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KARAKORAM 

AND 

WESTERN HIMALAYA 

1909. 



PUT INTO KNCUSII 15V ( 'A IK >U NK I)K KIUl'IM ,m: FIT/(!KI,'ALD 

AND H. T. POUTER. 



THE IM.rsTl.'ATKiXS Fi;OM PHOTOOKAI'IIS TAKKN 15V 
VITTOIMO SKI. LA, MKMI5KU OF TlfK KXTKDITK i.\. 



J-n 



KARAKORAM 

AND 

WESTERN HIMALAYA 

1909 

AN ACCOUNT OF THE EXPEDITION 
or 

H.R.H. 

PRINCE LU1GI AMEDEO ()! SAVON 

KK OK THK AHHKU//.I 



FILIITO DE FILIP1M, F.R.G.S. 

U'lTII A PkEKAUC I'.V 
1I.R.II. 

THK DUKK OF THK AliRUZZI 



NEW YORK 

E. P. DUTTON AND COMPANY 

31 West Twenty-Third Street. 
1912 




1 



HARRISON AND SONS, 

Printers in Ordinary to His Majesty, 

45-47, St. Martin's Lane, W.C. 



; 



K 2 , from the Southern Ridge of Staircase Peak 

by H.K H the Duke ,,f Ih, Abrunzi) 



TRANSLATOR'S NOTE. 



The thanks of the translator are due and are here gratefully expressed to 
Cesare Foligno, M.A., J. S. Gamble, C.I.E., F.R.S., F.L.S., and Capt. Howard Knox, 
who have been so kind as to read various parts of the translation. 

H. T. P. 



CONTENTS. 



I-,,.- 

PREFACE. By H.R.H. Tho Duke of the Ahruzzi xi 

INTRODUCTION. Origin and Nature of the Expedition ... xv 

CHAPTER I. THE HIMALAYA 1 

CHAPTER II. FROM MARSEILLES TO SRINAOAB ... ... ... ... 14 

CHAPTER III. KASHMIR 31 

CHAPTER IV. THE SIND VALLEY 4!> 

CHAPTER V. ZGJI LA 63 

CHAPTER VI. THE DRAS VALLEY 72 

CHAPTER VII. THE INDUS VALLEY 92 

CHAPTER VIII. FROM OLTHINGTHANG TO SKARDU 11- 

CHAITEE IX. FROM SKARDU TO ASKOLEY. THE SHIOAR AND BRALDOH VALLKYS ... 132 

CHAPTER X. FROM ASKOLEY TO RDOKASS. THE BIAFO AND BALTORO GLACIERS 101 

CHAPTER XI. RDOKASS 189 

CHAPTER XII FROM RDOKASS TO THE CONCORDIA AMPHITHEATRE 204 

CHAPTER XIII. FROM CONCORDIA TO THE FOOT OF K*. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS 
AND FIRST ATTEMPT ... ... ... ... ... 

CHAPTER XLV. THE SAVOIA GLACIER AND PASS 241 

CHAPTER XV. THE UPPER GODWIN AUSTEN GLACIER AND THE EASTERN SLOPES OF K ! ... -'53 

CHAPTER XVI. FROM THE BASE OF K 2 TO THE FOOT OF BRIDE PEAK. THE UPPER 

BALTOKO GLACIER ... ... ... ... 27? 

CHAPTER XVII. BKIDE PEAK 

CHAPTER XVIII. THE RETURN TO SRINAGAU 

CHAPTER XIX. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES AND CONSIDERATIONS 3">1 

APPENDIX A. Photograra metric Survey 

APPENDIX B. Meteorological Report and Altimctrir Calculations ... 

APPENDIX C. Geological Renults 4 - !l 

APPENDIX ]). Botanical Report 
INDICES. 



PREFACE. 




Once more I entrust to 
Cav. Filippo De Filippi, my 
travelling companion, the com/il< /< 
account of my late expedition. 
I am grateful to him for under- 
taking tlie task, and I hope 
that his revived memories of 
our joiirney may have rendered his labour less burdensome. 

Tlie detailed history of our wanderings will explain better than I was 
able to do in my short lectures before the Italian Alpine Club and // 
Italian Geographical Society, the diffkulties and obstacles whir/' tin- 
expedition encountered. The map of the Baltoro glacier which accompanies 
this volume was planned and executed at the Military Geographical 
Institute of Florence from photogrammetric panoramas assisted by 
tacheometer observations taken during the campaign by Ship's Lieutenant 
Marchese Fcderico Negrotto Cambiaso. I am glad of this opportunity to 
express my warm thanks to Ing. Comm. Pio Pagaiiiiii, the inventor of ll 
photogrammetric method, who has been at all times most generous with aid 
and advice ; to Major-General Ernesto Gliamas, Director of the Military 
(leographical Institute of Florence ; to Lieut.-Colonel Prospero Baglione ; 
In Captain Nicola Vacchelli ; to the topographers Fortunato Senno n,,,\ 
Giuseppe Galli : and to all others who co-operated in ll' contract ion of 
the map. 



xii Preface. 

Professor Domenico Omodei has once more taken upon himself the 
wearisome task of calculating and collating the statistics gathered from my 
meteorological observations, thus increasing the debt of gratitude already 
incurred by me for his help in former expeditions. 

I am likewise most grateful to Ing. Vittorio Novarese, of the Regio 
Ufficio Geologico, for tJie geological survey he has written, based upon the 
observations made by tlie expedition ; and to Professor Romualdo Pirotta 
and to Dr. Fabrizio Cortesi for their botanical notes upon the plants 
collected by Dr. De Filippi. 

I hope that this book, together with the beautiful photographs taken 
by Cav. Uff. Vittorio Bella, will succeed in conveying to the reader some 
portion of the profound impression made upon us by our months of sojourn 
in the Karakoram. Our work will not have been in vain if it prove to be 
of assistance to future explorers of tJiat distant and majestic region. 




INTRODUCTION. 



NOTE. 

TIIK nomenclature anil geographical spelling adopted in tins hook arc those <i|' llic Indian Survc\ 
and of tlic Knglish Royal (Jcographical Society. As a matter of fact tin- native names have 
mil al\\avs liccn transcribed with fixed rules of transliteration, owing to the impossibility of 
finding in the European alphabet signs wliicli correspond to the Indian vowels. Short c is 
sometimes transei'ibed by H and sometimes by ". whereas n is transcribed at times as <>o and 
at times as . Thus we find written indifferently Jhelam and .//////,. Jammoo and Janunu, etc. 

Di'spitc these and a few other uncertainties, it is better to preserve the mure usual names as 
they are spelt on all European maps. By writing, as some authors do, Dsehelum for Jhelttm, 
S<lliil.t<-li for Hiillrj, hxi-ln nnii.il for Jnmnu>i>. and so. we can only succeed in perplexing the reader 
even by the best -known names. Colonel Burrard, the well-known Director of the Indian Trigono- 
metrical Survey, rightly observes that for geographers, uniformity of spelling is more important 
than accuracy. 

With a few exceptions, vowels have the same' sound as in the Latin languages. 

The words rii/lil and left, with reference to rivers and valleys, are to In- taken in the true 
ncographieal sense, independent of the direction of march; whereas upon eols and passes they 
are given with reference to the position of the observer. 



XV 



INTRODUCTION. 



ORIGIN AND NATURE OF THE EXPEDITION. 







His Royal Highness IVinre 
Amedeo of Savoy, Duke of the 
Abruzzi, was induced to set out 
upon this new expedition chiefly by 
his desire to contribute to the 
solution of the problem as to the 
greatest height to which man may 
attain in mountain climbing. 

Physiologists have long given 
their attention to a study of the 
effects of reduced atmospheric 
pressure upon the human system, 
whether in balloon ascents to great 
heights or by confinement in rooms 
contrived for the artificial diminution of the pressure of the air. Th- 
result of these experiments appears to show that life is possible under 
atmospheric pressure reduced far below the limit marked by the 
barometer on the highest summits of the earth. 

The very nature of the scientific experiment, however, which is to 
reduce each phenomenon to its simplest terms, deprives this conclusion 
of all possible value as a forecast of the solution of the problem which 
interests the mountaineer and the geographer. 

For this problem is complicated for us by the length of the sojourn 
at low atmospheric pressure ; by the severe physical exertion inevitable 
in high ascents, and often protracted for days or weeks ; by extremes 



xvi Introduction. 

of temperature and other special conditions of climate, whose action 
upon the organism is still obscure. And all these are factors which 
influence the physical and mental condition of the explorer in varying 
degrees. The solution cannot, therefore, be based upon scientific 
reasoning, but only on direct experience. Up to the present time the 
result of experiment has been a slow but uninterrupted progress toward 
the attainment of the greater heights ; and there is nothing to show 
that we are reaching a final limit. From the first ascent of Mont Blanc 
(15,780 feet above the sea level) at the end of the eighteenth century 
up to the present day we have gained 8,820 feet. It is not much ; but 
we must remember that most of the expeditions in question had for their 
object rather the exploration of distant and unknown regions than 
the ascent of the high peaks which those regions might contain. Again, 
such undertakings are possible to very few men. They require profound 
technical experience of geographical exploration and long and costly 
preparations, since they are made in uncivilized or uninhabited regions 
where it is necessary to carry a complicated and heavy equipment to 
a great distance ; where it is not possible to find natives who are expert 
in glacier and rock work ; and where, on account of these drawbacks, 
it is very difficult, even impossible, to transport camp material and 
the necessaries of life above a certain height. 

The result is that explorers often deprive themselves of comforts 
needful to ensure due rest from fatigue, to protect themselves from 
cold, or even sometimes to furnish sufficient or suitable bodily nourish- 
ment. Thus they reach the spot where the maximum effort is required 
of them with their forces already diminished by overstrain and suffering 
from the lack of everything beyond the mere necessities to which they 
have reduced their equipment. In the end the highest peaks may turn 
out to be very difficult to climb, or even entirely inaccessible, because 
of the condition of the rock or glacier. All these material obstacles 
combined with bad weather and the shortness of the seasons, have up 
to now done far more than diminished atmospheric pressure to limit 
the activity of mountaineers in this special field of great altitudes. 

The giant ranges into which His Royal Highness the Duke of the 
Abruzzi led his expedition were not kind to him, nor was the weather 
favourable. Nevertheless, he succeeded in making a step forward 
toward the conquest of the greatest heights after such a struggle as is 
perhaps unexampled in the history of mountaineering. This was 



Introduction. 



XVII 



however, but the last stage of a campaign which was rich in moun- 
taineering and exploring work for the purpose of collecting data for 
the more accurate knowledge of a system of ranges that, taken all 
together, is perhaps the grandest in the world. The expedition livc.l 
for over two months on the Karakoram glaciers. It brought back 
a large number of photographs of the group, a topographical survey of 
a portion of the high glacier basins, many new altimetric measurement - 
and meteorological data systematically collected, and new glaciological 
and geological observations, as well as the experience of a long sojourn 
at low atmospheric pressure on the part of both Europeans and natives. 

To reach the Karakoram the expedition had to cross the vast 
mountainous region which lies between Kashmir and Chinese Turkestan, 
talcing a different route each way. The country through which they 
passed is known only in its general outlines, and its ethnological, climatic 
and geological characteristics are peculiar to itself. In the course of 
my narrative I shall mention the principal problems which this strange 
region propounds to the traveller. 

Let me close my brief account of the objects of the expedition by 
a word of thanks in my own name and that of my companions to His 
Eoyal Highness the Duke of the Abruzzi, to whose energy, will, decision 
and power of organization we are indebted for the rich memories of 
new experiences we have brought back with us from our journey. 

FILIPPO DE FILIPPI. 
Eome. October, 1911. 



(9221) 



CHAPTER I. 



THE HIMALAYA. 

Dimensions and Geographical Limits. Inhabitants. Work of the Trigonometrical Survey of 

India. Statistics of Peaks. The Sikkim Himalaya. Kabru and Kinchinjunga 

The Expeditions of Rubenson and Monrad Aas and of Freshficld. The Nepaul Himalaya. 
Mount Everest. The Himalaya of Kumaun and Gahrwal. The Nun Kun Peaks. 
The Expedition of the Workmans. Nanga Parbat and the Mummery Catastrophe. 
The Karakoram and the Hindu Rush. The Five Glacial Basins of the Karakoram. 
Previous Explorations of the Karakoram : Vigne, Falconer, Thomson, Schlagintweit, 
Conway and the Workmans. The Baltoro Glacier. From Godwin Austen to Ecken- 
stein-Pfannl-Guillarmod. K. 2 . Nomenclature. 

IT is difficult without a certain 
degree of acquaintance with 
geography to form a clear idea of 
the relative sizes of different regions 
of the globe. This is especially 
true as regards those remote 
countries known to most of us 
through the atlas only, in which 
they are rendered on a far smaller 
scale than the familiar countries of 
our own civilization. Probably few 
people guess how vast and how 
varied is the portion of the earth 
to which we assign the name 
Himalaya. 

I suppose that to most minds 

this word suggests the image of a lofty mountain range, rearing up to 
the sky a series of peaks covered with everlasting snow, which overlook 
the torrid plains of India. 

But the name Himalaya denotes no mere chain of mountains, 
however high and however long we may imagine it. It denotes a 
complex system of ranges, of immense table-lands, of intricate valleys 

(9221) * 





2 Chapter I. 

and of mighty rivers, that has no rival upon the face of the earth. Put 
together all the mountain ranges of Europe, great and small, including 
the Caucasus, and the result is not even comparable in size to the giant 
backbone of the Asiatic continent. 

Most modern geographers include in the term Himalaya the whole 
of the mountainous region about 500 miles wide, which forms a barrier 
between the Indian peninsula and Central Asia from Afghanistan to 
Burma, a distance of over 1,500 miles, equivalent to that between 
Naples and St. Petersburg. This barrier is formed by a series of 
approximately parallel ranges running mainly from north-west to south- 
east, and increasing in height northward up to the giant peaks which 
bound the table-land of Central Asia. Here the mighty rivers of India 
spring from the feet of mountains as famed in legend as the streams 
whose sources they shelter worshipped like them, and like them objects 
of pilgrimages on so vast a scale as to seem like migrations of entire 
peoples. 

The western end of this group of ranges reaches about the same 
latitude as the south coast of Sicily, while the eastern end runs down 
as far as the Red Sea. Thus the valleys gradually rising towards the 
north-west along an oblique line present every conceivable variety of 
climate, vegetation and produce. They contain whole nations with 
various political organizations, tribes of diverse races and origins : 
Aryans, Turanians, primitive aborigines, at every stage of civilization, 
speaking an endless number of different tongues, professing every 
religion of Asia Hindu, Mohammedan, Buddhist and Animist and 
exemplifying social customs which range from polygamy to polyandry. 
The future undoubtedly has historical evolutions in store for this region 
which cannot fail to exert an influence upon the nations of Europe. 

There will be work enough for many generations of geographers, 
geologists, ethnologists and naturalists before we come to know the 
Himalaya in its details. And what of the mountaineer ? It scarcely 
seems possible that man should ever succeed in completely exploring 
that forest of peaks. Thousands of them probably reach up to 
20,000 feet ; hundreds of them are over 23,000 feet. In the glacier 
basin explored by the Duke of the Abruzzi's expedition there are more 
than twenty-five peaks above 23,000 feet. 

A great part of the Himalaya is shut in by territories which are 
closed to the European. Other parts of the highest chains are at a 



The- Himalaya. 3 

great distance from human habitation, secluded in ;i vsildcnu-ss where 
no assistance or supplies are to be had. Many of the valleys are nearly 
desert for hundreds of miles, with sparse and squalid villages, where 
a scanty population just contrives to wrest a bare living from the arid 
stony waste. The topographical work of the Trigonometrical Survey 
of India was carried out in the face of these obstacles. The history 
of privations endured, dangers faced and difficulties daily encountered 
and surmounted in solitude by the brave officers who carried out this 
work has never been written. The work itself was not and could not be 
definitive or complete. The vast region is only known to us in its main 
outlines, nor is there one single mountain group where the mountaineer, 
if possessed of the knowledge befitting an explorer, may not fill up blank 
spaces in the map, complete it with fresh data and correct its approxi- 
mate outline. 

Colonel S. G. Burrard and H. H. Hayden, the Directors of the 
Trigonometrical and the Geological Surveys of India, have published 
in recent years a brief summary of the geographical and geological 
knowledge which we now possess with regard to the Himalaya. 1 Here 
we find a list of mountains whose position and height have been 
accurately fixed by triangulation. Seventy-five of them are above 
24,000 feet, forty-eight are above 25,000 feet, sixteen are above 
26,000 feet, five are above 27,000 feet and three above 28,000 feet. 

We are not likely to discover a higher peak than Mount Everest, 
but there certainly exist in the Himalaya a great many peaks which 
have not yet been measured and which are between 25,000 and 
27,000 feet in height. Every exploring party brings a new one under 
our notice. The expedition of the Duke of the Abruzzi took the 
altitude of a mountain which reached to over 27,000 feet, in addition 
to fifteen peaks, now measured for the first time, all above 23,000 feet 
and all included in the upper basin of the Baltoro and Godwin Austen 
glaciers. 2 

The principal peaks, those of 27,000 feet and over, are not grouped 
together in one range, but are dispersed along the whole system of the 

1 COL. S. G. BURRARD and H. H. HAYDEK, A Sketch of the Geography and Geology of the 
Himalaya Mountains and Tibet. Calcutta 1907-1909. 

2 In the same summer Dr. T. G. Longstaff discovered an imposing peak at the head of the 
Siachen glacier, then explored for the first time. He reckoned it to be over 27,000 feet high ; 
hut later measurements made by the Trigonometrical Survey in 1911 prove it to be only 24,489 ft-ot 
( 100 feet). 

(9221) A 2 



4 Chapter I. 

Himalaya. Thus the three highest mountains on the globe are placed 
one in the central, one in the western and one in the eastern Himalaya. 
A brief survey of the various ranges will give me an opportunity 
to enumerate the chief mountaineering and exploring expeditions which 
have been undertaken in the Himalaya, and will make clear the reasons 
which guided His Royal Highness the Duke of the Abruzzi in his 
selection of the field for his expedition. 1 




DARJILTNG AND KINCHINJUNGA. 

Kinchinjunga, the third highest peak on the earth (28,150 feet), 
rises upon the borders between Nepaul and Sikkim, where the central 
and eastern Himalaya meet. It is fairly easy to reach the glaciers, 
which are only about 45 miles from Darjiling, the well-known climatic 
station where numerous English officers and civilians seek health and 
rest from the burning plains in summer. The valleys which slope up 
from Darjiling into the mountains are covered with luxuriant forests, 
whose aspect is tropical even at a great height and where Alpine plants 

1 In the following pages I have not taken note of several ascents to great heights which 
were made at various points by the topographers of the Trigonometrical Survey of India. I 
shall have occasion to quote them further on in the course of this work in a critical analysis of 
the statistics of the ascents to exceptional heights. 



The Himalaya. 

reach dimensions undreamed of in Europe their marvellous beauty 
has been described by many a traveller. This wonderful vegetation in 
due to the special climate of the region, where torrents of rain fall 
throughout the very months of summer which would otherwise be 
suitable for mountaineering. The fine weather begins only in October, 
when the intense cold and the shortness of the days present serious 
obstacles to any attempt at an ascent above 23,000 feet. 




THE KABRU, SEEN FROM NEAR JONGRI, SIKKIM (ABOUT 15,000 FEET). 

Nevertheless, it was upon a peak of this chain, the Kabru, that the 
greatest height on record had been reached before the Duke of the 
Abruzzi's expedition. In October, 1907, two Norwegians, C. W. 
Rubenson and Monrad Aas, climbed this mountain nearly to the summit, 
attaining a height of almost 24,000 feet. 1 This exploit put an end to 
the long controversy among mountaineers as to the credibility of the 
assertion of W. W. Graham to the effect that he had climbed the Kabru 
to within a few feet of the summit in 1883. 

Kinchinjunga itself was explored on all its slopes in the year 1899 
by an expedition led by D. W. Freshfield. 2 

1 C. W. RUBENSON, An Ascent of Kabru. Alpine Journal 24, 1908, p. 63. 

2 D. W. FRESHPIELD, Round Kangchenjunga. London 1903. Illustrated by Vittorio Sella. 

(9221) A 3 



6 Chapter I. 

In this expedition Vittorio Sella took part and has given us photo- 
graphs of the whole of that beautiful group. Although Freshfield 
abstains from any absolute declaration of the impossibility of ascending 
Kinchinjunga, and although he even went so far as to plan a route by 
which an attempt might be made, still he does not hazard any forecast 
as to the probabilities of success. As seen in Sella 's photographs, 
Kinchinj unga certainly does not appear to offer any very obvious route 
for an easy ascent an essential condition to the attainment of the 
greatest heights. 

Thus we see that the Sikkim Himalaya does not hold out good 
chances for such an ascent. Neither does it offer many opportunities 
of geographical discovery in the event of unsuccess in mountaineering, 
should an expedition ever follow on the track of so competent and 
observant an explorer as Freshfield. 

Westward of Sikkim lies the Central Himalaya, between Nepaul to 
the south and Tibet to the north. These states have long been for- 
bidden country to the European, by the desire of their own rulers as 
well as by the conventions and mutual undertakings of England and 
Russia. This portion of the Himalaya comprises Mount Everest, the 
highest peak in the world, whose altitude (29,002 feet) was calculated 
by triangulation in 1852. Since that date active exploration on either 
side of the ranges has revealed no other mountain of equal or greater 
height, and as time goes on the discovery of such a one becomes less 
and less probable. 

Although no topographer has been able to get within 80 miles of 
the Nepaul range, nevertheless Burrard's list gives the measurements 
of twenty-five peaks above 24,000 feet, nineteen of which are above 
25,000 feet, eight above 26,000 feet and two above 27,000 feet, beside 
Mount Everest, which is above 29,000 feet. 1 

This is indubitably the part of the Himalaya where the most 
important geographical discoveries still remain to be made. So long, 
however, as the political conditions remain unchanged there is no hope 
for the explorer in that direction. 



1 Among the panoramas reproduced for the present work there is one (Panorama A) of the 
Nepaulese Himalaya taken by Sslla when he was on the borders of Sikkim and Nepaul with Fresh - 
field's expedition. Beside giving a picture, however dimmed by distance, of the highest mountain 
range in the world, this panorama permits the mountaineer to compare the general outline and 
features of the eastern Himalaya with those of the Karakoram. 



The- Himalaya. 7 

Further to the west, in the corner between Nepaul, Kashmir and 
Tibet, lies the Himalaya of Kumaun and Gahrwal. This important 
group is easy of access from the plain, and not far from good base-stations 
for supplies. Hence its pleasant and well-wooded valleys are frequently 
sought out by travellers and mountaineers. It is said that the name 
Himalaya, or Himaleh, " abode of the snow," or " abode of winter," 



MAKALU. 



EVEREST. 




THE EVEREST GROUP, FROM CHOONJERMA LA, NEPAUL (14,770 FEET). TAKEN BY 

TELEPHOTOGRAPHY. 

had its origin among the snow-capped ranges of Gahrwal. Around 
the twin peaks of Nanda Devi, which are between 25,000 and 26,000 feet, 
cluster lower peaks, upon one of which, Mount Kamet, the brothers 
H. and R. Schlagintweit reached a height of 22,260 feet in the year 
1855. 1 In 1883 W. W. Graham made several ascents in this group, 
reaching 23,185 feet on Dunagiri 2 ; and in 1907 Dr. T. G. Longstaff 
reached the summit of Trisul, 23,406 feet. 3 

1 HERMANS VON SCHLAGXNTWEIT-SAKUNLUNSKI, Keisen in Indien und Hochasien. Jena 
1869-1880. 4 vols. 

* W. W. GRAHAM, Travel and Ascents in the Himalaya. Prof. Roy. Geog. Soc. VI, 1S84, p. 429. 

* T. G. LONGSTAFF, A Mountaineering Expedition to the Himalaya of Gahnval. Geog. Jour. 
31, 1908, p. 361 ; and Mountaineering in Gahrwal. Alp. Jour. 24, 1908, p. 107. 

(9221) A 4 



8 Chapter I. 

To the west of Gahrwal the range assumes the name of the Punjab 
Himalaya, and rises toward the centre to a dominant group of peaks 
known as the Nun Kun, with twin peaks of about 23,400 feet. In 1906 
Dr. Hunter Workman and Mrs. Bullock Workman made an expedition 
in this range, in the course of which Mrs. Workman reached an altitude 
of 23,300 feet. l 

Beyond Nun Kun the Himalaya skirts the north side of the plateau 
of Kashmir, then seems suddenly to come to an end, as if in one last 
magnificent effort, in the great peak of Djamirai, better known as 
Nanga Parbat (26,620 feet). This superb mountain gains in grandeur 
by its splendid isolation, as there is no rival in the surrounding region. 
It can be seen from many points in Kashmir and in Afghanistan, and 
even as far off as near Peshawar; and after Kinchinjunga, at the other 
extremity of the Himalaya, is probably the most familiar peak in 
India. 

The name of Nanga Parbat will always be associated with that of 
A. F. Mummery, one of the finest mountaineers of our day, who lost 
his life on this mountain in 1895. He had reached about 20,000 feet 
on the north-west slope of the mountain, and had given up all idea of 
attempting to continue the ascent by that route, which proved too 
difficult. He was killed by an avalanche while endeavouring to reach 
the northern slopes of the mountain. 

All those who have seen Nanga Parbat from near speak of it as 
apparently almost inaccessible, owing to the forbidding rock precipices 
from which hang steep and dangerous glaciers. 2 In the event of a 
failure upon Nanga Parbat there are no other peaks of great altitude 
to fall back upon in the neighbourhood, nor would important geo- 
graphical discoveries reward research in that region. 

The Punjab Himalaya, as we have seen, contains few peaks of great 
height, but to the north of it stretches a huge system of mountains 
known as the Karakoram. Of all the Himalayan regions not absolutely 
closed to European enterprise, this is certainly the one that offers the 
greatest hope of useful work to the geographer, the naturalist and the 
mountaineer. 

1 W. HUNTER and F. BULLOCK WORKMAN, Peaks and Glaciers of the Nun Kun. London 1909. 

* See J. NORMAN COLLIE, Climbing on the Himalaya etc. Edinburgh 1902, where the story 
of the Mummery catastrophe is told ; also C. G. BRUCE, Twenty Years in the Himalaya. London 
1910. 



The Himalaya. 9 

It is separated from the Himalaya proper by the upper course of 
the Indus, and lies nearly 200 miles from the capital of Kashmir. Thus 
it is accessible only to expeditions organized for distant exploration, 
and on this account it has been seldom visited the greater nuinlxT 
of the higher valleys and glaciers are to this day unexplored. 

Karakoram in Tibetan means " black gravel." The name was noted 
and introduced by W. Moorcroft, the first European explorer to cross 
the chain, about 1820. 1 The word Mustagh, or "ice mountain," was 
subsequently suggested as more appropriate. The suggestion, however, 
was not adopted, because in Chinese Turkestan all snow peaks are called 
Mustagh. 

I will barely hint at the discussion as to whether the Karakoram 
should be included, geographically speaking, in the Himalaya, or 
whether it should be treated as a separate mountain system. The 
latter is the opinion of the Schlagintweits, of Cunningham, of the 
Workmans, etc. 2 Burrard would include in the Karakoram system 
all the mountains to the north of the Indus. The Karakoram is usually 
distinguished from the Hindu Kush, which is its prolongation to the 
westward. 3 In this direction the sources of the Gilgit, an affluent of 
the Indus, mark the boundary between the two chains. Eastward the 
Karakoram range is bounded by the sources of the Shyok, an important 
stream which, after a long and winding course through the greater 
part of Baltistan, flows like the Gilgit into the Indus. Between 
these boundaries the Karakoram chain stretches for about 450 miles. 

Some of the greatest glaciers of the world are contained in the 
Karakoram range. In no part of the Himalaya do we find such a 
number of very high peaks in so limited a space. Burrard counts forty- 
two peaks of and above 24,000 feet in the whole of the Himalaya proper 
from Sikkim to Kashmir, and thirty-three in the Karakoram system 
alone (twenty-nine if we do not include in this system the peaks farther 
to the north). These mountains are grouped around four great glaciers 
the Chogo Lungma, the Hispar, the Biafo and the Baltoro. A fifth 
and still larger glacier basin, the Siachen, was explored for the first 

1 W. MOORCROFT and G. TREBECK, Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan, etc. 
Ed. by H. Hayraan Wilson. London 1841. 2 vols. 

2 SCHLAGDJTWEIT, op. cit. ; SIR A. CUNNINGHAM, Lodtik and Surrounding Countries. London 
1854 ; W. HUNTER and F. BULLOCK WORKMAN, In the Ice World of Himalaya. London 1901. 

3 This is the opinion of Col. Godwin Austen (Proc. Boy. Geog. Soc. N.S. 5, 1883, p. 610) ; and 
it is the division adopted by the Trigonometrical Survey of India (BURRARD, op. cit.). 



10 Chapter I. 

time by Dr. Longstafi during the same summer in which the Duke of 
the Abruzzi went to the Karakoram. The Chogo Lungma and the Hispar 
form the centre of the mountain groups of Kunjut and Hunza, with 
seven peaks between 24,000 and 25,500 feet. This is the part of the 
Karakoram which was first known and has most often been explored 
since by G. T. Vigne in 1835, by Dr. Falconer in 1841, by Dr. Thomson 
in 1847-48 and by A. Schlagintweit in 1856. l In 1892 Sir Martin 
Conway traversed for the first time and surveyed in their entire length 
the Hispar and Biafo glaciers. 2 The Chogo Lungma basin was the 
field of several of the expeditions of Dr. and Mrs. Workman, whom 
I have already mentioned. With remarkable perseverance they 
returned to the same region in four different summers in 1899, 1902, 
1903 and 1908. In the course of these expeditions Dr. Workman 
reached a height of about 23,400 feet on the ridge of a peak at the head 
of the Chogo Lungma glacier. 3 

Eastward of the mountains of Hunza lies the Karakoram proper, 
which includes the Baltoro glacier, and contains eight peaks between 
25,110 and 28,250 feet known before the Duke's expedition. Along 
the single gigantic valley down which flow the Baltoro and its affluents, 
tower a series of peaks comprising K 2 , the second highest mountain 
in the world (28,250 feet) ; the four Gasherbrums, between 26.000 and 
26,470 feet ; the two Masherbrums, over 26,500 feet ; the Bride Peak, 
25,110 feet ; and the three summits of the Broad Peak, whose altitudes 
(27,132, 26,188 and 26,022 feet) have been ascertained for the first time 
by the Duke's expedition. I speak of the higher peaks only. 

The Baltoro glacier was first discovered and its lower portion 
explored by Colonel Godwin Austen in the course of his topographical 
campaign in the Karakoram (1860-61), which yielded such important 
geographical results. 4 The glacier was again visited in 1886 by Colonel 

1 G. T. VIGNE, Travels in Kashmir, Ladak, Iskardo, etc. London 1842. 2 vols. ; 
H. FALCONER, cited by I. MURCHISON, Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc. 28, 1858, p. clxxxviii ; T. THOMSON, 
Western Himalaya and Thibet. London 1852, and various notes in Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc. 23, 1853, 
pp. 232, 318 ; SCHLAOINTWEIT, op. cit. 

1 SIR W. M. CONWAY, Climbing in the Himalayas. London 1894. 2 vols. 

* In addition to their numerous articles in the Geographical Journal, Alpine Journal and other 
periodicals of geography and mountaineering, W. HUNTER WORKMAN and F. BULLOCK WORKMAN 
have given an account of their expeditions in the following works : In the Ice- World of Himalaya. 
London 1901 ; Ice-bound Heights of the Mustagh. London 1908 ; Peaks and Glaciers of the 
Nun Kun. London 1909 ; The Call of the Snowy Hispar. London 1910. 

4 LIEUT. -CoL. GODWIN AUSTEN, The Glaciers of the Mustagh Range. Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc. 8, 
1863, p. 34 : and Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc. 34, 1864, p. 19. 



The Himalaya. 



11 



Sir Francis Younghusband. It was not, however, until the nx-mon,!,!,- 
expedition of Sir Martin Conway in 1892 that it was traversed i. 
whole length and surveyed, as well as its rivals, the Hispar ;,,! |5i :1 f,, 
glaciers. 2 The Baltoro glacier is divided into two branches in its upp.-r 




K 2 FROM THE SOUTH. 

course. The south-eastern branch preserves the name Baltoro, and 
this part alone had been explored by Sir Martin Conway. The other 
arm, known as the Godwin Austen glacier, flows round the base of the 
south face of K 2 , and had been visited in 1902 by an expedition led 
by the English mountaineer 0. Eckenstein, accompanied by two 
Englishmen, A. E. Crowley and G. Knowles, two Austrians, Drs. H. 
Pfannl and V. Wessely, and the Swiss doctor, J. J. Guillarmod, who 



1 SIR F. E. YOUNGHUSBAND, A Journey across Central Asia, from Manchuria and Peking to 
Kashmir, over the Mustagh Pass. Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc. N.S. 10, 1888, p. 485. 

2 SIR W. M. CONWAY, op. cit. 



12 riiiik-r I. 



wrote an account of the undertaking. 1 This was the only expedition 
which had had a near view of K 2 before the Duke of the Abruzzi. Of 
all the numerous peaks which crowd along the sides of the Baltoro, 
two alone had been climbed, and both by Sir Martin Conway, in 1892 
Crystal Peak, 19,400 feet, on the right-hand side of the glacier, and a 
minor peak of the Golden Throne group, situated near the upper end 
of the Baltoro and 26,200 feet high, which Conway named Pioneer 
Peak. 

The basin of the Baltoro glacier appeared by all accounts to be the 
most suited to a mountaineering and exploring expedition which 
proposed as its aim the investigation of the problem concerning the 
possibility of ascending the highest peaks. Here we have K 2 , the 
highest mountain at present open to Europeans to attempt, only 
750 feet lower than Mount Everest. 2 The only expedition which had 
ever had a near view of it was of opinion that there were chances of 
success, and Guillarmod expressed himself as decidedly inclined to 
consider the ascent a feasible one. Furthermore. K 2 is surrounded by 
numerous peaks ranging from 26,000 to 27,000 feet, far above the highest 
point yet reached upon any mountain ; and there seemed a reasonable 
probability that some one of these might be fairly accessible. Last 
but not least, the region had been visited by but a single expedition, 
and that not specially equipped for topographical work. The greater 
part of the valleys and glaciers were as yet untrodden by man. Whole 
mountain ranges were still indicated on the map by a few points only, 
and it was permissible for the geographer to hope to fill up these gaps. 

I may add a few words to explain the strange designation of the 
second highest peak in the world, K 2 , for the benefit of those who are 
not acquainted with the system of nomenclature of the Trigonometrical 
Survey of India. When the latter began its labours in the Himalaya 
it was confronted with the problem of how to designate individually 

1 DR. J. JACOT GUILLARMOD, Six mois dans I' 'Himalaya. Neuchatel, no date. Guillarmod 
puts K 8 and the Baltoro basin in the Hindu Kush, though the chain usually designated by this 
name is situated, as we have seen, about 250 miles farther to the west. We have also two excellent 
shorter accounts of the expedition by PFANNL, Von meiner Reise zum K 2 in den Bergen Baltistans, 
Mitt, der Geogr. Get. Wien, 47, 1904, p. 247, and Zeit. d. Deut. u. Oest. Alpenvereins, 35, 1904, 
p. 88. 

8 The designation of K 2 as the second highest mountain in the world must not be taken too 
literally. As a matter of fact, it is less than a hundred feet higher than Kinchinjunga, and the 
calculations cannot yet be made with such exactness as to eliminate all chances of error. There 
is still the possibility that Kinchinjunga may prove to be the higher of the two. 



The Himalaya. 18 

the thousands of important peaks which had no name. Few and far 
between are those upon which the natives living at the foot of the ranges 
have felt the necessity of bestowing a name. Of the seventy-five peaks 
given in Burrard's list, only nineteen have native names. Further- 
more, the tribes on the different sides of the great chains belong to 
different races and speak different languages, and have little intercourse 
with one another. Hence the few names which do exist are different 
on the north and on the south side of the same mountain. 

Colonel Montgomerie, under whose direction the work of triangula- 
tion of the Himalaya began, invented an ingenious scheme of nomen- 
clature which resembles the ancient system of designating the heavenly 
bodies, based upon the grouping of them into constellations. He 
designated the Karakoram region by the letter K, and each peak by 
the names K 1 , K 2 , K 3 , etc. The advantages of this method as to 
clearness and simplicity are obvious, had it only been adopted through- 
out the Himalaya. Unfortunately, other topographers proceeded to give 
the initial letters of their own names to the peaks which they subsequently 
measured, and hence arose great confusion owing to different observers 
having the same initial letter or name. 

Burrard's view is that it is better for the present to designate the 
peaks simply by their altitude ; and, as a matter of fact, many of them 
are indicated in this manner only. This system has been followed by 
the Duke in his map of the region he explored, with regard to the peaks 
measured by his expedition. 

The only non-indigenous name adopted by the Trigonometrical 
Bureau of India is that of Everest for the highest peak, which was at 
first indicated as Peak XV ; but in the case of K 2 the name Godwin 
Austen, proposed in 1888 by General Walker in recognition of the merits 
of the great Himalayan topographer, has been rejected. Nor is it likely 
that a better fate awaits any of the numerous names which travellers 
have collected from among the natives of Baltistan. 



CHAPTER II. 



FROM MARSEILLES TO SRINAGAR. 

Preparations for the Expedition. Alpine Guides and Porters. The Most Favourable Season. 

Equipment.^ From Marseilles to Bombay. The Railway Journey.- Rawal Pindi. 

Ekkas and Tongas. The Road to Kashmir. The Jhelum Valley. The Kashmir 
Custom House. Uri. The Gorge of Basmagul. Baramula. Kashmir. Lacustrian 
Theories and Legends. Disagreements among Geologists. Arrival at Srinagar. 

His Royal Highness the Duke 
of the Abruzzi prepared his ex- 
pedition between February and 
March, 1909. He invited to take 
part in it his aide -de - camp, 
Marchese Federico Negrotto, Ship's 
Lieutenant R.I.N., whom he 
entrusted with the topographical 
work of the expedition ; Vittorio 
Sella, whose task was to illus- 
trate by photography the scenes 
through which the expedition 
should pass ; and myself as 
physician and to collect natural 
history specimens so far as might 
be possible on so rapid a march. The number of members of the 
expedition was limited by the great distance which would have to be 
traversed beyond the limits of civilized means of communication, the 
difficulties of transport to be expected in the mountains, and the 
importance of light marching order to make the most of the brief 
season during which mountaineering would be possible. On the other 
hand, it seemed advisable to bring a fair number of European guides 
and porters, as the Duke's African experience warned him not to count 




From Marseilles to Srina^ar. 



6' 



over much upon native portage in the high mountain region all the 
more as the distances to be crossed upon the ice were infinitely longer 
in the Karakoram than in the Ruwenzori range. 

For these reasons seven Italian guides and porters were chosen 
from Courmayeur, in the valley of Aosta. First, Joseph Petigax, the 
devoted and faithful companion of the Duke of the Abruzzi upon all 
his expeditions, together with his son, Laurent, who had already been 
tried with his father in the Ruwenzori expedition. Both father and 
son had been guides to Dr. and Mrs. Workman in their exploration of 
the Chogo Lungma glacier of the Karakoram in 1903. The two other 
guides, the brothers Alexis and Henri Brocherel, were also familiar 
with Himalayan travel, as they had been on two expeditions in the 
Kumaun-Gahrwal with Dr. Longstaflr, exploring in 1905 the Nanda 
Devi group and the Gurla Mandhata, and in 1907 acting as guides to 
Longstaff in his fine ascent of Trisul (23,406 feet). To these we must 
add three sturdy porters, thoroughly acquainted with the glaciers of 
Mont Blanc Emil Brocherel, Albert Savoie and Ernest Bareux. As on 
former occasions, Sella again brought with him Erminio Botta, at once 
assistant-photographer, guide and porter, and deeply versed in camp 
life and in foreign mountaineering. 

The most important consideration for any Alpine expedition, 
especially in remote countries, is the choice of the right season. The 
Karakoram is so remote from the plains of India and is divided from 
them by such wide and high mountain ranges, that the climatic seasons 
of tropical regions, if felt at all, must be felt in greatly modified form. 
Judging from the experience of the few explorers who had preceded us, 
it was to be feared that the chief hindrance to mountaineering in 
the Karakoram would come from the extreme instability of the 
weather. 

In 1892 Sir Martin Conway, exploring the three main glaciers of the 
Karakoram between May and the beginning of September, experienced 
hopelessly bad weather, never having more than four consecutive fine 
days. It was not until September that the weather became fair, and 
this improvement was attended by intense cold, high wind and short 
days. 

During their repeated expeditions to the western Karakoram and 
up the Chogo Lungma, Hispar and Biafo glaciers, the Workmans 
experienced steady bad weather throughout July and August, with the 



ic, Chnpk-r II. 

exception of their last journey in 1908, \wiMti the weathw was excep- 
tionally favourable, fine and warm. 

The expedition of Eckenstein, Pfannl and Guillarmod in 1902 found 
their greatest obstacle in the extremely bad weather from June to 
August. In June only they had a few short intervals of fair weather. 

The conclusion apparently to be drawn from these data was that 
the best chance would be to get upon the spot very early, quite at the 
beginning of June. At that season the mountains would not be free 
from the winter and spring snow, but we could at least hope for longer 
periods of fine weather, and in any case take advantage of the entire 
summer season. This was the plan which the Duke adopted. 

Time was short to make the necessary preparations for so early a 
start. However, thanks to the Duke's forethought and order, his great 
experience gained in former expeditions, his careful study of local 
conditions and his methodical system of work, everything was actually 
ready in time. The following narrative will show how perfectly suited 
his equipment was to the end in view, and how great a part this fact 
played in assuring our substantial comfort and health in exceptional 
circumstances of surroundings and climate. 

As on his former expeditions, the Duke carried out all his equipment 
from Europe camp material, personal effects and supplies for the 
glacier regions, as well as to supplement the slender resources of the 
valleys. This system allows of a far more careful selection of each 
object, greater attention in putting them together and the avoidance 
of all waste of time in order to procure necessaries along the way. 

I need not go into details regarding the careful preparation of the 
Alpine equipment, including personal outfit, as well as ropes, ice-axes, 
crampons, nails, cobbler's tools, etc. The expedition was well supplied 
with meteorological instruments selected and corrected with great care. 
Among these were the fragile Fortin mercury barometers, a perpetual 
source of anxiety, causing elaborate precautions at every step. The 
Duke had decided to adopt Paganini's photogrammetrical system for 
the topographical work. This method had already been used in 
important surveys, both in Italy and in other countries. 

So a photogrammetric camera with a stock of plates was added 
to Bella's photographic materials. The expedition was even provided 
with a cinematograph so as to apply the most modern method of illus- 
tration. 



From Marseilles to Srina^ar. 17 

Medical supplies had to be. brought to minister to the needs of the 
natives, who seldom see a European doctor and are quite out of reach 
of civilized means of treatment. On the other hand the expedition 
possessed only two guns, and these were brought rather on the chance 
of getting some specimens of zoological interest than with any intention 
of sport. 

It takes at least two months to get from Europe to the Karakoram. 
Therefore, the whole expedition, including guides and porters, sailed 
from Marseilles on March 26th by the P. and 0. steamer Oceana. Such 
of the supplies as had been purchased in England had already been 
put on board at Tilbury. 

The voyage was a delightful period of rest after the several weeks 
of hard work at equipment and other preparations. The Mediterranean 
was kind to us for the four days of our crossing. The steamer followed 
a course to the west of Sicily in order not to pass the ill-starred Straits 
of Messina, at that time avoided by traffic as if the cataclysm of 
December still brooded like a dark menace over the scene of devastation. 
Then came the lazy voyage down the Suez Canal, where you gaze from 
the deck over the boundless desert stretching from either bank ; and 
the hot Red Sea, like a sudden summer, languid and enervating ; and, 
last of all, the Indian Ocean, whose blue waters were so dark as to be 
almost black and perfectly calm not a ripple to foretell the monsoon 
which would rage over them a month later. 

We entered Bombay Harbour at daybreak on April 9th (Good 
Friday). The lazy mood of the long voyage gave way suddenly to an 
impatient desire to get on. A few hours were employed in superin- 
tending the unlading of our goods, getting them through the Customs 
and removing them to the station, and in making arrangements with banks 
and agents. This done, we set out by railway early in the afternoon. 

The journey to Rawal Pindi takes two days, crossing towards the 
north of the Punjab, with a wide detour so as to leave Rajputana to the 
east. Notwithstanding special contrivances to protect the carriages 
from the heat, we felt them to be like furnaces. Fleeting visions were 
vouchsafed us of dusty districts parched by the first breath of summer ; 
villages of mud and rubble huts, with threshing floors of beaten 
earth where hump-backed cattle were treading out the ripe harvest, 
driven round and round by folk clad in white or red cotton, the men 
wearing the big turban of India, and surrounded by tiny naked children 

(9221) B 



18 Chapter II. 

playing in the dust. Beside the great herds and flocks scattered in the 
wide fields, we would see here and there antelopes fleeing from the train, 
and jackals ; and the whole country is full of birds of all sorts and many 
colours splendid peacocks, crows, brilliant jays, doves, pigeons, parrots, 
vultures, hawks, kingfishers, and many others impossible to distinguish 
from an express train in motion. The trees give you no suggestion 
as to a season. One is covered with leaves, another full of blossoms 
without foliage, another shows bare branches, while others again are 
bursting into full leaf. Temples and shrines, old forts and ruins, pass 
rapidly before our eyes, especially near Gualior and Delhi, names which 
evoke such memories. But of them, alas ! we see but the railway 
stations, crowded with natives of every conceivable tribe, wearing every 
conceivable sort of dress. 

Now we cross the Jhelum, a wide river where many herds come to 
the watering-place ; and the way winds up over a succession of terraces 
of chalk and clay, and far off against the clear sky to the northward 
we make out the outline of the snowy mountains which bound the huge 
plain of India. This is the Pir Panjal range, a branch of the Himalaya, 
which forms the southern barrier of the table-land of Kashmir. Farther 
on this range is hidden by nearer and lower hills, which form the Siwalik 
chain. Not far from this latter our railway journey ends at Rawal 
Pindi, on 'the evening of Easter Sunday, April llth. The train rolls 
off, carrying with it Major Lockhart, of the Guides, a kind English officer 
who had interpreted for us in several small difficulties, and our party 
finds itself stranded on the platform beside a huge pile of cases, crates 
and bales, which had filled a whole van and which contained our entire 
equipment. There are 132 pieces, weighing 166 maunds of 80 Ibs. each, 
giving a total of about 13,280 Ibs. 

The whole of this luggage had to be got up to Srinagar by the carriage 
road, which was finished some twenty years ago. This road is about 
200 miles long, and goes from Rawal Pindi (1,700 feet above sea level) 
along the Jhelum Valley to the high plateau of Kashmir (5,200 feet 
above sea level), crossing in its course one of the lower spurs at a height 
of 7,467 feet. 1 

Next morning at 6 o'clock we all met at the station, where the Duke 
had made an appointment with the agents, porters and transport 
vehicles. Punctuality, however, is extremely relative in the East. 

1 See map with tho itinerary of the expedition. 



From Marseilles to Srinagar, 19 

The agent did not get there until half-past six. About half-an-hour 
later turned up the representative of Dhanjiboy, a Parsee who has 
a monopoly of the postal service and of carriages, carts and horses 
between Pindi and Srinagar. Presently the ekkas came slowly dribbling 
in. Ekkas are strange vehicles. The body is in the shape of an obverse 
pyramid, which stands upon an axle without any springs, between two 
high wheels. The shafts diverge so that their farther ends are about 
two yards apart. All ekkas appear to be centuries old, tumble-down and 
decayed, patched up here and there and everywhere with bits of rotten 
string, so that their holding together at all appears a miracle. And 
yet they usually carry some ten or eleven maunds each (between 800 




EKKAS. 



and 900 Ibs.). Only three or four rather small packages can find room 
in the actual body of the ekka ; but on top of these are placed two long 
poles, upon which is piled up a load considerably higher than the top 
of the wheels, giving to the whole a most extraordinary aspect of in- 
stability. The ekka is drawn by a single horse, and does the whole 
distance in about eight days. Carts of a more familiar shape are also 
to be had, and are stronger and hold a good deal more. These are 
drawn by oxen, and it takes them over a fortnight to get to Srinagar. 

It took us the whole morning under a broiling sun to count all of the 
luggage and ascertain that nothing was missing, and then to proceed 
to its distribution among the ekkas, surrounded the whole time by troops 
of coolies shouting and arguing and quarrelling without a moment's 
respite. The division of the luggage, into loads is a very long and toilsome 

(9221) B 2 



20 Chapter II. 

job, and is made about four times as long as it need be by endless 
trying and trying over again. Every time you get up a single piece 
of luggage on to the ekka you have it pulled down again ; then you 
try another in the same place, and then a third, and so on. At last, 
between 1 and 2 o'clock in the afternoon, the whole lot of ekkas, with 
their shapeless loads tied and roped together, were driven out of the 
station and assembled in the courtyard of Dhanjiboy, ready to start 
at night. 

We now had a few hours to purchase some articles at Pindi. The 
town is uninteresting a typical cantonment with wide roads, well 




ON THE OUTSKIRTS OF EAWAL PINDI. 



kept and lined with bungalows and gardens. Nearly every afternoon 
a violent wind blows in hot gusts for a few hours, raising a stifling cloud 
of dust and sand, which penetrates through every crack of door or 
window. 

By daybreak on the following day we left Pindi in two landaus, 
which were drawn at a sharp trot by small why horses. On the outskirts 
of the town in front of the verandahs which mn along the low native 
houses the greater part of the population were sound asleep in the 
street upon their cJiarpoys, a sort of bed consisting of a rectangular 
framework, across which is passed to and fro and interwoven a narrow 
band of coarsely woven hemp, thus forming a couch which combines 
the qualities of simplicity, elasticity and strength. The general 



From Marseilles to Srm;i<;-ur. 21 

impression given by the population asleep on these stretchers along the 
street is that some epidemic is raging or that they have been driven from 
their homes by an earthquake. 

Our personal luggage was sent on ahead upon two-wheeled vehicles 
of the native variety known as tongas. Tongas are two-horse vehicles 
with a curved, dome-shaped roof, underneath which is one seat parallel 
to the axle. Upon this four people can find room, two sitting in front 
facing the horses and two facing backwards. As much baggage as 
possible is arranged under this seat, on the mudguards and on the sides 
of the roof, tying it on as best may be. 




II 



A TONGA. 



Sir Martin Conway observes that the tonga resembles the carpentitm 
of the ancient Romans and Gauls, as shown on a bas-relief at Treves. 
In spite of their primitive appearance, tongas are in many ways better 
suited to the mountain roads than the heavy carriages Dhanjiboy 
provided for us. 

The ancient road to Kashmir, which was followed for centuries by 
the Mogol emperors and their retinues, of whose pomp and splendour 
such a living picture has been handed down to us by Bernier, 1 the 
French physician at the Court of Aurengzebe, ran to the east of the 
modern route, direct to Kashmir from the plain of Jammu, across a 
pass of the Pir Panjal range. The new road, which was opened in 
1890, reaches the Jhelum valley just above the narrow gorge through 

1 FRANCOIS BERNIER, Travels in the Mogul Empire (A.D. 1656-1668). London. A. Constable, 
1891. 

(9221) B 3 



Chapter II. 



which the latter descends from the plain of Kashmir, and crosses the 
spur of mountains which form the western barrier of this gorge. Near 
the top of the pass (7,467 feet high) stands Murree, a hill station which 
is crowded in summer, but was quite peaceful and empty when we 

passed through. We reached 
Murree in the pouring rain and 
shivering with cold, owing to the 
sudden transition from the hot 
suffocating air of the plain to the 
high mountain breezes. The 
whole of the descent into the 
Jhelum valley crosses bands of 
forest, where the pale green of 
the budding deciduous trees 
contrasts with the dark conifers 
and with the lively colouring of 
the flowering bushes. We pro- 
ceeded rapidly at a quick trot or 
gallop even at the steepest points, 
thanks to the relays of horses 
which awaited us every four or six 
miles, according to the steepness 
of the road. Little time was lost 
in changing them, because the system of harness is extremely 
simple. There are no buckles, no straps and no traces. There is only a 
bar which crosses the pole and fits into two uprights fixed into the 
saddles of the harness. 

The ragged and dirty postilion sits beside the driver and with the 
harsh and strident notes of his horn clears the way of the carts, ekkas 
and tongas which we keep meeting and passing. 

The weather had cleared by the time we reached Kohala, our first 
stage, at the bottom of the valley, at a distance of a little over 64 miles. 
Kohala stands about 300 feet above Pindi, and is a village of a few 
houses, which rise on terraces one above another on the steep right 
bank of the Jhelum at the inlet of the narrow gorge through which 
the river forces its way out from the mountains. The water rushes 
fiercely at the bottom of the gorge, whirling on its muddy and foaming 
waves the numberless tree trunks which are sent down from the 




THE ROAD TO KASHMIR. 



From Marseilles to Srina<-;ir. 23 

mountains to Jhelum, the city of the Punjab plain, which has given 
its name to the river. 

But in the mountains which shelter its hallowed sources and 
throughout Kashmir the name of the river is Vehut, a corruption of the 
Sanscrit Vitasta, " one who hastens," from which may also be derived 
the Hydaspes of the Greek historians. This river formed the eastern 
limit of the conquests of Alexander, and according to legend the 
Macedonian navigated its downward course to the Indus. 

At Kohala we made our first acquaintance with the dak bungalows 
or guest-houses which are found at every stage on the main roads and 
on many of the principal bridle paths. They are all built on the same 
plan, and consist of a ground floor only, with a wide verandah on to 
which all the bedrooms open. Behind each bedroom there is usually 
a small bathroom. The furniture is simple but clean. On the high 
road from Pindi to Kashmir the dak bungalows are real inns, provided 
with a cook and with supplies and servants, so that travellers need not 
bring a large amount of luggage. Little equipment is needed beyond 
the sleeping-bag or the valise which holds a thin mattress, pillow, 
blanket and sheets, all of which are equally indispensable for railway 
travelling in India. The bedrooms contain charpoys, upon which you 
spread your own bedding. 

Immediately outside of Kohala the road crosses the Jhelum upon 
the bridge which marks the boundary between British territory and the 
Protectorate of Jammu and Kashmir. Here an official dignitary met 
us to bid the Duke of the Abruzzi welcome in the name of the Maharajah. 
The road now follows the left slope of the valley at a height of from 
600 to 1,000 feet above the river. Upon either side of the valley are 
traces of alluvial terraces rising one above another to a great height 
and indicating successive upheavals of the whole mass, while the river 
kept on its way at its original level by progressive erosion of its bed. 1 

Some 20 miles above Kohala two large tributary valleys, that of 
Kunhar or Nairn Suk and that of Kishen Ganga, open out on the right 
bank of the Jhelum, divided one from another by a range of hills capped 
with snow peaks. At this point, before the high road was built, another 
path came into the Jhelum valley from Abbottabad in the Punjab. At 

1 K. OESTREICH, Die Tdler des nordwestlichen Himalaya. Petermann's Mitt., Ergtinzungsheft 
155, 1906. An interesting geological monograph, the fruit of observations made by the author 
while accompanying the Workman expedition of 1902. 

(9221) B 4 




L-i Chapter II. 

its point of confluence with the Kishen Ganga the Jhelum valley 
suddenly changes its course, doubling back at a sharp angle round the 
end of the spur of hills on its left side and rising south-eastward with 
an increasing deflection towards the east. The valley of the Kishen 
Ganga goes on in the direction in which we had hitherto followed up 
the Jhelum, towards the north, so that at this junction you feel as if the 
road had left the main valley to follow up an affluent. As a matter of 
fact Oestreich questions whether it would not be more correct to regard 
the Jhelum as a tributary of the Kishen Ganga rather than the latter 
as a tributary of the former, notwithstanding that the Jhelum has the 
greater volume of water and a longer course above the point of junction. 
The Kishen Ganga is also a very considerable river, and in its long course 
flows round the whole northern boundary of Kashmir. We were to 
meet this river again in its upper valley on our way back to Srinagar from 
the Baltoro. 

Not far from this remarkable bend of the river stands Domel. the 
Kashmiri custom-house. It consists of a dirty little bazar which 
purveys to the needs of a crowd of drivers and carters, who busy them- 
selves with deafening shouts among the oxen and horses which stray 
loose among the vehicles of every possible type laden with goods liable 
to custom. Sir Francis Younghusband, the British Resident in Kashmir, 
had obtained from the Maharajah a free pass for the Duke's equipment, 
which saved us trouble and delay. 

From now on the valley lies between the Kaj Nag to the north and 
a spur of the Pir Panjal to the south, and the scenery is completely 
changed. The features due to erosion are less marked, whereas there 
is a great increase in the alluvial deposits, which often reach a thickness 
of a few hundred feet and form a series of terraces at the bottom of the 
valley, which lie with such regularity on either side of the deep channel 
which the river has cut in the sedimentary mass as to suggest the 
hypothesis of a lacustrian origin. 1 

The level surfaces of the terraces are carefully irrigated and covered 
with crops, especially rice plantations, made in narrow terraces rising 
one above another, each with a raised margin to regulate the flow of 
water from the top to the bottom. 

1 LIEUT. -CoL. GODWIN AUSTEN, Geological Notes on Part of the North- Western Himalaya 
Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. xx ; and SIR MARTIN CONWAY, op. cit. 



From Marseilles to Srina^ar. 25 

Where the lie of the land does not lend itself to rice plantations there 
are fields of corn and orchards in full blossom. The whole countryside 
is alive with the song of all sorts of birds. The cultivated land reaches 
up the slopes to the edge of the pine woods and pasture land. Above 
these, again, are rocks sprinkled with snow and cut by couloirs full of 
neves. 

As far as possible the road runs over the flat alluvial terraces ; but at 
many points it has been necessary to cut it out along the precipitous 
cliffs beneath steep slopes of shingle and detritus of all sizes in perpetual 
course of disaggregation. Every now and then we come upon the 
debris of former or recent landslides, and meet squads of coolies busily 
engaged in clearing the road from the fallen earth and stones. During 
the rainy season it is a hazardous journey, and the road may be cut for 
days together. 

The day's journey was of 69 miles, and we halted for the night at 
Uri, 4,420 feet above the sea level, where the valley widens out. At 
this point the scenery is very beautiful. The valley is dotted with 
ruins of ancient temples, and there are the remains of a fortified city 
opposite the cliffs of Kaj Nag, which is still crowned with snow. The 
level is formed by fluvial-glacial deposits, and near at hand are some 
big granite boulders, whose origin has been a source of much con- 
troversy among geologists. The absence of glacier marks in the valley 
below and above Uri makes it difficult to explain how these boulders 
came there, and whence the origin of the moraine remnants which are 
found at this point. Of all the different hypotheses the most probable, 
perhaps, is that of Godwin Austen, which has been further amplified 
by Oestreich 1 namely, that of glaciers from the lateral valleys which 
may at one time have overflowed into the main valley, leaving the traces 
in question. 

Immediately above the plain of Uri the valley narrows again into 
the famous gorge of Basmagul, one of the grandest in the world, some 
20 miles long and running between walls more than 7,000 feet high. 
The river rages with fierce anger against the rocky sides of its narrow 
bed. The slopes above are covered with forests famed from of old for 
their majestic deodars. Now and again we still found the remains of 
a spring avalanche of snow along the margin of the road. Next we 

1 GODWIN AUSTEN, OESTREICH, opp. citt. 



L'I; Chaj)ter II. 

pass the hydraulic station of electric power, a characteristic symptom 
of European invasion. Soon we reach Baramula, the real gate of the 
high valley plain of Kashmir. The torrent which thundered through 
the caiion of Basmagul is now transformed into a wide imposing stream, 
which flows slowly and noiselessly between low and level banks along 
which are moored endless lines of boats and barges. 

Many travellers and the greater part of the freight proceed by water 
from Baramula to Srinagar, taking two days to navigate up the Jhelum 
and cross the Wular lake, into which it widens above. This traffic 
has given rise to the typical little Kashmiri town of Baramula, with 
houses of sun-baked brick, windows and doors of wood, often well carved, 




THE BUNGALOW AT BARAMULA. 



and narrow lanes crowded with handsome, dirty people, and with 
women who are not so quick to cover their faces at the sight of the 
stranger but that he can get a glimpse of regular features and fine eyes. 

The distance by road to Srinagar is about 34 miles, a few hours by 
carriage. The road which cuts across the plain is quite straight, and 
runs between two regular lines of tall poplars, set close to one another, 
as on certain French roads. On either side are little lakes and swamps 
and rice plantations, where the peasants are busy turning over the 
mud in the flooded fields with primitive ploughs drawn by oxen. Behind 
the rows of poplars around the scattered farms are to be seen a great 
variety of fruit trees in flower and gigantic chenars standing alone or in 



From Marseilles to 

clumps. The chenar, or Oriental plane, which was brought into the 
country by the Mogol emperors, is a splendid tree which reaches an 
immense size, with a wonderfully graceful growth of branches and with 
dense foliage giving a deep, cool shade. 

On either side extends the great green plain of Kashmir, circled 
round on every side and appearing absolutely shut in by a continuous 
girdle of mountains, at this season all still covered with snow. The 




POPLAR AVENUE BETWEEN BARAMULA AND SRINAGAR. 

valley stands at a mean height of a little over 5,000 feet, and is oval, 
with its greatest axis running north-west to south-east, about 90 miles 
long and from 20 to 25 miles wide, enclosed by the Pir Panjal range 
to the south, whose peaks rise over 15,500 feet ; and by the Himalaya 
proper to the north, ending in the lofty summit of Nanga Parbat 
(26,620 feet), whose peaks are visible from many points in Kashmir, 
although they do not directly command the valley. 

The sight of this vast basin enclosed by high mountain walls infallibly 
suggests the notion that it has been the bed of a lake. No wonder that 
nearly all those who have travelled there in the past sought for and 



28 Chapter II. 

thought to have found clear tokens of a lake which at some recent 
geological period presumably filled the valley to a considerable height 
above the present level of the plain, where all that remains of these 
supposed mighty waters are the three small lakes Wular, Dal and 
Manasbal. According to this hypothesis, the great alluvial deposits 
which form the characteristic terraces called karewa, usually situated 
on the verge of the valley at the foot of the ranges and rising about 
200 to 300 feet above the plain, would be mere lacustrian deposits. In 
the middle of the valley they would have been gradually worn down 
and swept away by the river current which was formed when the lake 
broke an outlet through the mountains at Baramula. How this lake 
came to be and how it came to be emptied has given rise to numerous 
hypotheses, of which Oestreich has given a clear summary. 

There is no doubt that the legends interwoven with mythology 
which are still current in Kashmir, and which are given in a Sanscrit 
work by Kalhana, the Kashmiri historian of the twelfth century, 
translated by Stein, appear to corroborate at every point the geological 
hypothesis of a former submersion of the valley. From Bernier onwards 
all those who have written on Kashmir Thomson, Vigne, the brothers 
Schlagintweit, Montgomerie, Godwin Austen, Purdon, Lydekker, 
Knight, etc. 1 were unhesitatingly of the opinion that this was the true 
explanation. It is plain, however, that the supposed lake must have 
had its existence and emptied itself at a geological epoch far earlier 
than the first appearance of man on the earth. The legend therefore 
can by no means be connected with direct human observation, and 
loses all value as a proof. Drew and Stein are thus forced to the con- 
clusion that the earliest inhabitants of Kashmir were competent to 
read and interpret the geological records of the valley. 2 

Marchese Roero di Cortanze, a Piedmontese who lived in Kashmir 
from 1853 to 1875, and who travelled in Ladakh and Baltistan, even 
crossing the Karakoram into Turkestan, has given us in three interesting 
little volumes his views upon the country. The book is now rare and 



1 W. H. PURDON, On the Trigonometrical Survey and Physical Configuration of the Valley of 
Kashmir. Jour. Soy. Oeog. Soc. 31, 1861, p. 14 ; LYDEKKER, The Geology of Kashmir and Chamba 
Territories. Mem. of the Qeol. Surv. of India, 22, 1883, p. 186 ; E. F. KNIGHT, Where Three 
Empires Meet. London 1905. The other authors as already cited. 

1 F. BREW, The Jummoo and Kashmir Territories. London, cd. 1875 and 1877 ; M. A. STEIN, 
Memoir and Maps Illustrating the Ancient Qeography of Kashmir. Calcutta 1899. 



From Marseilles to Srina^ar. 29 

difficult to get. 1 He is the only one of the early writers who shows a 
cautious reserve as to the authority of the legend, suggesting, not 
unreasonably, that it might owe its origin to some exceptionally heavy 
spring flood. The latter have frequently proved a fearful disaster to 
the whole region. Beside the melting of snows, they might have been 
provoked by some obstacle to the free flow of the river. Kalhana's 
old history, which we have just quoted, relates that in the second half 
of the eleventh century an obstruction of the gorge below Baramula 
caused a partial inundation of the valley. It would seem that this 
obstacle was removed by contriving to collect the waters of the river 
behind a temporary dam constructed for the purpose, and then opening 
it and letting them rush through, a truly colossal work for that period. 

Modern geologists are inclined to give up the lake hypothesis 
altogether. Ellsworth Huntington is of opinion that the sedimentary 
deposits were the work of rivers and torrents in the basin during its 
formation, while the Jhelum was gradually eating away the outlet of 
Baramula, so that there would never have been occasion for a great 
accumulation of waters. 2 Oestreich has an intermediary hypothesis 
which does not altogether exclude the possibility of the temporary 
existence of a lake, but he is of opinion that the present lakes are even 
now in process of formation, and by no means remnants of a greater 
ancient lake 3 ; while R. D. Oldham, from studies carried out in 1903, 
came to the conclusion that the deposits are of fluvial and not of 
lacustrian origin, and that there is no proof that there ever were any 
lakes larger than those actually existing.* 

Whatever may have been the geological past of Kashmir, its present 
state is one of such beauty as to kindle the imagination of all who have 
attempted to describe it. From the earliest traveller to the latest 
book of Sir Francis Younghusband 5 there is a unanimous chorus of 
enthusiasm and admiration. To our party, who had left Italy barely 

1 OSWALDO ROEHO DEI MARCHESi Di CoRTANZE, Cushemir, Piccolo e Media Thibet e Turkestan. 
Turin, 1881. 3 vols. 

2 E. HUNTINGTON, The Vale of Kashmir. Bull. Amer. Geog. Soc., 38, 1906, p. 657. 

3 Vigne, Stein and Huntington have, however, found certain indications that the \Vular 
lake was at one time larger than it is now. The village of Bandipur, which formerly stood on 
the shore of the lake, is now nearly a mile away from it. 

R. D. OLDHAM, Note on the Glaciation and History of the Sind Valley, Kashmir. Records 
Geolog. Surv. of India, 31, 1904, p. 142. 

" SIR F. E. YOUNGHUSBAND, Kashmir. London 1909. 



30 Chapter II. 

twenty days before, the first impression was one of slight disappointment. 
The long high road, the lines of poplars across the great uniform plain 
with the rice plantations, the familiar European trees and the far-off 
snowy ranges slightly veiled in the soft mist of the atmosphere, combined 
to produce a scene so like our own Lombard plain in its beauty, that we 
felt baulked of the East of our dreams which we had come so far to 
seek. But to travellers who come to Kashmir after months or years 
spent in the parched and burning plains of India, or after wearying 
journeys across the barren waste of Central Asia, it must seem a paradise 
indeed. 

About half way between Baramula and Srinagar our carriages 
began to emit squeaking and groaning sounds to such a degree as 
to cause grave anxiety, as they appeared to be on the point of going 
to pieces altogether. The spokes of the wheels looked as if they 
were coming off, the connection between springs and body went 
wrong, and to the European mind it really looked as if it would be 
scarcely possible to proceed. But the drivers, by means of cunning 
knots, contrived to remedy the more serious disasters, and we were able 
to pursue our way, though at a diminished pace. The primitive tonga 
is decidedly preferable to the European carriage for this journey. It 
is very probable that in a few years both will be superseded by the 
motor-car, not to speak of the possibility of a railway, which has long 
been projected and which would at once destroy the pleasant remoteness 
of this beautiful valley. 

Nine miles from Srinagar the Duke was met by a carriage sent from 
the Residency. Soon we reached the suburbs of Srinagar, surrounded 
by wide fields which were thronged with people. We crossed the 
Jhelum on a wide wooden bridge to the right bank, where lies the 
European quarter. Around the great grassy maidan, surrounded by 
roads shaded with poplars, stand the Eesidency, the bungalows of the 
officials and others, the post-office, the agencies and the hotel. The 
Duke and Negrotto were hospitably entertained by Sir Francis and 
Lady Younghusband. We have now reached the limits of civilized 
means of communication. 

Botta and one of the guides had travelled with us. The other six, 
who left Pindi the day after us, were to arrive the next day. The 
limited number of horses at the stages makes it impossible for a great 
number of carriages to proceed simultaneously. 



CHAPTER III. 



KASHMIR. 

Antiquity of the History of Kashmir. The Sanscrit Chronicle of its Kings. The First 
Mohammedan Conquest. The Mogol Emperors. Afghans and Sikhs. The Inhabitants 
Srinagar. Life on the Jhelum. The Hanji Caste. The City. The Mogol Gardens. 
The European Quarter. Takt-i-Suliman and Hari Parbat. The Dal. Lake 
Vegetation. The Kashmiri Spring. Itinerary of the Expedition. Departure from 
Srinagar. The Marshes of Anchar. Mount Haramuk. The First Discovery and 
Mensuration of K 2 . The River Sind. The State Camp at Gunderbal. 

SRINAGAR is now the summer 
residence of His Highness the 
Maharajah of Jammu and 
Kashmir, one of the great 
Protectorates of the British 
Empire. The States of the 
Maharajah include Buddhist 
Ladakh, which by race, 
customs and religion, geo- 
graphical situation and oro- 
hydrographic features, is really 
a portion of Tibet ; Baltistan, 
whose inhabitants are Shiite 
Mohammedans ; and the minor districts of Astor-Gilgit, Hunza-Nagar, 
etc. in a word, the whole of the territory lying between Afghanistan, 
Chinese Turkestan and Tibet proper. The population of Kashmir 
is Sunnite Mohammedan, whereas Jammu (a vast plain district 
bordering the Punjab) is entirely Hindu. 

The whole kingdom, formed of elements so diverse, was but recently 
united under the domination of Hindu rulers of the Dogra Rajput race. 
Kashmir had been for some twenty years subject to the Sikhs of the 
Punjab when Gulab Singh was sent thither in 1841 to put down a rising. 




Chapter III. 

In the course of the following fifteen years his army, little by little, 
conquered Ladakh and Baltistan. Meantime the Punjab had been 
conquered by the British, between 1845 and 1856, and the Imperial 
Government recognized the sovereignty over Jammu and Kashmir 
of Gulab Singh, upon whom they conferred the title of Maharajah, and 
who became the founder of the present dynasty. It would seem as if 
the peculiar position of Kashmir, surrounded as it is by mountains 
which are difficult to cross, and passes which before the construction of 
the carriage road were quite closed by snow for several months every 
year, ought to have sheltered it from outside influences and put it in a 
position to follow the lines of its own development undisturbed, favoured 
by its temperate climate and the marvellous fertility of its soil. This 
happy isolation, however, only lasted till the twelfth century. Putting 
aside the many notices of Kashmir which have come down to .us from 
the remotest antiquity, from Herodotus to Marco Polo, we have the 
story of the country throughout its autonomous Hindu period in an 
ancient Sanscrit chronicle, the work of several authors, which was put 
together about the middle of the thirteenth century. This work gives 
us minute information concerning the great prosperity of the country, 
the high level of its civilization, the development of its arts and the 
splendour of its temples. 

The first Mohammedan conquest took place in 1341, and thence- 
forward the country never threw off the yoke of foreign domination. 
The independent Mohammedan kings were followed by Mogol emperors, 
under whom it became an integral part of the empire of Delhi, and was 
adorned with sumptuous palaces and gardens. Next came the Afghan 
conquest, and not until 1819 was Kashmir once more governed by 
Hindus the Sikhs of the Punjab. During the five centuries of 
Mohammedan domination the old Hindu faith had been almost entirely 
superseded by Islam. 

The Kashmiris of to-day appear to differ little from the Kashmiris 
of thirteen centuries ago, when the Chinese pilgrim Hwen Tsiang 
described them as " light and frivolous, and of a weak, pusillanimous 
disposition, handsome in appearance, given to cunning, fond of learning 
and well instructed " (Stein). 

It is nevertheless indubitable that the long foreign domination has 
contributed to the formation of their character, which is judged by 
universal consent to be lacking in manly qualities and inclined to deceit. 



Kashmir. 33 

They give proof, however, of alert intelligence, of marked artistic talents, 
and of considerable ingeniousness and dexterity in the various handi- 
crafts for which they are distingxiished throughout India. 

They are a handsome people and well built, with regular features ; 
and the foreigner would be more inclined to admire them if he were not 
unremittingly persecuted by the insistent importunity of their offers 
of service or of wares, which reaches such a point that frequently only 
the threat of personal chastisement avails to get rid of them. 




SRIXAGAR FROM THE SLOPE OF HARI PARBAT. 



Kashmir seems to be now at last freed from the secular oppression 
of her invaders, to which was added the calamity of earthquakes, which 
time after time decimated her population and laid low their habitations, 
not to speak of the floods, epidemics and famines with which her history 
abounds in the past as well as in recent times. The general appearance 
of the population is now fairly prosperous. The people look healthy 
and well fed, with fine chubby children ; nor did we often see persons 
who were diseased or crippled or rachitic, or any other signs of 
extreme misery. 

C.C221) o 



34 



Chapter III. 



During the long period of Mohammedan domination the capital 
city was known as Kashmir, but when it fell into the power of the Sikhs 
it resumed its ancient Hindu name of Srinagar. 1 It has a population 
of about 130,000, and stands almost in the centre of the plain at a height 
of 5,303 feet, upon the banks of the Jhelum, which flows through it in 
a sweeping curve. The river is the main thoroughfare of the city, and 
is always crowded with boats of various sorts. The light, swift shikara, 
the dunga, a big flat-bottomed boat with a shelter amidships roofed 








SRINAGAR FROM TAKT-I-SUUMAN. THE EUROPEAN QUARTER. 

over with matting ; the heavy barges loaded with wood, grain, oil or 
vegetables all come and go continually up and down the river or lie 
tied along the banks. The boatmen form a large population, and with 
their women and children pass their whole life on the water. They 
belong to a special caste known as Hanji. They are well built and 
handsome, but are looked down upon, not without good reason, by 
both Mohammedans and Hindus. 

1 According to KNIGHT and YOUNGHUSBAND (opp. citt.) Srinagar signifies "City of the sun''; 
according to UJFALVY, "City of healing," from the Sanscrit cri-nagara (Cn. DE UJFALVY, Les 
Arytns an nord et au Slid de V Hindu Kouch. Paris 1896). 





Srinagar 



Kashmir. 



85 



The principal houses of Srinagar stand along the river. The 
Maharajah's palace is quite modem. The few old palaces which are still 
standing are in the hands of wealthy merchants. Over a solid basement 
wall, built like a bastion to withstand the freshets of the river, rises a 
f;u;ade adorned with several tiers of wooden balconies one above another, 
elaborately carved with effective and ancient designs. Alongside of 
these similar great foundations of stone blocks, which must have 
supported other palaces in the past, now serve to sustain wretched 




THE NATIVE CITY, FROM TAKT-I-SULIMAN. 

tumble-down hovels. The whole river bank to the water's edge is taken 
up with houses, except where at intervals long nights of steps give 
access to the river. Here crowds of men. women and children come and 
go incessantly, wash their clothes, their persons and their pots and 
pans, or sit chatting in rows to enjoy the cool of the evening. The two 
banks are joined by seven bridges resting upon piers solidly built out 
of the interlocked trunks of trees, with the interstices filled up with 
stones. Numerous canals branch off from the river, and intersect the 
city in every direction, giving rise to the title of " Venice of the East," 

(9221) c 2 



36 



Chapter III. 



but I must say that the comparison is due rather to a lively imagination 
than to any actual resemblance between the two cities. 

The narrow streets on the land are, as is usual in the East, mainly 
bazars, and are crowded with natives clothed in the native woollen 
home-spun, usually brown or dirty white in colour, and known as puttoo. 
You meet few women, and those few evidently belong to the lower 
castes. The city is full of temples and mosques, but of these only two 
or three offer any antiquarian or artistic interest. Little trace remains 
of the ancient civilization described in the old chronicles. This may 




STREET IN SKINAGAR. 



be due to earthquakes, which have several times laid Srinagar low, to 
the iconoclastic rage of the Mohammedan conquerors or to Eastern 
carelessness, made up of fatalism, sloth and indifference to the past. 
The few monuments of which any trace exists in the neighbourhood 
of Srinagar are remains of Buddhist temples. Next to these the most 
interesting buildings are without doubt the sumptuous country houses 
of the Mogol emperors. Here the splendid old gardens, with their 
artificial cascades, their great tanks and elaborate fountains, their 
splendid alleys of huge chenars, the design, still recognizable, of their 
formal plan, and the architectural detail of their little pleasure-houses, 
although not to be compared with the marvels of Delhi and Agra, 



Kashmir. 37 

nevertheless bear witness to the luxury, taste and refinement which the 
world of Islam brought with it to the scene of its conquests, from Spain 
to India. Defeated and thrust back from the west by the victorious 
cross, after conquering nearly one-half of the world, it was here that 
Islam displayed its last splendours. 

One of the most characteristic features of Srinagar are the roofs of 
the houses and even of the temples, which are covered with earth and 
planted with grass and flowers. In spring they are gay with blue iris 
and scarlet tulips, around which hover butterflies and birds. The latter 




AT SRLSAOAR. 



pervade and haunt every nook of the city, streets, verandahs, shops 
in the bazar and temples with their joyous notes, their twittering and 
their chirping, and seem to live on excellent terms with the whole 
population. 

The European quarter consists of a few dozen bungalows in addition 
to the Residency. It stands upstream from the native town, and is 
built chiefly round a great open space like a huge village green. It is 
enclosed on one side by the river and on the other by the wide canal 
which comes into the river from the Wular lake ; and it is protected 
from floods by high dykes, along which run roads lined with magnificent 
ancient chenar trees. On the lower portion of this bank, known as the 
Bund, next to the native town, stand the rows of European shops kept 

(9221) c 3 



38 Chapter III. 

by Parsees or Eurasians. We must not pass over the mission hospital, 
which was founded and is kept up by the two Doctors Neve, who have 
done well-known and excellent exploring and Alpine expeditions in 
the surrounding ranges during the brief holidays permitted by their 
arduous missionary labours. 

The crowds of European visitors who seek out Kashmir in the spring 
and summer live mostly in house-boats of from four to six rooms, built 




HOUSE AND INDIAN TEMPLE ON THE CANAL. 



upon flat-bottomed barges. These are tied up at the pleasantest spots 
along the banks of the Jhelum or on the canals or lakes. After the 
middle of June the European colony, both residents and tourists, move 
up into the hills, either to Gulmarg, where there is a hotel and bungalows, 
or to the higher valleys, where they camp out under canvas. 

Eastward and northward of the town of Srinagar rise two hills, 
which play a great part in the beauty of the scenery. The one to the 
east terminates the spur which runs out from the ranges to the north- 
east into the plain, and rises to a height of about 1,000 feet just above 
the European quarter. Upon the top of this hill stands an ancient 



Kasliinir. 



3ti 



temple known as the Takt-i-Suliman, one of the numerous " thrones of 
Solomon," a name often given by Mohammedans to any striking isolated 
peak in the countries subject to their laws and traditions. According 
to Fergusson, this temple is of relatively recent date, but built upon a 
much older foundation. 1 The Takt-i-Suhman is a favourite walk or 
ride of about an hour, and offers a marvellous view of the plain and 
of the lakes and hills which surround it. 




BRIDGE AND HOUSE-BOAT ON THE JHELUM. 



The other of the two hills is an isolated and precipitous rock to the 
north of the city, known as Hari Parbat, on top of which stands an 
ancient fort now used as a prison. 

The expedition remained in Srinagar seven days, from April 16th 
to April 23rd, partly to wait for the heavy luggage which was slowly 
toiling up the road we had travelled so quickly, and partly to complete 
our equipment at all points. The chief job which we had to do in 
Srinagar was to get a certain number of kiltas made. These are strong 
light panniers made of wickerwork, either rectangular or barrel-shaped, 

1 JAMES FERGUSSON, History of Indian and Eastern Architecture. 2nd ed. London 1910 
2 vols. 

(9221) c 4 



40 



Chapter III. 



and are covered with rough sheepskin, the lid being fastened with chains 
and a padlock. The more fragile portions of the equipment, when not 
otherwise protected, were to be put into these kiltas. 

Arrangements for our journey had already been made by the courtesy 
of the Resident, upon suggestions communicated by the Duke from 
Europe. Sir Francis Younghusband had entrusted Mr. A. C. Baines 
with the organization of the caravan, the recruiting of horses and coolies, 
and the making of deposits of stores at certain points on our march. 




UNDER THE CHENAR TREES. 



Mr. Baines had left Srinagar a couple of weeks before our arrival, and 
was waiting for us in the Dras Valley. In this way we had leisure to 
enjoy the kind hospitality of Sir Francis and Lad} 7 Younghusband and 
the other courteous English officials, and to do a little sight-seeing in 
the city and neighbourhood. Little by little the strong local colour 
of the place took possession of our minds, and dispelled the first fleeting 
impression of vague disappointment. Every stroke of the oar on the 
river or in the canals revealed fresh details of native life, wonderful 
groups and charming scenes of Oriental manners and customs. 

By far the most fascinating point in the surroundings of Srinagar is 
the Dal lake, a beautiful sheet of water lying at the feet of the encircling 



Kashmir. 



41 



hills which form the spur terminating in Takt-i-Suliman. This lake is 
joined to the Jhelum by an artificial canal, which is provided with locks 
ingeniously constructed so as to prevent automatically the river inunda- 
tions from flowing back into the lake. Upon the shores of the Dal lie 
the pleasant old Mogol gardens, all blossoming with lilacs and roses, 
and full of the buds of iris, lilies and narcissus. Under the lofty chenar 
trees groups of natives stroll in the shade or sit in groups with their 
children, who seem as serious and solemn as their elders. 




CANAL AT SRINAGAR. 



An afternoon on the Dal lake leaves the memory of one of the 
fairest scenes of nature which we have been privileged to behold. The 
shikara boat flies swiftly before the strokes of a dozen oarsmen, who 
use short paddles with a wide flat blade shaped like a heart. They 
chant as they row, following the rhythm with the stroke of their oars ; 
and now and again the head boatman, who gives the time, changes 
the measure abruptly from quick to slow or from slow to quick, so as to 
rest the rowers by a change of motion. The strange vegetation of the 
lake bottom shows like a miniature forest gently swaying in the currents 
of the limpid, bluish-green water. It seems like navigating in a canal, 
because, with the exception of the ways channeled out by the current, 



42 



Chapu-r III. 




tlic whole surface of the lake is clothed with a uniform mantle of 
vegetation, through which the water is hardly visible. There are wide 
fields of soft green lotos leaves, above which will rise later on the 

exquisite milky - white blossoms 
with their delicately-shaded pink 
tips. Between the lotos float the 
huge round flat leaves of the 
Annesleya horrida, whose level 
surface of velvety green gives no 
warning of the cruel hooked spines 
which clothe the under side of the 
leaf and stem. The long filaments 
of the Singara, or edible water- 
chestnut, twist and tangle round 
innumerable other varieties of 
aquatic vegetation. Many parts 
of the lake are dotted with floating 
gardens, like islands. These have 
been often described. They consist 
of tangled masses of water plants, 
detached from the lake bottom and floating freely. Upon the 
surface thus obtained mud is spread, upon which grow beans, pumpkins, 
water-melons, melons, cucumbers, and in fact every species of vegetable, 
in great abundance. 

Here you meet great barges full of natives seated in a circle round 
the narghile, poled slowly along by a bargeman squatting on the stern. 
Again, towards evening slender barks glide upon the water, where a 
fisherman standing in the bows gazes intently into the water ahead, 
armed with a trident which he is ready to hurl down at sight of a trout. 
The shores are white with blossoming orchards of peach, cherry, apple, 
pear and plum ; and the mulberries, poplars and willows are festooned 
with luxuriant vines. Here we have every European variety of fruit- 
tree, with the exception of those which are strictly confined to the 
Mediterranean region the orange, lemon, fig and olive. Flocks and 
herds with their lambs and calves graze in the pleasant shade, and the 
air is alive with the song of the lively bulbuls, dear to the Persian poets, 
with the cooing of doves, the strident notes of the mina bird and the 
crow, and the pleasant call of the hoopoe. It was still too early for the 



A LONELY CANAL. 



Kashmir. 



4:; 



migratory birds from the plain, the orioles, the kingfishers and herons, 
and the great flights of ducks and geese. 

Nearly every afternoon the sky clouds over and becomes threatening. 
Here the winds blowing hot from the Indian plain meet the cold mountain 
barrier, and hence frequent storms. In the sky, the air and the 
mountains follow in rapid succession an infinite variety of colours with 
a wonderful play of light and shade, azure rents opening on every side 




THE BANKS OF THE DAL. 



in the livid indigo of the storm-cloud. As a rule, the sky clears up after 
a couple of hours, sometimes with a shower of rain, sometimes without. 
Then follow marvellous evenings, and the far-off snows are kindled 
by the flaming sunset. 

Lack of space forbids my dwelling longer upon the beauties of the 
vale of Kashmir. The reader who may wish to know more of this 
garden of the Himalaya will perhaps find a more spontaneous, lively 
and picturesque account of the region, as well as greater observation 
and detail, in the books of the ancient traveller than in those of our own 



44 



Chapter III. 



day. Kashmir has not so changed in the last fifty to seventy years as 
no longer to resemble the descriptions of its earlier visitors. 1 

On the morning of April 22nd the long line of ekkas loaded with 
luggage entered the garden of the Residency. We worked all day long 
with the Duke at going over and rearranging the whole equipment. 
It was loaded on to six dunga boats the same evening, and left Srinagar 
to cross the plain by river and canal to the foot of the mountains. 




ON THE DAL. 



The itinerary of the expedition from Srinagar to the Karakoram 
may be indicated in a few words. 2 As I have already pointed out, 
the mountains which enclose Kashmir to the north form part of the 
main range of the Himalaya proper, running from south-east to north- 
west as far as Astor, where they terminate with Nanga Parbat. This 

1 Among the best are: BARON C. VON HUGEL, Kashmir und das Reich der Sick. Vienna 
1840 ; W. MOORCROPT and G. TREBECK, Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan, etc. 
(ed. by H. Hayman Wilson). London 1841. 2 vols. ; G. T. VIGNE, Travels in Kashmir, etc. 
London 1842. 2 vols. ; TH. THOMSON, Western Himalaya and Thibet. London 1852 ; SIR A. 
CUNNINGHAM, Ladak and Surrounding Countries. London 1854 ; the voluminous works of 
H. VON SCHLAGINTWEIT and the volume of F. DREW already cited. Among more recent books, 
Kashmir by SIR FRANCIS YOUNGHUSBAND is very valuable, the author being qualified not only 
by his long career as Resident but also by his travels in the most remote parts of the kingdom. 

1 See the itinerary Ynap, From Rawal Pindi to the Baltoro Glacier. 



Kashmir. 45 

range divides Kashmir from the Indus valley, beyond which lies the 
Karakoram range. 1 Therefore, in order to reach the latter from 
Srinagar the Himalaya must first be crossed. The lowest pass in the 
whole of this end of the chain is the Zoji La (11,230 feet), at the head 
of the Sind valley, north-east of Srinagar. Beyond the pass the Dras 
valley leads down to the Indus. Next the Indus valley is followed 
northward as far as Skardu, the capital of Baltistan. From Skardu the 




SUNSET ON THE DAL. 



route crosses the Indus and penetrates directly into the Karakoram. 
This is the main route, which is open all the year round, with the 
exception of occasional short interruptions. 

Another route, about 50 miles shorter, crosses the Rajdiangan Pass 
directly north of Srinagar, and by the valley of the Kishen Ganga reaches 
the vast table-land of the Deosai, which is more than 30 miles wide, with 
a mean altitude of about 14,000 feet. Hence the route descends directly 

1 GUILLARMOD is mistaken when he says (Six mois dans V Himalaya, etc., p. 47) that the 
table-land of Kashmir is comprised between the Himalaya to the south and the Karakoram to 
the north. Nor does the Karakoram separate Kashmir from Tibet, as he seems to think, but in 
reality lies between Baltistan and Chinese Turkestan. 



it; Chapter III. 

to Skardu. The Deosai plains, however, are not practicable until after 
the middle of July. In April we should have found them covered with 
deep snow and subject to dangerous storms, and with our large caravan 
and equipment it was an attempt not to be thought of. Even the Zoji 
La is not quite without danger for a large party encumbered with heavy 
luggage. 1 

On April 23rd, in the early afternoon, we started from Srinagar 
with Sir Francis and Lady Younghusband, who accompanied the Duke 
to the first stage. We took our places in two splendid state shikaras, 
each with a crew of fifteen rowers dressed in tunics and turbans of 
flaming red and commanded by the Jemadar Sedik, a dry, little old 
man, tightly clothed in a gorgeous uniform covered with gold braid, 
the " admiral " of the Maharajah's fleet. 

We went almost directly north, first through a narrow canal, little 
better than a ditch, between the houses of a series of villages. Out of 
the muddy water on every side start naked children, dark and chubby, 
like beautiful little bronzes, and rush to hide behind their elders, while 
the bigger ones, surprised in their bath, hasten to cover themselves with 
extremely dirty shirts upon our approach. With some difficulty we 
pass numerous great grain barges in the narrow canal. Now and again 
we glide under some arched bridge plainly of ancient date, and we notice 
here and there foundations and bits of walls which certainly must have 
supported more worthy buildings than the hovels which crown them 
at present. 

Next we drift between banks green with willows, through a fresh 
smiling country of rice plantations and fields of cereals of every descrip- 
tion, and at last we come out of the narrow canals into a vast sheet 
of water known as Anchar, a shallow lagoon where the flat bottoms 
of our boats keep touching and even running aground on the least 
deviation from the narrow channel, for the passage is not free from, 
sandbanks. On every side the aquatic vegetation is so dense that it 
would seem like a field were it not for the light skiffs gliding hither and 
thither over the surface, rowed by women who are busily gathering 
masses of vegetation to form their floating gardens. Over the whole 
swamp fly flocks of water birds. 

1 VV. Moorcroft was the first European to give us any precise information about the Dras 
route. Both the Dras and the Deosai routes between Srinagar and Skardu are described in detail 
by Vigne and Thomson in the books already cited. 



Kashmir. 47 

The Sind river, the biggest confluent of the Jhelum, flows with its 
undivided stream into this lagoon. Its lower course is winding and 
swift, hemmed in between low earth-banks, portions of which are 
constantly falling into the water, which eats them away. The river, 
now at low water, was about the size of the Tiber in moderate flood. 
When we entered the channel our rowers got out on the shore and 
placed themselves in a file, each putting around him a loop of a long 








THE SIND. 



rope, by which they towed the boats at a run with the assistance of a 
crowd of handsome, half-naked lads, who had apparently been on the 
look-out for our arrival. Our course now turns eastward toward the 
snowy mountains, and we make straight for the Sind valley, whose 
gate is guarded by the mighty peak of Haramuk, which rears its crown 
of glaciers to a height of nearly 12,000 feet above the plain (16,903 feet 
above sea level). This is the largest of the mountains which encircle 
the vale of Kashmir. Dr. E. F. Neve, with G. Millais, ascended it for 
the first time in 1899. 1 It was once more climbed in 1907 by A. L. 
Mumm and Major Bruce. 2 From one of the western peaks of Haramuk, 
known as Station Peak, about 16,000 feet high, Colonel Montgomerie 

1 E. F. NEVE, The Ascent of Haramuk. Alp. Jour. 20, 1900, p. 122. 

2 A. L. MUMM, In and About Kashmir. Alp. Jour. 24, 1898, p. 195. 



i- Chapter III. 

in 1858 saw K 2 for the first time, at a distance of 137 miles across the 
Deosai plains, and measured it by triangulation. 1 

We reached Gunderbal, at the mouth of the Sind valley, al>out 
5 o'clock in the afternoon. The Maharajah, Sir Pratab Singh, who was 
then still in Jammu, had made arrangements to show hospitality to the 
Duke, notwithstanding his absence. A dozen state tents had been set 
up on the bank under the shade of the splendid chenar trees, and four 
state house-boats were tied up on the bank, so that there was room for 
a far more numerous expedition than ours. 

Beyond the river bank the vast rice-fields stretched to the foot of the 
mountains. Not far from the camp are the ruins of an ancient bridge 
which once crossed the Sind. Three arches and two or three broken 
piles are still standing. No road leads to it now. The horses that are 
to carry our luggage to-morrow, as well as four fine saddle ponies which 
the Maharajah has placed at our disposal to take us up to the first snows 
of the Sind valley, are grazing in the surrounding fields. 

The dungas with our luggage and guides arrived a few hours after us. 
The loaded boats drew more water, and had therefore been sent around 
by the Jhelum and along a canal which connects it with the Sind river, 
spending a night on the way. 

We went to bed early on the charpoys of the house-boats. The 
murmur of the river, the lapping of water round the sides of the house- 
boat, the sound of an oar dipping in the stream, called up images remote 
indeed from the Himalaya. Every now and then a dull thud shakes 
our floating house it has been struck by one of the numerous tree trunks 
which the river carries down. 

1 Synopsis of Remits O. T. 8. VII. Dehra Dun 1879, p. xxx. 



CHAPTER IV. 



THE SIND VALLEY. 

Formation of the Caravan. Distribution of the Forests. Glaciers of the Sind Valley, Past 
and Present. Gund. Kashmiri Coolies. Officials and Functionaries. Abdullah the 
Shikari. The Official Escort. Coolies' Pay. The Engagement of New Coolies. 
The Gorge of Gagangir. Sonamarg. Post, Telegraph and Meteorology. Post Runners. 
Baltal. The First Baltis. Avalanches and Landslides. 

THE whole of our baggage had 
been sent off from Europe already 
divided into packages of the right 
weight for coolies, and formed alto- 
gether 262 loads of about 50 Ibs, 
each. This made it possible to- 
arrange the caravan quite easily 
and without any waste of time from 
the very outset, in the early morning 
of April 24th. Each of our ninety- 
five ponies carried two or three of 
these loads, and in a short time all 
were on the road. We did not 
follow until 9 o'clock, after taking 
leave of our courteous hosts, Sir 
Francis and Lady Younghusband. 

Now at last the real journey had begun the camp life that brings 
one into the close communion with nature so good for body and mind. 
Walking is really the only kind of locomotion that puts us on equal 
terms with the world about us. Our modern mechanical methods of 
transportation tend to make us lose sight of our relative importance. 
The first stage of our journey was only 12 miles, and ran along the nearly 
level bottom of the Sind valley, over a wide path between blossoming 

(9221) D 




50 Chapter IV. 

trees and cultivated fields. Near the mouth of the valley, on the left 
side, runs" for some distance a high ledge, similar to those we had noticed 
in the Jhelum valley, but in this case formed by fluvio-glacial deposits. 
The opposite side of the valley is formed by the southern spurs of 
Haramuk. 

The main trend of the Sind valley is from west to east. The left 
side, which faces north, is steep and almost entirely clothed with forests. 
The other side, which the path mainly follows, slopes somewhat more 
gently, and is treeless, except for the strip of cultivation at the bottom, 
above which pastures reach up to the foot of the rocks. The limitation 
of the forests to the slopes which face the north is universal throughout 





THE CAMP AT K \\c.\\. 



the region, and has been noticed by many travellers. It is probably 
due to the fact that the snows lie longer on the northern slopes, and thus 
give a greater degree of moisture. This holds good even on the sides 
of the wide plateau of Kashmir, where the slopes of the Pir Panjal range 
which face northwards are clothed with forests, whereas the slopes of 
the Himalaya which bound the plain to the north are nearly treeless. 

Soon after midday we made our stage at a place called Kangan. 
Here we found the equipment already deposited in a level field surrounded 
by large walnut trees, where our tents were not long in setting up. We 
were still on the Kashmir side of the water-shed, so, as usual in the 
afternoon, a storm blew up, and it rained until nightfall. 

After Kangan the path began to climb more rapidly, and the scenery 
assumed a more Alpine aspect. The ground on the left side of the valley, 
was covered with snow, which showed between the firs and pines, and. 



The Siud Valley. 



51 



as our way ascended, reached down nearer and nearer to the bottom of 
the valley. There were no more chenars, but their place was taken 
by splendid walnut trees, with parasitic orchids growing on the branches. 
The commonest tree is the willow. 

All this part of the valley shows clear traces of glacial action. l The 
whole of the Sind valley was at one time filled by a glacier more than 
30 miles long, about the size of the present great glaciers of the Kara- 





THE CAMP AT GtJND. 

koram. To-day there are only a number of small shrunken glaciers 
in the upper reaches of the tributary valleys. Oestreich has counted 
thirty-three of them. 

Our next stage brought us to Gund, a village standing rather high 
on the right bank of the Sind river, 13 miles from Kangan. Here we 
left our ponies behind, as a little farther up the valley was still full of 
snow, and everything would have to be carried by coolies. These 

1 Sff R. D. OLDHAM, Note on the Glaciation and History of the Sind Valley, Kashmir. Bee. 
Geol. Surv. of India, 31, 1904, p. 142. 

(9221) D 



-r IV. 

coolies had gathered at Gund from all the villages in the valley iu 
fact, during the morning's march we had passed numbers of them on 
their way up. There were over 250 of them, squatting or lying in 
groups on the ground or wandering around the camp, which they greatly 
enlivened by their presence. They were all Kashmiris, with bronzed 
faces and European features, now and then markedly Semitic in type. 
They had black hair and flowing beards, and wore garments of puttoo, 
the coarse country home-spun, with short wide breeches and a sort 
of coat with ample sleeves that reaches down to a little above the knee. 
Over the coat they wear a woollen blanket shawl like a shepherd's 
plaid, wound round the waist or over the back. Their headgear consists 
of a sort of skull cap, round which is twisted turbanwise a narrow strip 
of white cotton cloth which has attained an indefinable shade between 
dirty white and grey. Their feet are clad in sandals of plaited straw, 
which they make for themselves in spare moments and throw away 
by the roadside when worn out. Their legs are either bare or covered 
with puttees. 

All the coolies were incessantly interfered with, worried and kept 
in a state of perpetual excitement by the numerous official escort which 
was directing the management of the caravan. I will here devote a 
few words to this official escort, its relative importance and usual 
relations with the traveller. 

All strangers travelling in the domains of the Maharajah, whether 
for exploration, for sport or for mere pleasiire, must be provided with 
an official permit or perwanna, which is supplied by the administrative 
authorities of each district. This paper authorizes the traveller to 
demand from the village headmen, with or without the intervention 
of higher officials, the necessary supplies of coolies, saddles, luggage 
ponies, provisions, wood, etc., at the legal tariff prices, which are always 
specified upon a list posted up at the dak-bungalows. 

At the top of the official tree stands the Tehsildar, who is a real 
prefect, with fiscal functions, and who superintends the whole district 
or tehsil. He is usually selected from the official employes who have 
been trained in the Government schools of India and possess a certain 
degree of culture and at least a slight acquaintance with the English 
language. Under him there may be a Naib-Tehsildar, ruling sub- 
districts. Tehsildars and Naib-Tehsildars, like all the employes of 
the Central Government of Kashmir, are invariably Hindu. The heads 



The Bind Valley. 53 

of the villages are the Zaildars or Lambardars. The police service is 
managed by the Jemadars and their subordinates the Chuprassis, 
whose duty it is also to enforce the observation of the forest and game 
laws. 

Some districts are still under a Rajah, who is seldom, however, a 
descendant of the families that ruled the country before the conquest, 
these having been nearly all deprived of their power. The office is 
hereditary. They govern through a Wazir or minister, but they are 
subject to the suzerainty of the Maharajah, and in fiscal matters are 
answerable to the Tehsildar. 

The traveller usually brings with him a Shikari, who treats on his 
behalf with the Jemadar and with the Zaildar or Lambardar, and 
notifies these officials of the requirements of the party. The Shikari 
is likewise responsible for discipline and order among the coolies, pony 
drivers, etc., and upon him depend mainly the relations between the 
traveller and the natives. The majority of the Europeans who travel 
in the dominions of Kashmir come purely for sport, so the Shikari is 
usually a man familiar with the country from the point of view of game. 
He knows the best nullahs and the habits of the bears, leopards, ibexes, 
markhor, ovis poli and other wild animals which inhabit the western 
Himalaya. Our Shikari Abdullah had gone on before, and was already 
at Dras with Mr. Baines, so we did the first part of the journey without 
him. We did not miss him, as the expedition was accompanied the 
whole way up the Sind valley by the escort, which comprised all the 
categories of functionaries I have just mentioned. There was a general 
superintendent, Baboo Fagir Mohamed, who was intelligent, silent and 
had very great authority. There was the Naib-Tehsildar Munshi 
Ghullam Haider Khan, a sort of ferocious-looking Othello in a fanciful 
jacket of olive-green with cuffs and collar of fur, which made him look 
rather like a lion tamer at a fair. The interpreter was a fat giant with 
bloodshot eyes and an apoplectic face with a fringe of beard dyed with 
henna. There was a Jemadar or police official, and under his orders 
were five Chuprassis, in addition to the Zaildar of Gunderbal and the 
Lambardars of the villages from which the coolies came. 

The chief officials took their orders from the Duke and transmitted 
them in regular hierarchical order. In spite of these complicated 
arrangements the functions of the caravan were carried out with great 
regularity and precision and perfect discipline. 

(9221) D 3 



M Chapter IV. 

The day was cloudy and cool, with a few intervals of hot sunshine. 
The afternoon was laborious. We had to pay and dismiss the pony 
drivers who had come from Gunderbal two stages at half a rupee 
per stage and per horse. The intermediaries are so numerous that 
the best policy is to pay the coolies direct in person and one by one. 
This system is being generally adopted by European travellers, who 




THE MONEY KILTAS, AND PAYING THE COOLIES. 

used to trust to the Tehsildar or Lambardar to divide the sum between 
the men. The Duke had decided to follow the method adopted by the 
Eckenstein-Pfannl-Guillarmod expedition, of giving each coolie a numbered 
metal counter, which he has to hand in against his wages. This enabled 
the payments to proceed rapidly, and made the supervision simple and 
easy. The chief drawback was the necessity of carrying an immense 
weight of money divided into single rupees and fractions of rupees. Our 
small change occupied nine kiltas and weighed over 450 Ibs. 



The Sind Valley. ."/; 

The Duke always superintended the arranging and counting of the 
luggage : 171 packages were distributed among the same number of 
coolies, who left at once so as to divide the party and make its move- 
ments quicker. As each coolie passes with his load he receives his 
numbered counter. All round us stands the crowd of those who are 
waiting for their turn. Some of them seem to be about seventy years 
old, and some who really look too old for work we are obliged to set 
a^ide. And yet these men, in addition to their 50 or 55 Ib. load, carry 
in a skin bag their own food for the whole journey from here to Dras 
and back at least another 22 Ibs. of rice or flour. This makes a total 
of 75 or 80 Ibs. to be carried through the snow over the Zoji La. 

The great number of volunteers who rushed to the spot is to be 
explained by the extraordinary wages of a whole rupee a day, which 
the Kashmir Government allows coolies for crossing the Zoji La in the 
winter or spring, a wage intended as a compensation for the danger of 
avalanches and the fatigue of walking through the deep snow instead 
of on an easy path as in summer. The usual tariff is from 4 to 6 annas 
a day from 4d. to 6d. without food. 

The loads, kiltas, boxes of provisions, sleeping-bags, bundles of 
tents, camp-beds, etc., are placed upon primitive carrying devices, which 
consist of four upright poles fixed to the corners of a narrow rectangular 
base. Two ropes serve to fasten it over the shoulders. The coolie's 
step is elastic and quick, even up-hill. He makes short halts to get his 
breath, more or less often according to the difficulties of the road. 
During these brief halts he lifts his load off his back, resting it on a sort 
of crutch formed by a short pole, furnished at the top with a wide flat 
support and at the bottom with a broad wooden foot, in order that it 
may not sink in the soil. 

