pressure 
toward the inner side would tend to close the canal more firmly. In 
shape, the ligula varies somewhat in different species, being sometimes 
very slender, at other times more fusiform. 


1. Bigot, J. F. M. — Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (3), v, pp. 70, 537, 


2. Brauer, Friedrich.^ — Characteristic dtr mit Scenopinus ver- 
wandten dipteren Familien. Denkschr. d. math.-nat. Classe d. k. 
Acad. d. Wissensch. xliv, pp. 104, 107, 1882. 

3. Brauer, Friedrich. — Systematisch-zoologische Studien. Sit- 
zenb. d. k. Acad. d. Wissensch. 1885, pp. 390-392. 

4. CoQUiLLETT, D. W. — Systematic Position of Apiocera. Psyche, 
1885, pp. 243-244. 

5. CoQUiLLETT, D. W. — A new Rhaphiomidas from California. 
Western Amer. Scientist, 1891, pp. 84-86. 

6. DiMMOCK, George. — The Anatomy of the Mouth-parts and of 
the Sucking Apparatus of some Diptera. Boston, 1881. 

* So different are these parts from the corresponding organs in other flies that they 
led Professor Smith into an error. The lacinia are entirely absent in the Asilids as well 
as all other families here described, as in fact also in the male Tabanid. 

williston: apiocerid^. 117 

7. Gerst^cker, a. — Systematische Uebersicht der bis jetzt 
bekannt gewordenen Mydaiden. Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1868, pp. 6, 7 

8. JjENNicke, F. — Neue exotische Dipteren. Abhandl. d. Senck- 
enb. Gesellsch. vi, p. 353, pi. xliii, f. 12, 1867. 

9. Macloskie, George. — Kraepelin's Proboscis of Musca. Amer. 
Naturalist, Dec. 1884, p. 1242. 

10. Macquart, J. — Dipteres exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus, 
i, 2, p. 78, pi. vi, f. 5, 1838. 

11. Macquart, J. — Dipteres exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus, 
SuppL, 2, pp. 47-49^ 1846. 

12. MiK, Josef. — ["On the Genus Apiocera"]. Wien. Ent. 
Zeit. iii, p. 27, 1884. 

13. MiK, Josef. — Dipterologischen Miscellen, xi. Wien. Ent. 
Zeit. vii, pp. 181, 182, 1888. 

14. MiK Josef. — [" Studies on Tipulidae, Part II "]. Wien. Ent. 
Zeit. vii, p. 226, 1888. 

15. MiK, Josef. — Ueber die dipterologischen Referate in den 
Jahrgangen 1882 bis inclusiv 1890 der Wiener entomologischen Zeit- 
ung. Wien. Ent. Zeit. ix, p. 293, 1890. 

16. Osten Sacken, C. R. — Western Diptera : Descriptions of 
new Genera and Species of Diptera from the Region West of the 
Mississippi and especially California. Bullet. U. S. Geol. Survey of 
the Ter. Hayden, vol. iii, pp. 281-284, 1877. 

17. Osten Sacken, C. R. — On the Genus Apiocera. Berl. Ent. 
Zeitschrift xxvii, pp. 287-294, 1883. 

18. Osten Sacken, C. R. — Correction to my Article on Apiocera 
in the Berlin Ent. Zeit., 1883, p. 287-294. Berl. Entom. Zeitschr. 
XXX, p. 138, 1886. 

19. Osten Sacken, C. R. — Catalogue of North American Diptera, 
Second Edition, Washington, Smithsonian Collections, p. 85, 1878. 

20. Osten Sacken, C. R. — Studies on Tipulidae, II. Berl. Ent. 
Zeitschr., xxxi, p. 168, foot-note, 1887. 

21. Osten Sacken, C. R. — Biologia Centrali-Americana, Dip- 
tera, vol. i, p. 212, 1887. 

22. Osten Sacken, C. R. — Additions and Corrections to the Cat- 
alogue of the described species of South American Asilidse by S. W. 
Williston, in the Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. xviii, 1891. Berl. 
Entom. Zeitschr. xxxvi, p. 421, 1891. 

23. Osten Sacken, C. R.— Second Notice on the Apiocerina. 
Berl. Ent. Zeitschr. xxxvi, pp. 311-315, 1891. 

24. Philippi, R. a. — -Aufzaehlung der chilenischen Dipteren. 
Verh. ZooL-bot. Gesellsch. 1865, pp. 595-672, 


25. ScHiNER, Rudolf. — Reise der Novara, Diptera, pp. 151, 152, 


26. Smith, J. R. — A Contribution toward a knowledge of the 
Mouth-parts of the Diptera. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. xvii, pp. 319- 
339. 1890. 

27. Thomson, C. J. — Eugenics Resa Omkring Jorden, Entomol- 
ogiska Bidrag., pp. 462, 463, pi. ix, f. 5, 1868. 

28. Walker, Francis. — List of the Specimens of Dipterous 
Insects in the Collection of the British Museum, p. 229, 185 i. 

29. Westwood, J. O. — "London and Edinburgh Phil. Mag., 


30. Westwood, J. O. — "Arcana Entoni. i, p. 50, 1841." 

31. Wiedemann, C. R. W. — Aussereuropaeische zweifliigelige In- 
sekten, vol. ii, p. 646, 1830. 

32. Williston, S. W. — Hilarimorpha and Apiocera, Psyche, 
i888, pp. 99-102. 

^;^. Williston, S. W. — Synopsis of the Families and Genera of 
North American Diptera, p. 32, New Haven, 1888. 





The Blepharoceridae are one of those families of diptera whose wide 
structural variations and geographical distribution render of especial 
interest. Baron Osten Sacken's recent resume of the known forms* 
gives only fourteen or fifteen as the entire number hitherto described: 
"Half a century has elapsed since the first species of the family was 
described; Asthenia fasciata Westwood, in Guerin's Magazin de 
Zoologie, 1842, Insectes, plate 94. Since then the number has 
gradually risen to thirteen described and two as yet imperfectly known 
species. Six of the thirteen belong to Europe, one to Asia, four to 
North America, one to South America. The two imperfectly 
described species are the two Paltostomae from South America and 
Mexico." It has only been very recently that I have become acquain- 
ted with the family /// natura. Several specimens of a species of 
Paltostoma from the West Indies, which I have examined, seem to be 
different from P. superbiens Schiner, and may belong to the species 
referred to by Osten Sacken as occurring in Mexico. A full descrip- 
tion, with figures, will be given of them at an early date. At present I 
wish to describe a new species from South America, which requires 
the erection of a new genus. 

SNOWIA.-gen. nov. 

Female. No incomplete vein near the posterior margin. Proboscis 
short. Hind tibiae with well-developed spurs. Ungues simple. Ocelli 
present. Front broad. Antennae composed of fourteen joints, closely 
united, the first two larger than the others. Proboscis directed down- 
wards, a little longer than the vertical diameter of the head; palpi 
slender, about as long as the proboscis, apparently composed of four 
joints. Neuration nearly as in Hapalotlirix Loew, as figured by Loew, 
Zeitschr, f. Entomol. n. Folge, H. vr, pi. 1, fig. 8a, save that 
there is a strong, oblique cross-vein connecting the fourth vein before 

*Berl. Entom. Zeitschr. xxxvi, p. 407, I8i*2. 

(119) KAN. UNIV. gUAK.. VOL.1., NO. .3, JAN., 1893. 


the anterior cross-vein with the stem of the forked vein behind, some- 
what as in Liponeura, except that the cross-vein joins the fifth vein 
before the sixth longitudinal branches from it. Legs elongate, the 
femora somewhat thickened (the hind pair decidedly thickened) before 
the extremity; ungues large, simple. Eye-facets uniform. 

In Loew's synopsis (op. cit. ) the genus would be located with 
Liponeura, from which it is at once distinguished by the wide difference 
in the neuration. Osten Sacken's grouping is a more natural one, yet 
not wholly satisfactory. The genus is evidently nearest allied to 
Paltostoma and Hapalothrix; to be distinguished from the former by 
the short proboscis; from the latter by the spurred hind tibiae; from 
both by the presence of the posterior connecting vein in the wing. 
There are no pulvilli, and the empodium is rudimentary. The species 
is nearly or quite bare, agreeing therein with Paltostoma, and differing 
from Hapalothrix liigiibris. It gives me pleasure to name this genus 
in honor of the distinguished entomologist and naturalist. Prof. F. H. 
Snow, Chancellor of the University of Kansas. 
Snowia rufescens, n. sp. 

Female. Bare. Front black, not shining, reddish below. Face red- 
dish yellowish. Antennae blackish, the basal joints yellowish. Thorax 
yellow, opaque; the dorsum orange red. Abdomen deep red, the 
narrow margins of the segments brownish; venter lighter colored. Legs 
dark brown or blackish, the basal part of the femora yellowish. Wings 
nearly hyaline, the anterior veins blackish; the posterior ones lighter 
colored; furcation of fifth and sixth veins near the base of the wing- 
nearly opposite the axillary incisure. Length 8 millim. 

One specimen, Rio de Janeiro (H. H. Smith). 


In the November number of the Wiener Entomologische Zeitung, 
page 216, Mr. V. von Roeder gave a synopsis of the known species of 
Stylogaster, in which he accepts three only, — 6". stylata Fabr. ; 
^. neglecta Will., and 6". leomnn Westwood. S. hiannulata Say, he 
considers the same as S. stylata, on the strength of Wiedemann's 
determination. He may be right, but I think not. 

In the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy, vol. vi, p. 92, I 
gave as my reason for employing Say's, rather than Fabricius' name 
for the North American species, that Wiedemann had confounded two 
species in his description, as was evident from the difference in 
the length of the antennal joints, which Wiedemann erroneously con- 
sidered a sexual character. Since then I have received a female 
specimen of a Brazilian species, which enables me to clear up the 
confusion, so far as Wiedemann is concerned. 


By comparing Wiedemann's text it will be seen that he drew his 
description from four or more specimens : a female which he called a 
male, presumably from North America; the original Fabrician type — 
Cotiops stylata — without abdomen, from S mth America, and which 
was undoubtedly a female ; and specimens from South America in the 
Frankfort Museum, which he believed to represent both sexes, but 
which were in reality females. In a word, all his specimens were 
females, but, as we. shall see, belonging to two different species. 

To make this clear, I shall quote from the description fully: " Bei 
Maennchen ist die Faerbung ueberhaupt lichter und mehr gelblich, 
der Hinterleibsgriffel kurzer, an der Spitze kurz und schwarz borstig 
und queer gespalten, so dass der obere Theil einen schmaeleren, laen- 
geren, etwas aufwaerts ragendeden Fortsatz, der unteren ein stump- 
feres, wie es scheint, zweilappiges Ende bildet. * * Bei Maennchen 
liegt er [der Hinterleibsgriffel] mit dem Hinterleibe in gerade Rich- 
tung. " This description applies excellently well to my Brazilian 
female specimen. We may call the species a. 

"Aus Fabricius Beschreibung des Hinterleibes, wie auch der Fiihler, 
sollte man ein Maennchen [i. e. a female, sp. a\ schliessen ; aber bei 
dem Weibchen, welches uebrigens in Farbe der Beine und Zeichnung 
mit jenem voellig uebereinstimmt, ist der Griffel am After noch viel 
laenger, fast 6 Linien ; * * das Ende ist walzenfoermig, mit ganz 
kurzer Spitze, und der ganzen Griffel geht unter einem weniger als 
rechten winkel vom Hinterleibe ab ; * * Die Fuehler des Weibchens 
sind groesser, und zumal ist das fast breit saebelfoermig dritte Glied 
auf Kosten des zweiten so vergroessert, dass diese nur wenig groesser 
als das erste erscheint. " This description applies perfectly to the 
female of .S*. neglecta Will., except in the length of the oviduct. (Com- 
pare Trans. Conn. Acad. vol. vi, pi. x, fig. 6.) We may call the 
species b. 

The first question is : Are a and b identical with bia7inulata and 
neglecta? That neglecta occurs in South America is not improbable, 
but the only evidence we have so far is the above description of the 
Frankfort specimen or specimens, which of course could easily apply 
to an allied but distinct species I have but a single male of biannu- 
lata, from North America, and the above mentioned female from 
South America. It is not at all unlikely that they are the same, yet, 
from the peculiar secondary sexual chatacters in the hind legs of the 
male, and the remarkable oviduct of the female, I can venture no 
positive opinion. But, since Mr. Roeder has presumably compared 
my description of the male with his specimen, and because Wiede- 
mann compared North and South American female specimens, it 
seems as though we might accept the identity. 


The next question is : To which of the two species did the type 
belong? P'rom Wiedemann's description, it seems that the antennae 
of the type were wanting when he saw it, as well as the abdomen. 
There is absolutely nothing in Fabricius' description that will furnish 
an answer, and it is doubtful whether the mutilated type, were it in 
existence, would relieve the doubt. Wiedemann's opinion was, that 
the specimen was possibly a "male," i. e. of the same species as, or 
one allied to, bianmtlata; but that is an assumption, and the descrip- 
tion of the thorax applies much better to negkcta. 

Under these circumstances I see no way but to abandon Fabricius' 
name, at least till there is more evidence, and accept the two names, 
biannulata and ueglecta, as of species probably occurring in both 
North and South America. 

It was no wonder that Wiedemann made the mistake that he did in 
the absence of real male specimens, so different are the oviducts in 
the two otherwise closely related species. In addition to the peculiar 
termination which Wiedemann describes, the oviduct in my Brazilian 
female is much more conical, stouter, shorter, and more posteriorly 
directed than in the female of ueglecta. It is composed of three seg- 
ments, as in negJ.ecta, but the first and third segments are, together, 
somewhat longer than the second, whereas, in ueglecta, they are 
exceedingly short, and the second segment is extraordinarily elon- 
gated. The peculiar processes at the tip, mentioned by Wiedemann, 
are also present in ueglecta, but are very small, and easily overlooked, 
whereas in the South American female they are conspicuous. The 
male has no elongation whatever at the end of the abdomen. 

Notes on Some Diseases of Grasses. 


With Plates XI, XII and XIII. 

Grasses are subject to attacks from various minute parasitic plants, 
resulting to the host in diminished vigor, accompanied by the destruc- 
tion of tissues or the formation of abnormal growths. The number 
of these parasites catalogued for the grass family in Farlow and Sey- 
mour's Host Index is between four and five hundred. For corn alone 
sixty-nine parasites are listed, for wheat fourteen, and for oats six. 
This is for extra-tropical America. 

One who gives only a passing notice to plants as he walks through 
the fields would hardly surmise, when vegetation is in its prime, that 
here and there disease is sapping the vitality of the sturdy grasses. 
But now, in December, when the blanched leaves and culms stand out 
above our first light snows, the scars of summer conflicts become con- 
spicuous. Very evident are the rusts on Panicimi virgattwi., Andj-o- 
pogon furcatiiz, Bouteloiia racemosa, and Tripsaciim dactyloides ; 
while growing between clumps of these, large patches of Setaria glauca 
show leaves flecked over with blighted spots. The standing spikes of 
Elymus Canadensis and E. virginicus are interspersed with the slen- 
der black sclerotia of Claviceps purpurea, and frequently the glumes 
are glued together by the pink masses of a Fusisporium, hardly less 
destructive to the ovaries than the Claviceps. On the borders of the 
grain fields, among the few stalks of wheat and oats left standing by 
the reaper, the not infrequent blackened spots where the ovaries or 
glumes should have been, and the malformed masses in the standing 
corn suggest that, though unnoticed by the farmer, the loss in the 
aggregate, due to smut, has been no trifling amount. 

If one is amazed at the Ipng list of parasites in the Host Index, he 
is probably no less astonished when he notices for the first time their 
prevalence by his doorstep and through his fields. The fungus dis- 
eases of plants have been studied for many years, and activity in this 
line of research is now greater than ever. Investigations of the life- 
histories of parasites have brought to light some surprising facts and 
have led to the more intelligent application of remedies. These pres- 
ent notes relate chiefly to the visible effects of the parasite on the host. 

(123) KAN. DNIV. QTTAR., VOU I., NO. 3, JAN., 1893. 



The genus Picccitiia embraces some of the most ubiquitous 
parasites. Sixty-three of its species are catalogued in the Host 
Index on grasses alone. To the unaided eye the presence of this 
class of parasites is indicated by elevated streaks or spots of a 
yellow, brown or black color. Discolorations sometimes extend from 
these well-defined areas, but usually the healthy color of the tissues 

about them is preserved. Fig. i, plate XI, illustrates thin sections 
through a leaf of Eriophorum virginiciwi parasitized by Puccinia 
angustata. The group of spores is seen to arise between two fibro- 
vascular bundles. The cuticle of the inner surface together with 
some of the parenchyma cells has been pushed up and broken, permit- 
ting the spores to protrude above the surface of the leaf. It is the 
protruding line of spores extending along the leaf between the fibro- 
vascular bundles that reveals so clearly to the naked eye the presence 
of this class of fungi. The mycelium from which the spores arise 
penetrates to the upper cuticle and is apparently confined on either 
side by the fibro-vascular bundles. The mycelium is seen through 
the colorless cuticle of the upper surface as brown streaks and spots. 
The parenchyma in E. virginicnm is arranged in two or three com- 
paratively dense layers against the upper and lower cuticles, while 
between these layers and the fibro-vascular bundles the parenchyma 
is open and spongy. This is shown more clearly in sections of unaf- 
fected leaves. The spores of the fungus are developed in the central 


spongy parenchyma, and for their liberation the under layers of dense 
parenchyma must be broken as well as the cuticle, so that the mere 
mechanical injury done to the host is not inconsiderable. This is 
somewhat clearly shown by the lower section of the figure {loc. cit.). 
The mycelium from which the spores arise is traceable as anastomosing 
brown filaments penetrating throughout the parenchyma. The chlo- 
rophyll corpuscles are still present in many of the parasitized cells, 
but they are not so numerous or so large as in the unaffected portions 
of the leaf. Some of the cells bordering adjacent fibro-vascular bun- 
dles are lined with thick brown incrustations. These do not appear 
in unaffected leaves, and are evidently due to the fungus. The spore 
clusters on the specimens studied sometimes reached a length of 
.8 m.m., but the majority were mere points, not exceeding .i m.m. 
in length. These were so closely grouped that as many as three in 
the space of a millimeter were not infrequent. It is evident from the 
way these spore-groups or sori are thickly ranged up and down 
between two fibro-vascular bundles, while adjacent interspaces are 
free from them for considerable distances, that many sori are fre- 
quently produced from one mycelium developed from a single spore, 
and that the woody fibres of the bundles are, as a rule at least, effect- 
ual barriers against the lateral extension of the mycelium. Uromyces 
is a genus closely related to Puccinia. Fig. 2, plate XI, shows U. 
spartincB parasitic on Spartina stricta. The leaves of this grass are 
densely ribbed on the upper or inner surface, the ribs extending to a 
height equal to or exceeding the thickness of the body of the leaf. At 
the bases of the ribs are fibro-vascular bundles bordered by large and 
mostly hexagonal cells. Against these, and extending to the cuticle, 
is a row of delicate palisade parenchyma. The mycelium of the para- 
site is confined in these parenchyma cells, forming there a dense net- 
work. In the figure (2, plate XI) the ridges of the leaf are seen to be 
thrust apart by the development of the spores. The mycelium pene- 
trating the parenchyma is seen as a shaded narrow strip extending to 
the under surface of the leaf, where another spore cluster is forming. 
The sori in this instance are from two to six millimeters in length. In 
leaves of Panicuni varigatum the parenchyma cells are arranged radi- 
ally about the bundles. When parasitized by Uromyces graminicola the 
mycelium extends throughout the parenchyma and surrounds the 
bundles. The cells, although penetrated and lined on their interior 
by the mycelial filaments, retain an apparently normal condition. The 
relation of Puccinia plvagmitis to Spartina cynosuroides is well shown 
in figure i, plate XII. Here the ridges of the inner surface of the leaf 
are capped with a thicker layer of sclerenchyma than is the case with 
S. stricta, and the bundles are larger and project farther into the 


ridges. For this reason the growth of the fungus is more circum- 
scribed laterally and the mechanical injury to the leaf is much less 
extended than is usually the case. Between the bundles are from two 
to three layers of parenchyma cells, and in the figure the mycelium is 
seen to permeate this tissue and form spore clusters on both surfaces. 
After the spores break through the cuticle they extend out laterally so 
that the sorus appears of considerable breadth. It is only in cross 
sections that the narrow limits of the mechanical injury of the leaf 
produced by a single sorus becomes evident. The section of a leaf 
of Ave7ia sativa parasitized by Piiccinia coi'onata, lig. 2, plate XII, 
is in striking contrast to fig. i. In the leaves of oats the paren- 
chyma has a broadly lateral distribution and the bundles are for the 
most part more deeply seated than in Spartiiia. For this reason they 
do not always serve as a check to the lateral extension of the myceli- 
um, and the sori may even become confluent over them, as shown in 
the figure. The whole of the parenchyma in the region of the affected 
parts is permeated by the mycelium, and ytX. the chlorophyll corpus- 
cles remain in an apparently healthy condition. 

