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Full text of "The Kappa Sigma book; a manual of descriptive, historical, and statistical facts concerning the Kappa Sigma Fraternity"

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National Historian of Kappa Sigma 










The Founding of Kappa Sigma ii 

The Founders of Kappa Sigma 29 

The European Tradition 49 

The Extension of the Fraternity 60 

Chapter Roll of Kappa Sigma 79-8i 

Statistics of Kappa Sigma Colleges 82-84 

The Alumni 85 

The Government 9 1 

Past S. E. C's. of Kappa Sigma 100 

Homes of Kappa Sigma 107 

The Publications hi 

Other Fraternities 119 

Ballade of Fraternities 128 

Appendix A: Fraternities in Kappa Sigma Colleges 130 

Appendix B: The Chapters of Kappa Sigma 141 

Map of Active Chapters of Kappa Sigma 161 

Map Showing Distribution of Kappa Sigma Alumni 163 




Kappa Sigma Chapter Houses. 

Other Illustrations and Maps. 

Portraits — 
Arnold, George Miles, 1870 

— 1871 


and S. I. North, 1870. . 

Boyd, John Covert, 1905 

Davis, Jefferson 

Farr, Finis King 

Ferguson, Jeremiah Sweetser 

Jackson, Stephen Alonzo 

McCormick, William Grigsby, 1869 


Martin, Herbert Milton 

Martin, Stanley Watkins 

Neal, John Randolph 

Nicodemus, Frank Courtney, 1904 , 

North, Samuel Isham, 1904 

and G. M. Arnold, 1870. 

Rogers, Ed Law, 1883 

in character 

Semmes, John Edward 

Thomas, George Leiper 

Kappa Sigma Chapter Houses — 

Arkansas 115 

Baker 71 

Bowdoin 118 

California 78 

Case 65 

Chicago, interior 10,3 

Colorado College 121 

Colorado Mines 63 

Cornell 108 

interior 67 

George Washington 69 

Harvard, interior 75 




Lake Forest . . . 






Missouri ...... 


New Hampshire 


















New York 54 Syracuse 114 

0. S. U. 53 Texas 113 

Oregon 56 Virginia 32 

Pennsylvania 72 Washington and Jefferson 117 

Purdue 58 Wisconsin 77 

Stanford 55 Wofford 120 

interior 67 

Other Illustrations and Maps — 

Alumni of Kappa Sigma (map) 163 

Bologna 10 

Bologna, University of 50 

Business Office of Kappa Sigma 94 

Caduceus of Kappa Sigma, The no 

Campo Santo, Interior of 51 

Chapel, University of Virginia 18 

Chapters of Kappa Sigma (map) 161 

Charter of Kappa Sigma Chapters 61 

Chicago Special en route to a Conclave 101 

Conclave Group, 1906 93 

District Conclave, A 104 

Eutaw House, Baltimore 92 

Faculty of the University of Virginia, 1870 25 

First Kappa Sigma House, Virginia, 1870 23 

Five O'clock Club at a Conclave 105 

Forty-six East Lawn, University of Virginia, exterior 15 

interior 16 

location 14 

"Hot Feet" Coronation, University of Virginia 129 

Kappa Sigma Headquarters at Brown 62 

Kappa Sigma Alumni (map) 163 

Kappa Sigma Chapters (map) 161 

Location of 46 East Lawn, University of Virginia 14 

McCormick Observatory, University of Virginia 26 

Membership Certificate of Kappa Sigma 88 

New York Alumni en route to a Conclave 102 

Old Grads Returned, Group of 90 

Rotunda, University of Virginia 59 

Rotunda and the Lawns, University of Virginia 13 

Typical American College Scene, A 129 

University of Bologna, The 5° 

"A good fraternity is recognized as a good thing. Those who have en- 
joyed its fellowship understand its advantages. In those who have not 
experienced that blessing of boyhood life, no amount of argument can ex- 
cite an appreciation of its value. The closest friendships you and I have 
to-day were formed before we became of age, in the walls of our chapter 
house. Age, occupation, distance, separation, new associations, have no 
influence upon friendships that are formed under such circumstances. 
You may not have seen him for a third of a century; you may not have 
heard his name for a generation; the path of his life may have led him to 
the Antipodes, but, when you come face to face with a boy who was initi- 
ated with you on a frosty autumn night, perhaps with absurd and silly 
ceremonies, the flame that often burns low, but can never be extinguished, 
will blaze up with a glow that will warm the lives of both of you; and 
you feel toward each other a sentiment that you have never felt toward 
any man since the day you graduated. I have met members of my fra- 
ternity in odd corners of the world. Among the Taoist temples in China ; 
in the mines of the Andes ; on the banks of the Nile, and although we 
were strangers before and have been strangers since, there was at least 
a few moments of gratification that encounters with other people could not 
have inspired. . . . There have been and always will be, abuses of the op- 
portunities I have described, but those who are familiar with the history 
of college fraternities and will take the trouble to examine their cata- 
logues will find that the high character of the men who have been members 
are the best endorsement of their advantages. By their personnel the 
Greek Letter Fraternities may justly be judged." — William Elcroy Curtis. 





One of the American universities of which our country should 
be most proud has recently celebrated with rejoicing the begin- 
ning of an era in her affairs, in the inauguration of her first pres- 
ident. New occasions now teach her new duties, larger oppor- 
tunity leads her to take up tasks unthought-of even by her great 
first founder, but by virtue of her unique history, her matchless 
situation, her spirit of truth and honor, and most of all by the 
example of consecration to a worthy cause which those men afford 
who have served her so long and so faithfully for so small a 
material reward, she remains a blessing and a hope to all the 
region which receives good influences from her benign hand. 
She will continue to influence all that great civilization which has 
flowed in a stream from Virginia across the South and West, 
as Harvard and Yale have influenced that civilization which has 
gone out from New England to the Northwest, and met the other 
upon the Pacific coast. 

The history of such an institution, even the history of its be- 
ginning, is not a mere matter of an act of legislature, or of the 
transfer of some millions from one account to another and the 
commissioning of an architect to make a new mixture of the old 
and the new. For the history of the University of Virginia 
there would be scant room in a manual of this size. Amid circum- 
stances as romantic as ever surrounded the birth of any such or- 
der, Kappa Sigma came into existence ; the only college frater- 
nity of general extent to which the University of Virginia stands 
in loco parentis. There could be no nobler mother among the 
universities ; and it is not those Kappa Sigmas alone who have 
stood beneath the Rotunda and lived on Lawns and Ranges, who 


feel pride and satisfaction at the influence, progress and prosperity 
of Old Virginia. 

When, in 1868, William Grigsby McCormick, of Chicago and 
Baltimore, entered the University of Virginia, he found there a 
college system and a college life which could have been at no time 
paralleled anywhere in the North, nor, in all respects, even in the 
South. Many of the students were men in years, and every one 
was such in spirit and in mental development. Many had seen 
the face of war. The most punctilious rites of gentlemanly in- 
tercourse, between student and student and between students and 
faculty, were observed, and insisted upon by an inflexible senti- 
ment. The system of the university's government left much to 
the choice of the individual student, asking only that his con- 
duct should be regulated by a keen sense of honor, as the chival- 
rous and convivial South interpreted that word. In some sec- 
tions of the country, many of the students would have been classed 
as roaring young blades ; in other sections they might not have 
received so indulgent a title. Much went on that would have 
caused Cambridge to put up its shutters or New Haven to bar its 
doors. Yet that there was true metal under all the polish, manly 
integrity under all the youthful exuberance, not the South alone 
makes answer; for wherever there is a Virginia man from these 
buoyant years, there is an honored citizen whose worth compels 
his fellows' confidence. 

The association of McCormick with Frank Courtney Nicodemus 
and Edmund Law Rogers had begun in Baltimore, the home of 
all three and the birthplace of the latter two. When the circle 
of friendship which enclosed these three was found, almost with- 
out their knowledge and wholly without their premeditation, to 
have included two others, George Miles Arnold and John Covert 
Boyd, within itself, the Fraternity had its new birth. The adop- 
tion of its historical and traditional name and ritualistic basis was 
a matter only of detail ; its oath was merely the putting in words 
of vows already realized in the lives of the founders ; its future 
extension was yet upon the knees of the gods. Adopting to some 
extent a form suggested by the customs of the student life in 
which they had a part, the Five Friends and Brothers organized 
the Kappa Sigma Fraternity. 









From the classic Rotunda which forms the center of Virginia's 
noble group of buildings, four colonnades, broken at intervals 
by taller structures, and modeled in every detail after the most 
authentic works of Grecian skill, stretch toward the south. As 
severely simple within as they were severely classic without, the 
rooms intended for the use of students had one attractive feature 
— the great fireplace, for the filling of which there was as yet no 
lack of oaken logs. In every chimney-corner a sheaf of long clay 
pipes betokened and invited brotherly intercourse. During his 
first year at the University, William Grigsby McCormick had 


Showing location of 46 East Lawn. Present residence 

of Prof. Wm. Minor Lile, of Zeta, at the right. 

occupied a room (the front lower room of cottage C) in Dawson's 
Row, a group of dormitories just outside the main plan of the 
University buildings. In 1869 he occupied the room at 46 East 
Lawn, the situation of which, its present exterior and interior, is 
shown in the accompanying illustrations. The taller structure 
at the immediate right of 46 East Lawn in the view given is now, 
by the way, the residence of a Kappa Sigma, William Minor Lile, 
the dean of the law school of the University. Samuel Isham 
North and George Miles Arnold occupied this room in 1870-71. 
It was here that the first Constitution and Ritual of Kappa Sigma, ' 



a document which lies before the writer of these lines, was com- 
mitted to writing. 

The Founders were scattered about the university, so far as 
their "legal residences" were concerned. Xicodemus was at 6 
West Range ; Boyd and Rogers, as well as John E. Semmes, who 
was the first one added to the brotherhood after the original five, 
lived in "Social Hall," a small dormitory between the University 
proper and the town of Charlottesville. This house was so packed 

Here Kappa Sigma in America was Founded 

with men of promise that their names are worth mentioning. 
On the lower floor, besides Boyd and Semmes, were Chas. R. 
Hemphill, now a noted Presbyterian divine of Louisville ; the 
cultivated and literary John Adger Clark, of South Carolina, now 
deceased ; J. A. Crawford, now well known at the bar of Co- 
lumbia, S. C. ; and Robert B. Boylston, now a lawyer of Fairfield, 
S. C. Upstairs, Edmund Law Rogers occupied a room, and 
others on the same floor were John X. Steele, now an eminent 



Baltimore lawyer and a partner of John E. Semmes, and his 
brother, I. Nevitt Steele, now of Trinity Church, New York. 
George Miles Arnold had a room on East Range; and when, 
early in 1870, he met Samuel Isham North upon the latter's ar- 
rival at the University from his Texas home, a great friendship 
sprang suddenly into immortal life. "The loveliest character I 
ever met," is North's judgment upon his friend and brother, after 
all the years. The reception of North into the new brotherhood 


followed almost as a matter of course. The members were al- 
ways together. Such intimacies as existed within their number, 
like that between Arnold and North, were not allowed to disturb 
the general feeling of perfect fellowship. Formal meetings there 
seem to have been none. "Good fellows, good company, good 
manners, good morals and bright minds, full of spirits and all in 
for a good time," is Founder McCormick's description of them 
after a quarter of a century. Arnold was a leading spirit in the 
proceedings of the Fraternity, and at the suppers at "Brown's" 


and "Ambroselli's," which were frequent occurrences. These fes- 
tive gatherings were from the first a distinguishing feature of 
the new Fraternity, and those Kappa Sigmas — and their name 
is legion — who are bons vivants and whose wit flows most freely 
around the festal board, may be assured that these characteristics 
stamp them the true descendants of their forefathers in the Or- 
der, of whom, by the way, there was but one who ever took too 
much wine, and not one who gave his strength to that which de- 
stroyeth kings. Edmund Law Rogers is remembered as one 
whose light always shone brightly at these impromptu affairs, and 
the rest were not behindhand. If the record of these proceedings 
but existed, some chapters might be added to the "Noctes Am- 

The question of a badge was very early taken up by the newly- 
formed Fraternity, and after much discussion, the design due to 
Edmund Law Rogers was adopted. It is in every detail the same 
as the present badge, save that the original examples were not 
so markedly convex as those now made, and had a field of white 
enamel in the center of the star instead of the present black. 
The original constitution includes the full description of the 
badge and the signification of its various parts and of the em- 
blems borne upon it. At the Christmas holidays of 1869, an 
order for badges was placed with the Baltimore firm of Sadtler 
& Sons, who had the work executed in New York. After the 
holidays, the Star and Crescent of Kappa Sigma was seen at 
Virginia for the first time. Badges of this early make still 
exist, in the possession of George Leiper Thomas, Samuel 
lsham North, Mrs. William Clark Whitford, and possibly others, 
and one is seen on another page in the portrait of Sam- 
uel lsham North. They were one inch in diameter, and were 
originally furnished with a guard-chain and a chapter-pin of the 
letter Zeta. The chapter-pin has of late years been generally 
abandoned, and the extreme size now allowable for the badge 
is three-quarters of an inch. 

The end of the college year '69-'70 put an end, for a time, to 
the close associations of the original Five, who by this time had 
united with themselves Semmes and North, as above stated. In 
the fall of 1870, Nicodemus was engaged in active business, 


and decided not to pursue his university work further, while Mc- 
Cormick has recorded the confession that he was very much in 
love with the present Mrs. McCormick and was unwilling to sep- 
arate himself from her immediate neighborhood by the distance 
intervening between Baltimore and Charlottesville. Semmes not 
returning until 1872, only Arnold, Boyd, Rogers and North were 
found ready to carry on the work of the Fraternity when the 
University reopened. All of these were interested in the Fra- 
ternity, which was just at its beginning, and willing to work for 
it. So far as can be determined from the recollections of those 
who survive, it was Arnold who had the rosiest dreams of the 
future, dreams which have more than come true. With his as- 
sociates, he laid the plans for the first extension of the Fraternity, 
even assigning in advance the letters by which certain Chapters 
should be designated ; he fixed many matters which had been left 
uncertain in the free and informal life of the previous year ; and 
he introduced the ritualistic work which, without any change 
except certain amplifications of which the history is well known 
to Kappa Sigmas, still awes and impresses the initiate when 
rightly performed, and is pronounced by those in a position to 
judge a most beautiful, consistent and fitting production. The 
association of Samuel Isham North in this work with three of 
the original Five of the preceding year gives him full and un- 
questioned right to the honorable title of Founder. The work 
of 1869 alone could not have led to the present development 
of the Fraternity without the work of 1870; the work of 1870 
undoubtedly had as its basis the work of 1869. 

Much of the history of this important year is contained in the 
oldest existing Kappa Sigma minutes, of which the original is in 
the possession of the W. G. S., being held in trust by that official 
for Zeta Chapter. As the minutes contain nothing in itself secret, 
and as they introduce some other matters which must be pre- 
sented, they are here given in full : 

University of Virginia, 

Nov. 7th, 1870. 
The K. S. Society met at half past ten. at No. 46 East Lawn. After the 
reading of the minutes of the last meeting the Society proceeded to business 

From a Tintype, 1870 


;m<l .\fr. George L. Thomas whose name had been previously proposed, was 
then duly initiated as a member of the K. S. Society. Mr. Rogers made a 
motion that the following gentlemen, Viz Messrs. Toadvin, Walker and Hill 
be spoken to, and that they be invited to join our Society. Mr. Hill's name 
was subsequently withdrawn information having been rec'd that he had al- 
ready become a member of the Delta Psi Society. 

Mr. North was requested to speak to Mr. Walker. 

Mr. Rogers " " " " " " Toadvin. 

There being no further business before the House, the Society adjourned, 
and to meet again at the discretion of the W. G. M., G. M. Arnold. 

John C. Boyd, Secretary. 

University of Virginia, 

Dec. 2nd, 1870. 
The K. S. Society met at the usual hour and all of the members being 
present they proceeded immediately to business. Mr. Rogers made motion 
that Mr. Toadvin be admitted into our society, which was unanimously 
adopted & Mr. Rogers was requested to invite him. After a good deal of 
fruitless debate as to the propriety of admitting more than one member at 
a meeting the Society adjourned. 

J. C. Boyd, 

Edward S. Toadvin was duly initiated a member of the K. S. Fraternity 
on Dec. 12th 1870. 

University of Virginia. 

Feb. 25th, 1871. 
The Society met at 10 p.m. The Grand Master, Mr. Arnold being com- 
pelled to leave by unavoidable circumstances, an election was held to fill 
his vacancy, resulting in the election of E. L. Rogers, Jr. to the responsible 
position of W. G. M. The other officers held their respective positions. 

J. C. Boyd, 


Virginia University. 

Feb. 30th, [sic] 1871. 
The Kappa Sigma met at usual hour. No business being before the 
Society they adjourned. 

Jno. C. Boyd, 


University of Virginia, March 18th, 71. 

The K. S. Society met at the usual hour the W. Grand Master, Mr. 

Rogers holding the chair. After the usual preliminaries and the reading 

of the minutes of the last meeting Mr. W. C. Bowen of Northampton, 

N. C. was duly initiated into our Society. Information was rec'd that 


Mr. Arnold was desirous of establishing a Chapter in New York where- 
upon Mr. Rogers was authorized to have a copy sent him. The G. M. 
then ordered the Scribe to have it forwarded immediately. After a few 
interesting and sensible remarks by the G. M. the Society adjourned. 

J. C. Boyd, Secretary. 

Virginia University. 

March 29th, 1871. 
The K. S. Met to lament the departure of their worthy clubmate & 
brother Saml. I North — whose absence will be felt so deeply by all of us— 
After taking business matters into consideration we sat down to a finely 
prepared supper, where till late did we enjoy the fruits of Bacchus, at 
2 o'clock the Society adjourned. 

J. C. Boyd, Secretary. 

University of Virginia. 

April 30th 1871. 
We very much regret to state that Brother J. C. Boyd has left the Uni 
versity, as he was most highly esteemed by all the members of his Society, 
Hoping that he may always prosper in his future career we bid him an 
affectionate adieu. 

E. L. Rogers, Jr.. 

per Wm. Whitford 


It was in this year that members of the Fraternity rented and 
occupied a cottage, the property of the famous Latin professor, 
Gildersleeve, which thereby became the first fraternity house of 
Kappa Sigma, and apparently the first fraternity house in the 
South. George Leiper Thomas and Edmund Law Rogers lived 
in it. With them was Robert S. McCormick (the present Am- 
bassador to France, and a brother of William Grigsby McCor- 
mick), who had been very intimate with the founders of the year 
before but who himself became a member of Sigma Chi. Here 
took place one act of the thrilling series of events known since in 
the Fraternity as "The Defense of Miles Arnold," which served 
to test the oaths of the new brotherhood and the feeling of mu- 
tual confidence among the students of the L T niversity. 

To say that political and social conditions in the South were at 
this time "unsettled" is to use as mild language as if one were to 
call Paradise enjoyable or the lower regions temperately warm. 

1 o 

I > 

o < 

I w 


The negro was "on the front seat of the band-wagon," as a 
brother has put it ; and the white citizen who confronted a colored 
man in any court had every presumption against him. The hot- 
blooded Southerners of the University went armed, and frequent- 
ly indulged in nocturnal pistol-practice, by way of warning to all 
whom it might concern that they were prepared to take matters 
into their own hands whenever necessary. Miles Arnold was 
what those nourished on icicles are accustomed to call a fire- 
eater; though of no overbearing disposition he had the temper 
which went with his nicknames of "the Count" and "the little 
Spaniard," and he was never unarmed. On a bitter day in Feb- 
ruary, 1 87 1, he had been several miles from Charlottesville, 
across the Rivanna river, to call on a young lady. When he was 
about to leave her home, she, after the hospitable fashion of the 
time, pressed him to fortify himself against the outer cold by a 
sufficient number of apple- jacks. On reaching Charlottesville 
Arnold seems to have taken further similar measures with the 
same intent. Finding his conduct gratuitously called in question 
by a son of Ham, he made no long argument of the matter, but 
fired upon his assailant and laid him low. It turned out that, 
owing to the well-known thickness of the African cranium, the 
wound was not mortal ; but, in ignorance of this fact, and know- 
ing that there was danger should a negro mob be formed, and al- 
most equal danger should he fall into the hands of what in those 
times and in that region passed for law, Arnold at once sought 
his friend and brother North, in their room upon the University 
campus, and told him what had happened. 

E. Stanley Toadvin, who had met Arnold as he came up, was 
at once dispatched toward the town, to put the sheriff and his 
posse, who were known to be approaching, on a false scent if 
possible. North spirited Arnold away to a room in another part 
of the campus, and sent out word to the other Kappa Sigmas and 
his Texan friends — many of whom, owing to the constant asso- 
ciation of North and Arnold, believed the latter a Texan — to 
rally to his defense. Toadvin, returning, assumed the leadership 
of these, while the sheriff and posse searched in Arnold's and the 
neighboring rooms in vain. They then turned their attention, 
perhaps by the suggestion of some brother who knew where 

Dr. Maupin (Chm. of Faculty) 
Dr. McGuffey Dr. Cabell 

John B. Minor 
Dr. Smith Dr. Davis 

Dr. Mallet Dr. Harrison 

Col. Peters Prof. Gildersleeve 

Dr. Chancellor Dr. Holmes 

Lib'n Westenbaker Prof, de Vere Dr. Southall 

Prof. Boeck Col. Venable Maj. Peyton (Proctor) 


From contemporary photo, by Roads, Charlottesville 



Arnold really was, to the Gildersleeve cottage, the Kappa Sigma 
house, where Arnold might be supposed to have gone. 

George Leiper Thomas was sitting alone in the lower room of 
the cottage, nursing a crippled knee, when Robert McCormick 
rushed in upon him and dropped a loaded shotgun in his lap with 
the forcible injunction "Defend your fraternity brother." The 
situation was explained in a few words, and Thomas was ar- 
ranged so as to form a battery of one piece commanding the front 
door and the approaches thereto. The door being opened, Mc- 

The gift of L. J. McCormick, an uncle of the Founder 

Cormick and Rogers took their positions outside as if to prevent 
any approach to the house from the rear, and, on the coming of 
the sheriff, parleyed with that officer at great length, finally con- 
vincing him that Arnold was not in the house. 

Meanwhile, it had been reported to North that a mob of ne- 
groes was forming to search the University grounds for Arnold. 
"Some negroes saved their lives by not finding us that night," 
says Dr. North in reminiscences of the affair. North's horse, 
and a fresh one for Arnold, were brought to the most retired side 


of the campus, and forty armed Texans and Kappa Sigmas es- 
corted Arnold to the spot. By this time it had been dark for 
some hours. Arnold, with North as his escort, rode fifteen miles 
into the country, to the house of the grandfather of Arnold's 
sweetheart whose well-meant prescription of apple-jack had been 
the beginning of all the trouble. The two riders missed the ford 
of the Rivanna, and were nearly ready to perish with cold when, 
about two the next morning, they reached a friendly shelter. 
Arnold went on to friends in another county the next day, and, 
after some weeks, went to New York to enter a medical college 
there, where his inseparable friend North soon joined him. .Ar- 
nold's resignation as a student was accepted by the Virginia fac- 
ulty without prejudice; the Ethiopian sufferer soon recovered; 
and thus by the quick wit of Kappa Sigmas what might have been 
a mournful tragedy was turned into a drama to be a stirring 
memory of years afterward, and a lesson of the strength of a 
fraternal obligation. 

A month after the departure of North, that of Boyd is re- 
corded. The work of the Chapter, as it may now be called, ap- 
pears to have ended for the year with the loss of three of the 
Founders in succession. 

The rest belongs to the early history of the Fraternity and of 
Zeta Chapter. Let that which is here set down suffice to show 
that American Kappa Sigma sprang from no rivalry, discontent 
or disappointment, but solely from the free spirit of brotherhood 
in loyal hearts. Already plans are being considered to celebrate, 
in 1919, the fiftieth anniversary of the founding and to make the 
event unparalleled among such fetes. 




It is said that Boston asks concerning a stranger, "What does 
he know?" New York, "How much is he worth?" Philadelphia, 
"Who was his grandfather?" and Washington, "What can he 
do?" The founders of Kappa Sigma could pass this whole exam- 
ination with credit. The too early death of two of the original 
Five Friends and Brothers cut short lives in which the spirit of a 
noble ancestry was fully shown ; the founders who survive are 
honored citizens whose worthy achievements in widely various 
walks of life exemplify the catholic scope of the Fraternity which 
they founded. The true romance of the Founding having been 
told in the preceding chapter, as fully as it can ever be given to 
the general public, it remains to show who the Founders were 
and to tell the story of their later lives. 


A volume of four hundred seventy-eight pages (Ancestral 
Record and Biography of the McCormick Family : By Leander 
James McCormick. Chicago, 1896) is required to display the 
ramifications, in Pennsylvania, Kentucky and Virginia, of this 
fine old Irish Presbyterian family, of the self-same breed as 
their fellow-countymen who, settling in Augusta county, Vir- 
ginia, gave America scores of her generals and statesmen. It 
is possible to mention here only that branch of the McCormicks, 
celebrated in our national annals for a hundred years, from which 
our founder comes ; a line known not alone for its enormous 
wealth, but also for the genius displayed by it in other fields than 
those of mere money making, and for its alliances with people 
distinguished otherwise than by their material possessions ; and 



among the families of American multimillionaires, the only one 
which traces its origin to the South. 

The first of the name to become world-famous was Robert 
McCormick (1780- 1846), the inventor, who laid the foundation 
of the family fortunes. He lived at "Walnut Grove," Augusta 
county, Virginia, an estate of two thousand acres into which he 
came by inheritance. Among his eight sons and daughters were 
Cyrus H. McCormick, the Chicago inventor and financier, whose 
daughter married Emmons Blaine (son of James G. Blaine), 




and whose son married Edith Rockefeller (daughter of John D. 
Rockefeller) ; Leander J. McCormick, who gave the McCormick 
observatory to the University of Virginia ; and William Sanderson 
McCormick, allied with his brothers in the perfecting of the great 
inventions which influenced the agricultural development of a 
world. William S. McCormick married Mary Ann Grigsby, 
daughter of Col. Reuben Grigsby, of "Hickory Hill," Rockbridge 
county, Virginia, and cousin of Hugh Blair Grigsby, a celebrated 
president of William and Mary College. Of this union, the sec- 


ond born was William Grigsby McCormick, Founder of Kappa 
Sigma, whose elder brother, Robert S. McCormick, late Am- 
bassador to France, married a daughter of Joseph Medill, the man 
who made the Chicago Tribune. A son of Robert S. McCormick 
married Senator Hanna's daughter Ruth ; three sisters of the 
Founder married into well-known Chicago families ; and the im- 
portant alliances formed by various members of the third and 
fourth generations are too numerous to be mentioned here. 

William Grigsby McCormick was born June 3, 1851, in the 
McCormick home in Chicago, on Cass and Illinois streets. After 
receiving his primary education in private schools of the city, 
he was a student in the preparatory department of the old Uni- 
versity of Chicago. His mother, widowed in 1865, soon after- 
ward removed to Baltimore, from which city young McCormick 
went in October, 1868, to the University of Virginia, returning 
to that University in 1869. There the associations, already be- 
gun in the case of some of the founders, developed, as we have 
seen, into the Fraternity. 

Leaving the University of Virginia in May, 1870, he spent six 
months in foreign travel, accompanied by his brother Robert 
and by a cousin. England, Ireland, Scotland and the Continent 
were visited. Returning to Baltimore in November of the same 
year, young McCormick followed his natural bent by associating 
himself with the banking house of John S. Gittings & Co., in 
whose employ he remained for two years. His happy marriage 
to Eleanor Brooks, daughter of Walter Booth Brooks (president 
of the Canton Company and son of a former president of the B. 
& O.) was the next important event of his life. At this first 
Kappa Sigma wedding, which occurred October 23, 1873, at the 
Brown Memorial Church of Baltimore, George Leiper Thomas 
was a groomsman and Edmund Law Rogers a guest. Returning 
late in 1874 from a year of foreign travel, Mr. and Mrs. McCor- 
mick spent a few months in Baltimore, removing in February. 
1875, to Chicago. 