After the daily storm comes the usual clear evening. By half-past 
eight the whole camp is at rest. Near the kiltas which contain the 
treasury of small change the chuprassi on guard watches in solitude, 
squatting on his heels before a few smouldering sticks and well wrapped 
up in his woollen plaid. The roar of the torrent comes up from far 
below. Eastward the valley rises steep and straight, then suddenly 
disappears from sight behind a spur. The slopes above us glitter with 
snow. We feel that we are at the gates of the mountain. 

The following days were an interlude of high mountain life between 
the green garden of Kashmir and the parched and torrid valleys of the 

(0221) D 4 



56 



Chapter IV. 



Indus basin. From Gund onward the caravan consisted of over 270 
persons, counting the officials, coolies and servants. 171 coolies had 
left Gund on the day of our arrival, and 100 remained with us. 

For a few hours the path led as before between willows and fruit 
trees, mingled with fir and pine. But now, little by little, the ascent 
becomes steeper, and the mountains draw near and become more 
precipitous. The springlike aspect of the valley disappears to make 




THE SIND VALLEY BEYOND GUND. 



way for a winter scene. At the foot of each lateral gully or ravine the 
accumulations of snow become wider and more frequent. Next the 
valley is cut across by a great step at the gorge of Gagangir, which is 
piled up with boulders. Here the torrent dashes wildly to the bottom 
of the gorge, where it is hidden by vast snow avalanches, which bridge 
it over often 10 or 20 feet deep, and which here and there are covered 
with fresh avalanches fallen a few days before, and not yet flattened 
by melting or blackened with dust. The road now passes high up on 
the right flank of the valley, through a little wood of deciduous trees, 
whose buds are just beginning to swell, though the path is quite hidden 
away under snow. On our march we are surprised at passing some of 



The Siiul Valli-v. 



57 



the coolies whom we had thought it our duty to reject on the preceding 
day because they looked to be about 100 years old. The poor old 
fellows must have bought back the engagement from the younger men 
we had selected in their places, and thus thwarted our intentions. 

From the gorge of Gagangir we come out upon a small level and 
cross the Sind valley to the left bank. We then climb over the ridge 
of a moraine formation clothed with conifers and reach the wide plateau 




THE GORGE OF GAGANGIR. 



of Sonamarg, which is treeless and covered with a layer of hard snow 
about three feet deep. 1 The plateau is nearly two miles broad, and at the 
upper end stands the Sonamarg bungalow, about 14| miles from Gund. 
We have now reached a height of 8,763 feet. The sky had been over- 
clouded all day, and it now began to rain. The temperature was only 
41 F. Little glaciers were just visible through the mist on the left 
of the valley, the lower part of which was clothed with pine woods. 

1 There must be great variation from one year to another in the snowfall of this region. 
When the Eckenstein-Pfannl-Guillarmod expedition travelled by the same road at about the same 
season in 1902 there was far less snow in the Sind valley, on the Zoji La and in the Cumber 
valley. See the illustrations of Guillarmod's book as compared with our own. 



58 ChapU-r IV. 

It was a characteristic Alpine winter scene, sad, monotonous and 
grey, with a rainy atmosphere melting into the snow of the plain. It 
seemed incredible that before many weeks passed the place would turn 
into a great green meadow starred with golden crocus, and with the 
fringe of the surrounding forest dotted with the camps of English people, 
whom the heat of the Kashmir summer drives up into the cooler air. 

We took refuge in the bungalow, consisting of a square courtyard 
full of trampled snow and mud, on three sides of which runs a verandah, 








THE SIND VAT.T.EY BETWEEN SOXAMAKU AXD BU.TAI.. 



on which open the doors of the sleeping rooms. Two of these are empty 
and reserved for Europeans, and here we spread our camp-beds. The 
others are filthy barracks for the use of the coolies. 

Shortly after our arrival the 171 coolies who formed the first 
detachment began to pass through. They had spent the night half- 
way between Gund and Sonamarg, and were now going on to Baltal. 
Next came dropping in in small detachments the coolies who marched 
with us. The courtyard and verandah were soon filled with them. 
They formed groups around the fires which they lighted here and there 
in the mud, under kettles where the tea was boiling, in which they soak 



The Sind Valley. 59 

their small loaves or chupattis. They are wonderfully dirty and very 
good-natured looking, and they smile at us in a friendly way. 

The Sonamarg bungalow lies on the left bank of the Sind River. 
On the right bank beyond the bridge stands the tiny village, the highest 
in the whole valley. There is a small house for the post and one for the 
telegraph. Close by is the meteorological station, which is supplied 
with a few instruments. There are also three or four huts built of 
tree trunks, all crooked and apparently on the point of tumbling to 
pieces. The place seems almost deserted, and it is a surprise to us to 
find plenty of fresh milk, sheep, fowls, and eggs, which provisions we 
shall continue to find, with but few exceptions, at each stage of our 
march through the valleys. This fresh food forms the basis of our 
diet, which is completed by our provision tins, containing ship's biscuit, 
butter, soups, vegetables, fruits, coffee, tea, sugar, condiments, etc. 

The meteorological office in these remote stations is usually entrusted 
to the telegraph clerk, who takes the observations twice a day. We 
were greatly interested in collecting the data of these little Alpine 
stations, they being necessary to calculate the observations to be taken 
by the expedition later on, in the high mountains. It was very desirable 
to have the observations taken three times a day, so as to get a greater 
probability of their being at the same time as ours. The Duke therefore 
arranged with the telegraph official to read the meteorological instruments 
daily at 8 and 10 o'clock in the morning and at 4 o'clock in the afternoon 
from that day to the end of August. Similar arrangements were made 
at the meteorological stations of Srinagar, Gilgit, Leh and Skardu. 

On the morning of April 27th we accomplished the short stage from 
Sonamarg to Baltal, which is at the foot of the Zoji La, in a melancholy 
fine rain with a low mist, which completely shut out the slopes and peaks. 
This stage is only 9 miles over a good track, well beaten in the snow. 
The path leads now high on the right side of the Sind valley, where 
the orange-yellow crocuses (Cokh a 'cum luteum Bale.) have already come 
pluckily into blossom wherever a bit of land is bare of snow ; and 
again, along the bottom of the valley through little groves of pine, fir 
and birch. We keep overtaking and passing groups of coolies who 
left Sonamarg before us ; but we ourselves are caught up with and left 
behind by the dak-wallah, who runs up-hill over the snow, carrying the 
postbag and his own blankets and food, with his whole body and mind 
bent on the exertion, so great a one that it hardly seems possible he 



60 



Chapter IV. 



can go on for more than a few minutes. He is armed with a spear with 
a shrill-tongued bell tied to the shaft, to frighten away wild animals. 
By relays of these dak runners the weekly post goes all the way from 
Srinagar to Leh and Skardu, covering on an average some 30 miles a day. 

Except for this lonely 
wayfarer our expedition was 
quite alone in the high valley 
of the Sind. Once the snow is 
gone, there is a ceaseless 
coming and going of caravans 
of Baltis, Ladakhis, Tartars 
from Chinese Turkestan and 
Tibetans, often accompanied 
by their wives, their flocks 
and their herds, and leading 
horses or yaks laden with 
merchandise, crossing and 
recrossing the Himalaya over 
this, the only trade route 
between Tibet and Kashgar 
on one side and Kashmir, 
Afghanistan and Persia on the 
other. 

Baltal stands 9,258 feet 
above the sea level 1 at the 
foot of a perpendicular spur 
of the Kanipatri group, which 
dominates the Zoji La to 
the south. Here the Sind valley bifurcates. The greater branch, 
through which the Panjtarni torrent flows, runs south-east ; the other 
is a short, steep gorge, which leads to the pass and carries on the general 
trend of the Sind valley towards the east. Both are deep gorges with 
precipitous sides much broken up by landslides. In the angle formed 
by the meeting- place of the Panjtarni torrent with the stream that comes 
down from the Zoji La, is a small plateau with a grove of sycamores, 
birches, poplar and willow trees, mingled with several sorts of conifers. 




NEAR BALTAL. 



1 Hypsometric measurement calculated with four stations of reference. Schlagintweit gives 
Baltal a height of 9,321 feet ; Oestreich 9,350 feet. 



The Sind Valley. i 

Here stands a new, roomy bungalow, where caravans can dwell at ease, 
to give time to the new-fallen snow either to be hardened by frost or to 
fall in avalanches, before attempting the dangerous pass. 

Mr. Baines had sent thirty Balti coolies from Dras to meet us, under 
the guidance of the head Shikari Abdullah, so as to beat the path over 
the snow on the hills and to help our Kashmiris with the loads. Thus 
there were over 300 coolies gathered at Baltal and lodged partly in 




THE BUNGALOW AT BALTAL. 



huts around the bungalow and partly in the old bungalow on the other 
bank of the torrent. They were all very busy plaiting themselves 
straw shoes. From Sonamarg onward the Duke had smoked spectacles 
distributed among those of the coolies who appeared to suffer from the 
reverberation of the snow. We reviewed them again one by one, and 
about half of them were provided with dark glasses for the journey of the 
morrow. 

All through the afternoon showers of fine snow kept falling like 
waterfalls off the rocky spur of Kanipatri in the rear of the bungalow. 
In the clear evening light we could distinguish the deep walls of the 
valleys furrowed with gullies and chimneys between sharp ridges ending 
in spires, aiguilles and peaks, covered with virgin snow. From the 
Panjtarni valley a dizzy ridge leads up to the fine peak of Ambarnath, 
above 17,000 feet in height. It "all seemed quite inaccessible, but it 



62 Chapter IV. 

must look very different in the summertime. Later in the evening 
a great landslide fell from a considerable height from the wall of the 
Zoji La valley, and hurled itself down with a thundering sound, rolling 
down earth, stones and snow, which spread out in a gigantic fan, covering 
the path up to the pass for a long distance. The mountain wall above 
is left scarred by a wide gash that stands out conspicuous amid the 
spotless snows surrounding it. 




THE MOUTH OF THE ZOJI LA, FROM BALTAL. 



We went to bed for a few hours only, for the ascent must be made 
before the sun rises to melt the bonds of frost which hold the snow fast 
upon the slopes. 



CHAPTER V. 



ZOJI LA. 

Ethnological and Commercial Importance. The Gorge of Baltal. The Pass in Summer. 
Geology. The Cumber Valley. - The Metjuhoy Glacier. Minimurg. The Plateau 
of Mutajun. Pandras. The Last Gorges of the Valley. The Dras Basin. Fort and 
Bungalow. Population. Farewell to Kashmir. 

ZQJI LA is the Tibetan name 
of a pass which has the greatest 
historical and commercial im- 
portance. It is 11,230 feet above 
sea level, 1 and is the lowest point 
in the Himalayan ridge between 
the Indus valley and the vale of 
Kashmir. From time immemorial 
it has been the great trade route 
between Chinese Turkestan and 
Tibet on one hand, and India on 
the other. It was by this gate 
that the Sikhs invaded and con- 
quered Ladakh and Baltistan in 
the first half of the nineteenth 
century. The telegraph connect- 
ing Srinagar with Leh, the capital 

of Ladakh, and Skardu, the capital of Baltistan. crosses the Zoji La. 
Once a week all the year round the post runner crosses it with his bag ; 
but for five months at least it is quite blocked to beasts of burden, 
horses or yaks, and it is often extremely dangerous, even if not absolutely 
impracticable, for parties of coolies. Many a caravan has perished 
there of cold and exhaustion, lost in the bewildering tumults of snow 

1 According to Burrard the height is 11,300 feet. Oestreich gives 11,319. Guillarmod, 
owing evidently to a scribal error, calls it " au dessus des 5000 metres" (about 17,000 feet) 
(op. cit. pp. 75-80, and at foot of illustration on p. 79). 




Chapter V. 



which are common in winter and spring. Still more numerous are the 
victims of the avalanches which pile up vast deposits of snow in the 
gorge of Baltal. This snow often remains until late in the summer, 
and occasionally does not entirely melt before the following autumn. 

The crossing of the pass in April with a party of over 300 coolies was 
an undertaking by no means free from anxiety. We left Baltal bungalow 
on the 28th before dawn. The night was dark, the sky clouded, and 
a fine rain was falling. The air was heavy and warmish, just the 




Iff* ** 




**" 



THE ZOJI LA. 



weather for avalanches. We stopped for a few minutes at the old 
bungalow beyond the torrent to see the last of the coolies off ; then 
we started up the narrow gorge which leads to the pass. 

On the short level at the foot of the steep ascent we got ahead of 
nearly all the coolies, who were toiling through the soft snow, stopping 
for breath every 200 yards. The sight was an indescribable one, weird 
and fantastic as a scene in the wildest legend. As we plodded along the 
track at the even gait of the mountaineer, our lanterns threw an unearthly 
light on the features of the coolies resting in long files, with the shape- 
less loads upon the crutch at their backs, transforming them into strange 



Xoji La. 



Co 



hump-backed dwarfs. An immense length of black shadow stretched 
behind them on the snow. The ceaseless murmur of voices and confused 
shouting came to our ears from the farther groups, who moved restlessly 
and dimly in the feeble light from the lanterns, like men lost and astray 
in some dreadful gulf shut off on every side by towering cliffs. As for 
the surroundings, we could hardly distinguish the faint glimmer of the 
snow on the lower rocks. Higher up it melted altogether into the 
sombre atmosphere, beneath the unrelieved blackness of the inky sky. 










I 




THE TOP OF THE PASS. 



The way ascended straight up the gorge over the fallen avalanches, 
with which it was filled up. The Shikari Abdullah led the way along 
the steep track, which ran in zig-zags across the snow slope, and kept 
urging us to quicken our steps, especially at points where big stones 
and tell-tale lumps of hardened snow marked fresh falls from the over- 
hanging cliffs. We followed in silence, breathing hard from the quick 
measure of the pace, which was quite out of proportion to the gradient 
of the climb, and keeping close together to make the most of the scanty 
light of our two lanterns. 

(9221) E 



66 



('liapU-r V. 



This account must be difficult of belief to those who have crossed 
the col in the summer months, when it is a pleasant trip to ride over 
on the easy, clean-cut path which traverses the side of the valley well 
above the rocks which overhang the right side of the gorge. 

In two hours we reached the top. The steep ascent suddenly 
stopped, and we entered a sort of corridor about 500 yards wide, full 
of snow and walled in by mountains from 14,000 to 17,000 feet high so 
level, that we went on for about half a mile without noticing where the 




THE UPPER GV.MBER VALLEY. 



water-shed came. When the snows are gone there are pleasant meadow* 
here, and in the middle a little lake fed by springs, which swell so high 
during the melting of the snows as to overflow on both slopes (Roero 
di Cortanze) ; but at low water in summer it has only one outlet, which 
runs northward to form the source of the Gumber torrent. 

These curious features have drawn the attention of geologists to 
the Zoji La. Burrard and Hayden are of opinion that the indentation 
was cut through the ridge by a prehistoric river. Oestreich finds in it 
a proof of the progressive erosion of the Baltal gorge, accompanied 
by the gradual withdrawal of the water-shed line. The Zoji La is, in 
fact, often quoted as a conspicuous example of the type of erosion 



Z* * T 
oji La. 



G7 



known as " back-cutting," a process which may ultimately result in the 
complete cutting through of a range, and concerning which I shall have 
a few words to say farther on. 

We reached the pass at dawn. Here the rain was replaced by sleet, 
which during the night had deposited a layer of some four inches of ice 
crystals on top of the old snow. The misty and hesitating dawn was 
followed by a glorious day, and the outlines of the mountains grew clear 
and hard against the perfect limpidity of the sky. 




GOING DOWN TO MUTAJUN. 



The level passage at the top of the pass runs some mile and a half 
northward almost without a slope. Then it bends gently eastward 
and widens out into the real Gumber valley, which is ample and level, 
a perfect specimen of a round-bottomed valley. Full of snow as it now 
was and altogether treeless, it had the appearance of a glacial valley. 
A little lower down the thick floor of snow was broken through here 
and there, leaving short reaches of the torrent exposed. The descent 
is broken into low steps dividing level terraces, and the whole drop 
is very small. Some four miles from the pass we cross under the foot of 
the Metjuhoy glacier, which falls from the Kanipatri and ends not far 
from the path at an altitude of about 10,800 feet. A little farther on, 
on the ridge of the spur, is the bungalow of Minimurg. the highest in 

(!)i>21) E 2 



68 Chapter V. 

the valley. Here we found milk and eggs which Mr. Baines had 
thoughtfully sent up for us. We rested about an hour, admiring the 
northern glaciers of the Kanipatri group ; then we proceeded leisurely on 
our way to the Mutajun bungalow, about four miles farther down, which 
makes a better division of the distance between Baltal and Dras. The 
Duke prudently lost no time on the way, and kept far ahead of us all. 
We paid for our lazy and intermittent march by having to go through 
the soft snow exposed to the intense reverberation of the sun, which 
gave a sense of unendurable heat, though the actual temperature was 
about 24 F. 

A succession of level bits and short descents brought us to a vast flat 
reach of valley shrouded in a sheet of snow, and crossed by the telegraph 
wire stretched on a straight line of posts which the track follows. 1 

The path led past the middle of the plain to a group of hovels, so low 
that a cow had climbed on to the roof of one of them and stood gazing 
disconsolately from her vantage point upon the heavy cloak of snow 
covering the pastures. In the muddy square between the hovels 
other cows and a pony, all extremely thin, wandered aimlessly. 
A dozen natives, men and children, wretched, ragged and mud-covered, 
watched our passage with indifference. Such is the village of Mutajun, 
over 10,000 feet in altitude. A hundred yards farther on, beyond a 
small torrent, stands the bungalow, which we reached with joy towards 
2 o'clock, and found the Duke had got there two hours before us. Upon 
a ridge 1,500 feet above us stands a little group of stunted birches. 
These are the only trees in sight. The sharp eyes of the Shikari discovered 
on the rocks of the nearer hills several ibexes, the chamois of the 
Himalaya. We looked at them with interest. 

All through the afternoon the coolies kept dropping in, weary with 
the laborious day's march, and coming in numbers to ask for medicine 
for headache, slight sun-blindness and other trivial complaints. We all 
agreed in estimating the march at 18 miles at least, notwithstanding 
guides and route books, which give it as 15 miles. Owing to the deep 
snow we left again before dawn on the following day, April 29th, so 

1 In the whole of the Gumber valley the telegraph line has been set up according to the 
usual rules with telegraph posts, insulators, etc., and must have been entirely rebuilt since 1902, 
when Guillarmod found the wire " accroche a n'importe quoi, un tronc mort, une branche 
d'arbre(?) souvent m6me . . . pose sur la neige, ou recouvert par elle " (op. cit. p. 78). Only 
at certain points of the Dras and Indus valleys did we find the wire merely tied to the posts 
without insulators. 



Zoji La. 



09 




MUTAJUIST. 



as to make the most of the colder hours. We crossed the rest of the 

plain of Mutajun and entered a long, winding narrow part of the valley, 

where at several points at the foot of the rocks which reflect the heat 

of the sun were bits of path quite free from snow. Again the valley grew 

wider, and we passed the village 

of Pandras, which appeared 

to be uninhabited with the 

exception of one young yak, 

wandering in the empty alleys 

between the houses. A little 

hay from the preceding year 

was still piled on the flat roofs 

of the houses. 

Next comes another long 
defile, a series of narrow 
gorges which mark the end 
of the Gumber valley. The 
snow grew gradually less. As we turned a corner we saw before us a 
group of saddle-ponies, which had been brought by Mr. Baines to meet 
the expedition. We mounted, and soon entered the great basin of Dras, a 
wide plain surrounded by rocky mountains covered with snow to the very 
foot, which gave it the imposing appearance of a high Alpine valley. 

Torrents flow down on every side, cutting deep channels in the 
alluvial soil of the plain, where they meet to form the river Dras. The 
plain is dotted with springs and fountains. Along the foot of tlffe 
mountains stretch great alluvial banks, which rise to a great height 
over the valley, reminding us of the karewas of the Kashmir plain. In 
the very midst of the valley, conspicuous from all sides, stands an 
isolated square fort, with towers at the corners. This is a relic of the 
Sikh conquest. Only the outer walls still stand, though partly 
dilapidated, built out of round pebbles embedded in mud. The plain 
is scattered with groups of houses, and other villages perch like the 
rocche of the Roman campagna upon the margins of the alluvial banks. 
The houses are all flat-roofed, with thick stone walls the colour of the 
soil and small windows like loopholes, few and far between. The 
alluvial terraces with their level tops and their steep regular flanks, like 
an escarpment, give the impression of huge earthworks and bastions. 
The whole has the look of a gigantic fortification. 

(9221) K :i 



70 



CIlJIptlT V. 



The country is arid and treeless. A few hundred feet from the fort 
stands a little group of poplar trees with a wall around it. Close by 
are some half-dozen huts, among them the post and telegraph office 
and the meteorological station. 

The dak bungalow reminds one of a Swiss chalet, with the chimneys 
in its roof and no verandah, obviously built to protect rather from the 
cold than from the heat. It stands a little way up on the left side of 




THE FORT AT DRAS. 



fhe valley, on a level open space. We reached it at about 10 o'clock 
with appetites worthy of the excellent breakfast Mr. Baines had had 
prepared for us. 

After breakfast we came out to the open space before the bungalow 
to wait for our coolies. Our arrival had been the signal for the gathering 
together of all the natives of the place, and we were immediately struck 
by the variety of types. The fact is that the population of Dras is a 
mixture of Kashmiris, Baltis and Brokpas of the Dard stock, with 
Ladakhis, who are Mongolians. Their chief occupation consists in acting 
as porters to caravans which cross the Zoji La, as the resources of the 
country are too scanty to maintain them. The crops are wretched, 
in spite of the abundant natural irrigation of the valley, because the 
altitude 10,060 feet above sea level causes extreme excesses of 
climate : long, cold winters and summers with burning days and chilly 



Xoji La. 



71 



nights. The greatest source of wealth are the cattle, which flourish owing 
to the abundance of fodder, consisting of a plant called prangos, that 
grows for a great distance up the mountain sides and in sufficient 
quantity to feed the cattle throughout the winter. 

A couple of hours after our arrival the coolies began to come in. 
The loads were now sorted out and once more counted. Then we 
proceeded to the payment. Every coolie got four rupees and four annas for 




THE BUNGALOW. 



his services from Gund, and had to return the metal counter and smoked 
spectacles. A caravan of ponies was next formed and loaded with 
120 of the packages, which were sent straight on, on the Skardu route. 
A wintry wind blew all day. Only a few crows and magpies hopped 
around the bungalow. 

We were kept busy until late in the evening writing cits for the 
officials, great and small, who had accompanied us hither. They all 
wanted one, and begged for it with such insistence that we were finally 
obliged to establish hierarchical limits, beyond which we refused to 
satisfy their greed, in order not to spend the night writing cits. This 
was our final farewell to Kashmir. 



(9221) 



E 4 



CHAPTER VI. 



THE DRAS VALLEY. 

The Contrast between the Kashmir and the Trans-Himalayan Region. Padre Ippolito Desideri. 
Climate. The Himalaya not a Water-shed. Geological Theories. Baltistan, 
Ladakh, Astor and Oilgit. Character of the Dras Valley. Karbu. The Mongols of 
the High Valley. The Poverty of the People. The Karal Bridge. The Sand-storm. 
Confluence of the River Sum. Olthingthang. Dispensary Work. Anthropology of 
the Halt is. Current Theories and the Observations of K. von Ujfalvy. Religion and 
Language. The Brokpas. The Isolation of the Tribes. 

FOUR days' march through valleys 
and over mountains still buried in 
winter snow had brought us to the 
bare and arid basin of the river 
Dras. The wintry interlude had 
almost made us forget the fascinating 
spectacle of the vale of Kashmir 
in its spring blossom, and thus the 
edge was taken off from the sur- 
prising contrast between two regions 
so wholly diverse from each other. 
They feel this contrast more keenly 
who cross the Zoji La in summer, 
gazing to the very top of the pass 
upon the green forests and rich pastures of the Sind valley, and then 
looking down on the other side upon the stony desert of Baltistan. There 
is probably no other range of mountains upon the face of the earth whose 
two slopes reveal features so absolutely opposed to one another. The 
traveller has crossed the great northern barrier of India, and has 
suddenly entered a country which is physically identical with Tibet and 
Central Asia. 

Padre Ippolito Desideri, an Italian missionary who crossed the Zoji 
La on May 30th, 1715, describes the trans-Himalayan region in the 
following words : " From the foot of this pass throughout the whole 
extent of the nine months' march that it takes to get from here to China, 




The Dras Valley. 7:1 

there is no fertility, no greenness or pleasantness in the land, nothing 
but the absolute and horrible desolation of the Caucasian mountains, 
which stretch all that way and which the geographers call dorsum orbis." 1 
Padre Desideri went no farther than Leh, which is only fourteen or 
fifteen marches from Zoji La ; but the " horrible desolation " of the 
mountains stretches over the whole of Baltistan and the neighbouring 
countries of Gilgit and Astor to the west and Ladakh to the south-east 
in other words, the whole of the region lying to the north of the western 
Himalaya. 

It is an enormous strip, over 300 miles broad, all of it above 
7,000 feet high, and it seems distorted by a fearful convulsion of the earth's 
surface. It is covered by a complicated system of mountain ranges, 
with peaks from 26,000 to 28,000 feet high, and includes immense 
plateaus from 46 to 60 miles wide and from 15,000 to 17,000 feet above 
sea level, as well as innumerable valleys and countless glaciers, some 
of which are over 40 miles long. 

The whole of this vast region is quite bare and without vegetation. 
Few and far between are the groups of trees or bushes, the little grassy 
hollows hidden away in the high valleys, or the small oases laboriously 
created by the diligence of the natives. They are all too diminutive 
to appear as more than dots in the illimitable desert of rock, gravel 
and sand. No doubt the lack of moisture in the atmosphere is the 
cause of this extraordinary barrenness. The wall of the Himalayan 
range stops and condenses on its southern side nearly the whole of the 
moisture which the monsoon brings from the south-west, thus giving 
rise to the startling contrast between the atmospheric precipitation of 
the two slopes. Hence the singular phenomenon of the far lower snow- 
level and the far lower point reached by the glaciers on the southern 
slopes of the chain than on the northern slopes, notwithstanding the 
higher temperature and the greater rapidity of melting brought about 
by the southern exposure. 2 And not only is there such a contrast 

1 Sec ('. 1'riN-i, II Tibet, second la relazione del viaggio del Padre Ippolito Desideri (1715- 
1721). Mem. of the. Hal. Oeog. Soc. 1904. 

2 K. STRACHEY (On the Physical Geography of the Provinces of Kitmavn and Oahrwal, etc., 
Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc. 21, 1851, p. 57) has observed a difference of more than 3,000 feet in the 
lowest level of the snows, and one of more than 4,500 feet in the lowest limit reached by the 
glaciers, between the southern and northern slopes of the Himalaya of Kuniaun and Gahrwal. 
F. DREW (op. cit.) found corresponding differences in the Western Himalaya ; S. J. BTJRRARD 
(op. cit.) says that the snow line in the Punjab Himalaya is some 2,000 feet lower on the southern 
than on the northern side. 



74 Chapter VI. 

between the southern and northern exposure on the main ridge, but the 
further you go behind the Himalaya the higher is the limit of the 
glaciers. 1 The dryness of the climate is such that in the whole of the 
trans-Himalayan region there are barely six inches of rainfall in the year. 
Were it a plain it would be like the Sahara. Fortunately, however, the 
highest ridges condense into snow whatever moisture escapes being 
caught upon the Himalaya, so that, whenever the exposure and the 
slope of the mountains allow it, neves and glaciers are formed which 
permit the scanty population to support life in spite of their inhuman 
surroundings. 

The climate is always extreme. The winter is so severe that torrents 
and rivers are covered with a thick layer of ice and form excellent roads, 
far better than the primitive paths which wind along the mountain 
sides. In summer the sun blazes with intolerable violence through the 
dry atmosphere, though the temperature is by no means excessive. 
The nights are very cool. 

A single valley of vast length winds in deep serpentine curves through 
the ranges and forms a connecting link among the chaos of valleys 
the high valley of the Indus, which runs through the whole region, with 
a main trend from south-west to north-east, at a height of from 7,000 
to 10,000 feet gathering every torrent, every brook, every river that 
flows down from the springs, the snows and the glaciers throughout the 
whole vast extent of the region. 

Thus we have the singular fact that the chain of the Himalaya is 
not a water-shed. Kashmir to the south-west. Baltistan and its 
neighbouring provinces to the north-east, all belong to the same hydro- 
graphic basin, that of the Indus. This lack of relation between the 
orographic and the hydrographic scheme is a feature common to the 
whole Himalaya. In other words, the Indus, the Bramaputra, and. in 
fact, most of the great rivers of India, have their sources north of the 
great chains, through which they cut their way in gorges which are the 
grandest in the world. Between one range and another they flow through 
long stretches of the intervening longitudinal valleys, descending 
gradually from one to the next until they reach the plain of India. The 
Indus, between its sources in Tibet and its outlet into the Indian plain. 

1 SIR J. D. HOOKER, Himalayal Journals, etc. London 1905. Drew and Burrard also 
mention the fact, which is plainly manifested by tin- total absence of glaciers throughout the vast 
regions of Tibet, which reach or exceed a height of 17,000 or 18,000 feet above sea level. 



The- Dras Valley. 75 

flows some 1,100 miles between range and range of the western 
Himalaya, with a total drop of 16,000 feet and an average drop of less 
than three per 1,000. 

Geologists have laboured to find an explanation of this seemingly 
paradoxical phenomenon namely, that the course of the rivers is not 
determined by the mountain ranges. They usually base their theories 
upon the geological fact that the chain of the Himalaya is a comparatively 
recent formation. The whole formidable upheaval which has created 
the most gigantic bastion on the face of the earth appears to have 
commenced only in the latter part of the tertiary period, and many 
are of opinion that it is still going on. This upheaval has been neither 
so swift nor so violent as to alter the main lines of surface drainage 
which were already in existence. The Himalayan rivers of our time 
may therefore represent the ancient hydrographic system, which flowed 
from north to south, having preserved their course by a process of gradual 
erosion of their beds progressing contemporaneously with the upheaval 
of the ranges between their sources and the Indian plain. In this way 
the valleys would have grown gradually deeper while their side-walls 
were rearing themselves up to the immense height which they have 
attained. This is the theory of H. B. Medlicott and of Richthofen. 1 
The upheaval would have taken place in a series of long parallel folds, 
giving rise to the longitudinal valleys. 

R. D. Oldham has further suggested another special form of erosion 
to explain the formation of certain cross valleys. He is of opinion 
that a torrent by progressive erosion of its bed can eat away the bottom 
of the gorge in which it runs to such a depth as gradually to cut actually 
through the chain. 2 This process would go on with greater activity in 
the gorges of the southern slopes of the mountains than in those on 
the northern slopes, on account of the greater volume of water, owing 
to the higher degree of atmospheric precipitation. Once the chain was 
quite cut through the waters of the valley lying to the north of the 
chain, at right angles to the newly-formed channel, would flow down 

1 MEDLICOTT and BLANFORD, Geology of India. 2nd ed. Edited by R. D. Oldham. London 
1893. 

2 See R. D. OLDHAM'S standard work, A Manual of the Geology of India. London 1901 ; 
and, upon the specific problem of " back -cutting," The Mirer Valleys of the Himalayas. Jour. 
Manchester Oeog. Soc. 9, 1893, p. 112 ; and The Valleys of the Himalayas. Oeog. Jour. 30, 1907, 
p. 512 ; also the work of K. OESTREICH previously cited, which dots not agree with Oldham's 
theory. 



76 Chapter VI. 

into the southern valley, which is always the lower of the two. In 
this way the southern water courses would have gradually captured 
the northern waters. 

This brief account will suffice to show that the whole system of 
Himalayan orohydrography is not a single conception subdivided into 
two branches depending one upon the other, as is the case in the other 
mountainous regions known to us. On the contrary, it consists of two 
absolutely different systems. Hence any description of this region or 
classification of its features, or even cartography, may, as has been 
clearly demonstrated by Burrard, be done according to either of two 
alternative plans, starting either from the hydrographic or the orographic 
system. This dualism has caused considerable uncertainty and con- 
fusion, because most of those who have described this region have based 
their description indiscriminately now upon the orographic and again 
upon the hydrographic data, without any definite plan. Burrard, on 
the contrary, begins with a description of the orographic morphology, 
giving the scheme of the ranges without taking into account the water- 
courses ; and then he begins over again to describe the same region 
according to the hydrographic basins and the river courses. 

In this state of uncertainty of the whole question it is possible that 
in the future geology may give the key to a rational classification of 
the mountains. The observations made by the Italian expedition and 
by the Longstaff expedition in the same summer certainly showed that 
the geological structure of the high ranges is far less uniform and simple 
than has been believed up till now. 

The region to the north of the western Himalaya comprises districts 
which are quite distinct from one another, not merely owing to political 
frontiers, but because of differences in the anthropological types, 
religions and customs of their inhabitants. South-westward, 
wedged between Baltistan, Tibet and Kashmir, lies Ladakh. which 
is in no wise distinguishable from Tibet, of which it was a province 
prior to the Sikh conquest. Its inhabitants, like the rest of the 
Tibetans, are Mongols, professing Llamaism and practising polyandry. 
Bordering upon Ladakh to the north-east lies Baltistan or Little Tibet, 
situated, roughly speaking, between 34 to 36 N. Lat. and 75 to 77 
E. Long., and inhabited by Mohammedans of the Shiite sect. 

Baltistan and Ladakh are both administered by a high functionary 
of Kashmir, the Wazir-i-Wazarat, who is resident at Leh, and upon 



The Dras Valley. 77 

whom depend two Tehsildars, one at Kargil and the other at Skardu. 
The British Government is represented in two districts by an English 
official, whose headquarters are at Leh, and who is subordinate to the 
Resident of Kashmir. To the west of Baltistan are the districts of 
Astor and Gilgit, which march with Afghanistan and are inhabited Jby 
Dards. 




THE DRAS VALLEY. 



Our route now descends the Dras valley to its meeting with the 
Indus, which latter it follows across Baltistan as far as Skardu. The 
Dras and the Indus together form a semi-circle giving a diameter of 
about 30 miles around a gigantic centre of upheaval, the table-land 
of Deosai, 14,000 feet in altitude. The distance from the village 
of Dras to the Indus is about 48 miles, with a drop of less than 
1,500 feet. For the first 33 miles the route to Skardu is identical with 
the route to Leh, capital of Ladakh. 

We left Dras early in the morning of April 30th. The great basin 
which feeds the river is closed at the lower end by a sort of natural 
dam, through which the water has cut an outlet. This obstruction 
crossed, we enter the Dras valley proper, which is at first wide and open, 



Chapter VI. 

with a round and level bottom, but lower down becomes narrower and 
gradually puts on the V-shape. In fact, the valleys of the western 
Himalaya are characteristically much narrower and more shut in in 
their lower than their upper course. This feature was very clearly 
marked in the Gumber valley, which we had just come down. Perhaps 
the round bottom of the upper part is a sign that the high valley was 
occupied by glaciers in the past, while the pointed bottom of the lower 
part suggests the outlet cut by erosion of the river. This hypothesis 
ought, however, to be supported by geological data, which would require 
a search for specific glacier marks. 

Throughout its whole length the valley is encumbered by huge fan- 
shaped alluvial deposits or cones of detritus, which mark the mouth of 
every tributary gorge, and in the intervals between these by immense 
masses of detritus, which fill the valley bottom and come down in steep 
falls from a considerable height on the mountain side. There is detritus 
of every size, from fine sand to blocks of several cubic yards, composed 
of granite of varying texture and of colour ranging from light grey to 
nearly black. Although still at low water the stream runs fiercely, 
and its muddy ashen-grey waters rage in foaming eddies through the 
generally deep and narrow bed which it has eaten out through a layer 
of detritus often many yards deep. All these phenomena we shall see 
repeated on a far greater scale in the Indus valley. 

The whole country is barren, without a blade of grass. Only among 
the stones along the river grow a few very thorny brambles not yet 
beginning to bud, and a few isolated juniper bushes Juniperm excels 
-the only woody growth of all these desolate shores except where there 
is artificial cultivation. It assumes such a twisted, stunted and 
contorted aspect as scarcely to deserve the name of tree, even when 
it has a thick trunk of many years' standing and numerous branches. 

The valley runs eastward at first for 7 or 8 miles, and then turns 
north-eastward. Some 14 miles from Dras the path leaves the left 
side of the valley and crosses the river over a bridge built in two sections, 
resting on a big boulder in the middle of the stream, and not inspiring 
great confidence by its appearance. We crossed it leading our ponies 
over the beams, which shook and groaned under the weight. 

The long day's march ended at Karbu bungalow, 21 miles from 
Dras, in a narrow gorge of the valley. Beyond the brawling torrent, 
on the rocks of the steep left side of the valley, were a troop of ibexes, 













The Dras Valley below Karal 



The Dras Vallrv. 



79 



which the Shikari Abdullah followed with hungry eyes, pointing them 
out to us for several hours. All this upper part of the Dras valley, .-it- 
far as the place where the road to Leh branches off, is inhabited by a 
mixed population. Among the coolies engaged at Dras and the people 
we met on the road and in the villages and fields, the marked Mongol 
types were numerous and perhaps in the majority, with their slanting 
eyes, projecting cheek bones and hairless faces or thin, bristly beards. 




OAXTII.EVER BRIDGE OVER THE DRAS. 



They had not the long pigtails of the Ladakhi, but they had preserved 
many of his special forms of dress the long coats open at the sides, 
the caps with their large brim cut away on the forehead and turned 
up at the temples ; the socks of thick cloth or white felt, into which 
are gathered the ends of the wide trousers ; and even here and there 
a blue quilted coat. No doubt the cold of the high valley has influenced 
these descendants of Tibetans to preserve the garments which are 
suited to their freezing plateaus, whereas the mixture with the Baltis 
and Kashmiris has made them forego other ethnological traits of purely 
ornamental value, such as the pigtail. 



80 (MiapUT VI. 

The haste of our journey, our incomplete preparation and our 
ignorance of the language prevented us from gathering more detailed 
particulars. It is certain, as we shall see presently, that the real Baltis 
show very different anthropological features. I have no doubt that 
this predominance of Ladakhi traits in the upper Dras valley, forming 
as it does the first impression of the traveller who comes from Kashmir 
to Baltistan, has had its weight in the growth of the widely-spread 
opinion that the Baltis are little, if at all. different from the Ladakhis. 




KARBU BUNGALOW. 



As for the villages through which we pass after leaving Dras, they 
are not only not to be compared with the prosperous and solidly-built 
habitations of the Ladakhis, but not even to the inferior villages of 
lower Baltistan. These Dras valley dwellings were tumble-down 
hovels some six feet high, with walls built of stones ill put together, and 
a flat roof of beaten earth, upon which four flat stones are placed with 
their edges leaning one upon the next around the hole which serves as 
a chimney. There are no windows, and only a low hole for a door. 
Inside there is barely room to stand upright. The wretched appearance 
of the inhabitants matches the squalor of their dwelling-houses, and is 
increased by their dirtiness, which is absolutely unimaginable. The 
domestic animals are small in size like the people, and share in the 
general misery. The ponies have long shaggy hair, and are as thin as 
skeletons, with hydropic paunches and knotty legs. The full-grown 
sheep and goats seem only half developed. The cattle are partly of 



The Dras Valley. ,M 

the humped Indian kind, and partly hybrids between these and the yak, 
known as zlio. The cows are small. lean and ill-shaped; the calves are 
pitiful. The hard Hindu law enforced upon these Mohammedans forbids 
under severe penalties the slaughter of cattle. Therefore the calves 
are weaned before their time so as to continue to profit by the milk 
of the cow, and they may be seen trying to browse upon the lean vegeta- 
tion, pitifully staggering upon little legs as yet scarcely strong enough 
to carry them. 

In the fields around the villages ragged peasants follow primitive 
ploughs drawn by oxen. Behind comes the woman, breaking up the 
clods with a small mattock. She is covered with a pile of unspeakable 
rags, her face is hidden under a veritable layer of dirt, her head is 
covered with a cloth, and she wears great earrings in her ears. None 
of them wears the characteristic headgear set with turquoises and silver 
ornaments which adorns the head and falls down upon the back of the 
women of Ladakh. They seem more careless of the presence of the 
stranger than the women of the Indus. 

Not far from Karbu the Dras receives from the left an important 
confluent, the Shigar, not to be confounded with the other river of the 
same name wliich falls into the Indus near Skardu. * This tributary 
of the Dras comes down from the Deosai plain. On the return journey 
we crossed its sources. 

Little by little the last traces of snow, which higher up occasionally 
lay along the road on the fringe of the avalanches, disappear altogether 
and the scene becomes even more barren and desolate, for the snow 
had seemed like a justification of the absence of vegetation. The right 
bank of the valley, which the path follows, is absolutely bare and 
parched. On the other side we saw several little cultivated oases. As 
we descend further the ploughing gives way to the sowing, and the 
fruit trees are putting forth their first blossom. Here and there shape- 
less holes hollowed out in the alluvial deposit mark the passage of gold- 
seekers, whose labours must have been unrewarded, for the works are 
utterly abandoned. Near the path we observe primitive shelters 

1 The geographical nomenclature of Baltistan is still somewhat uncertain and irregular. 
Not only are there many homonyms, as in the case of the Shigar, but in many places the names 
of rivers change with each important confluent, or even at every bend of the same valley. Further- 
more , countries and places change their names without any obvious reason, which has occasionally 
given rise to unfair charges of inaccuracy against the map of the Trigonometrical Survey of 
India. 

(9221) r 



82 Chapter VI. 

plain rough roofs, covering over some natural hollow of the earth and 
forming a sort of den, neither high enough to stand nor wide enough 
to lie in. They suffice, however, for the Baltis. who are in the habit 
of sleeping in a squatting posture, with the head resting on the 
knees. 

About eight miles from Karbu, at the outlet of a narrow gorge of the 
valley, we see before us to our great surprise the incredible apparition 
of a real suspension bridge, built according to rule, with high pillars 
of masonry supporting the sustaining cables, over 200 feet long and 
10 feet wide. This piece of modern engineering stands in singular 
contrast to the stony desert and the primitive roadway. 




PLOUGHING IJf BALTISTAN. 



The bridge marks an important bifurcation of the road. To go to 
Skardu you cross the bridge. The other path continues along the right 
hand of the Dras to its meeting with the Suru not far off, and then 
proceeds along the latter river to Kargil, whence, after crossing various 
ridges, it reaches the Indus valley at a higher point, and follows it up 
to Leh, the capital of Ladakh. 

Immediately beyond the bridge, on a sandy alluvial level encircled 
in a wide bend of the river, stands the bungalow of Karal, very primitive 
and too small to house the expedition. We therefore set up our tents 
around it, tying the ropes to big stones, for the pickets would not hold 



Tin- J)ras Valley. 



88 



in the deep sand. The great tent of the Tehsildar of Kargil, Pandit 
Sri, who escorted the Duke from Dras onward, seemed like a palace 
in comparison with ours. It consisted of a big square central chamber, 
over which was stretched a fly, a sort of immense second roof, which 
came down to the ground, forming two other little rooms on each side 
of the centre one. Inside the ground was covered with rugs, and there 




AN OASIS IN THE DRAS VALLEY. 



were tables, chairs, etc., a simple but convenient outfit. Hardly had 
we set up our camp when a violent wind arose, whirling clouds of sand, 
which filled our noses, mouths and eyes, and lay in a thick layer over 
everything. The tents flapped furiously in the wind, and offered no 
protection against the fine dust, which penetrated our clothes, beds 
and boxes. This was the first of a whole series of dry storms which 
raged nearly every afternoon. They generally lasted three or four 
hours and ceased toward evening. 



t -1 



84 Chapter VI. 

Almost opposite the camp the Dras was joined by the Burn, a large 
river which flows from the south, bringing the waters produced by tin- 
melting of the glaciers of the Nun Kun. Oestreich rightly observes 
that it would be more correct to regard the Dras as a confluent of the 
Suru. 

A ragged, wretched, sickly-looking crowd was gathered upon the 
rocks, and gazing at us quite motionless. Perhaps they came from 




OUR CAMP UNDER THE APRICOTS AT OLTHINGTHANG. 

some village nestled high up among the neighbouring rocks, or possibly 
from Karkitchu, the big village on the opposite bank of the Dras. We 
paid and dismissed the ponies which we had brought from Dras ; and 
fifty-eight .others, come we knew not whence, were immediately loaded 
and sent on before. 

All through the night we heard our coolies coughing as they squatted 
round the camp, ill-protected by their wretched woollens from the 
cold, which went down to 42 F. Next morning we found them still 
squatting in a circle at a respectful distance from the tents, in the same 
posture in which we had left them the evening before. Perhaps they 
had spent the whole night without moving. \Ye had to enlist thirty- 
eight extra coolies, as only twenty-one ponies were available. 









At 



The Dras Valley. 85 

The valley, as it approaches its end, grows so narrow that there 
is no room for the path at the bottom, and it has to wind up and down 
the steep spurs. The temperature had risen considerably, and the sun 
was hot even early in the morning, so that our third stage in the Dras 
valley, though only 14 miles long, was fatiguing enough. The path 
followed the left and steeper bank of the valley, where there is no level 
ground suitable for cultivation. The opposite bank was dotted with 
villages and gardens. 




GROUP OF BOYS AT OLTHINGTHASTG. 



A short distance from the outlet of the valley, sloping down the sides 
of a spur 800 to 1,000 feet above the river, lies the big village of 
Olthingthang. We passed through it up the steep stony path which 
winds through the oasis. The houses have no upper story, and are 
built in the usual way with stones and mud. They stand in groups 
among trees and fields, and distributed one behind another up the 
slope, in such a way that the flat roof of the house below forms the 
terrace on the ground level of the one above. These roof terraces were 
crowded with swarms of children and their elders, who watched the 
passing of the expedition with lively comments. 

The dak bungalow stood at the top of the village dirty and 
primitive, and only fit for coolies. But immediately above it was a 
semi-circular terrace, shaded by the branches of two huge apricot trees 

K 3 



HI; 



Chapter VI. 



in full bloom, beneath which ran a cool brook. We set up our tents 
in the midst of this scene of blossoming spring. 

In the course of the afternoon we proceeded to hold a 
dispensary and distribute medical advice. The whole population of 

Olthingthang crowded thither, 
more to enjoy the sight than to 
be healed. The crowd gathered 
in a sort of courtyard, perhaps a 
house that had lost its roof, below 
the camp ; and we had the sick 
brought up one by one to the 
open space before the tents 
after a first summary inquiry 
into their complaints. Mr. Baines 
translated my questions into 
I'rdu for the Shikari, and he 
repeated them in the Balti dialect 
to the patient. The answers 
came back by the same devious 
course, so that I was obliged to 
put more trust in the objective 
than the subjective symptoms of 
disease. I was finally consulted 
by the Rajah of Karmang Aman 

Ali Shah who was afflicted by a chronic dermatitis of the hands, and 
who had come hither to pay his respects to the Duke. 

This medical review gave us our first opportunity of studying at 
close quarters a great number of natives. The population was entirely 
Balti, and appeared to us all to be indubitably and markedly Aryan in 
type. The Mongol types were the exception, and could be distinguished 
at once by the marked contrast of their features with those of the 
majority. This first impression was confirmed throughout the journey, 
in the course of which we came into close contact with thousands of 
Baltis in the process of engaging and paying off the coolies, in the 
medical consultations, or among the crowds at the polo games and the 
receptions given us by the Rajahs. I am unable to agree with the 
unanimous opinion to the opposite effect on the part of all the English 
travellers who have written about Baltistan. 




NATIVES OF OLTHINGTHANt:. 



The Dras Valley. 87 

Roerojdi Cortanze is the only one among the older writers who 
describes the Baltis as " of the Caucasian or white race, in contra- 
distinction to the Ladakhis, who are Mongols and copper-coloured." 
Vigne, one of the earliest visitors to the region, puts them down as a 
mixed race, combining Mongol characteristics with the nobler features 
of the Indian or Persian. Cunningham states explicitly that they are 
a branch of the Mongol race, possessing its characteristics to a marked 




<!KOUP OF NATIVES FROM SHIOAR. 

degree, although slightly modified by climatic conditions and by mixture 
with the Indo-Caucasians of India. Drew likewise assimilates them 
with the Ladakhis, slightly modified by climatic influences ; while 
Biddulph modifies the assertion of their Tartar type by admitting a 
strong element of Aryan blood, owing to mixture with the Dards. In 
the last edition of the Gazetteer of India the Baltis are described as of 
common stock with the Ladakhis. and as Mongol in feature. Even 
Dr. A. Neve, who lives in Kashmir and has been many times in Baltistan, 
confirms the Tibetan origin of the inhabitants. 1 

1 O. ROERO DI CORTANZE, (i. T. VIGNE, SIR A. CUXXIXUHAM, F. DREW, opp. citt. ; MAJOR J. 
BIDDULPH, Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh. Calcutta 1880 ; Imperial Gazetteer of India, Vol. VI, 
Kashmir. Calcutta 1908 ; A. NEVE, Picturesque Kashmir. London 1900. 

(9221) F 4 



88 



Cliaptt-r \'I. 



All these opinions are based solely upon ocular impression. Not 
one of these authors has collected anthropological data to prove the 
asserted kinship of the Baltis with the Ladakliis. If the reader will 
compare Cunningham's description with the comparative study of the 

Dards, Baltis and Ladakhis made 
by Ujfalvy, the Hungarian anthro- 
pologist, at a more recent date and 
based upon scientific methods of 
anthropomorphic investigation, he 
will be able to draw his own con- 
clusions as to the uncertainty of a 
mere description of the features as 
a basis for racial classification. 
Cunningham asserts that, except for 
a few individual cases in the upper 
classes, the Balti type is character- 
istically Tartaro-Mongol, low in 
stature, face wide, flat and square, 
with projecting cheekbones, narrow 
forehead, small, oblique, slit-like 
eyes, broad flat nose with wide 
nostrils, large, thick, projecting ears 
with long lobes, large mouth, and 
black, thick, usually curly hair. Ujfalvy, on the other hand, describes 
them as clearly Aryan in type, of medium stature, low forehead, thick 
and only slightly curved eyebrows, eyes set straight and close together, 
cheekbones not projecting, nose long and straight, ears small and flat, 
mouth of middle size with thick lips, chin oval, hair black, curly and 
abundant, beard full, etc. 1 

The important point, however, is that Ujfalvy corroborates his 
statements with anthropometric measurements. He collected his 
observations in Skardu, Shigar, Parkutta, Kharmang, Olthingthang, 
Karkitchu and Dras, measuring also Baltis from other places. He 
found that the Baltis had an average cephalic index of 72 '35, which 
is much nearer that of the Dards (73' 62) than that of the Ladakhis (77). 
I will not enter into any long repetition of figures, as I think the photo- 

1 K. E. VON UJFALVY, Aits tlem n-estlichen Himalaya. Leipsic 1884 ; and Les Aryens an 
nonl ft tut sud ile fHindou-Kouek. Paris 1896. 




A CHUPRASSI FROM ASKOLEY IN THE 
BRALDOH VALLEY. 



Tin- Dras Vallev. 



89 



graphs of natives reproduced in this volume and taken by Sella from 
the purely artistic point of view, without any specific selection of types, 
are sufficient to prove that the great majority of the Baltis correspond 
more to ITjfalvy's description than to Cunningham's. 1 

As to their origin, Ujfalvy considers them to be descendants of the 
ancient Saci, who came from the north of the Tien Shan and mingled 
later with the aborigines of Northern India, the Dards and the Tibetans. 
Biddulph quotes a tradition which is still current in Skardu and Rondu, 




UROUP FROM PARKUTTA IN THE INDUS VALLEY. 

to the effect that Baltistan was first inhabited by Dards of Aryan race, 
and later invaded by Mongols, who became fused with the original 
population. 

The Balti dialect is Tibetan, and this is their only common ground 
with the Ladakhis. The difference in customs is fundamental. I have 
already mentioned that the Ladakhis, like all Tibetans, are Llamaists 
and practice polyandry, while the Baltis are Mohammedans and 
polygamous. There can be no doubt as to the radical difference in 
racial customs, ethics, family life and political institutions springing 
from points of departure so diametrically opposed. 

1 See also the groups of Baltis shown on pp. 106, 107, 118, 164, 192, etc. 



90 



Chapter VI. 



A very interesting point is the circumstance that the Baltis belong 
to the sect of Shiite Mohammedans, whereas all the neighbouring peoples 
of Chinese Turkestan, Kashmir and Dardistan belong to the Sunnite 
sect, like the rest of Islam in India. The Baltis thus form a little island 
of Shiites surrounded on every side by Sunnites, Hindus and Buddhists. 
Little is known as to the origin of their religious traditions. Cunningham 
supposes that Islamism was introduced among them in the first half 




BALTI FAMILY FEOM SHIGAR. 



of the thirteenth century. Drew is of opinion that the four missionary 
brothers of Kurasan, to whom legend attributes the conversion of 
Baltistan, must have been Shiites. The Brahminic bas-reliefs carved 
upon great slabs of stone near Dras, as well as the religious inscriptions 
and Buddhist symbols inscribed here and there upon the rocks along 
the path, certainly prove that the Baltis have passed through the same 
religious phases as the rest of northern India. 

In addition to the Baltis proper, who form the bulk of the population, 
there are in Baltistan small settlements of a people known as Brokpas, 
of Dard descent and Buddhist religion, whose idiom, customs and caste 
are peculiar to themselves. They are less civilized than the Baltis, 
who hold them in slight regard ; and they lead a primitive life, mainly 



The Dras Valley. 9t 

as shepherds of the high valleys, where the greater degree of moisture 
allows of a small extent of pasture. We did not come into contact 
with any of them. 

The indulgence of the reader will forgive this long digression, whose 
object has been to make clear how little we know, and how uncertain 
is even that little, as to the origin, history, tradition, legend and even 
ethnographical classification of a population so interesting, and showing 




NATIVES OF ASKOLEY IN THE BRALDOII VAI.LKV. 

.such clear signs of strong external influence in the past, despite a geo- 
graphical position so secluded, in a country so wild and inhospitable 
that whole groups of villages are cut off from all communion with the 
rest of the world during ten months of the year. The Balti race deserve 
a high degree of esteem and goodwill. They are scrupulously honest, 
mild of manners, gentle and good-tempered, naturally amenable to 
discipline, capable of the hardest labour, incredibly temperate, happy 
with very little and invariably good-humoured. 



CHAPTER VII. 



THE INDUS VALLEY. 

Character. Geological Chaos. Stone-falls, Landslips, Deposits and Erosions. Alluvial 

Cones. Signs of Climatic Change. The Temporary Damming of the Valleys. drat 

Historical Floods. Oases. Irrigation Canals. The Skardu Route. The Formation 
of the Caravan. The Order of the Marches. Saddle -ponies. Coolies. The Escort. - 
Climate. The Camp. Kashmiri Servants. Camp Work. Cook and Kansamah. 




THE striking peculiarities of the 
Dras valley had made a strong 
impression upon us. But not until 

"" .-^ we reached the Indus valley did we 

^^" *< Rs realize to the full the nature of this 

land of desolation and sterility. The 

gigantic scale of all the features does not grow upon one until after days 
and days of sojourn in this strange scenery, because the perfect propor- 
tions of the valleys and their enclosing hills keep the traveller under an 
illusion as to their actual dimensions. 



The- Indus Vjillry. :>:; 

In the Alps one has the impression that everything lias been moulded 
in a remote past, and reached once and for all a settled state. The 
ancient gashes and scars are cloaked with a mantle of verdure which 
hides the great wounds and mutilations left by prehistoric landslides. 
The rocks have been polished by the hand of time ; they are overgrown 
with moss and lichens ; no ledge, no crevice, is without its plant life. 
A rock-fall here, a landslip there, seems to matter as little as grains of 
sand that slide down the dunes. 

But in Baltistan the colossal forces of nature may be seen in active 
operation. Geological evolution is proceeding with such obvious plain- 
ness that the traveller feels as though he were beholding a country in 
a state of formation and witnessing the modelling of the earth's crust. 
Cliffs fall and mountains are disintegrated. The slow work of the 
waters hollows out gorges and hews their walls into new shapes, almost 
under one's eyes, with such activity and on such a scale that nothing 
elsewhere can be compared with it. 

The impressiveness of these geological forces is so great that the 
barrenness of the earth seems on the whole quite justified, as if the 
vegetation were only waiting for the earth to acquire a settled shape 
before clothing it. Animal life appears to be limited to a few insects 
and lizards, which are still in their winter sleep. The few species of 
timid mammals remain in the high nullahs or valleys. Now and then 
a brilliant jay or a few crows fly about the oases, and sometimes we see 
a great vulture or hawk soaring high above the valley. 

The whole land is one vast labyrinth of high, barren, desolate 
mountain chains, of cliffs split and shattered in every direction, usually 
precipitous ; overhanging valleys full of rocks and stones, pebbles and 
sand ; detritus of all shapes and sizes hurled down in avalanches and 
mingled with vast accumulations of alluvial deposit. The disintegration 
is so continual and on so vast a scale that the general aspect of the 
valleys must perforce change at many points every few years. Traces 
of avalanches are everywhere visible, signs of ancient or recent cata- 
clysms, boulders polished to a shining red-brown surface by time and 
the action of water, lying alongside of huge blocks, whose clear-cut 
fractures seem of yesterday, at the feet of rock walls torn with fresh 
gashes. 

Sir Martin Conway attributes this remarkable decay of the rocks 
solely to climatic causes drought and swift and extreme changes of 



90 



VII. 



holds that the whole valley between Dras and .Skardu \vas first cut 
through j'then filled up with detritus to about 600 feet above the present 
level, f and then once more dug out. 1 According to him the present 
valley would be a recent formation, and the river would be still actively 
cutting its way. However this may be, the immense geological forces 
have made of the upper Indus one of the longest and wildest valleys 
on the face of the earth. 








THE INDUS VALLEY ABOVE KARMANO. 



At first sight the huge sedimentary deposits, often divided into 
strata, seemTto indicate that the valley was once filled with a series of 
lake basins. Sir A. Cunningham and Sir Martin Conway are of opinion 
that such gigantic sedimentary formations can be explained in no other 
way. Thomson had, however, already noted that this simple theory 
would explain neither the extraordinary extension of the sediments 
which are to be found with unvarying characteristics throughout the 
whole of the Indus valley nor their immense thickness at various points, 

1 GODWIN AUSTEX also mentions this succession of phenomena. See Geoff. Jour. 25, 1905, 
p. 245. 



The Indus Valley. 97 

nor their frequent appearance at the mouth of tributary valleys, 
where they often take the form of deltas. Drew believes the origin 
of the deposits to be fluvial, and very ingeniously explains the stratifica- 
tion of the clay as caused by the periodic muddiness of the waters and 
the increase in their volume during the melting of the snows, which 
together give rise to deposits of fresh sand and mud upon the banks. 




VIEW IN THE INDUS VALLEY A SMALL OASIS. 



Another objection to the lake hypothesis in the Indus valley lies in 
the fact that lakes are extremely rare throughout the Himalayan system. 
Not only is there a complete absence of those lakes at the foot of the 
mountains which are so typical a feature of our own Alps, but even in 
the high valleys no considerable lakes are to be found. The frequent 
stoppage of the river waters through temporary damming up of their 
course has always been, in historic times, of short duration, a few months 
at most, and could not have brought about any permanent modification 
of the aspect of the valley. 

The largest and thickest sedimentary terraces usually lie at the 
mouth of tributary valleys and lateral gorges, and spread out in the 
shape of alluvial fans. They range between a few hundred yards and 

(9221) o 



98 Chapter VII. 

a few miles across, and form symmetrical cones, whose apex is frequent ly 
a great height above the valley bottom, while the base towards the river 
is cut vertically. They are usually bisected by the tributary water- 
course. l 

The formation of these huge deltas is certainly hard to explain by 
the present climatic conditions of the region. The torrents which flow 
down the valleys and lateral gorges are usually little more than rivulets, 
and in many cases no longer flow across the delta, but between the latter 
and the valley wall, on their way to the main stream. Furthermore, 
the surface of the cones is usually sprinkled with numerous blocks and 
rocks which have fallen from the mountain sides, often at a remote 
period, since when it is evident that no new material has been deposited 
so as even partially to cover up their bases. Lastly, nearly all the 
deltas of any size are covered with cultivation, being, in fact, the only 
inhabited parts of the valley, and the aspect of the villages and the 
dimensions of the trees prove that from time immemorial there have been 
no floods. 

These facts seem to me to justify the hypothesis that the present 
extreme lack of moisture was preceded by a period during which the 
streams which flow through the tributary valleys were, at least during 
a portion of the year, powerful torrents capable of carrying down great 
masses of rock, earth, etc., in amount sufficient to form these great 
alluvial cones. After all, it is not improbable that this belt between the 
Himalaya and Central Asia may at one time have enjoyed a moister 
climate than it does now, considering that a similar state of things 
obtained in Central Asia itself, as the evidence gathered by all explorers 
there goes to show. 

I have already alluded to the temporary damming up of the valleys. 
Their depth and their trough-shaped bottom between the steep cliffs, 
from which landslides and stone avalanches fall continually, make 
them especially liable to this accident. But the strangest form of dam 
is, without doubt, that produced by a glacier coming down out of a 
tributary valley and projecting until it forms a dyke straight across the 
main valley. The river, hemmed in by any one of these causes. 

1 Sir M. Conway thinks that the angle of the slope of these fans proves that they are formed 
by landslides and not by matter brought down by the streams. His observations were made in 
a portion of the Bunji valley between Astor and Gilgit, but I do not think the theory would 
apply to the Indus valley, where the deltas show the typical characteristics of alluvial cones. 



The Indus Valley. 



naturally forms a temporary reservoir or lake. Sooner or later the 
pressure of the water succeeds in undoing the dam and a devastating 
flood bursts down into the valley, sweeping before it every trace of 
villages or cultivated oases, and bringing ruin down to the far-off plains 
of India. 

In 1841 a landslide in the deep 
gorge of the Indus to the west of 
Nanga Parbat almost entirely 
dammed up the course of the river, 
forming a lake about 40 miles long. 
Six months later the dam gave way, 
and the huge reservoir was emptied 
in a single day, obliterating every 
trace of life for 800 miles of valley. 
At Attock, where the valley opens 
into the Punjab plain, Gulab Singh's 
Sikh army was encamped. The 
fearful flood swept it away, destroy- 
ing 500 men. 1 These catastrophes 
are not confined to the Indus. 
History records several similar 
disasters proceeding from the same 
causes in the other valleys of the 
western Himalaya. 2 

In the midst of this geological 
chaos, lost in the vast stony desert, 
are humble human dwellings hidden 
away in the recesses between the 
ridges, sometimes so deeply secluded 
among the tremendous precipices of 
the gorge that the sun reaches them for one hour only in the twenty-four. 
With ant-like industry the inhabitants have succeeded in wresting their 

1 This disaster was for a long time attributed to the damming up of the Shyok valley, a 
tributary of the Indus above Skardu (SiR A. CUNNINGHAM, op. cit.). Years subsequently Drew 
discovered the real cause. Beside Drew, D. FRASER has described this fearful inundation (see 
The Marches of Hundii/itan. London 1907) ; also BURHARD, op. cit. 

2 One of the greatest was the destruction of the city of Bilaspur in 1762, through the sudden 
giving way of a dam which had been formed in the river Sutlej by a landslide and had held up 
against the water for forty days. 

(9221) o 2 




THE IMDUS BKLOW TAKKUTTA. 



100 



Chapter VII. 



nurture from the terrific nature round them. They have caught every 
trickle of water, every rivulet fed by high neve or glacier, and have 
led it for miles through carefully constructed conduits to a point where 
a little sloping ledge, or more often the surface of an alluvial delta, 
permitted of irrigation and culture. All along the march down the 
valley you can follow with your eye the tiny far-off water-course, 




JtS&i - * .^< - i- 

-^ 



THE INDUS VALLEY BELOW TOLTI 




gradually and evenly descending along the rocky cliffs, always clearly 
outlined by the thin green line of shrubs and herbs which follows its 
precious course, and sometimes as it descends by veritable avenues of 
willows or poplars which line its margins until it ends at the oasis. 
line of the little conduit never deviates as it crosses the steep side of 
old landslides, precipitous cliffs or transverse gorges. However small 
the scale it is a true aqueduct, constructed with consummate skill 
and needing ceaseless labour for its upkeep, frail and undefended as it is 
among the mighty powers of xuin and destruction. 



The Indus Valley. 



101 



The oases are always cultivated in terraces, each of which contains 
its little field surrounded with groups and rows of trees, among which 
nestle the little reddish-brown cottages. In the midst of the appalling 
desert, under the scorching rays of the sun, the blossoming oasis with 
its green shade seems like a miracle, a delight to the eyes of which it is 
impossible to render the faintest idea in words. The pink and white 




A CULTIVATED ALLUVIAL DELTA BELOW TARKUTTA. 

blossoms of the apricots gleam in the faint light of dawn as if they were 
covered with hoar-frost. Over them rise tender green willows and 
slender poplars, just in their first bud and showing all the delicate 
design of their branches. Between the trees are set like emeralds small 
fields where the green corn is now a few inches high. The soil is too 
valuable to use for anything except corn. Only at the edge of the 
meadows and on the brinks of the irrigation canals grows a little grass 
mingled with tufts of pale iris leaves, whose buds do not yet show. The 
skirts of the oasis end in a perfectly clean line, beyond which lies the 
illimitable waste of stone. 

(9221) 3 



102 



Clmpk-r \'II. 



A poverty-stricken people live upon the verge of starvation in these 
gardens. Their neighbours in Ladakh have received from their religion 
customs and social laws which prevent the increase of the population, 
hence their agricultural resources suffice to give them relative plenty. 
The Baltis, on the other hand, have increased through polygamy and 
concubinage in number beyond all proportion to the resources of the 








JLV 



BETWEEN KARMASG AND TOLTI. 



country, for cultivation is strictly limited to the land which can be 
brought under irrigation, and this area is not capable of extension. 
Thus they are obliged to emigrate in large numbers to Kashmir, Simla 
and the Punjab in search of work and the means of subsistence. 

From the meeting of the Dras and the Indus to Skardu is about 
86 miles down the left bank of the river Indus, with a drop of about 
1,500 feet. We covered the distance in six stages. The path was 
everywhere in good condition, evidently lately repaired, so that it was 
possible to ride the whole way. The Baltis are the best road-builders 
in the western Himalaya, and have done a good share of the important 



The Indus Valley. 



103 



military roads which lead from Kashmir to the frontier posts of Chitral 
and Afghanistan. 

The path follows the winding course of the valley, now crossing 
stretches of alluvial deposit or flats of fine sand in a wide part of the 
valley bed, again creeping across the steep inclines formed by the fall 
of detritus from the cliffs. At points where the valley narrows to a 




THE PATH ACROSS THE CLIFFS, BELOW OOL. 

gorge between granite precipices it climbs to a great height to cross the 
ridges or parri, as they call them here. At other times, to save the 
wearying ups and downs, a path is made straight across the face of the 
precipice. Beams are fixed in the ledges of the rocks and cross-beams 
laid over and covered with stones and beaten earth. The bridge thus 
formed is supported from beneath by slanting props between the rock 
and the edge of the path. The whole forms a sort of ledge hung across 
the precipitous rock wall above the swift waves of the Indus, which 
hurries far below through its narrow bed. 

(9221) o 4 



104 rimptrr \'I1. 

In some places the sides of the valley are so steep that their crests 
are not visible from our path in the bottom of the gorge. Huge pre- 
cipitous ridges run down on each side and overlap each other, apparently 
blocking the way before us. We have but rare and fleeting glimpses 
of the higher chains whose rocky spurs enclose us on every side. Only 
as we toil across occasional openings of the valley, sinking at each step 
into the fine sand, do we get a sight of the far-off snow-peaks. 

In all this distance we do not find a single large confluent on the 
left side of the valley. We miss the fresh springs, the little waterfalls 
and torrents of our Alps. The torpid stream of the Indus, laden with 
sand and mud, rolls its grey waters lazily through open spaces and 
around curves, where it spreads into a wide bed with beaches of snow- 
white sand. Only in the narrow gorges does it flow rapidly with foaming 
waves ; and it never forms real waterfalls except at one point a little 
below Karmang, where it leaps down a step some 15 or 20 feet high. 
This waterfall, which was discovered by Conway, is worthy of remark, 
because it is such a rare phenomenon in either the small or the great 
rivers of the Himalaya. The Indus is a great river, even now when the 
melting of the snows has scarcely begun ; but it seems small in proportion 
to the vast size of the basin from which it is fed 103,823 square miles, 
about the size of the whole of Italy, including her islands. The fact 
helps us to realize the extreme dry ness of the climate. 

Our life in the Indus valley was systematically arranged. We were 
called between five and half-past in the morning, and immediately 
began our struggle with the coolies to prevent their snatching our beds 
and baggage before they had been rolled up, closed and got ready. In 
the great variety of packages formed by our complicated luggage there 
were some which the coolies preferred to others, for though the weight 
of all was approximately the same, the shape and dimensions of some 
pieces made them handier for the back of the coolie or the pony. The 
men would very nearly snatch the equipment from our hands, so great 
was their impatience, and we had to defend our possessions energetically. 
Next, while the guides with the help of our Kashmiri bearers struck 
and rolled up the tents, we would get a good English breakfast, prepared 
by Mr. Baines' kansamah. 

Soon after six everything was ready for the start. Negrotto was 
paymaster of the caravan, and he would stand on the road with Mr. 
Baines and Alexis Brocherel and deal out numbered counters to the 



The Indus Valley. 105 

coolies and ponymen as they passed before him. It was necessary to 
engage fresh coolies and ponies at nearly every stage, as they could not 
leave the field labour of their villages for more than two or three days. 
As soon as the last porter was off we would set out ourselves. Sella 
usually left the camp before breakfast with his assistant Botta and 
the coolies to carry the photographic and cinematographic apparatus. 
In this way he got more time to photograph the scenery, and was able 
to stop on the way with the cinematograph and catch the expedition 
on the march at picturesque points of the road. 

Part of the way we walked and part of the way we rode the forlorn- 
looking ponies of the district, all dirty and covered with long shaggy 
hair, but plucky and willing like their masters. The primitive saddles 
were so uncomfortable that we usually preferred to walk, riding only 
across long reaches of sand, or here and there for a rest on the march. 
Between these impossible saddles and the pony's back goes the thick 
folded namdah (a species of soft felt manufactured in Kashgar and 
used throughout both sides of the Karakoram region), which had a 
tendency to slip out and drag saddle and rider with it. Anyone in- 
tending to take a long journey through Baltistan should provide himself 
with a good leather saddle in Srinagar. 

The first half-hour of our march was always tiresome, until we had 
passed and left behind the whole lot of coolies. The smell of these 
natives is unbearable, even in the open air, and if you get to leeward 
of them will simply take your breath away, even at a distance of a 
dozen or so yards. They do not, however, look sickly like the people 
of the upper Dras valley, but seem robust, healthy and well fed. They 
are born porters. Their step is nimble and short, even at the worst 
parts of the path, and their halts are frequent and brief. They shave 
a large strip in the middle of the head, from the forehead to beyond the 
crown. The rest of the hair is allowed to grow long, and falls in curls 
around the circular Balti cap. Those of a Semitic type remind one 
of Polish rabbis ; those whose features are pure Aryan look like Florentine 
pages of the Renaissance. Their clothes are of puttoo, originally 
white, with wide trousers cut short above the knee, and a coat of the 
same length, and each is provided with a blanket shawl of the same 
wool, which he carries twisted round his waist or spread on his back 
to relieve the pressure of the load. The latter is fixed to the shoulders 
by strong twisted cords of black and white goat's hair. All our parcels 



106 



Chapter VII. 




\vi-iv so arranged that they could be tied on to the shoulders direct, 
but when they carry their own goods the Baltis use conical baskets 
of woven withes, very like those in use among our peasants of the 
province of Biella. As on his other expeditions, the Duke had brought 

from Italy a number of the load- 
carriers designed by the Sellas for 
mountain portage, to carry the more 
fragile part of the baggage, such 
as the meteorological instruments, 
photographic materials, etc. The 
Baltis, however, were quite as firmly 
set against innovations as our own 
peasants, and insisted on tying both 
Hi load and load-carrier on to their 
backs with cord in the usual 

A \ v - 'y^* ' ]Jj t.^j 

5^ ., manner, instead of passing their 

;Ai. *S arms through the wide straps which 
are so much easier for the shoulder^ 
and collar-bones of the porter. 
Before the end of the campaign, 
however, Sella did manage to persuade a number of the coolies who 
remained longer in our service of the advantage of the load-carriers, 
and quite converted them to the system. 

One by one we would pass ahead of the coolies on the narrow path, 
where they stood on one side to let us go by. At the least encourage- 
ment gathered from our looks their faces would expand in a broad and 
jovial grin. Bowed down with their heavy loads, streaming with sweat 
under the burning sun, they are always ready for a laugh, and never look 
hostile or ill-tempered. They were always scattered in little groups over 
very long stretches of the road, but the coolies who carried the treasure 
kept together under the escort of a chuprassi. 

They are a mild and timid people, quite incapable of any sort of 
violence, noisy and talkative but not at all quarrelsome, even when 
they are squabbling over the coveted pieces of luggage. You never 
see them maltreat or beat their ponies. They encourage them with the 
voice, they shove them or haul them in the worst bits of the road, but 
they never beat them, even lightly. When they have any request to 
make they join their hands in a suppliant attitude or even kneel, yet 



GROUP OF BALTIS. 



The Indus Valley. 



107 



they have none of the crawling servility of the Kashmiri, and their 
timidity does not seem like cowardice. 

Our guides marched in a group, sometimes at the head of the 
caravan, sometimes behind. To their care were entrusted the precious 
mercury barometers, which were too fragile to be put into the hands of 
such primitive people as the coolies. 







COOLIES AT KARMAXG. 



In less than an hour we would leave all the porters behind us and 
find ourselves alone in the desolate valley. The foreguard of the 
expedition was rather numerous. The Duke was invariably escorted 
by the Shikari Abdullah, the Tehsildar of the district, and usually 
by the local Rajah, who would bring with him one or two Jemadars 
and Lambardars, a few chuprassis, and usually his minister or Wazir. 
The high officials wear turbans of white muslin, the Lambardars 
turbans of pashmina, a goat's hair tissue which varies in quality and 
is sometimes marvellously soft. We were also accompanied by the 



HIS Chapter VII. 

tiffin-coolie, who carried the luncheon basket and who was selected for 
his running qualities, so that he could follow our ponies even when they 
trotted. 

The sun was very hot and the radiation so intense that we were forced 
to wear our pith helmets, although the temperature was not above 
60 to 68 F. The air was very dry, nearly always breezy, and with 
a slight haze rather of dust than of moisture. 1 Nearly every afternoon 
towards three o'clock a strong wind arose, blowing usually from the west 
or south-west, and raising such clouds of fine sand that the atmosphere 
would grow dark like fog up to a very considerable height. 

About ten o'clock we would stop for luncheon in some garden under 
the shade of blossoming apricots, or else in one of the tiny groves of 
poplar and willow enclosed in a square of wall, which you see now and 
then on the way, and which are probably resting-places for the caravans 
or to shelter the flocks and herds during the hot hours. I must here 
mention the existence of a few great solitary trees which you meet in 
the very midst of the desert and which appear to be centuries old, usually 
dead except for a branch or two, with the trunk half buried in the sand, 
but far bigger than any of the trees to be seen in the cultivated oases. 
Are they, perhaps, a solitary relic of some ancient settlement, driven 
hence by the drying up of the water supply or buried by a flood or 
crushed by a landslide ? 

We usually came to the end of a stage before two o'clock, and set up 
our camp. We had six tents in all, of the usual light tropical type, 
made of Willesden green canvas. These were for the four of us and 
for our eight European guides and porters. Mr. Baines had another 
tent. The Tehsildar used to make his own arrangements apart. 
Another group was formed by the kitchen and the little cotton tents 
of the bearers. 

Throughout India domestic service is divided among a large number 
of servants whose functions are strictly specified and limited by caste 
exigencies. AVe had four bearers two for our tents, one for our guides 
and one for the kitchen. They helped the coolies to set up and strike 

1 See in the scientific appendix the tables of meteorological observations put together by 
Professor Omodei from the data collected by the Duke. The relative humidity of the air, which 
in the Sind valley had been -44, -88 and -89, came down to -70, -71, -63 and -64 in the Dras 
valley, and -07, -05, -0, -04, -22 and -16 in the Indus valley, with a tension of aqueous vapour 
almost invariably below the unit. 



The Indus Valley. 



109 



camp ; they waited on us at meals and brought us water to wash. 
During the march they were seldom in sight or calling distance, though 
they carried the water flasks. But the moment we reached the stage 
and sat down they would rush to our feet and proceed to massage our 
legs energetically, a most excellent practice, which any coolie can apply 
if there is no bearer at hand. It is wise to prevent your private servants 




PAYING THE COOLIES. 



from interfering with your relations with the natives, for whenever 
the Kashmiri can he takes advantage of the ignorance and timidity of 
the Balti. 

As soon as camp was set up every one would go about his own work. 
The Duke would take the daily meteorological data and make com- 
parative readings of the instruments, which were to be used later to 
prove that the latter had not shown variations in the course of the 
journey. He also gave daily attention to the general ordering of the 
expedition, checking the baggage, organizing the parties to be sent on 
a,head, and supervising the hundred odd businesses of a caravan on 



m> Chapter VII. 

the march. Vittorio Sella, when he had not stopped behind attracted 
by some special beauty of l:iiids<-;i|>c, would wander round the outskirts 
of the camp seeking subjects for photography. Negrotto presided 
over the payment of the coolies if it was one of the days when the old 
ones had to be paid off and new engaged. 

Shortly after our arrival sick people would begin to troop in from 
the villages. The most common diseases were forms of chronic 
dermatitis, mange and tinea. It is possibly from the prevalence of this 
last that the custom has grown up of cauterizing babies' heads on the 
top and above the ears, which Ujfalvy observed and attributed to a 
belief in the healing action of fire. Conjunctivitis is very common, as 
well as chronic bronchial affections, all forms of disease due to dirt and 
pauperism. 1 The sick people were frequently brought to me by the 
Rajah himself or his Wazir, with a certain degree of affectionate concern. 
They ask for medical relief with anxious hope, and take the little tabloids 
given them with superstitious reverence and the ingenuous trust of a 
primitive people in the wisdom and power of the European. It is, 
however, almost impossible to be of much assistance to them in so short 
a sojourn. 

Tea would gather us together again, and we would discuss with the 
Duke the future organization of the expedition when we should have 
left the last village, and would depend on ourselves, our coolies and 
our equipment for our only resources. 

Meantime fowls, eggs, sheep and milk have been brought from the 
village. The cook of the party is Ernesto Bareux, who is full of good- 
will, attentive and painstaking. But no European can compete with 
the Indian or Kashmiri cooks for camp cooking. They know how to 
use their primitive utensils and to make the most of the monotonous 
provisions to be found in the villages, cooking them in an attractive 
and varied way. 

Mr. Baines' Kashmiri kansamah used to get luncheon for us all and 
Bareux the dinner, so that our supplies and those of Mr. Baines were 
more or less in common. This gave rise to an acute rivalry between 
his native servants and ours. Not a pinch of salt lent by one culinary 

1 In Tarkutta alone I have noted down one case of old dislocation of the thigh, one of double 
cataract, pterigion,gastro-intestinal helmenthiasis with uncontrollable vomiting, Bright's disease, 
two cases of heart disease, one of infantile paralysis of which last disease I observed victims in 
several villages. 



Thr Indus Valley. 111 

establishment to the other but became a source of internal bickering, 
and heaven knows what complications might have arisen between the 
two camps had not our guides kept order through their prestige as 
Europeans. 

By nine o'clock we were all in bed. The temperature used to go down 
to 41-45 F. The Baltis squatted around fires on the outskirts of 
the camp, and apparently remained awake the whole night. They 
certainly chatted up to a very late hour, and many coughed without 
interruption. We were roused of a morning by hearing the ponies 
being got ready for a start, and greeting each addition to their own 
company by noisy, gay and shrill neighing. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



FROM OLTHINGTHANG TO SKARDU. 

The Meeting of the Dras and the Indus. Tarkutta. The Castle of Karmang. The First 

Jhula Bridge. Tolti. Exchange of Tehsildars. Parkutta. Polo. The Shyok 

River. Glacier Marks in the Indus Valley. Gol. The Skardu Basin. Lacustrian and 

Glacial Theories. We enter the Balti Capital. Official Visits. The Forts of Skardu. 

- The Polo Ground. Arrangements and Contracts for the Expedition. 

IN the foregoing chapter I have 
given a general account of the 
Indus valley, which I will now 
supplement with a few notes of the 
journey, so as to call attention to 
the more interesting details of each 
place and give a clearer idea of the 
part of the valley through which 
the expedition marched. 

We entered the Indus valley on 
the morning of May 3rd, after an 
hour's march from Olthingthang . 
The meeting of the rivers takes 
place at the bottom of a precipitous 
gorge, where the path has to cross a spur of granite 1,000 feet above the 
level of the rivers. Beyond this spur it descends to the bank of the 
Indus, which it follows for a short distance. Then it is again forced 
to climb a high ridge of sedimentary deposit, from the top of which 
a precipitous way leads to Tarkutta, a village built on an alluvial terrace 
some 300 feet above the stream. We passed through the whole village, 
which is shaded with walnut and apricot trees, and set up our camp at 
the foot of the oasis, near a wide beach of very fine dove-coloured sand 
on the bank of the Indus. It was so hot that we were tempted to bathe, 
and to our great surprise found the water icy cold. 




< 'i influence of the Dras \\ith the Indus 



From Olthingthang to Skardu. 



lift 



On the following day we proceeded down the valley northward, 
following the path up and down over ridges or across the face of pre- 
cipices or over reaches of sand scattered with granite boulders. At one 
point there is a veritable torrent of huge snow-white blocks, whose origin 
is seen on glancing at the great white scar newly left exposed at the top 
of the overhanging precipice. 




KARMANG : THE CASTLE AND THE RAJAH S HOUSE. 

Around a bend of the river we catch sight of a picturesque castle 
standing high up on the opposite bank. The architecture is complex, 
and although a part of the roof is gone, the building is not in ruins. This 
is the old fort of Karmang, now no longer inhabited by the Rajah, who 
lives in a little house at the foot of the same rock, near the river. Around 
his house is a garden containing other huts inhabited by his family and 
dependents, while a little farther on is the village of Karmang, or Kartash, 
with about 500 inhabitants. 

(9221) n 



114 



Chapter VIII. 



On our side of the river, nearly opposite the village, stands on a 
sandy level the little dak bungalow, exactly like that of Karal in the 
Dras valley. Upon the table in its single room were arranged plates 
containing lilac blossoms and chupattis, the small round cakes which 
are the bread of the region. This was an attention of the Rajah, who 
had come as far as Olthingthang to meet us. Later he came over to 
pay his official visit, accompanied by a ragged Wazir and bringing his 
two little boys, whose features were so fine as to be almost effeminate. 




THE BUNGALOW AT KARMANG. 



The village of Karmang communicates with the left bank of the 
Indus and thence with the Skardu and Kashmir road by means of a 
long rope bridge across the Indus. This was our first experience of 
these strange bridges known as jhitla. They are to be found in every 
part of the Himalaya, and are made either of canes fastened together 
in bundles, or of cords, or of plaited grasses as in Sikkim, or of withes 
of willow or birch twisted into ropes, as in Baltistan and Tibet. While 
the camp was being set up near the bungalow two of our party, impatient 
to experience the sensations we had so often read of in books of Himalayan 
travel, climbed up on the big pile of heavy stones which holds the ends 



From Olthingthang to Skanlu. nr. 

of the cables forming the treadway and balustrades of the bridge. 
These three cables stretch across the river in parallel curves. One, 
which is thicker than the others, hangs somewhat lower, and upon this 
von walk, while the smaller cables are higher up and are arranged one 
on each side to hold by with your hands. At intervals of about two yards 
thin bands join the footway cable to the side-ropes, so that the whole 
thing takes the shape of a sort of skeleton trough with a pointed bottom. 
The two ropes which form the handrails are kept a certain distance 




JHULA BRIDGE AT KABMANG. 



apart by cross-bars fitted into them at intervals of 10 or 12 yards. The 
only difficulty of crossing consists in climbing over these cross-bars, 
and the greatest danger is of scratching your hands on the sharp points 
of the birch twigs which project everywhere from the rough cables. 

On the whole jhula bridges are simple, strong and cheap, and the 
system might do good service in some of our own mountain valleys. 
The crossing is really perfectly simple, and offers no difficulty as long 
as the bridge is properly kept up and the cables taut. But when half 
of the cross-bars are broken and the bridge sags in the middle owing 
to the relaxing of the cables, the crossing may become most disagreeable, 

(9221) ii -2 



116 



Chapter VIII. 



especially when the wind blows the whole thing about like a swing. 
None of us ever suffered from giddiness even when the bridges were 
hung very high over swift torrents. But you have a feeling as though 
the bridge were being carried upstream and you with it. As a rule 
from four to six people are able to cross at a time, but if the condition 
of the cables is doubtful only two should try it at once. It is related 
of the Greek hermitages among the high cliffs of Thessaly that the rope 
which is used to pull people up to the threshold in a basket is never 





BALTI BRIDGE MADE OF TWISTED BRANCHES. 



changed until it breaks, and every one takes his chance. The same 
tale is, of course, told of the jhula bridges, and Oriental inertia and 
fatalism may give it a semblance of truth. It is, however, somewhat 
difficult to prove. 

Near Karmang the valley narrows into a gorge, which Thomson 
gives as the end of the basin of a great lake which, in his opinion, used 
to reach from here as far as Rondu, a little below Skardu. From here 
the valley slopes north-eastward in a wide curve round the foot of the 
Deosai table-land, and now grows a little wider, notwithstanding a 
number of narrow twists and bends into which it is forced by a series 



From Olthingthang to Skardu. 



117 



of very steep rocky spurs. Just beyond one of these, which forms a 
precipice overhanging the river, lies the great oasis of Tolti, which fills 
the whole width of the tributary valley of Kusuro Cho. The green 
glade thus shut in by steep mountain walls is covered with luxuriant 




V 



THE CAMP AT TOLTI. 



vegetation, among which, in addition to the usual apricots, poplars 
and willows, we noted walnut, pear, plane and mulberry trees, the last 
festooned with fronds of grape-vine. 

Our way led uphill through the large and prosperous village, and 
we passed beyond the dak bungalow to the polo ground, which is about 

(9221) n 3 



118 



Chapter VIII. 



300 feet long and 100 feet wide, running across the little valley and 
surrounded by shady trees, quite at the top of the oasis. Here the 
Duke was welcomed by the Rajah of the district, who resides at Parkutta, 
our stage for the next day. He was a man in the prime of life, wearing 
a round beard dyed with henna, and swathed in white muslin with a big 




THE CROWD OX THE POLO GROUND AT TOLTI. 



white turban on his head, like a Mullah. The Tehsildar of Skardu also 
came to Tolti to meet the Duke, and the Kargil Tehsildar took his leave, 
as we had reached the confines of his jurisdiction. 

At the polo ground was gathered a crowd of several hundred people, 
kept in bounds with unwonted severity by chuprassis. Throughout the 
last two stages the whole of the luggage had been carried on the backs 
of coolies, but at Tolti we were again able to hire ponies. It was the 
first place where the coolies seemed unwilling to enter into an engage- 
ment. The Rajah and his high officials marched about in the crowd, 
seized hold of the more refractory subjects and practically dragged 






From Olthingthang to Skanlu. 



119 



them into our presence. Perhaps on some former occasion they hud 
been defrauded of their pay, because throughout our journey we always 
found the natives rather anxious to be engaged. Some of the horses, 
too, were recalcitrant, refused to be loaded, kicked and rolled. These 
were, no doubt, polo ponies, who objected to the degradation of carrying 
loads. 

The afternoon was windy as usual, but the little valley was sheltered 
by the hills and so green that we had neither sand nor dust, and enjoyed 




A MOSQUE OF THE HIGH INDUS VALLEY. 



to the utmost the cool shade of the trees. Little rivulets ran all round 
our camp, and their murmur mingled with the rustling of the leaves 
in the breeze. 

The next stage was of about five and a half hours, and was more 
diverse and entertaining than the preceding ones. During the second 
half the way runs through several villages whose gardens join, forming 
wide belts of vegetation, where the path is all in the shade. The houses 
are better built, some of sun-baked bricks, and the occupants even 
indulge in the luxury of a verandah. Now and again the windows 
have carved wooden frames. There were a few mosques with flat roofs, 
formed by long transverse beams Testing upon uprights and outer walls 
of masonry, now and then strengthened by incorporating the trunks 
of trees, as in the houses of Srinagar. The eastern facade was adorned 
with a portico. 

(9221) ii 4 



120 



Chapter VIII. 



P.irkutta is a big village standing over 300 feet above the river, built 
upon both sides of a deep ravine cut through the thick alluvial deposit 
by a torrent. As in Karmang the old palace of the Rajah stands upon 
a high rock dominating the town. At the entrance of the village the 
Duke was greeted by a musical band that marched before the caravan 
as far as the polo ground, which is much larger than the one at Tolti. 
The players squatted on their heels in the middle of the polo ground. 




CEMETERY AT PARKUTTA. 



Their instruments were drums, tambourines, horns and a gigantic 
straight trumpet. A big crowd had gathered round, presenting a lively 
spectacle. The front rows squatted upon their heels, those behind 
them stood up, and behind these others perched upon the wall enclosing 
the ground. Some of the young children and boys wore crowns 
of leaves. Later on they adorn themselves with flowers. We saw some 
Baltis with black or dark hair and a fair beard or moustache. The whole 
population spent a great part of the afternoon on the polo ground, 
grouped around three sides of the square at a distance of some 50 yards 
from us. They seemed to be naturally polite, respectful and orderly. 



From Olthingthang to Skardu. 



121 



Hardly had our tents been set up when the Duke received the official 
visit of the Rajah, who was followed by a servant carrying his son and 
heir, a child of four or five years old, dressed in bright colours and with 
a turban quite out of proportion to his slender little neck. He was 
very serious, and saluted us with amusing gravity, lifting his little hand 
to his forehead. Servants brought dishes of cakes and two huge copper 
teapots full of Balti tea, a sweetish greasy beverage, pale pink in 




A DANCER AT PARKUTTA. 



colour. The orchestra then began to play again, and four dancers 
whirled slowly round and round on their own axis, following the cadence 
with the rhythmic motions of the arms and head common to all Oriental 
dancing. 

At four o'clock in the afternoon a game of polo was organized in honour 
of the Duke. Twelve players took part. In the excitement of the 
game horses and men totally changed their aspect. It seems strange 
that a game which requires so much pluck, strength and dexterity 
should have been evolved among a people of timid disposition, and 
in so many ways rough and primitive. It is, however, improbable 



L29 



Chapk-r VIII. 



that polo was, as Ujfalvy would have us believe, invented in Baltistan, 
a country so rough that, with few exceptions, there is no place for 
galloping outside the polo grounds themselves, which are levelled and 
beaten on purpose. The origin of the game is certainly remote. It 
seems to have been common at the court of the Mogols. Then the 
tradition was lost in India, and only kept up at Manipur (on the con- 
fines of Burma), in Baltistan, Ladakh and Gilgit. 1 The English of 




A BAUTI POLO GAME. 



Calcutta learned the game in Manipur, and were so attracted by its 
fine and manly qualities that they made it their own and have diffused 
it throughout the world. 

About eight miles below Parkutta the Indus meets one of its greatest 
confluents, the river Shyok, which comes down from the Dapsang 
table-land, gathering in its course of nearly 400 miles the waters of the 
numberless glaciers which flow down the southern slopes of half the 
Karakoram. As at Dras, the meeting of the waters takes place at the 

1 Drew quotes an extract from the history of the Kmperor Manuel Comnenus, by Johannes 
Cinnamus, which was communicated to The. Times of June 12th, 1874. by an anonymous 
correspondent, showing that polo was played at Constantinople in the middle of the thirteenth 
century and that the emperors themselves took part in it. TH. THOMSON (Jour. Roy. Geog. Sor. lit, 
1849, p. 25) says that the native name of the game is changan. ROERO DI CORTANZE (op. cit.) 
calls it atka ; while according to Ujfalvy polo means ball. Vigne has given us one of the best 
descriptions of the game, while Drew goes minutely into the rules, (he dimensions of the ground, 
the arrangement of the teams, etc. 



I'Yom Oltliingthiing to Skardu. 123 

bottom of a narrow gorge. Oestreich has identified at a height of from 
700 to 1,000 feet above the present level, on the walls of both valleys, 
what he considers the remains of level terraces which marked the con- 
fluence of these two rivers at an earlier period. 

There are signs which indicate that the Shyok was at one time filled 
up by a glacier which projected into the Indus valley, where it formed 
a barrier some 1,000 feet in height, but did not, however, dam the 
course of the river. This phenomenon can be seen to-day in the upper 
Nubra valley, and we shall find a most clearly marked example in the 
case of the Biafo glacier. 

The whole of this region is still very little known, and the data we 
possess regarding its glacial history, as well as all other questions 
concerning the Indus basin, are so incomplete as to be hopelessly insufficient 
to support any general theory. As early as 1847 Thomson observed 
that the lie of the loose rocks and detritus at the mouth of the gorges 
and lateral valleys suggested a glacial origin. Conway identified them 
more explicitly as loose boulders and moraine residuum. Oestreich 
believes that the Indus valley itself was never occupied by a glacier, 
but only the tributary valleys. 1 

In fact, geologists in general seem to hold that the Himalayan region 
has never been the scene of periods of " Inlandeis " (like Greenland, 
Europe and North America), nor of large " pedemontane " glaciers 
(such as the Malaspina glacier in Alaska, and the former glaciers on the 
northern slopes of the Alps) ; but has merely witnessed periods of very 
considerable expansion of the glaciers in the mountains themselves, 
such as took place in the valley of the Po, where only the largest glaciers 
succeeded in emerging from the valleys as far as the edge of the plain. 
Godwin Austen is of this opinion, and cites indications of two distinct 
glacial periods, separated by an interval of milder climate. Strachey 
and Medlicott hold similar views. 2 Ellsworth Huntingdon counts five 
periods of moist and cold climate, separated by interglacial epochs of 
dry and warm climate, succeeding each other up to a recent period ; but 
he calls the former periods fluvial instead of glacial, because they are 
distinguished by increase in the rivers rather than by any extensive 

1 T. THOMSON, Western Himalaya and Tibet. London 1852 ; SIR W. M. CONWAY, op. cit. ; 
OESTREICH, op. cit. 

2 LIEUT. -Co L. GODWIN AUSTEN, Proc. of the Geog. Section of the British Assoe. (in Proc. Roy. 
Geog. Soc. N.S. 5, 1883, p. 610) ; Sm JOHN STRACHEY, India. London 1888 ; MEDLICOTT and 
BLANFORD, op. cit. 



124 Chapter VIII. 

filling up of the valleys by glaciers. 1 R. D. Oldham mentions only 
three periods of "glacial extension." 2 I might mention here that 
Schlagintweit attributes the diminution of the glaciers to the deep 
cutting of the valleys and the consequent formation of wide surfaces, 
which, when heated by the sun, would give rise to ascending currents 
of hot air. 3 

The volume of the river Indus is nearly doubled by its meeting 
with the Shyok, yet owing to the narrowing of the main valley below 
the meeting-point it seems hardly increased, as it cannot expand in the 
narrow gorge, but only runs deeper. Colonel Montgomerie observed 
the same lack of apparent increase in the Indus at its juncture both 
with the Dras and with the Zaskar near Leh. It was in this portion 
of the valley that we found the largest deposits of clay, quite pure or 
mingled with a few stones. + No fossils were found by which it would 
be possible to date the deposits. 

In the wide bit of valley which follows after the gorges of Shyok 
lies the oasis of Gol. We reached it by a long avenue of big willow 
trees buried half-way up their trunks in sand. Immediately behind 
the lines of trees crops had been sown in the midst of the sand. It 
seems as though the sprouting wheat must be buried at the first gust 
of wind, and one wonders how it can ever reach maturity. This is 
possibly a means of winning new soil for cultivation, but it gives the 
impression rather of gradual encroachment of the desert on the oasis, 
such as occurs in many places in central India. 

On May 8th a stage of 21 miles brought us to Skardu. We struck 
camp at Gol at half-past three in the morning by moonlight, and were 
soon on the road. Little by little the valley grew wider and more open. 
The path ran along the bottom in deep sand, where the ponies were a 
great resource. 

1 ELLSWORTH HUNTINGDON, The Vale of Kashmir. Bull. Amer. Geog. Soc. 38, 1896, p. 657 ; 
and The Pulse of Asia. London 1897. 

* R. D. OLDHAM, Note on the Glaciation and History of the Sind Valley, Kashmir, fter. Geol 
Sun: of India, 31, 1904, p. 142. 

3 SCHLAOINTWEIT, Jour. Asiat. Soc. of Bengal, 26, 1857. 

4 At many points, especially near the river and on expanses of clay recently abandoned by 
the water, I have noticed that the sand was quite covered with a white efflorescence like hoar- 
frost. This phenomenon seems widely diffused throughout the region. I met with it in the 
Shigar and Braldoh valleys. Chemical analysis proves it to be merely carbonate of lime (calcite). 
THOMSON (op. cit.) collected apparently similar efflorescences in Tibet, on the margins of springs, 
but there the substance was sesqui-carbonate of soda. 






Polo at Parkutta 



From Olthingthang to Skurdu. 125 

About half-way, some 10 miles below Gol, the valley takes a sharp 
turn to the south and then bears to the west, becoming wider and wider 
until it forms a great plain. This is the table-land of Skardu, about 
20 miles long by 5 miles wide, and covered with sand, which lies in long 
parallel waves or low dunes as in great deserts. The Indus winds its 
tortuous course through the plain between high banks of sand [and 
deposit. 




MOSQUE IN THE INDUS VALLEY. 



The view over the plain to the far-off chains of mountains on the 
horizon appears vast indeed after the long journey between narrow 
valley walls. Northward above the spur which divides us from the 
Shigar valley we catch a glimpse of the snowy peaks of the Mango Gusor 
range, 20,633 feet high. Westward and southward the level sand seems 
to run to the feet of a great chain of snow peaks which rise 10,000 feet 
above the plain. 

It is in this plain that the Shigar river, fed by some of the greatest 
glaciers in the world, beside numberless smaller ones, meets the Indus. 
There is much to interest both geographer and geologist. Oestreich 
claims that the origin of the plain is techtonic, and not to be attributed 



126 



Chapter VIII. 



to erosion. On this hypothesis the basin would be primitive, and by 
its formation would have determined the course and the meeting of 
the Indus and the Shigar. 

In the middle of the plain rises a huge round-backed rock, over 
1,000 feet high, which looks like some strange monster crouching upon 
the sand. On top of it Colonel Godwin Austen thought that he could 
detect stratified lake deposits, which, together with other indications, 
would go to prove that before the glacial period the basin was occupied 




THE INDUS ABOVE SKARDU, WITH MANGO QUSOR IN THE BACKGROUND. 

by a lake up to a great height. .Schlagintweit was also of opinion that 
the sedimentary deposits which are found at a great height throughout 
the valley had been formed by an ancient lake. 1 As in the case of the 
Kashmir basin and other parts of the Indus valley, so also in the case 
of the Skardu plain the lacustrian theory has gradually lost ground. 
On the other hand, Godwin Austen's observations as to the undoubted 
traces of glacier action over this plain in the remote past have been 
strengthened and amplified by all subsequent geologists. 

The displacements and steep angles noticed in the sedimentary 
strata (Drew), as well as the rounded surfaces of the rocks protruding 

1 LIEUT. -CoL. GODWIN AUSTEN, The Glaciers of the Mustagli Range. Jour, of the Roy. Oeog. 
Soc. 34, 1864, p; 19 ; H. VON SCHLAGINTWEIT, op. cit. 



From Olthingthang to Skardu. 



127 



above their level, are attributed to the pressure and friction of glaciers, 
while the deposits on the rock of Skardu have been recognized as 
morenic in character. The early hypothesis which placed the sources 
of these glaciers in the mountains to the south of the plain has been 
replaced by Lydekker's theory, derived from the glacier traces in the 
Shigar valley and accepted by Conway and Oestreich, to the effect 
that a gigantic glacier projected from the mouth of the Shigar valley 
so as to cover the whole plain. 







THE BASIN AND ROCK OF SKARDU. 



Five miles above Skardu, at a point where a projecting spur runs 
down to the river, a little fort stands across the path, and we pass 
through a vaulted corridor of it, so low as to oblige us to dismount. 
A little farther on a bend of the river Indus quite cuts off the way. 
We have to go down the steep alluvial bank to the level of the stream, 
and follow its curve along an avenue of gnarled and twisted old willows, 
whence we ascend again to the plain. Here at the top of the ascent 
the Duke was received by the Rajah of Skardu and his brothers, accom- 
panied by a suite of dignitaries, a numerous orchestra and a great 
crowd. Salaams were exchanged, and we formed into a long procession, 
preceded by the band. With all this pomp we walked for over a mile, 



128 



VIII. 



flanked by the crowd on either hand, and at about half-past eleven we 
reached the bungalow of the civil engineer, who had put it at the 
disposal of the Duke in his absence. The guides were lodged in one of 
the numerous buildings of the dak bungalow, a huge place with separate 
buildings for servants, kitchens, etc. 








THE OLD AND THE NEW FORT AT SKARDU. 



The wide verandah of the bungalow was quickly turned into a 
reception room. The Rajah, the Tehsildar and the chief merchants 
of Skardu paid ceremonious visits to the Duke, followed by servants 
bringing all sorts of delicacies, such as sweet almonds, dried apricots, 
raisins, cakes and, above all, a wealth of fresh vegetables such as we 
had not seen since we left Srinagar. 

Our own quarters and the neighbouring group of dak bungalows 
stand to the east of the town, which stretches between the rock of 
Skardu and the base of the mountains, with straggling suburbs scattered 
through the plain as far as the villages which lie at the very foot of 
the mountains. 

To the south of Skardu we observed a curious wall stretching across 
the mouth of a tributary valley, so perfectly regular as to give the 
impression of an artificial dam. It is really a moraine, which closes the 
entrance into the Sutpa valley, thus forming a lake three-quarters of a 



From Olthingthang to Skardu. I29 

mile long, which Oestreich notes as the only example in the whole region 
of a lake of glacial formation. 

Upon the detached rock between Skardu and the Indus stands an 
ancient fort built about 1610 by Ali Sher, the first of the dynasty of 
independent Mohammedan chiefs which came to an end when Ahmed 
Shah was conquered and dethroned by the Sikhs in 1840. The fort 
is now abandoned, and another was built by the Sikhs at the foot of 
the rock, on the verge of the plain. 

The legend of Alexander the Great, which is so living throughout 
central Asia, has penetrated even to this remote spot, and tells us that 
Skardu is a mere corruption of Iskandaria, or city of Alexander. The 
tradition is, however, quite baseless. It is true that early travellers 
called the town Iskardo, but according to Thomson the real Tibetan 
name is Skardo or Kardo. The Baltis are unable to pronounce the 
hard s followed by a consonant at the beginning of a word, and 
always prefix an * in the case of English words beginning in this 
manner. 

The place seems to have been far more prosperous and civilized 
in the past than at the present day. Thomson, who made a long stay 
there, spending the whole winter in 1874, found ruins of buildings 
constructed of quarried stone, marble fountains, hanging gardens, 
aqueducts, etc. Ujfalvy collected ancient household utensils worked 
with the finest art. To-day the whole town, with the exception of a 
small nucleus, which includes the wretched bazar, lies straggling over 
the plain in small groups of huts, forming little islands of cultivation 
dotted at random over the desert. There is a great variety of fruit 
trees, now already past blossom and covered with leaves, and all sorts 
of cereals and vegetables. 

The houses are, for the most part, two stories high. The lower story 
is built of rough stones and mud, about nine feet high, and is used for 
stabling and to live in during the long severe winter. The upper floor 
is of rough basket-work plastered over with mud, or even of wood, and 
is usually smaller than the ground floor, so as to leave part of the' roof 
of the latter for a terrace, which is used as a threshing-floor and granary. 
Skardu has also a small number of houses inhabited by the upper class, 
constructed as in other Oriental cities with walls plastered with lime.' 
They have no windows, and but one door, which leads into the inner 
court, upon which the rooms and verandahs open. 
(9881) 



130 



Chapter VIII. 