With these examples before us, we may say that the first visible 
injury due to this class of parasites is mechanical ; the cuticle and in 
some cases a portion of the parenchyma is broken and pushed out- 
ward. The fibro-vascular bundles do not seem to be affected by the 
parasite. The mycelium is seen to extend throughout the parenchyma; 
but the tissues appear to be in a fairly normal, condition, except that 
in many cases the cells have been crowded by the pressure of the 
developing spores. Injuries other than mechanical and locally visible 
must necessarily follow the presence of a parasite thus deeply seated 
in the vital parts of a plant. The mycelium permeating the paren- 
chyma cells is undoubtedly appropriating for the development of its 
spores the food material elaborated by those cells, and the healthy 
nutrition of the whole plant must be measurably restricted thereby. 
Moreover, the undue evaporation caused by the rupture of the cuticle, 
and the osmotic conditions produced by the rapidly developing spores 
of the parasite must divert the salts brought up from the soil, and the 
sap elaborated in other parts of the plant from their proper distribu- 
tion ; and not only the leaves and culms where the parasite is local- 
ized, but the roots and inflorescence must be impaired in their devel- 
opment. The influence of the position and size of the fibro-vascular 
bundles on the extent of the mechanical injury done by the parasite is 
made evident by a comparison of the figures of plates XI and XII. 

Smut on corn is one of the most conspicuous of plant parasites at 
the time of the formation of its spores. I presume nearly every farmer 
boy has looked on its silvery masses with feelings not unmixed with 


superstition. A section of one of these masses just forming on a leaf 
sheath is shown in fig. i, plate XIII. It will be seen that the mass 
is an outgrowth of the tissues of the sheath, in which the parasite is 
already forming its masses of dark spores. The new growth is of 
great advantage to the fungus, since the latter can proceed with its 
development only in newly formed cells. A movement of elaborated 
sap must set in toward the new region of growth, and the fungus uses 
these favorable conditions to branch out rapidly and produce its spore 
masses. In the figure (i, plate XIII) the new growth is seen to have taken 
place between two primary bundles ; the secondary bundles between 
them have been pushed upward by the abnormal enlargement and 
distortion of the cells beneath them, and have become centers for the 
outgrowth of irregular tracheids extending fitfully into the newly 
formed tissues. The new outgrowth consists chiefly of thin-walled 
cells containing starch grains in abundance. The outer cells, which 
are a continuation of the cuticle of the sheath, are elongate and com- 
paratively thin-walled. As the spores mature, the surrounding tissues 
become compacted and ruptured, allowing the penetration of moisture 
and the consequent further swelling and bursting of the mass. In the 
somewhat distorted cells beneath the new growth, and to some dis- 
tance laterally, the ramification of the mycelium can be distinctly 
made out. Brefeld has shown by his extensive experiments that the 
germ tube of the smut spores can penetrate the nascent tissues of any 
part of the plant, and -is not restricted to the root node of the young 
seedling, as was formerly supposed. He states as his belief, that if 
the germ tube which enters at the root node does not develop rapidly 
enough to get into and keep pace with the growing point, that its fur- 
ther ascent in the plant is impossible. Indeed, his careful experi- 
ments, many times repeated, seem to prove that in the case of the 
rapidly-growing corn plant, those smut masses which appear on the 
ovaries or staminate flowers were produced by the inoculation of the 
inflorescence just as, or before it burst from its sheath. Once estab- 
lished in the host, the fungus has the power of irritating the tissues 
wherein it lies, into an abnormal growth, and in the new growing 
point thus established, it completes its development. 

The mycelium of a fungus may penetrate the cells of its host either 
through openings already formed, or by piercing the cell membrane 
mechanically, or, the cell membrane may be dissolved by the secretion 
of some ferment by the growing point. The figures on page 124 repre- 
sent cells from the sheath of a corn leaf sectioned through a smut 
outgrowth. Thin places or perforations often occur in the cell walls, 
as shown in figs. 3 and 6, and the mycelium sometimes penetrates 
at such places ; but more frequently it seems to pass through the cell 


walls independently of any natural openings. In fig. i the mycelium 
is seen to contract as it penetrates the wall, and to emerge into the 
cell with about half its former diameter. In the same figure a fila- 
ment starts out suddenly, follows the contour of the cell for a short 
distance, and terminates without manifesting any disposition to pene- 
trate the wall. Similar occurrences are seen in figs. 2 and 4. Cases 
of this kind are not infrequent. They seem to result from branches 
that have been confined between the walls of contiguous cells, but 
have at last made for themselves a passage into the cell. In fig. 2 the 
mycelium is again seen to contract as it passes through the upper wall. 
In the lower portion of the figure the mycelium has bulged out before 
penetrating the wall, as though new material were added to the grow- 
ing point faster than it could penetrate the wall. Contraction has 
taken place, however, while penetrating the wall, and afterwards the 
filament has grown considerably thicker and formed a shoulder on the 
inner surface of the cell. In fig. 3 penetration has taken place at one 
of the natural openings, although on both sides of the wall the filament 
is much larger than the opening. ■ After entering the cell the filament 
bifurcates, one branch penetrating into an adjacent cell without suffer- 
ing any change in its diameter, the other evidently becoming lost in 
the interspace between the cell walls, probably to reappear abruptly 
at another place similarly to the sudden eruptions in figs, i and 4. 
The mycelium entering the cell from above, in fig. 4, does not have its 
diameter materially altered ; it undergoes change in direction, how- 
ever, and appears to cause the cell wall to protrude on both sides. 
As the filament leaves the cell it is abruptly reduced to almost one- 
third its former diameter, and soon terminates, after sending off short 
branches. In figs. 5 and 6 the plasticity of the growing point is illus- 
trated. Here, for some reason, the penetration of the cell wall was 
not effected and the accretions of new material have become heaped 
up on the inner surface of the cell wall. These, and other sections 
which I have examined, appear rather to bear witness for the theor}^ 
of the perforation of the cell wall by means of a ferment secreted by 
the fungus, than for the theory of mechanical puncture. The sudden 
emergence of a filament after evident meanderings between cells, does 
not occur under the proper conditions, it seems to me, for the punc- 
ture of the wall at a certain point by pressure. If the wall is punctured 
mechanically, the faster growth at the top takes place the quicker the 
perforation would be accomplished. On the other hand, rapid growth 
of the filament would not necessaril}^ produce a correspondingly rapid 
perforation of the cell wall if the perforation were caused by a fer- 
ment, and we would find at times such accumulations of plastic mate- 
rial as those shown in figs. 2, 5, and 6. While mycelial branches 


such as those represented on page 124 are plentiful in the cells of the 
sheath adjacent to the abnormal growth, within the new growth the 
filaments are much smaller, and are discernible with difficulty except 
where the branches are massed together for the production of spores. 
The application of a solution of iodine to sections brings out promi- 
nently an abundance of starch grains in the cells of the sheath. These 
become very scarce, however, in the cells just beneath the new growth, 
but are found massed together again in the cells immediately sur- 
rounding the spore masses. Aside from the distortion of the cells, 
the tissues of the corn in the vicinity of the fungus do not seem to 
have suffered. There is no discoloration, no evident lack of healthy 
nutrition. However, the nutriment used up in the production of 
abnormal tissues, and in the formation of the large spore- masses of 
the fungus, might have gone toward the upbuilding of the essential 
parts of the plant. When the smut occurs in the pistillate flowers it 
is the young ovaries that become the seat of the abnormal growths for 
the formation of the spore-masses, and here the injury becomes more 
evident, because done, to the very consummation of the plant's exist- 

Another class of injuries to the tissues of -the host plant is shown 
by leaves of Panicum sangjiinale, parasitized by Piricularia grisea. 
Fig. 2, plate XIII, illustrates this. The affected portion of the leaf 
has shrunk to about one-third its natural diameter, and the collapsed 
tissues are blackened a,s though by fire. As the fungus extends its 
growth in a widening circle, the parenchyma cells, which radiate from 
the smaller fibro-vascular bundles, melt down and lose their identity 
in a darkened mass. Often the cuticle is blackened and shrunken, 
and even the lignified portions of the bundles do not escape the gen- 
eral discoloration. In this instance the spores are borne on pedicels 
which grow out through the stomata, and the mechanical injury 
caused by the parasite is slight. The chief injury is done to the 
chlorophyll-bearing parenchyma. It is the elaborating, rather than 
the conducting tissues that suffer, for frequently where a parasitized 
spot occupies over two-thirds the breadth of the leaf the portion of 
the leaf above the affected part retains its turgidity and apparent 
healthfulness. How much the fungus draws upon the general circula- 
tion of the host is not evident. It is clear, however, that it disin- 
tegrates and feeds upon tissues already formed. 

The obliteration of the parenchyma of the leaf is sometimes caused 
by the formation of oospores in large numbers. This is shown by 
No. 64, in fascicle 11, of Seymour and Earle's Economic Fungi. The 
example is a leaf of Setaria viridis parasitized by Feronospora gratni- 
nicola. The dried specimen crumbles easily to long shreds as though 


the fibro-vascular bundles were only lightly held together. Thin 
transverse sections reveal the bundles completely surrounded by the 
masses of oospores, the parenchyma cells being entirely absent, and 
only the fragile cuticle remaining to hold the bundles together and 
preserve the shape of the mummified leaf. Neither the cuticle nor the 
bundles are discolored. The parasite seems to have devoured the 
parenchyma utterly, and to have incorporated it in its own rich mass 
of oospores. 

Claviceps purpurea and a species of Fusisporium have been widely 
spread in this locality for the past two years in Elymus Virginicus and 
E. Canadensis. Both parasites occur in the young ovaries and cause 
the complete destruction of their tissues. Even before the sclerotia 
of Claviceps have emerged from the inner glumes, no vestiges remain 
of the cell walls or cell contents of the ovaries. The presence of the 
Fusisporitmi is manifested by the outgrowth, from between the glumes, 
of a dark pink gelatinous mass. A section through a spikelet shows 
the glumes bound together by the growth of a dense mycelium and the 
tissues of the ovary almost or entirely replaced by the fungus. (In 
one section some fragments of the starch-bearing cells remained, but 
no starch grains.) Excepting the occasional discoloration of the cells 
contiguous to the fungus, the glumes do not seem to suffer. The 
spores, which are obscurely septate and curved-fusiform, are borne 
chiefly by that portion of the fungus which has replaced the ovary. 
Frequently the Fusisporium occurs in the same spikelet as the Clavi- 
ceps, and then the pink gelatinous mass growing about and up the 
dark sclerotium produces a striking contrast. 

With reference to their effect upon their hosts, the parasites on 
grasses embraced in these notes may be grouped as follows : 

1. Those not preeminently destructive to tissues already formed, 
but which appropriate to themselves the currents of elaborated sap, 
and the nutrition of the whole plant suffers in consequence. The 
Puccinias are examples. 

2. Those that produce abnormal outgrowths from the plant, in 
which to develop their spores. In this class all parts of the host 
suffer from the appropriation by the parasite of the elaborated sap, 
and frequently a normal growing point is caused to produce abnormal 
tissues, so that the proper development of fruit or foliage is interfered 
with. Ustilago Zece-Md^ys is an example of this class. 

3. Those that attack the chlorophyll bearing tissues of the host, 
and disintegrate and feed upon their cells. In this class the nutrition 
of the host is curtailed by the destruction of a part of its elaborating 
tissues. Piricularia grisea belongs to this class. 

4. Those that attack the developing ovaries, destroying their 


tissues and using up the rich food supply sent up for the formation of 
the fruit. In this class the effects appear to be entirely local, the 
nutrition of other parts of the plant not being impaired. Claviceps 
purperea is a type of this class of parasites. 

Many parasitic fungi have a wide range of host plants, and this fact 
must at times be considered by economic mycologists in devising pre- 
ventive methods. It is quite likely that in some instances mistakes 
have been made in classifying similar forms on different hosts as 
identical. A study of the development of these forms in nutrient 
media, such as has already been done by Brefeld, will help to make a 
safer basis of classification. To illustrate the wide range of which 
some parasites are capable, I have arranged from Farlow & Seymour's 
Host Index a list of the Graminese which serve as hosts for a few of 
the parasites of frequent occurrence on some of our cultivated cereals. 

Claviceps purpurea, (Fr.) Tul. 

Agropyrum divergens, Nees. 

" glaucum, Roem. & Schult. 

" repens, L. 

/ " violaceum, Lange. 

Calamagrostis Groenlandica, Kunth. 
Elymus Canadensis, L. 

" condensatus, Presl. 

" Virginicus, L. 
Glyceria fluitans, R. Br. 
Hordaum jubatum, L. 
KcBleria cristata, P. 
Phalaris arundinacea, L. 
Poa sp. indet. 

Spartina cynosuroides, Willd. 
Tripsacum dactyloides, L. 
Triticum vulgare, L. 


Agropyrum glaucutn, Roera. & Schult. 

Agrostis exarata, Trin. 

Avena sp. indet. 

Beckmannia erucaeformis, Host. 

Elymus condensatus, Presl. 

Glyceria nervata, Trin. 

Hordeum jubatum, L. 

Poa pratensis, L. 

" tbnuifolia, Nutt. 
Triticum vulgare, L. 

PiRicuLARiACRiSEA, (Cke.^ Sacc. 

Leersia oryzoides, Swz. 

" Virginica, Willd. 
Muhlenbergia glomerata, Trin. 
Panicum dichotomum, L. 
Poa pratensis, L. 
Setaria glauca, Beauv. 

" Italica, Kunth. 



Agropyrum glaucum, Roem & Schult. 

" violaceum, Lange. 

AgTOStis altoa, L., var. vulgaris, Thurb. 

" scabra, Willd. 

Andropogon sp. indet. 
Avena sativa, L. 
Briza maxima, L. 
Calamagrostis Canadensis, Beauv. 

" longifolia, Hook. 

Chrysopogon nutans, Benth., var. avenaceous, Gray. 
Distichlis maritima, Raf. 
Elymus Canadensis, L. 
Hordeum jubatum, L. 

" pratense, Huds. 

Muhlenbergia glomerata, Trin. 
" Mexicana, Trin. 

Phleum pratense, L. 
Phragmitls communis, Trin. 
Poa pratensis, L. 
Secale cereale, L. 
Sporobolus asper, Kunth. 
Triticum vulgare, L. 


Agropyrum divergens, Nees. 

" repens, L. 

Avena sativa, L. 
Calamagrostis Lapponica, Trin. 
Eatonia obtusata, Gray. 

" Pennsylvanica, Gray. 
Elymus Canadensis, L. 

" cordensatus, Presl. 
" Virginicus L. 
Hordeum jubatum, L. 

" pratense, Huds. 

Koeleria cristata, P. 
Secale cereale, L. 
Triticum vulgare, L. 

UsTiLACO Ze/e— Mays, (DC.) Wint. 

Euchlaena luxurians, Dur. & Asch. 
Zea— Mays, L. 

Modern Higher Algebra. 


Note. — The Theory of Determinants, as a branch of Modern High- 
er Algebra, has taken its appropriate place in all of the best works on 
Higher Algebra. It is an instrument of great utility and power in 
the most complex mathematical operations, and as illustrative of its 
methods, the following problems, algebraic in their character, are 
herewith demonstrated. They were originally suggested by a French 
teacher of mathematics. 


Show that if a determinant equals zero, the minors corresponding to 
tke elements of two parallel rows are proportional, and reciprocally. 


Let (a{a| . , . . a^) be a determinant, D, whose value is zero. 

We shall consider a homogeneous system of 7i equations of n un- 
known quantities, in which the coefficient of X\ in the /&th equation is 
a^-, the solution of these equations yields values of the unknown 
quantities other than zero. 

Suppose that one at least of the coefficients of the/th row and one 
of the coefficients of the elements of the ^th row have other values 
than zero. 

By making Bj to be the coefficient of the element a?, we know that 
the solution is general; so that 

(I), x,=kB^, x,=kB|, . . . . , x^=kBn 

in which k may be any number. 

In a similar manner u being an arbitrary number, 
(2), , Xj=uB^, x^^uBJ, , x^^uBn, 

with one value of k in (i) corresponding to a value for u in (2) such 
that we have the following equations, 

(3), kBi=uBS kB3=:uB2, , kBn=uBn. 

^^'" P q P q P q 

What has thus been established with regard to the rows can, by a 
similar process, be shown to be true of the columns of a determinant. 

Reciprocally, if the equations (3) hold between the elements of two 
rows, then the determinant J, which is the adjugateof D, has two par- 

(133) KAN. UNIV. QUAR., VOL. I., NO. 3, JAN., 1893. 


allel rows with elements proportional; then J^o; and since we know, 
(see Muir), that J=rD^~i, we must have the result D=o. 

The reciprocal may be demonstrated in the following manner: 

Bi=kBi, B2=kB2, .... ,Bn=kBii: then 

q ' p' q p' ' q p' 

D=aiBi+a2B2+ .... +a^Bii=k(aiBi +a3B2+ . . . -U si^B^)=o 

qq'qq' 'qq ^qp'qp' 'qP"^ 


Definition. — Every determinant whose elements verify the rela- 
tion apq-faqp^^o, is called a symmetrical gauche determinant, when 
the elements of the principal diagonal are all zero. 

Problem. — 'To show (i) that the value of every symmetrical gauche 
determina7it of a?i uneven degree is zero; (2) that every symmetrical 
gauche determinant of even degree is the square of a rational and entire 
fiinction of the elements of the determinant. 


(i). If the gauche determinant is of an uneven or odd degree, with 
every term such as 

^ ^ B y k 

in which I and I' are the numbers of inversions of two sets of indices, 
we may associate the term 

(— i)i'-riaBay, . 

\ J B' y 

whose values are at once zero, or are equal and have contrary signs; 
their sum is, therefore, equal to zero, as is also the value of the 

For the second part of the problem, let us begin with the following 

d^D _ dD dD dD dD 
da^~das ~ da^ da^ "~ da« "da^ 

m q m q m q 

T^ J • • , dD 

D designating the determinant we are considering; . ^ its derivative 



with regard to a*" , and 1- ,. . ^ its second derivative with regard to a"^" 
^ 1^ da^ da'^ ^ m 

m q 

first, and afterward to a^. 

q • 

Let the degree of D be represented by n, and suppose 7n=^r=r^n, and 
q^=s^n — I, the identity with which we started will then become 
d^D dD dD dD dD 

(I) D 

daMa*^-} da" da^i-i da^^-^ da^^-i ' 
n n— 1 n n— 1 n n 

We may show at once that D is a perfect square by putting, for 
e?cample, ??=2, thus: 

o a 




miller: modern higher algebra. 


If we include in the theorem all gauche determinants of a degree 
less than the even number ;/, it is also true of those of the degree //. 


J ^j ^ , is a gauche determinant of the even degree n — 2, and there- 
da"da^~} ° ° ' 

n n— 1 

fore a square. 





-j-^ — ; that is to say 
da^ ^ 




o — a 

1 ■ 

— an— 1 



o a 


We therefore find that equation (i) becomes 

d^D _ j dD ) -^ 
^ daiida^-i ^ ] da^-i f 

n n— 1 ' n • 



which clearly shows that D is the square of a rational function, (jP say, 
of its elements; the function </» is an integral quantity, since the square 
of a rational function cannot be an integral quantity except as </* itself 
is an integral. 


Statement. — If u and v be eliminated from the equations 
x=fj(uv), y=f2(uv), and z=f3(uv), 
we shall obtain another function that may be expressed thns: F(xyz) 

The Problem then is to compute the numbers that are proportional to 
the derivatives of the first order 0/ the function F(xyz). 

Suppose that in the list of values of // and v which are now under 
consideration, f^(uv), f2(uv), and f3(uv), allow of partial derivatives 
with regard to u and v; and in the list of values of .r, y, and z, which 
correspond to the values of u and v, F(xyz) also allows of the partial 
derivatives F',, F' , and F' . 