Brother McCormick now entered upon the active business ca- 
reer which continued until his retirement in 1900. As a member 
of the firm of McCormick Bros. & Findlay, and later of W. G. 
McCormick & Co., with offices in Chicago and New York, he was 




















engaged in the fire insurance and real estate business until 1884. 
In that year he became a member of the Chicago board of trade 
and of the grain and stock brokerage firm of Smith, McCormick 
& Co. In the following year, W. G. McCormick became a mem- 
ber of the New York stock exchange ; and after some changes of 
business relationships, the firm of W. G. McCormick & Co., hav- 
ing its offices in Xew York, Chicago and St. Louis, was organ- 
ized. In 1 89 1 Brother McCormick transferred liis business in- 
terests to the well-known Schwartz-Dupee combination, with 
which he was associated until 1893. After a brief retirement 
from business, he reentered the arena in 1894 as a partner in the 
widely-known and successful firm of Price, McCormick & Co., 
which firm was terminated in 1900. Brother McCormick's only 
active entrance into politics was in 1880, when, against his ex- 
pressed wish, friends placed him on the Democratic ticket for al- 
derman from the eighteenth ward of the city of Chicago, a ward 
which had not elected a Democrat for more than twenty years. 
Brother McCormick was elected, to the surprise of many political 
wiseacres of the city. 

He is well-known in the principal cities of the world, and has 
many friends in both hemispheres. He is a member of no secret 
order except the Kappa Sigma Fraternity. He is or has been a 
member of the Chicago, Union, Athletic and Washington Park 
clubs of Chicago, the Union, Manhattan and Whist clubs of New 
York, the Pickwick club of New Orleans, the Alston and Mary- 
land clubs of Baltimore, and the Kennel club of Baltimore county, 
Maryland. The pictures of Brother McCormick accompanying 
this volume are the only ones he has ever given out for publication 

Seven children, of whom six are living, have been born to Mr. 
and Mrs. McCormick. One of the four daughters married Her- 
bert S. Stone, the Chicago publisher, son of Melville E. Stone, 
manager of the Associated Press. A son, Walter Brooks Mc- 
Cormick, is vice-president and general manager of the McCormick 
Coal Company, of Kansas, one of his father's enterprises ; the 
other son, Chauncey Brooks McCormick, is a Yale '07 man and 
a member of Alpha Delta Phi. Since the retirement of Brother 


McCormick from active business life in 1900, the family home 
has been at their country house in Goshen, Virginia, and at the 
Brooks mansion, "Clover Dale," Baltimore. 


The father of George Miles Arnold was George Anson Ar- 
nold, a native of Troy, N. Y., and son of Dr. George Arnold, of 
Newport, R. I., who came of a family well-known in that section. 
George Anson Arnold married Mary Antoinette Filkins, cele- 

brated beauty of Troy, and engaged in a wholesale business in 
Mobile, Ala., where he prospered. On one of the Arnolds' yearly 
visits to Troy, George Miles Arnold was born, August 27, 1851. 
After receiving his^ first training at the Union Hill boarding 
school, Monroe county, N. Y., and at Dr. Davis' academy for 
boys, Bloomfield, N. J., Arnold entered the academic depart- 
ment of the University of Virginia in 1869, his chief studies 
being Latin, French and mathematics. Small but well built, 
speaking French, Spanish and Italian fluently, he was a typical 
young Southerner of those stirring times. Although carrying 
no Spanish blood, nevertheless, on account of his proficient 
knowledge of the language, he was known to his friends and 



admirers as "the little Spaniard." From students of Kappa Sig- 
ma history he has later received the title of "the first S. A. Jack- 
son." All the surviving founders agree in praise of his devotion 
from the first to the cause of the Fraternity. "H,e gave nearly 
his whole time to the society," says one. In the summer of 1870, 
he began, with Samuel Isham North, his nearest and dearest 
friend even within Kappa Sigma, a course in medicine at the 
University, under Harrison, the famous and beloved professor. 

About 1870 

In February, 1871, the occurrence elsewhere related made it 
necessary for his friends and brothers to protect him from the 
consequences of a rash and hasty act, and caused his withdrawal 
from the University — the authorities, after investigation, accept- 
ing his resignation as a student and dismissing him with a clear 

He shortly entered the medical college of New York University, 
and by the end of the scholastic year 1872, had completed the 
medical course according to the requirements of the time. Being 
still under age, his degree was not conferred upon him until the 


following year, 1873. He studied at Bellevue Hospital medical 
college in i8y2-'y^, and received a diploma also from this insti- 
tution. He also served for a time as resident physician at the E. 
and P. Hospital, Bedford Island, and in 1873 began to practice. 
Later he was resident physician at the Convalescent Hospital, 
Hart's Island, and, having become a Master Mason of Lebanon 
lodge in 1873, was in i874-'75 vice-president and examining 
physician of the Washington Masonic Mutual Benefit Associa- 
tion, of New York. 

Founder Arnold's marriage occurred on September 8, 1874, 

at the Jane St. M. E. church, New York, the officiating minister 
being the Rev. Dr. Hamlin. The bride was Miss Minnie J. Law, 
daughter of Robert J. Law, a wealthy real estate owner of the 
city, a Mason, and a veteran of the Civil War, being one of the 
first to go out with the New York Seventh. For a number of 
years the Arnolds resided at 105 east 71st St., New York, and 
their home was a meeting-place for Kappa Sigmas of that early 
day. The Star and Crescent, illuminated in the size of the early 
badges, appeared on Arnold's note-paper; he spoke much of the 
Fraternity, corresponding with his friends North and Boyd con- 
tinually, and often entertaining as his guests S. A. Jackson and 
Ed. Law Rogers, Jr., the latter of whom claimed kinship with 


Mrs. Arnold through their common descent from the Maryland 

Dr. and Mrs. Arnold were for years regular attendants upon 
St. James' Episcopal church, New York, and here for five years, 
until the demands of a constantly increasing practice obliged 
him to abandon it, Arnold had a Bible class of young men, who 
were closely drawn to him by his ever attractive personality. 

To Dr. Arnold and his wife there were born eight children. 
Of the sad death of five of these, the widowed mother speaks 
seldom and with reluctance. Three died within one period of 
six weeks ; after an interval of five years, death claimed two in 
one day : and all were carried off by the same disease, diphtheria, 
which Dr. Arnold was accustomed to meet and to vanquish in 
his practice, having never lost a case. A lover of his home and 
family, the effect of these losses never left him. He threw him- 
self more and more earnestly into his active work, becoming 
regardless of his own health ; and on January 25, 1890, pneu- 
monia due to exposure resulted in his death, after an illness of 
but a few days. His body reposes in Woodlawn Cemetery. Mrs. 
Arnold, with her three living children, two daughters and a son, 
found a home with her mother for five years, until that lady's 
death, and then removed to her present residence, 57 W. 124th 
St., New York. One daughter is attending the New York Nor- 
mal College, and the son, Robert Miles Arnold, aged now eigh- 
teen, is a student of C. C. N. Y. 

Other Kappa Sigmas have been better known than Miles Ar- 
nold, but none has ever been better loved. Peace to his ashes! 
The Fraternity would have delighted in these latter days to honor 
him living; dead, it reveres his memory. 


The third of the original Five, and the designer of the badge of 
Kappa Sigma, was the son of Edmund Law Rogers, Sr., and 
Charlotte (Plater) Rogers, and was born in Baltimore, July 1. 
1850. He was descended through his paternal grandmother from 
Mrs. Martha Custis, afterwards the wife of George Washington ; 
whose son, John Parke Custis, early wedded pretty Eleanor 


Calvert, daughter of Benedict Calvert, a head of the old-time 
Maryland family. Their daughter, Eliza Custis, married Thomas 
Law, whose brother, the first Baron Ellenborough, was leading 
counsel for Warren Hastings before the House of Lords in 1788, 
and Lord Chief Justice of England from 1802 to 1818. Thomas 
Law was of no less worth. Before coming to America, he had 
been governor of a province in India, under Cornwallis as gov- 
ernor-general, in 1786 and later. His devotion to his adopted 
country was shown when, in 1814, after the burning of the 

national capitol by the British, he with another purchased a 
house in Washington and allowed Congress the use of it as a 
capitol building until better quarters could be erected — by this 
one act preventing the removal of the capital of the nation from 
Washington. Eliza Law, daughter of Thomas Law, married 
Lloyd Nicholas Rogers, of Baltimore, and their son was General 
Edmund Law Rogers, Sr., father of our founder. 

The Rogers line was also one of distinction. Nicholas Rogers, 
father of Lloyd Nicholas Rogers, was a student in Scotland at 


the time when the Revolution began. Hurrying back to his 
country by way of France, to give himself to the cause of free- 
dom, he became an aide-de-camp to General de Coudray, and was 
afterward Baron de Kalb's adjutant during the dreadful winter 
at Valley Forge. Soon after the close of the Revolution, Colonel 
Rogers married Eleanor Buchanan, daughter of Lloyd Buchanan 
and granddaughter of one of the founders of Baltimore. With 
her there came into the Rogers family the country-seat of five 
hundred and fiftv acres, then known as "Auchentorolv," which 


In character 

the city of Baltimore bought from Lloyd Nicholas Rogers in 
1859 for $550,000, and which has now become Druid Hill, one 
of the surpassingly beautiful and perfect parks of the world. 
Gen. Edmund Law Rogers, Sr., who died about 1895, was a 
prominent and wealthy citizen of Baltimore, and held many posi- 
tions of honor and trust in the city and state. His wife, Charlotte 
Plater, was a descendant of George Plater, one of the colonial 
governors of Maryland and a member of the Council. Their 
only surviving child is Charlotte, wife of Professor Kirby Flower 
Smith, of Johns Hopkins. 


Edmund Law Rogers, Jr., was prepared for the University at 
the well-known academy of James Kinnier, in Baltimore, where 
Founder F. C. Nicodemus was among his classmates. Entering 
the University of Virginia in 1869, he was graduated in an aca- 
demic course. He then took up the study of architecture. Thor- 
oughly artistic in his temperament, none who knew him doubt 
that had he been under the kindly spur of necessity he might 
have achieved eminence in his profession, and, given the ordi- 
nary span of life, have been one of our country's chief apostles 
of a noble art which is just now coming to its own among us. 
Private theatricals had given him a liking for the stage. It 
amused him to act, and, free from personal anxieties and cares, 
he enjoyed the life behind the footlights. Handsome and clever, 
he was always in demand for leading parts and in the support of 
popular stars, from 1880, when he entered upon his stage career, 
to the time of his death. At one time he played in "stock" with 
Ada Rehan, and later he had the part, which one of his few 
extant pictures shows to have been easily assumed by him, of a 
Southern planter in Boucicault's drama of "The Octoroon." 
Upon the stage he was known as Leslie Edmunds. Kindly, pol- 
ished, full of quiet humor, a citizen of the world who loved the 
world in which he dwelt, his old friends found much pleasure in 
their continued association with him while he lived. He was a 
member of the Lambs club, of New York, and of the old Alston 
club of Baltimore. He married Miss Anna Carleton, of Boston, 
who survived him but a few years. His death occurred in New 
York, December 19, 1893 ; he was buried, from the old Rogers 
residence in Baltimore, in the Buchanan and Rogers burying- 
ground in Druid Hill, reserved to the family use perpetually 
when the sale to the city was made. Among the pall-bearers 
was George Leiper Thomas, his early brother in the parent Chap- 
ter of Kappa Sigma. 


Frank Courtney Nicodemus is one of the five surviving children 
of Josiah Courtney Nicodemus and Mary Jane (Montandon) 
Nicodemus, both from old American and Maryland families ; and 



is a native, and a life-long resident, of Baltimore. One of his 
sisters is the wife of Edwin Warfield, "the first gentleman of the 
South," the present Governor of Maryland. Before entering 
the University of Virginia, young Xicodemus was a student at 
Kinnier's Academy in his native city, where he was associated 
with Edmund Law Rogers, Jr. Leaving the University in the 
spring of 1870, he was taken into the office of his father's firm, 
Smith & Nicodemus. In 1874 he became a partner in the same 
firm, and in the following year he formed a partnership with his 





father, under the title of J. C. Nicodemus & Son. The new firm 
engaged in a general investment and brokerage business for the 
following four years. In 1879, Brother Nicodemus formed the 
firm of F. C. Nicodemus & Co., for the manufacture of boilers, 
engines and machinery; withdrawing from this firm in 1885, he 
became treasurer of the Baltimore postoffice. In March, 1891, 
he was offered the general agency for Maryland of the Connecti- 
cut Mutual Life Insurance Company, which he continues to hold. 
Brother Nicodemus has been a member of the old Alston club. 

or -r Hf 



and of the Maryland club, of Baltimore. He has always had a 
part in the social life of his city, and has been intimately associ- 
ated with some of the older and younger Kappa Sigmas there. 
He was married March 26, 1879, in the Franklin Street Presby- 
terian Church, Baltimore, to Mary Field Weeks, daughter of 
John L. Weeks, a member of the Baltimore firm of Woods, 
Weeks & Co. To Mr. and Mrs. Nicodemus were born four chil- 
dren : John Lee Nicodemus, who is about to become an officer in 
the regular army ; Frank Courtney Nicodemus, Jr., a graduate of 
the law school of the University of Maryland and a bright young 
member of the firm of Pierce & Greer, of New York, one of the 
strongest law partnerships in the United States ; Mary Nico- 
demus; and Gordon Kirkland Nicodemus, who has just entered 
upon business life. After the death of his first wife, Brother 
Nicodemus was again married, in 1891, to Miss Florence B. 
Smith, of Baltimore. At 181 5 Park avenue, Baltimore, is the 
pleasant home of the family. 


John Covert Boyd, who has been connected with the Navy 
medical corps for more than thirty years, was born December 
24, 1850, near Bradford Springs, Sumter county, South Carolina. 
His grandfather was Dr. John Boyd, physician and planter, and 
his father, William Simms Boyd, was a graduate of the South 
Carolina Medical College, though he devoted his attention to the 
management of his estate rather than to the practice of his pro- 
fession. An ancestor in the paternal line was General Richard 
Richardson, 1704- 1780, who attained to distinction in the colonial 
wars and in the Revolution. An account of his services and a 
history of his descendants is to be found in Johnson's "Traditions 
of the Revolution," and in Mrs. E. F. Ellet's "Women of the 
American Revolution," where the life of General Richardson's 
wife, who was Elizabeth Canty, of South Carolina, is given. 
John Covert Boyd's mother was Laura Nelson (Covert) Boyd, a 
daughter of John Covert, a minister of the Dutch Reformed 
Church and a graduate of Columbia and of Princeton Seminary. 

After being prepared for college in private schools of Charles- 



ton, S. C, John Covert Boyd spent two years at the University of 
Virginia, from 1869 to 1871, beginning the medical course in the 
second year. He then entered the medical department of the 
University of the City of New York, from which he received the 
degree of M.D. in 1872. After a year as interne in the Jersey 
City Charity Hospital, he was appointed an Assistant Surgeon in 
the Navy medical corps, and since that time has been continu- 
ously connected therewith, having risen through the grades of 
Passed Assistant Surgeon, Surgeon, and Medical Inspector, to 

that of Medical Director. The detailed record of his career would 
fill several of these pages. He has seen service both afloat and 
ashore; was for eight years assistant to the chief of the naval 
Bureau of Medicine and Surgery; was detailed as a delegate to 
represent the medical department of the Navy at a meeting of 
th Association of Military Surgeons of the United States, held 
in Buffalo, in 1895 ; was again detailed as a delegate to the Inter- 
national Tuberculosis Congress, Berlin, 1899. Since 1902 he has 
been a professor in the Naval Medical College. Washington, in 


which institution he is second in seniority, and a member of the 
Board for examination and promotion of medical officers. 
Throughout his professional career he has been the author of 
numerous reports upon technical subjects, and he is at present 
engaged, under the supervision of the Surgeon-General of the 
Navy, in the preparation of a book of instructions for medical 
officers, which will make a volume of four hundred pages. 

Dr. Boyd is a Fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine ; 
a member of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United 
States and of the American Medical Association; an honorary 
member of the Medical Society of the District of Columbia; a 
member of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences and 
of the Archaeological Institute of America. On January 16, 1905, 
President Roosevelt designated him as one of the incorporators 
of the American National Red Cross, and appointed him a mem- 
ber of the Central Committee of that body. On the meeting of the 
incorporators he was made a member of the Executive Commit- 
tee of the Red Cross. His club membership includes the Metro- 
politan, Washington, the Reform, New York, and the New York 
Yacht Club. Attractive and magnetic, a typical Southerner and 
a loyal American, Dr. Boyd is known not only as the best in- 
formed man in the Navy, but also as the best loved man in it. 
It is said on good authority that he has to his credit the highest 
grade ever made in an examination for Passed Assistant Surgeon. 
He was married June 24, 1887, to Miss Katharine Dorr Willard, 
of Washington, a daughter of C. C. Willard, of the well-known 
Washington family, and a descendant of Simon Willard, once 
president of Harvard. With their son and daughter, Dr. and Mrs. 
Boyd occupy a delightful home at 1315 P Street, northwest, 


John E. Semmes was born at Cumberland, Md., July 1, 1851. 
The Semmes family in America is a distinguished one, especially 
in the Navy, and is descended from Joseph Semmes, originally 
of Norman ancestry, who came to Maryland from England in 
1688. Representatives of the family living in northern France 



offered their services to Admiral Semmes on board the Alabama 
at Cherbourg just before the engagement with the Kearsarge. 
The father of John E. Semmes was Samuel M. Semmes, of Mary- 
land, a lawyer by profession. Receiving his early education under 
private tutors and in Chestnut Hill School, John E. Semmes 
entered the University of Virginia October 18, 1869. He was 
graduated upon the completion of a course in analytical chemis- 
try, and soon afterward entered the Xavy as secretary to Com- 
modore John Guest, his maternal uncle. Later, he prepared for 

the bar in the law school of the University of Maryland, and 
entered the office of the late John H. B. Latrobe. He is now a 
member of the law firm of Steele & Semmes, of Baltimore, is 
prominent at the bar of that city, and was at one time city solici- 
tor. One of his partners, John N. Steele, was with him at 
Virginia in 1869-70. Brother Semmes was married to Frances 
Hayward, daughter of Nehemiah P. Hayward, of New Hamp- 
shire, and Prudence (Carman) Hayward, a descendant of Cap- 
tain Robert North, prominent in the early history of Baltimore. 



He is a member of the Maryland club and of the Bachelors' 
Cotillion club of Baltimore. In the early days of Kappa Sigma, 
he was an intimate associate of the lamented Rogers. 


Samuel Isham North was born May 14, 1849, on hi s father's 
farm in De Witt county, Texas, and received his early education 

in the schools of that state. Early in January, 1870, he entered 
the University of Virginia, forming that deep and lasting friend- 
ship with George Miles Arnold which led to North's early union 
with the just- formed Fraternity. The work of Rogers, Arnold 
and North, is known to those acquainted with the history of the 
secret work of the Fraternity, and has been spoken of in the 
preceding chapter, in so far as it may be told in these pages. 
After devoting some time to academic studies, North, with Ar- 
nold, entered upon the study of medicine, taking the first year of 
the regular medical course. Leaving Virginia in the spring of 


1 87 1 to take the summer course at the University of New York, 
he passed his final examinations in September, 1871, at the latter 
institution, though on account of a regulation as to time of resi- 
dence the degree was not conferred upon him until the following 
March. At that time, after a competitive examination, Dr. North 
won the position of interne at Roosevelt hospital, where he served 
eighteen months. He then became one of sixteen applicants for 
interne at the Woman's hospital, the examination for which is 
said to be one of the hardest in the country. North won the posi- 
tion. The illness of his father soon demanded his return to 
Texas, and in 1874 he began to practice in Galveston. Consid- 
erations of health necessitated a change of climate, and he re- 
moved to Cuero, in his native county, and in 1882 to Clayton, 
New Mexico, where he has since led the self-denying life of a 
busy doctor ; the monotony of which he has varied by a successful 
venture in Hereford cattle. His fellow-citizens have also pro- 
vided him with occupation for his rare moments of leisure by 
making him their county superintendent of schools. 

On June 25, 1884, Dr. North married Eliza Gordon, daughter 
of Jonathan W. Gordon, a major of regulars and afterward a 
celebrated criminal lawyer of Indianapolis. Their son, Samuel 
Gordon North, born in 1885, is attending Washington and Lee 
University, and is an active member of Mu of Kappa Sigma. 
The four hundred Kappa Sigmas who attended the St. Louis 
Conclave remember the good gray doctor, and understand how 
much of the present beauty and strength of the Fraternity is due 
to the work performed by him, with the lamented Rogers and 


George Leiper Thomas, the first regular initiate the date of 
whose initiation is precisely known, was born in Baltimore, Sep- 
tember 10, 1852. His father was John Henry Thomas, a member 
of the Baltimore bar for fifty-four years, a distinguished and able 
lawyer, and a graduate of Princeton. After attending private 
schools in Baltimore, George Thomas went to Europe in the sum- 
mer of 1868, for a year of study and travel. After attending 




lectures at Lausanne he went to Dresden, and was at the Circus 
Renz on the night of July 19, 1870, when the performance was 
brought to an abrupt end by the announcement, made from 
the ring by Renz, the proprietor, of the declaration of war by 
France upon Germany. Thomas then went to Berlin, where he 
remained a spectator of events until the end of the Franco- 
Prussian war. Returning to America, he entered the University 
of Virginia in the fall of 1870, and was made a member of Kappa 
Sigma at its first meeting of which the contemporary minute re- 

mains, November 7, 1870. He was one of those who lived in the 
first Kappa Sigma house during the year 'yo-'yi, and many par- 
ticulars of the early history may be derived from his recollections 
of the intimacy existing among the members, and of their habits 
and customs. He was the intimate friend and associate of Ed- 
mund Law Rogers until the death of the latter, and has kept up 
his acquaintance with other pioneer Kappa Sigmas. He received 
the degree of LL.B. from the University of Maryland, in 1873, 
and has practiced law in Baltimore ever since. 


The Fraternity is alone among the university societies of the 
country in a traditional and legendary European origin. 

History gives us the information that there existed in Euro- 
pean universities secret orders among students. About the year 
1400, as is well known, there came to the oldest university in 
the world, Bologna, the Greek scholar Manuel Chrysoloras 
( I 355? -I 4 I 5) wno gave to the world as his pupils many dis- 
tinguished scholars. He was the author of Erotemata Quaes- 
tiones, one of the first Greek grammars used in Italy. He is tra- 
ditionally asserted to have founded at the university a secret 
Order of students for mutual protection against Baltasare Cossa, 
at that time governor of the city, who practiced extortion upon 
the students, even sending out bands of his followers to rob them 
as they approached the university. The Order continued to 
exist, and spread first to the University of Florence, and then to 
the other three of the five great universities — Paris, Orleans and 
Montpelier. The lodges or circles among these scholars were 
known as Kohaths. They flourished throughout the revival of 
learning, enrolling the names of Bruni, Politian, the de Medicis, 
Michael Angelo, Chalcondylas, Bracciolini, and many others — 
poets, artists and wits. At one time it was intended to name all 
of the American chapters after these celebrities. 

In modern times the Order became practically extinct, but its 
secrets and symbols are said to have been preserved by a few 
noble families of Italy and France — principally in the de Bardi 
family. Its ritual, not a sophomore document, and peculiarly 
appropriate to a university society, is reminiscent of both the 
lower and higher degrees of Masonry. 



Enough of these traditions and legends have grown up about 
the Order for a dozen more degrees for degree makers. A few 
of them, referring to familiar symbols of the Fraternity may be 
here explained. Lorenzo de Medici, "II Magnifico," who was a 
patron of the Order in its beginning, adopted the caduceus, an 

Bologna's Westminster Abbey 

emblem of Mercury, as his private seal. Hence the use of the 
emblem by Kappa Sigma, and name of the magazine of the Fra- 
ternity. The motto of the University of Bologna was Bononia 
docet mundum or Bononia docet. This is the open motto of 
Kappa Sigma, and suggests the mission which Kappa Sigma 
hopes to realize in the new world as Bologna did in the old. 



Referring to the traditional origin, Alexander Yerger Scott, of 
Mississippi, the Conclave orator, at the Grand Conclave at Look- 
out Mountain, 1906, said : 

"We are here, gathered together from the furthest confines of 
our beloved country ; from the North, the East, the West and the 
South, actuated by like desires, centered upon a single purpose 


and inspired by identical ideas and ideals ; and that which inspires 
us, the good we seek, is not selfish but unselfish, not personal, but 
impersonal, and is represented to us by a name — that name, 
Kappa Sigma. 

"It is this I would have you consider with me. Kappa Sigma 
is known to the outside world as a college fraternity, a secret 



organization for boys; a thing for their amusement; a passing 
phase of youthful experience and pleasure. You and I know dif- 
ferently of Kappa Sigma, whatever may be said of others, for we 
have within our hearts the esoteric teachings of our beloved Fra- 
ternity, and we know it is something more, much more, than a 
thing to amuse a schoolboy, and to be discarded with the toga. 


We know that Kappa Sigma represents within itself, and stands 
for, the great truth that, express it how or when or where we 
will, from the first dawn of recorded history — aye, beyond that, 
turn we back the pages of the eternal ages and dip into the past 
as we will — resolves itself into this, the Fatherhood of God and 
the Brotherhood of Man. 

"Our fraternity rests not its foundation upon recorded his- 



tory. We cannot, with exactitude, say when nor where nor how 
the thing we call Kappa Sigma had its birth, any more than we 
can say when the light first begins to break over a darkened 
world; nor when nor where man first became a living, breathing- 
spirit reflecting the qualities of Deity. Looking back into the 
dim past, we find this central truth of life first expressed in myth 
and in symbol ; in the esoteric teachings of eastern religions, the 
Zend Avestas, the Dhammapodas, the Vedas, the Koran ; in the 
Bibles of the men that have come and gone ; in the myths of 
Greece and Rome ; in the Sagas of the Northmen ; and the tradi- 


tions of savages express in some form the same idea- — enmeshed, 
it may be, in much that is unbelievable, much that is absurd to our 
modern scientific mind. So the central truth of Kappa Sigma 
comes to us like the central truth of life — through legend and 
through tradition. 

"Tradition — did you ever think what a tradition is ; its power, 
its value, its utility ? Traditions are not made by any man, but by 
time alone. A tradition cannot be proved. It cannot be dis- 
proved. It rests alone upon faith — belief — and that is the power 
of tradition, for faith is the greatest power in all the universe. . . . 



"Happy, then, that nation and that people who believe. That 
their tradition be true or false, reasonable or unreasonable, is of 
little moment, so that it is believed. 

"My brothers, do you realize that Kappa Sigma shares with the 
Masonry the privileges of having a traditional origin, and that 
these two secret orders, so far as I know, are the only two that 
cannot point with historic accuracy to the date of their founding, 
without resort to tradition — to a time beyond which their written 
history extends — for a beginning? The Masons date their origin 





\i < ,:* --&M .Jfl 1J 1 

^— won 

f ~s^e- 

ft!JT-*T».1it.<iiM '■^-■U " ' "'" 


at the building of King Solomon's temple, and the sole and only 
proofs they have of this tradition are the esoteric teachings in 
their ritual. What one of you does not know that this tradition — 
fable, if you please to call it — has made Masonry the greatest 
secret organization the world has ever known? whose power for 
good is written upon the history of more than one nation, and 
because of which it is destined, yet, to endure so long as man 
himself endures. 

"How account you for the marvelous growth of Kappa Sigma, 
for the loving devotion each of us has for the Star and Crescent. 



the emblem of our order ? Among the youngest of college frater- 
nities in America, it stands to-day the greatest. Can you doubt for 
one moment that the living force behind its advance is bound up 
in its traditional history? If so, open the floodgates of memory 
and recall how your soul was filled with rapture as the story of 
her founding was gradually unfolded to you — how, as you learned 


the truths taught, as you journeyed towards the City of Letters, 
a new light and a new life seemed to fill your youthful heart. You 
were at one with the youth of a bygone age. You shared in spirit 
the toil and travail of those who, when ignorance, like a pall of 
death, had settled upon the world, struggled amid the vicissitudes 
of a crime-ridden nation for light and for truth. And it was then 



you learned in a new and forceful manner, your duty to your fel- 
low men, the eternal principle of brotherhood, of justice and of 

"Ah, my friends, through this tradition you' and I seem, some 
way and somehow, linked to the brave spirits of that day, who 
sought to defy the power of might with the power of right ; who 
sought to bring out of darkest night a resplendent day, who 


wrought for others, knowing full well that one can only reach the 
full measure of greatness by serving his fellow men. I urge you, 
then, with all the power at my command, to cling to, believe in 
and live up to this hallowed tradition of Kappa Sigma that comes 
to us out of the dim past like the first faint breath of spring time, 
and which, somehow and some way, makes us better and nobler 
and stronger because thereof. 