The half-day we spent at Skardu passed very quickly, for we had 
hard work to do. First, there was the usual inspection and sorting 
of baggage, coolies to pay off and new ones to engage. Next the Duke 
sent ahead 147 loads to Shigar. Then we laid in supplies in the baxar 
tea and sugar, salt and tobacco, needles and thread and coloured 
cotton handkerchiefs, all to be kept for the coolies who were to be with 
us in the high region. In the bazar we saw a few stray dogs. In the 
other towns of Baltistan we had found none at all, whether from the 




TYPICAL BALTI HOUSE. 



Mohammedan dislike of dogs or because the earth supplies food in so 
niggardly a measure to man we were unable to make out. 

The Duke made the necessary arrangements to have the meteoro- 
logical observations taken in Skardu three times a day through the 
period of the expedition, and also organized our postal service. The 
Government telegraph and post runners do not go beyond Skardu, but 
we were to remain in communication with our homes through special 
runners engaged by the Duke ; they performed their service with 
marvellous exactitude up to our very farthest post on the Karakoram 
glaciers. 

At five o'clock we went to see the polo match got up in honour of the 
Duke. The polo ground is very large, and lies on a flat natural terrace 



From Olthingthang to Skardu. 



131 



to the west of the city, overlooking the great sandy plain and the 
splendid amphitheatre of snowy ranges, between which the great Shigar 
valley cuts a wide trench northward. On one side is a high covered 
stand, at the foot of which the orchestra played incessantly. All round 
was the festive crowd, diversified by the khaki uniforms of the soldiers 
and the white, pink or blue turbans of the important personages of 
the place. The polo players were sixteen in number, all dressed in 
white. The Rajah was a first-rate horseman, following and hitting the 
ball very cleverly with his polo mallet, supported by his own side, with 




THE RAJAH S POLO TEAM AT SKARDU. 



their great white cloaks fluttering in the sunshine. It was really a fine 
sight. After the match we went back to our work, and the polo ground 
was invaded by boys, who continued the game on foot, practising hand 
and eye for the difficult art. 

The Duke deposited with a Skardu merchant the portion of our 
provisions which would be needed for the return journey, also a con- 
siderable bulk of money. It is a long, tiresome business to count all 
this small change. In our few free minutes we wrote letters and 
telegrams. At about eleven o'clock, after a long heavy day of more than 
eighteen hours, we went to bed tired out, but glad to have got through 
the first big stage of our journey. We had covered about 225 miles 
in eleven days among the chains of the western Himalaya. 

(9221) i 2 



CHAPTER IX. 



FROM SKARDU TO ASKOLEY. 
THE SHIGAR AND BRALDOH VALLEYS. 

Crossing the Indus. The Oasis of Shigar. The Mosque and the Village. Presents, Polo. 
Concerts and Dancing. The Shigar Valley. The Meeting of the Basha and the Braldoh. 

Glacial History. The Chain of Mango Gusor and Koser Gunge. The B 8 ' Chain. 
The Skoro Lumba Pass. Crossing the Braldoh on Zhaks. Dusso. The Braldoh 
Valley. Gomboro. Mud Streams. Rope Bridges. Chongo. Balti ( traveyards. 

The Hot Springs of Chongo. Askoley. Rearrangement of Baggage. Provisions 
for the Coolies. Isolation of Askoley. Raids from Hunza and Nagar. The Ram 
Chikor. The Lamhardar of Askoley. 

ON Sunday, May 9th, at half- 
past six in the morning, \vc 
left Skardu with 111 coolies 
and eight saddle-ponies to 
cross the Indus and pene- 
trate into the Karakoram 
ranges. Fifteen coolies .and 
forty-eight horses had been 
sent ahead the day before. 

There is a way to get 
from the Indus into the 
Shigar valley without going 
through Skardu, by crossing 
the Indus at Gol and follow- 
ing its right bank up to the 
spur between the two valleys, 
then crossing this over a pass 
that leads directly to Shigar. 

A glance at the map will show that this route is by far the shorter. 
The difficulty is that at Gol there is no means of crossing the Indus 
except on small native rafts, and it would have taken the whole day to 
get a party like ours across. Besides, we had too many important 
things to do at Skardu to think of leaving it out. 




From Ska rd u to Askoley. 133 

We retraced our route of the day before to a point where the path 
comes down from the alluvial terrace into the river bed. Some way 
up the bank above the meeting of the Indus and the Shigar a couple 
of great barges were awaiting us, upon which we embarked with 
baggage, coolies and ponies. Each boat was handled by a dozen 
powerful oarsmen, who put the whole expedition across in half an hour, 




CROSSING THE INDUS. 



landing on the right bank nearly opposite the starting-point, in spite 
of the strong current and the breadth of the stream, which here is about 
300 yards. 

We mounted our ponies, and rode a couple of hours up the right bank 
parallel to our course of the day before on the left, and along the foot 
of the spur which separates the Indus from the Shigar valley. This 
spur was once the bottom of the basin, and its upheaval at a recent 
period between the two valleys has forced both rivers to bend westward 
before meeting. The spur slopes down into the vast sandy delta formed 
by the meeting of the rivers, and ends in a descending series of huge 
blocks, rising singly out of the plain, separated from each other by 
stretches of the delta sand. I fancy that in times of exceptional flood 

(9221) i 3 



134 



Chapter IX. 



the Shigar may overflow into the Indus valley through these gaps. 
There are six of these great rocks quite distinct from one another, and the 
last but one is 1,300 feet high. Between it and the last, which is none 
other than the citadel rock of Skardu, flows the river Indus. On 
either side of the spur lies a vast extent of sand drifted into clearly 
marked dunes, with a general trend from north to south and the steepest 
slope turned to the east. They make marching heavy for ponies and 
coolies. There is no trace of vegetation. 




THE PATH ON THE RIGHT BANK OF THE INDUS. 



In this way we covered some three miles along the bank of the Indus, 
and then made for the ridge, following up a very narrow and tortuous 
rocky ravine, where a few euphorbia were growing, and which, after a 
short ascent, led us to a wide rounded saddle known as Strongdokmo. 
Here the vast Shigar valley opened before us, stretching north-east 
as far as the eye could see. On both sides of the saddle boulders have 
been observed which, if taken together with the polished round-backed 
rocks (roches moutonnees), prove that the great Shigar glacier must have 
flowed over this spur. We now cut diagonally down the north slope 
of the ridge, and soon reach the bottom and green cultivated land. 



From Skardu to Askolcv. 



135 



The map of this district shows all along the left bank of the river 
a series of villages below and above Shigar. In reality there is one 
single belt of cultivation several miles long, dotted with houses which 
are here and there grouped around a mosque. The only group of any 
size is the village of Shigar. The path is all shaded with trees, and runs 
between rice plantations and fields of various crops. Between these 
and along the way run ditches and irrigation canals full of yellow water, 
so loaded with deposit that, in order to make it drinkable, it must first 







SAND-DUNES OF THE SHIGAR-INDUS DELTA. 



be gathered into cisterns to deposit its sediment. The Workmans 
attributed to this wealth of sediment the extreme fertility of the soil, 
which permits the Baltis to gather abundant harvests on the same land 
year in and year out without rotation of crops. As a matter of fact, 
however, they manure their fields abundantly (Moorcroft, Godwin 
Austen). 

About two miles below Shigar the Duke was met by the Rajah with the 
usual cortege and an orchestra, neither less important nor less noisy than 
that of Skardu. They all escorted us to the polo ground, said to be 
the largest in Baltistan, around which grow trees of exceptional size. 
A walnut, a poplar (whose ancient trunk is hollowed into a huge 
cavity) and an immense plane remind us of the giants we had admired 
in Kashmir, having, like them, all the grace of trees which have been 
left to grow naturally and never mutilated by pruning. Near the polo 

(9221) i 4 



13fi 



Chapter IX. 



ground, in the shade of the chenars, stands a large mosque with richly 
carved windows and doors. Inside, the columns which support the 
roof are arranged round a central square, from the ceiling of which 
depends a hanging lamp. The arrangement is similar to that in the 
Srinagar mosques, and according to Conway is characteristic of the 
Shigar valley, whereas in the Indus the centre of the mosque is usually 
occupied by an ornamental column. 




THE POLO GROUND AT SHIGAR. KOSBR GUNGE IN THE DISTANCE. 

Of all the villages through which we had passed, Shigar gave us the 
impression of the greatest prosperity. The increase in well-being derived 
from the wide extent of the irrigated fields showed itself in the cleaner 
clothing of the people and in the houses. Some of these were built 
of sun-baked bricks, with verandah and roof terraces protected 
by a light awning of wood. Here and there in little open places between 
the houses great slabs of stone are set up against the wall and carved 
in rough bas-relief into concentric circles, which seem to be targets for 
archery. 

The people look happy, and when the grain is sown they seem to 
have nothing to do but lie in the pleasant shade and wait for the crops. 
Nevertheless, they must have hard and continuous work regulating the 



From Skardu to Askok-y. 137 

irrigation water, building and keeping up the canals, preparing the 
terraced fields (which often need strong retaining walls), removing 
stones and bringing large quantities of earth. At all events, they 
celebrated our arrival by a cessation of all work, and the whole popula- 
tion had a holiday to observe with intense interest every visible detail 
of our life. They kept, however, at a respectful distance, not so much 
out of fear of the slender rods of the chuprassis, which could hardly 
inflict much pain through heavy woollen clothing, as owing to a natural 
sense of modesty and respect. 

In addition to the usual gifts of flowers, fruit and bread, they offered 
numerous elaborate cakes, so adorned with white sugar that they would 
have done honour to any confectioner. We were now beginning to get 
accustomed to the native tea, which was frequently flavoured with 
rosewater, and always cleared with a salt which precipitates the tannin 
and colouring substances. Among other things they brought us cups, 
tumblers and pipes carved in soft green soapstone, which is taken from 
a (Juarry in the valley behind Shigar. 

Among those who came to pay their respects to the Duke we 
recognized a man who had joined our escort at Tolti, whom we had 
confounded with the Lambardars and chuprassis, but who now turned 
out to be the Wazir of Shigar. He had accompanied the Eckenstein- 
Pfannl-Guillarmod expedition on the Baltoro glacier, and when he 
heard of our coming he met us, wishing to join the Duke's caravan. 
He accompanied the expedition throughout the campaign, and was 
always quiet, silent and discreet, and of great use owing to his power 
over the coolies. 

A young English officer back from shooting ibex and markhor 
encamped near us and showed us his trophies. The afternoon was spent 
pleasantly in watching a lively match of polo and in listening to the 
orchestra, which played for dancing. The crowd stood, as usual, in a 
semi-circle behind the musicians, and here and there from the rows of 
spectators peered the little heads of ponies, who seemed to enjoy the 
game as much as any one. We agreed with Ujfalvy and Biddulph in 
finding the Aryan type purer and more universal here than in the Indus 
valley. 1 Cunningham, however, considered Mongol characteristics 
especially prominent among the Baltis of Shigar. The women seemed 
to be kept less carefully secluded here than in the Indus valley. One 

1 See the illustrations on pp. 87, 90, etc. 



138 



Chapter IX. 



met them frequently about the villages, and when they are alone they 
expose their faces with no great amount of backwardness. They often 
wore violet-coloured clothing, and the faces of the younger ones were 
regular and pleasing, and surmounted by luxuriant black hair. 

Throughout the Shigar valley, and farther up in the Braldoh, I 
observed a number of goitres, frequently accompanied by characteristic 
signs of cretinism, both among the people and our own coolies. 




POLO AT SHIGAR. 



The wide Shigar valley, with its level bed open on every side, makes 
a marked contrast to the gloomy valley of the Indus, so deeply imprisoned 
between its high and precipitous walls. It begins at the meeting of the 
Basha and Braldoh valleys, whose rivers flow together and form the 
Shigar. Both valleys are narrow and trough-shaped, with features 
common to the other valleys of the region. The Basha valley continues 
in the same direction as the Shigar toward the north-west, and gathers 
the waters of the numerous glaciers of the southern slopes of the 
western Karakoram, which has been the scene of the frequent expedi- 
tions of the Workmans. The Braldoh valley turns eastward and rises 
to the Biafo and Baltoro glaciers. 

Between its source and the point where it alters its course to wind 
round the spur which divides it at the lower end from the Indus, the 



From Skardu to Askoley. 



139 



Shigar valley runs from north-west to south-east for about 25 miles, 
maintaining a width of about three miles and with a drop of some 350 
feet. 1 The sand has obliterated nearly every trace of glacial action. 
Only in sheltered corners and on the lee side of lateral spurs are to be 
found moraine remnants, 2 which bear witness to the past occupation of 
the valley up to a great height by a gigantic glacier, which included the 





CHAIN ON THE RIGHT OF THE SHIOAR VALLEY, WITH B 11 . 

volumes of the Chogo Lungma, the Biafo, the Punmah and the Baltoro, 
all of which glaciers even now, confined as they are to their own valleys, 
inspire amazement by their vast dimensions. 

Of the two mountain ranges which stand right and left of the Shigar 
valley, the greater and more important is beyond doubt that to the 

1 The official altitude of Skardu is 7,503 feet. The height of the village of Shigar, calculated 
on the basis of the Duke's observations, is 7,517 feet, and that of Dusso, at the entrance of the 
Braldoh valley, 7,874 feet. 

* According to GODWIN AUSTEN (Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc. 34, 1864, p. 19) the village of Shigar 
is itself built upon a thick deposit of earth and angular, not stratified, detritus of morenic origin. 



140 



Chapter IX. 



east, which separates it from the Braldoh valley and contains Mango 
Gusor (20,633 feet) and Koser Gunge (21,000 feet) 1 . The valleys of this 
range are, however, so deep and so long that only the peak of Koser 
Gunge is visible from Shigar, standing at the north end of the chain and 
covered with great glaciers. Farther north the Shigar valley appears 
to be closed by a group of snowy mountains, the Ganchen, 21,204 feet 




THE SKORO LUMBA, ON THE LEFT OF THF, SHIOAR VALLEY. 

high, which it seems the Shigar people call Simbilla. The western side 
of the valley is formed by a steep range, which is all in sight from top 
to bottom. It is furrowed by ravines and precipitous gorges, full of small 
hanging glaciers, and dominated by a fine snow peak in the centre, the 
B 21 of our maps. 

The path ascends the Shigar valley on the left or western side. 
From Mango Gusor runs down into the Shigar valley the first side 
valley, the Baumaharel, which comes out just behind Shigar, with a 

1 According to the Workmans, who ascended it in 1899. 



From Skardu to Askoley. 



141 



mouth like a gate, only a few yards wide, between cliffs of gneiss. 
Immediately beyond this opening the valley grows wider, and is cut 
across by an ancient moraine. Five miles above Shigar the second 
great tributary valley, the Skoro Lumba, opens out. 1 This valley 
leads up to a pass of the chain, the Skoro La, 16,716 feet high, which 
is the direct route to Askoley. The journey from Shigar to Askoley 
is done in three stages, but at this season the pass was still blocked with 




MEETING OF THE BASHA AND THE BRALDOH, AND HEAD OF THE SHIGAR VALLEY. 

snow, and we had to go all the way around the chain and ascend first 
the Shigar valley up to its bifurcation, and then the Braldoh valley 
from its mouth to Askoley, more than twice the distance but all along 
the valley beds. 

The Shigar valley is usually taken in three stages, stopping at the 
villages of Alchori and Yuno ; but we did the 29 or 30 miles in two 
days. After Shigar, for about six miles, we went along a shady road, 
unbroken even by the wide stony beds of the torrents which flow down 
from the mountains on our right. Little by little, however, increasing 
reaches of desert intervene between the villages, and the cultivated land 
again takes the form of oases. 

1 Liimbfi, or lonmbn, means valley. 



142 Chapter IX. 

The Shigar river, divided into a network of rivulets, fills the whole 
of the flat valley bottom, so that the path is forced to skirt the foot of 
the range, whose high peaks are hidden by projecting spurs. As we 
approach the peak of Koser Gunge it too disappears with its glaciers, 
and is no longer visible except now and again through some valley 
opening. Torrents flow down from these openings, fortunately sub- 
divided into small streams quite easy to cross by jumping or to ford 
on the ponies. We stopped for the night at Kushimul, in a field 




THE SHIKARI ABDULLAH, AND THE GIANT VINE OF KUSHIMUL. 

enclosed with a little hedge, under a cherry, a pear and an apricot tree 
and an old mulberry, the last festooned with a gigantic vine whose 
trunk had grown almost as great as its support. 

The second half of our route took us round by the projecting spur 
of Busper, which runs northward from Koser Gunge, and whose ridge, 
running down in the opposite direction to the Ganchen, bounds the 
opening of the Braldoh valley. The mountain spurs have shoved back 
the path to the sand and pebbles of the valley bottom, save for an 
occasional brief space where the river flows to their very bases. Between 
the ends of these spurs we crossed considerable reaches of sand, which 
appear to be a few hundred yards wide, and are sometimes as much 
as a mile. Several tributary streams obliged us to mount our ponies 



From Skanlu to Askoley. H3 

so as to ford them. The water grew thicker and muddier, as if to 
prepare us for the mud streams of the Braldoh valley. It must certainly 
ferry down immense quantities of clay yearly. 

We now began to turn eastward little by little round Koser Gunge, 
and hardly noticed that the mouth of the Braldoh valley had been 
entered until we found ourselves opposite Dusso, its first village, standing 
on the other bank. Two primitive native rafts, known as zhaks, 
composed of interwoven branches tied by cords to inflated skins, were 




THE OANCHEN GROUP FROM THE MOUTH OF THE BRALDOH VALLEY. 

waiting for us on the bank. Each raft was piloted by two men, and 
driven out into the stream with long poles as soon as we had taken 
our places on the boughs, whose interstices were so large that we felt 
as if we were sitting in the water. The Braldoh is at this point about 
100 feet wide and very swift. As the current caught us we began to 
whirl round and round, seeing the whole of the panorama about us five 
or six times in the space of a minute. A little farther downstream, at 
a narrow point of the river, a light bridge had been thrown across the 
stream, made of two tree trunks with cross-bars and branches laid over 
them ; and by this route our guides and coolies reached the opposite 
bank. Once on the other side, we went up as far as the trees of Dusso 
and set up our camp. 



144 



Chapter IX. 



We were now again shut in between steep mountain walls, and could 
see none of the high peaks around us. Only westward, through the 
narrow mouth of the valley, could we catch sight of a bit of the chain 
to the right of the Shigar valley. A little farther upstream two long 
spurs of the Koser Gunge and Ganchen run down opposite one another, 
and seem quite to cut off the valley. On the ridge of the second, just 
over the camp, rises the strange monolith indicated on the map by the 
name of Shamasir Pir Gombar. According to the local legend, as given 




CROSSING THE BRALDOH OX A 7.HAK. 



by Godwin Austen, it is inhabited by a snow-white bird which guards 
a lump of pure gold placed on a cushion of embroidered velvet. Any 
object which cannot be found in the morning is supposed to have been 
stolen by the Pir. Luckily this thievish fowl paid no attention to us. 

The Tehsildar of Skardu took leave of the Duke, and retired to his 
home, carrying our mails with him. The ponies had been left on the 
other side of the river, and henceforward our journey was all on foot. 



From Skardu to Askoley. 



145 



The Braldoh valley is of the same type as the Indus, only its smaller 
dimensions make it seem even more narrow, and its walls more pre- 
cipitous. It makes sharper turns, too, round the foot of the spurs which 
run down on either side and cross each other. The masses of detritus 
and sedimentary deposit which cling to the precipices up to a consider- 
able height are extremely insecure, and the path must, without doubt, 
be frequently destroyed or cut off by landslides. 




THE IXJWER BRALDOH, WITH THE GANCHEN IN THE BACKGROUND. 

The distance up the valley from Dusso to Askoley, the highest 
village, is about 22 miles, with a rise of 2,140 feet from 7,874 to 
10,013 feet. But the path is several miles longer than the distance as 
the crow flies, and there must be several thousand feet of up and 
down involved in crossing the numerous ridges which lie in its way. 
The first and one of the very steepest is the long spur which runs 
down just above Dusso, and which the path crosses about 1,000 feet 
above the river. At the top of the laborious climb we halted a little 
to take breath, and to gaze upon the great glaciers of Ganchen. The 
coolies made a little fire in the shelter of a big projecting rock, and 

(9221) K 



HC Chapter IX. 

prepared their usual early breakfast by crumbling their chupattis 
into hot water with a little salt. Others were inhaling, turn and turn 
about, a few mouthfuls of smoke from the pipes which they construct 
in the clay soil. A thin stick is buried in the earth with the two bent 
ends projecting. Around one end they mould the earth into a funnel- 
shaped pipe bowl, and then pull out the stick, leaving a little tunnel 
under the earth through which they inhale through their hands. The 
tobacco, which is extremely evil-smelling, will only burn when kept in 
contact with a live coal. There is generally some coolie in the caravan 
who has brought his primitive narghile, made out of a little gourd or 
hollow bit of wood, into which are stuck the clay pipe bowl and stem, 
through which they smoke in turn, grasping the end of the stem 
with their fist and inhaling through it. This is also their ingenious 
method of smoking cigarettes. Notwithstanding their heavy loads, 
they reached the top of the ridge without panting or signs of 
fatigue. Those among them to whose lot the easier loads had fallen 
carried the flour and provisions of their more heavily burdened 
companions. 

Once over the top of the ridge, the path skirts down along the barren 
slopes till it reaches a narrow ravine cut by the water through a terrace 
of detritus. Down this we descended to the river, whose bank we then 
followed around the base of high perpendicular cliffs of friable con- 
glomerates, with notched upper edges which represented the section 
of the terraces they support. Southward we could see the whole of the 
Koser Gunge, with the great radiating buttresses which run down from 
it; while northward, between the Ganchen and the Mushun, opens the 
tributary valley of Hoh Lumba, which, with the glaciers at its head, was 
explored by the AVorkmans in 1903. A little beyond the mouth of 
this valley we set up our camp, near the village of Gomboro. Here the 
apricots were still in blossom, and germination barely beginning. The 
sown fields were still quite bare. 

On the morning of May 13th we pursued our march up the valley, 
everywhere hemmed in between steep mountain spurs coming nearer 
and nearer to one another and forcing the river into a winding course. 
The whole valley must at one time have been filled with immense masses 
of detritus mingled with clay to a height of 700 or 1,000 feet, which 
were then cut through by the torrent, forming extremely steep if 
not absolutely vertical sections. Above the level of detritus the rock 



From Skardu to Askoley. 



147 



walls are in even more active process of disintegration than in the Indus 
valley. Lydekker has observed traces of glacial action as high as 
nearly 2,000 feet above the bed of the valley vestiges of the glacier 
which was once formed by the conjunction of the Baltoro, the Punmah 
and the Biafo. 1 The path, which often becomes a mere track, runs 
nearly the whole way along the bottom of the valley, and is exposed 
to landslides, which must be common even when the weather is dry, 



















KOSEB GUNOE, AND THE ALLUVIAL TERRACES OF THE BRALDOH. 

so frequent are the projections of the detritus wall and so ill held 
in place by the loose clay. Wherever the walls looked unusually 
threatening we would find ourselves unconsciously quickening our 
steps. 

We frequently came across places where the path had disappeared 
under streams of mud, which had formed into fan-shape and then dried 
and hardened, leaving deep indentations on the brow of the overhanging 
cliff. At other points, where side ravines joined the main valley, we 
would go down to the bottom of deep torrential beds covered with a 



1 LYDEKKER, The Geology of Kashmir and Chamba Territories. 
India, 22, 1883, p. 186. 
(9221) 



Mem. of the Geol. Sura, of 



K 2 



148 



Chapter IX. 



thick layer of hardened mud, through the middle of which oozed a thin 
trickle of muddy water. These were plainly the beds of mudstreams. 
We found none in active progress, but these traces sufficed to show the 
great difficulty they must present when they flow across the road many 
yards wide and deep, carrying down with them heavy masses of rock. 
They are a characteristic feature of all upper Baltistan, where they are 
known as shwa. Many a traveller has been surprised by one of these 




THE HOH LUMBA AND THE MUSHUN GROUP. 



moving masses half avalanche, half flood and has run grave danger 
of seeing some of his caravan carried off by them. All our predecessors, 
Godwin Austen, Conway, the Workmans and the Eckenstein-Pfannl- 
Guillarmod expedition, witnessed the strange phenomenon on a smaller 
or greater scale. l 

The origin of the streams has never been fully explained. Very 
different forms of alluvial action have, in fact, been included under the 



1 In addition to the works of the above-named authors, already quoted, see COL. H. C. B. 
TANNER, Our Present Knowledge of the. Himalayas. Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc. N.S. 13, 1891, p. 403 ; 
and the article of CH. RABOT, Glacial Reservoirs and their Outbursts. Geog. Jour. 25, 1905, p. 545. 



From Skardu to Askoley. 149 

name shwa as, for instance, great floods caused by the breaking of a 
temporary dam formed by a landslide or by the protrusion of a lateral 
glacier, to which I have alluded in my description of the Indus valley, 
or the sudden inundations produced by the breaking of a glacier 
reservoir. These are unusual disasters, and purely casual, as are the 
causes which bring them about, and they happen with the violence of 
the true cataclysm. They have certainly nothing in common with the 
mudstreams which may be seen every year towards the end of April 1 
oozing down the tributary ravines of the high valleys. One strange 
characteristic which has been several times observed in them is their 
intermittent nature. A volume of half-liquid mud rolls down like a 
wave, mingled with big stones and pieces of rock of all sizes. Then 
there will be an interval, long or short, of which the traveller takes 
advantage to cross the bed with all speed. Then comes another great 
gush and another interval, and so on. The mud gradually grows less 
thick, and ends by being simply muddy water. 

The volume of matter thus brought to the bottom of the valleys 
must be enormous, a fact which suggested to Conway the somewhat 
hazardous hypothesis that to these mud avalanches may be due the 
filling up of the valleys with detritus to the depth of hundreds of yards, 
or even in some places absolutely up to the crests, so as to form great 
table-lands such as those of Tibet and Pamir. 2 There is no doubt that 
the mud streams come from the huge banks of clay which hang upon the 
walls of the valleys. These are little by little saturated with water 
from the spring melting of the snows, until they reach such a point of 
semi-fluidity as to slide upon the steep slopes and finally descend by 
their natural paths, the gullies and ravines. Temporary obstructions 
caused by some great boulder and by the viscosity of the mass itself 
explain the intermittency and oscillation of the flow, which is similar 
to that of the lava streams on the slope of a volcano during eruption. 
As I have said, we did not come across any active mud streams. The 
mud in the beds was dry and hard, and looked as though it had been 
long solidified, whether through an unusual delay in the melting of the 
snows in this particular year or for some other reason. 

1 According to Conway the shwa are active in the hot days of June and the early part of 
July. 

1 The hypothesis of Conway among other things fails to explain the origin of the gigantic 
clay deposits necessary to feed such torrents of mud. 

(9221) K 3 



150 Chapter IX. 

We observed at frequent intervals, especially along the banks of 
streams, reaches of sand covered with a white efflorescence similar to 
that I have described in the Indus and Shigar valleys. The oases 
were few and lean. The region is poor, like the upper Dras valley. 
Outside of the oases the sole vegetation consists of a few thorny thickets 
of roses and barberries, clumps of wormwood with a scent between 
thyme and camphor, wild currant bushes and a few gnarled junipers. 
Insects and lizards were still in their winter sleep. We were nearly 
10,000 feet up, and spring had hardly begun. 




TEMPORARY BRIDGE OVER THE BRALDOH BELOW CHOXGO. 

Presently our path was cut by a spur which ran down into the river, 
and we were forced to cross to the left bank. A temporary bridge of 
beams supported on big rocks projecting out of the torrent saved us 
from crossing on the rope bridge, which was hanging loose and in a very 
dilapidated condition. A little over half a mile farther on we returned 
to the right bank of the Braldoh over a solid rope bridge, well kept up. 
But here, too, the coolies hastily set up a little bridge in sections across 
the river, greatly facilitating the crossing of our large party. We went 
up the bank as far as a wide terrace upon which stands the little village 
of Chongo, where we encamped. 1 

1 Caravans usually make their stage on the left bank of the Braldoh, between the two 
bridges, in the oasis of Pakora. There is a mistake in the itinerary map which puts Chongo in 
the place of Pakora. Chongo is on the right bank of the Braldoh and a little farther upstream. 



Skardu to Askoley. 



151 



Tlie valley now seemed to open out, but heavy mists rested upon the 
mountains, and we scarcely caught brief glimpses of Mango Gusor, an 
extraordinary rocky tooth which falls sheer to the valley, forming a 
huge smooth black wall cut across by a few long straight white lines 
marking crevices and chimneys filled with snow. The day was windy 
and cold. 




ROPE BRIDGE BETWEEN PAKORA AND CHONGO. 



A little below the village are three cemeteries, standing one above 
another along the slope, so large as to seem quite out of proportion to the 
number of the living, as if they had served for a much larger village 
than the Chongo of to-day. Children's graves are in the great majority 
in all three. In fact, the lowest of them, through which runs the valley 
path, is entirely made up of the tombs of infants. We had already 
noticed burying places in the Shigar valley, entirely filled with these 
tiny graves, which speak volumes of the cruel process of selection 
inflicted upon this people by the hard climate, their poverty and the 
unhygienic conditions of their life from infancy upwards. 

(9221) K 4 



152 



Chapter IX. 



In the Indus and Shigar valleys the tombs, large and small, con- 
sisted of slabs of stone planted in the ground or of a low wall enclosing a 
rectangular plot. 1 They showed no sign of being regarded with any 
special reverence 2 indeed, so little is this the case that we would find 
here and there one of the older and larger graves turned into a diminu- 
tive kitchen garden. These tombs were scattered haphazard over any 
open space, mostly under the trees, and not within any enclosure. 
The tombs at Chongo are quite different. The low wall is replaced 




CHILDREN'S GRAVES AT CHONGO. 



by a rectangular fence of little wooden beams fitted into four square 
corner posts, whose tops are cut in the shape of a die or a diamond. 
The most interesting of the three cemeteries is the highest. It is now 
plainly abandoned, the wall which once enclosed it partly in ruins, and 
of the door only the wooden frame is left. Within this enclosure are 
a dozen tombs surrounded by the small wooden railing just described 
and a few others, so much larger as to seem monumental by comparison, 
these latter consisting of clay brick walls strengthened at the corners 






1 See illustration of the Parkutta cemetery, p. 120. 

2 We occasionally met with an isolated tomb adorned with one or two upright poles hung 
about with rags ; the grave of some saint, but held in far less veneration than similar burying 
places in Central Asia. 






















Chongo 



From Skardu to Askoley. 153 

by beams incorporated in the masonry. The strange thing is that 
constructions so elaborate are to be found in the Indus valley only in 
the most prosperous villages, whereas the habitations of Chongo are 
rudely built of rough stones and mud. Upon the corners of these 
walled enclosures are placed four or more big round stones. The ground 
within had in several cases broken through, showing that under the 
enclosure the earth was hollowed out into a chamber with a roof made 
of beams and beaten earth. There was no trace of funeral objects or 
any fragments of skeletons. 







A CEMETERY AT CHONGO. 



The stage from Chongo to Askoley is only about six miles, and we 
had time to stop and enjoy a warm bath in a hot spring by the way. 
We came across it a little above the small torrent which supplies the 
Chongo oasis, on the west side and nearly at the top of a conical hillock 
some 150 or 200 feet high, with a base perhaps some 650 feet in 
diameter. The ground sounded hollow to the tread or the blow of a 
stick, and was quite covered possibly entirely composed of saline 
encrustations, white where new, yellowish where old. The conical 
formation is incomplete, because it is cut off on one side by the slope 
of the mountain. At the top it is split by a long, deep fissure, about 
18 inches wide, through which apparently no gas issues. 



154 



Chapter IX. 



The basin is perfectly round, from 50 to 60 feet in diameter and 
about three feet deep in the middle a veritable little pond, full of the 
most limpid water having a slight odour of sulphurous anhydride, and 
an exquisite emerald hue due to the algae which cover the bottom. 
The water bubbles up through five or six openings in two groups, one 
near the edge of the fountain, the other in the centre. It overflows the 
furrowed lip of the basin, which is formed by yellowish-white saline 




THE HOT SPRING. 



conglomerates. This formation likewise covers the whole of one side 
of the cone with regular layers. The temperature of the water, taken 
at the biggest opening near the edge, was 120 F. (thermometer Hicks, 
N. 449, 3 10). 1 All round this opening was a flourishing growth of long 
weeds. Among them or scattered over the bottom of the basin were 
bundles of filaments encrusted with calcite. Guillarmod made the 
interesting discovery that these bundles are composed of hairs, but it 
seems improbable that they could accumulate in such large quantities 

1 In 1902, according to Guillarmod, the temperature was 100-7 F. Godwin Austen found 
in the various hot springs of this region temperatures of 104-5, 137, 122, 117 and 110 F. 



From Skanlu to Askoley. 



155 



merely from the occasional falling of hair of the natives when bathing 
there. 1 

From the opposite or east side of the fountain the cone slopes down 
in a series of small terraces, where a stratification is occasionally visible. 
Many of these terraces are fringed with a close series of small stalactites, 
which makes them look like petrified cascades. 2 




' 




THE STALACTITES OF THE HOT SPRING. 

After a good half-hour's bath we started on with a lighter step, and 
after crossing two more torrents reached Askoley before nine o'clock. 
Near the village is an open space divided into little fields and shaded by 
willows and poplars. The Duke had the camp set up in one of these 
fields, and the guides' tents and kitchen in another. 

1 Professor R. Pirotta kindly examined for me the specimens collected at this fountain. He 
found them to be composed of a thick tangle of colonies of schizophytes and green filamentous 
weeds, encrusted with calcareous deposit and mixed with crystals of calcite and higher vegetable 
forms which must have come into the fountain from outside. Other specimens proved actually 
to consist of bundles of human hair, so thickly encrusted with calcareous salts as to resemble 
vegetable tangles not unlike the bundles of caracea? found in thermal springs. All the samples of 
encrustations collected from around the fountain were proved by analysis to be simple specimens 
of carbonate of lime, or ealcite (Novarese). 

2 Beside this spring Godwin Austen mentions three others lower down near the bank of the 
Braldoh. These were still there in 1002, when the Eckenstein-Pfannl-tiuillarmod expedition 
saw them ; but we found no trace of them, and the natives told us that the bank out of which 
they sprang had been carried away by the river. 



156 



Chapter IX. 



We had now reached the last inhabited spot on this side of the 
Karakoram. Twenty-two days' march had brought us 295 miles with 
all our luggage, without any interruption and without a single mishap. 
Notwithstanding the extremely complicated nature of the equipment 
and the thousands of hands it had passed through, we had not only 
not lost a single piece out of over 200 packages, but we had not even 
lost a single small article. What better proof could there be of the 



MX 9 It! 









THE CARAVAN AT ASKOLEY. 



honesty of the Baltis ? We were all in splendid condition, and our 
well-divided stages had brought us almost imperceptibly up to a pitch 
of training for the far greater demands which were now to be made 
upon our strength. 

Askoley stands 10,013 feet above the sea level, at the very gate of 
the high mountains. 1 We had now come up out of the stuffy heat 
of the valleys. A little farther on all trace of path ceases and the great 
frozen basins of the Karakoram begin. We had now to change our 

1 SIE MAKTIN CON WAY gives Askolcy a height of 10.360 feet, but this must be a misprint, 
for he gives the same height to Korophon, farther up, beyond the Biafo glacier (op. cit. pp. 412 
and 419). According to the Workmans the fort of Askoley (half a mile to the east of the 
village) is 10,300 feet. 



From Skardu to Askoley. 157 

personal equipment, put aside whatever we no longer needed and make 
a thorough and careful selection of what it would pay to take with us. 
Furthermore, from this point on we should have to provide for our coolies. 
The grasping Kashmiri and Sikh merchants of Skardu had made us 
believe that Askoley would be unable to furnish us sufficient flour, so 
we had bought it all at Skardu and sent it on to Askoley before us. 

The Duke organized an advance caravan that afternoon. Ninety- 
three coolies carried as many maunds (80 Ibs.) of flour sewn in skins. 
Thirty-five more were loaded with cases of provisions for the high 
regions, and ten carried the flour which this advance party would need 
on the way. A huge crowd of natives from Askoley and the lower 
villages assembled, hoping to be enlisted. They were of all ages and 
appearances, from mere boys to feeble old men, and even some who 
were crippled. For the present we engaged them as they came. Later 
on we would make a careful choice of the strongest and fittest to take 
with us to the high camps. 

Askoley is a poor village indeed, and certainly one of the dirtiest 
in all Baltistan. Numbers of the houses are empty and in ruins, as if 
some of the population had abandoned the country. AVe were surprised 
to find stray dogs about, a rare sight in a Balti village. They were 
as large as wolves and looked like them, yellow and grey in colour. They 
wandered hungrily around the camp, only kept off by the missiles and 
threats of the angry servants. Possibly they are descendants of the 
dogs which Godwin Austen mentions as having been kept by the people 
of Askoley for hunting and trained to drive the ibex toward the 
huntsman. That was in 1861. Nowadays the natives are no longer 
permitted to have firearms. 

There are only a few fruit trees, but plenty of willows and poplars. 
The cultivated fields are very extensive, sloping down from the village 
to the river, while at a little distance above the river the mountain 
side is covered with very fair pasture. The place is liable to earthquake. 
In 1902 the Eckenstein-Pfannl-Guillarmod expedition felt two per- 
ceptible shocks on May 30th and 31st. 

Few communities are so cut off from the world as this little popula- 
tion of Askoley. Before them lies an infinite extent of glaciers, shut 
in by the most gigantic mountain ramparts in the whole world ; behind 
them a desert valley, which for eight months in the year is absolutely 
blocked by the snows, the avalanches and the Arctic temperature. The 



158 



Chapter IX. 



two small panoramas here reproduced show far better than words the 
appearance of the country round Askoley. They display the utter 
barrenness of the slopes, the cliffs of detritus reaching half way up the 
mountain walls, the cones formed by the falls of disintegrating rock, 

the deep gorges hollowed out by 
the rivers and torrents in the thick 
alluvial deposits, and the little oases 
of cultivation around the last three 
villages at the mouth of the 
tributary ravines of the valley. 
They include, too, the fine chain of 
Mango Gusor, opposite Askoley, 
with the valley of the Skoro La, 
opening on the very face of the 
mountain wall at least 1,000 feet 
above the Braldoh ; and to the 
west of it a great snowy peak, 
whose glaciers come to a sudden 
end at the top of steep couloirs, 
and every now and then fill the 
valley with the roar of their 
avalanches. 

In spite of these formidable natural protections, Askoley was for 
a long time wasted by raids of robbers from Hunza and Nagar. These 
were only brought to an end with the conquest of the latter territories 
by an English military expedition and their annexation to the kingdom 
of Kashmir. Incredible as it may seem, these marauding bands used 
to traverse the whole length of the Hispar glacier, cross the col and 
descend the Biafo, more than 65 miles of ice, for the purpose of raiding 
Askoley. The last raid was in 1840. A band of 700 or 800 men, led 
by the Wazir Hollo, reached Askoley in the autumn, and seems to have 
departed with rich booty, obtained either by violence as Godwin 
Austen was told in 1861 or according to Conway in the form of a ransom 
paid by the village. But the season was too far advanced, and the 
whole band is supposed to have been lost among the glaciers and snow- 
storms on the way back, only the leader escaping with his life. 1 I will 

1 GUILLAEMOD (op. cit. p. 146) gives a wholly different version of this raid, confusing the 
Nagar tribes with the Tibetans, the Hispar with the Mustagh pass, etc. 




MANGO GUSOR FROM ASKOLEY. 



Mango Gusor 



Skoro-La 




Range ou the left hand side of the Braldoh Valley ( 




Askoley 



The Braldoh v; 




m a height to the North of Askoley, about 13.000 ft.) 



Mango Gusor 





above Askoley 






Biafo Gl. 



From Skardn to Askoli-v. 



159 



speak later on of two other routes across the Punmah glacier and 
across the Baltoro which at one time connected Askoley with the 
country north of the Karakoram, Chinese Turkestan. 

We had a great deal of work to get through, which kept us at 
Askoley for the whole of the day following our arrival. Sella, who 
had worked late into the previous night to set the photographic 
equipment in order, took advantage of the halt to climb with his gun 
and camera on to the rock wall which overhangs Askoley. He was 




GETTING SUPPLIES AT ASKOLEY. 



rewarded by a panorama of the Mango Gusor range, a collection of 
specimens of garnets and a fine ram chikor (tetraotjallus Tibetanus), the 
giant partridge of the Himalaya. According to Thomson the people 
of Askoley hunt these partridges by forming a ring around them in 
great numbers, and beating them from side to side with shouts and sticks 
until they are so exhausted that they can be caught with the hand. 
In spite of the remarkable barrenness of the slopes, big herds of ibex 
and markhor, and innumerable marmots, partridges and other wild 
creatures, manage to live on the scanty grass growing on the high slopes 
in corners and crevices known to them only. 



160 Chapter IX. 

\\V had a little flock of sheep and goats put together to keep us 
supplied with milk and meat. They were to be kept on one of the 
southern spurs of the Baltoro glacier, where there would be pasturage 
throughout the summer months. They were at once sent ahead with 
their shepherds. We carried with us also a fair number of fowls and 
several dozen eggs. In this way we managed to keep supplied willi 
fresh provisions even on the high glaciers, and these, taken alternately 
with tinned food, rendered our nourishment more palatable and less 
monotonous. Our Kashmiri servants were not to accompany us any 
farther, but to await our return at Askoley. 

During the two days we spent at Askoley the weather was change- 
able, sometimes cloudy with heavy and stagnant atmosphere, sometimes 
gusty with a little sleet. The evenings were calm and clear. The 
temperature went down to 28 F. in the night. 

The Lambardar of Askoley, who, like his people, looked extremely 
wretched, took charge of and placed in a tolerably dry and sheltered 
room the part of the equipment which we had decided to leave here 
and the cases of provision for the return journey to Skardu. We hoped 
we should not meet with the ill-luck of the Guillarmod expedition, 
which was prevented from returning to Askoley by an outbreak of 
cholera. 



CHAPTER X. 



FROM ASKOLEY TO RDOKASS. 
THE BIAFO AND BALTORO GLACIERS. 

The Valley Walled across by the Biafo. Crossing the Glacier. The Boulder of Korophon. 
Oscillations in the Volume of the Biafo Glacier from 1861 onwards. Inundation of the 
Braldoh Valley. Present Condition of the Glaciers in the Western Himalaya. The 
Biaho Valley. Mango Gusor. The Ford of the Punmah. The New Mustagh. 
Deserted Passes. Bardumal. First Sight of the Baltoro. The Trout of the Biaho. 
Paiju. The Snout of the Baltoro. Striking Absence of Frontal Moraine. Glaciological 
Notes. Getting on the Glacier. The Layer of Moraine. Appearance of the Baltoro. 
Glacier Lakes and Torrents. Walls of the Lower Baltoro. Paiju Peak. Machichand 
Camp. Marginal Lakes. Liligo Glacier. The Mustagh Tower. Second and Third 
Southern Confluents of the Baltoro. The Gaxherbrum Range. The Buttress of Rdokass. 

WE set out from Askoley a little 
before six o'clock on the morning 
of May 16th, very impatient to 
get at last within sight of the 
goal we had come so far to seek. 
At Srinagar we had taken leave 
of civilization, and at Skardu of 
its slender and far-reaching ten- 
tacle, the telegraph wire ; but at 
Askoley we were cutting ourselves 
off from human society altogether, 
at the entrance of the ice deserts 
of the Karakoram. 

A little above Askoley, where 
a broad squat tower bears witness 
to the ancient strife against the 
Hunza raiders, we came down into 

the alluvial bed left dry by the stream now at low water. Farther on,, 
however, the river flows close round the foot of a rocky spur, which we 
were thus forced to cross by a short climb. The Biafo glacier, lying in 

(9221) L 




1C2 



Chapter X. 



its deep valley, was not yet visible, but beyond it stretched the range 
of icy peaks which form the eastern wall of the Punmah valley, 
dominated by a magnificent mountain known to the natives as Paiju, 
because its other slope overlooks a camping ground of this name at the 
foot of the Baltoro glacier. 

We now once more made our way across the shingle and pebbles of 
the valley bottom, no longer the narrow gorge it was below Askoley, 
but over a mile wide and quite level. In less than an hour we stood 




THE FORT AT ASKOLEY. 



before the marvellous spectacle of the Biafo ice stream, over 300 feet 
high, which, coming down out of a tributary valley on the right, breaks 
into the Braldoh valley and appears to cut it off for its whole width 
as far as the rocks at the foot of Mango Gusor. The glacier is covered 
with a black layer of shingle, showing the clear ice only in vertical 
breaks and cracks. In its invasion of the Braldoh valley it has pushed 
the river up against the left wall of the valley, while its own emissary, 
the Biafo torrent, escapes from its side near the right bank of the valley 
and meets the Braldoh farther down. The two rivers and the side of 
the glacier thus enclose an irregular sandy delta on the level valley 
bed, which is dotted with brushwood, dwarf jumpers and willows. 1 

1 The terminal snout of the Biafo and the delta between the two rivers are clearly visible in 
the panorama reproduced opposite p. 158. 



From Askoley to Rdokass. 168 

We had no difficulty in fording the various branches by which the 
Biafo torrent leaves the glacier, to whose immense proportions the 




VIEW OF THE BALTORO CI-ACIER AND PAIJU. 

volume of water so little corresponds as to lead us to suspect that its 
main output must still be through its snout, where the waters mingle 
with those of the Braldoh. The side of the Biafo, which is fringed at 

(9221) L 2 



164 



Chapter X. 



intervals of a few yards with small and low moraine deposits, is com- 
pletely covered with stones, in spite of its steepness. From the top 
of this lateral wall the surface still rises gradually until about the middle 
of the glacier, where it must be some 400 or 500 feet thick. No longer 
compressed within the narrow walls of its native valley, the L r la< -icr 
spreads out in the shape of a fan, some two miles in width. Our way 
across, however, was about twice as long, because the surface was extremely 
irregular, covered with fragments of all sorts of rock granite, quartz, 




COOLIES 



schist, and occasionally limestone and we had to take a very winding 
route. There were few great boulders and few open crevasses, but there 
were frequent splits, where one of the margins has sunk below the other, 
forming perpendicular steps from a few inches to several yards in height. 
The surface melting had not as yet gone very far. There were only a 
few pools on the right side of the glacier, a few rivulets and occasional 
glacial tables which had not reached any great height. As you look 
across the valley from the centre you get the impression that the glacier 
actually reaches the rocks of the left valley wall. This was, however, 
a mile off, and we could not be certain. A couple of hours brought us 



From Askoley to IMokass. 165 

to the left side of the glacier, which is higher and steeper than the right, 
and descending which we reached the bottom of the valley. From this 
point onwards it is known as the Biaho. 

A few hundred yards above the glacier lies a gigantic boulder called 
Korophon, at whose foot shepherds are accustomed to shelter at night. 
Here we halted to examine the snout of the Biafo. From this point it 
still seems to close the valley completely, and its thickness appeared to 
be uniform as far as the eye could reach. A projection of the glacier, 
however, prevented our seeing whether any space is left for the Biaho 
between the end of the snout and the side of the valley, or whether the 
water passes through a tunnel under the glacier. On our return journey 
Sella tried to reach the snout of the glacier to make sure whether the 
valley is completely cut off or no, but he was prevented by the lateral 
torrents, swollen from the summer melting. It was only when, on our 
return journey, we ascended the left side of the Braldoh valley on the 
Skoro La road that we clearly saw the river flowing under the open sky 
through a narrow gap between the valley wall and the steep front of 
the glacier. The latter showed no trace of frontal moraine. It is, 
however, possible that at some point of the left half of the glacier the 
ice may bridge over the river and actually reach the rock. 

I have described in detail the position of the Biafo in the summer 
of 1909, because it has passed through considerable changes during 
the last fifty years. Godwin Austen found it in 1861 filling the valley 
from one side to the other, resting its snout on the rocks of Mango Gusor 
and entirely covering the river. In 1892 Sir Martin Conway found the 
snout a quarter of a mile away from the wall of the valley, and noted 
that during August it lost another quarter of a mile. As it withdrew, 
it left before it a wide moraine covered with earth and vegetation. This 
diminution in volume lasted and its rate increased during the following 
years, for in 1899 the Workmans found the Biafo so shrunk as barely to 
reach the outlet into the Braldoh valley at all. Then a period of increase 
must have followed. In 1902, according to Guillarmod, the glacier had 
again advanced as far as the right bank of the Braldoh river, driving 
before it a low frontal moraine. 1 The Workmans, however, on their 

1 DR. PFANXL does not mention this frontal moraine, and describes the Biafo as a mass of 
ice 600 or 700 feet thick, protruding across the valley, squeezing the Braldoh into a narrow bed 
and ending with a steep snout 400 feet above the river. This description agrees with our observa- 
tions made in 1909 (see Mitt. d. Oeog. Get. Wien, 47, 1904, p. 255). 

0)221) L 3 



166 Chapter X. 

ict urn to the region in 1908, noted the Biafo as practically in the 
same position in which they had found it in 1899. Therefore, between 
their two expeditions it must have grown and shrunk again. Finally, 
in the year between the last visit of the Workmans and the Duke's 
expedition it must evidently have increased again considerably. 

It would be strange if during such constant oscillations the Biafo 
had not at some time quite dammed up the Biaho river so as to form 
a lake. As a matter of fact Godwin Austen found current among the 
natives of Askoley the legend of such an accident, occurring perhaps 
some two centuries earlier. When the pent-up waters forced their way 
the devouring flood swept off a village of the Braldoh valley and (anied 
its mosque entire down to the Shigar river. The sacred edifice which 
had performed so miraculous a voyage was rebuilt, piece by piece, in 
another village of the Braldoh valley, where it was still to be seen in 

1861. 

The alternate growth and shrinkage of glaciers at short intervals 
has been observed at many other points in this region. For instance, 
the caravan route from Leh to Kashgar over the Karakoram pass was 
obliged to abandon the upper Shyok valley, which was too often 
blocked by the glaciers flowing down the confluent gorges, and to follow 
a much longer and less direct route. Dr. Longstaff has collected and 
compared the existing data and local traditions on the oscillations of 
these glaciers, which have more than once dammed the stream of the 
Shyok and caused vast disasters. 

Observations made on glacial changes are of real practical import- 
ance, because they afford the only possible way of determining changes 
of climate too slow and gradual to be studied directly. To establish, 
however, the behaviour of the glaciers of any region it is necessary to 
keep a good number under observation throughout a period of years. 
so as to get general results rather than isolated cases. If we consider 
the single observations made by travellers, we can only conclude that 
in the Himalaya in general and the Karakoram in particular every 
glacier appears to obey laws of its own. as we read of some which show 
all the signs of rapid shrinkage, others undoubtedly stationary for 
long periods, and others which, on equally unexceptionable testimony. 
are in a period of actual increase, occasionally so rapid as to sweep away 
and bury in their irresistible progress whole fields and cultivated tracts, 
and to threaten neighbouring villages with ruin. Behaviour so capricious 



From Askoley to IMokass. , 67 

on the part of phenomena which must presumably depend upon local 
conditions common to all, might possibly be explained by periodic 
chants of climate following each other at short intervals, as the time 
required for ma-'sos of snow prcvipitat.ed in the upper basins to produce 
changes in the position of the glacier snouts may vary very con- 
siderably, according to the shape of the basins and the length and 
slope of the valleys. 

The Geological Office of India undertook in 1905 a series of 
observations on the conditions of the glaciers of the western Himalaya, 
to be repeated at regular intervals. There is hope that in a feu years' 
the work thus done may lead to some exact conclusions. 1 Meantime 
we may refer to the opinion of Dr. Arthur Neve, who, after observing 
a great number of glaciers in the regions round Kashmir at varying 
intervals of time, is of opinion that they are, on the whole, in a period 
of growth. 2 Longstaff also found many glaciers in process of increase 
in the valleys of the eastern Karakoram, while the writings of Godwin 
Austen, Conway and the Workmans abound in confirmatory example. 
It is, nevertheless, wise to take into account the cases which go to show 
the contrary they are not few in number, and have been observed by 
the same travellers in the same regions and to reserve judgment, 
contenting ourselves with careful observations of the appearance and 
position of the glaciers when occasion offers. 

The Biaho valley, wide and with a level bottom, rises gradually 
and without sudden breaks eastward to the foot of the Baltoro, about 
820 feet higher up. On leaving Korophon we marched along the bottom 
of the valley on the right bank of the stream, admiring as we went the 
tremendous rock wall of Mango Ghuor, formed of great slabs of absolutely 
>mooth stone which seemed from in front to be nearly vertical. 3 An 
hour'- march brought us to the opening of the tributary valley of Punmah, 
and we crossed the sandy delta to the river, some 200 feet wide and two' 
feet deep, flowing swiftly over a pebbly bed. Our Shikari Abdullah 
and two strong coolies saved us from a wetting by carrying us across 
on their shoulders. Later in the season the river becomes so mix I, 

: f. H. If mm, .\<,t.-* ,,. Certain Win,. in \. W. Kashmir ; and Sr,->-y ,,f M,n fr in 
N.W. Himalaya. Bee. ',,.!. 8mr. ,,/ Mi,,. :;.-,. 11,07, ,, 12:; : T. If. H,,,.,.. Df dlu-^r ' Mmxm*a 
* ntflf /: '</ J""r. :;i, loos, p. :;i.".. 

' A. \KVK, /{,,;,!, C.lnrinl A'l.-mn in lht Hirubi Ruth. Al,,. /<wr. >:>,, ]f07, f) . 400. 
3 Or. th, northern slopf- of Mango Gusor. rnorr- than 3,000 f,;-t al,ov- th.r U.ttoru of ,f,.r vall.-y 
Sir \V. M. Conway found the imprint of a colo**l glacit-r which must at on,- tirm- hav,- fill, . I it 
(9381) 



L 4 



168 



Chapter \. 



higher as to be no longer fordable, and the traveller is obliged to ascend 
the valley to the jhula bridge suspended across a narrow gorge three miles 
higher up. \Ye set up our camp on the alluvial deposit dotted with 
big stones which fills the angle between the Punmah and Biaho valleys. 
Here grows a poor and sparse vegetation of dwarf juniper, wormwood 
and astragalus. Mango Gusor from this point looks like a horn 
strangely twisted and bossed, covered with snow and ice, rising from 




MANGO GUSOR. TAKEN' FROM THE COXFU'ENVE OK THE 1TXM.MI WITH THE BIAHO. 

a wide base of black rock. The sky was clouded over and the dark 
atmosphere hid the upper valley from our view. Luckily the air was 
calm; wind would have been extremely obnoxious in this crotch of 
the valleys where we had raised our tents. 

The Punmah valley, which ran up northward in our rear, leads to 
a vast and complicated glacier system, across which the peoples on either 
side of the Karakoram contrived to find a route by a pass of some 
19,000 feet, known as the New Mustagh, because it was intended to 
take the place of the old pass of the same name situated in the northern 



From Askolev to Rdokass. 



ir>y 



range of the Baltoro when that became impassable owing to changes 
in the glaciers. Now, however, the New Mustagh has also been given 
up, either because the raids of the Hunza robbers have given it ill fame, 
or else because its glaciers too have become harder to cross. 

No European has ever crossed the New Mustagh. In 1856 Rudolf 
Schlagintweit tried the ascent from Askoley, but was driven back by 
a snowstorm. Godwin Austen had the same experience in 1861. He 







\N U.I.I'Vl.M. DELTA OF THE BIAHO. 



met on the glacier four Baltis, who came from Yarkand, and he says 
that it would be quite easy to trace a convenient and safe route across 
the pass, which is approached on both sides by so easy a slope that it 
was formerly used for horses and yaks. Drew gives quite a different 
account, stating that the horses had to be hauled up by ropes, and that 
it took several men to hoist and support them, so that the pass fell into 
disuse, and between 1863 and 1870 all communication ceased between 
Baltistan and Turkestan. The last to try to reach the New Mustagh 
was Sir Francis Younghusband, who had reached Askoley by the older 



170 Chaptrr X. 

pass of the same name in 1887. His ascent was stopped by falls of 
seracs, which seems to prove the truth of the story that the glaciers 
had changed. In fact, twenty years previously Godwin Austen had 
noted that the Punmah glacier had so far progressed as to cover the 
path for some distance, and even the site which had been used for a 
camping-ground. He also mentions another important symptom of 
change in the climate of the region namely, that at Shigar from 1849 
onward it became impossible to ripen two crops in a season, as had 
always been done in the past. 

In addition to the two Mustaghs, a number of other passes which 
used to join Baltistan with the Hunza-Nagar district, Yarkand, etc., 
have been so utterly abandoned that in some cases it is no longer 
known where they were. The only pass which still remains open is 
the Karakoram, much further eastward and coming under the influence 
of the arid climate of Tibet, thanks to which it is free from ice and snow, 
though nearly 19,000 feet in altitude. 

The next day, May 17th, we started off early, because the Duke 
wanted to camp that very evening at the foot of the Baltoro. We still 
had the advantage of the season of low water, and could march in a 
straight line over the sand and pebbles of the river bed, thus saving the 
long ups and downs of the path which skirts the flank. 1 

From Bardumal, a halting-place marked by a boulder considerably 
smaller than that of Korophon, we enjoyed a fine view up the Shingkan 
valley, a tributary on the left crowned by a group of high snow peaks. 
Here the Biaho valley, still running eastward, takes a slight trend to 
the north, and the river flows around the foot of the northern wall, so 
that we had to climb up on the alluvial terraces. Once we had rounded 
this barrier, we returned to the bottom of the valley. 

A little farther on our way was cut across by a wide terrace which 
has driven the river to the left. This terrace forms a sort of table-land 
with a rolling surface, whose transversal ridges are very slightly marked 
and dotted with medium-sized boulders mainly composed of granite 

1 Guillarmod relates that ho and the rest of the expedition of which lie was a member began 
between Korophon and Bardumal to note the first symptoms of fatigue due to altitude, although 
they had stopped at Askoley for eight days in order to rest and accustom themselves to the 
thin air of 10,000 feet. Our own experience was quite different. Not one of us thirteen Europeans 
was conscious of the least indisposition, and we reached the Baltoro glacier with a sense of absolute 
well-being and in full enjoyment of our strength, which had been developed by gradual and 
continuous training. We had not the slightest need or wish to interrupt our march. 



From Askoley to IMokass. 



171 



ill various stages of disintegration and rounded at the corners, mingled 
with blocks and pebbles of limestone. The material appears, indeed, 
to be alluvial deposit ; but the aspect and shape of the whole formation, 
running so characteristically across the valley, is such as to suggest 
an ancient frontal moraine of the Baltoro, which now ends five or six 
miles farther up the valley. Between this terrace, however, and the 
glacier lies a long stretch of valley without the smallest trace of moraine 




THE BIAHO JUST BELOW THE BALTORO. 



detritus ; and so sudden and complete an interruption of the deposits 
would be hard to explain. From a little lateral valley, the upper part 
of which is filled with a glacier, there runs down to the centre of the 
terrace a delta of white stones, probably limestone, standing out clearly 
against the grey of the granites. The entire formation might be just the 
ancient alluvial delta of this tributary. 

Half way across this terrace we suddenly saw before us the snout 
of the great Baltoro glacier, like a huge black monster crouching with 
flattened back in the bottom of the valley. Here and there we could 
discern the gleam of bare ice showing through some rift in the dark 
layer of detritus that covers it. There is no accumulation of moraine 



172 Chapter X. 

before it, only a little moraine ridge clings to the valley wall, cutting 
of? our view of the right side of the glacier. From this point Godwin 
Austen beheld the peak of K 2 and Guillarmod the Mustagh Tower. 
But thick mists filled the high valleys, and we saw no peaks. 

Keeping our way along the steep right wall, we now traversed the 
last stretch of valley, which here grew wider still, level, sandy and 
sprinkled with pebbles. The sand is intersected by a network of rivulets, 
which bubble up everywhere in the plain from absolutely pure and 
limpid springs, delightful to see and delightful to drink after weeks of 
filtered or boiled water or tea. In the cold crystal-clear water swim 
little mountain trout seven or eight inches long. 1 Sella, who was some 
distance behind, managed to catch a good many of them without net 
or hook by striking heavy blows with stones on the rocks under 
which they lurk and thus stunning them. 

Sheltered at the foot of the last spur which divides it from the 
Baltoro and protects it from the icy winds, nestling against the steep 
right wall of the valley, lies a little islet of vegetation, a strip of earth 
covered with long grass, thick bushes and little willow and rose trees. 
This is the stage known as Paiju. There was a time when the Baltis 
used to come here for a few weeks in summer to dredge the valley sands 
for gold which comes, according to Godwin Austen, from the granites 
of the Masherbrum. The place was abandoned because the river 
changed its course and came to flow along this side of the valley. Ferber 
found that the sand does contain gold, but not in sufficient quantity 
to make the process remunerative. 2 

For the last time we set up our camp under the trees, not far 
from a rough construction of stones which the Eckenstein-Pfannl- 
Guillarmod expedition had used as a deposit for provisions. The Baltoro 
valley opened wide before us. Against a purple-grey background of 
relentless mists which concealed the upper part of the valley stood out 
upon its right side three groups of rocky peaks, ending in a host of 
turrets, pinnacles and needles, strangely wild and menacing to behold. 
On the other side is a short chain simpler in form, which just above 

1 This species of trout (T. Himalayana) appears to be the sole inhabitant of the streams 
of the upper Himalaya. Cunningham caught some that were over 15 inches long in the torrents 
of Ladakh, about 15,000 feet high. Vigne, too, says it is the only fish inhabiting the Indus at 
Skardu. 

2 A. C. FERBER, An Er[tt>rnti<m <>/ the Musktgh Pass in the Karakoram Himalayas. Oeog. 
Jour. 30, 1907, p. 630. 



From Askoley to Kclokass. 173 

the termination of the Baltoro glacier rises into a peak bristling with 
sharp teeth, out of a base covered with snow. This and Paiju Peak- 
far more important but invisible from our camp, over which it 
towers are the two gate-posts at the entrance of the fantastic world 
into which we were about to penetrate. From the tributary valleys 
round about us on both sides of the Biaho run down glaciers 
broken into icefalls, and black with moraine throughout the lower 
portion, all of them terminating at about the same height as the 
Baltoro. 

On the rocks above our camp, which are covered with clay, worn 
out and furrowed by water-courses, we counted thirty ibexes. 
Partridges nest in the bushes just above the camp. The whole caravan 
was now united, as the coolies sent ahead from Askoley had taken three 
days to do the journey. We formed a community of nearly 400 persons. 
As night fell the air grew suddenly cold, and soon the whole place 
sparkled with little fires, about which moved the dim shadows of the 
coolies. 

May 18th dawned with the usual doubtful and cloudy weather, 
which seemed to mock our impatience for a glimpse of the new world 
before us. The sun rose wearily through the thick veils of cloud and 
dense vapour which hung heavily upon the upper Baltoro. We 
marched hastily round the foot of the last spur, which was clothed with 
moraine up to some 300 feet high. The ice wall of the Baltoro glacier 
lies some 300 yards farther on, and in the corner between it and the 
spur is a little remnant of moraine about 50 yards away from the 
glacier. 

The river issues from the glacier not in the middle of the front but 
nearer the right margin, and out of a tunnel so low that the stream 
seems to spring between the glacier and the stony bed of the valley. 
At the point of issue the front of the glacier has a deep indentation 
which divides it into two unequal parts, that to the right forming a 
steep wall 300 or 400 feet high, at whose foot we have just arrived ; 
and a greater lobe to the left, comprising at least three-quarters of the 
whole frontage. This main part runs about half a mile farther down 
the valley than the right portion, and terminates in a tongue of ice 
less steep and less thick, which is divided only by a little moraine 
from the snout of another glacier running out towards it from a small 
tributary valley on the left. 



174 



Chapter X. 



Godwin Austen and Conway found the snout of the Baltoro in much 
the same condition. Both, however, describe the river as issuing from 
a veritable tunnel with a high roof, from the edge of which ice blocks 
were constantly falling. In Conway's time the front was divided into 
three lobes instead of two. Godwin Austen furthermore mentions a 
large boulder lying in the middle of the river at a certain distance from 
the glacier. This boulder is recognizable in the illustration in Conway's 
book as well as in one of the photographs taken by Sella, which would 




THE SNOUT OF THE BALTORO. 

lead us to suppose that from 1861 to the present day the snout of the 
Baltoro has remained stationary or undergone changes of small import. 
I must, however, note that Godwin Austen had the impression from 
Conway's photographs that the glacier came down farther in 1892 than 
in 1861 1 ; while H. F. Montagnier in June, 1903, found the Baltoro 
pressing with its right edge against the moraine ridge which I h;nc 
described, on the wall of the valley. The latter was rapidly disintegrating 
and rolling its pebbles down upon the glacier. 2 If so the snout must 

1 See report of discussion after the lecture of SIR VV. M. CONWAY at the Roy. Geog. Soc., in 
Geog. Jour. 2, 1893, p. 301. 

2 Verbal communication made to me by M. Montagnier in London, Dec. 1910. 



From Askolcy to Kdok.iss. 



17'. 



have retreated about 300 yards between 1903 and 1909, an insignificant 
shrinkage in an ice-stream about 36 miles long. 1 

The front throughout its whole extent is formed of live ice down 
to the bottom, without any fringe of moraine. At the foot of the wall 
there are merely a few scattered blocks of medium size, and a little 
farther down no trace of moraine detritus is to be found on the level 
alluvial vallev bottom. This entire absence of frontal moraine in a 











THE END OF THE GLACIER AND THE SOURCE OF THE BIAHO TORRENT. 

glacier so vast and so entirely covered by a thick layer of moraine 
material, whose snout seems to have remained about in the same place 
for the last fifty years, is certainly amazing. The Workmans have 
observed the same absence of frontal moraine in several of the great 
glaciers explored by them, while sometimes others quite close to them 
would have their whole frontage covered with high and thick moraines. 



1 Guillarmod's book does not give any exact data as to the look of the front of the Baltoio 
in 1902. The article of DK. PFANNL in Zeit. d. deut. u. oest. Alpenver. 35, 1904, p. 96, contains 
an illustration showing the mouth of the Biafo river and the snout of the glacier, where they seem 
to have the same appearance and character as that noted by us in 1909. 



176 Chaptrr \. 

Our theories as to the formation of frontal moraines afford no con- 
vincing explanation of this strange phenomenon. 1 We are thus obliged 
to fall back upon other considerations suggested by the condition of the 
particular glacier basins where the phenomenon in question is displayed. 

The characteristic absence of frontal moraine has been most 
especially observed in the largest glaciers, such as the Siachen, Biafo r 
Hispar, Baltoro and Chogo Lungma, which, with the exception of the 
last, are all over 30 miles long and occupy wide valleys with very slight 
inclination, so that their progress must be determined rather by pressure 
of the ice masses coming down from the upper basins than by their 
own plasticity and weight. The absence of frontal moraine can be 
explained only by the immobility of the terminal portion of these 
glaciers, which has turned into dead or stagnant ice, and may be con- 
sidered, geologically speaking, in every respect as rock. The snouts 
of these huge ice rivers would thus stand for an ancient phase of 
development. They are, as it were, the fossils of a previous glacial 
period. To this a period of suspended advance must have succeeded, 
or even a shrinkage of the upper portion of the glacier, leaving this 
extreme end where it stood. This presumable immobility of the snout 
by no means excludes the possibility of a fresh period of activity 
following after, such as may possibly to-day be found going on in the 
upper part of the Baltoro. The glacier in its new activity might flow 
for a longer or shorter distance over the dead ice, which forms its bed 
just as the bottom of the valley would. If the pressure became sufficient 
it might even revive the whole mass and drive it farther down the 
valley. Such would seem to have been the case in the recent oscillations 
of the snout of the Biafo which I have mentioned above. 

The recent slight displacements in the snout of the Baltoro, which 
seem quite established when we compare our own observations with 
the descriptions of our predecessors, do not actually contradict this 
theory. It is quite conceivable that the bulk of dead ice may have 
been pushed forward by pressure from the rear without changing its 
condition of intrinsic immobility that is to say, without any flow of 
ice caused by its own plasticity, the only form of motion which could 

1 See on this point the discussion which took place at the English Royal Geog. Soc. after 
the lecture of DR. WORKMAN : From Srinagar to the Sources of the Chogo Lungmn. Geog. Jaur. 25, 
1905, p. 245 ; and the comments of the same author in Exploration of the Nun Kun Mountain 
Group, etc. Geog. Jour. 31, 1908, pp. 34-35. 



From Askoley to Rdokass. 177 

cause an active and continuous carriage of material from the high valley 
to the front of the glacier. It may be that the Baltoro is again 
preparing for a period of activity in the more or less remote future. 
As a matter of fact, especially on our return journey in the beginning 
of August, we noted for some miles through the lower portion of the 
glacier great waves rather deeply marked, whose direction was mainly 
transversal, whereas higher up the ridges and hollows ran lengthwise. 
This transversal undulation of the glacier might be the result of immense 
pressure exercised by the volume of confluent glaciers in a state of active 
increase. 

The formation of dead ice either separate from or else more or less 
closely related to the original glacier is a phenomenon long familiar 
to students of glaciology. Examples of it on a much smaller scale 
may be found in our own Alps. The above considerations, which have 
been suggested to me by Ingegnere Vittorio Novarese, of the Regio 
Ufficio Geologico, I have dwelt upon at some length in the hope of 
drawing the attention of travellers to a state of things which, if con- 
firmed by further observations, would bring about results of real 
importance to the study of glaciology. 1 

The end of the Baltoro is about 11,000 feet above sea level, some 
820 feet above the end of the Biafo. Of the other great glaciers of the 
Karakoram, the Siachen ends at an altitude of 11,600 feet (LongstafT, 
1909), the Hispar at 10,803 feet (Workman, 1908), and the Chogo 
Lungma, the lowest of all, at 9,519 feet (Workman, 1902). 

The wall of the glacier facing us was cut obliquely by a sort of narrow 
ledge, overhung by big blocks of rock poised it would be hard to say 
how upon the declivity. This ledge forms the way of access to the 
top of the glacier. On the previous evening at Paiju it had seemed 
settled, after endless discussion, that the coolies would cover in two 
days instead of three the whole of the distance to Rdokass, the southern 
spur of the Baltoro, which, judging from Guillarmod's account, seemed 
to be the most suitable position for our base camp. This morning, 
however, the rumour was afloat that the coolies were making pretexts 
for delay in order to force us to set up camp at Liligo, a third of the 
whole distance. The Duke met this by waiting at the foot of the glacier 

1 These considerations, based upon the glaciological observations of the expedition, were the 
subject of a communication by Ing. Novarese to the Ital. Geolog. Soc. (summer meeting, 
Sept. 1911). 

(9221) M 



178 Chapter X. 

until nearly all of the 260 coolies had started off; it took about an 
hour. Twenty minutes after we were on the Baltoro. 

The top of the slope was covered by big blocks of granite, so light 
in colour as hardly to be distinguishable from the pieces of marble 
mingled with them. We turned toward the left or southern side of the 
valley, cutting across the glacier in an oblique line just above the outlet 
of the stream. Here the layer of moraine was without any trace of 
arrangement into stripes, and composed of widely-contrasted materials 
granites of every conceivable quality, quartzites, schists, slates, 
marbles, many-coloured conglomerates and silicacious rocks of dark red 
and purple shades. Nearer the left bank the moraine was almost entirely 
composed of dark grey granite, broken up into irregular fragments. 
The biggest blocks measured some 15 or 20 feet in their largest measure- 
ment, grading down from these to the smallest gravel. Real sand 
was rare. The surface is irregular; we could make out no ridges or 
troughs arranged according to any general orientation. Yet this lower 
portion of the glacier is less unequal and broken than the Biafo. We 
found it much harder to traverse on our return journey two months 
later. There were occasional little plants here and there among the 
stones, and even a few small shrubs ; but the vegetation was so rare 
and isolated that it seemed impossible it could give rise to real thickets 
on the moraine later in the season. As we went higher, close to the left 
bank of the glacier, the inequalities of the surface became more pro- 
nounced, until the whole looked as though it had suffered some huge 
convulsion. It was distorted into deep valleys and irregular holes 
among hills and ridges and steep slopes running in every direction. 
Wherever the surface was not absolutely vertical these were covered 
with sharp and insecure detritus stones that threatened sprains and 
bruises at every step. The Duke walked ahead with our two guides 
who determined our route through the labyrinth. They set up cairns 
on the larger rocks to indicate the tortuous path to us coming after. 

Before we had gone far on our way up and down across the ridges, 
skirting the big hummocks and deep hollows, we began to feel the 
weariness well-known to all those who have marched on moraines. 
And this was the very outset of a long journey. On every side our view 
was cut off by steeps of ice and stony slopes, the guides naturally 
preferring to follow the valleys and skirt the base of the ridges. When- 
ever the caprice of our obstacles obliged us to climb over some higher 



From Askoley to IMokass. 179 

ridge the gigantic bulk of the Baltoro offered us the same uniform view, 
of an unbounded desert covered with masses of detritus, with here and 
there a gleam of black or bluish ice laid bare by a fissure. 

The air was heavy and close, though here, as on the Biafo, the 
melting had scarcely begun. Only here and there did we encounter 
a small rivulet or glacial pool; yet the water has no channel through the 




SURFACE LAKE ON THE LOWEK BALTORO. 



depth of the glacier, there are no open crevasses and none of the glacier 
moulins, those characteristic wells so common in our own glaciers below 
the 'snow line, by which the water produced by surface melting dis- 
appears into the depths. We found signs of running waters, however, 
in the shape of round worn pebbles of typical alluvial appearance, 
mingled in small numbers with the sharp-cornered moraine fragments. 
The glacier fills the valley from side to side, forming a V-shaped trough 
between its steep side and the rocks of the valley wall. On the maps 



(9221) 



180 



ChapUT X. 



of Conway and Guillarmod a torrent runs through this deep trough, 
but it did not appear to be flowing as yet. No tributary glacier flows 
into the Baltoro from the south side, by which we were ascending it, 
for the first four miles of the lower course. 1 But on the other side of the 
valley there flows into the Baltoro a few hundred yards above its end 
a large confluent bare of moraine, which, like a stream in flood over- 




THE ULI BIAHO GLACIER JOINING THE BALTORO. 

flowing the surface of the river it enters, overrides the Baltoro for a 
long distance with its dazzling white torrent of seracs. Between two and 
three miles farther up a second tributary valley opens on the same side, 
as deep and level as the first in its lower course, but much wider. Out 
of this, too, flows a glacier with a wide medial moraine, and overtops 
the margin of the Baltoro with a high front of seracs. These valleys 

1 The map of the Baltoro contained in this volume shows only the upper two-thirds of the 
glacier, which the reader must imagine to be prolonged for 10 miles more toward the west. The 
little panorama which is here reproduced, together with the left half of panorama B, must make 
up for the lack of the map. 



I'Yoni Askok'v to IMokass. isj 

are separated from each other by the rocky spurs which we had already 
admired from Paiju. and which from near at hand appear even more 
inaccessible. They form a wild architecture of their own, a maze of 
turrets, pinnacles, needles, reaching up to a height of some 1,000 feet 
and so precipitous that they scarcely leave the perpendicular from top 
to bottom. They remind one of the dolomite towers, but it was difficult 




THE STONY WASTE OF THE LOWER BALTOEO, SHOWING THE NORTHERN WALL. 

from this distance to recognize the true nature of the formation. To- 
the west of these we saw Paiju Peak, a pile of triangular rock pyramids 
rising one above another, clearly outlined by their ice ridges and lifting 
up a symmetrical pointed summit completely covered with snow. 

About half-past nine we reached a point opposite a little gorge 
opening out in the left wall of the valley, in such a way as to leave free 
a small space at the bottom of the gully between the glacier and the 
rock. This was the stage known as Liligo. Here the coolies crowded 
round us, trying to induce us to stop, though it was still quite early. 
We had no great difficulty in persuading them to go on for another hour, 
when we reached another couloir in the wall almost exactly similar 
to the first. Here the guides quickly cut steps in the steep side of the 

(9221) M 3 



182 



Chapter X. 



glacier, which was some 200 feet high, and we descended to a sort of oval 
well, quite level, some 60 yards wide by 150 or 200 yards long, and 
strewn with stones. 

This place is known to the Baltis as Machichand. There was nothing 
to show that the little hollow had ever been occupied by a lake. 
Numerous smooth pebbles pointed rather to its being occasionally the 




PAIJU PEAK. TAKEN BY TELEPHOTOGRAPHY FROM THE LOWER BALTORO. 



bed of a torrent. On one side it is bounded by the flank of the Baltoro, 
an ice wall black with detritus, down which ran a thousand small 
streams, ceaselessly whirling along stones to the gully below, where 
the ice met the bottom of the valley and a little brook flowed. On 
the other side the valley wall rises steeply, cut in the centre by a ravine. 
It is a great wall of loose conglomerate, from 400 to 500 feet high, with 
a clayey top eaten out and carved by the waters into deep vertical 
furrows and fringes, forming a long row of tall pillars, each of which is 
crowned by a rock or boulder resting on it like a mushroom on its stalk. 



From Askolev to IMokass. 



183 



They looked extremely unstable, and if it had come on to rain our 
camping ground would have proved very undesirable. At either end this 
oval space was blocked by the meeting of the glacier with the wall. 
At the upper end a narrow corridor remains free at the bottom of the 
gorge ; at the lower the glacier abuts on the rock. The section of the 
glacier seen thus from the side shows plainly in its whole length the 








THE CAMP AT MACHICHAND, LOOKING UP THE VALLEY. 



arrangement of the ice in two horizontal strata of nearly equal thick- 
ness, coming together along a regular line, separated only by a thin 
layer of detritus which makes the formation quite evident. 1 If we 
admit the hypothesis of the immobility of the snout of the Baltoro, 
the upper layer may be supposed to represent the active glacier and 
the lower the motionless mass. 

We cleared away the detritus a little in the centre of the oval space 
and set up our tents. The coolies arrived in camp not by twos and 
threes as usual, but in numerous bands, after a very cautious descent 
down the steps in the ice. The fact is they are afraid of the glacier, 
especially of being alone upon it, to avoid which they had finished their 

1 This arrangement is plainly visible in the illustrations here given. 
(9221) M 4 



184 Chapter X. 

short but hard stage at unaccustomed speed. They laid down their 
loads and scattered up the valley slope to hunt for firewood. They 
found a few gnarled trunks of dead juniper, and these they rolled down 
to the camping place. 1 A great rock rolled down into the bargain, 
and it was a real miracle that it did not crush any of the coolies below. 
They lighted their fires along the wall, where they made their bivouac 
at the greatest possible distance from the glacier. Down the latter at 
very brief intervals stones and boulders came crashing with loud reports, 







THE CAMP, LOOKING DOWN THE VALLEY. 

followed by a trail of small detritus that slid down the ice with a pro- 
longed crackling sound. All this fell at the foot of the slope without 
danger to us, but the coolies were uneasy and kept looking at the glacier 
as though they had an obscure consciousness of the life animating 
the huge mass. It is so seemingly inert, yet within so full of motion 
and ceaseless transformation, that one gets an impression as of some- 
thing furtive and insidious, like a monster crouching. One single raven 
kept watch over our camp the whole day, perched on a near-by 
projection and following all our movements with the closest attention. 

i Guillarmod noticed similar trunks of old juniper upon the slopes above Liligo, and the 
Workmans saw along the sides of the Chogo Lungma valley dead tree trunks considerably 
larger than any of the living trees. These too are symptomatic of a change of climate. 



From Askolev to Rdokass. 



185 



With the cool of the evening the atmosphere gradually cleared, but 
from the bottom of the hole where we were we could only get glimpses 
through the openings between ice and mountain side. Night came 
swiftly, almost without twilight. The stones fell at longer intervals 
from the glacier ; the rivulets froze over and stopped flowing. Soon the 
silence was unbroken, except by the coolies, who squatted and murmured 
as usual round the fires that lighted with strange gleams the walls of our 
prison. 




A GLACIAL LAKE OF THE LOWER BALTORO. 



On the following morning Abdullah, instead of bringing us \ip to the- 
glacier again, took us along the narrow ravine between it and the valley 
wall, which is exposed in many places to danger from falling stones. 
Wherever the glacier abutted against the rock we climbed over it, always 
redescending as soon as possible into the ditch. In this way we had 
but brief glimpses of the valley or of its clear little lakes, whose limpid 
emerald-green waters are never clouded by the continually dropping 
stones. They are surrounded by high ice-banks hanging down in 
dazzling white stalactites and undermined by melting. The turrets 
of the northern valley wall made a wonderful background for the scene.. 



186 (MuipkT X. 

After over an hour's march we reached a marginal lake some 
200 yards long and from 5 to 10 yards wide, which fills up the gap 
between the glacier and the rock. It appeared to be confined by an 
ice-dam of no great thickness or strength. If this slight barrier had 
given way before the pressure of the waters or the motion of the glacier 




THE LILIGO GL \CIER 



our camping ground of the night before would have proved a dangerous 
one indeed. It is certainly far more prudent to encamp upon the glacier 
rather than in these lateral ravines. The Workmans upon the Hispar 
witnessed more than one vast and violent flood caused by the breaking 
of glacial reservoirs ; and Longstaff came near losing his camp by the 
same cause on the margin of the Rgyong glacier. 



From Askoley to Rdokasa. m? 

Another half-hour's march brought us to the mouth of the first 
tributary valley on the southern side, smaller than those which open on 
the northern side and filled up by the Liligo glacier. The latter is very 
broken, without surface moraine, and barely occupies the centre of its 
valley. It stops about a third of a mile from the edge of the Baltoro, 
with a steep front about 300 feet high, without any detritus at its foot. 
Without counting the little hanging glaciers of the smaller gullies, the 
Liligo and one other glacier near the junction of the Baltoro with the 
Godwin Austen are the only tributaries which do not actually flow into 
the mass of the Baltoro. The Liligo valley slopes up gently from the 
Baltoro to the foot of a rocky height, whose structure in tiers of pyramids 
renunds us of Paiju Peak, though it is far less imposing. The valley 
then bends eastward and is lost to view. The space between the snout 
of the Liligo and the side wall of the Baltoro is partly taken up by a 
little lake, above which is a second and smaller one. Later in the season 
the two lakes flow into one and fill up the whole mouth of the tributary 
valley. Near them a small level was pointed out to us beside the 
Baltoro as the camping ground called Khobutse. 

We were now marching upon the glacier again, but so near to the 
left margin that we were able to see nothing of the high valley, partly 
because it changes its north-easterly direction a little farther up and 
takes a turn due east. At this point our attention was chiefly con- 
centrated upon a group of rocky peaks of the northern chain. Among 
them, as we knew, is the Mustagh Tower, but it was as yet still hidden 
among the minor peaks, and only much later were its noble outlines 
revealed to us. 

The distance between the Liligo glacier and the second confluent 
on the left is certainly greater than appears on the maps of Conway and 
Ouillarmod (just over one mile). At least we took more than an hour 
and a half to cover it. This second tributary is nameless, although 
its dimensions are by no means insignificant. It flows down from a 
peak of dazzling whiteness, loaded with snow despite the steepness of the 
slope, and it flows for a long way on top of the Baltoro, so that our route 
cut straight across it. It is almost level, without crevasses, and dotted 
with single blocks and a little small detritus. Here and there were 
groups of ice-tables and numerous ice-cones, the pedestals of old fallen 
tables. There were none of these upon the lower Baltoro, where the 
uninterrupted layer of detritus causes uniform fusion of the whole surface. 



188 OiaptcT \. 

We now crossed the next spur, skirting its slope along a stretch of 
track, which was a real rest after the long march across the moraine. 
Thence we reached the third tributary on this side of the valley, which, 
like the last, has no name, and flows over the surface of the Baltoro 
for a considerable distance. We had nearly reached the centre of this 
glacier when the upper part of the Baltoro valley finally unfolded itself 
to our view, as far as the distant chain containing the marvellous and 
symmetrical peak of Gasherbrum IV , 26,000 feet high. To its right a 
slender and more distant peak is just visible, quite covered with snow. 
This must be Gasherbrum "', just a little higher than Gasherbrum lv 
(26,090 feet). 

This third southern confluent opens into the valley opposite the spur 
which separates the third from the fourth northern confluent, or the 
Dunge glacier from the Biale glacier, to use Guillarmod's nomenclature. 
But on Guillarmod's as well as on Conway's map the valley mouth is 
placed a little below that of the Dunge glacier, in such a position that 
it would be impossible to see from this point the chain of the Gasher- 
brums. In reality the mouth of the valley lies much nearer the point 
where the Baltoro valley turns eastward, and to the promontory of 
Rdokass, which one reaches from it in only three-quarters of an hour, 
with a short crossing under the mountain side and skirting a recess 
filled with a large neve, from which one passes directly on to the spur 
of Rdokass. 1 Our feet were bruised and sore from the long march 
over hard moraine, and it was a great relief to walk on the soft earth 
covered with elastic grass. The coolies were not far behind, and were 
nearly all in camp an hour after our arrival. They did not appear to 
be tired, and were quite in their usual good humour, which turned to 
noisy joy when the Duke added to the usual daily ration of meal a 
present of tobacco, tea and sugar. 

1 In Conway's and Guillarmod's maps the distance between Rdokass and the third left-hand 
tributary is over three miles, which on such a surface as that of the Baltoro would certainly take 
at least two hours' march. FERBEE had already (op. cit.) noted this discrepancy between the 
southern and northern sides of the Baltoro in Conway's map. For the rest it is a fairly accurate 
map, and a truly remarkable piece of work to have been produced by a short month's work on 
the Baltoro, and considering that it represents only a part of the vast glacial system explored 
by Conway in a single campaign. 



CHAPTER XT. 



RDOKASS. 

Rdokass as a Base Cam]). The Timber Limit. The Permanent Coolies. How Chupattis 
are made. Equipment of the Expedition. The Meteorological Station at Rdokass. - 
Panorama of the Baltoro from above Rdokass. Size and Appearance of the Glacier. 
Its Tributaries. Various Systems of Nomenclature. Mustagh Glacier and Pass The 
Youngliuoband and Ferber Expeditions. - Two Days of Bad Weather. - Goats, Sheep and 
- The Fauna of Rdokass. Measurements of the Rate of Flow of the Baltoro. 
Preparations for the Start. 

THE Duke's plan, which he 
had worked out to the 
smallest detail, was to leave 
a base camp at Rdokass, 
with supplies of food and 
other stores, and to form an 
advanced base camp on the 
Godwin Austen glacier at the 
foot of K 2 . Mr. Baines was 
left in charge of the Rdokass 
station, with the important 
duties of provisioning the 
high camp and communicat- 
ing with Askoley when needful. It was, therefore, necessary for him 
to have at his disposal enough coolies to keep him constantly in touch 
with the expedition. The task involved both responsibility and 
sacrifice, and Mr. Baines showed great ability and punctuality in the 
performance of it. 

Rdokass lies on the western slope of a great spur belonging to the 
southern chain of the Baltoro, about 300 feet above the glacier and 
some 10 miles from its end. It is a place which lends itself wonderfully 
to a long stay with a sufficient number of coolies. The camping ground 
was covered with dry grass from the previous year, through which new 




L90 



Chapter XI. 



blades were pushing tlu-ir way, as well as here and there the first tiny 
blue stars of the early primula. A heavy landslide had at some past 
time covered the slope with gigantic blocks of granite, some of them 
as big as houses, which were piled up in confusion, leaning at all possible 
angles, and forming in their interstices nooks and caverns large enough 
to afford shelter to hundreds of coolies. 




THE CAMP AT RDOKASS. 



Our tents were set up on a narrow level space, while a similar ledge 
farther down held those of the guides and the kitchen. A stream ran 
close by through a little vale covered with thick underbrush which 
yielded 'us abundant fuel. It consisted of a species of lonicera, which 
only grows six or eight feet high and is apparently the shrub found at 
the greatest height in the Baltoro basin. The grass runs up about 
1,000 feet higher, and later on we found saxifrage and potentilla in 
blossom at about 18,000 feet. But the woody growth apparently stops 
at about 13,200 feet, though Conway and the Workmans found speci- 
mens at from 14,500 to 15^,000 feet on the slopes of the Hispar in the 
shape of dwarf willows, not much more than a foot high. 



IMokass. in i 

The Duke had planned to stop only one day at Rdokass to make 
the arrangements for supplies, etc., and then to start ahead with 
a small party to select the best place for the high camp, the rest of the 
expedition following the next day with the heavy baggage and supplies. 
About half of the coolies who came with us to Askoley were to help 
carry the luggage to the upper camp ; they were then to be sent back 
with the exception of thirty-five ten for the use of the expedition on 
the high glaciers and twenty-five to remain under Mr. Baines' orders 
at the Edokass base camp. 

Our first task, therefore, was to select thirty-five volunteers among 
the younger and stronger coolies, who should remain with us until our 
return to Askoley. We had no difficulty in finding them, for they 
were all equally anxious to stay. We next proceeded to equip the 
ten who were to be with us in the high mountains. First, we made 
sure that each of them was provided with the usual native garments 
in good condition tunic, trousers, blanket and puttees. To these 
we added heavy woollen socks, nailed boots, snow spectacles and sheep- 
skin sleeping-bags, and three tents were allotted to the party of ten. 
Later on we distributed puttoo mittens, roughly made but very service- 
able. The mere sight of all this wealth filled the coolies with joy, 
particularly the European boots, which were looked upon enviously 
by those not among the fortunate ten. The coolies who formed the 
Rdokass contingent were furnished with the native sheepskin boots 
known as pabboos, which are excellent for walking over rocks and 
moraine. The Duke had had several hundred pairs of these made, for 
they do not last long in the wear and tear of moraine work. We 
carried also a supply of skins, awls and cobbler's thread to mend them 
with. 

Meantime the coolies had built little fires along the stream, and were 
busily preparing and baking a supply of chupattis large enough to last 
for the next few days. The meal is coarse and grey. It is simply 
kneaded with water without leaven, and shaped into flat cakes. Some 
of these, intended for immediate consumption, were baked by wrapping 
them around a red-hot pebble and then rolling the pebble over a slab 
of hot stone. The rest, which were to be carried as supplies, were baked 
on big iron plates. The daily ration of a Balti is one seer (about two Ibs.) 
of coarse meal, counting a good deal of bran, and a little salt, nothing 
more. Now and again as a special reward a little tea, sugar or tobacco- 



L9S 



XI. 



was served out to them. I know of no other human race capable of an 
equal amount of work in such a severe climate, upon nourishment so 
poor in quality and meagre in quantity. 

\Vt- next paid off and sent back the 200 coolies who were no longer 
needed. Each of them was entitled to 2| rupees, beside two seers of 
meal for the return journey ; and they were told that the meal would 




COOKING CHUPATTIS. 



be served out to them as soon as they had been paid. But finding 
themselves in possession of so vast a sum they were so eager to get 
home that they all rushed off joyously without stopping for the meal 
before we were aware of their going, busy as we were in paying out the 
wages. The result was that the 800 Ibs. of meal went to swell our stock. 
We still had more than 150 coolies to carry our equipment and 
supplies to the foot of K 2 . The baggage was first gathered together: 
the Alpine equipment, consisting of extra ice-axes, a large supply of 
mountaineering rope, crampons, snow-shoes and iron spikes for the 
rocks ; the topographical instruments photogrammetric camera and 
plates, and compasses ; the meteorological instruments mercury 
barometers, aneroids, hypsometers and thermometers ; lastly, Bella's 



llclokass. 193 

photographic equipment, except the cinematograph, which was left 
behind at Rdokass. We also left our camp-beds, and from now on 
spread our sleeping-bags on the floor of the tent. Few people know 
that it is warmer to lie directly on the waterproof bottom of the tent, 
even when it is set up on snow or ice, than on a camp bedstead which 
leaves a perpetually chilly void between you and the ground. Our 
sleeping-bags, which had been specially planned by the Duke, were 
admirably fitted for a journey on which every variety of climate was 
to be encountered. They consisted of four bags, which could be used 
separately or one inside the other. One was of light soft earners hair, 
one of eiderdown, one of thick goatskin with a woollen covering, and 
one of waterproof canvas, to be put outside the other three. 

Our cooking apparatus was aluminium, and we used Primus paraffin 
stoves. 1 The food and stores were soldered up in tins, each one 
weighing about 46 Ibs. and containing all the necessaries of life for a 
single day. 2 A light wooden case protected these tins from blows, and 
the coolies carried them with such care that they all reached Kdokass 
intact. 

\\V carried to the high camp the same tropical tents we had used 
up till now, of green Edgington canvas, small size. The Duke had also 
provided two Whymper tents and two extra light Mummery tents for 
the camps in the high glacial basins and on the slopes of the mountains. 
Our stores were completed by a box of medical and surgical necessaries 
and two big tarpaulins to protect our supplies from the weather. 

We levelled the ground under a projecting rock and arranged in 
systematic order all the supplies that were to be left at Rdokass. 
Around the whole the coolies built a wall. They worked quickly and 
ingeniously, forming a chain between the rock and the nearest point 
where suitable stones were to be had, and passing material from hand 
to hand, so that there was no pause in the building operations, and 
the wall was soon finished. 

Lastly, the Duke set up a meteorological station in the shelter of a 
rock flanked by a wall on either side, and supplied it with a mercury 
barometer, thermometer and psichrometer. Readings were taken by 

1 At altitudes of 17,000 feet and over the low temperature and the rarefaction of the air 
prevents the easy combustion of ordinary spirits of wine. It is necessary to have absolute alcohol, 
or at least 96 per cent., to start the Primus lamps and the little lamp of the hypsometer. 

* In Chapter XIX I give a detailed account of the composition of the daily ration. 
(itii'l) x 



194 



XI. 



Mr. Bailies three times a day from May 29th to July 15th, and at the 
same hours observations were made at Leh, Skardu, Gilgit and Srinagar. 
The calculations based on these data give Rdokass an altitude of 
13,205 feet. 1 It thus became a station of reference for the calculation 
of the Duke's observations in the high mountains during this period. 

We had now reached more than 13,000 feet above sea level, without 
experiencing any symptom of suffering from altitude. A\ r e all slept 




PAIJU PEAK AND THE LOWER BALTORO FROM RDOKASS. 



soundly, and our appetites were excellent. Some of us, however, noted 
even at this early period that when we stooped down to tie our shoes 
or wind our puttees, for instance, we would be caught by a slight sense 
of oppression on standing up again, and obliged to take four or five deep 
breaths. It is, of course, impossible to walk uphill as fast as in the 
lower regions without some shortness of breath, but I can hardly count 
this as a symptom of mountain sickness. 

The grassy slope of Rdokass ends some 300 feet above the camping 
place with a little level terrace, from which springs the real wall of the 

1 The meteorological appendix by Professor D. Omodei gives the results of these observations 
and the data for the altimetric calculations. This makes it superfluous for me to discuss the 
altitude of 13,904 feet attributed by Guillarmod to Rdokass. 



Kdokass. I!).-, 

valley, all of rock still covered with ice and snow. This terrace gives 
a fine outlook over the whole lower course of the Baltoro which we have 
just traversed. But, like the camp, it lies on the western side of the 
spur behind a big ridge, which cuts off the view of the upper Baltoro. 
To obtain a sight of the whole marvellous valley in its incomparable 
grandeur you must climb much higher behind Rdokass, to the corniced 
ridge of snow which terminates the wall about 3,000 feet above the 
glacier. It was from this point, on our return, that Sella made 
panorama B, which shows 25 miles of the Baltoro glacier, from the foot 
of the Gasherbram down to a point quite close to the snout. 

The Baltoro is the fifth of the great glaciers of the world outside 
the Arctic regions. The distance from its snout to the foot of Hidden 
Peak is 36 miles. The Siachen (or Saichar) glacier is 45 miles long 
(Longstaff), the Inylchek (of the Tian Shan range, north of the Kara- 
koram) is 44 miles (Merzbacher), and the Biafo is nearly 37 miles 
(Workman). The Hispar is a,bout the same length as the Baltoro just 
above 36 miles (Workman). No other known glacier reaches 30 miles. 
In fact, the largest glacier of the" Himalaya proper the Zemu, of the 
Kinchinjunga group is only 16 miles long (Freshfield) ; but the Nepaul 
Himalaya and the Everest group may have surprises in store. 

The Baltoro ascends as far as the foot of the Gasherbrum in an 
almost straight line, with an even regular slope from 11,000 to 
15,700 feet, giving a grade of barely 3-1- per cent., and a uniform width 
of about two miles, which makes it look from a distance like an immense 
highroad. Godwin Austen wrote that it is as if a great glacier filled up 
the Val d'Aosta from Mont Blanc to Chatillon, or flowed down from 
the Simplon to Lago Maggiore through the Valle del Toce. But even if 
we could imagine such a sight, it would not much resemble the Baltoro. 
No Alpine valley has the elements of anything even remotely similar 
to this vast roadway of ice between its precipitous walls. It is beyond 
all comparison ; it differs from all Alpine scenery not merely in the 
scale, but in the actual form and features. 

Our attention was drawn from the Baltoro to fix itself upon the wild 
rampart to the north, dominated by a forest of unnumbered peaks that 
are between 20,000 and 23.000 feet high and show a fantastic variety 
of form and structure. Not until the clouds descended and lay motionless 
over the high peaks did we return to the observation of the valley and its 
tributaries. 

(9221) N -2 



196 Chapter XI. 

The Baltoro seen from above is chiefly of a uniform grey colour, due 
to the detritus which covers it. Only higher up do the moraines become 
separated and distinct, The centre is marked, however, by a tall 
moraine ridge running lengthwise and slightly sinuous, which lends the 
semblance of organic structure to the glacier, making it look like some 
monstrous vertebrate crouching at the bottom of the valley, whose 
outline it follows with its full and rounded flanks. Here and there 
pale streaks of limestone in the moraine, or a gleam of ice like the glint 
upon shining scales, completes the imaginary likeness to a dragon of 
fable. Unlike the Hispar and the Biafo, which are shrunk within the 
walls of their valleys, not even extending to their own ancient marginal 
moraines, the Baltoro fills its bed completely, as may be seen from 
panorama B. But what gives it its most characteristic feature and 
makes it absolutely unlike our own valleys is the appearance of the side 
spurs, which do not slope down to the valley with ridges and diminishing 
buttresses, but come to an end suddenly, as if they had been cut off, 
with wide and high perpendicular walls. Between these spurs open at 
regular intervals tributary valleys five or six miles long, also deeply set 
between vertical walls and forming almost a right angle with the main 
valley, like streets opening between blocks of buildings on either side 
of the' main thoroughfare of a city. The glaciers of all these tributary 
valleys flow out on top of the Baltoro with a high front and without 
any trace of terminal moraine. They certainly give the impression of 
being in a state of active growth. 

Conway gathered names from the natives for most of these tributary 

glaciers. Guillarmod made further inquiry, and changed the names 

about from one glacier to another, adding new ones. Ferber kept these 

names for the glaciers, but added others for the valleys down which 

they run. The Workmans, too, rearranged or changed the names given 

by Conway to the confluents of the Hispar glacier. Probably every 

voyager to these regions at intervals of a few years could coUect data 

for further changes. It is evidently not alone in the inhabited portions 

of Baltistan that the names of valleys and rivers change. It is to the 

interest of the geographer to establish a fixed nomenclature he cannot 

be expected to conform with capricious changes. The Duke has adopted 

in his map the nomenclature of Guillarmod, as being simpler than that 

of Ferber. The following comparative table shows the names given 

by different travellers to the same places, and at the same time gives 



Rclokass. 



197 



a list of the confluents of the Baltoro in their order from the snout to 
the Concordia basin. The northern tributaries are all shown in 
panorama B except the lowest, the Uli Biaho of Guillarmod. 



TRIBUTARY GLACIERS OF THE BALTORO FROM ITS LOWER END 
TO THE CONCORDIA AMPHITHEATRE. 



List of glaciers going 
up the valley. 


Conway :892. 


Guillarmod 1902. 


Ferber 1903. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

Next follow 
Tower. Only th 

6 
Five more si 

1 
2 

3 

4 
5 

Uroup of sec 
6&7 


RlO II 

Uli Biaho 


T OR NORTHERN Sn 
Uli Biaho 


)E. 

Valley Uli Biaho 
Gl. Uli Biaho. Tranhonge 
Dunge ... Talve 
Durni ... Piale 
}) Piale Musta^h 


Tramgo 


Dunrre 


Dunere 


Durni 


Biale 


Piale 


Mnataoh 


three small secondary valleys between 
e middle one has a glacier that runs dowi 

Younghusband ...| Younghusband ... 
nail secondary affluents. 
LEFT OR SOUTHERN SID 
Liligua Lilian 


,he southern spurs of the Mustagh 
i aa far as the Baltoro. 

E. 

Gl. Liligua. Valley Chober Zechen 
Chober Zechen 
Germi 
Choblak 


Munilu 


M undu . 


Stachikyungme ... 
ondary affluents. 
Two very large uni 


Yermanendu. . 


lamed affluents. 



Rdokass stands opposite the Biale, the fourth confluent on the right 
bank, a secondary glacier filling a steep gorge carved out on the face 
of a spur (see panorama B). A little beyond is the mouth of an 
important valley filled by the Mustagh glacier, which runs deep up into 
the chain to the ancient pass of the same name, 19,000 feet high, over 
which Askoley used to communicate with Yarkand. The pass seems 
to have been in use in early times Ujfalvy states that the Portuguese 
Jesuit, D'Espinaha, crossed it in 1760. According to Vigne, it was still 
open under Ahmed Shah, the last independent Rajah of Skardu in the 
first half of the last century. But when Godwin Austen went to Askoley 
and the Baltoro in 1861 it was said to have become impracticable, owing 
to great accumulations of snow and ice. 

(9221) N 3 



r.8 



XI. 



\\'ti owe our first detailed account of the route across the pass to 
Colonel Sir Francis Younghusband, who traversed it at the end of 1887. l 
He was on his way from Kashgar, which he had reached after crossing 
the whole of China ; and he started over the Karakoram with a few 
coolies, no tent, a single sleeping-bag, a fur coat apiece, and a scanty 
supply of dried provisions. He ascended to the top of the pass by the 



Ml'STAGH 



MTSTAUH TOWER. 




MUSTAGH TOWER AND PASS FROM THE ROCKS ABOVE RDOKASS. 

gentle slope of the Sarpo Laggo glacier, which was deep in soft snow, 
and descended on the Baltoro side by a steep and broken ice wall, a 
proceeding both difficult and dangerous for a party lacking the simplest 
mountaineering equipment. The condition of the glaciers more than 
justified the abandonment of this pass. A. C. F. Ferber climbed 
up to the Mustagh col with E. Honigmann in September, 1903, and 
collected some interesting indications of active coming and going across 



1 COL. SIR F. YOUNGHUSBAND, A Journey across Central Asia, etc. Proc. Ro-y. Geog. Sue, A"..s'. 
10, 1888, p. 485: and The Heart of a. Continent, etc. London 1904. 4th ed. 



lidokass. 199 

it in the past. 1 Upon a grassy slope near the Mustagh glacier he found 
a village of twenty-two huts, abandoned and in ruins, one of which 
contained a tomb. There were clear traces of camping grounds, and 
even an artificially levelled spot called Sharagan, 800 feet long by 
160 feet wide, which had once been used for polo matches, presumably 
on foot, between the Baltis and Yarkandis. 2 Ferber also brought back 
from his expedition a topographical sketch of the Mustagh glacier and 
pass, whose position had heretofore been only vaguely noted on the 
map. 

On the day following our arrival at Rdokass, after a brilliant 
morning, the sky clouded over little by little at first with only a thin 
veil ; then sleet began to fall, growing thicker and thicker, until it 
settled down into a heavy snowfall. The aspect of the glacier changed 
utterly. The tall central moraine ridge, with its notched crest, remained 
quite black, owing to radiation from the thick strata of detritus ; but 
on both sides the glacier grew white as far as the marginal moraines, 
where again the snow melted as it fell. A clear distinction was thus 
drawn between principal and secondary moraines. 

It was useless to think of starting on May 21st, with fresh snow 
lying a hand's-breadth deep on the Baltoro. Even had it been possible 
to induce the coolies to move, we could not have gone far over ground 
so treacherous, even when uncovered, .that you risk a fall with every 
step. The snow continued to fall, but no longer so heavily ; and later 
on the sun showed for a few hours, feeble and veiled but sufficiently 
powerful to melt most of the fresh snow. 