The supposition just made being allowed, we shall then have 


,. df,(u,v) df,(u,Y) . df3(u,v) 

<^^) ^x du + ^y du + - du -°' 

,, T,, df,(u, V) dfg(u, V) dfgCu, V) 

(^) ^x dv + ^y dv + ^- dv =°- 

These equations (i) and (2) show that F'^, F'^, F^ are proportional 

D(u, v) ' D(u, V) ' D(u, v) ' 

abbreviating the work with the help of the notation of functional 

determinants. This supposes one of the three determinants to have 

some other value than zero; if one or two of them have a value of 

zero, the corresponding partial derivatives of F will be zero. 

If they are all of the value of zero, these equations then become all 

alike; that is they reduce to but one equation, and they no longer 

determine F' F' , and F' ; but, whatever 7i and v may be, this can 
X y z 

take place only when f^, fg, fg are connected by certain relations, by 
virtue of a known theorem under the head of functional determinants. 

Dialect Word-List.— No. 2. 


In response to the request for contributions in connection with the 
word-list in No. 2 of the Quarterly, several persons have sent me 
lists of new words or comments on those given. From the first class, 
given by Mr. C. S. Gleed, of Topeka, Kansas, Mr. Theo. S. Case, of 
Kansas City, Missouri, Mr. E. E. Soderstrom, of Osage county, and 
Mr. E. E. Slosson, of Laramie, Wyoming, together with additions of 
my own, this second list is made up. 

The locality following an expression is simply the one from which 
it is reported, not its exclusive habitat. When none is given, the 
expression is from Kansas without earlier origin given. "B" marks 
words found in Bartlett's Dictionary of Americanisms. 

The recent political campaign furnished several new words, and I 
believe they originated in Kansas : calamityite, calamity-howler and 

Some of my correspondents, and many with whom I talk, try to 
make a distinction between dialect and slang. While the one has 
commonly been used in application to local variations from the stand- 
ard usage, the other to class peculiarities, our more perfect means of 
communication have gone far toward breaking down these distinc- 
tions. In its constitution the American Dialect Society devotes itself 
to the study of "spoken English." Do not be afraid of slang. Make 
notes of any words and meanings not in standard dictionaries. 

I wish to call attention of all interested to the publications of the 
American Dialect Society, E. S. Sheldon, Secretary, Cambridge, 

act, doing the act: acting as or like , 'He is doing the 

enraged father act,' or 'He is doing the pious act.' 

bat: a queer fellow, a night-worker. 

beestings: artificially curdled milk. Is it ever beeslings, as given 
in former list ? 

begin with: compare with, as, 'He doesn't begin with Jones.' 
(N. Y.) 

bid: invitation, as, a bid to the wedding. 

big-bug: an aristocrat. B. 

(137) KAN. UNIV. QUAR., VOL.1., NO. 3, JAN., 18^3. 


boom: a sudden and artificial prosperity, or activity in business. 

boomer: a cultivator of 'booms'; second, one of a multitude pre- 
pared to rush upon government land about to be opened for settle- 

break: blunder, especially in 'a bad break.' 

break: to soften (of water). 

budge: liquor, as 'He was full of budge.' 

bugger: fellow, as, a jolly bugger. 

buzz: to converse tete a tete, as 'He buzzed me a straight hour.' 

cahoots: collusion, partnership, as, to go cahoots. B. cahoot. 

calamity-howler: opposition name for members and especially 
speakers of the People's Party, referring to their dwelling on the 
dark side of the economic and political situation. (Kansas.) 

calami tyites: opposition name for members of the People's 
party (Kansas). 

case: dollar, as ' It cost me two cases.' 

chump: a stupid fellow. 

cinch: a tight hold, as 'Pve got the cinch on him.' 

clip ahead: to hurry along. 

come up with: to get even with. 

COme-upence: deserts, as 'He got his come-upence.' (N. E.) 

count ties: to walk on the railroad track. 

cold: without apology or explanation, as, 'He gave it out cold 
that he was worth a million.' 

cool: complete, unqualified, as, a cool thousand. 

crank: a monomaniac, an enthusiast. 

CUSS- word: oath. Very common. B. 

daisy: same as 'dandy.' 

dandy (adj. and n.): anything approved, as a dandy book, game, 
hat, girl, run, etc. 

demopops: opposition name for the united forces of the Demo- 
crats and People's Party. (Kansas.) 

Dennis: failure, as 'His name is Dennis.' 

Dick's hat-band, in as odd as Dick's hat-band. What other 
comparisons are made ? 

dive: a low resort. 

divvy: to divide. 

do up: to overcome, as 'He did me up.' 

Dod-gasted: accursed, a mild form of God-blasted. 

door-slammer: a railway conductor. 

dope: paste; gravy; drug, and to drug, as 'He won the race by 
doping the other horse.' 

draw: a shallow ravine. 


drive: a venture, speculation, also a covert witticism, a 'hit.' 

drivS: go, in 'I let drive with both barrels,' i. e. fired. 

drop: to lose in gambling or speculation. 

dust: to whip, in, to dust one'^s jacket. 

dust: to run, as 'Get up and dust.' 

Ely: success, in 'My name is Ely.' Comp., IJennis. 

fall down: to make a blunder, as 'He fell down badly.' 

fizzle or fizzle out: to fail, to 'Peter out.' 

flip: pert, as 'He's too flip for me.' 

fiub-dub: a snob, a pretender. (Boston.) 

fiy: alert and a little 'fast,' as, a fly young man. 

flyer: a venture, as ' How's that for a flyer?' (on 'change) B. 

gag: local hit, used by variety actors. 

gas (v. andn.): unnecessary or insolent talk, as 'He's been gassing 
away all the evening.' 

get away with: to overcome, and to get possession of, as 'He 
got away with me,' and 'They got away with his tin.' 

gob: mouth, ' Hit him on the gob.' 

gobble up: to snatch or appropriate greedily, as 'The back seats 
were soon gobbled up.' 

go-devil: a kind of large rake used for drawing cocks of hay, sev- 
eral at a time, to the stack. It is pulled by two horses, each mounted 
by a boy; also, a work wagon used in street railway construction. 

gone: empty, weak, as 'I had such a gone feeling.' 

gone on: smitten with, as 'I'm gone on your neck-tie,' Comp., 
stuck on, mashed on. 

gone Democratic: failed, gone against one, as 'The game went 
Democratic,' i. e. the other side won; or 'Things have been going 
Democratic all day.' (East Tennessee negroes.) 

grouty: pouty, cross. B. 

grub-stake (v. and n.): to furnish board or support to a worker, 
especially prospector, on condition of a share in the results. 

guff: banter, 'Give me none of your guff.' 

hair-pin: person, as 'That's the sort of a hair-pin I am.' 

hand-me-down: ready-made, as, a hand-me-down suit of clothes. 

heapy: very. (Indiana.) 

herd book: a kind of local universal biography in which glory is 
meted out in proportion to the number of copies the subjects sub- 
scribe for. 

high: a spree, as, ' He's off on a high.' 

hold up: to rob, by physical force or by solicitation. 

horning: a 'chivaree.' 

hook up: to harness up, 


hoodoo: a bringer of bad luck. 

hoof it: to walk. 

hot: wide-awake and, further, expressing general admiration, 
coupled with warning. 'A hot man' is about the same as a 'bad' 
man, though the former does not bluster. 

hole, in 'in the hole': short on a speculation, as ' I'm in the hole,' 
i. e. I have lost, or 'How much are you in the hole?' 

honest Injun: honestly, a common phrase of asseveration among 
boys. Comp., 'Hope to die' and 'Cross my heart.' 

honey: anything well approved, see 'dandy'; also, the person 
sought, as 'you're my honey,' i. e. the one I am looking for. 

horse-shed: to try to win over by personal appeal or bribery, as, 
'I concluded to horse-shed the judge and try to get a pointer on his 

hustle: rustle. 

hustler: rustler. 

into: in, as 'Is there any milk into that pail?'(N. J.) 

jig"ger: a small glass of whiskey as dealt out to railroad hands. 

jim-jams: delirium tremens. Comp., 'horrors,' and 'snakes.' B. 

jo-dandy: intensified form of 'dandy,' q. v. 

josh: to knock about, to 'bum.' 

Jonah: a bringer of bad luck. Comp., hoodoo. 

jug: to catch fish by a certain method. (Missouri.) 

kid: a child. 

lay-out: prospect, opening. 

lickety-clip, v.: to go fast, as 'He lickety-clipped it.' 

lickety-brindle: at headlong speed. 

licking good: very good. 

like: like to have, as, ' I'd like you to do this.' 

lint one's jacket: to 'dust' one's jacket. 

listen at: listen to. 

lulu: same as 'daisy' and 'honey.' Is it Loo-loo, or Lou-lou? 

mash: to make an impression on one's heart. 

masher: a street-corner ogler and lady-killer. 

Maverick: a waif, any unclaimed article. Maverick was a cattle- 
man who claimed as his brand no brand at all. Of course on the 
range many calves escaped branding, and at the 'round up' all un- 
branded calves were claimed as ' Maverick's.' A boy in Wyoming 
calls a book without the owner's name a maverick. Bartlett has not 
the 'straight' of the story of its origin. 

Methodist Church West: No church. (Southern Kansas.) 

moke: a clumsy, would-be 'fly' young man. 

mud: failure, as 'His name is mud.' 


mux: to mix, to confuse. B. 

muxy: awry, mixed. 

neighbor: to be neighborly, as, ' He doesn't neighbor with any- 
body. ' 

Nick-nailer : complete, approved, same as ' Dick-nailer ' in first 

out: on the debit side, as 'I am out a quarter,' i. e., I have lost^ 
or it has cost me a quarter. 

pants, in 'My name is pants': 1 have failed. 

paralyze: to astonish, confound, out-do. 

pick (onto or at): to tease, to talk overbearingly, as 'Pick onto 
one of your size;' 'He's always picking at me to sell out.' 

plunk: dollar, as 'I drop ten plunks,' i. e., lose ten dollars. 

pointer: a hint or clue. 

poke: a small bag. 

power: a great deal. (Missouri and Kansas.) 

pull off: to remove one's wraps. 

queer: to surprise, to make to go wrong ; also reflexive, to put in 
a bad light, as 'He has queered himself,' i. e., gotten into bad odor. 

ragged out: well dressed. 

rally-kaboo: irregular, not according to the standard. 

rattled: confused. 

rats: expression of disgust or incredulity. 

razee: to ajinoy raspingly. 

razzle-dazzle-: to delude, to confuse, to dupe. 

red ding- comb: a coarse comb. (Ohio.) 

rig: a horse and carriage, as, a livery rig. 

right smart: a great deal, also right smart chance, as, ' I have 
raised a power of corn, and have got right smart left. 

right mind : senses, as. 'Are you in your right mind?' 

roll (them) over: to drive fast (of locomotives), as 'The engineer 
is rolling them over in great shape,' i. e., making good time. 

rope: room, as 'Give him more rope.' 'Give that calf more rope,' 
(said to a noisy fellow). 

ructio;n: a quarrel. 

salt: to lay away as profit, to salt down. 

Savey, n. and V. : to understand, understanding (like French savoir 
faire), as 'He didn't seem to have any savey.' From Spanish sabe. 
Used chiefly at close of sentence or explanation, like 'See?' or 'Do 
you see ?' 

scald: preparation, as 'I didn't get a good scald on that speech.' 

shack: to run after an errant ball. Also, the one who does this. 
Also, to shift for themselves. Used of cattle. 


shake, v. and n. : to get rid of, and in, to give one the shake. 
side-show: a matter of secondary importance. 
side-track: to lay aside, to delay. (From railroad usage.) 
skin full: very drunk. 

i ■. • large quantities or numbers. 

slug: to strike viciously. 

smOUge: to steal. (Missouri. ) 

Socky: a Sac and Fox Indian, then, any Indian. ((Jsage Co., Kas. ) 

spec(k): speculation, also profit, as 'He made a neat speck in 
wheat.' B. 

spondulics: money. (Ohio, Kansas.) 

stand in with: to get, or keep on the right side of. 

stogy: a sort of boot; also a kind of cigar. 

strike: same as 'touch.' 

stuffln': conceit, as 'He got the stuffin' knocked out of him.' 

sugar: profit. 

take and (do anything): proceed to, as '1 took and threw the 
"book away.' 

take up: begin school; tr. and intr. 

taken: took. (Linn Co., Kas.) 

"tear: a spree, or a passion, as 'He's on one of his tears.' 

that: so. as 'He's that sick he can't speak.' 

tin-horn gambler: one who resorts to cheap devices and lacks 

tinker-tonker: a small boy. 

touch: to solicit, or to swindle, as 'I touched him for ten.' 

trade-lasts: an exchange of compliments (instead of 'trade-lash,' 
as formerly printed). 

turn down: to pass above in the spelling-class; to lay on the shelf, 
as 'Mr. B. was turned down,' i. e., defeated in the election. 

want: want to go, as 'He wants out,' 'I want in.' 

whack: gear, as 'The clock is out of whack,' and also of persons. 

whack up: to pay one's share, especially raise the stakes in 'poker.' 

whack it up to one: to lay on heavy charges. 

whan'3" leather: coarse undressed leather used for cord. 

whip-hand, to have the w. of any one: to have control of him. 

(New England. ) 

wic-i-up: wigwam. (Sac word now common among the whites in 
Osage Co., Kas.) 

work: to dupe, as 'We worked him for a five,' 'He tried to work 
me. ' 

wrangle: to manage sheep or other stock. (Wyoming). 

wrangler: a herd manager. 

Maximum Bending Moments for Moving 
Loads in a Parabolic Arch-Rib 

Hinged at the End.' 


As a moving load passes over a prismatic beam resting on supports 
at the ends the bending moment at every point of the beam changes 
as the load passes from point to point over the beam. It is zero at 
the supports or hinges and at no other points, and is a maximum at 
the center of the span when the concentrated load is at the center, or 
when the uniformly distributed load covers the whole span. The 
change in the bending moment at any point of the arch-rib we are 
•considering as the load passes over it is very different from that of a 
simple beam: It is the object of this paper to bring out some of these 

We consider two cases: first, a concentrated load; and second, a 
uniformly distributed load. 

FIG. 1. 

Let A C B, Fig. i, represent a parabolic arch-rib hinged at the 
abutments; Vj and V^ the vertical reactions and H the horizontal re- 
action at the ends; h the rise, 1 the span, z, y the coordinates of any 
point on the curve and x the distance of P, the concentrated load, 
from A. 

The equation of this parabola referred to the point A as origin and 

axes X and y, as shown in tig. r, is y=-— (zl — z~). 

Taking moments about A, considering the whole rib as a free body, 

rl43) KAN. UNIV. QIIAR., vol,. T., NO. I!, -JAN., 1893. 



we find V^= '. f'rom 2 (vertical components)=o we find Vn=P 

( 1 ( , 

These vertical reactions are independent of the shape of the rib as^ 
they do not involve z or y and are the same as for a straight beam. 

Making a section at any point n to the right of the load, consider- 
ing the left portion of the rib as a free body and denoting the moment 
by Mr, we have 


Substituting for V, and y their values in this equation we have 

( z / 4h 

M,-PX j I-^ I __l^-(2l_^,2)H (I) 

Making a section at any point to the left of the load and denoting 
the moment by Mi, we have 

Mi=VjZ— Hy=P I —^ ( z- l^(zl^z2)H 


In equations (i) and (2) H is a function of P and x but not of y or 
z. To find its value we make use of the equation of the "x displace- 
ment," viz., /\x= -^ I Myds, ds being the increment of arc, E the 
EI t/ 

modulus of elasticity and I the moment of inertia. Since this dis- 
placement is zero we have the equation I Myds=o from which to find 

value of H. 

If the rib is quite flat we may use dz in place of ds. Making this 
assumption, substituting for M and y their values, and integrating 
between limits x and o on the left of the load, and 1 and x on the 
right of the load we have 

r^ ri ( 1— X I r^ 4hH c^ 

i i_x ) ri r^ 4hH n 

dzH-P-j -— j-J ^(Iz2-Z3)dz-Pj ^(z~x)(zl-z2)dz-^-^-j ^ 
(Iz Z2)3dz=:0. 

Integrating and simplifying this equation we have 

rx— 2l)H Pxl3— ^ =0 (3) 

12 ^ - ' 12 30 ^^-^ 

Solving (3) we have 

, Px ( r x 1 3 r X I 2 I Px 

murphy: maximum bending moments. 


Table I gives values of k for values of 





. I 

. 2 








1 .0 











. 109 


Substituting for H its value in (i) and (2) we have 




5Px, , 



Differentiating H with respect to x to find the position of the load 
when H is a maximum, we have 

dH ,p i .rxy3_^^x^ 


h-]*UJ "Htj +'f 

(7) . 

solving (7) we have -t = >^ and ^^±^1/3- The first of these roots 

is the only one which satisfies the conditions of the problem and since 
it makes the second derivative of H with respect to x in (7) negative 
it corresponds to a maximum value of H. H is a maximum theii, 
when the load is at the middle of the span. 
Equation (i) can be put in the form 







k . ^ I 

_ IT J 

The second factor in (8) is the distance from the moment curve to 

the rib and the first term of this second factor is the distance from the 

' ax:is of x to the moment curve. This term being of the first degree in 

z the moment curve on the right of the load, for any position of the 

load is a straight line. 

In the same way (2) can be put in the form 

,^ ^^ ( 8h(l— x) ) , . , , , , 

Mi=H - — ^— — -z — y r which shows that the moment curve on the 

,.left, for any position of the load, is a straight line passing through the 
origin. ' 

To find the locus of the intersection of these two moment curves: 
> Let the ordinate of the moment curve be denoted by u, then 

These two ordi- 

u,=- =-(l-x), and u 




nates are equal, and either is the ordinate of the locus when z=x. 
Hence if u' denote the ordinate of the locus we have 

, 8h 8hl2 
2U =-— (2I — 2x)andu=z (n) 

We notice that this equation is not a function of P but is a function 
of h and 1. The shape of the locus depends on the shape of the rib 
and not at all on the loading. 

The curve D F E, Fig. i, shows this locus for the rib whose rise is 
ID feet and span 50 feet. 

The moment at any point of the rib can be easily found when this 
locus is constructed. For, if at the point where the load P, represen- 
ted as in Fig. i, cuts the locus lines be drawn to the hinges they form 
two segments of the special equilibrium polygon for this position of 
the load. If through the extremities of P, drawn to scale, lines be 
drawn parallel to these two segments and from their intersection a 
perpendicular be dropped on P, this line represents H on the same 
scale that P is drawn. Then the moment under the load is H multi- 
plied by the distance between the locus and the rib measured on P, 
and the moment at any other point of the rib equals H multiplied by 
the vertical distance from the point to the equilibrium polygon. 

From M^=o=-j^ j 1— z *- -j 1— ^-k j- we have 

1 A 2^ 

z^l and z=~ , 

The value z=:l is independent of x, that is, the moment at the right 
hinge is zero for all values of x. The other value of z is a function 
of x which approaches |1 as its limit as x approaches zero and equals 

t when— -=.67 approx. Hence this second point of zero moment 

on the right of P moves from |1 to 1, while P moves from x=o ta 

From Mi=o=z | P -^— _5_^k(l_z) i w^e have 
z=o and z=l •< i — I 


From z=o we see that the moment is zero at the left hinge for all 

values of x. The other value of z is negative while x varies from o to 

1— X 
.34I [found from i — | — — =0] and it moves from o to 1 while x 

varies from .34I to 1. 

This value of z can be put in the form 

murphy: maximum bending moments. 147 

k ' I M^ X J k ^ 

The first term in the second member of (lo) is the distance to the 
point of zero moment on the right of P, hence, the second terra in the 
second member of (lo) is the horizontal distance between the variable 
points of zero moment. 

The maximum moment may occur under the load or on either side 
of the center when the load is on the other side. The raoment under 
the load may be found from Mx=(u — y)H, or from M| or Mj. by put- 
ting z=x. From the latter we have 

M^=Px I I- -^ [- -.|. ^(xl-x2)k .....,(, I) 

<iM. PI. II _Pia,p (,,_,.!( _Ar,f^i' 

= ° (I2) 

Simplifying (12 we have 

30] ^\ -75|Xi +4o|-i-^- +^5\-Y-\ -MJ-i-j-+2=o 


One root of (13), found by trial is — j-=.22-|-- This root makes 
the second derivative of (13) negative and makes Mx a maximum. 
Substituting this value of -j- in (11) we have 

(Mx)max=.o86Pl (14) 

Differentiating (5) with respect to x to find for what position of the 
load the moment of the load is a maximum we have 

=0 (15) 

From (15) we find 




x] -nti +" 

Differentiating (5) with respect to z we have 
f^lMr I 5k 

dz 1 2l3^ ^ 




Solving this equation we find 

Placing the value of z in (16) eqnal to that in (17) and simplifying 
we have 

^°]xj -7°i-Ti +^°"n-f -^'^\i-\ -441x1 +3 

=-0 (t8) 

One root of (18) is --^=.^16. Substituting this value of— in 

(17) we have z=r. 724I 

Substituting these values of x and z in (5) we have 

(Mr)max=:— .044PI (19) 

Hence the maximum moment occurs under the load; is positive, 
and equals .086PI. 