"But I like to think that the God of nations and of men held in 
reserve, from the beginning, another noble mission for our Fra- 
ternity — the mission of aiding in binding up and healing the 
wounds of a nation — and it has ever seemed to me that Kappa 
Sigma's refounding, after it has winged its gentle way across the 
dread Atlantic, was prophetic of its mission and lends verity to 
its early legends. 

"Thirty-seven years ago, in the little village of Charlottesville, 


nestling in a beautiful valley of the Alleghenies, within the shad- 
ows of Monticello, the historic home of America's greatest com- 
moner, amid the classic columns and colonnades of the University 
inspired by his genius, our beloved fraternity was born again. 
The boom of the cannon at Appomattox still reverberates in the 
distance. Fraternal blood yet crimsons Virginia's tragic soil. 
Where peace and plenty had found their wonted home, poverty 
was abroad in the land. Fields, once molten with billowy oceans 
of golden grain, languidly rolling as the gentle southern zephyrs 



played hide and seek mid their million glittering tassels, now lay 
fallow, silently pleading for the dominion of the plow. Palatial 
homes, where once the lute made glad music 'neath the southern 
summer skies, and silvery laughter rippled from merry lips, and 
beaming eyes flashed with love and life, now lay in smouldering 
ruins. Eyes that had sparkled were dull with tears. Hearts that 
had burgeoned and blossomed with love now shrivelled with bit- 
terest hate. War, grim-visaged and dread, had stalked through- 
out the land for four long years, and all was desolation — all was 
ruin. And yet it was there, amid these scenes, that our beloved 
Kappa Sigma had its new birth. It was in the halls of our Fra- 
ternity that a part of the youth of the country began to close the 
doors of the four years of hell this people had lived. There we 
began to learn that love and not hate, peace and not war, are 
the laws of life — to know that there was no North and no South, 
but one great country ; that there was no Northerner, no South- 
erner, but all Americans, blood of the same blood, bone of the 
same bone, brothers in truth and in fact, united in indissoluble 

"And so my brothers, on behalf of Kappa Sigma in the South, I 
welcome you with all my heart. We know one another and we 
love one another, for Kappa Sigma is Love." 


Unlike many fraternities and most of those which originated 
in the South, Kappa Sigma was never intended to be a sectional 
fraternity. The men who founded her at the University of Vir- 
ginia in 1869 were not of small ideas. When Founder McCor- 
mick and other founders from Baltimore returned to that city 
from the university in 1870, they engaged splendid apartments on 
Lombard Street for fraternity purposes. Here was to be the 
Alpha Chapter, at the South's old medical school, the University 
of Maryland. But the time was inopportune, and the Chapter 
did not make its appearance till 1875, when Dr. A. C. Heffenger, 
(Zeta) later to be passed assistant surgeon in the navy, an emi- 
nent writer and medico-legal expert, initiated a number of gen- 
tlemen. In 1 87 1, when Founders Arnold and North went to Belle- 
vue, New York, they were given powers by the parent Chapter 
to initiate Dr. Henry Seeley Welch, of San Francisco, which 
they accordingly did. Dr. Welch was to install a Chapter 
at the University of California, but he also found the time in- 
opportune. Under a similar dispensation, it was in New York 
at Bellevue, that Dr. George Wyatt Hollings worth (Beta) was 
initiated to establish Beta at the University of Alabama, the sec- 
ond Chapter. It should be noted that there were no fraternities 
at this time at California nor at Alabama — the beginning of the 
wise policy of extension of Kappa Sigma. There were also hopes 
of a Chapter in New York City, to be called New York Delta, 
and to draw its members from all New York City colleges — an- 
other brilliant scheme of the dashing Dr. Arnold. Thus of the 
first four Chapters contemplated, one was in the far South at 
Alabama, one in the middle tier of states at Maryland, one in 




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New York, and one on the Pacific — all of which were at a later 
day to come into existence in the most national, from a geo- 
graphical standpoint, of all the fraternities. 

It was not, however, until 1873, that the mother Chapter took 
np the extension movement in earnest. In that year a Chapter 
was placed by Dr. James H. Durham at Trinity College, North 
Carolina, drawing its members mainly from the old Hesperian 
Society of that college. From that day to this, time has wit- 


A section of this Dormitory is occupied by Kappa Sigma only 

nessed a continual increase in the number of Chapters and the 
annals of Kappa Sigma, one of the youngest of the great 
■college societies, have been no less brilliant than those of any 
other Greek letter organization. 

It was but natural that the Fraternity should first plant suc- 
cessful Chapters in the South, for there were the friends and 
kinsmen of its members. Besides, the war had disrupted nearly 
all college organizations in that section, the field for the running 
was open to Kappa Sigma equally with older fraternities, the 
colleges were of the high type of the old-time classical discipline, 



and fraternity material in the Southern homes of the most in- 
tensely thoroughbred of Americans was of the best. Notable 
as are the founders for their connections, so also may this be re- 
marked of all the Fraternity's early members, for no society had 
brethren of higher social status than did Kappa Sigma in all her 
early years. Among those who assisted in building up the organ- 
ization may be found the sons of such men as Presidents John 
Tyler and Jefferson Davis, Generals Albert Sidney Johnston, 
Joe Wheeler, Walker, Taliaferro, Wright, and Stubblefield, of 
the Confederate armies ; Governors Ligon, of Maryland, Walker 


of Virginia, Marks of Tennessee, McLaurin of Mississippi, 
1 Jerry of Arkansas, and many others. The chapter rolls of the 
first Southern Chapters are rosters of the names of the first 
families of the South. A number were the sons of men prominent 
in the history of other fraternities. 

Before Kappa Sigma had a Northern Chapter, she had eleven 
institutional seats in the South — at Virginia, the keystone of 
Southern education, with its graduates influencing America, the 
Harvard of the South ; Alabama, whose sons have illustrated the 
history of the state ; Trinity, the favored child of North Carolina 



Methodism ; Emory and Henry, beloved of Virginia Methodism ; 
Washington and Lee, with its famous graduates in all sections 
of the history of the South, the West, and the nation, and loved 
almost as is Virginia ; Virginia Military Institute, the "West Point 
of the South ;" Virginia Polytechnic Institute, the first technical 
school in the South ; Maryland, one of the oldest of American 
medical schools and most popular ; Mercer, representative of 


the Baptists in the lower South ; Vanderbilt, prosperous and 
favored of a rich benefactor ; Tennessee, the sucessor of Blount 
College, one of the oldest colleges of the South. All of these 
Chapters save Virginia Polytechnic, Emory and Henry, and Vir- 
ginia Military Institute are alive to-day, and these three were 
killed only by anti- fraternity laws. The founders knew well 
how to cultivate vitality and to choose institutions. All of these 
and our later Southern Kappa Sigma colleges are adornments 



to our Chapter roll. Their history is a part of the history of 
America, and an inspiration. In some cases their incomes and 
student bodies are not so large as some of their newer Northern 
and Western sisters. Yet their buildings and equipment are of 
the best, for, following the classical courses, they do not need 
large sums for technical apparatus, and their professors are 
willing to work for a spiritual reward. The tone of their student 


bodies is unexcelled in the United States. With the prosperity 
of the new South, even many are becoming rich in money. 

The only period not of the highest prosperity known to the Fra- 
ternity was the college generation of four years from 1880 to 
1884. This was due to no lack of interest among Kappa Sigmas, 
but to a peculiarly sad and universal condition of a lack of pros- 
perity of Kappa Sigma colleges in the unsettled condition of the 



South, and to assaults, by anti-fraternity laws, on Kappa Sigma 

In the movement into Southern colleges, the name of the im- 
mortal Kappa Sigma, Stephen Alonzo Jackson — "Lon Jackson" — 
is enshrined in the heart of every Kappa Sig. The son of a 
banker, a mystic, an idealist, and advanced in Masonry, this 


golden-hearted Virginian ruined his fortune in behalf of the 
Order. "S. A. Jackson Day," the fourth of March, was ordered 
to be regularly observed among Kappa Sigmas, by the Richmond 
Grand Conclave of 1894. 

It was not until 1880 that Kappa Sigma established a Chapter 
in the North. Then it was that a number of the members of 
the Zeta Epsilon literary society at Lake Forest petitioned for 













and received a charter. This was the first Northern Chapter of 
a fraternity of Southern origin. The Chapter survived only till 
1882, for knowledge of membership in it meant expulsion from 
the college. A second petition for a Chapter at another Northern 
college was received from an organization which had withdrawn 
from its general fraternity, but this petition was rejected. In 


1885, a Chapter was organized at Purdue. From this point on- 
ward is a history of the conquest of the North and West. The 
Fraternity now has the longest roll of all the fraternities — seven- 
ty-six Chapters. It has the widest geographical distribution of 
the fraternities, being represented in more states of the Union 
than any other — having Chapters in thirty-five states, the Dis- 
trict of Columbia and the coming state of Oklahoma. 



This list shows the order in which Kappa Sigma entered the 
states and territories, the first Chapter in each, and the date of its 
foundation: i. Virginia (Virginia, 1869) ; 2. Alabama (Alabama, 
1871); 3. North Carolina (Trinity, 1873); 4. Maryland (Mary- 
land, 1874) ; 5. Georgia (Mercer, 1875) ; 6. Tennessee (Vander- 
bilt, 1877) ; 7. Illinois (Lake Forest, 1880) ; 8. West Virginia 


(West Virginia, 1883) ; 9. Texas (Texas, 1884) ; 10. Indiana 
(Purdue, 1885); 11. Louisiana (Centenary, 1885); 12. Maine 
(Maine, 1886) ; 13. Ohio (Ohio Northern, 1886) ; 14. Pennsyl- 
vania (Swarthmore, 1888) ; 15. South Carolina (South Carolina, 
1890) ; 16. Arkansas (Arkansas, 1890) ; 17. Michigan (Michigan, 
1892) ; 18. District of Columbia (George Washington — formerly 
known as Columbian — 1892) ; 19. New York (Cornell. 1892) ; 



20. Vermont (Vermont, 1893); 21. Kentucky (Bethel. 1894): 
22. Mississippi (Millsaps, 1895) ; 23. Nebraska (Nebraska, 
1897) ; 24. Missouri (William Jewell, 1897) ; 25. Rhode Island 
(Brown, 1898) ; 26. Wisconsin (Wisconsin, 1898) ; 27. Califor- 
nia (Stanford, 1898) ; 28. New Hampshire (New Hampshire, 
1901) ; 29. Minnesota (Minnesota, 1901) ; 30. Colorado (Den- 
ver, 1902) ; 31. Iowa (Iowa, 1902) ; 32. Kansas (Baker, 1903) ; 
33. Washington (Washington, 1903); 34. Oregon (Oregon, 
1904) ; 35. Massachusetts (Massachusetts State, 1904) ; 36. Idaho 
(Idaho, 1905) ; 37. Oklahoma (Oklahoma, 1906). 
The Fraternity early observed the decadence of many of the old 


sectarian colleges in the North, where fraternities in the past had 
most of their chapters, and shunned them. At the same time, 
she prophesied the splendid future of the state institutions — the 
result of the congressional acts of 1862 and later — and other 
institutions founded since the civil war. Fraternities of Northern 
origin in these places had no more prestige due to the age of 
their chapters than did Kappa Sigma. The fraternity thus found 
opportunities in the North and West similar to those she had 
met in the South — the best universities, and these not overcrowd- 
ed by Greek letter societies. At present in the leading seats of 
American educational progress — the state schools, colleges, and 



universities — Kappa Sigma has a larger number of Chapters than 
any other fraternity. Nearly fifty per cent of them are so located. 
She is also represented in all but four of the twenty universities 
in the United States having the largest enrollment — Harvard. 
Columbia, California, Northwestern, Michigan, Minnesota, Cor- 
nell, Illinois, Yale, Chicago, Pennsylvania, Nebraska, Syracuse, 
New York, Ohio State, Missouri, Princeton, Indiana, George 
Washington and Stanford. Of these four — Princeton, Columbia. 
Northwestern and Yale — Princeton does not admit fraternities. 
Alumni familiar with the situation in the next two institutions 
mentioned, in New York and Chicago respectively, have repeat- 


edly advised against entering Columbia or Northwestern. Both 
are crowded with fraternities, and conditions at Columbia seem 
to demand the ownership of a very costly house to start with. 
No movement looking toward Yale has ever received encourage- 
ment, for reasons recently expressed by President Hadley of that 
university — "A large part of the fraternities are not even known 
by their Greek-letter names. . . . When I want to know 
what is the Greek-letter name of any organization, I have to look 
it up in the Yale Banner. Even those societies like Delta Kappa 
Epsilon or Psi Upsilon, which have retained their Greek-letter 
names in common parlance, are never known as fraternities, but 



as societies; and when they go to conventions the delegates have 
to cram up on purpose to find out what is the grip, or what the 
Greek-letters stand for, or any other supposed secrets of the 

Kappa Sigma was the pioneer fraternity of Southern origin in 
the seven Northern states of Maine, New Hampshire, Illinois, 
Indiana, Wisconsin, West Virginia and Minnesota. This does 
not take into account the powers extended to Dr. George Miles 
Arnold in 1871, by the Virginia Chapter to initiate from New 
York City colleges. Kappa Sigma has been the pioneer fra- 


ternity of Southern origin in fifteen Northern colleges : Bowdoin, 
Case, Dartmouth, Illinois, Indiana, Lake Forest, Maine, Minne- 
sota, New Hampshire, New York, Purdue, Swarthmore, Syra- 
cuse, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. She has been the second 
oldest fraternity of Southern origin in a number of Northern 
institutions, having been preceded by Alpha Tau Omega at 
Brown, Pennsylvania, Vermont and Washington and Jefferson ; 
and similarly preceded by Sigma Alpha Epsilon at Harvard, 
Bucknell and Dickinson, and by Sigma Nu at the University of 
Iowa. An examination of the history of Kappa Sigma's Chapter 
roll — North, South, and West — shows that at present or at some 


time in their careers, twenty-two of her Chapters are or have been 
the first chapters founded or the oldest chapters on account of 
continuous existence in their respective universities. 

Many Chapters have been formed from local and other so- 
cieties, thus giving a Chapter an element of stability at its incep- 
tion, this policy being as marked in Kappa Sigma as in any other 
fraternity. Yet it has never sought to add the names of United 
States senators and other prominent men to its alumni lists by 
enrolling them without initiation or active affiliation — an abuse 
in some fraternities. Indeed, conservatism in this regard led to 
the breaking off of negotiations for union of Kappa Sigma with 
two other general fraternities. Until 1902, the initiation of 
alumni of local societies was prohibited ; since then under 
certain restrictions it has been permitted. Those Chapters 
formed from other societies are : Emory and Henry ( Phi Mu 
Omicron), 1 Washington and Lee, as reestablished in 1904 (Mu 
Pi Lambda), 2 Lake Forest (Lambda Phi), 3 Grant, as reestab- 
lished (The Secret Fraternity) ; Hampden-Sidney (Phi Mu 
Gamma) ; Maine (K. K. F. — Roman letter) ; Bucknell (Phi Ep- 

1 Some of the members of the Emory and Henry chapter and several 
members of other chapters of Phi Mu Omicron were admitted into Kappa 
Sigma in 1879. This society was founded at South Carolina College in 
1858, and is the second oldest of the defunct societies of Southern origin. 
It also had chapters at Wofford, Charleston, Emory, Newberry, and Emory 
and Henry. Its badge was a monogram of the letters comprising the name 
of the society. Members of the first southern Kappa Alpha joined Phi 
Mu Omicron in 1866. Kukloi Adelphon or "circles" nourished as select 
organizations among the southern gentry before the war in the colleges 
and also in the "court" towns or county seats in Alabama, Virginia, Ken- 
tucky and other southern states. After the war, in the Reconstruction 
period, these kukloi formed a basis for the Ku Klux Klan. 

2 The Washington and Lee chapter of Mu Pi Lambda was the mother 
chapter of that fraternity, founded in 1895, and also having chapters at 
Virginia, Harvard, West Virginia, and William and Mary. At Jefferson's 
home, "Monticello," Virginia, in 1904, the society disbanded. The William 
and Mary chapter joined Theta Delta Chi; part of the Virginia chapter 
joined Phi Delta Theta and Kappa Sigma. Its badge was a five-sided shield 
displaying the letters, Mu Pi Lambda, beneath an eye and above the skull 
and bones. It published a quarterly, the Archon. 

1 Lambda Phi was a continuation of the well-known "Suicide Club" of 
Lake Forest. 


silon) ; William Jewell (Pi Alpha Theta) ; New Hampshire 
(Q. T. V.) ; 4 Minnesota (Alpha Theta) ; California (Beta Kappa 
Delta) ; Denver (Kappa Delta) ; Dickinson (Pi Gamma Alpha) ; 
Iowa (Phi Upsilon) ; Baker (Skull and Bones) ; Case (Phi Alpha 
Chi); Colorado (Phi Psi Sigma); Chicago (Bronze Shield); 
Massachusetts State (D. G. K.) ;•"• Dartmouth (Beta Gamma); 
Harvard (Pi Upsilon) ; Idaho (Sigma Delta Alpha) ; Oklahoma 
(Alpha Delta Sigma). 

When the Michigan Chapter was founded its membership was at 
first confined to the law school, similar to Sigma Chi in that 

The few and short periods of inactivity of Kappa Sigma Chap- 
ters are remarkable to contemplate. Of the large fraternities 
having over fifty Chapters, Kappa Sigma has the smallest per- 
centage of dead or inactive Chapters. A number of the Chapters 
have become victims of anti-fraternity legislation. Those at Vir- 
ginia Military Institute, Emory and Henry and the Virginia 
Polytechnic Institute were forced out through these regulations. 
The Alabama Chapter was killed by anti-fraternity laws shortly 
after its foundation, and was revived in 1899. Hostile legislation 
caused the inactivity of the Vanderbilt Chapter from 1880 to 
1885, although anti-fraternity laws prevailed from the foundation 
of the university in 1875. The Lake Forest Chapter was also 
inactive on account of hostile legislation from 1882 to 1896. The 
inactivity of the South Carolina Chapter commenced with Senator 
Ben Tillman's anti-fraternity legislation in the South Carolina 
Legislature in 1897. 

Exclusiveness caused the Washington and Lee Chapter to be- 

4 Q. T. V. was the first technical fraternity to have more than one chap- 
ter, being founded at Massachusetts State College, in 1869. It had chapters 
at Massachusetts State, Maine, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania State, 
Worcester Polytechnic and Cornell. The Pennsylvania State chapter joined 
Phi Kappa Sigma and the Maine chapter joined Phi Gamma Delta. The 
fraternity published a handsome quarto journal from Boston and a cata- 
logue in 1886. The badge was a diamond-shaped slab upon which is en- 
graved a monogram of the letters "Q. T. V." 

5 This society, established in 1868 at Massachusetts State, was the first 
technical fraternity ever founded. It published a catalogue in 1879 and 
issued for many years an annual called the Cycle, which it continues. 



come inactive in 1877. It was reestablished in 1888, but with the 
overcrowded condition of the institution, fraternities pledging men 
on incoming trains, it was withdrawn in 1900. It was again 
installed in 1904 by the absorption of the mother Chapter of Mu 
Pi Lambda. The Chapter at the University of Maryland was 
withdrawn in 1875 on account of an unseemly conflict with the 
Rush Medical Society of that University. It was revived in 1890 
with the privilege of drawing membership from both Maryland 


and Johns Hopkins universities, but was again withdrawn be- 
cause of the laxity of organization from which city Chapters 
suffer. It was revived in 1898 and from that date has been very 
successful. By agreement, all fraternities, owing to the fact 
they were supposed to be ruining the literary societies, withdrew 
from Trinity in 1879; the Chapter was revived in 1892. The 
Chapters at Grant and West Virginia were discontinued, the first 
for lack of material, the second on account of local difficulties. 
Internal dissensions affecting the Indianapolis or Butler Chapter, 



caused its withdrawal. The Chapter at Emory College was dis- 
continued on account of failure of members to return to college 
and the desire of the Fraternity not to remain in the institution, 
the last Kappa Sigma being valedictorian of his class. Several 
causes led to the withdrawal of the Indiana Chapter in 1888: the 
Chapter was reestablished in 1900, and prospers. The Chapter 
at Centenary was the first established there after the Civil War. 


but was withdrawn in 1904 on account of the decline of the col- 
lege, due to agitation over its removal. The Chapters at Ohio 
Northern and Thatcher Institute were withdrawn because these 
colleges were not considered to be up to the full American collegi- 
ate standard. The Chapter at Bethel College surrendered its 
charter on account of lack of suitable material. The Mercer 
Chapter was withdrawn in 1879 during a wretched period in the 
college's history, and was installed again in 1891. The Chapter 


at Kentucky State College is regarded as a continuation of the 
Chapter at Kentucky University, the latter having been with- 
drawn on account of the desire not to have two Chapters in the 
same town. The Chapter at North Georgia College surrendered 
its charter with a decline of the institution. When the Maryland 
Military and Naval Academy, the most important military insti- 
tute of private foundation ever established in the country, was 
financially wrecked by its officers in 1887, the Chapter there ceased 
to exist. 

The Fraternity's relations with other societies have been cor- 
dial. The first numbers in the following give the number of all 
the Chapters of various fraternities met by Kappa Sigma, and 
the second numbers the percentage of such Chapters to the entire 
Chapter roll of each fraternity : Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 45, 68 per 
cent; Phi Delta Theta, 41, 59 per cent ; Sigma Nu, 36, 65 per cent; 
Beta Theta Pi, 33, 49 per cent ; Phi Gamma Delta, ^, 58 per cent ; 
Kappa Alpha (Southern Order), 33, 67 per cent; Sigma Chi, 31, 
57 per cent ; Delta Tau Delta, 27, 56 per cent ; Alpha Tau Omega, 
27, 53 per cent; Phi Kappa Psi, 23, 55 per cent; Pi Kappa Al- 
pha, 21, 72 per cent; Phi Kappa Sigma, 18, 72 per cent; Delta 
Kappa Epsilon, 16, 39 per cent; Delta Upsilon, 16, 44 per cent; 
Psi Upsilon, 12, 55 per cent; Zeta Psi, 12, 55 per cent; Theta 
Delta Chi, 12, 50 per cent; Chi Phi, 11, 55 per cent; Chi Psi, 10, 
56 per cent ; Alpha Delta Phi, 9, 38 per cent ; Phi Sigma Kappa, 
8, 42 per cent ; Sigma Phi Epsilon, 5, 38 per cent ; Sigma Phi, 4, 
50 per cent ; Delta Phi, 4, 36 per cent ; Delta Psi, 2, 25 per cent ; 
Kappa Alpha (Northern Order), 2, 29 per cent; Alpha Chi Rho, 
2, 33 per cent. 

Kappa Sigma has always opposed "lifting," repeatedly re- 
fusing propositions of this kind, although when such a practice 
was considered legitimate, in 1880, it took several members of 
the Virginia Polytechnic Chapter of Beta Theta Pi, after the 
Betas had surrendered their charter. However, the giving up 
of the charter was in no way influenced by Kappa Sigma. The 
charge that Kappa Sigma lifted the Iowa Chapter of Alpha Chi 
Rho is unsupported by facts. The Phi Epsilon Society of Buck- 
nell, which became a Chapter of Kappa Sigma, was formed some 



time before by members of Sigma Alpha Epsilon, who had with- 
drawn, they asserted, for just cause, from the latter fraternity. 
In 1904, membership in the sophomore society of Theta Nu Ep- 
silon was prohibited. The names of Kappa Sigmas may be 
found in all other famous inter-class local and professional fra- 

A Kappa Sigma, Dean Charles W. Burkett of N. C. A. and M., 
founded the technical fraternity Alpha Zeta. Another Kappa 
Sigma, Powell C. Fauntleroy, of the U. S. Navy, was one of 
the founders of Pi Mu, the first medical fraternity of Southern 
origin. One of the founders of Chi Omega, a prosperous national 
sorority of Southern origin, was Dr. Charles Richardson, of 

The following is the Chapter roll of Kappa Sigma. For more 
detailed references to it, see Appendix B. In order there are 
date of foundation, name of Chapter, name of university, date 
of inactivity and number of initiates to July 1, 1906. 

1869. Zeta, University of Virginia 165 

1871. Beta, University of Alabama 68 

1873. Eta, Trinity College (N. C.) 118 

1873. Mu, Washington and Lee University 90 

1874. Xi, Virginia Military Institute (1883) 23 

1874. Nu, Virginia Polytechnic Institute (1889) 91 

1874. Omicron, Emory and Henry College ( 1895) 138 

1874. Alpha-Alpha, University of Maryland 100 

1875. Alpha-Beta, Mercer University 93 

1877. Kappa, Vanderbilt University 160 

1880. Lambda, University of Tennessee 192 

1880. Alpha Chi, Lake Forest University 68 

1882. Alpha Iota, Grant University 43 

1882. Phi, Southwestern Presbyterian University 116 

1882. Omega, University of the South 175 

1883. Pi, University of West Virginia (1887) 17 

1883. Upsilon, Hampden-Sidney College 94 

1884. Tau, University of Texas 205 

1885. Rho, North Georgia Agricultural College (1891) 32 

1885. Chi, Purdue University 166 

1885. Delta, Maryland Military and Naval Academy (1887) 31 

1885. Epsilon, Centenary College ( 1904) 84 

1886. Psi, University of Maine 180 

1886. Sigma, Ohio Northern University ( 1888) 23 



1886. Iota, Southwestern University 145 

1887. Gamma, Louisiana State University 139 

1887. Alpha, Emory College ( 1891 ) 24 

1887. Beta-Theta, Indiana University 71 

1887. Theta, Cumberland University 123 

1888. Beta, Thatcher Institute ( 1891 ) 17 

1888. Pi, Swarthmore College 91 

1888. Eta, Randolph Macon College 67 

1889. Sigma, Tulane University 106 

1890. Nu, William and Mary College 117 

1890. Chi Omega, South Carolina University (1897) 28 

1890. Xi, University of Arkansas 150 

1890. Delta, Davidson College 97 

1891. Beta, University of Indianapolis 11 

1891. Alpha-Gamma, University of Illinois 159 

1892. Alpha-Delta, Pennsylvania State College 121 

1892. Alpha-Epsilon, University of Pennsylvania in 

1892. Alpha-Zeta, University of Michigan 147 

1892. Alpha-Eta, George Washington University 132 

1892. Alpha-Theta, Southwestern Baptist University 116 

1892. Alpha- Kappa, Cornell University 143 

1893. Alpha-Lambda, University of Vermont 128 

1893. Alpha-Mu, University of North Carolina 33 

1894. Alpha-Nu, Wofford College 67 

1894. Alpha-Xi, Bethel College ( 1902) 45 

1894. Alpha-Omicron, Kentucky University (1901) 50 

1895. Alpha- Pi, Wabash College 70 

1895. Alpha-Rho, Bowdoin College 99 

1895. Alpha-Sigma, Ohio State University 101 

1895. Alpha-Tau, Georgia School of Technology 84 

1895. Alpha-Upsilon, Millsaps College 109 

1896. Alpha- Phi, Bucknell University 7^ 

1897. Alpha-Psi, University of Nebraska 104 

1897. Alpha-Omega, William Jewell College 60 

1898. Beta- Alpha, Brown University 83 

1898. Beta-Beta, Richmond College 43 

1898. Beta-Gamma, Missouri State University 77 

1898. Beta-Delta, Washington and Jefferson College 52 

1898. Beta-Epsilon, University of Wisconsin 88 

1899. Beta-Zeta, Stanford University 59 

1900. Beta-Eta, Alabama Polytechnic Institute 59 

1900. Beta-Iota, Lehigh University 49 

1901. Beta- Kappa, New Hampshire College 90 

1 90 1. Beta-Lambda, University of Georgia 38 

1901. Beta-Mu, University of Minnesota 61 


1901. Beta-Nu, Kentucky State College 40 

1901. Beta-Xi, University of California 48 

1902. Beta-Omicron, University of Denver 40 

1902. Beta-Pi, Dickinson College 45 

1902. Beta-Sigma, Washington University (Mo.) 32 

1902. Beta-Rho, University of Iowa 58 

1903. Beta-Tau, Baker University 49 

1903. Beta-Upsilon, North Carolina A. and M. College 42 

1903. Beta-Phi, Case School of Applied Science 41 

1903. Beta-Chi, Missouri School of Mines 29 

1903. Beta-Psi, University of Washington 32 

1904. Beta-Omega, Colorado College 28 

1904. Gamma-Alpha, University of Oregon 28 

1904. Gamma-Beta, University of Chicago 26 

1904. Gamma-Gamma, Colorado School of Mines 29 

1904. Gamma-Delta, Massachusetts State College 101 

1905. Gamma-Zeta, New York University 15 

1905. Gamma-Epsilon, Dartmouth College 32 

3905. Gamma- Eta, Harvard University 29 

1905. Gamma-Theta, University of Idaho 29 

1906. Gamma-Iota, Syracuse University 18 

1906. Gamma-Kappa, University of Oklahoma 12 

Number of active Chapters, 76; inactive Chapters, 15; number 
of initiates, 7155. 
