During the day Botta was taken with chills and fever. It was a 
passing illness, and gave way to salicylic treatment within twenty-four 
hours. The sheep and goats were now straggling into camp, worn out 
with being driven for three days without food. They greedily began 

1 A. C. F. FERBER (beside the article cited from the Geog. Jour.), see Die ErTnmdung des 
Mn.flitghpnsses, etc., in Z/eit. d. deut. u. oest. Alpenver. vol. 36, 1905, and Soil, del Cliib Alp. Hal. 
vol. 38, 1906, p. 319. 

2 These discoveries of Ferber are interesting because they seem to prove that the Mustagh 
was once a familiar and regularly used route, despite the fear of the glaciers displayed by the 
natives who live at their foot. Stein thinks that only troublous times of war and danger from 
enemies could have induced them to risk their lives on the glaciers (see the discussion after 
Longstaff's, lecture, The Baltoro Pass, printed in Alp. Jour. 25, 1911, p. 670). Longstaff agrees 
with Stein that the glacier routes were more probably used by war refugees and messengers, 
in times of hostile invasion, instead of for trade purposes, and were abandoned with the return 
of peace. 

s 4 



200 



Chapter XI. 



to nibble the dry grass that stuck out here and there through the snow. 
During the day we finished all our arrangements for the base camp. 

The coolies enjoyed the unexpected rest, huddled in their dens as 
thick as rabbits in a warren. They swarmed in every chink and hollow 
among the rocks. We discovered that they made as many separate 
little camps as there were villages from which they came, but evidently 




THE SHIKARI ABDULLAH (ON THE LEFT), THE WAZIR OF SHIOAR (CENTRE) AND THREE 

CH0PRASSIS. 

not owing to any hostility between these communities, for their relations 
were unbroken and seemed very cordial. The variety of anthropo- 
logical types is striking. By far the greater number are dark, but a 
few are blond, occasionally even red-haired. Some are absolutely 
smooth-faced, others have thick beards. One would say that the Italic 
types prevailed characteristic Lombard heads, the full and somewhat 
heavy features of certain portrait busts of Roman antiquity, and most 
marked of all, the type, by no means uncommon, of the Florentine page 
of the trecento, with a face that agrees very well with the fringe of long 
hair hanging all round the head. One sees sometimes a group positively 






Sunset. Taken from the rocks above Kdokass 



Rdokass. 201 

Biblical in appearance figures draped in white blankets, with the head 
swathed in a narrow piece of the same stuff, the ends hanging down the 
back, and faces of a Semitic cast. Again, one notices a plainly Mongol 
type, with the characteristic oblique eyes and prominent cheekbones. 
Many of them while busy baking the chupattis took off nearly all their 
clothes, with complete indifference to the snow which fell on their backs. 
They almost always go about barefoot. 

Rdokass has abundant animal life, notwithstanding its altitude of 
over 13,000 feet and its situation among the glaciers. Small rodents 
about the size of guinea-pigs, with long light grey hair and round erect 
ears, start up in every direction and hide away under the stones. 1 
Small birds hop about the tents, and nights of ash-grey pigeons with 
black heads pass above us. Not far from the camp flocks of some bird 
of the genus passer chirp about on the turf. They are the size of 
blackbirds, grey and dark green in colour with a black throat. From 
the near-by bushes we hear the call of the giant partridge or ram chikor, 
and every level spot on the mountain side is full of the prints of ibexes. 
The arrival of so large a party and the smell of smoke had frightened 
them all off to a distance. Along the margins of the glacier nearly 
up to the Concordia we found remains of ibexes which had fallen victim 
to avalanches or to the snow leopard. 2 

The brief interval of sunshine proved a deceiving prophecy. The 
snow came on again in the night, so heavily that by the morning of 
May 22nd the whole scene had become absolutely wintry, and the Duke 
was obliged to give up another day. It did not turn out to be altogether 
lost time, for Sella, with the guides and a few coolies, went down to 
the Baltoro and crossed it to the central moraine ridge, where they 
set up a large stone pyramid. Meantime Negrotto with his graduated 
staff and tacheometer had measured out along the slope an accurate 
base line of about 300 feet, from either end of which he took the 
angles to the apex of the pyramid. When we got back to Rdokass on 
July 23rd he repeated these observations. The pyramid had somewhat 
gone to pieces, but was still easily recognizable, and from his data 
Negrotto ascertained that it had moved 361 feet down the glacier during 

1 They are probably little animals of the genus ochotona, and have been observed in other 
places. Longstaff says the natives call them shippi, or whisperers. 

1 PROF. CAMERANO has published a monograph on the ibex horns brought back by the 
expedition (Ossermzioni sullo stambecco del Baltoro, etc. Atti B. Ace. delle Scienze <H Torino 
vol. 46, Feb. 1911). 



Clmpk-r .XI. 

the interval of sixty-two days. This gives a notable average daily 
speed of nearly 5 feet 10 inches for the central stream of the Baltoro 
10 miles from its snout. If this rate were kept up, it would result in a 
progress of 2,124 feet a year ; but in reality it must be less, for we know 
that the current is slower in winter than in summer. Observations on 
the speed of the current in Himalayan glaciers have been very scanty 
up to the present. R. Strachey gives some measurements taken in the 
Kumaun-Gahrwal group, where the glaciers are nearer those of our 
own Alps in size. They move much more slowly than the Baltoro. At 
the centre of the glacier which forms the source of the Pindi a con- 
fluent of the Ganges an average advance of 9i- inches in twenty-four 
hours was observed in May, and from May 21st to October 15th the 
same glacier moved 98 '57 feet, giving an average of 8 inches a day. 
It flows down to 11,900 feet. Another glacier, the Gori, which flows 
down to 11,500 feet, covered 37 '92 feet between August 2nd and 
September 30th, an average of 14^ inches a day. 1 Mr. Hewett, an 
English topographer who was with the Workmans on the Chogo Lungma, 
took various measurements of the rate of the latter at two points 15 
and 18 miles from the snout, by observing various points of the surface 
at different distances from the two stations. His results varied con- 
siderably for the different points. However, the highest speeds which 
he observed namely, 3 '08, 3 '16 and 3 '29 feet in twenty-four hours- 
may be compared with Negrotto's results on the Baltoro, taking into 
account the difference in volume between the two glaciers. On the 
other hand, on the Hoh Lumba, a much smaller glacier, which runs 
down to the north of the Braldoh valley, the Workmans found a mean 
velocity of about '26 feet in twenty-four hours, at a point where the 
inclination is barely 2 32'. It looks as though the giant glaciers of the 
Karakoram flowed at a much higher speed than the ordinary Alpine 
glacier, and, of course, it would be reasonable to expect that, other 
conditions being equal, a certain relation should exist between mass 
and velocity. 2 Let us hope that these observations may soon be taken 
on the other great glaciers of the region. 

1 R. STRACHEY, On the Physical Geography of the Provinces of Kumaun and Gahnval, etc. 
Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc. 21, 1851, p. 57. 

* In the Grimdziige der Physischen Erdkunde (A. SUPAK, Leipsic 1911, 5th ed., p. 197) the 
author says " The giant glaciers of the Himalaya move much more rapidly (than the Alpine ones), 
with a speed which in the summer reaches 2-3 up to 7 metres," etc. 



IMokass. L>o:; 

Toward evening the weather showed symptoms of clearing, and 
the Duke had everything prepared for a start on the following morning 
not in two parties, according to the original plan, but all together. 
Mr. Baines, who was anxious to get a glimpse of K 2 before shutting 
himself up in his Rdokass hermitage, accompanied us as far as the 
meeting of the Baltoro with the Godwin Austen, whence he returned 
to the base camp with the coolies. 



CHAPTER XII. 



FROM RDOKASS TO THE CONCORDIA AMPHITHEATRE. 

Map and Panoramas of the Expedition. We leave Bdokass. Glacier Tables. The Median 
Moraine of the Baltoro. The Workman Theory of Glacial Ridges. Changes of Nomen- 
clature. Ice-cones and Pyramids. Their Origin. Glacier Lakes and Reservoirs. 
Camping on the Glacier. Conway's Crystal Peak. The Doksam Glacier. The Marble 
Peak. Godwin Austen Glacier. In Sight of K z . 

FROM this point forward the 
narrative may be supplemented 
by the map of the expedition 
comprising the two upper thirds 
of the Baltoro and its formation 
basin, drawn to the scale of 
1 : 100,000. But no description, 
even with the assistance of 
photography, can succeed, I fear, 
in giving a just conception, even 
if a faint one, of this extra- 
ordinary region. To compose 
the picture as far as may be, 
the reader must tax his patience 
to make a careful study of 
Sella's panoramas, which were 
taken from many points, and 
compare them with one another and with the map. It is in order to 
make this possible that not only the topographical stations, but also 
the points from which the photographs were taken, are marked upon 
the triangulation map, and the panoramas provided with the nomen- 
clature and altitudes of the different peaks. In addition, the points 
from which other panoramas were taken are marked with a small cross 




From Kdoknss to the Concordia Amphitheatre. 205 

so as to make comparison easy. The illustrations in the text and the 
plates are intended to give special details from the panoramas. I hope 
that the frequently recurring references to the latter may be justified 
by this explanation. 

On the morning of May 23rd at about eight o'clock, after a little 
hesitation owing to the uncertain look of the weather, we placed our 
trust in the stability of the barometer and in the wind, which seemed 
to be veering from south-west to north-east, and we all set out from 
Rdokass, leaving only the shepherds, a couple of chuprassis and a few 
coolies in Mr. Baines' service. The Duke's plan was to follow the 
return route of the Eckenstein-Pfannl-Guillarmod expedition that is, 
to cut across the Baltoro toward a camping ground at the foot of the 
northern slope, a little above Younghusband glacier, where Conway 
had made his Storage Camp. We skirted the Rdokass ridge downward, 
and crossed the left hand moraine, which consists of good-sized granite 
blocks, and comes from the united marginal moraines of the Yermanendu 
and Mundu glaciers, two affluents much larger than any on the northern 
side, which flow down from the Masherbrum group, separated by a long 
and low spur. We then went a long way up the Baltoro between the 
central and the left-hand lateral moraine. Here the surface was com- 
paratively smooth and the detritus of granite and schist rather fine, 
so that the marching was not very fatigiiing. This part of the glacier 
is dotted with ice-tables, none of them very large or high, and mingled, 
as usual, with cones and broken columns of former tables. The tops 
of these latter had fallen off, and were lying on the surface of the glacier, 
where, by sheltering another small extent of ice from the rays of the 
sun while the surrounding level sunk by melting, they would in time 
form new tables, the process repeating itself indefinitely. After an 
hour's march we stopped to distribute smoked spectacles to the coolies, 
for there was a great deal of fresh snow among the stones, and the 
reverberation was trying, in spite of the cloudy sky. 

We were now drawing nearer the median moraine, which rises 
abruptly to a height of 100 to 200 feet, or even more, above the level 
of the glacier. We finally climbed on top of it, and found ourselves 
amid rugged and broken ice covered with all sorts of minerals, mainly 
limestones and polychrome conglomerates. The extraordinary irregu- 
larity of the surface contrasts curiously with the gentle slopes and the 
structural lines of the valley. We were, above all, struck by the absence 



206 Chapter XII. 

of crevasses, a state of things to be explained only by a level valley 
bottom, unbroken by abrupt falls or projections. But what can then 
be the origin of this labyrinth of heights and hollows ? What are the 
forces which have heaved up the glacier into high cones, into curving 
waves or vertical steps, with every appearance of a surface shaped by 
fracture ? Freshfield attributes the irregularity of surface in the Zemu 
glacier of the Kinchinjunga group to the action of the surface streams, 
which have furrowed and carved out the glacier in every direction. At 
first sight, it does not seem possible that confusion and irregularity on 
such a vast scale as here could be produced by the action of such simple 
forces, even taken together with unevenness of surface melting, which 
would be brought about more actively where the layer of detritus was 
thin, and more slowly where it lay thick enough to protect the ice from 
the sun. The Workmans noticed that the ridges and valleys on the 
Hispar were most pronounced where some big confluent joined the 
glacier and pressed upon it from above with the enormous weight of its 
own moving mass, in some cases even driving the main stream toward 
the other side of the valley. They advanced the hypothesis that the 
surface upheavals are caused by this pressure, which thus forms veritable 
folds in the plastic mass of the glacier. The theory is ingenious, and 
appears the more probable in that many indications in the Baltoro 
glacier seem at first sight to confirm it. Upon this hypothesis the 
long high spinal vertebrae of the Baltoro would be formed by the 
pressure in opposite directions exerted by the Godwin Austen and the 
upper Baltoro, where they meet in the Concordia amphitheatre, a 
pressure increased by the confinement of their united mass within the 
limits of the Baltoro valley, and still further by the force of confluent 
glaciers running into it perpendicular to its axis from the high mountains 
on either side. 

Panorama Q gives a long stretch of this central upheaval of the 
Baltoro, showing how it starts abruptly from the surface of the glacier 
and how its walls are cut into vertical sections, apparently due to 
fracture produced by pressure too great for the elasticity of the glacier. 
The look of the ice recalls, though on a smaller scale, the great dykes 
caused by pressure in the polar ice-pack, where an analogous process 
goes on. Conway, too, attributes the long undulations of the Baltoro 
to pressure brought about by its confinement in the narrow parts of 
the valley. 



From Rdokass to tla- Concordia Amphitheatre. -><)7 

Notwithstanding all this, when two months later we again traversed 
the glacier on our return and saw the extraordinary changes a few weeks 
had been able to effect in digging out fresh valleys and vastly increasing 
the differences of level, we were forced to own that uneven surface 
melting, due to the varying thickness of the moraine layer, is without 
doubt the main factor in the irregularity of the glacier surface. It is 
also possible that the pressure of the glaciers against each other does 
bring about some upheavals and projections of the mass, and that 
these, in their turn, by determining certain falls and displacements of 
detritus, add to the irregularity of the melting process and so contribute 
to the general result. 

We had now nearly reached the mouth of the Younghusband glacier, 
at about the point attained by Godwin Austen in 1861. 1 Although 
we had passed the spot where we had intended to camp, Abdullah and 
the native guides kept on up the glacier instead of crossing it direct 
to the northern side. After long explanations we succeeded in making 
out that the coolies put the stage of Gore above the confluence of the 
Younghusband glacier, where Guillarmod's map has Biange, a mere 
inversion of names. It was obviously wise to profit by the goodwill 
of the porters and make the camp as far up as possible. We therefore 
allowed ourselves to be led without further discussion. The coolies 
were being paid per stage (parad) at the exceptional tariff of seven annas, 
and not by the day, so it was to their interest to march quickly and 
cover two or more stages in a day. 

Inconsistencies in nomenclature are, to my mind, far less surprising 
in this region than the fact that there are any names at all, implying 
a certain familiarity with places which the natives must never have 
visited voluntarily, if one judged by their violent aversion to the glacier, 
which is certainly strong enough to counterbalance any natural 
curiosity. Yet there are other indications which seem to show that 
they have some degree of acquaintance with these ice-bound solitudes. 
As early as 1892, at the time of Con way's visit, a Balti of Askoley made 
on the sand a rough sketch of the district in order to show Eckenstein 
the position of the Mustagh passes, the Baltoro, the Mustagh Tower, 
Masherbrum, Gasherbrum and K 2 . 2 

1 From here Godwin Austen climbed part way up one of the spurs of the southern chain of 
the Baltoro in order to get a view of K *. 

2 See the letter of SIB W. M. CONWAY, in Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc. 14, 1892, p. 857. 



208 



Chapter XII. 



From Rdokass on we observed, as did our predecessors, some higher 
hummocks or pointed cones far too large and broad-based to be 
identified with the pedestals of fallen glacier tables. Little by little 
as we went up these strange formations became more numerous, and 
increased in height up to from 30 to 70 feet or more. They are in shape 
either cones with an oval base or flattened pyramids, whose greatest 




ICE PYRAMID ON THE BALTORO. 



diameter runs parallel to the direction of the valley. They usually 
terminate in a sharp point. On the right side of the glacier, to which 
we had now crossed, we found them large and imposing and arranged 
in rows running in the direction of the moraine. As you go farther 
down they get farther apart, but remain between the same moraine 
lines. The glacier marked with these snow-white pinnacles over a 
dark background of moraine presents an odd appearance like a grave- 
yard with rows of tombstones, or a river dotted with fleets of white 
lateen sails. 



From IMokass to tlie Com-onlia Amphitheatre. .'<)'. 

The first observer to call attention to these ice pyramids was Godwin 
Austen, whom nothing noteworthy escaped. Guillarmod supposes them 
to be seracs fallen from overhanging side glaciers, and reduced to this 
shape by melting. Ferber notes the phenomenon without attempting 
an explanation. They seem to be peculiar to the Baltoro at least, the 
ice cones and pyramids seen by the Workmans on the Hispar and by 
Longstaff on the Siachen, and the glaciers which cut into the upper 




ICE PYRAMIDS. 



Shyok valley, appear to be merely supports of fallen tables. In any 
case, we have no detailed descriptions which would suffice to identify 
them with the pyramids of the Baltoro. 

These formations we observed only as far as the entrance to the 
Concordia basin. We saw none of them on the higher portion of the 
glacier, where the action of melting is equally intense. Exit in the 
Concordia amphitheatre and on the upper Baltoro we saw formations 
which might account for the origin of the pyramids. I mean the long 
high dykes of ice which rise between the dark moraine ridges hollowed 
by melting. They are generally bare of detritus, possibly owing to the 

(9221) o 






210 



Cliaptc-r XII. 



steepness of their sides, and stand out sharply from the moraine-covered 
surface as if the live ice had violently thrust itself up through the shroud 
of detritus. Panoramas K and N show some of these icy crests. Here 
and there they appear already divided into segments and separated 
blocks, in consequence of the melting of the intermediate parts due to 




EMPTY BASIN OF GLACIAL LAKE. 



patches of detritus. Godwin Austen observed on the Baltoro itself, 
in addition to the pyramids, certain oblong blocks with a sharp ridge 
on top, which must have been larger sections of one of these ice dykes. 

In this part of the Baltoro, between the ranks of pyramids, are 
numerous exquisite little lakes, mere collections of water in hollows, 
not fed by streams or provided with outlets. Some of them are covered 
with ice vaults, recalling similar formations on the Agassiz glacier in 



From IMokass to the Coiiconlin Amphitheatre. 211 

Alaska. The ice pyramids poised on the margin of these little laki-s 
are dazzlingly reflected in the translucent water ; or where the basin 
has been emptied the adjacent ice pyramid appears to have added the 
whole depth to its own height. In other places we look through fissures 
into large caverns filled with water up to various levels. Godwin Austen 
made a special study of these spherical reservoirs, noticing outlets upon 
their walls, some of which reached the proportions of real tunnels 











OPENING OF A RESERVOIR. 



traversed by endo-glacial torrents. I must mention also the 
symmetrical conical hillocks on wide bases, entirely covered with 
detritus, which reach sometimes a height of 300 feet. The Workmans, 
who observed similar hillocks on the Hispar, attribute them to thrusts 
acting concentrically from different directions. But Dr. Cesare Calciati 
and Dr. Mathias Koncza, who accompanied the Workmans upon their 
last expedition, think they are due to irregular surface melting. We 
did not get sufficient data to conclude in favour of either hypothesis. 
On our way down from the median moraine to the right half of the 
glacier we crossed a moraine streak of white marbles coming from the 
last glacier on this side of the valley near the Concordia basin. Beyond 

(92:! I) > -1 



L'lL- Chapter XII. 

this point the granite begins again. Here we also found scattered 
pebbles worn to varying degrees of roundness. 

Tattle by little the weather improved. Though the sky did not 
quite clear and light mists were still lingering on some of the peaks, we 
now began to get sight of surrounding summits which told us \ve were 
Hearing the high peaks. It seemed as if the whole southern chain of 
the Baltoro had no other office than to form a base for the marvellous 
Masherbrum. which towered up in its midst, showing a little dimly 




MITRE PEAK WITH ADJACENT SOl'TH WALL OF THE BALTORO. 

through the mist. Its gigantic northern wall is deeply furrowed and 
loaded with glaciers breaking into icefalls down the sides of a 
tremendous central rib of rock. This latter is also covered in great part 
with ice, and leads up to the small horn which forms the topmost peak, 
25,660 feet. The second peak, 25,610 feet high, is hidden behind the first 
one. The foot of the mountain is at least four miles from the Baltoro, 
and the space between is traversed by two large glaciers, the Mnndu 
and Yermanendu, which flow on either side of a long, low and deeply 
indented spur, like a miniature chain of peaks running at right angles 
to the main one. To the east of Masherbrum and beyond a series of 
minor spurs which divide a few secondary valleys, the Baltoro receives 
two more confluents as large as the glaciers of the Masherbrum, flowing 










Gasherbrun 



From IMokass to the Conconlia Amphitheatre. LM:; 

down in great icefalls from precipices loaded with snow. Then comes 
Mitre Peak, a colossal, strangely-shaped crag, which terminates the 
left wall of the valley. In front of us, apparently quite close at hand, 
the transversal chain of the Gasherbrum seems to shut in the valley. 
It is a file of peaks and snow crests, stretching on both sides of the 
precipitous rock wall of the Gasherbrum itself, all ridges and ice gullies, 




c: ASIIKKBRUM. 



and nearly 10,500 feet. It is bounded by two ridges which would meet 
at a sharp angle were they prolonged beyond the truncated peak. To 
the north of the Gasherbrum, on the continuation of the same range, 
the great rounded domes of Broad Peak rise above the last spurs of the 
right wall of the Baltoro, which still project in front of us. Lastly, to 
our rear the Mustagh Tower has detached itself from the lesser peaks 
and stands up alone and menacing. It has not even yet revealed the 
full splendour of its outlines. 

(9221) o 3 



214 



XII. 



About. 4 p.m., after a little over seven hours' marching, when we 
had long passed all the coolies, we found a spot on the moraine which 
was relatively level and free from boulders, at a point half-way between 
Younghusband glacier and the stage of Gore, or Biange, as Gnillarmod 
has it. Here the Duke decided to place the camp. The coolies did not 
arrive until after sunset. They had but ten loads of firewood, all small 
and wet, and they experienced great difficulty in kindling their tiny 




MITRE PEAK FROM THE CAMP BETWEEN RDOKASS AND THE CONCORDIA. 

fires. The sky had clouded over, and it began to snow again. We could 
not leave the poor wretches without shelter for the night with the snow 
falling, so we lent them the two large tarpaulins. Quickly and 
thoroughly the ingenious Baltis cleared two big squares from superfluous 
stones, built a low wall around them, stretched the tarpaulins across, 
and were soon all sheltered, packed as close as herrings, but quite happy 
and satisfied. In order not to encroach upon their slender stock of 
firewood we inaugurated our Primus stoves, which, as usual, required 
our personal supervision for the first few days, until Bareux had time 
to learn how to use them. 



From Rdokass to the Concordia Amphitheatre. ->\:> 

During the night the thermometer fell to several degrees under 
freezing point, and the next morning was very chilly. The air was still 
but slightly veiled, reminding us of the dusty horizons of the Indus 
valley. Our native guides made us descend nearly at once into the 
deep trough between the valley wall and the glacier, fiill of very unstable 
blocks, where the whole march is up and down hill, because one has 
constantly to cross portions of the glacier which jut out on to the rock. 
These stretches were covered with very coarse detritus, upon which you 
must step very lightly, because if you move one block the whole of the 
stony slope above and below you begins to slide down, and the least 
that could happen would be an unexpected plunge in some marginal 
lake. It would doubtless be easier and less dangerous to walk along 
the surface of the glacier, as we should have done but for the violent- 
objection of the coolies to marching on it, not so much on account of 
the cold as from superstitious terrors. 

In less than an hour we reached a little lake at the foot of a 
secondary valley (the next but one after the Younghusband glacier), 
which our coolies called the stage of Gore. Here Conway camped (Pool 
Camp), also the Eckenstein-Pfannl-Guillarmod expedition (Biange) ; 
and one of the two parties set up a cairn, which is still standing. From 
this point Conway ascended a peak of the ridge above, 19,400 feet 
high, which he named Crystal Peak. Thence he discovered the 
Concordia basin and the three mighty glaciers which flow down to it 
the Godwin Austen, the upper Baltoro and the Vigne. This peak 
which Conway climbed has nothing to do with the one 20,587 feet 
high which bears the same name on our map and lies farther east, almost 
directly above Doksam. The latter, which is very well suited to be a 
topographical station of reference, owing to its striking pointed shape, 
was provisionally called Crystal Peak by Negrotto in his surveying 
work, and the name was preserved inadvertently. In the course of a 
topographical campaign it is unavoidable to give some temporary 
conventional name or sign to peaks which have to be identified from 
different stations. Beyond this casual naming the Duke, as I have 
explained, named none of the many peaks measured by us. agreeing 
with Burrard that, until a rational system shall be found, it is better 
to designate peaks simply by their altitudes. 

We now crossed the mouth of another small valley, and at the next 
opening in the wall we left the ice and skirted a gentle grassv slope 

(S-l-21) o 4 



216 Chapter XII. 

where Conway had camped (Fan Camp), and whence he climbed to a 
Diddle on the ridge, from which he had his first sight of K 2 and was 
able to realize the vast dimensions of Broad Peak. 

We finally came back to the glacier proper, where we were able to 
proceed more rapidly and with less fatigue, in a space between two 
bands of moraine, where there were numerous little lakes. In a few 




THE MARBLE PEAK AT THE CORNER BETWEEN THE GODWIN AUSTEN AND THE BALTORO. 



minutes we reached the last confluent glacier on this side of the valley, 
which is not very large, and flows down from a strange-looking peak, 
a pinnacle of pure white marble rising from a wide base of black slaty 
schists. This glacier, like the Liligo, does not reach the Baltoro, but 
ends not far from it, between two moraines of dazzling white marble, 
in a great frontal wall of broken ice like a line of surf. The Shikari 
Abdullah told us that this glacier had totally changed its appearance 
since 1902, when the Eckenstein-Pfannl-Guillarmod expedition camped 
in the space between it and the Baltoro (Doksam Camp). Certainly it 
would not now be possible to set up the tents on the small level that 



1'Yom Kdokass to the Com-onlm Amphitheatre. -i\i 

remains, which is under continual fire from the seracs of the advancing 
glacier. 

We had now nearly reached the end of the Baltoro valley proper. 
At a short distance from us a promontory from the base of the marble 
peak ran down to the glacier. We knew that this was the last obstacle 







FIRST SIGHT OF K '. 

between us and the sight of the Godwin Austen valley and K 2 , which 
lay behind it, and we were seized with unspeakable restlessness and 
fear lest the mist should cut us off from the long-looked-for reward, 
which had been in the background of our consciousness through every 
step of the long way. 

We rounded the spur following the wide sweep of moraine, now 
grown level and even, almost without noticing the vast space of the 
Concordia amphitheatre spread out before us. Suddenly, and without 
warning, as if a veil had been lifted from our eyes, the wide Godwin 



218 Chapter .XII. 

Austen valley lay before us in its whole length. Down at the end, alone, 
detached from all the other mountains, soared up K 2 , the indisputa bit- 
sovereign of the region, gigantic and solitary, hidden from human sight 
by innumerable ranges, jealously defended by a vast throng of vassal 
peaks, protected from invasion by miles and miles of glaciers. Even to 
get within sight of it demands so much contrivance, so much marching, 
such a sum of labours. 

It fills the whole end of the valley, with nothing to draw the attention 
from it. All the lines of the landscape seem to meet and converge in 
it. The mountains group themselves about it. yet without any intrusion 
upon it or interference with its extraordinary upward effort. Its lines 
are ideally proportioned and perfectly balanced, its architectural design 
is powerful, adequate to the majesty of the peak without being heavv ; 
the steepness of its sides, its ridges and its glaciers is appalling ; its 
rocky wall is 12,000 feet high. 

For a whole hour we stood absorbed. We gazed, we minutely 
inspected, we examined with our glasses the incredible rock wall. All 
the time our minds were assailed with increasing doubt, culminating 
almost in certainty, that this side of the mountain was not accessible, 
and did not offer even a reasonable point of attack. Meantime the 
atmosphere grew gradually thicker, the veil of whitish vapour heavier, 
stretching and expanding and melting together, until even the last 
spectral image disappeared and a uniform grey curtain of mist filled 
the end of the valley. The vision was gone. Beneath a lowering sky 
the Concordia ice-plain lost itself to the south in the dim vastness of 
the upper Baltoro. 



CHAPTER XII F. 



FROM CONCORDIA TO THE FOOT OF K 2 . 
PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS AND FIRST ATTEMPT. 

The Concordia Amphitheatre. Confluent Glaciers. The Southern Wall of K '. Broad Peak. 
Gasherbrum, Golden Throne- and Bride Peak. The Arrangement of the Moraines. 
Photogrammetric Work begun. The Lower Part of the Godwin Austen. Structure of 
the Broad-Gasherbrum Range. Height of Broad Peak determined.- The ''Nieves 
Penitentes " of Dr. Workman. The Camp at the Base of K s . Exploration of the Eastern 
and Western Slopes. The Plan of Attack. The Camp moved to the Southern Ridge of 
K *. The Duke leaves the Base Camp. Three Days on the Slopes of K *. Defeat. 
Return to Camp. Coolies and Crows. Snowfalls and Avalanches. 

THE dawn of May 25th found 
us up and abroad. The ther- 
mometer stood at 15 F. On 
the evening before veils of 
mist and cloud-curtains had 
so shrouded the landscape that 
we had not in the least realized 
the incredible spectacle of 
glaciers and mountains which 
now stood revealed in the pale 
light of morning. The air was 
perfectly still and just lightly 
dimmed, like a crystal breathed 
upon, yet clear enough to show 
every detail of the marvellous 
scene. 1 

We had camped on one side of the huge glacial cross roads, named 
by Conway the Concordia, after the glacial basin of the Oberland, in 
which the Aletsch, the largest glacier in Europe, has its source. 




1 Sec tin- map of the Baltoro and panoramas C and D. 



220 



XIII. 



The basin is formed by the bifurcation of the Baltoro valley, at the 
foot of the bastion made by the Broad Peak (Gasherbrum range). One 
of the two branches of the valley is the Godwin Austen, which goes up 
northward to K 2 . The other is the Upper Baltoro, which runs south- 
east to Golden Throne and Bride Peak. Both valleys then curve east- 
ward, and combined they form a letter C made up of nearly 31 miles 




MITRE PEAK FROM THE CORNER BETWEEN THE BALTORO AND THE GODWIN AUSTEN. 



of glaciers. In addition to these, two other good-sized glaciers come 
into the Concordia from the western walls of the Broad-Gasherb rum 
chain. They meet directly outside their own valleys, and wedge 
themselves between the Baltoro and the Godwin Austen, crossing the 
basin in a white stripe of bare ice between the moraines of the two main 
glaciers. These four main affluents alone are at least five miles broad, 
without counting the numberless smaller tributaries coming in from 



From ( 'onrordia to the Foot of K ~. 221 

the valleys, gorges and couloirs of the mountain chains ; while the 
basin which receives them all is only two and a half miles in diameter, 
and the Baltoro valley itself, into which the whole mass is compressed, 
le^s than two miles broad. The entrance to the latter is guarded by 
two characteristic heights to the north Conway's Angle Peak, a marble 
summit 20,088 feet high ; and to the south the bizarre tooth-shaped 
Mitre Peak, 20,462 feet high, entirely composed of black schist. 




SOUTHERN VIEW OP K '. 



On every side the eye meets a spreading vista of wide valleys filled 
with almost level glaciers, which go up at a gentle slope among the lofty 
chains. The Godwin Austen is composed of parallel stripes of black 
and white, formed by the alternation of bare ice and moraine detritus. 
It runs northward for six miles to the base of K 2 , which rises, a pyramid 
of rock, 12,000 feet high from base to summit, between two ridges that 
outline themselves to west and east against the sky. The first of these 
is all rock, running straight down to the valley. The second forms 
a broad ice-covered shoulder nearly 3,000 feet below the terminal peak, 
from the edge of which it drops in a very steep descent divided into 



2-2-2 Chapter XIII. 

two minor crests. In the centre of the pyramid another great rocky 
ridge comes down directly south-west to a narrow icy saddle ( Negro tto 
Pass, 21,322 feet), beyond which it shoots up in a graceful snowy peak 
(22,490 feet high) of a slender pointed shape, recalling our own Grivola. 
The neighbourhood of the colossus robs it of all significance. 

The southern face of the mountain is cut obliquely by a glacier 
coming down from the eastern shoulder in four great leaps or cascades 




LOWER PEAKS OF THE CASHKKBKUM RANGE. BY TELEPHOTOGRAPHY. 



of seracs, separated by slanting terraces. All the ridges and gullies of 
the wall are exposed to its avalanches. The terminal cone, from the 
saddle up, shows plainly the stratification of the rocks. Every moun- 
taineer will recognize, at first sight of the illustrations, the resemblance 
of K 2 , as seen from the south, to the Matterhorn. 

The valley appears to end at the foot of the mountain ; instead 
of which it bends abruptly north-east, and runs in between K 2 and 
the northern slopes of Broad Peak. The heavy and massive outline 
of the latter, surmounted by its three huge rounded peaks, comprises 
in itself almost the whole left side of the Godwin Austen vallev. A 



From Concordia to the Foot of K ~. 



228 



short broken ridge joins it to Gasherbrum IV, whose summit rises above 
the spur dividing its two western glaciers. From the Gasherbrums 
the chain extends toward the south in a ragged edge of rocks and 
snowy peaks to form the western side of the Concordia amphitheatre 
and the upper Baltoro. 

The upper Baltoro rises gently toward the south-east, and has an 
aspect similar to that of the Godwin Austen. It is covered with stripes 




BRIDE TEAK FROM THE GODWIN AUSTEN, NEAR THE CONCORDIA. 



of moraine, which grow narrower and farther apart as they go up the 
valley, and are divided by wider and wider spaces of bare ice ; it runs 
to the foot of a mountain whose broad, rounded top is covered with 
glaciers. This is Conway's Golden Throne, some 15 or 16 miles distant 
from the Concordia. Here the Baltoro turns eastward and disappears 
from view. A wide glacier-covered depression separates Golden Throne 
from Bride Peak on the west. The latter, too, is white with snow. It 
turns toward us its characteristic northern wall, shaped like a 
trapezium, topped by a long ridge, the ends of which form the two 
peaks of the mountain. The one to the east, 325 feet higher than 
the other, is a station of the Indian Survey (Karakoram No. 8, 
25,110 feet). From Bride Peak a long spur runs northward toward us, 



L>:M Chapter XIII. 

ending in a sharp angle. Between it and Mitre Peak opens the Vigne 
valley, which contains the third largest glacier of the Concordia basin. 

The picture presented by the mountain groups just described, which 
close our horizon to the south with their glacier-covered flanks, is 
entirely different from that formed by the precipitous rocks of K 2 and 
the crags of the western ranges extending to the Gasherbrum and 
beyond. The eye and mind of the mountaineer turn for relief to the 
broad curving lines of Golden Throne and the snowy sides and ice- 
covered wall of Bride Peak, since everywhere else he looks he sees 
nothing but perpendicular rocks, sheer precipices thousands of feet 
high, turreted battlements of rock, needles, pinnacles, sheets of ice 
bordered with great cornices, walls and gorges running at extravagant 
angles up to extravagant heights, crowned by seracs, and showing 
everywhere the gleam of living ice. Yet, despite it all, one felt the 
compelling and irresistible ambition toward a closer acquaintance and 
more intimate knowledge of the lonely giant which so few men before 
us had ever even beheld. 

It was only on the return journey, after the end of the campaign 
upon K 2 , that the rare occurrence of two days of unbroken fine weather 
enabled Sella to take panoramas C and D the first from the outer base 
angle of the marble peak which stands on the corner between the 
Baltoro and Godwin Austen glaciers (17,329 feet) ; the second from a 
point opposite the first, 17,917 feet high, on the western ridge of the 
Gasherbrum. Taken together these two panoramas show the whole 
region of which the Concordia basin is the centre, and the great glacial 
streams that converge in it. They also bring out clearly the arrange- 
ment of the moraines, which is almost geometrical in its regularity. 
It seems unbelievable that a haphazard combination of rocks, ice and 
snow on so vast a scale could result in such a harmony of line and form. 
The long, sinuous bands of moraine, converging and blending into one, or 
remaining separate and running down in pairs of rigidly parallel lines 
as far as the eye can follow them into the lower Baltoro, seem like a 
graphic representation of the movement of the glacial masses, and give 
one a very definite idea of the ice-flow. The panoramas show likewise 
the series of ranges running up and up, one behind the other, to the 
last point of vision and beyond, as well as the innumerable host of peaks 
that tower above them. The work of triangulation carried out on the 
photogrammetric survey of the expedition has designated a considerable 



From Concordia to tin- Foot of Iv '-'. >>:> 

number of these peaks, ascertaining their height and position ; but there 
remain countless others, by no means small or unimportant, not indicated 
by any sign upon the map. 

On our first view of it, in the morning of May 25th, the landscape 
was still shrouded in the spring snows. It looked quite different at the 
end of June, when Sella took his photographs. The impression made 
upon us was so strong, so moving, that no words can convey it to the 
reader. It was like no other experience, it provoked no recollections 
or comparisons. So inconceivably vast are the structural lines of the 
landscape, that the idea comes into one's mind of being in the workshop 
of nature, and of standing before the primeval chaos and cosmos of 
a world as yet unvisited by the phenomenon of life. 

In all Alpine ascents one knows one has left the green fields, the 
trees and the villages only a day behind ; and from all the heights one 
looks down on the green mantle of verdure covering the earth. The 
bare rocks and ice are but limited areas, not huge unconfined wastes. 
Here one is conscious of not a single manifestation of life. It is com- 
parable to the polar regions in this respect, but in no other, for instead 
of the monotonous horizons of the far north, all the landscape around 
K 2 has the richest variety of design, the greatest majesty of form, and 
an infinite diversity of plane and perspective. 

The scale is far too vast for one to receive an impression of the whole 
at once. The eye can only take in single portions. For a long time 
we did not become fully conscious of the dimensions of the landscape. 
We had no standards of comparison, and the glaciers and valleys are so 
well adjusted in their proportions to the surrounding mountains that 
it was hard to realize the absolute size of any object. All this was 
revealed to us gradually, by dint of daily contemplation and detailed 
observation, most of all by repeated failures in estimating heights and 
distances. Thus it happened that our amazement, instead of 
diminishing with familiarity, grew greater every day, and this extra- 
ordinary region never made a more profound impression upon us than 
on the day when we bade it farewell. 

The Concordia basin, lying in the heart of the ranges, at the junction 
of their greatest glaciers, is the place above all others adapted for the 
base or point of departure for topographical work. Four of the most 
important trigonometrical stations of the region are visible from it K 2 , 
Gasherbrum IV. Bride Peak (Karakoram No. 8) and Masherbrum I. 

(ill'-'l) P 



-r XIII. 

For this reason the Duke had arranged the evening before that we 
three should remain at the Concordia for a whole day, while he, with 
the guides and the bulk of the luggage, went up the Godwin Austen 
glacier to the foot of K 2 to look for a suitable spot for a base camp, 
whence he could conduct operations upon all the slopes of the mountain. 
This plan was carried out. Unfortunately the misty atmosphere, which 
later became actual fog, prevented Sella from doing any photographic 
work. Negrotto, however, succeeded in getting out two panoramas 
available for topographical purposes. 

The next morning we said good-bye to Mr. Baines, who went back 
to Edokass with all the coolies except the ten chosen to remain with 
us. We then set out to join our leader at the foot of K 2 . The weather 
was perfect, for the first time since we had set foot on the glacier. The 
clear sky, the pure transparent air and the splendour of the sunlit snows, 
seemed to us like a welcome to the region, and filled our minds with tin- 
boldest hopes. 

For some distance we proceeded along a tongue of ice between two 
stripes of the left-hand moraine. On this side, between the Concordia 
amphitheatre and K 2 , the Godwin Austen receives two affluents. The 
lower comes in between the Crystal Peak chain and a short ridge that 
runs up to the water shed ; the second is a more considerable glacier, 
coming from the western slopes of K 2 . Between the two, at the foot 
of the intervening spur, the Eckenstein-Pfannl-Guillarmod expedition 
placed their Camp VIII. We were gradually getting nearer the centre 
of the glacier, which is occupied by wide median moraines still largely 
snow-covered. The snow lay very unevenly : in some places a couple 
of feet deep ; in others, even outside the moraine, it had quite dis- 
appeared. All the longitudinal furrows of the glacier had water 
running in them from the surface melting, covered by a more or less 
thick sheet of ice. Some of us, walking rather incautiously, went in 
over our knees in the icy water. 

We walked at an easy pace up the hardly perceptible slope, glad 
to have left behind the rough moraines of the Baltoro. . The sun was 
mild and the reverberation not severe. Little wisps of tourmente raised 
by the wind floated here and there over the high ridges, moving across 
the pale blue sky. Immense chains rose all about us as far as the eye 
could see. In spite of their size, the mountains have all the bold design 
to be seen anywhere in the Alps the barren precipices, the snowy 



From ('oiK'onlia to the Foot of K '-'. ?>! 

slopes and the upward thrust of slender peaks, the ample curving 
cornices, the multiform broken architecture of seracs, and the over- 
weighted glaciers hanging on vertical rocks. But all this exists with 
such luxuriance and upon such a gigantic scale, that one stands 
bewildered in the midst of a scene that seems to beggar the human 
imagination. 




THE WESTERN FACE OF BROAD PEAK. 



The left wall of this part of the Godwin Austen is largely formed 
by a low screen of black rock, which detaches itself from the western 
crest of Broad Peak and runs southward. Behind it the glaciers of the 
whole enormous wall of Broad Peak fall down and run together. 
Wherever this wall is not covered with ice one, can see distinctly the 
light grey rock arranged in broad strata. We had already noted the 
similar appearance of the rock in the spurs of the Gasherbrums. From 
an examination of the moraines that have their origin in the various 
mountains, we were able to ascertain that the whole chain of Broad 
Peak and the Gasherbrums, including Hidden Peak and Golden Throne 
as well, is a sedimentary formation ; while the outer curve of the letter 
C formed by the two great valleys, covering all the distance from 

(9221) p -2 



228 Chapter XIII. 

Staircase to Bride Peak, taking in the pyramid of K 2 , is composed of 
crystalline rocks, granites, gneiss and quartzes, with the single exception 
of the marble peak which forms the corner between the lower Baltoro 
and the Godwin Austen. This last appears to be a splinter broken 
off from the calcareous mass of the other side of the valley. Ing. 
Novarese has confirmed our conclusions by an analysis of the mineral 
specimens brought back by the expedition. With the aid of our 
descriptions and Bella's photographs he has been able to reconstruct 
on its general lines the geological scheme of the high glacier basin. 
Most interesting to observe is the close analogy between its structure 
and that of the great glacial valley of the Siachen, which lies south-east 
of the upper Baltoro. Dr. Longstaff, who explored the latter in this 
same summer of 1909, and demonstrated for the first time its vast 
extent, mentions the fact that it is contained within a compound 
formation, one wall being a granite chain to the south-west, and the 
other, on the north-east, a range of limestone sedimentary rock. The 
latter contains Mount Teram Kangri, 24,500 feet high. 

The presence of calcareous rock in the Gasherbrums is sufficiently 
evident, and did not entirely escape the observation of Conway. He 
says that the Concordia basin is surrounded by mountains in which 
one can distinguish alternate black and pale grey streaks of gneiss, 
granite and limestone. T. G. Bonney and Miss C. A. Raisin, who made 
the mineralogical report of Conway 's expedition, concluded from their 
examination of the specimens brought back that " a considerable mass 
of sedimentary rock must be infolded from Gasherbrum to Golden 
Throne." Guillarmod only mentions the white marbles of the Doksam 
glacier, near the angle between the Baltoro and the Godwin Austen. 1 
But up to now the vast extension of sedimentary rock had not been 
suspected by any one, nor the fact that it forms the chief constituent 
of the whole mighty barrier which interrupts the course of the Baltoro 
on the west. Even in the recent monograph of Burrard and Hayden. 
the axis of the great Himalayan peaks and of the mountain systems 
belonging to them is described as a granite formation. 

It is probable that the thick-set form and huge mass of Broad Peak 
rather blinded Godwin Austen and Conway to its remarkable height. 

1 He says also that marble has been found " sur les flancs mfimes du Chogori " (K *), without 
more precise indication ; but we are unable to confirm the existence of limestone in the rocks 
ofK*. 



From Concordia to the Foot of Iv '-'. 229 

The result obtained by triangulation from Negrotto's data shows it to 
possess a peak 27,132 feet high, flanked by two others of 26,024 and 
26,000 feet. No other mountain over 27,000 feet has been found since 
1858, and Burrard considered it improbable that there would be further 
discoveries of peaks 27,000 or even 26,000 feet high. In a list of our 
highest known mountains Broad Peak would occupy the sixth place, 
those ranking above it being Mount Everest, K 2 , the two peaks of 
Kinchinjunga, and Malaku in the Everest group. Ah 1 these peaks have 
been measured from several stations, with all the exactitude at present 
obtainable, considering that there exist some elements not precisely 
calculable, such as that of refraction, which thus remain sources of 
possible error. The peaks recently discovered are still awaiting the 
confirmation of further observations carried out from different stations 
and with more precise methods. 

In our first stage on the Godwin Austen we did not, as this long 
digression would seem to indicate, concentrate our attention on Broad 
Peak. K 2 had too great a fascination for us, now that we could observe 
it from base to summit. As we approached it the wall appeared to 
grow less steep, but, on the other hand, the obstacles became more 
evident the live ice of the gullies, dominated by overhanging seracs ; 
the gleam of wrglas on the rocks ; the sheer precipices showing every- 
where on the face of the wall. We left the central moraine where it 
began to curve toward the base of the south-western spur, and walked 
across on the glacier to the left-hand marginal one. Where it rounds the 
western angle of Broad Peak the glacier is heaved up in folds cut and 
broken in every direction, forming a perfect cataract of seracs. These 
waves, gradually diminishing in height, reach to the centre of the glacier, 
and there form in regular rows of small seracs along the sides of long 
flat corridors, which afford an easy and rapid progress. Dr. Workman 
would call these formations " nieves penitentes, serac variety." The 
term nieves penitentes is generally used to designate specific surface 
formations of the snow in the Andes mountains and other places, caused 
either by melting or by the wind. Dr. Workman has, in repeated 
publications, 1 urged its extension to all the manifold projections and 

1 W. HUXTER WORKMAN, Geog. Jour. 31, 1908, pp. 34 and 394 ; 32, 1908, p. 139 ; 34, 1909, 
]i. 570; Zeit. fiir Oletsrherk. 2, 1907, p. 22; 3, 1909, part 4; also the volumes written by him 
and MRS. WORKMAN, Peaks and Glaciers of the Nun Kun. London 1909 ; The Call of the Snowy 
Jf/x/xir. London 1910, etc. 

p 3 



XIII. 



protuberances which render uneven the surface of mountain ice or snow, 
and has created at will a complicated classification, distinguishing eight 
varieties and three sub-varieties. It is not easy to understand the 
advantage gained from confounding the most diverse glacial formations. 
which have neither origin, production nor composition in common. 




SOUTHERN WALL OF K -. 



We directed our steps straight toward the angle at the right side 
of the glacier which cuts the southern wall of K 2 and flows out on the 
Godwin Austen with a high front of seracs, like the tributaries of the 
Baltoro. At the foot of this glacier is a small stretch of marginal 
moraine, shut in between the valley wall and the side of the Godwin 
Austen, below a depression in the south-western spur of K 2 ( Negro tto 
Pass). Here there was a refuge from falling stones and ice, protected 



From ( 1 oiK-onlia to the Foot of K -. L'.II 

on three sides from the wind, and getting the sun from early morning 
till four in the afternoon. Upon this spot the Duke had fixed his camp. 
K 2 towered up immediately above us, but so foreshortened as to lose 
much of its height it does not seem possible that it rises to nearly 
12,000 feet above us. Broad Peak is opposite, across the valley ; while 
to westward rises a beautiful snowy range with inaccessible cliffs. It 
forms the right side of the glacier that curves about the western side 
of K 2 , and empties itself upon the Godwin Austen in a great wave of 
seracs. To the south there is a spreading view that ends in the gentle 
and reposeful outlines of Bride Peak and the snowy saddle on its left. 

The camp was deserted when we reached it. The Duke, according 
to his habit, had not lost an hour, but set to work at once. Accom- 
panied by Giuseppe Petigax and Enrico Brocherel, he had reached the 
mouth of the glacier which comes into the Godwin Austen below the 
camp, and climbing its terminal cascade, not without considerable 
difficulty, gradually rounded the end of the south-western spur of K 2 . 
Beyond the seracs the glacier expands into a wide valley running north- 
ward below an impregnable wall of rock, the western flank of K 2 . The 
valley ends in a broad rounded col, upon which descends the north- 
western ridge of the mountain, which is less steep than the southern 
ridge. If one could, with the help of the coolies, once set up a camp 
on this saddle, there would remain only about 6,500 feet to conquer 
between it and the peak. The Duke climbed the glacier up past its 
centre, searching on his return for some way of access to the valley 
that would be easier for the coolies than the route over broken ice, full 
of treacherous cracks, by which he had entered it. The furrow between 
the glacier and the rock on the left side of the valley gave him what 
he sought, and at three in the afternoon he returned to the camp. 

In the meantime a second party, composed of Alexis and Emilio 
Brocherel, Bareux and Savoie, had gone up the Godwin Austen above 
the camp to examine the eastern slopes of K 2 . Their report was not 
very encouraging. The long north-eastern ridge was out of the 
question, as well as the whole eastern side of the mountain, which was 
extremely steep, covered with ice and exposed to avalanches of seracs. 
They then turned their attention to a ridge of rock visible from the 
camp, running directly up from the glacier to the edge of the great 
snowy shoulder of the mountain. This was the only route that looked 
at all possible to them. 

(9221) P 4 



282 



Chapter XIII. 



Thus on the first day after reaching the foot of K 2 the Duke had 
already made a cursory examination of two-thirds of the circumference 
of the mountain. Nowhere had he discovered an easy, obvious and 
safe route to the peak, and the undertaking assumed a doubtful hue. 
Nor did there appear to be in the neighbourhood any low saddle, any 
easy pass, by which to get over and examine the northern side. More- 
over, Colonel Sir Francis Younghusband, who had seen the northern 




THE BASE CAMP AND RIGHT WALL OF THE SAVOIA GLACIER. 



side of K 2 from no great distance, described its precipitous and 
forbidding aspect in terms that left very little to hope for a route on that 
side. The Duke decided to act at once upon the knowledge already 
gained, but before choosing any one slope in preference to others, he 
waited in order to examine for himself on the morrow the rocky ridge 
which Alexis Brocherel had proposed for a. trial. 

Meanwhile we had sent the coolies back to bring up the few 
remaining loads left behind at the Concordia. By May 27th we had 









Camp at the base of the southern Wall of K 2 



From Concordiu to 1 lie Foot of K ''. 233 

established our camp and were provisioned for a month, sufficient for 
a long siege. The tents were set up in two rows on the levelled stony 
surface of the moraine, with the little settlement of coolies a hundred 
feet away and a little below us. Our stores were sheltered within stone 
walls with the tarpaulins stretched over them. Thus the place 
(Camp III on the map) was, in all its arrangements, a permanent 
encampment and point of departure for the explorations to take place 
on K 2 . A series of meteorological observations was kept up there, 
synchronous with those carried on at Rdokass and the four Kashmir 
stations. The result gave for the camp a height of 16,493 feet, 1 and 
it became a second station of reference next to Rdokass, for the calcula- 
tions of pressure readings taken by the expedition on the glaciers that 
girdle the base of K 2 . 

The Duke decided to make the attempt on the southern ridge of 
the mountain. It is certainly steeper and longer than the north- 
western crest, which runs down to the col at the head of the glacier he 
had already explored. But, on the other hand, it had certain 
advantages. In the first place, there was not the unknown quantity 
of the climb up the ice-wall to arrive at the col. And more important 
still, the slope faced full south and got the sun from early in the morning. 
This is a consideration of the greatest importance in ascents above 
24,000 feet, as the intense cold can prove not only a difficulty, but a 
grave danger to the explorer. 

The route being chosen, it remained to settle upon a plan of 
campaign. Almost everywhere on the ridge we could see with our 
binoculars the gleam of verglas, bare ice, hard and polished like crystal, 
which gives the last touch of difficulty and danger to a climb. How- 
ever, we hoped that a few days' sun and wind might lay bare the rugged 
rock, where one would be able to get a grip with hands and nailed boots. 
About 3,500 feet above the valley there stood out from the ridge a 
prominent rock of a reddish-yellow colour. The plan was to make a 
high camp there with the Whymper tents, so as to be able to wait a 
few days if necessary. The small light Mummery tents are no protection 
against the weather, being good only for temporary night shelters. 
From this spot the Duke hoped to gain the shoulder of the mountain, 
making an intermediate light camp with the Mummery tents. The 

1 16,512 feet mi the map. For the discrepancy in the figures see the discussion of the alti- 
metric data in Chapter XIX. 



L':;-I (Chapter XIII. 

peak itself, from the shoulder up, looked inaccessible from where we 
were ; but even if it proved quite impossible on nearer view, the 
conquest of the shoulder (25.354 feet) was in itself an undertaking amply 
worth while. 

Despite the most painstaking and rigid selection of equipment, our 
luggage, consisting of tents, sleeping-bags, food for a week, cooking 
apparatus and paraffin, and the Alpine outfit, made a considerable 
weight and .bulk which we knew not how to reduce further. It was 
useless to embark on such a project without being armed at all points. 
But a calciilation of ways and means brought us to the irresistible 
conclusion that it would not be possible for any of us to accompany 
the Duke. He therefore made up his mind to go alone, with all the 
resources of the expedition, intent on reaching the highest possible 
point at a dash. Then, if his powers did not hold out to the last proof. 
he would come back, leaving the tents on the ridge, and handing 
on the undertaking to one of us, who would have the advani 
of fresh strength and the fact that the equipment was already on 
the spot. 

We discussed all these details, and made ready the loads with the 
greatest care. The mountains about us were constantly flinging down 
long white avalanches of snow, enveloped in flying dusthke clouds, and 
filling the valleys with rumbling echoes. During these two days of good 
weather we had had a prevailing east and north-east wind, but now 
towards evening it was veering to the south-east and the air became 
somewhat less pure. 

Guides, porters and coolies worked for two days, carrying the 
necessary equipment up to the ridge. We meanwhile occupied our- 
selves with the never-finished task of adjusting the camp, arranging 
the tents more suitably, filling up with stones the holes in the ice to 
prevent the formation of puddles, and levelling off surfaces with pick- 
axes. The weather became bad again. The wind whistled on the hiirh 
ridges as violently as on the Alps in winter. Storms raged about the 
summits and snowy peaks, and long streamers of fog, tattered and 
tenuous, were brought up by the south-west wind. The veils of mist 
gradually thickened and settled down layer after layer around K 2 and 
Broad Peak. Above the Concordia basin the sky was all streaked with 
clouds, which hung dark and lowering over the entrance to the Baltoro. 
The temperature remained steadily below freezing point. There were 



From Connmlia to the Foot of K '-'. 



285 



no more avalanches, and when the wind was down the silence was so 
unbroken as to become oppressive. 

On the morning of May 30th all was ready. The weather had not 
changed and the mountains looked sinister. We bade adieu to our 
leader with good wishes, which did not succeed in disguising from 
ourselves the insecurity we felt as to the outcome of his bold under- 
taking. The simple fact is that these are not mountains like 
other mountains, and one cannot look at them without 'disquiet and 
foreboding. 




THE DUKE LEAVING THE BASE CAMP. 



The Duke was accompanied by the three guides, the four porters 
and the coolies, carrying their own tents and supply of chupattis. He 
crossed the front of the glacier that comes down from the southern wall 
of K 2 , and went up the Godwin Austen to the foot of the southern 
ridge, some 500 feet higher than the base camp, traversing the broken 
margin of the glacier and the shallow depression between it and the wall, 
and climbing up over broken detritus loosely scattered over the solid 
rock. The incline was moderate. He kept close to the right side of 
the ridge, and reached a sheltered sunny nook (18,245 feet high) at the 
base of a rocky tooth, where the guides deposited the equipment. Little 



23C 



Chapter XIII. 



levels were soon made by means of retaining walls, for the two 
\\ hvmper tents. The coolies camped close by. After a few hours of 
rest and some food, the guides, porters and coolies, with their loads, 
.started on again. But only a short distance from the tents the coob'es 
flung down their burdens and turned back, despite the commands and 
entreaties of the guides. The latter kept on climbing between the 
principal ridge and a secondary one to the east of it, and then by small 



I 




SOUTHERN RIDGE OF K -. 

ravines and divisional crests, till they reached a narrow saddle less than 
1,000 feet above the camp. The rock was broken and mingled with 
snow and ice, but thus far the way had not been difficult, though here 
and there exposed to falling stones. They put down their loads on this 
saddle, and went back to the tents. 

May 31st turned out unexpectedly fine and still. The loads now 
weighed only 25 Ibs., and the coolies consented to take them and follow 
the guides up to the saddle. A steep icy couloir runs down to it, divides 
and continues lower down in two branches. It was impossible to climb 



From Coiu'ordiii to the Foot of K '-'. ->w 

up along the rocks on the sides of the couloirs, so the guides went up 
the gully itself, leaving the coolies at the bottom with Bareux. They 
climbed for a short distance on hard snow, then on bare ice, sticking 
to the left side in order to utilize the rocky projections, on which they 
fixed more than 100 yards of rope for a help to those coming after with 
the loads. In this way they gained 600 feet, and then succeeded in 
clambering up the rock some 300 feet more. They turned back at 
about three in the afternoon, after having reached a height of certainly 
20,000 feet. In two hours they were again at the tents. 

In the meantime the Duke had remained alone at the camp, and 
had taken this opportunity to examine minutely the central portion of 
the Godwin Austen. From where he was he had a view of the whole 
formidable northern wall of Broad Peak and of the semi-circular basin 
which connects it with the left-hand ridge of the upper glacier. He 
noted in the edge of this basin a depression easily reached by a wide 
couloir full of snow, and he made up his mind to climb this later on 
in order to examine the region east of the Gasherbrums. Avalanches 
of ice were hurling themselves down from Broad Peak at frequent 
intervals, and even at this distance he could hear their roar. 

From all that they had been able to ascertain from the ridge above 
the couloir, the guides thought there would be no very grave obstacles 
to encounter ; but it was plain that the ascent would take much longer 
than they had thought. For this reason the Duke sent six coolies back 
to the base camp next morning to bring up provisions for a longer stay. 
They came down roped together, bringing us a letter from the Duke, 
which we naturally received with great eagerness. The sun and wind 
had bronzed even the tough skins of these Baltis ; but they were in their 
usual good temper, and started back directly the things were ready- 
food for themselves and for the Europeans, extra rope and pickaxes. 

In the meanwhile those on the ridge had lost no time, even though 
the weather had again turned adverse. The guides and porters, free 
from the encumbrance of luggage, left the tents in the morning bent 
on exploring a good stretch of the ridge to find out if it offered a chance 
of ascent before fetching up more impedimenta, perhaps uselessly. 
They climbed rapidly to the saddle, then on up the couloir by the rope 
left there the day before. This height gained, they found themselves 
on a slender crest of rocks quite broken and crumbling, so as to give 
no security to the foot nor safe hold for the hands. On one side went 



Chapter XIII. 

down steeply into the valley the couloir by which they had come up ; 
on the other a dizzy steep of ice descended to the Godwin Austen. 
3.000 feet and more below. The guides were unanimous in telling the 
story of the incredible optical illusions they suffered, all due to the 
deceptiveness of these mountains. Slabs of rock which at a few yards 
distant looked like gentle and easy inclines, turned out to be little less 
than perpendicular. It was impossible to estimate the grade of the 
slopes or the distances between salient points of the ascent. These 
conditions had misled them when, on the day before, they had measured 
with their eyes the route above the couloir. 

The cold wind had raised up a little tourmente, fortunately not 
enough to interfere with their progress. They went on for three hours, 
with all the slowness and precautions rendered necessary by the 
difficulties of the route, climbing always toward the reddish rock where 
the Duke had hoped to set \ip camp, and never reaching it, though it 
seemed constantly within a few steps of them. It would be necessary 
to fix ropes all the way, for the porters to use in fetching up the loads. 
As for the coolies, taking them over such rough ground was not to be 
thought of. 

The guides finally came to the reluctant conchision that it was 
useless to proceed further, not because they had encountered insur- 
mountable obstacles, but because it was hopeless to think of bringing 
so long and formidable an ascent to a successful issue, when from the 
very first steps they had met with such difficulties as made the climb 
barely possible to guides not hampered by loads, and put out of the 
question the conveying of luggage necessary to keep one from perishing 
of cold and exhaustion. They came slowly back, gathering up the 
rope they had put along the way. The Duke heard their report, and 
wisely decided to relinquish the attack in that direction. 

The next day, June 2nd, before 12 o'clock we were again united, 
and we ceased our anxious scrutiny of the ridge through our telescope. 
The, weather grew steadily worse, and before evening it began to snow 
heavily. It was fortunate that the Duke had at least been able to 
satisfy himself of the actual conditions to be faced on the ridge of K 2 . 
Among other things the experience had proved that the coolies, when 
properly equipped and protected, can hold out in the high camps, and 
can even do without fire, at least for some days. At the base camp 
they seemed very much at home. They spent their time squatting 



From Conconlia to the Foot of K '-'. 239 

about their little fires, which they tended with the utmost care and 
economy, and boiling tea in our empty provision tins. They do not 
carry fire, like the Bakonjo in Africa, always coming to beg matches of 
us directly we reached a stage. We noticed on our arrival at the base 
camp their number had increased to eleven, by the addition of a chief 
or Jemadar. He went up with the others to the upper ridge, but came 
back with an attack of acute enteritis, and we were obliged to send 
him down to Rdokass with the first provision caravan. In the absence 
of a head, personal relations were established between ourselves and 
the coolies. Though we could only communicate by means of a few 
words of Urdu our guides had picked up in former Himalayan expeditions, 
there were no difficulties or misunderstandings, and we led a life of the 
utmost harmony up to the end. 

Mr. Baines sent us regular caravans, bringing fowls, eggs and roast 
mutton, as well as wood and chupattis for the coolies. But our rations 
were always sufficient and well-balanced, and we preferred our tinned 
foods to the Rdokass meat. The eggs, however, were always a great 
addition. Every seven or eight days we received post, with wonderful 
and gratifying regularity. 

Our constant companions in camp were a dozen great crows, who 
hopped about among the tents, picking up remnants of food and dis- 
playing rather curiosity than fear of us. Every time an exploring party 
set out and made a camp elsewhere, a pair or so of these crows attended 
them. They actually followed the Duke to the ridge of K 2 . Some- 
times we saw a stray falcon sweeping the sky 3,000 or 4,000 feet 
above the valley. Later in the season the small rodents we had seen 
at Rdokass made their appearance and maintained existence, one knew 
not how, amid surroundings that seemed incompatible with any sort 
of animal life. Sella even saw some of them at nearly 18,000 feet of 
altitude on the rocky ridges around the Concordia basin. 

Negrotto had profited by a few hours of clear weather to continue 
the survey of the Godwin Austen with the tacheometer and photo- 
grammetric camera. The surrounding mountains rise so high and so 
abruptly above the valley that it was necessary to go for some distance 
away from them on the glacier in order to get their summits into the 
picture although the camera was fitted with a wide angle lens ; while 
with the tacheometer one is never certain of sighting exactly the 
mountain summits with the telescope. 



240 Chapter XIII. 

It snowed uninterruptedly for twenty-four hours. Then on June 3rd 
the great curtain of fog was rent in every direction, and peaks and 
mountain walls emerged in fresh splendour. Some light wreaths of 
mist still hanging about the slopes looked grey against the dazzling 
whiteness of the snow. The mountains were not slow to shake off its 
weight, and on every side the snow barely deposited on the steep inclines 
began to fall off and slide down into the reservoirs which feed the 
sources of the great ice rivers. The valleys resounded with the noise. 
We had a perfectly clear and calm sunset. The lofty snows of K 2 were 
tinged with yellow. The most delicate wisp of rose-coloured cloud 
barely hid the topmost peak, and a triple shadow flung itself all across 
the mighty wall, growing more and more distinct. The moon, not 
yet in sight, was projecting upon K 2 the giant profile of Broad Peak, 
while the northern face of the latter still diffused a tranquil white light 
from its snowy surface. Far to the south Bride Peak stood out white 
and clear against the steel-blue sky. Now the valley shook to the roar 
of an avalanche of ice prolonged, cyclopean. The temperature had 
gone down to several degrees below freezing, and we reluctantly turned 
from the splendour of the moonlit night to take refuge in our warm 
sleeping-bags. 

On the morrow would begin the execution of a new plan of campaign. 




Broad Peak, at sunset 



CHAPTER XIV. 



THE SAVOIA GLACIER AND PASS. 

The Duke's new Plan. The Camp moved to the West of K *. Going up the Savoia Glacier. 
Preliminary Excursions. Cold and Bad Weather. Mountain Climbing, Photography and 
Topography. The Western Wall of K B . Ascent of Savoia Col. Disappointment. 
Sir Francis Younghusband's Description of the Northern Wall of K 8 . Return to the 
Base Camp. A Shortage of Chupattis. Change in the Appearance of the Godwin Austen. 
Variable Weather. Sunsets. 

.HAVING concluded the explora- 
tion of the southern slope of K 2 , 
the expedition turned its attention 
to the glacier already visited by 
the Duke which girdles the base 
of the mountain to the west. No 
one else had ever trodden its 
snows, and upon the map even 
the lower part of the valley was 
scarcely indicated. The Duke's 
design was to climb up to the 
watershed col at the top, with the 
hope of examining from that 
point the northern slopes and the 
north-western ridge of K 2 . There 
was the possibility that alongside 
and behind this ridge might be a 

snowy slope which would offer an easy climb to the peak. The 
preliminary expedition would give the opportunity of deciding whether 
it was possible to carry a camp up to the saddle. Moreover, if an 
attempt on this side did not display any greater chance of success than 
that on the southern wall, at least it would enable the Duke to ascertain 
whether he could cross over the watershed and reach the northern 

(9221) q 




Chapter XIV. 



slopes and the unknown valleys below them. In the meantime Selhi 
and Negrotto would complete the illustration and survey of the valley 
to the west of K 2 . 

The guides and coolies began to move camp on June 4th, only the 
latter coming back to the base camp. The next day they left again 
with the porters, and Sella, Negrotto and I accompanied them. Our 
route shows plainly on the map, going around the foot of the south- 
western spur of K 2 , above which rises the fine snowy peak 22.490 feet 




THE MOUTH OF THE SAVOIA GLACIER. 



high. We descended the right-hand margin of the Godwin Austen, 
full of holes and ridges and covered with stones and moraine detritus, 
as far as the end of the spur, skirting the latter across masses of ice 
heaped up at its base by avalanches from glaciers hanging 1,000 feet 
above. Next we entered the ditch between the glacier and the great 
wall of metamorphic rock arranged in almost vertical strata. Out- 
route was that followed by the Duke on his way back from his first 
investigation of the western side of K 2 . It is the only one that could 
be taken by the coolies, who would be badly off among the dangerous 
seracs of the centre part of the glacier, by which the Duke had made 
his ascent. We went up rather fast, now in the bottom of the trough 



The Savoia (jclack'r and Pass. LM:; 

between glacier and rock, now on the side of one or the other, often 
exposed to falling stones or ice from either side. The brow of the 
glacier was all ragged with sdracs of the strangest shapes, with stalactites 
hanging down like long beards hollowed out, pierced through and 
eaten away by melting, and often poised over our heads at very 
uncomfortable angles. In the lower part of the ascent were some small 
marginal lakes, covered with thick ice. Higher up our way became 
a regular climb up a sort of couloir, half rock and half ice. At the top 




TERMINAL CASCADE OF THE SAVOIA. 



of it we stopped to let the coolies rest. They had gone well over the 
difficult ground, despite their burdens. The whole climb was a little 
over 600 feet. 

We had not yet gone all the way around the spur, from which 
descend great radiating ridges. The terminal fall of the glacier faces 
directly eastward, and we had now before us the second part, rising 
at an easier pitch toward the north-west. Looking back we had a 
magnificent view of Broad Peak, picturesquely swathed in mist, and 
of the dizzy heights between it and the Gasherbrum range, dominating 
cliffs of rock and snow cut into innumerable furrows by avalanches. 
On the right of the valley extends a row of jutting peaks, six of which 



244 



Chapti-r XIV. 



are 20,000 feet high or over. In front of us the glacier rises at a 
moderate slope, with numerous crevices, which, however, were narrow 
and easily crossed. Nearly all their fragile snow bridges had been 
broken through by yesterday's party. 

Before long we reached the upper basin of the valley, a wide plateau 
facing the north, of a pure whiteness never seen in the Alps except in 







A SKRAC AT THE EDGE OF THE SAVOIA GLACIER. 



the first hours after a snowfall. The glacier was covered with thick 
snow, but the track beaten by the coolies the day before was perfectly 
good and saved us much trouble. Botta, however, though he w;is 
carrying a light load, did not hold out through the march. He seemed 
exhausted, and we were obliged to leave him behind on a mass of fallen 
rock to wait for the coolies who were to go back on the same day to the 
base camp. He had not entirely recovered his strength since the attack 
of fever at Rdokass, though he had been relieved of heavy work and 



Tin- Savoia Glacier and Pass. -i\:, 

his appetite and sleep were normal. A longer experience convinced 
me that at these heights the system readjusts itself only very slowly 
after any disturbance, however slight. 

We had now gone all the way around the spur. Alongside us a 
glacier comes down from a narrow snowy col (Negrotto Pass), the same 
which on its other side overlooks the base camp. Just below this was 




WESTERN WALL OF BROAD PEAK FROM THE TOP OP THE TERMINAL CASCADE OF THE 

SAVOIA. 



erected the Whymper tent brought up the day before. Not far from 
us a rocky crest stands out above the glacier, dividing the western wall 
of K 2 . It rises to its very summit in a series of great steps, defined by 
large towers. It is this crest which is outlined against the sky and 
forms the western side of the pyramid as seen from the south. The 
encampment is thus separated from the base camp only by the south- 
western ridge of K 2 , a horizontal distance of less than two and a half 
miles. It is, however, 1,664 feet higher up. We had hardly covered 
half of the glacier basin, and were still a considerable distance from the 



:>4r, Chapter \I\'. 

end of the valley ; for the coolies, having reached this spot at about 
two o'clock on the previous day, tired out with marching on the soft 
snow and having still to get back that day to the base camp, had 
refused to go any farther. 

We found the tent deserted, the guides having spent the day 
exploring a route to the col. It looked very close to us, but we were 
misled, as usual, by the deceptive appearance of the glaciers in this 
region. Presently we descried far off on the level the tiny moving 
figures of the returning party. It had taken them more than five hours 
to reach the foot of the col, and they had found the wall very steep and 
covered with Live ice, making the undertaking look very different indeed 
from its aspect as considered from below. We sent the coolies back 
to the base camp. 

At this height 18,176 feet we not only found ourselves in perfect 
condition, but could actually breathe more easily here than at the base 
camp. The latter, situated as it was in a sort of hollow between the 
glacier and the rock, had perhaps a little less active circulation of air. 
We had had a west wind all day, and towards evening it became a 
hurricane. The weather was very severe, the thermometer falling in 
the night to 5 F. The storm was not over by morning, but the guides 
went off notwithstanding, hoping to make their way farther up the 
slope of the col than they had succeeded in doing the day before. On 
coming out of our tents we found a pair of crows from the colony at the 
base camp, walking about over the snow, their feathers all ruffled by 
the wind. We took shelter again almost at once, for it was too intensely 
cold to stand about outside, and nearly all the mountains were covered 
with mist, preventing any topographical work. The guides returned 
at 10 o'clock, driven back by the blinding tourmente. Little by little, 
however, it subsided, and the solar radiation became so intense that 
we almost regretted the cold of a few hours previous. The actual 
temperature was only 28 F., but the solar thermometer registered 
142 F., the highest record we noted on the glaciers with one exception 
throughout the campaign, though considerably lower than some observed 
by other explorers in the Karakoram, of which I will speak farther on. l 

At 11 o'clock the Duke joined us, and an hour afterwards the coolies 
arrived with the remaining loads, going back immediately. Three of 

1 See Chapter XIX. 



The Savoia Glacier and PJISS. 247 

them stopped half-way, among the rocks above the cascade of seracs, 
where they had placed a tent, a few provisions and a little wood. They 
were to facilitate our communications with the base camp below, where 
Botta had remained on guard. 

The wind came up again towards evening from the north-west. 
The air was wonderfully clear. One after another the peaks were 
lighted up by the last rays of the sun. The monster beside us, in full 
sunlight, was surmounted by a great tuft of rosy storm-cloud. On the 
ridges the wind lifted the snow in columns of tourmente, or stirred up 
squalls that filled the air of the valley with crystalline dust. Again 
the thermometer went swiftly downward, and the cold, sharpened by 
the wind, soon became so unbearable that we took refuge in the tents. 
Their walls shook all night in the gale, but towards morning its fury 
slackened, and when we rose at five o'clock on June 7th we found a 
perfectly still air and a temperature of 5 F. 

At half-past five the Duke set out with three guides, having decided 
to try to reach the ridge of the col the same day. The four porters 
remained with us, and we soon got under way with the tacheometer, 
photograminetric and photographic apparatus, to take advantage of 
every minute of the propitious day. We climbed obliquely up the 
valley towards its right wall, which is overhung by precipitous heights 
of 23,000 feet, from which large glaciers come down into the basin. 
Bella betook himself to a prominent icy hummock above us ; but we 
could not get very near the base of the wall, covered as it was with 
broken ice clinging insecurely to the steep incline. In fact, we had 
just set up the photogrammetric camera, when a huge mass of se"racs 
detached itself and came down with tremendous force. We were saved 
by a depression in the surface of the glacier, which deflected the course 
of the moving mass. 

What we now had before us was the scene pictured in panorama E. 
Here, too, the whole landscape was nothing but a mere setting for K-. 
which dominates every near-by object. We could see its entire west 
wall, splotched with snow, but so steep that no glacier could cling to 
it. Between the base and the peak there is little more than a mile of 
horizontal distance, and nearly 10,000 feet of perpendicular. The 
arrangement of the rock in slightly oblique strata is still more evident 
here than when seen from the southern side. The north-western 
ridge, which bounds the pyramid on the left, ends with a low group of 

(922 1) <, 4 



IMS rhati-r XIV. 



towers and pinnacles, from which a secondary ridge runs down to the 
glacier, bisecting the top of it. West of this group of rocky crags is the 
broad, curving, ice-covered saddle which was the goal of the Duke's 
present ascent. On the other side, south-west of the pyramid, stretches 
the long ridge which ends in that satellite to the great peak, 22.490 feet 
high, which T have already described. Lastly, behind the mountains 
which close the basin to the south, a sharp peak of rock just shows its 
head, the Crystal Peak of our map. 

The small exploring party with the Duke at its head had quickly 
crossed the plateau. At the foot of the col, in the rounded bottom of 
the valley, is a large hump of the glacier, which they skirted on the 
left, going along the trough between it and the valley wall, where they 
went in above their knees in the heaped-up snow. In less than four 
hours they reached the foot of the slope, which was cut by a large 
bergschrund. The latter was easy to cross, as it was half full of snow 
fallen from the height above. 

Now began the attack on the wall. For a little distance at the 
bottom it was covered with snow, which made a solid footing. But 
this grew thinner and thinner, until there was nothing over the bare 
ice but a dry powdery layer, without any compactness. From the 
camp, to which we had returned after our work, we watched with the 
telescope the slow ascent of the climbing party. The diminutive figures, 
separated by long lengths of rope, one almost vertically above another 
on the wall of ice, betrayed the steepness of the pitch. They went 
straight up, very slowly, climbing the long ascent which the head guide 
was cutting as he went in the hard ice. About half-way up was a 
projection of rock, to the right of which the climbing party passed 
without deviating from their course. The clear, calm day was greatly 
in their favour. At a quarter past five in the afternoon, after almost 
twelve hours of effort, the ridge was conquered, at a point to the right 
of the col and somewhat higher. The Fortin barometer registered 
13 '740 ins. with a temperature of 16 F. The altitude calculated from 
the photogrammetric survey was 21.870 feet. 

The watershed proved to have on its northern side a broad cornice 
prolonged to the right in such a way as to cut off completely the view 
of the northern slope of K 2 . Below the col to westward they could 
just make out the wall descending toward the north and disappearing 
vertically from view. And that was all. As a reward of his labours 










Western Wall of K 2 , from the Savoia Glacier 



The Savoia (ilac-icT and Pass. 249 

the Duke thus saw utterly annihilated the hopes with which lie had 
begun the ascent. 

It is possible that Sir Francis Younghusliand saw this saddle, as 
well as the northern wall of K 2 , when he came over the Mustagh pass 
from the north in September, 1887. According to his map the col 
would belong to a little valley running into the Sarpo Laggo, a tributary 
of the Oprang, one of the main affluents of the Yarkand river. Sir 
Francis Younghusband described K 2 as he saw it from the Sarpo Laggo 
valley, somewhat more than 12 miles away. On the northern side, 
" where it is literally clothed in glacier, there must have been from 14,000 
to 16,000 feet of solid ice." 1 He made his description somewhat more 
exact in his recent book ' Kashmir "where he says that he saw K 2 
towering almost immediately above him, " very abrupt and upstanding, 
and with immense masses of ice accumulated at its base." It is possibly 
these masses that feed the glacier which the Duke saw flowing westward 
at the base of the col. He could, moreover, ascertain that no large 
spur detached itself from the northern slopes of K 2 and Staircase Peak. 
Beyond a great valley to the north, presumably the Oprang, there 
extend chains of lower mountains without any glacier of great size. 

It was too late for the party to linger upon the col. After about 
a quarter of an hour they descended, the ropes making the return 
so quick that by eight o'clock they had reached the bergschrund, where 
they found the porters we had sent to meet them with hot drinks and 
the Alpine lanterns. At half-past nine they were at the camp. The 
rapid march testified to their good condition. They were not exhausted, 
despite the sixteen hours of exertion at heights between 18,000 and 
nearly 22,000 feet. The excursion to the western side of K 2 had not 
revealed any feasible way of ascent to the peak, but it had enabled the 
Duke to locate upon the map a great tributary valley to the 
Godwin Austen. He gave the name Savoia to the new glacier and 
the pass. 

Next morning, June 8th, Sella, Negrotto and I began the return 
march of the expedition, with five coolies who had come up from the 
base camp. When we reached the bend of the glacier just above its 
last cascade, we left the path to make a photogrammetric station in the 
centre of the valley. We had to go backwards and forwards a great 

1 SIR F E. YOUNOHUSBASD. Proc. Koy. Geog. Snc. N.S. X. 1888. p. 785. 



Chapter XLV. 

deal to escape the numerous broad crevasses, and, as usual, we lost 
considerable time in experimenting upon methods for preventing the 
ice from melting under the points of the tripod supporting the camera 
and thus destroying the level laboriously attained. The slow and ceaseless 
progress of the melting was revealed by the level in the apparatus, even 
when we set up the latter on the stones of the moraine. The only 
surface stable enough for our purpose was that of the large boulders, 
and these were unfortunately of rare occurrence. Since our return 
a simple device has been suggested to me, which I set down here for the 
benefit of any one in a similar difficulty. Put the points of the tripod 
into milk-tins filled with a mixture of ice and salt, which will keep 
congealed the ice or snow directly beneath it, and ensure a stable 
equilibrium for the apparatus long enough to execute the panorama. 

Our work done, we went down the ravine and reached the base camp 
toward sunset. The Duke joined us the following day, June 9th. It 
was the warmest day we had had, and without a breath of wind. The 
gentle, even murmur of the rivulets running down the moraine slopes 
near by suited well with the summer calm. Even the cawing of the 
crows sounded subdued. 

For the first time the provisions for the coolies were late in arriving, 
and there was a scarcity of chupattis. The coolies ended by submis- 
sively accepting some of our biscuits to fill out their ration, and even 
some roast mutton, when we had convinced them that it had been 
prepared at Edokass by people of their own religion and caste. They 
also found a little sack of flour, which they ate raw with great gusto. 
Fresh provisions reached us on the llth, and with them five extra 
coolies sent for by the Duke to help shift the camp from one place to 
another. 

Everything was brought down from the Savoia glacier, and we made 
ready for the next move. We stayed at the base camp four days. I 
noted at this time, and on similar occasions, that during such days of 
idleness one feels often a little heavy-headed, and experiences some 
loss of sleep and appetite. I imagine that moderate exercise, by 
enabling the processes of nutrition and metabolism to go on with more 
rapidity, facilitates the elimination of noxious products, which are 
either not so easily converted or remain in the system in larger quantities 
at these heights than in the conditions of atmospheric pressure under 
-which we normally live. 



The Savoia Glacic-r and I 'ass. 



251 



In the sixteen days since our arrival at the base carnp the appearance 
of the lower Godwin Austen had changed considerably, notwith- 
standing the continual alternation of good and bad weather. From 
the foot of K 2 down to the Concordia its surface was now quite free 
of snow, rough and full of sharp points, and traversed by long ridges 
of ice between the wide streaks of moraine, which had become low 
and flattened. The rockv walls were baring themselves the snow was 




MITRE PEAK FROM THE LOWER GODWIN At'STEN. 



confined to scattered patches and the glaciers were thus more clearly 
defined. The lower spurs of Broad Peak displayed surfaces of inaccessible 
rock. Mitre Peak turned toward us a ridge that ran almost vertically 
from base to summit, ice-covered on its right side, entirely black on its 
left, 

We had not yet had three consecutive days of fine weather. The 
wind blew almost uninterruptedly about the high peaks and ridges, and 
light falls of snow and sleet were not infrequent. There was no sign 
of a change for the better in the sky or in the barometer, which remained 
fairly steadily at the same point, with but slight variations. When 
the wind turned easterly or northerly it generally became clear and 
somewhat calmer, but unfortunately that state of things never lasted 



L'.'.L' CllilUT \\V. 



long. We gradually resigned ourselves to taking the \\Tuther as it 
came, without attempting prophecies always set at naught by the 
capricious meteorological conditions. 

Twilight was always followed by severe and increasing cold, which 
arrested alike the falling stones, snow and ice and the currents of water. 
Profound silence would brood over the valley, even weighing down our 
spirits with indefinable heaviness. There can be no other place in the 
world where man feels himself so alone, so isolated, so completely 
ignored by Nature, so incapable of entering into communion with her. 
Every clear evening we enjoyed the triumphant spectacle of Bride 
Peak, displaying herself in immaculate purity among a cortege of 
bridesmaids all arrayed in virgin white. Her northern wall seemed to 
gather and reflect all the last brilliance of the dying day, and gleamed 
resplendently white against a cold blue sky, which toward the zenith 
became itself pale almost to whiteness. 



CHAPTER XV. 



THE UPPER GODWIN AUSTEN GLACIER 
AND THE EASTERN SLOPES OF K *. 

Length and Situation of the Godwin Austen Glacier. The Gorge between K s and Broad 
Peak. The First Step of the Glacier. Survey and Map of the Eckenstein-Pfannl- 
Guillarmod Expedition. The Glacier Basin of Broad Peak. The Speed of the Godwin 
Austen. Avalanches from Broad Peak. The Eastern Wall and North-Eastern Spur of 
K ! . Staircase Peak. Two Ascents to Sella Pass. The Region East of the Broad- 
Gasherbrum Range. Teram Kangri. The Ascent to Windy Gap. The Attempt of 
Guillarmod and Wessely on K s . The Basin of Staircase Peak. "Border Saddle." 
K 2 from Windy Gap. The Region East of the Col. The Duke at Windy Gap. First 
Attempt on Staircase Peak. Snowfalls and Avalanches. Second Attempt. K 8 from 
the Ridge of Staircase Peak. Observations on the Region east of the Baltoro. 



WE had still to explore 
the upper basin of the 
Godwin Austen and the 
eastern slopes of K 2 a 
work which occupied the 
next fifteen days of the 
campaign. 

According to the 
survey made by the 
expedition, the Godwin 
Austen from the Con- 
cordia to Windy Gap is 
twelve and a half miles 
long, arid divided into 
two nearly equal parts, 
the lower of which I 
have already described. 
It runs north, loaded 
with moraine, and rises 
about 820 feet in the 




f 



>:,4 Chapter XV. 

six miles between the Concordia and the foot of K 2 . From this point 
on the glacier runs north-east, in a deep gorge between K 2 and Broad 
Peak. It has no longer any surface moraine, and it gains some 
3,950 feet of altitude in six and a half miles, chiefly by means of two 
great rises or steps, between which is a relatively level space. 

The Duke foresaw that the new enterprise would be of some 
duration, and arranged to set up a camp suitable for several days' 
sojourn between the base camp and the upper glacier. It took only 
three days for our augmented force of coolies to carry to the chosen 
spot three of the large tents, the Whymper and Mummery tents, a good 
part of the coolies' encampment and all the necessary supplies. The 
first party of guides, porters and coolies started on June 12th, all of 
them except the guides returning the same day. Sella, Negrotto and 
I joined the party on the second day ; and on the third June 14th 
the Duke arrived with the coolies who carried the last part of the 
luggage. 

We came out of our base camp and upon the moraine at the end of 
the southern glacier of K 2 , beyond which the Eckenstein-Pfannl- 
Gruillarmod expedition had set up its Camp IX. We could still see 
some remains of shelter walls built by them. The glacier was nearly 
level, with few cracks and almost free of snow. It runs at the bottom 
of a gorge perhaps three-quarters of a mile wide, between the tremendous 
walls of K 2 and Broad Peak, over 8,000 feet above it. Threatening ice 
clings high aloft along these walls, and the Godwin Austen is scattered 
with masses of rock and large fragments of ice from avalanches that 
have fallen from both sides and come out across the valley almost as 
far as the opposite wall. There would be no escape for a party surprised 
by one of these avalanches, and it would be foolhardy indeed to attempt 
the passage directly after a heavy snowfall. 

The first steep of the glacier begins at the base of the southern ridge 
of K 2 , by which the Duke had already attempted to reach the summit. 
The grade is moderately steep, broken in every direction by crevasses, 
most of them covered with treacherous snow. We found it necessary 
to put on the ropes. At the top of the short ascent the glacier again 
becomes almost level for a little stretch, forming a terrace 18,370 feet in 
altitude, covered with a thick layer of snow and full of crevasses. We 
had been approaching the left side of the valley, and we reached this 
level not far from a rocky spur that comes down toward us from the 












Broad Peak, from Camp VI 



The Upper Godwin Austen Glacier. 2.~>.-> 

northern summit of Broad Peak. This was the site of the Eckenstein- 
Pfannl-Guillarmod expedition's Camp X. 

At this point Conway's map leaves off. In surveying the valley, 
from Fan Pass in the Crystal Peak chain, about seven and a half miles 
distant, it looked to him as though the brow of this little plateau 
might be the top of a col (Possible Saddle). The Eckenstein-Pfannl- 
Guillarmod expedition discovered and explored the upper basin of 
the Godwin Austen, and put the site of the watershed much farther 
toward the north-east, at Windy Gap. 

Guillarmod's narrative is accompanied by a map of the Baltoro, 
on a scale of 1 : 200,000, which reproduces that of Conway in its general 
lines, with the addition of the upper Godwin Austen. 1 He does not 
describe the methods employed in the survey, but the map of the new 
part, despite its appearance of exactness and its being furnished with 
contours, is only an approximate sketch, in which the outlines of the 
mountains, the lateral valleys and the confluent glaciers are so altered 
that it is difficult to identify them when one is on the spot. Without 
going into detail, it is sufficient to instance that the upper basin of the 
Godwin Austen is represented as over nine miles long (from Conway's 
Possible Saddle to Windy Gap), whereas it actually measures less than 
four miles : that the horizontal distance between Windy Gap and K 2 is 
given as nearly 10J miles instead of 4| miles ; and that the bearing of 
the valley is incorrect. The altimetric figures of Guillarmod are 
generally considerably in excess of the ones measured by us. 2 

Dr. Pfannl, whose name is not mentioned in the title of the Ecken- 
stein-Knowles-Guillarmod map, published with his account of the 
expedition 3 a sketch of the upper part of the Godwin Austen, mentioning 
that it is only approximate, and probably bears too much to the north 

1 The map is constructed " d'apres les donnees existantes et les documents de Texpeclition 
rapportes par O. Eckenstein, G. Knowles and Dr. J. Jacot Guillarmod." 
* The following instances will suffice : 

Heights determined Heights given in 

Place. by t lie expedition of Guillarmod's map, 

ih'-Duke. tahles and text. 

Mitre Peak 20,462 24,600 

Broad Peak 27,132 28,000 

Staircase 24,078 26,250 

Mustagh Tower 23,950-24,950 26,250 

Rdokass 13,205 13,904 

CampX 18,350 18,733 

Windy (Up 20,449 21,500 

3 Zcit. ih.i deulsdi. a. OUl. Misitrer. 35, 1904, p. 88. 



-j:,i; Chapter XV. 

as is, in fact, the case. Except for the exaggeration in the width of 
the glacier, this drawing is nearer the actual dimensions of the valley 
than the map published by Guillarmod. The outline of the chains 
and ridges is also more nearly correct. 

Our predecessors stayed in the upper Godwin Austen for a month, 
from June 20th to July 21st, 1902. They suffered much from bad 
weather. However, the two Austrian doctors, Pfannl and Wessely, 
were able to make numerous exploring expeditions, which I mention 
in the course of my narrative. Dr. Pfannl was seized on July 15th 
by a somewhat serious lung trouble, and the expedition was obliged 
to put an end to its campaign and return home. 

From the northern summit of Broad Peak (26,017 feet) the left side 
of the valley makes a wide circuit to the south-east, circumscribing a 
circular basin over a mile in diameter, filled with a level glacier which 
flows into the intermediate plateau of the Godwin Austen. We crossed 
the mouth of this tributary, and at the base of the spur which bounds 
it on the right we found the camp set up on a level strip of moraine 
with a little frozen marginal lake near by. This was the Camp VI of 
our map, 18,602 feet above sea level. The Duke kept twelve of the 
coolies with us at this camp, the others returning with Bareux to the 
base, to keep up our communications with Kdokass. 

In the ascent to the camp the Duke had made an interesting 
discovery. Below the plateau, at the base of the rise in the glacier, 
he found half buried in the ice two mallets used for driving in tent 
pickets, some kiltas with the bottoms knocked out, some single snow- 
shoes and several empty provision boxes. These were all articles left 
behind at Camp X by our predecessors (Guillarmod mentions the 
incident in his book) when, after weeks of struggle against bad weather 
and under serious anxiety over their sick comrade, they took the return 
route, carrying him on a sledge improvised out of skis. In the interval 
of seven years the cast-off objects had been carried down the glacier 
to nearly a mile below the spot marked Camp X on Guillarmod's map. 
One may accordingly argue an average yearly speed of 702 feet for the 
glacier, much less than that calculated by our expedition on the Baltoro 
at the level of Rdokass. 

The camp faced the wall which terminates Broad Peak to the north, 
the wildest and most impressive bastion one could possibly imagine, a 
series of vertical cliffs of rock dominated bv blue walls of ice 1,000 feet 



The Upper Godwin Austen Glacier. 



257 



high, which represent sections of the northern glaciers of Broad Peak. 
They slide along unceasingly on those tremendous steps, shoving their 
edges farther and farther over the abyss until finally the weight conquers 
the cohesiveness of the mass, and enormous pieces break off and hurl 
themselves down to the bottom of the amphitheatre with a deafening 




EASTERN SIDE OF K s AS SEEN FROM CAMP VI. 

crash and a roar that makes the valley tremble. Long echoes of the 
tumult come back from the mountain walls, and from where we are we 
can feel the cold breath of the avalanche like a great gust of wind. 
Day and night every few hours this thunder reverberates, and in the 
intervals the mind unconsciously remains in suspense, waiting for 
another downfall. The wall is dominated by the northern summit of 
Broad Peak, which looks pointed from this side. To its left, just behind 
the ridge, rises the rounded centre peak, the highest of the three. Five 

(9221) R 



258 



X\". 



other peaks rise along the circular wall of the basin, between 23,222 
and 20,981 feet high. Our camp is at the base of the fifth and lowest. 

The appearance of K 2 is quite changed; it has become a mountain 
of ice. Its shape is that of a regular cone comprised between the 
southern ridge already attempted by the Duke, and a secondary one, 
ice-covered, which descends to the bottom of the valley in front of the 
great north-east spur. The apex of this cone is really formed by the 
edge of the eastern shoulder of the mountain, which obscures the outline 




CAMP VI AND STAIRCASE PEAK. 



of the main peak. The whole cone is covered with ice, above which 
just show the low, little accentuated rocky ridges converging to the 
top. The wall, at a very steep angle of inclination, is live ice for 
7,000 feet up, and crowned by seracs. It is absolutely inaccessible. 
The north-east buttress detaches itself from the broad curving shoulder, 
also entirely ice-covered, and takes up a good share of the right side 
of the valley, which is rugged with teeth and gendarmes and surmounted 
by some goodly peaks, and ends more than two and a half miles 
from K 2 , in the snowy dome which Guillarmod and Wessely attempted 
to climb from the Godwin Austen. At no point of the entire distance 
is there a place where one could gain the ridge directly from the glacier. 
The farthest height, at the head of the valley, is Staircase Peak 
(24,078 feet), of which we see the south-western face, a rocky vertical 






K-, as scun from the east, from the rocks above Camp VI 



The Upper Godwin Austen Glacier. 



259 



triangle nearly 4,000 feet high. Between it and the ridge that runs 
toward it from K 2 is another glacial basin, which empties by a narrow 
mouth into the Godwin Austen ; it is like the basin below Broad Peak, 
but much smaller. From Staircase Peak to Windy Gap a rib of ice 
descends by a series of steps or leaps, its side traversed by glaciers and 
furrowed by deep channels ; and this rib, together with Windy Gap 
itself, terminates the valley of the Godwin Austen. From our camp 
we can see neither the saddle nor the left wall of the valley. 

20,981. 22,306. 




FIRST STEP OF THE GODWIN AUSTEN GLACIER, AND SELLA PASS. 

During several days we only saw this or that portion of the 
panorama I have described, according to the caprice of the wind, which 
would tear away the cloud masses here and there, letting in a rift of 
sunlight speedily obscured again by the marshalling of the cold mists 
or a fresh onset of snow or sleet. I have already mentioned that the 
Duke had noted from the southern ridge of K 2 a depression in the circle 
of mountains around the amphitheatre of Broad Peak, and had formed 
a project of climbing up to it for a glimpse of the region east of the 
Gasherbrums. This was undertaken on June 15th. The depression 
is in the northern wall of the amphitheatre, between peaks 22,306 and 
20,981 feet, beneath the second of which our camp was stationed. It 

(9221) B 2 



260 Chapter XV. 

was necessary to round the base of this peak and enter the glacier basin 
in order to reach the bottom of the couloir, by which one could ascend 
to the col. Three guides accompanied the Duke. They found the 
level surface of glacier filling the basin to be cut in every direction by 
cracks which were covered over with treacherous powdery snow, not 
firm enough to walk on. They had hardly got past the entrance when 
Alessio Brocherel broke through one of these snow bridges and fell 
heavily into a fissure. The rope went taut, giving him a violent wrench 
in the chest. It did not seem at the time to be more than an ordinary 
incident of mountain climbing, not serious enough to interrupt the 
march, but it was the probable cause of much later suffering for him. 
The wall itself proved to have a good layer of firm snow, upon which 
the party could ascend with the crampons without needing to cut 
steps. In three hours they reached the saddle, about 2,000 feet above 
camp. By good fortune the air was clear, as well as the sky beyond the 
col, whereas the ranges of the Godwin Austen were largely in fog. It 
was impossible to stay long on the top, because of the intense cold and 
violent wind, but before returning the Duke was able to make observa- 
tions of many details of the region east of the saddle. 

In order to avoid repetition later on I will interrupt the chronological 
narrative here, and mention a second visit to the col, made by Sella, 
with one of the porters and a coolie, seven days later, on June 22nd. 
He went beyond the ridge, crossing obliquely the eastern slope of the 
mountain, which was strewn with small rocky detritus covered by a 
crust of thin transparent ice. He stopped at a point where the 
Gasherbrum range came into view on the south, about half a mile from 
the saddle and somewhat lower down ; and here he took panorama F, 
from a ledge on the ridge that runs down south-east from peak 22,339. 
It was a labour of two hours, rendered doubly arduous by the strong 
wind. He regained the col with some difficiilty, having to contend 
with squalls of fearful severity. Wonderful to say, the coolie endured 
all this without a single complaint. With the help of panorama F it 
is possible to get an idea, if not of the topography, at least of the general 
aspect of the region east of the Baltoro basin, a region into which but 
one single explorer, Sir Francis Younghusband, has ever penetrated, 
and he only for a short distance, in 1889. 

As far as the eye can see, there is a sticcession of glacier-filled valleys 
and rocky and snowy chains. One can neither see nor guess at the 



The Upper Godwin Austen Glacier. 



261 



situation of the lower valleys, where there must be torrents and rivers 
running. From the pass, which the Duke named after Vittorio Sella, 
a glacier flows southward in a wide valley, bounded on its right by an 
ice-covered spur radiating from one of the peaks of the amphitheatre, 
and on its left by a short ridge surmounted by a fine rocky pyramid, 
which detaches itself at right angles from peak 22,995 of the eastern 
side of the Godwin Austen. As far as could be judged from above, the 




TERAM KANGRI FROM THE EASTERN SIDE OF SELLA PASS. 

descent on the farther side of Sella Pass did not look difficult, provided 
the glacier did not terminate in a cascade of seracs. This pass seemed, 
in fact, to be the only way of exit from the Godwin Austen basin that 
did not present serious obstacles. 

To the south the scene is dominated by a group of splendid 
mountains, among which are the eastern peaks of the Gasherbrums I 
(Hidden Peak), II and III. From this last a great steep spur runs out 
northward, just indicated upon our map. This spur, taken together 
with the eastern walls of Broad Peak, encloses a wide valley filled with 

(9221) 



262 



Chapter XV. 



a broad glacier bare of moraine. At the foot of the col this glacier 
bends to the north-east to mingle with another and even larger one, 
covered with moraine, which comes down east of the great ridge of 
Gasherbrum III just mentioned, and seems to flow north-east, gathering 
up several affluents from among the spurs of the Gasherbrums, on its 
course toward a distant chain of lofty mountains laden with ice and 
snow. Three peaks of this chain, marked X, Y and Z on the panorama, 




STAIRCASE PEAK AND THE END OF THE NORTH-EASTERN SPUR OF K 2 . 

were distinguished by the Duke from Staircase Peak, as I shall describe 
shortly. Almost in the centre of the picture, behind all the succession 
of ranges, rises a peak of evidently exceptional height. Sella took the 
horizontal angle of it with the surveying compass. From the situation, 
shape and appearance of this peak, there can be no reasonable doubt 
that it is Teram Kangri, the mountain discovered and measured by 
Dr. Longstaff from the upper Siachen glacier on June 17th, only five 
days before Sella photographed it. 1 

I will now resume the narrative from June 14th, on which day the 
Duke had sent ahead Sella, Negrotto and myself to set up a light camp 
at Windy Gap. Lorenzo Petigax, Emilio Brocherel and twelve coolies 

1 T. G. LONOSTAFF, Glacier Exploration in the Eastern Karakoram. Oeog. Jour. 35, 1910, 
p. 631. See also a note by Dr. Longstaff in Alp. Jour. May, 1911 (vol. 29), p. 488, whore ho 
gives reasons for identifying Teram Kangri with the peak photographed by St-lla. 



The Upper Godwin Austen Glacier. 



263 



formed our escort, and we were roped together in two long files. The 
morning was cold and windy, with a thick atmosphere. We climbed 
up the left side of the glacier, in the furrow next the wall, reaching in 
a few minutes the top of the second level. The drop of the glacier 
beside us was cut by broad crevasses, typically V-shaped, with the 
apex pointing downwards. We went gradually toward the centre of 
the valley to get out of range of possible avalanches from the glaciers 




STAIRCASE PEAK, THE END OF THE NORTH-EASTERN RIDGE OF K 2 , AND THE OPENING 

OF STAIRCASE BASIN. 

hanging on the steep walls of the left side. This wall runs fairly 
straight, without marked side valleys, and has only two peaks 22,339 
and 22,995 feet in height from the latter of which a rounded rocky 
rib, loaded with ice and snow, descends to Windy Gap. The other 
side of the valley is formed by the long north-east buttress of K 2 , a 
sheer precipice, all ice and perpendicular cliffs. It ends in a round 
snow-covered shoulder, above which towers a sharp pinnacle of rock 
(peak 22,378 on the map). At the foot of this peak our predecessors 
had set up their Camp XI; and thence, on July 10th, 1902, Wessely 
and Guillarmod had tried to gain the snowy shoulder, in the hope of 
finding a route to K 2 along the broken and slender north-eastern ridge. 

(9221) R 4 



> 



264 Chapter XV. 

Guillarmod relates that they were greatly embarrassed by the deep 
snow, and obliged to turn back after getting within 150 feet of the top 
of the shoulder, the aneroid barometer showing a height of 22,000 feet. 1 
Beyond the north-east ridge of K 2 the valley is broken into by the 
glacial basin of Staircase Peak. This basin is so shut in by high and 
steep walls as to form a sort of pit or rather an enormous trench. 
Pfannl and Wessely camped inside of it, and climbed up a gully in its 
western wall in an attempt to reach a depression in the ridge, whence 
they might be able to examine the northern side of the north-eastern 
buttress of K 2 . They were driven back by falling stones and the 
steepness of the ice. 2 The precipitous walls of Staircase Peak close 
in the top of the Godwin Austen, about whose summit the wind was 
furling and unfurling veils of mist. 

The glacier was of a dense whiteness, without brilliance. Not even 
on the broken ice of its walls was to be seen any of the blue-green hue 
of our Alpine glaciers. The weather was very severe, and the coolies 
suffered bitterly. Whenever we paused they shook with the cold and 
the cruel wind that penetrated the loose folds of their garments. We 
were nearly at the level of the Staircase basin, and there remained only 
a last short climb between us and the little flat space below Windy Gap. 
Here the coolies stopped and piteously implored us not to go any farther. 
One of them flung himself weeping on the snow, pointing to his aching 
head and numbed feet. We had his shoes and stockings taken off to 
make sure his feet were not frozen. We gave him some caffeine tablets 
and coaxed him and the others to go on, less in words than by 
sympathetic looks and tones, and by pointing out the near-by goal. We 
got them on again in a little. As a matter of fact we were never, 
throughout the expedition, prevented from going reasonable distances 
by any illwill or rebellion on the part of the coolies, and we learned 
from experience that the Baltis are much more susceptible to kindness 
and persuasion than to threats or violence. 

After about another hour of walking, at an easy gait, we reached 
the foot of the last slope, above 100 feet high, and in ten minutes more 
we were on the rocks of the saddle, which is divided into two unequal 

1 Comm. Paganini has calculated the altitude of this shoulder from four photogrammetric 
stations (X, XIII, XV and XVI on the triangulation sketch), and obtained an average of 21,588 
feet. According to this the height reached by Wessely and Guillarmod would be about 21,400 fret. 

2 See the article by PFANNL, already cited, in Zeit. cks deut. . oest. Alpenver. 



The Upper Clod win Austen Glacier. >(,:, 

parts by a small rocky tooth. It is prolonged on one side by the 
southern ridge of Staircase Peak, and on the other by the rounded 
flanks of peak 22,995. A villainous wind was blowing. We scarcely 
gave a glance down the narrow steep valley beyond the col, through 
which a glacier flows to enter a larger valley. Beyond the second one 
rises a snow-covered range. There was no place on the col to set up 
a camp, so we went down the last short ascent and placed the tents 
near the little bergschrund at its foot. 




WI^DY GAP. 



The coolies went back at once, accompanied by Savoie, who for 
the safety of the party entrusted to his care must, of course, put himself 
last in the file. The question was, which of the twelve coolies would 
be brave enough to march at the head. After some little excitement 
one of them volunteered, and they started off in their usual good 
humour. 

All day long the storm wind blew furiously, driving fine grains of 
ice through every cranny in the tents. The heights were all covered. 
Later on the wind lessened somewhat and snow began to fall. Most 
of the next day, June 15th, we spent at the top of the ridge, Negrotto 
and I with the photogrammetric apparatus on a little rocky ledge south 



266 Chapter XV. 

of the col ; and Sella on the other side at the foot of Staircase Peak, 
with his photographic equipment all three of us waiting in a cutting 
wind, our teeth chattering, stamping our feet and slapping our hands 
together, indulging the vain hope that the sky might clear. The 
temperature was not lower than 21 F. or thereabouts ; but inactive as 
we were in the face of that piercing wind, our suffering was acute. The 
weather played with us for hours, partially uncovering now one peak, 
now another. But toward four o'clock it grew definitely worse, and 
drove us back to the tent, where we prepared our simple meal. A 
party of coolies, under the escort of Savoie, had come and gone during 
the day leaving provisions and supplies. 