Case II. The moving load uniformly distributed per horizontal 

Let the notation be as in case one as far as applicable with w equal 
to the intensity of loading and x the portion of the span covered with 
the load, measured from A. 

Proceeding as in case one we find that 

wx2 \ - X 

Vn= — 7— and V=wx a i 1- 

2I ( 2I 

both of which are independent of the shape of the rib. 

The moment about any point of the rib to the right of the load is 

( x I ' 
Mr=VjZ — - z r wx; — Hy (20) 

The moment about any point of the rib under the load is 

Mi= V J z — w- — - — Hy 


murphy: maximum bending moments. 


From the equation of the "x displacement we have 

rMiydz+ I Mrydz=o (22) 
O *' X 

Substituting for Mj and Mj. their values and simplifying we have 
— — I z2ydz-|-Vj I zydz — wx I -. z — " ydz — H I y^dz^o 

2»/q ^' o •'^x' 2) •^o 


Substituting for y its value in (23), integrating and simplifying we 

wx^P wx^l wx5 

=t'51^H13 (24) 




From (24) we find 




i6h ( L 1 I ^11 
Table II gives values of k' for values of 


+ 5 















3 236 





Substituting for Vj and H their values in (20) and (21) we have 



:2 ( z I ^^ wx' 

-1 ^- -r r-Hy=— r 


-k'(zl— z2) 



X2 [ 

2I ) 2 ' { 2\ \ 2 4I2 

k'(zl— z2) (27) 

Differentiating H with respect to x to find the position of the load 
when H is a maximum we have 

dH x^ 



-20— +IOX=:0 


From (28) we find x=o, x=l and xr=^±|| '5. 

The second of these, viz., x=l satisfies the conditions of the prob- 
lem and makes the second derivative of H negative; hence, H is a 
maximum when the load covers the whole span. 

Equation (26) can be put in the form 


wx^k' ( 8h 

i6h Ik' I 

z 1 \ „ i 8h 



The first term of the second factor of (29) is the ordinate of the 
-moment curve on the right of the load, and since it is of the first 
degree in z we see that the moment curve on the right for any position 
of the loading is a straight line. 

Equation (27) can be put in the form 

,, wx2k' ( i6h r r wx2 1 wz2 1 ) ■ , ( i6h [ f 

Mi=^— - -—-; wx z y - ==H - — — , wx 

i6h ( wx^k L L 2I J 2 J ) ( wx^k L I 



!l J 

T r (30'; 

From (30) we see that the moment curve under the load is a para- 
bola whose equation is 

i6h ( wx^ i i6h 

wx r z — —-ttt-tZ^ (31) 

wx^k' ( 2I ) 2x^k' 

For x=i5 feet, h=io feel and 1= 50 feet, (31) reduces to 
y'=i.97z— .o77z2 (32) 

The curve A R S T, Fig. 2., represents equation (32). 
Substituting 1 for x in (32) we have 

y=p-(zi— z') 

that is, the moment curve under the loading coincides with the rib 
when the load covers the whole span and, hence, the moment at every 
point of the rib is zero for this case. 

To find the locus of the point of intersection of the two moment 
curves: Let u denote the ordinate of any point on the locus. Then 

wx^ \ X \ 

M^ "^l'~Xi" i6h 

"==H^-- ^^' = lir^-^-"^ 


u= — — — {33) 

We see from {33) that the shape of the locus is independent of the 
Tnagnitude of w. , , . •, 

The curve D T C KB, Fig. 2, represents this locus for hrn^io feet 
and 1=50 feet. 

Putting Mr=o in (26) we have 

murphy: maximum bending moments. 151 


Solving (34) for z we have z=7;o and z=— , . 


The value z=o shows that the moment at the right hinge is zero for 

all value of x. The second value of z is a function of x whose limits 

1 1 X . 

from Table II are |1 when x— o, and — when x= — . As -— - varies 
•^ 2 2 1 

from — to 1 there is only one point of zero moment on the right, viz., 

the hinge. Hence this second point of zero moment on the right moves 

from |1 to 41 as x increases from zero to — . 
5 2 2 

From Mi=o in (27) we have 

( wx^ . , , ,x I w ( x^k' ) 

^ 1 ^" — ^^'+^ > s T ' ' — i^ r=° ^35) 

Solving (35) we have 


z=.o andz=- , .a • (35) 

2~ - ^ '- k' 

" (IS' 

The value z=o shows that the moment is zero at the left hinge for 
all values of x. The second value of z can be put in the form 

z ■ X ' 4-^(2 + k')l 

and from Table II we find that the ratio —r- is greater than the ratio 

1 "^ 

X X 

— r- until ——=1, that is, this point of zero moment is not under the 

load until x becomes equal to — . As x varies from — to 1 this point 

,2 2 

moves from — to |1. That is, this movable point of zero moment 

moves from |1 to |1 while x varies from o to 1. 

The maximum moment may be under the load or to the right of the 

To find the maximum moment on the right of the load we have 

WX" ( z I X- 

M„= I ,- ■ — w--k'(zl— z3) 

dMj. wx2 wx2 

-~k (1 — 2Z) 

dz 2I 4I 


]■ + ¥')■ (36) 


., dMr (1— z) i 2xk'z x2z I" X2 X 1 I 

Also -— - = -~ W -j 2X — 6-— — 10 yr- /" 

dx 2I ( 2I 2I L l^ F I ) 
-*- ...(37) 

Equating the values of z in (36) and (37) and simplifying we have 

I X I ^ I X I ^ ( X I ^ I X I '' r X I " 

.10 [ -p j —45 I ~Y I +50 I -1-- I +37 I ~j- I —75 I Y I +^5 

=0 (38) 

One root of (38) is ——=.58-)- and it makes Mj. a maximum. 
Substituting this value of - in (36) we have 

Substituting for x and z their values in (26) we have 

(Mi.)max= — .0165WI2 (39) 

To find the maximum moment under the load we have 
( wx^ ) wz2 wx^ wx^ 

dM, wx2 ( k' I w i x2 ) 

^-=wx-^^-^i^-[---^i--k ^^z=o 

i X f k' 1 
^ = ^2 (40) 

This value of z in (40) is the same as that in (35)' and hence gives 

minimum values of z instead of maximum values. 

If in (27) we substitute for x and z values in terms of 1 it reduces 

to the form 

Mi=Cwl2 (41) 

In (41) C is a constant for given values of x and z. 

X z 

Table III gives values of C in (41) for values of ^p- and — r-. 















. I 




.01 10 















































From Table III it is easily seen that Mi is a maximum for a value 
of —— greater than .4 and less than .5, or approximately .43, and 

-=^ approximately .23. For these values 

(Mi)max=.oi65wl^ (42) 

Comparing (Mr)max with (Mi)max we see that they are equal with 
opposite signs. 

Comparing the maximum moment produced by a concentrated 
moving load (.o86Pn with the maximum moment produced by an 
equal, uniformly distributed, moving load (.0165WI-) we see that the 
former is about 5.2 times greater than the latter, or the maximum 
moments wilt be equal in these two cases if wl^5.2P. 

Kansas University Quarterly. 

Vol. I. APRIL, 1893. No. 4. 



The Kansas State Penitentiary at Lansing has been noted as one of 
the best prisons in the far west. And indeed in some particular 
features it is quite remarkable. Among its especially good qualities, 
as compared with other prisons of similar nature, are its financial and 
economic management and its thorough discipline. Its financial 
management shows it to be practically a self-supporting institution. 
The institution has been fortunate in securing good management and 
in the utilization of the labor of the prisoners, by means of the con- 
tract system of labor, as well as in performing nearly all of the work 
in connection with repairs, improvements, etc. But especially has it 
been fortunate in its location immediately above a rich vein of coal, 
so that a shaft could be sunk within the prison walls for the working 
of the mine. (See figure 4.) 

The mine has thus been made to yield a handsome income for the 
benefit of the State. The running expenses of the penitentiary for the 
biennial period of 1891 and 1892 were ^297,409.47, while the receipts 
from contract labor, coal sales and other sources were $215,190.35. 
Thus making an expenditure over and above cash receipts of $81,- 
939.94. But if it be considered, as it ought to be, that coal to the 
value of $4,420.78 was furnished the western sufferers, and that coal 
to the value of $42,533.68 was furnished to State institutions by the 
prison management, and also that $50, 106.46 were spent in perma- 
nent improvement,* it will be seen that the income of the prison has 
exceeded its current expenses by a margin of over $5,000 for the bien- 
nium of 1891 and '92. The total income from the coal mines for two 
years was $168,993.57 and the total income from contract labor in 

* Eighth Biennial Report of Kansas State Penitentiary, p. 7. 

(155; KAN. UNIV. QUAR., VOL. I., NO. 4, APR., 1893. 


the same period was ^78,225.80. This is a remarkable showing for a 
prison containing on an average about 900 prisoners of all grades and 

A close inspection of the prison management will convince one 
that a strictly military discipline prevails within the prison.* It 
is a busy place at the penitentiary. All able-bodied men not 
undergoing special punishment are employed. It is not a place for 
idlers, for the law permits and requires service. The management of 
the different industries, the hospital, the library, the insane depart- 
ment, the kitchen and dining room all show care and system. So, 
also, for cell-ventilation and other forms of sanitation there is 
great care exercised by those in authority. While it is well 
to acknowledge the excellent management of the prison during 
the past, it is also pertinent to consider what progress may be 
made in the future. As there has been such great advancement 
in prison science in the past twenty years, it may be well to meas- 
ure the Kansas penological system by ideal systems, as well as by 
the foremost practice in the best regulated prisons in Europe and 
America, to ascertain in what especial lines Kansas needs to develop 
her penological system. 

No doubt it is highly gratifying to the tax-payers of Kansas that the 
institution is on a self-supporting basis. Especially is this to be 
approved in a new state where so much must be done in a short time; 
where schools, churches, hospitals, asylums, and penal institutions 
must be built and maintained by the people almost before they have 
made themselves comfortable in a new country. These must be pro- 
vided for, while railroads, roads, bridges and court houses must be 
built and the native resources be made productive for the support 
of all. 

But admitting all this, the management of prisons must consider 
reform as the ultimate service to be performed in all penal institu- 
tions. The new prison law of New York has admitted that reform is 
the ultimate end of all confinement. But it views reformation as the 
only radical means of protection to society. Reformation consists in 
"the reasonable probability that the prisoner will live and remain at 
liberty without violating the law."f In this the law rests on the polit- 
ical basis of protecting society rather than upon the moral basis of 
converting and improving the qualities of the individual for his own 
sake. Much progress has been made in the past fifty years in the 
treatment of prisoners respecting discipline and reform. Indeed, an 

* The writei- is much indebted to the present Warden, Hon. (Jeo. H. Case, and to his 
able assistants for their courtesy in showing him the working details of the prison. 
t Quoted from Prison Science, by Eugene Smith, p. 7, 

BLACKMAR: penology in KANSAS. 157 

entirely new light has been thrown upon the subject of penology. A 
careful inquiry has been made into the question of what men are con- 
fined for, how they are to be managed while under confinement, and 
what is to be done with them after confinement. Although the funda- 
mental principles of penology are quite well established concerning 
the object and nature of discipline, yet there are many questions of 
detail respecting the methods to be pursued in carrying out these 
principles of punitive and reformatory measures. In other words, the 
practical application of theory, in spite of all the progress that has 
been made, leaves serious difficulties to be met and mastered. It is 
generally considered by all right-thinking persons versed in prison 
science that the following objects of confinement are essential in every 
case : First, the protection of society ; second, punishment of the 
offender ; third, prevention of crime ; and fourth, reform of criminals. 
Doubtless no theory of prison discipline may be considered complete 
which lacks any one of these four great fundamental principles. Yet 
it is true that we shall find, even at this day, one, two, and even three 
of these four fundamental principles violated in the practice of the 
imprisonment of our fellow beings. The practice of hurrying one, 
who does commit a crime, away from the sight and contact of his fel- 
low beings, is indicative of a universal sentiment in modern society. 
Society demands at least this protection, and its request and privilege 
should never be denied in this respect. But the old idea of punish- 
ment for revenge has nearly died out of modern penalties of the law. 
There was a time when, coupled with the desire to shut one away from 
society, doubtless for its own protection, was a desire to take revenge 
upon the individual who had outraged society. Sometimes a desire 
for revenge precipitated an immediate punishment regardless of 
law and order. Sometimes it was studiously and systematically cruel 
in all its plans for punishment as well as in their execution. But in a 
large measure this has been eradicated from the spirit of our laws and 
institutions. We see some evidence of it in our modern process of 
lynching when anger and revenge seize upon people with such force 
as to cause them to lynch the lawbreaker in a most cruel manner. So 
also in respect to individuals who have committed great crimes, when 
the whole community seem so desirous of revenge that they have 
thrown their whole support into the prosecution of the offender. But 
these are exceptional cases. The spirit of punishment in modern 
times is that which looks calmly on the act of the law-breaker as 
an injustice to society for which he must pay the penalty. In 
other words, a man is imprisoned for life or hung, not because society 
desires to wreak upon him vengeance on account of the crime which 
he has committed, but because S()ciet\- demands ijrotection, and that 


he must be punished on account of the demand to uphold the dignity 
and power of the law, for law without a penalty has little force to the 
evil doer. 

Again, in regard to the prevention of crime. One of the chief 
objects of penal servitude is to set an example before other evil- 
disposed persons of what the consequences must be if they in turn 
violate the law. But in each of these cases it is to make the com- 
mitment of crime less frequent that men are imprisoned, rather than 
that they should suffer for their sins. But, finally, in the last case the 
reform of criminals within or without the prison walls has become one 
of the prime principles of penology. No present system or theory 
can be complete in these days that does not consider in some manner 
the methods of bringing back into legitimate society those who by 
their deeds have become outcasts from the body politic. In the 
study of sociology there are two sides of social life to be considered: 
First, there is what might be called legitimate society, which has 
sprung up from indefinite and simple beginnings, but has grown into a 
strong organism, which might be called the proper status of social life; 
and then there is the other side of humanity which may be termed 
the broken down, decrepit or fragmentary part of the great social 
body, which may be called disorganized society. It is as much the 
duty of the reformer to study the organized and legitimate society as 
it is to study the disorganized or the fragmentary. In modern times 
there have been a great many who call themselves social scientists, 
who devote a great deal of time to the criminal and the pauper, and 
properly so, for, indeed, it is from these broken down parts of hu- 
manity that we realize more especially the nature of human society, 
and discern more clearly the means of preventing crime; but the 
ideal or legitimate society must not be lost sight of. We must keep 
before our eyes the proper laws, proper government and proper pro- 
tection of organized society while we investigate the habits, condi- 
tions and qualities of its outcasts. Hence in all modern reforms 
there are two subjects to consider: A reform measure which shall 
by direct application tend to develop and strengthen that which is 
already considered good and, on the other hand, a reform measure 
which shall reclaim and reform that which is considered bad. In this 
respect the state prison and the state university are not so far apart 
as it would seem: one tending to build up and strengthen legitimate 
society, to protect the state in all its interests, to make law more 
prominent, reform more stable, human society more moral and intel- 
lectual, crime less frequent and industry more prevalent by well 
ordered education. These are the objects of the state university. 
While, on the other hand, in accordance with the last one of the 

BLACKMAR: penology in KANSAS. 159 

penological principles stated, the prison has for its duty the same 
objects as the university, although applied to a class of individuals 
entirely different, who overstep the bounds of the law and by their 
own habits have abstracted themselves from legitimate society. Both 
institutions exist for the improvement of society and neither is 
instituted for the purpose of revenge. 

While we have carried on the work of reform of prisoners to a 
considerable extent and while many seem to be carried away with it 
as the only great method of solving the evils of the day, we must 
not forget that the great institutions which tend to develop society on 
the basis of prevention of crime are not the only ones which are 
important to consider. And this arises from the very fact of reform, 
that if we allow either crime or pauperism to develop rapidly, un- 
checked, we shall soon find it such a burden on human society that 
the legitimate and well organized will become defective on account of 
the increase in the number of paupers and criminals who form a con- 
stant menace to civil institutions. While all sentiments for reform 
arise primarily from human sympathy with the weak and the erring, 
the state still rests the cause of its action in the full and complete 
protection of legitimate society. It matters not how individual sym- 
pathies act, the reformation of criminals finds its cause to be in the 
common weal of society. To make a prisoner more intellectual, to 
give him better moral qualities, to prepare him for better industrial 
independence, to send him out with a better life and means, if he 
wills, to support himself, to adopt means to help him from the prison 
world in which he has lived into a greater world outside: all this 
might arise out of benevolence, but it has for its ultimate end the 
simple protection and improvement of society as a whole. Conse- 
quently reform has become the sole great object in detaining crimin- 
als within prison walls. All other objects must be considered as 
means to this one great end. 

In the discussion of penological principles one of the foremost 
methods of reform to be noticed is that of the classification of all 
criminals. Perhaps Belgium was the foremost state of Europe to 
adopt a thoroughly practical classification of prisoners. Formerly it 
was considered sufficient to have a large prison pen, a foul den into 
which old and young, light offenders and heavy villains were thrust, 
taking them out only occasionally for service or keeping them without 
service at all. Here the old criminals, hardened through many 
years of repeated crimes, would rehearse their stories to the young 
who were soon educated in all of the tricks of the trade. Here in 
these horrid dens the propensities for crime were increas'ed rather 


than diminished, and plots and plans were made for future depreda- 
tions upon society. 

Within a comparatively recent period most nations have endeavored 
to properly classify prisoners. First a general classification, separat- 
ing the old from the young, the hardened criminals from the novices. 
The modern tendency is to institute reform schools and work houses 
for juveniles, reformatories for youth, and regular prisons for hard- 
ened criminals. But in the highest ideal of prison science each one of 
these is to be a reformatory of a different class. Kansas has deter- 
mined upon this classification. The Reform School at Topeka, the 
Reformatory at Hutchinson and the State Penitentiary at Lansing 
represent this three-fold classification. The reformatory at Hutchin- 
son has not been completed. Its methods are to be patterned after 
the reformatory at Elmira, N. Y., the model institution of its class in 
America. The chief difficulty in the establishment of such an insti- 
tution in Kansas is its great expense. It is a great undertaking for a 
young state like Kansas to compete with an old wealthy state like New 
York. Yet the Kansas reformatory may take all the essential features of 
the Elmira reformatory and by obtaining rather more service from its 
inmates maybe made less expensive. It will be trying to Kansas tax- 
payers to provide such an industial school for the criminals of the 
state as that at Elmira, while it is only by dint of close saving that they 
are able to give as good an education to their own sons and daughters 
who have never offended against the state. Yet it must be remem- 
bered that this is done for the benefit of the whole state, for the 
purpose of lessening crime and expense. The reformatory at Hutch- 
inson should be completed as soon as possible as there is a great need 
for it that the prisoners at Lansing may be properly classified and a 
certain group of those most susceptible of reform should be sent 

Within the prison walls classification of individual prisoners ac- 
cording to crimes, temperament and habits has been of great assistance 
in their management. In the United States there are two main sys- 
tems in vogue, that known as the Pennsylvania System and that as the 
New York System. The former may be defined as the solitary cellu- 
lar system, and the latter as the single cell system, with prisoners 
working and dining together. The Pennsylvania system had its origin 
in the celebrated Cherry Hill prison, built in 1821 to 1829, containing 
over 600 separate cells for continuous solitary confinement. This 
solitary confinement in large airy rooms is expensive but is considered 
as the best treatment of prisoners. Here the prisoner is kept at work, 
or instructed in trades or books. Work becomes a necessitv to him. 


The only punishment is a dark cell with deprivation of work for a 

The New York system is as has been practiced at Auburn, by which 
the prisoners are confined in solitary cells during the night, but have 
companionship during the day while at work, and at the dinner table. 
Each system has warm advocates. The solitary cell system has had 
most practice in Europe but the American plan has made up the lack 
of proper classification by the excessive work of prisoners. 