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While Kappa Sigma is proud of her sons who are distinguished 
in the country's intellectual, political and material life, of her Chap- 
ter roll of famous institutions, of her enthusiastic graduate clubs, 
yet she has always emphasized the fraternal harmony and fellow- 
ship, and high ideals, that mark a Kappa Sigma brother, wherever 
you may find one, throughout life, until death. While some fra- 
ternities count their disloyal members by dozens and even by 
Chapters, Kappa Sigma has had but a few isolated cases where an 
undergraduate left the Fraternity to join another. These sep- 
arate cases occurred a number of years ago in the North, while 
the Fraternity was young. 

Thus, this congenial society of scholars and gentlemen do not 
allow their fraternal associations to die when they leave their 
universities. Good-fellowship, and not scholastic pedantry alone, 
was emphasized by the American founders. There are Alumni 
Clubs all over the country where dinners and dances keep up a 
delightful friendship. Toasts to Kappa Sigma have been heard 
at dinner at all the famous resorts from the Palace Hotel in San 
Francisco to the Waldorf-Astoria in New York and from the 
Auditorium in Chicago to the St. Charles in New Orleans. Many 
of these events are becoming traditional, such as the ''Norfolk 
Fish Fry," the "Dutch Treat" at Denver, the "French Dinner" at 
San Francisco, the "Round Table" at Washington, the "Thanks- 
giving Dinner" at Kansas City, the "New England Initiation 
Dinner" at Boston, the "New York Annual," the "Philadelphia 
Dinner," the "Big Chicago Dinner," the "Danville New Year's 
Dinner," and many more. In many of the leading cities — St. 
Louis, Los Angeles, Seattle, New York, Chicago, Salt Lake, New 
Orleans, San Francisco, Washington, Denver, Boston, Pitts- 



burgh and possibly others — it is customary for Kappa Sigmas to 
meet once a week for lunch in some selected restaurant in the 
center of the business district. 

There are now Alumni Chapters at 

Danville, 111. 
Danville, Va. 
Fort Smith 

Jackson, Miss. 
Jackson, Tenn. 
Kansas City 
Little Rock 
Los Angeles 





New Orleans 

New York 



Pine Bluff 





St. Louis 

Salt Lake City 

San Francisco 








Yazoo City 

The alumni spirit once caused an Alumni Chapter to be formed 
without the confines of the United States, at Chihuahua, Mexico, 
the first foreign alumni chapter of any fraternity. At one time 
there were state associations of the Chapters and alumni of Ten- 
nessee, Louisiana, Texas and Virginia, but these were abandoned 
when the District system was adopted. A club-house, the first 
of its kind at Washington, D. C, was supported by the alumni 
of that city during 1902 and 1903. It was successful, but was 
temporarily given up in order that a club building more central- 


ly located in the club district might be obtained, a task almost im- 
possible. The University of Maryland house is used with and 
supported jointly by the alumni of Baltimore as a club-house for 
the latter. The New York alumni are now forming a corporation 
to acquire and furnish a club-house ; such New York clubs have 


been successful with at least two fraternities. Boston alumni 
are considering a similar scheme. 

The accompanying map shows the number of Kappa Sigmas in 
each state and also every town where a Kappa Sigma may be lo- 
cated. No one section can claim a monopoly of them. Notice 


how Pennsylvania and Texas balance each other, or New York 
and Mississippi, or Illinois and Georgia. 

Membership in the Fraternity is restricted. No one may be 
initiated unless he be a member of the college where there is a 
Chapter. In one case, the general Fraternity conferred honorary 
membership, and thereby honored itself, upon Jefferson Davis, 


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president of the Confederate States of America. The President's 
son, Jefferson Davis, Jr., was a member at Virginia Military 
Institute. The president and his family have always had a pe- 
culiarly tender affection for the Fraternity. To both Mrs. Davis 
and Miss Winnie Davis, the general Fraternity has presented 
badges, and Mrs. Davis was never seen without her Kappa Sigma 
insignia. Miss Davis' badge was thought to be the most beauti- 
ful Greek letter fraternity badge ever produced. However, the 


Kappa Sigma's Only Honorary M;mber 



society is as much Northern as it is Southern. The same Grand 
Conclave which sent the badge to Mrs. Davis also sent one to 
Mrs. Grant, widow of the President, whose favorite grandson. 
Capt. Algernon E. U. Sartoris, is a Kappa Sigma. A number 
of other scions of the White House are members. 

A complete list of the names of prominent alumni would be 
tiresome. Kappa Sigmas are to be found in all places where the 
prizes of American life are being won. There are men of national 
and international proportions in Wall Street, the Army and Navy, 
in Congress, as heads of large corporations, college presidents, re- 

Hill II8H 

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formers, railroad officials, State officers, editors of magazines 
and newspapers, and with world-wide reputations as captains 
of industry, lawyers, physicians and litterateurs. Kappa Sigma, 
so thoroughly American, views with a special pride its record in 
the Spanish- American war, wherein, according to the publications 
of other fraternities, it had a larger percentage of men engaged 
in proportion to its membership than any other Greek letter or- 
ganization. There were Kappa Sigmas from privates to general 
officers. True to its ancient literary origin in Europe, members 
of the Order established the first English newspaper in the Phil- 
ippines and the first all-English newspaper in Cuba. 


The Fraternity was first governed by Zeta, or the mother Chap- 
ter, at the University of Virginia. In July, 1876, a Grand Con- 
clave was called at the old Eutaw House, Baltimore. Here 
was instituted the Supreme Executive Committee, a body of 
legislative, judicial, and executive powers. Greater authority 
was added to it by the Richmond, Virginia, Conclave, in October, 
1878. During a period in 1884, the Committee was relieved of 
much purely secretarial work when Omega Chapter, at the Uni- 
versity of the South attended to much detail as a grand Chapter. 
But from 1878 to the present there has been a government not 
precisely similar to that of any other college fraternity. Many 
have a central body similar to the Supreme Executive Committee. 
Following what is known as the "Masonic tradition" — for Mason- 
ry makes its officers supreme — hardly any other society leaves that 
governing body so free to act for the best interests of the Fra- 
ternity in all things which may come up for consideration be- 
tween regular Conclaves. The Fraternity, as a whole, responds 
promptly and cheerfully to the direction of the S. E. C. In fact, 
this body has wielded more influence and attained better results 
in several instances in the government of students than college 
presidents. The Fraternity has come into closer contact with col- 
lege faculties than any other, for once a year the S. E. C. inquires 
directly of the college authorities concerning the scholarship and 
general record of the members of each Chapter, acting upon the 
replies as may be needed. 

Difficulties with faculties over opposition to fraternities are 
almost things of the past. For years at Emory and Henry, there 
was an unceasing war. Such was the case at Virginia Polytech- 



nic Institute. At the latter, General Lomax and President Davis, 
of the Confederacy, were brought into the discussion. The Fra- 
ternity faced the obnoxious regulations at the opening of Vander- 
bilt, for the first year maintaining one of the most successful 
sub rosa chapters ever in existence — as did Phi Delta Theta at 
a slightly later period — but finally succumbed. Anti-fraternity 
laws coupled with the rigid military discipline at the "West Point 
of the South," the Virginia Military Institute, killed the Chapter. 

Where the First Grand Conclave was held, 1876 

For the first two years at Lake Forest, knowledge of membership 
meant expulsion from the college. There was trouble over ad- 
mission of the Fraternity to the University of the South, but the 
influence of General E. Kirby Smich and President Jefferson 
Davis, exerted in behalf of Kappa Sigma, made the course pos- 
sible. The hardest fight ever made in behalf of fraternities in 
American colleges has taken place in Arkansas where the con- 
test has been carried, under the leadership of the Arkansas Chap- 





ter and its alumni, into the 'legislature. The result is still in the 

The records of the various offices of the Fraternity are very 
complete and voluminous. By the use of blank forms for reports 
to and from the Chapters, they have been highly systematized 
and brought up to the latest methods. It has been the policy of 
the Fraternity to train certain of the officers of the S. E. C. as 
specialists, and these have held their positions for years. Even 


with their complete knowledge of the Fraternity's workings, they 
are compelled to devote almost half their time to it — practically 
a labor of love with them. 

The members of the Supreme Executive Committee are a 
Worthy Grand Master, a Worthy Grand Procurator, a Worthy 
Grand Master of Ceremonies, a Worthy Grand Scribe and a 
Worthy Grand Treasurer. The other national officers are a 
songbook editor, a catalogue editor, a historian and an alumni 






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For purposes of administration, the Fraternity is divided into 
fourteen Districts. The geographical limits of these are shown 
on accompanying maps. At the head of each is a District Grand 
Master. He personally oversees the Chapters, resulting in the 
complete unification and understanding among them, and keep- 
ing the work of each individual Chapter up to the standard. 
He is also expected to know, and to keep in touch with every 
alumnus residing in his District. 

While the greater part of the government is delegated to the 


Supreme Executive Committee, still the ultimate and highest 
authority in the Fraternity is the Grand Conclave. The Con- 
claves' legislation in the past has been intended to hamper as 
little as possible the powers of the S. E. C. Conclaves have been 
held as follows: Baltimore, Md., 1876; Richmond, Ya., 1878; 
Abingdon, Ya., 1880; Knoxville, Tenn., 1883; Lynchburg, Va., 
1885; Nashville, Tenn., 1887; Atlanta, Ga., 1888; Baltimore, Md., 
1890; Washington, D. C, 1892; Richmond, Va., 1894; Indianap- 
olis, Ind., 1896; Chattanooga, Tenn., 1898; Philadelphia, Pa., 




Ijf-. -j — -L 

1 i KAPPK8\g*k 






1900; New Orleans, La., 1902; St. Louis, Mo., 1904; Lookout 
.Mountain, Tenn., 1906. These meetings are usually held at some 
popular hotel or resort. They have grown into large concourses 
with hundreds of the silver-grays and undergraduates, with their 
wives and sweethearts, arriving on special trains and cars from 
all over the country. The St. Louis ( 1904) Conclave during the 
World's Fair was one of the largest meetings of Greek- letter 


The G. Ms Room 

Freshmen at Work 

men ever assembled. The last (1906) Conclave was held at 
Lookout Mountain, Tenn., and the next (190S) Conclave will 
probably be held at Put-in- Bay, Ohio. Detailed accounts and 
minutes of all the Conclaves may be found in the Caduceus, the 
Star and Crescent, and various printed reports. 

There are also District Conclaves, usually held annually in each 
District. They are informal gatherings for fraternal intercourse 



and for general discussion of anything of imoortance. but not 

Arms of the Fraternity. — At the last moment it was found 
advisable to hold back the coat-of-arms from the engraver, 
pending the adoption of certain suggestions for its perfection 
in correctness and adaptability. Purchasers of this book will 
be supplied with the official design when engraved. 

May, 1907. 


tive arms. The colors of the Fraternity are scarlet, white and 
emerald green. The Fraternity flower is the lily-of-the-valley. 

No other fraternity pays more attention to visitation of alumni 
chapters, for a feature of the organization of which much is made 
consists in keeping the alumni in touch with one another. This 
visiting is done principally by members of the S. E. C. and D. 
G. M's. The number of alumni meetings in Kappa Sigma is 
frequently remarked. 

• F THE 






and for general discussion of anything of importance, but not 
for legislation. Many of the alumni, and the undergraduates 
for the most part en masse, attend them, and although not an old 
institution in the Fraternity, they have been successful. 

The arms of the Fraternity, displayed in the frontispiece, are.: 
Gules and vert, on a chevron argent five estoiles of the first. 
Crest: on a wreath of its colors a dexter cubit arm proper hold- 
ing a caduceus erect or. Individual Chapters may adopt distinc- 


tive arms. The colors of the Fraternity are scarlet, white and 
emerald green. The Fraternity flower is the lily-of-the-valley. 

No other fraternity pays more attention to visitation of alumni 
chapters, for a feature of the organization of which much is made 
consists in keeping the alumni in touch with one another. This 
visiting is done principally by members of the S. E. C. and D. 
G. M's. The number of alumni meetings in Kappa Sigma is 
frequently remarked. 




The Fraternity has always insisted upon chapter houses when 
possible. In 1870, the house occupied at the University of Vir- 
ginia was one of the first fraternity houses in the country and the 
first fraternity house in the South. In 1882, the house occupied 
by the Chapter at the University of the South was among the 
first houses owned and occupied in that section. In 1883, at the 
Knoxville Conclave, Kappa Sigma made the first attempt to 
control the building of houses, by the national organization of a 
fraternity. This was a failure, and it has since been the policy 
to place responsibility on the individual Chapters. In 1895, Kap- 
pa Sigma erected a house at Maine, the Fraternity's first Northern 
chapter house to be owned and the first fraternity house in the 
state of Maine. The three fraternities now having the largest 
number of homes are Beta Theta Pi, Phi Delta Theta, and Kappa 

It is but a matter of time before all Chapters, where there 
are no restrictions by college authorities, even if houses are not 
the vogue, will be compelled by their general organizations to 
possess a home. At present there are Kappa Sigma houses at 
the following institutions: Maine, Bowdoin, Xew Hampshire. 
Massachusetts State, Harvard, Cornell, Syracuse, Pennsylvania 
State, Pennsylvania, Lehigh, Maryland, George Washington, 
William and Mary, Wofford, Vanderbilt, University of the South, 
Ohio State, Case, Washington and Jefferson, Michigan, Purdue. 
Indiana, Illinois, Lake Forest, Chicago, Wisconsin, Minnesota. 
Iowa, Nebraska, William Jewell. Missouri State, Missouri Mines, 
Baker, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Millsaps, Louisiana State, Texas, 
Colorado, Colorado Mines, Stanford, California, Washington. 



Oregon, Idaho. Some Chapters occupy whole sections of college 

Some of the houses are noted in the fraternity world. That 
at one Eastern institution has been described as "the best planned 
at Cornell" ; that at Texas, "the best house owned in the South" ; 
that at Iowa, "the most elegant house in the Middle West" ; that 
at Stanford "the finest house on the Pacific Coast." Some of 
them have been historic. One recently occupied by the Maryland 
Chapter was the Baltimore home of General Robert E. Lee. The 
one now occupied at Missouri Mines was the headquarters of the 


Army of the Missouri during the civil war. The Harvard house 
at Cambridge, Mass., and the William and Mary at Williamsburg, 
the ancient capital of Virginia, both stand on historic ground. 
At the California and Colorado houses, in the midst of the two 
American playgrounds, many alumni visit, making these Kappa 
Sigma seats their headquarters. More or less all the houses in 
the large centers are on many occasions utilized for this purpose. 
The Virginia Chapter and the remainder of the Fraternity have 
collected funds for a house for the mother Chapter as a memorial, 
to be known as "McCormick Hall." 






The publications of the Fraternity are extensive. From the lit- 
tle pamphlet struck off on a press of the Virginia Polytechnic 
Institute by Dr. C. E. Wingo and William Freneau Page, they 
have grown to the point where the periodical literature alone is 
over a thousand pages annually, probably a larger amount than 
of any other fraternity. Believing that a wide acquaintance among 
its members is one of its sources of strength, the organization 
fosters all efforts of this kind. The most important publication 
of any Greek letter society is its magazine ; in the case of Kappa 
Sigma known as The Caduceus. 

Previous to 1878, there had been several spasmodic attempts 
by various fraternities to found magazines, but with two excep- 
tions, these were unsuccessful and but a few numbers were is- 
sued. The period from 1878 to 1885 saw productions of this kind 
placed on a sound basis, although most of those established by the 
New England fraternities have since failed. At first, it was 
argued that Kappa Sigma was of too secret a nature for an open 
publication. However, the Lynchburg Conclave of 1885 author- 
ized the issuance of the Kappa Sigma Quarterly. Brought up in 
the cultivated and literary home of his father, General Terry of 
the Confederacy, Frank Hanson Terry, now a newspaper man 
of Wytheville, Va., was elected the first editor. In 1887, Ed. L. 
Sutton, now managing editor of the Semi-Weekly Atlanta Journal. 
became editor, and continued as such till the Baltimore Conclave 
of 1890. This convention made the magazine a bi-monthly, and 
changed its name to The Star and Crescent, rechristened be- 
fore issue The Caduceus of Kappa Sigma. During 1891, Duncan 
Martin, now of the Memphis bar, was editor. From 1892 to 1895. 



the brilliant but erring George William Warner was editor. J. 
Harry Covington, of the Maryland bar, was editor from 1895 
to 1905. During 1905 and until June, 1906, Professor Finis King 
Farr, of Cumberland, was in charge. The last and present edi- 
tor is Guy T. Viskniskki, of the McClure News Syndicate. 

The Caduceus is now in its twenty-first volume. It has never 
less than 176 pages in each of its five issues for the year. At 
least forty pages are given to alumni notes. Due notice is taken 


of all important college and fraternity matters, the interests of 
Kappa Sigma receiving the most attention. Illustrations are 
abundantly used, the five numbers of 1905- 1906 containing two 
hundred and forty half-tones. It has been pronounced the peer 
of any magazine ever issued from the Greek press. It is also 
among those claiming the honor of the largest circulation. 

The first Catalogue of the Fraternity was prepared in 1881 
by S. A. Jackson. Another edition by Brother Jackson appeared 
in 1886. In 1897 was published a Directory of Kappa Sigma, by 



George Vaughan, now of the Arkansas bar. For a number of 
years a history and catalogue, complete in every detail, was in 
course of collection by this gentleman. Had this catalogue been 
published, it would have been in some respects one of the most 
complete ever issued by a college fraternity. Kappa Sigma began 
at a very early date after her origin to collect the "college honors" 
of her membership, which honors are lacking for early members 


in most fraternity catalogues. All of these records were com- 
pletely destroyed by fire at Little Rock, Ark. The accident was 
peculiarly unfortunate. In 1904 a pocket Address Book was pub- 
lished under the direction of David F. Hoy, registrar of Cornell 
University and now Catalogue Editor of the Fraternity. 

In 1906 Brother Hoy issued a second and enlarged edition of 
the Address Book. He has collected complete data for another 



catalogue, which will contain some new features in fraternity 
cataloguing, and which will be published at the will of the Su- 
preme Executive Committee. 

The blanks for this catalogue contained the following 
questions : Full name without initials ; Chapter ; permanent 
address ; occupation ; date of initiation ; date of birth ; place 
of birth ; full name and address of father ; full maiden name and 


address of mother ; full maiden name of wife ; full name and 
address of wife's father ; date and place of marriage ; full names 
in order of birth and addresses of all children ; names of prepara- 
tory schools and dates of attendance ; names of colleges and dates 
of attendance ; degrees received — colleges and dates ; member- 
ship in college fraternities and societies ; college honors, prizes, 
scholarships, athletics, etc. ; membership in learned, fraternal, and 
other non-college societies ; list of books and articles published ; 



political positions and places of trust which have been held; ref- 
erence to any publication containing biographical or genealogical 
information ; names and addresses of all Kappa Sigma relatives ; 
name and address of personal friend who will always know ad- 
dress ; remarks ; signature ; business address ; temporary address ; 
residence address ; date of information. 

( )ther printed literature is becoming so extensive it is difficult 


to keep up with it. The Fraternity, like four others, issues a 
secret bulletin in addition to its regular magazine. This is The 
Star and Crescent, which appears quarterly. It contains reports 
of officers, and other official communications to the Fraternity, 
items of fraternity news of such a nature that their publication 
in The Caduceus would be improper, and in general all such 
things as concern the inner workings of the Fraternity. A 
unique publication is The Secret Book of Kappa Sigma. It gives. 


from a Kappa Sigma standpoint, of course, the "standing" or 
"rating" of all fraternities and of the chapters of each fraternity 
in Kappa Sigma colleges. Reports of Chapters and circular re- 
ports of various offices of the Fraternity are voluminous. The 
Yellow Journal is issued from the office of the Worthy Grand 
Master, and circulates onh among the national officers. All 
Chapters are required at least annually, to send out a letter to 
their alumni, most of these letters being printed. The Boston 
Alumni have published an address book of the alumni of New 
England. There are other locality directories published under 


different auspices for states and cities. The Cumberland, Maine, 
North Georgia, Maryland Military and Naval, Wofford and 
Massachusetts Chapters have issued annuals. The Chapters at 
the University of the South, Centenary, and Vermont have writ- 
ten histories. The Illinois, Swarthmore, Wabash, Purdue and 
Massachusetts Chapters have issued catalogues. The general 
Fraternity has had printed Kappa Sigma calendars. In 1896 
the Bowdoin Chapter issued a small songbook. A songbook 
was published by the Fraternity in 1902. Another is in process 
of collection. There are a number of pamphlets containing Kappa 
Sigma songs and poems. There are three editions of the ritual 



and five editions of the Constitution. Many reports of Conclaves 
have been printed under separate covers. 

Kappa Sigma has been very fortunate in the preservation of 
its history. This has been chiefly due to the fact that it was but 
twelve years between the time the third Chapter was established, 
the records of the second Chapter having been lost, and the ap- 
pearance of the Fraternity's magazine. Also the early documents, 


so frequently missing in many fraternities, were all collected and 
preserved at an early date. The events in the Fraternity's his- 
tory, previous to the existence of the magazine, which have not 
been covered by historical articles in the Quarterly, Caduceus, Star 
and Crescent, and catalogues, are preserved in the recently pub- 
lished Early Letters and Papers of Kappa Sigma, compiled by 
Boutwell Dunlap, now historian of the Fraternity. Freshmen 
are examined upon the Fraternity's history. 


Some years ago it was customary to classify fraternities on a 
basis of their origin, into Eastern or Northern, Southern and 
Western. They are now usually classified as either national or 
sectional. "The national fraternities include those generally 
represented in all sections of the country. Of these Beta Theta 
Pi, Phi Delta Theta, Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Sigma Chi, Kappa 
Sigma, Phi Kappa Psi, and Phi Gamma Delta are prominent 
types. The sectional fraternities are Eastern and Southern. The 
Eastern group consists of Alpha Delta Phi, Delta Phi Theta, 
Delta Chi, Sigma Phi, Psi Upsilon, Kappa Alpha (Northern) 
and Delta Psi. The Southern group includes Kappa Alpha 
(Southern order), and Pi Kappa Alpha. Delta Kappa Epsilon 
and Chi Psi, originating in the Eastern States, have what might 
be termed a limited national development. Alpha Tau Omega, 
Kappa Sigma, Sigma Nu and Sigma Alpha Epsilon, originally 
distinctively Southern, have completely lost that character. Zeta 
Psi and Chi Psi are difficult to classify." (Baird's Manual of 
American College Fraternities, Sixth edition.) The sectional 
fraternities were once more important than they now are. In 
most cases they have few petitions for charters and seldom es- 
tablish new chapters. They have failed to take advantage of the 
larger new institutions, maintaining many chapters in unimpor- 
tant colleges. Their conventions are attended by a small number 
of members. Lacking in alumni clubs, they hold but few meet- 
ings in the large centers, and these seldom attract any attention. 
The fraternities are not a living reality to their alumni and the 
alumnus' active connection is soon lost. Their literature is con- 
fined to catalogues, which quickly grow out of date, and they 
publish no magazines. The funds and membership are not suf- 



ficient to carry on the enterprises of the national orders. As 
fraternities they attract little attention. Collegians prefer the 
national fraternities, says a recent writer of authority upon the 

The parent stem of the Greek letter college fraternity was 
Phi Beta Kappa, established at William and Mary in 1776. 6 It 
was extended to Yale (1780), Harvard (1781), Dartmouth 
(1787), and Union (1817). Modeled after Phi Beta Kappa was 


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the Kappa Alpha Society, the first Greek letter society in the pres- 
ent sense of the word, founded in 1825, to which ascent can be 
traced all the American college fraternities. Owing to the anti- 
Masonic outbreak in 1831, upon the advice of John Quincy 
Adams, Edward Everett, and others, the secrets of Phi Beta 

c The best account of the origin of Phi Beta Kappa may be found in 
"The Original Records of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, 1776-1781," by 
L. G. Tyler, K. S., William and Mary Quarterly Historical Magazine, 
April, 1896. 






Kappa were made public, since which time it has been an honor- 
ary organization. 

The general men's fraternities are : " 

. Ilpha Chi Rho. Founded at Trinity College, Hartford, Conn., 
in 1895. Chapters, 7; active, 6; inactive, 1. Number of initiates, 
258. Publishes the Garnet and White. No catalogue. 

Alpha Delta Phi. Founded at Hamilton College, Clinton, N. 
Y., in 1832. Chapters, 31; active, 24; inactive, 7. Number of 


initiates, 9,406. Publishes no magazine. Last catalogue in 1899. 

Alpha Tan Omega. Founded at Virginia Military Institute, 
Lexington, Va., in 1865. Chapters, 82; active, 51; inactive, 31. 
Number of initiates, 6,486. Publishes the Palm. Last catalogue 
in 1903. 

Beta Theta Pi. Founded at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, 

7 These statistics are taken from the sixth (1905) edition of Baird's 

Manual of American College Fraternities. 



in 1839. Chapters, 88; active, 67; inactive, 21. Number of 
initiates, 14,046. Publishes the Beta Theta Pi. Last catalogue 
in 1899. 

Chi Phi. Resulted from a union in 1874 of the Northern Order 
of Chi Phi and the Southern Order of Chi Phi. The Northern 
order of Chi Phi, resulted from the union in 1867 °f 
Chi Phi, founded at Princeton University, Princeton, N. J., 
in 1854, with Chi Phi, founded at Hobart College, Geneva, 
N. Y., in i860. The Southern Order of Chi Phi was founded at 


the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C, in 1858. 
Chapters, 46 ; active, 20 ; inactive, 26. Number of initiates, 4,422. 
No magazine. Last catalogue in 1890. 

Chi Psi. Founded at Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., in 
1841. Chapters, 29; active, 18; inactive, 11. Number of initiates, 
4,459. Publishes a sub-rosa magazine, the Purple and Gold. 
Last catalogue in 1902. 

Delta Kappa Epsilon. Founded at Yale College, New Haven, 
Conn., in 1844. Chapters, 54; active, 41; inactive, 13. Number 
of initiates, 15,000. Publishes the Delta Kappa Epsilon Quar- 
terly.. Last catalogue in 1900. 



Delta Phi. Founded at Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., in 
1827. Chapters, 16; active, 11 ; inactive, 5. Number of initiates, 
3,341. No magazine. Last catalogue in 1897. 

Delta Psi. Founded at Columbia College, New York City, in 
1847. Chapters, 19; active, 8; inactive, 11. Number of initiates, 
2,989. No magazine. Last catalogue in 1898. 

Delta Tau Delta. Founded at Bethany College, Bethany, W. 
Va., in 1859. Chapters, 75 ; active, 47 ; inactive, 28. Number of 


initiates, 7,486. Publishes the Rainbow. Last catalogue in 1897 
(with supplement in 1902). 