The pass well deserves the name of Windy Gap given it by 
Guillarmod. However, I should mention that Pfannl called it Grenz 
Sattel (Border Saddle), because it is the limit of the hydrographic 
system not only of the Baltoro basin, but of the Indus as well. Pfannl 
gives it a height of 20,550 feet, much nearer our figure of 20,449 feet 
than the 21,500 feet given on Guillarmod 's map. Dr. Wessely made a 
short expedition to the col, being the only one of the party to do so. 
In Pfannl's sketch a precipitous ice wall is marked to the north of it, 
and at its base a large glacier running westward, beyond which is 
indicated another mountain chain, the same as that shown on our map. 
From the route traced in the sketch it appears that Dr. Wessely went 
on beyond the col, continuing somewhat toward the right up to a point 
marked 21, 150 feet. 

As if maliciously, the weather turned fine after sunset. The summit 
of K 2 was already in shadow, but from the lofty cone stood up an 
immense volume of vapour, more than 3,000 feet high, with wonderful 
whorls outlined against the sky, gilded by the sinking sun, whose last 
rays just reached its topmost part, perhaps 32,000 or 33,000 feet high. 

By way of exception the fine evening did not prove this time to have 
been a false prophecy, and on rising next morning we were delighted 
to behold a brilliantly clear sky. We lost not a minute in returning 
to the ridge of the col, where for the first time we saw the entire eastern 
face of K 2 revealed without a trace of mist. 1 It looked like another 
mountain entirely ; and of all the manifold aspects of the colossus 
this is certainly the most imposing, the richest and boldest in design. 
Alas, it is also such as to annihilate the last remnant of hope that might 

1 See panorama G. 



The 1 l T |)])or (Jochvin Austen (ilacirr. 



2C.7 



linger in the mind of the mountaineer. The cone itself rises from a 
great sloping shoulder entirely covered by a glacier that comes down 
to its very verge and breaks abruptly off, forming a perpetual menace 
to all the ravines, furrows and ridges of the steep wall beneath. The 
peak, which from this side looks very sharp, has a huge icy dome or 
cap coming down to the edge of a formidable vertical descent of rock ; 






V 




FROM WINDY GAP. 



and to this the chance disposition of the ice and the hollows and pro- 
tuberances of the rock have given the semblance of a grotesque face, 
a sort of demon of the mountains. Below the shoulder to the south 
is visible in profile the crest of rock first tried by the Duke ; it is much 
steeper than it looked from below and very long. The north-western 
buttress projects toward us, very sharp, broken and rugged, full of 
needles and icy pinnacles, between which run northward the curves 
of long and ample cornices. If he had seen it from this point, Guillarmod 



268 



Chapter XV. 



would never have thought of choosing it as a route. The end of it joins 
like the shaft of a T to a transversal ridge which encircles one of the 
sides of Staircase basin. 

To the south-west we could look down through the Godwin Austen 
valley as far as the point where it bends toward the Concordia. From 
our point of view the background is formed by the right-hand ridge 




MASHEEBRUM, FROM THE HEAD OF THE GODWIN AUSTEN. TELEPHOTOGRAPHY. 

of the Savoia glacier, behind which, 24 miles away, rises Masherbrum 
Peak, a great rocky mountain, extraordinarily imposing, terminating 
in a sharp point. On the left all the summits along the Godwin Austen 
look diminished and robbed of significance by the ponderous bulk of 
Broad Peak ; but the latter is balanced on the north by the magnificent 
icy cliffs, like gigantic steps, running from the saddle to the dome of 
Staircase Peak. This impressive formation is joined by an almost 
horizontal ridge to the top of the triangular wall of rock that faces down 
the valley. 



The Upper Godwin Austen 



269 



We are now in a position to satisfy our curiosity more completely 
with regard to the country beyond the col to the north-east. 1 A 
glacier descends precipitously at our feet, falling with almost vertical 
leaps for about 2,000 feet, then flowing somewhat less steeply to empty 




PEAK 22,113, EAST OF WINDY GAP. TELEPHOTOGRAPHY. 



upon another glacier, which is nearly as large as the Godwin Austen, 
covered with snow, and soon disappears from view in a south-easterly 
direction. On the north this glacier reaches a low snowy col at the 
base of the eastern wall of Staircase Peak. 2 Its left wall is formed 

1 See panorama H. 

s The Duke thinks it possible that by this pass one might attain directly to the glacier which 
was to be seen flowing at the base of Sella Pass, coming from the northern side of K s . 



270 Chapter XV. 

by a chain of mountains of varied design, the highest of them being 
twin peaks, a snowy and a rocky one (22,113 feet). The chain runs from 
north-west to south-east, and at half its distance there detaches itself 
at right angles a branch which runs to join the eastern ridge of Staircase 
Peak, by means of the low col I have mentioned. Finally, above and 
behind this screen rise here and there the peaks of still another chain, 
evidently larger and more important. 

By half-past seven Negrotto had completed a photogrammetric 
panorama from the southern extremity of the col. We dismounted 
the apparatus, traversed the whole length of the ridge of the col and 
climbed, partly on ice, partly on rock, to the foot of the ridge of 
Staircase Peak. At the base of a sort of turret we made another station 
on a little level cut with our pickaxes in the ice near the cornice. It 
was from these two panoramas that the short chain north-east of Windy 
Gap was placed upon the map. We got down directly to the tents 
without going back to the col through a gully full of ice with a light 
covering of snow. Sella in the meantime had taken panoramas Gl- 
and H, and photographs of several single mountains. The three guides 
and seven coolies came up presently from the camp below. 

Our work at Windy Gap was finished, and we prepared to return 
to Camp VI, leaving the tents behind for the use of the Duke. He 
wished to make the ascent of Staircase Peak, not so much as a 
mountaineering feat as because it was evident that there must be from 
the top an excellent view of its own north-western slopes and those of 
K 2 , as well as of all the unknown territory lying east of Windy Gap, 
Broad Peak and the Gasherbrums. If too serious obstacles offered 
themselves to an ascent, it might still be possible to descend to the 
other side of the col and make an expedition on the glaciers eastward 
and southward, or to round Staircase Peak to a point where the northern 
wall of K 2 might become visible. 

We had been wise to profit by the early morning hours, for it now 
began to cloud over again. We returned roped together in three 
caravans, one formed entirely of coolies. They had been quick to learn 
the use of the rope, and also how to avoid the insidious crevices. 
Whenever we had once persuaded them to cover new ground, they 
returned to it with a good will, never making objections even when 
the route was difficult. The reluctance which they sometimes showed 
was never laziness or obstinacy, but only fear of the unknown. AVe 






Staircase Peak, from Windy Gap 



The Upper (.Joel win Austen Glacier. 271 

conquered it by persuasion and example. Severity would only have 
made the case worse. 

On the morning of June 17th the Duke ascended to Windy Gap 
in his turn. The guides had reached it the day before, and on that 
day they went to cut a long stairway in the ice of the ridge up to the 
first terrace. Unfortunately it began to snow in the night and kept 
on till the day following, making all their work in vain. On the 19th 
the weather was exceedingly uncertain, but the Duke went up the first 
section of the slope, accompanied by the guides. At the edge of the 
plateau rise two well-defined towers, which show plainly in panorama G. 
It had begun to snow again, and for five hours the party waited, 
sheltering themselves as best they could in the lee of the towers. They 
saw a little bird hopping about on the rocks it seemed lost in this 
desert of ice. Finally, they had to give up and go back to the tents. 
Alessio Brocherel, who had been ailing ever since his fall two days 
before, was seized with exhaustion, coughing and acute pain on the 
right side of the chest, and the Duke thought it best for him to return 
at once to Camp VI, with Emilio Brocherel and Savoie as escort. 

In the meantime at Camp V we had spent the three days to no 
great advantage. On the 18th Negrotto and I pushed our way through 
a labyrinth of crevasses, which obliged us to retrace our footsteps 
continually, as far as the centre of the middle level of the Godwin 
Austen, where we made a photogrammetric station. Sella was spending 
whole days of patient waiting, renewing the experience of the Kuwenzori 
expedition, on the ledge of a crest some 2,000 feet above camp, where, 
crouched beside his machine, he watched for a break in the clouds. 
The wind kept up, cold and penetrating, piercing the thickest woollens 
one could put on ; and whenever it did slacken the air grew sultry, 
and we experienced such reverberation from the snow and fog as to 
suffer more from it than from the unclouded sun. 

The coolies, huddled about their tiny fires, chanted plaintive 
monotonous little ditties half under their breaths, sometimes accom- 
panying them by beating time on the empty provision tins. They 
had made themselves a whole cooking outfit with the tins in which 
the food came. The three coolies who had remained with Bareux at the 
base camp came up periodically with our post and with chupattis and 
bundles of wood. We were often wakened suddenly at night with 
palpitating hearts by the terrible noise of an avalanche from Broad 



272 Chapter XV. 

Peak. The echoes would reverberate for several minutes in the silence 
of the night with a sound like cars going at full speed over uneven 
pavement or the long roar of a passing train. 

At evening on the 19th the sky was more obscured and shut in than 
ever, and heavy snow began to fall quietly through a windless 
atmosphere. The thermometer registered 19 F. Alessio Brocherel 
suffered all night long from a dry racking cough, which aggravated 
the strain in his side. He had scarcely any fever, but he looked weak 
and worn out. In the absence of any other morbid symptoms, I believe 
the case to have been one of a slight and limited traumatic 
pleurisy, caused by the wrench from the rope which he had sustained in 
his fall. 

At midday on the 20th the Duke returned to camp. He had not 
given up his attempt, but it seemed wisest to wait until the spell of bad 
weather had broken and the guides had been able to prepare a route 
on the ridge of Staircase Peak, or else downward through the glacier 
east of Windy Gap. 

Although the heavy snowfall had not sufficed to clear the sky of 
clouds, Negrotto and I made a topographical excursion on the glacier 
as far as the basin of Staircase Peak. We had hardly set up the 
instrument when the whole formidable east wall of K 2 seemed to 
disembarrass itself at one stroke of all the snow that had fallen in the 
last days, and an immense avalanche, heralded by a vast white cloud, 
flung itself down for nearly 10,000 feet right in our direction. For an 
instant we were bewildered, not knowing if the distance would be 
sufficient to break the force of this tremendous downfall. But its 
course became slower directly it reached the level of the glacier, where 
it opened out in a great fan. The cloud of powdery snow filled the 
entire valley, enveloping us even where we stood in its dense folds, 
accompanied by an actual heavy snowfall which lasted several minutes. 
It was almost half an hour before the air cleared sufficiently for us to 
go on with our work. 

We found the sun's rays very intense on our way back to camp, 
and there was a powerful reverberation from the new snow. All the 
surrounding mountains, as though they had been awaiting the signal 
from the monarch, shook off their burdens, which came down in streams, 
torrents, rivers of the purest white, and heaped themselves up at the 
foot of the walls. After a brief interlude of only a few hours the weather 



The Upper Godwin Austen Glacier. 27:5 

grew bad again. Broad Peak, always the first to condense its vapours, 
speedily covered itself with an enormous cap ; thick stormclouds 
appeared settling down over all the hills and weighing down the north- 
eastern buttress of K 2 ; and to the west was displayed the " mackerel 
sky " that always portends bad weather. 

On June 23rd the Duke again rejoined the guides at Windy Gap. 
He had to go through a furious storm resembling in character the polar 
drift. There were in all five guides and porters with him at Windy 
Gap all the forces except Bareux, Botta and Brocherel. The last, 
though somewhat better, continued very weak. The guides had not 
been able to do much work in the interval. They were driven back by 
the wind on two successive days from the ridge of Staircase Peak, not 
getting farther than the first terrace. They were of opinion, however, 
that it would be easy to find a route up to the second stage of the ascent, 
though there was no possibility of attaining the peak in less than three 
days, which meant three days of fine weather, a condition up to now 
without a precedent. They had also examined the steep glacier east 
of the saddle and had planned a descent on its right margin. The 
loads would have to be let down through a steep icy well at the left 
of the col, a very dubious undertaking and one that would require some 
days of work. What the return route would be was an unsolved 
problem. 

On the morning of June 24th, on account of the doubtful look of the 
weather, the Duke had decided to give up the ascent and try the way 
down the eastern glacier of Windy Gap. But a change for the better 
induced him to return, take the two Mummery tents, four sleeping-bags, 
some provisions and cooking utensils, and set off with all speed for the 
ridge of Staircase Peak. He went up the sloping ice wall toward the 
two rocky towers that guard the edge of the first level, crossing over 
on the snow just below these to reach the brow of the terrace or little 
rolling snowy plateau, upon which he set up the small camp in a 
sheltered hollow. 

The two Petigax and Enrico Brocherel stayed with him, Emilio 
Brocherel and Savoie returning to Windy Camp. During the night 
Enrico Brocherel, an uncommonly robust man, with the physique of an 
athlete, was taken with coughing, from no apparent cause, had pains 
in the breast, and spit blood. In the morning he wished to go on with 
the others, but his cough grew worse, and alarmed by the unusual 



->:i Chapter XV. 

symptoms he was obliged to give it up. The illness was unexplainable, 
for no further evil results followed, and later on, in the much higher 
camps of Chogolisa Saddle, he always felt perfectly well. The appear- 
ance of clear and serene weather made the mishap all the more vexing. 
Despite it, the Duke did not hesitate to set off with the two Petigax, 
with the intention of getting as far as possible up the ridge. They wore 
two sets of woollens for protection against the stinging cold, and their 
feet and legs were wound with heavy cloth kept in place by the straps 
from the crampons. It took about an hour to cross the plateau, full 
of large furrows and snowy ridges. Thence they climbed the gentle 
slope to the foot of the second step and began the attack upon it. It 
was covered with dry snow with the bare ice shining through here and 
there. After some three hours of work with the pickaxes they reached 
a point very near the top, where the wall began curving on to the edge 
of the second terrace. Here they were confronted by a wide crevasse, 
the edges of which were particularly unsafe from melting. It cut the 
steep slope at right angles in such a way that its upper edge was several 
yards higher and receded by about the same amount more than the 
lower. The guides followed along the edge going toward the left, and 
Lorenzo, standing on his father's shoulders, tried in vain to gain the 
upper edge. Then they went to the right, and finally found a spot 
where the edges were close enough together to permit them to cross. 
But once beyond it they found themselves on a strip of ice only a few 
yards across, separating them from another huge crevasse, 20 or 30 feet 
broad, which went all the way across the slope to where the side walls 
went down right and left into the valley. There was no getting around 
this obstacle ; it formed an absolute barrier to further progress. To go 
all the way around it on the right one would have to climb an almost 
vertical wall of live ice exposed to falls of threatening seracs. It might 
be possible to pass it on the left by climbing on the rocks some 700 feet 
below the ridge. Midday was already at hand, and it would be 
necessary to make a camp and begin again the next day. Added to 
all this the Duke, for the first and only time in the campaign, felt very 
weary, and the endurance of young Lorenzo was sorely taxed. As 
for his father, Giuseppe, this indomitable man appeared insensible 
to altitude, to cold or to fatigue. He was never found wanting or 
known to feel a moment of weakness throughout all the campaigns 
upon which he accompanied the Duke, and probably found a source 



The Upper ( iod win Austen Glacier. 275 

of strength in the silent devotion which he manifested toward our 
leader. 

Rather than waste the time in doubtful trials, to gain, perhaps, 
another hundred yards, the Duke determined to derive the utmost 
profit from the work already accomplished, by making a thorough 
observation of the wide horizon which his present station (21,650 feet 
high) enabled him to embrace. He had a splendid view of K 2 , which 
always showed itself more lofty, more threatening and more inaccessible 
the higher one's point of view, as if to mock at any competition with 
itself. The photograph which the Duke took of it that morning from 
the shelter camp, reproduced in the frontispiece of this book, is 
undoubtedly the best picture of K 2 boasted by the expedition. 

From his station on the ridge the Duke took panorama I, which is 
important from the illustrative as well as from the geographical point of 
view. As usual K 2 dominates the scene, showing its terminal cone in 
its true proportions, covered with a heavy coat of ice on the east and 
south, and having a steep smooth angle of rock on the north, which ends 
more than 3,000 feet below the summit by merging into the northern 
wall. The latter falls precipitously behind the north-east ridge, 
certainly the nearest to the perpendicular of all the faces of the mountain. 
Farther off and lower down another rocky ridge shows itself against 
the sky, in all probability part of the smaller north-western ridge that 
runs down to Savoia Pass. If so, the Duke had now completed the 
circuit of exploration of K 2 . He might now abandon the struggle in 
the consciousness that he had left undone nothing within human power 
to convince himself of the impossiblity of the undertaking. 

The Godwin Austen valley, which looked so broad when we were 
going through it, shows in the panorama a mere cut or gorge between 
the walls of K 2 and Broad Peak. Masherbrum in the distance has lost 
much of its imposing appearance. Gasherbrum I and II are just visible 
behind the left wall of the Godwin Austen valley. 

Toward the east comes the most interesting part of the panorama, 
geographically speaking. The short chain of which Negrotto made 
a survey, and which appears on our map, has sunk down quite low, the 
southern summits just showing. On the other hand the lofty chain, 
some peaks of which were to be seen from Windy Gap showing behind 
the nearer range, now reveals itself in its entirety. It was possible, 
thanks to the three characteristic peaks marked X, Y and Z on the 

(9221) s 2 



>-(-, Chapter XV. 

panorama, to identify this chain with the one which extends on the 
left in Bella's panorama F, taken on June 22nd from behind the eastern 
ridge of the Godwin Austen. The glacier which flows eastward at the 
base of Windy Gap empties after a short course into another larger 
one, almost free of moraine ; and of this glacier one sees a tiny 
triangular portion in panorama I, apparently flowing south-east. By 
comparing the two panoramas F and I one can see that this glacier 
must join the large one, entirely covered with loose moraine, of which 
one sees a stretch in panorama F, and to which contribute a large 
number of affluents from the eastern wall of Broad Peak and the 
Gasherbrums. 1 

Having finished their observations the little party quickly returned 
to the shelter tents. Shortly afterwards they were joined from below 
by the two porters, and with their help descended to Windy Gap, taking 
the small quantity of luggage. They all rested next day Lorenzo 
Petigax still feeling some fatigue, and also Enrico Brocherel. The 
former had a slightly frost-bitten foot. On the 27th the Duke sent these 
two to the base camp with Emilio Brocherel, and on the 28th he himself 
left Windy Gap and rejoined the rest of the party. 

1 In Chapter XIX I have tried to correlate the observations of the Duke on the region east 
of the Baltoro with those of the only other explorer of these parts, Col. Sir Francis Younghusband. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

FROM THE BASE OF K"TO THE FOOT OF BRIDE PEAK. 
THE UPPER BALTORO GLACIER. 

K as surveyed by the Expedition. Lanfafahad, Chiring or Chogo 1. Weather during June 

Pearly Monsoon of the Karakoram. Bride Peak, the new Goal of the Duke. Return to 

Base Camp. Changes in the Glaciers and Mountains. The Camp moved to Concordia. 
Sella's Work. - - The Duke sets out for Bride Peak. Moraines of the Southern Branch of 
the Baltoro. Camp at the Foot of Golden Throne. Landslides and Avalanches. 
Hidden Peak and the Eastern Slopes of Bride Peak. Mustagh Tower. Weather during 
July. Melting of the Glaciers. The Snow Limit. Sunsets. 

OUR work in the neighbourhood 
of K 2 and the glacier basin of 
the Godwin Austen was at an 
end. The Duke had explored 
the mountain in detail, its 
glaciers and surrounding ranges 
on the south, west and east ; 
he had seen and photographed 
the outline of its northern wall, 
perhaps the most precipitous of 
all. Despite unfavourable atmo- 
spheric conditions, despite the 
mists and fogs that persistently 
covered the peaks and walls, 
Sella and Negrotto, by taking 
advantage of every brief interval 

of fair weather, had succeeded in getting views of the valleys and 
mountains about the monarch, and in completing a network of photo- 
grammetric panoramas and of angles read on the tacheometer. 




278 



Chapter XVI. 



K 2 now stood revealed in detail, and it became possible to make 
accurate drawings of its outlines, its ridges and the inclination of its 
walls. The mountain is a quadrangular pyramid, the corners being 
formed by four main crests meeting at right angles the south-west 
and north-east, the north-west and south-east. The first two are 
prolonged in long and powerful buttresses, proportionate in size to the 
mass which they sustain. The other two are cut off short and 




K* FROM THE SOUTH. 



precipitously one at Savoia Pass, the other at the shoulder of the 
mountain, where it divides into a southern and an eastern branch. 
These four ridges outline irregular walls, which are orientated to the 
four cardinal points and are cut by secondary ridges. The western and 
northern faces are rocky. The southern is likewise rocky, but the De 
Filippi glacier runs across it obliquely. The eastern face is all armed 
with ice, and has a great shoulder two-thirds of the way up, upon which 
the terminal peak rears itself, a cone over 3,000 feet high. 

It is quite certain that K 2 , from whatever point one looks at it, has 
one peak and one only. It is not clear how some observers can have 
managed to see two. In Drew's book 1 is a drawing of K 2 seen from 

1 F. DREW, Jummoo and Kashmir. 2nd ed. London 1877. p. 370. 




The Peak of K 2 , seen from the south 



. 



L'7'.l 



K lo Bride IVjik. 

the south west from more than <;-.: miles away, shotting it with 
distinct pmnts divided by a broad saddle. Sir Martin Conwav also 
believed he had seen a twin peak. On Hie other hand, (,'odwin Austen 
distinctly allirmed the contrary, and lie was right. 1 It is perhaps 
Hie great eastern shoulder seen I,,,,,, certain points of view that has 
created the false impression. 

I know no other mountain which has such diverse aspects when seen 
from its dim-rent sides. The plates showing it from west, south, east 
and north east- display its extraordinary variety of form, and show, 
too, how all its sides are emiallv fortified with the most formidable 
defences against the attack of I he mountain .limber. After weeks of 
examination, after hours of contemplation and seurcli for the secret 
of the mountain, the Duke \\as finally obliged to yield to the conviction 
<hat K- is not to be limbed. Its height is not a factor in the , 
It is the obstacles peculiar to mountain climbing and familiar to the 
mountaineer thai dose the paths of ascent In K '. I know how hard 
it is to, lav to win belief for a statement, of the inaccessibihl \ of a 
mountain without the most exhaustive evidence. And I hasten lo add 
thai such a sentence applies to K not altogether in an absolute sense, 
llll( SI ' IV """'I' 'I* si "'Stilt of the remote ;-iliial.i.in of the gianl, I he 
impos.-il.ilily of Damping Qeai its base for more than a few weeks, and 
finally the unfavourable climatic conditions. If K' won in the Alp 
it is possible thai a siege of several yean would end in compiest, 
l"vided "'"' Mie heigh! did not form /*/ . a physiological obstacle 
""' I" be overcome,. Step by step a way would be gained up one ol 
the ridges -ropes and refuges would be placed. The giant would 
prohiil.ly claim its victims, but in the e,,,| would yield perhaps I., 
repeated assaults. 

The liiiltis gave us a new name for K -, as they had done also to our 
predecessors. They appeared lo agree in calling il Lmfafahad or 
Linpapahad. They were equally unanimous in speaking of it to 
<'oiiway under the designation ('hiring, while to ({lllllarmod they called 
i 'hogo. The last is common lo various peaks of the Karakoiam. 
There is only one Conclusion to be drawn from all these names that 
K 1 -' has had none given il by I lie natiyes. The fad ,,; M o| surprisiir. 



1 See 0Mp. Jour, :i, IN'I-I. ,.)>. 1:11 ,ui,| r.27. 

- pp. ^12, 248, 2B8, 2H iu,.l bOOti pto 



280 Chapter XVI. 

Rather it would be strange if the natives who live on the slopes of the 
Karakoram, who have left unchristened numberless peaks which they 
see every day, had had the idea of giving a name to a particular one 
six days' journey from their villages beyond the much-dreaded glaciers, 
in a region to which they have been dragged solely by the insatiability 
of European curiosity. The brothers Schlagintweit made a vain search 
for a native name both in Baltistan and Turkestan, and afterwards 
proposed the name of Depsang, because they had had so splendid a 
view of the mountain from the plateau of that name near the 
Karakoram pass. K 2 is actually indicated by this name in various 
atlases, chiefly German ones. It has not, however, so far as I know, 
any official sanction. It is strange that others among the many visitors 
to the Karakoram pass, either before or after the Schlagintweits, do not 
mention having seen K 2 from there or the vicinity, not even those who 
have given us a minute description of the view. 

During the whole month we had spent on the Godwin Austen the 
weather had been exceedingly unfavourable. Only once did we have 
three consecutive days of good weather. The wind blew almost 
constantly from the west and south-west, and grew stronger and colder 
the higher up we went. We had frequent though not very heavy 
snowstorms. It was seldom that the air remained clear or the peaks 
uncovered for a whole day at a time. With the exception of one single 
occasion, and then only for a few hours, we never found ourselves on a 
level with or above the mists and clouds. They were always very high, 
like the wind, from 23,000 feet up. The usual classification of the 
clouds into nimbus, cumulus, cirrus and stratus, based on the shapes 
assumed at various heights, holds good for the Karakoram, by putting 
each type some 7,000 feet farther up. 

The regular persistence of the wind points to the conclusion that 
it must be the monsoon, which would be blowing very high up during 
this month. We followed for whole days the rapid course of mists and 
clouds 1,000 feet above the peak of K 2 , when in the valleys the air 
would be calm. This may explain the fact that in Kashmir and the 
Punjab plain one is not conscious of the monsoon before July and 
August, when it blows much lower, hurling itself against the barrier 
of the Himalaya. If, as meteorologists consider, the monsoon is caused 
by the super-heated air of the desert of Gobi and the other arid Asiatic 
regions, when the sun is north of the equator, it is natural that the 



From K - to Bride Peak. 2x1 

consequent reverse current of air would be apparent earlier in the 
Karakoram than in the far-off plains. 1 

Whatever may be the cause of it, the persistent bad weather imposes 
a fatal obstacle upon the mountain climber. The fresh snow, falling at 
such frequent intervals, covers the rocks with a permanent crust of 
ice (yerglas). Moreover, it never has a chance to solidify on the walls 
or the glaciers, thus there is no season when one is safe from avalanches 
nor when the' crevasses are covered with firm snow. Yet after all, in 
the month of June, the worst enemy is indubitably the wind, which 
blows up continual tourmentes and makes the cold well nigh 
unendurable. 

I have said that all the explorers of the various regions of the 
Karakoram suffered like ourselves from the inclemence of the weather. 
But I ought to mention that in 1908 the Workmans enjoyed two months 
(July and August) of almost uninterrupted fair weather, with clear 
warm days. From this fact explorers may draw encouragement to plan 
new expeditions to the Karakoram. 

Though our work about K 2 was finished, the Duke had no intention 
of making an end of the campaign. He did not give up the hope of 
climbing some other peak of the region which should be higher than 
any altitude yet attained, thus satisfying what had been the chief 
purpose of the expedition. The encouraging features were the fact that 
the season was not yet far advanced, the excellent record the guides 
had made on the high slopes, and the good health we were all in, for 
beyond a certain amount of loss of flesh, accompanied by a slight 
diminution of strength and powers of resistance, none of us seemed 
really the worse for our life above 16,500 feet. Alessio Brocherel, indeed 
the most experienced guide we had after Giuseppe Petigax lost so 
much by his few days' illness and seemed so weakened, that he could 
not be depended upon for the rest of the campaign. The experience 
of those who had come before us was to the effect that in the month of 

1 SIR A. CUNNINGHAM (Ladakh and Surrounding Countries London 1854) asserts on the 
authority of A. Gerard and of his brother, J. Cunningham, that in Ladakh and Baltistan the 
wind blows all the year round from west or south-west, without the alternation of the south-west 
(summer) monsoon with the north-east (winter) one. The author found that in Ladakh there 
is a daily alternation, a steady breeze blowing from the north at night, which at dawn shifts to 
the north-east and during the day veers to south-west or west probably a wind entirely un- 
connected with the monsoon and caused by the local daily radiation due to the high solar tempera- 
ture of the plateaus. We observed nothing similar in the Karakoram, conditions being absent 
which could give rise to this periodic oscillation. 



i',si> Chapter XVI. 

July, now close at hand, weather even more unpropitious than that of 
June was only to be expected. But this prospect was not definite 
enough to put an end to the campaign. 

The great difficulty lay in the choice of the mountain. The mere 
sight of that immense cordon by which we were surrounded was enough 
to put the mountain climber into a mental state of awe and doubt. All 
the peaks between 26,000 and 27,000 feet were of such formidable aspect, 
that it seemed impossible to plan an ascent giving any reasonable hope 
of a successful issue. The Duke was driven by sheer necessity to turn 
his thoughts toward Golden Throne and Bride Peak, the snowy 
mountains which rise at the end of the southern arm of the Baltoro. 
The first, with its mighty glaciers and slopes of moderate inclination, 
Sir Martin Conway had already essayed. But it is only 23,590 feet 
high, almost 400 feet lower than Kabru in Kinchinjunga, which had 
been ascended two years before by the Norwegians Rubenson and 
Monrad Aas. There remained Bride Peak, 25,110 feet high, as yet 
untried, and possessing the great advantage that it had been selected 
as a trigonometric point and measured by the Indian Trigonometrical 
Survey. From our camp we had looked with admiration, almost 
amounting to desire, at the beautiful outline of this peak. The great 
northern wall seemed to show an easy, if tedious route to the summit. 

The ascent of Bride Peak was decided upon as early as June 22nd, 
and the Duke had discussed with us the mode of carrying it into 
execution. On the 23rd, while he set off in violent weather to Windy 
Gap for his second attempt upon Staircase Peak, Sella went down to the 
base camp at the foot of K 2 , taking with him Alessio Brocherel, and 
assisting him on the way. On the morrow Negrotto and I broke up the 
intermediate camp, leaving a single tent for the use of whoever came 
up later to get the luggage from the camp at Windy Gap. We, Botta, 
Bareux and fifteen coolies, then joined Sella at the base camp. 

We descended the incline below the camp by a much more tortuous 
route than on our ascent, because the numerous crevasses were all laid 
bare by the melting of the snows. This passed, we stood astonished 
before the great alteration which time had worked in the glacier. The 
melting process had gone on vigorously. Over the surface were 
sprinkled little clear blue lakes and a network of rivulets ran everywhere. 
Two large and ancient avalanches from K 2 had spread great expanses 
of rugged snow, each of them some half a mile broad and grey with 



From K - to Bride IVak. 283 

dust and detritus, obliquely across the glacier, almost to the foot of 
Broad Peak. Everywhere else the ice was bare and corroded by fusion; 
The front of the De Filippi glacier was much lower, and the seracs along 
it, unevenly melted by the sun, had taken on fantastic shapes. Below 
it the centre of the Godwin Austen was filled with a broad moraine 
between the band of green seracs at the foot of the rocks of Broad Peak 
and the wide front of the Savoia glacier. The surface of this latter was 
all grey with dust. 

The hollow where the base camp had been was shallower than 
before, owing to the flattening of the surface of the glacier. The walls 
of the chains could now be seen from it almost to their bases. The 
mountains, divested of their thick coating of snow, seemed shrunken 
and lean, and their glaciers were confined within ribs of rock. Live 
ice gleamed from all the gullies. The Vigne glacier had been very 
white ; now it wound up its broad valley in stripes of moraine. Only 
Bride Peak and its satellites had kept their whiteness unsullied. The 
former, on its northern wall, is cut with crevasses, .betrayed by their 
deeper shadow ; they must be of enormous size. On the rocks back 
of the camp some lean tufts of grass had sprung up. 

The day ended in a sunset of indescribable beauty. Now that we 
had accepted our defeat, the mountain seemed to throw off its hostility 
and become serene once more. We could not see the western sky for 
the south-western spur of K 2 , at whose feet we were ; but the southern 
heavens seemed to mirror every ray of the declining sun. Perhaps 
Bride Peak acted as a reflector to fling back the western light. The 
pale blue sky became softly tinged with rose, then turned a delicate 
mauve, to end in a metallic turquoise, like tempered steel. The great 
snowy wall showed a pale saffron, then a waxen pallor like a tea-rose, 
then a deep pure white. There was no violent colour. The splendour 
of the summer skies in the Alps, which tint the snows with purple, gold 
and red, was all quite lacking here. One by one the light left the 
surrounding heights, forsaking last of all the three great summits of 
Broad Peak. Finally, the tranquil moonlight and a profound stillness 
and peace reigned over the scene. 

The sunrises of this region are even more delicately coloured than 
its sunsets. The brilliantly pure light merely increases in intensity, 
the sky has a clear gleaming pallor, and there is not a tinge of colour 
reflected anywhere upon the snows. 



24 Chapter XVI. 

The present fair weather, for the one and only time during our stay 
on the Baltoro, was unbroken for three days. We proceeded in this 
time with the carrying out of the Duke's plans. On June 25th Sella 
left us at the base camp and went down to the mouth of the Godwin 
Austen, taking with him Botta and fifteen loaded coolies. He sent back 
the latter directly, and on the day following they made the journey 
down and back a second time, a march of nearly nine hours. \\V 
rewarded this extra work and their docility in performing it by some 
presents of biscuits, a little tea and sugar, chocolate or butter, all of 
which we had gradually persuaded them to accept. We were astonished 
to have some of them ask for soap and wash themselves, nearly 
nude for the purpose, in the icy rivulet between the camp and the 
moraine. 

On the 27th we made the last photogrammetric station on the 
Godwin Austen, at a point below the mouth of the Savoia glacier. This 
done, we sent fourteen coolies up to the intermediate camp, under the 
escort of Bareux. Next day they went on to Windy Gap to bring 
down the equipment of the high camp. That afternoon the fine weather 
showed signs of breaking. Light flakes of mist came and went on the 
ridges, grew more permanent, and by sunset the whole sky was dotted 
with clouds. Next morning it was snowing. Enrico Brocherel, 
Giuseppe Petigax and Savoie came down in the forenoon and the Duke 
in the afternoon in one stage from Windy Gap. Finally, towards 
evening our party was increased by the arrival of twenty-three coolies 
from Rdokass, the Duke having sent for them to help carry the camp 
to Bride Peak. 

The storm continued all the next day, the 29th ; but the Duke set 
off for the Concordia notwithstanding with the guides and all the coolies. 
Only Bareux and Alessio Brocherel stayed with us ; the latter had 
given us some anxiety after his return to the base camp. His cough 
and the pain in the chest had come on again, accompanied by a slight 
feverishness. Then he began to improve to such an extent that we 
thought he might be taken down to Concordia by the next day. We 
made a sort of chair with the long alpenstocks and one of the load- 
carriers, upon which he might be carried on the level stretches. That 
evening all the coolies were once more united at the camp, frisking and 
playing like children, undepressed by the lowering weather and heavy, 
gloomy sky. 



From K - to Bride Peak. j>85 

We were up betimes on the 30th, and finished breaking up camp 
in a heavy snowfall. The air was still. Four coolies were told off to 
carry Brocherel's chair, and we had all the others start off, ourselves 
following. After getting on the moraine we turned back for a last look 
at the spot which had been our shelter for the past month and more. 
It had never looked so forlorn as now. The heavy snow obliterated in a 
short time all traces of the camp that had once stood there. One of 
our friendly crows was perched on the little level his companions had 
all deserted us some days before. 

We went on very slowly, as Brocherel was with us, covering on foot 
the distance across the two moraine ridges. When he decided to begin 
to use the chair we found, to our disappointment, that the coolies 
though with the best will in the world were unable to carry him. 
They were not used to working in concert nor keeping step together, 
and they were not strong in the arms, so that their exertion was out of 
all proportion to the burden, and they had to stop for rest every few 
steps. Brocherel, who was finding his strength greater than he had 
thought, finally decided that he could make most of the way on foot 
by proceeding slowly. So we continued, at the pace of a funeral cortege. 

We followed the median moraine of the glacier, which begins at the 
mouth of the De Filippi, and is shortly increased by the confluence 
of the Savoia. During the past month the level of the glacier had 
fallen considerably, and the arrangement of the moraines had increased 
in evenness and regularity. The long central spine, formed by the 
median moraine, now marked by numerous glacial lakes, stood several 
feet above the rest of the glacier, which was all corrugated with 
longitudinal ridges and furrows, among which ran smaller moraines 
and noisy surface torrents of water. Some of the ridges of ice were in 
the form of long parallel rows of notched and irregular blocks with 
cuttings between them. Here and there the ice terminated on the 
edge of the moraine in rows of rounded lumps, which looked like surf 
suddenly arrested and frozen upon a beach. We observed several times 
a phenomenon never felt to anything like the same degree on other 
glaciers the frequent sharp and violent concussion due to fissures 
opening in the mass, accompanied by distinctly perceptible quaking 
of the ice beneath our feet, which sometimes amounts to an actual 
undulating movement. The phenomenon is certainly not caused by 
earthquake shock. 



286 



Chapter XVJ. 



The moraine grows broader and flatter as we go down, till it looks 
like a wide road in the middle of the valley. In its centre the stones 
are small and broken. The larger ones are collected at the edges, 
forming rows of glacier tables. The walking was so easy that we made 
Brocherel mount his chair again, and he was carried for longer distances 
than at first, thanks to the help of Bareux's broad shoulders. 




K 2 FROM THE GODWIN AUSTEN, NEAR CONCORDIA. 

All the moraines of the Godwin Austen run in straight lines toward 
the Concordia basin, until they meet the glacier that comes down from 
the western flank of Broad Peak. There they make a wide symmetrical 
curve to come into line with the moraines flowing from the upper 
Baltoro, and they all proceed westward in parallel rows in the narrow 
stretch between Mitre Peak and Marble Point, which stand sentinels 
to the entrance to the lower valley. We found the tents set up where 
the curve of the moraine begins, not far from the Concordia, near the 
largest boulder we had seen on the glaciers of the Karakoram. Enrico 
and Emilio Brocherel came a half-hour's distance from camp to meet 
us, and with their help we were able to cover the rest of the distance 



From K - to liri<K IVak. 287 

at a good pace and to spare the invalid further fatigue, so that he 
reached camp in good condition. The snow had almost stopped, and 
a fresh wind was blowing, as usual, from the south-west. 

The once more united forces now exchanged their experiences of the 
past few days. Sella had profited by the two exceptional fine days to 
make highly successful photographic excursions. On the 26th he 




K ! AT SUNSET, SEEK FKOM THE LOWER GODWIN AUSTEN. 

climbed the rocky corner between the Baltoro and the Godwin Austen, 
reaching a shoulder 17,239 feet high on the black and broken schists 
from which rises the marble peak. Thence he took panorama C. The 
next day he crossed the glacier to the foot of the great western ridge 
of the Gasherbrums, and made a difficult way up the rocks and icy 
gullies to a ledge 17,917 feet high, just about opposite to his position 
of the day before. Here he took panorama D. These two panoramas 
are all that could be desired in the way of showing the whole 
amphitheatre and its surrounding mountain chains. Sella also collected 
and photographed some Alpine plants growing in sheltered places on the 
heights up to nearly 18,000 feet. 1 

1 These plants are classified and illustrated in the Botanical Index of Prof. Pirotta and 
Dr. Cortesi. In the Nanda Devi group in Gahrwal Longstaff found plants only up to 16,500 feet. 



Chapter XVI. 

The weather steadily improved : the heavy clouds were dispersed, 
and the day closed with another scene of unforgettable splendour. It 
was, in fact, the extraordinary rapidity and variety of the atmospheric 
changes in this region which contributed most largely to the aesthetic 
pleasure of a sojourn there. The terminal peak of K 2 stood out above 
a wreath of cloud that was faintly rosy in the twilight. The moon, 
almost at full, burst through the vapours to the south-east and seemed 
to sweep them before it. The group of gradually descending summits 
between Bride Peak and the Vigne glacier were all floating in a bed 
of down. Twilight and moonlight combined in strange and beautiful 
effects of light and shade upon the walls and heights. Finally, the 
calm brilliance of the moon replaced the daylight, all the surrounding 
snows taking reflections from the clear air, while the walls that lay in 
shadow showed dark and mysterious by contrast with their radiance. 

On July 1st the Duke, Sella, the guides and all the coolies left camp 
to ascend the upper Baltoro. Negrotto and I stayed behind with 
Lorenzo Petigax and Alessio Brocherel, until the coolies should return. 
We remained for five days, which we spent in concluding the 
topographical work with two last panoramas and in making two short 
excursions on the glacier. Brocherel meanwhile went on improving 
and gaining in strength. 

The high bastion of moraine upon which we were now encamped, 
near the entrance to the Concordia, was a fine post of observation. 
Just opposite us to the west was the Marble Peak, standing upon its 
black foundation, which is likewise veined with white marble. It 
looked rather like a huge magnolia bud about to burst. It is confronted 
on the east by the large glaciers of the ridge joining Broad Peak and the 
Gasherbrums they unite behind a long and narrow screen of rock 
which flanks the Godwin Austen on the left, and flow together into 
the Concordia. On the south the vision traverses the wide Concordia 
basin, a series of high ridges and deep furrows, bare ice and moraine 
alternating, and reaches up within the southern Baltoro and the valley 
of the Vigne, which appear to converge high up at the base of Bride 
Peak. K 2 at this distance has all its old impressiveness. We were 
too near Broad Peak to get a good view of it it looks from where we 
are a huge misshapen mass. By descending the moraine for a short 
distance one can see the opening and the long vista of the lower 
Baltoro, with the beautiful peak of Paiju rising at the end. 



From K - to Bride Peak. 289 

All these giant mountains gain in size and impressiveness as one 
gets farther away from them ; for the valleys, wide as they seem, are 
really disproportionately narrow to the heights above them, so that 
one sees all the outlines dwarfed and distorted by foreshortening. 
Contrasting with the snow are rocks of bold design in a great variety 
of colours black schists, granites, gneiss in all shades of grey, which 
when the sun strikes them look brown and give out red, blue and yellow 
gleams ; while the limestones, white or creamy, blood-coloured or 
greenish, run a whole gamut of varying shades. Sometimes we arrive 
at a consciousness, even if a dim one, of the wonderful harmony of 
form, the perfect balance and proportion of this seeming chaos ; but 
oftener we give up all analysis of our sensations, and rest in a vague 
and silent contemplation. 

On this side and on that of the median moraine, the glacier has a 
relatively smooth strip, and then becomes more and more disturbed 
and upheaved as one approaches the marginal moraines. The screen 
of rocks at the foot of Broad Peak is not easy to reach. The course 
of the waters has curved great furrows and ditches between the 
moraines and ice ridges. We have to make long detours in order to 
go around these, as well as to avoid the steeper slopes. Between the 
marginal moraine and the strip of ice nearest it lay a charming little 
arctic landscape in miniature, composed of the bluest of small lakes 
all running in between the thousand narrow inlets of the undermined 
and jagged banks. Blocks of ice reduced by melting to the most 
fantastic shapes mirrored themselves in these little lakes. Everywhere 
one heard the sound of dripping, bubbling and rushing waters coming 
down all the surrounding slopes, accompanied by the dull and heavy 
undertone from the underground torrents and the splashes made by 
ice breaking off and falling into the water. We were only some 600 or 
700 feet below the base camp ; but this slight difference gave us a 
distinct sense of well-being, to which probably the improvement in the 
weather contributed. It was quite mild and calm, and one could stay 
for hours in the sun on the warm stones of the moraine. It was most 
welcome refreshment for eyes fatigued by weeks of reverberation from 
the snows. During the midday hours currents of warm air vibrated 
above the moraine, as on a desert. None of us ever suffered from too 
great intensity of the sun certainly at Windy Gap it was far preferable 
to the shade. Later I will make some comparison between our 



Chapter XVI. 

observations of solar radiation and those brought back by other 
expeditions. 

There were not enough tents to shelter all the extra coolies sent 
up from Udokass, so they had improvised a sort of open-air camp for 
themselves, building a low circular wall enclosing a flat space a few 
yards in diameter. This they paved by ingeniously fitting slabs of 
stone together. A little beyond they had constructed a sort of terrace. 




BRIDE PEAK. FROM THE GODWIN AtTSTEN, NEAR CONCOKDIA. 



and at 8 or 10 yards' distance from this set up a stone pyramid to mark 
the west and the direction of Mecca. To this platform they would go 
one by one to say their prayers and make their prostrations. It was 
the first time we had seen any of them perform any act of devotion ; 
they seem, in general, rather lukewarm Mohammedans. The Kashmiri, 
as I have said before, are Sunnites, and they accuse the Shiite Baltis 
of practising all sorts of bloody rites, including human sacrifice ; and the 
Baltis retort the charge upon their accusers. It is probably the result 
of sectarian prejudice, without foundation on either side. 



From K 2 to Bride Peak. 291 

We started up the Baltoro ourselves on July 6th, the coolies carrying 
our tent, beds and a few other things. We took to the foot of Bride 
Peak only so much equipment as was needful for fifteen days, the rest 
was left at Concordia in charge of Alessio Brocherel. He was now 
quite convalescent, but not sufficiently strong for the strain of the high 
mountain work. Later on a party of coolies carried all the stores left 
with him back to Rdokass directly from Concordia, and Brocherel went 
with them. 

The snow had been falling since the day before, and the moraines 
were covered with a heavy layer. It showed no sign of abating on the 
morning of our start, and the coolies told us they could not walk in 
the soft snow in their pabboos, which they were now wearing to save 
their boots from the moraine. We waited a few hours hoping a pause 
would come, and thus did not set out until toward noon. We followed 
the moraine for a short distance to the point where it takes a more 
pronounced westward curve ; then we left it for an irregular tract 
belonging to the glaciers flowing into Concordia from the west. There 
were alternate slopes of moraine and bare ice, separated by furrows 
and ditches sometimes as much as 100 feet deep, where there were little 
azure lakes, or else rushing streams that wound a tortuous course between 
their steep banks of ice, the latter all ragged and undermined and sharp 
at the edge. We had to keep going back and forth, and climbing up 
and down steep slopes, so that it was impossible to take account of the 
ridges and moraines which had looked from a distance so very regular 
in their arrangement. We crossed the western glacier of the 
Gasherbrums without seeing any of the high imposing wall of the 
mountain itself, wrapped in thick mist, and reached a furious torrent 
running deep between steep ice walls. Along this we had to go for 
some distance before we found a place where a jutting piece of ice 
permitted us to cross over. Beyond were the moraines of the upper 
Baltoro itself, which we crossed at the point where they curve westward 
parallel to those of the Godwin Austen. The first was the large right- 
hand moraine, a beautiful composition of limestones, coloured marbles 
and conglomerates in the greatest variety, forming a gaily coloured 
mosaic by means of a sort of reddish silicacious substance which 
acted as cement. Next came a file of seracs running lengthwise 
between the right-hand moraine and the various stripes of the 
median one ; these were composed first of a streak of thin black 



T 1> 



292 



Chapter XVI. 



slaty schists, then more coloured limestones mixed with schists and 
quartzes. 1 

I have already explained how we were able from the appearance 
of the moraines to analyze the structure of the chains whence they 
came. Now our conclusions were strengthened by the appearance of 
the rocks themselves, which showed a clear contrast between the light- 
coloured sedimentary and calcareous formations, and the black and 




SURFACE TORRENT OF THE UPPER BALTORO. GOLDEN THRONE AND CHOGOI.ISA SADDLE 

IN THE BACKGROUND. 

grey schists and granites. This alternation of material in the upper 
Baltoro is clearly displayed in Sella's panorama M, taken from the 
crest between the Vigne and the upper Baltoro. The centre shows 
the black stripe formed by the right-hand moraine of the Vigne and 
the left-hand of the Baltoro. It is all composed of granites and quartzes 
from the Bride Peak chain. Next, on the right, is a second band 
(coming from the right-hand lower corner of the panorama). Its 
source is the confluence of the eastern glaciers of Bride Peak. It has 
the same colour as the first, and like it is composed of crystalline rocks. 
Still farther toward the right comes a pale grey stripe formed of 

1 Specimens of rocks collected on the various moraines are given in two coloured plates 
included in the geological appendix of the results of the expedition ; they present an idea of the 
great richness and variety of colouring. 



From K - to Bride IVak. 



293 



limestones from Golden Throne, a thin streak of solid black composed 
of scales of slate from the northern spurs of Golden Throne ; then 
another pale grey band of limestones from Gasherbrum I or Hidden 
Peak ; and finally, the right-hand marginal moraine, running at the 
base of the right valley wall this last composed of light grey 
sedimentary rock from the Gasherbrum range. 




THE VIGNE GLACIER AND ITS TRIBUTARIES OF THE LEFT BANK. 

There was a lightening of the atmosphere in the west, and we could 
tell that we had reached the level of the mouth of the Vigne glacier. 
A little farther on, where the end of its right-hand spur abuts on the 
valley, we made our camp, yielding to the importunities of the coolies, 
who were tired and discouraged with the bad weather. A little 
afterwards we were joined by five coolies from Rdokass, who brought 
us post and provisions, and stayed the night with us. 

July 7th was cloudy, foggy and snowy, like the preceding day. We 
went on to the camp at the foot of Golden Throne, seeing nothing all 
the way except the stones we walked on where these were not covered 
with snow. The glacier was heaved up in waves right and left of us, 
as far as the foot of the lateral spurs of the valley. For this stretch 

(9221) T 3 



L".!4 



Chapter XVI. 



the reader should look at panoramas N and K. As we neared the foot 
of Golden Throne the median moraine spread out like a fan, and the 
central stripes rayed out till they reached the base of the rocks, where 
a little series of marginal lakes was formed. A curious fact which we 
were unable to explain was that the laminated formations, like slates, 
which had been at first lying flat, were here disposed vertically and 
formed wide stretches made of these thin and narrow edges, tiresome 
to walk over. It looked as though the stones were thus heaved up by 
pressure due to the meeting of the Baltoro with the eastern glaciers of 
Bride Peak. 




SCENE AT SUNSET, LOOKING NORTH FROM THE UPPER BALTORO. K s ON THE RIGHT, 
. MUSTAGH TOWER ON THE LEFT. 



We cut obliquely across the top of the moraine toward the west, 
and reached its left-hand margin at no great distance from the angle 
of rock which bounds on this side the great terminal fall of the Chogolisa 
glacier. Here the Duke had set up Camp XI, base camp for the new 
campaign, 16,637 feet high. There was a little lake between the camp 
and the rocks. It was near here that Conway had camped when he 
attacked Golden Throne (Footstool Camp). 

As we had anticipated, the tents were empty ; but about an hour 
later we were surprised to see Sella, Savoie, Botta and the coolies 
coming down the glacier behind the camp. Sella told us of the Duke's 
new plans, of the great difficulty they had encountered climbing up the 
scracs toward Chogolisa Saddle, of the wretched weather, etc. But 



From Iv J to Bride L'eak. 29. r > 

all this I will recount in its proper place. The Duke wanted provisions, 
and we sent the coolies back with them as soon as possible, in charge 
of Savoie and Lorenzo Petigax. 

Negrotto and I were in this camp for thirteen days, Sella staying 
with us till July llth, when he took advantage of a party of coolies 
going down to Rdokass to leave us and make a temporary shelter for 
himself with a tarpaulin, near the meeting of the Vigne and the Baltoro, 
expecting to make this a base for photographic expeditions. 




THE NORTHERN WALL OF GOLDEN THRONE, FROM THE MEDIAN MORAINE OF THE 

UPPER BALTORO. 

The days were long and lonely. We had not even the crows to 
distract us, as they had apparently deserted the high regions early in 
July. Our only diversion was that of going on short excursions about 
the neighbourhood with the purpose of making topographical stations 
with the tacheometer. But many more days were spent in idle 
contemplation of the bad weather, in passive waiting for news from 
the Duke, who was snowed up somewhere on the high glaciers of 
Chogolisa Saddle, surrounded by thick clouds, confronting with what 
patience he might the relentless hostility of the sky. More than once 

T 4 



296 Chapter XVI. 

during the long period of inaction we were assailed by feelings of anxiety 
for the safety of the exploring party. Only once, on the 13th. did we 
have news of them. A party of coolies with three of the guides came 
down for supplies and brought us a letter from the Duke, telling us of 
the first attempts at an ascent, frustrated by the bad weather, saying 
that he was still resolved to continue in his undertaking. 

Two days after we had made camp the sun for the first time got 
the better about midday of the clouds and fog, and showed us the scene 
by which we were surrounded, to which we had come in the dark, as it 
were, without getting an idea of the composition of the picture. 
Panorama gives an excellent idea of it. The camp lay at the foot 
of a very steep rocky incline 3,000 or more feet high, terminating the 
northern spur of Golden Throne. The rock strata are clearly marked, 
and show various colours yellow, white, grey, violet and green being 
the source of the polychrome limestones of the median moraine of the 
Baltoro. The cliff is furrowed with gullies large and small, and high 
up on it hangs the broken end of a glacier coming down from the lofty 
peaks we cannot see. Avalanches fell continually from the wall, fed 
from the uninterrupted heavy snows, during the whole time of our 
stay here. They were not so stupendous as those from Broad Peak, 
but much more frequent. The first ray of sunshine was enough to 
dislodge the snow, and it fell in cataracts, in cascades, in streams, in 
rivulets, swift and gleaming white, down all the ravines and crannies 
of the rocks, and rose up in iridescent showers above every obstacle 
that impeded its course. The heavy rumble of the falling mass was 
punctuated with sharp knocks and cracklings from the rolling stones, 
or drowned altogether by the deafening tumult made by a downfall 
of seracs, or a rock breaking off with a tremendous crash and raising 
up clouds of dust in its course. In the warm part of the day it seemed 
as though the whole mountain were actually falling apart, so huge were 
the masses of ice, rock and snow that hurled themselves down from it. 

In front of us we had a glacier lake similar to the Concordia one, 
though smaller. The swelling stream of the Baltoro bends eastward, 
becoming broader and broader, and rising at a moderate grade to the 
foot of Hidden Peak, the highest of the Gasherbrum group (26,470 feet), 
which up to now none of us had seen except Sella and the Duke. The 
former got a glimpse of it when he crossed the eastern chain of the 
upper Godwin Austen, and the latter when he was on the ridge of 



From K - to l>ri<lc IViik. 



297 



Staircase Peak. It was Conway who gave the name Hidden Peak to 
this remote and splendid height. It resembles in shape, on a larger 
scale, Gasherbrum IV at the head of the Concordia basin. Its western 
side is covered with glaciers which unite and flow into the Baltoro. 
The Baltoro itself finally bends southward and disappears from sight 
between Hidden Peak and a snowy pyramid of Golden Throne. 




HIDDEN PEAK. 



Facing Hidden Peak on the west is the eastern wall of Bride Peak, 
quite clothed in glaciers falling from a height of some 5,000 feet, great 
foaming white cataracts like frozen Niagaras. From our station we 
could only see the western peak, which is the highest, and shaped like 
a sharp narrow tooth. Two long crests run from it to northward and 
eastward, embracing in the sweep of their wings the most formidable 
glacial basin which a single mountain could possibly show. The 
northern ridge, which is partly rocky, is prolonged in a massive spur, 
behind which a glacier emerging from the northern wall of the mountain 
empties into the Baltoro with a high and steep cascade. It is this 
northern wall of the mountain which we saw from our base camp at 



298 



Chapter XVI. 



K'-. The eastern crest is mantled with ice and edged with a wide 
cornice. From 2,000 to 2,200 feet below the peak this crest shapes 
itself into a large shoulder like a great dome of ice, beyond which it 
slopes down at a more gentle incline to Chogolisa Saddle. A rib of ice 
runs out at right angles from its foot, and comes down toward the 
Baltoro, ending in a rocky promontory. Between this and the buttress 




EASTERN WALL OF BRIDE 1'EAK. 



of Golden Throne, at whose base we had set up our camp, a glacier from 
the snows of Kondus and Chogolisa tumbles down in a perfect torrent 
of seracs. 

Opposite our camp the Baltoro flows down the valley northward, 
occupying the centre of the view. Turning one's eyes in that direction 
one beholds the strangest conceivable apparition of a mountain, 
so singular in its form that it is not to be compared to any other 
known peak. It stands in the background of the scene, to the right 
of the black tooth of Mitre Peak, and rears its mighty tower against 



Mustagh Tower 



From K- to Bride- IVsik. 



290' 



the sky, its sides smooth like surfaces formed by cleavage, its angles 
clean and sharp like those of an obelisk. This mountain, of course, 
is the Mustagh Tower. It is about 24,000 feet high, and stands isolated 
from other peaks on a somewhat narrow base marked by sharp ridges. 
It appears, and perhaps is, a true monolith, a rocky mass of a single 
formation, without traces of breaks or divisional planes no other, of 
any comparable size, is known to exist on the globe. Words would be 



MITKK PEAK. 



MUSTAGH TOWER. 




MITRE PEAK AND MUSTAGH TOWER FROM OUR CAMP AT THE BASE OP GOLDEN THRONE. 

incapable of giving a just idea of it without the accompanying picture- 
Panorama L, taken by telephotography, 1 shows it, as well as the 
background of the Baltoro glacier formed by the chain which runs from 
Mustagh Tower to K 2 , with its great snowy peaks, among which 
penetrates the Savoia glacier. Crystal Peak, Marble Point and all 
the other heights along the side of the glacier, are mere secondary spurs 
of this great chain, which is the actual watershed of the region. The 
left side of the upper Baltoro is formed of lesser mountains of brownish 
red rock, like Bride Peak. Of this side we get a foreshortened view as 

1 Owing to a mistake, the site from which panorama L was taken is marked on the sketch 
of the triangulation and Bella's photographic stations as being on the right side of the Baltoro,. 
at the foot of the southern buttress of the Gasherbrums. Instead of this, it was taken from 
Camp XI, like panorama O. S?lla did take a panorama from the point indicated, but it is not 
reproduced in this book. 



300 



XVI. 



far as Mitre Peak, which looks two-pronged from our point of view, 
and very like, indeed, to the bishop's cap, from which it is named. 
The right side of the valley is formed by the large mountain group which 
occupies the angle between the three Gasherbrums (invisible from the 
camp) and Hidden Peak. It has two peaks over 23,000 feet high. The 
formation is light-coloured rock, with low outlying spurs of dark brown. 
It is this wall which now cuts off K 2 from our view. 




GROUP OF MOUNTAINS BETWEEN GA3HERBRUM AND HIDDEN PEAK. 

July 10th was a beautiful day, the only really perfect one during 
the whole of our stay here. On the next the fine weather broke again. 
A slender pennant of cloud appeared over Mustagh Tower. It presently 
covered the Tower, and wrapped it round with one of its ends, 
broadening and spreading and enveloping the top of the mountain as 
in a mesh, which soon thickened into a huge solid cap. Heavy clouds 
appeared on the low saddles at the sides of the Tower, and all the ridges 
flew thin streamers of translucent cloud that appeared and disappeared 
again. Cirrus clouds dappled the sky, growing and accumulating and 
hanging motionless over the valley, till at length they mingled to form 



From K- to Brick- IVak. 



301 



a dense opaque grey covering, from which the snow began presently 
to descend again, quietly and steadily. 

The weather was quite different from that we had experienced in 
June. The air was quieter, the temperature higher; but the 
precipitation was almost uninterrupted. However, it did not quite 
keep pace with the melting process, which went on at a considerable 




CAMP XI, AFTER A SNOWFALT,. 

rate, even in cloudy weather. We heard a thousand voices from the 
glacier continuous dripping, murmur of little streams, the deadened 
noise of distant torrents, the rattle of detritus down icy slopes, the sharp 
cracks of opening fissures. Now and then these lesser sounds would 
be drowned by the roar of an avalanche. In a few days the surface 
of the glacier lowered so much that the tents stood on little ledges 
a foot or more high ; and melting must have gone on also at their level, 
though to a smaller degree. 1 Little waterfalls were flowing all over 

1 On their last campaign (1908) the Workmans measured the melting of the snows on the 
Hispar glacier or rather on a snow-field of one of its tributaries, the Kanisabar glacier, 16,650 feet 
high. In ten days of cloudy weather, during which some snow fell, they registered a lowering of 
27 -5 inches that is, 2 -7 inches per day. In fine weather the rate was 3-7 inches per day. 



:HI.' Chapter XVI. 

the rocks behind the camp, disappearing at the tops of the great cones 
of snow formed at the bottom of every couloir. By July 17th the snow 
turned into an unpleasant drizzle, which the next day became heavy 
rain this was at an altitude of 16,637 feet. 

The data given by various travellers as to the snow line in the 
Karakoram region are all very uncertain and contradictory. On only 
one point do they seem to be in accord namely, that in the Hinial;iy;i 
and adjacent mountain systems the snow line is lower on the southern 
than on the northern slopes, due to the greater precipitation on the 
former, which I have already mentioned. But there are no precise 
statistics, 1 and only a long stay and repeated observations at various 
seasons could decide the point. It seems likely that the high degree 
of precipitation, due to the summer monsoons, would make it hard to 
establish an invariable figure for the height at which the precipitation 
would just balance the melting. Probably such a line varies from year 
to year. 

To the heavy vapours of July we owed some of the finest sunsets 
in our experience. For the first time we saw the skies set on fire with 
the glow, the brilliant contrasts of gold, azure and violet clouds, and 
the snows illuminated by the reflected light. The sun would bury itself 
in the storm-clouds which never left the western horizon. Mustagh 
Tower would be immersed in rosy vapours until the last ray faded, when 
it emerged a black and austere height guarding the whole strange region 
like a sentinel. 

It only remains for me to recount the measure of success which 
attended the enterprise of the Duke on Bride Peak, and the close of 
our campaign. 

1 Sir J. D. Hooker, R. Strachey, F. Drew, S. G. Burrard and H. H. Hayden, T. G. Longstaff 
and others, in the works already cited, all state that the snow line gradually rises as one goes from 
the southern toward the northern chains. Sir J. D. Hooker and Col. Tanner are of opinion that 
it is not possible to fix. even approximately, the limit of eternal snows in the Himalaya. In the 
western Karakoram Drew and Burrard put it at 18,000 feet ; Guillarmod at 18,700 to 19,000 feet 
but we have seen that the estimated heights of the latter are always in excess of the actual figure. 
According to the Workmans, the line on the Chogo Lungma and the Hispar would be lower than 
in the Baltoro basin from 13,100 to 17,000 feet. However, they observed great variation from 
one summer to another in the same places. 




From Camp XII. Evening on the Baltoro 



CHAPTER XVII. 




BRIDE PEAK. 

Tin' I'lan of the Ascent. The Glacier Fall below Chogolisa Saddle. Camping among Seracs. 
Difficult Ice and Bad Weather. Excursions. Sella returns to the Base Camp. The 
Camp placed above the Cascade of Seracs. Chogolisa Saddle. First Attempt upon the 
I Yak. Driven back by the Storm at 23,458 feet. Snowed in at Chogolisa.- Golden 
Throne. Topography of the Region surrounding the Head of the Baltoro. The Kondus 
and Siachen Glaciers. The Watershed. Climate. Absence of Electric Phenomena. - 
S.iond Attempt. Camp at 22,483 feet. The Eastern Ridge of Bride Peak. Two 
Hours at 24,600 feet. Retreat. Analysis of Results. The Significance of the Exploit. 
Ascensions above 23,000 feet in the History of Mountaineering. Deductions and Prog- 
nostications. The Return to the Base Camp. 

ON July 1st the Duke had left 
the camp at the mouth of the 
Godwin Austen in the Concordia 
basin, and accompanied by Sella 
^L and the caravan had covered in 

fl ^L two stages the distance to the 

X foot of Golden Throne. There 

he set up his base camp, and 
began operations upon Bride 
Peak. 

He was obliged to alter the 
plan of campaign originally 
formed. The great snowy slope 
of the northern wall had looked 
from K 2 to be the easy and 
natural way of ascent to the 
peak. But a closer examination 

gave quite a different result, showing it to be very difficult of approach. 
It rises above a high glacial basin, separated from the Baltoro by a long, 
steep fall of seracs. This looked as though the coolies would never 
be able to mount it, and without their help it was useless to think of a 
<liinb of some 9,000 feet. The crest on the right of the cascade, which 



I 




804 



xvii. 



forms the lofty eastern edge of the northern wall, gave no more 
encouraging promise, for it was very long, its cornices were dangerous, 
and it looked full of unredeemable obstacles. The experience of the 
expedition up to now had begun to make the party more cautious in 
their plans as well as in their hopes. The Duke and his guides then 




BRIDE PEAK, FROM THE MEDIAN MORAINE OP THE UPPER BALTORO. 



considered the possibilities of the eastern ridge of the peak, which 
descends to the wide shoulder I have mentioned, and thence to Chogolisa 
Saddle. If it could be managed to put a camp on the saddle, by 
climbing up the seracs of the glacier (Conway had succeeded in climbing 
part way up them), there might be some hope of a comparatively easy 
ascent the remainder of the way. 

Accordingly, on the morning of July 3rd, which proved to be fine, 
the extra coolies were sent back to Rdokass, and the party left the 
Baltoro glacier with the remaining ten, who carried the supplies for the 



Bride Peak. 



SOfi 



high camps, the two Whymper and Mummery tents, their own 
equipment and a few days' provisions. No one of the party had any 
suspicion of difficulty in getting on the saddle, and they reckoned it^to 
be a work of two days at most. But once more hopes which seemed 
well and securely founded were doomed to disappointment. What 
ought to have been merely a brief preliminary to the actual undertaking 
proved a long and difficult task, demanding eight days of hard work 
for its accomplishment. 




CAMP XII, AND THE CREST AND EASTERN SHOULDER OF BRIDE PEAK. 

They began at once to climb up the broken surface of the glacier, 
which at the very start was covered with snow and composed of small 
seracs. so that there was no great hindrance to rapid progress. But 
too soon the snow grew deep and soft., and they walked in it above their 
knees, with infinite labour at each step. The glacier was broken up 
into large blocks, between which were wide and treacherous openings 
disguised by the snow. They could never tell whether the latter would 
be firm beneath their tread, or whether a bottomless gulf would open 
where they set their feet. The coolies proceeded with much effort and 
fatigue. Very little distance was covered because of the continual 
going back and forth to avoid crevasses. The guides were aiming at 

(9221) u 



300 



Chapter XVII. 



the top of the spur which closes the glacier on the left, but the way grew 
more and more difficult. About noon the coolies were worn out, and 
a stage was made, the tents being set up at less than 1,350 feet above 
the base camp on a strip of ice cut in every direction by crevasses and 
covered with snow, into which one sank up to the waist. The spot 




was 



SEKACS OF THE CHOGOLISA GLACIER. 

at about half the distance up the first cascade. Above it the 
glacier was a chaos of blocks running in every direction and piled up 
in confusion. No route showed itself. Sir Martin Conway had likewise 
experienced great difficulty in finding a route, on his attempt in 1892, 
and had been obliged to camp among the blocks of ice. The inclination 
of the valley is not steep enough to account for such a huge disruption 
of the ice. The Duke had observed this same fact when he climbed the 
centre of the Savoia glacier. Conway found that the brokenness of the 



Bride Peak. 



307 



glaciers throughout the Karakoram was out of proportion to the slope 
of the valleys, and he attempted to explain the fact with the hypothesis 
of a vertical stratification of the rocks of the valley bed, whose angles 
and sharp protuberances would thus fracture the ice flowing above it. 

There was a rib of ice near the camp which gave a marvellous view 
of all the upper Baltoro and the Godwin Austen, with the chain of the 
watershed from Mustagh Tower to K 2 for a background (panorama P). 
The westernmost peak of the Gasherbrum group just shows its head 
above the eastern spurs of the Baltoro. The ample glacier-lined curve 
beneath Bride Peak is one splendid cascade. The eastern shoulder of 
the mountain looks like a great icy dome, connected with the ridge by 
a rather pronounced depression. It was this depression which the 
climbers must reach, by going around back of the shoulder, for on this 
side it was inaccessible. 

Under these circumstances, with the difficulties of the way 
aggravated by the fatigue of marching in deep snow, the idea of going 
on all together with the luggage was given up, and the Duke decided 
to explore the glacier beforehand with the guides, and then to send 
on the caravan, giving the coolies the advantage of an already beaten 
path. Accordingly at dawn on the 4th two porters and eight coolies 
were sent back to the base for another tent and some provisions, while 
the Duke with Sella and the four guides went on up the seracs. 
Giuseppe Petigax and Enrico Brocherel went ahead, seeking a route 
through the labyrinth. Great transversal crevasses cut across their 
path. Between these the blocks were piled up in inextricable confusion 
and the openings of dark caverns and icy abysses yawned among them. 
The ice blocks resembled those on the Newton glacier 'in Alaska, in 
having their edges and corners rounded off and blunted by the heavy 
layer of snow, which was crystalline in its composition, and quite dry 
and powdery. It was only after the sun had been hot during the day 
that a little crust would form in the cold of the night, making the 
walking easier for a few hours early the next morning. But by 
nine o'clock it would no longer support the foot, and the snow-shoes 
proved of very little use. 

A way was forced across the first barrier of seracs behind the camp 
Then the party had to round a gigantic block, after which they began 
to climb an icy prominence which seemed to offer them a route 
However, after a little distance this path also was blocked by a crevasse^ 

( '_!. 1 ) 



u 2 






Chapter XVII. 



and they had to go back and strike farther to the right. After some 
very rough going they reached a furrow where the seracs were arranged 
in a sort of alley, allowing them to make some progress and gain a little 
height. About eleven they reached another barrier of blocks, apparently 
without any way of access through them. But the guides knew^that 




AMONG THE SKRACS OF THE CHOGOLISA GLACIER. 

the broad and gentle slopes which they had seen from below could not 
be very far away now, and there was no doubt that some means of 
conquering this last obstacle could be found. The snow had become 
unbearable. Satisfied with the progress thus far made, the Duke 
decided to turn back. 

July 5th was foggy, and there was a little sleet. Sella took supplies 
for a light camp, seven coolies and the four guides, and retraced 



Jiridt- IVak. :;n ,, 



the previous day's route in order to profit by the path made in the snow. 

They went well enough to the point reached the day before. The 
guides then began to skirt obliquely upwards toward the left, searching 
out a tortuous path among the crevasses. Finally they found a 
prominence from which a fairly solid bridge led upon a serac, and thence 
to a depression on the upper side of the obstacle. They went along the 
edge of this, always toward the left, and beginning to see a clear path 
toward the great slopes at the centre of the glacier. The coolies were 
utterly worn out. Moreover, the leader of the file had broken through 
a snow bridge and fallen up to his shoulders in a crevasse. He himself 
struggled to get free, and his companions pulled on the rope ; but he 
was not released until two of the guides gave their help to liberate him 
from his awkward position, if not from his terror. This episode 

liscouraged the others still more. Besides, it had begun to snow 
heavily, and Sella made the wise decision to set up the camp at this 
point. He sent back two guides and the coolies. A little reconnoitring 
confirmed the hope that the most difficult part was overcome. The 
glacier above the camp was even more broken than below, but the 
crevasses were covered for the most part, and the slope grew gradually 
less steep. 

It continued to snow all night and all the next day, keeping the 

Duke inactive in the lower camp, as well as Sella in the upper one No 

change came on the 7th, and the Duke sent three guides and four coolies 

liberate Sella from his blockade. Thus the party was reunited at 

Camp XII. It was the fifth day, and they were still practically at the 

starting-point, some 1,300 feet above the Baltoro-prisoners, crowded 

two apiece into the tiny Whymper and Mummery tents on a narrow 

table of glacier surrounded by crevasses and buried in snow. This was 

only the beginning of a long siege. 

It soon became necessary to think of replenishing the food supply. 
Ok, concluding that the hope of photographic work was very slight 
indeed, and feeling that the Duke ought to profit by all the forces of the 
expedition, made up his mind to go down himself to the base camp 
took Botta, Savoie and the coolies, and they had a most laborious 
journey through the snow, which had, of course, obliterated every trace 
f path. Negrotto and I met them at the camp, as before narrated 
ext morning nine coolies set out on the return journey under the 
guidance of Savoie and Lorenzo Petigax. They never murmured or 



:;iu nmptiT XVII. 



made a single objection. All day the bad weather held. The air was 
full of white semi-opaque mist, sky and snow were indistinguishable, 
and they could not see 100 yards ahead. It was the third day of 
crouching in the tents, hearing the light monotonous tapping of the 
Hiiowflakes on the walls. It fell ceaselessly, relentlessly. Their only 
occupation was that of occasionally shaking the omvns to prevent 
their being buried. 

Late in the evening there were signs of abatement. They even 
had a glimpse of sky over the valley through a rent here and there in the 
clouds. The peaks were all hidden, and dense clouds hung motionless 
over the Concordia. The weather was very long in clearing, the morning 
of the 9th being still disturbed. But gradually the mountains stripped 
off their mist, and came out one after another in purest and most 
dazzling white. Where the sun shone through the mists these were 
of a silvery brilliance, and the whiteness of the landscape enhanced the 
deep blue of the sky. Little spirals of snow-dust curled along the crests, 
lifted by the wind. Bride Peak was still shrouded in semi-transparent 
cloud, and the mountains about the Concordia remained in shadow. 

Up above the Duke had left his camp accompanied by all his 
caravan, and, finding a route shorter than that taken by Sella, gained the 
spot where the latter had camped on the 5th. Thence he continued to 
ascend, making a wide circuit toward the centre of the glacier, until he 
was sure there were no more obstacles to be encountered, save that 
of the deep snow. Then he placed his camp 19,098 feet above sea 
level and some 1,650 feet below Chogolisa Saddle. The weather 
continued to improve all the afternoon, but not until four o'clock did the 
Mustagh Tower emerge from the mists clinging about it. K 2 and 
Gasherbrum rose high above the mountains in the foreground, showing 
the height to which the party had now attained. 

On July 10th, eight days after leaving the base camp, the Duke 
succeeded in setting up camp on Chogolisa Saddle at 20,784 feet of 
altitude, after a march of five hours up easy snow-slopes, on a morning 
perfectly bright and cold. The tents were erected on the northerly 
slope of the saddle, just below its highest point, in a hollow filled with 
snow, which made a good shelter from the bitter wind that swept down 
from the brow of the saddle. The coolies were benumbed with cold, 
and were sent back to the lower camp. They had performed the work 
of real Alpine porters, coming up over the seracs with full loads of 



Bride IViiL 311 

luggage, and had lived in camps on the snows without fires and contrary 
to all the habits of their normal lives, all of which proved how much 
they had been able to adapt themselves, and showed the influence we 
had gained over them. 

Chogolisa Saddle is between the eastern crest of Bride Peak and 
a rounded icy dome 21,653 feet high, on the other side of which is 
Kondus Saddle, at the foot of Golden Throne. This saddle is a little 
lower than Chogolisa. The day was perfect, and the view which the 
Duke had from his station a very grand one. The three summits of 
Broad Peak were visible, likewise all four of the Gasherbrums, now 
seen together for the first time, rising between the spurs on the 
east of the Baltoro and the southern buttress of Golden Throne. 
Northward the horizon was closed by the great ridge stretching from 
K 2 to Mustagh Tower. The glaciers of Bride Peak flung themselves 
down to the Baltoro just beneath him. Opposite that mountain the 
western walls of Golden Throne completed the panorama, these also 
covered with glaciers from peaks to base. South of the saddle continued 
a series of complex chains, and the Kondus Valley, dominated on the 
west by heights easily recognizable as K 8 , K fl , K' and K 11 , between 
22,736 and 25,426 feet high, among an infinite host of unnamed 
mountains and unexplored valleys. Just as from the other cols climbed 
by the expedition, the view was nothing but ice and snow and rocky 
wilderness spreading out to the horizon. One felt as if the inhabited 
earth had been left behind for ever. 

July llth continued fair, and it was the part of wisdom not to lose 
an hour of the auspicious weather. No more than 4,326 feet of vertical 
distance remained between Chogolisa and the summit, a height which 
in the Alps one could be fairly sure of covering in a day. But failure 
would certainly have attended an attempt to finish the climb at a 
single stage, on account of the enormous quantity of soft snow. There 
was a good distance between the camp and the foot of the final height 
which had to be covered by walking in snow nearly up to the waist, 
a performance the fatigue of which cannot be measured by those who 
have never tried it. Thus the climbers would begin the actual ascent 
with forces already depleted, and very likely still further weakened by 
the increasing rarefaction of the air. On these grounds the Duke 
decided to set up an intermediate camp with the two Mummery tents 
and four sleeping-bags. 

(!>-2->\) U 4 



Chapter -XYII. 

-\ 

The party of seven left the shelter camp early in the morning. 
They described a broad curve in climbing to the top of the glacier, 
reaching the steep southern slope of the icy dome between Chogolisa 
and Bride Peak. This they traversed horizontally. The snow made 
very bad and uncertain walking, and they would plunge in half-way 
up the thigh. This was fearfully fatiguing to all the party, especially 
the porters. At half -past eleven they stopped, though they had not 
yet reached the foot of the depression between the dome and the crest, 
and set up the tents on the slope, levelling off a little ledge with their 
feet. The three porters went back to Chogolisa camp, leaving Giuseppe 
Petigax, Enrico and Emilio Brocherel with the Duke. They were now 
at 21,673 feet of altitude, only 3,437 feet remaining between them and 
the top. If the weather held another day, victory was in their grasp. 
The day was warm, still and fine, but toward the south-west were some 
gradually thickening vapours that boded ill. Threatening clouds 
rolled up on the hills, covering peaks and ranges. Then suddenly 
it seemed that the weather relented, the disheartening portents 
withdrew, leaving at sunset only a few insignificant mist wreaths here 
and there on the heights. The prospects for the morrow were very 
good. 

At five o'clock on the 12th the party was on the way. It was a mild 
and foggy day, the air warm and relaxing, the snow already bad. The 
guides took turns at the head of the rope, in anticipation of the hard 
work that was to come. They were an hour and a half in reaching the 
foot of the depression, and as much more in climbing up to it at the 
base of the ridge. Two bergschrunds were safely crossed by means 
of heavy snow bridges. The mist grew denser and a little wind had 
sprung up, but not cold or strong enough to be annoying. At 
23,000 feet they changed their snow-shoes for crampons, and began to 
ascend the ridge. They were obliged to cut the very steep slope on 
the side of the crest, despite the evident danger of avalanches from 
the snow, which was two feet deep and did not form compactly with the 
older layer beneath it, because they must avoid the still greater danger 
of the cornice curving widely out over the abyss to the right. For two 
hours and a half they went on at an even, slow and cautious pace. 
Meanwhile the fog grew worse and worse, and was now so dense that 
the party stopped on a projecting rock, and taking counsel together 
decided on the course which was, under the circumstances, the only 



Bride Peak. 313 

wise one to pursue. The danger was too imminent, and it increased 
at every step. They must go back. They had reached 23,458 feet, 
walking with slow and even pace, not suffering serious difficulty in 
breathing, nor palpitation. They made the descent in weather steadily 
growing worse, and by the time they reached Chogolisa, taking with 
them the intermediate camp, it was snowing. 

The fog lifted somewhat towards evening, and they could see the 
extent over which the storm raged. Masses of threatening black cloud 
wore constantly rolling up from the lower Baltoro. The snows reflected 
their tones of deep violet and ash colour. The entire party slept 
heavily, being greatly fatigued, while the snow fell silently and ceaselessly 
outside. 

The blockade lasted this time for four days. Sometimes there was 
a show of relief from this or that quarter of the sky, when a brief and 
sudden opening would break between the clouds. Of all such the Duke 
took advantage to study the region as best he might, and to repeat 
a series of observations to the surrounding mountains which he had 
made from Camp XIII. I have collected all these observations 
in Chapter XIX, in order not to burden the narrative with technical 
detail, and in this place will only describe the general disposition 
of the valleys and ranges at the head of the Baltoro, in so far as 
they may be derived from the necessarily limited and fragmentary 
observations made by the Duke from Chogolisa Saddle. The 
conclusions are merely general, and are not to be taken in an absolute 
sense ; but they are worth recording, as they deal with a region as yet 
totally unknown, and may thus serve as a basis for the operations of 
future explorers. 

The mass of Golden Throne looks much larger from this point of 
view than when seen from the north on the Baltoro glacier. Its five 
main peaks rise above an icy crest which runs from north-west to south- 
east. At the extremities of this crest are two other minor summits 
21,207 feet on the Baltoro, and another, snowy like the first, south of 
the chain on the Kondus glacier. According to the angles read by the 
Duke, the highest peak of the central group would be the second from 
the north, 23.743 feet high (23,600 feet, Conway). A long snowy ridge 
descends thence to the glacier below Kondus Saddle. Upon it is 
Pioneer Peak, climbed by Conway in 1892, with Major Bruce, the guide 
Zurbriggen, and two Gurkas from Nepaul. 



.HI 



ChnpU-r XVII. 



Gashciluiiin II (26,360 feet) seems to be connected with Hidden 
Peak by a high crest with a slight depression or col in it, so that the 
chain is practically unbroken from Hidden to Broad Peak. The col 
probably leads to the Gasherbrum glacier of Younghusband . The large 
group of mountains at the angle between the western Gasherbrum 
and Hidden Peak must form a separate system, detached from the 




GOLDEN THRONE AND PIONEER PEAK, FROM THE SERACS OF THE CHOGOLISA. 

Gasherbrum. The Duke from his high camps, as well as we at our 
station at the foot of Golden Throne, saw several times the western 
ridge of Hidden Peak lighted very far down by the sunset rays, and 
argued from this fact that there is probably no ridge intervening between 
Peak 22,139 and the Gasherbrums, but very likely a valley instead, 
and that the large glacier descending to the Concordia basin probably 
gathers up the tributaries from the southern wall of the Gasherbrums. 

From Hidden Peak to Golden Throne runs a crest with two distinct 
depressions in it, about equal in height. This crest closes in the Baltoro 
basin, separating it from the head of the Kondus glacier. On the maps 
of the Indian Survey the Kondus reaches to the southern base of 



P> ride Peak. :;i:, 

Chogolisa Saddle ; but .it really extends further eastward and 
northward, skirting the foot of Golden Throne, and ends in a wide basin 
confined on the west by the crest already mentioned between Hidden 
Peak and Golden Throne, and on the north by a chain parallel to Golden 
Throne. This chain probably joins on to the Gasherbrum range, Hidden 
Peak forming the connecting link. It contains a marked depression 
between peaks of considerable height, and just visible from Chogolisa, to 
the south-east of Golden Throne. By this one must have access to the 
Oprang valley, and from its position one would judge that it might be the 
pass seen by Sir Francis Younghusband at the head of the Urdok glacier. 

Longstaff believed that he had identified this pass of Sir Francis 
Younghusband with a depression situated at the upper end of the 
Siachen glacier. But the latter lies farther beyond, and to the east- 
south-east. From Chogolisa one could see a large valley running 
between two parallel chains of high mountains on the other side of the 
Kondus basin ; and this, to judge by its direction, must be the Siachen. 
It is probably separated from the Kondus by a ridge of no great height. 
The upper Siachen has thus no connection with the Baltoro, the head 
of the Kondus coming in between the two. The Kondus descends 
south-west, encircling Golden Throne, then southward in a deep channel 
at the foot of Kondus and Chogolisa Saddles. The southern wall of 
Chogolisa is very steep that of the Kondus was not visible from the 
Duke's point of observation. 

The watershed extends from Hidden Peak to the south-east, 
enclosing the Kondus basin to the north, and continuing in the northern 
ridge of the Siachen as far as Teram Kangri. Its course east of this 
to the Karakoram pass is still unknown. * 

From July 13th to 16th bad weather prevented, as I have already 
said, any fresh assault on the peak. The wind was always south-west 
and snow fell at frequent intervals. The sky was usually covered with 
a uniform grey cloud ; but great cumulus clouds were not lacking, of 
the sort which with us mean heavy storms usually accompanied with 
lightning. But we, as well as all our predecessors, can testify to the 
complete absence of electrical manifestations in the Karakoram. In 
all these stormy weeks we never once saw a flash of lightning or heard 

1 See in Novarese's geological appendix the important conclusions concerning the geology 
of the region and the distribution of the chains and mountain systems, which are based on tlu sr 
observations of the Duke. 



;!1( ; Chapter XVII. 

thunder. On none of his many excursions to the rocky spurs about 
the Godwin Austen and the Concordia did Sella see fulgorites. neither 
did the Duke upon the rocks of Bride Peak. R. Strachey reports that 
storms with electrical accompaniment are very rare on the northern 
slopes of Kumaon-Gahrwal, but not on the Tibetan plateau. Thomson 
considers the infrequency of such phenomena north of the Himalaya 
to be due to the absence of cumulus clouds, but this explanation would 
not hold for the Baltoro. On the other hand, the atmosphere of the 
southern chains is so charged with electricity, even in the absence of 
storms, that it has been found necessary to equip the theodolite with 
a portable lightning-rod (Purdon). No satisfactory hypothesis has 
been produced for this peculiarity of the climate in the Karakoram. 
It is certain that the absence of electrical storms deprives the region 
of a distinct element of grandeur and fascination. Another peculiarity 
which I should mention, probably related in some way to the regularity 
of the periodic wind, is the stability of the barometer. It showed only 
slight variation, and gave no indication of approaching change in the 
weather. 

The health of the party still remained good. Their experience was 
quite different from that of Dr. Workman, who believes it impossible 
to sleep at heights of over 20,000 feet. The Duke and all the guides 
slept well and uninterruptedly, not only at Chogolisa Saddle (over 
20,600 feet), but also in the higher camps at 21,673 and 22,483 feet, 
despite the fact that they were crowded by twos into the two small 
Mummery tents. None of them had difficulty in breathing ; there was 
no headache, and their pulses were normal. 1 The only sign of the 
unusual conditions under which they were living was the gradual loss 
of appetite, which, however, was not accompanied by any other 
abnormal symptoms. At the end of their campaign they were only 
able to eat lightly twice a day, and then with considerable distaste for 
the food. Negrotto and I had the like experience at the base camp, 
whence I argue that long sojourns at over 16,000 feet would probably 

1 List of observations made on the pulse of the party at Chogolisa Saddle, July 14th : 

Before Eating, After Eating, 

per Minute. per Minute. 

H.R.H 60 72 

Giuseppe Petigax ... 70 70 

Enrico Brocherel 70 80 

Emilio Brocherel ... 74 84 






Bride Peak. ;;i7 

have ultimately injurious results. Naturally, we all grew thinner, and 
suffered gradual diminution of energy. 

On the 13th the three porters came down to the base camp for 
supplies. At Camp XIII among the seracs they picked up the coolies, 
who had been there alone since the evening of the 10th. Two of their 
number, unable to stand the continuous storms, the cold and loneliness, 
had roped themselves together the next day and succeeded in finding 
a way down among the labyrinth of crevasses. This was the only case 
of desertion in the entire campaign. The other seven coolies had stayed 
faithfully at their post. We only sent five of them back from the 
base camp, and they and the porters reached Chogolisa on the 16th. 

The snow had ceased. The peaks were still heavily shrouded, but 
it seemed reasonable to hope that this improvement indicated a break 
in the long spell of bad weather. Experience had taught that the 
respite would be brief, and was to be profited by to the uttermost. 
With the purpose of expediting the march, the stores for the shelter 
camp were all carried up on the day before to the spot where the party 
had spent the night of the llth. The evening was not promising. The 
top of Bride Peak freed itself, but above it were high stratus and 
cumulus clouds, and the sun set in the midst of long bands of cirrus. 
However, the die was cast. Next morning, despite uncertain weather, 
the Duke set out at half-past six with the guides and porters. They 
reached the point where the supplies had been deposited, took them 
up and went on, climbing the slope to the very foot of the saddle. It 
goes without saying that the snow was as bad as ever. The porters 
were sent back to Chogolisa, and the tents put up, 22,483 feet above 
sea level and only 2,627 feet below the summit of the peak. This 
figure is derived from the pressure readings with the Fortin barometer. 
No one before now had ever camped at such a height, except possibly 
Longstaff. In 1905 he passed a night in the open on the snowy crest 
of Gurla Mandhata, at a height tentatively estimated by him to be 
about 23,000 feet. 

The snow began again ; but the guides kept on, with the intention 
of breaking a path to facilitate the next day's ascent. It did seem 
as though fate intended to be kind at last, for all was clear at sunset, 
and a magnificent starry sky gave promise of a clear morrow. 

At half-past five on the morning of July 18th the little party left 
their shelter. They all realized that the crisis was at hand, that the 



818 Chapter XVII. 

i lav would cither see their efforts crowned with success or witness their 
final discomfiture. The air was lifeless, the sun weak and pale and 
Mirrounded by a watery aureole of clouds, a sight of most unfavourable 
augury. As far up as the shoulder the snow was fairly compact, and 
allowed good progress. In an hour they had reached the top of 
the shoulder, and stood at 23,000 feet. All about them the mist had 
closed in, a danger graver than any other for the mountain climber, 
concealing surrounding perils, and making it impossible to contend with 
obstacles by rendering them invisible. 

They had reconnoitred on the 12th the first part of the route. 
Beyond this they guided themselves by their recollection of the ridge 
as it appeared from below. Thus they reached some rocks rising from 
the snow about two-thirds of the distance from the summit. They knew 
they had to keep in midway between the cornice and a great open 
crevice a little way below. The snow was very trying, being over 
two feet deep, and the grade was steep. The foot went down so far at 
every step that one felt there was no solid ground beneath. At every 
ominous creaking of the snow they were obliged to bear away obliquely 
toward the cornice, until the appearance of fissures and the breath of 
a cold wind from below warned them that they were hanging over the 
abyss. Again they would cut the slope farther down, until at no great 
distance from them an extent of snow would detach itself with a crack 
and slide rustling down toward the gap. The pickaxes sunk to the 
handle without meeting any resistance, so there was no hope of their 
being able to stop the snow from sliding. Nothing could be seen beyond 
a few yards, but they realized that bottomless gulfs opened on every 
side. 

Thus they climbed for four and a half hours, slowly and evenly, 
making brief halts every fifteen minutes. They breathed quickly but 
not laboriously, and their fatigue was not very great, despite the steep 
grade, the heaviness of the snow and the lifeless air. By 11 o'clock 
they had gained the prominence of rock noted from below 24,278 feet 
up and after a short rest they essayed to climb it. It was firm and 
solid rock coated here and there with verglas, but directly they had 
to climb with hands as well as feet great difficulty in breathing became 
apparent, and their progress was very slow. The rocks were conquered 
in two hours, and the Duke believed himself to be at last upon the 
terminal crest. Instead of this another tract of steep snow-covered 



Bride Peak. 319 

slope stretched away vaguely into the mist above them. They knew 
the cornice was on their right, and on the left the mountain side fell 
precipitously, rugged with seracs just dimly seen. It would have been 
madness to go on blindly, over a slope of unknown inclination, even 
the general direction of which had not been made out from below, 
edged with a wide cornice and covered with deep and treacherous snow. 
The calm mild weather permitted them to stop awhile, in the faint 
hope that some fugitive wind would brush away the mists. The Fortin 
barometer registered 12 3 " 2 - in., the temperature stood at 21 F., and the 
tension of aqueous vapour was - 3 \ in. These observations, corrected by 
reference to those of the stations of Srinagar, Leh, Skardu and Gilgit, 
gave a height of 24,600 feet. 1 

They waited for two hours. At half-past three the weather was 
unchanged, and the Duke was forced to give the order for retreat. 
There was a long and dangerous descent to be made before nightfall. 
Neither he nor any of his three companions noticed any ill effects from 
the rarefaction of the air. All their pulses were regular, only a little 
over 100. They had climbed to within 510 feet of the summit, and 
there is no manner of doubt that, given a clear atmosphere, even with 
the bad condition of the snow, they would have completed the ascent 
in a couple of hours and reached 25.110 feet. 

Slowly and cautiously as they had come up, they returned, retracing 
their track in the treacherous snow. From the shoulder down they were 
able to proceed somewhat more rapidly. The porters and coolies were 
waiting for them at the tents. It was once more snowing hard, but 
the Duke was anxious to break camp and get down to Chogolisa, and 
the strength of all proved fully equal to the task. They reached 
Chogolisa Saddle at eight o'clock after a day of fourteen and a half 
hours. Of these, at least eleven had been spent in strenuous exertion 
between 22,483 and 24,600 feet. 

The readings taken by the Duke on an aneroid barometer from time 
to time during the march allow us to estimate the vertical distance 

1 These barometric calculations could not be referred to the Rdokass base, because the 
observations were unfortunately broken off on July 15th (see the tables of Prof. Omodei in the 
Appendix). On the maps of the expedition first published by the Italian Geog. Soc. and the 
Ital. Alp. Club, the height gained by the Duke is given as 7,493 metres (24,583 feet). This and 
some other small variations between the present figures and those first published are due to the 
fact that the readings from the Gilgit Meteorological Station were only later introduced into the 
calculations, in addition to those of Leh, Skardu and Srinagar. 



Chapter XVII. 

gained per hour. In seven and a quarter hours of marching they had 
made 2,117 feet of height, or 292 feet an hour. If we subtract from 
this the ascent of the rocks, which of itself took two hours, the result 
for the entire distance over the snows is 341 feet per hour. In the 
first hour 517 feet were gained. From then on the apportionment was 
as follows : between 23,000 and 23,458 feet, 396 feet per hour ; between 
23,458 and 24,278 feet, 273 feet ; and in the last stretch, on the steep 
rocks, 160 feet. This last figure confirms the opinion of many mountain 
climbers that, unless there are snow slopes to march upon, the highest 
summits of the earth will never be conquered, as the climbing of rocks 
is too exhausting at the low atmospheric pressure of great altitudes. 
The average rate of the Duke is far below that made by Graham during 
his contested ascent of Kabru in 1883. He claimed to have covered 
a vertical distance of 5,400 feet, between 18,500 and 23,900 feet, with 
an average per hour of 650 feet. Longstaff ascended Trisul in 1906, 
leaving his camp at 17,450 feet and reaching the summit (23.406 feet) 
in ten hours, with an average approximately the same as that of 
Graham, 595 feet per hour. These, however, were both ascents made 
under favourable conditions of weather, snow, etc., and every 
mountaineer knows the vast difference between this and marching in 
deep soft snow. Thus it will not cause any surprise that in the ascent 
of Bride Peak the time taken to gain a like vertical distance was nearly 
double. It seems probable that in clear weather, and with the snow in 
good condition, the top of the peak could be reached from Chogolisa in 
about ten hours. 

The circumstances under which the enterprise of the Duke \\as 
carried out give it an experimental value much more convincing than 
that possessed by any of the other known records. The latter have 
often been real over-strains, outside of the physiological field, and their 
success has been due to the presence of especially favourable conditions. 
First of all, the Duke and his guides have given the best evidence we 
have thus far of the resistance of human beings during long stays at the 
highest altitudes, and of the possibility of severe and continued exertion 
at such heights. He and his guides lived for thirty-seven days at or 
above 16,000 feet, and then for another seventeen were never below 
18,000 feet, of which nine were spent at and above 21,000 feet all this 
under the disadvantage of cramped accommodation, almost constant 
bad weather, and with nourishment reduced from want of appetite. 



Bride IVaL :\->\ 

During this period they made two ascents, which meant four days of 
the most fatiguing work, sleeping at 21,673 and 22,483 feet, and reaching 
23,458 and 24,600 feet of altitude. 

The height attained by the Duke exceeds by 700 feet the greatest 
altitude up to then achieved by men upon the mountains. In 1883 
Graham made a series of notable ascents in the Himalaya of Gahrwal, 
after which he went to Sikkim with the guides Emil Boss and Ulrich 
Kaufmann, and stated that he had climbed the Kabru up to the saddle 
a little below the summit, 23,900 feet high. Twenty-eight years before, 
the brothers Schlagintweit had reached about 22,250 feet in an ascent 
of Kamet in the Nanda Devi group in Gahrwal. During the interval 
no other approach to this height was made, 1 except by M. Wiener, who 
climbed Mount Illimani, in the Bolivian Andes, 21,224 feet high. Most 
mountaineers believed at that time that such ascents must invariably 
be attended by serious physical consequences. The ease which Graham 
asserted had marked his ascent of Kabra was considered to throw doubt 
on the actuality of the performance, and the incomplete and cursory 
account of the enterprise gave ground for much dispute among mountain 
climbers dispute which only ceased when, in 1907, Rubenson and 
Monrad Aas climbed the Kabru, or at least the saddle between the 
two peaks. Their account seems at first blush to show more 
improbability than the succinct narrative of Graham. The undertaking 
was not the result of a deliberately concerted plan, but was rather of 
an almost casual nature. The two explorers were obliged to live for 
two weeks on reduced rations, and they made their ascent alone, up 
dangerous ice slopes, wearing shoes from which the nails had been 
removed to prevent their feet from freezing. They descended for the 
most part at night by moonlight, etc., etc. Yet no one cast a doubt upon 
their veracity. Nor do I wish for a moment to call it in question, 
convinced as I am that their account must inspire the most complete 

1 Some noteworthy climbing exploits performed between 1855 and 1883 by members of the 
Trigonometrical Survey, and until very recently buried among the official records, have been 
brought to light by Dr. Longstaff. In 1874 J. S. Pococke gained 22,000 feet in Gahrwal, and in 
the same year W. L. Johnson crossed a mountain crest of Ladakh at a height of 22,300 feet, 
and likewise, in 1865, climbed three peaks of the Kuen Lun chain, north of the Karakoram 
E57, E58 and E61, whose respective heights of 21,767, 21,971 and 23,890 feet have been deter- 
mined by triangulation. I will not dwell upon the doubts cast upon the authenticity of these 
climbs, merely referring to the article of DR. LONOSTAFF in Alp. Jour. 24, 1908, p. 133. See 
also Mountain Sickness. London 1906, by the same author ; and A. L. MTJMM, Five Months in 
the Himalaya. London 1909. 

(9221) x 



:1 - Chapter XVII. 

belief. But its acceptance by mountain climbers in general is the best 
evidence of the great change which has taken place in current opinion 
upon the possibility of ascending to great heights without marked 
physical disturbance. Beyond a doubt this change of ground is due 
to the conquest of high peaks which has been slowly going forward all 
tho while. 

In order to avoid a lengthened list I will confine myself here to 
ascents of 23,000 feet and over. In 1897 S. M. Vines, a member of the 
E. A. FitzGerald expedition, with the guide A. Burgener, climbed 
Mount Aconcagua, 23,100 feet high. In 1903 Dr. Workman reached 
a height of 23,394 feet on the ridge of a mountain at the head of the 
Chogo Lungma glacier. Longstaff climbed to a considerable height 
on the ridge of Gurla Mandhata in 1905 probably beyond 23.000 feet, 
though instrumental observations of the altitude were lacking. In 
1906 Mrs. Workman climbed a peak of 23,264 feet in the Nun Kun 
group ; and in the same year Longstaff conquered Trisul, 23,406 feet. 
Thus in twenty-six years, from 1883 to 1909, no one exceeded the height 
supposed to have been reached by Graham ; and this, after the 
Norwegian achievement, became the official record. 

However, the greatest importance of the Duke's ascent does not, 
I repeat, lie in its having surpassed by 700 feet this official record. Its 
significance lies rather in its having been made iinder such unfavourable 
conditions of snow and weather. This gives it a value above any of 
the others in relation to the problem of the possible ascent of our 
greatest peaks. 

I would call attention, as especially worthy of remark, to the fact 
that the Duke was able to take the coolies up to the highest camp, 
22,483 feet high, and that they lived under the most adverse conditions 
for more than two weeks among the snow and seracs of the glacier 
flowing down from Chogolisa Saddle. If the snow had been firm, the 
weather fine, and other conditions favourable there would have been 
no great difficulty in getting them to transport a camp even as high 
up as the eastern shoulder of Bride Peak (over 23,000 feet), an 
altitude from which it would be possible to reach to above 26,000 feet 
in one day. 

Then as regards the physiological possibility of still higher ascents, 
the Duke's experience was such as to encourage other explorers. It is 
unlikely that any disturbance of the system caused by low atmospheric 



Bride Peak. 323 

pressure under ordinary mountaineering conditions would appear 
suddenly and without warning, even without a previous loss of energy 
to a considerable degree. It is fair to conclude, from the good physical 
condition of the Duke and his guides, at 24,600 feet and from the absence 
of any ill result of their long stay at this altitude, that if the feat had 
been attempted when the expedition first reached the Baltoro, with 
each member at the maximum of his powers and the mountains covered 
with old compact snow, it would probably have been crowned with 
complete success. 

But between Bride Peak and the top of Mount Everest there is 
nearly 4,000 feet of difference in height. It would surely be idle to 
predict the outcome of an attempt on the latter. Only continued tests 
will solve the problem. The first thing to do is to select a peak of more 
than 26,000 feet, where natives will be available for portage, where it 
would be easy to get the camps up to a considerable altitude, and where, 
at least for the last few thousand feet, there could be found a route 
over snow, without great obstacles and not too steep. The highest 
peaks of the Karakoram are not adapted for the experiment, on account 
of their intrinsic difficulties. Kinchinjunga and Nanga Parbat are 
likewise very problematic ; and if on closer examination their rivals 
of Nepaul present as great obstacles, there is little hope of our 
conquering any of the greatest giants of the earth by ordinary 
mountaineering methods. 1 

The campaign was at an end. There had been one single day of fine 
weather in the last two weeks, and there was little reason to hope for 
betterment. Under 16,000 feet the glaciers were being visibly consumed 
by melting, while on the high mountains the fresh snow piled higher 
with every day. Another factor was the decrease of our physical forces, 
due to repugnance to food. 

On the morning of the 19th the tents and other impedimenta were 
put together, and in a heavy snowstorm the Duke abandoned Chogolisa 
Saddle with guides and coolies, and descended to the former camping 
place, among the seracs, covering two stages. The powerful radiation of 
the fog and snow had swollen and reddened the eyes of the Duke and 
Giuseppe Petigax. On July 20th, in the forenoon, Negrotto and I 
welcomed our returned leader to the base camp. He did not wait for 

1 I have included in Chapter XIX the conclusions which are to be drawn from the Duke's 
expedition with regard to the physiological aspect of the problem of high mountaineering. 
(9221) x -2 



SJM Chapter XVII. 

even a day of rest. The camp was dismantled in a heavy rain, and 
the expedition took up the return march, carrying all the equipment, 
for which purpose thirty-five coolies had come from Rdokass on the 
evening of the 18th. The crash of avalanches from Golden Throne 
followed our retreat, like a last threat from the mountains, victorious 
but not yet appeased. The coolies were jubilant, and despite the 
rapid march, the rain and the heavy loads, they chattered incessantly, 
our faithful fifteen of the high mountains relating to their fellows from 
Rdokass the experiences of the past few weeks. But the rest of us 
were silent and depressed, under the evil fate that had snatched from 
the Duke the prize of so much labour and perseverance, after it had 
lain almost within his grasp. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



THE RETURN TO SRINAGAR. 

Summer on the Baltoro Glacier. Rdokass. Descent of the Biaho Valley. Jhula Bridge over 
the Punmah. Askoley. Braldoh Bridge. Skoro La. Gorges of the Skoro Lumba. 
Shigar. Travelling on Zhaks. Skardu. Burgi La. The Deosai Table -land. Sar- 
singar and Stakpi La. The Dards. The Kishen Ganga Valley. Rajdiangan Pass. 
Bandipur. On the Wular and up the Jhelum. We enter Srinagar. 



ON July 20th. we turned our backs 
upon the mountains. Sleet was 
falling, turning now and then to 
actual rain. The moisture gave 
brilliance and relief to the multi- 
coloured stones of the median 
moraines of the Baltoro. When we 
had about reached the level of the 
right-hand spur of the Vigne 
valley we made our camp, for the 
Duke and the guides had already 
that day made the descent from the 
seracs of the Chogolisa glacier, and, 
moreover, their eighteen days of 
hardship had left distinct marks 
upon them. Next day we followed 
the curve of the moraine into the 

Concordia, and thence to the mouth of the lower Baltoro, not getting 
a single fleeting glimpse of K 2 or Bride Peak, or any other of the 
splendid host that two months before had received us with such calm 
serenity. We soon forsook the median moraine to follow the strip of 
ice between it and the left edge, and then began the fatiguing business 
of climbing over the great wavelike inequalities of the surface. A 
stormy and violent torrent cut its course in a deep winding furrow 
between two moraines, but we were able to cross it by means of a 

(9221) x 3 




I 



326 Chapter XVIII. 

massive ice bridge. In five hours of steady marching we had passed 
the mouth of the second left-hand tributary, and made our stage inside 
an immense conical depression, the bottom of which was occupied by 
a dull and turbid little lake. Opposite us was the wide Younghusband 
valley, back of which, toward evening, we had a view of Mustagh Tower, 
surrounded by heavy clouds. It looked from here entirely different, 
but was, as always, an imposing spectacle. The intemperate weather 
cut off all view of the rest of the landscape. 