Many persons hold that classification of prisoners in groups is a 
failure, and that the solitary cellular system is the only commendable 
method. Edward Livingston has thus set forth the advantages of this 

"Every association of convicts that can be formed will, in a greater 
or less degree, corrupt, but will never reform those of which it is com- 
posed, and we are brought to the irresistible conclusion that classifi- 
cation once admitted to be useful, it is so in an inverse proportion to 
the numbers of which each class is composed. But it is not perfect 
until we come to the plan at which it loses its name and nature in the 
complete separation of individuals. We come then to the conclusion 
that each convict is to be separated from his fellows."* 

The extent of isolation which each prisoner undergoes must be 
determined somewhat by the nature of his case and somewhat by 
the conditions and convenience of the prison. It is hardly possible 
for many modern prisons to have complete separation on account of 
the expense incurred, for this would mean that within the cell itself 
the prisoner must perform all labor, and that the cell shall be com- 
modious enough to carry on this labor by himself, or else that he be 
given labor elsewhere alone. Such a system requires an increased 
amount of attendance. 

At the Kansas penitentiary the system of solitary cell confinement 
at night and when off duty, and the silent associations of prisoners in 
groups during the day while at work and at meals, is now in vogue. 
Without doubt this association during the day carries with it evil 
influences which are in a measure lessened by the requirements of the 
law for ten hours of labor for all able-bodied prisoners. 

Whatever system of classification is adopted the reform idea must 
be faithfully considered. There should be an ample opportunity for 
study and for work, that both physical and intellectual powers may 
receive development. It has been proved by long continued observa- 
tion that the typical criminal is weak in body and in mind. He may 
have intellectual cunning developed to a considerable degree, and 

*Tallack, Penological and Px-eventive Principles, p. 118. 


may be capable of great physical efforts for spasmodic periods, but 
he is not a well developed being either physically or mentally.f 
Hence his reform must frequently begin with physical discipline and 
this followed by mental training, or the two must be carried on to- 
gether. In the Kansas penitentiary the law requires prisoners to 
work ten hours at labor. Consequently they have left, for study and 
general improvement, their evenings and Sundays. There is a school 
on Sunday for all who wish to attend. This is a very meagre showing 
for any systematic training with a view to permanent reform. It 
would seem that eight hours of labor per day is sufficient for able- 
bodied persons if any intellectual improvement is expected of them. 
In many instances it would be more profitable to spend even less time 
in routine labor and give better opportunity for mental discipline and 
general physical culture. Mental discipline brings a reform of intel- 
ligence, of knowledge and of judgment which are supremely necessary 
in the care of persons criminally disposed and in the prevention 
of crime. In this respect a careful classification of the inmates of 
every prison should be had, whatever be the system adopted, and each 
individual should have a treatment that best suits his case. Men are 
not reformed in groups and companies but by special influences 
brought to bear upon the individual. The Elmira reformatory has 
been a living application of this theory. This institution has been 
taken as a model not only for America but for the whole world, and at 
present represents the most successful institution for the reform of 
young criminals yet established. It makes no distinction between the 
prisoners within and the people without any further than is necessary 
on account of the difference in conditions. 

When prisoners enter the Elmira reformatory they are given grade 
two with the possibility of their falling to grade three or rising to 
grade one. Each grade is clothed differently from the others, and in 
that respect a discrimination in clothing is shown between the differ- 
ent groups or prisoners within the prison rather than between those 
within and the people without. All attempts are here made possible 
to make men dwell upon the better tjjings of life, to turn their whole 
attention to the development of what manhood is still within them, 
and thus transform the criminal into independent and self-asserting 

But classification should not stop here. According to our princi- 
ple each individual should be treated according to the character of 
his crime and the condition of his criminality, indeed, according to 
his own character. Sweeping laws which pass upon a great mass of 

+ Criminology, McDonald, pp. S646. 

BLACKMAR: penology in KANSAS. 163 

criminals, that are made inflexible and indiscriminative, are the rta^Qs^ 
valueless that can ever be instituted for the guidance of the wafder^ p^ 
a prison. In his judgment should rest the determination :of mapy- 
things concerning prison discipline. A warden should be a person 
especially trained for his position by long practice and theoretical 
study. So far as possible he should be removed from poli;t;ica]i 
regime, and be continued in ofifice during good behavior and cprapi^;-, 
tent administration. There should not be too many laws and rules 
instituted by boards of supervisors, which tend to hamper him, . la 
Kansas the Board of Directors of the state prison make the ruleSi for. 
the government of the warden. Ordinarily this check upon adminlsT 
trative government may be wise, but to a well prepared and .cornp^e- 
tent warden such laws are liable to prove irksome in the extremie.) 
Even the statutes passed by the state ought to be sufficiently flexible 
to give large discretionary powers to the warden. Too many boards 
are a supreme nuisance to rational government. There is- no greater 
mistake made than in the creation of a prison law which shall treat ta 
thousand prisoners as one man, whether in regard to their food,; or 
to the hours they, shall work, or to the method of confinement, "Q* 
the length of sentence, or to grade marks, or to the method which may 
be taken to reform them. Consequently the singling out of each indi- 
vidual as a character study with a desire to give him the full benefit 
of all helpful measures to reform him, and to place him in a way to 
make himself independent after he leaves the prison is, indeed, one of the, 
prime factors in prison discipline. The method of classifying togetjier; 
individuals of the same character and degree of criminality, with 
a view to make them mutually helpful by conversation and associa-; 
tion rather than to deteriorate their character has been tried in some 
instances but as a rule it has proved a failure. Nevertheless it does 
seem that something might be done in this way. At least, possibly 
those who have a life sentence should be classified together in, the 
same group. If prisoners must work together during the day time 
each group could be placed by itself. If in any kind of association 
there is contamination either by words or looks or signs, a few prison- 
ers of the same degree of criminality could be classified together, which 
without doubt will make fewer chances for those who are very evil in- 
nature to degrade others. How far this may be carried with suc- 
cess can only be determined by those who will make of it a practical 
example with an intense desire and determination to succeed. At any 
rate, it may be affirmed that the classification of prisoners in groups 
can be carried on with great skill and a great deal of benefit, if the 
buildings are arranged for this purpose: different dining rooms, 
different apartments apd reading;- rooms, different associations in every 


way. The departmental system would have this advantage, that sets 
of rules could be made for the government of each separate depart- 
ment and would thus more nearly meet the conditions and needs of each 
separate group of prisoners. But such a classification is urged only 
in cases where the solitary system is practically impossible. In close 
connection with this classification might be considered the question 
of hereditary treatment. Every prisoner who enters any prison 
whatever should be carefully studied as to his past history and 
present life, in order to ascertain his own nature and the elements 
of manhood within him which are possible of development. A 
careful record of every prisoner, his past life, the crimes he has 
committed, his education, his conditions and associations should be 
carefully considered. This record will enable those who have 
charge of prisoners to study their character, and not only enable 
them to manage them better as a disciplinary means, but also furnish 
a means for such reform as the prisoners are capable of. It may do 
more even than this, in the study of the influence of heredity in 
crime. There are those who hold that not much can be made out of 
the fact that criminal fathers are more apt to have criminal chil- 
dren than others. But no one who has made a careful inquiry into 
hereditary taints can question that there is a great tendency in 
hereditary crime. The subject has not been studied sufficiently far 
to give data enough to warrant us in drawing mathematical conclu- 
sions. But cases have been cited where criminals have married 
and intermarried and large numbers of children have become crimi- 
nals through many generations. An interesting fact is to be noted 
here, however, that a large number of the so-called hereditary 
crimes arise out of existing conditions rather than from blood taint; 
thus a child whose parents are thieves, and the companions of whose 
parents are thieves, grows up with his early life biased in this direc- 
tion; all about him are men engaged in these corrupt practices and 
the early life is impressed with the supposition that this is a normal 
state of affairs and he naturally grows up to follow the calling of his 
parents and neighbors, just as an individual who is brought up to 
know nothing but farming, and considers this the legitimate calling of 
his father and neighbors, would seem likely to take to it as a liveli- 
hood rather than to something else with which he is less familiar. 

The investigations of such men as Charles Booth in London * 
would seem to indicate that crime arises chiefly out of conditions, 
examples, and habits, rather than from the assumption that men are 
born to crime through any inherent psychological tendency. In this 

* Life and Labor of the People of London, by Charles Booth, 3 vols. 


it is not intended to show that heredity does not have a large influ- 
ence in the development of crime. Statistics have been prepared to 
thoroughly substantiate the fact that heredity plays a great part in the 
development of the criminal. 

''Of the inmates of Elmira reformatory 499, or 13.7 per cent, have 
been of insane or epileptic heredity. Of 233 prisoners at Auburn, 
New York, 23.03 per cent, were clearly of neurotic (insane, 
epileptic, etc.) origin; in reality many more. Virgilio found that 195 
out of 266 criminals were affected by diseases that are usually heredi- 
tary. Rossi found five insane parents to seventy-one criminals, six 
insane brothers and sisters and fourteen cases of insanity among more 
distant relatives. Kock found morbid inheritance in 46 per cent, of 
criminals. Marro, who has examined the matter very carefully, 
found the proportion 77 per cent., and by taking into consideration 
the large range of abnormal characters in the parents, the proportion 
of criminals with bad heredity rose to 90 percent. He found that an 
unusually large proportion of the parents had died from cerebro-spinal 
diseases and from phthisis. Sichard examining nearly 4,000 criminals 
in the prison of which he is director, found an insane, epileptic, 
suicidal and alcoholic heredity in 36.8, incendiaries 32.2 per cent, 
thieves, 28.7 sexual offenders, 23.6 percent, sharpers. Penta found 
among the parents of 184 criminals only 4 or 5 per cent, who were 
quite healthy."* 

Such being the awful tendency of crime to breed crime, questions 
arising respecting the causes of crime ought to be a careful study by 
all persons interested in criminology or penology. 

The question has often arisen, How will you find out correctly 
about the past history of individuals? Some conclude that, because 
prisoners are dishonest, there is no method by which you can find out 
about their past life or early conditions. A careful study of this 
question by men who are expert in handling criminals, has convinced 
the public that this may be done. Possibly as much of the record of 
the prisoner as is convenient to be obtained, should be procured by 
the court and sent to the warden with the sentence. If it could not, 
the warden then could ascertain through a commission the past his- 
tory of each prisoner as he comes to him and a full record of his life, 
condition, habits, etc. If this was not complete, it could be verified 
from time to time or be changed from time to time, as facts developed 
later on. Perhaps no one has succeeded any better in this line than 
has Mr. Brockway, general superintendent of the Elmira reformatory. 
Mr. Brockway presents the subject in the following letter : 

* Havelock EUis, The Criminal, page 93. 


P. W^ Blackmak, Esq., Lawrence, Kansas: • ' . • . 

( f ;Dear Sm :^— Yours of the 21st. There is a mistaken impression abroad 
ab9utthe possibility of ascertaining from prisoners the truth on any subject. 
They are liars, in common with the remainder of the race not in prison. Per- 
haps more apparently so, but nevertheless they, are not in this respect more 
untruthful than witnesses called to the stand in courts, witnesses who- have 
never been and, probably, never will be in prison. My observation is, in the 
liTift;, investigations of my prison administration, had during long years of it, 
that the statements of prisoners before the several commissions were as truthful 
as are the statements of witnesses heard at trials outside. 

The real difficulty in ascertaining the truth in the examination of prisoners is 
not very much more difficult than to ascertain the truth of any other common 
class of witnesses. It goes without saying that the examination of witnesses 
heeds to be naade by a competent, pains-taking examiner, before whom it is 
usually easily determined whether the witness is lying, prevaricating or making 
substantially a truthful statement. Moreover, it is possible by clues ascertained 
in the course of the examination from statements made by the prisoner, — names, 
dates, etc., to verify or disprove the accuracy of the statement he makes on his 
fexamination. There are some cases, not very many, where no clue can be had 
br, dates or names ascertained. These, however, constitute such a small per- 
centage of the prisoners examined, that it constitutes a class scarcely worth 
considering in this connection. 

' The particular purpose of inquiring into the early and antecedent history of 
the prisoners committed to this Reformatory during the last fifteen years has 
been to ascertain the character of the defects of the man himself, with a view to 
map out and conduct a course of treatment calculated to cure such defects or 
build up counteracting impulses and habitudes, as well as to determine the 
pause of the defects observed. It has been abundantly demonstrated bj' our 
experience here that the record made on the date of the prisoner's admission, 
which is an abstract of the examination held by the General Superintendent, is 
substantially accurate.^accurate in all the essentials required to determine the 
real character of the man. I am sure, if it was deemed important to go back 
one or two generations for hereditary influences, we might ascertain enough 
from the prisoner on his examination to enable further inqviiry outside which, 
together with the statements of the prisoner, would form very reliable data. 
' ' I am, dear sir, 

;,-j ■'• , Very respectfully yours, 

r J • Z. R. Brockway, Oen. Sicpt. 

. The following table shows something of Mr. Brockway's method of 
classification as the result of his investigations :* 


i' ; 1. Relating to their Parentage (Hereditary.) 

'Insanity or epilepsy in ancestry 499 or 13.7 per cent. 

DRUNKENESS (in Aficestry). 

Glearly traced 1,408 or 38. 7 per cent. 

Doubtful 403 or 1 1. 1 

Temperate i;825 or 50.2 

* See Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Elmlra "Reformatory, 1889. 


EDUCATION {in Ajicestry). 

Without any education 495 of 13.6 per cent. 

Simply read and write 1,885 o"* 38- 1 

Ordinary common school or more . . . , i>592 or 43.8 

High School or more 1 64 or 4. 5 


Pauperized , 173 or 4.8 per cent. 

No accumulation 2,801 or 77.0 

Forehanded 662 or 18. 2 

OCCUPATION {in Ancestry). 

Servants and clerks 376 or 10.4 per cent. 

Cornmon laborers. .... .'. I5 197 or 32.6 

At mechanical work. . Ij343 or 36.9 

With traffic 633 or 1 7. 7 

THE PROFESSIONS {so-called). 

Law 16 . , 

Medicine , 36 

Theology ". 10 

Teaching ., 25 

,: ' 87 or 2.4 per cent. 

2. Relating to Inmates Themselves (Environment). 

(«) Character of Home Life. 

Positively bad 1,883 or 51.8 per cent. 

Fair (Only) 1,453 or 39.9 

Good 300 or S.T, 

{/!>) Duration of Home Life. 

Left home previous to 10 years of age 187 or 5.2 per cent. 

•Left home between 10 and 14 years of age. ... 226 or 6.2 

Left home soon after 14 years of age 1,121 or 30.8 

At home up to time of crime 2, 192 or 57.8 

Note. — As to the 1534 homeless: 

I Occupied furnished rooms in cities 390 or 25.4 per cent. 

Lived in cheap boarding houses (itinerant). . . 280 or 18.2 

Lived with employer 331 or 21.6 

Rovers and tramps 533 or 34. 8 



Without any education (illiterates) 710 or 19.5 per cent. 

Simply read and write (with difficulty) 1,814 or 49,9 

Ordinary common school 979 or 26.9 

High school or more .... 133 or 3.7 


Servants and clerks 1,041 or 28.6 per cent. 

Common laborers ^}^53 or 51.0 

At mechanical work 649 or 17.8 

Idlers 93 or 2.6 


Posititvely bad 2,072 or 56.9 per cent. 

Not good Ij439 or 39.6 

Doubtful 64 or 1.8 

Good 61 or 1.7 


Protestant 1,531 or 42. i per cent. 

Roman Catholic 15667 or 45.8 

Hebrew 207 or 5.7 

None 231 or 6.4 

The study of physical, mental and moral characteristics will lead 
us to other determinations and will show in physical health that the 
prisoners are as a rule not much, if any, below the average of people 
at large. It will also show that the majority of them not accustomed 
to regular work or employment are not capable of doing as much 
labor or enduring as much constant physical fatigue as would the 
same body of men who are not criminals taken from the common 
ranks of the people. So as to mental characteristics, we can urge 
that the criminal intellect has not been keen enough to take proper 
rank with the average mind. It is a fact, however, that many 
criminals are very shrewd and intellectually keen. Doubtless some- 
thing could be said about the quality of such intellect and its special 
characteristics. It is the intellect of a coarse nature and not cul- 
tured, refined, or properly trained in the aggregate. The well devel- 
oped mind, balanced in every particular, is rare among criminals. It 
will be seen, however, that a defect in the moral nature is in most 
instances a secret cause of the crime. Moral insensibility seems to 
be the common characteristic of a large proportion of prisoners. It 

* It should be stated that the above who claimed some occupation are, as a rule, not 
regularly employed, nor steady reliable workmen. 

blackmar: penology in Kansas. 169 

is indeed too true with many of them that their conscience consists 
merely in the humiliation of being caught. Dwell as they may upon 
past deeds, the great fault of their own, as far as they view it, is in the 
fact that they were caught in the act and apprehended and punished. 
This moral insensibility is found in all grades and degrees, from that 
of a complete lack of moral symptoms to those of a highly sensitive 
moral nature. 

Of the 4,000 criminals who have been through the reformatory at 
Elmira, 36.2 per cent showed on admission positively no susceptibility 
to moral impressions; only 23.4 per cent were ordinarily susceptible.* 

The following tables, taken from the report of the general superin- 
tendent of the Elmira reformatory for 1S89, may be found interesting. 
It must be observed that the majority of these prisoners are young 
and all of them under the age of 30. 



(a) As to health: 

Debilitated or diseased 200 or 5.5 per cent. 

Somewhat impaired 501 or 8.3 

Good health 3, 135 or 86. 2 

{d) As to quality: 

Low or coarse , 916 or 25.2 per cent. 

Medium Ij354 or 37-2 

Good Ij366 or 37.6 


(a) Natural capacity: 

Deficient 73 or 2.0 per cent. 

Fair (only) 789 or 21.7 

Good 2,300 or 63. 2 

Excellent 474 or 13. i 

(^) Culture: 

None , 1)572 or 43.2 per cent. 

Very slight 1,040 or 28.6 

Ordinary 916 or 25.2 

Much 108 or 3.0 


(a) Susceptibility to moral impressions now (estimated): 

Positively none Ij3i8 or 36.2 per cent. 

Possibly some i>3io or 36. i 

Ordinarily susceptible 851 or 23.4 

Specially susceptible 157 or 4.3 

♦The Criminal, p. 1^. 


(/;) Moral sense, even such as shown under the examination, either 

filial affection, sense of shame, or sense of personal loss: 

Absolutely none 1,794 or 49.3 per cent. 

Possibly some 1,112 or 30.6 ■ . 

Ordinarily sensitive 553 or 15.2 , T 

Specially sensitive 17.7 or 4.9 

Without doubt this is a better showing by far than can be had in 
any ordinary prison. Auburn contains a different class of criminals 
than is found at Elmira. So, also, for the older prisons of Europei 
there are more recidivistes, or habitual criminals in these prisons. In 
the West there appears to be fewer of the habitual class and more of 
the accidental class iri proportion thati are found in older countries of 
denser population. -Yet much of a helpful nature could be had by a 
more careful study of individual characteristics' of criminals than- is at 
present carried on. This means more time, more ielp and more 
expense, but in the long run it would amply pay. 