Delta Upsilon (Non-secret). Founded at Williams College, 
Williamstown, Mass., in 1834 (or as claimed by some authorities, 
founded at Troy, N. Y., in 1847). Chapters, 41 ; active, 36; in- 
active, 5. Number of initiates, 9,169. Publishes the Delta Up- 
silon Quarterly. Last catalogue in 1903. 

Kappa Alpha (Northern). Founded at Union College, Schen- 
ectady, N. Y., in 1825. Chapters, 9; active, 7; inactive, 2. Num- 
ber of initiates, 1,666. No magazine. Last catalogue in 1902. 

Kappa Alpha (Southern). Founded at Washington and Lee 


University, Lexington, Va., in 1865. Chapters, 60; active, 49; 
inactive, II. Number of initiates, 6,146. Publishes the Kappa 
Alpha Journal. Last catalogue in 1901. 

Kappa Sigma. Founded at the University of Virginia, Char- 
lottesville, Va., in 1869. Chapters, 91; active, 76; inactive, 15. 
Number of initiates, 7155 (statistics of 1906). Publishes the 
Caduceus and the secret Star and Crescent. Last catalogue in 

Phi Delta Theta. Founded at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, 
itiates, 13,161. Publishes the Scroll of Phi Delta Theta and the 
secret Palladium. Last catalogue in 1907. 

Phi Gamma Delta. Founded at Jefferson College, Canonsburg. 
Pa., in 1848. Chapters, 81 ; active, 57 ; inactive, 24. Number of 
in 1848. Chapters, 95 ; active, 69 ; inactive, 26. Number of in- 
initiates, 9,979. Publishes the Phi Gamma Delta. Last catalogue 
in 1898. 

Phi Kappa Psi. Founded at Jefferson College, Canonsburg, 
Pa., in 1852. Chapters, 63; active, 42; inactive, 21. Number of 
initiates, 9,806. Publishes the Shield. Last catalogue in 1902. 

Phi Kappa Sigma. Founded at the University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Pa., in 1850. Chapters, 41 ; active, 24; inactive, 17. 
Number of initiates, 3,122. Publishes the sub-rosa Phi Kappa 
Sigma News Letter. Last catalogue in 1905. 

Phi Sigma Kappa. Founded at Massachusetts State College, 
Amherst, Mass., in 1873. Chapters, 19; active, 19; inactive, o; 
Number of initiates, 1,551. Publishes the sub-rosa Signet. Last 
catalogue in 1902. 

Pi Kappa Alpha. Founded at the University of Virginia, Char- 
lottesville, Va., in 1868. Chapters, 33; active, 29; inactive, 4. 
Number of initiates, 2,427. Publishes the Shield and Diamond 
and the secret Dagger and Key. Last catalogue in 1891. 

Psi Upsilon. Founded at Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., 
in 1833. Chapters, 23; active, 22; inactive, 1. Number of in- 
itiates, 10,428. No magazine. Last catalogue in 1902. 

Sigma Alpha Epsilon. Founded at the University of Alabama, 
University, Ala., in 1856. Chapters, 94; active, 66; inactive, 28. 
Number of initiates, 9,383. Publishes the Record and the secret 
Phi Alpha. Last catalogue in 1904. 


Sigma Chi. Founded at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, in 
1855. Chapters, j6; active, 53 ; inactive, 23. Number of initiates, 
8,358. Publishes the Sigma Chi Quarterly and the secret Bulletin. 
Last catalogue in 1902. 

Sigma Nu. Founded at the Virginia Military Institute, Lexing- 
ton, Va., in 1869. Chapters, 69; active, 54; inactive, 15. Number 
of initiates, 5,357. Publishes the Delta. Last catalogue in 1902. 

Sigma Phi. Founded at Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., 
in 1827. Chapters, 10; active, 8; inactive, 2. Number of initiates, 
2,685. No magazine. Last catalogue in 1892. 

Sigma Phi Epsilon. Founded at Richmond College, Richmond, 
Va., in 1901. Chapters, 14; active, 13; inactive, 1. Number of 
initiates, 248. Publishes the Sigma Phi Epsilon Journal. No 

Theta Chi. Founded at Norwich University, Northfield, Vt, 
in 1856. Chapters, 2; active, 2; inactive, o. Number of initiates, 
341. No magazine. No catalogue. 

Theta Delta Chi. Founded at Union College, Schenectady, 
N. Y., in 1848. Chapters, 41 ; active, 24; inactive, 17. Number of 
initiates, 5,141. Publishes the Shield. Last catalogue in 1901. 

Zeta Psi. Founded at the University of the City of New York, 
New York City, in 1847. Chapters, 32 ; active, 22 ; inactive, 10. 
Number of initiates, 5,924. Last catalogue in 1899. 

The general sororities for women, with college and date of 
foundation, are Alpha Chi Omega (De Pauw, 1885), Alpha Omi- 
cron Pi (Barnard, 1897), Alpha Phi (Syracuse, 1872), Alpha 
Xi Delta (Lombard, 1902), Beta Sigma Omicron (Missouri, 
1888), Chi Omega (Arkansas, 1895), Delta Delta Delta (Boston, 
1888), Delta Gamma (Mississippi, 1872), Delta Sigma (Tufts, 
1895), Gamma Phi Beta (Syracuse, 1874), Kappa Alpha Theta 
(De Pauw, 1870), Kappa Delta (Virginia State Female Normal, 
1897), Kappa Kappa Gamma (Monmouth, 1870), Pi Beta Phi 
(Monmouth, 1867), Sigma Kappa (Colby, 1874), Sigma Sigma 
Sigma (Virginia State Normal, 1898), Zeta Tau Alpha (Vir- 
ginia State Normal, 1898). 

The professional fraternities, with college and date of founda- 
tion are: Alpha Chi Gamma (women-musical), Ottawa, Ohio. 


1899; Alpha Epsilon Iota (women-medical), Michigan, 1890; 
Alpha Kappa Kappa (medical-regular), Dartmouth, 1888; Alpha 
Kappa Phi (law), Northwestern, 1902; Alpha Mu Pi Omega 
(medical-regular), Pennsylvania, 1891 ; Alpha Omega Delta 
(medical-regular), Buffalo, 1879; Alpha Zeta (agricultural-tech- 
nical), Ohio State, 1897; Beta Mu Delta (biology), Syracuse. 
1903; Beta Phi Sigma (pharmacy), Buffalo, 1889; Chi Zeta Chi 
(medical-regular), Georgia, 1903; Delta Chi (law), Cornell, 
1890; Delta Sigma Delta (dental), Michigan, 1883; Epsilon Tau 
(women-homeopathic), Boston, 1896; Eta Pi Alpha (theologi- 
cal), St. Lawrence, 1891 ; Gamma Eta Alpha (law, Maine, 1901 ; 
Kappa Delta Epsilon (women-musical), Allegheny, 1899; Nu 
Sigma Nu (medical-regular), Michigan, 1882; Omega Psi 
(women-'medical), Northwestern, 1894; Omega Upsilon Phi 
(medical-regular), Buffalo, 1895; Phi Alpha Delta (law), Kent 
college of law, 1897; Phi Alpha Gamma (medical-homeopathic), 
New York Homeopathic Medical College, 1894; Phi Alpha Sigma 
(medical-regular), Bellevue, 1886; Phi Beta Pi (medical-regular) 
West Pennsylvania Medical College, 1891 ; Phi Chi (pharmacy), 
Michigan, 1883; Phi Chi (medical-regular), Vermont, 1886, and 
Louisville Medical College, 1894; Phi Delta (medical-regular), 
Long Island Hospital Medical College, 1901 ; Phi Delta Phi 
(law), Michigan, 1869; Phi Mu Epsilon (women-musical), 
De Pauw, 1892; Phi Rho Sigma (medical-regular), Northwest- 
ern, 1890; Pi Lambda Sigma (women-library economy), Syra- 
cuse, 1903; Pi Mu (medical-regular), Virginia, 1892; Psi Omega 
(dental), Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, 1892; O. T. V. 
(agricultural-scientific), Massachusetts State College, 1869; Sig- 
ma Alpha Iota (women-musical), Michigan, 1903; Sigma Rho 
Alpha (architecture), Syracuse, 1902; Theta Lambda Phi (law), 
Dickenson, 1903; Theta Xi (engineering-scientific), Rensselaer 
Polytechnic, 1864; Xi Psi Phi (dental), Michigan, 1889; Zeta 
Phi (women-medical), Syracuse, 1900. 

The inactive general fraternities, with college and date of 
foundation, are: Alpha Gamma (Cumberland, 1867), Alpha 
Kappa Phi (Center, 1858), Alpha Sigma Chi (Rutgers and Cor- 
nell, 1871), Delta Beta Phi (Cornell, 1878), Delta Epsilon (Ro- 
anoke, 1862), Iota Alpha Kappa (Union, 1858), Kappa Alpha 


(North Carolina, 1859), Kappa Phi Lambda (Jefferson, 1862), 
Kappa Sigma Kappa (Virginia Military Institute, 1867), Mys- 
tical Seven (Wesleyan, 1837), Mu Pi Lambda (Washington and 
Lee, 1895), Phi Alpha (College of City of New York, 1878), Phi 
Alpha Chi (Randolph-Macon, 1883), Phi Kappa Alpha (Brown, 
1870), Phi Phi Phi (Austin, 1894), Pi Kappa Tau (Iowa, 1895), 
Phi Delta Kappa (Washington and Jefferson, 1874), Phi Mu 
Omicron (South Carolina, 1858), Phi Sigma (Lombard, 1857), 
Psi Theta Psi (Washington and Lee, 1885), Sigma Alpha (Ro- 
anoke, 1859), Sigma Alpha Theta, Sigma Delta Pi (Dartmouth, 
1858), Upsilon Beta (Pennsylvania College, 1863), W. W. W. 
or Rainbow (Mississippi, 1849), Zeta Phi (Missouri, 1870). 

Although not in all respects satisfactory, the best general 
sketch of fraternities is the sixth edition of William Raimond 
Baird's American College Fraternities. The following fraternities 
have published manuals or histories : Psi Upsilon, Phi Delta 
Theta, Beta Theta Pi, Theta Delta Chi, Phi Kappa Psi, Sigma 
Alpha Epsilon, and Kappa Sigma. There is historical matter, 
principally devoted to chapter histories and ranging from a para- 
graph to several pages on a chapter, in the catalogues of Alpha 
Delta Phi, Chi Phi, Chi Psi, Delta Upsilon, Kappa Alpha (North- 
ern Order), Kappa Alpha (Southern Order), Kappa Sigma, Phi 
Kappa Sigma, Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Sigma Chi, Sigma Nu, Sig- 
ma Phi and Zeta Psi. Other important historical sources are the 
magazines — published by Alpha Tau Omega, Beta Theta Pi, 
Delta Kappa Epsilon, Delta Tau Delta, Delta Upsilon, Kappa 
Alpha (Southern Order), Kappa Sigma, Phi Delta Theta, Phi 
Gamma Delta, Phi Kappa Psi, Pi Kappa Alpha, Sigma Alpha 
Epsilon, Sigma Chi, Sigma Nu, and Theta Delta Chi. The best 
defense of fraternities is a collection of views upon the subject 
by forty-eight college presidents under the title, The American 
College Fraternity, edited by W. A. Crawford, K. S. The most 
complete bibliography of fraternities is contained in W. B. Palm- 
er's History of Phi Delta Theta. 


Familiar tongues that faintly call, 

Remembered songs of days gone by, 
Dim echoes, they too softly fall 

On ears that hunger for reply; 
For memory wakes and love makes cry 

In tones of greeting and of praise, 
"To you I drain the health-cup dry, 

Old comrades of my college days." 

Whate'er your emblems, hail to all ! 

Because ye loved them so shall I ; 
'Tis sweet each old friend to recall ; 

The Shield and Diamond, Sigma Chi, 
D. U., Phi Gam, and every Phi 

I loved; ye, Theta Delts, K. A's, 
And Dekes — greeting to all I cry, 

Old comrades of my college days. 

Good cheer and blessing to ye all, 

Old friends of days that shall not die : 
Like sunbeams dancing on the wall 

May all the happy moments fly. 
Companions still, may ye and I, 

Though straying far on several ways, 
Remember well the days gone by, 

Old comrades of my college days. 

But, Brothers, as the seasons fly, 

While bright the Star and Crescent blaze, 
Still closer grows our nearer tie, 

Old comrades of my college days. 

James S. Wilson (Nu). 



Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, Ala. — Sigma Alpha 
Epsilon, 1878; Phi Delta Theta, 1879; Alpha Tau Omega, 1879; 
Kappa Alpha, 1883; Sigma Nu, 1890; Pi Kappa Alpha, 1895; 
Kappa Sigma, 1900. 

Alabama, University of, University, Ala. — Delta Kappa Ep- 
silon, 1847; Alpha Delta Phi, 1851-58; Phi Gamma Delta, 1855; 
Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1856; Kappa Sigma, 1871 ; Sigma Nu, 
1874; Sigma Chi, 1876-77; Phi Delta Theta, 1877; Alpha Tau 
Omega, 1885 ; Kappa Alpha, 1885 ; Phi Kappa Sigma, 1903. 

Arkansas, University of, Fayetteville, Ark. — Alpha Tau Ome- 
ga, 1882-82; Kappa Sigma, 1890; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1894; 
Kappa Alpha, 1895; Sigma Nu, 1904; Pi Kappa Alpha, 1904; 
Sigma Chi, 1905. 

Baker University, Baldwin, Kan. — Phi Gamma Delta, 1865-68 ; 
Kappa Sigma, 1903 ; Delta Tau Delta, 1903. 

Botvdoin College, Brunswick, Me. — Alpha Delta Phi, 1841 ; 
Psi Upsilon, 1843; Chi Psi, 1844-46; Delta Kappa Epsilon, 1844; 
Theta Delta Chi, 1854; Delta Upsilon, 1857; Zeta Psi, 1868; Kap- 
pa Sigma, 1895 ; Beta Theta Pi, 1900. 

Brown University, Providence, R. I. — Alpha Delta Phi, 1836; 
Delta Phi, 1838; Psi Upsilon, 1840; Beta Theta Pi, 1847; Delta 
Kappa Epsilon, 1850; Delta Psi, 1852-53; Zeta Psi, 1852; Theta 
Delta Chi, 1853; Chi Psi, 1860-71 ; Delta Upsilon, i860; Chi Phi. 
1872-95; Phi Delta Theta, 1889; Alpha Tau Omega, 1894; Delta 
Tau Delta, 1896; Kappa Sigma, 1898; Phi Gamma Delta, 1902; 
Phi Kappa Psi, 1902 ; Phi Sigma Kappa, 1906. 

Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pa. — Phi Kappa Psi, 1855 ; 
Sigma Chi, 1864; Theta Delta Chi, 1866-73; Phi Gamma Delta, 
1882; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1893; Kappa Sigma, 1896. 

California, University of, Berkeley, Cal. — Zeta Psi, 1870; Phi 
Delta Theta, 1873 ; Chi Phi, 1875 ; Delta Kappa Epsilon, 1876 ; 
Beta Theta Pi, 1879; Phi Gamma Delta, 1881 : Sigma Chi, 1886; 


Sigma Nu, 1892; Chi Psi, 1894; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1894; 
Kappa Alpha, 1895; Delta Upsilon, 1896; Theta Delta Chi, 1900; 
Phi Kappa Psi, 1900; Alpha Tau Omega, 1900; Kappa Sigma, 
1901 ; Psi Upsilon, 1902 ; Phi Kappa Sigma, 1903. 

Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland, O. — Zeta Psi, 1885 ; 
Phi Delta Theta, 1896 ; Kappa Sigma, 1903 ; Beta Theta Pi, 1905 ; 
Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1905 ; Phi Kappa Psi, 1906. 

Centenary College, Jackson, La. — Phi Kappa Sigma, 1855-61 ; 
Delta Kappa Epsilon, 1857-62; Chi Phi, 1858-61 ; Kappa Sigma, 
1885-04; Kappa Alpha, 1891-04; Pi Kappa Alpha, 1902-04. 

Chicago, University of, Chicago, 111. — Zeta Psi, 1864-87; Phi 
Kappa Psi, 1865 ; Phi Delta Theta, 1865 ; Beta Theta Pi, 1868 
Psi Upsilon, 1869; Delta Kappa Epsilon, 1870; Sigma Nu, 1895 
Alpha Delta Phi, 1896; Sigma Chi, 1897; Delta Tau Delta, 1898 
Chi Psi, 1899; Delta Upsilon, 1901 ; Phi Gamma Delta, 1902 
Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1903; Kappa Sigma, 1904; Alpha Tau 
Omega, 1904; Phi Kappa Sigma, 1905; Sigma Phi Epsilon, 1906. 

Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colo. — Kappa Sigma, 
1904 ; Sigma Chi, 1905 ; 

Colorado State School of Mines, Golden, Colo. — Sigma Nu, 
1901 ; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1903 ; Kappa Sigma, 1904. 

Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. — Chi Phi, 1868; Kappa Al- 
pha, 1868; Chi Psi, 1869; Zeta Psi, 1869; Phi Kappa Psi, 1869; 
Delta Upsilon, 1869; Alpha Delta Phi, 1869; Delta Kappa Epsi- 
lon, 1870; Theta Delta Chi, 1870' Phi Delta Theta, 1872; Beta 
Theta Pi, 1874; Psi Upsilon, 1876; Alpha Tau Omega, 1887; 
Phi Gamma Delta, 1888; Phi Sigma Kappa, 1889; Delta Tau 
Delta, 1890; Sigma Chi, 1890; Sigma Phi, 1890; Delta Phi, 189 1 : 
Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1891 ; Kappa Sigma, 1892; Sigma Nu, 

Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tenn. — Beta Theta Pi, 1854- 
99; Delta Kappa Epsilon, 1857-73; Alpha Delta Phi, 1857-61; 
Delta Psi, 1858-61 ; Phi Kappa Sigma, 1859-61 ; Sigma Alpha 
Epsilon, i860; Phi Kappa, Psi. 1860-79; Chi Phi, 1861-61 ; Al- 
pha Tau Omega, 1868-02; Phi Gamma Delta, 1869-78; Sigma 
Chi, 1872-80; Kappa Sigma, 1887; Pi Kappa Alpha, 1892. 

Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H. — Psi Upsilon, 1842; Alpha 
Delta Phi, 1846; Delta Kappa Epsilon. 1853; Zeta Psi, 1855-74. 


Theta Delta Chi, 1869; Phi Delta Theta, 1884; Beta Theta Pi, 
1889; Sigma Chi, 1893; Phi Kappa Psi, 1896; Phi Gamma Delta. 
1901 ; Delta Tau Delta, 1901 ; Chi Phi, 1902 ; Kappa Sigma, 1905 

Davidson College, Davidson, N. C. — Beta Theta Pi, 1858; Chi 
Phi, 1859-69; Pi Kappa Alpha, 1869; Kappa Alpha, 1880; Sigma 
Alpha Epsilon, 1883; Kappa Sigma, 1890. 

Denver, University of, Denver, Colo. — Beta Theta Pi, 188S; 
Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1891 ; Kappa Sigma, 1902. 

Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa. — Zeta Psi, 1853-55 > P m Kappa 
Sigma. 1854; Phi Kappa Psi, 1859; Sigma Chi, 1859; Theta 
Delta Chi, 1861-96; Chi Phi, 1869-92; Beta Theta Pi, 1874; Phi 
Delta Theta, 1880; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1890; Kappa Sigma. 
1902, Alpha Chi Rho, 1905. 

Emory College, Oxford, Ga. — Kappa Alpha, 1869; Chi Phi, 
1869; Phi Delta Theta, 1871 ; Alpha Tau Omega, 1881 ; Sigma 
Alpha Epsilon, 1881 ; Delta Tau Delta, 1882 ; Sigma Nil, 1884 ; 
Kappa Sigma, 1887-91. 

Emory and Henry College, Emory, Va. — Phi Kappa Sigma, 
1856-61 ; Kappa Sigma, 1873-95 ; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1884-95 ; 
Kappa Alpha, 1893-95. 

George Washington University (until 1904 known as Colum- 
bian University), Washington, D. C. — Sigma Alpha Epsilon. 
1858; Sigma Chi, 1864; Phi Kappa Psi, 1868-99; Alpha Tau 
Omega, 1874-88; Kappa Sigma, 1892; Kappa Alpha, 1894; Phi 
Sigma Kappa, 1899; Delta Tau Delta, 1903. 

Georgia School of Technology, Atlanta, Ga. — Alpha Tau Ome- 
ga, 1888;. Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1890; Kappa Sigma, 1895; Sig- 
ma Nu, 1896; Kappa Alpha, 1899; Phi Delta Theta, 1902; Chi 
Phi, 1904; Phi Kappa Sigma, 1904; Pi Kappa Alpha, 1904. 

Georgia, University of, Athens, Ga. — Sigma Alpha Epsilon. 
1866; Chi Phi, 1867; Kappa Alpha, 1868; Phi Delta Theta, 1871 : 
Phi Gamma Delta, 1871-91 ; Sigma Chi, 1872-75 ; Sigma Nu, 
1873; Alpha Tau Omega, 1878; Delta Tau Delta, 1882-99; Chi 
Psi, 1890; Kappa Sigma, 1901. 

Grant University, Chattanooga, Tenn. — Kappa Sigma, 1882- 

Hampden-Sidney College, Hampden-Sidney, Va. — Beta Theta 
Pi, 1850; Phi Kappa Psi, 1855-00; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1860-61 ; 


Chi Phi, 1867; Phi Gamma Delta, 1870-04; Sigma Chi, 1872-02: 
Kappa Sigma, 1883 ; Pi Kappa Alpha, 1885 ; Alpha Tau Omega, 
T890-96; Kappa Alpha, 1899. 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. — Alpha Delta Phi, 
1837; Beta Theta Pi, 1843-01; Delta Phi, 1845-01; Psi Upsilon, 
1850-72; Delta Kappa Epsilon, 1851-91 ; Zeta Psi, 1852-92; 
Theta Delta Chi, 1856; Phi Kappa Sigma, 1865-65; Delta Upsi- 
lon, 1880; Chi Phi, 1885-87; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1893, Kappa 
Sigma, 1905. 

Idaho, University of, Moscow, Idaho. — Kappa Sigma, 1905. 

Illinois, University of, Urbana, 111. — Delta Tau, Delta, 1872 ; 
Sigma Chi, 1881 ; Kappa Sigma, 1891 ; Phi Kappa Sigma, 1892 ; 
Phi Delta Theta, 1893; Alpha Tau Omega, 1895; Phi Gamma 
Delta, 1897; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1899; Beta Theta Pi, 1902; 
Sigma Xu, 1902 ; Sigma Phi Epsilon, 1903 ; Phi Kappa Psi, 1904 ; 
Delta Kappa Epsilon, 1904; Delta Upsilon, 1905. 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. — Beta Theta Pi, 1845 ; 
Phi Delta Theta, 1849; Sigma Chi, 1858; Phi Kappa Psi, 1869; 
Delta Tau Delta, 1870; Phi Gamma Delta, 1871 ; Kappa Sigma, 
1887; Sigma Nu, 1892. 

Indianapolis, University of, Indianapolis, Ind., and Irvington. 
Ind.— Phi Delta Theta, 1859; Sigma Chi, 1865; Delta Tau Delta, 
1875; Beta Theta Pi, 1878-81; Kappa Sigma, 1891-93. 

Iowa, University of, Iowa City, la. — Beta Theta Pi, 1866; Phi 
Kappa Psi, 1867-85; Phi Gamma Delta, 1873-73; Delta Tau 
Delta, 1880; Phi Delta Theta, 1882; Sigma Chi, 1882; Sigma Nu, 
1893; Alpha Chi Rho, 1899-02; Kappa Sigma, 1902; Sigma Al- 
pha Epsilon, 1904. 

Kentucky State College, Lexington, Ky. — Kappa Alpha, 1893 ; 
Sigma Chi, 1893; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1900; Pi Kappa Alpha, 
1901 ; Kappa Sigma, 1901 ; Phi Delta Theta, 1901 ; Sigma Nu, 

Kentucky University, Lexington, Ky. — Phi Gamma Delta. 
1860-62; Phi Kappa Psi, 1865-66; Pi Kappa Alpha, 1887; Kappa 
Alpha, 1891 ; Kappa Sigma, 1894-1901. 

Lake Forest University, Lake Forest, 111. — Kappa Sigma, 1880. 

Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa. — Phi Kappa Sigma, 1870- 
87; Chi Phi, 1872; Delta Tau Delta, 1874; Phi Delta Theta, 1876; 


Alpha Tau Omega, 1882; Delta Phi, 1884; Psi Upsilon, 1884 
Theta Delta Chi, 1884; Delta Upsilon, 1885; Sigma Xu, 1885 
Sigma Phi, 1886; Phi Gamma Delta, 1887; Sigma Chi, 1887 
Beta Theta Pi, 1890; Chi Phi, 1893; Kappa Alpha, 1894; Kappa 
Sigma, 1900; Phi Sigma Kappa, 1901. 

Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, La. — Sigma Alpha 
Epsilon, 1867; Kappa Alpha, 1885; Kappa Sigma, 1887; Sigma 
Nu, 1887; Pi Kappa Alpha, 1903. 

Maine, University of, Orono, Me. — Beta Theta Pi, 1878; Kap- 
pa Sigma, 1885 ; Alpha Tau Omega, 1891 ; Phi Kappa Sigma, 
1898; Phi Gamma Delta, 1899; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1901 ; Sig- 
ma Chi, 1902. 

Maryland Military and Naval Academy, Oxford, Md. — Kappa 
Sigma, 1885-87. 

Maryland, University of, Baltimore, Md. — Kappa Sigma, 1873 ; 
Phi Gamma Delta, 1879-83 ; Phi Sigma Kappa, 1897 ; Phi Kappa 
Sigma, 1899. 

Massachusetts State College, Amherst, Mass. — O. T. V., 1869; 
Phi Sigma Kappa, 1873 ; Kappa Sigma, 1904. 

Mercer University, Macon, Ga. — Chi Phi, 1869-80; Sigma Al- 
pha Epsilon, 1870; Phi Delta Theta, 1872; Kappa Alpha, 1873; 
Kappa Sigma, 1875; Alpha Tau Omega, 1880; Sigma Nu, 1884. 

Michigan, University of, Ann Arbor, Mich. — Beta Theta Pi, 
1845 I Chi Psi, 1845 5 Alpha Delta Phi, 1846 ; Delta Kappa Epsi- 
lon, 1855; Delta Phi, 1855-77; Zeta Psi, 1858; Sigma Phi, 1858; 
Phi Delta Theta, 1864 ; Psi Upsilon, 1865 ; Delta Tau Delta, 1871 ; 
Phi Kappa Psi, 1876; Delta Upsilon, 1876; Sigma Chi, 1877; Chi 
Phi, 1882-85 ; Phi Gamma Delta, 1885 ; Alpha Tau Omega, 1888- 
94; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1889; Theta Delta Chi, 1889; Kappa 
Sigma, 1892 ; Sigma Nu, 1902. 

Millsaps College, Jackson, Miss. — Kappa Alpha, 1893 ; Kappa 
Sigma, 1895 > ^ Kappa Alpha, 1905. 

Minnesota, University of, Minneapolis, Minn. — Chi Psi, 1874; 
Phi Delta Theta, 1881 f Delta Tau Delta, 1883; Sigma Chi, 1888; 
Phi Kappa Psi, 1888; Phi Gamma Delta, 1889; Beta Theta Pi, 
1890; Delta Upsilon, 1890; Psi Upsilon, 1891 ; Theta Delta Chi, 
1892 ; Alpha Delta Phi, 1892 ; Zeta Psi, 1899; Kappa Sigma, 1901 ; 


Alpha Tau Omega, 1902; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1902; Sigma Nil, 

Missouri School of Mines, Rolla, Mo. — Kappa Alpha, 1903 ; 
Sigma Nu, 1903 ; Kappa Sigma, 1903 ; Pi Kappa Alpha, 1906. 