Quite unexpectedly the morning of July 22nd dawned clear and 
calm. The view we had before us was almost precisely that of 
panorama Q, which Sella took a few days earlier at a point somewhat 
higher up, 1 showing the tip of K 2 , just to the right of Crystal Peak, 
the massive brow of Broad Peak behind Marble Point and 
Gasherbrum IV, next to which the snowy cone of Gasherbrum III is 
seen in profile. The panorama likewise gives a very good idea of the 
tall median moraine of the Baltoro. The moraines are, however, quite 
run together here, and the glacier seems to be uniformly covered with 
stones. We can hardly believe that the side spurs of the valley, now 
bare and black and dotted here and there with bits of vegetation, with 
only some vestiges of ice near the tops, are the same ones that two 
months before had looked so impressive in their winter mantles of snow. 
The tributary glaciers have become deeply imbedded in their valleys, 
and their fronts, that once stood up so high and white, are flattened and 
buried in moraine. Deep winding channels run down from their sides, 
filled with ice soiled by dust and detritus. The two glaciers Mundu 
and Yerrnanendu are the only ones to preserve their size and purity. 
They hang down like trailing draperies from the majestic Masherbrum, 
parted by a jagged rocky crest. We cut across the front of them in 
following the left-hand moraine of the Baltoro, which is formed of 
blocks and detritus of granites, gneiss and quartzes from all the length 
of the chain from Bride Peak to Masherbrum. It was a very wearying 
march. We passed valleys and deep pits 200 or 300 feet deep, full of 
surface water or running streams. Great blocks were poised on the 
ridges or ice pillars, looking as if a breath might dislodge them. On 
our way down we noticed the increase of rocks and stones with blunt 
and rounded angles and edges. 

1 This panorama, taken with panorama B and the small picture of the lower Baltoro inserted 
at p. 194, gives the whole northern chain of the Baltoro in all its detail. 



The Return to Srinagar. 327 

After a last laborious crossing of the slopes, we reached the bottom 
of a large furrow between the glacier and the buttress of Rdokass, and 
here quite suddenly we found ourselves walking on earth soft, elastic 
and covered with high grass full of flowers. The change almost took 
our breath away. All our senses welcomed the wonderful phenomena 
of life to which we had been so long strangers the odour of earth and 
grass and the delicate manifold scents pervading the air, the colours of 
the flowers and butterflies, the chatter and rustle of birds, even the 
clucking of hens and the bleating of the feeding goats. It all seemed 
like a miracle. 

We were welcomed by Mr. Baines, rejoicing over the end of his long 
and lonely exile, by Alessio Brocherel, now quite restored to health, 
the Wazir of Shigar and the Shikari Abdullah. Our coolies of the high 
mountains went up one by one to salute the Wazir and Abdullah, 
bowing so as to touch the ground with their hands, then placing the 
latter on breast and forehead, and finishing by four or five close 
embraces, in which their heads came over each other's shoulders without 
touching. We meanwhile were slowly ascending the slope under a 
fire of salaams from the coolies lined up in rows on the boulders, and 
reaching the tents, where all manner of luxuries were waiting for us, 
chief among them, to our minds, being a bath of deliciously hot water. 

Only Sella was absent, and soon after our arrival we looked for him 
with the telescope, and spied him on the snowy crest nearly 4,000 feet 
above camp, whither he had climbed with Botta and a coolie to take 
panorama B. He only rejoined us by nightfall, after a difficult and 
not altogether safe descent. Then we all gathered together around 
a brazier, and until late at night talked over the events of the campaign. 
Sella, on leaving the base camp at Bride Peak, had spent ten days on 
the Baltoro with Botta and a coolie, taking advantage of the caravans 
that went up and down to shift his simple outfit, which consisted of a 
sleeping-bag and a tarpaulin. He made two excursions from the 
upper Baltoro to the terminal crest of the right-hand spur of the Vigne, 
and had been successful in collecting a number of photographs, 
notwithstanding the almost continuous bad weather. 

July 23rd was spent in rearranging all the equipment and disposing 
it for transport down the valley. We distributed among the coolies 
all the small presents we had left needles, thread, string, coloured 
handkerchiefs, etc. Our faithful servants of the high mountains were 

(9221) x 4 



828 



Chapter XVIII. 



presented with the outfit they had used in camp, and went to work at 
once to cut up and distribute the sail-cloth of the tents. Pure joy 
reigned among the coolies, whose number was now increased by 100 
sent up from Askoley. The shepherds departed with their flocks and 
herds, now in much better condition than on their arrival. At night 
the coolies performed a strange ritual of prayer, consisting of high and 
rhythmic cries, accompanied by violent beating of the breast. We 
thought this might be a service of thanksgiving for escape from peril. 




DETACHMENT OF COOLIES WHO WERE WITH US IN THE HIGH MOUNTAINS. IN THE CENTRE 

A JEMADAR. 

A very long and tiring march on the 24th brought us down the rest 
of the Baltoro to Paiju. It took two hours to get the caravan ready 
for a start. Beside his load, each coolie carried a bizarre collection of 
objects boxes, milk tins, mismated snow-shoes, etc., all the useless 
rubbish of the expedition, which to them was treasure of the highest 
worth. 

The snows of May had all vanished from about Rdokass, and the 
bushes of the little glen near the camp had all been cut to feed the 
coolies' fires. We descended upon the glacier, and followed its left-hand 
moraine to the end, only leaving it once to traverse a short stretch of the 



The Return to Srinagar. :V29 

slope near Khobutse. Throughout all its length the side of the glacier 
fell steeply, forming a gorge where a brawling torrent flowed. The 
sky was overcast and the air somewhat heavy. The moraine surface 
was fearfully convulsed, immensely more difficult to walk on than it 
had been when we came up. Now and then torrents of considerable 
force twist and wind across our path, the lower banks of which, as 
Conway had noted, were all undermined by water and had overhanging 
edges. Eight hoiirs of marching brought us to a point where we could 
see, from an elevation on the glacier, the valley of the Biaho, still far 
away. The last part of the march was the most trying, the waves all 
running transversely so as to necessitate continual climbing up and 
down over loose stones. Just above the snout of the glacier we crossed 
over to the right side, and had quickly climbed down the steep front 
at the same point where sixty-seven days before we had ascended it. 
It looked precisely the same, and showed no signs of having moved 
since May. Another hour, making ten in all, brought us to the oasis 
of Paiju. The coolies had held out splendidly. It was raining, and 
we speedily betook ourselves to our sleeping-bags, falling asleep to the 
murmur of the stream, a sound different indeed from the crashing of 
avalanches which had disturbed our slumbers in the high mountains. 

We were unable to go down the wide sandy bed of the valley as we 
had come up, on account of the increased size of the river. It dashed 
stormily against the rocks of the right valley wall, carrying down loads 
of sand and frequent small blocks of ice, and we were obliged to cross 
over high on the slope, an inconvenient and tiresome route. Some 
of the alhivial terraces looked as though they might offer a level path, 
but when we reached them we found them cut with deep trenches and 
gullies, full of streams and showing evident traces of former mud 
streams. We only encountered one large torrent on our way, and 
happily it was divided into many branches, none of them too big to 
ford. The valley was remarkably barren, without a single stretch of 
verdure as large as that at Rdokass. We saw a few thorny bushes of 
astragalus, some artimesia, myricaria and epkedra, and a small potentilla. 
W r e camped near the mouth of the Punmah valley, where we had stopped 
on our upward march. At evening it rained again. 

The Punmah, which in May we had forded without diffkmlty, had 
now become a boisterous stream, obliging us to climb up its valley for 
over two miles to a place where there was a jhula bridge across a narrow 



380 



Chapter XVIII. 



gorge. An easy path led to it, but was broken by a large stream which, 
at this season, could only be forded in the morning hours, when it was 
at its lowest. Here we found a number of coolies on the slope, with the 
little herd of goats. The bridge was in fair condition, though rather 
long and swaying. After crossing it, we stopped for nearly an hour 
to enjoy the sight of the passage of the caravan. Jemadars and 







BRIDGE OVER THE PUNMAH. 



chuprassis shouted deafening orders, and the men got from one bank 
to the other, moving with great caution but not awkwardly. After 
the loads were over, the little flock had to be transported, each goat 
riding on the shoulders of a coolie, carried in a sort of sling. It looked 
odd enough to see the goat's head with its curling horns rising like a 
helmet over the head of the coolie. Most of the animals let themselves 
be carried quite docilely, but a few bleated and wriggled with fear. 

The usual summer route runs from the bridge to a pass in the 
Laskam spur, which forms the right side of the valley, 12,730 feet high, 
and descends thence directly to Korophon. But our Balti guides took 
us along the slope of the spur to its end, where it falls vertically to the 









Bridge over the Punrnah 



The Return to Srinagar. 



331 



river. Here we had a most diverting climb up and down steep 
cheminees, at some points of which stone slabs had been set in like steps, 
or crossing steep smooth rocks. The coolies took these much better 
than we did, thanks to their pabboos. We rounded the end of the spur 
about 700 feet above the river, and descended on the other side over 
broken schists scattered with garnets down to the flat valley bottom, 
where the great boulder stands that marks the stage of Korophon. It 




BRIDGE OVER THE BRALDOH AT ASKOLEY. 



was now noon, and we made our camp, though hardly more than a 
mile and a half beyond the opening of the Punmah valley, on the other 
side of which we had stopped the day before. In the afternoon we had 
a severe rainstorm, which confined us to our tents for several hours, the 
coolies meanwhile huddling in the lee of the great boulder. The full 
tide marking the daily period of maximum melting on the glaciers 
reached us between seven and eight o'clock, unexpected and severe, like 
a heavy flood. The river was at least twice its former volume, though 
we had not had a ray of sun for two days. Next day we were soon at 
the Biafo glacier, which gave us a couple of hours of marching very 
like that on the Baltoro. We found the Braldoh valley covered with 



332 



Chapter XVIII. 



bushes. The snow had quite disappeared from the sides, and every 
little nook on the high slopes was rich in pasturage for the ibexes. We 
went along the alluvial terrace, which was strewn with blocks from the 
rocky walls above. All the dignitaries of Askoley had come out a 
half-hour's journey from the village to greet the Duke, and the long 
way was lined with bowing and saluting natives. At a little before 
eleven we were once more ensconced in our old camping ground among 
the willows. 




LEFT BANK OF THE BRALDOH, AT THE FOOT OF THE SKORO LA. 

At Askoley we left the Braldoh valley, and instead of making the 
long detour around the chain of Mango Gusor, we crossed the Skoro La 
and went straight down to the Shigar valley. This saved us three days. 
but at the expense of considerable fatigue. The Skoro La is 
16,716 feet high, 6,700 feet above Askoley. 1 The Duke and the guides 
were still imperfectly recovered from their exertions on Bride Peak, 

1 Altitude calculated from barometric readings, referred to the observations made at Skardu, 
Gilgit and Leh. According to Conway the Skoro La is 17,400 feet ; according to the Workmans 
16,975 feet. Guillarmod gives the highest figure, 17,716 feet. 



The Return to Srinagar. 333 

perhaps also feeling some effects of the sudden change from lower to 
higher atmospheric pressure. But the Duke was unwilling to alter the 
itinerary already made, and thus we did not even stop for a day of rest 
at Askoley. On the afternoon of our arrival the equipment was made 
ready, with addition of the goods we had stored with the Zaildar on 
our way up, and we sent ahead a good proportion of the coolies to cross 
the same day the jhula bridge over the Braldoh. The loads being ready 












CAMP BETWEEN ASKOLEY AND SKORO LA. 



for distribution, there ensued an indescribable scene, more than a hundred 
coolies flinging themselves on the chests, bags, kiltas, etc., wrenching 
things away from each other like men possessed, until with the greatest 
difficulty we restored order and made the distribution. The day, like 
the foregoing ones, was gloomy, rainy and cold in fact, during the 
week since we had left Bride Peak we had seen no reason to regret our 
departure. 

At half-past six on the 28th we left Askoley, under a smiling sky 
and with a springlike atmosphere. We descended the great alluvial 
terrace, more than 300 feet above the river, by means of a path winding 



334 



Chapter XVIII. 



between fields of grain, beans, peas, etc. At the edge of the terrace 
a gully led directly down to the bridge. It is about 300 feet long and 
more than 100 feet above the foaming torrent coursing at the bottom 
of the narrow gorge between two vertical rock walls. The bridge was 
firm and in excellent condition, not a single cross-bar being lacking. 
Ten loaded coolies could cross it at a time, and our caravan, decreased 
by- the number sent on the day before, were very shortly on the other 
bank. This also was covered with vegetation. Edelweiss 



were 











ON THE WAY TO SKORO LA. 



plentiful on the borders of the fields and even between the rows of grain. 
a botanical combination entirely new to us. We went a short distance 
along the bottom of the valley, then climbed obliquely across the slope 
to the edge of the opening of the Skoro La valley, 1,900 feet above the 
Braldoh. 1 At its mouth is a village of mountain huts, now deserted, 
because the herds have all been taken up to the high pastures. 
Southward opened the green valley, full of blossom, between two 
rounded grassy heights, like the beautiful shell-shaped dales of our 

1 The route is marked by a dotted line on the little panorama of the left side of the Braldoh 
valley. 



The Return to Srinapir. 



335 



own Alps. 1 We climbed along the left side of this valley for some 
four miles, and set up camp on a grassy level near the water. We were 
now at about 13,000 feet of altitude. 

Next day we crossed the pass. A glacier comes down from it to 
within about 300 feet from our camp of the night before. We went 
first along the slope on the left, crossing remains of avalanches and 
detritus of landslides cut by torrents. Then we crossed the marginal 




NORTHERN SLOPE OF SKORO LA. 

moraine and walked on the ice. A series of moderate slopes brought 
us to the snow-covered tributary which leads to the pass, where we 
left the main gkcier. The latter runs off eastward to a great 
amphitheatre surrounded by rocky and snowy summits. Dr. and Mrs. 
Workman climbed in 1899 the two peaks nearest the Skoro La, 
18,600 and 18,450 feet high. We mounted in zig-zags over an excellent 
path. The ice ended some 10 yards below the rocky col, and at half- 
past ten we were on the top, in a narrow gap between two teeth of the 
rugged crest. 

1 The Botanical Appendix, by Prof. Pirotta and Dr. Cortesi, contains a list of the specimens 
found in this valley. 



S8G 



Chapter XVIII. 



Mango Gusor, though more than 3,000 feet above us, had lost all 
its impressiveness. The day was fine, though the distant chains were 
still cloud-covered. Toward the south we looked down a bare gorge 
as far as the Shigar valley, beyond which lies the opening of the Indus 
valley. Still farther on the horizon was bounded by a misty chain 
which forms the main supporting buttress of the Deosai table-land. 
We stopped to rest and enjoy the view, while the coolies were still 





LOOKING NORTH FROM SKORO LA. 



climbing the steep snowy slope below us. A few of them were 
exhausted, and laid down their loads on the snow ; but their stouter 
brethren already at the top went back to help them, and the whole 
caravan was soon over the pass. 1 

A wide rocky couloir runs precipitously southward from the col, 
covered with most insecure detritus loose upon the steep rocks. One 
had to go very carefully not to send down an avalanche on the heads 
of those below. The coolies were very sure-footed, walking cat-like 
and not disturbing a single stone ; otherwise it would have been 

1 The Skoro La was crossed in 1856 by R. Schlagintweit, by Godwin Austen in 1861, by 
Conway in 1892, by the Workmans in 1899, and by some of the members of the Eckenstein- 
Pfannl-Guillarmod expedition in 1902. 



The Itctimi to 



887 



impossible to get safely down such a wall with so numerous a caravan. 
Some 1,600 feet below the col we began to cut obliquely toward the 
right to gain a ridge which is the divisional line between this secondary 
valley and the Skoro Lumba. The latter is filled in its upper part by 
two glaciers, which break off abruptly high up on the walls. The slope 
is grassy, and sprinkled with flowers ; but it is very steep and extended, 
and cut by high steps which make the descent tedious and fatiguing. 




SOUTHERN SIDE OF SKORO LA. 



Along the way we kept meeting with Baltis bringing little baskets of 
delicious apricots, cherries, plums and cucumbers, the most acceptable 
gifts we could receive, after our months of tinned foods. We finally 
reached the bottom of the deep and narrow valley, after having 
descended in this way some 4,100 feet, and made our stage near a group 
of shepherds' huts, on a grassy plain full of great wild rose bushes, now 
in full flower and smelling delightful. Many herds were pastured in 
the neighbourhood, and we were abundantly supplied with fresh milk 
and also with eggs. We were welcomed to Baltistan by a violent 
sandstorm, followed rather unexpectedly by heavy rain. The coolies 
protected themselves as well as they could under the tarpaulins, the 
tent-bags and all the coverings they could get together. 

(0221) v 



Chapter XVIII. 

Our nearness to the luxuriant oasis of Shigar, the paradise of Bal- 
tistan, put wings to our coolies' feet. When we set off at seven o'clock 
on July 30th they were nearly all under way. The mountains were 
covered. The path ran first among roses, junipers and thorny bushes, 
then climbed up on a spur at the right side of the valley. After this 
we descended once more to the river, and entered a narrow winding 
gorge between high vertical walls which bear the marks of both old 
and recent landslides. It was here that Colonel Godwin Austen, with 
his whole caravan, was nearly overtaken by a shwa in 1861, two great 
bursts of mud and stones coming down with a frightful crash. The 
Workmans were witnesses to a similar phenomenon on this very spot, 
probably resulting from a temporary obstruction of the torrent by a 
landslide from the side of the gorge. At certain points there is scarcely 
room for both the torrent and the path, and there would be no escape 
for any one overtaken by one of these mud streams. We emerged from 
the gorge into a broader space, where the valley met a tributary from 
the left, the Nang Brok, coining from Mango Gusor. 

From here on the valley broadened gradually to its mouth, becoming 
more and more green and beautiful. On top of every boulder is stored 
up a great quantity of hay for the winter. About two miles from the 
end we saw the first ponies, brought by the Rajah of Shigar, who came 
to meet us in person with his brother and a numerous train. It was a 
pleasure to be once more in the saddle. At every step we met people 
who welcomed the Wazir and our coolies with affectionate demonstra- 
tiveness. Joy reigned, and the sense of reunion, of perils overcome 
and anxiety relieved was so infectious, that even we fell under its 
influence. When we emerged into the great Shigar valley the sun was 
scorching hot. The left side of the gateway is formed by a rock full 
of holes like a beehive, where innumerable sparrows had their nests and 
were piercing the air with their shrill chatter. The valley looked quite 
different from our memory of it all the rocky slopes were bare, and 
snow and glaciers only came down to within 6,000 or 7,000 feet of us. 

We crossed the stony delta and reached the oasis. It seemed to 
us like the promised land. The boughs of the apricot trees were 
weighted with luscious fruit, and we could fill our hands by merely 
rising in the saddle. The mulberry trees were black with their harvest, 
and the fields were full of ripe crops, which the natives were garnering. 
On the roofs of the terraces, on the ground, on the threshing-floors, 



The Return to Srinagar. 



889 



everywhere great sheets of apricots were laid out to dry, and gleamed 
like cloth of gold in the sunshine. The old Chinese geographers were 
right when they called Baltistan " Tibet of the apricots " (Ujfalvy). 
We dismounted at the bridge outside of Shigar, and entered the town 
on foot. In front of one of the houses, probably the school, some fifty 
children were drawn up, and prompted by their master greeted us with 
three shrill hurrahs. The tents were erected in the cool shade of the 
venerable trees beside the polo camp, and the customary offerings of 
fruit, flowers and cakes were soon brought to us in abundance. 




THE APRICOT CROP AT SKAliDT. 



The Wazir gave an afternoon tea to the expedition in the garden 
of his house, a great tent having been set up and a profusion of Oriental 
rugs stretched on the grass. He and the Rajah proffered various gifts 
to the Dxike. It is usual to accept some of these, and to recognize the 
hospitality and the assistance rendered by the authorities of the district 
by sending them offerings in return through the official channels. 

Between Shigar and Skardu we had the experience of a very 
interesting mode of conveyance, common to all the western Himalaya 
the navigation of the river on zhaks. We had some of us already 
used them to cross the Braldoh where it flows into the Shigar valley, 

(9221) Y 2 



840 Chapter XVIII. 

but that was nothing compared to the actual voyage in them upon a 
swift and turbulent, stream. We sent on the coolies by land with the 
guides and the luggage. Then we betook ourselves across the fields 
to the river bank, perhaps a mile from the village. Three rafts were in 
readiness for us. They looked like very fragile structures to contend 
with the violent stream, which runs a muddy and swollen course with 
billows that break and curl over at the top. Each zhak is made of 
twenty pig or goat skins filled with air and secured by ropes to a lattice- 
work of poplar or willow branches, with the legs sticking up between, 




A ZHAK, TURNED OVER ON THE BANK. 

tied tightly with cord to keep the air in. 1 We bestowed ourselves in 
pairs upon these primitive floats the Duke and Mr. Baines, Negrotto 
and I, Sella and Botta. Sella tied a box to the wooden framework of 
the raft, on which he put the cinematographic camera, in order to take 
a record of this novel kind of travel. We sat cross-legged in the centre 
of the rafts. It was practically sitting in the water, except for some 
old pieces of felt (namdah) laid down on the lattice-work, for our weight 
made the rafts ride low in the water. At the corners four steersmen 
stood erect, with long poles to serve as oars. 

Directly we pushed off we were seized by the current and given over 
to the mercy of the waves, veering now toward one bank, now the other, 

1 Moorcroft describes similar rafts in use on the river Sutlej, made of ox-hides, like those 
which Major Bruce says are used to navigate the Indus in Chitral. They are probably much 
larger, but cannot be nearly so easy to take apart for portage as these of Baltistan. 



The lit'timi to 



:;ti 



tossed about like corks, whirled in the eddies, lifted one moment on 
the back of a wave to a dizzy inclination and the next plunged into a 
valley with the nose of the raft under water for an instant before it 
rose on the crest of a fresh billow. The waves repelled by the front 
of the boat and the breakers which followed us behind raised up great 
sheets of water, which slapped and battered at us on every side. The 
four rowers used their poles frantically the whole time, but apparently 




BOARDING THE ZHAKS. 



exerted very little, if any, influence over the course of the zhak. Every 
now and then one of them leaned over and untied the string of a skin 
that had collapsed a little, blew it up again and resumed his post. Our 
three barks had pushed off at practically the same time, but in half 
an hour they were widely separated. Sometimes one of them would 
escape altogether from the control of the steersmen and make for some 
branch of the river, but fortunately these all intercommunicated, 
so it would soon get back into the main stream again. The river banks 
seemed to fly past us, our course was so rapid. Thus we followed the wide 
bend of the river round the promontory of Strongdokmo. Near the 
mouth the oarsmen were obliged to get out and help the rafts over the 
sandbanks, as they scraped on the bottom with an unpleasant grating. 

(9221) Y 3 



348 



Chapter XVIII. 



\\ > came out finally into the Indus, and made for its bank at about 
a mile below the rock of Skardu. In an hour and a half we had come 
down some 12 miles of river, not counting the idiosyncrasies of our 
course due to the current, a distance which it had taken us five hours to 
march, on the way up. 

The Rajah of Skardu and his retinue received the Duke at the 
landing-place. Near by, beneath great poplar trees, a table was laid 




ON THE SHIGAR. 



in European fashion with seats, plates, cups, etc., and spread with 
beautiful fruit, cakes and tea in pots. Here we breakfasted, carrying 
on a conversation the while, with Mr. Baines as interpreter. Afterwards 
we entered the city. The Duke went at once to the meteorological 
station to get the readings for July 18th, necessary to make an 
approximate calculation of the height reached on Bride Peak ; while 
the rest of us, restored to the blessing of the telegraph wire, sent off 
dispatches. 



The Return to Srinagar. :;i; 

We were lodged in our former quarters, in the bungalow of the still 
absent civil engineer. The guides and coolies arrived a few hours after 
us, and we worked to prepare everything for the final stages of the 
journey. We paid off all the coolies and said good-bye to our sturdy 
and faithful servants of the late campaign. For the last time all the 
pieces of luggage were counted and sorted, evening falling while we 
were still engaged in the task. Administrative complications lasted 
late into the night, Mr. Baines wrestling with the greed of the Skardu 
merchants who had supplied us with flour, sacks to put it in, pabboos 
and other articles, and who, with their Oriental methods of temporizing 
and sophistry, prolonged the bargaining interminably. However, we 
were ready for the start next day. 

As before stated, our return route was to be the summer one across 

the Deosai table-land, a decided short cut to Kashmir, in comparison 

with the Indus valley route. It is a very high region, with several 

passes to be surmounted, and thus is open to caravans for only a little 

over two months in the year, from July to the middle of September. A 

large part of the march lies through absolutely desert regions, where 

not a twig of wood is to be found, and fuel and provisions for several 

days must accordingly be carried. We were delayed by the local 

purveyors of supplies so as not to be able to set out until half-past 

eight. The road out of Skardu lies through the squalid bazar, on 

leaving which we entered upon the wide stony plain, crossing it 

diagonally toward the south-west and fording various branches of the 

Sutpa river, which flows out of a valley south of the city. Beyond the 

river a long avenue of willows leads to the narrow entrance of the Burgi 

La valley. When Vigne was here the opening was still barricaded by 

a wall erected by Ahmed Shah, perhaps afterwards swept away by a 

flood. The valley is steep, bald and stony at first. Farther up it 

becomes green with grass and bushes, owing to the humidity of the 

atmosphere at a certain height above the Indus. The stage called 

Pindoba lies about half-way up (11,211 feet high), and 3,708 feet above 

Skardu, on a sort of terrace rising in the centre of the gorge. The 

great spurs of the Indus valley and the Skoro La chain form 

a striking landscape of mountains framed by the walls of the valley. 

At this point the Wazir of Shigar took leave of us, having 

followed the expedition from Tolti onwards. The time of the 

campaign upon the glaciers he spent at Rdokass, placing at the 

(9221) Y 4 



.MI Chapter XVIII. 

service of the Duke the authority and control which he possessed over 
the coolies. 

Above Pindobal the valley grew wider and less steep. The horses, 
however, having been poorly fed, did not take the climb well. There 
were several mares among them, followed by their colts, and the poor 
little things were taxed much beyond their feeble powers. The valley 
now grew stony again and full of detritus as far up as the snows 
descending from the col. The path crossed the snow for a good distance. 
and the ponies plunged in and stumbled along, but went bravely, their 
drivers using no force, but encouraging them with the voice. A little 
after ten we set foot on Burgi La, 15,847 feet high. During the latter 
part of the climb certain peaks and heights were detaching themselves 
and standing out from the chains on the north-eastern horizon, which 
gave us the hope of a farewell glimpse of the noble mountains among 
which we had spent such never-to-be-forgotten weeks. And our wish 
was granted. From the top of the pass we recognized at once the 
regular cone and great snowy shoulder of K 2 , rising superb above the 
other heights. The sky was cloudy, and we could just distinguish 
through the mists to the right of K 2 a dim shape, which we knew to be 
the rocky pinnacle of Masherbrum. Bella's panorama R shows the 
extended view to be had from Burgi La. Sella perceived that a pano- 
rama taken by telephotography on a bright morning from some height 
near the pass would give an incomparable view of the whole system 
of the Karakoram ; and, unable to resist the idea, he remained behind 
for one night with Botta, keeping one of the Whymper tents and horses 
with which to overtake us on the next day. 

A short descent leads from Burgi La to a placid green vale, open and 
rounded in shape, with two little blue lakes fed by the near snows, one 
some 650 feet below the col. Beyond this valley we caught a glimpse 
of the rolling plains of Deosai. We came down through the nearly level 
basin, all tapestried with a profusion of gaily-coloured blossoms. 1 The 
great extent of luxuriant herbage caused us to feel surprised that there 
was no herd to profit by the excellent pasturage. Where the valley runs 
into the plain is the stage of Ali Malik ke-mur, marked by some 
prominent rocks, out of which the natives have made huts by the 
addition of some rough stone walls. The stage is 13,450 feet high. The 

1 The Botanical Appendix of Prof. Pirotta and Dr. Cortesi contains a list of the plants 
collected on the Deosai table-land. 



The lieturn to Srina^ar. :;i:. 

clouds had been gathering over the chains, and a little after we reached 
the spot a furious rainstorm broke, accompanied by thunder and 
lightning, a spectacle to which we had long been strangers. 

The undulating plain of Deosai is irregularly circular in form, some- 
what more than 30 miles in diameter, and from 13,000 to 14.000 feet 
above sea level. It is girdled by mountains averaging about 17,500 feet 
with small glaciers and snowfields. Shallow valleys run into it, making 
a sort of shell-shaped expanse. Oestreich has called attention to the 
singular contrast between the flat monotonous plain and the strongly 
marked features of the surrounding region, all angles and corners, cut 










THE DEOSAI TABLE-LAND. 



and broken by deep valleys between steep walls and ragged crests. 
Drew offered the hypothesis that the plain might have originated in a 
filling up of the valleys with alluvial sediment during the glacial period. 
Conway seems to think that the process is still going on, largely through 
the medium of the mud streams. It may be that such a theory fits 
the conditions of the plateaus of Central Asia and Tibet, which are, in 
fact, composed of sedimentary matter. But the Deosai plain is a solid 
formation of granite and gneiss, as Vigne recognized. K. Oestreich 
and Ellsworth Huntingdon described it as an upheaval not yet shaped 
or furrowed by the action of water. 1 It is full of glacier marks and 
deposits, and must once have been entirely covered by a large glacier 
of the continental type. 

The route crosses the plain in an absolutely straight line from north- 
east to south-west, traversing a number of broad streams. These were 

1 K. OESTREICH (op. cit.) ; ELLSWORTH HUNTINGDON, The Vole of Kashmir. Butt. Amer. 
Qeog. Son. 38, 1900, p. 657. 



:;.,; Chapter XVIII. 

clear and shallow with pebbly beds, running between low banks and 
uniting in the centre of the plain to form the Shigar river, the only 
emissary of the Deosai plain, and a tributary to the Dras river. It is 
said to be full of trout. There are many clear cold springs along its 
way. The soil is covered with stones and pebbles, grass growing 
profusely among them. It seemed to us like a beautiful meadow, after 
our months in arid Baltistan. However, we passed some Englishmen 




OUR CAMP ON THE BORDERS OF THE DEOSAI PLAIN. 

coming from Kashmir, and to them, as to Ujfalvy, it was a perfect desert 
of stones. The path is broad and hard ; for the route over the Deosai 
plain, while it is not the official highway used by the post, is traversed 
during the summer by a considerable part of the traffic between Srinagar 
and Skardu, and all the Englishmen take it who are bound on hunting 
expeditions in Baltistan. Marmots are numerous, and the earth along 
the roadside is perforated with their burrows. The little animals are 
larger than with us, and have pelts of about the same colour, tawny 
brown shading to yellow on the belly. On every side we kept hearing 
their shrill frightened squeak. The pasture lands of the Deosai are said 
to harbour a good many bears. Birds are scarce, likewise insects. We 
saw no crickets, bees or wasps, and but few butterflies, despite the rich 
grass and many blossoms. The species of the latter were in no way 
striking. There is a certain sort of gnat native to these parts, of very 



The- Return to 



1547 



bad fame, said to be most annoying during the warm part of the day. 
We, however, were not troubled by it, and found the horseflies much 
more vexatious. Spiders were plentiful. 

Sella overtook us at our second stage, not far from the western limit 
of the plateau. As we had feared, he was prevented by mists and bad 
weather from completing his photographic campaign in the Karakoram 
with a panorama which would have had greater illustrative value than 
any taken in the chains themselves. The disappointment was the more 
lamentable when the next day proved absolutely clear and brilliant,. 




SARSIXCiAR LAKE. 



without a vestige of mist. To the west of us, back of the mountains, 
bounding the plain, we saw far off the snowy peak of Nanga Parbat. 
This was our only glimpse of it. 

Leaving the Deosai plain, we ascended the gentle valley which leads 
up to the col called Sarsingar, 14,042 feet high. Near it we passed a 
moraine lake, then on the summit of the col a second and larger one, 
which Drew and Workman consider to be likewise of morenic origin ; 
but Oestreich calls it a watershed lake. The downward slopes were quite 
gentle, and had patches of snow coming down from heights that looked 
very moderate, but are really 16,000 feet or more. According to 
Oestreich the great glacier of Deosai must have come down over this- 
col, but it probably had more than one outlet. 



:;> Chapter XVIII. 

The head of another large valley, like a wide amphitheatre, called 
Chota Deosai, comes in between the real Deosai and the Burzil valley, 
through which we were to march. This amphitheatre is the source of 
the Shingo river, which runs into the Shigar farther down, thus con- 
tributing its volume of water to the Dras. We went down into the 
amphitheatre from Sarsingar, and found it clothed with rich pasture 
but entirely unoccupied. One crosses over it to gain a narrow defile 
which cuts between the mountains to the south, and by which one gains 
a second pass, the Stakpi La, 600 feet lower than Sarsingar. 




PATH TO STAKPI LA. 



The Naib Tehsildar of the district came to meet the Duke with a 
party of dignitaries, and they escorted us down from the col and into the 
Burzil valley. Now we began to see the forests the birches highest 
up, and below them the deep green masses of the coniferous trees. The 
path ran among a tangle of flowers, a hundred kinds all familiar, yet 
seeming strange on account of their size campanulas of every variety, 
fragrant forget-me-nots three or four feet high with long branches, 
marsh-mallows, larkspur, balsam, thistles all these and many more 
growing with splendour and profusion and a riot of colour. 

At Burzil we were quartered in a bungalow that seemed like a palace 
to us. The high road from Gilgit wound down before us, a splendid 
smooth and well-trodden path. 



The Return to Srinagar. :;n 

We had said good-bye to the rough paths, the long marches and 
the healthy fatigue of our mountain heights. The remainder of the 
journey was only too easy. Between flowering hedges we descended 
the Burzil valley to where it joins the Kishen Ganga. We noted the 
gradual giving way of summer to autumnal flora the slopes were 
covered with asters, and the umbelliferous plants, as large as small trees, 
were full of seed-vessels. The path follows the right side of the valley. 
The left is clothed with evergreen forests, populated with black and brown 
bears. Cultivation begins a little before the Kishen Ganga the same 
river which we saw at its meeting with the Jhelum, on our way from 
Rawal Pindi to Srinagar. The dwelling-houses here are built of tree 
trunks mortised together, and look like Swiss chalets except that they 
have flat terrace roofs instead of projecting gable ones. We had become 
so used to the small cattle of Baltistan that the herds here impressed us 
as being of gigantic size. The women in the fields were unveiled, and 
looked at us without embarrassment. The men are tall and well built 
they are Dards, an Aryan people which inhabits the country between 
Kashmir and the Hindu Kush. They appear to have occupied this 
region since remote antiquity (Stein). They are mainly Sunnite 
Mohammedans, but there are a few Shiites and Ishmaelites as well. 

There was a great deal of traffic on the road, long convoys of pack 
animals loaded with merchandise. We also met some detachments of 
well-equipped native troops, going to exchange with the garrison of the 
frontier post. In spring and winter, however, the route is, perhaps, 
even more dangerous than Zoji La, and there are many victims of 
avalanches. 

We followed the Kishen Ganga for a space, and then pursued a 
tributary valley on the left, which took us up to our last pass, Rajdiangan 
or Tragbal, 11,562 feet high, a little more than Zoji La. On its right 
side is a trigonometrical station (11,950 feet), which must command 
an extended view of the mountains, among them the group of Nanga 
Parbat. It was too veiled in clouds for us to see it not an unusual 
experience, apparently, for Sir Francis Younghusband crossed 
Rajdiangan six times and never had a view of it. The spreading plain of 
Kashmir was at our feet, shrouded in light mists, among which gleamed 
the waters of its rivers, lakes and canals. We came down to Bandipur, 
our route being a progress through groves of pine and fir, meadows and 
plains, rice fields and rows of mulberry trees. The air quivered with 



850 



XVIII. 



heat, and was filled with the hum of cicalas and crickets, and the voices 
of many birds. On the shores of the Wular were waiting the Govern- 
ment houseboats sent to meet the expedition, the members of which 
from now on were the guests of the Maharajah, Sir Pratab Singh. We 
were once more in the heart of Kashmir noisy, garrulous, bombastic, 
.servile, yet withal charming Kashmir. 




ON THE JHELL'M. THE RETURN TO SRIN.UIAH. 



Our exertions were over. We let ourselves be borne across the lake 
and up the Jhelum, lazily enjoying the landscape, the tall vegetation on 
the banks, the branching splendour of the chenar trees, the lively 
colouring of the water-fowl the little grey gulls, the gay kingfishers, 
the fish-hawks perched watchfully on the rocks or floating tree trunks, 
the ducks, the cranes and all the varied host of aquatic birds. 

On August llth the party re-entered Srinagar, and went to pay its 
respects at the Chenar Bagh. The expedition was at an end. All the 
anticipatory feelings of the past few days and the satisfying sense of 
labours completed gave way to a sense of flatness accompanied by actual 
longing for the vigorous and varied life of the past months of contact 
with nature. 






CHAPTER XIX. 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES AND CONSIDERATIONS. 

The Explorations of Sir Francis Younghusband east of the Baltoro. Height of the Peaks of 
Golden Throne. Method employed in Determining Heights. Discrepancy between the 
Barometric and Trigonometric Calculations. Climate of the Karakoram. Solar 
Temperature. Observations made by the Workmans and by the Duke. Temperature 
of the Air at Great Heights. Physiological Experiments. Deductions for the Mountain 
Climber. Analysis of Results. Physiological Effects of Altitude. Limits of Adapta- 
bility and Endurance. Rations and Alpine Outfit. Optimistic Forecasts. The 
Practical Problem. 

I HAVE gathered into a single 
chapter a number of short notes 
on various topics which have 
already been presented or, at 
least, mentioned in the text, 
discussion of which, on account 
of their technical nature, was 
not easily included in the 
general narrative. 

As described in Chapter XV, 
the Duke had from Sella Pass 
and the ridge of Staircase Peak 
a comprehensive view of the 
unknown territory lying east 
of the Baltoro and north of the Siachen. Over this tract extends a 
system of lofty chains, with corresponding deep valleys (see panoramas 
P and I), so complicated that it was impossible for the Duke to 
form a general idea of its topographical arrangement, even schematically, 
or to draw such conclusions as would be necessary to correlate his 
observations with those of Sir Francis Younghusband, the only explorer 
who has so far penetrated into the region. 




Chapter XIX. 

The geographical problem will be best presented by confronting the 
Duke's observations and the results of the Younghusband expedition. 
I will therefore present these data as briefly as possible, premising them 
wit h the warning that they will not be easily intelligible without reference 
to Younghusband's maps. 1 

On his first expedition in 1887 Sir Francis Younghusband crossed 
the whole of China from Pekin to Yarkand, and returned to India by the 
old Mustagh pass and the Baltoro. It was during this journey that he 
first discovered and crossed the Aghil chain, which lies between the Kuen 
Lun and the Karakoram, separating the valleys of the Yarkand and 
the Oprang rivers. 2 Two years later, returning to the region by the 
Karakoram pass, he again crossed the Aghil range at the head of a small 
expedition sent out to get information upon the marauding raids of 
the Kunjuts of Hunza. He describes the Aghil mountains as running 
from north-west to south-east, some 125 miles long, composed of " bold 
upstanding peaks," among which are three beautiful snowy summits, 
the tallest of which is about 23,000 feet high. 

After reaching the valley of the Oprang, Sir Francis Younghusband 
followed it up, hoping that it led to the Saltoro pass, a supposititious 
ancient route of communication between Baltistan and Kashgar, of 
which the people south of the ranges had some tradition but no depend- 
able knowledge of its geographical situation. 3 

The valley, which runs from south-east to north-west, lies east of the 
Baltoro basin between the Broad-Gasherbrum range and the Aghil 
mountains. A large glacier, the Gasherbrum, comes down into it from 
the eastern slopes of the Gasherbrums, and stops abruptly at the river 
with a vertical wall of ice a mile and a half broad. This the explorer 
crossed, and went on up the valley to a second glacier, the Urdok, not 
so wide as the first, which runs in from the south between precipitous 
walls, coming from deep within the ranges to the east of Hidden Peak. The 

1 SIR F. E. YOUNGHUSBAND, The Heart of a Continent, etc. London 1904. 2nd ed. There 
are better maps in the articles by the same author in Proc. Roy. Oeog. Soc. N.S. vol. 10, 1888, 
p. 485, and vol. 14, 1892, p. 205. 

8 The Aghil chain had been seen by G. W. HAYWARD as early as 1868, but he believed it to- 
be the Mustagh or Karakoram. See Journey from Leh to Yarkand and Kashgar. Proc. Soy. 
Oeog. Soc. 14, 1869, p. 41 ; and the article in Jour. Roy. Oeog. Soc. 40, 1870, p. 33. 

The Saltoro pass was discovered by Longstaff in the summer of 1909, the year of the Duke's 
expedition. It does not cross the watershed, but gives access to the Siachen or Saichar glacier ; 
hence it is not a way of communication between India and Central Asia, but merely a short 
cut between the lower Shyok and the upper basin of its tributary, the Nubra. 



Supplementary Notes and Considerations. 353 

Oprang valley ends not far beyond to the south-east, dividing into two 
glacier-filled branches which form the sources of the river Oprang. At 
this point he left the main valley and followed up the Urdok glacier. 
It was entirely covered with moraine in its lower part. He went on 
climbing toward a sort of depression in the ridge at the head of the 
valley, thinking that this might possibly be the sought-for Saltoro pass. 
He went 18 miles up the glacier in three days, experiencing continued 
bad weather, so that he just barely caught glimpses of the peaks between 
the mists. On the third day there was a severe snowstorm. There was 
considerable danger from the snow-covered crevasses and the avalanches 
that came down on every side, and he was finally brought to a halt by 
a wide crevasse, probably the bergschrund, and forced to turn back. 

Sir Francis Younghusband was merely making a rapid journey 
through an extended territory, and had neither equipment nor leisure 
for accurate topographical work ; moreover, there were no points 
previously established by survey upon which to base his observations. 
He was able to establish the latitude of some of the points in his itinerary 
by astronomical observations, but not the longitude. The camping 
ground of Durbin Jangal in the Oprang valley, lH miles below the 
Gasherbrum glacier, was one of these. Its position was established 
by calculation of the latitude and observation with the compass upon 
a certain striking peak which Younghusband believed to be K 2 (survey 
183 Mg., 186 true). The situation of the Oprang valley is thus 
dependent upon that of Durbin Jangal camp. But in Younghusband's 
map the valley is so placed that one would be able to look from Windy 
Gap and Bella Pass, through short tributary valleys without glaciers, 
directly down into it where it lies considerably below the mouth of the 
Gasherbrum glacier. However, Sir Francis Younghusband, in dis- 
cussing with the Duke the topography of the region during the first 
stay of the expedition at Srinagar, became persuaded that the peak 
surveyed from Durbin Jangal was not K 2 but Gasherbrum IV, and 
altered his map accordingly, putting the Oprang valley six miles farther 
east. Then the further difficulty arose that a straight line drawn from 
the new situation of Durbin Jangal to Gasherbrum IV would run 
directly across the mountain ridge to the north-east of Windy Gap, and 
thus the latter would probably cut off the view of Gasherbrum IV from 
a person situated about seven miles north of and nearly 10,000 feet 
below it. 

(9221) z 



354 ( 'hapter XIX. 

The Duke was forced by the insecurity of the data to leave unsolved 
the problem of the topographical relation between the upper Oprang 
valley and the glacier basin explored by him. Nor were the factors 
established by the expedition enough to warrant the identification of 
the Aghil chain with the mountain range which the Duke had seen to 
the east, and which he and Sella had photographed. They had both 
taken with the prismatic compass the angles of Peaks X, Y and Z, 
and the point of observation of the Duke upon Staircase Peak was 
sufficiently well established. But that of Sella on the east side of the 
left-hand spur of the Godwin Austen was too uncertain, as he had as 
basis only the angles observed upon the Gasherbrums, which were too 
few and also too acute. Given the distance of these two stations from 
the points X, Y and Z, the slightest displacement would be enough 
to alter the situation of these peaks from one to the other side of the 
Oprang ; and besides, it was impossible to say with certainty whether 
they were contained in one or two chains. Furthermore, no one of the 
larger glaciers shown in panoramas F and I exactly corresponds in 
direction with the Gasherbrum glacier, neither could any of them be 
followed with the eye for a sufficient distance to establish its identity 
with the latter. 

In any case, the panoramas taken by Sella and the Duke depict an 
utterly unknown region between the Oprang valley, the upper Siachen 
glacier and the Broad-Gasherbrum range. It is to be hoped that it 
will be explored at some early time, either by crossing some col at the 
head of the Kondus glacier, or else by Sella Pass on the southern side 
of the Godwin Austen. Such an exploring expedition would probably 
collect enough data to bring into line with each other the maps of Sir 
Francis Younghusband, Dr. Longstaff and the Duke. 

Before leaving the subject of topography, I will make mention of 
certain angles taken by the Duke from Camps XIII and XIV on the 
glacier and on Chogolisa Saddle. If he had been able to make a third 
station on the high ridge of Bride Peak, he would have had sufficient 
elements to add many topographical details to the map of the region 
at the head of the Baltoro. He was prevented by heavy mists from 
making this third station, and the distance between the two others was 
too small a base upon which to found a triangulation of any exactness. 

Nevertheless, the reading of vertical angles permitted some altimetric 
calculations which I will set down here. They must, however, be taken 



Supplementary Notes and Considerations. :;.,;, 

as approximate, on account of the uncertainty of the distances between 
the peaks and the observation stations, due to the shortness of the 
base. According to these observations the height of the five largest 
peaks of Golden Throne, from north to south, would be 22,933, 23,743, 
23,386, 23,563 and 23,375 feet high. The second peak would thus be 
the highest. 1 

Conway gives Golden Throne an altitude of 23,600 feet, a difference 
of only 143 feet between his calculation and that of the Duke ; and to 
Pioneer Peak an altitude of 22,600 feet. He maintains, however, 2 that 
some 500 feet should be added to these figures, because on comparing 
the altitude deduced from barometric observations made at Junction 
Camp (on the Baltoro at the height of the mouth of the Vigne glacier) 
with that based on the readings of angles of K 2 , he found the latter to 
be greater by 500 feet. The results of our observations do not agree 
with these deductions of Conway. First of all, according to our tri- 
angulation, the end of the right spur of the Vigne, about 1,100 yards 
away from Junction Camp and a little higher up, proved to be 15,738 feet 
high, hardly 70 feet more than the altitude given by Conway in other 
words, the trigonometric calculation agrees with the barometric. 
Further, the observations of angles made from Camps XIII and XIV 
to points triangulated by the Indian Trigonometrical Survey gave 
differences of not more than from 150 to 300 feet in their heights, and 
always in excess ; from which one may argue that the figures calculated 
for Golden Throne are likewise approximately correct, and in any case 
give a higher rather than a lower figure. I must, however, note that 
the observations of the Duke do not tally with those of Conway so well 
for Pioneer Peak as for the other points in fact, one deduces from 
the angles taken a height of only 21,332 feet for it, 1,268 feet below 
Conway's figure. 3 

1 Result of calculation. In his lecture before the Soc. Geog. Ital. and the Club Alp. (see 
Boll R. Soc. Geog. Ital. Ser. IV, 11, 1910, p. 435 ; and Revista C. A. I., Jan. 1910, vol. 29) the 
Duke stated that the highest peak was one of those to the south-east, meaning the fourth, which 
instead (urns out to be 180 feet lower than the second. But this small difference is indecisive, 
as a. slight error in the reading of the angles or in the calculation of the distance would be enough 
to produce i I . 

8 SIR W. M. COSWAY, Climbing in the Himalayas. London 1894, p. 486 ; Alp. Jour. 27, 
1894, p. 33. 

3 As was plain from Conway's map and description, Pioneer Peak is not visible from the 
Concordia nor from the Godwin Austen glacier ; thus Guillarmod's critical observations on its 
height arc without foundation. 

(0221) z 2 



356 



Chapter XIX. 



The Duke also observed Mustagh Tower from the same camps, but 
its distance from the short base of observation was too great to rely 
upon the result. I should say, however, that the angles observed would 
give a height of between. 23,950 and 24,950 feet. Conway had estimated 
it at about 25,000 feet. J 

A few further observations upon the altimetric data brought back 
by the expedition may be in order here, with special reference to those 
of the region of which we made a topographical survey. They are of 
two kinds : those derived by intersection from the photogrammetric 
or tacheometric stations, and those deduced from the calculations of 
atmospheric pressure made by the Duke with the Fortin mercury 
barometers (taking into account temperature and tension of aqueous 
vapour), corrected and referred to the observations taken at the same 
time at the base station at Rdokass. As I have already said, the latter 
137 in number were collated with the memoranda of local observa- 
tions made at the meteorological stations of Skardu, Gilgit, Leh and 
Srinagar. In constructing the map, the figures obtained by triangulation 
were naturally adopted, with the exception of a few which it was not 
possible to determine by triangulation, and of which the barometric 
calculation is given instead. These points are marked on the map by 
a small b after the number. All the results obtained by calculation of 
pressure are incorporated in the tables of Prof. Omodei (see Appendix). 
It will be seen that the height of some points was taken by both 
methods by intersection and by comparison of barometric readings. 
Upon comparing these a discrepancy becomes apparent, as shown in the 
following table : 



Stations. 


Height above sea level. 


No. of 
luironictic 

ot.srr- 

vations. 


Difference 

lx'M\ ri'll 

(A) and (B). 


(A, 
Inter- 
section. 


(B) 
Barom. 
readings. 


Camp III. 


16,512 
18,576 
21,870 
18,602 
20,207 
20,449 
21,657 
16,637 


16,493 
17,825 
20,906 
17,760 
20,053 
19,361 
21,510 
16,175 


26 
6 
1 
10 
1 
8 
1 
1 


19 

861 

964 
842 
157 
818 
147 
462 


Camp V 


Savoia Pass 


Camp VI 


Sella Pass 


Windy Gap 


Ridge of Staircase Peak 
Camp XI 





1 If Mustagh Tower is above 23,000 feet high, it is certainly far from the 26,250 feet of 
"uillarmod's estimate. 



Supplementary Notes and Considerations. 857 

The divergence is considerable and hard to explain satisfactorily. 
The calculations based upon barometric readings consistently give lower 
figures than the trigonometrical ones. Thus it is improbable that errors 
caused by local variation of pressure are responsible for the divergence. 
Moreover, these are excluded from consideration by the remarkable 
steadiness of the barometer in the Karakoram, and by the fact that all 
the calculations were obtained by reference to Rdokass, at no great 
distance away, in the same valley. The height of the latter had been 
determined by a long series of operations extending through a period 
of six weeks and referred to the four Kashmiri stations. 

In truth, the singular fact that the variations between the altitudes 
calculated by intersection and those calculated by barometric readings 
are all in the same direction gives rise to a doubt whether some constant 
factor does not intervene, such as one might find, for instance, in the 
local conditions of gravity. It is known that gravimetrical observations 
have revealed a considerable nucleus of attraction in the Himalayan 
mass. It does not seem unreasonable to suppose that this fact might 
not only produce a local greater density of the atmosphere, but also give 
rise to the movement of a certain volume of air from the surrounding 
regions, in the same way that the attraction of the earth masses is the 
cause of the higher level of the sea on the coasts of the large continents. 
Obviously this absolute increase in mass of atmosphere would result 
in higher barometric pressure than would correspond to the local alti- 
metric figures, and bring about a variation precisely in the direction 
indicated by the figures of the expedition. 

I am aware of the fact that geodetic surveyors in general are disposed 
to place little reliance upon altimetric calculations based upon atmo- 
spheric pressure. But the Duke proved that the method, when employed 
with due caution, may give results differing very little from those 
obtained by triangulation. Witness the remarkable agreement between 
the result of Russell's triangulation of Mount St. Elias in Alaska and 
the barometric calculations of its height ; and the fact that the Duke's 
measurement of the seven principal peaks of the Ruwenzori, determined 
by observations of pressure, were almost precisely confirmed by the 
triangulation of the Boundary Commission appointed to define the limits 
between Uganda and the Congo. A much greater divergence has 
often been betrayed between two different triangulations of the same 
points. 

(9221) z 3 



( 'hapter XIX. 

On the other hand, the topographical survey was made by the 
method which secures the best control of results and the greatest 
tii ia runty of exactness, and which forms a permanent document to the 
work accomplished in the photogrammetric panorama made on the 
Paganini method. Nevertheless, the specific conditions under which 
the work was accomplished brought in their train inevitable causes of 
error. Of these, the chief is the necessity that existed of making all 
observations of very high mountains from the bottom of valleys very 
deep and relatively narrow. Such great perpendicular distances in 
combination with such small horizontal ones did not permit the exact 
collimation of many points. Thus, one was never sure of sighting the 
exact summit of the mountain in question, nor of seeing exactly the 
same point from the various stations. Naturally neither the trigono- 
metrical peaks nor the others which were selected as base points for the 
determination of the stations had on top the signal which makes it 
possible to achieve an exact focus with the telescope. Thus it was 
impossible to be sure that a point collimated from various stations was 
always the same one, and not another either higher or lower or displaced 
horizontally. In addition, it was generally impossible to join up the 
different stations, because they were usually not visible one from another 
on account of the great surface irregularities of the glacier, even though 
they might be close together. The smallness of our numbers, the short- 
ness of the time, the difficulties in the way of reaching and climbing the 
steep valley walls, prevented us from making stations at high points. 
These inconveniences are not inherent in the method of survey adopted, 
and would have operated adversely on any other that we might have 
chosen. For the reasons I have given, the survey of the expedition 
is called a " sketch," and not a topographical map. 

With all these sources of error and uncertainty, it seemed 
to the Duke wisest to publish both sets of height statistics. They 
would have lost all significance if we had given merely the arithmetical 
mean between them. As it is, when the causes of error are finally 
understood, one of the two sets will be confirmed and have a definite 
value. 

The meteorological observations made by the Duke serve another 
purpose beside that of determining height. Taken in connection with 
the data of other explorers, they will give some general indications of 
the climate of the region, interesting from more than one point of view. 



Supplementary Notes and Considerations. 



359 



It is already evident that the high glacial basins of the Karakoram have 
a special climate, quite different from that of the regions round about. 
It suffices to mention the enormously high rate of atmospheric pre- 
cipitation as contrasted with the extreme dryness of the surrounding 
country. This is certainly caused by the mighty ranges which reach 
up into the upper air and snatch from the south-west monsoon all the 
moisture that has escaped the lower Himalayan ranges. 

A point which has attracted the attention of several explorers is the 
great intensity of the sun's rays at these lofty heights. R. Strachey 
called attention to it as early as 185 1, 1 and Sir A. Cunningham gives 
some comparative readings of solar temperature made in 1850. He noted 
at Gualior, in the plains, a maximum solar temperature of 132 '8 ; 
at Simla (7,500 feet) of 133:3; and at Rupshu, on the plateau of 
Ladakh (15,500 feet) of 144 and 158 F. 2 

The Workmans contend that the solar temperature varies propor- 
tionately with the altitude. From several of their publications I have 
compiled the figures given in the following tables. They show, 
indeed, that the high altitudes have higher temperatures than 
the plains, but scarcely evidence a regular progression from low 
to high. 

SOLAR TEMPERATURES OBSERVED BY W. HUNTER AND F. BULLOCK 
WORKMAN, IN 1899, ON THE CHOGO LUNGMA GLACIER." 



Month. 


Place, 


Altitude. 


Maximum solar 
1rin|HTiiture. 


June 


Skarilu . . 


7 503 


201 F 


June 


Slii"ar ... 


7,516 


206 


July 


( 'licii'o Luntrrna 


14,OH7 


190' 




('h<>"-o Lunguia 


14067 


196 


July 


Chogo Luugma 


17,322 


204 '5 











During the summer of the same year the maximum solar temperature 
observed at Calcutta was 162 F., and at Lahore 172 '6 F. 



1 R. STRACHEY, On the Physical Geography of the Provinces of Kumaun and Oahrwal, etc. 
Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc. 21, 1851, 57. 

* SIR A. CUNNINGHAM, Ladakh and Surrounding Countries. London 1854. 

' W. HUNTER WORKMAN and F. BULLOCK WORKMAN, In the Ice-World of Himalaya 
London 1901. 

(9221) z 4 



860 



Chapter XIX. 



SOLAR TEMPERATURES OBSERVED BY W. HUNTER AND F. BULLOCK 
WORKMAN, IN 1906, IN SURU AND THE NUN KUN GROUP. 1 



Month. 


I'lil.'r. 


Altltuilf. 


M.I Miiiuni solar 
tctll|MTat lirr. 




Karevl . . 


8,787 


199 F. 




Chalis Kot 


9,000 


203 






10.850 


206 






10,850 


-21!) 


July 


Rangduin Valley 


12,900 


204-5 


July 




13,270 


205 


July 


Shafat Nala 


13,325 


200 




Glaciers of Nun Kun... 


15,100 


183 


August 


Glaciers of Nun Kun... 


21,300 


142 











It is hardly permissible to compare, as the Workmans do, the highest 
solar temperature with the minimum atmospheric, the two things being 
quite distinct, and the solar temperature varying quite independently 
of the atmospheric. 

The solar temperatures given by the Workmans are higher than any 
noted by our expedition. I have tabulated our results likewise. They 
also show that there is not a constant relation between altitude and 
temperature. I have not included the lowest records taken on days 
of cloud or bad weather. Moreover, the exceedingly variable and 
uncertain conditions prevented our making regular observations, hence 

SOLAR TEMPER AT ORES OBSERVED BY THE DUKE. 



Dat*. 


Place. 


Altitude. 


Minimum anil maximum 
solar ti'mi'rral urr. 
Fahrenheit. 


Ms 

> 

Ju 
Ju 


ly 9-17 
25-31 
tie 1-19 
5-8 
12-23 
16 
29-Jul} 
y 3-8 
10-16 
11 
17 


Sh 
Ca 



gar, Braldoh, Biaho Valleys ... 
up III . 


Feet. 
10,013-11,000 
16,512 
16,512 
18,176 
18,602 
20,449 
15,817 
17,959 
20,784 
21,673 
22,483 


105-8-138-2 
108 5-123'H 
90-4-1-2W 
123-8-141 -H- 
114-8-131 
140 
109-4-116-6 
1804-184-6 
114-8-140 
123-8 
152-6 


Ill 


V 


VI 


VII 


IX 


XII 


XIV 


-\'V'(1) 
XV (2) 



1 W. HUNTER WORKMAN, Exploration of the Nun Kun Mountains, etc. Oeog. Jour. 31, 
1908, 12 ; W. HUNTER and F. BULLOCK WORKMAN, Peaks and Glaciers of the Nun Kun. 
London 1909. 



Supplementary Notes and Considerations. 361 

the fragmentary character of the data. The reading of the solar 
thermometer was done at 8, 10 and 4 o'clock, at the same time as the 
observations made at Rdokass and in Kashmir. Thus the midday 
record which would naturally be the highest does not appear. 
According to the Workmans the maximum was attained between 12 
and 2 o'clock. At no place or time did we have excessive heat or feel 
such consequences of it as headache, dizziness, &c. 

Next, as regards the temperature of the air, I need only record the 
relative mildness of the month of July, at heights between 20,000 and 
23,000 feet. The lowest temperature registered at Chogolisa Saddle 
was 3 ; on the ridge of Bride Peak (24,600 feet) at 2 o'clock on a day 
of heavy fog the temperature was 21. These are also about the 
records for the month of June on the Savoia glacier and at Windy Gap. 
The fact has some importance, on account of its bearing upon the 
problem of ascents to great heights, since one of the adverse arguments 
often adduced is the extreme and intolerable cold that must exist at 
such altitudes. In reality there does not obtain upon the mountain 
slopes an actual proportionate relation between the rise of the altitude 
and the fall of the thermometer, because other factors, such as the 
radiation from the earth and the warm currents rising from the valleys, 
always intervene to modify the temperature. 

In the Introduction I have tried to bring out the impossibility of 
applying to mountain climbing the theoretical physiological limit derived 
by scientists from experiments on the effects of reduced atmospheric 
pressure upon the human system. Such experiments simply serve to 
establish the general fact that the system is capable of enduring for a 
short time, without serious consequences, an atmospheric pressure that 
would correspond to an altitude three times as great as that of Mount 
Everest. But the simple conditions of artificially reduced pressure 
in a closed chamber hardly exist under natural circumstances for 
instance, in balloon ascents the effect is entirely different. Altitudes 
of between 29,500 and 36,000 feet in other words, a condition of 
atmospheric pressure far less reduced than that easily endured in the 
closed chamber have been known to cause serious organic disorders 
and even death to some experimenters. Yet in such ascents the only 
additional factor, not present in the former experiment, would seem to 
be the cold of the high altitude. It is plain that there is no useful 
deduction to be drawn from these facts for the field of mountain 



362 (Muiptor XIX. 

climbing, whore so many and various factors are present, the chief of 
them being (1) the muscular exertion and (2) the incomparably longer 
duration of the experiment. 

The work of Angelo Mosso and his school has stimulated modern 
physiologists to undertake a systematic study of the effects of high 
altitude upon the human organism, with the aid of all the most recent 
analytic methods. The establishment of the observation hut Mar- 
gherita on the Gnifetti Peak of Monte Rosa (15,100 feet) sprang from 
the initiative of Angelo Mosso, and has been carried out by the Italian 
Alpine Club. To-day, enlarged by the addition of new buildings, it 
has become an important scientific station for biological research and 
physical experiments at high altitudes. It is gradually producing a 
series of results which will materially assist in solving the problem of life 
at great heights. 1 This is not the place to enter upon more details, 
since the results thus far achieved do not contribute to the precise 
matter in hand the problem of the greatest height to which man can 
ascend. On this point only purely empirical evidence exists, such as 
is embodied in all the narratives of mountain climbing which we possess. 
And unfortunately the experience of mountaineers varies to such a 
degree and the effects attributable to altitude alone are such inconstant 
factors and so hard to distinguish, that it is almost impossible to gather 
any general conclusions from them. 

One strange and unexplained fact is that on certain mountains and 
in certain regions ascents to great heights almost without exception 
cause what we call mountain sickness, varying in symptoms and intensity 
according to the individual, whereas other regions are apparently free. 
Mont Blanc has always had an evil fame in this regard, and all the 
accounts of mountain climbing in the Andes lay stress upon the sick- 



1 Among the principal works dealing with the subject, beside the well-known book of ANGELO 
Mosso, La fisiologia deWuomo in montagna, see H. ZUNTZ, A. LOEWY, F. MILLER and W. CASPARI, 
Hohendima und Bergwanderungen, etc. Berlin 1906 ; and the latest publications of R. F. FUCHS 
in Sitzungsb. d. physik.-mediz. SozieUit in Erlangen, vol. 40, 1908, and vol.41, 1909. DR. T. (!. 
LONGSTAFF has brought out in his monograph Mountain Sickness (London 1906) the bearing 
which these scientific researches have upon mountain climbing in its practical aspect, and the 
conclusions to be drawn from them relative to the phenomena of mountain sickness. He gives 
a succinct history of mountain climbing from this point of view, and the lessons to be drawn 
from it. See also two articles by MALCOLM HEPBURN, The Influence of High Altitudes in 
Mountaineering. Alp. Jour. 20, 1901, p. 368 ; and Some Reasons why the Science of Altitude 
Illness is still in its Infancy. Alp. Jour. 21, 1902, p. 161. 



Supplementary Notes and Considerations. 363 

ness caused there by high altitude. 1 However, since the repeated 
ascents of Mount Aconcagua, 2 the highest peak in the world outside the 
I ndo- Asiatic chains, this fact has lost all practical importance. The 
problem of altitude has now concentrated itself upon the Indo-Asiatic 
ranges. And it looks thus far as if this, the most wonderful field of 
activity for the mountaineer that exists on the face of the globe, were 
also the field where the bad effects of rarefaction upon the human 
system are less to be apprehended than elsewhere. 

The progressive history of mountain climbing, from its inception 
down to the present day, seems to show that man's power of endurance 
and capacity for exertion at great heights have steadily increased. There 
was a time when every ascent of Mont Blanc meant serious suffering 
severe headache, dizziness, nausea, debility, disturbances of the respira- 
tion and circulation, sometimes haemorrhage. To-day no trained 
mountain climber ever thinks of such possibilities when making the 
ascent, and we have conquered 23,000 feet of altitude without sufferings 
in any way comparable to those we read of in the early days of Alpine 
climbing. 

One would say that mountain sickness, once a necessary evil of 
mountain climbing, is gradually disappearing, in the same way that 
scurvy has ceased to be the inevitable accompaniment of polar expedi- 
tions. The reason doubtless lies in the development and perfecting 
of the equipment, and in the gradual increase of knowledge as to the 
best plan of life and work under conditions of high altitude. Such 
knowledge reduces to a minimum the exertions, the fatigues and the 
dissipation of energy, and leaves the climber in the best condition for 
the actual achievement of his feat of conquest. 

The Duke's expedition offers the clearest proof that men can live 
for extended periods of time, in possession of healthy functional activity 
of all their organs, at an atmospheric pressure little more than half of 
normal. Twelve Europeans and fifteen coolies lived for about two 
months at above 17,000 feet of altitude, working regularly and not 
showing a single case of illness, even of the most fleeting character, 
attributable to mountain sickness. At the end of our campaign seven 

1 See in general the volume of E. WHYMPER, Andes of the Equator. London 1892, and The 
Highest Andes, by E. A. FITZGERALD (London 1899) ; also articles by the same author in Geog. 
Jour. 12, 1898, p. 469, and Alp. Jour. 19, 1898, p. 1. 

1 S. VINES, Aconctigua and Tupungato. Alp. Jour. 19, 1898, p. 565 



864 Chapter XIX. 

Europeans spent nine days at a height of more than 20,700 feet, during 
which time four of them camped for the night at 21,673 and 22,483 feet, 
and this without even the inconvenience of sleeplessness. They like- 
wise made two steep ascents, through deep soft snow, to 23,458 and 
24,600 feet, without exhaustion, without lowering of morale, without 
exaggerated difficulty of breathing, palpitation or irregularity of the 
pulse ; and with no symptoms of headache, nausea or the like. The 
fact of their immunity admits of but one interpretation rarefaction 
of the air, under ordinary conditions of the high mountains, to the limits 
reached by man at the present day (12 3-3 inches) does not produce mountain 
sickness. Moreover, rarefaction of the air is not incompatible with 
mountaineering work, if this is done very slowly and methodically. 
From this it follows that the phenomena which have to this day been 
considered to be the result of rarefaction are, in reality, phenomena of 
fatigue, or merely incapacity (temporary or permanent) of the system 
to sustain the exertion of climbing, manifesting itself with special 
symptoms under the presence of the particular external conditions 
which prevail in the mountains. 

None the less, the experience of the expedition was not one of 
absolute immunity. The atmosphere of those heights did work some 
evil effect, revealing itself only gradually, after several weeks of life 
above 17,000 feet, in a slow decrease of appetite and consequent lack of 
nourishment, without, however, any disturbance of the digestive func- 
tions. It was possible for the lack of appetite to increase and become 
almost absolute repugnance to food, if after its appearance one moved 
and established oneself at a greater height. Thus, at Chogolisa Camp 
the Duke and the guides had given up meat and lived on soups, coffee, 
tea, chocolate and biscuits. In the two ascents above 23,000 feet their 
only food all day was a little chocolate, although they suffered no nausea 
or other unpleasant sensations. Of course, in the long run, this insuffi- 
cient nourishment would cause a lowering of vitality, loss of flesh and 
a certain amount of anaemia. However, the process is so slow that we 
were still at the end of two months in condition to make long marches 
without experiencing excessive fatigue. 

The Eckenstein-Pfannl-Guillarmod expedition seems to have suffered 
the same decrease of appetite and strength, which Guillarmod attributes 
to the use of tinned foods. All the former experience of the Duke was 
against this explanation. On the expeditions to Alaska (Mount St. 



Supplementary Notes and Considerations. 365 

Elias) and Africa (Ruwenzori) and on the much longer polar expedition, 
there was never any repugnance to the tinned foods nor any evil trace- 
able to their use. They were chosen for the Karakoram campaign 
with the same care as on the other occasions, and came from the same 
factories. There is no reason to suppose that of themselves they would 
have any different effect. I am of opinion that the loss of appetite is 
due instead to incomplete oxidation of waste products or their slower 
elimination. In either case there would be a gradual accumulation of 
noxious products in the system, sufficient to explain the symptoms 
that showed themselves. This theory would also account for the diffi- 
culty, already mentioned, with which even a very robust system regained 
its balance after a slight disturbance, and for the distinctly bad 
effects of inactivity. Whether the conversion of products were 
incomplete or only sluggish, movement would be the best stimulant to 
proper metabolism. 

The gradual depletion of force which I have described gives a 
negative answer to the much debated question on the subject of 
acclimatization. Perfect adaptation to surroundings is not possible 
above 17,000 feet. In this view both Schlagintweit and Longstaff 
concur. The latter mentions that the highest altitudes inhabited by 
man are the goldfields of Thok Jalung, in Western Tibet, 16,500 feet 
high, and certain Llamaist monasteries of the same region, 15,000 feet 
above sea level, from which it would seem that some 17,000 feet would 
be the limit of permanent endurance. 

A curious fact showing how up to a certain point the system under- 
goes modifications adapting it to life at great heights, is that the people 
of upper Ladakh are averse to descending lower than 10,000 feet, and 
positively refuse to go below 7,000 feet for fear of illness. This is 
mentioned by Knight, and I had the opportunity of verifying the fact. 
Perhaps there exists such a thing as " mountain sickness " caused by 
abrupt change from lower to higher pressure. To it may possibly be 
attributed, at least in part, the exhaustion of the Duke and the guides 
on the way from Chogolisa Saddle to Askoley. Conway relates that he 
had more difficulty in breathing when he went down the Baltoro 
after climbing Pioneer Peak than he experienced during the whole 
ascent. 



.!i,r, Chapter iXIX. 

I give here a table showing the composition of our daily ration : 



Foodstuffs. 


Wt-lKlit in 
Knuimirs. 


All>ulnitioi>ls. 


Fills. 


Crl.- 
liydt 


Calm 


Biscuits ... 


.-,1 M 1 


BOO 


1-6 


400-0 


1,859 


Soup pa*tc 
Mciit 


100 
880 


12-0 
73-0 


0-3 

32-0 


75-0 


368 
B87 


Butter ... 


L86 


07 


104-8 


0-5 


980 


Condensed milk (with 












(Hit sui;ar) 


87 


8-9 


10-0 


2-0 


138 


( 'hut-so ... 


50 


i.v:, 


14-0 





193 


( 'hnciilatr 


41 


2-0 


5-0 


28-3 


171 


Sugar 
Pea flour... 


ISO 
43 


4-8 





106-2 

12-0 


431 
69 


PmervM 


38 








15-0 


61 






166-9 


167-6 


638-0 


4,857 



To these were added Liebig's extract, coffee, tea, onions, salt, pepper 
and mustard. We used ship's biscuits, which take the place of bread 
excellently well, even for long periods. They were made in Italy, and 
specially prepared without salt, as they keep better so. Our soup paste 
was very small, for cooking at 175 F., at which temperature water boils 
at an atmospheric pressure half of normal. Our meats were Australian, 
of two or three kinds, but always very simply prepared. In such enter- 
prises the complicated, so-called appetizing cookery employed in most 
of the tinned foods of commerce is very much better avoided. 

We took with us some whiskey to use medicinally or in occasional 
celebration of some special achievement. But alcohol was excluded 
from our habitual diet. I cannot concur in the opinion of Conway 
and Guillarmod that it is necessary to well-being and a useful stimulant. 1 

Next to the question of food, that of clothing as protection against 
the cold is of importance. A double sleeping-sack (of eiderdown and 
pelt) is a necessity. With it one is protected from cold of several degrees 
below freezing, even when the tent is set up on ice and snow. The 
usual weight of woollens used for mountaineering is sufficient, worn 
double if necessary. Special attention must be paid to the shoes. 

1 On this point I desire to mention DR. L. SCHNYDER'S Alcool et alpinisme (Geneva 1907), 
containing the results of a thorough enquiry made among mountain climbers, the large majority 
of whom gave their opinion against the use of alcohol in mountain climbing. This agrees with 
the scientific researches which have resulted in the classification of alcohol among the deprinicnts 
rather than among the stimulants. True stimulants are tea, coffee, cocoa. If one has ample 
portage facilities one may carry a small quantity of alcohol to use after the day's work is done 
but it ranks as a luxury, not as a necessity. 



Supplementary Notes and Considerations. 367 

Mountain climbing at exceptional heights is attended with a long record 
of frozen feet, the cause of which may be, as many believe, retarded 
circulation. On our expedition we all wore a special sort of boot, 
devised by the Sellas for winter climbing on the Alps. There is a piece 
of coney skin between the lining and the leather. The nails must be 
driven in at the edge of the sole, in such a way that the point comes 
outside of the upper leather, and thus cannot conduct any heat 
away from the foot. In their ascent of Kabru Rubenson and Monrad 
Aas they had to remove the nails from their boots to keep their feet 
from freezing. On exceptionally cold mornings we wrapped our feet 
and legs in pieces of woollen stuff held in place by the straps of 
the crampons. We had no cases of frost-bitten feet throughout the 
campaign. 

I have mentioned that none of us felt any ill effects from the solar 
radiation, but we all wore our solar helmets all the time. Neither did 
we suffer to any great extent from snow rashes or eritema Solaris of 
course, this varied with the individual, but all of us were able to keep 
it within bounds by using lanoline. 

I have already emphasized the experimental value possessed by 
the Duke's expedition on account of the special conditions under which 
it was made. Thus it is unnecessary for me to discuss in detail the 
opinions of various other explorers on the question of attaining high 
altitudes. They are almost all more optimistic than formerly. In 
1892 Con way still doubted that it was possible to reach 24,000 feet, 
but he has surrendered to the accomplished fact. Dr. and Mrs. 
Workman are the greatest sceptics, and their view has weight because 
both of them have ascended to over 23,000 feet in the Himalaya and 
the Karakoram. Yet an analysis of the arguments upon which they 
base their opinion shows them all to be contradicted by the experience 
of our expedition. It has disproved their assertion that it is impossible 
to sleep properly or protect oneself from cold at and over 21,000 feet ; 
or that rapid diminution of strength appears above 20,000 feet, or 
serious mental incapacity, loss of will power, etc. Dr. Workman has 
compiled a set of statistics showing that of the fifteen Europeans who 
took part in their various expeditions, twelve reached 21,000 feet, seven 
22,570 feet, six 23,000 feet, five 23,300 feet, and only three 23,480 feet. 
These figures could have value only if they had been obtained for fifteen 
persons starting at the same time in equally good condition of health 



:;i,> Chapter XIX. 

and vigour to make the same ascent. Unfortunately, parties of fifteen 
persons cannot make ascents above 23,000 feet, on account of the 
obvious impossibility of transporting the necessary equipment. 

Putting aside all these objections, the logical conclusion to be derived 
from our expedition is that, under present conditions, altitude is not 
to be considered as in itself an obstacle to an ascent. Our experience 
rather tends to prove that, if there is a physiological limit, we are still 
far from reaching it. The real difficulty to be confronted and solved 
is the one of transport. In this respect conditions in the Himalaya are 
most favourable. It has been said that the coolies form one of the 
great difficulties to be wrestled with in an expedition to the Himalaya. 
But our experience is quite the contrary namely, that without their 
excellent qualities as porters it would be impossible to organize expedi- 
tions in this region. Their uncommon strength and powers of resistance, 
their temperateness, their amenable and gentle dispositions, and their 
capacity for hard work have already been recognized by all those whom 
they have served from one end of the Himalaya to the other. A single 
dissenting voice has little weight in the verdict in their favour. 

Our expedition can heartily concur in this verdict as far as the Baltis 
are concerned. We succeeded in persuading them to camp for several 
days running above the snow line, and there is no doubt that they would 
adapt themselves to living without fire if they were supplied with alcohol 
or paraffin stoves to boil their water and tea. We also induced them 
to eat some of our food, such as biscuits and butter a fact not without 
practical bearing on the subject under discussion. The Baltis are good 
rock climbers, and quickly learn to walk on the glaciers and steep snow 
slopes. When they are properly equipped, and if one meets half way 
with a little sympathy and humanity their natural fears and timidity, 
one can do anything one likes with them. 

Major C. G. Bruce, who is probably better acquainted than any 
other European with the peoples of the western Himalaya, has recently 
written some words of wisdom, which I take pleasure in quoting here, 
for they contain excellent counsel to all future travellers to those 
regions : 

' The transport question throughout the Hindu Koosh and Hima- 
laya is undoubtedly a difficulty, but in my opinion should not be so 
great a one as many recent travellers have found it. They, however, 
are generally handicapped by being unable to communicate direct with 



Supplementary Notes and Considerations. 3G9 

the people and by not understanding their point of view. The different 
native races are much worse fed, certainly worse clothed, and probably 
more superstitious regarding the great mountains than the Swiss were 
100 years ago, and yet there was considerable difficulty at that period 
in getting even the best chamois hunters to undertake any new bit of 
exploration. What would have happened if a whole village had been 
ordered to send every available man with some unknown Englishman, 
and to stay with him for a fortnight above the snow line, is better 
imagined than described, yet this is what must necessarily occur in the 
Himalaya. It will therefore be understood that to get the best work 
out of men who cannot be expected to go, as a body, anything but most 
unwillingly, requires tact, sympathy and understanding kindness towards 
them, as well as considerable assistance in the matter of extra food and 
clothing, if they are to be employed for any length of time." 1 

It is not only the coolies who need education. Mountaineers and 
guides have to train their senses to understand and measure the new 
conditions of a world built upon proportions so incomparably larger 
than those of the familiar Alps that the judgment even of the most 
expert is found wanting. They have to learn to estimate the obstacles, 
the inclination of the slopes and ridges, the height and nature of the 
rocks, the complications of the ice and snow, all the chances and diffi- 
culties of mountain climbing, which can only be successfully met if 
they are recognized before one enters upon the conflict with them. 

The history of mountaineering in the Himalaya is only just begun. 
Perhaps a time will come when new De Saussures and new Whympers 
will appear in the field and repeat the story of the conquest of the Alps. 

1 MAJOR THE HON. C. G. BRUCE, Twenty Years in the Himalaya. London 1910. 



(9221) 



APPENDICES. 



(9221) 



2 A 2 



APPENDIX A. 



PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SURVEY 

On (he scale of 1 : 100,000 
IN THE 

KARAKORAM (WESTERN HIMALAYA), 

Comprising Part of the Upper End of the Baltoro Glacier and the 
Godwin Austen and Savoia Glaciers. 



BY 

FEDERICO NEGROTTO CAMBIASO, 
Ship's Lieutenant. 



(9221) 2 A 3 



PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SURVEY. 




f 



I. Selection of the Method followed in the Execution of the Survey. 

THE Godwin Austen glacier, the 
two branches of it which surround 
to west and east the main mass 
of K 2 , and the buttresses that 
enclose these, were surveyed by 
photogrammetry. This special 
method, invented by the geographer 
Comm. Pio Paganini, formerly an 
officer in the Eoyal Italian Navy, 
has been adopted by the Military 
Geographical Institute of Florence 
for the surveying of high mountains. 
Thanks to the painstaking studies 
of many years and to the instru- 
ments devised and perfected by 
Comm. Paganini, his method has attained the highest degree of simplicity 
and practical utility, and may with advantage replace all other topographical 
methods in difficult or inaccessible regions. It is especially adapted to steep mountains 
and large glaciers, to places beyond the frontier or such as are occupied by the 
enemy ; to unhealthy districts ; finally, to any place where long and tiresome marches 
leave little time for surveying with the plane table, tacheometer and theodolite. 

In surveying high mountainous regions with the plane table, the Military 
Geographical Institute has abandoned the use of the tape. The same may be said of 
the tacheometer, which under the circumstances serves as a theodolite. The points 
for the survey are always determined by intersection. Then all the directions at 
points useful for the survey must be observed and noted on the spot, either with the 
plane table, the tacheometer or the theodolite, and supplemented by numerous 
sketches to help later in making the map. The method of the plane table, although 
it has the advantage of enabling one to reproduce natural features on the spot, takes, 
on the other hand, more time at each station. Moreover, in case of bad weather 
it is not easy to keep the drawing from being injured in the process of execution, 
and finally the apparatus is difficult to transport in the high mountains. 

(9221) -2 A 4 



376 Appendix A 

With the photogrammetric method all the required directions to the points 
may be obtained afterwards from the photographs taken from properly chosen 
stations. The photographic apparatus is provided with special measuring devices 
to furnish the photographic perspectives with the elements needed for the survey. 
In the field the only point of similarity between this method and earlier ones is the 
determination of the stations by taking bearings to surrounding trigonometrical 
points. This determination may if necessary be made at home with the panoramic 
views, provided the points are well denned, as is the case in the high mountains, 
where they usually consist of sharp and conspicuous summits. Thus with the 
photogrammetric method all that has to be done out of doors is the adjusting of 
the instrument, the taking of the panoramic views and the noting in the field book 
the orientation and bearings to the trigonometrical points necessary to determine 
the station. Other notes may be taken : as of the directions which may help to 
determine with greater precision such distinctive points as may be useful points 
of reference for subsequent stations ; or to fix the perspective when the number 
of trigonometric points is insufficient ; or to obtain at once a trigonometrical net 
connected with one or more bases measured directly. This would be necessary 
in lands where no measurements had previously been taken. The photogrammetric 
method consists in taking in the field a series of views from different stations, and 
these pictures serve later as the basis of all those operations which under any other 
method must be performed on the spot. There is further the advantage that we 
can determine as many points as we want according to the scale adopted and the 
amount of detail we wish to give to the map. The Paganini apparatus supplies 
vertical topographical perspectives, upon which are traced two orthogonal axes. 
The intersection of these axes coincides with the principal point of the perspective, 
which by construction is also the meeting of the optical axis of the lens or of the 
camera with the plane of the image. Of the two perpendicular axes traced on the 
negative and thence transferred to the positive, one is the line of the horizontal 
plane which passes through the view-point of the perspective, and thus represents 
the horizon of the station ; the other is the line of the vertical plane which contains 
the optical axis of the camera ; hence also the view-point and the principal point 
of the perspective itself. This holds good, of course, only when the necessary 
adjustment of the apparatus is made previously. In order to use the photographic 
perspectives thus obtained for mapping the ground which they represent, it is 
necessary to know the distance of the view-point from the plane on which they 
are formed in other words, the length of the perpendicular line drawn from the 
said point to this plane. As in our case we are dealing with photographic 
perspectives in which the ground shown can be considered to be at infinity, 1 their 
point of view coincides with the second nodal point of the lens, and the principal 
focal length of the latter represents the length of the aforesaid distance. The lens 
1 Cf. PAGANINI, Fotogrammetria. Milan U. Hoepli 1901. 



Photogrammetric Survey. 377 

of the Paganini apparatus is provided with a graduated scale in millimetres and 
tenths of millimetres, in order that this length may be taken with precision. It 
is determined once for all at the beginning of work, by bringing into the focal plane 
distant points and making a series of observations in order to arrive at a mean 
value approximating the true one. With the help of the graduated scale it is easy 
to keep this value constant in all the perspectives obtained during the survey. 
Paganini calls this value the " indicated focal length," to distinguish it from the 
one determined afterwards at home for the perspectives on paper, which serve 
for the actual construction of the map. For further particulars the reader is 
referred to the hand-book mentioned above. This factor is most important because 
it establishes the relation between the dimensions of the objects and those of the 
corresponding images on the perspectives. It must be determined therefore with 
the greatest care and, when necessary, corrected by calculations before setting to 
work on the survey. 

Another element which must be established upon the spot is the orientation 
of the perspective : that is, the horizontal angle made by the optical axis of the 
camera (in other words, the perpendicular line from the view-point to the 
perspective) with the direction to a previously determined point in the field of 
operations ; or, failing this, the azimuth of the optical axis, given by a compass 
attached to the apparatus. The outdoor work, therefore, is reduced to the following 
steps : (1) The adjustment of the instrument ; (2) the rectification of the level 
or of the verticality of the axis of rotation ; (3) the execution of the panorama 
(preferably in the first perspective intersecting with the vertical wire some signal 
point or conspicuous point previously fixed, in order to orientate the panorama 
with as great precision as possible) ; and (4) the observations of zenith and azimuth 
or of the latter alone, as in the case of the apparatus used by the expedition 
of the surrounding trigonometrical points necessary to fix the position of the 
station, with the addition at most of certain conspicuous points which may later 
be of value as reference points for locating other stations in cases where geodetic 
points are unavailable. 

II. Description of the Apparatus. 

PAGANINI has invented various types of photogrammetric apparatus for the 
use of the Italian Military Geographical Institute. They are manufactured by 
the Galileo Company, of Florence. However, when the expedition wished to furnish 
itself with an instrument, this firm had only one on hand, a model of 1897, arranged 
by Comm. Paganini for surveys on the scale of 1 : 50,000 and 1 : 100,000 in 
Erithrea. This model, however, though less in weight, bulk and price, and 
possessing the greatest simplicity and ease of manipulation, is not altogether 
adapted for work in very high mountains. We had to content ourselves with it, 
none the less, as the time was too short for the construction of a new instrument. 



;,:s Appendix A. 

Paganini has recently invented a marvellously ingenious one, which unites all the 
advantages I have mentioned with that of the higher degree of precision possessed 
by the model furnished with the vertical circle, which was an earlier invention. 

The pattern of 1897 has a short focal length ( 18 centimetres) and takes plates 18 by 
24 centimetres (7 by 9 inches), with the larger side horizontal in order to take 
in the entire horizon with an equipment of six plates. It may be employed success- 
fully in Erithrea, and has given brilliant results in Russian work in Transbaikalia 
and Transcaucasia, where the district is less rough and the differences of level less 
pronounced than in the Alps and the Himalaya. But in the photogrammetric 
work executed on the Baltoro and Godwin Austen glaciers the panoramic views 
could not all include the highest peaks, as was, of course, desirable, because the 
vertical dimension of the plates was too limited to embrace the enormous difference 
of height between the stations and the surrounding summits. Moreover, the 
instrument was not furnished with the vertical circle and telescope, as in the other 
Paganini models ; thus the bearings to the most important points had to be taken 
by means of the vertical wire as seen through the ground glass ; and others, as also 
the heights of the points, had to be determined at home by the co-ordinates x and 
y of their images measured on the perspectives. These facts simplified the outdoor 
work very much, but increased the labour afterwards in obtaining the data for 
the construction of the map. Undoubtedly this apparatus enables the work to 
be done very quickly on the mountains, and reduces to a minimum the time spent 
by the operator while exposed to discomfort and bad weather. He must note the 
indispensable data. These are recorded in a field book, together with such 
subsidiary observations as sketches to facilitate the locating of the points in the 
panoramas, names, routes followed, time of exposure and other miscellaneous 
information. The apparatus has also the great advantage of maintaining unaltered 
for a long time the adjustments made before beginning work a fact which 
contributes much to the success of the observations. A brief description of the 
apparatus will make this plainer. 

It consists of a rigid camera, made of aluminium, in form a right prism, the 
base of which is an isosceles trapezium. The back of the camera, which is per- 
pendicularly placed upon the largest of the parallel sides of the trapezium, consists 
of a frame holding the ground glass or the sensitive plate. The front of the camera 
has fixed at its centre a tube, inside which runs another tube adjustable by means 
of a screw with a millimetre thread. To this the lens is fixed. A graduated scale 
in millimetres, which has as origin the focal plane that is the surface upon which 
the images are received is marked externally along the fixed tube, while to the 
movable tube carrying the lens is attached a ring with a sharp edge which comes 
into contact with the fixed tube. Thus, turning the inner tube in order to move 
the lens backward and forward causes the edge of the ring to cut the' graduated 
scale, and thus serves as fiducial line or line of collimation, indicating on the scale 



Photogrammetric Survey. 



379 



itself the distance of the lens from the focal plane. The bevelled edge of the ring 

is divided into ten equal parts in order to read upon it the divisions of the movable 

tube in other words, the tenths of the thread of the screw. This, added to the 

whole number of millimetres read on the fixed tube, gives in millimetres and tenths 

of millimetres the distance of the second nodal point of the lens from the focal 

plane. This value, the " principal indicated 

focal length," is determined at the beginning 

of the campaign, and in all subsequent 

operations care must be taken that the line of 

collimation of the tube carrying the lens is so 

adjusted as to give always the same value. This 

was carefully determined upon the apparatus 

of the expedition before leaving Srinagar, and 

gave a result of ISO'S millimetres. 

The objective is a Zeiss anastigmatic and 
belongs to a special series of wide angulars 
for photogrammetric work. With a small 
diaphragm we obtain a clear image 40 centi- 
metres in diameter ; with the f-35 diaphragm 
it produces a clear image free from distortions 
upon a plate of 20 by 26 centimetres. Thus 
the plate 18 by 24 centimetres used with this 
camera took very clear images over its entire 
surface, even when a large aperture diaphragm 
was employed ; while the luminosity is so great 
that it is better to use plates of only medium 
rapidity, or, better still, orthochromatic ones, PAGANINI PHOTOGRAMMETRIC APPARATUS, 
as we did. 1897 MODEL. 

The perspectives thus obtained have a horizontal field of 67 and a vertical one 
of 54. In this way, with six perspectives with a displacement of the optical axis 
of the camera about the vertical axis of the apparatus of 60 for each of them, a 
panorama is obtained which comprises the whole horizon, plus a narrow vertical 
band a horizontal field of 3 30' between each one and the next. This vertical 
band in excess is indispensable, to ascertain the correctness of the panorama, to 
determine the distance of the point of view from the perspectives, and to join the 
positives accurately to one another in order to form the panorama. As the vertical 
field is 54, one can measure from the perspectives and vertical angles up to 
27. Owing to the enormous differences in level with which the expedition had 
to contend, a larger vertical field would have been more advantageous. In the 
new apparatus of Comm. Paganini it is possible to adjust the camera so as to have 
the larger dimension of the plate (24 cm.) run vertically, giving angles of height or 




Appendix A. 

depression up to 33 30'. To make the entire circle of the horizon eight plates 
would be necessary, with a horizontal displacement of 45 of the optical axis, 
giving a vertical band of 4 30' between each two contiguous pictures. The 
new instrument, being capable of reduction to telescope and being furnished with 
the vertical circle, can, even without the reversible movement I have described, 
take the angle of peaks whose summits fall outside the upper margin of the plate. 
This arrangement, too, would have been very useful in the construction of the 
map. 

In all the Paganini apparatus the optic axis of the lens is fixed in a direction 
perpendicular to the plane of the image. The intersection of the above axis with 
this plane is marked photographically by the intersection at right angles of two 
very thin silver hairs stretched before the ground glass on the back of the camera 
in such a way that they can be easily withdrawn or replaced in case of breakage. 
The horizontal silver hair, once adjusted, serves, as I have said, to indicate the 
horizon line upon the photographic perspective. Below the camera are three arms 
bent at right angles, one anterior and the others posterior. Each has a hole in 
its end, through which passes an adjustable shaft fixed perpendicularly to the 
movable plate or alidad of the horizontal circle. The camera can be fixed rigidly 
at the required position upon the alidad by means of nuts and bolts screwed on 
to the shafts. This position remains, if possible, invariable throughout all the 
outdoor work. Its stability is very important, since the said position must satisfy 
the requirement that the plane containing the optic axis of the camera and the 
axis indicating the horizon of the station is exactly horizontal as soon as the 
rotation-axis of the alidad or of the instrument has been vertically disposed. Thus 
the only adjustment to be made of the instrument in the different stations is to 
correct the level placed on the alidad, at the same time arranging vertically the 
rotation-axis of the apparatus. 

The azimuthal circle of the apparatus has a diameter of 14 centimetres and its 
edge is graduated from to 360, each degree being subdivided into two equal 
parts, each of which embraces 30'. The vernier is fastened to the movable plate 
or alidad, and permits us to read the minutes and to appreciate even the 30". In 
addition to the three shafts and a level, the alidad is provided with a magnifying 
lens to use with the vernier and a regulating-screw to use for the small adjustments 
of collimation. The verticality of the rotation-axis of the instrument is attained 
by means of three levelling-screws, which pass through the top of the tripod and 
hold the horizontal circle. This is fixed upon the tripod by means of a clamping- 
screw with a spring and a handle, which, passing through the head of the tripod 
from bottom to top, is screwed into a movable support shaped like a half-sphere, 
fastened by means of a ring under the horizontal circle. 

A compass of the Dixey or the Smalcalder type is mounted upon the top of 
the camera. It can be so adjusted that the vertical visual plane of its bearings 



Photogrammetric Survey. 381 

coincides with the direction of the optic axis of the camera. Thus it becomes 
possible to use the compass to orientate the panorama when it is not possible to 
aim at trigonometric points or at any others of which the position is known. The 
tripod may be taken to pieces; each foot is in two parts 1 which can be solidly 
fastened together when the apparatus is set up. We have seen that the most 
important adjustment consists in fixing the camera upon the alidad in such a way 
that the plane containing the optical axis and the silver hair which traces the 
horizon-line upon the perspectives are perpendicular to the rotation-axis of the 
instrument ; and reciprocally, when this rotation-axis is adjusted vertically the 
plane of the optical axis will be horizontal. In the other apparatus of Paganini 
this result is attained by means of the telescope of the acclimeter, which may be 
inverted (pattern 1884), or by the same camera obscura reduced to a reversible 
telescope (pattern 1889). In the model employed by the expedition the horizontal 
adjustment is made as follows : 

The three arms of the camera are first placed at approximately the same height 
upon the movable plate by turning the lower screws with the pins belonging to 
them, having previously raised the upper ones in order to give free motion to the 
arms on their respective shafts. Then looking through the ground glass of the 
camera under the black cloth, and moving to right or left and up or down as 
necessary, by adjusting the screws, distant points are brought to coincide with the 
point of intersection of the wires, until by moving the camera in both directions 
around the rotation-axis, a point is made to run all along the horizontal thread 
from one extreme to another, without passing above or under the thread. If the 
rotation-axis is vertical, this coincidence of a point with the horizontal thread in 
its whole length can only take place when the plane of the optical axis and the wire 
which traces the horizon-line on the perspective are horizontal. If the plane is 
not horizontal, and accordingly the plane of the ground glass is not vertical, one 
observes that in moving the camera to right or left the image gradually diverges 
from the horizontal wire, describing the segment of a hyperbola either above or 
below the wire, according as the point cited is situated above or below the horizon. 

In practice the following method will secure the horizontal adjustment of the 
wire and the plane of the optical axis : 

First turn the screws which support the posterior arms of the camera, operating 
in such a way that by revolving the camera all the way through its field some 
distant point which is covered by the wire on one of its ends coincides with the 
other end of the wire. Thus the horizontality of the wire will be fixed. If this 
point is not on the horizon, it will be seen to describe a curve during the revolving 
of the camera, passing above or below the intersection of the wires according to 
the inclination of the optic axis downwards or upwards. The vertex of the hyper- 
bola will be found upon the vertical thread, and it will be easy to estimate the 
1 In the original instrument the feet are in one piece. 



382 Appendix A. 

convexity of the said curve. Then the screw controlling the anterior arm of the 
camera will be turned, and the latter raised or lowered until the image of the point 
is brought to coincide with the intersection of the wires. By making observations 
of successive points continually approaching the horizon, the right position will 
soon be arrived at, when all the screws are tightened in order rigidly to maintain it. 

III. Calculations and Construction of the Map. 

THE panoramic view obtained under the above conditions gives an image of 
all the field seen from the station. Together with other panoramic views obtained 
in like manner at suitable stations, it gives the elements necessary for the execution, 
on any scale, of the map of that tract of land which they represent. Each 
perspective of the series is considered separately in constructing the map. The 
focal distance is equal for all, and all are furnished with the horizon-line and the 
line of the vertical plane, the latter containing the visual point and the principal 
point of the perspectives. 

Paper positives are used for making the survey, it being possible to allow for 
the alteration undergone by one single quality of paper and to use a focal length 
corrected accordingly. This focal length is obtained before proceeding to the 
survey. It is independent of the " indicated focal length," and is called the " real 
focal length." All the directions to the points represented in each picture may 
be easily determined by means of the co-ordinates x and y of their images referred 
to the perpendicular axes traced on the picture itself, through the following very 
simple equations : 

JK 

tang o>'= -- (1) 

where / is the real distance of the view-point from the perspective, the orientation 
of which <a' is known, being an element obtained at the station ; and <o is the angle 
made by the horizontal direction to a point (x, y) of the perspective with the 
perpendicular to it from the view-point. 

y cos CD' 
tang a = -', , (2) 

where is the angle that the direction to the image of the point observed makes 
with its projection upon the horizon, that is to say, with the horizontal direction 
of the point itself. But also it is 

tang oc = ^, 

where L is the difference of level between the point considered and the station and 
D the horizontal distance between these points. Hence 

L = Dycos<' (3) 

J 



Photogrammetric Survey. 383 

After having obtained by formula (1) the bearings of the various points useful 
for the survey, which are visible on the panoramic views taken from two or more 
stations, the position of these may be obtained by intersection. 

By formula (2) we get their angular elevation ; then, having the distance and 
the difference of level between the points and the station, by means of tables in 
use at the Military Geographical Institute, one can finally obtain directly the 
vertical difference by means of formula (3). 

But this is a very long method, and in order to solve the equations given above 
it is necessary to have the numerical value of the co-ordinates x and y and the 
distance D. These numerical values are very useful when the survey is on a very 
large scale, as in civil or military operations ; whenever it is a question of data 
for finding points on the ground. But they are superfluous for a topographical 
map on a small scale, as in the construction of the map these values would have 
in any case to be reproduced graphically. 

IV. Simplifying the Survey by means of Special Drafting Instruments. 

BY the Paganini photogrammetric method adopted by our Military Geographical 
Institute, the position of the points and their elevation can be taken mechanically 
and rapidly by means of special drafting instruments, the construction of which 
is based upon the above formulae, and upon which the distance D and the co- 
ordinates x and y are transferred directly with the compass and upon the scale of 
the map, making it unnecessary to know the numerical value of these measurements. 

The construction proceeds in the following manner : the trigonometric points 
are fixed at the desired scale by means of their rectilinear co-ordinates. Then with 
the special instrument called by Paganini " rapportalore ad origine variabile," 
the photogrammetric stations are put in place, as well as whatever other special 
points have been selected for the purpose of adding to the points of reference in 
a number proportionate to the scale of the survey. With this instrument the 
various directions can be traced directly on the transparent paper just as they 
were read at the time of the outdoor operation on the horizontal circle of the 
photogrammetric apparatus or the theodolite. With the transparency thus made 
are placed the stations and the directions from them to the other images necessary 
to determine further points of reference in addition to the trigonometric ones. 
With this instrument it is possible to assume any one of the bearings observed as 
origin of the horizontal circuit and to proceed by degrees, by means of the alidad, 
to the other readings. In this way is obviated the necessity of all the mathematical 
calculations to reduce to zero the readings made out of doors, as is the case when 
the ordinary finders are used' a very long operation when there is a large number 
of points to be located. 

When the stations and all the points intersected by them have been put on 
paper, we proceed to the determination of the secondary points, or detail, all 



384 Appendix A. 

chosen beforehand for the purpose of the draft. After the various elements of 
the panoramic views have been corrected, a selection is made from them (taking 
them two by two, at contiguous stations) of points useful to the survey ; either 
for the purpose of tracing contours, or for determining the lie of various ridges, 
the direction of streams, the limits of glaciers, bases of rocks, &c. The operation 
is regulated for the number of points chosen according to the scale that is desired, 
the precision required, and the time at the disposition of the operator. All these 
points have been registered in the notebook, according to the station from which 
they were taken, and marked on the relative panoramic views with numbers or 
letters written in red ink. 




PAGANINI DRAFTING INSTRUMENTS USED IN CONSTRUCTING THE MAP. 

The tracing on the design of all directions to these secondary points used to 
be a very long and monotonous operation and far from accurate. The modern 
process is quick and simple, thanks to a special drafting instrument based upon the 
formula (1) quoted above, and called the " graphical sector for the directions to 
secondary points of the perspective." By its means the horizontal projection of 
each perspective is traced successively upon the design, carefully orientated, with 
its principal point at the effective distance from the station point, in such a way 
that, by transferring with the compass the abscissae of the various points taken 
on the views to a scale cut on a metal ruler, the corresponding horizontal directions 
may be easily drawn by means of a movable plate (or alidad) furnished with a metal 
ruler, moving about the station point. 

With another instrument, specially designed for drawing the elevations, based 
upon formula (2) and (3), differences of level are obtainable, and therefore also 
the elevations of the stations and of the secondary points of the perspectives. 
When the apparatus is provided with vertical circle and telescope the angular 
elevations of the trigonometrical points are read directly on the ground. In this 
case one obtains the elevation directly from reading the instrument, by means of 



Photogrammetric Survey. 385 

the distance on the design between the station point and the trigonometrical point 
of which the altitude is known and from the station point to the observed angle . 
But without the vertical circle the determination of the heights depends upon 
the value of the abscissae and the ordinates of the trigonometric points of the 
perspectives, the height of which is taken with the compass on the perspectives 
themselves, likewise their graphic distances ; so that the differences of level between 
them and the station point, and also the height of the latter, may be read directly 
upon the instrument. In the same manner, once the height of the stations is 
obtained, the difference of level is determined, and therefore the height of the 
secondary points of the perspective considered useful to complete the survey. As 
in the case of all the other methods, corrections must, of course, be made of all 
these apparent differences of level, on account of the refraction of the light and the 
roundness of the earth. Tables compiled for the purpose are used. 

V. Topographical Work of the Expedition and Construction of the Survey. 

IN a little more than a month in other words, from May 25th to July 2nd the 
expedition executed twenty-two photogrammetric stations, using 106 negatives. 
On account of the limited number of plates at our disposal, not all the panoramic 
views embraced the entire horizon. The region surveyed includes the Concordia 
amphitheatre of the Baltoro glacier, the Godwin Austen glacier up to Windy Gap 
and the Savoia glacier, which flows about the western side of K 2 . 1 It was a pity 
that lack of plates prevented our extending the survey southward, upon the arm 
of the Baltoro as far as Bride Peak, the ascent of which was one of the arms of the 
expedition. The work was supplemented, it is true, by compass and tacheometer 
and with barometrical stations ; but among the innumerable peaks of such strange 
appearance the eye becomes easily confused in passing from one station to another. 
The numerous sketches taken on the spot did not give all the information really 
desirable for map-drawing, and are certainly inadequate to give all the characteristic 
detail of this rugged, broken and largely inaccessible region. Bella's numerous 
photographs and panoramic views were, on the other hand, of great assistance 
in making the design, as some of them were taken from high and commanding 
elevations and under conditions making it possible to determine approximately the 
photogrammetric elements, so that they served, if not for measurements of altitude, 
at least for sufficiently exact azimuthal directions. With this end in view, Sella 
marked his stations by setting up cairns visible from the photogrammetric stations, 
so that they could be included in the network of stations of reference or geodetic 
points upon which the survey was based. 

It is possible that instead of glass plates we might have used films, which are 
so much more convenient because of their small bulk and weight. Comm. Paganini, 
however, does not consider their use advisable, as no good results have been 

1 See the heliotype reproduction of the photogrammetric panorama (S) given on a natural 
scale as an example of the work done. 

(9221) 2 B 



386 



Appendix A. 



obtained with them in three previous campaigns. They easily undergo changes 
in the celluloid, owing to their sensitiveness to heat, cold, moisture and the 
chemicals used in developing ; so that the image varies in a way which would not 
be noticeable in ordinary photographic work, but which is sufficient to cause errors 
in the measurements, which must be corrected to the tenth and hundredth of a 
millimetre. 