An excellent phase of the Kansas system is the shortening of terms 
on account of goqd behavior within the prison walls. It is provided 
by statute that three days per month for the first year shall be deduct- 
ed from the term of sentence of such prisoners as have no marks 
against them for disobeying the rules of the prison. If the record has 
been good at the close of the first year, six days per month shall be 
deducted during the second and eight days per month during the third 
if good conduct continues. These privileges apply to years or parts 
of a year.* 

Another timely measure permits prisoners to participate in their 
own earnings. Five per cent, of each day's labor at the rate of sev- 
enty-five cents per day, are entered to the credit of each prisoner, f 
If, on account of good behavior, a sentence is commuted at the end 
of the first year, the prisoner may have the privilege of sending these 
earnings to his family. There certainly is no reason why the prisoner 
within the walls should not support a family, if he has one, rather than 
allow it to be thrown upon the public. At least part of his earnings 
should be sent home and part saved for him to the end of his term. 
A certain per cent, of the earnings may be used by the prisoner in 
providing himself with a few comforts. (The floor in the cell shown 
in fig. 5 has a carpet provided in this way.) This, among other rules, 
suggests that the condition and conduct of the prisoner, as well as the 
crime, should determine the length of the sentence. If crime can be 
reckoned as moral insanity, as many specialists hold, then a sentence for 
a fixed time is similar to sending a sick man to a hospital for treatment, 

• Kansas Statutes. 6421, 1889, - — 

t Ibid. , 6439, ... . . ,: . .-...-.:..: .: _ - '' 

blackmar: penology in Kansas. 171 

stating that he must remain exactly two years and three months to be 
cured, when in fact it may take longer or he may be cured before the 
end of a year. Certain it is that no criminal should be returned to the 
ranks of society until a reform has been thoroughly commenced. And 
when it can be ascertained that he will not commit crime again, it is 
idle to confine him longer. New York and Ohio have taken advanced 
steps in this direction and have instituted what is known as the inde- 
terminate sentence for all criminals, whether in reformatories or pen- 

When the solitary cellular system is in vogue, the prisoners are lim- 
ited to certain occupations within the cell, but when the associated 
system is practiced, all kinds of industry involving machinery may be 
carried on. This has given rise to what is known as the contract sys- 
tem, a method of employing prisoners, which should not be confounded 
with the unfortunate and nearly antiquated lease system. The statutes 
of Kansasf permit the contracting of prisoners to responsible parties, 
but still the state maintains its disciplinary control over the prisoners. 
The directors are obligated to advertise for bids in the leading papers 
in each congressional district. Contracts shall not exceed a term of 
ten years, and awards are made to the highest responsible bidder. 
Forty-five cents per day for able-bodied men is the minimum poirit 
below which bids are not accepted. There is a great controversy 
respecting the defects of the contract system, but it is not as bad as it 
at first appears when laborers are employed otherwise with great dififi,"- 
culty. Doubtless the better way is absolute management of all indus- 
tries, as in case of the coal mines, by the prison superintendent. 

The management of the mines is intrusted to a skillful engineer, 
Mi:/ Oscar F. Lamm. The writer has investigated the conditions 
under which men work, and has been to the face of the mines where 
they were at work, and can testify that the stories circulated about 
hard usage in the mines are wholly unfounded, except by persons who 
consider all labor, particularly mining, hard usage. The air below is 
pure— men are sent down every morning to test the air before prison- 
ers are allowed to go down — and the mining is comparatively easy. 
There is very little difficulty in it, and the prisoners are not so bad off 
in these mines as are the miners in private mines elsewhere in Kansas! 
It may be a dreary life to lead for a person who has not been accusr 
tomed to work underneath the ground, but the average miner would 
pronounce the life in the mines endured by the prisoners as one of 
comparative ease and very few hardships. In all the experience of 

* See Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities, 1891, p. 330. 
+ Revised Statutes, 6443, 1889, 


the mines, only one individual has been seriously hurt, and that when 
he disobeyed orders directly. 

There have been many objections to the contract system urged by 
persons who are outside of the prison and its management. Whatever 
objections there may be to the contract system in itself, those usually 
observed are of no force. It is said that the goods made by prisoners 
come into close competition with goods made by union men outside 
of the prison and therefore the union men urge the repeal of the law 
granting the privilege of contracting prisoners for work. There can 
be no reason in this from the following principles : First, because every 
citizen of Kansas is interested in the right management of the prison 
as a means of protecting him and his family. In order to have this 
protection it is necessary that laborers be given employment for the 
sake of proper management. As there are less than a thousand of 
these prisoners all told, many of them are employed about the build- 
ings and grounds and many employed in furnishing coal and other 
goods to state institutions, the competition does not figure at all in 
the great labor market. Again, while the prison mines have been 
putting forth abundance of coal in supplying state institutions and the 
market elsewhere, other coal mines in and around Leavenworth have 
been unable to fill the orders in supplying the demand upon them. 
Superintendents have tried again and again during the past two years 
to obtain sufficient miners to take out enough coal to supply the mar- 
ket, but they have failed. So far as the mines are concerned, the hue 
and cry about competitive labor amounts to nothing. Again, the 
contract system is carried on in this way : The prisoners are always 
under the charge of the warden and prison authorities. Contracts are 
let to the highest bidder for a certain number of laborers. This 
labor must be done on the prison grounds and under the general over- 
sight of the prison authorities. If a prisoner is not doing well at a 
certain occupation, he is transferred to some other occupation. He 
has much the same treatment everywhere. Care is taken to adapt the 
prisoner to the labor that best suits his condition. When these goods 
are finished they pass out on the market in competition with other 
goods of the state and neighboring states. This, as has been stated, 
cannot be avoided unless the solitary system is adopted and with it an 
exclusion of machinery. The minimum price for contract laborers is 
forty-five cents per day, and as a matter of business, as those contracts 
are let to the highest bidder and as labor is plentiful outside of the 
prison, there can be very little difference in the effect of this contract- 
ing for prison labor and the injury of union labor outside as respects 
the cheapness with which goods can be thrown upon the market. 
However, it seems to me that it would be better to have all prisoners 

blackmar: penology in Kansas. fj^^ 

and all manufacturing under the direction of the prison, and that raw 
material should be purchased to supply the machinery placed 
there for the purpose of manufacturing the goods and then the goods 
should be furnished to state institutions where they need them and the 
surplus be thrown upon the market at the usual price. This would 
keep all the prisoners employed and would also give them instructions 
by way of learning and drill in completing the finished product, which 
is an education in itself. Then wherein it is necessary and possible, 
part of the time should be employed in obtaining a fair theoretical 
as well as industrial education. In this way the management of the 
prisoners in their graded condition would be more directly under the 
control of the warden and, instead of being treated as a gang at work 
in the shop and elsewhere, an individual consideration of every pris- 
oner would be reached in discipline, manual labor and intelligent 

It is not the purpose of penal institutions to humble or degrade 
humanity. There is no object in it and moreover it has a tendency to 
breed crime. Men who are sufficiently evil and reckless to commit 
flagrant crimes are not benefitted by a punishment that degrades them 
or tends to rob them of the appearance of manhood. For this reason 
the striped suits worn by prisoners should be abandoned and suits 
which will classify persons within the walls, be adopted. If it be said 
that it is more difficult to apprehend those who escape if the tradi- 
tional striped clothes are abandoned, let it be said this is of no impor- 
tance ; if the Bertillon or French system of registry be adopted, as 
represented in the following tables, there will be little chance of 



































' ^ 

■&S.9 1J3I JO aOIOQ 



■ u 






'^ y 


































































































•■-1 (U 

^H to 




















, 8 



blackmar: penology in Kansas. 


Institution Reg. No. 

Name _ __ _ __ _ 

Alias .. 

County , Crime 


, Sentence 

, Descent 

Known or admitted former imnrisonment 

MARKS, Scars and Moles. 



Note:— Please follow strictly Book of Instruction, not only as to measurements and 
general description, but also particularly as to Marks, Scars, etc. See pages 65 to 
81. Use abbreviations as given in instructions. 

One of the great difificulties in connection with prison reform is 
that of restoring to important places in legitimate society the ex-con- 
victs who have been serving long terms of imprisonment. First and 
foremost is the consciousness of the prisoner that he has been a con- 
vict, that he has worn the striped clothes and been separated from 
society for a period of years on the supposition that he was not 
worthy to live in said society and therefore had forfeited his right to 
live in it. If he be strong enough to overcome the effects of such a 
feeling he must indeed have received a permanent reform or be strong 
in character. In addition to this is the fact that people know he has 
been a jail-bird and they will not want to employ him or trust him. 


This has a tendency to make him feel that he is still an outcast from 
society and that there are greater walls than those of the prison sepa- 
rating him from the trust and confidence of society. If he is employ- 
ed by those who do not understand that he is from prison he carries 
with him continually the consciousness of deception, and this in itself 
has rather a bad tendency in developing a spirit which (if it does not 
already exist) will tend to make him feel that he is an enemy to the 
society which seems against him. It will be a strong character, even 
though it be determined to do right at all times and even though the 
prison reform has been salutary, if it resists the influence of such 
conditions. True there are prisoners of entirely different character, 
who consider all attempt at reform within the prison walls as so much 
nonsense, or at least nothing more than opportunities for winning the 
favor of their superiors while under sentence, and when they pass 
from the prison walls they still feel, if they feel at all, that society is 
against them and they are against society, and they are ready at the 
slightest opportunity to engage in their old pursuits without even 
attempting to enter a legitimate calling and live respectable and 
honored citizens. 

To relieve all this there have been attempts to form prison associa- 
tions which would receive the prisoner at his discharge, place him in 
the hands of individuals who understand his life and character and 
who would sympathize with him in the attempt to continue his well 
begun reformation, and he, understanding them, would have confidence 
not only in himself but in the people around him. In this way he 
makes the connection which has been broken off between himself and 
legitimate associations, and has a possibility of outliving the past. 
Such an association in Kansas might accomplish a vast deal of good. 
It ought to be formed by philanthropists and business men who would 
take an especial interest in this work. Each prisoner when he has 
finished his sentence should be assisted quietly and earnestly in 
securing the proper place. It would save very many, who have left 
the prison with good intentions, from returning to old practices. 

Perhaps the furlough system, as carried on by the Elmira reforma- 
tory, is the most unique that has ever been tried for the purpose of 
making the connection of the discharged prisoners with the industrial 
and social life without. Prisoners are discharged on furlough of three 
years, during which time they are placed under good influences and 
have all the opportunities for continuing the reform outside of the 
prison walls. These prisoners report monthly to the prison authori- 
ties and of their own accord. If, at the end of three years, they have 
made satisfactory progress and have occupied positions of trust with- 
out betraying confidence, they are given their final discharge on the 

blackmar: penology in Kansas. 177 

supposition that they are, from that time on, able to care for them- 
selves in a manly way. Of the discharged prisoners by the furlough 
system over 75 per cent, have completed their three years with credit 
to themselves, which speaks well for the permanent reforming charac- 
ter of the Elmira system. There is need of such a school in Kansas. 
When the Hutchinson reformatory was projected, commissioners were 
sent to study the Elmira system and other systems and it was deter- 
mined to carry out or follow as nearly as possible the former, believ- 
ing it would be of benefit to Kansas. Certainly a reform prison is 
needed at preseut for the younger criminals, where they can be sepa- 
rated from the old and hardened and be placed under the best influ- 
ence possible. One chief detriment to the effective working of such a 
reform school in the West is that it is an expensive institution, and 
that the people of to-day are not willing to pay sufficient taxes for the 
support of an institution in which so much care is given to those who 
have committed crimes against the state. There is a feeling here still 
that it is better to give support to our educational institutions and to all 
efforts along the line of educating that part of society which is already 
good and making it better, rather than spending so much money on 
that which is broken down. But it must be remembered, as was stated 
in the foregoing principles, that the care for the broken down parts of 
humanity is only in the interest of general humanity and should be 
considered upon that basis. However, I think also that a reformatory 
could be carried on at Hutchinson on a less expensive basis than that 
one at New York, and with proper management it could be made to 
go a long way towards supporting itself and still give proper reforma- 
tory practice for all who should come within its scope. At least the 
Hutchinson institution should not be abandoned under any considera- 
tion whatever. It would relieve the present overcrowded condition of 
our penitentiary and provide in a large measure for a class which are 
not sufficiently provided for.* 

Discharged prisoners from Lansing find but little difficulty in 
obtaining work in the mines if their previous training has prepared 
them for it. So, also, those who have trades well learned need not be 
out of employment and the prison authorities render assistance to 
prisoners in a general way in obtaining work after being discharged. 

Much more might be said about criminology and penology in Kan- 
sas, of a more scientific nature than what is contained in this some- 
what general discussion ; it is the intention of the writer to refer again 
to this subject in connection with the study of sociology at the Uni- 
versity of Kansas. 

* The Kansas Legislature at its recent session made an appropriation to corcplete ttie 
Hutchinson Reformatory. 

A Brief Bibliography of Municipal Government 
in the United States. 


In political science, things near at hand and always with us are 
slighted, while remote and obscure questions are made the subject of 
most careful investigation. Taxation is a notable illustration of this 
fact. There is no act of government which so directly and intimately 
concerns the whole people, and yet it would be difficult to name one 
which has received so little careful study. In English there is not a 
single systematic and comprehensive work on the subject. Similarly 
with municipal government. With the present distribution of popula- 
tion this department of government controls more than one-fourth of 
our whole people in all their most important political relations. There 
is still no systematic treatise on the subject, but public interest has 
been aroused, and a large number of lectures, articles in periodicals 
and scientific journals has been printed in recent years. It is a hope- 
ful sign that municipal government is beginning to receive careful 
attention in colleges. For the purpose of assisting college study of 
the subject, a list of such literature as could be found was printed 
some time ago. As it has been found useful in several institutions, it 
has seemed worth while to extend it and bring it down to date. The 
study of municipal government at home is very properly preceded by 
a summary of local government generally and by a glance at munici- 
pal gov-ernment abroad. The order of the references is as follows : 

I. Introductory. 

1. Local Government Generally. 

2. European Cities. 

a. London. 

b. Paris. 

c. Berlin. 

d. Other Foreign Cities. 

II. American Cities. 

1. Legal Status. 

2. Statistics. 

3. Finance. 

4. General Discussions. 

(179) KAN. UNIV. QUAK., VOL. I., NO. 4, APK., 1893. 


5. Municipal Industries. 

6. Various Topics. 

7. Particular Cities. 

a. New York. 

b. Other American Cities. 



Short accounts of the systems of local government of the principal 
countries of continental Europe are given in the Cobden Club Essays: 
Local Government and Taxation, London, 1875, edited by J. W. 
Probyn. See also F. Bechard's De L' administration de la France, 2 
vols. Paris, 185 i, with appendix on municipal organization in Europe. 

The best short description of English local government is M. D. 
Chalmers's Local Government, "English Citizen" Series, London, 
1883. See also Local Administration, " Lnperial Parliament" Series, 
London, 1887, by Wm. Rathbone, Albert Pell and F. C. Montague. 
For still shorter account read chapter 15 of May's Constitutional His- 
tory and article on "Local Government in England" by F. J. Good- 
now in the Political Science Quarterly, December, 1887, vol. 2, pp. Ty^^Z- 
65, and an article by the same writer on "The Local Government Bill" 
in the Political Science Quarterly, June, 1888, vol. 3, pp. 311-333. 
Supplement Chalmers with Cobden Club Essays : Local Government 
and Taxation in the Llnited Kingdom, London, 1882, edited by J. W. 
Probyn. The mo^t exhaustive work on English local offices is Ru- 
dolph (jueist's Self Government : Commiinalverfassung u. Verwaltungs- 
gerichte in England, untranslated, 3d ed., 1876. For full bibliography 
see Gomme's Literature of Local Institutions, London, 1886. 

The best short outline of local government in the United States is 
an article by S. A. Galpin on " Minor Political Divisions of the United 
States,'' in Gen. F. A. Walker's Statistical Atlas of the United States. 
The papers on the local institutions of several of the States in' the 
Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science 
are especially valuable. Chas. M. Andrews has articles on Connecti- 
cut towns in the Johns Hopkins Studies, vol. 7, and in the Annals of 
the American Academy of Political Science, October, 1890, vol. i, 
pp. 165-91. Especially important is Prof. Geo. E. Howard's Local 
Constitutional History of the United States, vol. i.: "The Develop- 
ment of the Township, Hundred and Shire," printed as an extra vol- 
ume in this series. John Fiske's lecture on "The Town Meeting," 
delivered at the Royal Institution, was printed in Harper's Magazine, 
vol. 70, pp. 265-272, and in his American Political Ideas, N. Y., 

HODDER: municipal government in the UNII'ED STA'JES. i8i 

1885. A different view of the present importance of local institutions 
is taken by Prof. S. N. Patten in an article on the "Decay of State 
and Local Government," in the first number of the Annals of the 
American Academy of Political Science. For comparison of Ameri- 
can and foreign methods, read R. P. Porter's article "Local Govern- 
ment: at Home and Abroad," Princeton Review, July, 1879, n.s. vol. 
4, p. 172, and reprinted separately. See two articles on "Local Gov- 
ernment in Prussia," by F. J- Goodnow in the Political Science Quar- 
terly, December, 1889, vol. 4, pp. 648-66, and March, 1890, vol. 5, 
pp. 124-58. For further reference on local self-government see W. F. 
Foster's Monthly Reference Lists, vol. 2, pp. 23-29, and his pamphlet 
of References on Political and Economic Topics, p. 24. 

For Canada, see J. G. Bourinot's "Local Government in Canada: 
an historical study," in Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 
for 18S6, vol. 4., sec. 2, pp. 42-70; printed separately by the pub- 
lishers, and reprinted, with a letter on the municipal system of Onta- 
rio, in the 5th series of the Johns Hopkins Studies. A paper on "The 
Ontario Township," by J. M. McEvoy, printed in 1889, forms No. i 
of the Toronto University Studies in Political Science. 


For the purpose of comparison, some study should be made of 
municipal government abroad. Dr. Albert Shaw gives a general view 
of "Municipal Government in Great Britain," in Notes Supplement- 
ary to the Johns Hopkins Studies, No. i, January, 1889, and in the 
Political Quarterly, June, 1886, vol. 4, pp. 197-229. Of larger works 
on English municipal history, mention may be made of J. R. S. Vine's 
"English Municipal Institutions; their Growth and Development 
from 1835 to 1879," London, 1879. Dr. Chas. Gross has printed a 
very complete "Classified List of Books relating to British Municipal 
History," Cambridge, 1891, as No. 43 of Bibliographical Contribu- 
tions of Harvard University. Foreign experience is of very little 
assistance in the solution of the general problem of municipal gov- 
ernment in the United States, but it may be useful in indicating 
improved methods of administration in particular departments of a 
city government. Several cities that illustrate different forms of 
municipal government may be taken as e.xamples. 

a. London. 

Specially excepted from the operation of the Municipal Corporations 

Act of 1835. For outline of government read Chalmers, chap. 10. 

For full description see J. F. B. Firth's Municipal London, 1876, and 

his Reform of London Government and of City (Guilds, ' ' bnperial 


Parliament" Series, London, 1888. For history of the corporation 
consult W. J. Loftie's History of London, 2d ed., 1884, and the same 
author's small work, London, published in 1887 in Freeman's series on 
"English Historic Towns." Both books are based on new material, 
part of it recently discovered by Bishop Stubbs. For additional ref- 
erences, see Gomme, pp. 122-134. 

There have been a great many articles on the municipal govern- 
ment of London in recent periodical literature. Among them may be 
cited those by W. Newall, Contemporary Review, 1873, vol. 12, p. 73, 
and 1875, vol. 25, p. 437; W. M. Torrens, Nineteenth Century, 1880, 
vol. 8., p. 766; Alderman Cotton, Benj. Scott, City Chamberlain, and 
Sir Arthur Hobhouse in Contemporary Review, 1882, vcl. 41, pp. 72, 
308, and 404 respectively; the Westminster Review, for January, 1887; 
Dr. Albert Shaw on "How London is Governed," in the Century, 
November, 1890, vol. 41, pp. 132-147, and on "Municipal Problems 
of New York and London," in the Review of Reviews, April, 1892,. 
vol. 5, p. 282; James Monroe on "The London Police," in the North 
American Review, November, 1890, vol. 151, pp. 615-629; Sir John 
Lubbock on "The Government of London," in the Fortnightly Re- 
view, February, 1892, vol. 51, p. 159; and an article on the "Munici- 
pal Administration of London," in the Edinburgh Review for April, 
1892. For a good review of attempts since i860 to regulate the 
London gas supply, see an article in the British Quarterly for Janu- 
ary, 1879. 

A Royal Commission on the City Livery Companies reported May 
28, 1884. See the discussion by Sir R. A. Cross, one of the dissent- 
ing members of the Commission, in the Nineteenth Century for 1884, 
vol. 16, p. 47, and by Sir Arthur Hobhouse in Contemporary Review 
for 1885, vol. 47, p. I. The most important work on the London 
guilds is William Herbert's "History of the Twelve Great Companies 
of London," London, 1837. The latest contribution to the subject is 
Price's "Description of the Guildhall," London, 1887. 

b. Paris. 
A sketch of its government by Yves Guyot, a member of the 
municipal council, may be found in the Contemporary Review, 
March, 1883, vol. 43, p. 439. Dr. Shaw gives an excellent short 
account in an article entitled "The Typical Modern City" in the 
Century, July, 1891, vol. 42, pp. 449-66. He cites as the principal 
authority on the subject Maxime Du Camp's Paris, ses organes, 
ses fonctions, et sa vie dans la seconde nioitic du dix-neiivieme siecle. 
An- extended description is also given in a work entitled Adminisira- 
tion de la Ville de Paris, written by Henri De Pontich under the 

hodder: municipal government in the united states. 183 

direction of Maurice Block, Paris, Guillaumin, 1884. The Rapports 
et Documents and Process- Verbaux of the municipal council are 
printed yearly in three large quarto volumes, and the municipal 
bureau of statistics issues an annual report. 

c. Berlin. 