Missouri, University of, Columbia, Mo. — Phi Kappa Psi, 1869- 
74; Phi Delta Theta, 1870; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1884; Sigma 
Nu, 1886; Beta Theta Pi, 1890; Kappa Alpha, 1891 ; Sigma Chi, 
1896; Kappa Sigma, 1898; Phi Gamma Delta, 1899; Delta Tau 
Delta, 1905 ; Alpha Tau Omega, 1906. 

Nebraska, University of, Lincoln, Neb. — Phi Delta Theta, 
1875; Sigma Chi, 1883; Beta Theta Pi, 1888; Sigma Alpha Ep- 
silon, 1893; Delta Tau Delta, 1894; Phi Kappa Psi, 1895; Alpha 
Tau Omega, 1897; Kappa Sigma, 1897; Delta Upsilon, 1898; 
Phi Gamma Delta, 1898. 

New Hampshire College, Durham, N. H. — Kappa Sigma, 1901. 

New York University, New York, N. Y. — Sigma Phi, 1835- 
48; Alpha Delta Phi, 1835-39; Psi Upsilon, 1837; Delta Phi, 
1841 ; Zeta Psi, 1847; Delta Psi, 1847-53; Delta Upsilon, 1865; 
Phi Gamma Delta, 1892; Kappa Sigma, 1905. 

North Carolina A. and M. College, Raleigh, N. C. — Sigma Nu, 
1895 ! Kappa Sigma, 1903 ; Kappa Alpha, 1903 ; Pi Kappa Alpha, 
1904 ; Sigma Phi Epsilon, 1905. 

North Carolina, University of, Chapel Hill, N. C. — Delta Kap- 
pa Epsilon, 1851 ; Phi Gamma Delta, 1851-98; Beta Theta Pi, 
1851 ; Delta Psi, 1854-62; Delta Phi, 1855-61 ; Chi Psi, 1855-61 ; 
Phi Kappa Sigma, 1856-95; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1857; 
Theta Delta Chi, 1857-62; Zeta Psi, 1858; Chi Phi, 1858-68; 
Alpha Tau Omega, 1879; Kappa Alpha, 1881 ; Phi Delta Theta, 
1885; Sigma Nu, 1888; Sigma Chi, 1889-00; Kappa Sigma. 
1893 ; Pi Kappa Alpha, 1895 > Sigma Phi Epsilon, 1906. 

North Georgia Agricultural College, Dahlonega, Ga. — Sigma 
Alpha Epsilon, 1879-88; Sigma Nu, 1881 ; Kappa Sigma, 1885- 
91 ; Pi Kappa Alpha, 1900. 

Ohio Northern University, Ada, Ohio. — Kappa Sigma, 1886-88; 
Sigma Phi Epsilon, 1905. 

Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. — Phi Gamma Delta. 
1878; Phi Kappa Psi, 1880; Sigma Chi, 1882; Chi Phi, 1883; 
Phi Delta Theta, 1883; Beta Theta Pi, 1885; Sigma Nu, 189 1 ; 


Alpha Tau Omega, 1892; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1892; Delta Tau 
Delta, 1894; Kappa Sigma, 1895; Delta Upsilon, 1904. 

Oklahoma, University of, Norman, Okla. — Kappa Alpha, 1906 ; 
Kappa Sigma, 1906. 

Oregon, University of, Eugene, Ore. — Sigma Nu, 1900; Kap- 
pa Sigma, 1904. 

Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pa. — Delta Tau 
Delta, 1872-73; Beta Theta Pi, 1888; Phi Gamma Delta, 1888; 
Phi Kappa Sigma, 1890; Sigma Chi, 1891 ; Kappa Sigma, 1892; 
Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1892; Phi Sigma Kappa, 1899; Phi Delta 
Theta, 1904. 

Pennsylvania, University of, Philadelphia, Pa, — Delta Phi, 
1849; Zeta Psi > l8 5°; p hi Kappa Sigma, 1850; Delta Psi, 1854; 
Sigma Chi, 1875; Phi Kappa Psi, 1877; Beta Theta Pi, 1880; 
Alpha Tau Omega, 1881 ; Phi Gamma Delta, 1881 ; Chi Phi, 
1883-85; Phi Delta Theta, 1883; Delta Upsilon, 1888; Psi Upsi- 
lon, 1891 ; Kappa Sigma, 1892; Sigma Nu, 1894; Alpha Chi Rho, 
1896; Delta Tau Delta, 1897; Delta Kappa Epsilon, 1898; Phi 
Sigma Kappa, 1900; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1901 ; Sigma Phi 
Epsilon, 1904. 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. — Sigma Chi, 1875 ; Kappa 
Sigma, 1885 ; Phi Delta Theta, 1893 ; Sigma Nu, 1891 ; Sigma Al- 
pha Epsilon, 1893 ; Phi Kappa Psi, 1901 ; Phi Gamma Delta, 
1902 ; Beta Theta Pi, 1903 ; Alpha Tau Omega, 1904 ; Phi Kappa 
Sigma, 1905. 

Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, Va.— Delta Psi, 1853-61 ; 
Kappa Alpha, 1869; Phi Kappa Psi, 1870-82; Phi Kappa Sigma, 
1872; Beta Theta Pi, 1873-93; Sigma Chi, 1874-01; Phi Delta 
Theta, 1874; Kappa Sigma, 1888. 

Richmond College, Richmond, Va.— Beta Theta Pi, 1870-96; 
Kappa Alpha, 1870; Phi Kappa Sigma, 1873; Phi Delta Theta, 
1875-95 5 Alpha Tau Omega, 1878-82 ; Sigma Chi, 1880-81 ; Sig- 
ma Alpha Epsilon, 1884-87; Phi Gamma Delta, 1890; Pi Kappa 
Alpha, 1891 ; Kappa Sigma, 1898; Sigma Phi Epsilon, 1901. 

South Carolina College, Columbia, S. C— Delta Psi, 1850-61 ; 
Delta Kappa Epsilon, 1852-61 ; Phi Kappa Psi, 1857-93 ; Chi Psi, 
1858-97; Beta Theta Pi, 1858-61; Theta Delta Chi, 1859-61; 
Kappa Alpha, 1880-97; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1882-97; Phi 


Delta Theta, 1882-93; Alpha Tau Omega, 1883-97; Sigma Nu, 
1886-97; Chi Phi, 1889-97; Kappa Sigma, 1890-97; Pi Kappa 
Alpha, 1891-97. 

Southzvestern Baptist University {West Tennessee College, 
Jackson, Tenn., and Union University, Murfreesboro, Tenn., 
were united to form Southzvestern Baptist University), Jackson, 
Tenn. — At Union University, Phi Gamma Delta, 1851-73; Sigma 
Alpha Epsilon, 1857-72; Delta Kappa Epsilon, 1860-62; Alpha 
Tau Omega, 1867-73. At West Tennessee College, Sigma 
Alpha Epsilon, 1867-70. At Southzvestern Baptist University, 
Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1878; Kappa Sigma, 1892; Alpha Tau 
Omega, 1894. 

Southzvestern Presbyterian University, Clarksville, Tenn. — Pi 
Kappa Alpha, 1878; Kappa Sigma, 1882; Alpha Tau Omega, 
1882; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1882; Kappa Alpha, 1887-1905. 

Southzvestern University, Georgetown, Tex. — Kappa Alpha, 
1883; Kappa Sigma, 1886; Phi Delta Theta, 1886; Sigma Alpha 
Epsilon, 1887-88. 

Stanford University, Stanford University, Cal. — Zeta Psi, 1891 ; 
Phi Delta Theta, 1891 ; Phi Kappa Psi, 1891 ; Sigma Nu, 1891 ; 
Sigma Chi, 1891 ; Alpha Tau Omega, 1891-97; Sigma Alpha 
Epsilon, 1892; Delta Tau Delta, 1893; Beta Theta Pi, 1894; Chi 
Psi, 1895; Kappa Alpha, 1895; Delta Upsilon, 1896; Kappa Sig- 
ma, 1899; Delta Kappa Epsilon, 1901 ; Theta Delta Chi, 1903; 
Phi Gamma Delta, 1903. 

Szvarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pa. — Kappa Sigma, 1888; 
Phi Kappa Psi, 1889; Delta Upsilon, 1893; Phi Sigma Kappa, 

Syracuse, University of, Syracuse, N. Y. — Delta Kappa Epsi- 
lon, 1871; Delta Upsilon, 1873; Zeta Psi, 1875; Psi Upsilon, 
1875; Phi Kappa Psi, 1883; Phi Delta Theta, 1887; Beta Theta 
Pi, 1889; Phi Gamma Delta, 1001 ; Sigma Chi, 1904; Sigma Nu, 
1905 ; Sigma Phi Epsilon, 1906 ; Kappa Sigma, 1906. 

Tennessee, University of, Knoxville, Tenn. — Alpha Tau Ome- 
ga, 1872; Pi Kappa Alpha, 1874; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1879; 
Kappa Sigma, 1880; Kappa Alpha, 1883; Phi Gamma Delta, 

Texas, University of, Austin, Tex. — Kappa Alpha, 1883; Phi 


Delta Theta, 1883; Phi Gamma Delta, 1883; Kappa Sigma, 1884; 
Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1884; Sigma Chi, 1885; Beta Theta Pi, 
1886; Sigma Nu, 1886; Chi Phi, 1892; Alpha Tau Omega, 1897; 
Delta Tau Delta, 1904; Phi Kappa Psi, 1904. 

Thatcher Institute, Shreveport, La. — Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 
1886-88; Kappa Sigma, 1888-91. 

Trinity College, Durham, N. C. — Chi Phi, 1871-79; Alpha 
Tau Omega, 1872; Kappa Sigma, 1873; Phi Delta Theta, 1878- 
79 ; Phi Gamma Delta, 1893 ; Kappa Alpha, 1901 ; Pi Kappa 
Alpha, 1901. 

Tulane University of Louisiana, New Orleans, La. — Phi Kappa 
Sigma, 1858-61; Pi Kappa Alpha, 1878; Kappa Alpha, 1882; 
Sigma Chi, 1882-84; Alpha Tau Omega, 1887; Sigma Nu, 1888; 
Kappa Sigma, 1889; Delta Tau Delta, 1889; Phi Delta Theta, 
1889; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1897; Delta Kappa Epsilon, 1899. 

University of the South, Sewanee, Tenn. — Alpha Tau Omega, 
1877; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1881 ; Kappa Sigma, 1882; Phi 
Delta Theta, 1883 ; Delta Tau Delta, 1883 ; Kappa Alpha, 1883 ; 
Sigma Nu, 1889-93 ; Pi Kappa Alpha, 1898. 

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn. — Phi Delta Theta, 
1876; Kappa Sigma, 1877; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1878; Kappa 
Alpha, 1883; Chi Phi, 1883-99; Beta Theta Pi, 1884; Delta Tau 
Delta, 1886; Sigma Nu, 1886; Alpha Tau Omega, 1889; Delta 
Kappa Epsilon, 1890; Sigma Chi, 1891 ; Pi Kappa Alpha, 1894; 
Phi Kappa Psi, 1901 ; Phi Kappa Sigma, 1902. 

Vermont, University of, Burlington, Vt. — Sigma Phi, 1845 ; 
Delta Psi, 1850; Theta Delta Chi, 1852-57; Phi Delta Theta, 1879; 
Alpha Tau Omega, 1887 ; Kappa Sigma, 1893. 

Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Va. — Pi Kappa Al 
pha, 1873-80; Kappa Sigma, 1874-89; Beta Theta Pi, 1879-80. 

Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, Va. — Alpha Tau Ome- 
ga, 1865-81; Kappa Alpha, 1868-88; Beta Theta Pi, 1869-80; 
Sigma Nu, 1869-88; Kappa Sigma, 1874-83; Sigma Alpha Ep- 
silon, 1874; Phi Delta Theta, 1878-89; Sigma Chi, 1884-85. 

Virginia, University of, Charlottesville, Va. — Delta Kappa Ep- 
silon, 1852; Phi Kappa Psi, 1853; Phi Kappa Sigma, 1855; Beta 
Theta Pi, 1856; Kappa Alpha, (N. O.), 1857-61; Sigma Alpha 
Epsilon, 1857; Phi Gamma Delta, 1859; Chi Phi, 1859; Chi Psi, 


1860-70; Sigma Chi, i860; Delta Psi, i860; Zeta Psi, 1868; Pi 
Kappa Alpha, 1868; Alpha Tau Omega, 1868; Kappa Sigma, 
1869; Sigma Nu, 1870; Theta Delta Chi, 1875-77; Kappa 
Alpha (S. O.), 1873; Phi Delta Theta, 1873; Delta Tau Delta, 

Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. — Beta Theta Pi, 1846; 
Phi Delta Theta, 1850; Phi Gamma Delta, 1866; Phi Kappa Psi, 
1870-00; Delta Tau Delta, 1872; Theta Delta Chi, 1879-82; Sig- 
ma Chi, 1880-94; Kappa Sigma, 1895. 

H / ashington and Jefferson College, Washington, Pa. — Beta 
Theta Pi, 1842; Phi Gamma Delta, 1848; Phi Kappa Psi, 1852; 
Phi Kappa Sigma, 1854; Sigma Chi, 1858-69; Delta Kappa Ep- 
silon, 1858-65 ; Delta Upsilon, 1858-70; Theta Delta Chi, 1858-72: 
Delta Tau Delta, 1861 ; Phi Delta Theta, 1875; Alpha Tau 
Omega, 1882; Kappa Sigma, 1898; Sigma Phi Epsilon, 1898-06. 

Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va. — Phi Kappa 
Psi, 1855; Beta Theta Pi, 1856-80; Alpha Tau Omega, 1865; 
Kappa Alpha, 1865; Sigma Chi, 1866; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 
1867; Delta Kappa Epsilon, 1867-78; Phi Gamma Delta, 1868; 
Delta Psi, 1869-88; Theta Delta Chi, 1869-74; Delta Psi, 1869- 
88; Theta Delta Chi, 1869-74; Chi Phi, 1872-75; Kappa Sigma, 
1873; Sigma Nu, 1882; Phi Delta Theta, 1887; Pi Kappa Alpha, 
1892; Phi Kappa Sigma, 1893; Delta Tau Delta, 1896; Sigma 
Phi Epsilon, 1906. 

Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. — Beta Theta Pi, 1869; 
Phi Delta Theta, 1891 ; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1892 ; Kappa Sig- 
ma, 1902; Sigma Chi, 1903; Sigma Nu, 1903; Kappa Alpha, 1906. 

Washington, University of, Seattle, Wash. — Sigma Nu, 1896; 
Phi Gamma Delta, 1900; Phi Delta Theta, 1900; Beta Theta Pi, 
1901 ; Sigma Chi, 1903 ; Kappa Sigma, 1903 ; Sigma Alpha Ep- 
silon, 1906; Alpha Tau Omega, 1906. 

West Virginia, University of, Morgantown, W. Va. — Kappa 
Sigma, 1883-87; Phi Kappa Psi, 1890; Phi Sigma Kappa, 1891 ; 
Sigma Chi, 1895; Phi Kappa Sigma, 1896; Kappa Alpha, 1897; 
Beta Theta Pi, 1900; Delta Tau Delta, 1901 ; Sigma Phi Epsilon, 
1903; Sigma Nu, 1904; Pi Kappa Alpha, 1904. 

William Jezvell College, Liberty, Mo. — Phi Gamma Delta, 
1886; Kappa Alpha, 1887; Sigma Nu, 1894; Kappa Sigma, 1897. 


William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Va. — Theta Delta 
Chi, 1853; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1858-61; Pi Kappa Alpha, 
1871; Beta Theta Pi, 1874-77; Kappa Alpha, 1890; Kappa Sig- 
ma, 1890; Sigma Phi Epsilon, 1904. 

Wisconsin, University of, Madison, Wis. — Phi Delta Theta, 
1857; Beta Theta Pi, 1873; Phi Kappa Psi, 1875; Chi Psi, 1878; 
Delta Upsilon, 1883; Sigma Chi, 1884; Delta Tau Delta, 1888; 
Phi Gamma Delta, 1893 ; Theta Delta Chi, 1895 ; Psi Upsilon, 
1896; Kappa Sigma, 1898; Phi Kappa Sigma, 1901 ; Sigma Nu, 
1902; Alpha Delta Phi, 1903; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1903. 

Wofford College, Spartanburg, S. C. — Kappa Alpha, 1869; 
Chi Psi, 1869; Chi Phi, 1871 ; Phi Delta Theta, 1879-84; Sigma 
Alpha Epsilon, 1885; Pi Kappa Alpha, 1891 ; Alpha Tau Omega, 
1891-94; Kappa Sigma, 1894. 



In the sources of the Fraternity's history — magazine articles, 
Conclave reports, and Catalogues — there are various sketches of 
how Chapters came into existence, and their subsequent history. 
The following gives some condensed information upon each Chap- 
ter — its founders, charter members, dates of existence, number of 
initiates and deceased members : 

Zeta, parent chapter. Established at the University of Virginia, 
Charlottesville, Va., on December 10, 1869. Founders : William Grigs- 
by McCormick, George Miles Arnold, Edmund Law Rogers, Frank Court- 
ney Nicodemus, and John Covert Boyd. Total number of initiates, 165; 
deceased members, 22. 

Beta, second chapter chartered. Established at the University of 
Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Ala., in 1871. Probably became inactive in 1871 
by anti-fraternity legislation; was reestablished on June 3, 1899. Sponsor 
at establishment : George Wyatt Hollingsworth. Charter members : George 
Wyatt Hollingsworth and others. Records lost or destroyed. Sponsor 
at reestablishment in 1899: Nathaniel Leslie Carpenter (Vanderbilt). 
Total number of initiates, 68, deceased members, 2. 

Eta Prime, third chapter chartered. Established at Trinity College, 
X. C. on February 28, 1873. Became inactive in 1879 by anti-fraternity 
legislation; was reestablished on December 1, 1892. Sponsor at estab- 
lishment: James H. Durham (Virginia). Charter members: Thomas 
Taylor, Adolphus Richard Wortham, Ned. H. Tucker, Peter Edmond 
Hines, George David Tysor and William Parker Mercer. Sponsors at 
reestablishment in 1892: Herbert Milton Martin (Randolph-Macon), 
Williamson Wallace Morris (Davidson), and James Davidson McDowell 
(Davidson). Total number of initiates, 118; deceased members, 14. 

Mu, fourth chapter chartered. Established at Washington and Lee 
University, Lexington, Va., in December, 1873. Became inactive in 
1876, was reestablished on September 10, 1888. Charter withdrawn in 
1900; was again reestablished on March II, 1904, absorbing the local 
chapter of Mu Pi Lambda. Sponsor at establishment : Euclid Lane John- 
son (Virginia). Charter members: John Nathaniel Prather, William 
Templeton Durrett, Griffin Johnston, and Henry Conyers Payne. Spon- 
sor at reestablishment in 1888: James Taylor McCaa. Sponsors at re- 
establishment in 1904: Herbert Milton Martin (Randolph-Macon), Stan- 


ley Watkins Martin (Virginia Polytechnic), James David Johnston 
(Emory and Henry), Robert Leigh Owen (Hampden-Sidney), Richard 
Cralle Stokes (Hampden-Sidney), George Washington Headley, Jr., (Ken- 
tucky State), Harry Wall (Virginia), James Archer Sellman (Virginia), 
Frederick Gresham Pollard (Richmond), Sanford Burnell Bragg (Rich- 
mond), Olin Lecato McMath (Randolph-Macon College), and Thomas 
Peachy Spencer (William and Mary). Total number of initiates, 90; 
deceased members, 6. 

Xi, fifth chapter chartered. Established at the Virginia Military 
Institute, Lexington, Va., on January 3, 1874. Became inactive in 1884 
through anti-fraternity laws, since which time it has not been re-estab- 
lished. Anti-fraternity laws obtain. Sponsors at establishment: John 
Nathaniel Prather, William Templeton Durrett, Griffin Johnston and 
Henry Conyers Payne, all of Washington and Lee. Charter members : 
Jefferson Davis, Jr., Henry Taylor Earnest, John Ashley Taylor, Sterling 
Woodward Tucker, Robert Henry Watkins, J. L. Butler, and Frazor 
Titus Edmondson. Total number of initiates, 23; deceased members, 9. 

Nu, sixth chapter chartered. Established at the Virginia Polytechnic 
Institute, Blacksburg, Va., on June 17, 1874. Became inactive in 1889 
by reason of anti-fraternity laws. Anti-fraternity laws obtain. Sponsor 
at establishment: Stephen Alonzo Jackson (Virginia). Charter members: 
Adoniram Judson Evans, Robert Peyton Bayley, William Freneau Page, 
William Augustus Edwards, Charles Edward Wingo, Harry Marston 
Smith, Jr., John William Cowherd, Walter Gardner Lane, William Bache- 
lor Farant, and John Marshall Warwick. Total number of initiates, 91; 
deceased members, 12. 

Omicron, seventh chapter chartered. Established at Emory and 
Henry College, Emory, Va., on June 24, 1874. Became inactive in 1895 
by reason of anti-fraternity laws. Anti-fraternity laws obtain. Sponsor 
at establishment: Stephen Alonzo Jackson (Virginia). Charter members: 
Abel Chapman, Samuel P. Neal, Robert Edmondson Buchanan, Samuel 
Beattie Ryburn Dunn, Barton Stone, Benjamin Patterson Sanders, Rus- 
sell C. Rose, and Edmund Tracy Nicholas. Total number of initiates, 
138; deceased members, 24. 

Alpha-Alpha, eighth chapter chartered. Established at the Uni- 
versity of Maryland, Baltimore, Md., on November 28, 1874. Charter 
withdrawn in 1875; was reestablished on December 31, 1890; became 
inactive in 1892; and was again reestablished on February 25, 1808. 
Sponsor at establishment: Arthur Cowton Heffenger (Virginia). Char- 
ter members : Arthur Cowton Heffenger, William Baldwin Beach, Aaron 
Fenton, Washington Clement Claude, Joseph Bucey Galloway, Henry 
Davidson Fry, William Greensbury Goldsborough Wilson, Stephen Olin 
Richey, and Thomas Kelly Galloway. Sponsors at reestablishment in 1890 : 
C. B. Burke (Md. Mil. and Nav.), and delegates to the Ninth Biennial G. 
Convlave. Sponsors at reestablishment in 1898: Hamilton Janney Coffroth 


clave. Sponsors at reestablishment in 1898: Hamilton Janney Coffroth 
(Virginia Military Institute), Eldridge Eakin Wolff (Randolph-Macon), 
Oscar Leslie Rogers (Mercer), Edwin Curtis Hamilton (Emory and 
Henry), and Edward Roland Hart (North Carolina). Total number of 
initiates, 100; deceased members, 5. 

Alpha-Beta, ninth chapter chartered. Established at Mercer Uni- 
versity, Macon, Ga., in 1875. Became inactive in 1879; was reestab- 
lished on September 28, 1891. Sponsor at establishment: William Ander- 
son Thomas (Trinity). Charter members: William Anderson Thomas, 
Charles Hyatt Richardson, Charles Henry Spurgeon Jackson, Chovine 
Clegg Richardson, and Seaborn W. Wright. Sponsors at reestablish- 
ment in 1891 : Stephen Alonzo Jackson (Virginia), Robert Ernest Dart 
(North Georgia), James Wesley Crump (Sewanee), Iverson Louis Harris 
(Mercer), and Francis William Hazlehurst (Maryland Military and 
Naval). Total number of initiates, 93; deceased members, 1. 

Kappa, tenth chapter chartered. Established at Vanderbilt Univer- 
sity, Nashville, Tenn., on April 13, 1877. Became inactive in 1880 by 
reason of anti-fraternity laws ; was re-established on January 20, 1885. 
Sponsors at establishment: James Quinn Moore (Emory and Henry), 
David Rankin Stubblefield (Emory and Henry) and Mora Hammond 
Sharpe (Emory and Henry). Charter members: James Quinn Moore. 
David Rankin Stubblefield, Mora Hammond Sharpe, James Hill Scaife, 
and Joseph Franklin Dowdy. Sponsors at reestablishment in 1885 : 
Frank Goodman (Tennessee), Walter Scott Ayres (Emory and Henry), 
Henry Bruce Buckner (Sewanee), Charles Wiles Thompson (Sewanee), 
William Cozart Phillips (Sewanee), Jesse Farrell Sugg (Tennessee). 
Thomas Rice Allen (Tennessee), James Milton Patterson (Tennessee), 
and Hugh Mott Dunlop (Southwestern Presbyterian). Total num- 
ber of initiates, 160; deceased members, 15. 

Lambda, eleventh chapter chartered. Established at the University of 
Tennessee, Knoxville. Tenn., on May II, 1880. Sponsors at establishment: 
Stephen Alonzo Jackson (Virginia), and James Paris McMillan (Emory 
and Henry). Charter members: James Paris McMillan, Richard McKen- 
ney, Charles Floyd Humes and Thomas Shields Vaden. Total number 
of initiates, 192; deceased members, 24. 

Alpha-Chi, twelfth chapter chartered. Established at Lake Forest 
University, Lake Forest, 111., on Oct. 23, 1880. Became inactive in 1882 
by reason of anti-fraternity laws ; was reestablished on Nov. 25, 1896. 
Local society Lambda Phi absorbed in 1806. Sponsor at establishment : 
Alexander Chalmers McNeil (Emory and Henry). Charter members: 
Alexander Chalmers McNeil, Charles Alexander Evans, John Dudley Pope, 
Frederick Robinson, Jr.. and George Thomson. Sponsors at reestablish- 
ment in 1896: Alfred Bolander Loranz (Wabash), Hugh Miller (Wabash), 
Charles Brewster Randolph (Cumberland), and Robert Elberon Dunlop 
(Wabash). Total number of initiates, 68; deceased members, 2. 


Alpha-Iota, thirteenth chapter chartered. Established at Grant Uni- 
versity, Athens, Tenn., on Feb. 15, 1882. Charter withdrawn in 1883; was 
reestablished on May 13, 1892 by absorption of the local society the 
"Secret Fraternity;" and again became inactive in 1898 by the with- 
drawal of its charter. Anti-fraternity laws do not obtain. Sponsor 
at establishment: Stephen Alonzo Jackson (Virginia). Charter Members: 
Samuel Washington McCallie, and Samuel Bruce La Rue. Sponsors at 
reestablishment in 1892: John Jay Bernard (Tennessee), Robert Wood 
Tate (Tennessee), William Andrew McCord (Tennessee), Thomas Jef- 
ferson Brown (Tennessee), and Alfred Young Bailey (Tennessee). Total 
number of initiates, 43 ; deceased members, 2. 

Phi, fourteenth chapter chartered. Established at Southwestern Pres- 
byterian University, Clarksville, Tenn., on April 12, 1882. Sponsor at 
establishment: Stephen Alonzo Jackson (Virginia). Charter members: 
Carrington Mason, Jr., Henry Craft, Jr., and Dudley Thomas Schoolneld. 
Total number of initiates, 116; deceased members, 4. 

Omega, fifteenth chapter chartered. Established at the University of 
the South, Sewanee, Tenn., on May 6, 1882. Sponsors at establishment : 
Stephen Alonzo Jackson (Virginia) and Arthur Mason Chichester (Vir- 
ginia). Charter members: Arthur Mason Chichester, William Henry 
Inglesby, George Davis Footman, George Anderson Waddill, Alfred Me- 
nard Moulton, Inman Horner Knox, Morris Kerr Clark, Lee Brock, Ed- 
ward Walter Hughes, Edward Elliott Camber Habersham, Frederick 
D. Halsey, Charles Chaffe, and Elard Ferdinand von Ende. Total num- 
ber of initiates, 175 ; deceased members, 21. 

Pi, sixteenth chapter chartered. Established at the University of 
West Virginia, Morgantown, W: Va., in Sept., 1883. Became inactive 
in 1887, since which time it has not been revived. Anti-fraternity laws 
do not obtain. Sponsor at establishment: Stephen Alonzo Jackson (Vir- 
ginia) . Charter members : John Goodloe Jackson, Robert E. Jackson, 
Winston Henry Hoffman, William Jacob Johnson, and Blackwell Chilton 
Wilson. Total number of initiates, 17; deceased members, 1. 