The Military Geographical Institute was authorized to execute the topographical 
representation of the region surveyed by the expedition. It confided the work 
to Cornru. Pio Paganini. The scale chosen for the map was 1 : 100,000. The work 
proved somewhat arduous, especially at the beginning, on account of the deficiency 
of well-defined geodetic points, which necessitated referring the survey to several 
conspicuous points determined by intersection in other words, concluded from 
vertices of the secondary triangulation executed for Kashmir, which is, in its turn, 
connected with the North-western Himalayan series of the primary triangulation 
of India. A double chain of triangles (quadrilateral and diagonal) of the secondary 
triangulation of Kashmir extends along the course of the Indus from south-east to 
north-west, from a point very near its sources to as far as Skardu, where it bends 
southwards in order to join up with the main system of the Indian survey. From 
the vertices of this portion of the trigonometric chain (Upper Indus triangulation) 
were intersected the highest summits of the Karakoram, including the two Masher- 
brums, Peak No. 8 or Bride Peak, Peak No. 9 or Hidden Peak, Nos. 10, 11 and 12 
of the Gasherbrum range, and lastly and highest of all Peak No. 13 or K 2 all these 
summits surrounding the tract which was to be mapped. But we must consider 
that these points were intersected at distances of 50 and 100 miles with cross- 
bearings meeting at acute angles and taken from relatively low points, while there 
were no signal stations to mark with precision the points aimed at, and thus it 
was not possible to determine their position otherwise than approximately. 
However, the following table shows the elements of the points which were used 
for the purpose in question. It was not always easy to recognize them as they 
appeared on the perspectives. They were measured also with the tacheometer 
from several stations, as is shown on the sketch of the triangulation. 













No. of the deter- 


Re" 5 












mined visuals. 





Points observed. 


Latitudes N. 


Longitudes E.G. 
(old determ.) 


Height. 


Ueight. 




lail 
















Posi- 
tion. 


Height. 


<H= I.SS 


Masherbrum East 


3538'36"-4 


76 90' 57" -9 


feet 

25,660 


metres 

7,821-3 


9 


7 


feet 

0-4 


Peak No. 8 : Bride Peak 


35 36' 44"-0 


76 36' 50"'0 


25,110 


7,653-6 


6 


4 


1-5 


Peak No. 9 : Hidden Pk. 


35 43' 30"-0 


7644'15"-0 


26,470 


8,068-5 


6 


4 


1-6 


Peak No. 10 \ Gasher- f 
Peak No. 11 J brum \ 


3545'31"-0 
35 45' 36" -0 


7641'42"-0 
7641'00"-0 


26,360 
26,090 


8,034-6 
7,952-3 


6 
6 


2 

2 


2-4 
2-0 


Peak No. 12 


35 45' 38" -0 


76 39' 29"-0 


26,000 


7,924-9 


6 


2 


0-8 


Peak No. 13 : K 


3552'55"'0 


76 33' 18"-0 


28,250 


8,610-7 


10 


9 


2-7 



Photogrammetric Survey. 



387 



We see that the figures most to be trusted are those for Masherbrum East ; 
the other Peak, or South-east, was omitted because it was invisible from the region 
surveyed, being masked by the first, which is only about 1,000 feet from it. The 
tract surveyed was comprised within a square formed by Masherbrum, Bride Peak, 
Hidden Peak and K 2 . Thus a point was chosen for the origin of the rectilinear 
co-ordinates which was the approximate centre of this square that is to say, about 
at the intersection of the meridian 76 35' E. with the parallel 35 45'. The 
graduation of the longitude in the final survey was put 2' 30" farther east, according 
to the correction made in 1877 to the longitude of Madras, upon which are based 
the longitudes of the triangulation of India. 

The most distant point, Masherbrum, is about 15 miles from the origin of the 
co-ordinates ; as the origin itself has the latitude of 35 45', nearly the same as the 
southern end of Italy, the elements for the calculation of the rectilinear co-ordinates 
are already to be found in the appropriate tables. * They result from the formula? : 

x = 7 cos L A P" 

y = // A Z" + /// (A P'J 

in which L is the latitude and P the longitude of the point ; 7 , 7/ and /// are 
constants which depend upon the origin of the co-ordinates of latitude L and 
longitude P. The value of these constants is obtained from the aforesaid tables 
and calculated with the Bessel ellipsoid elements : 

I=N sin 1" 
II = p sin 1" 

III = JY sin 2 L sin- J" 



N and p are respectively the great normal and the radius of curvature of the 
meridian ellipsis for latitude L. For the points before mentioned, with the relative 
geographical co-ordinates given by the catalogue contained in Vol. VII (Division E, 
Group I, No. 13), Triangulation of Kashmir, the following rectilinear co-ordinates 
were obtained : 

Masherbrum East ... 

Bride Peak 

Hidden Peak 

Gasherbrum I. 



HI 



K- 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 


21333-8 

2768-1 
13946-2 
10097-6 
9042-5 
6756-7 
2558-1 


(69992-8) 
( 9081-7) 
(45755-2) 
(33128-6) 
(29667-0) 
(22167-6) 
( 8392-7) 


y = - 

j 


, + 
+ 
+ 
+ 


11796-0 
15285-0 
2757-4 
949-6 
1114-0 
1173-7 
14638-7 


(38700-7) 
(50147-6) 
( 9046-6) 
( 3115-5) 
(36548-5) 
(38507-2) 
(48027-2) 



1 See latituto Geografico Militare. Istruzione per la resoluzione di alcuni problemi riguardanh 
e rdazioni di posizione fra punti dati per le low coordinate geografiche. Florence, Barbera, 1896. 
(9-2-21) 2 B 2 



Appendix A. 

Thus it was possible to fix the above points on the drawing on the scale of 
1 : 100,000, proceeding afterwards to the necessary adjusting by means of the 
sides, using the well-known formula : 

c- _ P A '-" i/' 

o = -s / // 1 , 

I -I IK <p 

where the angle <f> is given by the formula : 

.V,, cos L,, A /" 
tang t= ^ A ; , 

This formula may also be used for distances over 30 miles. S is the length or 
side unknown ; L = L m + e where L m is the mean latitude and e a little correc- 
tion omitted in case of distances under 25 miles. N and p u are the principal 
radii of the ellipsoid, in correspondence with latitude L,,. Thus were obtained 
the following distances : 

K--Masherbrum East 32424'Q metres (106377-9 feet) 

-Bride Peak 30395-0 ( 9972M ) 

-Gasberbrum I 18641'0 ., ( 61158'! ) 

-Hidden Peak 23985-0 ( 78690'9 ) 

Hidden Peak - Maaherbrum East 36418-0 ., (119481-6 ) 

- Gasherbrum III 8197'1 (26893-4 ) 

-Bride Peak 16787'0 (55075-4 ) 

., -Gasherbrum II 17559'0 ., ( 57608-3 ) 

The circuits of the horizon, executed from different stations and transferred 
to the drawing by means of the finder, serve also to fix on the design the photo- 
grammetric and tacheometric stations, and also to determine those other significant 
points which are to be used as points of reference for further stations and for the 
orientation of the perspectives. This was indispensable, for the photogrammetric 
stations scattered over the Savoia and Godwin Austen glaciers, not all of which 
could take in three points of the Indian Triangulation, could by this means be 
located with sufficient exactness on the drawing. 1 

Two positives were printed of each of the panoramic views, one for composing 
the panoramas themselves, the other to measure with the compasses the co- 
ordinates of the points useful in the survey, after having chosen and distinguished 
them on the views. The effective distance of the perspective view-point was then 
determined on the unmounted prints. All these being taken under the same 
conditions and with a constant indicated focal length, and the same quality of paper 
being used for printing, always cut the same way of the fibre, the result must be 
a constant value for the effective distance, in all the printed positives. This value 
is determined by getting the mean of various measurements made on several 

1 See the sketch of the triangulation, whereon are marked all the points which served for 
the construction of the survey. 



Photogrammetric Survey. 389 

perspectives and for different panoramas 1 . The focal length indicated by the 
lens in our case was 180 '3 millimetres, and the true focal length determined at 
Florence was 180 '6 millimetres. After having chosen and marked in red on the 
perspectives the various secondary points to be mapped, and transferred their 
abscissae upon the sector in accordance with the directions already described, and 
properly orientated on the drawing, the directions to the said points of the various 
stations are traced, and by intersection their position in the survey is obtained. 
Some 300 points were determined in this way. 

Finally, in the same way, by carrying the abscissae and ordinates upon the 
finder for altitudes the heights of the said points were determined by at least two 
derivations. With the help of all these points and the stations and references 
fixed upon the panoramas, it was possible to complete the map, inserting the 
details and forms of the region in which the panoramas were of the greatest 
assistance. 

The difficulty of the ground, the scarcity of trigonometric points, the 
impossibility owing to the enormous differences of level of accurately sighting 
trigonometric summits unprovided with signals, the short time at our disposal, 
the limited number of photographic plates, all this prevented us from gathering 
sufficient elements for a true topographical survey. However, we may feel some 
satisfaction over the result achieved under such conditions. It has at all events 
sufficient accuracy to serve as point of departure for other explorers making a 
more extended survey in the same field. 

In conclusion, I must express our gratitude to Comm. Paganini, to whose 
methods and whose instruments we are almost wholly indebted for the work 
executed on the spot, and to whose experience and assistance we owe the execution 
of the map. My zeal to make known an admirable topographical method, 
remarkable for its simplicity and its suitability for high mountain work, has led 
me to describe it in considerable detail. For, despite the fact that this method has 
been employed in Italy, with the best results, since 1876, and has been introduced 
also in certain foreign countries, the English Royal Geographical Society does not 
mention it, even in its most recent publications (Hints to Travellers, 9th ed., 1906; 
and Maps and Map Making, E. A. REEVES, 1910) ; and, in fact, considers the 
application of photography to topography to have a very limited and subordinate 
value. The June number of the Geog. Jour., 1911, has an article by A. 0. WHEELER, 
of the Topographical Office of the Canadian Government, in which full justice is 
rendered to the photogrammetric method, and which will no doubt contribute 
toward making it better known in England. 

1 For description of this determination see the monograph already cited and the Manvah 
of COMM. PAGANINI. 



(9221) -2 M 3 



APPENDIX B. 



METEOROLOGICAL DESCRIPTION 

AND 

ALTIMETRIC CALCULATIONS 

From Observations made by the Expedition of 
H.R.H. THE DUKE OF THE ABRUZZi 

IN THE 

KARAKORAM 

AND 

WESTERN HIMALAYA. 



BY 
Prof. DOMENICO OMODEI. 



(9221) ii u 4 



APPENDIX B. 




I. LIST OF INSTRUMENTS USED. 

THE expedition was equipped 
with the following instruments 
for making the more impor- 
tant meteorological observations, 
especially those used for com- 
puting heights : 
I. One mercurial Fortin baro- 
meter, No. 3314, with 
graduated scale from 240 to 
520 millimetres. 
Id. No. 3313, with graduated 
scale from 240 to 520 milli- 
metres. 

Id. No. 3312, with graduated 
scale from 210 to 490 millimetres. 

Id. No. 1, with graduated scale from 200 to 400 millimetres. 
II. Two aneroid barometers furnished with three graduated scales for altitudes 
to 29,000 feet. 

III. One hypsometer with three pairs of thermometers : 

1st from 58 to 78 in tenths. 

2nd 65 88 

3rd 72 102 in half-tenths. 

IV. Two pairs of thermometers maximum and minimum self-registering. 
V. Four mercurial thermometers. 

VI. Two standard thermometers. 

VII. Four thermometers with bulb blackened in vacuum. 

All the above instruments were verified at the National Physical Laboratory 
at Kew, with the exception of the hypsometers. Of these the pair from 72 to 
102 had already been used on the Ruwenzori expedition, and the others were 
manufactured and corrected in Geneva. 



394 



Appendix B. 



The correction of some of the mercurial Fortin barometers remained uncertain 
for lack of apparatus with which to compare them at such unusually low pressures ; 
but this was compensated for by making numerous comparisons under low pressures 
in the mountains. In this way it was possible to use all the barometers. 

These instruments, in consequence of their special construction, are very fragile, 
and unfortunately the damage is not easily discovered by external marks, so that 
the observations may be very erroneous if not taken with great caution. It is 
necessary for this reason to submit them to continual comparison in order to give 
assurance of their regular working. A great many of these comparisons were made 
both with the barometers and the hypsometers in fact every time the opportunity 
arose and always with reference to No. 3314, of which the exact correction was 
known. Especial care was taken to preserve this barometer from deterioration. 

In order to render the following table more concise, only those results are given 
which were obtained from the various series of comparisons, some of which were 
made before the highest ascents, some at the most elevated points and some during 
the descent. 



No. 


Dates of comparison. 


Number of 
iittMTvations. 


Extremes of pressure, 
mm. 


Correct inn. 
mm. 




Barometer N. 3313. 


I. 
II. 


May 13th, 20th, 26th, 27th, 29th and 
June 2nd 


8 
8 


from 414-09 to 536-13 
393-90 471-13 

Mean 


+ 1-215 
+ 1-205 


July 19th, 20th, 23rd and 28th 


+ 1-215 


I. 
II. 


Baron 
May 20th 


aeter N. 331 i 
3 
3 


!. 
from 468-99 to 469'32 
468-71 471-30 

Mean 


+ M80 
+ 1D40 


July 23rd and 28th 


+ 1-110 




Barometer N. 1. 


I. 
II. 


May 31st, June 1st, 6th, 8th and 13th 
July 8th, 9th and 10th 


9 
3 


from 399-39 to 398-60 
354-47 391-07 

Mean of means 


+ 1-150 
+ 1-220 


+ 1-810 



The table shows that despite the difficulty of transportation, the correspondence 
of the barometers was very satisfactory, so that the results obtained are quite 
reliable. It is important to note that the greatest number of observations were 
taken with barometers Nos. 3314 and 3313 (No. 3312 was used in the base camp 
at Rdokass) ; and that the observations with the hypsometer were always taken at 
the same time (with two, and sometimes with four thermometers) to avoid all chance 
of error. The readings of the thermometers (within the limits of approximation 
of the instrument) were always in accordance with those of the barometers. 

Only limited use was made of the aneroids. However, they were compared 
from time to time with the mercurial Fortin barometers in order to keep them 



Meteorological Report. 395 

ready in case of need. The experience acquired in Africa on the Ruwenzori, a& 
well as on the present expedition, has positively demonstrated that one cannot 
rely upon the indications given by the aneroid barometers, however accurate their 
construction, on account of the unavoidable shaking up they get in transportation. 
The hypsometer was carried as a substitute for the mercurial barometers in case 
of breakage, and also for those ascents on which it might not be possible to carry 
the barometers. The hypsometer certainly gives a less degree of precision than the 
mercurial barometer. The error of one-tenth of a degree (which is not unlikely 
to occur owing to the difficulties attending the observations) would cause a corre- 
sponding error in the pressure of about two millimetres, an error not possible to 
the readings of the mercurial barometer. 

To ensure the greatest possible degree of accuracy, the use of the hypsometer 
was constantly associated with that of the mercurial barometers ; because, though 
no doubt the results it gives have a smaller degree of precision, it may be useful in 
detecting the presence of any disturbing agent in the Fortin barometers the 
penetration of an air bubble, for instance, which is the commonest and the most 
to be feared. With few exceptions, use was made of the sling-thermometers for 
measuring the temperature of the air. These are certainly preferable to the stable 
ones, although long usage proved fatal to several of the instruments. They enabled 
us to obtain the measurement of the tension of vapour and of the humidity of the 
air, their bulbs being covered with a sheath of cotton soaked in water. 

In order to get an approximate idea of the intensity of the sun's heat, thermo- 
meters with the bulb blackened in vacuum were used. 

In providing the above instruments, the Duke was perfectly aware of the just 
criticism usually made by scientists upon determinations of this nature. But he 
contented himself with little, not being able to obtain the best. 1 

The carrying of a meteorological cage would have been difficult, and its. 
advantage was problematical. Therefore the following arrangement was adopted 
for the exposure and reading of the instruments. 

At Rdokass, where the period of the observations was most extended, the 
instruments were hung on a cross-piece about three feet high, held up by two stakes, 
while a waterproof cap of convenient height served to protect them from rain and 
sun at every hour of the day. For the other stations a wooden tripod was employed, 
covered with a strong canvas cap, under which the instruments were suspended in 
such a manner as to secure free circulation of air. 

The hours of observations indicated in the following tables correspond always 
to the local time at which the observations were taken in the observatories of 
India, the data of which were considered as terms of comparison. 

1 On the Ruwenzori expedition the Duke had carried among other instruments an excellent 
Angstrom attinometer, but owing to its bulk and the great difficulty of its management, which, 
required a reflecting galvanometer, he was unable to make use of it as he had hoped. 



396 Appendix B. 

The greatest accuracy was aimed at in taking the observations as far as 
the sometimes very difficult circumstances would permit. The comparison of 
barometers, which I have described above which might satisfy the requirements 
of a laboratory rather than the conditions of an arduous campaign is sufficient 
demonstration of the care and circumspection practised. In the tables that follow 
are given all the observations taken by the expedition from Gund to Tragbal, 
between April 25th and August 8th. 

The readings of the barometers have been corrected for instrumental error, 
reduced to 0, and for gravitation ; corresponding corrections for all the other 
readings being made in the same way. 

The tables showing the observations as they were entered in the note-book on 
the spot, though they refer to only a limited period of time, form a valuable and 
interesting addition to our knowledge of the climatology of these distant and still 
little known regions. 



Meteorological lieport. 



397 



II. TABLE OF RESULTS. 



A. FROM SRINAGAR TO THE BALTORO GLACIER. 



Date. 


Pressure, mm. 


Instrument used. 


j 

i 

i 
ft 


Tension of vapour, mm. 


Itelative humidity. 


Temperature. 


Weather notes. 


Month. 


Day. Hour. 


Maximum, cent. 


.umiimiin.cent. 

Imliratnl \>y the 
thermometer with 
Mac'k Imlh. cent. 


GUND (stay from 11.30 a.m. of the 25th to 


7.30 a.m. of the 26th). 


April... 


25 4 p.m. 








18-0 


6-82 


44 


20-0 6 


5 


Half overcast 
sky, cirri-strati. 


SONAMARG (from 2 p.m. of the 26th to 6.30 a.m 


of the 27th). 


April... 26 4p.m. 6'8| 6'52 


88 


- 


- 


Sky covered. 


BALTAL (from 10.30 a.m. of the 27th to 


2 p.m. of the 28th). 


April... 


27 4 p.m. 


540-35 


Hyps. 4-3 


5-52 


89 


12-0 2 





Sky covered, 
rain at intervals. 


MUTAJUN (from 3 p.m. of the 28th to 


4 a.rn. of the 29th). 


April... 28 4p.m. 516 '24 1 Fortin 9 '4 2 "67 


30 


11-0 2 


o 


Clear sky. 


DRAS (from 10 a.m. of the 29th to 7 a.m. of the 30th). 


April... 


29 4 p.m. 






11-5 


7-07 


70 






Sky covered in 
a.m., clear with 
strong west wind 
in p.m. 


April... 


KARBU (from 2 p.i 
30 4 p.m. 


11. of t 
18-0 


he 30th 
10-87 


to 7 
71 


a.m. of 


May 1st; 


. 

Partly cloudy, 
dull, wind S.W. to 
W. 3. 


KARAL (from 12 m. of the 1st 


to 7 


a.m. of the 2nd). 


May ... 


1 4 p.m. 






11-0 


6-21 


63 






Clear and calm 
in a.m., dull, 
strong S.W. wind 
in p.m. 


OLTHINGTHANG (from 12 m. of the 2nd 


to 6.30 


a.m. of the 3rd). 


May .. 


2 4 p.m. 


544-45 


Hyps. 


114-8 


8-0 


64 


18-0 ! 


>-o 


Clear in a.m., 
overcast in p.m., 
gusts of wind 
from W. 



398 



Appendix B. 



A. FROM SKINAGAR TO THE BALTORO GLACIER. 



(CMA) 



Date. 








= 




Temperature. 






d 


1 


1 





' 
















| 


3 


* 


3 


2 


j 


. 


-- 















| 


S 





^ 


5+2 *" 
* ? 










f 







1 


















3 





"5 




A 





* 


j^'J- ^ 


Weather notes. 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


1 


S 
>- 


1 


"3 


> 


a 

1 


s 

3 


r 9 













I 




I 


1 


s 


J 


1|| 
















1 





l 


s 


i|i 




TARKUTTA (from 10 a.m. of the 3rd to 


6.30 a.m. of the 4th). 


May ... 


3 


4 p.m. 


561 ' 15 


Hyps. 


16'8 


0-96 


7 


26-0 


7-0 





Clear, gusts from 










S.W. in p.m. 


KHAEMANG (from 12 m. of the 4th to 6.30 a.m. of the 5th). 


May ... 


4 


4 p.m. 


565-35 


Hyps. 


18-9 


0-78 


5 











Clear, gusts in 
























p.m. from W. to 
















S.W. 


TOLTI (from 10.45 a.m. of the 5th to 6.30 a.m. of the 6th). 


May ... 


5 


4 p.m. 


569-55 


Hyps. 


15-8 


o-o o 


. 








Clear, gusts from 










W. in p.m. 


PARKUTTA (from 12.30 p.m. of the 6th to 


6.15 a.m. of the 7th). 


May ... 


6 


4 p.m. 


19-5 


0-76 


4 


23-0 


5-5 


Clear and calm 






















early, then half 
























overcast, wind 
























from W. 2, cirri- 












strati. 


GOL (from 10.30 a.m. of the 7th to 3.30 


a.m. of the 8th). 


May ... 


7 4 p.m. 








17-0 3-17 22 


19-7 7'5 Overcast in a.m., 












cum.-strati, wind 












from W. 4, p.m. 












clear, wind from 






W. 2. 


SKARDU (from 12 m. of the 8th to 7 


a.m. of the 9th). 


May ... 8 4p.m. ] 19'0; 2'54j 16 ] 


Clear and calm. 


SHIGAR (from 11 a.m. of the 9th to 6.30 a.m. of the 10th). 


May ...; 9 4p.m. 577'40 Hyps. ;22'9 1-19! 5 


28 5 j 5 8 54-2 Clear and calm. 


KUSH1MUL (from 12 m. of the 10th to 6.15 a.m. of the llth). 


May ... 10 





578-63 


Hyps. 


23-4 


0-89 


13 


30-0 


4-0 


57-0 


Cirri-strati, wind 




















from S.W. 2. 


DUSSO (from 12 m. of the llth to 6.30 a.rn. of the 12th). 


May ... 


11 


4 p.m. 


570-03 


Hyps. 


20-9 


2-46 


13 


23-018-0 


57-0 


Clear, calm, cirri- 
























strati, wind from 
























W. 3. 



Meteorological Report. 



399 



A. FROM SRINAGAR TO THE BALTORO GLACIER. <>.> 



Date. 




"C 


j 


B 


,. 


Temperature. 










= 


I 


o 


u' 


.t; 






a,J3 . 










S 


B 


ol 


!_ 


I 


| 


~ 


l|| 













i 


1 


g 


S 


* 






Weather notes. 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


3 


a 
1 






| 


B 


i 




| 

\ 


w 














& 


1 





I 


S 


m 




GOMBORO (from 12 m. of the 12th to 6.15 a.m. of 


the 13th). 


May... 12 4p.m. 560-05 Hyps. 18'4 1'65 


10 22-0 - 


41-2 Clear, calm, in 






















p.m., f covered, 
















strat.-cum., wind 








from S.W. 3. 


CHONGO (from 11 a.m. of the 13th to 6.30 a.m. of the 14th). 


May ... 


13 4 p.m. 


532-50 Fortin 


12-4 


3-06 


28 


18-5 


4-0 


42-5 


| covered, cirri. - 






















cum., wind bet. 


















S. and S.W. 2. 


ASKOLEY (from 10 a.m. of the 14th to 6 a.m. of the 16th). 


May ... 


14 


10 
4 p.m. 


527-64 
526-45 


Fortin 


12-9 
9-9 


2-76 
6-76 


24 

74 


17-0 


2-0 


41-0 


a.m. covered, 
cir. - strat. p.m. 




15 


8 


528-43 




8-9 


1-19 


14 








strat. - cum. 






10 


528-21 




12-9 


0-68 


6 


19-5 


3-0 


50-0 


a.m. covered, 






4 p.m. 


528-24 





10-9 


2-38 


24 








cirri.p.m.f, gloomy, 






















gusts from W. 


PUNMAH (from 11.30 a.m. of the 16th to 6 a.m. of 


the 17th). 


May... 16 4p.m. 522'54 Fortin 13'4 3'54 31 19'0 7'0 


1 


PAIJCJ (from 12 m. of the 17th to 6 a.m. of the 


18th). 


May ... 


17 


4 p.m. 


508-83 


Fort in 


12-7 


1-81 


16 


20-5 5-0 


59-0 


a.m. gloomy, f 
























covered, cir.-cum. 






















Light S W. wind. 


Between LILIGO and RHOBUTSE (from 11.30 a.m. of the 18th 


to 6 a.m. of the 19th). 


May ... 18 


4 p.m. 486-87 


Fortin 


9-9 


1-08 12 


17-0 0-0 


54'0 ^ covered, strati, 




















wind from W. 2. 



400 



Appendix B. 



{ 



Q 
3 <D Of 

.2 



5s 



i. >> 

2 3 



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5 S S 





^PP-H a 


g 2e sooe S o^ 


gjo^waojojug^oooo 




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it 1 X O O O O X O C i~ 


:'-;c3SS^8c5i88888 




jo tioisiwj, o i- 


(?1 "1* CC O O O O O O O 


(NO^OM-0<N<MOOOOO 


d 


x eo oo 


GO 30 OC I"'* i~~i W t"~ OC CO CC 


noaowt.waoi-cowr.t-t.i-t. 




'ajnjRiaduidi S5 O r-* 


CC ^P &1 r^ C5 O f^ O &! O5 t" 


CSOOtMO'(NXr-(MrNM'*'* 





















mm i~ i-" 


MCcSoacSx^Sl-- 


iwS8SSSow88rt8S 


8 

3 


v> in*s.u ( [ O ^ O 
?? 5< 5 


00 O2 O i I t-- C5 00 sD t- 
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1 


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r-t -* CD i i 


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1 


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mm 'jnodB \ -i 00 


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a 


JO UOJSIW1 r-l <M 'M 


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G-li IC^f-fOrHi-Hi-HOirMO i 1 O 





?uao X X 


^XCOQOCOXXCCCCCO 


rocoxcocccor-Hxcccow coco 




'aanjBjaduwj, XXX 


i-HiCOXt~*l^I~*-XC5X 

1 1 


t* CS * <XOiXC5O51>XO XO 

^H ^H 1 




O5 CO -* 
CO ^ f~l 


ox-*>-HOia}CDOT-t. 

OCrHXX^CNX^O^ 


D ^- 'Ot-'-'ai'-'XOQX O 
Xi-fC^O^^-^Xi-iOO ^35 




'ajnss^jj 
** * -r 


OiJiC5OC5XO5C5OQO 
CDCDCDt^-CDCC'tC'CCiI^-CO 


C:Q^I . OOiX^>CDXX O (M 
^l-t-t-c-O^CDCD^OCO t-t- 

-^^TpTji-^-^^Tj'Tr^J'TP ^Tf 




A-jipimnn =g 1 g 


K-(M>Ct^ftC3O5eOXCO 
CNCO^'tWCC' (NI-HCN 


I^CiQOt COar-XC5O-^OCDI> 
^^CCOCOCCCO COC(NOCOCN 


B 


So 
A i 


i i^XCCfNOOCOI>-O5 
CiO^fN- COCO 1 ^**' *CO 


fNt--CDXtM'*OCDt^-t COCDOO 
OSi "OSCOCO-^iOCDi <Ot iOOX 




00 


JO UOISUSJ,' (jq 1 ^- 


r-ITj*r-l(N'^O^H^"-' 


G^T^CNCNCq(MOO-*CCr-<WG^^-l 


1 

g 


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w 


'^jnjBjadmai o ' in 


^>TP<MCDCCOiC^-*-^* 


TfCOr-CDCD'^ ( COl'-CO^CDCOOO 




* i 
aim M i 


CC(MC5iCr-*XO5' *CDr- 
t-C^3iOr- tr- (OiCOOt* 


C5CDCCOCOCD-^^55CDCO<r'(MCO 
OXC0OOXi-<r-iC^OCOTt<NaO 




.IIII-i-M.1,1 J-t 1 

r- t~ 

Tt Tt 


CiOiX' lOXOiOSOX 
m&Stc^DQ58l-<o 

^tTP^^Tf-***^^^ 


00 ti iOO5Xi-CDXXXO(N 

cot r-r-r-CDCDCD<c>CDco;ct r* 

^^<Tf'<t'q'^TjTj<T^^-^-^(Tjl'^ 




ss^; 


rH(MCC^iOCDt-OOCSOf 


HtNCO^OCDt-XOSOi-tO^COTfO 




* 1 


i 
>> 





Meteorological Report. 



401 







Weather Notes. 


I 

i i 

c . "** 

C C 4) T ^ j^ 

ii y ^ ii- 

5^ 'F-^JS-S -*3^3^ 

W _ r sc 43^3j 

.s a -| a %* .%>.&. 

St. d +i a 'm'n' 
f. M C8 * . (S 

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4 

9 

1 

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1 

% 








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3 

2 






M. 


oo g2 oooo. KBiaoosBj.- 


' N S 

S o s 






uiui 'jnodu v 


SSocMo 8888S -Sco88Si8c 


1 o Tjt 

00 CO i I 






jo uojsuax 


OOMrHt OOOOCM OCN-tfi iOOCMOCO* 


3 <x> *i 




A 


luao 


fNt-WXX CMI-t~CM XMOMI-t-CNCOXr 


: : : 






'.l.in (IM.'illIM [. 


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q 


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taMNj 


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CO ^O CO CO CO CO CC CO CO CO CO ^ CO CO CO CO CO CO C 


| 










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= = 

(D ?*" 
E 






uiui 'jnodBA 


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i 


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I'-COCOCDCO COCOCOCO co^CDCOt^COCOCOCO 


P 








^1-^TfTf -t^-^^ ^^^'^^rrTj<TtTt< 


> 






" 


gg^ g325 Sg^SSS^g^F 


^ 




2 


uiui 'jnodB^Y 


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4 

5 




00 


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1 




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9 




g 




aJ n, W adu. S i, 


t-t-OTt. COt-CDXO tCOCM^CDCOt~X t 








uiui 


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i 
f 






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i i co co ?o XCOOCC5O5 cot-coosoasxxoici 

I^-COCOCD COCOCOCOCD COCOCOCDI'-COCDCOCOCi 


I 








cor-xoo r-ww-^io wt-oooso-'MK-i'.; 


I 






1 


1 I 





(9221) 



2 c 



402 



Appendix B. 



C. GODWIN AUSTEN, SAVOIA AND UPPER BALTORO GLACIERS. 



Dt. 






E 




Temperature. 






^ 


* 


c 


tj 








i I 




c 









m 








= = 





a 


I 


= 


4J 

? 


\^- = 













i 


3 





; >.t. s 


Weather notes. 


Month. 


'* Himr. 


i 1 


1 


= 
1 


y 

1 



= 


| 


f I! 






c 





1 


-*/ 

K 


s 


i 


- ;5 

III 




CAMP II. 


May 


24 4 p.m. 


434-04 Fortin 


3-0 


1-34 


24 


12-0 


9-5 




Light breeze 
from N. 


CAMP III. 


May 25 10 416 -85 Fortin 1 '0 


2-39 48 | 9-0 -lO'O 49 '0 Clear, N. wind. 




4 p.m. 41(5-72 


3-13 100 









26 4 p.m. 417-08 


1-0 


n-77 


16 


16-0 - 9-0 


42-5 


Clear, light wind 
from N.E. 




27 10 


2-0 


2-69 


51 


15-2 - 4-0 


44-5 


Clear in a.m., 


" 


4 p.m. 417-60 


6-0 


o-oo o 






partly cloudy in 
















p.m., light wind 
















from S.\V. 




28 8 416-88 - 3'0 


o-oo o 


15-0 - 9-5 


37-0 


Sleet. Dull. 




10 417-08 0-5 


2-65 56 












4 p.m. 417-28 - 2'0 


3-64 74 












29 8 417-60 - 1-5 


2-08 :.l 


12-0 


- 6-0 


44-0 


Wind from S.W. 


10 


417-05 5-4 


1-39 21 






Sleet and hail in 




4 p.m. 417-55 , 3'0 


2-17 38 






p.m. 




30 8 418-45 , 0-0 


3-96 100 13-5 - 9-5 


51-0 


Half overcast, 


" 


10 418-41 , 7-1 


4-24 56 








wind from S.W., 




4 p.m. 418-48 , 3 '0 


1-34 


24 








sleet in p.m. 




31 8 417-50 , 












Clear, very light 




10 417-58 , 3-0 


1-34 


24 


13-0 




44-0 


wind from S.W., 




4 p.m. 


437-43 , 3-0 


2-17 


38 








partly cloudy in 


















evening. 


June 


1 8 


416-36 












Partly cloudy, 




10 


415-88 3-5 


1-08 


19 


17-0 


- 4-0 


48-0 


S.W. wind, sleet 




4 p.m. 


416-02 3-5 


1-91 


32 








at intervals. 




2 8 


415-56 - 1-7 


2-32 


70 


8-0 


- 3-0 


35-0 Same. 




10 


415 -33 , 


2-5 


2-43 


44 








4 p.m. 


414-83 , 3-5 


1 -91 


32 








3 8 


414-80 , 0-0 3-74 


85 13-0 


- 5-5 


51'0 2-3 in. snow, 




10 


415-25 , 


1-0 3-22 


65 




soon melted. Dull 




4 p.m. 


415-76 , 


0-0 3-74 


81 






weather and light 


















wind from N.E. in 


















evening. Clear 




















night, with brisk 




















wind in gusts from 




















S.W. 


n 


4 8 


416-10 


0-0 4-16 


91 


12-0 


- 9-5 


42-5 


Fair, calm upper 




10 


416-32 


3-0 2-17 


38 








air, S.W. 3. 




4 p.m. 


416-50 


3-0 0-93 


17 












5 8 


414-96 


2-0 1-04 


20 


12-0 


- 9-0 


49-0 


Wind S.S.W. 




10 


415-62 


5-1 1-07 


17 








Sky half overcast, 




4 p.m. 


415-13 


2-0 1-04 


20 






] leaks clear. 




9 8 


416-40 








11-0 


- 8-3 


38-0 


Fair, light S.W. 




10 


416-50 


3-i 












wind. 




4 p.m. 


416-36 




0-29 


05 












10 8 


414-81 


0-0 2-09 




10-5 


- 4-0 


44-8 


Fair in a.m., then 




10 


414-77 


6-1 1-44 


20 








sky covered, S.W. 




4 p.m. 


414-19 


4-0 1 -64 


27 








wind. 



Meteorological Report. 



403 



C. GODWIN AUSTEN, SAVOIA AND UPPER BALTOBO GLACIERS, (c*td.) 



Date. 






J 


a 


^ 


Temperature. 






e 


1 


8 
f 


C 

1 


-c 

a 


g 


1 


|| 






oJ 


1 


3 


9 


a 


i 


8 


*^.'- r ~ 


Weather notes. 


Month. 


Q 


Hour. 


I 


I 


i 


*3 
1 


9 


s 
\ 


q" 

5 


sli 

||~ 














B 


1 





'* 


M 






June 


11 


8 


413-90 


Fortin 


- 2-0 


2-39 


59 


10-0 


- 7-0 


43-0 








10 


413-72 


n 


4-0 


1-04 


27 














4 p.m. 


414-17 





1-0 


1-17 


23 













24 


4 p.m. 


417-05 





7-0 








12-0 


- 6-5 


39-8 


Light wind from 
























S.W., peaks un- 
























covered. 





25 


8 


419-46 





6-0 








10-0 


- 6-0 


42-0 


Fair, calm, very 






10 


419-56 





7-0 














clear atmosphere. 






4 p.m. 


419-85 





6-0 
















,, 


26 


8 


418-69 





8-0 








17-2 


- 4-5 


49-0 


Same. 






10 


418-35 





11-0 




















4 p.m. 


418-60 





11-0 



















27 


12 


415-16 





12-0 








15-0 


- 8-0 


44-0 


Fair, calm ; in 






4 p.m. 


414-40 





11-0 














p.m. wind from 
























S.W., fresh high 
























up, peaks un- 
























covered. 





28 


8 


413-13 





- 4-0 








5-0 


- 3-5 


29-0 


Sleet, thick fog 






10 


413-10 





i-o 














in valley, peaks 






4 p.m. 


412-88 





4-0 














covered; light 
























wind from S.W. 





29 


8 


413-00 





o-o 








9-0 





46-0 


Snow early in 






10 


413-18 


,, 


3-0 














a.m., half-covered 






4 p.m. 


413-40 





5-0 














sky. 


CAMP IV. 


May 


31 


8 


391 16 


Fortin 1 - 2-0 1-18 


30 











10 


390-85 


2-0 1-04 


20 











4 p.m. 


390-55 


- i-o 


1-04 


24 










June 


1 


8 


389-07 




- i-o 


1-82 


43 


i 











10 


389-78 


JT 


1-0 


1-18 


23 

















4 p.m. 


388-85 





- i-o 


1-04 24 













CAMP V. 


June 


5 


4 


394-05 


Fortin 


-3-0 


2-86 


78 


8-0 





51-0 


Sleet ; strong 
























tourmente from 





6 


8 
10 
4 


393-36 
393-42 
393-82 





-8-0 
-2-0 
-2-5 


1-39 
3-96 
2'21 


56 

100 
58 


9-0 


-15-0 


61-0 


N. during night. 
Sky partly 
cloudy, light N. 
wind. 


' 


7 


4 393-17 








12-0 


-13-5 


52-0 


Light wind from 

N.N.W. 


" 


8 


8 395-34 
10 j395-42 


-5-0 1-27 
-3-0 2-09 


40 
57 


9-0 


-15-0 


51-0 


Clear, light S.W. 
wind. 


SAVOIA PASS (W. gl'cr., W. col.). 


June 7 5.15 ; 349 70 1 Fortin -9'0 











(9221) 2 c 2 



404 



Appendix B. 



C. GODWIN AUSTEN, SAVOIA AND UPPER BALTORO GLACIERS. 



Dmte. 








a 




Temperature. 






E 


I 


g 

U 


e 
i 


3 
















-.=. 
















\ 


B 


1 





~ '> = 










g 


1 


3 


s 


s 




E 


** \ 


Weather notes. 


Month. 


i 


Hour. 




s 




s 


1 


S 


i 


ill 






H 







| 




i 


s 





s 


5 















Jj 


? 




1 


i 


!" 
















* 




s 


S 


-I 2 






CAMP VI. 


June 12 


10 395-71 Fortin 


-2-0 2-34 59 4-0 - 6'0 


38-0 Sleet ; dull 






4 


396-04 


-3-0 











weather, S.W. 




















wind. 




13 


8 


397-37 


-1-0 


3-43 


80 8-0 


- 4-5 


50-2 


Peaks covered ; 






10 


397-65 


3-0 


2-17 


38 






S.W. wind ; in 






4 


397-94 


o-o 


3-74 


81 








p.m. wind from 
N.W. and S.W. 




14 


8 


397-64 


2-0 








8-0 


- 4-0 





Calm in valley ; 






10 


397-88 


3-0 














S.W. wind on the 






4 


397-90 ., 


o-o 














heights. 




15 


4 


397-53 


1-0 





8-0 


- 7-0 









16 


8 


397-13 


-6-0 





3-0 


-10-0 





Fair and calm ; 






10 


396-52 


8-0 











peaks uncovered. 






4 


396 -38 


3-5 















17 


8 


395-41 


-4-0 





13-0 


- 8-0 


51-0 


Sky covered ; 






4 


395-54 


3-0 












light wind from 
























S.W. 




18 


8 


396-27 


-4-0 





12-0 


- 7-5 


52'0 Fair in a.m. ; 






10 

4 


395-48 
395-09 


-2-0 
4-0 











light wind from 
E.N.E. ; in p.m. 
























sky overcast, light 
























S.W. 




19 


10 


394-16 


1-5 








8-5 


- 7-5 


52-0 


Wind N.E. and 






4 


393-71 


4-5 














S.W. ; sleet, sky 
























overcast, peaks 
























covered. 




20 


8 


393-21 


-1-0 





8-5 


-10-0 


55-0 


Heavy weather ; 






10 


393-56 




0-5 











calm upper air, 






4 


393-41 




o-o 














light S.W. wind 
























in valley. 




21 


8 


394-23 




-6-0 2-89 


100 


8-0 


- 9-0 


50-0 


Light W.N.W. 






10 


394-50 




-1-0 1-82 


43 








in ii.m., peaks un- 






4 


394-15 




6-0 0-59 


8 








covered ; p.m. 






















half overcast,light 






















S.W. 




22 


8 


395-42 




-3-0 1-33 


36 


9-0 


- 7-5 


46-0 


Fair, wind from 






10 


395-25 




1-5 2-12 


41 








S. W., colder 






4 


395-76 




0-5 1-04 


22 






above. 




23 


8 


394-75 




-4-0 1-85 


55 


9-0 


- 8-0 


51-0 


Sleet ; strong 






10 


395-25 




5-0 


. . 








wind, gusts S.W.- 






4 


395-44 




o-o 











S.S.W. ; peaks 






















covered. 




SELLA PASS. 


June 15 ' 11.15 1 353 '85 Fortin 


_3-0 -- ; 




CAMP VII. 


June 


14 


4 


373-51 


Fortin 


-6-5 


2-04 


74 


_ 


_ 


28-0 


Tourmente, 
























strong S.W. ; sky 
























overcast. 



Meteorological Report. 



405 



C. GODWIN AUSTEN, SAVOIA AND UPPER BALTORO GLACIERS. <c<mw.) 



Date. 








a 




Temperature. 








j 


4 


g 















i 


1 


s 


|' 


B 


J 




S- 










. 


41 


e 


8. 


8 


i 


1 


= *s 




Month. 


1 


Hour. 






Z 

to 

C 


I 


siou of va 


elative hi 




\ 




1 


y 
iff 


Weather notes. 















I 


H 





.s 








( 








H 




a 


a 


-i 3 




June 15 8 373-40 Fortin 


-7-0 


1-22 


46 





60-0 


Strong S.W., 


4 373-28 


-4-5 


1-37 


42 











peaks covered. 


16 10 372-71 


-3-0 


2-09 


57 











Fair early, then 
















overcast. 


17 4 370-08 


,, 


-5-0 








9-0 


-10-0 







8 


,, 


-9-0 


. 
















18 10 372-18 


n 


-7-0 


2-67 


100 













4 370-85 


,, 


-4-0 


2-61 


77 





. 







19 4 369-43 


,, 


-6-0 


2-89 


100 











Wind W.S.W. 


20 8 369-04 


-9-0 


2-26 100 










CAMP VIII. 


June 24 4 360-78 Fortin -6'0 1'77 61 | - 


STAIRCASE. 


June 25| 1 p.m. |348-30 Fortin 6-0(") 


CAMP IX. 


June 


29 


4 


430-96 


Fortin 


7-0 


1 


15-0 


- 2-0 


44-0 


Wind S.W., half 
























overcast. 


" 


30 


8 
10 


432-34 
431-81 


" 


3-0 
2-0 


i 





12-0 


- 5-0 


46-0 


Sky overcast, 
wind S.W., snow 






4 


431-91 


H 


8-0 












at intervals. 


July 


1 


10 


431-33 





11-0 


5-04 


52 


16-0 - 3-0 


47-0 


Very fine and 






4 


431-33 


,, 


12-0 


3-36 


32 








calm. 





2 


8 


431-23 


4-0 


3-54 


60 


17-0 


- 4-0 


46-0 


Fair in a.m., then 






4 


431-33 


15-0 


4-85 


38 








cloudy,cirri-strati, 
























peaks free, W. 
























wind in upper air. 


V 


3 


8 


432-69 


4-0 


3-16 


52 


16-0 


- 2-0 


43-0 


Fair and calm ; 






10 


432-65 





11-0 


2-83 


29 








light S.W. above, 






4 


432-56 





14-5 


2-87 


23 








freshening in p.m. 
























and veering 
























W.N.W. 





4 


8 


433-55 





7-0 


3-30 


44 


17-5 


- 1-5 


45-4 


Half overcast 






10 


434-49 





9-0 


3-11 


36 








and cirri-strati in 






4 


434-35 





11-5 


3-06 


30 








a.m. ; strong S.W. 
























above ; high peaks 
























covered ; overcast 
























in p.m. ; gusts 
























from S.W. 





5 


8 


433-01 





2-0 


3-41 


64 


11 -0 


- 2-0 


42-5 


Sleet, peaks 






10 


433-27 





4-0 


5-09 


83 








covered, S.W. 






4 


432-95 


> 


10-5 


6-40 


67 








above. 


CAMP X. 


July |1 428-30 Hyps. 5'0 : 


(') Uncertain. 


(9221) 2 c 3 



40G 



Appendix B. 



C. GODWIN AUSTEN, SAVOIA AND UPPER BALTORO GLACIERS. 



Dili,-. 









Temperature. 






j 


M 


S 


fr 












E 

i 


1 


I 


1 


humidl 


^ 


1 

o 


j 

sfl 
s! 


Wcatlirr notes. 


Month. 


1 


Hour. 


I 




S 


3 


5 
| 



1 


\ 
j 




a 


*- 

ii = 
si- 








* H 


1 


3 


1 


| 


11 

"~ 




CAMP XI. 


July 


7 


418-34 Fortin 


4-0 


i 





Snow at in- 






















tervals, peaks 






















covered, light 




















S.W. 


n 


8 


_ 




















Snow at in- 




















tervals, peaks 






















covered, calm 






















below. Heavy 


















snowfall in even- 


















ing. 





9 

















i 


Sky covered, 


















some peaks free. 


> 


10 























Very fine, even- 




















ing light S.\V., 












f 








peaks uncovered. 





11 




















Very fine, S.W. 


















above. 


n 


12 





_ 














a.m. sky half 


















overcast, p.m. 


















overcast. Sleet, 


















wind from S.W. 





13 

















Snow during 
















night, snow and 


















sleet day, sky 
















covered, calm. 





14 

















. 


Calm low down, 






















sky covered, dull 






















weather, sleet, 




















half clear at sun- 




















set. 





15 





-- 


' 








Calm low down, 
















sky and peaks 
















covered. Sleet. 





16 














Calm low down ; 


















half covered. 




















Cirri-strati. High 




















]>r;iks covered. 





17 

















Calm below, 




















mostly fair, peaks 




















partly free. In 






















p.m. clouded over, 


















rain. 





18 























Calm ; sky and 


















peaks covered ; 


















rain. N.N.K. 


















above. 


i 


19 

















Calm, sky and 




















peaks covered. 






















p.m. half clearing. 
























Fine sunset. 



Meteorological Report. 



407 



C. GODWIN AUSTEN, SAVOIA AND UPPER BALTORO GLACIERS. <a, 



Date. 








i 




Tempi-rut tin-. 






| 


1 


1 

O 


3 


2 
















ai r - 








s 


! 


t 


a 


S 


3 


3 


9^8 











3 


3 


t 


s 
a 


* 


3 


>.-~ 


Weather imt. 


Month. 


i 


Hour. 




s 

~M 

a 


a 

D 
H 


I 


Kelative 


1 

1 


| 
I 


jj{ 














H 




S a 


aja 




July 


20 


9.40 


417-46 


Fortin 


7-0 


_ _ , 





Snowfall during 






10 


417-23 





8-0 







night and a.m. ; 






12 


417-31 





6-0 







low mist, calm. 


CAMP XII. 


July 


3 


4 


393-87 Fortin 


8-0 4-12 51 19-0 - 6-0 


57 







4 


4 


395-37 


Hyps. 


2-0 4-82 


91 


22-0 - 1-0 


22 


Snow all day, W. 
























wind high up ; 
























peaks covered ; 






















clear below. 




5 


4 


393-65 


Fortin 7'0 3 '20 43 


25-0 


- 6-0 


51 


Snow and sun- 


















shine at intervals. 





G 


8 





3-0 





22-0 


- 6-0 


51 








10 


392-98 


12-0 2-23 


21 














4 


392-38 


7-5 2-90 


37 











7 


8 





7-5 - 





17-0 - 5-0 


49 


Intervals of 






10 


392-53 


11-0 2-83 


29 








snow and sun- 






4 





8-0 4-22 


53 








shine, clearing at 




















sunset. 





8 


10 


391-09 


-2-0 


. 


- 12-0 - 9-0 


Snow ; calm. 






4 


390-30 +2-0 














CAMP XIII. 


July 9 5 


377-71 Fortin | 8'0 0'31 16'0 -17'0|51 


CA.MP XIV. 


JulyjlO 1.30 354-00 Fortin! I'O -- | 4'0 -16'0 46 


Fair and calm. 






4 


354-40 


H 


3-0 


0-52 9 









14 


10 


354-10 


3-0 


2-17 


38 


4-0 


-10-0 60 


Wind from 






4 


354-35 


1-0 


4-01 81 








S.W. ; snow at in- 




















tervals ; sun. 





1.-, 


8 





2-0 





3-0 - 8-0 57 


Snow ; light 






10 


354-40 


1-5 






S.W. ; intervals 






4 





-1-0 









of sun. 


16 


8 








o-o 


6-0 - 7-0 58 


Light S.W. ; 






10 


353-93 





5-0 








peaks covered, 






4 





,, 


12-0 








clear below ; in- 




















tervals of sun. 


CAMP XV (i). 


July 11 


4 342-12 Fortin O'O -- 30 ;-13'0!51-0| Fair, light S.W. 


CAMP XV (n). 


July 17 4 335-74 Fortin 5'0 - 67'0 Cloudy. 


NEAREST BRIDE PEAK. 


July 18 2.30 


312-33 


Fortin 


6-0 


4-18 


57 








(9221) 



2 c 4 



408 Appendix B. 

D. OBSERVATIONS MADE ON THE RETURN JOURNEY. 



Dat. 








s 




Temperature during 
the 24 hours. 








e 


I 


a 


t 












| 


3 


E 


j 


S 


. 




5*: 










E 


.j 





s 





I 


c 


i*8 




Month. 


i 


Hour. 





1 


emperatu 


ion of va; 


I 


g 

a 

1 


i 


icated liy 

MlOlllt'trr 

k Mill), c 


Weather notes. 










fl 


E-i 




K 







""* fe * 
















EH 




^ 


8 








CAMP ON N. SIDE OF SKORO-LA. 
July...; 28] 4 |470'34| Fortin ; 15 -8 ; 1 '43 | 11 | | - | Fair, light S.W. 

SKORO-LA. 

July... ,29; 11 413-27 Fortin 6'4| - | Partly fair. 

CAMP BETWEEN BURGI-LA AND SKARDU. 



August 



1 



504-63 Fortin 19'4 5'84 



:?:> -9-Q: Storm from 
S.W. in p.m. 



BURGI-LA. 

Augusti 2; 9.50 ; 427 -65; Fortin] 9'4I | '. ] | -- | 
II. CAMP ON THE DEO3AI TABLE-LAND. 



August 3 4 



469-81 Fortin 



15-3 4-66 



36 



o-o 



Three - quarters 
covered, strong 
S.W. 



SARS1NGAR. 
August, 4; 9.50 j 455- 81 [ Fortin 11 '91 | - Fair and calm. 

STAKPI-LA. 

August: 4; 12. 50 j 470-61 Fortin J18-9] | - 

BURZIL. 

August 4 1 4 |505-22; Fortin, 19-9 6'77;39'0 lO'O ; - Fresh S.S.W. 

PASHWARI. 



August 5 4 570-07 Hyps. 19'9 



I 



Rain in p.m. 
Wind S.W. 



August 6 4 591-28! Hyps. 



GURAIS. 
15-8 11-93 



89 | - 13 '0 i Showers from 

I S.W., fresh wind. 



GORE. 



August 



August 



8 



e 



546-42 



497-59 



Hyps. 15-8 10-54 79 - I Cloudy weather, 

calm. 



RAJDIANGAN PASS. 



Fortin 12'8 5'02 45 



Fair above, mists 
below. 



TRAGBAL. 
August 8 4 540-38 Hyps. 20 '9 Fair and calm. 



Altimetric Calculations. 409 



III. ALTIMETRIC CALCULATIONS. 

BESIDK the results obtained by his own observations, which are given in the 
preceding pages, the Duke gathered a very large harvest of data from the meteoro- 
logical observatories of India, in order to get the terms of reference required for 
the calculation of the altitudes. As results from the above data, a first base station 
was fixed at Rdokass, at an altitude of about 13,000 feet, well up on the Baltoro 
glacier, on which were taken observations of pressure, temperature and humidity 
for a period lasting from May 29th to July 15th. 

Afterwards a second base was fixed at an altitude of about 16,000 feet (Camp 
III) at the very foot of K 3 , beside other secondary ones, in order to secure nearer 
points of reference for the calculation of the height of the points reached in the 
various ascents. These calculations were made on the following basis : 

For all the stations before Rdokass and for those from Bride Peak onward 
the calculation of the various heights was made by comparing them with the 
simultaneous readings taken at the stations of Leh, Skardu, Gilgit, and in some 
cases with those taken at Srinagar as well. All observations taken at stations 
higher than Rdokass (from May 29th to July 15th), which formed the principal 
objects of the expedition, were compared with those taken simultaneously at 
Rdokass, except for the two last, after July 15th, when owing to a misunderstanding 
the observations at Rdokass were discontinued. 

For the station near Bride Peak, which was the highest point reached, com- 
parison was made with the readings taken at the four stations of Leh, Srinagar, 
Skardu and Gilgit. 

Of the results given in the foregoing pages, those were especially taken into 
consideration for which the simultaneous data of reference were secured, these 
being complete (that is to say, not only the pressure but also the temperature of 
the air and the tension of vapour were known). In some isolated cases the hour 
of observation was not the same as that of the reference station ; in this case the 
readings were compared with those taken at the nearest hour, without attempting 
to obtain values by interpolation, which would necessarily have been unreliable. 1 

1 The observations at the most elevated point, near the top of Bride Peak, were taken at 
half -past two p.m. on July 18th, and for the calculations the comparisons were made with obser- 
vations taken at 4 p.m. in Leh, Srinagar, Skardu and Gilgit. From the data given by these 
observatories it follows that on July 18th the pressure for Leh, Srinagar, Skardu and Gilgit 
respectively was at 10 a.m. 497-15, 623 -94, 575-15 and 631 -66 millimetres, and at 4 p.m. 493 -96, 
619-90, 572-20 and 627-78 millimetres. Thus the pressure at 2 p.m. was presumably much 
higher than at 4 p.m. assumed for the calculations, and hence the altitude of the highest point 
reached is probably some 66 feet higher than the figure obtained. But this supplementary 
computation was not made, because it was a question of an isolated observation, and also 
because little was known of the daily variation of the pressure in those regions. 



no Appendix B. 

When all the necessary data were known for the two stations of reference in other 
words, the pressure, the temperature and the vapour tension the well-known 
formula of Riihlmann was employed to calculate the differences of level : 

1 

Z = 18400 (1-00157 + 0-00367 6) ( t _ . 3 >- 8 $ 

7 
x (1 + 0-00259 cos 2X) 1 + (^flOi l //"' 



in which 

Z = the difference of level between the two stations ; 
H a = the corrected pressure at the lower station ; 
H = upper station ; 

6 = 9 -- the mean between the temperature of the air at the lower station and 



at the upper station ; 
the mean between th 
obtained at the upper station ; 



</> = .. the meau between the vapour tension at the lower station and that 



'Y ~~ 



\ = the latitude ; 

z = the height of the lower station above sea level. 


The calculations were made by means of the Tables meteor ologiques inter- 

nationales, Paris, 1890. 

In those cases where only the pressure and the temperature of the air were known, 
the tension of vapour not being determined, the formula used was that given 
in the Annuaire pour Van 1909 public par le Bureau des Longitudes, in which are 
also included some tables that facilitated the calculations. The formula is as 
follows : 

Z = (A* - A) (l + *!+-' + r32 cos 2X ) 

\ 1000 

in which 



A = 18382 % 76 + JL _ /18382 lo,, 76 Y 
H (j:;00000\ J H ), 

the symbols having the same meaning as before. 

In this approximate formula no account is taken of the humidity of the air, 
but to make up for this we have assumed 0'004 as the coefficient of expansion of 
the air instead of '00367. 



Altimetric Calculations. 



411 



Wlien it is only a question of isolated observations, we consider this formula 
more than sufficient in consequence of the uncertainty of the law of decrease of 
temperature with increase of altitude. 

For further proof, and to show more clearly the value that we can attribute 
to the individual observations in the pages that follow, we give in addition to the 
observations taken by the Duke those obtained simultaneously at the reference 
stations, drawn as far as Leh and Srinagar are concerned from the data obtained 
from the central observatory at Simla, and for those of Skardu and Gilgit from the 
observatory of Srinagar. 

It is not necessary to enter here into the value of the barometric method in 
calculating altitudes. If this method is not on the whole to be compared with the 
geodetic in precision, still, used with care, it may lead to very satisfactory results. 

We give in the following table the measurements obtained by the Duke in 1906 
in the Ruwenzori group by means of barometric measurements and those taken two 
years later with the geodetic method by Major R. G. T. Bright, 1 during the labours of 
the Boundary Commission for the delimitation of the boundaries of the Congo Free 
State : 



Mountain. 


Boundary commission. 


H.B.B. 


Differ 

Feet. 

c-a 


;nces. 

Metres. 
*-/ 


Feet. 
a. 


Metres. 
/ 


Feet. 
c 


Metres. 
d 


Margherita 


16794 


5119 


16815 


5125 


+ 21 


+ 6 


Alessandra 


16726 


5098 


16749 


5105 


+ 23 


+ 7 


Elena 


16345 


4982 


16388 


4995 


+ 43 


+ 13 


Savoia 


16421 


5005 


16339 


4980 


- 82 


-25 


Umberto 


15754 


4802 


15988 


4873 +234 


+ 71 


Krepelin 


15724 


4793 


15752 


4801 


+ 28 


+ 8 


Weissmann 


15163 


4622 


15299 


4663 


+ 136 


+ 41 



Practically identical results were also attained in the determination of the 
altitude of Mount St. Elias : 

Altitude determined by the Duke with barometric method, 18,090 feet. 
Id. by Russel (by triangulation), 18,100 feet. 

Id. by I. K. MacGrath, U.S. Coast Survey (by triangulation), 18,024 feet. 
But there is no doubt that the best results are those obtained from a long series 
of observations, and that greater uncertainty remains in the case of those based on 
isolated observations, especially when the tension of vapour has not been determined. 
The last table contains a summary of all the altimetric data. 

1 Survey and Exploration in the Ruwenzori and Lake Region, Central Africa. By MAJOR 
R. G. T. BRIGHT, C.M.G., Geog. Jour. Aug. 1909, XXXIV, p. 128. 



412 



Appendix B. 



DATA OF OBSERVATION AND COMPARISON. 



A. FROM KASHMIR TO THE BALTORO GLACIER. 



No. 


Date. 


Station of observation. 


Simultaneous data of comparison 


Month 
and 
day. 


I 


Place. 


Pressure, mm. 


Temperature, cent. 


Tension of vapour, 
mm. 


Instrument used 
for measurement 
of pressure. 


Of the 
stations 
of 


Pressure, mm. 


Temperature, cent. 


1? 

3 

I 

i 1 

M 
f 


1 


27 April 


16 


Baltal 


540-35 


4-3 


5-52 


Hyps. 


Srinagar 
Leh ... 


627-88 
495-52 


20-4 
11-3 


13-26 
1-94 


















Skardu 


574-85 


18-6 


0-96 


















Gilgit ... 


633-18 


23-3 


10-12 


2 


28 


16 


Mutajun 


516-24 


9-4 


2-67 


Fortin 


Srinagar 
Leh ... 


628-39 
497-50 


21-7 
13-2 


13-57 
1-00 


















Skardu 


576-63 19-3 


o-oo 


















Gilgit ... 


633-33 27-3 


3-68 


3 


2 May 


16 


Olthingthang 


544-45 


14-8 


8-00 


Hyps. 


Leh ... 
Skardu 


496-10 15-2 
576-43 19-1 


o-oo 
o-oo 


















Gilgit ... 


632-72 


23-1 


1-49 


4 


3 


16 


Tarkutta 


561-15 


16-8 


0-96 


Hyps. 


Leh ... 
Skardu 


495-17 
576-12 


15-7 
18-1 


o-oo 
o-oo 


















Gilgit ... 


632-72 


23-1 1-49 


5 


4 


16 


Kharmang ... 


565-35 


18-9 


0-78 


Hyps. 


Leh ... 
Skardu 


496-34 
577-26 


15-7 0-00 
18-1 0-00 


















Gilgit ... 


633-92 


20-7 270 


6 


5 


16 


Tolti 


569-65 


15-8 


o-oo 


Hyps. 


Leh ... 
Skardu 


496-64 
577-21 


15-7 0-00 
18-1 0-00 


















Gilgit ... 


636-64 


19-8 2-30 


7 


9 


16 


Shigar 


577-40 


22-9 


1-19 


Hyps. 


Leh ... 

Skardu 


498-64 
578-51 


15-1 0-00 
23-1 0-00 


















Gilgit ... 


634-53 29-8 3'27 


8 


** 


16 


Dusso 


570-03 


20-9 


2-46 


Hyps. 


Leh ... 

Skardu 


498-47 17-9 0'83 
577-19 23-3 0'05 


















Gilgit ... 


635-97 31-3 3'05 


9 


12 


16 


Gomboro 


560-05 


18-4 


1-65 


Hyps. 


Leh ... 

Skardu 


497-78 16-7 O'OO 
576-89 22-5 O'OO 


















Gilgit ... 


634-86 25-8 


6-12 


10 


13 


16 


Chongo 


532-50 


12-4 3-06 


Fortin 


Leh ... 

Skardu 


496-76 17-4 
577-04 20-5 


o-oo 
o-oo 


















Gilgit .., 


636-41 22-3 


7-42 



Altimetric Calculations. 



413 



- 
O 

o 

1 

^ 

ffl 

Ed 



O 
H 



i 
<1 

M 







uiai 

jIlOdHA JO liiilsil.i.l. 


^* "'i* O5 t* 

ro Oi <N * <o 

^H ^H ^* CO ^^ 


6 

0-1 








m * co a * 







K 


}O30 '.Mil IVll.nllll.l [, 


pH t^ "^ Oi OS 


CO 




S 




T-4 




s 




1 


t*~ CO 00 O *O 

t- O O ^ 


g 


i 




IE 


00 t^- O5 O5 t>- 

32933 


s 


s 










A 




*OII 


^ CO O t* CD 
t^> 00 i i (N (N 


i 


s 




'jnodBA jo iiiusii.>,| ; 


CO CD t'- CO CO 


CO 


s 










1 


1 


,o ^nn-dI 


t* 99 A P^ M 

-t (M ^-i <N <N 




s 
s 




(d 


O> GO CN CO 
ift i"^ Oi CO 


CO 


3 




is 




n 


i 




fi 




S 


multan 




uiai 
*anodA jo uoisuaj; 


i 1 O r 1 f-- ( ( 
t CO t CO f < 


00 


VI 












t= 




(N CO O i-H >O 


05 




O 


"juao 'ajn^Baadoiax 


CO O> O^ CO O 


CO 

1-H 




M 


3 _ 


O CO iO O O4 
Tt< ^ O 00 OJ 


8 






I s 


f: S S E^ S 


iO 






'.unss.ud 


a 








JO m.nn.uii^!.nii 


t ^ S 








ao, ^uau-na^! 


^ 




I 


(' 


'U1UI 

'jnod^A jo uoisuax 


CO CD O5 CO 00 
t^ 1^ I-H CO W 

(N CO i-H O <N 



t~ 





M 




C5 C5 O5 C75 O> 


l-H 


a 


"^ 


^nao ajn^uiaduiax 


(N OS 00 (M O 


rH 


i 
















3 .: 


g jj jj 



















la 


t- CO CO 00 00 
91 O9 M 04 of 


(M 






_ 


O iO iC iO O 


O 






s 
o 










s 















CS 






ti 


; ; 














a 







^ 








a 


M = 








1 


^* iO 








g 










O 


i ( 








A 


I-H 





ii i Appendix B. 

A. FROM KASHMIR TO THE BALTORO GLACIER, 





n.'. 




Simultaneous data of comparison 










g 


t 





J-s 




| 


t 


j 


No. 










s 


o| 


c i s 




E 


| 


* i 




Month anil 
ilny. 


1 


Place. 


\ 


I! 


"3 - 

8. 


III 


Of the 
stations of 


1 


El 

DP g 


I 

r 










i 


1 




IS* 






* 


H- 


12 


16 May 


4 


Punniah 


522-54 


13-4 


3-54 


Fortin 


Leli 


497-02 


12-5 


4-90 


















Skardu 


575-06 


!!*! 1-54 


















Qilgit 


632-32 


25-6 


5-83 


13 


17 


4 


Paiju 


508-83 


12-7 


1-81 


Fortin 


Leh 


497-71 


10-6 


1-09 


















Skardu 


576-48 


19-8 1-71 


















Gilgit 


634-53 


22-9 


8-03 


14 


18 


4 


Between Liligo 


486-87 


9-9 


1-08 


Fortin 


Leh 


498-74 


12-1 


3-03 








and Rhobutse 










Skardu 


57643 


2-2-H 0-00 


















Gilgit 


632-90 


29'9 


4-63 



The four tables which follow give the data from observations made Alay 29th 
to July 15th at the stations of Srinagar, Leh, Skardu and Gilgit, which served as 
reference to the observations carried on during the same period at Rdokass 
(see pages 400-401). 



Altinu'tric Calculations. 



413 



li. SRINAGAI:, 



Hum- "!' II|J-,IT\ at ions 


8a.m. 






in ii.i 

l< If 

- BJ 


Tension 
of vapour, 
mm. 




4 p.m. 


Date. 


Pressure, 
mm. 


Tempera- 
ture, cent. 


Teosioll 
of vapour, 
mm. 


Relative 
humidity. 


j 

5s 

* J 


I' 


M iL 

5, SJ - 3. Z 

= t t5 

el ** 


Relative 

humidity. 


29 May 


680-80 


17-4 


11-81 


80 


629-45 


21-3 


1 1 ' C, 


77 


627-21 


29-2 


88-88 


71 


ao 














629-83 


24-2 


16-88 


75 


627-62 


27-8 


20-43 


73 


31 


888-64 


18-8 


12-57 


78 


628-64 


23-0 


16-72 


83 


025-99 26-8 


19-31 


74 


1 June 


627-22 


19-7 


L8'69 


80 


627-60 


21-9 


I5-H5 


77 


020-12 -23-4 


16-88 


76 


2 


629-12 


16-6 


11-87 


84 


628-58 


19-7 


12-92 


76 


02-s- 13 17-9 11-91 


78 


8 


689*60 


10-3 


12-05 


87 


689-80 


18-8 


13-02 


84 


020-81 2-1-1 17-29 


78 


4 


628-01 


17-7 


12-06 


80 


628-23 


21-3 14-29 


76 


624-8.-) 27-2 20-02 


75 


6 


625- 90 


19-4 


13-10 


78 


025-01 23-0 15-72 


75 


624-47 24-8 


18-11 


78 


e 


020- \-i 


17-4 


11-81 


80 


626-01 21-0 


15-23 


79 


622-71 2(i-! 


19-03 


75 


7 


624-75 


18-6 


12-70 


80 


624-83 23-0 10-72 


77 


621-95 29-8 22'42 


72 


8 


626-10 


19-7 


13-22 


77 


625-79 2-1-3 10-82 


74 


623-56 30-1 


21 -01 


OS 


9 


G25-79 


20-2 


13-85 


79 


02.-) -84 21-6 10-99 74 


023-12 30-0 


22-93 


73 


10 


684-91 


21-3 


14-93 


7!) 


625-06 25-6 17'62 


73 


623-79 27-5 


21-20 


78 


11 





. . 










I 





025-23 22-6 


16-97 


78 


12 


027-52 


18-0 


12-17 


79 


627-60 


22-1 14-92 


74 


626 -Of! 28 -5 


21-59 


75 


13 


029 -83 


19-7 


13-22 


77 


629-91 


21-1 17-29 


76 


627-77 27-7 


20-29 


73 


14 


030-95 


20-5 


14-14 


79 


031 -is M-4 17-29 


76 


627-67 28-9 


20-93 


71 


15 


628-74 


20-2 


13-38 


76 


02-7(i 24-7 


17-63 


70 


686-86 


30-6 


28-76 


70 


16 


027- 21 


20-5 


13-67 


78 


020 '83 21-9 14-57 75 


027-23 


21-1 


13-93 


75 


17 


027-88 


16-6 


11-45 


81 


627-00 19-8 13-48 78 


624-93 


25-7 


19-03 


78 


18 


686-90 


18-0 


12-17 


79 


625-1)0 


22-2 ' 13-42 


07 


023-32 28-r, L'p'.m 


70 


19 


684-07 


19-7 


13-22 


77 


624-22 


22-3 15-51 


77 


624-62 22-7 16-73 


77 


20 


__ 


17-4 


12-24 


83 


626-15 


21-0 15-11 80 


624-03 26-7 17'67 


68 


21 


626-07 


19-7 


13-09 


80 


626-12 


24-4 10-70 74 


623-47 28-8 20'60 


70 


22 


626-12 


20-5 


14-14 


79 


626-25 


24-8 


17-75 


76 


624-29 28-1 20-83 


74 


23 


627 -12 


17-2 


11-50 


79 














624-95 28-7 21-87 


75 


24 


627-14 


20-2 


13-85 


79 


627-19 


24-2 17-94 


80 


625-44 31-1 24-39 


73 


25 


628-16 


19-7 


12-92 


76 


027-9:', 


25-3 17-81 74 


624-74 32-4 ! 26-04 


72 


26 


626-51 


21-3 


14-93 


79 


020 ' 1 2 


26-1 


17-50 09 


022 -95 33-1 20-53 


7ii 


27 


624-19 


22-7 


15-90 


78 


023 -90 


27-5 19-45 71 


620-57 


33-7 25-69 


66 


28 


025 I 8 


18-8 


13-47 


88 


686-71 


20-0 14-45 83 


623-40 


24-0 16-63 


72 


29 


624-37 


19-7 


13-22 


77 


624-14 


23-0 10-55 76 622-23 


20-9 19-24 


73 


30 














624-64 


25-3 17-81 74 


621-73 


30-3 


24-02 


7.-. 


























\ July 


623-73 


22-4 


15-58 


77 


623-40 


26-4 


18-79 73 


620-20 


81-9 


25-22 


72 


2 


622-03 


22-7 


15-40 


75 


622-08 27-5 


19-83 | 73 619-85 


32-3 25-42 


71 


3 


623-81 


24-1 


16-94 


76 


021-27 27-7 22-90 83 622'05 


31 -0 21-97 72 


4 


686 -91 


23-3 


16-91 


80 


626-17 


28-2 


21-17 


74 


686-08 


30-3 22-71 71 


5 


626-4:2 


22-4 


16-60 


82 














624-68 


28-!> 21-91 


74 


6 


626-91 


19-1 


13-59 


83 


687-06 21-4 


15-36 


81 


624-44 


25-0 


17-09 


73 


7 


626-01 


18-0 


12-17 


79 


020-2(1 20-9 


13-42 


7:: 


023-30 


28-3 


19-92 


7d 


8 


624-44 


17-4 


11-81 


80 


626-91 15-8 


11-23 


84 


627-08 


1 .V 7 


10-73 


81 


9 


628-84 


16-3 


11-34 


82 


028-90 18-6 


12-70 


80 


626-99 


25-0 18-17 


77 


10 


627-72 


19-4 


13-41 


80 


027-88 22-2 


16-04 


81 021-09 


28-1 


21-04 


74 


11 


625-49 


21-3 


14-93 


79 


025-52 24-2 


16-71 


71 


623-00 


29-8 


22-68 


74 


12 


624-49 


21-9 


13-60 


70 


624-59 25-7 


18-47 


75 


622-82 


26-4 


19- IT 


75 


13 


624-62 


21-1 


14-58 


79 


625-00 26-5 


Lfl-80 


75 


(22-90 


29-7 


21-86 


71 


14 


025-15 


22-4 


L6-68 


77 


025 ' 25 


27-2 


20-21 


75 


023 -50 


86-7 


19-78 


76 


ir> 


624-80 


si-a 


1 1-93 


79 











622-18 


28-:', 


21 10 


74 












I 

' I'irssiire 625-72 mm. 


Calculated mean of 


< Temperature . . . 23-5 c. 












Tension of vapour IG'90 mm. 



416 



Appendix B. 



LEH. 



Hour of observations 8 a.m. 


10 a.m. 


4 p.m. 


Date. 


!' 


Tempera- 
ture, cent . 


Tension 
of vapour, 
mm. 


Relative 

liuniidity. 


Pressure, 
mm. 


Tempera- 
ture, cent 


Tension 
of vapour, 
mm. 


Relative 
humidity. 




Ja 


!! 


Tension 
of vapour, 
mm. 


Relative 
humidity. 


29 May 
30 


501-66 


12-7 


1-92 


17 


501-51 
601-79 


16-7 
17-3 


1-44 
1-86 


10 

12 


498-54 
499-08 


21-0 
20-5 


o-oo 

1-64 



9 


31 


501-13 


12-9 


2-44 


22 


500-98 


17-7 


1-84 


12 


497-81 


21-3 


2-70 


14 


1 June 


499-25 


13-2 


2-26 


20 


498-90 


17-4 


2-47 


16 


496-05 


22-4 0-00 





2 


498-98 


14-1 


3-11 


26 


498-44 17-3 


3-69 


25 


494-91 


23-5 3-12 


14 


3 


497-95 


13-5 


4-15 


36 


497-93 


14-6 


3-25 


26 


496-61 


17-9 3-68 


24 


4 


499-41 


11-3 


3-40 


34 


499-20 


15-7 


2-82 


21 


499-55 


19-1 2-02 


12 


5 


498-03 


12-9 


3-84 


35 


497-63 17-8 


2-46 


16 


495-27 


21-6 0-00 





6 

7 


496-73 11-8 
498-10 14-1 


2-78 
2-57 


27 
21 


496-66 
497-98 


17-8 
17-4 


1-56 
1-46 


10 
10 


494-40 
494-43 


20-9 1-28 
22-3 0-00 


7 



8 


498-10 14-6 


1-63 


13 


498-03 


18-9 


o-oo 





495-75 


22-8 0-00 





9 


498-39 


14-6 


1-42 


11 


498-13 


19-1 


1-91 


11 


495-27 


24-1 1-37 


6 


10 


497-34 


14-3 


2-99 


24 


496-94 


18-8 


1-98 


11 


494-10 


22-7 1-74 


8 


11 























494-71 


20-7 1-76 


10 


12 


497-49 


13-8 


3-08 


26 


497-68 19-1 


2-84 


17 


495-87 


22-4 0-00 





13 


500-93 


13-5 


2-94 


25 


500-93 17-9 


1-84 


12 


498-31 


22-9 1-61 


8 


14 


500-77 


16-3 


3-36 


24 


500-64 19-5 


2-47 


13 


497-70 


23-4 2-79 


13 


15 


500-37 14-3 


3-67 


30 


500-29 18-9 


2-85 


17 


497-25 


23-8 0-00 





16 


499-30 13-8 


3-63 


31 


498-95 17-9 


2-29 


15 


496-10 


23-5 0-00 


(I 


17 


497-39 146 


3-14 


25 


494-50 18-2 


2-57 


16 


495-47 


19-3 0-65 


3 


18 


497-91 


12-7 


3-96 


36 


500-03 


17-4 


2-70 


18 


494-98 


20-8 2-29 


12 


19 


496-25 


12-9 


4-51 


40 


495-51 


17-5 


5-00 


33 


494-53 


16-4 


4-94 


35 


20 





9-3 


6-00 


69 


496-43 


13-8 


5-80 


49 


494-15 


17-9 


3-57 


23 


21 


497-73 


12-1 


4-10 


39 


497-47 


16-0 


3-54 


26 


494-96 


22-4 


o-oo 





22 


498-08 


14-6 


3-14 


25 


497-75 


18-4 


3-38 


21 


494-76 


24-1 


2-00 


9 


23 


498-21 


13-8 


3-97 


33 














495-17 


23-5 


3-37 


16 


24 


499-76 


12-4 


2-95 


27 


499-78 


17-3 


2-08 


14 


497-55 


23-9 


1-13 


5 


25 


501-44 


14-1 


3-79 


31 


501-39 


19-6 


2-06 


12 


497-81 


25-5 


2-16 


9 


26 


500-17 


14-6 


4-16 


34 


499-66 


20-7 


2-35 


13 


496-25 


26-7 


2-59 


10 


27 


497-17 


15-7 


4-07 


31 


496-58 


21-0 


2-76 


15 


492-80 


25-9 


3-07 


12 


28 


495-22 


14-6 


4-74 


38 


494-53 


20-4 


4-24 


23 


492-29 


23-4 


4-07 


19 


29 


496-39 


13-2 


3-99 


35 


496-35 


16-2 


3-65 


26 


493-90 


18-7 


4-27 


S8 


30 














496-48 


21-2 


3-38 


18 


493-01 


23-1 


3-61 


17 


Uuly 
2 


496-27 
495-47 


15-7 
15-2 


4-42 
5-08 


33 
39 


496-27 
495-39 


20-1 
20-4 


3-43 

3-00 


19 

17 


492-77 
492-34 


24-3 

24-8 


5-11 
4-13 


23 
18 


3 


496-76 15-7 4'42 


33 


496-94 


19-7 


5-92 35 


494-38 


25-2 


5-93 


25 


4 


498-34 17-4 


5-43 


36 


498-00 


21-2 


5-53 


29 


495-55 


23-5 


5-86 


27 


5 
6 


498-20 16-8 
497-44 15-7 


5-79 
6-70 


41 
50 


497-17 


19-5 


7-09 


42 


496-61 
493-82 


22-1 
25-1 


6-44 
5-44 


33 

23 


7 


497-09 14-1 


5-04 


42 


496-66 


18-9 


5-14 


31 


493-61 


22-7 


5-14 


25 


8 


496-22 14-1 


5-04 


42 


495-60 


18-5 


5-00 


32 


493-59 


19-0 


5-96 


96 


9 


498-90 


12-4 


4-14 


38 


498-64 


16-6 


4-82 


34 


495-44 


22-3 


4-86 


24 


10 


498-90 


12-9 


4-51 


40 


498-59 


17-9 


4-15 


28 


495-27 


24-0 


6-24 


> 


11 


498-13 


14-1 


4-47 


37 


497-93 


19-9 


3-67 


21 


494-68 


23-9 


5-62 


26 


12 


497-05 


16-3 


7-09 


51 


497-00 


18-8 


8-45 


52 


494-20 


24-1 


6-73 


30 


13 


496-92 


15-4 


7-63 


59 


497-19 


19-5 


8-02 


48 


496-66 


20-6 


8-87 


49 


14 


497-98 


15-4 


2-05 


69 


498-08 


18-8 


7-90 


49 


495-14 


23-3 


9-68 


46 


15 


497-63 


15-2 


8-39 


65 














493-87 


L'3'4 8-44 


39 


f Pressure... 


i 
497-12 mm. 


Calculated mean of < Temperature ... 18'3 c. 
[_ Tension of vapour 3 '5 9 mm. 



Altimetric Calculations. 



417 



SKARDU. 



Hour of olfflfrvatioiis 8a.m. 


10 a.m. 


4 p.m. 


Date. 


Pressure 
mm. 


Tempera- 
ture cent. 


Tension 
of vapour 
mm. 


Relative 

liuinitlity. 


Pressure 
mm. 


Tempera- 
ture cent. 


H*3 -H ^ 


Pressure 
mm. 


J~'l \t\ -si 
3 H = K l 


29 May 


580-21 


19-6 


6-56 


39 


579-70 


22 -3 


4-99 25 577-23 


27-5 


1-46 


5 


30 








. 





580-61 


22-2 


5-18 


26 577-45 


25-3 


1-52 


6 


31 


579-58 


18-7 


6-53 


40 


579-19 


22-3 


4-86 


24 


575-75 


27-0 


1-25 


5 


1 June 


576-63 


18-6 


5-19 


33 


576-84 


20-8 


4-11 


22 


575-13 


24-9 


3-41 


15 


2 


576-84 


18-3 


6-91 


43 


576-75 


19-5 5-65 


34 


574-30 


24-3 5-50 


24 


3 


577-97 


16-3 


8-77 


64 


577-67 


20-4 8-16 


46 575-28 


23-8 3-44 


16 


4 


577-78 


19-4 


7-28 


43 


577-32 


23-1 5-03 


24 573-97 


27-7 3-05 


12 


5 


578-07 


20-3 


5-17 


29 


575-13 


^{8 2-30 


10 572-61 


26-5 1-17 


4 


6 


574-60 


20-1 


5-04 


29 


574-04 


23-6 2-04 9 572-09 


27-6 3-11 


11 


7 


576-23 


19-2 


3-26 


19 


575-72 


22-9 2-35 11 572-04 


29-7 1-43 


4 


8 


576-23 


20-0 


3-37 


1!) 


575-97 


23-7 3-50 16 573-66 


29-2 1-46 


4 


9 


576-48 


19-9 


4-91 


28 


576-23 


23-7 2-49 11 573-31 


29-1 , 2-59 


8 


10 


574-81 


19-9 


3-43 


20 


574-46 


24-3 3-53 16 571 '89 


27-9 2-40 


8 


11 





. 

















573-80 23-7 


4-21 


18 


12 


576-23 


18-8 


6-21 


38 


576-07 


23-7 


4-14 


19 574-53 26-6 


1-74 


7 


13 


579-12 20-4 


6-28 


35 


578-81 


23-3 


4-91 


23 576-15 , 28-7 


1-91 


6 


14 


578-67 


23-7 


4-02 


18 


578-49 


25-2 


3-75 


16 575-95 


27-4 


2-56 


9 


15 


578-21 


20-4 


5-50 


31 


577-80 


24-2 5-03 22 575 "69 


27-7 


3-31 


12 


16 


576-23 


20-2 


5-36 


30 


576-28 


24-9 4-21 18 574-78 26'3 2'57 


10 


17 


575-46 19-2 


5-96 


36 


575-11 


22-6 4-81 23 572'70 27'0 2-94 


11 


18 


574-70 


20-8 


6-17 


34 


574-35 


24-3 3-78 17 571 "32 30'0 


3-29 


10 


19 


575-11 


21-1 


6-78 


31 


572-16 


24-9 4-60 19 570-36 


25-5 


3-84 


16 


20 





21-4 


4-00 


21 


575-36 


23-7 5-80 


27 573-13 


22-6 


3-53 


17 


21 


575-72 


18-2 


7-35 


47 


575-21 


21-9 


5-11 


26 572-04 


28-6 


2-63 


8 


22 


575-08 


20-4 


4-86 


27 


574-65 


24-2 


3-20 


14 


572-85 28-9 


1-65 


5 


23 


576-11 


22-6 


4-42 


22 





i 





573-31 


28-2 


o-oo 





24 


576-88 


20-5 


3-91 


22 


576 -94 


24-7 


3-40 15 574-37 


30-6 


1-42 


4 


25 


579-32 


22-2 


2-53 


13 


578-89 


25-8 


2-61 11 576-15 33-2 


o-oo 





26 


577-60 23-1 


4-25 


20 


577-11 


25-8 


1-97 8 573-20 


32-2 


1-12 


3 


27 


573-74 23-2 


3-80 17 


573-26 


26-9 


2-86 11 


569-80 


31-8 


1-50 


4 


28 


572-67 


21-3 


6-12 33 


572-32 


23-6 


5-00 23 


569-70 


27-1 


3-67 


14 


29 


572-97 


21-4 


6-87 


36 572-66 23-8 


5-68 


26 


570-10 


28-1 


2-81 


10 


30 





. 








574-91 21-5 


5-48 


29 


571-58 


28-2 


1-55 


5 


























1 July 


573-79 


21-5 


3-82 


20 


573-48 25-3 


3-83 


16 


570-21 


31-6 


2-31 


6 


2 


572-52 


22-5 


4-22 


21 


572-48 26-3 


2-18 


8 


569-80 


33-1 


o-oo 





3 


573-89 


21-9 


3-95 


20 


573-79 26-8 2'40 


9 


571-38 


21-5 


8-60 


45 


4 


574-47 


24-4 


4-78 


21 


573-97 27-1 


5-05 


19 


572-59 


31-3 


3-35 


10 


5 


575-26 ' 


23-2 


4-71 


22 











572-29 


29-2 


2-81 


9 


6 


575-26 


18-2 


8-14 


52 


575-57 19-7 7-23 


42 


574-35 


25 ' 1 


5-85 


25 


7 


575-67 


16-3 


8-63 


62 


575-82 


17-6 7-98 


53 


572-49 


27-3 


4-79 18 


8 


572-77 


19-6 


6-11 


36 


573-43 


20-3 5-95 


34 


575-36 


16-3 


7-72 


56 


9 


578-61 


15-6 


8-67 


66 


578-56 


17-6 


7-46 


50 


575-13 


25-4 


3-77 


15 


10 


576-97 


19-8 


6-12 


35 


576-68 


23-1 


4-38 


21 


573-20 


29-8 


2-58 


8 


11 


575-26 


20-6 


4-62 


25 


574-91 


24-3 


4-05 IS 


571-53 


32-4 


1-82 


5 


12 


573-05 


23-4 


5-66 26 


572-90 


28-0 5-92 21 


570-87 


31-9 


2-98 


9 


13 


573-53 


23-4 


8-01 


37 


573-66 


25-6 8-12 33 


572-24 


29-3 


7-52 


25 


14 


574-40 


21-1 


6-64 


35 


574-27 


26-9 5-5!) 


21 


572-70 


26-0 5-86 


23 


15 


573-84 


20-8 


10-02 


55 














572-54 


28-6 


5-85 


20 


{Pressure.. 


574-83 mm. 


Temperature . . . 24'0 c. 


Tension of vapour 4'7 mm. 



(9221) 



2 D 



418 



Appendix B. 



GILGIT. 



Hour of observations- 


8a.m. 




10 a.m. 


4 p.m. 


Daw. 





Tempera- 
ture cent. 


J! ! 


Relative 
liumidity. 


Ii 


Tempera- 
ture cent. 


||e 


Itelative 
humidity. 


i< 


Tempera- 
ture cent. 


l|fj 
J|l 


i >. 

11 


29 Mav 636-36 


86-7 


7-30 


28 


635-80 29-4 


5-96 


19 


632-14 


33-6 


6-29 


16 


30 











636-56 29-9 


6-10 


19 


632-40 


34-7 


3-46 


8 


31 


634-49 


26-1 


6-94 


28 


634-73 


29-7 


5-33 


17 


630-47 


31-6 


8-30 


24 


1 June 


633-28 


24-8 


8-75 


38 


632-55 \ 27-7 


7-29 


26 


632-53 


25-6 


8-72 


35 


2 634-56 


20-3 


9-89 


56 


631-79 


21-3 10-15 


54 


630-87 


20-3 


14-75 


83 


3 636-21 


18-9 


12-80 


79 


633-26 


22-6 


10-25 


50 


631-53 30-2 


6-66 


21 


4 634-56 


24-1 


10-39 


47 


633-82 


28-1 


5-86 


21 


629-99 


34-6 


4-12 


10 


5 632-07 


25-7 


5-35 


22 


631-61 


29-2 4-47 


15 


630-24 


34-4 


4'0 


10 


6 


631-76 


27-8 4-62 


17 


631-30 


30-9 2-60 


7 


628-56 


34-3 


1-51 


4 


7 


632-37 


26-7 5-29 


20 


631-05 


27-6 5-17 


19 


627-49 36-4 


4-26 


9 


8 632-29 


27-2 5-41 


20 


631-02 


31-4 4-00 


11 


629-30 


36-7 


3-00 


6 


9 


632-40 


28-0 


4-23 


15 


630-92 


32-9 3-22 


8 


628-39 


36-1 


5-70 12 


10 


630-47 


26-7 


9-72 


37 


629-96 


31-8 3-76 


10 


626-07 33-9 


6-74 17 


11 














. 








625-72 32-3 


5-23 15 


12 


631-18 


27-1 


8-10 


30 


626-78 


30-4 


5-34 


17 


624-95 


35-7 


3-30 7 


13 


634-63 


27-1 8-40 


31 


632-85 


30-9 


7-15 


22 


630-38 35-0 


5-43 12 


14 


634-60 


26-7 11-46 


44 


633-92 


32-8 7-25 


20 


631-30 ' 33-9 


5-01 12 


15 


633-94 


27-3 


7-98 


30 


633-36 


31-1 7-18 


21 


629-52 34-4 


5-02 13 


16 


632-45 


27-3 


9-35 


35 


630-67 


29-9 7-15 


23 


628-76 32-4 


3-97 11 


17 


631-27 


27-2 


9-42 


35 


631 10 


30-1 7-95 25 629-16 34'8 


4-00 9 


18 630-57 


27-2 


8-04 


30 


629-24 32-7 6'84 18 


625-84 37-6 


4-79 i 10 


19 628-25 


28-8 


6-77 


23 


626-10 32-4 5-94 16 


625-64 33-7 


6-23 


16 


20 





27-0 


8-01 


30 


628-89 30-2 


6-66 21 


627-95 29-0 


5-16 


17 


21 


631-33 


25-6 


8-86 


36 


630-82 29-4 


6-55 21 


628-20 ; 37'2 


3-61 8 


22 


631-08 


27-2 


6-42 


24 


628-73 31-3 


5-93 


18 


627-89 32-3 


9-50 27 


23 


630-87 


29-4 


8-08 


26 


. 











627-79 34-4 


5-48 13 


24 


633-21 


26-6 


11-20 


43 


631-84 


30-3 


6-15 19 i 626-98 37'8 


3-40 7 


25 


634-32 


26-7 


11-14 


43 


633-74 32-2 


4-26 12 


630-13 


39-2 


3-65 7 


26 


630-64 


30-8 


5-10 


16 


630-84 33-9 


4-56 


11 


627-71 


40-6 


3-76 7 


27 


627-69 


30-0 


8-18 


26 


626-65 34-1 


5-35 


13 622-97 


39-8 


4-24 8 


28 


626-07 


30-0 


5-88 


19 


625-14 31-1 


5-81 


18 i 623-27 


34-9 


7-10 


17 


29 


626-47 


27-6 


6-17 


22 


628-46 29-2 6'82 22 630'11 


32-5 


4-36 


12 


30 














630-89 


30-3 


7-21 


22 630-97 


34-1 


7-25 


18 


1 July 629-65 


27-6 


5-45 


20 


628-86 31-8 3"61 


10 625-03 


37-8 


2-16 


4 


2 


628-51 


29-0 


5-90 


20 


626-30 i 32-6 2'98 


7 624-01 


39-2 


4-29 


8 


3 


628-25 


29-0 8-32 


28 


628-18 


33-4 3-96 


10 


625-33 


36-8 


5-93 12 


4 


629-32 


31-1 7-65 


23 


629-06 


33-0 6-82 


18 626-73 


36-2 


6-13 13 


5 


630-08 


27-9 10-24 


37 










630-23 


29-2 


5-79 19 


6 


630-62 


24-0 


10-76 


49 


630-57 


24-1 


11-11 


50 


628-20 


29-4 


8-54 


28 


7 


629-35 


25-9 


9-13 


37 


629-40 


29-6 


7-95 


26 


627-03 


30-7 


8-53 


26 


8 


629-37 


22-2 


8-74 


44 


624-81 17-6 13-61 


91 


632-77 


19-9 


13-88 


80 


9 


636-78 


19-7 


11-72 


69 


635-06 22-6 12-23 


60 


630-64 


30-8 


8-00 


24 


10 


632-16 


24-8 


9-21 


39 


631-50 


26-4 


11-65 


45 


627-95 


34-9 


6-77 


16 


11 


629-81 


27-6 


9-48 


34 


627-54 


29-4 


11-29 


37 


625-61 


36-8 


o-oo 





12 


628-46 


27-2 


10-67 


40 


627-84 


27-9 


12-37 


44 


627-69 


28-3 


14-00 


49 


13 


627-89 


24-0 


12-32 


56 


622-79 


25-0 


11-74 


43 


625-61 


36-1 


o-oo 





14 


629-11 


30-5 


9-30 


29 


628-91 


34-0 


6-21 


16 


626-65 


36-8 


5-76 


12 


15 


628-61 


27-8 


10-95 


39 














629-22 


28-2 


8-80 


31 








{Pressure... ... 629'83 mm. 




Calculated mean of 


Temperature ... 30'05 c. 










Tension of vapour 7'0 mm. 





Altiinetric Calculations. 



419 



C. COMPARISON OK SIMULTANEOUS CONSERVATIONS. 









CAM!' III. 


RDOKAB8. 


BKABDU. 




^ 


j 


E 




5 







a 







Dtte, 


g 


I 


3 


= ^ 'i 




I j 


C . >, 




3 


s ^ ^. 




H 




|| 


11 


1 


S.8 


.11 3 

ia 1 = 


| 


If 


c 1 3 






P 


g ^ 


S> s 


$ 


8 




a 


1 


5 " 


~ z 13 







H 




1 





s 


S 


1 


H 


H H 


29 May... 


8 


417-60 


-1-5 2-08 


51 


471-34 


8-8 


2-50 


36 


580-21 


19-6 


6'66 39 




10 


418-05 


5-4 1-39 


21 


471-69 


8-8 1-19 


14 579-70 


22-3 


Mill 25 




4 


417'55 


3-0 2-17 


38 


470-79 


9-8 O-50 


7 577-23 


27-5 


1-46 5 






















30 ... 


10 


418-41 


7-1 4-24 


56 


472-33 


8-8 2 T.7 3d 580-61 


22-2 


5-18 26 




4 


418-48 


3-0 1-34 


24 


471-19 


10-3 0-49 


5 577-45 


25-3 


1-52 6 


31 ... 


10 


417-58 


3-0 1-34 


24 


472-14 


8-3 


2-87 35 


579-19 


22-3 


4-86 24 




4 


417-43 


3-0 2-17 


38 


:.70-50 11-8 


1-27 12 


575-75 


27-0 


1-25 


:. 
























1 June ... 


10 


415-88 


3-5 1-08 19 


469-85 11-3 


1-57 15 576-84 


20-8 


4-11 


2-2 




4 


416-02 


3-5 1-91 


32 


469-32 8-8 2'57 30 57.V13 


24-9 


3-41 


15 


2 ... 


8 


415-56 


-1-7 2-32 70 


469-22 4-8 


4-06 62 576-84 


18-3 


6-91 


43 




10 


415-33 


2'5 2-43 44 


469-18 5-8 


3-86 55 576-75 


19-5 


5-05 


34 




4 


414-83 


3-5 1-91 


32 


468-34 4-8 4'75 


73 


574-30 


24-3 


5 T.O 


24 


3 ... 


8 


414-80 


0-0 374 


85 


468-99 2-4 3-58 


65 577-97 


16-3 


8-77 


64 




10 


415-25 


1-0 3-22 05 


469-84 5-3 4 '15 62 


577-67 


20-4 


8-16 46 




4 


415-76 


0-0 3-74 


81 


469-67 2-8 3'81 67 


575-28 


23-8 


3-44 


16 


4 ... 


8 


416-10 


0-0 4-16 


91 


471-05 6-3 


1-26 


17 


577-72 


19-4 


7-28 


43 




10 


410-32 


3-0 2-17 38 


470-81 8-8 


0-71 


9 


577-32 


23-1 


5-03 24 




4 


416-50 


3-0 0-93 17 


470-01 


13-7 


o-oo 


573-97 


27-7 


3-05 12 


5 ... 


8 


414-96 


2-0 1-04 20 


470-11 3-8 


2-12 35 578-07 


20-3 


5-17 29 




10 


415-62 


5-1 


1-07 17 


469-49 7-8 


0-83 10 575-13 


23-8 


2-30 10 




4 


415-13 


2-0 


1-04 20 


467-81 9-1 


0-53 6 572-61 


26-5 


1-17 4 


9 ... 


4 


416-36 


5-0 


0-29 


5 


468-96 


12-3 


o-oo 


573-31 


29-1 


2-59 


8 


10 ... 


8 


414-81 


o-o 


2-09 


48 


468-77 


4-8 


1 -09 26 574-81 


19-9 


3-43 


20 




10 


414-77 


u-i 


1-44 


20 


468-41 8-3 


0-54 7 574-46 


24-3 


3-53 


10 




4 


414-19 


4-0 


1-64 27 


466-74 9-8 


0-59 7 571-89 


27-9 


2-40 


8 


11 ... 


4 


414-17 


i-o 


1-17 23 


467-41 


7-8 


1-79 22 573-80 


23-7 


4-21 


18 


Mean 


I 

416-05 


2-(i 2-00 


469-74 


7-8 


1-91 57.". -32 


23-1 


4-29 








1 




! ! 









(9221) 



2 D 2 



420 



Appendix B. 



CAMP III (SECOND BASE-CAMP). 







SKINAGAK. 


LBH. 


GILGIT. 


Date. 


i 


i 


I 


* . 


>. 


S 


S 


5 . 

_ I- 





i 


1 

S 


- ^ 


g 




S 




~ 


= S 


c 








Si 


2 





*- 


c S 


"C 









11 


IS. 


1 


9 


s.| 


11 


i 


3 


E 


. " 5, 


i 






I 


g>c 


- f 


9 







sS 


3 


1 




> 


3 






1 


H 


H ' 


S 


I 


ft 


H 


H 


I 


H 




c 


29 May ... 


8 
10 


C29-30 
629-45 


17-4 11-81 80 
21-3 14-45 77 


501-66 12-7 
501-51 16-7 


1-92 
1-44 


17 
10 


636-36 
635-80 


26-7 
29-4 


7-30 28 
5-96 19 




16 


627-21 


29-2 22-38 74 


498-54 21-0 


o-oo 


632-14 33-6 


6-29 16 


30 ... 


10 


629-83 


24-2 16-88 75 


501-79 


17-3 


1-86 


12 636-56 29-9 


6-10 


19 




16 


627-62 


27-8 20-43 


73 


499-08 


80-8 


1-64 


9 


632-40 


34-7 


3-46 8 






















31 ... 


10 


628-64 23-0 15-72 83 500 '98 


17-7 


1-84 12 634-73 29'7 


5-33 17 




16 625-99 


26-8 19-31 74,497-81 


21-3 


2-70 


14 630-47 31-6 


8-30 24 


Uune... 


10 


627-60 


21-9 15-05 77 


498-90 


17-4 


2-47 


16 632-55 27-7 


7-29 26 




16 


626-12 


23-4 16-33 76 


496-05 


22-4 


o-oo 


632-53 25-6 


8-72 


35 


2 ... 


8 629-12 16-6 11'87 84 


498-98 14-1 


3-11 26 634-56 20'3 


9-89 56 




10 628-58 19-7 12'92 76 498'44 17'3 3'69 25 631'79 21'3 10'15 54 




16 628-43 


17-9 


11-94 78 494-91 23'5 3'12 


14 630-87 20-3 14'75 83 


3 ... 


8 629-60 


16-3 


12-05 87 


497-95 


13-5 


4-15 


36 636-21 18-9 


12-80 


79 




10 629-80 


18-8 


13-62 84 497-93 14'6 3'25 


26 633-26 22 '6 10 '25 50 




16 626-81 


24-1 


17-29 


78 496-61 17-9 


3-68 24 631-53 30'2 6'66 21 


4 ... 


8 028-01 


17-7 


12-06 


80 499-41 11-3 


3-40 


34 


634-56 


24-1 


10-39 


47 




10 


628-23 21-3 14 -29 76 499-20 15'7 


2-82 21 633-82 


28-1 


5-86 -21 




16 624 -85 ; 27-2 20'02 75 499'55 19"! 


2-02 


12 629 -99 34-6 


4-12 10 


5 ... 


8 625-90 


19-4 13-10 


78 


498-03 


12-9 


3-84 


35 632-07 


25-7 


5-35 


22 




10 625-64 


23-0 15-72 75 497'63 17'8 


2-46 16 631-61 29' 2 


4-47 


15 




16 624-47 


24-8 18-11 


78 495-27 21'6 


o-oo 


630-24 34-4 


4-09 


10 


9 .. 


16 623-42 


30-0 22-93 73 495 -27 


24-1 


1-37 


6 628-39 


36-1 


5-70 


12 


















10 .. 


8 624-91 


21-3 


14-93 79 497-34 14'3 


2-99 


24 630-47 


26-7 


9-72 


37 




10 625-06 


25-6 


17-62 


73 496-94 


18-8 


1-98 


11 629-96 


31-8 


3-76 


10 




16 623-79 


27-5 


21-20 


78 494-10 


22-7 


1-74 


8 626-07 


33-9 


6-74 


17 


11 .. 


16 


625-23 


22-6 


15-97 


78 


494-71 


20-7 


1-76 


10 


625-72 


32-3 


5-23 


LC 


Mean 


627-06 


22-6 


16-07 




498-03 


1-79 


2-28 




632-09 


28-4 


7-25 




t 



















Altimetric Calculations. 



421 



D. COMPARISON OF OBSERVATIONS MADE ON THE GODWIN AUSTEN, 
SAVOTA, AND UPPER BALTORO GLACIERS. 





Date. Station of observation. Simultaneous <lut;i nt comparison. 


No. 


Month 
and day. 


Hour. 


Place. 


sure ram. 


perature 
:eut. 


ision of 

>ur mm. 


ment used 
asuremeut 
treasure. 


a 

Of the 

station of 


perature 
cent. 


i! 










I 


a 


B| 


3 w i 


1 


I 


la 










c 
ft 


1> 

H 




if 





I 


H 




31 May 10 Camp IV ... 


390-85 


2-0 


1-04 Fortin Camp III 417'58 


3-0 


1-34 






4 




390-55 - 1-0 


1-04 


417-43 


3-0 


2-17 




1 June 10 




389-78 1-9 


1-18 


415-88 


3'5 


1-08 






4 




388-85 - 1-0 


1-04 


416-02 


3-5 


1-91 
























Mean... 


390-00 0-2 


1-07 416-72 


3-2 


1-62 




31 May 10 Camp IV ... 


390-85 2-0 


1-04 Rdokass 472'14 


1-3 


2-17 




4 


390-55 -1-0 


1-04! 470-50 


11-8 


1-27 




1 June 10 




389-78 


1-0 


1-18 


469-85 


11-3 


1-57 




4 




388-85 


- i-o 


1-04 


469-32 


8-8 


2-57 






















Mean... 


390-00 0-2 


1-07 




470-45 


10-0 


2-07 




5 4 


CarnpV ... 


394-05 - 3-0 


2-86 , Camp III 415'15 


2-0 


1-04 




5 4 




394-05 - 3-0 


2-86 , 467-81 


9-1 


0-53 




8 




393-36 - 8-0 


1-39 , 468-18 


5-3 


4-65 




6 10 


Camp V ... 


393-42 - 2-0 


3-96 , Rdokass 468 '29 


7-8 


0-37 






4 




393-82 - 2-5 


2-21 


467-66 


10-3 


o-oo 






8 




395-34 - 5-0 


1-27 


n 


469-61 


4-3 


1-43 




8 .. 


10 




395-42 


- 3-0 


2-09 




469-45 


8-3 


o-oo 








Mean... 


394-23 


- 3-9 


2-30 




468-50 


7-5 


1-16 




7 , 


5.15 


Savoia Pass... 


349-70 - 9-0 





n 


Rdokass 467 '86 


12-7 


o-oo 


12 


10 




395-71 - 2-0 


2-34 





469-86 


7-3 


2-57 




.13 


8 




397-37 - 1-0 


3-43 





471-86 


3-8 


4-17 






10 




397-65 


3-0 


2-17 


i 


472-11 


9-3 


1-77 






4 




397-94 


o-o 


3-74 




472-11 


10-8 


0-87 




zl 


8 


Camp VI ... 


394-23 


- 6-0 


2-89 





Rdokass 468 '26 


4-8 


3-57 






10 




394-50 


- i-o 


1-82 


, 


468-00 


8-3 


2-36 






4 




394-15 


6-0 


0-59 , 


466-88 


12-7 


0-69 




22 


8 




355-42 


- 3-0 


1-33 , 


468-33 


6-3 


1-73 






10 




395-25 


1-5 


2-12 , 468-08 


10-3 


0-78 






4 




395-76 


0-5 


1-04 


467-66 


12-7 


o-oo 






Mean... 


395-90 - 0-2 


2-15 




469-32 


8-63 


1-85 




15 


11.15 Sella Pass ... 


368-85 


- 3-0 


Rdokass 471 '57 


8-3 







14 


4 




373-51 


- 0-5 


2-04 


471-29 


10-3 


1-67 




15 


8 




373-40 


- 7-0 


1-22 


., 


471-53 


6-3 


2-68 






4 




373-28 - 4-5 


1-37 




470-56 


12-7 


0* 24 




16 


10 


Camp VII ... 