An excellent short account of the government of Berlin is given by 
Dr. Rudolph Gneist, a member of the municipal council since 1848, 
in the Contemporary Review, December, 1884, vol. 46, p. 769. See 
also the report on the ''Administration of the City of Berlin" in 
Foreign Relations for 1881, p. 487, made by Assistant-Secretary of 
Legation Coleman at the request of Hon. Andrew D. White, then 
Minister to Germany. Also the articles by Prof. R. T. Ely in the 
Nation for March 23 and 30, 1882, vol. 34, pp. 145 and 267. In the 
Nation for September 25, 1892, vol. 55, p. 221, Mr. Leo S. Rowe 
combats some of Dr. Shaw's generalizations respecting municipal 
government in Europe, taking Berlin as his text. The Magistracy 
of Berlin publish reports at irregular intervals. The first, Bericht 
ueber die Vervaltnng der Stadt Berlin, in. den Jahren iSzg bis inclu. 
1840, Berlin, 1842, and the second, in den Jahren 1841 bis incl. 
18^0, Berlin, 1853, are of considerable importance. A third, pub- 
lished in 1863, covers the period from 185 1 to i860, and a fourth, 
printed in 1882, covers the period from 1861 to 1876. The Director 
of the Statistical Bureau of the city publishes annually Das Statistische 
Jahrbnch der Stadt Berlin. 

The present municipal system of Prussia dates from the reorganiza- 
tion of the municipalities by Stein and Hardenburg, November 19, 
1808. See Seeley's Life of Stein, part 5, chap. 3, and Meier's Reform 
der Vervaltung- Organization nnter Stein und Hardenberg, Leipsig, 
1881. -The present "Municipal Corporation Act," Stcedte-ordnung, 
was passed May 30, 1853. See Kotze, Die Preussischen Stcedte Ver- 
fassungen, Berlin, 1879, and Backoffner, Die Steedteordnnngen der 
Preussischen Monarchic, Berlin, 1880, and especially Eugen Leidig's 
Preussisches Stadtrecht, Berlin, 1891. See also the articles on local 
government in Prussia cited above. 

d. Other Foreign Cities. 

Statistics of all important German cities are given in Dr. M. Neefe's 
Statistisches JaJirbuch Deutscher Stcedte, Erster Jahrgang, Breslau, 
1890. Financial statistics of the great European cities are given in 
Joseph Korosi's Bulletin Annual de Finance des Grandes Villes, Dix- 
ieme Annee, Budapest, 1890. 


A short account of the municipal government of Vienna is given in 
a report b}' Mr. Kasson in Foreign Relations for 1879, P- 64 and an 
extended account in Dr. Felder's Die Gcmeinde-Vervaliung der 
Reichs-Jiaupt it /id Rcsidenzstadt Wien, Vienna, 1872. For the gov- 
ernment of Budapest see Dr. Shaw's article in the Century, June. 
1892, vol. 44, pp. 163-179. Prof. F. G. Peabody gives a sketch of 
Dresden in an article entitled "'A Case of Good City Government," 
in the Forum, April, 1892, vol. 13, p. 53. 

The following relate to various British Cities: Dr. Shaw's ''Glas- 
gow, a iMunicipal Study, '" in the Century, March, 1890, vol. 39, pp. 
721-736; the same writer's -'Municipal Lodging Houses," in No. i of 
the Charities Review, November, 1891; Julian Ralph's "The Best 
Governed City in the "World'' (Birmingham) in Harper's Magazine, 
1890, vol. 81, pp 99-111: Thos. H. Sherman's report on "Liverpool, 
its Pavements, Tramways, Sewers and Artisans' Dwellings," in Consul- 
ar Reports, June, 1890, vol. 2>Z-> PP- 284-303 ; and Consul Smyth's 
report on "Tramways and Water Works in England," in the Consular 
Report for December, 1891. 



For comparison of the provisions of the state constitutions relating 
to municipal corporations, see F. J. Stimson's American Statute Law, 
Boston, 1SS6, vol. I. articles 34, 37 and 50. Note the classification 
of municipalities in Ohio. On the relation of municipalities to the 
states, consult the chapter on "The Grades of Municipal Govern- 
ment'" in Judge T. ^L Cooley's Constitutional Limitations, 6th ed., 
Boston, 1890, and a short chapter at the close of the same author's 
Principles of Constitutional Law. Judge J. F. Dillon's Treatise on 
the Law of Municipal Corporations, 4th ed., 2 vols., Boston, 1S90, 
is the standard authorit}' on the subject. Note the introductory his- 
torical sketch. A new text-book on the Law of Municipal Corpora- 
tions, by Chas. F. Beach. Jr.. has been recently issued by Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. Reference may also be made to Judge Dillon's Law of 
Municipal Bonds, Chicago, 1877, and to A Treatise on Municipal 
Police Ordinances, Chicago, 1887, by N. T. Horr and A. A. Bemis, 
of the Cleveland bar. The authors of the last work say in their 
preface that "The necessity for it arises from the fact that, except in 
those cities and towns where the municipal council has the assistance 
of regularly employed legal advisers, the limits of lawful legislation 
are apt to be exceeded." 

Numerous references to articles in law journals are given on pp. 
386-588 of Jones's Index to Legal Periodical Literature, Boston. 18SS. 

hodder: municipal government in the united states. 185 

An article by J. R. Berryman on ''Constitutional Restrictions upon 
Legislation about Municipal Corporations," in the American Law- 
Review, May- June, 1888, vol. 22, p. 403, may be cited. 

2. statistics. 

The Eleventh Census will give very full statistics of cities, but 
though some of the results have been announced in bulletins, none of 
the final reports have yet been issued. These results have been sum- 
marized by Hon. Carroll D. Wright in the Popular Science Monthly 
for 1892, vol. 40. On "LTrban Population" see p. 459; on "Social 
Statistics of Cities" p. 607, and on "Rapid Transit," p. 785. 

The following Reports of the Tenth Census treat of this subject : 
vol. I, Population; vol. 7, Valuation, Taxation and Indebtedness; 
vol. 18, Social Statistics of Cities: New England and Middle States 
(reviewed in the Nation, vol. 44, p. 256); and vol. 19, Social Statistics 
of Cities : Southern and Western States. 

Scribner's Statistical Atlas of the United States, N. Y., 1883, exhib- 
its the figures of the census graphically (p. xlv, statistics of popula- 
tion). Plate 21 illustrates the growth of American cities since 1790. 
There were then only eight cities of eight thousand inhabitants, and 
the population of New York was 33,131. Plate 30 gives ratios of dif- 
ferent nationalities to total population in the largest fifty cities. Plate 
76 gives net per capita debt in the largest one hundred cities. 

On movement of population see an article by B. G. Magie, Jr., in 
Scribner's Monthly, January, 1878, vol. 15, p. 418; Prof. Richmond 
Smith's "Statistics and Economics," p. 264. in vol. 3 of the Publica- 
tions of the American Economic Association; a study on the "Rise 
of American Cities" by Dr. A. B. Hart in the Quarterly Journal of 
Economics, January, 1890, vol. 4, pp. 129-157; an article by Lewis 
H. Haupt on "The (growth of Great Cities" in the Cosmopolitan for 
November, 1892, and another by John C. Rose, on "The Decrease of 
Rural Population" in the Popular Science Monthly for March, 1893, 
vol. 42, pp. 621-38. Cf. work by E. Levasseur, entitled Les Popula- 
tions Ur bailies en France, coinparees a eel les tie r Etranger, Paris, 1887. 

The Annual Statistician, published by L. P. McCarty, San Fran- 
cisco, gives the following statistics for leading cities : Number of votes 
registered and polled ; number of voting precincts ; strength of police ; 
losses by fire and number of fire-engines and firemen; value and 
capacity of gas and water works ; number and character of street 
lights ; vital statistics ; number of murders, suicides, and executions : 
length of street railroads and cost of motive power ; telegraph and 
telephone mileage; number of saloons and cost of licenses; attend- 


ance and cost of schools, annual tax-rate, expenditure and the public 


Volume 7 of the Reports of the Tenth Census, compiled by Robert 
P. Porter, gives statistics of local taxation and indebtedness, and a 
summary of the provisions of the several state constitutions limiting 
the rate of taxation, the amount of municipal debts, and the purposes 
for which they may be contracted. See p. 674 for an analysis of the 
purposes for which the debt outstanding in 1880 was contracted. The 
Eleventh Census will give similar data. Mr. Porter published an arti- 
cle on municipal debts in the N. Y. Banker's Magazine for September, 
1876, and another in Lalor's Cyclopaedia of Political Science, vol. i, 
p. 730. Cf. also his article in the Princeton Review, N. s., vol. 4, p. 
172. For a further study of this subject, read Prof. H. C. Adams's 
Public Debts, N. Y., 1887, Part 3, chap. 3. See also G. W. Green's 
article on "Municipal Bonds," Lalor's Cyclopaedia, vol. 2, p. 920; 
Prof. S. N. Patten's ^^ Finanzivesen der Staaten und Stcedte der Nord- 
amerikanischen Union, Jena., 1878; C. Hale's "Debts of Cities," 
Atlantic, vol. 38, p. 661, for the law of Massachusetts; D. L. Harris's 
"Municipal Economy," Journal of Social Science, vol. 9, p. 149, for 
the experience of Springfield, Mass., the articles in Bradstreet's for 
February 10 and March 3, 1883, for a comparison with local debts in 
England, and H. B. Gardner's "Statistics of Municipal Finance" in 
the Publications of the American Statistical Association, June, 1889, 
vol. I, pp. 254-67. On the debt of New York City see the paper by 
Wm. M. Ivins cited below. A Statement of Facts Concerning the 
Financial Affairs of the City of Elizabeth, N. J., which has the largest 
per capita debt in the United States, was published by some of the 
citizens of that place in January, 1886. 

Municipal taxation is treated at length in Prof. R. T. Ely's Taxation 
in American States and Cities, New York, 1888. The Reports of the 
Commissioners Appointed to Revise the I^aws for the Assessment and 
(Collection of Taxes in New York, 187 1 and 1872, contain much val- 
uable material. The members of the Commission were David A. 
Wells, Edwin Dodge, and George W. Cuyler. The first report was 
reprinted in New York by Harpers, and both were reprinted in Eng- 
land by the Cobden Club. Cf. also Wells's "Theory and Practice of 
Local Taxation in America," in the Atlantic Monthly for January, 
1874 ; "Rational Principles of Taxation," a paper read in New York, 
May 20, 1874, Journal of Social Science, vol. 6, p. 120; and his 
"Reform of Local Taxation" in the North American Review for 
April, 1876. On the evils of double taxation see a paper on "Local 
Taxation" by William Minot, Jr., read in Saratoga, September 5, 

hodder: municipal government in the united states. 187 

1877, and printed in the Journal of Social Science, vol. 9, p. 67. See 
Report in 1876 of New Hampshire Tax Commission, composed of 
Geo. Y. Sawyer, H. R. Roberts, and Jonas Livingstone ; and Report 
of the Michigan Commission, House Journal, February 23, 1882. A 
similar Commission, appointed by the City of Baltimore, reported in 
January, 1886. The Report contains, in addition to the recommenda- 
tions of the Commission, a paper by Prof. R. T. Ely, entitled "Sug- 
gestions for an Improved System of Taxation in Baltimore." A further 
article on "Municipal Finance" may be found in Scribner's Magazine, 
January, 1888, vol. 3, pp. 33-40, and a thesis entitled "Special 
Assessments : A Study in Municipal Finance," by Victor Rosewater, 
is announced for vol. 2 of the "Studies in History, Economic and 
Public Law," issued by Columbia College. 

4. general discussions. 
Adams, Charles Francis. "Municipal Government: Lessons from 
the Experience of Quincy, Mass." Forum, November, 1892, 
vol. 14, pp. 282-92. 
Berryman, J. R. "Constitutional Restrictions upon Legislation about 
Municipal Corporations." American Law Review, May- June, 
1888, vol. 22, p. 403. 
Bowles, Samuel. "Relation of State to Municipal Governments, and 
the Reform of the Latter." Journal of Social Science, vol. 9, 
p. 140. 

A paper read in Saratoga, September 7, 1877. 
Bradford, Gamaliel. "Municipal Government." Scribner's Maga- 
zine, October, 1887, vol. 2, pp. 485-493. 
Browne, G. M. "Municipal Reform." New Englander, February, 

1886, vol. 45, p. 132. 
Bryce, James. "The American Commonwealth." Lon. and N. Y., 

This well known work contains the following chapters on munici- 
pal government : chapters 50 and 51, " The Government of Cities ;" 
chap. 52, "An American View of Municipal Government in the 
United States," by Pres. Seth Low: chapters 59-04 explain the 
working of partj^ machinery ; chap. 88, "The Tweed Ring in New 
York City," by P.J. Goodnow, and cliap. 89, "The Philadelpliia 
Gas Ring." 

Cambridge Civil Service Reform Association. "Prize Essays on 
Municipal Reform." 1884. 

Contents: — " Tlie Selection of Municipal Officers: their Terms 
and Tenures," by T. H. Pease, of Chicago, 111.: "The Appointment 
of Municipal Officers," by John Prentiss, of Keene, N. H. : and 
"The Selection and Tenure of Office of Municipal Officers," by 
Prof. H. T. Terry, of the University of Tokio, Japan. 


Chamberlain, Joseph. "Municipal Institutions in America and Eng- 
land." Forum, November, 1892, vol. 14, pp. 267-81. 

Mr. Chamberlain was Mayor ol' Birmingham 1873-6. He compare^ 
its government with that of Boston. 
Crandon, F. D. " Misgovernment of Great Cities." Popular Science 

Monthly, vol. 30, pp. 296 and 520. 
Eaton, Dorman B. "Municipal Government." Journal of Social 
Science, vol. 5, p. i. 

A paper read in Boston, M:iy 13, 1873. 
Eliot, C. W. " One Remedy for Municipal Misgovernment. " Forum, 

October, 1891, vol. 12, pp. 153-168. 
Fassett, J. S. "Why Cities are Badly Governed." North American 
Review, May, 1890, vol. 150, pp. 631-7. 

Senator Fassett summarizes the results of the investigation in 1S90 
of a committee of the New York Senate on cities. 
Field, David Dudley. "Our Political Methods," Forum, November, 

1886, vol. 2, pp. 213-22. 
Fisher, Wm. R. "Municipal Government." Publications of the 
Philadelphia Social Science Association. 

This Association has united witlr the American Academy of Politi- 
cal and Social Science and its publications are now furnished by the 
Fiske, Amos K. "Remedies for Municipal Misgovernment." Forum, 

April, 1887, vol. 3, pp. 170-77. 
Fiske, John. "Civil Government in the United States." N.Y., 1890. 

Cliapter 5. 
Ford, Worthington C. "American Citizen's Manual." N. Y., 1882. 

Part I, pp. GG-83, on municipal corporations. 
Forum. "The Science of Municipal Corruption." March, 1893, 
vol. 15, pp. 43-51- 

Author's name not given. 
Godkin, E. L. "Criminal Politics." North American Review, June, 

1890, vol. 150, pp. 706-23. 
Godkin, E. L. "A Key to Municipal Reform." North American 

Review, October, 1890, vol. 151, pp. 422-31. 
Grace, William R. "Government of Cities in the State of New 

York." Harpers, 1883, vol. 67, p. 609. 
Hale, E. E. "The Congestion of Cities." Forum, January, 1888, 

vol. 4, pp. 527-35. 
Harrison, Carter H. "Municipal Government." 

An address deli/ered before the Nineteenth Century Club of New 
York City, November 23, 1886. 
Ivins, William M. "Municipal Finance." Harpers, October, 1884, 
vol. 69, pp. 779-87. 

hodder: municipal government in the united states. 189 

Ivins, William M. "Municipal Government." Political Science 
Quarterly, June, 1887. 

The author claims that changes in municipal organization have 
been incident to the extension of the general functions of government, 
and gives an analysis of the system of government in New Yoriv City. 

Ivins, William M. "Machine Politics and Money in Elections." 
Harper's "Handy Series," N. Y., 1887. 

This little book describes the working of election laws in New 
. York, gives the amount of assessments paid by candidates for office, 
and advocates the adoption of tlie essential features of the English 

Janes, Lewis G. "The Problem of City Government." 40 pp. N.Y., 
D. Appleton & Co., 1892. 

This is a lecture before the Brooklyn Ethical Association, printed 
in a series entitled "Man and the State." 

Johns Hopkins Studies in History and Political Science. 

Vol. 3. "The City of Washington," by J. A. Porter. 

Vol. 4. " The Town and City Government of New Haven," 

by Chas. H. Levermore. 
Vol. 5. "The City Government of Philadelphia," by E. P. 
AUinson and Boies Penrose. 
" City Government of Boston," by James M. Bugbee. 
' ' City Government of St. Louis, " by Marshall S. Snow. 
Vol. 7. "The Municipal Government of San Francisco," by 
Bernard Moses. 

"Municipal History of New Orleans," by W. H. 

Extra vol. i. "The Republic of New Haven: a History of 
Municipal Evolution," by Chas. H. Levermore. 

Extra vol. 2. "Philadelphia, 1681-1887. A Study of Mu- 
nicipal Development," by E. P. Allinson and Boies 

Extra vol. 4. "Local Constitutional History of the United 
States." Vol. I, "The Development of the Township, 
the Hundred and the Shire." Vol. H will treat of the 
"Development of City and Local Magistracies." 

Kasson, John A. "Municipal Reform." North American Review 

September, 1883, vol. 137, pp. 218-30. 
Lewis, W. D. "Political Organization of a Modern Municipality." 
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sci- 
ence, January, 1892, vol. 2, pp. 26-38. Reprinted separately. 
The author is instructor in political economy in Havcriord College. 
The main thought nf his p;i]ici- is thai the way Id imprdvc cjt\- poli- 
tics is to separate tiiem from nalinnal [uiiitjcs. 


Low, Seth. "Municipal Home Rule." 

A speech delivered in Broolvlyn, October 6, 1882. 

Low, Seth. "Municipal Government." 

An address delivered February' 19, 1885, before the Mmiicipal Re- 
form League of Rochester, N. Y., and printed by the League. 

Low, Seth. "The Problem of Municipal Government." 

An address delivered March IG, 1887, at Cornell University and 
printed by the University. 
Low, Seth, "Obstacles to Good City Government." Forum, May, 

i888, vol. 5, p. 260. 
Low, Seth. "The Problem of Municipal Government." 

An article in the Civil Service Reformer for April, 1889, and 
reprinted as No. 4 of Notes Supplementary to Johns Hoplcins Univer- 
sity Studies. 
Low, Seth. "The Government of Cities in the United States." Cen- 
tury, September, 1891, vol. 42, pp. 730-6. 
Mathews, Robert. " Municipal Administration." 

An address before the Fortnightly Club of Rochester, N. Y , Janu- 
ary 20, 1885. 
Mayors of Boston, Baltimore, Buffalo and St. Louis. "How to 
Improve Municipal Government." North American Review, 
November, 1891, vol. 153, pp. 580-95. 
Morison, Frank. "Municipal Government: a Corporate, not a Polit- 
ical Problem." Forum, August, 1892, vol. 13, pp. 789-94. 
New York. "Report of the Commission to devise a Plan for the 
Government of Cities in the State of New York." Assembly 
Doc, No. 68, vol. 6, 1877. 

This is a very able report. The commission was appointed by 
Governor Tilden, with Wm. M. Evarts as chairman. The amend- 
ment to tlie constitution proposed bj' the commission was discussed 
by E. L. Godkin in the "Nation," vol. 26, p. 108. 
New York. "Testimony taken before the Senate Committee on Cit- 
ies." Transmitted to the Legislature April 15, 1891. 5 vols. 
Vol. 5 contains much information respecting cities in New York 
and the general laws for the incorporation of cities in other states. 
Parker, Francis J. "A Study of Municipal Government in Massa- 
chusetts." Boston, 1881. 

This pamphlet resulted from two reports of a commission appoint- 
ed in 1881 to revise the city charter of Newton, Mass. The discussion 
was continued by Mr. Parker and Professor W. F. Allen in the 
"Nation," September, 1881, vol. 33, pp. 169 and 196. 
Parton, James, "Overgrown City Government. " Forum, February, 

1887, vol. 2, pp. 539-48- 

Parton, James. "Municipal Government." Chautauquan, January, 

1888, vol. 8, p. 203. 

hodder: municipal government in the united states. 191 

Pennsylvania. "Report of a Commission to devise a Plan for the 
Government of Cities in the State of Pennsylvania." Harris- 
burg, 1878. 
Prichard, F. P. "The Study of the Science of Municipal Govern- 
ment." Annals of the American Academy of Political and 
Social Science, January, 1892, vol. 2, pp. 18-25. Printed sep- 

The author advocates the formation of local societies for the pur- 
pose of stud\'ing the science of government. 