Upsilon, seventeenth chapter chartered. Established at Hampden- 
Sidney College, Prince Edward County, Va., on Nov. 14, 1883. Local 
society, Phi Mu Gamma, absorbed. Sponsor at establishment : Stephen 
Alonzo Jackson (Virginia). Charter members: Alexander Lee Bondu- 
rant, George Keatts Mason, John Harvie Hull, William Taylor Thayer, 
Jr., and John Marion Hart, Jr. Total number of initiates, 94; deceased 
members, 8. 

Tau, eighteenth chapter chartered. Established at the University of 
Texas, Austin, Texas, on Sept. 18, 1884. Sponsor at establishment: Wal- 
ter Lee Robertson (Sewanee). Charter members: Rhodes Fisher, Jr., 
Isaac Jalonick, Frederick Carlos von Rosenberg, Isaac V. Davis, and 
Rufus Atwood Palm. Total number of initiates, 205 ; deceased mem- 
bers. 11. 


Rao, nineteenth chapter chartered. Established at the North Georgia 
Agricultural College, Dahlonega, Ga., on Feb. u. 1885. Became in- 
active in 1 89 1, since which time it has not been reestablished. Anti-fra- 
ternity laws do not obtain. Sponsors at establishment: William Henry 
Tnglesby (Sewanee). Stephen Alonzo Jackson (Virginia), and John New- 
ton Humes (Emory and Henry). Charter members: Edward Lee Sutton, 
Edward Cornelius Cartledge, James Beverly Martin, William Thomas 
Shockley, Charles Hill Rawlins, James Paul Stribling, Charles Daniel 
McRae, and Homer Brown Cobb. Total number of initiates, 32; de- 
ceased members, 2. 

Chi, twentieth chapter chartered. Established at Purdue University. 
Lafayette, Ind., on March 15, 1885. Sponsors at establishment: Augustus 
Ruff ne r (West Virginia), and William Taylor Thayer, Jr. (Hampden- 
Sidney). Charter members: Augustus Ruffner, William Taylor Thayer, 
Jr., Michael Steele Bright, Oscar Ulysses Mutz, and James Sydney Boyd. 
Total number of initiates, 166; deceased members, 9. 

Delta, twenty-first chapter chartered. Established at the Maryland 
Military and Naval Academy, Oxford, Md., on Oct. 19. 1885. Charter with- 
drawn in 1887, because of closing of institution. Sponsor at establish- 
ment: Frederick Carlos von Rosenberg (Texas). Charter members: 
Frederick Carlos von Rosenberg, Francis William Hazlehurst, William 
Joseph Miller, Arlington Ulysses Betts, Charles Bell Burke, James Harry 
Covington, James Francis Mclndoe, William Robert Bell, William Headly 
Osborne, Lawrence Low, Fletcher Bright Peters, George Lander Abell, 
William Martin Cooper, Charles Edward Wootten, John Harry Albright, 
John Wedderburn, Benjamin Rush Logie, John Henry Wagner, and 
Douglass Preston Rock. Total number of initiates, 31 ; deceased members. 

Epsilon, twenty-second chapter chartered. Established at Centenary 
College, Jackson, La., on Aug. 29, 1885. Became inactive in 1904 by tne 
withdrawal of its charter. Sponsors at establishment : Frank Hanson 
Terry (Virginia Polytechnic), and Taylor Gleaves (Virginia Polytechnic). 
Charter members : John Hamilton Ellis, Charles Howard Hardenbergh, 
Emmett Lee Irwin, .Milton Sanford Standifer, and Benjamin Nathaniel 
Smith. Total number of initiates, 84; deceased members, 5. 

Psi, twenty-third chapter chartered. Established at the University 
of Maine, Orono, Me., on Dec. 31, 1885. Local society, K. K. F., absorbed. 
Sponsor at establishment: Stephen Alonzo Jackson (Virginia). Charter 
members : John Decker Blagden, Henry Allan McNally, Alfred Smith 
Ruth, Seymour Everett Rogers, Frank Percy Collins, Josiah Murch 
Aver, Gilbert Scovil Vickery, Norman Tripp, Charles Ayers Mason. 
Charles Benjamin Gould, and Seymore Farrington Miller. Total number 
of initiates, 180; deceased members, 12. 

Sigma, twenty-fourth chapter chartered. Established at the Ohio 
Northern University, Ada, Ohio, on May 8, 1886. Became inactive in 1888 


by reason of anti-fraternity laws, since which time it has not been reestab- 
lished. Anti-fraternity laws do not obtain. Sponsor at establishment : 
Augustus Ruffner (West Virginia). Charter members: Joseph Calvin 
Boyd, John Elmer Virden, Elmer Ellsworth Helms, Gilbert Allison Adams, 
George Albert Spence, James Grant Ames, Leonidas Alvah Smith, David 
Channing Meek, Lawrence Hoover Seager, Bernard Daly, Frank Ells- 
worth Seager, Samuel Allen Hoskins, William Edie Hoover, Claudius 
Postean Aubert, and John Montgomery. Total number of initiates, 23; 
deceased members, 1. 

Iota, twenty-fifth chapter chartered. Established at Southwestern 
University, Georgetown, Tex., on Sept. 10, 1886. Sponsor at establish- 
ment; Alexander Lee Bondurant (Hampden-Sydney). Charter members: 
Iverson Benjamin Lane, Jesse Cross Baker, Jasper Benjamin Gibbs and 
John Stanley Moss. Total number of initiates, 145 ; deceased members, 7. 

Gamma, twenty-sixth chapter chartered. Established at Louisiana 
State University, Baton Rouge, La., on Feb. 19, 1887. Sponsors at estab- 
lishment: Oscar Kearney Andrews (Centenary), Thomas Ragan (Cen- 
tenary), Milford Sanford Standifer (Centenary), and others of the Cen- 
tenary Chapter. Charter members : Abel James Price, Hunter Vincent 
Kirkland, Roy Otto Young, Charles Graham David, and Frank Thomas 
Guilbeau. Total number of initiates, 139; deceased members, 6. 

Alpha, twenty-seventh chapter chartered. Established at Emory Col- 
lege, Oxford, Ga., on March 26, 1887. Became inactive in 189T, since 
which time it has not been reestablished. Anti-fraternity laws do not ob- 
tain. Sponsor at establishment: Edward Lee Sutton (North Georgia). 
Charter members : Arthur Hamilton Van Dyke, Jesse Stephens Lamar, 
Samuel Jackson Smith, James Henry Harwell, and David Conway Gun- 
nels. Total number of initiates, 24; deceased members, 5. 

Beta-Theta, twenty-eighth chapter chartered. Established at Indiana 
University, Bloomington, Ind., on May 14, 1887. Charter withdrawn in 
1887 ; was reestablished on Feb. 10, 1900. Sponsor at establishment : 
William Taylor Thayer, Jr. (Hampden-Sidney). Charter members; Aaron 
Ellsworth Smalley, Horatio Hoop and William Herschel Bloss. Spon- 
sors at reestablishment in 1900: Julius Curtis Travis (Michigan), Thomas 
Hendricks David (Purdue), Harry Augustus Bevis (Wabash), Reginald 
Gates Pape (Wabash), and Samuel Elliott Perkins, Jr. (Wabash). Total 
number of initiates, 71 ; deceased members, 2. 

Theta, twenty-ninth chapter chartered. Established at Cumberland 
University, Lebanon, Tenn., on Oct. 7. 1887. Sponsors at establishment : 
Henry Bruce Buckner (Sewanee), Owen Harris Wilson (Vanderbilt),and 
Franceway Cossitt Stratton (Vanderbilt). Charter members: Franceway 
Cossitt Stratton, Rufus McClain Fields, Laban Lacy Rice, Charles Marvin 
Hunter, Verne Clifford Armstrong, and Elvis Willard Blackmore. Total 
number of initiates, 123 ; deceased members, 6. 


Beta, thirtieth chapter chartered. Established at Thatcher Institute, 
Shreveport, La., on February 27, 1888. Became inactive in 1891 ; institu- 
tion closed. Sponsors at establishment: James Charles Howerton (Se- 
wanee), and Charles Howard Hardenbergh (Centenary). Charter mem- 
bers : William Gregg Dalzell, Alexis Moore Lemee, Chichester Choplin, Jr., 
Charles Robert Caldwell, and Arthur Franklin Stephenson. Total num- 
ber of initiates, 17; deceased members, 5. 

Pi, thirty-first chapter chartered. Established at Swarthmore College, 
Swarthmore, Pa., on July 21, 1888. Sponsor at establishment: William 
Taylor Thayer ( Hampden-Sidney). Charter members: Harry Leslie 
Boggs, John Atkinson Thayer, Frederick Neal Carr, and Ellis Bronson 
Ridgway. Total number of initiates, 91 ; deceased members, 1. 

Eta, thirty-second chapter chartered. Established at Randolph-Macon 
College, Ashland, Va., on Nov. 14, 1888. Sponsor at establishment : James 
David Johnston, Jr. (Emory and Henry). Charter members: James David 
Johnston, Jr., Herbert Milton Martin, Emerson Taylor Wescott, and 
Charles Herbert Hall. Total number of initiates, 67 ; deceased members, 2. 

Sigma, thirty-third chapter chartered. Established at Tulane Uni- 
versity, New Orleans, La., on Jan. 26, 1889. Sponsors at establishment : 
Eugene Augustus Harris (Southwestern), Charles Howard Hardenbergh 
(Centenary), James Monroe Sims (Centenary), Benjamin Nathaniel 
Smith (Centenary), Lawrence Wade Smith (Louisiana), Abel James 
Price (Louisiana), Roy Otto Young (Louisiana), and Hunter Vincent 
Kirkland (Louisiana). Charter members: William Cyprien Dufour, Jos- 
eph Oscar Daspit, Mark Mayo Boatner, Nimrod McGuire, and Thomas 
McCaleb. Total number of initiates, 106; deceased members, 13. 

Nu, thirty-fourth chapter chartered. Established at William and 
Mary College, Williamsburg, Va., on March 1, 1890. Sponsors at estab- 
lishment: Herbert Milton Martin (Randolph-Macon), James David John- 
ston, Jr. (Emory and Henry), and Harry Graham Robinson (Randolph- 
Macon). Charter members: Fernando Southall Farrar, Robert Southall 
Bright, James Brown McCaw, Killis Campbell, Harry Thompson Dozier, 
and John Minor Gatewood. Total number of initiates, 117; deceased 
members, 5. 

Chi-Omega, thirty-fifth chapter chartered. Established at the Uni- 
versity of South Carolina, Columbia, S. C, on April 23, 1890. Became 
inactive in 1897 by reason of anti-fraternity laws. Anti-fraternity laws 
obtain. Sponsors at establishment: Stephen Alonzo Jackson (Virginia), 
Crawford Clayton Wilson (Virginia), John Pegram Anderson (Virginia 
Polytechnic), and Samuel Macon Smith (Virginia). Charter members: 
William Walter Hentz, Charles Brewer, Samuel Charlton Todd, Ralph 
Smith, and Benjamin Palmer McMaster. Total number of initiates, 28; 
deceased members, 2. 

Xi, thirty-sixth chapter chartered. Established at the University of 
Arkansas, Fayetteville, Ark., on May 29, 1890. Sponsor at establishment: 


Charles Richardson (Emory and Henry). Charter members: William 
Allen Crawford, John Clinton Futrall, Carl Clinton Miller and William 
Shields Goodwin. Total number of initiates, 150; deceased members, 1. 

Delta, thirty-seventh chapter chartered. Established at Davidson 
College, Davidson, N. C, on Nov. 17, 1890. Sponsors at establishment : 
Charles Brewer (South Carolina), Crawford Clayton Wilson (Virginia), 
and Leonidas Chalmers Glenn (South Carolina). Charter members: 
Renjamin Waddell Glasgow, Albert Jackson Wittson, Williamson Wal- 
lace Morris, Charles Lester Grey, Robert Junius Hunter, and William 
Alexander Hafner. Total number of initiates, 97; deceased members, o. 

Beta, thirty-eighth chapter chartered. Established at Butler .Uni- 
versity, Irvington, Ind.. on Feb. 16, 1891. Charter surrendered in 1893, 
since which time it has not been reestablished. Anti-fraternity laws do 
not obtain. Sponsors at establishment : Samuel Kennedy, Arthur Gray- 
don Moody, Wilbur Nathaniel Morrill, Robert Allen Lackey, Charles Arch- 
ibald Murray, Charles Morgan Olds, John Erhard Muhlfeld, Job Lyndon 
Van Natta, Willard Cheney Knight, William Howard Aldrich, Jr., Russell 
Spencer Viberg and James Vinton Godman, all of Purdue. Charter mem- 
bers : James Dennis Carson, Mark Antony Collins, Jesse Lincoln Brady, 
George Varner Miller, Robert Philson Collins, and Charles Manker. Total 
number of initiates, 11; deceased members, c. 

Alpha- Gam ma, thirty-ninth chapter chartered. Established at the 
University of Illinois, Champaign, 111., on Nov. 17, 1891. Sponsor at 
establishment: Robert Allen Lackey (Purdue). Charter members : James 
Steele, William George Miller, William Ernest Steinwedell, George 
Philp Behrensmeyer, Frank David Arms, James David Metcalf, and 
George Herbert Atherton. Total number of initiates, 159; deceased mem- 
bers, 4. 

Alpha-Delta, fortieth chapter chartered. Established at the Penn- 
sylvania State College, State College, Pa., on Jan. 8, 1892. Sponsors at 
establishment: Frederick Neal Carr (Swarthmore), Frederic William 
Speakman (Swarthmore), Walter Weaver Hibbert (Swarthmore), and 
Robert Woodward Lippincott (Swarthmore). Charter members: Milton 
Speer McDowell, William Powell Rothrock, Walter Blair Waite, Mark 
Truman Swartz, Hugh Stuart Taylor and Arthur George Guyer. Total 
number of initiates, 121 ; deceased members, 2. 

Alpha-Epsilon, forty-first chapter chartered. Established at the 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., on Jan.- 20, 1892. Sponsors 
at establishment: James Harry Covington (Maryland Military and 
Naval), Frank Ross Sherard (Washington and Lee), Montgomery Gano 
Ruckner (Texas), Alfred Burwell Claytor (Washington and Lee), and 
members of Pi Chapter, Swarthmore College, and others. Charter mem- 
bers : James Harry Covington, Frank Ross Sherard, Montgomery Gano 
Buckner, and Alfred Burwell Claytor. Total number of initiates, in; 
deceased members, 1. 


Aj.i'ha-Zkta, forty-second chapter chartered. Established at the 
l'niversity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., on Feb. 23, 1892. Sponsors 
at establishment: Alexander Yerger Scott (Sewanee), Daniel Edward 
Storms (Purdue), and George Frank Rich (Maine). Charter members: 
Alexander Yerger Scott, Daniel Edward Storms, George Frank Rich, 
Lyman Gaston Grundy, Albert Mahlon Ashley, Jesse Elmer Roberts, 
Julian Alvin Padgett, Richard Francis Purcell, Anson Daniel Rose, and 
Horatio Vallandigham Gard. Total number of initiates, 147; deceased 
members, 5. 

Alpha-Eta, forty-third chapter chartered. Established at George 
Washington University, Washington, D. C, on Feb. 23, 1892. Became 
inactive in 1893 ; was reestablished on May 28, 1896. Sponsors at estab- 
lishment: Schiller Brents Hermann (Washington and Lee). Albert Jack- 
son Wittson (Davidson), William Homer Greer (Washington and Lee), 
Angus McDonald (Virginia), John Benjamin Clark (North Georgia), 
William Cowan Bowen (Maryland), William Bolivar Byers (Maryland). 
Albert C. Stephens (Maryland), and John Halsey Phillips (North 
Georgia). Charter members: Edward Grant Seibert, -Clarence George 
Probert, Lincoln Johnson, and Van Buren Knott Sponsors at reest b- 
lishment : Robert Henry Tucker (William and Mary), John Womack 
Wright (William and Mary), John Howard Allen (Vanderbilt), William 
Thompson Pollard (Randolph -Macon), and George Coleman Bushnell 
(Cumberland). Total number of initiates, 132; deceased members, 7. 

Alpha-Theta, forty-fourth chapter chartered. Established at South- 
western Baptist University, Jackson, Tenn., on March 5, 1892. Sponsors 
at establishment: Charles Bell Burke (Maryland Military and Naval), 
John Cullom Wilson (Vanderbilt), George Harris Robertson (South- 
western Presbyterian), John Chester Botts (Southwestern Presbyterian), 
and Martin Holbrook (Tennessee). Charter members: John Collum Wil- 
son. John Whittaker Buford. Jr.. Jere Lawrence Crook, Flarnc Lee Den- 
nison, and Hunter Wilson. Total number of initiates, 116; deceased mem- 
bers. 3. 

Alpha-Kappa, forty-fifth chapter chartered. Established at Cornell 
University, Ithaca, N. Y., on May 23, 1892. Sponsors at establishment : 
Daniel Royse (Purdue), and Richard Johnson Putnam (Centenary). 
Charter members: Daniel Royse, Richard Johnson Putnam. Arthur Wil- 
liam Herman Kaiser. James Christian Meinich Hanson, Willis Charles 
Ellis, Bion Lucien Burrows, Henry Curtis Earle, Charles Dunn, Harry 
Merrick Beach, George Warren Rulison, and Henry George Wolcott. 
Total number of initiates, 143 ; deceased members, 6. 

Alpha-Lambda, forty-sixth chapter chartered. Established at the 
l'niversity of Vermont, Burlington, Vt, on Feb. 16, 1893. Sponsors at 
establishment: Jeremiah Sweetser Ferguson (Maine), and Charles Pren- 
tiss Kittredge (Maine). Charter members: Tenney Hall Wheatley, Frank 
Nelson Guild, Bertie Duane Longe. William Stuart. John Findlay Young. 


Clayton Gerald Andrews, Theodore Eli Hopkins, Leigh Hunt, Norman 
Brown Webber, Otis Warren Barrett, Carl Wallace Fisher, Harry DeWitt 
Giddings, Joseph Benjamin Kidder, and Frederick Milo Small. Total 
number of initiates, 128; deceased members, 4. 

Alpha-Mu, forty-seventh chapter chartered. Established at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C, on June 3, 1893. Sponsors 
at establishment : Thomas Cowper Daniels, Frank Bettis Davis, David 
Anderson Houston, Frank Gibbons W)estbrook, Luther Thompson Hart- 
sell, Sterling Blackwell Pierce, John William Daniels, Albert Hubbard 
Bangert, James Walter Wadsworth, Braxton Phifer, Samuel W. Sparger, 
and William Atlas Finch, all of Trinity. Charter members: George Ros- 
coe Little, Gerard Samuel Wittson, James Spencer Lewis, Thomas Pleas- 
ant Braswell, Jr., and Thomas Menan Hooker. Total number of initiates, 
33; deceased members, 1. 

Alpha-Nu, forty-eighth chapter chartered. Established at Wofford 
College, Spartanburg, S. C, on Jan. 27, 1894. Sponsors at establishment: 
De La Warr Benjamin Easter (Randolph- Macon), Reginald McCreery 
Rawls (South Carolina), and Richard Smallwood Des Portes (South 
Carolina). Charter members: Benjamin Wofford Wait, Frederick Anson 
Cummings, John Caswell Roper, Thomas McTyeire Raysor and Nathaniel 
Moss Salley. Total number of initiates, 67; deceased members, 3. 

Alpha-Xi, forty-ninth chapter chartered. Established at Bethel Col- 
lege, Russellville, Ky., on May 28, 1894. Charter withdrawn in 1902, since 
which time it has not been reestablished. Anti-fraternity laws do not ob- 
tain. Sponsors at establishment: Robert Alomath Cox (Southwestern 
Presbyterian), Thomas Maury Daniel (Southwestern Presbyterian), Mat- 
thew Gerald Lyle (Southwestern Presbyterian), Harry Wesley Borders 
(Southwestern Presbyterian), Lawrence Newton Byers (Southwestern 
Presbyterian), and others. Charter members: Holman Taylor, Alonzo 
Stuart Wooten, John Caldwell Browder, Howell Harrison Hopson and 
Julian Wilcox Courts. Total number of initiates, 45 ; deceased members, 3. 
Alpha-Omicron, fiftieth chapter chartered. Established at Ken- 
tucky University, Lexington, Ky., on Sept. 7, 1894. Charter withdrawn in 
1901, since which time it has not been reestablished. Anti-fraternity laws 
do not obtain. Sponsors at establishment: John Taylor Green (Purdue), 
John Van Meter Nicholas (Washington and Lee), and McKenzie Robert- 
son Todd (Michigan). Charter members: Paul Vincent Bartlett, Michael 
Donoho Forman, William Wood Ballard and Morton Humphrey Bourne. 
Total number of initiates, 50; deceased members, 1. 

Alpha-Pi, fifty-first chapter chartered. Established at Wabash Col- 
lege, Crawfordsville, Ind., on Feb. 1, 1895. Sponsors at establishment : 
Charles Brewster Randolph (Cumberland), John Taylor Green (Purdue), 
George Eugene Boyd (Illinois), and Birch David Coffman (Illinois). 
Charter members : Charles Brewster Randolph, Robert Nathaniel Todd, 
Felix Henry Willis, Harry Herbert McClure, and Charles Matthias Rauch. 
Total number of initiates, 70; deceased members, 1. 


Alpha-Rho, fifty-second chapter chartered. Established at Bowdoin 
College, Brunswick, Maine, on March 22, 1895. Sponsors at establishment: 
Charles Maurice Randlette (Maine), eleven members of Psi Chapter, and 
John Findlay Young, Leigh Hunt, Carl Wallace Fisher, Hugh Aaron 
Seager, and Ide Gill Sargeant, all of Vermont. Charter members : Clar- 
ence Edgar Baker, Ralph Wallace Crosman, Cecil Leroy Blake, Fred- 
erick Howard Dole, Joseph William Hewitt, Oscar Elmer Pease, Edwin 
Francis Pratt, James Edwin Rhodes, 2d, Reuel Washburn Smith, Eben 
Davis Lane, Ernest Charles Edwards, and Jacob Meldon Loring. Total 
number of initiates, 99; deceased members, 1. 

Alpha-Sigma, fifty-third chapter chartered. Established at the Ohio 
State University, Columbus, Ohio, on March 22, 1895. Sponsors at es- 
tablishment: William Taylor Thayer (Hampden-Sidney), John Atkinson 
Thayer (Swarthmore), and Frederick Neal Carr (Swarthmore). Charter 
members : Charles William Burkett, Renick William Dunlap, Ernest 
Jacob Riggs, Dora Van Buren Burkett, and Charles Franklin Sprague. 
Total number of initiates, 101 ; deceased members, 5. 

Alpha-Tau, fifty-fourth chapter chartered. Established at the Georgia 
School of Technology, Atlanta, Ga., on Oct. 5, 1895. Sponsors at estab- 
lishment : Mark Johnston White (Mercer), George Washington Smith 
(Mercer), Jesse Chamblis Harris (Mercer), Lawson James Pritchard 
(Mercer), Henry Martin Cass (Grant), Fielding Parker Sizer (Grant), 
Frank Finley Hooper (Grant), and John Maynard Rutherford (Grant). 
Charter members : Birton Neill Wilson, James Thompson Wikle, Walter 
Brooks West, Charles Pinckney Rowland, Frederic Earl Solomon, Frank 
Barrows Freyer, Bertie William Seawell and William Barton Reynolds. 
Total number of initiates, 84; deceased members, 4. 

Alpha-Upsilon, fifty-fifth chapter chartered. Established at Millsaps 
College, Jackson, Miss., on Nov. 9, 1895. Sponsors at establishment : 
Thomas Bascom Holloman, Jr. (Centenary-), and Joseph Fielding Robin- 
son (Sewanee). Charter members: Charles Galloway Jones, Daniel Gil- 
mer McLaurin, William Burwell Jones, Charles Girault Andrews, Black- 
shear Hamilton Locke, Henry Thompson Carley, John Holliday Holloman, 
Ethelbert Hines Galloway, Thomas Mitchell Lemly, and John Tillery 
Lewis. Total number of initiates, 109; deceased members, o. 

Alpha-Phi, fifty-sixth chapter chartered. Established at Bucknell Un- 
iversity, Lewisburg, Pa., on Dec. 11, 1896. Local society, Phi Epsilon. ab- 
sorbed. Sponsors at establishment: James Harry Covington (Maryland 
Military and Naval), George Harold Powell (Cornell), and Alpha-Delta 
Chapter. Charter members : Merton Roscoe Collins, George Albert Jen- 
nings, Simon Ward Gilpin, Oliver John Decker, George Edward Jenkin- 
son, Jr., William Robert Morris, Benjamin Williams Griffith, Saner Cook 
Bell, and Arthur Dougherty Rees. Total number of initiates, 73; deceased 
members, 1. 

Alpha-Psi, fifty-seventh chapter chartered. Established at the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb., on Feb. 13, 1897. Sponsor at estab- 


lishment : Charles Brewster Randolph (Cumberland). Charter members: 
Charles Alfred Turrell, Charles Frederick Schwartz, William Grant, 
Clarence Curtis Culver, Leonard Harman Robbins, Cassius Asa Fisher, 
Carl Le Roy Shuff, Le Roy Vernon Patch, and Charles Edward Matson. 
Total number of initiates, 104; deceased members, 1. 

Alpha-Omega, fifty-eighth chapter chartered. Established at William 
Jewell College, Liberty, Mo., on May 8, 1897. Local society, Pi Alpha 
Theta, absorbed. Sponsors at establishment: Charles Richardson (Emory 
and Henry), and William Laurence Cunningham (Washington and Lee). 
Charter members: John Jasper Bowman, Richard Archie Bywaters, John 
Marion Word, Richard Irving Bruce, Carter Richard Bishop, Lester Car- 
penter Grady, and John William Sydnor. Total number of initiates, 60; 
deceased members, 3. 

Beta- Alpha, fifty-ninth chapter chartered. Established at Brown 
University, Providence, R. I., on Feb. 22, 1898. Sponsors at establishment : 
John Warren Davis (Bucknell), George Edward Schilling (Bucknell), 
Warren Robinson Austin (Vermont), Norton Royce Hotchkiss ( Mary- 
kind), John Lawrence Ludwig (Virginia Polytechnic), Frank Edward 
Snowden (Southwestern Presbyterian), and Frederic Lee Stone (Se- 
wanee). Charter members: Ephraim LeRoy Hart, Mellinger Edward 
Henry, Arthur Herbert Fitz, Charles Israel Gates, Francis Severance 
Johnson, William Watson Wyckoff, Luther Bentley Adams, Leonard 
Merrick Patton, Ernest Palmer Carr, Carlton John Patton, David Con- 
nolly Hall, and Claude Everett Stevens. Total number of initiates, 83 : 
deceased members, 2. 

Beta-Beta, sixtieth chapter chartered. Established at Richmond 
College, Richmond, Va . on March 5, 1898. Sponsors at establishment: 
Herbert Milton Martin (Randolph-Macon), Stanley Watkins Martin 
(Virginia Polytechnic), Lewis Fleming (Hampden-Sidney), Rives Flem- 
ing (Hampden-S-'dney), James Duncan Hughlett (Randolph-Macon), Nor- 
val Thomas Hepburn (Randolph-Macon), Thomas Watson Brown (Wil- 
liam and Mary), William Spencer Henley (William and Mary), Frank 
Thomas Staley (Emory and Henry) and others. Charter members : Wil- 
liam Loftin Prince, Charles Craddock Barksdale, Robert Lee Williams, 
Harry Rew, William Gary Bidgood, Robert Opie Norris, Jr., Robert Nel- 
son Pollard, and Norman Gara Woodson. Total number of initiates, 43; 
deceased members, c. 

Beta-Gamma, sixty-first chapter chartered. Established at the M : s- 
souri State University, Columbia, Mo., on April 6, 1898. Sponsors at 
establishment: George Vaughan (Arkansas), Berkeley St. John Green 
(Sewanee), and Abe John Myar (Arkansas). Charter members: Wil- 
liam Henry Turner, John Crockett Edwards, Adelphus Centimus Ter- 
rell, George Gordon Robertson, Everett Pine Weatherly, David Otto 
Row, Judson Baker Bond, Wilford Caldwell Barnhardt, and Ernest Tate. 
Total number of initiates, 77 ; deceased members, 3. 