372-71 - 3-0 


2-09 Rdokass 470 '41 


9-3 


0-89 




18 


10 




372-18 - 7-0 


2-67 





468-41 


9-1 


1-21 






4 




370-85 - 4-0 


2-61 


n 


466-53 


12-7 


o-oo 




19 


4 




369-43 - 6-0 


2-89 





466-00 


8-8 


2-07 




20 


8 




369-04 - 9-0 


2-26, 


466-26 


7-8 


4-16 








Mean... 


371-80;- 5-8 


2-14 


468-88 


9-1 


1-62 




24 


4 Camp VIII... 


360-78 - 6-0 


1-77 


Rdokass 469-66 


14-7 


o-oo 




25 


1 i Staircase 


348-30 6-0 




Rdokass 471 '86 


14-7 


. 


(9221) 


2 D 3 



422 



Appendix B. 



D. COMPARISON OF OBSERVATIONS MADE ON THE GODWIN AUSTEN, 
SAVOIA, AND UPPER BALTORO GLACIERS. (ct.) 





1 hit .-. Stat iuii of observation. 


Simultaneous data of comparison. 












-e 






No. 








i 


1 


= 1 


III 




I I. 


| 




Month 

iincl ilny. 


Hour. 


1'laoe. 


I 


U 

= 


Is 
II 


111 


Of the 

station ol 


I P 


Is 

88 










1 







Is* 




L. ,*, 
f. 


Kg 




1 July 10 




431-33 


11-0 


5-04 Fortin 




468-43 


10-3 


0-78 






4 




431-33 


12-0 


3-36 , 




466-80 


14-2 


o-oo 




2 8 




431-23 


4-0 


3-54 




466-81 


7-8 


1-31 




4 




431-33 


15-0 


4-85 , 




466-71 


14-3 


o-oo 




3 8 




432-69 


4-0 


3-16 , 




468-61 


6-8 


1-91 




10 Camp IX ... 


488-60 


11-0 


2-83 


Kdokass 


468-81 


11-3 


0-58 




4 




432-56 


14-5 


2-87 , 




467-47 


15-7 


o-oo 


4 8 




433-55 


7-0 


3-30 , 




469-61 


8-3 


3-37 


10 




434-49 


9-0 


3-11 , 




469-39 


12-7 


2-82 


5 4 




434-55 


11-5 


3-06 , 




468-56 


15-2 


o-oo 


8 




433-01 


2-0 


3-41 , 




469-56 


5-8 


6-42 


4 




432-95 


10-5 


6-40 , 




467-51 


13-2 


2-52 




Mean... 


432-62 


9-3 


3-74 




468-19 


11-3 


1-64 


1 4 


Camp X 


428-30 


5-0 


Hyps. 


Bdokass 


466-80 


14-2 







7 


4 


Camp XI ... 


418-34 


4-0 


Kortin 


Rdokass 


466-98 


10-3 







3 >, 


4 


Camp XII ... 


393-87 


8-0 


4-12 


Rdokass 


467-47 


15-7 


o-oo 




5 , 


4 




393-65 


7-0 


3-20 




467-51 


13-2 


2-52 


6 


10 




392-98 


12-0 


2 ' 23 




468-53 


7-8 


4-18 


4 




392-38 


7-5 


2-90 




467-79 


5-8 


5-38 




7 10 




392-53 


11-0 


2-83 







467-86 


5-8 


4-86 






Mean... 


393-08 


9-1 


3-05 






467-83 


9-7 


3-39 




9 


Camp XIII 


377-71 


8-0 


0-31 




Rdokass 


468-98 


10-3 


1-67 




10 4 




354-40 


3-0 


0-52 




467-98 


13-7 


o-oo 




14 10 


Camp XIV... 


354-10 


3-0 


2-17 ., 


Rdokass 


469-12 


10-3 


4-26 




4 




354-35 


1-0 


4-01 




469-10 


11-8 


3-90 








358-28 


2-3 


2-20 




468-73 


11-9 


2-72 




11 4 


Camp XV (i) 


342-12 


o-o 





Kdokass 


467-72 


15-7 







IV 

18 


4 
2.30 


Camp XV (u) 
Nearest Bride 


335-74 
312-33 


5-0 
6-0 


4-18 


11 


Skardu ... 
Leh ... 


572-11 
494-99 


30-4 
24-9 


10-51 








Peak 










Srinagar 


622-85 


29-1 


22-65 


















Skardu ... 


571-45 


31-9 


7-65 


















Gilgit ... 


627-08 


31-9 


14-11 



Altimetric Calculations. 



423 



COMPARISON or OBSERVATIONS MADE ON THE RETURN JOURNEY. 



No. 


Date. 


Station of (iliservation. 


Si in nit IIIH-I NT . data of comparison. 


Month 
and day. 


Hour. 


Place 




e 

I 


j 

= 
S, v 

E 


lj 
II 

H. 


Instrument used 
for measurement 
of pressure. 


Of the 

at&tion of 






P 

H 


SB 
II 

el 

**, 




28 July ... 


11 


Northern 
camp of 
Skoro-La 


470-34 


15-8 


1-43 


Fortin 


Leh ... 

Skardu 
Gilgit ... 


497-27 
573-48 
628-69 


20-7 
29-2 
36-2 


10-51 
3-37 

o-oo 




29 ... 


11 


Skoro-La... 


413-27 


6-4 








Leh ... 

Skardu 
Gilgit ... 


497-39 
573-73 
613-89 


18-4 
25-1 
3-2-3 







1 August 


4 


Camp be- 
t w e e 11 
Skardu and 
Burgi-La 


504-63 


19-4 


5-84 


1J 


Leh ... 

Skardu 
Gilgit ... 


496-92 
573-84 
631-23 


23-5 
31-1 
30-2 


8-10 
6-26 
12-84 




2 


9.50 


Burgi-La... 


427-65 


9-4 





H 


Leh ... 
Skardu 
Gilgit ... 


498-45 
574 ' 78 
630-41 


20-9 
28-9 
31-9 







3 


4 


Clumdu- 
Kut 


469-81 


15-3 


4-66 





Leh ... 
Skardu 
Gilgit ... 


495-02 
571-65 
626-30 


23-3 

27-2 
33-9 


8-07 
6-86 
7-06 




4 


9.50 


Sarsiugar... 


455-81 


11-9 





J) 


Leh ... 
Skardu 
Gilgit ... 


497-84 
575 "11 
630-69 


20-6 
23-9 
29-7 







4 12.50 

j 


Stakpi-la... 


470-61 


18-9 





J 


Leh 
Skardu 
Gilgit ... 


497-84 
575-11 
630-69 


20-6 
23-9 
29-7 







4 


4 


Burzil 


505-22 


19-9 


6-77 


] 


Leh ... 
Skardu 
Gilgit ... 


494-61 
571-19 

025-43 


22-7 
30-7 
35-9 


7-59 
6-35 
10-91 




5 


4 


Pashwari... 


570-07 


19-9 





Hyps. 


Leh ... 

Skardu 
Gilgit ... 


495-98 
573-33 
629-29 


21-6 
24-4 
28-1 







6 


4 


Gurais 


591-28 


15-8 


11-93 


> 


Leh ... 
Skardu 
Gilgit ... 


494-54 
572-72 
610-06 


20-1 
23-0 
27-9 


6-33 

11-06 
14-08 




7 


4 


Gore 


546-42 


15-8 


10'54 


>J 


Leh ... 
Skardu 
Gilgit ... 


494-69 
573'68 
629-98 


23-9 
25-4 
26-7 


6-16 
9-14 
15-17 




8 


8 


Kajdiangan 
Pass 


497-59 


12-8 


5-02 


Fortin 


Leh 

Skardu 
Gilgit ... 


497-48 
575-57 
622-50 


17-9 
16-1 
21-2 


6-75 
10-77 
14-41 




9 


4 


Tragbal ... 


540-38 


20-9 




Hyps. 


Leh ... 

Skardu 
Gilgit .. 


494-33 
574-90 
629-01 


23-5 

27-4 
29-7 






(9221) 



2 D 4 



424 



B. 



FINAL SUMMING-UP OF STATISTICS OF HEIGHT. 





Stations. | 


. 




Difference 


llri^M iiKnvc sea level of 
stations of observation. 




3 


I 


Height 


in lu'iKlit 










1 





ill Hive sea 
level of 


stations of 






No. 








1 


stations of 


observation 


















reference. 


and of 


* -I. "7 








Of observation. 


Of reference. 


3 


1 




refemii-i'. 


J -r ft 

metres. 


Metres. 


Feet. 








d 


c 




y 














i 




metres. 


metres. 








1 


Baltal 


Srinagar 


i 


Hyps. 


1,586 


1,266 


2,852 2,822 


9,259 




Leh ' ... 




3,506 716 


2,799 






Skardu ... 




2,287 518 


8,806 








Gilgit ... 






1,490 


1,342 


2,831 


2 


Mutajun Srinagar 
Leh 


1 Fortin 1,586 
3,506 


1,527 
309 


3,113 3,194 10,479 

3,197 




Skardu ... 2,287 


936 


3,222 






Gilgit ... 




1,490 


1,753 


3,243 




3 


Olthingthang ... Leh ... 1 
Skardu ... 


Hyps. 


3,506 

2,287 


- 789 
487 


2,717 2,758 9,049 
2.774 




Gilgit ... 




1,490 


1,292 


2,782 




4 


Tarkutta 


Leh 


1 


3,506 - 1,063 


2,443 2,493 8,179 






Skardu ... 




2,287 


225 


2,512 






Gilgit ... 




1,490 


1,034 


2,524 






5 


Kharmang ... Leh 


1 


3,506 


- 1,110 


2,396 


2,446 


8,025 




Skardu ... 


2,287 


179 


2,466 










Gilgit ... 






1,490 


985 


2,475 






6 


Tolti 


Leh ... 1 


II 


3,506 


- 1,162 


2,344 


2,396 


7,861 






Skardu ... 




2,287 


114 


2,401 










Gilgit ... 






1,490 


952 


2,442 






7 


Shigar 


Leh 


1 


3,506 


- 1,258 


2,248 2,291 7,517 




Skardu ... 




2,287 


17 


2,304 






Gilgit ... 




1,490 


830 


2,320 


8 


Dusso 


Leh 


1 


B 


3,506 


- 1,153 


2,353 2,400 


7,874 




Skardu ... 






2,287 


108 


2,395 








Gilgit ... 






1,490 


963 


2,453 


9 


Gomboro ... Leh 


1 


3,506 - 1,006 


2,500 2,540 8,333 




Skardu ... 






2,287 


255 


2,542 








Gilgit ... 






1,490 


1,089 


2,579 






10 


Chongo ... 


Leh 


1 


Fortin 


3,506 


- 588 


2,918 


2,968 


9,738 




Skardu ... 






2,287 


684 


2,971 










Gilgit ... 




1,490 


1,525 


3,015 






11 


Askoley 


Leh 


5 


M 


3,506 


- 451 


3,056 


3,052 


10,013 






Skardu ... 






2,287 


753 


3,040 










Gilgit ... 






1,490 


1,501 


3,060 






12 


Punmah 


Leh 


1 


n 


3,506 


- 422 


3,084 


3,107 


10,194 






Skardu ... 






2,287 


816 


3,103 










Gilgit ... 






1,490 


1,643 


3,133 






13 


Paiju 


Leh 


1 


H 


3,506 


- 185 


3,321 


3,350 


10,991 






Skardu ... 






2,287 


1,062 


3,349 










Gilgit ... 






1,490 


1,892 


3,382 



























Altimetric Calculations. 



425 



FINAL SUMMING-UP OF STATISTICS OF HEIGHT. 



No. 


Stations. 


O 


strumeiit use.]. 


Height 
above sea 
level of 
stations of 
reference. 


Difference 
In height 
hetwren 
stations of 
otiservat ion 
and of 
reference. 


Blgta 

statio 

-- + 7. 
metrM, 


above sea level of 
ns of olervatfon. 


Of observation. 


Of referciicr. 


Metres. 


Feet. 








* 


" 


2 

metres. 


metres. 








14 


Between Liligo 
and Rhobutse 


Leh ... 
Skardu ... 
Gilgit ... 


1 


Fortin 


3,506 
2,287 
1,490 


201 
1,436 
2,261 


3,707 
3,723 
3,751 


3,727 


12,228 


15 


Rdokass 
1st base camp 


Leh ... 

Skardu ... 
Gilgit ... 
Srinagar 


137 


" 


3,506 492 
2,287 1,734 
1,490 2,540 
1,586 2,465 


3,998 4,025 
4,021 
4,030 
4,051 


13,206 


16 


Camp III 
2nd base camp 


Rdokass 
Leh ... 
Skardu ... 
Srinagar 
Gilgit ... 


26 


" 


4,025 994 
3,506 1,500 
2,287 2,728 
1,586 3,464 
1,490 3,556 


5,019 5,027 
5,006 
5,015 
5,050 
5,046 


16,493 


17 


Camp IV 


Camp III 
Rdokass 


4 
4 





5,027 
4,025 


536 
1,535 


5,563 5,561 
5,560 


18,245 


18 


CampV 


Camp III 
Rdokass 


1 
6 


" 


5,027 419 
4,025 1,396 


5,446 5,433 
5,421 


17,825 


19 


Savoia Pass ... Rdokass 


1 





4,025 2,347 


6,372 





20,906 


20 


Camp VI 


Rdokass 


10 





4,025 1,388 


5,413 


17,760 


21 


Sella Pass ... Rdokass 


1 





4,025 2,097 


6,112 


20,053 


22 


Camp VII ... Rdokass 


8 





4,025 1,876 


5,901 


19,361 


23 


Camp VIII ... Rdokass 


1 





4,025 2,150 


6,175 


20,260 


24 


Staircase 


Rdokass 


1 


4,025 2,531 


6,556 





21,510 


25 


Camp IX 


Rdokass 


12 


4,025 659 


4,684 : 


15,368 


26 


Camp X 


Rdokass 


1 Hyps. 4,025 715 


4,740 





15,551 


27 


Camp XI ... Rdokass 


1 Fortin 


4,025 


905 


4,930 





16,175 


28 
29 


Camp XII ... Rdokass 
Camp XIII ... Rdokass 


5 
1 


5) 
)? 


4,025 
4,025 


1,449 
1,796 


5,474 
5,821 





17,960 
19,098 


30 


Camp XIV ... Rdokass 


3 


4,025 


2,310 


6,335 





20,784 


31 


Camp XV (i) ... Rdokass 


1 





4,025 


2,581 


6,606 





21,674 


32 


Camp XV (n) ... Skardu... 


1 





2,287 


4,566 


6,853 





22,484 


33 


Nearest Bride 
Peak 


Leh ... 
Srinagar 
Skardu ... 
Gilgit ... 


1 


" 


3,506 
1,586 
2,287 
1,490 


3,932 
5,958 
5,209 
6,023 


7,438 
7,544 
7,496 
7,513 


7,498 


24,600 



426 Appendix B. 

KrxAL SUMMING-UP OF STATISTICS OF HEIGHT. 





Stations. 


i 


j 


Height 


Difference 
In height 


Height iilHH e sea level ol 
st;ll ions ot oljserviUion. 








> 




above sea 

level ot 


In'tween 
stations of 








No 






* 


_ 


stations of 


observation 

















c 


reference. 


and of 










Of observation. 


Of reference. 


5 


E 

1 




reference. 


* + Z 

metre*. 


Metres. 


Feet. 








i 


,5 


- 


7. 
















metres. 


metres. 








34 


North Camp of Leh ... 1 Fortin 3,506 477 3,983 


4,010 


13,156 




Skoro-La Skardu ... 


2,287 1,721 4,008 








Gilgit ... 




1,490 2,549 4,03!.) 






35 


Skoro-La ... Leh 


)I 


3,506 1,555 5,061 


5,095 


16,716 






Skardu ... 




2,287 2,789 5,076 










Gilgit ... 




1,490 


3,658 5,148 






36 


Camp between 


Leh 


* J> 


3,506 134 3,372 


3,417 


11,211 




Skardu and 


Skardu ... 


2,287 


1,131 3,418 








Burgt-La 


Gilgit ... 


1,490 


1,970 3,460 






37 


Burgi-La 


Leh 


1 


3,506 


1,300 4,806 


4,830 


15,847 






Skardu ... 




2,287 


2,546 4,833 










Gilgit ... 




1,490 


3,360 4,850 






38 


Chundu-Kut ... 


Leh 


1 3,506 451 3,957 


3,987 


13,081 




Skardu ... 2,287 1,703 3,990 








Gilgit ... 


1,490 2,523 4,013 






39 


Sarsingar 


Leh 


1 


3,506 751 4,257 


4,280 


14,042 






Skardu ... 


2,287 1,992 4,279 










Gilgit ... 




1,490 2,813 4,303 






40 


Stakpi-la 


Leh 


1 


3,506 485 3,991 


4,049 


13,284 






Skardu ... 




2,287 1,741 4,028 








Gilgit ... 




1,490 


2,639 4,129 




41 


Burzil 


Leh ... 


1 


3,506 


- 185 


3,322 


3,359 


11,021 






Skardu ... 




2,287 1,080 3,367 










Gilgit ... 




1,490 1,897 3,387 






42 


Pashwari 


Leh 


1 


Hyps. 3,506 


- 1,205 


2,301 


2,331 


7,648 






Skardu ... 






2,287 


50 


2,337 










Gilgit ... 




1,490 


866 


2,356 






43 


Gurais ... ... Leh 


1 


3,506 - 1,537 


1,969 


2,008 6,588 






Skardu ... 




2,287 


276 


2,011 










Gilgit ... 




1,490 


554 


2,044 






44 


Gore 


Leh ... 1 


3,506 - 861 


2,646 


2,695 


8,842 






Skardu ... 


2,287 


423 


2,710 










Gilgit ... 




1,490 


1,240 


2,730 






45 


Rajdiaugan 


Leh ... 


1 


Fortin 3,506 


2 


3,504 


3,524 


11,562 






Skardu ... 






2,287 


1,236 


3,523 










Gilgit ... 






1,490 


1,920 


3,546 






46 


Tragbal 


Leh ... 


1 


Hyps. 3,506 


- 776 


2,730 


2,796 


9,173 






Skardu ... 






2,287 


543 


2,830 










Gilgit ... 






1,490 


1,337 


2,287 







I). OMODE1. 
Genoa, January, 1910. 



APPENDIX C. 



GEOLOGICAL RESULTS 

OF THE 

KARAKORAM EXPEDITION 

OF 

H.R.H. THE DUKE OF THE ABRUZZI, 
BY 

INGEGNERE VITTORIO NOVARESE, 

Of the Italian Geological Survey, 
AND 

R. D. OLDHAM, F.R.S., F.G.S., &c., 

Formerly of the Geological Survey of India 



GEOLOGICAL RESULTS OF THE KARAKORAM EXPEDITION OF 
H.R.H. THE DUKE OF THE ABRUZZI, 

BY 
INGEGNERE V1TTORIO NOVARESE, 

Of the Italian Geological Survey, and 

R. D. OLDHAM, F.R.S., F.G.S., &c., 

Formerly of the Geological Survey of India. 



THE fundamental outlines of our 
knowledge of the geology of the 
Karakoram range and of Baltistan 
are still, in the main, those drawn 
by the labours of Col. H. H. Godwin 
Austen and of E. Lydekker ; but 
though the map published by the 
latter in 1883, and reproduced on a 
smaller scale in the second edition of 
the Manual of the Geology of India, 
published in 1891, was coloured geo- 
logically up to the supposed watershed 
of the Karakoram range, exploration 
had not in fact been pushed so far 
and the sources of the Baltoro were, 
at that time, in every way unknown. 

Later explorers had made no note- 
worthy contributions to the geology 

of the region if we except the record of limestones on the Crystal Peak and the 
sedimentary rocks of Golden Throne reported by Sir W. M. Conway ; and the good 
fortune one may say merit was reserved for the expedition led by H.R.H. the 
Duke of the Abruzzi, of collecting observations which are not only new but to a 
great extent unexpected, because, notwithstanding their importance and obviousness, 
they had escaped the notice of previous travellers. Moreover, they form a 
complement to those which were almost simultaneously being made by 
Dr. LongstafFs expedition at a distance of about 30 miles to the south-east, in the 
valley of the Siachen glacier, and hence come to throw great light on the nature and 
constitution of that little-known portion of the heart of the great Asiatic continent. 




430 Appendix C. 

In working out the geological results of the Italian expedition, the observations 
and reports made by its several members have been utilised, as well as the litho- 
logical material collected by them. The greater part of the specimens, indeed 
almost the whole, were obtained from the glacier moraines, for the approach to 
the rock-walls of the Upper Baltoro, though not impossible, is frequently dangerous 
on account of the avalanches of snow and rocks precipitated at every moment from 
these precipices, which measure not hundreds but thousands of feet in height. 
The points where the rocks are directly accessible are therefore somewhat rare, 
and consequently the specimens collected from rock in situ are few in number. 

Fortunately the material obtained from the moraines was not fortuitously 
collected, but the moraines running along a transverse section at the junction of 
the Upper Baltoro with the Godwin Austen glaciers were consecutively numbered 
and the more characteristic material collected from each of them. Since it is 
possible to determine the origin of the material forming the principal moraines 
in this part of the glacier, a tolerably good idea maybe formed of the constitution 
of the slopes from which each is derived. Further on will be found a list of these 
moraines and their lithological composition as reported by Dr. F. De Filippi. 

The rocks of which specimens were procured belong to the two categories of 
crystalline schists and sedimentary deposits, with the addition of certain specimens 
of serpentine. Apart from this last there are no representatives of eruptive rocks, 
although granite is highly developed in the mountains of the Baltoro valley ; 
evidently the abundance of limestone and other sedimentary rocks attracted and 
particularly engaged the attention of the Italians. 

A. SCHISTS AND CRYSTALLINE ROCKS. 

The specimens of crystalline schists are few in comparison with those of sedi- 
mentary rocks, but fortunately the more important of them were collected in situ, 
and the place of origin is consequently known. 

Along with the crystalline schists will be described certain specimens of mineral 
veins, which must traverse them, and the noble serpentine, although this should 
be associated stratigraphically with the more recent rocks, rather than with the 
crystalline schists. 

I. Biotite gneiss. The specimen was collected by H.R.H. the Duke of the 
Abruzzi on Bride Peak, from the last rock of the eastern ridge at an altitude of 
24,600 feet, on July 18th, 1909. 

It is a slightly biotitic gneiss, dark coloured, of fine grain, but not sufficiently 
so for it to become cryptocrystalline, and showing banded structure. It is probably 
flaggy, though the smallness of the fragment prevents this being affirmed with 
certainty. The grain is homogeneous and uniform. The biotite does not form 
continuous sheets, but appears in isolated flakes. To the naked eye small greenish 
spots are noticeable, due to amphibole. 



Geological Results. 431 

Under the microscope the rock is seen to be composed of quartz, felspar, biotite 
and amphibole, and as subordinate and accessory constituents, sphene, zircon, 
apatite, as well as occasional calcite. 

The quartz occurs in granular aggregates, frequently drawn out in the form 
of lenticles lying parallel to the foliation ; quantitatively it is subordinate to the 
felspar, and shows neither undulate extension nor mechanical fracture. 

The felspar is of two kinds. Orthoclase is the predominant form always 
slightly opaque through incipient alteration. Cleavage is very distinct and always 
visible. From a study of the disposition of the cleavage planes and their relative 
frequency in sections cut parallel or transverse to the foliation it is evident that 
the individual crystals are arranged with the axis of the two directions of cleavage 
(001) (010) parallel to the foliation. 

The orthoclase individuals have irregular outlines, are always larger than those 
of quartz, of which they sometimes enclose rounded granules. The maximum 
dimension of the granules of orthoclase attains 0'6 millimetre, but, on the average, 
is rather less than half this figure. Small plates of mica are commonly found in 
the intervals between the separate granules. 

The other felspar is marked as albite by its polysynthetic twining and the 
index of refraction being less than that of quartz. It is very rare in comparison 
with the orthoclase. 

The biotite occurs without any crystal faces, except the basal plane ; the flakes 
have a very irregular outline as seen in a thin section, much elongated in the 
direction of the basal plane. The maximum dimensions are 0'55 millimetre in the 
direction of c and 0'70 millimetre in the direction perpendicular to this, that is 
to say, parallel to the basal plane. 

The biotite occurs in two sizes. The larger lie along the foliation planes and 
are arranged in similar orientation. The smaller, which have already been noticed 
when speaking of the felspar, occur in extremely minute flakes and lying in any 
direction in the interstices of the aggregate of quartz and felspar forming the ground 
mass of the rock. 

The biotite is brown and exhibits the following pleochroism : 

/( = a = pale yellow 
n m = b = brown 
n a = t = brown. 

There is very little difference between n m and n y , the absorption parallel to the 
basal plane is not great, as the mineral has preserved its transparency and pale 
brown colour ; it is sensibly uniaxial in convergent light. 

The mica in general is quite fresh and shows no sign of chemical alteration or 
mechanical deformation. 

The amphibole has the habit of actinolite, always in rather slender prisms, for 
the most part grouped in bundles with their axes parallel to the foliation. It is 



I:;.' Appendix C. 

constantly associated with mica, but, notwithstanding this connection, does not 
seem to be derived from the latter, which, as has been mentioned, is always quite 
fresh. 

The angle of maximum extinction is almost exactly 15, but not greater. The 
pleochroism is as follows : 

n f = t = blue green with notable absorption 

. = b = bright green with a slight tendency to brown 

n f = a = very pale green 

a < b < c. 

The maximum length of the groups of prisms is 1 millimetre, the mean width 
of each prism 0'05 to 0'06 millimetre. 

Among the accessory minerals sphene is abundant and in comparatively large 
grains. The calcite is certainly of secondary origin. 

The structure of the rock is interesting, particularly as seen in sections perpen- 
dicular to the foliation, on account of the regular distribution of the coloured 
constituents, especially the mica, which is much more abundant than the amphibole, 
and of a certain uniformity of dimension of the grains of quartz and felspar : this 
is a type of hornstone structure, characteristic of rocks metamorphosed by contact 
with granite. In the sections examined no mineral characteristic of contact 
metamorphism, as, for instance, andalusite, was seen but the structure and 
character, especially of the biotite, convey the impression of a rock of this character. 
Should future observation confirm this it will have to be admitted that the granite 
of the Baltoro neighbourhood is more recent than the crystalline schists which 
are in contact with, and have been metamorphosed by, it. 

II. Noble Serpentine.- Typical specimens of this were collected along the 
whole course of the Baltoro. They were also found in the moraines of the upper 
reaches and it is probable that it is intrusive in the sedimentary rocks. Lydekker 
records this mineral as occurring in the Shigar region in the supra-Kuling series, 
of mesozoic, perhaps upper mesozoic age ; it was also determined by Prof. T. G. 
Bonney and Miss A. C. Raisin 1 in specimens collected by Sir M. Conway from 
White Fan Pass, a little east of Crystal Peak. 

III. Vein Quartz. In variety. Two specimens were collected by His Royal 
Highness on Bride Peak, along with the biotite gneiss already described, others 
in the moraines of the Baltoro. The latter enclose pyrites and arsenical pyrites 
or mispickel; these very common minerals would be of no importance but that 
they may indicate a possible origin of the gold which near Skardu and elsewhere 
is found in small quantities in the alluvium of the Upper Indus and its tributaries, 
possibly in doubly derivative occurrence, as Lydekker found traces of gold 
workings in the alluvial terraces at about 120 feet above the present level of the 
Indus. Probably the pyrites of the quartz veins is sufficiently auriferous to give 
rise on its decomposition to the scanty gold which is met with in these river gravels. 

1 Proc. Roy. Soc. LV, p. 486 (1894). 



Geological Results. 433 



B. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. 

The rocks of palpably sedimentary origin, collected in the Baltoro moraines, 
fall into two principal groups ; one composed of schists and siliceous anagenites, 1 
the other of most various limestones, dolomites and calcareous breccias. 

The first group contains many types, which, individually, seem tolerably 
different from each other, but, considered as a whole, yield so many intermediate 
types as to suggest an origin from one and the same series of strata. The 
prototype is a rock composed of small rounded fragments of quartz imbedded in 
a micaceous matrix, and may be described as a reddish violet anagenite with the 
quartzose component generally of small dimensions, and of white, reddish and 
greenish colour, imbedded in a distinctly schistose micaceous (sericitic) matrix. 
With the disappearance of the quartz fragments this rock passes into a thoroughly 
typical violet-coloured sericite schist. At times the quartz grains increase in 
size and abundance till the rock, being strongly cleaved, assumes a characteristically 
gneissose appearance ; at others the sericitic cement becomes so cryptocrystalline 
as to assume a wax-like appearance. Occasionally the whole rock seems to have 
undergone an alteration which has given it an argillaceous appearance, recalling 
that of some porphyrites or porphyritic tuffs, which have been altered into argillites. 

Less abundant as compared with these rocks, all more or less reddish in colour, 
are others, quite analogous, of greenish grey colour, which probably alternate with 
the former because, except for the colour of the micaceous matrix, they consist of 
the same elements. 2 

The calcareous group presents an extraordinary wealth of varieties and can be 
divided into three sub-groups : limestones, comprising also dolomites and dolomitic 
limestones, coloured marbles, and breccias, the latter more abundant than all the 
other rocks. 

The first sub-group includes white, grey and black-banded limestones, and 
whitish and yellowish dolomites. One crystalline limestone in particular deserves 
special mention ; it is a fine-grained, almost waxy looking limestone, sometimes 
marbled with fine grey lines, sometimes having the appearance of cipolin, which 
is probably derived from lenticular masses included in the gneiss or mica schist. 

1 This word, which is not used in England or mentioned in English text books, is in common 
use by French and Italian geologists for a rock composed of small rounded fragments, or pebbles, 
of quartz scattered through a fine grained micaceous matrix. Rocks of this kind are common 
in the Alps, as also in parts of the Himalayas, and since there is no word in common English use 
to describe them the term has been retained. R. D. O. 

1 The rocks described by Prof. F. G. Bonney and Miss Raisin from the collection made by 
Sir M. Conway under the names of grit, schistose grit, and to some extent quartzite, include 
many which would here be described as typical anagenites. 

(9221) 2 E 



-i:', i . Appendix C. 

In the group of coloured marbles the prevailing variety is a very beautiful red 
marble with small white spots, and various other types, all having a red coloured 
base and white veins. 

There comes finally the group of breccias, which presents no small variation, 
both in the nature of the fragments and in that of the cement, in the colour of one 
or the other, and so on. Noteworthy is a whole series of breccias of calcareous 
fragments, bound together by a reddish micaceous substance, quite analogous with 
the matrix of the anagenites. Better than any description as a help to an appre- 
ciation of the range of colours of these breccias, is the fact that they present many 
analogies with the varieties of marble from the Apuan Alps and other parts of Italy. 

Certain specimens, intermediate between the breccias and marbles, are formed 
of a soft, dark red, calcareous schist, seamed with veins of calcite, which gives 
place, when associated with white limestone, to a white marble with violet-coloured 
amygdaloidal patches, and dark red veining, and to a dark red and white marble 
breccia with green variegation, altogether similar to the rosso di Levanto ; but while 
the latter is a typical ophicalcite, as much cannot be said of the Baltoro specimens, 
in which the green is due to variegation of the schistose portion. It is, however, to 
be noted that we are not impossibly dealing with an extreme form of true 
ophicalcite, as fragments of noble serpentine are found in the moraine along with 
this breccia. 

The specimens collected at the camping grounds of the explorers are insufficient 
for an attempt to arrange the various types in their order of geological sequence. 
The only hypothesis which can be hazarded is that probably some of the calcareous 
breccias with micaceous cement come from the contact zone of the schists and 
anagenites with the limestone and dolomite. In the Apuan Alps very similar 
breccias (mischio di Saravezza) occur at the contact between the lower limestones 
(grezzoni) and the underlying schists, which have been ascribed to the permian, 
others, on the contrary, occur at the contact of the said grezzoni with the zone of 
marbles, etc. All these breccias appear to be due to mechanical action and are 
consequently referable to crush breccias. 

Owing to the absence of organic remains among the material collected by the 
Italian expedition, no direct determination of the geological age of the formations 
is possible, and the only way to arrive at even a very approximate determination 
is by comparison of the specimens collected with the rocks already studied and 
known in other parts of the district. According to the work of Lydekker and 
Godwin-Austen, confirmed by later observation, a great complex of formations 
occurs in a syncline, between Shigar and Askoley, in Baltistan, and in the range 
rising west of the Biafo glacier. This complex, formed by alternations of schist, 
limestone, dolomite containing serpentine, and, according to Col. Godwin-Austen, 
also quartzites, may well be the equivalent of the formations met with in the Upper 
Baltoro valley. Mr. Lydekker gives two sections across this formation and mentions 



Geological Results. i:;.-, 

dolomitic limestones, blue and white mottled limestones, pure white and blue 
limestones with red veins, green and black schists, the latter carbonaceous and 
calcareous, and so forth, besides brown grits, which may be the reddish anagenites 
and identical with the quartzites of Colonel Godwin-Austen. In short the rocks are 
all such as are present in the moraines of the Upper Baltoro glacier. Mr. Lydekker 
also mentions dolomites and limestones with characteristic red stains, identical 
with those found in the supra-Kuling series of Chang-cheng-mo. 1 It is not, there- 
fore, too risky to assume that the same formations, but with a much greater 
development of limestones in comparison with the other rocks, are repeated to 
the east of K "' and form the Broad-Gasherbrum-Golden Throne group of mountains. 
The beds of the series forming the above-mentioned, so-called 2 Baltistan- 
Braldoh syncline are ascribed by Mr. Lydekker, on account of their resemblance 
to other fossiliferous rocks of the district, to his Zanskar system, named after a 
district in Kashmir, and attributed to a carbon-mesozoic age. The series which 
is fossiliferous at Shigar, and comparable with that met with on the Sasser 
Karakoram track, certainly includes the permian and trias, together with older 
beds at the base and newer ones above. With all reservation necessary in the 
present case, we may, provisionally, accept a similar correlation for the sedimentary 
series of the Upper Baltoro, all the more so as I shall shortly set forth other 
arguments in favour of this hypothesis. 

A sufficiently clear idea of the topographical distribution of these sedimentary 
rocks in the mountains of the Upper Baltoro may be formed from the series of 
moraine ridges immediately below the confluence of the Baltoro with the Godwin- 
Austen glacier, along a line drawn from north to south. 3 

According to Dr. De Filippi the succession is as follows : 

1. A large moraine of granite, gneiss, and crystalline rocks, derived from the 

range on the left of the glacier from Bride Peak to Masherbrum. 

2. Moraine of limestone fragments, rich in coloured marbles and limestone 

breccias, which have fallen from the western flanks of Golden Throne. 

3. Narrow moraine of schistose slaty rocks, which unites with the preceding 

one a little lower down. 

4. A great moraine of calcareous fragments, coloured marbles, breccias and 

anagenites of various colours, with a predominance of wine red, which 
descends from Hidden Peak and the southern buttresses of Gasherbrum. 

With this moraine the contribution of the Upper Baltoro ceases and 
gives way to that of the Godwin- Austen glacier. 

1 Mem. Geol Surv. Ind. XXII, pp. 188, 189. 

2 E. SUESS, Das Antlilz der Erde, III, pt. i, p. 350. 

3 These moraine ridges are very clearly visible in the Panorama M, taken from the rock crest 
between the Vigne and Baltoro glaciers. 

(9221) 2 E 2 



436 Appendix C. 

5. Moraine of limestone fragments collected along the slopes of Broad Peak. 

6. Median moraine, coming from the southern and western slopes of K 2 , the 

prevailing constituents being granite and crystalline schists with some 
scattered fragments of limestone. 

7. Eight hand marginal moraine, with the same composition as the preceding, 

but becoming richer in limestone fragments below the white limestone 
peak, which rises to the south-east of Crystal Peak, at the confluence of 
the Baltoro and Godwin-Austen glaciers. 



The observations made by Dr. De Filippi, the beautiful photographs of Vittorio 
Sella, and the material determined and discussed in the preceding pages, make it 
possible to draw the outlines of a sketch of the geological constitution of the 
mountains of the Upper Baltoro and to study their relations to other districts 
geologically known. 

From the end of the glacier near Paiju up to the confluence of the Godwin- Austen 
glacier, the Baltoro valley is opened through the gneisses and granites of the 
Baltistan massif, according to the unanimous description of all explorers. It is 
possible, however, that crystalline limestone might be intercalated in this series 
of crystalline schists, for Lydekker mentions 1 having met with it in the Hushe 
valley, which descends southwards from Masherbrum in the heart of the gneissic 
area. 

Certain of Sella's photographs, however, led me to entertain some doubt of the 
entirely gneissic character of the Lower Baltoro valley. In the preliminary account 
of the journey, published by the Italian Geographical Society, 2 it is mentioned that 
the mountains on the right of the Baltoro in front of Edokass are gigantic, with 
vertical flanks, and peaks of superb and fantastic forms, sometimes of formidable 
towers, at others of sharply pointed pyramids. As the photographs and telephoto- 
graphs show, these irregular forms are confined to the upper parts of the 
mountains and seem to be the remnants of an enormous, nearly horizontal layer 
superimposed on the massive gneiss. The forms, in short, of these mountains 
reproduce the appearance of the dolomitic towers of the Alps, so that it is at least 
justifiable to doubt whether there may not be, in this part of the Mustagh, the 
remains of a capping of sedimentary rock regularly covering the gneiss and forming 
what is known in modern terminology as a " lambeau de recouvrement," composed 
of dolomites, overthrust on to the gneiss and granites of Baltistan. 

Apart from dolomite, the only rock, with which I am acquainted, capable of 
assuming such forms is the protogene, a special form of granite, of Mont Blanc. 

1 Loc. cit, p. 312. 

Boll Soc. Oeog. Hal. series iv, XI, p. 444, April 1910. 






Geological Results. 437 

Since four glaciers descend from the cliffs in question it will be easy for a later 
examination to confirm or refute this hypothesis by an examination of the 
moraines. * 

Ascending the valley, the mountains suggest no change of character till the 
confluence of the Godwin-Austen glacier is approached. On the right of the 
Baltoro, opposite and north of Mitre Peak, a marble crag rises from one of the 
buttresses of Crystal Mountain, and is marked in the map of the Italian 
expedition by the figure 20088. The peak is most recognisable because the summit, 
composed of pure white marble, rises from a base of dark-coloured schists. The 
dip of the schists, though steep, is distinctly eastwards above, but lower down 
becomes perfectly vertical, where the beds are seen plunging perpendicularly into 
the Godwin-Austen glacier. 

As it was not possible to secure authentic specimens, either of the schists of the 
base or of the marble, we must have recourse to conjecture. In the material of 
the moraine the only white marble is a saccharoid limestone of very fine grain, 
with suggestions of cipolin, derived from the moraine on the Baltoro in direct 
correspondence with this peak. Is this mass of marble simply a great lenticular 
inclusion of crystalline limestone in the Baltistan gneiss, like that of Masherbrum, 
or, does it belong to the overlying group forming the massif opposite to it, from 
which it seems separated by some local accident of structure or sculpture ? The 
material for answering these questions is not to hand. 

West of the marble peak lies a saddle named by Sir W. M. Conway, White 
Fan pass, beyond which rises his Crystal Peak, not that so named on the Italian 
map, but one of its minor peaks. Among the specimens collected by Sir W. M. 
Conway, on the ascent of his Crystal Peak, Prof. T. G. Bonney and Miss A. C. Raisin 
identified 2 a fine-grained gneiss, a calcitic quartz schist, a dark-coloured mica schist, 
a dolomite, and a limestone, both crystalline. From the White Fan pass came a 
mica syenite and a fine-grained crystalline dolomite. All these are rocks of a 
crystalline series and, except the syenite, of the schistose group. The presence 
of unaltered sedimentary rocks in the Baltoro moraines, opposite Crystal Peak, 
led Prof. Bonney and Miss Raisin to propose the hypothesis that sedimentary forma- 
tions were represented in the rock forming this mountain. Now that we know that 
sedimentary rocks form the whole of Gasherbrum, from which the greatest part of 
the moraine material of the Baltoro is derived, Prof. Bonney 's conjecture becomes 
baseless, and the presence of sedimentary rocks in the vicinity of Crystal Peak 
problematical. 3 

1 It is worth noting that the illustrations to Sir W. M. Conway's book, and to that of 
Dr. Jaeot Guillarmod, indicate the existence of a very similar feature in the mountains of the 
Masherbrum range, to the south of the Baltoro valley. R. D. O. 

* Scientific Results, p. 72. 

8 See, however, the remarks on p. 445. 

(9221) 2 E 3 



438 Appendix C. 

The formation of schists, anagenitcs, limestones and dolomites shows up in 
its full development in the terminal mass, lying between the Godwin-Austen and 
Upper Baltoro glaciers, which is crowned by the three peaks Broad, Gasherbrum 
and Hidden, rising to heights of more than 26,500 feet (8,000 metres). The 
limestones predominate in the high portion of the Broad and Gasherbrum 
mountains, the base of schists is seen to fringe the foot of these mountains 
along the whole of the left bank of the Godwin-Austen and eastwards along 
the right bank of the Upper Baltoro glaciers, to almost opposite Mitre Peak. 
Beyond this point the limestones extend down to the base, and on the left of 
the photographic view of Bride Peak from Camp III the mass of limestones, 
bristling with peaks and pinnacles, is seen to rise from the glacier. 

The boundary between the limestones and schists is, consequently, covered by 
ice in the valley, but certainly rises towards the dip between the calcareous Golden 
Throne and the gneissic Bride, and probably crosses Chogolisa pass. 

Among the specimens collected by Sir W. M. Conway on the second pinnacle of 
Pioneer Peak, one of the peaks of Golden Throne, is a purple schistose grit with 
small pebbles, mentioned by Prof. Bonney and Miss Raisin 1 , which may be identical 
with the anagenite of this report. 

As appears from specimens collected by His Royal Highness, at a height of 
24,600 feet, Bride Peak is composed above of gneiss, and at the base of the granites 
and granitoid gneisses, so extremely abundant, according to the observations of 
the members of the Italian expedition, in the moraines of the glacier which descends 
from this mountain. 

In the Upper Godwin-Austen glacier the boundary between the gneiss and the 
beds of the palaeo-mesozoic series must lie to the south of Windy Gap, as the 
Staircase is made of coarse-grained, light greyish gneiss. 

The base of the highest peak of the neighbourhood, K 3 , ought, according to 
the reports of various expeditions, to be formed of light-coloured granites or grani- 
toid gneisses. But the several photographs taken from south, east and west show 
a well marked stratification with gentle dips of about 15 to 20, which is greatest 
in the terminal pyramid ; it is probably due to layers of gneiss analogous to those 
of Bride Peak. Colonel Godwin Austen, who noticed this peculiarity in the photo- 
graphs brought back by the Italian expedition, expressed the opinion 2 that the 
stratified summit of K 2 might be more recent than the granite base. I cannot 
accept this opinion of the illustrious and learned explorer without reservation. 
The mere fact of superposition is not enough to establish the relative age of two 
formations in a highly disturbed region, all the more so as the granite may be 
intrusive. 



1 Scientific Results, p. 73. 

2 Geog. Jour, xxxvii, p. 26. 



(ieological liesults. 43'J 

The scarcity of specimens obtained from rock in situ leaves many questions 
obscure. Are the schists of the base of Broad Peak the same as those of the 
Marble Peak? Do they belong to the crystalline schists as Dr. De Filippi believes, 
or to the palaeo-mesozoic series ? At present no answer is possible. 

One other question remains unsettled, the direction of the dip of the 
contact between the schists and limestones at the base of Broad Peak. The 
course of the junction from Windy Gap to the Chogolisa pass, taking into account 
the difference of level, is nearly north and south, but none of the photographs have 
enabled the dip to be determined. Taking into account what is seen on the Marble 
Peak it is probable that the dip is very high and nearly vertical, with a tendency 
towards inversion to an apparent easterly dip. 1 From Mr. Lydekker's observations 
we know that at Askoley, in the Braldoh valley, the contact between the sedimentary 
series and the gneiss of Baltistan hades to the east, that is to say, the gneiss is 
inverted over the more recent rocks. If this explanation is rejected we must 
believe that there is a superposition in normal chronological order. 

Notwithstanding the great gaps, which yet remain in our knowledge of the 
geology of the mountains of the Baltoro glacier, one fact of greatest importance 
has been established. The valley of the great glacier is closed on the north by a 
very elevated massif, composed of sedimentary rocks of upper palaeozoic and 
mesozoic age, prevailingly calcareous and, therefore, differing widely from the 
mountains of the rest of the valley, which are entirely, or prevailingly, granitic and 
gneissic. 

This difference explains how the course of the junction between these types of 
rock has determined that of the longitudinal furrow, formed by two subsequent 
valleys, which give origin to the bifurcation of the valley into the two branches 
of the Upper Baltoro and the God win- Austen, descending, respectively, from the 
Chogolisa pass and Windy Gap. The valley of the Baltoro has, therefore, a 
certain analogy with that of the Upper Aosta, which ends in the two longitudinal 
valleys of the Alice Blanche and Ferret, meeting at Entreves, at the foot of Mont 
Blanc, to form the strictly transverse valley of the Dora di Valdigne. Geologically 
and lithologically the Baltoro valley is, to a certain extent, the opposite of the 
Aosta, because, while the latter is formed of schistose limestone rocks and shut 
in by a granite mass, the former is cut through granitic and gneissic mountains 

1 The view of Bride Peak in the photographs, and the course of the boundary from the Chogolisa 
Pass along the whole of the lower part of the Godwin Austen glacier, seem to indicate a well- 
marked easterly or, more precisely, north-easterly dip. If this dip remained unaltered the 
boundary should rise along the base of K 2 to the Savoia pass. That the boundary is found 
at Windy Gap, much further east, indicates a stratigraphical disturbance, either fracture or 
secondary fold, causing either bodily displacement or a local change of dip, and determining 
the abrupt bend to the north-eastwards of the course of the upper Godwin-Austen glacier. 
C9221) 2 E 4 



440 Appendix C. 

and closed by a mass of schists and limestones, which ought to be named after 
the Broad Peak, as this rising to 27,133 feet forms the highest point, rather than 
the customary Gasherbrum, which will be retained as it has become established 
by use. 

From the distribution of morenic material in the glaciers of the group it seems 
fairly probable that the terminal peaks of Broad, Gasherbrum IV, Hidden and 
Golden Throne are all formed of limestone and dolomite. They will consequently 
be the first peaks of over or near 26,500 feet known to be formed of sedimentary 
rocks, whereas the loftiest summits previously known are composed of granitic, 
gneissic rocks, or else formed by volcanic cones. Allowing for difference of scale, 
the Broad group may be taken to represent, in the Karakoram, the Grand Combin, 
in the Alps the only peak formed of sedimentary rocks (mesozoic calcareous schists 
of Piedmontese facies) which rises above 13,000 feet. 

If we regard the general geological structure of the region, as shown by 
geological maps and descriptions, the discovery of the great mass of limestones of 
the Upper Baltoro appears clearly as the continuation, and harmonic complement, 
of the structural outlines which had been suggested, but left uncertain, by earlier 
exploration to the south-east. For a long time the presence of palaeo-mesozoic rocks 
in the Chang-cheng-mo- Karakoram region of Eastern Ladakh has been known; 
they have been described by Dr. Stoliczka in 1878, and at a later date by Mr. 
Lydekker, who found dolomites with upper trias fossils. This palseo-mesozoic 
area forms an elongated strip running north-westwards parallel to the direction 
of the gneissic mass of Baltistan. It had been traced to Sirsil, between the Nubra 
and Shyok valleys, on the road to the Karakoram pass, but its ultimate course 
and end remained unknown. The calcareous dolomitic mass of Gasherbrum lies, 
approximately on the north-west prolongation of this band, and the discovery, 
by Dr. Longstaff, of limestone in the median moraine of the upper Siachen glacier, 
at a place intermediate between Sirsil and the Upper Baltoro, is a weighty argument 
in favour of the continuity of this band of mesozoic limestone for some 90 miles, 
through a region which is yet unexplored, even geographically. 

The importance of this discovery is not merely geological but also, and 
principally, geographical. The course of the watershed, between the Indus valley 
and the closed drainage area of Turkestan, from the Mustagh to the Karakoram 
pass, was uncertain and badly known, in spite of certain peaks having been trigono- 
metrically fixed, as it had been barely seen and never crossed by the explorers 
who followed each other at long intervals. 

The Italian expedition obtained, from Windy Gap, on 15th June, 1909, the 
first view over the unknown country east of the mountains bounding the Baltoro 
glacier, and saw, to the left of Gasherbrum, not the valley of the Oprang tributary 
of the Yarkand, seen a few days previously by His Royal Highness from the Savoia 



Geological Results. 441 

pass to the west of K 2 , but another valley, with a glacier draining to the south- 
east. 

Almost simultaneously, on 16th June, 1909, Dr. LongstafE crossed the presumed 
watershed by the Saltoro pass and descended onto a glacier which, a couple of 
months later, was suspected on the suggestion of Colonel Burrard to be 
the upper portion of the Saichar or Siachen glacier, previously known only 
at its lower end, and believed to have a length of about 20 miles, instead of 
the 45 miles it is now known to reach. The source of the Siachen is thus 
pushed back to an untraversed pass, seen by Dr. Longstaff from an estimated 
distance of 12 miles, and supposed to be the same as that reported, from the 
northern side, at the head of the Urdok glacier by Sir F. Younghusband, in his 
exploration of the Oprang valley in 1889 ; a pass which seems to lie in about the 
same latitude as Golden Throne. In the mountains to the east of this pass, 
to which Dr. Longstaff gave the name of Younghusband, he noted the very lofty 
peak of Teram Kangri, whose height, estimated approximately at 27,610 feet, 
makes it one of the loftiest mountains of the world. l 

Finally he noticed that the moraines on the left of this upper Siachen glacier, 
like those on the right of the upper Baltoro, were full of marbles and calcareous 
breccias, and saw, some ten miles off, the rocks of Teram Kangri gleam white, where 
not covered with snow; facts which led him unhesitatingly to the conclusion that 
this superb mountain was formed of limestone. This statement, which might appear 
rash, if unsupported, attains a certain probability from the observations and 
records of the Italian expedition in the Gasherbrum massif. 2 The mountain mass 
of Teram Kangri lies about south-east of Broad Peak, and on the line joining this 
with the limestone band recorded between the Nubra and Upper Shyok valleys and 
from its eastern declivities by Mr. Lydekker, to the south of the Sirsil or Sasser pass. 

This unexpected extension of the Siachen glacier to the vicinity of the mountains, 
at the head of the Baltoro gives great importance to the observations of the Italian 
expedition, whether from Windy Gap or the Chogolisa pass, as has already been 
briefly referred to in the addresses given by His Royal Highness and published 
in various scientific periodicals. 3 

As regards Windy Gap, this has already been dealt with. The camp on 
the Chogolisa pass commanded the valley of the Kondus, a glacier which 
was seen to intervene between the Baltoro and the recently discovered Upper 

1 More recent and rigid measurements by the Indian Trigonometrical Survey have reduced 
this figure. The final calculations are not complete but the height has been determined as about 
24,489 feet, a figure which can be relied on to within 100 feet. Oeog. Jour., XXXIX, Jan. 1912, 
p. 72. 

8 Dr. Longstaff has recognised Teram Kangri in a photograph, taken on 22nd June, 1909, 
by Vittorio Sella from Windy Gap. Oeog. Journ., January, 1911. 

> Rivista dd Club Alp. Ital. XXIX, pp. 26-35 (1910); Boll. Soc. Geog. Hal. ser. v, XI, pp. 454 
and 460 (1910). 



442 Appendix C. 

Siachen. The valley of the Kondus, dominated by the peaks K r , K 8 , K' J , winds 
tortuously, first to the east, then to the north, passing round the bases of Golden 
Throne and Hidden Peaks. This last is not the most easterly peak of the Gasher- 
brum group, for eastwards of Hidden Peak rises another, and only to the east of 
this does a deep gap form the true limit of the Gasherbrum massif, taken in a wide 
sense, and the head of the Kondus glacier. The Italian expedition believed that 
this was in truth the pass at the head of the Urdok glacier, seen from the Oprang 
side by Younghusband, and for this reason. 

Beside this depression another was seen, formed by a low ridge, separating 
the Kondus from a wide, glacier-filled valley further east, which is probably none 
other than the Upper Siachen. The low crest just mentioned rises rapidly towards 
the south into the high mountains between the Kondus and the supposed Siachen, 
and to the east into other lofty mountains, which should be the easterly or northerly 
continuation of Teram Kangri, if not this mountain itself. 

From the saddle at the head of the Kondus it seems possible to descend to the 
Oprang basin, and probably into the Urdok valley. 

If the map accompanying Dr. Longstaff's account of his expedition is compared 
with the representation of the Kondus valley, which has just been set forth, it is 
evident that there are no irreconcilable differences. The Kondus and Siachen 
glaciers end in two depressions, separated by a low crest, which, seen from a distance, 
might be superimposed on each other by an effect of perspective, so as to give the 
impression of a single valley, especially from the relatively low point where Longstaff 
was upon the Siachen, at about 16,000 feet, an impression less probable from the 
camps of His Eoyal Highness on Chogolisa, at an elevation of 22,000 feet, equal 
to, if not greater than, that of the pass in question. From this it follows that the 
westernmost extremity of the Siachen valley will not communicate directly with 
the Urdok, but only with the Kondus, whose head intervenes, so to speak, 
between the valleys of the Siachen and Urdok : and that the pass seen by Sir F. 
Younghusband lies between this latter and the Kondus valley. 

A discovery so important as that of the greater extension of the Siachen has 
given wide field for conjecture and hypothesis, and to considerable divergence of 
interpretation, a thing which is natural in view of the many uncertainties still 
existing. Dr. Longstaff, and still more distinctly Dr. Neve, his companion in part 
of the expedition, have expressed in their writings the opinion that the Siachen 
communicates with the Baltoro directly over a saddle at the base of Hidden Peak, 
or to the north of it, in the same way that the Biafo glacier in Baltistan communi- 
cates with the Hispar. In the first place this supposed continuity of the two 
glaciers does not exist. South of the Broad massif the Kondus glacier, as has been 
mentioned, is insinuated between them. The valleys which descend to the east 
and north of the massif are tributaries of the Oprang, either by means of the 
Gasherbrum glacier of Younghusband, or by the Urdok ; consequently there can 



Geological Results. 443 

be no direct connection between the Siachen and Baltoro glaciers. Yet, broadly 
speaking, the notion implied by these authors might be extended across the 
gap formed by the Upper Kondus, and it might be maintained that the 
Baltoro and Siachen, in spite of a brief interruption, lie in the same tectonic furrow 
and so preserve the analogy desired by Dr. LongstafE. But not even in this way 
is it correct, for the Biafo-Hispar system is formed by two longitudinal valleys 
draining in opposite directions, in a furrow which is orographically, and geologically, 
a single well-marked feature. The Siachen-Baltoro system, on the other hand, 
would consist of a longitudinal valley draining to the south-east, joined by a series 
of gaps and valleys, found along its prolongation to the north-west, with the distinctly 
transverse valley of the Lower Baltoro. The supposed analogy therefore does not 
exist, even on this hypothesis ; on the contrary, it is obvious that the Siachen furrow 
continues into the Urdok across the two contiguous saddles. 

From the observations made by the two expeditions it results that the course 
of the water parting between the Indus and Yarkand basins is very different from 
what had been believed and shown on maps. 

The Karakoram, like the Himalaya, of which it is the western portion, consists 
of a series of chains parallel to each other, and also approximately parallel to the 
course of the geological zones and leading tectonic features, ill-known as yet, of 
the whole great system. The rivers flow in open valleys between these chains; 
and narrow, deep-cut channels, frequently reduced to impassable gorges, by which 
the rivers pass from one valley to the next, sever the chains in pieces. Consequently, 
although the lines of peaks appear continuous on the map and exhibit a sensible 
parallelism, the principal watershed, and many of the secondary ones, have a very 
different course, proceeding by stretches as they pass from one range to another 
by means of transverse ridges, which separate the divergent slopes of each of the 
furrows contained between a pair of ranges. 

On the whole then, as this passage of the watershed from one chain to the next 
takes place for long stretches in a regular manner, always from a more forward 
range to one further back, the complex course of the line of watershed cuts, at 
a very acute angle, the general direction of the ranges, so that it is easy, in ill-known 
parts of the system, to confound two quite distinct members with each other and 
regard them as only one. Just this confusion was made in all maps anterior 
to 1910 in the country between the Upper Baltoro and the Karakoram pass. 

The discovery of the Upper Siachen, and of Teram Kangri, has shown the 
existence of a great longitudinal furrow, occupied by a glacier, and of a chain, 
parallel to that, well known and fixed, which runs from K 3 to Hidden Peak and, 
up to now, was called the main range of the Karakoram. The ridge by which 
the watershed crosses from this to that of Teram Kangri is formed by that saddle 
between the head of the Kondus and the Siachen which was seen from Chogolisa. 
The chain of K 3 is truncated by the Kondus valley, whose tortuous course in the 



444 ApJH'lldix C. 

upper part indicates a breach of continuity, filled with ice, but where this 
disappears, exhibiting itself as one of those impassable gorges in which the Karakoram 
is rich. It is probable that the continuation of the chain of K-' is that in which 
the peaks K 9 and K 10 - 11 are found, these latter over 25,000 feet in height, and 
in the Saltoro chain to K 1 - and beyond. 

It is natural to enquire what may be the influence, on the morphology of the region, 
of the junction between the crystalline and sedimentary rocks, which, in the Upper 
Baltoro valley, determines the furrow extending from Windy Gap to the Chogolisa pass. 
Probably it crosses the Upper Kondus valley and cuts the ridge between this and 
the Siachen to the east of K 10 - 11 , which present themselves, orographically, as 
the homologue of Bride Peak, in secondary alignment parallel to the principal range, 
and, geologically, as the continuation of the crystalline axis of K 2 . If the depression 
along the plane of contact continues farther to the south-east, it should cross the 
Siachen valley and the Murgisthang pass, to reach the known boundary on the 
Sasser pass. It is evident therefore that, although this contact determines many 
and important orographical details, it does not correspond to any great valley, and 
still less to a furrow of primary rank, as is the case in the Biafo-Hispar valley. 

In conclusion it is certain that the water parting between the Indus and the 
Central Asian drainage, after passing the peaks of K 2 , Broad, Gasherbrum and 
Hidden, turns eastwards to a parallel range which bounds the Siachen on the east 
and probably culminates in Teram Kangri. A good part of this range was already 
known, for it runs from the Sasser pass, for more than 100 miles south-eastwards 
to the Pangong Lake, and is cut through by the precipitous gorge of the Shyok, in 
the reach which lies above the sharp elbow formed by this river, a little below its 
j unction with the Chang-cheng-mo. The range of K 2 runs south-west of this, and 
although the complexity of its geological composition for granites, schists and 
various sedimentary rocks take part in it has a very sensible influence in multi- 
plying and increasing the accidents of relief, it has not rendered less evident the 
orographical continuity, which is obvious enough in many parts. 

The two chains of K 2 and Teram Kangri, are, therefore, well distinct, and the 
resemblance between the Karakoram and the double chain of the Hindu Kush, 
already suspected by some, has a real basis. The latest discoveries have revealed 
the importance of the Teram Kangri range, which is promoted from the position 
of a secondary spur of the presumed watershed range, to that of a primary range 
of the system. The continuation of this range, to the northwards, is certainly that 
row of peaks, which the Italian expedition observed from Windy Gap, and which 
will now become the object of fresh journeys of exploration. 

Geological Survey Office, Rome, July, 1911. 



Geological Results. 445 



Having been asked to undertake the translation and revision of the Appendix 
dealing with the geological results of the expedition made by His Royal Highness 
the Duke of the Abruzzi to the Karakoram, I find little left to be done as regards 
the latter half of the task. The facts, as set forth by Ing. Novarese, may be 
accepted, the interpretation follows, for the greater part, with logical certainty. 
Only in two parts of any importance do I find myself unable to accept unreservedly 
the opinions expressed in the note. The first of these concerns the limestones of 
Crystal Peak and the hills eastwards of it. In the note they are regarded, with 
very little hesitation, as belonging to the older gneissic series, and as lenticular 
inclusions in it. This interpretation is not impossible, but it seems to me that 
insufficient weight has been given to earlier observations, and that the case for 
regarding the limestones as belonging to the sedimentary series, either as a con- 
tinuation of the Gasherbrum exposure or as an outlier, is stronger than is represented 
by the text. Sir W. M. Conway, in the description of his expedition, expressly 
states that on the descent from his Crystal Peak he came upon " a new set of rocks 
which gave a fresh character to the ridge separating the Baltoro and Godwin-Austen 
glaciers." These rocks are described as granites and hard limestones, light grey, 
buff and white in colour, of which seams were found in the rocks lower down the 
valley but here forming the mass of the mountains. His next camp up the glacier 
was pitched on a fan composed of fragments of white marble. 1 In the description of 
the rocks collected in situ on these hills it is stated that no record was kept of the 
order in which they were collected, but of the specimens one is described as gneiss, 
one as mica schist, and five as various forms of limestones ; the other specimens 
are one of syenite and one of quartz associated with limestone breccia. 2 It may be 
noticed that the gneiss and mica schist were both collected on the ascent of Crystal 
Peak, and that these rocks are unrepresented in the collection from the White Fan 
pass ; moreover, from the latter locality came a greyish crystalline limestone, 
veined with noble serpentine, recalling the presence of similar rocks among the 
moraine debris derived from the Gasherbrum group of mountains, and the occurrence 
of serpentine among the sedimentary rocks on the slopes of Mango Gusor. 3 

These facts render it at least possible that we have to deal with an exposure of 
the limestone series, penetrated by intrusive veins of syenite and gneissose granite, 
such as is not uncommon in the Himalayas. It may be that the boundary, between 
the areas occupied mainly by crystalline and by sedimentary rocks, after running 
down the Upper Baltoro valley, crosses the main glacier and passes up onto the 
mountains north of it, thence, turning north-eastwards near the Crystal Peak, it 

1 Climbing in the Himalayas, etc., pp. 465 ff. 

1 PROP. T. G. BONNEY and Miss A. C. RAISIN. Proc. Boy. Soc. LV, p. 486 ; also in W. M. 
CONWAY, Climbing in the Karakoram Himalayas, vol. II, Scientific Results, p. 73. 
3 Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind. XXII, p. 189. 



44G Appendix C. 

would run down to the valley of the Godwin-Austen glacier, striking it near the sharp 
bend and following the general course of the upper part of this valley. As an 
alternative the Crystal and Marble Peak exposure of limestones may be an outlying 
area of sedimentary rocks, but in either alternative there is the possibility, which 
should be investigated by future travellers, of the occurrence of sedimentary lime- 
stones in the hills north of the Baltoro glacier. 

The second point, on which something more remains to be said, is the minor 
classification of the mountain ranges. The view advocated by Drs. Longstaff and 
Neve is rejected on the ground that there is no structural continuity between the 
Siachen, Baltoro and Biafo valleys, such as would give them a geological unity 
and justify the mountains on either side being regarded as forming two separate 
ranges ; but, if this argument is allowed 1jo prevail, it would equally militate against 
the view which regards the mountains on either side of the Oprang-Nubra trough 
as forming a pair of parallel ranges, for this orographical depression certainly does not 
follow, but runs obliquely to, the general strike of the leading feature in thegeological 
structure of the district, namely, the Karakoram syncline of sedimentary rocks. 

This argument is not, however, final, for the movements of elevation, which have 
given rise to the mountains, were spread over a long period, and it may well be 
that the latest of them, those which determined the rows of peaks as they now 
stand, did not exactly follow the earlier ones, by which the leading features of 
geological structure were marked out. Moreover, the case for the classification 
adopted in the note is stronger than is there set forth, for not only is the Oprang- 
Nubra trough similar to the much larger depression formed by the Sutlej and Sanpo 
valleys on the northern side of the Himalayas, but there is an apparent connection 
between the two, for the former is continued south-eastwards by the Shyok valley 
up to the elbow, where it bends from a southerly to a north-westerly course, and 
thence by the lower part of the Pangong Lake to the Upper Indus, and by this to 
the Sutlej valley. To the south-east this line of valleys has been held to be 
sufficient reason for separating the Himalayas, on the south, from the mountains 
to the north, so that if Ing. Novarese errs in separating the Teram Kangri peaks 
from those of the K 2 and Gasherbrum group, he errs in good company. And if 
this view is accepted, then the series of peaks, labelled K with a number by the 
Survey of India, can no longer be regarded as belonging to the same range that is 
crossed by the Karakoram pass, and a different name, Mustagh for choice, would 
have to be given to them and to the mountains which have been repeatedly 
described as the Karakoram Himalayas. 

It is, however, by no means certain that this view of the grouping of the peaks 
into ranges is correct. It is natural for geographers to seek a parallelism between 
the minor members of a great chain of mountains and the general direction of the 
whole, and the intricacy of the valley systems, cut back at times along the strike- 
line between minor ranges, and at others across and through them, makes it not 



Geological He-suits. I;T 

impossible to find justification for dividing the mountain cluiin, ;is u whole, into a 
series of parallel ranges, running along the length of the chain. Yet, although it may 
be possible to adopt a nomenclature expressing this view, it does not follow that 
the names represent what really occurs in nature, and there is another aspect of 
the case which is at least equally worthy of consideration, that the individual 
members of the chain are ranged not along, but obliquely transverse to, the general 
direction of the whole, much like the arrangement of the individual birds in a flock 
of wild geese, or the individual regiments of an army ranged in echelon. 

The study of areas of structural elevation, on a smaller scale, and of less com- 
plication, than a mountain range, shows that the principal anticline is often crossed 
by minor ones, ranged obliquely to it, so that the margin of the area of uplift is 
marked by a series of open folds, all pitching in the same direction and advancing 
one beyond the other. It is not unnatural to suppose that a similar feature may 
be found on a larger scale in great mountain ranges, and on this view the Teram 
Kangri and Gasherbrum peaks would fall into the same range, continued probably 
to K -, and the Mustagh Peaks. Nor would the interruption of the range by the deep 
gap between Teram Kangri and Gasherbrum, or by the Godwin-Austen glacier 
valley between that and K 3 , affect the structural unity of the range, for it must 
be remembered that the peaks are peaks because the agencies of denudation have not 
yet had time to remove them, though they have removed all the surrounding rock ; 
on the other hand the peaks owe their elevation to the fact that the rock of which 
they are composed has been uplifted, and where we find a group of peaks rising 
much above those by which they are surrounded, we may conclude that this great 
elevation is due to the fact that the last episode, in the general uplift of the moun- 
tains, was a more rapid and greater upheaval of the particular region in which the 
high peaks are found. 

It might be, of course, that there were two neighbouring areas of such special 
elevation, one marked by the Teram Kangri group of peaks, the other by the K 3 , 
Broad, Gasherbrum and Hidden Peaks, and that between them lay a zone of lesser 
uplift. A more probable case, however, is that these two groups of very high peaks 
form parts of the same general area of special, recent, uplift, and this special up- 
heaval may have determined the position of the watershed, which crosses 
the Oprang-Nubra trough. If this is the case, K 2 and the Mustagh Peaks are 
restored to that group of ranges crossed by the Karakoram pass, which together 
have come to be known as the Karakoram mountains. 

That such widely divergent views of the classification of these mountains can 
be put forward, without any possibility of even indicating which is likely to be 
ultimately accepted, shows how little is really known as yet, and how much remains 
to be done before the structure of this region can be rationally discussed, much less 
said to be properly understood. 

Horsham, February 20th, 1912. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE GEOLOGY OF BALTISTAN 
AND THE SURROUNDING COUNTRY. 



1883. R. LYDEKKEK. Geology of the Cashmir and Chamba Territories and the British District 
of Khagan : Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. XXII. [Contains the only 
general geological map of Kashmir, also a complete bibliography of earlier accounts 
containing any geological references. To save space reference is made to this for the 
bibliography previous to 1883.] 

1883. H. H. GODWIN AUSTEN. Presidential Address to Section E of the British Association : 

Report, Southport, 1883, pp. 576-589 ; also in Proceedings of the. Royal Geographical 
Society, New Series, Vol. V, pp. 610-625. 

1884. H. H. GODWIN AUSTEN. The Mountain Systems of the Himalayas and Neighbouring 

Ranges of India : Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc., New Series, Vol. VI, pp. 83-87. 

1885. E. SUESS. Das Antlitz der Erde, Bd. I, p. 565. 

1893. R. D. OLD HAM. A Manual of the Geology of India, by H. B. Medlicott and W. T. 

Blanford ; 2nd edition, revised and largely rewritten by R. D. Oldham. 

1894. W. M. CONWAY (Sir). Climbing and Exploration in the Karakoram Himalayas. London. 

Edition de Luxe, in 2 vols., containing scientific results and map ; also an edition in 

1 vol. without scientific results or map. 
1894. T. G. BONNEY (Prof.) and A. C. RAISIN (Miss). Notes on Mr. W. M. Conway's collection 

of Rock Specimens from the Karakoram Himalayas : Vol. II, pp. 41-73, of Sir W. M. 

Conway's Climbing in the Karakoram Himalayas. 
1894. T. G. BONNEY (Prof.) and A. C. RAISIN (Miss). On Rocks and Minerals collected by 

Mr. W. M. Conway in the Karakoram Himalayas : Proceedings of the Royal Society, 

Vol. LV, pp. 468-487. [Identical with the preceding as regards general summary, 

but less detailed as regards description of individual specimens.] 
1901. E. SUESS. Das Antlitz der Erde. Bd. Ill, p. 344. 
1904 (?) J. JACOT GUILLABMOD. Six Mois dans 1'Himalaya, le Karakoram et 1'Hindu-Kush. 

Neuchatel (no date ; expedition in 1902). 

1905. A. C. F. FERBEE. Die Erkundung des Mustagh passes in Karakoram Himalaya : Zeil- 

schrift des deutschen und oesterreichischen Alpenvereins, Vol. XXXVI, pp. 113-132 : 
Translated in Bolletino del Club Alpino Italiano, 1906, p. 319 ff. 

1906. K. OESTREICH. Die Taler des nordwestlichen Himalaya : Petermanns Miltheilungen, 

Erganzungsheft, No. 155. Contains many bibliographical references. 
1907-8. S. G. BURRARD (Col.) and H. H. HAYDEN. A Sketch of the Geography and Geology of 

the Himalaya Mountains and Tibet. Calcutta. 
1910. C. S. MIDDLEMISS. A revision of the Silurian -Trias Sequence in Kashmir: Records of 

the Geological Survey of India, Vol. XL, pp. 206-260. 
1910. H.R.H. THE DUKE OF THE ABRUZZI. Esplorazione nei Monti del Karakoram : Bolletino 

dflla Societa Geographica Italiana, Serie iv, Vol. XT, pp. 435-469. 
(9221) -2 F 



450 Bibliography of the Geology of Baltistan, &c. 

1910. T. G. LONOSTAFF. Glacier Exploration in the Eastern Karakoram. Geographical 

Journal, Vol. XXXV, pp. 622-658. 
1910. H.R.H. THE DUKE OF THE ABRDZZI. Viaggio di Esplorazione nei Monti del Karakoram. 

[Address delivered to the Italian Alpine Club at Turin.] Rivista del Club Alpino 

Italiano, Vol. XXIX, pp. 26-35. 

1910. A. NEVE. The Ranges of the Karakoram : Geog. Jour., Vol. XXXVI, pp. 571-577. 

1911. C. S. MIDDLEMISS. Sections in the Pir Panjal Range and Sind Valley, Kashmir: Ren. 

Geol. Surv. Ind., Vol. XLI, pp. 113-144. 

1911. F. DE FILTPPI. The Expedition of H R.H. the Duke of the Abruzzi to the Karakoram 

Himalayas : Geog. Jour., Vol. XXXVII, pp. 19-30. 

1912. S. G. BUKRABD (Col.). The Height of Teram Kangri. (A communication from Col. 

S. Burrard to Dr. T. G. Longstaff) see Geog. Jour., Vol. XXXIX, pp. 71-72. 



ROCK SPECIMENS COLLECTED ON THE BALTORO 

MORAINES. 



PLATE I. 

Fig. 1. Rose-coloured, veined limestone. 

Fig. 2. Many-coloured breccia of limestone fragments and sericitic cement. 

Fig. 3. Many-coloured breccia of limestone fragments and yellow calcareous cement. 

Fig. 4. As Fig. 2, with the fragments more scattered and subordinate to the matrix. 

PLATE II. 

Fig. 1. Brecciated violet-coloured limestone (pavonazetto). The deeply coloured portion is 

schist. 

Fig. 2. Marble blotched with red. 

Fig. 3. Rose-coloured limestone (persichino), minutely brecciated. 
Fig. 4. Brecciated violet limestone with greenish tinting. The deeply coloured part is a reddish 

violet schist ; the green coloration is due to infiltration of the part originally 

white. 



(9221) -2 K -1 



APPENDIX D. 



BOTANICAL REPORT 

BY 

PROF. R. PIROTTA 

AND 

DR. F. CORTESI 
UPON THE PLANTS GATHERED BY THE EXPEDITION. 



(9221) -2 r 3 



APPENDIX D. 



BOTANICAL REPORT 



UPON THE PLANTS GATHERED BY THE EXPEDITION. 



I. LIST OF PLANTS GATHERED. 



A. Braldoh and Biafo Valleys. 




Oxytropis microphylla DC. 
Papilionacea, sp. indet. 
Myricaria elegans Royle. 
Hippophde rhamnoides L. 
Daphne oleoides Schreb. 
Primula farinosa L. 
Macrotomia perennis Boiss. 
(9221) 



TfPHEDRA pachydada Boiss. 

Salix sp. 

Clematis orientalis L. var. ? 
Berberis vulgaris L. var. aetnensis 

Presl. 

Cheiranthus himalayensis Camb. 
Cleotne sp. ? 

Saxifraga imbricata Royle. 
Colutea arborescent L. var. nepalen- 

sis L. 

Astragalus sp. 
Chesneya cuneata Benth. 
Caragana polyacantha Royle. 
Nepeta discolor Royle. 
Lonicera microphylla Willd. 
Erigeron andryaloides C. B. Clarke. 
Anaphalis virgata Thorns. 
Artemisia sp. 

Artemisia sp. aff. Absinthium L. ? 
Chondrilla graminea Benth. 

2 F 4 



456 



Appendix D. 



Poa sp. 

Festuca sp. 

Lloydia serotina Rchb. 

Oxyria digyna Hill. 

Silene Moorcroftiana Wall. 

Lychnis apetala L. 

Stellaria graminea L. var. montioides 

Edgew. & Hook. fil. 
Delphinium Brunonianum Royle. 
Papaver nudicaule L. 
Sedum aff. atropurpureum Turcz. ? 
Potentilla albifolia Wall. 
Potentilla sericea L. var. ? 
Potentilla sp. ? 

Astragalus Candolleanus Royle. 
Oxytropis lapponica Gaud. 



B. Lower Baltoro and Rdokass. 

Oxytropis lapponica Gaud. var. humifusa 

Kar. et Kir. 
Epilobium latifolium L. 
Pirola rotundifolia L. 
Primula farinosa L. 
Gentiana aquatica L. var. V 
Gentiana detonsa Fries. 
Gentiana sect. Comastoma sp. 
Lonicera asperifolia Hook. fil. & Thorns. 
Codonopsis ovata Benth. 
Aster heterochaeta Benth. 
Allardia nivea Hook. fil. & Thorns. 
Chrysanthemum tibeticum Hook. fil. & 

Thorns. 

Taraxacum officinale L. 
Taraxacum officinale L. var. eriopodum 

DC. 



C. Upper Baltoro (above 15,000 feet). 



Carex atrata L. 
Lychnis apetala L. 
Isopyrum grandiflorum Fisch. 
Braya uniftora Hook. fil. & Thorns. 
Saxifraga flagellaris Willd. var. mucro- 

nulata Royle. 
Saxifraga imbricata Royle. 
Potentilla fruticosa L. var. pumila Hook. 

fil. forma grandiflora. 



Potentilla ochreata Lehm. ? 
Mertensia primuloides Clarke. 
Nepeta longibracteata Benth. ? 
Leontopodium alpinum L. var. nivale 

Ten. 

Allardia tomentosa Dene. ? 
Allardm vestita Hook. fil. & Thorns. 
Sedum Rhodiola DC. 



D. Skoro-La. 



Cystopteris fragilis Bernh. ? 
Chenopodium album L. 
Polygonum viviparum L. 
Oxyria digyna Hill. 
Silene Moorcroftiana Wall. 
Lychnis nigrescens Edgew. 
Cerastium trigynum L. 
Cerastium vulgatum L. var. 
Delphinium Brunonianum Royle. 



Aconitum Napellus L. var. rotundifolium. 

Hook. f. & Thorns. 
Arabis ? 

Sedum Rhodiola DC. 
Sedum Eversii Ledeb. 
Saxifraga sibirica L. 
Saxifraga flagellaris Willd. var. mucro- 

nulata Royle. 
Potentilla multifida L. var. anguslifolia 

Lehm. 



Botanical Report. 



157 



Potentilla ochreata Lehm. 

Potentilla bifurca L. var. Moorcroftii 

Wall. 

Potentilla Mica Th. W. 
Rosa macrophylla Lindl. var. minor 

Lindl. 

Oxytropis lapponica Gaud. var. typica. 
Oxytropis mollis Royle. 
Geranium pratense L. ? 
Geranium sp. 
Epilobium latifolium L. 
Bupleurum longicaule Wall var. hima- 

lensis Klotsch. 
Primula farinosa L. 
Gentiana aquatica L. var. 
Gentiana sp. 
Pleurogyne carinthiaca L. 



Mertensia tibetica Clarke. 

Myosotis sylvatica Hoffm. 

Thymus Serpyllum L. 

Pedicularis pectinata Wall. 

Pedicularis bicornuta Kl. 

Lonicera microphylla Willd. 

Valeriana dioica L. 

Aster sp. 

Leontopodium alpinum L. var. nivale 

Ten. 

Erigeron alpinus L. ? 
Anaphalis nubigena DC. 
Tanacetum sp. 
Artemisia sp. 

Chrysanthemum Stoliczkae C. B. Clarke. 
Saussurea Schultzii Hook. f. ? 
Taraxacum officinale L. forma. 



E. Deosai Tableland (14,000 feet). 



Carex nivalis Boott. 

Polygonum a/fine Don. 

Rutnex sp. 

Cerastium trigynum L. 

Ranunculus nivalis L. 

Thalictrum minus L. ? 

Aconitum Napellus L. var. umltifidum 

Hook. fil. & Th. 
Papaver nudicaule L. 
Corydalis ramosa Wall. var. glaum Hook. 
Draba glacialis Adams. 
Chorispora sabulosa DC. 
Sedum Rhodiola DC. 
Sedum aff. atropurpureum Turcz. ? 
Saxifraya flagellaris Willd. var. mucro- 

nulata Royle. 

Potentilla argyrophylla Wall. 
Oxytropis sp. 

Geranium aconitifolium L'Herit. ? 
Bupleurum falcatum L. var. nigrocarpum 

Jaquem. 
Primula purpurea Royle. 



Gentiana sp. 

Swertia pedunculata Royle. 

Eritrichium sp. 

Stachys tibetica Vatke. 

Thymus Serpyllum L. 

Ferowica alpina L. 

Pedicularis pectinata Wall. 

Pedicularis bicornuta Kl. 

Pedicularis cheilanthi folia Schrenk. 

Pedicularis rhinanthoides Schrenk. 

Campanula modesta Hook. fil. & 

Thorns. 

Aster himalaicus Clarke. 
Leontopodium alpinum Cass. var. nivale 

Ten. 

Anaphalis nubigena DC. 
Tanacetum sp. 
Senecio aff. tibeticus Hook. 
Cremanthodium aff. Decaisnei Clarke. 
Jurinea macrocephala Benth. 
Saussurea sp. 
Crepis glomerata Dene. ? 



ix D. 



II. CLASSIFICATION OF SPECIMENS. 



Polypodiaceae. 

Cystopteris fragilis Bernh. ? Ascent of Skoro La, north side ; 10,000-13,000 
feet. 

Gnetaceae. 

Ephedra pachyclada Boiss. Between Dusso and Askoley, Braldoh valley 
(8,000-10,000 feet) ; ll-14th May, 1909. 

Poaceae. 

Poa sp. Rdokass ; 13,025 feet ; June-July, 1909. 
Festuca sp. Rdokass ; 13,025 feet ; June-July, 1909. 

Both these grasses are represented by fragmentary specimens, without rhizomes or basal 
leaves. 

Cyperaceae. 

Carex atrata L. Vigne glacier, at about 16,500 feet ; 15th July, 1909. 

This species is not indicated for the region in the publications of previous explorers. 

Carex nivalis Boott. W. Hunter Workman and F. Bullock Workman : " The 
Call of the Snowy Hispar," p. 286. Deosai tableland ; 14,000 feet ; 2nd-3rd August, 
1909. 

The Workman expedition found this species (which is common in the Himalaya, Western 
Tibet and the Karakoram) on the Hispar glacier, between 13,000 and 15,500 feet. 

Lloydia serotina Rchb. Sir W. M. Conway : " Climbing and Exploration in 
the Karakoram Himalayas, Scientific Reports," p. 83 ; W. Hunter Workman and 
F. Bullock Workman, op. cit. p. 286. Rdokass ; 13,025 feet ; June-July, 1909. 

Allium odorum Linn. (No. 70 without locality !). 

Conway (loc. cit.) cites for the Baltoro valley A. senescens Miq. = A. tuberosum Roxb. Our 
plant is without doubt A. odorum L., with the characteristic oblique rhizome covered with 
numerous whitish fibres, finely reticulated. 

Salicaceae. 

Salix sp. ind. Askoley ; 15th June, 1909. 

The leaves of this willow are covered with rounded reddish galls. It may be the species of 
Salix cited by Conway (p. 83) and by the Workmans (p. 286) as Safe, not determinable, gathered 
on the Hispar glacier at 13,000 feet. 



Botanical Report. 459 

Chenopodiaceae. 

Chenopodium album L. Ascent of Skoro La, north side ; 10,000-13,000 feet ; 
28th July, 1909. 

Polygonaceae. 

Polygonum viviparum L. Conway, p. 83. Ascent of Skoro La, north side ; 
10,000-13,000 feet. 

Among the- numerous examples of this species are some which may easily be referable to 
a minor form. 

Polygonum affine Don. Conway, p. 83. Deosai tableland ; about 14,000 feet ; 
2nd-3rd August, 1909. 

Oxyria digyna Hill. Conway, p. 83 ; Workman, p. 287. Moraine of the 
Baltoro. below Rdokass ; 16-17th May, 1909. Ascent of Skoro La, north side ; 
10,000-13,000 feet. 

Rumex sp. Deosai tableland ; about 14,000 feet ; 2nd-3rd August, 1909. 

In the absence of mature fruit a more precise identification is not possible. 

Dianthaceae. 

Silene Moorcroftiana Wall. Conway, p. 78. Moraine of the Baltoro, below 
Rdokass, 20th July, 1909 ; and ascent of Skoro La, north side, 10,000-13,000 feet, 
28th July. 

Lychnis apetala L. Conway, p. 78. Rdokass, 13,025 feet ; Vigne glacier, 
at about 16,500 feet ; 15th July, 1909. 

Lychnis nigrescens Edgew. Ascent of Skoro La ; between Askoley and the 
foot of the Skoro La glacier ; 9,500-12,800 feet ; 28th July, 1909. 

Ceraslium trigynum L. Conway, p. 78 ; Workman, p. 287. Deosai tableland ; 
about 14,000 feet ; 2nd-3rd August. Ascent of Skoro La, north side ; 10,000- 
13,000 feet ; 28th July, 1909. 

Ceraslium vulgatum L. var. ? Ascent of Skoro La, northern slope ; 28th July, 
1909. 

A fragmentary specimen ; referable to one of the numerous forms of C. rvlgatvm. 

Stellar ia graminea L. var. monlioides Edgew. & Hook. fil. Rdokass ; 13,025 feet ; 
June-July. 

Ranunculus nivalis L. Deosai tableland ; ca. 14,000 feet ; 2nd-3rd August, 
1909. 

Isopyrum grandiflorum Fisch. Conway, p. 78. Rocks at the head of the 
Baltoro ; western spur of Gasherbrum ; 18,000 feet ; 27th June, 1909. 

A diminutive form, doubtless referable to this species, which is found at great heights. 
Conway' s expedition having gathered it at some 16,000 feet above sea level. 



460 Appendix I). 

Thalictrum minus L. ? Deosai tableland ; about 14,000 feet ; 2nd-3rd August, 
1909. 

Fragmentary specimen, only showing foliage. 

Clematis orientalis L. var. ? Braldoh valley, among the stones of. 

From the shape of the leaves this would appear to be C. orientalis, which is, however, a 
variable and polymorphous species. 

Delphinium Brunonianum Royle. Conway, p. 77. Rdokass; 13,025 feet; 
June-July, 1909. Ascent of Skoro La, north side; 10,000-13,000 feet; 28th July, 
1909. 

A beautiful plant with large fine blue flowers, quite worth cultivating for ornamental 
purposes. 

Aconitum Napellus L. var. muUifidum Hook. fil. & Thorns. Deosai tableland ; 
about 14,000 feet ; 28th July, 1909. 

Var. rotundi folium Hook. fil. & Thorns. Conway, p. 77. Ascent of Skoro La, 
north side ; 10,000-13,000 feet. 

Berberidaceae. 

Berberis vulyaris L. var. aetnensis Presl. pro specie. Braldoh valley between 
Dusso and Askoley ; 7,900-10,000 feet ; ll-14th May, 1909. 

This specimen is doubtless to be referred to the form described by Presl, with the leaves 
obovate mucronulate, spinulose -serrulate, with the nervation prominent on the under side. 

Papaveraceae. 

Papaver nudicaule L. Conway, p. 77. Rdokass, 13,025 feet ; Deosai tableland, 
about 14,000 feet. 

The specimen from the Deosai tableland is more hispid than those gathered at Rdokass. 

Meconopsis aculeata Royle ? Rajdiangan or Tragbal ; 8th August, 1909. 

The determination of this species is doubtful, because its characteristics do n ot fully 
correspond with those of M. aculeata, particularly with regard to the shape and appearance of the 
fruit, which seems similar to that of Meconopsis sinuata. With more abundant material 
for purposes of comparison we should have been able to decide if this form should be considered 
a new one. 

Dr. De Filippi says the plant is common within a limited area, where it is called " Blue 
Poppy." 

Corydalisramosa~W&l\,va,T.glauca Hook. Deosai tableland; about 13,000-14,000 
feet. 

Cruciferae. 

Draba glacialis Adam. Conway, p. 78. Deosai tableland ; about 14,000 
feet. 

Chorispora sabulosa DC. Conway, p. 78. Deosai tableland; about 14,000 
feet. 



Botanical "Report. 



4G1 



Cheiranthus kimalayensis Camb. Between Dusso and Askoley, Braldoh valli-v; 
7,900-10,000 feet. 

Arabia ? Ascent of Skoro La, north side ; 10,000-13,000 feet. 

Braya uniflora Hook. fil. & Thorns. Rocks at the head of the Baltoro, about 
18,000 feet, 29th June, 1909 ; and Vigne glacier, 16,500 feet. 



Capparidaceae. 

Cleome, ? Braldoh valley, between Dusso and Askoley ; 7,900-10,000 feet. 




FIG. I. SEDUM RHODIOLA DC. 

[Gathered at the end of the right-hand spur of the Vigne, 16,500 feet.] 

Crassulaceae. 

Sedum Rhodiola DC. Workman, p. 287. (Pro sphalm. S. Rkaviala et 
S. RlMiliola.) Ascent of Skoro La, north side, 10,000-13,000 feet ; and Deosai 
tableland, about 14,000 feet ; ft. et fruct. 

Among the specimens gathered at Skoro La is one with a faseiation of the apex of 
the axis of the inflorescence and of the inflorescence itself. This beautiful plant is shown 
in Fig. I) as photographed. 



-If,-' 



A|)|K'ii(li\ I). 



Sedum sect. Rhodiola aff. atropurpureum Turcz. ? Rdokass, 13,025 feet ; 
Deosai tableland, about 14,000 feet. 

Our specimens are probably closely related to, if not identical with Sedum atro-purpureum 
Turcz, of Central Asia. We have no means of comparison to settle the matter with certainty. 

Sedum Ewersii Ledeb. Conway, op. cit., p. 80. Ascent of Skoro La, north side; 
11,000-13,000 feet. 

Cotyledon aff. spinosa L. (Without locality ! ) 

Cotyledon ? (Above Paiju.) 

A single rosette of large fleshy leaves, much deteriorated by treatment with alcohol and hot 
water. Would appear to be a Cotyledon. 




FIG. II. SAXIFHAGA IMBRICATA ROYLE. 

[Gathered on the rocks of the western spur of Gasherbrum, about 18,000 feet.] 



Saxifragaceae. 

Saxifraga sibirica L. Conway, p. 79. Ascent of Skoro La, north side; 11,000- 
13,000 feet. 

Saxifraga imbricata Royle. Conway, p. 79. Braldoh valley, between Dusso 
and Askoley ; 7,900-10,000 feet ; according to photograph also on western spur of 
Gasherbrum, 18,000 feet. 

The example representing this species in the collection is very poor, but it is supplemented 
by the fine photograph here reproduced (Fig. II). 



Botanical lleport. 



463 



Saxifraija flagellaris Willd. Conway, p. 79. Var. mucronulata Royle pro sp. 
Ascent of Skoro La, north side, 10,000-13,000 feet ; Deosai tableland, 14,000 feet ; 
moraine of the Baltoro, between 11,000-13,025 feet. 

Our example must be referable to Royle's variety, on account of the ciliated and sub- 
spinulose edges of the leaves. 

Rosaceae. 

Potentilla fruticosa L. var. pumila Hook. fil. Conway, op. cit., p. 79 ; Workman, 
op. cit., p. 287 ; Th. Wolf : " Monogr. der Gattung Potentilla," p. 59. Vigne 
glacier ; about 16,500 feet. 




FIG. HI. POTENTILLA FRUTICOSA VAR. PUMILA HOOK. FIL. 

[Gathered at the end of the right spur of the Vigne, ca. 16,500 feet.J 



The example consists of a small fragment, but the identification is assisted by the fine 
photograph (Fig. III). According to what Wolf says in the Monograph cited above, the plant in 
the photograph having the flowers with long peduncles, must be referable to P. fruticosa var. 
pumila Hook fil. forma grandiflora Th. W. 

Potentilla argyrophylla Wall. Conway, p. 79 ; Workman, p. 287. Deosai 
tableland, about 14,000 feet, 2nd-3rd August, 1909 ; Tragbal pass, 8th August, 
1909. 



464 Appendix D. 

Potentilla sericea L. var. ? Conway, p. 79 ; Workman, p. 287. Rdokass. 

Our example, which is very poor, must surely be referable to a variety of this specie's, 
probably to dasyphylla Ledch. 

Potentilla mullifida L. var. anguslifolia Lehm. Skoro La, north side ; 9,500- 
12,800 feet. 

Potentilla ochreata Lehm. ? Vigne glacier ; about 16,500 feet. Ascent of Skoro 
La ; 10,000-13,000 feet. 

Potentilla bifurca L. Conway, p. 79 ; var. Moorcroftii Wall. Ascent of Skoro 
La, north side ; 10,000-13,000 feet. 

Potentilla indica Th. W. Between Askoley and the foot of the Skoro La glacier ; 
9,500-12,800 ft. 

Potentilla albi/olia Wall. = Sibbaldia potentilloides Camb. Baltoro moraine, 
between 11,000-13,025 feet ; also below Paiju, about 11,000 feet. 

Potentilla sp. Vicinity of Rdokass camp, 13,025 feet. 

Posa macrophylla Lindl. Conway, p. 79 ; var. minor Lindl. Ascent of Skoro 
La; 9,500-13,800 feet. 



Phaseolaceae. 

Colutea arborescens L. Conway, op. cit., p. 79 ; var. nepalensis L. Between 
Paiju and valley of the Punmah ; 25th July, 1909. 
Astragalus sp. Paiju ; about 11,000 feet. 
Specimen imperfect and without fruit. 

Astragalus Candolleanus Royle = A. Royleanus Bunge. Conway, p. 79. 
Rdokass ; 13,025 feet, between Askoley and half-way between Korophon and 
Bardumal. 

Chesneya cuneata Benth. Conway, p. 79. Between Askoley and half-way 
between Korophon and Bardumal. 

Caragana polyacantJia Royle. Conway, p. 79. Braldoh valley, between Dusso 
and Askoley; 8,000-10,000 feet. 

Oxytropis lapponica Gaud. Bullock Workman, p. 287 ; var. typica ? Ascent 
of Skoro La, north side; 10,000-13,000 feet. 

Var. humifusa Kar. et Kir. Rdokass, 13,025 feet. 

Oxytropis mollis Royle. Ascent of Skoro La, north side ; 10,000-13,000 feet. 

Oxytropis microphylla DC. Braldoh valley between Dusso and Askoley, 
8,000-10,000 feet ; between Askoley and half-way between Korophon and Bar- 
dumal. 

Oxytropis sp. Deosai tableland ; about 14,000 feet. 

Phaseolacea. Braldoh valley ; 8,000-10,000 feet. 

Example with leaves only, not determinable. Perhaps Astragalus. 



Botmiical Report. 465 

Geraniaceae. 

Geranium pratense L. ? Conway, p. 78. Ascent of Skoro La, 10,000-13,000 
feet. 

Geranium sp. Conway, p. 78. Ascent of Skoro La, 10,000-13,000 feet. 

Geranium aconitifolium L'Herit. ? Deosai tableland, about 14,000 feet. 

Tamaricaceae. 

Myricaria elegans Royle. Conway, p. 78. Biaho valley, between Paiju and 
the Biafo glacier, 10,000-10,650 feet, 26th July, 1909. 

Elaeagnaceae. 

HippopMe rJtamnoides L. Conway, p. 83. Valley of the Braldoh, between 
Dusso and Askoley. 

Our specimens with thorny branches confirm once more the variability and polymorphism 
of this species. 

Thymelaeaceae. 

Daphne oleoides Schreb. Conway, p. 83. Valley of the Braldoh, between 
Dusso and Askoley, 8,000-10,000 feet. 

Lythraceae. 

Epilobium latifolium L. Rdokass, 13,025 feet ; ascent of Skoro La, north side, 
10,000-13,000 feet. 

Apiaceae. 

Bupleurum falcatum L. var. nigrocarpum Jaquem ? Conway, p. 80. Deosai 
tableland, about 14,000 feet. 

Without specimens of fruit it is impossible to differentiate this from the similar species 
B. diversi/olium Rochel. 

Bupleurum longicaule Wall. var. Itimalense Klotsch. Ascent of Skoro La, 
north side, 10,000-13,000 feet. 
Without fruit. 

Apiacea sp. Deosai tableland, about 14,000 feet. 
Apiacea sp. Rdokass, 13,025 feet. 
Specimen with leaves only, noted in journal, No. SA, as having reddish flowers. 

Pirolaceae. 

Pirola rotundifolia Linn. Rdokass, 13,025 feet, June-July, 1909. 
Leaves only. 
(9221; 2 o 



466 Appendix D. 

Primulaceae. 

Primula purpurea Royle. Conway, p. 91 ; Workman, p. 287 (sub. P. nivalis 
Pall. var. macrophytta Pax). Deosai tableland, about 14,000 feet. 

Specimens with simple floral or double superposed umbels. 

Primula farinosa L. Conway, p. 81. cites the var. caucasica Reg. Between 
Dusso and Askoley, about the camp ; Rdokass, 13,025 feet ; ascent of Skoro La, 
north side, 10,000-13,000 feet. 

Androsace mllosa L. Conway, op. cit., p. 81. Rdokass, 13,025 feet ; between 
Dusso and Askoley, Braldoh valley, 8,000-10,000 feet. 

Androsace mucronifoUa Watt. Deosai tableland, about 14,000 feet. 

Plumbaginaceae. 

Acantholimon lycopodioides Boiss. Conway, p. 81. Between Askoley and half- 
way between Korophon and Bardumal. 

Example consisting only of rosettes of foliage. 

Gentianaceae. 

Gentiana aquatica L. var. ? Rdokass, 13,025 feet. 

Must be referable to one of the varieties of G. aquatica ; G. py)/uii Clarke ami (I. linuiilix 
Stev. are also very closely related to the species, and possibly belong to it as varieties. 

Gentiana decumbens Linn. Ascent of Skoro La, north side, 10,000-13,000 feet. 

Gentiana detonsa Fries. = G. barbata Froel. Rdokass, 13,025 feet. 

Gentiana Sect. Comastoma. Rdokass, 13,025 feet. 

We have here a very interesting plant related to (1. fulniln Turcz, and to the two species 
described by Murbeek (Of.<<t. lint. Zrilxrhr., 4(1. IX'.MI. p. 241) under the names (!. Hulini and 
G. cordisepala. Ours is probably a new form. 

Gentiana sp. Deosai tableland, about 14,000 feet. 

Gentiana sp. Ascent of Skoro La, north side, 10,000-13,000 feet. 

Pleurogyne carinthiaca L. Conway, p. 82. Ascent of Skoro La, 10,000-13,000 
feet. 

Pleurogyne sp. Rdokass, 13,025 feet. 

Swertia petiolata Royle. Deosai tableland, ca. 14,000 feet. 

Boraginaceae. 

Macrotomia perennis Boiss. Conway, p. 82 (sub M . endochroma Hook. fil. & 
Thorns). Between Askoley and half-way between Konophon and Bardumal. 
Onosma echioides L. Conway, p. 82. (Sine loco !) 
Erytrichium sp. Conway, p. 82. Deosai tableland. 
Absence of fruit prevents the precise determination of this plant. 
Mertensia tibetica Clarke. Ascent of Skoro La, north side, 10,000-13,000 feet. 



Botanical Report. 467 

'/iriniuloides Clarke. Vigno glacier, about I (!,;")( to feet. 
Myosotis sylvatica, Hoffm. Ascent of Skoro La, north side, 10,000-13,000 feet ; 
Rdokass, 13,025 feet. 

Actinocarya tibelica Benth. ? Edokass, 13,025 feet. 

Lamiaceae. 

Stachys tibelica Vatke. Conway, p. 82. Deosai tableland, about 14,000 
feet. 

Nepeta discolor Royle. Conway, p. 83. Between Askoley and half-way 
between Korophon and Bardumal. 

Nepeta longibracteata Benth. ? Vigne glacier, about 16,500 feet. 

The identification is somewhat doubtful, as the dimensions, particularly of the leaves, arc 
smaller than those given in the descriptions we have consulted. Perhaps we have to do with 
a form of the species. 

Dracocephalum helerophyllum Benth. ? Deosai tableland, about 14,000 feet. 

Thymus Serpyllum L. Conway, p. 82. Deosai tableland, about 14,000 feet ; 
ascent of Skoro La, north side, 10,000-13,000 feet ; Vigne glacier, about 16,500 
feet. 

Scrophulariaceae. 

Veronica alpina L. Deosai tableland, about 14,000 feet. 

This species is not given in the Flora of British India, nor in later authors already cited ; thus 
it is a new addition to the flora of the region. However, it is certain that we have here to do with 
V. alpina L., our specimen being very closely related to the forms of this species found in northern 
Europe (Norway, &c.). 

Pedicularis bicornuta Kl. Ascent of Skoro La, 10,000-13,000 feet. 

Pedicularis pectinata Wall. Conway, p. 82. Deosai tableland, about 14,000 
feet ; ascent of Skoro La, 10,000-13,000 feet. 

Pedicularis cheilanthi folia Schrenk. Workman, p 287. Rdokass, 13,025 feet. 
Deosai tableland, about 14,000 feet. 

Pedicularis rhinanthoides Schrenk. Deosai tableland. 

Orobanchaceae. 

Orobanche sp. aff. Hansii Kern. Conway, p. 82. (Sine loco.) 

Caprifoliaceae. 

Lonicera microphylla Willd. Conway, p. 80. Valley of the Braldoh, between 
Dusso and Askoley, 8,000-10,000 feet. 

Lonicera asperifolia Hook. fil. & Thorns. Rdokass, 13,025 feet. 

Possibly a distinct form of this species, but lack of material for comparison prevents certitude. 
Used for firewood on the expedition. 

(9221) 2 o 2 



468 Appendix D. 

Valerianaceae. 

Valeriana dioica L. Conway, p. 80. Between Askoley and the foot of the 
Skoro La glacier, 9,500-12,800 feet. 

Campanulaceae. 

Codonopsis nmta Benth. Rclokass, 13,025 feet. 

Campanula ///</</ Hook. fil. & Thorns. Doosai tableland, about 14,000 feet. 

Asteraceae. 

Aster heterochaeta Benth. Bullock Workman, p. 288. Rdokass, 13,025 
feet. 

Aster himalaicus Clarke. Deosai tableland, about 14,000 feet. 

Aster sp. Ascent of Skoro La, north side, 10,000-13,000 feet. 

Possibly a smaller form of the preceding. 

Leonlopodium alpinum Cass. Conway, p. 80 ; Workman, p. 288 ; var. 
nivale Ten. Ascent of Skoro La, north side, 10,000-13,000 feet ; Vigne glacier, 
about 16,500 feet ; above Rdokass, about 14,750 feet ; Deosai tableland, about 

14,000 feet. 

On the grounds given by Dr. Karl von Keissler in Aujziihlung der von E. Zvgmayer in Tibet 
gesammelt Phanerogamen (Ann. KK. Naturhiit. Hofmuseum von Wien, Band XXII, 1907, p. 27) 
the forms of this species examined by us must be ascribed to var. nivale Ten. Kyll. Fl. Neapol, 
p. 426, and are closely related to the forms found in the high Apennines (Gran Sasso, 
Majella, &c.). 

Erigeron alpinus L. ? forma. Ascent of Skoro La, north side, 10,000-13,000 
feet. 

Erigeron andryaloides Clarke. Conway, p. 80. Between Askoley and half-way 
between Korophon and Bardumal. 

Anaphalis virgata Thorns. Conway, p. 30. Paiju-Punmah. 

Anaphalis nuUgena DC. Conway, p. 80. Ascent of Skoro La, 10,000-13,000 
feet ; Deosai tableland, about 14,000 feet. 

Tanacetum sp. Between Askoley and the foot of the Skoro La glacier, 9,500- 
12,800 feet. 

Tanacetum sp. Deosai tableland, about 14,000 feet. 

Artemisia sp. Valley of the Braldoh, sandy soil. 

Artemisia sp. aff. Absinthium L. ? Valley of the Braldoh between Dusso and 
Askoley, sandy soil. 

Artemisia sp. Ascent of Skoro La, north side, 10,000-13,000 feet. 

Chrysanthemum tibeticum Hook. fil. & Thorns. Rdokass, 13,025 feet. 

Chrysanthemum Stoliczkae Clarke. Conway, p. 81. Ascent of Skoro La, north 
side, 10,000-13,000 feet. 

Cremanthodium aff. Decaisnei Clarke ? Deosai tableland, about 14,000 feet. 



Botanical Report. 489 

Senecio aft. tibeticus Hook. Dcosai tableland, about 14,000 feet. 

Allardia vestita Hook. fil. & Thorns. ? Vicinity of Rclokass, about 16,500 feet ; 
July, 1909, in leaf ; Vignc glacier, about 16,500 feet, in flower. 

Allardia nivea Hook. fil. & Thorns. Moraine of the Baltoro below Rdokass, 
24th July, 1909. 

Allardia tmnentosa Dene. ? Vigne glacier, about 16,500 feet, 15th July, 1909. 

Jurinea macrocephala Benth. Deosai tableland, about 14,000 feet. 

Saussurea Schultzii Hook. fil. ? Ascent of Skoro La, 10,000-13,000 feet. 

Saussurea Jacea Clarke ? Gorge of the Punraah ; 26th July, 1909 ; between 
Askoley and half-way between Korophon and Bardumal, in leaf. 

Saussurea sp. Deosai tableland, about 14,000 feet. 

Crepis glomerata Dene. ? Deosai tableland, about 14,000 feet. 

Taraxacum offidnale L. forma. Conway, p. 81. Ascent of Skoro La, 
10,000-13,000 feet. 

One of the many high-mountain forms of this ubiquitous and polymorphous plant. 
Taraxacum officinale L. var. eriopoda DC. Rdokass, 13,025 feet. 
CJtondrilla graminea Benth. Bullock Workman, p. 288 ; var. ? Between 
Paiju and the Punmah. 

Must be a variety of this species which is cited tentatively by the Workmans. 

Lactuca tatarica C. A. Meyer. Conway, p. 81 ; Workman, p. 388. (Sine loco.) 



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