Ralph, Julian. "Western Modes of City Management." Harper's 
Magazine, April, 1892, vol. 84, p. 709. 

Reemelin, Charles. " City Government." 

A paper read at the meeting of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, lield at Ann Arbor, Mich., in August, 1885. 

Shapley, Rufus E. "Solid for Mulhooly." 

This admirable satire was called out by the rule of the gas ring in 
Plailadelpliia. It was printed anonymously in 1881 and reprinted in 
vol. 1 of Spofford & Shapley's " Library of Wit and Humor," Pliila., 
1884. It gives an excellent picture of machine methods in large cities. 

Sterne, Simon. "Cities, Administration of American" in Lalor's 
Cyclopedia of Political Science," vol. i, pp. 460-68. 

Sterne, Simon. "The Administration of American Cities." Inter- 
national Review, vol. 4, p. 361. 
Sterne, Simon. " Suffrage in Cities." No. 7 in Putnam's " Economic 

Monographs." o. p. 
Sterne, Simon. "Constitutional History of the United States." N. 
Y., 1882. 

Pages 257 and 274 give a brief criticism of municipal government. 
Mr. Sterue was a member of the New York commission. 

Storey, Moorfield. "The Government of Cities." Proceedings of 
the National Civil Service Reform League for 1891. 

Storey, Moorfield. " Government of Cities." New Englander, June, 
1892, N. s., vol. 4, p. 432. 

Teall, O. S. "Municipal Reform." Cosmopolitan, March, 1891. 
White, Andrew D. "The Government of American Cities." Forum, 

December, 1890, vol. 7, pp. 357-72. 
Wilder, Amos P. "The Municipal Problem : A Plea for Liberty." 

5. MUNICIPAL industries. 

Adams, H. C. "Relation of Modern Municipalities to Quasi-Public 
Works." Publications of the American Economic Association, 
vol. 2, 1888. 


Allen, Walter S. "The State and the Lighting Corporations." Annals 
of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 
March, 1892, vol. 2, pp. 131-9. 

Baker, C. W. -'Monopolies and the People." New York, 1889. 
Chapter 5. 

Baker, M. M. "The Manual of American Water Works. " Engineer- 
ing News Co., N. Y. 

This trade annual gives for each city date when water works were 
built ; tlie source and mode of supply ; cost, debt, and rate of inter- 
est ; annual expense and revenue from consumers and the public ; 
the number of miles of pipe and kind of pipe for mains and services ; 
the number of taps, meters, and hydrants; the ordinary and fire 
pressure and daily consumption. The first works in the United States 
for public supply were built at Bethlehem, Pa., in 1754. New York 
was first supplied in 1799, and Philadelphia in 1801. Water in both 
cities was pumped by steam engines and distributed through bored 
wooden logs. 

Bemis, E. W. "Municipal Ownership of Gas Works in the United 
States." Publications of the American Economic Association, 
vol. 6, 1891. 

Bemis, E. W. " Recent Results of Municipal Gas-Making. " Review 
of Reviews, Jan., 1893, vol. 7, pp. 61-8. 

Boston. "Report of Special Committee on Use of Streets by Private 

Corporations." City Document 144, September 8, 1890. 
Consular Report. " Gas in Foreign Countries." Washington, 1891. 
Other consular reports cited under "Foreign Cities."' 

Farrer, T. H. " The State in its Relation to Trade." London, 1883. 
"English Citizen Series." 

Chapter 10 gives a brief discussion of the action of the state in the 
matter of certain undertakings which are total or partial monopolies. 

Finley, Robert J. " Electric Street Lighting in American Cities. The 
question of municipal vs. private supply." Review of Reviews, 
February, 1893, vol. 7, p. 68. 
Foote, Allen R. "Municipal Ownership of Industries" and "Muni- 
cipal Ownership of Quasi-Public Works." Washington, D. C, 

Two pamphlets against public ownership. 
Francisco, M. J. "Municipal Lighting." Rutland, Vermont, 1890. 

Arguments against public ownership. 
Goodwin, W. W. "Directory of the Gas Light Companies." N. Y., 
A. M. Callendar & Co. 

This trade annual gives the number of gas companies, number of 
public lamps, price of gas, method or manufacture, etc.. in the cities 
of the United States. 

hodder: municipal government in the united states. 193 

James, E. J. "The Relation of the Modern Municipality to the Gas 
Supply." Publications of the American Economic Associa- 
tion, vol. I. 
Keeler, Bronson C. "Municipal Control of Gas Works." Forum, 

November, 1889. 
Mikkelsen, M. A. " Electric Street Lighting in Chicago." Annals of 
the American Academy of Political and Social Science, March, 
1892, vol. 2, pp. 139-44- 
Powers, Samuel Leland and Schindler, Solomon. "The Use of Pub- 
lic Ways by Private Corporations. A Discussion." Arena, 
May, 1892, vol. 5, pp. 681-93. 
Sinclair, A. H. "Municipal Monopolies and their Management." 
No. 2, Toronto University Studies in Political Science. To- 
ronto, 1891. 

This is an excellent essay on the relation of cities to water works, 
gas and electric lighting, and street railways. It may be obtained 
on application to the Education Department of Ontario. 
Sinclair, A. H. "The Toronto Street Railway." Quarterly Journal 

of Economics, October, 189 1, vol. 6, pp. 98-105. 
University of Wisconsin. "Joint Debate on Municipal Ownership 
and Operation of Lighting Works and Street Railways." 

This is a debate by students of the University of Wisconsin, printed 
in the college paper, "The JEgis,''' for March 3, 1893. Arguments 
for and against public ownership are well stated. 


Adams, H. B. "Notes on the Literature of Charities." Johns Hop- 
kins University Studies in History and Political Science, vol. 5. 
References on the charities of Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York 
and Boston, 

Billings, John S. "Public Health and Municipal Government." 
Supplement to the Annals of the American Academy of Politi- 
cal and Social Science, February, 1891. 

Address before the Academy, January 14, 1891. 

Clarke, Thomas Curtis. "Rapid Transit in Cities." Scribner's Mag- 
azine, May and June, 1892, vol. 11, pp. 567-78 and 743-58. 

Gould, E. R. L. "Park Areas and Open Spaces in American and 
European Cities." Publications of the American Statistical 
Association, 1888, vol. i, pp. 49-61. 

Holls, F. S. "Compulsory Voting as a means of Correcting Political 
Abuses." Annals of the American Academy of Political Sci- 
ence, April, 1891, vol. I, pp. 586-614. 

Philbrick, John D. "City School Systems." Circular of Informa- 
tion, No. I, 1885, issued by the National Bureau of Education. 


Purroy, H. D. "English and American Fire Services." Forum, 

November, 1886, vol. 5, pp. 299-307. 
Shaw, Albert. "Municipal Lodging Houses." Charities Review, 

No. I. 
Smith, Irwin F. "Influence of Sewerage and Water Supply on the 
Death-Rate in Cities." 

A paper read at a Sanitary Convention in Ypsilanti, Mich., July 1, 
1885, and reprinted from a Supplement to the Annual Report of the 
Michigan State Board of Health for the year 1885. Numerous refer- 
ences in the notes. 
Sterne, Simon. "The Greathead Underground Electric Railway." 

Forum, August, 189 1, vol. 11, p. 683, 
Thompson, Clifford. "Waste by Fire." Forum, September, 1886, 

vol. 2, pp. 27-39. 
Warner, Amos G. "The New Municipal Lodging-House in Wash- 
ington. " (Charities Review, March, 1893. 


The municipal reports of American cities form the original material 
for a study of their government. Many of the papers already cited, 
especially the Johns Hopkins Studies, relate to particular cities, but 
have been given above because of their more or less general applica- 
tion. New York is taken as a type of our large cities and a few notes 
are added upon other cities. 

a. New York. 

For a brief account of the system of Government, see the article on 
"New Ycrk," by E. L. Godkin in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th 
ed., vol. 17. Dr. J. F. Jameson's "Origin and Development of the 
Municipal Government of New York City," Magazine of American 
History, May and September, 1882, gives a sketch of municipal gov- 
ernment down to 182 1. A portion of each volume of the Manual of 
the Corporation (28 v., 1841-71), after that for 1846, is devoted to a 
history of the city. The volume for 1868 contains a reprint of old 
charters. The fact that James Parton in October, 1869, North Amer- 
ican Review, vol. 103, p. 413, attributed the growing evils in the gov- 
ernment of the city to the abolition of household suffrage, is interest- 
ing in connection with the recommendation of the Commission of 
1877. See also in the North American Review, "The Judiciary of 
New York," July, 1867, vol. 105, p. 148, and Charles Nordhoff's 
" Misgovernment of New York," October, 1871, vol. 113, p. 321. An 
account of the Tweed ring may also be found in the North American 
Review, in a series of articles by C. F. Wingate, entitled "An Episode 

hodder: municipal government in the united states. 195 

in Municipal Government," beginning in the number for October, 
1874, and ending in the number for October, 1876. On the same 
subject cf. A. H. Green's "Three Years' Struggle with Municipal Mis- 
rule in New York City, a Report made by the Comptroller to the 
Board of Aldermen," February x8, 1875, and S. J. Tilden's "Munici- 
pal Corruption," Law Magazine and Review, n. s. vol. 2, p. 525, Lon- 
don, 1873. See also Geo. H. Andrews's Twelve Letters on the Future 
of New York, N. Y., 1877. The entire second volume of the Statutes 
of New York for 1882 is devoted to the present charter of the City of 
New York, or the "Consolidated Act," as it is called. The Investi- 
gation of the Department of Public Works in 1884 was printed in Sen- 
ate Doc. No. 57, 1884; and the investigation by the committee, of 
which Theodore Roosevelt was chairman, was reported in Assembly 
Docs. Nos. 125, 153, and 172, 1884. The Report of the Investiga- 
tion of the New York Consolidated (ras Company forms Senate Doc. 
No. 47, 1886. The committee found that in 1883 the gas trust 
declared dividends of from 23 to t,t, per cent. A pamphlet by Wm. 
M. Ivins on "The Municipal Debt and Sinking Fund of the City of 
New York" contained an argument on hearing before the Governor, 
June 2, 1885, and an historical review of the funded debt and of the 
operation of the sinking-fund since its foundation. Of recent articles 
on cost and methods of elections cf. W. M. Ivins's articles cited 
above; Theodore Roosevelt's "Machine Politics in New York City" 
in the Century, November, 1886, vol. 33, p. 74; E. S. Nadal's "The 
New York Aldermen" in the Forum, September, 1886, vol. 2, pp. 
49-59; Howard Crosby's "Letter to the People of New York" in 
the Forum, December, 1886, vol. 2, pp. 420-28; J. B. Bishop's 
"Money in City Elections," an address read before the Common- 
wealth Club in New York, March 21, 1887, reported in the Evening 
Post and printed separately; the same writer's "The Law and the 
Ballot," Scribner's Magazine, February, 1888, vol. 3, p. 194; and the 
Nation, vol. 44, pp. 180 and 204; A. C. Bernheim's "Party Organiza- 
tions and their Nomination to Public Ofifice in New York City" in 
the Political Science Quarterly, March, 1888, vol. 3, pp. 97-122, and 
the same writer on "The Ballot in New York" in the Political Science 
Quarterly, March, 1889, vol. 4, pp. 130-52; and Dr. Shaw's "Munici- 
pal Problems of New York and London " in the Review of Reviews, 
April, 1892, vol. 5, p. 282. 

/>. Other American Cities. 

Boston. — Report of the Commission on the City Charter and Two 
Minority Reports (Docs. 120, 146, and 147, 1884). The first Report 


contains an outline of the municipal governments of New York, 
Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Baltimore, St. Louis, and Chicago. 

Philadelphia. — Johns Hopkins Studies cited above; E. V. Smalley's 
article on the "Committee of 100" in the Century, July, 1883, vol. 4, 
p. 395; Publications of the Philadelphia Social Science Association 
for 1876 and 1S77, on the subject of building associations; Henry C. 
Lea had a "Letter to the People of Philadelphia" in the Foruin, Jan- 
uary, 1887, vol. 2, pp. .532-8. The reform charter or the "Bullitt 
Bill," which went into effect April, 1887, is said to be a model munici- 
pal constitution. 

Chicago. — Reports of the Citizen's Association, beginning in 1874. 
Ada C. Sweet, on "Chicago City Government" in Belford's Monthly 
for November, 1892. 

Charleston. — The Yearbooks contain in the appendices much valu- 
able historical matter. That for 1880 gives a sketch of the develop- 
ment of the city government; that for 1883 a description of- the 
centennial celebration, with an historical review. 

FroTidence. — Town and City Government in Providence, a Study- 
in Municipal History, by Geo. C. Wilson, Providence, Tibbitts & Pres- 
ton, 1S89. 

Explanation of Plates. 

Plate I. Skull of Pteranodon sp., one-fifth natural size. 

Plate II. Left front paddle of CHdastes velox Marsh, two-thirds 
natural size. C, coracoid ; S, scapula; H, humerus; /, first digit; 
V, fifth digit. 

Plate III. Left hind paddle of CHdastes velox Marsh, two-thirds 
natural size. //, ilium; P, pubis; Is, ischium; F, femur; T, tibia; 
Fb, fibula; /, first metatarsal. 

Plate IV. Right front paddle of CHdastes Westii Williston, one- 
third natural size. S, scapula; C, coracoid ; H, humerus; R, radius; 
U, ulna ; /, IV, first, fourth digits. 

Plate V. Right hind paddle of CHdastes Westii Williston, one- 
half natural size. 

Plate VI. Eighteenth dorsal vertebra of CHdastes Westii Willis- 
ton, natural size. Fig. i, centrum from behind; fig. 2, from below. 

Plate VII. Fig. i, Mic7'odon megalogaster Snow; fig. 2, Brachy- 
opa cynops Snow; fig. 3, Syrphits ruficauda Snow; fig. 4, CalHcera 
montensis Snow ; fig. 5, Tropidomyia hiniaculata Williston ; fig. 6, Rhing- 
iopsis- rostrata Roeder ; fig. 7, Aneanthina hieroglyphica Wiedemann. 

Plate VIII. Melitera dentata. Adult, silken cocoon and outer 
layer of dirt-masses held together by silken threads; larva (^shaded); 
larva in outline showing position and number of tubercled hairs ; hind 
wing of adult showing venation. 

Kan. VtiTv. Quart. Vot.. 1. 



A. -S 




I r 



S. W. Williston, art uat. del. 

Kan. Univ. Quakt. Vol. I. 





S. W. Williston. ;id iiat. del. 

Kan. Univ. Quart. Vol. I. 



, ^M^f 

S. W. Willistoii. art n;ii. 

Kan. Univ. Quaet. Vol. I. 


S. W. WillisLou. lid iiixt. del. 

Kan. Univ. Quaht. Y(1l. 1, 



S. W. Willistoii. ;id nal. rlol. 

Kan. Univ. Quart. Vol. I. 








Mary Wellniau iiiiU S. W. Willislou. iid uat. del. 

r, / 




- .n 



Fig. I. Af)iocera, sp. c. a, paraglossa, from below ; b, ligula; 
from below ; c, palpifer ; d, palpus ; e, galea ; /, labella ; g, head. 

Fig. 2. Apiocera sp. a, head; b, labellum, from inner side. 

Fig. 3. Apiocera haruspex, O, S., head; a, leg. 

Fig. 4. Rhaphiomidas Acton Coq., head. 

Fig. 5. Mydas ciavatits Drury, wing. 

Fig. 6. Cyrtopogon, sp. c, palpifer ; d, palpus. 

Fig. 7. Proctacanthus Milberti Macq., distal section of proboscis ; 
■a, proximal section, beyond end of paraglossa. The middle enclosed 
figure is the ligula ; the lateral ones, the palpifers. 

Fig. 8. Psilocephala, sp., galea, from above; a, paraglossa, from 
below; b, ligula, from below; c, palpifer; d, palpus. 

Fig. 9. Hirmoneura, sp., Africa: a, ligula, from above; b, para- 
glossa, from below; c, palpifer. d, palpus. 

Kan. Univ. (^i;ai:t. Voi . I. 


-^-. ~%^ 


S. W. Willisldll. ,-1(1. lIMl. (Id 


Fig. I. Mallophora F}-eycineti, «, paraglossa, from below ; ^, ligula 
from the side ; c, palpifer ; d, palpus ; e, galea. 

Fig. 2. Hirmoneiira, sp., labella, from below, flattened out. 

Fig. 3. Apiocera, sp. h. a, paraglossa, from below; /;, ligula ; 
/:, palpifer; d, palpus; e, galea;/, labella; g, wing. 

Fig. 4. Apiocera, sp. a, Australia. a, paraglossa, from below : 
h, lig'ila, from above; c, palpifer; d, palpus; e, galea; /, labella: 
g. wing. 

Fig. 5. Apiocera haruspex, O. S. b, ligula, from above ; c, palpi- 
fer ; d, palpus ; e, galea ; an, antenna ; g, wing; h, male genitalia. 

Fig. 6. Laphria, sp. a, paraglossa, from below; b, ligula, from 
above; c, palpifer; d, palpus; e, galea, from the side. 

Fig. 7. Apiocera, sp. c, wing. 

Fig. 8. Hirtnoneura, sp. wing. 

Fig. 9. Rhaphiomidas Acton Coq. wing. 

Fig. 10. Triclonus bispinifer Westw. wing. 

Fig. II. Psilocephala sp. wing. 

Kan. Iniv. (iUAirr. Voi.. I. 


1^. \V. Wiilishiii. .-111. mil. <lcl. 


Fig. I. Cross section of leaf of Spartina stricta, parasitized by 
Uroniyces SpartifKZ. Magnified i lo diameters. 

Fig. 2. Cross sections of leaf of Eriophoruin Virginiciim, para- 
sitized by Puccinia angiistata. Magnified 133 diameters. 

Ka\. I'nIV. (^IIAUT. \(ll.. 1. 


, .#■ 

Fiff. 1. 



.>.» <*■/ 



Fi- 'J. 


Fig. I. Cross section of leaf of Spartina cyjiosuroides, parasitized 
by Puccinia Phragmitis. Magnified 98 diameters. 

Fig. 2. Cross section of leaf of Avena sativa, parasitized by Puc- 
cinia coronata. Magnified 130 diameters. 

Kak. IMv. (|tii.\i:T. Vol., I. 


Fiff. 1. 


Fig. I. Cross section of leaf of Seiaria Germanica, parasitized by 
Pi7-icularia grisea. Magnified in diameters. Setaria Germanica is 
referred to in the text, by oversight, as Panicum sanguinale. 

Fig. 2. Cross section of leaf sheath of Zea-Mays, parasitized by 
Ustilago ZecB-Mays. Magnified i6 diameters. 

Kan. Txiv. Quaiit. Vor.. I. 


Fi-. ]. 

Fi.ii-. 2. 



/ <j u o o 



Kansas University 





V. L. KELLOGG, Managing Editor 


Kansas Pterodactyls, Part I. - - S. IV. Williston 

'Kansas Mosasaurs, Part I. S. W. Williston and E. C. Case 
Notes and Descriptions of Syrphid^., - W. A. Snow 

Notes on Melitera dentata Grote, - V. L. Kellogg 

Diptera Brasiliana, Part II. - - S. W. Williston 

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Unicursal Curves by Method of Inversion, H. B. Ncwson 
Foreign Settlements in Kansas, - - W. H. Carruth 
The Great Spirit Spring Mound, - E. H. S. Bailey 

On Pascal's Limacon and the Cardioid, - H. C. J^ii^-gs 
Dialect Word-List, . . . . W. H. CarniiJi 


Law-rencf. Kansas 

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Notes on Some Diseases of Grasses, 
Modern Higher Algebra, 
Dialect Word List, II, - - - 

Maximum Bending Moments for Moving 
Loads in a Parap.oi.ic Arch-Rib Hinged 
AT the Ends, . . . . . 

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S. W. Williston 

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Z1S.11 /^ 

Vol. I. APRIL, 1893. No. 4. 


Kansas University 


Penology in Kansas, - - - . F. W. Blackmar 
Bibliography of Municipal Government 

IN THE United States, - - - F. H. Hodder 


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