Beta-Dki.ta, sixty-second chapter chartered. Established at Wash- 
ington and Jefferson College, Washington, Pa., on April 15, 1898. Spon- 
sors at establishment: Rudolph Peak Lippincott (Wabash). Charter 
members : Rudolph Peak Lippincott, John Robert Musgrave, Homer 
Krepps Underwood, William Pollock Craig, Lee Dewitt Hemingway, 
Chas. Walter Stone, Alexander Blaikie Jobson, Earl Cubbison Cleeland, 
and John Charles Walter Busch. Total number of initiates, 52; deceased 
numbers, 1. 

Beta-Epsilon, sixty-third chapter chartered. Established at the 
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., on June II, 1898. Sponsors at 
establishment: Mark Sands (Michigan), Guy Miltimore (Illinois), 
George Eugene Boyd (Illinois), Lore Alford Rogers (Maine), and 
Joseph Maxwell McArthur (Sewanee). Charter members: Lore Al- 
ford Rogers, Joseph Maxwell McArthur, William Brown Ford, Thomas 
George Xee. John Lincojn Fisher, and George Warner Mosher. Total 
number of initiates, 88; deceased members. 1. 

Beta-Zkta. sixty-fourth chapter chartered. Established at Leland 
Stanford, Jr., University, Cal., on May 19, 1899. Sponsors at es- 
tablishment: Frank Maytham (Cornell), and Robert Lee Stephenson 
(Tennessee). Charter members: Prank Maytham, Alfred Francis Wil- 
liam Schmidt, Frederic Jewell Perry, Frank Hinman, Howard Truslow. 
and Roy Harry Black. Total number of initiates, 59; deceased mem- 
bers, 1. 

Beta-Eta, sixty-fifth chapter chartered. Established at the Alabama 
Polytechnic Institute, Auburn. Ala., on Jan'y 20, 1900. Sponsors at es- 
tablishment: Nathaniel Leslie Carpenter (Vanderbilt), James Napoleon 
Granade (Alabama), John Harman Taylor (Mercer), William Parker 
Neilson (Alabama), and Thomas Sweeney Sharp (Alabama). Charter 
members : Malcolm Alfred Beeson, William Forney Osborne, William 
Stowe Rutledge, Luther Noble Duncan, James Richard Rutland, Henry 
Virgil Reid, Paul Shields Haley, George Waddell Snedecor, William 
Lawson Thornton, and William Watson Rutland. Total number of in- 
itiates. 59; deceased members, o. 

Beta-Iota, sixty-sixth chapter chartered. Established at Lehigh 
University, South Bethlehem, Pa., on Nov. 28, 1900. Sponsors at estab- 
lishment : the members of the Supreme Executive Committee and the 
delegates to the 14th Biennial Grand Conclave. Charter members: Wil- 
liam Perry Rogers, John Stauffer Krauss, Louis Gustave Krauss, Charles 
Elmer Barba. Arthur Reuben Young, Henry Le Roy Fryer, Solomon 
W. Goldsmith. Ellis Garfield Godshalk, George Jack Walz, and John 
Walt Dismant. Total number of initiates, 49; deceased members, o. 

Beta-Kappa, sixty-seventh chapter chartered. Established at the 
New ^Hampshire College, Durham, N. H., on Feb. 22, 1901. Local so- 
ciety, Q. T. V., absorbed. Sponsors at establishment : Jeremiah Sweet- 
ser Ferguson ( Maine). Charles William Burkett (Ohio State), Frederick 


Symes Johnston (Ohio State), George Hoxsie Stickney (Cornell, Preston 
Banks Churchill (Bowdoin), Edward Trowbridge Fenley (Bowdoin), 
Arthur Lawrence Small (Bowdoin), Bertram Albert Warren (Brown), 
and William Eli Putnam (Vermont). Charter members: Irving Atwell 
Colby, Henry Harold Calderwood, Charles Almon Hunt, Edwin Price 
Jewett, Robert McArdle Keown, Elmer Eugene Lyon, Norman Allen Rol- 
lins, Edwin William Gilmartin, John Chester Kendall, Harry Moulton 
Lee, Abiel Abbott Livermore, William Lincoln Barker, Harry David 
Batchelor, Everett William Burbeck, Frank Lester Hill, Ralph Harvey 
Rollins, Carl Linwood Sargent, Melvin Johnson White, Percy Anderson 
Campbell, Frank Lurling Hadley, Thomas Jefferson Laton, Levi Joseph 
Marsh, Joseph French Blodgett, and Charles Emery Robertson. Total 
number of initiates, 90; deceased members, 0. 

Beta-Lambda, sixty-eighth chapter chartered. Established at the 
University of Georgia, Athens, Ga., on March 16, 1901. Sponsors at es- 
tablishment: Israel Mercer Putnam (Vanderbilt), Robert Clinton Steph- 
ens (Mercer), Bradford Enoch Roughton, Jr. (Mercer), Joseph Albert 
Hall, Jr., John Gillespie Johnson, Milton Graham Smith, Paul Howes 
Norcross, Hugh O'Keefe Kendrick, Samuel Warren Mays and Luther 
Love Hunnicutt, all of Georgia Tech. Charter members : Israel Mercer 
Putnam, Charles Johns Moore, Marvin McDonald Dickinson, John Earle 
Overby McCalla, Marion Stinson Monk, John Christian Koch, Oscar 
John Coogler, George Washington Threlkeld, Walter Barnett Shaw, and 
Paul Jones King. Total number of initiates, 38; deceased members, o. 

Beta-Mu, sixty-ninth chapter chartered. Established at the Univer- 
sity of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn., on April 6, 1901. Local society 
Alpha Theta absorbed. Sponsors at establishment : Walter Wallace Ty- 
ler (Vermont), William Robt. Morris (Bucknell), Rufus Milton Barnes 
(Pennsylvania), Mervin Eber Alcott (Lake Forest), Clarence Eugene Ab- 
bott (Wisconsin), John Morledge Woy (Wisconsin) and James Russell 
Hobbins (Wisconsin). Charter members: Edward Alford Ecklund, Charles 
Parker Sterling, George Francis Shea, Frank Charles Hughes. Emory 
Lee Jewell, Lyman Joseph Howes, Morton Lewis McBride, Samuel Doak 
Lowery, William Henry Shea, Jr., and Adrian Daniel Mastenbrook. To- 
tal number of initiates, 61 ; deceased members, 1. . 

Beta-Nu, seventieth chapter chartered. Established at the Kentucky 
State College, Lexington, Ky., on April 5, 1901. Sponsors at establish- 
ment: William Wood Ballard (Kentucky), James Aylmer Slack (Bethel), 
Benjamin Talbott Hume, Jr. (Kentucky), Waller Pendleton Eubank 
(Bethel), Madison Ashby Hart (Kentucky), Dawson Chambers (Ken- 
tucky), and others. Charter members: Lewis Andrew Darling, James 
Aylmer Slack, Benjamin Talbott Hume, Jr., John Henry Leon Vogt, Wal- 
ler Pendleton Eubank, John Edwin Brown, George William Headley, Jr., 
Butler Fauntleroy Thompson, Charles Leon Peckinpaugh, Samuel Fletch- 
er Parker, Charles Wright Atkinson, and Herman Frederick Scholtz. 
Total number of initiates, 40; deceased members, 1. 


Beta-Xi, seventy-first chapter chartered. Established at the Univer- 
sity of California, Berkeley, Cal., on Aug. 24, 1901. Local society Beta 
Kappa Delta absorbed. Sponsors at establishment : Frederick Jewell Perry 
(Stanford), Edward Marion Walsh (Michigan), Elmer Guy Ryker (Mich-' 
igan), Peter James Crosby (Michigan), Thomas Stanley Evans (George 
Washington), William Henry Beard (George Washington), Carl Wallace 
Fisber (Vermont), Robert Lee Stephenson (Tennessee), Roy Harry 
Black (Stanford), Alfred Francis William Schmidt (Stanford), Ernest 
Stoddard Page (Stanford), Clarence Winslow Page (Stanford), Claude 
Bailey Gillespie (Stanford.), Frank Hinman (Stanford), Harry Clifford 
Lucas (Stanford), and Nathan Gardiner Symonds (Stanford). Charter 
members : Lawrence Stephen O'Toole, Boutwell Dunlap, Clarence Case- 
bolt Dakin, Frederick Holroyd Dakin, Jr., Charles Thomason Dozier, 
Christopher Hatton Aspland, William Whitehead Hurlburt, and Robert 
Weitbrec Cooper. Total number of initiates, 48; deceased members, o. 

Beta-Omicron, seventy-second chapter chartered. Established at 
Denver University, Denver, Col., on Feb. 8, 1902. Sponsors at establish- 
ment : John Randolph Neal (Tennessee), Edmond Plumb Boynton (Cor- 
nell), Franklin Houston Morrison (Ohio), and William Marshall Rob- 
inson (Wm. Jewell). Charter members: Davis McArthur Carson, Jus- 
tin Hiram Haynes, William Angus Mitchell, William James Perkins. 
Charles Frederick Morris, Frank Leslie Veatch, and Samuel Clifford 
Carnes. Total number of initiates, 40; deceased members, 1. 

Beta-Pi, seventy-third chapter chartered. Established at Dickinson 
College, Carlisle, Pa., on Feb. 7, 1902. Local society, Pi Gamma Alpha, 
absorbed. Sponsors at establishment: John Warren Davis (Bucknell), 
Frank Jones Kier (Pennsylvania), Lewis Bayard Custer (Bucknell), Car- 
roll Caruthers (Bucknell), David Robinson Walkinshaw (Bucknell), Wal- 
ter Wetmore Senn (Bucknell), Charles Arthur Woodard (Bucknell), Jo- 
seph Earl Hill (Lehigh), Henry LeRoy Fryer (Lehigh), John Rockey 
Decker (Pennsylvania State), Edward Nathan Zern (Pennsylvania State), 
James Vance Kyle (Pennsylvania State), George Edgar Diehl (Penn- 
sylvania State), Robert Wallace WVay (Pennsylvania State). James 
Ellis Harvey (Pennsylvania State), and William Van Gundia Detwiler 
(Pennsylvania State). Charter members: Frank Thompson Bell, Ulysses 
Simpson Wright, William Edward Myers, Agis Aldridge McCrone. 
Robert Clarence Peters, Curvin Henry Gingrich, Thomas Edwin Redding. 
John Wycliffe Yost, Charles Wesley Taylor. Louis Crawford Carroll, and 
Herbert Jerrel Belting. Total number of initiates, 45; deceased mem- 
bers, 0. 

Beta-Rho, seventy- fourth chapter chartered. Established at the State 
University of Iowa. Iowa City, Iowa, on Sep. 27, 1902. Local society 
Phi Upsilon absorbed. Sponsors at establishment: Mark Sands (Michi- 
gan), Samuel Berkley Sloan (Nebraska), William Karl Herrick (Lake For- 
est), and Adrian Daniel Mastenbrook (Minnesota). Charter members: 


Frederick Henry Luhman, Edwin Calhoun Arthur, John Augustus Mc- 
Kenzie, Thomas Corwin Smith, John Paul Redmond, Francis Nugent, 
Harvey Le Roy Dye, Harold Beecher Strong, Walter Lynn Du Bois, 
Willard Carlisle Swigart, Bert Blaine Burnquist, and Thomas Cyrus 
Doran. Total number of initiates, 58; deceased members, 0. 

Beta-Sigma, seventy-fifth chapter chartered. Established at Wash- 
ington University, St. Louis, Mo., on Nov. 22, 1902. Sponsors at estab- 
ishment : Charles Richardson (Emory and Henry), William Brownlow Lat- 
ta (Arkansas), Harvey Field Parker (Missouri), Edwin Dwight Smith 
(Missouri), Malcolm Phelps Post (Ohio State), Oliver Thul Johnson 
(Missouri), Hugh Beverly Hill (Arkansas), Thomas Robertson Hill (Ar- 
kansas), William Hendry Prentice, Jr. ( Purdue), Thos. Hendricks David 
(Purdue), Royal Lee Bunch (William Jewell), Carter Richard Bishop 
(William Jewell), Bartlett Roper Bishop (William Jewell), Walter Frank 
Koken (Missouri), John Henry Rogers, Jr. (Purdue), Roscoe Florence An- 
derson (Missouri), Patrick Henry Aylett (William and Mary), William 
Smith Warner (Wisconsin), Rockwell Smith Brank (Virginia) and Rich- 
ard Thomas Brownrigg (Sewanee). Charter members: William Brownlow 
Latta, Harry Field Parker, Robert Funkhouser, Sargent F. Jones, David 
Carson Goodman, and Oscar Kilby. Total number of initiates, 32 ; de- 
ceased members, I. 

Beta-Tau, seventy-sixth chapter chartered. Established at Baker 
University, Baldwin, Kans., on Feb. 2, 1903. Local society, "Skull and 
Bones," absorbed. Sponsors at establishment: Charles Richardson (Emory 
and Henry), and Denny Coulter Simrall, Hume Stanley White, Esty 
Angus Julian, Madison Smith Slaughter, Lewis Wilbur Cohen, Ray- 
mond Prewitt Estil, and John Frank Guyton, all of William Jewell. 
Charter members : Arthur Roy Bowman, Walter Hodgin Case, Alpha 
Mills Ebright, Rollo Wood Coleman, Charles Everett Ely, Edwin Adam 
Britsch, Jesse Cecil Denious, Burr Howey Ozment, Don Earl Waggoner, 
Wm. Wesley Rubel, Henry Farrar Durkee, Jesse Howard Moore, Arden 
Heman Douglass, and Samuel Everett Urner. Total number of initi- 
ates, 49; deceased members, 0. 

Beta-Upsilon, seventy-seventh chapter chartered. Established at the 
North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Raleigh, 
N. C, on Feb. 23, 1903. Sponsors at establishment : Herbert Milton 
Martin (Randolph-Macon), Charles William Burkett (Ohio State), 
Daniel Price Withers (Virginia), Albert Fuller Patton (Hampden- 
Sidney), Hugh O'Keefe Kendrick (Georgia Tech.), John Chester 
Kendall (New Hampshire), Daniel Shuford Murph (Wofford), Der- 
mot Shemwell (Davidson), Thomas Walter Smith, Jr. (Trinity), 
Lemuel Hardy Gibbons (Trinity), Wilson Grinter Puryear (Trinity), 
Robert Anderson Brown (Trinity), Charles Gibbons (Trinity). Lloyd 
Kirby Wooten (Trinity), William Archer Brown (Trinity), Charles 
Thomas Woollen (North Carolina), Lawrence Archdale Tomlinson (Trin- 


ity), and William Lawrence Grimes (North Carolina). Charter members: 
Leslie Norwood Boney, Charles Leicester Creech, Eugene English Cul- 
breth, Walter Lee Darden, Edward Hayes Ricks, Jarvis Benjamin Hard- 
ing, Branton Eaison Huggins, William Richardson, Jr., William Miller 
Chambers, Frederic Watson Hadley, George Green Lynch, Jr., Charles 
Wigg Martin, James Hicks Pierce, Edward Griffith Porter, Jr., Ch'irles 
Tennent Venable, and Lewis Taylor Winston. Total number of initi- 
ates, 42; deceased members, o. 

Beta-Phi, seventy-eighth chapter chartered. Established at Case 
School of Applied Science, Cleveland, O., on Nov. 26, 1903. Local so- 
ciety, Phi Alpha Chi, absorbed. Sponsors at establishment: Mark Sands 
(Michigan), George Locke Crosby (Millsaps), Dwight Spencer Anderson 
(Ohio State University), Edward Bovey Armbruster (Ohio State), 
Sberman Bronson Randall (Ohio State), William Benson Wal- 
ling (Stanford). James Leonard Moore (Arkansas), Nathaniel Gardi- 
ner Symonds (Stanford), Victor Emile Thebaud (Cornell), and Her- 
bert Coward (Cornell). Charter members: Rudolph Armandos Droege. 
Arthur Edwin Schaefer, Raymond Bertram Perry, Irving Fink Laucks. 
Egbert Ricbard Morrison, Hallie Summerville Hall, Paul Payson Elliott. 
Myrl John Falkenburg, Orrie John Mills, Herbert Harlow Freese, and 
Alvah Meade Clark. Total number of initiates, 41 ; deceased members, o. 

Beta-Chi, seventy-ninth chapter chartered. Established at the Mis- 
souri School of Mines, Rolla, Mo., on Dec. 19, 1903. Sponsors at estab- 
lishment ; Charles Richardson (Emory and Henry), Denny Coulter Sim- 
rail (William Jewell), Flippin Martin Cook (Arkansas), Clifton Langs- 
dale (Missouri), Oliver Thul Johnson (Missouri), and Esty Angus Julian 
(William Jewell). Charter members: John Severin Schroeder, Jr., Les- 
lie Burson Emry, Matthew Vincent Quinn, Charles Le Clair King, Orsi 
Paul Allee, George Horton Blackman, Henry Hartzell, Jr., David Chop- 
lin Evans, Dale Coleman Barnard, and Walter White McMillen. Total 
number of initiates, 29; deceased members, 0. 

Beta-Psi, eightieth chapter chartered. Established at the University 
of Washington, Seattle, Wash., on Dec. 15, 1903. Sponsors at establish- 
ment: Frederic Jewell Perry (Stanford), William Robert Bell (Mary- 
land Military and Naval), and Roy Overman Hadley (Stanford). Char- 
ter members: Winford Lee Lewis, John Charles Rathbun, Arthur Roy 
Terpening, Frank Vedder Taylor, and John Ruskin Slattery. Total 
number of initiates, 32; deceased members, 0. 

Beta-Omeca, eighty-first chapter chartered. Established at Colorado 
College, Colorado Springs, Colo., on March 12, 1904: Local society Phi 
Upsilon Sigma absorbed. Sponsors at establishment : John Randolph Xeal 
(Tennessee), Justin Hiram Haynes (Denver), St. George Tucker (Wil- 
liam and Mary), George Warner Mosher (Wisconsin), William Edward ' 
Foley (Denver), Charles Frederick Morris (Denver), Davis McArthur 
Carson (Denver), Robert Morrison Drysdale (Denver), George Berkeley 


Holderer (Denver), and Frank Leslie Veatch (Denver). Charter mem- 
bers : James McClure Piatt, George Gardner, Jr., William John Wallrich, 
Elliot Eugene Reyer, Augustus Du Bois Forbush, Charles School Leuch- 
tenburg, Philip Fitch, Walter Christopher Tegtmeyer, and Albert Cobert. 
Total number of initiates, 28; deceased members, o. 

Gamma-Alpha, eighty-second chapter chartered. Established at the 
University of Oregon, Eugene, Ore., on April 16, 1904. Sponsors at es- 
tablishment: Frederic Jewell Perry (Stanford), and Schiller Brents 
Hermann (Washington and Lee). Charter members: Walter Lincoln 
Whittlesey, John Frederick Staver, Charles Lois Campbell, David Gra- 
ham, Vernor Wayne Tomlinson. Chester Wesley Washburne, Ivan Ed- 
ward Oakes, Cloan Norris Perkins, James Franklin Donnelly, Chester 
Harvard Starr, John Randolph Latourette, Harry Logan Raffety, Harley 
Glafke, Gordon Chamberlain Moores and John Currin Veatch. Total num- 
ber of initiates, 28 ; deceased members, 0. 

Gamma-Beta, eighty-third chapter chartered. Established at the 
University of Chicago, Chicago, 111., on May 11, 1904. Local society 
"The Bronze Shield" absorbed. Sponsors at establishment : Mark Sands 
(Michigan), Robert Allen Lackey (Purdue), Jesse Elmer Roberts (Mich- 
igan), Edwin Calhoun Arthur (Iowa), Robert Franklin Carr, Jr. (Illi- 
nois), Augustus Ruffner (West Virginia), Walter Scott Carr (Illinois), 
Chas. Chandler (Swarthmore), Frank Howe Cornell (Illinois), and 
others. Charter members : Samuel Crawford Ross, James Roy Ozanne, 
Lyford Paterson Edwards, Edward Lyman Cornell, Henry Winford Bige- 
low, Jr., John Frederick Tobin, Paul Temple Ramsey, Bernard Iddings 
Bell, and Edward Grattan Ince. Total number of initiates, 26; deceased 
members, o. 

Gamma-Gamma, eighty-fourth chapter chartered. Established at the 
Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Col., on May 21, 1904. Sponsors at 
establishment: John Randolph Neal (Tennessee), Wilbur Franklin Den- 
ious (Denver), John Morledge Woy (Wisconsin), Scott Watson (Mill- 
saps), Davis McArthur Carson (Denver), James Rumney Killian (Tex- 
as), Frederic Richter Wright (Denver), Clarence Atkins Ward (Denver), 
William Edward Foley (Denver), Frank Leslie Veatch (Denver), 
Charles Frederic Morris (Denver), George Berkeley Holderer (Den- 
ver), and others. Charter members: Davis MacArthur Carson, Scott 
Watson, John Jerome Cory, Joseph Francis O'Byrne, Ernest Frederick 
Stoeckley, Edward Merewether, Ralph Wyatt Shumway, and Maynard 
James Trott. Total number of initiates, 29; deceased members, o. 

Gamma-Delta, eighty-fifth chapter chartered. Established at the 
Massachusetts State College, Amherst, Mass., on June 13, 1904. Local so- 
ciety D. G. K., absorbed. Sponsors at establishment : Jeremiah Sweetser 
Ferguson (Maine), Frank Stevens Tolman (Maine), Lincoln Ross Col- 
cord (Maine), George Hoxsie Stickney (Cornell), Jesse Leonti Bliss 
(Cornell), Charles Austin Coburn (Vermont), Irwin Spear (Vermont, 


Xorris W. Chapman (Vermont), Harley W. Heath (Vermont), and 
Xeill Starr Franklin (Xew Hampshire). Charter members: Clifford 
Franklin Elwood, Reuben Raymond Raymoth, John Franklin Lyman, 
Bertram Tupper, James Richard Keiton, Charles Sheldon Holcomb, Harold 
Koss Tompson. Edward Thorndike Ladd, Percy Frederic Williams, Alex- 
ander 1 len rv .Moore, Everett Pike Mudge, Herman Augustus Suhlke, 
Stanley Sawyer Rogers, Edwin Hobart Scott, Charles Walter Carpenter, 
Arthur Huguenin Armstrong, Arthur William Higgins, George Franklin 
Smith, Calder Sankey Stoddard, George Augustus Dearth, Joseph Otis 
Chapman, and Harold Edward Alley. Total number of initiatese, 101 ; 
deceased members, i. 

Gamma-Epsilon, eighty-sixth chapter chartered. Established at Dart- 
mouth College, Hanover, N. H., on April n, 1905. Local society Beta Gam- 
ma absorbed. Sponsors at establishment : Jeremiah Sweetser Ferguson 
(Maine), Homer Francis Brown (Maine), and others. Charter members: 
Frederick Warren Jenkins, Albion Keith Spofford, Carl Folsom Getch- 
ell, Homer Francis Brown, Harry Allen McMore, Joseph Augustine 
O'Connor, Floyd Tangier Smith, Jerome Ambrose McDonald, and Wal- 
ter Goble Wehrle. Total number of initiates, 32; deceased members, o. 

Gamma-Zeta, eighty-seventh chapter chartered. Established at New 
York University, New York, N. Y., on April 6, 1905. Sponsors at es- 
tablishment: Jeremiah Sweetser Ferguson (Maine), Guy Thomas Visk- 
niskki (Swarthmore), Frederic Lee Stone (Sewanee), William Labaree 
Flye (Bowdoin), John Taylor Green (Purdue), Louis Warner Riggs 
(Maine), Sidney Rawson Perry (Washington and Lee), Samuel Bell 
Thomas (Southwestern), James Bryson McKeage (Southwestern Pres- 
byterian), Abner McGehee, Jr. (Arkansas), William Watson Wyckoff 
(Brown), Byron Albert Kilbourne (Cornell), and others. Charter mem- 
bers : Richard Joshua Brown, George William Bartelmez, Willis Brooks 
Davis, Alfred Starr Griffiths, Charles McAvoy, Edwin McQueen, Ad- 
rian Charles Griffin, George Scudder Jervis, and Christian Henry Von 
Bargen. Total number of initiates, 15; deceased members, o. 

Gamma-Eta, eighty-eighth chapter chartered. Established at Har- 
vard University, Cambridge, Mass., on June 24, 1905. Local society Pi 
Upsilon absorbed. Sponsors at establishment : Stanley Watkins Martin 
(Virginia Polytechnic), Jeremiah Sweetser Ferguson (Maine). George 
Hoxsie Stickney (Cornell), Joseph Sterry Lamson (California), Samuel 
Townsend Stewart (Swarthmore). James Thompson McDonald (Wash- 
ington and Jefferson), Robert Emmett Craig (Southwestern Presby- 
terian), members of the Boston Alumni Chapter, and representatives 
from the New England Chapters. Charter members : Charles Luther 
( Hds, Jr., Norman Devereux Olds. James Thayer Fenner, Arthur Pray 
Rice, Lyman Calvin Goodrich, Robert Carver Diserens, Philip Wescott 
Lawrence Cox. Lawrence Burns Webster, Arthur Evans Wood, Ralph 
William Smiley. Henry Odin Tilton. George Edwin Eversole, Raymond 


John Scully, Harries Arthur Mumma, Clifford Warren Maish, and 
Arthur Edwin Van Bibber. Total number of initiates, 29; deceased mem- 
bers, o. 

Gamma-Theta, eighty-ninth chapter chartered. Established at the 
University of Idaho, Moscow, Id., on Sep. 30, 1905. Local society Sig- 
ma Delta Alpha absorbed. Sponsors at establishment : Frederic Jewell 
Perry (Stanford), Frederick Joseph Carver (Nebraska), Philip Tin- 
dall (George Washington), William Kelly Roosevelt (Stanford), Brice 
Loveland Trost (Stanford), and Verne Cecil Hurlbut (Stanford). Char- 
ter members : Roy Wethered, Floyd Dwight Angel, James "William Gal- 
loway, Victor Emanuel Price, Nicholas Collins Sheridan, Louis James 
Fogle, William Madison Snow, Harry Baxter Noble, C. C. Gee, George 
Herbert Wyman, Jr., William Wilson Goble, Thomas Dunlap Matthews, 
Thomas Estil Hunter, William Enderle Robertson, Wilfred Adamson. 
William Nelson Thomas, Harry T. Hunter, and John Francis Carson. 
Total number of initiates, 29 ; deceased members, o. 

Gamma-Iota, ninetieth chapter chartered. Established at Syracuse 
University, Syracuse, N. Y., on May 15, 1906. Sponsors at establishment : 
Jeremiah Sweetser Ferguson (Maine), Almon Andrus Jaynes (Brown), 
Claude Burton Dakin (Brown), Willard Albertson Rill (George Wash- 
ington), Reenen Jacob Van Reenen (Lehigh), Samuel Henry Salisbury, Jr. 
(Lehigh), Edwin McQueen (New York), and Austin Wright Eddy (New 
York). Charter members: Garrett Putnam Serviss Cross, Frederick- 
Joseph Shepherd, Daniel Henry Brooks, William Ross Van Housen, Gran- 
ville "Avery Waters, William Francis Evans, Charles Eugene De Long, 
Walter F. Shaw, Charles Stuart Knight, Walter Rollo Hibbard, and 
Ebenezer Merritt Larkin. Total number of initiates, 18; deceased mem- 
bers, o. 

Gamma-Kappa, ninety-first chapter chartered. Established at the 
University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla., on June 7, 1906. Local so- 
ciety Alpha Delta Sigma absorbed. Sponsors at establishment : David 
Connolly Hall (Brown), George Carl Abernathy (Arkansas), Theo- 
dore Plumber Bringhurst (Southwestern Presbyterian), Clarence Charles 
Buxton (William Jewell), Charles Ulrich Connellee (Arkansas), and 
Thomas Finley Munday (Bethel). Charter members: Homer Charles 
Washburn, William Hancock Low, Charles Daniel Johnson, Arthur 
Maxwell Alden, Arthur Roberts Swank. William Gladstone Lemmon, 
Ralph Harold Dangerfield, Walter Lee Ransom, Earl Tobias Miller, 
Frederick Leroy Allen, Frederick Marion Trotter, Clarence Alexander 
Ambrister, and George Lawrie Kellar. Total number of initiates, 12; 
deceased members, o. 

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